The Project Gutenberg EBook of Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
(part 3 of 4: N-R), by Various

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Title: Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary (part 3 of 4: N-R)

Author: Various

Editor: Thomas Davidson

Release Date: January 28, 2012 [EBook #38699]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected. They appear in the text like this, and the explanation will appear when the mouse pointer is moved over the marked passage.




London: 47 Paternoster Row
W. & R. CHAMBERS, Limited
EDINBURGH: 339 High Street


The Arrangement of the Words.—Every word is given in its alphabetical order, except in cases where, to save space, derivatives are given after and under the words from which they are derived. Each uncompounded verb has its participles, when irregular, placed after it. Exceptional plurals are also given. When a word stands after another, with no meaning given, its meanings can be at once formed from those of the latter, by adding the signification of the affix: thus the meanings of Darkness are obtained by prefixing the meaning of ness, state of being, to those of Dark.

Many words from French and other tongues, current in English usage, but not yet fairly Anglicised, are inserted in the list of Foreign Phrases, &c., at the end, rather than in the body of the Dictionary.

The Pronunciation.—The Pronunciation is given immediately after each word, by the word being spelled anew. In this new spelling, every consonant used has its ordinary unvarying sound, no consonant being employed that has more than one sound. The same sounds are always represented by the same letters, no matter how varied their actual spelling in the language. No consonant used has any mark attached to it, with the one exception of th, which is printed in common letters when sounded as in thick, but in italics when sounded as in then. Unmarked vowels have always their short sounds, as in lad, led, lid, lot, but, book. The marked vowels are shown in the following line, which is printed at the top of each page:—

fāte, fr; mē, hėr; mīne; mōte; mūte; mōōn; then.

The vowel u when marked thus, , has the sound heard in Scotch bluid, gude, the French du, almost that of the German in Mller. Where more than one pronunciation of a word is given, that which is placed first is more accepted.

The Spelling.—When more than one form of a word is given, that which is placed first is the spelling in current English use. Unfortunately our modern spelling does not represent the English we actually speak, but rather the language of the 16th century, up to which period, generally speaking, English spelling was mainly phonetic, like the present German. The fundamental principle of all rational spelling is no doubt the representation of every sound by an invariable symbol, but in modern English the usage of pronunciation has drifted far from the conventional forms established by a traditional orthography, with the result that the present spelling of our written speech is to a large extent a mere exercise of memory, full of confusing anomalies and imperfections, and involving an enormous and unnecessary strain on the faculties of learners. Spelling reform is indeed an imperative necessity, but it must proceed with a wise moderation, for, in the words of Mr Sweet, 'nothing can be done without unanimity, and until the majority of the community are convinced of the superiority of some one system unanimity is impossible.' The true path of progress should follow such wisely moderate counsels as those of Dr J. A. H. Murray:—the dropping of the final or inflexional silent e; the restoration of the historical -t after breath consonants; uniformity in the employment of double consonants, as in traveler, &c.; the discarding of ue in words like demagogue and catalogue; the uniform levelling of the agent -our into -or; the making of ea = ĕ short into e and the long ie into ee; the restoration of some, come, tongue, to their old English forms, sum, cum, tung; a more extended use of z in the body of words, as chozen, praize, raize; and the correction of the worst individual monstrosities, as foreign, scent, scythe, ache, debt, people, parliament, court, would, sceptic, phthisis, queue, schedule, twopence-halfpenny, yeoman, sieve, gauge, barque, buoy, yacht, &c.

Already in America a moderate degree of spelling reform may be said to be established in good usage, by the adoption of -or for -our, as color, labor, &c.; of -er for -re, as center, meter, &c.; -ize for -ise, as civilize, &c.; the use of a uniform single consonant after an unaccented vowel, as traveler for traveller; the adoption of e for œ or in hemorrhage, diarrhea, &c.

The Meanings.—The current and most important meaning of a word is usually given first. But in cases like Clerk, Livery, Marshal, where the force of the word can be made much clearer by tracing its history, the original meaning is also given, and the successive variations of its usage defined.

The Etymology.—The Etymology of each word is given after the meanings, within brackets. Where further information regarding a word is given elsewhere, it is so indicated by a reference. It must be noted under the etymology that whenever a word is printed thus, Ban, Base, the student is referred to it; also that here the sign—is always to be read as meaning 'derived from.' Examples are generally given of words that are cognate or correspond to the English words; but it must be remembered that they are inserted merely for illustration. Such words are usually separated from the rest by a semicolon. For instance, when an English word is traced to its Anglo-Saxon form, and then a German word is given, no one should suppose that our English word is derived from the German. German and Anglo-Saxon are alike branches from a common Teutonic stem, and have seldom borrowed from each other. Under each word the force of the prefix is usually given, though not the affix. For fuller explanation in such cases the student is referred to the list of Prefixes and Suffixes in the Appendix.


acc.according.gram.grammar.phil., philos.philosophy.
anat.anatomy.i.e.that is.physiol.physiology.
archit.architecture.impers.impersonal.pol. econ.political economy.
astrol.astrology.infin.infinitive. Pr.Bk.Book of Common
astron.astronomy.inten.intensive.Prayer. participle.
c. (circa)about.math.mathematics.Prof.Professor.
c., cent.century.mech.mechanics. pron.pronoun;;
coll., colloq.colloquially.min.mineralogy.prov.provincial.
comp.comparative.mod.modern.q.v.which see.
conch.conchology.Mt.Mount.R.C.Roman Catholic.
contr.contracted.n., ns.noun, nouns.refl.reflexive.
cook.cookery.nat. hist.natural history.rel.related; relative.
dat.dative.neut.neuter.Shak.Shakespeare. plural.sig.signifying.
der.derivation.n.sing.noun singular.sing.singular.
dial.dialect, dialectal.N.T.New Testament.spec.specifically.
eccles.ecclesiastical history.orig.originally.superl.superlative.
elect.electricity.O.S.old style.term.termination.
entom.entomology.O.T.Old Testament.teleg.telegraphy.
esp.especially.p., part.participle.Tenn.Tennyson.
ety.etymology.p.adj.participial adjective.Test.Testament.; theatricals.
fol.followed; following.paleon.paleontology.trig.trigonometry.
fort.fortification.palm.palmistry.ult.ultimately. participle.v.i.verb intransitive.
fut.future.pass.passive.voc.vocative. tense.v.t.verb transitive.

Ar.Arabic.Gael.Gaelic.O. Fr.Old French.
Eng.English.L. L.Low or Late Latin.Turk.Turkish.
Finn.Finnish.M. E.Middle English.U.S.United States.



the fourteenth letter and eleventh consonant of our alphabet, a nasal-dental: (chem.) the symbol for nitrogen: (math.) an indefinite constant whole number, esp. the degree of a quantic or an equation: as a numeral, formerly, N=90, and (N)=90,000.

Na, n, a Scotch form of no.

Nab, nab, v.t. to seize suddenly:—pr.p. nab′bing; pa.p. nabbed. [Sw. nappa; Dan. nappe, to catch.]

Nab, nab, n. a hill-top: the projecting cavity fixed to the jamb of a door to receive the latch or bolt: (obs.) a hat. [For knab=knap.]

Nabatan, nab-a-tē′an, adj. of or pertaining to a once powerful Arab people who formerly dwelt on the east and south-east of Palestine, identified by some with the Nebaioth of Isa. lx. 7, the Nabathites of 1 Maccab. v. 25.—Also Nabathē′an.

Nabk, nabk, n. one of the plants in the crown of thorns (Zizyphus Spina-Christi). [Prob. Ar.]

Nabob, nā′bob, n. a deputy or governor under the Mogul Empire: a European who has enriched himself in the East: any man of great wealth. [Corr. of Hind. nawwb, a deputy, from Ar. nawwāb, pl. (used as sing.) of nāib, a deputy.]

Nacarat, nak′a-rat, n. a light-red colour, scarlet: a fabric of this colour. [Fr.]

Nacket, nak′et, n. (Scot.) a small cake, luncheon.

Nacre, nā′kr, n. mother-of-pearl.—adj. iridescent.—adj. Nā′creous, consisting of nacre: having a pearly lustre. [Fr.,—Ar. nakīr, hollowed.]

Nadir, nā′dir, n. the point of the heavens diametrically opposite to the zenith: the lowest point of anything. [Fr.,—Ar. nazīr, from nazara, to be like.]

Nvus, nē′vus, n. a birth-mark: a congenital growth strictly on a part of the skin, whether a pigmentary nvus or mole, or a vascular naevus or overgrowth of capillary blood-vessels—also Mother-spot or Birth-mark—also Nve, Neve:—pl. N′vī.—adjs. N′void, N′vous, N′vose. [L.]

Nag, nag, n. a horse, but particularly a small one—(Scot.) Naig: (Shak.) a jade. [M. E. nagge—Mid. Dut. negge, negghe (mod. Dut. negge); cf. Neigh.]

Nag, nag, v.t. to worry or annoy continually: to tease or vex: to find fault with constantly:—pr.p. nag′ging; pa.p. nagged.—n. Nag′ger. [Cf. Gnaw.]

Naga, n′ga, n. the name of deified serpents in Hindu mythology.

Nagari. See Deva-nagari.

Naiad, nā′yad, n. a water-nymph or a goddess, presiding over rivers and springs:—pl. Nai′ades. [L. and Gr. naias, naiados, from naein, to flow.]

Naiant, nā′yant, adj. floating: (her.) swimming, as a fish placed horizontally across a shield. [L. nans, nantis, pr.p. of natāre, to swim.]

Naf, n-ēf′, Nave, n-ēv′, adj. with natural or unaffected simplicity, esp. in thought, manners, or speech: artless: ingenuous.—adv. Nave′ly.—n. Navet (n-ēv-tā′), natural simplicity and unreservedness of thought, manner, or speech. [Fr. naf, fem, nave—L. nativus, native—nasci, natus, to be born.]

Nail, nāl, n. one of the flattened, elastic, horny plates placed as protective coverings on the dorsal surface of the terminal phalanges of the fingers and toes: the claw of a bird or other animal: a thin pointed piece of metal for fastening wood: a measure of length (2 inches):—v.t. to fasten with nails: to make certain: to confirm, pin down, hold fast: to catch or secure through promptitude; to trip up or expose.—ns. Nail′-brush, a small brush for cleaning the nails; Nail′er, one whose trade is to make nails; Nail′ery, a place where nails are made.—adj. Nail′-head′ed, having a head like that of a nail: formed like nail-heads, said of ornamental marks on cloth and on certain kinds of mouldings (dog-tooth).—n. Nail′-rod, a strip cut from an iron plate to be made into nails: a trade name for a strong kind of manufactured tobacco.—Nail to the counter, to expose publicly as false, from the habit of nailing a counterfeit coin to a shop counter.—Drive a nail in one's coffin (see Coffin); Hit the nail on the head, to touch the exact point; On the nail, on the spot: immediately: without delay. [A.S. ngel; Ger. nagel.]

Nainsell, nān′sel, n. own self—Highland Scotch.

Nainsook, nān′sōōk, n. a kind of muslin like jaconet, both plain and striped. [Hind.]

Naissant, nās′sant, adj. (her.) rising or coming forth, as an animal newly born or about to be born. [Fr., pr.p. of natre—L. nasci, natus, to be born.]

Nave. See Naf.

Naked, nā′ked, adj. without clothes: uncovered: open to view: unconcealed: evident: unarmed: defenceless: unprovided: without addition or ornament: simple: artless: (bot.) without the usual covering.—adv. Nā′kedly.—n. Nā′kedness.—Naked eye, the eye unassisted by glasses of any kind; Naked lady, the meadow-saffron.—Stark naked, entirely naked. [A.S. nacod; Ger. nackt.]

Naker, nā′ker, n. a kettledrum. [O. Fr.,—Ar.]

Nam, nam, n. an obsolete law term for distraint.—n. Namā′tion. [A.S. niman, pa.t. nam, to take.]

Namby-pamby, nam′bi-pam′bi, n. silly talking or writing.—adj. sentimental, affectedly pretty.—v.t. to coddle. [H. Carey's nickname for Ambrose Philips (1671-1749), from his childish odes to children.]

Name, nām, n. that by which a person or a thing is known or called: a designation: that which is said of a person: reputed character: reputation: fame: celebrity: remembrance: a race or family: appearance, not reality: authority: behalf: assumed character of another: (gram.) a noun.—v.t. to give a name to: to designate: to speak of or to call by name: to mention for a post or office: to nominate: to mention formally by name a person in the House of Commons as guilty of disorderly conduct.—adjs. Nam′able, Name′able; Name′less, without a name: undistinguished: indescribable; Name′worthy, distinguished.—adv. Name′lessly.—n. Name′lessness.—adv. Name′ly, by name: that is to say.—ns. Name′-plate, a plate of metal having on it the name of a person, usually affixed to a door or a gate; Nam′er; Name′sake, one bearing the same name as another for his sake.—Name the day, to fix a day, esp. for a marriage.—Call names, to nickname; Christian name (see Christian); In name of, on behalf of: by the authority of; Proper name, a name given to a particular person, place, or thing; Take a name in vain, to use a name lightly or profanely. [A.S. nama; Ger. name; L. nomen.]

Nancy, nan′si, n. an effeminate young man, often a 'Miss Nancy.'—Nancy Pretty, a corruption of none so pretty, the Saxifraga umbrosa.

Nandine, nan′din, n. a small West African paradoxure, with spotted sides.

Nandu, Nandoo, nan′dōō, n. the South American ostrich.

Nanism, nā′nizm, n. dwarfishness.—n. Nanisā′tion, the artificial dwarfing of trees.—adj. Nā′noid. [Fr.,—L.,—Gr. nanos, a dwarf.]

Nankeen, nan-kēn′, n. a buff-coloured cotton cloth first made at Nankin in China: (pl.) clothes, esp. breeches, made of nankeen.—Also Nankin′.

Nanny, nan′i, n. a female goat.—Also Nann′y-goat.

Nap, nap, n. a short sleep.—v.i. to take a short sleep: to feel drowsy and secure:—pr.p. nap′ping; pa.p. napped.—Catch napping, to come upon unprepared. [A.S. hnappian; cf. Ger. nicken, to nod.]

Nap, nap, n. the woolly substance on the surface of cloth: the downy covering of plants.—v.t. to raise a nap on.—ns. Nap′-mē′ter, a machine for testing the wearing strength of cloth; Nap′piness.—adj. Nap′py. [M. E. noppe: the same as knop.]

Nap, nap, n. a game of cards—Napoleon (q.v.).

Nap, nap, v.t. to seize, to take hold of, steal.

Nape, nāp, n. the back upper part of the neck, perhaps so called from the knob or projecting point of the neck behind. [Knap, knob.]

Napery, nā′per-i, n. linen, esp. for the table: table-cloths, napkins, &c. [O. Fr.,—Low L. naparianapa, a cloth—L. mappa, a napkin.]

Naphtha, naf′tha, or nap′tha, n. a clear, inflammable liquid distilled from petroleum, wood, coal-tar, &c.: rock-oil.—n. Naph′thalene, a grayish-white, inflammable substance obtained by the distillation of coal-tar.—adj. Naphthal′ic, pertaining to, or derived from, naphthalene.—v.t. Naph′thalise.—ns. Naph′thol, Naphthyl′amine. [L.,—Gr.,—Ar. naft.]

Napierian, nā-pē′ri-an, adj. pertaining to John Napier of Merchiston (1550-1617), the inventor of logarithms.—Napier's bones, or rods, an invention of Napier's for performing mechanically the operations of multiplication and division, by means of sets of rods.

Napiform, nāp′i-form, adj. shaped like a turnip: large and round above and slender below.—adj. Napifō′lious, with leaves like the turnip. [L. napus, a turnip.]

Napkin, nap′kin, n. a cloth for wiping the hands: a handkerchief.—n. Nap′kin-ring, a ring in which a table-napkin is rolled. [Dim. of Fr. nappe.]

Napless, nap′les, adj. without nap: threadbare.

Naples-yellow, nā′plz-yel′lō, n. a light-yellow pigment consisting of antimoniate of lead, originally made in Italy by a secret process.

Napoleon, na-pō′lē-on, n. a French gold coin worth 20 francs, or about 15s. 10d.: a French modification of the game of euchre, each player receiving five cards and playing for himself: a kind of rich iced cake.—adj. Napoleon′ic, relating to Napoleon I. or III., the Great or the Little.—ns. Napō′leonism; Napō′leonist.—Go nap, to declare all five tricks—success rewarded by double payment all round.

Nappy, nap′i, adj. heady, strong: tipsy.—n. strong ale. [Prob. from nap, a sleep.]

Nappy, nap′i, adj. (Scot.) brittle. [Cf. Knap.]

Napron, nap′ron, n. (Spens.) an apron.

Narcissus, nar-sis′us, n. a genus of plants of the Amaryllis family, comprising the daffodils. [L.,—Gr. narkissosnarkē, torpor.]

Narcolepsy, nar′kō-lep-si, n. a nervous disorder marked by frequent short attacks of irresistible drowsiness.

Narcotic, nar-kot′ik, adj. having power to produce torpor, sleep, or deadness.—n. a medicine producing sleep or stupor.—n. Narcō′sis, the stupefying effect of a narcotic.—adv. Narcot′ically.—n. Nar′cotine, one of the organic bases or alkaloids occurring in opium.—v.t. Nar′cotise.—n. Nar′cotism, the influence of narcotics, or the effects produced by their use. [Fr.,—Gr. narkē, torpor.]

Nard, nrd, n. an aromatic plant usually called Spikenard: an ointment prepared from it.—adj. Nard′ine. [Fr.,—L. nardus—Gr. nardos—Pers. nard—Sans. nalada, from Sans. nal, to smell.]

Nardoo, nr-dōō′, n. an Australian cryptogamic plant whose spore-cases are eaten by the natives.

Nardus, nr′dus, n. a genus of grasses, having but one species, Nardus stricta, mat-grass.

Narghile, nr′gi-le, n. an Eastern tobacco-pipe, in which the smoke is passed through water.—Also Nar′gile, Nar′gileh, Nar′gili. [Pers.]

Naris, nā′ris, n. a nostril:—pl. Nā′res.—adjs. Nar′ial, Nar′ine.—n. Nar′icorn, the horny nasal sheath of the beak of some birds.—adj. Nar′iform. [L.]

Narrate, na-rāt′, or nar′-, v.t. to tell, to give an account of.—adj. Narr′able, capable of being told.—n. Narrā′tion, act of telling: that which is told: an orderly account of what has happened.—adj. Narr′ative, narrating: giving an account of any occurrence: inclined to narration: story-telling.—n. that which is narrated: a continued account of any occurrence: story.—adv. Narr′atively.—n. Narrā′tor, one who narrates: one who tells or states facts, &c.—adj. Narr′atory, like narrative: consisting of narrative. [Fr.,—L. narrāre, -ātumgnārus, knowing.]

Narre, nr, adj. (Spens.) an older form of near.

Narrow, nar′ō, adj. of little breadth: of small extent from side to side: limited: contracted in mind: bigoted: not liberal: selfish: within a small distance: almost too small: close: accurate: careful.—n. (oftener used in the pl.) a narrow passage, channel, or strait.—v.t. to make narrow: to contract or confine.—v.i. to become narrow: to reduce the number of stitches in knitting.—adj. Narr′ow-gauge, denoting a railroad of less width than 4 ft. 8 in.—n. Narr′owing, the act of making less in breadth: the state of being contracted: the part of anything which is made narrower.—adv. Narr′owly.—adj. Narr′ow-mind′ed, of a narrow or illiberal mind.—ns. Narr′ow-mind′edness; Narr′owness.—adjs. Narr′ow-pry′ing (Shak.), scrutinising closely, inquisitive; Narr′ow-souled, illiberal.—Narrow cloth, cloth, esp. woollen, of less than 54 inches in width; Narrow work, in mining, the making of passages, air-shafts, &c. [A.S. nearu; not conn. with near, but prob. with nerve, snare.]

Narthex, nar′theks, n. a former genus of umbelliferous plants, now included in Ferula: a portico or lobby in an early Christian or Oriental church or basilica. [L.,—Gr., narthēx.]

Narwhal, nr′hwal, Narwal, nr′wal, n. the sea-unicorn, a mammal of the whale family with one large projecting tusk. [Dan. narhval—Ice. nhvalr, 'corpse-whale,' from the creature's pallid colour (Ice. nr, corpse).]

Nary, ner′i, a provincial corruption of ne'er a, never a.

Nas, nas, an obsolete corruption of ne has; of ne was.

Nasal, nā′zal, adj. belonging to the nose: affected by, or sounded through, the nose.—n. a letter or sound uttered through the nose: the nose-piece in a helmet.—n. Nasalisā′tion, the act of uttering with a nasal sound.—v.i. Nā′salise, to render nasal, as a sound: to insert a nasal letter into.—n. Nasal′ity.—adv. Nā′sally, by or through the nose.—adjs. Nā′sicorn, having a horn on the nose, as a rhinoceros; Nā′siform, nose-shaped.—n. Nā′sion, the median point of the naso-frontal suture.—adjs. Nasobā′sal, pertaining to the nose and base of the skull; Nasoc′ular, pertaining to the nose and eye, nasorbital; Nasofron′tal, pertaining to the nasal bone and the frontal bone; Nasolā′bial, pertaining to the nose and the upper lip; Nasolac′rymal, pertaining to the nose and to tears, as the duct which carries tears from the eyes to the nose; Nasopal′atine, pertaining to the nose and to the palate or palate-bones. [Fr.,—L. nasus, the nose.]

Nasard, naz′ard, n. a mutation-stop in organ-building.—Also Nas′arde.

Nascent, nas′ent, adj. springing up: arising: beginning to exist or to grow.—n. Nas′cency, the beginning of production: birth or origin. [L. nascens, -entis, pr.p. of nasci, natus, to be born.]

Naseberry, nāz′ber-i, n. an American tropical tree.—Also Nees′berry, Nis′berry. [Sp. nspero—L. mespilus, medlar.]

Nasturtium, nas-tur′shi-um, n. the water-cress. [L., nasus, the nose, torquēre, tortum, to twist.]

Nasty, nas′ti, adj. dirty: filthy: obscene: disagreeable to the taste or smell: difficult to deal with: ill-natured: nauseous.—adv. Nas′tily.—n. Nas′tiness. [Old form nasky, soft; cf. prov. Swed. snaskig, nasty, Low Ger. nask, nasty.]

Nasute, nā-sūt′, adj. having a long snout: keen-scented.

Natal, nā′tal, adj. pertaining to the nates or buttocks.— Nā′tes, the buttocks.—adj. Nat′iform. [L. natis, the rump.]

Natal, nā′tal, adj. pertaining to birth: native: presiding over birthdays.—adj. Natali′tial, pertaining to a birthday.—n. Natal′ity, birth-rate. [Fr.,—L. natalisnasci, natus, to be born.]

Natant, nā′tant, adj. floating on the surface, as leaves of water-plants: (her.) in a horizontal position, as if swimming.—n. Natā′tion, swimming.— Natatō′res, the swimming-birds.—adj. Natatō′rial, swimming: adapted to swim.—n. Natatō′rium, a swimming-school.—adj. Nā′tatory, pertaining to swimming: having the habit of swimming. [L. natans, -antis, pr.p. of natāre, inten. of nāre, to swim.]

Natch, nach, n. (prov.) the rump.

Natch, nach, n. a provincial form of notch.

Nathless, nath′les, adj. not the less: nevertheless.—Also Nathe′less. [A.S. n th ls, not the less.]

Nathmore, nath′mōr, adv. (Spens.) not or never the more.—Also Nath′moe. [A.S. n th mra.]

Nation, nā′shun, n. a body of people born of the same stock: the people inhabiting the same country, or under the same government: a race: a great number: a division of students in a university for voting purposes at Aberdeen and Glasgow. [Fr.,—L. nation-em,—nasci, natus, to be born.]

National, nash′un-al, adj. pertaining to a nation: public: general: attached to one's own country.—n. Nationalisā′tion, the act of nationalising, as of railways, private property, &c.: the state of being nationalised.—v.t. Nat′ionalise, to make national: to make a nation of.—ns. Nat′ionalism; Nat′ionalist, one who strives after national unity or independence, esp. as in Ireland for more or less separation from Great Britain: an advocate of nationalism: National′ity, birth or membership in a particular country: separate existence as a nation: a nation, race of people: national character.—adv. Nat′ionally.—n. Nat′ionalness.—National air, anthem, the popular song by which a people's patriotic feelings are expressed; National Church, the church established by law in a country; National Convention, the sovereign assembly which sat from Sept. 21, 1792, to Oct. 26, 1795, after the abolition of monarchy in France; National debt, money borrowed by the government of a country and not yet paid; National flag, or ensign, the principal flag of a country; National guard, a force which took part in the French Revolution, first formed in 1789.

Native, nā′tiv, adj. arising or appearing by birth: produced by nature: pertaining to the time or place of birth: belonging by birth, hereditary, natural, original: occurring uncombined with other substances, as metals.—n. one born in any place: an original inhabitant: (pl.) oysters raised in artificial beds.—adv. Nā′tively.—ns. Nā′tiveness; Nā′tivism, the belief that the mind possesses some ideas or forms of thought that are inborn, and not derived from sensation: the disposition to favour the natives of a country in preference to immigrants; Nā′tivist.—adj. Nativis′tic.—n. Nativ′ity, state or fact of being born: time, place, and manner of birth: the birth of Christ, hence the festival of His birth, Christmas—also a picture representing His birth: state or place of being produced: a horoscope.—Native rock, stone not yet quarried. [Fr.,—L. nativusnasci, natus, to be born.]

Natrix, nā′triks, n. a genus of colubrine snakes. [L.,—natāre, to swim.]

Natrolite, nat′ro-līt, n. one of the most common of the group of minerals known as Zeolites.

Natron, nā′trun, n. native carbonate of sodium, or mineral alkali, the nitre of the Bible.—n. Natrom′eter, an instrument for measuring the quantity of soda in salts of potash and soda. [Fr.,—L. nitrum—Gr. nitron.]

Natter, nat′ėr, v.t. and v.i. (prov.) to find fault.—adjs. Natt′ered, Natt′ery, peevish.

Natterjack, nat′ėr-jak, n. a common European toad. [Cf. Adder.]

Nattes, nats, surface decoration or diaper resembling plaited or interlaced work. [Fr.]

Natty, nat′i, adj. trim, tidy, neat, spruce.—adv. Natt′ily.—n. Natt′iness. [Allied to neat.]

Natural, nat′ū-ral, adj. pertaining to, produced by, or according to nature: inborn: not far-fetched: not acquired: tender: unaffected: in a state of nature, unregenerate: (math.) having 1 as the base of the system, of a function or number: illegitimate: (mus.) according to the usual diatonic scale.—n. an idiot: (mus.) a character (Natural) which removes the effect of a preceding sharp or flat: a white key in keyboard musical instruments.—adj. Nat′ural-born, native.— Naturā′lia, the sexual organs.—n. Naturalisā′tion.—v.t. Nat′uralise, to make natural or easy: to adapt to a different climate or to different conditions of life: to grant the privileges of natural-born subjects to.—ns. Nat′uralism, mere state of nature: a close following of nature, without idealisation, in painting, sculpture, fiction, &c.: the belief that natural religion is of itself sufficient; Nat′uralist, one who studies nature, more particularly zoology and botany: a believer in naturalism.—adj. Naturalist′ic, pertaining to, or in accordance with, nature: belonging to the doctrines of naturalism.—adv. Nat′urally.—n. Nat′uralness.—Natural history, originally the description of all that is in nature, now used of the sciences that deal with the earth and its productions—botany, zoology, and mineralogy, esp. zoology; Natural law, the sense of right and wrong which arises from the constitution of the mind of man, as distinguished from the results of revelation or legislation; Natural numbers, the numbers 1, 2, 3, and upwards; Natural order, in botany, an order or division belonging to the natural system of classification, based on a consideration of all the organs of the plant; Natural philosophy, the science of nature, of the physical properties of bodies: physics; Natural scale, a scale of music written without sharps or flats; Natural science, the science of nature, as distinguished from that of mind (mental and moral science), and from pure science (mathematics); Natural selection, a supposed operation of the laws of nature, the result of which is the 'survival of the fittest,' as if brought about by intelligent design; Natural system, a classification of plants and animals according to real differences in structure; Natural theology, or Natural religion, the body of theological truths discoverable by reason without revelation.

Nature, nā′tūr, n. the power which creates and which regulates the material world: the power of growth: the established order of things, the universe: the qualities of anything which make it what it is: constitution: species: conformity to nature, truth, or reality: inborn mind, character, instinct, or disposition: vital power, as of man or animal: course of life: nakedness: a primitive undomesticated condition.—adj. Nā′tured, having a certain temper or disposition: used in compounds, as good-natured.—ns. Nā′ture-dē′ity, a deity personifying some force of physical nature; Nā′ture-myth, a myth symbolising natural phenomena; Nā′ture-print′ing, the process of printing in colours from plates that have been impressed with some object of nature, as a plant, leaf, &c.; Nā′ture-wor′ship, Nā′turism, worship of the powers of nature.—n. Nā′turist.—adj. Naturist′ic.—Debt of nature, death; Ease, or Relieve, nature, to evacuate the bowels. [Fr.,—L. naturanasci, natus, to be born.]

Naught, nawt, n. no-whit, nothing.—adv. in no degree.—adj. of no value or account: worthless: bad.—Be naught, an obsolete form of malediction; Come to naught, to come to nothing, to fail; Set at naught, to treat as of no account, to despise. [Another form of nought. A.S. nht, nwihtn, not, wiht, a whit.]

Naughty, nawt′i, adj. bad in conduct or speech: mischievous: perverse: disagreeable.—adv. Naught′ily.—n. Naught′iness.

Naumachy, naw′ma-ki, n. a sea-fight: a show representing a sea-fight.—Also Naumach′ia. [Gr. naus, a ship, machē, a fight.]

Nauplius, naw′pli-us, n. a stage of development of low Crustaceans, as cirripeds, &c.:—pl. Nau′plii.—adjs. Nau′pliiform, Nau′plioid. [L., a kind of shell-fish—Gr. Nauplios, a son of Poseidon, naus, a ship, plein, to sail.]

Nauropometer, naw-rō-pom′e-tėr, n. an instrument for measuring a ship's heeling or inclination at sea. [Gr. naus, a ship, hropē, inclination, metron, measure.]

Nauscopy, naw′skop-i, n. the art of sighting ships at great distances. [Gr. naus, a ship, skopein, to see.]

Nausea, naw′she-a, n. sea-sickness: any sickness of the stomach, with a tendency to vomit: loathing.—adj. Nau′seant, producing nausea.—n. a substance having this quality.—v.i. Nau′seāte, to feel nausea or disgust.—v.t. to loathe: to strike with disgust.—n. Nauseā′tion.—adjs. Nau′seātive, causing nausea or loathing; Nau′seous, producing nausea: disgusting: loathsome.—adv. Nau′seously.—n. Nau′seousness. [L.,—Gr. nausia, sea-sickness—naus, a ship.]

Nautch, nawch, n. a kind of ballet-dance performed by professional dancers known as Nautch′-girls in India: any form of stage entertainment with dancing. [Hind. nāch, dance.]

Nautical, naw′tik-al, adj. of or pertaining to ships, to sailors, or to navigation: naval: marine.—adv. Nau′tically.—Nautical almanac, an almanac giving information specially useful to sailors; Nautical mile, one-sixtieth of a degree measured at the Equator (=about 2025 yards). [L. nauticus—Gr. nautikosnaus; cog. with L. navis, a ship.]

Nautilus, naw′ti-lus, n. a Cephalopod found in the southern seas, once believed to sail by means of the expanded tentacular arms: a kind of diving-bell sinking or rising by means of condensed air:—pl. Nau′tiluses, or Nau′tili.—adjs. Nau′tiliform, Nau′tiloid.—Paper nautilus, any species of Argonauta. [L.,—Gr. nautilos, a sailor.]

Naval, nā′val, adj. pertaining to ships: consisting of, or possessing, ships: marine: nautical: belonging to the navy.—Naval brigade, a body of seamen so arranged as to be able to serve on land; Naval officer, an officer on board a man-of-war: a custom-house officer of high rank in the United States; Naval tactics, the science and methods of managing and moving squadrons of ships. [Fr.,—L. navalisnavis, a ship.]

Nave, nāv, n. the middle or main body of a church, distinct from the aisles or wings.—n. Nā′varch, a Greek admiral. [Fr. nef—L. navis, a ship.]

Nave, nāv, n. the hub or piece of wood, &c., in the centre of a wheel, through which the axle passes.—v.t. to form as a nave. [A.S. nafu, nave; cf. Dut. naaf, Ger. nabe.]

Navel, nāv′l, n. the mark or depression in the centre of the lower part of the abdomen, at first a small projection.—n. Nāv′el-string, the umbilical cord. [A.S. nafela, dim. of nafu, nave.]

Navew, nā′vū, n. the wild turnip.

Navicular, nav-ik′ū-lar, adj. pertaining to small ships or boats: (bot.) boat-shaped: scaphoid.—n. a bone in man and animals, so called from its shape.—n. Navic′ula, an incense-boat.—Navicular disease, an inflammation, often rheumatic, of the small bone—the navicular—in horses, below which passes the strong flexor tendon of the foot. [L. navicularisnavicula, dim. of navis, a ship.]

Navigate, nav′i-gāt, v.t. to steer or manage a ship in sailing: to sail upon.—v.i. to go in a vessel or ship: to sail.—ns. Navigabil′ity, Nav′igableness.—adj. Nav′igable, that may be passed by ships or vessels.—adv. Nav′igably.—ns. Navigā′tion, the act, science, or art of sailing ships: shipping generally: a canal or artificial waterway; Nav′igator, one who navigates or sails: one who directs the course of a ship.—Navigation laws, the laws passed from time to time to regulate the management and privileges of ships, and the conditions under which they may sail or carry on trade.—Aerial navigation, the management of balloons in motion; Inland navigation, the passing of boats, &c., along rivers and canals. [L. navigāre, -ātumnavis, a ship, agĕre, to drive.]

Navvy, nav′i, n. a labourer—originally a labourer on a navigation or canal: a machine for digging out earth, &c.—called also French navvy:—pl. Navv′ies. [A contr. of navigator.]

Navy, nā′vi, n. a fleet of ships: the whole of the ships-of-war of a nation: the officers and men belonging to the warships of a nation.—ns. Nā′vy-list, a list of the officers and ships of a navy, published from time to time; Nā′vy-yard, a government dockyard. [O. Fr. navie—L. navis, a ship.]

Nawab, na-wab′, n. a nabob.

Nay, nā, adv. no: not only so, but: yet more: in point of fact.—n. a denial: a vote against.—n. Nay′ward (Shak.), tendency to denial: the negative side. [M. E. nay, nai—Ice. nei, Dan. nei; cog. with no.]

Nayword, nā′wurd, n. (Shak.) a proverbial reproach, a byword, a watchword.

Nazarene, naz′ar-ēn, n. an inhabitant of Nazareth, in Galilee: a follower of Jesus of Nazareth, originally used of Christians in contempt: one belonging to the early Christian sect of the Nazarenes, which existed from the 1st to the 4th cent. A.D.—Also Nazarē′an. [From Nazareth, the town.]

Nazarite, naz′ar-īt, n. a Jew who vowed to abstain from strong drink, &c.—also Naz′irite.—n. Naz′aritism, the vow and practice of a Nazarite. [Heb. nāzar, to consecrate.]

Naze, nāz, n. a headland or cape. [Scand., as in Dan. ns; a doublet of ness.]

Nazir, na-zēr′, n. a native official in an Anglo-Indian court who serves summonses, &c. [Ar.]

Ne, ne, adv. not: never. [A.S. ne; cf. Nay.]

Neaf, nēf, n. the fist—(Scot.) Neive. [M. E. nefe—Ice. hnefi, nefi; cf. Sw. nfve, the fist.]

Neal, nēl, v.t. to temper by heat.—v.i. to be tempered by heat. [Cf. Anneal.]

Nealogy, nē-al′o-ji, n. the description of the morphological correlations of the early adolescent stages of an animal.—adj. Nealog′ic. [Gr. neos, young, logia—legein, to speak.]

Neanderthaloid, nē-an′dėr-tal-oid, adj. like the low type of skull found in 1857 in a cave in the Neanderthal, a valley between Dsseldorf and Elberfeld.

Neap, nēp, adj. low, applied to the lowest tides.—n. a neap-tide: the lowest point of the tide.—adj. Neaped, left aground from one high tide to another. [A.S. np, orig. hnp; Dan. knap, Ice. neppr, scanty.]

Neapolitan, nē-a-pol′i-tan, adj. pertaining to the city of Naples or its inhabitants.—n. a native or inhabitant of Naples.—Neapolitan ice, a combination of two different ices. [L. Neapolitanus—Gr. Neapolis, Naples—neos, new, polis, city.]

Near, nēr, adj. nigh: not far away in place or time: close in kin or friendship: dear: following or imitating anything closely: close, narrow, so as barely to escape: short, as a road: greedy, stingy: on the left in riding or driving.—adv. at a little distance: almost: closely,—prep. close to.—v.t. and v.i. to approach: to come nearer.—adjs. Near′-by, adjacent; Near′-hand (Scot.), near—also adv. nearly.—adv. Near′ly, at no great distance: closely: intimately: pressingly: almost: stingily.—n. Near′ness, the state of being near: closeness: intimacy: close alliance: stinginess.—adj. Near′-sight′ed, seeing distinctly only when near, myopic, short-sighted.—n. Near′-sight′edness.—Near point, the nearest point the eye can focus. [A.S. ner, comp. of neh, nigh; Ice. nr; Ger. nher.]

Nearctic, nē-ark′tik, adj. of or pertaining to the northern part of the New World—embracing temperate and arctic North America.

Neat, nēt, adj. belonging to the bovine genus.—n. black-cattle: an ox or cow.—ns. Neat′-herd, one who herds, or has the care of, neat or cattle; Neat′-house, a building for the shelter of neat-cattle.—Neat's-foot oil, an oil obtained from the feet of oxen; Neat's leather, leather made of the hides of neat-cattle. [A.S. net, cattle, a beast—netan, nitan, to use; cf. Scot. nowt, black-cattle.]

Neat, nēt, adj. trim: tidy: clean: well-shaped: without mixture or adulteration: finished, adroit, clever, skilful.—adj. Neat′-hand′ed, dexterous.—adv. Neat′ly.—n. Neat′ness. [Fr. net—L. nitidus, shining—ntēre, to shine.]

Neb, neb, n. the beak of a bird: the nose: the sharp point of anything.—adj. Nebb′y (Scot.), saucy. [A.S. nebb, the face; cog. with Dut. neb, beak.]

Nebbuk, neb′uk, n. a shrub, Zizyphus Spina-Christi, one of the thorns of Christ's crown.

Nebel, neb′el, n. a Hebrew stringed instrument.

Neb-neb, neb′-neb, n. the dried pods of a species of acacia found in Africa, which are much used in Egypt for tanning—called also Bablah.

Nebris, neb′ris, n. a fawn-skin worn in imitation of Bacchus by his priests and votaries.

Nebula, neb′ū-la, n. a little cloud: a faint, misty appearance in the heavens produced either by a group of stars too distant to be seen singly, or by diffused gaseous matter:—pl. Neb′ul.—adjs. Neb′ular, pertaining to nebul: like nebul; Nebul (neb-ū-lā′), curved in and out (her.); Neb′ulose, Neb′ulous, misty, hazy, vague: relating to, or having the appearance of, a nebula.—ns. Nebulos′ity, Neb′ulousness.—Nebular hypothesis, the theory of Laplace and Sir W. Herschel that nebul form the earliest stage in the formation of stars and planets. [L.; Gr. nephelē, cloud, mist.]

Necessary, nes′es-sar-i, adj. that must be: that cannot be otherwise: unavoidable: indispensable: under compulsion: not free.—n. that which cannot be left out or done without (food, &c.)—used chiefly in pl.: a privy.—ns. Necessā′rian, one who holds the doctrine of necessity; Necessā′rianism, the doctrine that the will is not free, but subject to causes without, which determine its action.—adv. Nec′essarily.—n. Nec′essariness, the state or quality of being necessary.—Necessary truths, such as cannot but be true. [Fr.,—L. necessarius.]

Necessity, ne-ses′i-ti, n. state or quality of being necessary: that which is necessary or unavoidable: compulsion: great need: poverty.—ns. Necessitā′rian; Necessitā′rianism, necessarianism.—v.t. Necess′itāte, to make necessary: to render unavoidable: to compel.—n. Necessitā′tion.—adjs. Necess′itied (Shak.), in a state of want; Necess′itous, in necessity: very poor: destitute.—adv. Necess′itously.—n. Necess′itousness.—Natural necessity, the condition of being necessary according to the laws of nature; Logical or Mathematical, according to those of human intelligence; Moral, according to those of moral law; Works of necessity, work so necessary as to be allowable on the Sabbath. [L. necessitas.]

Neck, nek, n. the part of an animal's body between the head and trunk: anything that resembles the neck: a long narrow part or corner: (fig.) life: the flesh of the neck and adjoining parts.—v.t. to break the neck or cut off the head.—ns. Neck′atee, a neckerchief; Neck′-band, the part of a shirt encircling the neck; Neck′-bear′ing, that part of a shaft which rotates in the bearing proper, a journal; Neck′beef, the coarse flesh of the neck of cattle; Neck′cloth, a piece of folded cloth worn round the neck by men as a band or cravat, the ends hanging down often of lace.—adj. Necked, having a neck of a certain kind.—ns. Neck′erchief, a kerchief for the neck; Neck′lace, a lace or string of beads or precious stones worn on the neck by women; Neck′let, a simple form of necklace; Neck′-mould, a small moulding surrounding a column at the junction of the shaft and capital; Neck′-piece, the part of a suit of armour that protects the neck: an ornamental frill round the neck of a gown; Neck′tie, a tie or cloth for the neck; Neck′verse, the verse (usually Ps. li. 1) in early times placed before a prisoner claiming benefit-of-clergy, in order to test his ability to read, which, if he could do, he was burned in the hand and set free (see Benefit).—n. Stiff′neck (see Stiff).—Neck and crop, completely; Neck and neck, exactly equal: side by side; Neck or nothing, risking everything.—Harden the neck, to grow more obstinate; Tread on the neck of, to oppress or tyrannise over. [A.S. hnecca; Ger. nacken.]

Necrolatry, nek-rol′a-tri, n. worship of the dead.—ns. Necrobiō′sis, degeneration of living tissue; Necrog′rapher, one who writes an obituary notice.—adjs. Necrolog′ic, -al, pertaining to necrology.—ns. Necrol′ogist, one who gives an account of deaths; Necrol′ogy, an account of those who have died, esp. of the members of some society: a register of deaths; Nec′romancer, one who practises necromancy: a sorcerer; Nec′romancy, the art of revealing future events by calling up and questioning the spirits of the dead: enchantment.—adjs. Necroman′tic, -al, pertaining to necromancy: performed by necromancy.—adv. Necroman′tically.—adj. Necroph′agous, feeding on carrion.—ns. Necroph′ilism, a morbid love for the dead; Necrophō′bia, a morbid horror of corpses.—adj. Necroph′orous, carrying away and burying dead bodies, esp. of beetles of the genus Necrophorus.—n. Necrop′olis, a cemetery.—adjs. Necroscop′ic, -al.—n. Nec′roscopy, a post-mortem examination, autopsy—also Nec′ropsy.—adjs. Necrosed′, Necrō′tic.—ns. Necrō′sis, the mortification of bone: (bot.) a disease of plants marked by small black spots; Necrot′omist; Necrot′omy, dissection of dead bodies. [Gr. nekros, dead.]

Nectar, nek′tar, n. the name given by Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, &c. to the beverage of the gods, giving life and beauty: a delicious beverage: the honey of the glands of plants.—adjs. Nectā′real, Nectā′rean, pertaining to, or resembling, nectar: delicious; Nec′tared, imbued with nectar: mingled or abounding with nectar; Nectā′reous, Nec′tarous, pertaining to, containing, or resembling nectar: delicious.—adv. Nectā′reously, in a nectareous manner.—n. Nectā′reousness, the quality of being nectareous.—adjs. Nectā′rial; Nectarif′erous, producing nectar or honey: having a nectary; Nec′tarine, sweet as nectar.—n. a variety of peach with a smooth fruit.—n. Nec′tary, the part of a flower which secretes the nectar or honey. [L.,—Gr. nektar; ety. dub.]

Nectocalyx, nek′to-kā-liks, n. the swimming-bell of a medusa:—pl. Nectocā′lyces.

Neddy, ned′i, n. a donkey. [From Ned=Edward.]

Ne, nā, adj. born: placed before a married woman's maiden-name, to show her own family, as Rebecca Crawley, ne Sharp. [Fr., fem. of n, pa.p. of natre, to be born—L. nasci, natus, to be born.]

Need, nēd, n. want of something which one cannot do without: necessity: a state that requires relief: want of the means of living.—v.t. to have occasion for: to want.—ns. Need′-be, a necessity; Need′er; Need′fire, fire produced by friction, to which a certain virtue is superstitiously attached: a beacon generally.—adj. Need′ful, full of need: having need: needy: necessary: requisite.—adv. Need′fully.—n. Need′fulness.—adv. Need′ily.—n. Need′iness.—adj. Need′less (Shak.), having no need: not needed: unnecessary.—adv. Need′lessly.—n. Need′lessness.—adv. Need′ly (Shak.), necessarily.—n. Need′ment, something needed.—adv. Needs, of necessity: indispensably—often used with must, as 'needs must.'—adj. Need′y, very poor: requisite.—n. Need′yhood.—The needful (slang), ready money. [A.S. nd, nid, nd; Dut. nood, Ger. noth.]

Needle, nēd′l, n. a small, sharp-pointed steel instrument, with an eye for a thread—(Shak.) Neeld, Neele: any slender, pointed instrument like a needle, as the magnet or movable bar of a compass, or for knitting, etching, &c.: anything sharp and pointed, like a pinnacle of rock, &c.: an aciform crystal: a temporary support used by builders to sustain while repairing, being a strong beam resting on props: the long, narrow, needle-like leaf of a pine-tree.—v.t. to form into a shape like a needle, as crystals: to work with a needle.—v.i. to become of the shape of needles, as crystals.—ns. Need′le-book, a number of pieces of cloth, leather, &c. arranged like a book, for holding needles; Need′le-case, a case for holding needles; Need′le-fish, a pipe-fish: a garfish or belonid; Need′leful, as much thread as fills a needle; Need′le-gun, a gun or rifle loaded at the breech, the cartridge of which is exploded by the impact of a needle or spike at its base.—adjs. Need′le-point′ed, pointed like a needle: without a barb, as a fish-hook; Need′le-shaped, shaped like a needle: applied to the long, slender, sharp-pointed leaves of pines, firs, and other trees.—ns. Need′le-tel′egraph, a telegraph the receiver of which gives its messages by the deflections of a magnetic needle; Need′lewoman, a woman who makes her living by her needle, a seamstress; Need′lework, work done with a needle: the business of a seamstress.—adj. Need′ly, thorny. [A.S. nǽdl; Ger. nadel; cog. with Ger. nhen, to sew, L. nēre, to spin.]

Neep, a Scotch form of turnip.

Ne'er, nār, adv. contr. of never.—adj. and n. Ne'er′-do-well, past all well-doing: one who is good for nothing.

Neese, nēz, v.i. an old form of sneeze.—n. Nees′ing, sneezing.

Nef, nef, n. a cadenas.

Nefandous, nē-fan′dus, adj. bad to execration, abominable. [L.,—ne, not, fandus, fāri, to speak.]

Nefarious, nē-fā′ri-us, adj. impious: extremely wicked: villainous.—adv. Nefā′riously.—n. Nefā′riousness.—adj. Nēfast′, abominable. [L. nefarius, contrary to divine law—ne, not, fas, divine law, prob. from fāri, to speak.]

Negation, ne-gā′shun, n. act of saying no: denial: (logic) the absence of certain qualities in anything. [Fr.,—L. negation-em-negāre, -ātum, to say no—nec, not, aio, I say yes.]

Negative, neg′a-tiv, adj. that denies or refuses—opp. to Affirmative: implying absence: that stops, hinders, neutralises—opp. to Positive: in photography, exhibiting the reverse, as dark for light, light for dark: (logic) denying the connection between a subject and a predicate: (algebra) noting a quantity to be subtracted.—n. a word or statement by which something is denied: the right or act of saying 'no,' or of refusing assent: the side of a question or the decision which denies what is affirmed: in photography, an image on glass or other medium, in which the lights and shades are the opposite of those in nature, used for printing positive impressions from on paper, &c.: (gram.) a word that denies.—v.t. to prove the contrary: to reject by vote.—adv. Neg′atively.—ns. Neg′ativeness, Neg′ativism, Negativ′ity.—adj. Neg′atory, expressing denial.—Negative bath, a silver solution in which photographic negatives are placed to be sensitised; Negative electricity, electricity with a relatively low potential, electricity such as is developed by rubbing resinous bodies with flannel, opposite to that obtained by rubbing glass; Negative quantity (math.), a quantity with a minus sign ( - ) before it, indicating that it is either to be subtracted, or reckoned in an opposite direction from some other with a plus sign; Negative sign, the sign ( - or minus) of subtraction. [L. negativusnegāre, to deny.]

Negātur, v. it is denied. [L., 3d pers. sing. pres. ind. pass. of negāre, to deny.]

Neglect, neg-lekt′, v.t. to treat carelessly, pass by without notice: to omit by carelessness.—n. disregard: slight: omission.—adj. Neglect′able, that may be neglected.—ns. Neglect′edness; Neglect′er.—adj. Neglect′ful, careless: accustomed to omit or neglect things: slighting.—adv. Neglect′fully.—n. Neglect′fulness.—adj. Neglect′ible.—adv. Neglect′ingly, carelessly: heedlessly. [L. negligĕre, neglectumnec, not, legĕre, to gather.]

Neglige, neg-li-zhā′, n. easy undress: a plain, loose gown: a necklace, usually of red coral.—adj. carelessly or unceremoniously dressed: careless. [Fr., fem. of ngligngliger, to neglect.]

Negligence, neg′li-jens, n. fact or quality of being negligent: want of proper care: habitual neglect: a single act of carelessness or neglect, a slight: carelessness about dress, manner, &c.: omission of duty, esp. such care for the interests of others as the law may require—(Shak.) Neglec′tion.—adj. Neg′ligent, neglecting: careless: inattentive: disregarding ceremony or fashion.—adv. Neg′ligently.—adj. Neg′ligible.—adv. Neg′ligibly. [Fr.,—L. negligentianegligens, -entis, pr.p. of negligĕre, to neglect.]

Negotiable, ne-gō′shi-a-bl, adj. that may be transacted: that can be transferred to another with the same rights as belonged to the original holder, as a bill of exchange.—n. Negotiabil′ity.

Negotiate, ne-gō′shi-āt, v.i. to carry on business: to bargain: to hold intercourse for the purpose of mutual arrangement.—v.t. to arrange for by agreement: to manage: to transfer to another with all the rights of the original holder: to pass, as a bill: to sell.—ns. Negotiā′tion, act of negotiating: the treating with another on business; Negō′tiator; Negō′tiatrix.—adj. Negotiā′tory, of or pertaining to negotiation. [L. negotiāri, -ātusnegotium, business—nec, not, otium, leisure.]

Negrito, ne-grē′to, n. the Spanish name for certain tribes of negro-like diminutive people in the interior of some of the Philippine Islands—also Atas or Itas: in a wider sense, the Papuans and all the Melanesian peoples of Polynesia.

Negro, nē′grō, n. one of the black-skinned woolly-haired race in the Soudan and central parts of Africa, also their descendants in America.—adj. of or pertaining to the race of black men:—fem. Nē′gress.—ns. Nē′gro-corn, the name given in the West Indies to the plant durra or Indian millet; Nē′grohead, tobacco soaked in molasses and pressed into cakes, so called from its blackness.—adj. Nē′groid.—n. Nē′grōism, any peculiarity of speech noticeable among negroes, esp. in the southern United States. [Sp. negro—L. niger, black.]

Negus, nē′gus, n. a beverage of either port or sherry with hot water, sweetened and spiced. [Said to be so called from Colonel Negus, its first maker, in the reign of Queen Anne.]

Negus, nē′gus, n. the title of the kings of Abyssinia.

Neif, nēf, n. (Shak.) the fist.

Neigh, nā, v.i. to utter the cry of a horse:—pr.p. neigh′ing; pa.t. and pa.p. neighed (nād).—n. the cry of a horse—(Scot.) Nich′er. [A.S. hnǽgan; Ice. hneggja.]

Neighbour, n′bur, n. a person who dwells, sits, or stands near another: one who is on friendly terms with another.—adj. (B.) neighbouring.—v.i. to live near each other.—v.t. to be near to.—n. Neigh′bourhood, state of being neighbours, kindly feeling: adjoining district or the people living in it: a district generally, esp. with reference to its inhabitants.—adj. Neigh′bouring, being near: adjoining.—n. Neigh′bourliness.—adjs. Neigh′bourly, like or becoming a neighbour: friendly: social—also adv.; Neigh′bour-stained (Shak.), stained with neighbours' blood. [A.S. nehbr, nehgebr—A.S. neh, near, gebr or br, a farmer.]

Neist, nēst, a dialectic form of next.

Neither, nē′thėr, or nī′thėr, adj. and pron. not either.—conj. not either: and not: nor yet.—adv. not at all: in no case. [A.S. nther, nwther, abbrev. of nhwtherne, not, hwther, wther, either.]

Neivie-nick-nack, nē′vi-nik′-nak, n. a Scotch children's game of guessing in which hand a thing is held while the holder repeats a rhyme beginning with these words.

Nelumbo, nē-lum′bō, n. a genus of water-lilies including the Egyptian Bean of Pythagoras, and the Hindu Lotus.—Also Nelum′bium. [Ceylon name.]

Nemalite, nem′a-līt, n. a fibrous hydrate of magnesia. [Gr. nēma, a thread, lithos, a stone.]

Nemathecium, nem-a-thē′si-um, n. a wart-like elevation on the surface of the thallus of certain florideous alg. [Gr. nēma, a thread, thēkion, thēkē, case.]

Nemathelminthes, nem-a-thel-min′thez, a name applied to the thread-worms or nematodes (as Ascaris, Guinea-worm, Trichina), to the somewhat distinct Gordiid or hair-eels, and to the more remotely allied Acanthocephala or Echinorhynchus.—Also Nemathelmin′tha.—adjs. Nemathel′minth, -ic. [Gr. nēma, a thread, helmins, -minthos, worm.]

Nematocerous, nem-a-tos′e-rus, adj. having long thready antenn, as a dipterous insect. [Gr. nēma, a thread, keras, a horn.]

Nematocyst, nem′a-tō-sist, n. a cnida, one of the offensive organs of Cœlenterates, as jellyfish. [Gr. nēma, a thread, kystis, a bladder.]

Nematoid, nem′a-toid, adj. thread-like—also Nem′atode.— Nematoi′dea, a class of Vermes, with mouth, alimentary canal, and separate sexes, usually parasitic. [Gr. nēma, thread, eidos, form.]

Nemean, nē′mē-an, adj. pertaining to Nemea, a valley of Argolis in the Peloponnesus, famous for its public games held in the second and fourth of each Olympiad.

Nemertea, nē-mer′tē-a, a class of Vermes, mostly marine, unsegmented, covered with cilia, often brightly coloured, with protrusile proboscis, and usually distinct sexes.—adj. Nemer′tean. [Gr. Nēmertēs, a nereid's name.]

Nemesis, nem′e-sis, n. (myth.) the goddess of vengeance: retributive justice.—adj. Nemes′ic. [Gr.,—nemein, to distribute.]

Nemo, nē′mo, n. nobody: a nobody. [L.]

Nemocerous, nē-mos′e-rus, adj. having filamentous antenn.

Nemoral, nem′o-ral, adj. pertaining to a wood or grove.—n. Nemoph′ilist.—adjs. Nemoph′ilous, fond of woods, inhabiting woods; Nem′orose, growing in woodland; Nem′orous, woody. [L. nemus, -ŏris, a grove.]

Nempt, nemt (Spens.), named, called.

Nenuphar, nen′ū-far, n. the great white water-lily. [Fr.,—Ar.]

Neo-Catholic, nē-ō-kath′o-lik, adj. pertaining to the short-lived school of liberal Catholicism that followed Lamennais, Lacordaire, and Montalembert about 1830: pertaining to a small party within the Anglican Church, who think they have outgrown Keble and Pusey and the great Caroline divines, and are more noisy than intelligent in their avowal of preference for Roman doctrine, ritual, and discipline.

Neo-Christian, nē-ō-kris′tyan, adj. and n. of or pertaining to so-called Neo-Christianity, which merely means old Rationalism.

Neocomian, nē-ō-kō′mi-an, adj. and n. (geol.) of or pertaining to the lower division of the Cretaceous system, including the Lower Greensand and the Wealden of English geologists. [Grcised from Neuchtel, near which is its typical region; Gr. neos, new, kōmē, a village.]

Neocosmic, nē-ō-koz′mik, adj. pertaining to the present condition of the universe, esp. its races of men. [Gr. neos, new, kosmos, the universe.]

Neocracy, nē-ok′ra-si, n. government by upstarts.

Neogamist, nē-og′a-mist, n. a person recently married.

Neogrammarian, nē-ō-gra-mā′ri-an, n. one of the more recent school in the study of Indo-European grammar and philology, who attach vast importance to phonetic change, and the laws governing it.—adj. Neogrammat′ical.

Neohellenism, nē-ō-hel′en-izm, n. the modern Hellenism inspired by the ancient: the devotion to ancient Greek ideals in literature and art, esp. in the Italian Renaissance.

Neo-Kantian, nē-ō-kan′ti-an, adj. pertaining to the philosophy of Kant as taught by his successors.

Neo-Latin, nē-ō-lat′in, n. Latin as written by modern writers: new Latin, as in the Romance languages sprung from the Latin.

Neolite, nē′ō-līt, n. a dark-green silicate of aluminium and magnesium. [Gr. neos, new, lithos, a stone.]

Neolithic, nē-ō-lith′ik, adj. applied to the more recent implements of the stone age—opp. to Palolithic. [Gr. neos, new, lithos, a stone.]

Neology, nē-ol′o-ji, n. the introduction of new words, or new senses of old words, into a language: (theol.) new doctrines, esp. German rationalism.—n. Neolō′gian.—adjs. Neolog′ic, -al, pertaining to neology: using new words.—adv. Neolog′ically.—v.i. Neol′ogise, to introduce new words or doctrines.—ns. Neol′ogism, a new word, phrase, or doctrine: the use of old words in a new sense; Neol′ogist, one who introduces new words or senses: one who introduces new doctrines in theology.—adjs. Neologis′tic, -al. [Gr. neos, new, logos, word.]

Neonomianism, nē-ō-nō′mi-an-izm, n. the doctrine that the gospel is a new law, and that faith has abrogated the old moral obedience.—n. Neonō′mian. [Gr. neos, new, nomos, law.]

Neonomous, nē-on′o-mus, adj. having a greatly modified biological structure, specialised according to recent conditions of environment. [Gr. neos, new, nomos, law.]

Neontology, nē-on-tol′o-ji, n. the science and description of extant, as apart from extinct, animals.—n. Neontol′ogist. [Gr. neos, new, on, ontos, being, logialegein, to speak.]

Neo-paganism, nē-ō-pā′gan-izm, n. a revival of paganism, or its spirit—a euphemism for mere animalism.—v.t. Neo-pā′ganīse, to imbue with this spirit.

Neophobia, nē-ō-fō′bi-a, n. dread of novelty. [Gr. neos, new, phobiaphebesthai, to fear.]

Neophron, nē′ō-fron, n. a genus of vultures, having horizontal nostrils. [Gr.,—neos, new, phren, mind.]

Neophyte, nē′ō-fīt, n. a new convert, one newly baptised or admitted to the priesthood, or to a monastery, a novice: a tyro or beginner.—adj. newly admitted or entered on office.—n. Nē′ophytism. [L. neophytus—Gr. neos, new, phytos, grown—phyein, to produce.]

Neoplasm, nē′ō-plazm, n. a morbid new growth or formation of tissue.—adj. Neoplas′tic.

Neoplatonism, nē-ō-plā′to-nizm, n. a system of philosophy combining Platonic and Oriental elements, originating with Ammonius Saccas at Alexandria in the 3d century, developed by Plotinus, Porphyry, Proclus, &c.—adj. Neoplaton′ic.—n. Neoplā′tonist.

Neoteric, -al, nē-ō-ter′ik, -al, adj. of recent origin, modern.—v.i. Neot′erise.—n. Neot′erism, the introduction of new things, esp. new words. [Gr.,—neōteros, comp. of neos, new.]

Neotic, nē-ot′ik, adj. addressed to the understanding.

Neotropical, nē-ō-trop′i-kal, adj. applied to the part of the New World including tropical and South America and the adjacent islands.

Neozoic, nē-ō-zō′ik, adj. denoting all rocks from the Trias down to the most recent formations, as opposed to Palozoic. [Gr. neos, new, zoē, life.]

Nep, nep, n. (prov.) a knot in a fibre of cotton.

Nepenthes, ne-pen′thēz, n. (med.) a drug that relieves pain—also Nepen′the: a genus of plants having a cup or pitcher attached to the leaf, often filled with a sweetish liquid, the pitcher-plant. [Gr.,—, neg., penthos, grief.]

Nephalism, nef′a-lizm, n. total abstinence from alcoholic drinks.—n. Neph′alist, a bigoted teetotaler. [Gr. nēphalios, sober; nēphein, to be sober.]

Nepheline, nef′e-lin, n. a rock-forming mineral, colourless, usually crystallising in hexagonal prisms, occurring in various volcanic rocks, as in certain basalts. [Gr. nephelē, a cloud.]

Nepheloid, nef′e-loid, adj. cloudy, turbid.—ns. Nephelom′eter, a supposititious instrument for measuring cloudiness; Neph′eloscope, an apparatus for illustrating the formation of cloud; Neph′elosphere, an atmosphere of cloud surrounding a planet, &c. [Gr. nephelē, cloud.]

Nephew, nev′ū, or nef′ū, n. the son of a brother or sister: (orig.) a grandson (so in New Test.):—fem. Niece. [O. Fr. neveu—L. nepos, nepotis, grandson, nephew; A.S. nefa, Ger. neffe, nephew.]

Nephralgia, ne-fral′ji-a, n. pain or disease of the kidneys—also Nephral′gy.—ns. Neph′rite, a mineral usually called Jade, an old charm against kidney disease; Nephrit′ic, a medicine for the cure of diseases of the kidneys.—adjs. Nephrit′ic, -al, pertaining to the kidneys: affected with a disease of the kidneys: relieving diseases of the kidneys.—ns. Nephrī′tis, inflammation of the kidneys; Neph′rocele, hernia of the kidney; Nephrog′raphy, a description of the kidneys.—adj. Neph′roid, kidney-shaped.—ns. Nephrol′ogy, scientific knowledge of the kidneys; Nephrot′omy, the operation of excising the kidneys. [Gr. nephros, a kidney, algos, pain.]

Nepotism, nep′o-tizm, n. undue favouritism to one's relations, as in the bestowal of patronage.—adjs. Nepot′ic, Nepō′tious.—n. Nep′otist, one who practises nepotism. [L. nepos, nepotis, a grandson.]

Neptune, nep′tūn, n. (Rom. myth.) the god of the sea, identified with the Greek Poseidon, represented with a trident in his hand: (astron.) the outermost planet of the solar system, discovered in 1846.—adj. Neptū′nian, pertaining to the sea: (geol.) formed by water: applied to stratified rocks or to those due mainly to the agency of water, as opposed to Plutonic or Igneous.—n. Nep′tūnist, one who holds the Neptunian theory in geology—also adj. [L. Neptunus.]

Nereid, nē′rē-id, n. (Gr. myth.) a sea-nymph, one of the daughters of the sea-god Nereus, who attended Neptune riding on sea-horses: (zool.) a genus of marine worms like long myriapods.—ns. Nē′rēis, a nereid; Nē′rēite, a fossil annelid related to the nereids. [L.,—Gr.]

Nerine, nē-rī′nē, n. a genus of ornamental South African plants of the Amaryllis family, with scarlet or rose-coloured flowers.—The Guernsey Lily is the Nerine Sarniensis.

Nerite, nē′rīt, n. a gasteropod of the genus Nerita or the family Neritid.—adj. Neritā′cean.

Nerium, nē′ri-um, n. a genus of Mediterranean shrubs, with fragrant and showy pink, white, or yellowish flowers, the oleander.

Nero, nē′ro, n. the last emperor of the family of the Csars, at Rome (54-68 A.D.): any cruel and wicked tyrant.—adj. Nerō′nian.

Nero-antico, nā-rō-an-tē′ko, n. a deep-black marble found in Roman ruins. [It.]

Nerve, nėrv, n. bodily strength, firmness, courage: (anat.) one of the fibres which convey sensation from all parts of the body to the brain: (bot.) one of the fibres or ribs in the leaves of plants: a trade term for a non-porous quality of cork, slightly charred: (pl.) hysterical nervousness.—v.t. to give strength or vigour to: to arm with force.—adj. Nerv′al.—ns. Nervā′tion, the arrangement or distribution of nerves, esp. those of leaves; Nerve′-cell, any cell forming part of the nervous system, esp. one of those by means of which nerve-fibres are connected with each other; Nerve′-cen′tre, a collection of nerve-cells from which nerves branch out.—adj. Nerved, furnished with nerves, or with nerves of a special character, as 'strong-nerved.'—n. Nerve′-fī′bre, one of the essential thread-like units of which a nerve is composed.—adj. Nerve′less, without strength.—n. Nerve′lessness.—adj. Nerv′ine, acting on the nerves: quieting nervous excitement.—n. a medicine that soothes nervous excitement.—adjs. Nerv′ous, having nerve: sinewy: strong, vigorous, showing strength and vigour: pertaining to the nerves: having the nerves easily excited or weak; Nerv′ous, Nervose′, Nerved (bot.) having parallel fibres or veins.—adv. Nerv′ously.—n. Nerv′ousness.—adj. Nerv′ūlar.—ns. Nerv′ūle, a small nerve, a small vein of an insect's wing—also Nervulet, Veinlet, Venule; Nerv′ure, one of the nerves or veins of leaves: one of the horny tubes or divisions which expand the wings of insects: one of the ribs in a groined vault: a projecting moulding.—adj. Nerv′y, strong, vigorous.—Nervous system (anat.), the brain, spinal cord, and nerves collectively: the whole of the nerves and nerve-centres of the body considered as related to each other, and fitted to act together. [Fr.,—L. nervus; Gr. neuron, a sinew.]

Nescience, nesh′ens, n. want of knowledge.—adj. Nesc′ient. [L. nescientianescīre, to be ignorant—ne, not, scīre, to know.]

Nesh, nesh, adj. (prov.) soft, crumbly: tender.—v.t. Nesh′en, to make tender.

Neshamah, nesh′a-m, n. the highest degree of the soul in the cabbalistic system.

Nesiote, nē′si-ōt, adj. insular. [Gr. nēsos, an island.]

Neski, nes′ki, n. the cursive hand generally used in Arabic.—Also Nesh′ki. [Ar.]

Nesogan, nē-sō-jē′an, adj. pertaining to Nesoga—Polynesia or Oceania, New Zealand excepted, with regard to the distribution of its animals. [Gr. nēsos, an island, gaia, the earth.]

Ness, nes, n. a promontory or headland. [A.S. nss; a doublet of naze, prob. conn. with nose.]

Nest, nest, n. the bed formed by a bird for hatching her young: the place in which the eggs of any animal are laid and hatched: a comfortable residence: a number of persons haunting one place for a bad purpose: the place itself: a number of baskets or boxes each fitting inside the next larger.—v.t. to form a nest for.—v.i. to build and occupy a nest.—n. Nest′-egg, an egg left in the nest to keep the hen from forsaking it: something laid up as the beginning of an accumulation.—Feather one's nest, to provide for one's self, esp. from other people's property of which one has had charge. [A.S. nest; Ger. nest, L. nīdus.]

Nestle, nes′l, v.i. to lie close or snug as in a nest: to settle comfortably.—v.t. to cherish, as a bird does her young.—adj. Nest′ling, being in the nest, newly hatched.—n. act of making a nest: a young bird in the nest—also Nest′ler. [A.S. nestliannest.]

Nestor, nes′tor, n. a Greek hero at Troy, remarkable for eloquence and wisdom gained through long life and varied experience: any one who possesses those qualities, a counsellor, adviser.—adj. Nestō′rian.

Nestorian, nes-tō′ri-an, adj. pertaining to the Christological doctrine of Nestorius, patriarch of Constantinople from 428 to his condemnation and deposition at the general council of Ephesus in 431; he held the true divinity and humanity of Christ, but denied their union in a single self-conscious personality, that union being merely moral or sympathetic—thus the personality was broken up into a duality.—n. a follower of Nestorius.—n. Nestō′rianism.

Net, net, n. an open fabric of twine, &c., knotted into meshes for catching birds, fishes, &c.: anything like a net for keeping out insects, &c.: a meshed bag for holding a woman's hair: machine-made lace of various kinds: a snare: a difficulty.—adj. made of netting or resembling it, reticulate: caught in a net.—v.t. to form into network: to take with a net: to protect with a net, to veil.—v.i. to form network:—pr.p. net′ting; pa.t. and pa.p. net′ted.ns. Net′-fish, any fish, like the herring, caught in nets—opp. to Trawl-fish and Line-fish; Net′-fish′ery, a place for net-fishing, the business of such fishing; Net′-fish′ing, the method or the industry of fishing with nets.—p.adj. Net′ted, made into a net, reticulated: caught in a net.—ns. Net′ting, act or process of forming network: a piece of network: any network of ropes or wire, esp. for use on shipboard; Net′ting-need′le, a kind of shuttle used in netting.—adjs. Net′ty, like a net; Net′-veined, in entomology, having a great number of veins or nervures like a network on the surface, as in the wings of many Orthoptera; Net′-winged, having net-veined wings.—n. Net′work, any work showing cross lines or open spaces like the meshes of a net. [A.S. net, nett; Dut. net, Ger. netz.]

Net, Nett, net, adj. clear of all charges or deductions—opp. to Gross: lowest, subject to no further deductions.—v.t. to produce as clear profit:—pr.p. net′ting; pa.t. and pa.p. net′ted. [Neat.]

Nethelesse, neth′les, adv.=Nathless.

Nether, neth′ėr, adj. beneath another, lower: infernal.—n. Neth′erlander, an inhabitant of Holland.—adj. Neth′erlandish, Dutch.— Neth′erlings, stockings.—adjs. Neth′ermore, lower; Neth′ermost, lowest.— Neth′erstocks (Shak.), short stockings or half-hose for the leg, as distinguished from trunk hose for the thigh.—advs. Neth′erward, -s, downward. [A.S. neothera, a comp. adj. due to adv. nither, downward; Ger. nieder, low.]

Nethinim, neth′in-im, (B.) servants of the old Jewish temple, set apart to assist the Levites. [Heb.]

Netsuke, net′su-kā, n. a small toggle or button, carved or inlaid, on Japanese pipe-cases, pouches, &c.

Nettle, net′l, n. a common plant covered with hairs which sting sharply.—v.t. to fret, as a nettle does the skin: to irritate.—ns. Nett′le-cloth, thick japanned cotton cloth used for leather; Nett′le-fish, a jelly-fish, sea-nettle; Nett′lerash, a kind of fever characterised by a rash or eruption on the skin; Nett′le-tree, a genus of trees, with simple and generally serrated leaves, the fruit a fleshy, globose, one-celled drupe; Nett′le-wort, any plant of the nettle family. [A.S. netele; Ger. nessel.]

Nettling, net′ling, n. the joining of two ropes, end to end, without seam: the tying in pairs of yarns in a ropewalk to prevent tangling. [Knittle.]

Neume, nūm, n. a succession of notes to be sung to one syllable, a sequence: an old sign for a tone or a phrase. [O. Fr.,—Gr. pneuma, breath.]

Neural, nū′ral, adj. pertaining to the nerves—also Neur′ic.—ns. Neuric′ity, nerve-force; Neuril′ity, the function of the nervous system—that of conducting stimuli.—Neural arch, the arch of a vertebra protecting the spinal cord. [Gr. neuron, a nerve.]

Neuralgia, nū-ral′ji-a, n. pain of a purely nervous character, occurring in paroxysms, usually unaccompanied by inflammation, fever, or any appreciable change of structure in the affected part—(obs.) Neural′gy.—adjs. Neural′gic, Neural′giform. [Gr. neuron, nerve, algos, pain.]

Neurasthenia, nū-ras-the-nī′a, n. nervous debility.—adj. Neurasthen′ic—also n. one suffering from this. [Gr. neuron, a nerve, astheneia, weakness.]

Neuration, nū-rā′shun, n. Same as Nervation.

Neurilemma, nū-ri-lem′a, n. the external sheath of a nerve-fibre.

Neuritis, nū-rī′tis, n. inflammation of a nerve.

Neurohypnology, nū-rō-hip-nol′o-ji, n. the study of hypnotism: the means employed for inducing the hypnotic state.—ns. Neurohypnol′ogist; Neurohyp′notism, hypnotism. [Gr. neuron, nerve, hypnos, sleep, logia, discourse.]

Neurology, nū-rol′o-ji, n. the science of the nerves.—adj. Neurolog′ical.—n. Neurol′ogist, a writer on neurology. [Gr. neuron, nerve, logia, science.]

Neuron, nū′ron, n. the cerebro-spinal axis in its entirety: a nervure of an insect's wing.

Neuropath, nū′ro-path, n. one who takes nervous conditions solely or mostly into account in his pathology.—adjs. Neuropath′ic, -al.—adv. Neuropath′ically.—ns. Neuropathol′ogy, the sum of knowledge of the diseases of the nervous system; Neurop′athy, nervous disease generally. [Gr. neuron, nerve, pathos, suffering.]

Neuroptera, nū-rop′tėr-a, an order of insects which have generally four wings marked with a network of many nerves:—sing. Neurop′teron; also Neurop′ter, Neurop′teran.—adjs. Neurop′teral, Neurop′terous, nerve-winged. [Gr. neuron, nerve, ptera, pl. of pteron, a wing.]

Neurose, nū′rōs, adj. nerved: having many nervures or veins, of an insect's wing, &c.

Neurotic, nū-rot′ik, adj. relating to, or seated in, the nerves.—n. a disease of the nerves: a medicine useful for diseases of the nerves.—adj. Neurō′sal.—n. Neurō′sis, a nervous disease, esp. without lesion of parts, as epilepsy, &c.

Neurotomy, nū-rot′om-i, n. the cutting or dissection of a nerve.—adj. Neurotom′ical. [Gr. neuron, a nerve, tomē, cutting.]

Neurotonic, nū-ro-ton′ik, n. a medicine intended to strengthen the nervous system.

Neuter, nū′tėr, adj. neither: taking no part with either side: (gram.) neither masculine nor feminine: neither active nor passive: (bot.) without stamens or pistils: (zool.) without sex.—n. one taking no part in a contest: (bot.) a plant having neither stamens nor pistils: (zool.) a sexless animal, esp. the working bee. [L., 'neither'—ne, not, uter, either.]

Neutral, nū′tral, adj. being neuter, indifferent: taking no part on either side: unbiassed: neither very good nor very bad, of no decided character: having no decided colour, bluish or grayish: (chem.) neither acid nor alkaline.—n. a person or nation that takes no part in a contest.—n. Neutralisā′tion.—v.t. Neu′tralise, to declare by convention any nation permanently neutral or neutral during certain hostilities: to make inert: to render of no effect.—ns. Neu′traliser; Neutral′ity, state of taking no part on either of two sides: those who are neutral.—adv. Neu′trally.—Neutral tint, a dull grayish colour; Neutral vowel, the vowel-sound heard in but, firm, her, &c., and commonly in unaccented syllables.—Armed neutrality, the condition of a neutral power ready to repel aggression from either belligerent. [L. neutralisneuter, neither.]

Nv, nā-vā′, n. the same as firn or glacier snow. [Fr.,—L. nix, nivis, snow.]

Nevel, nev′el, v.t. (Scot.) to beat with the fists.

Never, nev′ėr, adv. not ever: at no time: in no degree: not.—adv. Nev′ermore, at no future time.—conj. Nevertheless′, notwithstanding: in spite of that (earlier Natheless).—adv. Neverthemore′ (Spens.), none the more. [A.S. nǽfrene, not, ǽfre, ever.]

New, nū, adj. lately made: having happened lately: recent, modern: not before seen or known: strange, different: recently commenced: changed for the better: not of an ancient family: as at first: unaccustomed: fresh from anything: uncultivated or only recently cultivated.—adjs. New′born (Shak.), recently born; New′come, recently arrived.—n. New′-com′er, one who has lately come.—v.t. New′-create′ (Shak.), to create for the first time.—adjs. New′-fash′ioned, made in a new way or fashion: lately come into fashion; New′-fledged, having just got feathers; New′ish, somewhat new: nearly new.—adv. New′ly.—adj. New′-made (Shak.), recently made.—v.t. New′-mod′el, to model or form anew.—n. the Parliamentary army as remodelled by Cromwell after the second battle of Newbury, which gained a conclusive victory at Naseby (1645).—n. New′ness.—adj. New′-sad (Shak.), recently made sad.—New birth (see Regeneration); New chum, a new arrival from the old country in Australia; New Church, New Jerusalem Church, the Swedenborgian Church; New Covenant (see Covenant); New departure (see Departure); New Englander, a native or resident in any of the New England states; New Jerusalem, the heavenly city; New Learning (see Renaissance); New Light, a member of a relatively more advanced religious school—applied esp. to the party within the 18th-century Scottish Secession Church which adopted Voluntary views of the relations of Church and State, also sometimes to the Socinianising party in the Church of Scotland in the 18th century, &c.; New Red Sandstone (geol.), the name formerly given to the great series of red sandstones which occur between the Carboniferous and Jurassic systems; New style (see Style); New woman, a name humorously applied to such modern women as rebel against the conventional restrictions of their sex, and ape men in their freedom, education, pursuits, amusements, clothing, manners, and sometimes morals; New World, North and South America; New-year's Day, the first day of the new year. [A.S. nwe, newe; Ger. neu, Ir. nuadh, L. novus, Gr. neos.]

Newel, nū′el, n. (archit.) the upright column about which the steps of a circular staircase wind. [O. Fr. nual (Fr. noyau), stone of fruit—Low L. nucalis, like a nut—L. nux, nucis, a nut.]

Newel, nū′el, n. (Spens.) a new thing: a novelty.

Newfangled, nū-fang′gld, adj. fond of new things: newly devised, novel.—adv. Newfang′ledly.—ns. Newfang′ledness, Newfang′leness. [Corr. from M. E. newefangelnewe (A.S. nwe), new, fangel (A.S. fangenfn), ready to catch.]

Newfoundland, nū-fownd′land, n. a large dog of great intelligence, a strong swimmer, black without any white markings, first brought from Newfoundland.

Newgate, nū′gāt, n. a famous prison in London.—Newgate Calendar, a list of Newgate prisoners, with their crimes; Newgate frill, or fringe, a beard under the chin and jaw.

Newmarket, nū′mar-ket, n. a card-game for any number of persons, on a table on which duplicates of certain cards have been placed face up: a close-fitting coat, originally a riding-coat, a long close-fitting coat for women.

News, nūz, n.sing. something heard of that is new: recent account: first information of something that has just happened or of something not formerly known: intelligence.—v.t. to report.—ns. News′agent, one who deals in newspapers; News′boy, News′man, a boy or man who delivers or sells newspapers; News′-house, a printing-office for newspapers only; News′letter, an occasional letter or printed sheet containing news, the predecessor of the regular newspaper; News′monger, one who deals in news: one who spends much time in hearing and telling news; News′paper, a paper published periodically for circulating news, &c.—the first English newspaper was published in 1622; News′paperdom; News′paperism.—adj. News′papery, superficial.—ns. News′room, a room where newspapers, magazines, &c. lie to be read; News′vender, a seller of newspapers; News′-writ′er, a reporter or writer of news.—adj. News′y, gossipy. [Late M. E., an imit. of Fr. nouvelles.]

Newt, nūt, n. a genus of amphibious animals like small lizards. [Formed with initial n, borrowed from the article an, from ewt—A.S. efeta.]

Newtonian, nū-tō′ni-an, adj. relating to, formed, or discovered by Sir Isaac Newton, the celebrated philosopher (1642-1727)—also Newton′ic.—Newtonian telescope, a form of reflecting telescope.

Next, nekst, adj. (superl. of Nigh) nearest in place, time, &c.—adv. nearest or immediately after.—prep. nearest to.—n. Next′ness.—Next door to (see Door); Next to nothing, almost nothing at all. [A.S. nhst, superl. of nh, neh, near; Ger. nchst.]

Nexus, nek′sus, n. a tie, connecting principle, bond: (Rom. law) a person who had contracted a nexum or obligation of such a kind that, if he failed to pay, his creditor could compel him to serve until the debt was paid. [L.—nectĕre, to bind.]

Nib, nib, n. something small and pointed: a point, esp. of a pen: the bill of a bird: the handle of a scythe-snath.—v.t. to furnish with a nib: to point.—adj. Nibbed, having a nib. [Neb.]

Nibble, nib′l, v.t. to bite by small bits: to eat by little at a time.—v.i. to bite gently: to find fault.—n. act of nibbling: a little bit.—ns. Nibb′ler; Nibb′ling.—adv. Nibb′lingly. [Freq. of nip.]

Nibelungen, nē′bel-ōōng-en, a supernatural race in German mythology guarding a treasure wrested from them by Siegfried, the hero of the Nibelungenlied, an epic of c. 1190-1210.

Niblick, nib′lik, n. a golf-club with cup-shaped head.

Nice, nīs, adj. foolishly simple: over-particular: hard to please: fastidious: marking or taking notice of very small differences: done with great care and exactness, accurate: easily injured: delicate: dainty: agreeable: delightful.—adv. Nice′ly.—ns. Nice′ness, quality of being nice: exactness: scrupulousness: pleasantness; Nic′ety, quality of being nice: delicate management: exactness of treatment: fineness of perception: fastidiousness: that which is delicate to the taste: a delicacy.—To a nicety, with great exactness. [O. Fr. nice, foolish, simple—L. nescius, ignorant—ne, not, scīre, to know.]

Nicene, nī′sēn, adj. pertaining to the town of Nice or Nica, in Bithynia, Asia Minor, where an ecumenical council was held in 325 for the purpose of defining the questions raised in the Arian controversy—it promulgated the Nicene Creed. A second council, the seventh general council, held here in 787, condemned the Iconoclasts.


Niche, nich, n. a recess in a wall for a statue, vase, &c.: a person's proper place or condition in life or public estimation, one's appointed or appropriate place.—v.t. to place in a niche.—adj. Niched, placed in a niche. [Fr.,—It. nicchia, a niche, nicchio, a shell—L. mytilus, mitulus, a sea-mussel.]

Nick, nik, n. a notch cut into something: a score for keeping an account: the precise moment of time: a lucky throw at hazard.—v.t. to cut in notches: to hit the precise time: to strike as if making a nick: to cheat: catch in the act: to cut short: (Scot.) to cut with a single snip, as of shears: to make a cut with the pick in the face of coal to facilitate blasting or wedging.—adj. Nick′-eared, crop-eared.—n. Nick′er, one who, or that which, nicks: a woodpecker: a street-ruffian in the early part of the 18th century.—Nick a horse's tail, to make a cut at the root of the tail, making the horse carry it higher. [Another spelling of nock, old form of notch.]

Nick, nik, n. the devil, esp. Old Nick. [Prob. a corr. of St Nicholas, or from A.S. nicor, a water-spirit; Ice. nykr, Ger. nix, nixe.]

Nickel, nik′el, n. a grayish-white metal related to cobalt, very malleable and ductile.—v.t. to plate with nickel.—ns. Nick′elage, Nick′elure, the art of nickel-plating.—adjs. Nick′elic, Nick′elous; Nickelif′erous, containing nickel.—ns. Nick′eline, Nic′colite, native nickel arsenide.—v.t. Nick′elise, to plate with nickel.—ns. Nick′el-plat′ing, the plating of metals with nickel; Nick′el-sil′ver, German silver (see German). [Sw. koppar-nickel (Ger. kupfernickel), koppar, copper, nickel, a word corresponding to Ger. nickel, the devil (cf. Cobalt and Kobold), or to Ice. hnikill, a lump.]

Nicker, nik′ėr, v.i. to neigh: to snigger.—n. a neigh: a loud laugh—(obs.) Nich′er.

Nicknack, nik′nak, n. a trifle—dim. Nick′nacket.—n. Nick′nackery. [Same as Knick-knack.]

Nickname, nik′nām, n. a name given in contempt or sportive familiarity.—v.t. to give a nickname to. [M. E. neke-name, with intrusive initial n from eke-name, surname; from eke and name.]

Nicotine, nik′o-tin, n. a poisonous, volatile, alkaloid base, obtained from tobacco.—adj. Nicō′tian, pertaining to tobacco, from Jean Nicot (1530-1600), the benefactor who introduced it into France in 1560.—n. a smoker of tobacco.— Nicotiā′na, the literature of tobacco.—n. Nic′otinism, a morbid state induced by excessive misuse of tobacco.

Nictate, nik′tāt, v.i. to wink—also Nic′titate.—ns. Nic′tātion, Nictitā′tion.—Nictitating membrane, a thin movable membrane covering the eyes of birds. [L. nictāre, -ātum.]

Nidder, nid′ėr, v.t. (Scot.) to keep under: to pinch with cold or hunger: to molest.

Niddle-noddle, nid′l-nod′l, adj. vacillating.—v.i. to wag the head.

Niderling, nid′ėr-ling, n. a wicked fellow—also Nid′ering, Nith′ing.—n. Nidd′ering, a noodle.

Nidge, nij, v.t. to dress the face of (a stone) with a sharp-pointed hammer.

Nidging, nij′ing, adj. trifling.—n. Nidg′et, a fool.

Nidification, nid-i-fi-kā′shun, n. the act or art of building a nest, and the hatching and rearing of the young.—adj. Nidament′al, pertaining to nests or what protects eggs.—n. Nidament′um, an egg-case.—vs.i. Nid′ificate, Nid′ify.—adjs. Nid′ulant, Nid′ulate, lying free in a cup-shaped body, or in pulp.—n. Nidulā′tion, nest-building. [L. nidus, a nest, facĕre, to make.]

Nidor, nī′dor, n. odour, esp. of cooked food.—adjs. Nī′dorose, Nī′dorous, Nī′dose. [L.]

Nidus, nī′dus, n. a place, esp. in an animal body, in which a germ lodges and begins to develop. [L.]

Niece, nēs, n. (fem. of Nephew) the daughter of a brother or sister: (orig.) a granddaughter. [O. Fr.,—Low L. nepta—L. neptis, a granddaughter, niece.]

Niello, ni-el′lo, n. a method of ornamenting silver or gold plates by engraving the surface, and filling up the lines with a black composition, to give clearness and effect to the incised design: a work produced by this method: an impression taken from the engraved surface before the incised lines have been filled up: the compound used in niello-work.—v.t. to decorate with niello.—n. Niell′ure, the process, also the work done. [It. niello—Low L. nigellum, a black enamel—L. nigellus, dim. of niger, black.]

Niersteiner, nēr′stī-ner, n. a variety of Rhine wine, named from Nierstein, near Mainz.

Niffer, nif′ėr, v.t. (Scot.) to barter.—n. an exchange.

Niffle, nif′l, v.t. (prov.) to pilfer.—n. Niff′naff, a trifle.—adj. Niff′naffy, fastidious.

Niflheim, nifl′hīm, n. (Scand. myth.) a region of mist, ruled over by Hel.

Nifty, nif′ti, adj. (slang) stylish.

Nigella, nī-jel′a, n. a genus of ranunculaceous plants, with finely dissected leaves, and whitish, blue, or yellow flowers, often almost concealed by their leafy involucres—Nigella damascena, called Love-in-a-mist, Devil-in-a-bush, and Ragged Lady.

Niggard, nig′ard, n. a person who is unwilling to spend or give away: a miser.—adjs. Nigg′ard, Nigg′ardly, having the qualities of a niggard: miserly; Nigg′ardish, rather niggardly.—n. Nigg′ardliness, meanness in giving or spending—(Spens.) Nigg′ardise.—adv. Nigg′ardly. [Ice. hnggr, stingy; Ger. genau, close.]

Nigger, nig′ėr, n. a black man, a negro: a native of the East Indies or one of the Australian aborigines: a black caterpillar: a Cornish holothurian.—v.t. to exhaust soil by cropping it year by year without manure.—n. Nigg′erdom, niggers collectively.—adjs. Nigg′erish, Nigg′ery.—ns. Nigg′er-kill′er, a scorpion; Nigg′erling, a little nigger.

Niggle, nig′l, v.i. to trifle, busy one's self with petty matters: to cramp.—v.t. to fill with excessive detail: to befool.—n. small cramped handwriting.—ns. Nigg′ler, one who trifles; Nigg′ling, fussiness, finicking work.—adj. mean: fussy. [Freq. of nig, which may be a variant of nick.]

Nigh, nī, adj. near: not distant in place or time: not far off in degree, kindred, &c.: close.—adv. nearly: almost.—prep. near to: not distant from.—adv. Nigh′ly, nearly: within a little.—n. Nigh′ness, the state or quality of being nigh: nearness. [A.S. nah, nh; Dut. na, Ger. nahe.]

Night, nīt, n. the end of the day: the time from sunset to sunrise: darkness: ignorance, affliction, or sorrow: death.—ns. Night′-bell, a bell for use at night—of a physician, &c.; Night′-bird, a bird that flies only at night, esp. the owl: the nightingale, as singing at night; Night′-blind′ness, inability to see in a dim light, nyctalopia; Night′-brawl′er, one who raises disturbances in the night; Night′cap, a cap worn at night in bed (so Night′dress, -shirt, &c.): a dram taken before going to bed: a cap drawn over the face before hanging; Night′-cart, a cart used to remove the contents of privies before daylight; Night′-chair, a night-stool; Night′-churr, or -jar, the British species of goat-sucker, so called from the sound of its cry.— Night′-clothes, garments worn in bed.—ns. Night′-crow, a bird that cries in the night; Night′-dog (Shak.), a dog that hunts in the night.—adj. Night′ed, benighted: (Shak.) darkened, clouded.—ns. Night′fall, the fall or beginning of the night: the close of the day: evening; Night′faring, travelling by night; Night′fire, a fire burning in the night: a will-o'-the-wisp; Night′-fish′ery, a mode of fishing by night, or a place where this is done; Night′-fly, a moth that flies at night; Night′-foe, one who makes his attack by night; Night′-foss′icker, one who robs a digging by night.—adj. Night′-foun′dered, lost in the night.—ns. Night′-fowl, a night-bird; Night′-glass, a spy-glass with concentrating lenses for use at night; Night′-gown, a long loose robe for sleeping in, for men or women; a loose gown for wearing in the house; Night′-hag, a witch supposed to be abroad at night; Night′-hawk, a species of migratory goat-sucker, common in America; Night′-her′on, a heron of nocturnal habit; Night′-house, a tavern allowed to be open during the night; Night′-hunt′er, a degraded woman who prowls about the streets at night for her prey; Night′-lamp, or -light, a light left burning all night.—adj. Night′less, having no night.—n. Night′-line, a fishing-line set overnight.—adj. and adv. Night′long, lasting all night.—adj. Night′ly, done by night: done every night.—adv. by night: every night.—ns. Night′-man, a night-watchman or scavenger; Night′-owl, an owl of exclusively nocturnal habits: one who sits up very late; Night′-pal′sy, a numbness of the lower limbs, incidental to women; Night′piece, a picture or literary description of a night-scene: a painting to be seen best by artificial light; Night′-por′ter, a porter in attendance during the night at hotels, railway stations, &c.; Night′-rail, a night-gown: a 17th-century form of head-dress; Night′-rav′en (Shak.), a bird that cries at night, supposed to be of ill-omen; Night′-rest, the repose of the night; Night′-rule (Shak.), a frolic at night.—adv. Nights (obs.), by night.—ns. Night′-school, a school held at night, esp. for those at work during the day; Night′-sea′son, the time of night; Night′shade, a name of several plants of the genus Solanum, having narcotic properties, often found in damp shady woods; Night′-shriek, a cry in the night; Night′-side, the dark, mysterious, or gloomy side of anything; Night′-sing′er, any bird like the nightingale, esp. the Irish sedge-warbler; Night′-soil, the contents of privies, cesspools, &c., generally carried away at night; Night′-spell, a charm against accidents by night; Night′-steed, one of the horses in the chariot of Night; Night′-stool, a close-stool for use in a bedroom; Night′-tā′per, a night-light burning slowly.— Night′-terr′ors, the sudden starting from sleep of children in a state of fright.—p.adj. Night′-trip′ping (Shak.), tripping about in the night.—ns. Night′-wak′ing, watching in the night; Night′-walk, a walk in the night; Night′-walk′er, one who walks in his sleep at night, a somnambulist: one who walks about at night for bad purposes, esp. a prostitute; Night′-walk′ing, walking in one's sleep, somnambulism: roving about at night with evil designs; Night′-wan′derer, one who wanders by night.—adjs. Night′-war′bling, singing in the night; Night′ward, toward night.—ns. Night′-watch, a watch or guard at night: time of watch in the night; Night′-watch′man, one who acts as a watch during the night; Night′-work, work done at night. [A.S. niht; Ger. nacht, L. nox.]

Nightingale, nīt′in-gāl, n. a small sylviine bird, of the Passerine family, widely distributed in the Old World, celebrated for the rich love-song of the male heard chiefly at night. [A.S. nihtegaleniht, night, galan, to sing; Ger. nachtigall.]

Nightingale, nīt′in-gāl, n. a kind of flannel scarf with sleeves, worn by invalids when sitting up in bed. [From the famous Crimean hospital nurse, Florence Nightingale, born 1820.]

Nightmare, nīt′mār, n. a dreadful dream accompanied with pressure on the breast, and a feeling of powerlessness to move or speak—personified as an incubus or evil-spirit.—adj. Night′marish. [A.S. niht, night, mara, a nightmare; cf. Old High Ger. mara, incubus, Ice. mara, nightmare.]

Nigrescent, nī-gres′ent, adj. growing black or dark: approaching to blackness.—n. Nigresc′ence. [L., nigrescĕre, to grow black—niger, black.]

Nigrite, nig′rīt, n. an insulating composition consisting of the impure residuum obtained in the distillation of paraffin. [L. niger, black.]

Nigritian, ni-grish′an, adj. pertaining to Nigritia, Upper Guinea, Senegambia, and the Soudan region generally, the home of the true negroes.—n. a native of this region, a negro.

Nigritude, nig′ri-tūd, n. blackness. [L. nigritudoniger, black.]

Nigrosine, nig′rō-sin, n. a coal-tar colour prepared from the hydrochloride of violaniline. [L. niger, black.]

Nihil, nī′hil, n. nothing.—ns. Nī′hilism, belief in nothing, extreme scepticism: in Russia, a revolutionary socialistic movement aiming at the overturn of all the existing institutions of society in order to build it up anew on different principles; Nī′hilist, one who professes Nihilism.—adj. Nihilist′ic.—ns. Nihil′ity, nothingness; Nil, nothing. [L.]

Nike, nī′kē, n. the goddess of victory. [Gr.]

Nilgau. See Nyl-ghau.

Nill, nil, v.t. (Spens.) to refuse, to reject.—v.i. to be unwilling. [A.S. nillanne, not, willan, to will.]

Nilometer, nī-lom′e-tėr, n. a gauge for measuring the height of water in the river Nile: any river-gauge—also Nī′loscope.—adj. Nilot′ic.

Nim, nim, v.t. to steal, pilfer. [A.S. niman, to take.]

Nimble, nim′bl, adj. light and quick in motion: active: swift.—adjs. Nim′ble-fing′ered, skilful with the fingers, thievish; Nim′ble-foot′ed, swift of foot.—ns. Nim′bleness, Nim′bless (Spens.), quickness of motion either in body or mind.—adj. Nim′ble-wit′ted, quick-witted.—adv. Nim′bly. [M. E. nimel—A.S. niman, to catch; cf. Ger. nehmen.]

Nimbus, nim′bus, n. the raincloud: (paint.) the disc or halo, generally circular or semicircular, which encircles the head of the sacred person represented.—adj. Nimbif′erous, bringing clouds. [L.]

Nimiety, ni-mī′e-ti, n. (rare) state of being too much. [L. nimietasnimis, too much.]

Niminy-piminy, nim′i-ni-pim′i-ni, adj. affectedly fine or delicate.—n. affected delicacy. [Imit.]

Nimrod, nim′rod, n. the founder of Babel (see Gen. x. 8-10): any great hunter.

Nincompoop, nin′kom-poop, n. a simpleton. [Corr. of L. non compos (mentis), not of sound mind.]

Nine, nīn, adj. and n. eight and one.—n. Nine′-eyes, a popular name for the young lampreys found in rivers.—adj. Nine′fold, nine times folded or repeated.—ns. Nine′holes, a game in which a ball is to be bowled into nine holes in the ground or a board; Nine′pins, a game at bowls, a form of skittles, so called from nine pins being set up to be knocked down by a ball.—adj. Nine′-score, nine times twenty.—n. the number of nine times twenty.—adj. and n. Nine′teen, nine and ten.—adj. Nine′teenth, the ninth after the tenth: being one of nineteen equal parts.—n. a nineteenth part.—adj. Nine′tieth, the last of ninety: next after the eighty-ninth.—n. a ninetieth part.—adj. and n. Nine′ty, nine tens.—adj. Ninth, the last of nine: next after the eighth.—n. one of nine equal parts.—adv. Ninth′ly, in the ninth place.—Nine days' wonder (see Wonder); Nine men's morris (see Morris); Nine worthies, Hector, Alexander the Great, Julius Csar, Joshua, David, Judas Maccabus, Arthur, Charlemagne, Godfrey of Bouillon; The nine, the nine muses (see Muse); To the nines, to perfection, fully, elaborately. [A.S. nigon; Dut. negen, L. novem, Gr. ennea, Sans. navan.]

Ninny, nin′i, n. a simpleton.—Also Ninn′y-hamm′er. [It. ninno, child; Sp. nio, infant.]

Niobe, nī′o-bē, n. daughter of Tantalus, and wife of Amphion, king of Thebes. Proud of her many children, she gloried over Latona, who had but two, Artemis and Apollo. But these killed them all, on which the weeping mother was turned into stone by Zeus.—adj. Niobē′an.

Niobium, nī-ō′bi-um, n. a rare metal, steel-gray in colour, discovered in the mineral Tantalite—sometimes called Columbium.

Nip, nip, n. a sip, esp. of spirits—also Nip′per (U.S.).—v.i. to take a dram.—n. Nip′perkin, a small measure of liquor. [Dut. nippen, to sip.]

Nip, nip, v.t. to pinch: to press between two surfaces: to cut off the edge: to check the growth or vigour of: to destroy: to bite, sting, satirise:—pr.p. nip′ping; pa.t. and pa.p. nipped.—n. a pinch: a seizing or closing in upon: a cutting off the end: a blast: destruction by frost: (min.) a more or less gradual thinning out of a stratum: (naut.) a short turn in a rope, the part of a rope at the place bound by the seizing or caught by jambing.—ns. Nip′-cheese, a stingy fellow: (naut.) the purser's steward; Nip′per, he who, or that which, nips: one of various tools or implements like pincers: one of a pair of automatically locking handcuffs: a chela or great claw, as of a crab: the young bluefish: a boy who attends on navvies: (obs.) a thief: one of the four fore-teeth of a horse: (pl.) small pincers.—v.t. to seize (two ropes) together.—adv. Nip′pingly.—Nip in the bud, to cut off in the earliest stage. [From root of knife; Dut. knijpen, Ger. kneipen, to pinch.]

Nipperty-tipperty, nip′ėr-ti-tip′ėr-ti, adj. (Scot.) silly, frivolous.

Nipple, nip′l, n. the pap by which milk is drawn from the breasts of females: a teat: a small projection with an orifice, as the nipple of a gun.—v.t. to furnish with a nipple.—ns. Nipp′le-shield, a defence for the nipple worn by nursing women; Nipp′le-wort, a small, yellow-flowered plant of remedial use. [A dim. of neb or nib.]

Nippy, nip′i, adj. (Scot.) sharp in taste: curt: parsimonious.

Nipter, nip′tėr, n. the ecclesiastical ceremony of washing the feet—the same as maundy. [Gr. niptēr, a basin—niptein, to wash.]

Nirles, Nirls, nirlz, n. herpes.

Nirvana, nir-v′na, n. the cessation of individual existence—the state to which a Buddhist aspires as the best attainable. [Sans., 'a blowing out.']

Nis, nis (Spens.), is not. [A contr. of ne is.]

Nis, nis, n. a hobgoblin. [Same as Nix.]

Nisan, nī′san, n. the name given after the Captivity to the Jewish month Abib. [Heb.]

Nisi, nī′sī, conj. unless, placed after the words 'decree' or 'rule,' to indicate that the decree or rule will be made absolute unless, after a time, some condition referred to be fulfilled.—Nisi prius, the name usually given in England to the sittings of juries in civil cases—from the first two words of the old Latin writ summoning the juries to appear at Westminster unless, before the day appointed, the judges shall have come to the county.

Nisus, nī′sus, n. effort, attempt.—Nisus formativus (biol.), formative effort. [L.]

Nit, nit, n. the egg of a louse or other small insect.—adj. Nit′ty, full of nits. [A.S. hnitu; Ger. niss.]

Nithing, nī′thing, adj. wicked, mean.—n. a wicked man. [A.S. nthing; Ger. neiding.]

Nithsdale, niths′dāl, n. a hood which can be drawn over the face. [From the Jacobite Earl of Nithsdale who escaped from the Tower in women's clothes brought in by his wife, in 1716.]

Nitid, nit′id, adj. shining: gay.—n. Nī′tency, brightness. [L. nitidusnitēre, to shine.]

Nitre, nī′tėr, n. the nitrate of potash—also called Saltpetre.—n. Nī′trāte, a salt of nitric acid.—adjs. Nī′trāted, combined with nitric acid; Nī′tric, pertaining to, formed from, or containing or resembling nitre.—n. Nī′tric ac′id, an acid got by distilling a mixture of sulphuric acid and nitrate of sodium—it acts powerfully on metals, and is known by the name of Aqua-fortis.—adj. Nitrif′erous, nitre-bearing.—n. Nitrificā′tion.—v.t. Nī′trify, to convert into nitre.—v.i. to become nitre:—pr.p. nī′trifying; pa.t. and pa.p. nī′trified.ns. Nī′trite, a salt of nitrous acid; Nī′tro-ben′zol, a yellow oily fluid, obtained by treating benzol with warm fuming nitric acid—used in perfumery and known as Essence of mirbane; Nī′tro-glyc′erine, a powerfully explosive compound produced by the action of nitric and sulphuric acids on glycerine—sometimes used in minute doses as a medicine.—adjs. Nitrose′, Nī′trous, resembling, or containing, nitre.—n. Nī′trous ox′ide, a combination of oxygen and nitrogen, called also Laughing gas, which causes, when breathed, insensibility to pain.—adj. Nī′try, of or producing nitre.—Cubic nitre, nitrate of soda, so called because it crystallises in cubes. [Fr.,—L. nitrum—Gr. nitron, natron, potash, soda—Ar. nitrn, natrn.]

Nitrogen, nī′tro-jen, n. a gas forming nearly four-fifths of common air, a necessary constituent of every organised body, so called from its being an essential constituent of nitre.—adjs. Nitrogen′ic, Nitrog′enous.—v.t. Nitrog′enise, to impregnate with nitrogen.—n. Nitrom′eter, an apparatus for estimating nitrogen in some of its combinations. [Gr. nitron, and gennaein, to generate.]

Nitter, nit′ėr, n. a bot-fly, the horse-bot.

Nittings, nit′ingz, small particles of coal or refuse of any ore.

Nival, nī′val, adj. snowy, growing among snow.—adj. Niv′eous, snowy, white.—n. Nivse (nē-vōz′), the 4th month of the French revolutionary calendar, Dec. 21-Jan. 19. [L. niveusnix, nivis, snow.]

Nix, niks, n. (Teut. myth.) a water-spirit, mostly malignant.—Also Nix′ie, Nix′y. [Ger. nix; cf. Nicker.]

Nix, niks, n. nothing: (U.S.) in the postal service, anything unmailable because addressed to places which are not post-offices or to post-offices not existing in the States, &c., indicated in the address—usually in pl. [Ger. nichts, nothing.]

Nix, niks, interj. a roughs' street-cry of warning at the policeman, &c.

Nizam, ni-zam′, n. the title of the sovereign of Hyderabad in India, first used in 1713: sing. and pl. the Turkish regulars, or one of them. [Hind., contr. of Nizam-ul-Mulk=Regulator of the state.]

No, nō, adv. the word of refusal or denial: not at all: never: not so: not.—n. a denial: a vote against or in the negative:—pl. Noes (nōz).—adj. not any: not one: none.—advs. Nō′way, in no way, manner, or degree—also Nō′ways; Nō′wise, in no way, manner, or degree.—No account, worthless; No doubt, surely; No go (see Go); No joke, not a trifling matter. [A.S. n, compounded of ne, not, and ever; nay, the neg. of aye, is Scand.]

Noachian, nō-ā′ki-an, adj. pertaining to the patriarch Noah, or to his time—also Noach′ic.—Noah's ark, a child's toy in imitation of the ark of Noah and its inhabitants.

Nob, nob, n. the head: a knobstick.—One for his nob, a blow on the head in boxing: a point at cribbage by holding the knave of trumps. [Knob.]

Nob, nob, n. a superior sort of person.—adv. Nob′bily.—adj. Nob′by, smart, fashionable: good, capital. [A contr. of nobleman.]

Nobble, nob′l, v.t. (slang) to get hold of dishonestly, to steal: to baffle or circumvent dexterously: to injure, destroy the chances of, as a racer.—n. Nobb′ler, a finishing-stroke: a thimble-rigger's confederate: a dram of spirits.

Nobility, no-bil′i-ti, n. the quality of being noble: high rank: dignity: excellence: greatness of mind or character: antiquity of family: descent from noble ancestors: the persons holding the rank of nobles.—adj. Nobil′iary, pertaining to the nobility.—v.t. Nobil′itate, to ennoble.—n. Nobilitā′tion.

Noble, nō′bl, adj. illustrious: high in rank or character: of high birth: magnificent: generous: excellent.—n. a person of exalted rank: a peer: an obsolete gold coin=6s. 8d. sterling.—n. Nō′bleman, a man who is noble or of rank: a peer: one above a commoner.—adj. Nō′ble-mind′ed, having a noble mind.—ns. Nōble-mind′edness; Nō′bleness, the quality of being noble: excellence in quality: dignity: greatness by birth or character: ingenuousness: worth; Nobless′, Noblesse′ (Spens.), nobility: greatness: the nobility collectively; Nō′blewoman, the fem. of Nobleman.—adv. Nō′bly.—Noble art, boxing; Noble metals (see Metal).—Most noble, the style of a duke. [Fr.,—L. nobilis, obs. gnobilisnoscĕre (gnoscĕre), to know.]

Nobody, nō′bod-i, n. no body or person: no one: a person of no account, one not in fashionable society.

Nocake, nō′kāk, n. meal made of parched corn, once much used by North American Indians on the march. [Amer. Ind. nookik, meal.]

Nocent, nō′sent, adj. (obs.) hurtful: guilty.—n. one who is hurtful or guilty.—adv. Nō′cently. [L. nocēre, to hurt.]

Nock, nok, n. the forward upper end of a sail that sets with a boom: a notch, esp. that on the butt-end of an arrow for the string. [Cf. Notch.]

Noctambulation, nok-tam-bū-lā′shun, n. walking in sleep.—ns. Noctam′bulism, sleep-walking; Noctam′bulist, one who walks in his sleep. [L. nox, noctis, night, ambulāre, -ātum, to walk.]

Noctilio, nok-til′i-ō, n. a genus of American bats.

Noctiluca, nok-ti-lū′ka, n. a phosphorescent marine Infusorian, abundant around the British coasts, one of the chief causes of the phosphorescence of the waves.—adjs. Noctilū′cent, Noctilū′cid, Noctilū′cous, shining in the dark. [L. nox, noctis, night, lucēre, to shine.]

Noctivagant, nok-tiv′a-gant, adj. wandering in the night.—n. Noctivagā′tion.—adj. Noctiv′agous. [L. nox, noctis, night, vagāri, to wander.]

Noctograph, nok′to-graf, n. a writing-frame for the blind: an instrument for recording the presence of a night-watchman on his beat.—n. Nocturn′ograph, an instrument for recording work done in factories, &c., during the night. [L. nox, Gr. graphein, to write.]

Noctua, nok′tū-a, n. a generic name variously used—giving name to the Noctū′id, a large family of nocturnal lepidopterous insects, strong-bodied moths.—n. Noc′tuid.—adjs. Noctū′idous; Noc′tuiform; Noc′tuoid.

Noctuary, nok′tū-ā-ri, n. an account kept of the events or thoughts of night.

Noctule, nok′tūl, n. a vespertilionine bat. [Fr.,—L. nox, noctis, night.]

Nocturn, nok′turn, n. in the early church, a service of psalms and prayers at midnight or at daybreak: a portion of the psalter used at nocturns. [Fr. nocturne—L. nocturnusnox, noctis, night.]

Nocturnal, nok-tur′nal, adj. pertaining to night: happening by night: nightly.—n. an instrument for observations in the night.—adv. Noctur′nally.

Nocturne, nok′turn, n. a painting showing a scene by night: a piece of music of a dreamy character suitable to evening or night thoughts: a serenade: a reverie. [Fr.; cf. Nocturn.]

Nocuous, nok′ū-us, adj. hurtful.—adv. Noc′uously. [L. nocuusnocēre, to hurt.]

Nod, nod, v.i. to give a quick forward motion of the head: to bend the head in assent: to salute by a quick motion of the head: to let the head drop in weariness.—v.t. to incline: to signify by a nod:—pr.p. nod′ding; pa.t. and pa.p. nod′ded.n. a bending forward of the head quickly: a slight bow: a command.—ns. Nod′der; Nod′ding.—adj. inclining the head quickly: indicating by a nod: acknowledged by a nod merely, as a nodding acquaintance: (bot.) having the flower looking downwards.—Land of Nod, the state of sleep. [M. E. nodden, not in A.S.; but cf. Old High Ger. hnōton, to shake, prov. Ger. notteln, to wag.]

Noddle, nod′l, n. properly, the projecting part at the back of the head: the head.—v.i. to nod repeatedly. [A variant of knot; cf. Old Dut. knodde, a knob, Ger. knoten, a knot.]

Noddy, nod′i, n. one whose head nods from weakness: a stupid fellow: a sea-fowl—easily taken: a four-wheeled carriage with a door at the back: an upright flat spring with a weight on the top, forming an inverted pendulum, indicating the vibration of any body to which it is attached. [Nod.]

Node, nōd, n. a knot: a knob: a knot or entanglement: (astron.) one of the two points in which the orbit of a planet intersects the plane of the ecliptic: (bot.) the joint of a stem: the plot of a piece in poetry: (math.) a point at which a curve cuts itself, and through which more than one tangent to the curve can be drawn: a similar point on a surface, where there is more than one tangent-plane.—adjs. Nod′al, pertaining to nodes; Nodāt′ed, knotted.—ns. Nodā′tion, the act of making knots: the state of being knotted; Node′-coup′le, a pair of points on a surface at which one plane is tangent; Node′-cusp, a peculiar kind of curve formed by the union of a node, a cusp, an inflection, and a bitangent.—adjs. Nod′ical, pertaining to the nodes: from a node round to the same node again; Nodif′erous (bot.), bearing nodes; Nō′diform; Nod′ose, full of knots: having knots or swelling joints: knotty.—n. Nodos′ity.—adjs. Nod′ular, of or like a nodule; Nod′ulāted, having nodules.—ns. Nod′ule, Nod′ulus, a little knot: a small lump.—adjs. Nod′uled, having nodules or little knots or lumps; Nodulif′erous; Nod′uliform; Nod′ulose, Nod′ulous (bot.), having nodules or small knots: knotty.—ns. Nod′ulus:—pl. Nod′ulī; Nō′dus:—pl. Nō′dī. [L. nodus (for gnodus), allied to Knot.]

Nol, nō′el, n. Christmas.—Same as Nowel (q.v.).

Noematic, -al, nō-ē-mat′ik, -al, adj. intellectual—also Noet′ic, -al.—adv. Noemat′ically.— Noem′ics, intellectual science. [Gr. noēmanoein, to perceive.]

Noetian, nō-ē′shi-an, adj. pertaining to No′tus or No′tianism, a form of Patripassianism taught by Notus of Smyrna about 200 A.D.

Nog, nog, n. a mug, small pot: a kind of strong ale.

Nog, nog, n. a tree nail driven through the heels of the shores, to secure them: one of the pins in the lever of a clutch-coupling: a piece of wood in an inner wall: a cog in mining.

Noggin, nog′in, n. a small mug or wooden cup, or its contents, a dram suitable for one person. [Ir. noigin, Gael. noigean.]

Nogging, nog′ging, n. a partition of wooden posts with the spaces between filled up with bricks: brick-building filling up the spaces between the wooden posts of a partition.

Nohow, nō′how, adv. not in any way, not at all: (coll.) out of one's ordinary way, out of sorts.

Noiance, noi′ans, n. (Shak.). Same as Annoyance.

Noils, noilz, short pieces of wool separated from the longer fibres by combing.

Noint, noint, v.t. (Shak.). Same as Anoint.

Noise, noiz, n. sound of any kind: any over-loud or excessive sound, din: frequent or public talk: (Shak.) report: a musical band.—v.t. to spread by rumour.—v.i. to sound loud.—adjs. Noise′ful, noisy; Noise′less, without noise: silent.—adv. Noise′lessly.—n. Noise′lessness.—Make a noise in the world, to attract great notoriety. [Fr. noise, quarrel; prob. from L. nausea, disgust; but possibly from L. noxa, hurt—nocēre, to hurt.]

Noisette, nwo-zet′, n. a variety of rose. [Fr.]

Noisome, noi′sum, adj. injurious to health: disgusting to sight or smell.—adv. Noi′somely.—n. Noi′someness. [M. E. noy, annoyance. Cf. Annoy.]

Noisy, noiz′i, adj. making a loud noise or sound: attended with noise: clamorous: turbulent.—adv. Nois′ily.—n. Nois′iness.

Nokes, nōks, n. a simpleton.

Nolens volens, nōlens vol′ens, unwilling (or) willing: willy-nilly.—n. Noli-me-tangere (nō′lī-mē-tan′je-rē), the wild cucumber: lupus of the nose: a picture showing Jesus appearing to Mary Magdalene, as in John xx.—Nolle prosequi (nol′e pros′e-kwī), a term used in English law to indicate that the plaintiff does not intend to go on with his action. [L. nolle, to be unwilling, velle, to be willing, tangĕre, to touch, prosequi, to prosecute.]

Noll, nol, n. the head.

Nom, nong, n. name.—Nom de plume, 'pen-name:' the signature assumed by an author instead of his own name—not a Fr. phrase, but one of Eng. manufacture from Fr. nom, a name, de, of, plume, a pen.

Nomad, Nomade, nom′ad, n. one of a tribe that wanders about in quest of game, or of pasture for their flocks.—adj. Nomad′ic, of or for the feeding of cattle: pastoral: pertaining to the life of nomads: wandering: unsettled: rude.—adv. Nomad′ically.—v.i. Nom′adise, to lead a nomadic or vagabond life.—n. Nom′adism, the state of being nomadic: habits of nomads. [Gr. nomas, nomadosnomos, pasture—nemein, to drive to pasture.]

Nomancy, nō′man-si, n. divination from the letters in a name.

No-man's-land, nō′-manz-land, n. a region to which no one possesses a recognised claim.

Nomarch, nom′rk, n. the ruler of a Nome, or division of a province, as in modern Greece.—n. Nom′archy, the district governed by a nomarch. [Gr. nomos, district, archē, rule.]

Nombril, nom′bril, n. (her.) the navel-point.

Nome, nōm, n. See Nomarch.

Nomen, nō′men, n. a name, esp. of the gens or clan, as Caius Julius Csar. [L.]

Nomenclator, nō′men-klā-tor, n. one who gives names to things:—fem. Nō′menclatress.—adjs. Nomenclatō′rial, Nō′menclātory, Nō′menclātūral.—n. Nō′menclāture, a system of naming: a list of names: a calling by name: the peculiar terms of a science. [L.,—nomen, a name, calāre, to call.]

Nomial, nō′mi-al, n. (alg.) a single name or term.

Nomic, nom′ik, adj. customary, applied to the common mode of spelling—opp. to Glossic and Phonetic. [Gr. nomos, custom.]

Nominal, nom′in-al, adj. pertaining to a name: existing only in name: having a name.—ns. Nom′inalism, the doctrine that general terms have no corresponding reality either in or out of the mind, being mere words; Nom′inalist, one of a sect of philosophers who held the doctrine of nominalism.—adj. Nominalist′ic, pertaining to nominalism.—adv. Nom′inally. [L. nominalisnomen, -ĭnis, a name.]

Nominate, nom′in-āt, v.t. to name: to mention by name: to appoint: to propose by name, as for an office or for an appointment.—adv. Nom′inātely, by name.—ns. Nom′inātion, the act or power of nominating: state of being nominated; Nom′inātion-game, in billiards, a game in which the player has to name beforehand what stroke he is leading.—adjs. Nominātī′val; Nom′inātive, naming: (gram.) applied to the case of the subject.—n. the naming case, the case in which the subject is expressed.—adv. Nom′inātively.—n. Nom′inātor, one who nominates.—Nominative absolute, a grammatical construction in which we have a subject (noun or pronoun) combined with a participle, but not connected with a finite verb or governed by any other words, as 'All being well, I will come.' [L. nomināre, -ātum, to name—nomen.]

Nominee, nom-in-ē′, n. one who is nominated by another: one on whose life an annuity or lease depends: one to whom the holder of a copyhold estate surrenders his interest.

Nomistic, nō-mis′tik, adj. pertaining to laws founded on a sacred book. [Gr. nomos, a law.]

Nomocracy, nō-mok′ra-si, n. a government according to a code of laws. [Gr. nomos, law, kratiakratein, to rule.]

Nomogeny, nō-moj′e-ni, n. the origination of life according to natural law, not miracle—opp. to Thaumatogeny. [Gr. nomos, law, geneiagenēs, producing.]

Nomography, nō-mog′ra-fi, n. the art of drawing up laws in proper form.—n. Nomog′rapher, one versed in this art. [Gr. nomos, law, graphein, to write.]

Nomology, no-mol′ō-ji, n. the science of the laws of the mind.—adj. Nomolog′ical.—n. Nomol′ogist. [Gr. nomos, law, logia, discourse—legein, to speak.]

Nomos, nom′os, n. in modern Greece, a nome.

Nomothetic, nom-ō-thet′ik, adj. legislative: founded on a system of laws, or by a lawgiver. [Gr. nomothetēs, a lawgiver, one of a body of heliasts or jurors in ancient Athens, charged with the decision as to any proposed change in legislation.]

Non, non, adv. not, a Latin word used as a prefix, as in ns. Non-abil′ity, want of ability; Non-accept′ance, want of acceptance: refusal to accept; Non-ac′cess (law), absence of opportunity for marital commerce; Non-acquaint′ance, want of acquaintance; Non-acquiesc′ence, refusal of acquiescence; Non-admiss′ion, refusal of admission: failure to be admitted; Non-alienā′tion, state of not being alienated: failure to alienate; Non-appear′ance, failure or neglect to appear, esp. in a court of law; Non-arrī′val, failure to arrive; Non-attend′ance, a failure to attend: absence; Non-atten′tion, inattention; Non′-claim, a failure to make claim within the time limited by law; Non-com′batant, any one connected with an army who is there for some other purpose than that of fighting, as a surgeon, &c.: a civilian in time of war.—adjs. Non-commiss′ioned, not having a commission, as an officer in the army below the rank of commissioned officer—abbrev. Non-com′.; Non-commit′tal, unwilling to commit one's self to any particular opinion or course of conduct, free from any declared preference or pledge.—ns. Non-commū′nicant, one who abstains from joining in holy communion, or who has not yet communicated; Non-commūn′ion; Non-complī′ance, neglect or failure of compliance.—adj. Non-comply′ing.—n. Non-concur′rence, refusal to concur.—adj. Non-conduct′ing, not conducting or transmitting: not allowing a fluid or a force to pass along, as glass does not conduct electricity.—n. Non-conduct′or, a substance which does not conduct or transmit certain properties or conditions, as heat or electricity.—adj. Nonconform′ing, not conforming, esp. to an established church.—n. and adj. Nonconform′ist, one who does not conform: esp. one who refused to conform or subscribe to the Act of Uniformity in 1662—abbrev. Non-con′.—n. Nonconform′ity, want of conformity, esp. to the established church.—adj. Non-contā′gious, not infectious.—ns. Non′-content, one not content: in House of Lords, one giving a negative vote; Non-deliv′ery, failure or neglect to deliver.—adj. Non-effect′ive, not efficient or serviceable: unfitted for service.—n. a member of a force who is not able, for some reason, to take part in active service.—adj. Non-effic′ient, not up to the mark required for service.—n. a soldier who has not yet undergone the full number of drills.—n. Non-ē′go, in metaphysics, the not-I, the object as opposed to the subject, whatever is not the conscious self.—adjs. Non-egois′tical; Non-elas′tic, not elastic; Non-ēlect′, not elect.—n. one not predestined to salvation.—n. Non-ēlec′tion, state of not being elected.—adjs. Non-elec′tric, -al, not conducting the electric fluid; Non-emphat′ic; Non-empir′ical, not empirical, not presented in experience; Non-epis′copal.—n. Non-episcopā′lian.—adj. Non-essen′tial, not essential: not absolutely required.—n. something that may be done without.—n. Non-exist′ence, negation of existence: a thing that has no existence.—adj. Non-exist′ent.—n. Non-exportā′tion.—adj. Non-for′feiting, of a life insurance policy not forfeited by reason of non-payment.—ns. Non-fulfil′ment; Non-importā′tion.—adj. Non-import′ing.—ns. Non-interven′tion, a policy of systematic non-interference by one country with the affairs of other nations; Non-intru′sion, in Scottish Church history, the principle that a patron should not force an unacceptable clergyman on an unwilling congregation; Non-intru′sionist.—adj. Non-iss′uable, not capable of being issued: not admitting of issue being taken on it.—n. Non-join′der (law), the omitting to join all the parties to the action or suit.—adj. Nonjur′ing, not swearing allegiance.—n. Nonjur′or, one of the clergy in England and Scotland who would not swear allegiance to William and Mary in 1689, holding themselves still bound by the oath they had taken to the deposed king, James II.—adjs. Non-lū′minous; Non-manufact′uring; Non-marr′ying, not readily disposed to marry; Non-metal′lic, not consisting of metal: not like the metals; Non-mor′al, involving no moral considerations; Non-nat′ural, not natural: forced or strained.—n. in ancient medicine, anything not considered of the essence of man, but necessary to his well-being, as air, food, sleep, rest, &c.—ns. Non-obē′dience; Non-observ′ance, neglect or failure to observe; Non-pay′ment, neglect or failure to pay; Non-perform′ance, neglect or failure to perform.—adjs. Non-placent′al; Non-pon′derous.—n. Non-produc′tion.—adj. Non-profess′ional, not done by a professional man, amateur: not proper to be done by a professional man, as unbecoming conduct in a physician, &c.—ns. Non-profic′ient, one who has made no progress in the art or study in which he is engaged; Non-regard′ance, want of due regard; Non-res′idence, failure to reside, or the fact of not residing at a certain place, where one's official or social duties require one to reside.—adj. Non-res′ident, not residing within the range of one's responsibilities.—n. one who does not do so, as a landlord, clergyman, &c.—n. Non-resist′ance, the principle of not offering opposition: passive or ready obedience.—adjs. Non-resist′ant, Non-resist′ing; Non-sex′ual, sexless, asexual; Non-socī′ety, not belonging to a society, esp. of a workman not attached to a trades-union, or of a place in which such men are employed.—n. Non-solū′tion.—adjs. Non-sol′vent; Non-submis′sive.—n. Non′suit, a legal term in England, which means that where a plaintiff in a jury trial finds he will lose his case, owing to some defect or accident, he is allowed to be nonsuited, instead of allowing a verdict and judgment to go for the defendant.—v.t. to record that a plaintiff drops his suit.—n. Non′-term, a vacation between two terms of a law-court.—adj. Non-un′ion (see Non-society).—ns. Non-ū′sager (see Usage); Non-ū′ser (law), neglect of official duty: omission to take advantage of an easement, &c.—adj. Non-vī′able, not viable, of a fœtus too young for independent life.

Nonage, non′āj, n. legal infancy, minority: time of immaturity generally.—adj. Non′aged. [L. non, not, and age.]

Nonagenarian, non-a-je-nā′ri-an, n. one who is ninety years old.—adj. relating to ninety.—adj. Nonages′imal, belonging to the number ninety.—n. that point of the ecliptic 90 degrees from its intersection by the horizon. [L. nonagenarius, containing ninety—nonaginta, ninety.]

Nonagon, non′a-gon, n. (math.) a plane figure having nine sides and nine angles. [L. novem, nine, nonus, ninth, gōnia, angle.]

Nonce, nons, n. (only in phrase 'for the nonce') the present time, occasion.—Nonce-word, a word specially coined, like Carlyle's gigmanity. [The substantive has arisen by mistake from 'for the nones,' originally for then ones, meaning simply 'for the once.']

Nonchalance, non′shal-ans, n. unconcern: coolness: indifference.—adj. Nonchalant (non′sha-lant).adv. Non′chalantly. [Fr., non, not, chaloir, to care for—L. calēre, to be warm.]

Nondescript, non′de-skript, adj. novel: odd.—n. anything not yet described or classed: a person or thing not easily described or classed. [L. non, not, descriptus, describĕre, to describe.]

None, nun, adj. and pron. not one: not any: not the smallest part.—adv. in no respect: to no extent or degree.—n. None′-so-prett′y, or London Pride, Saxifraga umbrosa, a common English garden-plant.—adj. None′-spar′ing (Shak.), all-destroying. [M. E. noon, non—A.S. nnne, not, n, one.]

Nonentity, non-en′ti-ti, n. want of entity or being: a thing not existing: a person of no importance.

Nones, nōnz, in the Roman calendar, the ninth day before the Ides (both days included)—the 5th of Jan., Feb., April, June, Aug., Sept., Nov., Dec., and the 7th of the other months: the Divine office for the ninth hour, or three o'clock. [L. nonnonus for novenus, ninth—novem, nine.]

Non est, non est, adj. for absent, being a familiar shortening of the legal phrase non est inventus=he has not been found (coll).

Nonesuch, nun′such, n. a thing like which there is none such: an extraordinary thing.

Nonet, nō-net′, n. (mus.) a composition for nine voices or instruments.

Non-feasance, non-fē′zans, n. omission of something which ought to be done, distinguished from Misfeasance, which means the wrongful use of power or authority. [Pfx. non, not, O. Fr. faisance, doing—faire—L. facĕre, to do.]

Nonillion, nō-nil′yun, n. the number produced by raising a million to the ninth power.

Nonino. See Nonny.

Nonny, non′i, n. a meaningless refrain in Old English ballads, &c., usually 'hey, nonny'—often repeated nonny-nonny, nonino, as a cover for obscenity.

Nonpareil, non-pa-rel′, n. a person or thing without equal or unique: a fine apple: a printing-type forming about twelve lines to the inch, between emerald (larger) and ruby (smaller).—adj. without an equal: matchless. [Fr.,—non, not, pareil, equal—Low L. pariculus, dim. of par, equal.]

Nonplus, non′plus, n. a state in which no more can be done or said: great difficulty.—v.t. to perplex completely, to puzzle:—pr.p. non′plussing; pa.t. and pa.p. non′plussed. [L. non, not, plus, more.]

Non possumus, non pos′ū-mus, we are not able: we cannot, a plea of inability. [L., 1st pl. pres. ind. of posse, to be able.]

Nonsense, non′sens, n. that which has no sense: language without meaning: absurdity: trifles.—adj. Nonsens′ical, without sense: absurd.—ns. Nonsensical′ity, Nonsens′icalness.—adv. Nonsens′ically.—Nonsense name, an arbitrarily coined name, for mnemonic purposes, &c.; Nonsense verses, verses perfect in form but without any connected sense, being merely exercises in metre, &c.: verses intentionally absurd, like that of the Jabberwock in Through the Looking-glass.

Non sequitur, non sek′wi-tur, it does not follow: a wrong conclusion: one that does not follow from the premises. [L. non, not, and 3d sing. pres. ind. of sequi, to follow.]

Noodle, nōōd′l, n. a simpleton: a blockhead.—n. Nood′ledom. [Noddy.]

Noodle, nōōd′l, n. dried dough of wheat-flour and eggs, used in soup or as a baked dish.

Nook, nōōk, n. a corner: a narrow place formed by an angle: a recess: a secluded retreat.—adjs. Nook′-shot′ten, full of nooks and corners; Nook′y. [Gael. and Ir. niuc; Scot. neuk.]

Noology, no-ol′o-ji, n. the science of the phenomena of the mind, or of the facts of intellect. [Gr. noos, the mind, logia, discourse.]

Noon, nōōn, n. the ninth hour of the day in Roman and ecclesiastical reckoning, three o'clock P.M.: afterwards (when the church service for the ninth hour, called Nones, was shifted to midday) midday: twelve o'clock: middle: height.—adj. belonging to midday: meridional.—v.i. to rest at noon.—n. Noon′day, midday: the time of greatest prosperity.—adj. pertaining to midday: meridional.—ns. Noon′ing, a rest about noon: a repast at noon; Noon′tide, the tide or time of noon: midday.—adj. pertaining to noon: meridional. [A.S. nn-td (noontide)—L. nona (hora), the ninth (hour).]

Noose, nōōs, or nōōz, n. a running knot which ties the firmer the closer it is drawn: a snare or knot generally.—v.t. to tie or catch in a noose. [Prob. O. Fr. nous, pl. of nou (Fr. nœud)—L. nodus, knot.]

Nor, nor, conj. and not, a particle introducing the second part of a negative proposition—correlative to neither. [Contr. of nother=neither.]

Noria, nō′ri-a, n. a water-raising apparatus in Spain, Syria, and elsewhere, by means of a large paddle-wheel having fixed to its rim a series of buckets, a flush-wheel. [Sp.,—Ar.]

Norimon, nor′i-mon, n. a kind of sedan-chair used in Japan. [Jap. nori, ride, mono, thing.]

Norland, nor′land, n. the same as Northland.

Norm, norm, n. a rule: a pattern: an authoritative standard: a type or typical unit.—n. Nor′ma, a rule, model: a square for measuring right angles.—adj. Nor′mal, according to rule: regular: exact: perpendicular.—n. a perpendicular.—ns. Normalisā′tion, Normal′ity.—v.t. Nor′malise.—adv. Nor′mally.—adj. Nor′mative, establishing a standard.—Normal school, a training-college for teachers in the practice of their profession. [L. norma, a rule.]

Norman, nor′man, n. a native or inhabitant of Normandy: one of that Scandinavian race which settled in northern France about the beginning of the 10th century, founded the Duchy of Normandy, and conquered England in 1066—the Norman Conquest.—adj. pertaining to the Normans or to Normandy.—v.t. Nor′manise, to give a Norman character to.—Norman architecture, a round-arched style, a variety of Romanesque, prevalent in England from the Norman Conquest (1066) till the end of the 12th century, of massive simplicity, the churches cruciform with semicircular apse and a great tower rising from the intersection of nave and transept, deeply recessed doorways, windows small, round-headed, high in wall; Norman French, a form of French spoken by the Normans, which came into England at the Norman Conquest, modified the spelling, accent, and pronunciation of Anglo-Saxon, and enriched it with a large infusion of new words relating to the arts of life, &c. [Northmen.]

Norman, nor′man, n. (naut.) a bar inserted in a windlass, on which to fasten or veer a rope or cable.

Norn, norn, n. (Scand. myth.) one of the three fates—Urd, Verdande, and Skuld.—Also Norn′a.

Norroy, nor′roi, n. (her.) the third of the three English kings-at-arms, or provincial heralds, whose jurisdiction lies north of the Trent. [Fr. nord, north, roy, roi, king.]

Norse, nors, adj. pertaining to ancient Scandinavia.—n. the language of ancient Scandinavia—also Old Norse.—n. Norse′man, a Scandinavian or Northman. [Ice. Norskr; Norw. Norsk.]

North, north, n. the point opposite the sun at noon: one of the four cardinal points of the horizon: the side of a church to the left of one facing the principal altar: that portion of the United States north of the former slave-holding states—i.e. north of Maryland, the Ohio, and Missouri.—adv. to or in the north.—ns. North′-cock, the snow bunting; North′-east, the point between the north and east, equidistant from each.—adj. belonging to or from the north-east.—n. North′-east′er, a wind from the north-east.—adjs. North′-east′erly, toward or coming from the north-east; North′-east′ern, belonging to the north-east: being in the north-east, or in that direction.—adv. North′-east′ward, toward the north-east.—ns. North′er (th), a wind or gale from the north, esp. applied to a cold wind that blows in winter over Texas and the Gulf of Mexico; North′erliness (th), state of being toward the north.—adj. North′erly (th), being toward the north: coming from the north.—adv. toward or from the north.—adj. North′ern (th), pertaining to the north: being in the north or in the direction toward it: proceeding from the north.—n. an inhabitant of the north.—n. North′erner (th), a native of, or resident in, the north, esp. of the northern United States.—adjs. North′ernmost (th), North′most, situate at the point farthest north.—ns. North′ing, motion, distance, or tendency northward: distance of a heavenly body from the equator northward: difference of latitude made by a ship in sailing northward: deviation towards the north; North′man, one of the ancient Scandinavians; North′-pole, the point in the heavens, or beneath it on the earth's surface, ninety degrees north of the equator; North′-star, the north polar star; Northum′brian, a native of the modern Northumberland, or of the ancient kingdom of Northumbria, stretching from the Humber to the Forth: that variety of English spoken in Northumbria before the Conquest—also adj.adjs. North′ward, North′wardly, being toward the north.—adv. toward the north—also North′wards.—n. North′-west, the point between the north and west, equidistant from each.—adj. pertaining to or from the north-west.—adjs. North′-west′erly, toward or coming from the north-west; North′-west′ern, belonging to the north-west: pertaining to, or being in, the north-west or in that direction.—North water, the space of open sea left by the winter pack of ice moving southward.—North-east Passage, a passage for ships along the north coasts of Europe and Asia to the Pacific, first made by Nordenskild in 1878-79; Northern lights, the aurora borealis (q.v.); North-west Passage, a sea-way for ships from the Atlantic into the Pacific along the northern coast of America, first made by Sir Robert M‘Clure, 1850-54. [A.S. north; cf. Ger. nord.]

Norwegian, nor-wē′ji-an, adj. pertaining to Norway—(Shak.) Norwē′yan.—n. a native of Norway: a kind of fishing-boat on the Great Lakes.

Nose, nōz, n. the organ of smell: the power of smelling: sagacity: the projecting part of anything resembling a nose, as the spout of a kettle, &c.: a drip, a downward projection from a cornice: (slang) an informer.—v.t. to smell: to oppose rudely face to face: to sound through the nose.—ns. Nose′bag, a bag for a horse's nose, containing oats, &c.; Nose′-band, the part of the bridle coming over the nose, attached to the cheek-straps.—adjs. Nosed, having a nose—used in composition, as bottle-nosed, long-nosed, &c.; Nose′-led, led by the nose, ruled and befooled completely; Nose′less, without a nose.—ns. Nose′-leaf, a membranous appendage on the snouts of phyllostomine and rhinolophine bats, forming a highly sensitive tactile organ; Nose′-of-wax, an over-pliable person or thing; Nose′-piece, the outer end or point of a pipe, bellows, &c.: the extremity of the tube of a microscope to which the objective is attached: a nose-band: the nasal in armour; Nose′-ring, an ornament worn in the septum of the nose or in either of its wings; Nos′ing, the projecting rounded edge of the step of a stair or of a moulding.—Aquiline nose, a prominent nose, convex in profile; Bottle nose, a name given to certain species of cetaceans: an eruption on the nose such as is produced by intemperate drinking; Pug nose, a short turned-up nose; Roman nose, an aquiline nose.—Hold, Keep, or Put one's nose to the grindstone (see Grindstone); Lead by the nose, to cause to follow blindly; Put one's nose out of joint, to bring down one's pride or sense of importance: to push out of favour; Thrust one's nose into, to meddle officiously with anything; Turn up one's nose (at), to express contempt for a person or thing. [A.S. nosu; Ger. nase, L. nasus.]

Nosegay, nōz′gā, n. a bunch of fragrant flowers: a posy or bouquet. [From nose and gay (adj.).]

Nosocomial, nos-ō-kō′mi-al, adj. relating to a hospital. [Gr. nosos, sickness, komein, to take care of.]

Nosography, nō-sog′ra-fi, n. the description of diseases.—adj. Nosograph′ic. [Gr. nosos, disease, graphein, to write.]

Nosology, nos-ol′o-ji, n. the science of diseases: the branch of medicine which treats of the classification of diseases.—adj. Nosolog′ical.—n. Nosol′ogist. [Gr. nosos, disease, logia, discourse.]

Nosonomy, nō-son′o-mi, n. the classification of diseases. [Gr. nosos, a disease, onoma, a name.]

Nosophobia, nos-o-fō′bi-a, n. morbid dread of disease. [Gr. nosos, a disease, phobia, fear.]

Nostalgia, nos-tal′ji-a, n. home-sickness, esp. when morbid.—adj. Nostal′gic. [Gr. nostos, a return, algos, pain.]

Nostoc, nos′tok, n. a genus of Alg, found in moist places.—Also Witches' butter, Spittle of the stars, Star-jelly, &c. [Ger. nostoch.]

Nostology, nos-tol′o-ji, n. the science of the phenomena of extreme old age or senility in which there is ever seen a return to the characteristics of the youthful stage.—adj. Nostolog′ic. [Gr. nostos, return, logialegein, to speak.]

Nostradamus, nos-tra-dā′mus, n. any quack doctor or charlatan—from the French astrologer (1503-66).

Nostril, nos′tril, n. one of the openings of the nose. [M. E. nosethirl—A.S. nosthyrlnosu, nose, thyrel, opening. Cf. Drill, to pierce, and Thrill.]

Nostrum, nos′trum, n. any secret, quack, or patent medicine: any favourite remedy or scheme. [L., 'our own,' from nos, we.]

Not, not, adv. a word expressing denial, negation, or refusal.—Not in it (coll.), having no part in some confidence or advantage. [Same as Naught, from A.S. n, wiht, a whit.]

Notable, nō′ta-bl, adj. worthy of being known or noted: remarkable: memorable: distinguished: notorious: capable, clever, industrious.—n. a person or thing worthy of note, esp. in pl. for persons of distinction and political importance in France in pre-Revolution times.— Notabil′ia, things worthy of notice: noteworthy sayings.—ns. Notabil′ity, the being notable: a notable person or thing; Nō′tableness.—adv. Nō′tably.

Notum, nō-tē′um, n. the upper surface of a bird's trunk—opp. to Gastrum: a dorsal buckler in some gasteropods. [Gr. nōtos, the back.]

Notalgia, nō-tal′ji-a, n. pain in the back.—adj. Notal′gic. [Gr. nōtos, the back, algos, pain.]

Notanda, nō-tan′da, something to be specially noted or observed:—sing. Notan′dum. [L. pl. ger. of notāre, to note.]

Notary, nō′ta-ri, n. an officer authorised to certify deeds, contracts, copies of documents, affidavits, &c.—generally called a Notary public—anciently one who took notes or memoranda of others' acts.—adj. Notā′rial.—adv. Notā′rially.—Apostolical notary, the official who despatches the orders of the Pope; Ecclesiastical notary, in the early church, a secretary who recorded the proceedings of councils, &c. [L. notarius.]

Notation, nō-tā′shun, n. the act or practice of recording by marks or symbols: a system of signs or symbols.—adj. Nō′tate (bot.), marked with coloured spots or lines.—Chemical notation (see Chemistry). [L.,—notāre, -ātum, to mark.]

Notch, noch, n. a nick cut in anything: an indentation, incision, incisure: a narrow pass in a rock, or between two mountains.—v.t. to cut a hollow into.—n. Notch′-board, the board which receives the ends of the steps of a staircase—also Bridge-board.—adjs. Notch′-eared, having emarginate ears, as the notch-eared bat; Notched, nicked.—n. Notch′ing, a method of joining framing-timbers, by halving, scarfing, or caulking. [From a Teut. root, as in Old Dut. nock. Cf. Nick, a notch.]

Notchel, Nochel, noch′el, v.t. (prov.) to repudiate.

Note, nōt, n. that by which a person or thing is known: a mark or sign calling attention: a brief explanation: a short remark: a brief report, a catalogue, a bill: a memorandum: a short letter: a diplomatic paper: a small size of paper used for writing: (mus.) a mark representing a sound, also the sound itself, air, tune, tone, also a digital or key of the keyboard: a paper acknowledging a debt and promising payment, as a bank-note, a note of hand: notice, heed, observation: reputation: fame.—v.t. to make a note of: to notice: to attend to: to record in writing: to furnish with notes.—n. Note′-book, a book in which notes or memoranda are written: a bill-book.—adj. Not′ed, marked: well known: celebrated: eminent: notorious.—adv. Not′edly.—n. Not′edness.—adj. Note′less, not attracting notice.—ns. Note′-pā′per, folded writing-paper for letters (commercial, 5 8 in.; octavo, 4 7; billet, 4 6; queen, 3 5⅜; packet, 5 9; Bath, 7 8); Not′er, one who notes or observes: one who makes notes, an annotator; Note′-shav′er (U.S.), a money-lender.—adj. Note′worthy, worthy of note or of notice.—Note a bill, to record on the back of it a refusal of acceptance, as a ground of protest. [Fr.,—L. nota, noscĕre, notum, to know.]

Note, nōt (Spens.), wot or knew not (a contr. of ne wot): could not (a contr. of ne mote).

Nothing, nuth′ing, n. no thing: non-existence: absence of being: a low condition: no value or use: not anything of importance, a trifle: utter insignificance, no difficulty or trouble: no magnitude: a cipher.—adv. in no degree: not at all.—adj. and n. Nothingā′rian, believing nothing.—ns. Nothingā′rianism; Noth′ing-gift (Shak.), a gift of no value; Noth′ingism, nihility; Noth′ingness, state of being nothing or of no value: a thing of no value.—Nothing but, no more than: only; Nothing less than, equal to: as much as.—Come to nothing, to have no result: to turn out a failure; Make nothing of, to consider as of no difficulty or importance; Neck or nothing (see Neck); Next to nothing, almost nothing. [No and thing.]

Notice, nōt′is, n. act of noting or observing: attention: observation: information: warning: a writing containing information: public intimation: civility or respectful treatment: remark.—v.t. to mark or see: to regard or attend to: to mention: to make observations upon: to treat with civility.—adj. Not′iceable, that can be noticed: worthy of notice: likely to be noticed.—adv. Not′iceably.—n. Not′ice-board, a board on which a notice is fixed.—Give notice, to warn beforehand: to inform. [Fr.,—L. notitianoscĕre, notum, to know.]

Notify, nō′ti-fī, v.t. to make known: to declare: to give notice or information of:—pa.t. and pa.p. nō′tified.adj. Nō′tifiable, that must be made known.—n. Notificā′tion, the act of notifying: the notice given: the paper containing the notice. [Fr.,—L. notificāre, -ātumnotus, known, facĕre, to make.]

Notion, nō′shun, n. the art of forming a conception in the mind of the various marks or qualities of an object: the result of this act, a conception: opinion: belief: judgment: a caprice or whim: any small article ingeniously devised or invented, usually in pl.adj. Nō′tional, of the nature of a notion: ideal: fanciful.—adv. Nō′tionally, in notion or mental apprehension: in idea, not in reality.—n. Nō′tionist, one who holds ungrounded opinions. [Fr.,—L. notion-emnoscĕre, notum, to know.]

Notitia, nō-tish′i-a, n. a roll, list, register: a catalogue of public functionaries, with their districts: a list of episcopal sees. [L.; cf. Notice.]

Notobranchiate, nō-tō-brang′ki-āt, adj. and n. having dorsal gills, belonging to Notobranchiā′ta, an order of worms having such. [Gr. nōtos, the back, brangchia, gills.]

Notochord, nō′tō-kord, n. a simple cellular rod, the basis of the future spinal column, persisting throughout life in many lower vertebrates, as the amphioxus, &c.—adj. Nō′tochordal. [Gr. nōtos, the back, chordē, a string.]

Notodontiform, nō-tō-don′ti-form, adj. resembling a tooth-back or moth of the family Notodontid. [Gr. nōtos, back, odous, tooth, L. forma, form.]

Notonectal, nō-tō-nek′tal, adj. swimming on the back, as certain insects: related to the Notonectid, a family of aquatic bugs, the boat-flies or water-boatmen. [Gr. nōtos, the back, nēktēs, a swimmer.]

Notopodal, nō-top′ō-dal, adj. pertaining to the Notop′oda, a division of decapods, including the dromioid crabs, &c.—Also Notop′odous. [Gr. nōtos, the back, pous, podos, the foot.]

Notopodium, nō-tō-pō′di-um, n. the dorsal or upper part of the parapodium of an annelid, a dorsal oar.—adj. Notopō′dial. [Gr. nōtos, the back, pous, podos, the foot.]

Notorious, no-tō′ri-us, adj. publicly known (now used in a bad sense): infamous.—n. Notorī′ety, state of being notorious: publicity: public exposure.—adv. Notō′riously.—n. Notō′riousness. [Low L. notoriusnotāre, -ātum, to mark—noscĕre.]

Notornis, nō-tor′nis, n. a genus of gigantic ralline birds, with wings so much reduced as to be incapable of flight, which have within historical times become extinct in New Zealand, &c. [Gr. nōtos, the south, ornis, a bird.]

Nototherium, nō-tō-thē′ri-um, n. a genus of gigantic fossil kangaroo-like marsupials, found in Australia. [Gr. nōtos, the south, thērion, a wild beast.]

Nototrema, nō-tō-trē′ma, n. the pouch-toads, a genus of Hylid.—adj. Nototrem′atous. [Gr. nōtos, the back, trēma, a hole.]

Notour, no-tōōr′, adj. (Scot.) well known, notorious.

Nott-headed, not′-hed′ed, adj. (Shak.) having the hair cut bare.—Nott′-pat′ed. [A.S. hnot, shorn.]

Notum, nō′tum, n. the dorsal aspect of the thorax in insects. [Gr. nōtos, the back.]

Notus, nō′tus, n. the south or south-west wind. [L.]

Notwithstanding, not-with-stand′ing, prep. in spite of.—conj. in spite of the fact that, although.—adv. nevertheless, however, yet. [Orig. a participial phrase in nominative absolute=L. non obstante.]

Nougat, nōō-g′, n. a confection made of a sweet paste filled with chopped almonds or pistachio-nuts. [Fr. (cf. Sp. nogado, an almond-cake)—L. nux, nucis, a nut.]

Nought, nawt, n. not anything: nothing.—adv. in no degree.—Set at nought, to despise. [Same as Naught.]

Noul, nōl, n. (Spens.) the top of the head. [A.S. hnoll, top or summit.]

Nould, nōōld (Spens.), would not. [A contr. of ne would.]

Noumenon, nōō′me-non, n. an unknown and unknowable substance or thing as it is in itself—opp. to Phenomenon, or the form through which it becomes known to the senses or the understanding:—pl. Nou′mena.—adj. Nou′menal. [Gr. noumenon, pa.p. of noein, to perceive—nous, the mind.]

Noun, nown, n. (gram.) the name of any person or thing.—adj. Noun′al. [O. Fr. non (Fr. nom)—L. nomen, name.]

Nourice, nur′is, n. (Spens.) a nurse. [Nurse.]

Nourish, nur′ish, v.t. to suckle: to feed or bring up: to support: to help forward growth in any way: to encourage: to cherish: to educate.—adjs. Nour′ishable, able to be nourished.—n. Nour′isher.—adj. Nour′ishing, giving nourishment.—n. Nour′ishment, the act of nourishing or the state of being nourished: that which nourishes: nutriment. [O. Fr. norir (Fr. nourrir)—L. nutrīre, to feed.]

Noursle, nurs′l, v.t. to nurse: to bring up.—Also Nous′le. [Nuzzle.]

Nous, nows, n. intellect: talent: common-sense. [Gr.]

Novaculite, nō-vak′ū-līt, n. a hone-stone.

Novalia, nō-vā′li-a, (Scots law) waste lands newly reclaimed.

Novatian, nō-vā′shi-an, adj. of or pertaining to Novatianus, who had himself ordained Bishop of Rome in opposition to Cornelius (251), and headed the party of severity against the lapsed in the controversy about their treatment that arose after the Decian persecution.—ns. Novā′tianism; Novā′tianist.

Novation, nō-vā′shun, n. the substitution of a new obligation for the one existing: innovation.

Novel, nov′el, adj. new: unusual: strange.—n. that which is new: a new or supplemental constitution or decree, issued by certain Roman emperors, as Justinian, after their authentic publications of law (also Novell′a): a fictitious prose narrative or tale presenting a picture of real life, esp. of the emotional crises in the life-history of the men and women portrayed.—n. Novelette′, a small novel.—v.t. Nov′elise, to change by introducing novelties: to put into the form of novels.—v.i. to make innovations.—n. Nov′elist, a novel-writer: an innovator.—adj. Novelist′ic.—n. Nov′elty, newness: unusual appearance: anything new, strange, or different from anything before:—pl. Nov′elties. [O. Fr. novel (Fr. nouveau)—L. novellusnovus.]

November, nō-vem′bėr, n. the eleventh month of our year. [The ninth month of the Roman year; L., from novem, nine.]

Novena, nō-vē′na, n. a devotion lasting nine days, to obtain a particular request, through the intercession of the Virgin or some saint. [L. novenus, nine each, novem, nine.]

Novenary, nov′en-a-ri, adj. pertaining to the number nine.—adj. Novene′, going by nines. [L. novenariusnovem, nine.]

Novennial, nō-ven′yal, adj. done every ninth year. [L. novennisnovem, nine, annus, a year.]

Novercal, nō-vėr′kal, adj. pertaining to or befitting a stepmother. [L. novercalisnoverca, a stepmother.]

Noverint, nov′e-rint, n. a writ—beginning with the words noverint universi—let all men know. [3d pers. pl. perf. subj. of noscĕre, to know.]

Novice, nov′is, n. one new in anything: a beginner: one newly received into the church: an inmate of a convent or nunnery who has not yet taken the vow.—ns. Nov′iceship; Novi′ciate, Novi′tiate, the state of being a novice: the period of being a novice: a novice. [Fr.,—L. novitiusnovus, new.]

Novum, nō′vum, n. (Shak.) a certain game at dice, in which the chief throws were nine and five.

Novus homo, nov′us hom′o, n. a new man: one who has risen from a low position to a high dignity.

Now, now, adv. at the present time: at this time or a little before.—conj. but: after this: things being so.—n. the present time.—advs. Now′adays, in days now present.—Now—now, at one time—at another time. [A.S. n; Ger. nun, L. nunc, Gr. nun.]

Nowel, Nol, nō′el, n. Christmas: a joyous shout or song at Christmas: a Christmas carol. [O. Fr. nowel, noel (mod. Fr. nol; cf. Sp. natal, It. natale)—L. natalis, belonging to one's birthday.]

Nowhere, nō′hwār, adv. in no where or place: at no time.—adv. Nō′whither, not any whither: to no place: in no direction: nowhere.

Nowl, nowl, n. (Shak.). Same as Noul.

Nowt, nowt, n. (Scot.) cattle.—Also Nout. [Neat.]

Nowy, now′i, adj. (her.) having a convex curvature near the middle.—Also Nowed. [O. Fr. noue—L. nudatus, knotted.]

Noxious, nok′shus, adj. hurtful: unwholesome: injurious: destructive: poisonous.—adj. Nox′al, relating to wrongful injury.—adv. Nox′iously.—n. Nox′iousness. [L. noxiusnoxa, hurt—nocēre, to hurt.]

Noy, noi, v.t. (Spens.). Same as Annoy.

Noyade, nwa-yad′, n. an infamous mode of drowning by means of a boat with movable bottom, practised by Carrier at Nantes, 1793-94. [Fr.,—noyer, to drown.]

Noyance, noi′ans, n. Same as Annoyance.

Noyau, nwo-yō′, n. a liqueur flavoured with kernels of bitter almonds or of peach-stones. [Fr., the stone of a fruit—L. nucalis, like a nut—nux, nucis, a nut.]

Noyous, noi′us, adj. (Spens.) serving to annoy: troublesome: hurtful. [Annoy.]

Noysome, noi′sum, adj. (Spens.) noisome (q.v.).

Nozzle, noz′l, n. a little nose: the snout: the extremity of anything: the open end of a pipe or tube, as of a bellows, &c. [Dim. of nose.]

Nuance, nū-ans′, n. a delicate degree or shade of difference perceived by any of the senses, or by the intellect. [Fr.,—L. nubes, a cloud.]

Nub, nub, v.t. (prov.) to push: beckon: hang.

Nub, nub, n. a knob, knot: point, gist.—adjs. Nub′bly, full of knots; Nub′by, lumpy, dirty.

Nubble, nub′l, v.t. to beat with the fist.

Nubecula, nū-bek′ū-la, n. a light film on the eye: a cloudy appearance in urine:—pl. Nubec′ul.

Nubiferous, nū-bif′e-rus, adj. bringing clouds.—adjs. Nūbig′enous, produced by clouds; Nū′bilous, cloudy, overcast—(obs.) Nū′bilose.

Nubile, nū′bil, adj. marriageable.—n. Nubil′ity. [L. nubilisnubĕre, to veil one's self, hence to marry.]

Nucellus, nū-sel′us, n. the nucleus of the ovule.

Nuchal, nū′kal, adj. pertaining to the Nū′cha or nape.

Nuciform, nūs′i-form, adj. nut-shaped.—adj. Nucif′erous, nut-bearing. [L. nux, nucis, nut, forma, form.]

Nucifraga, nū-sif′ra-ga, n. a genus of corvine birds, between crows and jays, the nutcrackers.

Nucleus, nū′klē-us, n. the central mass round which matter gathers: (astron.) the head of a comet:—pl. Nuclei (nū′klē-ī).adjs. Nū′clēal, Nū′clēar, pertaining to a nucleus.—v.t. Nū′clēāte, to gather into or around a nucleus.—adjs. Nū′clēate, -d, having a nucleus; Nū′clēiform.—ns. Nū′clēin, a colourless amorphous proteid, a constituent of cell-nuclei; Nū′cleobranch, one of an order of molluscs which have the gills packed in the shell along with the heart:—pl. Nucleobranchiă′ta; Nū′clēōle, a little nucleus: a nucleus within a nucleus—also Nuclē′olus:—pl. Nuclē′oli. [L.,—nux, nucis, a nut.]

Nucule, nūk′ūl, n. a little nut: in Charace the female sexual organ. [L. nucula, dim. of nux, nucis, a nut.]

Nude, nūd, adj. naked: bare: without drapery, as a statue: void, as a contract.—n. Nūdā′tion, act of making bare.—adv. Nūde′ly.—ns. Nūde′ness, Nū′dity, nakedness: want of covering: anything laid bare.—adjs. Nudiflō′rous, having the flowers destitute of hairs, glands, &c.; Nūdifō′lious, having bare or smooth leaves; Nūdiros′trate, having the rostrum naked.— Nū′dities, naked parts: figures divested of drapery.—The nude, the undraped human figure as a branch of art. [L. nudus, naked.]

Nudge, nuj, n. a gentle push.—v.t. to push gently. [Cf. Knock, Knuckle; Dan. knuge.]

Nudibranch, nū′di-brangk, n. one of an order of gasteropods having no shell, and with the gills exposed on the surface of the body:—pl. Nudibranchiā′ta. [L. nudus, naked, branchi, gills.]

Nugatory, nū′ga-tor-i, adj. trifling: vain: insignificant: of no power: ineffectual. [L. nugatorius,—nug, jokes, trifles.]

Nugget, nug′et, n. a lump or mass, as of a metal. [Prob. ingot, with the n of the article.]

Nuisance, nū′sans, n. that which annoys or hurts: that which troubles: that which is offensive.—n. Nū′isancer. [Fr.,—L. nocēre, to hurt.]

Null, nul, adj. of no legal force: void: invalid: of no importance.—n. something of no value or meaning, a cipher: a bead-like raised work.—v.t. to annul, nullify.—v.i. to kink: to form nulls, or into nulls, as in a lathe.—Nulled work, woodwork turned by means of a lathe so as to form a series of connected knobs—for rounds of chairs, &c. [L. nullus, not any, from ne, not, ullus, any.]

Nullah, nul′a, n. a dry water-course.

Nulla-nulla, nul′a-nul′a, n. an Australian's hard-wood club.

Nullifidian, nul-i-fid′i-an, adj. having no faith.—n. a person in such a condition. [L. nullus, none, fides, faith.]

Nullify, nul′i-fī, v.t. to make null: to annul: to render void or of no force:—pr.p. null′ifying; pa.t. and pa.p. null′ified.ns. Nullificā′tion, a rendering void or of none effect, esp. (U.S.) of a contract by one of the parties, or of a law by one legislature which has been passed by another; Null′ifier; Null′ity, the state of being null or void: nothingness: want of existence, force, or efficacy.

Nullipara, nul-lip′a-ra, n. a woman who has never given birth to a child, esp. if not a virgin.—adj. Nullip′arous.

Nullipennate, nul-i-pen′āt, adj. having no flight-feathers, as a penguin.

Nullipore, nul′i-pōr, n. a small coral-like seaweed.—adj. Null′iporous.

Numb, num, adj. deprived of sensation or motion: powerless to feel or act: stupefied: motionless: (Shak.) causing numbness.—v.t. to make numb: to deaden: to render motionless:—pr.p. numbing (num′ing); pa.p. numbed (numd).—adj. Numb′-cold (Shak.), numbed with cold: causing numbness.—n. Numb′ness, state of being numb: condition of living body in which it has lost the power of feeling: torpor. [A.S. numen, pa.p. of niman, to take; so Ice. numinn, bereft.]

Number, num′bėr, n. that by which things are counted or computed: a collection of things: more than one: a unit in counting: a numerical figure: the measure of multiplicity: sounds distributed into harmonies: metre, verse, esp. in pl.: (gram.) the difference in words to express singular or plural: (pl.) the fourth book of the Old Testament.—v.t. to count: to reckon as one of a multitude: to mark with a number: to amount to.—n. Num′berer.—adj. Num′berless, without number: more than can be counted.—ns. Numerabil′ity, Nū′merableness.—adj. Nū′merable, that may be numbered or counted.—adv. Nū′merably.—adj. Nū′meral, pertaining to, consisting of, or expressing number.—n. a figure or mark used to express a number, as 1, 2, 3, &c.: (gram.) a word used to denote a number.—adv. Nū′merally, according to number.—adj. Nū′merary, belonging to a certain number: contained within or counting as one of a body or a number—opp. to Supernumerary.—v.t. Nū′merāte, to point off and read as figures: (orig.) to enumerate, to number.—ns. Nūmerā′tion, act of numbering: the art of reading numbers, and expressing their values; Nū′merātor, one who numbers: the upper number of a vulgar fraction, which expresses the number of fractional parts taken.—adjs. Nūmer′ic, -al, belonging to, or consisting in, number: the same both in number and kind.—adv. Nūmer′ically.—n. Nūmeros′ity, numerousness: harmonious flow.—adj. Nū′merous, great in number: being many.—adv. Nū′merously.—n. Nū′merousness. [Fr. nombre—L. numerus, number.]

Numbles, num′bls, the entrails of a deer. See Umbles.

Numerotage, nū-me-rō-tzh′, n. the numbering of yarns so as to denote their fineness. [Fr.]

Numismatic, nū-mis-mat′ik, adj. pertaining to money, coins, or medals.—n.sing. Nūmismat′ics, the science of coins and medals.—ns. Nūmis′matist, one having a knowledge of coins and medals; Nūmismatog′raphy, description of coins; Numismatol′ogist, one versed in numismatology; Nūmismatol′ogy, the science of coins and medals in relation to history. [L. numisma—Gr. nomisma, current coin—nomizein, to use commonly—nomos, custom.]

Nummary, num′a-ri, adj. relating to coins or money.—adjs. Numm′iform, shaped like a coin; Numm′ūlar, Numm′ūlary, Numm′ūlāted, Numm′ūline, pertaining to coins: like a coin in shape; Numm′ūliform.—n. Numm′ūlite, a fossil shell resembling a coin.—adj. Nummulit′ic. [L. nummus, a coin.]

Numskull, num′skul, n. a stupid fellow: a blockhead.—adj. Num′skulled. [From numb and skull.]

Nun, nun, n. a female who, under a vow, secludes herself in a religious house, to give her time to devotion: (zool.) a kind of pigeon with the feathers on its head like the hood of a nun.—ns. Nun′-buoy, a buoy somewhat in the form of a double cone; Nun′nery, a house for nuns.—adj. Nun′nish.—ns. Nun′nishness; Nun's′-veil′ing, a woollen cloth, soft and thin, used by women for veils and dresses. [A.S. nunne—Low L. nunna, nonna, a nun, an old maiden lady, the orig. sig. being 'mother;' cf. Gr. nannē, aunt, Sans. nanā, a child's word for 'mother.']

Nunc dimittis, nungk di-mit′tis, n. 'now lettest thou depart:' the name given to the song of Simeon (Luke, ii. 29-32) in the R.C. Breviary and the Anglican evening service—from the opening words.

Nuncheon, nun′shun, n. a luncheon. [Prob. a corr. of luncheon, with some reference to noon.]

Nuncio, nun′shi-o, n. a messenger: one who brings tidings: an ambassador from the Pope to an emperor or a king.—n. Nun′ciātūre, the office of a nuncio. [It.,—L. nuncius, a messenger, one who brings news—prob. a contr. of noventius; cf. novus, new.]

Nuncle, nung′kl, n. (Shak.) a contr. of mine uncle.

Nuncupative, nung′kū-pā-tiv, adj. declaring publicly or solemnly: (law) verbal, not written, as a will—also Nun′cūpātory.—v.t. and v.i. Nun′cupate, to declare solemnly: to declare orally.—n. Nuncūpā′tion. [Fr.,—Low L. nuncupativus, nominal—L. nuncupāre, to call by name—prob. from nomen, name, capĕre, to take.]

Nundinal, nun′di-nal, adj. pertaining to a fair or market.—Also Nun′dinary. [L. nundin, the market-day, properly the ninth day—i.e. from the preceding market-day, both days inclusive—novem, nine, dies, a day.]

Nuphar, nū′fr, n. a genus of yellow water-lilies, the Nympha.

Nuptial, nup′shal, adj. pertaining to marriage: constituting marriage.— Nup′tials, marriage: wedding ceremony. [Fr.,—L. nuptialisnupti, marriage—nubĕre, nuptum, to marry.]

Nur, nur, n. a knot or knob in wood. See Knurr.

Nurl, nurl, v.t. to mill or indent on the edge.—ns. Nurl′ing, the milling of a coin: the series of indentations on the edge of some screw-heads: zigzag ornamental engraving; Nurl′ing-tool.

Nurse, nurs, n. a woman who nourishes an infant: a mother while her infant is at the breast: one who has the care of infants or of the sick: (hort.) a shrub or tree which protects a young plant.—v.t. to tend, as an infant or a sick person: to bring up: to cherish: to manage with care and economy: to play skilfully, as billiard-balls, in order to get them into the position one wants.—adj. Nurse′like (Shak.), like or becoming a nurse.—ns. Nurse′maid, a girl who takes care of children; Nurs′er, one who nurses: one who promotes growth; Nurs′ery, place for nursing: an apartment for young children: a place where the growth of anything is promoted: (hort.) a piece of ground where plants are reared; Nurs′ery-gov′erness; Nurs′erymaid, a nurse-maid; Nurs′eryman, a man who owns or works a nursery: one who is employed in cultivating plants, &c., for sale; Nurs′ing-fa′ther (B.), a foster-father; Nurs′ling, that which is nursed: an infant. [O. Fr. norrice (Fr. nourrice)—L. nutrixnutrīre, to nourish.]

Nurture, nurt′ūr, n. act of nursing or nourishing: nourishment: education: instruction.—v.t. to nourish: to bring up: to educate.—n. Nurt′urer. [O. Fr. noriture (Fr. nourriture)—Low L. nutritura—L. nutrīre, to nourish.]

Nut, nut, n. the name popularly given to all those fruits which have the seed enclosed in a bony, woody, or leathery pericarp, not opening when ripe: (bot.) a one-celled fruit, with a hardened pericarp, containing, when mature, only one seed: often the hazel-nut, sometimes the walnut: a small block of metal for screwing on the end of a bolt.—v.i. to gather nuts:—pr.p. nut′ting; pa.p. nut′ted.adj. Nut′-brown, brown, like a ripe old nut.—ns. Nut′cracker, an instrument for cracking nuts: a genus of birds of the family Corvid; Nut′-gall, an excrescence, chiefly of the oak; Nut′hatch, a genus of birds of the family Sittid, agile creepers—also Nut′jobber, Nut′pecker; Nut′-hook, a stick with a hook at the end for pulling down boughs that the nuts may be gathered: a bailiff, a thief who uses a hook; Nut′meal, meal made from the kernels of nuts; Nut′-oil, an oil obtained from walnuts; Nut′-pine, one of several pines with large edible seeds; Nut′shell, the hard substance that encloses the kernel of a nut: anything of little value; Nut′ter, one who gathers nuts; Nut′tiness; Nut′ting, the gathering of nuts; Nut′-tree, any tree bearing nuts, esp. the hazel.—adj. Nut′ty, abounding in nuts: having the flavour of nuts.—n. Nut′-wrench, an instrument for fixing on nuts or removing them from screws.—A nut to crack, a difficult problem to solve; Be nuts on (slang), to be very fond of; In a nutshell, in small compass. [A.S. hnutu; Ice. hnot, Dut. noot, Ger. nuss.]

Nutant, nū′tant, adj. nodding: (bot.) having the top of the stem of the flower-cluster bent downward.—n. Nūtā′tion, a nodding: (astron.) a periodical and constant change of the angle made by the earth's axis, with the ecliptic, caused by the attraction of the moon on the greater mass of matter round the equator: (bot.) the turning of flowers towards the sun. [L. nutāre, to nod.]

Nutmeg, nut′meg, n. the aromatic kernel of an East Indian tree, much used as a seasoning in cookery.—adj. Nut′megged; Nut′meggy. [M. E. notemuge, a hybrid word formed from nut, and O. Fr. muge, musk—L. muscus, musk.]

Nutria, nū′tri-a, n. the fur of the coypou, a South American beaver. [Sp.,—L. lutra, an otter.]

Nutriment, nū′tri-ment, n. that which nourishes: that which helps forward growth or development: food.—adj. Nū′trient, nourishing.—n. anything nourishing.—adj. Nū′trimental, having the quality of nutriment or food: nutritious.—n. Nūtri′tion, act of nourishing: process of promoting the growth of bodies: that which nourishes: nutriment.—adjs. Nūtri′tional; Nūtri′tious, nourishing: promoting growth.—adv. Nūtri′tiously.—n. Nūtri′tiousness.—adjs. Nū′tritive, Nū′tritory, nourishing: concerned in nutrition.—adv. Nū′tritively.—ns. Nū′tritiveness; Nūtritō′rium, the nutritive apparatus. [L. nutrimentumnutrīre, to nourish.]

Nux vomica, nuks vom′ik-a, n. the seed of an East Indian tree, from which the powerful poison known as strychnine is obtained. [L. nux, a nut, vomicus, from vomĕre, to vomit.]

Nuzzer, nuz′ėr, n. a present made to a superior. [Ind.]

Nuzzle, nuz′l, v.i. to rub the nose against: to fondle closely, to cuddle: to nurse or rear.—v.t. to touch with the nose: to go with the nose toward the ground.—Also Nous′le. [A freq. verb from nose.]

Nyanza, ni-an′za, n. a sheet of water, marsh, the river feeding a lake. [Afr.]

Nyas. See Eyas.

Nyctala, nik′ta-la, n. a genus of owls of family Strigid.

Nyctalopia, nik-ta-lō′pi-a, n. the defective vision of persons who can see in a faint light but not in bright daylight: sometimes applied to the opposite defect, inability to see save in a strong daylight—also Nyc′talopy.—n. Nyc′talops, one affected with nyctalopia. [Gr. nyktalōps, seeing by night only—nyx, nyktos, night, ōps, vision.]

Nyctitropism, nik′ti-trō-pizm, n. the so-called sleep of plants, the habit of taking at night certain positions unlike those during the day.—adj. Nyctitrop′ic. [Gr. nyx, night, tropos, a turn.]

Nylghau, nil′gaw, n. a large species of antelope, in North Hindustan, the males of which are of a bluish colour. [Pers. nl gwnl, blue, gw, ox, cow.]

Nymph, nimf, n. a young and beautiful maiden: (myth.) one of the beautiful goddesses who inhabited mountains, rivers, trees, &c.—adjs. Nymph′al, relating to nymphs; Nymphē′an, pertaining to nymphs: inhabited by nymphs; Nymph′ic, -al, pertaining to nymphs; Nymph′ish, Nymph′ly, nymph-like; Nymph′-like.—ns. Nymph′olepsy, a species of ecstasy or frenzy said to have seized those who had seen a nymph; Nymph′olept, a person in frenzy.—adj. Nympholept′ic.—ns. Nymphomā′nia, morbid and uncontrollable sexual desire in women; Nymphomā′niac, a woman affected with the foregoing.—adjs. Nymphomā′niac, -al. [Fr.,—L. nympha—Gr. nymphē, a bride.]

Nymph, nimf, Nympha, nimf′a, n. the pupa or chrysalis of an insect.— Nymph (nimf′ē), the labia minora.—adj. Nymphip′arous, producing pup.—ns. Nymphī′tis, inflammation of the nymph; Nymphot′omy, the excision of the nymph.

Nympha, nim-fē′a, n. a genus of water-plants, with beautiful fragrant flowers, including the water-lily, Egyptian lotus, &c. [L. nympha, a nymph.]

Nys, nis (Spens.), none is. [Ne, not, and is.]

Nystagmus, nis-tag′mus, n. a spasmodic, lateral, oscillatory movement of the eyes, found in miners, &c. [Gr., nystazein, to nap.]

Nyula, ni-ū′la, n. an ichneumon.


the fifteenth letter and fourth vowel of our alphabet, its sound intermediate between a and u—with three values in English, the name-sound heard in note, the shorter sound heard in not, and the neutral vowel heard in son: as a numeral, 'nothing,' or 'zero' (formerly O=11, and (Ō)=11,000): (chem.) the symbol of oxygen: anything round or nearly so (pl. O's, Oes, pron. ōz).

O, oh, ō, interj. an exclamation of wonder, pain, desire, fear, &c. The form oh is the more usual in prose.—O hone! Och hone! an Irish exclamation of lamentation. [A.S. e.]

O, usually written o', an abbrev. for of and on.

Oaf, ōf, n. a foolish or deformed child left by the fairies in place of another: a dolt, an idiot.—adj. Oaf′ish, idiotic, doltish. [Elf.]

Oak, ōk, n. a tree of about 300 species, the most famous the British oak, valued for its timber in shipbuilding, &c.—ns. Oak′-app′le, a spongy substance on the leaves of the oak, caused by insects—also Oak′leaf-gall; Oak′-bark, the bark of some species of oak used in tanning.—adjs. Oak′-cleav′ing (Shak.), cleaving oaks; Oak′en, consisting or made of oak.—ns. Oak′-gall, a gall produced on the oak; Oak′-leath′er, a fungus mycelium in the fissures of old oaks; Oak′ling, a young oak; Oak′-pā′per, paper for wall-hangings veined like oak.—adj. Oak′y, like oak, firm.—Oak-apple Day, the 29th of May, the anniversary of the Restoration in 1660, when country boys used to wear oak-apples in commemoration of Charles II. skulking in the branches of an oak (the Royal Oak) from Cromwell's troopers after Worcester.—Sport one's oak, in English university slang, to signify that one does not wish visitors by closing the outer door of one's rooms; The Oaks, one of the three great English races—for mares—the others being the Derby and St Leger. [A.S. c; Ice. eik, Ger. eiche.]

Oaker, ōk′ėr, n. (Spens.) ochre.

Oakum, ōk′um, n. old ropes untwisted and teased into loose hemp for caulking the seams of ships. [A.S. cumba, ǽcembacemban, to comb.]

Oar, ōr, n. a light pole with a flat feather or spoon-shaped end (the blade) for propelling a boat: an oar-like appendage for swimming, as the antenn of an insect or crustacean, &c.: an oarsman.—v.t. to impel by rowing.—v.i. to row.—n. Oar′age, oars collectively.—adj. Oared, furnished with oars.—ns. Oar′lap, a rabbit with its ears standing out at right-angles to the head; Oar′-lock, a rowlock; Oars′man, one who rows with an oar; Oars′manship, skill in rowing.—adj. Oar′y, having the form or use of oars.—Boat oars, to bring the oars inboard; Feather oars, to turn the blades parallel to the water when reaching back for another stroke; Lie on the oars, to cease rowing without shipping the oars: to rest, take things easily: to cease from work; Put in one's oar, to give advice when not wanted; Ship, or Unship, oars, to place the oars in the rowlocks, or to take them out. [A.S. r.]

Oarium, ō-ā′ri-um, n. an ovary or ovarium.

Oasis, ō-ā′sis, n. a fertile spot in a sandy desert: any place of rest or pleasure in the midst of toil and gloom:—pl. Oases (ō-ā′sēz). [L.,—Gr. oasis, an Egyptian word; cf. Coptic ouahe.]

Oast, ōst, n. a kiln to dry hops or malt.—n. Oast′-house. [A.S. st.]

Oat, ōt (oftener in pl. Oats, ōts), n. a well-known grassy plant, the seeds of which are much used as food: its seeds: a musical pipe of oat-straw: a shepherd's pipe, pastoral song generally.—n. Oat′cake, a thin broad cake made of oatmeal.—adj. Oat′en, consisting of an oat stem or straw: made of oatmeal.—ns. Oat′-grass, two species of oat, useful more as fodder than for the seed; Oat′meal, meal made of oats.—Sow one's wild oats, to indulge in the usual youthful dissipations. [A.S. ta, pl. tan.]

Oath, ōth, n. a solemn statement with an appeal to God as witness, and a calling for punishment from Him in case of falsehood or of failure, also the form of words in which such is made—oath of abjuration, allegiance, &c.: an irreverent use of God's name in conversation or in any way: any merely exclamatory imprecation, &c.:—pl. Oathsthz).—adj. Oath′able (Shak.), capable of having an oath administered to.—n. Oath′-break′ing (Shak.), the violation of an oath, perjury.—Upon one's oath, sworn to speak the truth. [A.S. th; Ger. eid, Ice. eithr.]

Ob., for objection, just as sol. for solution, on the margins of old books of controversial divinity.—n. Ob′-and-sol′er, a disputant, polemic.

Obang, ō-bang′, n. an old Japanese oblong gold coin.

Obbligato, ob-li-g′to, adj. that cannot be done without.—n. a musical accompaniment, itself of independent importance, esp. that of a single instrument to a vocal piece.—Also Obliga′to. [It.]

Obconic, -al, ob-kon′ik, -al, adj. inversely conical.

Obcordate, ob-kor′dāt, adj. (bot.) inversely heart-shaped, as a leaf.

Obdurate, ob′dū-rāt, adj. hardened in heart or in feelings: difficult to influence, esp. in a moral sense: stubborn: harsh.—n. Ob′dūracy, state of being obdurate: invincible hardness of heart.—adv. Ob′dūrately.—ns. Ob′dūrateness, Obdūrā′tion.—adj. Obdūred′, hardened. [L. obdurāre, -ātumob, against, durāre, to harden—durus, hard.]

Obeah. See Obi.

Obedience, ō-bē′di-ens, n. state of being obedient: willingness to obey commands: dutifulness: the collective body of persons subject to any particular authority: a written instruction from the superior of an order to those under him: any official position under an abbot's jurisdiction.—adjs. Obē′dient, willing to obey; Obēdien′tial, submissive: obligatory.—adv. Obē′diently.—Canonical obedience, the obedience, as regulated by the canons, of an ecclesiastic to another of higher rank; Passive obedience, unresisting and unquestioning obedience to authority, like that taught by some Anglican divines as due even to faithless and worthless kings like Charles II. and James II.

Obeisance, ō-bā′sans, or ō-bē′sans, n. obedience: a bow or act of reverence: an expression of respect.—adj. Obē′isant. [Fr.,—obir—L. obedīre, to obey.]

Obelion, ō-bē′li-on, n. a point in the sagittal suture of the skull, between the two parietal foramina. [Gr. obelos, a spit.]

Obelisk, ob′e-lisk, n. a tall, four-sided, tapering pillar, usually of one stone, finished at the top like a flat pyramid: (print.) a dagger ( † ).—adj. Ob′eliscal.—v.t. Ob′elise, to mark with an obelisk, to condemn as spurious, indelicate, &c.—n. Ob′elus, a mark ( — or  ) used in ancient MSS. to mark suspected passages, esp. in the Septuagint to indicate passages not in the Hebrew:—pl. Ob′eli. [Through Fr. and L., from Gr. obeliskos, dim. of obelos, a spit.]

Oberhaus, ō′ber-hows, n. the upper house in those German legislative bodies that have two chambers. [Ger. ober, upper, haus, house.]

Oberland, ō′ber-lant, n. highlands, as the Bernese Oberland in Switzerland.

Oberon, ō′ber-on, king of the fairies, husband of Titania.

Obese, ō-bēs′, adj. fat: fleshy.—ns. Obese′ness, Obes′ity, fatness: abnormal fatness. [L. obesusob, up, edĕre, esum, to eat.]

Obex, ō′beks, n. a barrier: a thickening at the calamus scriptorius of the medulla oblongata. [L., objicĕre, to throw before.]

Obey, ō-bā′, v.t. to do as told by: to be ruled by: to yield to: to carry out or perform.—v.i. to submit to power, &c.: (B.) to yield obedience (followed by to).—n. Obey′er.—adv. Obey′ingly, obediently. [Fr. obir—L. obedīreob, near, audīre, to hear.]

Obfuscate, ob-fus′kāt, v.t. to darken: to confuse.—n. Obfuscā′tion. [L. obfuscāre, -ātumob, inten., fuscus, dark.]

Obi, ō′bi, n. a kind of sorcery practised by obeah-men and obeah-women among the negroes of the West Indies and United States, a survival of African magic: a fetish or charm—also O′bea, O′beah, O′by.—n. O′biism. [Prob. Afr.]

Obi, ō′bi, n. a broad, gaily embroidered sash worn by Japanese women. [Jap.]

Obit, ō′bit, or ob′it, n. death: the fact or the date of death: funeral ceremonies: the anniversary of a person's death, or a service at such time.—adj. Obit′ual, pertaining to obits.—adv. Obit′uarily.—n. Obit′uarist, a writer of obituaries.—adj. Obit′uary, relating to the death of a person or persons.—n. a register of deaths (orig.) in a monastery: an account of a deceased person, or a notice of his death. [Fr.,—L. obitusobīreob, to, īre, to go.]

Object, ob-jekt′, v.t. to place before the view: to throw in the way of: to offer in opposition: to oppose.—v.i. to oppose: to give a reason against.—n. Objectificā′tion.—v.t. Object′ify, to make objective.—n. Objec′tion, act of objecting: anything said or done in opposition: argument against.—adj. Objec′tionable, that may be objected to: requiring to be disapproved of.—adv. Objec′tionably, in an objectionable manner or degree.—adj. Object′ive, relating to an object: being exterior to the mind: substantive, self-existent: setting forth what is external, actual, practical, apart from the sensations or emotions of the speaker: as opposed to Subjective, pertaining to that which is real or exists in nature, in contrast with what is ideal or exists merely in thought: (gram.) belonging to the case of the object.—n. (gram.) the case of the object: in microscopes, &c., the lens which brings the rays to a focus: the point to which the operations of an army are directed.—adv. Object′ively.—ns. Object′iveness; Object′ivism.—adj. Objectivist′ic.—ns. Objectiv′ity, state of being objective; Object′or. [Fr.,—L. objectāre, a freq. of objicĕre, -jectumob, in the way of, jacĕre, to throw.]

Object, ob′jekt, n. anything perceived or set before the mind: that which is sought after, or that toward which an action is directed: end: motive: (gram.) that toward which the action of a transitive verb is directed.—ns. Ob′ject-find′er, a device in microscopes for locating an object in the field before examination by a higher power; Ob′ject-glass, the glass at the end of a telescope or microscope next the object; Ob′jectist, one versed in the objective philosophy.—adj. Ob′jectless, having no object: purposeless.—ns. Ob′ject-less′on, a lesson in which the object to be described, or a representation of it, is shown; Ob′ject-soul, a vital principle attributed by the primitive mind to inanimate objects.

Objure, ob-jōōr′, v.i. to swear.—n. Objurā′tion, act of binding by oath.

Objurgation, ob-jur-gā′shun, n. act of chiding: a blaming, reproof: reprehension.—v.t. Objur′gate, to chide.—adj. Objur′gatory, expressing blame or reproof. [Fr.,—L.,—ob, against, jurgāre, to sue at law—jus, law, agĕre, to drive.]

Oblanceolate, ob-lan′se-o-lāt, adj. (bot.) shaped like the head of a lance reversed, as a leaf.

Oblate, ob-lāt′, n. a secular person devoted to a monastery, but not under its vows, esp. one of the Oblate Fathers or Oblate Sisters: one dedicated to a religious order from childhood, or who takes the cowl in anticipation of death: a loaf of altar-bread before its consecration.—n. Oblā′tion, act of offering: anything offered in worship or sacred service, esp. a eucharistic offering: an offering generally.—Great oblation, the solemn offering or presentation in memorial before God of the consecrated elements, as sacramentally the body and blood of Christ; Lesser oblation, the offertory. [L. oblatus, offered up.]

Oblate, ob-lāt′, adj. flattened at opposite sides or poles: shaped like an orange.—ns. Oblate′ness, flatness at the poles; Oblate′-spher′oid, a spherical body flattened at the poles. [L. oblatus, pa.p. of offerre, to offer—ob, against, ferre, to bring.]

Obligato. See Obbligato.

Oblige, ō-blīj′, v.t. to bind or constrain: to bind by some favour rendered, hence to do a favour to.—adj. Ob′ligable, that can be held to a promise or an undertaking: true to a promise or a contract.—n. Ob′ligant, one who binds himself to another to pay or to perform something.—v.t. Ob′ligāte, to constrain: to bind by contract or duty:—pr.p. ob′ligāting; pa.p. ob′ligāted.n. Obligā′tion, act of obliging: the power which binds to a promise, a duty, &c.: any act which binds one to do something for another: that to which one is bound: state of being indebted for a favour: (law) a bond containing a penalty in case of failure.—adv. Ob′ligatorily.—n. Ob′ligatoriness.—adj. Ob′ligātory, binding: imposing duty.—ns. Obligee (ob-li-jē′), the person to whom another is obliged; Oblige′ment, a favour conferred.—adj. Oblig′ing, disposed to confer favours: ready to do a good turn.—adv. Oblig′ingly.—ns. Oblig′ingness; Ob′ligor (law), the person who binds himself to another. [Fr.,—L. obligāre, -ātumob, before, ligāre, to bind.]

Oblique, ob-lēk′, adj. slanting: not perpendicular: not parallel: not straightforward: obscure: (geom.) not a right-angle: (gram.) denoting any case except the nominative.—v.i. to deviate from a direct line or from the perpendicular, to slant: to advance obliquely by facing half right or left and then advancing.—ns. Obliquā′tion, Oblique′ness, Obliq′uity, state of being oblique: a slanting direction: error or wrong: irregularity.—adv. Oblique′ly.—adj. Obliq′uid (Spens.), oblique.—Oblique cone or cylinder, one whose axis is oblique to the plane of its base; Oblique narration or speech (L. oratio obliqua), indirect narration, the actual words of the speaker, but, as related by a third person, having the first person in pronoun and verb converted into the third, adverbs of present time into the corresponding adverbs of past time, &c.; Oblique sailing, the reduction of the position of a ship from the various courses made good, oblique to the meridian or parallel of latitude; Obliquity of the ecliptic, the angle between the plane of the earth's orbit and that of the earth's equator. [Fr.,—L. obliquusob, before, liquis, slanting.]

Obliterate, ob-lit′ėr-āt, v.t. to blot out, so as not to be readable: to wear out: to destroy: to reduce to a very low state.—n. Obliterā′tion, act of obliterating: a blotting or wearing out: extinction.—adj. Oblit′erātive. [L. obliterāre, -ātumob, over, litera, a letter.]

Oblivion, ob-liv′i-un, n. act of forgetting or state of being forgotten: remission of punishment.—adj. Obliv′ious, forgetful: prone to forget: causing forgetfulness.—adv. Obliv′iously.—ns. Obliv′iousness; Oblivisc′ence. [Fr.,—L. oblivion-emoblivisci, to forget.]

Oblong, ob′long, adj. long in one way: longer than broad.—n. (geom.) a rectangle longer than broad: any oblong figure.—adj. Ob′longish.—adv. Ob′longly.—n. Ob′longness. [Fr.,—L. ob, over, longus, long.]

Obloquy, ob′lo-kwi, n. reproachful language: censure: calumny: disgrace. [L. obloquiumob, against, loqui, to speak.]

Obmutescence, ob-mū-tes′ens, n. loss of speech, dumbness. [L. obmutescĕre, to become dumb.]

Obnoxious, ob-nok′shus, adj. liable to hurt or punishment: exposed to: guilty: blameworthy: offensive: subject: answerable.—adv. Obnox′iously.—n. Obnox′iousness. [L.,—ob, before, noxa, hurt.]

Obnubilation, ob-nū-bi-lā′shun, n. the act of making dark or obscure.—v.t. Obnū′bilāte. [Low L. obnubilare, to cloud over—L. ob, over, nubilus, cloudy.]

Oboe, ō′bō-e, n. a treble reed musical instrument, usually with fifteen keys, with a rich tone, giving the pitch to the violin in the orchestra: a treble stop on the organ, its bass being the bassoon—also Hautboy.n. O′bōist, a player on the oboe.—Oboe d'Amore, an obsolete alto oboe; Oboe di Caccia, an obsolete tenor oboe, or rather tenor bassoon. [Fr. hautbois.]

Obol, ob′ol, n. in ancient Greece, a small coin, worth rather more than three-halfpence: also a weight, the sixth part of a drachma—also Ob′olus:—pl. Ob′oli (ī).—adj. Ob′olary, consisting of obols: extremely poor. [Gr. obelos, a spit.]

Obovate, ob-ō′vāt, adj. (bot.) egg-shaped, as a leaf, with the narrow end next the leaf-stalk.—adv. Obō′vātely.—adj. Obō′void, solidly obovate.

Obreption, ob-rep′shun, n. obtaining of gifts of escheat by falsehood—opp. to Subreption (q.v.).—adj. Obreptit′ious.

Obscene, ob-sēn′, adj. offensive to chastity: unchaste: indecent: disgusting: ill-omened.—adv. Obscene′ly.—ns. Obscene′ness, Obscen′ity, quality of being obscene: lewdness. [L. obscenus.]

Obscure, ob-skūr′, adj. dark: not distinct: not easily understood: not clear, legible, or perspicuous: unknown: humble: unknown to fame: living in darkness.—v.t. to darken: to make less plain: to render doubtful.—ns. Obscū′rant, one who labours to prevent enlightenment or reform; Obscū′rantism, opposition to inquiry or reform; Obscū′rantist, an obscurant.—adj. pertaining to obscurantism.—n. Obscūrā′tion, the act of obscuring or state of being obscured.—adv. Obscūre′ly.—ns. Obscūre′ment; Obscūre′ness; Obscū′rer; Obscū′rity, state or quality of being obscure: darkness: an obscure place or condition: unintelligibleness: humility. [Fr.,—L. obscurus.]

Obsecrate, ob′se-krāt, v. to beseech: to implore.—n. Obsecrā′tion, supplication: one of the clauses in the Litany beginning with by.adj. Ob′secrātory, supplicatory. [L. obsecrāre, -ātum, to entreat; ob, before, sacrāresacer, sacred.]

Obsequies, ob′se-kwiz, funeral rites and solemnities:—sing. Ob′sequy (Milt.)—rarely used.—adj. Obsē′quial. [Fr. obsques—L. obsequiob, before, upon, sequi, to comply.]

Obsequious, ob-sē′kwi-us, adj. compliant to excess: meanly condescending.—adv. Obsē′quiously.—n. Obsē′quiousness. [Fr.,—L. obsequiosus, compliant, obsequium, compliance.]

Observe, ob-zėrv′, v.t. to keep in view: to notice: to subject to systematic observation: to regard attentively: to remark, refer to in words: to comply with: to heed and to carry out in practice: to keep with proper ceremony: to keep or guard.—v.i. to take notice: to attend: to remark.—adj. Observ′able, that may be observed or noticed: worthy of observation: remarkable: requiring to be observed.—n. Observ′ableness.—adv. Observ′ably.—ns. Observ′ance, act of observing or paying attention to: performance: attention: that which is to be observed: rule of practice, a custom to be observed: reverence: homage; Observ′ancy, observance: obsequiousness.—adj. Observ′ant, observing: having powers of observing and noting: taking notice: adhering to: carefully attentive.—n. (Shak.) an obsequious attendant: one strict to comply with a custom, &c.; or Observ′antine, one of those Franciscan monks of stricter rule who separated from the Conventuals in the 15th century.—adv. Observ′antly.—n. Observā′tion, act of observing: habit of seeing and noting: attention: the act of recognising and noting phenomena as they occur in nature, as distinguished from experiment: that which is observed: a remark: performance: the fact of being observed.—adj. Observā′tional, consisting of, or containing, observations or remarks: derived from observation, as distinguished from experiment.—adv. Observā′tionally.—adj. Obser′vative, attentive.—ns. Ob′servātor, one who observes: a remarker; Observ′atory, a place for making astronomical and physical observations, usually placed in some high and stable place; Observ′er.—adj. Observ′ing, habitually taking notice: attentive.—adv. Observ′ingly. [Fr.,—L. observāre, -ātumob, before, servāre, to keep.]

Obsession, ob-sesh′un, n. persistent attack, esp. of an evil spirit upon a person: the state of being so molested from without—opp. to Possession, or control by an evil spirit from within. [L. obsession-emobsidēre, to besiege.]

Obsidian, ob-sid′i-an, n. a natural glass—the vitreous condition of an acid lava. [From Obsidius, who, according to Pliny, discovered it in Ethiopia.]

Obsidional, ob-sid′i-ō-nal, adj. pertaining to a siege.—Also Obsid′ionary.

Obsignate, ob-sig′nāt, v.t. to seal, confirm.—n. Obsignā′tion.

Obsolescent, ob-so-les′ent, adj. going out of use.—n. Obsolesc′ence.—adj. Ob′solete, gone out of use: antiquated: (zool.) obscure: not clearly marked or developed: rudimental.—adv. Ob′soletely.—ns. Ob′soleteness; Obsolē′tion (rare); Ob′soletism. [L. obsolescens, -entis, pr.p. of obsolescĕre, obsoletumob, before, solēre, to be wont.]

Obstacle, ob′sta-kl, n. anything that stands in the way of or hinders progress: obstruction.—Obstacle race, a race in which obstacles have to be surmounted or circumvented. [Fr.,—L. obstaculumob, in the way of, stāre, to stand.]

Obstetric, -al, ob-stet′rik, -al, adj. pertaining to midwifery.—ns. Obstetric′ian, one skilled in obstetrics; Obstet′rics, the science of midwifery, or the delivery of women in childbed; Obstet′rix, a midwife. [L. obstetriciusobstetrix, -icis, a midwife—ob, before, stāre, to stand.]

Obstinate, ob′sti-nāt, adj. blindly or excessively firm: unyielding: stubborn: not easily subdued or remedied.—ns. Ob′stinacy, Ob′stinateness, the condition of being obstinate: excess of firmness: stubbornness: fixedness that yields with difficulty, as a disease.—adv. Ob′stinately. [L. obstināre, -ātumob, in the way of, stāre, to stand.]

Obstipation, ob-sti-pā′shun, n. extreme costiveness.

Obstreperous, ob-strep′ėr-us, adj. making a loud noise: clamorous: noisy.—v.i. Obstrep′erāte (Sterne).—adv. Obstrep′erously.—n. Obstrep′erousness. [L. obstreperusob, before, strepĕre, to make a noise.]

Obstriction, ob-strik′shun, n. obligation. [L. obstringĕre, obstrictum, to bind up.]

Obstropulous, ob-strop′ū-lus, adj. a vulgar form of obstreperous.

Obstruct, ob-strukt′, v.t. to block up, to hinder from passing, to retard.—ns. Obstruc′ter, Obstruc′tor, one who obstructs; Obstruc′tion, act of obstructing: that which hinders progress or action: opposition, esp. in a legislative assembly; Obstruc′tionist.—adj. Obstruc′tive, tending to obstruct: hindering.—n. one who opposes progress.—adv. Obstruct′ively.—adj. Ob′struent, obstructing: blocking up.—n. (med.) anything that obstructs, esp. in the passages of the body. [L. obstruĕre, obstructumob, in the way of, struĕre, structum, to pile up.]

Obtain, ob-tān′, v.t. to lay hold of: to hold: to procure by effort: to gain: to keep possession of.—v.i. to be established: to continue in use: to become customary or prevalent: to hold good: (rare) to succeed.—adj. Obtain′able, that may be obtained, procured, or acquired.—ns. Obtain′er; Obtain′ment; Obten′tion, procurement.—Obtain to (Bacon), to attain to. [Fr.,—L. obtinēreob, upon, tenēre, to hold.]

Obtected, ob-tek′ted, adj. covered, protected by a chitonous case, as the pup of most flies. [L. obtegĕre, obtectum, to cover over.]

Obtemper, ob-tem′per, v.t. to yield obedience to (with to, unto). [L. obtemperāre.]

Obtend, ob-tend′, v.t. (obs.) to oppose: to allege. [L. obtendĕre, to stretch before.]

Obtest, ob-test′, v.t. to call upon, as a witness: to beg for.—v.i. to protest.—n. Obtestā′tion, act of calling to witness: a supplication. [L. obtestāri, to call as a witness—ob, before, testis, a witness.]

Obtrude, ob-trōōd′, v.t. to thrust in upon when not wanted: to urge upon against the will of.—v.i. to thrust one's self or be thrust upon.—ns. Obtrud′er; Obtrud′ing, Obtru′sion, a thrusting in or upon against the will of.—adj. Obtrus′ive, disposed to thrust one's self among others.—adv. Obtrus′ively.—n. Obtrus′iveness. [L. obtrudĕreob, before, trudĕre, trusum, to thrust.]

Obtruncate, ob-trung′kāt, v.t. to cut or lop off. [L. obtruncāre, -ātumob, before, truncāre, cut off.]

Obtund, ob-tund′, v.t. to dull or blunt, to deaden.—adj. Obtund′ent, dulling.—n. an oily mucilage for sores: an application to deaden the nerve of a tooth. [L. obtundĕre, to strike upon.]

Obturate, ob′tū-rāt, v.t. to close or stop up.—ns. Obturā′tion, the act of stopping up, esp. in gunnery, of a hole to prevent the escape of gas; Ob′tūrātor, that which stops or closes up, as a device of this kind in gunnery, &c.: in surgery, an artificial plate for closing an abnormal aperture or fissure, as with cleft palate, &c., or for distending an opening, as in lithotomy: any structure that shuts off a cavity or passage, esp. in anatomy, the membrane vessels, &c., closing the obturator foramen, or thyroid foramen, a large opening or fenestra in the anterior part of the hip-bone. [L. obturāre, -ātum, to stop up.]

Obturbinate, ob-tur′bi-nāt, adj. inversely top-shaped.

Obtuse, ob-tūs′, adj. blunt: not pointed: (bot.) blunt or rounded at the point, as a leaf: stupid: not shrill: (geom.) greater than a right angle.—adjs. Obtuse′-ang′led, Obtuse′-ang′ular, having an angle greater than a right angle.—adv. Obtuse′ly.—ns. Obtuse′ness, Obtus′ity. [Fr.,—L. obtususobtundĕre, to blunt—ob, against, tundĕre, to beat.]

Obumbrate, ob-um′brāt, v.t. to overshadow, to darken.—adj. lying under some projecting part, as the abdomen of certain spiders.—adj. Obum′brant, overhanging. [L. obumbrāre, -ātum, to overshadow.]

Obvallate, ob-val′āt, adj. walled up. [L. obvallāre, -ātum, to wall round.]

Obvelation, ob-vē-lā′shun, n. concealment.

Obvention, ob-ven′shun, n. (obs.) any incidental occurrence, or advantage, esp. an offering.

Obverse, ob-vėrs′, adj. turned towards one: bearing the head, as one face of a coin—opp. to Reverse: a second or complemental aspect of the same fact, a correlative proposition identically, implying another: (bot.) having the base narrower than the top.—n. Ob′verse, the side of a coin containing the head, or principal symbol.—adv. Obverse′ly.—n. Obver′sion, the act of turning toward the front of anything: in logic, a species of immediate inference—viz. the predicating of the original subject, the contradictory of the original predicate, and changing the quality of the proposition—e.g. to infer from all A is B that no A is not B—also called Permutation and Equipollence.—v.t. Obvert′, to turn towards the front. [L. obversusob, towards, vertĕre, to turn.]

Obviate, ob′vi-āt, v.t. to meet on the way, hence to remove, as difficulties. [L. obviāre, -ātumob, in the way of, viāre, viātum, to go—via, a way.]

Obvious, ob′vi-us, adj. meeting one in the way: easily discovered or understood: evident.—adv. Ob′viously.—n. Ob′viousness. [L. obvius.]

Obvolute, -d, ob′vo-lūt, -ed, adj. rolled or turned in, as two leaves in a bud, one edge of each out and the other in, as in the poppy.—adj. Obvol′vent, curved downward or inward. [L. obvolutusob, before, volvĕre, volutum, to roll.]

Ocarina, ok-a-rē′na, n. a kind of musical instrument with a whistling sound, made of terra-cotta, with finger-holes and a mouthpiece. [It.]

Occamism, ok′am-mizm, n. the doctrine of the nominalist schoolman, William of Occam or Ockham (c. 1270-1349).—n. Occ′amist, a follower of Occam.

Occamy, ok′a-mi, n. a silvery alloy. [Alchemy.]

Occasion, o-kā′zhun, n. a case of something happening: a special time or season: a chance of bringing about something desired: an event which, although not the cause, determines the time at which another happens: a reason or excuse: opportunity: requirement, business: a special ceremony.—v.t. to cause indirectly: to influence.—adj. Occā′sional, falling in the way or happening: occurring only at times: resulting from accident: produced on some special event.—ns. Occā′sionalism, the philosophical system of the Cartesian school for explaining the action of mind upon matter, or the combined action of both by the direct intervention of God, who on the occasion of certain modifications in our minds, excites the corresponding movements of body, and on the occasion of certain changes in our body, awakens the corresponding feelings in the mind; Occā′sionalist; Occasional′ity.—adv. Occā′sionally.—n. Occā′sioner.—On occasion, in case of need: as opportunity offers, from time to time; Take occasion, to take advantage of an opportunity. [Fr.,—L. occasion-emoccidĕreob, in the way of, cadĕre, casum, to fall.]

Occident, ok′si-dent, n. the western quarter of the sky where the sun goes down or sets: the west generally.—adj. Occiden′tal, noting the quarter where the sun goes down or sets: western: relatively less precious, as a gem.—n. a native of some occidental country—opp. to Oriental.—v.t. Occiden′talise, to cause to conform to western ideas or customs.—ns. Occiden′talism, habits, &c., of occidental peoples; Occiden′talist, a student of occidental languages—opp. to Orientalist: an individual belonging to an oriental country who favours western ideas, customs, &c.—adv. Occiden′tally. [Fr.,—L. occidens, -entis, pr.p. of occidĕre, to fall down.]

Occiput, ok′si-put, n. the back part of the head or skull.—adj. Occip′ital, pertaining to the occiput or back part of the head.—n. the occipital bone.—adv. Occip′itally.—adjs. Occip′ito-ax′ial, of or pertaining to the occipital bone and to the axis or second cervical vertebra; Occip′ito-front′al, pertaining to the occiput and to the forehead; Occip′ito-tem′poral, pertaining to the occipital and temporal regions. [L.,—ob, over against, caput, head.]

Occlude, o-klōōd′, v.t. to absorb, as a gas by a metal.—adj. Occlu′dent, serving to close.—n. Occlu′sion, a closing of an opening, passage, or cavity: the act of occluding or absorbing.—adj. Occlu′sive, serving to close.—n. Occlu′sor, that which closes, esp. an organ for closing an opening in a body. [L. occludĕre,—ob, before, claudĕre, to shut.]

Occult, ok-kult′, adj. covered over: escaping observation: hidden: not discovered without test or experiment: secret, unknown, transcending the bounds of natural knowledge.—n. Occultā′tion, a concealing, esp. of one of the heavenly bodies by another: state of being hid.—adj. Occult′ed (Shak.), hidden, secret: (astron.) concealed, as by a body coming between.—ns. Occult′ism, the doctrine or study of things hidden or mysterious—theosophy, &c.; Occult′ist, one who believes in occult things.—adv. Occult′ly.—n. Occult′ness.—Occult sciences, alchemy, astrology, magic, &c. [Fr.,—L. occulĕre, occultum, to hide.]

Occupy, ok′ū-pī, v.t. to take or hold possession of: to take up, as room, &c.: to fill, as an office: to employ: (B.) to use: to trade with: (Shak.) to possess, enjoy.—v.i. to hold possession: (B.) to trade:—pa.t. and pa.p. occ′ūpied.ns. Occ′upancy, the act of occupying, or of taking or holding possession: possession: the time during which one occupies; Occ′upant, one who takes or has possession.—v.t. Occ′upāte (Bacon), to hold: to possess:—pr.p. occ′ūpāting; pa.p. occ′ūpāted.n. Occupā′tion, the act of occupying or taking possession: possession: state of being employed or occupied: that which occupies or takes up one's attention: employment.—adj. Occupā′tive.—n. Occ′upier, one who takes or holds possession of: an occupant: (B.) a trader. [Fr.,—L. occupāre, -ātumob, to, on, capĕre, to take.]

Occur, o-kur′, v.i. to come or be presented to the mind: to happen: to appear: to be found here and there: to coincide in time:—pr.p. occur′ring; pa.p. occurred′.ns. Occur′rence, anything that occurs: an event, esp. one unlooked for or unplanned: occasional presentation; Occur′rent, one who comes to meet another: (B.) an occurrence or chance.—adj. (B.) coming in the way. [Fr.,—L. occurrĕreob, towards, currĕre, to run.]

Ocean, ō′shan, n. the vast expanse of salt water that covers the greater part of the surface of the globe: one of its five great divisions (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, Antarctic): any immense expanse or vast quantity.—adj. pertaining to the great sea.—n. O′cean-bā′sin, the depression of the earth's surface in which the waters of an ocean are contained.—adjs. Ocean′ian, pertaining to Oceania, which includes Polynesia, Micronesia, Melanesia, Australasia, and Malaysia; Ocean′ic, pertaining to the ocean: found or formed in the ocean or high seas, pelagic: wide like the ocean.— Ocean′ic-is′lands, islands far from the mainland, situated in the midst of the ocean; Ocean′ides, marine molluscs or sea-shells.—ns. O′cean-lane (see Lane); Oceanog′rapher, one versed in oceanography.—adj. Oceanograph′ic.—ns. Oceanog′raphy, the scientific description of the ocean; Oceanol′ogy, the science of the ocean: a treatise on the ocean. [Fr.,—L. oceanus—Gr. ōkeanos, perh. from ōkys, swift.]

Ocellate, -d, ō′sel-lāt, -ed, adj. resembling an eye: marked with spots resembling eyes, as the feathers of a peacock.—adjs. Ocel′lar, Oc′ellary, ocellate, pertaining to ocelli; Ocellif′erous, Ocellig′erous, bearing spots like small eyes.—n. Ocel′lus, a little eye, an eye-spot: one of the round spots of varied colour in the tail of a peacock, &c.:—pl. Ocel′lī. [L. ocellatusocellus, dim. of oculus, an eye.]

Ocelot, ō′se-lot, n. the name of several species of animals in tropical America allied to the leopard, but much smaller.—adj. O′celoid. [Mex.]

Ocher, Ocherous. See Ochre.

Och hone, oh hōn, an exclamation of lamentation. [Ir.]

Ochidore, ok′i-dōr, n. a shore-crab.

Ochlesis, ok-lē′sis, n. an unhealthy condition due to overcrowding.—adj. Ochlet′ic. [Gr. ochlos, a crowd.]

Ochlocracy, ok-lok′ra-si, n. mob-rule: government by the populace.—adjs. Ochlocrat′ic, -al.—adv. Ochlocrat′ically. [Gr. ochlokratiaochlos, the mob, kratia, rule.]

Ochre, ō′kėr, n. a fine clay, mostly pale yellow, used for colouring walls, &c.: (slang) money, esp. gold.—adjs. O′cherous, Ochrā′ceous, O′chreous, O′chroid, O′chry, consisting of, containing, or resembling ochre. [Fr.,—L. ochra—Gr. ōchraōchros, pale yellow.]

Ocrea, ō′kre-a, n. (bot.) a sheath formed of two stipules united round a stem:—pl. O′chre, O′cre.—adj. O′chreāte. [L. ochrea, a legging.]

Octachord, ok′ta-kord, n. a musical instrument with eight strings: a diatonic series of eight tones.

Octagon, ok′ta-gon, n. a plane figure of eight sides and eight angles.—adj. Octag′onal. [Gr. oktō, eight, gōnia, an angle.]

Octahedron, ok-ta-hē′dron, n. a solid bounded by eight faces.—adj. Octahē′dral. [Gr. oktō, eight, hedra, a base.]

Octandrous, ok-tan′drus, adj. (bot.) having eight stamens.— Octan′dria.—adj. Octan′drian. [Gr. oktō, eight, anēr, andros, a man.]

Octangular, ok-tang′gū-lar, adj. having eight angles.

Octant, ok′tant, n. the eighth part of a circle: an instrument for measuring angles: the aspect of two planets when 45, or one-eighth of a circle, apart.—Also Oc′tile. [L. octans, octantisocto, eight.]

Octapla, ok′ta-pla, n. something eightfold: a Bible in eight languages. [Gr. oktaplous, eightfold.]

Octapody, ok-tap′ō-di, n. (pros.) a metre or verse of eight feet.—adj. Octapod′ic.—n. Oc′tastich, a strophe of eight verses or lines—also Octas′tichon.—adj. Octastroph′ic, consisting of eight strophes.

Octastyle. See Octostyle.

Octave, ok′tāv, adj. eight: consisting of eight.—n. an eighth: that which consists of eight: the eighth day after a church festival, counting the feast-day itself as the first: the period between a festival and its octave: (mus.) an eighth, or an interval of twelve semitones: the eighth part of a pipe of wine. [Fr.,—L. octavus, eighth—octo, eight.]

Octavo, ok-tā′vō, adj. having eight leaves to the sheet.—n. a book printed on sheets folded into eight leaves, contracted 8vo—usually meaning a medium octavo, 69 inches. Smaller octavos are—post 8vo, 58 in.; demy 8vo, 58 in.; crown 8vo, 57 in.; cap 8vo, 47 in. Larger octavos are—royal 8vo, 610 in.; super-royal 8vo, 711 in.; imperial 8vo, 811 in.:—pl. Octā′vos.

Octennial, ok-ten′i-al, adj. happening every eighth year: lasting eight years.—adv. Octenn′ially.—n. Octocen′tenary, the 800th anniversary of an event. [L. octennisocto, eight, annus, a year.]

Octillion, ok-til′yun, n. the number produced by raising a million to the eighth power, expressed by a unit with forty-eight ciphers: in France and the United States, one thousand raised to the ninth power, expressed by a unit with twenty-seven ciphers. [L. octo, eight, million.]

October, ok-tō′bėr, n. the eighth month of the Roman year, which began in March: the tenth month in our calendar. [L. octo, eight.]

Octobrachiate, ok-tō-brā′ki-āt, adj. having eight brachia, arms, or rays.

Octocerous, ok-tos′e-rus, adj. having eight arms or rays.

Octodecimo, ok-tō-des′i-mō, adj. having eighteen leaves to the sheet, contracted 18mo.—adj. Octodec′imal (crystal.), having eighteen faces. [L. octodecim, eighteen—octo, eight, decem, ten.]

Octodentate, ok-tō-den′tāt, adj. having eight teeth.

Octofid, ok′tō-fid, adj. (bot.) cleft into eight segments.

Octogenarian, ok-tō-je-nā′ri-an, n. and adj. one who is eighty years old, or between eighty and ninety.—adj. Octog′enary.

Octogynous, ok-toj′i-nus, adj. (bot.) having eight pistils or styles. [Gr. oktō, eight, gynē, wife.]


Octolateral, ok-tō-lat′e-ral, adj. having eight sides.

Octonary, ok′tō-nā-ri, adj. consisting of eight.

Octonocular, ok-tō-nok′ū-lar, adj. having eight eyes.

Octopede, ok′tō-pēd, n. an eight-footed animal.

Octopetalous, ok-tō-pet′a-lus, adj. having eight petals.

Octopod, ok′tō-pod, adj. eight-footed or eight-armed—also Octop′odous.—n. an octopus.

Octopus, ok′tō-pus, n. a widely distributed genus of eight-armed cuttle-fishes, covered with suckers, a devil-fish. [Gr. oktō, eight, pous, podos, foot.]

Octoradiate, -d, ok-tō-rā′di-āt, -ed, adj. having eight rays.

Octoroon, ok-tō-rōōn′, n. the offspring of a quadroon and a white person: one who has one-eighth negro blood. [L. octo, eight.]

Octosepalous, ok-tō-sep′a-lus, adj. having eight sepals.

Octospermous, ok-tō-sper′mus, adj. having eight seeds.

Octosporous, ok-tō-spō′rus, adj. eight-spored.

Octostichous, ok-tos′ti-kus, adj. (bot.) eight-ranked.

Octostyle, ok′tō-stīl, n. an edifice or portico with eight pillars in front.

Octosyllabic, ok-tō-sil-lab′ik, adj. consisting of eight syllables.—n. Oc′tosyllable, a word of eight syllables.

Octroi, ok-trw′, n. a grant of the exclusive right of trade: a toll or tax levied at the gates of a city on articles brought in: the place where such taxes are paid. [Fr.,—octroyer, to grant—L. auctorāre, to authorise—auctor, author.]

Octuple, ok′tū-pl, adj. eightfold.—n. Oc′tūplet (mus.), a group of eight notes to be played in the time of six.

Octyl, ok′til, n. a hypothetical organic radical, known only in combination—also Capryl.—n. Oc′tylēne, a hydrocarbon obtained by heating octylic alcohol with sulphuric acid.—adj. Octyl′ic.

Ocular, ok′ū-lar, adj. pertaining to the eye: formed in, or known by, the eye: received by actual sight.—adv. Oc′ularly.—adjs. Oc′ulāte, -d, having eyes, or spots like eyes; Oculau′ditory, representing an eye and an ear together; Oculif′erous, Oculig′erous, bearing an eye or eyes; Oc′uliform, ocular in form; Oc′ulimōtor, -y, ocular and motory.—n. Oc′ulist, one skilled in diseases of the eye. [L. oculariusoculus, the eye.]

Od, ōd, or od, n. a peculiar force acting on the nervous system, assumed by Reichenbach to exist in light, heat, electricity, living bodies, and all material substances whatever, and to produce the phenomena of mesmerism.—adj. O′dic.—ns. Od′-force, od; O′dism, belief in od. [Gr. hodos, a way.]

Od, od, n. for God—sometimes Odd.—interjs. Od's-bodikins, God's body; Od's life, God's life; Od's-pitikins (Shak.), a corr. of God's pity.

Odal, Odaller, same as Udal, Udaller.

Odalisque, Odalisk, ō′da-lisk, n. a female slave in a harem. [Fr.,—Turk. oda, a chamber.]

Odd, od, adj. not paired with another: not even: left over after a round number has been taken: additional to a certain amount in round numbers: not exactly divisible by two: strange: unusual in kind or appearance: trifling: remote: (Shak.) at variance.—ns. Odd′-come-shortly, an early day, any time; Odd′fellow, a member of a secret benevolent society called Oddfellows; Odd′ity, the state of being odd or singular: strangeness: a singular person or thing.—adj. Odd′-look′ing, having a singular appearance.—adv. Odd′ly.—ns. Odd′ment, something remaining over: one of a broken set—often used in the plural; Odd′ness.— Odds (odz), inequality: difference in favour of one against another: more than an even wager: the amount or proportion by which the bet of one exceeds that of another: advantage: dispute: scraps, miscellaneous pieces, as in the phrase Odds and ends (lit. 'points' and ends).—At odds, at variance. [Scand., Ice. oddi, a triangle, odd number—Ice. oddr, point; cf. A.S. ord, point.]

Ode, ōd, n. a song: a poem written to be set to music: the music written for such a poem.—adj. O′dic.—n. O′dist, a writer of odes. [Fr. ode—Gr. ōdē, contr. from aoidēaeidein, to sing.]

Odeum, ō-dē′um, n. in ancient Greece a theatre for musical contests, &c., sometimes applied to a modern music-hall.—Also Odē′on. [Gr.]

Odin, ō′din, n. the chief of the gods in Norse mythology.

Odious, ō′di-us, adj. hateful: offensive: repulsive: causing hatred.—adv. O′diously.—ns. O′diousness; O′dium, hatred: offensiveness: blame: quality of provoking hate.—Odium theologicum, the proverbial hatred of controversial divines for each other's errors—and persons. [L.,—odi, to hate.]

Odometer=Hodometer (q.v.).

Odontoglossum, ō-don-tō-glos′um, n. a genus of tropical American orchids with showy flowers.

Odontoid, o-don′toid, adj. tooth-shaped: tooth-like.—ns. Odontal′gia, Odontal′gy, toothache.—adj. Odontal′gic.—n. Odontī′asis, the cutting of the teeth.—adj. Odon′tic, dental.—n. Odon′toblast, a cell by which dentine is developed.—adjs. Odon′tocete, toothed, as a cetacean; Odontogen′ic.—ns. Odontog′eny, the origin and development of teeth; Odontog′raphy, description of teeth.—adjs. Odontolog′ic, -al.—ns. Odontol′ogist, one skilled in odontology; Odontol′ogy, the science of the teeth; Odontolox′ia, irregularity of teeth; Odontō′ma, a small tumour composed of dentine.—adjs. Odon′tomous, pertaining to odontoma; Odontoph′oral, Odontoph′oran.—n. Odon′tophore, the radula, tongue, or lingual ribbon of certain molluscs.—adjs. Odontoph′orous, bearing teeth; Odontostom′atous, having jaws which bite like teeth.—ns. Odontotherapī′a, the treatment or care of the teeth; Odon′trypy, the operation of perforating a tooth to draw off purulent matter from the cavity of the pulp. [Gr. odous, odontos, a tooth.]

Odour, ō′dur, n. smell: perfume: estimation: reputation.—adj. Odorif′erous, bearing odour or scent: diffusing fragrance: perfumed.—adv. Odorif′erously.—n. Odorif′erousness, the quality of being odoriferous.—adj. O′dorous, emitting an odour or scent: sweet-smelling: fragrant.—adv. O′dorously.—n. O′dorousness, the quality of exciting the sensation of smell.—adjs. O′doured, perfumed; O′dourless, without odour.—Odour of sanctity (see Sanctity); In bad odour, in bad repute. [Fr.,—L. odor.]

Odyle, ō′dil, n. Same as Od (1).

Odyssey, od′is-si, n. a Greek epic poem, ascribed to Homer, describing the return of the Greeks from the Trojan war, and esp. of Odysseus (Ulysses) to Ithaca after ten years' wanderings.

Œcology, ē-kol′ō-ji, n. the science of animal and vegetable economy.—n. Œ′cium, the household common to the individuals of a compound organism.—adj. Œcolog′ical.

Œconomy, Œcumenic, -al, &c. See Economy, Ecumenic.

Œdema, ē-dē′ma, n. (med.) the swelling occasioned by the effusion or infiltration of serum into cellular or areolar structures, usually the subcutaneous cellular tissue. [Gr. oidēma, swelling.]

Œdemia, ē-dē′mi-a, n. a genus of Anatid, the scoters, surf-ducks, or sea-coots. [Gr. oidēma.]

Œillade, ėl-yad′, n. (Shak.) a glance or wink given with the eye.—ns. Œil-de-bœuf, a round or oval opening for admitting light: a small, narrow window, or bull's-eye:—pl. Œils-de-bœuf; Œil-de-perdrix, a small, round figure in decorative art, a dot. [Fr. œilladeœil, eye.]

Œnanthic, ē-nan′thik, adj. having or imparting the characteristic odour of wine.—ns. Œnol′ogy, the science of wines; Œ′nomancy, divination from the appearance of wine poured out in libations; Œnomā′nia, dipsomania; Œnom′eter, a hydrometer for measuring the alcoholic strength of wines; Œnoph′ilist, a lover of wine. [Gr. oinos wine.]

Œnomel, ē′no-mel, n. wine mixed with honey: mead. [Gr. oinos, wine, and meli, honey.]

Œnothera, ē-nō-thē′ra, n. a genus of leafy branching plants, with yellow or purplish flowers, called also Evening, or Tree, primrose. [Gr. oinos, wine, and perh. thēran, to hunt.]

O'er, ōr, contracted from over.

O'ercome, owr′kum, n. (Scot.) the burden of a song: overplus.—n. O'er′lay, a large cravat.

Oes, ōz, n. (Bacon) circlets of gold or silver.

Œsophagus, Esophagus, ē-sof′a-gus, n. the gullet, a membranous canal about nine inches in length, extending from the pharynx to the stomach, thus forming part of the alimentary canal.—n. Œsophagal′gia, pain, esp. neuralgia, in the œsophagus.—adj. Œsophageal (-faj′-).ns. Œsophagec′tomy, excision of a portion of the œsophagus; Œsophagis′mus, œsophageal spasm; Œsophagī′tis, inflammation of the œsophagus; Œsophag′ocele, hernia of the mucous membrane of the œsophagus through its walls; Œsophagodyn′ia, pain in the œsophagus; Œsophagop′athy, disease of the œsophagus; Œsophagoplē′gia, paralysis of the œsophagus; Œsophagorrhā′gia, hemorrhage from the œsophagus; Œsoph′agoscope, an instrument for inspecting the interior of the œsophagus; Œsophagospas′mus, spasm of the œsophagus; Œsophagostenō′sis, a constriction of the œsophagus. [Gr.]

Œstrum, ēs′trum, n. violent desire.—adj. Œs′trual, in heat, rutting.—v.i. Œs′truāte, to be in heat.—ns. Œstruā′tion; Œs′trus, a gadfly. [L.]

Of, ov, prep. from or out from: belonging to: out of: among: proceeding from, so in the Litany and Nicene Creed: owing to: with: over: concerning: during: (B. and Pr. Bk.) sometimes=by, from, on, or over.—Of purpose (B.), intentionally. [A.S. of; Dut. af, Ger. ab, also L. ab, Gr. apo.]

Off, of, adv. from: away from: on the opposite side of a question.—adj. most distant: on the opposite or farther side: on the side of a cricket-field right of the wicket-keeper and left of the bowler: not devoted to usual business, as an Off day.—prep. not on.—interj. away! depart!—adj. and adv. Off′-and-on′, occasional.—adj. Off′-col′our, of inferior value: indisposed.—n. Off′-come (Scot.), an apology, pretext: any exhibition of temper, &c.—adv. Off′-hand, at once: without hesitating.—adj. without study: impromptu: free and easy.—adj. Off′ish, reserved in manner.—ns. Off′-print, a reprint of a single article from a magazine or other periodical—the French tirage part, German Abdruck; Off′-reck′oning, an allowance formerly made to certain British officers from the money appropriated for army clothing.—v.t. Off′saddle, to unsaddle.—ns. Off′scouring, matter scoured off: refuse: anything vile or despised; Off′-scum, refuse or scum; Off′set (in accounts), a sum or value set off against another as an equivalent: a short lateral shoot or bulb: a terrace on a hillside: (archit.) a horizontal ledge on the face of a wall: in surveying, a perpendicular from the main line to an outlying point.—v.t. (in accounts) to place against as an equivalent.—n. Off′shoot, that which shoots off from the main stem, stream, &c.: anything growing out of another.—adv. Off′shore, in a direction from the shore, as a wind: at a distance from the shore.—adj. from the shore.—ns. Off′side, the right-hand side in driving: the farther side; Off′spring, that which springs from another: a child, or children: issue: production of any kind.—Off one's chump, head, demented; Off one's feed, indisposed to eat.—Be off, to go away quickly; Come off, Go off, Show off, Take off, &c. (see Come, Go, Show, Take, &c.); Ill off, poor or unfortunate; Tell off, to count: to assign, as for a special duty; Well off, rich, well provided. [Same as Of.]

Offal, of′al, n. waste meat: the part of an animal which is unfit for use: refuse: anything worthless. [Off and fall.]

Offend, of-fend′, v.t. to displease or make angry: to do harm to: to affront: (B.) to cause to sin.—v.i. to sin: to cause anger: (B.) to be made to sin.—n. Offence′, any cause of anger or displeasure: an injury: a crime: a sin: affront: assault.—adjs. Offence′ful (Shak.) giving offence or displeasure: injurious; Offence′less (Milt.), unoffending: innocent.—ns. Offend′er, one who offends or injures: a trespasser: a criminal:—fem. Offend′ress; Offense′, &c., same as Offence, &c.—adj. Offens′ive, causing offence, displeasure, or injury: used in attack: making the first attack.—n. the act of the attacking party: the posture of one who attacks.—adv. Offens′ively.—n. Offens′iveness.—Offensive and defensive, requiring all parties to make war together, or to defend each other if attacked.—Give offence, to cause displeasure; Take offence, to feel displeasure, be offended. [Fr.,—L. ob, against, fendĕre, to strike.]

Offer, of′ėr, v.t. to bring to or before: to hold out for acceptance or rejection: to make a proposal to: to lay before: to present to the mind: to attempt: to propose to give, as a price or service: to present in worship.—v.i. to present itself: to be at hand: to declare a willingness.—n. act of offering: first advance: that which is offered: proposal made.—adj. Off′erable, that may be offered.—ns. Off′erer; Off′ering, act of making an offer: that which is offered: a gift: (B.) that which is offered on an altar: a sacrifice: (pl.) in Church of England, certain dues payable at Easter; Off′ertory, act of offering, the thing offered: the verses or the anthem said or sung while the offerings of the congregation are being made and the celebrant is placing the unconsecrated elements on the altar: the money collected at a religious service: anciently a linen or silken cloth used in various ceremonies connected with the administration of the eucharist. [L. offerreob, towards, ferre, to bring.]

Office, of′is, n. settled duty or employment: a position imposing certain duties or giving a right to exercise an employment: business: act of worship: order or form of a religious service, either public or private: that which a thing is designed or fitted to do: a place where business is carried on: (pl.) acts of good or ill: service: the apartments of a house in which the domestics discharge their duties.—ns. Off′ice-bear′er, one who holds office: one who has an appointed duty to perform in connection with some company, society, &c.; Off′icer, one who holds an office: a person who performs some public duty: a person entrusted with responsibility in the army or navy.—v.t. to furnish with officers: to command, as officers.—adj. Offic′ial, pertaining to an office: depending on the proper office or authority: done by authority.—n. one who holds an office: a subordinate public officer: the deputy of a bishop, &c.—ns. Offic′ialism, official position: excessive devotion to official routine and detail; Official′ity, Offic′ialty, the charge, office, or jurisdiction of an official: the official headquarters of an ecclesiastical or other deliberative and governing body.—adv. Offic′ially.—n. Offic′iant, one who officiates at a religious service, one who administers a sacrament.—v.i. Offic′iāte, to perform the duties of an office: (with for) to perform official duties in place of another.—n. Offic′iātor.—Give the office (slang), to suggest, supply information; Holy office, the Inquisition. [Fr.,—L. officium.]

Officinal, of-fis′i-nal, adj. belonging to, or used in, a shop: denoting an approved medicine kept prepared by apothecaries. [Fr.,—L. officina, a workshop—opus, work, facĕre, to do.]

Officious, of-fish′us, adj. too forward in offering services: overkind: intermeddling.—adv. Offic′iously.—n. Offic′iousness. [Fr.,—L. officiosusofficium.]

Offing, of′ing, n. the part of the sea more than half-way between the shore and the horizon.

Oft, oft, Often, of′n, adv. frequently: many times.—adj. Oft′en (B.), frequent.—n. Oft′enness, frequency.—advs. Oft′times, Oft′entimes, many times: frequently. [A.S. oft; Ger. oft, Goth. ufta.]

Ogee, ō-jē′, n. a wave-like moulding formed of a convex curve continued or followed by a concave one. [Fr. ogive.]


Ogham, Ogam, og′am, n. an ancient Irish writing, in straight lines crossing each other; one of the characters, twenty in number, of which it is formed.—adjs. Ogh′amic, Og′amic.

Ogive, ō′jiv, n. (archit.) a pointed arch or window.—adj. Ogī′val. [Fr.,—Sp.,—Ar. wj, summit.]

Ogle, ō′gl, v.t. to look at fondly with side glances.—v.i. to cast amorous glances.—ns. O′gle; O′gler; O′gling. [Dut. oogenooge, the eye.]

Ogre, ō′gėr, n. a man-eating monster or giant of fairy tales:—fem. O′gress.—adj. O′greish. [Fr. ogre—Sp. ogro—L. orcus, the lower world.]

Ogygian, ō-jij′i-an, adj. pertaining to the mythical Attic king Ogўges, prehistoric, primeval.

Oh, ō, interj. denoting surprise, pain, sorrow, &c.

Ohm, ōm, n. the unit by which electrical resistance is measured, being nearly equal to that caused by a thousand feet of copper wire one-tenth of an inch in diameter.—Ohm's law (see Law). [Georg Simon Ohm, a German electrician, 1787-1854.]

Oidium, ō-id′i-um, n. a genus of parasitic fungi, including the vine-mildew, &c. [Gr. ōon, an egg.]

Oil, oil, n. the juice from the fruit of the olive-tree: any greasy liquid.—v.t. to smear or anoint with oil.—ns. Oil′bag, a bag or cyst in animals containing oil; Oil′cake, a cake made of flax seed from which the oil has been pressed out; Oil′cloth, a painted floorcloth; Oil′-col′our, a colouring substance mixed with oil; Oil′er, one who, or that which, oils: an oil-can: (coll.) a coat of oilskin; Oil′ery, the commodities of an oil-man; Oil′-gas, illuminating gas or heating gas made by distilling oil in closed retorts; Oil′iness; Oil′-man, one who deals in oils; Oil′-mill, a grinding-mill for expressing oil from seeds, nuts, &c.; Oil′nut, the butter-nut of North America; Oil′-paint′ing, a picture painted in oil-colours: the art of painting in oil-colours; Oil′-palm, a palm whose fruit-pulp yields palm-oil; Oil′-press, a machine for expressing oils from seeds or pulp; Oil′skin, cloth made waterproof by means of oil: a garment made of oilskin; Oil′-spring, a spring whose water contains oily matter: a fissure or area from which petroleum, &c. oozes; Oil′stone, a fine-grained kind of stone used, when wetted with oil, for sharpening tools; Oil′-well, a boring made for petroleum.—adj. Oil′y, consisting of, containing, or having the qualities of oil: greasy.—Strike oil (see Strike). [O. Fr. oile (Fr. huile)—L. oleum—Gr. elaionelaia, the olive.]

Ointment, oint′ment, n. anything used in anointing: (med.) any greasy substance applied to diseased or wounded parts: (B.) a perfume. [O. Fr.,—L. unguentumungĕre, to smear.]

Okapi, ō′ka-pi, n. a giraffe-like animal of the Semliki forests of Central Africa.

Oke, ōk, n. a Turkish weight of 2 lb. avoirdupois.

Old, ōld, adj. advanced in years: having been long in existence: worn out: out of date, old-fashioned: ancient, former, antique, early: (coll.) great, high: having the age or duration of: long practised: sober, wise.—n. Old-clothes′man, one who buys cast-off garments.—v.i. Old′en, to grow old, to become affected by age.—adj. old, ancient.—adj. Old-fash′ioned, of a fashion like that used long ago: out of date: clinging to old things and old styles: with manners like those of a grown-up person (said of a child).—n. Old-fash′ionedness.—adjs. Old-fō′gyish, like an old fogy; Old-gen′tlemanly, characteristic of an old gentleman; Old′ish, somewhat old; Old′-light, denoting those of the Seceders from the Church of Scotland who continued to hold unchanged the principle of the connection between church and state—the position maintained by the first Seceders in 1733.—n. one of this body.—ns. Old-maid′hood, Old-maid′ism.—adj. Old-maid′ish, like the conventional old maid, prim.—ns. Old′ness; Old′ster (coll.), a man getting old: a midshipman of four years' standing, a master's mate.—adj. Old′-time, of or pertaining to times long gone by: of long standing: old-fashioned.—n. Old′-tim′er, one who has lived in a place or kept a position for a long time.—adjs. Old-wom′anish, like an old woman; Old′-world, belonging to earlier times, antiquated, old-fashioned.—n. the Eastern Hemisphere.—Old age, the later part of life; Old bachelor, an unmarried man somewhat advanced in years; Old English (see English): the form of black letter used by 16th-century English printers; Old gold, a dull gold colour like tarnished gold, used in textile fabrics; Old Harry, Nick, One, &c., the devil; Old Hundred, properly Old Hundredth, a famous tune set in England about the middle of the 16th century to Kethe's version of the 100th Psalm, marked 'Old Hundredth' in Tate and Brady's new version in 1696; Old maid, a woman who has not been married, and is past the usual age of marriage: a simple game played by matching cards from a pack from which a card (usually a queen) has been removed; Old man, unregenerate human nature: (coll.) one's father, guardian, or employer (usually with 'the'); Old Red Sandstone (see Sand); Old salt, an experienced sailor; Old school, of, or resembling, earlier days, old-fashioned; Old song, a mere trifle, a very small price; Old squaw, a sea-duck of the northern hemisphere—also Old wife; Old Style (often written with a date O.S.), the mode of reckoning time before 1752, according to the Julian calendar or year of 365 days; Old Testament (see Testament); Old Tom, a strong kind of English gin; Old wife, a prating old woman, or even a man: a chimney-cap for curing smoking.—Of old, long ago, in ancient times, or belonging to such. [A.S. eald; Dut. oud; Ger. alt.]

Oleaginous, ō-lē-aj′in-us, adj. oily: (bot.) fleshy and oily: unctuous, sanctimonious, fawning.—n. Oleag′inousness. [L. oleaginusoleum, oil.]

Oleander, ō-lē-an′dėr, n. an evergreen shrub with lance-shaped leathery leaves and beautiful red or white flowers, the Rose Bay or Rose Laurel. [Fr., a corr. of Low L. lorandrum. Cf. Rhododendron.]

Oleaster, ō-lē-as′tėr, n. the wild olive. [L.,—olea, an olive-tree—Gr. elaia.]

Olecranon, ō-lē-krā′non, n. a process forming the upper end of the ulna.—adj. Olecrā′nal. [Gr.]

Olein, ō′lē-in, n. a natural fat, found in the fatty oils of animals and vegetables.—n. O′leāte, a salt of oleic acid.—adj. Olefī′ant, producing oil.—ns. Olefī′ant-gas, ethylene; O′lefine, any one of a group of hydrocarbons homologous with ethylene.—adjs. O′leic; Oleif′erous, producing oil, as seeds.—ns. Oleomar′garine, artificial butter at first made from pure beef-fat, now from oleo-oil, neutral lard, milk, cream, and pure butter, worked together, with a colouring matter; Oleom′eter, an instrument for determining the density of oils; O′leon, a liquid obtained from the distillation of olein and lime; Oleores′in, a native compound of an essential oil and a resin: a preparation of a fixed or volatile oil holding resin in solution; Oleosac′charum, a mixture of oil and sugar.—adjs. O′leōse, O′leous, oily. [L. oleum, oil.]

Olent, ō′lent, adj. smelling. [L. olēre, to smell.]

Oleograph, ō′lē-ō-graf, n. a print in oil-colours to imitate an oil-painting.—n. Oleog′raphy, the art of preparing such. [L. oleum, oil, Gr. graphein, to write.]

Oleraceous, ol-e-rā′shus, adj. of the nature of a pot-herb, for kitchen use. [L.]

Olfactory, ol-fak′tor-i, adj. pertaining to, or used in, smelling. [L. olfactāre, to smell—olēre, to smell, facĕre, to make.]

Olibanum, ō-lib′a-num, n. a gum-resin flowing from incisions in several species of Boswellia in Somaliland and southern Arabia—the Lebonah of the Hebrews, Libanos and Libanōtos of the Greeks.

Oligmia, ol-i-jē′mi-a, n. abnormal deficiency of blood.

Oligarchy, ol′i-grk-i, n. government by a small exclusive class: a state governed by such: a small body of men who have the supreme power of a state in their hands.—n. Ol′igarch, a member of an oligarchy.—adjs. Oligarch′al, Oligarch′ic, -al, pertaining to an oligarchy. [Fr.,—Gr., oligos, few, archein, to rule.]

Oligist, ol′i-jist, n. a crystallised variety of hematite.

Oligocene, ol′i-gō-sēn, adj. (geol.) pertaining to a division of the Tertiary series, the rocks chiefly of fresh and brackish water origin, with intercalations of marine beds. [Gr. oligos, little, kainos, new.]

Oligochrome, ol′i-gō-krōm, adj. and n. painted in few colours. [Gr. oligos, few, chrōma, colour.]

Oligoclase, ol′i-gō-klās, n. a soda-lime triclinic feldspar.

Olio, ō′li-ō, n. a savoury dish of different sorts of meat and vegetables: a mixture: a medley, literary miscellany. [Sp. olla—L. olla, a pot.]

Oliphant, ol′i-fant, n. an ancient ivory hunting-horn: an obsolete form of elephant.

Olitory, ol′i-tō-ri, adj. and n. pertaining to kitchen-vegetables:—pl. Ol′itories. [L. olitor, gardener.]

Olive, ol′iv, n. a tree cultivated round the Mediterranean for its oily fruit: its fruit: peace, of which the olive was the emblem: a colour like the unripe olive.—adj. of a brownish-green colour like the olive.—adjs. Olivā′ceous, olive-coloured: olive-green; Ol′ivary, like olives.—ns. Ol′ivenite, a mineral consisting chiefly of arsenic acid and protoxide of iron; Ol′ive-oil, oil pressed from the fruit of the olive; Ol′ive-yard, a piece of ground on which olives are grown; Ol′ivine, chrysolite.—Olive branch, a symbol of peace: (pl.) children (Ps. cxxviii. 4; Pr. Bk.). [Fr.,—L. oliva—Gr. elaia.]

Oliver, ol′i-vėr, n. a forge-hammer worked by foot.

Oliverian, ol-i-vē′ri-an, adj. an adherent of the great Protector, Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658).

Olivet, ol′i-vet, n. an imitation pearl manufactured for trade with savages.

Olivetan, ol′i-vet-an, n. one of an order of Benedictine monks founded in 1313, the original house at Monte Oliveto, near Siena.

Olla, ol′la, n. a jar or urn.—n. Ol′la-podrida (-po-drē′da), a Spanish mixed stew or hash of meat and vegetables: any incongruous mixture or miscellaneous collection. [Sp.,—L. olla, a pot.]

Ollam, ol′am, n. a doctor or master among the ancient Irish.—Also Oll′amh. [Ir.]

Ology, ol′ō-ji, n. a science whose name ends in -ology, hence any science generally.

Olpe, ol′pē, n. a small Greek even-rimmed spoutless vase or jug. [Gr.]

Olympiad, ō-lim′pi-ad, n. in ancient Greece, a period of four years, being the interval from one celebration of the Olympic games to another, used in reckoning time (the date of the first Olympiad is 776 B.C.).—adjs. Olym′pian, Olym′pic, pertaining to Olympia in Elis, where the Olympic games were celebrated, or to Mount Olympus in Thessaly, the seat of the gods.—n. a dweller in Olympus, one of the twelve greater gods of Greek mythology.— Olym′pics, Olym′pic games, games celebrated every four years at Olympia, dedicated to Olympian Zeus; Olym′pus, the abode of the gods, supposed to have been Mount Olympus in Thessaly. [Gr. olympias, -ados, belonging to Olympia in Elis.]

Omadhaun, om′a-dawn, n. a stupid, silly creature. [Ir.]

Omasum, ō-mā′sum, n. a ruminant's third stomach, the psalterium or manyplies.—adj. Omā′sal.

Ombre, om′bėr, n. a game of cards played with a pack of forty cards, usually by three persons. [Fr.,—Sp. hombre—L. homo, a man.]

Ombrometer, om-brom′e-tėr, n. a rain-gauge.

Omega, ō′meg-a, or ō-mē′ga, n. the last letter of the Greek alphabet: (B.) the end.—Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end: the chief point or purpose (Rev. i. 8). [Gr. ō mega, the great or long O.]

Omelet, Omelette, om′e-let, n. a pancake chiefly of eggs, beaten up with flour, &c., and fried in a pan. [O. Fr. amelette (Fr. omelette), which through the form alemette is traced to alemelle, the O. Fr. form of Fr. alumelle, a thin plate, a corr. of lemelle—L. lamella, lamina, a thin plate.]

Omen, ō′men, n. a sign of some future event, either good or evil: a foreboding.—v.i. and v.t. to prognosticate: to predict.—adj. O′mened, containing omens, mostly with prefixes, as ill-omened. [L. for osmen, that which is uttered by the mouth—L. os; or for ausmen, that heard—audīre, to hear.]

Omentum, ō-men′tum, n. a fold of peritoneum, proceeding from one of the abdominal viscera to another:—pl. Omen′ta.—adj. Omen′tal.—Great omentum, the epiploon. [L.]

Omer, ō′mėr, n. a Hebrew dry measure containing about half a gallon, 110 ephah.

Omicron, ō-mī′kron, n. the short o in the Greek alphabet.

Ominous, om′in-us, adj. pertaining to, or containing, an omen: foreboding evil: inauspicious.—adv. Om′inously.—n. Om′inousness.

Omit, ō-mit′, v.t. to leave out: to neglect: to fail: to make no use of:—pr.p. omit′ting; pa.t. and pa.p. omit′ted.adj. Omiss′ible, that may be omitted.—n. Omiss′ion, act of omitting: the neglect or failure to do something required: that which is left out.—adj. Omiss′ive, omitting or leaving out.—n. Omit′tance, the act of omitting: the state of being omitted: forbearance. [L. omittĕre, omissumob, away, mittĕre, to send.]

Omlah, om′la, n. a staff of native clerks or officials in India. [Ar.]

Omni-, om′ni, from L. omnis, all, a combining form, as in adjs. Omnifā′rious, of all varieties or kinds; Omnif′erous, bearing or producing all kinds; Omnif′ic, all-creating; Om′niform, of, or capable of, every form.—n. Omniform′ity.—v.t. Om′nify (rare), to make universal.—adj. Omnig′enous, consisting of all kinds.—n. Omnipar′ity, general equality.—adjs. Omnip′arous, producing all things; Omnipā′tient, enduring all things.—ns. Omnip′otence, Omnip′otency, unlimited power—an attribute of God.—adj. Omnip′otent, all-powerful, possessing unlimited power.—adv. Omnip′otently.—n. Omnipres′ence, quality of being present everywhere at the same time—an attribute of God.—adj. Omnipres′ent, present everywhere at the same time.—n. Omnisc′ience, knowledge of all things—an attribute of God.—adj. Omnisc′ient, all-knowing: all-seeing: infinitely wise.—adv. Omnisc′iently.—adj. Omniv′orous, all-devouring: (zool.) feeding on both animal and vegetable food.—The Omnipotent, God.

Omnibus, om′ni-bus, adj. including all: covering many different cases or objects, as 'an omnibus clause.'—n. a large four-wheeled vehicle for passengers, chiefly between two fixed points:—pl. Om′nibuses. [Lit. 'for all,' L. dative pl. of omnis, all.]

Omnium, om′ni-um, n. a Stock Exchange term for the aggregate value of the different stocks in which a loan is funded.—n. Om′nium-gath′erum (coll.), a miscellaneous collection of things or persons. [L., 'of all;' gen. pl. of omnis, all.]

Omohyoid, ō-mō-hī′oid, adj. pertaining to the shoulder-blade, and to the lingual or hyoid bone—also Omohyoi′dean.—n. Omoi′deum, the pterygoid bone. [Gr. ōmos, the shoulder.]

Omophagous, ō-mof′a-gus, adj. eating raw flesh—also Omophag′ic.—n. Omophā′gia. [Gr. ōmos, raw, phagein, to eat.]

Omophorion, ō-mō-fō′ri-on, n. an eastern ecclesiastical vestment like the western pallium, worn over the phenolion by bishops and patriarchs at the eucharist, &c. [Gr. ōmos, the shoulder, pherein, to carry.]

Omoplate, ō′mō-plāt, n. the shoulder-blade or scapula.—n. Omoplatos′copy, scapulimancy. [Gr. ōmoplatē.]

Omosternum, ō-mō-ster′num, n. a median ossification of the coraco-scapular cartilages of a batrachian. [Gr. ōmos, the shoulder, sternon, the chest.]

Omphacite, om′fa-sīt, n. a grass-green granular variety of pyroxene, one of the constituents of eclogite.—adj. Om′phacine, pertaining to unripe fruit.

Omphalos, om′fal-us, n. the navel: a raised central point: a boss.—adj. Omphal′ic.—ns. Om′phalism, tendency to place the capital of a country at its geographical centre, or to increase the powers of central at the expense of local government; Omphalī′tis, inflammation of the umbilicus; Om′phalocele, umbilical hernia.—adj. Om′phaloid.—ns. Om′phalomancy, divination from the number of knots in the navel-string as to how many children the mother will bear; Omphalop′agus, a double monster united at the umbilicus; Omphalot′omy, cutting of the umbilical cord at birth. [Gr., the navel.]

On, on, prep., in contact with the upper part of: to and toward the surface of: upon or acting by contact with: not off: at or near: at or during: in addition to: toward, for: at the peril of: in consequence: immediately after: (B.) off.—adv. above, or next beyond: forward, in succession: in continuance: not off.—interj. go on! proceed!—adj. denoting the part of the field to the left of a right-handed batter, and to the right of the bowler—opp. to Off. [A.S. on; Dut. aan, Ice. , Ger. an.]

On, on, prep. (Scot.) without.

Onager, on′ā-jėr, n. the wild ass of Central Asia. [L.,—Gr. onagrosonos, an ass, agros, wild.]

Onanism, ō′nan-izm, n. self-pollution.—n. O′nanist.—adj. Onanist′ic. [See Gen. xxxviii. 9.]

Once, ons, n. Same as Ounce, the animal.

Once, wuns, adv. a single time: at a former time: at any time or circumstances.—n. one time.—Once and again, more than once: repeatedly; Once for all, once only and not again; Once in a way, on one occasion only: very rarely.—At once, without delay: alike: at the same time; For once, on one occasion only. [A.S. nes, orig. gen. of n, one, used as adv.]

Oncidium, on-sid′i-um, n. a widely-spread American genus of orchids. [Gr. ogkos, a hook.]

Oncology, ong-kol′o-ji, n. the science of tumours.—n. Oncot′omy, incision into, or excision of, a tumour.

Oncome, on′kum, n. (prov.) a sudden fall of rain or snow: the beginning of attack by some insidious disease.—n. On′coming, approach.

Oncometer, ong-com′e-tėr, n. an instrument for recording variations in volume, as of the kidney, &c.—n. On′cograph, an apparatus for recording such. [Gr. ogkos, bulk, metron, measure.]

Oncost, on′kost, n. all charges for labour in getting mineral, other than the miners' wages: payment to the collier in addition to the rate per ton.— On′costmen, men who work in or about a mine at other work than cutting coal. [On and cost.]

Ondine, on′din, n. a water-spirit, an undine.

Onding, on′ding, n. a sudden fall of rain or snow.

One, wun, pron. a person (indefinitely), as in 'one says:' any one: some one.—n. a single person or thing: a unit. [A special use of the numeral one; not conn. with Fr. on—L. homo, a man.]

One, wun, adj. single in number, position, or kind: undivided: the same: a certain, some, implying a name unknown or denoting insignificance or contempt, as 'one Guy Fawkes, a Spaniard!'—adjs. One′-eyed, having but one eye: limited in vision; One′-hand′ed, single-handed; One′-horse, drawn by a single horse: petty, mean, inferior; One′-idea'd, entirely possessed by one idea.—ns. One′ness, singleness, unity; Oner (wun′ėr), one possessing some special skill, an adept (slang).—pron. Oneself′, one's self: himself or herself.—adj. One′-sid′ed, limited to one side: partial: (bot.) turned to one side.—adv. One′-sid′edly.—n. One′-sid′edness.—One another, each other; One by one, singly: in order; One day, on a certain day: at an indefinite time.—All one, just the same: of no consequence; At one, of one mind. [A.S. an; Ice. einn, Ger. ein.]

Oneiromancy, ō-nī′rō-man-si, n. the art of divining by dreams.—ns. Oneirocrit′ic, Onirocrit′ic, one who interprets dreams.—adjs. Oneirocrit′ic, -al.—ns. Oneirodyn′ia, nightmare; Oneirol′ogy, the doctrine of dreams; Onei′roscopist, an interpreter of dreams. [Gr. oneiros, a dream, manteia, divination.]

Onely, ōn′li, adv. (Spens.) only.

Onerous, on′ėr-us, adj. burdensome: oppressive.—adj. On′erary, fitted or intended for carrying burdens: comprising burdens.—adv. On′erously.—n. On′erousness. [L. onerosusonus.]

Oneyer, wun′yėr, n. (1 Hen. IV., II. i. 84) probably a person that converses with great ones—hardly, as Malone explains, an accountant of the exchequer, a banker. [No doubt formed from one, like lawyer, sawyer, &c. Malone over-ingeniously refers to the mark, an abbreviation of the Latin form oneretur, nisi habeat sufficientem exonerationem ('let him be charged unless he have a sufficient discharge'), or explains as a misprint for moneyer.]

Ongoing, on′gō-ing, n. a going on: course of conduct: event: (pl.) proceedings, behaviour.

Onicolo, ō-nik′ō-lō, n. a variety of onyx for cameos, a bluish-white band on the dark ground. [It.]

Onion, un′yun, n. the name given to a few species of genus Allium, esp. Allium cepa, an edible biennial bulbous root.—adj. On′ion-eyed (Shak.), having the eyes full of tears.—n. On′ion-skin, a very thin variety of paper.—adj. On′iony. [Fr. oignon—L. unio, -onisunus, one.]

Onlooker, on′lōōk-ėr, n. a looker on, observer.—adj. On′looking.

Only, ōn′li, adj. single in number or kind: this above all others: alone.—adv. in one manner: for one purpose: singly: merely: barely: entirely.—conj. but: except that.—n. On′liness. [A.S. nlc (adj.)—n, one, lc, like.]

Onocentaur, on-o-sen′tawr, n. a kind of centaur, half-man, half-ass.

Onoclea, on-ō-klē′a, n. a genus of aspidioid ferns, with contracted fertile fronds. [Gr. onos, a vessel, kleiein, to close.]

Onology, ō-nol′ō-ji, n. foolish talk.

Onomantic, on-ō-man′tik, adj. pertaining to On′omancy or (obs.) Onomat′omancy, divination by names. [Gr. onoma, a name, manteia, divination.]

Onomastic, on-ō-mas′tik, adj. pertaining to a name, esp. pertaining to the signature to a paper written in another hand.—n. Onomas′ticon, a list of words: a vocabulary. [Gr., from onoma, a name.]

Onomatology, on-ō-ma-tol′o-ji, n. the science of, or a treatise on, the derivation of names.—n. Onomatol′ogist, one versed in such. [Gr. onoma, onomatos, name, logialegein, to discourse.]

Onomatopœia, on-ō-mat-o-pē′ya, n. the formation of a word so as to resemble the sound of the thing of which it is the name: such a word itself, also the use of such a word, as 'click,' 'cuckoo'—also Onomatopoē′sis, or Onomatopoiē′sis.—adjs. Onomatopœ′ic, Onomatopoet′ic. [Gr. onoma, -atos, a name, poiein, to make.]

Onset, on′set, n. violent attack: assault: storming. [On and set.]

Onshore, on′shōr, adj. toward the land.

Onslaught, on′slawt, n. an attack or onset: assault. [A.S. on, on, sleaht, a stroke.]

Onst, wunst, adv. a vulgar form of once.

Onstead, on′sted, n. (Scot.) a farmstead, the farm buildings. [M. E. wone—A.S. wunian, to dwell, stead, place.]

Ontogenesis, on-tō-jen′e-sis, n. the history of the individual development of an organised being as distinguished from phylogenesis and biogenesis—also Ontog′eny.—adjs. Ontogenet′ic, -al, Ontogen′ic.—adv. Ontogenet′ically. [Gr. onta, things being, neut. pl. of ōn, pr.p. of einai, to be, genesis, generation.]

Ontology, on-tol′o-ji, n. the science that treats of the principles of pure being: that part of metaphysics which treats of the nature and essence of things.—adjs. Ontolog′ic, -al.—adv. Ontolog′ically.—n. Ontol′ogist, one versed in ontology. [Gr. ōn, ontos, being pr.p. of einai, to be, logialegein, to discourse.]

Onus, ō′nus, n. burden: responsibility.—Onus probandī, the burden of proving. [L. onus, burden.]

Onward, on′ward, adj. going on: advancing: advanced.—adv. (also On′wards) toward a point on or in front: forward.

Onym, on′im, n. (zool.) the technical name of a species or other group.—adjs. On′ymal, Onymat′ic.—v.i. On′ymise.—n. On′ymy, the use of onyms.

Onyx, on′iks, n. (min.) an agate formed of layers of chalcedony of different colours, used for making cameos.—ns. Onych′ia, suppurative inflammation near the finger-nail; Onychī′tis, inflammation of the soft parts about the nail; Onych′ium, a little claw; On′ychomancy, divination by means of the finger-nails; Onychonō′sos, disease of the nails.—adj. Onychopath′ic, affected with such.—n. Onychō′sis, disease of the nails. [L.,—Gr. onyx, onychos, a finger-nail.]

Oodles, ōō′dlz, n. (U.S.) abundance.—Also Ood′lins.

Oof, ōōf, n. (slang) money.

Ogenesis, ō-ō-jen′e-sis, n. the genesis and development of the ovum—also Og′eny.—adj. Ogenet′ic.

Oidal, ō-oi′dal, adj. egg-shaped.

Olite, ō′o-līt, n. (geol.) a kind of limestone, composed of grains like the eggs or roe of a fish.—adjs. Olit′ic; Olitif′erous. [Gr. ōon, an egg, lithos, stone.]

Ology, ō-ol′o-ji, n. the science or study of birds' eggs.—n. O′graph, a mechanical device for drawing the outline of a bird's egg.—adjs. Olog′ic, -al.—adv. Olog′ically.—ns. Ol′ogist, one versed in oology; Om′eter, an apparatus for measuring eggs.—adj. Omet′ric.—n. Om′etry, the measurement of eggs. [Gr. ōon, an egg.]

Oolong, ōō′long, n. a variety of black tea, with the flavour of green.—Also Ou′long.

Oorie, Ourie, ōō′ri, adj. (Scot.) feeling cold or chill, shivering.

Ooze, ōōz, n. soft mud: gentle flow, as of water through sand or earth: a kind of mud in the bottom of the ocean: the liquor of a tan vat.—v.i. to flow gently: to percolate, as a liquid through pores or small openings.—adj. Ooz′y, resembling ooze: slimy. [M. E. wose—A.S. wase, mud; akin to A.S. wos, juice, Ice. vas, moisture.]

Opacity, ō-pas′i-ti, n. opaqueness: obscurity.

Opacous, ō-pā′kus, adj. Same as Opaque.

Opah, ō′pa, n. a sea-fish of the Dory family—also called Kingfish.

Opal, ō′pal, n. a precious stone of a milky hue, remarkable for its changing colours.—n. Opalesc′ence.—adjs. Opalesc′ent, reflecting a milky or pearly light from the interior; O′paline, relating to, or like, opal.—v.t. O′palise. [Fr. opale—L. opalus.]

Opaque, ō-pāk′, adj. shady: dark: that cannot be seen through: not transparent.—adv. Opaque′ly.—n. Opaque′ness, quality of being opaque: want of transparency. [Fr.,—L. opacus.]

Ope, ōp, v.t. and v.i. (poet.) short for open.

Opeidocope, ō-pī′dō-skōp, n. an instrument for illustrating sound by means of light.

Open, ō′pn, adj. not shut: allowing one to pass out or in: free from trees: not fenced: not drawn together: spread out: not frozen up: not frosty: free to be used, &c.: public: without reserve: frank: easily understood: generous: liberal: clear: unbalanced, as an account: attentive: free to be discussed.—v.t. to make open: to remove hinderances: to bring to view: to explain: to begin.—v.i. to become open: to unclose: to be unclosed: to begin to appear: to begin.—n. a clear space.—n. O′pener.—adjs. O′pen-eyed (Shak.), watchful; O′pen-hand′ed, with an open hand: generous: liberal.—n. O′pen-hand′edness.—adj. O′pen-heart′ed, with an open heart: frank: generous.—ns. O′pen-heart′edness, liberality: generosity: frankness: candour; O′pening, an open place: a breach: an aperture: beginning: first appearance: opportunity.—adv. O′penly.—adj. O′pen-mind′ed, free from prejudice: ready to receive and consider new ideas.—n. O′pen-mind′edness.—adj. O′pen-mouthed, gaping: greedy: clamorous.—ns. O′penness; O′pen-ses′ame, a form of words which makes barriers fly open—from the story of Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves in the Arabian Nights' Entertainments; O′pen-steek (Scot.), a kind of open-work stitching; O′pen-work, any work showing openings through it for ornament.—adj. open-cast, of mining work in open air.—Open verdict (see Verdict). [A.S. openup, up; cf. Dut. openop, Ice. opinnupp, and Ger. offenauf.]

Opera, op′ėr-a, n. a musical drama: a place where operas are performed.—adj. used in or for an opera, as an opera-glass, &c.—ns. Op′era-cloak, a cloak of elegant form and material for carrying into the auditorium of a theatre or opera-house as a protection against draughts; Op′era-danc′er, one who dances in ballets introduced into operas; Op′era-glass, a small glass or telescope for use at operas, theatres, &c.; Op′era-hat, a hat which can be made flat by compression and expanded again to its full size; Op′era-house, a theatre where operas are represented; Op′era-sing′er.—adjs. Operat′ic, -al, pertaining to or resembling the opera. [It.,—L. opera. Cf. Operate.]

Opera-bouffe, op′ėr-a-bōōf, n. a comic opera. [Fr.,—It. opera-buffa. Cf. Buffoon.]

Operate, op′ėr-āt, v.i. to work: to exert strength: to produce any effect: to exert moral power: (med.) to take effect upon the human system: (surg.) to perform some unusual act upon the body with the hand or an instrument.—v.t. to effect: to produce by agency.—n. Operam′eter, an instrument for indicating the number of movements made by a part of a machine.—adj. Op′erant, operative.—n. an operator.—n. Operā′tion, art or process of operating, or of being at work: that which is done or carried out: agency: influence: method of working: action or movements: surgical performance.—adj. Op′erātive, having the power of operating or acting: exerting force: producing effects: efficacious.—n. a workman in a manufactory: a labourer.—adv. Op′erātively.—ns. Op′erātiveness; Op′erātor, one who, or that which, operates or produces an effect: (math.) a letter, &c., signifying an operation to be performed. [L. operāri, -ātusopera, work, closely conn. with opus, operis, work.]

Operculum, ō-pėr′kū-lum, n. (bot.) a cover or lid: (zool.) the plate over the entrance of a shell: the apparatus which protects the gills of fishes:—pl. Oper′cula.—adjs. Oper′cular, belonging to the operculum; Oper′culate, -d, having an operculum; Operculif′erous; Oper′culiform; Operculig′enous; Operculig′erous. [L.,—operīre, to cover.]

Operetta, op-ėr-et′a, n. a short, light musical drama. [It., dim. of opera.]

Operose, op′ėr-ōz, adj. laborious: tedious.—adv. Op′erosely.—ns. Op′eroseness, Operos′ity.

Ophicleide, of′i-klīd, n. a large bass trumpet, with a deep pitch. [Fr.; coined from Gr. ophis, a serpent, kleis, kleidos, a key.]

Ophidian, o-fid′i-an, n. one of the true serpents, in which the ribs are the only organs of locomotion.—adjs. Ophid′ian, Ophid′ious, pertaining to serpents: having the nature of a serpent.—ns. Ophidiā′rium, a place where serpents are confined; Ophiog′raphy, the description of serpents; Ophiol′ater, a serpent-worshipper.—adj. Ophiol′atrous.—n. Ophiol′atry, serpent-worship.—adjs. Ophiolog′ic, -al.—ns. Ophiol′ogist, one versed in ophiology; Ophiol′ogy, the study of serpents; Oph′iomancy, divination by serpents.—adjs. Ophiomor′phic, Ophiomor′phous, having the form of a serpent; Ophioph′agous, feeding on serpents.—n. Oph′ite, one of a Gnostic sect who worshipped the serpent. [Gr. ophidion, dim. of ophis, opheōs, a serpent.]

Ophiura, of-i-ū′ra, n. a genus of sand-stars.—ns. and adjs. Ophiū′ran; Ophiū′roid. [Gr. ophis, serpent, oura, tail.]

Ophthalmia, of-thal′mi-a, n. inflammation of the eye—also Ophthal′my.—adj. Ophthal′mic, pertaining to the eye.—ns. Ophthal′mist, Ophthalmol′ogist, one skilled in ophthalmology; Ophthalmī′tis, inflammation of the eyeball; Ophthalmodyn′ia, pain, esp. rheumatic pain, of the eye; Ophthalmog′raphy, a description of the eye.—adjs. Ophthalmolog′ic, -al.—ns. Ophthalmol′ogy, the science of the eye, its structure and functions; Ophthalmom′eter, an instrument for eye-measurements; Ophthalmom′etry, the making of such; Ophthalmoplē′gia, paralysis of one or more of the muscles of the eye; Ophthal′moscope, an instrument for examining the interior of the eye.—adjs. Ophthalmoscop′ic, -al.—adv. Ophthalmoscop′ically.—ns. Ophthal′moscopy, examination of the interior of the eye with the ophthalmoscope; Ophthalmot′omy, dissection of the eye: an incision into the eye. [Gr.,—ophthalmos, eye.]

Opiate, ō′pi-āt, n. a drug containing opium to induce sleep: that which dulls sensation, physical or mental.—adj. inducing sleep.—adj. O′piated.

Opine, o-pīn′, v.i. to suppose.—adj. Opin′able, capable of being thought.—ns. Opī′nant, one who forms an opinion; Opin′icus (her.), a half-lion, half-dragon. [Fr.,—L. opināri, to think.]

Opinion, ō-pin′yun, n. one's belief, judgment: favourable estimation: (Shak.) opinionativeness.—adjs. Opin′ionable, that may be matter of opinion; Opin′ionāted, Opin′ioned, firmly adhering to one's own opinions.—adv. Opin′ionātely (obs.).—adj. Opin′ionātive, unduly attached to one's own opinions: stubborn.—adv. Opin′ionātively.—ns. Opin′ionātiveness; Opin′ionist. [L.]

Opisometer, op-i-som′e-tėr, n. an instrument for measuring curved lines on a map. [Gr. opisō, backward, metron, measure.]

Opisthobranchiate, ō-pis-thō-brang′ki-āt, adj. having the gills behind the heart—n. Opisthobranch′ism.

Opisthocœlian, ō-pis-thō-sē′li-an, adj. hollow or concave behind, as a vertebra.—Also Opisthocœ′lous.

Opisthocomous, op-is-thok′ō-mus, adj. having an occipital crest.

Opisthodomos, op-is-thod′ō-mos, n. a rear-chamber or treasury at the back of the cella in some temples. [Gr.]

Opisthodont, ō-pis′thō-dont, adj. having back teeth only.

Opisthogastric, ō-pis-thō-gas′trik, adj. behind the stomach.

Opisthognathous, op-is-thog′nā-thus, adj. having retreating jaws or teeth.

Opisthograph, ō-pis′thō-graf, n. a manuscript or a slab inscribed on the back as well as the front.—adj. Opisthograph′ic, written on both sides.—n. Opisthog′raphy.

Opium, ō′pi-um, n. the narcotic juice of the white poppy.—n. O′pium-eat′er, one who makes a habitual use of opium. [L.,—Gr. opion, dim. from opos, sap.]

Opobalsam, op-ō-bal′sam, n. a resinous juice, balm of Gilead.

Opodeldoc, op-ō-del′dok, n. a solution of soap in alcohol, with camphor and essential oils, soap-liniment. [Fr., perh. from Gr. opos, juice.]

Opopanax, ō-pop′a-naks, n. a gum-resin used in perfumery and formerly in medicine. [Gr., opos, juice, panax, a plant, panakēs, all-healing.]

Oporice, ō-por′i-sē, n. a medicine prepared from quinces, pomegranates, &c.

Opossum, o-pos′um, n. a small American marsupial mammal, nocturnal, mainly arboreal, with prehensile tail: an Australian marsupial. [West Indian.]

Oppidan, op′i-dan, n. at Eton, a student who is not a foundationer or colleger. [L. oppidanusoppidum, town.]

Oppilation, op-i-lā′shun, n. stoppage.—v.t. Opp′ilate, to crowd together.—adj. Opp′ilātive, obstructive. [L.]

Opponent, ō-pō′nent, adj. opposing in action, speech, &c.: placed in front.—n. one who opposes.

Opportune, op-or-tūn′, adj. present at a proper time: timely: convenient.—adv. Opportune′ly.—ns. Opportune′ness; Opportun′ism, practice of regulating principles by favourable opportunities without regard to consistency; Opportun′ist, a politician who waits for events before declaring his opinions: a person without settled principles; Opportun′ity, an opportune or convenient time: a good occasion or chance. [Fr.,—L. opportunusob, before, portus, a harbour.]

Oppose, o-pōz′, v.t. to place before or in the way of: to set against: to place as an obstacle: to resist: to check: to compete with.—v.i. to make objection.—n. Opposabil′ity.—adjs. Oppos′able, that may be opposed; Oppose′less (Shak.), not to be opposed, irresistible.—n. Oppos′er, one who opposes.—v.t. and v.i. Oppos′it, to negative. [Fr.,—L. ob, Fr. poser, to place.]

Opposite, op′ō-zit, adj. placed over against: standing in front: situated on opposite sides: contrasted with: opposed to: of an entirely different nature.—n. that which is opposed or contrary: an opponent.—adv. Opp′ositely.—n. Opp′ositeness.—Be opposite with (Shak.), to be perverse and contradictory in dealing with. [Fr.,—L. oppositusob, against, ponĕre, positum, to place.]

Opposition, op-ō-zish′un, n. state of being placed over against: position over against: repugnance: contrariety: contrast: act or action of opposing: resistance: that which opposes: obstacle: (logic) a difference of quantity or quality between two propositions having the same subject and predicate: the party that opposes the ministry or existing administration: (astron.) the situation of heavenly bodies when 180 degrees apart.—n. Opposi′tionist, one who belongs to an opposing party, esp. that opposed to the government. [Opposite.]

Oppress, o-pres′, v.t. to press against or upon: to use severely: to burden: to lie heavy upon: to constrain: to overpower: to treat unjustly: to load with heavy burdens.—n. Oppress′ion, act of oppressing or treating unjustly or harshly: severity: cruelty: state of being oppressed: misery: hardship: injustice: dullness of spirits: (Shak.) pressure.—adj. Oppress′ive, tending to oppress: overburdensome: treating with severity or injustice: heavy: overpowering: difficult to bear.—adv. Oppress′ively.—ns. Oppress′iveness; Oppress′or, one who oppresses. [Fr.,—L. opprimĕre, oppressumob, against, premĕre, to press.]

Opprobrious, o-prō′bri-us, adj. expressive of opprobrium or disgrace: reproachful: infamous: despised.—adv. Opprō′briously.—ns. Opprō′briousness; Opprō′brium, reproach expressing contempt or disdain: disgrace: infamy. [L.,—ob, against, probrum, reproach.]

Oppugn, o-pūn′, v.t. to fight against, esp. by argument: to oppose: to resist.—n. Oppugn′er. [Fr.,—L. oppugnāre, to fight against—ob, against, pugna, a fight.]

Oppugnancy, o-pug′nan-si, n. (Shak.) opposition, resistance.—adj. Oppug′nant, opposing: hostile.—n. an opponent. [L. oppugnans, -antis, pr.p. of oppugnāre.]

Opsimathy, op-sim′a-thi, n. learning obtained late in life. [Gr.,—opse, late, mathein, to learn.]

Opsiometer, op-si-om′e-tėr, n. an optometer.

Opsonium, op-sō′ni-um, n. anything eaten with bread as a relish, esp. fish.—ns. Opsomā′nia, any morbid love for some special kind of food; Opsomā′niac, one who manifests the foregoing. [Gr. opsōnionopson, strictly boiled meat, any relish.]

Optative, op′ta-tiv, or op-tā′tiv, adj. expressing desire or wish.—n. (gram.) a mood of the verb expressing wish.—adv. Op′tatively. [L. optativusoptāre, -ātum, to wish.]

Optic, -al, op′tik, -al, adj. relating to sight, or to optics.—n. Op′tic (Pope), an organ of sight: an eye.—adv. Op′tically.—ns. Optic′ian, one skilled in optics: one who makes or sells optical instruments; Op′tics (sing.), the science of the nature and laws of vision and light; Optim′eter, Optom′eter, an instrument for measuring the refractive powers of the eye; Optom′etry, the measurement of the visual powers.—Optic axis, the axis of the eye—that is, a line going through the middle of the pupil and the centre of the eye. [Fr. optique—Gr. optikos.]

Optime, op′ti-mē, n. in the university of Cambridge, one of those in the second or third rank of honours (senior and junior optimes respectively), next to the wranglers.— Optimā′tes, the Roman aristocracy. [L. optimus, best.]

Optimism, op′ti-mizm, n. the doctrine that everything is ordered for the best: a disposition to take a hopeful view of things—opp. to Pessimism.—v.i. Op′timise, to take the most hopeful view of anything.—n. Op′timist, one who holds that everything is ordered for the best.—adj. Optimist′ic.—adv. Optimist′ically.—n. Op′timum (bot.), that point of temperature at which metabolic—i.e. vegetative and fructificative processes are best carried on. [L. optimus, best.]

Option, op′shun, n. act of choosing: power of choosing or wishing: wish.—adj. Op′tional, left to one's option or choice.—adv. Op′tionally.—n. Op′tions, a mode of speculating, chiefly in stocks and shares, which is intended to limit the speculator's risk. It consists in paying a sum down for the right to put (make delivery) or call (call for delivery) a given amount of stock at a fixed future date, the price also being fixed at the time the contract is entered into.—Local option (see Local). [L. optio, optionisoptāre, to choose.]

Optometer, Optometry. See Optic.

Opulent, op′ū-lent, adj. wealthy.—n. Op′ulence, means: riches: wealth.—adv. Op′ulently. [Fr.,—L. op-ulentus.]

Opuntia, ō-pun′shi-a, n. a genus of cacti.

Opus, ō′pus, n. work, a work.—Opus magnum, the great work of one's life; Opus operantis (theol.), the effect of a sacrament ascribed chiefly, if not exclusively, to the spiritual disposition of the recipient, the grace flowing ex opere operantis—the Protestant view; Opus operatum, the due celebration of a sacrament necessarily involving the grace of the sacrament, which flows ex opere operato from the sacramental act performed independent of the merit of him who administers it—the R.C. view.

Opuscule, ō-pus′kūl, n. a little work.—Also Opus′cle, Opus′culum. [L. opusculum, dim. of opus, work.]

Or, or, adv. ere, before. [Ere.]

Or, or, conj. marking an alternative, and sometimes opposition [short for other, modern Eng. either].—prep. (B.) before. [In this sense a corr. of ere.]

Or, or, n. (her.) gold. [Fr.,—L. aurum, gold.]

Orach, Orache, or′ach, n. one of several European plants used as spinach. [Fr. arroche.]

Oracle, or′a-kl, n. the answer spoken or uttered by the gods: the place where responses were given, and the deities supposed to give them: a person famed for wisdom: a wise decision: (B.) the sanctuary: (pl.) the revelations made to the prophets: the word of God.—adj. Orac′ular, delivering oracles: resembling oracles: grave: venerable: not to be disputed: ambiguous: obscure—also Orac′ulous.—ns. Oracular′ity, Orac′ularness.—adv. Orac′ularly. [Fr.,—L. ora-culum, double dim. from orāre, to speak—os, oris, the mouth.]

Oragious, ō-rā′jus, adj. stormy. [Fr.]

Oraison, or′i-zun, n. (Shak.). Same as Orison.

Oral, ō′ral, adj. uttered by the mouth: spoken, not written.—adv. O′rally. [L. os, oris, the mouth.]

Orale, or-ā′le, n. a white silk veil, with coloured stripes, sometimes worn by the Pope.

Orang, ō-rang′, n. See Orang-outang.

Orange, or′anj, n. a delightful gold-coloured fruit with a thick, rough skin, within which are usually from eight to ten juicy divisions: the tree on which it grows: a colour composed of red and yellow.—adj. pertaining to an orange: orange-coloured.—ns. Orangeāde′, a drink made with orange juice; Or′ange-bloss′om, the white blossom of the orange-tree, worn by brides.—adj. Or′ange-col′oured, having the colour of an orange.—ns. Or′ange-lil′y, a garden-plant with large orange flowers; Or′ange-peel, the rind of an orange separated from the pulp; Or′angery, a plantation of orange-trees: an orange-garden.—adj. Or′ange-taw′ny (Shak.), of a colour between orange and brown.—n. the colour itself.—n. Or′ange-wife (Shak.), a woman who sells oranges. [Fr.,—It. arancio—Pers. naranj, the n being dropped; it was thought to come from L. aurum, gold, hence Low L. aurantium.]

Orangeman, or′anj-man, n. a member of a society instituted in Ireland in 1795 to uphold Protestantism, or the cause of William of Orange—a secret society since its formal suppression in 1835 after a protracted parliamentary inquiry.—adj. Or′ange.—n. Or′angeism. [From the principality of Orange (L. Arausio), near Avignon, ruled by its own sovereigns from the 11th to the 16th century, passing by the last heiress in 1531 to the Count of Nassau, father of William the Silent.]

Orang-outang, ō-rang′-ōō-tang′, n. an anthropoid ape, found only in the forests of Sumatra and Borneo, reddish-brown, arboreal in habit.—Also Orang′ and Orang′-utan′. [Malay, 'man of the woods.']

Orant, ō′rant, n. a worshipping figure in ancient Greek and early Christian art.

Orarian, ō-rā′ri-an, adj. pertaining to the coast. [L. ora, the shore.]

Orarion, ō-rā′ri-on, n. a deacon's stole in the Eastern Church.

Orarium, ō-rā′ri-um, n. a linen neckcloth or handkerchief: a scarf attached to a bishop's staff. [L. os, oris, the mouth.]

Orarium, ō-rā′ri-um, n. a collection of private devotions. [L. orāre, to pray.]

Oration, ō-rā′shun, n. a public speech of a formal character: an eloquent speech.—n. Oratiun′cle, a brief speech. [Fr.,—L. oratioorāre, to pray.]

Orator, or′a-tor, n. a public speaker: a man of eloquence: a spokesman or advocate:—fem. Or′atress, Or′atrix.—v.i. Or′āte, to deliver an oration.—adjs. Oratō′rial; Orator′ical, pertaining to oratory: becoming an orator.—adv. Orator′ically.—n. Or′atory, the art of speaking well, or so as to please and persuade, esp. publicly: the exercise of eloquence: an apartment or building for private worship: one of various congregations in the R.C. Church, esp. the Fathers of the Oratory, established by St Philip Neri (1515-95): a religious house of theirs.

Oratorio, or-a-tō′ri-ō, n. a sacred story set to music, which, as in the opera, requires soloists, chorus, and full orchestra for its performance, the theatrical adjuncts, however, of scenery, costumes, and acting bring dispensed with. [It., so called because first performed in the Oratory of the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore, near Rome, under the care of St Philip Neri (1571-94).]

Orb, orb, adj. (obs.) bereft, esp. of children. [L. orbus.]

Orb, orb, n. a circle: a sphere: a celestial body: a wheel: any rolling body: the eye: (archit.) a blank window or panel: the globe forming part of regalia, the monde or mound: the space within which the astrological influence of a planet operates.—v.t. to surround: to form into an orb.—adjs. Or′bate; Orbed, in the form of an orb; circular; Orbic′ular, having the form of an orb or sphere: spherical: round.—n. Orbiculā′ris, a muscle surrounding an opening.—adv. Orbic′ularly.—n. Orbic′ularness.—adjs. Orbic′ulate, -d, made in the form of an orb.—n. Orbiculā′tion.—adj. Or′by, orbed. [L. orbis, circle.]

Orbilius, or-bil′i-us, n. a flogging schoolmaster—from Horace's master.

Orbit, or′bit, n. the path in which one of the heavenly bodies, as a planet, moves round another, as the sun: the hollow in the bone in which the eyeball rests—also Or′bita: the skin round the eye.—adjs. Or′bital, Or′bitary. [L. orbitaorbis, a ring.]

Orc, ork, n. any whale, the grampus. [L. orca.]

Orcadian, or-kā′di-an, adj. of or pertaining to the Orkney Islands.—n. an inhabitant or a native of the Orkneys. [L. Orcades.]

Orchard, or′chard, n. a garden of fruit-trees, esp. of apple-trees, also the enclosure containing such.—ns. Or′chard-house, a glass house for cultivating fruits without artificial heat; Or′charding; Or′chardist. [A.S. orceard—older form ort-geard.]

Orchella-weed=Archil (q. v.).

Orcheocele, or-ke-o-sēl′, n. a tumour or inflammation of the testicle.—ns. Orchial′gia, pain, esp. neuralgia, in a testicle; Orchidec′tomy, Orchot′omy, the excision of a testicle; Orchiodyn′ia, pain in a testicle; Orchī′tis, inflammation of a testicle.—adj. Orchit′ic. [Gr. orchis, a testicle, kēlē, a tumour.]

Orchestra, or′kes-tra, n. in the Greek theatre, the place where the chorus danced: now the part of a theatre or concert-room in which the musicians are placed: the performers in an orchestra.—ns. Orchē′sis, the art of dancing or rhythmical movement of the body; Orchesog′raphy, the theory of dancing.—adjs. Or′chestral, Orches′tric, of or pertaining to an orchestra: performed in an orchestra.—v.t. Or′chestrāte, to arrange for an orchestra.—ns. Orchestrā′tion, the arrangement of music for an orchestra: instrumentation; Orches′trion, a musical instrument of the barrel-organ kind, designed to imitate an orchestra. [L.,—Gr. orchēstraorchesthai, to dance.]

Orchid, or′kid, n. a plant with a rich, showy, often fragrant flower, frequently found growing, in warm countries, on rocks and stems of trees.—adjs. Orchidā′ceous, Orchid′ēous, pertaining to the orchids.—ns. Orchidol′ogy, the knowledge of orchids; Or′chis, a genus containing ten of the British species of orchids. [Gr. orchis, a testicle.]

Orchil, or′kil, n. the colouring matter derived from archil (q.v.).

Orcine, or′sin, n. a colouring matter obtained from orchella-weed and other lichens.

Ordain, or-dān′, v.t. to put in order: to appoint: to dispose or regulate: to set apart for an office: to invest with ministerial functions.—adj. Ordain′able.—ns. Ordain′er; Ordain′ment.—adj. Or′dinal, showing order or succession.—n. a number noting order or place among others: a body of regulations, a book containing forms and rules for ordination.—n. Or′dinance, that which is ordained by authority: a law: a religious practice or right established by authority.—adj. Or′dinant (Shak.), ordaining, decreeing.—n. one who ordains, as a bishop—opp. to Or′dinand, or one who is to be ordained.—n. Ordinā′tion, the act of ordaining: admission to the Christian ministry by the laying on of hands of a bishop or a presbytery: established order. [O. Fr. ordener (Fr. ordonner)—L. ordināre, -ātumordo.]

Ordeal, or′de-al, n. a dealing out or giving of just judgment: an ancient form of referring a disputed question to the judgment of God, by lot, fire, water, &c.: any severe trial or examination. [A.S. or-dl, or-dl; cf. Dut. oor-deel, Ger. ur-theil.]

Order, or′dėr, n. regular arrangement, method: degree, rank, or position: rule, regular system or government: command: a class, a society of persons of the same profession, &c.: a religious fraternity: a dignity conferred by a sovereign, &c., giving membership in a body, after the medieval orders of knighthood, also the distinctive insignia thereof: social rank generally: a number of genera having many important points in common: a commission to supply, purchase, or sell something: (archit.) one of the different ways in which the column, with its various parts and its entablature, are moulded and related to each other: due action towards some end, esp. in old phrase 'to take order:' the sacerdotal or clerical function: (pl.) the several degrees or grades of the Christian ministry.—v.t. to arrange: to conduct: to command.—v.i. to give command.—ns. Or′der-book, a book for entering the orders of customers, the special orders of a commanding officer, or, the motions to be put to the House of Commons; Or′derer; Or′dering, arrangement: management: the act or ceremony of ordaining, as priests or deacons.—adj. Or′derless, without order: disorderly.—n. Or′derliness.—adj. Or′derly, in good order: regular: well regulated: of good behaviour: quiet: being on duty.—adv. regularly: methodically.—n. a non-commissioned officer who carries official messages for his superior officer, formerly the first sergeant of a company.—adj. Or′dinate, in order: regular.—n. the distance of a point in a curve from a straight line, measured along another straight line at right angles to it—the distance of the point from the other of the two lines is called the abscissa, and the two lines are the axes of co-ordinates.—adv. Or′dinately.—Order-in-Council, a sovereign order given with advice of the Privy Council; Order-of-battle, the arrangement of troops or ships at the beginning of a battle; Order-of-the-day, in a legislative assembly, the business set down to be considered on any particular day: any duty assigned for a particular day.—Close order, the usual formation for soldiers in line or column, the ranks 16 inches apart, or for vessels two cables'-length (1440 ft.) apart—opp. to Extended order; Full orders, the priestly order; Minor orders, those of acolyte, exorcist, reader, and doorkeeper; Open order, a formation in which ships are four cables'-length (2880 ft.) apart; Sailing orders, written instructions given to the commander of a vessel before sailing; Sealed orders, such instructions as the foregoing, not to be opened until a certain specified time; Standing orders or rules, regulations for procedure adopted by a legislative assembly.—In order, and Out of order, in accordance with regular and established usage of procedure, in subject or way of presenting it before a legislative assembly, &c., or the opposite; In order to, for the end that; Take order (Shak.), to take measures. [Fr. ordre—L. ordo, -inis.]

Ordinaire, or-din-ār′, n. wine for ordinary use—usually vin ordinaire: a soldier's mess: a person of common rank.

Ordinary, or′di-na-ri, adj. according to the common order: usual: of common rank: plain: of little merit: (coll.) plain-looking.—n. a judge of ecclesiastical or other causes who acts in his own right: something settled or customary: actual office: a bishop or his deputy: a place where regular meals are provided at fixed charges: the common run or mass: (her.) one of a class of armorial charges, called also honourable ordinaries, figures of simple outline and geometrical form, conventional in character—chief, pale, fess, bend, bend-sinister, chevron, cross, saltire, pile, pall, bordure, orle, tressure, canton, flanches.—adv. Or′dinarily.—Ordinary of the mass, the established sequence or fixed order for saying mass.—In ordinary, in regular and customary attendance.

Ordnance, ord′nans, n. great guns: artillery: (orig.) any arrangement, disposition, or equipment.—Ordnance survey, a preparation of maps and plans of Great Britain and Ireland, or parts thereof, undertaken by government and carried out by men selected from the Royal Engineers—so called because in earlier days the survey was carried out under the direction of the Master-general of the Ordnance. [Ordinance.]

Ordonnance, or′do-nans, n. co-ordination, esp. the proper disposition of figures in a picture, parts of a building, &c.

Ordure, or′dūr, n. dirt: dung: excrement: also fig. anything unclean.—adj. Or′durous. [Fr.,—O. Fr. ord, foul—L. horridus, rough.]

Ore, ōr, n. metal as it comes from the mine: metal mixed with earthy and other substances. [A.S. r, another form of r, brass; Ice. eir, L. s, r-is, bronze.]

Oread, ō′rē-ad, n. (myth.) a mountain nymph:—pl. O′reads, or Orē′ades. [Gr. oreias, oreiadosoros, a mountain.]


Organ, or′gan, n. an instrument or means by which anything is done: a part of a body fitted for carrying on a natural or vital operation: a means of communication, or of conveying information or opinions from one to another of two parties, as an ambassador, a newspaper, &c.: a musical wind instrument consisting of a collection of pipes made to sound by means of compressed air from bellows, and played upon by means of keys: a system of pipes in such an organ, having an individual keyboard, a partial organ: a musical instrument having some mechanism resembling the pipe-organ, as the barrel-organ, &c.—ns. Or′gan-build′er, one who constructs organs; Or′gan-grind′er, a fellow who plays a hand-organ by a crank; Or′gan-harmō′nium, a large harmonium used instead of a pipe-organ.—adjs. Organ′ic, -al, pertaining to an organ: organised: instrumental.—adv. Organ′ically.—n. Organ′icalness.—v.t. Organ′ify, to add organic matter to.—n. Organisabil′ity.—adj. Organis′able, that may be organised.—n. Organisā′tion, the act of organising: the state of being organised.—v.t. Or′ganīse, to supply with organs: to form several parts into an organised whole, to arrange.—ns. Or′ganīser; Or′ganism, organic structure, or a body exhibiting such: a living being, animal or vegetable.—adj. Or′ganismal.—ns. Or′ganist, one who plays on an organ; Or′gan-loft, the loft where an organ stands; Organog′eny, Organogen′esis, history of the development of living organs; Organog′raphy, a description of the organs of plants or animals; Organol′ogy, the study of structure and function; Or′gan-pipe, one of the sounding pipes of a pipe-organ (flue-pipes and reed-pipes); Or′gan-point, a note sustained through a series of chords, although only in harmony with the first and last; Or′ganry, the music of the organ; Or′gan-screen, an ornamental stone or wood screen, on which a secondary organ is sometimes placed in cathedrals; Orguinette′, a mechanical musical instrument, with reeds and exhaust-bellows.—Organic chemistry, the chemistry of substances of animal or vegetable origin, prior to 1828 supposed to be capable of formation only as products of vital processes: the chemistry of the compounds of carbon; Organic disease, a disease accompanied by changes in the structures involved; Organic remains, fossil remains of a plant or animal.—Hydraulic organ, one whose bellows is operated by a hydraulic motor. [Fr. organe—L. organum—Gr. organon.]

Organon, or′ga-non, n. an instrument: a system of rules and principles for scientific investigation: a system of thought: the logic of Aristotle—also Or′ganum:—pl. Or′gana. [Gr., from ergon, a work.]

Organzine, or′gan-zin, n. a silk thread of several twisted together, a fabric of the same. [Fr.]

Orgasm, or′gasm, n. immoderate excitement or action.—adj. Orgas′tic. [Gr. orgasmos, swelling.]

Orgeat, or′zhat, n. a confectioner's syrup made from almonds, sugar, &c. [Fr. orge—L. hordeum, barley.]

Orgulous, or′gū-lus, adj. (Shak.) haughty.

Orgy, or′ji, n. any drunken or riotous rite or revelry, esp. by night—(rare) Orge:—pl. Or′gies, riotous secret rites observed in the worship of Bacchus.—v.i. Orge, to indulge in riotous jollity.—n. Or′giast.—adjs. Orgias′tic, Or′gic. [Fr.,—L. orgia—Gr.]

Orichalc, or′i-kalk, n. (Spens.) a gold-coloured alloy resembling brass.—adj. Orichal′ceous. [Fr., from Gr. oreichalkos, mountain copper—oros, a mountain, chalkos, copper.]

Oriel, ō′ri-el, n. a portico or recess in the form of a window built out from a wall, supported on brackets or corbels—distinguished from a bay window. [O. Fr. oriol, a porch—Low L. oriolum, a highly ornamented recess—L. aureolus, gilded—aurum, gold.]

Orient, ō′ri-ent, adj. rising, as the sun: eastern: bright or pure in colour.—n. the part where the sun rises: the east, or the countries of the east: purity of lustre, as in a pearl.—v.t. to set so as to face the east: to build, as a church, with its length from east to west.—adj. Orien′tal, eastern: pertaining to, in, or from the east.—n. a native of the east.—v.t. Orien′talise.—ns. Orien′talism, an eastern word, expression, or custom; Orien′talist, one versed in the eastern languages: an oriental; Oriental′ity.—v.t. and v.i. Orien′tāte.—ns. Orientā′tion, the act of turning or state of being turned toward the east, the process of determining the east in taking bearings: the situation of a building relative to the points of the compass: the act of making clear one's position in some matter: the homing instinct, as in pigeons; O′rientātor, an instrument for orientating. [L. oriens, -entis, pr.p. of orīri, to rise.]

Orifice, or′i-fis, n. something made like a mouth or opening. [Fr.,—L. orificiumos, oris, mouth, facĕre, to make.]

Oriflamme, or′i-flam, n. a little banner of red silk split into many points, borne on a gilt staff—the ancient royal standard of France. [Fr.,—Low L. auriflamma—L. aurum, gold, flamma, a flame.]

Origan, or′i-gan, n. wild marjoram.—Also Orig′anum. [Fr.,—L. origanum.—Gr. origanonoros, mountain, ganos, brightness.]

Origenist, or′ij-en-ist, n. a follower of Origen (c. 186-254 A.D.), his allegorical method of scriptural interpretation, or his theology, esp. his heresies—the subordination though eternal generation of the Logos, pre-existence of all men, and universal restoration, even of the devil.—n. Or′igenism.—adj. Origenist′ic.

Origin, or′i-jin, n. the rising or first existence of anything: that from which anything first proceeds: (math.) the fixed starting-point: cause: derivation.—adjs. Orig′inable; Orig′inal, pertaining to the origin or beginning: first in order or existence: in the author's own words or from the artist's own pencil: not copied: not translated: having the power to originate, as thought.—n. origin: first copy: the precise language used by a writer: an untranslated tongue: a person of marked individuality.—ns. Original′ity, Orig′inalness, quality or state of being original or of originating ideas.—adv. Orig′inally.—v.t. Orig′ināte, to give origin to: to bring into existence.—v.i. to have origin: to begin.—n. Originā′tion, act of originating or of coming into existence: mode of production.—adj. Orig′inātive, having power to originate or bring into existence.—n. Orig′inātor. [Fr. origine—L. origo, originisorīri, to rise.]

Orillon, o-ril′lon, n. a semicircular projection at the shoulder of a bastion intended to cover the guns and defenders on the flank. [Fr.,—oreille, an ear—L. auricula, dim. of auris, ear.]

Oriole, ōr′i-ōl, n. the golden thrush. [O. Fr. oriol—L. aureolus, dim. of aureus, golden—aurum, gold.]

Orion, ō-rī′on, n. (astron.) one of the constellations containing seven very bright stars, three of which, in a straight line, form Orion's belt. [Orion, a hunter placed among the stars at his death.]

Orismology, or-is-mol′ō-ji, n. the science of defining technical terms.—adjs. Orismolog′ic, -al. [Gr. horismoshorizein, to bound.]

Orison, or′i-zun, n. a prayer. [O. Fr. orison (Fr. oraison)—L. oratio, -ōnisorāre, to pray.]

Orle, orl, n. (archit.) a fillet under the ovolo of a capital—also Or′let: (her.) a border within a shield at a short distance from the edge. [O. Fr., border, from Low L. orlum, dim. of L. ora, border.]

Orleanist, or′lē-an-ist, n. one of the family of the Duke of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV. of France: a supporter of the claims of this family to the throne of France.—adj. favourable to the claims of the Orleans family.—ns. Or′leanism; Or′leans, a wool and cotton cloth for women's dresses.

Orlop, or′lop, n. the deck below the berth-deck in a ship where the cables, &c., are stowed. [Dut. overloop, the upper deck—overlopen, to run over.]

Ormer, or′mėr, n. an ear-shell or sea-ear.

Ormolu, or′mo-lōō, n. an alloy of copper, zinc, and tin: gilt or bronzed metallic ware: gold-leaf prepared for gilding bronze, &c. [Fr. or—L. aurum, gold, moulu, pa.p. of moudre, to grind—L. molāre, to grind.]

Ormuzd, or′muzd, n. the name of the chief god of the ancient Persians: the creator and lord of the whole universe: (later) the good principle, as opposed to Ahriman, the bad. [A corr. of Pers. Ahura-Mazdh=the Living God or Lord (ahu='the living,' 'life,' or 'spirit,' root ah='to be'), the Great Creator (maz+d=Sans. mah+dh), or the Wise One.]

Ornament, or′na-ment, n. anything that adds grace or beauty: additional beauty: a mark of honour: (pl., Pr. Bk.) all the articles used in the services of the church.—v.t. to adorn: to furnish with ornaments.—adj. Ornament′al, serving to adorn or beautify.—adv. Ornament′ally.—ns. Ornamentā′tion, act or art of ornamenting: (archit.) ornamental work; Or′namenter; Or′namentist.—adj. Ornate′, ornamented: decorated: highly finished, esp. applied to a style of writing.—adv. Ornate′ly.—n. Ornate′ness. [Fr. ornement—L. ornamentumornāre, to adorn.]

Ornis, or′nis, n. the birds collectively of a region, its avifauna.—adj. Ornith′ic.—ns. Ornithich′nite (geol.), the footmark of a bird found impressed on sandstone, &c.; Ornithodel′phia, the lowest of the three sub-classes of mammals, same as Monotremata—from the ornithic character of the urogenital organs.—adjs. Ornithodel′phian (also n.), Ornithodel′phic, Ornithodel′phous; Or′nithoid, somewhat ornithic.—ns. Ornith′olite (geol.), the fossil remains of a bird: a stone occurring of various colours and forms bearing the figures of birds.—adj. Ornitholog′ical, pertaining to ornithology.—adv. Ornitholog′ically.—ns. Ornithol′ogist, one versed in ornithology, or who makes a special study of birds; Ornithol′ogy, the science and study of birds; Or′nithomancy, divination by means of birds, by observing their flight, &c.—adjs. Ornithoman′tic; Ornithoph′ilous, bird-fertilised; Or′nithopod, Ornithop′odous, having feet like a bird.—ns. Ornithorhyn′chus, an animal in Australia, with a body like an otter and a snout like the bill of a duck, also called Duck-bill; Ornithos′copy, observation of birds or of their habits; Ornithot′omy, the act of dissecting birds. [Gr. ornis, ornithos, a bird.]

Orography, or-og′ra-fi, n. the description of mountains—also Orol′ogy.—n. Orog′eny, the origin and formation of mountains.—adjs. Orograph′ic, -al; Orolog′ical, of or pertaining to orology.—ns. Orol′ogist, one versed in orology; Orom′eter, a mountain-barometer. [Gr. oros, a mountain.]

Oroide, ō′rō-īd, n. an alloy of copper, tin, and other metals used for watch-cases, cheap jewellery, &c.—Also O′rēide. [Fr. or—L. aurum, gold, Gr. eidos, form.]

Orotund, ō′rō-tund, adj. full, clear, and musical, as speech.—n. full, clear, and musical speech, as when directly from the larynx. [L. os, oris, the mouth, rotundus, round.]

Orphan, or′fan, n. a child bereft of father or mother, or of both.—adj. bereft of parents.—v.t. to bereave of parents.—ns. Or′phanage, the state of being an orphan: a house for orphans; Or′phan-asy′lum; Or′phanhood, Or′phanism; Orphanot′rophy, the supporting of orphans. [Gr. orphanos, akin to L. orbus, bereaved.]

Orpharion, or-fā′ri-on, n. a large lute with six to nine metal strings.—Also Orpheō′reon.

Orphean, or′fē-an, adj. pertaining to Orpheus, a poet who could move inanimate objects by the music of his lyre.—adj. Or′phic, pertaining to Orpheus, or the mysteries connected with the cult of Bacchus.—v.i. Or′phise.—n. Or′phism.

Orphrey, or′fri, n. gold or other rich embroidery attached to vestments, esp. chasuble and cope. [Fr. orfroior—L. aurum, gold, Fr. fraise, fringe.]

Orpiment, or′pi-ment, n. arsenic trisulphide, giving king's yellow and realgar (red).—ns. Or′pine, Or′pin, a deep-yellow colour: the Sedum Telephium, a popular vulnerary. [Fr.,—L. auripigmentumaurum, gold, pigmentum, paint.]

Orra, or′a, adj. (Scot.) odd: not matched: left over: doing odd pieces of work: worthless.

Orrery, or′ėr-i, n. an apparatus for illustrating, by balls mounted on rods and moved by clockwork around a centre, the size, positions, motions, &c. of the heavenly bodies. [From Charles Boyle, fourth Earl of Orrery (1676-1731).]

Orris, or′is, n. a species of iris in the south of Europe, the dried root of which has the smell of violets, used in perfumery.—Also Orr′ice.

Orris, or′is, n. a peculiar kind of gold or silver lace: upholsterers' galloon and gimp. [Orphrey.]

Orseille, or-sāl′, n. a colouring matter (cf. Archil and Litmus).—adj. Orsel′lic. [Fr.]

Ort, ort, n. a fragment, esp. one left from a meal—usually pl. [Low Ger. ort, refuse of fodder.]

Orthocephaly, or-thō-sef′a-li, n. the character of a skull in which the ratio between the vertical and transverse diameters is from 70 to 75.—adj. Orthocephal′ic.

Orthoceras, or-thos′e-ras, n. a genus of fossil cephalopods, having the shell straight or but slightly curved.

Orthochromatic, or-thō-krō-mat′ik, adj. correct in rendering the relation of colours, without the usual photographic modifications. [Gr. orthos, right, chrōma, colour.]

Orthoclase, or′tho-klāz, n. common or potash feldspar.—adj. Orthoclas′tic. [Gr. orthos, straight, klasis, a fracture.]

Orthodox, or′tho-doks, adj. sound in doctrine: believing the received or established opinions, esp. in religion: according to the received doctrine.—adv. Or′thodoxly.—ns. Or′thodoxness; Or′thodoxy, soundness of opinion or doctrine: belief in the commonly accepted opinions, esp. in religion. [Through Fr. and Late L. from Gr. orthodoxosorthos, right, doxa, opinion—dokein, to seem.]

Orthodromic, or-thō-drom′ik, adj. pertaining to Or′thodromy, the art of sailing on a great circle or in a straight course.

Orthopy, or′tho-e-pi, n. (gram.) correct pronunciation of words.—adjs. Orthop′ic, -al.—adv. Orthop′ically.—n. Or′thopist, one versed in orthopy. [Gr. orthos, right, epos, a word.]

Orthogamy, or-thog′a-mi, n. (bot.) direct or immediate fertilisation.

Orthognathous, or-thog′nā-thus, adj. straight-jawed—also Orthognath′ic.—n. Orthog′nathism. [Gr. orthos, straight, gnathos, the jaw.]

Orthogon, or′tho-gon, n. (geom.) a figure with all its angles right angles.—adj. Orthog′onal, rectangular.—adv. Orthog′onally. [Gr. orthos, right, gōnia, angle.]

Orthographer, or-thog′ra-fėr, n. one who spells words correctly—also Orthog′raphist.—adjs. Orthograph′ic, -al, pertaining or according to orthography: spelt correctly.—adv. Orthograph′ically.—n. Orthog′raphy (gram.), the art or practice of spelling words correctly. [Gr. orthographiaorthos, right, graphein, to write.]

Orthometry, or-thom′et-ri, n. the art of constructing verse correctly.

Orthopdia, or-thō-pē-dī′a, n. the art or process of curing deformities of the body, esp. in childhood—also Or′thopdy, Or′thopedy.—adjs. Orthop′dic, -al, Orthoped′ic, -al.—ns. Orthop′dics, Orthoped′ics, orthopdic surgery; Or′thopdist, Or′thopedist, one skilled in the foregoing. [Gr. orthos, straight, pais, paidos, a child.]

Orthophony, or′thō-fō-ni, n. the art of correct speaking: the proper culture of the voice. [Gr. orthos, straight, phōnein, to speak—phōnē, voice.]

Orthopnœa, or-thop-nē′a, n. dyspnœa.—n. Orthop′nic, one who can breathe in an upright posture only. [Gr. orthos, straight, pnein, to breathe.]

Orthopraxy, or′thō-prak-si, n. correct practice or procedure.

Orthoptera, or-thop′tėr-a, n. an order of insects with wing-covers, that overlap at the top when shut, under which are the true wings, which fold lengthwise like a fan.—ns. Orthop′ter, Orthop′teran, an insect of the order orthoptera; Orthopterol′ogy.—adj. Orthop′terous, pertaining to the orthoptera. [Gr. orthos, straight, ptera, pl. of pteron, wing.]

Orthoscopic, or-thō-skop′ik, adj. seeing correctly: appearing normal to the eye. [Gr. orthos, straight, skopein, to see.]

Orthostyle, or′thō-stīl, n. (archit.) an arrangement of columns or pillars in a straight line. [Gr. orthos, straight, stylos, a column.]

Orthotonic, or-thō-ton′ik, adj. retaining an accent in certain positions, but not in others—also Or′thotone.—n. Orthotonē′sis, accentuation of a proclitic or enclitic—opp. to Enclisis. [Gr. orthos, straight, tonos, accent.]

Orthotropism, or-thot′rō-pizm, n. vertical growth in plants.—adjs. Orthot′ropal, Orthotrop′ic, Orthot′ropous. [Gr. orthos, straight, trepein, to turn.]

Orthotypous, or′thō-tī-pus, adj. in mineralogy, having a perpendicular cleavage.

Orthros, or′thros, n. one of the Greek canonical hours, corresponding to the Western lauds. [Gr. orthros, dawn.]

Ortive, or′tiv, adj. rising: eastern.

Ortolan, or′tō-lan, n. a kind of bunting, common in Europe, and considered a great table delicacy. [Fr.,—It. ortolano—L. hortulanus, belonging to gardens—hortulus, dim. of hortus, a garden.]

Orvietan, or-vi-ē′tan, n. a supposed antidote or counter-poison.—n. Orviē′to, an esteemed still white wine.

Oryctics, ō-rik′tiks, n. the branch of geology relating to fossils.—adjs. Oryctograph′ic, -al.—n. Oryctozol′ogy, palontology. [Gr. oryctos, fossil.]

Oryx, or′iks, n. a genus of antelopes. [Gr., a pick-axe.]

Oryza, ō-rī′za, n. a small tropical genus of true grasses, including rice.

Os, os, n. a bone. [L.]

Oscan, os′kan, n. and adj. one of an ancient Italic race in southern Italy: a language closely akin to Latin, being a ruder and more primitive form of the same central Italic tongue.

Oscheal, os′kē-al, adj. pertaining to the scrotum.—ns. Oscheī′tis, inflammation of the scrotum; Os′cheocele, a scrotal hernia; Os′cheoplasty, plastic surgery of the scrotum. [Gr. oschē, the scrotum.]

Oscillate, os′sil-lāt, v.i. to move backwards and forwards like a pendulum: to vary between certain limits.—n. Os′cillancy, a swinging condition.—adj. Os′cillāting.—n. Oscillā′tion, act of oscillating: a swinging like a pendulum: variation within limits.—adjs. Os′cillātive, having a tendency to vibrate; Os′cillātory, swinging: moving as a pendulum does. [L. oscillāre, -ātum, to swing—oscillum, a swing.]

Oscines, os′si-nēz, a sub-order of birds of the order Passeres.—adj. Os′cine—also n. [L. oscen, oscinis, a singing-bird.]

Oscitancy, os′si-tan-si, n. sleepiness, stupidity.—adj. Os′citant.—adv. Os′citantly.—v.i. Os′citate, to yawn.—n. Oscitā′tion, act of yawning or gaping from sleepiness. [L. oscitāre, to yawn.]

Osculant, os′kū-lant, adj. kissing: adhering closely: (biol.) situated between two other genera, and partaking partly of the character of each.—v.t. Os′culāte, to kiss: to touch, as two curves: to form a connecting-link between two genera.—adj. of or pertaining to kissing.—n. Osculā′tion.—adj. Os′culātory, of or pertaining to kissing: (geom.) having the same curvature at the point of contact.—n. a tablet with a picture of the Virgin or of Christ, which was kissed by the priest and then by the people.—ns. Os′cule, a little mouth: a small bilabiate aperture; Os′cūlum, a mouth in sponges: one of the suckers on the head of a tapeworm. [L. osculāri, -ātusosculum, a little mouth, a kiss, dim. of os, mouth.]

Osier, ō′zhėr, n. the popular name for those species of willow whose twigs are used in making baskets, &c.—adj. made of or like osiers.—adj. O′siered, adorned with willows.—n. O′siery, a place where osiers are grown. [Fr.; perh. from Gr. oisos.]

Osiris, ō-sī′ris, n. the greatest of Egyptian gods, son of Seb and Nut, or Heaven and Earth, married to Isis, slain by Set but avenged by his son Horus, judge of the dead in the nether-world.

Osite, os′īt, n. Sombrero guano.

Osmanli, os-man′li, adj. of or belonging to Turkey.—n. a member of the reigning family of Turkey: a subject of the emperor of Turkey. [Osman or Othman, who founded the Turkish empire in Asia, and reigned 1288-1326.]

Osmeterium, os-mē-tē′ri-um, n. an organ devoted to the production of an odour, esp. the forked process behind the head of certain butterfly-larv:—pl. Osmetē′ria.

Osmidrosis, os-mi-drō′sis, n. the secretion of strongly smelling perspiration.—Also Bromidrosis. [Gr. osmē, smell, hidrōsis, sweat.]

Osmium, ōs′mi-um, n. a gray-coloured metal found in platinum ore, the oxide of which has a disagreeable smell.—adjs. Os′mic, Os′mious. [Gr. osmē, smell, orig. od-mēozein, to smell.]

Osmose, os′mōs, n. the tendency of fluids to mix or become equally diffused when in contact, even through an intervening membrane or porous structure—also Osmō′sis.—adj. Osmot′ic, pertaining to, or having, the property of osmose.—adv. Osmot′ically. [Gr. ōsmos=ōsis, impulse—ōthein, to push.]

Osmunda, os-mun′da, n. a genus of ferns, the chief species being Osmunda regalis, the royal fern—also called Bog-onion, King-fern, &c.

Osnaburg, oz′na-burg, n. a coarse kind of linen, originally brought from Osnaburg in Germany.

Osprey, os′prā, n. the fish-hawk, a species of eagle very common on the coast of North America. [Corr. from ossifrage, which see.]

Osseous, os′ē-us, adj. bony: composed of, or resembling, bone: of the nature or structure of bone.—ns. Ossā′rium, an ossuary; Oss′ēin, the organic basis of bone; Oss′elet, a hard substance growing on the inside of a horse's knee; Oss′icle, a small bone.—adjs. Ossif′erous, producing bone: (geol.) containing bones; Ossif′ic.—n. Ossificā′tion, the process or state of being changed into a bony substance.—v.t. Oss′ify, to make into bone or into a bone-like substance.—v.i. to become bone:—pa.p. oss′ified.adj. Ossiv′orous, devouring or feeding on bones.—ns. Os′teoblast, a cell concerned in the formation of bone; Os′teoclast, an apparatus for fracturing bones; Osteocol′la, a deposited carbonate of lime encrusted on the roots and stems of plants; Osteoden′tine, one of the varieties of dentine, resembling bone; Osteogen′esis, the formation or growth of bone—also Osteog′eny; Osteog′rapher; Osteog′raphy, description of bones.—adj. Os′teoid, like bone: having the appearance of bone.—ns. Osteol′epis, a genus of fossil ganoid fishes peculiar to the Old Red Sandstone, so called from the bony appearance of their scales; Osteol′oger, Osteol′ogist, one versed in osteology.—adjs. Osteolog′ic, -al, pertaining to osteology.—adv. Osteolog′ically.—ns. Osteol′ogy, the science of the bones, that part of anatomy which treats of the bones; Osteomalā′cia, a disease in which the earthy salts disappear from the bones, which become soft and misshapen; Os′teophyte, an abnormal bony outgrowth.—adjs. Osteophyt′ic; Osteoplast′ic.—ns. Os′teoplasty, a plastic operation by which a loss of bone is remedied; Osteosarcō′ma, a tumour composed of intermingled bony and sarcomatous tissue; Os′teotome (surg.), a saw-like instrument for cutting bones; Osteot′omy, the division of, or incision into, a bone; Ostī′tis, inflammation of bone. [L. osseusos, ossis, bone; Gr. osteon, bone.]

Ossianic, os-i-an′ik, adj. pertaining to Ossian or the poems dubiously attributed to him.

Ossifrage, os′i-frāj, n. the sea or bald eagle, common in the United States: (B.) the bearded vulture, the largest of European birds. [L. ossifragus, breaking bones—os, frag, root of frangĕre, fractum, to break.]

Ossuary, os′ū-ar-i, n. a place where the bones of the dead are deposited: a charnel-house. [L. ossuarium, a charnel-house—os, a bone.]

Ostensible, os-tens′i-bl, adj. that may be shown: declared: put forth as real: apparent.—n. Ostensibil′ity.—adv. Ostens′ibly.—adj. Ostens′ive, showing: exhibiting.—adv. Ostens′ively.—ns. Osten′sory, a monstrance; Os′tent (Shak.), appearance, manner: token: portent, prodigy; Ostentā′tion, act of making a display: ambitious display: display to draw attention or admiration: boasting.—adj. Ostentā′tious, given to show: fond of self-display: intended for display.—adv. Ostentā′tiously.—n. Ostentā′tiousness. [L. ostendĕre, ostensum, to show.]

Ostiary, os′ti-ar-i, n. the doorkeeper of a church.

Ostium, os′ti-um, n. an opening: the mouth of a river.—n. Ostiō′le, a small orifice.—adjs. Os′tiolar; Os′tiolāte, furnished with an ostiole. [L.]

Ostler, os′lėr. Same as Hostler.

Ostmen, ost′men. the Danish settlers in Ireland.

Ostracea, os-trā′sē′a, the oyster family.—adjs. Ostrā′cean, Ostrā′ceous.—ns. Os′tracite, a fossil oyster; Os′trēa, the typical genus of the oyster family; Ostrēicul′ture, oyster-culture; Ostrēicul′turist.

Ostracise, os′tra-sīz, v.t. in ancient Greece, to banish by the vote of the people written on an earthenware tablet: to banish from society.—n. Os′tracism, banishment by ostracising: expulsion from society. [Gr. ostrakizeinostrakon, an earthenware tablet.]

Ostrich, os′trich, n. the largest of birds, found in Africa, remarkable for its speed in running, and prized for its feathers.—n. Os′trich-farm, a place where ostriches are bred and reared for their feathers. [O. Fr. ostruche (Fr. autruche)—L. avis-, struthio, ostrich—Gr. strouthiōn, an ostrich, strouthos, a bird.]

Ostrogoth, os′trō-goth, n. an eastern Goth: one of the tribe of east Goths who established their power in Italy in 493, and were overthrown in 555.—adj. Os′trogothic.

Otacoustic, ot-a-kows′tik, adj. assisting hearing.—n. an instrument to assist hearing—also Otacous′ticon. [Gr. akoustikosakouein, to hear—ous, ōtos, ear.]

Otalgia, ō-tal′ji-a, n. earache—also Otal′gy.—ns. Otog′raphy, descriptive anatomy of the ear; Otorrhē′a, a purulent discharge from the ear; O′toscope, an instrument for viewing the interior of the ear.

Otary, ō′tar-i, n. a genus of seals with an external ear:—pl. O′taries.—adj. Ot′arine. [Gr. ōtaros, large-eared—ous, ōtos, ear.]

Other, uth′ėr, adj. and pron. different, not the same: additional: second of two.—adj. Oth′erguess=Othergates.—n. Oth′erness.—advs. Oth′erwhere, elsewhere; Oth′erwhile, Oth′erwhiles, at other times: sometimes; Oth′erwise, in another way or manner: by other causes: in other respects.—conj. else: under other conditions.—Every other, each alternate; Rather ... than otherwise, rather than not; The other day, on some day not long past, quite recently. [A.S. other; cf. Ger. ander, L. alter.]

Othergates, uth′ėr-gātz, adv. (obs.) in another way—also adj. [Other, and gate, way, manner.]

Otic, ō′tik, adj. of or pertaining to the ear.—ns. Otī′tis, inflammation of the internal ear; Ot′ocyst, an auditory vesicle; Ot′olith, a calcareous concretion within the membranous labyrinth of the ear; Otol′ogist, one skilled in otology; Otol′ogy, knowledge of the ear. [Gr. ous, ōtos, ear.]

Otiose, o′shi-ōs, adj. unoccupied: lazy: done in a careless way, perfunctory, futile.—n. Otios′ity, ease, idleness. [L. otiosusotium, rest.]

Otoscope. See under Otalgia.

Ottava, ot-t′v, n. an octave.—Ottava rima, an Italian form of versification consisting of eight lines, the first six rhyming alternately, the last two forming a couplet—used by Byron in Don Juan. [It.]

Otter, ot′ėr, n. a large kind of weasel living entirely on fish. [A.S. otor, oter; cf. Dut. and Ger. otter.]

Otto, ot′o, Ottar, ot′ar (better Att′ar), n. a fragrant oil obtained from certain flowers, esp. the rose. [Ar. ‛itr‛atira, to smell sweetly.]

Ottoman, ot′o-man, adj. pertaining to the Turkish Empire, founded by Othman or Osman about 1299.—n. a Turk (Shak. Ott′omite): a cushioned seat for several persons sitting with their backs to one another: a low, stuffed seat without a back: a variety of corded silk. [Fr.]

Oubit, ōō′bit, n. a hairy caterpillar. [Prob. the A.S. wibba, a crawling thing.]

Oubliette, ōō-bli-et′, n. a dungeon with no opening but at the top: a secret pit in the floor of a dungeon into which a victim could be precipitated. [Fr.,—oublier, to forget—L. oblivisci.]

Ouch, owch, n. a jewel or ornament, esp. one in the form of a clasp: the socket of a precious stone. [O. Fr. nouche, nosche, from Teut., cf. Old High Ger. nusca, a clasp.]

Oudenarde, ōō′de-nrd, n. a kind of decorative tapestry, representing foliage, &c., once made at Oudenarde in Belgium.

Ought, awt, n. (same as Aught) a vulgar corr. of nought.—adv. (Scot.) Ought′lings, at all, in any degree.

Ought, awt, v.i. to be under obligation: to be proper or necessary.—n. Ought′ness, rightness. [A.S. hte, pa.t. of gan, to owe.]

Ouistiti, wis′ti-ti, n. a wistit or marmoset.

Ounce, owns, n. the twelfth part of a pound troy=480 grains: 116 of a pound avoirdupois=437 troy grains. [O. Fr. unce—L. uncia, the twelfth part.]

Ounce, owns, n. a carnivorous animal of the cat kind, found in Asia, allied to the leopard—(obs.) Once. [Fr. once, prob. Pers. yz, a panther.]

Oundy, own′di, adj. wavy: scalloped: (her.) und.

Ouphe, ōōf, n. (Shak.). Same as Oaf.

Our, owr, adj. and pron. pertaining or belonging to us—prov. Ourn.—prons. Ours, possessive of We; Ourself′, myself (as a king or queen would say):—pl. Ourselves (-selvz′), we, not others: us. [A.S. re, gen. pl. of w, we.]

Ourang-outang. Same as Orang-outang.

Ourology, Ouroscopy, &c. See Urology under Urine.

Ousel. See Ouzel.

Oust, owst, v.t. to eject or expel.—n. Oust′er (law), ejection: dispossession. [O. Fr. oster (Fr. ter), to remove; acc. to Diez, from L. haurīre, haustum, to draw (water).]

Out, owt, adv. without, not within: gone forth: abroad: to the full stretch or extent: in a state of discovery, development, &c.: in a state of exhaustion, extinction, &c.: away from the mark: completely: at or to an end: to others, as to hire out: freely: forcibly: at a loss: unsheltered: uncovered.—prep. forth from: outside of: exterior: outlying, remote.—n. one who is out, esp. of office—opp. to In: leave to go out, an outing.—v.i. to go or come out.—interj. away! begone!—n. Out′-and-out′er, a thoroughgoer, a first-rate fellow.—adjs. Out′-of-door, open-air; Out-of-the-way′, uncommon: singular: secluded.—Out and away, by far; Out and out, thoroughly: completely—also as adj. thorough, complete; Out-at-elbows, worn-out, threadbare; Out of character, unbecoming: improper; Out of course, out of order; Out of date, unfashionable: not now in use; Out of favour, disliked; Out of hand, instantly; Out of joint, not in proper connection: disjointed; Out of one's mind, mad; Out of pocket, having spent more than one has received; Out of print, not to be had for sale, said of books, &c.; Out of sorts, or temper, unhappy: cross-tempered; Out of the common, unusual, pre-eminent; Out of the question, that cannot be at all considered; Out of time, too soon or too late: not keeping time in music; Out with, away with: (Scot.) outside of: say, do, &c., at once. [A.S. te, t; Goth. ut, Ger. aus, Sans. ud.]

Outask, owt-ask′, v.t. to ask or proclaim, as to be married, in church for the last time.

Outbalance, owt-bal′ans, v.t. to exceed in weight or effect: to outweigh.

Outbar, owt-br′, v.t. (Spens.) to bar out, esp. to shut out by fortifications.

Outbargain, owt-br′gin, v.t. to get the better of in a bargain.

Outbid, owt-bid′, v.t. to offer a higher price than another.

Outblush, owt-blush′, v.t. to exceed in rosy colour.

Outbluster, owt-blus′tėr, v.t. to exceed in blustering: to get the better of in this way.

Outbound, owt′bownd, adj. bound for a distant port.

Outbounds, owt′bowndz, (Spens.) boundaries.

Outbrag, owt-brag′, v.t. to surpass in bragging or boasting: to surpass in beauty or splendour.

Outbrave, owt-brāv′, v.t. (Shak.) to excel in bravery or boldness, to defy.

Outbreak, owt′brāk, n. a breaking out: eruption: a disturbance of the peace.—v.i. Outbreak′, to burst forth.—ns. Out′breaker, a wave which breaks on the shore or on rocks; Out′breaking.

Outbreathe, owt-brēth′, v.t. (Spens.) to breathe out as breath or life: to exhaust or deprive of breath.—v.i. to be breathed out: (Shak.) to expire.

Outbud, owt-bud′, v.i. (Spens.) to sprout forth.

Outbuilding, owt′bild-ing, n. a building separate from, but used in connection with, a dwelling-house or a main building: an outhouse.

Outburn, owt-burn′, v.t. to exceed in burning.—v.i. to burn away.

Outburst, owt′burst, n. a bursting out: an explosion.

Outby, owt′bī, adv. (Scot.) out of doors: (min.) towards the shaft—opp. to Inby.—Also Out′bye.

Outcast, owt′kast, adj. exiled from home or country: rejected.—n. a person banished: a vagabond: an exile: (Scot.) a quarrel: the amount of increase in bulk of grain in malting.

Outcome, owt′kum, n. the issue: consequence: result.

Outcrafty, owt-kraft′i, v.t. (Shak.) to exceed in craft.

Outcrop, owt′krop, n. the appearance, at the surface, of a layer of rock or a vein of metal, caused by tilting or inclination of the strata: the part of a layer which appears at the surface of the ground.—v.i. to appear at the surface.

Outcry, owt′krī, n. a loud cry of distress: a confused noise: a public auction.—v.t. to cry louder than.

Outdare, owt-dār′, v.t. to surpass in daring: to defy.

Outdistance, owt-dis′tans, v.t. to distance, leave far behind in any competition.

Outdo, owt-dōō′, v.t. to surpass: excel.

Outdoor, owt′dōr, adj. outside the door or the house: in the open air.—adv. Out′doors, out of the house: abroad.—Outdoor relief, help given to a pauper who does not live in the workhouse.

Outdwell, owt-dwel′, v.t. (Shak.) to dwell or stay beyond.—n. Out-dwell′er, one who owns land in a parish but lives outside it.

Out-edge, owt′-ej, n. the farthest bound.

Outer, owt′ėr, adj. more out or without: external—opp. to Inner.—n. the part of a target outside the rings, a shot striking here.—adj. Out′ermost, most or farthest out: most distant.—Outer bar, the junior barristers who plead outside the bar in court, as distinguished from King's Counsel and others who plead within the bar. [Comp. of out.]

Outface, owt-fās′, v.t. to stare down: to bear down by bravery or impudence: to confront boldly.

Outfall, owt′-fawl, n. the place of discharge of a river, sewer, &c.: (prov.) a quarrel.

Outfield, owt′fēld, n. (Scot.) arable land continually cropped without being manured—opp. to Infield: any open field at a distance from the farm-steading: any undefined district or sphere: at cricket and baseball, the players collectively who occupy the outer part of the field.—n. Out′fielder, one of such players.

Outfit, owt′fit, n. the act of making ready everything required for a journey or a voyage: complete equipment: the articles or the expenses for fitting out: the means for an outfit.—v.t. to fit out, equip.—ns. Out′fitter, one who furnishes outfits; Out′fitting, an outfit: equipment for a voyage.

Outflank, owt-flangk′, v.t. to extend the flank of one army beyond that of another: to get the better of.

Outflash, owt-flash′, v.t. to outshine.

Outfling, owt′fling, n. a sharp retort or gibe.

Outflow, owt-flō′, v.i. to flow out.—n. issue.

Outflush, owt′flush, n. any sudden glow of heat.

Outfly, owt-flī′, v.t. to surpass in flying: to fly faster than: to escape by swiftness of flight.

Outfoot, owt-fōōt′, v.i. to outsail.

Outfrown, owt-frown′, v.t. (Shak.) to frown down.

Outgarth, owt′grth, n. an outer yard or garden.

Outgaze, owt-gāz′, v.t. to stare out of countenance: to gaze farther than.

Outgeneral, owt-jen′ėr-al, v.t. to outdo in generalship: to prove a better general than.

Outgive, owt-giv′, v.t. and v.i. to surpass in liberality.

Outgo, owt-gō′, v.t. to advance before in going: to surpass: to overreach.—v.i. to go out: to come to an end.—ns. Out′go, that which goes out: expenditure—opp. to Income; Out′goer; Out′going, act or state of going out: extreme limit: expenditure.—adj. departing—opp. to Incoming, as a tenant.

Outgrow, owt-grō′, v.t. to surpass in growth: to grow out of.—n. Out′growth, that which grows out of a thing: growth to excess.

Outguard, owt′grd, n. a guard at a distance or at the farthest distance from the main body.

Outgush, owt-gush′, v.i. to issue with force.—n. Out′gush, a gushing out.

Outhaul, owt′hawl, n. a rope for hauling out the clew of a sail.—Also Out′hauler.

Out-Herod, owt-her′od, v.t. to surpass (Herod) in cruelty: to exceed, esp. in anything bad.

Outhire, owt-hīr′, v.t. to hire or let out.

Outhouse, owt′hows, n. a small building outside a dwelling-house.

Outing, owt′ing, n. the act of going out, or the distance gone out: an excursion or airing.

Outjest, owt-jest′, v.t. (Shak.) to overpower by jesting: to excel in jesting.

Outjet, owt′jet, n. that which projects from anything.—n. Outjut′ting, a projection.

Outland, owt′land, n. land beyond the limits of cultivation.—adj. (Tenn.) foreign.—n. Out′lander, a foreigner, a person not naturalised.—adj. Outland′ish, belonging to an out or foreign land: foreign: not according to custom: strange: rustic: rude: vulgar.—adv. Outland′ishly.—n. Outland′ishness.

Outlash, owt′lash, n. any sudden outburst.

Outlast, owt-last′, v.t. to last longer than.

Outlaw, owt′law, n. one deprived of the protection of the law: a robber or bandit.—v.t. to place beyond the law: to deprive of the benefit of the law: to proscribe.—n. Out′lawry, the act of putting a man out of the protection of the law: state of being an outlaw. [A.S. tlaga; cf. Ice. tlgit, out, lg, law.]

Outlay, owt′lā, n. that which is laid out: expenditure.—v.t. to lay out to view.

Outleap, owt′lēp, n. a sally, flight.

Outlearn, owt-lėrn′, v.t. to learn: to excel in learning: to get beyond the instruction of.

Outlet, owt′let, n. the place or means by which anything is let out: the passage outward, vent.

Outlier, owt′lī-ėr, n. (geol.) a portion of a stratum: anything, as detached from the principal mass, and lying some distance from it.—v.t. Outlie′, to beat in lying.—v.i. to live in the open air.

Outline, owt′līn, n. the outer line: the lines by which any figure is bounded: a sketch showing only the main lines: a draft: a set-line in fishing.—v.t. to draw the exterior line of: to delineate or sketch.—adj. Outlin′ear, like an outline.

Outlive, owt-liv′, v.t. to live longer than: to survive.—n. Outliv′er.

Outlodging, owt′loj-ing, n. a lodging outside a college bounds at Oxford and Cambridge.

Outlook, owt′lōōk, n. vigilant watch: view obtained by looking out: prospect, or (fig.) one's prospects: a watch-tower.—v.t. to face courageously.

Outlustre, owt-lus′tėr, v.t. to excel in brightness.

Outlying, owt′lī-ing, adj. lying out or beyond: remote: on the exterior or frontier: detached.

Outman, owt-man′, v.t. to outdo in manliness: to outnumber in men.

Outmanœuvre, owt-ma-nū′vėr, v.t. to surpass in manœuvring.

Outmantle, owt-man′tl, v.t. to excel in dress or ornament.

Outmarch, owt-mrch′, v.t. to march faster than: to leave behind by marching.

Outmate, owt-māt′, v.t. to outmatch.

Outmeasure, owt-mezh′ūr, v.t. to exceed in extent.

Outmost, owt′mōst. Same as Outermost.

Outmove, owt-mōōv′, v.t. to move faster than.

Outname, owt-nām′, v.t. to surpass in name, reputation, or importance.

Outness, owt′nes, n. state of being out, externality to the perceiving mind, objectiveness.

Outnumber, owt-num′bėr, v.t. to exceed in number.

Outpace, owt-pās′, v.t. to walk faster than.

Out-paramour, owt-par′a-mōōr, v.t. (Shak.) to exceed in number of mistresses.

Outparish, owt′par-ish, n. a rural parish, as distinguished from an urban one.

Outpart, owt′part, n. a part remote from the centre.

Outpassion, owt-pash′un, v.t. (Tenn.) to go beyond in passionateness.

Outpatient, owt′pā-shent, n. a patient who receives aid from a hospital, but lives outside of it.

Outpeer, owt-pēr′, v.t. (Shak.) to surpass or excel.

Out-pensioner, owt′-pen′shun-ėr, n. a non-resident pensioner.

Outport, owt′pōrt, n. a port out of or remote from the chief port: a place of export.

Outpost, owt′pōst, n. a post or station beyond the main body of an army: the troops placed there.

Outpour, owt-pōr′, v.t. to pour out: to send out in a stream.—ns. Outpour′; Outpour′er; Out′pouring, a pouring out: an abundant supply.

Outpower, owt-pow′ėr, v.t. to surpass in power.

Outpray, owt-prā′, v.t. to exceed in earnestness of prayer.

Outprize, owt-prīz′, v.t. (Shak.) to exceed in the value set upon it.

Output, owt′pōōt, n. the quantity of metal made by a smelting furnace, or of coal taken from a pit, within a certain time, production generally.

Outquarters, owt-kwr′tėrz, quarters situated away from headquarters.

Outquench, owt-kwensh′, v.t. (Spens.) to extinguish.

Outrage, owt′rāj, n. violence beyond measure: excessive abuse: wanton mischief.—v.t. to treat with excessive abuse: to injure by violence, esp. to violate, to ravish.—v.i. to be guilty of outrage.—adj. Outrā′geous, violent: furious: turbulent: atrocious: enormous, immoderate.—adv. Outrā′geously.—n. Outrā′geousness. [O. Fr. oultrage (mod. outrage)—Low L. ultragium—L. ultra, beyond.]

Outrance, owt′rans, n. the utmost extremity: the bitter end.— outrance, to the bitter end of a combat—usually in Eng. use, l'outrance. [Fr.]

Outr, ōōt-rā′, adj. beyond what is customary or proper: extravagant: overstrained. [Fr. pa.p. of outreroutre—L. ultra, beyond.]

Outreach, owt-rēch′, v.t. to reach or extend beyond: to cheat or overreach.

Outredden, owt-red′n, v.t. (Tenn.) to grow redder than.

Outreign, owt-rān′, v.t. (Spens.) to reign longer than: to reign through the whole of (a period).

Outremer, ōōtr-mār′, n. the region beyond sea. [Fr.]

Outride, owt-rīd′, v.t. to ride beyond: to ride faster than.—n. Out′rider, one who rides abroad: a servant on horseback who attends a carriage.

Outrigger, owt′rig-ėr, n. a projecting spar for extending sails or any part of the rigging: a projecting contrivance ending in a float fixed to the side of a canoe against capsizing: an iron bracket fixed to the outside of a boat carrying a rowlock at its extremity to increase the leverage of the oar: a light racing-boat with projecting rowlocks.

Outright, owt′rīt, adv. immediately: at once: completely.—adj. free from reserve: positive, undisguised.

Outrival, owt-rī′val, v.t. to surpass, excel.

Outroad, owt′rōd, n. (obs.) a foray into an enemy's country, a hostile attack—opp. to Inroad.

Outroar, owt-rōr′, v.t. (Shak.) to exceed in roaring.—n. Out′roar, an uproar.

Outroot, owt-rōōt′, v.t. to root out.

Outroper, owt-rō′pėr, n. formerly an officer in London who seized the goods of foreigners sold elsewhere than in the public market.

Outrun, owt-run′, v.t. to go beyond in running: to exceed: to get the better of or to escape by running.—n. Out′runner.

Outrush, owt-rush′, v.i. to rush out:—n. a rushing out.

Outsail, owt-sāl′, v.t. to leave behind in sailing.

Outscold, owt-skōld′, v.t. (Shak.) to exceed in scolding.

Outscorn, owt-skorn′, v.t. to bear down or confront by contempt: to disregard or despise.

Outscouring, owt′skowr-ing, n. substance washed or scoured out.

Outsell, owt-sel′, v.t. to sell for a higher price than: to exceed in the number or amount of sales.

Out-sentry, owt′-sen-tri, n. a sentry who guards the entrance to a place at a distance.—n. Out′scout, an advance scout.

Outset, owt′set, n. a setting out: beginning.—Also Out′setting.

Outsettlement, owt′set′l-ment, n. a settlement away from the main one.

Outshine, owt-shīn′, v.i. to shine out or forth.—v.t. to excel in shining: to be brighter than.

Outshot, owt′shot, n. (Scot.) a projection in a building: (pl.) in paper-making, rags of second quality.

Outside, owt′sīd, n. the outer side: the farthest limit: the surface: the exterior: one who is without, as a passenger on a coach, &c.: the outer or soiled sheets of a package of paper.—adj. on the outside: exterior: superficial: external: extreme, beyond the limit.—adv. on the outside: not within.—prep. beyond.—ns. Out′side-car, an Irish jaunting-car; Out′sider, one not admitted to a particular company, profession, &c., a stranger, a layman: a racehorse not included among the favourites in the betting: (pl.) a pair of nippers for turning a key in a keyhole from the outside.—Outside country, districts beyond the line of settlements in Australia; Outside of, outside: (coll.) besides.—Get outside of (vulgar), to comprehend: to eat or drink.

Outsight, owt′sīt, n. power of seeing things, outlook.—Outsight plenishing (Scot.), outdoor movables.

Outsit, owt-sit′, v.t. to sit beyond the time of.

Outskirt, owt′skėrt, n. the outer skirt: border: suburb—often used in pl.

Outsleep, owt-slēp′ v.t. (Shak.) to sleep longer than.

Outslide, owt-slīd′, v.t. to slide forward.

Outsoar, owt-sōr′, v.t. to soar beyond.

Outsole, owt′sōl, n. the outer sole of a boot or shoe which rests on the ground.

Outspan, owt-span′, v.t. and v.i. to unyoke or unharness draught-oxen, &c., from a vehicle, to encamp—opp. to Inspan.

Outspeak, owt-spēk′, v.t. to say aloud: to speak more, louder, or longer than.—v.i. to speak boldly, to speak up.—adj. Outspō′ken, frank or bold of speech: uttered with boldness.—n. Outspō′kenness.

Outspeckle, owt′spek'l, n. (Scot.) a laughing-stock.

Outspent, owt-spent′, adj. thoroughly tired out.

Outsport, owt-sport′, v.t. (Shak.) to outdo in sporting.

Outspread, owt-spred′, v.t. to spread out or over.—adj. Outspread′ing.

Outspring, owt′spring, n. the outcome, result, or issue.

Outstand, owt-stand′, v.t. to resist or withstand: to stand beyond the proper time.—v.i. to stand out or project from a mass: to remain unpaid or unsettled in any way.—adj. Outstand′ing, prominent: uncollected: remaining unpaid.

Outstare, owt′stār, v.t. (Shak.) to stare down or abash with effrontery.

Outstay, owt-stā′, v.t. (Shak.) to stay beyond.

Outstep, owt-step′, v.t. to step beyond, overstep.

Outstretch, owt-strech′, v.t. to spread out, extend.

Outstrike, owt-strīk′, v.t. to exceed in striking, so as to overpower.

Outstrip, owt-strip′, v.t. to outrun: to leave behind: to escape beyond one's reach.

Outsum, owt-sum′, v.t. to outnumber.

Outswear, owt-swār′, v.t. to exceed in swearing.

Outsweeten, owt-swēt′n, v.t. to excel in sweetness.

Outswell, owt-swel′, v.t. (Shak.) to overflow.

Outtalk, owt-tawk′, v.t. to talk down.

Outtongue, owt-tung′, v.t. (Shak.) to bear down by talk or noise.

Outtop, owt-top′, v.t. to reach higher than: to excel.

Out-travel, owt-trav′el, v.t. to surpass in travelling, to go more swiftly than.

Outvalue, owt-val′ū, v.t. to exceed in value.

Outvenom, owt-ven′um, v.t. (Shak.) to exceed in poison.

Outvie, owt-vī′, v.t. to go beyond in vying with: to exceed: to surpass.

Outvillain, owt-vil′ān, v.t. (Shak.) to exceed in villainy.

Outvoice, owt-vois′, v.t. (Shak.) to exceed in clamour or noise: to drown the voice of.

Outvote, owt-vōt′, v.t. to defeat by a greater number of votes.

Outwalk, owt-wawk′, v.t. to walk farther, longer, or faster than.

Outwall, owt′wawl, n. the outside wall of a building: (Shak.) external appearance.

Outward, owt′ward, adj. toward the outside: external: exterior: not inherent, adventitious: (theol.) worldly, carnal—opp. to Inward or spiritual: (B.) public.—adv. toward the exterior: away from port: to a foreign port: superficially—also Out′wards.—n. Out′ward (Shak.), external form: the outside.—adj. Out′ward-bound, bound outwards or to a foreign port.—adv. Out′wardly, in an outward manner: externally: in appearance.—n. Out′wardness.—adj. Out′ward-saint′ed, appearing outwardly to be a saint.

Outward, owt-wawrd′, n. a ward in a detached building connected with a hospital.

Outwatch, owt-wawch′, v.t. to watch longer than.

Outwear, owt-wār′, v.t. to wear out: to spend tediously: to last longer than: to consume.

Outweary, owt-wē′ri, v.t. to weary out completely.

Outweed, owt-wēd′, v.t. (Spens.) to root out.

Outweigh, owt-wā′, v.t. to exceed in weight or importance: to overtask.

Outwell, owt-wel′, v.t. and v.i. to pour or well out.

Outwent, owt-went′, v.t. went faster than, outstripped.

Outwin, owt-win′, v.t. (Spens.) to get out of.

Outwind, owt-wīnd′, v.t. to extricate by winding, to unloose.

Outwing, owt-wing′, v.t. to outstrip in flying: to outflank.

Outwit, owt-wit′, v.t. to surpass in wit or ingenuity: to defeat by superior ingenuity:—pr.p. outwit′ting; pa.t. and pa.p. outwit′ted.

Outwith, owt′with, prep. (Scot.), without, outside of.

Outwork, owt′wurk, n. a work outside the principal wall or line of fortification: work done in the fields, out of doors, as distinguished from indoor work.—v.t. Outwork′ (Shak.), to surpass in work or labour: to work out or bring to an end: to finish.—n. Out′worker, one who works out of doors, or who takes away work to do at home.

Outworth, owt-wurth′, v.t. (Shak.) to exceed in value.

Outwrest, owt-rest′, v.t. (Spens.) to extort by violence.

Ouvrage, ōōv′razh, n. work.—ns. (masc.) Ouvrier (ōōv′ri-ā), (fem.) Ouvrire (ōōv′ri-ār), a working man or woman.—adj. working. [Fr.]

Ouzel, ōō′zl, n. a kind of thrush—also Ou′sel. [A.S. sle; cog. with Ger. amsel.]

Oval, ō′val, adj. having the shape of an egg.—n. anything oval, a plot of ground, &c.: an ellipse.—adv. O′vally. [Fr. ovale—L. ovum, an egg.]

Ovary, ō′var-i, n. the part of the female animal in which the egg of the offspring is formed, the female genital gland: (bot.) the part of the pistil which contains the seed.— O′va, eggs.—adjs. Ovā′rial, Ovā′rian, of or pertaining to the ovary.—ns. Ovā′riōle; Ovariot′omist; Ovariot′omy (surg.), the removal of a diseased tumour from the ovary.—adj. Ovā′rious, consisting of eggs.—n. Ovarī′tis, inflammation of the ovary. [Low L. ovaria.]

Ovate, ō′vāt, n. an Eisteddfodic graduate who is neither a bard nor a druid. [W. ofydd, a philosopher.]

Ovate, -d, ō′vāt, -ed, adj. egg-shaped.

Ovation, ō-vā′shun, n. an outburst of popular applause, an enthusiastic reception: in ancient Rome, a lesser triumph. [Fr.,—L.,—ovāre, -ātum, to shout.]

Oven, uv′n, n. an arched cavity over a fire for baking, heating, or drying: any apparatus used as an oven.—ns. Ov′en-bird, a South American tree-creeper which builds an oven-shaped nest; Ov′en-tit, the willow-warbler; Ov′en-wood, brushwood.—Dutch oven, a baking-pot, heated by heaping coals round it. [A.S. ofen; Ger. ofen.]

Over, ō′vėr, prep. higher than in place, rank, value, &c.: across: on the surface of: upon the whole surface of: through: concerning: on account of: longer than.—adv. on the top: above: across: from one side, person, &c. to another: above in measure: too much: in excess: left remaining: at an end: completely.—adj. upper or superior (often used as a prefix, as in overcoat, overlord, &c.): beyond: past.—n. the number of balls delivered at cricket between successive changes of bowlers: an excess, overplus.—v.t. to go, leap, or vault over.—v.i. to go over.—Over again, afresh, anew; Over against, opposite; Over and above, in addition to: besides; Over and over, several times: repeatedly; Over head and ears, beyond one's depth: completely; Over seas, to foreign lands.—All over, completely: at an end. [A.S. ofer; Ger. ber, L. super, Gr. huper.]

Overact, ō-vėr-akt′, v.t. to act overmuch, to overdo any part.—v.i. to act more than necessary.

Over-all, ō′vėr-awl, adv. (Spens.) everywhere, all over.— O′veralls, loose trousers of canvas, &c., worn over the others to keep them sound or clean, waterproof leggings.

Over-anxious, ō-vėr-angk′shus, adj. anxious beyond what is right or reasonable.—n. Over-anxī′ety.—adv. Over-anx′iously.

Overarch, ō-vėr-rch′, v.t. to arch over.—v.i. to hang over like an arch.

Overawe, ō-vėr-aw′, v.t. to restrain by fear or by superior influence.

Overbalance, ō-vėr-bal′ans, v.t. to exceed in weight, value, or importance: to cause to lose (one's) balance.—n. excess of weight or value.

Overbattle, ō-vėr-bat′tl, adj. (obs.) too fertile.

Overbear, ō-vėr-bār′, v.t. to bear down or overpower: to overwhelm.—adj. Overbear′ing, inclined to domineer, esp. in manner or conduct: haughty and dogmatical: imperious.—adv. Overbear′ingly.—n. Overbear′ingness.

Overbid, ō-vėr-bid′, v.t. to offer a price greater than.—v.i. offer more than the value of.

Overblow, ō-vėr-blō′, v.i. to blow over or to be past its violence: to blow with too much violence.—v.t. to blow away: to blow across.—adj. Overblown′, blown over or past, at an end: burnt by an excessive blast, in the Bessemer steel process.

Overblow, ō-vėr-blō′, v.t. to cover with blossoms or flowers.—adj. Overblown′, past the time of flower, withered.

Overboard, ō′vėr-bōrd, adv. over the board or side: from on board: out of a ship.—Thrown overboard, deserted, discarded, betrayed.

Overbody, ō-vėr-bod′i, v.t. to give too much body to.

Overboil, ō′vėr-boil′, v.i. and v.t. to boil excessively.

Overbold, ō-vėr-bōld′, adj. (Shak.) excessively bold: impudent.—adv. Overbold′ly.

Overbridge, ō′vėr-brij, n. a bridge over a road.

Overbrim, ō-vėr-brim′, v.t. to fill to overflowing.—v.i. to be so full as to overflow.—adj. Overbrimmed′, having too large a brim.

Overbrood, ō-vėr-brōōd′, v.t. to brood over.

Overbrow, ō-vėr-brow′, v.t. to overhang like a projecting brow.

Overbuild, ō-vėr-bild′, v.t. to build over: to build more than is needed.—v.i. to build beyond one's means.

Overbulk, ō-vėr-bulk′, v.t. (Shak.) to oppress by bulk.

Overburden, ō-vėr-bur′dn, v.t. to burden overmuch.—n. alluvial soil overlying a bed of ore.

Overburn, ō-vėr-burn′, v.t. to burn too much.—v.i. to be too zealous.

Overbusy, ō-vėr-biz′i, adj. too busy, over-officious.

Overbuy, ō-vėr-bī′, v.t. to buy at too dear a rate: to buy more than is needed.

Overby, ō-vėr-bī′, adv. a little way over—(Scot.) Owerby′, O'erby′.

Overcanopy, ō-vėr-kan′o-pi, v.t. (Shak.) to cover as with a canopy.

Overcareful, ō-vėr-kār′fool, adj. careful to excess.

Overcarry, ō-vėr-kar′i, v.t. to carry too far, to go beyond.—v.i. to go to excess.

Overcast, ō-vėr-kast′, v.t. to cast over: to cloud: to cover with gloom: to sew over or stitch the edges (of a piece of cloth) slightly.—v.i. to grow dull or cloudy.—n. Overcast′ing, the action of the verb overcast: in bookbinding, a method of oversewing single leaves in hem-stitch style to give the pliability of folded double leaves.

Overcatch, ō-vėr-kach′, v.t. (Spens.) to overtake.

Overcharge, ō-vėr-chrj′, v.t. to load with too great a charge: to charge too great a price.—n. O′vercharge, an excessive load or burden: too great a charge, as of gunpowder or of price.

Overcheck, ō-vėr-chek′, n. a check-rein passing over a horse's head between the ears.

Overcloud, ō-vėr-klowd′, v.t. to cover over with clouds: to cause gloom or sorrow to.

Overcloy, ō-vėr-kloi′, v.t. (Shak.) to fill beyond satiety.

Overcoat, ō′vėr-kōt, n. an outdoor coat worn over all the other dress, a top-coat.—n. O′vercoating, cloth from which such is made.

Overcold, ō′vėr-kōld, adj. too cold.

Overcolour, ō-vėr-kul′ur, v.t. to colour to excess, to exaggerate.

Overcome, ō-vėr-kum′, v.t. to get the better of: to conquer or subdue: (obs.) to spread over, surcharge.—v.i. to be victorious.

Over-confident, ō-vėr-kon′fi-dent, adj. too confident.—n. Over-con′fidence.—adv. Over-con′fidently.

Overcount, ō-vėr-kownt′, v.t. to outnumber.

Overcover, ō-vėr-kuv′ėr, v.t. to cover completely.

Overcredulous, ō-vėr-kred′ū-lus, adj. too easily persuaded to believe.

Overcrow, ō-vėr-krō′, v.t. to crow over, insult.

Overcrowd, ō-vėr-krowd′, v.t. to fill or crowd to excess.

Overdaring, ō-vėr-dār′ing, adj. foolhardy.

Overdate, ō′vėr-dāt, v.t. to post-date.

Over-develop, ō-vėr-de-vel′op, v.t. in photography, to develop a plate too much, as by too long a process or by too strong a developer.—n. Over-devel′opment.

Overdight, ō-vėr-dīt′, adj. (Spens.) dight or covered over: overspread.

Overdo, ō-vėr-dōō′, v.t. to do overmuch: to carry too far: to harass, to fatigue: to cook too much: to excel.—n. Overdo′er.—adj. Overdone′, overacted: fatigued: cooked too much.

Overdose, ō-vėr-dōs′, v.t. to dose overmuch.—n. an excessive dose.

Overdraw, ō-vėr-draw′, v.t. to draw overmuch: to draw beyond one's credit: to exaggerate.—n. O′verdraft, the act of overdrawing, the amount by which the cheque, &c., exceeds the sum against which it is drawn: a current of air passing over, not through, the ignited fuel in a furnace: an arrangement of flues by which the kiln is heated from the top toward the bottom—also O′verdraught.

Overdress, ō-vėr-dres′, v.t. to dress too ostentatiously.—n. O′verdress, any garment worn over another.

Overdrive, ō-vėr-drīv′, v.t. to drive too hard.

Overdrop, ō-vėr-drop′, v.t. to drop over: to overhang.

Overdue, ō-vėr-dū′, adj. due beyond the time: unpaid at the right time.

Overdye, ō-vėr-dī′, v.t. to dye too deeply.

Overearnest, ō′vėr-ėr′nest, adj. too earnest.

Overeat, ō-vėr-ēt′, v.t. to surfeit with eating (generally reflexive): (Shak.) to eat over again.

Overentreat, ō-vėr-en-trēt′, v.t. to entreat to excess.

Overestimate, ō-vėr-es′tim-āt, v.t. to estimate too highly.—n. an excessive estimate.—n. Overestimā′tion.

Overexcite, ō′vėr-ek-sīt′, v.t. to excite unduly.—n. Overexcite′ment.

Over-exertion, ō′vėr-eg-zėr′shun, n. too great exertion.

Over-exposure, ō′vėr-eks-pō′zhūr, n. excessive exposure: (photography) the exposure to light for too long a time of the sensitive plate.—v.t. Over-expose′.

Over-exquisite, ō′vėr-eks′kwi-zit, adj. excessively exquisite: over exact or nice: too careful.

Overeye, ō-vēr-ī′, v.t. (Shak.) to overlook or superintend: (Shak.) to observe or remark.

Overfall, ō′vėr-fawl, n. a rippling or race in the sea, where, by the peculiarities of bottom, the water is propelled with immense force, esp. when the wind and tide, or current, set strongly together.

Overfar, ō-vėr-fr′, adv. (Shak.) to too great an extent.

Overfast, ō-vėr-fast′, adj. too fast: at too great speed.

Overfeed, ō-vėr-fēd′, v.t. and v.i. to feed to excess.

Overfill, ō-vėr-fil′, v.t. to fill to excess.

Overfineness, ō′vėr-fīn′nes, n. excessive fineness.

Overfired, ō-vėr-fīrd′, adj. overheated in firing.

Overfish, ō-vėr-fish′, v.t. to fish to excess: to diminish unduly the stock of fish.

Overflourish, ō′vėr-flur′ish, v.t. to make excessive flourish of: to decorate superficially.

Overflow, ō-vėr-flō′, v.t. to flow over: to flood: to overwhelm: to cover, as with numbers.—v.i. to run over: to abound.—n. O′verflow, a flowing over: that which flows over: a pipe or channel for spare water, &c.: an inundation: superabundance: abundance: copiousness.—adj. flowing over: over full: abundant.—adj. Overflow′ing, exuberant, very abundant.—adv. Overflow′ingly.—Overflow meeting, a supplementary meeting of those unable to find room in the main meeting.

Overfly, ō′vėr-flī′, v.t. to soar beyond.

Overfold, ō′vėr-fōld, n. (geol.) a reflexed or inverted fold in strata.

Overfond, ō-vėr-fond′, adj. fond to excess.—adv. Overfond′ly.

Overforward, ō-vėr-for′wrd, adj. too forward or officious.—n. Overfor′wardness.

Overfreight, ō-vėr-frāt′, v.t. to overload.

Overfull, ō-vėr-fool′, adj. (Shak.) too full.—n. Overfull′ness.

Overgaze, ō-vėr-gāz′, v.t. to gaze or look over.

Overget, ō-vėr-get′, v.t. (obs.) to reach, overtake: to get over.

Overgive, ō-vėr-giv′, v.t. (Spens.) to give over or surrender.—v.i. to give too lavishly.

Overglance, ō-vėr-glans′, v.t. (Shak.) to look hastily over.

Overglaze, ō-vėr-glāz′, v.t. to glaze over: decorate superficially.—adj. suitable for painting on glazed articles.—n. O′verglaze, an additional glaze given to porcelain, &c.

Overgloom, ō-vėr-glōōm′, v.t. to cover with gloom.

Overgo, ō-vėr-gō′, v.t. to exceed: excel: to go over: to cover.—v.i. to go over: to pass away.

Overgorge, ō-vėr-gorj′, v.t. (Shak.) to gorge to excess.

Overgrain, ō-vėr-grān′, v.t. and v.i. to grain over a surface already grained.—n. Overgrain′er, a long-bristled brush used in graining wood.

Overgrassed, ō-vėr-grast′, adj. (Spens.) overstocked or overgrown with grass.

Overgreedy, ō-vėr-grēd′i, adj. excessively greedy.

Overgreen, ō-vėr-grēn′, v.t. (Shak.) to cover over so as to hide blemishes.

Overground, ō′vėr-grownd, adj. being above ground.

Overgrow, ō-vėr-grō′, v.t. to grow beyond: to rise above: to cover with growth.—v.i. to grow beyond the proper size.—adj. Overgrown′, grown beyond the natural size.—n. O′vergrowth.

Overhail, ō-vėr-hāl′, v.t. Same as Overhaul.

Overhair, ō′vėr-hār, n. the long hair overlying the fur of many animals.

Overhand, ō′vėr-hand, adj. having the hand raised above the elbow or over the ball at cricket (also O′verhanded): above the shoulder at baseball: (min.) done from below upward.—adv. with the hand over the object.—v.t. to sew over and over.

Overhandle, ō-vėr-han′dl, v.t. (Shak.) to handle or mention too often.

Overhang, ō-vėr-hang′, v.t. to hang over: to project over: to impend: to overlade with ornamentation.—v.i. to hang over.—n. O′verhang, a projecting part, the degree of projection, of roofs, &c.—adj. Overhung′, covered over, adorned with hangings.

Overhappy, ō-vėr-hap′i, adj. excessively or too happy.

Overhasty, ō-vėr-hās′ti, adj. too hasty or rash.—adv. Overhas′tily.—n. Overhas′tiness.

Overhaul, ō-vėr-hawl′, v.t. to haul or draw over: to turn over for examination: to examine: to re-examine: (naut.) to overtake in a chase.—n. O′verhaul, a hauling over: examination: repair.—Overhaul a ship, to overtake a ship: to search her for contraband goods.

Overhead, ō′vėr-hed, adv. over the head: aloft: in the zenith: per head.—adj. situated above.

Overhear, ō-vėr-hēr′, v.t. to hear what was not intended to be heard: to hear by accident: (Shak.) to hear over again.

Overheat, ō-vėr-hēt′, v.t. to heat to excess.—n. O′verheat, extreme heat.

Overhend, ō-vėr-hend′, v.t. (Spens.) to overtake.

Overhold, ō-vėr-hōld′, v.t. (Shak.) to overvalue.

Overhours, ō′vėr-owrz, time beyond the regular number of hours: overtime in labour.

Overhouse, ō′vėr-hows, adj. stretched along the roofs, rather than on poles or underground.

Overinform, ō-vėr-in-form′, v.t. to animate too much.

Overissue, ō-vėr-ish′ū, v.t. to issue in excess, as bank-notes or bills of exchange.—n. O′verissue, any excessive issue.

Overjoy, ō-vėr-joi′, v.t. to fill with great joy: to transport with delight or gladness.—n. O′verjoy, joy to excess: transport.

Overjump, ō-vėr-jump′, v.t. to jump beyond: to pass by: neglect.

Overkind, ō-vėr-kīnd′, adj. excessively kind.—n. Overkind′ness.

Overking, ō′vėr-king, n. a king holding sway over inferior kings or princes.

Overknee, ō′vėr-nē, adj. reaching above the knee, as waders, &c.

Overlabour, ō-vėr-lā′bur, v.t. to labour excessively over: to be too nice with: to overwork.

Overlade, ō-vėr-lād′, v.t. to load with too great a burden.

Overlaid, ō-vėr-lād′, adj. (her.) lapping over.

Overland, ō′vėr-land, adj. passing entirely or principally by land, as a route, esp. that from England to India by the Suez Canal, rather than by the Cape of Good Hope.

Overlap, ō-vėr-lap′, v.t. to lap over: to lay so that the edge of one rests on that of another.—n. O′verlap (geol.), a disposition of strata where the upper beds extend beyond the bottom beds of the same series.

Overlaunch, ō-vėr-lawnsh′, v.t. to unite timbers by long splices or scarfs.

Overlay, ō-vėr-lā′, v.t. to spread over or across: to cover completely: to smother by lying on (for overlie): to use overlays in printing: to cloud: to overwhelm or oppress: to span by means of a bridge.—ns. O′verlay, a piece of paper pasted on the impression-surface of a printing-press, so as to increase the impression in a place where it is too faint: (Scot.) a cravat; Overlay′ing, a superficial covering: that which overlays: plating.

Overleaf, ō′vėr-lēf, adv. on the other side of the leaf of a book.

Overleap, ō-vėr-lēp′, v.t. to leap over: to pass over without notice.—Overleap one's self, to make too much effort in leaping: to leap too far.

Overleather, ō′vėr-leth-ėr, n. (Shak.) the upper part of a shoe or boot.

Overleaven, ō-vėr-lev′n, v.t. to leaven too much: to mix too much with.

Overlie, ō-vėr-lī′, v.t. to lie above or upon: to smother by lying on.

Overlive, ō-vėr-liv′, v.t. (B.) to live longer than: to survive.—v.i. to live too long: to live too fast, or so as prematurely to exhaust the fund of life.

Overload, ō-vėr-lōd′, v.t. to load or fill overmuch.—n. an excessive load.

Overlock, ō-vėr-lok′, v.t. to make the bolt of a lock go too far.

Overlong, ō-vėr-long′, adj. too long.

Overlook, ō-vėr-look′, v.t. to look over: to see from a higher position: to view carefully: to neglect by carelessness or inadvertence: to pass by without punishment: to pardon: to slight: to bewitch by looking upon with the Evil Eye.—n. Overlook′er.

Overlord, ō-vėr-lawrd′, n. a lord over other lords: a feudal superior.—n. Overlord′ship.

Overlusty, ō-vėr-lust′i, adj. (Shak.) too lusty.

Overly, ō′vėr-li, adv. (coll.) excessively, too.

Overlying, ō′vėr-lī′ing, adj. lying on the top.

Overman, ō′vėr-man, n. in mining, the person in charge of the work below ground.

Overman, ō-vėr-man′, v.t. to keep more men than necessary on a ship, farm, &c.

Overmantel, ō′vėr-man-tl, n. a frame containing shelves and other decorations, and often a mirror, set on a mantel-shelf.

Overmasted, ō-vėr-mast′ed, adj. furnished with a mast or masts too long or too heavy.

Overmaster, ō-vėr-mas′tėr, v.t. to subdue, to govern: to get and keep in one's power.

Overmatch, ō-vėr-mach′, v.t. to be more than a match for: to conquer.—n. O′vermatch, one who is more than a match: one who cannot be overcome.

Overmeasure, ō′vėr-mezh-ūr, n. something given over the due measure.—v.t. to measure too largely.

Overmellow, ō-vėr-mel′lō, adj. (Tenn.) excessively or too mellow.

Overmount, ō-vėr-mownt′, v.t. to surmount: to go higher than.—n. O′vermount, a piece of cardboard cut in proper shape, to prevent the glass of the frame from lying too closely upon an engraving or a picture.

Overmuch, ō-vėr-much′, adj. and adv. too much.

Overmultitude, ō-vėr-mul′ti-tūd, v.t. (Milt.) to outnumber.—v.t. Overmul′tiply, to repeat too often.—v.i. to increase to excess.

Overname, ō-vėr-nām′, v.t. (Shak.) to name over: to name in a series, to recount.—n. O′vername, a surname, nickname.

Overneat, ō-vėr-nēt′, adj. unnecessarily neat.

Overnet, ō-vėr-net′, v.t. to cover with a net.

Overnice, ō-vėr-nīs′, adj. fastidious.—adv. Overnice′ly.

Overnight, ō′vėr-nīt, n. the forepart of the evening, esp. that of the day just past.—adv. during the night: on the evening of the day just past.

Overoffice, ō-vėr-of′is, v.t. (Shak.) to lord it over by virtue of an office.

Overpart, ō-vėr-part′ v.t. to assign too difficult a part to.

Overpass, ō-vėr-pas′, v.t. to pass over: to pass by without notice.—pa.p. Overpast′ (B.), that has already passed.

Overpay, ō-vėr-pā′, v.t. to pay too much: to be more than an ample reward for.—n. Overpay′ment.

Overpeer, ō-vėr-pēr′, v.t. (Shak.) to overlook: to look down on: to hover above.

Overpeople, ō-vėr-pē′pl, v.t. to fill with too many inhabitants.—Also Overpop′ulate.

Overperch, ō-vėr-pėrch′, v.t. (Shak.) to perch or fly over.

Overpersuade, ō-vėr-pėr-swād′, v.t. to persuade a person against his inclination.

Overpicture, ō-vėr-pik′tūr, v.t. to exceed the picture of: to exaggerate.

Overplate, ō′vėr-plāt, n. in armour, a large pauldron protecting the shoulder, or a cubitire protecting the elbow.

Overplus, ō′vėr-plus, n. that which is more than enough: surplus.

Overply, ō-vėr-plī′, v.t. to ply to excess.

Overpoise, ō′vėr-poiz, v.t. to outweigh.—n. O′verpoise, a weight sufficient to weigh another down.

Overpost, ō-vėr-post′, v.t. (Shak.) to hasten over quickly.

Overpower, ō-vėr-pow′ėr, v.t. to have or gain power over: to subdue, defeat: to overwhelm.—adj. Overpow′ering, excessive in degree or amount: irresistible.—adv. Overpow′eringly.

Overpraise, ō-vėr-prāz′, v.t. to praise too much.—n. Overprais′ing, excessive praise.

Overpress, ō-vėr-pres′, v.t. to overwhelm, to crush: to overcome by importunity.—n. Overpress′ure, excessive pressure.

Overprize, ō-vėr-prīz′, v.t. to value too highly: to surpass in value.

Overproduction, ō′vėr-pro-duk-shun, n. the act of producing a supply of commodities in excess of the demand.

Overproof, ō′vėr-proof, adj. containing more than a certain amount of alcohol, stronger than proof-spirit, the standard by which all mixtures of alcohol and water are judged—containing 57.27 per cent. by volume, and 49.50 per cent. by weight, of alcohol.

Overproud, ō-vėr-prowd′, adj. too proud.

Overpurchase, ō-vėr-pur′chās, n. a dear bargain.—v.i. (obs.) to pay too dear a price.

Overrack, ō-vėr-rak′, v.t. to torture beyond bearing.

Overrake, ō-vėr-rāk′, v.t. to sweep over, as a vessel by a wave.

Overrank, ō-vėr-rangk′, adj. too rank or luxurious.

Overrate, ō-vėr-rāt′, v.t. to rate or value too high.—n. O′verrate, an excessive estimate or rate.

Overreach, ō-vėr-rēch′, v.t. to reach or extend beyond: to cheat or get the better of.—v.i. to strike the hindfoot against the forefoot, as a horse.

Overread, ō-vėr-rēd′, v.t. (Shak.) to read over, to peruse.—adj. Overread (ō-vėr-red′), having read too much.

Over-reckon, ō-vėr-rek′n, v.t. and v.i. to compute too highly.

Overred, ō-vėr-red′, v.t. (Shak.) to smear with a red colour.

Overrefine, ō-vėr-rē-fīn′, v.i. to refine too much.—n. Overrefine′ment, any over subtle or affected refinement.

Overrent, ō-vėr-rent′, v.i. to exact too high a rent.

Override, ō-vėr-rīd′, v.t. to ride too much: to pass on horseback: to trample down or set aside.—Override one's commission, to act with too high a hand: to stretch one's authority too far.

Overripen, ō-vėr-rīp′n, v.t. (Shak.) to make too ripe.—adj. Overripe′, too ripe, more than ripe.

Overroast, ō-vēr-rōst′, v.t. to roast too much.

Overrule, ō-vėr-rōōl′, v.t. to rule over: to influence or to set aside by greater power: (law) to reject or declare to be invalid.—v.i. to prevail.—n. Overrul′er.—adv. Overrul′ingly.

Overrun, ō-vėr-run′, v.t. to run or spread over: to grow over: to spread over and take possession of: to crush down: (B.) to run faster than: to pass in running: to extend composed types beyond their first limit.—v.i. to run over: to extend beyond the right length, as a line or page in printing.—n. Overrun′ner, one that overruns.

Overscore, ō-vėr-skōr′, v.t. to score or draw lines over anything: to erase by this means.

Overscrupulous, ō-vėr-skroop′ū-lus, adj. scrupulous to excess.—n. Overscrup′ulousness.

Overscutched, ō-vėr-skucht′, adj. (Shak.) over switched or whipped, or more probably worn out in the service.

Oversea, ō′vėr-sē, adj. foreign, from beyond the sea.—adv. to a place beyond the sea, abroad.—Also O′verseas.

Overseam, ō′vėr-sēm, n. a seam in which the thread is at each stitch passed over the edges sewn together.—n. O′verseaming, the foregoing kind of sewing.

Oversee, ō-vėr-sē′, v.t. to see or look over, to superintend.—n. Oversē′er, one who oversees: a superintendent: an officer who has the care of the poor, and other duties, such as making out lists of voters, of persons who have not paid rates, &c.: one who manages a plantation of slaves: (obs.) a critic.—Overseers of the poor, officers in England who manage the poor-rate.—Be overseen (obs.), to be deceived: to be fuddled.

Oversell, ō-vėr-sel′, v.t. and v.i. to sell too dear: to sell more than exists, of stock, &c.

Overset, ō-vėr-set′, v.t. to set or turn over: to upset: to overthrow.—v.i. to turn or be turned over.

Overshade, ō-vėr-shād′, v.t. to throw a shade over.

Overshadow, ō-vėr-shad′ō, v.t. to throw a shadow over: to shelter or protect.

Overshine, ō-vėr-shīn′, v.t. (Shak.) to shine upon, illumine: to outshine.

Overshoe, ō′vėr-shōō, n. a shoe, esp. of waterproof, worn over another.

Overshoot, ō-vėr-shōōt′, v.t. to shoot over or beyond, as a mark: to pass swiftly over.—v.i. to shoot or fly beyond the mark.—adj. O′vershot, having the water falling on it from above, as a water-wheel: surpassed: fuddled.—Overshoot one's self, to venture too far, to overreach one's self.

Overside, ō-vėr-sīd′, adj. acting over the side.—adv. over the side.

Oversight, ō′vėr-sīt, n. a failing to notice: mistake: omission: (orig.) superintendence.

Oversize, ō-vėr-sīz′, v.t. (Shak.) to cover with any gluey matter: to plaster over.

Overskip, ō-vėr-skip′, v.t. to skip, leap, or pass over: (Shak.) to fail to see or find: to escape.

Overslaugh, ō-vėr-slaw′, v.t. (U.S.) to pass over in favour of another: to supersede: to hinder: to oppress. [Dut. overslaan (cf. Ger. berschlagen), to skip over.]

Oversleep, ō-vėr-slēp′, v.t. and v.i. to sleep beyond one's usual time.

Overslip, ō-vėr-slip′, v.t. to pass without notice.

Oversman, ō′vėrz-man, n. an overseer: (Scot.) an umpire appointed to decide between the differing judgment of two arbiters.

Oversoul, ō′vėr-sōl, n. the divine principle forming the spiritual unity of all being.

Oversow, ō-vėr-sō′, v.t. to sow too much seed on: to sow over.

Overspent, ō-vėr-spent′, adj. excessively fatigued.

Overspread, ō-vėr-spred′, v.t. to spread over: to scatter over.—v.i. to be spread over.

Overstain, ō-vėr-stān′, v.t. to besmear the surface of.

Overstand, ō-vėr-stand′, v.t. to stand too strictly on the conditions of.

Overstare, ō-vėr-stār′, v.t. to outstare.

Overstate, ō-vėr-stāt′, to state over and above: to exaggerate.—n. Overstate′ment.

Overstay, ō-vėr-stā′, v.t. to stay too long.

Overstep, ō-vėr-step′, v.t. to step beyond: to exceed.

Overstock, ō-vėr-stok′, v.t. to stock overmuch: to fill too full.—n. superabundance.

Overstrain, ōvėr-strān′, v.t. and v.i. to strain or stretch too far.—n. too great strain.—adj. Overstrained′, strained to excess: exaggerated.

Overstream, ō-vėr-strēm′, v.t. to stream or flow over.

Overstretch, ō-vėr-strech′, v.t. to stretch to excess: to exaggerate.

Overstrew, ō-vėr-strōō′, v.t. to scatter over.

Overstrung, ō-vėr-strung′, adj. too highly strung.

Oversupply, ō′vėr-sup-plī, n. an excessive supply.

Oversway, ō-vėr-swā′, v.t. to overrule, to bear down.

Overswell, ō-vėr-swel′, v.t. (Shak.) to swell or rise above: to overflow.

Overt, ō′vėrt, adj. open to view: public: apparent.—adv. O′vertly.—Overt act, something actually done in execution of a criminal intent.—Market overt, open or public market. [Fr. ouvert, pa.p. of ouvrir, to open; acc. to Diez, from O. Fr. a-ovrir, through Prov. adubrir, from L. de-operīre, to uncover—de=un-, and operīre, to cover; acc. to Littr, from L. operīre, to cover, confounded in meaning with aperīre, to open.]

Overtake, ō-vėr-tāk′, v.t. to come up with: to catch: to come upon: to take by surprise.—p.adj. Overtā′ken, fuddled.

Overtask, ō-vėr-task′, v.t. to task overmuch: to impose too heavy a task on.

Overtax, ō-vėr-taks′, v.t. to tax overmuch.

Overtedious, ō-vėr-tē′di-us, adj. (Shak.) too tedious.

Overthrow, ō-vėr-thrō′, v.t. to throw down: to upset: to bring to an end: to demolish: to defeat utterly.—ns. O′verthrow, act of overthrowing or state of being overthrown: ruin: defeat: a throwing of a ball beyond the player; O′verthrower.

Overthrust, ō′vėr-thrust, adj. (geol.) belonging to earlier strata, pushed by faulting over later and higher strata.

Overthwart, ō-vėr-thwawrt′, v.t. to lie athwart: to cross.—adj. opposite, transverse: contrary, perverse.—prep. across, on the other side of.

Overtilt, ō-vėr-tilt′, v.t. to upset.

Overtime, ō′vėr-tīm, n. time employed in working beyond the regular hours.

Overtoil, ō-vėr-toil′, v.i. to overwork one's self.

Overtone, ō′vėr-tōn, n. a harmonic, because heard above its fundamental tone.

Overtop, ō-vėr-top′, v.t. to rise over the top of: to make of less importance: to surpass: to obscure.

Overtower, ō-vėr-tow′er, v.t. to tower above.—v.i. to soar too high.

Overtrade, ō-vėr-trād′, v.i. to trade overmuch or beyond capital: to buy in more than can be sold or paid for.—n. Overtrad′ing, the buying of a greater amount of goods than one can sell or pay for.

Overtrip, ō-vėr-trip′, v.t. to trip nimbly over.

Overture, ō′vėr-tūr, n. a proposal, an offer for acceptance or rejection: (mus.) a piece introductory to a greater piece or ballet: a discovery or disclosure: the method in Presbyterian usage of beginning legislation and maturing opinion by sending some proposition from the presbyteries to the General Assembly, and vice vers, also the proposal so sent.—v.t. to lay a proposal before. [Fr.]

Overturn, ō-vėr-turn′, v.t. to throw down or over: to subvert: to conquer: to ruin.—ns. O′verturn, state of being overturned; Overturn′er.

Overvalue, ō-vėr-val′lū, v.t. to set too high a value on.—n. Overvaluā′tion, an overestimate.

Overveil, ō-vėr-vāl′, v.t. to veil or cover.

Overview, ō′vėr-vū, n. (Shak.) an inspection.

Overwash, ō′vėr-wawsh, adj. (geol.) carried by glacier-streams over a frontal moraine, or formed of material so carried.

Overwatch, ō-vėr-wawch′, v.t. to watch excessively: to overcome with long want of rest.

Overwear, ō-vėr-wār′, v.t. to wear out: to outwear, outlive.—n. O′verwear, clothes for wearing out of doors.

Overweather, ō-vėr-weth′ėr, v.t. (Shak.) to batter by violence of weather.

Overween, ō-vėr-wēn′, v.i. (Shak.) to think too highly or favourably, esp. of one's self.—adj. Overween′ing, thinking too highly of: conceited, vain.—n. conceit: presumption.—adv. Overween′ingly.

Overweigh, ō-vėr-wā′, v.t. to be heavier than: to outweigh.—n. O′verweight, weight beyond what is required or what is just.—v.t. Overweight′, to weigh down: to put too heavy a burden on.

Overwhelm, ō-vėr-hwelm′, v.t. to overspread and crush by something heavy or strong: to flow over and bear down: to overcome.—p.adj. Overwhel′ming, crushing with weight, &c.: irresistible.—adv. Overwhel′mingly.

Overwind, ō-vėr-wīnd′, v.t. to wind too far.

Overwise, ō-vėr-wīz′, adj. wise overmuch: affectedly wise.—adv. Overwise′ly.

Overwork, ō-vėr-wurk′, v.t. and v.i. to work overmuch or beyond the strength: to tire.—n. O′verwork, excess of work: excessive labour.

Overworn, ō-vėr-wrn′, adj. worn out: subdued by toil: spoiled by use: worn or rubbed till threadbare.

Overwrest, ō-vėr-rest′, v.t. (Shak.) to wrest or twist from the proper position.

Overwrestle, ō-vėr-res′l, v.t. (Spens.) to overcome by wrestling.

Overwrite, ō-vėr-rīt′, v.t. to cover over with other writing.

Overwrought, ō-vėr-rawt′, pa.p. of Overwork, worked too hard: too highly excited: worked all over: overdone.

Overyear, ō-vėr-yēr′, adj. (prov.) kept over from last year.

Ovidian, ō-vid′i-an, adj. belonging to, or resembling the style of, the Latin poet Ovid (43 B.C.-17 A.D.).

Oviduct, ō′vi-dukt, n. a duct or passage for the egg in animals, from the ovary.

Oviferous, ō-vif′ėr-us, adj. egg-bearing.—n. O′vifer, a small wire cage on a solid base, for carrying an egg safely. [L. ovum, an egg, ferre, to bear.]

Oviform, ō′vi-form, adj. having the form of an oval or egg. [L. ovum, an egg.]

Oviform, ō′vi-form, adj. like a sheep: ovine. [L. ovis, a sheep.]

Ovigerous, ov-ij′ėr-us, adj. egg-bearing. [L. ovum, an egg, gerĕre, to bear.]

Ovine, ō′vīn, adj. pertaining to the Ovin, sheep-like.—n. Ovinā′tion, inoculation of sheep with ovine virus against sheep-pox.

Oviparous, ō-vip′a-rus, adj. bringing forth or laying eggs instead of fully formed young.— Ovip′ara, animals that lay eggs.—ns. Ovipar′ity, Ovip′arousness. [L. ovum, egg, parĕre, to bring forth.]

Ovipositor, ō-vi-poz′i-tor, n. the organ at the extremity of the abdomen of many insects, by which the eggs are deposited.—v.i. Ovipos′it, to deposit eggs with an ovipositor.—n. Oviposit′ion. [L. ovum, egg, positorponĕre, to place.]

Ovisac, ōv′i-sak, n. the cavity in the ovary which immediately contains the ovum. [L. ovum, an egg, and sac.]

Ovoid, -al, ō′void, -al, adj. oval: egg-shaped.—n. an egg-shaped body. [L. ovum, egg, Gr. eidos, form.]

Ovolo, ō′vō-lō, n. (archit.) a moulding with the rounded part composed of a quarter of a circle, or of an arc of an ellipse with the curve greatest at the top. [It.,—L. ovum, an egg.]

Ovoviviparous, ō-vō-vi-vip′ar-us, adj. producing eggs which are hatched in the body of the parent. [L. ovum, an egg, vivus, living, parĕre, to bring forth.]

Ovule, ōv′ūl, n. a little egg: the seed of a plant in its rudimentary state, growing from the placenta.—adj. Ov′ular.—ns. Ovulā′tion, the formation of ova, or the period when this takes place; Ov′ulite, a fossil egg. [Dim. of L. ovum, an egg.]

Ovum, ō′vum, n. an egg: (biol.) the egg-cell, in all organisms the starting-point of the embryo, development beginning as soon as it is supplemented by the male-cell or spermatozoon:—pl. O′va. [L.]

Owche, owch, n. Same as Ouch.

Owe, ō, v.t. to possess or to be the owner of: to have what belongs to another: to be bound to pay: to be obliged for.—v.i. to be in debt.—Be owing, to be due or ascribed (to). [A.S. gan, pres. indic. h, pret. hte, pa.p. gen; Ice. eiga, Old High Ger. eigan, to possess.]

Owelty, ō′el-ti, n. equality. [O. Fr. oelte.]

Owenite, ō′en-īt, n. a disciple of Robert Owen (1771-1858), a social reformer, who proposed to establish society on a basis of socialistic co-operation.

Ower, ow′ėr (Scot. for over).—ns. Ow′ercome, Ow′erword, the refrain of a song.

Owing, ō′ing, adj. due: that has to be paid (to): happening as a consequence of: imputable to.

Owl, owl, n. a carnivorous bird that seeks its food by night, noted for its howling or hooting noise.—v.i. to smuggle contraband goods.—ns. Owl′ery, an abode of owls: (Carlyle) an owl-like character; Owl′et, a little or young owl.—adj. Owl′-eyed, having blinking eyes like an owl.—n. Owl′-glass, a malicious figure in a popular German tale, translated into English about the end of the 16th century—the German Tyll Eulenspiegel—also Owle′glass, Howle′glass, Owl′spiegle.—adj. Owl′ish, like an owl: stupid: dull-looking.—n. Owl′ishness. [A.S. le; Ger. eule, L. ulula; imit.]

Own, ōn, v.t. to grant: to allow to be true: concede: acknowledge. [A.S. unnan, to grant; Ger. gnnen, to grant.]

Own, ōn, v.t. to possess: to be the rightful owner of. [A.S. gnian, with addition of casual suffix—gen, one's own; cf. Own (adj.).]

Own, ōn, adj. possessed: belonging to one's self and to no other: peculiar.—ns. Own′er, one who owns or possesses; Own′ership, state of being an owner: right of possession. [A.S. gen, pa.p. of gan, to possess. Cf. Owe.]

Owre, owr, n. (Spens.). Same as Aurochs. [A.S. r.]

Owsen, ow′sen, a dialectic form of oxen.

Ox, oks, n. a well-known animal that chews the cud, the female of which supplies the chief part of the milk used as human food: the male of the cow, esp. when castrated:—pl. Ox′en, used for both male and female.—ns. Ox′-bot, Ox′-war′bler, a bot-fly or its larva, found under the skin of cattle; Ox′eye, a common plant in meadows, with a flower like the eye of an ox.—adj. Ox′-eyed, having large, full, ox-like eyes.—ns. Ox′-goad (see Goad); Ox′-peck′er, Ox′-bird, an African bird, which eats the parasites infesting the skins of cattle—also Beefeater; Ox′-tail-soup, a kind of soup made of several ingredients, one of which is an oxtail cut in joints.—Have the black ox tread on one's foot, to experience sorrow or misfortune. [A.S. oxa, pl. oxan; Ice. uxi; Ger. ochs, Goth. auhsa, Sans. ukshan.]

Oxalate, oks′a-lāt, n. a salt formed by a combination of oxalic acid with a base.—n. Ox′alite, a yellow mineral composed of oxalate of iron.

Oxalis, oks′a-lis, n. wood-sorrel: (bot.) a genus of plants having an acid taste.—adj. Oxal′ic, pertaining to or obtained from sorrel. [Gr.,—oxys, acid.]

Oxford clay, oks′ford klā, n. (geol.) the principal member of the Middle Oolite series.—Oxford movement (see Tractarianism).

Oxgang, oks′gang, n. as much land as can be tilled by the use of an ox (averaging about 15 acres)—called also Ox′land or Ox′gate.

Ox-head, oks′-hed, n. (Shak.) blockhead, dolt.

Oxide, oks′īd, n. a compound of oxygen and some other element or organic radical. Oxides are of three kinds—acid-forming, basic, and neutral.—n. Oxidabil′ity.—adj. Ox′idable, capable of being converted into an oxide.—v.t. Ox′idate (same as Oxidise).—ns. Oxidā′tion, Oxidise′ment, act or process of oxidising; Ox′idātor, a contrivance for drawing a current of air to the flame of a lamp.—adj. Oxidis′able, capable of being oxidised.—v.t. Ox′idise, to convert into an oxide.—v.i. to become an oxide.—n. Oxidis′er.

Oxlip, oks′lip, n. a species of primrose, having its flowers in an umbel on a stalk like the cowslip.

Oxonian, oks-ō′ni-an, adj. of or pertaining to Oxford or to its university.—n. an inhabitant or a native of Oxford: a student or graduate of Oxford.

Oxter, oks′tėr, n. (Scot.) the armpit.—v.t. to hug with the arms: to support by taking the arm.

Oxygen, oks′i-jen, n. a gas without taste, colour, or smell, forming part of the air, water, &c., and supporting life and combustion.—n. Oxychlō′ride, a chemical compound containing both chlorine and oxygen in combination with some other element.—v.t. Ox′ygenāte, to unite, or cause to unite, with oxygen.—n. Oxygenā′tion, act of oxygenating.—v.t. Ox′ygenise (same as Oxygenate).—adj. Oxyg′enous, pertaining to, or obtained from, oxygen.—adj. Oxyhy′drogen, pertaining to a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen, as in a form of blowpipe in which jets of either ignite as they issue from separate reservoirs. [Gr. oxys, sharp, gen, the root of gennaein, to generate.]

Oxymel, oks′i-mel, n. a mixture of vinegar and honey. [Gr. oxys, sour, meli, honey.]

Oxymoron, ok-si-mō′ron, n. a figure of speech, by means of which two ideas of opposite meaning are combined, so as to form an expressive phrase or epithet, as cruel kindness, falsely true, &c. [Gr.,—oxys, sharp, mōros, foolish.]

Oxyopia, ok-si-ō′pi-a, n. unusual keenness of sight. [Gr.,—oxys, sharp, ōps, the eye.]

Oxyrhynchus, ok-si-ring′kus, n. an Egyptian fish, formerly sacred to the goddess Hathor, and represented on coins and sculptures. [Gr.,—oxys, sharp, rhyngchos, a snout.]

Oxytone, oks′i-tōn, adj. having an acute sound: having the acute accent on the last syllable.—n. a word so accented. [Gr. oxys, sharp, tonos, tone.]

Oyer, ō′yėr, n. a hearing in a law-court, an assize.—Oyer and terminer, a royal commission conferring upon a judge or judges the power to hear and determine criminal causes pending in a particular county. [Norm. Fr. oyer (Fr. ouir)—L. audīre, to hear.]

Oyez, Oyes, ō′yes, interj. the call of a public crier, or officer of a law-court, for attention before making a proclamation. [Norm. Fr., 2d pers. pl. imper. of oyer.]

Oyster, ois′tėr, n. a well-known bivalve shellfish, used as food.—ns. Oys′ter-bank, -bed, -farm, -field, -park, a place where oysters breed or are bred; Oys′ter-catch′er, the sea pie—a sea wading bird of the family Hmatopodid, having dark plumage and red bill and feet; Oys′ter-fish′ery, the business of catching oysters; Oys′ter-knife, a knife for opening oysters.— Oys′ter-pat′ties, small pies or pasties made from oysters.—n. Oys′ter-shell, the shell of an oyster.— Oys′ter-tongs, a tool used to dredge up oysters in deep water.—ns. Oys′ter-wench, -wife, -wom′an, a woman who vends oysters. [O. Fr. oistre (Fr. hutre)—L. ostrea—Gr. ostreon, an oyster—osteon, a bone.]

Ozocerite, ō-zō-sē′rīt, n. a waxy-like substance, having a weak bituminous odour, found in Moldavia and elsewhere, and used for making candles.—Also Ozokē′rite. [Gr. ozein, to smell, keros, wax.]

Ozœna, ō-zē′na, n. a term applied to any one of various diseased conditions of the nose accompanied by fetid discharge. [Gr. ozein, to smell.]

Ozone, ō′zōn, n. name given to a supposed allotropic form of oxygen, when affected by electric discharges, marked by a peculiar smell.—ns. Ozonā′tion; Ozonisā′tion; Ozonom′eter.—adj. Ozonomet′ric.—ns. Ozonom′etry; Ozō′noscope.—adjs. Ozonoscop′ic; O′zonous. [Gr. ozein, to smell.]

Ozostomia, ō-zo-stō′mi-a, n. foul breath due to morbid causes. [Gr. ozein, to smell, stoma, the mouth.]


the sixteenth letter of our alphabet, its sound the sharp labial mute, interchanging with other labials, esp. with b, the flat labial mute: P=400; (P)=400,000: the chemical symbol for phosphorus: (math.) the Greek Π=a continued product, while small π denotes the ratio of the circumference to the diameter.—Mind one's p's and q's (see Mind).

Pa, p, n. papa, a child's name for father.

Pabouche, pa-bōōsh′, n. a slipper.—Also Baboosh.

Pabulum, pab′ū-lum, n. food of any kind, especially that of animals and plants: provender: fuel: nourishment for the mind.—adjs. Pab′ular, Pab′ulous, of or pertaining to food: fit for food: affording food. [L.,—pascĕre, to feed.]

Paca, pak′a, n. the spotted cavy of South America. [Sp. and Port., the spotted cavy—Braz. pak, paq.]

Pacable, pā′ka-bl, adj. that may be calmed or quieted: willing to forgive.—adj. Pacā′ted.—n. Pacā′tion. [L. pacāre, to make at peace—pax, peace.]

Pace, pās, n. a stride: the space between the feet in walking, 30 inches, a step: gait: rate of walking (of a man or beast): rate of speed in movement or work, often applied to fast living: mode of stepping in horses in which the legs on the same side are lifted together: amble: (obs.) a passage.—v.t. to measure by steps: to cause to progress: to train in walking or stepping.—v.i. to walk: to walk slowly: to amble.—adj. Paced, having a certain pace or gait.—ns. Pace′-mak′er, one who sets the pace, as in a race; Pac′er, one who paces: a horse whose usual gait is a pace.—Keep, or Hold, pace with, to go as fast as: to keep up with. [Fr. pas—L. passus, a step—pandĕre, passum, to stretch.]

Pace, pā′sē, prep. with or by the leave of (expressing disagreement courteously). [L., abl. of pax, peace.]

Pacha, Pachalic. See Pasha, Pashalic.

Pachy-, pak′i-, thick, in combination, as adjs. Pachydac′tyl, -ous, having thick digits; Pach′yderm, thick-skinned—n. one of an order of non-ruminant, hoofed mammals, thick-skinned, as the elephant:—pl. Pach′yderms, or Pachyder′mata.—adj. Pachyder′matous, thick-skinned: insensible to impressions.—n. Pachyder′mia, a form of elephantiasis in which the skin becomes thick and warty.—adj. Pachyder′moid.—ns. Pachyē′mia, a thickening of the blood—also Pachy′mia; Pachy′ma, a genus of fungi consisting of tuber-like growths, some of which are now referred to the genus Polyporus—also Tuckahoe, Tuckahoe truffle, or Indian bread; Pachymē′nia, a thickening of the skin.—adj. Pachymē′nic.—n. Pachym′eter, an instrument for measuring small thicknesses, as of paper.—adjs. Pach′yodont, with thick teeth; Pach′yote, with thick ears, as a bat—also n.; Pach′ypod, having thick feet; Pachyp′terous, having thick wings or fins.—ns. Pachythē′rium, a South American fossil genus of gigantic edentate mammals; Pachyt′ylus, a genus of locusts, embracing the dreaded Migratory Locust (Pachytylus migratorius). [Gr. pachys, thick.]

Pacify, pas′i-fī, v.t. to make peaceful: to appease: to bring back peace to: to calm; to soothe.—adjs. Pac′ifiable, that may be pacified; Pacif′ic, peacemaking: appeasing: peaceful: mild: tranquil.—n. the ocean between Asia and America, so called by its discoverer Magellan because he sailed peacefully over it after weathering Cape Horn.—adj. Pacif′ical, pacific (obs. except in phrase Letters pacifical, letters recommending the bearer as one in peace and fellowship with the church—also Letters of peace, Pacific).—adv. Pacif′ically.—v.t. Pacif′icāte, to give peace to.—ns. Pacificā′tion, the act of making peace, esp. between parties at variance; Pacif′icātor, Pac′ifier, a peacemaker.—adj. Pacif′icātory, tending to make peace. [Fr. pacifier—L. pacificārepax, pacis, peace, facĕre, to make.]

Pack, pak, n. a bundle made to be carried on the back: a collection, stock, or store: a bundle of some particular kind or quantity, as of wool, 480 or 240 lb.: the quantity of fish packed: a complete set of cards: a number of animals herding together or kept together for hunting: a number of persons combined for bad purposes: any great number: a large extent of floating and broken ice: a wet sheet for folding round the body to allay inflammation, fever, &c.—v.t. to press together and fasten up: to place in order: to crowd: to assort, bring together, select, or manipulate persons, cards, &c. for some unjust object: to send away, as from one's presence or employment: to surround a joint, &c., with any substance to prevent leaking, &c.—v.i. to store things away anywhere for safe keeping, &c.: to settle into a firm mass: to admit of being put into compact shape: to depart in haste.—ns. Pack′age, the act of packing, also something packed: a bundle or bale: a charge made for packing; Pack′-an′imal, a beast of burden used to carry goods on its back; Pack′-cinch (-sinsh), a wide girth of canvas, &c., having a hook and ring attached for adjusting the load of a pack-animal; Pack′-cloth, a cloth in which goods are tied up: packsheet; Pack′er, one who packs: one who cures and packs provisions: any device to fill the space between the tubing and the sides of an oil-well, &c.; Pack′et, a small package: a ship or vessel employed in carrying packets of letters, passengers, &c.: a vessel plying regularly between one port and another (also Pack′et-boat, Pack′et-ship, &c.).—v.t. to bind in a packet or parcel: to send in a packet.—ns. Pack′et-day, the day of the departure or arrival of a mail-ship; Pack′et-note (see Note-paper); Pack′-horse, a horse used to carry goods in panniers: a drudge; Pack′-ice, a collection of large pieces of floating ice; Pack′ing, the act of putting into packs or of tying up for carriage: material for packing: anything used to fill an empty space, or to make a joint close, as the elastic ring round a moving rod or piston to make it a tight fit; Pack′ing-box, -case, a box in which goods are packed: a hollow place round the opening of a steam cylinder, filled with some soft substance which, being pressed hard against the piston-rod, makes it a tight fit; Pack′ing-need′le, or Sack-needle, a strong needle for sewing up packages; Pack′ing-pā′per, a strong and thick kind of wrapping-paper; Pack′ing-press, a press for squeezing goods into small compass for packing; Pack′ing-sheet, or Pack′sheet, coarse cloth for packing goods; Pack′-load, the load an animal can carry on its back; Pack′man, a peddler or a man who carries a pack; Pack′-mule, a mule used for carrying burdens; Pack′-sadd′le, a saddle for packs or burdens; Pack′-thread, a coarse thread used to sew up packages; Pack′-train, a train of loaded pack-animals; Pack′way, a narrow path fit for pack-horses.—Pack a jury, meeting, &c., to fill up with persons of a particular kind for one's own purposes.—Send one packing, to dismiss summarily. [Prob. Celt.; Gael. and Ir. pac, Bret. pak, a bundle; cf. Ger. pack, Dut. pak.]

Pack, pak, adj. (Scot.) intimate, confidential.

Packfong, an incorrect form of paktong (q.v.)

Paco, pā′ko, n. same as Alpaca:—pl. Pā′cos.

Pact, pakt, n. that which is agreed on: an agreement: a contract—also Pac′tion.—adj. Pac′tional.—Pactum illicitum, an unlawful agreement. [L. pactumpacisci, pactus, to contract.]

Pad, pad, n. a thief on the high-road (more commonly Footpad): (abbrev. from pad-horse) a horse for riding on the road: an easy-paced horse.—v.i. to walk on foot: to trudge along: to rob on foot:—pr.p. pad′ding; pa.t. and pa.p. pad′ded.adj. Pad′-clink′ing, keeping company with thieves.—n. Pad′ding-ken, a low lodging-house inhabited by thieves.—Stand pad, to beg by the roadside. [Dut. pad, a path.]

Pad, pad, n. anything stuffed with a soft material, to prevent friction or pressure, or for filling out: a soft saddle, cushion, &c.: a number of sheets of paper or other soft material fastened together for writing upon: the fleshy, thick-skinned under-surface of the toes of many animals, as the fox: a fox's foot generally: the large floating leaf of an aquatic plant: (pl.) thick watered ribbon for watch-guards.—v.t. to stuff with anything soft: to fix colours in cloth:—pr.p. pad′ding; pa.t. and pa.p. pad′ded.ns. Pad′-cloth, a cloth covering a horse's loins; Pad′der, one who pads or cushions; Pad′ding, the soft stuffing of a saddle, &c.: matter of less value introduced into a book or article in order to make it of the length desired: the process of mordanting a fabric; Pad′-el′ephant, a working elephant, distinguished from a war or hunting one; Pad′-sadd′le, a treeless, padded saddle; Pad′-tree, the wooden or metal frame to which harness-pads are attached. [A variant of pod, orig. sig. 'a bag.']

Paddle, pad′l, v.i. to dabble in water with the hands or the feet: to touch or toy with the fingers: to beat the water as with the feet: to row: to move in the water as a duck does: (slang) to make off.—v.t. to move by means of an oar or paddle: to finger, toy with.—n. a short, broad, spoon-shaped oar, used for moving canoes: the blade of an oar: one of the boards at the circumference of a paddle-wheel.—ns. Padd′le-beam, one of the large timbers at the side of a paddle-wheel; Padd′le-board, one of the floats on the circumference of a paddle-wheel; Padd′le-box, a wooden box covering the upper part of the paddle-wheel of a steamer; Padd′ler, one who paddles; Padd′le-shaft, the axle on which the paddle-wheels of a steamer turn; Padd′le-wheel, the wheel of a steam-vessel, which by turning in the water causes it to move forward; Padd′le-wood, the light, strong wood of a Guiana tree of the dogbane family. [For pattle, freq. of pat.]

Paddle, pad′l, n. (B.) a little spade.—n. Padd′le-staff, a spade for clearing a ploughshare. [Prob. from spaddle; cf. Spade.]

Paddock, pad′uk, n. a toad or frog.—n. Padd′ock-stool, a toadstool. [Dim. of M. E. padde, a toad—Ice. padda.]

Paddock, pad′uk, n. a small park under pasture, immediately adjoining the stables of a domain: a small field in which horses are kept. [A.S. pearroc, a park—sparran (Ger. sperren), to shut.]

Paddy, pad′i, n. rice in the husk.—ns. Padd′y-bird, the Java sparrow or rice-bird; Padd′y-field, a field where rice is grown. [East Ind.]

Paddy, pad′i, n. a familiar name for an Irishman, from St Patrick: a drill used in boring wells, with cutters that expand on pressure.—n. Padd′y-whack, a nurse's word for a slap.

Padella, pa-del′la, n. a shallow vessel filled with fat, in the centre of which a wick has been placed—used in illuminations. [It., a frying-pan.]

Pademelon, pad′ē-mel-on, n. a brush kangaroo or wallaby.—Also Pad′ymelon, Pad′dymelon.

Padishah, p′di-sha, n. chief ruler: great king, a title of the Sultan of Turkey or of the Sovereign of Great Britain as ruler of India. [Pers. pād, master, shāh, king; cf. Pasha.]

Padlock, pad′lok, n. a movable lock with a link turning on a hinge or pivot at one end, to enable it to pass through a staple or other opening, and to be pressed down to catch the bolt at the other end.—v.t. to fasten with a padlock. [Prob. prov. Eng. pad, a basket, and lock.]

Padma, pad′ma, n. the true lotus.

Pad-nag, pad′-nag, n. an ambling nag.

Padre, p′dre, n. father, a title given to priests in some countries.—n. Padrō′ne, a person who jobs out hand-organs, or who gets children to beg for him:—pl. Padrō′ni. [It. and Sp.,—L. pater, a father.]

Paduan, pad′ū-an, adj. and n. belonging to Padua: one of the clever imitations of old Roman bronze coins made at Padua in the 16th century: a Spanish dance, the pavan.

Paduasoy, pad′ū-a-soi, n. a smooth silk originally manufactured at Padua, used in the 18th century, also a garment of the same. [Fr. soie de Padoue.]

Pan, pē′an, n. a song of triumph: any joyous song: a song in honour of Apollo, later also of Dionysus and Ares.—n. P′on, a foot of four syllables, one long, three short.—adj. Pon′ic. [L.,—Gr. Paian or Paiōn, an epithet of Apollo.]

Pdagogy, Pdagogics, Pdobaptism, Pdobaptist. See Pedagogy, Pedagogics, Pedobaptism, Pedobaptist.

Pnula, pē′nū-la, n. a chasuble, esp. in its older form: a woollen outer garment covering the whole body, worn on journeys and in rainy weather.

Ponin, pē′ō-nin, n. a red colouring matter obtained from yellow coralline.

Pony, pē′o-ni, n. Same as Peony.

Paff, paf, n. a meaningless word, used with piff to indicate jargon.

Pagan, pā′gan, n. a heathen: one who does not worship the true God.—adj. heathenish: pertaining to the worship of false gods.—v.t. Pā′ganise, to render pagan or heathen: to convert to paganism.—adj. Pā′ganish, heathenish.—n. Pā′ganism, heathenism: the beliefs and practices of the heathen. [L. paganus, a rustic, heathen, because the country-people were later in becoming Christians than the people of the towns—pagus, a district—pangĕre, to fix.]

Page, pāj, n. a boy attending on a person of distinction: a young lad employed as attendant: a contrivance for holding up a woman's skirt in walking.—n. Page′hood, condition of a page. [Fr. page; acc. to Littr, prob. from Low L. pagensis, a peasant—L. pagus, a village; acc. to Diez, but hardly with probability, through the It. paggio, from Gr. paidion, dim. of pais, paidos, a boy.]

Page, pāj, n. one side of a written or printed leaf—4 pages in a folio sheet, 8 in a quarto, 16 in an octavo, 24 in a duodecimo, 36 in an octodecimo: a book, record, or source of knowledge: the type, illustrations, &c. arranged for printing one side of a leaf: (pl.) writings.—v.t. to number the pages of.—adj. Pag′inal.—v.t. Pag′ināte, to mark with consecutive numbers, to page.—ns. Paginā′tion, the act of paging a book: the figures and marks that indicate the number of pages; Pā′ging, the marking or numbering of the pages of a book. [Fr.,—L. pagina, a thing fastened—pangĕre, to fasten.]

Pageant, paj′ant, or pā′-, n. a showy exhibition: a spectacle: a fleeting show: (orig.) a platform on four wheels for the purpose of representing plays, &c.—adj. showy: pompous.—n. Page′antry, splendid display: pompous spectacle. [M. E. pagent (with excrescent -t), from an older form pagen or pagin—Low L. pagina, a stage—L. pagina, a slab—pangĕre, to fix; cf. Page (2).]

Pagoda, pa-gō′da, n. an idol-house: an Indian idol: its temple: a gold coin formerly current in India, so called because the figure of a pagoda was stamped upon it—also Pagode′.—n. Pagō′dite, the mineral which the Chinese carve into figures of pagodas, &c. [Port., a corr. of Pers. but-kadah, an idol-temple.]

Pagode, pa-gōd′, n. a funnel-shaped sleeve worn by both sexes in the first half of the 18th century.

Pagus, pā′gus, n. a country district with scattered hamlets, also its fortified centre: among the early Teutons, a division of the territory larger than a village, like a wapentake or hundred.

Pah, p, interj. an exclamation expressing contempt or disgust.

Pahlavi. Same as Pehlevi.

Paid, pād, pa.t. and pa.p. of pay.

Paideutics, pā-dū′tiks, n.sing. the science or theory of teaching.—n. Paidol′ogy, the scientific study of the child. [Gr. paideutikospaideuein, to teach—pais, paidos, a child.]

Paigle, Pagle, pā′gl, n. (obs.) the cowslip or primrose.

Paik, pāk, n. (Scot.) a beating.

Pail, pāl, n. an open vessel of wood, &c., for holding or carrying liquids.—n. Pail′ful, as much as fills a pail. [O. Fr. paile, paele—L. patella, a pan, dim. of paterapatēre, to be open.]

Paillasse, pa-lyas′, n. a small bed, originally made of chaff or straw: an under mattress of straw.—n. Paillasson (pa-lya-song′), a form of straw bonnet. [Fr.,—paille, straw—L. palea, chaff.]

Paillette, pa-lyet′, n. a piece of metal or coloured foil used in enamel-painting: a sponge.—n. Paillon (pa-lyong′), a bright metal backing for enamel, &c. [Fr.]

Pain, pān, n. suffering coming as the punishment of evil-doing: suffering either of body or mind: anguish: great care or trouble taken in doing anything: (pl.) labour: care: trouble: the throes of childbirth.—v.t. to cause suffering to: to distress: to torment: to grieve.—adjs. Pained, showing or expressing pain: (B.) in pain, in labour; Pain′ful, full of pain: causing pain: requiring labour, pain, or care: (arch.) hard-working, painstaking: distressing: difficult.—adv. Pain′fully.—n. Pain′fulness.—adj. Pain′less, without pain.—adv. Pain′lessly.—ns. Pain′lessness; Pains′taker, one who takes pains or care: a laborious worker.—adj. Pains′taking, taking pains or care: laborious: diligent.—n. careful labour: diligence.—Under pain of, subject to the penalty of. [Fr. peine—L. pœna, satisfaction—Gr. poinē, penalty.]

Painim, pā′nim. See Paynim.

Paint, pānt, v.t. to cover over with colour: to represent in a coloured picture: to describe in words: to adorn.—v.i. to practise painting: to lay colours on the face, to blush: (slang) to tipple.—n. a colouring substance: anything fixed with caoutchouc to harden it.—adj. Paint′able, that may be painted.—ns. Paint′-box, a box in which different paints are kept in compartments; Paint′-bridge, a platform used by theatrical scene-painters in painting scenery; Paint′-brush, a brush for putting on paint.—adj. Paint′ed, covered with paint: ornamented with coloured figures: marked with bright colours.—ns. Paint′ed-grass, ribbon-grass; Paint′ed-lā′dy, the thistle-butterfly, orange-red spotted with white and black; Paint′er, one whose employment is to paint: one skilled in painting; Paint′er's-col′ic, lead colic; Paint′er-stain′er, one who paints coats of arms, &c.; Paint′iness; Paint′ing, the act or employment of laying on colours: the act of representing objects by colours: a picture: vivid description in words; Paint′ūre (Dryden), the art of painting: a picture.—adj. Paint′y, overloaded with paint, with the colours too glaringly used: smeared with paint.—Paint the town red (U.S.), to break out in a boisterous spree. [O. Fr., pa.p. of Fr. peindre, to paint—L. pingĕre, pictum, to paint.]

Painter, pānt′ėr, n. a rope used to fasten a boat.—Cut the painter, to set adrift; Lazy painter, a small painter for use in fine weather only. [A corr. of M. E. panter, a fowler's noose, through O. Fr. from L. panther, a hunting-net—Gr. panthēros, catching all—pan, neut. of pas, every, thēr, wild beast.]

Pair, pār, v.t. (Spens.) to impair.

Pair, pār, n. two things equal, or suited to each other, or used together: a set of two equal or like things forming one instrument, as a pair of scissors, tongs, &c., a set of like things generally: in building, a flight of stairs: a couple: a man and his wife: two members of a legislative body, holding opposite opinions, who agree with each other to abstain from voting for a certain time, so as to permit one or both to be absent.—v.t. to join in couples.—v.i. to be joined in couples: to fit as a counterpart.—adj. Paired, arranged in pairs: set by twos of a like kind: mated.—ns. Pair′ing, an agreement between two members of a legislative body holding opposite opinions to refrain from voting, so that both may absent themselves; Pair′ing-time, the time when birds go together in pairs; Pair′-roy′al, three cards of the same denomination, esp. in cribbage.—adv. Pair′-wise, in pairs.—Pair of colours, two flags carried by a regiment, one the national ensign, the other the flag of the regiment; Pair off (see Pairing above). [Fr. paire, a couple—pair, like—L. par, equal.]

Pais, pā, n. the people from whom a jury is drawn.—Matter-in-pais, matter of fact. [O. Fr.]

Paise, pāz, n. (Spens.). Same as Poise.

Paitrick, pā′trik, n. (Scot.) a partridge.

Pajamas. See Pyjamas.

Pajock, p′jok, n. (Shak.). Same as Peacock.

Paktong, pak′tong, n. the Chinese name for German silver.—Also Pack′fong, Pak′fong. [Chin.]

Pal, pal, n. (slang) a partner, mate. [Gipsy.]

Palabra, pa-l′bra, n. talk, palaver. [Sp., a word.]

Palace, pal′ās, n. the house of a king or a queen: a very large and splendid house: a bishop's official residence.—n. Pal′ace-car, a sumptuously furnished railway-car. [Fr. palais—L. Palatium, the Roman emperor's residence on the Palatine Hill at Rome.]

Paladin, pal′a-din, n. one of the twelve peers of Charlemagne's household: a knight-errant, or paragon of knighthood. [Fr.,—It. paladino—L. palatinus, belonging to the palace. Cf. Palatine.]

Palarctic, pā-lē-ark′tik, adj. pertaining to the northern part of the Old World.—Palarctic region, a great division embracing Europe, Africa north of the Atlas, and Asia north of the Himalaya.

Palichthyology, pā-lē-ik-thī-ol′o-ji, n. the branch of ichthyology which treats of fossil fishes.

Palobotany, pā-lē-ō-bot′a-ni, n. the science or study of fossil plants.—adj. Palobotan′ical.—n. Palobot′anist.

Palocrystic, pā-lē-ō-kris′tik, adj. consisting of ancient ice.

Palography, Paleography, pā-lē-og′ra-fi, n. ancient modes of writing: study of ancient writings and modes of writing.—n. Palog′rapher, one skilled in palography.—adjs. Palograph′ic, -al, of or pertaining to palography.—n. Palog′raphist. [Gr. palaios, ancient, graphein, to write.]

Palolithic, pā-lē-ō-lith′ik, adj. of or pertaining to the time when early stone implements were used: the first half of the stone age.—n. Palol′ith, a rude stone implement or object of the earlier stone age. [Gr. palaios, ancient, lithos, a stone.]

Palology, pā-lē-ol′ō-ji, n. a discourse or treatise on antiquities: archology.—n. Palol′ogist, one versed in palology: a student of antiquity. [Gr. palaios, ancient, logia, discourse.]

Palontography, pā-lē-on-tog′ra-fi, n. the description of fossil remains.—adj. Palontograph′ical, pertaining to palontography. [Gr. palaios, ancient, onta, existences, graphein, to write.]

Palontology, pā-lē-on-tol′ō-ji, n. the science of the ancient life of the earth: description of fossil remains: archology.—adj. Palontolog′ical, belonging to palontology.—n. Palontol′ogist, one versed in palontology. [Gr. palaios, ancient, onta, existences, logia, discourse.]

Palophytology, pā-lē-ō-fī-tol′ō-ji, n. palobotany.

Palosaurus, pā-lē-ō-saw′rus, n. a genus of fossil saurian reptiles belonging to the Permian period. [Gr. palaios, ancient, sauros, lizard.]

Palotherium, pā-lē-ō-thē′ri-um, n. a genus of fossil pachydermatous mammalia in the Eocene beds. [Gr. palaios, ancient, thērion, a wild beast.]

Palozoic, pā-lē-ō-zō′ik, adj. denoting the lowest division of the fossiliferous rocks, so called because they contain the earliest forms of life. [Gr. palaios, ancient, zoē, life.]

Palozoology, pā-lē-ō-zō-ol′ō-ji, n. geologic zoology.—adjs. Palozoolog′ic, -al.

Paltiology, pā-lē-ti-ol′ō-ji, n. the science which explains past conditions by the law of causation.—adj. Paltiolog′ical.—n. Paltiol′ogist.

Palama, pal′a-ma, n. the webbing of the toes of a bird:—pl. Pal′am.—adj. Pal′amāte. [Gr. palamē.]

Palampore, pal′am-pōr, n. a flowered chintz bedcover common in the East.—Also Pal′empore. [Prob. from the Ind. town of Palampūr.]

Palanquin, Palankeen, pal-an-kēn′, n. a light covered carriage used in India, &c., for a single person, and borne on the shoulders of men. [Hind. palang, a bed—Sans. palyanka, a bed.]

Palapteryx, pal-ap′tėr-iks, n. a genus of fossil birds found in New Zealand, resembling the Apteryx. [Gr. palaios, ancient, and apteryx.]

Palas, pal′as, n. a small bushy Punjab bean, yielding a kind of kino, Butea gum.

Palate, pal′āt, n. the roof of the mouth, consisting of two portions, the hard palate in front and the soft palate behind: taste: relish: mental liking.—v.t. to taste.—adj. Pal′atable, agreeable to the palate or taste: savoury.—n. Pal′atableness, the quality of being agreeable to the taste.—adv. Pal′atably.—adj. Pal′atal, pertaining to the palate: uttered by aid of the palate—also Pal′atine.—n. a letter pronounced chiefly by aid of the palate, as k, g, e, i.—v.t. Pal′atalise, to make palatal.—adj. Palat′ic.—Cleft palate, a congenital defect of the palate, leaving a longitudinal fissure in the roof of the mouth. [O. Fr. palat—L. palatum.]

Palatial, pa-lā′shi-al, adj. of or pertaining to a palace: resembling a palace: royal: magnificent.

Palatine, pal′a-tin, adj. pertaining to a palace, originally applied to officers of the royal household: possessing royal privileges.—n. a noble invested with royal privileges: a subject of a palatinate.—n. Palat′inate, office or rank of a palatine: province of a palatine, esp. an electorate of the ancient German Empire.—Count palatine, a feudal lord with supreme judicial authority over a province; County palatine, the province of a count palatine. [Fr.,—L. palatinus. Cf. Palace.]

Palaver, pa-lav′ėr, n. talk or conversation, esp. idle talk: talk intended to deceive: a public conference: in Africa, a talk with the natives.—v.i. to use conversation: to flatter: to talk idly.—n. Palav′erer. [Port. palavra—L. parabola, a parable.]

Palay, pa-lā′, n. a small S. Indian tree of the dogbane family, with hard white wood.—Also Ivory-tree.

Pale, pāl, n. a narrow piece of wood driven into the ground for use in enclosing grounds: anything that encloses or fences in: any enclosed field or space: limit: district: a broad stripe from top to bottom of a shield in heraldry.—v.t. to enclose with stakes: to encompass.—n. Palificā′tion, act of strengthening by stakes.—adj. Pal′iform.—English pale, the district in Ireland within which alone the English had power for centuries after the invasion in 1172. [Fr. pal—L. palus, a stake.]

Pale, pāl, adj. somewhat white in colour: not ruddy or fresh: wan: of a faint lustre, dim: light in colour.—v.t. to make pale.—v.i. to turn pale.—ns. Pale′-ale, a light-coloured pleasant bitter ale; Pale′buck, an antelope, the oribi.—adj. Pale′-eyed (Shak.), having the eyes dimmed.—n. Pale′-face, a white person.—adj. Pale′-heart′ed (Shak.), dispirited.—adv. Pale′ly.—n. Pale′ness.—adjs. Pale′-vis′aged (Shak.), having no colour in the face; Pā′lish, somewhat pale. [Fr.,—L. pallidus, pale.]

Palea, pā′lē-a, n. (bot.) a chaffy bract at the base of the florets in many Composit, also one of the inner scales of a grass-flower opposite the flowering glume: the throat-wattle, as in turkeys:—pl. Pā′le.—adj. Paleā′ceous (bot.), resembling, consisting of, or furnished with chaff: chaffy. [L. palea, chaff.]

Paleotype, pā′lē-ō-tīp, n. a system of spelling invented by A. J. Ellis, according to which all spoken sounds can be represented by the letters in common use, some of them being used upside down as well as in the usual way, to express varieties of sound.

Pales, pā′lēz, n. an ancient Roman divinity of flocks.—n. Palil′ia, the festival of Pales, held on April 21, the traditional date of the founding of Rome.

Palestinian, pal-es-tin′i-an, adj. pertaining to Palestine.—Palestine soup (see Artichoke).

Palestra, pā-les′tra, n. a wrestling school: the exercise of wrestling: any training school: academic oratory.—adjs. Pales′tral, Pales′trian, Pales′tric, -al, pertaining to wrestling: athletic. [L.,—Gr. palaistrapalē, wrestling.]

Paletot, pal′e-tō, n. a loose overcoat. [Fr.]

Palette, pal′et, n. a little oval board on which a painter mixes his colours: the special arrangement of colours for any particular picture: a plate against which a person presses his breast to give force to a drill worked by the hand: a small plate covering a joint in armour.—n. Pal′ette-knife, a thin round-pointed knife for mixing colours on the grinding slab. [Fr.,—It. palettapala, spade—L. pala, a spade.]

Palfrey, pal′fri, n. a saddle-horse, esp. for a lady.—adj. Pal′freyed, riding on, or supplied with, a palfrey. [Fr. palefroi—Low L. paraveredus, prob. from Gr. para, beside, Low L. veredus, a post-horse—L. vehĕre, to draw, rheda, a carriage.]

Pali, p′lē, n. the sacred language of the Buddhists of eastern India, closely allied to Sanskrit.

Palillogy, pā-lil′ō-ji, n. a repetition of a word or phrase. [Gr. palillogiapalin, again, legein, to say.]

Palimpsest, pal′imp-sest, n. a manuscript which has been written upon twice, the first writing having been rubbed off to make room for the second: an engraved brass plate, with a new inscription on the reverse side. [Gr. palimpsēstonpalin, again, psēstos, rubbed.]

Palinal, pal′i-nal, adj. moving backward. [Gr. palin.]

Palindrome, pal′in-drōm, n. a word, verse, or sentence that reads the same either backward or forward, as Adam's first words to Eve: 'Madam, I'm Adam.'—adjs. Palindrom′ic, -al.—n. Pal′indromist, an inventor of palindromes. [Gr. palindromiapalin, back, dromos, a running.]

Paling, pāl′ing, n. pales collectively: a fence.

Palingenesis, pal-in-jen′e-sis, n. a new birth or a second creation: regeneration: the development of an individual germ in which it repeats that of its ancestors: the recurrence of historical events in the same order in an infinite series of cycles—also Pal′ingeny, Palingē′sia.—adj. Palinget′ic.—adv. Palinget′ically. [Gr. palin, again, genesis, birth.]

Palinode, pal′i-nōd, n. a poem retracting a former one: a recantation.—adjs. Palinō′dial, Palinod′ic.—n. Pal′inōdist, a writer of palinodes. [Fr.,—L.,—Gr.,—palin, back, ōdē, song.]

Palisade, pal-i-sād′ n. a fence of pointed pales or stakes firmly fixed in the ground.—v.t. to surround with a palisade.—Also Palisā′do:—pl. Palisā′does. [Fr.,—L. palus, a stake.]

Palisander, pal-i-san′dėr, n. rosewood. [Fr.]

Palisse, pal-i-sā′, adj. (her.) battlemented, the indentations pointing both up and down. [Fr.]

Palkee, pal′kē, n. a palanquin.—n. Pal′kee-ghar′ry, a wheeled vehicle like a palanquin. [Hind.]

Pall, pawl, n. a cloak or mantle, an outer garment: a chalice-cover: (her.) a Y-shaped bearing charged with crosses patt fitch, as in the arms of the see of Canterbury—sometimes reversed: a pallium (q.v.): a curtain or covering: the cloth over a coffin at a funeral: that which brings deep sorrow.—n. Pall′-bear′er, one of the mourners at a funeral who used to hold up the corners of the pall. [A.S. pll, purple cloth—L. palla, a mantle; cf. Pallium, a cloak.]

Pall, pawl, v.i. to become vapid, insipid, or wearisome.—v.t. to make vapid: to dispirit or depress. [W. pallu, to fail, pall, failure.]

Palladian, pa-lā′di-an, adj. in the style of architecture introduced by Andrea Palladio (1518-80), modelled on Vitruvius, its faults a superfluity of pilasters and columns, broken entablatures, and inappropriate ornament.—n. Pallā′dianism.

Palladium, pal-lā′di-um, n. a statue of Pallas, on the preservation of which the safety of ancient Troy depended: any safeguard: a rare metal in colour and ductility resembling platinum.—adj. Pallā′dian.—v.t. Pallā′diumise, to coat with palladium. [L.,—Gr. palladionPallas, Pallados, Pallas.]

Pallah, pal′a, n. a small African antelope.

Pallas, pal′as, n. the Greek goddess of wisdom and war—the Roman Minerva.—Also Pallas Athene.

Pallescence, pal-les′ens, n. paleness.

Pallet, pal′et, n. a palette: the tool used by potters for shaping their wares: an instrument for spreading gold-leaf: a tool used in lettering the backs of books: one of the points moved by the pendulum of a clock which check the motion of the escape or balance wheel: a disc in the endless chain of a chain-pump: a ballast-locker in a ship: a valve by which the admission of air from the bellows to an organ-pipe may be regulated from the keyboard: a board for carrying newly moulded bricks. [Palette.]

Pallet, pal′et, n. a mattress, or couch, properly a mattress of straw. [Prov. Fr. paillet, dim. of Fr. paille, straw—L. palea, chaff.]

Pallial, pal′i-al, adj. pertaining to a pallium.—n. Pall′iament (Shak.), a robe.

Palliasse, pa-lyas′, n. Same as Paillasse.

Palliate, pal′i-āt, v.t. to cover, excuse, extenuate: to soften by pleading something in favour of: to mitigate.—n. Palliā′tion, act of palliating: extenuation: mitigation.—adj. Pall′iātive, serving to extenuate: mitigating.—n. that which lessens pain, disease, &c.—adj. Pall′iātory. [L. palliāre, -ātum, to cloak—pallium, a cloak.]

Pallid, pal′id, adj. pale, wan.—ns. Pallid′ity, Pall′idness.—adv. Pall′idly. [L. pallidus, pale.]

Pallium, pal′i-um, n. a large, square mantle, worn by learned Romans in imitation of the Greeks: an annular white woollen band, embroidered with black crosses, worn by the Pope, and on some occasions by archbishops, to whom it is granted: (ornith.) the mantle:—pl. Pall′ia.—adj. Pall′ial. [L.]

Pall-mall, pel-mel′, n. an old game, in which a ball was driven through an iron ring with a mallet: an alley where the game used to be played, hence the street in London.—adv. in pall-mall fashion. [O. Fr. pale-maille—Old It. palamagliopalla—Old High Ger. pall (Ger. ball, Eng. ball), and maglio—L. malleus, a hammer.]

Pallometric, pal-o-met′rik, adj. pertaining to the measurement of artificial vibrations in the earth's surface. [Gr. pallein, to shake, metron, a measure.]

Pallone, pl-lō′nā, n. a game like tennis played with a ball, which is struck by the arm covered by a guard. [It.]

Pallor, pal′or, n. quality or state of being pallid or pale: paleness. [L.,—pallēre, to be pale.]

Palm, pm, n. the inner part of the hand: a measure of length equal to the breadth of the hand, or to its length from wrist to finger-tip: a measure of 3 and sometimes of 4 inches: that which covers the palm: the fluke of an anchor: the flattened portion of an antler.—v.t. to stroke with the palm or hand: to conceal in the palm of the hand: (esp. with off, and on, or upon) to impose by fraud.—n. Pal′ma, the palm: the enlarged proximal joint of the fore tarsus of a bee.—adjs. Pal′mar, -y, relating to the palm of the hand; Pal′māte, -d, shaped like the palm of the hand: (bot.) divided into sections, the midribs of which run to a common centre: entirely webbed, as the feet of a duck.—adv. Pal′mātely.—adjs. Palmat′ifid (bot.), shaped like the hand, with the divisions extending half-way, or slightly more, down the leaf; Palmat′iform, shaped like an open palm; Palmed, having palms. [Fr. paume—L. palma, the palm of the hand; Gr. palamē.]

Palm, pm, n. a tropical, branchless tree of many varieties, bearing at the summit large leaves like the palm of the hand: a leaf of this tree borne in token of rejoicing or of victory: (fig.) triumph or victory.—adjs. Palmā′ceous, belonging to the order of palm-trees; Palmā′rian, Pal′mary, worthy of the palm: pre-eminent.—ns. Palm′-butt′er, palm-oil; Palm′ery, a place for growing palms; Palm′house, a glass house for raising palms and other tropical plants.—adjs. Palmif′erous, producing palm-trees; Palmit′ic, pertaining to, or obtained from, palm-oil.—ns. Pal′mitine, a white fat, usually occurring, when crystallised from ether, in the form of scaly crystals—abundant in palm-oil; Palm′-oil, an oil or fat obtained from the pulp of the fruit of palms, esp. of the oil-palm, allied to the coco-nut palm: (slang) a bribe or tip; Palm′-sū′gar, jaggery; Palm′-Sun′day, the Sunday before Easter, in commemoration of the day on which our Saviour entered Jerusalem, when palm-branches were strewed in His way by the people; Palm′-wine, the fermented sap of certain palms.—adj. Palm′y, bearing palms: flourishing: victorious.—Palma Christi, the castor-oil plant. [A.S. from L., as above.]

Palmer, pm′ėr, n. a pilgrim from the Holy Land, distinguished by his carrying a branch of palm: a cheat at cards or dice.—ns. Pal′merin, any medieval knightly hero, from the Palmerin romances, the original hero Palmerin de Oliva; Palm′er-worm (B.), a hairy worm which wanders like a palmer, devouring leaves, &c.

Palmette, pal′met, n. an ornament, somewhat like a palm-leaf, cut or painted on mouldings, &c. [Fr.]

Palmetto, pal-met′ō, n. a name for several fan-palms, esp. the cabbage-palm of Florida, &c.: a hat made of palmetto-leaves. [Sp.,—L. palma.]

Palmigrade, pal′mi-grād, adj. noting animals that walk on the sole of the foot and not merely on the toes: plantigrade. [L. palma, palm, gradi, to walk.]

Palmiped, pal′mi-pēd, adj. web-footed.—n. a web-footed or swimming bird:—pl. Palmip′edes (-ēz). [L. palma, palm of the hand, pes, pedis, the foot.]

Palmist, pal′mist, or p′mist, n. one who tells fortunes by the lines and marks of the palm—also Pal′mister (or p′-).n. Pal′mistry (or p′-), the practice of telling fortunes by the lines, &c., of the palm.

Palmyra, pal-mī′ra, n. an East Indian palm furnishing the greater part of the palm-wine of India (Toddy).—adj. and n. Palmyrene′, pertaining to the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra or Tadmor.

Palolo, pa-lō′lō, n. an edible annelid allied to the lugworm, found near Polynesian coral-reefs.

Palp, palp, n. a jointed sensiferous organ attached in pairs to the labium or maxilla of insects, and thus distinguished from antenn, which are on the top of the head—also Pal′pus:—pl. Pal′pi.—adjs. Pal′pal; Palped; Pal′piform; Palpig′erous, bearing palpi; Palp′less.—n. Pal′pūlus, a little palp. [Low L. palpus—L. palpāre, to stroke.]

Palpable, pal′pa-bl, adj. that can be touched or felt: easily perceived or found out, as lies, &c.: looking as if it might be touched or felt: obvious, gross.—ns. Palpabil′ity, Pal′pableness, quality of being palpable: obviousness.—adv. Pal′pably.—v.t. Pal′pāte, to examine by touch.—n. Palpā′tion, the act of examining by means of touch. [Fr.,—L. palpabilispalpāre, -ātum, to touch softly.]

Palpebral, pal′pe-bral, adj. of or pertaining to the eyelids.—adjs. Pal′pebrāte, having eyebrows; Pal′pebrous, having heavy eyebrows. [L. palpebra, the eyelid.]

Palpifer, pal′pi-fėr, n. an outer lobe of the maxilla.—adj. Palpif′erous.

Palpitate, pal′pi-tāt, v.i. to move often and quickly: to beat rapidly: to throb: to pulsate.—adj. Pal′pitant (arch.), palpitating.—n. Palpitā′tion, act of palpitating: irregular action of the heart, caused by excitement, excessive exertion, or disease. [L. palpitāre, -ātum, freq. of palpāre. Cf. Palpable.]

Palsgrave, palz′grāv, n. one who has charge of a royal household: one of a special order of nobility, esp. one of the hereditary rulers of the Palatinate:—fem. Pals′gravine.

Palstaff, pal′staf, n. an old Celtic and Scandinavian weapon—a wedge of stone or metal fixed by a tongue in a staff. [Dan.,—Ice. plstafr.]

Palsy, pawl′zi, n. a loss of power or of feeling, more or less complete, in the muscles of the body: paralysis.—v.t. to affect with palsy: to deprive of action or energy: to paralyse:—pa.p. pal′sied. [Fr. paralysie—Gr. paralysis. Cf. Paralysis.]

Palter, pawl′tėr, v.i. to trifle in talk: to use trickery: to dodge: to shuffle: to equivocate.—n. Pal′terer. [Prob. conn. with paltry.]

Paltry, pawl′tri, adj. mean: vile: worthless.—adv. Pal′trily.—n. Pal′triness. [Teut.; Dan. pialter, rags, Low Ger. paltrig, ragged.]

Paludal, pal′ū-dal, adj. pertaining to marshes: marshy—also Pal′ūdine, Palū′dinous, Pal′ūdose, Palus′tral, Palus′trine.—n. Pal′udism, marsh poisoning. [L. palus, paludis, a marsh.]

Paludamentum, pā-lū-da-men′tum, n. a military cloak worn by a Roman Imperator, or by members of his staff.—Also Palū′dament. [L.]

Paly, pā′li, adj. pale: wanting colour: (her.) divided by pales into equal parts.

Pam, pam, n. the knave of clubs at loo.

Pampas, pam′paz, vast plains, without trees, in South America, south of the Amazon—north of that river they are called llanos.—n. Pam′pas-grass, a tall, ornamental, reed-like grass with large thick silvery panicles.—adj. Pam′pēan.

Pamper, pam′pėr, v.t. to feed with fine food: to gratify to the full: to glut.—ns. Pam′peredness; Pam′perer. [A freq. from pamp, a nasalised form of pap; cf. Low Ger. pampenpampe, pap.]

Pampero, pam-pā′ro, n. a violent south-west wind which sweeps over the pampas of South America. [Sp.,—pampa, a plain.]

Pamphlet, pam′flet, n. a small book consisting of one or more sheets stitched together, but not bound: a short essay on some interesting subject.—n. Pamphleteer′, a writer of pamphlets.—p.adj. Pamphleteer′ing, writing pamphlets.—n. the practice of writing pamphlets. [Ety. dub.; acc. to Skeat, perh. through Fr. from Pamphila, a 1st cent. female writer of epitomes; others suggest Fr. paume, the palm of the hand, and feuillet, a leaf.]

Pamphract, pam′frakt, adj. (rare) protected completely, as by a coat of mail. [Gr. pam, pan, all, phraktosphrassein, to fence in.]

Pamphysical, pam-fiz′ik-al, adj. pertaining to nature regarded as embracing all things.

Pampiniform, pam-pin′i-form, adj. curling like the tendril of a vine. [L. pampinus, a tendril.]

Pamplegia, pam-plē′ji-a, n. general paralysis. [Gr. pan, all, plēgē, a blow.]

Pan, pan, n. a broad, shallow vessel for domestic use, or for use in the arts or manufactures: anything resembling a pan in shape, as the upper part of the skull: the part of a firelock which holds the priming.—v.t. to treat with the panning process, as earth, or to separate by shaking the auriferous earth with water in a pan: to obtain in any way, to secure: to cook and serve in a pan.—v.i. to yield gold: to appear, as gold, in a pan: to turn out well, according to expectation: to try to find gold with the pan process.—Pan out, to yield or afford, to result; Panned out (U.S.), exhausted, bankrupt.—Flash in the pan, to flash and go out suddenly, not igniting the charge—of the powder in the pan of a flint-lock firearm: to fail after a fitful effort, to give up without accomplishing anything; Hard-pan (see Hard). [A.S. panne—prob. through the Celt., from Low L. panna—L. patina, a basin.]

Pan, pan, n. the Greek god of pastures, flocks, and woods, worshipped in Arcadia, and fond of music—with goat's legs and feet, and sometimes horns and ears.—n. Pan's′-pipes (see Pandean).

Panacea, pan-a-sē′a, n. a universal medicine: (bot.) the plant Allheal (Valeriana officinalis). [Gr. panakeiapas, pan, all, akos, cure.]

Panache, pa-nash′, n. a plume of feathers, used as a head-dress. [Fr.]

Panada, pa-n′da, n. a dish made by boiling bread to a pulp in water, with sweetening and flavour: a batter for forcemeats. [Sp.]

Pansthesia, pan-es-thē′si-a, n. common sensation, as distinct from special sensations or sense-perceptions.—n. Panss′thetism.

Panagia, pa-nā′ji-a, n. an epithet of the Virgin in the Eastern Church: an ornament worn hanging on the breast by Russian bishops—also Panā′ghia.—n. Panagiā′rion, a paten on which the loaf is placed, used in the 'elevation of the Panagia.' [Gr., 'all holy,' pas, all, hagios, holy.]

Pan-American, pan-a-mer′i-kan, adj. including all the divisions of America collectively.

Pan-Anglican, pan-ang′gli-kan, adj. representing or including all Christians everywhere who hold the doctrines and polity of the Anglican Church.

Panaritium, pan-a-rish′i-um, n. suppurative inflammation in a finger—same as whitlow.

Panarthritis, pan-r-thrī′tis, n. inflammation involving all the structures of a joint.

Panary, pan′a-ri, adj. of or pertaining to bread.—n. a storehouse for bread: a pantry. [L. panis, bread.]

Panathena, pan-ath-ē-nē′a, the chief national festival of ancient Athens—the lesser held annually, the greater every fourth year.—adjs. Panathen′an, Panathenā′ic. [Gr.]

Panax, pa-naks′, n. a genus of shrubs with radiately or pinnately compound leaves and small flowers in compound umbels, the ginseng. [Gr., 'all healing.']

Pancake, pan′kāk, n. a thin cake of eggs, flour, sugar, and milk fried in a pan.—n. Pan′cake-ice, thin ice forming in smooth water.—Pancake Tuesday, Shrove Tuesday.

Panch, panch, n. a thick mat made of strands of rope, used in ships in places to prevent chafing.—Also Paunch.

Panchatantra, pan-ch-tnt′r, n. the oldest extant collection of apologues and stories in Sanskrit literature, arranged in five books.

Pancheon, pan′chon, n. a coarse earthenware pan.—Also Panch′in. [Pannikin.]

Panclastite, pan-klas′tīt, n. an explosive substance of slightly less strength than dynamite, formed of a preparation of nitrogen and carbon. [Gr. pan, all, klastos, broken, klaein, to break.]

Pancratium, pan-krā′ti-um, n. a contest of boxing and wrestling combined.—adjs. Pancrā′tian, Pancrat′ic.—ns. Pancrā′tiast, Pan′cratist. [Gr. pan, all, kratos, strength.]

Pancreas, pan′krē-as, n. a conglomerate gland, lying transversely across the posterior wall of the abdomen, secreting the pancreatic juice which pours with the bile into the digestive system.—adj. Pancreat′ic, pertaining to the pancreas.—ns. Pan′creatin, the pancreatic juice; Pancreatīt′is, inflammation of the pancreas. [Gr. pas, pan, all, kreas, flesh.]

Pand, pand, n. (Scot.) a narrow curtain over a bed.

Panda, pan′da, n. a remarkable animal in the bear section of Carnivores found in the south-east Himalayas.—Also Chitwah, or Red bear-cat.

Pandanus, pan-dā′nus, n. the screw-pipe, the typical genus of the Pandane. [Malay.]

Pandation, pan-dā′shun, n. a yielding or warping. [L. pandāre, to bend.]

Pandean, pan-dē′an, adj. of or relating to the god Pan.—n. Pandē′an-pipes, or Pan's′-pipes, a musical instrument composed of reeds of various lengths, said to have been invented by Pan: a syrinx.

Pandect, pan′dekt, n. a treatise containing the whole of any science: (pl.) the digest of Roman or civil law made by command of the Emperor Justinian in the 6th century. [L.,—Gr. pandectespas, pan, all, dechesthai, to receive.]

Pandemic, pan-dem′ik, adj. incident to a whole people, epidemic.—n. a pandemic disease.—n. Pandem′ia, a widespread disease. [Gr. pandēmiospas, pan, all, dēmos, the people.]

Pandemonium, pan-dē-mō′ni-um, n. the great hall of evil spirits, described in Paradise Lost: any disorderly assembly, or loud tumultuous noise. [Gr. pas, pan, all, daimōn, a demon.]

Pander, pan′dėr, n. one who procures for another the means of gratifying his passions: a pimp.—v.t. to play the pander for.—v.i. to act as a pander: to minister to the passions.—ns. Pan′derage, act, employment, or vices of a pander; Pan′deress, a procuress; Pan′derism, the employment or practices of a pander.—adjs. Pan′derly (Shak.), acting as a pander; Pan′derous. [Pandarus, the pimp in the story of Troilus and Cressida in the versions of Boccaccio (Filostrato), Chaucer, and Shakespeare.]

Pandiculation, pan-dik-ū-lā′shun, n. the act of stretching one's self after sleep, &c.: restlessness before fever, hysteria, &c.: yawning.—adj. Pandic′ulāted, stretched out. [L. pandiculāri, -ātus, to stretch one's self out.]

Pandion, pan-dī′on, n. the genus of ospreys or fishing-hawks. [Gr., the father of Procne, who was changed into a swallow.]

Pandit. Same as Pundit.

Pandora, pan-dō′ra, n. a beautiful woman to whom Jupiter, in order to punish the theft of heavenly fire by Prometheus, gave a box containing all the ills of human life, which, on the box being opened, spread over all the earth. [Gr., pan, all, dōron, a gift.]

Pandore, pan-dōr′, n. a musical instrument of the lute kind with three or four strings—also Bandore.—n. Pandū′ra, a Neapolitan musical instrument with eight metal wires, played with a quill.—adjs. Pan′durate, -d, Pandū′riform, fiddle-shaped. [Gr. pandoura, a 3-stringed instrument, invented by Pan.]

Pandore, pan′dōr, n. an esteemed variety of oysters found near Prestonpans on the Firth of Forth.

Pandour, pan′dōōr, n. a Hungarian foot-soldier in the Austrian service: a robber.—Also Pan′door. [From Pandur, a village in Hungary.]

Pandowdy, pan-dew′di, n. a pudding baked with bread and apples.

Pandy, pan′di, n. a stroke on the palm as a school punishment.—v.t. to slap. [L. pande, hold out, imper. of pandĕre, to hold out.]

Pane, pān, n. a plate of glass: a square in a pattern: a flat division or side in any kind of work: a slash in a dress, showing an under garment, or for the insertion of a piece of cloth of different colour, &c.: a panel or piece of cloth of a different colour from the rest, esp. in variegated work.—v.t. to insert panes or panels in.—adj. Paned, composed of panes or small squares: variegated. [Fr. pan, a lappet, pane—L. pannus, a cloth, a rag, akin to Gr. pēnos, the woof.]

Panegoism, pan-ē′gō-izm, n. Same as Solipsism (q.v.).

Panegyric, pan-ē-jir′ik, n. an oration or eulogy in praise of some person or event: an encomium.—adjs. Panēgyr′ic, -al.—adv. Panēgyr′ically.—n. Panēgyr′icon, in the Greek Church, a collection of sermons for festivals.—v.t. Pan′ēgyrise, to write or pronounce a panegyric on: to praise highly.—ns. Pan′ēgyrist; Pan′ēgyry (obs.). [L.,—Gr. panēgyrikos, fit for a national festival—pas, pan, all, agyris (agora), an assembly.]

Paneity, pā-nē′i-ti, n. the state of being bread. [L. panis, bread.]

Panel, pan′el, n. a rectangular piece of any material: (archit.) a flat surface with raised margins, or with a surrounding frame: a thin board on which a picture is painted: (law) a schedule containing the names of those summoned to serve as jurors: the jury: (Scots law) a prisoner at the bar: a frame for carrying a mortar: a rail in a post-and-rail fence.—v.t. to furnish with panels:—pr.p. pan′elling; pa.p. pan′elled.—Also Pann′el.—ns. Pan′el-game, the act of stealing articles by means of a sliding panel; Pan′elling, panel-work; Pan′el-pic′ture, a picture painted on a panel; Pan′el-plān′er, a machine for dressing panels and feathering their edges to fit them to the grooves in the stiles; Pan′el-saw, a saw for cutting very thin wood; Pan′el-strip, a narrow piece of wood or metal for covering a joint between two panels; Pan′el-work′ing, a method of working a coal-mine by dividing it into compartments. [O. Fr.,—Low L. pannellus—L. pannus, a rag.]

Paneulogism, pan-ū′lō-jizm, n. indiscriminate eulogy.

Panful, pan′fool, n. the quantity that a pan will hold:—pl. Pan′fuls.

Pang, pang, v.t. (Scot.) to cram, stuff with food.

Pang, pang, n. a violent but not long-continued pain: a sudden and bitter feeling of sorrow: a throe.—v.t. to cause a pang, to torture.—adj. Pang′less, free from pain. [A form of prong, prob. modified by confusion with Fr. poing, a fist—L. pugnus, the fist.]

Pangenesis, pan-jen′e-sis, n. the theory that every separate part of the whole organisation reproduces itself.—adj. Pangenet′ic. [Gr. pas, pan, all, genesis, production.]

Pangolin, pang′gō-lin, n. the scaly ant-eater, a name given to the various species of the genus Manis belonging to the mammalian order Edentata. [Malay.]

Pangrammatist, pan-gram′a-tist, n. one who twists all the letters of the alphabet into sentences, as in the following example: 'John P. Brady, give me a black walnut box of quite a small size.'

Pan-handle, pan′-han′dl, n. the handle of a pan: a long narrow strip projecting like this.

Panharmonicon, pan-har-mon′i-kon, n. a mechanical musical instrument of the orchestrion class.—Also Orpheus-harmonica.

Panhellenic, pan-hel-en′ik, adj. pertaining to all Greece.—ns. Panhellē′nion, or Panhellē′nium, a council representing all the sections of the Greeks; Panhell′enism, a scheme for forming all Greeks into one political body; Panhell′enist, one who favours Panhellenism. [Gr. pas, pan, all, Hellēnikos, Greek—Hellas, Greece.]

Panic, pan′ik, n. extreme or sudden fright: great terror without any visible ground or foundation: a state of terror about investments produced by some startling collapse in credit, impelling men to rush and sell what they possess.—adj. of the nature of a panic: extreme or sudden: imaginary.—adj. Pan′icky (coll.), inclined to panic or sudden terror, affected by financial panic.—n. Pan′ic-mong′er, one who creates panics.—adjs. Pan′ic-strick′en, Pan′ic-struck, struck with a panic or sudden fear. [Orig. an adj.; Gr. panikon (deima), 'panic' (fear), from panikos, belonging to Pan, god of the woods.]

Panicle, pan′i-kl, n. (bot.) a form of the arrangement of flowers on a stalk, in which the cluster is irregularly branched, as in oats.—n. Pan′ic, a grass of the genus Panicum.—adjs. Pan′icled (bot.), furnished with panicles: arranged in or like panicles; Panic′ulāte, -d, furnished with, arranged in, or like panicles.—adv. Panic′ulātely.—n. Pan′icum, a large genus of true grasses having the one or two-flowered spikelets in spikes, racemes, or panicles—including the common millet. [L. panicula, double dim. of panus, thread wound on a bobbin, akin to L. pannus and Gr. pēnos. See Pane.]

Panidrosis, pan-i-drō′sis, n. a perspiration over the whole body. [Gr. pas, pan, all, hidrōs, perspiration.]

Panification, pan-i-fi-kā′shun, n. a conversion into bread.—adj. Paniv′orous, eating bread.

Panionic, pan-ī-on′ik, adj. pertaining to all the Ionian peoples.

Panisc, pan′isk, n. the god Pan, represented as a satyr.

Panislamic, pan-is-lam′ik, adj. relating to all Islam, or all the Mohammedan races.—n. Panis′lamism, the idea of union amongst the Mohammedan races.

Panjandrum, pan-jan′drum, n. an imaginary figure of great power and importance, a burlesque potentate.—Also Panjan′darum. [A gibberish word.]

Panlogism, pan′lō-jizm, n. the theory that the universe is an outward manifestation of the Logos.

Panmelodion, pan-mē-lō′di-on, n. a keyboard musical instrument whose tone is produced by wheels rubbing on metal bars.

Panmixia, pan-mik′si-a, n. (biol.) cessation of natural selection, as on a useless organ.

Pannade, pa-nād′, n. the curvet of a horse.

Pannage, pan′āj, n. food picked up by swine in the woods, mast; also the right to this.

Pannel. Same as Panel.

Panniculus, pa-nik′ū-lus, n. a thin, sheet-like investment. [L., dim. of pannus, a cloth.]

Pannier, pan′yėr, or pan′i-ėr, n. a bread-basket: one of two baskets thrown across a horse's back, for carrying light produce to market: (archit.) a corbel: a contrivance for puffing out a woman's dress at the hips: a piece of basket-work for protecting archers, or, when filled with gravel or sand, for forming and protecting dikes, embankments, &c.—adj. Pann′iered, loaded with panniers. [Fr. panier—L. panarium, a bread-basket—panis, bread.]

Pannikel, pan′i-kl, n. the brain-pan: (Spens.) the skull. [Dim. of pan.]

Pannikin, pan′i-kin, n. a small pan or saucer.

Pannose, pan′ōs, adj. (bot.) like felt in texture. [L. pannosuspannus, cloth.]

Pannus, pan′us, n. an opaque vascular membrane over the cornea: a tent for a wound: a birth-mark on the skin. [L., 'cloth.']

Pannuscorium, pan-us-kō′ri-um, n. a leather-cloth for boots. [L. pannus, cloth, corium, leather.]

Panocha, pa-nō′cha, n. a Mexican coarse sugar.

Panochia, pa-nō′chi-a, n. bubo in the groin or armpit. [Gr. cheia, a hole.]

Panoistic, pan-ō-is′tik, adj. producing ova only—opp. to Meroistic. [Gr. ōon, an egg.]

Panophobia, pan-ō-fō′bi-a, n. a morbid fear of everything. [Gr. pas, pan, all, phobos, fear.]

Panophthalmitis, pan-of-thal-mī′tis, n. suppurative inflammation of the whole eye.

Panoply, pan′ō-pli, n. complete armour: a full suit of armour.—adj. Pan′oplied, dressed in panoply: completely armed.—n. Pan′oplist, one so armed. [Gr. panopliapas, pan, all, hopla (pl.), arms.]

Panopticon, pan-op′ti-kon, n. a prison so constructed that all the prisoners can be watched from one point: an exhibition room. [Gr. pas, pan, all, horaein, fut. opsesthai, to see.]

Panorama, pan-ō-r′ma, n. a wide or complete view: a picture giving views of objects in all directions: a picture representing a number of scenes unrolled and made to pass before the spectator.—adj. Panora′mic. [Gr. pan, all, horama, a view, from horaein, to see.]

Panotitis, pan-ō-tī′tis, n. inflammation in both the middle and internal ear.

Panotype, pan′ō-tīp, n. a picture made by the collodion process.

Panpharmacon, pan-far′ma-kon, n. a universal remedy.

Pan-Presbyterian, pan-pres-bi-tē′ri-an, adj. of or pertaining to the whole body of Presbyterians.—Pan-Presbyterian Council, a council representing all the Presbyterian churches throughout the world.

Pansclerosis, pan-skle-rō′sis, n. complete thickening and hardening of the interstitial tissue of a part.

Panser, pan′sėr, n. an ancient piece of armour for the abdomen. [O. Fr. pansierepanse, the belly—L. pantex, the belly.]

Pan-Slavic, pan′-slav′ik, adj. pertaining to all the Slavic races.—ns. Pan′-Slav′ism, a movement for the amalgamation of all the Slavonic races into one body, with one language, literature, and social polity; Pan′-Slav′ist, one who favours Pan-Slavism.—adjs. Pan-Slavō′nian, Pan-Slavon′ic.

Pansophy, pan′sō-fi, n. a scheme of universal knowledge, esp. that of the educational reformer, John Amos Comenius (1592-1671): the pretence of universal wisdom.—adjs. Pansoph′ic, -al. [Gr. pas, pan, all, sophia, wisdom.]

Panspermatism, pan-sper′ma-tizm, n. the theory of the widespread diffusion of germs—also Pansper′my.—n. Pansper′matist, a holder of this.—adj. Pansper′mic. [Gr. pas, pan, all, sperma, seed.]

Panstereorama, pan-ster-ē-ō-r′ma, n. a model showing every part in proportional relief, as of a building. [Gr. pas, pan, all, stereos, solid, horama, a view.]

Pansy, pan′zi, n. a species of violet developed by cultivation into large blossoms of great variety of colour—also Heart's-ease, Love-in-idleness:—pl. Pan′sies.—adj. Pan′sied. [Fr. pensepenser, to think—L. pensāre, to weigh.]

Pant, pant, v.i. to breathe hard and quickly: to show excitement by quickness of breathing: to gasp: to throb: to desire ardently: to heave, as the breast: to bulge and shrink successively, of iron hulls, &c.—v.t. to gasp out: to long for.—ns. Pant, Pant′ing, rapid breathing: palpitation: longing.—adv. Pant′ingly, in a panting manner: with hard and rapid breathing. [Imit.; or nasalised from pat (v.t.).]

Pantagamy, pan-tag′a-mi, n. a system of communistic marriage, once practised in the Oneida community. [Gr. panta, all, gamos, marriage.]

Pantagogue, pan′ta-gōg, n. a medicine once believed capable of purging away all morbid humours. [Gr. panta, pas, all, agōgos, drawing out—agein, to lead.]

Pantagraph, Pantagraphic, -al. Same as Pantograph, &c.

Pantagruelism, pan-ta-grōō′el-izm, n. the theories and practice of Pantagruel as described by Rabelais (1483-1553)—burlesque ironical buffoonery as a cover for serious satire: empirical medical theory and practice.—adj. Pantagruel′ian.—ns. Pantagruel′ion, a magic herb allegorising fortitude, patience, industry; Pantagru′elist, a cynic who uses the medium of burlesque.

Pantaleon, pan-tal′ē-on, n. a musical instrument invented about 1700 by Pantaleon Hebenstreit, a very large dulcimer.

Pantalets, pan-ta-lets′, long frilled drawers, once worn by women and children: a removable kind of ruffle worn at the feet of women's drawers.

Pantaloon, pan-ta-lōōn′, n. in pantomimes, a ridiculous character, a buffoon: (orig.) a ridiculous character in Italian comedy, also a garment worn by him, consisting of breeches and stockings all in one piece: (pl.) a kind of trousers.—n. Pantaloon′ery, buffoonery. [Fr. pantalon—It. pantalone, from Pantaleon (Gr. 'all-lion'), the patron saint of Venice.]

Pantatrophy, pan-tat′ro-fi, n. general atrophy of the whole body.

Pantechnicon, pan-tek′ni-kon, n. a place where every species of workmanship is sold, or where furniture, &c., is stored. [Gr. pas, pan, all, technē, art.]

Panter, pan′tėr, n. (obs.). Same as Panther.

Pantheism, pan′thē-izm, n. the form of monism which identifies mind and matter, making them manifestations of one absolute being: the doctrine that there is no God apart from nature or the universe, everything being considered as part of God, or a manifestation of Him.—n. Pan′thēist, a believer in pantheism.—adjs. Panthēist′ic, -al.—ns. Panthēol′ogist, one versed in pantheology; Panthēol′ogy, a system of theology embracing all religions and the knowledge of all gods.

Pantheon, pan′thē-on, n. a temple dedicated to all the gods, esp. the round one at Rome, built by Agrippa in 27 B.C.: all the gods of a nation considered as one body: a complete mythology. [L. panthēon—Gr. pantheion (hieron), (a temple) for all gods—pas, pan, all, theos, a god.]

Panther, pan′thėr, n. a fierce, spotted, carnivorous quadruped of Asia and Africa:—fem. Pan′theress. [Fr. panthre—L.,—Gr. panthēr.]

Pantile, pan′tīl, n. a tile with a curved surface, convex or concave with reference to its width: a tile whose cross-section forms a double curve, forming a tegula and imbrex both in one.—adj. dissenting—chapels being often roofed with these.—n. Pan′tiling, a system of tiling with pantiles.

Pantisocrasy, pan-ti-sok′ra-si, n. a Utopian community in which all are of equal rank or social position. [Gr. pas, pantos, all, isos, equal, kratein, to rule.]

Pantler, pant′lėr, n. (Shak.) the officer in a great family who had charge of the bread and other provisions. [Fr. panetier—L. panis, bread.]

Pantochronometer, pan-tō-kro-nom′e-tėr, n. a combination of compass, sun-dial, and universal sun-dial.

Pantoffle, pan′tof'l, n. a slipper. [Fr.]

Pantograph, pan′tō-graf, n. an instrument for copying drawings, plans, &c. on the same, or a different, scale from the original.—adjs. Pantograph′ic, -al, pertaining to, or done by, a pantograph.—n. Pantog′raphy, general description: entire view: process of copying by means of the pantograph. [Gr. pan, all, graphein, to write.]

Pantology, pan-tol′o-ji, n. universal knowledge: a view of all branches of knowledge: a book of universal information.—adj. Pantolog′ic.—n. Pantol′ogist. [Gr. pas, pantos, all, logia, description.]

Pantometer, pan-tom′e-tėr, n. an instrument for measuring angles and perpendiculars.—n. Pantom′etry.

Pantomime, pan′tō-mīm, n. one who expresses his meaning by action without speaking: a play or an entertainment in dumb show: an entertainment in a theatre, usually about Christmas-time, in which some well-known story is acted, amidst showy scenery, with music and dancing, concluding with buffoonery by conventional characters—the clown, pantaloon, harlequin, and columbine.—adj. representing only by action without words.—adjs. Pantomim′ic, -al.—adv. Pantomim′ically.—n. Pan′tomimist, an actor in a pantomime. [Fr.,—L.—Gr. pantomimos, imitator of all—pas, pantos, all, mimos, an imitator.]

Pantomorph, pan′tō-morf, n. that which exists in all shapes.—adj. Pantomor′phic.

Panton, pan′ton, n. a horse-shoe for curing a narrow and hoof-bound heel: an idle fellow.

Pantophagy, pan-tof′a-ji, n. morbid hunger for all kinds of food.—n. Pantoph′agist.—adj. Pantoph′agous. [Gr. panta, all, phagein, to eat.]

Pantoscope, pan′tō-skōp, n. a panoramic camera: a very wide-angled photographic lens.—adj. Pantoscop′ic, giving a wide range of vision.

Pantostomatous, pan-tō-stom′a-tus, adj. ingesting food at any point on the surface of the body.

Pantry, pan′tri, n. a room or closet for provisions and table furnishings, or where plate, knives, &c. are cleaned. [Fr. paneterie, a place where bread is distributed—Low L. panitaria—L. panis, bread.]

Pants, (coll.) trousers, abbrev. of pantaloons.

Panurgic, pan-ur′jik, adj. able to do all kinds of work. [Gr. pan, all, ergon, work.]

Panzoism, pan-zō′izm, n. the sum of the elements that make up vital force. [Gr. pas, pan, all, zōē, life.]

Pap, pap, n. soft food for infants: pulp of fruit: nourishment: (slang) the emoluments or perquisites of public office.—v.t. to feed with pap.—adjs. Papes′cent, Pap′py.—ns. Pap′meat, soft food for infants; Pap′spoon, a spoon for infants. [Imit.]

Pap, pap, n. a nipple or teat: a woman's breast: a round conical hill, as the Paps of Jura.

Papa, pa-p′, or p′pa, n. father: a bishop: a priest of the Greek Church. [Imit.]

Papacy, pā′pa-si, n. the office of the Pope: the authority of the Pope: popery: the Popes, as a body.—adj. Pā′pal, belonging to, or relating to, the Pope or to popery: popish.—v.t. Pā′palise, to make papal.—v.i. to conform to popery.—ns. Pā′palism; Pā′palist.—adv. Pā′pally.—ns. Pāpaphō′bia, extreme fear of the Pope, or the progress of papacy; Pā′parchy, papal government. [Low L. papatiapapa, a father.]

Papain, p′pa-in, n. a nitrogenous body, isolated from the juice of the papaw, one of the digestive ferments applied in some cases of dyspepsia, either internally or for the predigestion of food.

Papaverous, pa-pav′ėr-us, adj. resembling or having the qualities of the poppy.—adj. Papaverā′ceous, of or like the poppy. [L. papaver, the poppy.]

Papaw, pa-paw′, n. the tree Carica papaya, or its fruit, native to South America, but common in the tropics, the trunk, leaves, and fruit yielding papain (q.v.), the leaves forming a powerful anthelmintic: the tree Asimina triloba, or its fruit, native to the United States. [The Malabar native name.]

Paper, pā′pėr, n. the material made from rags or vegetable fibres on which we commonly write and print: a piece of paper: a written or printed document or instrument, note, receipt, bill, bond, deed, &c.: a newspaper: an essay or literary contribution, generally brief: paper-money: paper-hangings for walls: a set of examination questions: free passes of admission to a theatre, &c., also the persons admitted by such.—adj. consisting or made of paper.—v.t. to cover with paper: to fold in paper: to treat in any way by means of paper, as to sand-paper, &c.: to paste the end-papers and fly-leaves at the beginning and end of a book before fitting it into its covers.—ns. Pā′per-bar′on, or -lord, one who holds a title that is merely official, like that of a Scotch Lord of Session, &c., or whose title is merely by courtesy or convention; Pā′per-case, a box for holding writing materials, &c.; Pā′per-chase, the game of hounds and hares, when the hares scatter bits of paper to guide the hounds; Pā′per-cigar′, a cigarette; Pā′per-clamp, a frame for holding newspapers, sheets of music, &c., for easy reference; Pā′per-clip, or Letter-clip, an appliance with opening and closing spring, for holding papers together; Pā′per-cloth, a fabric prepared in many of the Pacific islands from the inner bark of the mulberry, &c.; Pā′per-cred′it, credit given to a person because he shows by bills, promissory notes, &c. that money is owing to him; Pā′per-cut′ter, a machine for cutting paper in sheets, for trimming the edges of books, &c.; Pā′per-day, one of certain days in each term for hearing causes down in the paper or roll of business; Pā′per-enam′el, an enamel for cards and fine note-paper.—adj. Pā′per-faced (Shak.), having a face as white as paper.—ns. Pā′per-feed′er, an apparatus for delivering sheets of paper to a printing-press, &c.; Pā′per-file, an appliance for holding letters, &c., for safety and readiness of reference; Pā′per-gauge, a rule for measuring the type-face of matter to be printed, and the width of the margin; Pā′per-hang′er, one who hangs paper on the walls of rooms, &c.— Pā′per-hang′ings, paper, either plain or with coloured figures, for hanging on or covering walls.—ns. Pā′pering, the operation of covering or hanging with paper: the paper itself; Pā′per-knife, -cut′ter, -fold′er, a thin, flat blade of ivory, &c., for cutting open the leaves of books and other folded papers; Pā′per-mak′er, one who manufactures paper; Pā′per-mak′ing; Pā′per-mar′bler, one engaged in marbling paper; Pā′per-mill, a mill where paper is made; Pā′per-mon′ey, pieces of paper stamped or marked by government or by a bank, as representing a certain value of money, which pass from hand to hand instead of the coin itself; Pā′per-mus′lin, a glazed muslin for dress linings, &c.; Pā′per-nau′tilus, or -sail′or, the nautilus; Pā′per-off′ice, an office in Whitehall where state-papers are kept; Pā′per-pulp, the pulp from which paper is made; Pā′per-punch, an apparatus for piercing holes in paper; Pā′per-reed (B.), the papyrus; Pā′per-rul′er, one who, or an instrument which, makes straight lines on paper; Pā′per-stain′er, one who prepares paper-hangings; Pā′per-test′er, a machine for testing the stretching strength of paper; Pā′per-wash′ing (phot.), water in which prints have been washed; Pā′per-weight, a small weight for laying on a bundle of loose papers to prevent them from being displaced.—adj. Pā′pery, like paper.—Bristol paper or board, a strong smooth paper for drawing on; Brown-paper (see Brown); Chinese paper, rice-paper: a fine soft slightly brownish paper made from bamboo bark, giving fine impressions from engravings; Cream-laid paper, a smooth paper of creamy colour, much used for note-paper; Distinctive paper, a fine silk-threaded fibre paper used in the United States for bonds, &c.; Filter-paper (see Filter); Hand-made paper, that made wholly by hand, as still with some kinds of printing and drawing papers; Height-to-paper, in typefounding, the length of a type from its face to its foot (1112 inch); Hot-pressed paper, paper polished by pressure between heated plates; Imperfect paper, sheets of poorer quality, as the two outside quires of a ream; India paper (see Indian); Japanese paper, a soft fine paper made from the bark of the paper-mulberry, giving good impressions of plate engravings; Lithographic paper, paper used for taking impressions from lithographic stones; Litmus paper (see Litmus); Marbled paper (see Marble); Parchment paper, a tough paper, prepared in imitation of parchment by dipping in diluted sulphuric acid and washing with weak ammonia; Plain paper, unruled paper: (phot.) any unglossy paper; Plate paper, the best class of book paper; Printing paper (see Print); Rag-paper, that made from the pulp of rags; Ruled paper, writing-paper ruled with lines for convenience; Sensitised paper (phot.), paper chemically treated so that its colour is affected by the action of light; State-paper (see State); Test-paper (see Test); Tissue-paper, a very thin soft paper for wrapping delicate articles, protecting engravings in books, &c.—also Silk-paper; Tracing-paper, transparent paper used for copying a design, &c., by laying it over the original, and copying the lines shown through it; Transfer-paper (see Transfer); Vellum paper, a heavy ungrained smooth paper, sometimes used in fine printing; Whatman paper, a fine quality of English paper, with fine or coarse grain, used for etchings, engravings, &c.; Wove paper, paper laid on flannel or felt, showing no marks of wires; Wrapping-paper, coarse paper used for wrapping up parcels, &c. [A shortened form of papyrus.]

Papeterie, pap-e-trē′, n. a box containing paper, &c., for writing purposes: stationery. [Fr.]

Paphian, pā′fi-an, adj. pertaining to Paphos in Cyprus, sacred to Aphrodite: lascivious.—n. a native of Paphos, a votary of Aphrodite: a whore.

Papier-mch, pap′yā-m′shā, n. a material consisting either of paper-pulp or of sheets of paper pasted together, which by a peculiar treatment resembles varnished or lacquered wood in one class of articles made of it, and in another class (chiefly architectural ornaments) somewhat resembles plaster. [Fr. papier—L. papyrus; mch is pa.p. of Fr. mcher, to chew—L. masticāre, to masticate.]

Papilionaceous, pa-pil-yo-nā′shus, adj. (bot.) having a flower shaped somewhat like a butterfly, as the bean, pea, &c. [L. papilio, -onis, a butterfly.]

Papilla, pa-pil′a, n. one of the minute elevations on the skin, esp. on the upper surface of the tongue and on the tips of the fingers, and in which the nerves terminate: (bot.) a nipple-like protuberance:—pl. Papill′.—adjs. Pap′illar, Pap′illary, like a papilla, provided with papill; Pap′illāte, formed into a papilla, studded with papill.—v.i. and v.t. to become a papilla, to cover with such.—adjs. Papillif′erous, papillate: bearing one or more fleshy excrescences; Papill′iform, like a papilla in form.—ns. Papillī′tis, inflammation of the optic papilla; Papillō′ma, a tumour formed by the hypertrophy of one papilla, or of several, including warts, corns, &c.—adjs. Papillom′atous; Pap′illōse, full of papill, warty—also Pap′illous; Papill′ūlate, finely papillose.—n. Pap′illūle, a very small papilla, a verruca or a variole. [L., a small pustule, dim. of papula.]

Papillote, pap′il-ōt, n. a curl-paper, from its fancied resemblance to a butterfly. [Fr., from papillot, old form of papillon, butterfly—L. papilio.]

Papist, pā′pist, n. an adherent of the Pope: a name slightingly given to a Roman Catholic—(prov.) Pā′pish, Pā′pisher.—n. Pā′pism, popery.—adjs. Pāpist′ic, -al, pertaining to popery, or to the Church of Rome, its doctrines, &c.—adv. Pāpist′ically.—n. Pā′pistry, popery.

Papoose, pap-ōōs′, n. a N. Amer. Indian infant, usually wrapped up, fixed to a board, and thus carried by its mother or hung up for safety.—Also Pappoose′.

Pappus, pap′us, n. (bot.) the fine hair or down which grows on the seeds of some plants: the first hair on the chin.—adjs. Pappif′erous, bearing a pappus; Pappōse′, Papp′ous, provided or covered with down. [L. pappus—Gr. pappos, down.]

Papuan, pap′ū-an, adj. pertaining to Papua or New Guinea.—n. an inhabitant of Papua: one of a race of black colour, dolichocephalic, with rough and frizzly hair, inhabiting many of the islands of the Pacific near Australia. [Malay.]

Papulose, pap′ū-lōs, adj. full of pimples—also Pap′ūlous.—n. Pap′ūla, a small inflammatory pustule, a pimple:—pl. Pap′ūl.—adj. Pap′ūlar.—ns. Papūlā′tion, the development of papules; Pap′ūle, a pimple.—adj. Papulif′erous, pimply. [L. papula, a pimple.]

Papyrus, pa-pī′rus, n. an Egyptian sedge, now scarcely found there, from the inner pith (byblos) of which the ancients made their paper: a manuscript on papyrus:—pl. Papy′rī.—adjs. Papyrā′ceous, Pap′yral, Papyr′ēan, Pap′yrine, pertaining to the papyrus or to papyri: like paper in appearance and consistency; Papyrit′ious, resembling paper, as the nests of certain wasps.—n. Papyrograph (pā-pī′rō-graf), a hectograph or apparatus for producing copies of a written or printed document.—v.t. to produce by means of such.—adj. Pāpyrograph′ic.—n. Papyrog′raphy. [L.—Gr. papyros, prob. Egyptian.]

Par, pr, n. state of equality: equal value, the norm or standard: state or value of bills, shares, &c. when they sell at exactly the price marked on them—i.e. without premium or discount: equality of condition.—v.t. to fix an equality between.—Par of exchange, the value of coin of one country expressed in that of another.—Above par, at a premium, or at more than the nominal value; At par, at exactly the nominal value; Below par, at a discount, or at less than the nominal value; Nominal par, the value with which a bill or share is marked, or by which it is known. [L. par, equal.]

Par, pr, n. Same as Parr.

Para, pa-r′, n. a coin of copper, silver, or mixed metal in use in Turkey and Egypt, the 40th part of a piastre, and worth about 118th of a penny in Turkey and 116th in Egypt.

Parabaptism, par-a-bap′tizm, n. uncanonical baptism.

Parabasis, pa-rab′a-sis, n. the chief of the choral parts in ancient Greek comedy, usually an address from the poet to the public. [Gr., para, beside, basisbainein, to walk.]

Parabema, par-a-bē′ma, n. in Byzantine ecclesiastical architecture, the chapel of the prothesis or the diaconicon, or sacristy, where divided by walls from the bema or sanctuary:—pl. Parabē′mata.—adj. Parabemat′ic.

Parablast, par′a-blast, n. the supplementary or nutritive yolk of a meroblastic egg or metovum—as distinguished from the archiblast, or formative yolk.—adj. Parablast′ic. [Gr. para, beside, blastos, a germ.]

Parable, par′a-bl, n. a comparison: a fable or story of something which might have happened, told to illustrate some doctrine, or to make some duty clear: (B.) an apologue, proverb (Ps. lxxviii. 2, Hab. ii. 6).—v.t. to represent by a parable.—adjs. Parabol′ic, -al, like a parable or a parabola: expressed by a parable: belonging to, or of the form of, a parabola.—adv. Parabol′ically. [Gr. parabolēparaballein, to compare—para, beside, ballein, to throw.]

Parablepsis, par-a-blep′sis, n. false vision.—Also Par′ablepsy. [Gr. para, beside, blepsisbleptein, to see.]

Parabola, par-ab′o-la, n. (geom.) a curve or conic section, formed by cutting a cone with a plane parallel to its slope (for illustration, see Cone).—adjs. Parabol′ic; Parabol′iform.—n. Parab′oloid, the solid which would be generated by the rotation of a parabola about its principal axis. [Gr. parabolē; cf. Parable.]

Parabolanus, par-a-bō-lā′nus, n. in the early Eastern Church, a lay assistant to the clergy for waiting on the sick. [Gr. parabolos, reckless.]

Parabole, par-ab′o-le, n. (rhet.) a parable, a comparison or similitude. [Gr.; cf. Parable.]

Paracelsian, par-a-sel′si-an, adj. of or relating to the famous Swiss philosopher and physician, Paracelsus (1490-1541), or resembling his theories or practice. The name was coined for himself by Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, and apparently implied a claim to be greater than Celsus.

Paracentesis, par-a-sen-tē′sis, n. (surg.) the perforation of a cavity with a trocar, &c., tapping. [Gr., para, beside, kentein, to pierce.]

Paracentral, par-a-sen′tral, adj. situated next a centrum.—adj. Paracen′tric, approaching to the centre or receding from it.

Parachordal, par-a-kōr′dal, adj. (biol.) lying alongside the cranial part of the notochord. [Gr. para, beside, chordē, a chord.]

Parachromatism, par-a-krō′ma-tizm, n. colour-blindness. [Gr. para, beside, chroma, colour.]

Parachronism, par-ak′ron-izm, n. an error in dating an event by which it is made to appear later than it really was. [Gr., para, beside, chronos, time.]

Parachrose, par′a-krōs, adj. (min.) changing colour by exposure to weather. [Gr., para, beside, chroa, colour.]

Parachute, par′a-shōōt, n. an apparatus like an umbrella for descending safely from a balloon.—v.t. and v.i. to descend by means of such.—n. Par′achutist. [Fr., for par' chute, from Fr. parer—L. parāre, to prepare, chute, a fall—L. cadĕre.]

Paraclete, par′a-klēt, n. the Comforter, Advocate, or Intercessor of John, xiv. 16, 26, 1 John, ii. 1, &c.—the Holy Ghost or Spirit.—ns. Paraclēt′ice, Paraclēt′icon, an office-book in the Greek Church containing the troparia of the whole ferial office for the year. [Through L., from Gr. paraklētosparakalein, para, beside, kalein, to call.]

Paracme, pa-rak′mē, n. (biol.) the decadence of an evolutionary series of organisms after reaching its highest point of development. [Gr. para, beside, akmē, a point.]

Paracolpitis, par-a-kol-pī′tis, n. inflammation of the outer coat of the vagina. [Gr. para, beside, kolpos, the womb.]

Paracorolla, par-a-kō-rol′a, n. (bot.) a crown or appendage of a corolla, usually as a nectary. [Gr. para, beside, L. corolla.]

Paracrostic, par-a-krōs′tik, n. a poem with the first verse containing the initial letters of the others.

Paracusis, par-a-kū′sis, n. disordered hearing. [Gr. para, beside, akousis, hearing.]

Paracyanogen, par-a-sī-an′ō-jen, n. a substance obtained by heating mercury cyanide almost to redness.

Paracyesis, par-a-sī-ē′sis, n. extra-uterine pregnancy.

Paradactylum, par-a-dak′ti-lum, n. the side of a bird's toe. [Gr. para, beside, daktylos, a finger.]

Parade, par-ād′, n. the orderly arrangement of troops for exercise or inspection: a review of troops: the place where such a display takes place: that which is displayed: great or splendid show of any kind: a public walk or promenade.—v.t. to show off: to marshal in military order.—v.i. to march up and down as if for show: to pass in military order: to march in procession. [Fr.—Sp. paradaparar, to halt—L. parāre, -ātum, to prepare.]

Paradigm, par′a-dim, n. an example: model: (gram.) an example of the inflection of a word.—adjs. Paradigmat′ic, -al, consisting of, or resembling, paradigms.—n. Paradigmat′ic, one who narrates the lives of religious persons by way of examples.—adv. Paradigmat′ically. [Fr.,—L.,—Gr. paradeigmapara, beside, deiknynai, to show.]

Paradise, par′a-dīs, n. a park or pleasure-ground, esp. in ancient Persia: the garden of Eden: heaven: any place of great beauty or state of blissful delights: the happy abode of the righteous in heaven: (slang) the upper gallery in a theatre: (archit.) a small private apartment, a court in front of a church.—adjs. Paradisā′ic, -al, Paradis′iac, -al, pertaining to, or resembling, paradise.—n. Par′adise-fish, a Chinese species of Macropid often kept in aquaria for its beauty of form and colouring.—adjs. Paradis′ial, Paradis′ian, pertaining to, suitable to, or resembling paradise; Paradis′ic, -al, pertaining to paradise.—Bird Of Paradise, an Eastern bird closely allied to the crow, with splendid plumage. [Fr. paradis—L. paradisus—Gr. paradeisos, a park, prob. Persian.]

Parados, par′a-dos, n. earthworks behind a fortified place, protecting against a rear attack.

Paradox, par′a-doks, n. that which is contrary to received opinion, or that which is apparently absurd but really true.—n. Par′adoxer.—adjs. Paradox′ic, -al, of the nature of a paradox: inclined to paradoxes, said of persons.—adv. Paradox′ically.—ns. Paradox′icalness; Paradox′ides, a genus of trilobites; Par′adoxist; Par′adoxy, the quality of being paradoxical.—Hydrostatic paradox (see Hydrostatics). [Through Fr. and L., from Gr. paradoxonpara, contrary to, doxa, an opinion.]

Paradoxure, par-a-dok′sūr, n. a civet-like carnivore of Southern Asia and Malaysia, the palm-cat of India.—adj. Paradoxū′rine, having a paradoxical or peculiarly curling tail.

Parsthesia, par-es-thē′si-a, n. abnormal sensation. [Gr. para, beyond, aisthēsis, sensation.]

Paraffin, par′af-fin, n. a white, transparent, crystalline substance, obtained from shale, coal-tar, &c., much used instead of wax, tallow, &c. in making candles—so named as having little affinity—for an alkali—also Par′affine.—v.t. to coat or impregnate with paraffin.—ns. Par′affin-oil, any of the mineral burning oils associated with the manufacture of paraffin; Par′affin-scale, unrefined paraffin. [Fr.,—L. parum, little, affinis, allied.]

Paraffle, pa-raf′l, n. (Scot.) any pretentious display.

Paragastric, par-a-gas′trik, adj. lying alongside the gastric cavity: pertaining to the paragaster or the cavity of the sac of a sponge.

Parage, par′āj, n. equality in law: a woman's portion at marriage. [Par.]

Paragenesis, par-a-jen′e-sis, n. hybridism.—adjs. Paragenet′ic; Paragen′ic, originating with the germ or at the genesis of an individual. [Gr. para, beside, genesis, birth.]

Parageusia, par-a-gū′si-a, n. perverted sense of taste—also Parageu′sis.—adj. Parageu′sic. [Gr. para, beside, geusis, taste.]

Paraglenal, par-a-glē′nal, n. the coracoid of a fish—also adj. [Gr. para, beside, glēnē, a socket.]

Paraglobulin, par-a-glob′ū-lin, n. a globulin found in blood-serum, fibrino-plastin.—Also Paraglō′bin.

Paraglossa, par-a-glos′a, n. one of the two appendages of the ligula in insects.—adjs. Paragloss′al; Paragloss′ate, provided with paragloss. [Gr. para, beside, glōssa, the tongue.]

Paragnathous, par-ag′nā-thus, adj. having both mandibles of equal length.—n. Parag′nāthism. [Gr. para, beside, gnathos, the jaw.]

Paragoge, par-a-gō′jē, n. the addition of a letter or a syllable to the end of a word, as amidst for amid, generical for generic—also called epithesis and ecstasis, as opposed to prosthesis and apocope.—adjs. Paragog′ic, -al, forming a paragoge: relating to, or of the nature of, paragoge: added on: additional.—Paragogic future, the cohortative tense in Hebrew grammar—a lengthened form of the imperfect or future tense, usually confined to the first person, giving the sense of 'let me' or 'let us.' [L.,—Gr. from para, beyond, agein, to lead.]

Paragon, par′a-gon, n. a pattern or model with which comparisons are made: (Spens.) a companion or a rival: something supremely excellent: a size of printing-type intermediate between great-primer and double pica, equal to 20 points in the newer system.—v.t. to compare: to bring into comparison with: (Shak.) to surpass. [O. Fr., from Sp. compound prep. para con, in comparison with—L. pro, for, ad, to, con=cum, with.]

Paragram, par′a-gram, n. a play upon words: a pun.—n. Paragram′matist, a punster. [Gr. para, beside, gramma, something written, graphein, to write.]

Paragraph, par′a-graf, n. a distinct part of a discourse or writing marked by , or by being begun on a new line, at more than the usual distance from the margin: a short passage, or a collection of sentences with unity of purpose.—v.t. to form into paragraphs.—ns. Par′agrapher, Par′agraphist, one who writes in paragraphs, esp. for newspapers.—adjs. Paragraph′ic, -al.—adv. Paragraph′ically. [The mark is the reversed initial of this word, which is, through Fr. and Low L., from Gr. paragraphospara, beside, graphein, to write.]

Paraheliotropism, par-a-hē-li-ot′rō-pizm, n. the diurnal sleep of plants.—adj. Paraheliotrop′ic. [Gr. para, beside, hēlios, the sun, trepein, to turn.]

Parakeet. See Paroquet.

Paraleipsis, par-a-līp′sis, n. (rhet.) a figure by which one fixes attention on a subject by pretending to neglect it, as, 'I will not speak of his generosity, his gentleness of disposition, or his reverence for sacred things.' [Gr., from paraleipein, to leave on one side—para, beside, leipein, to leave.]

Paralipomena, par-a-li-pom′e-na, things passed over, but given in a supplement, specially the name given in the Septuagint to the First and Second Books of Chronicles, a recapitulation of Second Samuel and the Books of Kings. [Late L.,—Gr. paraleipomenaparaleipein, to pass over.]

Parallax, par′a-laks, n. an apparent change in the position of an object caused by change of position in the observer: (astron.) the difference between the apparent and real place of a star or other celestial object.—adjs. Parallac′tic, -al. [Gr. parallaxispara, beside, allassein, to change—allos, another.]

Parallel, par′al-lel, adj. side by side: (geom.) extended in the same direction and equi-distant in all parts: with the same direction or tendency: running in accordance with: resembling in all essential points: like or similar.—n. a line equi-distant from another at all points: a line drawn across a map or round a globe at right angles to the axis, marking latitude: likeness: a comparison: counterpart: (pl.) trenches, dug parallel to the outline of a besieged fortress to protect the besiegers (mil.).—v.t. to place so as to be parallel: to correspond, or to make to correspond, to:—pr.p. par′alleling or par′allelling; pa.p. par′alleled or par′allelled.n. Par′allelism, state of being parallel: resemblance: comparison: likeness of form or meaning, as of two statements, clauses, or verses.—adj. Parallelis′tic, of the nature of, or involving, parallelism.—adv. Par′allelly.—Parallel bars, a pair of bars securely fixed, 4 to 6 feet above the ground, and about 1 feet apart, used in gymnastics to strengthen the arms; Parallel forces, forces which act in parallel lines, having a single resultant, readily found by the method of moments; Parallel motion, a name given to any linkage by which circular motion may be changed into straight-line motion; Parallel rulers, a mathematical instrument for drawing parallel lines. [Fr.,—L. parallelus—Gr. parallēlospara, beside, allēlōn, of one another—allos, another.]

Parallelepiped, par-al-lel-e-pī′ped, n. a regular solid, the opposite sides and ends of which form three pairs of equal parallelograms.—Also Parallelepī′pedon, improperly Parallelopī′ped, Parallelopī′pedon. [L.,—Gr. parallēlepipedonparallēlos, epipedon, a plane surface—epi, on, pedon, the ground.]

Parallelogram, par-al-lel′ō-gram, n. a plane four-sided figure, the opposite sides of which are parallel and equal.—adjs. Parallelogrammat′ic, -al, Parallelogram′mic, -al. [Fr.,—L.,—Gr. parallēlos, side by side, gramma, a line—graphein, to write.]

Paralogism, par-al′ō-jizm, n. reasoning beside the point: a conclusion not following from the premises—also Paral′ogy.—v.i. Paral′ogise, to reason falsely. [Fr.,—L.,—Gr. paralogismospara, beside, logismoslogos, discourse.]

Paralyse, par′a-līz, v.t. to strike with paralysis or palsy: to make useless: to deaden the action of: to exhaust.—n. Paral′ysis, a loss of the power of motion, sensation, or function in any part of the body: palsy: loss of energy: state of being crippled.—adj. Paralyt′ic, of or pertaining to paralysis: afflicted with or inclined to paralysis.—n. one who is affected with paralysis.—General paralysis, dementia paralytica. [Fr.,—L.,—Gr. paralyein, paralyseinpara, beside, lyein, loosen.]

Paramagnetic, par-a-mag-net′ik, adj. See under Diamagnetic.

Paramastoid, par-a-mas′toid, adj. situated near the mastoid, paroccipital.—n. a paramastoid process.

Paramatta, par-a-mat′a, n. a fabric like merino made of worsted and cotton. [From Paramatta in New South Wales.]

Paramecium, par-a-mē′si-um, n. an infusorian in pond water or vegetable infusions—also Slipper Animalcule:—pl. Paramē′cia. [Gr. paramēkēs, long-shaped, para, beside, mēkos, length.]

Paramenia, par-a-mē′ni-a, disordered menstruation. [Gr. para, beside, mēn, a month.]

Paramere, par′a-mēr, n. (biol.) a radiated part or organ: either half of a bi-laterally symmetrical animal—usually Antimere.—adj. Paramer′ic. [Gr. para, beside, meros, a part.]

Parameter, par-am′ē-tėr, n. (geom.) the constant quantity which enters into the equation of a curve: in conic sections, a third proportional to any diameter and its conjugate diameter. [Gr. para, beside, metron, measure.]

Paramnesia, par-am-nē′si-a, n. false memory. [Gr. para, beside, mim-nēskein, to remind.]

Paramo, par′a-mō, n. a bare wind-swept elevated plain. [Sp.]

Paramorph, par′a-morf, n. (min.) a pseudomorph formed by a change in molecular structure without change of chemical composition.—adjs. Paramorph′ic, Paramorph′ous.—ns. Paramorph′ism, Paramorphō′sis. [Gr. para, beside, morphē, form.]

Paramount, par′a-mownt, adj. superior to all others: chief: of the highest order or importance—opp. to Paravail.—n. the chief: a superior.—adv. Par′amountly. [O. Fr. par amont, par—L. prep. per; cf. Amount.]

Paramour, par′a-mōōr, n. a lover of either sex, now usually in the illicit sense. [Fr. par amour, by or with love—L. per amorem.]

Paranema, par-a-nē′ma, n. (bot.) paraphysis.—adj. Paranemat′ic. [Gr. para, about, nēma, a thread.]

Parang, par′ang, n. a heavy Malay knife. [Malay.]

Parangon, pa-rang′gon, n. a jeweller's term for a gem of remarkable excellence. [Fr.]

Paranœa, par-a-nē′a, n. chronic mental derangement—also Paranoi′a.—ns. Paranœ′ac, Paranoi′ac.—adj. Paranœ′ic. [Gr. para, beside, noein, to think.]

Paranthelion, par-an-thē′li-on, n. a diffuse whitish image of the sun, having the same altitude, at an angular distance of about 120—due to reflection from atmospheric ice-prisms. [Gr. para, beside, anti, against, hēlios, the sun.]

Paranucleus, par-a-nū′klē-us, n. (biol.) an accessory nucleus in some protozoans.—adjs. Paranū′clear, Paranū′cleate.—n. Paranūclē′olus, a mass of substance extruded from the nucleus, in pollen and spore mother-cells before division.

Paranymph, par′a-nimf, n. a friend of the bridegroom who escorted the bride on the way to her marriage: a bride's-man: one who countenances and supports another. [Gr. para, beside, nymphē, a bride.]

Parapeptone, par-a-pep′tōn, n. a proteid compound formed in gastric digestion, acid albumen.

Parapet, par′a-pet, n. a rampart breast-high, to protect soldiers on a wall from the fire of an enemy: a breast-high wall on a bridge, house-roof, a platform, &c., to prevent persons from falling over.—adj. Par′apeted, having a parapet. [Fr.,—It. parapetto—It. parare, to adorn—L. parāre, to prepare, It. petto—L. pectus, the breast.]

Paraph, par′af, n. a mark or flourish under one's signature.—v.t. to append a paraph to, to sign with initials. [Paragraph.]

Paraphasia, par-a-fā′zi-a, n. a form of aphasia in which one word is substituted for another.

Paraphernalia, par-a-fėr-nāl′i-a, ornaments of dress of any kind: trappings: that which a bride brings over and above her dowry: the clothes, jewels, &c. which a wife possesses beyond her dowry in her own right. [Late L. parapherna—Gr., from para, beyond, phernē, a dowry—pherein, to bring.]

Paraphimosis, par-a-fī-mō′sis, n. strangulation of the glans penis by constriction of the prepuce.

Paraphonia, par-a-fō′ni-a, n. in Byzantine music, a melodic progression by consonances (fourths and fifths): an abnormal condition of the voice: an alteration of the voice, as at puberty. [Gr. para, beside, phōnē, the voice.]

Paraphragm, par′a-fram, n. a kind of lateral diaphragm in Crustacea.—adj. Paraphrag′mal. [Gr. para, beside, phrassein, to fence.]

Paraphrase, par′a-frāz, n. a saying of the same thing in other words, often more fully and more clearly: an explanation of a passage: a loose or free translation: (Scot.) one of a certain number of Scripture passages turned into verse for use in the service of praise.—v.t. to say the same thing in other words: to render more fully: to interpret or translate freely.—v.i. to make a paraphrase.—n. Par′aphrast, one who paraphrases.—adjs. Paraphrast′ic, -al, of the nature of a paraphrase: more clear and ample than the original passage: free, loose, diffuse.—adv. Paraphrast′ically.—Paraphrastic conjugation, one composed of the verb sum (am) with participial forms of the verbs conjugated (amaturus sum, &c.). [Fr.,—L.,—Gr. paraphrasispara, beside, phrasis, a speaking—phrazein, to speak.]

Paraphyllum, par-a-fil′um, n. (bot.) a small foliaceous organ between the leaves of some mosses. [Gr. para, beside, phyllon, a leaf.]

Paraphysis, pa-raf′i-sis, n. an erect sterile filament accompanying the sexual organs of some cryptogamous plants:—pl. Paraph′ysēs.

Paraplegia, par-a-plē′ji-a, n. a form of spinal paralysis in which voluntary motion and sensation are interrupted below the level of the affected part of the spinal cord, while reflex movements may be preserved and certain forms even increased.—adjs. Paraplec′tic, Paraplē′gic. [Gr. para, beside, plēssein, to strike.]

Parapleurum, par-a-plōō′rum, n. one of the pleura or sternal side-pieces in a beetle, &c.—Also Parapleu′ron. [Gr. para, beside, pleuron, side.]

Parapodium, par-a-pō′di-um, n. one of the jointless lateral appendages of an annelid:—pl. Parapō′dia. [Gr. para, beside, pous, podos, a foot.]

Parapophysis, par-a-pof′i-sis, n. the inferior or anterior process on the side of a vertebra—the superior or posterior one being a diapophysis.—adj. Parapophys′ial. [Gr. para, beside, apophysis, an offshoot.]

Parapsis, pa-rap′sis, n. (entom.) one of the two lateral parts of the mesoscutum of the thorax.—adj. Parap′sidal. [Gr. para, beside, hapsis, a loop.]

Parapsis, pa-rap′sis, n. a disordered sense of touch.—Also Parā′phia. [Gr. para, beside, hapsis, a touching.]

Parapterum, pa-rap′te-rum, n. (entom.) the third sclerite of each pleuron, or lateral segment of each thoracic somite—the first and second, the episternum, and the epimeron: in birds, the scapular and adjoining feathers of the wing.—adj. Parap′teral. [Gr. para, beside, pteron, a wing.]

Paraquito, par-a-kē′to, n. Same as Paroquet, Parrakeet.

Pararctalia, par-ark-tā′li-a, n. the northern temperate realm of the waters of the globe.—adj. Pararctā′lian.

Pararthria, pa-rr′thri-, n. disordered articulation of speech. [Gr. para, beside, arthron, a joint.]

Parasang, par′a-sang, n. a Persian measure of length, containing 30 stadia, equal to about 3 miles. [Gr. parasangēs—Pers. farsang.]

Parascenium, par-a-sē′ni-um, n. in the Greek theatre, one of the wings on either side of the proscenium:—pl. Parascē′nia. [Gr.]

Parasceve, par′a-sēv, n. the eve before the Jewish Sabbath when the preparations are made: sometimes applied to Good-Friday: (obs.) preparation.—adj. Parascenas′tic. [Gr. paraskeuē, preparation—para, beside, skeuē, equipment.]

Paraschematic, par-a-skē-mat′ik, adj. imitative. [Gr. para, beside, schēma, a scheme.]

Paraselene, par-a-se-lē′nē, n. a mock moon, seen in connection with a lunar rainbow (cf. Parahelion):—pl. Paraselē′n.—adj. Paraselen′ic. [Gr. para, beside, selēnē, the moon.]

Parasite, par′a-sīt, n. one who frequents another's table: a hanger-on: a sycophant: (bot.) a plant growing upon and nourished by the juices of another: (zool.) an animal which lives on another—its host.—adjs. Parasit′ic, -al, like a parasite: fawning: acting as a sycophant: living on other plants or animals.—adv. Parasit′ically.—ns. Parasit′icalness; Parasit′icide, that which destroys parasites; Par′asitism; Parasitol′ogist; Parasitol′ogy. [Fr.,—L. parasītus—Gr. parasitospara, beside, sitos, corn.]

Parasol, par′a-sol, n. a small umbrella used by women as a shade from the sun.—v.t. to shelter from the sun. [Fr.,—It. parasoleparare, to keep off—L. parāre, to prepare, sol, solis, the sun.]

Parasphenoid, par-a-sfē′noid, n. a bone which in some Vertebrata underlies the base of the skull from the basi-occipital to the presphenoidal region.—adj. lying under or alongside the sphenoid.

Parasynthesis, par-a-sin′the-sis, n. the principle of forming words by a combined process of derivation and composition with a particle.—adj. Parasynthet′ic.—n. Parasyn′theton, a word so formed:—pl. Parasyn′theta.

Parataxis, par-a-tak′sis, n. (gram.) the arrangement of clauses or propositions without connectives. [Gr.]

Parathesis, pa-rath′e-sis, n. (gram.) apposition: (philol.) the setting side by side of things of equivalent grade in the monosyllabic or isolating languages: (rhet.) a parenthetic notice of something to be afterwards explained: in the Eastern Church, a prayer of the bishop over converts or catechumens. [Gr.]

Paratonic, par-a-ton′ik, adj. retarding a plant's growth. [Gr. para, beside, teinein, to stretch.]

Paravail, par′a-vāl, adj. inferior: lowest, said of a feudal tenant: of least account—opp. to Paramount. [O. Fr. par aval, below—L. per, through, ad, to, vallem, a valley.]

Paravant, Paravaunt, par′a-vnt, adv. (Spens.) in front, first, beforehand. [O. Fr. paravantpar, through, avant, before—L. ab, from, ante, before.]

Parbake, pr′bāk, v.t. to bake partially. [Formed on analogy of parboil.]

Parboil, pr′boil, v.t. to boil slightly or in part—as if from part and boil.

Parbreak, pr′brāk, v.t. or v.i. (Spens.) to throw out, to vomit.—n. (Spens.) vomit. [Fr. par—L. per, through, and break.]


Parbuckle, pr′buk'l, n. a purchase made by looping a rope in the middle to aid in rolling casks up or down an incline, or in furling a sail by rolling the yards: a sling made by passing both ends of a rope through its bight.—v.t. to hoist or lower by a parbuckle:—pr.p. par′buckling; pa.p. par′buckled. [Prob. L. par, equal, and buckle.]

Parc, pr′sē, the Fates.

Parcel, pr′sel, n. a little part: a portion: a quantity, as of single articles: a number forming a group or a lot: a package.—v.t. to divide into portions:—pr.p. par′celling; pa.t. and pa.p. par′celled.n. Par′cel-bawd (Shak.), one partly a bawd.—adjs. Par′cel-beard′ed (Tenn.), partially bearded; Par′cel-gilt, partially gilded.—n. Par′cel-off′ice, a place where parcels are received for despatch and delivery.—Parcels post, that department of the post-office which takes charge of the forwarding and delivery of small parcels. [Fr. parcelle (It. particella)—L. particula, dim. of pars, partis, a part.]

Parcenary, par′se-nā-ri, n. co-heirship.—n. Par′cener, a co-heir.

Parch, prch, v.t. to burn slightly: to scorch.—v.i. to be scorched: to become very dry.—adj. Parched, scorched.—adv. Parch′edly.—n. Parch′edness. [M. E. parchen, either a variety of per(s)chen=peris(c)hen, to kill, or from perchen, to pierce.]

Parchment, prch′ment, n. the skin of a sheep or goat prepared for writing on.—Parchment paper, or Vegetable parchment (see Paper).—Virgin parchment, a fine kind of parchment made from the skins of new-born lambs or kids. [Fr. parchemin—L. pergamena (charta, paper)—from Gr. Pergamos.]

Pard, prd, n. (slang) a partner, mate.

Pard, prd, n. the panther: the leopard: in poetry, any spotted animal.—n. Pard′ale (Spens.). [L. pardus—Gr. pardos, the panther, the leopard.]

Pardieu, pr′dū, Pardi, Pardy, pr′di, adv. (Spens.) in truth: certainly. [Fr., by God—par—L. per, through, by, Dieu—L. deus, God.]

Pardon, pr′don, v.t. to forgive, said either of an offender or of a crime: to pass by without punishment or blame: to set free from punishment: to let off without doing something.—n. forgiveness, either of an offender or of his offence: remission of a penalty or punishment: a warrant declaring a pardon: a papal indulgence.—adj. Par′donable, that may be pardoned: excusable.—n. Par′donableness.—adv. Par′donably.—n. Par′doner, one who pardons: formerly, one licensed to sell papal indulgences.—p.adj. Par′doning, disposed to pardon: forgiving: exercising the right or power to pardon: conferring authority to grant pardon.—Pardon me, excuse me—used in apology and to soften a contradiction. [Fr. pardonner—Low L. perdonāre—L. per, through, away, donāre, to give.]

Pardy, pr′di, adv. A form of pardieu.

Pare, pār, v.t. to cut or shave off: to trim, or to remove by cutting: to diminish by littles.—n. Pār′er, one who, or that which, pares. [Fr. parer—L. parāre, to prepare.]

Paregoric, par-ē-gor′ik, adj. soothing, lessening pain.—n. a medicine that soothes pain: tincture of opium. [L.,—Gr. parēgorikosparēgorein, to exhort.]

Pareil, par-el′, n. an equal. [Fr.,—L. par, equal.]

Pareira, pa-rā′ra, n. a tonic diuretic drug derived from various South and Central American plants. [Braz.]

Parella, pa-rel′la, n. a crustaceous lichen yielding archil, cudbear, and litmus.—Also Parelle′. [Fr. parelle.]

Parembole, pa-rem′bō-lē, n. (rhet.) an inserted phrase modifying or explaining the thought of the sentence—closer to the context than a parenthesis. [Gr.]

Parenchyma, pa-reng′ki-m, n. the soft cellular tissue of glandular and other organs, as the pith in plants or the pulp in fruits.—adjs. Parench′ymal, Parenchym′atous, Parench′ymous. [Gr., para, beside, engchein, to pour in.]

Parenesis, pa-ren′e-sis, n. persuasion.—adjs. Parenet′ic, -al, hortatory. [Gr. parainesis, exhortation, para, beside, ainein, to praise.]

Parent, pār′ent, n. one who begets or brings forth: a father or a mother: one who, or that which, produces: an author: a cause.—n. Par′entage, descent from parents: birth: extraction: rank or character derived from one's parents or ancestors: relation of parents to their children.—adj. Parent′al, pertaining to, or becoming, parents: affectionate: tender.—adv. Parent′ally.—ns. Par′enthood, state of being a parent: duty or feelings of a parent; Parent′icide, one who kills a parent.—adj. Par′entless, without a parent. [Fr., 'kinsman'—L. parens, for pariens, -entis, pr.p. of parĕre, to bring forth.]

Parenthesis, pa-ren′the-sis, n. a word, phrase, or sentence put in or inserted in another which is grammatically complete without it: (pl.) the marks ( ) used to mark off a parenthesis:—pl. Paren′theses (-sēz).—v.i. Parenth′esise.—adjs. Parenthet′ic, -al, of the nature of a parenthesis: expressed in a parenthesis: using parentheses.—adv. Parenthet′ically. [Gr.,—para, beside, en, in, thesis, a placing—tithenai, to place.]

Parergon, pa-rėr′gon, n. a by-work, any work subsidiary to another. [Gr.,—para, beside, ergon, work.]

Paresis, par′e-sis, n. a diminished activity of function—a partial form of paralysis.—adj. Paret′ic. [Gr., parienai, to relax.]

Parfay, pr-fā′, interj. by or in faith. [Fr.]

Parfilage, pr′fi-lāj, n. the unravelling of woven fabrics, to save gold or silver threads. [Fr.]

Parfleche, pr-flesh′, n. rawhide of buffalo-skin stripped of hair and dried on a stretcher: a wallet, tent, &c. of such material. [Canadian Fr.,—Ind.]

Pargasite, pr′ga-sīt, n. a dark-green crystallised variety of amphibole or hornblende.

Parget, pr′jet, n. (Spens.) the plaster of a wall: paint.—v.t. to plaster: to paint.—ns. Par′geter; Par′geting, Parge′-work. [L. paries, parietis, a wall; or Low L. spargitāre, to sprinkle—L. spargĕre.]

Parhelion, par-hē′li-un, n. a bright light caused by refraction of light through ice crystals floating in the air, sometimes seen near the sun, and sometimes opposite to the sun, when it is called anthelion:—pl. Parhē′lia.—adjs. Parhel′ic, Parhelī′acal. [Gr. para, beside, hēlios, the sun.]

Pariah, pār′i-a, n. a member of a caste in southern India, lower than the four Brahminical castes: one who has lost his caste: an outcast. [Tamil.]

Parian, pā′ri-an, adj. pertaining to or found in the island of Paros, in the gean Sea.—n. an inhabitant of Paros: a fine porcelain for statuettes, resembling marble.—Parian marble, a fine marble found in Paros, much used by the ancients for statues.

Paridigitate, par-i-dij′i-tāt, adj. having an even number of digits.

Parietal, pa-rī′et-al, adj. pertaining to a wall or walls: (anat.) forming the sides: (bot.) growing from the inner lining of an organ, and not from the axis, as seeds in the ovary.—n. one of the bones of the skull. [L. parietalisparies, parietis, a wall.]

Paring, pār′ing, n. act of trimming or cutting off: that which is pared off: rind: the cutting off of the surface of grass land for tillage.

Paripinnate, par-i-pin′āt, adj. (bot.) equally pinnate.

Parish, par′ish, n. a district under one pastor: an ecclesiastical district having officers of its own and supporting its own poor: the people of a parish.—adj. belonging or relating to a parish: employed or supported by the parish.—n. Parish′ioner, one who belongs to or is connected with a parish: a member of a parish church.—Parish clerk, the clerk or recording officer of a parish: the one who leads the responses in the service of the Church of England; Parish priest, a priest who has charge of a parish; Parish register, a book in which the births, marriages, and deaths of a parish are registered. [Fr. paroisse—L. parœcia—Gr. paroikiaparoikos, dwelling beside—para, beside, oikos, a dwelling.]

Parisian, par-iz′i-an, adj. of or pertaining to Paris.—n. a native or resident of Paris:—fem. Parisienne′.—Paris doll, a small figure dressed in the latest fashions, sent out by Paris modistes.

Parisyllabic, par-i-si-lab′ik, adj. having the same number of syllables.

Paritor, par′i-tor, n. Same as Apparitor.

Parity, par′i-ti, n. state of being equal in rank, position, quality, &c.: resemblance: analogy. [Fr. parit—L. paritaspar, equal.]

Park, prk, n. an enclosed piece of land for a special purpose, as for wild beasts: a grass field: a tract of land surrounding a mansion: a piece of ground enclosed for recreation: (mil.) a space in an encampment occupied by the artillery; hence, a collection of artillery, or stores in an encampment.—v.t. to enclose: to bring together in a body, as artillery.—n. Park′er, the keeper of a park. [A.S. pearroc, prob. modified by Fr. parc.]

Parlance, pr′lans, n. speaking: conversation: peculiar manner of conversation.—adj. and adv. Parlan′do, declamatory in style: in recitative.—v.i. Parle (Shak.), to talk.—n. (Shak.) talk, conversation.—v.i. Par′ley, to speak with another: to confer on some important point: to treat with an enemy.—n. talk: a conference with an enemy in war. [Fr. parler—L. parabola—Gr. parabolē, a parable, word.]

Parliament, pr′li-ment, n. a meeting for deliberation: the supreme legislature of Great Britain, also of some of her colonies: in France, down to the Revolution, one of certain superior and final courts of judicature, in which also the edicts of the king were registered before becoming law.—adjs. Parliamentā′rian, adhering to the Parliament in opposition to Charles I.; Parliament′ary, pertaining to parliament: enacted or done by parliament: according to the rules and practices of legislative bodies.—Parliamentary agent, a person employed by private persons or societies for drafting bills or managing business to be brought before parliament; Parliamentary borough, a borough having the right of sending a member or members to parliament; Parliamentary train, a train which, by act of parliament, runs both ways along a line of railway, at least once each day, at the rate of one penny per mile.—Act of parliament, a statute that has passed through both the House of Commons and the House of Lords, and received the formal royal assent. [Fr. parlementparler, to speak.]

Parlour, pr′lur, n. an ordinary family sitting-room: a room for receiving guests in.—n. Par′lour-board′er, a pupil at a boarding-school who enjoys particular privileges. [Fr., parloirparler, to speak.]

Parlous, pr′lus, adj. perilous, venturesome, notable.—adv. Par′lously. [Perilous.]

Parmacety, par-mas-it′i, n. (Shak.) a corr. of spermaceti.

Parmesan, par-me-zan′, adj. pertaining to Parma.—n. Parmesan cheese.

Parnassus, par-nas′us, n. a mountain in Greece, sacred to Apollo and the Muses.—adj. Parnass′ian.—Grass of Parnassus, a plant with beautiful white or yellowish flowers.

Parnellism, pr′nel-izm, n. the plans and methods of agitation used by Charles Stewart Parnell (1846-91) for the purpose of promoting 'Home Rule' for Ireland.—n. Par′nellite, one of the followers of C. S. Parnell.—adj. of or pertaining to the nationalist movement led by Parnell.

Paroccipital, par-ok-sip′i-tal, adj. situated near the occiput.

Parochial, par-ō′ki-al, adj. of or relating to a parish: restricted or confined within narrow limits—of sentiments, tastes, &c.—v.t. Parō′chialise, to form into parishes.—n. Parō′chialism, a system of local government which makes the parish the unit—hence provincialism, narrowness of view.—adv. Parō′chially.—Parochial Board (in Scotland), the board in each parish which relieves the poor. [L. parochialisparochia, a variant of parœcia.]

Parody, par′o-di, n. an imitation of a poem in which its words and ideas are so far changed as to produce a ridiculous effect.—v.t. to turn into parody, to make a parody of:—pa.p. par′odied.adjs. Parod′ic, -al.—n. Par′odist, one who writes a parody. [L.,—Gr. parōdiapara, beside, ōdē, an ode.]

Parole, par-ōl′, n. word of mouth: (mil.) word of honour (esp. by a prisoner of war, to fulfil certain conditions): the daily password in a camp or garrison.—adj. given by word of mouth: oral—opp. to Documentary, as parole evidence. [Fr.,—L. parabola, a parable, saying.]

Paronomasia, par-ō-nō-mā′zhi-a, n. a rhetorical figure in which words similar in sound but different in meaning are set in opposition to each other: a play upon words—also Paronom′asy.—adjs. Paronomas′tic, -al.—ns. Par′onyme, Par′onym, a paronymous word—opp. to Homonym.—adj. Paron′ymous, formed by a slight change of word or name: derived from the same root: having the same sound, but different in spelling and meaning.—n. Paron′ymy, quality of being paronymous. [Gr. para, beside, onoma, name.]

Paroquet, Parroquet, par′o-ket, n. a small long-tailed tropical and subtropical parrot.—Also Parr′akeet. [Fr. perroquetPierrot, dim. of Pierre, Peter.]

Parosmia, pa-ros′mi-a, n. a perversion of the sense of smell. [Gr. para, beside, osmē, smell.]

Parotid, par-ot′id, n. the largest of the three pairs of salivary glands, situated immediately in front of the ear—also Parō′tis.—adj. Parot′ic, auricular, situated about the outer ear.—ns. Parotidī′tis, Parotī′tis, inflammation of the parotic gland. [L.,—Gr. parōtis, -idospara, beside, ous, ōtos, ear.]

Paroxysm, par′oks-izm, n. a fit of acute pain occurring at intervals: a fit of passion: any sudden violent action.—adjs. Paroxys′mal, Paroxys′mic, pertaining to, or occurring in, paroxysms. [Fr.,—L.,—Gr. paroxysmospara, beyond, oxys, sharp.]

Paroxytone, par-ok′si-tōn, adj. having the acute accent on the last syllable but one.—n. a word with an acute accent on the second last syllable.—v.t. to accent a word in this way.


Parquet, pr-ket′, n. the part of the floor of a theatre, &c., behind the musicians' seats, but not under the gallery: the pit or the whole of the floor of a theatre: parquetry.—n. Par′quetry, woodwork inlaid with figures, for floors. [Fr. parquet, an inlaid floor, dim. of parc, an enclosure.]

Parr, pr, n. a young salmon.

Parrakeet, par′a-kēt, n. Same as Paroquet.

Parrhesia, pa-rē′si-a, n. boldness of speech. [Gr.]

Parricide, par′ri-sīd, n. the murder of one's own father or mother: the murder of a parent: the murder of any one to whom reverence is due.—adj. Parricid′al, pertaining to, or committing, parricide. [Fr.,—L. parricida (for patri-cida)—pater, patris, father, cdĕre, to slay.]

Parrot, par′rut, n. one of a family of tropical and subtropical birds, with brilliant plumage and a hooked bill, remarkable for their faculty of imitating the human voice: a repeater of the words of others.—v.t. and v.i. to repeat by rote.—ns. Par′rot-coal, a kind of coal which crepitates in burning; Par′roter; Par′rot-fish, a name applied to various fishes, from their colours or the shape of their jaws; Par′rotry, servile imitation. [Contr. of Fr. perroquet.]

Parry, par′i, v.t. to ward or keep off: to turn aside: to avoid:—pa.t. and pa.p. parr′ied.n. a turning aside of a blow or a thrust: a defensive movement of any kind. [Fr. parer—L. parāre, to prepare, in Low L. to keep off.]

Parse, prs, v.t. (gram.) to tell the parts of speech of a sentence and the relations of the various words to each other.—n. Pars′ing. [L. pars (orationis), a part of speech.]

Parsee, Parsi, pr′sē, n. one of the surviving remnant of Zoroastrianism which took refuge in India in the 7th century: a fire-worshipper.—n. Par′seeism. [Pers. PārsīPārs, Persia.]

Parsimony, pr′si-mun-i, n. sparingness in the spending of money: frugality: niggardliness.—adj. Parsimō′nious, sparing in the use of money: frugal to excess: niggardly: covetous.—adv. Parsimō′niously.—n. Parsimō′niousness. [Fr.,—L. parsimonia, parcimoniaparcĕre, to spare.]

Parsley, prs′li, n. a bright-green herb, with finely divided, strongly scented leaves, used in cookery. [Fr. persil—L. petroselinum—Gr. petroselinonpetros, a rock, selinon, a kind of parsley.]

Parsnip, Parsnep, prs′nip, n. an edible plant with a carrot-like root. [O. Fr. pastenaque—L. pastinacapastinum, a dibble.]

Parson, pr′sn, n. the priest or incumbent of a parish: a clergyman: one who is licensed to preach.—n. Par′sonage, the residence of the minister of a parish: (orig.) the house, lands, tithes, &c. set apart for the support of the minister of a parish.—adjs. Parson′ic, Par′sonish, pertaining to or like a parson. [O. Fr. persone—L. persōna, a person.]

Part, prt, n. something less than the whole: a portion: a quantity or number making up with others a larger quantity or number: a fraction: a member or essential part of a whole: a proportional quantity: one's share: interest: side or party: action: character taken by an actor in a play: (math.) a quantity which taken a certain number of times will equal a larger quantity: an exact divisor: (mus.) one of the melodies of a harmony: (pl.) qualities: talents.—v.t. to divide: to make into parts: to put or keep asunder.—v.i. to be separated: to be torn asunder: to have a part or share.—adj. Part′ed (Shak.), endowed with parts or abilities: (bot.) deeply cleft, as a leaf.—n. Part′er.—adv. Part′ly, in part: in some degree.—Part of speech (gram.), one of the various classes of words.—For my part, as far as concerns me; For the most part, commonly; In bad, or ill, part, unfavourably; In good part, favourably; Take part in, to share or to assist in; Take part with, to take one's side. [Fr.,—L. pars, partis.]

Partake, pr-tāk′, v.i. to take or have a part, either absolutely, or with of or in before the thing shared, as food, &c.: to have something of the nature or properties, &c.: to be admitted: (Shak.) to make common cause.—v.t. to have a part in: to share: (Shak.) to communicate:—pr.p. partā′king; pa.t. partook′; pa.p. partā′ken.ns. Partā′ker, one who shares in along with others: a partner: an accomplice; Partā′king, a sharing: (law) a combination in an evil design. [Part and take.]

Partan, par′tan, n. (Scot.) a small edible sea-crab. [Gael.]

Parterre, par-ter′, n. an arrangement of flower-plots with spaces of turf or gravel between for walks: the pit of a theatre, esp. beneath the galleries. [Fr.,—L. per terram, along the ground.]

Parthenogenesis, pr-the-nō-jen′e-sis, n. reproduction without renewed impregnation by a male, as in aphids or plant-lice, &c.—also Parthenog′eny.—adjs. Parthenogenet′ic, Parthenog′enous. [Gr. parthenos, a virgin, genesis, production.]

Parthenon, pr′the-non, n. the temple of Athēnē Parthĕnos, on the Acropolis at Athens. [Gr. Parthenōnparthenos, a virgin.]

Parthian, par′thi-an, adj. of or belonging to Parthia, in Persia.—A Parthian shot, a shot or blow given while pretending to fly, a parting shot.

Partial, pr′shal, adj. relating to a part only: not total or entire: inclined to favour one person or party: having a preference: (bot.) subordinate.—v.t. Par′tialise (Shak.), to render partial.—ns. Par′tialism, the doctrine of the Partialists; Par′tialist, one who holds that the atonement of Christ was made only for a part of mankind; Partial′ity, state or quality of being partial: liking for one thing more than for others.—adv. Par′tially.[Fr.,—Low L. partialis—L. pars, a part.]

Partible, pr′ti-bl, adj. that may be parted: separable.—n. Partibil′ity.

Partibus, par′ti-bus, n. in Scots law, a note on the margin of a summons, giving name and designation of the pursuer.—In partibus infidelium, a phrase applying formerly to bishops who were merely titular, without regular jurisdiction, their function to assist some other bishop or to act as delegates of the Pope where no hierarchy had as yet been established.

Participate, pr-tis′i-pāt, v.i. to partake: to have a share.—v.t. to receive a part or share of.—n. Pr′ticeps crim′inis, one who, although not present, helps in any way the commission of a crime, or who after the deed assists or hides the person who did it.—adjs. Partic′ipable, capable of being participated in or shared; Partic′ipant, participating: sharing.—n. a partaker.—adv. Partic′ipantly.—n. Participā′tion.—adj. Partic′ipātive, capable of participating.—n. Partic′ipātor, one who partakes with another: a sharer. [L. participāre, -ātumpars, part, capĕre, to take.]

Participle, pr′ti-si-pl, n. a word having the value of an adjective but regularly formed from a verb.—adj. Particip′ial, having the nature of a participle: formed from a participle.—adv. Particip′ially.[L.,—participiumparticepspars, a part, capĕre, to take.]

Particle, pr′ti-kl, n. a little part: a very small portion: (physics) the minutest part into which a body can be divided: an atom: (gram.) an indeclinable word, as a preposition, a conjunction, an interjection: a word that can only be used in composition, as wise in sidewise: (R.C. Church) a crumb of consecrated bread, also the 'smaller breads' used in the communion of the laity.—adj. Partic′ular, relating to a part of anything: pertaining to a single person or thing: individual: special: worthy of special attention: concerned with or marking things single or distinct: exact: nice in taste: precise.—n. a distinct or minute part: a single point: a single instance: (pl.) details.—n. Particularisā′tion.—v.t. Partic′ularise, to mention the particulars of: to enumerate in detail: to give a special description of.—v.i. to mention or attend to single things or minute details.—ns. Partic′ularism, attention to one's own interest or party: a particular or minute description: the doctrine that salvation is offered only to particular individuals, the elect, and not freely to the whole race on condition of faith; Partic′ularist, one who holds the doctrine of particularism.—adj. Particularist′ic.—n. Particular′ity, quality of being particular: minuteness of detail: a single act or case: a single or a minute circumstance: something peculiar or singular.—adv. Partic′ularly, in an especial manner: in a high degree: (B.) in detail.—n. Partic′ularness.—adj. Partic′ulāte, having the form of a small particle.—In particular, specially, distinctly. [Fr.,—L. particula, dim. of pars, partis, a part.]

Partim, part′im, adv. in part. [L.]

Parting, prt′ing, adj. putting apart: separating: departing: given at parting.—n. the act of parting: a division: a point or a line of division: the division of the hair on the head in dressing it: (geol.) a division of a mineral into layers: a snapping or breaking under a great strain, as of a cable.—n. Part′ing-cup, a drinking-cup with two handles on opposite sides.

Partisan, pr′ti-zan, n. an adherent of a party or a faction: one who is too strongly devoted to his own party or sect to be able to understand or to judge fairly of others.—adj. adhering to a party.—n. Par′tisanship. [Fr. (It. partigiano),—L. partīri.]

Partisan, pr′ti-zan, n. a kind of halberd or long-handled weapon, common in the Middle Ages: a soldier armed with such a weapon. [O. Fr. pertuisane, which is perh. from Old High Ger. parta a battle-axe, seen in halberd.]

Partition, par-tish′un, n. act of parting or dividing: state of being divided: separate part: that which divides: a wall between apartments: the place where separation is made.—v.t. to divide into shares: to divide into parts by walls.—adjs. Par′tīte, divided into parts: (bot.) parted nearly to the base; Par′titive, parting: dividing: distributive.—n. (gram.) a word denoting a part or partition.—adv. Par′titively. [Fr.,—L. partitiopartīri, divide.]

Partlet, prt′let, n. a ruff or band worn round the neck or shoulders by women: a hen, from its habit of ruffling the feathers round its neck. [Prob. O. Fr. Pertelote, a woman's name.]

Partner, prt′nėr, n. a sharer: an associate: one engaged with another in business: one who plays on the same side in a game: one who dances with another: a husband or wife.—v.t. (Shak.) to join as a partner.—ns. Part′nership, state of being a partner: a contract between persons engaged in any business; Sleep′ing-part′ner, one who has money invested in a business, but takes no part in its management.

Partridge, pr′trij, n. a genus of gallinaceous birds preserved for game.—n. Par′tridge-wood, a hard variegated wood, from Brazil and the West Indies, used in cabinet-work. [Fr. perdrix—L. perdix, perdicis—Gr. perdix.]

Part-singing, prt′-sing-ing, n. act or practice of singing different parts in harmony.—n. Part′-song, a song sung in parts.

Parture, prt′ūr, n. (Spens.) departure.

Parturient, pr-tū′ri-ent, adj. bringing, or about to bring, forth young: fruitful.—n. Partūri′tion, act of bringing forth.—adj. Partū′ritive. [L. parturiens, -entis, pr.p. of parturīreparĕre, to bring forth.]

Party, pr′ti, n. a part of a greater number of persons: a faction: a company met for a particular purpose, as a dinner party, a pleasure party, &c.: an assembly: one concerned in any affair: the person or persons on either side in a law-suit: (colloq.) a single individual spoken of: (mil.) a detachment of soldiers.—adj. belonging to a party and not to the whole: consisting of different parties, parts, or things: (her.) parted or divided.—adjs. Par′ti-coat′ed, having on a coat of various colours; Par′ti-col′oured, coloured differently at different parts.—ns. Par′tyism, devotion to party; Par′ty-ju′ry, a jury half of natives and half of aliens; Par′ty-man, a member of a party: a partisan; Par′ty-pol′itics, politics viewed from a party stand-point, or arranged to suit the views or interests of a party; Par′ty-spir′it, the unreasonable spirit shown by a party-man toward those who do not belong to his party.—adj. Par′ty-spir′ited.—ns. Par′ty-ver′dict, a joint verdict; Par′ty-wall, a wall between two adjoining properties, built half on one and half on the other: a wall separating one house from another. [O. Fr. partir—L. partīri, to divide—pars, a part.]

Parure, pa-rr′, n. a set of ornaments, &c. [Fr.]

Parvanimity, par-va-nim′i-ti, n. littleness of mind.

Parvenu, pr′ve-nū, n. an upstart: one newly risen into notice or power.—adj. like a parvenu. [Fr., pa.p. of parvenir—L. pervenīre, to arrive at—per, through, venīre, to come.]

Parvis, Parvise, pr′vis, n. a porch, or an enclosed space before a church: a room over a church porch used as a store, or schoolroom, or as an ecclesiastic's chamber. [O. Fr.,—Low L. paravisus, corr. of Gr. paradeisos; cf. Paradise.]

Pas, p, n. a step, as in dancing or marching: a dance, as in 'Pas seul'=a dance by one person, 'Pas deux'=a dance of two persons.—Pas d'armes, a joust, a tilt, or a tourney.—Have the pas of one, to take precedence of him. [Fr.]

Pasch, pask, n. the Jewish Passover: Easter.—adj. Pasch′al, pertaining to the Passover, or to Easter.—ns. Pasch′al-can′dle, a large candle blessed and placed on the altar on the day before Easter; Pasch′al-flow′er (see Pasque); Pasch′al-lamb, the lamb slain and eaten at the Jewish Passover; Pasch′-egg, an Easter-egg.—Pasch of the Cross, Good-Friday; Paschal controversy, a long dispute in the early church about the proper time for celebrating Easter. [A.S. pascha—L.,—Gr.,—Heb. pesach, the Passover—pasach, to pass over.]

Pascuage, pas′kū-āj, n. the grazing or pasturing of cattle.—adjs. Pas′cūal, Pas′cūous. [L. pascuum, pasture—pascĕre, to feed.]

Pash, pash, v.t. (Shak.) to strike, to dash, to crush.—n. a blow. [Perh. imit.]

Pash, pash, n. (Shak.) the head, the face.

Pasha, Pacha, pash′, n. a title given to Turkish officers who are governors of provinces or hold high naval and military commands.—ns. Pash′alic, Pach′alic, the jurisdiction of a pasha. [Turk.,—Pers. pāshā, pādshāh.]

Pasigraphy, pa-sig′ra-fi, n. a system of language-signs universally intelligible.—adjs. Pasigraph′ic, -al.—n. Pas′ilaly, universal speech. [Gr. pas, all, graphein, to write.]

Pasque-flower, pask′-flow′ėr, n. one of several genera of anemone, blooming about Easter—also Campana and Dane-flower.

Pasquin, pas′kwin, n. a lampoon or satire—also Pas′quil.—v.t. and v.i. to lampoon or satirise—also Pas′quil.—ns. Pas′quilant, Pas′quiler, Pasquinā′der, a lampooner; Pasquināde′, a lampoon.—v.t. to lampoon. [Pasquino, a sarcastic tailor in Rome in the 15th century, near whose house a mutilated statue was dug up just after his death, on which lampoons were posted.]

Pass, pas, v.i. to pace or walk onward: to move from one place or state to another: to travel: to change: to circulate: to be regarded: to go by: to go unheeded or neglected: to elapse, as time: to be finished: to move away: to disappear: (B.) to pass away: to go through an examination or an inspection: to be approved: to meet with acceptance: to happen: to fall, as by inheritance: to flow through: to thrust, as with a sword: to run, as a road.—v.t. to go by, over, beyond, through, &c.: to spend: to omit: to disregard: to surpass: to enact, or to be enacted by: to cause to move: to send: to transfer: to give forth: to cause to go from one person or state to another: to approve: to undergo successfully: to give circulation to: (fencing) to thrust:—pa.p. passed and past.—n. a way through which one passes: a narrow passage, esp. over or through a range of mountains: a narrow defile: a passport: state or condition: a written permission to go out or in anywhere: a ticket: (fencing) a thrust: success in any examination or other test, a certificate of having reached a certain standard—without honours.—adj. Pass′able, that may be passed, travelled over, or navigated: that may bear inspection: that may be accepted or allowed to pass: a little above the common: tolerable.—n. Pass′ableness.—adv. Pass′ably.—ns. Pass′book, a book that passes between a trader and his customer, in which credit purchases are entered: a bank-book; Pass′-check, a ticket of admission to a place, or of readmission when one goes out intending to return; Pass′er, one who passes; Pass′er-by, one who passes by or near; Pass′key, a key enabling one to enter a house: a key for opening several locks.—adj. Pass′less, having no pass: impassable.—ns. Pass′man, one who gains a degree or pass without honours at a university; Pass′port, a warrant of protection and permission to travel; Pass′word (mil.), a private word by which a friend is distinguishable from a stranger, enabling one to pass or enter a camp, &c.—Pass muster, to go through an inspection without fault being found; Pass off, to impose fraudulently, to palm off; Pass on, to go forward: to proceed; Pass on, or upon, to come upon, to happen to: to give judgment or sentence upon: to practise artfully, to impose upon, to palm off; Pass over, or by, to go to the other side of: to cross, to go past without visiting or halting: to overlook, to disregard; Pass the time of day, to exchange any ordinary greeting of civility; Pass through, to undergo, experience.—Bring to pass, to cause to happen; Come to pass, to happen. [O. Fr. passer—It. passarepassus, a step.]

Passade, pa-sād′, n. (Shak.) a push or thrust with a sword: the motion of a horse turning backwards or forwards on the same spot of ground.—Also Passā′do.

Passage, pas′āj, n. act of passing: a moving from one place or state to another: a journey, as in a ship: course: time occupied in passing: means of passing in or out: a way: entrance: enactment of a law: right of passing: price paid for passing or for being conveyed between two places: occurrence, any incident or episode: a single clause or part of a book, &c.: a modulation in music: (B.) a mountain-pass: ford of a river: (zool.) migratory habits.—v.i. to cross: to walk sideways, of a horse.—Passage of arms, any feat of arms: a quarrel, esp. of words.—Bird of passage, a bird that passes from one climate to another at the change of the seasons.

Passamezzo. See Passy-measure.

Passant, pas′ant, adj. (her.) walking. [Fr.]

Pass, pas-sā′, adj. past one's best, faded, past the heyday of life: nearly out of date:—fem. Passe. [Fr., pa.p. of passer, to pass.]

Passementerie, pas-men-te-rē′, n. trimming for dresses, as beaded lace. [Fr.]

Passenger, pas′en-jėr, n. one who passes: one who travels in some public conveyance.—Passenger pigeon, a species of pigeon, a native of North America, having a small head and short bill, a very long, wedge-shaped tail, and long and pointed wings; Passenger train, a railway-train for the conveyance of passengers. [O. Fr. passagier (Fr. passager), with inserted n, as in messenger, nightingale.]

Passe-partout, pas′-par-tōō′, n. a means of passing anywhere: a master-key: a kind of simple picture-frame, usually of pasteboard, within which the picture is fixed by strips of paper pasted over the edges. [Fr., a 'master-key,' from passer, to pass, par, over, tout, all.]

Passepied, pas′pyā, n. a dance like the minuet, but quicker. [Fr.]

Passeres, pas′e-rez, the name given by Cuvier to the order of birds otherwise called Insessores, comprising more than half of all the birds.—adj. Pass′erine, relating to the Passeres, an order of which the sparrow is the type. [L. passer, a sparrow.]

Passible, pas′i-bl, adj. susceptible of suffering, or of impressions from external agents.—ns. Passibil′ity, Pass′ibleness, the quality of being passible.—adv. Pass′ibly, in a passible manner. [L. passibilispati, passus, to suffer.]

Passim, pas′im, adv. here and there. [L.]

Passimeter, pa-sim′e-ter, n. a pocket pedometer.

Passing, pas′ing, adj. going by, through, or away: happening now: surpassing.—adv. exceedingly: very.—ns. Pass′ing-bell, a bell tolled immediately after a person's death, originally to invite prayers for the soul passing into eternity; Pass′ing-note (mus.), a smaller note marking a tone introduced between two others, to effect a smooth passage from the one to the other, but forming no essential part of the harmony.

Passion, pash′un, n. power of feeling pain or suffering: strong feeling or agitation of mind, esp. rage: ardent love: eager desire: state of the soul when receiving an impression: suffering or passive condition, as opposed to Action: the sufferings, esp. the death, of Christ: (pl.) excited conditions of mind.—ns. Passiflō′ra, a genus of climbing herbs or shrubs, the passion-flowers; Pass′ional, Pass′ionary, a book containing accounts of the sufferings of saints and martyrs.—adjs. Pass′ional, influenced by passion; Pass′ionate, moved by passion: showing strong and warm feeling: easily moved to anger: intense.—adv. Pass′ionately.—n. Pass′ionateness.—adj. Pass′ioned, moved by passion: expressing passion.—ns. Pass′ion-flow′er, a flower so called from a fancied resemblance to a crown of thorns, the emblem of Christ's passion; Pass′ionist (R.C.), one of a religious congregation devoted to the commemoration of the Passion of Christ by missions, &c.—adj. Pass′ionless, free from passion: not easily excited to anger.—n. Pass′ion-mū′sic, music to which words describing the sufferings and death of Christ are set.—adj. Pass′ion-pale (Tenn.), pale with passion.—ns. Pass′ion-play, a religious drama representing the sufferings and death of Christ; Pass′ion-Sun′day, the fifth Sunday in Lent; Pass′ion-week, name commonly given in England to Holy-week (as being the week of Christ's passion); but, according to proper rubrical usage, the week preceding Holy-week. [Fr.,—L. passio, passionispassus, pa.p. of pati, to suffer.]

Passive, pas′iv, adj. suffering, unresisting: not acting: (gram.) expressing the suffering of an action by the subject of the verb.—adv. Pass′ively.—ns. Pass′iveness, Passiv′ity, inactivity: patience: tendency of a body to preserve a given state, either of motion or of rest. [Fr.,—L. passivuspati, suffer.]

Passman. See Pass.

Passover, pas′ō-vėr, n. annual feast of the Jews, to commemorate the destroying angel passing over the houses of the Israelites when he slew the first-born of the Egyptians.—adj. pertaining to the Passover.

Passy-measure, pas′si-mezh′ūr, n. (Shak.) an old stately kind of dance, called also Passamezzo. [It. passamezzopassare, to pass—passo—L. passus, a pace, mezzo—L. medius, the middle.]

Past, past, pa.p. of Pass.—adj. gone by: elapsed: ended: now retired from service: in time already passed.—prep. farther than: out of reach of: no longer capable of.—adv. by.—The past, that which has passed, esp. time.

Paste, pāst, n. a mass of anything made soft by wetting: flour and water forming dough for pies, &c.: a cement made of flour, water, &c.: a fine kind of glass for making artificial gems.—v.t. to fasten with paste.—n. Paste′board, a stiff board made of sheets of paper pasted together, &c.—adj. made of such, unsubstantial. [O. Fr. paste (Fr. pte)—Late L. pasta—Gr. pastē, a mess of food—pastos, salted—passein, to sprinkle.]

Pastel, pas′tel, n. chalk mixed with other materials and various colours for crayons, a drawing made with such, also the art: woad.—n. Pas′telist.[Fr. pastel—It. pastello—L. pastillus, a small loaf—pascĕre, pastum, to feed.]

Pastern, pas′tėrn, n. the part of a horse's foot from the fetlock to the hoof, where the shackle is fastened. [O. Fr. pasturon (Fr. pturon)—O. Fr. pasture, pasture, a tether for a horse.]

Pasteurism, pas-tėr′izm, n. the method of inoculation with the attenuated virus of certain diseases, esp. hydrophobia, as introduced by Louis Pasteur (1822-95).—adj. Pasteur′ian.—n. Pasteurisā′tion, a method of arresting the fermentation in beer, wine, &c. by heating to at least 140 F.—v.t. Pasteur′ise.

Pastiche, pas-tēsh′, n. a mixture of many parts of different kinds, used of music, painting, &c.: a work in literature or art in direct imitation of another's style.—Also Pastic′cio. [It. pasticcio.]

Pastil, pas′til, n. Same as Pastel.

Pastille, pas-tēl′, n. a small cone of charcoal and aromatic substances, burned either as incense, or as a means of diffusing an agreeable odour: a small aromatic confection: a paper tube containing a firework which causes a small wheel to rotate in burning: (art) the same as pastel—also Pas′til.—n. Pas′tillage.[Fr.,—L. pastillus, a small loaf.]

Pastime, pas′tīm, n. that which serves to pass away the time: amusement: recreation.

Pastor, pas′tur, n. one who has care of a flock: a shepherd: a clergyman.—adj. Pas′toral, relating to shepherds or to shepherd life: rustic: of or pertaining to the pastor of a church: addressed to the clergy of a diocese by their bishop.—n. a poem which describes the scenery and life of the country: a letter or an address by a pastor to his people, or by a bishop to his clergy: (mus.) a simple melody.—n. Pas′toralism, pastoral character.—adv. Pas′torally.—ns. Pas′torate, Pas′torship, the office of a pastor: the time during which one has been a pastor: the whole body of pastors in one church or district.—adj. Pas′torly, becoming a pastor.—Pastoral address, or letter (see Pastoral, n.); Pastoral charge, position of a pastor: the church, &c., over which a pastor is placed: an address to a newly ordained minister; Pastoral epistles, those in the New Test. to Timothy and Titus; Pastoral staff, a tall staff borne as an emblem of episcopal authority, headed like a shepherd's crook, or having a T-shaped head; Pastoral theology, that part of theology which treats of the duties of pastors; Pastoral work, the work of a pastor in visiting his people. [L., pascĕre, pastum, to feed.]

Pastor, pas′tur, n. a beautiful bird allied to the starlings, native to Western Asia.

Pastorale, pas-tō-r′le, n. a variety of opera or cantata characterised by the idyllic or pastoral element: a vocal or instrumental piece intended to suggest pastoral life: one of the simple traditional open-air dramas still kept up among the Basques: one of the figures of a quadrille.—Also Pastourelle′.

Pastry, pās′tri, n. articles made of paste or dough: crust of pies, tarts, &c.: act or art of making articles of paste.—n. Pās′trycook, one who cooks or sells pastry. [Paste.]

Pasture, past′ūr, n. grass for grazing: ground covered with grass for grazing.—v.t. to feed on pasture: to supply with grass.—v.i. to feed on pasture: to graze.—adj. Past′ūrable, that can be pastured: fit for pasture.—ns. Past′ūrage, the business of feeding or grazing cattle: pasture-land: grass for feeding; Past′ūre-land, land appropriated to pasture.—adj. Past′ūreless, destitute of pasture. [O. Fr. pasture (Fr. pture)—L. pasturapascĕre, pastum, to feed.]

Pasty, pās′ti, adj. like paste.—n. a small pie of meat and crust baked without a dish.

Pat, pat, n. a light, quick blow, as with the hand.—v.t. to strike gently: to tap:—pr.p. pat′ting; pa.t. and pa.p. pat′ted.Pat on the back, to mark approval by patting on the back, to patronise. [Imit.]

Pat, pat, n. a small, moulded lump of butter. [Celt., as Ir. pait, a lump.]

Pat, pat, adj. fitly: at the right time or place.—adv. Pat′ly, fitly, conveniently.—n. Pat′ness, fitness, appropriateness. [Pat, a light blow.]

Patagium, pat-ā-jī′um, n. the wing-membrane of a bat, &c.: the parachute of a flying squirrel, &c.: the fold of integument between the upper arm and the forearm of a bird: one of the scales affixed to the pronotum of lepidopterous insects—the tegula. [L., 'a gold edging.']

Patamar, pat′a-mr, n. a vessel on the Bombay coast, with arched keel, and great stem and stern rake.

Patavinity, pat-a-vin′i-ti, n. the style of Padua (L. Patavium), esp. the diction of Livy, a native of Patavium, hence provincialism generally.

Patch, pach, v.t. to mend by putting in a piece: to repair clumsily: to make up of pieces: to make hastily.—n. a piece sewed or put on to mend a defect: anything like a patch: a small piece of ground: a plot: (Shak.) a paltry fellow, a fool—properly a jester: (print.) an overlay to obtain a stronger impression: a small piece of black silk, &c., stuck by ladies on the face, to bring out the complexion by contrast—common in the 17th and 18th centuries.—adj. Patch′able.—ns. Patch′-box, a fancy box for holding the patches worn on the face, generally having a mirror inside the lid; Patch′er, one who patches; Patch′ery (Shak.), bungling work; Patch′work, work formed of patches or pieces sewed together: work patched up or clumsily executed.—adj. Patch′y, covered with patches: inharmonious, incongruous.—Not a patch on, not fit to be compared with. [Low Ger. patschen; prob. conn. with piece.]

Patchocke, pach′ok, n. (Spens.) a clown. [Patch.]

Patchouli, pa-chōō′li, n. a perfume got from the dried branches of the patchouli shrub, 2-3 ft. high: the plant itself.—Also Patchou′ly. [Tamil, patchei, gum, elei, a leaf.]

Pate, pāt, n. the crown of the head: the head.—adj. Pāt′ed, having a pate. [Through O. Fr., from Ger. platte, a plate; cf. Low L. platta, tonsure.]

Pt, p-tā′, n. pie: pasty.—Pt de foie gras, pasty of fat goose liver: Strasburg pie. [Fr.]

Patella, pa-tel′la, n. a little dish or vase: the knee-pan: a genus of gasteropodous univalve molluscs: the limpet.—adjs. Patel′lar, pertaining to the patella or knee-cap; Patel′late or Patel′lulate; Patel′liform, of the form of a small dish or saucer. [L., dim. of patina, a pan.]

Paten, pat′en, n. the plate for the bread in the Eucharist. [Fr.,—L. patina, a plate—Gr. patanē.]

Patent, pā′tent, or pat′ent, adj. lying open: conspicuous: public: protected by a patent: (bot.) spreading: expanding.—n. an official document, open, and having the Great Seal of the government attached to it, conferring an exclusive right or privilege, as a title of nobility, or the sole right for a term of years to the proceeds of an invention: something invented and protected by a patent.—v.t. Pā′tent, to grant or secure by patent.—adj. Pā′tentable, capable of being patented.—ns. Pātentee′, one who holds a patent, or to whom a patent is granted—also Pā′tenter; Pā′tent-leath′er, a kind of leather to which a permanently polished surface is given by a process of japanning; Pā′tentor, one who grants or who secures a patent; Pā′tent-right, the exclusive right reserved by letters-patent.— Pā′tent-rolls, the register of letters-patent issued in England.—Patent medicine, a medicine sold under the authority of letters-patent, any proprietary medicine generally on which stamp-duty is paid; Patent office, an office for the granting of patents for inventions; Patent outside, or inside, a newspaper printed on the outside or inside only, sold to a publisher who fills the other side with his own material, as local news, &c. [Fr.,—L. patens, -entis, pr.p. of patēre, to lie open.]

Patera, pat′e-r, n. a round flat dish for receiving a sacrificial libation among the Romans: (archit.) the representation of such in bas-relief in friezes, &c.—often applied loosely to rosettes and other flat ornaments:—pl. Pat′er (-rē).—adj. Pat′eriform. [L.,—patēre, to lie open.]

Patercove, pat′ėr-kōv, n. Same as Patrico.

Paterero, pat-e-rā′ro, n.:—pl. Patere′roes (-rōz). Same as Pederero.

Paterfamilias, pā-tėr-fa-mil′i-as, n. the father or head of a family or household:—pl. Pātresfamil′ias. [L. pater, a father, familias, arch. form of famili, gen. of familia, a household.]

Paternal, pa-tėr′nal, adj. fatherly: showing the disposition of a father: derived from a father: hereditary.—n. Pater′nalism.—adv. Pater′nally.—n. Pater′nity, state of being a father: fatherhood: the relation of a father to his children: origination or authorship. [Fr. paternel—Low L. paternalis—L. paternuspater (Gr. patēr), a father.]

Paternoster, pā′tėr-nos-tėr, or pat-ėr-nos′tėr, n. the Lord's Prayer: every eleventh bead in a R.C. rosary, at which, in telling their beads, the Lord's Prayer is repeated: the whole rosary: anything made of objects strung together like a rosary, esp. a fishing-line with hooks at intervals: (archit.) an ornament shaped like beads, used in astragals, &c. [L. Pater noster, 'Our Father,' the first two words of the Lord's Prayer in Latin.]

Path, pth, n. a way trodden out by the feet: track: road: course of action or conduct:—pl. Paths (pthz).—n. Path′finder, one who explores the route, a pioneer.—adj. Path′less, without a path: untrodden. [A.S. pth, path; Ger. pfad, Gr. patos, L. pons, pontis, a bridge.]

Pathan, pa-than′, n. an Afghan proper, one of Afghan race settled in India.

Pathetic, -al, pa-thet′ik, -al, adj. showing passion: affecting the tender emotions: causing pity, grief, or sorrow: touching: (anat.) trochlear.—adj. Pathemat′ic, pertaining to emotion.—adv. Pathet′ically.—ns. Pathet′icalness; Path′etism, animal magnetism; Path′etist, one who practises this.—The pathetic, the style or manner fitted to excite emotion. [Gr. pathētikos, subject to suffering.]

Pathic, path′ik, adj. pertaining to disease.—ns. Pathogen′esis, Pathog′eny, mode of production or development of disease.—adjs. Pathogenet′ic, Pathogen′ic, Pathog′enous, producing disease.

Pathognomonic, pā-thog-nō-mon′ik. adj. characteristic of a disease.—n. Pathog′nomy. [Gr. pathos, suffering, gnōmōn, a judge.]

Pathology, pa-thol′o-ji, n. science of the nature, causes, and remedies of diseases: the whole of the morbid conditions in a disease.—adjs. Patholog′ic, -al.—adv. Patholog′ically.—ns. Pathol′ogist, one versed in pathology; Pathophō′bia, morbid dread of disease. [Fr.,—Gr. pathos, suffering, logos, discourse.]

Pathos, pā′thos, n. that in anything (as a word, a look, &c.) which touches the feelings or raises the tender emotions: the expression of deep feeling.—n. Pathom′etry, the distinction of suffering into different kinds. [Gr., from pathein, 2 aorist of paschein, to suffer, feel.]

Pathway, pth′wā, n. a path or way: a footpath: course of action.

Patibulary, pā-tib′ū-la-ri, adj. of or pertaining to a gibbet or gallows. [L. patibulum, a gibbet.]

Patience, pā′shens, n. quality of being patient or able calmly to endure: (Shak.) permission: a card-game, same as Solitaire (q.v.).—adj. Pā′tient, sustaining pain, &c., without repining: not easily provoked: not in a hurry: persevering: expecting with calmness: long-suffering.—n. one who bears or suffers: a person under medical treatment.—adv. Pā′tiently. [Fr.,—L. patentiapatienspati, to bear.]

Patin, Patine, pat′in, n. Same as Paten.

Patina, pat′i-na, n. a bowl, pan, patella: the encrustation which age gives to works of art: the peculiar varnish-like rust which covers ancient bronzes and medals.—adj. Pat′ināted.—n. Patinā′tion. [It.,—L. patina, a dish, a kind of cake.]

Patio, pat′i-ō, n. a courtyard connected with a house. [Sp.,—L. spatium, a space.]

Patly, Patness. See Pat (3).

Patois, pat′waw, n. a vulgar or provincial dialect. [Fr., orig. patrois—L. patriensis, indigenous—patria, one's native country.]

Patonce, pa-tons′, n. (her.) a cross whose four arms expand in curves from the centre, with floriated ends.—adj. Patonce. [Fr.,—L. patēre, to expand.]

Patres conscripti, pā′tres kon-skrip′tī, conscript fathers: the senators of ancient Rome. [L. patres, pl. of pater, a father, conscripti, pl. of conscriptus,—conscribĕre, to enrol.]

Patrial, pā′tri-al, adj. designating a race or nation.—n. a noun derived from the name of a country.

Patria potestas, pā′tri- pō-tes′tas, n. a father's control over his family, in ancient Rome, which was almost unlimited. [L.]

Patriarch, pā′tri-rk, n. one who governs his family by paternal right: (B.) one of the early heads of families from Adam downwards to Abraham, Jacob, and his sons: in Eastern churches, a dignitary superior to an archbishop.—adjs. Patriarch′al, Patriarch′ic, belonging or subject to a patriarch: like a patriarch: of the nature of a patriarch.—ns. Pā′triarchalism, the condition of tribal government by a patriarch; Pā′triarchate, the office or jurisdiction of a patriarch or church dignitary: the residence of a patriarch; Pā′triarchism, government by a patriarch; Pā′triarchy, a community of related families under the authority of a patriarch. [O. Fr.,—L.,—Gr. patriarchēspatēr, father, archē, beginning.]

Patrician, pa-trish′an, n. a nobleman in ancient Rome, being a descendant of one of the fathers or first Roman senators: a nobleman.—adj. pertaining to the ancient senators of Rome or to their descendants: of noble birth.—n. Patric′iate, the position or duties of a patrician: the patrician order. [L. patriciuspater, patris, a father.]

Patricide, pat′ri-sīd, n. the murder or the murderer of one's own father.—adj. Pat′ricīdal, relating to patricide or the murder of a father. [L. patricidapater, patris, father, cdĕre, to kill.]

Patrico, pat′ri-kō, n. (slang) a gipsy or beggars' hedge-priest.—Also Pat′ercove.

Patrimony, pat′ri-mun-i, n. a right or estate inherited from a father or from one's ancestors: a church estate or revenue.—adj. Patrimō′nial, pertaining to a patrimony: inherited from ancestors.—adv. Patrimō′nially. [Fr. patrimoine—L. patrimonium, a paternal estate—pater, patris, a father.]

Patriot, pā′tri-ot, or pat′-, n. one who truly loves and serves his fatherland.—adj. devoted to one's country.—adj. Pātriot′ic, like a patriot: actuated by a love of one's country: directed to the public welfare.—adv. Pātriot′ically.—n. Pā′triotism, quality of being patriotic: love of one's country. [Fr.,—Low L.,—Gr. patriōtēspatriospatēr, a father.]

Patripassian, pā-tri-pas′i-an, n. a member of one of the earliest classes of anti-Trinitarian sectaries (2d century), who denied the distinction of three persons in one God, maintaining that the sufferings of the Son could be predicated of the Father. [L. pater, father, pati, passus, to suffer.]

Patristic, -al, pa-tris′tik, -al, adj. pertaining to the fathers of the Christian Church.—ns. Pā′trist, one versed in patristics; Patris′ticism, mode of thought, &c., of the fathers.— Patris′tics, the knowledge of the fathers as a subject of study—sometimes Patrol′ogy. [Fr., coined from L. pater, patris, a father.]

Patrol, pa-trōl′, v.i. to go the rounds in a camp or garrison: to watch and protect.—v.t. to pass round as a sentry:—pr.p. patrōl′ling; pa.t. and pa.p. patrōlled′.n. the marching round of a guard in the night: the guard or men who make a patrol: (also Patrōl′man) a policeman who walks about a certain beat for a specified time, such policemen collectively. [O. Fr. patrouille, a patrol, patrouiller, to march in the mud, through a form patouiller, from pate (mod. patte), the paw or foot of a beast, of Teut. origin, cf. Ger. patsche, little hand.]

Patron, pā′trun, n. a protector: one who countenances or encourages: one who has the right to appoint to any office, esp. to a living in the church: a guardian saint:—fem. Pā′troness.—v.t. to treat as a patron.—n. Pā′tronage, the support given by a patron: guardianship of saints: the right of bestowing offices, privileges, or church benefices.—v.t. (Shak.) to support.—adj. Pā′tronal.—n. Pātronisā′tion.—v.t. Pā′tronīse, to act as a patron toward: to give countenance or encouragement to: to assume the air of a patron towards.—n. Pā′tronīser.—adj. Pā′tronīsing.—adv. Pā′tronīsingly.—adj. Pā′tronless. [Fr.,—L. patronuspater, patris, a father.]

Patronymic, -al, pat-rō-nim′ik, -al, adj. derived from the name of a father or an ancestor.—n. Patronym′ic, a name taken from one's father or ancestor. [Gr. patēr, a father, onoma, a name.]

Patroon, pā-trōōn′, n. one who received a grant of land under the old Dutch governments of New York and New Jersey.—n. Patroon′ship. [Dut.; cf. Patron.]

Patte, pat, n. a narrow band keeping a belt or sash in its place. [Fr.]

Patt, Patte, pa-tā′, adj. (her.) spreading toward the extremity. [O. Fr. patte, a paw.]

Patten, pat′en, n. a wooden sole with an iron ring, worn under the shoe to keep it from the wet: the iron hoop attached to the boot in cases of hip-joint disease: the base of a pillar.—v.i. to go about on pattens.—adj. Patt′ened, provided with pattens. [O. Fr. patin, clog—patte.]

Patter, pat′ėr, v.i. to pat or strike often, as hailstones: to make the sound of short quick steps:—pr.p. patt′ering; pa.t. and pa.p. patt′ered. [A freq. of pat.]

Patter, pat′ėr, v.i. to repeat the Lord's Prayer: to pray: to repeat over and over again indistinctly, to mumble.—v.t. to repeat hurriedly, to mutter.—n. glib talk, chatter: the cant of a class.—ns. Patt′erer, one who sells articles on the street by speechifying; Patt′er-song, a comic song in which a great many words are sung or spoken very rapidly.—Patter flash, to talk the jargon of thieves. [Pater-noster.]

Pattern, pat′ėrn, n. a person or thing to be copied: a model: an example: style of ornamental work: anything to serve as a guide in forming objects: the distribution of shot in a target at which a gun is fired.—ns. Patt′ern-book, a book containing designs of lace, &c., or in which patterns of cloth, &c., are pasted; Patt′ern-box, in weaving, a box at each side of a loom containing the various shuttles that may be used; Patt′ern-card, a piece of cardboard on which specimens of cloth are fixed; Patt′ern-mak′er, one who makes the patterns for moulders in foundry-work; Patt′ern-shop, the place in which patterns for a factory are prepared; Patt′ern-wheel, the count-wheel in a clock movement. [Fr. patron, a protector, pattern.]

Pattle, pat′l, n. a paddle.

Patty, pat′i, n. a little pie:—pl. Patt′ies.—n. Patt′y-pan, a pan in which to bake these. [Fr. pt.]

Patulous, pat′ū-lus, adj. spreading.

Paucity, paw′sit-i, n. fewness: smallness of number or quantity. [Fr.,—L. paucitaspaucus, few.]

Paul. Same as Pawl.

Pauldron, pawl′dron, n. a separable shoulder-plate in medieval armour. [O. Fr. espalleronespalle, the shoulder.]

Paulician, paw-lish′an, n. a member of a Dualistic Eastern sect, founded about 660, professing peculiar reverence for Paul and his writings.

Pauline, paw′līn, adj. of or belonging to the Apostle Paul.—ns. Paul′inism, the teaching or theology of Paul; Paul′inist, a follower of Paul.

Paulo-post-future, paw′lō-pōst-fū′tūr, adj. and n. the future perfect tense in grammar.

Paunch, pawnsh, or pnsh, n. the belly: the first and largest stomach of a ruminant.—v.t. to eviscerate.—adj. Paunch′y, big-bellied. [O. Fr. panche (Fr. panse)—L. pantex, panticis.]

Pauper, paw′pėr, n. a very poor or destitute person: one supported by charity or by some public provision:—fem. Pau′peress.—n. Pauperisā′tion.—v.t. Pau′perise, to reduce to pauperism.—n. Pau′perism, state of being a pauper. [L.]

Pause, pawz, n. a ceasing: a temporary stop: cessation caused by doubt: suspense: a mark for suspending the voice: (mus.) a mark showing continuance of a note or rest.—v.i. to make a pause.—adjs. Paus′al; Pause′less.—adv. Pause′lessly.—n. Paus′er, one who pauses or deliberates.—adv. Paus′ingly, with pauses: by breaks: deliberately. [Fr.,—L. pausa—Gr. pausis, from pauein, to cause to cease.]

Pavan, pav′an, n. (Shak.) a slow dance, much practised in Spain: music for this dance.—Also Pav′en, Pav′in. [Fr.,—Sp. pavana, pavon—L. pavo, peacock; or It., for Padovana, pertaining to Padua.]

Pave, pāv, v.t. to lay down stone, &c., to form a level surface for walking on: to prepare, as a way or passage: to make easy and smooth in any way.—ns. Pā′vage, Pā′viage, money paid towards paving streets.—adj. Pāved—also Pā′ven.—ns. Pave′ment, a paved road, floor, or side-walk, or that with which it is paved; Pā′ver, Pā′vier, Pā′vior, Pā′viour, one who lays pavements; Pā′ving, the act of laying pavement: pavement.—adj. employed or spent for paving.—Pave the way, to prepare the way for. [Fr. paver—L. pavīre, to beat hard; cog. with Gr. paiein, to beat.]

Pavid, pav′id, adj. timid. [L. pavidus.]

Pavilion, pa-vil′yun, n. a tent: an ornamental building often turreted or domed: (mil.) a tent raised on posts: a canopy or covering: the outer ear: a flag or ensign carried at the gaff of the mizzenmast.—v.t. to furnish with pavilions: to shelter, as with a tent.—n. Pavil′ion-roof, a roof sloping equally on all sides. [Fr. pavillon—L. papilio, a butterfly, a tent.]

Pavise, pav′is, n. a shield for the whole body. [Fr.,—Low L. pavensis, prob. from Pavia in Italy.]

Pavon, pav′on, n. a small triangular flag attached to a lance. [L. pavo, a peacock.]

Pavonine, pav′o-nīn, adj. pertaining to the peacock: resembling the tail of a peacock or made of its feathers: iridescent—also Pavō′nian.—n. Pavōne′ (Spens.), the peacock. [L. pavoninuspavo, pavonis, a peacock.]

Paw, paw, n. the foot of a beast of prey having claws: the hand, used in contempt.—v.i. to draw the forefoot along the ground like a horse.—v.t. to scrape with the forefoot: to handle with the paws: to handle roughly: to flatter.—adj. Pawed, having paws: broad-footed. [O. Fr. poe, powe, prob. Teut.; cf. Dut. poot, Ger. pfote. Perh. related to O. Fr. pate (cf. Patrol). But perh. Celt., as W. pawen, a paw.]

Pawky, pawk′i, adj. (Scot.) sly, arch, shrewd.

Pawl, pawl, n. a short bar lying against a toothed wheel to prevent a windlass, &c., from running back: a catch or click.—v.t. to stop by means of a pawl. [W. pawl, a stake, conn. with L. palus, a stake.]

Pawn, pawn, n. something given as security for the repayment of money or the performance of a promise: state of being pledged.—v.t. to give in pledge.—ns. Pawn′broker, a broker who lends money on pawns or pledges; Pawn′broking, the business of a pawnbroker; Pawnee′, one who takes anything in pawn; Pawn′er, one who gives a pawn or pledge as security for money borrowed; Pawn′shop, a shop of a pawnbroker; Pawn′ticket, a ticket marked with the name of the article, the amount advanced, &c., delivered to the person who has pawned anything.—At pawn, pledged, laid away. [O. Fr. pan, prob. from L. pannus, a cloth.]

Pawn, pawn, n. a common piece in chess. [O. Fr. paon, a foot-soldier—Low L. pedo, pedonis, a foot-soldier—L. pes, pedis, the foot.]

Pawn, pawn, n. a gallery.

Pawnee, paw′nē, n. one of a tribe of Indians in North America.—adj. belonging to this tribe.

Pax, paks, n. the kiss of peace (Rom. xvi. 16): a plaque or tablet used in giving the kiss of peace when the mass is celebrated by a high dignitary—a crucifix, a tablet with the image of Christ on the cross upon it, or a reliquary.—Pax vobis, Pax vobiscum, peace (be) with you. [L.]

Paxwax, paks′waks, n. the strong tendon in the neck of animals. [Orig. fax-wax—A.S. feax, fex, hair, weaxan, to grow.]

Pay, pā, v.t. to satisfy or set at rest: to discharge, as a debt or a duty: to requite with what is deserved: to reward: to punish: to give, render.—v.i. to recompense: to be worth one's trouble: to be profitable:—pa.t. and pa.p. paid.—n. that which satisfies: money given for service: salary, wages.—adj. Pay′able, that may be paid: that ought to be paid: due.—ns. Pay′-bill, a statement of moneys to be paid, to workmen, soldiers, &c.; Pay′-clerk, a clerk who pays wages; Pay′-day, a regular day for payment, as of wages; Pay′-dirt, -grav′el, gravel or sand containing enough gold to be worth working; Payee′, one to whom money is paid; Pay′er; Pay′-list, -roll, a list of persons entitled to pay, with the amounts due to each; Pay′master, the master who pays: an officer in the army or navy whose duty it is to pay soldiers, &c.; Pay′ment, the act of paying: the discharge of a debt by money or its equivalent in value: that which is paid: recompense: reward: punishment; Pay′-off′ice, the place where payments are made; Full′-pay, the whole amount of wages, &c., without deductions; Half′-pay (see Half).—Pay down, to pay in cash on the spot; Pay for, to make amends for: to bear the expense of; Pay off, to discharge: to take revenge upon: to requite: (naut.) to fall away to leeward; Pay out, to cause to run out, as rope; Pay round, to turn the ship's head; Pay the piper, to have all expenses to pay.—In the pay of, hired by. [Fr. payer—L. pacāre, to appease; cf. pax, peace.]

Pay, pā, v.t. (naut., and in the proverb 'the devil to pay') to smear with tar, pitch, &c. [Perh. through O. Fr. peier (Sp. empegar) from L. picāre, to pitch.]

Payne, pān, v.i. (Spens.) to take pains, exert one's self.

Paynim, Painim, pā′nim, n. a pagan: a heathen. [O. Fr. paienisme, paganism—L. paganismuspaganus, a pagan.]

Paynise, pā′nīz, v.t. to harden and preserve, as wood, by successive injections of solutions of calcium or barium sulphide followed by calcium sulphate. [Payne, inventor of the process.]

Paysage, pā′sāj, n. a landscape.—n. Pay′sāgist, a landscape-painter. [Fr.]

Payse, pāz, v.i. (Spens.) to poise, to balance.

Pea, pē, n. a climbing annual herb of the bean family, whose seeds are nutritious:—pl. Peas, a definite number; Pease, a quantity not numbered.—ns. Pea′-rī′fle, a rifle throwing a very small bullet; Peas′cod, Pease′cod, the pod or pericarp of the pea; Pea′-shoot′er, a small metal tube for blowing peas through; Pea′-stone, pisolite.—Egyptian pea, the chick-pea; French pea, the common garden pea: (pl.) canned peas made up in France; Split peas, peas stripped of their membraneous covering in a mill, used for making pea-soup, or ground into meal; Sweet pea, a climbing annual with large and fragrant flowers. [M. E. pese, pl. pesen and peses—A.S. pisa, pl. pisan—L. pisum, Gr. pison.]

Pea, pē, n. a pea-fowl. See Peacock.

Peace, pēs, n. a state of quiet: freedom from disturbance: freedom from war: friendliness: calm: rest: harmony: silence.—interj. silence: be silent: hist!—adj. Peace′able, disposed to peace: free from war or disturbance: quiet: tranquil.—n. Peace′ableness.—adv. Peace′ably.—n. Peace′-break′er, one who breaks or disturbs the peace of others.—adj. Peace′ful, full of peace: quiet: tranquil: calm: serene.—adv. Peace′fully.—n. Peace′fulness.—adj. Peace′less, without peace.—ns. Peace′lessness; Peace′maker, one who makes or produces peace; one who reconciles enemies; Peace′-off′ering, an offering bringing about peace: among the Jews, an offering to God, either in gratitude for past or petition for future mercies (see Lev. iii.; vii. 11-21): satisfaction to an offended person; Peace′-off′icer, an officer whose duty it is to preserve the peace: a police-officer.—adj. Peace′-part′ed (Shak.), dismissed from the world in peace.—n. Peace′-par′ty, a political party advocating the making or the preservation of peace; Peace′-pipe (see Calumet).—Peace establishment, the reduced military strength maintained in time of peace; Peace of God, the ancient cessation from suits between terms, and on Sundays and holy days.—Breach of the peace (see Breach); Hold one's peace, to be silent; Keep peace, abstain from breaking the peace of others; Kiss of peace (see Kiss); Letters of peace (see Pacify); Make one's peace with, to reconcile or to be reconciled with; Queen's, or King's, peace, the public peace, for the maintenance of which the sovereign as head of the executive is responsible; Swear the peace, to take oath before a magistrate that a certain person ought to be put under bond to keep the peace. [O. Fr. pais (Fr. paix)—L. pax, pacis, peace.]

Peach, pēch, v.i. to betray one's accomplice: to become informer.—n. Peach′er. [A corr. of impeach.]

Peach, pēch, n. a tree with a delicious, juicy fruit: the fruit of this tree.—ns. Peach′-bloss′om, a canary-yellow colour: pink with a yellowish tinge: a collector's name for a moth, the Thyatira batis; Peach′-brand′y, a spirit distilled from the fermented juice of the peach.—adj. Peach′-col′oured, of the colour of a peach-blossom: pale red.—ns. Peach′ery, a hothouse in which peaches are grown; Peach′-stone, the hard nut enclosing the seed within the fruit of the peach; Peach′-wa′ter, a flavouring extract used in cookery, prepared from the peach.—adj. Peach′y.—n. Peach′-yell′ows, a disease that attacks peach-trees in the eastern United States. [O. Fr. pesche (Fr. pche, It. persica, pesca)—L. Persicum (malum), the Persian (apple).]

Peacock, pē′kok, n. a large gallinaceous bird of the pheasant kind, remarkable for the beauty of its plumage, esp. that of its tail:—fem. Pea′hen.—v.t. to cause to strut like a peacock.—v.i. to strut about proudly.—ns. Pea′chick, the young of the pea-fowl; Pea′cock-fish, a variegated labroid fish; Pea′-fowl, the peacock or peahen. [A.S. pawe—L. pavo—Gr. taōs—Pers. tāwus; and cock (q.v.).]

Peacod. Same as Peascod.

Pea-crab, pē′-krab, n. a genus of small crustaceans, which live within the mantle-lobes of mussels, oysters, &c.

Peag, pēg, n. polished shell-beads used as money among the North American Indians.—Also Peak (pēk).

Pea-green, pē′-grēn, adj. a shade of green like the colour of green peas.

Pea-jacket, pē′-jak′et, n. a coarse thick jacket worn esp. by seamen.—Also Pea′-coat. [Dut. pij (pron. pī), a coat of coarse thick cloth; jacket.]

Peak, pēk, n. a point: the pointed end of anything: the top of a mountain: (naut.) the upper outer corner of a sail extended by a gaff or yard, also the extremity of the gaff.—v.i. to rise upward in a peak: to look thin or sickly.—v.t. (naut.) to raise the point (of a gaff) more nearly perpendicular.—adjs. Peaked, pointed: ending in a point: having a thin or sickly look; Peak′ing, sickly, pining, sneaking; Peak′ish, having peaks: thin or sickly looking; Peak′y (Tenn.), having or showing peaks. [M. E. pec—Ir. peac, a sharp thing. Cf. Beak, Pike.]

Peal, pēl, n. a loud sound: a number of loud sounds one after another: a set of bells tuned to each other: a chime or carillon: the changes rung upon a set of bells.—v.i. to resound like a bell: to utter or give forth loud or solemn sounds.—v.t. to cause to sound loudly: to assail with noise: to celebrate. [For appeal; O. Fr. apelapeler—L. appellāre, inten. of appellĕre, ap- (ad), to, pellĕre, to drive.]

Pea-maggot, pē′-mag′ut, n. the caterpillar of a small moth which lays its eggs in pods of peas.

Pean, pēn, n. one of the heraldic furs, differing from ermine only in the tinctures, the ground being sable and the spots of gold. [O. Fr. panne, a fur. Cf. Pane.]

Pean. See Pan.

Pea-nut, or Ground-nut. See Ground.

Pear, pār, n. a common fruit of a somewhat conical shape, and very juicy to the taste: the tree on which it grows, allied to the apple.—adj. Pear′iform, Pear′-shaped, shaped like a pear—that is, thick and rounded at one end, and tapering to the other.—n. Pear′-tree. [A.S. pera or peru—L. pirum, a pear (whence also Fr. poire).]

Pear, pē′ar, n. (Spens.). Same as Peer.

Pearl, pėrl, n. a well-known shining gem, found in several kinds of shellfish, but most esp. in the mother-of-pearl oyster: anything round and clear: anything very precious: a jewel: a while speck or film on the eye: (print.) a size of type immediately above diamond, equal to 5 points (about 15 lines to the inch).—adj. made of, or belonging to, pearls.—v.t. to set or adorn with pearls: to make into small round grains.—v.i. to take a rounded form: to become like pearls.—adj. Pearlā′ceous, resembling pearls or mother-of-pearl: spotted with white.—ns. Pearl′-ash, a purer carbonate of potash, obtained by calcining potashes, so called from its pearly-white colour; Pearl′-bar′ley, barley after the skin has been ground off (prob. for 'pilled barley,' Fr. orge perl); Pearl′-butt′on, a button made of mother-of-pearl; Pearl′-div′er, one who dives for pearls.—adj. Pearled, set with pearls: like pearls: having a border trimmed with narrow lace.—ns. Pearl′-edge, a thread edging, a border on some ribbons formed by projecting loops of the threads; Pearl′-eye, cataract.—adj. Pearl′-eyed, having a white speck on the eye.—ns. Pearl′-fish′er, one who fishes for pearls; Pearl′-fish′ery, the occupation of fishing for pearls, or the place where it is carried on; Pearl′-fish′ing; Pearl′-gray, a pale gray colour.—adj. of a pale gray colour, like the pearl.—ns. Pearl′iness, state of being pearly; Pearl′-nau′tilus, the pearly nautilus; Pearl′-oys′ter, the oyster which produces pearls; Pearl′-pow′der, a cosmetic for improving the appearance of the skin; Pearl′-white, a material made from fish-scales, used in making artificial pearls: a kind of cosmetic.—adj. Pearl′y, like a pearl, nacreous: yielding pearls: dotted with pearls: clear, transparent: having a pure sweet tone. [Fr. perle, acc. to Diez, prob. either a corr. of L. pirula, a dim. of pirum, a pear, or of L. pilula, dim. of pila, a ball.]

Pearling, pėrl′ing, n. lace made of silk or other kind of thread.—Also Pearl′in. [Ir. peirlin, fine linen.]

Pearling, pėrl′ing, n. the process of removing the outer coat of grain.

Pearmain, pār′mān, n. a name of several varieties of apple.

Peart, pērt, adj. lively: saucy: in good health and spirits.—adv. Peart′ly. [Pert.]

Peasant, pez′ant, n. a countryman: a rustic: one whose occupation is rural labour.—adj. of or relating to peasants, rustic, rural: rude.—n. Peas′antry, the body of peasants or tillers of the soil: rustics: labourers.—Peasant proprietor, a peasant who owns and works his own farm; Peasants' War, a popular insurrection in Germany, in 1525, stamped out with horrible cruelty. [O. Fr. paisant (Fr. paysan)—pays—L. pagus, a district.]

Pease, pēz, n. (Spens.) a blow.

Pease, pēz, indef. pl. of Pea.—ns. Pease′cod, Peas′cod, the pericarp of the pea: a peacod; Pease′-meal, Pease′-porr′idge, Pease′-soup or Pea′-soup, meal, porridge, soup, made from pease.

Peaseweep, pēz′wēp, n. (prov.) the pewit. [Imit.]

Peat, pēt, n. decayed vegetable matter like turf, cut out of boggy places, and when dried used for fuel.—ns. Peat′-bog, a district covered with peat: a place from which peat is dug—also Peat′-bed, Peat′-moor, Peat′-moss; Peat′-hag, a ditch whence peat has been dug; Peat′-reek, the smoke of peat, supposed to add a delicate flavour to whisky; Peat′-spade, a spade having a side wing at right angles for cutting peat in rectangular blocks.—adj. Peat′y, like peat: abounding in, or composed of, peat. [True form beat—M. E. beten, to mend a fire—A.S. btan, to make better—bt, advantage.]

Peba, pē′ba, n. a South American armadillo.

Pebble, peb′l, n. a small roundish ball or stone: transparent and colourless rock-crystal used for glass in spectacles, a fine kind of glass: a large size of gunpowder.—v.t. to give (to leather) a rough appearance with small rounded prominences.—adjs. Pebb′led, Pebb′ly, full of pebbles.—ns. Pebb′le-pow′der, gunpowder consisting of large cubical grains, and burning slowly—also Cube-powder and Prismatic-powder; Pebb′le-ware, a kind of fine pottery made of various coloured clays mixed together; Pebb′ling, a way of graining leather with a ribbed or roughened appearance. [A.S. papol-(-stn), a pebble(-stone); akin to L. papula, a pustule.]

Pebrine, peb′rin, n. a destructive disease of silkworms.—adj. Peb′rinous. [Fr.]

Pecan, pē-kan′, n. a North American tree whose wood is chiefly used for fuel, also the nut it yields.

Peccable, pek′a-bl, adj. liable to sin.—ns. Peccabil′ity; Pecc′ancy, sinfulness: transgression.—adj. Pecc′ant, sinning: transgressing: guilty: morbid: offensive: bad.—adv. Pecc′antly. [L. peccabilispeccāre, -ātum, to sin.]

Peccadillo, pek-a-dil′lo, n. a little or trifling sin: a petty fault:—pl. Peccadil′los, Peccadil′loes. [Sp. pecadillo, dim. of pecado—L. peccatum, a sin.]

Peccary, pek′ar-i, n. a hog-like quadruped of South America.

Peccavi, pe-kā′vī, I have sinned. [L. 1st pers. sing. perf. indic. act. of peccāre, I sin.]

Pech, Pegh, peh, v.i. (Scot.) to pant, to breathe hard. [Imit.]

Pecht, peht, n. a corruption of Pict.

Peck, pek, n. a measure of capacity for dry goods=2 gallons, or one-fourth of a bushel: a great amount. [M. E. pekke, prob. from peck, 'to pick up.']

Peck, pek, v.t. to strike with the beak: to pick up with the beak: to eat: to strike with anything pointed: to strike with repeated blows.—ns. Peck′er, that which pecks: a woodpecker: (slang) spirit, as in 'to keep one's pecker up'=to keep up one's spirits; Peck′ing, the sport of throwing pebbles at birds.—adj. Peck′ish, somewhat hungry. [Pick.]

Pecksniff, pek′snif, n. one who talks large about virtue and benevolence, while at heart a selfish and unprincipled hypocrite.—adj. Peck′sniffian.—n. Peck′sniffianism. [From Mr Pecksniff in Dickens's Martin Chuzzlewit.]

Pecten, pek′ten, n. a genus of molluscs, one species of which is the scallop—so called from the valves having ribs radiating from the umbo to the margin like a comb: a membrane on the eyes of birds.—adjs. Pectinā′ceous, like the scallops; Pec′tinal, of a comb: comb-like: having bones like the teeth of a comb; Pec′tināte, -d, having teeth like a comb: resembling the teeth of a comb.—adv. Pec′tinātely.—n. Pectinā′tion, the state of being pectinated—adjs. Pectinē′al, having a comb-like crest; Pec′tinibranchiate, having comb-like gills; Pec′tiniform, comb-like. [L. pecten, a comb.]

Pectic, pek′tik, adj. congealing, curdling.—ns. Pec′tin, Pec′tine, a soluble gelatinising substance obtained from pectose; Pec′tōse, a substance yielding pectin, contained in the fleshy pulp of unripe fruit. [Gr. pēktikos, congealing—pēgnynai, to make solid.]

Pectoral, pek′tō-ral, adj. relating to the breast or chest.—n. armour for the breast: an ornament worn on the breast, esp. the breastplate worn by the ancient Jewish high-priest, and the square of gold, embroidery, &c. formerly worn on the breast over the chasuble by bishops during mass: a pectoral cross: a pectoral fin: a medicine for the chest.—adv. Pec′torally.—n. Pectoril′oquy, the sound of the patient's voice heard through the stethoscope when applied to the chest in certain morbid conditions of the lungs.—Pectoral fins, the anterior paired fins of fishes; Pectoral theology, a name sometimes applied to the theology of those Christians who make much of experience and emotion, as themselves guides to a knowledge of divine truth—in Neander's phrase, 'Pectus est quod facit theologum.' [Fr.,—L. pectoralispectus, pectoris, the breast.]

Peculate, pek′ū-lāt, v.t. to take for one's own use money or property entrusted to one's care: to embezzle: to steal.—ns. Peculā′tion; Pec′ulātor. [L. peculāri, -ātuspecūlium, private property, akin to pecunia, money.]

Peculiar, pē-kūl′yar, adj. one's own: belonging to no other: appropriate: particular: odd, uncommon, strange.—n. (obs.) private property: a parish or church exempt from the jurisdiction of the ordinary or bishop in whose diocese it is placed.—v.t. Pecul′iarise, to set apart.—n. Peculiar′ity, quality of being peculiar or singular: that which is found in one and in no other: that which marks a person off from others: individuality.—adv. Pecul′iarly.—n. Pecū′lium, private property, esp. that given by a father to a son, &c.—Peculiar people, the people of Israel: a sect of faith-healers, founded in London in 1838, who reject medical aid in cases of disease, and rely on anointing with oil by the elders, and on prayer, with patient nursing. [Fr.,—L. peculiarispeculium, private property.]

Pecuniary, pē-kū′ni-ar-i, adj. relating to money: consisting of money.—adv. Pecū′niarily.—adj. Pecū′nious, rich. [Fr.,—L. pecuniariuspecunia, money—pecu-, which appears in L. pecudes (pl.), cattle.]

Ped, ped, n. (Spens.) a basket, a hamper. [Pad.]

Pedagogue, ped′a-gog, n. a teacher: a pedant.—v.t. to teach.—adjs. Pedagog′ic, -al, relating to teaching: belonging to, or possessed by, a teacher of children.—ns. Pedagog′ics, Ped′agogism, Ped′agogy, the science of teaching: instruction: discipline. [Fr.,—L.,—Gr. paidagōgospais, paidos, a boy, agōgos, a leader—agein, to lead.]

Pedal, ped′al, adj. pertaining to a foot.—n. any part of a machine transmitting power from the foot: in musical instruments, a lever moved by the foot.—v.i. to work a pedal.—n. Pēdā′le, a foot-cloth in front of an altar: a collection of canons of general councils in the Greek Church.—adjs. Pēdā′lian, relating to the foot, or to a metrical foot; Ped′āte, divided like a foot: (bot.) having the side lobes of a divided leaf also divided into smaller parts, the midribs of which do not run to a common centre as in the palmate leaf.—adv. Ped′ātely.—adj. Pedat′ifid, divided in a pedate manner, but having the divisions connected at the base.—Combination pedal, a metal pedal in organs controlling several stops at once. [L. pedalispes, pedis, the foot.]

Pedant, ped′ant, n. one who makes a vain display of learning: a pretender to knowledge which he does not possess: (Shak.) a pedagogue.—adjs. Pedant′ic, -al, displaying knowledge for the sake of showing.—adv. Pedant′ically, in a pedantic manner.—ns. Pedant′icism, Ped′antism.—v.i. Ped′antise, to play the pedant.—ns. Pedantoc′racy, government by pedants; Ped′antry, acts, manners, or character of a pedant: vain display of learning: (Swift) the overrating of any kind of knowledge we pretend to. [Fr.,—It. pedante—L. pdagogans, -antis, teaching—pdagogus, a pedagogue.]

Peddle, ped′l, v.i. to travel about with a basket or bundle of goods, esp. of smallwares, for sale: to trifle.—v.t. to retail in small quantities.—ns. Pedd′ler, Ped′lar, Ped′ler, a hawker or travelling merchant; Pedd′lery, Ped′lary, the trade or tricks of a peddler: wares sold by a peddler.—adj. Pedd′ling, unimportant.—n. the trade or tricks of a peddler. [Peddar, pedder, one who carries wares in a ped or basket.]

Pederasty, ped′e-rast-i, n. unnatural commerce of males with males, esp. boys.—n. Ped′erast, one addicted to this vice.—adj. Pederast′ic. [Gr., pais, paidos, a boy, erastēseraein, to love.]

Pederero, ped-e-rē′rō, n. an old gun for discharging stones, pieces of iron, &c., also for firing salutes.

Pedesis, ped-ē′sis, n. the rapid oscillation of small particles in a liquid.

Pedestal, ped′es-tal, n. anything that serves as a foot or a support: the foot or base of a pillar, &c.: the fixed casting which holds the brasses, in which a shaft turns, called also Axle-guard or Pillow-block.—v.t. to place on a pedestal. [Sp.,—It. piedestallo—L. pes, pedis, the foot, It. stallo, a place.]

Pedestrian, pē-des′tri-an, adj. going on foot: performed on foot: pertaining to common people: vulgar.—n. one journeying on foot: an expert walker, one who practises feats of walking or running.—adj. Pēdes′trial, of or pertaining to the foot: pedestrian.—adv. Pēdes′trially.—v.t. Pēdes′trianise, to traverse on foot.—n. Pēdes′trianism, a going on foot: walking: the practice of a pedestrian. [L. pedestrispes, pedis.]

Pedetentous, ped-ē-ten′tus, adj. proceeding slowly.

Pediatrics, ped-i-at′riks, that branch of medical science which relates to children and their special diseases.—Also Ped′iatry. [Gr. pais, paidos, a child, iatrikos, relating to a physician.]

Pedicel, ped′i-sel, n. the little footstalk by which a single leaf or flower is fixed on the twig or on the cluster of which it forms a part—also Ped′icle.—n. Pedicellā′ria, a minute structure on the skin of sea-urchins and star-fish, like a stalk with a three or two bladed snapping forceps at the summit.—adjs. Ped′icellate, Pedic′ūlate, provided with a pedicel.—n. Ped′icle, a fetter for the foot. [Fr. pdicelle—L. pediculus, dim. of pes, pedis, the foot.]

Pediculus, pē-dik′ū-lus, n. a genus of lice, or an individual of it.—adjs. Pēdic′ular, Pēdic′ulous, lousy.—ns. Pēdiculā′tion, Pēdiculō′sis, lousiness.

Pedicure, ped′i-kūr, n. the treatment of corns, bunions, or the like: one who treats the feet.

Pediferous, pē-dif′e-rus, adj. footed—also Pēdig′erous.—adj. Ped′iform, foot-shaped.

Pedigree, ped′i-grē, n. a line of ancestors: a list, in order, of the ancestors from whom one has descended: lineage: genealogy.—adj. Ped′igreed, having a pedigree. [Skeat suggests Fr. pied de grue, crane's-foot, from its use in the drawing out of pedigrees.]

Pedimanous, pē-dim′a-nus, adj. having all four feet like hands—of the opossums and lemurs.—n. Ped′imane.


Pediment, ped′i-ment, n. (archit.) a triangular or circular ornament which crowns the fronts of buildings, and serves as a finish to the tops of doors, windows, porticoes, &c.—adjs. Pediment′al; Ped′imented, furnished with a pediment: like a pediment. [L. pedamentumpes, pedis, the foot.]

Pedipalp, ped′i-palp, n. a maxillipalp or maxillary palpus.—adj. pertaining to the same.— Pedipal′pi, an order of Arachnida.—adj. Pedipal′pous.

Pedlar. See Peddle.

Pedobaptism, pē-dō-bap′tizm, n. infant baptism.—n. Pedobap′tist, one who believes in infant baptism. [Gr. pais, paidos, a child, baptism.]

Pedometer, pē-dom′et-ėr, n. an instrument, somewhat like a watch, by which the number of the steps of a pedestrian are registered, from which the distance he has walked is measured.—adj. Pedomet′ric. [L. pes, pedis, a foot, Gr. metron, a measure.]

Pedomotor, ped-ō-mō′tor, n. a means for applying the foot as a driving power.—adj. Pedomō′tive.

Pedotrophy, pē-dot′rō-fi, n. the rearing of children.—adj. Pedotroph′ic.—n. Pedot′rophist. [Gr. pais, paidos, a child, trephein, to nourish.]

Pedum, pē′dum, n. a shepherd's crook. [L.]

Peduncle, pē-dung′kl, n. the stalk by which a cluster of flowers or leaves is joined to a twig or branch—sometimes same as pedicel—also Pedun′culus.—adjs. Pedun′cular, Pedun′culate, -d. [Fr. pedoncule—Low L. pedunculus—L. pes, pedis, the foot.]

Peece, pēs, n. (Shak.) a fabric, a fortified place.

Peeced, pēsd, adj. (Spens.) imperfect.

Peek, pēk, v.i. to peep.—n. Peek′aboo, a children's game, from the cry made when hiding one's eyes.

Peel, pēl, v.t. to strip off the skin or bark: to bare.—v.i. to come off as the skin: to lose the skin: (slang) to undress.—n. the skin, rind, or bark: (print.) a wooden pole with short cross-piece for carrying printed sheets to the poles on which they are to be dried: the wash or blade of an oar—not the loom: a mark (Peel mark) for cattle, for persons who cannot write, &c.—adj. Peeled, stripped of skin, rind, or bark: plundered.—ns. Peel′er, one who peels, a plunderer; Peel′ing, the act of stripping: that which is stripped off: (print.) the removing of the layers of a paper overlay, to get a lighter impression. [O. Fr. peler, to unskin—L. pilāre, to deprive of hair—pilus, a hair; or pellis, a skin.]

Peel, pēl, n. a small Border fortress.—Also Peel′-tow′er. [Pile.]

Peel, pēl, n. a baker's wooden shovel: a fire-shovel. [O. Fr. pele—L. pāla, a spade.]

Peel, pēl, v.t. to plunder: to pillage. [Pill (v.).]

Peeler, pēl′ėr, n. a policeman, from Sir R. Peel, who established the Irish police (1812-18) and improved those in Britain (1828-30).—n. Peel′ite, a follower of Peel in the reform of the Corn-laws in 1846.

Peen, pēn, n. the end of a hammer-head, usually shaped for indenting.—v.t. to strike with such. [Ger. pinne.]

Peenge, pēnj, v.i. (Scot.) to complain childishly.

Peep, pēp, v.i. to chirp, or cry as a chicken.—n. the cry of a young chicken. [Fr. piper—L. pipāre.]

Peep, pēp, v.i. to look through a narrow opening: to look out from concealment: to look slyly or cautiously: to begin to appear.—n. a sly look: a beginning to appear, a glimpse: a narrow view, a slit.—ns. Peep′er, one that peeps: a prying person: a chicken just breaking the shell: (slang) the eye; Peep′-hole, a hole through which one may look without being seen; Peep′-o'-day, the first appearance of light in the morning; Peep′-show, a small show viewed through a small hole, usually fitted with a magnifying-glass; Peep′-sight, a plate on the breach with a small hole through which a gunner takes his sight.—Peeping Tom, a prying fellow, esp. one who peeps in at windows; Peep-o'-day boys, a band of Protestants in the north of Ireland, in the end of the 18th century—opposed to the Catholic Defenders. [Same as above, Fr. piper, to chirp like a bird, then to beguile, whence peep=to look out slyly.]

Peer, pēr, n. an equal in rank, ability, character, &c.: an associate: a nobleman: a member of the House of Lords:—fem. Peer′ess.—n. Peer′age, the rank or dignity of a peer: the body of peers: a book containing a description of the history, connections, &c. of the different peers.—adj. Peer′less, having no peer or equal: matchless.—adv. Peer′lessly.—n. Peer′lessness.—House of Peers, the House of Lords; Spiritual peer, one of the bishops or archbishops qualified to sit as members of the House of Lords; Temporal peer, one of the members of the House of Lords, other than the bishops. [O. Fr. (Fr. pair),—L. par, paris, equal.]

Peer, pēr, v.i. to look narrowly or closely: to peep: to appear:—pa.t. and pa.p. peered.—adj. Peer′y, prying, sly. [M. E. piren—Low Ger. piren, orig. pliren, to draw the eyelids together.]

Peerie, Peery, pēr′i, n. a top spun with a string.

Peevers, pēv′ers, n. (Scot.) the game of hop-scotch.

Peevish, pēv′ish, adj. habitually fretful: easily annoyed: hard to please: showing ill-nature: childish.—adv. Peev′ishly.—n. Peev′ishness. [Prob. imit. of the puling of fretful infants.]

Peewit. Same as Pewit.

Peg, peg, n. a wooden pin for fastening boards, or the soles of shoes: one of the pins on which the strings of a musical instrument are stretched: a reason or excuse for action: a drink of soda-water with brandy, &c.: a degree or step.—v.t. to fasten with a peg: to keep up the market price by buying or selling at a fixed price: to make points during the game of cribbage before the show of hands.—v.i. to work with unremitting effort:—pr.p. peg′ging; pa.t. and pa.p. pegged.—ns. Peg′-fiched, an English game played with pegs or pointed sticks; Peg′-float, a machine for rasping away the ends of pegs inside shoes.—adj. Pegged, fashioned of, or furnished with, pegs.—ns. Peg′ging, the act of fastening with a peg: pegs collectively: a thrashing: determined perseverance in work; Peg′-leg, a wooden leg of the simplest form, or one who walks on such; Peg′-strip, a ribbon of wood cut to the width, &c., of a shoe-peg; Peg′-tank′ard, a drinking-vessel having each one's share marked off by a knob; Peg′-top, a child's plaything made to spin round by winding a string round it and then rapidly pulling it off: (pl.) a kind of trousers, wide at the top and narrow at the ankles.—adj. shaped like a top.—Peg away, to keep continually working.—Take down a peg, to take down, to humble. [Scand.; as in Dan. pig, a spike.]

Pegasus, peg′a-sus, n. a winged horse which arose from the blood of the Gorgon Medusa, when she was slain by Perseus: a genus of small fishes with large, wing-like, pectoral fins: one of the constellations in the northern sky.—adj. Pegasē′an.

Peggy, peg′i, n. one of several small warblers, the whitethroat, &c. [Peggy, from Peg=MegMargaret.]

Pegmatite, peg′ma-tīt, n. coarsely crystallised granite.—adj. Pegmatit′ic.

Pehlevi, pā′le-vē, n. an ancient West Iranian idiom during the period of the Sassanides, largely mixed with Semitic words, and poorer in inflections and terminations than Zend (235-640 A.D.): the characters used in writing this language.—adj. of or pertaining to, or written in, Pehlevi. [Pers.]

Peignoir, pēn-wr′, n. a loose wrapper worn by women during their toilet. [Fr.]

Peinct, pāngkt, v.t. (Spens.) to paint.

Peine, pān, n. a form of punishment by pressing to death—usually Peine forte et dure. [Fr.]

Peirastic, pī-ras′tik, adj. tentative.—n. Peiram′eter, an instrument for measuring the resistances of road-surface to traction. [Gr. peira, a trial.]

Peise, pāz, v.t. (Spens., Shak.) to poise, to weigh.—n. a weight. [Poise.]

Pejoration, pē-jō-rā′shun, n. a becoming worse: deterioration.—v.i. Pē′jorāte.—adj. and n. Pē′jorātive.—n. Pējor′ity. [L. pejor, worse, comp. of malus, bad.]

Pekan, pek′an, n. an American species of Marten—called also Wood-shock, Fisher, and Black-fox.

Pekoe, pē′kō, n. a scented black tea. [Chinese.]

Pelage, pel′āj, n. the hair or wool of a mammal. [Fr.]

Pelagian, pē-lā′ji-an, n. one who holds the views of Pelagius, a British monk of the 4th century, who denied original sin.—adj. pertaining to Pelagius.—n. Pelā′gianism, the doctrines of Pelagius.

Pelagic, pē-laj′ik, adj. inhabiting the deep sea, marine, oceanic. [Gr. pelagos, the sea.]

Pelargonium, pel-ar-gō′ni-um, n. a vast genus of beautiful flowering plants of order Geraniace.—adj. Pēlar′gic, stork-like. [Gr. pelargos, stork, the beaked capsules resembling a stork's beak.]

Pelasgic, pē-las′jik, adj. pertaining to the Pelasgians or Pelasgi, a race spread over Greece in prehistoric times, to whom are ascribed many enormous remains built of unhewn stones, without cement—the so-called Pelasgic architecture. Also Pelas′gian.

Ple-mle. See Pell-mell, adv.

Pelerine, pel′ėr-in, n. a woman's tippet or cape with long ends coming down in front. [Fr., a tippet—plerin, a pilgrim—L. peregrinus, foreign.]

Pelf, pelf, n. riches (in a bad sense): money. [O. Fr. pelfre, booty; allied to pilfer.]

Pelican, pel′i-kan, n. a large water-fowl, having an enormous distensible gular pouch: an alembic with tubulated head from which two opposite and crooked beaks extend and enter again the body of the vessel—used for continuous distillation: a dentist's instrument: (her.) a pelican above her nest, with wings indorsed, wounding her breast with her beak in order to feed her young with her blood. [Low L. pelicanus—Gr. pelikanpelekus, an axe.]

Pelike, pel′i-kē, n. a large vase like the hydria, double-handled. [Gr.]

Pelisse, pe-lēs′, n. a cloak of silk or other cloth, with sleeves, worn by ladies: a garment lined with fur, a dragoon's jacket with shaggy lining. [Fr.,—Low L. pellicea (vestis)—L. pellis, a skin.]

Pell, pel, n. a skin or hide: a roll of parchment. [O. Fr. pel (Fr. peau)—L. pellis, a skin or hide.]

Pellagra, pe-lā′gra, n. a loathsome skin disease supposed to be common in the rice-producing part of the north of Italy.—n. Pellā′grin, one afflicted with pellagra.—adj. Pellā′grous, like or afflicted with pellagra. [Gr. pella, skin, agra, seizure.]

Pellet, pel′et, n. a little ball, as of lint or wax: a small rounded boss: a small pill: a ball of shot.—adj. Pell′eted, consisting of pellets: pelted, as with bullets. [O. Fr. pelote—L. pila, a ball.]

Pellicle, pel′i-kl, n. a thin skin or film: the film or scum which gathers on liquors.—adj. Pellic′ular.

Pellitory, pel′i-tor-i, n. a genus of plants found most commonly on old walls and heaps of rubbish: the feverfew.—n. Pell′itory-of-Spain, a plant which grows in Algeria, the root of which causes in the hands first a sensation of extreme cold, then one of a burning heat. [L. parietaria, the wall-plant—parietariusparies, parietis, a wall.]

Pell-mell, pel-mel′, adv. in great confusion: promiscuously: in a disorderly manner—also written Ple-mle.—n. Pell-mell′ (same as Pall-mall). [O. Fr. pesle-mesle (Fr. ple-mle), -mesle being from O. Fr. mesler (Fr. mler), to mix—Low L. misculāre—L. miscēre; and pesle, a rhyming addition, perh. influenced by Fr. pelle, shovel.]

Pellucid, pe-lū′sid, adj. perfectly clear: letting light through: transparent.—ns. Pellūcid′ity, Pellū′cidness.—adv. Pellū′cidly. [Fr.,—L. pellucidusper, perfectly, lucidus, clear—lucēre, to shine.]

Pelma, pel′ma, n. the sole of the foot.—n. Pelmat′ogram, the impression of the foot. [Gr.]

Pelopid, pel′ō-pid, adj. pertaining to Pelops.—n. one of his descendants.

Peloponnesian, pel-ō-po-nē′zi-an, adj. of or pertaining to the Peloponnesus or southern part of Greece.—n. an inhabitant or a native of the Peloponnesus.—Peloponnesian war, a war between Athens and Sparta (431-404 B.C.). [Gr. Pelops, an ancient Greek hero, nēsos, an island.]

Peloria, pē-lō′ri-a, n. the appearance of regularity in flowers normally irregular—also Pel′orism.—adjs. Pēlor′iate, Pēlor′ic. [Gr. pelōr, a monster.]

Pelt, pelt, n. a raw hide: the quarry or prey of a hawk all torn.—ns. Pelt′monger, a dealer in skins; Pelt′ry, the skins of animals with the fur on them: furs. [M. E. pelt, peltry—O. Fr. pelleteriepelletier, a skinner—L. pellis, a skin.]

Pelt, pelt, v.t. to strike with something thrown: to cast.—v.i. to fall heavily, as rain.—n. a blow from something thrown.—ns. Pel′ter, a shower of missiles, a sharp storm of rain, &c.: a storm of anger; Pel′ting, an assault with a pellet, or with anything thrown. [Cf. Pellet.]

Pelta, pel′ta, n. a light buckler.—n. Pel′tast, a soldier armed with this.—adjs. Pel′tāte, -d, shield-shaped; Peltat′ifid, Pel′tiform. [L.,—Gr. peltē.]

Pelting, pel′ting, adj. (Shak.) paltry, contemptible.—adv. Pelt′ingly. [Paltry.]

Pelvis, pel′vis, n. the bony cavity at the lower end of the trunk, forming the lower part of the abdomen.—adjs. Pel′vic, of or pertaining to the pelvis; Pel′viform, openly cup-shaped.—ns. Pelvim′eter, an instrument for measuring the diameters of the pelvis; Pelvim′etry. [L. pelvis, a basin.]

Pemmican, Pemican, pem′i-kan, n. a North American Indian preparation, consisting of lean venison, dried, pounded, and pressed into cakes, now made of beef and used in Arctic expeditions, &c.

Pemphigus, pem′fi-gus, n. an affection of the skin with pustules.—adj. Pem′phigoid. [Gr.]

Pen, pen, v.t. to shut up: to confine in a small enclosure:—pr.p. pen′ning; pa.t. and pa.p. penned or pent.—n. a small enclosure: a fold for animals: a coop. [A.S. pennan, to shut up, in comp. on pennan, to unpen. Prop. to fasten with a pin.]

Pen, pen, n. one of the large feathers of the wing of a bird: an instrument used for writing, formerly made of the feather of a bird, but now of steel, &c.: style of writing: a female swan—opp. to Cob.—v.t. to write, to commit to paper:—pr.p. pen′ning; pa.t. and pa.p. penned.—adj. Pen′-and-ink′, written, literary: executed with pen and ink, as a drawing.—ns. Pen′-case, a holder for a pen or pens; Pen′craft, skill in penmanship: the art of composition; Pen′-driv′er, a clerk; Pen′ful, what one can write with one dip of ink; Pen′-hold′er, a holder for pens or nibs; Pen′-wī′per, a piece of cloth, leather, &c. for wiping pens after use; Pen′-wom′an, a female writer. [O. Fr. penne—L. penna, a feather.]

Penal, pē′nal, adj. pertaining to, incurring, or constituting punishment: used for punishment.—v.t. Pē′nalise, to lay under penalty.—adv. Pē′nally.—Penal laws, laws prohibiting certain actions under penalties; Penal servitude, hard labour in a prison as a punishment for crime—introduced in England in 1853 instead of transportation; Penal statute, a statute imposing a penalty or punishment for crime. [Fr.,—L. pœnalispœna, Gr. poinē, punishment.]

Penalty, pen′al-ti, n. punishment: suffering in person or property for wrong-doing or for breach of a law: a fine or loss which a person agrees to pay or bear in case of his non-fulfilment of some undertaking: a fine.—Under penalty of, so as to suffer, or (after a negative) without suffering the punishment of.

Penance, pen′ans, n. repentance: external acts performed to manifest sorrow for sin, to seek to atone for the sin and to avert the punishment which, even after the guilt has been remitted, may still remain due to the offence—also the sacrament by which absolution is conveyed (involving contrition, confession, and satisfaction): any instrument of self-punishment.—v.t. to impose penance on: to punish. [O. Fr.; cf. Penitence.]

Penang-lawyer, pe-nang′-law′yėr, n. a walking-stick made from the stem of a Penang palm. [Prob. a corr. of Penang liyar, the wild areca.]

Penannular, pē-nan′ū-lar, adj. shaped almost like a ring. [L. pna, almost, annularis, annular.]

Penates, pē-nā′tēs, the household gods of ancient Rome who presided over and were worshipped by each family. [L., from root pen- in L. penitus, within, penetralia, the inner part of anything.]

Pence, pens, n. plural of penny (q.v.).

Penchant, png′shng, n. inclination: decided taste: bias. [Fr., pr.p. of pencher, to incline, through a form pendicāre, from L. pendēre, to hang.]

Pencil, pen′sil, n. a small hair brush for laying on colours: any pointed instrument for writing or drawing without ink: a collection of rays of light converging to a point: the art of painting or drawing.—v.t. to write, sketch, or mark with a pencil: to paint or draw:—pr.p. pen′cilling; pa.t. and pa.p. pen′cilled.ns. Pen′cil-case, a holder for a pencil; Pen′cil-com′pass, a compass having a pencil on one of its legs for use in drawing.—adjs. Pen′cilled, written or marked with a pencil: having pencils of rays: radiated: (bot.) marked with fine lines, as with a pencil; Pen′cilliform, having the form of a pencil, as of rays.—ns. Pen′cilling, the art of writing, sketching, or marking with a pencil: marks made with a pencil: fine lines on flowers or the feathers of birds: a sketch; Pen′cil-sketch, a sketch made with a pencil. [O. Fr. pincel (Fr. pinceau)—L. penicillum, a painter's brush, dim. of penis, a tail.]

Pend, pend, n. (obs.) an enclosure: (Scot.) a narrow close leading off a main street.

Pend, pend, v.i. to hang, as in a balance, to impend.—adj. Pend′ing, hanging: remaining undecided: not terminated.—prep. during.

Pendant, pen′dant, n. anything hanging, esp. for ornament: an earring: a lamp hanging from the roof: an ornament of wood or of stone hanging downwards from a roof: a long narrow flag, at the head of the principal mast in a royal ship: something attached to another thing of the same kind, an appendix, a companion picture, poem, &c.—ns. Pen′dence, Pen′dency, a hanging in suspense: state of being undecided.—adj. Pen′dent, hanging: projecting: supported above the ground or base: (bot.) hanging downwards, as a flower or a leaf.—n. Penden′tive (archit.), the triangular portion of a dome cut off between two supporting arches at right angles to each other.—adv. Pen′dently.—ns. Pen′dicle, an appendage: something attached to another, as a privilege, a small piece of ground for cultivation; Pen′dūlet, a pendant. [Fr. pendant, pr.p. of pendre, to hang—L. pendens, -entispr.p. of pendēre, to hang.]

Pendragon, pen-drag′on, n. a chief leader: an ancient British chief.—n. Pendrag′onship. [W. pen, head, dragon, a chief.]

Pendulum, pen′dū-lum, n. any weight so hung from a fixed point as to swing freely: the swinging weight which regulates the movement of a clock: a lamp, &c., pendent from a ceiling: a guard-ring of a watch by which it is attached to a chain.—adj. Pen′dular, relating to a pendulum.—v.i. Pen′dulate, to swing, vibrate.—adjs. Pen′dulent, pendulous; Pen′duline, building a pendulous nest; Pen′dulous, hanging loosely: swinging freely, as the pensile nests of birds: (bot.) hanging downwards, as a flower on a curved stalk.—adv. Pen′dulously.—ns. Pen′dulousness, Pen′dulosity.—Pendulum wire, a kind of flat steel wire for clock pendulums.—Compensation pendulum, a pendulum so constructed that its rod is not altered in length by changes of temperature; Compound pendulum, every ordinary pendulum is compound, as differing from a Simple pendulum, which is a material point suspended by an ideal line; Invariable pendulum, a pendulum for carrying from station to station to be oscillated at each so as to fix the relative acceleration of gravity; Long and short pendulum, a pendulum for determining the absolute force of gravity by means of a bob suspended by a wire of varying length. [L., neut. of pendulus, hanging—pendēre, to hang.]

Peneian, pē-nē′yan, adj. relating to the river Peneus in the famous Vale of Tempe in Thessaly.

Penelopise, pē-nel′o-pīz, v.i. to act like Penelope, the wife of Ulysses, who undid at night the work she did by day, to gain time from her suitors.

Penetrate, pen′ē-trāt, v.t. to thrust into the inside: to pierce into: to affect the mind or feelings: to enter and to fill: to understand: to find out.—v.i. to make way: to pass inwards.—ns. Penetrabil′ity, Pen′etrableness.—adj. Pen′etrable, that may be penetrated or pierced by another body: capable of having impressions made upon the mind.—adv. Pen′etrably, so as to be penetrated— Penetrā′lia, the inmost parts of a building: secrets: mysteries.—ns. Pen′etrance, Pen′etrancy, the quality of being penetrant.—adjs. Pen′etrant, subtle, penetrating; Pen′etrating, piercing or entering: sharp: subtle: acute: discerning.—adv. Pen′etratingly.—n. Penetrā′tion, the act or power of penetrating or entering: acuteness: discernment: the space-penetrating power of a telescope.—adj. Pen′etrative, tending to penetrate: piercing: sagacious: affecting the mind.—adv. Pen′etratively, in a penetrative manner.—n. Pen′etrativeness, the quality of being penetrative: penetrative power. [L. penetrāre, -ātumpenes, within.]

Pen-fish, pen′-fish, n. a sparoid fish of genus Calamus.

Penfold. Same as Pinfold.

Penguin, pen′gwin, n. an aquatic bird in the southern hemisphere, unable to fly, but very expert in diving—also Pin′guin.—n. Pen′guinery, a breeding-place of penguins. [Ety. dub.; a corr. of pen-wing, or from W. pen, head, gwen, white.]

Pen-gun, pen′-gun, n. a pop-gun.

Penicil, pen′i-sil, n. a brush of hairs: a pledget for wounds, &c.—adjs. Pen′icillate, Penicil′liform.—n. Penicil′lium, one of the blue-moulds.

Peninsula, pē-nin′sū-la, n. land so surrounded by water as to be almost an island.—adj. Penin′sular, pertaining to a peninsula: in the form of a peninsula: inhabiting a peninsula.—n. Peninsular′ity, state of being, or of inhabiting, a peninsula: narrow provincialism.—v.t. Penin′sulate, to form into a peninsula: to surround almost entirely with water.—Peninsular war, the war in Spain and Portugal, carried on by Great Britain against Napoleon's marshals (1804-1814).—The Peninsula, Spain and Portugal. [L.,—pne, almost, insula, an island.]

Penis, pē′nis, n. the characteristic external male organ.—adj. Pē′nial. [L., a tail.]

Penistone, pen′i-stōn, n. a coarse frieze.—Penistone flags, a kind of sandstone for paving and building, brought from Penistone in Yorkshire.

Penitent, pen′i-tent, adj. suffering pain or sorrow for sin: contrite: repentant.—n. one who is sorry for sin: one who has confessed sin, and is undergoing penance.—ns. Pen′itence, Pen′itency, state of being penitent: sorrow for sin.—adj. Peniten′tial, pertaining to, or expressive of, penitence.—n. a book of rules relating to penance.—adv. Peniten′tially.—adj. Peniten′tiary, relating to penance: penitential.—n. a penitent: an office at the court of Rome for examining and issuing secret bulls, dispensations, &c.: a book for guidance in imposing penances: a place for the performance of penance: a house of correction and punishment for offenders.—adv. Pen′itently.—Penitential garment, a rough garment worn for penance; Penitential psalms, certain psalms suitable for being sung by penitents, as the 6th, 32d, 38th, 51st, 102d, 130th, 143d. [Fr.,—L. pœnitens, -entispœnitēre, to cause to repent.]

Penknife, pen′nīf, n. a small knife, originally for making and mending quill pens.

Penman, pen′man, n. a man skilled in the use of the pen: an author:—pl. Pen′men.—n. Pen′manship, the use of the pen: art or manner of writing.

Penna, pen′a, n. a feather, esp. one of the large feathers of the wings or tail.—adj. Pennā′ceous. [L.]

Pennal, pen′al, n. a freshman at a German university—so called from their pennales or pen-cases.—n. Penn′alism, a system of fagging once in vogue at German universities.

Pen-name, pen′-nām, n. a name, other than his real one, by which an author is known to the public: a nom de plume.

Pennant, pen′ant, n. a flag many times as long as it is wide: a streamer: a long narrow piece of bunting at the mast-heads of war-ships.—Also Penn′on. [Pennant is formed from pennon, with excrescent t; pennon is Fr. pennon—L. penna, a wing.]

Pennate, -d, pen′āt, -ed, adj. winged: (bot.) same as Pinnate.—adj. Pennatif′id (see Pinnatifid).—n. Penne (Spens.), a feather.—adj. Penned, having wings: winged: written with a pen.—n. Pen′ner, a case for holding pens: (her.) a representation of such carried at the girdle.—adjs. Pennif′erous, Pennig′erous, feathered; Pen′niform, like a feather in form. [L. pennatuspenna, wing.]

Pennill, pen′il, n. a kind of Welsh verse, in which the singer has to change words and measure according to the variations of his accompanist on the harp. [W. 'a verse,' pl. pennillion.]

Pennon, pen′on, n. a flag, a medieval knight-bachelor's ensign: a long narrow flag: a pinion or wing.—ns. Penn′oncelle, a small flag like a pennon; Penn′oncier, a knight-bachelor.—adj. Penn′oned, bearing a pennon. [Cf. Pennant.]

Penny, pen′i, n. a copper coin (bronze since 1860), originally silver=112 of a shilling, or four farthings: a small sum: money in general: (N.T.) a silver coin=7d.: pound, in fourpenny, sixpenny, tenpenny nails=four, six, ten pound weight to the thousand:—pl. Pennies (pen′iz), denoting the number of coins; Pence (pens), the amount of pennies in value.—adjs. Penn′ied, possessed of a penny; Penn′iless, without a penny: without money: poor.—ns. Penn′ilessness; Penn′y-a-lin′er, one who writes for a public journal at so much a line: a writer for pay; Penn′y-a-lin′erism, hack-writing; Penn′y-dog, the tope or miller's dog, a kind of shark; Penn′y-post, a means of carrying a letter for a penny; Penn′y-rent, income; Penn′yweight, twenty-four grains of troy weight (the weight of a silver penny); Penn′y-wis′dom, prudence in petty matters.—adj. Penn′y-wise, saving small sums at the risk of larger: niggardly on improper occasions.—ns. Penn′y-worth, a penny's worth of anything: the amount that can be given for a penny: a good bargain—also Penn′'orth (coll.); Pē′ter's-pence, the name given to an old tribute offered to the Roman Pontiff, now a voluntary contribution.—Penny fee (Scot.), a small wage; Penny gaff (slang), a low-class theatre; Penny mail (Scot.), rent in money, not in kind: a small sum paid to the superior of land; Penny wedding, a wedding ceremonial in Scotland, at which the invited guests made contributions in money to pay the general expenses.—A pretty penny, a considerable sum of money; Turn an honest penny, to earn money honestly. [A.S. penig, oldest form pending, where pend=Eng. pawn, Ger. pfand, Dut. pand, a pledge, all which are from L. pannus, a rag, a piece of cloth.]

Pennyroyal, pen′i-roi-al, n. a species of mint, much in use in domestic medicine, in the form of a warm infusion, to promote perspiration and as an emmenagogue. [Corr. from old form pulial, which is traced through O. Fr. to L. puleium regium, the plant pennyroyal—pulex, a flea.]

Penology, Pnology, pē-nol′ō-ji, n. the study of punishment in its relation to crime: the management of prisons.—n. Penol′ogist. [Gr. poinē, punishment, logia, description.]

Pense, pang-sā′, n. a thought. [Fr.]

Penseroso, pen-se-rō′so, adj. melancholy: thoughtful:—fem. Penserō′sa. [It.]

Pensile, pen′sīl, adj. hanging: suspended.—ns. Pen′sileness, Pensil′ity. [Fr.,—L.,—pendēre, hang.]

Pension, pen′shun, n. a stated allowance to a person for past services performed by himself or by some relative: a payment made to a person retired from service on account of age or weakness: a boarding-school or boarding-house on the Continent (pron. pong-siong′): a sum paid to a clergyman in place of tithes.—v.t. to grant a pension to.—adjs. Pen′sionable, entitled, or entitling, to a pension; Pen′sionary, receiving a pension: consisting of a pension.—n. one who receives a pension: the syndic or legal adviser of a Dutch town.—ns. Pen′sioner, one who receives a pension: a dependent: one who pays out of his own income for his commons, chambers, &c. at Cambridge University=an Oxford commoner; Pen′sionnaire.—Grand pensionary, the president of the States-general of Holland. [Fr.,—L. pension-empendĕre, pensum, to weigh, pay.]

Pensive, pen′siv, adj. thoughtful: reflecting: expressing thoughtfulness with sadness.—adj. Pen′sived (Shak.), thought over.—adv. Pen′sively.—n. Pen′siveness, state of being pensive: gloomy thoughtfulness: melancholy. [Fr. pensif—L. pensāre, to weigh—pendĕre, to weigh.]

Penstock, pen′stok, n. a trough conveying water to a water-wheel.

Pensum, pen′sum, n. an extra task given a scholar in punishment.

Pent, pa.t. and pa.p. of pen, to shut up.

Pentacapsular, pen-ta-kap′sū-lar, adj. having five capsules.

Pentachord, pen′ta-kord, n. a musical instrument with five strings: a diatonic series of five tones.

Pentacle, pent′a-kl, n. a figure formed by two equilateral triangles intersecting regularly so as to form a six-pointed star: properly a five-pointed object, the same as Pentagram (q.v.), a defence against demons.—adj. Pentac′ular. [O. Fr., but prob. not from Gr. pente, five, but O. Fr. pente, pendre, to hang. As applied to a magical figure prob. a corr. of pentangle, perh. pentacolpendre, to hang, a, on, col, the neck.]

Pentacoccous, pen-ta-kok′us, adj. (bot.) having five grains or seeds.

Pentacrostic, pen-ta-kros′tik, adj. containing five acrostics of the same name.—n. a set of such verses.

Pentact, pen′takt, adj. five-rayed.—Also Pentac′tinal.

Pentad, pen′tad, n. the number five, a group of five things: a mean of temperature, &c., taken every five days.

Pentadactylous, pen-ta-dak′ti-lus, adj. having five digits—also Pentadac′tyl.—n. Pentadac′tylism.

Pentadelphous, pen-ta-del′fus, adj. (bot.) grouped together in five sets.

Pentaglot, pen′ta-glot, adj. of five tongues.—n. a work in five languages.


Pentagon, pen′ta-gon, n. (geom.) a plane figure having five angles and five sides: a fort with five bastions.—adj. Pentag′onal.—adv. Pentag′onally. [Gr. pentagōnonpente, five, gōnia, angle.]


Pentagram, pen′ta-gram, n. a five-pointed star: a magic figure so called.—This is the proper pentacle.—adj. Pentagrammat′ic. [Gr. pente, five, gramma, a letter.]


Pentagynia, pent-a-jin′i-a, n. (bot.) a Linnan order of plants, characterised by their flowers having five pistils.—n. Pent′agyn (bot.), a plant having five styles.—adjs. Pentagyn′ian, Pentag′ynous. [Gr. pente, five, gynē, a female.]

Pentahedron, pen-ta-hē′dron, n. (geom.) a solid figure bounded by five plane faces.—adj. Pentahē′dral. [Gr. pente, five, hedra, base.]

Pentalpha, pen-tal′fa, n. a five-pointed star: a pentacle. [Gr. pente, five, alpha.]

Pentameron, pen-tam′e-ron, n. a famous collection of fifty folk-tales (Naples 1637) written in the Neapolitan dialect by Giambattista Basile, supposed to be told during five days by ten old women, for the entertainment of a Moorish slave who has usurped the place of the rightful princess. [It. pentamerone.]

Pentamerous, pen-tam′ėr-us, adj. (bot.) consisting of or divided into five parts.—Pentamerus beds (geol.), a name applied to the upper and lower Llandovery rocks, full of the brachiopods called Pentamerus. [Gr. pente, five, meros, part.]

Pentameter, pen-tam′e-tėr, n. a verse of five measures or feet.—adj. having five feet.—Elegiac pentameter, a verse of six dactylic feet, the third and sixth with the first member only; Iambic pentameter, in English, heroic couplets and blank verse. [Gr. pentametrospente, five, metron, a measure.]

Pentandria, pen-tan′dri-a, n. (bot.) a Linnan order of plants, characterised by their flowers having five stamens.—n. Pentan′der, a plant of the class Pentandria.—adjs. Pentan′drian, Pentan′drous. [Gr. pente, five, anēr, andros, a man, a male.]

Pentangular, pen-tang′gū-lar, adj. having five angles.

Pentapetalous, pen-ta-pet′a-lus, adj. having five petals.

Pentaphyllous, pen-ta-fil′us, adj. having five leaves. [Gr. pente, five, phyllon, a leaf.]

Pentapody, pen-tap′o-di, n. a measure of five feet.

Pentapolis, pen-tap′o-lis, n. a group of five cities.—adj. Pentapol′itan, esp. of the ancient Pentapolis of Cyrenaica in northern Africa. [Gr. pente, five, polis, a city.]

Pentarchy, pen′tr-ki, n. government by five persons. [Gr. pente, five, archē, rule.]

Pentasepalous, pen-ta-sep′a-lus, adj. having five sepals.

Pentaspermous, pent-a-spėr′mus, adj. (bot.) containing five seeds. [Gr. pente, five, sperma, seed.]

Pentastich, pen′ta-stik, n. a composition of five verses.—adj. Pentas′tichous, five-ranked.

Pentastyle, pen′ta-stīl, adj. having five columns in front.—n. (archit.) a building with a portico of five columns. [Gr. pente, five, stylos, a pillar.]

Pentasyllabic, pen-ta-si-lab′ik, adj. having five syllables.

Pentateuch, pen′ta-tūk, n. a name used to denote the Jewish Thorah, the first five books of the Old Testament.—adj. Pen′tateuchal. [Gr. pente, five, teuchos, a book—teuchein, to prepare.]

Pentathlon, pen-tath′lon, n. a contest consisting of five exercises—wrestling, throwing the discus, spear-throwing, leaping, and running—also Pentath′lum.—n. Pentath′lēte, one who contests in the pentathlon. [Gr. pente, five, athlon, a contest.]

Pentatonic, pen-ta-ton′ik, adj. consisting of five tones.

Penteconter, pen′tē-kon-tėr, n. an ancient Greek ship having fifty oars.

Pentecost, pen′tē-kost, n. a Jewish festival held on the fiftieth day after the Passover, in commemoration of the giving of the law: the festival of Whitsuntide, held in remembrance of the descent of the Holy Ghost upon the assembled disciples at the feast of Pentecost.—adj. Pentecost′al.— offerings formerly made to the parish priest at Whitsuntide. [Gr. pentēkostē (hēmera), the fiftieth (day).]


Pentelic, -an, pen-tel′ik, -an, adj. describing a kind of marble found at Mount Pentelicus near Athens.

Penteteric, pen-te-ter′ik, adj. occurring every five years. [Gr., pente, five, etos, a year.]

Penthemimeral, pen-thē-mim′e-ral, adj. belonging to a metrical group of 2 feet. [Gr. pente, five, hēmi, half, meros, a part.]

Penthouse, pent′hows, n. a shed projecting from or adjoining a main building: a protection from the weather over a door or a window: anything resembling a penthouse.—v.t. to provide with a penthouse, shelter by means of a shed sloping from a wall, or anything similar. [A corr. of pentice, which is from Fr. appentis—L. appendicium, an appendage.]

Pentice, pen′tis, n. See Penthouse.


Pentroof, pent′rōōf, n. a roof with a slope on one side only. [A hybrid word, from Fr. pente, a slope—pendre, to hang, and Eng. roof.]

Pentstemon, pent-stē′mon, n. a genus of perennial herbs of the order Scrophularine, common in California. [Gr. pente, five, stēmōn, warp, stamen.]

Pentzia, pent′si-a, n. a genus of South African shrubs, having yellow flowers in small heads, usually in corymbs.—The chief species is Pentzia virgata or the 'sheep-fodder bush.' [Named after C. J. Pentz, a student under Thunberg.]

Penult, pē-nult′, or pē′nult, Penult′ima, n. the syllable last but one.—adj. Penult′imāte, last but one.—n. the penult: the last member but one of any series. [L. penultimapne, almost, ultimus, last.]

Penumbra, pē-num′bra, n. a partial or lighter shadow round the perfect or darker shadow of an eclipse: the part of a picture where the light and shade blend into each other.—adjs. Penum′bral, Penum′brous. [L. pne, almost, umbra, shade.]

Penury, pen′ū-ri, n. want: absence of means or resources: great poverty.—adj. Penū′rious, showing penury: not bountiful: too saving: sordid: miserly.—adv. Penū′riously.—n. Penū′riousness. [Fr.,—L. penuria; Gr. peina, hunger, penēs, poor.]

Peon, pē′on, n. a day-labourer, esp. in South America, one working off a debt by bondage: in India, a foot-soldier, a messenger, a native policeman.—ns. Pē′onage, Pē′onism, this kind of agricultural servitude. [Sp.,—Low L. pedo—L. pes, pedis, a foot.]

Peony, pē′o-ni, n. a genus of plants of the natural order Ranunculace, with large showy flowers, carmine, in some white. [O. Fr. pione (Fr. pivoine)—L. ponia, healing—Gr. Paiōn.]

People, pē′pl, n. persons generally: the men, women, and children of a country or a nation: the mass of persons as distinguished from the rulers, &c.: an indefinite number: inhabitants: the vulgar: the populace:—pl. Peoples (pē′plz), races, tribes.—v.t. to stock with people or inhabitants.—People's palace, an institution for the amusement, recreation, and association of the working-classes, as that in the East End of London, inaugurated in 1887.—Chosen people, the Israelites; Good people, or folk, a popular euphemistic name for the fairies; Peculiar people (see Peculiar); The people, the populace, the mass. [Fr. peuple—L. populus, prob. reduplicated from root of plebs, people.]

Peotomy, pē-ot′ō-mi, n. the amputation of the penis. [Gr. peos, the penis, temnein, to cut.]

Peperin, pep′e-rin, n. a volcanic tufa found in the Alban Hills near Rome. [It. peperinopepe, pepper—L. piper, pepper.]

Pepita, pe-pē′ta, n. a nugget of gold. [Sp.]

Peplum, pep′lum, n. an upper robe worn by women in ancient Greece.—Also Pep′lus. [L.,—Gr. peplos.]

Pepo, pē′pō, n. a fruit like that of the gourd. [Gr.]

Pepper, pep′ėr, n. a pungent aromatic condiment consisting of the dried berries of the pepper-plant, entire or powdered: any plant of genus Piper: a plant of genus Capsicum, or one of its pods, whence Cayenne pepper.—v.t. to sprinkle with pepper: to hit or pelt with shot, &c.: to pelt thoroughly: to do for.—adj. Pepp′er-and-salt′, of a colour composed of a light ground dotted with fine spots of a dark colour, or of a dark ground with light spots.—ns. Pepp′er-box, a box with a perforated top for sprinkling pepper on food; Pepp′er-cake, a kind of spiced cake or gingerbread; Pepp′er-cast′er, the vessel, on a cruet-stand, from which pepper is sprinkled; Pepp′ercorn, the berry of the pepper plant: something of little value—Peppercorn rent, a nominal rent; Pepp′erer, one who sells pepper, a grocer; Pepp′er-gin′gerbread, hot-spiced gingerbread; Pepp′er-grass, any plant of genus Lepidium; Pepp′eriness; Pepp′ermint, a species of mint, aromatic and pungent like pepper: a liquor distilled from the plant: a lozenge flavoured with peppermint—Peppermint-drop, a confection so flavoured; Pepp′er-pot, a West Indian dish, of cassareep, together with flesh or dried fish and vegetables, esp. green okra and chillies: tripe shredded and stewed, with balls of dough and plenty of pepper; Pepp′er-tree, a shrub of the cashew family, native to South America, &c.—also Pepper shrub and Chili pepper; Pepp′erwort, the dittander.—adj. Pepp′ery, possessing the qualities of pepper: hot, choleric.—thiopian pepper, the produce of Xylopia thiopica; Benin pepper, of Cubeba Clusii; Guinea pepper, or Maleguetta pepper, of Amomum; Jamaica pepper, or Pimento, of species of Eugenia (Myrtace); Long pepper, the fruit of Piper Longum; White pepper, the seed freed from the skin and fleshy part of the fruit by soaking in water and rubbing the dried fruit. [A.S. pipor—L. piper—Gr. peperi—Sans. pippala.]

Pepper's Ghost, pep′ėrs gōst, n. a device for associating on the same stage living persons and phantoms to act together—the phantom produced by a large sheet of unsilvered glass on the stage, practically invisible to the spectators, reflecting to them, along with a visible actor or actors, the appearance of another actor on an understage, himself invisible. [John H. Pepper (b. 1821), the improver and exhibitor of Henry Dircks' invention.]

Pepsin, Pepsine, pep′sin, n. one of the essential constituents of the gastric juice: the active agent in fermenting food in the stomach—a hydrolytic ferment.—adj. Pep′tic, relating to or promoting digestion: having a good digestion.—ns. Peptic′ity, eupepsia; Pep′tics, digestion considered as a science: the digestive organs; Pep′togen, a substance producing peptone, any preparation that facilitates digestion.—adjs. Peptogen′ic, Peptog′enous, Pepton′ic.—ns. Pep′tōne, one of a class of albumenoids formed by the action of the chemical ferment pepsin and hydrochloric acid, the latter first converting into a syntonin or acid protein, the former converting this syntonin into peptone—they are soluble in water, are not coagulated by boiling, and pass readily through an animal membrane, being therefore easily absorbed; Peptonisā′tion.—v.t. Pep′tonise, to convert into peptones.—n. Pep′tonoid, a substance like peptone: one of certain food preparations. [Fr.,—Gr. pepsis, digestion—peptein, to digest.]

Pepysian, pep′is-i-an, adj. pertaining to Samuel Pepys (1633-1703), his inimitable diary, or the collection of prints, books, ballads, &c. he bequeathed to Magdalene College, Cambridge.

Per, pėr, prep. through, by means of, according to.—Per annum, year by year: for each year; Per capita, by heads, implying equal rights to two or more persons; Per cent., per hundred; Per contra, on the contrary: as a set-off; Per diem, every day: day by day; Per mensem, monthly: by the month; Per saltum, at a single leap: all at once; Per se, by himself, &c.: essentially.

Peracute, per-a-kūt′, adj. very sharp or violent.

Peradventure, per-ad-vent′ūr, adv. by adventure: by chance: perhaps.—n. uncertainty: question.

Perambulate, per-am′bū-lāt, v.t. to walk through or over: to pass through for the purpose of surveying: to survey the boundaries of.—ns. Perambulā′tion, act of perambulating: a survey or inspection by travelling through: the district within which a person has the right of inspection; Peram′bulātor, one who perambulates: an instrument for measuring distances on roads: a light carriage for a child.—adj. Peram′bulātory. [L. perambulāre, -ātumper, through, ambulāre, to walk.]

Percale, per-kl′, n. a closely woven French cambric.—n. Per′caline, a glossy cotton cloth. [Fr.]

Percase, per-kās′, adv. (Bacon) perchance, perhaps. [L. per, through, by, casus, a chance.]

Perceable, pėrs′a-bl, adj. (Spens.)=Pierceable.

Perceant, pėrs′ant, adj. piercing, penetrating.—v.t. Perc′en (Spens.), to pierce. [Fr. perant, pr.p. of percer, to pierce.]

Perceive, per-sēv′, v.t. to become aware of through the senses: to get knowledge of by the mind: to see: to understand: to discern.—adj. Perceiv′able (same as Perceptible).—adv. Perceiv′ably (same as Perceptibly).—ns. Perceiv′er; Perceiv′ing (Bacon), perception. [O. Fr. percever—L. percipĕre, perceptumper, perfectly, capĕre, to take.]

Percentage, per-sen′tāj, n. rate per hundred: an allowance of so much for every hundred.—adj. Percen′tile. [Cf. Cent.]

Percept, pėr′sept, n. that which is perceived by means of the senses.—n. Perceptibil′ity, quality of being perceptible.—adj. Percep′tible, that can be perceived: that may be known by the senses: discernible.—adv. Percep′tibly.—n. Percep′tion, act of perceiving: discernment: (phil.) the faculty of perceiving: the evidence of external objects by our senses.—adjs. Percep′tional; Percep′tive, having the power of perceiving or discerning.—ns. Percep′tiveness, the faculty or power of perceiving: readiness to perceive; Perceptiv′ity, character or quality of being perceptive: power of perceiving.—adj. Percep′tūal, of the nature of perception.

Perch, pėrch, n. a genus of fresh-water fishes.—adjs. Perch′-backed, shaped like a perch's back; Per′ciform, percoid; Per′cine, perciform; Per′coid, like the perch: pertaining to the perch family. [Fr. perche—L. perca—Gr. perkē, a perch, prob. conn. with perknos, spotted.]

Perch, pėrch, n. a rod on which birds roost: any high seat or position: a measure=5 yards: a square measure=30 square yards: a pole joining the fore and hind gear of a spring carriage: a frame on which cloth is examined for flaws.—v.i. to sit or roost on a perch: to settle.—v.t. to place, as on a perch.—ns. Perch′er, a bird that perches on trees; Perch′ing, the examination of cloth stretched on a frame for burs, knots, or holes—also called Burling.—adj. insessorial.—ns. Perch′-plate, a plate or block above or below a carriage-reach, at the king-bolt; Perch′-pole, an acrobat's climbing-pole; Perch′-stay, one of the side-rods bracing the perch to the hind-axle. [Fr. perche—L. pertica, a rod.]

Perchance, per-chans′, adv. by chance: perhaps.

Percheron, per-she-rong′, n. a horse of the Percheron breed, large strong draught-horses, usually dapple-gray—also Norman and Norman Percheron.—adj. pertaining to the foregoing. [Fr.,—Perche, in southern Normandy.]

Perchloric, per-klō′rik, adj. pertaining to an acid, a syrupy liquid obtained by decomposing potassium perchlorate by means of sulphuric acid.—n. Perchlō′rate, a salt of perchloric acid.

Percipient, per-sip′i-ent, adj. perceiving: having the faculty of perception.—n. one who perceives or who has the power of perceiving.—ns. Percip′ience, Percip′iency.

Perclose, per-klōz′, n. an enclosed place: (archit.) a railing separating a tomb or chapel from the rest of the church: (her.) the lower half of a garter with the buckle.—Also Par′aclose, Parclose′. [O. Fr.,—L. pr, in front, claudĕre, clausum, to shut.]

Percoct, per-kokt′, adj. well-cooked. [L. percoctus, percoquĕre, to cook thoroughly.]

Percoid, per′koid. See Perch (1).

Percolate, pėr′kō-lāt, v.t. to strain through pores or small openings, as a liquid: to filter.—v.i. to pass or ooze through very small openings: to filter.—n. a filtered liquid.—ns. Percolā′tion, act of filtering; Per′colator, a filtering vessel. [L. percolāre,-ātumper, through, colāre, to strain.]

Percurrent, per-kur′ent, adj. running through the whole length.—adj. Percur′sory, running over slightly or in haste (same as Cursory). [L. percurrens, pr.p. of percurrĕre, percursum, to run through.]

Percuss, per-kus′, v.t. to strike so as to shake: to tap for purposes of diagnosis.—adj. Percus′sant (her.), bent round and striking the side, as a lion's tail—also Percussed′.

Percussion, per-kush′un, n. the forcible striking of one body against another: collision, or the shock produced by it: impression of sound on the ear: (med.) the tapping upon the body to find the condition of an internal organ by the sounds: in the jargon of palmistry, the outer side of the hand.—adjs. Percuss′ional, Percuss′ive.—ns. Percuss′ion-bull′et, a bullet so formed as to explode on striking something: an explosive bullet; Percus′sion-cap, a cap of copper partly filled with a substance which explodes when struck, formerly used for firing rifles, &c.; Percus′sion-fuse, a fuse in a projectile set in action by concussion when the projectile strikes the object; Percus′sion-hamm′er, a small hammer for percussion in diagnosis; Percus′sion-lock, a kind of lock for a gun in which a hammer strikes upon a percussion-cap on the nipple, igniting the charge; Percus′sion-pow′der, powder which explodes on being struck, called also fulminating powder.—adv. Percuss′ively.—ns. Percuss′or; Percuteur′, an instrument for light percussion in neuralgia, &c.—adj. Percū′tient, striking or having power to strike.—n. that which strikes or has power to strike. [L. percussion-empercutĕre, percussumper, thoroughly, quatĕre, to shake.]

Percutaneous, per-kū-tā′nē-us, adj. done or applied through or by means of the skin.—adv. Percutā′neously. [L. per, through, cutis, the skin.]

Perdendo, per-den′dō, adj. (mus.) dying away.—Also Perden′dosi. [It.]

Perdie, Perdy, pėr′di, adv.=Pardieu.

Perdition, per-dish′un, n. utter loss or ruin: the utter loss of happiness in a future state.—n. Per′dita, a lost woman.—adj. Perdi′tionable. [Fr.,—L. perditioperdĕre, perditumper, entirely, dăre, to put.]

Perdu, Perdue, per-dū′, adj. lost to view: concealed: being on a forlorn hope or on a desperate enterprise: reckless.—n. (Shak.) one lying in concealment or ambush: one on a forlorn hope. [Fr., pa.p. of perdre, to lose—L. perdĕre, to destroy.]

Perduellion, per-dū-el′i-on, n. treason. [L.]

Perdurable, per′dū-ra-bl, adj. (Shak.) very durable, long continued.—ns. Perdurabil′ity, Perdū′rance, Perdurā′tion.—adv. Perdū′rably (Shak.), very durably: everlastingly.—v.i. Perdure′, to last for a very long time. [L. perdurāreper, through, durāre, to last.]

Peregal, per′e-gal, adj. fully equal.—n. equal.

Peregrinate, per′ē-gri-nāt, v.i. to travel through the country: to travel about from place to place: to live in a foreign country.—adj. foreign.—ns. Peregrinā′tion, act of peregrinating or travelling about; Per′egrinātor, one who travels about.—adj. Per′egrine, foreign, not native: migratory, as a bird.—n. a foreigner resident in any country: a kind of falcon.—n. Peregrin′ity, foreignness. [L. peregrināri, -ātusperegrinus, foreign.]

Pereion, pe-rī′on, n. the thorax in crustacea:—pl. Perei′a.—n. Perei′opod, one of the true thoracic limbs of a crustacean. [Gr. periiōn, pr.p. of periienai, to go about.]

Perelle, pe-rel′, n. Same as Parella.

Peremptory, per′emp-tō-ri, adj. preventing debate: authoritative: dogmatical: final, determinate: fully resolved or determined: that must be done.—adv. Per′emptorily.—n. Per′emptoriness. [Fr.,—L. peremptoriusperimĕre, peremptum—per, entirely, emĕre, to take.]

Perennial, pe-ren′i-al, adj. lasting through the year: perpetual: never failing: growing constantly: (bot.) lasting more than two years: of insects, living more than one year.—n. a plant which lives more than two years.—v.i. Perenn′ate, to live perennially.—n. Perennā′tion.—adv. Perenn′ially. [L. perennisper, through, annus, a year.]

Perennibranchiate, pe-ren-i-brang′ki-āt, adj. having perennial branchi or gills.—Also Perenn′ibranch.

Perfect, pėr′fekt, adj. done thoroughly or completely: completed: without blemish, fault, or error: having neither too much nor too little: entire, very great: in the highest degree: possessing every moral excellence: completely skilled or acquainted: (gram.) expressing an act completed: (bot.) having both stamens and pistils, hermaphrodite.—v.t. (or per-fekt′) to make perfect: to finish: to teach fully, to make fully skilled in anything.—ns. Perfectā′tion (rare); Per′fecter; Perfect′i, a body of Catharists in the 12th and 13th centuries, of very strict lives; Perfectibil′ity, quality of being made perfect.—adj. Perfect′ible, that may be made perfect.—ns. Perfec′tion, state of being perfect: a perfect quality or acquirement: the highest state or degree; Perfec′tionism (or Perfectibil′ity), the belief that man in a state of grace may attain to a relative perfection or a state of living without sin in this life; Perfec′tionist, one who pretends to be perfect: one who thinks that moral perfection can be attained in this life: one of the Bible Communists or Free-lovers, a small American sect founded by J. H. Noyes (1811-86), which settled at Oneida in 1848, holding that the gospel if accepted secures freedom from sin.—adj. Perfect′ive, tending to make perfect.—advs. Perfect′ively, Per′fectly, in a perfect manner: completely: exactly: without fault.—n. Per′fectness, state or quality of being perfect: completeness: perfection: consummate excellence.—Perfect insect, the imago or completely developed form of an insect; Perfect metals (see Metal); Perfect number, a number equal to the sum of all its divisors, the number itself of course excepted, as 6 = 1 + 2 + 3, 28 = 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14. [Fr.,—L. perfectus, pa.p. of perficĕreper, thoroughly, facĕre, to do.]

Perfervid, per-fer′vid, adj. very fervid: very hot or eager.—n. Perfer′vidness.—Perfervidum ingenium, a very ardent disposition. [L. perfervidus, prferviduspr, before, fervidus, fervid.]

Perficient, pėr-fish′ent, adj. effectual.—n. one who does a lasting work, esp. who endows a charity.

Perfidious, per-fid′i-us, adj. faithless: unfaithful: basely violating trust: treacherous.—adv. Perfid′iously.—ns. Perfid′iousness, Per′fidy, treachery. [L. perfidiosusperfidia, faithlessness.]

Perfoliate, -d, per-fō′li-āt, -ed, adj. (bot.) having the stem as it were passing through the blade—of a leaf: having the leaf round the stem at the base: (zool.) surrounded by a circle of hairs, &c., taxicorn. [L. per, through, folium, a leaf.]

Perforate, pėr′fō-rāt, v.t. to bore through: to pierce: to make a hole through.—adj. Per′forable, capable of being perforated.—n. Per′forans, the long flexor muscle of the toes, or the deep flexor muscle of the fingers.—adjs. Per′forant, perforating; Per′forate, -d (bot.), pierced with holes: having transparent dots, as the leaves of certain flowers.—n. Perforā′tion, act of boring through: a hole through or into anything.—adj. Per′forātive, having power to pierce.—ns. Per′forātor, one who bores, or an instrument for boring; Per′forātus, the short flexor of the toes, or the superficial flexor of the fingers. [L. perforāre, -ātumper, through, forāre, to bore.]

Perforce, per-fōrs′, adv. by force: of necessity.

Perform, per-form′, v.t. to do thoroughly: to carry out: to achieve: to act, as on the stage.—v.i. to do: to act a part: to play, as on a musical instrument.—adj. Perfor′mable, capable of being performed: practicable.—ns. Perfor′mance, act of performing: a carrying out of something: something done, esp. of a public character: a piece of work: an exhibition in a theatre or a place of amusement: an act or action; Perfor′mer, one who performs, esp. one who makes a public exhibition of his skill: an actor, an actress, &c.—adj. Perfor′ming, doing: trained to perform tricks. [O. Fr. parfournir, par—L. per, through, fournir, to furnish.]

Perfume, pėr′fūm, or pėr-fūm′, n. sweet-smelling smoke: sweet scent: anything which yields a sweet odour.—v.t. (pėr-fūm′) to fill with a pleasant odour: to scent.—adj. Perfū′matory, yielding perfume.—ns. Per′fume-foun′tain, a small appliance for throwing a jet or spray of perfume; Perfū′mer, one who or that which perfumes: one who makes or sells perfumes; Perfū′mery, perfumes in general: the art of preparing perfumes; Per′fume-set, a set of articles for the toilet-table.—adj. Per′fūmy. [Fr. parfum—L. per, through, fumus, smoke.]

Perfunctory, per-fungk′tō-ri, adj. done merely as a duty to be passed over: performed carelessly or without interest: negligent: slight.—adv. Perfunc′torily, in a careless, half-hearted manner: without zeal or interest.—n. Perfunc′toriness, careless performance: half-heartedness. [L. perfunctoriusperfunctus, pa.p. of perfungi, to execute—per, thoroughly, fungi, to do.]

Perfuse, per-fūz′, v.t. to pour through or over.—n. Perfū′sion.—adj. Perfū′sive, sprinkling, or tending to sprinkle. [L. perfusus, poured over—per, through, fundĕre, to pour.]

Pergameneous, per-ga-mē′nē-us, adj. thin and parchment-like in texture.—adj. Pergamentā′ceous, parchment-like. [L. pergamena, parchment.]

Pergola, per′gō-la, n. an arbour, a balcony.—Also Per′gula. [It.,—L. pergula, a shed.]

Pergunnah, pėr-gun′a, n. a sub-division of a zillah or district in India.—Also Pargan′a. [Hind.]

Perhaps, per-haps′, adv. it may be: possibly.

Peri, pē′ri, n. in Persian mythology, a female elf or fairy, represented as descended from the fallen angels. [Fr. pri—Pers. parī, a fairy.]

Periagua, per-i-′gw, n. a canoe hollowed out of a single trunk, a dug-out: a vessel made by cutting a canoe in two lengthwise and inserting a large plank: a large keelless flat-bottomed boat for shoal-water navigation, decked at the ends only, propelled by rowing, or by sails on two masts capable of being struck.—Also Pirogue′. [Sp. piragua.]

Periaktos, per-i-ak′tos, n. in the ancient Greek theatre a tall prism-shaped frame or screen at the side entrances, each carrying three scenes changed by turning the frames. [Gr.]

Perianth, per′i-anth, n. the floral envelope where the calyx and corolla are not easily distinguished. [Gr. peri, around, anthos, a flower.]

Periapt, per′i-apt, n. (Shak.) an amulet. [Gr. periapton, something hung round, peri, about, aptosaptein, to fasten.]

Periaxial, per-i-ak′si-al, adj. surrounding an axis.

Periblast, per′i-blast, n. the protoplasm about the nucleus of a cell.—adj. Periblast′ic. [Gr. peri, about, blastos, a germ.]

Peribolos, pe-rib′o-los, n. a court enclosed by a wall, esp. one containing a temple or a church, the whole outer enclosure of sanctuary or refuge. [Gr. peribolos, encircling—peri, around, ballein, to throw.]

Pericardium, per-i-kr′di-um, n. (anat.) the bag or sac composed of two layers which surrounds the heart.—adjs. Pericar′diac, Pericar′dial, Pericar′dian.—n. Pericardī′tis, inflammation of the pericardium. [Late L.,—Gr. perikardionperi, around, kardia, heart.]

Pericarp, per′i-krp, n. (bot.) the covering, shell, or rind of fruits: a seed-vessel.—adj. Pericarp′ial. [Gr. perikarpionperi, around, karpos, fruit.]

Pericentral, per-i-sen′tral, adj. surrounding a central body.—adj. Pericen′tric.

Perichondrium, per-i-kon′dri-um, n. the fibrous investment of cartilage. [Gr. peri, about, chondros, cartilage.]

Periclase, per′i-klāz, n. a rare mineral consisting of magnesia with a little iron protoxide. [Gr. peri, about, klasis, fracture.]

Periclean, per-i-klē′an, adj. of Pericles (died 429 B.C.) or the golden age of art and letters at Athens.

Pericope, pē-rik′ō-pē, n. an extract, esp. the selections from the epistles and gospels for the Sundays of the year. [Gr. peri, around, koptein, to cut.]

Pericranium, per-i-krā′ni-um, n. (anat.) the membrane that surrounds the cranium.—adj. Pericrā′nial.—n. Per′icrāny (obs.), the skull. [Late L.,—Gr. perikranionperi, around, kranion, the skull.]

Periculum, pē-rik′ū-lum, n. (Scots law) a risk:—pl. Peric′ula. [L.]

Pericystitis, per-i-sis-tī′tis, n. inflammation around the bladder. [Gr. peri, around, kystis, the bladder.]

Peridental, per-i-den′tal, adj. surrounding the teeth.

Periderm, per′i-derm, n. the hard integument of some tubularian hydromedusans: (bot.) the outer bark.—adj. Per′idermal. [Gr. peri, about, derma, skin.]

Peridesmium, per-i-des′mi-um, n. (anat.) the areolar tissue round a ligament. [Gr. peri, around, desmos, a band.]

Peridium, pē-rid′i-um, n. the outer coat of a sporophore in angiocarpous fungi.—adj. Perid′ial.—n. Peridī′olum (bot.), an inner peridium inside of which the hymenium is formed. [Gr. pēridion, dim. of pēra, a wallet.]

Peridotite, per′i-dō-tīt, n. rock mainly composed of olivine.—n. Per′idot, chrysolite.—adj. Peridot′ic.

Peridrome, per′i-drōm, n. the space between the inner cell or chamber and the surrounding pillars in an ancient temple. [Gr. peridromos, running round—peri, around, dromos, a race.]

Periegesis, per-i-ē-jē′sis, n. a progress or journey through. [Gr.]

Perienteron, per-i-en′te-ron, n. the primitive perivisceral cavity.—adj. Perienter′ic. [Gr. peri, about, enteron, an intestine.]

Perifibrum, per-i-fī′brum, n. the membraneous covering of the spicules and fibre of sponges.

Periganglionic, per-i-gang-gli-on′ik, adj. surrounding a ganglion.

Perigastric, per-i-gas′trik, adj. surrounding the alimentary canal.

Perigee, per′i-jē, n. (astron.) the point of the moon's orbit at which it is nearest the earth—opp. to Apogee.—adjs. Perigē′al, Perigē′an. [Gr. peri, near, , the earth.]

Perigenesis, per-i-jen′e-sis, n. wave-generation, the dynamic theory of reproduction by a kind of wave-motion of plastidules.

Periglottis, per-i-glot′is, n. the epidermis of the tongue.—adj. Periglott′ic.

Perigone, per′i-gōn, n. (bot.) the same as Perianth—also Perigō′nium.—adj. Perigō′nial. [Gr. peri, about, gonē, seed.]

Perigraph, per′i-graf, n. an inaccurate delineation of anything.—adj. Perigraph′ic.

Perigynous, per-ij′i-nus, adj. (bot.) denoting flowers which have the petals and stamens growing on the calyx, or around the pistil.—n. Perigyn′ium. [Gr. peri, about, gynē, a female.]

Perihelion, per-i-hē′li-on, n. the point of the orbit of a planet or a comet at which it is nearest to the sun—opp. to Aphelion.—Also Perihē′lium. [Gr. peri, near, hēlios, the sun.]

Perihepatic, per-i-hē-pat′ik, adj. surrounding the liver.

Peril, per′il, n. danger: a source of danger: exposure to danger.—v.t. to expose to danger:—pr.p. per′illing; pa.t. and pa.p. per′illed.adj. Per′ilous, full of peril: dangerous.—adv. Per′ilously.—n. Per′ilousness. [Fr. pril—L. periculum.]

Perilymph, per′i-limf, n. the fluid which surrounds the membraneous labyrinth of the ear.

Perimeter, pē-rim′e-tėr, n. (geom.) the circuit or boundary of any plane figure, or the sum of all its sides: an instrument for measuring the area over which a person can see distinctly.—adjs. Perimet′ric, -al, pertaining to the perimeter.—n. Perim′etry, the act of making perimetrical measurements. [Gr. perimetrosperi, around, metron, measure.]

Perimorph, per′i-morf, n. a mineral enclosing another.—adjs. Perimor′phic, Perimor′phous.

Perineum, Perinum, per-i-nē′um, n. the lower part of the body between the genital organs and the rectum.—adj. Perinē′al. [L.,—Gr.]

Period, pē′ri-ud, n. the time in which anything is performed: (astron.) the time occupied by one of the heavenly bodies in making its revolution: a stated interval of time, at the end of which certain events begin again to go through the same course as before: a series of events: a series of years: length of duration: the time at which anything ends: conclusion: (gram.) a mark at the end of a sentence: (rhet.) a complete sentence.—v.t. (Shak.) to put an end to.—adjs. Period′ic, -al, pertaining to a period: happening by revolution: occurring at regular intervals: pertaining to periodicals.—ns. Period′ical, a magazine or other publication which appears in parts at regular periods; Period′icalist, one who writes in a periodical.—adv. Period′ically.—n. Periodic′ity, state of being periodic: tendency to happen over again at regular intervals of time.—Periodical literature, literature published in magazines, &c.; Periodic function, one whose operation being iterated a certain number of times restores the variable: a function having a period; Periodic inequality, a disturbance in the motion of a planet due to its position in its orbit relatively to another planet; Periodic law (chem.), a relation of elements according to their atomic weights. [Fr.,—L.,—Gr. periodosperi, around, hodos, a way.]

Periophthalmus, per-i-of-thal′mus, n. a genus of acanthopterous fishes, allied to gobies, with protruding mobile eyes, pectoral fins that can be used as legs.

Periorbital, per-i-or′bi-tal, adj. pertaining to the orbit of the eye.

Periosteum, per-i-os′tē-um, n. a tough fibrous membrane which forms the outer coating of bones.—adjs. Perios′tēal, Perios′tēous; Periostit′ic.—n. Periostī′tis, inflammation of the periosteum. [Gr. periosteonperi, around, osteon, a bone.]

Periotic, per-i-ō′tik, adj. surrounding the inner ear.—n. a periotic bone. [Gr. peri, about, ous, ōtos, the ear.]

Peripatetic, -al, per-i-pa-tet′ik, -al, adj. walking about: of or pertaining to the philosophy of Aristotle, who taught while walking up and down in the Lyceum at Athens.—n. Peripatet′ic, an adherent of the philosophy of Aristotle: one accustomed or obliged to walk: (pl.) instruction by lectures.—n. Peripatet′icism, the philosophy of Aristotle. [Gr. peripatētikosperi, about, patein, to walk.]

Peripatus, pe-rip′ā-tus, n. a genus of myriapods.

Peripetia, per-i-pe-tī′a, n. the dnouement of a drama.

Periphery, pe-rif′ėr-i, n. (geom.) the circumference of a circle or of any closed figure: the outside of anything generally.—adjs. Periph′eral, Peripher′ic, -al. [L.—Gr. peri, around, pherein, to carry.]

Periphractic, per-i-frak′tik, adj. enclosed around. [Gr. peri, about, phrassein, to enclose.]

Periphrase, per′i-frāz, n. a round-about way of speaking: the use of more words than are necessary to express an idea: (rhet.) a figure employed to avoid a trite expression—also Periph′rasis.—v.t. or v.i. to use circumlocution.—adjs. Periphras′tic, -al, containing or expressed by periphrasis or circumlocution.—adv. Periphras′tically. [L.,—Gr. periphrasisperi, about, phrasis, a speaking.]

Periplast, per′i-plast, n. the intercellular substance of an organ or tissue of the body.—adj. Periplast′ic.

Periplus, per′i-plus, n. a circumnavigation. [Gr. peri, around, ploos, plous, a voyage.]

Periptery, pe-rip′tėr-i, n. (archit.) a building surrounded by a wing or row of columns.—adjs. Perip′teral, having a periptery or range of columns all round, said of a temple, &c.; Perip′terous, feathered on all sides: peripteral. [Gr. peripterosperi, about, pteron, a wing.]

Perirhinal, per-i-rī′nal, adj. surrounding the nose.

Periscii, pe-rish′i-ī, the people within the polar circle, because their shadows, on some days in summer, move round in a complete circle, owing to the fact that on those days the sun does not set.—adj. Peris′cian. [Gr. periskios, throwing a shadow all round; peri, around, skia, a shadow.]

Periscope, per′i-skōp, n. an instrument like the altiscope, used in directing submarine boats.—adj. Periscop′ic. [Gr. peri, about, skopein, to see.]

Perish, per′ish, v.i. to pass away completely: to waste away: to decay: to lose life: to be destroyed: to be ruined or lost.—ns. Perishabil′ity, Per′ishableness, the quality of being liable to speedy decay or destruction.—adj. Per′ishable, that may perish: subject to speedy decay.—adv. Per′ishably.—v.i. Per′ishen (Spens.), to perish. [O. Fr. perir, pr.p. perissant—L. perīre, to perish—per, completely, īre, to go.]

Perisperm, per′i-spėrm, n. (bot.) that which is round a seed, the albumen.—adj. Perisper′mic. [Gr. peri, around, sperma, seed.]

Perispheric, -al, per-i-sfer′ik, -al, adj. globular.

Perispore, per′i-spōr, n. the outer covering of a spore.

Perissad, pe-ris′ad, n. (chem.) an atom whose valency is represented by an odd number—opp. to Artiad—also adj. [Gr. perissos, beyond the regular number.]

Perissodactyla, pe-ris-ō-dak′ti-la, n. one of the two divisions of the great mammalian order Ungulata, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros, distinguished by the third digit of each limb being symmetrical in itself, by the presence of an odd number of digits on the hind-foot, &c.—opp. to Artiodactyla.—adjs. Perissodac′tyl, Perissodac′tylate, Perissodactyl′ic, Perissodac′tylous. [Gr. perissos, beyond the regular number, daktylos, a finger.]

Perissology, per-i-sol′ō-ji, n. verbiage.—adj. Perissolog′ical, redundant in words.

Perissosyllabic, pe-ris-o-si-lab′ik, adj. having superfluous syllables.

Peristalith, pe-ris′ta-lith, n. a series of standing stones surrounding a barrow or burial-mound. [Gr. peri, around, histanai, to stand, lithos, a stone.]

Peristaltic, per-i-stalt′ik, adj. noting the involuntary muscular action of the alimentary canal, by which it forces its contents onwards.—n. Peristal′sis. [Gr. peristaltikosperistellein, to wrap round—peri, around, stellein, to place.]

Peristeropod, pē-ris′te-rō-pod, adj. pigeon-toed—also n. [Gr. peristera, a pigeon, pous, podos, a foot.]

Peristome, per′i-stōm, n. the mouth-parts of echinoderms, &c.: the fringe of hair-like appendages round the rim of the capsule of a moss.

Peristyle, per′i-stīl, n. a range of columns round a building or round a square: a court, square, &c., with columns all round.—adj. Peristy′lar. [L. peristylium—Gr. peristylon, with pillars round the wall—peri, around, stylos, a column.]

Perithoracic, per-i-thō-ras′ik, adj. around the thorax.

Peritomous, pe-rit′ō-mus, adj. (min.) cleaving in more directions than one parallel to the axis, the faces being all similar. [Gr. peri, round, temnein, to cut.]

Peritoneum, Peritonum, per-i-tō-nē′um, n. a serous membrane which encloses all the viscera lying in the abdominal and pelvic cavities.—adjs. Peritonē′al; Peritonit′ic.—n. Peritonī′tis, inflammation of the peritoneum. [Gr. peritoneionperi, around, teinein, to stretch.]

Perityphlitis, per-i-tif-lī′tis, n. inflammation of the ccum, appendix, and connective tissue, or of the peritoneum covering ccum and appendix. [Gr. peri, round, typhlos, blind (the ccum being the 'blind gut').]

Perivascular, per-i-vas′kū-lar, adj. surrounding a vascular structure.

Perivisceral, per-i-vis′e-ral, adj. surrounding viscera.

Periwig, per′i-wig, n. a peruke or small wig, usually shortened to Wig: an artificial head of hair.—v.t. to dress with a periwig.—adj. Per′iwig-pā′ted, wearing a periwig. [Old Dut. peruyk—Fr. perruque.]

Periwinkle, per′i-wingk-l, n. a creeping evergreen plant, growing in woods. [M. E. peruenke, through A.S. peruinc, from L. pervinca, vincīre, to bind.]

Periwinkle, per′i-wingk-l, n. a small univalve mollusc: a small shellfish, abundant between tide-marks on the rocks, boiled and eaten as food. [Corrupted by confusion with preceding from A.S. pinewinclawincle, a whelk; prov. Eng. pin-patch.]

Perjure, pėr′jōōr, v.t. to swear falsely (followed by a reciprocal pronoun): to cause to swear falsely.—v.i. to be false to one's oath.—n. (Shak.) a perjured person.—adj. Per′jured, having sworn falsely: being sworn falsely, as an oath.—n. Per′jurer.—adjs. Perju′rious, Per′jurous, guilty of perjury.—n. Per′jury, false swearing: the breaking of an oath: (law) the crime committed by one who, when giving evidence on oath as a witness in a court of justice, gives evidence which he knows to be false. [Fr.,—L. perjurāreper-, jurāre, to swear.]

Perk, pėrk, adj. trim: spruce: jaunty: proud.—v.t. to make smart or trim.—v.i. to hold up the head with smartness: to toss or jerk the head.—adj. Perk′y (Tenn.), perk, trim. [W. perc, trim.]

Perk, pėrk, v.i. (prov.) to peer.—adj. Perk′ing, peering, inquisitive.

Perkin, per′kin, n. weak perry.

Perlaceous=Pearlaceous. See Pearl.

Perlite, pėr′līt, n. the name given to some vitreous rocks, as obsidian, which seem as if made up of little pearly or enamel-like spheroids.—adj. Perlit′ic.

Perlous, pėrl′us, adj. (Spens.). Same as Perilous.

Perlustrate, per-lus′trāt, v.t. to survey carefully.—n. Perlustrā′tion. [L. perlustrāre, -ātum.]

Permanent, pėr′ma-nent, adj. lasting: durable: not subject to change: not to be removed: (zool.) always present.—ns. Per′manence, Per′manency, state or quality of being permanent: continuance in the same state, position, &c.: unlikelihood of change: duration.—adv. Per′manently.—Permanent way, the finished road of a railway. [Fr.,—L. permanēreper, through, manēre, to continue.]

Permanganate, per-man′gan-āt, n. a salt containing manganese.—adj. Permangan′ic.

Permeate, pėr′mē-āt, v.t. to pass through the pores of: to penetrate and fill the pores of.—n. Permēabil′ity.—adj. Per′mēable, that may be permeated or passed through: allowing the passage of liquids.—adv. Per′mēably.—n. Permēā′tion, act of permeating, or state of being permeated.—adj. Permēā′tive. [L. permeatusper, through, meāre, to pass.]

Permian, per′mi-an, n. a group of strata forming the uppermost division of the Palezoic series.

Permiscible, per-mis′i-bl, adj. capable of being mixed.

Permit, per-mit′, v.t. to give leave to: to allow to be or to be done: to afford means: to give opportunity:—pr.p. permit′ting; pa.t. and pa.p. permit′ted.n. (per′mit) a written permission, esp. from a custom-house officer to remove goods.—n. Permissibil′ity.—adj. Permiss′ible, that may be permitted: allowable.—adv. Permiss′ibly.—n. Permis′sion, act of permitting: liberty granted: allowance.—adj. Permiss′ive, granting permission or liberty: allowing: granted: not hindered.—adv. Permiss′ively, by permission, without prohibition.—ns. Permit′tance, permission; Permittēē′, one to whom permission is granted; Permit′ter, one who permits.—Permissive Bill, a measure embodying the principles of local option for the regulation of the liquor traffic; Permissive laws, laws that permit certain things without enforcing anything. [L. permittĕre, -missum, to let pass through—per, through, mittĕre, to send.]

Permutable, per-mū′ta-bl, adj. that may be changed one for another.—ns. Permū′tableness, Permutabil′ity.—adv. Permū′tably.—ns. Permū′tant; Permutā′tion, act of changing one thing for another: (math.) the arrangement of things or letters in every possible order.—v.t. Permute′. [L.,—permutāreper, through, mutāre, to change.]

Pern, pėrn, n. a honey-buzzard.—Also Per′nis.

Pernicious, per-nish′us, adj. killing utterly: hurtful: destructive: highly injurious.—adv. Perni′ciously.—n. Perni′ciousness. [Fr.,—L. perniciosusper, completely, nex, necis, death by violence.]

Pernickety, per-nik′e-ti, adj. easily troubled about trifles: (coll.) fastidious.—n. Pernick′etiness.

Pernoctation, pėr-nok-tā′shun, n. act of passing the whole night, esp. in prayer or watching: a watch all night. [L. per, through, nox, noctis, night.]

Perone, per′ō-nē, n. the fibula or small bone of the leg.—adjs. Perōnē′al; Perōnēōtib′ial, pertaining to the perone and the tibia.—n. a muscle from the fibula to the tibia in some marsupials: an anomalous muscle in man, constant in apes, between the inner side of the head of the fibula and the tibia.—n. Peronē′us, one of several fibular muscles. [Fr.,—Gr. peronē, the tongue of a buckle.]

Peropod, pē′rō-pod, adj. having rudimentary hind limbs, as serpents—also n. [Gr. pēros, maimed, pous, podos, a foot.]

Peroration, per-ō-rā′shun, n. the conclusion of a speech, usually summing up the points and enforcing the argument.—v.i. Per′orate, to make a peroration: (coll.) to make a speech. [Fr.,—L. peroratioperorāre, to bring a speech to an end—per, through, orāre, to speak—os, oris, the mouth.]

Peroxide, per-ox′īd, n. an oxide having a larger proportion of oxygen than any other oxide of the same series.—n. Peroxidā′tion.—v.t. and v.i. Perox′idise.

Perpend, per-pend′, v.t. to weigh in the mind, to consider carefully. [L. perpendĕreper, inten., pendĕre, to weigh.]

Perpend, per′pend, n. in building, a bond-stone or bonder.—Also Per′pend-stone, Per′pent-stone. [O. Fr. parpaigne, Fr. parpaing.]

Perpendicular, pėr-pen-dik′ū-lar, adj. exactly upright: extending in a straight line toward the centre of the earth: (geom.) at right angles to a given line or surface.—n. a perpendicular line or plane.—n. Perpendicular′ity, state of being perpendicular.—adv. Perpendic′ularly.—Perpendicular style, a style of Gothic architecture in England which succeeded the Decorated style, prevailing from the end of the 14th to the middle of the 16th century, contemporary with the Flamboyant style in France, marked by stiff and rectilinear lines, mostly vertical window-tracery, depressed or four-centre arch, fan-tracery vaulting, and panelled walls. [Fr.,—L. perpendicularisperpendiculum, a plumb-line—per, through, pendĕre, to weigh.]

Perpetrate, pėr′pē-trāt, v.t. to perform or commit (usually in a bad sense): to produce (as a poor pun).—adj. Per′petrable.—ns. Perpetrā′tion, act of committing a crime: the thing perpetrated: an evil action; Per′petrātor. [L. perpetrāre, -ātumper, thoroughly, patrāre, to perform.]

Perpetual, per-pet′ū-al, adj. never ceasing: everlasting: not temporary.—adv. Perpet′ually.—Perpetual curate, a curate of a parish where there was neither rector nor vicar, the tithes being in the hands of a layman—abolished in 1868, every incumbent not a rector now being a vicar; Perpetual motion, motion of a machine arising from forces within itself, constantly kept up without any force from without; Perpetual screw, an endless screw. [Fr. perptuel—L. perpetuus, continuous.]

Perpetuate, per-pet′ū-āt, v.t. to make perpetual: to cause to last for ever or for a very long time: to preserve from extinction or oblivion.—adj. Perpet′ūable, capable of being perpetuated.—n. Perpet′uance, the act of making perpetual.—adjs. Perpet′uāte, -d, made perpetual: continued for an indefinite time.—n. Perpetuā′tion, act of perpetuating or preserving from oblivion: preservation for ever, or for a very long time; Perpetū′ity, state of being perpetual: endless time: duration for an indefinite period: something lasting for ever: the sum paid for a perpetual annuity: the annuity itself.

Perplex, per-pleks′, v.t. to make difficult to be understood: to embarrass: to puzzle: to tease with suspense or doubt.—n. (obs.) a difficulty.—adv. Perplex′edly.—n. Perplex′edness.—adj. Perplex′ing.—adv. Perplex′ingly.—n. Perplex′ity, state of being perplexed: confusion of mind arising from doubt, &c.: intricacy: embarrassment: doubt. [Fr.,—L. perplexus, entangled—per, completely, plexus, involved, pa.p. of plectĕre.]

Perquisite, pėr′kwi-zit, n. an allowance granted over and above the settled wages: a fee allowed by law to an officer for a specific service.—ns. Perquisi′tion, a strict search: diligent inquiry; Perquis′itor, the first purchaser of an estate. [L. perquisitum, from perquirĕreper, thoroughly, qurĕre, to ask.]

Perradial, pėr-rā′di-al, adj. fundamentally radial.—n. Perrā′dius.

Perrier, per′i-ėr, n. a machine for hurling stones.

Perron, per′on, n. an external flight of steps giving access to the entrance-door of a building.

Perruque, Perruquier. See Peruke.

Perry, per′i, n. an agreeable beverage made by fermenting the juice of pears. [Fr. poir, from poire, a pear—L. pirum.]

Persant, pėrs′ant, adj. (Spens.). Same as Perceant.

Perscrutation, per-skrōō-tā′shun, n. a thorough search through: a minute inquiry. [L. per, through, scrutāri, to search carefully.]

Perse, pers, adj. dark blue, bluish-gray.—n. a dark-blue colour, a cloth of such colour. [O. Fr. pers—L. persicum, a peach.]

Persecute, pėr′se-kūt, v.t. to pursue so as to injure or annoy: to follow after persistently: to annoy or punish, esp. for religious or political opinions.—ns. Persecū′tion, act or practice of persecuting: state of being persecuted: a time of general oppression on account of religious opinions; Per′secūtor:—fem. Per′secūtrix. [Fr.,—L. persequi, persecutusper, thoroughly, sequi, to follow.]

Perseus, per′sūs, n. a fabled Greek hero, who slew the Gorgon Medusa, and rescued Andromeda from a sea-monster: a constellation in the northern sky. [Gr.]

Persevere, pėr-sē-vēr′, v.i. to persist in anything: to pursue anything steadily: to be constant: not to give over.—n. Persevē′rance, act or state of persevering: continued application to anything which one has begun: a going on till success is met with.—adj. Persevē′ring.—adv. Persevē′ringly.—Perseverance of saints, the Calvinistic doctrine that those who are effectually called by God cannot fall away so as to be finally lost. [Fr.,—L. perseverāreperseverus, very strict—per, very, severus, strict.]

Persian, pėr′shi-an, adj. of, from, or relating to Persia, its inhabitants, or language.—n. a native of Persia: the language of Persia: (archit.) male figures used instead of columns to support an entablature—also Per′sic.—Persian apple, the peach; Persian berry, the fruit of several buckthorns; Persian blinds (see Persienne); Persian wheel, a large wheel for raising water, fixed vertically with a number of buckets at its circumference.

Persicot, per′si-kot, n. a cordial flavoured with kernels of peaches and apricots. [Fr.,—L. persicum, a peach.]

Persienne, per-si-en′, n. an Eastern cambric or muslin with coloured printed pattern: (pl.) Persian blinds, outside shutters of thin movable slats in a frame.

Persiflage, pėr′si-flzh, n. a frivolous way of talking or treating any subject: banter.—adj. Per′siflant, bantering.—v.i. Per′siflāte (Thackeray).—n. Per′siflour (Carlyle). [Fr.,—persifler, to banter—L. per, through, Fr. siffler—L. sibilāre, to whistle, to hiss.]

Persimmon, Persimon, per-sim′on, n. the American date-plum. [Amer. Ind.]

Persist, per-sist′, v.i. to stand throughout to something begun: to continue in any course, esp. against opposition: to persevere.—ns. Persis′tence, Persis′tency, quality of being persistent: perseverance: obstinacy: duration, esp. of an effect after the exciting cause has been removed.—adj. Persis′tent, persisting: pushing on, esp. against opposition: tenacious: fixed: (bot.) remaining till or after the fruit is ripe, as a calyx.—advs. Persis′tently; Persis′tingly.—adj. Persis′tive (Shak.), persistent. [Fr.,—L. persistĕreper, through, sistĕre, to cause to stand—stāre, to stand.]

Person, pėr′sun, n. character represented, as on the stage: character: an individual, sometimes used slightingly: a living soul: a human being: the outward appearance, &c.: bodily form: one of the three hypostases or individualities in the triune God: (gram.) a distinction in form, according as the subject of the verb is the person speaking, spoken to, or spoken of.—adj. Per′sonable, having a well-formed body or person: of good appearance.—n. Per′sonāge, a person: character represented: an individual of eminence: external appearance.—adj. Per′sonal, belonging to a person: having the nature or quality of a person: peculiar to a person or to his private concerns: pertaining to the external appearance: done in person: relating to one's own self: applied offensively to one's character: (gram.) denoting the person.—n. Personalisā′tion, personification.—v.t. Per′sonalise, to make personal.—ns. Per′sonalism, the character of being personal; Per′sonalist, one who writes personal notes; Personal′ity, that which distinguishes a person from a thing, or one person from another: individuality: a derogatory remark or reflection directly applied to a person—esp. in pl. Personal′ities.—adv. Per′sonally, in a personal or direct manner: in person: individually.—n. Per′sonalty (law), all the property which, when a man dies, goes to his executor or administrator, as distinguished from the realty, which goes to his heir-at-law.—v.t. Per′sonāte, to assume the likeness or character of: to represent: to counterfeit: to feign.—adj. (bot.) mask-like, as in the corollary of the snapdragon: larval, cucullate.—adj. Per′sonāted, impersonated, feigned, assumed.—ns. Personā′tion; Per′sonātor.—n. Personisā′tion.—v.t. Per′sonise, to personify.—n. Personnel′, the persons employed in any service, as distinguished from the materiel.—Personal estate, property, movable goods or property, as distinguished from freehold or real property, esp. in land; Personal exception (Scots law), a ground of objection which applies to an individual and prevents him from doing something which, but for his conduct or situation, he might do; Personal identity, the continued sameness of the individual person, through all changes both without and within, as testified by consciousness; Personal rights, rights which belong to the person as a living, reasonable being; Personal security, security or pledge given by a person, as distinguished from the delivery of some object of value as security; Personal service, delivery of a message or an order into a person's hands, as distinguished from delivery in any other indirect way; Personal transaction, something done by a person's own effort, not through the agency of another.—In person, by one's self, not by a representative. [Fr.,—L. persōna, a player's mask, perh. from persŏnāre, -ātumper, through, sonāre, to sound.]

Persona, pėr-sō′na, n. a person.—Persona grata, a person who is acceptable to those to whom he is sent.—Dramatis person, the characters in a play or story. [L.]

Personify, per-son′i-fī, v.t. (rhet.) to treat, look on, or describe as a person: to ascribe to any inanimate object the qualities of a person: to be the embodiment of:—pa.t. and pa.p. person′ifīed.n. Personificā′tion. [L. persona, a person, facĕre, to make.]

Perspective, per-spek′tiv, n. a view or a vista: the art of drawing objects on a plane surface, so as to give the picture the same appearance to the eye as the objects themselves: just proportion in all the parts: a telescope or field-glass: a picture in perspective.—adj. pertaining or according to perspective.—adv. Perspec′tively.—ns. Perspec′tograph, an instrument for indicating correctly the points and outlines of objects; Perspectog′raphy, the science of perspective, or of delineating it.—Perspective plane, the surface on which the picture of the objects to be represented in perspective is drawn.—In perspective, according to the laws of perspective. [Fr.,—L. perspicĕre, perspectumper, through, specĕre, to look.]

Perspicacious, pėr-spi-kā′shus, adj. of clear or acute understanding: quick-sighted.—adv. Perspicā′ciously.—ns. Perspicā′ciousness; Perspicac′ity, state of being acute in discerning: keenness of sight or of understanding; Perspicū′ity, state of being perspicacious: clearness in expressing ideas so as to make them easily understood by others: freedom from obscurity.—adj. Perspic′ūous, that can be seen through: clear to the mind: easily understood: not obscure in any way: evident.—adv. Perspic′ūously.—n. Perspic′ūousness. [L. perspicax, perspicacisperspicĕre, to see through.]

Perspire, per-spīr′, v.i. and v.t. to emit or to be emitted, as moisture, through the pores of the skin: to sweat.—n. Perspirabil′ity.—adj. Perspīr′able, capable of being perspired.—v.i. Per′spirāte (rare), to sweat.—n. Perspirā′tion, act of perspiring: that which is perspired: moisture given out through the pores of the skin: sweat.—adj. Perspīr′atory, pertaining to or causing perspiration. [L. perspirāre, -ātumper, through, spirāre, to breathe.]

Perstringe, pėr-strinj′, v.t. to criticise.

Persuade, per-swād′, v.t. to influence successfully by argument, advice, &c.: to bring to any particular opinion: to cause to believe: to convince.—adj. Persuad′able.—n. Persuad′er.—adj. Persuā′sible, capable of being persuaded.—ns. Persuā′sibleness, Persuasibil′ity; Persuā′sion, act of persuading: state of being persuaded: settled opinion: a creed: a party adhering to a creed: (Spens.) an inducement.—adjs. Persuā′sive, Persuā′sory, having the power to persuade: influencing the mind or passions.—n. that which persuades or wins over.—adv. Persuā′sively.—n. Persuā′siveness. [Fr.,—L. persuadēre, -suasumper, thoroughly, suadēre, to advise.]

Persue, pėrs′ū, n. (Spens.) a track.

Persulphate, pėr-sul′fāt, n. that sulphate of a metal which contains the relatively greater quantity of acid.

Pert, pėrt, adj. (obs.) open: evident: plain. [O. Fr. apert—L. aperīre, apertum, to open.]

Pert, pėrt, adj. forward: saucy: impertinent: too free in speech: (obs.) clever.—n. an impudent person.—adv. Pert′ly.—n. Pert′ness. [Perk.]

Pertain, per-tān′, v.i. to belong: to relate (with to).—ns. Per′tinence, Per′tinency, state of being pertinent or to the point: fitness for the matter on hand: suitableness: appositeness.—adj. Per′tinent, pertaining or related to a subject: being to the point: fitted for the matter on hand: fitting or appropriate: suitable: apposite.—adv. Per′tinently.—n. Per′tinentness. [O. Fr. partenir—L. pertinēreper, thoroughly, tenēre, to hold.]

Pertinacious, pėr-ti-nā′shus, adj. thoroughly tenacious: holding obstinately to an opinion or a purpose: obstinate: unyielding.—adv. Pertinā′ciously.—ns. Pertinā′ciousness; Pertinac′ity, quality of being pertinacious or unyielding: obstinacy: resoluteness. [Fr.,—L. pertinax, -acis, holding fast—per, thoroughly, tenax, tenacious—tenēre, to hold.]

Perturb, per-turb′, v.t. to disturb greatly: to agitate—also Per′turbate.—adj. Pertur′bable, that can be agitated or confused.—ns. Pertur′bance, Perturbā′tion, act of perturbing or state of being perturbed: disquiet of mind: irregular action, esp. (astron.) the disturbance produced in the simple elliptic motion of one heavenly body about another by the action of a third body, or by the non-sphericity of the principal body; Pertur′bant, any disturbing thing.—adjs. Perturbā′tional; Pertur′bative.—n. Pertur′batory, the power of deflecting the divining-rod by magnetic influence.—p.adj. Perturbed′.—adv. Perturb′edly.—ns. Pertur′ber, Perturbā′tor:—fem. Per′turbātrix. [Fr.,—L. perturbāre, -ātumper, thoroughly, turbāre, to disturb—turba, a crowd.]

Pertusion, pėr-tū′zhon, n. a hole made by a sharp instrument.—adjs. Pertū′sate, pierced at the apex; Pertuse′, -d, pierced with holes. [L. pertundĕre, -tusumper, through, tundĕre, to strike.]

Pertussis, per-tus′is, n. whooping-cough.—adj. Pertuss′al.

Peruke, per-ūk′, or per′ūk, n. an artificial cap of hair: a periwig—also Perruque.—adj. Peruquēr′ian, of or pertaining to the making of wigs.—n. Perru′quier, a wigmaker. [Fr. perruque—It. parrucca (Sp. peluca)—L. pilus, hair.]

Peruse, per-ūz′, or per-ōōz′, v.t. to read attentively: to examine carefully or in detail.—ns. Perusal (per-ūz′al, or per-ōōz′al), the act of perusing: careful examination: study: reading; Perus′er. [Formed from L. per, thoroughly, uti, usum, to use.]

Peruvian, per-ōō′vi-an, adj. pertaining to Peru in South America.—n. a native of Peru.—Peruvian balsam, a fragrant bitterish liquid yielded by a South American tree, used for asthma and in making soaps; Peruvian bark, cinchona (q.v.).

Pervade, per-vād′, v.t. to go through or penetrate: to spread all over.—n. Pervā′sion.—adj. Pervā′sive, tending or having power to pervade. [L. pervadĕre, pervasumper, through, vadĕre, to go.]

Perverse, per-vėrs′, adj. turned aside: obstinate in the wrong: stubborn: vexatious.—adv. Perverse′ly.—ns. Perverse′ness, Perver′sity, state or quality of being perverse: inclination to oppose: wickedness.—adj. Perver′sive, tending to pervert. [L. perversus, turned the wrong way.]

Pervert, per-vėrt′, v.t. to turn wrong or from the right course: to change from its true use: to corrupt: to turn from truth or virtue.—v.i. to go wrong or out of the right course.—n. (per′vert) one who has changed from a former position: an apostate.—ns. Perver′sion, the act of perverting: a diverting from the true object: a turning from truth or propriety: misapplication; Pervert′er.—adj. Pervert′ible, able to be perverted. [Fr. pervertir—L. pervertĕreper, thoroughly, vertĕre, versum, to turn.]

Perveyaunce. Same as Purveyance.

Pervicacious, per-vi-kā′shus, adj. very obstinate.—ns. Pervicā′ciousness, Pervicac′ity.

Pervious, pėr′vi-us, adj. permeable, penetrable: open, perforate.—adv. Per′viously.—n. Per′viousness. [L. perviusper, through, via, a way.]

Pesade, pe-zād′, n. the act or position of a saddle-horse in rearing. [Fr.]

Peseta, pe-sā′ta, n. a silver coin of Spain worth 9d. [Sp., dim. of pesa, weight.]

Peshito, pe-shē′to, n. a translation of the Bible into Syriac, made in the second century.—Also Peshit′to. [Syriac, pĕshitt, the simple.]

Peshwa, pesh′wa, n. a chief or prince of the Mahrattas.—Also Peish′wah.

Pesky, pes′ki, adj. annoying.—adv. Pes′kily.

Peso, pā′so, n. a Spanish dollar. [Sp.,—L. pensum, pendĕre, to weigh.]

Pessary, pes′a-ri, n. an instrument worn in the vagina to remedy displacement of the womb. [Fr. pessaire—Low L. pessarium—Gr. pessos, a pebble.]

Pessimism, pes′i-mizm, n. the doctrine that on the whole the world is bad rather than good: a temper of mind that looks too much on the dark side of things: a depressing view of life.—v.i. Pess′imise.—n. Pess′imist, one who believes that everything is tending to the worst: one who looks too much on the dark side of things—opp. to Optimist.—adjs. Pessimis′tic, -al. [L. pessimus, worst.]

Pest, pest, n. a deadly disease: a plague: anything destructive: a troublesome person.—n. Pest′house, a hospital for persons afflicted with any contagious disease.—adj. Pestif′erous, contagious: pestilent: annoying.—adv. Pestif′erously.—n. Pest′ilence, any contagious deadly disease: anything that is hurtful to the morals.—adjs. Pest′ilent, producing pestilence: hurtful to health and life: mischievous: corrupt: troublesome; Pestilen′tial, of the nature of pestilence: producing pestilence: destru