The Project Gutenberg EBook of Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary
(part 2 of 4: E-M), by Various

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Title: Chambers's Twentieth Century Dictionary (part 2 of 4: E-M)

Author: Various

Editor: Thomas Davidson

Release Date: January 10, 2012 [EBook #38538]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected. They appear in the text like this, and the explanation will appear when the mouse pointer is moved over the marked passage.




London: 47 Paternoster Row
W. & R. CHAMBERS, Limited
EDINBURGH: 339 High Street


The Arrangement of the Words.—Every word is given in its alphabetical order, except in cases where, to save space, derivatives are given after and under the words from which they are derived. Each uncompounded verb has its participles, when irregular, placed after it. Exceptional plurals are also given. When a word stands after another, with no meaning given, its meanings can be at once formed from those of the latter, by adding the signification of the affix: thus the meanings of Darkness are obtained by prefixing the meaning of ness, state of being, to those of Dark.

Many words from French and other tongues, current in English usage, but not yet fairly Anglicised, are inserted in the list of Foreign Phrases, &c., at the end, rather than in the body of the Dictionary.

The Pronunciation.—The Pronunciation is given immediately after each word, by the word being spelled anew. In this new spelling, every consonant used has its ordinary unvarying sound, no consonant being employed that has more than one sound. The same sounds are always represented by the same letters, no matter how varied their actual spelling in the language. No consonant used has any mark attached to it, with the one exception of th, which is printed in common letters when sounded as in thick, but in italics when sounded as in then. Unmarked vowels have always their short sounds, as in lad, led, lid, lot, but, book. The marked vowels are shown in the following line, which is printed at the top of each page:—

fāte, fr; mē, hėr; mīne; mōte; mūte; mōōn; then.

The vowel u when marked thus, , has the sound heard in Scotch bluid, gude, the French du, almost that of the German in Mller. Where more than one pronunciation of a word is given, that which is placed first is more accepted.

The Spelling.—When more than one form of a word is given, that which is placed first is the spelling in current English use. Unfortunately our modern spelling does not represent the English we actually speak, but rather the language of the 16th century, up to which period, generally speaking, English spelling was mainly phonetic, like the present German. The fundamental principle of all rational spelling is no doubt the representation of every sound by an invariable symbol, but in modern English the usage of pronunciation has drifted far from the conventional forms established by a traditional orthography, with the result that the present spelling of our written speech is to a large extent a mere exercise of memory, full of confusing anomalies and imperfections, and involving an enormous and unnecessary strain on the faculties of learners. Spelling reform is indeed an imperative necessity, but it must proceed with a wise moderation, for, in the words of Mr Sweet, 'nothing can be done without unanimity, and until the majority of the community are convinced of the superiority of some one system unanimity is impossible.' The true path of progress should follow such wisely moderate counsels as those of Dr J. A. H. Murray:—the dropping of the final or inflexional silent e; the restoration of the historical -t after breath consonants; uniformity in the employment of double consonants, as in traveler, &c.; the discarding of ue in words like demagogue and catalogue; the uniform levelling of the agent -our into -or; the making of ea = ĕ short into e and the long ie into ee; the restoration of some, come, tongue, to their old English forms, sum, cum, tung; a more extended use of z in the body of words, as chozen, praize, raize; and the correction of the worst individual monstrosities, as foreign, scent, scythe, ache, debt, people, parliament, court, would, sceptic, phthisis, queue, schedule, twopence-halfpenny, yeoman, sieve, gauge, barque, buoy, yacht, &c.

Already in America a moderate degree of spelling reform may be said to be established in good usage, by the adoption of -or for -our, as color, labor, &c.; of -er for -re, as center, meter, &c.; -ize for -ise, as civilize, &c.; the use of a uniform single consonant after an unaccented vowel, as traveler for traveller; the adoption of e for œ or in hemorrhage, diarrhea, &c.

The Meanings.—The current and most important meaning of a word is usually given first. But in cases like Clerk, Livery, Marshal, where the force of the word can be made much clearer by tracing its history, the original meaning is also given, and the successive variations of its usage defined.

The Etymology.—The Etymology of each word is given after the meanings, within brackets. Where further information regarding a word is given elsewhere, it is so indicated by a reference. It must be noted under the etymology that whenever a word is printed thus, Ban, Base, the student is referred to it; also that here the sign—is always to be read as meaning 'derived from.' Examples are generally given of words that are cognate or correspond to the English words; but it must be remembered that they are inserted merely for illustration. Such words are usually separated from the rest by a semicolon. For instance, when an English word is traced to its Anglo-Saxon form, and then a German word is given, no one should suppose that our English word is derived from the German. German and Anglo-Saxon are alike branches from a common Teutonic stem, and have seldom borrowed from each other. Under each word the force of the prefix is usually given, though not the affix. For fuller explanation in such cases the student is referred to the list of Prefixes and Suffixes in the Appendix.


acc.according.gram.grammar.phil., philos.philosophy.
anat.anatomy.i.e.that is.physiol.physiology.
archit.architecture.impers.impersonal.pol. econ.political economy.
astrol.astrology.infin.infinitive. Pr.Bk.Book of Common
astron.astronomy.inten.intensive.Prayer. participle.
c. (circa)about.math.mathematics.Prof.Professor.
c., cent.century.mech.mechanics. pron.pronoun;;
coll., colloq.colloquially.min.mineralogy.prov.provincial.
comp.comparative.mod.modern.q.v.which see.
conch.conchology.Mt.Mount.R.C.Roman Catholic.
contr.contracted.n., ns.noun, nouns.refl.reflexive.
cook.cookery.nat. hist.natural history.rel.related; relative.
dat.dative.neut.neuter.Shak.Shakespeare. plural.sig.signifying.
der.derivation.n.sing.noun singular.sing.singular.
dial.dialect, dialectal.N.T.New Testament.spec.specifically.
eccles.ecclesiastical history.orig.originally.superl.superlative.
elect.electricity.O.S.old style.term.termination.
entom.entomology.O.T.Old Testament.teleg.telegraphy.
esp.especially.p., part.participle.Tenn.Tennyson.
ety.etymology.p.adj.participial adjective.Test.Testament.; theatricals.
fol.followed; following.paleon.paleontology.trig.trigonometry.
fort.fortification.palm.palmistry.ult.ultimately. participle.v.i.verb intransitive.
fut.future.pass.passive.voc.vocative. tense.v.t.verb transitive.

Ar.Arabic.Gael.Gaelic.O. Fr.Old French.
Eng.English.L. L.Low or Late Latin.Turk.Turkish.
Finn.Finnish.M. E.Middle English.U.S.United States.



the fifth letter in our own and the cognate alphabets, with four sounds—e.g. e in evil, i in England, u in the last syllable of eleven, Italian e in prey. A subscript e is commonly used to lengthen the previous vowel, as in not, note; bit, bite; (mus.) the third note or sound of the natural diatonic scale, and the third above the tonic C.

Each, ēch, adj. every one in any number separately considered.—adv. Each′where, everywhere. [A.S. ǽlc, supposed to be for -ge-lc, from (=aye), pfx. ge-, and lc, like—i.e. aye-like.]

Eadish, obsolete form of Eddish.

Eager, ē′gėr, adj. excited by desire: ardent to do or obtain: (obs.) earnest: keen, severe, sour, acid, bitter.—adv. Ea′gerly.—n. Ea′gerness. [O. Fr. aigre—L. acer, acris, sharp.]

Eager. Same as Eagre.

Eagle, ē′gl, n. a name given to many birds of prey in the family Falconid: a military standard carrying the figure of an eagle: a gold coin of the United States, worth ten dollars.—adjs. Ea′gle-eyed, Ea′gle-sight′ed, having a piercing eye: discerning; Ea′gle-flight′ed, mounting high.—ns. Ea′gle-hawk, a name applied to several eagles of comparatively small size; Ea′gle-owl, a genus of large owls, the largest in Europe; Ea′gle-stone, a variety of argillaceous oxide of iron occurring in egg-shaped masses; Ea′glet, a young or small eagle.—adj. Ea′gle-winged, having an eagle's wings.—ns. Ea′gle-wood, another name for agalloch or calambac; Spread′-ea′gle (see Spread). [O. Fr. aigle—L. aquila.]

Eagre, ē′gėr, n. rise of the tide in a river (same as Bore). [Ety. dub.; hardly from A.S. gor, flood.]

Ealdorman. See Alderman.

Ean, ēn, v.t. or v.i. (Shak.) to bring forth young.—n. Ean′ling, a young lamb. [A.S. anian.]

Ear, ēr, n. a spike, as of corn.—v.i. to put forth ears.—n. Ear′-cock′le, a disease of wheat.—adj. Eared, of corn, having ears. [A.S. ar; Ger. hre.]

Ear, ēr, v.t. (obs.) to plough or till.—n. Ear′ing (obs.), ploughing. [A.S. erian; cf. L. arāre, Gr. aroein.]

Ear, ēr, n. the organ of hearing, or the external part merely: the sense or power of hearing: the faculty of distinguishing sounds: attention: anything like an ear.—ns. Ear′ache, an ache or pain in the ear; Ear′bob, an earring; Ear′-cap, a covering to protect the ear from cold; Ear′drop, an ornamental pendant hanging from the ear; Ear′drum, the drum or middle cavity of the ear, tympanum (q.v.).—adj. Eared, having ears.—n. Ear′-hole, the aperture of the ear.—adj. Ear′-kiss′ing, whispered.—n. Ear′lap, the tip of the ear: an ear-cap.—adj. Ear′less, wanting ears.—ns. Ear′lock, a curl near the ear worn by Elizabethan dandies; Ear′mark, a mark set on the ears of sheep whereby their owners may distinguish them: a distinctive mark.—v.t. to put an earmark on.—n. Ear′-pick, an instrument for clearing the ear.—adj. Ear′-pierc′ing, shrill, screaming.—ns. Ear′ring, an ornamental ring worn in the ear; Ear′-shell, any shell of the family Haliotid; Ear′shot, the distance at which a sound can be heard; Ear′-trum′pet, a tube to aid in hearing; Ear′wax, a waxy substance secreted by the glands of the ear; Ear′wig, an insect which was supposed to creep into the brain through the ear: a flatterer.—v.t. to gain the ear of: to bias: to torment by private importunities (A.S. arwicga, are, ear, wicga, earwig).—n. Ear′witness, a witness that can testify from his own hearing.—About one's ears, said of a house falling, &c.; Be all ears, to give every attention; Give ear, to attend; Go in at one ear and out at the other, used of words which make no permanent impression; Have a person's ear, to be secure of his favourable attention; Have itching ears, to be desirous of hearing novelties (2 Tim. iv. 3); Lend an ear, to listen; Over head and ears, overwhelmed: deeply engrossed or involved; Set by the ears, to set at strife; Speak in the ear, to whisper; Tickle the ear, to flatter; Turn a deaf ear, to refuse to listen; Walls have ears, a proverbial phrase implying that there may be listeners behind the wall. [A.S. are; cf. L. auris, Ger. ohr.]

Earl's Coronet.

Earl, ėrl, n. an English nobleman ranking between a marquis and a viscount:—fem. Count′ess.—ns. Earl′dom, the dominion or dignity of an earl; Earl′-mar′shal, an English officer of state, president of the Heralds' College—the Scotch form Earl-marischal. [A.S. eorl, a warrior, hero; cf. Ice. jarl.]

Earles-penny. See Arles.

Early, ėr′li, adj. in good season: at or near the beginning of the day: relating to the beginning: happening in the near future.—adv. near the beginning: soon.—n. Ear′liness.—Early and late, at all times; Early bird, an early riser; Early English (archit.), generally applied to the form of Gothic in which the pointed arch was first employed in Britain. The Early English succeeded the Norman towards the end of the 12th century, and merged into the Decorated at the end of the 13th.—Keep early hours, to rise and go to bed betimes; Small and early (coll.), applied to evening parties; The early bird catches the worm, a proverb in favour of early rising. [A.S. rlceǽr, before.]

Earn, ėrn, v.t. to gain by labour: to acquire: to deserve.— Earn′ings, what one has earned: money saved. [A.S. earnian, to earn; cog. with Old High Ger. aran, to reap; Ger. ernte, harvest.]

Earn, ėrn, v.i. to yearn. [A variant of yearn.]

Earnest, ėr′nest, adj. showing strong desire: determined: eager to obtain: intent: sincere: serious.—n. seriousness: reality.—adv. Ear′nestly.—n. Ear′nestness. [A.S. eornost, seriousness; Ger. ernst.]

Earnest, ėr′nest, n. money given in token of a bargain made—also Ear′nest-mon′ey, Ear′nest-penn′y: a pledge: first-fruits. [Ety. obscure; possibly conn. with arles.]

Earst, obsolete form of Erst.

Earth, ėrth, n. the name applied to the third planet in order from the sun: the matter on the surface of the globe: soil: dry land, as opposed to sea: the world: the inhabitants of the world: dirt: dead matter: the human body: a fox's hole: (pl.) the name applied by the alchemists and earlier chemists to certain substances now known to be oxides of metal, which were distinguished by being infusible, and by insolubility in water.—v.t. to hide or cause to hide in the earth: to bury.—v.i. to burrow: to hide.—ns. Earth′-bag, a sack of earth used in fortifications; Earth′-bath, a bath of earth or mud; Earth′-board, the board of a plough, or other implement, that turns over the earth.—adjs. Earth′-born, born from or on the earth; Earth′-bound, bound or held by the earth, as a tree; Earth′-bred, mean, grovelling.—n. Earth′-clos′et, a system consisting of the application of earth to the deodorisation of fcal matters.—adjs. Earth′-creā′ted, made of earth; Earth′en, made of earth or clay: earthly.—ns. Earth′enware, crockery; Earth′-fall, a landslide.—adj. Earth′-fed, contented with earthly things.—ns. Earth′flax, asbestos; Earth′-hog (see Aardvark); Earth′-house, the name given to the ancient underground dwellings in Ireland and Scotland, also called Picts' houses; Earth′-hung′er, the passion for acquiring land; Earth′iness; Earth′liness; Earth′ling, a dweller on the earth.—adjs. Earth′ly, belonging to the earth: vile: worldly; Earth′ly-mind′ed, having the mind intent on earthly things.—ns. Earth′ly-mind′edness; Earth′-nut, the popular name of certain tuberous roots growing underground; Earth′-pea, the hog-peanut; Earth′-plate, a buried plate of metal forming the earth-connection of a telegraph-wire, lightning-conductor, &c.; Earth′quake, a quaking or shaking of the earth: a heaving of the ground; Earth′-shine, the faint light visible on the part of the moon not illuminated by the sun; Earth′-trem′or, a slight earthquake.—adv. Earth′ward, toward the earth.—ns. Earth′work, a fortification of earth; Earth′-worm, the common worm: a mean person, a poor creature.—adj. Earth′y, consisting of, relating to, or resembling earth: inhabiting the earth: gross: unrefined. [A.S. eorthe; cf. Dut. aarde, Ger. erde.]

Ease, ēz, n. freedom from pain or disturbance: rest from work: quiet: freedom from difficulty: naturalness.—v.t. to free from pain, trouble, or anxiety: to relieve: to calm.—adj. Ease′ful, ease-giving: quiet, fit for rest.—n. Ease′ment, relief: assistance: support: gratification.—adv. Eas′ily.—n. Eas′iness.—adj. Eas′y, at ease: free from pain: tranquil: unconstrained: giving ease: not difficult: yielding: not straitened (in circumstances): not tight: not strict, as in 'easy virtue.'—interj. Easy! a command to lower, or to go gently, to stop rowing, &c.—n. Eas′y-chair, an arm-chair for ease or rest.—adj. Eas′y-gō′ing, good-natured: indolent.—Ease one's self, to relieve nature.—Chapel of ease (see Chapel); Free and easy (see Free).—Honours easy, when the honours are evenly divided at whist: Ill at ease, uncomfortable; Stand at ease, used of soldiers, when freed from 'attention;' Take it easy, to be quite unconcerned: to be in no hurry; Take one's ease, to make one's self comfortable. [O. Fr. aise; cog. with It. agio; Prov. ais, Port. azo.]

Easel, ēz′l, n. the frame on which painters support their pictures while painting. [Dut. ezel, or Ger. esel, an ass.]

Easle, ēs′l, n. (Burns) hot ashes. [A.S. ysle; cf. Ice. usli.]

Eassel, a Scotch form for eastward, easterly.

East, ēst, n. that part of the heavens where the sun first shines or rises: one of the four cardinal points of the compass.—adj. toward the rising of the sun.—ns. East′-end, the eastern part of London, the habitation of the poorer classes; East′-end′er.—adjs. East′er, East′ern, toward the east: connected with the east: dwelling in the east.—n. East′erling, a native of the East: a trader from the shores of the Baltic.—adj. East′erly, coming from the eastward: looking toward the east.—adv. on the east: toward the east.—adjs. East′ernmost, East′most, situated farthest east.—ns. East′-In′diaman, a vessel used in the East India trade; East′ing, the course gained to the eastward: distance eastward from a given meridian; East′land, the land in the East.—adv. East′ward, toward the east.—East-by-south (north), 11 degrees from due east; East-south (north)-east, 22 degrees from due east.—Eastward position, the position of the celebrant at the Eucharist, when he stands in front of the altar and facing it, instead of the usual practice of standing at the north end of the altar, facing southward.—About east (slang), in proper manner; The East, the countries to the east of Europe; Turning to the east, a practice for both clergy and laity during service, esp. while singing the creeds, the Gloria Patri, and the Gloria in Excelsis. [A.S. east; Ger. ost; akin to Gr. ēōs, the dawn.]

Easter, ēst′ėr, n. a Christian festival commemorating the resurrection of Christ, held on the Sunday after Good-Friday.—n. East′er-day, Easter Sunday.— East′er-dues, -off′erings, 'customary sums' which from time immemorial have been paid to the parson by his people at Easter.—ns. East′er-egg, eggs stained of various colours, given as presents on Easter; East′ertide, Eastertime, either Easter week or the fifty days between Easter and Whitsuntide. [A.S. astre; Ger. ostern. Bede derives the word from Eastre, a goddess whose festival was held at the spring equinox.]

Eat, ēt, v.t. to chew and swallow: to consume: to corrode.—v.i. to take food:—pr.p. eat′ing; pa.t. ate (āt or et); pa.p. eaten (ētn) or (obs.) eat (et).—adj. Eat′able, fit to be eaten.—n. anything used as food (chiefly pl.).—ns. Eat′age, grass or fodder for horses, &c.: the right to eat; Eat′er, one who, or that which, eats or corrodes; Eat′ing, the act of taking food.—p.adj. that eats: corroding.—ns. Eat′ing-house, a place where provisions are sold ready dressed: a restaurant; Good′-eat′ing, something good for food.—Eat away, to destroy gradually: to gnaw; Eat in, used of the action of acid; Eat its head off, used of an animal which costs as much for food as it is worth; Eat one's heart, to pine away, brooding over misfortune; Eat one's terms, to study for the bar, with allusion to the number of times in a term that a student must dine in the hall of an Inn of Court; Eat one's words, to retract: to recant; Eat out, to finish eatables: to encroach upon; Eat the air (Shak.) to be deluded with hopes; Eat up, to devour: to consume, absorb; Eat well, to have a good appetite. [A.S. etan; cf. Ger. essen, Ice. eta, L. edĕre, Gr. edein.]

Eath, ēth, adj. (obs.) easy.—adv. Eath′ly. [A.S. athe, easily; cf. Old High Ger. odi, easy.]

Eau, ō, n. the French word for water, used in English in various combinations.—Eau Crole, a fine Martinique liqueur, made by distilling the flowers of the mammee-apple with spirit of wine; Eau de Cologne (see under Cologne-earth); Eau de vie, brandy.

Eaves, ēvz, the projecting edge of the roof: anything projecting.—ns. Eaves′drip, Eaves′drop, the water which falls from the eaves of a house: the place where the drops fall.—v.i. and v.t. Eaves′drop, to stand under the eaves or near the windows of a house to listen: to listen for secrets.—ns. Eaves′dropper, one who thus listens: one who tries to overhear private conversation; Eaves′dropping. [A.S. efes, the clipped edge of thatch; cf. Ice. ups.]

Ebb, eb, n. the going back or retiring of the tide: a decline or decay.—v.i. to flow back: to sink: to decay.—n. Ebb′-tide, the ebbing or retiring tide. [A.S. ebba; Ger. ebbe; cog. with even.]

Ebenezer, eb-en-ēz′er, n. a memorial stone set up by Samuel after the victory of Mizpeh (1 Sam. vii. 12): a name sometimes applied to a chapel or meeting-house. [Heb., 'stone of help.']

Ebionite, ē′bi-on-īt, n. a name applied to Jewish Christians who remained outside the Catholic Church down to the time of Jerome. They held the Mosaic laws binding on Christians, and denied the apostolate of Paul and the miraculous birth of Jesus.—v.t. E′bionise.—adj. Ebionit′ic.—ns. Ebionīt′ism, E′bionism. [Heb. ebyōn, poor.]

Eblis, eb′lis, n. the chief of the fallen angels or wicked jinns in Mohammedan mythology.—Also Ib′lees.

Ebon, eb′on, Ebony, eb′on-i, n. a kind of wood almost as heavy and hard as stone, usually black, admitting of a fine polish.—adj. made of ebony: black as ebony.—v.t. Eb′onise, to make furniture look like ebony.—ns. Eb′onist, a worker in ebony; Eb′onite, vulcanite (see under Vulcan). [L.,—Gr. ebenos; cf. Heb. hodnīm, pl. of hobni, obnieben, a stone.]

boulement, ā-bool′mong, n. the falling in of the wall of a fortification: a landslide or landslip. [Fr.]

Ebracteate, -d, e-brak′tē-āt, -ed, adj. (bot.) without bracts.

Ebriated, ē′bri-āt-ed, adj. intoxicated.—n. Ebrī′ety, drunkenness.—adj. E′briōse, drunk.—n. Ebrios′ity. [L. ebriāre, -ātum, to make drunk.]

brillade, ā-brē-lyad′, n. the sudden jerking of a horse's rein when he refuses to turn. [Fr.]

Ebullient, e-bul′yent, adj. boiling up or over: agitated: enthusiastic.—ns. Ebull′ience, Ebull′iency, a boiling over; Ebulli′tion, act of boiling: agitation: an outbreak. [L. ebullient-em, ebullīree, out, and bullīre, to boil.]

Eburnine, eb-ur′nin, adj. of or like ivory—also Ebur′nean.—ns. Eburnā′tion, a morbid change of bone by which it becomes very hard and dense; Eburnificā′tion, art of making like ivory. [L. ebur.]

cart, ā-kr′tā, n. a game for two, played with the thirty-two highest cards, one feature being the right to discard or throw out certain cards for others. [Fr.,—e, out, carte, a card.]

Ecaudate, ē-kaw′dāt, adj. tailless.

Ecbasis, ek′ba-sis, n. (rhet.) a figure in which the speaker treats of things according to their consequences.—adj. Ecbat′ic, denoting a mere result, not an intention. [Gr.]

Ecblastesis, ek-blas-tē′sis, n. (bot.) the production of buds within flowers.

Ecbole, ek′bo-lē, n. (rhet.) a digression: (mus.) the raising or sharping of a tone.—adj. Ecbol′ic, promoting parturition.—n. a drug with this quality. [Gr.]

Eccaleobion, ek-kal-e-ō′bi-on, n. a machine for the artificial hatching of eggs. [Gr., 'I call out life.']

Ecce, ek′si, Latin word for 'behold.'—Ecce homo, behold the man (John, xix. 5)—in art, a Christ crowned with thorns.

Eccentric, -al, ek-sen′trik, -al, adj. departing from the centre: not having the same centre as another, said of circles: out of the usual course: not conforming to common rules: odd.—n. Eccen′tric, a circle not having the same centre as another: (mech.) a contrivance for taking an alternating rectilinear motion from a revolving shaft: an eccentric fellow.—adv. Eccen′trically.—n. Eccentric′ity, the distance of the centre of a planet's orbit from the centre of the sun: singularity of conduct: oddness. [Fr.,—Low L. eccentricus—Gr. ek, out of, kentron, centre.]

Ecchymosis, ek-ki-mō′sis, n. a discoloration of the surface produced by blood effused below or in the texture of the skin.—adjs. Ec′chymosed, Ecchymot′ic. [Gr.,—ek, out of, and chymos, juice.]

Ecclesia, e-klē′zi-a, n. a popular assembly, esp. of Athens, where the people exercised full sovereignty, and all above twenty years could vote: applied by the Septuagint commentators to the Jewish commonwealth, and from them to the Christian Church.—adj. Ecclē′sial.—ns. Ecclē′siarch, a ruler of the church; Ecclē′siast, the preacher—Solomon formerly considered as the author of Ecclesiastes: an ecclesiastic; Ecclē′siastes, one of the books of the Old Testament, traditionally ascribed to Solomon; Ecclesias′tic, one consecrated to the church, a priest, a clergyman.—adjs. Ecclē′siastic, -al, belonging to the church.—adv. Ecclesias′tically, in an ecclesiastical manner.—ns. Ecclesias′ticism, attachment to ecclesiastical observances, &c.: the churchman's temper or spirit; Ecclesias′ticus, name of a book of the Apocrypha; Ecclesiol′atry, excessive reverence for church forms and traditions.—adj. Ecclesiolog′ical.—ns. Ecclesiol′ogist, a student of church forms and traditions; Ecclesiol′ogy, the science of building and decorating churches: the science relating to the church. [Low L.,—Gr. ekklesia, an assembly called out of the world, the church—ek, out, and kalein, to call.]

Eccoprotic, ek-ō-prot′ik, adj. laxative, mildly cathartic.—n. a laxative.

Eccrinology, ek-ri-nol′ō-ji, n. the branch of physiology relating to the secretions.

Eccrisis, ek′ri-sis, n. expulsion of waste or morbid matter.—n. Eccrit′ic, a medicine having this property. [Gr.]

Ecdysis, ek′di-sis, n. the act of casting off an integument, as in serpents. [Gr.]

Eche, ēk, v.t. (Shak.) to eke out: to augment. [A.S. can; akin to L. augēre, to increase. See Eke.]

Echelon, esh′e-long, n. an arrangement of troops in battalions or divisions placed parallel to one another, but no two on the same alignment, each having its front clear of that in advance. [Fr., from chelle, a ladder or stair. See Scale.]

Echidna, ek-id′na, n. a genus of Australian toothless burrowing monotremate mammals, armed with porcupine-like spines, laying eggs instead of bringing forth the young.—n. Echid′nine, serpent-poison. [Formed from Gr. echidna, a viper.]

Echinate, -d, ek′in-āt, -ed, adj. prickly like a hedgehog: set with prickles or bristles.—ns. Echī′nite, a fossil sea-urchin; Echī′noderm, one of the Echinoder′mata, a class of animals having the skin strengthened by calcareous plates, or covered with spikes.—adjs. Echinoder′matous, relating to the Echinodermata; Ech′inoid, like a sea-urchin.—n. one of the Echinoi′dea.—n. Echī′nus, a sea-urchin: (archit.) the convex projecting moulding of eccentric curve in Greek examples, supporting the abacus of the Doric capital. [Gr. echinos, a hedgehog, and derma, skin.]

Echo, ek′ō, n. the repetition of sound caused by a sound-wave coming against some opposing surface, and being reflected: a device in verse in which a line ends with a word which recalls the sound of the last word of the preceding line: imitation: an imitator:—pl. Echoes (ek′ōz).v.i. to reflect sound: to be sounded back: to resound.—v.t. to send back the sound of: to repeat a thing said: to imitate: to flatter slavishly:—pr.p. ech′ōing; pa.p. ech′ōed.ns. Ech′oism, the formation of imitative words; Ech′oist, one who repeats like an echo.—adj. Ech′oless, giving no echo, unresponsive.—ns. Echom′eter, an instrument for measuring the length of sounds; Echom′etry, the art of measuring such.—Cheer to the echo, to applaud most heartily, so that the room resounds. [L.,—Gr. ēchō, a sound.]

claircissement, ek-lār-sis′mong, n. the act of clearing up anything: explanation.—Come to an claircissement, to come to an understanding: to explain conduct that seemed equivocal. [Fr. claircir, pr.p. -cissant, —L. ex, out, clair—L. clarus, clear.]

Eclampsia, ek-lamp′si-a, n. a term often erroneously applied as synonymous with epilepsy, while it is really the equivalent of convulsions, but usually restricted to such as are due to such local or general causes as teething, child-bearing, &c.—also Eclamp′sy.—adj. Eclamp′tic. [Formed from Gr. eklampein, to shine forth.]

clat, ā-kl′, n. a striking effect: applause: splendour: social distinction, notoriety. [Fr. clat, from O. Fr. esclater, to break, to shine.]

Eclectic, ek-lek′tik, adj. selecting or borrowing: choosing the best out of everything: broad, the opposite of exclusive.—n. one who selects opinions from different systems, esp. in philosophy.—adv. Eclec′tically.—n. Eclec′ticism, the practice of an eclectic: the doctrine of the Eclec′tics, a name applied to certain Greek thinkers in the 2d and 1st centuries B.C., later to Leibnitz and Cousin. [Gr. eklektikosek, out, legein, to choose.]

Eclipse, e-klips′, n. an obscuration of one of the heavenly bodies by the interposition of another, either between it and the spectator, or between it and the sun: loss of brilliancy: darkness.—v.t. to hide a luminous body wholly or in part: to darken: to throw into the shade, to cut out, surpass.—p.adjs. Eclipsed′, darkened, obscured; Eclips′ing, darkening, obscuring.—n. Eclip′tic, the name given to the great circle of the heavens round which the sun seems to travel, from west to east, in the course of a year: a great circle on the globe corresponding to the celestial ecliptic.—adj. pertaining to an eclipse or the ecliptic. [Through O. Fr. and L. from Gr. ekleipsisek, out, leipein, to leave.]

Eclogite, ek′loj-īt, n. a crystalline rock, composed of smaragdite and red garnet. [Gr. eklogē, selection—ek, out, legein, to choose.]

Eclogue, ek′log, n. a short pastoral poem like Virgil's Bucolics. [L. ecloga—Gr. eklogē, a selection, esp. of poems—ek, out of, legein to choose.]

Economy, ek-on′o-mi, n. the management of a household or of money matters: a frugal and judicious expenditure of money: a system of rules or ceremonies: a dispensation, as 'the Christian economy:' regular operations, as of nature.—adjs. Econom′ic, -al, pertaining to economy: frugal: careful.—adv. Econom′ically.—ns. Econom′ics, the science of household management: political economy; Economisā′tion, act of economising.—v.i. Econ′omise, to manage with economy: to spend money carefully: to save.—v.t. to use prudently: to spend with frugality.—ns. Economī′ser, Econ′omist, one who is economical: one who studies political economy.—Political economy (see under Politic). [L. œconomia—Gr. oikonomiaoikos, a house, nomos, a law.]

corch, ā-kor′shā, n. a figure in which the muscles are represented stripped of the skin, for purposes of artistic study. [Fr. corcher, to flay.]

cossaise, ā-ko-sāz′, n. a kind of country-dance of Scotch origin, or music appropriate to such.—Douche cossaise, the alternation of hot and cold douches. [Fr., fem. of cossais, Scotch.]

Ecostate, ē-kos′tāt, adj. (bot.) not costate: ribless.

Ecphlysis, ek′fli-sis, n. (path.) vesicular eruption.

Ecphonesis, ek-fō-nē′sis, n. (rhet.) a figure of speech which uses questions, interjections, &c., for variety: in Greek use, the part of the service spoken in an audible tone.

Ecphractic, ek-frak′tik, adj. (med.) serving to remove obstructions.—n. a drug with such properties.

Ecraseur, ā-kra-zėr, n. (surg.) an instrument for removing tumours. [Fr.]

Ecstasy, ek′sta-si, n. a word applied to states of mind marked by temporary mental alienation and altered or diminished consciousness: excessive joy: enthusiasm, or any exalted feeling.—v.t. to fill with joy.—adjs. Ec′stasied, enraptured; Ecstat′ic, causing ecstasy: amounting to ecstasy: rapturous.—n. one given to ecstasy: something spoken in a state of ecstasy.—adv. Ecstat′ically. [Through O. Fr. and Low L. from Gr. ekstasisek, aside, histanai, to make to stand.]

Ectal, ek′tal, adj. (anat.) outer, external—opp. to Ental.adv. Ec′tad. [Gr. ektos, without.]

Ectasis, ek′ta-sis, n. the pronunciation of a vowel as long.

Ecthlipsis, ek-thlip′sis, n. omission or suppression of a letter. [Gr.]

Ecthyma, ek-thī′ma, n. a pustular disease of the skin, in which the pustules often reach the size of a pea, and have a red, slightly elevated, hardish base. [Gr., ek, thyein, to boil.]

Ectoblast, ek′to-blast, n. the outer wall of a cell.—adj. Ectoblas′tic.

Ectoderm, ek′to-dėrm, n. the external germinal layer of the embryo. [Gr. ektos, outside, derma, skin.]

Ectoparasite, ek-tō-par′a-sīt, n. an external parasite.

Ectopia, ek-tō′pi-a, n. (path.) morbid displacement of parts.—adj. Ectop′ic.

Ectoplasm, ek′to-plasm, n. the exterior protoplasm or sarcode of a cell.—adjs. Ectoplas′mic, Ectoplas′tic.

Ectozoa, ek-tō-zō′a, external parasites generally—opp. to Entozoa.—n. Ectozō′an, one of the Ectozoa.

Ectropion, -um, ek-trōp′i-on, -um, n. eversion of the margin of the eyelid, so that the red inner surface is exposed.—adj. Ectrop′ic. [Gr. ek, out, and trepein, to turn.]

Ectype, ek′tīp, n. a reproduction or copy.—adj. Ec′typal.—n. Ectypog′raphy. [Gr. ek, out, and typos, a figure.]

cu, ā′k, or ā-kū′, n. a French silver coin, usually considered as equivalent to the English crown—there were also gold cus weighing about 60 grains: a common name for the five-franc piece. [Fr.,—L. scutum, a shield.]

Ecumenic, -al, ek-ū-men′ik, -al, adj. general, universal, belonging to the entire Christian Church.—Also Œcumen′ic, -al.

Eczema, ek′ze-ma, n. a common skin disease, in which the affected portion of the skin is red, and is covered with numerous small papules, which speedily turn into vesicles.—adj. Eczem′atous. [Gr., from ekzeinek, out, zeein, to boil.]

Edacious, e-dā′shus, adj. given to eating: gluttonous.—adv. Edā′ciously.—ns. Edā′ciousness; Edac′ity. [L. edax, edācisedĕre, to eat.]

Edda, ed′a, n. the name of two Scandinavian books—the 'Elder' Edda, a collection of ancient mythological and heroic songs (9th-11th century); and the 'Younger' or prose Edda, by Snorri Sturluson (c. 1230), mythological stories, poetics, and prosody. [Ice., 'great-grandmother.']

Eddish, ed′dish, n. pasturage, or the eatable growth of grass after mowing. [Dubiously referred to A.S. edisc, a park.]

Eddy, ed′i, n. a current of water or air running back, contrary to the main stream, thus causing a circular motion: a whirlpool: a whirlwind.—v.i. to move round and round:—pr.p. edd′ying; pa.p. edd′ied.n. Edd′ying, the action of the verb eddy. [Prob. from A.S. ed, back; cf. Ice. idaid, back.]

Edelweiss, ā′del-vīs, n. a small white composite, with pretty white flower, found growing in damp places at considerable altitudes (5000-7000 feet) throughout the Alps. [Ger. edel, noble, weiss, white.]

Edematose, -ous. Same as Œdematose, -ous (q.v. under Œdema).

Eden, ē′den, n. the garden where Adam and Eve lived: a paradise.—adj. Eden′ic. [Heb. ēden, delight, pleasure.]

Edentate, -d, e-den′tāt, -ed, adj. without teeth: wanting front teeth—also Eden′tal.—ns. Edentā′ta, a Cuvierian order of mammals, having no teeth or very imperfect ones; Edentā′tion, toothlessness.—adj. Eden′tulous, edentate. [L. edentātus, toothless—e, out of, dens, dentis, a tooth.]

Edge, ej, n. the border of anything: the brink: the cutting side of an instrument: something that wounds or cuts: sharpness of mind or appetite: keenness.—v.t. to put an edge on: to place a border on: to exasperate: to urge on: to move by little and little.—v.i. to move sideways.—n. Edge′-bone, the haunch-bone.—adjs. Edged; Edge′less, without an edge: blunt.—ns. Edge′-rail, a rail of such form that the carriage-wheels roll on its edges, being held there by flanges; Edge′-tool, Edged tool, a tool with a sharp edge.—advs. Edge′ways, Edge′wise, in the direction of the edge: sideways.—ns. Edg′iness, angularity, over-sharpness of outline; Edg′ing, any border or fringe round a garment: a border of box, &c., round a flower-bed.—adj. Edg′y, with edges, sharp, hard in outline.—Edge in a word, to get a word in with difficulty; Edge of the sword, a rhetorical phrase for the sword as the symbol of slaughter.—Outside edge, figure in skating, made on the outer edge of the skate.—Play with edge-tools, to deal carelessly with dangerous matters.—Set on edge, to excite; Set the teeth on edge, to cause a strange grating feeling in the teeth; to rouse an instinctive dislike. [A.S. ecg; cf. Ger. ecke, L. acies.]

Edible, ed′i-bl, adj. fit to be eaten.—n. something for food.—ns. Edibil′ity, Ed′ibleness, fitness for being eaten. [L. edibilisedĕre, to eat.]

Edict, ē′dikt, n. something proclaimed by authority: an order issued by a king or lawgiver.—adj. Edict′al.—adv. Edict′ally. [L. edictume, out, dicĕre, dictum, to say.]

Edify, ed′i-fī, v.t. to build: to build up the faith of: to strengthen spiritually towards faith and holiness: to comfort: to improve the mind:—pr.p. ed′ifying; pa.p. ed′ified.n. Edificā′tion, instruction: progress in knowledge or in goodness.—adj. Ed′ificatory, tending to edification.—n. Ed′ifice, a large building or house.—adj. Edific′ial, structural.—n. Ed′ifier, one who edifies.—adj. Ed′ifying, instructive: improving.—adv. Ed′ifyingly. [Fr. difier—L. dificāredes, a house, facĕre, to make.]

Edile. See dile.

Edit, ed′it, v.t. to prepare the work of an author for publication: to superintend the publication of (a newspaper, &c.): to compile, garble, or cook up materials into literary shape.—ns. Edi′tion, the publication of a book: the number of copies of a book printed at a time; Ed′itor, one who edits a book: one who conducts a newspaper or journal:—fem. Ed′itress.—adj. Editō′rial, of or belonging to an editor.—n. an article in a newspaper written by the editor, a leading article.—adv. Editō′rially.—n. Ed′itorship. [L. edĕre, edĭtume, out, dăre, to give.]

Educate, ed′ū-kāt, v.t. to bring up children: to train: to teach: to cultivate any power.—adj. Ed′ucable.—n. Educā′tion, the bringing up or training, as of a child: instruction: strengthening of the powers of body or mind.—adj. Educā′tional.—adv. Educā′tionally.—n. Educā′tionist, one skilled in methods of educating or teaching: one who promotes education.—adj. Ed′ucative, of or pertaining to education: calculated to teach.—n. Ed′ucator. [L. educāre, -ātumeducĕree, out, ducĕre, to lead.]

Educe, ē-dūs′, v.t. to draw out: to extract: to cause to appear.—n. inference.—adj. Educ′ible, that may be educed or brought out and shown.—ns. E′duct, what is educed; Educ′tion, the act of educing; Educ′tion-pipe, the pipe by which the exhaust steam is led from the cylinder of a steam-engine into the condenser or the atmosphere; Educ′tor, he who, or that which, educes. [L. educĕre, eductume, out, and ducĕre, to lead.]

Edulcorate, ē-dul′kō-rāt, v.t. to sweeten: to free from acids, &c.—adj. Edul′corant.—n. Edulcorā′tion.—adj. Edul′corātive.—n. Edul′corātor.

Ee, ē, Scotch form of eye:—pl. Een.

Eel, n. a name widely applied in popular usage, but justifiably extended to all the members of the family Murnid—the body is much elongated, cylindrical or ribbon-shaped.—ns. Eel′-bas′ket, a basket for catching eels; Eel′-pout, in England, a Burbot (q.v.); in parts of Scotland, a Blenny (q.v.): a well-known fish, with a slimy body, living chiefly in mud; Eel′-spear, an instrument with broad prongs for catching eels. [A.S. ǽl; Ger., Dut. aal.]

E′en, ēn, a contraction of even.

E′er, ār, a contraction of ever.

Eerie, Eery, ē′ri, adj. exciting fear: weird: affected with fear: timorous.—adv. Ee′rily.—n. Ee′riness (Scot.). [M. E. arh, eri—A.S. earg, timid.]

Effable, ef′a-bl, adj. capable of being expressed. [Fr.,—L. effāriex, out, fāri, to speak.]

Efface, ef-fās′, v.t. to destroy the surface of a thing: to rub out: to obliterate, wear away.—adj. Efface′able, that can be rubbed out.—n. Efface′ment. [Fr. effacer—L. ex, out, facies, face.]

Effect, ef-fekt′, n. the result of an action: impression produced: reality: the consequence intended: (pl.) goods: property.—v.t. to produce: to accomplish.—ns. Effec′ter, Effec′tor.—adjs. Effec′tible, that may be effected; Effec′tive, having power to effect: causing something: powerful: serviceable.—adv. Effec′tively.—n. Effec′tiveness.—adjs. Effect′less, without effect, useless; Effec′tual, successful in producing the desired effect: (Shak.) decisive.—n. Effectual′ity.—adv. Effec′tually.—v.t. Effec′tuate, to accomplish.—n. Effectua′tion.—Effectual calling (theol.), the invitation to come to Christ which the elect receive.—For effect, so as to make a telling impression; General effect, the effect produced by a picture, &c., as a whole; Give effect to, to accomplish, perform; In effect, in truth, really: substantially.—Leave no effects, to die without property to bequeath.—Take effect, to begin to operate: to come into force. [Fr.,—L. efficĕre, effectum, to accomplish—ex, out, facĕre, to make.]

Effeir, Effere, e-fēr′, n. Scotch form of affair.

Effeminate, ef-fem′in-āt, adj. womanish: unmanly: weak: cowardly: voluptuous.—n. an effeminate person.—v.t. to make womanish: to unman: to weaken.—v.i. to become effeminate.—n. Effem′inacy, womanish softness or weakness: indulgence in unmanly pleasures.—adv. Effem′inately.—n. Effem′inateness. [L. effemināre, -ātum, to make womanish—ex, out, and femina, a woman.]

Effendi, ef-fen′di, n. a Turkish title for civil officials and educated persons generally. [Turk.; from Gr. authentēs, an absolute master.]

Efferent, ef′e-rent, adj. conveying outward or away.

Effervesce, ef-fėr-ves′, v.i. to boil up: to bubble and hiss: to froth up.—ns. Efferves′cence; Efferves′cency.—adjs. Efferves′cent, boiling or bubbling from the disengagement of gas; Efferves′cible. [L. effervescĕreex, inten., and fervēre, to boil.]

Effete, ef-fēt′, adj. exhausted: worn out with age. [L. effētus, weakened by having brought forth young—ex, out, fetus, a bringing forth young.]

Efficacious, ef-fi-kā′shus, adj. able to produce the result intended.—adv. Efficā′ciously.—ns. Efficā′ciousness; Efficac′ity; Ef′ficacy, virtue: energy. [Fr.,—L. efficax, efficacisefficĕre.]

Efficient, ef-fish′ent, adj. capable of producing the desired result: effective.—n. the person or thing that effects.—ns. Effi′cience, Effi′ciency, power to produce the result intended, adequate fitness.—adv. Effi′ciently. [Fr.,—L. efficiens, -entis, pr.p. of efficĕreex, out, facĕre, to make.]

Effierce, ef-fērs′, v.t. (Spens.) to make fierce.

Effigy, ef′fi-ji, n. a likeness or figure of a person: the head or impression on a coin: resemblance—(arch.) Effig′ies.—Burn in effigy, to burn a figure of a person, expressing dislike or contempt. [Fr.,—L. effigieseffingĕreex, inten., fingĕre, to form.]

Effloresce, ef-flo-res′, v.i. to blossom forth: (chem.) to become covered with a white dust: to form minute crystals.—ns. Efflores′cence, Efflores′cency, production of flowers: the time of flowering: a redness of the skin: the formation of a white powder on the surface of bodies, or of minute crystals.—adj. Efflores′cent, forming a white dust on the surface: shooting into white threads. [L. efflorescĕreex, out, florescĕre, to blossom—flos, floris, a flower.]

Effluent, ef′floo-ent, adj. flowing out.—n. a stream that flows out of another stream or lake.—n. Ef′fluence, a flowing out: that which flows from any body: issue. [L. effluens, -entis, pr.p. of effluĕreex, out, fluĕre, to flow.]

Effluvium, ef-flōō′vi-um, n. minute particles that flow out from bodies: disagreeable vapours rising from decaying matter:—pl. Efflu′via.—adj. Efflu′vial. [Low L.,—L. effluĕre.]

Efflux, ef′fluks, n. act of flowing out: that which flows out.—Also Efflux′ion. [L. effluĕre, effluxum.]

Effodient, e-fō′di-ent, adj. (zool.) habitually digging.

Effoliation, e-fō-li-ā′shun, n. the removal or fall of the leaves of a plant.

Efforce, ef-fōrs′, v.t. (Spens.) to compel. [Fr. efforcer—Late L. effortiāreex, out, fortis, strong.]

Effort, ef′fort, n. a putting forth of strength: attempt: struggle.—adj. Ef′fortless, making no effort: passive. [Fr.,—L. ex, out, fortis, strong.]

Effray, an obsolete form of affray.

Effrontery, ef-frunt′ėr-i, n. shamelessness: impudence: insolence. [O. Fr.,—L. effrons, effrontisex, out, frons, frontis, the forehead.]

Effulge, ef-fulj′, v.i. to shine forth: to beam:—pr.p. effulg′ing; pa.p. effulged′.n. Efful′gence, great lustre or brightness: a flood of light.—adj. Efful′gent, shining forth: extremely bright: splendid.—adv. Efful′gently. [L. effulgēre, to shine out, pr.p. effulgens, -entisex, out, fulgēre, to shine.]

Effuse, ef-fūz′, v.t. to pour out: to pour forth, as words: to shed.—n. effusion, loss.—adj. loosely spreading, not compact, expanded.—n. Effū′sion, act of pouring out: that which is poured out or forth: quality of being effusive.—adj. Effū′sive, pouring forth abundantly: gushing: expressing emotion in a pronounced manner.—adv. Effū′sively.—n. Effū′siveness. [L. effundĕre, effusumex, out, fundĕre, to pour.]

Eft, eft, n. a kind of lizard: a newt. [A.S. efeta. Origin obscure. See Newt.]

Eft, eft, adj. ready (Shak., Much Ado, IV. ii. 38).

Eft, eft, adv. (Spens.) afterwards, again, forthwith, moreover.—adv. Eftsoons′ (obs.), soon afterwards, forthwith. [A.S. ft, eft, after, again. See Aft.]

Egad, ē-gad′, interj. a minced oath. [By God.]

Egal, ē′gal, adj. (Shak.) equal.—n. Egal′ity, equality. [Fr. galitgal—L. quus, equal.]

Eger, ē′gėr, n. Same as Eagre.

Egence, ē′jens, n. exigence.

Egestion, ej-est′yun, n. the passing off of excreta from within the body.—v.t. Egest′, to discharge.— Egest′a, things thrown out, excrements.—adj. Egest′ive. [L. egerĕree, out, gerĕre, to carry.]

Egg, eg, n. an oval body laid by birds and certain other animals, from which their young are produced: anything shaped like an egg.—ns. Egg′-app′le, or plant, the brinjal or aubergine, an East Indian annual with egg-shaped fruit; Egg′-bird, a sooty tern; Egg′-cō′sy, a covering put over boiled eggs to keep in the heat after being taken from the pot: Egg′-cup, a cup for holding an egg at table; Egg′er, Egg′ler, one who collects eggs; Egg′ery, a place where eggs are laid; Egg′-flip, a hot drink made of ale, with eggs, sugar, spice, &c.; Egg′-glass, a small sand-glass for regulating the boiling of eggs; Egg′-nog, a drink compounded of eggs and hot beer, spirits, &c.; Egg′-shell, the shell or calcareous substance which covers the eggs of birds; Egg′-slice, a kitchen utensil for lifting fried eggs out of a pan; Egg′-spoon, a small spoon used in eating eggs from the shell.—A bad egg (coll.), a worthless person; Put all one's eggs into one basket, to risk all on one enterprise; Take eggs for money, to be put off with mere promises of payment; Teach your grandmother to suck eggs, spoken contemptuously to one who would teach those older and wiser than himself; Tread upon eggs, to walk warily, to steer one's way carefully in a delicate situation. [A.S. g; cf. Ice. egg, Ger. ei, perh. L. ovum, Gr. ōon.]

Egg, eg, v.t. to instigate. [Ice. eggjaegg, an edge; cog. with A.S. ecg. See Edge.]

Egis. See gis.

Eglandular, ē-glan′dū-lar, adj. having no glands.

Eglantine, eg′lan-tīn, n. a name given to the sweet-brier, and some other species of rose, whose branches are covered with sharp prickles. [Fr.,—O. Fr. aiglent, as if from a L. aculentus, prickly—acus, a needle, and suff. lentus.]

Eglatere, eg-la-tēr′, n. (Tenn.) eglantine.

Egma, eg′ma, n. (Shak.) a corruption of enigma.

Ego, ē′gō, n. the 'I,' that which is conscious and thinks.—ns. E′gōism (phil.), the doctrine that we have proof of nothing but our own existence: (ethics), the theory of self-interest as the principle of morality: selfishness; E′gōist, one who holds the doctrine of egoism: one who thinks and speaks too much of himself.—adjs. Egōist′ic, -al, pertaining to or manifesting egoism.—ns. Egō′ity, the essential element of the ego; E′gōtheism, the deification of self.—v.i. E′gotise, to talk much of one's self.—ns. E′gotism, a frequent use of the pronoun I: speaking much of one's self: self-exaltation; E′gotist, one full of egotism.—adjs. Egotist′ic, -al, showing egotism: self-important: conceited.—adv. Egotist′ically. [L. ego, I.]

Egophony, ē-gof′o-ni, n. a tremulous resonance heard in auscultation in cases of pleurisy.—Also goph′ony. [Gr. aix, a goat, phonē, voice.]

Egregious, e-grē′ji-us, adj. prominent: distinguished: outrageous: enormous (in bad sense).—adv. Egrē′giously.—n. Egrē′giousness. [L. egregius, chosen out of the flock—e, out, grex, gregis, a flock.]

Egress, ē′gres, n. act of going out: departure: the way out: the power or right to depart.—n. Egres′sion, the act of going out. [L. egredi, egressuse, out, forth, and gradi, to go.]

Egret, ē′gret, n. a form of aigrette.

Egyptian, ē-jip′shi-an, adj. belonging to Egypt.—n. a native of Egypt: a gipsy.—adj. Egyptolog′ical.—ns. Egyptol′ogist; Egyptol′ogy, the science of Egyptian antiquities.—Egyptian darkness, darkness like that of Exod. x. 22.

Eh, ā, interj. expressing inquiry or slight surprise.—v.i. to say 'Eh.'

Eident, ī′dent, adj. busy: (Scot.) diligent. [M. E. ithen—Ice. iinn, diligent.]

Eider, ī′dėr, n. the eider-duck, a northern sea-duck, sought after for its fine down.—n. Ei′der-down, the soft down of the eider-duck, used for stuffing quilts. [Prob. through Sw. from Ice. ar, gen. of r, an eider-duck.]

Eidograph, ī′do-graf, n. an instrument for copying drawings. [Gr. eidos, form, graphein, to write.]

Eidolon, ī-dō′lon, n. an image: a phantom or apparition: a confusing reflection or reflected image:—pl. Eidō′la. [Gr. See Idol.]

Eiffel-tower, īf′el-tow′ėr, n. a colossal building—from the iron structure, 985 feet high, erected (1887-89) in the Champ-de-Mars at Paris by Gustave Eiffel.

Eight, āt, n. the cardinal number one above seven: the figure (8 or viii.) denoting eight.—adj. noting the number eight.—adjs. and ns. Eight′een, eight and ten, twice nine; Eight′eenmō, same as Octodecimo (q.v.); Eight′eenth, the ordinal number corresponding to eighteen.—n. Eight′foil (her.), an eight-leaved grass.—adjs. Eight′fold, eight times any quantity; Eighth, the ordinal number corresponding to eight.—n. an eighth part.—adv. Eighth′ly, in the eighth place.—adjs. and ns. Eight′ieth, the ordinal number corresponding to eighty; Eight′y, eight times ten, fourscore.—An eight, a crew of a rowing-boat, consisting of eight oarsmen; An eight-oar, or simply Eight, the boat itself; An eight days, a week; Figure of eight, a figure shaped like an 8 made in skating; Piece of eight, a Spanish coin; The eights, annual bumping boat-races which take place in the summer term in Oxford and Cambridge between the various colleges. [A.S. eahta; Ger. acht, L. octo, Gr. oktō.]

Eigne, ān, adj. first-born. [Corrupt spelling of ayne—Fr. an.]

Eikon, ī′kon, n. Same as Icon.

Eild, ēld, adj. (Scot.) not yielding milk. [See Yeld.]

Eild. Same as Eld (q.v.).

Eine, ēn, (obs.) eyes. [See Een, under Ee.]

Eirack, ē′rak, n. (Scot.) a young hen.

Eirenicon, ī-rē′ni-kon, n. a proposal calculated to promote peace.—adj. Eirē′nic. [Gr.,—eirēnē, peace.]

Eirie, ē′ri, n. Same as Eerie.

Eisteddfod, es-teth′vod, n. a congress of Welsh bards and musicians held in various towns for the preservation and cultivation of national poetry and music. [W.; lit. 'session,' eistedd, to sit.]

Either, ē′thėr, or ī′thėr, adj. or pron. the one or the other: one of two: each of two.—conj. correlative to or: (B.) or. [A.S. ǽger, a contr. of ǽghthwer=, aye, the pfx. ge-, and hwther, the mod. whether. See also Each.]

Ejaculate, e-jak′ū-lāt, v.t. to eject: to utter with suddenness.—v.i. to utter ejaculations.—n. Ejaculā′tion, a sudden utterance in prayer or otherwise: what is so uttered.—adjs. Ejac′ulative; Ejac′ulatory, uttered in short, earnest sentences. [L. e, out, and jaculāri, -ātusjacĕre, to throw.]

Eject, e-jekt′, v.t. to cast out: to dismiss: to dispossess of: to expel.—ns. E′ject, a coinage of Prof. Clifford for an inferred existence, a thing thrown out of one's own consciousness, as distinguished from object, a thing presented in one's consciousness; Ejec′tion, discharge: expulsion: state of being ejected: vomiting: that which is ejected.—adj. Ejec′tive.—ns. Eject′ment, expulsion; dispossession: (law) an action for the recovery of the possession of land; Eject′or, one who ejects or dispossesses another of his land: any mechanical apparatus for ejecting. [L. ejectāre, freq. of ejicĕre, ejectume, out, jacĕre, to throw.]

Eke, ēk, v.t. to add to or increase: to lengthen.—n. E′king, act of adding: what is added.—Eke out, to supplement: to prolong. [A.S. can, akin to L. augēre, to increase.]

Eke, ēk, adv. in addition to: likewise. [A.S. ac; Ger. auch; from root of eke, v.t.]

Elaborate, e-lab′or-āt, v.t. to labour on: to produce with labour: to take pains with: to improve by successive operations.—adj. wrought with labour: done with fullness and exactness: highly finished.—adv. Elab′orately.—ns. Elab′orateness; Elaborā′tion, act of elaborating: refinement: the process by which substances are formed in the organs of animals or plants.—adj. Elab′orative.—ns. Elab′orator, one who elaborates; Elab′oratory=Laboratory. [L. elaborāre, -ātume, out, laborārelabor, labour.]

lan, ā-long′, n. impetuosity, dash. [Fr.]

Elance, e-lans′, v.t. to throw out, as a lance. [Fr. lancer.]

Eland, ē′land, n. the South African antelope, resembling the elk in having a protuberance on the larynx. [Dut.; Ger. elend, the elk—Lith. lnis, the elk.]

Elapse, e-laps′, v.i. to slip or glide away: to pass silently, as time.—n. Elap′sion. [L. elapsus, elabie, out, away, labi, lapsus, to slide.]

Elasmobranchiate, e-las-mo-brang′ki-āt, adj. pertaining to a class, subclass, or order of fishes including sharks and skates, having lamellar branchi or plate-like gills.

Elastic, e-las′tik, adj. having a tendency to recover the original form: springy: able to recover quickly a former state or condition after a shock: flexible: yielding.—n. a piece of string, cord, &c. made elastic by having india-rubber woven in it.—adv. Elas′tically.—ns. Elastic′ity, springiness: power to recover from depression; Elas′ticness. [Coined from Gr. elastikos, elaunein, fut. elasein, to drive.]

Elate, e-lāt′, adj. lifted up: puffed up with success: exalted.—v.t. to raise or exalt: to elevate: to make proud.—adv. Elat′edly.—ns. Elat′edness; El′ater, an elastic filament in certain liverworts and scale-mosses: a skip-jack beetle; Elatē′rium, a substance contained in the juice of the fruit of the squirting cucumber, yielding the purgative Elat′erin; Elā′tion, pride resulting from success. [L. elātus, pa.p. of efferree, out, ferre, to carry.]

Elbow, el′bō, n. the joint where the arm bows or bends: any sharp turn or bend.—v.t. to push with the elbow: to jostle.—ns. El′bow-chair, an arm-chair; El′bow-grease, humorously applied to vigorous rubbing; El′bow-room, room to extend the elbows: space enough for moving or acting: freedom.—At one's elbow, close at hand; Be out at elbow, to wear a coat ragged at the elbows; Up to the elbows, completely engrossed. [A.S. elnbogael-, allied to L. ulna, the arm, boga, a bend—bugan, to bend. See Ell; Bow, n. and v.t.]

Elchee, elt′shi, n. an ambassador.—Also El′chi, Elt′chi. [Turk.]

Eld, eld, n. old age, senility: former times, antiquity.

Elder, eld′ėr, n. a genus of plants consisting chiefly of shrubs and trees, with pinnate leaves, small flowers (of which the corolla is wheel-shaped and five-cleft), and three-seeded berries—the Common Elder is the Scotch Bourtree.—ns. Eld′er-berr′y, the acidulous purple-black drupaceous fruit of the elder; Eld′er-gun, a popgun made of elder-wood by extracting the pith; Eld′er-wine, a pleasant wine made from elder-berries.—Elder-flower water, distilled water, with an agreeable odour, made from the flowers. [A.S. ellrn, ellen.]

Elder, eld′ėr, adj. older: having lived a longer time: prior in origin.—n. one who is older: an ancestor: one advanced to office on account of age: one of a class of office-bearers in the Presbyterian Church—equivalent to the presbyters of the New Testament.—n. Eld′erliness.—adj. Eld′erly, somewhat old: bordering on old age.—n. Eld′ership, state of being older: the office of an elder.—adj. Eld′est, oldest. [A.S. eldra, yldra, comp. of eald, old.]

Elding, el′ding, n. (prov.) fuel. [Ice.,—eldr, fire.]

El Dorado, el dō-r′dō, the golden land of imagination of the Spanish conquerors of America: any place where wealth is easily to be made. [Sp. el, the, dorado, pa.p. of dorar, to gild.]

Eldritch, el′drich, adj. (Scot.) weird, hideous. [Der. obscure: perh. conn. with elf.]

Eleatic, el-e-at′ik, adj. noting a school of philosophers, specially connected with Elea, a Greek city of Lower Italy, and including Zenophanes, Parmenides, and Zeno.—n. one belonging to this school.

Elecampane, el′e-kam-pān′, n. a composite plant allied to Aster, formerly much cultivated for its medicinal root. [Formed from Low L. enula campana.]

Elect, e-lekt′, v.t. to choose out: to select for any office or purpose: to select by vote.—adj. chosen: taken by preference from among others: chosen for an office but not yet in it (almost always after the noun, as 'consul elect').—n. one chosen or set apart.—n. Elec′tion, the act of electing or choosing: the public choice of a person for office, usually by the votes of a constituent body: freewill: (theol.) the exercise of God's sovereign will in the predetermination of certain persons to salvation: (B.) those who are elected.—v.i. Electioneer′, to labour to secure the election of a candidate.—n. Electioneer′er.—n. and adj. Electioneer′ing, the soliciting of votes and other business of an election.—adj. Elect′ive, pertaining to, dependent on, or exerting the power of choice.—adv. Elect′ively.—ns. Electiv′ity; Elect′or, one who elects: one who has a vote at an election: the title formerly belonging to those princes and archbishops of the German Empire who had the right to elect the Emperor:—fem. Elect′ress, Elect′oress.—adjs. Elect′oral, Electō′rial, pertaining to elections or to electors: consisting of electors.—ns. Elect′orate, the dignity or the territory of an elector: the body of electors; Elect′orship.—The elect (theol.), those chosen by God for salvation. [L. e, out, legĕre, to choose.]

Electric, e-lek′trik, adj. pertaining to or produced by electricity.—n. any electric substance: a non-conductor of electricity, as amber, glass, &c.—adj. Elec′trical.—adv. Elec′trically.—ns. Elec′tric-eel (see Gymnotus); Electri′cian, one who studies, or is versed in, the science of electricity; Electric′ity, name of the cause of certain phenomena of attraction and repulsion: the phenomena themselves: the science which investigates the nature and laws of these phenomena.—adj. Elec′trifīable.—n. Electrificā′tion.—v.t. Elec′trify, to communicate electricity to: to excite suddenly: to astonish: to adapt to electricity as the motive power:—pa.p. elec′trified.n. Elec′trisation.—v.t. Elec′trīse, to electrify.—ns. Elec′trode, either of the poles of a galvanic battery; Elec′trolier, a device for suspending a group of incandescent lamps; Elec′trum, amber: an alloy of gold and silver.—Electric railway, a railway on which electricity is the motive-power; Electric spark, one of the forms in which accumulated electricity discharges itself; Electric storm, a violent disturbance in the electrical condition of the earth. [L. electrum—Gr. elektron, amber, in which electricity was first observed.]

Electro-biology, e-lek′tro-bī-ol′o-ji, n. the science which treats of the electricity developed in living organisms: that view of animal magnetism according to which the actions, feelings, &c. of a person are controlled by the will of the operator.—adj. Elec′tro-ballis′tic, of an apparatus for determining by electricity the velocity of a projectile.—ns. Elec′tro-biol′ogist; Elec′tro-chem′istry, that branch of chemical science which treats of the agency of electricity in effecting chemical changes.—v.t. Elec′trocute, to inflict a death penalty by means of electricity.—ns. Electrocū′tion, capital punishment by electricity; Elec′tro-dynam′ics, the branch of physics which treats of the action of electricity; Elec′tro-dynamom′eter, an instrument for measuring the strength of electro-dynamic action; Elec′tro-engrav′ing, an etching process in which the etched plate is placed in an electro-bath to deepen the 'bite;' Elec′tro-gild′ing, electroplating with gold; Elec′tro-kinet′ics, that branch of science which treats of electricity in motion; Electrol′ogy, the science of applied electricity.—v.t. Elec′trolyse, to subject to electrolysis.—ns. Electrol′ysis, the process of chemical decomposition by electricity; Elec′trolyte, a body which admits of electrolysis.—adj. Electrolyt′ic.—n. Elec′tro-mag′net, a piece of soft iron rendered magnetic by a current of electricity passing through a coil of wire wound round it.—adj. Elec′tro-magnet′ic.—ns. Elec′tro-mag′netism, a branch of science which treats of the relation of electricity to magnetism; Elec′tro-met′allurgy, a name given to certain processes by which electricity is applied to the working of metals, as in electroplating and electrotyping; Electrom′eter, an instrument for measuring the quantity of electricity.—adjs. Electromet′ric, -al, pertaining to the measurement of electricity.—ns. Electrom′etry, the science of electrical measurements; Elec′tro-mō′tion, the passage of an electric current in a voltaic circuit: motion produced by electricity employed as power.—adjs. Elec′tro-mō′tive, pertaining to the motion of electricity or the laws governing it.—n. Elec′tro-mō′tor, an apparatus for applying electricity as a motive-power.—adj. Elec′tro-neg′ative, appearing, as an element in electrolysis, at the positive electrode: having the property of becoming negatively electrified by contact with a dissimilar substance.—ns. Elec′trophōne, an instrument for producing sounds resembling trumpet-tones by electric currents of high tension; Electroph′orus, an instrument for obtaining statical electricity by means of induction; Elec′tro-physiol′ogy, the study of the electric phenomena of living organisms.—v.t. Elec′troplate, to plate or cover with silver by electrolysis.—n. Elec′troplating.—adjs. Elec′tro-pō′lar, having, as an electrical conductor, one end or surface positive and the other negative; Elec′tro-pos′itive, attracted by bodies negatively electrified, or by the negative pole of a voltaic battery: assuming positive potential when in contact with another substance.—ns. Elec′troscope, an instrument for detecting the presence of electricity in a body and the nature of it; Elec′tro-stat′ics, that branch of science which treats of electricity at rest; Elec′tro-tint, a style of etching by means of galvanism; Elec′trotype, the art of copying an engraving or type on a metal deposited by electricity.—adj. Electrotyp′ic.—ns. Elec′trotypist; Elec′trotypy, the art of copying.—adj. Elec′tro-vī′tal, electrical and dependent upon vital processes.

Electuary, e-lek′tū-ar-i, n. a composition of medicinal powders with honey or sugar. [Low L. electuarium—Gr. ekleiktonekleichein, to lick up.]

Electron. See page 1208.

Eleemosynary, el-e-mos′i-nar-i, adj. relating to charity or almsgiving: dependent on charity: given in charity. [Gr. eleēmosynē, compassionateness, alms—eleos, pity. See Alms.]

Elegant, el′e-gant, adj. pleasing to good taste: graceful: neat: refined: nice: richly ornamental.—ns. El′egance, El′egancy, the state or quality of being elegant: the beauty of propriety: refinement: that which is elegant; Elegante (el-e-gangt′), a lady of fashion.—adv. El′egantly. [Fr.,—L. elegans, -antise, out, and root of legĕre, to choose.]

Elegy, el′e-ji, n. a song of mourning: a funeral-song: a poem written in elegiac metre.—adj. Elegī′ac, belonging to elegy: mournful: used in elegies, esp. noting the kind of metre, alternate hexameter and pentameter lines.—n. elegiac verse.—adj. Elegī′acal.—ns. Elē′giast, El′egist, a writer of elegies.—v.i. El′egīse, to write an elegy.—v.t. to write an elegy on. [Fr.,—L.,—Gr. elegos, a lament.]

Element, el′e-ment, n. a first principle: one of the essential parts of anything: an ingredient: the proper state or sphere of any thing or being: (pl.) the rudiments of learning: the bread and wine used in the Eucharist: fire, air, earth, and water, supposed by the ancients to be the foundation of everything: (chem.) the simplest known constituents of all compound substances: (astron.) those numerical quantities, and those principles deduced from astronomical observations and calculations, which are employed in the construction of tables exhibiting the planetary motions.—adj. Element′al, pertaining to elements or first principles: fundamental: belonging to or produced by elements.—n. Element′alism, the theory which resolves the divinities of antiquity into the elemental powers.—adv. Element′ally.—adj. Element′ary, of a single element: primary: uncompounded: pertaining to the elements: treating of first principles.—Elemental spirits, beings in medieval belief who presided over the four 'elements,' living in and ruling them. [Fr.,—L. elementum, pl. element, first principles.]

Elemi, el′em-i, n. a fragrant resinous substance, obtained from the Manila pitch-tree, Arbol de la Brea.—n. El′emin, the crystallisable portion of elemi. [Cf. Fr. lmi, Sp. elemi; perh. Ar.]

Elench, e-lengk′, Elenchus, e-lengk′us, n. refutation: a sophism.—adjs. Elench′ic, -al, Elenc′tic. [L.,—Gr. elengchoselengchein, to refute.]

Elephant, el′e-fant, n. the largest quadruped, having a very thick skin, a trunk, and two ivory tusks: a special size of paper.—ns. Elephan′tiac, one affected with elephantiasis; Elephantī′asis, a disease chiefly of tropical climates, consisting of an overgrowth of the skin and connective tissue of the parts affected, with occasional attacks of inflammation resembling erysipelas.—adjs. Elephant′ine, pertaining to an elephant: like an elephant: very large or ungainly; Elephant′oid, elephant-like.—ns. El′ephant-seal, the largest of the seals, the male measuring about 20 feet in length; El′ephant's-foot, a plant of which the root-stock forms a large fleshy mass resembling an elephant's foot, used as food by the Hottentots; El′ephant-shrew, name applied to a number of long-nosed, long-legged Insectivora, natives of Africa, and notable for their agile jumping over loose sand.—A white elephant, a gift which occasions the recipient more trouble than it is worth—a white elephant being a common gift of the kings of Siam to a courtier they wished to ruin. [M. E. olifaunt—O. Fr. olifant—L. elephantum, elephas, -antis—Gr. elephas, acc. to some from Heb. eleph, aleph, an ox.]

Eleusinian, el-ū-sin′i-an, adj. relating to Eleusis in Attica.—Eleusinian mysteries, the mysteries of Demeter celebrated at Eleusis.

Eleutherian, el-ū-thē′ri-an, adj. bountiful.

Eleutheromania, el-ūth-er-o-mā′ni-a, n. mad zeal for freedom.—n. Eleutheromā′niac (Carlyle), one possessed with such. [Formed from Gr. eleutheros, free, and mania.]

Elevate, el′e-vāt, v.t. to raise to a higher position: to raise in mind and feelings: to improve: to cheer: to exhilarate: to intoxicate.—p.adjs. El′evate, -d, raised: dignified: exhilarated.—ns. Elevā′tion, the act of elevating or raising, or the state of being raised: exaltation: an elevated place or station: a rising ground: height: (archit.) a representation of the flat side of a building, drawn with mathematical accuracy, but without any attention to effect: (astron., geog.) the height above the horizon of an object on the sphere, measured by the arc of a vertical circle through it and the zenith: (gun.) the angle made by the line of direction of a gun with the plane of the horizon; El′evator, the person or thing that lifts up: a lift or machine for raising grain, &c., to a higher floor: a muscle raising a part of the body.—adj. El′evatory, able or tending to raise. [L. elevāre, -ātume, out, up, levāre, to raise—levis, light. See Light (2).]

Elve, ā-lev′, n. a pupil. [Fr.]

Eleven, e-lev′n, n. the cardinal number next above ten: the figure (11 or xi.) denoting eleven: a team of eleven cricketers.—adj. noting the number eleven.—adj. and n. Elev′enth, the ordinal number corresponding to eleven.—Eleventh hour, the very last moment, referring to Matt. xx. 6, 9. [A.S. endleofon; cf. Goth. ainlif.]

Elf, elf, n. in European folklore, a supernatural being, generally of human form but diminutive size, more malignant than a fairy: a dwarf: a tricky being:—(pl.) Elves.—v.t. (Shak.) of the hair, to entangle.—n. Elf′-child, a changeling, or a child supposed to have been left by elves in place of one stolen by them.—adj. Elf′in, of or relating to elves.—n. a little elf: a child.—adjs. Elf′ish, Elv′an, Elv′ish, elf-like, mischievous: tricky: disguised.—n. Elf′-land, the land of the elves or fairies.— Elf′-locks (Shak.) locks of hair clotted together, supposed to have been done by elves.—ns. Elf′-shot, Elf′-bolt, Elf′-ar′row, an arrow-head of flint or stone. [A.S. lf; cf. Ice. lfr, Sw. elf.]

Elgin marbles. See Marble.

Elicit, e-lis′it, v.t. to entice: to bring to light: to deduce.—n. Elicitā′tion. [L. elicĕre, elicitum.]

Elide, e-līd′, v.t. to rebut: to cut off, as a syllable.—n. Eli′sion, the suppression of a vowel or syllable. [L. elidĕre, elisume, out, ldĕre, to strike.]

Eligible, el′i-ji-bl, adj. fit or worthy to be chosen: legally qualified: desirable.—n. (coll.) a person or thing eligible.—ns. El′igibleness, Eligibil′ity, fitness to be elected or chosen: the state of being preferable to something else: desirableness.—adv. El′igibly. [Fr.,—L. eligĕre. See Elect, v.t.]

Eliminate, ē-lim′in-āt, v.t. to thrust out: to remove, cancel: to leave out of consideration.—adj. Elim′inable.—n. Eliminā′tion. [L. eliminăre, -ātume, out, limen, liminis, a threshold.]

Eliquation, same as Liquation. See Liquate.

Elision. See Elide.

Elite, ā-lēt, n. a chosen or select part: the best of anything. [Fr. lite—L. electa (pars, a part, understood). See Elect, v.t.]

Elixir, e-liks′ėr, n. more fully, Elixir vit, or Elixir of life, a liquor once supposed to have the power of indefinitely prolonging life or of transmuting metals: the quintessence of anything: a substance which invigorates: (med.) a compound tincture. [Low L.,—Ar. al-iksīr, the philosopher's stone, from al-, the, iksīr, prob. from Late Gr. xērion, a desiccative powder for wounds—Gr. xēros, dry.]

Elizabethan, e-liz-a-beth′an, adj. pertaining to Queen Elizabeth (1533-1603) or her time—of dress, manners, literature, &c.—n. a poet or dramatist of that age.—Elizabethan architecture, a name applied to the mixed style which sprang up on the decline of Gothic, marked by Tudor bow-windows and turrets decorated with classic cornices and pilasters, long galleries, enormous square windows, large apartments, plaster ceilings wrought into compartments, &c.

Elk, elk, n. the largest species of deer, found in the north of Europe and in North America.—Irish elk, a giant deer now extinct, known from the remains found in the Pleistocene diluvium, esp. of Ireland. [Perh. from the Scand., Ice. elgr, Sw. elg.]

Ell, el, n. a measure of length originally taken from the arm: a cloth measure equal to 1 yd.—n. Ell′wand, a measuring rod.—Give him an inch and he'll take an ell, a proverb, signifying that to yield one point entails the yielding of all. [A.S. eln; Dut. el, Ger. elle, L. ulna, Gr. ōlenē.]

Ellagic, e-laj′ik, adj. pertaining to gall-nuts.

Elleborin, el′ē-bō-rin, n. a very acrid resin found in winter hellebore.

Ellipse, el-lips′, n. an oval: (geom.) a figure produced by the section of a cone by a plane passing obliquely through the opposite sides.—ns. Ellip′sis (gram.), a figure of syntax by which a word or words are left out and implied:—pl. Ellip′sēs; Ellip′sograph, an instrument for describing ellipses; Ellip′soid (math.), a surface every plane section of which is an ellipse.—adjs. Ellipsoi′dal; Ellip′tic, -al, pertaining to an ellipse: oval: pertaining to ellipsis: having a part understood.—adv. Ellip′tically.—n. Elliptic′ity, deviation from the form of a circle or sphere: of the earth, the difference between the equatorial and polar diameters. [L.,—Gr. elleipsiselleipein, to fall short—en, in, leipein, to leave.]

Ellops, el′ops, n. a kind of serpent or fish. [Gr.]

Elm, elm, n. a genus of trees of the natural order Ulmace, with serrated leaves unequal at the base, and small flowers growing in clusters appearing before the leaves.—adjs. Elm′en, made of elm; Elm′y, abounding with elms. [A.S. elm; Ger. ulme, L. ulmus.]

Elmo's fire, el′mōz fīr, n. the popular name of an electric appearance sometimes seen like a brush or star of light at the tops of masts, spars, &c.—Also known as the Fire of St Elias, of St Clara, of St Nicholas, and of Helena, as well as composite or composant (corpus sanctum) on the Suffolk sea-board. [Explained as a corr. of Helena, name of the sister of Castor and Pollux, or of St Erasmus, a 3d-cent. bishop, Italianised as Ermo, Elmo.]

Elocution, el-o-kū′shun, n. the art of effective speaking, more esp. of public speaking, regarding solely the utterance or delivery: eloquence.—adj. Elocū′tionary.—n. Elocū′tionist, one versed in elocution: a teacher of elocution. [Fr.,—L. elocution-em, eloqui, elocūtuse, out, loqui, to speak.]

loge, ā-lōzh′, Elogium, ē-lō′ji-um, Elogy, el′o-ji, n. a funeral oration: a panegyric.—n. El′ogist, one who delivers an loge. [Fr. loge—L. elogium, a short statement, an inscription on a tomb, perh. confused with eulogy.]

Elohim, e-lō′him, n. the Hebrew name for God.—n. Elō′hist, the writer or writers of the Elohistic passages of the Old Testament.—adj. Elohist′ic, relating to Elohim—said of those passages in the Old Testament in which Elohim is used as the name for the Supreme Being instead of Jehovah. [Heb., pl. of Eloah—explained by Delitzsch as a plural of intensity.]

Eloin, Eloign, e-loin′, v.t. to convey to a distance, to separate and remove.—ns. Eloin′ment, Eloign′ment. [O. Fr. esloignier (Fr. loigner)—Low L. elongāre. See Elongate.]

Elongate, e-long′gāt, v.t. to make longer: to extend.—p.adjs. Elong′ate, -d.—n. Elongā′tion, act of lengthening out: distance. [Low L. elongāre, -ātume, out, longus, long.]

Elope, e-lōp, v.i. to escape privately, said esp. of a woman, either married or unmarried, who runs away with a lover: to run away, bolt.—n. Elope′ment, a secret departure, esp. of a woman with a man. [Cf. Old Dut. ontlōpen, Ger. entlaufen, to run away.]

Eloquent, el′o-kwent, adj. having the power of speaking with fluency, elegance, and force: containing eloquence: persuasive.—n. El′oquence, the utterance of strong emotion in correct, appropriate, expressive, and fluent language: the art which produces fine speaking: persuasive speech.—adv. El′oquently. [L. eloquens, -entis, pr.p. of eloqui.]

Else, els, pron. other.—adv. otherwise: besides: except that mentioned.—advs. Else′where, in or to another place; Else′wise, in a different manner: otherwise. [A.S. elles, otherwise—orig. gen. of el, other; cf. Old High Ger. alles or elles.]

Elsin, el′sin, n. (Scot.) an awl. [From Old Dut. elssene (mod. els), from same root as awl.]

Eltchi. Same as Elchee.

Elucidate, e-lū′si-dāt, v.t. to make lucid or clear: to throw light upon: to illustrate.—n. Elucidā′tion.—adjs. Elū′cidative, Elū′cidatory, making clear: explanatory.—n. Elū′cidator. [Low L. elucidāre, -ātume, inten., lucidus, clear.]

Elucubration. Same as Lucubration.

Elude, e-lūd′, v.t. to escape by stratagem: to baffle.—adj. Elū′dible.—n. Elū′sion, act of eluding: evasion.—adj. Elū′sive, practising elusion: deceptive.—adv. Elū′sively.—n. Elū′soriness.—adj. Elū′sory, tending to elude or cheat: evasive: deceitful. [L. eludĕre, elusume, out, ludĕre, to play.]

Elul, ē′lul, n. the 12th month of the Jewish civil year, and 6th of the ecclesiastical. [Heb.,—lal, to reap.]

Elutriate, e-lū′tri-āt, v.t. to separate by means of water the finer particles of earth and pigments from the heavier portions.—ns. Elū′tion, washing from impurity; Elutriā′tion. [L. elutriāre, -ātum, to wash out, eluĕree, out, luĕre, to wash.]

Elvan, elv′an, n. the miner's name in the south-west of England for a granular crystalline rock, composed of quartz and orthoclase, which forms veins associated with granite.—Also Elv′anite. [Prob. Corn. elven, spark.]

Elvan, Elves, Elvish. See under Elf.

Elysium, e-lizh′i-um, n. (myth.) among the Greeks, the abode of the blessed after death: any delightful place.—adj. Elys′ian, pertaining to Elysium: delightful: glorious. [L.,—Gr. ēlysion (pedion), the Elysian (plain).]

Elytrum, el′it-rum, n. the fore-wing of beetles, modified to form more or less hard coverings for the hind pair—also El′ytron:—pl. El′ytra.—adjs. El′ytral; Elyt′riform; Elytrig′erous. [Gr. elytron, a sheath.]

Elzevir, el′ze-vir, adj. published by the Elzevirs, a celebrated family of printers at Amsterdam, Leyden, and other places in Holland, whose small neat editions were chiefly published between 1592 and 1681: pertaining to the type used in their 12mo and 16mo editions of the Latin classics.—n. a special form of printing types.

Em, em, n. the name of the letter M: (print.) the unit of measurement in estimating how much is printed on a page.

'Em, ėm, pron. him: (coll.) them. [Orig. the unstressed form of hem, dat. and accus. pl. of he; but now used coll. as an abbreviation of them.]

Emaciate, e-mā′shi-āt, v.t. to make meagre or lean: to deprive of flesh: to waste.—v.i. to become lean: to waste away.—p.adjs. Emā′ciate, -d.—n. Emaciā′tion, the condition of becoming emaciated or lean: leanness. [L. emaciāre, -ātume, inten., maciāre, to make lean—macies, leanness.]

Emanate, em′a-nāt, v.i. to flow out or from: to proceed from some source: to arise.—adj. Em′anant, flowing from.—ns. Emanā′tion, a flowing out from a source, as the universe considered as issuing from the essence of God: the generation of the Son and the procession of the Spirit, as distinct from the origination of created beings: that which issues or proceeds from some source; Em′anatist.—adjs. Em′anative, Em′anatory, Emanā′tional. [L. emanāre, -ātume, out from, manāre, to flow.]

Emancipate, e-man′si-pāt, v.t. to set free from servitude: to free from restraint or bondage of any kind.—ns. Emancipā′tion, the act of setting free from bondage or disability of any kind: the state of being set free; Emancipā′tionist, an advocate of the emancipation of slaves; Eman′cipator; Eman′cipist, a convict who has served his time of punishment in a penal colony. [L. emancipāre, -ātume, away from, mancipāre, to transfer property—manceps, -cipis, one who gets property, from manus, the hand, capĕre, to take.]

Emarginate, e-mr′jin-āt, v.t. to take away the margin of.—p.adj. (bot.) depressed and notched instead of pointed at the summit, as a leaf: (min.) having all the edges of the primitive form crossed by a face: (zool.) having the margin broken by a notch or segment of a circle.—n. Emarginā′tion. [L. emargināre, -ātume, out, margināre, to provide with a margin—margo, a margin.]

Emasculate, e-mas′kū-lāt, v.t. to deprive of the properties of a male: to castrate: to deprive of masculine vigour: to render effeminate.—ns. Emasculā′tion; Emas′culātor.—adj. Emas′culātory. [Low L. emasculāre, -ātume, neg., masculus, dim. of mas, a male.]

Embace, em-bās′, v.t. (Spens.). Same as Embase.

Embale, em-bāl′, v.t. to make up, as into a bale: to bind up: to enclose. [Fr. emballerem—L. in, balle, a bale.]

Emball, em-bawl′, v.t. to encircle: ensphere.—n. Emball′ing.

Embalm, em-bm′, v.t. to preserve from decay by aromatic drugs, as a dead body: to perfume: to preserve with care and affection.—ns. Embalm′er; Embalm′ing; Embalm′ment. [Fr. embaumer, from em, in, and baume. See Balm.]

Embank, em-bangk′, v.t. to enclose or defend with a bank or dike.—n. Embank′ment, the act of embanking: a bank or mound made to keep water within certain limits: a mound constructed so as to carry a level road or railway over a low-lying place. [Coined from em, in, and bank.]

Embar, em-br′, v.t. to shut in; to hinder or stop:—pr.p. embar′ring; pa.p. embarred′.n. Embar′ring.

Embarcation. Same as Embarkation.

Embargo, em-br′gō, n. a temporary order from the Admiralty to prevent the arrival or departure of ships: a stoppage of trade for a short time by authority:—pl. Embar′goes.—v.t. to lay an embargo on: to seize.—pr.p. embar′gōing; pa.p. embar′gōed. [Sp.,—embargar, to impede, to restrain—Sp. em, in, barra, a bar. See Barricade and Embarrass.]

Embark, em-brk′, v.t. to put on board ship: to engage in any affair.—v.i. to go on board ship: to engage in a business: to enlist.—n. Embarkā′tion, a putting or going on board: that which is embarked: (obs.) a vessel.—p.adjs. Embarked′; Embark′ing.—n. Embark′ment. [Fr. embarquer, from em, in, barque, a bark.]

Embarrass, em-bar′as, v.t. to encumber: to involve in difficulty, esp. in money matters: to perplex.—p.adj. Embarr′assed, perplexed: constrained.—n. Embarr′assment, perplexity or confusion: difficulties in money matters.—Embarras des richesses, a superabundance of materials, an abundance so great that choice is difficult. [Fr. embarrasserem, in, barre, bar.]

Embase, em-bāz′, v.t. (obs.) to bring down: to degrade.—p.adj. Embased′.—n. Embase′ment. [Em and base.]

Embassy, em′bas-i, n. the charge or function of an ambassador: the person or persons sent on an undertaking.—ns. Em′bassade, Em′bassage (same as Ambassage); Embass′ador (same as Ambassador).

Embathe, em-bāthv.t. to bathe.

Embattle, em-bat′l, v.t. to furnish with battlements.—p.adj. Embatt′led, furnished with battlements: (her.) having the outline like a battlement.—n. Embatt′lement (same as Battlement). [Em, and O. Fr. bastiller, from the same root as battlement, bastille, and baste, to sew. The form of this word is due to a confusion with Eng. battle.]

Embattle, em-bat′l, v.t. to range in order of battle: to arm—p.adj. Embatt′led, arranged for battle. [O. Fr. embataillieren, in, bataille, battle.]

Embay, em-bā′, v.t. to enclose in a bay: to land-lock.—n. Embay′ment, a bay. [Em, in, into, and bay.]

Embay, em-bā′, v.t. (Spens.) to bathe. [Em, in, and Fr. baigner. See Bagnio.]

Embed, em-bed′, Imbed, im-, v.t. to place in a mass of matter: to lay, as in a bed.—n. Embed′ment, the act of embedding: state of being embedded.

Embellish, em-bel′ish, v.t. to make beautiful with ornaments: to decorate: to make graceful: to illustrate pictorially, as a book.—n. Embell′isher.—adv. Embell′ishingly.—n. Embell′ishment, act of embellishing or adorning: decoration: ornament. [Fr. embellir, embellissantem, in, bel, beau, beautiful.]

Ember, em′bėr, n. a live piece of coal or wood: chiefly in pl. red-hot ashes: smouldering remains of a fire. [A.S. ǽmerge; Ice. eimyrja. The b is simply euphonic.]

Ember-days, em′bėr-dāz, the three Fast-days in each quarter (Wednesday, Friday, Saturday)—following the first Sunday in Lent, Whitsunday, Holy Cross Day (Sept. 14th), and St Lucia's Day (Dec. 13th).—n. Em′ber-week, the week in which the ember-days occur. [A.S. ymbryne, a circuit—ymb, round (Ger. um, L. ambi-), and ryne, a running, from rinnan, to run.]

Ember-goose, em′bėr-gōōs, n. a kind of sea-fowl, the Great Northern Diver. [Norw. emmer; Ger. imber.]

Embezzle, em-bez′l, v.t. to appropriate fraudulently what has been entrusted.—ns. Embezz′lement, fraudulent appropriation of another's property by the person to whom it was entrusted; Embezz′ler. [Perh. from root of imbecile, the primary sense being to weaken: (obs.) Bezz′le, to squander, from O. Fr. besiler, to destroy, is the same word.]

Embitter, em-bit′ėr, Imbitter, im-, v.t. to make bitter: to increase (ill-feeling).—p.adj. Embitt′ered, soured.—n. Embitt′erer.—p.adj. Embitt′ering.—n. Embitt′erment.

Emblazon, em-blā′zn, v.t. to deck in blazing colours: (her.) to blazon or adorn with figures: to depict heraldically.—v.t. Emblaze′, to illuminate.—ns. Emblā′zoner; Emblā′zonment, an emblazoning; Emblā′zonry, the art of emblazoning or adorning: devices on shields. [Em, and blaze, blazon.]

Emblem, em′blem, n. a picture representing to the mind something different from itself: a type or symbol: (Milton) an inlaid ornament.—v.t. to symbolise.—n. Emblē′ma, an inlaid ornament:—pl. Emblē′mata.—adjs. Emblemat′ic, -al, pertaining to or containing emblems: symbolical: representing.—adv. Emblemat′ically.—v.t. Emblem′atise, Em′blemise, to represent by an emblem:—pr.p. emblem′atīsing; pa.p. emblem′atīsed.n. Emblem′atist, a writer or inventor of emblems. [L. emblēma—Gr. em (=en), in, ballein, to cast.]

Emblements, em′bl-ments, crops raised by the labour of the cultivator, but not fruits nor grass. [O. Fr. emblaer, to sow with corn—Low L. imbladārein, in, bladum, wheat.]

Embloom, em-blōōm′, v.t. to cover with bloom.

Emblossom, em-blos′om, v.t. to cover with blossom.

Embody, em-bod′i, Imbody, im-, v.t. to form into a body: to make corporeal: to make tangible: to express (an idea in words): to organise.—v.i. to unite in a body or mass.—p.adj. Embod′ied.—n. Embod′iment, act of embodying: state of being embodied: that in which something is embodied. [Em, in, and body.]

Embogue, em-bōg′, v.i. to discharge itself.

Emboil, em-boil′, v.i. (Spens.) to burn with anger.—v.t. to cause to burn with anger: to irritate.

Embolden, em-bōld′n, Imbolden, im-, v.t. to make bold or courageous. [Em, to make, and bold.]

Embolism, em′bo-lizm, n. the insertion of days in an account of time to produce regularity: an intercalated prayer for deliverance from evil coming after the Lord's Prayer: (med.) the presence of obstructing clots in the blood-vessels.—adjs. Embolis′mal, Embolis′mic.—n. Em′bolus, the clot of fibrin obstructing a blood-vessel, causing embolism. [Fr.,—Gr. embolismosemballein, to cast in.]

Embonpoint, ang-bong-pwang′, adj. stout, plump, full in figure, mostly of women: well-fed.—n. stoutness, plumpness, well-fed condition. [Fr.,—en bon point, in good form.]

Emborder, em-bord′ėr, v.t. (Milton) to border.

Emboscata, em-bos-kā′ta, n. an erroneous form of It. imboscta, an ambuscade.

Embosom, em-booz′um, Imbosom, im-, v.t. to take into the bosom: to receive into the affections: to enclose or surround. [Em, in, into, and bosom.]

Emboss, em-bos′, v.t. to produce (a raised pattern) by pressure upon sheet-metal, leather, cloth, &c.: to ornament with raised-work: (Spens.) to cover with armour: to be wrapped in.—p.adj. Embossed′, formed or covered with bosses: raised, standing out in relief: (bot.) having a protuberance in the centre.—ns. Emboss′er; Emboss′ment, a prominence like a boss: raised-work. [Em, in, into, and boss.]

Emboss, em-bos′, v.i. (Milton) to plunge into the depths of a wood.—v.t. to make to foam at the mouth. [O. Fr. embosquer, em—L. in, in, bosc, a wood. See Ambush.]

Embouchure, ang-boo-shr′, n. the mouth of a river: the mouth-hole of a wind musical instrument. [Fr.,—em-boucher, to put to the mouth—en, in, bouche, a mouth.]

Embound, em-bownd′, v.t. (Shak.) to bound, enclose.

Embow, em-bō′, v.t. and v.i. to bow or arch.—p.adj. Embowed′, arched, vaulted: bent like a bow: the heraldic term noting anything bent like a bow—as, e.g., the arm of a man. [Em and bow.]

Embowel, em-bow′el, v.t. properly, to enclose in something else; but also used for disembowel, to remove the entrails from:—pr.p. embow′elling; pa.p. embow′elled.n. Embow′elment. [Em, in, into, and bowel.]

Embower, em-bow′er, Imbower, im-, v.t. to place in a bower: to shelter, as with trees.—p.adjs. Embow′ered; Embow′ering.—n. Embow′erment. [Em, in, and bower.]

Embox, em-boks′, v.t. to set in a box. [Em, in, box.]

Embrace, em-brās′, v.t. to take in the arms: to press to the bosom with affection: to take eagerly or willingly: to comprise: to admit, adopt, or receive.—v.i. to join in an embrace.—n. an embracing: fond pressure in the arms.—ns. Embrace′ment; Embrac′er.—adjs. Embrac′ing, Embrac′ive.—adv. Embrac′ingly.—n. Embrac′ingness. [O. Fr. embracer (Fr. embrasser)—L. in, in, into, bracchium, an arm. See Brace.]

Embrace, em-brās′, v.t. (Spens.) to brace, to fasten, or bind:—pr.p. embrac′ing; pa.p. embraced′. [Em, in, and brace.]

Embracer, em-brā′ser, n. (law) one who influences jurors by corrupt means to deliver a partial verdict—also Embrā′ceor, Embrā′sor.—n. Embrac′ery, the offence of an embracer. [O. Fr. embraceor, from embraser, to set on fire.]

Embraid, em-brād′, v.t. (Spens.) to braid.

Embranchment, em-bransh′ment, n. a branching off, as an arm of a river, a spur of a mountain, &c. [Fr.]

Embrangle, em-brang′gl, Imbrangle, im-, v.t. to confuse, perplex.—n. Embran′glement. [Em, in, and brangle.]

Embrasure (Shak.)=Embracement.

Embrasure, em-brā′zhūr, n. a door or window with the sides slanted on the inside: an opening in a wall for cannon. [Fr.,—O. Fr. embraser, to slope the sides of a window, em—L. in, braser, to skew.]

Embrave, em-brāv′, v.t. (Spens.) to make brave or showy, to decorate: to inspire with bravery.

Embread, v.t. (Spens.) embraid.

Embreathe, em-brēth′, v.t. to breathe into, to inspire with. [En and breathe.]

Embrocate, em′brō-kāt, v.t. to moisten and rub, as a sore with a lotion.—n. Embrocā′tion, act of embrocating: the lotion used. [Low L. embrocāre, -ātum, from Gr. embrochē, a lotion—embrechein, to soak in—em (=en), in, into, brechein, to wet.]


Embroider, em-broid′ėr, v.t. to ornament with designs in needlework, originally on the border.—ns. Embroid′erer; Embroid′ery, the art of producing ornamental patterns by means of needlework on textile fabrics, &c.: ornamental needlework: variegation or diversity: artificial ornaments. [M. E. embrouderie—O. Fr. embroder, em, and broder, prob. Celt., acc. to Skeat. Bret. brouda, to pierce; confused with Fr. border, to border.]

Embroil, em-broil′, v.t. to involve in a broil, or in perplexity (with): to entangle: to distract: to throw into confusion.—n. Embroil′ment, a state of perplexity or confusion: disturbance. [Fr. embrouillerem, in, brouiller, to break out.]

Embronze, em-bronz′, v.t. to form in bronze.

Embrown, em-brown′, Imbrown, im-, v.t. to make brown: to darken, obscure.—p.adj. Embrown′ing.

Embrue, em-brōō′, v.t. Same as Imbrue.

Embryo, em′bri-ō, Embryon, em′bri-on, n. the young of an animal in its earliest stages of development: the part of a seed which forms the future plant: the beginning of anything:—pl. Em′bryos, Em′bryons.—ns. Embryoc′tomy, destruction of the fetus in the uterus; Embryog′eny, the formation and development of the embryo; Embryog′raphy, description of the embryo.—adjs. Embryolog′ic, -al, of or pertaining to embryology.—ns. Embryol′ogist; Embryol′ogy, science of the embryo or fetus of animals.—adjs. Em′bryonate, -d, in the state of an embryo; Embryon′ic, Embryot′ic, of or relating to anything in an imperfect state: rudimentary.—ns. Embryot′omy, the division of a fetus to effect delivery; Embryul′cia, forcible extraction of a fetus. [Low L.,—Gr. embryonem (=en), in, bryein, to swell.]

Eme, ēm, n. (obs.) an uncle. [A.S. am; Dut. oom.]

Emend, e-mend′, v.t. to remove faults or blemishes from: to correct or improve.—adj. Emend′able, that may be emended.— Emend′als, funds set apart for repairs in the accounts of the Inner Temple.—v.t. Em′endate, to correct errors.—ns. Emendā′tion, removal of an error or fault: correction; Em′endātor, a corrector of errors in writings: one who corrects or improves.—adj. Emen′dātory, mending or contributing to correction. [L. emendāre, -ātume, out, menda, a fault.]

Emerald, em′ėr-ald, n. a very highly esteemed mineral of the same species with the beryl, from which it differs in scarcely anything but its colour, a beautiful velvety green.—n. Em′erald-copp′er (see Dioptase).—Emerald Isle, a name for Ireland, owing to its greenness; Emerald type (print.), a small size of type. [O. Fr. esmeralde—L. smaragdus—Gr. smaragdos.]

Emerge, e-mėrj′, v.i. to rise out of: to issue or come forth: to reappear after being concealed: to come into view: to result.—ns. Emer′gence, Emer′gency, act of emerging: sudden appearance: an unexpected occurrence: pressing necessity; Emer′gency-man, a man provided for any special service, esp. in Irish evictions, and in saving the crops and other property of men boycotted.—adj. Emer′gent, emerging: suddenly appearing: arising unexpectedly: urgent.—adv. Emer′gently.—n. Emer′sion, act of emerging: (astron.) the reappearance of a heavenly body after being eclipsed by another or by the sun's brightness. [L. emergĕre, emersume, out of, mergĕre, to plunge.]

Emeritus, e-mer′i-tus, adj. honourably discharged from the performance of public duty, esp. noting a retired professor.—n. one who has been honourably discharged from public duties:—pl. Emer′iti. [L. emeritus, having served one's time—emerēri, to deserve, do one's duty—e, sig. completeness, and merēre, to deserve.]

Emerods, em′e-rodz, (B.) now Hemorrhoids.

Emery, em′ėr-i, n. a very hard mineral, a variety of corundum, used as powder for polishing, &c.—v.t. to rub or coat with emery.—ns. Em′ery-pā′per, paper covered with emery-powder for polishing; Em′ery-pow′der, ground emery; Em′ery-wheel, a wheel coated with emery for polishing. [O. Fr. esmeril, emeril—Low L. smericulum—Gr. smērissmaein, to rub.]

Emetic, e-met′ik, adj. causing vomiting.—n. a medicine that causes vomiting.—n. Em′esis, vomiting.—adj. Emet′ical.—adv. Emet′ically.—n. Em′etin, the alkaloid forming the active principle of ipecacuanha-root, violently emetic.—adj. Em′eto-cathart′ic, producing both vomiting and purging.—n. Emetol′ogy, the study of emesis and emetics, [Through L., from Gr. emetikosemeein, to vomit.]

Emeu. See Emu.

meute, em-t′, n. a popular rising or uproar. [Fr.]

Emicant, em′i-kant, adj. beaming forth.—n. Emicā′tion.

Emiction, e-mik′shun, n. the discharging of urine: urine.—adj. Emic′tory, promoting the flow of urine. [L. emingĕre, emictume, out, mingĕre, to make water.]

Emigrate, em′i-grāt, v.i. and v.t. to remove from one country to another as a place of abode.—adj. Em′igrant, emigrating or having emigrated.—n. one who emigrates.—n. Emigrā′tion.—adj. Emigrā′tional.—n. Emigrā′tionist, an advocate or promoter of emigration.—adj. Emigrā′tory.—n. Emigr (ā-mē-grā), a royalist who quitted France during the Revolution. [L. emigrāre, -ātume, from, migrāre, to remove.]

Eminent, em′i-nent, adj. rising above others: conspicuous: distinguished: exalted in rank or office.—ns. Em′inence, Em′inency, a part eminent or rising above the rest: a rising ground: height: distinction: a title of honour: homage: a title given in 1631 to cardinals, till then styled Most Illustrious.—adj. Eminen′tial.—adv. Em′inently.—Eminent domain (dominium eminens), the right by which the supreme authority in a state may compel a proprietor to part with what is his own for the public use. [L. eminens, -entis, pr.p. of eminēree, out, minēre, to project.]

Emir, em-ēr′, or ē′mir, n. a title given in the East and in the north of Africa to all independent chieftains, and also to all the supposed descendants of Mohammed through his daughter Fatima.—n. Em′irate, the office of an emir. [Ar. amīr, ruler.]

Emit, e-mit′, v.t. to send out: to throw or give out: in issue: to utter (a declaration):—pr.p. emit′ting; pa.p. emit′ted.n. Em′issary, one sent out on a secret mission: a spy: an underground channel by which the water of a lake escapes.—adj. that is sent forth.—n. Emis′sion, the act of emitting: that which is issued at one time.—adjs. Emis′sive, Emis′sory, emitting, sending out.—Emission theory, the theory that all luminous bodies emit with equal velocities a number of elastic corpuscles, which travel in straight lines, are reflected, and are refracted. [L. emittĕre, emissume, out of, mittĕre, to send.]

Emmanuel, em-an′ū-el, Immanuel, im-, n. the symbolical name of the child announced by Isaiah (Isa. vii. 14), and applied to the Messiah (Matt. i. 23). [Heb.,—im, with, anu, us, el, God.]

Emmarble, em-mr′bl, v.t. to turn to marble, to petrify. [Em and marble.]

Emmenagogues, em-en′a-gogz, medicines intended to restore, or to bring on for the first time, the menses.—adj. Emmenagog′ic (-goj′ik).n. Emmenol′ogy, knowledge about menstruation. [Gr. emmēna, menses, agōgos, drawing forth.]

Emmet, em′et, n. (prov.) the ant. [A.S. ǽmete.]

Emmetropia, em-e-trō′pi-a, n. the normal condition of the refractive media of the eye.—adj. Emmetropi′c. [Gr., en, in, metron, measure, ōps, the eye.]

Emmew, e-mū′, v.t. to confine.—Also Immew′.

Emmove, em-mōōv′, v.t. (Spens.) to move, to excite.

Emmollient, e-mol′yent, adj. softening: making supple.—n. (med.) a substance used to soften the textures to which they are applied, as poultices, fomentations, &c.—n. Emolles′cence, incipient fusion.—v.t. Emmoll′iate, to soften: to render effeminate.—n. Emolli′tion, the act of softening or relaxing. [L. emollīre, emollitume, inten., mollīre, to soften—mollis, soft.]

Emolument, e-mol′ū-ment, n. advantage: profit arising from employment, as salary or fees.—adj. Emolumen′tal. [L. emolimentumemolīri, to work out—e, sig. completeness, molīre, to toil.]

Emong, e-mung′, prep. (obs.) among.—Also Emongst′.

Emotion, e-mō′shun, n. a moving of the feelings: agitation of mind: (phil.) one of the three groups of the phenomena of the mind.—adj. Emō′tional.—n. Emō′tionalism, tendency to emotional excitement, the habit of working on the emotions, the indulgence of superficial emotion.—adv. Emō′tionally.—adjs. Emō′tionless; Emō′tive, pertaining to the emotions. [L. emotion-ememovēre, emōtum, to stir up—e, forth, movēre, to move.]

Emp-. For words not found under this, see Imp-.

Empstic, em-pē′stik, adj. pertaining to the art of embossing, stamped. [Gr. empaiein, to emboss.]

Empacket, em-pak′et, v.t. (Scot.) to pack up.

Empair, em-pār′, v.t. (Spens.) to impair.

Empanel, em-pan′el, Impanel, im-, v.t. to enter the names of a jury on a panel.—n. Empan′elment.

Empanoply, em-pan′ō-pli, v.t. to invest in full armour.

Empatron, em-pā′trun, v.t. (Shak.) to patronise.

Empeople, em-pē′pl, v.t. (obs.) to fill with people: to form into a people or community.

Emperish, em-per′ish, v.t. (obs.) to impair.

Emperor, em′pėr-or, n. the head of the Roman Empire: the highest title of sovereignty:—fem. Em′press.—ns. Em′peror-moth, except the Death's-head, the largest British moth, its expanse of wings being about three inches; Em′perorship; Em′pery, empire, power. [O. Fr. emperere—L. imperator (fem. imperatrix)—imperāre, to command.]

Emphasis, em′fa-sis, n. stress of the voice on particular words or syllables to make the meaning clear: impressiveness of expression or weight of thought: intensity:—pl. Em′phases (-sēz).—v.t. Em′phasīse, to make emphatic.—adjs. Emphat′ic, -al, uttered with or requiring emphasis: forcible: impressive.—adv. Emphat′ically.—n. Emphat′icalness. [L.,—Gr.,—em (=en), in, into, and phasisphaein, phainein, to show.]

Emphlysis, em′fli-sis, n. a vesicular tumour. [Gr., en, in, phlysisphlyein, to break out.]

Emphractic, em-frak′tik, adj. stopping the pores of the skin.—n. a substance with this property. [Gr., en, in, phrassein, to stop.]

Emphysema, em-fis-ē′ma, n. (med.) an unnatural distention of a part with air.—adj. Emphysem′atous. [Gr.,—emphysaein, to inflate.]

Emphyteusis, em-fit-ū′sis, n. in Roman law, a perpetual right in a piece of land, for which a yearly sum was paid to the proprietor.—adj. Emphyteu′tic. [L.,—Gr.,—emphyteuein, to implant.]

Empierce, em-pērs′, v.t. (Spens.) to pierce.

Empight, em-pīt′, p.adj. (Spens.) fixed. [Em and pitch.]

Empire, em′pīr, n. supreme control or dominion: the territory under the dominion of an emperor. [Fr.,—L. imperiumimperāre, to command.]

Empiric, -al, em-pir′ik, -al, adj. resting on trial or experiment: known only by experience.—n. Empir′ic, one who makes trials or experiments: one whose knowledge is got from experience only: a quack.—adv. Empir′ically.—ns. Empir′icism (phil.) the system which, rejecting all a priori knowledge, rests solely on experience and induction: dependence of a physician on his experience alone without a regular medical education: the practice of medicine without a regular education: quackery: Empir′icist, one who practises empiricism.—adj. Empiricūt′ic (Shak.), empirical. [Fr.,—L. empiricus—Gr. empeirikosem, in, peira, a trial.]

Emplacement, em-plās′ment, n. the act of placing: (mil.) a platform placed for guns.

Emplaster, em-plas′tėr, n. and v. same as Plaster.—adj. Emplas′tic, glutinous: adhesive.—n. a medicine causing constipation.

Emplecton, em-plek′ton, n. masonry in which the outsides of the walls are ashlar and the insides filled up with rubbish.—Also Emplec′tum. [Gr.]

Employ, em-ploy′, v.t. to occupy the time or attention of: to use as a means or agent: to give work to.—n. a poetical form of employment.—adj. Employ′able, that may be employed.—ns. Employ′, one who is employed:—fem. Employ′e; Employēē′, a person employed; Employ′er; Employ′ment, act of employing: that which engages or occupies: occupation. [Fr. employer—L. implicāre, to infold—in, in, and plicāre, to fold. Imply and implicate are parallel forms.]

Emplume, em-plōōm′, v.t. to furnish with a plume.

Empoison, em-poi′zn, v.t. to put poison in: to poison.—p.adj. Empoi′soned.—n. Empoi′sonment.

Emporium, em-pō′ri-um, n. a place to which goods are brought from various parts for sale: a shop: a great mart:—pl. Empō′ria. [L.,—Gr. emporionemporos, a trader, em (=en), in, poros, a way.]

Empoverish, em-pov′ėr-ish, v.t. See Impoverish.

Empower, em-pow′ėr, v.t. to authorise.

Empress. See Emperor.

Empressement, ang-pres′mang, n. cordiality. [Fr.]

Emprise, em-prīz′, n. (Spens.) an enterprise: a hazardous undertaking. [O. Fr. emprise—L. in, in, prehendĕre, to take.]

Emption, emp′shun, n. act of buying, purchase.—adj. Emp′tional. [L. emĕre, to buy.]

Empty, emp′ti, adj. having nothing in it: unfurnished: without effect: unsatisfactory: wanting substance: foolish.—v.t. to make empty: to deprive of contents.—v.i. to become empty: to discharge its contents:—pa.p. emp′tied.n. an empty vessel, box, sack, &c.:—pl. Emp′ties.—ns. Emp′tier: Emp′tiness, state of being empty: want of substance: unsatisfactoriness: inanity.—adj. Emp′ty-hand′ed, carrying nothing, esp. of a gift.—n. Emp′tying.—Come away empty, to come away without having received anything. [A.S. ǽmetigǽmetta, leisure, rest. The p is excrescent.]

Emptysis, emp′ti-sis, n. hemorrhage from the lungs.

Empurple, em-pur′pl, v.t. to dye or tinge purple.

Empusa, em-pū′za, n. a goblin or spectre sent by Hecate.—Also Empuse′. [Gr. empousa.]

Empyema, em-pi-ē′ma, n. a collection of pus in the pleura. [Gr.,—em (=en), in, and pyon, pus.]

Empyesis, em-pi-ē′sis, n. pustulous eruption. [Gr.]

Empyreal, em-pir′ē-al, or em-pir-ē′al, adj. formed of pure fire or light: pertaining to the highest and purest region of heaven: sublime.—adj. Empyrean (em-pi-rē′an, or em-pir′e-an), empyreal.—n. the highest heaven, where the pure element of fire was supposed by the ancients to subsist: the heavens. [Coined from Gr. empyros, fiery—em (=en), in, and, pyr, fire.]

Empyreuma, em-pir-ū′ma, n. the burned smell and acrid taste which result when vegetable or animal substances are burned:—pl. Empyreu′mata.—adjs. Empyreumat′ic, -al.—v.t. Empyreu′matise. [Gr.,—empyreuein, to kindle.]

Emrods (obs.), for Emerods.

Emu, Emeu, ē′mū, n. a genus of running birds or Ratit in the cassowary family, belonging to Australia.—n. E′mu-wren, a small Australian bird of genus Stipiturus. [Port. ema, an ostrich.]

Emulate, em′ū-lāt, v.t. to strive to equal or excel: to imitate, with a view to equal or excel: to rival.—adj. (Shak.) ambitious.—n. Emulā′tion, act of emulating or attempting to equal or excel: rivalry: competition: contest: (obs.) jealous rivalry.—adj. Em′ulative, inclined to emulation, rivalry, or competition.—n. Em′ulator:—fem. Em′ulatress.—adj. Em′ulatory, arising from or expressing emulation.—v.t. Em′ule (obs), to emulate.—adj. Em′ulous, eager to emulate: desirous of like excellence with another: engaged in competition or rivalry.—adv. Em′ulouslyn. Em′ulousness. [L. mulāri, mulātusmulus, striving with.]

Emulgent, e-mul′jent, adj. milking or draining out, chiefly referring to the action of the kidneys. [L. emulgens, -entis, pr.p. of emulgēre, to milk.]

Emulsion, e-mul′shun, n. a milky liquid prepared by mixing oil and water by means of another substance that combines with both.—adj. Emul′sic, pertaining to emulsion.—v.t. Emul′sify.—n. Emul′sin, a peculiar ferment present in the bitter and sweet almond, which forms a constituent of all almond emulsions.—adj. Emul′sive. [Fr.,—L. emulgēre, emulsum, to milk out—e, out, and mulgēre, to milk.]

Emunctory, e-mungk′tor-i, n. an organ of the body that carries off waste: an excretory duct.—v.t. Emunge′, to clean. [L. emungĕre, emunctum, to blow the nose, to cleanse.]

Emure, a variant of immure.

Emys, em′is, n. a genus of marsh tortoises, found in South and Middle Europe, North Africa, and South-west Asia. [Gr. emys.]

Enable, en-ā′bl, v.t. to make able: to give power, strength, or authority to.

Enact, en-akt′, v.t. to perform: to act the part of: to establish by law.—n. (Shak.) that which is enacted.—adjs. Enact′ing, Enact′ive, that enacts.—ns. Enact′ment, the passing of a bill into law: that which is enacted: a law; Enact′or, one who practises or performs anything: one who forms decrees or establishes laws; Enact′ure (Shak.), action.

Enallage, en-al′a-jē, n. (gram.) the exchange of one case, mood, or tense for another. [Gr.,—en, and allassein, to change.]

Enamel, en-am′el, n. the name given to vitrified substances applied chiefly to the surface of metals: any smooth hard coating, esp. that of the teeth: anything enamelled.—v.t. to coat with or paint in enamel: to form a glossy surface upon, like enamel:—pr.p. enam′elling; pa.p. enam′elled.adj. En-am′ellar.—ns. Enam′eller, Enam′ellist; Enam′elling. [O. Fr. enameleren, in, esmail, enamel. Cf. Eng. Smelt, Melt.]

Enamour, en-am′ur, v.t. to inflame with love: to charm.—p.adjs. Enam′oured; Enam′ouring.—Be enamoured (with of, with), to be in love. [O. Fr. enamoureren, to make, amour—L. amor, love.]

Enanthesis, en-an-thē′sis, n. an eruption on the skin from internal disease. [Gr.]

Enantiopathy, en-an-ti-op′a-thi, n. a synonym of allopathy. [Gr. enantios, opposite, pathos, suffering.]

Enantiosis, e-nan-ti-ō′sis, n. (rhet.) the expression of an idea by negation of its contrary, as 'he is no fool'='he is wise.' [Gr.]

Enarched, en-rcht′, adj. (her.) arched, like an arch.

Enarching, a variant of inarching.

Enarmed, en-rmed′, adj. (her.) having horns, hoofs, &c. of a different colour from the body.

Enarration, ē-na-rā′shun, n. narration.

Enarthrosis, en-ar-thrō′sis, n. (anat.) a joint of 'ball-and-socket' form, allowing motion in all directions.—adj. Enarthrō′dial. [Gr.,—en, in, and arthroein, arthrōsein, to fasten by a joint—arthron, a joint.]

Enate, ē′nāt, adj. growing out.

Enaunter, en-n′tėr, conj. (obs.) lest by chance. [Contr. from in adventure.]

Encnia, en-sē′ni-a, n. the annual commemoration of founders and benefactors at Oxford, held in June.—Also Encē′nia. [L.,—Gr. egkainia, a feast of dedication—en, in, kainos, new.]

Encage, en-kāj′, v.t. to shut up in a cage.

Encamp, en-kamp′, v.t. to form into a camp.—v.i. to pitch tents: to halt on a march.—n. Encamp′ment, the act of encamping: the place where an army or company is encamped: a camp.

Encanthis, en-kan′this, n. a small tumour of the inner angle of the eye. [Gr.]

Encarnalise, en-kr′nal-īz, v.t. to embody: to make carnal.

Encarpus, en-kar′pus, n. a festoon ornamenting a frieze. [Gr.]

Encase, en-kās′, Incase, in-, v.t. to enclose in a case: to surround, cover.—n. Encase′ment, the enclosing substance: a covering.

Encashment, en-kash′ment, n. payment in cash of a note, draft, &c.

Encaustic, en-kaws′tik, adj. having the colours burned in.—n. an ancient method of painting in melted wax.—Encaustic tile, a decorative glazed and fired tile, having patterns of different coloured clays inlaid in it and burnt with it. [Fr.,—Gr.,—egkaiein, egkauseinen, in, kaiein, to burn.]

Encave, en-kāv′, v.t. to hide in a cave.

Enceinte, ng-sangt′, n. (fort.) an enclosure, generally the whole area of a fortified place. [Fr.,—enceindre, to surround—L. in, in, cingĕre, cinctum, to gird.]

Enceinte, ng-sangt′, adj. pregnant, with child. [Fr.,—L. incincta, girt about.]

Encephalon, en-sef′al-on, n. the brain.—adj. Encephal′ic, belonging to the head or brain.—ns. Encephalī′tis, inflammation of the brain; Enceph′alocele, a protrusion of portion of the brain through the skull, where the bones are incomplete in infancy.—adj. Enceph′aloid, resembling the matter of the brain.—n. Encephalot′omy, dissection of the brain.—adj. Enceph′alous, cephalous. [Gr.,—en, in, kephalē, the head.]

Enchafe, en-chāf′, v.t. (obs.) to make warm.

Enchain, en-chān′, v.t. to put in chains: to hold fast: to link together.—n. Enchain′ment [Fr. enchaineren, and chane, a chain—L. catena.]

Enchant, en-chant′, v.t. to act on by songs or rhymed formulas of sorcery: to charm: to delight in a high degree.—p.adj. Enchant′ed, under the power of enchantment: delighted: possessed by witches or spirits.—n. Enchant′er, one who enchants: a sorcerer or magician: one who charms or delights:—fem. Enchant′ress.—adv. Enchant′ingly, with the force of enchantment: in a manner to charm or delight.—n. Enchant′ment, act of enchanting: use of magic arts: that which enchants. [Fr. enchanter—L. incantāre, to sing a magic formula over—in, on, cantāre, to sing.]

Encharge, en-chrj′, v.t. to enjoin: to entrust. [O. Fr. encharger. See Charge.]

Enchase, en-chās′, v.t. to fix in a border: to set with jewels: to engrave: to adorn with raised or embossed work.—p.adj. Enchased′. [Fr. enchsseren, in, chssis, caisse, a case—L. capsa, a case. See Chase, n. Chase, v.t., is a contraction.]

Encheason, en-chē′zn, n. (Spens.) reason, cause, occasion. [O. Fr. encheson, encheoir, to fall in; influenced by L. occasio, occasion.]

Encheer, en-chēr′, v.t. to cheer, comfort.

Enchiridion, en-ki-rid′i-on, n. a book to be carried in the hand for reference: a manual. [Gr. encheiridionen, in, and cheir, the hand.]

Enchondroma, en-kon-drō′ma, n. (path.) an abnormal cartilaginous growth. [Formed from Gr. en, in, chondros, cartilage.]

Enchorial, en-kō′ri-al, adj. belonging to or used in a country: used by the people, noting esp. the written characters used by the common people in Egypt as opposed to the hieroglyphics.—Also Enchor′ic. [Gr. enchōriosen, in, and chōra, a place, country.]

Enchymatous, en-kim′a-tus, adj. infused, distended by infusion.

Encincture, en-singk′tūr, v.t. to surround with a girdle.—n. an enclosure.

Encircle, en-sėrk′l, v.t. to enclose in a circle: to embrace: to pass round.—n. Encirc′ling.

Enclasp, en-klasp′, v.t. to clasp.

Enclave, en-klāv′, or ng-klāv′, n. a territory entirely enclosed within the territories of another power.—v.t. to surround in this way. [Fr.,—Late L. inclavāre—L. in, and clavis, a key.]

Enclitic, en-klit′ik, adj. that inclines or leans upon.—n. (gram.) a word or particle which always follows another word, so united with it as to seem a part of it.—n. En′clisis.—adv. Enclit′ically. [Gr. engklitikosen, in, klinein, to bend.]

Encloister, en-klois′tėr, v.t. to immure.

Enclose, en-klōz′, Inclose, in-, v.t. to close or shut in: to confine: to surround: to put in a case, as a letter in an envelope, &c.: to fence, esp. used of waste land.—ns. Enclos′er; Enclos′ure, the act of enclosing: state of being enclosed: that which is enclosed: a space fenced off: that which encloses: a barrier. [Fr.,—L. includĕre, inclusumin, in, claudĕre, to shut.]

Enclothe, en-klōth′, v.t. to clothe.

Encloud, en-klowd′, v.t. to cover with clouds.

Encolour, en-kul′ur, v.t. to colour, tinge.

Encolpion, en-kol′pi-on, n. an amulet: a Greek pectoral cross.—Also Encol′pium. [Gr.]

Encolure, engk-ol-ūr′, n. (Browning) a horse's mane.

Encomium, en-kō′mi-um, n. high commendation: a eulogy:—pl. Encō′miums.—n. Encō′miast, one who utters or writes encomiums: a praiser.—adjs. Encomias′tic, -al, bestowing praise.—adv. Encomias′tically. [L.,—Gr. egkōmion, a song of praise—en, in, kōmos, festivity.]

Encompass, en-kum′pas, v.t. to surround or enclose: (obs.) to go round.—n. Encom′passment.

Encore, ng-kōr′, adv. again: once more.—n. a call for the repetition of a song, &c.: the repetition of a song, &c.—v.t. to call for a repetition of. [Fr. (It. ancora)—perh. from L. (in) hanc horam, till this hour, hence=still.]

Encounter, en-kown′ter, v.t. to meet face to face, esp. unexpectedly: to meet in contest: to oppose.—n. a meeting unexpectedly: an interview: a fight: (Shak.) behaviour. [O. Fr. encontrer—L. in, in, contra, against.]

Encourage, en-kur′āj, v.t. to put courage in: to inspire with spirit or hope: to incite: to patronise: to cherish.—ns. Encour′agement, act of encouraging: that which encourages; Encour′ager,—p.adj. Encour′aging, giving ground to hope for success.—adv. Encour′agingly. [O. Fr. encoragier (Fr. encourager)—en, to make, corage, courage.]

Encradle, en-krā′dl, v.t. (Spens.) to lay in a cradle.

Encratite, en′kra-tīt, n. one of a heretical sect in the early church, who abstained from marriage, and from flesh and wine.—n. En′cratism. [Formed from Gr. egkratēs, continent—en, in, kratos, strength.]

Encrease, obsolete form of increase.

Encrimson, en-krim′zn, v.t. to tinge with a crimson colour.—p.adj. Encrim′soned.

Encrinite, en′kri-nīt, n. a common fossil crinoid, found thick in limestone and marble—called also Stone-lily.—adjs. Encrī′nal, Encrin′ic, Encrinī′tal, Encrinit′ic, relating to or containing encrinites. [Formed from Gr. en, in, krinon, a lily.]

Encroach, en-krōch′, v.i. to seize on the rights of others: to intrude: to trespass.—n. Encroach′er.—adv. Encroach′ingly.—n. Encroach′ment, act of encroaching: that which is taken by encroaching. [O. Fr. encrochier, to seize—en-, and croc, a hook.]

Encrust, en-krust′, Incrust, in-, v.t. to cover with a crust or hard coating: to form a crust on the surface of.—v.i. to form a crust.—n. Encrustā′tion, act of encrusting: a crust or layer of anything: an inlaying of marble, mosaic, &c. [Fr.,—L. incrustāre, -ātumin, on, crusta, crust.]

Encumber, en-kum′bėr, v.t. to impede the motion of: to hamper: to embarrass: to burden: to load with debts.—ns. Encum′berment, the act of encumbering: the state of being encumbered; Encum′brance, that which encumbers or hinders: a legal claim on an estate: one dependent on another—e.g. 'a widow without encumbrances'=a widow without children; Encum′brancer. [O. Fr. encombrer, from en-, and combrer.]

Encurtain, en-kur′tin, v.t. to curtain, to veil.

Encyclical, en-sik′lik-al, adj. sent round to many persons or places.—n. a letter addressed by the pope to all his bishops condemning current errors or advising the Christian people how to act in regard to great public questions.—Also Encyc′lic. [Gr. engkykliosen, in, kyklos, a circle.]

Encyclopdia, Encyclopedia, en-sī-klo-pē′di-a, n. the circle of human knowledge: a work containing information on every department, or on a particular department, of knowledge, generally in alphabetical order: a name specially given to the work of the French writers Diderot, D'Alembert, and others in the third quarter of the 18th century.—adjs. Encyclop′dian, embracing the whole circle of learning; Encyclop′dic, -al, pertaining to an encyclopdia: full of information.—ns. Encyclop′dism, knowledge of everything; Encyclop′dist, the compiler, or one who assists in the compilation, of an encyclopdia: esp. a writer for the French Encyclopdie (1751-65). [Formed from Gr. engkyklopaideiaengkyklios, circular, paideia, instruction.]

Encyst, en-sist′, v.t. or v.i. to enclose or become enclosed in a cyst or vesicle.—ns. Encystā′tion, Encyst′ment.—adj. Encyst′ed.

Endless Screw.

End, end, n. the last point or portion: termination or close: death: consequence: object aimed at: a fragment.—v.t. to bring to an end: to destroy.—v.i. to come to an end: to cease.—n. End′-all, that which ends all.—adj. End′ed, brought to an end: having ends.—n. End′ing, termination: conclusion: that which is at the end: (gram.) the terminating syllable or letter of a word.—adj. End′less, without end: everlasting: objectless.—adv. End′lessly.—n. End′lessness.—adv. End′long, lengthwise: continuously: on end.—adj. End′most, farthest.—n. End′ship (obs.) a village.—advs. End′ways, End′wise, on the end: with the end forward.—End for end, with the position of the ends reversed; Endless screw, an arrangement for producing slow motion in machinery, consisting of a screw whose thread gears into a wheel with skew teeth; End on, having the end pointing directly to an object—(naut.) opp. to Broadside on: (min.) opp. to Face on.—A shoemaker's end, a waxed thread ending in a bristle.—At loose ends, in disorder; At one's wits' end, at the end of one's ability to decide or act.—Begin at the wrong end, to manage badly; Be the end of, to cause the death of.—Come to the end of one's tether, to go as far as one's powers permit.—Have at one's finger-ends, to be thoroughly acquainted, to have in perfect readiness.—In the end, after all: at last.—Latter end, the end of life.—Make both ends meet, to live within one's income (both ends meaning both ends of the year).—No end (coll.), very much, a great deal.—On end, erect.—Rope's end (see Rope). [A.S. ende; cf. Ger. and Dan. ende, Goth. andeis; Sans. nta.]

Endamage, en-dam′āj, v.t. same as Damage.—n. Endam′agement, damage, injury, loss.

Endanger, en-dān′jėr, v.t. to place in danger: to expose to loss or injury.—ns. Endan′gerer; Endan′germent, hazard, peril.

Endear, en-dēr′, v.t. to make dear or more dear.—adjs. Endeared′, beloved; Endear′ing.—adv. Endear′ingly.—n. Endear′ment, act of endearing: state of being endeared: that which excites or increases affection: a caress.

Endeavour, en-dev′ur, v.i. to strive to accomplish an object: to attempt or try.—v.t. to attempt.—n. an exertion of power towards some object: attempt or trial.—n. Endeav′ourment (Spens.), endeavour.—Do one's endeavour, to do one's utmost. [Fr. en devoiren, in (with force of 'to do' or 'make,' as in en-amour, en-courage), and devoir, duty.]

Endecagon, en-dek′a-gon, n. a plane figure of eleven sides—also Hendec′agon.—adjs. Endecag′ynous, having eleven pistils; Endecaphyl′lous, having eleven leaflets; Endecasyllab′ic, having eleven syllables.

Endeictic, en-dīk′tik, adj. showing, exhibiting.—n. Endeix′is, an indication. [Gr.]

Endemic, -al, en-dem′ik, -al, Endemial, en-dē′mi-al, adj. peculiar to a people or a district, as a disease.—n. Endem′ic, a disease affecting a number of persons simultaneously, in such manner as to show a distinct connection with certain localities.—adv. Endem′ically.—ns. Endemi′city, state of being endemic; Endemiol′ogy, knowledge of endemic diseases. [Gr. endēmiosen, in, and dēmos, a people, a district.]

Endenizen, en-den′i-zn, v.t. to naturalise, to make a denizen.

Endermic, -al, en-dėrm′ik, -al, adj. through or applied directly to the skin—also Endermat′ic.—n. En′deron, the corium, derma, or true skin. [Gr. en, in, and derma, the skin.]

Endew, en-dū′, v.t. (obs.) to endow.—Also Endue′.

Endiron. See Andiron.

Endite, obsolete form of indite.

Endive, en′div, n. an annual or biennial plant of the same genus as chicory, used as a salad. [Fr.,—L. intubus.]

Endocardium, en-do-kar′di-um, n. the lining membrane of the heart.—adjs. Endocar′diac, Endocar′dial.—n. Endocardī′tis, disease of the internal surface of the heart, resulting in the deposit of fibrin on the valves. [Gr. endon, within, kardia, heart.]

Endocarp, en′do-krp, n. the inner coat or shell of a fruit. [Gr. endon, within, and karpos, fruit.]

Endochrome, en′dō-krōm, n. the colouring matter, other than green, of vegetable cells, esp. of alg: (zool.) the coloured endoplasm of a cell. [Gr. endon, within, chrōma, colour.]

Endoderm, en′do-derm, n. the inner layer of the Blastoderm (q.v.). [Gr. endon, within, derma, skin.]

Endogamy, en-dog′am-i, n. the custom forbidding a man to marry any woman who is not of his kindred.—adj. Endog′amous. [Gr. endon, within, gamos, marriage.]

Endogen, en′do-jen, n. a plant that grows from within, or by additions to the inside of the stem, as the palm, grasses, &c.—adj. Endog′enous, increasing by internal growth. [Gr. endon, within, and genēs, born.]

Endolymph, en′dō-limf, n. the fluid within the membranous labyrinth of the ear.

Endomorph, en′do-morf, n. a mineral enclosed within another mineral, the latter being termed a perimorph. [Gr. endon, within, morphē, form.]

Endophagy, en-dō′faj-i, n. in cannibalism, the practice of eating one of the same stock. [Gr. endon, within, phagos, an eater.]

Endoparasite, en-dō-par′a-sīt, n. an internal parasite.

Endophlœum, en-dō-flē′um, n. (bot.) the inner bark.

Endophyllous, en-dō-fil′us, adj. (bot.) being or formed within a sheath, as the young leaves of monocotyledons.

Endoplasm, en′dō-plazm, n. (bot.) the granular and fluid part of the protoplasm of a cell—opp. to Ectoplasm: (zool.) the interior protoplasm of a protozoan.—Also En′dosarc.

Endopleura, en-dō-plōō′ra, n. (bot.) the innermost coat of a seed.

Endorhizal, en-dō-rī′zal, adj. (bot.) having the radicle of the embryo enclosed within a sheath, as in endogenous plants.—Also Endorhī′zous.

Endorse, en-dors′, Indorse, in-, v.t. to write one's name on the back of: to assign by writing on the back of: to give one's sanction to: to lay on the back, to load.—adj. Endors′able.—ns. Endorsēē′, the person to whom a bill, &c., is assigned by endorsement; Endorse′ment, act of endorsing: that which is written on a bill: sanction; Endors′er. [Changed from M. E. endosse under the influence of Low L. indorsārein, on, dorsum, the back.]

Endoskeleton, en-dō-skel′e-ton, n. the internal skeleton or framework of the body.—adj. Endoskel′etal.

Endosmosis, en-dos-mō′sis, n. the passage of a fluid inwards through an organic membrane, to mix with another fluid inside—also En′dosmose.—n. Endosmom′eter, an instrument for measuring endosmotic action.—adjs. Endosmomet′ric; Endosmot′ic, pertaining to or of the nature of endosmosis.—adv. Endosmot′ically. [Gr. endon, within, and ōsmos.]

Endosome, en′dō-sōm, n. the innermost part of the body of a sponge.—adj. En′dosōmal.

Endosperm, en′dō-sperm, n. (bot.) the albumen of a seed.—adj. Endosper′mic.

Endoss, en-dos′, v.t. (obs.) to endorse: (Spens.) to write. [M. E. endosse—O. Fr. endosser.]

Endosteum, en-dos′tē-um, n. (anat.) the internal periosteum.—adj. Endos′tēal.—n. Endostī′tis, inflammation of the endosteum.

Endostome, en′dō-stōm, n. (bot.) the foramen of the inner integument of an ovule: the inner peristome of mosses.

Endow, en-dow′, v.t. to give a dowry or marriage-portion to: to settle a permanent provision on: to enrich with any gift or faculty: to present.—ns. Endow′er; Endow′ment, act of endowing: that which is settled on any person or institution: a quality or faculty bestowed on any one. [Fr. en (=L. in), douer, to endow—L. dotāredos, dotis, a dowry.]

Endue, en-dū′, Indue, in-, v.t. to put on, as clothes: to invest or clothe with: to supply with.—n. Endue′ment, adornment. [O. Fr. enduire—L. inducĕrein, into, ducĕre, to lead. In certain senses the word is closely related to induĕre, to put on.]

Endure, en-dūr′, v.t. to remain firm under: to bear without sinking: to tolerate.—v.i. to remain firm: to last.—adj. Endur′able, that can be endured or borne.—n. Endur′ableness.—adv. Endur′ably.—ns. Endur′ance, state of enduring or bearing: continuance: a suffering patiently without sinking: patience; Endur′er.—adv. Endur′ingly. [O. Fr. endurer—L. indurārein, in, durus, hard.]

Endymion, en-dim′i-on, n. a beautiful youth whom Selene (the moon) wrapped in perpetual sleep that she might kiss him without his knowledge.

Ene, ēn, adv. (Spens.) once. [A.S. ǽnen, one.]

Eneid, e-nē′id, n. Same as neid.

Enema, en′e-ma, or e-nē′ma, n. a liquid medicine thrown into the rectum: an injection. [Gr.,—enienai, to send in—en, in, and hienai, to send.]

Enemy, en′e-mi, n. one who hates or dislikes: a foe: a hostile army.—adj. (obs.) hostile.—How goes the enemy? (slang) what o'clock is it?—The Enemy, The old Enemy, the Devil; The last enemy, death. [O. Fr. enemi (mod. Fr. ennemi)—L. inimicusin, neg., amicus, a friend.]

Enemy, a prov. form of anemone.

Energumen, en-er-gū′men, n. one possessed: a demoniac. [Low L.,—Gr. energoumenosenergeinen, in, ergon, work.]

Energy, en′ėr-ji, n. power of doing work: power exerted: vigorous operation: strength: (physics) the term, as applied to a material system, used to denote the power of doing work possessed by that system.—adjs. Energet′ic, -al, having or showing energy: active: forcible: effective.—adv. Energet′ically.— Energet′ics, the science of the general laws of energy.—adj. Ener′gic, exhibiting energy.—v.t. En′ergise, to give strength or active force to.—v.i. to act with force:—pr.p. en′ergīsing; pa.p. en′ergīsed.Conservation of energy (see Conservation). [Gr. energeiaen, in, ergon, work.]

Enervate, en-ėr′vāt, v.t. to deprive of nerve, strength, or courage: to weaken.—adj. weakened: spiritless.—n. Enervā′tion.—adj. Ener′vative.—v.t. Enerve′ (obs.), to enervate. [L. enervāre, -ātume, out of, nervus, a nerve.]

Enew, e-nū′, v.t. in falconry, to drive back to the water: to pursue. [O. Fr. eneweren, in, eau, water.]

Enfeeble, en-fē′bl, v.t. to make feeble: to weaken.—n. Enfee′blement, weakening: weakness.

Enfelon, en-fel′on, v.t. (Spens.) to make fierce.

Enfeoff, en-fef′, v.t. to give a fief to: to invest with a possession in fee: to surrender.—n. Enfeoff′ment, act of enfeoffing: the deed which invests with the fee of an estate. [O. Fr. enfefferen-, and fief. See Fief, Feoff.]

Enfest, en-fest, v.t. (Spens.). Same as Infest.

Enfetter, en-fet′ėr, v.t. (Shak.) to bind in fetters.

Enfierce, en-fērs′, v.t. (Spens.) to make fierce.

Enfilade, en-fi-lād′, n. a number of rooms with the doors opening into a common passage: a fire that rakes a line of troops, &c., from end to end; a situation or a body open from end to end.—v.t. to rake with shot through the whole length of a line. [Fr.,—enfileren (=L. in), and fil, a thread. See File, a line or wire.]

Enfiled, en-fīld′, p.adj. (her.) thrust through with a sword. [See Enfilade.]

Enfire, en-fīr′, v.t. (Spens.) to set on fire, inflame.

Enflesh, en-flesh′, v.t. to turn into flesh.

Enflower, en-flow′ėr, v.t. to cover with flowers.

Enfold, en-fōld′, Infold, in-, v.t. to wrap up.—n. Enfold′ment, act of enfolding: that which enfolds.

Enforce, en-fōrs′, v.t. to gain by force: to give force to: to put in force: to give effect to: to urge: (Spens.) to attempt.—adj. Enforce′able.—adv. Enforc′edly, by violence, not by choice.—n. Enforce′ment, act of enforcing: compulsion: a giving effect to: that which enforces. [O. Fr. enforceren (=L. in), and force.]

Enforest, en-for′est, v.t. to turn into forest.

Enform, en-form′, v.t. (Spens.) to fashion.

Enfouldered, en-fowl′dėrd, p.adj. (Spens.) mixed with lightning or fire. [En, in, and O. Fr. fouldre (Fr. foudre)—L. fulgur, lightning, fulgĕre, to flash.]

Enframe, en-frām′, v.t. to put in a frame.

Enfranchise, en-fran′chiz, v.t. to set free: to give a franchise or political privileges to.—n. Enfran′chisement, act of enfranchising: liberation: admission to civil or political privileges. [O. Fr. enfranchiren, and franc, free. See Franchise.]

Enfree, en-frē′, Enfreedom, en-frē′dum, v.t. (Shak.) to set free, to give freedom to.

Enfreeze, en-frēz′, v.t. (Spens.) to freeze: turn to ice:—pr.p. enfreez′ing: pa.p. enfrōz′en, enfrōz′ened.

Engage, en-gāj′, v.t. to bind by a gage or pledge: to render liable: to gain for service: to enlist: to gain over: to betroth: (archit.) to fasten: to win: to occupy: to enter into contest with: (obs.) to entangle.—v.i. to pledge one's word: to become bound: to take a part: to enter into conflict.—p.adj. Engaged′, pledged: promised, esp. in marriage: greatly interested: occupied: (archit.) partly built or sunk into, or so appearing: geared together, interlocked.—n. Engage′ment, act of engaging: state of being engaged: that which engages: betrothal: promise: employment: a fight or battle.—p.adj. Engag′ing, winning: attractive.—adv. Engag′ingly.—Engage for, to answer for. [Fr. engageren gage, in pledge. See Gage.]

Engaol, en-jāl′, v.t. (Shak.) to put in gaol.

Engarland, en-gr′land, v.t. to put a garland round.

Engarrison, en-gar′i-sn, v.t. to establish as a garrison.

Engender, en-jen′dėr, v.t. to beget: to bear: to breed: to sow the seeds of: to produce.—v.i. to be caused or produced.—ns. Engen′drure, Engen′dure, act of engendering: generation. [Fr. engendrer—L. ingenerārein, and generāre, to generate.]

Engild, en-gild′, v.t. (Shak.) to gild.

Engine, en′jin, n. a complex and powerful machine, esp. a prime mover: a military machine: anything used to effect a purpose: a device: contrivance: (obs.) ability, genius.—v.t. to contrive: to put into action.—ns. En′gine-driv′er, one who manages an engine, esp. who drives a locomotive; Engineer′, an engine maker or manager: one who directs works and engines: a soldier belonging to the division of the army called Engineers, consisting of men trained to engineering work.—v.i. to act as an engineer.—v.t. to arrange, contrive.—ns. Engineer′ing, the art or profession of an engineer; En′gine-man, one who drives an engine; En′gine-room, the room in a vessel in which the engines are placed; En′ginery, the art or business of managing engines: engines collectively: machinery; En′gine-turn′ing, a kind of ornament made by a rose-engine, as on the backs of watches, &c.—Civil engineer (see Civil). [O. Fr. engin—L. ingenium, skill. See Ingenious.]

Engird, en-gėrd′, v.t. to gird round.

Engirdle, en-gėrd′l, Engirt, en-gėrt′, v.t. to surround, as with a girdle: to encircle.

English, ing′glish, adj. belonging to England or its inhabitants.—n. the language of the people of England.—v.t. to translate a book into English: to make English.—ns. Eng′lander, an Englishman; Eng′lisher, Eng′lishman, a native or naturalised inhabitant of England; Eng′lishry, the fact of being an Englishman; in Ireland, the population of English descent.—Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, the language spoken in England from 450 till about 1150; Middle English till 1500; Modern English from 1500 onwards (Early English often means Early Middle English; (archit.), see Early).—Presentment of Englishry, the offering of proof that a person murdered belonged to the English race, to escape the fine levied on the hundred or township for the murder of a Norman. [A.S. Englisc, from Engle, Angle, from the Angles who settled in Britain.]

Englobe, en-glōb′, v.t. to enclose as in a globe.

Engloom, en-glōōm′, v.t. to make gloomy.

Englut, en-glut′, v.t. to glut, to fill: to swallow.

Engore, en-gōr′, v.t. (Spens.) to gore: to wound.

Engorge, en-gorj′, v.t. (Spens.) to devour, to glut.—v.i. (Milton) to feed voraciously.—adj. Engorged′, filled to excess with blood.—n. Engorge′ment, the act of swallowing greedily: (med.) an obstruction of the vessels in some part of the system.

Engouement, ang-gōō′mang, n. excessive fondness. [Fr.]

Engouled, en-gōōld′, adj. (her.) of bends, crosses, &c., the extremities of which enter the mouths of animals.—Also Engoul′ee.

Engrace, en-grās′, v.t. to put grace into.

Engraff, obsolete form of engraft.

Engraft, en-graft′, Ingraft, in-, v.t. to graft (a shoot of one tree) into another: to introduce something: to fix deeply.—ns. Engraftā′tion, act of engrafting: Engraft′ment, engrafting: the thing engrafted: a scion.

Engrail, en-grāl′, v.t (her.) to make a border composed of a series of little semicircular indents: to make rough.—v.i. to form an edging or border: to run in indented lines.—n. Engrail′ment, the ring of dots round the edge of a medal: (her.) indentation in curved lines. [O. Fr. engresler (Fr. engrler)—gresle, hail. See Grail.]

Engrain, en-grān′, Ingrain, in-, v.t. to dye of a fast or lasting colour: to dye in the raw state: to infix deeply.—n. Engrain′er. [Orig. 'to dye in grain' (meaning with grain)—i.e. cochineal.]

Engrasp, en-grasp′, v.t. (Spens.) to grasp.

Engrave, en-grāv′, v.t. to cut out with a graver a representation of anything on wood, steel, &c.: to imprint: to impress deeply.—ns. Engrav′er; Engrav′ery, the art of the engraver; Engrav′ing, act or art of cutting or incising designs on metal, wood, &c., for the purpose of printing impressions from them in ink on paper, or other similar substance—in metal, the lines to be printed are sunk or incised; in wood, the lines to be printed appear in relief, the wood between them being cut away: an impression taken from an engraved plate: a print. [Fr. en (=L. in), and grave, v.]

Engrave, en-grāv′, v.t. to deposit in the grave.

Engrieve, en-grēv′, v.i. (Spens.) to grieve.

Engroove, en-grōōv′, Ingroove, in-, v.t. to cut a groove or furrow in: to make into a groove.

Engross, en-grōs′, v.t. to occupy wholly, monopolise: to absorb: to copy a writing in a large hand or in distinct characters: to write in legal form: to make gross.—ns. Engross′er; Engross′ing, the conduct of those who buy merchandise in large quantities to obtain command of the market; Engross′ment, act of engrossing: that which has been engrossed: a fair copy.—Engrossing a deed, the writing it out in full and regular form on parchment or paper for signature. [From Fr. en gros, in large—L. in, in, grossus, large. See Gross.]

Enguard, en-grd′, v.t. (Shak.) to guard or defend.

Enguich, ng-gē-shā′, adj. (her.) having a different tincture inside the mouth, of trumpets, &c. [Fr.]

Engulf, en-gulf′, Ingulf, in-, v.t. to swallow up wholly, as in a gulf: to cast into a gulf: to overwhelm.—n. Engulf′ment.

Engyscope, en′ji-skōp, n. a kind of reflecting microscope.—Also En′giscope. [Gr. enggys, near, skopein, to view.]

Enhalo, en-hā′lō, v.t. to surround with a halo.

Enhance, en-hans′, v.t. to heighten: to add to, increase.—n. Enhance′ment, act of enhancing: state of being enhanced: aggravation. [Prob. from O. Fr. enhaucer—L. in, and altus, high.]

Enharmonic, -al, en-har-mon′ik, -al, adj. pertaining to music constructed on a scale containing intervals less than a semitone: pertaining to that scale of music current among the Greeks, in which an interval of 2 tones was divided into two quarter tones and a major third.—adv. Enharmon′ically. [L.,—Gr.,—en, in, harmonia, harmony.]

Enhearse, en-hėrs′, Inhearse, in-, v.t. to put in a hearse.

Enhearten, en-hrt′n, v.t. to encourage: to cheer.

Enhunger, en-hung′gėr, v.t. to make hungry.

Enhydrous, en-hī′drus, adj. containing water or other fluid.—n. Enhy′drite, a mineral containing water. [Gr. en, in, and hydōr, water.]

Enhypostatic, en-hī-pō-stat′ik, adj. possessing substantial or personal existence, possessing personality not independently but by union with a person.—n. Enhypostā′sia.—v.t. Enhypos′tatise.

Enigma, en-ig′ma, n. a statement with a hidden meaning to be guessed: anything very obscure: a riddle.—adjs. Enigmat′ic, -al, relating to, containing, or resembling an enigma: obscure: puzzling.—adv. Enigmat′ically.—v.t. Enig′matise, to utter or deal in riddles.—ns. Enig′matist, one who enigmatises; Enigmatog′raphy, science of enigmas and their solution. [L. nigma—Gr. ainigmaainissesthai, to speak darkly—ainos, a fable.]

Enisle, en-īl′, Inisle, in-, v.t. to isolate.

Enjambment, en-jamb′ment, n. in verse, the continuation of a sentence beyond the end of the line. [Fr.,—enjamberen, in, jambe, leg.]

Enjoin, en-join′, v.t. to lay upon, as an order: to order or direct with authority or urgency.—n. Enjoin′ment. [Fr. enjoindre—L. injungĕrein, and jungĕre, to join.]

Enjoy, en-joi′, v.t. to joy or delight in: to feel or perceive with pleasure: to possess or use with satisfaction or delight: to have the use of: to have sexual intercourse with.—adj. Enjoy′able, capable of being enjoyed or of giving joy.—n. Enjoy′ment, state or condition of enjoying: satisfactory possession or use of anything; pleasure: happiness. [O. Fr. enjoier, to give joy to—en (=L. in), and joie, joy; or O. Fr. enjoir, to enjoy—en, and joir—L. gaudēre, to rejoice.]

Enkernel, en-kėr′nel, v.t. to enclose in a kernel.

Enkindle, en-kin′dl, v.t. to kindle or set on fire: to inflame: to rouse.—p.adj. Enkin′dled.

Enlace, en-lās′, v.t. to encircle, surround: to embrace.—n. Enlace′ment.

Enlard, en-lrd′, v.t. (Shak.) to grease, to baste.

Enlarge, en-lrj′, v.t. to make larger: to increase in size or quantity: to expand: to amplify discourse: to set free.—v.i. to grow large or larger: to be diffuse in speaking or writing: to expatiate.—adj. Enlarged′.—adv. Enlar′gedly.—ns. Enlar′gedness; Enlarge′ment, act of enlarging: state of being enlarged: increase: extension: diffuseness of speech or writing: a setting at large: release. [O. Fr. enlargeren (=L. in), large, large.]

Enlevement, en-lēv′ment, n. (Scots law) abduction of a woman or child.

Enlighten, en-līt′n, v.t. to lighten or shed light on: to make clear to the mind: to impart knowledge to: to elevate by knowledge or religion—(obs.) Enlight′.—n. Enlight′enment, act of enlightening: state of being enlightened: the spirit of the French philosophers of the 18th century.

Enlink, en-lingk′, v.t. to connect closely.

Enlist, en-list′, v.t. to enrol: to engage as a soldier, &c.: to employ in advancing an object.—v.i. to engage in public service, esp. as a soldier: to enter heartily into a cause.—n. Enlist′ment, act of enlisting: state of being enlisted.

Enliven, en-līv′n, v.t. to put life into: to excite or make active: to make sprightly or cheerful: to animate.—ns. Enliv′ener; Enliv′enment.

Enlock, en-lok′, v.t. to lock up, enclose.

Enlumine, en-lōō′min, v.t. (Spens.). See Illumine.

Enmarble, en-mr′bl, v.t. (Spens.) to turn to marble, to harden.

Enmesh, en-mesh′, Emmesh, em-, Immesh, im-, v.t. to catch in a mesh or net, to entangle.

Enmew, en-mū′, v.t. (Shak.) to coop up, as in a cage.

Enmity, en′mi-ti, n. the quality of being an enemy: unfriendliness: ill-will: hostility. [O. Fr. enemisti—L. inimicus. See Enemy.]

Enmossed, en-most′, p.adj. covered with moss.

Enmove, en-mōōv′, v.t. Same as Emmove.

Enmure. Same as Immure.

Ennea, en′ē-a, a prefix in words of Greek origin, signifying nine.—n. En′nead, the number nine, a system of nine objects.—adj. Ennead′ic.—n. En′neagon, a polygon with nine angles.—adjs. Enneag′onal; Enneag′ynous, having nine pistils or styles; Enneahē′dral, having nine faces.—n. Ennean′dria, the ninth Linnan class of plants, with nine stamens.—adjs. Ennean′drian; Enneaphyl′lous, nine-leaved; Enneasper′mous, having nine seeds.

Ennoble, en-nō′bl, v.t. to make noble: to elevate, distinguish: to raise to nobility.—n. Ennō′blement, the act of making noble: that which ennobles. [Fr. ennoblir—Fr. en (=L. in), and noble.]

Ennui, ng-nwē′, n. a feeling of weariness or disgust from satiety, &c.: the occasion of ennui.—v.t. to weary: to bore.—adj. Ennuy (ng-nwē-yā′), bored. [Fr.,—O. Fr. anoi—L. in odio, as in odio habeo, lit. 'I hold in hatred,' i.e. I am tired of. See Annoy.]

Enodal, ē-nō′dal, adj. without nodes.

Enomoty, e-nom′ō-ti, n. a band of sworn soldiers, esp. the smallest Spartan subdivision. [Gr.]

Enormous, e-nor′mus, adj. excessive: immense: atrocious—(obs.) Enorm′.—n. Enor′mity, state or quality of being enormous: that which is enormous: a great crime: great wickedness.—adv. Enor′mously.—n. Enor′mousness. [L. enormise, out of, norma, rule.]

Enorthotrope, en-or′thō-trōp, n. a toy consisting of a card on which confused objects are transformed into various pictures, by causing it to revolve rapidly. [Gr. en, in, orthos, upright, tropos, turning.]

Enough, e-nuf′, adj. sufficient: giving content: satisfying want.—adv. sufficiently.—n. sufficiency: as much as satisfies desire or want. [A.S. ge-nh, ge-ng; Goth. ga-nhs; Ger. ge-nug; Ice. g-ng-r.]

Enounce, e-nowns′, v.t. to enunciate: to proclaim: to utter or articulate. [Fr. noncer—L. enuntiāre.]

Enow=Enough, but often used as its plural.

Enow, e-now′, adv. just now: (Scot.) soon. [Contr. from 'even now.']

En passant, ng pas′ang, adv. in passing: by the way. [Fr.]

Enquire. See Inquire.

Enrace, en-rās′, v.t. (Spens.) to give race or origin to.

Enrage, en-rāj′, v.t. to make angry.—p.adj. Enraged′, angered: furious.—n. Enrage′ment, act of enraging, state of being enraged, excitement. [O. Fr. enrageren (=L. in), and rage, rage.]

Enrange, en-rānj′, v.t. (Spens.) to arrange: to rove over.

Enrank, en-rangk′, v.t. (Shak.) to place in order.

Enrapture, en-rap′tūr, v.t. to put in rapture: to transport with pleasure or delight.—p.adjs. Enrap′tured, Enrapt′, delighted: transported.

Enravish, en-rav′ish, v.t. (Spens.) to enrapture.

Enregiment, en-rej′i-ment, v.t. to form in a regiment.

Enregister, en-rej′is-tėr, v.t. to register: to enrol.

Enrich, en-rich′, v.t. to make rich: to fertilise: to adorn: to enhance.—n. Enrich′ment, act of enriching; that which enriches.

Enridge, en-rij′, v.t. (Shak.) to form into ridges.

Enring, en-ring′, v.t. to encircle: to put a ring on.

Enrobe, en-rōb′, v.t. to dress, clothe, or invest.

Enrol, Enroll, en-rōl′, v.t. to insert in a roll or register: to enlist: to record: to leave in writing:—pr.p. enrōl′ling; pa.p. enrōlled′.ns. Enrol′ler; Enrol′ment, act of enrolling: that in which anything is enrolled: a register. [O. Fr. enroller (Fr. enrler)—en, and rolle, roll.]

Enroot, en-rōōt′, v.t. to fix by the root: to implant firmly: (Shak.) to join firmly, as root by root.

Enrough, en-ruf′, v.t. to make rough.

Enround, en-rownd′, v.t. (Shak.) to surround.

Ens, enz, n. an entity, as opposed to an attribute. [A late pr.p. form, from L. esse, to be.]

Ensample, en-sam′pl, n. example.—v.t. to give an example of. [O. Fr. essample. See Example.]

Ensanguine, en-sang′gwin, v.t. to stain or cover with blood.—p.adj. Ensan′guined, bloody.

Ensate, en′sāt, adj. ensiform.

Enschedule, en-shed′ūl, v.t. (Shak.) to insert in a schedule.

Ensconce, en-skons′, v.t. to cover or protect as with a sconce or earth-work: to hide safely.

Enseal, en-sēl′, v.t. to put one's seal to: to seal up.

Enseam, en-sēm′, v.t. to mark as with a seam.

Enseam, en-sēm′, v.t. to cover with grease. [Seam, grease.]

Enseam, en-sēm′, v.t. (Spens.) to contain. [Der. obscure; cf. Ice. semja, to put together.]

Ensear, en-sēr′, v.t. (Shak.) to dry up.

Ensemble, ng-sangb′l, n. all the parts of a thing taken together.—Tout ensemble, general appearance or effect. [Fr. ensemble, together—L. in, in, simul, at the same time.]

Ensepulchre, en-sep′ul-kėr, v.t. to put in a sepulchre.

Ensew (Spens.). Same as Ensue.

Enshield, en-shēld′, v.t. to shield or protect.—adj. (Shak.) shielded or protected.

Enshrine, en-shrīn′, v.t. to enclose in or as in a shrine: to preserve with affection.

Enshroud, en-shrowd′, v.t. to cover with a shroud: to cover up.

Ensiform, en′si-form, adj. having the shape of a sword. [L. ensis, a sword, and forma, form.]

Ensign, en′sīn, n. a sign or mark: the sign or flag distinguishing a nation or a regiment: one who carries the colours: until 1871, the title given to officers of the lowest commissioned rank in the British infantry.—ns. En′sign-bear′er; En′signcy, En′signship, the rank or commission of an ensign in the army. [O. Fr. enseigne—L. insignia, pl. of insigne, a distinctive mark—in, and signum, a mark.]

Ensilage, en′sil-āj, n. the storing of green fodder, &c., in pits.—v.t. En′sile, to store by ensilage. [Fr.,—Sp. en, and silo—L.,—Gr. siros, pit for corn.]

Ensky, en-skī′, v.t. (Shak.) to place in the sky.

Enslave, en-slāv′, v.t. to make a slave of: to subject to the influence of.—p.adj. Enslaved′.—ns. Enslave′ment, act of enslaving: state of being enslaved: slavery: bondage; Enslav′er.

Ensnare, en-snār′, Insnare, in-, v.t. to catch in a snare: to entrap: to entangle.

Ensnarl, en-snrl′, v.t. (Spens.) to entangle.

Ensorcell, en-sōr′sel, v.t. to bewitch. [O. Fr. ensorceleren, and sorcier, a sorceror.]

Ensoul, en-sōl′, Insoul, in-, v.t. to join with the soul: to animate as a soul.

Ensphere, en-sfēr′, Insphere, in-, v.t. to enclose in a sphere: to give a spherical form.

Enstamp, en-stamp′, v.t. to mark as with a stamp.

Ensteep, en-stēp′, v.t. to steep: to lay under water.

Enstyle, en-stīl′, v.t. to style, call.

Ensue, en-sū′, v.i. to follow, to come after: to result (with from).—v.t. (B., arch.) to follow after:—pr.p. ensū′ing; pa.p. ensūed′. [O. Fr. ensuir (Fr. ensuivre)—L. in, after, sequi, to follow.]

Ensure, en-shōōr′, v.t. to make sure. [See Insure.]

Enswathe, en-swāth′, Inswathe, in-, v.t. to wrap in a swathe.—n. Enswathe′ment.

Ensweep, en-swēp′, v.t. to sweep over.

Entablature, en-tab′lat-ūr, n. that part of a design in classic architecture which surmounts the columns and rests upon the capitals. [Prob. through Fr. from It. intavolaturain, in, tavola, a table.]

Entail, en-tāl′, v.t. (Spens.) to carve. [O. Fr. entailler—Low L. en, into, taleāre, to cut.]

Entail, en-tāl′, v.t. to settle an estate on a series of heirs, so that the immediate possessor may not dispose of it: to bring on as an inevitable consequence:—pr.p. entail′ing; pa.p. entailed′.n. an estate entailed: the rule of descent of an estate.—ns. Entail′er; Entail′ment, act of entailing: state of being entailed. [O. Fr. entailler, to cut into—en, in, into, tailler, to cut—L. talea, a twig.]

Ental, en′tal, adj. internal. [Gr. entos, within.]

Entame, en-tām′, v.t. (Shak.) to tame.

Entangle, en-tang′gl, v.t. to twist into a tangle, or so as not to be easily separated: to involve in complications: to perplex: to ensnare.—n. Entang′lement, a confused state: perplexity.

Entasis, en′ta-sis, n. (archit.) the swelling outline of the shaft of a column—also Entā′sia: constrictive or tonic spasm.—adj. Entas′tic. [Gr.,—en, in, teinein, to stretch.]

Entelechy, en-tel′ek-i, n. (phil.) actuality: distinctness of realised existence. [Gr. entelecheiaen, in, telos, perfection, echein, to have.]

Entellus, en-tel′us, n. the hanuman of India.

Entender, en-tend′ėr, v.t. to make tender: to weaken.

Enter, en′tėr, v.i. to go or come in: to penetrate: to engage in: to form a part of.—v.t. to come or go into: to join or engage in: to begin: to put into: to enrol or record: to cause to be inscribed, as a boy's name at school, a horse for a race, &c.—n. (Shak.) ingoing.—adj. En′terable.—ns. En′terclose, a passage between two rooms; En′terer; En′tering.—Enter a protest, to write it in the books: thence simply, to protest; Enter into, to become a party to: to be interested in: to be part of; Enter on, to begin: to engage in. [Fr. entrer—L. intrare, to go into, related to inter, between.]

Enterdeal, obsolete form of interdeal.

Enteric, en-ter′ik, adj. of or pertaining to the intestines.—ns. Enteradenog′raphy, description of the intestinal glands; Enteradenol′ogy, the branch of anatomy relating to the intestinal glands; Enteral′gia, intestinal neuralgia; Enterī′tis, inflammation of the intestines; En′terocele, a hernial tumour containing part of the intestines; Enterogastrī′tis, inflammation of the stomach and bowels; En′terolite, En′terolith, an intestinal concretion or calculus; Enterol′ogy, a treatise on the internal parts of the body; En′teron, the entire intestine or alimentary canal:—pl. En′tera; Enterop′athy, disease of the intestines; Enteropneust′a, a class of worm-like animals, having the paired respiratory pouches opening from the front part of the alimentary canal; Enterot′omy, dissection or incision of the intestines. [Gr. enterikosenteron, intestine.]

Enterprise, en′tėr-prīz, n. that which is attempted: a bold or dangerous undertaking: an adventure: daring.—v.t. to undertake.—n. En′terpriser, an adventurer.—p.adj. En′terprising, forward in undertaking: adventurous.—adv. En′terprisingly. [O. Fr. entreprise, pa.p. of entreprendreentre, in, prendre—L. prehendĕre, to seize.]

Entertain, en-tėr-tān′, v.t. to receive and treat hospitably: to hold the attention of and amuse by conversation: to amuse: to receive and take into consideration: to keep or hold in the mind: to harbour.—n. Entertain′er.—p.adj. Entertain′ing, affording entertainment: amusing.—adv. Entertain′ingly.—n. Entertain′ment, act of entertaining: hospitality at table: that which entertains: the provisions of the table: a banquet: amusement: a performance which delights. [Fr. entretenir—L. inter, among, tenēre, to hold.]

Entertake, en-tėr-tāk′, v.t. (Spens.) to entertain.

Entertissue. See Intertissue.

Entheasm, en′thē-azm, n. divine inspiration, ecstasy.—adj. Entheas′tic.—adv. Entheas′tically.

Enthelmintha, en-thel-min′tha, a general name of intestinal worms.

Enthral, en-thrawl′, Inthral, in-, v.t. to bring into thraldom or bondage: to enslave: to shackle.—ns. Enthral′dom, condition of being enthralled; Enthral′ment, act of enthralling: slavery.

Enthrone, en-thrōn′, v.t. to place on a throne: to exalt to the seat of royalty: to install as a bishop: to exalt.—ns. Enthrone′ment, Enthronisā′tion, the act of enthroning or of being enthroned.—v.t. Enthrō′nise, to enthrone, as a bishop: to exalt.

Enthusiasm, en-thū′zi-azm, n. intense interest: intensity of feeling: passionate zeal.—n. Enthū′siast, one inspired by enthusiasm: one who admires or loves intensely.—adjs. Enthusias′tic, -al, filled with enthusiasm; zealous: ardent.—adv. Enthusias′tically. [Through L., from Gr. enthusiasmos, a god-inspired zeal—enthousiazein, to be inspired by a god—en, in, theos, a god.]

Enthymeme, en′thi-mēm, n. (rhet.) an argument consisting of only two propositions, an antecedent and a consequent: a syllogism in which the major proposition is suppressed.—adj. Enthymemat′ical. [From L. from Gr. enthymēma, a consideration—enthymeesthai, to consider—en, in, thymos, the mind.]

Entice, en-tīs′, v.t. to induce by exciting hope or desire: to tempt: to lead astray.—adj. Entice′able.—ns. Entice′ment, act of enticing: that which entices or tempts: allurement; Entic′er.—p.adj. Entic′ing.—adv. Entic′ingly. [O. Fr. enticier, provoke; prob. related to L. titio, a firebrand.]

Entire, en-tīr′, adj. whole: complete: unmingled: not castrated, specially of a horse.—n. the whole: completeness: a stallion: porter or stout as delivered from the brewery.—adv. Entire′ly.—ns. Entire′ness, Entire′ty, completeness: the whole.—In its entirety, in its completeness. [O. Fr. entier—L. integer, whole, from in, not, tangĕre, to touch.]

Entitle, en-tī′tl, v.t. to give a title to: to style: to give a claim to. [O. Fr. entiteler—Low L. intitulārein, in, titulus, title.]

Entity, en′ti-ti, n. being: existence: a real substance. [Low L. entitat-emens (q.v.).]

Entoblast, en′tō-blast, n. the nucleolus of a cell.

Entocele, en′tō-sēl, n. morbid displacement of parts.

Entoil, en-toil′, v.t. to entangle or ensnare.

Entomb, en-tōōm′, v.t. to place in a tomb: to bury.—n. Entomb′ment, burial. [O. Fr. entoumberen, in, tombe, a tomb.]

Entomology, en-to-mol′o-ji, n. the science which treats of insects.—adjs. Entom′ic, -al, relating to insects.—n. Entomog′raphy, descriptive entomology.—adj. En′tomoid, insect-like.—n. Entom′olite, a fossil insect.—adj. Entomolog′ical.—adv. Entomolog′ically.—v.t. Entomol′ogise.—ns. Entomol′ogist, one learned in entomology.— Entomoph′aga, a sub-section of Hymenoptera terebrantia, or boring hymenopterous insects.—adjs. Entomoph′agan, Entomoph′agous, insectivorous; Entomoph′ilous, insect-loving—of such flowers as are specially adapted for fertilisation by the agency of insects.—ns. En′tomotaxy, preparation of insects for preservation; Entomot′omist; Entomot′omy, dissection of insects. [Gr. entoma, insects, logia, a discourse, phagein, to eat, philein, to love, taxis, arrangement, temnein, to cut.]

Entomostomata, en-to-mo-stom′a-ta, a family of mollusca. [Gr. entomos, cut into—en, in, temnein, to cut, stoma, a mouth.]

Entomostraca, en-to-mos′tra-ka, a general name for the lower orders of crustacea—Phyllopods, Ostracods, Copepods, and Cirripedes:—sing. Entomos′tracan.—adj. Entomos′tracous. [Gr. entomos, cut in—en, in, temnein, to cut, ostrakon, a shell.]

Entonic, en-ton′ik, adj. showing high tension.

Entoperipheral, en-tō-pe-rif′e-ral, adj. situated or originated within the periphery or external surface of the body.

Entophyte, en′to-fīt, n. a parasitic plant which grows in a living animal.—adj. Entophyt′ic.—adv. Entophyt′ically.—adj. En′tophytous. [Gr. enton, within, and phyton, a plant.]

Entotic, en-tot′ik, adj. of the interior of the ear.

Entourage, ng-tōō-razh′, n. surroundings: followers. [Fr.,—entourer, to surround—en, in, tour, a circuit.]

Entozoa, en-to-zō′a, animals that live inside of other animals: internal parasites such as Tapeworms (q.v.):—sing. Entozō′on.—adjs. Entozō′al, Entozō′ic.—ns. Entozool′ogist; Entozool′ogy.—adj. Entozoot′ic. [Gr. entos, within, zōon, an animal.]

Entr′acte, ng-trakt′, n. the time between two acts in a play: (mus.) an instrumental piece performed between acts. [Fr., entre, between, acte, an act.]

Entrail, en-trāl′, v.t. (Spens.) to interlace, entwine.—n. (Spens.) twisting, entanglement. [O. Fr. entreillieren, and treille, trellis-work.]

Entrails, en′trālz, the internal parts of an animal's body, the bowels: the inside of anything: (obs.) the seat of the emotions. [O. Fr. entraille—Low L. intraliainter, within.]

Entrain, en-trān′, v.t. to put into a railway train, esp. used of troops.

Entrain, en-trān′, v.t. to draw after. [Fr. entraner.]

Entrammel, en-tram′el, v.t. to trammel, fetter.

Entrance, en′trans, n. act of entering: power or right to enter: the place for entering, the door: the beginning.—n. En′trant, one who, or that which, enters. [Fr. entrer—L. intrāre, to enter.]

Entrance, en-trans′, v.t. to put into a trance: to fill with rapturous delight.—n. Entrance′ment, state of trance or of excessive joy.—p.adj. Entranc′ing, charming, transporting.

Entrap, en-trap′, v.t. to catch, as in a trap: to ensnare: to entangle.—ns. Entrap′ment, act of entrapping: the state of being entrapped: Entrap′per. [O. Fr. entraperen, in, trappe, a trap.]

Entreasure, en-trezh′ūr, v.t. to lay up, as in a treasury.

Entreat, en-trēt′, v.t. to ask earnestly: to beseech: to pray for: (orig.) to treat, to deal with—so in B.v.i. to pray.—adjs. Entreat′able; Entreat′ful (Spens.); Entreat′ing, that entreats.—adv. Entreat′ingly, in an entreating manner: with solicitation.—adj. Entreat′ive, pleading.—ns. Entreat′ment, act of entreating: (Shak.) discourse; Entreat′y, act of entreating; earnest prayer. [O. Fr. entraiteren, and traiter, to treat.]

Entre, ng-trā′, n. entry, freedom of access, admittance: a made dish served at dinner between the chief courses: (mus.) an introduction or prelude: the act of entering, a formal entrance. [Fr.]

Entremets, ng-tr′mā′, n. any dainty served at table between the chief courses—formerly Entremes, Entremesse. [O. Fr. entremesentre, between, mes (mod. mets), a dish.]

Entrench, en-trensh′, Intrench, in-, v.t. to dig a trench around: to fortify with a ditch and parapet.—v.i. to encroach.—n. Entrench′ment, an earthen parapet thrown up to give cover against an enemy's fire and the ditch or trench from which the earth is obtained: any protection: an encroachment.—Entrench upon, to encroach upon.

Entrepas, ng′tr'p, n. a gait between a walk and a trot, an amble. [Fr.]

Entrept, ng′tr'pō, n. a storehouse: a bonded warehouse: a seaport through which exports and imports pass. [Fr.]

Entresol, en′ter-sol, or ng′tr'sol, n. a low story between two main stories of a building, generally above the first story; in London, usually between the ground-floor and the first story. [Fr.,—entre, between, sol, the ground.]

Entrochite, en′trō-kīt, n. a wheel-like joint of an encrinite or fossil crinoid—also En′trochus.—adj. En′trochal. [Gr. en, in, trochos, a wheel.]

Entropion, -um, en-trō′pi-on, -um, n. inversion of the edge of the eyelid. [Gr. entropē.]

Entropy, en′trop-i, n. a term in physics signifying 'the available energy.'

Entrust, en-trust′, Intrust, in-, v.t. to give in trust: to commission: to commit to another, trusting his fidelity.—n. Entrust′ment.

Entry, en′tri, n. act of entering: a passage into a short lane leading into a court: act of committing to writing: the thing written: (law) the taking possession of.—n. En′try-mon′ey, the money paid on entering a society, club, &c.—Port of entry (see Port).

Entwine, en-twīn′, v.t. to interlace: to weave.

Entwist, en-twist′, v.t. to twist round.

Enubilate, ē-nū′bi-lāt, v.t. to clear from clouds.—adj. Enū′bilous.

Enucleate, en-ū′kle-āt, v.t. to lay bare, explain: to extract.—n. Enucleā′tion. [L. enucleāree, out, nucleus, a kernel.]

Enumerate, e-nū′mer-āt, v.t. to count the number of: to name over.—n. Enumerā′tion, act of numbering: a detailed account: a summing up.—adj. Enū′merative.—n. Enū′merator, one who enumerates. [L. e, out, numerāre, -ātum, to number.]

Enunciate, e-nun′shi-āt, v.t. to state formally: to pronounce distinctly.—adj. Enun′ciable, capable of being enunciated.—n. Enunciā′tion, act of enunciating: manner of uttering or pronouncing: a distinct statement or declaration: the words in which a proposition is expressed.—adjs. Enun′ciātive, Enun′ciātory, containing enunciation or utterance: declarative.—n. Enun′ciātor, one who enunciates. [L. enuntiāre, -ātume, out, nuntiāre, to tell—nuntius, a messenger.]

Enure, e-nūr′, v.t. (Spens.) to practise.—v.i. to belong. [En-, and ure—O. Fr. œuvre—work.]

Enuresis, en-ū-rē′sis, n. incontinence of urine.

Envassal, en-vas′al, v.t. to reduce to vassalage.

Envault, en-vawlt′, v.t. to enclose in a vault.

Enveigle. See Inveigle.

Envelop, en-vel′up, v.t. to cover by wrapping: to surround entirely: to hide.—n. Envelope (en′vel-ōp, sometimes, but quite unnecessarily, ng′vel-ōp), that which envelops, wraps, or covers, esp. the cover of a letter.—adj. Envel′oped (her.), entwined, as with serpents, laurels, &c.—n. Envel′opment, a wrapping or covering on all sides. [O. Fr. enveloper; origin obscure. Skeat refers it to the assumed Teut. root of M. E. wlappen, Eng. lap.]

Envenom, en-ven′um, v.t. to put venom into: to poison: to taint with bitterness or malice. [O. Fr. envenimeren, and venim, venom.]

Envermeil, en-vėr′mil, v.t. (Milt.) to dye red, to give a red colour to. [O. Fr. envermeilleren, in, vermeil, red, vermilion.]

Environ, en-vī′run, v.t. to surround: to encircle: to invest:—pr.p. envī′roning; pa.p. envī′roned.n. Envī′ronment, a surrounding: conditions influencing development or growth.— Environs (en-vī′runz, or en′vi-), the places that environ: the outskirts of a city: neighbourhood. [Fr. environnerenviron, around—virer, to turn round; cf. veer.]

Envisage, en-viz′āj, v.t. to face: to consider.—n. Envis′agement. [Fr. envisageren, and visage, the visage.]

Envoy, en′voi, n. a messenger, esp. one sent to transact business with a foreign government: a diplomatic minister of the second order.—n. En′voyship. [For Fr. envoyenvoyer, to send.]

Envoy, Envoi, en′voi, n. the concluding part of a poem or a book: the author's final words, esp. now the short stanza concluding a poem written in certain archaic metrical forms. [O. Fr. envoyeenvoiier, to send—en voie, on the way—L. in, on, via, a way.]

Envy, en′vi, v.t. to look upon with a grudging eye: to hate on account of prosperity:—pr.p. en′vying; pa.p. en′vied.n. grief at the sight of another's success: a wicked desire to supplant one: a desire for the advantages enjoyed by another: (B.) ill-will.—adj. En′viable, that is to be envied.—n. En′viableness, the state or quality of being enviable.—adv. En′viably.—n. En′vier, one who envies.—adj. En′vious, feeling envy: directed by envy: (Spens.) enviable.—adv. En′viously.—ns. En′viousness; En′vying (B.), jealousy, ill-will. [Fr. envie—L. invidiain, on, vidēre, to look.]

Enwall, en-wawl′, Inwall, in-, v.t. to enclose within a wall.

Enwallow, en-wol′ō, v.t. (Spens.) to roll about, to wallow.

Enwheel, en-hwēl′, v.t. (Shak.) to encircle.

Enwind, en-wīnd′, Inwind, in-, v.t. to wind itself round.

Enwomb, en-wōōm′, v.t. (Spens.) to make pregnant: (Shak.) to conceive in the womb: to contain.

Enwrap, en-rap′, Inwrap, in-, v.t. to cover by wrapping: to perplex: to engross.—n. Enwrap′ment.—p.adj. Enwrap′ping.

Enwreathe, en-rēth′, Inwreathe, in-, v.t. to wreathe: to encircle as with a wreath.

Enzone, en-zōn′, v.t. to enclose as with a zone.

Enzootic, en-zō-ot′ik, adj. endemic among animals in a particular district.—n. a disease of this character.

Enzym, Enzyme, en′zim, n. any of the unorganised ferments: leavened bread—opp. to Azym (q.v.).—adj. Enzymot′ic. [Gr. en, in, zymē, leaven.]

Eoan, ē-ō′an, adj. of or pertaining to dawn. [L.,—Gr. ēōs, dawn.]

Eocene, ē′ō-sēn, adj. (geol.) first in time of the three subdivisions of the Tertiary formation. [Gr. ēōs, daybreak, kainos, new.]

Eolian, Eolic, Eolipile. Same as olian, olic, olipile.

Eon. See on.

Eothen, ē-ō′then, adv. from the east—the name given by Kinglake to his book of travel in the East (1844). [Gr., lit. 'from morn,' 'at earliest dawn.']

Eozon, ē-ō-zō′on, n. an assumed organism whose remains constitute reefs of rocks in the Archan system in Canada.—adj. Eozō′ic. [Gr. ēōs, dawn, zōon, an animal.]

Epacrid, ep′a-krid, n. a plant of order Epacridace, a small order of heath-like shrubs or small trees. [Gr. epi, upon, akris, a summit.]

Epact, ē′pakt, n. the moon's age at the beginning of the year: the excess of the solar month or year above the lunar: (pl.) a set of nineteen numbers used for fixing the date of Easter and other church festivals, by indicating the age of the moon at the beginning of each civil year in the lunar cycle. [Fr.,—Gr. epaktos, brought on—epi, on, agein, to bring.]

Epagoge, ep-a-gō′jē, n. induction, proof by example.

Epalpate, ē-pal′pāt, adj. having no palps or feeders.

Epanadiplosis, ep-a-na-di-plō′sis, n. (rhet.) a figure by which a sentence begins and ends with the same word, as in Phil. iv. 4. [Gr.]

Epanalepsis, ep-a-na-lep′sis, n. (rhet.) repetition or resumption, as in 1 Cor. xi. 18 and 20. [Gr.]

Epanodos, e-pan′ō-dos, n. recapitulation of the chief points in a discourse. [Gr.]

Epanorthosis, ep-an-or-thō′sis, n. (rhet.) the retracting of a statement in order to correct or intensify it, as 'For Britain's guid! for her destruction!' [Gr.]

Epanthous, ep-an′thus, adj. growing upon flowers. [Gr. epi, upon, anthos, a flower.]

Eparch, ep′rk, n. the governor of a Greek province.—n. Ep′archy, the province or territory ruled over by an eparch. [Gr. eparchosepi, upon, archē, dominion.]

Epaulement, e-pawl′ment, n. a side-work of a battery or earthwork to protect it from a flanking fire.—n. Epaule′, the shoulder of a bastion. [Fr.,—pauler, to protect—paule, shoulder.]

Epaulet, Epaulette, ep′ol-et, n. a shoulder-piece: a badge of a military or naval officer (now disused in the British army): an ornament on the shoulder of a lady's dress. [Fr. paulettepaule, the shoulder.]

Epeira, ep-īr′a, n. a genus of spiders, the type of the Epeirid, including the common garden spider. [Gr. epi, on, eiros, wool.]

Epencephalon, ep-en-sef′a-lon, n. the hindmost of the divisions of the brain.—adj. Epencephal′ic.

Epenthesis, e-pen′the-sis, n. the insertion of a letter or syllable within a word.—adj. Epenthet′ic. [Gr.]

Epeolatry, ep-e-ol′a-tri, n. worship of words. [Gr. epos, word, latreia, worship.]

Epergne, e-pėrn′, n. an ornamental stand for a large dish for the centre of a table. [Perh. from Fr. pargne, saving—pargner, to save.]

Epexegesis, ep-eks-e-jē′sis, n. the addition of words to make the sentence more clear.—adjs. Epexeget′ic, -al.—adv. Epexeget′ically. [Gr. epi, in addition, exēgeisthai, to explain.]

Epha, Ephah, ē′fa, n. a Hebrew measure for dry goods. [Heb.; prob. of Egyptian origin.]

Ephebe, ef-ēb′, n. (Greek antiquities) a young citizen from 18 to 20 years of age. [L. ephēbus—Gr. ephēbosepi, upon, hēbē, early manhood.]

Ephemera, ef-em′er-a, n. the Mayfly, a genus of short-lived insects: that which lasts a short time.—adj. Ephem′eral, existing only for a day: daily: short-lived.—n. anything lasting a short time.—ns. Ephemeral′ity; Ephem′erid, an insect belonging to the group Ephemerid.—adj. Ephemerid′ian.—ns. Ephem′eris, an account of daily transactions: a journal: an astronomical almanac:—pl. Ephemerides (ef-e-mer′i-dēz); Ephem′erist, one who studies the daily motions of the planets; Ephem′eron, an insect that lives but a day.—adj. Ephem′erous. [Through L.,—Gr. ephēmeros, living a day—epi, for, hēmera, a day.]

Ephesian, ef-ē′zi-an, adj. of or pertaining to Ephesus.—n. an inhabitant of Ephesus: (Shak.) 'a jolly companion.'

Ephod, ef′od, n. a kind of linen surplice worn by the Jewish priests: a surplice, generally. [Heb. aphad, to put on.]

Ephor, ef′or, n. a class of magistrates whose office apparently originated at Sparta, being peculiar to the Doric states.—n. Eph′oralty. [Gr. epi, upon, and root of horaein, to see.]

Epiblast, ep′i-blast, n. Same as Ectoderm.

Epic, ep′ik, adj. applied to a poem which recounts a great event in an elevated style: lofty: grand.—n. an epic or heroic poem: a story comparable to those in epic poems.—ns. Ep′icism; Ep′icist.—Epic dialect, the Greek in which the books of Homer are written. [L. epicus—Gr. epikosepos, a word.]

Epicalyx, ep-i-kā′liks, n. an external or accessory calyx outside of the true calyx, as in Potentilla.

Epicarp, ep′i-krp, n. (bot.) the outermost layer of the pericarp or fruit. [Gr. epi, upon, karpos, fruit.]

Epicedium, ep-i-sē′di-um, n. a funeral ode.—adjs. Epicē′dial, Epicē′dian, elegiac. [L.,—Gr. epikēdeionepi, upon, kēdos, care.]

Epicene, ep′i-sēn, adj. and n. common to both sexes: (gram.) of either gender. [Through L.,—Gr. epikoinosepi, upon, koinos, common.]

Epicheirema, ep-i-kī-rē′ma, n. a syllogism confirmed in its major or minor premise, or in both, by an incidental proposition. [Gr. epicheirēma, attempt—epi, upon, cheir, the hand.]

Epiclinal, ep-i-klī′nal, adj. (bot.) placed on the torus or receptacle of a flower.

Epicure, ep′i-kūr, n. a follower of Epicurus (341-270 B.C.), a Greek philosopher, who taught that pleasure was the chief good: one given to sensual enjoyment: one devoted to the luxuries of the table.—adj. Epicurē′an, pertaining to Epicurus: given to luxury.—n. a follower of Epicurus: one given to the luxuries of the table.—n. Epicurē′anism, the doctrine of Epicurus: attachment to these doctrines.—v.i. Ep′icurise, to play the epicure, to feast, riot: to profess the philosophy of Epicurus.—n. Ep′icurism, the doctrines of Epicurus: luxury: sensual enjoyment.

Epicycle, ep′i-sī-kl, n. a circle having its centre on the circumference of a greater circle on which it moves.—adj. Epicy′clic.—n. Epicy′cloid, a curve described by every point in the plane of a circle moving on the convex circumference of another circle.—adj. Epicycloi′dal. [Gr. epi, upon, kyklos, a circle.]

Epideictic, -al, ep-i-dīk′tik, -al, adj. done for show or display. [Gr. epi, upon, deiknynai, to show.]

Epidemic, -al, ep-i-dem′ik, -al, adj. affecting a community at a certain time: general.—n. Epidem′ic, a disease falling on great numbers in one place, simultaneously or in succession.—adv. Epidem′ically.—n. Epidemiol′ogy, the science of epidemics. [Gr. epidēmos, general—epi, among, dēmos, the people.]

Epidermis, ep-i-dėr′mis, n. scarf-skin or cuticle, forming an external covering of a protective nature for the true skin or corium.—adjs. Epider′matoid; Epider′mic, Epider′mal, Epider′midal. [Gr. epidermisepi, upon, derma, the skin.]

Epidote, ep′i-dōt, n. a silicate of aluminium, iron, and calcium.

Epigastrium, ep-i-gas′tri-um, n. the part of the abdomen which chiefly corresponds to the situation of the stomach, extending from the sternum towards the navel.—adj. Epigas′tric. [Gr. epi, upon, gastēr, the stomach.]

Epigene, ep′i-jēn, adj. applied to the geological agents of change which affect chiefly the superficial position of the earth's crust, as the atmosphere, water, &c.—adjs. Epig′enous, growing on the surface of a part; Epigē′ous, growing on the earth—also Epigē′al. [Gr. epi, upon, gennaein, to produce.]

Epigenesis, ep-i-jen′e-sis, n. the development of the organism by the growth and differentiation of a single germ—i.e. by the division or segmentation of a fertilised egg-cell.—n. Epigen′esist.—adj. Epigenet′ic. [Gr. epi, upon, genesis, genesis.]

Epiglottis, ep-i-glot′is, n. the cartilage at the root of the tongue that partly closes the aperture of the larynx.—adj. Epiglott′ic. [Gr. epi, upon, glōtta (glōssa), the tongue.]

Epigram, ep′i-gram, n. any concise and pointed or sarcastic saying: a short poem on one subject ending with an ingenious thought.—adjs. Epigrammat′ic, -al, relating to or dealing in epigrams: like an epigram: concise and pointed.—adv. Epigrammat′ically.—v.t. Epigram′matise, to make an epigram on.—n. Epigram′matist, one who writes epigrams. [Through Fr. and L., from Gr. epigrammaepi, upon, gramma, a writing—graphein, to write.]

Epigraph, ep′i-graf, n. an inscription, esp. on a building: a citation or motto at the commencement of a book or its parts.—v.t. to provide with an epigraph.—ns. Epig′rapher, Epig′raphist.—adj. Epigraph′ic.—n. Epig′raphy. [Gr. epi-graphēepi, upon, graphein, to write.]

Epigynous, e-pij′i-nus, adj. (bot.) growing upon the top of the ovary.

Epilepsy, ep′i-lep-si, n. a chronic functional disease of the nervous system, manifested by recurring attacks of sudden insensibility or impairment of consciousness, commonly accompanied by peculiar convulsive seizures.—n. Epilep′tic, an epileptic patient.—adjs. Epilep′tic, -al; Epilep′toid. [Gr. epilepsiaepi, upon, lambanein, lēpsesthai, to seize.]

Epilogue, ep′i-log, n. the conclusion of a book: a speech or short poem at the end of a play.—adjs. Epilog′ic (-loj′ik), Epilogis′tic.—v.i. Epil′ogise (′o-jīz), to write an epilogue. [Fr.—L.—Gr. epilogos, conclusion—epi, upon, legein, to speak.]

Epinasty, ep′i-nas-ti, n. (bot.) curvature of an organ, caused by a more active growth on its upper side.—adj. Epinas′tic.—adv. Epinas′tically.

Epiperipheral, ep-i-pe-rif′e-ral, adj. situated on the periphery or outer surface of the body.

Epipetalous, ep-i-pet′a-lus, adj. (bot.) inserted or growing on a petal.

Epiphany, e-pif′an-i, n. a church festival celebrated on Jan. 6, in commemoration of the manifestation of Christ to the wise men of the East: the manifestation of a god. [Gr. epiphaneia, appearance—epi, to, phainein, to show.]

Epiphlœum, ep-i-flē′um, n. (bot.) the corky envelope of the bark next the epidermis.

Epiphragm, ep′i-fram, n. (bot.) the dilated apex of the columella in urn-mosses: the disc with which certain molluscs close the aperture of their shell.

Epiphyllospermous, ep-i-fil-ō-sper′mus, adj. (bot.) bearing fruit on the back of the fronds, as ferns.

Epiphyllous, ep-i-fil′us, adj. (bot.) growing upon a leaf, esp. on its upper surface.

Epiphysis, ep-if′i-sis, n. any portion of a bone having its own centre of ossification: the pineal gland: a small upper piece of each half of an alveolus of a sea-urchin:—pl. Epiph′yses. [Gr.]

Epiphyte, ep′i-fīt, n. one of a species of plants attached to trees, and deriving their nourishment from the decaying portions of the bark, and perhaps also from the air.—adjs. Epiphy′tal, Epiphyt′ic. [Gr. epi, upon, and phyton, a plant.]

Epiplastron, ep-i-plas′tron, n. the anterior lateral one of the nine pieces of which the plastron of a turtle may consist.

Epiploon, e-pip′lō-on, n. the great omentum.—adj. Epiplō′ic. [Gr.]

Epipolism, e-pip′ō-lizm, n. fluorescence.—adj. Epipol′ic. [Gr.]

Epirhizous, ep-i-rī′zus, adj. growing on a root.

Episcopacy, e-pis′ko-pas-i, n. the government of the church by bishops: the office of a bishop: the period of office: the bishops, as a class.—adj. Epis′copal, governed by bishops: belonging to or vested in bishops.—adj. Episcopā′lian, belonging to bishops, or government by bishops.—n. one who belongs to the Episcopal Church.—n. Episcopā′lianism, episcopalian government and doctrine.—adv. Epis′copally.—ns. Epis′copant (Milt.); Epis′copate, a bishopric: the office of a bishop: the order of bishops.—v.i. (Milt.) to act as a bishop.—v.t. Epis′copīse.—n. Epis′copy (Milt.), survey, superintendence. [L. episcopatus—Gr. episkopos, an overseer.]

Episemon, ep-i-sē′mon, n. the characteristic device of a city, &c.: one of three obsolete Greek letters used as numerals—vau, vau; koppa, koppa; and san, san, sampi.

Episode, ep′i-sōd, n. a story introduced into a narrative or poem to give variety: an interesting incident.—adjs. Ep′isōdal, Episō′dial, Episōd′ic, Episōd′ical, pertaining to or contained in an episode: brought in as a digression.—adv. Episōd′ically, by way of episode: incidentally. [Gr. epeisodionepi, upon, eisodos, a coming in—eis, into, hodos, a way.]

Epispastic, ep-i-spas′tik, adj. producing a blister on the skin.—n. a blister.

Episperm, ep′i-spėrm, n. the outer integument of a seed. [Gr. epi, upon, and sperma, seed.]

Epistaxis, ep-is-tak′sis, n. bleeding from the nose.

Epistemology, ep-is-tē-mol′oj-i, n. the theory of knowledge.—adj. Epistemolog′ical. [Gr. epistēmē, knowledge, logia, discourse.]

Episternum, ep-i-ster′num, n. the interclavicle: the epiplastron: the presternum of mammals.—adj. Epister′nal.

Epistilbite, ep-i-stil′bīt, n. a whitish hydrous silicate of aluminium, calcium, and sodium.

Epistle, e-pis′l, n. a writing sent to one, a letter: esp. a letter to an individual or church from an apostle, as the Epistles of Paul: the extract from one of the apostolical epistles read as part of the communion service.—v.i. (Milt.) to preface.—ns. Epis′tler, Epis′toler, a letter-writer; Epis′tler, one who reads the liturgical epistle in the communion service.—adjs. Epis′tolary, Epis′tolatory, Epistol′ic, -al, pertaining to or consisting of epistles or letters: suitable to an epistle: contained in letters.—n. Epis′tolet, a short letter.—v.i. Epis′tolise, to write a letter.—ns. Epis′tolist, a writer of letters; Epistolog′raphy, letter-writing. [O. Fr.,—L. epistola—Gr. epistolēepi, stellein, to send.]

Epistrophe, e-pis′trō-fē, n. (rhet.) a form of repetition in which successive clauses end with the same word, as in 2 Cor. xi. 22: a refrain in music.

Epistyle, ep′i-stīl, n. Same as Architrave. [Gr. epi, upon, stylos, a pillar.]

Epitaph, ep′i-taf, n. a commemorative inscription on a tombstone or monument.—v.t. to write an epitaph upon.—adjs. Epitaph′ian, Epitaph′ic.—n. Ep′itaphist, a writer of epitaphs. [Gr. epitaphionepi, upon, taphos, a tomb.]

Epitasis, e-pit′a-sis, n. the main action of a Greek drama, leading to the catastrophe—opp. to Protasis.

Epithalamium, ep-i-tha-lā′mi-um, n. a song or poem in celebration of a marriage.—adj. Epithalam′ic. [Gr. epithalamionepi, upon, thalamos, a bedchamber, marriage.]

Epithelium, ep-i-thē′li-um, n. the cell-tissue which invests the outer surface of the body and the mucous membranes connected with it, and also the closed cavities of the body.—adj. Epithē′lial.—n. Epitheliō′ma, carcinoma of the skin.—adj. Epitheliom′atous. [Gr.,—epi, upon, thēlē, nipple.]

Epithem, ep′i-them, n. (med.) a soft external application. [Gr. epithemaepi, upon, tithenai, to place.]

Epithet, ep′i-thet, n. an adjective expressing some real quality of the thing to which it is applied, or an attribute expressing some quality ascribed to it: (Shak.) term, expression.—v.t. to term.—adj. Epithet′ic, pertaining to an epithet: abounding with epithets.—n. Epith′eton (Shak.), epithet. [Gr. epithetos, added—epi, on, tithenai, to place.]

Epithymetic, ep-i-thim-et′ik, adj. pertaining to desire. [Gr.,—epi, upon, thymos, the soul.]

Epitome, e-pit′o-me, n. an abridgment or short summary of anything, as of a book.—adj. Epitom′ical, like an epitome.—v.t. Epit′omise, to make an epitome of: to shorten: to condense.—ns. Epit′omiser, Epit′omist, one who abridges.—In epitome, on a small scale. [Gr.,—epi, temnein, to cut.]

Epitonic, ep-i-ton′ik, adj. overstrained. [Gr.,—epi, upon, teinein, to stretch.]

Epitrite, ep′i-trīt, n. (pros.) a foot made up of three long syllables and one short. [L.,—Gr.,—epi, in addition, tritos, the third.]

Epizeuxis, ep-i-zūk′sis, n. (rhet.) the immediate repetition of a word for emphasis. [Gr.]

Epizoon, ep-i-zō′on, n. a parasitic animal that lives on the bodies of other animals and derives its nourishment from the skin—also Epizō′an:—pl. Epizō′a.—adj. Epizoot′ic, pertaining to epizoa: (geol.) containing fossil remains: epidemic, as applied to animals. [Gr. epi, upon, zōon, an animal.]

Epoch, ep′ok, or ē′-, n. a point of time fixed or made remarkable by some great event from which dates are reckoned: a period remarkable for important events: (astron.) the mean heliocentric longitude of a planet in its orbit at any given time.—adjs. Ep′ochal; Ep′och-mā′king.—Make, Mark, an epoch, to begin an important era. [Gr. epochēepechein, to stop—epi, upon, echein, to hold.]

Epode, ep′ōd, n. a kind of lyric poem invented by Archilochus, in which a longer verse is followed by a shorter one: the last part of a lyric ode, sung after the strophe and antistrophe.—adj. Epod′ic. [Gr. epōdosepi, on, ōdē, an ode.]

Eponym, ep′o-nim, n. a mythical personage created to account for the name of a tribe or people: a special title.—adj. Epon′ymous. [Gr. epi, upon, to, onoma, a name.]

Epopee, ep′o-pē, Epopœia, ep-o-pē′ya, n. epic poetry: an epic poem. [Formed from Gr. epopoiiaepos, a word, an epic poem, poiein, to make.]

Epopt, ep′opt, n. one initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries. [Gr. epi, upon, and root op-, to see.]

Epos, ep′os, n. the elementary stage of epic poetry: an epic poem: a series of events such as are treated in epic poetry. [L.,—Gr. epos, a word.]

Eprouvette, ep-roov-et′, n. a machine for testing the strength of gunpowder. [Fr.,—prouver, to try.]

Epsom, ep′sum, n. a useful purgative medicine, acting as a refrigerant, and sometimes as a diuretic.—Also Ep′som-salt. [From Epsom, a town in Surrey.]

Epulotic, ep-ū-lot′ik, adj. cicatrising.—n. a cicatrising medicament.

Equable, ē′kwa-bl, or ek′wa-bl, adj. equal and uniform: smooth: not variable: of even temper.—ns. Equabil′ity, E′quableness, the state or condition of being equable.—adv. E′quably. [L. quabilisquārequus, equal.]

Equal, ē′kwal, adj. identical: of the same value: adequate: in just proportion: fit: equable: uniform: equitable: evenly balanced: just.—n. one of the same age, rank, &c.—v.t. to be, or to make, equal to:—pr.p. ē′qualling; pa.p. ē′qualled.n. Equalisā′tion, the act of making equal: state of being equalised.—v.t. E′qualise, to make equal.—adj. and n. Equalitār′ian, of or pertaining to the equality of mankind.—n. Equal′ity, the condition of being equal: sameness: evenness.—adv. E′qually.—n. E′qualness, the state of being equal: evenness: uniformity.—v.t. Equāte′, to reduce to an average or to a common standard of comparison: to regard as equal:—pr.p. equāt′ing; pa.p. equāt′ed.ns. Equā′tion, the act of making equal: (alg.) a statement of the equality of two quantities: reduction to a mean proportion; Equā′tor (geog.), a great circle passing round the middle of the globe and dividing it into two equal parts: (astron.) the equinoctial.—adj. Equatō′rial, of or pertaining to the equator.—n. an instrument for observing and following a celestial body in any part of its diurnal course.—adv. Equatō′rially, so as to have motion or direction parallel to the equator.—Equal to the occasion, fit or able for an emergency.—Equation of time, the reduction from mean solar time to apparent solar time.—An equal (Spens.), a state of equality.—Personal equation, any error common to all the observations of some one person, any tendency to error or prejudice due to the personal characteristics of some person for which allowance must be made. [L. qualisquāre, to make equal—quus, equal.]

Equanimity, ē-kwa-nim′i-ti, n. equality or evenness of mind or temper.—adj. Equan′imous.—adv. Equan′imously. [L. quanimitasquus, equal, animus, the mind.]

Equerry, ek′we-ri, n. in the royal household, an official under the Master of the Horse, whose main duty is to accompany the sovereign when riding in state. [Fr. curie—Low L. scuria, a stable—Old High Ger. scr (Ger. scheuer), a shed.]

Equestrian, e-kwes′tri-an, adj. pertaining to horses or horsemanship: on horseback.—n. one who rides on horseback:—fem. Equestrienne′.—n. Eques′trianism, horsemanship. [L. equester, equestriseques, a horseman—equus, a horse.]

Equi-, ē′kwi, a prefix meaning equal, from L. quus.—adj. Equian′gular, consisting of or having equal angles.—n. Equibal′ance, equal weight.—adjs. Equidiff′erent, having equal differences; Equidis′tant, equally distant.—adv. Equidis′tantly.—adj. Equilat′eral, having all sides equal.—v.t. Equilī′brāte, to balance: to counterpoise.—ns. Equilibrā′tion; Equilib′rity, Equilib′rium, equal balancing: equality of weight or force: level position; Equimul′tiple, a number multiplied by the same number as another.—adj. Equipē′dal, equal-footed.—ns. Equipen′dency, act of hanging in equipoise; E′quipoise, equality of weight or force: the state of a balance when the two weights are equal.—v.t. to counterbalance.—n. Equisō′nance, the consonance which exists between octaves.—adj. E′quivalve, having valves equal in size or form.

Equine, ē′kwīn, Equinal, ē-kwīn′al, adj. pertaining to a horse or horses.—n. Equin′ia, horse-pox, glanders, farcy. [L. equinusequus, a horse.]

Equinox, ē′kwi-noks, n. the time when the sun crosses the equator, making the night equal in length to the day, about 21st March and 23d Sept.—adj. Equinoc′tial, pertaining to the equinoxes, the time of the equinoxes, or to the regions about the equator.—n. a great circle in the heavens corresponding to the equator of the earth.—adv. Equinoc′tially, in the direction of the equinox.—Equinoctial gales, high gales popularly supposed to prevail about the times of the equinoxes—the belief is unsupported by observation. [L. quus, equal, nox, noctis, night.]

Equip, e-kwip′, v.t. to fit out: to furnish with everything needed for any service or work:—pr.p. equip′ping; pa.p. equipped′.n. E′quipāge, that with which one is equipped: furniture required for any service, as that of a soldier, &c.: a carriage and attendants, retinue.—v.t. (obs.) to furnish with an equipage.—n. Equip′ment, the act of equipping: the state of being equipped: things used in equipping or furnishing: outfit. [Fr. quiper, prob. Ice. skipa, to set in order, skip, a ship.]

Equipollent, e-kwi-pol′ent, adj. having equal power or force: equivalent.—n. an equivalent.—ns. Equipoll′ence, Equipoll′ency. [L. quus, equal, pollens, pollentis, pr.p. of pollēre, to be able.]

Equiponderate, ē-kwi-pon′dėr-āt, v.i. to be equal in weight: to balance.—adj. equal in weight.—n. Equipon′derance.—adj. Equipon′derant. [L. quus, equal, pondus, ponderis, weight.]

Equisetum, ek-wi-sē′tum, n. a genus of herbaceous plants having leafless articulated and whorled stems and branches—also Horse-tail.—adjs. Equisetā′ceous; Equiset′ic; Equiset′iform. [L.,—equus, a horse, seta, a bristle.]

Equitation, ek-wi-tā′shun, n. the art of riding on horseback.—adjs. Eq′uitant, riding: straddling, overlapping; Equiv′orous, eating horse-flesh. [L.,—equitāreequus, a horse.]

Equity, ek′wi-ti, n. right as founded on the laws of nature: moral justice, of which laws are the imperfect expression: the spirit of justice which enables us to interpret laws rightly: fairness.—adj. Eq′uitable, possessing or showing equity: held or exercised in equity.—n. Eq′uitableness.—adv. Eq′uitably. [Fr. equit—L. quitasquus, equal.]

Equivalent, e-kwiv′a-lent, adj. equal in value, power, meaning, &c.—n. a thing equivalent.—n. Equiv′alence.—adv. Equiv′alently. [Fr.,—L. quus, equal, valens, valentis, pr.p. of valēre, to be worth.]

Equivocal, e-kwiv′ō-kal, adj. capable of meaning two or more things: of doubtful meaning: capable of a double explanation: suspicious: questionable.—adv. Equiv′ocally.—n. Equiv′ocalness.—v.i. Equiv′ocāte, to use equivocal or doubtful words in order to mislead.—ns. Equivocā′tion, act of equivocating or using ambiguous words to mislead; Equiv′ocātor.—adj. Equiv′ocātory, containing or characterised by equivocation.—ns. E′quivoke, E′quivoque, an equivocal expression: equivocation: a quibble. [L. quus, equal, vox, vocis, the voice, a word.]

Era, ē′ra, n. a series of years reckoned from a particular point, or that point itself: an important date. [Late L. ra, a number, orig. 'counters,' pieces of copper used in counting, being the of s, ris, copper.]

Eradiate, e-rā′di-āt, v.i. to shoot out like a ray of light:—pr.p. erā′diating; pa.p. erā′diated.n. Eradiā′tion, the act of eradiating; emission of radiance. [L. e, out, radius, a ray.]

Eradicate, e-rad′i-kāt, v.t. to pull up by the roots: to destroy.—adj. Erad′icable, that may be eradicated.—p.adj. Erad′icāted, rooted up: (her.) said of a tree, or part of a tree, torn up by the roots.—n. Eradicā′tion, the act of eradicating: state of being eradicated.—adj. Erad′icātive, serving to eradicate or drive thoroughly away.—n. Erad′icātor. [L. eradicāre, to root out—e, out, radix, radicis, a root.]

Erase, e-rās′, v.t. to rub or scrape out: to efface: to destroy.—adj. Erā′sable.—p.adj. Erased′, rubbed out: effaced: (her.) torn off, so as to leave jagged edges.—ns. Erā′ser, one who, or that which, erases, as ink-eraser; Erā′sion, Erase′ment, Erā′sure, the act of erasing: a rubbing out: the place where something written has been rubbed out. [L. eradĕree, out, radĕre, rasum, to scrape.]

Erastian, e-rast′yan, n. a follower of Thomas Erastus (1524-83), a Swiss physician, who denied the church the right to inflict excommunication and disciplinary penalties: one who minimises the spiritual independence of the church, subordinating her jurisdiction to the state—a position not held by Erastus at all.—adj. relating to the Erastians or their doctrines.—n. Erast′ianism, control of church by state.

Erato, er′a-tō, n. the Muse of lyric poetry.

Erbium, er′bi-um, n. a rare metal, the compounds of which are present in the mineral gadolinite, found at Ytterby in Sweden. [From Ytterby.]

Ere, ār, adv. before, sooner.—prep. before.—conj. sooner than.—advs. Erelong′, before long: soon; Erenow′, before this time; Erewhile′, formerly: some time before. [A.S. ǽr; cf. Dut. eer.]

Erebus, er′e-bus, n. (myth.) the dark and gloomy cavern between earth and Hades: the lower world, hell. [L.,—Gr. Erebos.]

Erect, e-rekt′, v.t. to set upright: to raise: to build: to exalt: to establish.—adj. upright: directed upward.—adj. Erect′ed.—ns. Erect′er, Erect′or, one who, or that which, erects or raises: a muscle which assists in erecting a part or an organ: an attachment to a compound microscope for making the image erect instead of inverted.—adj. Erect′ile, that may be erected.—ns. Erectil′ity, quality of being erectile; Erec′tion, act of erecting: state of being erected: exaltation: anything erected: a building of any kind.—adj. Erect′ive, tending to erect.—adv. Erect′ly.—n. Erect′ness. [L. erectus, erigĕre, to set upright—e, out, regĕre, to direct.]

Eremacausis, er-e-ma-kaw′sis, n. (chem.) slow combustion or oxidation. [Gr. erema, slowly, kausiskaiein, to burn.]

Eremite, er′e-mīt, n. a recluse who lives apart, from religious motives: a hermit.—adjs. Eremit′ic, -al.—n. Er′emitism, state of being an eremite. [Late L.,—Gr. erēmos, desert.]

Erethism, er′e-thizm, n. excitement or stimulation of any organ.—adjs. Erethis′mic, Erethis′tic, Erethit′ic. [Gr.]

Erf, erf, n. a garden-plot in South Africa. [Dut.]

Erg, erg, n. the unit of work in the centimetre-gramme-second system—that is, the quantity of work done by a force which, acting for one second upon a mass of one gramme, produces a velocity of one centimetre per second. [Gr. erg-on, work.]

Ergo, ėr′go, adv. (logic) therefore, used to mark the conclusion of a syllogism.—v.i. Er′gotise, to wrangle. [L. ergo, therefore.]

Ergot, ėr′got, n. a disease, consisting of a parasitical fungus, found on the seed of certain plants, esp. rye and some other grasses.—ns. Er′gotine, the active principle of ergot of rye; Er′gotism, poisoning caused by eating bread made of rye diseased with ergot; Ergotisā′tion.—v.t. Er′gotise. [Fr.]

Eric, er′ik, n. the blood-fine paid by a murderer to his victim's family in old Irish law.—Also Er′iach, Er′ick.

Erica, e-rī′ka, n. the scientific name for heath.—adj. Ericā′ceous, belonging to plants of the genus Erica. [L.,—Gr. ereikē, heath.]

Eringo. Same as Eryngo.

Erinite, er′i-nīt, n. native arseniate of copper found in Cornwall and Ireland. [Erin, old name of Ireland.]

Erinys, e-rī′nis, n. one of the Furies:—pl. Erinyes (e-rin′i-ēz).

Eriometer, er-i-om′e-ter, n. an optical instrument for measuring small diameters of fibres, &c. [Gr. erion, wool, metron, a measure.]

Eristic, -al, er-is′tik, -al, adj. of or pertaining to controversy. [Gr. erizein, to strive—eris, strife.]

Erl-king, ėrl′-king, n. for German erl-knig, a mistranslation (meaning 'alder-king') of the Danish ellerkonge (i. e. elverkonge, king of the elves).

Ermelin, ėr′me-lin, n. (arch.) ermine.

Ermine, ėr′min, n. a well-known carnivore belonging to the genus which includes polecat, weasel, ferret, &c.—its white fur often used as an emblem of purity: ermine fur used for the robes of judges and magistrates.—adj. Er′mined, adorned with ermine. [O. Fr. ermine (Fr. hermine), perh. from L. (mus) Armenius, lit. mouse of Armenia, whence it was brought to Rome; but acc. to Skeat from Old High Ger. harmin (Ger. hermelin), ermine-fur.]

Erne, ėrn, n. the eagle. [A.S. earn; cf. Ice. orn, Dut. arend.]

Erne, ėrn, v.i. obsolete form of earn, to yearn.

Erode, e-rōd′, v.t. to eat away: to wear away.—n. Erō′dent, a caustic drug.—adj. Erōse′, gnawed.—n. Erō′sion, act or state of eating or being eaten away.—adj. Erō′sive, having the property of eating away. [L. e, out, rodĕre, rosum, to gnaw.]

Erostrate, e-ros′trāt, adj. (bot.) having no beak.

Erotesis, er-ō-tē′sis, n. (rhet.) a figure consisting of an oratorical question.—adj. Erotet′ic. [Gr.]

Erotic, er-ot′ik, adj. pertaining to love: amatory.—n. an amatory poem.—ns. Erotomā′nia, morbid sexual passion; Erotomā′niac, one affected with this. [Gr. erōtikoserōs, erōtos, love.]

Err, er, v.i. to wander from the right way: to go astray: to mistake: to sin.—adj. Err′able, capable of erring.—n. Errat′ic, a wanderer: an erratic boulder.—adjs. Errat′ic, -al, wandering: having no certain course: not stationary: irregular.—adv. Errat′ically.—n. Errā′tum, an error in writing or printing, esp. one noted in a list at the end of a book:—pl. Errā′ta.—adj. Errō′neous, erring: full of error: wrong: mistaken: (obs.) wandering.—adv. Errō′neously.—ns. Errō′neousness; Err′or, a deviation from truth, right, &c.: a blunder or mistake: a fault: sin; Err′orist. [Fr. errer—L. errāre, to stray; cog. with Ger. irren, and irre, astray.]

Errand, er′and, n. a message: a commission to say or do something.—A fool's errand, a useless undertaking; Go an errand, to go with messages; Make an errand, to invent a reason for going. [A.S. ǽrende; Ice. eyrindi; prob. conn. with Goth. irus, Ice. rr, a messenger.]

Errant, er′ant, adj. wandering: roving: wild: (obs.) thorough (cf. Arrant).—n. a knight-errant.—adv. Err′antly.—n. Err′antry, an errant or wandering state: a rambling about like a knight-errant. [Fr.,—L. errans, errantis, pr.p. of errāre.]

Errhine, er′in, adj. affecting the nose.—n. a sternutatory. [Gr., en, in, rhis, rhinos, the nose.]

Erse, ėrs, n. the name given by the Lowland Scotch to the language of the people of the West Highlands, as being of Irish origin—now sometimes used for Irish, as opposed to Scotch, Gaelic. [Irish.]

Erst, ėrst, adv. at first: formerly.—adv. Erst′while, formerly. [A.S. ǽrest, superl. of ǽr. See Ere.]

Erubescent, er-ōō-bes′ent, adj. growing red: blushing.—ns. Erubes′cence, Erubes′cency. [L. erubescens, -entis, pr.p. of erubescĕre, to grow red—e, out, and rubescĕrerubēre, to be red. See Ruby.]

Eructate, e-ruk′tāt, v.t. to belch out, as wind from the stomach.—n. Eructā′tion, the act of belching: a violent ejection of wind or other matter from the earth, as a volcano, &c. [L. eructāre, -ātume, out, ructāre, to belch forth.]

Erudite, er′ōō-dīt, adj. learned.—n. a learned person.—adv. Er′uditely.—n. Erudi′tion, state of being erudite or learned: knowledge gained by study: learning, esp. in literature. [L. erudīre, erudītum, to free from rudeness—e, from, rudis, rude.]

Erupt, e-rupt′, v.i. to break out or through, as a volcano.—n. Erup′tion, a breaking or bursting forth: that which bursts forth: a breaking out of spots on the skin.—adjs. Erup′tional; Erupt′ive, breaking forth: attended by or producing eruption: produced by eruption.—n. Erupt′iveness. [L. erumpĕre, eruptum.—e, out, rumpĕre, to break.]

Eryngo, e-ring′go, n. a genus of evergreen plants resembling thistles, the young leaves of E. maritimum (sea-holly) being sometimes eaten as a salad. [L. eryngion—Gr. ēryngos.]

Erysimum, er-is′i-mum, n. a genus of Crucifer, allied to Hedge-mustard and Dame's Violet. [Formed through L. from Gr. erysimon.]

Erysipelas, er-i-sip′e-las, n. an inflammatory disease, generally in the face, marked by a bright redness of the skin.—adj. Erysipel′atous. [Gr.; prob. from the root of erythros, red, pella, skin.]

Erythema, er-i-thē′ma, n. a name applied to certain skin diseases, but scarcely used by any two writers in exactly the same sense.—adjs. Erythemat′ic, Erythem′atous. [Gr.,—erythainein, to redden—erythros, red.]

Erythrite, e-rith′rīt, n. a reddish hydrous arseniate of cobalt.—adj. Erythrit′ic.

Escalade, es-ka-lād′, n. the scaling of the walls of a fortress by means of ladders.—v.t. to scale: to mount and enter by means of ladders—sometimes written Escalā′do. [Fr.,—Sp. escaladaescala, a ladder—L. scala.]

Escallop, es-kal′up, n. a variant of scallop.—adj. Escall′oped. (her.), covered with scallop-shells.


Escape, es-kāp′, v.t. to free from: to pass unobserved: to evade: to issue.—v.i. to flee and become safe from danger: to be passed without harm.—n. act of escaping: flight from danger or from prison.—adj. Escap′able.—ns. Escapāde′, an escape: a mischievous freak; Escāpe′ment, act of escaping: means of escape: part of a timepiece connecting the wheelwork with the pendulum or balance, and allowing a tooth to escape at each vibration; Escape′-valve, a valve on a boiler so as to let the steam escape when wanted. [O. Fr. escaper (Fr. chapper)—L. ex cappa, (lit.) 'out of one's cape or cloak.']

Escarmouche, e-skr′moosh, n. (obs.) a skirmish. [Fr.]

Escarp, es-krp′, v.t. to make into a scarp or sudden slope.—n. a scarp or steep slope: (fort.) the side of the ditch next the rampart.—n. Escarp′ment, the precipitous side of any hill or rock: escarp. [Fr. escarper, to cut down steep, from root of scarp.]

Eschalot, esh-a-lot′. See Shallot.

Eschar, es′kr, n. a slough or portion of dead or disorganised tissue, gen. of artificial sloughs produced by the application of caustics.—adj. Escharot′ic, tending to form an eschar: caustic.—n. a caustic substance. [L.,—Gr. eschara, a hearth.]

Eschatology, es-ka-tol′o-ji, n. (theol.) the doctrine of the last or final things, as death, judgment, the state after death.—adjs. Eschatolog′ic, -al.—n. Eschatol′ogist. [Gr. eschatos, last, logia, a discourse.]

Escheat, es-chēt′, n. property which falls to the state for want of an heir, or by forfeiture: (Spens.) plunder.—v.t. to confiscate.—v.i. to fall to the lord of the manor or the state.—adj. Escheat′able.—ns. Escheat′age; Escheat′or. [O. Fr. escheteescheoir (Fr. choir)—Low L.,—L. ex, out, cadĕre, to fall.]

Eschew, es-chōō′, v.t. to shun: to flee from: to abstain from. [O. Fr. eschever; cog. with Ger. scheuen, to shun.]

Esclandre, e-sklang′dr, n. notoriety: any unpleasantness. [Fr.,—L. scandalum.]

Escort, es′kort, n. a body of men, or a single man, accompanying any one on a journey, for protection, guidance, or merely courtesy: attendance.—v.t. Escōrt′, to attend as guide or guard. [Fr. escorte—It. scortascorgere, to guide—L. ex, out, corrigĕre, to set right.]

Escot, es-kot′, v.t. (Shak.) to pay a reckoning for, to maintain. [O. Fr. escoter, escot=scot, a tax.]

Escritoire, es-kri-twor′, n. a writing-desk.—adj. Escritō′rial. [Fr. escritoire—Low L. scriptorium—L. scribĕre, scriptum, to write.]

Escroll, es-krōl′, n. (her.). Same as Scroll.

Escuage, es′kū-āj, n. scutage.

Esculapian, es-kū-lā′pi-an, adj. pertaining to Esculapius, and hence to the art of healing.—Also sculā′pian. [sculapius, god of medicine.]

Esculent, es′kū-lent, adj. eatable: fit to be used for food by man.—n. something that is eatable. [L. esculentus, eatable—esca, food—edĕre, to eat.]

Escutcheon, es-kuch′un, n. a shield on which a coat of arms is represented: a family shield: the part of a vessel's stern bearing her name.—adj. Escutch′eoned ('und), having an escutcheon.—Escutcheon of pretence, an escutcheon placed with the arms of an heiress in the centre of her husband's coat.—A blot on the escutcheon, a stain on one's good name. [O. Fr. escuchon—L. scutum, a shield.]

Esemplastic, es-em-plas′tik, adj. shaping into one.

Eskar, Esker. Same as Asar (q.v.).

Eskimo, es′ki-mō, n. and adj. one of a nation constituting the aboriginal inhabitants of the whole northern coast of America, and spread over the Arctic islands, Greenland, and the nearest Asiatic coast.—n. Eskimo dog, a half-tamed variety, widely distributed in the Arctic regions, and indispensable for drawing the sledges. [Said by Dr Rink to be from an Indian word=eaters of raw flesh.]

Esloin, es-loin′. See Eloin.

Esnecy, es′ne-si, n. the right of first choice belonging to the eldest.

Esophagus. See Œsophagus.

Esoteric, es-o-ter′ik, adj. inner: secret: mysterious: (phil.) taught to a select few—opp. to Exoteric.—adv. Esoter′ically.—ns. Esoter′icism, Esot′erism, the holding of esoteric opinions.—Esoteric Buddhism (see Theosophy). [Gr. esōterikosesōterō, inner, a comp. form from esō, within.]

Espalier, es-pal′yėr, n. a lattice-work of wood on which to train fruit-trees: a fruit-tree trained on stakes: (obs.) a row of trees so trained.—v.t. to train as an espalier. [Fr.,—It. spalliera, a support for the shoulders—spalla, a shoulder. Cf. Epaulet.]

Esparto, es-par′tō, n. a strong kind of grass found in the south of Europe, esp. in Spain, used for making baskets, cordage, paper, &c. [Sp.,—L. spartum—Gr. sparton, a kind of rope.]

Especial, es-pesh′al, adj. special: particular: principal: distinguished.—adv. Espec′ially.—In especial, in particular. [O. Fr.,—L. specialisspecies.]

Esperance, es′pėr-ans, n. (Shak.) hope. [Fr.,—L. sperans, pr.p. of sperāre, to hope.]

Espigle, es-pi-ā′gl, adj. roguish, frolicsome.—n. Espig′lerie, raillery: frolicsomeness. [Fr.]

Espionage, es′pi-on-āj, n. practice or employment of spies. [Fr.,—espionnerespion, a spy.]

Esplanade, es-pla-nād′, n. a level space between a citadel and the first houses of the town: any level space for walking or driving in. [Fr.,—Sp. esplanada—L. explanāreex, out, planus, flat.]

Espouse, es-powz′, v.t. to give in marriage: to take as spouse: to wed: to take with a view to maintain: to embrace, as a cause.—ns. Espous′al, the act of espousing or betrothing: the taking upon one's self, as a cause: (pl.) a contract or mutual promise of marriage; Espous′er. [O. Fr. espouser (Fr. pouser)—L. sponsārespondēre, sponsum, to promise.]

Esprit, es-prē′, n. spirit: liveliness.—Esprit de corps (es-prē′ d' kōr), regard for the character of that body to which one belongs; Esprit fort (es-prē′ fōr), a person of strong character. [Fr. esprit, spirit, corps, body, fort, strong.]

Espy, es-pī′, v.t. to watch: to see at a distance: to catch sight of: to observe: to discover unexpectedly.—n. Espī′al, the act of espying: observation. [O. Fr. espier, from root of spy.]

Esquimau, es′ki-mō (pl. Esquimaux, es′ki-mōz). Same as Eskimo.

Esquire, es-kwīr′, n. (orig.) a squire or shield-bearer: an attendant on a knight: a landed proprietor: a title of dignity next below a knight: a title given to younger sons of noblemen, &c.: a general title of respect in addressing letters. [O. Fr. esquier (Fr. cuyer)—L. scutariusscutum, a shield.]

Ess, the name of the letter S (q.v.).

Essay, es′ā, n. a trial: an experiment: a written composition less elaborate than a treatise.—v.t. Essay′, to try: to attempt: to make experiment of:—pr.p. essay′ing; pa.p. essayed′.ns. Essay′er, Es′sayist, one who essays: a writer of essays; Essayette′, Es′saykin, a little essay.—adjs. Es′sayish; Essayis′tic. [O. Fr. essai—L. exagium, weighing—exagĕre, to try, examine.]

Esse, es′i, n. used in phrase In esse, in existence, opposed to In posse, in potentiality. [L. esse, to be.]

Essence, es′ens, n. the inner distinctive nature of anything: the qualities which make any object what it is: a being: the extracted virtues of any drug: the solution in spirits of wine of a volatile or essential oil: a perfume.—adj. Essen′tial, relating to or containing the essence: necessary to the existence of a thing: indispensable or important in the highest degree: highly rectified: pure.—n. something necessary: a leading principle.—n. Essential′ity, the quality of being essential: an essential part.—adv. Essen′tially.—n. Essen′tialness. [Fr.,—L. essentiaessens, -entis, assumed pr.p. of esse, to be.]

Essene, es-sēn′, n. one of a small religious fraternity among the ancient Jews leading retired ascetic lives and holding property in common.—n. Essen′ism. [Bishop Lightfoot prefers the der. from Heb. chāshā, to be silent, whence chashshāīm, 'the silent ones' who meditate on mysteries.]

Essoin, es-soin′, n. (law) excuse for not appearing in court: (Spens.) excuse.—n. Essoin′er. [O. Fr. essoine (Fr. exoine), es—L. ex, out, soin, care.]

Essorant, es′ō-rant, adj. (her.) about to soar.

Establish, es-tab′lish, v.t. to settle or fix: to confirm: to prove a point: to ordain: to found: to set up in business: to institute by law as the recognised state church, and to support officially and financially.—p.adj. Estab′lished, fixed: ratified: instituted by law and supported by the state.—ns. Estab′lisher; Estab′lishment, act of establishing: fixed state: that which is established: a permanent civil or military force: one's residence and style of living: the church established by law.—adj. Establishmentār′ian, maintaining the principle of the established church.—n. one who maintains this principle. [O. Fr. establir, pr.p. establissant—L. stabilīrestabilis, firm—stāre, to stand.]

Estacade, es-ta-kād′, n. a dike of piles in a morass, river, &c., against an enemy. [Fr.,—Sp.]

Estafette, es-ta-fet′, n. a military courier or express. [Fr.,—It. staffetta—Old High Ger. stapho, a step.]

Estaminet, es-tam-in-ā′, a restaurant where smoking is allowed. [Fr.]

Estate, es-tāt′, n. condition or rank: position: property, esp. landed property: fortune: an order or class of men in the body-politic: (pl.) dominions: possessions.—v.t. to give an estate to: (arch.) to bestow upon.—n. Estates′man, statesman.—Man's estate, the state of manhood; The estates of the realm are three—Lords Spiritual, Lords Temporal, and Commons; but often misused for the legislature—king, lords, and commons.—The ancient parliament of Scotland consisted of the king and the Three Estates—viz.: (1) archbishops, bishops, abbots, and mitred priors; (2) the barons and the commissioners of shires and stewartries; (3) the commissioners from the royal burghs;—in France, the nobles, clergy, and Third Estate (tiers tat) remained separate down to 1789; The fourth estate, often used humorously for the press. [O. Fr. estat (Fr. tat)—L. status, a state.]

Esteem, es-tēm′, v.t. to set a high estimate or value on: to regard with respect or friendship: to consider or think.—n. high estimation or value: favourable regard.—p.adj. Esteemed′, respected.—adj. Es′timable, that can be estimated or valued: worthy of esteem: deserving our good opinion.—adv. Es′timably.—v.t. Es′timāte, to judge of the worth of a thing: to calculate.—n. reputation: a valuing in the mind: judgment or opinion of the worth or size of anything: a rough calculation: estimation.—n. Estimā′tion, act of estimating: a reckoning of value: esteem, honour: importance: conjecture.—adj. Es′timātive.—n. Es′timātor.—Hold in estimation, to esteem highly.—The estimates, accounts given before parliament showing the probable expenditure for the year. [Fr. estimer—L. stimāre.]

Esthetic, Esthetics. See sthetic, sthetics.

Esthonian, es-thō′ni-an, adj. pertaining to Esthonia, the most northerly of the Baltic provinces of Russia, or its population, language, or customs.—ns. Esth, an Esthonian of the original Finnish stock; Esth′lander, an Esthonian of the mixed race, in which the German element preponderates.

Estival, Estivation. See stival, stivation.

Estop, es-top′, v.t. to stop or bar: (law) to hinder, preclude:—pr.p. estop′ping; pa.p. estop′ped.ns. Estop′pāge, the state of being estopped; Estop′pel, a conclusive admission, which cannot be denied by the party whom it affects. [O. Fr. estoperestoupe—L. stuppa, tow. See Stop.]

Estovers, es-tō′vėrz, (law) necessaries allowed by law, as wood to a tenant for necessary repairs, &c.—Common of estovers, the right of taking necessary wood from another's estate for household use and the making of implements of industry. [O. Fr. estovoir, necessaries.]

Estrade, es-trd′, n. a low platform. [Fr.,—Sp. estrado.]

Estrange, es-trānj′, v.t. to treat as an alien: to alienate: to divert from its original use or possessor.—p.adj. Estranged′, alienated: disaffected.—ns. Estrang′edness; Estrange′ment; Estrang′er. [O. Fr. estranger (Fr. tranger)—L. extraneāreextraneus. See Strange.]

Estray, e-strā′, n. a beast found within a manor or lordship, and not owned.—v.i. to stray. [See Astray.]

Estreat, e-strēt′, n. (law) a true extract, copy, or note of some original writing or record, esp. of fines and amercements to be levied by bailiffs or other officers.—v.t. to extract from the records of a court, as a forfeited recognisance: to levy fines under an estreat. [O. Fr. estraite—L. extrahĕreex, out, and trahĕre, to draw. See Extract.]

Estrich, es′trich, Estridge, es′trij, n. (obs.) the ostrich.

Estuary, es′tū-ar-i, n. the wide lower part of a river where it becomes tidal.—adjs. Estuā′rian, Es′tūarine. [L. stuariumstus, tide.]

Esurient, es-ū′ri-ent, adj. hungry: penurious.—n. Esū′rience, hunger: neediness. [L. esuriens, -entis, pr.p. of esurīre, to be hungry—edĕre, to eat.]

Et cetera, et set′er-a, usually written etc. or &c., a phrase meaning 'and so on.'—n. something in addition, which can easily be understood. [L. et and, cetera, the rest.]

Etch, ech, v.t. or v.i. to make designs on metal, glass, &c. by eating out the lines with an acid.—ns. Etch′er, one who etches; Etch′ing, the act or art of etching or engraving: the impression from an etched plate; Etch′ing-ground, the coating of wax or varnish on a plate prepared for etching; Etch′ing-need′le, a fine-pointed steel instrument used in etching. [From Ger. tzen, to corrode by acid; from same root as Ger. essen. See Eat.]

Eternal, ē-tėr′nal, adj. without beginning or end of existence: everlasting: ceaseless: unchangeable—(arch.) Eterne′.—v.t. Eter′nalise, Eter′nise, to make eternal: to immortalise.—n. Eter′nalist, one who thinks that matter has existed from eternity.—adv. Eter′nally.—n. Eter′nity, eternal duration: the state or time after death.—The Eternal, an appellation of God; The eternities, the eternal reality or truth. [Fr. ternel—L. ternus, viternusvum—Gr. aion, a period of time, an age.]

Etesian, e-tē′zhan, adj. periodical: blowing at stated seasons, as certain winds. [L. etesius—Gr. etēsios, annual—etos, a year.]

Ethe, ēth, adj. (Spens.) easy. [A.S. eath.]

Ether, ē′thėr, n. the clear, upper air: the subtile medium supposed to fill all space: a colourless, transparent, volatile liquid of great mobility and high refractive power, and possessing a fragrant odour and a fiery, passing to a cooling, taste.—adj. Ethē′real, consisting of ether: heavenly: airy: spirit-like.—n. Etherealisā′tion.—v.t. Ethē′realise, to convert into ether, or the fluid ether: to render spirit-like.—n. Ethereal′ity.—adv. Ethē′really.—adj. Ethē′reous (Milt.), ethereal.—n. Etherificā′tion.—adj. E′theriform.—n. Etherisā′tion.—v.t. E′therise, to convert into ether: to stupefy with ether.—n. E′therism, the condition induced by using ether. [L.,—Gr. aithēr, aithein, to light up.]

Ethic, eth′ik, adj. relating to morals: treating of morality or duty.—n. (more commonly in pl. Eth′ics) the science of morals, that branch of philosophy which is concerned with human character and conduct: a treatise on morals.—adj. Eth′ical, relating to the science of ethics.—adv. Eth′ically.—n. Eth′icist, one versed in ethics.—Ethical dative, the dative of a first or second personal pronoun implying an indirect interest in the fact stated, used colloquially to give a livelier tone to the sentence. [Gr. ēthikosēthos, custom.]

Ethiopian, ē-thi-ō′pi-an, adj. pertaining to Ethiopia, a name given to the countries south of Egypt inhabited by the negro races.—n. a native of Ethiopia: a blackamoor—(arch.) Ethiop.—adj. Ethiop′ic.— Ē′thiops, a term applied by the ancient chemists to certain oxides and sulphides of the metals which possessed a dull, dingy, or black appearance. [Gr. Aithiops, sun-burnt, Ethiopian—aithein, to burn, ōps, the face.]

Ethmoid, -al, eth′moid, -al, adj. resembling a sieve.—Ethmoid bone, one of the eight somewhat cubical bones which collectively form the cranial box. [Gr. ēthmos, a sieve, and eidos, form.]

Ethnic, -al, eth′nik, -al, adj. concerning nations or races: pertaining to the heathen.—ns. Eth′nic, a heathen; Eth′nicism, heathenism; Ethnog′rapher.—adj. Ethnograph′ic.—n. Ethnog′raphy, the scientific description of the races of the earth.—adj. Ethnolog′ical.—adv. Ethnolog′ically.—ns. Ethnol′ogist; Ethnol′ogy, the science that treats of the varieties of the human race. [L.,—Gr. ethnos, a nation; Gr. graphē, writing, logia, discourse.]

Ethology, ē-thol′o-ji, n. a discourse on ethics: the science of character.—adjs. Etholog′ic, -al, relating to ethology: treating of morality.—ns. Ethol′ogist, one versed in ethology or ethics; Ē′thos, habitual character and disposition: the quality of a work of art which produces a high moral impression. [Gr. ēthos, custom, logia, a discourse.]

Ethyl, ē′thil, n. a colourless, inflammable gas, insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol—supposed base of ether. [Gr. aithēr, ether, hylē, base.]

Etiolate, ē-ti-o-lāt′, v.t. (med., bot.) to cause to grow pale from want of light and fresh air.—v.i. to become pale from disease or absence of light.—n. Etiolā′tion. [Fr. tioler, to become pale, to grow into stubble, teule, stubble—L. stipula, a stalk.]

Etiology, ē-ti-ol′o-ji, n. Same as tiology.

Etiquette, et-i-ket′, n. forms of ceremony or decorum: ceremony: the unwritten laws of courtesy observed between members of the same profession, as 'medical etiquette.' [Fr. See Ticket.]

Etna, et′na, n. a vessel for heating water, &c., at table or in the sick-room, in a cup placed in a saucer is which alcohol is burned.—adj. tnē′an. [From the volcano, Mount tna.]

Etonian, et-ōn′i-an, n. and adj. one educated at Eton College.—Eton jacket, a boy's dress-coat, untailed.

Etrurian, et-rū′ri-an, adj. and n. of or belonging to Etruria.—adj. and n. Etrus′can, of or belonging to ancient Etruria or its people, language, art, &c.—sometimes jocularly put for Tuscan.

Ettle, et′l, v.t. (Scot.) to purpose, intend.—v.t. to guess.—n. purpose, intent. [Ice., tla, to think, from root of Goth. aha, understanding.]

tude, ā-td′, n. (mus.) a composition intended either to train or to test the player's technical skill. [Fr.]

Etui, Etwee, et-wē′, n. a small case for holding valuables. [Fr.]

Etymology, et-i-mol′o-ji, n. the investigation of the derivation and original signification of words: the science that treats of the origin and history of words: the part of grammar relating to inflection.—adjs. Etym′ic; Etymolog′ical.—adv. Etymolog′ically.—ns. Etymolog′icon, -cum, an etymological dictionary.—v.t. Etymol′ogise, to give, or search into, the etymology of a word.—ns. Etymol′ogist, one skilled in or who writes on etymology; Et′ymon, the origin of a word: an original root: the genuine or literal sense of a word. [O. Fr.,—L.,—Gr. etymos, true, logia, an account.]

Etypic, -al, ē-tip′ik, -al, adj. unconformable to type.

Eucalyptus, ū-kal-ip′tus, n. the 'gum-tree,' a large Australian evergreen, beneficial in destroying the miasma of malarious districts.—ns. Eu′calypt, a eucalyptus; Eucalyp′tol, a volatile, colourless, limpid oil. [Coined from Gr. eu, well, kalyptos, covered—kalyptein, to cover.]

Eucharist, ū′ka-rist, n. the sacrament of the Lord's Supper: the elements of the sacrament, as 'to receive the Eucharist.'—adjs. Eucharist′ic, -al. [Gr. eucharistia, thanksgiving—eu, well, and charizesthai, to show favour—charis, grace, thanks.]

Euchlorine, ū-klō′rin, n. a very explosive green-coloured gas, prepared by the action of strong hydrochloric acid on chlorate of potash.—adj. Euchlō′ric. [Gr. eu, well, chloros, green.]

Euchologion, ū-ko-lō′ji-on, n. a formulary of prayers, primarily that of the Greek Church.—Also Euchol′ogy. [Gr. euchologioneuchē, a prayer, logialegein, to speak.]

Euchre, ū′kėr, n. an American game at cards for two, three, or four persons, with the 32, 28, or 24 highest cards of the pack—if a player fails to make three tricks he is euchred, and his adversary scores against him.—v.t. to outwit. [Ety. uncertain; prob. Ger., like the term bower (q.v.), used in the game; some have suggested a Sp. yuca.]

Euclase, ū′klās, n. a silicate of aluminium and glucinum occurring in pale-green transparent crystals. [Fr.,—Gr. eu, well, klasis, breaking.]

Euclidean, ū-klid′e-an, or ū-kli-dē′an, adj. pertaining to Euclid, a mathematician of Alexandria about 300 B.C.

Eudemonism, Eudmonism, ū-dē′mon-izm, n. the system of ethics that makes happiness the test of rectitude—whether Egoistic, as Hobbes, or Altruistic, as Mill.—ns. Eudē′monist, Eud′monist. [Gr. eudaimonia, happiness—eu, well, daimōn, a god.]

Eudiometer, ū-di-om′e-tėr, n. an instrument for measuring the purity of, or the quantity of oxygen contained in, the air.—adjs. Eudiomet′ric, -al.—n. Eudiom′etry. [Gr. eudios, clear, metron, measure.]

Euge, ū′jē, interj. well! well done! [L.]

Eugenic, ū-jen′ik, adj. pertaining to race culture.— Eugen′ics, the science of such.—n. Eu′genism.

Eugenin, ū′je-nin, n. a substance procured from the distilled water of cloves.

Eugh, Eughen, obsolete forms of yew, yewen.

Eugubine, ū′gū-bin, adj. pertaining to the ancient town of Eugubium or Iguvium (mod. Gubbio), or to its famous seven tablets of bronze, the chief monument of the ancient Umbrian tongue.

Euharmonic, ū-har-mon′ik, adj. producing perfectly concordant sounds.

Euhemerism, ū-hē′me-rizm, n. the system which explains mythology as growing out of real history, its deities as merely magnified men.—v.t. and v.i. Euhē′merise.—n. and adj. Euhē′merist.—adj. Euhemeris′tic.—adv. Euhemeris′tically. [From Euhemerus, a 4th-cent. (B.C.) Sicilian philosopher.]

Eulogium, ū-lō′ji-um, Eulogy, ū′lo-ji, n. a speaking well of: a speech or writing in praise of.—adjs. Eulog′ic, -al, containing eulogy or praise.—adv. Eulog′ically.—v.t. Eu′logīse, to speak well of: to praise.—n. Eu′logist, one who praises or extols another.—adj. Eulogist′ic, full of praise.—adv. Eulogist′ically. [Late L. eulogium—Gr. eulogion (classical eulogia)—eu, well, logia, a speaking.]

Eumenides, ū-men′i-dēz, the Erinyes or Furies—the euphemistic name for these. [Gr. eu, well, menos, mind.]

Eunomy, ū′nō-mi, n. equal, righteous law. [Gr.]

Eunuch, ū′nuk, n. a castrated man—often employed as chamberlain in the East.—v.t. Eu′nuchate.—n. Eu′nuchism, the state of being a eunuch. [Gr. eunouchoseunē, a couch, echein, to have charge of.]

Euonym, ū′ō-nim, n. a fitting name for anything. [Gr.]

Eupatrid, ū-pat′rid, n. a member of the Athenian aristocracy. [Gr. eupatridēseu, well—patēr, father.]

Eupepsy, ū-pep′si, n. good digestion—opp. to Dyspepsia.—adj. Eupep′tic, having good digestion.—n. Eupeptic′ity. [Gr. eupepsiaeu, well, pepsis, digestion—peptein, to digest.]

Euphemism, ū′fem-izm, n. a figure of rhetoric by which an unpleasant or offensive thing is designated by an indirect and milder term.—v.t. or v.i. Eu′phemise, to express by a euphemism: to use euphemistic terms.—adj. Euphemist′ic.—adv. Euphemist′ically. [Gr. euphēmismoseuphēmoseu, well, phēmēphana, to speak.]

Euphony, ū′fo-ni, n. an agreeable sound: a pleasing, easy pronunciation—also Euphō′nia.—adjs. Euphon′ic, -al, Euphō′nious, pertaining to euphony: agreeable in sound.—adv. Euphō′niously.—v.t. Eu′phonīse, to make euphonious.—n. Euphō′nium, the bass instrument of the saxhorn family: a variation of the harmonica, invented by Chladni in 1790. [Gr. euphōniaeu, well, phōnē, sound.]

Euphorbia, ū-for′bi-a, n. the Spurge genus.—n. Euphor′bium, a gum resin. [L.,—Euphorbus, a physician to Juba, king of Mauritania.]

Euphrasy, ū′fra-zi, n. (bot.) the plant eyebright, formerly regarded as beneficial in disorders of the eyes. [Gr. euphrasia, delight—euphrainein, to cheer—eu, well, phrēn, the heart.]

Euphrosyne, ū-fros′i-nē, n. one of the three Charities or Graces: merriment. [Gr. euphrōn, cheerful.]

Euphuism, ū′fū-izm, n. an affected and bombastic style of language: a high-flown expression.—v.i. Eu′phuise.—n. Eu′phuist.—adj. Euphuist′ic. [From Euphues, a popular book by John Lyly (1579-80).—Gr. euphyēs, graceful—eu, well, phyē, growth—phyesthai, to grow.]

Eurasian, ū-rā′zi-an, adj. descended from a European on the one side and an Asiatic on the other: of or pertaining to Europe and Asia taken as one continent. [From the combination of Europe and Asia.]

Eureka, ū-rē′ka, n. a brilliant discovery. [Gr. perf. indic. of euriskein, to find; the cry of Archimedes as he ran home naked from the bath, where a method of detecting the adulteration of Hiero's crown had suddenly occurred to him.]

Euripus, ū-rī′pus, n. an arm of the sea with strong currents: the water-channel between the arena and cavea of a Roman hippodrome. [Gr.]

Euroclydon, ū-rok′li-don, n. the tempestuous wind by which St Paul's ship was wrecked (Acts, xxvii. 14). [Gr., from euros, the east wind, klydōn, a wave—klyzein, to dash over.]

European, ū-ro-pē′an, adj. belonging to Europe.—n. a native or inhabitant of Europe.

Eurus, ū′rus, n. the east wind. [L.,—Gr. euros, the east wind.]

Eusebian, ū-sē′bi-an, adj. pertaining to Eusebius of Csarea, father of ecclesiastical history (died 340), or to the Arian Eusebius of Nicomedia (died 342).

Euskarian, ūs-kā′ri-an, adj. Basque. [Basque Euskara, the Basque language.]

Eustachian, ū-stā′ki-an, adj. pertaining to the tube leading from the middle ear to the pharynx, or to the rudimentary valve at the entrance of the inferior vena cava in the heart. [Named from the Italian physician Bartolommeo Eustachio (died 1574).]

Eutaxy, ū′tak-si, n. good order.—adj. Eutaxit′ic. [Gr.]

Euterpean, ū-tėr′pe-an, adj. relating to Euter′pe, the muse who presided over music—hence relating to music. [Gr. Euterpēeu, well, terpein, to delight.]

Euthanasia, ū-than-ā′zi-a, n. an easy mode of death.—Also Euthan′asy. [Gr. euthanasiaeu, well, thanatos, death.]

Eutrophy, ū′trō-fi, n. healthy nutrition. [Gr.]

Eutychian, ū-tik′i-an, adj. of or pertaining to the doctrine of Eutyches, a 5th-cent. archimandrite of Constantinople, who held that after the incarnation of Christ all that was human in Him became merged in the divine, and that Christ had but one nature.—n. a follower of Eutyches.

Evacuate, e-vak′ū-āt, v.t. to throw out the contents of: to discharge: to withdraw from.—adj. Evac′uant, purgative.—n. Evacuā′tion, act of emptying out: a withdrawing from: that which is discharged.—adj. Evac′uātive.—n. Evac′uātor, one who evacuates: (law) one who nullifies or makes void. [L. e, out, vacuāre, -ātum, to empty—vacuus, empty.]

Evade, e-vād′, v.t. to escape or avoid artfully: to baffle. [L. evadĕree, out, vadĕre, to go.]

Evagation, e-vag-ā′shun, n. wandering: a digression. [Fr.,—L. evagārie, out, vagāri, to wander.]

Evaginate, ē-vaj′i-nāt, v.t. to draw from a sheath.—n. Evaginā′tion.

Evaluate, e-val′ū-āt, v.t. to determine the value of.—n. Evaluā′tion.

Evanescent, ev-an-es′ent, adj. fleeting; imperceptible.—v.i. Evanesce′, to fade away.—n. Evanes′cence.—adv. Evanes′cently. [L. evanescens, -entise, vanescĕre, to vanish—vanus, empty.]

Evangel, e-van′jel, n. (poet.) good news, esp. the gospel: a salutary principle, esp. relating to morals, politics, &c.—adjs. Evangel′ic, -al, of or pertaining to the gospel: relating to the four gospels: according to the doctrine of the gospel: maintaining the truth taught in the gospel: Protestant: applied to the school which insists especially on the total depravity of unregenerate human nature, the justification of the sinner by faith alone, the free offer of the gospel to all, and the plenary inspiration and exclusive authority of the Bible.—n. Evangel′ical, one who belongs to the evangelical school.—adv. Evangel′ically.—ns. Evangel′icalness; Evangel′icism, Evangel′icalism, evangelical principles; Evangelisā′tion, act of proclaiming the gospel.—v.t. Evan′gelīse, to make known the good news: to make acquainted with the gospel.—v.i. to preach the gospel from place to place.—ns. Evan′gelism; Evan′gelist, one who evangelises: one of the four writers of the gospels: an assistant of the apostles: one authorised to preach, but without a fixed charge; Evangelis′tary, a book containing passages from the gospels to be read at divine service—also Evangelistā′rion, Evan′geliary.—adj. Evangelis′tic, tending or intended to evangelise.—n. Evan′gely (obs.), the gospel. [L. evangelicus—Gr. euangelikoseu, well, angellein, to bring news.]

Evanish, e-van′ish, v.i. to vanish: to die away.—ns. Evan′ishment, Evani′tion. [See Evanesce.]

Evaporate, e-vap′or-āt, v.i. to fly off in vapour: to pass into an invisible state: to depart, vanish.—v.t. to convert into steam or gas.—adj. Evap′orable, able to be evaporated or converted into vapour.—n. Evaporā′tion, act of evaporating or passing off in steam or gas: the process by which a substance changes into the state of vapour.—adj. Evap′orātive.—ns. Evap′orator; Evaporom′eter. [L. e, off, vaporāre, -ātumvapor, vapour.]

Evasion, e-vā-′zhun, n. act of evading or eluding: an attempt to escape the force of an argument or accusation: an excuse.—adjs. Evā′sible, capable of being evaded; Evā′sive, that evades or seeks to evade: not straightforward: shuffling.—adv. Evā′sively.—n. Evā′siveness.

Eve, ēv, Even, ēv′n, n. (poet.) evening: the night before a day of note: the time just preceding a great event. [A.S. ǽfen; Dut. avond; Ger. abend.]

Evection, e-vek′shun, n. (astron.) a lunar inequality resulting from the combined effect of the irregularity of the motion of the perigee, and alternate increase and decrease of the eccentricity of the moon's orbit. [L. evection-eme, out, vehĕre, vectum, to carry.]

Even, ēv′n, adj. flat: level: uniform: (Shak.) straightforward: parallel: equal on both sides: not odd, able to be divided by 2 without a remainder.—v.t. to make even or smooth: to put on an equality: (Shak.) to act up to.—adv. exactly so: indeed: so much as: still.—n. Ev′en-Chris′tian (obs.), fellow-Christian.—adj. Ev′en-down, straight-down (of rain): downright, honest.—adv. thoroughly.—adj. Ev′en-hand′ed, with an equal, fair, or impartial hand: just.—adv. Ev′enly.—adj. Ev′en-mind′ed, having an even or calm mind: equable.—n. Ev′enness.—Be even with, to be revenged on: to be quits with. [A.S. efen; Dut. even, Ger. eben.]

Evening, ēv′ning, n. the close of the daytime: the decline or end of life: an evening party or gathering.—ns. Ev′enfall, early evening, twilight; Eve′ning-dress, the dress worn by ladies and gentlemen at evening parties; Eve′ning-prim′rose, a species of Œnothera, native of Virginia, but now naturalised in many parts of Europe on river-banks, in thickets, &c.—eaten after dinner it incites to wine-drinking; Eve′ning star, applied to Venus, when seen in the west setting soon after the sun; Ev′ensong, evening prayer, the Anglican form appointed to be said or sung at evening: the time proper for such; Ev′entide, the time of evening, evening. [A.S. ǽfnung, from ǽfen, even.]

Event, e-vent′, n. that which happens: the result: any incident or occurrence: an item in a programme or series of sports.—adjs. Event′ful, full of events: momentous; Event′ūal, happening as a consequence: final.—n. Eventūal′ity, a contingency: (phren.) the propensity to take notice of events, changes, or facts.—adv. Event′ūally, finally: at length. [L. eventusevenĭree, out, venīre, to come.]

Eventration, e-ven-trā′shun, n. act of opening the belly; protrusion of an organ from the abdomen.

Ever, ev′ėr, adv. always: eternally: at any time: at all times: continually: in any degree.—n. Ev′erglade, a large shallow lake or marsh: chiefly in pl. such a marsh in southern Florida, enclosing thousands of islets covered with dense thickets.—adj. Ev′ergreen, always green.—n. a plant that remains green all the year.—adv. Evermore′, unceasingly: eternally.—Ever and anon, now and then.—Everglade State, Florida.—Ever so, to any extent; For ever, to all eternity; Seldom or ever, used for seldom if ever, or seldom or never. [A.S. ǽfre, always; der. uncertain; perh. cog. with Goth. aiws.]

Everlasting, ev-ėr-last′ing, adj. endless: eternal.—n. eternity.—adv. Everlast′ingly.—n. Everlast′ingness.—Everlasting flower, the popular name of certain plants, whose flowers may be kept for years without much diminution of beauty; From, or To, everlasting, from, or to, all eternity; The Everlasting, God.

Evert, e-vert′, v.t. to turn inside out.—n. Ever′sion. [L. evertĕree, out, vertĕre, versum, to turn.]

Every, ev′ėr-i, adj. each one of a number: all taken separately.—pron. Ev′erybody, every person.—adj. Ev′eryday, of or belonging to every day, daily: common, usual: pertaining to week-days, in opposition to Sunday.—pron. Ev′erything, all things: all.—advs. Ev′eryway, in every way or respect; Ev′erywhen, at all times; Ev′erywhere, in every place.—Every bit, the whole; Every now and then, or again, at intervals; Every other, every second—e.g. every other day, every alternate day. [A.S. ǽfre, ever, and ǽlc, each.]

Evict, e-vikt′, v.t. to dispossess by law: to expel from.—ns. Evic′tion, the act of evicting from house or lands: the dispossession of one person by another having a better title of property in land; Evic′tor. [L. evictus, pa.p. of evincĕre, to overcome.]

Evident, ev′i-dent, adj. that is visible or can be seen: clear to the mind: obvious.—n. Ev′idence, that which makes evident: means of proving an unknown or disputed fact: information in a law case, as 'to give evidence:' a witness.—v.t. to render evident: (obs.) to attest, prove.—adjs. Eviden′tial, Eviden′tiary, furnishing evidence: tending to prove.—advs. Eviden′tially; Ev′idently (N.T.), visibly.—In evidence, received by the court as competent evidence: plainly visible, conspicuous—a penny-a-liner's phrase adopted from the Fr. en evidence; Turn King's (Queen's) evidence (of an accomplice in a crime), to give evidence against his partners. [L. evidens, -entise, out, vidēre, to see.]

Evil, ē′vl, adj. wicked: mischievous: disagreeable: unfortunate.—adv. in an evil manner: badly.—n. that which produces unhappiness or calamity: harm: wickedness: depravity: sin.—ns. E′vil-do′er, one who does evil; E′vil-eye, a supposed power to cause evil or harm by the look of the eye.—adj. E′vil-fā′voured, having a repulsive appearance: ugly.—n. E′vil-fā′vouredness (B.), ugliness: deformity.—adv. E′villy, in an evil manner: not well.—adj. E′vil-mind′ed, inclined to evil: malicious: wicked.—ns. E′vilness, state of being evil: wickedness; E′vil-speak′ing, the speaking of evil: slander.—adj. E′vil-starred (Tenn.), born under the influence of an unpropitious star, unfortunate.—n. E′vil-work′er, one who works or does evil.—The Evil One, the devil.—Speak evil of, to slander. [A.S. yfel; Dut. euvel; Ger. bel. Ill is a doublet.]

Evince, e-vins′, v.t. to prove beyond doubt: to show clearly: to make evident.—n. Evince′ment.—adj. Evinc′ible, that may be evinced or made evident.—adv. Evinc′ibly.—adj. Evinc′ive, tending to evince, prove, or demonstrate. [L. evincĕree, inten., vincĕre, to overcome.]

Evirate, ē′vir-āt, v.t. to castrate: to render weak or unmanly. [L. evirāree, out, vir, a man.]

Eviscerate, e-vis′ėr-āt, v.t. to tear out the viscera or bowels: to gut.—n. Eviscerā′tion. [L. e, out, viscera, the bowels.]

Evite, e-vīt′, v.i. to avoid.—v.t. Ev′itate (Shak.) to avoid.—n. Evitā′tion, the act of shunning. [L. evitāre, -ātume, out, vitāre, to shun.]

Eviternal, ev-i-tėr′nal, adj. eternal.—adv. Eviter′nally.—n. Eviter′nity.

Evoke, e-vōk′, v.t. to call out: to draw out or bring forth.—v.t. Ev′ocate, to call up (spirits) from the dead.—n. Evocā′tion. [L. evocāree, out, and vocāre, to call.]

Evolution, ev-ol-ū′shun, n. the act of unrolling or unfolding: gradual working out or development: a series of things unfolded: the doctrine according to which higher forms of life have gradually arisen out of lower: (arith., alg.) the extraction of roots: (pl.) the orderly movements of a body of troops or of ships of war.—adjs. Evolū′tional, Evolū′tionary, of or pertaining to evolution.—ns. Evolū′tionism, the theory of evolution; Evolū′tionist, one skilled in evolutions or military movements: one who believes in evolution as a principle in science.—adj. Ev′olūtive. [L. evolutionemevolvĕre.]

Evolve, e-volv′, v.t. to unroll: to disclose: to develop: to unravel.—v.i. to disclose itself: to result.—n. Ev′olūte (math.), an original curve from which another curve (the involute) is described by the end of a thread gradually unwound from the former.—adj. Evolv′able, that can be drawn out.—n. Evolve′ment.—adj. Evolv′ent. [L. evolvĕree, out, volvĕre, volūtum, to roll.]

Evulgate, e-vul′gāt, v.t. to divulge: to publish. [L. evulgāre, ātume, out, vulgus, the people.]

Evulsion, e-vul′shun, n. a plucking out by force. [L. e, out, vellĕre, vulsum, to pluck.]

Ewe, ū, n. a female sheep.—ns. Ewe′-cheese, cheese made from the milk of ewes; Ewe′-lamb, a female lamb: a poor man's one possession—used in reference to 2 Sam. xii.; Ewe′-neck, of horses, a thin hollow neck.—adj. Ewe′-necked. [A.S. eowu; cf. L. ovis, Gr. os, Sans, avi, a sheep.]

Ewer, ū′ėr, n. a large jug with a wide spout, placed on a washstand to hold water. [Through Fr. from L. aquariumaqua, water, whence also Fr. eau.]

Ewest, ū′est, adj. (Scot.) near.

Ewft, eft, n. (Spens.). Same as Eft (1).

Ewhow, ā′hwow, interj. (Scot.) an exclamation of sorrow.

Ewigkeit, ā′vih-kīt, n. eternity. [Ger.]

Ex, eks, used adjectively in words like ex-emperor, to signify late. See Prefixes in Appendix.

Exacerbate, egz-as′ėr-bāt, or eks-, v.t. to embitter: to provoke: to render more violent or severe, as a disease.—ns. Exacerbā′tion, Exacerbes′cence, increase of irritation or violence, esp. the increase of a fever or disease: embitterment. [L. exacerbāre, -ātumex, and acerbāre, from acerbus, bitter.]

Exact, egz-akt′, v.t. to force from: to compel full payment of: to make great demands, or to demand urgently: to extort: to inflict.—v.i. to practice extortion.—adj. precise: careful: punctual: true: certain or demonstrable.—p.adj. Exact′ing, compelling full payment of: unreasonable in making demands.—ns. Exac′tion, act of exacting or demanding strictly: an oppressive demand: that which is exacted, as excessive work or tribute; Exact′itude, exactness: correctness.—adv. Exact′ly.—ns. Exact′ment; Exact′ness, quality of being exact: accuracy; Exact′or, -er, one who exacts: an extortioner: one who claims rights, often too strictly:—fem. Exact′ress.—Exact sciences, the mathematical sciences, of which the results are demonstrable. [L. exigĕre, exactumex, out, agĕre, to drive.]

Exaggerate, egz-aj′ėr-āt, v.t. to magnify unduly: to represent too strongly: to intensify.—n. Exaggerā′tion, extravagant representation: a statement in excess of the truth.—adjs. Exagg′erative, Exagg′eratory, containing exaggeration or tending to exaggerate.—n. Exagg′erator. [L. exaggerāre, -ātumex, aggerāre, to heap up—agger, a heap.]

Exalbuminous, eks-al-bū′min-us, adj. (bot.) without albumen.—Also Exalbū′minose.

Exalgin, eks-al′jin, n. an anodyne obtained from coal-tar products. [Gr.,—ex, out, algos, pain.]

Exalt, egz-awlt′, v.t. to elevate to a higher position: to elate or fill with the joy of success: to extol: (chem.) to refine or subtilise.—n. Exaltā′tion, elevation in rank or dignity: high estate: elation: (astrol.) the position of a planet in the zodiac where it was supposed to wield the greatest influence.—p.adj. Exalt′ed, elevated: lofty: dignified.—n. Exalt′edness. [L. exaltāreex, altus, high.]

Examine, egz-am′in, v.t. to test: to inquire into: to question.—n. Exā′men, examination.—adj. Exam′inable.—ns. Exam′inant, an examiner; Exam′inate, one who is examined; Examinā′tion, careful search or inquiry: trial: testing of capacity of pupils, also contracted to Exam.; Examinēē′, one under examination; Exam′iner, Exam′inātor, one who examines.—p.adj. Exam′ining, that examines, or is appointed to examine. [Fr.,—L. examināreexamen (=exagmen), the tongue of a balance.]

Example, egz-am′pl, n. that which is taken as a specimen of the rest, or as an illustration of the rule, &c.: the person or thing to be imitated or avoided: a pattern: a warning: a former instance.—v.t. to exemplify: to instance.—n. Exam′plar, a pattern, model.—adj. Exam′plary, serving for an example. [O. Fr.,—L. exemplumeximĕre, to take out—ex, out of, emĕre, emptum, to take.]

Exanimate, egz-an′i-māt, adj. lifeless: spiritless: depressed.—n. Exanimā′tion.—adj. Exan′imous [L. exanimātusex, neg., animus, spirit, life.]

Exanthema, eks-an-thē′ma, n. one of a class of febrile diseases with distinctive eruptions on the skin, appearing at a definite period and running a recognisable course:—pl. Exanthē′mata.—adjs. Exanthemat′ic, Exanthem′atous.—ns. Exanthematol′ogy; Exanthē′sis, the appearing of an exanthema. [Gr.,—ex, out, antheein, to blossom.]

Exarch, eks′rk, n. name formerly given to the vicegerent of the Byzantine empire in Italy: a bishop: (Gr. Church) an ecclesiastical inspector.—n. Exarch′ate, the office of an exarch. [Gr. exarchosex, and archein, to lead.]

Exasperate, egz-as′pėr-āt, v.t. to make very angry: to irritate in a high degree.—p.adj. irritated.—adjs. Exas′perating, Exas′perative, provoking.—ns. Exasperā′tion, act of irritating; state of being exasperated: provocation: rage: aggravation; Exas′perator. [L. ex, inten., asperāre, to make rough—asper, rough.]

Excalibur, eks-kal′ib-ėr, n. the name of King Arthur's sword. [O. Fr. escaliborcaliburn; cf. Ir. caladbolg, a famous sword.]

Excambion, eks-kam′bi-on, n. legal term for the exchange of lands—also Excam′bium.—v.t. Excamb′, to exchange. [Low L. excambiāre.]

Excavate, eks′ka-vāt, v.t. to hollow or scoop out: to dig out.—ns. Excavā′tion, act of excavating: a hollow or cavity made by excavating; Ex′cavator, one who excavates: a machine used for excavating. [L. excavāreex, out, cavus, hollow.]

Exceed, ek-sēd′, v.t. to go beyond the limit or measure of: to surpass or excel.—v.i. to go beyond a given or proper limit.—p.adj. Exceed′ing, surpassing, excessive.—adv. Exceed′ingly, very much: greatly. [L. ex, beyond, cedĕre, cessum, to go.]

Excel, ek-sel′, v.t. to be superior to: to exceed: to surpass.—v.i. to have good qualities in a high degree: to perform very meritorious actions: to be superior:—pr.p. excel′ling; pa.p. excelled′.ns. Ex′cellence, Ex′cellency, great merit: any excellent quality: worth: greatness: a title of honour given to persons high in rank or office.—adj. Ex′cellent, surpassing others in some good quality: of great virtue, worth, &c.: superior: valuable.—adv. Ex′cellently.—adj. Excel′sior (L. comp.), higher still. [L. excellĕreex, out, up, and a word from the root of celsus, high.]

Except, ek-sept′, v.t. to take or leave out: to exclude.—v.i. to object.—prep. leaving out: excluding: but.—adj. and n. Except′ant.—prep. Except′ing, with the exception of, except.—n. Excep′tion, the act of excepting: that which is excepted: exclusion: objection: offence.—adj. Excep′tionable, objectionable.—adv. Excep′tionably.—adj. Excep′tional, peculiar.—adv. Excep′tionally.—adjs. Excep′tious, disposed to take exception; Except′ive, including, making, or being an exception; Except′less (Shak.), making an exception, usual.—n. Except′or. [L. excipĕre, exceptumex, out, capĕre, to take.]

Excerpt, ek′sėrpt, or ek-sėrpt′, n. a passage selected from a book, an extract.—v.t. Excerpt′, to select: to extract.—ns. Excerpt′ing, Excerp′tion; Excerp′tor. [L. excerptum, pa.p. of excerpĕreex, out, carpĕre, to pick.]

Excess, ek-ses′, n. a going beyond what is usual or proper: intemperance: that which exceeds: the degree by which one thing exceeds another.—adj. Exces′sive, beyond what is right and proper: immoderate: violent.—adv. Exces′sively.—n. Exces′siveness.—Carry to excess, to do too much. [L. excessusexcedĕre, excessum, to go beyond.]

Exchange, eks-chānj′, v.t. to give or leave one place or thing for another: to give and take mutually: to barter.—n. the giving and taking one thing for another: barter: the thing exchanged: process by which accounts between distant parties are settled by bills instead of money: the difference between the value of money in different places: the building where merchants, &c., meet for business.—n. Exchangeabil′ity.—adj. Exchange′able, that may be exchanged.—n. Exchan′ger, one who exchanges or practises exchange: (B.) a money-changer, a banker. [O. Fr. eschangier (Fr. changer)—Low L. excambiāre—L. ex, out, cambīre, to barter.]

Excheat, eks-chēt′, n. (Spens.). Same as Escheat.

Exchequer, eks-chek′ėr, n. a superior court which had formerly to do only with the revenue, but now also with common law, so named from the chequered cloth which formerly covered the table, and on which the accounts were reckoned.—v.t. to proceed against a person in the Court of Exchequer.—Exchequer bill, bill issued at the Exchequer, under the authority of acts of parliament, as security for money advanced to the government.—Chancellor of the Exchequer (see Chancellor); Court of Exchequer, originally a revenue court, became a division of the High Court of Justice in 1875, and is now merged in the Queen's Bench Division. [From root of check, checker.]

Excide, ek-sid′, v.t. to cut off. [L. excidĕreex, out, cdĕre, to cut.]

Excipient, ek-sip′i-ent, n. a substance mixed with a medicine to give it consistence, or used as a vehicle for its administration.

Excise, ek-sīz′, n. a tax on certain home commodities and on licenses for certain trades; the department in the civil administration which is concerned with this tax.—v.t. to subject to excise duty.—adj. Excis′able, liable to excise duty.—n. Excise′man, an officer charged with collecting the excise. [Old Dut. excijs—O. Fr. acceis, tax—Low L. accensāre, to tax—ad, to, census, tax.]

Excise, ek-sīz′, v.t. to cut off or out.—n. Exci′sion, a cutting out or off of any kind: extirpation. [L. excidĕre, to cut out—ex, out, cdĕre, to cut.]

Excite, ek-sīt′, v.t. to call into activity: to stir up: to rouse: to irritate.—ns. Excītabil′ity, Excīt′ableness.—adj. Excīt′able, capable of being excited, easily excited.—ns. Excitant (ek′sit-ant, or ek-sīt′ant), that which excites or rouses the vital activity of the body: a stimulant; Excitā′tion, act of exciting: means of excitement: state of excitement.—adjs. Excīt′ātive, Excīt′ātory, tending to excite.—p.adj. Excīt′ed, agitated.—ns. Excite′ment, agitation: that which excites; Excīt′er.—p.adj. Excīt′ing, tending to excite.—adj. Excī′to-mō′tor, exhibiting muscular contraction. [Fr.,—L. excitāre, -ātumexciēreex, out, ciēre, to set in motion.]

Exclaim, eks-klām′, v.i. to cry out: to utter or speak vehemently.—n. an exclamation, outcry.—n. Exclamā′tion, vehement utterance: outcry: an uttered expression of surprise, and the like: the mark expressing this (!): an interjection.—adjs. Exclam′ative, Exclam′atory, containing or expressing exclamation. [Fr. exclamer—L. exclamāre, -ātumex, out, clamāre, to shout.]

Exclave, eks′klāv, n. a part of a country, province, &c. disjoined from the main part—opp. to Enclave.

Exclude, eks-klōōd′, v.t. to close or shut out: to thrust out: to hinder from entrance: to hinder from participation: to except.—ns. Exclu′sion, a shutting or putting out: ejection: exception; Exclu′sionism; Exclu′sionist, one who excludes, or would exclude, another from a privilege.—adj. Exclu′sive, able or tending to exclude: debarring from participation: sole: not taking into account.—n. one of a number who exclude others from their society.—adv. Exclu′sively.—ns. Exclu′siveness; Exclu′sivism.—adj. Exclu′sory, exclusive.—Exclusive dealing, the act of abstaining deliberately from any business or other transactions with persons of opposite political or other convictions to one's own—a euphemism for boycotting (q.v.). [L. excludĕreex, out, claudĕre, to shut.]

Excogitate, eks-koj′i-tāt, v.t. to discover by thinking: to think earnestly or laboriously.—n. Excogitā′tion, laborious thinking: invention: contrivance. [L. excogitāre, -ātumex, out, cogitāre, to think.]

Excommunicate, eks-kom-ūn′i-kāt, v.t. to put out of or expel from the communion of the church: to deprive of church privileges.—adj. Excommun′icable.—ns. Excommunicā′tion, act of expelling from the communion of a church—(Milt.) Excommun′ion.—adj. Excommun′icatory, of or pertaining to excommunication. [From Late L. excommunicāre—L. ex, out, communis, common.]

Excoriate, eks-kō′ri-āt, v.t. to strip the skin from.—n. Excoriā′tion, the act of excoriating: the state of being excoriated. [L. excoriāre, -ātumex, from, corium, the skin.]

Excorticate, eks-kor′ti-kāt, v.t. to strip the bark off.—n. Excorticā′tion.

Excrement, eks′kre-ment, n. useless matter discharged from the animal system: dung.—adjs. Excrement′al, Excrementi′tial, Excrementi′tious, pertaining to or containing excrement. [L. excrementumexcernĕreex, out, cernĕre, to sift.]

Excrescence, eks-kres′ens, n. that which grows out unnaturally from anything else: an outbreak: a wart or tumour: a superfluous part.—ns. Ex′crement, an outgrowth; Excres′cency, state of being excrescent: excrescence.—adjs. Excres′cent, growing out: superfluous; Excrescen′tial. [Fr.,—L.,—excrescĕreex, out, crescĕre, to grow.]

Excrete, eks-krēt′, v.t. to separate from: to eject.— Excrē′ta, Excrētes′, matters discharged from the animal body.—n. Excrē′tion, act of excreting matter from the animal system: that which is excreted.—adjs. Excrē′tive, able to excrete; Excrē′tory, having the quality of excreting.—n. a duct that helps to receive and excrete matter. [L. ex, from, cernĕre, cretum, to separate.]

Excruciate, eks-krōō′shi-āt, v.t. to torture: to rack: to pain, grieve.—p.adj. Excru′ciāting, extremely painful: racking: torturing: agonising.—adv. Excru′ciatingly.—n. Excruciā′tion, torture: vexation. [L. ex, out, cruciāre, -ātum, to crucify—crux, crucis, a cross.]

Exculpate, eks-kul′pāt, v.t. to clear from the charge of a fault or crime: to absolve: to vindicate.—n. Exculpā′tion.—adj. Excul′patory, tending to free from the charge of fault or crime. [L. ex, from, culpa, a fault.]

Excursion, eks-kur′shun, n. a going forth: an expedition: a trip for pleasure or health: a wandering from the main subject: a digression.—adj. Excur′rent (bot.), projecting beyond the edge or point.—vs.i. Excurse′, to digress; Excur′sionise, to go on an excursion.—n. Excur′sionist, one who goes on a pleasure-trip.—adj. Excur′sive, rambling: deviating.—adv. Excur′sively.—ns. Excur′siveness; Excur′sus, a dissertation on some particular point appended to a book or chapter.—Excursion train, a special train, usually with reduced fares, for persons making an excursion. [L. excursioex, out, currĕre, cursum, to run.]

Excuse, eks-kūz′, v.t. to free from blame or guilt: to forgive: to free from an obligation: to release, dispense with: to make an apology or ask pardon for.—n. (eks-kūs′) a plea offered in extenuation of a fault: indulgence.—adj. Excus′able, admitting of justification.—n. Excus′ableness.—adv. Excus′ably.—adj. Excus′atory, making or containing excuse: apologetic.—Excuse me, an expression used as an apology for any slight impropriety, or for controverting a statement that has been made. [L. excusāreex, from, causa, a cause, accusation.]

Exeat, eks′ē-at, n. formal leave, as for a student to be out of college for more than one night. [L., 'let him go out.']

Execrate, eks′e-krāt, v.t. to curse: to denounce evil against: to detest utterly.—adj. Ex′ecrable, deserving execration: detestable: accursed.—adv. Ex′ecrably.—n. Execrā′tion, act of execrating: a curse pronounced: that which is execrated.—adj. Ex′ecrātive, of or belonging to execration.—adv. Ex′ecrātively.—adj. Ex′ecrātory. [L. exsecrāri, -ātus, to curse—ex, from, sacer, sacred.]

Execute, eks′e-kūt, v.t. to perform: to give effect to: to carry into effect the sentence of the law: to put to death by law.—adj. Exec′utable, that can be executed.—ns. Exec′utant, one who executes or performs; Ex′ecuter; Execū′tion, act of executing or performing: accomplishment: completion: carrying into effect the sentence of a court of law: the warrant for so doing: the infliction of capital punishment; Execū′tioner, one who executes, esp. one who inflicts capital punishment.—adj. Exec′utive, designed or fitted to execute: active: qualifying for or pertaining to the execution of the law.—n. the power or authority in government that carries the laws into effect: the persons who administer the government.—adv. Exec′utively.—n. Exec′utor, one who executes or performs: the person appointed to see a will carried into effect:—fem. Exec′utress, Exec′utrix.—adj. Executō′rial.—n. Exec′utorship.—adj. Exec′utory, executing official duties: designed to be carried into effect. [Fr. excuter—L. exsequi, exsecutusex, out, sequi, to follow.]

Exedra, eks′e-dra, n. a raised platform with steps, in the open air: an apse, recess, niche—also Ex′hedra:—pl. Ex′edr. [L.]

Exegesis, eks-e-jē′sis, n. the science of interpretation, esp. of the Scriptures.—ns. Ex′egete, Exeget′ist, one who interprets the Scriptures.—adjs. Exeget′ic, -al, pertaining to exegesis: explanatory.—adv. Exeget′ically.— Exeget′ics, the science of exegesis. [Gr. exēgesisexēgeesthai, to explain—ex, out, hēgeesthai, to guide.]

Exeme, eks-ēm′, v.t. (Scot.) to release, exempt. [L. eximĕreex, out, emĕre, to take.]

Exemplar, egz-em′plar, n. a person or thing to be imitated: the ideal model of an artist: a type: an example.—adv. Ex′emplarily.—ns. Exem′plariness, the state or quality of being exemplary; Exemplar′ity, exemplariness: exemplary conduct.—adj. Exemplary (egz-em′plar-i, or egz′em-plar-i), worthy of imitation or notice. [O. Fr. exemplaire—Low L. exemplariumexemplum, example.]

Exemplify, egz-em′pli-fī, v.t. to illustrate by example: to make an attested copy of: to prove by an attested copy:—pr.p. exem′plifying; pa.p. exem′plified.adj. Exem′plifīable.—n. Exemplificā′tion, act of exemplifying: that which exemplifies: a copy or transcript. [L. exemplum, example, facĕre, to make.]

Exempt, egz-emt′, v.t. to free, or grant immunity (with from).—adj. taken out: not liable to: released: unaffected by.—n. Exemp′tion, act of exempting: state of being exempt: freedom from any service, duty, &c.: immunity. [Fr.,—L. eximĕre, exemptumex, out, emĕre, to buy.]

Exenterate, eks-en′tėr-āt, v.t. to disembowel.—p.adj. disembowelled.—n. Exenterā′tion. [L. exenterāre—Gr. ex, out, enteron, intestine.]

Exequatur, eks-e-kwā′tur, n. an official recognition of a consul or commercial agent given by the government of the country in which he is to be. [L. exequatur='let him execute'—the opening word.]

Exequy, eks′e-kwi (only in pl. Exequies, eks′e-kwiz), n. a funeral procession: funeral rites.—adj. Exē′quial. [L. exequiex, out, sequi, to follow.]

Exercise, eks′ėr-sīz, n. a putting in practice: exertion of the body for health or amusement: discipline: a lesson, task, academical disputation, &c.: (Shak.) skill: (pl.) military drill: an act of worship or devotion: a discourse, the discussion of a passage of Scripture, giving the coherence of text and context, &c.—the addition, giving the doctrinal propositions, &c.: the Presbytery itself.—v.t. to train by use: to improve by practice: to afflict: to put in practice: to use: to wield.—adj. Ex′ercisable. [O. Fr. exercice—L. exercitium—L. exercēre, -citumex, out, arcēre, to shut up.]

Exercitation, egz-er-sit-ā′shun, n. the putting into practice: employment: exercise: a discourse. [L. exercitāreexercēre, to exercise.]

Exergue, eks′erg, or egz-erg′, n. the part on the reverse of a coin, below the main device, often filled up by the date, &c.—adj. Exer′gual. [Fr.,—Gr. ex, out, ergon, work.]

Exert, egz-ėrt′, v.t. to bring into active operation: to do or perform.—n. Exer′tion, a bringing into active operation: effort: attempt.—adj. Exert′ive, having the power or tendency to exert: using exertion. [L. exserĕre, exsertumex, out, serĕre, to put together.]

Exeunt, eks′ē-unt. See Exit.

Exfoliate, eks-fō′li-āt, v.i. and v.t. to come off, or send off, in scales.—n. Exfoliā′tion.—adj. Exfō′liative. [L. exfoliāre, -ātumex, off, folium, a leaf.]

Exhale, egz-hāl′, v.t. to emit or send out as vapour: to evaporate.—v.i. to rise or be given off as vapour.—adjs. Exhal′able, that can be exhaled; Exhal′ant, having the quality of exhaling.—n. Exhalā′tion, act or process of exhaling: evaporation: that which is exhaled: vapour: steam. [Fr. exhaler—L. exhalāreex, out, halāre, -ātum, to breathe.]

Exhale, egz-hāl′, v.t. to draw out: (Shak.) to cause to flow. [Pfx. ex-, and hale, to draw.]

Exhaust, egz-awst′, v.t. to draw out the whole of: to use the whole strength of: to wear or tire out: to treat of or develop completely.—n. the exit of steam from the cylinder when it has done its work in propelling the piston—escaping by the exhaust-pipe and regulated by the exhaust-valve.—p.adj. Exhaust′ed, drawn out: emptied: consumed: tired out.—n. Exhaust′er, he who or that which exhausts.—adj. Exhaust′ible, that may be exhausted.—n. Exhaust′ion, act of exhausting or consuming: state of being exhausted: extreme fatigue.—adjs. Exhaust′ive, tending to exhaust; Exhaust′less, that cannot be exhausted. [L. exhaurīre, exhaustumex, out, haurīre, to draw.]

Exheredate, eks-her′i-dāt, v.t. (rare) to disinherit.—n. Exheredā′tion. [L. exheredāreex, out, heres, -edis, heir.]

Exhibit, egz-ib′it, v.t. to hold forth or present to view: to present formally or publicly.—n. (law) a document produced in court to be used as evidence: something exhibited: an article at an exhibition.—ns. Exhib′iter, Exhib′itor; Exhibi′tion, presentation to view: display: a public show, esp. of works of art, manufactures, &c.: that which is exhibited: an allowance or bounty to scholars in a university; Exhibi′tioner, one who enjoys an exhibition at a university; Exhibi′tionist.—adjs. Exhib′itive, serving for exhibition: representative; Exhib′itory, exhibiting.—Make an exhibition of one's self, to behave foolishly, exciting ridicule. [L. exhibēre, -itumex, out, habēre, -itum, to have.]

Exhilarate, egz-il′a-rāt, v.t. to make hilarious or merry: to enliven: to cheer.—adj. Exhil′arant, exhilarating: exciting joy, mirth, or pleasure.—n. an exhilarating medicine.—p.adj. Exhil′arāting, cheering: gladdening.—adv. Exhil′arātingly.—n. Exhilarā′tion, state of being exhilarated: joyousness.—adjs. Exhil′arātive, Exhil′arātory. [L. exhilarāre, -ātumex, inten., hilaris, cheerful.]

Exhort, egz-hort′, or egz-ōrt′, v.t. to urge strongly to good deeds, esp. by words or advice: to animate: to advise or warn.—n. Exhortā′tion, act of exhorting: language intended to exhort: counsel: a religious discourse.—adjs. Exhort′ative, Exhort′atory, tending to exhort or advise. [L. exhortāri, -ātusex, inten., hortāri, to urge.]

Exhume, eks-hūm′, v.t. to take out of the ground or place of burial: to disinter: to bring to light—also Ex′humate.—ns. Exhumā′tion, act of exhuming: disinterment; Exhum′er, one who exhumes. [L. ex, out of, humus, the ground.]

Exies, ek′siz, (Scot.) ecstasy: hysterics. [Perh. from access, an attack, a fit.]

Exigent, eks′i-jent, adj. pressing: demanding immediate attention or action.—n. end, extremity: (Browning) a needed amount.—adj. Exigeant′, exacting.—n.fem. Exigeante′.—ns. Ex′igence, Ex′igency, pressing necessity: emergency: distress.—adj. Ex′igible, capable of being exacted.—ns. Exigū′ity, Exig′uousness.—adj. Exig′uous, small: slender. [L. exigens, -entisexigĕreex, out, agĕre, to drive.]

Exile, eks′īl, or egz′īl, n. state of being sent out of one's native country: expulsion from home: banishment: one away from his native country.—v.t. to expel from one's native country, to banish.—n. Ex′īlement, banishment.—adj. Exil′ic, pertaining to exile, esp. that of the Jews in Babylon. [O. Fr. exil—L. exsilium, banishment—ex, out of, and root of salīre, to leap.]

Exility, eks-il′i-ti, n. slenderness, smallness: refinement. [L. exilis, slender, contraction for exigilis.]

Eximious, eg-zim′i-us, adj. excellent, distinguished. [L. eximiuseximĕreex, out, emĕre, to take.]

Exist, egz-ist′, v.i. to have an actual being: to live: to continue to be.—n. Exist′ence, state of existing or being: continued being: life: anything that exists: a being.—adjs. Exist′ent, having being: at present existing; Existen′tial. [L. existĕre, exsistĕreex, out, sistĕre, to make to stand.]

Exit, eks′it, n. a direction in playbooks to an actor to go off the stage: the departure of a player from the stage: any departure: a way of departure: a passage out: a quitting of the world's stage, or life: death:—pl. Ex′eunt.—v.i. to make an exit. [L. exit, he goes out, exeunt, they go out—exīre, to go out—ex, out, and īre, itum, to go.]

Ex libris, eks lī′bris, n. a book-plate—lit. 'from the books of.' [L.]

Exode, ek′sōd, n. the concluding part of a Greek drama: a farce or afterpiece. [Gr.]

Exodus, eks′o-dus, n. a going out or departure, esp. that of the Israelites from Egypt (1491 B.C., Usher): the second book of the Old Testament.—adj. Exod′ic.—n. Ex′odist, one who goes out: an emigrant. [L.,—Gr. exodosex, out, hodos, a way.]

Exogamy, eks-og′a-mi, n. the practice of marrying only outside of one's own tribe.—adj. Exog′amous. [Gr. exo, out, gamos, marriage.]

Exogen, eks′o-jen, n. a plant belonging to the great class that increases by layers growing on the outside of the wood.—adj. Exog′enous (-oj′), growing by successive additions to the outside. [L. exō, outside, and gen, root of gignesthai, to be produced.]

Exomis, eks-ō′mis, n. a sleeveless vest, worn by workmen and slaves—(Browning) Exō′mion. [Gr. exōmisex, out, ōmos, shoulder.]

Exon, eks′on, n. one of the four officers of the yeomen of the Royal Guard. [App. intended to express the pronunciation of Fr. exempt (Dr Murray).]

Exonerate, egz-on′ėr-āt, v.t. to free from the burden of blame or obligation: to acquit.—n. Exonerā′tion, act of exonerating or freeing from a charge or blame.—adj. Exon′erative, freeing from a burden or obligation. [L. exonerāre, -ātumex, from, onus, oneris, burden.]

Exophagy, eks-of′a-ji, n. the custom among cannibals of eating only the flesh of persons not of their own tribe.—adj. Exoph′agous. [Formed from Gr. exō, outside, phagein, to eat.]

Exorable, ek′sō-ra-bl, adj. capable of being moved by entreaty.—n. Exorā′tion, entreaty.

Exorbitant, egz-or′bi-tant, adj. going beyond the usual limits: excessive.—ns. Exor′bitance, Exor′bitancy, extravagance: enormity.—adv. Exor′bitantly.—v.i. Exor′bitāte, to stray. [L. exorbitans, -antis, pr.p. of exorbitāreex, out of, orbita, a track—orbis, a circle.]

Exorcise, eks′or-sīz, or eks-or′-, v.t. to adjure by some holy name: to call forth or drive away, as a spirit: to deliver from the influence of an evil spirit.—ns. Ex′orcism, act of exorcising or expelling evil spirits by certain ceremonies: a formula for exorcising; Ex′orcist, one who exorcises or pretends to expel evil spirits by adjurations: (R.C. Church) the third of the minor orders. [Through Late L., from Gr. exorkizeinex, out, horkos, an oath.]

Exordium, egz-or′di-um, n. the introductory part of a discourse or composition.—adj. Exor′dial, pertaining to the exordium: introductory. [L. exordīriex, out, ordīri, to begin.]

Exoskeleton, ek-sō-skel′e-tun, n. any structure produced by the hardening of the integument, as the scales of fish, but esp. when bony, as the carapace of the turtle, &c.—adj. Exoskel′etal. [Gr. exō, outside, skeleton.]

Exosmose, eks′os-mōz, n. the passage outward of fluids, gases, &c. through porous media, esp. living animal membranes—also Exosmō′sis.—adj. Exosmot′ic. [L.,—Gr. ex, out, ōsmos, pushing.]

Exostome, eks′os-tōm, n. the small opening in the outer coating of the ovule of a plant. [Gr. exō, without, stoma, a mouth.]

Exostosis, eks-os-tō′sis, n. (anat.) morbid enlargement of a bone. [Gr. ex, out, osteon, a bone.]

Exoteric, -al, eks-o-ter′ik, -al, adj. external: fit to be communicated to the public or multitude—opp. to Esoteric.—n. Exoter′icism. [Gr. exōterikos—comp. formed from exō, outside.]

Exotic, egz-ot′ik, adj. introduced from a foreign country—the opposite of indigenous.—n. anything of foreign origin: something not native to a country, as a plant, a word, a custom.—ns. Exot′icism, Ex′otism. [L.,—Gr. exōtikosexō, outside.]

Expand, eks-pand′, v.t. to spread out: to lay open: to enlarge in bulk or surface: to develop, or bring out in fuller detail.—v.i. to become opened: to enlarge.—ns. Expanse′, a wide extent of space: the firmament; Expansibil′ity.—adj. Expans′ible, capable of being expanded.—adv. Expans′ibly.—adj. Expans′ile, capable of expansion.—n. Expan′sion, act of expanding: state of being expanded: enlargement: that which is expanded: immensity: extension.—adj. Expans′ive, widely extended: diffusive.—adv. Expans′ively.—ns. Expans′iveness; Expansiv′ity. [L. expandĕreex, out, pandĕre, pansum, to spread.]

Ex parte, eks pr′ti, adj. on one side only: partial: prejudiced. [L. ex, out, pars, partis, part.]

Expatiate, eks-pā′shi-āt, v.i. to range at large: to enlarge in discourse, argument, or writing.—n. Expatiā′tion, act of expatiating or enlarging in discourse.—adjs. Expā′tiative, Expā′tiatory, expansive.—n. Expā′tiator. [L. exspatiāri, -ātusex, out of, spatiāri, to roam—spatium, space.]

Expatriate, eks-pā′tri-āt, v.t. to send out of one's native country: to banish, or exile.—n. Expatriā′tion, act of expatriating: exile, voluntary or compulsory. [Low L. expatriāre, -ātumex, out of, patria, fatherland.]

Expect, eks-pekt′, v.t. to wait for: to look forward to as something about to happen: to anticipate: to hope.—n. (Shak.) expectation.—ns. Expect′ance, Expect′ancy, act or state of expecting: that which is expected: hope.—adj. Expect′ant, looking or waiting for.—n. one who expects: one who is looking or waiting for some benefit or office.—adv. Expect′antly.—ns. Expectā′tion, act or state of expecting: prospect of future good: that which is expected: the ground or qualities for anticipating future benefits or excellence: promise: the value of something expected: (pl.) prospect of fortune or profit by a will; Expectā′tion-week, the period between Ascension Day and Whitsunday—during this time the Apostles continued praying in expectation of the Comforter.—adj. Expect′ative, giving rise to expectation: reversionary.—n. an expectancy.—n. Expect′er (Shak.), one who waits for a person or thing.—adv. Expect′ingly, in a state of expectation. [L. exspectāre, -ātumex, out, spectāre, to look, freq. of specĕre, to see.]

Expectorate, eks-pek′to-rāt, v.t. to expel from the breast or lungs by coughing, &c.: to spit forth.—v.i. to discharge or eject phlegm from the throat.—adj. Expec′torant, tending to promote expectoration.—n. a medicine which promotes expectoration.—n. Expectorā′tion, act of expectorating: that which is expectorated: spittle.—adj. Expec′torātive, having the quality of promoting expectoration. [L. expectorāre, -ātumex, out of, from, pectus, pectoris, the breast.]

Expedient, eks-pē′di-ent, adj. suitable: advisable: (Shak.) hasty.—n. that which serves to promote: means suitable to an end: contrivance.—ns. Expē′dience (Shak.), haste, despatch: expediency; Expē′diency, fitness: desirableness: self-interest.—adj. Expedien′tial.—adv. Expē′diently. [L. expediens, -entis, pr.p. of expedīre.]

Expedite, eks′pe-dīt, v.t. to free from impediments: to hasten: to send forth: to despatch.—adj. free from impediment: unencumbered: quick: prompt.—adv. Ex′peditely.—n. Expedi′tion, speed: promptness: any undertaking by a number of persons: a hostile march or voyage: those who form an expedition.—adjs. Expedi′tionary; Expedi′tious, characterised by expedition or rapidity: speedy: prompt.—adv. Expedi′tiously.—n. Expedi′tiousness, quickness.—adj. Exped′itive. [L. expedīre, -itumex, out, pes, pedis, a foot.]

Expel, eks-pel′, v.t. to drive out: eject: to discharge: to banish: (Shak.) to keep off:—pr.p. expel′ling; pa.p. expelled′. [L. expellĕre, expulsumex, out, pellĕre, to drive.]

Expend, eks-pend′, v.t. to lay out: to employ or consume in any way: to spend.—ns. Expend′iture, act of expending or laying out: that which is expended: the process of using up: money spent; Expense′ (Shak.), expenditure: outlay: cost: (pl.) the cost of a lawsuit (Scots law).—adj. Expens′ive, causing or requiring much expense: extravagant.—adv. Expens′ively.—n. Expens′iveness.—Be at the expense of, to pay the cost of. [L. expendĕreex, out, pendĕre, pensum, to weigh.]

Experience, eks-pē′ri-ens, n. thorough trial of: practical acquaintance with any matter gained by trial: repeated trial: long and varied observation, personal or general: wisdom derived from the changes and trials of life.—v.t. to make trial of, or practical acquaintance with: to prove or know by use: to suffer, undergo.—p.adj. Expē′rienced, taught by experience: skilful: wise.—adjs. Expē′rienceless, having no experience; Experien′tial, pertaining to or derived from experience.—ns. Experien′tialism; Experien′tialist.—Experience meeting, a religious meeting, where those present relate their religious experiences. [Fr.,—L. experientia, from experīriex, inten., and old verb perīri, to try.]

Experiment, eks-per′i-ment, n. a trial: something done to prove some theory, or to discover something unknown.—v.i. to make an experiment or trial: to search by trial.—adj. Experiment′al, founded or known by experiment: taught by experience: tentative.—v.i. Experiment′alise.—ns. Experiment′alist, Exper′imentist, one who makes experiments.—adv. Experiment′ally.—n. Experimentā′tion.—adj. Experiment′ative. [L. experimentum, from experīri, to try thoroughly.]

Expert, eks-pėrt′, adj. taught by practice: having a familiar knowledge: having a facility of performance: skilful, adroit.—n. Ex′pert, one who is expert or skilled in any art or science: a specialist: a scientific or professional witness.—adv. Expert′ly.—n. Expert′ness. [Fr.,—L. expertusexperīri, to try thoroughly.]

Expiate, eks′pi-āt, v.t. to make complete atonement for: to make satisfaction or reparation for.—p.adj. (Shak.) expired.—adj. Ex′piable, capable of being expiated, atoned for, or done away.—ns. Expiā′tion, act of expiating or atoning for: the means by which atonement is made: atonement; Ex′piātor, one who expiates.—adj. Ex′piātory, having the power to make expiation or atonement. [L. expiāre, -ātumex, inten., piāre, to appease, atone for.]

Expire, eks-pīr′, v.t. to breathe out: to emit or throw out from the lungs: to emit in minute particles.—v.i. to breathe out the breath of life: to die out (of fire): to die: to come to an end.—adj. Expī′rable, that may expire or come to an end.—ns. Expī′rant, one expiring; Expirā′tion, the act of breathing out: (obs.) death: end: that which is expired.—adj. Expī′ratory, pertaining to expiration, or the emission of the breath.—p.adj. Expī′ring, dying: pertaining to or uttered at the time of dying.—n. Expī′ry, the end or termination: expiration. [Fr. expirer—L. ex, out, spirāre, -ātum, to breathe.]

Expiscate, eks-pis′kāt, v.t. to find out by skilful means or by strict examination.—n. Expiscā′tion.—adj. Expis′catory. [L. expiscāri, expiscātusex, out, piscāri, to fish—piscis, a fish.]

Explain, eks-plān′, v.t. to make plain or intelligible: to unfold and illustrate the meaning of: to expound: to account for.—adj. Explain′able, that may be explained or cleared up.—ns. Explain′er, one who explains; Explanā′tion, act of explaining or clearing from obscurity: that which explains or clears up: the meaning or sense given to anything: a mutual clearing up of matters.—adv. Explan′atorily.—adj. Explan′atory, serving to explain or clear up: containing explanations.—Explain away, to modify the force of by explanation, generally in a bad sense. [O. Fr. explaner—L. explanāreex, out, planāreplanus, plain.]

Expletive, eks′ple-tiv, adj. filling out: added for ornament or merely to fill up.—n. a word or syllable inserted for ornament or to fill up a vacancy: an oath.—adj. Ex′pletory, serving to fill up: expletive. [L. expletivusex, out, plēre, to fill.]

Explicate, eks′pli-kāt, v.t. to unfold, develop: to lay open or explain the meaning of.—adj. Ex′plicable, capable of being explicated or explained.—n. Explicā′tion, act of explicating or explaining: explanation.—adjs. Ex′plicātive, Ex′plicātory, serving to explicate or explain. [L. explicāre, explicātum or explicitumex, out, plicāre, to fold.]

Explicit, eks-plis′it, adj. not implied merely, but distinctly stated: plain in language: outspoken: clear: unreserved.—adv. Explic′itly.—n. Explic′itness. [L. explicitus, from explicāre.]

Explicit, eks′plis-it, n. a term formerly put at the end of a book, indicating that it is finished. [Contr. from L. explicitus est liber, the book is unrolled.]

Explode, eks-plōd′, v.t. to cry down, as an actor: to bring into disrepute, and reject: to cause to blow up.—v.i. to burst with a loud report: to burst into laughter.—p.adj. Explō′ded, rejected, discarded.—n. Explō′sion, act of exploding: a sudden violent burst with a loud report: a breaking out of feelings, &c.—adj. Explō′sive, liable to or causing explosion: bursting out with violence and noise.—n. something that will explode.—adv. Explō′sively.—n. Explō′siveness. [L. explodĕre, explosumex, out, plaudĕre, to clap the hands.]

Exploit, eks-ploit′, n. a deed or achievement, esp. an heroic one: a feat.—v.t. to work up: to utilise for one's own ends.—adj. Exploit′able.—ns. Exploit′age, Exploitā′tion, the act of successfully applying industry to any object, as the working of mines, &c.: the act of using for selfish purposes. [O. Fr. exploit—L. explicitum, ended.]

Explore, eks-plōr′, v.t. to search for the purpose of discovery: to examine thoroughly.—n. Explorā′tion, act of searching thoroughly.—adjs. Explor′ative, Explor′atory, serving to explore: searching out.—n. Explor′er, one who explores.—p.adj. Explor′ing, employed in or intended for exploration. [Fr.,—L. explorāre, -ātum, to search out—prob. from ex, out, plorāre, to make to flow.]

Exponent, eks-pō′nent, n. he who, or that which, points out, or represents: (alg.) a figure which shows how often a quantity is to be multiplied by itself, as a3: an index: an example, illustration.—adj. Exponen′tial (alg.), pertaining to or involving exponents.—n. an exponential function.—Exponential curve, a curve expressed by an exponential equation; Exponential equation, one in which the x or y occurs in the exponent of one or more terms, as 5x = 800; Exponential function, a quantity with a variable exponent; Exponential series, a series in which exponential quantities are developed; Exponential theorem gives a value of any number in terms of its natural logarithm, and from it can at once be derived a series determining the logarithm. [L. exponensex, out, ponĕre, to place.]

Exponible, eks-pō′ni-bl, adj. able to be, or requiring to be, explained.

Export, eks-pōrt′, v.t. to carry or send out of a country, as goods in commerce.—n. Ex′port, act of exporting: that which is exported: a commodity which is or may be sent from one country to another, in traffic.—adj. Export′able, that may be exported.—ns. Exportā′tion, act of exporting, or of conveying goods from one country to another; Export′er, the person who exports, or who ships goods to a foreign or distant country for sale—opp. to Importer. [L. exportāre, -ātumex, out of, portāre, to carry.]

Expose, eks-pōz′, v.t. to lay forth to view: to deprive of cover, protection, or shelter: to make bare: to abandon (an infant): to explain: to make liable to: to disclose: to show up.—ns. Expos (eks-pō-zā′), an exposing: a shameful showing up: a formal recital or exposition; Expos′edness, the act of exposing: the state of being exposed; Expos′er; Exposi′tion, act of exposing: a setting out to public view: the abandonment of a child: a public exhibition: act of expounding, or laying open of the meaning of an author: explanation: commentary.—adj. Expos′itive, serving to expose or explain: explanatory: exegetical.—n. Expos′itor, one who, or that which, expounds: an interpreter:—fem. Expos′itress.—adj. Expos′itory, serving to explain: explanatory.—n. Expō′sure (Shak., Expos′ture), act of laying open or bare: act of showing up an evil: state of being laid bare: openness to danger: position with regard to the sun, influence of climate, &c. [Fr. exposer—L. exponĕre, to expose.]

Expostulate, eks-post′ū-lāt, v.i. to reason earnestly with a person on some impropriety of his conduct: to remonstrate: (Shak.) to discuss: (Milt.) to claim.—n. Expostulā′tion, act of expostulating, or reasoning earnestly with a person against his conduct: remonstrance.—adjs. Expost′ulative, Expost′ulatory, containing expostulation.—n. Expost′ulator. [L. expostulāre, -ātumex, inten., postulāre, to demand.]

Expound, eks-pownd′, v.t. to expose, or lay open the meaning of: to explain: to interpret: to explain in a certain way.—n. Expound′er, one who expounds: an interpreter. [O. Fr. espondre—L. exponĕreex, out, ponĕre, to place.]

Express, eks-pres′, v.t. to press or force out: to emit: to represent or make known by a likeness or by words: to declare, reveal: to out into words: to state plainly: to designate.—adj. pressed or clearly brought out: exactly representing: directly stated: explicit: clear: intended or sent for a particular purpose.—adv. with haste: specially: with an express train.—n. a messenger or conveyance sent on a special errand: a regular and quick conveyance: (U.S.) a system organised for the speedy and safe transmission of parcels or merchandise.—n. Express′age, the system of carrying by express.—adj. Express′ible.—ns. Expres′sion, act of expressing or forcing out by pressure: act of representing or giving utterance to: faithful and vivid representation by language, art, the features, &c.: that which is expressed: look: feature: the manner in which anything is expressed: tone of voice or sound in music.—adjs. Expres′sional, of or pertaining to expression; Expres′sionless.—n. Expres′sion-stop, a stop in a harmonium, by which the performer can regulate the air to produce expression.—adj. Expres′sive, serving to express or indicate: full of expression: vividly representing: emphatic: significant.—adv. Expres′sively.—n. Expres′siveness.—adv. Express′ly.—ns. Express′-rī′fle, a modern sporting rifle for large game at short range, with heavy charge of powder and light bullet; Express′-train, a railway-train at high speed and with few stops; Expres′sure, the act of expressing: (Shak.) expression. [O. Fr. expresser—L. ex, out, pressāre, freq. of premĕre, pressum, to press.]

Expromission, eks-prō-mish′un, n. the intervention of a new debtor, substituted for the former one, who is consequently discharged by the creditor.—n. Expromis′sor.

Expropriate, eks-prō′pri-āt, v.t. to dispossess.—n. Expropriā′tion. [L. expropriāre, -ātumex, out, proprium, property.]

Expugnable, eks-pug′na-bl, or eks-pū′-, adj. (rare) capable of being stormed.—v.t. Expūgn′, to overcome.—n. Expugnā′tion. [Fr.,—L. expugnāre.]

Expulsion, eks-pul′shun, n. the act of expelling: banishment.—v.t. Expulse′ (obs.), to expel forcibly, eject.—adj. Expul′sive, able or serving to expel. [L. expulsio. See Expel.]

Expunge, eks-punj′, v.t. to wipe out: to efface.—n. Expunc′tion. [L. expungĕre, to prick out, erase—ex, out, pungĕre, to prick.]

Expurgate, eks′pur-gāt, or eks-pur′-, v.t. to purge out or render pure: to purify from anything noxious or erroneous.—ns. Expurgā′tion, act of expurgating or purifying: the removal of anything hurtful or evil: exculpation; Expurgator (eks′pur-gā-tor, or eks-pur′ga-tor), one who expurgates or purifies.—adjs. Expurgatō′rial, Expur′gatory, tending to expurgate or purify.—v.t. Expurge′, to purify, expurgate. [L. expurgāre, -ātumex, out, purgāre, to purge.]

Exquisite, eks′kwi-zit, adj. of superior quality: excellent: of delicate perception or close discrimination: not easily satisfied: fastidious: exceeding, extreme, as pain or pleasure.—n. one exquisitely nice or refined in dress: a fop.—adv. Ex′quisitely.—n. Ex′quisiteness. [L. exquisitusex, out, qurĕre, qusitum, to seek.]

Exsanguinous, eks-sang′gwin-us, adj. without blood: anmic—also Exsang′uine, -d, Exsanguin′eous.—n. Exsanguin′ity. [L. ex, neg., sanguis, blood.]

Exscind, ek-sind′, v.t. to cut off. [L. ex, off, scindĕre, to cut.]

Exsect, ek-sekt′, v.t. to cut out.—n. Exsec′tion. [L. ex, out, secāre, to cut.]

Exsert, eks-sert′, v.t. to protrude.—p.adj. Exsert′ed, projecting.—adj. Exser′tile.—n. Exser′tion.

Exsiccate, ek′si-kāt, or ek-sik′-, v.t. to dry up.—adj. Exsicc′ant.—n. Exsiccā′tion.—adj. Exsicc′ative.—n. Ex′siccātor. [L. exsiccāreex-, siccus, dry.]

Exsputory, ek-spū′tō-ri, adj. that is spit out or rejected. [L. expuĕre, exsputum, to spit out.]

Exstipulate, ek-stip′ū-lāt, adj. (bot.) without stipules.

Exsuccous, eks-suk′us, adj. destitute of sap.

Exsufflicate, eks-suf′fli-kāt, adj. (Shak.) puffed out, contemptible, abominable.—v.t. Exsuf′flāte, to exorcise. [Prob. from L. ex, out, and sufflāre, to blow out—sub, under, flāre, to blow.]

Extant, eks′tant, adj. standing out, or above the rest: still standing or existing. [L. extans, antisex, out, stāre, to stand.]

Extasy, Extatic. Same as Ecstasy, Ecstatic.

Extempore, eks-tem′po-re, adv. on the spur of the moment: without preparation: suddenly.—adj. sudden: rising at the moment: of a speech delivered without help of manuscript.—adjs. Extem′poral, Extemporā′neous, Extem′porary, done on the spur of the moment: hastily prepared: speaking extempore: done without preparation: off-hand.—advs. Extemporā′neously; Extem′porarily.—ns. Extem′poriness; Extemporisā′tion, the act of speaking extempore.—v.i. Extem′porise, to speak extempore or without previous preparation: to discourse without notes: to speak off-hand. [L. ex, out of, tempus, temporis, time.]

Extend, eks-tend′, v.t. to stretch out: to prolong in any direction: to enlarge, expand: to widen: to hold out: to bestow or impart: (law) to seize: to make a valuation of property by the oath of a jury.—v.i. to stretch: to be continued in length or breadth.—adj. Extend′ant (her.), displayed.—adv. Extend′edly.—adjs. Extend′ible; Extense′ (obs.), extensive.—n. Extensibil′ity.—adjs. Extens′ible, Extens′ile, that may be extended.—Exten′sion, a stretching out, prolongation, or enlargement: that property of a body by which it occupies a portion of space: (logic) a term, opposed to Intension, referring to the extent of the application of a term or the number of objects included under it (University extension, the enlargement of the aim of a university, in providing instruction for those unable to become regular students).—adj. Exten′sional.—ns. Exten′sionist; Exten′sity, sensation from which perception of extension is derived.—adj. Extens′ive, large: comprehensive.—adv. Extens′ively.—ns. Extens′iveness; Exten′sor, a muscle which extends or straightens any part of the body; Extent′, the space or degree to which a thing is extended: bulk: compass: scope: the valuation of property: (law) a writ directing the sheriff to seize the property of a debtor, for the recovery of debts of record due to the Crown: (Shak.) seizure, attack: (Shak.) maintenance: (Shak.) behaviour.—adj. stretched out. [L. extendĕre, extentum, or extensumex, out, tendĕre, to stretch.]

Extenuate, eks-ten′ū-āt, v.t. to lessen: to underrate: to weaken the force of: to palliate.—p.adj. Exten′uating, palliating.—adv. Exten′uatingly.—n. Extenuā′tion, act of representing anything as less wrong or criminal than it is: palliation: mitigation.—adjs. Exten′uative, Exten′uatory, tending to extenuate: palliative.—n. Exten′uator. [L. extenuāre, -ātumex, inten., tenuis, thin.]

Exterior, eks-tē′ri-or, adj. outer: outward, external: on or from the outside: foreign.—n. outward part or surface: outward form or deportment: appearance.—n. Exterior′ity.—adv. Extē′riorly, outwardly. [L. exterior, comp. of exter, outward—ex, out.]

Exterminate, eks-tėr′mi-nāt, v.t. to destroy utterly: to put an end to: to root out.—adj. Exter′minable, that can be exterminated: used in the sense of 'illimitable' by Shelley.—n. Exterminā′tion, complete destruction or extirpation.—adjs. Exter′minātive, Exter′minātory, serving or tending to exterminate.—n. Exter′minātor.—v.t. Exter′mine (Shak.), to exterminate. [L. extermināre, -ātumex, out of, terminus.]

External, eks-tėr′nal, adj. exterior: lying outside: outward: belonging to the world of outward things: that may be seen: not innate or intrinsic: accidental: foreign.—n. exterior: (pl.) the outward parts: outward or non-essential forms and ceremonies.—n. Extē′rior, an exterior thing, the outside.—adj. Extern′, external, outward.—n. a day-scholar.—n. Externalisā′tion.—v.t. Exter′nalise, to give form to.—ns. Exter′nalism, undue regard to mere externals or non-essential outward forms, esp. of religion; External′ity, external character: superficiality: undue regard to externals.—adv. Exter′nally.—n. Exter′nat, a day-school. [L. externusexter.]

Exterraneous, eks-ter-rā′ne-us, adj. belonging to or coming from abroad, foreign.—adjs. Exterritō′rial, Extraterritō′rial, exempt from territorial jurisdiction. [L. exterraneusex, out of, terra, the earth.]

Extersion, eks-ter′shun, n. the act of rubbing out.

Extinct, eks-tingkt′, adj. put out: extinguished: no longer existing: dead.—adj. Extinct′ed, extinguished.—ns. Extincteur (eks-tang′tr, eks-tingk′tr—see Extinguisher); Extinc′tion, a quenching or destroying: destruction: suppression.—adj. Extinct′ive, tending to extinguish.—n. Extinct′ure (Shak.), extinction.

Extine, eks′tin, n. (bot.) the outer coat of the pollen-grain or of a spore.

Extinguish, eks-ting′gwish, v.t. to quench: to destroy, annihilate: to obscure by superior splendour.—v.i. to die out.—adj. Exting′uishable.—ns. Exting′uisher, one who, or that which, extinguishes: a small hollow conical instrument for putting out a candle—also in Fr. form Extincteur; Exting′uishment, the act of extinguishing: (law) putting an end to a right by consolidation or union. [L. extinguĕre, extinctumex, out, stinguĕre, to quench.]

Extirpate, eks′tėr-pāt, v.t. to root out: to destroy totally: to exterminate—(obs.) Extirp′.—adj. Extirp′able.—ns. Extirpā′tion, extermination: total destruction; Extirp′ator.—adj. Extirp′atory. [L. exstirpāre, -ātumex, out, and stirps, a root.]

Extol, eks-tol′, v.t. to magnify: to praise:—pr.p. extolling; pa.p. extolled′.n. Extol′ment, the act of extolling: the state of being extolled. [L. extollĕreex, up, tollĕre, to lift or raise.]

Extort, eks-tort′, v.t. to gain or draw from by compulsion or violence.—p.adj. wrongfully obtained.—adj. Extors′ive, serving or tending to extort.—adv. Extors′ively.—n. Extor′tion, illegal or oppressive exaction: that which is extorted.—adjs. Extor′tionary, pertaining to or implying extortion; Extor′tionāte, oppressive.—ns. Extor′tioner, one who practises extortion; Extor′tionist.—adj. Extor′tionous. [L. extorquēre, extortumex, out, torquēre, to twist.]

Extra, eks′tra, adj. beyond or more than the usual or the necessary: extraordinary: additional.—adv. unusually.—n. what is extra or additional, as an item above and beyond the ordinary school curriculum: something over and above the usual course or charge in a bill, &c.: a special edition of a newspaper containing later news, &c.—adjs. Ex′tra-condensed′ (print.), extremely narrow in proportion to the height; Ex′tra-con′stellary, outside of the constellations; Extradō′tal, not forming part of the dowry; Ex′tra-foliā′ceous (bot.), situated outside of or away from the leaves; Ex′tra-forā′neous, outdoor; Ex′tra-judi′cial, out of the proper court, or beyond the usual course of legal proceeding.—adv. Ex′tra-judi′cially.—adjs. Ex′tra-lim′ital, not found within a given faunal area: lying outside a prescribed area—also Extralim′itary; Ex′tra-mun′dane, beyond the material world; Ex′tra-mū′ral, without or beyond the walls; Ex′tra-offi′cial, not being within official rights, &c.; Ex′tra-parō′chial, beyond the limits of a parish; Ex′tra-phys′ical, not subject to physical laws; Ex′tra-profes′sional, outside the usual limits of professional duty; Extr′a-pro′vincial, outside the limits of a particular province; Ex′tra-reg′ular, unlimited by rules; Ex′tra-sō′lar, beyond the solar system; Ex′tra-trop′ical, situated outside the tropics; Ex′tra-ū′terine, situated outside the uterus; Extravas′cular, situated outside of the vascular system. [Perh. a contraction for extraordinary.]

Extract, eks-trakt′, v.t. to draw out by force or otherwise: to choose out or select: to find out: to distil.—n. Ex′tract, anything drawn from a substance by heat, distillation, &c., as an essence: a passage taken from a book or writing.—adjs. Extract′able, Extract′ible; Extract′iform.—n. Extrac′tion, act of extracting: derivation from a stock or family: birth: lineage: that which is extracted.—adj. Extract′ive, tending or serving to extract.—n. an extract.—n. Extract′or, he who, or that which, extracts.—Extract the root of a quantity, to find its root by a mathematical process; Extractive matter, the soluble portions of any drug. [L. extrahĕre, extractumex, out, trahĕre, to draw.]

Extradition, eks-tra-dish′un, n. a delivering up by one government to another of fugitives from justice.—adj. Extradī′table.—v.t. Ex′tradite, to hand over to justice. [L. ex, from, traditiotradĕre, traditum, to deliver up.]

Extrados, eks-trā′dos, n. the convex surface of an arch or vault. [Fr.]

Extraneous, eks-trān′yus, adj. external: foreign: not belonging to or dependent on a thing: not essential.—n. Extranē′ity.—adv. Extran′eously. [L. extraneus, external, ex, from, extra, outside.]

Extraordinary, eks-tror′di-nar-i, or eks-tr-or′-, adj. beyond ordinary: not usual or regular: wonderful: special or supernumerary, as 'physician extraordinary' in a royal household, and 'extraordinary professor' in a German university, both being inferior to the ordinary official.— Extraor′dinaries, things that exceed the usual order, kind, or method.—adv. Extraor′dinarily.—n. Extraor′dinariness. [L. extra, outside, ordoinis, order.]

Extraught, eks-trawt′ (Shak.), pa.p. of Extract.

Extravagant, eks-trav′a-gant, adj. wandering beyond bounds: irregular: unrestrained: excessive: profuse in expenses: wasteful.—ns. Extrav′agance, excess: lavish expenditure: (Milt.) digression; Extrav′agancy (Shak.), vagrancy: extravagance.—adv. Extrav′agantly.—v.i. Extrav′agāte, to wander: to exceed proper bounds. [L. extra, beyond, vagans, -antis, pr.p. of vagāri, to wander.]

Extravaganza, eks-trav-a-gan′za, n. an extravagant or eccentric piece of music or literary production: extravagant conduct or speech. [It.]

Extravasate, eks-trav′a-sāt, v.t. to let out of the proper vessels.—adj. let out of its proper vessel: extravasated.—n. Extravasā′tion, act of extravasating: the escape of any of the fluids of the living body from their proper vessels through a rupture in their walls. [L. extra, out of, vas, a vessel.]

Extreat, eks-trēt′, n. (Spens.) extraction.

Extreme, eks-trēm′, adj. outermost: most remote: last: highest in degree: greatest: excessive: most violent: most urgent: stringent.—n. the utmost point or verge: end: utmost or highest limit or degree: great necessity.—adv. Extrēme′ly.—ns. Extrē′mism; Extrē′mist.—adj. Extrem′ital.—n. Extrem′ity, the utmost limit: the highest degree: greatest necessity or distress: (pl.) the hands and feet.—Extreme unction (see Unction).—Go to extremes, to go too far: to use extreme measures.—In extremis (L.), at the point of death; In the extreme, in the last, highest degree: extremely; The last extremity, the utmost pitch of misfortune: death. [O. Fr. extreme—L. extremus, superl. of exter, on the outside.]

Extricate, eks′tri-kāt, v.t. to free from hinderances or perplexities: to disentangle: to set free.—adj. Ex′tricable.—n. Extricā′tion, disentanglement: act of setting free. [L. extricāre, -ātumex, out, tric, hinderances.]

Extrinsic, -al, eks-trin′sik, -al, adj. external: not contained in or belonging to a body: foreign: not essential—opp. to Intrinsic.—n. Extrinsical′ity.—adv. Extrin′sically. [Fr.,—L. extrinsecusexter, outside, secus, beside.]

Extrorse, eks-trors′, adj. turned outward.—Also Extror′sal. [L. extra, outside, versus, turned.]

Extrude, eks-trōōd′, v.t. to force or urge out: to expel: to drive off.—n. Extru′sion, act of extruding, thrusting, or throwing out: expulsion.—adjs. Extru′sive, Extru′sory. [L. extrudĕre, extrusumex, out, trudĕre, to thrust.]

Exuberant, eks-ū′bėr-ant, adj. plenteous: overflowing: happy: lavish.—ns. Exū′berance, Exū′berancy, quality of being exuberant: an overflowing quantity: superfluousness: outburst.—adv. Exū′berantly.—v.i. Exū′berāte, to be exuberant. [L. exuberans, pr.p. of exuberāreex, inten., uber, rich.]

Exude, eks-ūd′, v.t. to discharge by sweating: to discharge through pores or incisions, as sweat, moisture, &c.—v.i. to flow out of a body through the pores.—n. Exudā′tion, act of exuding or discharging through pores: that which is exuded. [L. exudāreex, out, sudāre, to sweat.]

Exul, eks′ul, n. (Spens.) an exile.

Exulcerate, egz-ul′ser-āt, v.t. to exasperate, afflict.—n. Exulcerā′tion, ulceration: exasperation. [L. exculcerāre, -ātumex, out, ulcerāre.]

Exult, egz-ult′, v.i. to rejoice exceedingly: to triumph.—ns. Exult′ance, Exult′ancy, exultation: triumph.—adj. Exult′ant, exulting: triumphant.—n. Exultā′tion, rapturous delight: transport.—adv. Exult′ingly. [L. exsultāre, -ātum, from exsilīreex, out or up, salīre, to leap.]

Exuvi, eks-ū′vi-ē, cast-off skins, shells, or other coverings of animals: (geol.) fossil shells and other remains of animals.—adj. Exū′vial.—v.i. Exū′viāte, to lay aside an old covering or condition for a new one.—n. Exuviā′tion, the act of exuviating. [L., from exuĕre, to draw off.]

Eyalet, ī′a-let, n. a division of the Turkish Empire—vilayet. [Turk.,—Ar. iyālahāl, to govern.]

Eyas, ī′as, n. an unfledged hawk.—adj. (Spens.) unfledged.—n. Ey′as-mus′ket, an unfledged male hawk: (Shak.) a child. [Eyas, a corr. of nyas—Fr. niais—L. nidus, nest.]

Eye, ī, n. (obs.) a brood. [For nye, neye; a neye=an eye. See Eyas.]

Eye, ī, n. the organ of sight or vision, more correctly the globe or movable part of it: the power of seeing: sight: regard: aim: keenness of perception: anything resembling an eye, as the hole of a needle, loop or ring for a hook, &c.: the seed-bud of a potato: (pl.) the foremost part of a ship's bows, the hawse-holes.—v.t. to look on: to observe narrowly.—v.i. (Shak.) to appear:—pr.p. ey′ing or eye′ing; pa.p. eyed (īd).—ns. Eye′-ball, the ball, globe, or apple of the eye; Eye′-beam, a glance of the eye; Eye′bright, a beautiful little plant of the genus Euphrasia, formerly used as a remedy for diseases of the eye (see Euphrasy); Eye′brow, the hairy arch above the eye.—v.t. to provide with artificial eyebrows.—adj. Eye′browless, without eyebrows.—p.adj. Eyed, having eyes: spotted as if with eyes.—ns. Eye′-drop (Shak.), a tear; Eye′-flap, a blinder on a horse's bridle; Eye′-glance, a quick look; Eye′glass, a glass to assist the sight, esp. such as stick on the nose by means of a spring: the eye-piece of a telescope and like instrument: (Shak.) the lens of the eye; Eye′lash, the line of hairs that edges the eyelid.—adj. Eye′less, without eyes or sight: deprived of eyes: blind.—ns. Eye′let, Eye′let-hole, a small eye or hole to receive a lace or cord, as in garments, sails, &c.: a small hole for seeing through: a little eye.—v.i. to make eyelets.—ns. Eye′liad, obsolete form of œillade; Eye′lid, the lid or cover of the eye: the portion of movable skin by means of which the eye is opened or closed at pleasure; Eye′-ō′pener, something that opens the eyes literally or figuratively, a startling story: a drink, esp. in the morning; Eye′-piece, the lens or combination of lenses at the eye-end of a telescope; Eye′-pit, the socket of the eye; Eye′-salve, salve or ointment for the eyes; Eye′-serv′ant, a servant who does his duty only when under the eye of his master; Eye′-serv′ice, service performed only under the eye or inspection of an employer: formal worship; Eye′-shot, the reach or range of sight of the eye: a glance; Eye′sight, power of seeing: view: observation; Eye′sore, anything that is offensive to the eye or otherwise; Eye′-splice, a kind of eye or loop formed by splicing the end of a rope into itself; Eye′-spot, a spot like an eye.—adj. Eye′-spot′ted (Spens.), marked with spots like eyes.—ns. Eye′-stone, a small calcareous body used for removing substances from under the eyelid; Eye′-string, the muscle which raises the eyelid; Eye′-tooth, one of the two canine teeth of the upper jaw, between the incisors and premolars; Eye′-wa′ter, water flowing from the eye: a lotion for the eyes; Eye′-wink (Shak.), a rapid lowering and raising of the eyelid: a glance: the time of a wink; Eye′-wit′ness, one who sees a thing done.—Eye for eye, lex talionis (Ex. xxi. 24); Eye of day, the sun.—All my eye (slang) unreal; Be all eyes, to give all attention; Be a sheet in the wind's eye, to be intoxicated; Clap, Lay, Set, eyes on (coll.), to see; Cry one's eyes out, to weep bitterly; Cut one's eye-tooth, to cease to be a child: to be shrewd; Give an eye to, to attend to; Green eye, jealousy; Have an eye to, to contemplate: to have regard to; In eye, in sight; In one's mind's eye, in contemplation; In the eyes of, in the estimation, opinion, of; In the wind's eye, against the wind; Keep one's eye on, to observe closely: to watch; Make a person open his eyes, to cause him astonishment; Make eyes at, to look at in an amorous way: to ogle; Mind your eye (slang), take care; My eye! a mild asseveration; Naked eye (see Naked); Open a person's eyes, to make him see: to show him something of which he is ignorant; Pipe, or Put the finger in, the eye, to weep; See eye to eye, from Is. lii. 8, but used in the sense of 'to think alike;' See with half an eye, to see without difficulty; Under the eye of, under the observation of; Up to the eyes, deeply engaged. [A.S. age; cf. Goth. augo, Ger. auge, Dut. oog, Ice. auga.]

Eyne, īn, (arch.) eyes.

Eyot, ī′ot, n. a little island. [A variant of ait.]

Eyre, ār, n. a journey or circuit: a court of itinerant justices.—Justices in eyre, itinerant judges who went on circuit. [O. Fr. eire, journey, from L. iter, a way, a journey—īre, itum, to go.]

Eyry, Eyrie, old spellings of aerie.


the sixth letter in the English and Latin alphabets—its sound called a labio-dental fricative, and formed by bringing the lower lip into contact with the upper teeth: (mus.) the fourth note of the natural diatonic scale of C: as a medieval Roman numeral=40; F=40,000.—The three F's, fair rent, fixity of tenure, and free sale.

Fa′, f, v. and n. a Scotch form of fall.

Fa′ard, frd, adj. a Scotch form of favoured.

Fabaceous, fā-bā′shi-us, adj. bean-like. [L. faba, a bean.]

Fabian, fā′bi-an, adj. delaying, avoiding battle, cautious, practising the policy of delay.—n. a member of a small group of Socialists in England, called by this name. [From Q. Fabius Maximus, surnamed Cunctator ('delayer'), from the masterly tactics with which he wore out the strength of Hannibal, whom he dared not meet in battle.]

Fable, fā′bl, n. a narrative in which things irrational, and sometimes inanimate, are, for the purpose of moral instruction, feigned to act and speak with human interests and passions: any tale in literary form, not necessarily probable in its incidents, intended to instruct or amuse: the plot or series of events in an epic or dramatic poem: a fiction or myth: a ridiculous story, as in 'old wives' fables,' a falsehood: subject of common talk.—v.i. to tell fictitious tales: (obs.) to tell falsehoods.—v.t. to feign: to invent.—p.adj. Fā′bled, mythical.—n. Fā′bler, a writer or narrator of fictions.—adj. Fab′ular.—v.i. Fab′ulīse, to write fables, or to speak in fables.—ns. Fab′ulist, one who invents fables; Fabulos′ity, Fab′ulousness.—adj. Fab′ulous, feigned, false: related in fable: immense, amazing.—adv. Fab′ulously. [Fr. fable—L. fabula, fāri, to speak.]

Fabliau, fab-li-ō′, n. one of a group of over a hundred metrical tales, usually satirical in quality, produced in France from about the middle of the 12th to the end of the 13th century:—pl. Fab′liaux. [Fr.]

Fabric, fab′rik, or fā′brik, n. workmanship: texture: anything framed by art and labour: building, esp. the construction and maintenance of a church, &c.: manufactured cloth: any system of connected parts.—v.t. (Milt.) to construct.—n. Fab′ricant, a manufacturer. [Fr. fabrique—L. fabricafaber, a worker in hard materials.]

Fabricate, fab′ri-kāt, v.t. to put together by art and labour: to manufacture: to produce: to devise falsely.—n. Fabricā′tion, construction: manufacture: that which is fabricated or invented: a story: a falsehood.—adj. Fab′ricative.—n. Fab′ricator. [L. fabricāri, -ātusfabrica, fabric.]

Faade, fa-sād′, n. the exterior front or face of a building. [Fr.,—face, after It. facciata, the front of a building—faccia, the face.]

Face, fās, n. the front part of the head, including forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and chin: the outside make or appearance: front or surface of anything: the edge of a cutting-tool, &c.: the part of a coal-seam actually being mined: cast of features, any special appearance or expression of the countenance: look, configuration: boldness, effrontery; presence: (B.) anger or favour.—v.t. to meet in the face or in front: to stand opposite to: to resist: to put an additional face or surface on; to cover in front.—v.i. to turn the face, as in military tactics—'right face,' &c.—ns. Face′-ache, neuralgia in the nerves of the face; Face′-card, a playing-card bearing a face (king, queen, or knave); Face′-cloth, a cloth laid over the face of a corpse.—adj. Faced, having the outer surface dressed, with the front, as of a dress, covered ornamentally with another material.—n. Face′-guard, a kind of mask to guard or protect the face.—adj. Face′less, without a face.—ns. Fac′er, one who puts on a false show: a bold-faced person: (slang) a severe blow on the face, anything that staggers one; Fac′ing, a covering in front for ornament or protection.—Face down, to abash by stern looks; Face out, to carry off by bold looks; Face the music (U.S. slang), to accept the situation at its worst; Face-to-face, in front of, in actual presence of.—Accept one's face, to show him favour or grant his request; Fly in the face of, to set one's self directly against; Have two faces, or Be two-faced, to be disingenuous; On the face of it, on its own showing: palpably plain; Pull a long face, to look dismal and unhappy; Put a good face on, to assume a bold or contented bearing as regards; Right face! Left face! Right about face! words of command, on which the soldiers individually turn to the side specified; Run one's face (U.S. slang), to obtain things on credit by sheer impudence; Set one's face against, to oppose strenuously; Show one's face, to appear, to come in view; Shut the door in his face, to shut the door before him, refusing him admittance; To his face, in his presence, openly. [Fr. face—L. ''facies'', form, face; perh. from facĕre, to make.]

Facet, fas′et, n. a small surface, as of a crystal.—v.t. to cut a facet upon, or cover with facets.—adj. Fac′eted, having or formed into facets. [Fr. facette, dim. of face.]

Facetious, fa-sē′shus, adj. witty, humorous, jocose: bawdy—(obs. or arch.) Facete′.— Faceti (fa-sē′shi-ē), witty or humorous sayings or writings: a bookseller's term for improper books—of all degrees of indecency.—adv. Facē′tiously.—n. Facē′tiousness. [Fr., from L. facētiafacetus, merry, witty.]

Facial, fā′shal, adj. of or relating to the face.—adv. Fā′cially.—Facial angle, in craniometry, the angle formed by lines drawn to show to what extent the jaws are protruding and the forehead receding.

Facies, fā′shi-ēz, n. general aspect of anything: the face, features. [L.]

Facile, fas′il, adj. easily persuaded: affable: yielding: easy of access or accomplishment: courteous: easy.—n. Fac′ileness.—v.t. Facil′itāte, to make easy: to lessen difficulty.—ns. Facilitā′tion; Facil′ity, quality of being facile; dexterity: easiness to be persuaded: pliancy: easiness of access: affability: (Scots law) a condition of mental weakness short of idiocy, but such as makes a person easily persuaded to do deeds to his own prejudice:—pl. Facil′ities, means that render anything easily done. [Fr.,—L. facilis, easy—facĕre, to do.]

Facinorous, fa-sin′o-rus, adj. atrociously wicked.—n. Facin′orousness. [L. facinorosusfacinus, a crime—facĕre, to do.]

Fac-simile, fak-sim′i-lē, n. an exact copy, as of handwriting, a coin, &c.—adj. exactly corresponding.—v.t. to make a fac-simile of, to reproduce.—n. Fac-sim′ilist. [L. fac, imper. of facĕre, to make, simile, neut. of similis, like.]

Fact, fakt, n. a deed or anything done: anything that comes to pass: reality, or a real state of things, as distinguished from a mere statement or belief, a datum of experience: truth: the assertion of a thing done: an evil deed, a sense now surviving only in 'to confess the fact,' 'after' or 'before the fact.'—adj. Fact′ual, pertaining to facts: actual.—ns. Factual′ity; Fact′um, a thing done, a deed.—As a matter of fact, in reality.—The fact of the matter, the plain truth about the subject in question. [L. factumfacĕre, to make.]

Faction, fak′shun, n. a company of persons associated or acting together, mostly used in a bad sense: a contentious party in a state or society: dissension.—adj. Fac′tional.—ns. Fac′tionary, a member of a faction; Fac′tionist.—adj. Fac′tious, turbulent: disloyal.—adv. Fac′tiously.—n. Fac′tiousness. [L. factionemfacĕre, to do.]

Factitious, fak-tish′us, adj. made by art, in opposition to what is natural or spontaneous: conventional.—adv. Facti′tiously.—n. Facti′tiousness.—adjs. Fac′titive, causative; Fac′tive (obs.), making. [L. factitiusfacĕre, to make.]

Factor, fak′tor, n. a doer or transactor of business for another: one who buys and sells goods for others, on commission: (Scot.) an agent managing heritable estates for another: (math.) one of two or more parts, which, when multiplied together, result in a given number—e.g. 6 and 4 are factors of 24: an element in the composition of anything, or in bringing about a certain result.—ns. Fac′torage, the fees or commission of a factor.—adj. Factō′rial, of or pertaining to a factor.—v.t. Fac′torise (U.S.), to warn not to pay or give up goods: to attach the effects of a debtor in the hands of a third person.—ns. Fac′torship; Fac′tory, a manufactory: a trading settlement in a distant country.—Judicial factor, a person appointed by the Court to manage the estate of a person under some incapacity. [L.,—facĕre.]

Factotum, fak-tō′tum, n. a person employed to do all kinds of work for another. [Low L.,—L. fac, imper. of facĕre, to do, totum, all.]

Facture, fak′tūr, n. the act or the result of making, workmanship.

Facula, fak′ū-la, n. a spot brighter than the rest of the surface, sometimes seen on the sun's disc:—pl. Fac′ul. [L., 'a torch,' dim. of fax, torch.]

Faculty, fak′ul-ti, n. facility or power to act: any particular ability or aptitude: an original power of the mind: any physical capability or function: personal quality or endowment: right, authority, or privilege to act: license: a department of learning at a university, or the professors constituting it: the members of a profession: executive ability.—adj. Fac′ultātive, optional: of or pertaining to a faculty.—Court of Faculties, a court established by Henry VIII., whereby authority is given to the Archbishop of Canterbury to grant dispensations and faculties. [Fr.,—L. facultatemfacilis, easy.]

Facundity, fa-kun′di-ti, n. (obs.) eloquence.

Fad, fad, n. a weak or transient hobby, crotchet, or craze: any unimportant belief or practice intemperately urged.—adjs. Fad′dish, given to fads—also Fad′dy.—ns. Fad′disnness; Fad′dism; Fad′dist, one who is a slave to some fad. [Ety. dub.]

Fadaise, fa-dāz′, n. a trifling thought or expression. [Fr.]

Faddle, fad′l, v.i. (prov.) to trifle.—n. nonsense, trifling—usually in fiddle-faddle.

Fade, fād, v.i. to lose strength, freshness, or colour gradually: to vanish.—adj. insipid: weak.—adv. Fā′dedly.—adj. Fade′less.—adv. Fade′lessly.—n. Fā′ding (Shak.), the burden of a song.—adj. Fā′dy, wearing away. [O. Fr. faderfade—L. vapidum, acc. to Gaston Paris.]

Fadge, faj, v.i. to agree: to succeed, turn out well. [Ety. dub.; not conn. with A.S. fgan, to join.]

Fces, Feces, fē′sēz, sediment after infusion or distillation: dregs: the solid excrements.—adj. F′cal, of or pertaining to fces. [L., pl. of fx, fcis, grounds.]

Faerie, Faery, fā′ėr-i, n. (arch.) the world of fairies, fairyland: (obs.) a fairy. [A variant of fairy.]

Fag, fag, v.i. to become weary or tired out: to work hard: to be a fag.—v.t. to weary: to use as a fag:—pr.p. fag′ging; pa.p. fagged.—n. at Eton, Winchester, &c., a schoolboy forced to do menial offices for one older, who in turn protects him: a tiresome piece of work: drudgery.—ns. Fag′gery, drudgery: fagging; Fag′ging, laborious drudgery: a usage in virtue of which senior boys are authorised to exact a variety of services from the junior boys.—To fag out, to field, as a fag, in cricket. [Ety. dub.; perh. a corr. of flag, to droop, which see.]

Fag-end, fag′-end, n. the end of a web of cloth that hangs loose: the untwisted end of a rope: the refuse or meaner part of a thing.

Faggot, Fagot, fag′ut, n. a bundle of sticks for fuel, fascines, &c.: a stick: anything like a faggot: a bundle of pieces of iron or steel cut off into suitable lengths for welding: a soldier numbered on the muster-roll, but not really existing: a voter who has obtained his vote expressly for party purposes, on a spurious or sham qualification.—adj. got up for a purpose, as in 'Faggot vote.'—v.t. to tie together.—ns. Fagg′oting, Fag′oting, a kind of embroidery in which some of the cross-threads are drawn together in the middle. [Fr. fagot, a bundle of sticks, perh. from L. fax, a torch.]

Fagotto, fag-ot′o, n. a bassoon.—n. Fagott′ist, one who plays on the bassoon. [It.]

Fahlerz, fl′erts, n. gray copper, or gray copper ore. [Ger.]

Fahrenheit, f′ren-hīt, or far′en-īt, n. the name applied to a thermometer, the freezing-point of which is marked at 32, and the boiling-point at 212 degrees (see Thermometer for the relations between the two scales). [Named from the inventor, Gabriel D. Fahrenheit (1686-1736).]

Faience, fā′yns, n. a fine kind of pottery, glazed and painted. [Fr.; prob. from Faenza in Italy.]

Faik, fāk, v.i. and v.t. (Scot.) to abate: to excuse.

Fail, fāl, n. a turf, sod.—n. Fail′-dike (Scot.), a turf-wall. [Perh. from Gael. fl, a sod.]

Fail, fāl, v.i. to fall short or be wanting (with in): to fall away: to decay: to die: to prove deficient under trial, examination, pressure, &c.: to miss: to be disappointed or baffled: to be unable to pay one's debts.—v.t. to be wanting to: not to be sufficient for: to leave undone, omit: to disappoint or desert any one:—pr.p. fail′ing; pa.p. failed.—n. (Shak.) failure.—p.adj. Failed, decayed, worn out: bankrupt.—n. Fail′ing, a fault, weakness: a foible.—prep. in default of.—n. Fail′ure, a falling short, or cessation: omission: decay: bankruptcy.—Fail of, to come short of accomplishing any purpose; Without fail, infallibly. [O. Fr. faillir—L. fallĕre, to deceive; cf. Dut. feilen, Ger. fehlen, Ice. feila.]

Fain, fān, adj. glad or joyful: inclined (with to): content to accept, for want of better: compelled: (Spens.) wont.—v.i. (Spens.) to delight.—adv. gladly.—adv. Fain′ly, gladly.—n. Fain′ness, eagerness. [A.S. fgen, joyful: cf. Ice. feginn, glad.]

Fain, fān, v.i. (Spens.). Same as Feign.

Fainant, fā-nyang′, adj. and n. do-nothing, applied esp. to the later Merovingian kings of France, mere puppets, under whom the mayors of the Palace really governed the country.—ns. Fai′neance (Kingsley), Fai′neancy, Faineant′ise. [Fr., faire, to do, nant, nothing.]

Faint, fānt, adj. wanting in strength: fading: lacking distinctness: not bright or forcible: weak in spirit: lacking courage: depressed: done in a feeble way.—v.i. to become feeble or weak: to lose strength, colour, &c.: to swoon: to fade or decay: to vanish: to lose courage or spirit: to become depressed.—v.t. (rare) to render faint.—n. a swoon.—p.adj. Faint′ed (Milt.), exhausted.—adjs. Faint′-heart, Faint′-heart′ed, cowardly: timorous.—adv. Faint′-heart′edly.—ns. Faint′-heart′edness; Faint′ing.—adj. Faint′ish, slightly faint.—n. Faint′ishness.—adv. Faint′ly.—n. Faint′ness, want of strength: feebleness of colour, light, &c.: dejection.—adj. Faint′y, faintish. [O. Fr. feint (Fr. feindre), feigned—L. fingĕre, to feign.]

Fair, fār, adj. bright: clear: free from blemish: pure: pleasing to the eye: beautiful: free from a dark hue: of a light shade: free from clouds or rain: favourable: unobstructed: open: prosperous: frank: impartial: just: pleasing: plausible: hopeful: moderate: pretty good.—n. that which is fair: (arch.) a woman.—v.t. to make fair.—v.i. to clear up, as the weather from rain.—adv. kindly, honestly, clearly: straight: (Shak.) favourably.—adjs. Fair′-and-square, honest—also used adverbially; Fair′-bod′ing (Shak.), auspicious.—n. Fair′-cop′y, the state of a document copied after final correction.—adjs. Fair′-faced, with a light complexion: beautiful: specious; Fair′-haired, having fair or light-coloured hair; Fair′-hand, having a fair appearance; Fair′ish, somewhat fair: pretty well, pretty drunk.—adv. Fair′ly.—adj. Fair′-mind′ed, judging fairly.—ns. Fair′ness; Fair′-play, honest dealing: justice.—adjs. Fair′-seem′ing, appearing fair; Fair′-spok′en, bland and civil in language and address.—ns. Fair′-trade, free-trade: a euphemism for smuggling: a mild form of the protective system, in which the basis of economic policy is supposed to be reciprocity or free-trade only with such nations as grant similar privileges—also used adverbially; Fair′-way, the part of a river, roadstead, &c. by which vessels enter or leave.—adj. Fair′-weath′er, suitable only for fair weather or favourable circumstances.—Be in a fair way to, to be likely to succeed in; Keep fair with, to keep on amiable terms with; Stand fair with, to be in the good graces of.—The fair, The fair sex, the female sex. [A.S. fger.]

Fair, fār, n. a great periodical market for one kind of merchandise, or for the general sales and purchases of a district: a collection of miscellaneous goods for sale on behoof of charity at a bazaar, &c.—n. Fair′ing, a present given at a fair, any complimentary gift.—A day after the fair, too late; Get one's fairing (Scot.), to get one's deserts. [O. Fr. feire—L. feria, holiday.]

Fairy, fār′i, n. an imaginary being, generally of diminutive and graceful human form, capable of kindly or unkindly acts towards man: fairy-folk collectively: an enchantress, or creature of overpowering charm.—adj. like a fairy, fanciful, whimsical, delicate.—adv. Fair′ily.— Fair′y-beads, the separate joints of the stems of fossil crinoids found in carboniferous limestone.—ns. Fair′y-butt′er, a name applied in northern England to certain gelatinous fungi; Fair′ydom; Fair′yhood, Fair′yism; Fair′yland, the country of the fairies.—adj. Fair′y-like, like or acting like fairies.—n. Fair′y-mon′ey, money given by fairies, which quickly changes into withered leaves, &c.: money found.— Fair′y-rings, -cir′cles, spots or circles in pastures, either barer than the rest of the field, or greener—due to the outwardly spreading growth of various fungi.—ns. Fair′y-stone, a fossil echinite found abundantly in chalk-pits; Fair′y-tale, a story about fairies: an incredible tale. [O. Fr. faerie, enchantment—fae (mod. fe). See Fay.]

Faith, fāth, n. trust or confidence in any person: belief in the statement of another: belief in the truth of revealed religion: confidence and trust in God: the living reception by the heart of the truth as it is in Christ: that which is believed: any system of religious belief, esp. the religion one considers true—'the faith;' fidelity to promises: honesty: word or honour pledged.—adjs. Faithed (Shak.), credited; Faith′ful, full of faith, believing: firm in adherence to promises, duty, allegiance, &c.: loyal: conformable to truth: worthy of belief: true.—adv. Faith′fully, sincerely, truthfully, exactly.—ns. Faith′fulness; Faith′-heal′ing, a system of belief based on James, v. 14, that sickness may be treated without any medical advice or appliances, if the prayer of Christians be accompanied in the sufferer by true faith.—adj. Faith′less, without faith or belief: not believing, esp. in God or Christianity: not adhering to promises, allegiance, or duty: delusive.—adv. Faith′lessly.—ns. Faith′lessness; Faith′worthiness, trustworthiness.—adj. Faith′worthy, worthy of faith or belief.—Bad faith, treachery.—Father of the faithful, Abraham: the caliph.—In good faith, with sincerity.—The Faithful, believers. [M. E. feith, feyth—O. Fr. feid—L. fidesfidĕre, to trust.]

Faitor, fā′tor, n. an impostor: an evil-doer, a scoundrel.—Often Fai′tour. [O. Fr. faitor—L. factor.]

Fake, fāk, v.t. to fold, coil.—n. a coil of rope, &c.

Fake, fāk, v.t. to steal: to make up an article so as to hide its defects.—n. Fake′ment, any swindling device. [Prof. Skeat thinks it merely the Mid. Dut. facken, to catch; Mr Bradley suggests the earlier feak, feague, Ger. fegen, to furbish up.]

Fakir, fa-kēr′, or fā′kėr, n. a member of a religious order of mendicants or penitents in India, &c.—n. Fakir′ism, religious mendicancy. [Ar. faqr, a poor man, fakr, faqr, poverty.]

Fa-la, f-l, n. an old kind of madrigal.

Falbala, fal′ba-la, n. a trimming for women's petticoats: a furbelow. [Ety. dub.; cf. furbelow.]

Falcade, fal′kād′, n. the motion of a horse when he throws himself on his haunches in a very quick curvet. [Fr.,—L. fulcatus, bent.]

Falcate, -d, fal′kāt, -ed, adj. (astron., bot.) bent like a sickle, as the crescent moon, and certain leaves.—ns. Falcā′tion; Fal′cula, a falcate or falciform claw.—adj. Fal′culate. [L. falx, a sickle.]

Falchion, fawl′shun, n. a short, broad sword, bent somewhat like a sickle.—adj. Fal′ciform, sickle-shaped. [O. Fr. fauchon, through Low L., from L. falx, a sickle.]

Falcon, fol′kon, or faw′kn, n. a bird of prey formerly trained to the pursuit of game: a kind of cannon.—ns. Fal′coner, one who sports with, or who breeds and trains, falcons or hawks for taking wild-fowl; Fal′conet, a small field-gun in use till the 16th century.—adj. Fal′con-eyed, keen-eyed.—ns. Fal′con-gen′til, -gen′tle, the female and young of the goshawk.—adj. Fal′conine.—n. Fal′conry, the art of training or hunting with falcons. [O. Fr. faucon—Low L. falcōn-em—L. falx, a hook or sickle.]

Faldage, fal′dāj, n. the right, often reserved by the lord of a manor, of folding his tenant's sheep in his own fields for the sake of the manure: a fee paid for exemption from the foregoing.

Falderal, fl′der-al, n. a meaningless refrain in songs: any kind of flimsy trifle—also Fol′derol and Fal de rol.—Falderal it, to sing unmeaning sounds.

Faldetta, fal-det′a, n. a Maltese woman's combined hood and cape. [It.]

Faldstool, fawld′stōōl, n. a folding or camp stool: a kind of stool for the king at his coronation: a bishop's armless seat: a small desk in churches in England, at which the litany should be sung or said.—n. Fald′istory, a bishop's seat within the chancel. [Low L. faldistolium—Old High Ger. faldan (Ger. falten), to fold, stuol (Ger. stuhl), stool.]

Falernian, fa-ler′ni-an, adj. pertaining to a district (Falernus ager) in Campania, famous of old for its wine.—n. Faler′ne, a modern sweet white wine, produced near Naples.

Fall, fawl, v.i. to drop down: to descend by the force of gravity: to become prostrate: (of a river) to discharge itself: to slope down: to sink as if dead: to vanish: to die away: to lose strength, subside: to decline in power, wealth, value, or reputation: to be overthrown: to be compelled to yield: to become downcast: to sink into sin, to yield to temptation: to depart from the faith: to become dejected: to pass gently into any state, as 'to fall in love,' 'to fall asleep:' to befall: to issue, occur: to enter upon with haste or vehemence: to rush: to be dropped in birth: to be required or necessary: to fall away:—pr.p. fall′ing; pa.t. fell; pa.p. fallen (faw′ln).n. the act of falling, in any of its senses: descent by gravity, a dropping down: that which falls—a trap-door, &c.: as much as comes down at one time, as 'a fall of snow,' &c.: overthrow: death: descent from a better to a worse position: slope or declivity: descent of water: a cascade: length of a fall: outlet of a river: decrease in value: a sinking of the voice: the time when the leaves fall, autumn: a bout at wrestling: the yielding of a city or stronghold to the enemy: that which falls: a lapse into sin, esp. that of Adam and Eve, called 'the Fall:' a kind of collar worn in the 17th century.—adj. Fall′en, in a degraded state, ruined.—ns. Fall′ing, that which falls; Fall′ing-band (see Band); Fall′ing-sick′ness, epilepsy; Fall′ing-star, a meteor; Fall′ing-stone, a portion of an exploded meteor; Fall′trank, a medicine compounded of certain aromatic and astringent Swiss plants, of repute for accidents; Fall′-trap, a trap which operates by falling.—Fall-a, to begin; Fall across, to meet by chance; Fall among, to come into the midst of; Fall away, to decline gradually, to languish: to grow lean: to revolt or apostatise; Fall back, to retreat, give way; Fall back, fall edge, no matter what may happen; Fall back upon, to have recourse to some expedient or resource in reserve; Fall behind, to slacken, to be outstripped; Fall flat, to fail completely, as a shopman in attracting attention or purchasers, a new book, &c.; Fall foul, to come in collision: to quarrel (with of); Fall in (with), to concur or agree: to comply: to place themselves in order, as soldiers; Fall off, to separate or be broken: to die away, to perish: to revolt or apostatise; Fall on, to begin eagerly: to make an attack: to meet; Fall on one's feet, to come well out of a difficulty, to gain any unexpected good fortune; Fall out, to quarrel: to happen or befall; Fall over (Shak.), to go over to the enemy; Fall short, to be deficient (with of); Fall through, to fail, come to nothing; Fall to, to begin hastily and eagerly: to apply one's self to; Fall upon, to attack: to attempt: to rush against.—Try a fall, to take a bout at wrestling. [A.S. feallan; Ger. fallen; prob. conn. with L. fallĕre, to deceive.]

Fall, fawl, n. the cry given when a whale is sighted, or harpooned: the chase of a whale.—Loose fall, the losing of a whale. [Prob. from the north-eastern Scotch pronunciation of whale.]

Fallacy, fal′a-si, n. something fallacious: deceptive appearance: an apparently genuine but really illogical argument: (obs.) deception.—adj. Fallā′cious, calculated to deceive or mislead: not well founded: causing disappointment: delusive.—adv. Fallā′ciously.—n. Fallā′ciousness. [O. Fr. fallace, deceit—L. fallacia, from fallax, deceptive—fallĕre, to deceive.]

Fallal, fal′lal′, or fal-lal′, n. a piece of ribbon worn as a streamer, any trifling ornament.—adj. foppish, trifling.—n. Fallal′ery.—adv. Fallal′ishly.

Fallible, fal′i-bl, adj. liable to error or mistake.—n. Fallibil′ity, liability to err.—adv. Fall′ibly. [Fr.,—Low L. fallibilis, from fallĕre, to deceive.]

Fallopian, fal-lō′pi-an, adj. denoting two tubes or ducts through which the ova pass from the ovary to the uterus in the human subject. [So called because supposed to have been discovered by the Italian anatomist Fallopius (1523-62).]

Fallow, fal′ō, adj. left untilled or unsowed for a time.—n. land that has lain a year or more untilled or unsown after having been ploughed.—v.t. to plough land without seeding it.—ns. Fall′owness, state of being fallow or untilled; Green fall′ow, fallow where land is cleaned by a green crop, as turnips. [Ety. dub.; prob. an assumed A.S. fealgian, that may be confounded with the following word, from the reddish colour of unsown land.]

Fallow, fal′ō, adj. of a brownish-yellow colour.—ns. Fall′ow-chat, Fall′ow-finch, the wheatear or stonechat; Fall′ow-deer, a yellowish-brown deer smaller than the red-deer, with broad flat antlers. [A.S. falu; cf. Ger. fahl, Ice. folr.]

False, fawls, adj. deceptive or deceiving: untruthful: unfaithful to obligations: untrue: not genuine or real, counterfeit: hypocritical: not well founded, or not according to rule: artificial, as opposed to natural, of teeth, &c.—adv. incorrectly: faithlessly.—n. (Shak.) falsehood: untruth.—v.t. (Shak.) to betray.—ns. False conception, a uterine growth consisting of some degenerate mass instead of a fœtus; False′face, a mask.—adjs. False′-faced (Shak.), hypocritical; False′-heart′ed, treacherous, deceitful.—n. False′hood, state or quality of being false: want of truth: want of honesty: deceitfulness: false appearance: an untrue statement: a lie.—adv. False′ly.—ns. False′ness; Fals′er (Spens.), a deceiver, a liar.—adjs. Falsid′ical, deceptive; Fals′ish, somewhat false.—ns. Fals′ism, a self-evident falsity; Fals′ity, quality of being false: a false assertion.—Play one false, to act falsely or treacherously to a person; Put in a false position, to bring any one into a position in which he must be misunderstood. [O. Fr. fals (mod. faux)—L. falsus, pa.p. of fallĕre, to deceive.]

Falsetto, fawl-set′o, n. a forced voice of a range or register above the natural, the head voice. [It. falsetto, dim. of falso, false.]

Falsify, fawls′i-fī, v.t. to forge or counterfeit: to prove untrustworthy: to break by falsehood:—pr.p. fals′ifying; pa.p. fals′ified.adj. Fals′ifīable, capable of being falsified.—ns. Falsificā′tion, the act of making false: the giving to a thing the appearance of something which it is not; Fals′ifier, one who falsifies. [Fr.,—Low L. falsificăre—L. falsus, false, facĕre, to make.]

Falstaffian, fal′staf-i-an, adj. like Shakespeare's Falstaff—corpulent, jovial, humorous, and dissolute.

Falter, fawl′tėr, v.i. to stumble: to fail or stammer in speech: to tremble or totter: to be feeble or irresolute.—n. any unsteadiness.—n. Fal′tering, feebleness, deficiency.—adv. Fal′teringly, in a faltering or hesitating manner. [Prob. a freq. of falden, fold. The conn. with fault, in which the l is late, is untenable.]

Falx, falks, n. a sickle-shaped part or process, as of the dura mater of the skull: a chelicera: a poison-fang of a snake: a rotula of a sea-urchin:—pl. Falces (fal′sēz). [L., a sickle.]

Famble, fam′bl, n. (slang) the hand—also Fam.—v.t. to feel or handle. [Der. obscure; perh. from the obs. verb famble, in its probable original sense, 'to grope, fumble.']

Fame, fām, n. public report or rumour: renown or celebrity, chiefly in good sense.—v.t. to report: to make famous.—n. Fā′ma, report, rumour, fame.—adjs. Famed, renowned; Fame′less, without renown.—Fama clamosa (Scot.), any notorious rumour ascribing immoral conduct to a minister or office-bearer in a church.—House of ill fame, a brothel. [Fr.,—L. fama, from fāri, to speak; cog. with Gr. phēmē, from phanai, to say.]

Familiar, fa-mil′yar, adj. well acquainted or intimate: showing the manner of an intimate: free: unceremonious: having a thorough knowledge of: well known or understood: private, domestic: common, plain.—n. one well or long acquainted: a spirit or demon supposed to attend an individual at call: a member of a pope's or bishop's household: the officer of the Inquisition who arrested the suspected.—v.t. Famil′iarise, to make thoroughly acquainted: to accustom: to make easy by practice or study.—n. Familiar′ity, intimate acquaintanceship: freedom from constraint: any unusual or unwarrantable freedom in act or speech toward another, acts of license—usually in pl.adv. Famil′iarly. [O. Fr. familier—L. familiaris, from familia, a family.]

Family, fam′i-li, n. the household, or all those who live in one house under one head, including parents, children, servants: the children of a person: the descendants of one common progenitor: race: honourable or noble descent: a group of animals, plants, languages, &c. more comprehensive than a genus.—ns. Fam′ilism, the family feeling; Fam′ilist, one of the 16th-cent. mystical sect known as the Family of Love, which based religion upon love independently of faith.—Family Bible, a large Bible for family worship, with a page for recording family events; Family coach, a large carriage able to carry a whole family; Family man, a man with a family: a domesticated man.—Be in the family way, to be pregnant; In a family way, in a domestic manner. [L. familiafamulus, a servant.]

Famine, fam′in, n. general scarcity of food: extreme scarcity of anything, as in 'famine prices,' &c.: hunger: starvation. [Fr., through an unrecorded Low L. famina, from L. fames, hunger.]

Famish, fam′ish, v.t. to starve.—v.i. to die or suffer extreme hunger or thirst.—n. Fam′ishment, starvation. [Obs. fame, to starve—L. fames, hunger.]

Famous, fā′mus, adj. renowned: noted.—v.t. to make famous.—adv. Fā′mously.—n. Fā′mousness. [O. Fr.,—L. famosusfama.]

Famulus, fam′ū-lus, n. a private secretary or factotum: an attendant, esp. on a magician or scholar.—n. Fam′ulist, a collegian of inferior position (Dr Murray doubts the word). [L. famulus, a servant.]


Fan, fan, n. an instrument for winnowing grain: a broad, flat instrument used by ladies to cool themselves: a wing: a small sail to keep a windmill to the wind: the agitation of the air caused by a fan.—v.t. to cool with a fan: to winnow: to ventilate: to remove by waving a fan:—pr.p. fan′ning; pa.p. fanned.—ns. Fan′-blast, in ironworks the blast produced by a fan, as distinguished from that produced by a blowing-engine; Fan′-crick′et, the mole-cricket, fen-cricket, or churr-worm.—adj. Fan′-nerved, in entomology, having a fan-like arrangement of the nervures or veins of the wings.—ns. Fan′light, a window resembling in form an open fan; Fan′ner, a machine with revolving fans, used for winnowing grain, &c.; Fan′-palm, a species of palm 60 or 70 feet high, with fan-shaped leaves, used for umbrellas, tents, &c.; Fan′-tail, an artificial fan-tailed variety of the domestic pigeon; Fan′-trāc′ery (archit.), tracery rising from a capital or a corbel, and diverging like the folds of a fan over the surface of a vault; Fan′-wheel, a wheel with fans on its rim for producing a current of air. [A.S. fann, from L. vannus, a fan; cf. Fr. van.]

Fanal, fā′nal, n. (arch.) a lighthouse, a beacon. [Fr.,—Gr. phanos, a lantern, phainein, to show.]

Fanatic, fa-nat′ik, adj. extravagantly or unreasonably zealous, esp. in religion: excessively enthusiastic.—n. a person frantically or excessively enthusiastic, esp. on religious subjects.—adj. Fanat′ical, fanatic, (Shak.) extravagant.—adv. Fanat′ically.—v.t. Fanat′icise, to make fanatical.—v.i. to act as a fanatic.—n. Fanat′icism, wild and excessive religious enthusiasm. [Fr.,—L. fanaticus, belonging to a temple, inspired by a god, fanum, a temple.]

Fancy, fan′si, n. that faculty of the mind by which it recalls, represents, or makes to appear past images or impressions: an image or representation thus formed in the mind: an unreasonable or capricious opinion: a whim: capricious inclination or liking: taste: (Shak.) love.—adj. pleasing to, or guided by, fancy or caprice: elegant or ornamental.—v.t. to portray in the mind: to imagine: to have a fancy or liking for: to be pleased with: to breed animals:—pr.p. fan′cying; pa.p. fan′cied.p.adj. Fan′cied, formed or conceived by the fancy: imagined.—n. Fan′cier, one who has a special liking for anything, or who keeps a special article for sale: one who is governed by fancy.—adj. Fan′ciful, guided or created by fancy: imaginative: whimsical: wild.—adv. Fan′cifully.—n. Fan′cifulness.—adj. Fan′ciless, destitute of fancy.—ns. Fan′cy-ball, a ball at which fancy-dresses in various characters are worn; Fan′cy-dress, dress arranged according to the wearer's fancy, to represent some character in history or fiction; Fan′cy-fair, a special sale of fancy articles for some charitable purpose.—adj. Fan′cy-free (Shak.), free from the power of love.— Fan′cy-goods, fabrics of variegated rather than simple pattern, applied generally to articles of show and ornament.—n. Fan′cy-mong′er (Shak.), one who deals in tricks of imagination.—adj. Fan′cy-sick (Shak.), of distempered mind, love-sick.—ns. Fan′cy-stitch, a more intricate and decorative stitch than plain-stitch; Fan′cy-stroke (billiards), an unusual stroke, or one made to show off one's skill; Fan′cy-work, ornamental needlework.—The fancy, sporting characters generally, esp. pugilists: pugilism. [Contracted from fantasy.]

Fand, fand (Spens.), pa.t. of Find.

Fand, fand, Fond, fond, v.i. (Spens.) to try, attempt. [A.S. fandian.]

Fandango, fan-dan′go, n. an old Spanish dance for two, in time, with castanets, proceeding gradually from a slow and uniform to the liveliest motion: a gathering for dancing, a ball. [Sp.]

Fane, fān, n. (obs.) a flag: weathercock. [Vane.]

Fane, fān, n. a temple. [L. fanum.]

Fanfare, fan-fār′, n. a flourish of trumpets or bugles—also Fanfarade′.—ns. Fan′faron, one who uses bravado: a blusterer, braggart; Fan′faronade, vain boasting: bluster: ostentation.—v.i. to bluster. [Fr. fanfare, perh. from the sound.]

Fang, fang, n. the tooth of a ravenous beast: a claw or talon: the venom-tooth of a serpent: (Shak.) a grip, catch.—v.t. (obs.) to seize upon, catch.—adjs. Fanged, having fangs, clutches, or anything resembling them; Fang′less, having no fangs or tusks: toothless.—Lose the fang (of a pump), to be dry, to have no water (Scot.). [A.S. fang, from fn, to seize; Ger. fangen, to catch, Dut. vangen.]

Fangle, fang′gl, n. (Milt.) fancy.—adj. Fang′led (obs. save in newfangled, q.v.), newly made, new-fashioned: showy, gaudy.—n. Fang′leness.

Fanion, fan′yun, n. a small marking-flag used at a station in surveying. [O. Fr.,—Low L. fano.]

Fannel, fan′el, n. a vexillum or banner.

Fanon, fan′on, n. a cloth for handling the holy vessels or the offertory bread: a maniple or napkin used by the celebrant at mass: an orale: a fannel: one of the lappets of a mitre: (surg.) a fold of linen laid under a splint. [O. Fr.]

Fantasia, fan-t′zi-a, n. a musical composition, not governed by the ordinary musical rules. [It., from Gr. phantasia. See Fancy.]

Fantasy, Phantasy, fan′ta-si, n. fancy: imagination: mental image: love: whim, caprice.—v.t. to fancy, conceive mentally.—adj. Fan′tasied, filled with fancies.—n. Fan′tasm (same as Phantasm).—adj. Fan′tasque, fantastic.—ns. Fan′tast, a person of fantastic ideas; Fantas′tic, one who is fantastical.—adjs. Fantas′tic, -al, fanciful: not real: capricious: whimsical: wild.—adv. Fantas′tically.—n. Fantas′ticalness.—v.t. and v.i. Fantas′ticate.—ns. Fantas′ticism; Fantas′tico (Shak.), a fantastic. [O. Fr.,—Low L. phantasticus—Gr. phantastikos, phantazein, to make visible. Fancy is a doublet.]

Fantoccini, fan-to-chē′nē, puppets worked by machinery: dramatic performances by puppets. [It., pl. of fantoccino, dim. of fantoccio, a puppet—fante, a boy.]

Fantom, fan′tom, n. Same as Phantom.

Fap, fap, adj. (Shak.) fuddled, drunk.

Faquir, fak-ēr′, n. Same as Fakir.

Far, fr, adj. remote: more distant of two: remote from or contrary to purpose or design.—adv. to a great distance in time, space, or proportion: remotely: considerably or in great part: very much: to a great height: to a certain point, degree, or distance.—v.t. (prov.) to remove to a distance.—adjs. Far′-away′, distant: abstracted, absent-minded; Far′-fetched, fetched or brought from a remote place: forced, unnatural—(obs.) Far′fet.—advs. Far′-forth (Spens.), very far; Far′most, most distant or remote.—n. Far′ness, the state of being far: remoteness, distance.—adj. and adv. Far′-off, distant.—adjs. Far′-reach′ing, exerting influence to a great distance and for a long time; Far′-sight′ed, seeing to a great distance: having defective eyesight for near objects; Far′-sought, sought for at a distance; Far′-spent, far advanced.—Far and away, by a great deal; By far, in a very great degree; I'll see you far (or farther) first, I will not do it by any means; In so far as, to the extent that. [A.S. feor; Dut. ver; Ice. fiarre; Ger. fern.]

Far, fr, n. (prov.) a litter of pigs.

Farad, far′ad, n. the name of the practical unit of electrical capacity—the capacity of a conductor which when raised to a potential of one volt has a charge of one coulomb.—adj. Farad′ic.—n. Faradisā′tion.—v.t. Far′adise.—ns. Far′adism; Microfar′ad, the millionth part of a farad. [From Michael Faraday (1791-1867).]

Farand, Farrand, far′and, adj. (Scot.) having a certain favour or appearance, esp. in such compound forms as auld-farand, old-fashioned; ill-faured, ill-favoured, &c. [M. E. farand, comely. Origin obscure; most prob. the verb fare (q.v.).]

Farce, frs, n. a style of comedy marked by low humour and extravagant wit: ridiculous or empty show.—n. Far′ceur, a joker.—adj. Far′cical.—n. Farcical′ity, farcical quality.—adv. Far′cically.—v.t. Far′cify, to turn into a farce. [Fr. farce, stuffing, from L. farcīre, to stuff, applied, acc. to H. Bradley, to words put between Kyrie and Eleison in religious services, then to the interpolated gag in a religious play, next a buffoon performance.]

Farce, frs, v.t. to cram: to stuff, fill with stuffing: (Shak.) to swell out.—n. Far′cing, stuffing. [O. Fr. farsir—L. farcīre, to cram.]

Farcy, fr′si, n. a disease of horses like glanders—(obs.) Far′cin.—adj. Far′cied.—n. Far′cy-bud, a swollen lymphatic gland, as in farcy. [Fr. farcin—Low L. farciminum.]

Fard, frd, n. white paint for the face.—v.t. to paint with such, to embellish. [Fr., of Teut. origin, Old High Ger. farwjan, to colour.]

Fardage, fr′dāj, n. (naut.) loose wood or other material stowed among the cargo to keep it from shifting, or put under it to keep it above the bilge. [Fr.]

Fardel, fr′del, n. a pack: anything cumbersome or irksome.—adj. Far′del-bound, constipated, esp. of cattle and sheep, by the retention of food in the third stomach. [O. Fr. fardel (Fr. fardeau), dim. of farde, a burden—Ar. fardah, a package (Devic).]

Farding-bag, fr′ding-bag, n. the first stomach of a cow or other ruminant.

Fare, fār, v.i. to get on or succeed: to happen well or ill to: to be in any particular state, to be, to go on: to feed.—n. the price of passage—(orig.) a course or passage: those conveyed in a carriage: food or provisions for the table.—interj. Farewell′, may you fare well! a wish for safety or success.—n. well-wishing at parting: the act of departure.—adj. parting: final. [A.S. faran; Ger. fahren.]

Farina, fa-rī′na, or fa-rē′na, n. ground corn: meal: starch: pollen of plants.—adjs. Farinā′ceous, mealy; Farinose′, yielding farina. [L.,—far.]

Farl, frl, n. (Scot.) the quarter of a round cake of flour or oatmeal. [Fardel, a fourth part.]

Farm, frm, n. land let or rented for cultivation or pasturage, with the necessary buildings: (Spens.) habitation: (Shak.) a lease.—v.t. to let out as lands to a tenant: to take on lease: to grant certain rights in return for a portion of what they yield, as to farm the taxes: to cultivate, as land.—adj. Farm′able.—ns. Farm′-bai′liff; Farm′er, one who farms or cultivates land: the tenant of a farm: one who collects taxes, &c., for a certain rate per cent.:—fem. Farm′eress; Farm′ering, the business of a farmer.— Farm′ers-gen′eral, the name given before the French Revolution to the members of a privileged association in France, who leased the public revenues of the nation.—ns. Farm′ery, the buildings of a farm; Farm′-house, a house attached to a farm in which the farmer lives; Farm′ing, the business of cultivating land; Farm′-lā′bourer.— Farm′-off′ices, the offices or outbuildings on a farm.—ns. Farm′stead, a farm with the buildings belonging to it; Farm′-yard, the yard or enclosure surrounded by the farm buildings. [A.S. feorm, goods, entertainment, from Low L. firma—L. firmus, firm. The Low L. firma meant a fixed payment, also a signature (whence our 'firm' in business); from 'rent' farm passed to 'lease,' then to 'a tract of land held on lease.' Farm is therefore a doublet of firm.]

Faro, fār′o, n. a game of chance played by betting on the order in which certain cards will appear when taken singly from the top of the pack. [Perh. from King Pharaoh on one of the cards.]

Farrago, far-rā′gō, n. a confused mass.—adj. Farrā′ginous, miscellaneous, jumbled. [L., far, grain.]

Farrier, far′i-ėr, n. one who shoes horses: one who cures the diseases of horses.—n. Farr′iery, the art of curing the diseases of cattle. [O. Fr. ferrier, through Low L. ferrarius, from L. ferrum, iron.]

Farrow, far′ō, n. a litter of pigs.—v.i. or v.t. to bring forth pigs. [A.S. fearh, a pig; Ger. ferkel.]

Farrow, far′rō, adj. not producing young in a particular season, said of cows. [Ety. dub.; with farrow cow cf. Flem. verwekoe, varwekoe.]

Farse, frs, n. an explanation of the Latin epistle in the vernacular.—v.t. to extend by interpolation.

Fart, fart, v.i. to break wind.—n. a noisy expulsion of wind. [A.S. feortan; Ger. farzen.]

Farther, fr′thėr, adj. (comp. of Far) more far or distant: tending to a greater distance: longer: additional.—adv. at or to a greater distance; more remotely: beyond: moreover.—adjs. and advs. Far′thermore, furthermore; Far′thermost, furthermost.—adj. Farthest (superl. of Far), most far, distant, or remote.—adv. at or to the greatest distance. [A rather recent form, comp. of far, the euphonic th being inserted from the analogy of further.]

Farthing, fr′thing, n. the fourth of a penny: anything very small: (B.) the rendering for two names of coins, one the fourth part of the other—assarion, used as the Gr. equivalent of the L. as, and kodrantes (L. quadrans), a coin equivalent to two lepta.—n. Far′thingful. [A.S. forthing, a fourth part—fortha, fourth, and dim. -ing, or -ling.]

Farthingale, fr′thing-gāl, n. a kind of crinoline of whalebone for distending women's dress. [O. Fr. verdugale—Sp. verdugado, hooped, verdugo, rod.]

Fasces, fas′ēz, a bundle of rods with an axe in the middle, borne before the ancient Roman principal magistrates. [L. fascis, a bundle.]

Fascia, fash′i-a, n. (archit.) a flat space or band between mouldings: (anat.) a layer of condensed connective tissue between some muscle and any other tissue.—adjs. Fas′cial; Fas′ciated.—n. Fasciā′tion (bot.), a form of monstrosity by the flattening of a single stem, or the lateral union of several stems. [L.]

Fascicle, fas′i-kl, n. a little bundle: (bot.) a close cluster, the flowers crowded together, as in the sweet-william—also Fas′cicule.—adjs. Fas′cicled, Fascic′ular, Fascic′ulate, -d, united as in a bundle.—n. Fascic′ulus, a fascicle: a part of a book issued in parts. [L. fasciculus, dim. of fascis, a bundle.]

Fascinate, fas′i-nāt, v.t. to control by the glance: to charm: to captivate: to enchant, esp. by the evil eye.—adj. Fas′cinating, charming, delightful.—n. Fascinā′tion, the act of charming: power to harm by looks or spells: mysterious attractive power exerted by a man's words or manner: irresistible power of alluring: state of being fascinated. [L. fascināre, -ātum; perh. allied to Gr. baskainein, to bewitch.]

Fascine, fas-sēn′, n. (fort.) a brushwood faggot bound together with wire, yarn, or withes, used to fill ditches, &c. [Fr.,—L. fascinafascis, a bundle.]

Fash, fash, v.t. (Scot.) to trouble, annoy.—v.i. to be vexed at, to take trouble or pains.—n. pains, trouble.—adj. Fash′ious, troublesome, vexatious.—ns. Fash′iousness, Fash′ery. [O. Fr. fascher (Fr. fcher)—L. fastidium, fastidiosus, fastidious.]

Fashion, fash′un, n. the make or cut of a thing: form or pattern: prevailing mode or shape of dress: a prevailing custom: manner: genteel society: appearance.—v.t. to make: to mould according to a pattern: to suit or adapt.—adj. Fash′ionable, made according to prevailing fashion: prevailing or in use at any period: observant of the fashion in dress or living: moving in high society: patronised by people of fashion.—n. a person of fashion.—n. Fash′ionableness.—adv. Fash′ionably.—ns. Fash′ioner; Fash′ionist.—adjs. Fash′ionmongering, Fash′ionmonging (Shak.), behaving like a fop.—After, or In, a fashion, in a way: to a certain extent; In the fashion, in accordance with the prevailing style of dress, &c.—opp. to Out of fashion. [O. Fr. fachon—L. faction-emfacĕre, to make.]

Fast, fast, adj. firm: fixed: steadfast: fortified: (of sleep) sound (Shak.).—adv. firmly, unflinchingly: soundly or sound (asleep): quickly: close, near.—n. Fast-and-loose, the name of a cheating game practised at fairs—called also Prick-the-garter.—adj. Fast′-hand′ed, close-fisted.—adv. Fast′ly (Shak.), firmly.—n. Fast′ness, fixedness: a stronghold, fortress, castle.—Fast by, close to.—Play fast and loose (from the foregoing), to be unreliable, to say one thing and do another; Hard-and-fast (see Hard). [A.S. fst; Ger. fest.]

Fast, fast, adj. quick: rapid: rash: dissipated.—adv. swiftly: in rapid succession: extravagantly.—adj. Fast′ish, somewhat fast. [A special use of fast, firm, derived from the Scand., in the sense of urgent.]

Fast, fast, v.i. to keep from food: to go hungry: to abstain from food in whole or part, as a religious duty.—n. abstinence from food: special abstinence enjoined by the church: the day or time of fasting.—ns. Fast′-day, a day of religious fasting: (Scot.) a day for humiliation and prayer, esp. before celebrations of the Lord's Supper; Fast′ens, short for Fastens-eve (Scot. Fasten-e'en and Fastern's-e'en), Fastens Tuesday, Shrove Tuesday; Fast′er, one who fasts: Fast′ing, religious abstinence. [A.S. fstan, to fast; Ger. fasten, to keep: perh. allied with fast, firm, in the sense of making strict.]

Fasten, fas′n, v.t. to make fast or tight: to fix securely: to attach firmly one thing to another: to confirm.—v.i. to fix itself.—n. Fas′tening, that which fastens.

Fasti, fas′tī, those days among the ancient Romans on which it was lawful to transact legal or public business—opp. to Nefasti: an enumeration of the days of the year, a calendar. [L.]

Fastidious, fas-tid′i-us, adj. affecting superior taste: over-nice: difficult to please.—adv. Fastid′iously.—n. Fastid′iousness. [L. fastidiosusfastidium, loathing—fastus, pride, tdium, loathing.]

Fastigiate, fas-tij′i-āt, adj. pointed, sloping to a point or edge—also Fastig′iated.—n. Fastig′ium, the apex of a building: the pediment of a portico. [L. fastigāre, -ātumfastigium, a gable-end, roof.]

Fat, fat, adj. plump, fleshy: fruitful, esp. profitable: gross: thick, full-bodied, esp. of printing-types.—n. an oily substance under the skin: solid animal oil: the richest part of anything.—v.t. to make fat.—v.i. to grow fat:—pr.p. fat′ting; pa.p. fat′ted.adj. Fat′brained (Shak.), dull of apprehension.—ns. Fat′-hen (prov.), any one of various plants of thick succulent foliage, esp. pigweed, orach, and ground-ivy; Fat′ling, a young animal fattened for slaughter.—adj. small and fat.—n. Fat′-lute, a mixture of pipe-clay and linseed-oil, for filling joints, &c.—adv. Fat′ly, grossly: in a lumbering manner.—n. Fat′ness, quality or state of being fat: fullness of flesh: richness: fertility: that which makes fertile.—v.t. Fat′ten, to make fat or fleshy: to make fertile.—v.i. to grow fat.—ns. Fat′tener, he who, or that which, fattens; Fat′tening, the process of making fat: state of growing fat; Fat′tiness.—adjs. Fat′tish, somewhat fat; Fat′-witted, dull, stupid; Fat′ty, containing fat or having the qualities of fat.—Fat images, those in relief.—The fat is in the fire, things have gone to confusion. [A.S. ft; Ger. fett.]

Fat, fat, n. a vessel for holding liquids: a vat: a dry measure of nine bushels. [See Vat.]

Fata Morgana, f′t mor-g′n, a striking kind of mirage seen most often in the Strait of Messina. [Supposed to be caused by the fairy (fata) Morgana of Arthurian romance.]

Fate, fāt, n. inevitable destiny or necessity: appointed lot: ill-fortune: doom: final issue: (pl.) the three goddesses of fate, Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos, who determined the birth, life, and death of men—the Fatal Sisters.—adj. Fāt′al, belonging to or appointed by fate: causing ruin or death: mortal: calamitous.—ns. Fāt′alism, the doctrine that all events are subject to fate, and happen by unavoidable necessity; Fāt′alist, one who believes in fatalism.—adj. Fāt′alistic, belonging to or partaking of fatalism.—n. Fatal′ity, the state of being fatal or unavoidable: the decree of fate: fixed tendency to disaster or death: mortality: a fatal occurrence.—adv. Fāt′ally.—adjs. Fāt′ed, doomed: destined: (Shak.) invested with the power of destiny: (Dryden) enchanted; Fate′ful, charged with fate.—adv. Fate′fully.—n. Fate′fulness. [L. fatum, a prediction—fatus, spoken—fāri, to speak.]

Father, f′thėr, n. a male parent: an ancestor or forefather: a fatherly protector: a contriver or originator: a title of respect applied to a venerable man, to confessors, monks, priests, &c.: a member of certain fraternities, as 'Fathers of the Oratory,' &c.: the oldest member of any profession or other body: one of a group of ecclesiastical writers of the early centuries, usually ending with Ambrose, Jerome, and Augustine: the first person of the Trinity.—v.t. to adopt: to ascribe to one as his offspring or production.—ns. Fa′therhood, state of being a father: fatherly authority; Fa′ther-in-law, the father of one's husband or wife; Fa′therland, the land of one's fathers—from the Ger. Vaterland; Fa′ther-lash′er, a name applied to two bull-heads found on the British coasts, belonging to the Gurnard family.—adj. Fa′therless, destitute of a living father: without a known author.—ns. Fa′therlessness; Fa′therliness.—adj. Fa′therly, like a father in affection and care: paternal.—n. Fa′thership.—Holy Father, the Pope.—Be gathered to one's fathers (B.), to die and be buried. [A.S. fder; Ger. vater, L. pater, Gr. patēr.]

Fathom, fath′um, n. a nautical measure=6 feet: depth: (Shak.) penetration.—v.t. to try the depth of: to comprehend or get to the bottom of.—adjs. Fath′omable; Fath′omless.—n. Fath′om-line, a sailor's line and lead for taking soundings. [A.S. faethm; Dut. vadem, Ger. faden.]

Fatidical, fa-tid′ik-al, adj. having power to foretell future events: prophetical.—adv. Fatid′ically. [L. fatidicusfatum, fate, dicĕre, to tell.]

Fatigue, fa-tēg′, n. weariness from labour of body or of mind: toil: military work, distinct from the use of arms.—v.t. to reduce to weariness: to exhaust one's strength: to harass.—pr.p. fatigu′ing; pa.p. fatigued′.adj. Fat′igate (Shak.), fatigued.—n. Fatigue′-dū′ty, the part of a soldier's work distinct from the use of arms—also in fatigue-dress, &c.—adv. Fatigu′ingly. [Fr.,—L. fatigāre, to weary.]

Fatiscent, fā-tis′ent, adj. gaping.—n. Fatis′cence.

Fattrels, fat′relz, (Scot.) ends of ribbon. [O. Fr. fatraille, trumpery.]

Fatuous, fat′ū-us, adj. silly: imbecile: without reality—also Fatū′itous.—n. Fatūity, unconscious stupidity: imbecility. [L. fatuus.]

Faubourg, fō′bōōrg, n. a suburb just beyond the walls, or a district recently included within a city. [O. Fr. forbourg, lit. 'out-town'—fors (Fr. hors)—L. foris, out of doors, and O. Fr. bourg, town.]

Fauces, faw′sēz, the upper part of the throat, from the root of the tongue to the entrance of the gullet.—adj. Fau′cal, produced in the fauces, as certain Semitic guttural sounds. [L.]

Faucet, faw′set, n. a pipe inserted in a barrel to draw liquid. [Fr. fausset.]

Faugh, faw, interj. an exclamation of contempt or disgust. [Prob. from the sound.]

Faulchion, an obsolete form of falchion.

Fault, fawlt, n. a failing: error: blemish: imperfection: a slight offence: (geol., min.) a displacement of strata or veins: (tennis) a stroke in which the player fails to serve the ball into the proper place.—adj. Fault′ful (Shak.), full of faults or crimes.—adv. Fault′ily.—n. Fault′iness.—adj. Fault′less, without fault or defect.—adv. Fault′lessly.—n. Fault′lessness.—adj. Fault′y, imperfect, defective: guilty of a fault: blamable.—At fault, open to blame: (of dogs) unable to find the scent; Find fault (with), to censure for some defect. [O. Fr. faute, falte—L. fallĕre, to deceive.]

Fauna, fawn′a, n. animals collectively, or those of a particular country, or of a particular geological period:—pl. Faun′, Faun′as.—n. Faun, a Roman rural deity, protector of shepherds.—adj. Faun′al.—n. Faun′ist, one who studies a fauna. [L. faunus, from favēre, fautum, to favour.]

Fauteuil, fō-tey′, n. an arm-chair, esp. a president's chair, the seat of one of the forty members of the French Academy. [Fr.]

Fautor, faw′tor, n. a favourer or supporter. [O. Fr. fauteur—L. fautorfavēre, to favour.]

Faveolate, fā-vē′ō-lāt, adj. honeycombed.—Also Favose′.

Fauvette, fō-vet′, n. a name applied to warblers in general. [Fr.]

Favonian, fav-ō′ni-an, adj. pertaining to the west wind, favourable. [L. Favonius, the west wind.]

Favour, fā′vur, n. countenance: good-will: a kind deed: an act of grace or lenity: indulgence: partiality: advantage: a knot of ribbons worn at a wedding, or anything worn publicly as a pledge of a woman's favour: (arch.) countenance, appearance: a letter or written communication: (Shak.) an attraction or grace.—v.t. to regard with good-will: to be on the side of: to treat indulgently: to afford advantage to: (coll.) to resemble.—adj. Fā′vourable, friendly: propitious: conducive to: advantageous.—n. Fā′vourableness.—adv. Fā′vourably.—p.adj. Fā′voured, having a certain appearance, featured—as in ill-favoured, well-favoured.—ns. Fā′vouredness; Fā′vourer; Fā′vourite, a person or thing regarded with favour or preference: one unduly loved: a kind of curl of the hair, affected by ladies of the 18th century.—adj. esteemed, preferred.—n. Fā′vouritism, the practice of showing partiality.—adj. Fā′vourless, without favour: (Spens.) not favouring.—Favours to come, favours still expected; Curry favour (see Curry). [O. Fr.,—L. favorfavēre, to favour, befriend.]

Favus, fāv′us, n. a disease of the skin, chiefly of the hairy scalp. [L. 'a honeycomb.']

Faw, faw, n. a gipsy. [From the surname Faa.]

Fawn, fawn, n. a young deer.—adj. resembling a fawn in colour.—v.i. to bring forth a fawn. [O. Fr. faon, through Low L. from L. fœtus, offspring.]

Fawn, fawn, v.i. to cringe, to flatter in a servile way (with upon).—n. (rare) a servile cringe or bow: mean flattery.—ns. Fawn′er, one who flatters to gain favour; Fawn′ing, mean flattery: sycophancy.—adv. Fawn′ingly.—n. Fawn′ingness. [A variant of fain, to rejoice—A.S. fgen, glad.]

Fay, fā, n. a fairy. [O. Fr. fee—L. fata, a fairy—L. fatum, fate.]

Fay, fā, n. (Shak.) faith.

Fay, fā, v.i. to fit, unite closely.—v.t. to fit together closely. [A.S. fgan; Ger. fgen.]

Fay, Fey, fā, v.t. (prov.) to clean out, as a ditch.

Feague, fēg, v.t. (obs.) to whip: to perplex. [Cog. with Dut. vegen, Ger. fegen.]

Feal, fē′al, adj. (obs.) loyal, faithful.

Feal, fēl, v.t. (prov.) to conceal.

Fealty, fē′al-ti, or fēl′ti, n. the vassal's oath of fidelity to his feudal lord: loyalty. [O. Fr. fealte—L. fidelitat-emfidelis, faithful—fidĕre, to trust.]

Fear, fēr, n. a painful emotion excited by danger: apprehension of danger or pain: alarm: the object of fear: aptness to cause fear: (B.) deep reverence: piety towards God.—v.t. to regard with fear: to expect with alarm: (B.) to stand in awe of: to venerate: (obs.) to terrify: to make afraid.—v.i. to be afraid: to be in doubt.—adj. Fear′ful, timorous: exciting intense fear: terrible.—adv. Fear′fully.—n. Fear′fulness.—adj. Fear′less, without fear: daring: brave.—adv. Fear′lessly.—ns. Fear′lessness; Fear′nought (same as Dreadnaught).—adj. Fear′some, causing fear, frightful.—adv. Fear′somely. [A.S. fǽr, fear, fǽran, to terrify; cf. Ger. gefahr, Ice. fr, harm, mischief.]

Fear, fēr, n. (Spens.) a companion. [See Fere.]

Feasible, fēz′i-bl, adj. practicable.—ns. Feas′ibleness, Feasibil′ity.—adv. Feas′ibly. [Fr. faisable, that can be done—faire, faisant—L. facĕre, to do.]

Feast, fēst, n. a day of unusual solemnity or joy: a festival in commemoration of some event—movable, such as occurs on a specific day of the week succeeding a certain day of the month, as Easter; immovable, at a fixed date, as Christmas: a rich and abundant repast: rich enjoyment for the mind or heart.—v.i. to hold a feast: to eat sumptuously: to receive intense delight.—v.t. to entertain sumptuously.—ns. Feast′-day; Feast′er.—adj. Feast′ful, festive, joyful, luxurious.—ns. Feast′ing; Feast′-rite, a rite or custom observed at feasts.—adj. Feast′-won (Shak.), won or bribed by feasting.—Feast of fools, Feast of asses, medieval festivals, held between Christmas and Epiphany, in which a burlesque bishop was enthroned in church, and a burlesque mass said by his orders, and an ass driven round in triumph.—Double feast (eccles.), one on which the antiphon is doubled. [O. Fr. feste (Fr. fte)—L. festum, a holiday, festus, solemn, festal.]

Feat, fēt, n. a deed manifesting extraordinary strength, skill, or courage.—v.t. (Shak.) to fashion.—adj. neat, deft.—adj. Feat′eous, dexterous, neat.—adv. Feat′ly, neatly, dexterously—(Spens.) Feat′eously. [Fr. fait—L. factum—L. facĕre, to do.]

Feather, feth′ėr, n. one of the growths which form the covering of a bird: a feather-like ornament: the feathered end of an arrow: nature, kind, as in 'birds of a feather:' birds collectively: anything light or trifling.—v.t. to furnish or adorn with feathers.—ns. Feath′er-bed, a mattress filled with feathers; Feath′er-board′ing (same as Weather-boarding, q.v.).—p.adj. Feath′ered, covered or fitted with feathers, or anything feather-like: like the flight of a feathered animal, swift: smoothed as with feathers.—ns. Feath′er-edge, an edge of a board or plank thinner than the other edge; Feath′er-grass, a perennial grass, so called from the feathery appearance of its awns; Feath′er-head, Feath′er-brain, a frivolous person; Feath′eriness; Feath′ering, plumage: the fitting of feathers to arrows: (archit.) an arrangement of small arcs or foils separated by projecting cusps, frequently forming the feather-like ornament on the inner mouldings of arches; Feath′er-star, a crinoid of feathery appearance and radiate structure; Feath′er-weight, the lightest weight that may be carried by a racing-horse: a boxer, wrestler, &c., of a class below the light-weights—hence one of small importance or ability.—adj. Feath′ery, pertaining to, resembling, or covered with feathers.—Feather an oar, to turn the blade of the oar horizontally as it comes out of the water, thus lessening the resistance of the air; Feather one's nest, to accumulate wealth for one's self while serving others in a position of trust.—A feather in one's cap, some striking mark of distinction; Be in high feather, to be greatly elated or in high spirits; Make the feathers fly, to throw into confusion by a sudden attack; Show the white feather, to show signs of cowardice—a white feather in a gamecock's tail being considered as a sign of degeneracy. [A.S. feer; Ger. feder; L. penna, Gr. pteron.]

Feature, fēt′ūr, n. the marks by which anything is recognised: the prominent traits of anything: the cast of the face: (pl.) the countenance.—v.t. (coll.) to have features resembling.—adjs. Feat′ured, with features well marked; Feat′ureless, destitute of distinct features; Feat′urely, handsome. [O. Fr. faiture, from fut. part. of L. facĕre, to make.]

Febricule, feb′ri-kūl, n. a slight fever.—adj. Febri′culose.—n. Febriculos′ity. [L. febricula, dim. of febris, fever.]

Febrific, fe-brif′ik, adj. producing fever, feverish.—Also Febrifā′cient. [L. febris, fever, facĕre, to make.]

Febrifuge, feb′ri-fūj, n. a medicine for removing fever.—adj. Febrif′ugal (or feb′-). [L. febris, fever, fugāre, to put to flight.]

Febrile, fē′bril, or feb′ril, adj. pertaining to fever: feverish.—n. Febril′ity. [Fr.,—L. febris, fever.]

Febronianism, feb-rō′ni-an-izm, n. a system of doctrine antagonistic to the claims of the Pope and asserting the independence of national churches, propounded in 1763 by Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim under the pseudonym 'Justinus Febronius.'

February, feb′rōō-ar-i, n. the second month of the year. [L. Februarius (mensis), the month of expiation, februa, the feast of expiation.]

Feces, Fecal. See Fces, Fcal.

Fecial. See Fetial.

Feck, fek, n. (Scot.) strength, value, quantity, number: the bulk of anything.—adj. Feck′less, spiritless.—adv. Feck′ly, mostly. [Corr. of effect.]

Fecula, fek′ū-la, n. starch obtained as a sediment by breaking down certain plants or seeds in water. [L. fcula, dim. of fx, dregs.]

Feculent, fek′ū-lent, adj. containing fces or sediment: muddy: foul.—ns. Fec′ulence, Fec′ulency.

Fecund, fek′und, adj. fruitful: fertile: prolific.—v.t. Fec′undāte, Fecund′āte, to make fruitful: to impregnate.—ns. Fecundā′tion, the act of impregnating: the state of being impregnated; Fecund′ity, fruitfulness: prolificness in female animals. [Fr.,—L. fecundus, fruitful.]

Fed, pa.t. and pa.p. of Feed.

Fedary, fed′ar-i (Shak.). Same as Federary.

Federal, fed′ėr-al, adj. pertaining to or consisting of a treaty or covenant: confederated, founded upon mutual agreement: of a union or government in which several states, while independent in home affairs, combine for national or general purposes, as in the United States (in the American Civil War, Federal was the name applied to the states of the North which defended the Union against the Confederate separatists of the South).—n. a supporter of federation: a Unionist soldier in the American Civil War.—n. Fed′eracy.—v.t. Fed′eralise.—ns. Fed′eralism, the principles or cause maintained by federalists; Fed′eralist, a supporter of a federal constitution or union; Fed′erary (Shak.), a confederate.—adj. Fed′erāte, united by league: confederated.—n. Federā′tion, the act of uniting in league: a federal union.—adj. Fed′erātive, united in league.—Federal (or Covenant) theology, that first worked out by Cocceius (1603-69), based on the idea of two covenants between God and man—of Works and of Grace (see Covenant). [Fr. fdral—L. fœdus, fœderis, a treaty, akin to fidĕre, to trust.]

Fee, fē, n. price paid for services, as to a lawyer or physician: recompense, wages: the sum exacted for any special privilege: a grant of land for feudal service: an unconditional inheritance—Fee′-sim′ple, possession: ownership.—v.t. to pay a fee to: to hire:—pr.p. fee′ing; pa.p. feed.—ns. Fee′-grief (Shak.), a private grief; Fee′ing-mar′ket (Scot.), a fair or market at which farm-servants are hired for the year or half-year following; Fee′-tail, an entailed estate, which on failure of heirs reverts to the donor.—Base fee, a qualified fee, a freehold estate of inheritance to which a qualification is annexed; Conditional fee, a fee granted on condition, or limited to particular heirs: the estate of a mortgagee of land, possession of which is conditional on payment; Great fee, the holding of a tenant of the Crown. [A.S. feoh, cattle, property: a special kind of property, property in land; Ger. vieh, Ice. f; allied to L. pecus, cattle, pecunia, money.]

Feeble, fē′bl, adj. weak: wanting in strength of body, energy, or efficiency: showing weakness or incapacity: faint: dull.—adj. Fee′ble-mind′ed, weak-minded: irresolute.—n. Fee′bleness—(Spens.) Fe′blesse.—adv. Fee′bly. [O. Fr. foible, for floible—L. flebilis, lamentable, from flēre, to weep.]

Feed, fēd, v.t. to give food to: to nourish: to furnish with necessary material: to foster.—v.i. to take food: to nourish one's self by eating:—pr.p. feed′ing; pa.t. and pa.p. fed.—n. an allowance of provender, esp. to cattle: the motion forward of anything being fed to a machine: (Milt.) a meal: (Shak.) pasture land.—ns. Feed′er, he who feeds, or that which supplies: an eater: one who abets another: one who fattens cattle: (obs.) a parasite; Feed′-head, the cistern that supplies water to the boiler of a steam-engine; Feed′-heat′er, an apparatus for heating the water supplied to a steam-boiler; Feed′ing, act of eating: that which is eaten: pasture: the placing of the sheets of paper in position for a printing or ruling machine; Feed′ing-bott′le, a bottle for supplying liquid food to an infant; Feed′-pipe, a pipe for supplying a boiler or cistern with water; Feed′-pump, a force-pump for supplying a steam-engine boiler with water. [A.S. fdan, to feed.]

Fee-faw-fum, fē′-faw′-fum′, n. a nursery word for anything frightful.

Feel, fēl, v.t. to perceive by the touch: to handle or try by touch: to be conscious of: to be keenly sensible of: to have an inward persuasion of.—v.i. to know by the touch: to have the emotions excited: to produce a certain sensation when touched, as to feel hard or hot:—pr.p. feel′ing; pa.t. and pa.p. felt.—n. the sensation of touch.—ns. Feel′er, a remark cautiously dropped, or any indirect stratagem, to sound the opinions of others: (pl.) jointed fibres in the heads of insects, &c., possessed of a delicate sense of touch, termed antenn; Feel′ing, the sense of touch: perception of objects by touch: consciousness of pleasure or pain: tenderness: emotion: sensibility, susceptibility, sentimentality: opinion as resulting from emotion: (pl.) the affections or passions.—adj. expressive of great sensibility or tenderness: easily affected.—adv. Feel′ingly.—Feel after (B.), to search for. [A.S. flan, to feel; Ger. fhlen; prob. akin to L. palpāre, to quiver.]

Feer, fēr, n. (Spens.) a companion, a spouse. [A.S. ge-fra, a companion—ge-fran, to travel.]

Fee-simple, Fee-tail. See under Fee.

Feet, fēt, pl. of Foot.—adj. Feet′less, without feet.

Feign, fān, v.t. to invent: to imagine: to make a show or pretence of, to counterfeit, simulate.—adj. Feigned, pretended: simulating.—adv. Feign′edly.—ns. Feign′edness; Feign′ing. [Fr. feindre, pr.p. feignant, to feign.—L. fingĕre, fictum, to form.]

Feint, fānt, n. a false appearance: a pretence: a mock-assault: a deceptive movement in fencing, boxing, &c.—v.i. to make a feint. [Fr., see above.]

Feldspar, feld′spr, n. (min.) a general term for the most important rock-forming group of minerals—all anhydrous silicates of alumina—divided into those in which the minerals crystallise in monoclinic and in triclinic forms—also Fel′spar, Feld′spath.—adjs. Feldspath′ic, Feld′spathose. [Ger. feldspathfeld, a field, spath, spar.]

Felicity, fe-lis′i-ti, n. happiness: delight: a blessing: a happy event.—v.t. Felic′itāte, to express joy or pleasure to: to congratulate.—n. Felicitā′tion, the act of congratulating.—adj. Felic′itous, happy: prosperous: delightful: appropriate.—adv. Felic′itously. [Fr.,—L. felicitat-em, from felix, -icis, happy.]

Feline, fē′līn, adj. pertaining to the cat or the cat kind: like a cat.—ns. Felin′ity; Fē′lis, the cats as a genus, the typical genus of family Fē′lid and subfamily Fēlī′n. [L. felinusfelis, a cat.]

Fell, fel, n. a barren hill. [Ice. fjall; Dan. fjeld.]

Fell, fel, pa.t. of Fall.

Fell, fel, v.t. to cause to fall: to bring to the ground: to cut down.—adj. Fell′able.—n. Fell′er, a cutter of wood. [A.S. fellan, causal form of feallan, to fall.]

Fell, fel, n. a skin.—n. Fell′monger, a dealer in skins. [A.S. fel; cf. L. pellis, Gr. pella, Ger. fell.]

Fell, fel, n. (Spens.) anger, melancholy. [L. fel, bile.]

Fell, fel, adj. cruel: fierce: bloody: deadly: keen, eager, spirited: (Scot.) very great, huge.—adj. Fell′-lurking (Shak.), lurking with treacherous purpose.—n. Fell′ness.—adv. Fell′y. [O. Fr. fel, cruel—L. fello. See Felon.]

Fellah, fel′, n. an Arabic name applied contemptuously by the Turks to the labouring or agricultural population of Egypt—descendants of the ancient Egyptian, intermingled with Syrians, Arabs, &c.:—pl. Fell′ahs, Fell′ahn. [Ar., 'tiller of the soil.']

Fellic, fel′ik, adj. obtained from bile—also Fellin′ic.—adj. Fellif′luous, flowing with gall. [L. fel, gall.]

Felloe. See Felly.

Fellonous, fel′lon-us, adj. (Spens.) fell.—adj. Fel′lonest, most fell.

Fellow, fel′ō, n. an associate: a companion and equal: one of a pair, a mate: a member of a university who enjoys a fellowship: a member of a scientific or other society: an individual, a person generally: a worthless person.—ns. Fell′ow-cit′izen, one belonging to the same city; Fell′ow-comm′oner, at Cambridge and elsewhere, a privileged class of undergraduates, dining at the Fellows' table; Fell′ow-crea′ture, one of the same race; Fell′ow-feel′ing, feeling between fellows or equals: sympathy; Fell′ow-heir, a joint-heir.—adv. Fell′owly (Shak.), companionable.—ns. Fell′ow-man, a man of the same common nature with one's self; Fell′ow-serv′ant, one who has the same master; Fell′owship, the state of being a fellow or partner: friendly intercourse: communion: an association: an endowment in a college for the support of graduates called Fellows: the position and income of a fellow: (arith.) the proportional division of profit and loss among partners.—Good fellowship, companionableness; Right hand of fellowship, the right hand given by one minister or elder to another at an ordination in some churches. [M. E. felawe—Ice. flagi, a partner in goods, from f (Ger. vieh), cattle, property, and lag, a laying together, a law. Cf. Eng. Fee, and Law.]

Felly, fel′ī, Felloe, fel′ō, n. one of the curved pieces in the circumference of a wheel: the circular rim of the wheel. [A.S. felg; Ger. felge.]

Felon, fel′on, n. one guilty of felony: a convict: a wicked person: an inflamed sore.—adj. wicked or cruel.—adj. Felō′nious, wicked: depraved: done with the deliberate intention to commit crime.—adv. Felō′niously.—n. Felō′niousness, the quality of being felonious.—adj. Fel′onous (Spens.), felonious.—ns. Fel′onry, a body of felons; Fel′ony, (orig.) a crime punished by total forfeiture of lands, &c.: a grave crime, beyond a misdemeanour, as that punishable by penal servitude or death. [O. Fr.,—Low L. fellonem, fello, a traitor, prob. L. fel, gall.]

Felsite, fel′sīt, n. a fine-grained, compact rock, a variety of quartz-porphyry—also Fel′stone.—adj. Felsit′ic. [Fr.,—Ger. fels, rock.]

Felspar. Same as Feldspar.

Felt, felt, pa.t. and pa.p. of Feel.

Felt, felt, n. a fabric formed without weaving, by means of the natural tendency of the fibres of wool and certain kinds of hair to interlace with and cling to each other.—v.t. to make into felt: to cover with felt.—v.t. Felt′er, to mat together like felt.—n. Felt′ing, the art or process of making felt: the felt itself. [A.S. felt; cf. Dut. vilt, Ger. filz.]

Felucca, fe-luk′a, n. a class of small merchant-vessels, used in the Mediterranean, with two masts, lateen sails, and often a rudder at each end. [It. feluca, which, like Fr. felouque, is from Ar. fulk, a ship.]

Female, fē′māl, adj. of the sex that produces young: pertaining to females: (bot.) having a pistil or fruit-bearing organ.—n. one of the female sex, a woman.—ns. Femal′ity, Feminal′ity, the female nature.—adj. Fem′inal.—n. Feminē′ity, the quality of being female.—adj. Fem′inine, pertaining to women: tender: womanly: (gram.) the gender denoting females.—adv. Fem′ininely.—ns. Fem′inineness; Feminin′ity, the nature of the female sex.—Female screw, a screw cut upon the inward surface of a cylindrical hole in wood or metal; Feminine rhyme, a rhyme between words that terminate each in an unaccented syllable. [Fr. femelle—L. femella, dim. of femina, a woman.]

Femerell, fem′er-el, n. a louvre or covering on the roof of a kitchen, &c., to allow the smoke to escape.

Femur, fē′mer, n. the thigh-bone.—adj. Fem′oral, belonging to the thigh.—Femoral artery, the main artery of the thigh. [L. femoralisfemur, thigh.]

Fen, fen, n. a kind of low marshy land often, or partially, covered with water: a morass or bog.—ns. Fen′-berr′y, the cranberry; Fen′-fire, the Will-o'-the-wisp.—adjs. Fen′ny, Fen′nish; Fen′-sucked (Shak.), drawn out of bogs. [A.S. fenn; Ice. fen.]

Fen, fen, v.t. an exclamatory phrase in boys' games, meaning 'Check!' 'Bar!' [Cf. Fend.]

Fence, fens, n. a wall or hedge for enclosing animals or for protecting land: the art of fencing: defence: a receiver of stolen goods, also a receiving-house.—v.t. to enclose with a fence: to fortify.—v.i. to practise fencing: to conceal the truth by equivocal answers.—adjs. Fenced, enclosed with a fence; Fence′less, without fence or enclosure, open.—n. Fenc′er, one who practises fencing with a sword.—adj. Fenc′ible, capable of being fenced or defended.— Fenc′ibles, volunteer regiments raised for local defence during a special crisis: militia enlisted for home service.—p.adj. Fenc′ing, defending or guarding.—n. the act of erecting a fence: the art of attack and defence with a sword or other weapon.—n. Fenc′ing-mas′ter, one who teaches fencing.—Fence the tables, in the ancient usage of Scotland, to debar from partaking in communion those guilty of any known sin.—Sit on the fence, to be still hesitating as between two opinions; Sunk fence, a ditch or water-course. [Abbrev. of defence.]

Fend, fend, v.t. to ward off: to shut out: to defend.—v.i. to offer resistance: to make provision for.—n. self-support, the shift one makes for one's self.—adj. Fend′y, shifty. [Abbrev. of defend.]

Fender, fend′ėr, n. a metal guard before a fire to confine the ashes: a protection for a ship's side against piers, &c., consisting of a bundle of rope, &c.—ns. Fend′er-beam, a fender of wood, protecting a ship's side in dock: a permanent buffer at the end of a railway siding; Fend′er-board, a board protecting the steps of a carriage from the dust thrown up by the wheels. [Fend.]

Fenestella, fen-es-tel′a, n. a niche on the south side of an altar, containing the piscina, and sometimes the credence: a genus of Polyzoa, like the recent 'lace coral,' very common in Palozoic rocks. [L., dim. of fenestra, a window.]

Fenestral, fe-nes′tral, adj. belonging to or like a window: with transparent spots—also Fenes′trāte.—n. Fenestrā′tion, the arrangement of windows in a building. [L. fenestralisfenestra, window.]

Fengite, fen′jīt, n. a transparent alabaster for window panes.

Fenian, fē′ne-an, n. a member of an association of Irishmen founded in New York in 1857 for the overthrow of the English government in Ireland.—adj. belonging to the legendary Fenians, or to the modern conspirators.—n. Fē′nianism. [Old Ir. Fne, one of the names of the ancient population of Ireland, confused in modern times with fann, the militia of Finn and other ancient Irish kings.]

Fenks, fengks, n. the refuse of whale-blubber.—Also Finks.

Fennec, fen′ek, n. a little African fox with large ears. [Moorish.]

Fennel, fen′el, n. a genus of umbelliferous plants, allied to Dill, but distinguished by the cylindrical, strongly-ribbed fruit, the flower yellow.—n. Fenn′el-flow′er, the Nigella Damascena, or ragged lady. [A.S. finul—L. fœniculum, fennel—fenum, hay.]

Fent, fent, n. (prov.) a slit, crack: a remnant or odd piece. [O. Fr. fente—L. findĕre, to cleave.]

Fenugreek, fen′ū-grēk, n. a genus of leguminous plants, allied to clover and melilot. [L. fenum-grcum, 'Greek hay.']

Feod, Feodal, Feodary. Same as Feud, Feudal, Feudary.

Feoff, fef, n. a fief.—v.t. to grant possession of a fief or property in land.—ns. Feoffee′, the person invested with the fief; Feoff′er, Feoff′or, he who grants the fief; Feoff′ment, the gift of a fief or feoff. [O. Fr. feoffer or fiefer—O. Fr. fief. See Fee.]

Feracious, fe-rā′shus, adj. fruitful.—n. Ferac′ity (rare). [L. ferax, -acisferre, to bear.]

Fer-de-lance, fār′de-lngs′, n. the lance-headed or yellow viper of tropical America.

Fere, fēr, n. (Spens.) a mate, companion, equal. [A.S. gefra, a companion, ge-fran, to travel.]

Feretory, fer′e-tor-i, n. a shrine for relics carried in processions. [L. feretrumferre, to bear.]

Ferial, fē′ri-al, adj. pertaining to holidays (feri), belonging to any day of the week which is neither a fast nor a festival. [Fr.,—L. feria, a holiday.]

Ferine, fē′rin, adj. pertaining to, or like, a wild beast: savage.— Fer (fē′rē), wild animals.—adj. Fē′ral, wild, run wild.—n. Fer′ity, wildness.—Fēr natur, those animals that are wild or not domesticated, including game animals—deer, hares, pheasants, &c. [L. ferinusfera, a wild beast—ferus; akin to Gr. thēr, Ger. thier, a beast.]

Feringhee, fer-ing′gē, n. a Hindu name for an Englishman.—Also Farin′gee. [A corr. of Frank.]

Ferly, fer′li, adj. fearful: sudden: singular.—n. a wonder.—v.i. to wonder. [A.S. fǽrlic, sudden; cf. Ger. ge-fhrlich, dangerous.]

Ferm, fėrm, n. a farm: (Spens.) abode, lodging.

Fermata, fer-m′ta, n. (mus.) a pause or break. [It.]

Ferment, fėr′ment, n. what excites fermentation, as yeast, leaven: internal motion amongst the parts of a fluid: agitation: tumult.—v.t. Ferment′, to excite fermentation: to inflame.—v.i. to rise and swell by the action of fermentation: to work, used of wine, &c.: to be in excited action: to be stirred with anger.—n. Fermentabil′ity.—adj. Ferment′able, capable of fermentation.—n. Fermentā′tion, the act or process of fermenting: the change which takes place in liquids exposed to air: the kind of spontaneous decomposition which produces alcohol: restless action of the mind or feelings.—adj. Ferment′ative, causing or consisting in fermentation.—n. Ferment′ativeness.—adj. Fermentes′cible, capable of being fermented. [Fr.,—L. fermentum, for fervimentumfervēre, to boil.]

Fermeture, fer′me-tūr, n. a mechanism for closing the chamber of a breech-loading gun. [Fr.,—L. firmāre, to make fast.]

Fern, fern, n. one of the beautiful class of higher or vascular cryptogamous plants—the natural order Filices.—ns. Fern′ery, a place for rearing ferns; Fern′-owl, the European goatsucker or night-jar; Fern′-seed, the spores of ferns, which, properly gathered, render the bearers invisible; Fern′shaw, a thicket of ferns; Fern′ticle, a freckle.—adjs. Fern′ticled; Fern′y. [A.S. fearn; Ger. farn.]

Ferocious, fe-rō′shus, adj. savage, fierce: cruel.—adv. Ferō′ciously.—ns. Ferō′ciousness; Feroc′ity, savage cruelty of disposition: untamed fierceness. [L. ferox, ferocis, wild—ferus, wild.]

Ferrandine, fer′an-din, n. a silk and wool or silk and hair cloth.—Also Farr′andine. [Fr.]

Ferrara, fer-′ra, n. a make of sword-blade highly esteemed in Scotland from about the close of the 16th century—often Andrea Ferrara—said to have been made at Belluno in Venetia by Cosmo, Andrea, and Gianantonio Ferrara. [Perh. a native of Ferrara, or prob. merely the It. ferrajo, a cutler—L. ferrarius, a smith.]

Ferreous, fer′e-us, adj. pertaining to, or made of, iron. [L. ferreusferrum, iron.]

Ferret, fer′et, n. ribbon woven from spun silk. [Corr. from It. fioretto—L. flos, floris, a flower.]

Ferret, fer′et, n. a half-tamed albino variety of the polecat, employed in unearthing rabbits.—v.t. to drive out of a hiding-place: to search out cunningly:—pr.p. ferr′eting; pa.p. ferr′eted.n. Ferr′eter, one who uses a ferret to catch rabbits, &c.: one who searches minutely. [O. Fr. furet, a ferret—Low L. furon-em, robber—L. fur, a thief.]

Ferriage, fer′ri-āj, n. See Ferry.

Ferric, fer′ik, adj. pertaining to or obtained from iron: noting an acid compounded of iron and oxygen.—ns. Ferr′ate, a salt formed by the union of ferric acid with a base; Ferrocyanogen (fer-o-sī-an′ō-jen), a compound radical supposed by chemists to exist in ferrocyanic acid and the ferrocyanides, the chief of which is potassium ferrocyanide, yielding Prussian blue; Ferr′otype, a photographic process in which the negative was developed by a saturated solution of protosulphate of iron. [L. ferrum, iron.]

Ferriferous, fer-rif′ėr-us, adj. bearing or yielding iron. [L. ferrum, iron, ferre, to bear.]

Ferruginous, fer-rōō′jin-us, adj. of the colour of iron-rust impregnated with iron.—n. Ferru′go, a disease of plants, commonly called rust. [L. ferrugineusferrugo, -inem, iron-rust—ferrum, iron.]

Ferrule, fer′il, or fer′ōōl, n. a metal ring or cap on a staff, &c., to keep it from splitting.—Also Ferr′el. [O. Fr. virole—L. viriola, a bracelet.]

Ferry, fer′i, v.t. to carry or convey over a water in a boat:—pr.p. ferr′ying; pa.p. ferr′ied.n. a place where one is carried by boat across a water: the right of conveying passengers: the ferry-boat.—ns. Ferr′iage, provision for ferrying: the fare paid for such; Ferr′y-boat; Ferr′y-man. [A.S. ferian, to convey, faran, to go; Ger. fhre, a ferry—fahren, to go, to carry.]

Fertile, fėr′til, adj. able to bear or produce abundantly: rich in resources: inventive: fertilising.—adv. Fer′tilely.—n. Fertilisā′tion, the act or process of fertilising.—v.t. Fer′tilise, to make fertile or fruitful: to enrich.—ns. Fer′tiliser, one who, or that which, fertilises; Fertil′ity, fruitfulness: richness: abundance. [Fr.,—L. fertilisferre, to bear.]

Ferule, fer′ōōl, n. a cane or rod used for striking children in punishment.—n. Fer′ula, a staff of command.—adj. Ferulā′ceous, pertaining to canes or reeds. [L. ferula, a cane—ferīre, to strike.]

Fervent, fėr′vent, adj. ardent: zealous: warm in feeling.—n. Fer′vency, eagerness: warmth of devotion.—adv. Fer′vently.—adjs. Ferves′cent, growing hot; Fer′vid, very hot: having burning desire or emotion: zealous.—n. Fervid′ity.—adv. Fer′vidly.—ns. Fer′vidness; Fer′vour, heat: heat of mind, zeal. [Fr.,—L. fervēre, to boil.]

Fescennine, fes′e-nin, adj. scurrilous.—Fescennine verses consisted of dialogues in rude extempore verses, generally in Saturnian measure, in which the parties rallied and ridiculed one another. The style, afterwards popular at Rome, originated in the Etruscan town Fescennium.

Fescue, fes′kū, n. a genus of grasses, very nearly allied to Brome-grass, and including many valuable pasture and fodder grasses: a small straw or wire used to point out letters to children when learning to read. [O. Fr. festu—L. festūca, a straw.]

Fesse, Fess, fes, n. (her.) one of the ordinaries—a band over the middle of an escutcheon, one-third its breadth. [Fr. fasce—L. fascia, a band.]

Festal, fes′tal, adj. pertaining to a feast or holiday: joyous: gay.—adv. Fes′tally.—n. Festil′ogy, a treatise on ecclesiastical festivals.

Fester, fes′tėr, v.i. to become corrupt or malignant: to suppurate.—v.t. to cause to fester or rankle.—n. a wound discharging corrupt matter. [O. Fr. festre—L. fistula, an ulcer.]

Festinate, fes′ti-nāt, v.t. to accelerate.—adj. (Shak.) hurried, hasty.—adv. Fes′tinately (Shak.), hastily.—n. Festinā′tion. [L. festinaāre, -ātum, to hurry.]

Festive, fes′tiv, adj. festal: mirthful.—n. Fes′tival, a joyful celebration: a feast.—adv. Fes′tively.—n. Festiv′ity, social mirth: joyfulness: gaiety.—adj. Fes′tivous, festive. [L. festivusfestus.]

Festoon, fes-tōōn′, n. a garland suspended between two points: (archit.) an ornament like a wreath of flowers, &c.—v.t. to adorn with festoons.—n. Festoon′-blind, a window-blind of cloth gathered into rows of festoons in its width. [Fr. feston—Low L. festo(n-), a garland—L. festum.]

Fet, Fett, fet, v.t. obsolete form of fetch.

Fetal. See Fœtus.

Fetch, fech, v.t. to bring: to go and get: to obtain as its price: to accomplish in any way: to bring down, to cause to yield: to reach or attain.—v.i. to turn: (naut.) to arrive at.—n. the act of bringing: space carried over: a stratagem.—adj. Fetch′ing, fascinating.—Fetch and carry, to perform humble services for another; Fetch a pump, to pour water in so as to make it draw; Fetch out, to draw forth, develop; Fetch to, to revive, as from a swoon; Fetch up, to recover: to come to a sudden stop. [A.S. feccan, an altered form of fetian, to fetch; cf. Ger. fassen, to seize.]

Fetch, fech, n. the apparition, double, or wraith of a living person.—n. Fetch′-can′dle, a nocturnal light, supposed to portend a death. [Ety. unknown.]

Fte, fāt, n. a festival: a holiday.—v.t. to entertain at a feast.—n. Fte′-day, a birthday.—Fte champtre, an outdoor entertainment. [Fr.]

Fetial, fē′shal, adj. pertaining to the Roman fetiales, heraldic, ambassadorial.—Also Fē′cial.

Fetich, Fetish, fē′tish, n. an object, either natural or artificial, capable of being appropriated by an individual whose possession of it procures the services of a spirit lodged within it.—ns. Fē′tichism, Fē′tishism, the worship of a fetich: a belief in charms.—adjs. Fetichist′ic, Fetishist′ic. [Fr. ftiche—Port. feitio, magic: a name given by the Portuguese to the gods of West Africa—Port. feitio, artificial—L. factitiusfacĕre, to make.]

Feticide. See Fœtus.

Fetid, fē′tid, or fet′id, adj. stinking: having a strong offensive odour.—ns. Fē′tidness, Fē′tor, Fœ′tor. [L. fœtidusfœtēre, to stink.]

Fetlock, fet′lok, n. a tuft of hair that grows behind on horses' feet: the part where this hair grows.—adj. Fet′locked, tied by the fetlock. [History obscure; often explained as compounded of foot and lock (of hair); cf. Ger. fiszloch.]

Fetter, fet′ėr, n. a chain or shackle for the feet: anything that restrains—used chiefly in pl.v.t. to put fetters on: to restrain.—adjs. Fett′ered, bound by fetters: (zool.) of feet bent backward and apparently unfit for walking; Fett′erless, without fetters, unrestrained.—n. Fett′erlock (her.) a shackle or lock. [A.S. feterft, feet, pl. of ft, foot.]

Fettle, fet′l, v.t. (prov.) to arrange, mend.—v.i. to potter fussily about.—n. preparedness, ready condition. [Prob. A.S. fetel, a belt.]

Fetus. See Fœtus.

Feu, fū, n. (Scot.) a tenure where the vassal, in place of military services, makes a return in grain or in money: a right to the use of land, houses, &c., in perpetuity, for a stipulated annual payment (Feu′-dū′ty).—v.t. to vest in one who undertakes to pay the feu-duty—n. Feu′ar, one who holds real estate in consideration of a payment called feu-duty. [O. Fr. feu. See the variant Fee.]

Feud, fūd, n. a war waged by private individuals, families, or clans against one another on their own account: a bloody strife.—Right of feud, the right to protect one's self and one's kinsmen, and punish injuries. [O. Fr. faide, feide—Low L. faida—Old High Ger. fēhida. See Foe.]

Feud, fūd, n. a fief or land held on condition of service.—adj. Feud′al, pertaining to feuds or fiefs: belonging to feudalism.—n. Feudalisā′tion.—v.t. Feud′alise.—ns. Feud′alism, the system, during the Middle Ages, by which vassals held lands from lords-superior on condition of military service; Feud′alist; Feudal′ity, the state of being feudal: the feudal system.—adv. Feud′ally.—adjs. Feud′ary, Feud′atory, holding lands or power by a feudal tenure—also ns.ns. Feud′ist, a writer on feuds: one versed in the laws of feudal tenure. [Low L. feudum, from root of fee.]

Feuilleton, fė′lye-tong, n. the portion of a newspaper set apart for intelligence of a non-political character—criticisms on art or letters, or a serial story—usually marked off by a line.—n. Feuil′letonism, superficial qualities in literature, &c. [Fr. dim. of feuillet, a leaf—L. folium, a leaf.]

Fever, fē′vėr, n. disease marked by great bodily heat and quickening of pulse: extreme excitement of the passions, agitation: a painful degree of anxiety.—v.t. to put into a fever.—v.i. to become fevered.—adj. Fē′vered, affected with fever, excited.—ns. Fē′ver-few, a composite perennial closely allied to camomile, so called from its supposed power as a febrifuge; Fē′ver-heat, the heat of fever: an excessive degree of excitement.—adj. Fē′verish, slightly fevered: indicating fever: fidgety: fickle: morbidly eager.—adv. Fē′verishly.—n. Fē′verishness.—adj. Fē′verous, feverish: marked by sudden changes. [A.S. ffor—L. febris.]

Few, fū, adj. small in number: not many.—n. Few′ness.—A few, used colloquially for 'a good bit;' A good few, a considerable number; In few=in a few (words), briefly; Some few, an inconsiderable number; The few, the minority. [A.S. fa, pl. fawe; Fr. peu; L. paucus, small.]

Fewter, fū′tėr, v.t. (Spens.) to set close, to fix in rest, as a spear. [O. Fr. feutrefeutre, felt.]

Fewtrils, fū′trilz, (prov.) little things, trifles. [See Fattrels.]

Fey, Fay, fā, adj. doomed, fated soon to die, under the shadow of a sudden or violent death—often marked by extravagantly high spirits. [M. E. fay, fey—A.S. fǽge, doomed; cf. Dut. veeg, about to die.]

Fez, fez, n. a red brimless cap of wool or felt, fitting closely to the head, with a tassel of black or blue, worn in Turkey, Egypt, &c.—in Africa usually called tarbsh. [From Fez in Morocco.]

Fiacre, fē-′kr, n. a hackney-coach. [Fr., from the Htel de St Fiacre in Paris, where first used.]

Fiance, fē-ong-sā′, n. a woman betrothed:—masc. Fianc. [Fr., fiancer, to betroth—L. fidentia, confidence, fidĕre, to trust.]

Fiars, fī′arz, (Scot.) the prices of grain legally struck or fixed for the year at the Fiars Court, so as to regulate the payment of stipend, rent, and prices not expressly agreed upon. [Conn. with fiar, the holder of a fee (q.v.).]

Fiasco, fi-as′ko, n. a failure in a musical performance: a failure of any kind. [It. fiasco, bottle, perh. from L. vasculum, a little vessel, vas, a vessel.]

Fiat, fī′at, n. a formal or solemn command: a short order or warrant of a judge for making out or allowing processes, letters-patent, &c.—(Spens.) Fī′aun.—v.t. to sanction, [L. 'let it be done,' 3d pers. sing. pres. subj. of fiĕri, passive of facĕre, to do.]

Fib, fib, n. something said falsely: a mild expression for a lie.—v.i. to tell a fib or lie: to speak falsely:—pr.p. fib′bing; pa.p. fibbed.—ns. Fib′ber, one who fibs; Fib′bery (rare), the habit of fibbing; Fib′ster, a fibber. [An abbrev. of fable.]

Fibre, fī′bėr, n. a conglomeration of thread-like tissue such as exists in animals or vegetables: any fine thread, or thread-like substance: material, substance.—adjs. Fī′bred, having fibres; Fī′breless, having no fibres; Fī′briform, fibrous in form or structure.—ns. Fī′bril, a small fibre; one of the extremely minute threads composing an animal fibre; Fibril′la, a fibril, filament.— Fibril′l.—n. Fibrillā′tion, the process of becoming fibrillated.—adj. Fī′brillous, formed of small fibres.—ns. Fī′brin, a proteid substance which appears in the blood after it is shed, and by its appearance gives rise to the process of coagulation or clotting; Fibrinā′tion, the process of adding fibrin to the blood.—adj. Fī′brinous, of or like fibrin.—n. Fibrocar′tilage, a firm elastic material like fibrous tissue and cartilage.—adj. Fī′broid, of a fibrous character.—ns. Fī′broin, the chief chemical constituent of silk, cobwebs, and the horny skeleton of sponges; Fibrō′ma, a tumour or growth consisting largely of fibrous matter; Fibrō′sis, a morbid growth of fibrous matter.—adj. Fī′brous, composed of fibres.—n. Fī′brousness. [Fr.,—L. fibra, a thread.]

Fibroline, fib′rō-lēn, n. a yarn manufactured from the waste in hemp, flax, and jute spinning works, for backs of carpets, &c.

Fibula, fib′ū-la, n. a clasp or buckle; the outer of the two bones from the knee to the ankle.—adjs. Fib′ular, Fib′ulate, Fib′ulous. [L.]

Fichu, fē-sh′, n. a three-cornered cape worn over the shoulders, the ends crossed upon the bosom: a triangular piece of muslin, &c., for the neck. [Fr.]

Fickle, fik′l, adj. inconstant: changeable.—n. Fick′leness. [A.S. ficol; gefic, fraud.]

Fico, fē′ko, n. (Shak.) a motion of contempt by placing the thumb between two fingers. [It.,—L.]

Fictile, fik′til, adj. used or fashioned by the potter, plastic. [L. fictilisfingĕre, to form or fashion.]

Fiction, fik′shun, n. a feigned or false story: a falsehood: romance: the novel, story-telling as a branch of literature: a supposition of law that a thing is true, which is either certainly not true, or at least is as probably false as true.—adj. Fic′tional.—n. Fic′tionist, a writer of fiction.—adj. Ficti′tious, imaginary: not real: forged.—adv. Ficti′tiously.—adj. Fic′tive, fictitious, imaginative.—n. Fic′tor, one who makes images of clay, &c. [Fr.,—L. fiction-emfictus, pa.p. of fingĕre.]

Fid, fid, n. a conical pin of hard wood, used by sailors to open the strands of a rope in splicing: a square bar of wood or iron, with a shoulder at one end, used to support the weight of the topmast or top-gallant-mast when swayed up into place.

Fiddle, fid′l, n. a stringed instrument of music, called also a Violin.—v.t. or v.i. to play on a fiddle: to be busy over trifles, to trifle:—pr.p. fidd′ling; pa.p. fidd′led.ns. Fidd′le-block, a long block having two sheaves of different diameters in the same plane; Fidd′le-bow, a bow strung with horse-hair, with which the strings of the fiddle are set vibrating.—interjs. Fidd′le-de-dee, Fidd′lestick (often pl.), nonsense!—v.i. Fidd′le-fadd′le, to trifle, to dally.—n. trifling talk.—adj. fussy, trifling.—interj. nonsense!—n. Fidd′le-fadd′ler.—adj. Fidd′le-fadd′ling.—ns. Fidd′le-head, an ornament at a ship's bow, over the cut-water, consisting of a scroll turning aft or inward; Fidd′ler, one who fiddles: a small crab of genus Gelasimus; Fidd′le-string, a string for a fiddle; Fidd′le-wood, a tropical American tree yielding valuable hard wood.—adj. Fidd′ling, trifling, busy about trifles.—Fiddler's green, a sailor's name for a place of frolic on shore.—Play first, or second, fiddle, to take the part of the first, or second, violin-player in an orchestra: to take a leading, or a subordinate, part in anything; Scotch fiddle, the itch. [A.S. fiele; Ger. fiedel. See Violin.]

Fidelity, fi-del′i-ti, n. faithful performance of duty: faithfulness to a husband or wife: honesty: firm adherence. [L. fidelitat-emfidelis, faithful—fidĕre, to trust.]

Fidget, fij′et, v.i. to be unable to rest: to move uneasily:—pr.p. fidg′eting; pa.p. fidg′eted.n. irregular motion: restlessness: (pl.) general nervous restlessness, with a desire of changing the position.—v.i. Fidge, to move about restlessly: to be eager.—n. Fidg′etiness.—adj. Fidg′ety, restless: uneasy. [Perh. related to fike (q.v.).]

Fiducial, fi-dū′shi-al, adj. showing confidence or reliance: of the nature of a trust.—adv. Fidū′cially.—adj. Fidū′ciary, confident: unwavering: held in trust.—n. one who holds anything in trust: (theol.) one who depends for salvation on faith without works, an Antinomian. [L. fiducia, confidence, from fidĕre, to trust.]

Fie, fī, interj. denoting disapprobation or disgust. [Scand., Ice. f, fei, fie! cf. Ger. pfui.]

Fief, fēf, n. land held of a superior in fee or on condition of military service: a feud. [Fr.,—Low L. feudum.]

Field, fēld, n. country or open country in general: a piece of ground enclosed for tillage or pasture: the range of any series of actions or energies: the locality of a battle: the battle itself: room for action of any kind: a wide expanse: (her.) the surface of a shield: the background on which figures are drawn: the part of a coin left unoccupied by the main device: those taking part in a hunt: all the entries collectively against which a single contestant has to compete: all the parties not individually excepted, as 'to bet on the field' in a horse-race.—v.t. at cricket and base-ball, to catch or stop and return to the fixed place.—v.i. to stand in positions so as to catch the ball easily in cricket.—ns. Field′-allow′ance, a small extra payment to officers on active service; Field′-artill′ery, light ordnance suited for active operations in the field; Field′-bed, a camp or trestle bedstead; Field′-book, a book used in surveying fields.— Field′-col′ours, small flags used for marking the position for companies and regiments, also any regimental headquarters' flags.—n. Field′-day, a day when troops are drawn out for instruction in field exercises: any day of unusual bustle.—adj. Field′ed (Shak.), encamped.—ns. Field′er, one who fields; Field′fare, a species of thrush, having a reddish-yellow throat and breast spotted with black; Field′-glass, a binocular telescope slung over the shoulder in a case; Field′-gun, a light cannon mounted on a carriage; Field′-hand, an outdoor farm labourer; Field′-hos′pital, a temporary hospital near the scene of battle; Field′-ice, ice formed in the polar seas in large surfaces, distinguished from icebergs; Field′ing, the acting in the field at cricket as distinguished from batting; Field′-mar′shal, an officer of the highest rank in the army; Field′-meet′ing, a conventicle; Field′-mouse, a species of mouse that lives in the fields; Field′-night, a night marked by some important gathering, discussion, &c.; Field′-off′icer, a military officer above the rank of captain, and below that of general; Field′piece, a cannon or piece of artillery used in the field of battle; Field′-preach′er, one who preaches in the open air; Field′-preach′ing; Fields′man, a fielder.— Field′-sports, sports of the field, as hunting, racing, &c.—n. Field′-train, a department of the Royal Artillery responsible for the safety and supply of ammunition during war.—advs. Field′ward, -wards, toward the fields.— Field′works, temporary works thrown up by troops in the field, either for protection or to cover an attack upon a stronghold.—Field of vision, the compass of visual power.—Keep the field, to keep the campaign open: to maintain one's ground. [A.S. feld; cf. Dut. veld, the open country, Ger. feld.]

Fiend, fēnd, n. the devil: one actuated by the most intense wickedness or hate.—adj. Fiend′ish, like a fiend; malicious.—n. Fiend′ishness.—adj. Fiend′like, like a fiend: fiendish. [A.S. fend, pr.p. of fen, to hate; Ger. feind, Dut. vijand.]

Fierce, fērs, adj. ferocious: violent: angry.—adv. Fierce′ly.—n. Fierce′ness. [O. Fr. fers (Fr. fier)—L. ferus, wild, savage.]

Fiery, fīr′i, or fī′ėr-i, adj. ardent: impetuous: irritable.—adv. Fier′ily.—ns. Fier′iness; Fier′y-cross (see Cross).—adjs. Fier′y-foot′ed, swift in motion; Fier′y-hot, impetuous; Fier′y-new, hot from newness; Fier′y-short, short and passionate.

Fife, fīf, n. a smaller variety of the flute, usually with only one key.—v.i. to play on the fife.—ns. Fife′-mā′jor (obs.), the chief fifer in a regiment; Fif′er, one who plays on a fife; Fife′-rail, the rail round the mainmast for belaying-pins. [Fr. fifre, Ger. pfeife, both, acc. to Littr, from L. pipāre, to chirp.]

Fifish, fī′fish, adj. (Scot.) whimsical, cranky. [Fife.]

Fifteen, fif′tēn, adj. and n. five and ten.—adj. Fif′teenth, the fifth after the tenth: being one of fifteen equal parts.—n. a fifteenth part.—The Fifteen, the Jacobite rising of 1715. [A.S. fftyneff, five, tn, ten.]

Fifth, fifth, adj. next after the fourth.—n. one of five equal parts: (mus.) a tone five diatonic degrees above or below any given tone.—adv. Fifth′ly, in the fifth place.—ns. Fifth′-mon′archism; Fifth′-mon′archist.—Fifth-monarchy men, an extreme sect of the time of the Puritan revolution, who looked for the establishment of a new reign of Christ on earth, in succession to Daniel's four great monarchies of Antichrist. [A.S. ffta.]

Fifty, fif′ti, adj. and n. five tens or five times ten.—adj. Fif′tieth, the ordinal of fifty.—n. a fiftieth part. [A.S. fftigff, five, tig, ten.]

Fig, fig, n. the fig-tree (Ficus), or its fruit, growing in warm climates: a thing of little consequence.—v.t. (Shak.) to insult by a contemptuous motion of the fingers.—ns. Fig′-leaf, the leaf of the fig-tree: an imitation of such a leaf for veiling the private parts of a statue or picture: any scanty clothing (from Gen. iii. 7): a makeshift; Fig′-tree, the tree which produces figs. [Fr. figue—L. ficus, a fig.]

Fig, fig, n. (coll.) figure: dress.—v.t. to dress, get up.—n. Fig′gery, dressy ornament.

Figaro, fig′ar-o, n. a type of cunning and dexterity from the dramatic character, first barber and then valet-de-chambre, in the Barbier de Seville and the Mariage de Figaro, by Beaumarchais: the name adopted by a famous Paris newspaper founded 1854.

Fight, fīt, v.i. to strive with: to contend in war or in single combat.—v.t. to engage in conflict with: to gain by fight: to cause to fight:—pr.p. fight′ing; pa.t. and pa.p. fought (fawt).—n. a struggle: a combat: a battle or engagement.—n. Fight′er.—adj. Fight′ing, engaged in or fit for war.—n. the act of fighting or contending.—ns. Fight′ing-cock, a gamecock, a pugnacious fellow; Fight′ing-fish (Betta pugnax), a small Siamese fresh-water fish, kept for its extraordinary readiness for fighting, bets being laid on the issue.—Fight it out, to struggle on until the end; Fight shy of, to avoid from mistrust.—Live like fighting-cocks, to get the best of meat and drink. [A.S. feohtan; Ger. fechten.]

Figment, fig′ment, n. a fabrication or invention. [L. figmentumfingĕre, to form.]

Figuline, fig′ū-lin, adj. such as is made by the potter, fictile.—n. an earthen vessel:—pl. pottery. [L.—figulinusfigulus, potter.]

Figure, fig′ūr, n. the form of anything in outline: the representation of anything in drawing, &c.: a drawing: a design: a statue: appearance: a character denoting a number: value or price: (rhet.) a deviation from the ordinary mode of expression, in which words are changed from their literal signification or usage: (logic) the form of a syllogism with respect to the position of the middle term: steps in a dance: a type or emblem.—v.t. to form or shape: to make an image of: to mark with figures or designs: to imagine: to symbolise: to foreshow: to note by figures.—v.i. to make figures: to appear as a distinguished person.—n. Figurabil′ity, the quality of being figurable.—adjs. Fig′urable; Fig′ural, represented by figure.—n. Fig′urante, a ballet dancer, one of those dancers who dance in troops, and form a background for the solo dancers:—masc. Fig′urant.—adj. Fig′urate, of a certain determinate form: (mus.) florid.—n. Figurā′tion, act of giving figure or form: (mus.) mixture of chords and discords.—adj. Fig′urative (rhet.), representing by, containing, or abounding in figures: metaphorical: flowery: typical.—adv. Fig′uratively.—ns. Fig′urativeness, state of being figurative; Fig′ure-cast′er, an astrologer; Fig′ure-cast′ing, the art of preparing casts of animal or other forms.—adj. Fig′ured, marked or adorned with figures.—ns. Fig′ure-dance, a dance consisting of elaborate figures; Fig′urehead, the figure or bust under the bowsprit of a ship; Fig′ure-weav′ing, the weaving of figured fancy fabrics; Fig′urine, a small carved or sculptured figure, often specially such as are adorned with painting and gilding; Fig′urist, one who uses or interprets figures.—Figurate numbers, any series of numbers beginning with unity, and so formed that if each be subtracted from the following, and the series so formed be treated in the same way, by a continuation of the process, equal differences will be obtained. [Fr.,—L. figura, fingĕre, to form.]

Fike, fīk, v.i. (Scot.) to fidget restlessly.—n. restlessness: any vexatious requirement or detail in work.—n. Fik′ery, fuss.—adj. Fik′y. [Prob. Ice. fkja.]

Filaceous, fil-ā′shus, adj. composed of threads. [L. filum, a thread.]

Filacer, fil′ā-ser, n. an officer in the Court of Common Pleas who formerly filed original writs and made out processes on them.—Also Fil′azer. [O. Fr. filacierfilace, a file for papers—L. filum.]

Filament, fil′a-ment, n. a slender or thread-like object: a fibre: (bot.) the stalk of the stamen which supports the pollen-containing anther.—adjs. Filament′ary, Filament′ose; Filament′oid, like a filament; Filament′ous, thread-like. [Fr.,—L. filum, a thread.]

Filanders, fil-an′dėrz, a disease in hawks caused by a small intestinal worm, the filander. [Fr. filandres—L. filum.]

Filar, fī′lar, adj. pertaining to a thread.

Filature, fil′a-tūr, n. the reeling of silk, or the place where it is done.—n. Fil′atory, a machine for forming or spinning threads. [Fr.,—L. filum, a thread.]

Filbert, fil′bert, n. the nut of the cultivated hazel—(obs.) Fil′berd. [Prob. from St Philibert, whose day fell in the nutting season, Aug. 22 (O.S.).]

Filch, filch, v.t. to steal: to pilfer.—n. Filch′er, a thief.—adv. Filch′ingly. [Ety. unknown.]

File, fīl, n. a line or wire on which papers are placed in order: the papers so placed: a roll or list: a line of soldiers ranged behind one another: the number of men forming the depth of a battalion.—v.t. to put upon a file: to arrange in an orderly manner: to put among the records of a court: to bring before a court.—v.i. to march in a file.—n. File′-lead′er.—File off, to wheel off at right angles to the first direction; File with, to rank with, to be equal to.—Single file, Indian file, of men marching one behind another. [Fr. file—L. filum, a thread.]

File, fīl, n. a steel instrument with sharp-edged furrows for smoothing or rasping metals, &c.: any means adopted to polish a thing, as a literary style: a shrewd, cunning person, a deep fellow: a pickpocket.—v.t. to cut or smooth with, or as with, a file: to polish, improve.—n. File′-cut′ter, a maker of files.—adj. Filed, polished, smooth.—ns. File′-fish, a fish of genus Balistes, the skin granulated like a file; Fil′er, one who files; Fil′ing, a particle rubbed off with a file. [A.S. fel; Ger. feile; Dut. vijl.]

File, fīl, v.t. (Shak.) to defile, pollute.

Filemot, fil′e-mot, adj. of a dead-leaf colour—also n. the colour itself. [Fr. feuillemorte, a dead leaf.]

Filial, fil′yal, adj. pertaining to or becoming a son or daughter: bearing the relation of a child.—adv. Fil′ially. [Fr.,—Low L. filialis—L. filius, a son.]

Filiate, Filiation. Same as Affiliate, Affiliation.

Filibuster, Fillibuster, fil′i-bus-tėr, n. a lawless military or piratical adventurer, as in the West Indies: a buccaneer.—v.i. to obstruct legislation wantonly by endless speeches, motions, &c.—n. Fil′ibusterism, the character or actions of a filibuster. [Sp. filibustero, through Fr. flibustier, fribustier, from Dut. vrijbueter, vrijbuiter (cf. Eng. freebooter, Ger. freibeuter), from vrij, free, buit, booty.]

Filices, fil′i-sez, the ferns.—adjs. Fil′ical; Filic′iform; Fil′icoid.

Filiform, fil′i-form, adj. having the form of a filament: long and slender. [L. filum, thread, forma, form.]

Filigree, fil′i-grē, n. a kind of ornamental metallic lacework of gold and silver, twisted into convoluted forms, united and partly consolidated by soldering—earlier forms, Fil′igrain, Fil′igrane.—adj. Fil′igreed, ornamented with filigree. [Fr. filigrane—It. filigrana—L. filum, thread, granum, a grain.]

Filioque, fil-i-ō′kwe, n. the clause inserted into the Nicene Creed at Toledo in 589, which asserts that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son, as well as from the Father—not accepted by the Eastern Church. [L., 'and from the son.']

Fill, fil, v.t. to make full: to put into until all the space is occupied: to supply abundantly: to satisfy: to glut: to perform the duties of: to supply a vacant office.—v.i. to become full: to become satiated.—n. as much as fills or satisfies: a full supply: a single charge of anything.—ns. Fill′er, he who, or that which, fills: a vessel for conveying a liquid into a bottle; Fill′ing, anything used to fill up, stop a hole, to complete, &c., as the woof, in weaving: supply. [A.S. fyllan, fullianful, full.]

Fill, fil, n. (Shak.) the thill or shaft of a cart or carriage. [See Thill.]

Fillet, fil′et, n. a little string or band, esp. to tie round the head: meat or fish boned and rolled, roasted or baked: a piece of meat composed of muscle, esp. the fleshy part of the thigh: (archit.) a small space or band used along with mouldings.—v.t. to bind or adorn with a fillet:—pr.p. fill′eting; pa.p. fill′eted. [Fr. filet, dim. of fil, from L. filum, a thread.]

Fillibeg, Philibeg, fil′i-beg, n. the kilt, the dress or petticoat reaching nearly to the knees, worn by the Highlanders of Scotland. [Gael. feileadhbeagfeileadh, plait, fold, beag, little.]

Fillip, fil′ip, v.t. to strike with the nail of the finger, forced from the ball of the thumb with a sudden jerk: to incite, drive:—pr.p. fill′iping; pa.p. fill′iped.n. a jerk of the finger from the thumb: anything which excites. [A form of flip.]

Fillister, fil′is-ter, n. a rabbeting plane used in making window-sashes.

Filly, fil′i, n. a young mare: a lively, wanton girl. [Dim. of foal.]

Film, film, n. a thin skin or membrane: a very slender thread: the coating on a plate prepared to act as a medium for taking a picture.—v.t. to cover with a film, or thin skin.—n. Film′iness.—adj. Film′y, composed of film or membranes. [A.S. filmen, extended from fell, a skin.]

Filoplume, fī′lo-plōōm, n. a long slender feather. [Formed from L. filum, thread, pluma, a feather.]

Filose, fī′lōs, adj. ending in a thread-like process.—n. Filoselle′, ferret or floss silk. [L. filum, thread.]

Filter, fil′ter, n. a contrivance arranged for purifying a liquid of solid insoluble matter by passing it through some porous substance which does not allow the solid particles to pass through.—v.t. to purify liquor by a filter.—v.i. to pass through a filter: to percolate.—ns. Fil′ter-pā′per, porous paper for use in filtering; Fil′ter-pump, a contrivance devised by the chemist Bunsen for accelerating the filtering process. [O. Fr. filtre—Low L. filtrum, felt.]

Filth, filth, n. foul matter: anything that defiles, physically or morally.—adv. Filth′ily.—n. Filth′iness.—adj. Filth′y, foul: unclean: impure. [A.S. fldhfl, foul.]

Filtrate, fil′trāt, v.t. to filter or percolate.—n. Filtrā′tion, act or process of filtering.

Fimble, fim′bl, n. the male plant of hemp, yielding a weaker and shorter fibre than the Carl hemp or female plant. [Dut. femel.]

Fimbriate, -d, fim′bri-āt, -ed, adj. fringed.—n. Fim′bria, a fringing filament.—v.t. Fim′briate, to fringe: to hem.—adj. Fim′bricate, fimbriate. [L. fimbriātusfimbri, fibres.]

Fimetarious, fim-ē-tā′ri-us, adj. growing on dung.


Fin, fin, n. the organ by which a fish balances itself and swims.—n. Fin′-back, a finner or fin-whale.—adjs. Fin′-foot′ed, having feet with toes connected by a membrane; Finned, having fins; Fin′ny, furnished with fins.—n. Fin′-ray, one of the rods or rays supporting a fish's fin.—adj. Fin′-toed, having feet with membranes connecting the toes, as aquatic birds. [A.S. finn; L. pinna, a fin.]

Finable, fīn′a-bl, adj. liable to a fine.

Final, fī′nal, adj. last: decisive, conclusive: respecting the end or motive: of a judgment ready for execution.—ns. Fī′nalism; Fī′nalist; Final′ity, state of being final: completeness or conclusiveness.—adv. Fī′nally.—Final cause (see Cause). [Fr.,—L. finalisfinis, an end.]

Finale, fi-n′lā, n. the end: the last passage in a piece of music: the concluding piece in a concert. [It. finale, final—L. finis.]

Finance, fi-nans′, n. money affairs or revenue, esp. of a ruler or state: public money: the art of managing or administering the public money.—v.t. to manage financially, to furnish with sums of money.—adj. Finan′cial, pertaining to finance.—n. Finan′cialist, a financier.—adv. Finan′cially.—n. Financier′, one skilled in finance: an officer who administers the public revenue.—v.i. and v.t. to finance. [Fr.,—Low L. financia—Low L. fināre, to pay a fine—finis. See Fine (2).]

Finch, finsh, n. a name applied to many Passerine birds, esp. to those of the genus Fringilla or family Fringillidbullfinch, chaffinch, goldfinch, &c.—adjs. Finch′-backed, Finched, striped or spotted on the back. [A.S. finc; Ger. fink.]

Find, fīnd, v.t. to come upon or meet with: to discover or arrive at: to perceive: to experience: to supply: to determine after judicial inquiry:—pr.p. fīnd′ing; pa.t. and pa.p. found.—ns. Find′er; Find′-fault (Shak.), one who finds fault with another; Find′ing, act of one who finds: that which is found: a judicial verdict: (pl.) the appliances which some workmen have to supply, esp. of shoemakers—everything save leather.—Find one in (something), to supply one with something; Find one's account (in anything), to find satisfactory profit or advantage in it; Find one's legs, to rise, or to recover the use of one's legs, as after being drunk, &c.; Find one's self, to feel, as regards health, happiness, &c.; Find out, to discover. [A.S. findan; Ger. finden.]

Findon-haddock. See Finnan-haddock.

Fine, fīn, adj. excellent: beautiful: not coarse or heavy: subtle: thin: slender: exquisite: nice: delicate: overdone: showy: splendid: striking or remarkable (often ironically): pure, refined: consisting of small particles; sharp, keen.—v.t. to make fine: to refine: to purify: to change by imperceptible degrees.—adv. (Scot.) for finely, well.—v.t. Fine′-draw, to draw or sew up a rent so finely that it is not seen.—p.adj. Fine′-drawn, drawn out too finely.—adj. Fine′ish, somewhat fine.—adv. Fine′ly.—ns. Fine′ness; Fin′er (same as Refiner); Fin′ery, splendour, fine or showy things: a place where anything is fined or refined: a furnace for making iron malleable.—adjs. Fine′-spok′en, using fine phrases; Fine′-spun, finely spun out: artfully contrived.—Fine arts, as painting, sculpture, music, those chiefly concerned with the beautiful—opp. to the Useful or Industrial arts. [Fr.,—L. finitus, finished, from finīre, to finish, finis, an end.]

Fine, fīn, n. a composition: a sum of money imposed as a punishment.—v.t. to impose a fine on: to punish by fine: (Shak.) to pledge or pawn.—adj. Fine′less (Shak.), endless.—In fine, in conclusion. [Low L. finis, a fine—L. finis, an end.]

Fineer, fi-nēr′, v.i. to get goods on credit by fraudulent artifice. [Prob. Dut.; cog. with Finance.]

Finesse, fi-nes′, n. subtlety of contrivance: artifice: an endeavour by a player holding (say) queen and ace to take the trick with the lower card.—v.i. to use artifice.—ns. Fines′ser; Fines′sing. [Fr.]

Finger, fing′gėr, n. one of the five terminal parts of the hand: a finger-breadth: skill in the use of the hand or fingers: execution in music.—v.t. to handle or perform with the fingers: to pilfer: to toy or meddle with.—v.i. to use lightly with the fingers, as a musical instrument.—ns. Fing′er-al′phabet, a deaf and dumb alphabet; Fing′er-board, the board, or part of a musical instrument, on which the keys for the fingers are placed; Fing′er-bowl, -glass, a bowl for holding the water used to cleanse the fingers after a meal; Fing′er-breadth, the breadth of a finger, the fourth part of a palm, forming 116 of a foot.—adj. Fing′ered, having fingers, or anything like fingers.—ns. Fing′er-grass, grass of genus Digitaria; Fing′er-hole, a hole in the side of the tube of a flute, &c., capable of being closed by the player's finger to modify the pitch of tone; Fing′ering, act or manner of touching with the fingers, esp. a musical instrument: a thick woollen yarn for stockings; Fing′erling, a very diminutive being: the parr; Fing′er-mark, a mark, esp. a soil made by the finger; Fing′er-plate, a thin plate of metal or porcelain laid along the edge of a door at the handle, to prevent soiling by the hand; Fing′er-post, a post with a finger pointing, for directing passengers to the road; Fing′er-stall, a covering of leather for protecting the finger.—Finger-and-toe (see Anbury).—A finger in the pie, a share in the doing of anything, often of vexatious meddling; Have at one's finger-ends, to be perfect master of a subject; Have one's fingers all thumbs, to have awkward fingers. [A.S. finger; Ger. finger.]


Finial, fin′i-al, n. the bunch of foliage, &c., at the termination of the pinnacles, gables, spires, &c., in Gothic architecture. [From L. finīrefinis.]

Finical, fin′i-kal, adj. affectedly fine or precise in trifles: nice: foppish.—n. Finical′ity, state of being finical: something finical.—adv. Fin′ically.—ns. Fin′icalness, the quality of being finical: foppery; Fin′icking, fussiness and fastidiousness.—adjs. Fin′icking, Fin′ikin, particular about trifles.

Fining, fīn′ing, n. process of refining or purifying.—n. Fin′ing-pot, a pot or vessel used in refining.

Finis, fī′nis, n. the end: conclusion. [L.]

Finish, fin′ish, v.t. to end or complete the making of anything: to perfect: to give the last touches to: to put an end to, to destroy.—n. that which finishes or completes: the end of a race, hunt, &c.: last touch, careful elaboration, polish: the last coat of plaster to a wall.—p.adj. Fin′ished, brought to an end or to completion: complete: perfect.—n. Fin′isher, one who finishes, completes, or perfects: in bookbinding, the one who puts the last touches to the book in the way of gilding and decoration. [Fr. finir, finissant—L. finīrefinis, an end.]

Finite, fī′nīt, adj. having an end or limit: subject to limitations or conditions, as time, space—opp. to Infinite (q.v.).—adj. Fī′nīteless, without end or limit.—adv. Fī′nītely.—ns. Fī′nīteness, Fin′itūde. [L. finītus, pa.p. of finīre.]

Finn, fin, n. a native of Finland in the north-west of Russia.—adjs. Fin′nic, Fin′nish, pertaining to the Finns in the widest sense.

Finnan-haddock, fin′an-had′uk, n. a kind of smoked haddock, esp. that prepared at Findon, near Aberdeen.—Also Fin′don-hadd′ock.

Fiord, Fjord, fyord, n. name given in Scandinavia to a long, narrow, rock-bound inlet. [Norw.]

Fiorin, fī′o-rin, n. a species of creeping bent-grass.

Fiorite, fī-ō′rīt, n. a kind of siliceous incrustation found in the vicinity of volcanoes and hot springs. [From Santa Fiore in Tuscany.]

Fir, fėr, n. the name of several species of cone-bearing, resinous trees, valuable for their timber.—adj. Fir′ry, abounding in firs. [A.S. furh (wudu); cf. Ger. fhre.]

Fire, fīr, n. the heat and light caused by burning: flame: anything burning, as fuel in a grate, &c.: a conflagration: torture or death by burning: severe trial: anything inflaming or provoking: ardour of passion: vigour: brightness of fancy: enthusiasm: sexual passion.—v.t. to set on fire: to inflame: to irritate: to animate: to cause the explosion of: to discharge.—v.i. to take fire: to be or become irritated or inflamed: to discharge firearms.—n. Fire′-alarm′, an alarm of fire, an apparatus for giving such.— Fire′arms, arms or weapons which are discharged by fire exploding gunpowder.—ns. Fire′-ar′row, a small iron dart or arrow furnished with a combustible for setting fire to ships; Fire′ball, a ball filled with combustibles to be thrown among enemies: a meteor; Fire′-balloon′, a balloon carrying a fire placed in the lower part for rarefying the air to make itself buoyant: a balloon sent up arranged to ignite at a certain height; Fire′-bas′ket, a portable grate for a bedroom; Fire′-blast, a blast or blight affecting plants, in which they appear as if scorched by the sun; Fire′-boat, a steamboat fitted up to extinguish fires in docks; Fire′box, the box or chamber (usually copper) of a steam-engine, in which the fire is placed; Fire′brand, a brand or piece of wood on fire: one who inflames the passions of others; Fire′brick, a brick so made as to resist the action of fire, used for lining furnaces, &c.; Fire′-brigade′, a brigade or company of men for extinguishing fires or conflagrations; Fire′-buck′et, a bucket for carrying water to extinguish a fire; Fire′clay, a kind of clay, capable of resisting fire, used in making firebricks; Fire′cock, a cock or spout to let out water for extinguishing fires; Fire′damp, a gas, carburetted hydrogen, in coal-mines, apt to take fire and explode when mixed with atmospheric air; Fire′-dog (same as Andiron); Fire′-drake, a fiery meteor, a kind of firework; Fire′-eat′er, a juggler who pretends to eat fire: one given to needless quarrelling, a professed duellist; Fire′-en′gine, an engine or forcing-pump used to extinguish fires with water; Fire′-escape′, a machine used to enable people to escape from fires.—adj. Fire′-eyed (Shak.), having fiery eyes.—ns. Fire′-flag (Coleridge), Fire′flaught (Swinburne), a flash of lightning; Fire′-fly, a name applied to many phosphorescent insects, all included with the Coleoptera or beetles, some giving forth a steady light, others flashing light intermittently (glow-worms, &c.); Fire′-guard, a framework of wire placed in front of a fireplace.— Fire′-ī′rons, the irons—poker, tongs, and shovel—used for a fire.—ns. Fire′light′er, a composition of pitch and sawdust, or the like, for kindling fires; Fire′lock, a gun in which the fire is caused by a lock with steel and flint; Fire′man, a man whose business it is to assist in extinguishing fires: a man who tends the fires, as of a steam-engine; Fire′-mas′ter, the chief of a fire-brigade.—adj. Fire′-new, new from the fire: brand new: bright.—ns. Fire′-pan, a pan or metal vessel for holding fire; Fire′place, the place in a house appropriated to the fire: a hearth; Fire′plug, a plug placed in a pipe which supplies water in case of fire; Fire′-pol′icy, a written instrument of insurance against fire up to a certain amount; Fire′-pot, an earthen pot filled with combustibles, used in military operations.—adj. Fire′proof, proof against fire.—ns. Fire′-proofing, the act of rendering anything fireproof: the materials used; Fir′er, an incendiary; Fire′-rais′ing, the crime of arson.—adj. Fire′-robed (Shak.), robed in fire.—ns. Fire′-screen, a screen for intercepting the heat of the fire; Fire′-ship, a ship filled with combustibles, to set an enemy's vessels on fire; Fire′side, the side of the fireplace: the hearth: home.—adj. homely, intimate.—ns. Fire′-stick, the implement used by many primitive peoples for obtaining fire by friction; Fire′stone, a kind of sandstone that bears a high degree of heat; Fire′-wa′ter, ardent spirits; Fire′wood, wood for burning.— Fire′works, artificial works or preparations of gunpowder, sulphur, &c., to be fired chiefly for display or amusement.—ns. Fire′-wor′ship, the worship of fire, chiefly by the Parsees in Persia and India; Fire′-wor′shipper; Fir′ing, a putting fire to: discharge of guns: firewood: fuel: cauterisation; Fir′ing-par′ty, a detachment told off to fire over the grave of one buried with military honours, or to shoot one sentenced to death; Fir′ing-point, the temperature at which an inflammable oil will take fire spontaneously.—Fire off, to discharge a shot; Fire out (Shak.), to expel; Fire up, to start a fire: to fly into a passion.—Set the Thames on fire, to do something striking; Take fire, to begin to burn: to become aroused about something. [A.S. fr; Ger. feuer; Gr. pyr.]

Firk, fėrk, v.t. (Shak.) to whip or beat: to rouse.

Firkin, fėr′kin, n. a measure equal to the fourth part of a barrel: 9 gallons: 56 lb. of butter. [With dim. suff. -kin, from Old Dut. vierde, fourth.]

Firlot, fėr′lot, n. an old Scotch dry measure, the fourth part of a boll.

Firm, fėrm, adj. fixed: compact: strong: not easily moved or disturbed: unshaken: resolute: decided.—v.t. (obs.) to fix, establish, confirm.—adj. Firm′less, wavering.—adv. Firm′ly.—n. Firm′ness. [O. Fr. ferme—L. firmus.]

Firm, fėrm, n. the title under which a company transacts business: a business house or partnership. [It. firma, from L. firmus. See Farm.]

Firmament, fėr′ma-ment, n. the solid sphere in which the stars were thought to be fixed: the sky.—adj. Firmament′al, pertaining to the firmament: celestial. [Fr.,—L. firmamentumfirmus, firm.]

Firman, fėr′man, or fer-mn′, n. any decree emanating from the Turkish government. [Pers. fermn; Sans. pramna, command.]

Firn, firn, or fern, n. snow on high glaciers while still granular—the French nv. [Ger. firn, of last year; cf. obs. Eng. fern, former.]

First, fėrst, adj. foremost: preceding all others in place, time, or degree: most eminent: chief.—adv. before anything else, in time, space, rank, &c.—adjs. First′-begot′ten, begotten or born first: eldest; First′-born, born first.—n. the first in the order of birth: the eldest child.—adj. First′-class, of the first class, rank, or quality.—ns. First′-day, Sunday; First′-floor (see Floor); First′-foot (Scot.), the first person to enter a house after the beginning of the new year; First′-fruit, First′-fruits, the fruits first gathered in a season: the first profits or effects of anything, bishoprics, benefices, &c.—adj. First′-hand, obtained without the intervention of a second party.—n. First′ling, the first produce or offspring, esp. of animals.—adv. First′ly, in the first place.—adjs. First′-rate, of the first or highest rate or excellence: pre-eminent in quality, size, or estimation; First′-wa′ter, the first or highest quality, purest lustre—of diamonds and pearls. [A.S. fyrst; the superl. of fore by adding -st.]

Firth, fėrth. Same as Frith.

Fisc, fisk, n. the state treasury: the public revenue: one's purse.—adj. Fisc′al, pertaining to the public treasury or revenue.—n. a treasurer: a public prosecutor, the chief law officer of the crown under the Holy Roman Empire: (Scot.) an officer who prosecutes in petty criminal cases—fully, Procurator-fiscal. [O. Fr.,—L. fiscus, a purse.]

Fisgig. See Fizgig.


Fish, fish, n. a vertebrate that lives in water, and breathes through gills: the flesh of fish: a piece of wood fixed alongside another for strengthening:—pl. Fish, or Fish′es.—v.t. to search for fish: to search by sweeping: to draw out or up: (naut.) to strengthen, as a weak spar: to hoist the flukes of: to seek to obtain by artifice.—ns. Fish′-ball, -cake, a ball of chopped fish and mashed potatoes, fried.—adj. Fish′-bell′ied, swelled out downward like the belly of a fish.—ns. Fish′-carv′er, a large flat implement for carving fish at table—also Fish′-knife, Fish′-slice, and Fish′-trow′el; Fish′-coop, a square box with a hole in its bottom, used in fishing through a hole in the ice; Fish′-creel, an angler's basket, a wicker-basket used for carrying fish; Fish′-day, a day on which fish is eaten instead of meat; Fish′er, one who fishes, or whose occupation is to catch fish: a North American carnivore—a kind of marten or sable, the pekan or wood-shock; Fish′erman, a fisher; Fish′ery, the business of catching fish: a place for catching fish; Fish′-fag, a woman who sells fish; Fish′-garth, an enclosure on a river for the preserving or taking of fish—also Fish′-weir; Fish′-god, a deity in form wholly or partly like a fish, like the Philistine Dagon; Fish′-hook, a barbed hook for catching fish.—v.t. Fish′ify (Shak.), to turn to fish.—n. Fish′iness.—adj. Fish′ing, used in fishery.—n. the art or practice of catching fish.—ns. Fish′ing-frog, the angler-fish; Fish′ing-rod, a long slender rod to which a line is fastened for angling; Fish′ing-tack′le, tackle—nets, lines, &c.—used in fishing; Fish′-joint, a joint or splice made with fish-plates; Fish′-kett′le, a long oval dish for boiling fish; Fish′-ladd′er, Fish′-way, an arrangement for enabling a fish to ascend a fall, &c.; Fish′-louse, a name widely applied to any of the Copepod crustaceans which occur as external parasites, both on fresh-water and marine fishes; Fish′-meal (Shak.), a meal of fish: abstemious diet; Fish′monger, a dealer in fish; Fish′-pack′ing, the process of packing or canning fish for the market; Fish′-plate, an iron plate fitted to the web of a rail, used in pairs, one on each side of the junction of two rails; Fish′-pond, a pond in which fish are kept; Fish′-sales′man, one who receives consignments of fish for sale by auction to retail dealers; Fish′-sauce, sauce proper to be eaten with fish, as anchovy, &c.; Fish′-scrap, fish or fish-skins from which oil or glue has been extracted; Fish′-spear, a spear or dart for striking fish; Fish′-strain′er, a metal colander for taking fish from a boiler.—adj. Fish′-tail, shaped like the tail of a fish.—ns. Fish′-torpē′do, a self-propelling torpedo; Fish′-wife, Fish′-wom′an, a woman who sells fish about the streets.—adj. Fish′y, consisting of fish: like a fish: abounding in fish: dubious, as a story: equivocal, unsafe.—ns. Bait′-fish, such fish as are used for bait, fish that may be caught with bait; Bott′om-fish, those that feed on the bottom, as halibut, &c.—Fish for, to seek to gain by cunning or indirect means; Fisherman's luck, getting wet and catching no fish; Fisherman's ring, a signet-ring with the device of St Peter fishing, used in signing papal briefs.—A queer fish, a person of odd habits; Be neither fish nor flesh, or Neither fish, flesh, nor fowl, to be neither one thing nor another, in principle, &c.; Have other fish to fry, to have something else to do, or to take up one's mind; Make fish of one and flesh (or fowl) of another, to make invidious distinctions, show undue partiality. [A.S. fisc; Ger. fisch; Ice. fiskr; L. piscis; Gr. ichthys; Gael. iasg.]

Fiskery, fisk′er-i, n. (Carlyle) friskiness.—v.i. Fisk (obs.), to jump about. [Prob. a freq. of A.S. fsan, to hurry, or of fsian, to feeze; Sw. fjska, to fidget.]

Fissile, fis′il, adj. that may be cleft or split in the direction of the grain.—adjs. Fissicos′tate, having the ribs divided; Fissiling′ual, having the tongue cleft.—ns. Fissil′ity, cleavableness; Fis′sion, a cleaving or breaking up into two parts.—adj. Fiss′ive. [L. fissilis, from findĕre, fissum, to cleave.]

Fissiparous, fis-sip′a-rus, adj. propagated by spontaneous fission or self-division.—ns. Fissip′arism, Fissipa′rity.—adv. Fissip′arously. [L. fissus, pa.p. of findĕre, to cleave, parĕre, to bring forth.]

Fissiped, fis′i-ped, adj. cloven-footed—also n.

Fissirostral, fis-i-ros′tral, adj. having a deeply cleft or gaping beak, as swallows, &c. [L. fissus, cleft, rostrum, a beak.]

Fissle, fis′l, v.i. (Scot.) to rustle: to whistle.

Fissure, fish′ūr, n. a narrow opening or chasm: a cleft, slit, or furrow: any groove or sulcus, esp. one of the furrows on the surface of the brain, as the longitudinal fissure separating the hemispheres.—adj. Fiss′ūred, cleft, divided. [Fr.,—L. fissūra, from findĕre, fissum, to cleave.]

Fist, fist, n. the closed or clenched hand.—v.t. to strike or grip with the fist.—n. Fistiā′na, anecdotes about boxing and boxers.—adj. Fist′ic (Dickens), pugilistic.—ns. Fist′icuff, a blow with the fist: (pl.) boxing, blows; Fist′-law, the law of brute force.—adj. Fist′y. [A.S. fst; Ger. faust.]

Fistula, fist′ū-la, n. a narrow passage or duct: the tube through which the wine of the eucharist was once sucked from the chalice—also Calamus.—adjs. Fist′ular, hollow like a pipe; Fist′ulate, -d, hollowed like a fistula.—v.i. Fist′ulate, to assume such a form.—adjs. Fist′uliform; Fist′ulose, Fist′ulous, of the form of a fistula. [L. fistula, a pipe.]

Fit, fit, adj. adapted to any particular end or standard, prepared for: qualified: convenient: proper: properly trained and ready, as for a race.—v.t. to make fit or suitable: to suit one thing to another: to be adapted to: to qualify.—v.i. to be suitable or becoming:—pr.p. fit′ting; pa.p. fit′ted.advs. Fit′liest (Milt.), most fitly; Fit′ly.—ns. Fit′ment (Shak.), something fitted to an end; Fit′ness; Fit′ter, he who, or that which, makes fit.—adj. Fit′ting, fit: appropriate.—n. anything used in fitting up, esp. in pl.adv. Fit′tingly.—ns. Fit′ting-out, a supply of things, fit and necessary; Fit′ting-shop, a shop in which pieces of machinery are fitted together.—Fit out, to furnish, supply with stores, as a ship; Fit up, to provide with things suitable.—Not fit to hold a candle to (see Candle). [First recorded about 1440; app. cog. with Fit, n.]

Fit, fit, n. a sudden attack by convulsions, as apoplexy, epilepsy, &c.: convulsion or paroxysm: a temporary attack of anything, as laughter, &c.: a sudden effort or motion: a passing humour.—v.t. (Shak.) to wrench, as by a fit.—adj. Fit′ful, marked by sudden impulses: spasmodic.—adv. Fit′fully.—n. Fit′fulness.—Fit of the face, a grimace; Fits and starts, spasmodic and irregular bursts of activity; By fits, irregularly. [A.S. fitt, a struggle—prob. orig. 'juncture,' 'meeting;' cf. Ice. fitja, to knit, Dut. vitten, to accommodate.]

Fit, fit, n. a song, or part of a song or ballad.—Also Fitt, Fitte, Fytte. [A.S. fitt, a song.]

Fitch, fich, n. now vetch: (B.) Isa. xxviii. 25, black cummin (Nigella sativa): in Ezek. iv. 9, a kind of bearded wheat, spelt. [See Vetch.]

Fitch, Fitche, fich′ā, adj. (her.) cut to a point. [Fr. ficher, to fix.]

Fitchew, fich′ōō, n. a polecat.—Also Fitch′et. [O. Fr. fissel, from root of Dut. visse, nasty.]

Fitz, fits, n. (a prefix) son of: used in England, esp. of the illegitimate sons of kings and princes, as Fitzclarence, &c. [Norman Fr. fiz (Fr. fils)—L. filius.]

Five, fīv, adj. and n. four and one.—n. Five′-fing′er, a name for various plants (cinque-foil, oxlip, &c.): a species of starfish.—adj. Five′fold, five times folded, or repeated in fives.—ns. Fiv′er (coll.), a five-pound note; Five′-square (B.), having five corners or angles.—Five Articles, Five Points, statements of the distinctive doctrines of the Arminians and Calvinists respectively—the former promulgated in 1610, the latter sustained by the Synod of Dort in 1619 (see Calvinism).—Bunch of fives, the fist. [A.S. ff; Ger. fnf; Goth. fimf; W. pump; L. quinque; Gr. pente, pempe; Sans. pancha.]

Fives, fīvz, n. (Shak.) vives, a disease of horses.

Fives, fīvz, a game of handball played in a roomy court against a wall, chiefly at the great public schools of England.

Fix, fiks, v.t. to make firm or fast: to establish: to drive into: to settle: to put into permanent form: to establish as a fact: to direct steadily: to regulate: to deprive of volatility.—v.i. to settle or remain permanently: to become firm: to congeal.—n. (coll.) a difficulty: a dilemma.—adj. Fix′able, capable of being fixed.—ns. Fixā′tion, act of fixing, or state of being fixed: steadiness, firmness: state in which a body does not evaporate; Fix′ative, that which fixes or sets colours; Fix′ature, a gummy preparation for fixing the hair.—adj. Fixed, settled: not apt to evaporate: steadily directed towards: fast, lasting, permanent: substantively for fixed stars (Par. Lost, III. 481).—adv. Fix′edly.—ns. Fix′edness; Fix′er; Fixid′ity, Fix′ity, fixedness.— Fix′ings, things needed for putting in order, arrangement.—adj. Fix′ive.—ns. Fix′ture, a movable that has become fastened to anything, as to land or to a house: a fixed article of furniture: a fixed or appointed time or event, as a horse-race; Fix′ure (Shak.), stability, position, firmness.—Fixed air, the name given by Dr Joseph Black in 1756 to what in 1784 was named by Lavoisier carbonic acid; Fixed bodies (chem.), a term applied to those substances which remain fixed, and are not volatilised at moderately high temperatures; Fixed oils, those which, on the application of heat, do not volatilise without decomposition; Fixed stars, stars which appear always to occupy the same position in the heavens—opp. to Planets. [L., fixus, figĕre, to fix, prob. through O. Fr. fix, or Low L. fixāre.]

Fizgig, fiz′gig, n. a giddy girl: a firework of damp powder: a gimcrack: a crotchet.—Also Fis′gig.

Fizz, fiz, v.i. to make a hissing or sputtering sound.—n. any frothy drink, as soda-water, or esp. champagne.—adj. Fiz′zenless (Scot.), pithless—also Fū′sionless.—v.i. Fiz′zle, to hiss or sputter: to come to a sudden stop, to fail disgracefully.—n. a state of agitation or worry: an abortive effort.—adj. Fiz′zy, given to fizz. [Formed from the sound.]

Flabbergast, flab′ėrgast, v.t. (coll.) to stun, confound. [Prob. conn. with flabby, and gast, to astonish.]

Flabby, flab′i, adj. easily moved: soft, yielding: hanging loose.—n. Flabb′iness. [From flap.]

Flabellate, fl-bel′āt, adj. fan-shaped—also Flabell′iform.—ns. Flabellā′tion, the action of fanning; Flab′ellum (eccles.), a fan, anciently used to drive away flies from the chalice during the celebration of the eucharist. [L., a fan.]

Flaccid, flak′sid, adj. flabby: lax: easily yielding to pressure: soft and weak.—adv. Flac′cidly.—ns. Flac′cidness, Flaccid′ity, want of firmness. [Fr.,—L. flaccidusflaccus, flabby.]

Flack, flak, v.i. (prov.), to flap, flutter.—v.t. to flap or flick with something.

Flacker, flak′ėr, v.i. (prov.) to flap, flutter.

Flacket, flak′et, n. a flask, bottle.

Flacon, flak-ong′, n. a scent-bottle, &c. [Fr.]

Flaff, flaf, v.i. (Scot.) to flap: to pant.—n. a flutter of the wings: a puff.—v.i. Flaf′fer, to flutter. [Imit.]

Flag, flag, v.i. to grow languid or spiritless.—pr.p. flag′ging; pa.p. flagged.—n. Flag′giness.—adj. Flag′gy, limp, flabby. [Perh. O. Fr. flac—L. flaccus; prob. influenced by imit. forms as flap.]

Flag, flag, n. a popular name for many plants with sword-shaped leaves, mostly growing in moist situations, sometimes specially the species of iris or flower-de-luce—esp. the yellow flag: the acorus or sweet flag: (B.) reed-grass.—ns. Flag′-bas′ket, a basket made of reeds for carrying tools; Flag′giness.—adj. Flag′gy, abounding in flags.—n. Flag′-worm, a worm or grub bred among flags or reeds. [Ety. obscure; cf. Dut. flag.]

Flag, flag, n. the ensign of a ship or of troops: a banner.—v.t. to decorate with flags: to inform by flag-signals.—ns. Flag′-cap′tain, in the navy, the captain of the ship which bears the admiral's flag; Flag′-lieuten′ant, an officer in a flag-ship, corresponding to an aide-de-camp in the army; Flag′-off′icer, a naval officer privileged to carry a flag denoting his rank—admiral, vice-admiral, rear-admiral, or commodore; Flag′-ship, the ship in which an admiral sails, and which carries his flag; Flag′staff, a staff or pole on which a flag is displayed.—Flag of distress, a flag displayed as a signal of distress—usually upside down or at half-mast; Flag of truce, a white flag displayed during war when some pacific communication is intended between the hostile parties; Black flag, a pirate's flag, pirates generally; Dip the flag, to lower the flag and then hoist it—a token of respect; Hang out the red flag, to give a challenge to battle; Strike, or Lower, the flag, to pull it down as a token of respect, submission, or surrender; White flag, an emblem of peace; Yellow flag, hoisted to show pestilence on board, also over ships, &c., in quarantine, and hospitals, &c., in time of war. [Prob. Scand.; Dan. flag; Dut. vlag, Ger. flagge.]

Flag, flag, n. a stone that separates in flakes or layers: a flat stone used for paving—also Flag′stone.—v.t. to pave with flagstones.—n. Flag′ging, flagstones: a pavement of flagstones. [A form of flake; Ice. flaga, a flag or slab.]

Flagellate, flaj′el-āt, v.t. to whip or scourge.—ns. Flagel′lantism; Flagellā′tion; Flag′ellātor, Flagel′lant (also flaj′-), one who scourges himself in religious discipline.—adjs. Flag′ellatory; Flagellif′erous; Flagel′liform.—n. Flagel′lum, a scourge: (bot.) a runner: (biol.) a large cilium or appendage to certain infusorians, &c. [L. flagellāre, -ātumflagellum, dim. of flagrum, a whip.]

Flageolet, flaj′o-let, n. the modern form of the old flute--bec, or straight flute, the simplest kind of which is the tin whistle with six holes. [Fr., dim. of O. Fr. flageol, flajol, a pipe; not through a supposed Low L. flautīolus—from flauta, a flute.]

Flagitate, flaj′i-tāt, v.t. (Carlyle) to entreat, importune.—n. Flagitā′tion.

Flagitious, fla-jish′us, adj. grossly wicked: guilty of enormous crimes.—adv. Flagi′tiously.—n. Flagi′tiousness. [L. flagitiosusflagitium, a disgraceful act—flagrāre, to burn.]

Flagon, flag′un, n. a vessel with a narrow neck for holding liquids. [Fr. flacon for flascon—Low L. flasco. See Flask.]

Flagrant, flā′grant, adj. glaring: notorious: enormous.—ns. Flā′grance, Flā′grancy.—adv. Flā′grantly. [L. flagrans, pr.p. of flagrāre, to burn.]

Flail, flāl, n. an implement for threshing corn, consisting of a wooden bar (the swingle) hinged or tied to a handle: a medieval weapon with spiked iron swingle.—v.t. to strike with, or as if with, a flail. [A.S. fligel, prob. from L. flagellum, a scourge.]

Flair, flār, n. perceptiveness, discernment. [Fr.]

Flake, flāk, n. a small flat layer or film of anything: a very small loose mass, as of snow or wool.—v.t. to form into flakes.—ns. Flake′-white, the purest white-lead for painting, in the form of scales or plates; Flak′iness.—adj. Flak′y. [Prob. Scand.; Ice. flke, flock of wool; Old High Ger. floccho.]

Flake, flāk, n. (Scot.) a movable hurdle for fencing; (naut.) a stage hung over a ship's side for caulking, &c. [Scand.; cf. Ice. flake; Dut. vlaak.]

Flam, flam, n. a whim: an idle fancy: a falsehood.—v.t. to impose upon with such. [Prob. from flim-flam or flamfew, a trifle, a corr. of Fr. fanfelue.]

Flambeau, flam′bō, n. a flaming torch:—pl. Flam′beaux (′bōz). [Fr., flambe—L. flamma.]

Flamboyant, flam-boi′ant, adj. of the latest style of Gothic architecture which prevailed in France in the 15th and 16th centuries, corresponding to the Perpendicular in England—from the flame-like forms of the tracery of the windows, &c.: of wavy form: gorgeously coloured. [Fr. flamboyer, to blaze.]

Flame, flām, n. gaseous matter undergoing combustion: the gleam or blaze of a fire: rage: ardour of temper: vigour of thought: warmth of affection: love: (coll.) the object of love.—v.i. to burn as flame: to break out in passion.—adjs. Flāme′-col′oured (Shak.), of the colour of flame, bright yellow; Flāme′less.—n. Flāme′let, a small flame.—adj. Flām′ing, red: gaudy: violent.—adv. Flām′ingly.—n. Flammabil′ity.—adjs. Flammif′erous, producing flame; Flammiv′omous, vomiting flames.—n. Flam′mule, the flames in pictures of Japanese deities.—adj. Flām′y, pertaining to, or like, flame. [O. Fr. flambe—L. flammaflagrāre, to burn.]

Flamen, flā′men, n. a priest in ancient Rome devoted to one particular god.—adj. Flamin′ical. [L., from same root as fla-grāre, to burn.]

Flamingo, fla-ming′gō, n. a tropical bird of a flaming or bright-red colour, with long legs and neck. [Sp. flamenco—L. flamma, a flame.]

Flanch, flansh, n. a flange: (her.) an ordinary formed on each side of a shield by the segment of a circle.—adj. Flanched, charged with a pair of flanches. [Prob. related to flank.]

Flanconade, flang-ko-nād′, n. (fencing) a thrust in the flank or side. [Fr., from flanc, the side.]

Flneur, fl-nr′, n. one who saunters about with gossip.—n. Fln′erie. [Fr. flner, to lounge.]

Flange, flanj, n. a projecting or raised edge or flank, as of a wheel or of a rail.—adj. Flanged.—n. Flange′-rail, a rail having a flange on one side to prevent wheels running off. [Corr. of flank.]

Flank, flangk, n. the side of an animal from the ribs to the thigh: the side or wing of anything, esp. of an army or fleet: a body of soldiers on the right and left extremities.—v.t. to attack or pass round the side of: to protect the flanks of one's own army by detached bodies of troops, or field-works, or to threaten those of the enemy by directing troops against them.—v.i. to be posted on the side: to touch.—n. Flank′er, a fortification which commands the flank of an assailing force.—v.t. (obs.) to defend by flankers: to attack sideways.—Flank company, the company on the right or left when a battalion is in line; Flank files, the soldiers marching on the extreme right and left of a company, &c. [Fr. flanc, perh. L. flaccus, flabby.]

Flannel, flan′el, n. a soft woollen cloth of loose texture for undergarments, &c.: the garment itself: (pl.) the garb of cricketers, &c.—v.t. to wrap in or rub with flannel.—n. Flannelette′, a cotton fabric, made in imitation of flannel.—adjs. Flann′elled; Flann′elly. [Orig. flannen, acc. to Skeat, from W. gwlanengwlan, wool; acc. to Diez, the equivalent Fr. flanelle is from the O. Fr. flaine, a pillow-case.]

Flap, flap, n. the blow or motion of a broad loose object: anything broad and flexible hanging loose, as the tail of a coat: a portion of skin or flesh detached from the underlying part for covering and growing over the end of an amputated limb.—v.t. to beat or move with a flap.—v.i. to move, as wings: to hang like a flap:—pr.p. flap′ping; pa.p. flapped.—ns. Flap′doodle, the food of fools: transparent nonsense, gross flattery, &c.; Flap′-drag′on, a play in which small edibles, as raisins, are snatched from burning brandy, and swallowed.—v.t. (Shak.) to swallow or devour, as in flap-dragon.—adj. Flap′-eared (Shak.), having ears hanging like a flap.—n. Flap′-jack (Shak.), a kind of broad, flat pancake.—adj. Flap′-mouthed.—n. Flap′per. [Prob. imit.]

Flare, flār, v.i. to burn with a glaring, unsteady light: to glitter or flash: to display glaringly.—n. an unsteady light.—p.adj. Flā′ring, giving out an unsteady light: gaudy.—adv. Flā′ringly.—adj. Flā′ry. [Prob. Scand.; cf. Norw. flara, to blaze.]

Flash, flash, n. a momentary gleam of light: a sudden burst, as of merriment: a short transient state.—v.i. to break forth, as a sudden light: to break out into intellectual brilliancy: to burst out into violence.—v.t. to cause to flash: to expand, as blown glass, into a disc: to send by some startling or sudden means.—n. Flash′-house, a brothel.—adv. Flash′ily.—ns. Flash′iness; Flash′ing, the act of blazing: a sudden burst, as of water; Flash′-point, the temperature at which an inflammable liquid takes fire—in the case of petroleum, &c., ascertained by placing oil in a vessel called a tester (used open and closed), and heating it up to a point at which sufficient vapour is generated as to give off a small flash when a light is applied to it.—adj. Flash′y, dazzling for a moment: showy but empty: (Milt.) vapid: gay—also Flash, vulgarly showy, gay but tawdry: pertaining to thieves, vagabonds, &c., as the 'flash language'=thieves' cant or slang: 'flash notes'=counterfeit notes.—Flash in the pan (see Pan). [Prob. imit.; cf. Sw. prov. flasa, to blaze.]

Flask, flask, n. a narrow-necked vessel for holding liquids: a bottle: a pocket-bottle: a horn or metal vessel for carrying powder.—n. Flask′et, a vessel in which viands are served: (Spens.) a basket.—Florence flask, a narrow-necked globular glass bottle of thin glass, as those in which olive-oil is brought from Italy. [A.S. flasce; Ger. flasche; prob. not Teut. acc. to Diez, but from Low L. flasco—L. vasculum, a flask.]

Flat, flat, adj. smooth: level: wanting points of prominence and interest: monotonous: vapid, insipid: dejected: unqualified, positive: (mus.) opposite of sharp.—n. a level plain: a tract covered by shallow water: something broad: a story or floor of a house, esp. when fitted up as a separate residence for a family: a simpleton, a gull: (mus.) a character () which lowers a note a semitone.—ns. Flat′boat, a large flat-bottomed boat for floating goods down the Mississippi, &c.; Flat′-fish, a name applied to marine bony fishes that have a flat body, such as the flounder, turbot, &c.—adj. Flat′-foot′ed, having flat feet: resolute.—adj. and n. Flat′-head, having an artificially flattened head, as some American Indians of the Chinooks—the name is officially but incorrectly applied to the Selish Indians in particular.—n. Flat′-ī′ron, an iron for smoothing cloth.—advs. Flat′ling, Flat′long (Spens., Shak.), with the flat side down: not edgewise; Flat′ly.—ns. Flat′ness; Flat′-race, a race over open or clear ground.—v.t. Flat′ten, to make flat.—v.i. to become flat.—n. Flat′ting, a mode of house-painting in which the paint is left without gloss.—adj. Flat′tish, somewhat flat.—adj. or adv. Flat′wise, flatways, or with the flat side downward.—n. Flat′-worm, a tapeworm. [From a Teut. root found in Ice. flatr, flat, Sw. flat, Dan. flad, Old High Ger. flaz.]

Flatter, flat′ėr, v.t. to soothe with praise and servile attentions: to please with false hopes or undue praise.—n. Flatt′erer.—adj. Flatt′ering, uttering false praise: pleasing to pride or vanity.—adv. Flatt′eringly.—n. Flatt′ery, false praise. [O. Fr. flater (Fr. flatter); Teut.; cf. Ice. fladhra.]

Flatulent, flat′ū-lent, adj. affected with air in the stomach: apt to generate such: empty: vain.—ns. Flat′ulence, Flat′ulency, distension of the stomach or bowels by gases formed during digestion: windiness, emptiness.—adv. Flat′ulently.—n. Flā′tus, a puff of wind: air generated in the stomach or intestines. [Fr.,—Low L. flatulentus—L. flāre, flatum, to blow.]

Flaught, flaht, n. (Scot.) a flight, a flapping.—n. Flaugh′ter, a fluttering motion.—v.i. to flutter, flicker. [See Flight.]

Flaunt, flawnt, v.i. to fly or wave in the wind: to move or display ostentatiously: to carry a gaudy or saucy appearance.—n. (Shak.) anything displayed for show.—n. Flaunt′er.—adj. Flaunt′ing.—adv. Flaunt′ingly, in a flaunting or showy manner.—adj. Flaunt′y, showy. [Prob. imit.; Skeat suggests Sw. prov. flanka, to waver.]

Flautist. Same as Flutist.

Flavescent, fla-ves′ent, adj. yellowish or turning yellow. [L. flavescens, -entis, pr.p. of flavescĕre, to become yellow—flavus, yellow.]

Flavian, flāv′i-an, adj. of or pertaining to the Flavian emperors of Rome—Flavius Vespasian and his sons Titus and Domitian (69-96 A.D.).

Flavine, flā′vin, n. a concentrated preparation of quercitron bark, till recently an important yellow dye. [L. flavus, yellow.]

Flavour, flā′vur, n. that quality of anything which affects the smell or the palate: a smack or relish.—v.t. to impart flavour to.—adj. Flā′vorous.—n. Flā′vouring, any substance used to give a flavour.—adj. Flā′vourless. [O. Fr. flaur; prob. related to L. fragrāre or to flāre.]

Flaw, flaw, n. a gust of wind: a sudden rush, uproar. [Cf. Dut. vlaag, Sw. flaga.]

Flaw, flaw, n. a break, a crack: a defect.—v.t. to crack or break.—adjs. Flaw′less; Flaw′y. [Ice. flaga, a slab.]

Flawn, flawn, n. a custard, pancake. [O. Fr. flaon—Low L. fladon-em—Old High Ger. flado.]

Flax, flax, n. the fibres of the plant Linum, which are woven into linen cloth: the flax-plant.—ns. Flax′-comb, a toothed instrument or heckle for cleaning the fibres of flax; Flax′-dress′er, one who prepares flax for the spinner by the successive processes of rippling, retting, grassing, breaking, and scutching.—adj. Flax′en, made of or resembling flax: fair, long, and flowing.—ns. Flax′-mill, a mill for working flax into linen; Flax′-seed, linseed; Flax′-wench, a female who spins flax.—adj. Flax′y, like flax: of a light colour.—New Zealand flax, a valuable fibre, quite different from common flax, obtained from the leaf of Phormium tenax, the flax lily or flax bush. [A.S. fleax; Ger. flachs.]

Flay, flā, v.t. to strip off the skin:—pr.p. flay′ing; pa.p. flayed.—ns. Flay′er; Flay′-flint, a skinflint. [A.S flan; Ice. fl, to skin.]

Flea, flē, n. a well-known wingless insect of great agility, ectoparasitic on warm-blooded animals.—ns. Flea′-bane, a genus of plants which emit a strong smell said to have the power of driving away fleas; Flea′-bite, the bite of a flea: a small mark caused by the bite: (fig.) a trifle.—adj. Flea′-bit′ten, bitten by fleas: (fig.) mean: having small reddish spots on a lighter ground, of horses.—A flea in one's ear, a caution, rebuff, anything specially irritating. [A.S. flah; cf. Ger. floh, Dut. vloo.]

Fleam, flēm, n. an instrument for bleeding cattle. [Fr. flamme—Gr. phlebotomon, a lancet—phleps, phlebos, a vein, and tem-nein, to cut.]

Flche, flāsh, n. a spire generally: the slender spire rising from the intersection of the nave and transepts in some large churches: (fort.) a parapet with two faces forming a salient angle at the foot of a glacis. [Fr., 'an arrow.']

Fleck, flek, n. a spot or speckle: a little bit of a thing.—vs.t. Fleck, Fleck′er, to spot: to streak.—adjs. Flecked, spotted, dappled; Fleck′less, without spot. [Ice. flekkr, a spot; Ger. fleck, Dut. vlek.]

Flection. Same as Flexion.

Fled, fled, pa.t. and pa.p. of Flee.

Fledge, flej, v.t. to furnish with feathers or wings.—v.i. to acquire feathers for flying.—n. Fledg′ling, a little bird just fledged.—adj. Fledg′y (Keats), feathery. [M. E. fligge, flegge—A.S. flycge, fledged (cf. Ger. flgge)—flogan, to fly (Ger. fliegen).]

Flee, flē, v.i. to run away, as from danger: to disappear.—v.t. to keep at a distance from:—pr.p. flee′ing; pa.t. and pa.p. fled.—n. Flē′er. [A.S. flon, akin to flogan, to fly; Ger. fliehen, akin to fliegen, to fly.]

Fleece, flēs, n. the coat of wool shorn from a sheep at one time: anything like a fleece.—v.t. to clip wool from: to plunder: to cover, as with wool.—adjs. Fleeced, having a fleece; Fleece′less.—ns. Flee′cer, one who strips or plunders; Fleece′-wool, that shorn from the living animal.—adj. Fleec′y, woolly. [A.S. flos; Dut. vlies, Ger. fliess.]

Fleech, flēch, v.t. (Scot.) to flatter, coax, beg.—ns. Fleech′ing, Fleech′ment.

Fleer, flēr, v.t. or v.i. to make wry faces in contempt, to mock.—n. mockery.—n. Fleer′ing.—adv. Fleer′ingly. [Cf. Norw. flira, Sw. flissa, to titter.]

Fleet, flēt, n. a number of ships in company, esp. ships of war: a division of the navy, commanded by an admiral. [A.S. flot, a ship—flotan, to float; conn. with Dut. vloot, Ger. flotte.]

Fleet, flēt, adj. swift: nimble: transient: (prov.) shallow.—adjs. Fleet′-foot (Shak.), fleet or swift of foot; Fleet′ing, passing quickly: temporary.—advs. Fleet′ingly; Fleet′ly.—n. Fleet′ness. [Prob. Ice. flitr, swift; but ult. cog. with succeeding word.]

Fleet, flēt, v.i. to flit, pass swiftly.—v.t. (Shak.) to make to pass quickly:—pr.p. fleet′ing; pa.p. fleet′ed. [A.S. flotan, to float.]

Fleet, flēt, n. a shallow creek or bay, as in Northfleet, Fleet-ditch, &c.—The Fleet, or Fleet Prison, a London gaol down to 1842, long a place of confinement for debtors—clandestine marriages were solemnised here down to 1754 by broken-down clergymen confined for debt. [A.S. flot, an inlet.]

Flemish, flem′ish, adj. of or belonging to the Flemings or people of Flanders, or their language.—n. Flem′ing, a native of Flanders.—Flemish school, a school of painting formed by the brothers Van Eyck, reaching its height in Rubens, Vandyck, and Teniers; Flemish stitch, a stitch used in making certain kinds of point-lace. [Dut. Vlaamsch.]

Flench, flensh, v.t. to cut up the blubber of, as a whale.—Also Flense, Flinch. [Dan. flense.]

Flesh, flesh, n. the soft substance which covers the bones of animals: animal food: the bodies of beasts and birds, not fish: the body, not the soul: animals or animal nature: mankind: kindred: bodily appetites: the present life: the soft substance of fruit: the part of a fruit fit to be eaten: (B.) man's visible nature (as opposed to Pneuma or Spirit), his human or bodily nature, the seat of sin, but not originally or necessarily evil.—v.t. to train to an appetite for flesh, as dogs for hunting: to accustom: to glut: to use upon flesh, as a sword, esp. for the first time.—ns. Flesh′-broth, broth made by boiling flesh; Flesh′-brush, a brush used for rubbing the skin to excite circulation; Flesh′-col′our, pale red, like the normal colour of the cheek of a child.—adj. Fleshed (flesht), having flesh: fat.—ns. Flesh′er (Scot.), a butcher; Flesh′-fly, a fly that deposits its eggs in and feeds on flesh; Flesh′hood (Mrs Browning), the state of being in the flesh; Flesh′-hook, a hook for drawing flesh from a pot; Flesh′iness.— Flesh′ings, thin flesh-coloured dress worn by dancers, actors, &c.—adj. Flesh′less, without flesh: lean.—ns. Flesh′liness; Flesh′ling (Spens.), one wholly devoted to sensuality.—adj. Flesh′ly, corporeal: carnal: not spiritual—also adv. Flesh′ly-mind′ed, given to sensual pleasures: carnally-minded.—ns. Flesh′-meat, flesh of animals used for food; Flesh′ment (Shak.), act of fleshing or initiating, excitement arising from success; Flesh′monger, one who deals in flesh: (Shak.) a procurer, a pimp; Flesh′-pot, a pot or vessel in which flesh is cooked: (fig.) abundance of flesh, high living; Flesh′-pottery, sumptuous living; Flesh′-tint, the tint or colour that best represents the human body; Flesh′-worm, a worm that feeds on flesh; Flesh′-wound, a wound not reaching beyond the flesh.—adj. Flesh′y, fat: pulpy: plump.—An arm of flesh, human strength or help; In the flesh, in life, alive: (B.) under control of the lower nature. [A.S. flǽsc; cog. forms in all Teut. languages; Ger. fleisch, &c.]

Fletch, flech, v.i. to feather.—n. Fletch′er, one who makes arrows. [Fr. flche, an arrow.]


Fleur-de-lis, flōōr′-de-lē′, n. the flower of the lily: (her.) a bearing explained as representing three flowers of the white lily joined together, or the white iris—commonly called Flower-de-luce:—pl. Fleurs′-de-lis′—the arms of the Bourbons and of France.—ns. Fleur′et, an ornament like a small flower: a fencing-foil; Fleur′y (her.), decorated with a fleur-de-lis, or with the upper part only. [Fr., lis being for L. lilium, a lily.]

Flew, flōō, pa.t. of Fly.

Flewed, flōōd, adj. (Shak.) having large chops (of dogs). [Ety. unknown.]

Flexible, fleks′i-bl, Flexile, fleks′il, adj. easily bent: pliant: docile.—v.t. Flex, to bend or make a flexure of.—adjs. Flexan′imous, influencing the mind; Flexed, bent.—ns. Flex′ibleness, Flexibil′ity, pliancy: easiness to be persuaded.—adv. Flex′ibly.—ns. Flex′ion, Flec′tion, a bend: a fold: the action of a flexor muscle; Flex′or, a muscle which bends a joint, as opposed to Extensor.—adjs. Flex′ūous, Flex′ūose, of windings and turnings: variable.—n. Flex′ūre, a bend or turning: (math.) the curving of a line or surface: the bending of loaded beams: (Shak.) obsequious bowing. [L. flexibilis, flexilisflectĕre, flexum, to bend.]

Fley, Flay, flā, v.t. to cause to fly: to frighten.—v.i. to be frightened. [M. E. flayen—A.S. flgan, flogan, to fly; Ice. fleyja, Goth. flaugjan.]

Flibbertigibbet, flib′er-ti-jib′et, n. a flighty person: an imp. [Most prob. jargon.]

Flick, flik, v.t. to strike lightly.—n. a flip.

Flicker, flik′ėr, v.i. to flutter and move the wings, as a bird: to burn unsteadily, as a flame.—n. an act of flickering, a flickering movement.—v.i. Flicht′er, (Scot.), to flutter, quiver.—adv. Flick′eringly. [A.S. flicorian; imit.]

Flier, Flyer, flī′ėr, n. one who flies or flees: a part of a machine with rapid motion.

Flight, flīt, n. a passing through the air: a soaring: excursion: a sally: a series of steps: a flock of birds flying together: the birds produced in the same season: a volley or shower: act of fleeing: hasty removal.—adj. Flight′ed (Milt.), flying.—adv. Flight′ily.—n. Flight′iness.—adj. Flight′y, fanciful: changeable: giddy. [A.S. flyhtflogan.]

Flim-flam, flim′-flam, n. a trick. [Formed like skimble-skamble, whim-wham, &c.]

Flimp, flimp, v.t. (slang) to snatch a watch while a confederate prods the victim in the back.

Flimsy, flim′zi, adj. thin: without solidity, strength, or reason: weak.—n. transfer-paper: (slang) a bank-note: reporters' copy written on thin paper.—adv. Flim′sily, in a flimsy manner.—n. Flim′siness. [First in 18th century. Prob. an onomatopœic formation suggested by film.]

Flinch, flinsh, v.i. to shrink back: to fail.—ns. Flinch′er; Flinch′ing, the act of flinching or shrinking.—adv. Flinch′ingly. [M. E. flecchen—O. Fr. flchir, prob. from L. flectĕre, to bend.]

Flinder, flin′der, n. a splinter or small fragment—usually in pl. [Norw. flindra, a splinter.]

Flindersia, flin-der′si-a, n. a genus of Australian and African trees, yielding African and Madeira mahogany, or Calcedra wood. [From the Australian explorer, Captain Matthew Flinders, 1774-1814.]

Fling, fling, v.t. to strike or throw from the hand: to dart: to send forth: to scatter: to throw (of a horse).—v.i. to act in a violent and irregular manner: to kick out with the legs: to upbraid: to sneer:—pr.p. fling′ing; pa.t. and pa.p. flung.—n. a cast or throw: a taunt: complete freedom, full enjoyment of pleasure: a lively Scotch country-dance.—Fling out, to speak or act recklessly.—Full fling, at the utmost speed, recklessly. [Ice. flengja; Sw. flnga.]

Flint, flint, n. a hard mineral, a variety of quartz, from which fire is readily struck with steel: anything proverbially hard.—adj. made of flint, hard.—n. Flint′-glass, a very fine and pure kind of glass, so called because originally made of calcined flints.—adjs. Flint′-heart, -ed (Shak.), having a hard heart.—v.t. Flint′ify, to turn to flint.—ns. Flint′iness; Flint′-lock, a gun-lock having a flint fixed in the hammer for striking fire and igniting the priming.—adj. Flint′y, consisting of or like flint: hard: cruel.—Flint implements, arrow, axe, and spear heads, &c. made by man before the use of metals, commonly found in prehistoric graves, &c. [A.S. flint; Dan. flint; Gr. plinthos, a brick.]

Flip, flip, n. a hot drink of beer and spirits sweetened.

Flip, flip, v.t. to fillip, to touch lightly: to toss up with a motion of the thumb.—v.i. to flap.—n. a fillip, a snap.—adv. Flip′-flap, with a repeated flapping movement.—n. a coster's dance: a form of somersault: a cracker.—ns. Flip′-flop, the sound of a regular footfall; Flip′per, a fin: (slang) hand.—adj. Flip′perty-flop′perty, that goes flip-flap, loose, dangling. [Attenuated from flap.]

Flipe, flīp, v.t. to fold back, as a sleeve. [Prob. Scand.; cf. Dan. flip, a flap.]

Flippant, flip′ant, adj. quick and pert of speech: thoughtless.—ns. Flipp′ancy, Flipp′antness, pert fluency of speech: pertness.—adv. Flipp′antly. [Skeat explains as for flipp -and (Old Northumbrian pr.p. ending)—Ice. fleipa, to prattle.]

Flirt, flėrt, v.t. to move about quickly like a fan, to flick, rap.—v.i. to trifle with love: to play at courtship: to move briskly about.—n. a pert, giddy girl: one who coquets for amusement, usually of a woman.—n. Flirtā′tion the act of flirting.—adj. Flirtā′tious (coll.), giving to flirting.—ns. Flirt′-gill (Shak.), a pert or wanton woman; Flirt′ing.—adv. Flirt′ingly, in a flirting manner.—adj. Flirt′ish, betokening a flirt. [Onomatopœic, like flick, flip, flirk (a jerk), spurt, squirt.]

Flisk, flisk, v.i. (Scot.) to skip or caper about: to fret at the yoke.—n. a whim: a large-tooth comb.—adj. Flisk′y. [Onomatopœic.]

Flit, flit, v.i. to flutter on the wing: to fly quickly: to be unsteady or easily moved: (Scot.) to remove from place to place:—pr.p. flit′ting; pa.p. flit′ted.n. Flit′ting, a removal from one house to another: a wandering. [Ice. flytja; Sw. flytta.]

Flitch, flich, n. the side of a hog salted and cured. [A.S. flicce; Ice. flikki.]

Flitter, flit′ėr, v.i. to flutter.—n. Flitt′er-mouse, a bat.

Flittern, flit′ern, n. (prov.) a young oak.

Flitters, flit′ers, fragments, tatters.

Flix, fliks, n. fur, beaver-down.

Float, flōt, v.i. to swim on a liquid: to be buoyed up: to move lightly and irregularly: to circulate, as a rumour: to drift about aimlessly.—v.t. to cause to swim: to cover with water: to set agoing.—n. anything swimming on water: a raft: the cork or quill on a fishing-line: a plasterer's trowel.—adj. Float′able.—ns. Float′age, Flot′age, the floating capacity of a thing: anything that floats; Float′-board, a board on the rim of an undershot water-wheel on which the water acts and moves the wheel; Float′er.—adj. Float′ing, swimming: not fixed: circulating.—n. action of the verb float: the spreading of plaster on the surface of walls.—ns. Float′ing-batt′ery, a vessel or hulk heavily armed, used in the defence of harbours or in attacks on marine fortresses; Float′ing-bridge, a bridge of rafts or beams of timber lying on the surface of the water; Float′ing-dock (see Dock); Float′ing-is′land, an aggregation of driftwood, roots, &c., capable of bearing soil, floated out from a river delta or the like; Float′ing-light, a ship, bearing a light, moored on sunken rocks, to warn seamen of danger.—adv. Float′ingly.—n. Float′-stone, a porous, sponge-like variety of quartz, so light as to float for a while on water.—adj. Float′y. [A.S. flotian, to float; Ice. flota.]

Flock, flok, n. a company of animals, as sheep, birds, &c.: a company generally: a Christian congregation.—v.i. to gather in flocks or in crowds.—n. Flock′-mas′ter, an owner or overseer of a flock. [A.S. flocc, a flock, a company; Ice. flokkr.]

Flock, flok, n. a lock of wool.—n. Floccillā′tion, a delirious picking of the bed-clothes by a patient.—adjs. Floc′cose, woolly; Floc′cūlar; Floc′cūlate.—n. Floc′cūlence.—adj. Floc′cūlent, woolly, flaky.—ns. Floc′cūlus, a small flock or tuft: a small lobe of the inferior surface of the cerebellum; Floc′cus, a flock or tuft of wool or wool-like hairs: the downy plumage of unfledged birds:—pl. Flocci (flok′si); Flock′-bed, a bed stuffed with flock or refuse wool; Flock′-pā′per, wall-paper covered with a rough surface formed of flock.—adj. Flock′y. [O. Fr. floc—L. floccus, a lock of wool.]

Floe, flō, n. a field of floating ice. [Prob. Norse flo, layer. The usual Danish word is flage.]

Flog, flog, v.t. to beat or strike: to lash: to chastise with blows:—pr.p. flog′ging; pa.p. flogged.—n. Flog′ging. [Late; prob. an abbrev. of flagellate.]

Flood, flud, n. a great flow of water: (B.) a river: an inundation: a deluge: the rise or flow of the tide: any great quantity.—v.t. to overflow: to inundate: to bleed profusely, as after parturition:—pr.p. flood′ing; pa.p. flood′ed.ns. Flood′-gate, a gate for letting water flow through, or to prevent it: an opening or passage: an obstruction; Flood′ing, an extraordinary flow of blood from the uterus; Flood′mark, the mark or line to which the tide rises; Flood′-tide, the rising or inflowing tide.—The Flood, the deluge in the days of Noah. [A.S. fld; Dut. vloed, Ger. fluth. Cog. with flow.]

Floor, flōr, n. the part of a room on which we stand: a platform: the rooms in a house on the same level, a story: any levelled area.—v.t. to furnish with a floor: (coll.) to vanquish, stump.—ns. Floor′cloth, a covering for floors made of canvas oil-painted on both sides; Floor′er, a knock-down blow; a decisive retort, &c.: an examination question one cannot answer; Floor′ing, material for floors: a platform.— Floor′-tim′bers, the timbers placed immediately across a ship's keel, on which her bottom is framed.—ns. First′-floor, the floor in a house above the ground-floor—in United States mostly identical with Ground-floor, the floor of a house on a level with the ground. [A.S. flr; Dut. vloer, a flat surface, Ger. flur, flat land; W. llawr.]

Flop, flop, v.t. to cause to hang down.—v.i. to plump down suddenly: to break down.—n. a fall plump on the ground.—adv. Flop′pily.—n. Flop′piness.—adj. Flop′py. [A form of flap.]

Flora, flō′ra, n. the collective plants or vegetable species of a region, country, or district: a work containing a descriptive enumeration of these.—adj. Flō′ral, pertaining to Flora or to flowers: (bot.) containing the flower.—adv. Flō′rally.—n. Floral (flō-rā-al′), the 8th month of the French revolutionary calendar, April 20-May 20.—adj. Flō′reāted, decorated with floral ornament.—n. Flores′cence, a bursting into flower: (bot.) the time when plants flower.—adj. Flores′cent, bursting into flowers.—n. Flō′ret (bot.), the flowers of any small and closely crowded inflorescence which resembles at first sight a single flower—e.g. composites, teasels, grasses, &c.—adj. Flōricul′tural.—ns. Flō′riculture, the culture of flowers or plants; Flōricul′turist, a florist.—adj. Flor′id, bright in colour: flushed with red: containing flowers of rhetoric or lively figures: richly ornamental.—adv. Flor′idly.—n. Flor′idness.—adjs. Flōrif′erous, bearing or producing flowers; Flō′riform, flower-shaped.—ns. Flōrilē′gium, an anthology or collection of choice extracts; Flor′ist, a cultivator of flowers: one who writes an account of plants. [L. Flora, the goddess of flowers.]

Florentine, flor′en-tin, adj. pertaining to Florence in Tuscany.—n. a native or inhabitant thereof: a durable silk textile fabric—also Flor′ence: a pie with no crust beneath the meat.

Florin, flor′in, n. an English silver coin worth 2s., first minted in 1849: in Austria the unit of account, otherwise called gulden, with a value about 2s.: in Holland sometimes called guilder, and worth about 1s. 8d.: (orig.) a Florentine gold coin with a lily stamped on one side, first struck in the 11th century. [Fr., from It. fiorinofiore, a lily—L. flos.]

Floruit, flō′rū-it, n. the period during which a person flourished. [L., 3d pers. sing. perf. of florēre, to flourish.]

Floscule, flos′kūl, n. a floret.—adjs. Flos′cular, Flos′culous, composed of many floscules or tubular florets. [L. flosculus, dim. of flos, a flower.]

Floss, flos, n. the loose downy or silky substance in the husks of certain plants, as the bean—also Flosh.—n. Floss′-silk, very fine silk fibre extremely soft and downy and with a high lustre, used chiefly for embroidery.—adj. Floss′y. [Prob. O. Fr. flosche, down: or from some Teut. word cog. with fleece—cf. Ice. flos, nap.]

Flota, flō′ta, n. a commercial fleet: formerly the fleet which annually conveyed the produce of America to Spain. [Sp., 'a fleet.']

Flotage. See Floatage.

Flotant, flōt′ant, adj. (her.) floating in air or in water.

Flotation, flo-tā′shun, n. the act of floating: the science of floating bodies: act of floating a company or commercial enterprise.—Plane, or Line, of flotation, the plane or line in which the horizontal surface of a fluid cuts a body floating in it.

Flotilla, flo-til′a, n. a fleet of small ships. [Sp., dim. of flota, a fleet.]

Flotsam, flot′sam, n. goods lost by shipwreck, and found floating on the sea (see Jetsam). [Anglo-Fr. floteson (Fr. flottaison)—O. Fr. floter, to float.]

Flounce, flowns, v.i. to move abruptly or impatiently—n. an impatient gesture. [Prob. cog. with Norw. flunsa, to hurry, Sw. prov. flunsa, to souse.]

Flounce, flowns, n. a plaited strip sewed to the skirt of a dress.—v.t. to furnish with flounces.—n. Floun′cing, material for flounces. [Earlier form frounce—O. Fr. fronce, fronche, prob. from L. frons, forehead; or Old High Ger. runza, a wrinkle, Ger. runze.]

Flounder, flown′dėr, v.i. to struggle with violent and awkward motion: to stumble helplessly in thinking or speaking. [Prob. an onomatopœic blending of the sound and sense of earlier words like founder, blunder. Skeat compares Dut. flodderen, to splash.]

Flounder, flown′dėr, n. a small flat-fish, generally found in the sea near the mouth of rivers. [Anglo-Fr., floundre, O. Fr. flondre, most prob. of Scand. origin; cf. Ice. flyra, Sw. flundra.]

Flour, flowr, n. the finely-ground meal of wheat or other grain: the fine soft powder of any substance.—v.t. to reduce into or sprinkle with flour.—v.i. to break up into fine globules of mercury in the amalgamation process.—ns. Flour′-bolt, a machine for bolting flour; Flour′-mill, a mill for making flour.—adj. Flour′y, covered with flour. [Fr. fleur (de farine, of meal), fine flour—L. flos, floris, a flower.]

Flourish, flur′ish, v.i. to thrive luxuriantly: to be prosperous: to use copious and flowery language: to move in fantastic figures: to display ostentatiously: (mus.) to play ostentatious passages, or ostentatiously: to play a trumpet-call: to make ornamental strokes with the pen: to boast or brag.—v.t. to adorn with flourishes or ornaments: to swing about by way of show or triumph: (Shak.) to gloss over.—n. decoration: showy splendour: a figure made by a bold stroke of the pen: the waving of a weapon or other thing: a parade of words: a musical prelude: a trumpet-call.—adjs. Flour′ished, decorated with flourishes; Flour′ishing, thriving: prosperous: making a show.—adv. Flour′ishingly.—adj. Flour′ishy, abounding in flourishes.—Flourish of trumpets, a trumpet-call sounded on the approach of great persons; any ostentatious introduction. [O. Fr. florir, L. flos, flower.]

Flouse, flows, v.t. and v.i. (prov.) to splash.—Also Floush.

Flout, flowt, v.t. and v.i. to jeer, mock, or insult: to treat with contempt.—n. a mock: an insult.—adv. Flout′ingly, with flouting: insultingly.—n. Flout′ing-stock (Shak.), an object for flouting. [Prob. a specialised use of floute, M. E. form of flute, to play on the flute. So with Dut. fluiten.]

Flow, flō, v.i. to run, as water: to rise, as the tide: to move in a stream, as air: to glide smoothly: to circulate, as the blood: to abound: to hang loose and waving: (B.) to melt.—v.t. to cover with water.—n. a stream or current: the setting in of the tide: abundance: copiousness: free expression.—n. Flow′age, act of flowing: state of being flooded.—adj. Flow′ing, moving, as a fluid: fluent or smooth: falling in folds or in waves.—adv. Flow′ingly.—n. Flow′ingness. [A.S. flwan; Ger. fliessen.]

Flow, flow, n. a morass: (Scot.) a flat, moist tract of land. [Ice. floi, a marsh—fla, to flood.]

Flower, flow′ėr, n. a growth comprising the reproductive organs of plants: the blossom of a plant: the best of anything: the prime of life: the person or thing most distinguished: a figure of speech: ornament of style: (pl.) menstrual discharge (B.).—v.t. to adorn with figures of flowers.—v.i. to blossom: to flourish.—ns. Flow′erage, a gathering of flowers; Flow′er-bell, a blossom shaped like a bell; Flow′er-bud, a bud with the unopened flower; Flow′er-clock, a collection of flowers so arranged that the time of day is indicated by their times of opening and closing; Flow′er-de-luce, the old name for the common species of iris (q.v.), or for the heraldic emblem conventionalised therefrom (see Fleur-de-lis); Flow′eret, a little flower: a floret; Flow′er-head, a compound flower in which all the florets are sessile on the receptacle; Flow′eriness; Flow′ering-rush, a monocotyledonous plant usually reckoned under the order Alismace, with large linear three-edged leaves and an umbel of rose-coloured flowers.—adjs. Flow′er-kir′tled, Flow′ery-kir′tled (Milt.), dressed in robes or garlands of flowers; Flow′erless (bot.) having no flowers.—ns. Flow′er-pot, a utensil in culture whereby plants are rendered portable;, Flow′er-serv′ice, a church service where offerings of flowers are made, to be afterwards sent to hospitals; Flow′er-show, an exhibition of flowers; Flow′er-stalk, the stem that supports the flower.—adj. Flow′ery, full of, or adorned with, flowers: highly embellished, florid.—Flower of Jove, a caryophyllaceous plant, with heads of purple or scarlet flowers, and leaves silky-white with hairs. [O. Fr. flour (Fr. fleur)—L. flos, floris, a flower.]

Flown, flōn, pa.p. of fly.

Flown, flōn, adj. inflated, flushed: (Milt.) overflown.

Fluate, flōō′āt, n. Same as Fluoride.

Fluctuate, fluk′tū-āt, v.i. to float backward and forward: to roll hither and thither: to be irresolute.—v.t. to cause to move hither and thither.—adjs. Fluc′tuant; Fluc′tuāting.—ns. Fluctuā′tion, a rising and falling like a wave: motion hither and thither: agitation: unsteadiness; Fluctuos′ity.—adj. Fluc′tuous. [L. fluctuāre, -ātumfluctus, a wave—fluĕre, to flow.]

Flue, flōō, n. a smoke-pipe or small chimney. [Prob. related to flue, to expand, splay out.]

Flue, flōō, n. light down: soft down or fur.—adj. Flu′ey. [Ety. unknown; conn. with fluff.]

Flue, flōō, adj. (prov.) shallow, flat.—Also Flew.

Fluent, flōō′ent, adj. ready in the use of words: voluble: marked by copiousness.—n. the variable quantity in fluxions.—ns. Flu′ence (Milt.), Flu′ency, Flu′entness, readiness or rapidity of utterance: volubility.—adv. Flu′ently. [L. fluens, fluentis, pr.p. of fluĕre, to flow.]

Fluff, fluf, n. a soft down from cotton, &c.: anything downy.—n. Fluff′iness.—adj. Fluff′y. [Perh. conn. with flue, light down.]

Flugelman, flōō′gl-man′, n. Same as Fugleman.—n. Fl′gel-horn, a hunting-horn, a kind of keyed bugle.

Fluid, flōō′id, adj. that flows, as water: liquid or gaseous.—n. a substance in which the particles can move about with greater or less freedom from one part of the body to another.—adjs. Flu′idal; Fluid′ic; Fluid′iform.—vs.t. Fluid′ify, Flu′idise, to make fluid.—ns. Flu′idism; Fluid′ity, Flu′idness, a liquid or gaseous state.—adv. Flu′idly. [Fr.,—L. fluidus, fluid—fluĕre, to flow.]

Fluke, flōōk, n. a flounder: a parasitic trematoid worm which causes the liver-rot in sheep, so called because like a miniature flounder: a variety of kidney potato. [A.S. flc, a plaice; cf. Ice. flke.]

Fluke, flōōk, n. the part of an anchor which fastens in the ground.—adj. Fluk′y. [Prob. a transferred use of the foregoing.]

Fluke, flōōk, n. a successful shot made by chance, as at billiards: any unexpected advantage.

Flume, flōōm, n. an artificial channel for water to be applied to some industrial purpose: (U.S.) a narrow defile with upright walls, the bottom occupied by a torrent.—Be, or Go, up the flume, to come to grief, to be done for. [O. Fr. flum—L. flumen, a river—fluĕre, to flow.]

Flummery, flum′ėr-i, n. an acid jelly made from the husks of oats: the Scotch sowens: anything insipid: empty compliment. [W. llymrullymrig, harsh, raw—llym, sharp, severe.]

Flummox, flum′oks, v.t. (slang) to perplex: defeat.

Flump, flump, v.t. (coll.) to throw down violently.—v.i. to throw one's self down heavily.—n. the dull sound so produced. [Imit.]

Flung, flung, pa.t. and pa.p. of fling.

Flunkey, flung′ki, n. a livery servant: a footman: a mean, cringing fellow.—n. Flun′keydom.—adj. Flun′keyish.—n. Flun′keyism. [Perh. orig. flanker, one who runs along by the side of.]

Fluor, flōō′or, n. a mineral often described as chemically fluate of lime, but really calcium fluoride, found abundantly in Derbyshire—also Flu′or-spar, Flu′orite.—ns. Fluores′cein, a coal-tar product, little used in dyeing, the colour not being fast; Fluores′cence, a peculiar blue appearance exhibited by certain substances exposed to sunlight, and especially observable in a dilute solution of sulphate of quinine.—adjs. Fluores′cent, having the property of fluorescence; Fluor′ic.—ns. Flu′oride, a binary compound of fluorine with another element; Flu′orine, an elementary substance allied to chlorine, obtained chiefly from fluor; Flu′orotype, a photographic process in which salts of fluoric acid were employed for the purpose of producing images in the camera; Fluosil′icate, a compound of fluosilicic acid with some base.—adj. Fluosilic′ic, composed of silicon and fluorine. [A name given by the alchemists to all mineral acids because of their fluidity, from L. fluĕre, to flow.]

Flurry, flur′i, n. a sudden blast or gust: agitation: bustle: the death-agony of the whale: a fluttering assemblage of things, as snowflakes.—v.t. to agitate, to confuse:—pr.p. flurr′ying; pa.p. flurr′ied.v.t. Flurr, to scatter.—v.i. to fly up. [Prob. onomatopœic, suggested by flaw, hurry, &c.]

Flush, flush, n. a flow of blood to the face causing redness: sudden impulse: bloom, freshness, vigour: abundance.—v.i. to become red in the face: to flow swiftly.—v.t. to make red in the face: to cleanse by a copious flow of water: to elate, excite the spirits of: mostly in the pa.p. flushed (with victory).—adj. (of weather) hot and heavy: abounding: well supplied, as with money: (Shak.) in full bloom.—n. Flush′-box, a rectangular tank supplied with water for flushing the bowls of water-closets.—adj. Flushed, suffused with ruddy colour: excited.—ns. Flush′er, one who flushes sewers; Flush′ing, action of the verb flush: sudden reddening; Flush′ness, quality of being flush.—adj. Flush′y, reddish. [Prob. orig. identical with succeeding word, but meaning influenced by phonetic association with flash, the senses relating to colour by blush.]

Flush, flush, v.i. to start up like an alarmed bird.—v.t. to rouse and cause to start off.—n. the act of starting: (Spens.) a bird, or a flock of birds so started. [Prob. onomatopœic; suggested by fly, flutter, and rush.]

Flush, flush, v.t. to make even: to fill up to the level of a surface (often with up).—adj. having the surface level with the adjacent surface. [Prob. related to flush above.]

Flush, flush, n. in card-playing, a hand in which all the cards or a specified number are of the same suit.—adj. in poker, consisting of cards all of the same suit.—Straight, or Royal, flush, in poker, a sequence of five cards of the same suit. [Prob. Fr. flux—L. fluxus, flow.]

Fluster, flus′tėr, n. hurrying: confusion: heat.—v.t. to make hot and confused: to fuddle.—v.i. to bustle: to be agitated or fuddled.—v.t. Flus′terāte, to fluster.—n. Flusterā′tion.—adj. Flus′tered, fuddled: flurried.—n. Flus′terment.—adj. Flus′tery, confused. [Ice. flaustr, hurry.]

Flustra, flus′tra, n. one of the commonest genera of marine Polyzoa.

Flute, flōōt, n. a musical pipe with finger-holes and keys sounded by blowing: in organ-building, a stop with stopped wooden pipes, having a flute-like tone: one of a series of curved furrows, as on a pillar, called also Fluting: a tall and narrow wine-glass: a shuttle in tapestry-weaving, &c.—v.i. to play the flute.—v.t. to play or sing in soft flute-like tones: to form flutes or grooves in.—adj. Flut′ed, ornamented with flutes, channels, or grooves.—ns. Flut′er; Fluti′na (tē′-), a kind of accordion; Flut′ing-machine′, a machine for corrugating sheet-metal, also a wood-turning machine for forming twisted, spiral, and fluted balusters; Flut′ist.—adj. Flut′y, in tone like a flute. [O. Fr. flete; ety. dub.]

Flutter, flut′ėr, v.i. to move about with bustle: to vibrate: to be in agitation or in uncertainty: (obs.) to be frivolous.—v.t. to throw into disorder: to move in quick motions.—n. quick, irregular motion: agitation: confusion: a hasty game at cards, &c. [A.S. flotorian, to float about, from flot, the sea, stem of flotan, to float.]

Fluvial, flōō′vi-al, adj. of or belonging to rivers.—n. Flu′vialist.—adjs. Fluviat′ic, Flu′viatile, belonging to or formed by rivers. [L. fluvialisfluvius, a river, fluĕre, to flow.]

Flux, fluks, n. act of flowing: a flow of matter: quick succession: a discharge generally from a mucous membrane: matter discharged: excrement: the term given to the substances employed in the arts to assist the reduction of a metallic ore and the fusion of a metal.—v.t. to melt.—v.i. to flow.—ns. Flux′ātion, the act of flowing or passing away; Fluxibil′ity, Flux′ibleness.—adjs. Flux′ible, Flux′ide, that may be melted.—ns. Fluxil′ity; Flux′ion, a flowing or discharge: a difference or variation: (math.) the rate of change of a continuously varying quantity: (pl.) the name given after Newton to that branch of mathematics which with a different notation is known after Leibnitz as the differential and integral calculus.—adjs. Flux′ional, Flux′ionary, variable: inconstant.—n. Flux′ionist, one skilled in fluxions.—adj. Flux′ive (Shak.), flowing with tears. [O. Fr.,—L. fluxusfluĕre, to flow.]

Fly, flī, v.i. to move through the air on wings: to move swiftly: to pass away: to flee: to burst quickly or suddenly: to flutter.—v.t. to avoid, flee from: to cause to fly, as a kite:—pr.p. fly′ing; pa.t. flew (flōō); pa.p. flown (flōn).—n. a popular name best restricted in its simplicity to the insects forming the order Diptera, but often so widely used with a prefix—e.g. butterfly, dragon-fly, May-fly—as to be virtually equivalent to insect: a fish-hook dressed with silk, &c., in imitation of a fly: a light double-seated carriage, a hackney-coach: (mech.) a flywheel: (pl.) the large space above the proscenium in a theatre, from which the scenes, &c., are controlled.—adj. wide-awake: (slang) knowing.—adjs. Fly′away, flighty; Fly′-bit′ten, marked by the bite of flies.—n. Fly′blow, the egg of a fly.—adj. Fly′blown, tainted with the eggs which produce maggots.—ns. Fly′boat, a long, narrow, swift boat used on canals; Fly′book, a case like a book for holding fishing-flies; Fly′-catch′er, a small bird, so called from its catching flies while on the wing; Fly′-fish′er, one who fishes with artificial flies as bait; Fly′-fish′ing, the art of so fishing; Fly′-flap′per, one who drives away flies with a fly-flap; Fly′ing-bridge, a kind of ferry-boat which is moved across a river by the action of the combined forces of the stream and the resistance of a long rope or chain made fast to a fixed buoy in the middle of the river; Fly′ing-butt′ress, an arch-formed prop which connects the walls of the upper and central portions of an aisled structure with the vertical buttresses of the outer walls; Fly′ing-camp, a body of troops for rapid motion from one place to another; Fly′ing-Dutch′man, a Dutch black spectral ship, whose captain is condemned for his impieties to sweep the seas around the Cape of Storms unceasingly, without ever being able to reach a haven; Fly′ing-fish, a fish which can leap from the water and sustain itself in the air for a short time, by its long pectoral fins, as if flying; Fly′ing-fox, a large frugivorous bat; Fly′ing-lē′mur, a galeopithecoid insectivore whose fore and hind limbs are connected by a fold of skin, enabling it to make flying leaps from tree to tree; Fly′ing-par′ty, a small body of soldiers, equipped for rapid movements, used to harass an enemy; Fly′ing-phalan′ger, a general popular name for the petaurists; Fly′ing-shot, a shot fired at something in motion; Fly′ing-squid, a squid having broad lateral fins by means of which it can spring high out of the water; Fly′ing-squirr′el, a name given to two genera of squirrels, which have a fold of skin between the fore and hind legs, by means of which they can take great leaps in the air; Fly′leaf, a blank leaf at the beginning and end of a book; Fly′-line, a line for angling with an artificial fly; Fly′-mak′er, one who ties artificial flies for angling; Fly′man, one who works the ropes in the flies of a theatre; Fly′pāper, a porous paper impregnated with poison for destroying flies; Fly′-pow′der, a poisonous powder used for killing flies; Fly′-rail, that part of a table which turns out to support the leaf.—adj. (Shak.) moving slow as a fly on its feet.—ns. Fly′-rod, a light flexible rod used in fly-fishing, usually in three pieces—butt, second-joint, and tip; Fly′-trap, a trap to catch flies: (bot.) the spreading dog-bane, also the Venus's fly-trap; Fly′wheel, a large wheel with a heavy rim applied to machinery to equalise the effect of the driving effort.—Fly at, to attack suddenly; Fly in the face of, to insult: to oppose; Fly open, to open suddenly or violently; Fly out, to break out in a rage; Fly the kite, to obtain money as by accommodation bills, the endorser himself having no money; Fly upon, to seize: to attack.—A fly in the ointment, some slight flaw which corrupts a thing of value (Eccles. x. i.); Break a fly on the wheel, to subject to a punishment out of all proportion to the gravity of the offence; Let fly, to attack: to throw or send off; Make the feathers fly (see Feathers). [A.S. flogan, pa.t. fleh; Ger. fliegen.]

Flyte, Flite, flīt, v.i. (Scot.) to scold, to brawl.—n. Flyte, Flyt′ing, a scolding, or heated dispute. [A.S. fltan, to strive; Ger. be-fleissen.]

Foal, fōl, n. the young of a mare or of a she-ass.—v.i. and v.t. to bring forth a foal.—ns. Foal′foot, colts-foot; Foal′ing, bringing forth of a foal or young. [A.S. fola; Ger. fohlen, Gr. pōlos; L. pullus.]

Foam, fōm, n. froth: the bubbles which rise on the surface of liquors: fury.—v.i. to gather foam: to be in a rage.—v.t. (B.) to throw out with rage or violence (with out).—adv. Foam′ingly.—adjs. Foam′less, without foam; Foam′y, frothy. [A.S. fm; Ger. feim, prob. akin to L. spuma.]

Fob, fob, n. a trick.—v.t. to cheat. [Prob. a corr. of O. Fr. forbe, a rogue; or Ger. foppen, to jeer.]

Fob, fob, n. a small pocket in the waistband of trousers for a watch: a chain with seals, &c., hanging from the fob. [If orig. a secret pocket, perh. connected with the above.]

Focus, fō′kus, n. (opt.) a point in which several rays meet and are collected after being reflected or refracted, while a virtual focus is a point from which rays tend after reflection or refraction—the principal focus is the focus of parallel rays after reflection or refraction: any central point:—pl. Fō′cuses, Foci (fō′sī).v.t. to bring to a focus: to concentrate:—pa.p. fō′cussed.adj. Fō′cal, of or belonging to a focus.—v.t. Fō′calise, to bring to a focus: to concentrate.—n. Focimeter (fō-sim′e-tėr), an instrument for assisting in focussing an object in or before a photographic camera—usually a lens of small magnifying power.—Focussing cloth, a cloth thrown over a photographic camera and the operator's head and shoulders to exclude all light save that coming through the lens.—Conjugate foci, two points so situated that if a light be placed at one, its rays will be reflected to the other; In focus, placed or adjusted so as to secure distinct vision, or a sharp, definite image. [L. focus, a hearth.]

Fodder, fod′ėr, n. food for cattle, as hay and straw.—v.t. to supply with fodder.—ns. Fodd′erer; Fodd′ering. [A.S. fdor; Ger. futter.]

Fodient, fō′di-ent, adj. and n. digging.

Foe, fō, n. an enemy: one who, or that which, injures or hinders anything: an ill-wisher.—ns. Foe′man, an enemy in war:—pl. Foe′men; Fō′en (Spens.), pl. of foe. [M. E. foo—A.S. fh, f (adj.), allied to the compound n. gef; cf. fogan, to hate.]

Fœtus, Fetus, fē′tus, n. the young of animals in the egg or in the womb, after its parts are distinctly formed, until its birth.—adjs. Fœ′tal, Fē′tal, pertaining to a fœtus; Fœ′ticidal.—ns. Fœ′ticide, Fē′ticide, destruction of the fœtus. [L., from obs. feuēre, to bring forth, whence femina, fecundus, &c.]

Fog, fog, n. a thick mist: watery vapour rising from either land or water.—v.t. to shroud in fog.—v.i. to become coated with a uniform coating.—ns. Fog′-bank, a dense mass of fog sometimes seen at sea appearing like a bank of land; Fog′-bell, a bell rung by the motion of the waves or wind to warn sailors from rocks, shoals, &c. in foggy weather.—adj. Fog′-bound, impeded by fog.—ns. Fog′-bow, a whitish arch like a rainbow, seen in fogs.—adv. Fog′gily.—n. Fog′giness.—adj. Fog′gy, misty: damp: clouded in mind: stupid.—n. Fog′-horn, a horn used as a warning signal by ships in foggy weather: a sounding instrument for warning ships off the shore during a fog: a siren.—adj. Fog′less, without fog, clear.—ns. Fog′-ring, a bank of fog in the form of a ring; Fog′-sig′nal, an audible signal used on board ship, &c., during a fog, when visible signals cease to be of use; Fog′-smoke, fog. [The origin of the word is hopelessly misty; Mr Bradley connects with succeeding word; Prof. Skeat connects with Dan. fog, as in snee-fog, thick falling snow; cf. Ice. fok, a snowdrift.]

Fog, fog, Foggage, fog′āj, n. grass which grows in autumn after the hay is cut: (Scot.) moss.—v.i. to become covered with fog. [Origin unknown; W. ffwg, dry grass, is borrowed.]

Fogy, Fogey, fō′gi, n. a dull old fellow; a person with antiquated notions.—adjs. Fō′gram, antiquated.—n. a fogy.—ns. Fō′gramite; Fogram′ity; Fōgydom.—adj. Fō′gyish.—n. Fō′gyism. [Prob. a substantive use of foggy in sense of 'fat,' 'bloated,' 'moss-grown.']

Foh, fō, interj. an exclamation of abhorrence or contempt.

Foible, foi′bl, n. a weak point in one's character: a failing. [O. Fr. foible, weak.]

Foil, foil, v.t. to defeat: to puzzle: to disappoint: (Spens.) to beat down or trample with the feet:—pr.p. foil′ing; pa.p. foiled.—n. failure after success seemed certain: defeat: a blunt sword used in fencing, having a button on the point.—Put to the foil, to blemish. [O. Fr. fuler, to stamp or crush—Low L. fullarefullo, a fuller of cloth.]

Foil, foil, n. a leaf or thin plate of metal, as tin-foil: a thin leaf of metal put under precious stones to increase their lustre or change their colour: anything that serves to set off something else: a small arc in the tracery of a window, &c. (trefoiled, cinquefoiled, multifoiled, &c.).—adj. Foiled.—n. Foil′ing. [O. Fr. foil (Fr. feuille)—L. folium, a leaf.]

Foin, foin, v.i. to thrust with a sword or spear.—n. a thrust with a sword or spear.—adv. Foin′ingly. [O. Fr. foine—L. fuscina, a trident.]

Foison, foi′zn, n. plenty: autumn.—adj. Foi′sonless, weak, feeble—(Scot.) Fizz′enless. [O. Fr.,—L. fusion-emfundĕre, fusum, to pour forth.]

Foist, foist, v.t. to bring in by stealth: to insert wrongfully: to pass off as genuine (with in or into before the thing affected, and upon before the person).—n. Foist′er. [Prob. Dut. prov. vuisten, to take in the hand; vuist, fist.]

Fold, fōld, n. the doubling of any flexible substance: a part laid over on another: (pl.) complex arrangements, intricacy.—v.t. to lay one part over another: to enclose in a fold or folds, to wrap up: to embrace.—Fold, in composition with numerals=times, as in Ten′fold.—n. Fold′er, the person or thing that folds: a flat knife-like instrument used in folding paper.—adj. Fold′ing, that folds, or that can be folded, as folding-bed, -chair, -joint, -net, -table, &c.—ns. Fold′ing, a fold or plait; Fold′ing-door, a door consisting of two parts hung on opposite jambs, so that their edges come into contact when the door is closed; Fold′ing-machine′, a mechanism that automatically folds printed sheets. [A.S. fealdan, to fold; pa.t. feld; Ger. falten.]

Fold, fōld, n. an enclosure for protecting domestic animals, esp. sheep: a flock of sheep: (fig.) a church: the Christian Church.—v.t. to confine in a fold.—n. Fold′ing. [A.S. fald, a fold, stall.]

Folderol, fol′de-rol, n. mere nonsense: silly trifle: (pl.) trivial ornaments. [Formed from meaningless syllables, the refrain of old songs.]

Foliaceous, fō-li-ā′shus, adj. pertaining to or consisting of leaves or lamin. [L. foliaceusfolium, a leaf.]

Foliage, fō′lī-āj, n. leaves: a cluster of leaves: (archit.) a representation of leaves, flowers, and branches used for ornamentation.—adjs. Fō′liaged, worked like foliage; Fō′liar, pertaining to leaves: resembling leaves.—v.t. Fō′liāte (orig.), to beat into a leaf: to cover with leaf-metal.—adj. Fō′liāted, beaten into a thin leaf: decorated with leaf ornaments: (mus.) having notes added above or below, as in a plain-song melody.—ns. Fō′liātion, the leafing, esp. of plants: the act of beating a metal into a thin plate, or of spreading foil over a piece of glass to form a mirror: (geol.) the alternating and more or less parallel layers or folia of different mineralogical nature, of which the crystalline schists are composed: (archit.) decoration with cusps, lobes, or foliated tracery; Fō′liature, foliation. [O. Fr. fueillage—L. folium, a leaf.]

Folio, fō′li-ō, n. a sheet of paper once folded: a book of such sheets: the size of such a book: one of several sizes of paper adapted for folding once into well-proportioned leaves: (book-k.) a page in an account-book, or two opposite pages numbered as one: (law) a certain number of words taken as a basis for computing the length of a document: a wrapper for loose papers.—adj. pertaining to or containing paper only once folded.—v.t. to number the pages of: to mark off the end of every folio in law copying.—In folio, in sheets folded but once: in the form of a folio. [Abl. of L. folium, the leaf of a tree, a leaf or sheet of paper.]

Foliole, fō′li-ōl, n. (bot.) a single leaflet of a compound leaf.—adj. Fō′liolate, of or pertaining to leaflets. [Fr., dim. of L. folium, a leaf.]

Folk, fōk, n. people, collectively or distributively: a nation or race (rarely in pl.): (arch.) the people, commons: (pl.) those of one's own family, relations (coll.):—generally used in pl. Folk or Folks (fōks).—ns. Folke′thing, the lower house of the Danish parliament or Rigsdag; Folk′land, among the Anglo-Saxons, public land as distinguished from boc-land (bookland)—i.e. land granted to private persons by a written charter; Folk′lore, a department of the study of antiquities or archology, embracing everything relating to ancient observances and customs, to the notions, beliefs, traditions, superstitions, and prejudices of the common people—the science which treats of the survivals of archaic beliefs and customs in modern ages (the name Folklore was first suggested by W. J. Thoms—'Ambrose Merton'—in the Athenum, August 22, 1846); Folk′lorist, one who studies folklore; Folk′mote, an assembly of the people among the Anglo-Saxons; Folk′-right, the common law or right of the people; Folk′-song, any song or ballad originating among the people and traditionally handed down by them: a song written in imitation of such; Folk′-speech, the dialect of the common people of a country, in which ancient idioms are embedded; Folk′-tale, a popular story handed down by oral tradition from a more or less remote antiquity. [A.S. folc; Ice. flk; Ger. volk.]

Follicle, fol′i-kl, n. (anat.) a gland: (bot.) a seed-vessel.—adjs. Follic′ular, pertaining to or consisting of follicles; Follic′ulated; Follic′ulous. [Fr.,—L. folliculus, dim. of follis, a wind-bag.]

Follow, fol′ō, v.t. to go after or behind: to come after, succeed: to pursue: to attend: to imitate: to obey: to adopt, as an opinion: to keep the eye or mind fixed on: to pursue, as an object of desire: to result from, as an effect from a cause: (B.) to strive to obtain.—v.i. to come after another: to result.—n. (billiards) a stroke which causes the ball to follow the one which it has struck.—ns. Foll′ow-board, in moulding, the board on which the pattern is laid; Foll′ower, one who comes after: a copier: a disciple: a servant-girl's sweetheart; Foll′owing, the whole body of supporters.—adj. coming next after.—Follow home, to follow closely: to follow to the end; Follow on (B.), to continue endeavours; Follow suit, in card-playing, to play a card of the same suit as the one which was led: to do anything on the same lines as another; Follow up, to pursue an advantage closely. [A.S. folgian, fylgian, app. a compound, but obscure; Ger. folgen.]

Folly, fol′i, n. silliness or weakness of mind: a foolish act: criminal weakness: (B.) sin: a monument of folly, as a great structure left unfinished, having been begun without a reckoning of the cost.—v.i. to act with folly. [O. Fr. foliefol, foolish.]

Foment, fo-ment′, v.t. to bathe with warm water: to encourage: to instigate (usually to evil).—ns. Fomentā′tion, a bathing or lotion with warm water: encouragement; Foment′er. [Fr.,—L. fomentārefomentum for fovimentumfovēre, to warm.]

Fomes, fō′miz, n. any porous substance capable of absorbing and retaining contagious effluvia:—pl. Fomī′tes. [L., touchwood.]

Fon, fon, n. (Spens.) a fool, an idiot.—v.i. to be foolish, play the fool.—adv. Fon′ly, foolishly.

Fond, fond, adj. foolishly tender and loving: weakly indulgent: prizing highly (with of): very affectionate: kindly disposed: (obs.) foolish.—v.i. to dote.—v.t. Fond′le, to treat with fondness: to caress.—ns. Fond′ler; Fond′ling, the person or thing fondled.—adv. Fond′ly, in a fond manner, foolishly.—n. Fond′ness. [For fonned, pa.p. of M. E. fonnen, to act foolishly, fon, a fool; fondly conn. by some with Sw. fne, fool, Ice. fni, swaggerer.]

Fond. See Fand (2).

Fone, fōn, n. (Spens.) pl. of foe.

Font, font, n. the vessels used in churches as the repository of the baptismal water, usually a basin or cup hollowed out of a solid block of marble, &c.—adj. Font′al, pertaining to a font or origin.—ns. Font′let, a little font; Font′-stone, a baptismal font of stone. [L. font-em, fons, a fountain.]

Font, font, Fount, fownt, n. a complete assortment of types of one sort, with all that is necessary for printing in that kind of letter. [Fr. fontefondre—L. fundĕre, to cast.]

Fontanelle, fon-ta-nel′, n. a gap between the bones of the skull of a young animal: an opening for the discharge of pus.—Also Fontanel′. [Fr.]

Fontange, fong-tanzh′, n. a tall head-dress worn in the 17th and 18th centuries. [Fr., from Fontanges, the territorial title of one of Louis XIV.'s drabs.]

Fontarabian, fon-ta-rā′bi-an, adj. pertaining to Fontarabia or Fuenterrabia on the Pyrenees, where Roland was overpowered and slain by the Saracens.

Fonticulus, fon-tik′ū-lus, n. a small ulcer produced by caustics, &c.: the depression just over the top of the breast-bone. [L., dim. of fons.]

Fontinalis, fon-tin-ā′lis, n. a genus of aquatic mosses allied to Hypnum, almost without stalk. [Formed from L. fons.]

Food, fōōd, n. what one feeds on: that which, being digested, nourishes the body: whatever sustains or promotes growth.—adjs. Food′ful, able to supply food abundantly; Food′less, without food. [A.S. fda; Goth. fdeins, Sw. fda.]

Food, fōōd, n. (Spens.). Same as Feud.

Fool, fōōl, n. one who acts stupidly: a person of weak mind: a jester: a tool or victim, as of untoward circumstances: (B.) a wicked person.—v.t. to deceive: to treat with contempt.—v.i. to play the fool: to trifle.—adjs. Fool′-begged (Shak.), taken for a fool, idiotical, absurd; Fool′-born (Shak.), foolish from one's birth, arising from folly.—n. Fool′ery, an act of folly: habitual folly.—adj. Fool′-happ′y, happy or lucky without contrivance or judgment.—n. Fool′-hard′iness—(Spens.) Fool′-hard′ise.—adjs. Fool′-hard′y, foolishly bold: rash or incautious; Fool′ish, weak in intellect: wanting discretion: ridiculous: marked with folly: deserving ridicule: (B.) sinful, disregarding God's laws.—adv. Fool′ishly.—ns. Fool′ishness, Fool′ing, foolery.—adj. Fool′ish-wit′ty (Shak.), wise in folly and foolish in wisdom.—ns. Fool's′-err′and, a silly or fruitless enterprise: search for what cannot be found; Fool's′-pars′ley, an umbelliferous plant in Britain, not to be mistaken for parsley, being poisonous.—Fool away, to spend to no purpose or profit; Fool's cap, a kind of head-dress worn by professional fools or jesters, usually having a cockscomb hood with bells; Fool's paradise, a state of happiness based on fictitious hopes or expectations; Fool with, to meddle with officiously; Make a fool of, to bring a person into ridicule: to disappoint; Play the fool, to behave as a fool: to sport. [O. Fr. fol (Fr. fou), It. folle—L. follis, a wind-bag.]

Fool, fōōl, n. crushed fruit scalded or stewed, mixed with cream and sugar, as 'gooseberry fool.' [Prob. a use of preceding suggested by trifle.]

Foolscap, fōōlz′kap, n. a long folio writing or printing paper, varying in size (1713 in., 1613 in., &c.), so called from having originally borne the water-mark of a fool's cap and bells.

Foot, foot, n. that part of its body on which an animal stands or walks (having in man 26 bones): the lower part or base: a measure=12 in., (orig.) the length of a man's foot: foot-soldiers: a division of a line of poetry:—pl. Feet.—v.i. to dance: to walk:—pr.p. foot′ing; pa.p. foot′ed.ns. Foot′ball, a large ball for kicking about in sport: play with this ball; Foot′-bath, act of bathing the feet: a vessel for this purpose; Foot′-board, a support for the foot in a carriage or elsewhere: the foot-plate of a locomotive engine; Foot′boy, an attendant in livery; Foot′breadth, the breadth of a foot, an area of this size; Foot′bridge, a narrow bridge for foot-passengers; Foot′cloth (Shak.), a sumpter-cloth which reached to the feet of the horse.—p.adj. Foot′ed, provided with a foot or feet: (Shak.) having gained a foothold, established.—ns. Foot′fall, a setting the foot on the ground: a footstep; Foot′gear, shoes and stockings.— Foot′guards, guards that serve on foot, the lite of the British infantry.—ns. Foot′hill, a minor elevation distinct from the higher part of a mountain and separating it from the valley (usually in pl.); Foot′hold, space on which to plant the feet: that which sustains the feet; Foot′ing, place for the foot to rest on: firm foundation: position: settlement: tread: dance: plain cotton lace.—adj. Foot′less, having no feet.—ns. Foot′-lick′er (Shak.), a fawning, slavish flatterer; Foot′light, one of a row of lights in front of and on a level with the stage in a theatre, &c.; Foot′man, a servant or attendant in livery: (B.) a soldier who serves on foot: a runner:—pl. Foot′men; Foot′mark, Foot′print, the mark or print of a foot: a track; Foot′note, a note of reference at the foot of a page; Foot′pad, a highwayman or robber on foot, who frequents public paths or roads; Foot′-pass′enger, one who travels on foot; Foot′path, a narrow way which will not admit carriages; Foot′-plate, the platform on which the driver and stoker of a locomotive engine stand; Foot′-post, a post or messenger that travels on foot; Foot′-pound, the force needed to raise one pound weight the height of one foot—the usual unit in measuring mechanical force; Foot′-race, a race on foot; Foot′-rope, a rope stretching along under a ship's yard for the men standing on when furling the sails: the rope to which the lower edge of a sail is attached; Foot′rot, a name applied to certain inflammatory affections about the feet of sheep; Foot′rule, a rule or measure a foot in length; Foot′-sol′dier, a soldier that serves on foot.—adj. Foot′-sore, having sore or tender feet, as by much walking.—ns. Foot′-stalk (bot.), the stalk or petiole of a leaf; Foot′-stall, a woman's stirrup; Foot′step, the step or impression of the foot: a track: trace of a course pursued.— Foot′steps, course, example.—ns. Foot′stool, a stool for placing one's feet on when sitting: anything trodden upon; Foot′-warm′er, a contrivance for keeping the feet warm; Foot′way, a path for passengers on foot.—p.adj. Foot′worn, worn by many feet, as a stone: foot-sore.—Foot-and-mouth disease (see Murrain).—Foot it, to walk: to dance.—Cover the feet (B.), a euphemism for, to ease nature.—Put one's best foot foremost, to appear at greatest advantage; Put one's foot in it, to spoil anything by some indiscretion; Set on foot, to originate. [A.S. ft, pl. ft; Ger. fuss, L. pes, pedis, Gr. pous, podos, Sans. pād.]

Footy, foot′i, adj. (prov.) mean.—Also Fought′y. [Prob. an A.S. fhtig; cog. with Dut. vochtig.]

Foozle, fōōz′l, n. (coll.) a tedious fellow: a bungled stroke at golf, &c.—v.i. to fool away one's time.—n. Fooz′ler.—p.adj. Fooz′ling. [Cf. Ger. prov. fuseln, to work slowly.]

Fop, fop, n. an affected dandy.—ns. Fop′ling, a vain affected person; Fop′pery, vanity in dress or manners: affectation: folly.—adj. Fop′pish, vain and showy in dress: affectedly refined in manners.—adv. Fop′pishly.—n. Fop′pishness. [Cf. Ger. foppen, to hoax.]

For, for, prep. in the place of: for the sake of: on account of: in the direction of: with respect to, by reason of: appropriate or adapted to, or in reference to: beneficial to: in quest of: notwithstanding, in spite of: in recompense of: during.—For all (N.T.), notwithstanding; For it, to be done for the case, usually preceded by a negative; For to (B.), in order to.—As for, as far as concerns. [A.S. for; Ger. fr, vor, akin to L. and Gr. pro, Sans. pra, before in place or time.]

For, for, conj. the word by which a reason is introduced: because: on the account that.—For because and For that=because; For why=why.

Forage, for′aj, n. fodder, or food for horses and cattle: provisions: the act of foraging.—v.i. to go about and forcibly carry off food for horses and cattle, as soldiers.—v.t. to plunder.—ns. For′age-cap, the undress cap worn by infantry soldiers; For′ager. [Fr. fourrage, O. Fr. feurre, fodder, of Teut. origin.]

Foramen, fo-rā′men, n. a small opening:—pl. Foram′ina.—adjs. Foram′inated, Foram′inous, pierced with small holes: porous.— Foraminif′era, an order of Rhizopoda, furnished with a shell or test, usually perforated by pores (foramina).—n. Foramin′ifer, one of such.—adjs. Foraminif′eral, Foraminif′erous.—Forāmen magnum, the great hole in the occipital bone for the passage of the medulla oblongata and its membranes. [L.,—forāre, to pierce.]

Forasmuch, for′az-much, conj. because that.

Foray, for′ā, n. a sudden incursion into an enemy's country.—v.t. to ravage.—n. For′ayer. [Ety. obscure, but ult. identical with forage (q.v.).]

Forbade, for-bad′, pa.t. of forbid.

Forbear, for-bār′, v.i. to keep one's self in check: to abstain.—v.t. to abstain from: to avoid voluntarily: to spare, to withhold.—n. Forbear′ance, exercise of patience: command of temper: clemency.—adjs. Forbear′ant, Forbear′ing, long-suffering: patient.—adv. Forbear′ingly. [A.S. forberan, pa.t. forbr, pa.p. forboren. See pfx. for- and bear.]

Forbid, for-bid′, v.t. to prohibit: to command not to do: (Shak.) to restrain.—n. Forbid′dance, prohibition: command or edict against a thing.—adj. Forbid′den, prohibited: unlawful.—adv. Forbid′denly (Shak.), in a forbidden or unlawful manner.—adj. Forbid′ding, repulsive: raising dislike: unpleasant.—adv. Forbid′dingly.—n. Forbid′dingness.—Forbidden, or Prohibited, degrees, degrees of consanguinity within which marriage is not allowed; Forbidden fruit, or Adam's apple, a name fancifully given to the fruit of various species of Citrus, esp. to one having tooth-marks on its rind. [A.S. forbodan, pa.t. forbad, pa.p. forboden. See pfx. for-, and bid; cf. Ger. verbieten.]

Forbore, for-bōr′, pa.t. of forbear.—pa.p. Forborne′.

Forby, for-bī′, prep. (Spens.) near, past: (Scot.) besides.

Forat, for-s′, n. in France, a convict condemned to hard labour. [Fr.]


Force, fōrs, n. strength, power, energy: efficacy: validity: influence: vehemence: violence: coercion or compulsion: military or naval strength (often in pl.): an armament: (mech.) any cause which changes the direction or speed of the motion of a portion of matter.—v.t. to draw or push by main strength: to compel: to constrain: to compel by strength of evidence: to take by violence: to ravish: (hort.) to cause to grow or ripen rapidly: to compel one's partner at whist to trump a trick by leading a card of a suit of which he has none: to make a player play so as to reveal the strength of his hand.—v.i. to strive: to hesitate.—p. and adj. Forced, accomplished by great effort, as a forced march: strained, excessive, unnatural.—n. Forc′edness, the state of being forced: distortion.—adj. Force′ful, full of force or might: driven or acting with power: impetuous.—adv. Force′fully.—adj. Force′less, weak.—ns. Force′-pump, Forc′ing-pump, a pump which delivers the water under pressure through a side-pipe; Forc′er, the person or thing that forces, esp. the piston of a force-pump.—adj. Forc′ible, active: impetuous: done by force: efficacious: impressive.—adj. and n. Forc′ible-fee′ble, striving to look strong while really weak.—n. Forc′ibleness.—adv. Forc′ibly.—ns. Forc′ing (hort.), the art of hastening the growth of plants; Forc′ing-house, a hothouse for forcing plants; Forc′ing-pit, a frame sunk in the ground over a hotbed for forcing plants.—Force and fear (Scot.), that amount of constraint or compulsion which is enough to annul an engagement or obligation entered into under its influence; Force the pace, to keep the speed up to a high pitch by emulation with one not competing for a place: to hasten unduly, or by any expedient; Forcible detainer, and entry, detaining property or forcing an entry into it by violence or intimidation. [Fr.,—Low L., fortia—L. fortis, strong.]

Force, fōrs, Foss, fos, n. a waterfall. [Ice. foss, fors.]

Force, fōrs, v.t. (cook.) to stuff, as a fowl.—n. Force′meat, meat chopped fine and highly seasoned, used as a stuffing or alone. [A corr. of farce.]

Forceps, for′seps, n. a pair of tongs, pincers, or pliers for holding anything difficult to be held with the hand.—adj. For′cipāted, formed and opening like a forceps.—n. Forcipā′tion, torture by pinching with forceps. [L., from formus, hot, and capĕre, to hold.]

Ford, fōrd, n. a place where water may be crossed on foot: a stream where it may be crossed.—v.t. to cross water on foot.—adj. Ford′able. [A.S. fordfaran, to go; Ger. furtfahren, to go on foot; akin to Gr. poros, and to Eng. fare, ferry, and far.]

Fordo, for-dōō′, v.t. (arch.) to ruin: to overcome, to exhaust:—pr.p. fordo′ing; pa.t. fordid′; pa.p. fordone′. [A.S. fōrdn; Ger. verthun, to consume.]

Fore, fōr, adj. in front of: advanced in position: coming first.—adv. at the front: in the first part: previously: (golf) a warning cry to any person in the way of the ball to be played.—Fore and aft, lengthwise of a ship.—At the fore, displayed on the foremast (of a flag); To the fore, forthcoming: (Scot.) in being, alive. [A.S. fore, radically the same as for, prep.—to be distinguished from pfx. for- (Ger. ver- in vergessen, L. per).]

Fore-admonish, fōr-ad-mon′ish, v.t. to admonish beforehand.

Fore-advise, fōr-ad-vīz′, v.t. to advise beforehand.

Foreanent, fōr-a-nent′, prep. (Scot.), opposite to.

Forearm, fōr′rm, n. the part of the arm between the elbow and the wrist.

Forearm, fōr-rm′, v.t. to arm or prepare beforehand.

Forebear, fōr-bār′, n. (Scot.) an ancestor, esp. in pl.

Forebode, fōr-bōd′, v.t. to feel a secret sense of something future, esp. of evil.—ns. Forebode′ment, feeling of coming evil; Forebod′er; Forebod′ing, a boding or perception beforehand; apprehension of coming evil.—adv. Forebod′ingly.

Fore-body, fōr′-bod′i, n. the part of a ship in front of the mainmast.

Fore-brace, fōr′-brās, n. a rope attached to the fore yard-arm, for changing the position of the foresail.

Fore-by, fōr-bī′ (Spens.). Same as Forby.

Forecabin, fōr-kab′in, n. a cabin in the forepart of the vessel.

Forecast, fōr-kast′, v.t. to contrive or reckon beforehand: to foresee: to predict.—v.i. to form schemes beforehand.—ns. Fore′cast, a previous contrivance: foresight: a prediction; Forecast′er.

Forecastle, fōr′kas-l, Fo'c'sle, fōk′sl, n. a short raised deck at the fore-end of a vessel: the forepart of the ship under the maindeck, the quarters of the crew.

Forechosen, fōr-chōz′n, p.adj. chosen beforehand.

Fore-cited, fōr-sīt′ed, p.adj. quoted before or above.

Foreclose, fōr-klōz′, v.t. to preclude: to prevent: to stop.—n. Foreclos′ure, a foreclosing: (law) the process by which a mortgager, failing to repay the money lent on the security of an estate, is compelled to forfeit his right to redeem the estate. [O. Fr. forclos, pa.p. of forclore, to exclude—L. foris, outside, and claudĕre, clausum, to shut.]

Foredamned, fōr-damd′, p.adj. (Spens.) utterly damned.

Foredate, fōr-dāt′, v.t. to date before the true time.

Foreday, fōr′dā, n. (Scot.) forenoon.

Foredeck, fōr′dek, n. the forepart of a deck or ship.

Foredoom, fōr-dōōm′, v.t. to doom beforehand.

Fore-end, fōr′-end, n. the early or fore part of anything.

Forefather, fōr′f-thėr, n. an ancestor.

Forefeel, fōr-fēl′, v.t. to feel beforehand.—adv. Forefeel′ingly.—adj. Forefelt′.

Forefinger, fōr′fing-gėr, n. the finger next the thumb.

Forefoot, fōr′foot, n. one of the anterior feet of a quadruped.

Forefront, fōr′frunt, n. the front or foremost part.

Foregleam, fōr′glēm, n. a glimpse into the future.

Forego, fōr-gō′, v.t. to go before, precede: chiefly used in its pr.p. foregō′ing and pa.p. foregone′.ns. Foregō′er; Foregō′ing.—p.adj. Foregone′.—n. Foregone′ness.—Foregone conclusion, a conclusion come to before examination of the evidence.

Forego, fōr-gō′, v.t. to give up: to forbear the use of.—Better Forgō′.

Foreground, fōr′grownd, n. the part of a picture nearest the observer's eye, as opposed to the background or distance.

Forehammer, fōr′hm-ėr, n. a sledge-hammer.

Forehand, fōr′hand, n. the part of a horse which is in front of its rider.—adj. done beforehand.—adj. Fore′handed, forehand, as of payment for goods before delivery, or for services before rendered: seasonable: (U.S.) well off: formed in the foreparts.

Forehead, fōr′hed, n. the forepart of the head above the eyes, the brow: confidence, audacity.

Fore-horse, fōr′-hors, n. the foremost horse of a team.

Foreign, for′in, adj. belonging to another country: from abroad: alien: not belonging to, unconnected: not appropriate.—adj. For′eign-built, built in a foreign country.—ns. For′eigner, a native of another country; For′eignness, the quality of being foreign: want of relation to something: remoteness. [O. Fr. forain—Low L. foraneus—L. foras, out of doors.]

Forejudge, fōr-juj′, v.t. to judge before hearing the facts and proof.—n. Forejudg′ment.

Foreking, fōr′king, n. (Tenn.) a preceding king.

Foreknow, fōr-nō′, v.t. to know beforehand: to foresee.—adj. Foreknow′ing.—adv. Foreknow′ingly.—n. Foreknowl′edge, knowledge of a thing before it happens.—adj. Foreknown′.

Forel, for′el, n. a kind of parchment for covering books. [O. Fr. forrel, a sheath, forre, fuerre.]

Foreland, fōr′land, n. a point of land running forward into the sea, a headland.

Forelay, fōr-lā′, v.t. to contrive antecedently: to lay wait for in ambush.

Foreleg, fōr′leg, n. one of the front legs of a quadruped, chair, &c.

Forelie, fōr-lī, v.t. (Spens.) to lie before.

Forelift, fōr-lift′, v.t. (Spens.) to raise any anterior part.

Forelock, fōr′lok, n. the lock of hair on the forehead.—Take time by the forelock, to seize the occasion promptly, so as to anticipate opposition.

Foreman, fōr′man, n. the first or chief man, one appointed to preside over, or act as spokesman for, others: an overseer:—pl. Fore′men.

Foremast, fōr′mast, n. the mast that is forward, or next the bow of a ship.—n. Fore′mastman, any sailor below the rank of petty officer.

Foremean, fōr-mēn′, v.t. to intend beforehand.—pa.p. Fore′meant.

Fore-mentioned, fōr-men′shund, adj. mentioned before in a writing or discourse.

Foremost, fōr′mōst, adj. first in place: most advanced: first in rank or dignity. [A.S. forma, first, superl. of fore, and superl. suffix -st. It is therefore a double superl.; the old and correct form was formest, which was wrongly divided for-mest instead of form-est, and the final -mest was mistaken for -most.]

Forename, fōr′nām, n. the first or Christian name.

Fore-named, fōr′-nāmd, adj. mentioned before.

Forenenst, fōr-nenst′, prep. (Scot.) opposite.

Forenight, fōr′nīt, n. (Scot.) the early part of the night before bedtime, the evening.

Forenoon, fōr′nōōn, n. the part of the day before noon or midday.—adj. pertaining to this part of the day.

Forenotice, fōr-nō′tis, n. notice of anything before it happens.

Forensic, fo-ren′sik, adj. belonging to courts of law, held by the Romans in the forum: used in law pleading: appropriate to, or adapted to, argument.—Forensic medicine, medical jurisprudence, the application of medical knowledge to the elucidation of doubtful questions in a court of justice. [L. forensisforum, market-place, akin to fores.]

Fore-ordain, fōr-or-dān′, v.t. to arrange beforehand: to predestinate.—n. Fore-ordinā′tion.

Forepart, fōr′prt, n. the part before the rest: the front: the beginning: (B.) the bow of a ship.

Forepast, fōr′past, p.adj. (Shak.) former.

Forepayment, fōr′pā-ment, n. payment beforehand.

Forepeak, fōr′pēk, n. the contracted part of a ship's hold, close to the bow.

Foreplan, fōr′plan, v.t. to plan beforehand.

Forepoint, fōr′point, v.t. to foreshadow.

Fore-quoted, fōr-kwōt′ed, p.adj. quoted or cited before in the same writing.

Foreran, fōr-ran′, pa.t. of forerun.

Fore-rank, fōr′-rangk, n. the rank which is before all the others: the front.

Forereach, fōr′rēch, v.i. (naut.) to glide ahead, esp. when going in stays (with on).—v.t. to sail beyond.

Fore-read, fōr′-rēd, v.t. (Spens.) to signify by tokens: to foretell:—pa.p. fore-read′.n. Fore′-read′ing.

Fore-recited, fōr′-re-sīt′ed, p.adj. (Shak.) recited or named before.

Fore-rent, fōr′-rent, n. (Scot.) rent due before the first crop is reaped.

Forerun, fōr-run′, v.t. to run or come before: to precede.—n. Forerun′ner, a runner or messenger sent before: a sign that something is to follow.

Foresaid, fōr′sed, adj. described or spoken of before.

Foresail, fōr′sāl, n. a sail attached to the foreyard on the foremast. See Ship.

Fore-say, fōr-sā′, v.t. to predict or foretell: (Shak.) to prognosticate.

Foresee, fōr-sē′, v.t. or v.i. to see or know beforehand.—p.adj. Foresee′ing.—adv. Foresee′ingly.

Foreshadow, fōr-shad′ō, v.t. to shadow or typify beforehand.—n. Foreshad′owing.

Foreship, fōr′ship, n. (B.) the forepart of a ship.

Foreshore, fōr′shōr, n. the part immediately before the shore: the sloping part of a shore included between the high and low water marks.

Foreshortening, fōr-short′n-ing, n. a term in drawing signifying that a figure or portion of a figure projecting towards the spectator is so represented as to truly give the idea of such projection.—v.t. Foreshort′en.

Foreshow, fōr-shō′, v.t. to show or represent beforehand: to predict.—Also Foreshew′.

Foreside, fōr′sīd, n. the front side.

Foresight, fōr′sīt, n. act of foreseeing: wise forethought, prudence: the sight on the muzzle of a gun: a forward reading of a levelling staff.—adjs. Fore′sighted, Fore′sightful; Fore′sightless.

Foresignify, fōr-sig′ni-fī, v.t. to betoken beforehand: to foreshow: to typify.

Foreskin, fōr′skin, n. the skin that covers the glans penis: the prepuce.

Foreskirt, fōr′skėrt, n. (Shak.) the loose part of a coat before.

Foreslack. See Forslack.

Foreslow, fōr-slō′, v.i. (Shak.) to delay.—v.t. (Spens.) to hinder.—Better Forslow′.

Forespeak, fōr-spēk′, v.t. to predict: (Shak.) to gainsay: (Scot.) to engage beforehand.

Forespend. Same as Forspend.

Forespurrer, fōr-spur′ėr, n. (Shak.) one who rides before.

Forest, for′est, n. a large uncultivated tract of land covered with trees and underwood: woody ground and rude pasture: a preserve for large game, as a deer forest: a royal preserve for hunting, governed by a special code called the Forest Law.—adj. pertaining to a forest: silvan: rustic.—v.t. to cover with trees.—n. For′estage, an ancient service paid by foresters to the king: the right of foresters.—adjs. For′estal; For′est-born (Shak.), born in a wild.—ns. For′ester, one who has charge of a forest: an inhabitant of a forest; For′est-fly, a dipterous insect sometimes called Horse-fly, from the annoyance it causes horses.—adj. For′estine.—ns. For′est-mar′ble, a fissile limestone belonging to the middle division of the Jurassic System, so called because the typical beds are found in Wychwood Forest, Oxfordshire; For′est-oak, the timber of the Australian beefwood trees; For′estry, the art of cultivating forests; For′est-tree, a timber-tree. [O. Fr. forest (Fr. fort)—Low L. forestis (silva), the outside wood, as opposed to the parcus (park) or walled-in wood—L. foris, out of doors.]

Forestall, fōr-stawl′, v.t. to buy up the whole stock of goods before they are brought to market, so as to sell again at higher prices: to anticipate.—ns. Forestall′er, one who forestalls; Forestall′ing, the act of buying provisions before they come to the market, in order to raise the price: anticipation: prevention.

Forestay, fōr′stā, n. a rope reaching from the foremast-head to the bowsprit end to support the mast.

Foretaste, fōr-tāst′, v.t. to taste before possession: to anticipate: to taste before another.—n. Fore′taste, a taste beforehand: anticipation.

Foreteach, fōr-tēch′, v.t. to teach beforehand.

Foretell, fōr-tel′, v.t. to tell before: to prophesy.—v.i. to utter prophecy.—n. Foretell′er.

Forethink, fōr-thingk′, v.t. to anticipate in the mind: to have prescience of.—n. Fore′thought, thought or care for the future: provident care.

Foretoken, fōr′tō-kn, n. a token or sign beforehand.—v.t. Foretō′ken, to signify beforehand.

Foretooth, fōr′tōōth, n. a tooth in the forepart of the mouth:—pl. Fore′teeth.

Foretop, fōr′top, n. (naut.) the platform at the head of the foremast: a lock of natural hair or in a wig, lying on the forehead, or brushed up straight.—n. Foretop′mast, in a ship, the mast erected at the head of the foremast, at the top of which is the Fore′top-gall′ant-mast.

Forever, for-ev′ėr, adv. for ever, for all time to come: to eternity.—adv. Forev′ermore, for ever hereafter.

Forevouched, fōr-vowcht′, p.adj. (Shak.) affirmed or told before.

Foreward, fōr′wawrd, n. advance-guard: (Shak.) the front.

Forewarn, fōr-wawrn′, v.t. to warn beforehand: to give previous notice.—n. Forewarn′ing, warning beforehand.

Foreweigh, fōr-wā′, v.t. to estimate beforehand.

Forewind, fōr′wind, n. (Shak.) a favourable wind.

Forewoman, fōr′woom-an, n. a woman who oversees the employees in any shop or factory, a head-woman:—pl. Fore′women.

Foreword, fōr′wurd, n. a preface.

Forfairn, fōr-fārn′, adj. (Scot.) worn out: exhausted.

Forfeit, for′fit, v.t. to lose the right to by some fault or crime:—pr.p. for′feiting; pa.p. for′feited.n. that which is forfeited: a penalty for a crime, or breach of some condition: a fine: something deposited and redeemable by a sportive fine or penalty, esp. in pl., a game of this kind.—adj. forfeited.—adj. For′feitable.—ns. For′feiter (Shak.), one who incurs punishment by forfeiting his bond; For′feiture, act of forfeiting: state of being forfeited: the thing forfeited. [O. Fr. forfait—Low L. forisfactum—L. forisfacĕre, to transgress.]

Forfend, for-fend′, v.t. (arch.) to ward off, avert.

Forfex, fōr′feks, n. a pair of scissors.

Forfoughten, for′fh-ten, adj. (Scot.) exhausted, as by fighting.

Forgat, for-gat′, old pa.t. of forget.

Forgather, for-gath′er, v.i. (Scot.) to meet, to take up company with.

Forgave, for-gāv′, pa.t. of forgive.

Forge, fōrj, n. the workshop of a workman in iron, &c.: a furnace, esp. one in which iron is heated: a smithy: a place where anything is shaped or made.—v.t. to form by heating and hammering: to form: to make falsely: to fabricate: to counterfeit or imitate for purposes of fraud.—v.i. to commit forgery.—ns. Forge′man; Forg′er, one who forges or makes one guilty of forgery; Forg′ery, fraudulently making or altering any writing: that which is forged or counterfeited.—adj. Forg′etive (Shak.), that may forge or produce.—n. Forg′ing, a piece of metal shaped by hammering: act of one who forges: a form of overreaching in which the horse strikes the fore shoe with the toe of the hind one, clicking. [O. Fr. forge—L. fabricafaber, a workman.]

Forge, fōrj, v.t. to move steadily on (with ahead).

Forget, for-get′, v.t. to lose or put away from the memory: to neglect:—pr.p. forget′ting; pa.t. forgot′; pa.p. forgot′, forgot′ten.adjs. Forget′able, Forget′table; Forget′ful, apt to forget: inattentive.—adv. Forget′fully.—ns. Forget′fulness; Forget′-me-not, a small herb (Myosotis palustris) with beautiful blue flowers, regarded as the emblem of friendship: a keepsake [a word adapted by Coleridge from the German Vergissmeinnicht]; Forget′ter, one who fails to bear in mind: a heedless person.—adv. Forget′tingly.—Forget one's self, to lose one's self-control or dignity, to descend to words and deeds unworthy of one's self. [A.S. forgietan—pfx. for-, away, gitan, to get.]

Forgive, for-giv′, v.t. to pardon: to overlook an offence or debt: (Spens.) to give up.—v.i. to be merciful or forgiving.—adj. Forgiv′able, capable of being forgiven.—n. Forgive′ness, pardon: remission: disposition to pardon.—adj. Forgiv′ing, ready to pardon: merciful: compassionate. [A.S. forgiefan—pfx. for-, away, giefan, to give; cf. Ger. ver-geben.]

Forgo. See Forego.

Forgot, Forgotten. See Forget.

Forhail, for-hāl′, v.t. (Spens.) to overtake.

Forhent, for-hent′, v.t. (Spens.) to overtake.

Forhow, for-how′, v.t. (Scot.) to desert or abandon. [A.S. forhogian, pfx. for-, away, hogian, to care.]

Forisfamiliate, fō-ris-fa-mil′i-āt, v.t. to put a son in possession of land which he accepts as his whole portion of his father's property, said of a father.—v.i. to renounce one's title to a further share of the paternal estate, said of a son:—pr.p. fōrisfamil′iāting; pa.p. fōrisfamil′iāted.n. Fōrisfamiliā′tion. [Low L. forisfamiliāre, -ātum—L. foris, out of doors, familia, a family.]

Forjeskit, for-jes′kit, adj. (Scot.) tired out.

Fork, fork, n. an instrument with two or more prongs at the end: one of the points or divisions of anything fork-like: the bottom of a sump into which the water of a mine drains—also Forcque: (pl.) the branches into which a road or river divides, also the point of separation.—v.i. to divide into two branches: to shoot into blades, as corn.—v.t. to form as a fork: to pitch with a fork: to bale a shaft dry.—n. Fork′-chuck, a forked lathe-centre used in wood-turning.—adjs. Forked, Fork′y, shaped like a fork.—adv. Fork′edly.—ns. Fork′edness, Fork′iness; Fork′er; Fork′head, the forked end of a rod in a knuckle-joint or the like; Fork′-tail, a fish with forked tail: the kite.—Fork out, over (slang), to hand or pay over. [A.S. forca—L. furca.]

Forlorn, for-lorn′, adj. quite lost: forsaken; wretched.—v.t. Forlore′ (Spens.).—adv. Forlorn′ly.—n. Forlorn′ness. [A.S. forloren, pa.p. of forlsan, to lose—pfx. for-, away, and lsan, to lose; Ger. verloren, pa.p. of verlieren, to lose.]

Forlorn-hope, for-lorn′-hōp, n. a body of soldiers selected for some service of uncommon danger. [From the Dut. verloren hoop, the lost troop.]

Form, form, n. shape of a body: the boundary-line of an object: a model: a mould: mode of being: mode of arrangement: order: regularity: system, as of government: beauty or elegance: established practice: ceremony: fitness or efficiency for any undertaking: a blank schedule to be filled in with details: a specimen document to be copied or imitated: (phil.) the inherent nature of an object, that which the mind itself contributes as the condition of knowing, that in which the essence of a thing consists: (print.) the type from which an impression is to be taken arranged and secured in a chase—often Forme:—(in the fol. senses pron. fōrm), a long seat, a bench: the pupils on a form, a class: the bed of a hare, which takes its shape from the animal's body.—v.t. to give form or shape to: to make: to contrive: to settle, as an opinion: to combine: to go to make up: to establish: (gram.) to make by derivation.—v.i. to assume a form.—adj. Form′al, according to form or established mode: ceremonious, punctilious, methodical: having the form only: (Shak.) embodied in a form: having the power of making a thing what it is: essential: proper.—v.t. and v.i. Form′alise.—ns. Form′alism, excessive observance of form or conventional usage, esp. in religion: stiffness of manner; Form′alist, one having exaggerated regard to rules or established usages; Formal′ity, the precise observance of forms or ceremonies: established order: sacrifice of substance to form.—adv. Form′ally.—n. Formā′tion, a making or producing: structure: (geol.) a group of strata of one period.—adj. Form′ative, giving form, determining, moulding: (gram.) inflectional, serving to form, not radical.—n. a derivative.—p.adj. Formed, trained, mature.—n. Form′er.—adj. Form′less, shapeless.—Formal logic (see Logic).—Good, or Bad, form, according to good social usage, or the opposite; Take form, to assume a definite appearance. [O. Fr. forme—L. forma, shape.]

Formalin, for′ma-lin, n. a formic aldehyde used as an antiseptic, germicide, or preservative in foods.

Format, for′ma, n. of books, &c., the size, form, shape in which they are issued. [Fr.]

Formate, form′āt, n. a salt composed of formic acid and a base.—Also For′miate.

Former, form′ėr, adj. (comp. of fore) before in time or order: past: first mentioned.—adv. Form′erly, in former times: heretofore. [Formed late on analogy of M. E. formest by adding comp. suff. -er to base of A.S. forma, first, itself a superlative form.]

Formic, for′mik, adj. pertaining to ants, as formic acid, originally obtained from ants.—adj. For′micant, crawling like an ant: very small and unequal, of a pulse.—n. For′micary, an ant-hill.—adj. For′micate, resembling an ant.—n. Formicā′tion, a sensation like that of ants creeping on the skin. [L. formicāre, -ātum, to creep like an ant—formica.]

Formidable, for′mi-da-bl, adj. causing fear: adapted to excite fear.—ns. Formidabil′ity; For′midableness.—adv. For′midably. [Fr.,—L. formidabilisformido, fear.]

Formula, form′ū-la, n. a prescribed form: a formal statement of doctrines: (math.) a general expression for solving problems: (chem.) a set of symbols expressing the components of a body:—pl. Formul (form′ū-lē), Form′ulas.—adjs. Form′ular, Formularis′tic.—ns. Formularisā′tion, Formulā′tion; Form′ulary, a formula: a book of formul or precedents.—adj. prescribed: ritual.—vs.t. Form′ulāte, Form′ulise, to reduce to or express in a formula: to state or express in a clear or definite form. [L., dim. of forma.]

Fornent, for-nent′, adv. and prep. (Scot.) right opposite to.

Fornicate, for′ni-kāt, adj. arched: (bot.) arching over.—n. Fornicā′tion. [L. fornicatusfornix, an arch.]

Fornicate, for′ni-kāt, v.i. to commit lewdness: to have unlawful sexual intercourse.—ns. Fornicā′tion, sexual intercourse between two unmarried persons, or an unmarried and married person: (B.) adultery, and applied frequently by a figure to idolatry; For′nicator, an unmarried person guilty of lewdness:—fem. For′nicatress. [L. fornix, an arch, brothel.]

Fornix, for′niks, n. something resembling an arch: an arched formation of the brain. [L.]

Forpine, for-pīn′, v.i. (Spens.) to waste away.

Forpit, for′pit, n. (Scot.) the fourth part of some other measure, now of a peck.—Also For′pet.

Forrit, for′it, adv. (Scot.) forward.

Forsake, for-sāk′, v.t. to desert: to abandon:—pr.p. forsāk′ing; pa.t. forsook′; pa.p. forsāk′en.adj. Forsāk′en.—adv. Forsāk′enly.—ns. Forsāk′enness; Forsāk′ing, abandonment. [A.S. forsacanfor-, away, sacan, to strive.]

Forsay, for-sā′, v.t. (Spens.) to forbid, to renounce. [A.S. forsecganfor, against, secgan, to say.]

Forslack, for-slak′, v.t. (Spens.) to relax, delay.

Forslow, for-slō′, v.t. See Foreslow.

Forsooth, for-sōōth′, adv. in truth: certainly.

Forspeak, for-spēk′, v.t. (Shak.) to forbid, to prohibit: (Scot.) to bewitch.

Forspend, for-spend′, v.t. to spend completely:—pa.t. and pa.p. forspent′.

Forstall, for-stawl′, v.t. Same as Forestall.

Forswat, for-swat′, adj. (Spens.) exhausted with heat. [Pfx. for-, inten., and swat, old pa.t. of sweat.]

Forswear, for-swār′, v.t. to deny upon oath:—pa.t. forswore′; pa.p. forsworn′.n. Forsworn′ness.—Forswear one's self, to swear falsely.

Forswink, for-swingk′, v.t. to exhaust by labour.—p.adj. Forswonk′ (Spens.), over-laboured. [Pfx. for-, inten., and obs. swink, labour.]

Fort, fōrt, n. a small fortress: an outlying trading-station, as in British North America.—adj. Fort′ed (Shak.), guarded by forts. [Fr.,—L. fortis, strong.]

Fortalice, fort′al-is, n. a small outwork of a fortification. [Low L. fortalitia—L. fortis.]

Forte, fōrt, n. that in which one excels.

Forte, fōr′te, adj. (mus.) strongly, loud:—superl. Fortis′simo.—n. a loud passage in music. [It.]

Forth, fōrth, adv. before or forward in place or order: in advance: onward in time: (Shak.) completely, outright: abroad: (B.) out.—prep. (Shak.) out of, forth from.—v.i. Forth′come, to come forth.—adj. Forth′coming, just coming forth: about to appear.—ns. Forth′going, a going forth: a proceeding out; Forth′-iss′uing, coming forth; Forth′-put′ting, action of putting forth: (U.S.) forwardness.—adj. forward.—adv. Forth′right, straightforward.—n. (Shak.) a straight path.—adj. straightforward: honest.—adv. Forthwith′, immediately.—And so forth, and so on, and more besides. [A.S. forthfore, before; Dut. voort, Ger. fort.]

Forthink, for-thingk′, v.t. (Spens.) to be sorry for.

Forthy, for′thi, adv. (Spens.) therefore. [A.S. forthfor, and th, instrumental case of thaet, that.]

Fortieth. See Forty.

Fortify, for′ti-fī, v.t. to strengthen against attack with forts, &c.: to invigorate: to confirm:—pa.p. for′tifīed.adj. Fortifī′able.—ns. Fortificā′tion, the art of strengthening a military position by means of defensive works: the work so constructed: that which fortifies; For′tifier. [Fr. fortifier—Low L. fortificārefortis, strong, facĕre, to make.]

Fortilage, fōr′ti-lāj, n. (Spens.) a fort. [Fortalice.]

Fortissimo. See Forte.

Fortition, for-tish′un, n. principle of trusting to chance. [L. fors, chance.]

Fortitude, for′ti-tūd, n. mental power of endurance: firmness in meeting danger: (obs.) strength, power of resistance or attack.—adj. Fortitū′dinous. [L. fortitudofortis.]

Fortlet, fōrt′let, n. a little fort.

Fortnight, fort′nīt, n. two weeks or fourteen days.—adj. and adv. Fort′nightly, once a fortnight. [Contr. of A.S. fowertne niht, fourteen nights.]

Fortress, for′tres, n. a fortified place: a defence.—v.t. (Shak.) to guard. [O. Fr. forteresse, another form of fortelesce (q.v. under Fortalice).]

Fortuitous, for-tū′i-tus, adj. happening by chance.—ns. Fortū′itism; Fortū′itist.—adv. Fortū′itously.—ns. Fortū′itousness, Fortū′ity. [L. fortuitus.]

Fortune, for′tūn, n. whatever comes by lot or chance: luck: the arbitrary ordering of events: the lot that falls to one in life: success: wealth.—v.i. to befall.—v.t. to determine.—adj. For′tunāte, happening by good fortune: lucky: auspicious: felicitous.—adv. For′tunātely.—ns. For′tunāteness; For′tune-book, a book helpful in telling fortunes.—adj. For′tuned, supplied by fortune.—n. For′tune-hunt′er, a man who hunts for marriage with a woman of fortune.—adj. For′tuneless, without a fortune: luckless.—v.i. For′tune-tell, to reveal futurity: to tell one his fortune.—ns. For′tune-tell′er, one who pretends to foretell one's fortune; For′tune-tell′ing.—v.t. For′tunīse (Spens.), to make fortunate or happy. [Fr.,—L. fortuna.]

Forty, for′ti, adj. and n. four times ten.—adj. For′tieth.—n. a fortieth part.—Forty winks, a short nap, esp. after dinner.—The Forty, the French Academy. [A.S. fowertigfeower, four, tig, ten.]

Forum, fō′rum, n. a market-place, esp. the market-place in Rome, where public business was transacted and justice dispensed: the courts of law as opposed to the Parliament. [L., akin to foras, out of doors.]

Forwander, for-won′dėr, v.i. and v.t. (Spens.) to wander till wearied, to weary with wandering.

Forward, for′ward, adj. near or at the forepart: in advance of something else: ready: too ready: presumptuous: officious: earnest: early ripe.—v.t. to help on, to quicken: to send on.—advs. For′ward, For′wards, towards what is before or in front: onward: progressively.—ns. For′warder; For′warding, the act of sending forward merchandise, &c., for others.—adv. For′wardly.—n. For′wardness. [A.S. foreweardfore, and -weard, sig. direction. Forwards—M. E. forwardes—was orig. the gen. form (cf. Ger. vorwrts).]

Forwaste, for-wāst′, v.t. (Spens.) to lay waste utterly.

Forweary, for-wē′ri, v.t. (Spens.) to weary out.

Forwent, for-went′ (Spens.), pa.t of forego.

Forworn, for-wōrn′, adj. (Spens.) much worn.

Forzando. Same as Sforzando (q.v.).

Foss, Fosse, fos, n. (fort.) a ditch or moat, either with or without water, the excavation of which has contributed material for the walls of the fort it protects: an abyss.—adj. Fossed.—n. Foss′way, an ancient Roman road having a ditch on either side. [Fr. fosse—L. fossafodĕre, fossum, to dig.]

Fossa, fos′a, n. (anat.) a pit or depression in a body, esp. that in an animal integument forming a point of attachment for an organ.—n. Fossette′, a dimple or small depression. [L., a ditch.]

Fosset-seller, fos′et-sel′ėr, n. (Shak.) one who sells faucets. [Fosset, obs. form of faucet.]

Fossick, fos′ik, v.i. to be troublesome: to undermine another's diggings, or work over waste-heaps for gold: to search about for any kind of profit.—ns. Foss′icker, a mining gleaner who works over old diggings, and scratches about in the beds of creeks; Foss′icking. [Ety. dub.]

Fossil, fos′il, n. the petrified remains of an animal or vegetable found embedded in the strata of the earth's crust: anything antiquated.—adj. dug out of the earth: in the condition of a fossil: antiquated.—adj. Fossilif′erous, bearing or containing fossils.—n. Fossilificā′tion, the act of becoming fossil.—vs.t. Fossil′ify, Foss′ilīse, to convert into a fossil.—v.i. to be changed into a stony or fossil state.—ns. Fossilisā′tion, a changing into a fossil; Foss′ilism, the science of fossils; Foss′ilist, one skilled in fossils; Fossilol′ogy, Fossil′ogy, paleontology. [Fr. fossile—L. fossilisfodĕre, to dig.]

Fossorial, fo-sō′ri-al, adj. digging, burrowing.—n. Foss′or, a grave-digger. [L. fossorfodĕre, to dig.]

Fossulate, fos′ū-lāt, adj. (anat.) having one or more long narrow grooves or depressions.

Foster, fos′tėr, v.t. to bring up or nurse: to encourage.—ns. Fos′terāge, the act of fostering or nursing; Fos′ter-broth′er, a male child, fostered or brought up with another of different parents; Fos′ter-child, a child nursed or brought up by one who is not its parent; Fos′ter-daugh′ter; Fos′terer; Fos′ter-fa′ther, one who brings up a child in place of its father; Fos′terling, a foster-child; Fos′ter-moth′er, one who suckles a child not her own; Fos′ter-nurse (Shak.), a nurse; Fos′ter-par′ent, one who rears a child in the place of its parent; Fos′ter-sis′ter, one brought up as a sister by the same parents, but not a sister by birth; Fos′ter-son, one brought up as a son, though not a son by birth. [A.S. fstrian, to nourish, fstor, food.]

Foster, fos′tėr, n. (Spens.) a forester.

Fother, foth′ėr, v.t. to stop or lessen a leak in a ship's bottom whilst afloat by means of a heavy sail closely thrummed with yarn and oakum. [Perh. from Dut. voederen (mod. voeren) or Low Ger. fodern, to line.]

Fother, foth′ėr, n. a load, quantity: a definite weight—of lead, 19 cwt. [A.S. fer; Ger. fuder.]

Fou, fōō, adj. (Scot.) full: drunk.

Fou, fōō, n. (Scot.) a bushel.

Foud, fowd, n. a bailiff or magistrate in Orkney and Shetland.—n. Foud′rie, his jurisdiction. [Ice. fgeti; Ger. vogt; from L. vocatusvocāre, to call.]

Foudroyant, fōō-droi′ant, adj. quick like lightning. [Fr. foudroyerfoudre, lightning.]

Fouet, fōō′et, n. (Scot.) the house-leek.—Also Fou′at.

Fougade, foo-gd′, n. (mil.) a small mine from six to twelve feet under ground, charged either with powder or loaded shells, and sometimes loaded with stones.—Also Fougasse′. [Fr.]

Fought, fawt, pa.t. and pa.p.Foughten (fawt′n), old pa.p. of fight.

Foul, fowl, adj. filthy: loathsome: obscene: impure: stormy: unfair: running against: distressing, pernicious: choked up, entangled: (Shak.) homely, ugly.—v.t. to make foul: to soil: to effect a collision.—v.i. to come into collision:—pr.p. foul′ing; pa.p. fouled.—n. act of fouling: any breach of the rules in games or contests.—adj. Foul′-faced (Shak.), having a hatefully ugly face.—n. Foul′-fish, fish during the spawning season.—adv. Foul′ly.—adjs. Foul′-mouthed, Foul′-spok′en, addicted to the use of foul or profane language.—ns. Foul-mouthed′ness; Foul′ness; Foul′-play, unfair action in any game or contest, dishonest dealing generally.—Claim a foul, to assert that the recognised rules have been broken, and that a victory is therefore invalid; Fall foul of, to come against: to assault; Make foul water, used of a ship, to come into such shallow water that the keel raises the mud. [A.S. fl; Ger. faul, Goth. fls.]

Foulard, fōōl′ard, n. a soft untwilled silk fabric: a silk handkerchief. [Fr.]

Foulder, fowl′dėr, v.i. (Spens.) to flame, to gleam. [O. Fr. fouldre—L. fulgur, lightning.]

Foul, fōō-lā′, n. a light woollen dress material with a glossy surface. [Fr.]

Foumart, fōō′mrt, n. an old name for the polecat, from its offensive smell. [M. E. fulmard—A.S. fl, foul, mear, a marten.]

Found, pa.t. and pa.p. of find.—n. Found′ling, a little child found deserted.—Foundling hospital, an institution where such are brought up.

Found, fownd, v.t. to lay the bottom or foundation of: to establish on a basis: to originate: to endow.—v.i. to rely.—ns. Foundā′tion, the act of founding: the base of a building: the groundwork or basis: a permanent fund for a benevolent purpose or for some special object; Foundā′tioner, one supported from the funds or foundation of an institution; Foundā′tion-mus′lin, -net, gummed fabrics used for stiffening dresses and bonnets; Foundātion-stone, one of the stones forming the foundation of a building, esp. a stone laid with public ceremony; Found′er, one who founds, establishes, or originates: an endower:—fem. Found′ress. [Fr. fonder—L. fundāre, -ātum, to found—fundus, the bottom.]

Found, fownd, v.t. to form by melting and pouring into a mould: to cast.—ns. Found′er, one who melts and casts metal, as a brassfounder; Found′ing, metal-casting; Found′ry, Found′ery, the art of founding or casting: the house where founding is carried on. [Fr. fondre—L. fundĕre, fusum, to pour.]

Founder, fownd′ėr, v.i. to go to the bottom: to fill with water and sink.—v.t. to cause to sink: to disable by injuring the feet (of a horse).—adj. Found′erous, causing to founder. [O. Fr. fondrer, to fall in, fond, bottom—L. fundus, bottom.]

Fount. See Font (2).

Fountain, fownt′ān, n. a spring of water, natural or artificial: the structure for a jet of water: the source of anything: a reservoir for holding oil, &c., in a lamp.—ns. Fount, a spring of water: a source; Fount′ain-head, the head or source of a fountain: the beginning.—adj. Fount′ainless, wanting fountains or springs of water.—n. Fount′ain-pen, a pen having a reservoir for holding ink.—adj. Fount′ful, full of springs. [Fr. fontaine—Low L. fontāna—L. fons, fontis, a spring—-fundĕre, to pour.]

Four, fōr, adj. and n. two and two, a cardinal number.—adjs. Four′fold, folded four times: multiplied four times; Four′-foot′ed, having four feet; Four′-hand′ed, having four hands: of a game, played by four people; Four′-inched (Shak.), four inches broad.—ns. Four′-in-hand, a vehicle drawn by four horses, driven by one person: a team of four horses drawing a carriage—also adj.; Four′penny, a small silver coin worth fourpence formerly coined in England.—adj. worth fourpence.—n. Four′-post′er, a large bed with four posts on which to hang curtains.—adjs. Four′score, four times a score—80; Four′some, by fours: anything in which four act together—also n.; Four′square, having four equal sides and angles: square.—adjs. and ns. Four′teen, four and ten; Four′teenth, four or the fourth after the tenth.—adj. Fourth, next after the third.—n. one of four equal parts.—adv. Fourth′ly.—adj. Fourth′-rate, of the fourth class or order.—n. Four′-wheel′er, a carriage or cab with four wheels.—Go on all fours, to go on hands and knees. [A.S. fower; Ger. vier, L. quatuor, Gr. tessares.]

Fourchette, fōōr-shet′, n. a small forked instrument used for supporting the tongue in the operation of cutting the frenum: a forked piece between glove fingers, uniting the front and back parts. [Fr.]

Fourcroya, fōōr-krō′ya, n. a neotropical genus of Amaryllidace, nearly allied to Agave (q.v.), and yielding a similar fibre. [Named from A. F. de Fourcroy, a French chemist (1755-1809).]

Fourgon, fōōr-gong′, n. a baggage-wagon. [Fr.]

Fourierism, fōō′ri-ėr-izm, n. the socialistic system of F. M. Charles Fourier (1772-1837), based on the harmony educed by the free-play of his twelve radical passions.

Foutre, fōō′tėr, n. (Shak.) a gross term of contempt, used interjectionally.—Also Fou′ter. [O. Fr. foutre—L. futuere, to lecher.]

Fouth, footh, n. (Scot.) abundance.—Also Fowth.

Fovea, fō′vē-a, n. (anat.) a depression or pit.—adjs. Fō′veal; Fō′veate, pitted.—n. Fovē′ola, a small depression—also Fovē′ole. [L.]

Fovilla, fō-vil′a, n. (bot.) the contents of a pollen-grain.

Fowl, fowl, n. a bird: a bird of the barn-door or poultry kind, a cock or hen: the flesh of fowl:—pl. Fowls, Fowl.—v.i. to kill fowls by shooting or snaring.—ns. Fowl′er, a sportsman who takes wild-fowl; Fowl′ing; Fowl′ing-net, a net for catching birds; Fowl′ing-piece, a light gun for small-shot, used in fowling. [A.S. fugol; Ger. vogel.]

Fox, foks, n. an animal of the family Canid, genus Vulpes, of proverbial cunning:—fem. Vix′en: any one notorious for cunning.—ns. Fox′-bat, a flying-fox, a fruit-bat; Fox′-brush, the tail of a fox; Fox′-earth, a fox's burrow.—adj. Foxed, discoloured, spotted.—ns. Fox′-ē′vil, alopecia; Fox′glove, a plant with glove-like flowers, whose leaves are used as a soothing medicine; Fox′hound, a hound used for chasing foxes; Fox′-hunt; Fox′-hunt′er; Fox′-hunt′ing; Fox′iness, decay: having a harsh, sour taste: state of being spotted, as books; Fox′-shark, a large shark of over 12 feet, occasionally seen off British coasts; Fox′ship (Shak.), the character of a fox, craftiness; Fox′-tail, a genus of grasses, generally characterised by a bushy head; Fox′-terr′ier, a kind of terrier trained to unearth foxes; Fox′-trap, a trap for catching foxes; Fox′-trot, a pace with short steps, as in changing from trotting to walking.—adj. Fox′y, of foxes: cunning, suspicious, causing suspicion: (paint.) having too much of the reddish-brown or fox-colour.—Fox and geese, a game played with pieces on a board, where the object is for certain pieces called the geese to surround or corner one called the fox. [A.S. fox; Ger. fuchs.]

Foy, foi, n. (Spens.) allegiance. [Fr. foi, faith.]

Foy, foi, n. (prov.) a parting entertainment.

Foyer, fwo-yā′, n. in theatres, a public room opening on the lobby. [Fr.,—L. focus, hearth.]

Fozy, fōz′i, adj. (Scot.) spongy.—n. Foz′iness, softness, want of spirit. [Cf. Dut. voos, spongy.]

Frab, frab, v.t. to worry.—adj. Frab′bit, peevish.

Fracas, fra-k′, n. uproar: a noisy quarrel. [Fr.,—It. fracassofracassare, to make an uproar.]

Fraction, frak′shun, n. a fragment or very small piece: (arith.) any part of a unit: a technical term to indicate the breaking of the bread in the sacrifice of the Eucharist.—v.t. Fract (Shak.), to break, to violate.—adjs. Fract′ed (her.), having a part displaced, as if broken; Frac′tional, belonging to or containing a fraction or fractions; Frac′tionary, fractional: unimportant.—v.t. Frac′tionate, to separate the elements of a mixture by distillation or otherwise.—n. Fractionā′tion.—v.t. Frac′tionise, to break up into fractions.—n. Frac′tionlet, a small fraction.—adj. Frac′tious, ready to quarrel: cross.—adv. Frac′tiously.—ns. Frac′tiousness; Frac′ture, the breaking of any hard body: the breach or part broken: the breaking of a bone.—v.t. to break through.—Compound, Comminuted, Complicated fracture (see the respective adjectives); Greenstick fracture, a fracture where the bone is partly broken, partly bent, occurring in the limbs of children; Simple fracture, a fracture when the bone only is divided. [O. Fr. fraccion—L. fraction-emfrangĕre, fractum, to break.]

Fragaria, frā-gā′ri-a, n. a genus of perennial plants with creeping stolons, the fruit the strawberry. [L. fragum, the strawberry.]

Fragile, fraj′il, adj. easily broken: frail: delicate.—n. Fragil′ity, the state of being fragile. [Fr.,—L. fragilis, frangĕre, to break.]

Fragment, frag′ment, n. a piece broken off: an unfinished portion.—adj. Frag′mental (also -ment′).adv. Frag′mentarily.—n. Frag′mentariness.—adjs. Frag′mentary, Frag′mented, consisting of fragments or pieces: broken. [Fr.,—L. fragmentum, frangĕre, to break.]

Fragor, frā′gor, n. a crash. [L.]

Fragrant, frā′grant, adj. sweet-scented.—ns. Frā′grance, Frā′grancy, pleasantness of smell or perfume: sweet or grateful influence.—adv. Frā′grantly.—n. Frā′grantness. [Fr.,—L. fragrans, -antis, pr.p. of fragrāre, to smell.]

Frail, frāl, adj. wanting in strength or firmness: weak: unchaste.—adj. Frail′ish, somewhat frail.—adv. Frail′ly.—ns. Frail′ness, Frail′ty, weakness: infirmity. [O. Fr. fraile—L. fragilis, fragile.]

Frail, frāl, n. a rush: a basket made of rushes. [O. Fr. frayel; of dubious origin.]

Fraise, frāz, n. (fort.) a palisade of pointed stakes planted in the rampart horizontally or in an inclined position: a tool used for enlarging a drill-hole: a 16th-cent. ruff.—v.t. to fence with a fraise. [Fr.]

Fraise, frāz, n. (prov.) commotion.

Frambœsia, fram-bē′zi-a, n. the yaws (q.v.). [Fr. framboise, a raspberry.]

Frame, frām, v.t. to form: to shape: to construct by fitting the parts to each other: to plan, adjust, or adapt to an end: to contrive or devise: to constitute: to put a frame or border round, as a picture: to put into a frame: (Spens.) to support.—v.i. (dial.) to move: (B.) to contrive.—n. the form: a putting together of parts: a case made to enclose or support anything: the skeleton of anything: state of mind: in gardening, a movable structure used for the cultivation or the sheltering of plants, as a 'forcing-frame,' 'cucumber-frame,' &c.: (Shak.) the act of devising.—ns. Frame′-bridge, a bridge constructed of pieces of timber framed together; Frame′-house, a house consisting of a skeleton of timber, with boards or shingles laid on; Frame′-mak′er, a maker of frames for pictures; Fram′er, he who forms or constructs: one who makes frames for pictures, &c.; Frame′-saw, a thin saw stretched in a frame for greater rigidity; Frame′work, the work that forms the frame: the skeleton or outline of anything; Fram′ing, the act of constructing: a frame or setting. [A.S. framian, to be helpful, fram, forward.]

Frampold, fram′pōld, adj. (Shak.) peevish, cross-grained: quarrelsome.—Also Fram′pel. [Prob. fram, from, poll, head.]

Franc, frangk, n. a French silver coin, forming since 1795 the unit of the French monetary system, and now also used in Belgium, Switzerland, equal to fully 9d. sterling, the equivalent of the Italian lira, the Greek drachma. [O. Fr. franc, from the legend Francorum rex on the first coins.]

Franchise, fran′chiz, or -chīz, n. liberty: a privilege or exemption belonging to a subject by prescription or conferred by grant: the right of voting for a member of Parliament.—v.t. to enfranchise: to give one the franchise.—ns. Fran′chisement (Spens.), freedom, release; Fran′chiser, one who has the franchise. [O. Fr., from franc, free.]

Franciscan, fran-sis′kan, adj. belonging to the order of mendicant friars in the R.C. Church founded by St Francis of Assisi (1182-1226).—n. a monk of this order. [L. Franciscus, Francis.]

Franco-, frangk′ō, French, in combinations as Franco-German, Franco-Russian, &c.

Francolin, frang′kō-lin, n. a genus of birds of the grouse family, closely allied to partridges. [Fr.]

Franc-tireur, frang-tē-rėr′, n. a French sharp-shooter, one of an armed band of French peasants and others prominent in the later stages of the Franco-Prussian war. [Fr. franc, free, tireur, a shooter.]

Frangible, fran′ji-bl, adj. easily broken.—n. Frangibil′ity. [See Fraction.]

Frangipane, fran′ji-pān, n. a kind of pastry-cake, filled with cream, almonds, and sugar: a perfume from the flower of the red jasmine, or in imitation of it.—Also Fran′gipani. [Fr., from a personal name.]

Franion, fran′yun, n. (Spens.) a paramour: a boon-companion. [Origin uncertain.]

Frank, frangk, adj. free, open: (obs.) liberal: open or candid in expression: (Spens.) unrestrained.—v.t. to send free of expense, as a letter.—n. the signature of a person who had the right to frank a letter.—n. Frank′-fee, a species of tenure in fee-simple, the opposite of copyhold.—adv. Frank′ly, candidly: (obs.) gratuitously.—ns. Frank′ness; Frank′-pledge, a system of mutual suretyship by which the members of a tithing were made responsible for one another; Frank′-ten′ement, freehold. [O. Fr. franc—Low L. francus—Old High Ger. Franko, one of the tribe called Franks, a free man.]

Frank, frangk, n. one of the German tribes from Franconia who conquered Gaul in the 5th century, and founded France: the name given in the East to a native of Western Europe.—adj. Frank′ish.

Frank, frangk, n. (Shak.) a pig-sty.—v.t. (Shak.) to shut up in a sty, to cram, to fatten. [O. Fr. franc.]

Frankalmoign, frangk′al-moin, n. (Eng. law) a form of land-tenure in which no obligations were enforced except religious ones, as praying, &c. [O. Fr. franc, free, almoigne, alms.]

Frankenstein, frangk′en-stīn, n. any creation which brings anxiety or disaster to its author—from the Frankenstein in Mrs Shelley's romance so named, who by his skill forms an animate creature like a man, only to his own torment.

Frankincense, frangk′in-sens, n. a sweet-smelling vegetable resin from Arabia, used in sacrifices. [O. Fr. franc encens, pure incense.]

Franklin, frangk′lin, n. an old English freeholder, free from feudal servitude to a subject-superior. [Low L. francus, frank.]

Frantic, fran′tik, adj. mad, furious: wild.—advs. Fran′tically, Fran′ticly (Shak.).—adj. Fran′tic-mad, raving mad.—n. Fran′ticness, the state of being frantic. [O. Fr. frenetique—L. phreneticus—Gr. phrenētikos, mad, phrenītis, inflammation of the brain—phrēn, the mind; see Frenzy.]

Franzy, fran′zi, adj. (prov.) cross: particular.

Frap, frap, v.t. to strike: (naut.) to secure by many turns of a lashing. [Fr. frapper, to strike.]

Frapp, fra-pā, adj. iced, cooled. [Fr.]

Fratch, frach, n. (prov.) a quarrel or brawl.—adjs. Fratch′ety, Fratch′y; Fratch′ing. [Imit.]

Frater, frā′ter, n. the refectory of a monastery. [O. Fr. fraitur for refreitor.—Low L. refectōrium.]

Fraternal, fra-tėr′nal, adj. belonging to a brother or brethren: becoming brothers.—ns. Frate (fr′te), a friar:—pl. Fr′ti; Frā′ter, a friar: comrade; Frater′cula, a genus of marine diving-birds, the puffins or masked auks.—adv. Frater′nally.—n. Fraternisā′tion, the associating as brethren.—v.i. Frat′ernise, to associate as brothers: to seek brotherly fellowship.—ns. Frat′erniser; Frater′nity, the state of being brethren: a society formed on a principle of brotherhood; Frat′ry, the common-room of a monastic establishment, the chapter-house—also Frat′ery: a fraternity: a convent of friars. [Fr.,—Low L. fraternalisfrater, a brother, Eng. brother, Gr. phratēr, a clansman, Sans. bhrāta.]

Fratricide, frat′ri-sīd, n. one who kills his brother: the murder of a brother.—adj. Frat′ricidal. [Fr.,—L. frater, fratris, cdĕre, to kill.]

Frau, frow, n. a married woman, a wife.—n. Fru′lein, a young lady, miss—often in England for a German governess. [Ger.]

Fraud, frawd, n. deceit: imposture: (Milt.) a snare: a deceptive trick: (coll.) a cheat: a fraudulent production.—adj. Fraud′ful, deceptive.—adv. Fraud′fully.—ns. Fraud′ulence, Fraud′ulency.—adj. Fraud′ulent, using fraud: dishonest.—adv. Fraud′ulently.—Fraudulent bankruptcy, a bankruptcy in which the insolvent is accessory, by concealment or otherwise, to the diminution of the funds divisible among his creditors.—Pious fraud, a deception practised with a good end in view: (coll.) a religious humbug. [O. Fr.,—L. fraus, fraudis, fraud.]

Fraught, frawt, n. a load, cargo: the freight of a ship.—v.t. to fill, store.—v.i. (Shak.) to form the freight of a vessel.—p.adj. freighted, laden: filled.—n. Fraught′age (Shak.), loading, cargo. [Prob. Old Dut. vracht. Cf. Freight.]

Fraxinella, frak-si-nel′a, n. a common name for cultivated species of dittany.—n. Frax′inus, the genus of Oleace containing the common ash.

Fray, frā, n. an affray, a brawl.—v.t. (B.) to frighten. [Abbrev. of affray.]

Fray, frā, v.t. to wear off by rubbing: to ravel out the edge of a stuff.—v.i. to become frayed.—n. Fray′ing, the action of the verb fray: ravellings. [Fr. frayer—L. fricāre, to rub.]

Frazil, frz′il, n. anchor-ice. [Canadian Fr.; prob. Fr. fraisil, cinders.]

Frazzle, fraz′l, v.t. (U.S.) to fray, wear out.—n. state of being worn out.

Freak, frēk, n. a sudden caprice or fancy: sport: an abnormal production of nature, a monstrosity.—ns. Freak′iness, Freak′ishness.—adjs. Freak′ish, Freak′ful, apt to change the mind suddenly: capricious.—adv. Freak′ishly. [A late word; cf. A.S. frcian, to dance.]

Freak, frēk, v.t. to spot or streak: to variegate.—n. a streak of colour.

Freck, frek, adj. (Scot.) prompt, eager.—Also Frack.

Freckle, frek′l, v.t. to spot: to colour with spots.—n. a yellowish or brownish-yellow spot on the skin, esp. of fair-haired persons: any small spot.—n. Freck′ling, a little spot.—adjs. Freck′ly, Freck′led, full of freckles. [Ice. freknur (pl.), Dan. fregne.]

Free, frē, adj. not bound: at liberty: not under arbitrary government: unimpeded: set at liberty: guiltless: frank: lavish: not attached: exempt (with from): having a franchise (with of): gratuitous: bold, indecent: idiomatic, as a translation.—v.t. to set at liberty: to deliver from what confines: to rid (with from, of):—pr.p. free′ing; pa.p. freed.—ns. Free′-ag′ency, state or power of acting freely, or without necessity or constraint upon the will; Free′-ag′ent; Free′-and-eas′y, a kind of public-house club where good fellows gather to smoke and sing; Free′-bench, a widow's right to dower out of her husband's lands, so long as unmarried and chaste; Free′-board, the space between a vessel's line of flotation and the upper side of the deck; Free′booter (Dut. vrijbuiter), one who roves about freely in search of booty: a plunderer; Free′bootery.—adj. Free′booting, acting the part of a freebooter: robbing.—n. the practice of a freebooter: robbery, pillage.—n. Free′booty.—adj. Free′born, born of free parents.—ns. Free′-cit′y, a city having independent government; Free′-cost, freedom from charges; Freed′man, a man who has been a slave, and has been freed or set free; Free′dom, liberty: frankness: separation: privileges connected with a city: improper familiarity: license; Free′-fish′er, one who has a right to take fish in certain waters.—adjs. Free-foot′ed (Shak.) not restrained in movement; Free′-hand, applied to drawing by the unguided hand; Free′-hand′ed, open-handed: liberal; Free′-heart′ed, open-hearted: liberal.—ns. Free′-heart′edness, liberality: frankness; Free′hold, a property held free of duty except to the king; Free′holder, one who possesses a freehold; Free′-lā′bour, voluntary, not slave, labour; Free′-lance, one of certain roving companies of knights and men-at-arms, who after the Crusades wandered about Europe, selling their services to any one; Free′-liv′er, one who freely indulges his appetite for eating and drinking: a glutton; Free′-love, the claim to freedom in sexual relations, unshackled by marriage or obligation to aliment.—adv. Free′ly.—ns. Free′man, a man who is free or enjoys liberty: one who holds a particular franchise or privilege:—pl. Free′men; Free′māson, one of a secret society of so-called speculative masons, united in lodges for social enjoyment and mutual assistance, and laying dubious claim to a connection with the medieval organisations of free operative masons.—adj. Freemason′ic.—n. Freemā′sonry, the institutions, practices, &c. of Freemasons.—adj. Free′-mind′ed, with a mind free or unperplexed: without a load of care.—ns. Free′ness; Free′-port, a port where no duties are levied on articles of commerce; Free′-school, a school where no tuition fees are exacted; Free′-shot (Ger. Freischtz), the name given to a legendary hunter and marksman who gets a number of bullets (Freikugeln) from the devil, six of which always hit the mark, while the seventh is at the disposal of the devil himself.—adjs. Free′-soil, in favour of free territory, opposed to slavery; Free′-spōk′en, accustomed to speak without reserve.—ns. Free′-spōk′enness; Free′stone, an easily quarried stone composed of sand or grit.—adj. having a stone from which the pulp easily separates, as a peach—opp. to Clingstone.—adj. Free′-swim′ming, swimming freely, as an aquatic animal.—ns. Free′thinker, one who professes to be free from conventional authority in religion: a rationalist; Free′thinking, Free′-thought, the habit of mind of a freethinker.—adj. Free′-tongued, free-spoken.—ns. Free′-trade, free or unrestricted trade: free interchange of commodities without protective duties; Free′-trad′er, one who practises or advocates this; Free′-will, freedom of the will from restraint: liberty of choice: power of self-determination.—adj. spontaneous.—Free-cell formation, the formation of several cells from and in the protoplasm of the mother-cell; Free Church, that branch of the Presbyterians in Scotland which left the Established Church in the Disruption of 1843, finding spiritual independence impossible within it: a church whose sittings are open to all: (pl.) a term often applied to the Nonconformist churches generally; Free list, the list of persons admitted without payment to a theatre, &c., or of those to whom a book, &c., is sent; Free on board (F.O.B.), a phrase meaning that goods are to be delivered on the vessel or other conveyance without charge.—Free States, in America, before the Civil War of 1861-65, those of the United States in which slavery did not exist, as opposed to Slave States.—Make free with, to take undue liberties with. [A.S. freo; Ger. frei, Ice. fr.]

Freemartin, frē′mar-tin, n. a cow-calf born as a twin with a bull-calf, usually barren.

Freeze, frēz, v.i. to become ice or like a solid body.—v.t. to harden into ice: to cause to shiver, as with terror:—pr.p. freez′ing; pa.t. frōze; pa.p. froz′en.adj. Freez′able.—ns. Freez′ing-mix′ture, a mixture, as of pounded ice and salt, producing cold sufficient to freeze a liquid by the rapid absorption of heat; Freez′ing-point, the temperature at which water freezes, marked 32 on the Fahrenheit thermometer, and 0 on the centigrade. [A.S. frosan, pa.p. froren; Dut. vreizen, Ger. frieren, to freeze.]

Freight, frāt, n. the lading or cargo, esp. of a ship; the charge for transporting goods by water.—v.t. to load a ship.—ns. Freight′age, money paid for freight; Freight′er, one who freights a vessel. [Prob. Old Dut. vrecht, a form of vracht.]

Freischtz. See Free-shot.

Freit, frēt, n. (Scot.) any superstitious belief in things as good or bad omens—also Freet.—adj. Freit′y, Freet′y, superstitious. [Scand.; Ice. frtt, news.]

Fremd, fremd, adj. and n. (Scot.) strange, a stranger—Spenser has Frenne, a stranger.—The fremd, the world of strangers. [M. E. fremd, fremed—A.S. fremde; cf. Dut. vreemd, Ger. fremd.]

Fremescent, frem-es′ent, adj. raging, riotous.—n. Fremes′cence. [L. fremĕre, to roar.]

Fremitus, frem′i-tus, n. a palpable vibration, as of the walls of the chest. [L.]

French, frensh, adj. belonging to France or its people.—n. the people or language of France.—ns. French′-bean, the common kidney bean, eaten, pods and all, as a table vegetable; French′-berr′y, a small berry, the fruit of certain species of buckthorn, used in dyeing yellow; French′-chalk, an indurated clay, extremely dense, and of a smooth glossy surface and white colour; French′ery, French fashions collectively; French′-horn, a musical wind-instrument somewhat resembling a bugle; Frenchificā′tion.—v.t. French′ify, to make French or Frenchlike: to infect with the manner of the French.—ns. French′iness; French′man, a native or naturalised inhabitant of France:—fem. French′woman; French′-pol′ish, a varnish for furniture, consisting chiefly of shellac dissolved in some spirit; French′-pol′isher; French′-pol′ishing, the method of coating furniture with French-polish.—adj. French′y, with an exaggerated French manner.—French merino, a fine twilled cloth of merino wool; French pox (obs.), syphilis; French roof, a modified mansard-roof—really American; French white, finely pulverised talc; French window, a long window opening like a folding-door, and serving for exit and entrance.—Take French leave, to depart without notice or permission, to disappear suspiciously.

Frenetic, -al, fre-net′ik, -al, adj. frenzied: mad: distracted.—Also Phrenet′ic, -al. [See Frantic.]

Frenum, frē′num, n. a ligament restraining the motion of a part.—Also Fr′num. [L., a bridle.]

Frenzy, fren′zi, n. a violent excitement: mania.—v.t. to render frenzied.—adjs. Fren′zied, Fren′zical, partaking of frenzy. [Through O. Fr. and L.,—from Late Gr. phrenēsis=Gr. phrenitis, inflammation of the brain—phrēn, the mind.]

Frequent, frē′kwent, adj. coming or occurring often.—ns. Frē′quence (Milt.), a crowd, an assembly; Frē′quency, repeated occurrence of anything.—v.t. Frequent′, to visit often.—ns. Frē′quentage, habit of frequenting; Frequentā′tion, the act of visiting often.—adj. Frequent′ative (gram.), denoting the frequent repetition of an action.—n. (gram.) a verb expressing this repetition.—n. Frequent′er.—adv. Frē′quently.—n. Frē′quentness. [L. frequens, frequentis; cog. with farcīre, to stuff.]

Frescade, fres-kād′, n. a cool walk. [Fr.,—It. frescata.]

Fresco, fres′kō, n. a painting executed with colours, consisting chiefly of natural earths, upon walls covered with damp freshly-laid plaster.—v.t. to paint in fresco:—pr.p. fres′cōing; pa.p. fres′cōed.adj. Fres′coed.—ns. Fres′coer; Fres′coing; Fres′coist. [It. fresco, fresh.]

Fresh, fresh, adj. in a state of activity and health: new and strong, not stale or faded: recently produced or obtained: untried: having renewed vigour: healthy, refreshing, invigorating: brisk: (slang) tipsy: not salt.—n. (Shak.) a small stream of fresh water: (Scot.) a thaw, open weather.—adj. Fresh′-blown, newly blown, as a flower.—v.t. Fresh′en, to make fresh: to take the saltness from.—v.i. to grow fresh: to grow brisk or strong.—ns. Fresh′ener; Fresh′et, a pool or stream of fresh water: the sudden overflow of a river from rain or melted snow.—adj. Fresh′ish.—adv. Fresh′ly.—ns. Fresh′man, one in the rudiments of knowledge, esp. a university student in his first year—also Fresh′er; Fresh′manship, Fresh′erdom.—adj. Fresh′-new (Shak.), unpractised, wholly unacquainted; Fresh′wa′ter, of or pertaining to water not salt: accustomed to sail only on fresh water—hence unskilled, raw. [A.S. fersc; cf. Dut. versch, Ger. frisch.]

Fret, fret, v.t. to wear away by rubbing, to rub, chafe, ripple, disturb: to eat into: to vex, to irritate.—v.i. to wear away: to vex one's self: to be peevish:—pr.p. fret′ting; pa.p. fret′ted, (B.) fret.—n. agitation of the surface of a liquid: irritation: the worn side of the banks of a river.—adj. Fret′ful, peevish.—adv. Fret′fully.—n. Fret′fulness.—p.adj. Fret′ting, vexing.—n. peevishness. [A.S. fretan, to gnaw—pfx. for-, inten., and etan, to eat; Ger. fressen.]

Fret, fret, v.t. to ornament with raised work: to variegate:—pr.p. fret′ting; pa.p. fret′ted. [O. Fr. freter.]

Fret, fret, n. a piece of interlaced ornamental work: (archit.) an ornament consisting of small fillets intersecting each other at right angles: (her.) bars crossed and interlaced.—ns. Fret′-saw, a saw with a narrow blade and fine teeth, used for fret-work, scroll-work, &c.; Frette, a hoop for strengthening a cannon shrunk on its breach.—adjs. Fret′ted, Fret′ty, ornamented with frets.—n. Fret′-work, ornamental work consisting of a combination of frets, perforated work. [O. Fr. frete, trellis-work.]

Fret, fret, n. a short wire on the finger-board of a guitar or other instrument.—v.t. to furnish with frets. [Prob. same as the above.]

Friable, frī′a-bl, adj. apt to crumble: easily reduced to powder.—ns. Frī′ableness, Friabil′ity. [Fr.,—L. friabilisfriāre, friātum, to crumble.]

Friar, frī′ar, n. a member of one of the mendicant monastic orders in the R.C. Church—the Franciscans (Friars Minor or Gray Friars), Dominicans (Friars Major, Friars Preachers, or Black Friars), Carmelites (White Friars), and Augustinians (Austin Friars).—adj. Frī′arly, like a friar.—n. Frī′ary, a monastery.—Friars' balsam (see Benzoin); Friar's cap, the wolf's-bane; Friar's cowl, the wake-robin; Friar's lantern, the ignis-fatuus or Will-o'-the-wisp. [O. Fr. frere—L. frater, a brother.]

Fribble, frib′l, v.i. to trifle.—n. a trifler.—ns. Fribb′ledom; Fribb′leism; Fribb′ler.—adj. Fribb′lish, trifling. [Onomatopœic; prob. influenced by frivol.]

Fricandeau, frik-an-dō′, n. a thick slice of veal, &c., larded. [Fr., perh. from friand, dainty, nice, and perh. ult. conn. with fricassee.]

Fricassee, frik-as-sē′, n. a dish made of fowl, rabbit, &c. cut into pieces and cooked in sauce.—v.t. to dress as a fricassee:—pr.p. fricassee′ing; pa.p. fricasseed′. [Fr. fricasse; origin unknown.]

Friction, frik′shun, n. the act of rubbing: (statics) a force acting in the tangent plane of two bodies, when one slides or rolls upon another, and always in a direction opposite to that in which the moving body tends: difficulty, unpleasantness.—adjs. Fric′ative, produced by friction, used of those consonants which are produced by the breath being forced through a narrow opening; Fric′tional, relating to, moved by, or produced by friction.—n. Fric′tion-gear′ing, a method of imparting the motion of one wheel or pulley to another by mere contact.—adj. Fric′tionless, having no friction.— Fric′tion-wheels, wheels that lessen friction. [Fr.,—L. frictionemfricāre, frictum, to rub.]

Friday, frī′dā, n. the sixth day of the week.—Black Friday, Good Friday, from the black vestments of the clergy and altar in the Western Church: any Friday marked by a great calamity; Good Friday, the Friday before Easter, kept in commemoration of the Crucifixion; Holy Friday, Friday in an ember-week—also Golden Friday, sometimes put for Good Friday itself. [A.S. Frgedg, day of (the goddess) Frg—Latinised Frigga—wife of Odin.]

Fridge, frij, v.t. (Sterne) to rub or fray.

Fried, frīd, pa.t. and pa.p. of fry.

Friend, frend, n. one loving or attached to another: an intimate acquaintance: a favourer: one of a society so called: (Scot.) a relative.—v.t. (obs.) to befriend.—adj. Friend′ed, supplied with friends.—n. Friend′ing (Shak.), friendliness.—adj. Friend′less, without friends: destitute.—n. Friend′lessness.—adv. Friend′lily.—n. Friend′liness.—adj. Friend′ly, like a friend: having the disposition of a friend: favourable: pertaining to the Friends or Quakers.—n. Friend′ship, attachment from mutual esteem: friendly assistance.—Friendly societies, or Benefit societies, associations, chiefly among mechanics, &c., for relief during sickness, old age, widowhood, by provident insurance.—Be friends with, to be on intimate or friendly relations with; Have a friend at court, to have a friend in a position where his influence is likely to prove useful; Society of Friends, the designation proper of a sect of Christians better known as Quakers. [A.S. frond, pr.p. of fron, to love; Ger. freund.]

Frier, frī′ėr, n. (Milt.) a friar.

Frieze, frēz, n. a coarse woollen cloth with a nap on one side.—adj. Friezed, napped. [Fr. frise.]

Frieze, frēz, n. (archit.) the part of the entablature between the architrave and cornice, often ornamented with figures.—v.t. to put a frieze on. [O. Fr. frize; It. fregio; perh. L. Phrygium, Phrygian.]

Frigate, frig′āt, n. in the Royal Navy, formerly a vessel in the class next to ships of the line, carrying 28 to 60 guns on the maindeck and a raised quarter-deck and forecastle—not now denoting a distinct class of vessels.—ns. Frig′ate-bird, a large tropical sea-bird, with very long wings; Frigatoon′, a small Venetian vessel with square stern and two masts. [O. Fr. fregate—It. fregata; ety. dub.]

Fright, frīt, n. sudden fear: terror: anything inspiring terror or alarm, a figure of grotesque or ridiculous appearance.—vs.t. Fright, Fright′en, to make afraid: to alarm.—adjs. Fright′able, Fright′enable, timid; Fright′ful, terrible: shocking.—adv. Fright′fully.—n. Fright′fulness.—adj. Fright′some, frightful: feeling fright. [A.S. fyrhto; cf. Ger. furcht, fear.]

Frigid, frij′id, adj. frozen or stiffened with cold: cold: without spirit or feeling: unanimated.—n. Frigid′ity, coldness: coldness of affection: want of animation.—adv. Frig′idly.—n. Frig′idness.—adj. Frigorif′ic, causing cold.—Frigid zones, the parts of the earth's surface within the circle drawn with the poles as centre, and a radius of 23 degrees. [L. frigidusfrigēre, to be cold—frigus, cold.]

Frigot, frig′ot, n. (Spens.). Same as Frigate.

Frijole, frē-hōl′, n. the common Mexican bean. [Sp.]

Frill, fril, v.i. to ruffle, as a hawk its feathers, when shivering.—v.t. to furnish with a frill.—n. a ruffle: a ruffled or crimped edging of linen.—ns. Frilled′-liz′ard, a lizard with an extraordinary frilled membrane attached to the hinder part of the head, neck, and chest, and covering its shoulders; Frill′ing, frilled edging. [Usually conn. with O. Fr. friller, to shiver; but prob. related to furl.]

Frimaire, frē-mār′, n. the third month of the French revolutionary calendar, Nov. 21-Dec. 20. [Fr. frimas, frost.]

Fringe, frinj, n. loose threads forming an ornamental border: anything like a fringe, even a girl's hair cut in front and falling over the brow: the extremity.—v.t. to adorn with fringe: to border.—adjs. Fringed; Fringe′less; Fring′ent, fringing.—n. Fringe′-tree, in the United States, a large shrub with very numerous snow-white flowers in panicled racemes.—adj. Fring′y, ornamented with fringes. [O. Fr. frenge—L. fimbria, threads, fibres, akin to fibra, a fibre.]

Fringillaceous, frin-ji-lā′shi-us, adj. pertaining to the finches or Fringillid.—Also Fringil′liform, Fringil′line. [L. fringilla.]

Frippery, frip′ėr-i, n. worn-out clothes: the place where old clothes are sold: useless trifles.—adj. useless: trifling.—n. Fripp′er, one who deals in old clothes. [O. Fr. freperie, frepe, a rag.]

Frisette. See Frizzle.

Friseur, fris-ėr′, n. a hair-dresser.—n. Fris′ure, mode of curling the hair. [Fr. friser, to curl.]

Frisian, friz′i-an, adj. and n. pertaining to the people of Friesland, or to their language.—Also Fries′ian, Fries′ic, Fries′ish.

Frisk, frisk, v.i. to gambol: to leap playfully.—n. a frolic.—n. Frisk′er.—adj. Frisk′ful, brisk, lively.—adv. Frisk′ily.—n. Frisk′iness.—adj. Frisk′ing.—adv. Frisk′ingly.—adj. Frisk′y, lively: jumping with gaiety: frolicsome. [O. Fr. frisque; acc. to Skeat, from Ice. frskr, Sw. and Dan. frisk.]

Frisket, frisk′ėt, n. (print.) the light frame between the tympan and the form, to hold in place the sheet to be printed. [Fr. frisquette.]

Frit, frit, n. the mixed materials of which glass is made, after being heated until they fuse partially without melting.—v.t. to fuse partially without melting:—pr.p. frit′ting; pa.p. frit′ted. [Fr. fritte—It. fritta.—L. frigĕre, frictum, to roast.]

Frit, frit, n. a small fly destructive to wheat.

Frith, frith, Firth, fėrth, n. a narrow inlet of the sea, esp. at a river-mouth. [Ice. firr; Norw. fiord.]

Frith, frith, n. peace.—ns. Frith′borg (A.S. law), one of the tithings or groups of ten men into which the hundred was divided, the members of each being accountable for a fellow-member's misdeeds; Frith′gild, a union of neighbours pledged to one another for the preservation of peace; Frith′soken, the jurisdiction to punish for breaches of the peace; Frith′stool, a chair of sanctuary, placed near the altar in a church—as at Hexham and Beverley. [A.S. frith, peace; Ger. friede.]

Frith, frith, n. forest. [A.S. (ge)fyrhe.]

Fritillary, frit′il-lar-i, n. a genus of plants of the order Liliace, with drooping purple flowers: a species of butterfly. [L. fritillus, a dice-box.]

Fritter, frit′ėr, n. a piece of meat fried: a kind of pancake, a slice of some fruit sweetened, fried, and served hot: a fragment.—v.t. to break into fragments.—n. Fritt′erer, one who wastes time. [O. Fr. friture—L. frigĕre, frictum, to fry.]

Frivolous, friv′ol-us, adj. trifling: silly.—n. Frivol′ity, act or habit of trifling: levity.—adv. Friv′olously.—n. Friv′olousness. [Fr. frivole—L. frivolus.]

Frizz, Friz, friz, v.t. to curl: to render rough and tangled.—n. a curl, a wig.—adjs. Frizzed, having the hair curled or crisped into frizzes; Frizz′y. [O. Fr. friser, to curl; perh. conn. with frieze, cloth.]

Frizzle, friz′l, v.t. to form in small short curls.—v.i. to go into curls.—n. a curl.—ns. Frizette′, Frisette′, a cluster of small curls worn over the forehead.—adj. Frizz′ly. [Related to frizz and frieze.]

Fro, frō, adv. from: back or backward.—prep. (obs.) from. [A shortened form of from; but perh. directly derived from Ice. fr, from.]

Frock, frok, n. a wide-sleeved garment worn by monks: a loose upper garment worn by men: a sailor's jersey: a gown worn by females: an undress regimental coat.—v.t. to furnish with a frock: to invest with priestly office.—n. Frock′-coat, a double-breasted full-skirted coat for men.—adj. Frocked, clothed in a frock.—n. Frock′ing, cloth suitable for frocks, coarse jean.—adj. Frock′less, wanting a frock. [O. Fr. froc, a monk's frock—Low L. frocus—L. floccus, a flock of wool; or more prob. (acc. to Brachet and Littr) from Low L. hrocus—Old High Ger. hroch (Ger. rock), a coat.]

Frog, frog, n. a genus of tailless amphibians, with webbed feet, remarkable for its rapid swimming and leaping: a soft, horny substance in the middle of the sole of a horse's foot, forking towards the heel: a section of a rail or rails at a point where two lines cross, or of a switch from one line to another.—ns. Frog′-bit, a small aquatic plant, allied to the water-soldier, but with floating leaves; Frog′-eat′er, one who eats frogs, a Frenchman; Frog′-fish, a name for various fishes, esp. the angler; Frog′gery, frogs collectively: a place where frogs abound.—adj. Frog′gy, having or abounding in frogs.—ns. Frog′-hop′per, Frog′-spit (see Froth-fly); Frog′ling, a little frog.—Frog march, a method of carrying a refractory or drunken prisoner face downwards between four men, each holding a limb. [A.S. frogga, frox; cog. with Ice. froskr; Ger. frosch.]

Frog, frog, n. an ornamental fastening or tasselled button for a frock or cloak.—adj. Frogged, in uniforms, of ornamental stripes or workings of braid or lace, mostly on the breast of a coat.

Froise, froiz, n. a kind of pancake or omelette, often with slices of bacon.—Also Fraise. [Fr.]

Frolic, frol′ik, adj. merry: pranky.—n. gaiety: a wild prank: a merry-making.—v.i. to play wild pranks or merry tricks: to gambol:—pr.p. frol′icking; pa.p. frol′icked.adj. Frol′icsome, gay: sportive.—adv. Frol′icsomely.—n. Frol′icsomeness. [Dut. vrolijk, merry; cf. Ger. frhlich, joyful, gay.]

From, from, prep. forth: out of, as from a source: away: at a distance: springing out of: by reason of. [A.S. fram, from; akin to Goth. fram, Ice. fr.]

Frond, frond, n. (bot.) a leaf-like expansion in many cryptogamous plants, organs in which the functions of stem and leaf are combined.—adjs. Frond′ed, having fronds; Frond′ent, leafy.—n. Frondes′cence, act of putting forth leaves: the season for putting forth leaves.—adjs. Frondes′cent, springing into leaf; Frondif′erous, bearing or producing fronds; Frondose′, covered with fronds. [L. frons, frondis, a leaf.]

Fronde, frond, n. the name given to certain factions in France during the minority of Louis XIV., hostile to the court and the minister Mazarin.—n. Frond′eur, a member of the Fronde: an irreconcilable. [Fr., a sling—L. funda.]

Front, frunt, n. the forehead: the whole face: the forepart of anything: a kind of wig worn by ladies: the most conspicuous part: boldness: impudence.—adj. of, relating to, or in the front.—v.t. to stand in front of or opposite: to oppose face to face.—v.i. to stand in front or foremost: to turn the front or face in any direction.—n. Front′age, the front part of a building.—adj. Front′al, of or belonging to the front or forehead.—n. a front-piece: something worn on the forehead or face: (archit.) a pediment over a door or window: a hanging of silk, satin, &c., embroidered for an altar—now usually covering only the top, the superfrontal—formerly covering the whole of the front, corresponding to the antependium.—adjs. Front′ate, -d (bot.), growing broader and broader: (zool.) having a prominent frons or forehead; Front′ed, formed with a front; Front′less, void of shame or modesty.—adv. Front′lessly.—n. Front′let, a band worn on the forehead.—advs. Front′ward, -s, towards the front.—Come to the front, to become conspicuous: to attain an important position; In front of, before. [O. Fr.,—L. frons, frontis, the forehead.]

Frontier, front′ēr, n. the boundary of a territory: (Shak.) an outwork.—adj. lying on the frontier: bordering.—v.t. (Spens.) to place on the frontier.—n. Front′iersman, one settled on the borders of a country. [O. Fr. frontier—L. frons.]

Frontispiece, front′i-spēs, n. (archit.) the principal face of a building: a figure or engraving in front of a book.—v.t. to put as a frontispiece, to furnish with such. [Fr.,—Low L. frontispicium—frons, forehead, specĕre, to see; not conn. with piece.]

Fronton, fron′ton, n. (archit.) a pediment.—Also Fron′toon. [Fr.]

Frore, frōr, Froren, frō′ren, adj. frozen, frosty.—adj. Frō′ry (Spens.), frozen. [A.S. froren, pa.p. of frosan, to freeze.]

Frost, frost, n. the state of the atmosphere in which water freezes: state of being frozen: frozen dew, also called hoar-frost: (slang) a disappointment, a cheat.—v.t. to cover with hoar-frost or with anything resembling hoar-frost: to sharpen (the points of a horse's shoe) that it may not slip on ice.—n. Frost′-bite, the freezing or depression of vitality in a part of the body by exposure to cold.—v.t. to affect with frost.—adjs. Frost′-bit′ten, bitten or affected by frost; Frost′-bound, bound or confined by frost; Frost′ed, covered by frost or any fine powder: injured by frost.—adv. Frost′ily.—ns. Frost′iness; Frost′ing, the composition, resembling hoar-frost, used to cover cake, &c.—adj. Frost′less, free from frost.—n. Frost′-nail, a projecting nail in a horse-shoe serving as an ice-calk.—v.t. to put in such nails.—ns. Frost′-smoke, vapour frozen in the atmosphere, and having a smoke-like appearance; Frost′-work, work resembling hoar-frost on shrubs, &c.—adj. Frost′y, producing or containing frost: chill in affection: frost-like. [A.S. frost, forstfrosan; cf. Ger. frost.]

Froth, froth, n. the foam on liquids caused by boiling, or any agitation: (fig.) an empty show in speech: any light matter.—v.t. to cause froth on.—v.i. to throw up froth.—ns. Froth′ery, mere froth; Froth′-fly, also Froth′-hop′per, Frog′-hop′per, Frog′-spit, common names for numerous insects parasitic on plants, on which the larv and pup are found surrounded by a frothy spittle.—adv. Froth′ily.—n. Froth′iness.—adjs. Froth′less, free from froth; Froth′y, full of froth or foam: empty: unsubstantial. [Scand., as in Ice. froa, Dan. fraade.]

Frounce, frowns, v.t. to plait: to curl: to wrinkle up: to frown.—n. a plait or curl.—v.i. (obs.) to frown or wrinkle the brow. [O. Fr. froncier. See Flounce (2), of which it is an older form.]

Frow, frow, n. a Dutchwoman. [Dut. vrouw.]

Froward, frō′ward, adj. (Spens.) turned from: self-willed: perverse: unreasonable—opp. to Toward.—adv. Frō′wardly.—n. Frō′wardness. [A.S. fra, away, with affix -ward.]

Frown, frown, v.i. to wrinkle the brow as in anger: to look angry.—v.t. to repel by a frown.—n. a wrinkling or contraction of the brow in displeasure, &c.: a stern look.—adj. Frown′ing, gloomy.—adv. Frown′ingly. [From O. Fr. froignier (mod. refrogner), to knit the brow; origin unknown.]

Frowy, frow′i, adj. (Spens.) musty, rancid.

Frowzy, frow′zi, adj. rough and tangled.—Also Frow′sy. [Perh. conn. with frounce.]

Frozen, frōz′n, pa.p. of freeze.

Fructidor, fruk-ti-dōr′, n. the twelfth month in the French revolutionary calendar, Aug. 18-Sept. 16. [Fr.,—L. fructus, fruit; Gr. dōron, a gift.]

Fructify, fruk′ti-fī, v.t. to make fruitful: to fertilise.—v.i. to bear fruit.—adj. Fruct′ed (her.), bearing fruit.—n. Fructes′cence, the time for the ripening of fruit.—adj. Fructif′erous, bearing fruit.—ns. Fructificā′tion, act of fructifying, or producing fruit: (bot.) a term denoting sometimes the whole reproductive system, sometimes the 'fruit' itself; Fruc′tose, fruit sugar or levulose; Fruc′tuary, one enjoying the fruits of anything.—adj. Fruc′tuous, full of fruit. [Fr.,—L.,—fructus, fruit.]

Frugal, frōō′gal, adj. economical in the use of means: thrifty.—ns. Fru′galist, one who is frugal; Frugal′ity, economy: thrift.—adv. Fru′gally. [L. frugalisfrugi, fit for food—frux, frugis, fruit.]

Frugiferous, frōō-jif′ėr-us, adj. fruit-bearing.—adj. Frugiv′orous, feeding on fruits or seeds. [L. frux, frugisferre, to carry, vorāre, to eat.]

Fruit, frōōt, n. the produce of the earth, which supplies the wants of men and animals: the part of a plant which contains the seed: the offspring of animals: product, consequence, effect, advantage—(Spens.) Fruict.—v.i. to produce fruit.—ns. Fruit′age, fruit collectively: fruits; Fruit′-bud, a bud that produces fruit; Fruit′-cake, a cake containing raisins, &c.; Fruit′erer, one who deals in fruit:—fem. Fruit′eress; Fruit′ery, a place for storing fruit: fruitage.—adj. Fruit′ful, producing fruit abundantly: productive.—adv. Fruit′fully.—ns. Fruit′fulness; Fruit′ing, process of bearing fruit; Fruit′-knife, a knife with a blade of silver, &c., for cutting fruit.—adj. Fruit′less, barren: without profit: useless.—adv. Fruit′lessly.—ns. Fruit′lessness; Fruit′-tree, a tree yielding edible fruit.—adj. Fruit′y, like, or tasting like, fruit.—Small fruits, strawberries, currants, &c. [O. Fr. fruit, fruict—L. fructusfrui, fructus, to enjoy.]

Fruition, frōō-ish′un, n. enjoyment: use or possession of anything, esp. accompanied with pleasure.—adj. Fru′itive, of or pertaining to fruition. [O. Fr. fruition—L. frui, to enjoy.]

Frumentation, frōō-men-tā′shun, n. a largess of grain bestowed on the starving or turbulent people in ancient Rome.—adjs. Frumentā′ceous, made of or resembling wheat or other grain; Frumentā′rious, pertaining to corn. [L. frumentation-emfrumentāri, to provide with corn—frumentum, corn.]

Frumenty, frōō′men-ti, n. food made of hulled wheat boiled in milk.—Also Fur′mety. [O. Fr. frumentee, wheat boiled—frument—L. frumentum.]

Frump, frump, n. a dowdy and cross-grained woman: (obs.) a flout or snub.—v.t. (obs.) to snub.—adjs. Frump′ish, Frump′y, sour-tempered: ill-dressed.

Frumple, frum′pl, v.t. (prov.) to wrinkle.

Frush, frush, v.t. (Shak.) to break, bruise, or crush.—adj. broken or crushed: brittle.—n. an onset, attack. [O. Fr. froissier, to bruise—L. frustum, fragment.]

Frush, frush, n. (prov.) the frog of a horse's foot: a disease in that part of a horse's foot.

Frustrate, frus′trāt, v.t. to make vain or of no effect: to bring to nothing: to defeat.—p.adj. vain, ineffectual, defeated.—adj. Frus′trable, capable of being frustrated.—n. Frustrā′tion, disappointment: defeat.—adjs. Frus′trative, tending to frustrate; Frus′tratory, disappointing. [L. frustrāri, frustrātusfrustra, in vain.]

Frustule, frus′tūl, n. the siliceous two-valved shell of a diatom, with its contents.

Frustum, frus′tum, n. a slice of a solid body: the part of a cone which remains when the top is cut off by a plane parallel to the base. [L. frustum, a bit.]

Frutescent, frōō-tes′ent, adj. becoming shrubby; Fru′tex, a shrub.—adjs. Fru′ticose, Fru′ticous, shrub-like: shrubby; Frutic′ulose, like a small shrub. [L. frutescĕrefrutex, fruticis, a shrub.]

Frutify, frōō′ti-fī, v.t. and v.i. (Shak.)=Fructify.

Fry, frī, v.t. to dress food with oil or fat in a pan over the fire: to vex.—v.i. to undergo the action of heat in a frying-pan: to simmer: (Spens.) to boil:—pr.p. fry′ing; pa.p. fried.—n. a dish of anything fried.—n. Fry′ing-pan, a flat iron vessel or pan for frying with.—Out of the frying-pan into the fire, out of one evil or danger merely to fall into a greater. [Fr. frire—L. frigĕre; cf. Gr. phrygein.]

Fry, frī, n. a swarm of fishes just spawned: a number of small things.—Small fry, small things collectively, persons or things of little importance. [M. E. fri—Ice. fri; Dan. and Sw. fr.]

Fuar. Same as Feuar.

Fub, fub, v.t. (Shak.) to put off, to cheat: to steal.—n. Fub′bery (obs.), deception.—Fub off, to put off or evade by a trick or a lie. [See Fob.]

Fubby, fub′i, Fubsy, fub′zi, adj. chubby. [Ety. dub.]

Fuchsia, fū′shi-a, a plant with long pendulous flowers, native to South America. [Named after Leonard Fuchs, a German botanist, 1501-66.]

Fucus, fū′kus, n. a genus of seaweed containing the wrack and other species: a dye: a disguise.—adj. Fuciv′orous, eating seaweed.—n. Fū′coid, fossil seaweed.—adj. containing fucoids.—adj. Fū′cused, painted. [L. fucus, seaweed.]

Fud, fud, n. (Scot.) a hare's tail: the buttocks.

Fuddle, fud′l, v.t. to stupefy with drink.—v.i. to drink to excess or habitually:—pr.p. fudd′ling; pa.p. fudd′led.n. intoxicating drink.—ns. Fudd′le-cap, a hard drinker; Fudd′ler, a drunkard.—adj. Fudd′ling, tippling. [Cf. Dut. vod, soft, Ger. prov. fuddeln, to swindle.]

Fudge, fuj, n. stuff: nonsense: an exclamation of contempt.—v.i. and v.t. to botch or bungle anything.—adj. Fud′gy, irritable: awkward.

Fuel, fū′el, n. anything that feeds a fire, supplies energy, &c.—v.t. (arch.) to furnish with fuel.—adj. Fū′elled, furnished with fuel.—n. Fū′eller, one who, or that which, supplies fuel for fires. [O. Fr. fowaille—L. focale—L. focus, a fireplace.]

Fuero, fwā′rō, n. the constitution of certain practically autonomous states and communities in northern Spain and south-western France—the Basque provinces, Navarre, Bearn, &c.: modes and tenures of property, &c., nearly equivalent to the French customary law. [Sp.,—L. forum.]

Fuff, fuf, n. (Scot.) a puff: the spitting of a cat: a burst of anger.—v.t. and v.i. to puff.—adj. Fuff′y, light and soft.

Fugacious, fū-gā′shus, adj. apt to flee away: fleeting.—ns. Fugā′ciousness, Fugac′ity. [L. fugax, fugacis, from fugĕre, to flee.]

Fugitive, fūj′i-tiv, adj. apt to flee away: uncertain: volatile: perishable: temporary: occasional, written for some passing occasion.—n. one who flees or has fled from his station or country: one hard to be caught.—ns. Fū′gie (Scot.), a cock that will not fight, a runaway; Fū′gie-warr′ant, a warrant to apprehend a debtor about to abscond, prob. from the phrase in meditatione fug; Fugitā′tion (Scots law), absconding from justice: outlawry.—adv. Fug′itively.—n. Fug′itiveness. [Fr.,—L. fugitivus, fugĕre, to flee.]

Fugleman, fū′gl-man, n. a soldier who stands before a company at drill as an example: a ringleader, mouthpiece of others.—v.i. Fū′gle (Carlyle), to act like a fugleman. [Ger. flgelmann, the leader of a file—flgel, a wing, mann, man.]

Fugue, fūg, n. (mus.) a form of composition in which the subject is given out by one part and immediately taken up by a second, its answer, during which the first part supplies an accompaniment or counter-subject, and so on.—n. Fug′uist, one who writes or plays fugues. [Fr.,—It. fuga—L. fuga, flight.]

Fulcrum, ful′krum, n. (mech.) the prop or fixed point on which a lever moves: a prop:—pl. Ful′crums, Ful′cra.—adj. Ful′crate, supported with fulcrums. [L. fulcrum, a prop, fulcīre, to prop.]

Fulfil, fool-fil′, v.t. to complete: to accomplish: to carry into effect:—pr.p. fulfil′ling; pa.p. fulfilled′.ns. Fulfil′ler; Fulfil′ling, Fulfil′ment, full performance: completion: accomplishment. [A.S. fullfyllanfull, full, fyllan, to fill.]

Fulgent, ful′jent, adj. shining: bright.—n. Ful′gency.—adv. Ful′gently.—adj. Ful′gid, flashing.—ns. Ful′gor, Ful′gour, splendour.—adj. Ful′gorous, flashing. [L. fulgent, pr.p. of fulgēre, to shine.]

Fulgurate, ful′gū-rāt, v.i. to flash as lightning.—adjs. Ful′gural, pertaining to lightning; Ful′gurant, flashing like lightning.—ns. Fulgurā′tion, in assaying, the sudden and final brightening of the fused globule; Ful′gurīte, a tube of vitrified sand frequent in loose sandhills—prob. due to lightning—adj. Ful′gurous, resembling lightning.

Fulham, ful′am, n. a die loaded at the corner.—Also Full′am, Full′an. [Prob. the place-name Fulham.]

Fuliginous, fū-lij′i-nus, adj. sooty: smoky.—n. Fuliginos′ity.—adv. Fulig′inously. [L., fuligo, soot.]

Full, fool, adj. having all it can contain: having no empty space: abundantly supplied or furnished: abounding: containing the whole matter: complete: perfect: strong: clear: (coll.) drunk: at poker, consisting of three of a kind and a pair.—n. completest extent, as of the moon: highest degree: the whole: time of full-moon.—v.t. to draw up or pucker the cloth on one side more than on the other.—adv. quite: to the same degree: with the whole effect: completely.—adjs. Full′-ā′corned (Shak.), full-fed with acorns; Full′-aged, having reached one's majority.—n. Full′-blood, an individual of pure blood.—adjs. Full′-blood′ed; Full′-bloomed, in perfect bloom; Full′-blown, blown or fully expanded, as a flower; Full′-bott′omed, having a full or large bottom, as a wig.—n. Full′-dress, the dress worn on occasions of state or ceremony.—adjs. Full′-eyed, with large prominent eyes; Full′-faced, having a full or broad face; Full′-fed, fed to plumpness; Full′-fraught (Shak.), full-stored; Full′-grown, grown to maturity; Full′-hand′ed, bearing something valuable, as a gift; Full′-heart′ed, full of heart or courage: elated; Full′-hot (Shak.), heated to the utmost; Full′-length, extending the whole length (n. a portrait showing such); Full-manned (Shak.), having a full crew.—ns. Full′-moon, the moon with its whole disc illuminated, when opposite the sun; Full′ness, Ful′ness, the state of being filled so as to have no part vacant: the state of abounding in anything: completeness: satiety: largeness: force and volume, as of sound: (Shak.) plenty, wealth.—adjs. Full′-orbed, having the orb or disc fully illuminated, as the full-moon: round; Full′-sailed, unbounded, absolute: moving onwards under full sail; Full-split (slang), with all one's might or speed; Full′-summed, complete in all its parts.—n. Full′-swing, the full extent or utmost limit.—adj. Full′-winged (Shak.), having perfect or strong wings.—adv. Full′y, completely: entirely.—Full back (football), see Back.—At the full, at the height, as of one's good fortune, &c.; In full, without reduction; In the fullness of time, at the proper or destined time.—To the full, in full measure, completely. [A.S. full; Goth. fulls, Ice. fullr, Ger. voll.]

Full, fool, v.t. to press or pound cloth in a mill: to scour and thicken in a mill.—ns. Full′age, the charge for fulling cloth; Full′er, a bleacher or cleanser of cloth; Fuller's-earth, a soft earth or clay, capable of absorbing grease, used in fulling or bleaching cloth; Fuller's-thistle, -weed, the teasel; Full′ery, the place or works where fulling of cloth is carried on; Full′ing-mill, a mill in which woollen cloth is fulled. [O. Fr. fuler—Low L. fullāre—L. fullo, a cloth-fuller.]

Fuller, fool′er, n. a half-round set-hammer.

Fulmar, ful′mar, n. a species of petrel inhabiting the Shetland Isles, &c., valuable for its down, feathers, and oil. [Perh. Norse fll, foul.]

Fulminate, ful′min-āt, v.i. to thunder or make a loud noise: to issue decrees with violence, or with menaces of grave censure.—v.t. to cause to explode: to send forth, as a denunciation—(Milt.) Ful′mine.—n. a compound of fulminic acid with mercury, &c.—adj. Ful′minant, fulminating: (path.) developing suddenly.—n. a thunderbolt, explosive.—adj. Ful′minating, crackling, exploding, detonating.—n. Fulminā′tion, act of fulminating, thundering, or issuing forth: a chemical explosion: a denunciation.—adjs. Ful′minatory; Fulmin′eous, Ful′minous, pertaining to thunder and lightning; Fulmin′ic, pertaining to an acid used in preparing explosive compounds. [L. fulmināre, -ātumfulmen (for fulgimen), lightning—fulgēre, to shine.]

Fulsome, fool′sum, adj. cloying or causing surfeit: nauseous: offensive: gross: disgustingly fawning.—adj. Ful′somely.—n. Ful′someness. [A.S. full, full, and affix -some.]

Fulvous, ful′vus, adj. deep or dull yellow: tawny.—Also Ful′vid. [L. fulvus, tawny.]

Fum, fum, n. a fabulous Chinese bird, one of the symbols of imperial dignity.—Also Fung.

Fumacious, fū-mā′shi-us, adj. smoky: fond of smoking.

Fumado, fū-mā′do, n. a smoked fish, esp. a pilchard. [Sp.,—L. fumāre, to smoke.]

Fumage, fūm′āj, n. hearth-money.

Fumarole, fūm′a-rōl, n. a smoke-hole in a volcano or sulphur-mine. [Fr. fumerole—L. fumus, smoke.]

Fumble, fum′bl, v.i. to grope about awkwardly: to handle awkwardly: to stammer in speech: to find by groping.—v.t. to manage awkwardly.—n. Fum′bler.—adv. Fum′blingly. [Dut. fommelen, to fumble; cf. Dan. famle, Ice. flma, to grope about.]

Fume, fūm, n. smoke or vapour: any volatile matter: heat of mind, rage, a passionate person: anything unsubstantial, vain conceit.—v.i. to smoke: to throw off vapour: to be in a rage: to offer incense to.—n. Fum′atory, a place for smoking or fumigation.—adjs. Fū′mid, smoky; Fumif′erous, producing fumes.—n. Fumos′ity, quality of being fumous: (pl.) the fumes arising from over eating or drinking.—adjs. Fum′ous, Fumose′, Fum′y, producing fumes. [O. Fr. fum—L. fumus, smoke.]

Fumet, fū′met, n. the dung of deer, hares, &c. [O. Fr. fumets, fumer—L. fimāre, to dung.]

Fumette, fū-met′, n. the scent of game when high.—Also Fumet′. [Fr.]

Fumigate, fūm′i-gāt, v.t. to expose to smoke or gas, to expose to fumes, as of sulphur, for purposes of disinfecting: to perfume.—ns. Fumigā′tion, act of fumigating or of applying purifying smoke, &c., to; Fum′igator, a brazier for burning disinfectants, &c.—adj. Fum′igatory. [L. fumigāre, -ātum.]

Fumitory, fūm′i-to-ri, n. a plant of a disagreeable smell.—n. Fum′iter (Shak.). [O. Fr. fume-terre, earth-smoke—L. fumus, smoke, terra, earth.]

Fummel. Same as Funnel.

Fun, fun, n. merriment: sport.—Be great fun, to be very amusing; In fun, in joke, not seriously; Like fun (coll.), in a rapid manner; Not to see the fun of, not to take as a joke. [Prob. a form of obs. fon, to befool. Skeat refers to Ir. fonn, delight.]

Funambulate, fū-nam′bū-lāt, v.i. to walk on a rope.—ns. Funambulā′tion; Funam′bulator, Funam′bulus, Funam′bulist, a rope-walker.—adj. Funam′bulatory. [L. funis, a rope, ambulāre, to walk.]

Function, fungk′shun, n. the doing of a thing: duty peculiar to any office: faculty, exercise of faculty: the peculiar office of any part of the body or mind: power: a solemn service: (math.) a quantity so connected with another that any change in the one produces a corresponding change in the other: the technical term in physiology for the vital activity of organ, tissue, or cell.—adj. Func′tional, pertaining to or performed by functions—opp. to Organic or Structural.—vs.t. Func′tionalise, Func′tionate.—adv. Func′tionally.—n. Func′tionary, one who discharges any duty: one who holds an office.—adj. Func′tionless, having no function. [O. Fr.,—L. function-emfungi, functus, to perform.]

Fund, fund, n. a sum of money on which some enterprise is founded or expense supported: a supply or source of money: a store laid up: supply: (pl.) permanent debts due by a government and paying interest.—v.t. to form a debt into a stock charged with interest: to place money in a fund.—adj. Fund′able, capable of being converted into a fund or into bonds.—p.adj. Fund′ed, invested in public funds: existing in the form of bonds.—n. Fund′hold′er, one who has money in the public funds.—adj. Fund′less, destitute of supplies or money. [Fr. fond—L. fundus, the bottom.]

Fundamental, fun-da-ment′al, adj. essential, basal, primary: important.—n. that which serves as a groundwork: an essential.—ns. Fund′ament, the lower part or seat of the body; Fundamental′ity.—adv. Fundament′ally. [Fr.,—L. fundamentum, fundāre, to found.]

Fundus, fun′dus, n. the bottom of anything: (anat.) the rounded base of a hollow organ. [L.]

Funeral, fū′nėr-al, n. burial: the ceremony, &c., connected with burial.—adj. pertaining to or used at a burial.—adjs. Funēb′rial, Funēb′ral, Funēb′rious; Fū′nerary, Funēr′eal, pertaining to or suiting a funeral: dismal: mournful. [O. Fr.,—Low L. funeralis—L. funus, funĕris, a funeral procession.]

Funest, fū-nest′, adj. causing or portending death, lamentable. [Fr.,—L. funestus, destructive.]

Fungibles, fun′ji-blz, (law) movable effects which perish by being used, and which are estimated by weight, number, and measure. [Low L. fungibilis—L. fungi, to perform. See Function.]

Fungus, fung′gus, n. one of the lowest of the great groups of cellular cryptogams, including mushrooms, toadstools, mould, &c.: proud-flesh formed on wounds:—pl. Fungi (fun′jī), or Funguses (fung′gus-ez).adjs. Fung′al, Fungā′ceous, like a fungus; Fun′gic (′jik), Fun′giform, having the form of a fungus; Fungiv′orous, feeding on mushrooms; Fung′oid, resembling a mushroom.—ns. Fungol′ogist, a student of fungi; Fungol′ogy, the science of fungi; Fungos′ity, quality of being fungous.—adj. Fung′ous, of or like fungus: soft: spongy: growing suddenly: ephemeral. [L. fungus, a mushroom—Gr. sphonggos, sponggos, a sponge.]

Funicle, fū′ni-kl, n. a small cord or ligature: a fibre.—adj. Fūnic′ūlar.—n. Fūnic′ūlus, the umbilical cord.—Funicular railway, a cable-railway, esp. one ascending a hill. [L. funiculus, dim. of funis, a cord.]

Funk, fungk, n. (coll.) abject terror or fright.—v.i. and v.t. to shrink through fear: to shirk.—adj. Funk′y.

Funk, fungk, n. touchwood: a spark. [Cf. Dut. vonk.]

Funk, fungk, v.t. to stifle with smoke. [Ety. dub.]

Funkia, funk′i-a, n. a genus of Liliace allied to the day lilies, native to China. [From the German botanist, H. C. Funck, 1771-1839.]

Funnel, fun′el, n. a tube or passage for the escape of smoke, &c.: an instrument (smaller at one end than the other) for pouring fluids into bottles, &c.—adj. Funn′elled, provided with a funnel.—n. Funn′el-net, a net shaped like a funnel. [Prob. through Fr. from L. infundibulumfundĕre, to pour.]

Funnel, fun′el, n. (prov.) the offspring of a stallion and a she-ass.—Also Fumm′el.

Funny, fun′i, adj. full of fun: droll: perplexing, odd.—adv. Funn′ily.—ns. Funn′iness, Funn′iment.—Funny bone, a popular name given to what is really the comparatively unprotected ulnar nerve, which, when struck by a blow, shoots a singular tingling sensation down the forearm to the fingers; Funny man, the clown in a circus.

Funny, fun′i, n. a light clinker-built pleasure-boat, with a pair of sculls.

Fur, fur, n. the short, fine hair of certain animals: their skins with the fur prepared for garments: rabbits, hares, as opposed to partridges, pheasants (feathers): (Milt.) kind or class, from the idea of particular furs being worn by way of distinction: a fur-like coating on the tongue, the interior of boilers, &c.—v.t. to line with fur: to cover with morbid fur-like matter:—pr.p. fur′ring; pa.p. furred.—adj. Furred, made of fur, provided with fur.—ns. Fur′rier, a dealer in furs and fur goods; Fur′riery, furs in general: trade in furs; Fur′ring, fur trimmings: a coating on the tongue: strips of wood fastened on joists, &c., to make a level surface or provide an air-space: strips of wood nailed on a wall to carry lath.—adj. Fur′ry, consisting of, covered with, or dressed in fur. [O. Fr. forre, fuerre, sheath.]

Furacious, fū-rā′shus, adj. thievish.—ns. Furā′ciousness, Furac′ity.

Furbelow, fur′be-lō, n. the plaited border of a gown or petticoat, a flounce. [Fr., It., and Sp. falbala; of unknown origin. The word simulates an English form—fur-below.]

Furbish, fur′bish, v.t. to purify or polish: to rub up until bright: to renovate. [O. Fr. fourbiss-, fourbir, from Old High Ger. furban, to purify.]

Furcate, fur′kāt, adj. forked: branching like the prongs of a fork—also Fur′cated.—ns. Furcā′tion, a forking or branching out; Fur′cifer, a genus of South American deer with furcate antlers.—adjs. Furcif′erous, of insects bearing a forked appendage; Fur′ciform, fork-shaped.—n. Fur′cūla, the united pair of clavicles of a bird, forming a single forked bone—the merry-thought.—adj. Fur′cular, furcate: shaped like a fork. [L., from furca, a fork.]

Furfur, fur′fur, n. dandruff, scurf—also Fur′fair.—adj. Furfūrā′ceous, branny: scaly—also Fur′fūrous.—n. Furfūrā′tion, the falling of scurf. [L.]

Furfurol, fur′fur-ol, n. a volatile oil obtained when wheat-bran, sugar, or starch is acted on by dilute sulphuric acid. [L. furfur, bran.]

Furious, fū′ri-us, adj. full of fury: violent.—adj. Fū′ribund, raging.—ns. Furios′ity, madness; Furiō′so, a furious person.—adv. Fū′riously.—n. Fū′riousness. [O. Fr. furieus—L. furiōsusfuria, rage.]

Furl, furl, v.t. to draw or roll up, as a sail. [Contr. of obs. furdle, from fardel.]

Furlong, fur′long, n. 40 poles: one-eighth of a mile. [A.S. furlangfurh, furrow, lang, long.]

Furlough, fur′lō, n. leave of absence.—v.t. to grant leave of absence. [Dut. verlof; cf. Ger. verlaub.]

Furmenty. See Frumenty.

Furnace, fur′nās, n. an oven or enclosed fireplace for melting ores and other purposes: a time or place of grievous affliction or torment.—v.t. to exhale like a furnace: to subject to the heat of a furnace. [O. Fr. fornais—L. fornaxfornus, an oven.]

Furniment, fur′ni-ment, n. (Spens.). Same as Furniture.

Furnish, fur′nish, v.t. to fit up or supply completely, or with what is necessary: to equip (with).—adj. Fur′nished, stocked with furniture.—n. Fur′nisher.— Fur′nishings, fittings of any kind, esp. articles of furniture, &c., within a house: (Shak.) any incidental part.—n. Fur′nishment. [O. Fr. furniss-, furnir—Old High Ger. frummjan, to do.]

Furniture, fur′ni-tūr, n. movables, either for use or ornament, with which a house is equipped: equipage, the trappings of a horse, &c.: decorations: the necessary appendages in some arts, &c.: (print.) the pieces of wood or metal put round pages of type to make proper margins and fill the spaces between the pages and the chase. [Fr. fourniture.]

Furor, fū′ror, n. fury: excitement, enthusiasm.—Also Furō′re. [L.]

Furrow, fur′ō, n. the trench made by a plough: any groove: a wrinkle on the face.—v.t. to form furrows in: to groove: to wrinkle.—n. Furr′ow-weed (Shak.), a weed on ploughed land.—-adj. Furr′owy. [A.S. furh; cf. Ger. furche, L. porca.]

Further, fur′thėr, adv. to a greater distance or degree: in addition.—adj. more distant: additional.—adv. Fur′thermore, in addition to what has been said, moreover, besides.—adjs. Fur′thermost, most remote; Fur′thersome, tending to further or promote.—adv. Fur′thest, at the greatest distance.—adj. most distant.—Wish one further, to wish one somewhere else than here and now. [A.S. furor, a comp. of fore, with comp. suff.]

Further, fur′thėr, v.t. to help forward, promote.—ns. Fur′therance, a helping forward; Fur′therer, a promoter, advancer.—adj. Fur′thersome, helpful. [A.S. fyrran.]

Furtive, fur′tiv, adj. stealthy: secret.—adv. Fur′tively. [Fr.,—L. furtivusfur, a thief.]

Furuncle, fū′rung-kl, n. an inflammatory tumour.—adjs. Furun′cular, Furun′culous. [L. furunculus.]

Fury, fū′ri, n. rage: violent passion: madness: (myth.) one of the three goddesses of fate and vengeance, the Erinyes, or euphemistically Eumenides—Tisiphone, Alecto, and Megra—hence a passionate, violent woman. [Fr. furie—L. furiafurĕre, to be angry.]

Furze, furz, n. the whin or gorse, a prickly evergreen bush with beautiful yellow flowers.—adjs. Furz′y, Furz′en, overgrown with furze. [A.S. fyrs.]

Fusarole, fū′sa-rōl, n. (archit.) an astragal.—Also Fū′sarol. [Fr.,—L. fusus, spindle.]

Fuscous, fus′kus, adj. brown: dingy—(Charles Lamb) Fusc. [L. fuscus, akin to furvus.]

Fuse, fūz, v.t. to melt: to liquefy by heat.—v.i. to be melted: to be reduced to a liquid.—n. Fusibil′ity.—adjs. Fū′sible, that may be fused or melted—(Milt.) Fū′sile, Fū′sil.—ns. Fū′sing-point, the temperature at which any solid substance becomes liquid; Fū′sion, act of melting: the state of fluidity from heat: a close union of things, as if melted together.—Aqueous fusion, the melting of certain crystals by heat in their own water of crystallisation; Dry fusion, the liquefaction produced in salts by heat after the water of crystallisation has been expelled; Igneous fusion, the melting of anhydrous salts by heat without decomposition. [L. fundĕre, fusum, to melt.]

Fuse, fūz, n. a tube filled with combustible matter for firing mines, discharging shells, &c. [It. fuso—L. fusus, a spindle.]

Fusee, Fuzee, fū-zē′, n. the spindle in a watch or clock on which the chain is wound: a match used for lighting a pipe or cigar in the open air: a fuse: a fusil.—adj. Fū′siform, spindle-shaped: tapering at each end. [O. Fr. fuse, a spindleful—Low L. fusata—L. fusus, a spindle.]

Fusel-oil, fū′zel-oil, n. a nauseous oil in spirit