Project Gutenberg's The Homilies of the Anglo-Saxon Church, by lfric

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Title: The Homilies of the Anglo-Saxon Church
       Containing the Sermones Catholici, or Homilies of lfric,
              in the Original Anglo-Saxon, with an English Version.
              Volume I.

Author: lfric

Translator: Benjamin Thorpe

Release Date: December 18, 2011 [EBook #38334]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected. They appear in the text like this, and the explanation will appear when the mouse pointer is moved over the marked passage.











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The work now presented to the Members of the lfric Society, the first fruit of its praiseworthy attempt to rescue from oblivion the literary remains of our forefathers, was selected for the earliest publication of the Society, on account both of its valuable matter and the beautiful medium by which it is conveyed.

Of the author of the Sermones Catholici we know nothing with certainty beyond his name, though from the words of his own preface, where he speaks of king thelred's days as past, and informs us that in those days he was only a monk and mass-priest, it follows that he was not lfric archbishop of Canterbury, who died in the year 1006, or ten years before the death of king thelred.

With better foundation we may assume him to have been lfric archbishop of York, who presided over that see from the year 1023 to 1051[1]. Against this supposition there seems no objection on the score of dates, and that the composer of the 'Sermones' was a person of eminence during the life of archbishop {vi}Wulfstan, of whom, according to our hypothesis, he was the immediate successor, is evident from the language of his Canons, and of his Pastoral Epistle to Wulfstan, in which he speaks as one having authority; though in the first-mentioned of these productions he styles himself simply "humilis frater," and in the other "lfricus abbas[2]," and afterwards "biscop."

Of lfric's part in these Homilies, whether, as it would seem from his preface, it was that of a mere translator from the several works he therein names[3], or whether he drew aught from his own stores, my pursuits do not enable me to speak, though it seems that no one of his homilies is, generally speaking, a mere translation from any one given Latin original, but rather a compilation from several. Be this, however, as it may, his sermons in either case equally exhibit what were the doctrines of the Anglo-Saxon church at the period in which they were compiled or translated, and are for the most part valuable in matter, and expressed in language which may be pronounced a pure specimen of our noble, old, Germanic mother-tongue. Of those doctrines it would not be consistent with the object of the Society, nor am I qualified to hazard an opinion: my labour has, {vii}consequently, been limited to that of a faithful transcription of what I believe to be the most complete manuscript, and to a conscientiously correct translation of that transcript, as literal as my acquaintance with the language and my notions of good taste permitted[4]; and I venture to hope that such a translation, though unattended by a commentary, will be regarded with interest by the members of each of the great communities into which the Christian world is divided.

Besides the Homilies, the chief works attributed to our lfric are,—

I. A Grammar of the Latin tongue, printed at the end of Somner's Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, with a Glossary of Anglo-Saxon words[5].

II. A short astronomical treatise, entitled De Temporibus Anni[6].

III. An abridgment in Anglo-Saxon of the {viii}Pentateuch, the book of Joshua, and the book of Judges, printed by Thwaites[7].

IV. A Treatise on the Old and New Testaments[8].

V. Excerpta ex Libro thelwoldi de Consuetudine Monachorum[9].

VI. A Latin Dialogue, with an interlinear Anglo-Saxon gloss[10].

VII. Ecclesiastical Canons, addressed to Wulsine, bishop of Sherborne.

VIII. A Pastoral Epistle, written by command of archbishop Wulfstan.

IX. An Epistle entitled "Quando dividis Chrisma[11]."


X. A Collection of Homilies on the Saints' days observed by the Anglo-Saxon Church.

Though the present is the first edition of these most ancient sermons in any of the Germanic tongues, it may be interesting to some readers to be informed that two attempts at publishing them were made in the early part of the last century by Mrs. Elizabeth Elstob, which failed through want of encouragement, a few leaves only having been printed[12].

In assigning to lfric, archbishop of York, the honour of being the author of the Homilies and other works enumerated above, it would have been gratifying to add, that the character of that prelate given by the chroniclers was beyond a doubt all that could be desired, and such as to render it highly probable that to him we are indebted for those noble and holy labours. Unfortunately the case is otherwise, the few facts recorded of lfric of York being for the most part quite irreconcileable with the portrait of the pious student which our imagination spontaneously draws, on calling to mind the exertions in the cause of religion and learning attributed to our lfric. Of the archbishop, Malmesbury speaks in terms of {x}no ordinary severity, asserting, that at his instigation Hardacnut caused the corpse of his brother Harald Harefoot to be taken from the grave and decapitated, and afterwards thrown into the Thames; also, that being exasperated against the people of Worcester, who had rejected him for their bishop, he again instigated the same king to burn their city and confiscate their property, under the pretext of their having resisted the royal tax-gatherers[13]. The better testimony of Florence of Worcester, with regard to the first of these transactions, is, however, less prejudicial to the character of lfric: he says merely, that lfric, archbishop of York, with others was sent to London by the king for the purpose of digging up the body of Harald and casting it into a fen[14]. Of the second transaction Florence makes no mention. But the earliest account is that in the Saxon Chronicle[15], and in this it is simply said, that "he (Harthacnut) caused the dead body of Harald to be taken up, and had it cast into a fen:" to lfric and the others there is no allusion whatever. In the same record his death is mentioned in the following terms of respect: "This year (1052) died lfric, archbishop of York, a very venerable and wise man." It is also stated that he was the accuser of earl Godwine, of the earl of Kent, and of Living, bishop of Worcester, as the murderers of the young lfred, the son of thelred[16].

The manuscript from which the text of the present volume is taken belongs to the Public Library at {xi}Cambridge. It is a small folio and probably coeval with its author, though hardly, as it has been supposed, his own autograph copy[17]. It is not perfect, having suffered mutilation in several places, but its defects are all supplied in the present work from another MS. in the British Museum[18]. For the most liberal use of the Cambridge manuscript, I beg leave, on the part of the lfric Society, to express the sincerest thanks to the Syndics of that University.

To W. E. Buckley, Esq., Fellow of Brasenose College, and Professor of Anglo-Saxon in the University of Oxford, I return my sincere thanks for his kindness in removing my doubts of the integrity of the text by collation with the Bodleian manuscript; also to my greatly respected friend, the Reverend Daniel Rock, D.D., I acknowledge myself much indebted for the kind promptness with which he at all times satisfied my inquiries respecting the ancient observances of the Church, as well as other points of doubt, which his deep knowledge of ecclesiastical antiquities so well qualifies him to solve.

The second volume, containing Homilies for another year, is in preparation, and will, it is hoped, be laid before the Members of the Society in the course of the year 1845.

B. T.

Notes to Introduction

[1] See also H. Whartoni Anglia Sacra, t. i. p. 125.

[2] He was abbot of Eynsham. See Biogr. Brit. Lit. p. 482, n.

[3] Among his sources he mentions Smaragdus and Haymo: of these the former was abbot of St. Mihiel, a monastery in the diocese of Verdun, in the eighth century. He wrote commentaries on the Scriptures, Sermons, etc. Haymo was bishop of Halberstadt, about the middle of the ninth century: he compiled, from the works of the fathers, commentaries on almost every part of the Scriptures. There was also a Haymo of Canterbury, who wrote commentaries on the Pentateuch, Isaiah, etc., of whom see Biogr. Britan. Lit. vol. i. p. 510. The other sources mentioned by lfric are too well known to need further notice.

[4] It is right to observe, that in the MS. the texts taken from the Gospels are frequently of very great length; these I have ventured to abridge, presuming that all readers of the Homilies have a copy of the N. T. either in Anglo-Saxon or English.

[5] lfrici Abbatis Grammatica Latino-Saxonica, cum Glossario suo ejusdem generis. Folio. Oxon. 1659. That the author of the Grammar, the compiler of the Homilies and the translator of the Heptateuch was the same individual, is evident from the prefaces to those works.

[6] Published at the expense of the Historical Society of Science, in a volume entitled 'Popular Treatises on Science written during the Middle Ages,' edited by Thomas Wright, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., etc. etc. 8vo. 1841. That this work is by our lfric is evident from his own words immediately following his last homily: Her fter fylig n lytel cwyde be gearlicum tidum, t nis to spelle geteald, ac elles to rdenne am e hit lica.—Hereafter follows a little discourse concerning yearly tides, which is not reckoned as a sermon, but is else to be read by those whom it pleases. MS. Cantab. p. 492.

[7] Heptateuchus, Liber Job, et Evangelium Nicodemi; Anglo-Saxonice. Histori Judith Fragmentum; Dano-Saxonice. Edidit, etc. Edwardus Thwaites. Oxon. 8vo. 1699.

[8] A Saxon Treatise concerning the Old and New Testament, written about the time of king Edgar by lfricus Abbas, etc., by William L'Isle of Wilburgham, Esquier for the King's bodie, etc. 4to. Lond. 1623.

[9] An edition of the Anglo-Saxon text of this work, with a translation by W. E. Buckley, Esq., Fellow of Brasenose Coll. and Prof. of A.-S. in the Univ. of Oxf., is announced for early publication by the lfric Society. The ealdorman thelweard, son of thelmr, mentioned in the preface to the Homilies and other works of lfric, is without doubt the chronicler of that name, concerning whom see Literary Introd. to Lappenberg's 'History of England under the Anglo-Saxon Kings,' p. xlv.

[10] According to the Oxford MS. of this Colloquium, it was originally composed by lfric (of Canterbury or York?) and enlarged by his pupil lfric Bata. It is printed in the 'Analecta Anglo-Saxonica.' For more ample information concerning the lfrics the reader is referred to Mr. Wright's interesting and useful publication, 'Biographia Britannica Literaria; Anglo-Saxon Period,' edited for the Royal Society of Literature.

[11] The three last-mentioned works are printed, with a translation, in the 'Ancient Laws and Institutes of England.' It appears from a note at the end of Matthew in the C.C.C.C. MS. of the Saxon Gospels, that an lfric was either the translator or copier of the Gospel of St. Matthew, if not of the four Gospels. See Notes to my edition of the Anglo-Saxon Gospels.

[12] Elfrici Homili, edit. El. Elstob. (fol. Oxon. 1715.) Of this first attempt only thirty-six pages were printed. Her second attempt was under the title, "The English-Saxon Homilies of lfric, Archb. of Cant., who flourished in the latter end of the tenth century and the beginning of the eleventh. Being a course of Sermons collected out of the writings of the ancient Latin Fathers, containing the Doctrines, etc. of the Church of England before the Norman Conquest, etc. etc. Now first printed, and translated into the language of the present times by Eliz. Elstob. fol. Oxon. 1715." Of this only two leaves were printed. A copy of both is in the Brit. Mus. See Biogr. Brit. Lit. p. 493. Mrs. Elstob also published lfric's Homily on the birth-day of St. Gregory, with a translation. 8vo. 1709. Reprinted with some account of Mrs. Elstob in 1839.

[13] De Gestis Pontificum Anglorum, lib. iii.

[14] Fl. Wigorn. Chron. ad a. 1040.

[15] Ad ann. 1046.

[16] R. Wendover, t. i. p. 478.

[17] The handwriting, though very nearly alike, is not the same in the two parts of the MS.; they also occasionally differ in orthography, 'middangeard,' for instance, in the first part being in the second constantly written 'middaneard.'

[18] MS. Reg. 7. c. xii.





Prfatio 1
Prfatio, Saxonice 2
I. De Initio Creatur 8
II. De Natale Domini 28
III. Passio Beati Stephani Protomartyris 44
IV. Assumptio S. Johannis Apostoli 58
V. Natale Innocentium Infantum 76
VI. Octabas et Circumcisio Domini 90
VII. Epiphania Domini 104
VIII. Dom. III. post Epiphania Domini 120
IX. In Purificatione S. Mari 134
X. Dominica in Quinquagesima 152
XI. Dominica Prima in Quadragesima 166
XII. Dominica in Media Quadragesima 180
XIII. Annunciatio S. Mari 192
XIV. In Dominica Palmarum 206
XV. Dominica S. Pasc 220
XVI. Dominica Prima post Pasca 230
XVII. Dominica Secunda post Pasca 238
XVIII. In Litania Majore 244
XIX. De Dominica Oratione 258
XX. De Fide Catholica 274
XXI. In Ascensione Domini 294
XXII. In Die Sancto Pentecostes 310
XXIII. Dominica Secunda post Pentecosten 328
XXIV. Dominica Quarta post Pentecosten 338
XXV. Nativitas S. Johannis Baptist 350
{xiv} XXVI. Passio Apostolorum Petri et Pauli 364
XXVII. Natale S. Pauli Apostoli 384
XXVIII. Dominica XI. post Pentecosten 402
XXIX. Passio Beati Laurentii Martyris 416
XXX. De Assumptione Beat Mari 436
XXXI. Passio S. Bartholomi Apostoli 454
XXXII. Decollatio S. Johannis Baptist 476
XXXIII. Dominica XVII. post Pentecosten 490
XXXIV. Dedicatio Ecclesi S. Michaelis 502
XXXV. Dominica XXI. post Pentecosten 520
XXXVI. Natale Omnium Sanctorum 538
XXXVII. Natale S. Clementis Martyris 556
XXXVIII. Natale S. Andre Apostoli 576
XXXIX. Dominica Prima in Adventum Domini 600
XL. Dominica II. in Adventum Domini 608
Notes 621
Prfatio 1
Preface 3
I. On the Beginning of Creation 9
II. On the Nativity of our Lord 29
III. The Passion of the Blessed Stephen Protomartyr 45
IV. The Assumption of St. John the Apostle 59
V. The Nativity of the Innocents 77
VI. The Octaves and Circumcision of our Lord 91
VII. The Epiphany of the Lord 105
VIII. The Third Sunday after the Lord's Epiphany 121
IX. On the Purification of St. Mary 135
X. Shrove Sunday 153
XI. The First Sunday in Lent 167
XII. Midlent Sunday 181
XIII. The Annunciation of St. Mary 193
XIV. For Palm Sunday 207
XV. Easter Sunday 221
XVI. The First Sunday after Easter 231
XVII. The Second Sunday after Easter 239
XVIII. On the Greater Litany 245
XIX. On the Lord's Prayer 259
XX. Of the Catholic Faith 275
XXI. On the Lord's Ascension 295
XXII. On the Holy Day of Pentecost 311
XXIII. The Second Sunday after Pentecost 329
XXIV. The Fourth Sunday after Pentecost 339
{xv} XXV. The Nativity of St. John the Baptist 351
XXVI. The Passion of the Apostles Peter and Paul 365
XXVII. The Nativity of St. Paul the Apostle 385
XXVIII. The Eleventh Sunday after Pentecost 403
XXIX. The Passion of the Blessed Martyr Lawrence 417
XXX. On the Assumption of the Blessed Mary 437
XXXI. The Passion of St. Bartholomew the Apostle 455
XXXII. The Decollation of St. John the Baptist 477
XXXIII. The Seventeenth Sunday after Pentecost 491
XXXIV. Dedication of the Church of St. Michael the Archangel 503
XXXV. The Twenty-first Sunday after Pentecost 521
XXXVI. The Nativity of All Saints 539
XXXVII. The Nativity of St. Clement the Martyr 557
XXXVIII. The Nativity of St. Andrew the Apostle 577
XXXIX. The First Sunday in the Lord's Advent 601
XL. The Second Sunday in the Lord's Advent 609
Notes 621


p. 3. l. 15. For thelmre read thelmr.

p. 6. l. 2. For ormatan read ormtan.




Ego lfricus, alumnus Adelwoldi, benevoli et venerabilis Presulis, salutem exopto Domno Archiepiscopo Sigerico in Domino. Licet temere vel presumptuose, tamen transtulimus hunc codicem ex libris Latinorum, scilicet Sancte Scripture in nostram consuetam sermocinationem, ob dificationem simplicium, qui hanc norunt tantummodo locutionem, sive legendo sive audiendo; ideoque nec obscura posuimus verba, sed simplicem Anglicam, quo facilius possit ad cor pervenire legentium vel audientium, ad utilitatem animarum suarum, quia alia lingua nesciunt erudiri, quam in qua nati sunt. Nec ubique transtulimus verbum ex verbo, sed sensum ex sensu, cavendo tamen diligentissime deceptivos errores, ne inveniremur aliqua hresi seducti seu fallacia fuscati. Hos namque auctores in hac explanatione sumus sequuti, videlicet Augustinum Hipponensem, Hieronimum, Bedam, Gregorium, Smaragdum, et aliquando Haymonem; horum denique auctoritas ab omnibus catholicis libentissime suscipitur. Nec solum Evangeliorum tractatus in isto libello exposuimus, verum etiam Sanctorum passiones vel vitas, ad utilitatem idiotarum istius gentis. Quadraginta sententias in isto libro posuimus, credentes hoc sufficere posse per annum fidelibus, si integre eis a ministris Dei recitentur in ecclesia. Alterum vero librum modo dictando habemus in manibus, qui illos tractatus vel passiones continet quos iste omisit; nec tamen omnia Evangelia tangimus per circulum anni, sed illa tantummodo quibus speramus sufficere posse simplicibus ad {2}animarum emendationem, quia seculares omnia nequeunt capere, quamvis ex ore doctorum audiant. Duos libros in ista translatione facimus, persuadentes ut legatur unus per annum in ecclesia Dei, et alter anno sequenti, ut non fiat tedium auscultantibus; tamen damus licentiam, si alicui melius placet, ad unum librum ambos ordinare. Ergo si alicui displicit, primum in interpretatione, quod non semper verbum ex verbo, aut quod breviorem explicationem quam tractatus auctorum habent, sive quod non per ordinem ecclesiastici ritus omnia Evangelia tractando percurrimus; {3}condat sibi altiore interpretatione librum, quomodo intellectui ejus placet: tantum obsecro, ne pervertat nostram interpretationem, quam speramus ex Dei gratia, non causa jactanti, nos studiose secuti valuimus interpretari. Precor modo obnixe almitatem tuam, mitissime Pater Sigerice, ut digneris corrigere per tuam industriam, si aliquos nevos malign hresis, aut nebulos fallaci in nostra interpretatione repperies: et adscribatur dehinc hic codicillus tu auctoritati, non utilitati nostr despicabilis person. Vale in Deo Omnipotenti jugiter. Amen.



Ic lfric munuc and mssepreost, swa eah waccre onne swilcum hadum gebyrige, wear asend on elredes dge cyninges fram lfeage biscope, Aelwoldes ftergengan, to sumum mynstre e is Cernel gehaten, urh elmres bene s egenes, his gebyrd and goodnys sind gehwr cue. a bearn me on mode, ic truwige urh Godes gife, t ic as boc of Ledenum gereorde to Engliscre sprce awende; na urh gebylde mycelre lare, ac foran e ic geseah and gehyrde mycel gedwyld on manegum Engliscum bocum, e ungelrede menn urh heora bilewitnysse to micclum wisdome tealdon; and me ofhreow t h ne cuon ne nfdon a godspellican lare on heora gewritum, buton am mannum anum e t Leden cuon, and buton am bocum e lfred cyning snoterlice awende of Ledene on Englisc, a synd to hbbene. For isum antimbre ic gedyrstlhte, on Gode truwiende, t ic as gesetnysse undergann, and eac foram e menn behofia godre lare swiost on isum timan e is geendung yssere worulde, and beo fela frecednyssa on mancynne ran e se ende becume, swa swa ure Drihten on his godspelle cw to his leorning-cnihtum, "onne beo swilce {4}gedreccednyssa swilce nron nfre r fram fryme middangeardes. Manega lease Cristas cuma on minum naman, cweende, 'Ic eom Crist,' and wyrca fela tacna and wundra, to bepcenne mancynn, and eac swylce a gecorenan men, gif hit gewuran mg: and butan se lmihtiga God a dagas gescyrte, eall mennisc forwurde; ac for his gecorenum he gescyrte a dagas." Gehw mg e eaelicor a toweardan costnunge acuman, urh Godes fultum, gif h bi urh boclice lare getrymmed; foran e a beo gehealdene e o ende on geleafan urhwunia. Fela gedreccednyssa and earfonysse becuma on issere worulde ǽr hire geendunge, and a synd a bydelas s ecan forwyrdes on yfelum mannum, e for heora mnddum sian ecelice rowia on re sweartan helle. onne cym se Antecrist, se bi mennisc mann and so deofol, swa swa ure Hlend is solice mann and God on anum hade. And se gesewenlica deofol onne wyrc ungerima wundra, and cwy t he sylf God beo, and wile neadian mancynn to his gedwylde; ac his tima ne bi na langsum; foran e Godes grama hine forde, and eos weoruld bi sian geendod. Crist ure Drihten gehlde untrume and adlige, and es deofol e is gehaten Antecrist, t is gereht, wyrlic Crist, aleua and geuntruma a halan, and nnne ne gehl fram untrumnyssum, buton am anum e he sylf r awyrde. He and his gingran awyrda manna lichaman digellice urh deofles crft, and gehla h openlice on manna gesihe; ac h ne mg nnne gehlan e God sylf r geuntrumode. He neada urh yfelnysse t men sceolon bugan fram heora Scyppendes geleafan to his leasungum, see is ord lcere leasunge and yfelnysse. Se lmihtiga God geafa am arleasan Antecriste to wyrcenne tcna, and wundra, and ehtnysse, to feoran healfan geare; foran e on am timan bi swa micel yfelnyss and wyrnys betwux mancynne t h wel wyre beo re deoflican ehtnysse, to ecum forwyrde am e him onbuga, and to ecere myrhe am e him urh geleafan wicwea. God {6}geafa eac t his gecorenan egenas beon aclnsade fram eallum synnum urh a ormtan ehtnyssa, swa swa gold bi on fyre afandod. a ofslih se deofol e him wistanda, and h onne fara mid halgum martyrdome to heofenan rice. a e his leasungum gelyfa, am h ara, and h habba syan a ecan susle to edleane heora gedwyldes. Se arleasa de t fyr cym ufan swilce of heofonum on manna gesihe, swilce h God lmihtig sy, e ah geweald heofenas and eoran. Ac a cristenan sceolon beon onne gemyndige hu se deofol dyde a a he bd t Gode t he moste fandian Iobes. He gemacode a t fyr come ufan swilce of heofenum, and forbrnde ealle his scep t on felda, and a hyrdas samod, buton anum e hit him cyan sceolde. Ne sende se deofol a fyr of heofenum, eah e hit ufan come; foran e he sylf ns on heofonum, syan he for his modignysse of-aworpen ws. Ne eac se wlhreowa Antecrist nf a mihte t he heofenlic fyr asendan mge, eah e h urh deofles crft hit swa gehiwige. Bi nu wslicor t gehwa is wite and cunne his geleafan, weald hwa a micclan yrme gebidan sceole. Ure Drihten bebead his discipulum t h sceoldon lran and tcan eallum eodum a ing e he sylf him thte; ac ra is nu to lyt e wile wel tcan and wel bysnian. Se ylca Drihten clypode urh his witegan Ezechiel, "Gif u ne gestentst one unrihtwisan, and hine ne manast, t h fram his arleasnysse gecyrre and lybbe, onne swelt se arleasa on his unrihtwisnysse, and ic wille ofgan t e his blod," t is his lyre. "Gif u onne one arleasan gewarnast, and he nele fram his arleasnysse gecyrran, u alysdest ine sawle mid re mynegunge, and se arleasa swylt on his unrihtwisnysse." Eft cw se lmihtiga to am witegan Isaiam, "Clypa and ne geswic u, ahefe ine stemne swa swa byme, and cy minum folce heora leahtras, and Iacobes hirede heora synna." For swylcum bebodum wear me geuht t ic nre unscyldig wi God, gif ic nolde orum mannum cyan, oe urh {8}tungan oe urh gewritu, a godspellican sofstnysse e he sylf gecw, and eft halgum lareowum onwreah. For wel fela ic wat on isum earde gelredran onne ic sy, ac God geswutela his wundra urh one e he wile. Swa swa lmihtig wyrhta, he wyrc his weorc urh his gecorenan, na swylce he behofige ures fultumes, ac t we geearnion t ece lif urh his weorces fremminge. Paulus se apostol cw, "We sind Godes gefylstan," and swa eah ne do we nan ing to Gode, buton Godes fultume. Nu bidde ic and halsige on Godes naman, gif hwa as boc awritan wylle, t he h geornlice gerihte be re bysene, yls e we urh gymelease writeras geleahtrode beon. Mycel yfel de see leas writ, buton he hit gerihte, swylce he gebringe a soan lare to leasum gedwylde: fori sceal gehwa gerihtlcan t t he r to woge gebigde, gif h on Godes dome unscyldig beon wile. Quid necesse est in hoc codice capitula ordinare, cum prediximus quod xl. sententias in se contineat? excepto quod elwerdus dux vellet habere xl. quattuor in suo libro.

I lfric, monk and mass-priest, although more weakly than for such orders is fitting, was sent, in king thelred's day, from bishop lfeah, thelwold's successor, to a minster which is called Cernel, at the prayer of thelmr the thane, whose birth and goodness are known everywhere. Then it occurred to my mind, I trust through God's grace, that I would turn this book from the Latin language into the English tongue; not from confidence of great learning, but because I have seen and heard of much error in many English books, which unlearned men, through their simplicity, have esteemed as great wisdom: and I regretted that they knew not nor had not the evangelical doctrines among their writings, those men only excepted who knew Latin, and those books excepted which king lfred wisely turned from Latin into English, which are to be had. For this cause I presumed, trusting in God, to undertake this task, and also because men have need of good instruction, especially at this time, which is the ending of this world, and there will be many calamities among mankind before the end cometh, according to what our Lord in his gospel said to his disciples, "Then shall {5}be such tribulations as have never been from the beginning of the world. Many false Christs shall come in my name, saying, 'I am Christ,' and shall work many signs and wonders, to deceive mankind; and also the elect, if it may be. And unless Almighty God shorten those days, all mankind will perish; but for his elect he will shorten those days." Everyone may the more easily withstand the future temptation, through God's support, if he is strengthened by book learning, for they shall be preserved who continue in faith to the end. Many tribulations and hardships shall come on this world before its end, and those are the proclaimers of everlasting perdition to evil men, who afterwards for their crimes suffer eternally in the swart hell. Then Antichrist shall come, who is human man and true devil, as our Saviour is truly man and God in one person. And the visible devil shall then work innumerable miracles, and say that he himself is God, and will compel mankind to his heresy: but his time will not be long, for God's anger will destroy him, and this world will afterwards be ended. Christ our Lord healed the weak and diseased, and the devil, who is called Antichrist, which is interpreted, Opposition-Christ, weakens and enfeebles the hale, and heals no one from diseases, save those alone whom he himself had previously injured. He and his disciples injure men's bodies secretly through the devil's power, and heal them openly in the sight of men: but he may not heal those whom God himself had before afflicted. He compels, through wickedness, men to swerve from the faith of their Creator to his leasings, who is the author of all leasing and wickedness. Almighty God permits the impious Antichrist to work signs, and miracles, and persecution, for three years and a half; for in that time there will be so much wickedness and perversity among mankind, that they will be well worthy of devilish persecution, to the eternal perdition of those who incline unto him, and to the eternal joy of those who by faith resist him. God also permits that {7}his chosen servants be cleansed from all sins through great persecutions, as gold is tried in fire. The devil slays those who withstand him, and then, with holy martyrdom, they go to the kingdom of heaven. Those who believe in his leasings, those he honours, and they shall have afterwards eternal torment for reward of their sin. The impious one will cause fire to come from above, as it were from heaven, in sight of men, as if he were God Almighty, who rules over heaven and earth; but Christians must then be mindful how the devil did, when he prayed to God that he might tempt Job; he made fire to come from above, as if from heaven, and burned all his sheep out in the field, and the shepherds also, save one who should announce it to him. The devil sent not fire from heaven, though it came from above; for he himself was not in heaven, after that he, for his pride, had been cast out. Nor also hath the cruel Antichrist the power to send down heavenly fire, though he, through the devil's craft, may so pretend. It will now be wiser that everyone know this, and know his belief, lest anyone have to await great misery. Our Lord commanded his disciples that they should instruct and teach all people the things which he had himself taught to them; but of those there are too few who will well teach and well exemplify. The Lord also cried, through his prophet Ezechiel, "If thou warnest not the unrighteous, and exhortest him not, so that he turn from his wickedness and live, then shall the wicked die in his iniquity, and I will require from thee his blood," that is, his perdition. "But if thou warnest the wicked, and he will not turn from his wickedness, thou shalt release thy soul with that admonition, and the wicked shall die in his unrighteousness." Again the Almighty spake to the prophet Isaiah, "Cry and cease thou not, raise thy voice as a trumpet, and declare to my people their crimes, and to the family of Jacob their sins." From such commands it appeared to me that I should not be guiltless before God, if I would not declare to {9}other men, by tongue or by writings, the evangelical truth, which he himself spake, and afterwards to holy teachers revealed. Very many I know in this country more learned than I am, but God manifests his wonders through whom he will. As an almighty worker he works his work through his chosen, not because he has need of our aid, but that we may earn eternal life by the performance of his work. Paul the apostle said, "We are God's assistants," and yet we do nothing for God without the assistance of God. Now I desire and beseech, in God's name, if anyone will transcribe this book, that he carefully correct it by the copy, lest we be blamed through careless writers. He does great evil who writes false, unless he correct it; it is as though he turn true doctrine to false error; therefore should everyone make that straight which he before bent crooked, if he will be guiltless at God's doom. Quid necesse est in hoc codice capitula ordinare, cum prdiximus quod xl. sententias in se contineat? excepto quod thelwerdus dux vellet habere xl. quattuor in suo libro.





An angin is ealra inga, t is God lmihtig. He is ordfruma and ende: he is ordfruma, fori e he ws fre; he is ende butan lcere geendunge, foran e he bi fre ungeendod. He is ealra cyninga Cyning, and ealra hlaforda Hlaford. He hylt mid his mihte heofonas and eoran, and ealle gesceafta butan geswince, and he besceawa a niwelnyssa e under yssere eoran sind. He awec ealle duna {10}mid anre handa, and ne mg nan ing his willan wistandan. Ne mg nan gesceaft fulfremedlice smeagan ne understandan ymbe god. Maran cye habba englas to Gode onne men, and eah-hweere h ne magon fulfremedlice understandan ymbe God. H gesceop gesceafta aa he wolde; urh his wisdom he geworhte ealle ing, and urh his willan h h ealle geliffste. eos rynnys is n God; t is se Fder and his wisdom of him sylfum fre acenned; and heora begra willa, t is se Halga Gast: he nis na acenned, ac he g of am Fder and of am Suna gelice. as ry hadas sindon n lmihtig God, se geworhte heofenas, and eoran, and ealle gesceafta. He gesceop tyn engla werod, t sind englas and heah-englas, throni, dominationes, principatus, potestates, uirtutes, cherubim, seraphim. Her sindon nigon engla werod: h nabba nnne lichaman, ac h sindon ealle gastas swie strange and mihtige and wlitige, on micelre fgernysse gesceapene, to lofe and to wurmynte heora Scyppende. t teoe werod abrea and awende on yfel. God h gesceop ealle gde, and let h habban agenne cyre, swa h heora Scyppend lufedon and filigdon, swa h hine forleton. a ws s teoan werodes ealdor swie fger and wlitig gesceapen, swa t h ws gehten Leohtberend. a began he to modigenne for re fgernysse e he hfde, and cw on his heortan t h wolde and eae mihte beon his Scyppende gelic, and sittan on am nor-dle heofenan rices, and habban andweald and rice ongean God lmihtigne. a gefstnode he isne rd wi t werod e h bewiste, and h ealle to am rde gebugon. aa h ealle hfdon ysne rd betwux him gefstnod, a becom Godes grama ofer h ealle, and h ealle wurdon awende of am fgeran hwe, e h on gesceapene wron, to lalicum deoflum. And swie rihtlice him swa getimode, aa he wolde mid modignysse beon betera onne he gesceapen ws, and cw, t he mihte beon am lmihtigum Gode gelc. a wear he and ealle his geferan forcuran and wyrsan onne nig oer gesceaft; and a {12}hwile e he smeade hu he mihte dlan rice wi God, a hwile gearcode se lmihtiga Scyppend him and his geferum helle wte, and h ealle adrfde of heofenan rices myrhe, and let befeallan on t ece fyr, e him gegearcod ws for heora ofermettum. a sona a nigon werod, e r to lafe wron, bugon to heora Scyppende mid ealre eamodnesse, and bethton heora rǽd to his willan. a getrymde se lmihtiga God a nigon engla werod, and gestaelfste swa t h nfre ne mihton ne noldon syan fram his willan gebugan; ne h ne magon nu, ne h nella nane synne gewyrcan, ac hi fre beo ymbe t n, hu hi magon Gode gehyrsumian, and him gecweman. Swa mihton eac a ore e r feollon dn, gif hi woldon; fori e God h geworhte to wlitegum engla gecynde, and let h habban agenne cyre, and h nfre ne gebigde ne ne nydde mid nanum ingum to am yfelan rde; ne nfre se yfela rǽd ne com of Godes geance, ac com of s deofles, swa swa we ǽr cwdon.

There is one origin of all things, that is God Almighty. He is beginning and end: he is beginning, because he was ever; he is end without any ending, because he is ever unended. He is King of all kings, and Lord of all lords. He holdeth with his might heavens, and earth, and all creatures, without toil, and he beholdeth the depths which are under this earth. He weigheth all hills with one hand, and no thing {11}may withstand his will. No creature may perfectly search out nor understand concerning God: greater affinity have angels to God than men, and yet they may not perfectly understand concerning God. He created those creatures that he would; through his wisdom he wrought all things, and through his will he endued them all with life. This Trinity is one God, that is, the Father, and his Wisdom, of himself ever produced; and the Will of them both, that is, the Holy Ghost: he is not born, but he goeth alike from the Father and from the Son. These three persons are one Almighty God, who wrought the heavens, and the earth, and all creatures. He created ten hosts of angels, that is angels and archangels, throni, dominationes, principatus, potestates, virtutes, cherubim, seraphim. Here are nine hosts of angels: they have no body, but they are all spirits, very strong, and mighty, and beautiful, formed with great fairness, to the praise and glory of their Creator. The tenth host rebelled and turned to evil. God created them all good, and let them have their own discretion, whether they would love and follow their Creator, or would forsake him. Now the prince of the tenth host was formed very fair and beauteous, so that he was called 'Light-bearing' (Lucifer). Then he began to wax proud by reason of the comeliness that he had, and said in his heart that he would and easily might be equal to his Creator, and sit in the north part of heaven's kingdom, and have power and sway against God Almighty. Then he confirmed this resolve with the host over which he ruled, and they all bowed to that resolve. When they all had confirmed this resolve among themselves, God's anger came over them all, and they were all changed from the fair form in which they were created to loathly devils. And very rightly it so befell him, when he would in pride be better than he was created, and said that he might be equal to Almighty God. Then became he and all his associates more wicked and worse than any other creatures; and while he meditated how he might share power {13}with God, the Almighty Creator prepared hell-torment for him and his associates, and drove them all from the joy of heaven's kingdom, and caused them to fall into the eternal fire that was prepared for them for their pride. Then forthwith the nine hosts that were left bowed to their Creator with all humbleness, and resigned their purpose to his will. Then the Almighty God confirmed and established the nine hosts of angels, so that they never might or would afterwards swerve from his will; nor can they now perpetrate any sin, but they are ever meditating only how they may obey God and be acceptable to him. So might also the others who fell have done if they had been willing; seeing that God had made them of the beauteous nature of angels, and let them have their own will, and would never have inclined nor forced them in any way to that evil counsel; for the evil counsel never came from God's conception, but came from the devil's, as we before said.

Nu enc menig man and smea hwanon deofol come; onne wite he t God gesceop to mran engle one e nu is deofol: ac God ne gesceop hine na to deofle; ac aa he ws mid ealle fordn and forscyldgod urh a miclan up-ahefednysse and wierweardnysse, a wear he to deofle awend, see ǽr ws mre engel geworht. a wolde God gefyllan and geinnian one lyre e forloren ws of am heofenlicum werode, and cw t h wolde wyrcan mannan of eoran, t se eorlica man sceolde geeon and geearnian mid eadmodnysse a wununga on heofenan rice, e se deofol forwyrhte mid modignysse. And God a geworhte nne mannan of lme, and him on ableow gast, and hine gelffste, and he wear a mann gesceapen on sawle and on lichaman; and God him sette naman Adm, and he ws a sume hwile nstandende. God a hine gebrohte on neorxna-wange, and hine r gelogode, and him to cw, "Ealra ra inga e on neorxna-wange sindon u most brucan, and h ealle beo e bethte, buton anum treowe e stent on middan {14}neorxna-wange: ne hrepa u s treowes wstm, foran e u bist deadlic, gif u s treowes wstm geetst." Hw wolde God swa lytles inges him forwyrnan, e him swa miccle ore ing bethte? Gyse hu mihte Adm tocnawan hwt h wre, buton h wre gehyrsum on sumum ince his Hlaforde. Swylce God ewǽde to him, "Nast u na t ic eom in Hlaford and t u eart min eowa, buton u do t ic e hte, and forgng t ic e forbeode. Hwt mg hit onne beon t u forgn sceole: ic e secge, forgang u anes treowes wstm, and mid re eaelican gehyrsumnysse u geearnast heofenan rices myrhu and one stede e se deofol of-afeoll urh ungehyrsumnesse. Gif u onne is lytle bebd tobrecst, u scealt deae sweltan." And a ws Adam swa ws t God geldde to him nytenu, and deorcynn, and fugelcynn, aa he h gesceapene hfde; and Adam him eallum naman gesceop; and swa swa h h a genamode swa h sindon gyt gehatene. a cw God, "Nis na gedafenlic t es man ana beo, and nbbe nnne fultum; ac uton gewyrcan him gemacan, him to fultume and to frofre." And God a geswefode one Adam, and aa he slep a genam he an rib of his sidan, and geworhte of am ribbe nne wifman, and axode Adam hu heo hatan sceolde. a cw Adam, "Heo is ban of minum banum, and flsc of minum flsce; beo hire nama Uirago, t is fmne; foran e heo is of hire were genumen." a sette Adam eft hire oerne naman, Aeua, t is lif; foran e heo is ealra lybbendra modor.

Now many a man will think and inquire, whence the devil came? be it, therefore, known to him that God created as a great angel him who is now the devil: but God did not create him as the devil: but when he was wholly fordone and guilty towards God, through his great haughtiness and enmity, then became he changed to the devil, who before was created a great angel. Then would God supply and make good the loss that had been suffered in the heavenly host, and said that he would make man of earth, so that the earthly man should prosper, and merit with meekness those dwellings in the kingdom of heaven which the devil through his pride had forfeited. And God then wrought a man of clay, and blew spirit into him, and animated him, and he became a man formed with soul and body; and God bestowed on him the name of Adam, and he was for some time standing alone. God then brought him into Paradise, and established him there, and said unto him, "Of all the things which are in Paradise thou mayest eat, and they shall all be committed to {15}thee, save one tree which stands in the middle of Paradise: touch thou not the fruit of this tree; for thou shalt be mortal if thou eatest the fruit of this tree." Why would God forbid him so little a thing, when he had committed to him other things so great? But how could Adam know what he was, unless he were obedient in some thing to his Lord? as if God had said to him, "Thou knowest not that I am thy Lord, and that thou art my servant, unless thou dost that which I command, and forgoest that which I forbid thee. But what may it be that thou shalt forgo? I say unto thee, forgo thou the fruit of one tree, and with that easy obedience thou shalt merit the joys of heaven, and the place from which the devil fell through disobedience. But if thou breakest this little commandment, thou shalt perish by death." And then was Adam so wise that God led to him the cattle, and brute race, and bird race, when he had created them; and Adam made names for them all; and so as he named them are they yet called. Then said God, "It is not fitting that this man be alone, and have no help; now let us make him a mate for help and comfort." And God then caused Adam to sleep, and as he slept, he took a rib from his side, and of that rib wrought a woman, and asked Adam how she should be called. Then said Adam, "She is bone of my bone, and flesh of my flesh; be her name Virago, that is female; because she is taken from her husband." Then Adam afterwards bestowed on her another name, Eva, that is life; because she is the mother of all living.

Ealle gesceafta, heofonas and englas, sunnan and monan, steorran and eoran, ealle nytenu and fugelas, sǽ and ealle fixas, and ealle gesceafta God gesceop and geworhte on six dagum; and on am seofoan dge h geendode his weorc, and geswac a and gehalgode one seofoan dg, foran e h on am dge his weorc geendode. And he beheold a ealle his weorc e he geworhte, and h wron ealle swie gode. Ealle ing he geworhte buton lcum antimbre. He cw, "Geweore leoht," and rrihte ws leoht {16}geworden. He cw eft, "Geweore heofen," and rrihte ws heofen geworht, swa swa he mid his wisdome and mid his willan hit gedihte. He cw eft, and het a eoran t heo sceolde forldan cuce nytenu; and h a gesceop of re eoran eall nytencynn, and deorcynn, ealle a e on feower fotum ga; ealswa eft of wtere he gesceop fixas and fugelas, and sealde am fixum sund, and am fugelum fliht; ac he ne sealde nanum nytene ne nanum fisce nane sawle; ac heora blod is heora lif, and swa hrae swa hi beo deade, swa beo h mid ealle geendode. aa he worhte one mann Adm, he ne cw n, "Geweore man geworht," ac he cw, "Uton gewyrcan mannan to ure anlicnysse," and h worhte a one man mid his handum, and him on ableow sawle; fori is se man betera, gif h gde geih, onne ealle a nytenu sindon; foran e h ealle gewura to nahte, and se man is ece on anum dle, t is on re sawle; heo ne geenda nfre. Se lichama is deadlic urh Adames gylt, ac eah-hwere God arr eft one lichaman to ecum ingum on domes dg. Nu cwdon gedwolmen t deofol gesceope sume gesceafta, ac h leoga; ne mg h nane gesceafta gescyppan, foran e he nis na Scyppend, ac is atelic sceocca, and mid leasunge he wile beswican and fordn one unwaran; ac he ne mg nnne man to nanum leahtre geneadian, buton se mon his agenes willes to his lare gebuge. Swa hwt swa is on gesceaftum wierweardlic geuht and mannum derige, t is eall for urum synnum and yfelum geearnungum.

All creatures, heavens and angels, sun and moon, stars and earth, all beasts and birds, the sea and all fishes, and all creatures, God created and wrought in six days; and on the seventh day he ended his work, and ceased, and hallowed the seventh day, because on that day he ended his work. And he beheld then all his works that he had wrought, and they were all exceedingly good. All things he wrought without any matter. He said, "Let there be light," and instantly {17}there was light. He said again, "Let there be heaven," and instantly heaven was made, as he with his wisdom and his will had appointed it. He said again, and bade the earth bring forth all living cattle, and he then created of earth all the race of cattle, and the brute race, all those which go on four feet; in like manner of water he created fishes and birds, and gave the power of swimming to the fishes, and flight to the birds; but he gave no soul to any beast, nor to any fish; but their blood is their life, and as soon as they are dead they are totally ended. When he had made the man Adam, he did not say, "Let man be made," but he said, "Let us make man in our likeness," and he then made man with his hands, and blew into him a soul; therefore is man better, if he grow up in good, than all the beasts are; because they will all come to naught, and man is in one part eternal, that is in the soul; that will never end. The body is mortal through Adam's sin, but, nevertheless, God will raise again the body to eternity on doomsday. Now the heretics say that the devil created some creatures, but they lie; he can create no creatures, for he is not a creator, but is a loathsome fiend, and with leasing he will deceive and fordo the unwary; but he may not compel any man to any crime, unless the man voluntarily incline to his teaching. Whatsoever among things created seems pernicious and is injurious to men, is all for our sins and evil deserts.

a ongeat se deofol t Adam and Eua wron to y gesceapene t hi sceolon mid eadmodnysse and mid gehyrsumnysse geearnian a wununge on heofenan rice e h of-afeoll for his up-ahefednysse, a nam h micelne graman and ndan to am mannum, and smeade h h h fordn mihte. He com a on nddran hiwe to am twam mannum, rest to am wife, and hire to cw, "Hw forbead God eow s treowes wstm, e stent on middan neorxna-wange?" a cw t wf, "God us forbead s treowes wstm, and cw t we {18}sceoldon deae sweltan, gif we his on byrigdon." a cw se deofol, "Nis hit na swa u segst, ac God wt genoh geare, gif ge of am treowe geeta, onne beo eowere eagan geopenode, and ge magon geseon and tocnwan ger ge gd ge yfel, and ge beo englum gelice." Nron h blinde gesceapene, ac God h gesceop swa bilewite t h ne cuon nan ing yfeles, naor ne on gesihe, ne on sprce, ne on weorce. Wear eah t wf a forspanen urh s deofles lre, and genam of s treowes wstme, and get, and sealde hire were, and h get. a wron h butu deadlice, and cuon ger ge gd ge yfel; and h wron a nacode, and him s sceamode. a com God and axode hwi he his bebod tobrce? and adrfde h butu of neorxna-wange, and cw, "Foran e u wre gehyrsum ines wifes wordum, and min bebod forsawe, u scealt mid earfonyssum e metes tilian, and seo eore e is awyriged on inum weorce, syl e ornas and bremblas. u eart of eoran genumen, and u awenst to eoran. u eart dust, and u awentst to duste." God him worhte a reaf of fellum, and h wron mid am fellum gescrydde.

When the devil understood that Adam and Eve were created, that they might with meekness and obedience merit the dwelling in the kingdom of heaven from which he had fallen for his haughtiness, then he felt great anger and envy towards those persons, and meditated how he might fordo them. He came then in a serpent's form to the two persons, first to the woman, and said to her, "Why has God forbidden you the fruit of this tree, which stands in the middle of Paradise?" Then said the woman, "God forbade us the fruit of the tree {19}and said, that we should perish by death, if we tasted its fruit." Then said the devil, "It is not as thou sayest, but God knows full well, if ye eat of that tree that your eyes will then be opened, and ye can see and know both good and evil, and ye will be like to angels." They were not created blind, but God created them so simple-minded that they knew nothing evil, neither by sight, nor by speech, nor by deed. But the woman was seduced by the devil's counsel, and took of the fruit of the tree, and ate, and gave to her consort, and he ate. Then they both became mortal, and knew both good and evil; and they were naked, and thereat they were ashamed. Then came God and asked why he had broken his commandment? and drove them both from Paradise, and said, "Because thou wast obedient to the words of thy wife, and despisedst my commandment, thou shalt get thee food with hardships, and the earth, which is accursed through thy deed, shall give thee thorns and brambles. Thou art taken from earth, and thou shalt to earth return. Thou art dust, and thou shalt turn to dust." God then wrought for them garments of skins, and they were clothed with the skins.

a deadan fell getacnodon t h wron a deadlice e mihton beon undeadlice, gif hi heoldon t eaelice Godes bebod. Ne orfte Adam ne eal mancynn e him sian ofacom nfre deaes onbyrian, gif t treow moste standan ungehrepod, and his nan man ne onbyrigde; ac sceolde Adam and his ofspring tyman on asettum tyman, swa swa nu do clne nytenu, and sian ealle buton deae faran to an ecan life. Ns him gesceapen fram Gode, ne h ns genedd t h sceolde Godes bebod tobrecan; ac God hine lt frigne, and sealde him agenne cyre, swa h wre gehyrsum, swa h wre ungehyrsum. H wear a deofle gehyrsum, and Gode ungehyrsum, and wear betht, h and eal mancynn, fter isum lfe, into helle-wte, mid am deofle e hine forlrde. a wiste God hwere t h ws forlred, and smeade hu he mihte his and ealles mancynnes eft gemiltsian.

The dead skins betokened that they were then mortal who might have been immortal, if they had held that easy command of God. Neither Adam nor all mankind that have since come from him needed ever to have tasted of death, if that tree could have stood untouched, and no one had tasted of it; but Adam and his offspring would have propagated at set times, as the clean beasts now do, and afterwards, without death, have gone to eternal life. It was not ordained him from God, nor was he compelled to break God's commandment; for God left him free, and gave him his own choice, whether he would be obedient, or whether he would be disobedient. Then was he to the devil obedient, and to God disobedient, and was delivered, he and all mankind, after this life, to hell-torment, with the devil who seduced him. But God knew, however, that he had been seduced, and meditated how he might again be merciful to him and all mankind.


On twam ingum hfde God s mannes sawle gegodod; t is mid undeadlicnysse, and mid gesle. a urh deofles swicdom and Adames gylt we forluron a gesle ure sawle, ac we ne forluron n a undeadlicnysse; heo is ce, and nfre ne geenda, eah se lichama geendige, e sceal eft urh Godes mihte arisan to ecere wununge. Adam a ws wunigende on isum life mid geswince, and h and his wf a bearn gestryndon, ger ge suna ge dohtra; and he leofode nigon hund geara and rittig geara, and sian swealt, swa swa him r behaten ws, for an gylte; and his sawul gewende to helle.


With two things had God endowed this man's soul; that is immortality and with happiness. Then through the devil's treachery and Adam's guilt we lost the happiness of our soul, but we lost not the immortality: that is eternal and never ends, though the body ends, which shall again, through God's might, arise to everlasting duration. Adam then was continuing in this life with toil, and he and his wife begat children, both sons and daughters; and he lived nine hundred and thirty years, and then died, as had been promised him for that sin; and his soul went to hell.

Nu smeagia sume men hwanon him come sawul? hwer e of am fder, e of re meder? We cwea of heora narum; ac se ylca God e gesceop Adam mid his handum, he gescyp lces mannes lichaman on his modor innoe; and se ylca see ablew on Admes lichaman, and him forgeaf sawle, se ylca forgyf cildum sawle and lf on heora modor innoe, onne h gesceapene beo; and he ltt h habban agenne cyre, onne h geweaxene beo, swa swa Adm hfde.

Now some men will inquire, whence came his soul? whether from the father or from the mother? We say, from neither of them; but the same God who created Adam with his hands, createth every man's body in his mother's womb: and the same who blew into Adam's body, and gave him a soul, that same giveth a soul and life to children in their mother's womb, when they are created; and he letteth them have their own will, when they are grown up, as Adam had.

a wear a hrdlice micel mennisc geweaxen, and wron swie manega on yfel awende, and gegremodon God mid mislicum leahtrum, and swiost mid forligere. a wear God to an swie gegremod urh manna mndda t he cw t him ofuhte t h fre mancynn gesceop. a ws hwere n man rihtwis tforan Gode, se ws Ne gehten. a cw God to him, "Ic wylle fordn eal mancynn mid wtere, for heora synnum, ac ic wylle gehealdan e nne, and in wf, and ine ry suna, Sem, and Cham, and Iafeth, and heora reo wf; foran e u eart rihtwis, and me gecweme. Wyrc e n nne arc, reo hund fma lang, and fiftig fma wd, and ritig fma heah: gehref hit eall, and geclǽm ealle a seamas mid tyrwan, and g inn syan mid inum hwum. Ic gegaderige in to e of deorcynne, and of fugelcynne symble gemacan, t h eft to fostre beon. Ic wille sendan flod ofer ealne middangeard." {22}He dyde a swa him God bebead, and God beleac h bynnan am arce, and asende rn of heofonum feowertig daga togdere, and geopenode r togeanes ealle wyll-springas and wter-eotan of re micclan niwelnysse. t flod weox a and abǽr up one arc, and hit oferstah ealle dna. Wear a lc ing cuces adrenct, buton am e binnon am arce wron; of am wear eft ge-edstaelod eall middangeard. a beht God t h nolde nfre eft eal mancynn mid wtere acwellan, and cw to Noe and to his sunum, "Ic wylle settan mn wedd betwux me and eow to isum behte; t is, onne ic oferteo heofenas mid wlcnum, onne bi teowod min rnboga betwux am wolcnum, onne beo ic gemyndig mines weddes, t ic nelle heonon-for mancynn mid wtere adrencan." Noe leofode on eallum his life, r am flode and fter am flode, nigon hund geara and fiftig geara, and he a forferde.

Then there was rapidly a great increase of people, and very many were turned to evil, and exasperated God with various crimes, and above all with fornication. Then was God so exasperated through the wicked deeds of men that he said, that he repented that he had ever created mankind. Nevertheless, there was one man righteous before God, who was called Noah. Then said God to him, "I will destroy all mankind with water, for their sins, but I will preserve thee alone, and thy wife, and thy three sons, Shem, and Ham, and Japhet, and their three wives; because thou art righteous and acceptable unto me. Make thee now an ark, three hundred fathoms long, and fifty fathoms wide, and thirty fathoms high: roof it all, and smear all the seams with tar, and then go in with thy family. I will gather in to thee of beast-kind and of bird-kind mates of each, that they may hereafter be for foster. I will send a flood over all the earth." {23}He did as God bade him, and God shut them within the ark, and sent rain from heaven forty days together, and opened, to meet it, all the well-springs and water-torrents of the great deep. The flood then waxed and bare up the ark, and it rose above all the hills. Then was everything living drowned, save those who were within the ark, by whom was again established all the earth. Then God promised that he would never again destroy all mankind with water, and said to Noah and to his sons: "I will set my covenant betwixt me and you for this promise: that is, when I overspread the heavens with clouds, then shall be shown my rainbow betwixt the clouds, then will I be mindful of my covenant, that I will not henceforth drown mankind with water." Noah lived in all his life, before the flood and after the flood, nine hundred and fifty years, and then he departed.

a ws a sume hwle Godes ege on mancynne fter am flode, and ws n gereord on him eallum. a cwdon hi betwux him t hi woldon wyrcan ane burh, and nne stypel binnon re byrig, swa heahne t his hrof astige up to heofenum: and begunnon a to wyrcenne. a com God rto, aa h swiost worhton, and sealde lcum men e r ws synderlice sprce. a wron r swa fela gereord swa r manna wron; and heora nn nyste hwt oer cw. And h a geswicon re getimbrunge, and toferdon geond ealne middangeard.

Then for some time after the flood there was fear of God among mankind, and there was one language among them all. Then said they among themselves that they would make a city, and a tower within that city, so high that its roof should mount up to heaven: and they begun to work. Then came God thereto, when they were most busily working, and gave to every man who was there a separate speech. Then were there as many languages as there were men, and none of them knew what other said. And they then ceased from the building, and went divers ways over all the earth.

a sian wear mancynn urh deofol beswicen, and gebiged fram Godes geleafan, swa t h worhton him anlicnyssa, sume of golde, sume of seolfre, sume eac of stanum, sume of treowe, and sceopon him naman; ra manna naman e wron entas and yfel-dde. Eft onne h deade wron, onne cwdon a cucan t h wron godas, and wurodon h, and him lc offrodon; and comon a deoflu to heora anlicnyssum, and ron wunodon, and to mannum sprcon swilce h godas wron; and t beswicene mennisc feoll on {24}cneowum to am anlicnyssum, and cwdon, "Ge sind ure godas and we besetta urne geleafan and urne hiht on eow." a asprang is gedwyld geond ealne middangeard, and ws se soa Scyppend, see na is God, forsewen, and geunwurod. a ws hwere an mg e nfre ne abeah to nanum deofolgylde, ac fre wurode one soan God. Seo mg asprng of Nes eltstan suna, se ws gehaten Sem: he leofode six hund geara, and his sunu hatte Arfaxa, se leofode reo hund geara and reo and rittig, and his sunu hatte Sal, se leofode feower hund geara and XXXIII.; a gestrynde he sunu se ws gehten Ebr, of am asprng t Ebreisce folc, e God lufode: and of am cynne comon ealle heahfderas and witegan, a e cydon Cristes to-cyme to isum life; t h wolde man beon, fornean on ende yssere worulde, for ure alysednesse, see fre ws God mid am healican Fder. And yssere mge God sealde and gesette ǽ, and h h ldde ofer sǽ mid drium fotum, and h h afedde feowertig wintra mid heofenlicum hlafe, and fela wundra on am folce geworhte; foran e he wolde of yssere mge him modor geceosan.

Then afterwards mankind was deceived by the devil, and turned from God's belief, so that they wrought them images, some of gold, some of silver, some also of stones, some of wood, and devised names for them; the names of those men who were giants, and evil-doing. Afterwards when they were dead then said the living that they were gods, and worshipped them, and offered sacrifices to them; and the devils then came to their images, and dwelt therein, and spake to men as though they were gods; and the deceived human race fell on their knees to {25}those images, and said, "Ye are our gods, and we place our belief and our hope in you." Then sprang up this error through all the earth, and the true Creator, who alone is God, was despised and dishonoured. There was, nevertheless, one family which had never bent to any idol, but had ever worshipped the true God. That family sprang from Noah's eldest son, who was called Shem: he lived six hundred years, and his son was called Arphaxad, who lived three hundred and thirty-three years, and his son was called Salah, who lived four hundred and thirty-three years, when he begat a son who was called Eber, from whom sprang the Hebrew people, whom God loved: and from that race came all the patriarchs and prophets, those who announced Christ's advent to this life; that he would be man before the end of this world, for our redemption, he who ever was God with the supreme Father. And for this race God gave and established a law, and he led them over the sea with dry feet, and he fed them forty years with heavenly bread, and wrought many miracles among the people; because he would choose him a mother from this race.

a t nextan, a se tima com e God foresceawode, a asende he his engel Gabrihel to anum mdene of am cynne, seo ws Mara gehaten. a com se engel to hire, and h gegrette mid Godes wordum, and cydde hre, t Godes Sunu sceolde beon acenned of hire, buton weres gemanan. And heo a gelyfde his wordum, and wear mid cilde. aa hire tma com heo acende, and urhwunode mden. t cild is tuwa acenned: he is acenned of am Fder on heofonum, buton lcere meder, and eft aa h man gewear, a ws h acenned of am clnan mdene Maran, buton lcum eorlicum fder. God Fder geworhte mancynn and ealle gesceafta urh one Sunu, and eft, aa we forwyrhte wron, a asende h one ylcan Sunu to re alysednesse. Seo halige moder Mara a afedde t cild mid micelre arwurnesse, and hit weox swa swa ore cild do, buton synne anum.

Then at last, when the time came that God had foreseen, he sent his angel Gabriel to a maiden of that race, who was called Mary. Then came the angel to her, and greeted her with God's words, and announced to her, that God's Son should be born of her, without communion of man. And she believed his words, and became with child. When her time was come she brought forth, and continued a maiden. That child is twice born: he is born of the Father in heaven, without any mother, and again, when he became man, he was born of the pure virgin Mary, without any earthly father. God the Father made mankind and all creatures through the Son; and again, when we were fordone, he sent that same Son for our redemption. The holy mother Mary then nourished that child with great veneration, and it waxed, as other children do, without any sin.


He ws buton synnum acenned, and his lf ws eal buton synnum. Ne worhte he eah nne wndra openlice ǽran e h ws ritig wintre on re menniscnysse: a sian geceas he him leorning-cnihtas; rest twelf, a we hta apostolas, t sind rendracan. Sian h geceas tw and hund-seofontig, a sind genemnede discipuli, t sind leorning-cnihtas. a worhte h fela wundra, t men mihton gelyfan t he ws Godes Bearn. H awende wter to wine, and eode ofer sǽ mid drium fotum, and he gestilde windas mid his hse, and h forgeaf blindum mannum gesihe, and healtum and lamum rihtne gng, and hreoflium smenysse, and hlu heora lichaman; dumbum h forgeaf getingnysse, and deafum heorcnunge; deofolseocum and wodum h sealde gewitt, and a deoflu todrfde, and lce untrumnysse he gehlde; deade men h arrde of heora byrgenum to lfe; and lrde t folc e h to com mid micclum wisdome; and cw t nn man ne mg beon gehealden, buton he rihtlice on God gelyfe, and he beo gefullod, and his geleafan mid godum weorcum geglenge; he onscunode lc unriht and ealle leasunga, and thte rihtwisnysse and sofstnysse.


He was born without sins, and his life was all without sins. But he wrought no miracles openly ere that he had been thirty years in a state of man: then afterwards he chose to him disciples; first twelve, whom we call apostles, that is messengers: after that he chose seventy-two, who are denominated disciples, that is learners. Then he wrought many miracles, that men might believe that he was God's Child. He turned water to wine, and went over the sea with dry feet, and he stilled the winds by his behest, and he gave to blind men sight, and to the halt and lame a right gait, and to lepers smoothness and health to their bodies; to the dumb he gave power of speech, and hearing to the deaf; to the possessed of devils and the mad he gave sense, and drove away the devils, and every disease he healed; dead men he raised from their sepulchres to life; and taught the people to which he came with great wisdom; and said, that no man might be saved, except he rightly believe in God, and be baptized, and adorn his faith with good works; he eschewed all injustice and all leasings, and taught righteousness and truth.

a nam t Iudeisce folc micelne ndan ongean his lre, and smeadon h h mihton hne to deae gedn. a wear n ra twelfa Cristes geferena, se ws Iudas gehaten, urh deofles tihtinge beswicen, and h eode to am Iudeiscum folce, and smeade wi h, hu he Crist him belǽwan mihte. eah e eal mennisc wǽre gegaderod, ne mihton h ealle hine acwellan, gif he sylf nolde; fori he cm to us t h wolde for s dea rowian, and swa eal mancynn a e gelyfa mid his agenum deae alysan fram helle-wite. H nolde geniman s neadunge of deofles anwealde, buton he hit forwyrhte; a h hit forwyrhte genh swie, aa h gehwette and tihte ra Iudeiscra manna heortan to Cristes slege. Crist a geafode t a wlhreowan hine genmon and gebundon, and on rde hengene acwealdon. Hwt a twegen gelyfede men hine arwurlice bebyrigdon, and Crist on re hwile to {28}helle gewende, and one deofol gewylde, and him of-anm Adm and Euan, and heora ofspring, one dǽl e him ǽr gecwemde, and geldde h to heora lichaman, and ars of deae mid am micclum werede on am riddan dge his rowunge. Cm a to his apostolum, and h gefrefrode, and geond feowertigra daga fyrst him mid wunode; and a ylcan lare e h him ǽr thte eft ge-edlhte, and het h faran geond ealne middangeard, bodigende fulluht and sone geleafan. Drihten a on am feowerteogoan dge his ristes astah to heofenum, tforan heora ealra gesihe, mid am ylcan lichaman e h on rowode, and sitt on a swiran his Fder, and ealra gesceafta gewylt. H hf gerymed rihtwisum mannum infr to his rice, and a e his beboda eallunga forseo beo on helle besencte. Witodlice h cym on ende yssere worulde mid micclum mgenrymme on wolcnum, and ealle a e fre sawle underfengon arisa of deae him togeanes; and h onne a mnfullan deofle betc into am ecan fyre helle susle; a rihtwisan he lt mid him into heofonan rice, on am h rixia on ecnysse.

Then the Jewish people showed great envy of his doctrine, and meditated how they might put him to death. Now was one of the twelve of Christ's companions, who was called Judas, seduced by the instigation of the devil, and he went to the Jewish people, and consulted with them how he might betray Christ unto them. Though all people were gathered together they all might not destroy him, if he himself willed it not; therefore he came to us because he would suffer death for us, and so, by his own death, redeem all mankind who believe from hell's torment. He would not take us forcibly from the devil's power, unless he had forfeited it; but he forfeited it entirely when he whetted and instigated the hearts of the Jewish men to the slaying of Christ. Then Christ consented that the bloodthirsty ones should take him, and bind, and, hung on a cross, slay him. Verily then two believing men honourably buried him; and Christ, in that time, {29}went to hell, and overcame the devil, and took from him Adam and Eve, and their offspring, that portion which had previously been most acceptable to him, and led them to their bodies, and arose from death with that great host on the third day of his passion: then came to his apostles, and comforted them, and for a space of forty days sojourned with them, and repeated the same doctrine which he had before taught them, and bade them go over all the earth, preaching baptism and true faith. Then, on the fortieth day of his resurrection, the Lord ascended to heaven in sight of them all, with the same body in which he had suffered, and sitteth on the right hand of his Father, and governeth all creatures. He hath opened to righteous men the entrance to his kingdom, and those who wholly despise his commandments shall be cast down into hell. Verily he shall come at the end of this world with great majesty, in clouds, and all those who have ever received a soul shall arise from death towards him; and he will then deliver the wicked to the devil, into the eternal fire of hell-torment; the righteous he will lead with him into the kingdom of heaven, in which they shall rule to all eternity.

Men a leofestan, smeaga ysne cwyde, and mid micelre gymene forbuga unrihtwysnysse, and geearnia mid godum weorcum t ce lf mid Gode see na on ecnysse rixa. Amen.

Men most beloved, consider this discourse, and with great care eschew unrighteousness, and merit with good works the eternal life with God, who alone ruleth to eternity. Amen.





We wylla to trymminge eowres geleafan eow gereccan s Hlendes acennednysse be re godspellican endebyrdnysse: h he on ysum dgerlicum dge on sore menniscnysse acenned ws on godcundnysse.

We will, for the confirmation of your faith, relate to you the nativity of our Saviour, according to the order of the gospel: how he on this present day was born in true humanity in divine nature.

Lucas se Godspellere awrt on Cristes bc, t on am {30}timan se Romanisca casere Octauianus sette gebnn, t wre on gewritum asett eall ymbhwyrft. eos towritennys wear arred fram am ealdormen Cyrino, of Sirian lande, t lc man ofer-heafod sceolde cennan his gebyrde, and his re on re byrig e h to gehyrde. a ferde Ioseph, Cristes foster-fder, fram Galileiscum earde, of re byrig Nazare, to Iudeiscre byrig, seo ws Dauides, and ws geciged Bethlem, foran e h ws of Dauides mge, and wolde andettan mid Maran hire gebyrde, e ws a gt bearn-eaca. a gelmp hit, aa h on re byrig Bethlem wcodon, t hire tima ws gefylled t heo cennan sceolde, and acende a hyre frumcennedan sunu, and mid cild-claum bewnd, and alde t cild on heora assena binne, foran e r ns nn rymet on am gesthuse. a wron hyrdas on am earde waciende ofer heora eowede; and efne a Godes engel std on emn h, and Godes beorhtnys h bescean, and h wurdon micclum afyrhte. a cw se Godes engel to am hyrdum, "Ne ondreda eow; efne ic eow bodige micelne gefean, e becym eallum folce; foran e nu to-dg is eow acenned Hlend Crist on Dauides ceastre. Ge geseo is tcen, ge gemta t cild mid cild-claum bewunden, and on binne geld." a frlice, fter s engles sprce, wear gesewen micel menigu heofenlices werodes God herigendra and singendra, "Gloria in excelsis Deo, et in terra pax hominibus bone uoluntatis," t is on urum gereorde, "Sy wuldor Gode on heannyssum, and on eoran sibb mannum, am e beo godes willan." And a englas a gewiton of heora gesihe to heofonum. Hwt a hyrdas a him betweonan sprcon, "Uton faran to Bethleem, and geseon t word e us God teowde." H comon a hrdlice, and gemetton Maran, and Ioseph, and t cild geled on anre binne, swa swa him se engel cydde. a hyrdas solice oncneowon be am worde e him gesd ws be am cilde, and ealle wundrodon e t gehyrdon, and eac be am e a hyrdas him sǽdon. Mara solice heold ealle as wrd arǽfniende {32}on hire heortan. a gecyrdon a hyrdas ongean wuldrigende and herigende God on eallum am ingum e h gehyrdon and gesawon, swa swa him fram am engle gesǽd ws.

Luke the Evangelist wrote in the book of Christ, that at {31}that time the Roman emperor Octavianus made proclamation that all the world should be set down in writing. This enrolment was set forth from Cyrenius, the governor of Syria—that every man in general should declare his birth and his possession in the city to which he belonged. Then Joseph, the foster-father of Christ, went from the land of Galilee, from the city of Nazareth, to the Jewish city, which was of David, and was called Bethlehem, because he was of the tribe of David, and would acknowledge with Mary her birth, who was then great with child. Then it came to pass, while they were sojourning in the city of Bethlehem, that her time was fulfilled that she should bring forth, and she brought forth then her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid the child in their asses' bin, because there was no room in the inn. And there were shepherds in the country watching over their flock; and lo, the angel of God stood before them, and God's brightness shone on them, and they were much afraid. Then said the angel of God to the shepherds, "Fear not, lo, I announce to you great joy, which shall come to all people; for now to-day is born to you a Saviour, Christ, in the city of David. Ye shall see this token, ye shall find the child wrapped in swaddling clothes, and laid in a bin." Then suddenly, after the angel's speech, there was seen a great multitude of the heavenly host, praising God and singing, "Gloria in excelsis Deo, et in terra pax hominibus bon voluntatis," that is in our tongue, "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace to men who are of good will." And the angels then withdrew from their sight to heaven. The shepherds then spake among themselves, "Let us go to Bethlehem, and see the word that God hath manifested unto us." They came then quickly, and found Mary, and Joseph, and the child laid in a bin, as the angel had announced to them. But the shepherds understood the word that had been said to them concerning the child, and all wondered that heard it, and also at that which the shepherds said unto them. But Mary held {33}all these words, pondering them in her heart. Then the shepherds returned glorifying and praising God for all the things which they had heard and seen, as had been said to them by the angel.

Mine gebrora a leofostan, ure Hlend, Godes Sunu, euen-ece and gelic his Fder, see mid him ws fre buton anginne, gemedemode hine sylfne t he wolde on isum dgerlicum dge, for middangeardes alysednysse beon lichamlice acenned of am mdene Maran. He is Ealdor and Scyppend ealra gdnyssa and sibbe, and he foresende his acennednysse ungewunelice sibbe, foran e nfre ns swilc sibb r am fyrste on middangearde, swilc swa ws on his gebyrde-tide, swa t eall middangeard ws anes mannes rice undereod, and eal mennisc him anum cynelic gafol ageaf. Witodlice on swa micelre sibbe ws Crist acenned, see is ure sib, foran e h geeodde englas and men to num hirede, urh his menniscnysse. H ws acenned on s caseres dagum e ws Octauianus gehten, se gerymde Romana rice to an swie t him eal middangeard to beah, and he ws fori Augustus geciged, t is gecende his rice. Se nama gedafena am heofonlican Cyninge Criste, e on his timan acenned ws, see his heofonlice rice geyhte, and one hryre, e se feallenda deofol on engla werode gewanode, mid menniscum gecynde eft gefylde. Na t n t he one lyre anfealdlice gefylde, ac eac swylce micclum geihte. Solice swa micel getel mancynnes becym urh Cristes menniscnysse to engla werodum, swa micel swa on heofonum belf haligra engla fter s deofles hryre. s caseres gebann, e het ealne middangeard awritan, getacnode swutellice s heofonlican Cyninges dde, e to i com on middangeard t he of eallum eodum his gecorenan gegaderode, and heora naman on ecere eadignysse awrite. eos towritennys asprang fram am ealdormen Cyrino: Cyrinus is gereht Yrfenuma, and he getacnode Crist, see is so yrfenuma s ecan Fder; and he us forgif t we mid him {34}beon yrfenuman and efenhlyttan his wuldres. Ealle eoda a ferdon t lc synderlice be him sylfum cennan sceolde, on re byrig e he to hyrde. Swa swa on am timan be s caseres gebanne gehwilce nlipige on heora burgum be him sylfum cendon, swa eac nu us cya lreowas Cristes gebann, t we s gegadrian to his halgan gelaunge, and on re ures geleafan gafol mid estfullum mode him agifan, t ure naman beon awritene on lifes bec mid his gecorenum.

My dearest brethren, our Saviour, the Son of God, co-eternal with, and equal to his Father, who was ever with him without beginning, vouchsafed that he would on this present day, for the redemption of the world, be corporally born of the Virgin Mary. He is Prince and Author of all things good and of peace, and he sent before his birth unwonted peace, for never was there such peace before that period in the world, as there was at the time of his birth; so that all the world was subjected to the empire of one man, and all mankind paid royal tribute to him alone. Verily in such great peace was Christ born, who is our peace, because he united angels and men to one family through his incarnation. He was born in the days of the emperor who was called Octavianus, who extended the Roman empire to that degree that all the world bowed to him, and he was, therefore, named Augustus, that is, Increasing his empire. The name befits the heavenly King Christ, who was born in his time, who increased his heavenly empire, and replenished with mankind the loss which the falling devil had caused in the host of angels. Not only did he simply supply its loss, but also greatly increased it. Verily as great a number of mankind cometh, through Christ's incarnation, to the hosts of angels, as there remained of holy angels in heaven after the devil's fall. The emperor's decree, which commanded all the world to be inscribed, betokened manifestly the deed of the heavenly King, who came into the world that he might gather his chosen from all nations, and write their names in everlasting bliss. This decree sprang from the governor Cyrenius—Cyrenius is interpreted Heir, and he betokened Christ, who is the true heir of the eternal Father; and he granteth us to be heirs with him, and partakers of his glory. {35}All nations then went that each separately might declare concerning himself, in the city to which he belonged. As at that time, according to the emperor's proclamation, each one singly, in their cities, declared concerning himself, so also now do our teachers make known to us Christ's proclamation, that we gather us to his holy congregation, and therein, with devout mind, pay to him the tribute of our faith, that our names may be written in the book of life with his chosen.

Drihten ws acenned on re byrig e is gehaten Bethleem; foran e hit ws swa ǽr gewitegod isum wordum, "u Bethleem, Iudeisc land, ne eart u wacost burga on Iudeiscum ealdrum: solice of e cym se latteow e gewylt Israhela eoda." Crist wolde on ytinge beon acenned, to i t he wurde his ehterum bedigelod. Bethleem is gereht 'Hlaf-hs,' and on hire ws Crist, se soa hlaf, acenned, e be him sylfum cw, "Ic eom se liflica hlf, e of heofenum asth, and see of am hlafe geett ne swylt h on ecnysse." s hlafes we onbyria onne we mid geleafan to husle ga; foran e t halige husel is gastlice Cristes lichama; and urh one we beo alysede fram am ecan deae. Mara acende a hire frumcennedan sunu on isum andweardan dge, and hine mid cild-claum bewnd, and for rymetleaste on anre binne gelde. Ns t cild fori gecweden hire frumcennede cild swilce heo oer sian acende, ac fori e Crist is frumcenned of manegum gastlicum gebrorum. Ealle cristene men sind his gastlican gebrora, and h is se frumcenneda, on gife and on godcundnysse ancenned of am lmihtigan Fder. H ws mid wacum cild-claum bewfed, t he s forgeafe a undeadlican tunecan, e we forluron on s frumsceapenan mannes forggednysse. Se lmihtiga Godes Sunu, e heofenas befon ne mihton, ws geled on nearuwre binne, to i t he s fram hellicum nyrwette alysde. Mara ws a cuma r, swa swa t godspel s seg; and for s folces geryle ws t gesthus earle genyrwed.

The Lord was born in the city which is named Bethlehem, because it was so before prophesied in these words, "Thou Bethlehem, land of Judah, thou art not meanest of cities among the Jewish princes, for of thee shall come the guide that shall govern the people of Israel." Christ would be born on journey, that he might be concealed from his persecutors. Bethlehem is interpreted Bread house, and in it was Christ, the true bread, brought forth, who saith of himself, "I am the vital bread, which descended from heaven, and he who eateth of this bread shall not die to eternity." This holy bread we taste when we with faith go to housel; because the holy housel is spiritually Christ's body; and through that we are redeemed from eternal death. Mary brought forth her firstborn son on this present day, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and, for want of room, laid him in a bin. That child is not called her firstborn child because she afterwards brought forth another, but because Christ is the firstborn of many spiritual brothers. All christian men are his spiritual brothers, and he is the firstborn, in grace and in godliness only-begotten of the Almighty Father. He was wrapped in mean swaddling clothes, that he might give us the immortal garment which we lost by the first created man's transgression. The Almighty Son of God, whom the heavens could not contain, was laid in a narrow bin, that he might redeem us from the narrowness of hell. Mary was there a stranger, as the gospel tells us; and through the concourse of people the inn was greatly crowded.


Se Godes Sunu ws on his gesthuse genyrwed, t he us rume wununge on heofonan rice forgife, gif we his willan gehyrsumia. Ne bitt h us nnes inges to edleane his geswinces, buton ure sawle hlo, t we s sylfe clne and ungewemmede him gegearcian, to blisse and to ecere myrhe. a hyrdas e wacodon ofer heora eowode on Cristes acennednysse, getacnodon a halgan lareowas on Godes gelaunge, e sind gastlice hyrdas geleaffulra sawla: and se engel cydde Cristes acennednysse hyrdemannum, foram e an gastlicum hyrdum, t sind lareowas, is swiost geopenod embe Cristes menniscnysse, urh boclice lare; and h sceolon gecneordlice heora undereoddum bodian, t t him geswutelod is, swa swa a hyrdas a heofenlican gesihe gewdmrsodan. am lareowe gedafena t h symle wacol sy ofer Godes eowode, t se ungesewenlica wulf Godes scep ne tostence.


The Son of God was crowded in his inn, that he might give us a spacious dwelling in the kingdom of heaven, if we obey his will. He asks nothing of us as reward for his toil, except our soul's health, that we may prepare ourselves for him pure and uncorrupted in bliss and everlasting joy. The shepherds that watched over their flock at Christ's birth, betokened the holy teachers in God's church, who are the spiritual shepherds of faithful souls: and the angel announced Christ's birth to the herdsmen, because to the spiritual shepherds, that is, teachers, is chiefly revealed concerning Christ's humanity, through book-learning: and they shall sedulously preach to those placed under them, that which is manifested to them, as the shepherds proclaimed the heavenly vision. It beseemeth the teacher to be ever watchful over God's flock, that the invisible wolf scatter not the sheep.

Gelme wurdon englas mannum teowode on re ealdan ǽ, ac hit nis awriten t h mid leohte comon, ac se wurmynt ws ises dges mre gehealden, t h mid heofenlicum leohte h geswutelodon, aa t soe leoht asprng on eostrum riht geancodum, se mildheorta and se rihtwisa Drihten. Se engel cw to am hyrdum, "Ne beo ge afyrhte; efne ic bodige eow micelne gefean, e eallum folce becym, foran e nu to-dg is acenned Hlend Crist on Dauides ceastre." Solice h bodade micelne gefean, see nfre ne geenda; foran e Cristes acennednys gegladode heofenwara, and eorwara, and helwara. Se engel cw, "Nu to-dg is eow acenned Hlend Crist on Dauides ceastre:" Rihtlice h cw on dge, and n on nihte, foran e Crist is se soa dg, see todrfde mid his to-cyme ealle nytennysse re ealdan nihte, and ealne middangeard mid his gife onlihte. t tcen e se engel am hyrdum sde we sceolon symle on urum gemynde healdan, and ancian am Hlende t he gemedemode hine sylfne to an t h dlnimend wre ure deadlicnysse, mid menniscum flsce befangen, and mid wclicum cild-claum bewunden. a fǽrlice, fter s engles sprce, wear gesewen micel menigu heofenlices werodes {38}God herigendra and singendra, "Sy wuldor Gode on heannyssum, and on eoran sibb am mannum e beo godes willan." An engel bodade am hyrdum s heofonlican Cyninges acennednysse, and a frlice wurdon teowode fela usend engla, y ls e wǽre geuht anes engles ealdordom to hwonlic to swa micelre bodunge: and h ealle samod mid gedremum sange Godes wuldor hleorodon, and godum mannum sibbe bodedon, swutellice teowiende t urh his acennednysse men beo gebigede to anes geleafan sibbe, and to wuldre godcundlicere herunge. H sungon, "Sy wuldor Gode on heannyssum, and on eoran sibb mannum, am e beo godes willan." as word geswutelia t r wuna Godes sibb r se goda willa bi. Eornostlice mancynn hfde ungewrnysse to englum r Drihtnes acennednysse; foran e we wron urh synna lfremede fram Gode; a wurde we eac lfremede fram his englum getealde: ac sian se heofenlica Cyning urne eorlican lichaman underfeng, sian gecyrdon his englas to ure sibbe; and a e h ran untrume forsawon, a hi wuria nu him to geferum. Witodlice on re ealdan ǽ, Lo, and Iosue, and gehwilce ore e englas gesawon, h luton wi heora, and to him gebdon, and a englas t geafodon: ac Iohannes se Godspellere, on re Niwan Gecynysse, wolde hine gebiddan to am engle e him to sprc, a forwyrnde se engel him s, and cw, "Beheald t u as dde ne d; ic eom in efen-eowa, and inra gebrora; gebide e to Gode anum." Englas geafodon r Drihtnes to-cyme t mennisce men him to feollon, and fter his to-cyme s forwyrndon; foran e h geswon t heora Scyppend t gecynd underfeng e h r an wclic tealdon, and ne dorston hit forseon on s, onne h hit wuria bufon him sylfum on am heofonlican Cyninge. Ne h manna geferrdene ne forhgia, onne h feallende h to am menniscum Gode gebidda. Nu we sind getealde Godes ceaster-gewaran, and englum gelce; uton fori hgian t leahtras us ne totwmon fram {40}isum micclum wurmynte. Solice men syndon godas gecigede; heald fori, u mann, inne godes wurscipe wi leahtras; foran e God is geworden mann for e.

Oftentimes, in the ancient law, angels appeared to men, but it is not written that they came with light, for that honour was reserved for the greatness of this day, that they should manifest themselves with heavenly light, when that true light sprang up in darkness to the right thinkers, the merciful and righteous Lord. The angel said to the shepherds, "Be ye not afraid, lo, I announce to you great joy, which shall come to all people, for to-day is born a Saviour Christ in the city of David." Verily he announced great joy, which shall never end; for Christ's nativity gladdened the inhabitants of heaven, and of earth, and of hell. The angel said, "Now to-day is born to you a Saviour Christ, in the city of David:" rightly he said to-day, and not to-night, for Christ is the true day who scattered with his advent all the ignorance of the ancient night, and illumined all the world with his grace. The sign which the angel said to the shepherds we ought ever to hold in our remembrance, and to thank the Saviour that he so humbled himself that he was the partaker of our mortality, with human flesh invested, and wrapt in mean swaddling clothes. Then suddenly, after the angel's speech, was seen a great multitude {39}of the heavenly host, praising God and singing, "Be glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace to men who are of good will." An angel announced to the shepherds the heavenly King's nativity, and suddenly appeared many thousand angels, lest the preeminence of one angel should seem too inadequate for so great an announcement: and they all together, with melodious song, God's glory celebrated, and to good men announced peace, manifestly showing that through his birth men shall be inclined to the peace of one faith, and to the glory of divine praise. They sung, "Be glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace to men, to those who are of good will." These words manifest that where the peace of God dwelleth, there is good will. But mankind had discord with angels before the Lord's nativity; because we were through sins estranged from God; then were we accounted estranged also from his angels: but after that the heavenly King assumed our earthly body, his angels turned to peace with us; and those whom they had before despised as mean they now honour as their companions. But in the ancient law, Lot, and Joshua, and certain others who saw angels, bowed before them, and prayed to them, and the angels allowed it: but when John the Evangelist, in the New Testament, would pray to the angel who spake to him, the angel forbade him, and said, "See that thou do not this deed; I am thy fellow-servant, and of thy brethren: pray to God only." Angels permitted, before the advent of the Lord, mortal men to fall down before them, and after his advent forbade it; because they saw that their Creator had assumed that nature which they had before accounted mean, and durst not despise it in us, when they honour it above themselves in the heavenly King. Nor despise they the fellowship of men, when falling down they pray to the human God. Now we are accounted citizens of God, and like to angels; let us, therefore, take care that sins do not separate us from this great dignity. {41}Verily men are called gods; preserve, therefore, thou man, thy dignity of a god against sins, since God became man for thee.

a hyrdas a sprcon him betweonan, fter ra engla fram-frelde, "Uton gefaran to Bethlem, and geseon t word e geworden is, and God us geswutelode." Eala h rihtlice h andetton one halgan geleafan mid isum wordum, "On fryme ws wrd, and t word ws mid Gode, and t wrd ws God"! Word bi wisdomes geswutelung, and t Word, t is se Wisdom, is acenned of am lmihtigum Fder, butan anginne; foran e h ws fre God of Gode, Wisdom of am wisan Fder. Nis h na geworht, foran e he is God, and na gesceaft; ac se lmihtiga Fder gesceop urh one Wisdom ealle gesceafta, and hi ealle urh one Halgan Gast gelffste. Ne mihte ure mennisce gecynd Crist on re godcundlican acennednysse geseon; ac t ylce Word ws geworden flsc, and wunode on s, t we hine geseon mihton. Ns t Word to flsce awend, ac hit ws mid menniscum flsce befangen. Swa swa anra gehwilc manna wuna on sawle and on lichaman n mann, swa eac Crist wuna on godcundnysse and menniscnysse, on num hade n Crist. H cwdon, "Uton geseon t word e geworden is," foran e h ne mihton hit geseon r an e hit geflschamod ws, and to menn geworden. Nis eahhwre seo godcundnys gemenged to re menniscnysse, ne r nan twming nys. We mihton eow secgan ane lytle bysne, gif hit to wclic nre; Sceawa n on anum ge, h t hwite ne bi gemenged to am geolcan, and bi hwere n g. Nis eac Cristes godcundnys gerunnen to re menniscnysse, ac he urhwuna eah on ecnysse on anum hade untotwmed.

The shepherds then spake among themselves, after the departure of the angels, "Let us go to Bethlehem, and see the word which is come to pass, and that God hath revealed unto us." O how rightly they acknowledged the holy faith with these words, "In the beginning was the word, and the word was with God, and that word was God"! A word is the manifestation of wisdom, and the Word, that is Wisdom, is begotten of the Almighty Father, without beginning; for he was ever God of God, Wisdom of the wise Father. He is not made, for he is God, and not a creature; for the Almighty Father created all creatures through that Wisdom, and endowed them all with life through the Holy Ghost. Our human nature could not see Christ in that divine nativity; but that same Word became flesh and dwelt in us, that we might see him. The Word was not turned to flesh, but it was invested with human flesh. As every man existeth in soul and in body one man, so also Christ existeth in divine nature and human nature, in one person one Christ. They said, "Let us see the word that is come to pass," because they could not see it before it was incarnate, and become man. Nevertheless, the divine nature is not mingled with the human nature, nor is there any separation. We might tell unto you a little simile, if it were not too mean; Look now on an egg, how the white is not mingled with the yolk, and yet it is one egg. Nor also is Christ's divinity confounded with human nature, but he continueth to all eternity in one person undivided.

Hrdlice a comon a hyrdas and gemetton Marian and Ioseph, and t cild geld on re binne. Maria ws be Godes dihte am rihtwisan Iosepe beweddod, for micclum gebeorge; foran e hit ws swa gewunelic on Iudeiscre eode, fter Moyses ǽ, t gif nig wimman cild hfde {42}butan be rihtre we, t h man sceolde mid stanum oftorfian. Ac God asende his engel to Iosepe, a Mara eacnigende ws, and bead t he hire gymene hfde, and s cildes foster-fder wre. a ws geuht am Iudeiscum swilce Ioseph s cildes fder wre, ac h ns; foran e hit ns nan neod am lmihtigum Scyppende t h of wfe acenned wre; ac h genam a menniscnysse of Maran innoe, and forlet h mden na gewemmed, ac gehalgod urh his acennednysse. Ne oncneow heo weres gemanan, and heo acende butan sare, and urhwuna on mghade. a hyrdas gesawon, and oncneowon be am cilde, swa swa him gesǽd ws. Nis nan eadignys butan Godes oncnawennesse, swa swa Crist sylf cw aa he us his Fder bethte, "t is ece lf, t hi e oncnawon sone God, and one e u asendest Hlend Crist." Hwt a ealle a e t gehyrdon micclum s wundrodon, and be am e a hyrdas sdon. Mara solice heold ealle as wrd arfniende on hire heortan. Heo nolde widmrsian Cristes digelnesse, ac anbidode o t he sylf aa he wolde h geopenode. Heo cue Godes ǽ, and on ra witegena gesetnysse rdde, t mden sceolde God acennan. a blissode heo micclum t heo hit beon moste. Hit ws gewitegod t h on re byrig Bethleem acenned wurde, and heo earle wundrode t heo fter re witegunge r acende. Heo gemunde hwt sum witega cw, "Se oxa oncneow his hlaford, and se assa his hlafordes binne." a geseah heo t cild licgan on binne, r se oxa and se assa gewunelice fodan seca. Godes heah-engel Gabrihel bodode Maran s Hlendes to-cyme on hire innoe, and heo geseah a t his bodung unleaslice gefylled ws. yllice word Mara heold arfnigende on hire heortan. And a hyrdas gecyrdon ongean wuldrigende and herigende God, on eallum am ingum e h gehyrdon and geswon, swa swa him gesd ws.

Then came the shepherds quickly, and found Mary, and Joseph, and the child laid in the bin. Mary was, by God's direction, betrothed to the righteous Joseph, for the greater security; because it was thus customary among the Jewish people, according to the law of Moses, that if any woman {43}had a child, save in lawful wedlock, she should be slain with stones. But God sent his angel to Joseph, when Mary was pregnant, and commanded that he should have care of her, and be the child's foster-father. Then it seemed to the Jews that Joseph was father of the child, but he was not; because the Almighty Creator had no need to be born of woman; but he took human nature from the womb of Mary, and left her a virgin undefiled, but hallowed through his birth. She knew no society of man, and she brought forth without pain, and continued in maidenhood. The shepherds saw and recognized the child, as had to them been told. (There is no happiness without knowledge of God, as Christ himself said, when he committed us to his Father, "That is eternal life that they acknowledge Thee, the true God, and him whom thou hast sent, the Saviour Christ.") Now all who heard that wondered greatly thereat, and at what the shepherds said. But Mary held all these words, pondering them in her heart. She would not publish Christ's mystery, but waited until he himself, when it pleased him, should divulge it. She knew God's law, and in the book of the prophets had read, that a virgin should give birth to God. Then she greatly rejoiced that she might be it. It was prophesied that he should be born in the city of Bethlehem, and she greatly wondered that, according to that prophecy, she was there delivered. She remembered that a prophet had said, "The ox knows his master, and the ass his master's bin." Then saw she the child lying in the bin, where the ox and the ass usually seek food. God's archangel Gabriel had announced to Mary the Saviour's coming into her womb, and she then saw that his announcement was truly fulfilled. Such words Mary held, pondering them in her heart. And the shepherds returned glorifying and praising God for all those things which they had heard and seen, as had been told unto them.

yssera reora hyrda gemynd is gehfd be eastan Bethleem ne mile, on Godes cyrcan geswutelod, am e a stowe {44}geneosia. We sceolon geefenlcan ysum hyrdum, and wuldrian and hrian urne Drihten on eallum am ingum e he for ure lufe gefremode, s to alysednysse and to ecere blisse, am sy wuldor and lof mid am lmihtigum Fder, on annysse s Halgan Gastes, on ealra worulda woruld. Amen.

The memory of these three shepherds is preserved one mile to the east of Bethlehem, and manifested in God's church {45}to those who visit the place. We should imitate these shepherds, and glorify and praise our Lord for all those things which he hath done for love of us, for our redemption and eternal bliss, to whom be glory and praise with the Almighty Father, in unity of the Holy Ghost, world without end. Amen.





We rda on re bc e is gehten Actus Apostolorum, ǽt a apostolas gehdodon seofon diaconas on re gelaunge e of Iudeiscum folce to Cristes geleafan beah, fter his rowunge, and ǽriste of deae, and upstige to heofenum. ra diacona ws se forma Stephanus, e we on isum dge wuria. He ws swie geleafful, and mid am Halgum Gaste afylled. a ore six wron gecigede isum namum: Stephanus ws se fyrmesta, oer Philippus, ridda Procorus, feora Nicanor, fifta Timotheus, sixta Parmenen, seofoa Nicolaus. as seofon h gecuron and gesetton on ra apostola gesihe, and hi a mid gebedum and bletsungum to diaconum gehadode wurdon. Weox a dghwonlice Godes bodung, and ws gemenigfylld t getel cristenra manna earle on Hierusalem. a wear se eadiga Stephanus mid Godes gife, and mid micelre strence afylled, and worhte forebeacena and micele tcna on am folce. a astodon sume a ungeleaffullan Iudei, and woldon mid heora gedwylde s eadigan martyres lre oferswian; ac hi ne mihton his wisdome wistandan, ne am Halgum Gaste, e urh hine sprc. a setton h lease gewitan, e hine forlugon, and cwdon, t h tllice word sprce be Moyse and be Gode. t folc wear a micclum astyred, and a heafod-menn, and a Iudeiscan boceras, and gelhton Stephanum, and tugon to heora geeahte; and a leasan gewitan him on {46}besdon, "Ne geswic es man to sprecenne tallice word ongean as halgan stowe and Godes ǽ. We gehyrdon hine secgan t Crist towyrp as stowe, and towent a gesetnysse e s Moyses thte." a beheoldon a hine e on am geeahte ston, and gesawon his nebwlite swylce sumes engles ansyne. a cw se ealdor-biscop to am eadigan cyere, "Is hit swa h secga?" a wolde se halga wer Stephanus heora ungeleaffullan heortan gerihtlcan mid heora forfdera gebysnunge and gemynde, and to sofstnysse wege mid ealre lufe gebigan. Begann a him to reccenne be am heahfdere Abrahame, hu se heofenlica God hine geceas him to geoftan, and him behet, t ealle eoda on his ofspringe gebletsode wurdon, for his gehyrsumnesse. Swa eac ra ora heahfdera gemynd, mid langsumere race, tforan him geniwode; and hu Moyses, urh Godes mihte, heora foregengan ofer a Readan S wundorlice geldde, and h h sian feowertig geara on westene wron, mid heofenlicum bigleofan dghwonlice gereordode; and hu God h ldde to am Iudeiscan earde, and a henan eoda tforan heora gesihum eallunga adwscte; and be Dauides mre, s mran cyninges, and Salomones wuldre, e Gode t mre tempel arrde. Cw a t nextan, "Ge wistanda am Halgum Gaste mid stium swuran, and ungeleaffulre heortan; ge sind meldan and manslagan, and ge one rihtwisan Crist nifullice acwealdon; ge underfengon ǽ on engla gesetnysse, and ge hit ne heoldon." Hwt a Iudeiscan a wurdon earle on heora heortan astyrode, and biton heora te him togeanes. Se halga Stephanus wear a afylled mid am Halgum Gaste, and beheold wi heofonas weard, and geseah Godes wuldor, and one Hlend standende t his Fder swiran; and he cw, "Efne ic geseo heofenas opene, and mannes Sunu standende t Godes swiran." Iudei a, mid micelre stemne hrymende, heoldon heora earan, and anmodlice him to scuton, and hi hine gelhton, and of re byrig gelddon to stnenne. a leas-gewitan a ldon heora {48}hacelan tforan fotum sumes geonges cnihtes, se ws geciged Saulus. Ongunnon a oftorfian mid heardum stanum one eadigan Stephanum; and h clypode, and cw, "Drihten Hǽlend, onfh minne gast." And gebigde his cneowu, mid micelre stemne clypigende, "Min Drihten, ne sete u as dda him to synne." And h mid am worde a gewt to an lmihtigum Hlende, e he on heofenan healicne standende geseah.

We read in the book which is called The Acts of the Apostles, that the apostles ordained seven deacons in the congregation which, from among the Jewish people, had turned to Christ's faith, after his passion, and resurrection from death, and ascension to heaven. Of these deacons the first was Stephen, to whom we do honour on this day. He was of great faith, and filled with the Holy Ghost. The six others were called by these names; Stephen was the first, the second Philip, the third Prochorus, the fourth Nicanor, the fifth Timothy, the sixth Parmenas, the seventh Nicolas. They chose these seven, and set them in the presence of the apostles, and they then, with prayers and blessings, were ordained deacons. The preaching of God waxed then daily, and the number of christian men was greatly multiplied in Jerusalem. Then was the blessed Stephen filled with God's grace, and with great strength, and he wrought miracles and great signs among the people. Then arose some of the unbelieving Jews, and would with their error quell the blessed martyr's doctrine; but they could not withstand his wisdom, nor the Holy Ghost, who spake through him. Then they set false witnesses, who belied him, and said that he spake blasphemous words of Moses and of God. The people were then greatly excited, and the elders, and the Jewish scribes, and they seized Stephen, and drew him to their council, and {47}the false witnesses said of him, "This man ceaseth not to speak blasphemous words against this holy place, and God's law. We heard him say that Christ shall destroy this place, and change the usages which Moses hath taught us." Then looked on him they who sate in the council, and saw his countenance like the face of an angel. Then said the chief priest to the blessed martyr, "Is it as they say?" Then would the holy man Stephen rectify their unbelieving hearts with the example and remembrance of their forefathers, and, with all love, incline them to the way of truth. He began then to relate to them concerning the patriarch Abraham, how the God of heaven chose him for associate, and promised him, that all nations should be blessed in his offspring, for his obedience. In like manner, in a long narrative, he renewed before them the memory of the other patriarchs; and how Moses, through God's might, wonderfully led their forefathers over the Red Sea, and how they afterwards were forty days in the waste, daily fed with heavenly food; and how God led them to the Jewish country, and wholly destroyed before their sight all the heathen nations; and of David the great king's greatness, and of Solomon's glory, who the great temple raised to God. At last he said, "Ye withstand the Holy Ghost with stiff neck and unbelieving heart; ye are betrayers and murderers, and the righteous Christ ye enviously slew; ye have received a law by the disposition of angels, and ye have held it not." Then were the Jews greatly disturbed in their heart, and gnashed their teeth against him. But the holy Stephen was filled with the Holy Ghost, and looked towards heaven, and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right of his Father; and he said, "Behold, I see the heavens open, and the Son of man standing at the right hand of God." Then the Jews, crying with a loud voice, held their ears, and with one accord rushed on him, and seized him, and led him out of the city to be stoned. The false witnesses then laid their coats before the {49}feet of a young man who was called Saul. They then begun to stone with hard stones the blessed Stephen; and he cried, and said, "Lord Jesus, receive my spirit." And he bowed his knees, crying with a loud voice, "My Lord, place not thou these deeds to them as sin." And he then with that word departed to the Almighty Saviour, whom he had seen standing high in heaven.

Se wisa Augustinus sprc ymbe as rdinge, and smeade hw se halga cyere Stephanus cwde t he gesawe mannes bearn standan t Godes swyran, and nolde cwean Godes bearn; onne e is geuht wurlicor be Criste to cweenne Godes Bearn onne mannes Bearn. Ac hit gedafenode t se Hlend swa geswutelod wre on heofenum, and swa gebodod on middangearde. Eall ra Iudeiscra teona aras urh t, hw Drihten Crist, see fter flsce solice is mannes Sunu, eac swilce wre gecweden Godes Sunu? fori gemunde swie gedafenlice t godcunde gewrit, mannes Sunu standan t Godes swiran to gescyndenne ra Iudeiscra ngeleaffulnysse. Crist ws teowed his eadigan cyere Stephane on heofenum, see fram ungeleaffullum on middangearde acweald ws, and seo heofenlice sofstnyss be am cydde gecynysse, one seo eorlice arleasnyss huxlice tlde. Hw mg beon rihtlice gecged mannes Bearn, buton Criste anum, onne lc man is twegra manna bearn, buton him anum? Se eadiga Stephanus geseah Crist standan, foran e he ws his gefylsta on am gastlicum gefeohte his martyrdomes. Witodlice we andetta on urum credan, t Drihten sitt t his Fder swiran. Setl gedafena dman, and steall fylstendum oe feohtendum. Nu andet ure geleafa Cristes setl, foran e h is se soa dma lybbendra and deadra: and se eadiga cyere Stephanus hne geseah standende, foran e he ws his gefylsta, swa swa we ǽr sdon. Ealra gecorenra halgena dea is deorwure on Godes gesihe; ac eah-hwere is geuht, gif nig todl beon mg betwux {50}martyrum, t se is healicost see one martyrdom fter Gode astealde. Witodlice Stephanus ws to diacone gehdod t ra apostola handum; ac h h forestp on heofenan rice mid sigefstum deae; and swa se e ws neoor on endebyrdnysse, wear fyrmest on rowunge; and se e ws leorning-cniht on hde, ongann wesan lreow on martyrdome. one dea solice e se Hlend gemedemode for mannum rowian, one ageaf Stephanus fyrmest manna am Hlende. He is gecweden protomartyr, t is se forma cyere, foran e h fter Cristes rowunge rest martyrdm gerowode. Stephanus is Grecisc nama, t is on Leden, Coronatus, t we cwea on Englisc, Gewuldorbeagod; foran e h hf one ecan wuldorbeah, swa swa his nama him forewtegode. a leasan gewitan, e hine forsdon, hne ongunnon rest to torfienne; foran e Moyses ǽ thte, t swa hw swa oerne to deae forsǽde, sceolde wurpan one forman stn to am e h r mid his tungan acwealde. a rean Iudei wedende one halgan stǽndon: and h clypode, and cw, "Drihten, ne sete u as dǽda him to synne."

The wise Augustine spake touching this text, and inquired, why the holy martyr Stephen said that he saw the Son of man standing at God's right hand, and would not say the Son of God; when it seemed worthier of Christ to be called the Son of God than the Son of man? But it was fitting that Jesus should be so manifested in heaven, and so announced on earth. All the malice of the Jews arose in this, Why the Lord Christ, who, after the flesh, is truly the Son of man, should also be called the Son of God; for the holy writ hath very properly mentioned the Son of man standing at the right hand of God, to shame the disbelief of the Jews. Christ was manifested in heaven to his blessed martyr Stephen, who was slain by the unbelievers on earth; and the heavenly truth gave testimony of him, whom earthly wickedness had shamefully calumniated. Who can rightly be called the Son of man, save Christ only, when every man besides him is the son of two persons? The blessed Stephen saw Christ standing, because he was his support in the spiritual fight of his martyrdom. Verily we confess in our creed that the Lord sits at the right hand of his Father. A seat is befitting to a judge, and standing to one helping or fighting. Now our creed acknowledges Christ's seat, because he is the true Judge of the living and the dead: and the blessed martyr Stephen saw him standing, because he was his helper, as we before said. The death of all the chosen saints is precious in the sight of God; yet it seems, if any difference may be between martyrs, that he is the most exalted who suffered {51}martyrdom next to God. Now Stephen was ordained deacon at the hands of the apostles; but he preceded them in the kingdom of heaven by a triumphant death; and so he who was lower in order was first in suffering; and he who was a disciple in condition was the earliest to be a doctor in martyrdom. That death verily which Jesus vouchsafed to suffer for men, Stephen gave first of men to Jesus. He is called protomartyr, that is the first witness, because he first after Christ's passion suffered martyrdom. Stephen is a Greek name, which is in Latin, Coronatus, and which we express in English by, Glory-crowned, because he has the eternal crown of glory, as his name foretold to him. The lying witnesses, who had falsely accused him, begun first to stone him; because the law of Moses taught, that whosoever accused another to death should throw the first stone against him whom he had before slain with his tongue. The cruel Jews raging stoned the holy one, and he cried and said, "Lord, place thou not these deeds to them as sin."

Understanda nu, mine gebrora, a micclan lufe s eadigan weres. On deae h ws gesett, and eah he bd mid sore lufe for his cwelleras; and betwux ra stana hryre, aa gehw mihte his leofostan frynd forgytan, a bethte h his fynd Gode, us cweende, "Drihten, ne sete u as dda him to synne." Swior he besorgade a heora synna onne his agene wunda; swior heora arleasnysse onne his sylfes dea; and rihtlice swior, foran e heora arleasnysse fyligde se eca dea, and t ece lf fyligde his deae. Saulus heold ra leasra gewitena reaf, and heora mod to re stninge geornlice tihte. Stephanus solice gebigedum cneowum Drihten bd t h Saulum alysde. Wear a Stephanes bn fram Gode gehyred, and Saulus wear alysed. Se rfsta ws gehyred, and se arleasa wear gerihtwisod.

Understand now, my brethren, the great love of this blessed man. He was placed in death, and yet he prayed with true love for his slayers; and amid the falling of the stones, when any one might forget his dearest friends, he commended his foes to God, thus saying, "Lord, place thou not these deeds to them as sin." He was more afflicted on account of their sins than of his own wounds, more for their wickedness than his own death; and rightly more, seeing that eternal death followed their wickedness, and eternal life followed his death. Saul held the garments of the false witnesses, and zealously instigated their minds to the stoning. But Stephen with bended knees besought the Lord that he would redeem Saul. Stephen's prayer was heard, and Saul was redeemed. The pious one was heard, and the impious justified.

On yssere dde is geswutelod hu micclum fremige re {52}soan lufe gebed. Witodlice nfde Godes gelaung Paulum to lareowe, gif se halga martyr Stephanus swa ne bde. Efne n Paulus blissa mid Stephane on heofenan rice; mid Stephane h bric Cristes beorhtnysse, and mid him h rixa. ider e Stephanus forestp, mid Saules stanum oftorfod, ider folgode Paulus gefultumod urh Stephanes gebedu. r nis Paulus gescynd urh Stephanes slege, ac Stephanus glada on Paules gefrrdene; foran e seo soe lufu on heora grum blissa. Seo soe lufu oferwann ra Iudeiscra renysse on Stephane, and seo ylce lufu oferwreah synna micelnysse on Paule, and heo on heora grum samod geearnode heofenan rice. Eornostlice seo soe lufu is wylspring and ordfruma ealra godnyssa and ele trumnys, and se weg e lǽt to heofonum. Se e fr on sore lufe ne mg h dwelian, ne forhtian: heo gewissa, and gescylt, and gelt. urh a soan lufe ws es halga martyr swa gebyld t he bealdlice ra Iudeiscra ungeleaffulnysse reade, and he rsorh betwux am greatum hagolstanum urhwunode; and he for am stnendum welwillende gebd, and r to-eacan a heofenlican healle cucu and gewuldorbeagod inn-ferde.

By this deed is shown how greatly avails the prayer of {53}true love. Verily the church of God would not have had Paul as a teacher, if the holy martyr Stephen had not thus prayed. Behold, Paul now rejoices with Stephen in the kingdom of heaven; with Stephen he enjoys the brightness of Christ, and with him he rules. Whither Stephen preceded, stoned with the stones of Saul, thither Paul followed, aided by the prayers of Stephen. Paul is not there defiled through Stephen's murder, but Stephen rejoices in the fellowship of Paul, because true love rejoices in them both. True love overcame the cruelty of the Jews to Stephen, and the same love covered over the greatness of his sins in Paul, and it in both of them together earned the kingdom of heaven. Verily true love is the fountain and origin of all goodness, and noble fortitude, and the way that leads to heaven. He who journeys in true love cannot err nor fear: it directs, and shields, and leads. Through true love was the holy martyr rendered so courageous that he boldly reproved the disbelief of the Jews, and he continued tranquil amid the great stones, and benevolently prayed for the stoners, and, in addition thereto, entered the heavenly hall living, and crowned with glory.

Mine gebrora, uton geefenlcan be sumum dle swa miccles lareowes geleafan, and swa mres cyeres lufe. Uton lufian ure gebrora on Godes gelaunge mid swilcum mode swa swa es cyere a lufode his fynd. Beo gemyndige hwt seo sylfe Sofstnys on am halgan godspelle beht, and hwilc wedd us gesealde. Se Hlend cw, "Gif ge forgyfa am mannum e wi eow agylta, onne forgyf eow eower Fder eowere synna: gif ge onne nella forgyfan, nele eac eower Fder eow forgifan eowere gyltas." Ge gehyra nu, mine gebrora, t hit stent urh Godes gyfe on urum agenum dihte hu s bi t Gode gedmed. He cw, "Gif ge forgyfa, eow bi forgyfen." Ne bepce nn man hine sylfne: witodlice gif hwa furon nne man hata on isum middangearde, swa hwt swa he to gde ged, eal {54}he hit forlyst; foran e se apostol Paulus ne bi geligenod, e cw, "eah e ic aspende ealle mine hta on earfena bigleofan, and eah e ic minne agenne lichaman to cwale gesylle, swa t ic forbyrne on martyrdome; gif ic nbbe a soan lufe, ne frema hit me nan ing." Be an ylcan cw se godspellere Iohannes, "See his broor ne lufa, he wuna on deae." Eft h cw, "lc ra e his broor hata is manslaga." Ealle we sind gebrora e on God gelyfa, and we ealle cwea, "Pater noster qui es in celis," t is, "Ure Fder e eart on heofonum." Ne gedyrstlce nan man be mghade, butan sore lufe. Ne truwige nan man be lmesddum oe on gebedum, butan re foresdan lufe; foran e swa lange swa h hylt one sweartan ni on his heortan, ne mg he mid nanum inge one mildheortan God gegladian. Ac gif he wille t him God milde s, onne hlyste h gdes rdes, na of minum mue, ac of Cristes sylfes: he cw, "Gif u offrast ine lc to Godes weofode, and u r gemyndig bist t in broor hf sum ing ongean e, forlt rrihte a lc tforan am weofode, and gang rest to inum breer, and e to him gesibsuma; and onne u eft cymst to am weofode, geoffra onne ine lc." Gif u onne inum cristenum breer deredest, onne hf he sum ing ongean e, and u scealt be Godes tcunge hine gegladian, r u ine lc geoffrige. Gif onne se cristena mann, e in broor is, e ahwar geyfelode, t u scealt miltsigende forgifan. Ure gastlican lc sind ure gebedu, and lofsang, and husel-halgung, and gehwilce ore lc e we Gode offria, a we sceolon mid gesibsumere heortan and broerlicere lufe Gode betcan. Nu cwy sum man ongean as rdinge, Ne mg ic minne feond lufian, one e ic dghwonlice wlhreowne togeanes me geseo. Eala u mann, u sceawast hwt in broor e dyde, and u ne sceawast hwt u Gode gedydest. onne u micele swrran synna wi God gefremodest, hw nelt u forgyfan a lytlan gyltas anum menn, t se lmihtiga God e a micclan {56}synna forgyfe? Nu cwyst u eft, Micel gedeorf bi me t ic minne feond lufige, and for one gebidde e me hearmes cep. Ne wicwee we t hit micel gedeorf ne sy; ac gif hit is hefigtyme on yssere worulde, hit becym to micelre mede on re toweardan. Witodlice urh ines feondes lufe u bist Godes freond; and na t an t u his freond sy, ac eac swilce u bist Godes bearn, urh a rdene t u inne feond lufige; swa swa Crist sylf cw, "Lufia eowere fynd, do am tela e eow hatia, t ge beon eoweres Fder cild, see on heofenum is." Menigfealde earfonyssa and hospas wolde gehw eaelice forberan wi an t he moste sumum rican men to bearne geteald beon, and his yrfenuma to gewitendlicum htum: forbera nu geyldelice for am ecan wurmynte, t ge Godes bearn getealde beon, and his yrfenuman on heofenlicum spedum, t t se oer foryldigan wolde for ateorigendlicere edwiste.

My brethren, let us in some degree imitate so great a teacher's faith, and so great a martyr's love. Let us love our brothers in God's church with such affection as that with which this martyr loved his foes. Be mindful what Truth itself has promised in the holy gospel, and what pledge it has given us. Jesus said, "If ye forgive those men who sin against you, then will your heavenly Father forgive you your sins: but if ye will not forgive, your Father will not forgive you your sins." Ye hear now, my brethren, that it stands, through God's grace, at our own option how we shall be judged before God. He said, "If ye forgive, ye shall be forgiven." Let no man deceive himself: verily if any one hate a man in this world, whatever good he may have done, {55}he loses it all; for the apostle Paul speaks not falsely, who says, "Though I spend all my wealth in food for the poor, and though I give my own body to be slain, so that I burn in martyrdom, if I have not true love, it profiteth me nothing." Concerning the same the evangelist John said, "He who loveth not his brother continueth in death." Again he said, "Every one who hateth his brother is a murderer." We are all brothers who believe in God, and we all say, "Pater noster qui es in cœlis," that is, "Our Father who art in heaven." Let no man presume on kinship without true love. Let no man trust in alms-deeds, or in prayers, without the aforesaid love; for so long as he holds black malice in his heart, he cannot in any way delight the merciful God. But if he desire that God be merciful to him, let him listen to good counsel, not from my mouth, but from that of Christ himself: he said, "If thou offerest thy gift at God's altar, and thou there rememberest that thy brother hath something against thee, leave forthwith the gift before the altar, and go first to thy brother, and reconcile thee to him, and when thou comest again to the altar, offer then thy gift." But if thou hast injured thy christian brother, then hath he something against thee, and thou shalt, according to God's teaching, gladden him, ere thou offerest thy gift. But if the christian man, who is thy brother, hath in aught done thee evil, that thou shalt mercifully forgive. Our spiritual gifts are our prayers, and hymn, and housel-hallowing, and every other gift that we offer to God, which we should give to God with peaceful heart and brotherly love. Now will some man say against this text, I cannot love my foe, whom I see daily bloodthirsty against me. O thou man, thou seest what thy brother hath done to thee, but thou seest not what thou hast done to God. When thou much heavier sins hast perpetrated against God, why wilt thou not forgive one man little offences, that the Almighty God may forgive thee great {57}sins? Now again thou wilt say, It is a great hardship for me to love my foe, and to pray for him who meditates harm against me. We will not gainsay that it is a great hardship; but if it is difficult in this world, it turns to a great reward in the one to come. Verily by love of thy foe thou art the friend of God, and not only art thou his friend, but thou art also a child of God, by the condition that thou love thy foe; as Christ himself hath said, "Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, that ye be your Father's children, who is in heaven." Many hardships and contumelies any one would easily endure that he might be accounted the child of some powerful man, and his heir to transitory possessions: bear now patiently, for the everlasting honour of being accounted children of God, and his heirs in heavenly riches, that which the other would undergo for a frail matter.

We secga eow Godes riht; healda gif ge willon. Gif we hit forsuwia, ne bi us geborgen. Cristes lufu us neada t we simle a gdan tihton, t h on gdnysse urhwunion; and a yfelan we mynegia, t h fram heora yfelnessum hrdlice gecyrron. Ne beo se rihtwisa gymeleas on his anginne, ne se yfela ortruwige urh his unrihtwisnysse. Ondrde se goda t h fealle; hogige se yfela t h astande. Se e yfel sy geefenlce h Paules gecyrrednysse; se e gd sy urhwunige h on gdnysse mid Stephane; foran e ne bi nn anginn herigendlic butan godre geendunge. lc lof bi on ende gesungen.

We tell you God's law; hold it if ye will. If we kept it in silence, we should not be secure. Love of Christ compels us ever to stimulate the good, that they continue in goodness; and we admonish the wicked that they may quickly turn from their wickedness. Let not the righteous be heedless at his beginning, nor the wicked despair through his unrighteousness. Let the good man dread lest he fall; the wicked take care that he stand. Let him who is wicked imitate the conversion of Paul; let him who is good persist in goodness with Stephen; for no beginning is praiseworthy without a good ending. All praise will be sung at the end.

Mine gebrora, gyrstan-dg gemedemode ure Drihten hine sylfne, t h ysne middangeard urh soe menniscnysse geneosode: nu to-dǽg se ela cempa Stephanus, fram lichamlicere wununge gewitende, sigefst to heofenum ferde. Crist nier-asth, mid flsce bewfed; Stephanus up-asth, urh his blod gewuldorbeagod. Gyrstan-dg sungon englas "Gode wuldor on heannyssum;" nu to-dg h underfengon Stephanum blissigende on heora geferrdene, mid am h wuldra and blissa on ecnysse. Amen.

My brethren, yesterday our Lord vouchsafed to visit this world in true human nature: now to-day the noble champion Stephen, quitting his bodily dwelling, went triumphant to heaven. Christ descended clothed with flesh; Stephen ascended, through his blood with glory crowned. Yesterday angels sung, "Glory to God in the highest;" now to-day they received Stephen rejoicing in their fellowship, with whom he glorieth and rejoiceth to all eternity. Amen.







Iohannes se Godspellere, Cristes dyrling, wear on ysum dge to heofenan rices myrhe, urh Godes neosunge, genumen. He ws Cristes moddrian sunu, and he hine lufode synderlice; na swa micclum for re mglican sibbe swa for re clnnysse his ansundan mghades. He ws on mghde Gode gecoren, and h on ecnysse on ungewemmedum mghade urhwunode. Hit is gerd on gewyrdelicum racum t h wolde wfian, and Crst wear to his gyftum gelaod. a gelmp hit t t am gyftum wn wear ateorod. Se Hlend a het a enig-men afyllan six stnene fatu mid hluttrum wtere, and he mid his bletsunge t wter to elum wine awende. is is t forme tcn e h on his menniscnysse openlice geworhte. a wear Iohannes swa onbryrd urh t tcn, t h rrihte his bryde on mghade forlt, and symle syan Drihtne folgode, and wear a him inweardlice gelufod, foran e he hine tbrd am flsclicum lustum. Witodlice isum leofan leorning-cnihte befste se Hlend his modor, aa h on rode hengene mancynn alysde; t his clne lf s clnan mdenes Marian gymde, and heo a on hyre swyster suna enungum wunode.

John the Evangelist, Christ's darling, was on this day, through God's visitation, taken to the joy of the kingdom of heaven. He was the son of Christ's maternal aunt, and he loved him particularly, not so much for the consanguinity, as for the purity of his uncorrupted chastity. He was in chastity chosen to God, and he ever continued in undefiled chastity. It is read in historic narratives that he would marry, and Christ was invited to his nuptials. Then it befell that at the nuptials wine was wanting. Jesus then bade the serving men fill six stone vessels with pure water, and he with his blessing turned the water to noble wine. This is the first miracle that he openly wrought in his state of man. Now John was so stimulated by that miracle, that he forthwith left his bride in maidenhood, and ever afterwards followed the Lord, and was by him inwardly beloved, because he had withdrawn himself from fleshly lusts. Verily to this beloved disciple Jesus intrusted his mother, when, suspended on the cross, he redeemed mankind, that his pure life might take care of the pure virgin Mary, and that she might continue ministering to her sister's son.

Eft on fyrste, fter Cristes upstige to heofonum, rixode sum wlhreow casere on Romana rce, fter Nerone, se ws Domicianus gehaten, cristenra manna ehtere: se het afyllan ane cyfe mid weallendum ele, and one mran godspellere ron het bescufan; ac he, urh Godes gescyldnysse, ungewemmed of am hatum be eode. Eft aa se wlreowa ne mihte s eadigan apostoles bodunge alecgan, a asende he hine on wrcsi to anum igeoe e is Pamas gecged, t he r urh hungres scearpnysse acwle. Ac se lmihtiga Hlend ne forlt to gymeleaste his gelufedan apostol, ac {60}geswutelode him on am wrcsie a toweardan onwrigenysse, be re h awrat a bc e is gehaten Apocalipsis: and se wlhreowa Domicianus on am ylcan geare wear acweald t his witena handum; and h ealle anmodlice rddon t ealle his gesetnyssa aydlode wron. a wear Nerua, swie arfst man, to casere gecoren. Be his geafunge gecyrde se apostol ongean mid micclum wurmynte, see mid hospe to wrcsie asend ws. Him urnon ongean weras and wif fgnigende, and cweende, "Gebletsod is se e com on Godes naman."

Some time after, after Christ's ascension to heaven, a cruel emperor reigned in the Roman empire, after Nero, who was called Domitian, a persecutor of the christians. He commanded a vat to be filled with boiling oil, and the great evangelist to be thrust therein; but he, through God's protection, went uninjured from that hot bath. Afterwards, when the cruel one might not suppress the preaching of the blessed apostle, he sent him into exile to an island that is called Patmos, that he there, through sharpness of hunger, might perish. But the Almighty Saviour did not leave his beloved apostle to {61}neglect, but revealed to him, in that exile, the revelation of things to come, concerning which he wrote the book which is called Apocalypse: and the cruel Domitian was slain in the same year by the hand of his senators; and they all unanimously resolved that all his decrees should be annulled. Then was Nerva, a very honourable man, chosen for emperor. With his consent the apostle returned with great worship, he who with contumely had been sent into banishment. Men and women ran to meet him, rejoicing and saying, "Blessed is he who cometh in the name of God."

Mid am e se apostol Iohannes stop into re byrig Ephesum, a br man him togeanes anre wydewan lc to byrigenne; hire nama ws Drusiana. Heo ws swie gelyfed and lmesgeorn, and a earfan, e heo mid cystigum mode eallunga afedde, dreorige mid wpe am lce folgodon. a het se apostol a bre settan, and cw, "Min Drihten, Hlend Crist! Arre e, Drusiana; aris, and gecyrr ham, and gearca s gereordunge on inum huse." Drusiana a ars swilce of slpe awreht, and, carfull be s apostoles hse, ham gewende.

As the apostle John was entering the city of Ephesus, there was borne towards him the corpse of a widow to be buried; her name was Drusiana. She was of great faith, and gave much in alms, and the poor, whom she had bountifully fed, sad, with weeping, followed the corpse. Then the apostle bade them set down the bier, and said, "My Lord, Jesus Christ! Raise thee, Drusiana; arise, and return home, and prepare refection for us in thy house." Drusiana then arose as if from sleep awakened, and, mindful of the apostle's command, returned home.

On am orum dge eode se apostol be re strt, a ofseah he hwr sum uwita ldde twegen gebroru, e hfdon behwyrfed eall heora yldrena gestreon on deorwurum gymstanum, and woldon a tocwysan on ealles s folces gesihe, to wfersyne, swylce to forsewennysse woruldlicra hta. Hit ws gewunelic on am timan t a e woldon woruld-wisdom gecneordlice leornian, t h behwyrfdon heora are on gymstanum, and a tobrcon; oe on sumum gyldenum wecge, and one on sǽ awurpan; ils e seo smeaung ra hta h t re lare hremde. a clypode se apostol one uwitan Graton him to, and cw, "Dyslic bi t hwa woruldlice speda forhogige for manna hrunge, and beo on Godes dome genierod. Ydel bi se lcedom e ne mg one untruman gehlan; swa bi eac ydel seo lr e ne gehl re sawle leahtras and uneawas. {62}Solice min lareow Crist sumne cniht e gewilnode s ecan lifes ysum wordum lrde, t he sceolde ealle his welan beceapian, and t wur earfum dlan, gif h wolde fulfremed beon, and he syan hfde his goldhord on heofenum, and r to-eacan t ece lf." Graton a se uwita him andwyrde, "as gymstanas synd tocwysede for ydelum gylpe, ac gif in lreow is so God, gefeg as bricas to ansundnysse, t heora wur mge earfum fremian." Iohannes a gegaderode ra gymstana bricas, and beseah to heofonum, us cweende, "Drihten Hlend, nis e nan ing earfoe; u ge-edstaelodest isne tobrocenan middangeard on inum geleaffullum, urh tcen re halgan rode; ge-edstaela nu as deorwuran gymstanas, urh inra engla handa, t as nytenan menn ine mihta oncnwon, and on e gelyfon." Hwt, a frlice wurdon a gymstanas swa ansunde, t furon nan tcen re rran tocwysednysse ns gesewen. a se uwita Graton samod mid am cnihtum feoll to Iohannes fotum, gelyfende on God. Se apostol hine fullode mid eallum his hirede, and h ongann Godes geleafan openlice bodian. a twegen gebrora, Atticus and Eugenius, sealdon heora gymstanas, and ealle heora hta dldon wǽdlum, and filigdon am apostole, and micel menigu geleaffulra him eac to geeodde.

On the second day the apostle going in the street, observed where a philosopher was accompanying two brothers, who had turned all their parents' treasure into precious gems, and would crush them in the sight of all the people as a spectacle, in contempt as it were of worldly riches. It was common at that time for those who would sedulously learn philosophy, to change their property for gems, and break them in pieces; or for a wedge of gold, and throw it into the sea; lest the contemplation of those riches should hinder them at their study. Then the apostle called the philosopher Graton to him, and said, "It is foolish that any one should despise worldly riches for praise of men, and be condemned at God's doom. Vain is the medicine that cannot heal the sick; as also is vain the doctrine that healeth not the sins and vices of the soul. {63}Verily my teacher, Christ, enjoined a youth who desired eternal life, in these words, That he should sell all his wealth, and distribute the value to the poor, if he would be perfect; and he should afterwards have his treasure in heaven, and, in addition thereto, eternal life." The philosopher Graton him answered, "These jewels are crushed for idle vaunt; but if thy teacher is the true God, join the fragments to soundness, that their value may benefit the poor." John then gathered the fragments of the jewels, and looked to heaven, thus saying, "Lord Jesus, to thee no thing is difficult; thou didst restore this crushed world for thy faithful, through sign of the holy rood; restore now these precious gems, by thy angels' hands, that these ignorant men may acknowledge thy powers, and in thee believe." Lo, then suddenly the gems became sound, so that even no sign of their former broken condition was seen. Then the philosopher Graton, together with the youths, fell forthwith at the feet of John, believing in God. The apostle baptized him with all his family, and he began openly to preach God's faith. The two brothers, Atticus and Eugenius, gave their gems, and distributed all their wealth to the poor, and followed the apostle, and a great multitude of believers also joined themselves to him.

a becom se apostol t sumum sle to re byrig Pergamum, r a foresdan cnihtas i r eardodon, and gesawon heora eowan mid godewebbe gefreatewode, and on woruldlicum wuldre scinende. a wurdon h mid deofles flan urhscotene, and dreorige on mode, t h wdligende on num waclicum wfelse ferdon, and heora eowan on woruldlicum wuldre scinende wron. a undergeat se apostol as deoflican facn, and cw, "Ic geseo t eower md is awend, and eower andwlita, foran e ge eowre speda earfum dldon, and mines Drihtnes lare fyligdon: ga nu fori to wuda, and heawa incre byrene gyrda, and gebringa to me." H dydon be his hse, and h on Godes {64}naman a grenan gyrda gebletsode, and h wurdon to readum golde awende. Eft cw se apostol Iohannes, "Ga to re sǽ-strande, and fecca me papolstanas." H dydon swa; and Iohannes a on Godes mgenrymme h gebletsode, and h wurdon gehwyrfede to deorwurum gymmum. a cw se apostol, "Ga to smian, and fandia ises goldes and issera gymstana." H a eodon, and eft comon, us cweende, "Ealle as goldsmias secga t h nfre r swa clne gold, ne swa read ne gesawon: eac as gym-wyrhtan secga t hi nfre swa deorwure gymstanas ne gemetton." a cw se apostol him to, "Nima is gold, and as gymstanas, and fara, and bicga eow land-re; foran e ge forluron a heofenlican speda. Bicga eow pllene cyrtlas, t ge to lytelre hwile scinon swa swa rse, t ge hrdlice forweornion. Beo blowende and welige hwilwendlice, t ge ecelice wdlion. Hwt la, ne mg se lmihtiga Wealdend urhteon t h do his eowan rice for worulde, genihtsume on welan, and unwimetenlice scinan? Ac he sette gecmp geleaffullum sawlum, t hi gelyfon to geagenne a ecan welan, a e for his naman a hwilwendan speda forhgia. Ge gehldon untruman on s Hlendes naman, ge afligdon deoflu, ge forgeafon blindum gesihe, and gehwilce uncoe gehldon: efne nu is eos gifu eow tbroden, and ge sind earmingas gewordene, ge e wron mre and strange. Swa micel ege stod deoflum fram eow, t h be eowere hse a ofsettan deofolseocan forleton; nu ge ondrda eow deoflu. a heofenlican hta sind us eallum gemne. Nacode we wron acennede, and nacode we gewita. re sunnan beorhtnys, and s monan leoht, and ealra tungla sind gemne am rican and am heanan. Rn-scuras, and cyrcan duru, fulluht, and synna forgyfenys, huselgang, and Godes neosung, sind eallum gemne, earmum and eadigum: ac se ungesliga gytsere wile mare habban onne him genihtsuma, onne he furon orsorh ne bric his genihtsumnysse. Se gytsere hf nne lichaman, and {66}menigfealde scrd; he hf ane wambe, and usend manna bigleofan: witodlice t he for gytsunge ncyste nanum orum syllan ne mg, t he horda, and nat hwam; swa swa se witega cw, 'On del bi lc man gedrefed, see horda, and nat hwam he hit gegadera.' Witodlice ne bi he ra hta hlaford, onne he hi dlan ne mg; ac he bi ra hta eowa, onne he him eallunga eowa; and r to-eacan him weaxa untrumnyssa on his lichaman, t h ne mg ǽtes oe wǽtes brucan. H cara dges and nihtes t his feoh gehealden sy; h gym grdelice his teolunge, his gafoles, his gebytlu; he beryp a wnnspedigan, he fulgǽ his lustum and his plegan; onne frlice gewitt he of issere worulde, nacod and forscyldigod, synna ana mid him ferigende; foran e he sceal ce wte rowian."

Then on a certain time the apostle came to the city of Pergamus, where the before-mentioned youths formerly dwelt, and saw their servants decorated with fine linen, and shining in worldly splendour. Then were they pierced through with the devil's darts, and sad in mind, that they in poverty should go with one miserable cloak, and their servants be shining in worldly splendour. Then perceived the apostle the diabolical wiles, and said, "I see that your mind and your countenance are changed, because ye have distributed your riches to the poor, and followed my Lord's doctrine: go now therefore to the wood, and hew a burthen of rods, and bring them to me." They did as he had commanded, and he {65}in God's name blessed the green rods, and they were turned to red gold. Again the apostle said, "Go now to the sea-strand, and fetch me pebble-stones." They did so, and John by God's majesty blessed them, and they were turned to precious gems. Then said the apostle, "Go to the smithy, and try this gold and these gems." They went, and came again, thus saying, "All the goldsmiths say that they have never before seen such pure and such red gold: also the jewellers say that they have never before met with such precious gems." Then said the apostle to them, "Take this gold and these gems, and go and buy landed property, seeing that ye have lost heavenly riches. Buy yourselves purple kirtles, that ye for a little while may shine as the rose, that ye may speedily fade. Be flourishing and rich for a season, that ye may be poor for ever. What, may not the Almighty Ruler so act that he make his servants powerful before the world, abounding in wealth, and incomparably to shine? But he has placed warfare for the believing souls, that they may believe in order to possess the eternal riches, they who for his name despise temporary possessions. Ye healed the sick in the name of Jesus, ye drove out devils, ye gave sight to the blind, and cured every disease. Behold, now this gift is withdrawn from you, and ye are become poor wretches, ye who were great and strong. The devils stood in so great awe of you, that at your behest they forsook the possessed demoniacs; now ye yourselves dread devils. The heavenly possessions are common to us all. Naked we were born, and naked we depart. The brightness of the sun, and the light of the moon, and of all the stars are common to the high and the low. Rain-showers and the church-door, baptism and forgiveness of sins, partaking of the housel and God's visitation, are common to all, poor and rich: but the unhappy covetous wishes to have more than suffices him, though he enjoys not freedom from care in his abundance. The covetous hath one body and divers garments; he hath one belly and a {67}thousand men's sustenance; but that which he, through the vice of avarice, cannot give to any other, he hoardeth, and knoweth not for whom, as the prophet said, 'Vainly is every man troubled who hoardeth, and knoweth not for whom he gathereth.' Verily he is not lord of those possessions, when he cannot distribute them, but he is the slave of those possessions, when he wholly serveth them; and in addition thereto, diseases of his body increase, so that he may not enjoy food or drink. He cares night and day that his money be preserved; he attends greedily to his gain, his rent, his buildings; he bereaves the indigent, he follows his lusts and his pleasure; then suddenly departs he from this world, naked and charged with crimes, bearing with him his sins alone; therefore shall he suffer punishment everlasting."

Efne aa se apostol as lare sprecende ws, a br sum wuduwe hire suna lic to bebyrgenne, se hfde gewifod ritigum nihtum ǽr. Seo dreorige modor a samod mid am licmannum rarigende h astrehte t s halgan apostoles fotum, biddende t he hire sunu on Godes naman arrde, swa swa he dyde a wydewan Drusianam. Iohannes a ofhreow re meder and ra licmanna dreorignysse, and astrehte his lichaman to eoran on langsumum gebede, and a t nextan ars, and eft up-ahafenum handum langlice bd. aa he us riwa gedn hfde, a het he unwindan s cnihtes lc, and cw, "Eala u cniht, e urh ines flsces lust hrdlice ine sawle forlure; eala u cniht, u ne cuest inne Scyppend; u ne cuest manna Hlend; u ne cuest one soan freond; and fori u beurne on one wyrstan feond. Nu ic ageat mine tearas, and for inre nytennysse geornlice bd, t u of deae arise, and isum twam gebrorum, Attico and Eugenio, cye h micel wuldor h forluron, and hwilc wite h geearnodon." Mid am a ars se cniht Stacteus, and feoll to Iohannes fotum, and begann to reagenne a gebroru e miswende wǽron, us cweende, "Ic geseah a englas, e eower gymdon, dreorige {68}wepan, and a awyrigedan sceoccan blissigende on eowerum forwyrde. Eow ws heofenan rice gearo, and scinende gebytlu mid wistum afyllede, and mid ecum leohte: a ge forluron urh unwrscipe, and ge begeaton eow eosterfulle wununga mid dracum afyllede, and mid brastligendum ligum, mid unasecgendlicum witum afyllede, and mid anrcum stencum; on am ne ablin granung and oterung dges oe nihtes: bidda fori mid inweardre heortan ysne Godes apostol, eowerne lareow, t he eow fram am ecum forwyrde arre, swa swa he me fram deae arrde; and he eowre saula, e nu synd adylegode of re liflican bc, gelde eft to Godes gife and miltsunge."

Behold, while the apostle was speaking this lecture, a certain widow bare her son to be buried, who had been married thirty days before. The afflicted mother, together with the mourners, wailing prostrated herself at the holy apostle's feet, praying that he would, in God's name, rear up her son, as he did the widow Drusiana. John then, pitying the grief of the mother and the mourners, prostrated his body on the earth, in long prayer, and at length rising up, again with up-raised hands prayed a long time. Having done thus thrice, he bade them unwrap the corpse of the youth, and said, "O thou youth, who through thy flesh's lust hast early lost thy soul; O thou youth, thou knewest not thy Creator; thou knewest not the Saviour of men; thou knewest not the true friend, and hast therefore fallen on the worst enemy. Now I have shed my tears, and earnestly prayed for thy sensuality, that thou mayest from death arise, and to these two brothers, Atticus and Eugenius, declare how great glory they have lost, and what punishment they have earned." On this the youth Stacteus arose, and fell at the feet of John, and began to chide the brothers who had been perverted, thus saying, "I saw the angels who had charge of you sadly {69}weeping, and the accursed fiend rejoicing in your destruction. For you was the kingdom of heaven ready, and shining structures filled with repasts, and with eternal light: these ye have lost through heedlessness, and have got for yourselves dark dwellings filled with serpents, and with crackling flames, full of unspeakable torments and horrible stenches; in which groaning and howling cease not day nor night: pray, therefore, with inward heart, this apostle of God, your teacher, that he raise you from eternal perdition, as he hath raised me from death, and that he your souls, which are now blotted from the living book, lead back to God's grace and mercy."

Se cniht a Stacteus, e of deae ars, samod mid am gebrorum, astrehte hine to Iohannes ftswaum, and t folc for mid ealle, anmodlice biddende t he him to Gode geingode. Se apostol a bebead am twam gebrorum t hi ritig daga be hreowsunge ddbetende Gode geoffrodon, and on fce geornlice bdon, t a gyldenan gyrda eft to an rran gecynde awendon, and a gymstanas to heora wacnysse. fter ritigra daga fce, aa h ne mihton mid heora benum t gold and a gymstanas to heora gecynde awendan, a comon hi mid wope to am apostole, us cweende, "Symle u thtest mildheortnysse, and t man orum miltsode; and gif man orum miltsa, hu micele swior wile God miltsian and arian mannum his hand-geweorce! t t we mid gitsigendum eagum agylton, t we nu mid wependum eagum bereowsia." a andwyrde se apostol, "Bera a gyrda to wuda, and a stanas to sǽ-strande: hi synd gecyrrede to heora gecynde." aa hi is gedon hfdon, a underfengon hi eft Godes gife, swa t hi adrfdon deoflu, and blinde, and untrume gehldon, and fela tacna on Drihtnes naman gefremedon, swa swa hi r dydon.

The youth then, Stacteus, who had risen from death, together with the brothers, prostrated himself in the footsteps of John, and the people with them, all unanimously praying that he would intercede with God for them. The apostle then commanded the two brothers that they for thirty days in penitence should sacrifice to God by penance, and in that space should earnestly pray that the golden rods might be turned again to their former nature, and the gems to their worthlessness. After thirty days' space, when they could not by their prayers restore the gold and the gems to their nature, they came with weeping to the apostle, thus saying, "Ever hast thou taught mercy, and that one should have mercy on another; and if one have mercy on another, how much more will God show mercy to and pity men, his handiwork! The sin which we have committed with covetous eyes, we now with weeping eyes repent." Then answered the apostle, "Bear the rods to the wood, and the stones to the sea-strand: they shall be restored to their nature." When they had done this they again received God's grace, so that they drove out devils, and healed the blind and the sick, and performed many miracles, in the Lord's name, as they before had done.

Se apostol a gebigde to Gode ealne one eard Asiam, se is geteald to healfan dle middan-eardes; and awrat a {70}feoran Cristes bc, seo hrepa swyost ymbe Cristes godcundnysse. a ore ry godspelleras, Matheus, Marcus, Lucas, awriton ror be Cristes menniscnysse. a asprungon gedwolmenn on Godes gelaunge, and cwdon t Crist nre r he acenned ws of Marian. a bdon ealle a leod-bisceopas one halgan apostol t he a feoran bc gesette, and ra gedwolmanna dyrstignesse adwscte. Iohannes a bead reora daga fsten gemnelice; and he fter am fstene wear swa miclum mid Godes gaste afylled, t he ealle Godes englas, and ealle gesceafta, mid heahlicum mode ofersth, and mid ysum wordum a godspellican gesetnysse ongan, "In principio erat uerbum, et uerbum erat apud Deum, et Deus erat uerbum, et reliqua:" t is on Englisc, "On fryme ws word, and t word ws mid Gode, and t word ws God; is ws on fryme mid Gode; ealle ing sind urh hine geworhte, and nis nan ing buton him gesceapen." And swa for on ealre re godspellican gesetnysse, he cydde fela be Cristes godcundnysse, hu he ecelice butan angynne of his Fder acenned is, and mid him rixa on annysse s Halgan Gastes, butan ende. Feawa he awrat be his menniscnysse, foran e a ry ore godspelleras genihtsumlice be am heora bec setton.

The apostle then converted to God all the country of Asia, which is accounted the half part of the world; and wrote the {71}fourth book of Christ, which treats most of Christ's divinity. The other three evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, wrote rather of Christ's human state. Then there sprung up heretics in God's church, who said that Christ was not before he was born of Mary. Thereupon all the diocesan bishops besought the holy apostle to compose the fourth book, and extinguish the audacity of the heretics. John then ordered a general fast of three days; and after the fast he was so greatly filled with the spirit of God, that he excelled all God's angels and all creatures with his exalted mind, and began the evangelical memorial with these words, "In principio erat verbum," etc., that is in English, "In the beginning was the word, and the word was with God, and the word was God; this was in the beginning with God; all things are made through him, and without him nothing is created." And so forth, in all the evangelical memorial, he made known many things concerning Christ's divinity, how he eternally without beginning was begotten of his Father, and reigneth with him in unity of the Holy Ghost, ever without end. He wrote few things of his human nature, because the three other evangelists had composed their books abundantly concerning that.

Hit gelamp t sumum sle t a deofolgyldan e a gt ungeleaffulle wǽron, gecwdon t hi woldon one apostol to heora henscipe geneadian. a cw se apostol to am hengyldum, "Ga ealle endemes to Godes cyrcan, and clypia ealle to eowerum godum, t seo cyrce afealle urh heora mihte; onne buge ic to eowerum henscipe. Gif onne eower godes miht a halgan cyrcan towurpan ne mg, ic towurpe eower tempel urh s lmihtigan Godes mihte, and ic tocwyse eower deofolgyld; and bi onne rihtlic geuht t ge geswycon eoweres gedwyldes, and gelyfon on one soan God, see ana is lmihtig." a hengyldan isum cwyde gewrlhton, and Iohannes mid geswsum wordum t folc tihte, t h ufor eodon fram am deofles {72}temple; and mid beorhtre stemne tforan him eallum clypode, "On Godes naman ahreose is tempel, mid eallum am deofolgyldum e him on eardia, t eos menigu tocnawe t is hengyld deofles biggeng is." Hwt a frlice ahreas t tempel grundlunga, mid eallum his anlicnyssum to duste awende. On am ylcan dge wurdon gebigede twelf usend henra manna to Cristes geleafan, and mid fulluhte gehalgode.

It happened at a certain time, that the idolaters, who were yet unbelieving, said that they would force the apostle to their heathenship: whereupon the apostle said to the idolaters, "Go all together to God's church, and call all of you to your gods that, through their might, the church may fall down; then will I turn to your heathenship. But if the power of your god may not cast down the holy church, I will cast down your temple, through the might of the Almighty God, and I will crush your idol; and it shall then seem right that ye cease from your error, and believe in the true God, who alone is Almighty." The idolaters assented to this proposal, and John with kind words exhorted the people to go out from the devil's temple; and with clear voice cried {73}before them all, "In the name of God let this temple fall down with all the idols that dwell within it, that this multitude may know that this idolatry is the worship of the devil." Behold then, the temple fell suddenly to the ground, with all its idols turned to dust. On that same day twelve thousand heathens were turned to belief in Christ, and hallowed with baptism.

a sceorede a gyt se yldesta hengylda mid mycelre wyrnysse, and cw t he nolde gelyfan buton Iohannes attor drunce, and urh Godes mihte one cwelmbran drenc oferswide. a cw se apostol, "eah u me attor sylle, urh Godes naman hit me ne dera." a cw se hengylda Aristodemus, "u scealt rest oerne geseon drincan, and rrihte cwelan, t huru in heorte swa forhtige for am deadbrum drence." Iohannes him andwyrde, "Gif u on God gelyfan wylt, ic unforhtmod s drences onf." a getengde se Aristodemus to am heahgerefan, and genm on his cwearterne twegen eofas, and sealde him one unlybban tforan eallum am folce, on Iohannes gesihe; and hi rrihte fter am drence gewiton. Syan se hengylda eac sealde one attorbran drenc am apostole, and h mid rodetacne his mu, and ealne his lichaman gewǽpnode, and one unlybban on Godes naman halsode, and sian mid gebildum mode hine ealne gedranc. Aristodemus a and t folc beheoldon one apostol reo tda dges, and gesawon hine habban gldne andwlitan, buton blcunge and forhtunge; and hi ealle clypodon, "An so God is, see Iohannes wura." a cw se hengylda to am apostole, "Gyt me tweona; ac gif u as deadan sceaan, on ines Godes naman arrst, onne bi min heorte geclnsod fram lcere twynunge." a cw Iohannes, "Aristodeme, nim mine tunecan, and lege bufon ra deadra manna lic, and cwe, 's Hlendes Cristes apostol me asende to eow, t ge on his naman of deae arison, and lc man oncnwe t {74}dea and lf eowia minum Hlende.'" He a be s apostoles hse br his tunecan, and alede uppon am twm deadum; and h rrihte ansunde arison. aa se hengylda t geseah, a astrehte he hine to Iohannes fotum, and syan ferde to am heahgerefan, and him a wundra mid hluddre stemne cydde. H a begen one apostol gesohton, his miltsunge biddende. a bead se apostol him seofon nihta fsten, and hi sian gefullode; and hi fter am fulluhte towurpon eall heora deofolgyld, and mid heora maga fultume, and mid eallum crfte arrdon Gode mre cyrcan on s apostoles wurmynte.

But the chief idolater still refused with great perverseness, and said that he would not believe unless John drank poison, and through God's might overcame the deadly drink. Then said the apostle, "Though thou give me poison, through God's name it shall not hurt me." Then said the idolater Aristodemus, "Thou shalt first see another drink it, and instantly die, that so at least thy heart may fear the death-bearing drink." John answered him, "If thou wilt believe in God, I will fearless receive this drink." Then Aristodemus went to the prefect, and took from his prison two thieves, and gave them the poison before all the people, in the presence of John; and they immediately after the drink died. Then the idolater gave the venomous drink also to the apostle, and he having armed his mouth and all his body with the sign of the rood, and exorcised the poison in God's name, with bold heart drank it all. Aristodemus then and the people beheld the apostle three hours of the day, and saw him having a glad countenance, without paleness and fear: and they all cried, "There is one true God, whom John worshippeth." Then said the idolater to the apostle, "Yet I doubt; but if thou, in the name of thy God, wilt raise up these dead thieves, then will my heart be cleansed from every doubt." Then said John, "Aristodemus, take my tunic, and lay it on the corpses of the dead men, and say, 'The apostle of Jesus Christ hath sent me to you, that ye in his name may arise from death, and that every man may know that death and life minister to my Saviour.'" He {75}then, at the apostle's command, bare his tunic, and laid it on the two dead ones, and they forthwith rose up whole. When the idolater saw that, he prostrated himself at the feet of John, and then went to the prefect, and announced to him those miracles with a loud voice. Then they both sought the apostle, praying for his compassion: whereupon the apostle enjoined them a fast of seven days, and afterwards baptized them; and after their baptism they cast down all their idols, and with the aid of their kinsmen, and with all art, raised a great church to God in honour of the apostle.

aa se apostol ws nigon and hund-nigontig geara, a teowode him Drihten Crist mid am orum apostolum, e h of isum life genumen hfde, and cw, "Iohannes, cum to me; tima is t u mid inum gebrorum wistfullige on minum gebeorscipe." Iohannes a ars, and eode wi s Hlendes; ac he him to cw, "Nu on sunnan-dg, mines ristes dge, u cymst to me:" and fter am worde Drihten gewende to heofenum. Se apostol micclum blissode on am behte, and on am sunnan-uhtan rwacol to re cyrcan com, and am folce, fram hancrede o undern, Godes gerihta lrde, and him mssan gesang, and cw t se Hlend hine on am dge to heofonum gelaod hfde. Het a delfan his byrgene wi t weofod, and t greot ut-awegan. And h eode cucu and gesund into his byrgene, and astrehtum handum to Gode clypode, "Drihten Crist, ic ancige e t u me gelaodest to inum wistum: u wst t ic mid ealre heortan e gewilnode. Oft ic e bd t ic moste to e faran, ac u cwde t ic anbidode, t ic e mare folc gestrynde. u heolde minne lichaman wi lce besmittennysse, and u simle mine sawle onlihtest, and me nahwar ne forlete. u settest on minum mue inre sofstnysse word, and ic awrat a lare e ic of inum mue gehyrde, and a wundra e ic e wyrcan geseah. Nu ic e betce, Drihten! ine bearn, a e in gelaung, mden and {76}moder, urh wter and one Halgan Gast, e gestrynde. Onfoh me to minum gebrorum mid am e u come, and me gelaodest. Geopena ongean me lifes geat, t ra eostra ealdras me ne gemeton. u eart Crist, s lifigendan Godes Sunu, u e be ines Fder hse middangeard gehldest, and us one Halgan Gast asendest. e we heria, and ancia inra menigfealdra goda geond ungeendode worulde. Amen."

When the apostle was ninety-nine years old the Lord Christ appeared to him with the other apostles, whom he had taken from this life, and said, "John, come to me; it is time that thou with thy brethren shouldst feast at my banquet." John then arose, and went towards Jesus. But he said to him, "Lo, on Sunday, the day of my resurrection, thou shalt come to me:" and after those words the Lord returned to heaven. The apostle greatly rejoiced in that promise, and at sunrise early rising came to the church, and from cock-crowing until the third hour, taught God's law, and sang mass to them, and said, that the Saviour had called him to heaven on that day. He then ordered his grave to be dug opposite the altar, and the dust to be removed; and he went quick and whole into his grave, and with outstretched hands cried to God, "Lord Christ, I thank thee that thou hast invited me to thy banquet: thou knowest that with all my heart I have desired thee. Oft have I prayed thee that I might go to thee, but thou saidst that I should abide, that I might gain more people to thee. Thou hast preserved my body against every pollution, and thou hast ever illumined my soul, and hast nowhere forsaken me. Thou hast set in my mouth the word of thy truth, and I have written down the lore which I heard from thy mouth, and the wonders which I saw thee work. Now I commit to thee, Lord! thy {77}children, those which thy church, maiden and mother, through water and the Holy Ghost have gained to thee. Receive me to my brothers with whom thou camest and invitedst me. Open towards me the gate of life, that the princes of darkness may not find me. Thou art Christ, Son of the living God, who, at thy Father's behest, hast saved the world, and hast sent us the Holy Ghost. Thee we praise and thank for thy manifold benefits throughout the world eternal. Amen."

fter ysum gebede teowode heofenlic leoht bufon am apostole, binnon re byrgene, ane tid swa beorhte scinende, t nanes mannes gesih s leohtes leoman sceawian ne mihte; and he mid am leohte his gast ageaf am Drihtne e hine to his rice gelaode. He gewt swa freoh fram deaes sarnysse, of isum andweardan life, swa swa he ws lfremed fram lichamlicere gewemmednysse. Solice syan ws his byrgen gemet mid mannan afylled. Manna ws gehaten se heofenlica mete, e feowertig geara afedde Israhela folc on westene. Nu ws se bigleofa gemett on Iohannes byrgene, and nan ing elles; and se mete is weaxende on hire o isne andweardan dg. r beo fela tacna teowode, and untrume gehlde, and fram eallum frecednyssum alysede, urh s apostoles ingunge. s him getia Drihten Crist, am is wuldor and wurmynt mid Fder and Halgum Gaste, butan ende. Amen.

After this prayer a heavenly light appeared above the apostle, within the grave, shining for an hour so bright, that no man's sight might look on the rays of light; and with that light he gave up his spirit to the Lord, who had invited him to his kingdom. He departed as joyfully from the pain of death, from this present life, as he was exempt from bodily defilement. Verily his grave was afterwards found filled with manna. Manna the heavenly meat was called which for forty years fed the people of Israel in the wilderness. Now this food was found in the grave of John, and nothing else, and the meat is growing in it to this present day. Many miracles have there been manifested, and sick healed, and released from all calamities through the apostle's intercession. This hath the Lord Christ granted unto him, to whom is glory and honour with the Father and the Holy Ghost, ever without end. Amen.





Nu to-dg Godes gelaung geond ealne ymbhwyrft mrsa ra eadigra cildra freols-tide, e se wlhreowa Herodes for Cristes acennednysse mid arleasre ehtnysse acwealde, swa swa us seo godspellice racu swutellice cy.

Now to-day God's church throughout all the globe celebrates the festival of the blessed children whom the cruel Herod, on account of the birth of Christ, slew in impious persecution, as the evangelical narrative manifestly makes known to us.


Matheus awrat, on re forman Cristes bec, ysum wordum be s Hlendes gebyrd-tide, and cw, "aa se Hlend acenned ws on re Iudeiscan Bethleem, on Herodes dagum cyninges, efne a comon fram east-dle middangeardes ry tungel-witegan to re byrig Hierusalem, us befrinende, Hwr is Iudeiscra leoda Cyning, see acenned is? We gesawon solice his steorran on east-dǽle, and we comon to i t we s to him gebiddon. Hwt a Herodes cyning is gehyrende wear micclum astyred, and eal seo burhwaru samod mid him. He a gesamnode ealle a ealdor-biscopas, and s folces boceras, and befran hwr Cristes cenningstw wre. H sdon, on re Iudeiscan Bethleem. us solice is awriten urh one witegan Micheam, Eala u Bethleem, Iudeisc land, ne eart u nateshwn wacost burga on Iudeiscum ealdrum: of e cym se Heretoga see gewylt and gewissa Israhela folc. a clypode Herodes a ry tungel-witegan on sunder-sprce, and geornlice h befrn to hwilces timan se steorra him rst teowode, and asende h to Bethleem, us cweende, Fara ardlice, and befrna be am cilde, and onne ge hit gemeta, cya me, t ic mge me to him gebiddan. a tungel-witegan ferdon fter s cyninges sprce, and efne a se steorra, e h on east-dǽle gesawon, glad him beforan, o t he gestd bufon am gesthse, r t cild on wunode. Hi geswon one steorran, and earle blissodon. Eodon a inn, and t cild gemetton mid Marian his meder, and nierfeallende h to him gebǽdon. Hi geopenodon heora hrdfatu, and him lc geoffrodon, gold, and recels, and myrram. Hwt a God on swefne h gewarnode and bebead t hi eft ne cyrdon to an rean cyninge Herode, ac urh oerne weg hine forcyrdon, and swa to heora eele becomon. Efne a Godes engel teowode Iosepe, s cldes foster-fder, on swefnum, cweende, 'Ars, and nim is cild mid re meder, and fleoh to Egypta lnde, and beo r o t ic e eft secge: solice toweard is t Herodes smea h h t cild ford.' Ioseph {80}a ars nihtes, and t cild mid re meder samod to Egypta lnde ferede, and r wunode o t Herodes gewt; t seo witegung wre gefylled, e be re fare r us cw, Of Egypta lnde ic geclypode minne sunu."


Matthew wrote, in the first book of Christ, in these words, of the birth-time of Jesus, and said, "When Jesus was born in the Judan Bethlehem, in the days of Herod the king, behold there came from the east part of the earth three astrologers to the city of Jerusalem, thus inquiring, Where is the King of the Jewish people, who is born? Verily we saw his star in the east part, and we come in order that we may worship him. Now king Herod hearing this was greatly troubled, and all the citizens together with him. He then assembled all the chief bishops and scribes of the people, and inquired where the birthplace of Christ might be. They said, In the Judan Bethlehem. Thus verily it is written by the prophet Micah, Ah thou Bethlehem, Judan land, thou art in no wise meanest of cities among the Jewish princes: of thee shall come the Ruler who shall rule and govern the people of Israel. Then Herod called the three astrologers in separate discourse, and diligently questioned them at what time the star had first appeared to them, and sent them to Bethlehem, thus saying, Go instantly, and inquire concerning the child, and when ye find it, let me know, that I may worship him. After the king's speech the astrologers went, and lo, the star which they had seen in the east part glided before them, till it stood over the inn in which the child was staying. They saw the star and greatly rejoiced. They then went in, and found the child with Mary his mother, and falling down they worshipped him. They opened their cases of treasure and offered him gifts, gold, and frankincense, and myrrh. Then God warned them in a dream, and commanded, that they should not return to the cruel king Herod, but should turn through another way, and so come to their own country. Lo, God's angel appeared to Joseph, the child's foster-father, in a dream, saying, 'Arise, and take this child with the mother, and flee to the land of Egypt, and be there until I speak to thee again: for it will come to pass that Herod will devise how he may fordo the child.' {81}Joseph then arose by night, and conveyed the child together with the mother to the land of Egypt, and there staid until Herod departed; that the prophecy might be fulfilled which of old thus spake of that journey, From the land of Egypt I have called my son."

Nu secga wyrd-writeras t Herodes betwux isum wear gewrged to am Romaniscan casere, e ealne middangeard on am timan geweold. a gewende he to Rome, be s caseres hse, t he hine betealde, gif he mihte. a betealde he hine swie geaplice, swa swa he ws snotorwyrde to an swie, t se casere hine mid maran wurmynte ongean to Iudeiscum rice asende. aa he ham com, a gemunde he hwt he r be an cilde gemynte, and geseah t he ws bepht fram am tungel-witegum, and wear a earle gegremod. Sende a his cwelleras, and ofsloh ealle a hyse-cild, e wǽron on re byrig Bethleem, and on eallum hyre gemrum, fram twywintrum cilde to anre nihte, be re tide e h geaxode t am tungel-witegum. a ws gefylled Hieremias wtegung, e us witegode, "Stemn is gehyred on heannysse, micel wp and oterung: Rachel beweop hire cildru, and nolde beon gefrefrod, foran e hi ne sind."

Now chroniclers say that in the meanwhile Herod was accused to the Roman emperor, who at that time ruled all the earth. He therefore went, by the emperor's command, to Rome, that he might clear himself, if he could. He cleared himself very cunningly, as he was so sagacious, that the emperor sent him back with great honour to the Jewish kingdom. When he came home he remembered what he had intended concerning the child, and saw that he had been deceived by the astrologers, and was exceedingly irritated. He then sent his executioners, and slew all the male children that were in the city of Bethlehem, and in all its boundaries, from the child of two years to that of one day, according to the time which he had inquired of the astrologers. Then was fulfilled the prophecy of Jeremiah, who thus prophesied, "A voice is heard on high, great weeping and wailing: Rachel wept for her children, and would not be comforted, because they are not."

On am twelftan dge Cristes acennednysse comon a ry tungel-witegan to Herode, and hine axodon be am acennedan cilde; and aa h his cenning-stowe geaxodon, a gewendon h wi s cildes, and noldon one rean cwellere eft gecyrran, swa swa he het. a ne mihte he forbugan s caseres hse, and ws a, urh his langsume fr, ra cildra slege geuferod swior onne he gemynt hfde; and h wurdon a on ysum dgerlicum dge wuldorfullice gemartyrode; na swa-eah s geares e Crist acenned ws, ac fter twegra geara ymbryne fter s wlhreowan hamcyme.

On the twelfth day of Christ's birth the three astrologers came to Herod, and informed him concerning the child that was born; and when they had discovered his birthplace, they went to the child, and would not return to the cruel murderer, as he had commanded. He might not then avoid the emperor's command, and, therefore, through his long journey, the slaughter of the children was delayed more than he had intended; and they were on this present day gloriously martyred; not, however, in the year that Christ was born, but after the course of two years after the return of the cruel tyrant.

Ns h elboren, ne him naht to am cynecynne ne gebyrode; ac mid syrewungum and swicdome he becom to {82}re cynelican geince; swa swa Moyses be am awrt, t ne sceolde ateorian t Iudeisce cynecynn, ot Crist sylf come. a com Crist on am timan e seo cynelice mig ateorode, and se lfremeda Herodes s rices geweold. a wear he micclum afyrht and anracode t his rice feallan sceolde, urh to-cyme s soan cyninges. a clypode h a tungel-witegan on sunder-sprce, and geornlice h befrn, on hwilcne timan h rest one steorran gesawon; foran e he ondred, swa swa hit gelamp, t h eft hine ne gecyrdon. a het he fory acwellan ealle a hyse-cild re burhscire, fram twywintrum cilde o anre nihte: ohte gif he h ealle ofsloge, t se n ne tburste e he sohte. Ac he ws ungemyndig s halgan gewrites, e cwy, "Nis nn wisdom, ne nn rd naht ongean God."

He was not of noble birth, nor did he belong to the royal race; but by artifices and deception he attained to the kingly {83}dignity; as Moses wrote concerning him, That the royal Jewish race should not decay until Christ himself came. Now Christ came at the time that the royal family was decayed, and the stranger Herod ruled the kingdom. Then was he greatly afraid and terrified lest his kingdom should fall through the coming of the true king. He called therefore the astrologers in separate converse, and diligently questioned them at what time they first saw the star; for he feared, as it came to pass, that they would not return to him. He therefore commanded all the children of that district, from the age of two years to that of one day, to be slain, that the one might not escape whom he sought. But he was unmindful of the holy scripture, which says, "No wisdom nor any counsel is aught against God."

Se swicola Herodes cw to am tungel-witegum, "Fara, and geornlice befrina be am cilde, and cya me, t ic eac mage me to him gebiddan." Ac he cydde syan his facenfullan syrewunge, hu he ymbe wolde, gif he hine gemette, aa he ealle his efenealdan adylegode for his anes ehtnysse. earfls he syrwde ymbe Crist: ne com he fory t he wolde his eorlice rice, oe niges ores cyninges mid riccetere him to geteon; ac to i h com t he wolde his heofenlice rice geleaffullum mannum forgyfan. Ne com he to y t he wre on mrlicum cynesetle ahafen, ac t he wre mid hospe on rode hengene genglod. He wolde eah s wlhreowan syrewunge mid fleame forbugan, na fori t he dea forfluge, see sylfwilles to rowienne middangearde genealhte; ac hit wre to hrdlic, gif he a on cild-cradole acweald wurde, swilce onne his to-cyme mancynne bedglod wre; i forhradode Godes engel s arleasan geeaht, and bebead t se foster-fder one heofenlican eling of am earde ardlice ferede.

The treacherous Herod said to the astrologers, "Go, and diligently inquire concerning the child, and let me know, that I may worship him." But he manifested afterwards his guileful artifice, how he would have done, if he had found him, when he destroyed all those of equal age, for the persecution of him alone. Needlessly he machinated against Christ: he came not because he would acquire for himself his earthly kingdom, or any other king's by violence; but he came because he would give his heavenly kingdom to believing men. He came not that he might be exalted on a pompous throne, but that he might with contumely be nailed hanging on a cross. Nevertheless, he would avoid the machination of the cruel tyrant by flight, not because he fled from death, who of his own will visited the world for the purpose of suffering; but it would have been too early, if he had been slain in the child's cradle, for his advent would then, as it were, be hidden from mankind; God's angel, therefore, prevented the impious counsel, and bade the foster-father convey the heavenly Prince forthwith from the country.

Ne forseah Crist his geongan cempan, eah e he lichamlice on heora slege andwerd nre; ac h asende h fram isum {84}wrcfullum life to his ecan rice. Geslige h wurdon geborene t hi moston for his intingan dea rowian. Eadig is heora yld, seoe a gyt ne mihte Crist andettan, and moste for Criste rowian. H wron s Hlendes gewitan, eah e h hine a gyt ne cuon. Nron h gerpode to slege, ac hi gesliglice eah swulton to life. Geslig ws heora acennednys, foran e h gemetton t ece lif on instpe s andweardan lifes. H wurdon gegripene fram moderlicum breostum, ac hi wurdon bethte rrihte engellicum bosmum. Ne mihte se mnfulla ehtere mid nanre enunge am lytlingum swa micclum fremian, swa micclum swa h him fremode mid re rean ehtnysse hatunge. H sind gehtene martyra blostman, foran e h wron sw sw up-aspringende blostman on middeweardan cyle ungeleaffulnysse, swilce mid sumere ehtnysse forste forsodene. Eadige sind a innoas e h gebron, and a breost e swylce gesihton. Witodlice a moddru on heora cildra martyrdome rowodon; t swurd e ra cildra lima urh-rn becm to ra moddra heortan; and neod is t h beon efenhlyttan s ecan edleanes, onne h wron geferan re rowunge. H wron gehwde and ungewittige acwealde, ac h arisa on am gemnelicum dome mid fullum wstme, and heofenlicere snoternysse. Ealle we cuma to anre ylde on am gemnelicum riste, eah e we nu on myslicere ylde of yssere worulde gewiton.

Christ despised not his young champions, though he was not bodily present at their slaughter; but he sent them from {85}this miserable life to his eternal kingdom. Blessed they were born that they might for his sake suffer death. Happy is their age, which could not yet acknowledge Christ, and might for Christ suffer. They were witnesses of Jesus, though they yet knew him not. They were not ripened for slaughter, yet they blessedly died to life. Blessed was their birth, because they found everlasting life at the entrance of this present life. They were snatched from their mothers' breasts, but they were instantly committed to the bosoms of angels. The wicked persecutor could not by any service so greatly favour those little ones, so greatly as he favoured them by the fierce hate of persecution. They are called blossoms of martyrs, because they were as blossoms springing up in the midst of the chill of infidelity, consumed, as it were, by the frost of persecution. Blessed are the wombs which bare them, and the breasts that such have sucked. Verily the mothers suffered through their children's martyrdom; the sword that pierced their children's limbs entered the hearts of the mothers, and it is needful that they be partakers of the eternal reward, when they were companions of the suffering. They were slain while little and witless, but they shall arise at the common doom in full growth, and with heavenly wisdom. We shall all come to one age at the common resurrection, although we now in various age depart from this world.

t godspel cwe t Rachel bewep hire cildra, and nolde beon gefrefrod, foran e h ne sind. Rachel hatte Iacobes wif, s heahfderes, and heo getacnode Godes gelaunge, e bewyp hire gastlican cild; ac heo nele swa beon gefrefrod, t h eft to woruldlicum gecampe gehwyrfon, a e ne mid sygefstum deae middangeard oferswidon, and his yrma twundon to wuldorbeagienne mid Criste.

The gospel says, that Rachel wept for her children, and would not be comforted, because they are not. Jacob the patriarch's wife was called Rachel, and she betokened God's church, which weeps for her ghostly children; but it will not so be comforted, that they again return to temporal strife, who once by a triumphant death have overcome the world, and escaped from its miseries to be crowned with glory with Christ.

Eornostlice ne breac se arleasa Herodes his cynerices mid langsumere gesundfulnysse, ac buton yldinge him becom seo {86}godcundlice wracu, e hine mid menigfealdre yrme fordyde, and eac geswutelode on hwilcum suslum he moste fter forsie ecelice cwylmian. Hine gelhte unasecgendlic adl; his lichama barn wiutan mid langsumere htan, and he eal innan samod forswled ws, and toborsten. Him ws metes micel lust, ac eah mid nanum tum his gyfernysse gefyllan ne mihte. He hriode, and egeslice hweos, and angsumlice siccetunga teah, swa t h earfolice orian mihte. Wter-seocnyss hine ofereode, beneoan am gyrdle, to an swie, t his gesceapu maan weollon, and stincende attor singallice of am toswollenum fotum fleow. Unaberendlic gyha ofereode ealne one lichaman, and ungelyfendlic toblawennys his inno geswencte. Him std stncende steam of am mue, swa t earfolice nig lce him mihte genealcan. Fela ra lca h acwealde; cw t h hine gehlan mihton and noldon. Hine gedrehte singal slpleast, swa t he urhwacole niht buton slpe adreah; and gif h hwon hnppode, rrihte hine drehton nihtlice gedwmor, swa t him s slpes ofuhte. aa h mid swilicum luste his lifes gewilnode, a ht h hine ferigan ofer a e Iordanen, rr wron gehfde hte bau, e wǽron halwende gecwedene adligendum lichaman. Wear a eac his lcum geuht t h on wlacum ele hine gebeedon. Ac aa h ws on issere beunge geld, a wear se lichama eal toslopen, swa t his eagan wendon on gelicnysse sweltendra manna, and h lg cwydeleas butan andgite. Eft aa he com, a het he hine ferigan to re byrig Hiericho.

But the impious Herod did not enjoy his kingdom in long healthfulness, for without delay the divine vengeance came {87}upon him, which afflicted him with manifold misery, and also manifested in what torments he must after death eternally suffer. An unspeakable disease seized him; his body burned without with a lasting heat, and all within he was inflamed and bursten. He had great craving for food, but yet with no viands could he satisfy his voracity, and fearfully rotted away, and dolefully fetched sighs, so that he could with difficulty breathe. Dropsy came on him, beneath the girdle, to that degree that his members swarmed with vermin, and stinking venom ever flowed from his swollen feet. Unbearable palsies spread over his whole body, and incredible inflation afflicted his entrails. Stinking vapour proceeded from his mouth, so that hardly any leech could approach him. Many of the leeches he slew; he said that they might heal him and would not. Constant sleeplessness afflicted him, so that he passed the whole night without sleep; and if he dozed a little, nightly phantoms immediately tormented him, so that he repented of his sleep. As he with violent longing desired his life, he commanded to be conveyed over the river Jordan, where there were hot baths, which were said to be salutary to diseased bodies. It then seemed good to his leeches that they should bathe him in lukewarm oil. But when he was led to this bathing, the body was all relaxed, so that his eyes turned to the likeness of dead men's, and he lay speechless, without sense. When he came to, he commanded to be borne to the city of Jericho.

aa he wear his lifes orwene, a gelaode he him to ealle a Iudeiscan ealdras of gehwilcum burgum, and het h on cwearterne beclysan, and gelangode him to his swustur Salome and hire wer Alexandrum, and cw, "Ic wt t is Iudeisce folc micclum blissigan wile mines deaes; ac ic mg habban arwurfulle lc-enunge of heofigendre menigu, gif ge willa minum bebodum gehyrsumian. Swa ricene swa ic gewte, ofslea ealle as Iudeiscan ealdras, e ic on {88}cwearterne beclysde, onne beo heora siblingas to heofunge geneadode, a e wylla mines forsies fagnian." He a his cempan to am slege genamode, and het heora lcum fiftig scyllinga to sceatte syllan, t hi heora handa fram am blodes gyte ne wibrudon. aa h mid ormtre angsumnysse ws gecwylmed, a het he his agenne sunu Antpatrem arleaslice acwellan, to-eacan am twam e h r acwealde. t nextan, aa h gefredde his deaes nealcunge, a het he him his seax arcan to screadigenne nne ppel, and hine sylfne hetelice yde, t him on acwehte. yllic ws Herodes forsi, e mnfullice ymbe s heofenlican elinges to-cyme syrwde, and his efen-ealdan lytlingas unscige arleaslice acwealde.

When he was hopeless of life he called to him all the Jewish elders from every city, and ordered them to be confined in prison, and sent for his sister Salome and her husband Alexander, and said, "I know that this Jewish people will greatly rejoice at my death; but I may have an honourable funeral attendance of a mourning multitude, if ye will obey my commands. As soon as I depart, slay all the Jewish elders whom {89}I have confined in prison, then will their relations be compelled to mourn, who will rejoice at my departure." He then appointed his soldiers to that slaughter, and commanded fifty shillings as reward to be given to each of them, that they might not withdraw their hands from the shedding of blood. When he was tormented with intense agony he wickedly commanded his own son Antipater to be killed, in addition to the two whom he had killed previously. At last, when he was sensible of his death's approach, he commanded them to reach him his knife to shred an apple, and violently stabbed himself, so that it quaked in him. Such was the death of Herod, who wickedly machinated on the coming of the heavenly Prince, and impiously killed the innocent little ones, his equals in age.

Efne a Godes engel, fter Herodes deae, teowode Iosepe on swefnum, on Egypta lande, us cweende, "Ars, and nim t cild and his moder samod, and gewend ongean to Israhela lande; solice h sind forfarene, ae ymbe s cildes feorh syrwdon." H a ars, swa swa se engel him bebead, and ferode t cild mid re meder to Israhela lande. a gefrn Ioseph t Archelaus rixode on Iudea lande, fter his fder Herode, and ne dorste his neawiste genealcan. a wear he eft on swefne gemynegod t he to Galilea gewende, foran e se eard ns ealles swa gehende am cyninge, eah e hit his rice wre. t cild a eardode on re byrig e is gehaten Nazareth, t seo wtegung wre gefylled, e cw, t he sceolde beon Nazarenisc geciged. Se engel cw to Iosepe, "a sind forfarene, e embe s cildes feorh syrwdon." Mid am worde he geswutelode t m ra Iudeiscra ealdra embe Cristes cwale smeadon; ac him getimode swie rihtlice t h mid heora arleasan hlaforde ealle forwurdon.

Lo, then, God's angel, after the death of Herod, appeared to Joseph in a dream, in the land of Egypt, thus saying, "Arise, and take the child together with his mother, and go again to the land of Israel; for they are dead, who machinated against the child's life." He then arose, as the angel had commanded him, and conveyed the child with the mother to the land of Israel. Then Joseph learned that Archelaus reigned in Juda after Herod his father, and he durst not approach his presence. Then again he was admonished in a dream that he should go to Galilee, because the country there was not quite so near to the king, though it was in his kingdom. The child then dwelt in the city which is called Nazareth, that the prophecy might be fulfilled, which said, that he should be called a Nazarene. The angel said to Joseph, "They are dead who machinated against the child's life." With that word he manifested that more of the Jewish elders meditated the slaying of Christ; but it befell them very rightly, that they with their impious lord all perished.

Nelle we as race na leng teon, yls e hit eow ryt ince; ac bidda eow ingunge t ysum unscigum martyrum. Hi sind a e Criste folgia on hwitum gyrlum, {90}swa hwider swa h g; and h standa tforan his rymsetle, butan lcere gewemmednysse, hbbende heora palmtwigu on handa, and singa one niwan lofsang, am lmihtigan to wurmynte, see leofa and rixa butan ende. Amen.

We will not longer extend this narrative, lest it may seem tedious to you, but will pray for the intercession of these innocent martyrs for you. They are those who follow Christ {91}in white garments, whithersoever he goeth; and they stand before his throne, without any impurity, having their palm-twigs in hand, and sing the new hymn in honour of the Almighty, who liveth and ruleth ever without end. Amen.





Se Godspellere Lucas beleac is dgerlice godspel mid feawum wordum, ac hit is mid menigfealdre mihte re heofenlican gerynu afylled. He cw, "Postquam consummati sunt dies octo ut circumcideretur puer, uocatum est nomen ejus Iesus, quod uocatum est ab angelo, priusquam in utero conciperetur." t is on ure geeode, "fter an e wǽron gefyllede ehta dagas Drihtnes acennednysse t he ymbsniden wre, a ws his nama geciged Iesus, t is Hlend, am naman he ws gehten fram am engle, ram e h on innoe geeacnod wre."

The evangelist Luke concluded the gospel of this day with few words, but they are filled with a manifold power of the heavenly mysteries. He said, "Postquam consummati sunt dies octo ut circumcideretur puer, vocatum est nomen ejus Jesus, quod vocatum est ab angelo, priusquam in utero conciperetur." That is in our tongue, "After that the eight days were accomplished from the Lord's birth, that he should be circumcised, his name was called Jesus, that is Saviour, by which name he was called by the angel before he was conceived in the womb."

Abraham se heahfder ws rest manna ymbsniden, be Godes hse. Abraham ws Godes gespreca, and God to him genam geoftrdene fter Noes flde swiost, and him to cw, "Ic eom lmihtig Drihten, gang beforan me, and beo fulfremed. And ic sette min wed betwux me and e; and ic e earle gemenigfylde, and u bist manegra eoda fder. Cyningas aspringa of e, and ic sette min wed betwux me and e, and inum ofspringe fter e, t ic beo in God and ines ofspringes." Abraham hine astrehte eallum limum to eoran, and God him to cw, "Heald u min wed, and in ofspring fter e on heora mgum. is is min wed, t ge healdan sceolon betwux me and eow; t lc hyse-cild on eowrum cynrene beo ymbsniden: t tcn sy betwux me and eow. lc hyse-cild, onne hit eahta nihta {92}eald bi, sy ymbsniden, ger ge elboren ge eowetling; and see is forgi his sawul losa, foran e h min wed adlode. Ne beo u geciged heonon-for Abram, ac Abraham, foran e ic gesette e manegra eoda fder. Ne in wif ne beo gehaten Sara, ac beo gehaten Sarra; and ic h gebletsige, and of hire ic e sylle sunu, one u gecigest Isaac; and ic sette min wed to him and to his ofspringe on ecere fstnunge. And fter re sprce se lmihtiga up gewende." On am ylcan dge ws Abraham ymbsniden, and eal his hyred, and syan his sunu Isaac, on am eahtoan dge his acennednysse.

The patriarch Abraham was the first man circumcised by God's command. Abraham spake with God, and God held converse most with him after Noah's flood, and said, "I am the Lord Almighty; walk before me and be perfect. And I will set my covenant betwixt me and thee, and I will exceedingly multiply thee, and thou shalt be the father of many nations. Kings shall spring from thee, and I will set my covenant betwixt me and thee, and thy offspring after thee, that I am the God of thee and of thy offspring." Abraham prostrated himself with all his limbs to the earth, and God said to him, "Hold thou my covenant, and thy offspring after thee in their tribes. This is my covenant, which ye shall hold betwixt me and you; that every male child in your tribe shall be circumcised: be that a sign betwixt me and you. Let every {93}male child, when it is eight nights old, be circumcised, both the noble-born and the slave; and he who neglecteth this, his soul shall perish, because he hath disregarded my covenant. Now be thou henceforth called not Abram, but Abraham, because I will establish thee as the father of many nations. Nor be thy wife called Sarai, but be called Sarah; and I will bless her, and of her I will give thee a son whom thou shalt call Isaac; and I will set my covenant with him and his offspring for everlasting duration. And after this speech the Almighty went up." On the same day Abraham was circumcised, and all his household, and afterwards his son Isaac, on the eighth day from his birth.

Abrahames nama ws t fruman mid fif stafum gecweden, Abram, t is, 'Healic fder'; ac God geyhte his naman mid twam stafum, and gehet hine Abraham, t is, 'Manegra eoda fder'; foran e God cw, t he hine gesette manegum eodum to fder. Sara ws his wf gehaten, t is gereht, 'Min ealdor,' ac God hi het syan Sarra, t is, 'Ealdor,' t heo nre synderlice hire hiredes ealdor geciged, ac forrihte 'Ealdor'; t is to understandenne ealra gelyfedra wifa moder. Hund-teontig geara ws Abraham, and his gebedda hund-nigontig, ran e him cild gemne wre. aa him cild com, a com hit mid Godes foresceawunge and bletsunge to an swie, t God behet eallum mancynne bletsunge urh his cynn. a heold Abrahames cynn symle syan Godes wed; and se heretoga Moyses, and eal Israhela mg ealle hi ymbsnidon heora cild on am eahtoan dge, and him naman gesceopon, o t Crist on menniscnysse acenned wear, see fulluht astealde, and re ealdan ǽ getacnunge to gastlicere sofstnysse awende.

Abraham's name was at first spoken with five letters, 'Abram,' that is High father; but God increased his name with two letters, and called him Abraham, that is Father of many nations: for God said that he had appointed him for father of many nations. His wife was called Sarai, which is interpreted, My chief; but God called her afterwards Sarah, that is Chief; that she might not be exclusively called her family's chief, but absolutely chief; which is to be understood, mother of all believing women. An hundred years old was Abraham, and his consort ninety, before they had a child between them. When a child came to them, it came so much with God's providence and blessing, that God promised blessing to all mankind through his kin. Then Abraham's kin ever held God's covenant; and the leader Moses, and all the tribe of Israel, circumcised their children on the eighth day, and gave them names, until Christ was born in human nature, who established baptism, and changed the token of the old law to spiritual righteousness.

Wn is t eower sum nyte hwt sy ymbsnidennys. God bebead Abrahame, t he sceolde and his ofspring his wed healdan; t sum tacn wre on heora lichaman to geswutelunge t hi on God belyfdon, and het t he nme scearpecgedne flint, and forcurfe sumne dl s felles t {94}foreweardan his gesceape. And t tacn ws a swa micel on geleaffullum mannum, swa micel swa nu is t halige fulluht, buton am anum t nan man ne mihte Godes rice gefaran, ran e se come e a ealdan ǽ sette, and eft on his andwerdnysse h to gastlicum ingum awende: ac gehwylce halgan andbidodon on Abrahames wununge buton tintregum, eah on helle-wite, ot se Alysend com, e one ealdan deofol gewylde, and his gecorenan to heofenan rice geldde.

It is probable that some of you know not what circumcision is. God commanded Abraham, that he and his offspring should hold his covenant; that there might be some sign on their bodies to show that they believed in God, and commanded him to take a sharp-edged flint, and cut off a {95}part of the foreskin. And that token was then as great among believing men as is now the holy baptism, excepting only that no man could go to God's kingdom, before He came who should confirm the old law, and afterwards, by his presence, turn it to a spiritual sense: but every holy man abode in Abraham's dwelling, without torments, although in hell, until the Redeemer came, who overcame the old devil, and led his chosen to the kingdom of heaven.

Se ylca Hlend, e nu egefullice and halwendlice clypa on his godspelle, "Buton gehwa beo ge-edcenned of wtere and of am Halgum Gaste, ne mg he faran into heofenan rice," se ylca clypode gefyrn urh a ealdan ǽ, "Swa hwylc hyse-cild swa ne bi ymbsniden on am fylmene his flsces his sawul losa, foran e he aydlode min wed." is tacen std on Godes folce o t Crist sylf com, and he sylf ws re halgan ǽ undereod e he gesette, t he a alysde e neadwislice re ǽ undereodde wron. He cw t he ne cme to y t he wolde a ealdan ǽ towurpan, ac gefyllan. a wear he on am eahtoan dge his gebyrd-tide lichamlice ymbsniden, swa swa he sylf r thte; and mid am geswutelode t seo ealde ǽ ws halig and gd on hire timan, am e hire gehyrsume wron. Hit ws gewunelic t a magas sceoldon am cilde naman gescyppan on am eahtoan dge mid re ymbsnidennysse, ac h ne dorston nnne oerne naman Criste gescyppan onne se heah-engel him gesette, ran e h on his modor innoe geeacnod wre, t is, Iesus, and on urum gereorde, Hlend, foran e he gehl his folc fram heora synnum.

The same Saviour, who now awfully and salutarily cries in his gospel, "Unless anyone be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot go to the kingdom of heaven," the same cried of old, through the old law, "Whatever male child shall not be circumcised in the foreskin of his flesh, his soul shall perish, because he hath disregarded my covenant." This sign stood among God's people until Christ himself came, and he himself was subject to the holy law that he had established, that he might release those who had necessarily been subjected to the old law. He said that he came not to overthrow, but to fulfil the old law. Then on the eighth day from his birth he was bodily circumcised, as he himself had before taught, and thereby manifested that the old law was holy and good in its time for those who were obedient to it. It was usual that the parents should give a name to the child on the eighth day, with circumcision, but they durst not give any other name to Christ than what the archangel had fixed on for him, before he was conceived in his mother's womb, that is, Jesus, and in our tongue, Saviour, because he shall save his people from their sins.

Nis nu alyfed cristenum mannum t hi as ymbsnidennysse lichamlice healdan, ac eah-hwere nan man ne bi solice cristen, buton he a ymbsnidennysse on gastlicum eawum gehealde. Hwt getacna s fylmenes of-cyrf on am gesceape, buton galnysse wanunge? Eae mihte es cwyde beon lwedum mannum bediglod, nre seo gastlice getacning. Hit inc ungelredum mannum dyselig to {96}gehyrenne; ac gif hit him dyslic ince, onne cide he wi God, e hit gesette, na wi us, e hit secga. Ac wite gehwa to gewissan, buton he his flsclican lustas and galnysse gewanige, t he ne hylt his cristendm mid rihtum biggenge. Be ysum inge ge habba oft gehyred, ac us is acumendlicere eower gebelh, onne s lmihtigan Godes grama, gif we his bebodu forsuwia. Gif ge willa fter menniscum gesceade lybban, onne sind ge gastlice ymbsnidene; gif ge onne eowere galnysse undereodde beo, onne beo ge swa se witega cw, "Se mann aa he on wurmynte ws he hit ne understod; he is fory wimeten stuntum nytenum, and is him gelc geworden."

It is not now allowed to christian men to observe circumcision bodily, but, nevertheless, no man is truly a christian, unless he observe circumcision in spiritual conduct. What does the amputation of the foreskin betoken but decrease of lust? This discourse might easily be concealed from the laymen, were it not for its spiritual signification. To unlearned men it seems foolish to hear; but if it seems foolish {97}to him, let him chide God, who established it, not us, who say it. But let everyone know for certain, unless he diminish his fleshly lusts and wantonness, that he holds not his christianity with right observance. Of this matter ye have often heard, but to us your displeasure is more tolerable than the anger of Almighty God, if we announce not his commandments. If ye will live according to human reason, then are ye spiritually circumcised; but if ye will be subjected to your libidinousness, then will ye be as the prophet said, "Man, when he was in dignity understood it not; he is, therefore, compared with the foolish beasts, and is become like unto them."

Fory sealde God mannum gesced, t hi sceoldon oncnawan heora Scyppend, and mid biggenge his beboda t ece lif geearnian. Witodlice se fyrenfulla bi earmra onne nig nyten, foran e t nyten nf nane sawle, ne nfre ne ge-edcuca, ne a toweardan wita ne rowa. Ac we e sind to Godes anlicnysse gesceapene, and habba nateorigendlice saule, we sceolon of deae arsan, and agyldan Gode gescead ealra ura geohta, and worda, and weorca. Ne sceole we fory sinderlice on anum lime beon ymbsnidene, ac we sceolon a fulan galnysse symle wanian, and ure eagan fram yfelre gesihe awendan, and earan from yfelre heorcnunge; urne m fram leasum sprcum, handa fram mnddum; ure fotwylmas fram deadbrum sifte, ure heortan fram facne. Gif we swa fram leahtrum ymbsnidene beo, onne bi s geset nwe nama; swa swa se wtega Isaas cw, "God gecg his eowan orum naman." Eft se ylca wtega cw, "u bist gecged niwum naman, one e Godes m genemnode." Se nwa nama is 'Cristianus,' t is, Cristen. Ealle we sind of Criste cristene gehtene, ac we sceolon one arwurfullan naman mid elum eawum geglengan, t we ne beon lease cristene. Gif we as gastlican ymbsnidennysse on urum eawum healda, onne sind we Abrahames cynnes, fter soum geleafan; swa swa se eoda lareow Paulus {98}cw to geleaffullum, "Gif ge sind Cristes, onne sind ge Abrahames sǽd, and fter behate yrfenuman." Petrus eac se apostol tihte geleaffulle wf to eadmodnysse and gemetfstnysse, us cweende, "Swa swa Sarra gehyrsumode Abrahame, and hine hlaford het, re dohtra ge sind, wel donde and na ondrdende nige gedrefednysse."

Therefore has God given reason to men that they might acknowledge their Creator, and by observance of his commandments, merit eternal life. Verily the wicked man is more miserable than any beast, because the beast has no soul, nor will ever be quickened again, nor suffer future punishments. But we, who are created after God's likeness, and have an unperishable soul, we shall arise from death, and render to God an account of all our thoughts, and words, and works. Therefore we should not merely be circumcised in one member, but should constantly diminish foul libidinousness, and turn our eyes from evil seeing, and ears from evil hearing; our mouth from leasing speeches, hand from wicked deeds; our footsteps from the deadly path, our hearts from guile. If we are thus circumcised from sins, then will a new name be given us, as the prophet Isaiah said, "God will call his servants by other names." Again, the same prophet said, "Thou shall be called by a new name, which the mouth of God hath named." That new name is 'Christianus,' that is, Christian. We are all from Christ called christians, but we should adorn that honourable name with exalted morals, that we be not false christians. If we observe this spiritual circumcision in our morals, then are we of Abraham's kin, in true faith; as the apostle of the gentiles, Paul, said to {99}the faithful, "If ye are Christ's, then are ye of Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise." Peter the apostle also exhorted faithful women to humility and modesty, thus saying, "As Sarah obeyed Abraham and called him lord, whose daughters ye are, well doing and not fearing any affliction."

Se eahtoa dg, e t cild on ymbsniden ws, getacnode a eahtoan ylde yssere worulde, on re we arisa of deae ascyrede fram lcere brosnunge and gewemmednysse ures lichaman. t stnene sex, e t cild ymbsna, getacnode one stn e se apostol cw, "Se stn solice ws Crist." He cw ws for re getacnunge, na for edwiste. urh Cristes geleafan, and hiht, and soe lufe, beo singallice estfulle heortan mid dghwonlicere ymbsnidenysse afeormode fram leahtrum, and urh his gife onlihte.

The eighth day, on which the child was circumcised, betokened the eighth age of this world, in which we shall arise from death, parted from every earthly corruption and pollution of our body. The stone knife, which circumcised the child, betokened the stone of which the apostle said, "The stone verily was Christ." He said was, meaning a type, not in substance. Through belief, and hope, and true love of Christ, are pious hearts cleansed, by daily circumcision, from their sins, and through his grace enlightened.

We habba oft gehyred t men hata ysne dg geares dg, swylce es dg fyrmest sy on geares ymbryne; ac we ne gemeta nane geswutelunge on cristenum bocum, hw es dg to geares anginne geteald sy. a ealdan Romani, on henum dagum, ongunnon s geares ymbryne on ysum dge; and a Ebreiscan leoda on lenctenlicere emnihte; a Greciscan on sumerlicum sunstede; and a Egyptiscan eoda ongunnon heora geares getel on hrfeste. Nu ongin ure germ, fter Romaniscre gesetnysse, on ysum dge, for nanum godcundlicum gesceade, ac for am ealdan gewunan. Sume ure ening-bc onginna on Aduentum Domini; nis eah r fory s geares ord, ne eac on isum dge nis mid nnum gesceade; eah e ure germ-bc on issere stwe ge-edlcon. Rihtlicost bi geuht t s geares anginn on am dge sy gehfd, e se lmihtiga Scyppend sunnan, and mnan, and steorran, and ealra tida anginn gesette; t is on am dge e t Ebreisce folc heora geares getel onginna; swa swa se heretoga Moyses on am licum bocum awrt. Witodlice God cw to Moysen be am mone, "es mona is mona anginn, and he bi fyrmest on geares {100}monum." Nu heold t Ebreisce folc one forman geares dg on lenctenlicere emnihte, foran e on am dge wurdon gearlice tida gesette.

We have often heard that men call this day the day of the year, as if this day were first in the circuit of the year; but we find no explanation in christian books, why this day is accounted the beginning of the year. The old Romans, in heathen days, begun the circuit of the year on this day; and the Hebrew nations on the vernal equinox; the Greeks on the summer solstice; and the Egyptians begun their year at harvest. Now our calendar begins, according to the Roman institution, on this day, not for any religious reason, but from old custom. Some of our service-books begin on the Lord's Advent; but not on that account is that the beginning of the year, nor is it with any reason placed on this day; though our calendars, in this place, repeat it. Most rightly it has been thought that the beginning of the year should be observed on the day that the Almighty Creator placed the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the beginning of all the seasons; that is on the day that the Hebrew people begin the calculation of their year; as the leader Moses has written in the books of laws. Verily God said to Moses concerning that month, "This month is the beginning of months, and it {101}is first of the months of the year." Now the Hebrew people held the first day of the year on the vernal equinox, because on that day the yearly seasons were set.

Se eahteteoa dg s mones e we hta Martius, one ge hata Hlyda, ws se forma dg yssere worulde. On am dge worhte God leoht, and merigen, and fen. a edon ry dagas for buton tda gemetum; foran e tunglan nron gesceapene, r on am feoran dge. On am feoran dge gesette se lmihtiga ealle tungla and gearlice tda, and ht t h wǽron to tcne dagum and gearum. Nu ongynna a Ebreiscan heora geares anginn on am dge e ealle tida gesette wron, t is on am feoran dge woruldlicere gesceapenysse; and se lareow Beda tel mid micclum gesceade t se dg is XII. KL, one dg we freolsia am halgum were Benedick to wurmynte, for his micclum geincum. Hwt eac seo eore cy mid hire cium, e onne ge-edcucia, t se tima is t rihtlicoste geares anginn, e h on gesceapene wron.

The eighteenth day of the month that we call March, which ye call Hlyda, was the first day of this world. On that day God made light, and morning, and evening. Then three days went forth without any measure of times; for the heavenly bodies were not created before the fourth day. On the fourth day the Almighty fixed all the heavenly bodies, and the yearly seasons, and commanded that they should be for a sign, for days, and for years. Now the Hebrews begin their year on the day when all the seasons were appointed, that is on the fourth day of the world's creation, and the doctor Beda reckons, with great discretion, that that day is the twenty-first of March, the day which we celebrate in honour of the holy man Benedict, for his great excellencies. Aye, the earth also makes known by her plants, which then return to life, that the time at which they were created is the most correct beginning of the year.

Nu wglia stunte men menigfealde wgelunga on isum dge, mid micclum gedwylde, fter henum gewunan, ongean heora cristendom, swylce h magon heora lf gelengan, oe heora gesundfulnysse, mid am e h gremia one lmihtigan Scyppend. Sind eac manega mid swa micclum gedwylde befangene, t h cepa be am monan heora fr, and heora dda be dagum, and nella heora ing wanian on monan-dg, for anginne re wucan; ac se monan-dg nis na fyrmest daga on re wucan, ac is se oer. Se sunnan-dg is fyrmest on gesceapenysse and on endebyrdnysse, and on wurmynte. Secga eac sume gedwsmenn t sum orfcyn sy e man bletsigan ne sceole, and cwea t h urh bletsunge misfara, and urh wyrigunge geeo, and bruca onne Godes gife him on teonan, buton bletsunge, mid deofles awyrigednysse. lc bletsung is of Gode, and wyrigung of deofle. God gesceop ealle gesceafta, and deofol nane {102}gesceafta scyppan ne mg, ac he is yfel tihtend, and leas wyrcend, synna ordfruma, and sawla bepcend.

Now foolish men practise manifold divinations on this day, with great error, after heathen custom, against their christianity, as if they could prolong their life or their health, while they provoke the Almighty Creator. Many are also possessed with such great error, that they regulate their journeying by the moon, and their acts according to days, and will not undertake anything on Monday, because of the beginning of the week; though Monday is not the first day in the week, but is the second. Sunday is the first in creation, in order, and in dignity. Some foolish men also say, that there are some kinds of animals which one should not bless; and say that they decline by blessing, and by cursing thrive, and so enjoy God's grace to their injury, without blessing, with the devil's malediction. Every blessing is of God, and curse of the devil. God created all creatures, and the devil can create no creatures, for he is an inciter to evil, {103}and worker of falsehood, author of sins, and deceiver of souls.

a gesceafta e sind wyrlice geuhte, h sind to wrace gesceapene yfel-ddum. Oft halige men wunedon on westene betwux reum wulfum and leonum, betwux eallum deorcynne and wurmcynne, and him nan ing derian ne mihte; ac h totron a hyrnedan nddran mid heora nacedum handum, and a micclan dracan eaelice acwealdon, buton lcere dare, urh Godes mihte.

The creatures that are thought monstrous have been created for punishment of evil deeds. Holy men often dwelt in the waste among fierce wolves and lions, among all the beast kind and the worm kind, and nothing might harm them; but they tore the horned serpents with their naked hands, and the great snakes they easily slew, without any hurt, through God's might.

Wa am men e brc Godes gesceafta, buton his bletsunge, mid deofellicum wglungum, onne se eoda lareow cw, Paulus, "Swa hwt swa ge do on worde, oe on weorce, do symle on Drihtnes naman, ancigende am lmihtigan Fder urh his Bearn." Nis s mannes cristendom naht, e mid deoflicum wglungum his lf adrih; he is gehwod to cristenum men, and is earm hengylda; swa swa se ylca apostol be swylcum cw, "Ic wene t ic swunce on ydel, aa ic eow to Gode gebigde: nu ge cepa dagas and monas mid ydelum wglungum."

Woe to the man who uses God's creatures, without his blessing, with diabolical charms, when the apostle of the gentiles, Paul, has said, "Whatsoever ye do in word or in work, do always in the name of the Lord, thanking the Almighty Father through his Son." That man's christianity is naught, who passes his life in diabolical charms; he is in appearance a christian man, and is a miserable heathen; as the same apostle said of such, "I believe that I laboured in vain when I inclined you to God, now ye observe days and months with vain auguries."

Is hwere fter gecynde on gesceapennysse lc lichamlice gesceaft e eore acen fulre and mgenfstre on fullum monan onne on gewanedum. Swa eac treowa, gif h beo on fullum monan geheawene, h beo heardran and langfǽrran to getimbrunge, and swiost, gif h beo unspige geworhte. Nis is nan wglung, ac is gecyndelic incg urh gesceapenysse. Hwt eac seo sǽ wunderlice gewrlc s monan ymbrene; symle h beo geferan on wstme and on wanunge. And swa swa se mona dghwonlice feower pricon lator arist, swa eac seo sǽ symle feower pricum lator fleow.

Every bodily creature in the creation which the earth produces, is, however, according to nature, fuller and stronger in full moon than in decrease. Thus trees also, if they are felled in full moon, are harder and more lasting for building, and especially if they are made sapless. This is no charm, but is a natural thing from their creation. The sea too agrees wonderfully with the course of the moon; they are always companions in their increase and waning. And as the moon rises daily four points later, so also the sea flows always four points later.

Uton besettan urne hiht and ure gesla on s lmihtigan Scyppendes foresceawunge, see ealle gesceafta on rim ingum gesette, t is on gemete, and on getele, and on hefe. Sy him wuldor and lof on ecnysse. Amen.

Let us set our hope and our happiness in the providence of the Almighty Creator, who hath placed all creatures in three things; that is in measure, and in number, and in weight. Be to him glory and praise ever to eternity. Amen.







Men a leofostan, nu for feawum dagum we oferrddon is godspel tforan eow, e belimp to ysses dges enunge, for gereccednysse re godspellican endebyrdnysse; ac we ne hrepodon one traht na swior onne to s dges wurmynte belmp: nu wille we eft oferyrnan a ylcan godspellican endebyrdnysse, and be yssere andweardan freolstde trahtnian.

Most beloved men, a few days ago we read over this gospel before you, which belongs to the service of this day, for the interpretation of the evangelical narrative; but we did not touch on the exposition further than belonged to the dignity of that day: we will now again run over the same evangelical narrative, and expound it with regard to the present festival.

Matheus se Godspellere cw, "Cum natus esset Iesus in Bethleem Iud, in diebus Herodis regis, ecce Magi ab oriente uenerunt Hierosolimam, dicentes, Ubi est qui natus est Rex Iudeorum?" et reliqua. "aa se Hlend acenned ws on re Iudeiscan Bethleem, on Herodes dagum cyninges, efne a comon fram east-dle middangeardes ry tungel-witegan to re byrig Hierusalem, us befrnende, Hwr is Iudeiscra leoda Cyning, see acenned is?" etc.

Matthew the Evangelist said, "Cum natus esset Jesus in Bethlehem Jud, in diebus Herodis regis, ecce Magi ab oriente venerunt Hierosolymam, dicentes, Ubi est qui natus est Rex Judorum?" et reliqua. "When Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Juda, in the days of Herod the king, behold there came from the east part of the world three astrologers to the city of Jerusalem, thus inquiring, Where is the King of the Jews, who is born?" etc.

es dg is gehaten Epiphania Domini, t is Godes geswutelung-dg. On ysum dge Crist ws geswutelod am rym cyningum, e fram east-dle middangeardes hine mid rimfealdum lacum gesohton. Eft embe geara ymbrynum h wear on his fulluhte on ysum dge middangearde geswutelod, aa se Halga Gst, on culfran hwe, uppon him gereste, and s Fder stemn of heofenum hlde swegde, us cweende, "es is min leofa Sunu, e me wl lica; gehyra him." Eac on isum dge he awende wter to elum wine, and mid am geswutelode t he is se soa Scyppend, e a gesceafta awendan mihte. For isum rym ingum is es freols-dg Godes swutelung gecweden. On am forman dge his gebyrd-tide he wear teowed rym hyrdum on Iudeiscum earde, urh s engles bodunge. On am ylcum dge he wear gecydd am rym tungel-witegum on east-dle, urh one beorhtan steorran; ac on ysum dge {106}h comon mid heora lacum. Hit ws gedafenlic t se gesceadwisa engel hine cydde am gesceadwisum Iudeiscum, e Godes ǽ cuon, and am haenum, e s godcundan gesceades nyston na urh stemne, ac urh tacn wre geswutelod.

This day is called the Epiphany of the Lord, that is the day of God's manifestation. On this day Christ was manifested to the three kings, who, with threefold offerings, sought him from the eastern part of the world. Again, after a course of years, he was, at his baptism, manifested to the world, when the Holy Ghost, in likeness of a dove, rested upon him, and the voice of the Father sounded loudly from heaven, thus saying, "This is my beloved Son who well pleaseth me; obey him." On this day also he turned water to noble wine, and thereby manifested that he is the true Creator who could change his creatures. For these three reasons this festival is called the Manifestation of God. On the first day of his birth he was manifested to three shepherds in the Jewish country, through the announcement of the angel. On the same day he was made known to the three astrologers in the East, through the bright star: for on this day they came with {107}their offerings. It was fitting that the discreet angel should make him known to those discreet Jews, who knew God's law, and that he should be manifested to the heathens, who knew not the divine purpose, not through a voice, but by a sign.

a Iudeiscan hyrdas getcnodon a gastlican hyrdas, t sind a apostolas, e Crist geceas of Iudeiscum folce, s to hyrdum and to lareowum. a tungel-witegan, e wron on henscipe wunigende, hfdon getacnunge ealles henes folces, e wurdon to Gode gebgede urh ra apostola lre, e wron Iudeiscre eode. Solice se sealm-sceop awrt be Criste, t h is se hyrn-stan e gefeg a twegen weallas togdere, foran e he geeodde his gecorenan of Iudeiscum folce and a geleaffullan of henum, swilce twegen wagas to anre gelaunge; be am cw Paulus se apostol, "Se Hlend bodade on his to-cyme sibbe us e feorran wǽron, and sibbe am e gehende wǽron. He is ure sibb, see dyde ger to anum, towurpende a ǽrran feondscipas on him sylfum." a Iudeiscan e on Crist gelyfdon wron him gehndor stwlice, and eac urh cye re ealdan ǽ: we wron swie fyrlyne, ger ge stwlice ge urh uncye; ac he us gegaderode mid num geleafan to am healicum hyrn-stane, t is to annysse his gelaunge.

The Jewish shepherds betokened the spiritual shepherds, that is the apostles, whom Christ chose from the Jewish people, as shepherds for us and teachers. The astrologers, who were continuing in heathenism, betokened all heathen people who should be turned to God through the teaching of the apostles, who were of the Jewish nation. For the psalmist wrote concerning Christ, that he is the corner-stone which joins the two walls together, because he united his chosen of the Jewish people and the faithful of the heathen, as two walls, to one church; concerning which Paul the apostle said, "Jesus at his advent announced peace to us who were far off, and peace to those who were at hand. He is our peace, who hath made both one, abolishing all our former enmities in himself." The Jews who believed in Christ were nearer to him locally, and also through knowledge of the old law: we were very remote, both locally and through ignorance; but he gathered us with one faith to the high corner-stone, that is to the unity of his church.

a easternan tungel-wtegan geswon nwne steorran beorhtne, na on heofenum betwux orum tunglum, ac ws ngenga betwux heofenum and eoran. a undergeaton h t se seldcua tungel gebicnode s soan Cyninges acennednysse, on am earde e he ofergld; and fori comon to Iudea rice, and one arleasan cyning Herodem mid heora bodunge earle afǽrdon; foran e buton tweon seo eorlice arleasnys wear gescynd, aa seo heofenlice healicnyss wear geopenod.

The eastern astrologers saw a new bright star, not in heaven among other stars, but it was solitary between heaven and earth. Then understood they that the wondrous star indicated the birth of the true King in the country over which it glided; and they therefore came to the kingdom of Juda, and greatly terrified the impious king Herod by their announcement; for earthly wickedness was without doubt confounded, when the heavenly greatness was disclosed.

Swutol is t a tungel-witegan tocneowon Crist sone mann, aa h befrunon, "Hwr is se e acenned is?" H oncneowon hine sone Cyning, aa h cwdon, "Iudea {108}Cyning." H hine wurodon sone God, aa h cwdon, "We comon to y t we us to him gebiddan." Eae mihte God h gewissian urh one steorran to re byrig e t cild on ws, swa swa he his acennednysse urh s steorran up-spring geswutelode; ac he wolde t a Iudeiscan boceras a witegunge be am rddon, and swa his cenning-stowe geswutelodon, t h gehealdene wron, gif h woldon mid an tungel-witegum h to Criste gebiddan: gif h onne noldon, t h wurdon mid re geswutelunge genierode. a tungel-witegan ferdon and h gebdon, and a Iudeiscan boceras bftan belifon, e a cenning-stowe urh bclic gescead gebcnodon.

It is manifest that the astrologers knew Christ to be a true man, when they inquired, "Where is he who is born?" They knew him to be a true king, when they said, "King of {109}Juda." They worshipped him as true God, when they said, "We come that we may adore him." Easily might God have directed them by the star to the city in which the child was, as he had manifested his birth by the rising of that star; but he would that the Jewish scribes should read the prophecy concerning him, and so manifest his birth-place, that they might be saved if, with the astrologers, they would worship Christ: but if they would not, that they might by that manifestation be condemned. The astrologers went and worshipped, and the Jewish scribes remained behind, who had through book-knowledge pointed out the birth-place.

Ealle gesceafta oncneowon heora Scyppendes to-cyme, buton am arleasum Iudeiscum anum. Heofonas oncneowon heora Scyppend, aa h on his acennednysse nwne steorran teowdon. Sǽ oncneow aa Crist mid drium fot-wylmum ofer hyre ya mihtelice eode. Sunne oncneow, aa heo on his rowunge hire leoman fram mid-dge o nn behydde. Stanas oncneowon, aa h on his forsie sticmlum toburston. Seo eore oncneow, aa heo on his riste eall byfode. Hell oncneow, aa heo hire hftlingas unances forlet. And eah a heard-heortan Iudei noldon for eallum am tacnum one soan Scyppend tocnwan, e a dumban gesceafta undergeaton, and mid gebicnungum geswutolodon. Nron h swa-eah ealle endemes ungeleaffulle, ac of heora cynne wron ger ge wtegan ge apostolas, and fela usenda gelyfedra manna.

All creatures acknowledged their Creator's advent, save only the impious Jews. The heavens acknowledged their Creator, when they at his nativity displayed a new star. The sea acknowledged him, when Christ in his might with dry footsteps passed over its waves. The sun acknowledged him, when at his passion he hid his beams from mid-day till the ninth hour. The stones acknowledged him, when at his death they burst in pieces. The earth acknowledged him, when it all trembled at his resurrection. Hell acknowledged him, when it unwillingly released its captives. And yet the hard-hearted Jews would not for all those signs acknowledge the true Creator, whom the dumb creation knew, and by tokens manifested. They were not, however, all equally unbelieving, but of their race there were both prophets and apostles, and many thousands of believing men.

aa a tungel-witegan one cyning gecyrdon, a wear se steorra him ungesewen; and eft, aa h to am cilde gecyrdon, a gesawon h eft one steorran, and he a h geldde to am huse, r h inne wunode. Ne glad h ealne weig him tforan, ac syan h comon to Iudeiscum earde, syan he ws heora latteow, o t he bufan Cristes gesthuse tstod.

When the astrologers went to the king the star became invisible to them; and afterwards, when they went to the child, they again saw the star, which then led them to the house in which he was staying. It did not glide before them all the way, but after they came to the Jewish country it was their guide until it stopt above Christ's inn.

Herodes hfde deofles getacnunge; and se e fram Gode {110}bich to deofle he forlyst Godes gife, t is his modes onlihtinge, swa swa a tungel-witegan one steorran forluron, aa h one rean cyning gecyrdon. Gif he onne eft one deofol anrdlice forlǽt, onne gemt h eft s halgan Gastes gife, e his heortan onliht, and to Criste gelt.

Herod betokens the devil; and he who inclines from God {111}to the devil loses God's grace, that is the enlightening of his understanding, as the astrologers lost the star when they went to the cruel king. But if he afterwards resolutely forsake the devil, then will he again have found the grace of the Holy Ghost, which enlightens his heart and leads to Christ.

Us is eac to witenne, t wron sume gedwolmen e cwǽdon, t lc man beo acenned be steorrena gesetnyssum, and urh heora ymbryna him wyrd gelimpe, and nmon to fultume heora gedwylde t nwe steorra asprang aa Drihten lichamlice acenned wear, and cwdon t se steorra his gewyrd wre. Gewte is gedwyld fram geleaffullum heortum, t nig gewyrd sy, buton se lmihtiga Scyppend, see lcum men foresceawa lif be his geearnungum. Nis se man for steorrum gesceapen, ac a steorran sint mannum to nihtlicere lihtinge gesceapene. aa se steorra gld, and a tungel-witegan geldde, and him s cildes inn gebcnode, a geswutelode he t he ws Cristes gesceaft, and rihtlice his Scyppende enode: ac h ns his gewyrd. Eft we bidda t nn geleafful man his geleafan mid isum gedwylde ne befyle. Witodlice Rebecca, Isaces wf, acende twegen getwysan, Iacob and Esau, on nre tide, swa t Iacob heold one yldran broer Esau be am ft on re cenninge, and hi nron eah gelice on eawum, ne on lifes geearnungum. Witodlice t halige gewrit cwy t God lufode Iacob, and hatode Esau; na for gewyrde, ac for mislicum geearnungum. Hit gelimp forwel oft t on anre tde acen seo cwn and seo wyln, and eah geic se eling be his gebyrdum to healicum cynesetle, and re wylne sunu wuna eal his lf on eowte.

We are also to know, that there were some heretics who said, that every man is born according to the position of the stars, and that by their course his destiny befalls him, and advanced in support of their error, that a new star sprang up when the Lord was corporally born, and said that that star was his destiny. Let this error depart from believing hearts, that there is any destiny excepting the Almighty Creator, who provides for every man life by his merits. Man is not created for the stars, but the stars are created as a light by night for men. When the star glided, and led the astrologers, and pointed out to them the Child's inn, it showed that it was Christ's creature, and rightly ministered to its Creator: but it was not his destiny. Again we beseech that no believing man defile his faith with this error. Verily Rebekah, Isaac's wife, brought forth twins, Jacob and Esau, at one time, so that Jacob held his elder brother Esau by the foot at his birth; yet were they not alike in character, nor in the actions of their life. Holy writ indeed says that God loved Jacob, and hated Esau; not by destiny, but for various acts. It happens very often that the queen and the slave bring forth at one time, and yet the prince, through his birth, grows up for the lofty throne, and the son of the slave continues all his life in servitude.

Nu cwea oft stunte men t hi be gewyrde lybban sceolon, swylce God h neadige to yfel-ddum! Ac we wylla yssera stuntra manna ydele leasunge adwscan mid deopnysse godcundra gewrita. Se lmihtiga Scyppend gesceop englas urh his godcundan mihte, and for his micclan rihtwisnysse forgeaf him agenne cyre, t h moston {112}urhwunian on ecere gesle urh gehyrsumnysse, and mihton eac a gesla forleosan, na for gewyrde, ac for ungehyrsumnysse. His deope rihtwisnys nolde h neadian to narum, ac forgeaf him agenne cyre; foran e t is rihtwisnys t gehwylcum sy his agen cyre geafod. onne wre seo rihtwisnys awǽged, gif he h neadunge to his eowte gebigde, oe gif he h to yfelnysse bescufe. a miswendon sume a englas heora agenne cyre, and urh modignysse hy sylfe to awyrigedum deoflum geworhton.

Now foolish men often say that they must live according to destiny, as if God compels them to evil deeds! But we will overthrow the idle leasing of these foolish men with the deepness of the divine writings. The Almighty Creator created angels by his divine power, and in his great righteousness gave them their own choice, that they might {113}continue in eternal happiness through obedience, and might also lose that happiness, not through destiny, but for disobedience. His great righteousness would not compel them to either, but gave them their own choice; for that is righteousness, that to every one be allowed his own choice. For his righteousness would be rendered vain, if he forcibly subjected them to his service, or if he impelled them to evil. Then some angels abused their own choice, and through pride transformed themselves to accursed devils.

Eft aa se rimwealdenda Scyppend mancyn geworhte, a forgeaf h Adame and Euan agenne cyre, swa hi, urh gehyrsumnysse, on ecnysse, butan deae, on gesle wunodon, mid eallum heora ofspringe, swa hi, urh ungehyrsumnysse, deadlice wurdon. Ac aa h Godes bebod forggdon, and s awyrigedan deofles lare gehyrsumodon, a wurdon hi deadlice, and forscyldegode urh agenne cyre, h and eall heora ofspring; and eah e nfre ne wurde syan mancynne gemiltsod, e m e am deoflum is, eah wre Godes rihtwisnys eallunga untle. Ac eft seo miccle mildheortnys ures Drihtnes us alysde urh his menniscnysse, gif we his bebodum mid ealre heortan gehyrsumia. Witodlice a e nu urh agenne cyre and deofles tihtinge God forlta, God forlt h eac to am ecan forwyrde.

Again, when the glorious Creator made mankind, he gave to Adam and Eve their own choice, whether they, through obedience, would for ever, without death, continue in happiness, with all their offspring, or whether, through disobedience, they would become mortal. But when they transgressed God's command, and obeyed the instruction of the accursed devil, then they became mortal, and guilty through their own choice, they and all their offspring; and although mercy should never after be shown to mankind, more than to the devils, nevertheless, the righteousness would be infinite. But the great mercy of our Lord hath redeemed us through his humanity, if we with all our heart will obey his commandments. Verily those who now, through their own choice, and the devil's instigation, forsake God, God will abandon them also to eternal perdition.

Georne wiste se lmihtiga Scyppend, ran e he a gesceafta gesceope, hwt toweard ws. He cue gewislice getel ger ge gecorenra engla ge gecorenra manna, and eac ra modigra gasta and arleasra manna, e urh heora arleasnysse forwura; ac he ne forestihte nnne to yfelnysse, foran e he sylf is eall gdnyss; ne h nnne to forwyrde ne gestihte, foran e he is so lf. He forestihte a gecorenan to am ecan life, foran e he wiste h swilce towearde, urh his gife and agene gehyrsumnysse. He nolde forestihtan a arleasan to his rice, foran e he wiste h swilce towearde, urh heora agene forggednysse and wyrnysse. {114}Healda is fste on eowerum heortum, t se lmihtiga and se Rihtwisa God nnne mann ne neada to syngigenne, ac he wt swa-eah on ǽr hwilce urh agenne willan syngian willa. Hw ne sceal he onne rihtlice wrecan t yfel t he onscuna? He lufa lc gd and rihtwisnysse, foran e he is gecyndelice gd and rihtwis; and he hata ealle a e unrihtwisnysse wyrca, and a forde e leasunge spreca. Witodlice a e on God belyfa, hi sind urh one Halgan Gst gewissode. Nis seo gecyrrednys to Gode of us sylfum, ac of Godes gife, swa swa se apostol cwy, "urh Godes gife ge sind gehealdene on geleafan."

The Almighty Father well knew, before he created his creatures, what was to come to pass. He knew with certainty the number both of chosen angels and of chosen men, and also of the haughty spirits and impious men, who through their impiety perish. But he predestined no one to evil, for he himself is all goodness; nor destined he any one to perdition, for he is true life. He predestined the elect for eternal life, because he knew that they would be such, through his grace and their own obedience. He would not predestine the wicked to his kingdom, because he knew that they would be such, through their own transgression and perversity. {115}Hold this fast in your hearts, that the Almighty and the Righteous God compels no man to sin, but he knows, nevertheless, beforehand who will sin through their own will. Why then shall he not justly avenge that evil which he abominates? He loves every good and righteousness, for he is by nature good and righteous; and he hates all those who work unrighteousness, and fordoes those who speak leasing. Verily those who believe in God are directed by the Holy Ghost. The turning to God is not of ourselves, but by God's grace, as the apostle says, "Through God's grace we are held in faith."

a e ne gelyfa urh agenne cyre h scoria, na urh gewyrd, foran e gewyrd nis nan ing buton leas wena; ne nan ing solice be gewyrde ne gewyr, ac ealle ing urh Godes dom beo geendebyrde, see cw urh his witegan, "Ic afandige manna heortan, and heora lendena, and lcum sylle fter his frelde, and fter his agenre afundennysse." Ne talige nan man his yfelan dda to Gode, ac talige rest to am deofle, e mancyn beswc, and to Admes forggednysse; ac eah swiost to him sylfum, t him yfel gelica, and ne lica gd.

Those who believe not through their own choice perish, not through destiny, for destiny is nothing but a false imagination; for nothing takes place by destiny, but all things are ordered by the doom of God, who said through his prophet, "I try the hearts of men, and their loins, and give to everyone according to his course, and according to his own invention." Let no man ascribe his evil deeds to God, but ascribe them first to the devil, who deceived mankind, and to Adam's transgression; but above all to himself, that evil pleases him and good pleases him not.

Bi eah gelome ofsprincg forscyldegod urh forfdera mndda, gif he mid yfele him geefenlh. Gif onne se ofspring rihtwis bi, onne leofa he on his rihtwisnysse, and nateshwon his yldrena synna ne aber. Ne sy nn man to an arleas t h Adam wyrige oe Euan, e nu on heofenum mid Gode rixia, ac geearnige swior Godes mildheortnysse, swa t h wende his agenne cyre to his Scyppendes gehyrsumnysse and bebodum; foran e nan man ne bi gehealden buton urh gife Hlendes Cristes: a gife he gearcode and forestihte on ecum rde r middangeardes gesetnysse.

It often, however, happens that the offspring are condemned through the wicked deeds of their forefathers, if they imitate them in evil. But if the offspring are righteous, then will they live in their righteousness, and will not in the least bear their parents' sins. Let no man be so impious that he curse Adam or Eve, who now reign with God in heaven, but let him rather merit God's mercy, so that he turn his own choice to the obedience and commandments of his Creator; for no man will be saved, but through the grace of Jesus Christ: that grace he prepared and preordained to last for ever, before the foundation of the world.

Mine gebrora, ge habba nu gehyred be an leasan wenan, e ydele men gewyrd hata: uton nu fn on s godspelles trahtnunge, r we hit r forleton. {116}a tungel-witegan eodon into s cildes gesthuse, and hine gemetton mid re meder. H a mid astrehtum lichaman hi to Criste gebdon, and geopenodon heora hordfatu, and him geoffrodon ryfealde lc, gold, and recels, and myrran. Gold gedafena cyninge; str gebyra to Godes enunge; mid myrran man behwyrf deadra manna lc, t h late rotian. as r tungel-wtegan h to Criste gebǽdon, and him getacnigendlice lac offrodon. t gold getacnode t he is so Cyning. Se str t he is so God. Seo myrre t he ws a deadlic; ac he urhwuna nu undeadlic on ecnysse.

My brothers, ye have now heard concerning the false imagination, which vain men call destiny: let us now resume the exposition of the gospel, where we previously left it. {117}The astrologers went into the child's inn, and found him with his mother. They then, with outstretched bodies, worshipped Christ, and opened their coffers, and offered to him threefold gifts, gold, and frankincense, and myrrh. Gold befits a king; frankincense belongs to God's service; with myrrh the corpses of the dead are prepared that they may not soon rot. These three astrologers worshipped Christ, and offered to him significant gifts. The gold betokened that he is a true King. The frankincense that he is true God. The myrrh that he was then mortal; but he now continues immortal to eternity.

Sume gedwolmen wron e gelyfdon t h God wre, ac hi nateshwn ne gelyfdon t h ghwr rixode: hi offrodon Criste gastlice recels, and noldon him gold offrian. Eft wron ore gedwolmen e gelyfdon t he so Cyning wre, ac hi wisocon t he God wre: as, buton twyn, him offrodon gold, and noldon offrian recels. Sume gedwolan andetton t he so God wre and so Cyning, and wisocon t h deadlic flsc underfenge: as witodlice him brohton gold and str, and noldon bringan myrran re onfangenre deadlicnysse.

There were some heretics who believed that he was God, but they in no wise believed that he anywhere reigned: they offered frankincense to Christ spiritually, and would not offer him gold. Again, there were other heretics who believed that he was a true King, but they denied that he was God: these, without doubt, offered gold to him, and would not offer frankincense. Some heretics acknowledged that he was true God and true King, and denied that he assumed mortal flesh: these brought him gold and frankincense, and would not bring the myrrh of the assumed mortality.

Mine gebrora, uton we geoffrian urum Drihtne gold, t we andettan t h so Cyning sy, and ghwr rixige. Uton him offrian str, t we gelyfon t h ǽfre God ws, see on re tide man teowde. Uton him bringan myrran, t we gelyfan t he ws deadlic on urum flsce, see is unrowigendlic on his godcundnysse. He ws deadlic on menniscnysse r his rowunge, ac he bi heonon-for undeadlic, swa swa we ealle beo fter am gemnelicum riste.

My brothers, let us offer to our Lord gold in acknowledgment that he is a true King, and rules everywhere. Let us offer to him frankincense, because we believe that he ever was God, who at that time appeared man. Let us bring him myrrh, because we believe that he was mortal in our flesh, who is impassible in his divine nature. He was mortal in human nature before his passion, but he is henceforth immortal, as we all shall be after the universal resurrection.

We habba gesǽd embe as ryfealdan lac, h h to Criste belimpa: we willa eac secgan h h to s belimpa fter eawlicum andgite. Mid golde witodlice bi wisdom getcnod, swa swa Salomon cw, "Gewilnigendlic gold-hord li on s witan mue." Mid store bi geswutelod halig {118}gebed, be am sang se sealm-scop, "Drihten, sy min gebed asend swa swa byrnende str on inre gesihe." urh myrran is gehwod cwelmbrnys ures flsces; be am cwe seo halige gelaung, "Mine handa drypton myrran." am acennedan Cyninge we bringa gold, gif we on his gesihe mid beorhtnysse s upplican wisdomes scinende beo. Str we him bringa, gif we ure geohtas urh gecnyrdnysse haligra gebeda on weofode ure heortan onǽla, t we magon hwthwega wynsumlice urh heofenlice gewilnunge stincan. Myrran we him offria, gif we a flsclican lustas urh forhfednysse cwylmia. Myrra de, swa we r cwdon, t t deade flsc eaelice ne rota. Witodlice t deade flsc rota leahtorlice, onne se deadlica lichama eowa re flowendan galnysse, swa swa se wtega be sumum cw, "a nytenu forrotedon on heora meoxe." onne forrotia a nytenu on heora meoxe, onne flsclice men on stence heora galnysse geendia heora dagas. Ac gif we a myrran Gode gastlice geoffria, onne bi ure deadlica lichama fram galnysse stencum urh forhfednysse gehealden.

We have said concerning these threefold gifts, how they apply to Christ: we wish also to say how they, in a moral sense, apply to us. By gold is wisdom betokened, as Solomon said, "A desirable gold-treasure lieth in the wise man's mouth." With frankincense is manifested holy prayer, {119}concerning which the psalmist sang, "Lord, be my prayer sent forth like burning frankincense in thy sight." By myrrh is typified the mortality of our flesh, concerning which the holy congregation says, "My hands dropt myrrh." To the born King we bring gold, if we are shining in his sight with the brightness of heavenly wisdom. Frankincense we bring him, if we, by diligence of holy prayers, kindle our thoughts on the altar of our heart, so that we may, through heavenly desire, give forth a sweetish savour. Myrrh we offer him, if through continence we quell the lusts of the flesh. Myrrh, as we have before said, acts so that dead flesh does not easily rot. Verily the dead flesh rots flagitiously, when the mortal body is subservient to overflowing lust, as the prophet said by one, "The beasts rotted in their dung." Then the beasts rot in their dung, when fleshly men end their days in the stench of their lust. But if we offer myrrh to God spiritually, then will our mortal body be preserved through continence from the stenches of lust.

Sum ing miccles gebcnodon a tungel-witegan us mid am t hi urh oerne weg to heora earde gecyrdon. Ure eard solice is neorxna-wang, to am we ne magon gecyrran s weges e we comon. Se frumsceapena man and eall his ofspring wear adrfed of neorxena-wanges myrhe, urh ungehyrsumnysse, and for igene s forbodenan bigleofan, and urh modignysse, aa he wolde beon betera onne hine se lmihtiga Scyppend gesceop. Ac us is micel neod t we urh oerne weg one swicolan deofol forbugan, t we moton gesliglice to urum eele becuman, e we to gesceapene wron.

The astrologers pointed out to us something great by returning another way to their country. For our country is Paradise, to which we cannot return by the way we came. The first-created man and all his offspring were driven from the joy of Paradise, through disobedience, and for eating the forbidden food, and through pride, when he would be better than the Almighty Creator had created him. But it is greatly needful to us that we should, by another way, avoid the treacherous devil, that we may happily come to our country, for which we were created.

We sceolon urh gehyrsumnysse, and forhfednysse, and eadmodnysse, nmodlice to urum eele stppan, and mid halgum mgnum one eard ofgan, e we urh leahtras forluron. Rihtlice ws se swicola Herodes fram am tungel-witegum bepht, and he to Criste ne becom, foran e h {120}mid facenfullum mode hine sohte. He getacnode a leasan licceteras, e mid hwunge God seca, and nfre ne gemeta. He is to secenne mid sofstre heortan, and anrdum mode, see leofa and rixa mid Fder and Halgum Gaste, on ealra worulda woruld. Amen.

We should, by obedience, and continence, and humility, unanimously proceed to our home, and with holy virtues require the country, which we lost through sins. Rightly was the treacherous Herod deceived by the astrologers, and came not to Christ; because he sought him with a guileful {121}purpose. He betokened the false hypocrites, who in outward show seek God, and never find him. He is to be sought with a true heart, and steadfast mind, who liveth and ruleth with the Father and the Holy Ghost, for ever and ever. Amen.



Cum descendisset Iesus de monte secute sunt eum turbe multe: et reliqua.

Cum descendisset Jesus de monte secut sunt eum turb mult: et reliqua.

Matheus, se eadiga Godspellere awrt on issere godspellican rdinge, t "se Hlend nier-eode of anre dune, and him filigde micel menigu. Efne a com sum hreoflig mann, and aleat wi s Hlendes, us cweende, Drihten, gif u wilt, u miht me geclnsian. Se Hlend astrehte his hand, and hine hrepode, and cw, Ic wylle; and sy u geclnsod. a sona wear his hreofla eal geclnsod, and he ws gehled. a cw se Hlend him to, Warna t u hit nanum menn ne secge; ac far to Godes temple, and geswutela e sylfne am sacerde, and geoffra ine lc, sw sw Moyses bebead him on gewitnysse."

Matthew, the blessed Evangelist, wrote in this evangelical lecture, that "Jesus came down from a mountain, and a great multitude followed him. Behold, there came a leprous man, and fell down before Jesus, thus saying, Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst cleanse me. Jesus stretched forth his hand, and touched him, and said, I will; and be thou cleansed. Then immediately was his leprosy all cleansed, and he was healed. Then said Jesus to him, Take care that thou say it to no man; but go to God's temple, and show thyself to the priest, and offer thy gift, as Moses commanded for a witness to them."

Se lreow Hgmon cwe on issere trahtnunge t seo dn e se Hlend of-astah getacnode heofenan rice, of am nier-astah se lmihtiga Godes Sunu, aa he underfeng ure gecynd, and to menniscum men geflschamod wear, to y t he mancynn fram deofles anwealde alysde. He ws ungesewenlic and unrowigendlic on his gecynde; a wear he gesewenlic on urum gecynde, and rowigendlic. Seo micele menigu e him filigde getacnode a geleaffullan cristenan, e mid heora eawa stpum Drihtne filia. Witodlice we folgia Cristes fotswaum, gif we his gebisnungum mid godum weorcum geefenlca. "Efne a com sum hreoflig man, and aleat wi s Hlendes, us cweende, Drihten, gif u wilt, u miht me geclnsian. Se Hlend {122}astrehte his hand, and hine hrepode, and cw, Ic wille; and sy u geclnsod. a sona wear his hreofla eal geclnsod, and he ws gehled."

The doctor Haymo says in exposition of this, that the mountain from which Jesus descended betokened the kingdom of heaven, from which the Almighty Son of God came down, when he assumed our nature, and became incarnate as a human being, in order that he might redeem mankind from the power of the devil. He was invisible and impassible in his nature; then he became visible in our nature, and passible. The great multitude which followed him betokened those faithful christians, who follow the Lord with the steps of their moral virtues. Verily we follow Christ's foot-traces, if, with good works, we imitate his examples. "Behold, there came a leprous man, and fell down before Jesus, thus saying, Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst cleanse me. Jesus {123}stretched forth his hand, and touched him, and said, I will; and be thou cleansed. Then immediately was his leprosy all cleansed, and he was healed."

On issere dde is geswutelod Godes miht, and his eadmodnys. Moyses ǽ forbead to hrepenne nigne hreoflan, ac se eadmoda Crist nolde hine forseon, eah e he atelic wre, and eac geswutelode t h ws Hlaford re ealdan ǽ, and na eow. Mihtiglice he mihte mid his worde hine gehlan, buton hrepunge; ac he geswutelode t his hrepung is swie halwende geleaffullum. Geleafful ws se hreoflia, aa he cw, "Drihten, gif u wilt, u miht me geclnsian." Se Hlend andwyrde, "Ic wylle; and u beo geclnsod." Godes hs solice is weorc, swa swa se sealm-wyrhta cw, "He hit gecw, and a gesceafta wron geworhte. He bebead, and h wron gesceapene."

In this deed is manifested God's might, and his humility. The law of Moses forbade to touch any leper, but the humble Christ would not despise him, though he was loathsome; and also manifested that he was lord of the old law, and not its slave. In his might he could have healed him with his word, without touching; but he manifested that his touch is very salutary to believers. The leper was a believer, when he cried, "Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst cleanse me." Jesus answered, "I will; and be thou cleansed." Verily God's behest is act, as the psalmist said, "He said it, and creatures were made. He commanded, and they were created."

On gastlicum andgite getacnode es hreoflia man eal mancyn, e ws atelice hreoflig, mid mislicum leahtrum on am inran menn; ac hit gebeah to Cristes geleafan, and gleawlice undergeat t hit ne mihte re sawle clnsunge onfon, buton urh Drihten, e nane synne ne worhte, ne nan facn ns on his mue gemet. Lalic bi s hreoflian lic mid menigfealdum springum and geswelle, and mid mislicum fagnyssum; ac se inra mann, t is seo sawul, bi micele atelicor, gif heo mid mislicum leahtrum begripen bi. We sceolon rihtlice gelyfan on Crist, t he ure sawle fram synna fagnyssum gehlan mge; and we sceolon anrdlice his willan to re fremminge biddan. His hand getacna his mihte and his flsclicnysse. Swa swa Crist mid his handa hrepunge one hreoflian gehlde, swa eac he alysde us fram ure sawla synnum urh anfenge ures flsces; swa swa se witega Isaias cw, "Solice he sylf tbrd ure adlunga, and ure sarnyssa he sylf abr."

In a spiritual sense this leper betokened all mankind, which was foully leprous with divers sins in the inward man; but it inclined to the belief of Christ, and wisely conceived that it could not receive a cleansing of the soul, save through the Lord, who wrought no sin, nor was any guile found in his mouth. Loathsome is the body of the leper with many ulcers and tumours, and with divers scabs; but the inward man, that is the soul, is much more loathsome, if it be seized with divers sins. We should rightly believe in Christ, that he may heal our soul from the ulcers of sins; and we should steadfastly implore his will to that fulfilment. His hand betokens his might and his incarnation. As Christ by the touch of his hands healed the leper, so also he redeemed us from the sins of our souls by the assumption of our flesh; as the prophet Isaiah said, "Verily he took away our diseases, and our pains he himself bare."

Mid am e he forbead am gehledum hreoflian t he hit nanum men ne cydde, mid am he sealde us bysne t we ne sceolon na wdmrsian ure wel-dda, ac we sceolon {124}onscunian, mid inweardre heortan, one ydelan gylp, gif we hwt lytles to gde gedo. Witodlice ne bi us mid nanum orum edleane forgolden, gif we god for gylpe do, buton mid helle susle; foran e gilp is an heofod-leahter.

When he forbade the healed leper not to make it known to any man, he thereby gave us an example that we should not publish our good deeds, but we should shun, with inward {125}heart, vain pride, if we do some little good. Verily we shall be requited with no other reward, if we do good for pride, than with hell-torment; because pride is a deadly sin.

Seo ealde ǽ bebead t gehwilc hreoflig man gecome to am sacerde, and se sacerd sceolde hine fram mannum ascirian, gif h solice hreoflig wre. Gif he nre swutelice hreoflig, wre onne be his dome clne geteald. Gif se sacerd hine hreofligne tealde, and Godes miht hine syan gehlde, onne sceolde he mid lace his clnsunge Gode ancian. Swa sceal eac se e mid heafod-leahtrum wiinnan hreoflig bi cuman to Godes sacerde, and geopenian his digelnysse am gastlican lce, and be his rde and fultume his sawle wunda ddbetende gelacnian. Sume men wena t him genihtsumige to fulfremedum lcedome, gif h heora synna mid onbryrdre heortan Gode num andetta, and ne urfon nanum sacerde geandettan, gif h yfeles geswica: ac gif heora wena so wre, onne nolde Drihten asendan one e he sylf gehlde to am sacerde mid nigre lace. For re ylcan gebisnunge eac h asende Paulum, one e he sylf of heofenum gesprc, to am sacerde Annanian, us cweende, "Ga inn to re ceastre, and r e bi gesd hwt e gedafena to dnne."

The old law commanded that every leper should go to the priest, and that the priest should separate him from men, if he really were leprous. If he were not manifestly leprous, he should then, by his judgement, be accounted clean. If the priest accounted him leprous, and God's might afterwards healed him, that he should then, with a gift, thank God for his cleansing. So also should he, who is leprous within with deadly sins, go to God's priest, and open his secret to the ghostly leech, and, by his counsel and aid, heal by penance the wounds of his soul. Some men imagine that it will suffice for a complete cure, if, with compunction of heart, they confess their sins to God alone, and that they need not confess to any priest, if they cease from evil: but if their opinion were true, the Lord would not have sent him, whom he himself had healed, with any gift to the priest. For the same example he also sent Paul, whom he himself had spoken to from heaven, to the priest Ananias, thus saying, "Go into the city, and there shall be told thee what it befitteth thee to do."

Ne gedyde se sacerd one man hreofligne oe unhreofligne, ac h dmde t he sceolde beon ascyred fram manna neawiste, gif his hreofla wyrsigende wre; oe betwux mannum wunian, gif his hreofla godigende wre. Swa sceal don se gastlica sacerd: he sceal gerihtlcan Godes folc, and one ascyrian, and amnsumian fram cristenum mannum, e swa hreoflig bi on mnfullum eawum t he ore mid his yfelnysse besmit; be am cw se apostol Paulus, "Afyrsia one yfelan fram eow, ylǽs e an wannhal scep ealle a eowde besmite." Gif his hreofla bi godigende, t is gif he yfeles geswic, and his eawas urh Godes ege gerihtlc, {126}he hbbe wununge betwux cristenum mannum, o t he full hal sy on his drohtnungum.

The priest made not the man leprous or unleprous, but he judged that he should be separated from the society of men, if his leprosy were growing worse, or should continue among men, if his leprosy were growing better. So should the ghostly priest do: he should cure God's people, and separate, and excommunicate from christian men him who is so leprous with sinful practices that he infects others with his wickedness; concerning which the apostle Paul said, "Remove the evil man from you, lest one unsound sheep infect all the flock." If his leprosy be amending, that is, if he cease from evil, and, through dread of God, correct his ways, let him {127}have a dwelling among christian men, until he be full sound in his conditions.

Se godspellere cw, t "Drihten ferde fter isum to anre byrig e is gehten Capharnaum; a genealhte him to sum hundredes ealdor, biddende and cweende, Drihten, min cniht li t hm bedreda, and is yfele gereatod. Drihten him andwyrde, Ic cume and hine gehle. a andwyrde se hundredes ealdor, and cw, Drihten, ne eom ic wyre t u innfare under minum hrofe; ac cwe in word, and min cniht bi gehled. Ic eom n man geset under anwealde, hbbende under me cempan; and ic cwee to isum, Far u, and he fr; to orum, Cum u, and he cym; to minum eowan, Do is, and he de. a wundrode se Hlend, aa h is gehyrde, and cw to re fyligendan menigu, So ic eow secge, ne gemette ic swa micelne geleafan on Israhela eode. Ic secge eow to soum, t manega cuma fram east-dle and west-dle, and geresta h mid Abrahame am heahfdere, and Isace, and Iacobe, on heofenan rice. a rcan bearn beo aworpene into am yttrum eostrum, r bi wp and toa gebitt. a cw eft se Hlend to am hundredes ealdre, Far e hm, and getimige e swa swa u gelyfdest. And se cniht wear gehled of re tide."

The evangelist said, that "After this the Lord went to a city which is called Capernaum; then a certain centurion approached him, praying and saying, Lord, my servant lieth at home bedridden, and is grievously tormented. The Lord answered him, I will come and heal him. Then the centurion answered, and said, Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldst enter under my roof; but say thy word, and my servant shall be healed. I am a man placed under authority, having soldiers under me; and I say to this, Go thou, and he goeth; to another, Come thou, and he cometh; to my servant, Do this, and he doeth. Then Jesus, when he heard this, wondered, and said to the multitude following, Verily I say unto you, I have not found so great faith in the people of Israel. I say to you in sooth, that many shall come from the east and the west, and shall rest with the patriarch Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven. The rich children shall be cast into utter darkness, there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. Then again said Jesus to the centurion, Go home, and betide thee as thou hast believed. And the servant was healed from that hour."

es hundredes ealdor genealhte am Hlende na healfunga, ac fulfremedlice. He genealhte mid micclum geleafan, and mid sore eadmodnysse, and snotornysse, and sore lufe. Micelne geleafan he hfde, aa he cw, "Drihten, cwe in word, and min cniht bi hal." Solice he geswutelode micele eadmodnysse, mid am e he cw, "Drihten, ne eom ic wyre t u innfare under mine ecene." He hfde micele snotornysse, aa h understd t Crist is ghwr andweard urh godcundnysse, see lichamlice betwux mannum gesewenlic eode. Ns he bedled re soan lufe, aa he bd Drihten for his eowan hle. Manega ore men bdon Drihten, sume for heora agenre hle, sume for heora bearna, sume for leofra freonda; {128}ac es egen bd for his eowan hle mid sore lufe; foran e heo ne toscǽt nnne be mglicere sibbe. Drihten geseah ises egenes menigfealdan godnysse, and cw, "Ic cume, and inne cniht gehle."

The centurion approached Jesus not by halves, but fully. He approached with great faith, and with true humility, and wisdom, and true love. Great faith he had, when he said, "Lord, say thy word, and my servant shall be healed." But he manifested great humility, when he said, "Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldst enter under my roof." He had great wisdom, when he understood that Christ is everywhere present, through his divine nature, who went bodily visible among men. He was not void of true love, when he besought the Lord for the health of his servant. Many other men besought the Lord, some for their own health, some for their children's, some for their dear friends'; but this officer prayed {129}with true love for the health of his servant, for that makes no distinction with regard to family relationship. The Lord saw the manifold goodness of this officer, and said, "I will come and heal thy servant."

Iohannes se Godspellere awrt, t "Sum under-cyning com to Criste, and hine bd t he hm mid him siode, and his sunu gehlde; foran e h lig t forsie. a cw se Hlend to am under-cyninge, Gewnd e hm, in sunu leofa. He gelyfde s Hlendes sprce, and hm siode. a comon his egnas him togeanes, and cyddon t his sunu gesund wre. He a befrn on hwilcere tide he gewyrpte. H sdon, Gyrstan-dg ofer midne dg hine forlt se fefor. a oncneow se fder t hit ws seo td on re e se Hlend him to cw, Far e hm, in sunu leofa. Se cyning gelyfde a on God, and eal his hired."

John the Evangelist wrote that "An under-king came to Christ, and besought him that he would go home with him and heal his son; for he lay at the point of death. Then said Jesus to the under-king, Return home, thy son liveth. He believed the speech of Jesus, and went home. Then came his servants towards him, and informed him that his son was well. He then inquired at what hour he recovered. They said, Yesterday, after mid-day, the fever left him. Then the father knew that it was the hour at which Jesus said to him, Go home, thy son liveth. The king then believed in God, and all his family."

Drihten nolde gelaod lichamlice siian to s cyninges untruman bearne, ac nandweard mid his worde hine gehlde; and he ws gearo ungelaod to siigenne lichamlice mid am hundredes ealdre. Wel wt gehw t cyning hf maran mihte onne nig hundredes ealdor, ac se lmihtiga Godes Sunu geswutelode mid re dde t we ne sceolon a rcan, for heora riccetere wurian, ac for menniscum gecynde; ne we ne sceolon a wnnspedigan for heora hafenleaste forseon; ac we sceolon Godes anlicnysse on him wurian. Se eadmoda Godes Sunu ws gearo to geneosigenne one eowan mid his andwerdnysse, and he gehlde one eling mid hse; be am cw se witega, "Se healica Drihten sceawa a eadmodan, and a modigan feorran oncnw."

The Lord would not, invited, go bodily to the king's sick son, but absent healed him by his word; and he was ready, uninvited, to go bodily with the centurion. Everyone well knows that a king has greater power than any centurion, but the Almighty Son of God manifested by that deed, that we should not honour the rich for their riches, but for human nature; nor should we despise the indigent for their indigence; but that we should honour God's image in them. The humble Son of God was ready to visit the servant by his presence, and he healed the prince with his behest; on which the prophet said, "The Lord supreme beholdeth the humble, and knoweth the proud from afar."

Drihten wundrode s hundredes ealdres geleafan, na swilce he hine r ne cue, see ealle ing wt, ac he geswutelode mannum his geleafan mid herunge am e he wundorlic ws. Hwanon com se geleafa am egene buton of Cristes gife, see hine syan isum wordum herede? "So ic eow secge, na gemette ic swa micelne geleafan on Israhela eode." {130}Ns is gecweden be am heahfderum oe wtegum, ac be am andwerdan folce, e a-gyt nron swa miccles geleafan.

The Lord wondered at the centurion's faith, not because he knew it not before, who knows all things, but he to whom he was wonderful manifested to men his faith with praise. Whence came the officer's faith but of Christ's gift, who afterwards praised him in these words? "Verily I say unto you, I have not found so great faith in the people of Israel." {131}This was not said of the patriarchs or prophets, but of the present people, who were not yet of so great faith.

Maria and Martha wron twa geswystru swie on God belyfede: h cwdon to Criste, "Drihten, gif u her andwerd wre, nre ure broer forfaren." es egen cw to Criste, "Cwe in word, and min cniht bi hal. Ic eom man under anwealde gesett, hbbende under me cempan; and ic secge isum, Far , and he fr; to orum, Cum u, and he cym; to minum eowan, Do is, and he de. Hu miccle swior miht u, e lmihtig God eart, urh ine hse gefremman swa hwt swa u wilt!" Drihten cw, "Ic secge eow to soan, t manega cuma fram east-dle and west-dle, and geresta h mid Abrahame am heahfdere, and Isace, and Iacobe, on heofenan rice." as word sind lustbre to gehyrenne, and h micclum ure mod gladia, t manega cuma fram east-dle middangeardes, and fram west-dle, to heofenan rice, and mid am heahfderum on ecere myrhe rixia.

Mary and Martha were two sisters of great faith in God: they said to Christ, "Lord, if thou hadst been present, our brother would not have died." This officer said to Christ, "Say thy word, and my servant shall be whole. I am a man placed under authority, having soldiers under me; and I say to this, Go thou, and he goeth; to another, Come thou, and he cometh; to my servant, Do this, and he doeth. How much more canst thou, who art Almighty God, through thy behest, execute whatsoever thou wilt!" The Lord said, "I say to you in sooth, that many shall come from the east and the west, and shall rest with the patriarch Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven." These words are pleasant to hear, and they greatly gladden our minds, that many shall come from the east part of the world, and from the west part, to the kingdom of heaven, and rule with the patriarchs in everlasting joy.

urh a twegen dlas, east-dl and west-dl, sind getacnode a feower hwemmas ealles middangeardes, of am beo gegaderode Godes gecorenan of lcere mge to ra heahfdera wununge, and ealra halgena. urh east-dl magon beon getacnode a e on geogoe to Gode buga; foran e on east-dle is s dges angin. urh west-dl sind getacnode a e on ylde to Godes eowdome gecyrra; foran e on west-dle geenda se dg.

By the two parts, the east and the west, are betokened the four corners of the whole world, from which God's chosen shall be gathered from every people to the dwelling of the patriarchs and of all the saints. By the east part may be betokened those who in youth incline to God; because in the east part is the day's beginning. By the west part are betokened those who in age turn to God's service; because in the west part the day ends.

es fterfiligenda cwyde is swie egefull, "a rcan bearn beo awrpene into am yttrum eostrum, r bi wp and toa gebitt." a rican bearn sind a Iudeiscan, on am rixode God urh a ealdan ǽ; ac h awurpon Crist, and his lare forsawon; and h awyrp h on a yttran eostru, r bi wp and toa gebitt. Fela riccra manna geeo Gode, swa-eah, gif h rihtwise beo, and mildheorte. Rice man ws se heahfder Abraham, and Dauid se mra cyning, and Zacheus, see healfe his hta earfum dlde, and mid {132}healfum dle forgeald be feowerfealdum swa hwt swa he r on unriht be anfealdum reafode. as rican and heora gelican becuma urh gode gecyrrednysse to am ecan rice, e him nfre ne ateora.

The following sentence is very awful, "The rich children shall be cast into utter darkness, there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth." The rich children are the Jewish, over whom God ruled, by the old law; but they rejected Christ, and despised his doctrine; and he casts them into utter darkness, where there is weeping and gnashing of teeth. Many rich men, however, thrive to God, if they are righteous and merciful. The patriarch Abraham was a rich man, and David the great king, and Zaccheus, who gave half his riches to the {133}poor, and with the half part compensated fourfold for what he had before wrongfully gained. These rich and their like come by good conversion to the everlasting kingdom, which will never fail them.

a sind Godes bearn gecigede, e hine lufia swior onne isne middangeard; and a sind a rican bearn gecwedene, e heora heortan wyrtruman on isum andwerdum life plantia swior onne on Criste: swylce beo on eostru aworpene. t godspel cwy, "On a yttran eostru." a yttran eostru sind s lichaman blindnyssa wiutan. a inran eostru sind s modes blindnyssa wiinnan. Se e on isum andweardum life is wiinnan ablend, swa t he nf nan andgit ne hga embe Godes beboda, he bi onne eft wiutan ablend, and lces leohtes bedled; foran e he r his lif aspende butan Godes gemynde. a earman forscyldegodan cwylmia on ecum fyre, and swa-eah t swearte fyr him nane lihtinge ne de. Wurmas toslita heora lichaman mid fyrenum toum, swa swa Crist on his godspelle cw, "r nfre heora wyrm ne swylt, ne heora fyr ne bi adwsced." r beo onne geferlhte on anre susle, a e on life on mnddum geeodde wron, swa t a manslagan togdere ecelice on tintregum cwylmia; and forlgras mid forligrum, gitseras mid gytserum, sceaan mid sceaum, a forsworenan mid forsworenum, on am bradan fire, butan lcere geendunge forwura. r bi wp and toa gebitt, foran e a eagan tyra on am micclum bryne, and a te cwacia eft on swilicum cyle. Gif hwam twynige be am gemnelicum riste, onne understande he isne drihtenlican cwyde, t r bi so rist, r r beo wepende eagan and cearcigende te.

They are called children of God who love him more than this world; and those are called rich children who plant the root of their hearts in this present life more than in Christ: such shall be cast into darkness. The gospel says, "Into utter darkness." Utter darkness is the blindness of the body without. Inward darkness is the darkness of the mind within. He who in this present life is blinded within, so that he has no understanding, nor heed of God's commandments, he will then be blinded without, and deprived of every light; because he had before spent his life without remembrance of God. The miserable guilty ones shall suffer torment in everlasting fire, and yet that swart fire shall give them no light. Worms shall tear their bodies with fiery teeth, as Christ said in his gospel, "There their worm shall never die, nor their fire be quenched." There shall be associated in one torment, those who in life were united in evil deeds, so that murderers shall eternally be tortured together; and adulterers with adulterers, the rapacious with the rapacious, robbers with robbers, perjurers with perjurers, in the broad flame, without any ending, shall perish. There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth; for their eyes shall be tormented in the great burning, and their teeth shall afterwards quake in the intense cold. If any one doubt of the universal resurrection, let him understand this divine saying, That there shall be a true resurrection, where there shall be weeping eyes and gnashing teeth.

Drihten cw to am hundredes ealdre, "Far e hm, and getimige e swa swa u gelyfdest; and his cniht wear gehled of re tide." Be isum is to understandenne hu micclum am cristenum men his agen geleafa fremige, onne ores mannes swa micclum fremode. Witodlice, for s {134}hundredes ealdres geleafan wear se bedreda gehled. Geleafa is ealra mgena fyrmest; buton am ne mg nn man Gode lician; and se rihtwisa leofa be his geleafan. Uton gelyfan on a Halgan rynnysse, and on soe Annysse, t se lmihtiga Fder, and his Sunu, t is his wisdom, and se Halga Gast, see is heora begra lufu and willa, t h sind ry on hadum and on namum, and n God, on nre godcundnysse fre wunigende, butan angynne and ende. Amen.

The Lord said to the centurion, "Go home, and betide thee as thou hast believed; and his servant was healed from that hour." By this is to be understood how greatly a christian man's own faith profiteth him, when that of another man profiteth him so greatly. Verily, for the centurion's faith was {135}the bedridden healed. Faith is of all virtues first; without it no man may be pleasing to God; and the righteous lives by his faith. Let us believe in the Holy Trinity, and in true Unity, that the Almighty Father, and his Son, that is his wisdom, and the Holy Ghost who is the love and will of them both, that they are three in person and in name, and one God, in one Godhead ever continuing, without beginning and end. Amen.





Postquam impleti sunt dies purificationis Mari: et reliqua.

Postquam impleti sunt dies purificationis Mari, etc.

God bebead on re ealdan ǽ, and het Moyses, one heretogan, t he hit awrite betwux orum bebodum, t lc wf e cild gebre sceolde gebidan feowertig daga fter re cenninge, swa t heo ne cme into Godes temple, ne on anum bedde mid hire were, r am fyrste e we ǽr cwdon; t is feowertig daga, gif hit hyse-cild wre: gif hit onne mden-cild wre, onne sceolde heo forhabban fram ingange Godes huses hund-ehtatig daga, and eac fram hire gebeddan; and fter am fyrste gn mid lace to Godes huse, and beran t cild for mid re lce, and syan, mid Godes bletsunge, genealcan hyre gemacan. is ws geset be wifum.

God commanded in the old law, and bade the leader Moses write it among other commandments, that every woman who had borne a child should wait forty days after the birth, so that she should come neither into God's temple, nor into a bed with her husband, before that space of time which we have said: that is forty days, if it were a male child; but if it were a maiden child, then she should abstain from entering God's house for eighty days, and also from her husband; and after that space go with a gift to God's house, and bear forth the child with the gift, and afterwards, with God's blessing, approach her consort. This was established regarding women.

Nu ws eah-hwere t halige mden Maria, Cristes moder, Godes beboda gemyndig, and eode on ysum dge to Godes huse mid lce, and gebrohte t cild e heo acende, Hlend Crist, gelcod to am Godes temple, swa swa hit on Godes ǽ geset ws.

Now was, nevertheless, the holy maiden Mary, Christ's mother, mindful of God's commands, and she went on this day to God's house with a gift, and brought the child that she had given birth to, Jesus Christ, to be presented to God's temple.

a ws r, binnan re byrig Hierusalem, sum Godes mann, and his nama ws Symeon; he ws swye rihtwis, {136}and hfde micelne Godes ege, and he ge-andbidode one frofer, e behaten ws am folce Israhel, t is Cristes to-cyme. Se Halga Gast ws wunigende on m Symeone, and he wiste genoh georne t se lmihtiga Godes Sunu wolde to mannum cuman, and menniscnysse underfon. a ws es man swie oflyst s Hlendes to-cymes, and bd t Gode dighwamlice on his gebedum, t he moste Crist geseon r he deaes onbyrigde. a fory e he swa micele gewilnunge hfde Cristes to-cymes, a com him andswaru fram am Halgan Gaste, t he ne sceolde deaes onbyrigan ram e he Crist gesawe. And he ws a blie s behates, and cm to Godes temple, urh myngunge s Halgan Gastes. And seo halige Maria cm a to am temple mid am cilde, and se ealda man Symeon eode togeanes am cilde, and geseah one Hlend, and hine georne gecneow, t he ws Godes Sunu, Alysend ealles middan-eardes. He hine genam a on his earmas mid micelre onbryrdnesse, and hine gebr into am temple, and ancode georne Gode t he hine geseon moste. He cw a, "Min Drihten, u forltst me n mid sibbe of isum life, after inum worde; foron e mine eagan gesawon inne Halwendan, one u gearcodest tforan ansyne ealles folces; leoht to onwrigennysse eoda, and wuldor inum folce Israhele."

There was there, in the city of Jerusalem, a man of God, and his name was Simeon; he was very righteous, and had {137}great fear of God, and he awaited the comfort which was promised to the people of Israel, that is the advent of Christ. The Holy Ghost was dwelling in Simeon, and he knew full well that the Son of Almighty God would come to men, and assume human nature. Then was this man very desirous of the advent of Jesus, and prayed daily to God in his prayers, that he might see Christ ere he tasted of death. Then, because he had so great desire of Christ's advent, there came to him an answer from the Holy Ghost, that he should not taste of death ere he had seen Christ. And he was then glad at the promise, and came to God's temple, through admonition of the Holy Ghost. And the holy Mary came then to the temple with the child, and the old man Simeon went towards the child, and saw Jesus, and well knew that he was the Son of God, the Redeemer of all the world. He took him in his arms with great feeling, and bare him into the temple, and fervently thanked God that he was allowed to see him. He then said, "My Lord, thou lettest me now go in peace from this life, according to thy word; for mine eyes have seen thy Healing One, which thou hast prepared before the face of all people; a light for the revelation of the gentiles, and a glory to thy people Israel."

Hit is awriten on Crstes bc, and gehwr on orum bocum, t fela witegan and rihtwise men woldan geseon Cristes to-cyme, ac hit ns na him getiod, ac ws getiod isum ealdan men; foram e hit is be him awriten, t he cwde dghwamlice on his gebedum, "Ela, hwnne cym se Hlend? Hwnne bi he acenned? Hwnne mot ic hine geseon? Hwer ic mote lybban ot ic hine geseo?" And a for ysre gewilnunge him com andswaru, t he ne gesawe dea, ram e he Crist gesawe.

It is written in the book of Christ, and elsewhere in other books, that many prophets and righteous men were desirous of seeing the advent of Christ, but it was not granted to them: but it was granted to this old man; for of him it is written, that he said daily in his prayers, "Ah! when will the Saviour come? When will he be born? When may I see him? May I live until I see him?" And then, for this desire, an answer came to him, that he should not see death before he had seen Christ.

Maria, Cristes moder, br t cild, and se ealda Symeon eode hire togeanes, and gecneow t cild urh onwrigenysse, and hit beclypte and br into am temple. He br t {138}cild, and t cild br hine. Hu br t cild hine? one br se ealda Symeon on his earmum, e ealle ing hylt and gewylt. Lytel he ws r gesewen, ac eah-hwere he ws swie micel and ormte. Lytel he ws gesewen, foran e he wolde gefeccan a lytlan, and gebringan up to his rice. Hwt synd a lytlan e he wolde habban up to his rice? t synd a eamodan. Ne sohte Crist na a modigan, a a micele beo on hyra geance; ac a e beo lytle and eamode on heora heortan, a cuma to Godes rice; ac ider ne mg astigan nn modignys. r ws se deofol e modegode, ac his modignes hine awearp into helle grunde; fory ne mg ure tyddernes yder astigan, gif heo modig bi, aa se engel r beon ne mihte aa he modegode.

Mary, Christ's mother, bare the child, and the old Simeon went towards her, and knew the child through revelation, and took it in his arms and bare it into the temple. He bare {139}the child, and the child bare him. How did the child bear him? The old Simeon bare in his arms him who preserves and rules over all things. Little he there appeared, yet was he, nevertheless, very great and infinite. Little he appeared, because he would fetch the little and bring them up to his kingdom. Who are the little ones that he would raise up to his kingdom? They are the humble. Christ sought not the proud, those who are great in their own imagination, but those who are little and humble in their hearts, these shall come to God's kingdom; but thither may no pride ascend. The devil was there, who became proud, but his pride cast him into the depth of hell; therefore our weakness may not ascend thither, if it be proud, when the angel might not be there when he became proud.

God bebead, on re ealdan ǽ, his folce t hi sceoldon him offrian lc frumcenned hyse-cild, oe alysan hit ut mid fif scyllingum. Eac on heora orfe, swa hwt swa frumcenned wre, bringan t to Godes huse, and hit r Gode offrian. Gif hit onne unclne nyten wre, onne sceolde se hlaford hit acwellan, oe syllan Gode oer clne nyten. We ne urfon as bebodu healdan n lichamlice, ac gstlice. onne on urum mode bi acenned sum ing gdes, and we t to weorce awenda, onne sceole we t tellan to Godes gyfe, and t Gode betcan. Ure yfelan geohtas oe weorc we sceolan alysan mid fif scyllingum; t is we sceolon ure yfelnysse behreowsian mid urum fif andgitum, t synd gesih, and hlyst, and swc, and stenc, and hrepung. Eac swa a unclnan nytenu getacnia ure unclnan geohtas and weorc, a we sceolon symle acwellan, oe behwyrfan mid clnum; t is t we sceolon ure unclnnysse and ure yfelnesse symle adwscan, and forltan yfel, and dn gd.

God, in the old law, commanded his people, that they should offer to him every firstborn male child, or redeem it with five shillings. Of their cattle also, to bring whatever was firstborn to God's house, and there offer it to God. But if it were an unclean beast, then should the master slay it, or give to God another clean beast. We need not now hold these commands bodily, but spiritually. When in our mind something good is brought forth and we turn it to action, then should we account that as God's grace, and consign it to God. Our evil thoughts or actions we should redeem with five shillings; that is, we should repent of our wickedness with our five senses, which are, sight, and hearing, and taste, and smell, and touch. So also as the unclean beasts betoken our unclean thoughts and actions, these we should always kill or exchange for pure; that is, we should always destroy our impurity and our wickedness, and forsake evil, and do good.

Seo eadige Maria a geoffrode hire lc Gode mid am cilde, swa hit on Godes ǽ geset ws. Hit ws swa geset on re ealdan ǽ urh Godes hse, t a e mihton {140}urhteon sceoldon bringan anes geares lamb mid heora cylde, Gode to lace, and ane culfran, oe ane turtlan. Gif onne hwylc wif to am unspedig wre t heo as ing begytan ne mihte, onne sceolde heo bringan twegen culfran-briddas, oe tw turtlan.

The blessed Mary then offered her gift to God with the child, as it was appointed in God's law. It was so appointed in the old law, by God's behest, that those who could {141}accomplish it, should bring a yearling lamb with their child, as a gift to God, and a pigeon or a turtle-dove. But if any woman were so needy that she could not get those things, then she should bring two young pigeons, or two turtle-doves.

as lssan lc, t sind a fugelas, e wron wannspedigra manna lc, wron for Criste geoffrode. Se lmihtiga Godes Sunu ws swie gemyndig ure neoda on eallum ingum; na t an t he wolde mann beon for s, aa he God ws, ac eac swylce he wolde beon earfa for us, aa he rice ws: to y t he us forgeafe dl on his rice, and mnsumunge on his godcundnysse. Lamb getacna unscinysse and a maran godnysse; gif we onne swa earme beo t we ne magon a maran godnysse Gode offrian, onne sceole we him bringan twa turtlan, oe twegen culfran-briddas, t is twyfealdlic onbryrdnes eges and lufe. On twa wisan bi se man onbryrd: rest he him ondrt helle wte, and bewep his synna, syan he nim eft lufe to Gode; onne ongin he to murcnienne, and inc him to lang hwnne he beo genumen of yses lifes earfonyssum, and gebroht to ecere reste.

These smaller gifts, that is, the birds, which were the gifts of indigent persons, were offered for Christ. The Almighty Son of God was very mindful of our needs in all things; not only would he for us become man when he was God, but he would also be poor for us when he was rich, that he might give us part in his kingdom and community in his Godhead. A lamb betokens innocence and the greater goodness; but if we are so poor that we cannot offer to God the greater goodness, then should we bring him two turtle-doves or two young pigeons; that is, a twofold affection of awe and love. In two ways is a man affected: first, he dreads hell-torment, and bewails his sins; afterwards he again feels love to God; then he begins to murmur, and it seems to him too long when he shall be taken from the afflictions of this life, and brought to everlasting rest.

Lytel ws an lamb, oe twa turtlan, Gode to bringenne; ac h ne sceawa na s mannes lac swa swie swa h sceawa his heortan. Nis Gode nan neod ure hta; ealle ing sindon his, ger ge heofen, ge eore, and sǽ, and ealle a ing e on him wunia: ac he forgeaf eorlice ing mannum to brice, and bebead him t h sceoldon mid am eorlicum ingum hine oncnawan e h r forgeaf, na for his neode, ac for mancynnes neode. Gif u oncnwst inne Drihten mid inum htum, be inre me, hit freme e sylfum to am ecan life: gif u hine forgitst, hit hearma e sylfum and na Gode, and u olast re ecan mede. God gyrn a godnysse ines modes, and na inra hta. Gif u hwt dest Gode to lofe, mid cystigum mode, onne geswutelast u a gdnysse ines modes mid re dde; gif u onne nan {142}gd dn nelt, Gode to wurmynte, onne geswutelast u mid re uncyste ine yfelnysse, and seo yfelnys e forde wi God.

Little was a lamb, or two turtle-doves to bring to God; but he regards not a man's gift so much as he regards his heart. God hath no need of our gifts; all things are his, heaven, and earth, and sea, and all the things which dwell in them: but he gave to men earthly things for use, and commanded them with those earthly things to acknowledge him who first gave them, not for His need, but for need of mankind. If thou acknowledgest thy Lord with thy possessions, according to thy ability, it forwards thyself to eternal life; if thou forgettest him, it harms thyself and not God, and thou losest the everlasting meed. God desires the goodness of thy mind, and not of thy possessions. If thou doest aught for the praise of God with devout mind, then thou manifestest the goodness of thy mind by that deed; but {143}if thou wilt do no good for the honour of God, then thou, by that offence, manifestest thy wickedness, and that wickedness shall fordo thee with God.

On re ealdan ǽ is gehwr gesett, t God het gelomlice as fugelas offrian on his lace, for re getacnunge e h getacnia. Nis nu nanum men alyfed t he healde a ealdan ǽ lichomlice, ac gehealde gehwa h gastlice. Culfran sind swie unscige fugelas, and bilewite, and h lufia annysse, and fleo him floccmlum. Do eac swa se cristena man; beo him nsceaig, and bilewite, and lufige annysse, and broorrdene betwux cristenum mannum; onne geoffra he gastlice Gode a culfran-briddas. a turtlan getacnia clnnysse: h sind swa geworhte, gif hyra oer oerne forlyst, onne ne sec seo cucu nfre hire oerne gemacan. Gif onne se cristena man swa de for Godes lufon, onne geoffra he a turtlan on a betstan wisan. as twa fugel-cyn ne singa na, swa swa ore fugelas, ac hi geomeria, foran e hi getacnia haligra manna geomerunge on isum life, swa swa Crist cw to his apostolum, "Ge beo geunrotsode on isum life, ac eower unrotnys bi awend to ecere blisse." And eft he cw, "Eadige beo a e heora synna bewepa, foran e hi beo gefrefrode."

In the old law it is in several places mentioned, that God frequently commanded birds to be offered to him in sacrifice, for the betokening which they betoken. Now it is not allowed to any man to hold the old law bodily, but let everyone hold it spiritually. Pigeons are very innocent and gentle birds, and they love unity, and fly flockwise. Let the christian man also do so; let him be innocent, and gentle, and love unity and fellowship among christian men; then offers he to God spiritually the young pigeons. The turtle-doves betoken purity: they are so created, that if one of them lose the other, the living one never seeks to itself another mate. But if the christian man does so for love of God, then offers he the turtle-doves in the best manner. These two birds sing not like other birds, but they murmur; for they betoken the groaning of holy men in this life, as Christ said to his apostles, "Ye will be sad in this life, but your sadness will be turned to everlasting bliss." And again he said, "Blessed are they who bewail their sins, for they shall be comforted."

Se ealda man Symeon, e we r embe sprcon, ne gyrnde n t he moste Crist gehyran sprecan, foran e he hine gecneow t he God ws, eah e he a-gyt on re menniscnysse unsprecende wre. Sprecan he mihte, gif he wolde; and ealswa wis he ws a, aa he ws anre nihte, swa swa he ws, aa he ws rittig geara; ac he wolde abdan his wstma timan on re menniscnysse, swa swa hit gecyndelic is on mancynne. Symeon cw a, "Drihten, u forltst me nu on sibbe of ysum life, foron e mne eagan habba gesewen inne Halwendan." Se Halwenda e he embe sprc is ure Hlend Crist, see com to gehlenne ure wunda, t sindon ure synna. He cw a Symeon, "one u gearcodest tforan gesihe ealles folces." Hine {144}ne gesawon na ealle men lichomlice, ac he is gebodod eallum mannum, gelyfe see wylle. Se e on hine gelyf, he gesih hine nu mid his geleafan, and on an ecan life mid his eagum. Symeon cw a-gyt, "He is leoht to onwrigennysse eoda, and wuldor inum folce Israhel." Ealle as word sprc se Symeon be am cilde to am heofenlican Fder, e hine to mannum sende. He is so leoht e todrfde a eostra ises lifes, swa swa he sylf cw on his godspelle, "Ic eom leoht ealles middangeardes, se e me fylig, ne cym he na on ystrum, ac he hf lifes leoht." Swa swa leoht todrf eostra, swa eac todrf Cristes lufu and his geleafa ealle leahtras and synna fram ure heortan: and he is wuldor and bliss ealles gelyfedes folces.

The old man Simeon, of whom we erewhile spoke, desired not that he might hear Christ speak, for he knew him to be the Son of God, though he, in his state of humanity, was yet without speech. He could have spoken, had he been willing; and he was as wise when he was one day old as he was when he was thirty years; but he would abide the time of his growth in human nature, as is natural in mankind. Simeon then said, "Lord, thou wilt let me now depart in peace from this life, for mine eyes have seen thy Healing One." The Healing One of whom he spake is our Saviour Christ, who came to heal our wounds, that is, our sins. Simeon then said, "Whom thou hast prepared before the sight of all people." All men saw him not bodily, but he is {145}announced to all men, let him believe who will. He who believes in him, sees him now with his faith, and in the eternal life with his eyes. Simeon yet said, "He is a light for the enlightening of the gentiles, and a glory to thy people Israel." All these words concerning the child, Simeon spake to the heavenly Father, who sent him to men. He is the true light who scattered the darkness of this life, as he himself said in his gospel, "I am the light of all the world; he who followeth me shall not come into darkness, but he shall have the light of life." As light scatters darkness, so also love and faith of Christ scatter all vices and sins from our heart; and he is the glory and bliss of all believing people.

a Maria, t halige mden, and s cildes fostor-fder, Ioseph, wron ofwundrode ra worda e se ealda Symeon clypode be am cilde. And se Symeon him a sealde bletsunge, and witegode gyt mare be am cilde, and cw, "is cild is gesett manegum mannum to hryre, and manegum to riste and to tacne, and am bi wicweden." Swa swa a men e on Crist gelyfa beo gehealdene urh his to-cyme, swa eac a e nella gelyfan on Crist beo twyfealdlice fordemde. Anfealdlice hi sind scyldige urh Adames synne, and twyfealdlice hi beo fordemde, onne h wisaca Cristes to-cymes, and nella gelyfan on one soan Hlend. am ungeleaffullum mannum com Crist to hryre, and am geleaffullum to riste; and eac anum gehwilcum gelyfedum men ws Cristes to-cyme ger ge hryre ge rist. Hu onne? He com to y t he wolde lc yfel towurpan, and lc god arran. Nu towyrp he on s leahtras, and arr mihta. He towyrp modignysse, and arr eadmodnysse. He towyrp galnysse, and arr clnnysse. And ealle uneawas he towyrp on his gecorenum mannum, and arr on him ealle godnysse. Ne mg t gd beon getymbrod buton t yfel beo r toworpen. "To tacne com Crist, and am is wicweden." His acennednys is wundorlic tacn, foran e {146}he ws of mdene acenned, swa swa nan oer nis; and t wicwdon a ungeleaffullan men, and noldon gelyfan. And eac his riste of deae, and his upstige to heofenum, and ealle a wundra e he worhte, ealle hit wron tacna, and am wicwdon a ungeleaffullan, and a geleaffullan gelyfdon.

Then the holy maiden Mary, and Joseph, the child's foster-father, wondered at the words which the old Simeon uttered concerning the child. And Simeon then gave him his blessing, and prophesied yet more concerning the child, and said, "This child is set for the fall of many men, and for the rising of many, and for a sign, and which shall be spoken against." So as those men who believe in Christ will be saved by his coming, so also those who will not believe in Christ will be doubly condemned. Simply they are guilty through Adam's sin, and doubly they will be condemned, when they deny Christ's coming, and will not believe in the true Saviour. Christ came for the fall of unbelieving men, and for the rising of the faithful; and also to every believing man was Christ's coming both a fall and a rising. But how? He came because he would cast down every evil, and rear up every good. Now he casts down vices in us, and rears up virtues. He casts down pride, and rears up humility. He casts down libidinousness, and rears up chastity. And all wickedness he casts down in his chosen men, and rears up all goodness. Good cannot be built up unless evil be previously cast down. "Christ came for a sign, and which shall be spoken against." His birth is a wonderful sign, {147}because he was born of a maiden, as no other is; and against that unbelieving men spake, and would not believe. And, likewise, his resurrection from death, and his ascension to heaven, and all the wonders which he wrought—all these were signs, and the unbelieving spake against them, and the faithful believed.

a cw se ealda Symeon to re eadigan Marian, "His swurd sceal urhgn ine sawle." t swurd getacnode Cristes rowunge. Ns seo eadige Maria na ofslegen ne gemartyrod lichomlice, ac gastlice. aa heo geseh niman hyre cild, and adrifan sene nglas urh a handa and urh a ft, and syan mid spere gewundigan on a sian, a ws Cristes rowung hire rowung; and heo ws mare onne martyr, foron e mare ws hyre modes rowung onne wre hire lichaman, gif heo gemartyrod wre. Ne cw na se Symeon t Cristes swurd sceolde urhgn Marian lichaman, ac hyre sawle. Cristes swurd is her gesett, swa swa we cwdon, for his rowunge. eah e Maria gelyfde t Crist arisan wolde of deae, eah-hwere eode hyre cildes rowung swie earle into hire heortan.

Then said the old Simeon to the blessed Mary, "His sword shall pierce through thy soul." The sword betokened Christ's passion. The blessed Mary was not slain nor martyred bodily, but spiritually. When she saw her child taken, and iron nails driven through his hands and through his feet, and his side afterwards wounded with a spear, then was his suffering her suffering; and she was then more than a martyr, for her mind's suffering was greater than her body's would have been, had she been martyred. The old Simeon said not that Christ's sword should pierce through Mary's body, but her soul. Christ's sword is here set, as we said, for his passion. Though Mary believed that Christ would arise from death, her child's suffering went, nevertheless, very deeply into her heart.

aa se Symeon hfde gewitegod as witegunge be Criste, a com r sum wuduwe, seo ws Anna gehaten. "Seo leofode mid hire were seofon gear, and syan heo ws wuduwe feower and hund-eahtatig geara, and eowode Gode on fstenum, and on gebedum, and on clnnysse; and ws on eallum am fyrste wunigende binnan am Godes temple; and com a to am cilde, and witegode be him, and andette Gode." Rihtlice swa halig wf ws s wyre t heo moste witigian embe Crist, aa heo swa lange on clnnesse Gode eowode. Behealde, ge wf, and understanda hu be hire awriten is. Seofon gear heo leofode mid hire were, and sian heo ws wunigende on wudewan hde, o feower and hund-eahtatig geara, swa lybbende swa se apostol thte. He cw, se apostol Paulus, "Seo wuduwe e lyfa on estmettum, heo ne lyfa na, ac heo is dead." eos Anna, e we {148}embe spreca, ne lufude heo na estmettas, ac lufude fstenu. Ne lufude heo ydele spellunge, ac beeode hire gebedu. Ne ferde heo wrigende geond land, ac ws wunigende geyldelice binnan Godes temple. Gif wife getimige t heo hire wer forleose, onne nime heo bysne be isre wudewan.

When Simeon had prophesied this prophecy concerning Christ, then came there a widow, who was called Anna. "She had lived with her husband seven years; and had afterwards been a widow eighty-four years, and served God with fastings, and prayers, and with chastity; and was in all that time dwelling within God's temple; and came then to the child, and prophesied concerning him, and confessed to God." Rightly was so holy a woman worthy to prophesy concerning Christ, since she had so long served God in chastity. Behold, ye women, and understand how it is written concerning her. Seven years she had lived with her husband, and was afterwards continuing in widowhood eighty-four years; so living as the apostle taught. He, the apostle Paul, said, "The widow who liveth in luxuries, she liveth not, but she is dead." This Anna, of whom we speak, loved not luxuries, {149}but loved fasts. She loved not idle discourses, but occupied herself in prayers. She went not wandering through the land, but remained patiently within God's temple. If it happen to a woman to lose her husband, let her take example by this widow.

ry hadas sindon e cydon gecynysse be Criste; t is mig-had, and wudewan-had, and riht sinscype. Mden is Cristes modor, and on mg-hade wunude Iohannes se Fulluhtere, e embe Crist cydde, and manega ore to-eacan him. Widewe ws eos Anna, e we gefyrn r embe sprcon. Zacharias, Iohannes fder, ws wer; ger ge he ge his wf witegodon embe Crist. as ry hadas syndon Gode gecweme, gif hi rihtlice lybba. Mg-had is ger ge on wpmannum ge on wfmannum. a habba rihtne mg-had a e fram cild-hade wunia on clnnysse, and ealle galnysse on him sylfum forseo, ger ge modes ge lichoman, urh Godes fultum. onne habba hi t Gode hundfealde mede on am ecan life. Widewan beo a e fter heora gemacan on clnnysse wunia for Godes lufon: h habba onne syxtigfealde mede t Gode hyra geswinces. a e rihtlice healda hyra ǽwe, and on alyfedum timan, for bearnes gestreone, hmed beg, h habba rittigfealde mede for hyra gesceadwisnysse. Se e wile his galnysse gefyllan swa oft swa hine lyst, onne bi he wimeten nytenum and na mannum. Be ysum thte se apostol Paulus, "a e wf habba, beon h swilce h nan nabbon;" foran ealle hyra unlustas hi sceolon gebetan sylfwylles on yssum life, oe unances fter yssum life; and h cuma sian to am ecan life mid maran earfonysse. a men e beo butan rihtre ǽwe, and yrna fram anum to orum, nabba h nnne dl ne nane bletsunge mid Criste, buton h s geswicon and hit gebeton. Uton fon nu on t godspel r we hit r forleton.

There are three states which bare witness of Christ: that is maidenhood, and widowhood, and lawful matrimony. A maiden is the mother of Christ, and in maidenhood John the Baptist continued, who testified of Christ, and many others besides him. This Anna, of whom we before spake, was a widow. Zacharias, the father of John, was a married man; both he and his wife prophesied concerning Christ. These three states are agreeable to God, if men righteously live in them. Maidenhood is both in men and in women. Those have right maidenhood who from childhood continue in chastity, and despise in themselves all lust, both of body and mind, through God's succour. Then shall they have from God a hundredfold meed in the everlasting life. Widows are those who, after the death of their consorts, live in chastity for love of God: they shall have a sixtyfold meed from God for their tribulation. Those who rightly hold their marriage vow, and at permitted times, and for procreation of children, have carnal intercourse, shall have a thirtyfold meed for their discretion. He who will satiate his libidinousness as often as he lists, shall be compared with the beasts and not with men. Concerning this the apostle Paul taught, "Let those who have wives be as though they had none." For they shall atone for all their evil lusts voluntarily in this life, or involuntarily after this life; and they shall come afterwards to the everlasting life with more difficulty. Those men who are without a lawful consort, and run from one to other, shall have no part and no blessing with Christ, unless they desist and make atonement. Let us now resume the gospel where we previously left it.

Seo eadige Maria, and Ioseph, s cildes fostor-fder, {150}gecyrdon to re byrig Nazareth mid am cilde; "and t cild weox, and ws gestrangod, and mid wisdome afylled, and Godes gifu ws on him wunigende." He weox and ws gestrangod on re menniscnysse, and he ne behofode nanes wstmes ne nanre strangunge on re godcundnysse. He t, and dranc, and slep, and weox on gearum, and ws eah-hwere eal his lif butan synnum. He nre na man geuht, gif he mannes life ne lyfode. He ws mid wisdome afylled, foran e he is himsylf wisdom, and on him wuna eal gefyllednys re godcundnysse: lichomlice Godes gifu wunude on him. Micel gifu ws t re menniscnysse, t he ws Godes Sunu and God sylf, swa hrae swa he ongann man to beonne. He ws fre God of am Fder acenned, and wunigende mid am Fder and mid am Halgan Gaste: h ry n God untodledlic; ry on hadum, and n God on anre godcundnysse, and on anum gecynde fre wunigende. Se Sunu ana underfeng a menniscnysse, and hfde anginn, see fre ws. He ws cild, and weox on re menniscnysse, and rowode dea sylfwilles, and aras of deae mid am lichaman e he r on rowode, and astah to heofenum, and wuna nu fre on godcundnysse and on menniscnysse, an Crist, ger ge God ge mann, undeadlic, see r his rowunge ws deadlic. He rowade, ac he ne rowa heonon-for nfre eft, ac bi fre butan ende, eallswa ce on re menniscnysse swa he is on re godcundnysse.

The blessed Mary, and Joseph, the child's foster-father, {151}returned to the city of Nazareth with the child; "and the child grew, and was strengthened, and filled with wisdom, and God's grace was dwelling within him." He grew and was strengthened in human nature, but he required no growth and no strengthening in his divine nature. He ate, and drank, and slept, and grew in years, and was, nevertheless, all his life without sins. He would not have seemed a man, if he had not lived the life of a man. He was filled with wisdom, because he is himself wisdom, and in him dwelleth all fullness of the divine nature: God's grace dwelt bodily within him. A great grace was that of his human nature, that he was the Son of God and God himself, as soon as he began to be man. He was ever God begotten of the Father, and dwelling with the Father and with the Holy Ghost: these three one God indivisible; three in persons, and one God in one Godhead, and in one nature ever continuing. The Son only assumed human nature, and had a beginning, who was ever. He was a child, and grew in human nature, and voluntarily suffered death, and arose from death with the body in which he before had suffered, and ascended to heaven, and continueth now for ever in divine nature and in human nature, one Christ, both God and man, immortal, who before his passion was mortal. He suffered, but henceforth he will never suffer again, but will ever be without end, as eternal in his human nature as he is in his divine nature.

Wite gehwa eac t geset is on cyrclicum eawum, t we sceolon on isum dge beran ure leoht to cyrcan, and ltan h r bletsian: and we sceolon gn sian mid am leohte betwux Godes husum, and singan one lofsang e rto geset is. eah e sume men singan ne cunnon, hi beron eah-hwere t leoht on heora handum; fory on issum dge ws t soe Leoht Crist geboren to am temple, see us alysde fram ystrum, and us gebrinc to am ecan leohte, see leofa and rixa butan ende. Amen.

Be it known also to everyone that it is appointed in the ecclesiastical observances, that we on this day bear our lights to church, and let them there be blessed: and that we should go afterwards with the light among God's houses, and sing the hymn that is thereto appointed. Though some men cannot sing, they can, nevertheless, bear the light in their hands; for on this day was Christ, the true Light, borne to the temple, who redeemed us from darkness and bringeth us to the Eternal Light, who liveth and ruleth ever without end. Amen.





Adsumpsit Iesus XII. discipulos suos: et reliqua.

Adsumpsit Jesus XII. discipulos suos: et reliqua.

Her is gerd on issum godspelle, e we nu gehyrdon of s diacones mue, t "se Hlend gename onsundron his twelf leorning-cnihtas, and cw to him, Efne we sceolon faran to re byrig Hierusalem, and onne beo gefyllede ealle a ing e wron be me awritene urh witegan. Ic sceal beon belǽwed eodum, and h do me to bysmore, and beswinga, and syan ofslea, and ic arise of deae on am riddan dge. a nyston his leorning-cnihtas nan andgit yssera worda. a gelmp hit t h genealhton anre byrig e is gehaten Hiericho, and a st r sum blind man be am wege; and aa he gehyrde s folces fr mid am Hlende, a acsode he hwa r ferde. Hi cwdon him to, t t wre s Hlendes fr. a begann he to hrymenne, and cw, Hlend, Dauides Bearn, gemiltsa mn. a men, e beforan am Hlende ferdon, ciddon ongean one blindan, t he suwian sceolde. He clypode a miccle swior, Hlend, Dauides Bearn, gemiltsa mn. a std se Hlend, and het ldan one blindan to him. aa he genealhte, a acsode se Hlend hine, Hwt wylt u t ic e d? He cw, Drihten, t ic mage geseon. And se Hlend him cw to, Loca nu: in geleafa hf e gehled. And he rrihte geseah, and fyligde am Hlende, and hine mrsode. a eal t folc, e t wundor geseh, herede God mid micelre onbryrdnysse."

It is here read in this gospel, which we now have heard from the deacon's mouth, that "Jesus took his twelve disciples apart, and said to them, Behold, we shall go to the city of Jerusalem, and then shall be fulfilled all the things that have been written of me by the prophets. I shall be betrayed to the Gentiles, and they shall mock and scourge me, and afterwards slay me, and I shall arise from death on the third day. But his disciples knew not the meaning of these words. Then it came to pass that they came near to a city which is called Jericho, and there sat a certain blind man by the way; and when he heard the passing of the people with Jesus, he asked who was passing there. They said to him that Jesus was passing. Then he began to cry, and said, Jesus, Son of David, have pity on me. The men, who were going before Jesus, chided the blind man, that he might be silent. He cried then much louder, Jesus, Son of David, have pity on me. Jesus then stood, and bade them lead the blind man to him. When he came near Jesus asked him, What wilt thou that I shall do unto thee? He said, Lord, that I may see. And Jesus said to him, Look now: thy faith hath healed thee. And he immediately saw, and followed Jesus, and glorified him. Then all the people who saw that miracle glorified God with great fervour."

yses godspelles anginn hrepode ures Hlendes rowunge, eah-hwere ne rowade h na on ysne timan; ac h wolde feorran and lange r cyan his rowunge his leorning-cnihtum, t h ne sceoldon beon to swie afyrhte urh a rowunge, onne se tima come t h rowian wolde. Heora md wear afyrht urh Crstes segene, ac h h eft gehyrte mid am worde e h cw, "Ic arise of deae on am riddan dge." a wolde he heora geleafan gestrangian {154}and getrymman mid wundrum. And h a comon to re stowe r se blinda man st be am wege, and Crist hine gehlde tforan gesihe ealles s werodes, to i t he wolde mid am wundre h to geleafan gebringan. eah-hwere a wundra e Crist worhte, oer ing h teowdon urh mihte, and ore ing h getacnodon urh geryno. He worhte a wundra solice urh godcunde mihte, and mid am wundrum s folces geleafan getrymde; ac hwre r ws oer ing digle on am wundrum, fter gastlicum andgite. es n blinda man getacnode eall mancynn, e wear ablend urh Adames gylt, and asceofen of myrhe neoxena-wanges, and gebroht to issum life e is wimeten cwearterne. Nu sind we ute belocene fram am heofenlican leohte, and we ne magon on issum life s ecan leohtes brucan; ne we his na mare ne cunnon buton swa micel swa we urh Cristes lare on bocum rda. eos woruld, eah e heo myrige hwltidum geuht sy, nis heo hwere e gelicere re ecan worulde, e is sum cweartern leohtum dge. Eal mancyn ws, swa we r cwdon, ablend mid geleaflste and gedwylde; ac urh Cristes to-cyme we wurdon abrodene of urum gedwyldum, and onlihte urh geleafan. Nu hbbe we t leoht on urum mode, t is Cristes geleafa; and we habba one hiht s ecan lifes myrhe, eah e we gyt lichamlice on urum cwearterne wunian.

The beginning of this gospel touched our Saviour's passion, though he did not suffer at this time; but he would from afar and long before make known his passion to his disciples, that they might not be too much terrified by his passion, when the time came that he would suffer. Their mind was terrified by Christ's saying, but he again cheered them by the words which he spake, "I will arise from death on the third day." He would then strengthen and confirm {155}their faith with miracles. And they came then to the place where the blind man sat by the way, and Christ healed him before the sight of all the multitude, to the end that, with that miracle, he might bring them to belief. But the miracles which Christ wrought manifested one thing by power, and another thing they betokened by mystery. He wrought those miracles indeed through divine power, and with those miracles confirmed the people's faith; but yet there was another hidden thing in those miracles, in a spiritual sense. The one blind man betokened all mankind, who were blinded through Adam's sin, and thrust from the joy of Paradise, and brought to this life, which is compared to a prison. Now we are shut out from the heavenly light, and we may not, in this life, enjoy the light eternal; nor know we of it more than so much as, through Christ's teaching, we read in books. This world, though it may sometimes seem gay, yet is no more like the world eternal, than is some prison to the light day. All mankind, as we before said, was blinded with lack of faith and error; but through Christ's advent we were drawn from our errors, and enlightened by faith. We have now the light in our mind, that is Christ's faith; and we have a hope of the joy of everlasting life, though we yet bodily dwell in our prison.

Se blinda man st t re byrig e is gehten Hiericho. Hiericho is gereht and gehten 'mona.' Se mona de ger ge wycx ge wana: healfum mone he bi weaxende, healfum he bi wanigende. Nu getacna se mona ure deadlice lif, and ateorunge ure deadlicnysse. On oerne ende men beo acennede, on oerne ende h forfara. aa Crist com to re byrig Hiericho, e one monan getacna, a underfeng se blinda man gesihe. t is, aa Crist com to ure deadlicnysse, and ure menniscnysse underfeng, a wear mancyn onliht, and gesihe underfeng. He st wi one weig; and Crist cw on his godspelle, "Ic eom {156}weig, and sofstnys, and lf." Se man e nan ing ne cann s ecan leohtes, he is blind; ac gif he gelyf on one Hlend, onne sitt he wi one weig. Gif he nele biddan s ecan leohtes, he sitt onne blind be am wege unbiddende. Se e rihtlice gelyf on Crst, and geornlice bitt his sawle onlihtinge, he sitt be am wege biddende. Swa hwa swa oncnw a blindnysse his modes, clypige he mid inweardre heortan, sw sw se blinda cleopode, "Hlend, Dauides Bearn, gemiltsa mn."

The blind man sat at the city which is called Jericho. Jericho is interpreted and called moon. The moon both waxes and wanes: for a half month it is waxing, for a half it is waning. Now the moon betokeneth our mortal life and the decay of our mortality. At the one end men are born, at the other they depart. When Christ came to the city of Jericho, which betokeneth the moon, the blind man received sight. That is, when Christ came to our mortality, and assumed our human nature, mankind was enlightened, and received sight. He sat by the way; and Christ said in {157}his gospel, "I am the way, and truth, and life." The man who knows nothing of the eternal light is blind; but if he believes in Jesus, then sits he by the way. If he will not pray for the light eternal, then sits he blind by the way, without prayer. He who rightly believes in Christ, and fervently prays for his soul's enlightening, he sits by the way praying. Whosoever is sensible of his mind's blindness, let him cry with inward heart, as the blind man cried, "Jesus, Son of David, have pity on me."

Seo menigu e eode beforan am Hlende ciddon am blindan, and heton t he stille wre. Seo menigu getacna ure unlustas and leahtras e us hrema, and ure heortan ofsitta, t we ne magon us swa geornlice gebiddan, swa we behofedon. Hit gelimp gelomlice, onne se man wile yfeles geswican, and his synna gebetan, and mid eallum mode to Gode gecyrran, onne cuma a ealdan leahtras e h r geworhte, and h gedrefa his mod, and willa gestillan his stemne, t he to Gode ne clypige. Ac hwt dyde se blinda, aa t folc hine wolde gestyllan? He hrymde s e swior, o t se Hlend his stemne gehyrde, and hine gehlde. Swa we sceolon eac dn, gif us deofol drecce mid menigfealdum geohtum and costnungum: we sceolon hryman swior and swior to am Hlende, t he todrfe a yfelan costnunga fram ure heortan, and t he onlihte ure mod mid his gife. Gif we onne urhwunia on urum gebedum, onne mage we gedon mid urum hreame t se Hlend stent, see r eode, and wile gehyran ure clypunge, and ure heortan onlihtan mid godum and mid clnum geohtum. Ne magon a yfelan geohtas s derian, gif hi s ne licia; ac swa s swior deofol breg mid yfelum geohtum, swa we beteran beo, and Gode leofran, gif we one deofol forseo and ealle his costnunga, urh Godes fultum.

The multitude that went before Jesus chided the blind man, and bade him be still. The multitude betokens our evil desires and vices, which call to us and occupy our hearts, so that we cannot pray so fervently as we ought. It happens frequently when a man is desirous to withdraw from evil and atone for his sins, and with his whole mind turn to God, that his old misdeeds, which he had previously committed, will then come and afflict his mind, and will still his voice, that he may not cry to God. But what did the blind man, when the people would still him? He called so much the louder, until Jesus heard his voice and healed him. So should we do also, if the devil trouble us with manifold thoughts and temptations: we should call louder and louder to Jesus, that he drive the evil temptations from our hearts, and that he enlighten our mind with his grace. But if we continue praying, then may we with our cry incline Jesus to stand, who was before passing on, and to hear our cry, and enlighten our hearts with good and pure thoughts. Evil thoughts cannot harm us, if they are not pleasing to us; but the more the devil terrifies us with evil thoughts, so much the better shall we be, and dearer to God, if we despise the devil and all his temptations through God's assistance.

Hwt is s Hlendes stede, oe hwt is his fr? He ferde urh his menniscnysse, and he stod urh a godcundnysse. He ferde urh a menniscnysse, swa t he ws {158}acenned, and ferde fram stowe to stowe, and dea rowade, and of deae ars, and astah to heofenum. is is his fr. He stent urh a godcundnysse; foron e h is urh his mihte ghwr andweard, and ne earf na faran fram stowe to stowe; foron e h is on lcere stowe urh his godcundnysse. aa he ferde, a gehyrde he s blindan clypunge; and aa he stod, a forgeaf he him gesihe; foran urh a menniscnysse he besarga ures modes blindnysse, and urh a godcundnysse he forgif us leoht, and ure blindnysse onliht. He cw to am blindan men, "Hwt wilt u t ic e do?" Wenst u t h nyste hwt se blinda wolde, see hine gehlan mihte? Ac he wolde t se blinda bde; foron e h tiht lcne swie gemaglice to gebedum: ac hwere he cwy on ore stowe, "Eower heofenlica Fder wat hws ge behofia, ran e ge hine niges inges biddan," eah-hwere wile se goda God t we hine georne biddon; foran urh a gebedu bi ure heorte onbryrd and gewend to Gode.

What is Jesus's standing, or what is his passing? He passed through his human nature, and he stood through the divine nature. He passed through human nature, so that he {159}was born, and passed from place to place, and suffered death, and from death arose, and ascended to heaven. This is his passing. He stands through his divine nature; because he is, by his power, everywhere present, and needs not go from place to place; because he is in every place through his divine nature. When he was passing he heard the blind man's cry; and when he stood he gave him sight; because through his human nature he bewails the blindness of our minds, and through his divine nature he gives us light, and enlightens our blindness. He said to the blind man, "What wilt thou that I do to thee?" Thinkest thou that he knew not what the blind man desired, he who could heal him? But he would that the blind man should pray; for he exhorts everyone very urgently to prayers: for though he says, in another place, "Your heavenly Father knoweth what ye require, before ye pray to him for anything," yet the good God desires that we should fervently pray to him; because by prayers is our heart stimulated and turned to God.

a cw se blinda, "La leof, do t ic mge geseon." Ne bd se blinda naor ne goldes, ne seolfres, ne nane woruldlice ing, ac bd his gesihe. For nahte he tealde nig ing to biddenne buton gesihe; foran eah se blinda sum ing hbbe, he ne mg butan leohte geseon t he hf. Uton fori geefenlcan isum men, e ws gehled fram Criste, ger ge on lichaman ge on sawle: ne bidde we na lease welan, ne gewitenlice wurmyntas; ac uton biddan leoht t urum Drihtne: na t leoht e bi geendod, e bi mid re nihte todrfed, t e is gemne s and nytenum; ac uton biddan s leohtes e we magon mid englum anum geseon, t e nfre ne bi geendod. To am leohte solice ure geleafa us sceal gebringan, swa swa Crist cw to am blindan menn, "Lca nu, in geleafa e gehlde."

Then said the blind man, "Sir, do that I may see." The blind man prayed neither for gold, nor silver, nor any worldly things, but prayed for his sight. For naught he accounted it to pray for anything but sight; because, though the blind may have something, he cannot without light see that which he has. Let us then imitate this man who was healed by Christ, both in body and in soul: let us pray, not for deceitful riches, nor transitory honours; but let us pray to our Lord for light: not for that light which will be ended, which will be driven away by the night, that which is common to us and to the brutes; but let us pray for that light which we can see with angels only, which shall never be ended. To that light verily our faith shall bring us, as Christ said to the blind man, "Look now: thy faith hath healed thee."

Nu smea sum ungeleafful man, Hu mg ic gewilnian s gastlican leohtes, t t ic geseon ne mg? Nu cwee ic to am menn, t a ing e h understynt and undergytan {160}mg, ne undergyt he n a ing urh his lichaman, ac urh his sawle; eah-hwere ne gesih nan man his sawle on isum life. Heo is ungesewenlic, ac eah-hwere heo wissa one gesewenlican lichaman. Se lichama, e is gesewenlic, hf lif of re sawle, e is ungesewenlic. Gewte t ungesewenlice ut, onne fyl adune t gesewenlice; foran e hit ne stod na r urh hit sylf. s lichoman lif is seo sawul, and re sawle lif is God. Gewite seo sawul ut, ne mg se mu clypian, eah e h gynige; ne eage geseon, eah e hit open sy; ne nn limn ne de nan ing, gif se lichama bi sawulleas. Swa eac seo sawul, gif God h forlt for synnum, ne de heo nan ing to gde. Ne mg nan man nan ing to gde gedon, butan Godes fultume. Ne bi seo synfulle sawul na mid ealle to nahte awend, eah e heo gode adeadod sy; ac heo bi dead lcere dugue and gesle, and bi gehealden to am ecan deae, r r heo fre bi on pinungum wunigende, and eah-hwere nfre ne ateora.

Now some unbelieving man will ask, How may I desire the spiritual light which I cannot see? Now to that man I say, that the things which he understands and may {161}comprehend, he understands those things not through his body, but through his soul; yet no man sees his soul in this life. It is invisible, but, nevertheless, it guides the visible body. The body, which is visible, has life from the soul, which is invisible. If that which is invisible depart, then will the visible fall down; because it before stood not of itself. The life of the body is the soul, and the life of the soul is God. If the soul depart, the mouth cannot cry, though it gape; nor the eye see, though it be open; nor will any limb do anything, if the body be soulless. So also the soul, if God, for its sins, forsake it, it will do nothing good. No man may do anything good without God's support. The sinful soul will not be wholly turned to naught, though it be rendered dead to good; but it will be dead to every excellence and happiness, and will be preserved to eternal death, where it will be ever continuing in torments, and yet will never perish.

Hu mg e n twynian s ecan leohtes, eah hit ungesewenlic sy, onne u hfst lf of ungesewenlicre sawle, and e ne twyna nan ing t u sawle hbbe, eah u h geseon ne mage? Se blinda, aa h geseon mihte, a fyligde h am Hlende. Se man gesih and fyli Gode, see cann understandan God, and gd weorc wyrc. Se man gesih and nele Gode fylian, see understent God, and nele gd wyrcan. Ac uton understandan God and gd weorc wyrcean: uton behealdan hwder Crist gange, and him fylian; t is t we sceolon smeagan hwt h tce, and hwt him licige, and t mid weorcum gefyllan, swa swa h sylf cw, "Se e me enige, fylige h me;" t is, geefenlce h me, and onscunige lc yfel, and lufige lc gd, swa swa ic do. Ne teah Crist him na to on isum life land ne welan, swa swa he be him sylfum cw, "Deor habba hola, and fugelas habba nest, hwr h resta, and ic nbbe hwider ic ahylde min {162}heafod." Swa micel he hfde swa he rohte, and leofode be ora manna htum, se e ealle ing h.

How canst thou now doubt of the eternal light, though it be invisible, when thou hast life from an invisible soul, and thou doubtest not that thou hast a soul, though thou canst not see it? The blind man, when he could see, followed Jesus. That man sees and follows God, who can understand God, and does good works. That man sees and will not follow God, who understands God, and will not do good works. But let us understand God, and do good works: let us behold whither Christ goes, and follow him; that is, that we should meditate on what he teaches, and what is pleasing to him, and that with works fulfil, as he himself said, "He who will serve me, let him follow me;" that is, let him imitate me, and shun every evil, and love every good, as I do. Christ gained for himself in this life neither land nor riches, as he of himself said, "The beasts have holes, and the birds have nests, where they rest, and I have not where I may lay down {163}my head." He had as much as he recked of, and lived on the possessions of other men, he who owned all things.

We rda on Cristes bec t t folc rdde be him, t h woldon hine gelccan, and ahebban to cyninge, t he wre heora heafod for worulde, swa swa he ws godcundlice. aa Crist ongeat s folces willan, a fleah h anstandende to anre dne, and his geferan gewendon to sǽ, and se Hlend ws up on lande. a on niht eode se Hlend up on am wtere mid drium fotum, ot he com to his leorning-cnihtum, r r h wron on rewute. He forfleah one woruldlican wurmynt, aa he ws to cyninge gecoren; ac he ne forfleah na t edwit and one hosp, aa a Iudeiscan hine woldon on rode ahn. He nolde his heafod befon mid gyldenum cynehelme, ac mid yrnenum, swa swa hit gedon ws on his rowunge. He nolde on issum life rixian hwilwendlice, see ecelice rixa on heofonum. Nis eos woruld na ure eel, ac is ure wrcsi; fori ne sceole we na besettan urne hiht on issum swicelum life, ac sceolon efstan mid godum geearnungum to urum eele, r we to gesceapene wron, t is to heofenan rice.

We read in the book of Christ that the people resolved concerning him, that they would seize him, and set him up for king, that he might be their temporal head, as he was divinely. When Christ perceived the people's will he fled alone to a mountain, and his companions went to the sea, and Jesus was up on land. Then by night Jesus went on the water with dry feet, until he came to his disciples, where they were in a ship. He fled from worldly honour, when he was chosen king; but he fled not from reproach and scorn, when the Jews would hang him on a cross. He would not encircle his head with a golden crown, but with one of thorns, as it was done at his passion. He would not reign for a while in this life, who rules eternally in heaven. This world is not our country, but is our place of exile; therefore should we not set our hope in this deceitful life, but should hasten with good deserts to our country, for which we were created, that is, to the kingdom of heaven.

Solice hit is awriten, "Swa hwa swa wile beon freond isre worulde, se bi geteald Godes feond." Crist cw on sumere stowe, t "Se weig is swie nearu and sticol, see lt to heofonan rice; and se is swie rm and smee, see lt to helle-wite." Se weig, see lt to heofenan rice, is fori nearu and sticol, fori t we sceolon mid earfonysse geearnian urne eel. Gif we hine habban willa, we sceolon lufian mildheortnysse, and clnnysse, and sofstnysse, and rihtwisnysse, and eadmodnysse, and habban soe lufe to Gode and to mannum, and dn lmessan be ure me, and habban gemet on urum bigleofan, and gehwilce oere halige ing began. as ing we ne magon dn butan earfonyssum; ac gif we h do, onne mage we mid am geswincum, urh Godes fultum, astigan one sticolan weg e us gelt to am ecan life. Se weg see lt to forwyrde is fori brad and {164}smee, fori e nlustas gebringa one man to forwyrde. Him bi swie softe, and nan geswinc t he fylle his galnysse, and druncennysse, and gytsunge begange and modignysse, and a unstrangan berype, and dn swa hwt swa hine lyst: ac as uneawas and ore swilce gelda hine butan geswince to ecum tintregum, buton he r his ende yfeles geswice and gd wyrce. Dysig bi se wegferenda man see nim one smean weg e hine mislt, and forlt one sticolan e hine gebrinc to re byrig. Swa eac we beo solice ungerade, gif we lufia a sceortan softnysse and a hwilwendlican lustas to an swie, t hi us gebringan to am ecan pinungum. Ac uton niman one earforan weg, t we her sume hwile swincon, to y t we ecelice beon butan geswince. Eae mihte Crist, gif he wolde, on isum life wunian butan earfonyssum, and faran to his ecan rice butan rowunge, and butan deae; ac he nolde. Be am cw Petrus se apostol, "Crist rowode for us, and sealde us bysne, t we sceolon fyligan his fotswaum;" t is, t we sceolon sum ing rowian for Cristes lufon, and for urum synnum. Wel rowa se man, and Gode gecwemlice, see win ongean leahtras, and godnysse gefrema, swa swa he fyrmest mg. Se e nan ing nele on issum life rowian, he sceal rowian unances wyrsan rowunga on am toweardan life.

Verily it is written, "Whosoever will be a friend of this world, he shall be accounted a foe of God." Christ said in some place, that "The way is very narrow and steep which leads to the kingdom of heaven; and it is very wide and smooth which leads to hell-torment." The way which leads to the kingdom of heaven is narrow and steep, in order that we should with difficulty gain our country. If we desire to obtain it, we should love mercy, and chastity, and truth, and righteousness, and humility, and have true love to God and to men, and give alms according to our means, and be moderate in our food, and observe all other holy things. These things we cannot do without difficulties; but if we do them, then may we with those labours, through God's support, ascend the steep way which leads us to eternal life. The way which leads to perdition is broad and smooth, because wicked {165}lusts bring a man to perdition. It is very soft to him and no labour to satiate his libidinousness and drunkenness, and practise covetousness and pride, and rob the weak, and do whatsoever he lists: but those evil practices and others such lead him without labour to eternal torments, unless before his end he desist from evil and do good. Foolish is the wayfaring man who takes the smooth way that misleads him, and forsakes the steep which brings him to the city. So also shall we be truly inconsiderate, if we love brief voluptuousness and transitory pleasures so greatly that they bring us to eternal torments. But let us take the more difficult way, that we may here for some time labour, in order to be eternally without labour. Easily might Christ, had he been willing, have continued in this life without hardships, and gone to his everlasting kingdom without suffering, and without death; but he would not. Concerning which Peter the apostle said, "Christ suffered for us, and gave us an example, that we should follow his footsteps;" that is, that we should suffer something for love of Christ, and for our sins. Well suffers the man, and acceptably to God, who strives against wickedness, and promotes goodness, as he best may. He who will suffer nothing in this life, shall suffer against his will in the life to come.

Nu genealc clne tid and halig, on re we sceolon ure gimeleaste gebetan: cume fori gehwa cristenra manna to his scrifte, and his diglan gyltas geandette, and be his lreowes tcunge gebete; and tihte lc oerne to gde mid godre gebysnunge, t eal folc cwee be s, swa swa be am blindan gecweden ws, aa his eagan wron onlihte; t is, Eall folc e t wundor geseah, herede God, see leofa and rixa butan ende. Amen.

Now is a pure and holy time drawing nigh, in which we should atone for our remissness: let, therefore, every christian man come to his confessor, and confess his secret sins, and amend by the teaching of his instructor; and let everyone stimulate another to good by good example, that all people may say of us, as was said of the blind man when his eyes were enlightened; that is, All people who saw that miracle praised God, who liveth and reigneth ever without end. Amen.





Ductus est Iesus in desertum a Spiritu: et reliqua.

Ductus est Jesus in desertum a Spiritu: et reliqua.

Ic wolde eow trahtnian is godspel, e mann nu beforan eow rdde, ac ic ondrde t ge ne magon a micelan deopnysse s godspelles swa understandan swa hit gedafenlic sy. Nu bidde ic eow t ge beon geyldige on eowerum geance, ot we one traht mid Godes fylste oferrdan magon.

I would expound to you this gospel which has just now been read before you, but I fear that ye cannot understand the great depth of this gospel as it is fitting. Now I pray you to be patient in your thoughts till, with God's assistance, we can read over the text.

"Se Hlend ws geld fram am Halgan Gaste to anum westene, to y t he wre gecostnod fram deofle: and he a fste feowertig daga and feowertig nihta, swa t he ne onbyrigde tes ne wtes on eallum am fyrste: ac sian him hingrode. a genealhte se costnere, and him to cw, Gif u sy Godes Sunu, cwe to isum stanum t hi beon awende to hlafum. a andwearde se Hlend, and cw, Hit is awriten, ne leofa se mann na be hlafe anum, ac lyfa be eallum am wordum e ga of Godes mue. a genam se deofol hine, and gesette hine uppan am scylfe s heagan temples, and cw, Gif u Godes Sunu sy, feall nu adn: hit is awriten, t englum is beboden be e, t hi e on hira handum ahebbon, t u furon ne urfe inne fot t stane tspurnan. a cw se Hlend eft him to, Hit is awriten, Ne fanda ines Drihtnes. a genam se deofol hine eft, and gesette hine uppan anre swie heahre dune, and teowde him ealles middangeardes welan, and his wuldor, and cw him to, Ealle as ing ic forgife e, gif u wilt feallan to minum fotum and gebiddan e to me. a cw se Hlend him to, Ga u underbcc, sceocca! Hit is awriten, Gehw sceal hine gebiddan to his Drihtne anum, and him anum eowian. a forlet se deofol hine, and him comon englas to, and him enodon."

"Jesus was led by the Holy Ghost to a waste, in order that he might be tempted by the devil: and he there fasted forty days and forty nights, so that he tasted neither food nor drink in all that time: but he then hungered. Then the tempter approached, and said to him, If thou art the Son of God, say to these stones that they be turned to loaves. Then Jesus answered, and said, It is written, Man liveth not by bread alone, but liveth by all the words that go from the mouth of God. Then the devil took him, and set him upon the summit of the lofty temple, and said, If thou art the Son of God, fall now down: it is written, that angels are commanded concerning thee, that they shall lift thee in their hands, that thou may not dash thy foot on a stone. Then said Jesus again to him, It is written, Tempt not thy Lord. Then the devil took him again, and set him upon a very high mountain, and showed him all the wealth and glory of the world, and said to him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall at my feet, and adore me. Then said Jesus to him, Go thou behind, Satan! It is written, Everyone shall adore his Lord alone, and him alone serve. Then the devil left him, and angels came to him, and ministered unto him."

Se Halga Gast ldde one Hlend to am westene, to y t he wre r gecostnod. Nu wundra gehw h se deofol dorste genealcan to am Hlende, t he hine costnode: {168}ac h ne dorste Cristes fndian, gif him alyfed nre. Se Hlend com to mancynne fori t he wolde ealle ure costnunga oferswian mid his costnungum, and oferswian urne one ecan dea mid his hwilwendlicum deae. Nu ws he swa eadmod t he geafode am deofle t he his fandode, and he geafode lyrum mannum t hi hine ofslogon. Deofol is ealra unrihtwisra manna heafod, and a yfelan men sind his lima: nu geafode God t t heafod hine costnode, and t a limu hine ahengon.

The Holy Ghost led Jesus to the waste, that he might there be tempted. Now everyone will wonder how the devil durst approach Jesus to tempt him: but he durst not tempt {169}Jesus, if it had not been allowed him. Jesus came to mankind because he would overcome all our temptations by his temptations, and overcome our eternal death with his temporary death. Now he was so humble that he permitted the devil to tempt him, and he permitted wicked men to slay him. The devil is the head of all unrighteous men, and evil men are his limbs: now God permitted the head to tempt him, and the limbs to crucify him.

am deofle ws micel twynung, Hwt Crist wre? His lf ns na gelgod swa swa ora manna lf. Crist ne t mid gyfernysse, ne he ne drnc mid oferflowendnysse, ne his eagan ne ferdon worigende geond mislice lustas. a smeade se deofol hwt he wre; hwer he wre Godes Sunu, see manncynne behaten ws. Cw a on his geance, t he fandian wolde hwt he wre. a fste Crist feowertig daga and feowertig nihta on n, a on eallum am fyrste ne cw se deofol to him t he etan sceolde, foran e h geseh t him nan ing ne hingrode. Eft, aa Crist hingrode fter swa langum fyrste, a wende se deofol solice t he God nre, and cw to him, "Hwi hingra e? Gif u Godes Sunu sy, wend as stanas to hlafum, and et."

To the devil it was a great doubt, What Christ were? His life was not ordered like the lives of other men. Christ ate not with avidity, nor did he drink with excess, nor did his eyes pass wandering amid various pleasures. Then the devil meditated what he were; whether he were the Son of God, who had been promised to mankind. He said then in his thoughts, that he would prove what he were. When Christ was fasting forty days and forty nights together, in all that time the devil did not say to him that he should eat, because he saw that he hungered not. Afterwards, when Christ hungered after so long a time, then verily the devil weened that he was not God, and said to him, "Why hungerest thou? If thou art the Son of God, turn these stones to loaves, and eat."

Eae mihte God, see awende wter to wine, and see ealle gesceafta of nahte geworhte, eaelice he mihte awendan a stanas to hlafum: ac he nolde nan ing don be s deofles tcunge; ac cw him to andsware, "Ne lifa na se man be hlafe anum, ac lifa be am wordum e ga of Godes mue." Swa swa s mannes lichama leofa be hlafe, swa sceal his sawul lybban be Godes wordum, t is, be Godes lare, e he urh wise menn on bocum gesette. Gif se lichama nf mete, oe ne mg mete icgean, onne forweorna he, and adeada: swa eac seo sawul, gif heo nf a halgan lare, heo bi onne weornigende and mgenleas. urh a halgan lare heo bi strang and onbryrd to Godes willan.

Easily might God, who turned water to wine, and he who wrought all creatures from nothing, easily might he have turned the stones to loaves: but he would do nothing by the devil's direction; but said to him in answer, "Man liveth not by bread alone, but liveth by the words which go from the mouth of God." As man's body lives by bread, so shall his soul live by the words of God, that is, by God's doctrine, which, through wise men, he has set in books. If the body has not food, or cannot eat food, then it decays and dies: so likewise the soul, if it has not the holy doctrine, it will be perishable and powerless. By the holy doctrine it will be strong, and stimulated to God's will.

a ws se deofol ne oferswied fram Criste. "And he a hine genam, and br upp on t templ, and hine sette t {170}am scylfe, and cw to him, Gif u Godes Sunu sy, sceot adn; foran e englum is beboden be e, t h e on handum ahebban, t u ne urfe inne ft t stane tspurnan." Her begnn se deofol to reccanne halige gewritu, and he leah mid re race; foran e h is leas, and nan sofstnys nis on him; ac he is fder lcere leasunge. Ns t na awriten be Criste t h a sde, ac ws awriten be halgum mannum: h behofia engla fultumes on issum life, t se deofol h costnian ne mote swa swie swa he wolde. Swa hold is God mancynne, t he hf geset his englas us to hyrdum, t h ne sceolon na geafian am reum deoflum t h s fordon magon. Hi moton ure afandian, ac h ne moton us nydan to nanum yfle, buton we hit sylfe agenes willan dn, urh a yfelan tihtinge s deofles. We ne beo na fulfremede buton we beon afandode: urh a fandunge we sceolon geeon, gif we fre wisaca deofle, and eallum his larum; and gif we genealca urum Drihtne mid geleafan, and lufe, and godum weorcum; gif we hwr aslidon, arisan eft rrihte, and betan georne t r tobrocen bi.

Then was the devil once overcome by Christ. "And he then took him and bare him up on the temple, and set him {171}on the summit, and said to him, If thou art the Son of God, dart down; for it is commanded to angels concerning thee, that they shall raise thee on their hands, that thou may not dash thy foot against a stone." Here the devil began to expound the holy scriptures, and he lied in his exposition; because he is false, and there is no truth in him; but he is the father of all leasing. It was not written of Christ what he there said, but was written of holy men: they require the support of angels in this life, that the devil may not tempt them so much as he would. So benevolent is God to mankind, that he has set his angels over us as guardians, that they may not allow the fierce devils to fordo us. They may tempt us, but they cannot compel us to any evil, unless we ourselves do it of our own will, through the evil instigation of the devil. We shall not be perfect unless we be tempted: through temptation we shall thrive, if we ever resist the devil and all his precepts; and if we draw nigh to our Lord with faith, and love, and good works; if we anywhere slide down, arise forthwith, and earnestly mend what shall there be broken.

Crist cw a to am deofle, "Ne sceal man fandigan his Drihtnes." t wre swie gilplic dǽd gif Crist scute a adn, eah e he eae mihte butan awyrdnysse his lima nyer asceotan, see gebigde one heagan heofenlican bigels; ac he nolde nan ing dn mid gylpe; foron e se gylp is an heafod-leahter; a nolde he adn asceotan, foron e he onscunode one gylp; ac cw, "Ne sceal man his Drihtnes fndian." Se man fndia his Drihtnes, see, mid dyslicum truwan and mid gylpe, sum wundorlic ing on Godes naman dn wile, oe see sumes wundres dyslice and butan neode, t Gode abiddan wile. a ws se deofol oere sie urh Cristes geyld oferswied.

Christ said to the devil, "No one shall tempt his Lord." It would have been a very proud deed if Christ had cast himself down, though he easily might, without injury of his limbs, have cast himself down, who bowed the high arch of heaven; but he would do nothing in pride, because pride is a deadly sin; so he would not cast himself down, because he would shun pride; but said, "No one shall tempt his Lord." That man tempts his Lord, who, with foolish confidence and with pride, will do something in the name of God, or who will foolishly and without need pray to God for some miracle. Then was the devil, by Christ's patience, overcome a second time.

"a genam he hine eft, and abr hine pp on ane dune, and tywde him ealles middangeardes welan and his wuldor, and cw to him, Ealle as ing ic forgife e, gif u wilt afeallan to minum fotum, and e to me gebiddan." Dyrstelice sprc se deofol her, swa swa he r sprc, aa he on {172}heofenum ws, aa he wolde dlan heofonan rice wi his Scyppend, and beon Gode gelc; ac his dyrstignys hine awearp a into helle; and eac nu his dyrstignys hine genierode, aa he, urh Cristes rowunge, forlet mancynn of his anwealde. He cw, "as ing ic forgife e." Him uhte t he ahte ealne middangeard; foron e him ne wistod nan man ram e Crist com e hine gewylde.

"Then he took him again, and bare him up on a mountain, and showed him all the riches of the world and its glory, and said to him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall at my feet, and adore me." Presumptuously spake the devil here, as he before spake, when he was in heaven, when he {173}would share the heavenly kingdom with his Creator, and be equal to God; but his presumption then cast him down into hell; and now also his presumption humbled him, when he, through Christ's passion, let mankind out of his power. He said, "These things will I give thee." It seemed to him that he possessed all the world; because no man withstood him before Christ came who subdued him.

Hit is awriten on halgum bocum, "Eore and eall hire gefyllednys, and eal ymbhwyrft and a e on am wunia, ealle hit syndon Godes hta," and na deofles. eah-hwere Crist cw on his godspelle be am deofle, t he wre middangeardes ealdor, and he sceolde beon t-adrfed. He is ra manna ealdor, e lufia isne middangeard, and ealne heora hiht on issum lfe besetta, and heora Scyppend forseo. Ealle gesceafta, sunne, and mona, and ealle tunglan, land, and sǽ, and nytenu, ealle h eowia hyra Scyppende; foron e h fara fter Godes dihte. Se lyra man na, onne he forsih Godes beboda, and fullgǽ deofles willan, oe urh gytsunge, oe urh leasunge, oe urh graman, oe urh ore leahtras, onne bi he deofles eowa, onne he deofle gecwem, and one forsih e hine geworhte.

It is written in holy books, "Earth and all its fullness, and all the globe and those who dwell on it, all are God's possessions," and not the devil's. Nevertheless, Christ said in his gospel concerning the devil, that he was the prince of the world, and he should be driven out. He is the prince of those men who love this world, and set all their hope in this life, and despise their Creator. All creatures, sun, and moon, and all stars, land, and sea, and cattle, all serve their Creator; because they perform their course after God's direction. Wicked man alone, when he despises the commandments of God, and fulfils the devil's will, either through covetousness, or through leasing, or through anger, or through other sins, then is he the devil's thrall, then is he acceptable to the devil, and despises him who created him.

"Crist cw a to am deofle, Ga u underbcc, sceocca! Hit is awriten, Man sceal hine gebiddan to his Drihtne, and him anum eowian." Quidam dicunt non dixisse Saluatorem, "Satane, uade retro," sed tantum "Uade": sed tamen in rectioribus et uetustioribus exemplaribus habetur, "Uade retro Satanas," sicut interpretatio ipsius nominis declarat; nam diabolus Deorsum ruens interpretatur. Apostolo igitur Petro dicitur a Xpo, "Uade retro me," id est, Sequere me. Diabolo non dicitur, Uade retro me, sed, "Uade retro," sicut jam diximus, et sic scripsit beatus Hieronimus, in una epistola. He cw to am deofle, "Ga u underbc." Deofles nama is gereht, 'Nyer-hreosende.' Nyer he ahreas, and underbc he eode fram frime his anginnes, aa he ws ascyred fram re heofonlican blisse; on hinder he eode {174}eft urh Cristes to-cyme; on hinder he sceal gn on domes dge, onne he bi belocen on helle-wite on cum fyre, he and ealle his geferan; and h nfre sian t-brecan ne magon.

"Christ then said to the devil, Go thou behind, Satan! It is written, Man shall adore his Lord, and serve him alone." Quidam dicunt non dixisse Salvatorem, "Satane, vade retro," sed tantum "Vade": sed tamen in rectioribus et vetustioribus exemplaribus habetur, "Vade retro Satanas," sicut interpretatio ipsius nominis declarat; nam diabolus Deorsum ruens interpretatur. Apostolo igitur Petro dicitur a Christo, "Vade retro me," id est, Sequere me. Diabolo non dicitur, Vade retro me, sed "Vade retro," sicut jam diximus, et sic scripsit beatus Hieronymus, in una epistola. He said to the devil, "Go thou behind." The name of devil is interpreted, Falling down. He fell down, and he went behind from the beginning of his enterprize, when he was cut off from heavenly bliss; he went behind again through Christ's advent; {175}he shall go behind on doomsday, when he shall be shut up in hell in eternal fire, he and all his associates; and they never afterwards may burst out.

Hit is awriten on re ealdan ǽ, t nan man ne sceal hine gebiddan to nanum deofelgylde, ne to nanum inge, buton to Gode anum; foron e nn gesceaft nys wyre s wurmyntes, buton se ana see Scyppend is ealra inga: to him anum we sceolon s gebiddan; he ana is so Hlaford and so God. We bidda ingunga t halgum mannum, t hi sceolon s ingian to heora Drihtne and to urum Drihtne; ne gebidde we n, eah-hwere, us to him, swa swa we to Gode do, ne hi t geafian nella; swa swa se engel cw to Iohanne am apostole, aa he wolde feallan to his fotum: he cw, "Ne do u hit na, t u to me abuge. Ic eom Godes eowa, swa swa u and ine gebrora: gebide e to Gode anum."

It is written in the old law that no man shall worship any idol, nor anything, save God alone; because no creature is worthy of that honour, save him alone who is the Creator of all things: him only should we worship; he alone is true Lord and true God. We pray for their intercessions to holy men, that they may mediate for us with their Lord and our Lord; still we do not worship them as we do God, nor would they permit it; as the angel said to John the apostle, when he would fall at his feet: he said, "Do thou it not, that thou bowest to me. I am God's servant, as thou and thy brethren: worship God alone."

"a forlt se deofol Crist, and him comon englas to, and him enodon." He ws gecostnod swa swa mann, and fter re costnunge him comon halige englas to, and him enodon, swa swa heora Scyppende. Buton se deofol gesawe t Crist man wre, ne gecostnode he hine; and buton he so God wre, noldon a englas him enian. Mycel ws ures Hlendes eamodnys and his geyld on isre dde. He mihte mid anum worde besencan one deofol on re deopan nywelnysse; ac h ne teowde his mihte, ac mid halgum gewritum he andwyrde am deofle, and sealde us bysne mid his geylde, t swa oft swa we fram wyrum mannum nig ing rowia, t we sceolon wendan ure mod to Godes lare swior onne to nigre wrace.

"Then the devil left Christ, and angels came to him, and ministered to him." He was tempted as a man, and after the temptation holy angels came to him, and ministered to him as to their Creator. Unless the devil had seen that Christ was a man, he would not have tempted him; and unless he had been true God, the angels would not have ministered to him. Great was our Saviour's meekness and his patience in this deed. He might with one word have sunk the devil into the deep abyss; but he manifested not his might, but answered the devil with the holy scriptures, and gave us an example by his patience, that, as often as we suffer anything from perverse men, we should turn our mind to God's precepts rather than to any vengeance.

On reo wisan bi deofles costnung: t is on tihtinge, on lustfullunge, on geafunge. Deofol tiht s to yfele, ac we sceolon hit onscunian, and ne geniman nane lustfullunge to re tihtinge: gif onne ure mod nim gelustfullunge, onne sceole we huru wistandan, t r ne beo nn geafung to am yfelan weorce. Seo yfele tihting is of deofle; {176}onne bi oft s mannes md gebiged to re lustfullunge, hwilon eac aslt to re geafunge; foron e we sind of synfullum flsce acennede. Ns na se Hlend on a wisan gecostnod; foron e he ws of mdene acenned buton synne, and ns nan ing wyrlices on him. He mihte beon gecostnod urh tihtinge, ac nan lustfullung ne hrepede his md. r ns eac nan geafung, foron e r ns nan lustfullung; ac ws s deofles costnung fory eall wiutan, and nan ing wiinnan. Ungewiss com se deofol to Criste, and ungewiss he eode aweig; foran e se Hlend ne geswutulode na him his mihte, ac oferdrf hine geyldelice mid halgum gewritum.

In three ways is temptation of the devil: that is in instigation, in pleasure, in consent. The devil instigates us to evil, but we should shun it, and take no pleasure in the instigation: but if our mind takes pleasure, then should we at least withstand, so that there be no consent to evil work. Instigation to evil is of the devil; but a man's mind is often {177}bent to pleasure, sometimes also it lapses into consent; seeing that we are born of sinful flesh. Not in this wise was Jesus tempted; because he was born of a virgin without sin, and that there was nothing perverse in him. He might have been tempted by instigation, but no pleasure touched his mind. There was also no consent, because there was no pleasure; therefore was the devil's temptation all without, and nothing within. Uncertain came the devil to Christ, and uncertain he went away; seeing that Jesus manifested not his power to him, but overcame him patiently by the holy scriptures.

Se ealda deofol gecostnode urne fder Adm on reo wisan: t is mid gyfernysse, and mid idelum wuldre, and mid gitsunge; and a wear he oferswied, foron e he geafode am deofle on eallum am rim costnungum. urh gyfernysse he ws oferswied, aa he urh deofles lare t one forbodenan ppel. urh idel wuldor he ws oferswied, aa he gelyfde s deofles wordum, aa he cw, "Swa mre ge beo swa swa englas, gif ge of am treowe eta." And h a gelyfdon his leasunge, and woldon mid idelum gylpe beon beteran onne h gesceapene wron: a wurdon h wyrsan. Mid gytsunge he ws oferswied, aa se deofol cw to him, "And ge habba gescead ger ge gdes ge feles." Nis na gytsung on feo anum, ac is eac on gewilnunge micelre geince.

The old devil tempted our father Adam in three ways: that is with greediness, with vain-glory, and with covetousness; and then he was overcome, because he consented to the devil in all those three temptations. Through greediness he was overcome, when, by the devil's instruction, he ate the forbidden apple. Through vain-glory he was overcome, when he believed the devil's words, when he said, "Ye shall be as great as angels, if ye eat of that tree." And they then believed his leasing, and would in their vain-glory be better than they had been created: then became they worse. With covetousness he was overcome, when the devil said to him, "And ye shall have the power to distinguish good from evil." Covetousness is not alone in money, but is also in the desire of great dignity.

Mid am ylcum rim ingum e se deofol one frumsceapenan mann oferswide, mid am ylcan Crist oferswide hine, and astrehte. urh gyfernysse fandode se deofol Cristes, aa he cw, "Cwe to ysum stanum t h beon to hlafum awende, and et." urh idel wuldor he fandode his, aa he hine tihte t h sceolde sceotan nyer of s temples scylfe. urh gitsunge he fandode his, aa he mid leasunge him behet ealles middangeardes welan, gif he wolde feallan to his fotum. Ac se deofol ws a oferswied {178}urh Crist on am ylcum gemetum e he r Adam oferswide; t he gewite fram urum heortum mid am innfre gehft, mid am e he inn-afaren ws and us gehfte.

With the same three things with which the devil overcame the first-created man, Christ overcame and prostrated him. Through greediness the devil tempted Christ, when he said, "Say to these stones that they be turned to loaves, and eat." Through vain-glory he tempted him, when he would instigate him to dart down from the temple's summit. Through covetousness he tempted him, when, with leasing, he promised him the wealth of all the world, if he would fall at his feet. But the devil was overcome by Christ by the {179}same means with which he had of yore overcome Adam; so that he departed from our hearts made captive by the entrance at which he had entered and made us captives.

We gehyrdon on isum godspelle t ure Drihten fste feowertig daga and feowertig nihta on n. aa he swa lange fste, a geswutelode he a micelan mihte his godcundnysse, urh a he mihte on eallum isum andweardum life butan eorlicum mettum lybban, gif he wolde. Eft, aa him hingrode, a geswutelode he t h ws so man, and fori metes behofode. Moyses se heretoga fste eac feowertig daga and feowertig nihta, to i t he moste underfon Godes ǽ; ac he ne fste na urh his agene mihte, ac urh Godes. Eac se witega Elias fste ealswa lange eac urh Godes mihte, and sian ws genumen butan deae of isum life.

We have heard in this gospel that our Lord fasted forty days and forty nights together. When he had fasted so long he manifested the great power of his godhead, by which he might, in all this present life, without earthly food, have lived, if he had been willing. Afterwards, when he was hungry, he manifested that he was a true man, and therefore required food. Moses the leader fasted also forty days and forty nights, that he might receive God's law; but he fasted not through his own power, but through God's. The prophet Elijah also fasted as long through God's power, and was afterwards, without death, taken from this life.

Nu is is fsten eallum cristenum mannum geset to healdenne on lces geares ymbryne; ac we moton lce dg ures metes brucan mid forhfednysse, ra metta e alyfede sind. Hw is is fsten us geteald urh feowertig daga? On eallum geare sind getealde reo hund daga and fif and sixtig daga; onne, gif we teoia as gearlican dagas, onne beo r six and ritig teoing-dagas; and fram isum dge o one halgan Easter-dg sind twa and feowertig daga: d onne a six sunnan-dagas of am getele, onne beo a six and ritig s geares teoing-dagas s to forhfednysse getealde.

Now this fast is appointed to be held by all Christian men in the course of every year; but we must also on each day eat our food with abstemiousness, of those meats which are permitted. Why is this fast computed for forty days? In every year there are reckoned three hundred and sixty-five days; now, if we tithe these yearly days, then will there be six and thirty tithing-days, and from this day to the holy Easter-day are two and forty days: take then the six Sundays from that number, then there will be six and thirty days of the year's tithing-days reckoned for our abstinence.

Swa swa Godes ǽ s bebyt t we sceolon ealle a ing e us gesceota of res geares teolunge Gode a teounge syllan, swa we sceolon eac on isum teoing-dagum urne lichaman mid forhfednysse Gode to lofe teoian. We sceolon s gearcian on eallum ingum swa swa Godes enas, fter s apostoles tcunge, on micclum geylde, and on halgum wccum, on fstenum, and on clnnysse modes and lichaman; fori lsse pleoh bi am cristenum men t he flsces bruce, onne he on issere halgan tide wfes bruce. {180}Lta aweg ealle saca, and lc geflitt, and gehealda as tid mid sibbe and mid sore lufe; foron ne bi nan fsten Gode andfenge butan sibbe. And do swa swa God thte, tobrec inne hlaf, and syle one oerne dl hungrium men, and ld into inum huse wǽdlan, and a earman lfremedan men, and gefrefra h mid inum godum. onne u nacodne geseo, scryd hine, and ne forseoh in agen flsc. Se mann e fst buton lmyssan, h de swilce h sparige his mete, and eft ett t h ǽr mid forhfednysse foreode; ac t fsten tl God. Ac gif u fstan wille Gode to gecwemednysse, onne gehelp u earmra manna mid am dle e u e sylfum oftihst, and eac mid maran, gif e to onhagige. Forbga idele spellunge, and dyslice blissa, and bewepa eowre synna; foron e Crist cw, "W eow e nu hlihga, ge sceolon heofian and wepan." Eft he cw, "Eadige beo a e nu wepa, foron e hi sceolon beon gefrefrode."

As God's law enjoins us that we should of all the things which accrue to us from our yearly tillage give the tithe to God, so should we likewise on these tithing-days tithe our body with abstinence to the praise of God. We should prepare ourselves in all things as God's servants, according to the apostle's teaching, with great patience, and with holy vigils, with fasts, and with chastity of mind and body; for it is less perilous for a Christian man to eat flesh, than at this holy tide to have intercourse with woman. Set aside all {181}quarrels and every dispute, and hold this tide with peace and with true love; for no fast will be acceptable to God without peace. And do as God taught, break thy loaf, and give the second portion to an hungry man, and lead into thy house the poor, and miserable strangers, and comfort them with thy possessions. When thou seest one naked, clothe him, and despise not thy own flesh. The man who fasts without alms does as though he spares his food, and afterwards eats that which he had previously forgone in his abstinence; but God contemns such fasting. But if thou wilt fast to God's contentment, then help poor men with the portion which thou withdrawest from thyself, and also with more, if it be thy pleasure. Avoid idle discourse and foolish pleasures, and bewail your sins; for Christ said, "Woe to you who now laugh, ye shall mourn and weep." Again he said, "Blessed are they who now weep, for they shall be comforted."

We lybba mislice on twelf monum: nu sceole we ure gymeleaste on ysne timan geinnian, and lybban Gode, we e orum timan us sylfum leofodon. And swa hwt swa we do to gode, uton dn t butan gylpe and idelre herunge. Se mann e for gylpe hwt to gde de, him sylfum to herunge, nf he s nane mede t Gode, ac hf his wite. Ac uton dn swa swa God thte, t ure godan weorc beon on a wisan mannum cue, t h magon geseon ure gdnysse, and t h wuldrian and herigan urne Heofenlican Fder, God lmihtigne, see forgilt mid hundfealdum swa hwt swa we do earmum mannum for his lufon, see leofa and rixa butan ende on ecnysse. Amen.

We live diversely for twelve months: now we shall at this time repair our heedlessness, and live to God, we who at other times have lived for ourselves. And whatsoever good we do, let us do it without pride and vain praise. The man who does any good for pride, to his own praise, will have no reward with God, but will have his punishment. But let us do as God hath taught, that our good works may be so known to men that they may see our goodness, and glorify and praise our Heavenly Father, God Almighty, who requites an hundredfold whatsoever we do to poor men for love of him who liveth and reigneth ever without end to eternity. Amen.



Abiit Iesus trans mare Galile: et reliqua.

Abiit Jesus trans mare Galile: et reliqua.

"Se Hlend ferde ofer a Galileiscan sǽ, e is gehaten Tyberiadis, and him filigde micel menigu, foron e hi {182}beheoldon a tacna e h worhte ofer a untruman men. a astah se Hlend up on ane dune, and r sǽt mid his leorning-cnihtum, and ws a swie gehende seo halige Eastertid. a beseah se Hlend up, and geseah t r ws mycel mennisc toweard, and cw to anum his leorning-cnihta, se ws gehten Philippus, Mid hwam mage we bicgan hlf isum folce? is he cw to fndunge s leorning-cnihtes: he sylf wiste hwt he dn wolde. a andwyrde Philippus, eah her wron gebohte twa hund peningwur hlafes, ne mihte furon hyra lc anne bitan of am gelccan. a cw an his leorning-cnihta, se htte Andreas, Petres broor, Her byr n cnapa fif berene hlafas, and twegen fixas, ac to hwn mg t to swa micclum werode? a cw se Hlend, Do t t folc sitte. And r ws micel gǽrs on re stowe myrige on to sittenne. And h a ealle ston, swa swa mihte beon ff usend wera. a genam se Hlend a ff hlfas, and bletsode, and tobrc, and todlde betwux am sittendum: swa gelce eac a fixas todlde; and h ealle genoh hfdon. aa h ealle fulle wron, a cw se Hlend to his leorning-cnihtum, Gaderia a lafe, and h ne losion. And hi a gegaderodon a bricas, and gefyldon twelf wilian mid re lafe. t folc, a e is tacen geseah, cw t Crist wre so witega, see ws toweard to isum middangearde."

"Jesus went over the sea of Galilee, which is called of Tiberias, and a great multitude followed him, because they {183}had seen the miracles which he had wrought on the diseased men. Then Jesus went up into a mountain, and there sat with his disciples, and the holy Easter-tide was then very nigh. Jesus then looked up, and saw that there was a great multitude coming, and said to one of his disciples, who was called Philip, With what can we buy bread for this people? This he said to prove the disciple: himself knew what he would do. Then Philip answered, Though two hundred pennyworth of bread were bought, yet could not every one of them get a morsel. Then said one of his disciples, who was called Andrew, Peter's brother, Here beareth a lad five barley loaves, and two fishes, but what is that for so great a multitude? Then said Jesus, Make the people sit. And there was much grass on the place pleasant to sit on: and they then all sat, about five thousand men. Then Jesus took the five loaves, and blessed, and brake, and divided them among those sitting: in like manner also he divided the fishes; and they all had enough. When they all were full, Jesus said to his disciples, Gather the remainder, and let it not be lost. And they gathered the fragments, and filled twelve baskets with the remainder. The people, who saw this miracle, said that Christ was the true prophet who was to come to this world."

Seo sǽ, e se Hlend oferferde, getacna as andweardan woruld, to re com Crist and oferferde; t is, he com to isre worulde on menniscnysse, and is lif oferferde; he com to deae, and of deae aras; and astah up on ane dune, and r st mid his leorning-cnihtum, foron e he astah up to heofenum, and r sitt nua mid his halgum. Rihtlice is seo sǽ wimeten isre worulde, foron e heo is hwltidum smylte and myrige n to rowenne, hwilon eac swie hreoh and egeful on to beonne. Swa is eos woruld; hwltidum heo is gesundful and myrige on to wunigenne, hwilon heo is eac swie styrnlic, and mid mislicum ingum {184}gemenged, swa t heo for oft bi swie unwynsum on to eardigenne. Hwilon we beo hale, hwilon untrume; nu blie, and eft on micelre unblisse; fory is is lf, swa swa we r cwdon, re sǽ wimeten.

The sea which Jesus passed over betokeneth this present world, which Christ came to and passed over; that is he came to this world in human nature, and passed over this life; he came to death, and from death arose; and went up on a mountain, and there sat with his disciples, for he ascended to heaven, and there sits now with his saints. Rightly is the sea compared to this world, for it is sometimes serene and pleasant to navigate on, sometimes also very rough and terrible to be on. So is this world; sometimes it is desirable and pleasant to dwell in, sometimes also it is very rugged, and mingled with divers things, so that it is too {185}often very unpleasant to inhabit. Sometimes we are hale, sometimes sick; now joyful, and again in great affliction; therefore is this life, as we before said, compared to the sea.

a se Hlend gest up on re dune, a ahf h up his eagan, and gesh t r ws micel mennisc toweard. Ealle a e him to cuma, t is a e buga to rihtum geleafan, a gesih se Hlend, and am h gemiltsa, and hyra mod onliht mid his gife, t h magon him to cuman butan gedwylde, and am h forgif one gastlican fodan, t h ne ateorian be wege. aa he axode Philippum, hwanon h mihton hlf am folce gebicgan, a geswutelode h Philippes nytennysse. Wel wiste Crist hwt h dn wolde, and he wiste t Philippus t nyste. a cw Andreas, t an cnapa r bre fif berene hlafas and twegen fixas. a cw se Hlend, "Do t t folc sitte," and swa foron swa we eow r rehton. Se Hlend geseh t hungrige folc, and h h mildheortlice fedde, ger ge urh his gdnysse ge urh his mihte. Hwt mihte seo gdnys ana, buton r wre miht mid re gdnysse? His discipuli woldon eac t folc fedan, ac h nfdon mid hwam. Se Hlend hfde one gdan willan to am fostre, and a mihte to re fremminge.

When Jesus was sitting on the mountain, he lifted up his eyes, and saw that there was a great multitude coming. All those who come to him, that is those who incline to the right faith, Jesus sees, and on them he has pity, and enlightens their understanding with his grace, that they may come to him without error, and to these he gives ghostly food, that they may not faint by the way. When he asked Philip, whence they could buy bread for the people, he showed Philip's ignorance. Well Christ knew what he would do, and he knew that Philip knew not. Then said Andrew, that a lad there bare five barley loaves and two fishes. Then said Jesus, "Make the people sit," and so on, as we have before repeated it to you. Jesus saw the hungry people, and he compassionately fed them, both by his goodness and by his might. What could his goodness alone have done, unless there had been might with that goodness? His disciples would also have fed the people, but they had not wherewithal. Jesus had the good will to nourish them, and the power to execute it.

Fela wundra worhte God, and dghwamlice wyrc; ac a wundra sind swie awcode on manna gesihe, foron e h sind swie gewunelice. Mare wundor is t God lmihtig lce dg ft ealne middangeard, and gewissa a gdan, onne t wundor wre, t he a gefylde fif usend manna mid fif hlafum: ac s wundredon men, na fori t hit mare wundor wre, ac fori t hit ws ungewunelic. Hwa syl nu wstm urum cerum, and gemenigfylt t gerip of feawum cornum, buton se e a gemnigfylde a fif hlafas? Seo miht ws a on Cristes handum, and a fif hlafas wron swylce hit sd wre, na on eoran besawen, ac gemenigfyld fram am e eoran geworhte.

God hath wrought many miracles and daily works; but those miracles are much weakened in the sight of men, because they are very usual. A greater miracle it is that God Almighty every day feeds all the world, and directs the good, than that miracle was, that he filled five thousand men with five loaves: but men wondered at this, not because it was a greater miracle, but because it was unusual. Who now gives fruit to our fields, and multiplies the harvest from a few grains of corn, but he who multiplied the five loaves? The might was there in Christ's hands, and the five loaves were, as it were, seed, not sown in the earth, but multiplied by him who created the earth.


is wundor is swie micel, and deop on getacnungum. Oft gehwa gesih fgre stafas awritene, onne hera he one writere and a stafas, and nat hwt hi mna. Se e cann ra stafa gescead, he hera heora fgernysse, and rd a stafas, and understent hwt h gemna. On ore wisan we sceawia metinge, and on ore wisan stafas. Ne g na mare to metinge buton t u hit geseo and herige: nis na genh t u stafas sceawige, buton u h eac rde, and t andgit understande. Swa is eac on am wundre e God worhte mid am fif hlafum: ne bi na genh t we s tacnes wundrian, oe urh t God herian, buton we eac t gastlice andgit understandon.


This miracle is very great, and deep in its significations. Often some one sees fair characters written, then praises he the writer and the characters, but knows not what they mean. He who understands the art of writing praises their fairness, and reads the characters, and comprehends their meaning. In one way we look at a picture, and in another at characters. Nothing more is necessary for a picture than that you see and praise it: but it is not enough to look at characters without, at the same time, reading them, and understanding their signification. So also it is with regard to the miracle which God wrought with the five loaves: it is not enough that we wonder at the miracle, or praise God on account of it, without also understanding its spiritual sense.

a fif hlafas e se cnapa br getacnia a fif bc e Moyses se heretoga sette on re ealdan ǽ. Se cnapa e hi br, and heora ne onbyrigde, ws t Iudeisce folc, e a fif bc rddon, and ne cue ron nan gastlic andgit, ran e Crist com, and a bc geopenode, and hyra gastlice andgit onwreah his leorning-cnihtum, and hi sian eallum cristenum folce. We ne magon nu ealle a fif bc areccan, ac we secga eow t God sylf hi dihte, and Moyses h awrt, to steore and to lare am ealdan folce Israhel, and eac s on gastlicum andgite. a bc wron awritene be Criste, ac t gastlice andgit ws am folce digle, o t Crist sylf com to mannum, and geopenede ra boca digelnysse, fter gastlicum andgite.

The five loaves which the lad bare, betoken the five books which the leader Moses appointed in the old law. The lad who bare them, and tasted not of them, was the Jewish people, who read the five books, and knew therein no spiritual signification, before Christ came, and opened the books, and disclosed their spiritual sense to his disciples, and they afterwards to all christian people. We cannot now enumerate to you all the five books, but we will tell you that God himself dictated them, and that Moses wrote them, for the guidance and instruction of the ancient people of Israel, and of us also in a spiritual sense. These books were written concerning Christ, but the spiritual sense was hidden from the people, until Christ came himself to men, and opened the secrets of the books, according to the spiritual sense.

Alii euangelist ferunt, quia panes et pisces Dominus discipulis distribuisset, discipuli autem ministrauerunt turbis. He tobrǽc a fif hlafas and sealde his leorning-cnihtum, and het beran am folce; foron e h thte him a gastlican lre: and h ferdon geond ealne middangeard, and bodedon, swa swa him Crist sylf thte. Mid am e h tobrc a hlafas, a wron h gemenigfylde, and weoxon him on handum; foron e a ff bc wurdon gastlice asmeade, and wise {188}lareowas h trahtnodon, and setton of am bocum manega ore bc; and we mid ra boca lare beo dghwonlice gastlice gereordode.

Alii evangelist ferunt, quia panes et pisces Dominus discipulis distribuisset, discipuli autem ministraverunt turbis. He brake the five loaves and gave to his disciples, and bade them bear them to the people; for he taught them the heavenly lore: and they went throughout all the world, and preached, as Christ himself had taught. When he had broken the loaves then were they multiplied, and grew in his hands; for the five books were spiritually devised, and wise doctors {189}expounded them, and founded on those books many other books; and we with the doctrine of those books are daily spiritually fed.

a hlfas wron berene. Bere is swie earfoe to gearcigenne, and eah-hwere fet one mann, onne h gearo bi. Swa ws seo ealde ǽ swie earfoe and digle to understandenne; ac eah-hwere, onne we cuma to am smedman, t is to re getacnunge, onne gereorda heo ure mod, and gestrnga mid re diglan lare. Fif hlafas r wron, and fif usend manna r wron gereordode; foran e t Iudeisce folc ws undereodd Godes ǽ, e std on fif bocum awriten. aa Crist axode Philippum, and he his afandode, swa swa we r rddon, a getacnode he mid re acsunge s folces nytennysse, e ws under re ǽ, and ne cue t gastlice andgit, e on re ǽ bediglod ws.

The loaves were of barley. Barley is very difficult to prepare, and, nevertheless, feeds a man when it is prepared. So was the old law very difficult and obscure to understand; but, nevertheless, when we come to the flour, that is to the signification, then it feeds and strengthens our mind with the hidden lore. There were five loaves, and there were five thousand men fed; because the Jewish people was subject to God's law, which stood written in five books. When Christ asked Philip, and proved him, as we before read, by that asking he betokened the people's ignorance, who were under that law, and knew not the spiritual sense which was concealed in that law.

a twegen fixas getcnodon sealm-sang and ra witegena cwydas. An ra gecydde and bodode Cristes to-cyme mid sealm-sange, and oer mid witegunge. Nu sind a twa gesetnyssa, t is sealm-sang and witegung, swylce h syflinge wron to am ff berenum hlafum, t is, to am ff ǽlicum bocum. t folc, e r gereordode, sǽt p on am grse. t grs getacnode flsclice gewilnunge, swa swa se witega cw, "lc flsc is grs, and s flsces wuldor is swilce wyrta blostm." Nu sceal gehw, see wile sittan t Godes gereorde, and brucan re gastlican lare, oftredan t grs and ofsittan, t is, t he sceal a flsclican lustas gewyldan, and his lichaman to Godes eowdome symle gebgan.

The two fishes betokened the Psalms and the sayings of the prophets. The one of these announced and proclaimed Christ's advent with psalm-singing, and the other with prophecy, as if they were meat to the five barley loaves, that is, to the five legal books. The people, who were there fed, sat on the grass. The grass betokened fleshly desire, as the prophet said, "Every flesh is grass, and the glory of the flesh is as the blossom of plants." Now should everyone who will sit at God's refection, and partake of spiritual instruction, tread and press down the grass, that is, he should overpower his fleshly lusts, and ever dispose his body to the service of God.

r wron getealde t am gereorde fif usend wera; foron e a menn, e to am gastlican gereorde belimpa, sceolon beon werlice geworhte, swa swa se apostol cw; he cw, "Beo wacole, and standa on geleafan, and onginna werlice, and beo gehyrte." eah gif wifmann bi werlice geworht, and strang to Godes willan, heo bi onne geteald to am werum e t Godes mysan sitta. usend getel bi fulfremed, and ne astih nn getel ofer t. Mid {190}am getele bi getcnod seo fulfremednys ra manna e gereordia heora sawla mid Godes lre.

There were counted at that refection five thousand males; because those men who belong to the spiritual refection should be manfully made, as the apostle said; he said, "Be watchful, and stand on faith, and undertake manfully, and be bold." Though if a woman be manly by nature, and strong to God's will, she will be counted among the men who sit at the table of God. Thousand is a perfect number, and no number extends beyond it. With that number is betokened the {191}perfection of those men who nourish their souls with God's precepts.

"Se Hlend het a gegadrian a lfe, t h losian ne sceoldon; and h a gefyldon twelf wilion mid am bricum." a lfe s gereordes, t sind a deopnyssa re lre e worold-men understandan ne magon, a sceolon a lareowas gegaderian, t h ne losian, and healdan on heora ftelsum, t is, on heora heortan, and habban fre gearo, to teonne for one wisdom and a lare ger ge re ealdan ǽ ge re niwan. H a gegaderodon twelf wilian fulle mid am bricum. t twelffealde getel getacnode a twelf apostolas; foran e h underfengon a digelnyssa re lre, e t lwede folc undergitan ne mihte.

"Jesus then bade the remainder to be gathered, that it might not be lost; and they filled twelve baskets with the fragments." The remainder of the refection, that is the depth of the doctrine, which secular men may not understand, that should our teachers gather, that it may not be lost, and preserve in their scrips, that is, in their hearts, and have ever ready to draw forth the wisdom and doctrine both of the old law and of the new. They gathered then twelve baskets full of the fragments. The twelvefold number betokened the twelve apostles; because they received the mysteries of the doctrine, which the lay folk could not understand.

"t folc, a e t wundor geseah, cwdon be Criste, t he wre so wtega, e toweard ws." So h sdon, sumera inga: wtega h ws, foran e h wiste ealle towearde ing, and eac fela ing wtegode, e beo gefyllede butan twyn. He is witega, and he is ealra witegena witegung, foran e ealle wtegan be him witegodon, and Crist gefylde heora ealra witegunga. t folc geseah a t wundor, and h s swie wundredon. t wundor is awriten, and we hit gehyrdon. t e on him heora eagan gedydon, t de ure geleafa on s. H hit gesawon, and we his gelyfa e hit ne gesawon; and we sind fori beteran getealde, swa swa se Hlend be s on ore stowe cw, "Eadige beo a e me ne geseo, and hi hwere gelyfa on me, and mine wundra mrsia."

"The people, who saw that miracle, said of Christ, that he was the true prophet who was to come." In one sense they said the truth: he was a prophet, for he knew all future things, and also prophesied many things which will, without doubt, be fulfilled. He is a prophet, and he is the prophecy of all prophets, for all the prophets have prophesied of him, and Christ has fulfilled the prophecies of them all. The people saw the miracle, and they greatly wondered at it. That miracle is recorded, and we have heard it. What their eyes did in them, that does our faith in us. They saw it, and we believe it, who saw it not; and we are therefore accounted the better, as Jesus, in another place, said of us, "Blessed are they who see me not, and, nevertheless, believe in me, and celebrate my miracles."

t folc cw a be Criste, t he wre so witega. Nu cwee we be Criste, t he is s Lifigendan Godes Sunu, see ws toweard to alysenne ealne middangeard fram deofles anwealde, and fram helle-wte. t folc ne cue ra goda, t h cwdon, t he God wre, ac sdon, t he witega wre. We cwea nu, mid fullum geleafan, t Crist is so witega, and ealra witegena Witega, and t he is solice s lmihtigan Godes Sunu, ealswa mihtig swa his Fder, {192}mid am h leofa and rixa on annysse s Halgan Gastes, butan ende on ecnysse. Amen.

The people said of Christ, that he was a true prophet. Now we say of Christ, that he is Son of the Living God, who was to come to redeem the whole world from the power of the devil, and from hell-torment. The people knew not of those benefits, that they might have said that he was God, but they said that he was a prophet. We say now, with full belief, that Christ is a true prophet, and Prophet of all prophets, and that he is truly Son of the Almighty God, as mighty {193}as his Father, with whom he liveth and reigneth in unity of the Holy Ghost, ever without end to eternity. Amen.





Missus est Gabrihel Angelas: et reliqua.

Missus est Gabrihel Angelus: et reliqua.

Ure se lmihtiga Scyppend, see ealle gesceafta, buton lcon antimbre, urh his wisdom gesceop, and urh his willan gelffste, h gesceop mancynn to i t h sceoldon mid gehyrsumnysse and eadmodnysse a heofenlican geince geearnigan, e se deofol mid ofermettum forwyrhte. a wear eac se mann mid deofles lotwrencum bepht, swa t he tobrc his Scyppendes bebod, and wear deofle betht, and eal his ofspring into helle-wite. a eah-hwere ofuhte am lmihtigum Gode ealles mancynnes yrma, and smeade hu he mihte his hand-geweorc of deofles anwealde alysan; fori him ofhreow s mannes, foron e h ws bepht mid s deofles searo-crftum. Ac him ne ofhreow na s deofles hryre; foran e h ns urh nane tihtinge forlred, ac h sylf asmeade a up-ahefednysse e he urh ahreas; and he fori on ecnysse wuna on forwyrde wlrw deofol.

Our Almighty Creator, who created all creatures, without any matter through his wisdom, and through his will animated them, he created mankind that they might with obedience and humility merit those heavenly honours which the devil through pride had forfeited. Then was man deceived by the devil's wiles, so that he brake the command of his Creator, and was, with all his offspring, delivered to the devil into hell-torment. Then, nevertheless, the Almighty God was grieved for the miseries of all mankind, and he meditated how he might redeem his handiwork from the power of the devil; for he took pity on man, because he had been deceived by the wiles of the devil. But he had no pity for the devil's fall, because he had not been misled by any instigation, but had himself devised the presumption through which he fell; and he therefore, to all eternity, dwelleth in perdition, a bloodthirsty devil.

a fram fryme mancynnes cydde se lmihtiga God, hwilon urh getacnunga, hwilon urh witegunga, t he wolde mancynn ahreddan urh one e he ealle gesceafta mid geworhte, urh his agen Bearn. Nu wron a witegunga swie menigfealdlice gesette on halgum gewritum, ram e se Godes Sunu menniscnysse underfenge. Sume wron eac be re eadigan Marian gewitegode. An ra witegunga is Isaiae, se awrt betwux his witegungum, us cweende, "Efne sceal mden geeacnian on hire innoe, and acennan Sunu, and his nama bi gecged Emmanuhel," t is gereht {194}on urum geeode, 'God is mid us.' Eft Ezechihel se witega geseah on his witegunge n belocen geat on Godes huse, and him cw to sum engel, "is geat ne bi nanum menn geopenod, ac se Hlaford ana fr inn urh t geat, and eft t fr, and hit bi belocen on ecnysse." t beclysede geat on Godes huse getacnode one halgan mighad re eadigan Marian. Se Hlaford, ealra hlaforda Hlaford, t is Crist, becom on hire inno, and urh h on menniscnysse wear acenned, and t geat bi belocen on ecnysse; t is, t Maria ws mden r re cenninge, and mden on re cenninge, and mden fter re cenninge.

Then from the beginning of mankind the Almighty God made known, sometimes by signs, sometimes by prophecies, that he would redeem mankind through him with whom he had made all creatures, through his own Son. Now there were very many prophecies recorded in the holy writings, before the Son of God assumed human nature. Some were prophesied of the blessed Mary. One of these prophecies is of Isaiah, who wrote, among his prophecies, thus saying, "Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bring forth a son, and his name shall be called Emanuel," that is interpreted in our {195}tongue, God is with us. Also Ezechiel the prophet saw in his prophecy a closed gate in the house of God, and an angel said to him, "This gate shall be opened to no man, for the Lord only will go in by that gate, and again go out, and it shall be shut for ever." That closed gate in the house of God betokened the holy maidenhood of the blessed Mary. The Lord, of all lords Lord, that is Christ, entered her womb, and through her was brought forth in human nature, and that gate is shut for ever; that is, Mary was a virgin before the birth, and a virgin at the birth, and a virgin after the birth.

a witegunga be Cristes acennednysse and be re eadigan Marian mghade sindon swie menigfealdlice on re ealdan ǽ gesette, and se e h asmeagan wile, r he h afint mid micelre genihtsumnysse. Eac se apostol Paulus cw, "aa ra tda gefyllednys com, a sende God Fder his Sunu to mancynnes alysednysse." Seo wurfulle snd wear on isum dge gefylled, swa swa Cristes boc us gewissa, us cweende, "Godes heah-engel, Gabrihel, ws asend fram Gode to re Galileiscan byrig Nazareth, to am mdene e ws Maria gehaten, and heo asprang of Dauides cynne, s maran cyninges, and heo ws beweddod am rihtwisan Iosepe:" et reliqua.

The prophecies of the birth of Christ and the virginity of the blessed Mary are recorded very frequently in the old law, and he who searches will there find them in great abundance. Also the apostle Paul said, "When the fullness of times came, then God sent his Son for the redemption of mankind." The glorious mission was on this day fulfilled, as the book of Christ shows us, thus saying, "The archangel of God, Gabriel, was sent from God to the Galilean city Nazareth, to the maiden who was called Mary, and she sprang from the race of David, the great king, and she was wedded to the righteous Joseph," etc.

Ure alysednysse anginn we gehyrdon on isre dgerlican rdinge, urh a we awurpon a derigendlican ealdnysse, and we sind getealde betwux Godes bearnum, urh Cristes flsclicnysse. Swie slic anginn menniscre alysednysse ws t a se engel wear asend fram Gode to am mdene, to cyenne Godes acennednysse urh h; foran e se forma intinga mennisces forwyrdes ws, aa se deofol asende oerne deofol, on nddran anlicnysse, to am frumsceapenan wfe Euan, h to beswicenne. Us becom a dea and forwyrd urh wf, and us becom eft lif and hredding urh wimman.

The beginning of our redemption we heard in this daily lecture, through which we have cast off pernicious age, and are accounted among the children of God, through Christ's incarnation. A very fitting beginning of human redemption was that when the angel was sent from God to the virgin, to announce the birth of God through her; because the first cause of man's perdition was when the devil sent another devil, in likeness of a serpent, to the first-created woman Eve, for the purpose of deceiving her. Death and perdition befell us through a woman, and afterwards life and salvation came to us through a woman.

Se heah-engel, e cydde s Hlendes acennednysse, ws {196}gehaten Gabrihel, t is gereht, 'Godes streng,' one he bodode toweardne, e se sealm-sceop mid isum wordum herede, "Drihten is strang and mihtig on gefeohte." On am gefeohte, butan tweon, e se Hlend deofol oferwann, and middangeard him tbrd.

The archangel, who announced the birth of Christ, was {197}called Gabriel, which is interpreted, God's strength, which he announced was to come, and which the psalmist praised in these words, "The Lord is strong and mighty in battle." In the battle, without doubt, in which Jesus overcame the devil, and took from him the world.

"Maria ws beweddod Iosepe am rihtwisan." Hw wolde God beon acenned of beweddodan mdene? For micclum gesceade, and eac for neode. t Iudeisce folc heold Godes ǽ on am timan: seo ǽ thte, t man sceolde lcne wimman e cild hfde butan rihtre we stnan. Nu onne, gif Maria unbeweddod wre, and cild hfde, onne wolde t Iudeisce folc, fter Godes ǽ, mid stanum h oftorfian. a ws heo, urh Godes foresceawunge, am rihtwisan were beweddod, and gehw wende t he s cildes fder wre, ac he ns. Ac aa Ioseph undergeat t Maria mid cilde ws, a wear he dreorig, and nolde hire genealcan, ac ohte t he wolde h diglice forltan. aa Ioseph is smeade, a com him to Godes engel, and bebead him, t sceolde habban gymene ger ge re meder ge s cildes, and cw, t t cild nre of nanum men gestryned, ac wre of am Halgan Gaste. Nis na hwere se Halga Gast Cristes Fder, ac h is genemned to re fremminge Cristes menniscnysse; foran e he is Willa and Lufu s Fder and s Suna. Nu wear seo menniscnys urh one micclan Willan gefremmed, and is eah-hwere heora reora weorc untodledlic. Hi sind ry on hdum, Fder, and Sunu, and Halig Gast, and an God untodledlic on anre godcundnysse. Ioseph a, swa swa him se engel bebead, hfde gymene ger ge Marian ge s cildes, and ws hyre gewita t heo mden ws, and ws Cristes fostor-fder, and mid his fultume and frofre on gehwilcum ingum him enode on re menniscnysse.

"Mary was wedded to the righteous Joseph." Why would God be born of a wedded virgin? For a great reason, and also of necessity. The Jewish people, at that time, held God's law: the old law directed, that every woman who had a child out of lawful wedlock should be stoned. Now, therefore, if Mary had been unmarried, and had a child, the Jewish people, according to God's law, would have stoned her with stones. Therefore was she, by the providence of God, married to that righteous man, and everyone imagined that he was the child's father, but he was not. But when Joseph understood that Mary was with child, he was sad, and would not approach her, but thought that he would privily dismiss her. While Joseph was meditating this God's angel came to him, and commanded him, that he should have care both of the mother and of the child, and said, that the child was of no man begotten, but was of the Holy Ghost. Yet is the Holy Ghost not the father of Christ, but he is named to the accomplishment of Christ's humanity; for he is the Will and Love of the Father and of the Son. Now the humanity was effected through the Great Will, and is, nevertheless, the indivisible work of the Three. They are three in persons, Father, and Son, and Holy Ghost, and one God indivisible, in one Godhead. Joseph then, as the angel had commanded him, had care both of Mary and of the child, and was her witness that she was a virgin; and was Christ's foster-father, and with his support and comfort served him in everything in his human state.

Se engel grette Marian, and cw, t heo wre mid Godes gife afylled, and t hyre ws God mid, and heo ws gebletsod betwux wifum. Solice heo ws mid Godes gife {198}afylled, foron e hire ws getiod t heo one abǽr e astealde ealle gifa and ealle sofstnyssa. God ws mid hire, foran e he ws on hire innoe belocen, see belic ealne middangeard on his anre handa. And heo ws gebletsod betwux wifum, foran e heo, butan wiflicre bysnunge, mid wlite hyre mghdes, ws modor s lmihtigan Godes.

The angel greeted Mary, and said, that she was filled with God's grace, and that God was with her, and she was blessed among women. Verily she was filled with God's grace, for {199}it was permitted her to bear him who instituted all grace and all truth. God was with her, for he was shut in her womb who compasses the whole earth with one hand. And she was blessed among women, for she, without female example, with the beauty of maidenhood, was mother of the Almighty God.

Se engel gehyrte h mid his wordum, and cw hire to, "Efne u scealt geeacnian on inum innoe, and u acenst sunu." Oncnawa nu, urh as word, sone mannan acennedne of mdenlicum lichaman. His nama ws Hiesus, t is Hlend, foran e h gehl ealle a e on hine rihtlice gelyfa. "es bi mǽre, and he bi gecged Sunu s Hexstan." Gelyfa nu, urh as wrd, t he is so God of soum Gode, and efen-ece his Fder, of am he ws fre acenned butan anginne. Crist heold Dauides cynesetl, na lichamlice ac gastlice; foran e he is ealra cyninga Cyning, and rixa ofer his gecorenan menn, ger ge ofer Israhela folc ge ofer ealle ore leodscipas, a e on rihtum geleafan wunia; and Crist h ealle gebrinc to his ecan rice. Israhel is gecweden, 'God geseonde,' and Iacob is gecweden, 'Forscrencend.' Nu a men e God geseo mid heora mode urh geleafan, and a e leahtras forscrenca, h belimpa to Godes rce, e nfre ne ateora.

The angel encouraged her with his words, and said to her, "Behold thou shalt conceive, and thou shalt bear a Son." Acknowledge now, through these words, a true man, born of a maiden body. His name was Jesus, that is Saviour, for he shall save all those who rightly believe in him. "He shall be great, and he shall be called the Son of the Highest." Believe now, through these words, that he is true God of true God, and co-eternal with his Father, of whom he was ever begotten without beginning. Christ held David's throne, not bodily but spiritually, for he is king of all kings, and ruleth over his chosen people, both over the people of Israel and over all other nations which abide in the right faith; and Christ will bring them all to his eternal kingdom. Israel is interpreted, Seeing God, and Jacob is interpreted, Withering. Now those men who see God in their mind, through faith, and those who wither up sins, they belong to God's kingdom, which shall never fail.

a cw Maria to am engle, "H mg t beon t ic cild hbbe, foran e ic nanes weres ne bruce? Ic geteohode min lif on mghade to geendigenne: hu mg hit onne gewuran t ic, butan weres gemanan, cennan scyle?" a andwyrde se engel am mdene, "Se Halga Gast cym ufen on e, and miht s Hyhstan ofersceadewa e." urh s Halgan Gastes fremminge, swa swa we r cwdon, wear Crist acenned on re menniscnysse; and Maria his modor ws ofersceadewed urh mihte s Halgan Gastes. Hu ws heo ofersceadewod? Heo ws swa ofersceadewod t heo ws geclnsod and gescyld wi ealle leahtras, urh {200}mihte s Halgan Gastes, and mid heofenlicum gifum gefylled and gehalgod.

Then said Mary to the angel, "How may that be that I have a child, for I have known no man? I had resolved to end my life in maidenhood: how can it then be that I, without connexion with man, shall bring forth?" Then answered the angel to the virgin, "The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee." Through the efficacy of the Holy Ghost, as we before said, Christ was born in human nature; and Mary his mother was overshadowed by the power of the Holy Ghost. How was she overshadowed? She was so overshadowed that she was purified from, and shielded against all {201}sins, by the power of the Holy Ghost, and with heavenly grace filled and hallowed.

Se engel cw, "t Halige, e of e bi acenned, bi geciged Godes Sunu." Witodlice ealle menn beo, swa swa se witega cw, mid unrihtwisnysse geeacnode, and mid synnum acennede, ac ure Hlend ana ws geeacnod butan unrihtwisnysse, and butan synnum acenned; and he ws halig rrihte swa hrae swa h mann ws, and fulfremed God, s lmihtigan Godes Sunu, on anum hade mann and God. a cw Maria to am engle, "Ic eom Godes inen; getimige me fter inum worde." Micel eadmodnys wunode on hyre mode, aa heo us cleopode. Ne cw heo na, Ic eom Godes modor, oe, Ic eom cwen ealles middangeardes, ac cw, "Ic eom Godes inen;" swa swa us mynega t halige gewrit, us cweende, "onne u mre sy, geeadmed e sylfne on eallum ingum, and u gemetst gife and lean mid Gode." Heo cw to am engle, "Getimige me fter inum worde:" t is, Gewure hit swa u segst, t s lmihtigan Godes Sunu becume on minne inno, and mennisce edwiste of me genime, and to alysednysse middangeardes forstppe of m, swa swa brydguma of his brydbedde.

The angel said, "The holy thing that shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God." Verily all men are, as the prophet said, conceived in iniquity and born in sins, but our Saviour alone was conceived without iniquity, and born without sins; and he was holy as soon as he became man, and perfect God, the Son of the Almighty God, in one person man and God. Then said Mary to the angel, "I am God's handmaid; let it betide me according to thy word." Great humility dwelt in her mind, when she thus cried. She said not, I am the mother of God, or, I am queen of the whole world, but said, "I am God's handmaid;" as the holy writ admonishes us, thus saying, "When thou art great, humble thyself in all things, and thou shalt find grace and reward with God." She said to the angel, "Let it betide me according to thy word:" that is, Be it as thou sayst, that the Son of the Almighty God enter my womb, and receive human substance from me, and proceed from me, for the redemption of the world, as a bridegroom from his bride-bed.

us becom ure Hlend on Marian inno on issum dge, e is gehaten Annuntiatio Sanctae Mariae, t is, Marian bodung-dg gecweden; on am dge bodode se heah-engel Gabrihel am clnum mdene Godes to-cyme to mannum urh h, and heo gelyfde s engles bodunge, and swa mid geleafan onfeng God on hyre inno, and hine br o middewintres msse-dg, and hine a acende mid sore menniscnysse, see fre ws wunigende on godcundnysse mid his Fder, and mid am Halgan Gaste, hi ry an God untodledlic.

Thus did our Saviour enter the womb of Mary on this day, which is called Annunciatio Sanct Mari, which is interpreted, The Annunciation-day of Mary; on which day the archangel Gabriel announced to the pure virgin the advent of God to men through her, and she believed the angel's announcement, and so with faith received God into her womb, and bare him until midwinter's mass-day, and then brought him forth in true human nature, who was ever dwelling in divine nature with his Father and the Holy Ghost, those three one God indivisible.

Nu seig se godspellere, t Maria ferde, fter s engles bodunge, to hire magan Elisabeth, seo ws Zacharian wif. H butu wron rihtwise, and heoldon Godes beboda untllice. {202}a wron h butan cilde, ot h wron forwerede menn. a com se ylca engel Gabrihel to Zacharian syx monum ran e h come to Marian, and cydde t he sceolde be his ealdan wife sunu habban, Iohannem one Fulluhtere. a wear he ungeleafful s engles bodungum. Se engel a him cw to, "Nu u nylt gelyfan minum wordum, beo u dumb ot t cild beo acenned." And he a adumbode on eallum am fyrste, for his ungeleaffulnysse. "Nu com a seo eadige Maria to his huse, and grette his wf, hyre magan, Elisabeth. a mid am e t wf gehyrde s mdenes gretinge, a blissode t cild Iohannes on his modor innoe, and seo moder wear afylled mid am Halgan Gaste, and heo clypode to Marian mid micelre stemne, and cw, u eart gebletsod betwux wifum, and gebletsod is se wstm ines innoes. Hu getimode me t mines Drihtnes moder wolde cuman to me? Efne mid am e seo stefn inre gretinge swegde on mnum earum, a blissode min cild on minum innoe, and hoppode ongean his Drihten, e u berst on inum innoe."

Now saith the evangelist, that Mary, after the annunciation of the angel, went to her cousin Elizabeth, who was the wife of Zacharias. They were both righteous, and held God's {203}commandments blamelessly. They were both childless, till they were worn-out persons. But the same angel Gabriel came to Zacharias six months before he came to Mary, and announced that he should have a son by his aged wife, John the Baptist. But he believed not the annunciation of the angel. The angel then said to him, "Since thou wilt not believe my words, be thou dumb till the child shall be born." And he was dumb during all that time for his disbelief. "Now came the blessed Mary to his house, and greeted his wife Elizabeth, her cousin. When the woman heard the virgin's greeting, the child John rejoiced in his mother's womb, and the mother was filled with the Holy Ghost, and she cried to Mary with a loud voice, and said, Thou art blessed among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb. How hath it befallen me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? Lo, when the voice of thy greeting sounded in mine ears, my child rejoiced in my womb, and leaped towards his Lord, whom thou bearest in thy womb."

t cild ne mihte na a-gyt mid wordum his Hlend gegretan, ac he gegrette hine mid blissigendum mode. Heo cw, "Eadig eart u, Maria, foron e u gelyfdest am wordum e e fram Gode gebodode wron, and hit bi gefremmed swa swa hit e gecydd ws." a sang Maria rrihte one lofsang e we singa on Godes cyrcan, t lcum fensange, "Magnificat anima mea Dominum," and for o ende. t is, "Min sawul mrsa Drihten:" et reliqua. Langsum hit bi t we ealne isne lofsang ofertrahtnian; ac we wylla scortlice oferyrnan a digelystan word. "God awearp a rican of setle:" t sind a modigan e h onhebba ofer heora me. "And he ahof a eadmodan;" swa swa Crist sylf cw on his godspelle, "lc ra e hine onhef, he sceal beon geeadmet; and se e hine geeadmet, he sceal beon ahafen."

The child could not yet with words greet his Lord, but he greeted him with a rejoicing mind. She said, "Blessed art thou, Mary, for thou hast believed the words that were announced to thee from God, and it shall be accomplished so as it hath been declared to thee." Then forthwith Mary sang the hymn which we sing in God's church at every evensong, "Magnificat anima mea Dominum," and so forth to the end. That is "My soul magnifieth the Lord," etc. It will be tedious for us to expound all this hymn, but we will shortly run over its most obscure words. "God hath cast the mighty from their seat:" these are the proud, who lift themselves above their degree. "And he hath exalted the humble;" as Christ himself said in his gospel, "Everyone who exalteth himself shall be humbled; and he who humbleth himself shall be exalted."

"God gefyl a hingrigendan mid his godum;" swa swa {204}he sylf cw, "Eadige beo a e sind ofhingrode and oflyste rihtwisnysse, foran e h sceolon beon gefyllede mid rihtwisnysse." "He forlet a rcan idele." t sind a rcan, a e mid modignysse a eorlican welan lufia swior onne a heofonlican. Fela riccra manna geeo Gode, ra e swa do swa swa hit awriten is, "s rcan mannes welan sind his sawle alysednyss." His welan beo his sawle alysednyss, gif h mid am gewitendlicum gestreonum beceapa him t ece lf, and a heofonlican welan mid Gode. Gif he is forgymeleasa, and besett his hiht on am eorlicum welan, onne forlt God hine idelne and mtigne, fram am ecum godnyssum.

"God filleth the hungry with his good things;" as he {205}himself said, "Blessed are they who are hungry and desirous of righteousness, for they shall be filled with righteousness." "He hath sent the rich empty away." Those are the rich, who with pride love earthly riches more than heavenly. Many rich men thrive to God, those who do as it is written, "The rich man's wealth is his soul's redemption." His wealth is his soul's redemption, if he with those transitory treasures buy for himself eternal life, and heavenly wealth with God. If he neglect this, and place his hope in earthly wealth, then will God send him away void and empty, from everlasting good.

"God underfeng his cnapan Israhel." Mid am naman syndon getacnode ealle a e Gode gehyrsumia mid sore eadmodnysse, a he underfeh to his werode. "Swa swa h sprc to urum fderum, Abrahame and his ofspringe on worulda." God behet am heahfdere Abrahame, t on his cynne sceolde beon gebletsod eal mancynn. Of Abrahames cynne asprng seo geslige Maria, and of Maran com Crist, fter re menniscnysse, and urh Crist beo ealle a geleaffullan gebletsode. Ne synd we na Abrahames cynnes flsclice, ac gastlice, swa swa se apostol Paulus cw, "Witodlice, gif ge cristene synd, onne beo ge Abrahames ofspring, and yrfenuman fter behte." t ftemyste word is ises lofsanges, "On worulda;" foran e ure beht, e us God behet, urhwuna on worulda woruld butan ende.

"God hath received his servant Israel." By that name are betokened all those who obey God with true humility, whom he receives into his company. "As he spake to our fathers, Abraham and his offspring for ever." God promised the patriarch Abraham, that in his race all mankind should be blessed. From the race of Abraham sprang the blessed Mary, and from Mary came Christ, according to his human nature, and through Christ shall all the faithful be blessed. We are not of Abraham's race after the flesh, but spiritually, as the apostle Paul said, "Verily if ye are christians, then are ye of Abraham's offspring, and heirs according to the promise." The last words of this hymn are "For ever;" because our promise, which God hath promised to us, continueth for ever and ever without end.

Uton biddan nu t eadige and t geslige mden Maran, t heo us geingige to hyre agenum Suna and to hire Scyppende, Hlende Criste, see gewylt ealra inga mid Fder and mid am Halgum Gaste, on ecnysse. Amen.

Let us now pray the blessed and happy Virgin Mary, that she intercede for us to her own Son and Creator, Jesus Christ, who governs all things with the Father and the Holy Ghost, ever to eternity. Amen.





Cum adpropinquasset Iesus Hierosolimis, et uenisset Bethfage ad montem Oliueti: et reliqua.

Cum adpropinquasset Jesus Hierosolymis, et venisset Bethfage ad montem Oliveti: et reliqua.

Cristes rowung ws gerdd nu beforan s, ac we willa eow secgan nu ǽrest h h com to re byrig Hierusalem, and genealhte his agenum deae, and nolde a rowunge mid fleame forbugan.

Christ's passion has just been read before us, but we will first say to you how he came to the city of Jerusalem, and approached his own death, and would not by flight avoid his passion.

"Se Hlend ferde to re byrig Hierusalem, and aa h genealhte re dune Oliueti, a sende he his twegen leorning-cnihtas, us cweende, G to re byrig e eow ongean is, and ge gemta rrihte getgedne assan and his folan samod: untyga h, and lda to me:" et reliqua.

"Jesus went to the city of Jerusalem, and when he approached the mount of Olives, he sent two of his disciples, thus saying, Go to the town which is before you, and ye shall straightways find an ass tied and its foal also: untie them, and lead them to me," etc.

am folce wear cu t se Hlend arrde lytle r Lazarum of deae, see lg stincende feower niht on byrgene: a comon a togeanes Criste e geleaffulle wron, mid am wurmynte, swa we r cwdon. Comon eac sume a ungeleaffullan, mid nanum wurmynte, ac mid micclum graman, swa swa Iohannes se Godspellere cw, t "a heafod-menn s folces smeadon betwux him t hi woldon ofslean one Lazarum, e Crist of deae awrehte; foran e manega s folces menn gelyfdon on one Hlend, urh s deadan mannes rist." We wylla nu fon on one traht issere rdinge.

It was known to the people that Christ a little before had raised Lazarus from death, who had lain stinking four nights in the grave: then those, who were believing, came to meet Christ with the honours which we have already mentioned. Some also who believed not came, with no honours, but with great wrath, as John the Evangelist said, That "the chief priests of the people consulted among themselves how they should slay Lazarus, whom Christ had raised from the dead; because many men of the people believed in Jesus, by reason of the dead man's rising." We will now proceed to the exposition of this text.

a twegen leorning-cnihtas e Crist sende fter am assan, h getacnodon a lreowas e God sende mancynne to lrenne. Twegen h wron, for re getacnunge e lreow habban sceal. He sceal habban lare, t he mage Godes folc mid wisdome lran to rihtum geleafan, and he sceal mid godum weorcum am folce wel bysnian, and swa mid am twam ingum, t is mid lare and godre bysnunge t lwede folc gebige symle to Godes willan.

The two disciples whom Christ sent after the ass betokened the teachers whom God sends to instruct mankind. They were two, because of the character which a teacher should have. He should have learning, that he may with wisdom instruct God's people in true belief, and he should, by good works, give good example to the people, and so, with those two things, that is, with learning and good example, ever incline the lay folk to God's will.

Se getgeda assa and his fola getacnia twa folc, t is Iudeisc and hen: Ic cwee, hen, fori e eal mennisc ws a-gyt wunigende on henscipe, buton am anum {208}Iudeiscan folce, e heold a ealdan ǽ on am timan. H wron getgede, foran e eal mancyn ws mid synnum bebunden, swa swa se witega cw, "Anra gehwilc manna is gewrien mid rapum his synna." a sende God his apostolas and heora ftergengan to gebundenum mancynne, and het h untgan, and to him ldan. H untigdon hi one assan and one folan? H bodedon am folce rihtne geleafan and Godes beboda, and eac mid micclum wundrum heora bodunge getrymdon. a abeah t folc fram deofles eowdome to Cristes biggencum, and wron alysede fram eallum synnum urh t halige fulluht, and to Criste geldde.

The tied ass and its foal betoken two people, that is, the Jewish and the heathen: I say, heathen, because all mankind was yet continuing in heathenism, save only the Jews, {209}who observed the old law at that time. They were tied; for all mankind was bound with sins, as the prophet said, "Every man is bound with the ropes of his sins." Then God sent his apostles and their successors to bound mankind, and bade untie, and lead them to him. How untied they the ass and the foal? They preached to the people right belief and God's commandments, and also by many miracles confirmed their preaching. The people then inclined from the service of the devil to the worship of Christ, and were freed from all sins, through holy baptism, and led to Christ.

Assa is stunt nyten, and unclne, and toforan orum nytenum ungesceadwis, and byren-strang. Swa wron men, r Cristes to-cyme, stunte and unclne, aa h eowedon deofolgyldum and mislicum leahtrum, and bugon to am anlicnyssum e hi sylfe worhton, and him cwdon to, "u eart min God." And swa hwilce byrene swa him deofol on-besette, a h bron. Ac aa Crist com to mancynne, a awende he ure stuntnysse to gerde, and ure unclnnysse to clnum eawum. Se getemeda assa hfde getacnunge s Iudeiscan folces, e ws getemed under re ealdan ǽ. Se wilda fola hfde getacnunge ealles ores folces, e ws a-gyt hen and ungetemed; ac h wurdon getemede and geleaffulle aa Crist sende his leorning-cnihtas geond ealne middangeard, us cweende, "Fara geond ealne middangeard, and lra ealle eoda, and fullia h on naman s Fder, and s Suna, and s Halgan Gastes; and beoda t hi healdon ealle a beboda e ic eow thte."

An ass is a foolish beast, and unclean, and stupid, compared with other beasts, and strong for burthens. So were men, before Christ's advent, foolish and unclean, while they ministered to idols, and divers sins, and bowed to the images, which they themselves had wrought, and said to them, "Thou art my God." And whatsoever burthen the devil set on them they bare. But when Christ came to mankind, then turned he our foolishness to reason, and our uncleanness to pure morals. The tamed ass betokened the Jewish people, who were tamed under the old law. The wild foal betokened all other people, who were heathen and untamed; but they became tamed and believing when Christ sent his disciples over the whole earth, thus saying, "Go over all the earth, and teach all nations, and baptize them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; and command that they hold all the precepts which I have taught you."

ra assena hlaford axode, hw h untigdon his assan? Swa eac a heafod-men gehwilces leodscipes woldon wyrlice wicwean Godes bodunge. Ac aa h gesawon t a bydelas gehldon, urh Godes mihte, healte and blinde, and dumbum sprce forgeafon, and eac a deadan to life arrdon, a ne mihton h wistandan am wundrum, ac bugon ealle endemes to Gode. Cristes leorning-cnihtas cwdon, "Se {210}Hlaford behfa ra assena, and sent hi eft ongean." Ne cwdon h na Ure Hlaford, ne in Hlaford, ac forrihte, Hlaford; foron e Crist is ealra hlaforda Hlaford, ger ge manna ge ealra gesceafta. Hi cwdon, "He sent h eft ongean." We sind gemanode and gelaode to Godes rice, ac we ne sind na genedde. onne we sind gelaode, onne sind we untigede; and onne we beo forltene to urum agenum cyre, onne bi hit swilce we beon ongean asende. Godes myldheortnys is t we untigede syndon; ac gif we rihtlice lybba, t bi ger ge Godes gifu ge eac ure agen geornfulnyss. We sceolon symle biddan Drihtnes fultum, foran e ure agen cyre nf nnne forgang, buton he beo gefyrrod urh one lmihtigan.

The master of the asses asked, why they untied his asses? In like manner the chief men of every people would perversely oppose the preaching of God. But when they saw that the preachers, through God's might, healed the halt and the blind, and gave speech to the dumb, and also raised the dead to life, then could they not withstand those miracles, but all at last inclined to God. Christ's disciples said, "The {211}Lord hath need of the asses, and sends for them." They did not say Our Lord, nor Thy Lord, but simply, The Lord; for Christ is Lord of all lords, both of men and of all creatures. They said, "He sends for them." We are exhorted and invited to God's kingdom, but we are not forced. When we are invited, then are we untied; and when we are left to our own election, then is it as though we are sent for. It is God's mercy that we are untied; but if we live rightly, that will be both God's grace and our own zeal. We should constantly pray for the Lord's support; seeing that our own election has no success, unless it be promoted by the Almighty.

Ne het Crist him to ldan modigne stedan mid gyldenum gerdum gefreatewodne, ac one wacan assan he geceas him to byrre; foron e he thte symle eadmodnysse, and urh hine sylfne a bysne sealde, and us cw, "Leornia t me, t ic eom lie and swie eadmod, and ge gemeta reste eowrum sawlum." is ws gewitegod be Criste, and ealle a ing e he dyde, ran e he to men geboren wre.

Christ did not command them to lead to him a proud steed adorned with golden trappings, but the mean ass he chose to bear him; for he ever taught humility, and in himself gave the example, and thus said, "Learn of me, who am meek and very humble, and ye shall find rest for your souls." This was prophesied of Christ, and all the things which he did before he was born as man.

Sin is an dn, and heo is gecweden, 'Sceawung-stow;' and Hierusalem, 'Sibbe gesih.' Sines dohtor is seo gelaung geleaffulra manna, e belimp to re heofenlican Hierusalem, on re is symle sibbe gesih, butan lcere sace, to re us gebrinc se Hlend, gif we him gelsta.

Sion is a hill, and it is interpreted, A place of contemplation; and Jerusalem, Sight of peace. The daughter of Sion is the congregation of believing men, who belong to the heavenly Jerusalem, in which is ever a sight of peace, without any strife, to which Jesus will bring us, if we follow him.

Cristes leorning-cnihtas ledon hyra reaf uppan an assan, foran e h nolde on nacedum assan ridan. Reaf getacnia rihtwisnysse weorc, swa swa se wtega cw, "Drihten, ine sacerdas sind ymbscrydde mid rihtwisnysse." Se nacoda assa bi mid reafum gesadelod, onne se idela man bi mid wisra lreowa mynegungum and gebisnungum to Godes handa gefrtwod; and he onne byr Crist, swa swa se apostol cw, "Ge sind gebohte mid micclum wure; wuldria fori, and bera God on eowrum lichaman." God we bera on urum lichaman, foran e we beo tempel and {212}ftels s Halgan Gastes, gif we us wi fule leahtras gescylda: be am cw se ylca apostol swie egeslice, "Se e gewem Godes tempel, God hine forde." Se e ne bi Godes tempel, he bi deofles tempel, and byr swie swre byrene on his bce.

Christ's disciples laid their garments upon the ass, because he would not ride on a naked ass. Garments betoken works of righteousness, as the prophet said, "Lord, thy priests are clothed with righteousness." The naked ass is saddled with garments, when the simple man is equipped to the hand of God with the exhortations and examples of wise instructors; and he then bears Christ, as the apostle said, "Ye are bought with great price; glorify therefore, and bear God on your bodies." We bear God on our bodies, because we are a temple and shrine of the Holy Ghost, if we {213}guard ourselves against foul sins: of which the same apostle said very awfully, "He who defiles the temple of God, God will fordo him." He who is not a temple of God is a temple of the devil, and bears a very heavy burthen on his back.

We wylla secgan eow sum bigspell. Ne mg nan man hine sylfne to cynge gedon, ac t folc hf cyre to ceosenne one to cyninge e him sylfum lica: ac sian he to cyninge gehalgod bi, onne hf h anweald ofer t folc, and h ne magon his geoc of heora swuran asceacan. Swa eac gehwilc man hf agenne cyre, ram e h syngige, hweer h wille filian deofles willan, oe wisacan. onne gif h mid deofles weorcum hine sylfne bebint, onne ne mg he mid his agenre mihte hine unbindan, buton se lmihtiga God mid strangre handa his mildheortnysse hine unbinde. Agenes willan and agenre gymeleaste he bi gebunden, ac urh Godes mildheortnysse he bi unbunden, gif he a alysednysse eft t Gode geearna.

We will say to you a parable. No man may make himself a king, for the people have the option to choose him for king who is agreeable to them: but after that he has been hallowed as king, he has power over the people, and they may not shake his yoke from their necks. In like manner every man has his own choice, before he sins, whether he will follow the devil's will, or withstand it. Then if he bind himself with the works of the devil, he cannot by his own power unbind himself, unless the Almighty God unbind him with the strong hand of his mercy. Of his own will and his own heedlessness he is bound, but through God's mercy he will be unbound, if he afterwards merit his liberation of God.

t folc e heora reaf wurpon under s assan ft, t sind a martyras, e for Cristes geleafan sealdon heora agenne lichaman to tintregum. Sume hi wron on fyre forbrnde, sume on sǽ adrencte, and mid mislicum pinungum acwealde; and sealdon us bysne t we ne sceolon, for nanum ehtnyssum oe earfonyssum, urne geleafan forltan, and fram Criste bugan, e m e h dydon. Menig man is cristen geteald on sibbe, e wolde swie hrae wisacan Criste, gif him man bude t man bead am martyrum: ac his cristendom nis na herigendlic. Ac s mannes cristendom is herigendlic, see nele, for nanre ehtnysse, bugan fram Criste, ne for swurde, ne for fyre, ne for wtere, ne for hungre, ne for bendum; ac fre hylt his geleafan mid Godes hrungum, o his lifes ende.

The people who cast their garments under the feet of the ass, are the martyrs, who for Christ's faith gave their own bodies to torments. Some were burnt in fire, some drowned in the sea, and slain with divers tortures; and gave us an example, that we should not, for any persecutions or hardships, forsake our faith, and incline from Christ, any more than they did. Many a man is accounted a christian in peace, who would very quickly deny Christ, if he were sentenced to that to which the martyrs were sentenced: but his christianity is not praiseworthy. But that man's christianity is praiseworthy, who will not, for any persecution, incline from Christ, neither for sword, nor for fire, nor for water, nor for hunger, nor for bonds; but ever holds his faith with the praises of God to his life's end.

a e ra treowa bogas heowon, and mid am Cristes weig gedfton, t sind a lareowas on Godes cyrcan, e pluccia a cwydas ra apostola and heora ftergengena, {214}and mid am Godes folce gewisia to Cristes geleafan, t h beon gearwe to his frelde.

Those who hewed branches of trees, and with them prepared Christ's way, are the teachers in God's church, who cull the sayings of the apostles and their successors, and with {215}them direct God's people to the faith of Christ, that they may be prepared for his way.

t folc e Criste beforan stp, and t e him fyligde, ealle h sungon, "Osanna Filio Dauid," t is on urum geeode, "Sy hǽlo Dauides Bearne." a e Criste beforan stopon, a sind a heahfderas and a wtegan, e wron ǽr Cristes flsclicnysse; and a e him bftan eodon, t sind a e fter Cristes acennednysse to him gebugon, and dghwamlice buga: and ealle h singa nne lofsang; foran e w and h ealle healda nne geleafan, swa swa Petrus se apostol cw, aa he sprc be am heahfderum, "We gelyfa t we beon gehealdene urh Cristes gife, swa swa h."

The people who walked before Christ, and those who followed him, all sung "Osanna Filio David," that is, in our tongue, "Hail, Son of David." Those who walked before Christ, are the patriarchs and prophets, who were before Christ's incarnation; and those who went after him, are those who inclined to Christ after his birth, and daily incline to him: and all these sing one hymn; because we and they all hold one faith, as Peter the apostle said, when he spake of the patriarchs, "We believe that we shall be saved by Christ's grace, as well as they."

H cwdon "Dauides Bearn," foran e Crist is s mran cyne-cynnes Dauides, fter re menniscnysse. Of am cynne ws seo eadige Maria his modor. Hi sungon, "Gebletsod is se e com on Godes naman." Se Hlend com on Godes naman, foran e se Heofenlica Fder hine asende s to alysednysse; and ealle a wundra e h worhte, on eallum he herede and wuldrode his Fder naman. "Sy hlo Dauides Bearne on heahnyssum." s Hlendes to-cyme and his rowung ws halwendlic ger ge mannum ge englum; foran e w geeacnia heora werod, e se feallenda deofol gewanode; be am cw se apostol Paulus, "t sceoldon ealle heofenlice ing and eorlice beon ge-edstaelode on Criste."

They said, "Son of David," because Christ is, according to his human nature, of the great race of David. Of that race was the blessed Mary his mother. They sung, "Blessed is he who is come in the name of God." Jesus came in the name of God, for the Heavenly Father sent him for our redemption; and in all the miracles which he wrought, he praised and glorified his Father's name. "Hail, Son of David, in the highest." The Saviour's advent and his passion were salutary both to men and angels; because we increase their host which the fallen devil had diminished; concerning which the apostle Paul said, "That all heavenly and earthly things should be re-established in Christ."

Se Hlend ws wunigende binnan am temple of isum dge o nu on unres-dg, and ger ge mid lre ge mid wundrum t folc tihte to sofstnysse and to rihtum geleafan. a namon a heafod-men ndan ongean his lre, and syrwedon mid micelre smeaunge, hu hi mihton hine to deae gebringan. Ne mihte se dea him genealcan, gif he sylf nolde, ac he com to mannum to i t he wolde beon gehyrsum his Fder o dea, and mancynn alysan fram am ecan deae mid his hwilwendlicum deae. eah-hwere {216}ne nydde he na t Iudeisce folc to his cwale, ac deofol h tihte to am weorce, and God t geafode, to alysednysse ealles geleaffulles mancynnes.

Jesus was staying in the temple from this day till now on Thursday, and both with doctrine and with miracles stimulated the people to truth and to right faith. Then the chief men became envious of his doctrine, and machinated with great deliberation how they might bring him to death. Death could not have approached him, if he himself had not willed it, but he came to men because he would be obedient to his Father till death, and redeem mankind from eternal death by his temporary death. Yet did he not compel the Jewish {217}people to slay him, but the devil instigated them to the work, and God consented to it, for the redemption of all believing mankind.

We habba oft gesd, and gt secga, t Cristes rihtwisnys is swa micel, t he nolde niman mancyn neadunga of am deofle, buton he hit forwyrhte. He hit forwyrhte aa he tihte t folc to Cristes cwale, s lmihtigan Godes; and a urh his unscigan dea wurdon we alysede fram am ecan deae, gif we us sylfe ne forpra. a getimode am rean deofle swa swa de am grdigan fisce, e gesih t ǽs, and ne gesih one angel e on am se stica; bi onne grdig s ses, and forswylc one angel for mid am se. Swa ws am deofle: he geseh a menniscnysse on Criste, and na a godcundnysse: a sprytte he t Iudeisce folc to his slege, and gefredde a one angel Cristes godcundnysse, urh a h ws to deae aceocod, and benǽmed ealles mancynnes ara e on God belyfa.

We have often said, and yet say, that the justice of Christ is so great, that he would not forcibly have taken mankind from the devil, unless he had forfeited them. He forfeited them when he instigated the people to the slaying of Christ, the Almighty God; and then through his innocent death we were redeemed from eternal death, if we do not destroy ourselves. Then it befell the cruel devil as it does the greedy fish, which sees the bait, and sees not the hook which sticks in the bait; then is greedy after the bait and swallows up the hook with the bait. So it was with the devil: he saw the humanity in Christ, and not the divinity: he then instigated the Jewish people to slay him, and then felt the hook of Christ's divinity, by which he was choked to death, and deprived of all mankind who believe in God.

Ns na Cristes rowung gefremmed on isum dge, ac a feower godspelleras awriton his rowunga on feower gesetnyssum; a ane we rda nu to-dg, and a ore on isre wucan. a Iudei genmon hine on frige-fen, and heoldon hine a niht, and s on merigen h hine gefstnodon on rode mid feower ngelum, and mid spere gewundedon. And a embe nn-tid, aa h forferde, a comon twegen gelyfede men, Ioseph and Nichodemus, and bebyrigdon his lc r fene, on niwere ryh, mid deorwyrum reafum bewunden. And his lc lg on byrgene a ster-niht and sunnan-niht; and seo godcundnys ws on re hwile on helle, and gewra one ealdan deofol, and him of-anam Adm, one frumsceapenan man, and his wf Euan, and ealle a e of heora cynne Gode ǽr gecwemdon. a gefredde se deofol one angel e he ǽr grdelice forswealh. And Crist ars of deae on one easterlican sunnan-dg, e nu bi on seofon nihtum; be am is gelimplicor onne mare to reccenne onne nu sy: ac uton nu sprecan be yses dges wurmynte.

Christ's passion did not take place on this day, but the four evangelists recorded his sufferings in four narratives: one we read now to-day, and the others in this week. The Jews took him on Friday evening, and held him that night, and on the morrow fixed him on a cross with four nails, and with a spear wounded him. And then about the ninth hour, when he departed, there came two believing men, Joseph and Nicodemus, and buried his corpse before evening in a new tomb, enwrapt in precious garments. And his corpse lay in the sepulchre the Saturday night and Sunday night; and the Divinity was during that while in hell, and bound the old devil, and took from him Adam, the first-created man, and his wife Eve, and all those of their race who had before given pleasure to God. Then was the devil sensible of the hook which he had before greedily swallowed. And Christ arose from death on the Easter-Sunday, which will now be in seven days, of which it is more fitting then to speak more fully than it is now: but let us now speak of the dignity of this day.


Se gewuna stent on Godes cyrcan, urh lareowas geset, t gehwr on Godes gelaunge se sacerd bletsian sceole palm-twigu on isum dge, and h swa gebletsode am folce dlan; and sceolon a Godes eowas singan one lofsang, e t Iudeisce folc sang togeanes Criste, aa he genealhte his rowunge. We geeuenlca am geleaffullum of am folce mid isre dde, foran e hi bron palm-twigu mid lofsange togeanes am Hlende. Nu sceole we healdan urne palm, ot se sangere onginne one offring-sng, and geoffrian onne Gode one palm, for re getacnunge. Palm getacna syge. Sygefst ws Crist aa he one micclan deofol oferwann, and us generede: and we sceolon beon eac sygefste urh Godes mihte, swa t we ure uneawas, and ealle leahtras, and one deofol oferwinnan, and s mid godum weorcum geglencgan, and on ende ures lifes betcan Gode one palm, t is, ure sige, and ancian him georne, t we, urh his fultum, deoful oferwunnon, t he us beswican ne mihte.


The custom exists in God's church, by its doctors established, that everywhere in God's congregation the priest should bless palm-twigs on this day, and distribute them so blessed to the people; and God's servants should then sing the hymn which the Jewish people sang before Christ, when he was approaching to his passion. We imitate the faithful of that people with this deed, for they bare palm-twigs with hymn before Jesus. Now we should hold our palm until the singer begins the offering-song, and then offer to God the palm for its betokening. Palm betokens victory. Victorious was Christ when he overcame the great devil and rescued us: and we should also be victorious through God's might, so that we overcome our evil practices, and all sins, and the devil, and adorn ourselves with good works, and at the end of our life deliver the palm to God, that is, our victory, and thank him fervently, that we, through his succour, have overcome the devil, so that he could not deceive us.

Synfulra manna dea is yfel and earmlic, foran e h fara of isum scortan life to ecum pinungum: and rihtwisra manna dea is deorwyre, fori onne h geendia is geswincfulle lf, onne beo h gebrohte to am ecan life, and bi onne swylce heora ende beo anginn; foran e h ne beo na deade, ac beo awende of deae to life. Se lichama, e is re sawle reaf, anbida s micclan domes; and eah he beo to duste formolsnod, God hine arr, and gebrinc togdere sawle and lichaman to am ecan life; and bi onne gefylled Cristes beht, e us cw, "onne scna a rihtwisan swa swa sunne on heora Fder rce," see leofa and rixa butan ende on ecnysse. Amen.

The death of sinful men is evil and miserable, because they pass from this short life to everlasting torments: and the death of righteous men is precious, for when they end this life of tribulation they will be brought to the life eternal, and then will their end be as a beginning; for they will not be dead, but will be turned from death to life. The body, which is the garment of the soul, will await the great doom, and though it be rotted to dust, God will raise it, and will bring together soul and body to eternal life; and then will Christ's promise be fulfilled, who thus said, "Then shall the righteous shine as the sun in their Father's kingdom," who liveth and ruleth ever without end to eternity. Amen.

Circlice eawas forbeoda to secgenne nig spel on am rym swig-dagum.

Church customs forbid any sermon to be said on the three still days.





Oft ge gehyrdon embe s Hlendes rist, h h on isum dge of deae ars; ac we willa eow myngian, t hit ne gange eow of gemynde.

Ye have often heard concerning the Saviour's resurrection, how he on this day arose from death; but we will remind you, that it may not pass from your memory.

"aa Crist bebyrged ws, a cwdon a Iudeiscan to heora ealdormenn Pilate, La leof, se swica e her ofslegen is, cw gelomlice, aa h on lfe ws, t h wolde arisan of deae on am riddan dge:" et reliqua.

"When Christ was buried, the Jews said to their governor Pilate, O Sir, the deceiver, who hath here been slain, said oftentimes, while he was living, that he would arise from death on the third day," etc.

We cwea nu, gif hw his lic forstle, nolde he hine unscrydan, foran e stalu ne lufa nane yldinge. Crist wear teowed on am ylcan dge Petre, and orum twam his leorning-cnihtum, and h gefrefrode. "a t nextan com se Hlend to his leorning-cnihtum, r h gegaderode wron, and cw him to, Sy sibb betwux eow; ic hit eom, ne beo ge na afyrhte. a wurdon h afrede, and wendon t hit sum gast wre. a cw he him to, Hw sind ge afrede, and mislice enca be me? Sceawia mine handa and mine ft, e wron mid nglum urhdrifene. Grapia and sceawia: gif ic gast wre, onne nfde ic flsc and ban:" et reliqua.

We say now, if any one had stolen his corpse, he would not have stript him, for theft loves no delay. Christ appeared on the same day to Peter and to two others his disciples, and comforted them. "Then at last Jesus came to his disciples, where they were assembled, and said to them, Peace be unto you; it is I, be ye not afraid. Then they were afraid, and weened it were a ghost. Then said he to them, Why are ye afraid, and think divers things of me? Behold my hands and my feet, that were pierced with nails. Grasp and behold: if I were a ghost, I should not have flesh and bones," etc.

Se Hlend wear a gelomlice twed his leorning-cnihtum, and h gewissode to re lare and to am geleafan, h h eallum mancynne tcan sceoldon; and on am feowertigoan dge his ristes h asth lichamlice to heofonum to his Fder. Ac we habba n micele maran endebyrdnysse re Cristes bec gesǽd onne is dgerlice godspel behf, for trymminge eowres geleafan. Nu wylle we eow gereccan s dgerlican godspelles traht, fter s halgan papan Gregories trahtnunge.

Jesus then frequently appeared to his disciples, and directed them to doctrine and to faith, how they should teach all mankind; and on the fortieth day of his resurrection he ascended bodily to heaven to his Father. But we have now said much more of the tenour of the book of Christ than this present day's gospel requires for the confirmation of your faith. We will now give you the explanation of this day's gospel, according to the exposition of the holy pope Gregory.

Mine gebrora a leofostan, ge gehyrdon t a halgan wf, e Drihtne on life filigdon, comon to his byrgene mid re deorwyran sealfe, and one e h lufedon on lfe am h woldon deadum mid menniscre gecneordnysse enian. Ac {222}eos dǽd getacna sum ing to dnne on Godes gelaunge. We e gelyfa Cristes ristes, we cuma gewislice to his byrgene mid deorwyrre sealfe, gif we beo gefyllede mid bre haligra mihta, and gif we mid hlysan godra weorca urne Drihten seca. a wf e a sealfe brohton, hi gesawon englas; foran e a geseo a heofonlican englas, a e mid brum godra weorca gewilnia s upplican freldes. Se engel awylte t hld of re ryh; na t h Criste tganges rymde, ac he geswutelode mannum t h arisen ws. Se e com dealic to isum middangearde, acenned urh beclysedne inno s mdenes, se ylca, butan twon, aa h ars undealic, mihte belocenre rh faran of middangearde. Se engel st on a swiran healfe re byrgene. Seo swire hand getacna t ece lf, and seo wynstre is andwearde lf. Rihtlice st se engel on a swiran hand, foron e he cydde t se Hlend hfde a oferfaren a brosnunga ises andweardan lifes, and ws a wunigende on ecum ingum undealic. Se bydel ws ymbscryd mid scinendum reafe, foran e he bodade a blisse isre freols-tde, and ure mra. Hwer cwee we, e ure e ra engla? We cwea solice, ger ge ure ge heora. s Hlendes rist is ure freols-td and bliss, foran e he geldde us mid his riste to re undeadlicnysse e we to gesceapene wron. His rist ws ra engla bliss, foron e God gefyl heora getel, onne he s to heofonum gebrinc.

My dearest brothers, ye have heard that the holy women, who followed the Lord in life, came with precious ointment to his sepulchre, and him whom they had loved in life they would when dead serve with human devotion. But this deed {223}betokens something to be done in God's church. We who believe in the resurrection of Christ come assuredly to his sepulchre with precious ointment, if we are filled with the breath of holy virtues, and if we with the fame of good works seek our Lord. The women who brought the ointment saw angels; for they see the heavenly angels, who with the breath of good works yearn after the upward journey. The angel rolled the lid from the tomb; not that he would make way for Christ's departure, but he would manifest to men that he was risen. He who came mortal to this world, born of the closed womb of the virgin, he, without doubt, might, when he arose immortal, though in a closed tomb, depart from the world. The angel sat on the right side of the sepulchre. The right hand betokens the eternal life, and the left this present life. Rightly sat the angel on the right hand, for he manifested that Jesus had surmounted the corruptions of this present life, and was then dwelling immortal in eternity. The messenger was clad in a shining garment, because he announced the happiness of this festival-tide, and our glories. But we ask, ours or the angels? We say verily, both ours and theirs. The resurrection of Jesus is our festival-tide, for by his resurrection he led us to the immortality for which we were created. His resurrection was bliss to the angels, because God fills up their number when he brings us to heaven.

Se engel gehyrte a wf, us cweende, "Ne beo ge afyrhte:" swilce he swa cwde, Forhtian a e ne lufia engla to-cyme; beon a ofdrdde a e sint ofsette mid flsclicum lustum, and nabba nnne hiht to engla werode. Hwi forhtige ge, ge e geseo eowre geferan? "His wlite ws swilce lget, and his reaf swa hwt swa snw." Solice on lgette is ga, and on snwe linys re beorhtnysse. Rihtlice ws se bydel Cristes ristes swa gehwod; foran onne he sylf cym to am micclan dome, onne bi he swie egeful am synfullum, and swie lie am rihtwisum. {224}He cw, "Ge seca one Hlend: h ars: nis h her." He ns a lichamlice on re byrgene, see ghwr bi urh his godcundan mihte. r lǽig t reaf bftan e he mid bewunden ws, foron e h ne rohte s eorlican reafes, syan he of deae ars. eah man deadne mannan mid reafe bewinde, ne arist t reaf na e hraor eft mid am men, ac he bi mid am heofenlicum reafe gescryd fter his riste.

The angel cheered the women, thus saying, "Be ye not afraid:" as if he had said thus, Let those fear who love not the advent of angels; let those be terrified who are beset with fleshly lusts, and have no joy in the host of angels. Why fear ye, ye who see your companions? "His countenance was like lightning, and his raiment as white as snow." Verily in lightning is terror, and in snow the mildness of brightness. Rightly was the messenger of Christ's resurrection so figured; for when he himself shall come to the great doom, he will be very awful to the sinful, and very mild {225}to the righteous. He said, "Ye seek Jesus: he is risen: he is not here." He was not then bodily in the sepulchre, who is everywhere through his divine power. There lay the garment behind in which he had been wrapt, for he recked not of an earthly garment, after he had arisen from death. Though a dead man be wrapt in a garment, that garment does not the sooner rise again with the man, but he will be clad with the heavenly garment after his resurrection.

Wel is gecweden be am Hlende, t he wolde cuman togeanes his geferon on Galilea. Galilea is gecweden 'Oferfreld.' Se Hlend ws a afaren fram rowunge to ǽriste, fram deae to life, fram wite to wuldre. And gif we fara fram leahtrum to halgum mgnum, onne mote we geseon one Hlend fter urum frelde of isum life. Twa lf sind solice: t n we cunnon, t oer us ws uncu r Cristes to-cyme. t n lf is deadlic, t oer undeadlic. Ac se Hlend com and underfeng t n lf, and geswutelode t oer. t n lf he teowde mid his deae, and t oer mid his riste. Gif he us deadlicum mannum rist and t ece lf behete, and eah-hwere nolde hit urh hine sylfne geswutelian, hwa wolde onne his behatum gelyfan? Ac aa he man beon wolde, a gemedemode h hine sylfne eac to deae agenes willan, and he ars of deae urh his godcundan mihte, and geswutelode urh hine sylfne t t he us beht.

It is well said of Jesus, that he would meet his companions in Galilee. Galilee is interpreted, Passing over. Jesus passed over from passion to resurrection, from death to life, from torment to glory. And if we pass from sins to holy virtues, then may we see Jesus after our passage from this life. For there are two lives: the one we know, the other was unknown to us before Christ's advent. The one life is mortal, the other immortal. But Jesus came and assumed the one life, and made manifest the other. The one life he manifested by his death, and the other by his resurrection. If he to us mortal men had promised resurrection and life eternal, and yet had not been willing to manifest them in himself, who would have believed in his promises? But when he would become man, then he also voluntarily humbled himself to death, and he arose from death through his divine power, and manifested in himself that which he had promised to us.

Nu cwy sum man on his geance, 'Eae mihte he arisan of deae, foran e he is God: ne mihte se dea hine gehftan.' Gehyre se mann e is smea andsware his smeagunge. Crist forferde ana on am timan, ac he ne ars na ana of deae, ac ars mid micclum werede. Se godspellere Matheus awrt on Cristes bc, t manega halige menn, e wron on re ealdan ǽ forfarene, t h arison mid Criste; and t sdon gehwilce wse lreowas, t hi habba gefremod heora rist to am ecan lfe, swa swa we ealle dn sceolon on ende isre worulde. a lreowas cwdon, {226}t a arredan menn nron solice gewitan Cristes ristes, gif h nron ecelice arrde. Nu sind adwscede ealle geleaflystu, t nan man ne sceal ortruwian be his agenum riste, onne se godspellere awrt t fela arison mid Criste, e wron anfealde men, eah e Crist God sy.

Now will some man say in his thoughts, 'Easily might he arise from death, because he is God: death could not hold him captive.' Let the man who imagines this hear an answer to his imagination. Christ departed at that time alone, but he arose not from death alone, but arose with a great host. The evangelist Matthew wrote in the book of Christ, that many holy men, who had died in the old law, arose with Christ; and all wise doctors have said that they have effected their resurrection to eternal life, as we all shall do at the end of this world. Those doctors said, that the raised men would {227}not truly have been witnesses of Christ's resurrection, if they had not been raised for ever. Now are extinguished all infidelities, so that no man may despair of his own resurrection, when the evangelist wrote that many arose with Christ, who were simple men, although Christ be God.

Nu cw Gregorius se trahtnere, t him come to gemynde, hu a Iudeiscan clypodon be Criste, aa he ws on re rode gefstnod. H cwdon, "Gif he sy Israhela cyning, onne astige he nu of re rode, and we gelyfa on hine." Gif he a of re rode astige, and nolde heora hosp forberan, onne, butan tweon, ne sealde he us nane bysne his geyldes: ac he abd hwon, and forbr heora hosp, and hfde geyld. Ac se e nolde of re rode abrecan, se ars of re byrgene. Mare wundor ws, t h of deae ars, onne he cucu of re rode abrce. Mare miht ws, t he one dea mid his riste tobrc, onne he his lf geheolde, of re rode astigende. Ac aa h gesawon t he ne astah of re rode for heora hospum, ac ron deaes gebd, a gelyfdon h t he oferswied wre, and his nama adwsced: ac hit gelamp swa, t of am deae asprang his nama geond ealne middangeard. a wear hyra bliss awend to am mstan sare; foran e heora sorh bi endeleas.

Now said the expounder Gregory, that it came to his mind, how the Jews cried out concerning Christ, when he was fastened on the cross. They said, "If he be the king of Israel, then let him now descend from the cross, and we will believe in him." If he had then descended from the cross, and would not have borne their mockery, he had certainly not given us any example of his patience: but he remained a while, and bare their mockery, and had patience. But he who would not break from the cross, arose from the sepulchre. A greater miracle it was, that he arose from death, than that he living should have broken from the cross. A greater miracle it was, that he brake death in pieces, through his resurrection, than that he should have preserved his life by descending from the cross. But when they saw that he descended not from the cross, for their mockery, but thereon awaited death, they believed that he was vanquished and his name extinguished: but it so fell out, that from death his name sprang forth over the whole earth. Then was their joy turned to the greatest pain; for their sorrow shall be endless.

as ing getacnode se stranga Samson, se hfde fhe to am folce e is gehaten Philistei. a getimode hit t he becom to heora byrig e ws Gaza gehaten: a wron a Philistei swie blie, and ymbston a burh. Ac se stranga Samson ars on midre nihte, and gelhte a burh-geatu, and abr hi uppon ane dune, to bismere his gefaan. Se stranga Samson getacnode Crist, seo burh Gaza getacnode helle, and a Philistei hfdon Iudeisces folces getacnunge, e beston Cristes byrgene. Ac se Samson nolde gan ydel of re byrig, ac he abr a gatu up to re dune; foron e {228}ure Hlend Crist tobrc helle-gatu, and generode Adam, and Euan, and his gecorenan of heora cynne, and freolice of deae ars, and h samod, and astah to heofonum. a mnfullan he lt bftan to am ecum witum. And is nu helle-geat belocen rihtwisum mannum, and fre open unrihtwisum.

The strong Samson betokened these things, who had enmity to the people called Philistines. Then it befell that he came to their city which was called Gaza: whereupon the Philistines were very joyful, and surrounded the city. But the strong Samson arose at midnight, and took the city gates, and bare them up on a hill, in derision of his foes. The strong Samson betokened Christ, the city of Gaza betokened hell, and the Philistines were a token of the Jewish people, who beset the sepulchre of Christ. But Samson would not go empty-handed from the city, but he {229}bare the gates up to the hill; for our Saviour Christ brake the gates of hell, and delivered Adam, and Eve, and his chosen of their kin, and joyfully from death arose, and they with him, and ascended to heaven. The wicked he left behind to eternal torments. And now is the gate of hell shut to righteous men, and ever open to the unrighteous.

Ungeslig ws t Iudeisce folc, t h swa ungeleaffulle wron. Ealle gesceafta oncneowon heora Scyppend, buton am Iudeiscum anum. Heofonas oncneowon Cristes acennednysse; foran aa h acenned ws, a wear gesewen nwe steorra. Sǽ oncneow Crist, aa h eode mid drium fotum uppon hire yum. Eore oncneow, aa heo eal bifode on Cristes riste. Seo sunne oncneow, aa heo wear aystrod on Cristes rowunge fram mid-dge o nn. Stanas oncneowon, aa h toburston on heora Scyppendes forsie. Hell oncneow Crist, aa heo forlt hyre hftlingas t, urh s Hlendes hergunge. And a heardheortan Iudei eah urh ealle a tacna noldon gebugan mid geleafan to am mildheortan Hlende, see wile eallum mannum gehelpan on hine gelyfendum. Ac uton we gelyfan t God Fder ws fre butan anginne, and fre ws se Sunu of am Fder acenned; foran e he is se Wisdom and Miht e se Fder ealle gesceafta urh gesceop; and h ealle wurdon gelffste urh one Halgan Gast, see is Willa and Lufu s Fder and s Suna; h ry n God untodledlic, on nre godcundnysse wunigende, h ealle gelce mihtige; foran swa hwt swa lsse bi and unmihtigre, t ne bi na God. Ac se Fder sende one Sunu to ure alysednysse, and he na underfeng a menniscnysse, and rowode dea be his agenum willan, and ars of deae on isum dge, and astah to heofonum on am feowertigean dge his ristes, tforan manegra manna gesihe, and rixa mid am lmihtigan Fder and am Halgum Gaste, n and on ecnysse. Amen.

Unhappy was the Jewish people, that they were so unbelieving. All creatures acknowledged their Creator, save only the Jews. Heaven acknowledged the birth of Christ; for when he was born a new star was seen. The sea acknowledged Christ, when he went with dry feet on its waves. Earth acknowledged him, when it all trembled at Christ's resurrection. The sun acknowledged him, when it was darkened at Christ's passion from mid-day to the ninth hour. The stones acknowledged him, when they burst asunder at their Creator's departure. Hell acknowledged Christ, when it let forth its captives, through the harrowing of Jesus. And yet the hardhearted Jews, through all these signs, would not incline with faith to the merciful Jesus, who will help all men who believe in him. But let us believe that God the Father was ever without beginning, and that the Son was ever begotten of the Father; for he is the Wisdom and Power through which the Father hath created all creatures; and they were all quickened by the Holy Ghost who is the Will and Love of the Father and of the Son; these three one God indivisible, existing in one Godhead, all equally powerful; for whatsoever is less and less powerful, that is not God. But the Father sent the Son for our redemption, and he alone assumed human nature, and suffered death of his own will, and arose from death on this day, and ascended to heaven on the fortieth day after his resurrection, before the sight of many men, and ruleth with the Almighty Father and the Holy Ghost, now and ever to eternity. Amen.





Cum esset sero die illo una sabbatorum: et reliqua.

Cum esset sero die illo una sabbatorum: et reliqua.

"fter s Hlendes ǽriste wron his discipuli belocene on anum huse for s Iudeiscan folces gan:" et reliqua.

"After the resurrection of Jesus his disciples were shut in a house for dread of the Jews," etc.

Nu cwy se godspellere Iohannes, t se Hlend worhte fela ore tacna on gesihe his leorning-cnihta, e nron gesette on Cristes bc. as wundra sind awritene to i t ge sceolon gelyfan t se Hlend is Godes Sunu, and ge sceolon habban t ece lf urh one geleafan.

Now says the evangelist John, that Jesus wrought many other miracles in the sight of his disciples, which have not been recorded in the book of Christ. These miracles are written to the end that ye may believe that Jesus is the Son of God, and that ye may have eternal life through that belief.

Nu trahtna se papa Gregorius is godspel, and cwy, t gehw wundra hu se Hlend become in to his apostolum, and wron eah-hwere a dura belocene. Nu cwy eft se halga Gregorius, t Cristes lichama com inn, beclysedum durum, see wear acenned of am mdene Marian beclysedum innoe. Hwilc wundor is t se Hlend mid ecum lichaman come inn, belocenum durum, see mid deadlicum lichaman wear acenned of beclysedum innoe s mdenes?

Now the pope Gregory, expounding this gospel, says, that everyone wonders how Jesus came in to his apostles, and yet the doors were shut. But again St. Gregory says, that Christ's body came in, the doors being closed, which was born of the Virgin Mary, of a closed womb. What wonder is it, that Jesus with an everlasting body came in, the doors being closed, who with a mortal body was born of the closed womb of the virgin?

We rda on re bec e is gehten Actus Apostolorum, t a heafod-men Iudeisces folces gebrohton Cristes apostolas on cwearterne: a on niht com him to Godes engel, and ldde h t of am cwearterne, and std on merigen t cweartern fste belocen. God mig dn ealle ing: nu sceole we wundrian his mihte, and eac gelyfan. one lichaman he teowde to grapigenne, one e he inn-brohte beclysedum durum. His lichama ws grapigendlic, and eah-hwere unbrosnigendlic; he teowde hine grapigendlicne and unbrosnigendlicne, foran e his lichama ws s ylcan gecyndes e he ǽr ws, ac ws hwere eah ores wuldres.

We read in the book which is called The Acts of the Apostles, that the chief men of the Jewish people brought Christ's apostles into prison: then by night God's angel came to them, and led them out of the prison, and on the morrow the prison stood fast shut up. God can do all things: therefore we should wonder at his might, and also believe. He showed the body to be touched which he had brought in, the doors being closed. His body was tangible, and, nevertheless, incorruptible; he showed himself tangible and incorruptible, for his body was of the same nature that it before was, but was yet of another glory.

Se Hlend cw to him, "Beo sibb betwux eow." For sibbe com Crist to mannum, and sibbe he bead and thte, and nis nan ing him gecweme e bi butan sibbe gedn. {232}"Swa swa min Fder sende me swa sende ic eow. Se Fder lufa one Sunu, ac eah-hwere he sende hine to rowunge for manna alysednysse." Crist lufode eac his apostolas, and eah-hwere ne sette he h to cynegum, ne to ealdormannum, ne to woruldlicere blisse; ac tosende h geond ealne middangeard, to bodigenne fulluht and one geleafan e he sylf thte. a bododon h swa lange o t a weoran h ofslogon, and h ferdon sigefste to heora Drihtne.

Jesus said to them, "Peace be among you." For peace Christ came to men, and peace he enjoined and taught, and nothing is to him acceptable which is done without peace. {233}"As my Father sent me so I send you. The Father loveth the Son, but yet he sendeth him to suffering for the redemption of men." Christ also loved his apostles, and yet he established them not as kings, nor as governors, nor in worldly bliss; but he sent them over all the earth, to preach baptism and the faith which he himself had taught. They preached until the wicked slew them, and they went triumphant to their Lord.

Crist bleow on a apostolas, and cw, "Onfo Haligne Gast." Tuwa com se Halga Gast ofer a apostolas; nu ǽne, and eft ore sie fter Cristes upstige. Crist ableow one Halgan Gast ofer a apostolas, a-gyt wunigende on eoran, for re getacnunge, t lc cristen mann sceal lufian his nextan swa swa hine sylfne. Eft sian he to heofenum asth, he sende one ylcan Gast on fyres hwe ofer a apostolas, to i t we sceolon lufian God ofer ealle ore ing. An is se Halga Gast, eah e he tuwa become ofer a apostolas. Swa is eac n lufu, and tw bebodu, t we sceolon lufian God and men. Ac we sceolon geleornian on mannum hu we magon becuman to Godes lufe, swa swa Iohannes se apostol cw, "Se e ne lufa his broor, one e h gesih, hu mg he lufian God, one e he ne gesih lichamlice?" r am fyrste ws se Halga Gast wunigende on am apostolum, ac h nron to an swie onbryrde, t h mihton swa bealdlice Godes geleafan bodian, swa swa h sian mihton, urh gife s Halgan Gastes. H ston beclysede, for gan Iudeisces folces, on anum huse; ac syan h wron gefyllede mid am Halgum Gaste, h wurdon swa gehyrte, and swa cene, t h bodedon freolice Godes naman reum cynegum and wlreowum.

Christ blew on the apostles, and said, "Receive the Holy Ghost." Twice came the Holy Ghost over the apostles; once now, and again another time at Christ's ascension. Christ blew the Holy Ghost over the apostles, while yet continuing on earth, for a token that every christian man should love his neighbour as himself. Again, after he had ascended to heaven, he sent the Holy Ghost in semblance of fire over the apostles, to the end that we should love God above all other things. The Holy Ghost is one, though he came twice over the apostles. So there is also one love, and two commandments, that we should love God and men. But we should learn in men how we may come to the love of God, as John the apostle said, "He who loveth not his brother, whom he seeth, how can he love God, whom he seeth not bodily?" Before that time the Holy Ghost was dwelling in the apostles, but they were not stimulated to that degree, that they could boldly preach God's faith, as they could afterwards, through the grace of the Holy Ghost. They sat, for fear of the Jewish people, shut in a house; but after they were filled with the Holy Ghost, they were so encouraged, and so bold, that they freely proclaimed the name of God to fierce and bloodthirsty kings.

Crist cw to am apostolum, "ra manna synna e ge forgyfa, ra beo forgifene; and am e ge ofteo a forgifenysse, am bi oftogen." isne anweald forgeaf Crist am apostolum and eallum bisceopum, gif h hit on riht healda. Ac gif se bisceop de be his agenum willan, and wile {234}bndan one nscyldigan, and one scyldigan alysan, onne forlyst h a mihte e him God forgeaf. am mannum he sceal dn synna forgifenysse, e h gesih t beo onbryrde urh Godes gife, and am he sceal aheardian e nne behreowsunge nabba heora misdda. Crist arrde of deae one stincendan Lazarum, and aa h cucu ws, a cw h to his leorning-cnihtum, "Tolysa his bendas, t h gn mge." a alysdon h s ge-edcucedan mannes bendas, e Crist arrde to life. Fori sceolon a lreowas a unbindan fram heora synnum a e Crist gelffst urh onbryrdnysse. lc synful man e his synna bedigla, he li dead on byrgene; ac gif he his synna geandett urh onbryrdnysse, onne g he of re byrgene, swa swa Lazarus dyde, aa Crist hine arisan het: onne sceal se lareow hine unbindan fram am ecum wte, swa swa a apostoli lichamlice Lazarum alysdon. Ac se lweda mann sceal him ondrdan s bisceopes cwyde, eah h unscyldig sy; yls e he urh modignysse scyldig weore.

Christ said to the apostles, "Those men's sins which ye forgive, they shall be forgiven; and those from whom ye withdraw forgiveness, from them it shall be withdrawn." This power Christ gave to the apostles and to all bishops, if they righteously hold it. But if the bishop act by his own will, {235}and will bind the innocent, and loose the guilty, then loses he the power which God gave him. To those men he shall grant forgiveness of sins, whom he sees that they are stimulated by God's grace, and to those he shall be obdurate who have no repentance of their misdeeds. Christ raised from death the stinking Lazarus, and when he was quickened, he said to his disciples, "Loose his bands, that he may go." They loosed the bands of the requickened man, whom Christ had raised to life. Therefore should our teachers unbind from their sins those whom Christ quickens by stimulation. Every sinful man who conceals his sins, lies dead in the sepulchre; but if he confess his sins through stimulation, then he goes from the sepulchre, as Lazarus did, when Christ bade him arise: then shall the teacher unbind him from the eternal punishment, as the apostles bodily unbound Lazarus. But the layman shall stand in awe of the bishop's word, though he be guiltless; lest he become guilty through pride.

Ne getimode am apostole Thome unforsceawodlice, t he ungeleafful ws Cristes ristes, ac hit getimode urh Godes forsceawunge; foran urh his grapunge we sind geleaffulle. Mare s fremode his tweonung onne ra ora apostola geleaffulnys; foran aa h ws gebroht to geleafan mid re grapunge, a wear seo twynung urh t s tbroden. Eae mihte Crist arisan of deae butan dolhswaum, ac to i he heold a dolhswau, t he wolde mid am a twynigendan getrymman. He cw to Thoman, "u gelyfst, foran e u me gesawe." He geseah one lichaman and a dolhswau, and he gelyfde t he ws God, see arrde one lichaman of deae. Swie blissia as wrd s e her fterfilia, "Geslige beo a e me ne gesawon, and eah on me gelyfa." Mid am cwyde sind a ealle getacnode e Crist on lichaman ne gesawon, and eah-hwere hine healda on heora mode urh geleafan. Se gelyf solice on God, see mid weorcum beg t t h {236}gelyf. Se e andet t h God cunne, and yfele weorc beg, onne wisc he God mid am weorcum. Se geleafa e bi butan godum weorcum, se is dead. is sind ra apostola word, undernima h mid carfullum mode.

It happened to the apostle Thomas not unprovidentially, that he was unbelieving of Christ's resurrection, but it happened by the providence of God; for through his touching we are believing. Of greater benefit to us was his doubt than the faith of the other apostles; for when he was brought to belief by that touching, doubt was thereby taken from us. Easily might Christ have arisen from death without scars, but he held the scars, because he would thereby confirm the doubtful. He said to Thomas, "Thou believest, because thou hast seen me." He saw the body and the scars, and he believed that he was God, who had raised the body from death. Greatly gladden us the words which here follow, "Blessed are they who have not seen me, and yet believe in me." By that saying are betokened all those who have not seen Christ in the body, and, nevertheless, hold him in their mind through faith. For he believes in God, who by works practises that which he believes. He who acknowledges that {237}he knows God, and performs evil works, denies God by those works. Faith without good works is dead. These are the words of the apostles, receive them with careful mind.

We spreca embe rist. Nu sind sume men e habba twynunge be riste, and onne hi geseo deadra manna bn, onne cwea h, Hu magon as bn beon ge-edcucode? Swilce h wslice sprecon! Ac we cwea r-togeanes, t God is lmihtig, and mg eal t he wile. He geworhte heofonas and eoran and ealle gesceafta butan antimbre. Nu is geuht t him sy sumera inga eaelicor to arrenne one deadan of am duste, onne him wre to wyrcenne ealle gesceafta of nahte: ac solice him sind ealle ing gelice eae, and nn ing earfoe. He worhte Adam of lme. Nu ne mage we asmeagan h h of am lme flsc worhte, and blod bn and fell, fex and nglas. Men geseo oft t of anum lytlum cyrnele cym micel treow, ac we ne magon geseon on am cyrnele naor ne wyrtruman, ne rinde, ne bgas, ne leaf: ac se God e fortih of am cyrnele treow, and wstmas, and leaf, se ylca mg of duste arǽran flsc and bn, sina and fex, swa swa he cw on his godspelle, "Ne sceal eow beon forloren an hǽr of eowrum heafde."

We will speak concerning the resurrection. Now there are some men who have doubt of the resurrection, and when they see the bones of dead men, they say, How can these bones be again quickened? as if they speak wisely! But we say against them, that God is Almighty, and can do all that he will. He wrought heaven and earth and all creatures without matter. Now it seems that it is somewhat easier to him to raise the dead from the dust, than it was to him to make all creatures from naught: but truly to him are all things alike easy, and nothing difficult. He wrought Adam of loam. Now we cannot investigate how of that loam he made flesh and blood, bones and skin, hair and nails. Men often see that of one little kernel comes a great tree, but in the kernel we can see neither root, nor rind, nor boughs, nor leaves: but the same God who draws forth from the kernel tree, and fruits, and leaves, may from dust raise flesh and bones, sinews and hair, as he said in his gospel, "There shall not be lost to you one hair of your head."

Se apostol Paulus cw, t we sceolon arisan of deae on re ylde e Crist ws aa he rowade, t is embe reo and ritig geara. eah cild forfare, oe forwerod man, eah-hwere h cuma to re ylde e we r cwdon; hf eah gehw his agenne wstm, e he on issum life hfde, oe habban sceolde, gif he his gebide. Gif hw alefed wre, oe limleas on issum life, he bi onne swa hit awriten is, t "Ealle a e to Godes rice gebyriga, nabba naor ne womm ne awyrdnysse on heora lichaman." Hwt sceole we smeagan embe a ore e gewta to am ecum forwyrde, hwer h alefede beon oe limlease, onne h beo on ecere susle wunigende?

The apostle Paul said, that we should arise from death at the age that Christ was when he suffered, that is about three and thirty years. Though a child depart, or a worn-out man, they will, nevertheless, come to the age we before said; yet will everyone have his own growth, which he had in this life, or should have had, if he had awaited it. If any one be maimed, or limbless in this life, he will be as it is written, that "All those who belong to God's kingdom, shall have neither blemish nor hurt on their bodies." What shall we suppose concerning those others who depart to everlasting perdition, whether they are maimed or limbless, when they are dwelling in eternal torment?

Hit bi onne swa swa Crist cw, t "Nan wer ne {238}wifa, ne wif ne ceorla, ne team ne bi getymed, ne h deaes ne abyriga sian, ac beo englum gelice, onne h mid englum wunia." Ne him ne lyst nanre galnysse, ne h nfre sian synna ne gewyrcea. Ne bi r sorh, ne sr, ne nan gedreccednys, ac bi fulfremed sib and singal bliss, and beo cue ge a e r cue wron ge a e uncue wron, wunigende on broorlicre lufe mid Gode on ecnysse. Amen.

It will then be as Christ said, that "No man taketh to {239}wife, nor woman to husband, nor family is begotten, nor taste they of death, but will be like unto the angels, when they dwell with angels." No libidinousness will give them pleasure, nor will they ever perpetrate sins. No sorrow nor pain will be there, nor no affliction, but there will be perfect peace and continual bliss, and there will be known both those who were known before and those who were unknown, dwelling in brotherly love with God ever to eternity. Amen.



Dixit Iesus discipulis suis, Ego sum pastor bonus: et reliqua.

Dixit Jesus discipulis suis, Ego sum pastor bonus: et reliqua.

is godspel, e n gerd ws, cwy, t se Hlend cwde be him sylfum, "Ic eom gd hyrde: se gda hyrde syl his agen lf for his sceapum. Se hyra, see nis riht hyrde, he gesih one wulf cuman, and he forlt a scp and flyh; and se wulf sum gelc and a ore tostenc," et reliqua.

This gospel, which has now been read, says, that Jesus said of himself, "I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his own life for his sheep. The hireling, who is not the right shepherd, seeth the wolf coming, and he forsaketh the sheep and fleeth; and the wolf teareth one, and scattereth the others," etc.

Crist is god gecyndelice, and solice nis nan ing gd butan Gode anum. Gif nig gesceaft is gd, onne is seo gdnys of am Scyppende, see is healice gd. He cw, "Se gda hyrde syl his agen lf for his sceapum." Ure Alysend is se gda hyrde, and we cristene men sind his scp, and he sealde his agen lf for ure alysednysse. He dyde swa swa he manede, and mid am he geswutelode hwt he bebead. Gd hyrde ws Petrus, and gd ws Paulus, and gde wron a apostoli, e hyra lf sealdon for Godes folce and for rihtum geleafan; ac heora gdnys ws of am heafde, t is Crist, e is heora heafod, and h sind his lima.

Christ is good by nature, and in sooth there is nothing good, save God only. If any creature is good, then is its goodness of the Creator, who is supremely good. He said, "The good shepherd giveth his own life for his sheep." Our Redeemer is the good shepherd, and we christian men are his sheep, and he gave his own life for our redemption. He did as he exhorted, and he thereby manifested what he enjoined. A good shepherd was Peter, and good was Paul, and good were the apostles, who gave their lives for God's people and for the right faith; but their goodness was of the head, which is Christ, who is their head, and they are his limbs.

lc bisceop and lc lreow is to hyrde gesett Godes folce, t h sceolon t folc wi one wulf gescyldan. Se wulf {240}is deofol, e syrw ymbe Godes gelaunge, and cep hu he mage cristenra manna sawla mid leahtrum fordn. onne sceal se hyrde, t is se bisceop oe oer lreow, wistandan am rean wulfe mid lre and mid gebedum. Mid lare he sceal him tcan, t hi cunnon hwt deofol tch mannum to forwyrde, and hwt God bebt to gehealdenne, for begeate s ecan lifes. He sceal him fore-gebiddan, t God gehealde a strngan, and gehle a untruman. Se bi to strngum geteald, see wistent deofles lare; se bi untrum, see on leahtrum fyl. Ac se lreow bi unscyldig, gif he t folc mid lare gewissa, and him wi God geinga. a twa ing he sceal am folce dn, and eac mid his agenum orum gehelpan; and gif hit swa getma, his agen lf syllan for s folces hreddinge.

Every bishop and every teacher is placed as a shepherd over God's people, that they may shield the people against {241}the wolf. The wolf is the devil, who lies in ambush about God's church, and watches how he may fordo the souls of christian men with sins. Then shall the shepherd, that is, the bishop or other teacher, withstand the fierce wolf with doctrine and with prayers. With doctrine he shall teach them, that they may know what the devil teaches for men's perdition, and what God commands to be observed for the attainment of everlasting life. He shall pray for them, that God may preserve the strong and heal the weak. He is to be accounted strong who withstands the precepts of the devil; he is weak who falls into sins. But the teacher will be guiltless, if he direct the people with doctrine, and mediate for them with God. These two things he shall do for the people, and also help others with his own; and if it so happen, give his own life for the saving of the people.

"Se hyra flih onne he one wulf gesih." Se is hyra and na hyrde, see bi begripen on woruld-ingum, and lufa one wurmynt and a ateorigendlican edlean, and nf inweardlice lufe to Godes sceapum. He cep ra sceatta, and blissa on am wurmynte, and hf his mede for isum life, and bi bescyred re ecan mede. Nast u hw bi hyra, hw hyrde, ram e se wulf cume; ac se wulf geswutela mid hwilcum mode he gymde ra sceapa. Se wulf cym to am sceapum, and sume h abitt, sume h tostenc, onne se rea deofol tih a cristenan men, sume to forlgre, sume h ontent to gytsunge, sume h arr to modignysse, sume h urh graman totwm, and mid mislicum costnungum gastlice ofslih. Ac se hyra ne bi naor ne mid ware ne mid lufe astyred, ac flyh, foran e h smea embe a woruldlican hya, and lǽt to gymeleaste re sceapa lyre. Ne flyh he na mid lichaman, ac mid mode. He flyh, foran e h geseh unrihtwisnysse and suwade. H flyh foran e he is hyra, and n hyrde, swilce hit swa gecweden sy, Ne mg se standan ongean frcednyssa ra sceapa, see ne gym ra sceapa mid lufe, ac {242}tyla his sylfes; t is t h lufa a eorlican gestreon, and na Godes folc.

"The hireling fleeth when he seeth the wolf." He is a hireling and not a shepherd, who is engaged in worldly things, and loves dignity and perishable rewards, and has no inward love for God's sheep. He takes heed of treasures, and rejoices in dignity, and has his reward in this life, and will be cut off from the everlasting reward. Thou knowest not who is a hireling, who a shepherd, before the wolf comes; but the wolf makes manifest in what manner he watches the sheep. The wolf comes to the sheep, and some he devours, some he scatters, when the fierce devil instigates christian men, some to adultery, some he inflames to covetousness, some he lifts up to pride, some through anger he divides, and with divers temptations spiritually slays: for the hireling is excited neither by care nor love, but flees, because he considers worldly advantages, and leaves unheeded the loss of the sheep. He flees not with body, but with mind. He flees because he saw iniquity and held silence. He flees because he is a hireling and not a shepherd, as though it were so said, He cannot stand against the perils of the sheep, who guardeth not the sheep with love, but provideth {243}for himself; that is, he loves worldly gain, and not God's folk.

Wulf bi eac se unrihtwisa rica, e bereafa a cristenan, and a eadmodan mid his riccetere ofsitt: ac se hyra, oe se mdgylda ne gedyrstlc t he his unrihtwisnysse wistande, t he ne forleose his wurmynt, and a woruldlican gestreon e he lufa swior onne a cristenan menn. Be isum awrt se wtega Ezechiel, us cweende, "Ge hyrdas, gehyra Godes word: Mine scp sint tostencte urh eowre gymeleaste, and sind abtene. Ge caria embe eowerne bigleofan, and n embe ra sceapa; fori ic wille ofgn a scp t eowrum handum; and ic do t ge geswca re wcan, and ic wylle ahreddan mine eowde wi eow. Ic sylf wylle gadrian mine scp e wron tostencte, and ic wylle hi healdan on genihtsumere lse: t t losode t ic wylle scan and ongean ldan; t t alefed ws, t ic gehle; t untrume ic wylle getrymman, and t strange gehealdan, and ic h lswige on dome and on rihtwisnysse."

The unrighteous powerful man also is a wolf, who robs christians, and oppresses the humble with his power: for the hireling, or the mercenary, dares not withstand his unrighteousness lest he lose his dignity, and the worldly gain which he loves more than christian men. Concerning this the prophet Ezechiel wrote, thus saying, "Ye shepherds, hear the word of God: My sheep are scattered through your heedlessness, and are devoured. Ye care for your own sustenance, and not for that of the sheep; therefore I will require the sheep at your hands, and I will cause you to depart from the fold, and I will deliver my flock from you. I myself will gather my sheep that were scattered, and I will feed them in an abundant pasture: that which was lost I will seek and bring again; that which was maimed I will heal; the sick I will strengthen, and feed the strong, and I will pasture them in judgement and in righteousness."

as word sprc God urh one wtegan Ezechiel, be lreowum and be his folce. Ge sceolon beon geornfulle to eower agenre earfe, eah hit swa getimige t se lreow gimeleas beo, and do swa swa Crist thte, "Gif se lreow wel tǽce and yfele bysnige, do swa swa he tc, and na be am e h bysna." Se Hlend cw be him, "Ic eom gd hyrde, and ic oncnawe mine scp, and h oncnawa me." t is, ic lufige h, and h lufia me. Se e ne lufa sofstnysse, ne oncneow he na gyt God. Ac behealde ge hwer ge sind Godes scp, hwer ge hine gyt oncneowon, hwer ge mid sofstnysse hine lufia. H cw, "Swa swa min Fder oncnǽw me, and ic oncnwe hine, and ic sylle min agen lif for minum sceapum." He oncnǽw his Fder urh hine sylfne, and we oncnawa urh hine. Mid re lufe e h wolde for mancynne sweltan, mid re h cyde h micclan h lufa his Fder. He cw, "Ic hbbe ore scp e ne sind na of isre eowde, and a ic sceal ldan, {244}and hi gehyra mine stemne, and sceal beon n eowd, and n hyrde."

These words spake God through the prophet Ezechiel, concerning teachers and concerning his people. Ye should be zealous for your own need (though it so happen that the teacher be heedless), and do as Christ taught, "If the teacher teach well, and give evil example, do as he teacheth, and not according to his example." Jesus says of himself, "I am a good shepherd, and I know my sheep, and they know me." That is, I love them, and they love me. He who loves not truth, he yet knows not God. But consider whether ye are God's sheep, whether ye yet know him, whether ye with truth love him. He said, "As my Father knoweth me, I also know him, and I give my own life for my sheep." He knows his Father through himself, and we know him through him. With that love with which he would die for mankind, he manifested how greatly he loves his Father. He said, "I have other sheep which are not of this fold, and those I {245}shall bring, and they will hear my voice, and there shall be one fold and one shepherd."

is h sprc on Iudea-lande: r ws n eowd of am mannum e on God belyfdon on am leodscipe. a ore scp syndon a e of eallum orum eardum to Gode bga; and Crist h gebrinc ealle on nre eowde on am ecan life. Manega sind hyrdas under Criste, and eah-hwere he is na heora ealra Hyrde, see leofa and rixa mid Fder and mid Halgum Gaste, on ecnysse. Amen.

This he spake in the land of Juda: there was a fold of men who believed in God in that nation. The other sheep are those of all other countries who incline to God; and Christ will bring them all to one fold in eternal life. Many are the shepherds under Christ, and yet he alone is Shepherd of them all, who liveth and ruleth with the Father and with the Holy Ghost ever to eternity. Amen.



as dagas synd gehatene Letaniae, t sint, Gebed-dagas. On isum dagum we sceolon gebiddan ure eorlicra wstma genihtsumnysse, and us sylfum gesundfulnysse and sibbe, and, t gt mare is, ure synna forgyfenysse.

These days are called Litani, that is, Prayer-days. On these days we should pray for abundance of our earthly fruits, and health for ourselves, and peace, and, what is yet more, forgiveness of our sins.

We rda on bcum, t eos gehealdsumnys wurde arǽred on one timan e gelmp on anre byrig, e Uigenna is gecweden, micel eor-styrung, and feollon cyrcan and hs, and comon wilde beran and wulfas, and abton s folces micelne dǽl, and s cynges botl wear mid heofonlicum fyre forbrned. a bead se biscop Mamertus reora daga fsten, and seo gedreccednys a geswac; and se gewuna s fstenes urhwuna gehwr on geleaffulre gelaunge.

We read in books, that this observance was established at the time when there happened in a city, which is called Vienna, a great earthquake, and churches and houses fell, and there came wild bears and wolves, and devoured a large portion of the people, and the king's palace was burnt with heavenly fire. Then the bishop Mamertus commanded a fast of three days, and the affliction ceased; and the custom of the fast continues everywhere in the faithful church.

H namon a bysne s fstenys t am Niniueiscan folce. t folc ws swie fyrenful: a wolde God h fordn, ac h gegladodon hine mid heora behreowsunge. God sprc to anum wtegan, se ws Ionas gehten, "Far to re byrig Niniuen, and boda r a word e ic e secge. a wear se wtega afyrht, and wolde forfleon Godes gesihe, ac h ne mihte. Ferde a to sǽ, and stah on scip. aa a scypmen comon ut on sǽ, a sende him God to micelne {246}wind and hreohnysse, swa t h wron rwene heora lfes. Hi a wurpon heora waru oforbord, and se wtega lg and slp. Hi wurpon a tn betweox him, and bdon t God sceolde geswutulian hwanon him t ungelimp become. a com s wtegan t upp. Hi axodon hine, Hwt h wre, oe h h faran wolde? He cw, t h wre Godes eow, see gesceop sǽ and lnd, and t h fleon wolde of Godes gesihe. H cwdon, H do we ymbe e? H andwyrde, Weorpa me oforbord, onne geswic eos gedreccednys. H a swa dydon, and seo hreohnys wear gestilled, and h offrodon Gode heora lc, and tugon for."

They took the example of the fast from the people of Nineveh. That people was very sinful: then would God destroy them, but they appeased him with their penitence. God spake to a prophet who was called Jonah, "Go to the city of Nineveh, and announce there the words which I say to thee. Then was the prophet afraid, and would flee from God's presence, but he could not. He went to the sea, and entered a ship. When the shipmen came out to sea, God {247}sent to them a great wind and tempest, so that they were hopeless of their lives. They therefore cast their wares overboard, and the prophet lay and slept. They then cast lots among them, and prayed that God would manifest to them whence that affliction came upon them. Then the prophet's lot came up. They asked him who he was, or how he would go? He said that he was a servant of God, who created sea and land, and that he would flee from God's presence. They said, How shall we do regarding thee? He answered, Cast me overboard, then will this affliction cease. They then did so, and the tempest was stilled, and they offered their gifts to God, and went on their course."

God a gegearcode nne hwǽl, and h forswealh one wtegan, and abǽr hine to am lande e he t sceolde, and hine r t-aspw. a com eft Godes wrd to am wtegan, and cw, "Ars nu, and ga to re mycelan byrig Niniun, and boda swa swa ic e r sde." He ferde, and bodode, t him ws Godes grama nsigende, gif h to Gode bugan noldon. a ars se cyning of his cynesetle, and awearp his deorwyre reaf, and dyde hran to his lice, and axan uppan his heafod, and bead t lc man swa dn sceolde; and ger ge men ge a sucendan cild and eac a nytenu ne onbyrigdon nanes inges binnan rim dagum. a, urh a gecyrrednysse, t h yfeles geswicon, and urh t strange fsten, him gemildsode God, and nolde hi fordn, swa swa he ǽr a twa burhwara Sodomam and Gomorram, for heora leahtrum, mid heofonlicum fyre forbrnde.

God then prepared a whale, and it swallowed up the prophet, and bare him to the land to which he should go, and there vomited him out. Then again came the word of God to the prophet, and said, "Arise now, and go to the great city Nineveh, and preach as I before said to thee." He went and preached, that God's anger was about to descend on them, if they would not incline to God. Then, the king arose from his throne, and cast off his precious robes, and put sackcloth on his body, and ashes upon his head, and commanded that every man should so do; and that both men and sucking children and also the cattle should not taste of anything within three days. Then through that conversion, that they desisted from evil, and through that strict fast, God had mercy on them, and would not destroy them, as he had before, for their crimes, burnt the inhabitants of the two cities, Sodom and Gomorrah, with heavenly fire.

We sceolon eac on issum dagum begn ure gebedu, and fyligan urum haligdome ut and inn, and one lmihtigan God mid geornfulnysse herian. We wylla nu is godspel eow gereccan, e her nu gerd ws: "Quis uestrum habebit amicum:" et reliqua. "Se Hlend cw to his leorning-cnihtum, Hwilc eower is e hf sumne freond, and g him to on middere nihte, and cwy": et reliqua.

We also on these days should offer up our prayers, and follow our relics out and in, and with fervour praise Almighty God. We will now expound to you this gospel which has just been read: "Quis vestrum habebit amicum": et reliqua. "Jesus said to his disciples, Which of you who hath a friend, and goeth to him at midnight, and saith," etc.


Se halga Augustinus trahtnode is godspel, and cw, t seo niht getacnode a nytennysse isre worulde. eos woruld is afylled mid nytennysse. Nu sceal fori gehw arisan of re nytennysse, and gan to his frynd, t is, t he sceal gebugan to Criste mid ealre geornfulnysse, and biddan ra reora hlafa, t is, geleafan re Halgan rynnysse. Se lmihtiga Fder is God, and his Sunu is lmihtig God, and se Halga Gast is lmihtig God; na ry Godas, ac h ealle n lmihtig God untodledlic. onne u becymst to isum rym hlafum, t is, to andgite re Halgan rynnysse, onne hfst u on am geleafan lf and fdan inre sawle, and miht oerne cuman eac mid am fedan, t is, u miht tcan one geleafan orum frynd e e s bitt. He cw, 'cuma,' foran e we ealle sind cuman on isum life, and ure eard nis na her; ac we sind her swilce wegferende menn; n cym, oer fr; se bi acenned, se oer forfr and rym him setl. Nu sceal gehw fori gewilnian s geleafan re Halgan rynnysse, foran e se geleafa hine gebrinc to am ecan life.


Saint Augustine expounded this gospel, and said, that the night betokened the ignorance of this world. This world is filled with ignorance. Now therefore should everyone arise from that ignorance, and go to his friend, that is, he should incline to Christ with all fervour, and pray for the three loaves, that is, belief in the Holy Trinity. The Almighty Father is God, and his Son is Almighty God, and the Holy Ghost is Almighty God; not three Gods, but they all one Almighty God indivisible. When thou comest to those three loaves, that is, to an understanding of the Holy Trinity, then hast thou, in that belief, life and food for thy soul, and mayest therewith feed another stranger also, that is, thou mayest teach the faith to another friend who shall ask it of thee. He said a 'stranger,' because we are all strangers in this life, and our country is not here; but we are here as wayfaring men; one comes, another goes; this is born, the other departs and yields up his seat to him. Now therefore should everyone desire faith in the Holy Trinity, for that faith will bring him to everlasting life.

We wylla eft embe one geleafan swior sprecan, foran e ises godspelles traht hf gdne tige. Se hiredes ealdor, e ws on his reste gebroht mid his cildum, is Crist, e sitt on heofonum mid his apostolum, and mid martyrum, and mid eallum am halgum, e he on isum life gefette. We sceolon clypigan to Criste, and biddan ra reora hlafa. eah h s rrihte ne getiige, ne sceole we fori re bene geswican. He elca, and wyle hwere forgyfan. i h elca, t we sceolon beon oflyste, and deorwyrlice healdan Godes gife. Swa hwt swa man eaelice begyt, t ne bi na swa deorwyre swa t t earfolice bi begyten. Se Hlend cw, "Gif he urhwuna cnucigende, onne arist se hiredes ealdor, for s ores onhrope, and him getia s e he bitt, na for freondrdene, ac for his unstilnysse." i he cw, "Na for freondrdene," foran e nn man nre wyre ne s geleafan ne s ecan lifes, gif Godes mildheortnys nre {250}e mare ofer manncynne. Nu sceole we cnucian, and hryman to Criste, foran e h wile us tiian, swa swa he sylf cw, "Bidda, and eow bi forgifen; seca, and ge gemeta; cnucia, and eow bi geopenod." lc ra e geornlice bitt, and re bene ne geswic, am getia God s ecan lifes.

We will again speak more concerning faith, because the exposition of this gospel has a good deduction. The master of the family, who was gone to rest with his children, is Christ, who sits in heaven with his apostles, and with martyrs, and with all the saints whom he fetched in this life. We should call to Christ, and pray for the three loaves. Though he do not forthwith grant them to us, we should not on that account desist from prayer. He delays, and yet will give. He delays, that we may be desirous, and dearly hold the grace of God. Whatsoever a man gets easily is not so precious as that which is gotten with difficulty. Jesus said, "If he continue knocking, the master of the family will arise, because of the other's importunity, and grant him what he asks, not for friendship, but for his clamour." He said, "Not for friendship," because no man were worthy either of that faith, or of eternal life, if God's mercy were not the {251}greater towards mankind. We should knock, and call to Christ, because he will give to us, as he himself said, "Ask, and it shall be given to you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened to you." To everyone who fervently asks, and ceases not from prayer, God will grant everlasting life.

He cw a oer bigspel. "Hwilc fder wile syllan his cilde stn, gif hit hine hlafes bitt? oe nddran, gif hit fisces bitt? oe one wyrm rowend, gif hit ges bitt?" God is ure Fder urh his mildheortnysse, and se fisc getacna geleafan, and t ig one halgan hiht, se hlf a soan lufe. as reo ing forgif God his gecorenum; foran e nan man ne mg habban Godes rice, butan he hbbe as reo ing. He sceal rihtlice gelyfan, and habban hiht to Gode, and soe lufe to Gode and to mannum, gif he wile to Godes rice becuman. Se fisc getacna geleafan, foran e his gecynd is, swa hine swior a ya wealca, swa he strengra bi, and swior bata. Swa eac se geleaffulla man, swa he swior bi geswenct for his geleafan, swa se geleafa strengra bi, r r h ltwe bi. Gif h abry on re ehtnysse, he ne bi onne geleafa, ac bi hwung. t ig getacna hiht, fori e fugelas ne tyma swa swa ore nytenu, ac rest hit bi ig, and seo modor sian mid hihte bret t ig to bridde. Swa eac ure hiht ne becom na gyt to am e he hopa, ac is swilce h sy ig. onne he hf t him behaten is, he bi fugel. Hlf getacna a soan lufe, seo is ealra mgna mst, swa swa se hlf bi ealra metta fyrmest. Micel mgen is geleafa, and micel is se soa hiht; eah-hwere seo lufu hi oferswi, foran e heo bi on ecnysse, and a ore twa geendia. We gelyfa nu on God, and we hopia to him: eft onne we becuma to his rce, swa swa he us behet, onne bi se geleafa geendod, foran e we geseo onne t we nu gelyfa. Ure hiht bi eac geendod, foran e we beo hbbende s e we r hopedon; ac seo lufu ne ateora nfre: nu is heo fori heora selest.

He then said another parable. "What father will give his child a stone, if he ask for bread? or a serpent, if he ask for a fish? or a scorpion, if he ask for an egg?" God is our Father through his mercy, and the fish betokens faith, and the egg holy hope, the bread true love. These three things God gives to his chosen; for no man can have God's kingdom, unless he have these three things. He must rightly believe, and have hope in God, and true love to God and to men, if he will come to God's kingdom. The fish betokens faith, because its nature is, that the more it is tossed by the waves, the stronger it is, and the more vigorously it strikes. In like manner the believing man, the more he is afflicted for his faith, the stronger will be his faith, wherever it is sound. If it sink under persecution, it is then not faith, but is hypocrisy. The egg betokens hope, seeing that birds teem not like other animals, but first it is an egg, and the mother then with hope cherishes the egg to a young bird. In like manner our hope comes not yet to that which it hopes, but is, as it were, an egg. When it has that which is promised it, it is a bird. Bread betokens true love, which of all virtues is greatest, as bread is of all food the principal. Faith is a great virtue, and a great virtue is true hope; yet love excels them, forasmuch as it is ever to eternity, and the other two will end. We now believe in God, and we hope in him: but after we come to his kingdom, as he has promised us, then will faith be ended, for we shall then see what we now believe. Our hope will also be ended, because we shall be in possession of what we had previously hoped for; but love will never decay: therefore is it the most excellent of them.


Seo nddre is geset on am godspelle ongean one fisc. On nddran hwe beswc se deofol Adam; and fre h win nu ongean urne geleafan: ac seo gescyldnys is t urum Fder gelang. Se wyrm rowend, e is geset ongean t ig, is ttren, and slih mid am tgle to deae. a ing e we geseo on isum lfe, a sind ateorigendlice; a e we ne geseo, and us sind behtene, hi sind ce: strece rto inne hiht, and anbida ot u hi hbbe. Ne loca u underbc; ondrd e one rowend e geǽttra mid am tgle. Se man loca underbc, e geortruwa Godes mildheortnysse; onne bi his hiht gettrod mid s rowendes tgle. Ac we sceolon iger ge on earfonyssum, ge on gelimpe and on ungelimpe, cwean, swa swa se witega cw, "Ic herige minne Drihten on lcne tman." Getimige s tela on lichaman, getimige s untela, symle we sceolon s Gode ancian, and his naman bletsian; onne bi ure hiht gehealden wi s wyrmes slege.


The serpent is placed in the gospel in opposition to the fish. In a serpent's form the devil deceived Adam; and he is now ever striving against our faith: but our protection is in the hand of our Father. The scorpion, which is set in opposition to the egg, is venomous, and stings with its tail to death. Those things which we see in this life are perishable; those which we see not, and which are promised to us are eternal: stretch thereto thy hope, and wait until thou have them. Look not behind; dread the scorpion which envenoms with its tail. The man looks behind, who despairs of God's mercy; then is his hope envenomed by the scorpion's tail. But we should both in difficulties, and in chances and in mischances, say as the prophet said, "I will praise the Lord at every time." Betide us good in body, betide us evil, we ought ever to thank God, and bless his name; then will our hope be preserved from the scorpion's sting.

Stn is gesett ongean one hlf, foran e heardmodnys is wierrde sore lufe. Heardheort bi se mann, e nele urh lufe orum fremigan, r r h mg. t godspel cw, "Gif ge cunnon, a e yfele sind, syllan a gdnysse eowrum bearnum, hu micele swior wile eower Heofonlica Fder forgyfan gdne gast him biddendum." Hwt sind a gd e men sylla heora cildum? Hwilwendlice gdnyssa, swylce swa t godspel hrepode, hlf, and fisc, and ig. Gde sind as ing be heora me, foran e se eorlica lichama behofa s fodan. Nu ge, gleawe men, nella syllan eowrum cildum nddran for fisce, nele eac ure Heofonlica Fder us syllan s deofles geleaflste, gif we hine bidda t he s sylle sone geleafan. And u nelt syllan inum bearne rowend for ǽge, nele eac God us syllan orwenysse for hihte. And u nelt inum bearne syllan stn for hlfe, nele eac God us syllan heardheortnysse for sore lufe. Ac se goda Heofonlica Fder forgif us geleafan, and {254}hiht, and a soan lufe, and de t we habba gdne gast, t is, gdne willan.

A stone is set in opposition to bread, because hardness of mind is contrary to true love. Hardhearted is the man who will not through love promote the welfare of others where he can. The gospel says, "If ye can, who are evil, give to your children what is good, how much more will your Heavenly Father give a good spirit to those asking him?" What are the good things that men give to their children? Transitory goods, such as the gospel touched on, bread, and fish, and an egg. These things are good in their degree, because the earthly body requires food. Now ye, prudent men, will not give your children a serpent for a fish, nor also will your Heavenly Father give us the devil's unbelief, if we pray to him to give us true faith. And thou wilt not give thy child a scorpion for an egg, nor also will God give us despair for hope. And thou wilt not give thy child a stone for bread, nor also will God give us hardheartedness for true love. But the good Heavenly Father will give us faith, and hope, and {255}true love, and will cause us to have a good spirit, that is, good will.

Us is to smeagenne t word e he cw, "Ge e sind yfele." Yfele we sind, ac we habba gdne Fder. We habba gehyred urne naman, "Ge e synt yfele." Ac hw is ure Fder? Se lmihtiga God. And hwilcera manna Fder is he? Swutelice hit is gesǽd, yfelra manna. And hwilc is se Fder? Be am e is gecweden, "Nis nan man gd butan Gode anum." Se e fre is gd, he brinc us yfele to gdum mannum, gif we buga fram yfele, and do gd. Gd ws se man gesceapen Adam, ac urh his agenne cyre, and deofles tihtinge, he wear yfel, and eal his ofspring. Se e synful bi, he bi yfel, and nn man nis on lfe butan sumere synne. Ac ure gda Fder us geclnsa and gehl, swa swa se witega cw, "Drihten, gehl me, and ic beo gehled; geheald u me, and ic beo gehealden."

We have to consider the words which he said, "Ye who are evil." We are evil, but we have a good Father. We have heard our name, "Ye who are evil." But who is our Father? The Almighty God. And of what men is he the Father? It is manifestly said, of evil men. And of what kind is the Father? Of whom it is said, "No one is good save God only." He who ever is good will bring us who are evil to be good men, if we will eschew evil and do good. The man Adam was created good, but by his own election and the instigation of the devil, he and all his offspring became evil. He who is sinful is evil, and there is no man in life without some sin. But our good Father will cleanse and heal us, as the prophet said, "Lord, heal me, and I shall be healed; preserve thou me, and I shall be preserved."

Se e gd beon wile, clypige to am e fre is gd, t he hine gdne gewyrce. Se man hf gold, t is gd be his me: he hf land and welan, a sint gde. Ac ne bi se man gd urh as ing, butan he mid am gd wyrce, swa swa se witega cw, "He aspende his ing, and todlde earfum, and his rihtwisnys wuna on worulde." He gewanode his feoh and geihte his rihtwisnysse. He gewanode t he forltan sceal, and t bi geiht t t he habban sceal on ecnysse. u herast one mancgere e begytt gold mid leade, and nelt herigan one e begytt rihtwisnysse and heofonan rice mid brosnigendlicum feo. Se rca and se earfa sind wegferende on isre worulde. Nu ber se rca swre byrene his gestreona, and se earfa g mtig. Se rca ber mare onne he behfige to his formettum, se oer ber mtigne pusan. Fori sceal se rca dlan his byrene wi one earfan, onne wana he a byrene his synna, and am earfan gehelp. Ealle we sind Godes earfan; uton fori oncnawan a earfan e us bidda, t {256}God oncnawe us, onne we hine bidda ure neoda. Hwt sind a e us bidda? Earme men, and tiddre, and deadlice. t hwam bidda h? t earmum mannum, and tiddrum, and deadlicum. Butan am htum, gelice sind a e r bidda, and ae h tbidda. H mihtu for sceame niges inges t Gode biddan, gif u forwyrnst inum gelcan s e u foreaelice him getiian miht? Ac se rca besih on his pllenum gyrlum, and cwy, 'Nis se loddere mid his tttecon mn gelca.' Ac se apostol Paulus hine nebba mid isum wordum, "Ne brohte we nn ing to isum middangearde, ne we nn ing heonon mid s ldan ne magon."

Let him who desires to be good call to him who ever is good, that he make him good. A man has gold, that is good in its kind: he has land and riches, they are good. But the man is not good through these things, unless he do good with them, as the prophet said, "He distributed his wealth, and divided it among the poor, and his righteousness continueth for ever." He diminished his money, and increased his righteousness. He diminished that which he must leave, and that will be increased which he shall have to eternity. Thou praisest the merchant who gets gold for lead, and wilt not praise him who gets righteousness and the kingdom of heaven for perishable money. The rich and the poor are wayfarers in this world. The rich now bears the heavy burthen of his treasures, and the poor goes empty. The rich bears more provisions for his journey than he requires, the other bears an empty scrip. Therefore should the rich share his burthen with the poor; then will he lessen the burthen of his sins, and help the poor. We are all God's poor; let us therefore acknowledge the poor who ask of us, that God {257}may acknowledge us, when we ask our needs of him. Who are those that ask of us? Men poor, and feeble, and mortal. Of whom ask they? Of men poor, and feeble, and mortal. Except the possessions, alike are those who ask and those of whom they ask. How canst thou for shame ask anything of God, if thou refuse to thy fellow that which thou canst most easily grant him? But the rich looks on his purple garments, and says, 'The wretch with his rags is not my fellow.' But the apostle Paul beards him with these words, "We brought nothing to this world, nor may we take with us anything hence."

Gif rce wf, and earm acenna togdere, gangon h aweig; nast u hwer bi s rcan wfan cild, hwer s earman. Eft, gif man opena deaddra manna byrgynu, nast u hwer beo s rcan mannes bn, hwer s earfan. Ac seo gytsung is ealra yfelra inga wyrtruma; and a e fyliga re gytsunge, h dwelia fram Godes geleafan, and hi befealla on mislice costnunga and derigendlice lustas, e hi besenca on forwyrd. Oer is t hw rce beo, gif his yldran him hta becwdon; oer is, gif hw urh gytsunge rce gewure. ises mannes gytsung is gewreht wi God, na s ores ht, gif his heorte ne bi ontend mid re gytsunge. Swilcum mannum bebead se apostol Paulus, "Bebeoda am ricum t h ne modigan, ne h ne hpian on heora ungewissum welan; ac beon h rice on godum weorcum, and syllan Godes earfum mid cystigum mode, and God him forgylt mid hundfealdum swa hwt swa he de am earman for his lufon."

If a rich woman, and a poor one bring forth together, let them go away; thou knowest not which is the rich woman's child, which the poor one's. Again, if we open the graves of dead men, thou knowest not which are the rich man's bones, which the poor one's. But covetousness is of all evil things the root, and those who follow covetousness swerve from God's faith, and fall into divers temptations, and pernicious lusts, which sink them into perdition. It is one thing, that a man be rich, if his parents have bequeathed him possessions; another thing, if any one become rich through covetousness. The covetousness of the latter is accused before God, not the other's wealth, if his heart be not inflamed with covetousness. For such men the apostle Paul enjoined, "Enjoin the rich that they be not proud, and that they hope not in their uncertain wealth; but let them be rich in good works, and give to God's poor with bountiful spirit, and God will requite them an hundredfold for whatsoever they do for the poor for love of him."

Se rca and se earfa sind him betwynan nyd-behefe. Se welega is geworht for an earfan, and se earfa for an welegan. am spedigum gedafena t he spende and dle; am wdlan gedafena t he gebidde for ane dlere. Se earma is se weg e lt us to Godes rice. Mare syl se {258}earfa am rcan onne he t him nime. Se rca him syl one hlf e bi to meoxe awend, and se earfa syl am rcan t ce lf: na h swa-eah, ac Crist, see us cw, "t t ge do anum earfan on mnum naman, t ge do me sylfum," see leofa and rixa mid Fder and mid Halgum Gaste butan ende. Amen.

The rich and the poor are needful to each other. The wealthy is made for the poor, and the poor for the wealthy. It is incumbent on the affluent, that he scatter and distribute; on the indigent it is incumbent, that he pray for the distributor. The poor is the way that leads us to the kingdom of God. The poor gives to the rich more than he {259}receives from him. The rich gives him bread that will be turned to ordure, and the poor gives to the rich everlasting life: yet not he, but Christ, who thus said, "That which ye do for the poor in my name, that ye do for myself," who liveth and reigneth with the Father and the Holy Ghost ever without end. Amen.





Se Hlend Crist, syan he to isum life cm, and man wear geweaxen, aa h ws ritig wintra eald on re menniscnysse, a begnn he wundra to wyrcenne, and geceas a twelf leorning-cnihtas, a e we apostolas hata. a wron mid him fre syan, and he him thte ealne one wisdom e on halgum bocum stent, and urh h ealne cristendom astealde. a cwdon hi to am Hlende, "Lf, tce s hu we magon us gebiddan." a andwyrde se Hlend, and us cw, "Gebidda eow mid isum wordum to minum Fder and to eowrum Fder, Gode lmihtigum: Pater noster, t is on Englisc, u, ure Fder, e eart on heofonum, Sy n nama gehalgod. Cume n rce. Sy n wylla on eoran swa swa on heofonum. Syle s to-dg urne dghwamlican hlf. And forgyf us ure gyltas, swa swa we forgyfa am e wi us agylta. And ne lǽd u na us on costnunge. Ac alys us fram yfele. Sy hit swa."

Jesus Christ, after he came to this life, and was grown to manhood, when he was thirty years old in his human nature, began to work miracles, and chose the twelve disciples whom we call apostles. These were afterwards always with him, and he taught them all the wisdom which stands in holy books, and through them established all christianity. Then said they to Jesus, "Sir, teach us how we may pray." Jesus answered, and thus said, "Pray in these words to my Father and your Father, God Almighty: Pater noster, that is in English, Thou, our Father, which art in heaven, hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Be thy will on earth as in heaven. Give us to-day our daily bread. And forgive us our trespasses as we forgive them who trespass against us. And lead thou us not into temptation. But deliver us from evil. So be it."

God Fder lmihtig hf nne Sunu gecyndelice and menige gewiscendlice. Crist is Godes Sunu, swa t se Fder hine gestrynde of him sylfum, butan lcere meder. Nf se Fder nnne lichaman, ne he on a wisan his Bearn ne gestrynde e menn do: ac his Wisdom, e h mid ealle gesceafta geworhte, se is his Sunu, se is fre of am Fder, and mid am Fder, God of Gode, ealswa mihtig swa se Fder. We men sind Godes bearn, foron e h us {260}geworhte; and eft, aa we forwyrhte wron, he sende his agen Bearn us to alysednysse. Nu sind we Godes bearn, and Crist is ure broer, gif we am Fder onriht gehyrsumia, and mid eallum mode hine weoria. Crist is ure heafod, and we sind his lima: he is mid ure menniscnysse befangen, and he hf urne lichaman, one e h of am halgan mdene Maran genam; fori we magon culice to him clypian, swa swa to urum breer, gif we a broerrdene swa healda swa swa he us thte; t is, t we ne sceolon na geafian t deofol mid nigum uneawum us gewme fram Cristes broorrdene.

God, the Father Almighty, has one Son naturally, and many adoptively. Christ is the Son of God, seeing that the Father begot him of himself without any mother. The Father has no body, nor begot he his Son in that wise which men do: but his Wisdom, with which he wrought all creatures, is his Son, who is ever of the Father and with the Father, God of God, as mighty as the Father. We men are children of God, because he made us; and afterwards, when we were undone, {261}he sent his own Son for our redemption. Now are we children of God, and Christ is our brother, if we will duly obey the Father, and with all our mind worship him. Christ is our head, and we are his limbs: he is invested with our humanity, and he has our body, which he received of the holy maiden Mary; therefore may we manifestly cry to him, as to our brother, if we so observe our brotherhood as he has taught us; that is, that we should not allow the devil with any evil practices to seduce us from the brotherhood of Christ.

Witodlice se man e deofle geefenlc, se bi deofles bearn, na urh gecynd oe urh gesceapenysse, ac urh a geefenlcunge and yfele geearnunga. And se man e Gode gecwem, he bi Godes bearn, na gecyndelice, ac urh gesceapenysse and urh gode geearnunga, swa swa Crist cw on his godspelle, "Se e wyrc mines Fder willan see is on heofonum, he bi min broer, and min moder, and min sweoster." Fori nu ealle cristene men, ger ge rce ge heane, ge elborene ge unelborene, and se hlaford, and se eowa, ealle h sind gebrora, and ealle h habba nne Fder on heofonum. Nis se welega na betera on isum naman onne se earfa. Eallswa bealdlice mt se eowa clypigan God him to Fder ealswa se cyning. Ealle we sind gelice tforan Gode, buton hw oerne mid godum weorcum foreo. Ne sceal se rca for his welan one earman forsen; foran oft bi se earma betera tforan Gode onne se rca. God is ure Fder, i we sceolon ealle beon gebroru on Gode, and healdan one broerlican bend unforedne; t is, a soan sibbe, swa t ure lc oerne lufige swa swa hine sylfne, and nanum ne gebeode t t he nelle t man him gebeode. Se e is hylt, he bi Godes bearn, and Crist, and ealle halige men e Gode geeo, beo his gebroru and his gesweostru.

Verily the man who imitates the devil is a child of the devil, not by nature nor by creation, but by that imitation and evil deserts. And the man who makes himself acceptable to God is a child of God, not naturally, but by creation and by good deserts, as Christ said in his gospel, "He who doeth the will of my Father who is in heaven, he is my brother, and my mother, and my sister." Now therefore all christian men, whether high or low, noble or ignoble, and the lord, and the slave, are all brothers, and have all one Father in heaven. The wealthy is not better on that account than the needy. As boldly may the slave call God his Father as the king. We all are alike before God, unless any one excel another in good works. The rich for his wealth is not to despise the poor; for the poor is before God often better than the rich. God is our Father, therefore should we all be brothers in God, and hold the brotherly bond unbroken; that is, true peace, so that each of us love other as himself, and command to no one that which he would not another should command to him. He who observes this is a child of God, and Christ, and all holy persons who thrive to God, are his brothers and his sisters.

We cwea, "Pater noster qui es in celis," t is, "Ure {262}Fder e eart on heofonum;" foran e God Fder is on heofonum, and he is ghwar, swa swa he sylf cw, "Ic gefylle mid me sylfum heofonas and eoran." And eft t halige godspel be him us cwy, "Heofon is his rymsetl, and eore is his fot-sceamul." We wenda s eastweard onne we us gebidda, foran e anon arist seo heofen: na swilce on east-dle synderlice sy his wunung, and forlte west-dl, oe ore dlas, se e ghwar is andweard, na urh rymyt re stowe, ac urh his mgenrymmes andweardnysse. onne we wenda ure neb to east-dle, r seo heofen arist, seoe is ealra lichomlicra inga oferstigende, onne sceal ure md beon mid am gemyngod, t hit beo gewend to am hehstan and am fyrmestan gecynde, t is, God. We sceolon eac witan, t se synfulla is eore gehten, and se rihtwisa is heofen gehten; foran e on rihtwisum mannum is Godes wunung, and se goda man bi s Halgan Gastes templ. Swa eac r-togeanes se fordna man bi deofles templ, and deofles wunung: fori onne swa micel is betwux gdum mannum and yfelum, swa micel swa bi betwux heofenan and eoran.

We say, "Pater noster qui es in cœlis," that is, "Our {263}Father which art in heaven;" for God the Father is in heaven, and he is everywhere, as he himself said, "I fill with myself heaven and earth." And again, the holy gospel says thus concerning him, "Heaven is his throne, and earth is his footstool." We turn eastward when we pray, because from thence the heaven rises; not as though his dwelling be particularly in the east part, and that he forsakes the west or other parts, who is everywhere present, not through the space of the place, but by the presence of his majesty. When we turn our face to the east part, where the heaven rises, which rises over all bodily things, then should our mind be thereby admonished that it turn to the highest and first nature, that is, God. We should also know that the sinful is called earth, and the righteous is called heaven; for in righteous men is a dwelling-place of God, and the good man is a temple of the Holy Ghost. So also, on the other hand, the wicked man is a temple of the devil, and an habitation of the devil: therefore there is as great a difference between good and evil men as there is between heaven and earth.

Seofon gebdu sint on am Pater noster. On am twam formum wordum ne synd nane gebedu, ac sind herunga: t is, "Ure Fder e eart on heofonum." t forme gebd is, "Sanctificetur nomen tuum:" t is, "Sy in nama gehalgod." Nis t na sw to understandenne, swylce Godes nama ne sy genoh halig, see fre ws halig, and fre bi, and h us ealle gebletsa and gehalga: ac is word is sw to understandenne, t his nama sy on us gehalgod, and he us s getiige, t we moton his naman mid urum mue gebletsian, and he us sylle t genc, t we magon understandan t nan ing nis swa halig swa his nama.

In the Pater noster are seven prayers. In the first two words are no prayers, but praises: that is, "Our Father which art in heaven." The first prayer is, "Sanctificetur nomen tuum:" that is, "Hallowed be thy name." This is not to be so understood as if the name of God were not sufficiently holy, who ever was holy, and ever will be, and who blesses and hallows us all: but these words are thus to be understood, that his name be hallowed in us, and that he grant us that we may bless his name with our mouth, and give us the thought that we may understand that nothing is so holy as his name.

t oer gebd is, "Adueniat regnum tuum:" t is, on urum gereorde, "Cume in rce." fre ws Godes rce, and fre bi: ac hit is sw to understandenne, t his rce beo ofer s, and he on us rixige, and we him mid ealre {264}gehyrsumnysse undereodde syn, and t ure rce beo us gelǽst and gefylled, swa swa Crist us beht, t he wolde s ce rce forgyfan, us cweende, "Cuma, ge gebletsode mines Fder, and gehabba t rce t eow gegearcod ws fram anginne middangeardes." is bi ure rce, gif we hit nu geearnia; and we beo Godes rce, onne Crist s betc his Fder on domes dge, swa swa t hlige gewrit cwy, "Cum tradiderit regnum Patri suo:" t is, "onne h betc rce his Fder." Hwt is t rce t h betc his Fder, buton a halgan menn, ger ge weras ge wf, a e h alysde fram helle-wte mid his agenum deae? a he betc his agenum Fder on ende isre worulde, and h beo onne Godes rce, and mid Gode on ecnysse rixia, ger ge mid sawle ge mid lichaman, and beo onne gelice englum.

The second prayer is, "Adveniat regnum tuum:" that is, in our tongue, "Thy kingdom come." Ever was God's kingdom, and ever will be: but it is so to be understood, that his kingdom be over us, and he reign in us, and that we {265}with all obedience be subject to him, and that our kingdom be realized and fulfilled to us, as Christ has promised to us, that he would give us an eternal kingdom, thus saying, "Come, ye blessed of my Father, and possess the kingdom that was prepared for you from the beginning of the world." This will be our kingdom, if we now will merit it; and we shall be God's kingdom, when Christ delivers us to his Father on doomsday, as the holy writ says, "Cum tradiderit regnum Patri suo:" that is, "When he shall deliver the kingdom to his Father." What is the kingdom that he shall deliver to his Father, but those holy persons, both men and women, which he redeemed from hell-torment by his own death? These he will deliver to his own Father at the end of this world, and they will then be God's kingdom, and will reign with God for ever, both with soul and with body, and will then be like unto angels.

t ridde gebd is, "Fiat uoluntas tua sicut in celo et in terra:" t is, "Geweore n willa on eoran swa swa on heofonum." t is, Swa swa englas on heofonum e gehyrsumia, and mid eallum gemete to e geeoda, swa eac menn e on eoran sind, and of eoran geworhte, beon h inum willan gehyrsume, and to e mid ealre geornfulnysse geeodan. On am mannum solice gewyr Godes willa, e to Godes willan gewyrcea. Ure sawul is heofonlic, and ure lichama is eorlic. Nu bidde we eac mid isum wordum, t Godes willa geweore, ger ge on ure sawle ge on urum lichaman, t ger him gehyrsumige, and he ger gehealde and gescylde, ge ure sawle ge urne lichaman, fram deofles costnungum.

The third prayer is, "Fiat voluntas tua sicut in cœlo et in terra:" that is, "Thy will be done on earth as in heaven." That is, As the angels in heaven obey thee, and in every way attach themselves to thee, so also may men, who are on earth and formed of earth, be obedient to thy will, and with all fervour attach themselves to thee. In those men verily God's will is done, who work according to God's will. Our soul is heavenly, and our body is earthly. Now, with these words, we also pray that God's will be done both in our soul and in our body, that both may obey him, and that he may preserve and shield both our soul and our body from the temptations of the devil.

t feore gebd is, "Panem nostrum cotidianum da nobis hodie:" t is, on urum gereorde, "Syle us nu to-dg urne dghwamlican hlf." t is on rim andgitum to understandenne: t h us sylle fodan urum lichaman, and sylle eac ure sawle one gastlican hlf. Se gastlica hlf is Godes bebod, t we sceolon smeagan dghwamlice, and mid weorce {266}gefyllan; foran swa swa se lichama leofa be lichamlicum mettum, swa sceal seo sawul lybban be Godes lre, and be gastlicum smeagungum. Hrae se lichama aswint and forweorna, gif him bi oftogen his bigleofa: swa eac seo sawul forwyr, gif heo nf one gastlican bigleofan, t sind Godes beboda, on am heo sceal geeon and beon gegdad. Eac se gastlica hlf is t halige husel, mid am we getrymma urne geleafan; and urh s halgan husles gene s beo ure synna forgyfene, and we beo gestrangode ongean deofles costnunge. i we sceolon gelomlice mid am gastlican gereorde ure sawle geclnsian and getrymman. Ne sceal eah se e bi mid healicum synnum fordn, gedyrstlcan t he Godes husel icge, buton he his synna r gebete: gif he elles de, hit bi him sylfum to bealowe geyged. Se hlf getacna reo ing, swa swa we cwdon. An is s lichaman bgleofa; oer is re sawle; ridde is s halgan husles ygen. yssera reora inga we sceolon dghwamlice t urum Drihtne biddan.

The fourth prayer is, "Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie:" that is, in our tongue, "Give us to-day our daily bread." This is to be understood in three senses: that he give us food for our body, and give ghostly bread to our soul. The ghostly bread is the commandment of God, on which we should daily meditate, and with works fulfil; for as {267}the body lives by bodily meats, so shall the soul live by the precepts of God, and by ghostly meditations. The body quickly wastes away and decays, if its sustenance is withdrawn from it; in like manner the soul perishes, if it has not ghostly sustenance, that is, God's commandments, on which it shall thrive and be cherished. The ghostly bread is also the holy housel, with which we confirm our belief; and through partaking of the holy housel our sins will be forgiven us, and we shall be strengthened against the temptations of the devil. Therefore should we frequently cleanse and confirm our soul with ghostly refection. Yet may not he who is polluted with deadly sins dare to partake of God's housel, unless he first atone for his sins: if he do otherwise, he will partake of it to his own injury. The bread, as we said, betokens three things. One is sustenance of the body; the second, of the soul; the third is the partaking of the holy housel. For these three things we should pray daily to the Lord.

t fifte gebd is, "Et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris:" t is, "Forgif us ure gyltas, swa swa we forgifa am mannum e wi us agylta." We sceolon dn swa swa we on isum wordum behata; t is, t we beon mildheorte us betwynan, and, for re micclan lufe Godes, forgyfan am mannum e wi us agylta, t God lmihtig forgyfe us ure synna. Gif we onne nella forgyfan a lytlan gyltas ra manna e us gegremedon, one nele eac God us forgyfan ure synna mycele and manega: swa swa Crist sylf cw, "onne ge standa on eowrum gebdum, forgyfa swa hwt swa ge habba on eowrum mode to nigum men, and eower Fder, e on heofonum is, forgyf eow eowre synna. Gif ge onne nella forgyfan mid inweardre heortan am e eow gremia, onne eac eower Fder, e on heofonum is, nele eow forgyfan eowre synna; ac he ht eow gebindan, and on cwearterne settan, t is on helle-wte; and eow r deofol getintrega, ot ge habban ealle eowre gyltas gerowade, ot {268}ge cumon to anum feorlincge." Is hwere getht, fter Godes gesetnysse, t wise men sceolon settan steore dysigum mannum, swa t hi t dysig and a uneawas alecgan, and eah one man lufigan swa swa agenne broor.

The fifth prayer is, "Et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris:" that is, "Forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those men who trespass against us." We should do as we promise in these words, that is, we should be merciful to each other, and, for the great love of God, forgive those men who trespass against us, that God Almighty may forgive us our sins. But if we will not forgive the little trespasses of those men who have angered us, then will not God forgive us our great and many sins: as Christ himself said, "When ye stand at your prayers, forgive whatever ye have in your mind against any man, and your Father, which is in heaven, will forgive you your sins. But if ye will not, with inward heart, forgive those who anger you, then your Father, which is in heaven, will not forgive you your sins; but he will command you to be bound and set in prison, that is, in hell-torment; and there the devil will torture you, until ye shall have suffered for all your trespasses, until ye {269}come to one farthing." It is, however, taught, according to the book of God, that wise men should institute correction for foolish men, so that they lay aside their folly and their evil practices, and should, nevertheless, love the man as their own brother.

t sixte gebd is, "Et ne nos inducas in temptationem:" t is, "Ne geafa, u God, t we beon geldde on costnunge." Oer is costnung, oer is fandung. God ne costna nnne mannan; ac hwere nn man ne cym to Godes rce, buton he sy afandod: fori ne sceole we na biddan t God ure ne afandige, ac we sceolon biddan t God us gescylde, t we ne abreoon on re fandunge. Deofol mt lces mannes afandigan, hwer he aht sy, oe naht; hwer he God mid inweardlicre heortan lufige, oe he mid hwunge fre. Swa swa man afanda gold on fyre, swa afanda God s mannes mod on mislicum fandungum, hwer h nrde sy. Genoh wel wt God hu hit getima on re fandunge; ac hwere se man nf na mycele geince, buton he afandod sy. urh a fandunge he sceal geeon, gif he am costnungum wistent. Gif he fealle, he eft astande: t is, gif he agylte, he hit georne gebete, and syan geswce; fori ne bi nn bt naht, buton r beo geswicenes. Se man e gelomlice wile syngian, and gelomlice betan, he grema God; and swa he swior synga swa he deofle gewyldra bi, and hine onne God forlt, and he fr swa him deofol wissa, swa swa tobrocen scp on sǽ, e swa fr swa hit se wind drif. Se goda man swa he swior afandod bi swa he rotra bi, and near Gode, ot h mid fulre geince fr of isum life to am ecan life. And se yfela swa he oftor on re fandunge abry, swa he forcura bi, and deofle near, ot he fr of isum life to am ecan wite, gif he r geswican nolde, aa he mihte and moste. Fori anbida God oft s yfelan mannes, and lt him fyrst, t he his mndda geswice, and his md to Gode gecyrre r his ende, gif he wile. Gif he onne nele, t {270}he beo butan lcere ladunge swie rihtlice to deofles handa asceofen. Fori is nu selre cristenum mannum, t hi mid earfonyssum and mid geswince geearnian t ce rce and a can blisse mid Gode and mid eallum his halgum, onne hi mid softnysse and mid yfelum lustum geearnian a ecan tintrega mid eallum deoflum on helle-wte.

The sixth prayer is, "Et ne nos inducas in tentationem:" that is, "Permit not, thou, O God, that we be led into temptation." One thing is temptation, another thing is trial. God tempts no man, but, nevertheless, no man comes to the kingdom of God, unless he has been tried: therefore we should not pray that God try us not, but we should pray to God to shield us, so that we sink not under trial. The devil may try every man, whether he be aught or naught; whether he love God with inward heart, or act with hypocrisy. As a man tries gold in the fire, so God tries the mind of man in divers trials, whether he be steadfast. God knows full well, how it befalls in trial; but yet a man will have no great honour, unless he have been tried. By trial he shall flourish, if he withstand temptations. If he fall, let him rise again: that is, if he sin, let him earnestly atone for it, and cease therefrom afterwards; for no atonement will avail, if there be not cessation. The man who frequently sins and frequently atones, angers God; and the more he sins the more he will be subject to the devil, and God will then forsake him, and he will go as the devil shall direct him, as a shattered ship at sea, which goes as the wind drives it. The good man the more he is tried the more cheerful he will be, and the nearer to God, until with full honour he shall go from this life to the life eternal. And the evil man, the oftener he sinks under trial, the more wicked he will be, and the nearer to the devil, until he goes from this life to eternal torment, if he would not cease previously, when he could and might. God therefore often awaits the evil man, and leaves him time, that he may cease from his wicked deeds, and before his end turn his mind to God, if he will. But if he will not, that he be, {271}without any exculpation, very justly be thrust into the hand of the devil. Therefore is it now better for christian men, that with hardships and toil they earn the everlasting kingdom and eternal bliss with God and with all his saints, than that they by softness and evil lusts earn eternal tortures with all the devils in hell-torment.

t seofoe gebd is, "Set libera nos a malo:" t is, "Ac alys us fram yfele:" alys us fram deofle and fram eallum his syrwungum. God lufa us, and deofol us hata. God us fett and gefrefra, and deofol us wile ofslean, gif he mt; ac him bi forwyrned urh Godes gescyldnysse, gif we us sylfe nella fordn mid uneawum. Fori we sceolon forbugan and forseon one lyran deoful mid eallum his lotwrencum, foran e him ne gebyra naht to s, and we sceolon lufian and filigan urum Drihtne, see us lǽt to am ecan life.

The seventh prayer is, "Sed libera nos a malo:" that is, "But deliver us from evil:" deliver us from the devil and from all his wiles. God loves us, and the devil hates us. God feeds and comforts us, and the devil will slay us if he may; but he will be prevented through the protection of God, if we will not fordo ourselves with evil practices. Therefore should we eschew and despise the vicious devil with all his devices, for there behoves him nothing for us, and we should love and follow our Lord, who will lead us to everlasting life.

Seofon gebdu, swa swa we r sdon, beo on am Pater noster. a reo forman gebdu beo us ongunnene on ysre worulde, ac h beo ungeendode on re toweardan worulde. Seo halgung s mran naman Godes ongann s mannum aa Crist wear geflschamod mid ure menniscnysse; ac seo ylce halgung wuna on ecnysse, foran e we on am ecan life bletsia and heriga fre Godes naman. And God rixa nu, and his rce stent fre butan ende, and Godes willa bi gefremod on isum life urh gde menn: se ylca willa wuna on ecnysse. a ore feower gebdu belimpa to isum life, and mid isum life geendia.

In the Pater noster there are, as we before said, seven prayers. The first three prayers are begun by us in this world, but they will ever be unended in the world to come. The hallowing of the great name of God began with us men when Christ became incarnate with our humanity; but the same hallowing will continue to eternity, because in the life eternal we shall ever bless and praise the name of God. And God reigns now, and his kingdom stands for ever, without end, and the will of God will be fulfilled in this life by good men: the same will will continue to all eternity. The other four prayers belong to this life, and with this life end.

On isum lfe we behfia hlfes, and lre, and husel-ganges. On am toweardan lfe we ne behfia nanes eorlices bigleofan, foran e we onne mid am heofonlicum mettum beo gereordode. Her we behfia lre and wisdomes. On am heofonlican life beo ealle ful wse, and on gastlicre lare full gerde, a e nu, urh wsra manna lre, beo Godes bebodum undereodde. And her we behfia s halgan husles {272}ygene for ure beterunge, solice on re heofonlican wununge we habba mid us Cristes lichaman, mid am he rixa on ecnysse.

In this life we require bread, and instruction, and partaking of the housel. In the life to come we require no earthly food, for we shall then be nourished with heavenly meats. Here we require instruction and wisdom. In the heavenly life all will be full wise, and in ghostly lore full skilled, those who now, through the precepts of wise men, are obedient to the commandments of God. And here we require to partake of the {273}holy housel for our amendment, for in the heavenly dwelling we shall have the body of Christ with us, with which he reigns to eternity.

On yssere worulde we bidda ure synna forgyfenysse, and na on re toweardan. Se man e nele his synna behreowsian on his life, ne begyt he nane forgyfenysse on am toweardan. And on isum life we bidda t God us gescylde wi deofles costnunga, and us alyse fram yfele. On am ecan life ne bi nn costnung ne nn yfel; fori r ne cym nn deofol ne nn yfel mann, e us mge dreccan oe derian. r beo gewre sawul and lichama, e nu on isum life him betweonan winna. r ne bi nn untrumnys, ne geswinc, ne wana nanre gdnysse, ac Crist bi mid s eallum, and s ealle ing de, butan edwite, mid ealre blisse.

In this world we pray for forgiveness of our sins, and not in that to come. The man who will not repent of his sins in this life, will obtain no forgiveness in that to come. And in this life we pray God to shield us against the temptations of the devil, and to deliver us from evil. In the life eternal there will be no temptation and no evil; for there will come no devil nor evil man who may trouble or hurt us. There will be in concord soul and body, which now in this life strive with each other. There will be no sickness, no toil, no lack of any goodness, but Christ will be with us all, and will do all things for us, without reproach, with all alacrity.

Crist gesette is gebd, and swa beleac mid feawum wordum, t ealle ure neoda, ger ge gastlice ge lichamlice, ron sind belocene; and is gebd he gesette eallum cristenum mannum gemnelice. Ne cwy na on am gebde, 'Min Fder, u e eart on heofonum,' ac cwy, "Ure Fder;" and swa for ealle a word e r-fter fyliga spreca gemnelice be eallum cristenum mannum. On am is geswutelod hu swie God lufa nnysse and gewrnysse on his folce. fter Godes gesetnysse ealle cristene men sceoldon beon swa gewre swilce hit n man wre: fori wa am men e a annysse tobryc. Swa swa we habba on anum lichaman manega lima, and hi ealle num heafde gehyrsumia, swa eac we sceolon manega cristene men Criste on nnysse gehyrsumian; foron e he is ure heafod, and we synd his lima. We magon geseon on urum agenum lichaman h lc lim orum ena. a ft bera ealne one lichaman, and a eagan lda a ft, and a handa gearcia one bigleofan. Hrae li t heafod adne, gif a ft hit ne feria; and hrae ealle a lima togdere forweora, gif a handa ne do one bigleofan am mue. Swa eac se rca man, e sitt on his heahsetle, hrae geswic he his {274}gebeorscipes, gif a eowan geswica ra teolunga. Beo se rca gemyndig t he sceal ealra ra gda e him God alnde agyldan gescead hu he a atuge.

Christ instituted this prayer, and so confined it within a few words, that all our needs, both ghostly and bodily, are therein included; and this prayer he instituted for all christian men in common. He says not in that prayer, 'My Father, which art in heaven,' but says, "Our Father;" and so forth all the words which follow speak universally of all christian men. Herein is manifested how much God loves unity and concord among his people. According to the book of God all christian men should be so united as though they were one man: wo therefore to the man who breaks that unity asunder. So as we have in one body many limbs, and they all obey one head, so also we many christian men should obey Christ in unity; for he is our head, and we are his limbs. We may see in our own bodies how each limb serves another. The feet bear the whole body, and the eyes lead the feet, and the hands prepare the sustenance. Soon will the head lie down, if the feet bear it not; and soon will all the limbs perish together, if the hands put not the sustenance to the mouth. In like manner the rich man, who sits on his high seat, will soon discontinue his feasting, if the servants {275}discontinue their toils. Let the rich be mindful that of all the good things which God has lent him, he shall render an account how he employed them.

Se bi in hand oe in ft, see e ine neoda de. Se bi in eage, see e wisdom tc, and on rihtne weg e gebrinc. Se e e mnda swa swa fder, he bi swylce h in heafod sy. Ealswa wel behfa t heafod ra oera lima, swa swa a lima behfia s heafdes. Gif n lim bi untrum, ealle a ore rowia mid am anum. Swa we sceolon eac, gif bi an ure geferena on sumre earfonysse, ealle we sceolon his yfel besrgian, and hgian embe a bote, gif we hit gebetan magon. And on eallum ingum we sceolon healdan sibbe and annysse, gif we willa habban a micclan geince t we beon Godes bearn, see on heofonum is, on re he rixa mid eallum his halgum on ealra worulda woruld on ecnysse. Amen.

He is thy hand or thy foot, who supplieth thy wants. He is thine eye who teacheth thee wisdom, and bringeth thee into the right way. He who protecteth thee as a father is, as it were, thy head. As the head requireth the other members, so these members require the head. If one limb be diseased, all the others suffer with that one. So also should we, if one of our fellows be in any distress, all lament his evil, and meditate concerning its reparation, if we can repair it. And in all things we should hold peace and unity, if we will have the great distinction of being children of God, who is in heaven, in which he ruleth with all his saints, through all ages, to eternity. Amen.





lc cristen man sceal fter rihte cunnan ger ge his Pater noster ge his Credan. Mid am Pater nostre he sceal hine gebiddan, mid am Credan he sceal his geleafan getrymman. We habba gesd embe t Pater noster, nu we wylla secgan eow one geleafan e on am Credan stent, swa swa se wsa Augustinus be re Halgan rynnysse trahtnode.

Every christian man should by right know both his Pater noster and his Creed. With the Pater noster he should pray, with the Creed he should confirm his faith. We have spoken concerning the Pater noster, we will now declare to you the faith which stands in the Creed, according to the wise Augustine's exposition of the Holy Trinity.

An Scyppend is ealra inga, gesewenlicra and ungesewenlicra; and we sceolon on hine gelyfan, foron e h is so God and na lmihtig, see nfre ne ongann ne anginn nfde; ac he sylf is anginn, and he eallum gesceaftum anginn and ordfruman forgeaf, t h beon mihton, and t h hfdon agen gecynd, swa swa hit re godcundlican fadunge {276}gelicode. Englas he worhte, a sind gastas, and nabba nnne lichaman. Menn he gesceop mid gaste and mid lichaman. Nytenu and deor, fixas and fugelas he gesceop on flsce butan swle. Mannum he gesealde uprihtne gang; a nytenu he lt gn alotene. Mannum he forgeaf hlf to bigleofan, and am nytenum grs.

There is one Creator of all things, visible and invisible; and we should all believe in him, for he is true and God alone Almighty, who never either began or had beginning; but he is himself beginning, and he to all creatures gave beginning and origin, that they might be, and that they might have their own nature, so as it seemed good to the divine dispensation. {277}Angels he created, which are spirits, and have no body. Men he created with spirit and with body. Cattle and other beasts, fishes and birds he created in flesh without soul. To men he gave an upright gait; the cattle he let go bending downwards. To men he gave bread for sustenance, and to the cattle grass.

Nu mage ge, gebroru, understandan, gif ge wylla, t twa ing syndon: n is Scyppend, oer is gesceaft. He is Scyppend see gesceop and geworhte ealle ing of nahte. t is gesceaft t se soa Scyppend gesceop. t sind rest heofonas, and englas e on heofonum wunia, and syan eos eore mid eallum am e hire on eardia, and sǽ mid eallum am e hyre on swymma. Nu ealle as ing synd mid anum naman genemnode, gesceaft. Hi nron fre wunigende, ac God hi gesceop. a gesceafta sind fela. An is se Scyppend e hi ealle gesceop, se ana is lmihtig God. He ws fre, and fre he bi urhwunigende on him sylfum and urh hine sylfne. Gif he ongunne and anginn hfde, butan tweon ne mihte he beon lmihtig God; solice t gesceaft e ongann and gesceapen is, nf nane godcundnysse; fori lc edwist tte God nys, t is gesceaft; and t e gesceaft nis, t is God.

Now, brethren, ye may understand, if ye will, that there are two things: one is the Creator, the other is the creature. He is the Creator who created and made all things of naught. That is a creature which the true Creator created. These are, first, heaven, and the angels which dwell in heaven; and then this earth with all those which inhabit it, and sea with all those that swim in it. Now all these things are named by one name, creature. They were not always existing, but God created them. The creatures are many. The Creator, who created them all, is one, who alone is Almighty God. He was ever, and ever he will continue in himself and through himself. If he had begun and had origin, without doubt he could not be Almighty God; for the creature that began and is created, has no divinity; therefore every substance that is not God is a creature; and that which is not a creature is God.

Se God wuna on rynnysse ntodledlic, and on nnysse nre Godcundnysse, solice oer is se Fder, oer is se Sunu, oer is se Halga Gast; ac eah-hwere ra reora is n Godcundnys, and gelc wuldor, and efen-ece mgenrymnys. lmihtig God is se Fder, lmihtig God is se Sunu, lmihtig God is se Halga Gast; ac eah-hwere ne sind ry lmihtige Godas, ac n lmihtig God. ry h sind on hadum and on naman, and n on Godcundnysse. ry, fori e se Fder bi fre Fder, and se Sunu bi fre Sunu, and se Halga Gast bi fre Halig Gast; and hyra nn ne awent nfre of am e he is. Nu habba ge gehyred a Halgan rynnysse; ge sceolon eac gehyran a soan Annysse.

God exists in Trinity indivisible, and in unity of one Godhead, for the Father is one, the Son is one, the Holy Ghost is one; and yet of these three there is one Godhead, and like glory, and coeternal majesty. The Father is Almighty God, the Son is Almighty God, the Holy Ghost is Almighty God; but yet there are not three Almighty Gods, but one Almighty God. They are three in persons and in name, and one in Godhead. Three, because the Father will be ever Father, and the Son will be ever Son, and the Holy Ghost will be ever Holy Ghost; and neither of them will ever change from what he is. Ye have now heard concerning the Holy Trinity; ye shall also hear concerning the true Unity.


Solice se Fder, and se Sunu, and se Halga Gast, habba ne Godcundnysse, and n gecynd, and n weorc. Ne worhte se Fder nn ing ne ne wyrc, butan am Suna, oe butan am Halgan Gaste. Ne heora nn ne wyrc nn ing butan orum; ac him eallum is n weorc, and n rǽd, and n willa. fre ws se Fder, and fre ws se Sunu, and fre ws se Halga Gast n lmihtig God. Se is Fder, see nis naer ne geboren ne gesceapen fram nanum orum. Se is Fder gehten, foran e he hf Sunu, one e he of him sylfum gestrynde, butan lcre meder. Se Fder is God of nanum Gode. Se Sunu is God of am Fder Gode. Se Halga Gast is God forstppende of am Fder and of am Suna. as word sind sceortlice gesde, and eow is neod t we hi swutelicor eow onwreon.


Verily the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost, have one Godhead, and one nature, and one work. The Father created nothing nor creates, without the Son, or without the Holy Ghost. Nor does one of them anything without the others; but they have all one work, and one counsel, and one will. The Father was ever, and the Son was ever, and the Holy Ghost was ever One Almighty God. He is the Father, who was neither born of nor created by any other. He is called Father, because he has a Son, whom he begot of himself, without any mother. The Father is God of no God. The Son is God of God the Father. The Holy Ghost is God proceeding from the Father and from the Son. These words are shortly said, and it is needful for you that we more plainly expound them.

Hwt is se Fder? lmihtig Scyppend, na geworht ne acenned, ac h sylf gestrynde Bearn him sylfum efen-ece. Hwt is se Sunu? He is s Fder Wisdom, and his Word, and his Miht, urh one se Fder gesceop ealle ing and gefadode. Nis se Sunu na geworht ne gesceapen, ac he is acenned. Acenned he is, and eah-hwere he is efen-eald and efen-ece his Fder. Nis na swa on his acennednysse swa swa bi on ure acennednysse. onne se mann sunu gestryn, and his cild acenned bi, onne bi se fder mara, and se sunu lssa. Hw swa? Fori onne se sunu wyx, onne ealda se fder. Ne fintst u na gelice on mannum fder and sunu. Ac ic e sylle bysne, hu u Godes acennednysse y bet understandan miht. Fyr acen of him beorhtnysse, and seo beorhtnys is efen-eald am fyre. Nis na t fyr of re beorhtnysse, ac seo beorhtnys is of am fyre. t fyr acen a beorhtnysse, ac hit ne bi nfre butan re beorhtnysse. Nu u gehyrst t seo beorhtnys is ealswa eald swa t fyr e heo of cym; geafa nu fori t God mihte gestrynan ealswa eald Bearn, and ealswa ece swa he sylf is. Se e mg understandan t ure Hlend Crist is on re Godcundnysse ealswa eald swa his Fder, {280}h ancige s Gode, and blissige. See understandan ne mg, he hit sceal gelyfan, t he hit understandan mge; foran s witegan word ne mg beon adlod, e us cw, "Buton ge hit gelyfan, ne mage ge hit understandan." Nu habba ge gehyred t se Sunu is of am Fder butan lcum anginne; foran e he is s Fder Wisdom, and he ws fre mid am Fder, and fre bi.

What is the Father? The Almighty Creator, not created nor born, but he himself begot a Child coeternal with himself. What is the Son? He is the Wisdom of the Father, and his Word, and his Might, through whom the Father created and disposed all things. The Son is neither made nor created, but he is begotten. He is begotten, and yet he is coeval and coeternal with his Father. It is not with his birth as it is with our birth. When a man begets a son, and his child is born, the father is greater and the son less. Why so? Because when the son waxes the father grows old. Thou findest not among men father and son alike. But I will give thee an example, whereby thou mayest the better understand the birth of God. Fire begets brightness of itself, and the brightness is coeval with the fire. The fire is not of the brightness, but the brightness is of the fire. The fire begets the brightness, and it is never without the brightness. Now thou hearest that the brightness is as old as the fire of which it comes; allow therefore that God might beget a Child as old and as eternal as he himself is. Let him who can understand that our Saviour Christ is in the Godhead as old as his {281}Father, thank God therefore and rejoice. He who cannot understand it shall believe it, that he may understand it; for the word of the prophet may not be rendered void, who thus spake, "Unless ye believe it ye cannot understand it." Ye have now heard that the Son is of the Father without any beginning; for he is the Wisdom of the Father, and he was ever with the Father, and ever will be.

Uton nu gehyran be an Halgan Gaste, hwt he s. He is se Willa and seo soe Lufu s Fder and s Suna, urh one sind ealle ing gelffste and gehealdene, be am is us gecweden, "Godes Gast gefyl ealne ymbhwyrft middangeardes, and he hylt ealle ing, and he hf ingehd lces gereordes." Nis h geworht, ne gesceapen, ne acenned, ac h is forstppende, t is ofgangende, of am Fder and of am Suna, am h is gelic and efen-ece. Nis se Halga Gast na Sunu, foran e h nis na acenned, ac h g of am Fder and of am Suna gelice; foran e h is heora beigra Willa and Lufu. Crist cw us be him on his godspelle, "Se Frofor-gst, e ic eow asendan wille, Gast re sofstnysse, e of minum Fder g, he cy gecynysse be me." t is, He is min gewita t ic eom Godes Sunu. And eac se rihta geleafa us tc, t we sceolon gelyfan on one Halgan Gast: he is se liffstenda God, se g of am Fder and of am Suna. Hu g h of him? Se Sunu is s Fder Wisdom, fre of am Fder; and se Halga Gast is heora beigra Willa, fre of him bm. Is fori onne n Fder, see fre is Fder, and n Sunu, see fre bi Sunu, and n Halig Gast, see fre is Halig Gast.

Let us now hear concerning the Holy Ghost, what he is. He is the Will and the true Love of the Father and of the Son, through whom all things are quickened and preserved, concerning whom it is thus said, "The Spirit of God filleth all the circumference of earth, and he holdeth all things, and he hath knowledge of every speech." He is not made, nor created, nor begotten, but he is proceeding, that is going from, the Father and from the Son, with whom he is equal and coeternal. The Holy Ghost is not a son, for he is not begotten, but he proceeds from the Father and from the Son; for he is the Will and Love of them both. Christ spake of him thus in his gospel, "The Spirit of comfort whom I will send unto you, the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from my Father, will bear testimony concerning me." That is, He is my witness that I am the Son of God. And the right faith also teaches us, that we should believe in the Holy Ghost: he is the quickening God, who proceeds from the Father and from the Son. How proceeds he from him? The Son is the Wisdom of the Father, ever of the Father; and the Holy Ghost is the Will of them both, ever of them both. There is therefore one Father, who is ever Father; and one Son, who is ever Son; and one Holy Ghost, who is ever Holy Ghost.

fre ws se Fder, butan anginne; and fre ws se Sunu mid am Fder, foran e he is s Fder Wisdom; fre ws se Halga Gast, see is heora beigra Willa and Lufu. Nis se Fder of nanum orum, ac he ws fre. Se Sunu is acenned of am Fder, ac he ws fre on s Fder {282}bosme, foran e he is his Wisdom, and he is of am Fder eal t he is. fre ws se Halga Gast, foran e he is, swa we ǽr cwdon, Willa and so Lufu s Fder and s Suna; solice willa and lufu getacnia an ing: t t u wylt, t u lufast; and t t u nelt, t u ne lufast.

Ever was the Father, without beginning; and ever was the Son with the Father, for he is the Wisdom of the Father; ever was the Holy Ghost, who is the Will and Love of them both. The Father is of no other, for he was ever. The Son is begotten of the Father, for he was ever in the bosom of {283}the Father, for he is his Wisdom, and he is of the Father all that he is. Ever was the Holy Ghost, for he is, as we before said, the Will and true Love of the Father and of the Son; for will and love betoken one thing: that which thou wilt thou lovest; and that which thou wilt not, thou lovest not.

Seo sunne e ofer us scin is lichamlic gesceaft, and hf swa-eah reo agennyssa on hire: an is seo lichamlice edwist, t is re sunnan trendel; oer is se leoma oe beorhtnys fre of re sunnan, seoe onliht ealne middangeard; ridde is seo htu, e mid am leoman cym to s. Se leoma is fre of re sunnan, and fre mid hire; and s lmihtigan Godes Sunu is fre of am Fder acenned, and fre mid him wunigende; be am cw se apostol, t he wre his Fder wuldres beorhtnys. re sunnan htu g of hire and of hire leoman; and se Halga Gast g fre of am Fder and of am Suna gelice; be am is us awriten, "Nis nn e hine behydan mge fram his htan."

The sun which shines over us is a bodily creature, and has, nevertheless, three properties in itself: one is the bodily substance, that is the sun's orb; the second is the beam or brightness ever of the sun, which illumines all the earth; the third is the heat, which with the beam comes to us. The beam is ever of the sun, and ever with it; and the Son of Almighty God is ever of the Father begotten, and ever with him existing, of whom the apostle said, that he was the brightness of his Father's glory. The heat of the sun proceeds from it and from its beam; and the Holy Ghost proceeds ever from the Father and from the Son equally; of whom it is thus written, "There is no one who may hide himself from his heat."

Fder, and Sunu, and Halig Gast ne magon beon togdere genamode, ac h ne beo swa-eah nahwr totwmede. Nis se lmihtiga God na ryfeald, ac is rynnys. God is se Fder, and se Sunu is God, and se Halga Gast is God: na ry Godas, ac h ealle ry n lmihtig God. Se Fder is eac wisdom of nanum orum wisdome. Se Sunu is wisdom of am wisan Fder. Se Halga Gast is wisdom. Ac eah-hwere h sind ealle tgdere n wisdom. Eft se Fder is so lufu, and se Sunu is so lufu, and se Halga Gast is so lufu; and h ealle tgdere n God and n so lufu. Eac swilce is se Fder gast and halig, and se Sunu is gast and halig untwylice; eah-hwere se Halga Gast is synderlice gehten Halig Gast, t t h ealle ry sind gemnelice.

Father, and Son, and Holy Ghost, may not be named together, but yet they are nowhere separated. The Almighty God is not threefold, but is Trinity. The Father is God, and the Son is God, and the Holy Ghost is God: not three Gods, but they all three one Almighty God. The Father is also Wisdom of no other wisdom. The Son is Wisdom of the wise Father. The Holy Ghost is Wisdom. But yet they are all together one Wisdom. Again, the Father is true Love, and the Son is true Love, and the Holy Ghost is true Love; and they all together one God and one true Love. In like manner the Father is ghost and holy, and the Son is ghost and holy undoubtedly; nevertheless the Holy Ghost is specially called Holy Ghost, that which they all three are in common.

Swa micel gelicnys is on yssere Halgan rynnysse, t se Fder nis na mare onne se Sunu on re Godcundnysse; {284}ne se Sunu nis na mare onne se Halgan Gast; ne nan heora n nis na lsse onne eall seo rynnys. Swa hwr swa heora n bi, r h beo ealle ry, fre n God untodledlic. Nis heora nn mre onne oer, ne nn lssa onne oer; ne nn beforan orum, ne nn bftan orum; foran swa hwt swa lsse bi onne God, t ne bi na God; t t lator bi, t hf anginn, ac God nf nn anginn. Nis na se Fder ana rynnys, oe se Sunu rynnys, oe se Halga Gast rynnys, ac as ry hadas sindon n God on anre Godcundnysse. onne u gehyrst nemnan one Fder, onne understenst u t he hf Sunu. Eft, onne u cwyst Sunu, u wast, butan tweon, t he hf Fder. Eft, we gelyfa t se Halga Gast is ger ge s Fder ge s Suna Gast.

There is so great likeness in this Holy Trinity, that the Father is no greater than the Son in the Godhead; nor is the {285}Son greater than the Holy Ghost; nor is one of them less than the whole Trinity. Wheresoever one of them is, there they are all three, ever one God indivisible. No one of them is greater than other, nor one less than other, nor one before other, nor one after other; for whatsoever is less than God, that is not God; that which is later has beginning, but God has no beginning. The Father alone is not Trinity, nor is the Son Trinity, nor the Holy Ghost Trinity, but these three persons are one God in one Godhead. When thou hearest the Father named, then thou wilt understand that he has a Son. Again, when thou sayest, Son, thou knowest, without doubt, that he has a Father. Again, we believe that the Holy Ghost is the Spirit both of the Father and of the Son.

Ne bepce nn man hine sylfne, swa t he secge oe gelyfe t ry Godas syndon; oe nig hd on re Halgan rynnysse sy unmihtigra onne oer. lc ra reora is God, eah-hwere h ealle n God; foran e h ealle habba n gecynd, and ne godcundnysse, and ne edwiste, and n geeaht, and n weorc, and ne mgenrymnysse, and gelc wuldor, and efen-ece rce. Is hwere se Sunu ana geflschamod and geboren to men, of am halgan mdene Marian. Ne wear se Fder mid menniscnysse befangen, ac hwere h asende his Sunu to ure alysednysse, and him fre mid ws, ger ge on life ge on rowunge, and on his riste, and on his upstige. Eac eal Godes gelaung andet, on am rihtum geleafan, t Crist is acenned of am clnan mdene Marian, and of am Halgan Gaste. Nis se Halga Gast eah-hwere Cristes Fder; ne nn cristen man t nfre ne sceal gelyfan: ac se Halga Gast is Willa s Fder and s Suna; fori onne swie rihtlice is awriten on urum geleafan, t Cristes menniscnys wear gefremmed urh one Halgan Willan.

Let no man deceive himself so as to say or to believe that there are three Gods, or that any person in the Holy Trinity is less mighty than other. Each of the three is God, yet they are all one God; for they all have one nature, and one Godhead, and one substance, and one counsel, and one work, and one majesty, and like glory, and coeternal rule. But the Son alone was incarnate and born to man of the holy maiden Mary. The Father was not invested with human nature, but yet he sent his Son for our redemption, and was ever with him, both in life and in passion, and at his resurrection, and at his ascension. Also all the church of God confesses, according to true faith, that Christ was born of the pure maiden Mary, and of the Holy Ghost. Yet is not the Holy Ghost the Father of Christ; never shall any christian man believe that: but the Holy Ghost is the Will of the Father and of the Son; therefore is it very rightly written in our belief, that Christ's humanity was accomplished by the Holy Ghost.

Beheald as sunnan mid gleawnysse, on re is, swa we r cwdon, htu and beorhtnys; ac seo htu dryg, and {286}seo beorhtnys onlyht. Oer ing de seo htu, and oer seo beorhtnys; and eah e h ne magon beon totwmde: belimp, hwere eah, seo hung to re htan, and seo onlihting belimp to re beorhtnysse. Swa eac Crist ana underfeng a menniscnysse, and na se Fder, ne se Halga Gast: eah-hwere h wron fre mid him on eallum his weorcum and on ealre his fare.

Behold the sun with attention, in which there is, as we before said, heat and brightness; but the heat dries, and the {287}brightness gives light. The heat does one thing, and the brightness another; and though they cannot be separated, the heating, nevertheless, belongs to the heat, and the giving light to the brightness. In like manner Christ alone assumed human nature, and not the Father, nor the Holy Ghost: they were, nevertheless, ever with him in all his works and in all his course.

We spreca ymbe God, dealice be Undealicum, tyddre be lmihtigum, earmingas be Mildheortum; ac hw mg weorfullice sprecan be am e is nasecgendlic? He is butan gemete, fory e he is ghwr. He is butan getele, foron e he is fre. He is butan hfe, foron e he hylt ealle gesceafta butan geswince; and he h ealle gelogode on am rim ingum, t is on gemete, and on getele, and on hfe. Ac wite ge t nn man ne mg fullice embe God sprecan, onne we furon a gesceafta e he gesceop ne magon asmeagan, ne areccan. Hw mg mid wordum re heofenan freatewunge asecgan? Oe hw re eoran wstmbrnysse? Oe hw hera genihtsumlice ealra tida ymbhwyrft? Oe hw ealle ore ing, onne we furon a lichomlican ing, e we onlocia, ne magon fullice befn mid ure gesihe? Efne u gesihst one mannan beforan e, ac on re tide e u his neb gesihst, u ne gesihst na his hricg. Ealswa, gif u sumne cla sceawast, ne miht u hine ealne togdere geseon, ac wenst abutan, t u ealne hine geseo. Hwylc wundor is, gif se lmihtiga God is unasecgendlic and unbefangenlic, see ghwr is eall, and nahwar todled?

We speak of God, mortals of the Immortal, feeble of the Almighty, miserable beings of the Merciful; but who may worthily speak of that which is unspeakable? He is without measure, because he is everywhere. He is without number, for he is ever. He is without weight, for he holds all creatures without toil; and he disposed them all in three things, that is in measure, and in number, and in weight. But know ye that no man can speak fully concerning God, when we cannot even investigate or reckon the creatures which he has created. Who by words can tell the ornaments of heaven? Or who the fruitfulness of earth? Or who shall adequately praise the circuit of all the seasons? Or who all other things, when we cannot even fully comprehend with our sight the bodily things on which we look? Behold thou seest the man before thee, but at the time thou seest his face, thou seest not his back. So also if thou lookest at a cloth, thou canst not see it all together, but turnest it about, that thou mayest see it all. What wonder is it, if the Almighty God is unspeakable and incomprehensible, who is everywhere all, and nowhere divided?

Nu smea sum undeopancol man, hu God mge ben ghwr tgdere, and nahwar todled. Beheald as sunnan, hu heage heo astih, and hu heo asent hyre leoman geond ealne middangeard, and hu heo onliht ealle as eoran e mancynn on-earda. Swa hrae swa heo up-asprinc on rne merigen, heo scin on Hierusalem, and on Romebyrig, and on isum earde, and on eallum eardum tgdere; and {288}hwere heo is gesceaft, and g be Godes dihte. Hwt wenst u hu miccle swior is Godes andweardnys, and his miht, and his neosung ghwr. Him ne wistent nan ing, naer ne stnen weall ne bryden wh, swa swa hi wistanda re sunnan. Him is nan ing digle ne uncu. u gesceawast s mannes neb, and God sceawa his heortan. Godes gast afanda ealra manna heortan; and a e on hine gelyfa and hine lufia, a he clnsa and geglada mid his neosunge, and ra ungeleaffulra manna heortan he forbyh and onscuna.

Now some shallow-thinking man will inquire, how God can be everywhere at once, and nowhere divided. Behold this sun, how high he ascends, and how he sends his beams over all the world, and how he enlightens all this earth which mankind inhabit. As soon as he rises up at early morn, he shines on Jerusalem, and on Rome, and on this country, and on all countries at once; and yet he is a creature, and goes {289}by God's direction. How much ampler then is God's presence, and his might, and his visitation everywhere! Him nothing withstands, neither stone wall nor broad barrier, as they withstand the sun. To him nothing is hidden or unknown. Thou seest a man's face, but God seeth his heart. The spirit of God tries the hearts of all men; and those who believe in him and love him he purifies and gladdens with his visitation, and the hearts of unbelieving men he passes by and shuns.

Wite eac gehw, t lc man hf reo ing on him sylfum untodledlice and togdere wyrcende, swa swa God cw, aa h rest mann gesceop. He cw, "Uton gewyrcean mannan to ure gelicnysse." And h worhte a Adm to his anlicnysse. On hwilcum dle hf se man Godes anlicnysse on him? On re sawle, na on am lichaman. s mannes sawl hf on hire gecynde re Halgan rynnysse anlicnysse; foran e heo hf on hire reo ing, t is gemynd, and andgit, and willa. urh t gemynd se man geenc a ing e he gehyrde, oe geseah, oe geleornode. urh t andgit he understnt ealle a ing e he gehyr oe gesih. Of am willan cuma geohtas, and word, and weorc, ger ge yfele ge gode. An sawul is, and an lf, and an edwist, seoe hf as reo ing on hire togdere wyrcende untodledlice; fori r t gemynd bi r bi t andgit and se willa, and fre h beo togdere. eah-hwere nis nan ra reora seo sawul, ac seo sawul urh t gemynd geman, urh t andgit heo understent, urh one willan heo wile swa hwt swa hire lica; and heo is hwere n sawl and n lf. Nu hf heo fori Godes anlicnysse on hire, foran e heo hf reo ing on hire untodledlice wyrcende. Is hwere se man n man, and na rynnys: God solice, Fder and Sunu and Hlig Gast, urhwuna on rynnysse hada, and on annysse anre godcundnysse. Nis na se man on rynnysse {290}wunigende, swa swa God, ac he hf hwere Godes anlicnysse on his sawle urh a reo ing e we r cwdon.

Let everyone also know that every man has three things in himself indivisible and working together, as God said when he first created man. He said, "Let us make man in our own likeness." And he then made Adam in his own likeness. In which part has man the likeness of God in him? In the soul, not in the body. The soul of man has in its nature a likeness to the Holy Trinity; for it has in it three things, these are memory, and understanding, and will. By the memory a man thinks on the things which he has heard, or seen, or learned. By the understanding he comprehends all the things which he hears or sees. Of the will come thoughts, and words, and works, both evil and good. There is one soul, and one life, and one substance, which has these three things in it working together inseparably; for where memory is there is understanding and will, and they are ever together. Yet is none of these three the soul, but the soul through the memory reminds, through the understanding comprehends, through the will it wills whatsoever it likes; and it is, nevertheless, one soul and one life. It has therefore God's likeness in itself, because it has three things in it inseparably working. Yet is the man one man, and not a trinity: but God, Father and Son and Holy Ghost, exists in a trinity of persons and in the unity of one Godhead. Man exists not {291}in trinity as God, but he has, nevertheless, the likeness of God in his soul, by reason of the three things of which we have before spoken.

Arrius hatte an gedwolman, se flt wi nne bisceop e ws genemned Alexander, ws and riht-gelyfed. a cw se gedwolman t Crist, Godes Sunu, ne mihte na beon his Fder gelic, ne swa mihtig swa he; and cw, t se Fder wre r se Sunu, and nam bysne be mannum, hu lc sunu bi gingra onne se fder on isum life. a cw se halga bisceop Alexander him togeanes, "God ws fre, and fre ws his Wisdom of him acenned, and se Wisdom is his Sunu, ealswa mihtig swa se Fder." a begeat se gedwola s caseres fultum to his gedwylde, and cw gemt ongean one bisceop, and wolde gebigan eal t folc to his gedwyldum. a wacode se bisceop ane niht on Godes cyrcan, and clypode to his Drihtne, and us cw, "u lmihtiga God, dm rihtne dm betwux me and Arrium." Hi comon a s on mergen to am gemote. a cw se gedwola to his geferum, t he wolde gn embe his neode for. aa he to gange cm and he gesǽt, a gewand him t eall his innewearde t his setle, and he st r dead. a geswutulode God t he ws swa gemtogod on his innoe swa swa he ws ǽr on his geleafan. He wolde dn Crist lssan onne he is, and his godcundnysse wurmynt wanian; a wear him swa bysmorlic dea geseald swa swa he wel wyre ws.

There was a heretic called Arius, who disputed with a bishop who was named Alexander, a wise and orthodox man. The heretic said, that Christ the Son of God could not be equal to his Father, nor so mighty as he; and said, that the Father was before the Son, and took example from men, how every son is younger than his father in this life. Then said the holy bishop Alexander in opposition to him, "God was ever, and ever was his Wisdom of him begotten, and the Wisdom is his Son, as mighty as his Father." Then the heretic got the emperor's support to his heresy, and proclaimed a synod against the bishop, and would bend all the people to his heresies. Then the bishop watched one night in God's church, and cried to his Lord, and thus said, "Thou Almighty God, judge right judgement between me and Arius." On the morrow they came to the synod. The heretic then said to his companions, that he would go forth for his need. When he came to the place and sat, all his entrails came out, while he was sitting, and he sat there dead. Thus God manifested that he was as void in his inside as he had before been in his belief. He would make Christ less than he is, and diminish the dignity of his Godhead; when a death was given him as ignominious as he was well worthy of.

Oer gedwolman ws se hatte Sabellius. He cw, t se Fder wre, aa he wolde, Fder; and eft, aa he wolde, he wre Sunu; and eft, aa he wolde, wre Hlig Gast; and wre fori n God. a forwear eac es gedwola mid his gedwylde.

There was another heretic who was called Sabellius. He said, that the Father was, whenever he would, Father; and again, when he would, he was Son; and again, when he would, was Holy Ghost; and was therefore one God. Then this heretic also perished with his heresy.

Nu eft t Iudeisce folc e Crist ofslogon, swa swa h sylf wolde and geafode, secga t h willa gelyfan on one Fder, and na on one Sunu e hyra magas ofslogon. Heora geleafa is naht, and hi fori losia. For ure alysednysse Crist geafode t h hine ofslogon. Hit ne mihte {292}eal mancynn gedn, gif he sylf nolde; ac se Halga Fder gesceop and geworhte mancyn urh his Sunu, and he wolde eft urh one ylcan us alysan fram helle-wte, aa we forwyrhte wron. Buton lcere rowunge he mihte us habban, ac him uhte t unrihtlic. Ac se deofol forwyrhte hine sylfne, aa h tihte t Iudeisce folc to s Hlendes slege, and we wurdon alysede, urh his unscyldigan dea, fram am ecan deae.

Now again, the Jewish people who slew Christ, as he himself would and permitted, say that they will believe in the Father, and not in the Son whom their forefathers slew. Their belief is naught, and they will therefore perish. For our redemption Christ permitted them to slay him. All {293}mankind could not have done it, if he himself had not willed it; but the Holy Father created and made mankind through his Son, and he would afterwards through the same redeem us from hell-torment, when we were undone. Without any passion he might have had us, but that seemed to him unjust. But the devil undid himself, when he instigated the Jewish people to the slaying of Jesus, and we were redeemed by his innocent death from the eternal death.

We habba one geleafan e Crist sylf thte his apostolum, and hi eallum mancynne; and one geleafan God hf mid manegum wundrum getrymmed and gefstnod. rest Crist urh hine sylfne dumbe and deafe, healte and blinde, wode and hreoflige gehlde, and a deadan to lfe arrde: syan, urh his apostolas and ore halige men, as ylcan wundra geworhte. Nu eac on urum timan, gehwr r halige men h resta, t heora deadum banum God wyrc fela wundra, to i t he wile folces geleafan mid am wundrum getrymman. Ne wyrc God na as wundra t nanes Iudeisces mannes byrgene, ne t nanes ores gedwolan, ac t riht-gelyfedra manna byrgenum, a e gelyfdon on a Halgan rynnysse, and on so Annysse anre Godcundnysse.

We have the belief that Christ himself taught to his apostles, and they to all mankind; and that belief God has confirmed and established by many miracles. First Christ by himself healed dumb and deaf, halt and blind, mad and leprous, and raised the dead to life: after, by his apostles and other holy men, he wrought the same miracles. Now also in our time, everywhere where holy men rest, at their dead bones God works many miracles, because he will with those miracles confirm people's faith. God works not these miracles at any Jewish man's sepulchre, nor at any other heretic's, but at the sepulchres of orthodox men, who believed in the Holy Trinity, and in the true Unity of one Godhead.

Wite gehw eac, t nan man ne mot beon tuwa gefullod; ac gif se man fter his fulluhte aslide, we gelyfa t he mge beon gehealden, gif he his synna mid wope behreowsia, and be lareowa tcunge h gebet. We sceolon gelyfan t lces mannes sawul bi urh God gesceapen, ac hwere heo ne bi na of Godes agenum gecynde. s mannes lichaman antimber bi of am fder and of re meder, ac God gescyp one lichaman of am antimbre, and asent on one lichaman sawle. Ne bi seo sawl nahwar wunigende ǽror, ac God h gescyp rrihte, and beset on one lichaman, and lt h habban agenne cyre, swa heo syngige swa heo synna forbuge. eah-hwere heo behfa fre Godes fultumes, t heo mge synna forbugan, and eft to hyre Scyppende gecuman urh gode geearnunga; foron e nan man ne de butan Gode nan ing to gde.

Let everyone know also, that no man may be twice baptized; but if a man err after his baptism, we believe that he may be saved, if with weeping he repent of his sins, and, according to the teaching of his instructors, atone for them. We are to believe that the soul of every man is created by God, but yet it is not of God's own nature. The matter of a man's body is from the father and from the mother, but God creates the body from the matter, and sends a soul into the body. The soul is nowhere existing previously, but God creates it forthwith, and sets it in the body, and lets it have its own election, whether it shall sin, whether it shall eschew sins. Nevertheless it ever needs God's support, that it may eschew sins, and again come to its Creator through good deserts; for no man doeth anything good without God.


Eac we sceolon gelyfan t lc lichama e sawle underfeng sceal arisan on domes dge mid am ylcum lichaman e he nu hf, and sceal onfn edlean ealra his dda: onne habba a gdan ece lf mid Gode, and he syl a mde lcum be his geearnungum. a synfullan beo on helle-wite rowigende, and heora wite bi eac gemetegod lcum be his ge-earnungum. Uton fori geearnian t ece lf mid Gode urh isne geleafan, and urh gode geearnunga, see urhwuna on rynnysse n lmihtig God on ecnysse. Amen.


We are also to believe that every body which has received a soul shall arise at doomsday with the same body that he now has, and shall receive the reward of all his deeds: then will the good have eternal life with God, and he will give a meed to everyone according to his deserts. The sinful will be ever suffering in hell-torment, and their torment will also be measured to everyone according to his deserts. Let us therefore merit eternal life with God through this faith, and through good deserts, who existeth in Trinity One Almighty God ever to eternity. Amen.



Primum quidem sermonem feci: et reliqua.

Primum quidem sermonem feci: et reliqua.

Lucas se Godspellere s manode on isre pistol-rdinge, us cweende, "Se Hlend, middangeardes Alysend, teowde hine sylfne cucenne his gingrum, fter his rowunge and his riste, on manegum rafungum, geond feowertig daga, and him to sprc ymbe Godes rice, samod mid him reordigende: and bebead him t hi of re byrig Hierusalem ne gewiton, ac t hi r anbidedon his Fder behtes, he cw, e ge of minum mue gehyrdon. Foran e Iohannes se Fulluhtere gefullode on wtere, and ge beo gefullode on am Halgan Gaste nu fter feawum dagum. Eornostlice seo gegaderung his leorning-cnihta cw a nmodlice, Drihten leof, wilt u nu gesettan ende ysre worulde? He him andwyrde, Nis na eow to gewitenne a td oe a hand-hwile e min Fder gesette urh his mihte: ac ge underfo s Halgan Gastes mihte, and ge beo mine gewitan on Iudea lande, and on eallum middangearde, o t endenexte land. And h ldde h a t of re byrig up to anre dune e is gecweden mons Oliueti, and hi gebletsode up-ahafenum handum. a mid re bletsunge ferde h to {296}heofonum, him on locigendum; and t heofonlice wolcn leat wi his, and hine genam fram heora gesihum."

Luke the Evangelist has informed us in this epistolary reading, thus saying, "Jesus, the Redeemer of the world, showed himself living to his disciples, after his passion and his resurrection, by many reproofs, for forty days, and spake to them concerning the kingdom of God, eating and drinking together with them: and commanded them that they should not depart from the city of Jerusalem, but that they should await there the promise of his Father which (he said) ye have heard from my mouth. For John the Baptist baptized with water, and ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost now after a few days. The assembly of his disciples therefore said unanimously, Beloved Lord, wilt thou now put an end to this world? He answered them, It is not for you to know the time or the moment which my Father hath appointed through his might: but ye shall receive the might of the Holy Ghost, and ye shall be my witnesses in Judea, and in all the world, unto the uttermost land. And he led them then out of the city up to a hill which is called the mount of Olives, and blessed them with uplifted hands. Then after {297}that blessing he went to heaven, they looking on; and a heavenly cloud descended towards him, and took him from their sight."

"aa hi up to heofonum starigende stodon, a gesawon hi r twegen englas on hwitum gerelan, us cweende, Ge Galileisce weras, hwi stande ge us starigende wi heofenas weard? Se Hlend, e is nu genumen of eowrum gesihum to heofonum, swa he cym eft swa swa ge gesawon t he to heofonum asth. Hi a gecyrdon to re byrig Hierusalem mid micelre blisse, and astigon upp on ane upfleringe, and r wunedon o Pentecosten on gebedum and on Godes herungum, ot se Halga Gast him to com, swa swa se ela Cyning him r beht."

"While they stood gazing up to heaven, they saw there two angels in white garments, thus saying, Ye Galilean men, why stand ye thus gazing towards heaven? Jesus, who is now taken from your sight to heaven, shall so come again as ye have seen that he ascended to heaven. They then returned to the city of Jerusalem with great joy, and went up on an upper flooring, and there stayed till Pentecost in prayers and in praises of God, until the Holy Ghost came to them, as the noble King had before promised them."

"On yssere geferrdene wron Petrus and Iohannes, Iacob and Andreas, Philippus and Thomas, Bartholomeus and Matheus, se oer Iacob and Simon, se oer Iudas and Maria s Hlendes modor, and gehwilce ore, ger ge weras ge wf. Eal seo menigu ws an hund manna and twentig, anmodlice on gebedum wunigende."

"In this fellowship were Peter and John, James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, the other James and Simon, the other Judas and Mary the mother of Jesus, and several others, both men and women. The whole multitude was an hundred and twenty persons, unanimously continuing in prayers."

Se Hlend thte a halgan lare his leorning-cnihtum r his rowunge, and fter his riste he ws wunigende betwux him as feowertig daga, fram re halgan Easter-tide o isne dgerlican dg, and on manegum wisum rafode and afandode his gingran, and ge-edlhte t t he r thte, to fulre lare and rihtum geleafan. He gereordode hine fter his riste, na fori t he syan eorlices bigleofan behfode, ac to i t he geswutelode his soan lichaman. He t urh mihte, na for neode. Swa swa fyr fornim wteres dropan, swa fornam Cristes godcundlice miht one geigedan mete. Solice fter am gemnelicum riste ne behfia ure lichaman nanre strangunge eorlicra metta, ac se Hlend us de ealle ure neoda mid heofenlicum ingum, and we beo mid wuldre gewelgode, and mihtige to gefremmenne swa hwt swa us lica, and we beo ful swyfte to farenne geond ealle wdgylnyssa Godes rices.

Jesus taught the holy lore to his disciples before his passion, and after his resurrection he was continuing among them these forty days, from the holy Easter-tide until this present day, and in many ways reproved and tried his disciples, and repeated that which he had before taught, for the perfection of doctrine and right faith. He ate and drank after his resurrection, not because he then had need of earthly food, but because he would manifest his true body. He ate through power, not for need. As fire consumes drops of water, so did the divine power of Christ consume the received meat. Verily after the universal resurrection our bodies will require no strengthening of earthly meats, for Jesus will supply all our needs with heavenly things, and we shall be enriched with glory, and mighty to execute whatsoever is pleasing to us, and we shall be full swift to go through all the immensities of the kingdom of God.


He beht his gingrum nu and gelome t he wolde him sendan one Halgan Gast, and us cw, "onne he cym he eow tiht and gewissa to eallum am ingum e ic eow sde." a com se Halga Gast on fyres hiwe to am halgum hyrede on am endleoftan dge Cristes upstiges, and hi ealle onlde mid ndergendlicum fyre, and h wurdon afyllede mid re heofonlican lre, and cuon ealle woruldlice gereord, and bodedon unforhtlice geleafan and fulluht ricum and reum.


He promised to his disciples then and frequently that he would send to them the Holy Ghost, and thus said, "When he comes he will stimulate and direct you to all the things which I have said unto you." Then came the Holy Ghost in semblance of fire to the holy company on the eleventh day after Christ's ascension, and inflamed them all with innoxious fire, and they were filled with heavenly lore, and knew all worldly tongues, and fearlessly preached faith and baptism to the powerful and cruel.

Se halga heap befrn Crist, hwer he wolde on am timan isne middangeard geendian. He a cw him to andsware, "Nis na eower mǽ to witenne one timan, e min Fder urh his mihte gesette." He cw eac on ore stowe, "Nt nn man one dg ne one timan ysre worulde geendunge, ne englas, ne nan halga, buton Gode anum." eah-hwere, be am tacnum e Crist sde, we geseo t seo geendung is swie gehende, eah e heo us uncu sy.

The holy company asked Christ, whether he would at that time put an end to this world. He said to them in answer, "It is not for you to know the time which my Father hath through his power appointed." He said also in another place, "No man knoweth the day or the time of the ending of this world, nor the angels, nor any saint, save God only." Yet by the tokens which Christ mentioned, we see that the ending is very near at hand, though it be unknown to us.

a apostoli wron gewitan Cristes weorca, foran e h bodedon his rowunge, and his rist, and upstige, rst Iudeiscre eode, and syan becom heora stemn to lcum lande, and heora word to gemrum ealles ymbhwyrftes; foran e h awriton Cristes wundra, and a bec urhwunia on cristenre eode, ger ge r r a apostoli lichamlice bodedon, ge r r h na ne becomon.

The apostles were witnesses of Christ's works, for they preached his passion, and his resurrection, and ascension, first to the Jewish people, and afterwards their voice came to every land, and their words to the boundaries of the whole globe; for they recorded the miracles of Christ, and the books exist among christian people, both where the apostles bodily preached, and where they did not come.

Ealle gesceafta enia heora Scyppende. aa Crist acenned ws, a sende seo heofen niwne steorran, e bodade Godes acennednysse. Eft, aa he to heofonum astah, a abeah t heofonlice wolcn wi his, and hine underfeng: na t t wolcn hine ferede, foran e he hylt heofona rymsetl, ac he siode mid am wolcne of manna gesihum. r wron a gesewene twegen englas on hwitum gyrelum. Eac swilce on his acennednysse wron englas gesewene; ac t halige godspel ne ascyrde hu hi gefreatwode wron; foran e God com to us swie eadmod. On his upstige wron gesewene englas mid hwitum gyrlum geglengede. Bliss is {300}getacnod on hwitum reafe, foron e Crist ferde heonon mid micelre blisse and mid micclum rymme. On his acennednysse ws geuht swilce seo Godcundnys wre geeadmet, and on his upstige ws seo menniscnys ahafen and gemrsod. Mid his upstige is adylegod t cyrographum ure genierunge, and se cwyde ure brosnunge is awend.

All creatures serve their Creator. When Christ was born, heaven sent forth a new star, which announced the birth of God. Again, when he ascended to heaven, the heavenly cloud bowed down towards him, and received him: not that the cloud bare him, for he holds the throne of heaven, but he passed with the cloud from the sight of men. There were seen two angels in white garments. In like manner at his birth angels were seen; but the holy gospel has not explained how they were adorned; for God came to us very humble. At his ascension were seen angels adorned with white garments. Joy is betokened by white garments, for {301}Christ departed hence with great joy and with great majesty. At his birth it seemed as though the Godhead were humbled, and at his ascension humanity was exalted and magnified. With his ascension is annulled the writ of our condemnation, and the sentence of our destruction is abrogated.

aa Adam agylt hfde, a cw se lmihtiga Wealdend him to, "u eart eore, and u gewenst to eoran. u eart dust, and u gewenst to duste." Nu to-dg t ylce gecynd ferde unbrosnigendlic into heofenan rice. a twegen englas sdon t Crist cym swa swa he uppferde, foran e he bi gesewen on am micclum dome on menniscum hiwe, t his slagan hine magon oncnawan, e hine r to deae gedydon, and eac a e his lare forsawon, t hi onne rihtlice onfn t ece wite mid deofle. t halige gewrit cwy, "Tollatur impius ne uideat gloriam Dei:" "Sy am arleasan tbroden seo gesih Godes wuldres." Ne geseo a arleasan Cristes wuldor, e hine r on life forsawon, ac hi geseo onne egefulne one e hi eadmodne forhygedon.

When Adam had sinned, the Almighty Ruler said to him, "Thou art earth, and thou shalt to earth return. Thou art dust, and thou shalt return to dust." Now to-day that same nature went incorruptible into the kingdom of heaven. The two angels said that Christ would come as he ascended, because at the great doom he will be seen in human form, that his slayers may recognize him whom they formerly put to death, and also that those who despised his precepts may then justly receive eternal punishment with the devil. Holy writ says, "Tollatur impius ne videat gloriam Dei:" "Be the sight of God's glory taken away from the impious." The impious will not see the glory of Christ, whom they had before despised in life, but they will then see him awful whom humble they had contemned.

Recumbentibus undecim discipulis: et reliqua. We habba nu gerd Lucas gesetnysse embe Cristes upstige; nu wende we ure smeagunge to am orum godspellere Marcum, e cw on isum dgerlicum godspelle, t se Hlend teowde hine sylfne his apostolum and cidde him, foran e hi noldon t fruman gelyfan his ristes of deae, aa hit him gecydd ws. a cw se Wealdend to his gingrum, "Fara geond ealne middangeard, and bodia godspel eallum gesceafte: see gelyf and bi gefullod, se bi gehealden; se e ne gelyf, he bi genyerod. as tacnu fyliga am mannum e gelyfa," etc. is godspel is nu anfealdlice gesǽd, ac we willa nu, fter Gregories trahtnunge, a digelnysse eow onwren.

Recumbentibus undecim discipulis: et reliqua. We have now read the narrative of Luke concerning Christ's ascension; we will now turn our consideration to the other evangelist Mark, who said in the present day's gospel, that Jesus appeared to his apostles, and chid them, because they would not at first believe his resurrection from death, when it was announced to them. Then said the Lord to his disciples, "Go over all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature: he who believeth and is baptized shall be saved; he who believeth not shall be damned. These signs shall follow those men who believe," etc. This gospel is here now simply said, but we will now unfold its mysteries to you, according to the exposition of Gregory.

ra apostola tweonung be Cristes riste ns na swa swie heora ungeleaffulnys, ac ws ure trumnys. Ls us {302}fremodon a e hrae gelyfdon, onne a e twynigende wron; foran e hi sceawedon and grapodon a dolhswau Cristes wunda, and swa adrfdon ealle twynunga fram ure heortan. a reade se Hlend his leorning-cnihta twynunge, aa h lichamlice h forltan wolde, to i t h gemyndige wron ra worda e h on his sie him sde. He cw a, "Fara geond ealne middangeard, and bodia godspel eallum gesceafte." Godspel is us to gehyrenne, and earle lufigendlic, t we moton forbugan helle-wite and a hreowlican tintrega urh s Hlendes menniscnysse, and becuman to engla werode urh his eadmodnysse. He cw, "Bodia eallum gesceafte:" ac mid am naman is se mann na getacnod. Stanas sind gesceafta, ac h nabba nan lf, ne h ne gefreda. Grs and treowa lybba butan felnysse; h ne lybba na urh sawle, ac urh heora grennysse. Nytenu lybba and habba felnysse, butan gesceade: h nabba nan gescead, foran e h sind sawullease. Englas lybba, and gefreda, and tosceada. Nu hf se mann ealra gesceafta sum ing. Him is gemne mid stanum, t he beo wunigende; him is gemne mid treowum, t he lybbe; mid nytenum, t he gefrede; mid englum, t he understande. Nu is se mann gecweden 'eall gesceaft,' foran e he hf sum ing gemne mid eallum gesceafte. t godspel bi gebodad eallum gesceafte, onne hit bi am menn anum gebodad, foran e ealle eorlice ing sind gesceapene for am men anum, and h ealle habba sume gelicnysse to am men, swa swa we r sdon.

The apostles' doubt as to the resurrection of Christ was not so much their lack of faith, but was our confirmation. Less {303}have benefited us those who quickly believed than those who were doubting; for they beheld and touched the scars of Christ's wounds, and so drove out all doubts from our hearts. Jesus then reproved his disciples for their doubt, when he would bodily leave them, that they might be mindful of the words which he said to them on his way. He said, "Go over all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature." The gospel is for us to hear and exceedingly loving, that we may avoid hell-torment and cruel tortures through the incarnation of Jesus, and come to the host of angels through his humility. He said, "Preach to every creature:" but by that name is man alone betokened. Stones are creatures, but they have no life, nor have they sense. Grass and trees live without feeling; they live not by a soul, but by their greenness. Beasts live and have feeling without reason; they have no reason, because they are soulless. Angels live, and have sense, and use reason. Now man has something of all creatures. He has in common with the stones, that he is existing; he has in common with the trees, that he lives; with the beasts, that he has sense; with angels, that he understands. Man is therefore called 'every creature,' because he has something in common with every creature. The gospel is preached to every creature, when it is preached to man alone; for all earthly things are created for man alone, and they all have some likeness to man, as we before said.

"Se e gelyf, and bi gefullod, he bi gehealden; and se e ne gelyf, he bi genierod." Se geleafa bi so see ne wicwy mid weorum eawum t t he gelyf; be am cw Iohannes se apostol, "Se e cwy t he God cunne, and his beboda ne hylt, he is leas." Eft cwy se apostol Iacobus, "Se geleafa e bi butan godum weorcum, se bi dead." Eft he cw, "Hwt frema e t u hbbe geleafan, gif u nfst a godan weorc? Ne mg {304}se geleafa e gehealdan butan am weorcum. Deoflu gelyfa, ac h forhtia." a deoflu gesawon Crist on isum life on re menniscnysse, ac hi feollon to his fotum, and hrymdon, and cwdon, "u eart Godes Sunu, fori u come t u woldest us fordn." Se man e nele gelyfan on God, ne nnne Godes ege nf, he bi wyrsa onne deofol. Se e gelyf, and hf ege, and nele eah-hwere gd wyrcan, se bi onne deoflum gelic.

"He who believeth, and is baptized, shall be saved; and he who believeth not shall be damned." That faith is true which gainsays not by wicked practices that which it believes; of which spake John the apostle; "He who saith that he knoweth God, and holdeth not his commandments, is a liar." Again, the apostle James says, "The faith which is without good works is dead." Again, he said, "What profiteth it thee that thou have faith, if thou hast not good works? Faith {305}cannot save thee without works. The devils believe, but they tremble." The devils saw Christ in this life, in his human state, but they fell at his feet, and cried, and said, "Thou art the Son of God, therefore thou art come that thou mightest fordo us." The man who will not believe in God, nor has any awe of God, is worse than a devil. He who believes, and has awe, and, nevertheless, will not do good, is like unto a devil.

In quodam tractu, qui estimatur Sci Hilarii fuisse, sic inuenimus scriptum, sicut Anglice hic interpretauimus, et ad testimonium ipsam Latinitatem posuimus: "Demones credunt et contremescunt; qui autem non credit, et non contremescit demonibus deterior est: qui autem credit, et contremescit, et ueritatem operibus non agit demonibus similis est." Se e rihtlice gelyf, and rihtlice his lif leofa, and mid Godes ege gd weorc beg o ende his lifes, se bi gehealden, and he hf ece lf mid Gode, and mid eallum his halgum. Drihten cw, a e gelyfa, him fyliga as tacnu, "On minum naman h adrfa deoflu; h spreca mid niwum gereordum; h afyrsia nddran; and eah e h unlybban drincan, hit him ne dera; h setta heora handa ofer adlige men, and him bi tela."

In quodam tractu, qui stimatur Sancti Hilarii fuisse, sic invenimus scriptum, sicut Anglice hic interpretavimus, et ad testimonium ipsam Latinitatem posuimus: "Dmones credunt et contremescunt; qui autem non credit, et non contremescit dmonibus deterior est: qui autem credit, et contremescit, et veritatem operibus non agit, dmonibus similis est." He who rightly believes, and rightly lives his life, and with awe of God practises good works to the end of his life, shall be saved, and shall have everlasting life with God, and with all his saints. The Lord said, these signs shall follow those who believe in him, "In my name they shall cast out devils; they shall speak with new tongues; they shall drive away serpents; and though they drink any deadly thing, it shall not hurt them; they shall set their hands over sick men, and it shall be well with them."

as wundra wron nyd-behefe on anginne cristendomes, foran urh a tacna wear t hene folc gebiged to geleafan. Se man e planta treowa oe wyrta, swa lange he h wtera ot h beo cifste; syan h growende beo he geswyc re wterunge: swa eac se lmihtiga God, swa lange he teowde his wundra am henum folce, ot h geleaffulle wron: syan se geleafa sprang geond ealne middangeard, sian geswicon a wundra. Ac eah-hwere Godes gelaung wyrc gyt dghwamlice a ylcan wundra gastlice e a apostoli a worhton lichamlice. onne se preost cristna t cild, onne adrf he one deofol of am cilde; foran e lc hen man bi deofles, ac urh {306}t halige fulluht he bi Godes, gif he hit gehylt. Se e forlt bysmorlice spellunga, and talu, and derigendlice gaffetunga, and gebysega his mu mid Godes herungum and gebedum, he sprec onne mid niwum gereordum. Se e ungeradum oe ungeyldigum styr, and a biternysse his heortan gestil, he afyrsa a nddran, foran e he adwsc a yfelnyssa his modes. Se e bi forspanen to forligre, and eah-hwere ne bi gebiged to re fremminge, he drinc unlybban, ac hit him ne dera, gif he mid gebdum to Gode flih. Gif hwa bi geuntrumod on his anginne, and asolcen fram godre drohtnunge, gif hine hwa onne mid tihtinge and gebisnungum godra weorca getrym and arr, onne bi hit swilce he sette his handa ofer untrumne and hine gehle.

These wonders were needful at the beginning of christianity, for by these signs was the heathen folk inclined to faith. The man who plants trees or herbs, waters them so long until they have taken root; when they are growing he ceases from watering: so also the Almighty God so long showed his miracles to the heathen folk, until they were believing: when faith had sprung up over all the world, then miracles ceased. But, nevertheless, God's church still works daily the same miracles spiritually which the apostles then wrought bodily. When the priest christens the child, then casts he out the devil from that child; for every heathen man is the devil's, but through the holy baptism he is God's, {307}if he observe it. He who forsakes opprobrious speeches and calumnies, and injurious scoffings, and busies his mouth with the praises of God and with prayers, speaks then in new tongues. He who corrects thoughtlessness or impatience, and stills the bitterness of his heart, drives away serpents, for he extinguishes the evilnesses of his mind. He who is allured to fornication, but yet is not induced to its accomplishment, drinks a deadly drink, but it shall not hurt him, if with prayers he flees to God. If any-one be weakened in his purpose, and slothful for good living, then if any-one, with exhortation and examples of good works, strengthen and raise him up, it will be as though he set his hand over the sick and heal him.

a gastlican wundra sind maran onne a lichamlican wron, foran e as wundra gehla s mannes sawle, e is ece, and a rran tacna gehldon one deadlican lichaman. a rran wundra worhton ger ge gde men ge yfele. Yfel ws Iudas, e Crist belwde, eah he worhte wundra ror urh Godes naman. Be swylcum mannum cw Crist on ore stowe, "Ic secge eow, manega cwea to me on am micclan dge, Drihten, Drihten, la h ne witegode we on inum naman, and we adrfdon deoflo of wodum mannum, and we micele mihta on inum naman gefremedon? onne andette ic him, Ne can ic eow: gewita fram me, ge unrihtwise wyrhtan." Mine gebroru, ne lufige ge a wundra e magon beon gemne godum and yfelum, ac lufia a tacna e sind sinderlice godra manna, t synd sore lufe and arfstnysse tacna. Nf se yfela a soan lufe, ne se gda nys hyre bedled. as tacna sind digle and unpleolice, and h habba swa miccle maran edlean t Gode, swa micclum swa heora wuldor is lsse mid mannum. Se Wealdenda Drihten, fter isum wordum, ws genumen to heofonum, and sitt on a swiran hand his Fder.

The spiritual miracles are greater than the bodily ones were, for these miracles heal a man's soul, which is eternal, but the former signs healed the mortal body. The former miracles were wrought both by good men and by evil. Judas, who betrayed Christ, was evil, though he had previously wrought miracles in the name of God. Of such men Christ in another place said, "I say unto you, many will say to me on that great day, Lord, Lord, lo! have we not prophesied in thy name, and have driven devils out of mad men, and have performed great miracles in thy name? Then will I profess to them, I know you not: depart from me, ye unrighteous doers." My brothers, love not those miracles which may be common to the good and to the evil, but love those signs which are exclusively good men's, which are the signs of true love and of piety. The evil has not true love, nor is the good devoid of it. These signs are mysterious and not perilous, and they have so much the greater reward with God as their glory is less with men. The Omnipotent Lord, after these words, was taken to heaven, and sits on the right hand of his Father.

We rda on re ealdan ǽ, t twegen Godes men, {308}Enoh and Helias, wron ahafene to heofonum butan deae: ac h elcia ongean one dea, and mid ealle ne forfleo. H sind genumene to lyftenre heofenan na to rodorlicere, and drohtnia on sumum diglan earde mid micelre strence lichaman and sawle, ot hi eft ongean cyrron, on ende isre worulde, togeanes Antecriste, and deaes onfo. Ure lmihtiga Alysend ne elcode na ongean one dea, ac he hine oferswide mid his riste, and geswutulode his wuldor urh his upstige to am yfemystan rymsetle.

We read in the old law, that two men of God, Enoch and {309}Elijah, were lifted up to heaven without death: but they await death, and will by no means escape from it. They are taken to the arial heaven, not to the ethereal, and continue in some secret dwelling-place with great strength of body and soul, until they shall return again, at the end of this world, against Antichrist, and shall receive death. Our Almighty Redeemer waited not for death, but he overcame it with his resurrection, and manifested his glory by his ascension to the highest throne.

We rda be am witegan Heliam, t englas hine feredon on heofonlicum crte, foran e seo untrumnys his gecyndes behofode sumes byrres. Ure Alysend Crist ns geferod mid crte ne urh engla fultum; foran se e ealle ing geworhte, he ws geferod mid his agenre mihte ofer ealle gesceafta. Se rra man Enoh ws geferod to lyftenre heofonan, and Helias ws mid crte up-awegen; ac se lmihtiga Hlend ns gefered ne awegen, ac he urhferde a roderlican heofonan urh his agene mihte.

We read of the prophet Elijah, that angels conveyed him in a heavenly chariot, because the infirmity of his nature required some supporter. Our Redeemer Christ was not conveyed in a chariot nor by angels' help; for he who wrought all things was borne by his own might over all creatures. The first-mentioned man, Enoch, was conveyed to the arial heaven, and Elijah was borne up in a chariot; but the Almighty Saviour was not conveyed nor borne, but he passed through the ethereal heaven by his own might.

Us is to smeagenne hu seo clnnys ws eonde geond a geferedan enas, and urh one astigendan Hlend. Enoh ws geferod, see ws mid hmede gestryned, and mid hmede ws strynende. Helias ws on crte geferod, see ws urh hmed gestryned, ac he ne strynde urh hmed, foran e he wunade on his life butan wife. Se Hlend astah to heofonum, see ns mid hmede gestryned, ne he sylf strynende ns; foran e he is ord and anginn ealra clnnyssa, and him is seo clnnys swie lufigendlic mgen, t he geswutulode aa he geceas him mden-mann to meder. And eall se halga heap e him fyligde ws on clnnysse wunigende, swa swa he cw sumum godspelle, "Se e to me cym, ne mg he beon min leorning-cniht, buton he his wif hatige."

We have to consider how chastity was cherished by the ministers who were thus conveyed, and by the ascending Jesus. Enoch was conveyed, who was begotten by coition, and who begot by coition. Elijah was conveyed in a chariot, who was begotten by coition, but he begot not by coition, for he continued during his life without a wife. Jesus ascended to heaven, who was not begotten by coition, nor did he himself beget; for he is the origin and beginning of all chastities, and to him chastity is a very amiable virtue, which he manifested when he chose him a maiden for mother. And all the holy company which followed him was living in chastity, as he says in one of his gospels, "He who comes to me, may not be my disciple, unless he hate his wife."

Se godspellere Marcus awrt on isum godspelle, t ure Drihten, fter his upstige, ste on his Fder swiran hand; and se forma martyr Stephanus cw, t he gesawe {310}heofonas opene, and one Hlend standan on his Fder swiran. Nu cwy se trahtnere, "t rihtlice is gecweden, t he ste fter his upstige, foran e deman gedafna setl." Crist is se soa dema, e dem and tosct ealle ing, nu and eac on am endenextan dge. Se martyr hine geseah standan, foran e h ws his gefylsta on re rowunge his martyrdomes, and urh his gife he ws gebyld ongean a rean ehteras, e hine wlhreowlice stndon.

The evangelist Mark wrote in this gospel, that our Lord, after his ascension, sat on the right hand of his Father; and the first martyr, Stephen, said that he saw the heavens open, {311}and Jesus standing on his Father's right. Now says the expounder, "That is rightly said, that he sat after his ascension, because a seat is befitting a judge." Christ is the true Judge, who will judge and decide all things, now, and also on the last day. The martyr saw him standing, for he was his supporter in the suffering of his martyrdom, and through his grace he was rendered bold against the fierce persecutors, who cruelly stoned him.

Se ende is ises godspelles, t Cristes apostoli "ferdon and bodedon gehwr, Drihtne samod wyrcendum, and a sprce getrymmendum mid fterfyligendum tacnum." a apostoli, t sind Godes bydelas, toferdon geond ealne middangeard. Petrus bodade on Iudea-lande, Paulus on henum folce, Andreas on Scithia, Iohannes on Asia, Bartholomeus on India, Matheus on Ethiopia, and swa heora gehwilc on his dle, and Godes miht him ws mid, to gefremminge heora bodunga and ungerimra tacna; foran e Crist cw, "Ne mage ge nn ing dn butan me." Eft he cw, "Ic beo mid eow eallum dagum, o isre worulde geendunge," see lyfa and rixa mid am lmihtigan Fder and am Halgum Gaste on ecnysse. Amen.

The end of this gospel is, that Christ's apostles "went and preached everywhere, the Lord working with them, and confirming the word with signs following." The apostles, that is, God's preachers, went over all the world. Peter preached in Judea, Paul among the heathen folk, Andrew in Scythia, John in Asia, Bartholomew in India, Matthew in Ethiopia, and so each of them in his part, and the might of God was with them, for the efficacy of their preaching and of numberless signs; for Christ said, "Ye can do nothing without me." Again he said, "I will be with you on all days, until the ending of this world," who liveth and reigneth with the Almighty Father and the Holy Ghost ever to eternity. Amen.



Fram am halgan easterlican dge sind getealde fiftig daga to ysum dge, and es dg is gehten Pentecostes, t is, se fifteogoa dg re easterlican tide. es dg ws on re ealdan ǽ gesett and gehalgod. God bebead Moyse, on Egypta-lande, t h and eall Israhela folc sceoldon offrian t lcum hwisce Gode an lamb anes geares, and mearcian mid am blode rode-tacn on heora gedyrum and oferslegum, a on re nihte ferde Godes engel, and acwealde on lcum huse s Egyptiscan folces t frumcennyde cild and t {312}leofoste. And Israhela folc ferde on re ylcan nihte of am leodscipe, and God h ldde ofer a Readan sǽ mid drium fotum. a tengde se Pharao fter mid mycelre fyrde. aa he com on middan re sǽ, a ws t Godes folc up-agn, and God a besencte one Pharao and eal his werod. a bebead God Moyse and am folce t h heoldon a tid mid micelre arwurnysse, on lces geares ymbrene. a ws seo tid am folce geset to Easter-tide, foran e God h hredde wi heora fynd, and heora ehteras fordyde. a s ymbe fiftig daga sette God am folce ǽ, and ws gesewen Godes wuldor upp on anre dune e is gehten Syny. r com micel leoht, and egeslic sweg, and blawende byman. a clypode God one Moysen him to, and he ws mid Gode feowertig daga, and awrt a ealdan ǽ be Godes dihte. a ws se dg Pentecostes gehten on re Ealdan Gesetnysse.

From the holy day of Easter are counted fifty days to this day, and this day is called Pentecost, that is, the fiftieth day of Easter-tide. This day was in the old law appointed and hallowed. God commanded Moses in Egypt, that he and all the people of Israel should offer, for every household, a lamb of one year to God, and mark with the blood the sign of the cross on their door-posts and lintels, as on that night God's angel went and slew in every house of the Egyptian folk the firstborn child and the dearest. And the people of {313}Israel went on the same night from the nation, and God led them over the Red sea with dry feet. Pharaoh then hastened after them with a great army. When he came into the middle of the sea, the people of God were gone up, and God then sank Pharaoh and all his host. God then commanded Moses and the people that they should keep that tide with great reverence in the circuit of every year. The tide was then appointed to the people for Easter-tide, because God had saved them from their foes, and destroyed their persecutors. Then fifty days after this God appointed a law for the people, and the glory of God was seen on a hill which is called Sinai. There came a great light, and an awful sound, and blowing trumpets. Then God called Moses to him, and he was with God forty days, and wrote down the old law by God's direction. Then was the day called Pentecost in the Old Testament.

t geoffrode lmb getacnode Cristes slege, see unscig ws his Fder geoffrod for ure alysednysse. Nu is his rowung and his rist ure Easter-td, foran e he us alysde fram deofles eowdome, and ure ehteras beo besencte urh t halige fulluht, swa swa ws Pharao mid his leode on re Readan sǽ. as fiftig daga fram am easterlican dge sind ealle gehalgode to anre mrsunge, and es dgerlica dg is ure Pentecostes, t is, se fifteogoa dg fram am Easter-dge. On am ealdan Pentecosten sette God ǽ am Israhela folce, and on isum dge com se Halga Gast on fyres hiwe to Godes hirede; fori ealswa t lamb getacnode Cristes rowunge, swa eac seo ealde ǽ getacnode godspel-bodunge under Godes gife. reo tida sind on ysre worulde: n is seo e ws butan ǽ; oer is seo e ws under ǽ; seo ridde is nu fter Cristes to-cyme. eos td is gecweden 'under Godes gife.' We ne sind na butan ǽ, ne we ne moton healdan Moyses ǽ lichamlice, ac Godes gifu s gewissa to his willan, gif we gemyndige beo Cristes bebodum and ra apostola lare.

The offered lamb betokened the slaying of Christ, who innocent was offered to his Father for our redemption. Now is his passion and his resurrection our Easter-tide, because he redeemed us from the thraldom of the devil, and our persecutors are sunk by the holy baptism, as Pharaoh was with his people in the Red sea. These fifty days from the day of Easter are all hallowed to one celebration, and this present day is our Pentecost, that is, the fiftieth day from Easter-day. On the old Pentecost God appointed a law to the people of Israel, and on this day the Holy Ghost came in semblance of fire to God's company; for as the lamb betokened the passion of Christ, so also the old law betokened the preaching of the gospel under the grace of God. There are three periods in this world: one is that which was without law; the second is that which was under the law; the third is now after the advent of Christ. This period is called 'under God's grace.' We are not without law, nor may we hold bodily the law of Moses, but God's grace directs us to his will, if we be mindful of Christ's commandments and of the precepts of the apostles.


Hit is gereht on yssere pistol-rdinge, hu se Halga Gast on isum dge com to am geleaffullan heape Cristes hyredes. Lucas se Godspellere awrt on re bc 'Actus Apostolorum,' t "se halga hyred ws wunigende nmodlice on gebedum on anre upflora, fter Cristes upstige, anbidigende his behates; a on isum dge, e is Pentecostes gecweden, com frlice micel sweg of heofonum and gefylde ealle a upfleringe mid fyre; and ws teowed bufon heora lcum swylce fyrene tungan, and h wurdon a ealle gefyllede mid am Halgum Gaste, and ongunnon to sprecenne mid mislicum gereordum, be am e se Halga Gast him thte. a wron gegaderode binnan re byrig Hierusalem eawfste weras of lcere eode e under heofonum eardia; and a apostoli sprcon to s folces gegaderunge, and heora lc oncneow his agen gereord."


It is related in this epistolary lesson, how the Holy Ghost on this day came to the faithful company of Christ's followers. Luke the Evangelist wrote in the book 'The Acts of the Apostles,' that "the holy company was living unanimously in prayers on an upper floor, after Christ's ascension, awaiting his behest; when, on this day, which is called Pentecost, there came suddenly a great sound from heaven, and filled all the upper flooring with fire, and there appeared above each of them as it were fiery tongues, and they were then all filled with the Holy Ghost, and begun to speak with divers tongues, according as the Holy Ghost taught them. Then there were gathered within the city of Jerusalem pious men of every nation dwelling under heaven; and the apostles spake to the gathering of people, and every of them recognized his own tongue."

"a wear seo menigu swie ablicged, and mid wundrunge cwdon, La h, ne sind as e her spreca Galileisce? And ure lc gehyrde hu hi sprcon urum gereordum, on am e we acennede wron! We gehyrdon h sprecan Godes mra mid urum gereordum. La hwt is beon sceole? a cwdon a Iudeiscan mid hospe, as men sindon mid muste fordrencte. a andwyrde Petrus, Hit is undern-td; hu mihte we on ysre tide beon fordrencte? Ac s witegan cwyde Ioheles is nu gefylled. God cw urh s witegan mu, t he wolde his Gast asendan ofer mennisc flsc; and manna bearn sceolon witigian, and ic sylle mine forebeacn ufan of heofonum, and mine tcna nier on eoran. Wite ge solice t Crist ars of deae, and on ure gewitnysse astah to heofonum, and sitt t his Fder swiran, swa swa Dauid be him witegode, us cweende, Drihten cw to minum Drihtne, Site to minre swiran, ot ic alecge ine fynd under inum fot-scamele. a t folc is gehyrde, a wurdon h onbryrde, and cwdon to am apostolon, La leof, hwt is us to donne? a andwyrde Petrus, Behreowsia eowre synna, and underfo fulluht on Cristes naman, and eowre synna beo {316}adylegode, and ge underfo one Halgan Gast. a underfengon hi his lare, and bugon to fulluhte on am dge reo usend manna. a wron ealle on annysse mid am apostolum, and beceapodon heora hta, and t feoh bethton am apostolum, and hi dldon lcum be his neode."

"Then was the multitude greatly amazed, and with wonder said, Lo, are not these which here speak Galileans? And each of us hath heard how they speak in our tongues, in which we were born! We have heard them declare the glories of God in our tongues. Lo, what should this be? Then said the Jews in mockery, These men are drunken with new wine. But Peter answered, It is the third hour; how might we at this time be drunken? But the saying of the prophet Joel is now fulfilled. God spake through the prophet's mouth, that he would send his spirit over human flesh, and the children of men shall prophesy, and I will give my foretokens from heaven above, and my signs on earth beneath. For know ye that Christ arose from death, and in our sight ascended to heaven, and sitteth on his Father's right, as David had prophesied concerning him, thus saying, The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit on my right until I lay thy foes under thy footstool. When the people heard this they were stimulated, and said to the apostles, Alas! what have we to do? Then Peter answered, Repent of your sins, and receive baptism in the name of Christ, and your sins shall be blotted out, and ye {317}shall receive the Holy Ghost. They then received his doctrine, and there submitted to baptism on that day three thousand men. And they were all in unity with the apostles, and sold their possessions, and delivered the money to the apostles, and they distributed to each according to his need."

"Eft on ore bodunge gelyfdon fif usend wera on Crist, and wear eall seo geleaffulle menigu swa anmod swilce h ealle hfdon ane heortan and ane sawle; ne heora nan nfde synderlice hta, ac him eallum ws gemne heora ing, ne r ns nn wdla betwux him. a e land-are hfdon hi hit beceapodon, and t wur brohton to ra apostola fotum: h a dldon lcum be his neode."

"Again, at another preaching, five thousand men believed in Christ, and all the believing multitude was as unanimous as if they all had one heart and one soul; not one of them had separate possessions, but their things were common to them all, nor was there any poor person among them. Those who had land-property sold it, and brought the worth to the feet of the apostles: they then distributed it to each according to his need."

"a worhte God fela tacna on am folce urh ra apostola handa, swa t hi gelogodon a untruman be re strt r Petrus for eode, and swa hrae swa his sceadu hi hreopode, hi wurdon gehlede fram eallum untrumnyssum. a arn micel menigu to of gehendum burgum, and brohton heora untruman and a deofol-seocan, and h ealle wurdon gehlede t ra apostola handum. Hi setton heora handa ofer gelyfede men, and h underfengon one Halgan Gast."

"Then God wrought many signs among the people by the hands of the apostles, so that they placed the sick along the street where Peter passed, and as his shadow touched them, they were healed of all sicknesses. Then ran a great multitude from the neighbouring towns, and brought their sick and those possessed with devils, and they were all healed at the hands of the apostles. They set their hands on believing men, and they received the Holy Ghost."

"a ws sum egen, Annanias gehten, and his wf Saphra: h cwdon him betweonan, t h woldon bugan to ra apostola geferrdene. Namon a to rde, t him wrlicor wre, t h sumne dl heora landes wures thfdon, weald him getimode. Com a se egen mid feo to am apostolum. a cw Petrus, Annania, deofol bephte ine heortan, and u hfst alogen am Halgan Gaste. Hw woldest u swician on inum agenum? Ne luge u na mannum, ac Gode. a h as word gehyrde, a feol h adne and gewt. aa he bebyrged ws, a com his wif Saphra, and nyste hu hire were gelumpen ws. a cw Petrus, Sege me, beceapode ge us micel landes? Heo andwyrde, Gea, leof, swa micel. Eft a cw Petrus, Hw gewear inc swa, t gyt dorston fandian Godes? Heo feoll rrihte and gewt, and h man {318}bebyrigde to hyre were. a wear micel ege on Godes gelaunge and on eallum e t geaxodon."

"Then was a thane, called Ananias, and his wife Sapphira: they said between themselves, that they would incline to the fellowship of the apostles. They then resolved, that it would be safer to withhold a portion of the worth of their land, in case aught befell them. The thane then came with the money to the apostles. Then said Peter, Ananias, the devil hath cheated thy heart, and thou hast lied to the Holy Ghost. Why wouldst thou deceive in thine own? Thou hast not lied to men, but to God. When he had heard these words, he fell down and departed. When he was buried, his wife Sapphira came, and knew not how it had befallen her husband. Then Peter said, Tell me, sold ye thus much land? She answered, Yes, sir, so much. Again said Peter, Why have ye so done, that ye durst tempt God? She {319}straightways fell down and departed, and they buried her by her husband. Then there was great fear in God's church, and on all those who heard of it."

a apostoli sian, ram e hi toferdon, gesetton Iacobum, e ws gehten Rihtws, on Cristes setle, and eal seo geleaffulle gelaung him gehyrsumode, fter Godes tcunge. He a gest t setl ritig geara, and fter him Symeon, s Hlendes mg. fter re gebysnunge wurdon arrede munec-lf mid re gehealdsumnysse, t hi drohtnian on mynstre, be heora ealdres dihte, on clnnesse, and him beon heora hta eallum gemne, swa a apostoli hit astealdon.

The apostles afterwards, before they separated, set James, who was called Righteous, on the seat of Christ, according to God's instruction. He sat on that seat thirty years, and after him Simeon, the kinsman of Jesus. From that example monastic life arose with abstinence, so that they live in a monastery, according to the direction of their principal, in chastity, and their possessions are common to them all, as the apostles established it.

Ge gehyrdon lytle ǽr, on isre rdinge, t se Halga Gast com ofer a apostolas on fyrenum tungum, and him forgeaf ingehyd ealra gereorda; foran e se eadmoda heap geearnode t Gode t i ǽr t modige werod forleas. Hit getimode fter Noes flode, t entas woldon arran ane burh, and nne stypel swa heahne, t his hrof astige o heofon. a ws an gereord on eallum mancynne, and t weorc ws begunnen ongean Godes willan. God eac fori h tostencte, swa t he forgeaf lcum ra wyrhtena seltcu gereord, and heora nn ne cue ores sprce tocnawan. H a geswicon re getimbrunge, and toferdon geond ealne middangeard; and wron sian swa fela gereord swa ra wyrhtena ws. Nu eft on isum dge, urh s Halgan Gastes to-cyme, wurdon ealle gereord ge-anlhte and gewre; foran e eal se halga heap Cristes hyredes ws sprecende mid eallum gereordum; and eac t wunderlicor ws, aa heora n bodade mid anre sprce, lcum ws geuht, e a bodunge gehyrde, swilce he sprce mid his gereorde, wron h Ebreisce, oe Grecisce, oe Romanisce, oe Egyptisce, oe swa hwilcere eode swa h wron e a lare gehyrdon. On ysre geferrdene geearnode heora eadmodnys as mihte, and ra enta modignys geearnode gescyndnysse.

Ye heard a little before, in this lesson, that the Holy Ghost came over the apostles as fiery tongues, and gave them knowledge of all languages; for the humble company merited of God that which long of yore the proud host had lost. It happened after Noah's flood, that giants would raise up a city, and a tower so high, that its roof should ascend to heaven. There was then one language among all mankind, and the work was begun against the will of God. God therefore scattered them, so that he gave to each of the workmen an unknown language, and not one of them could understand another's speech. They then ceased from the building, and went divers ways over all the world; and there were afterwards as many languages as there were workmen. Now again, on this day, through the advent of the Holy Ghost, all languages became united and concordant; for all the holy company of Christ's followers were speaking in all languages; and also, what was more wonderful, when one of them preached in one tongue, it seemed to everyone who heard the preaching as though he spake in his language, whether they were Hebrews, or Greeks, or Romans, or Egyptians, or of whatsoever nation they might be who heard that doctrine. In this fellowship their humility gained them this power, and the pride of the giants gained shame.

Se Halga Gast ws teowod ofer a apostolas on fyres {320}hiwe, and ofer Criste, on his fulluhte, on anre culfran anlicnysse. Hw ofer Criste on culfran hiwe? Hw ofer Cristes hirede on fyres gelicnysse? On bocum is gerdd be am fugelcynne t his gecynd is swie bilewite, and unscig, and gesibsum. Se Hlend is ealles mancynnes dema, ac he ne com na to demenne mancynn, swa swa he sylf cw, ac to gehlenne. Gif he a wolde deman mancynn, aa he rest to middangearde com, hwa wurde onne gehealden? Ac he nolde mid his to-cyme a synfullan fordeman, ac wolde to his rice gegaderian. rest he wolde us mid linysse styran, t he sian mihte on his dome us gehealdan. Fori ws se Halga Gast on culfran anlicnysse gesewen bufan Criste, foran e h ws drohtnigende on isre worulde mid bilewitnysse, and unscignysse, and gesibsumnysse. He ne hrymde, ne he biterwyrde ns, ne he sace ne astyrede, ac forbr manna yfelnysse urh his linysse. Ac se e on am rran to-cyme liegode, am synfullum to gecyrrednysse, se dem stine dom am receleasum t am fteran to-cyme.

The Holy Ghost appeared over the apostles in semblance {321}of fire, and over Christ, at his baptism, in likeness of a dove. Why over Christ in semblance of a dove? Why over the followers of Christ in likeness of fire? In books it is read concerning that kind of birds that its nature is very meek, and innocent, and peaceful. The Saviour is the Judge of all mankind, but he came not to judge mankind, as he himself said, but to save. If he then would have judged mankind, when he first came on earth, who would have been saved? But he would not by his advent condemn the sinful, but would gather them to his kingdom. He would first with gentleness direct us, that he might afterwards preserve us at his judgement. Therefore was the Holy Ghost seen in likeness of a dove above Christ, because he was living in this world in meekness, and innocence, and peacefulness. He cried not out, nor was he inclined to bitterness, nor did he stir up strife, but endured man's wickedness through his meekness. But he who at his first advent mitigated, for the conversion of the sinful, will deem stern doom to the reckless at his second advent.

Se Halga Gast ws gesewen on fyrenum tungum bufon am apostolon, foran e h dyde t hi wron byrnende on Godes willan, and bodigende ymbe Godes rice. Fyrene tungan h hfdon, aa h mid lufe Godes mra bodedon, t ra henra manna heortan, e cealde wron urh geleaflste and flsclice gewilnunga, mihton beon ontende to am heofenlicum bebodum. Gif se Halga Gast ne lr s mannes md wiinnan, on idel beo s bydeles word wiutan geclypode. Fyres gecynd is t hit fornim swa hwt swa him gehende bi: swa sceal se lreow dn, see bi mid am Halgan Gaste onbryrd, rest on him sylfum lcne leahter adwscan, and sian on his undereoddum.

The Holy Ghost was seen as fiery tongues above the apostles; for he effected that they were burning in God's will, and preaching of God's kingdom. They had fiery tongues when with love they preached the greatness of God, that the hearts of the heathen men, which were cold through infidelity and fleshly desires, might be kindled to the heavenly commands. If the Holy Ghost teach not a man's mind within, in vain will be the words of the preacher proclaimed without. It is the nature of fire to consume whatsoever is near to it: so shall the teacher do, who is inspired by the Holy Ghost, first extinguish every sin in himself, and afterwards in those under his care.

On culfran anlicnysse and on fyres hiwe ws Godes Gast teowod; foran e h de t a beo bilewite on unscignysse, and byrnende on Godes willan, e he mid his gife gefyl. Ne bi seo bilewitnys Gode gecweme butan {322}snoternysse, ne seo snoternys butan bilewitnysse; swa swa gecweden is be am eadigan Ib, t he ws bilewite and rihtwis. Hwt bi rihtwisnys butan bilewitnysse? Oe hwt bi bilewitnys butan rihtwisnysse? Ac se Halga Gast, e th rihtwisnysse and bilewitnysse, sceolde beon teowod ger ge on fyre ge on culfran, foran e h de ra manna heortan e h onliht mid his gife, t hi beo lie urh unscignysse, and onlede urh lufe and snoternysse. God is, swa swa Paulus cw, fornymende fyr. He is nasecgendlic fyr, and ungesewenlic. Be am fyre cw se Hlend, "Ic com to i t ic wolde sendan fyr on eoran, and ic wylle t hit byrne." He sende one Halgan Gast to eoran, and he mid his blde onlde eorlicra manna heortan. onne byrn seo eore, onne s eorlican mannes heorte bi ontend to Godes lufe, seoe r ws ceald urh flsclice lustas.

In likeness of a dove and in semblance of fire was the Spirit of God manifested; for he causes those to be meek in innocence, and burning in the will of God, whom he fills with his grace. Meekness is not pleasing to God without wisdom, {323}nor wisdom without meekness; as it is said by the blessed Job, that he was meek and righteous. What is righteousness without meekness? Or what is meekness without righteousness? But the Holy Ghost, who teaches both righteousness and meekness, should be manifested both as fire and as a dove, for he causes the hearts of those men whom he enlightens with his grace to be meek through innocence, and kindled by love and wisdom. God is, as Paul said, a consuming fire. He is a fire unspeakable and invisible. Concerning that fire Jesus said, "I come because I would send fire on earth, and I will that it burn." He sent the Holy Ghost on earth, and he by his inspiration kindled the hearts of earthly men. Then burns the earth, when the earthly man's heart is kindled to love of God, which before was cold through fleshly lusts.

Nis na se Halga Gast wunigende on his gecynde, swa swa h gesewen ws, foran e he is ungesewenlic; ac for re getacnunge, swa we r cwdon, he ws teowod on culfran, and on fyre. He is gehaten on Greciscum gereorde, Paraclitus, t is, Frofor-gast, fori e he frefra a dreorian, e heora synna behreowsia, and syl him forgyfenysse hiht, and heora unrotan md geliega. He forgyf synna, and he is se weg to forgyfenysse ealra synna. He syl his gife am e he wile. Sumum men he forgif wisdom and sprce, sumum gd ingehyd, sumum micelne geleafan, sumum mihte to gehlenne untruman, sumum witegunge, sumum toscead godra gasta and yfelra; sumum he forgif mislice gereord, sumum gereccednysse mislicra sprca. Ealle as ing de se Halga Gast, todlende ghwilcum be am e him gewyr; foram e he is lmihtig Wyrhta, and swa hrae swa he s mannes mod onliht, he hit awent fram yfele to gode. He onlihte Dauides heortan, aa he on iugoe hearpan lufode, and worhte hine to psalm-wyrhtan. Amos hatte sum hryer-hyrde, one awende se Halga Gast to mrum {324}witegan. Petrus ws fiscere, one awende se ylca Godes Gast to apostole. Paulus ehte cristenra manna, one he geceas to lareowe eallum eodum. Matheus ws tollere, one he awende to godspellere. a apostoli ne dorston bodian one soan geleafan, for gan Iudeisces folces; ac sian h wron onlede urh one Halgan Gast, h forsawon ealle lichamlice pinunga, and orsorhlice Godes mra bodedon.

The Holy Ghost is not in his nature existing as he was seen, for he is invisible; but for the sign, as we before said, he appeared as a dove and as fire. He is called in the Greek tongue Παρακλητος, that is, Comforting Spirit, because he comforts the sad, who repent of their sins, and gives them hope of forgiveness, and alleviates their sorrowful minds. He forgives sins, and he is the way to forgiveness of all sins. He gives his grace to whom he will. To one man he gives wisdom and eloquence, to one good knowledge, to one great faith, to one power to heal the sick, to one prophetic power, to one discrimination of good and evil spirits; to one he gives divers tongues, to one interpretation of divers sayings. The Holy Ghost does all these things, distributing to everyone as to him seems good; for he is the Almighty Worker, and as soon as he enlightens the mind of a man, he turns it from evil to good. He enlightened the heart of David, when in youth he loved the harp, and made him to be a psalmist. There was a cow-herd called Amos, whom the Holy Ghost turned to a great prophet. Peter was a fisher, whom the {325}same Spirit of God turned to an apostle. Paul persecuted christian men, whom he chose for instructer of all nations. Matthew was a toll-gatherer, whom he turned to an evangelist. The apostles durst not preach the true faith, for fear of the Jewish folk; but after that they were fired by the Holy Ghost, they despised all bodily tortures, and fearlessly preached the greatness of God.

yses dges wurmynt is to mrsigenne, foran e se lmihtiga God, t is se Halga Gast, gemedemode hine sylfne t he wolde manna bearn on isre tide geneosian. On Cristes acennednysse wear se lmihtiga Godes Sunu to menniscum men gedon, and on isum dge wurdon geleaffulle men godas, swa swa Crist cw, "Ic cw, Ge sind godas, and ge ealle sind bearn s Hehstan." a gecorenan sind Godes bearn, and eac godas, na gecyndelice, ac urh gife s Halgan Gastes. An God is gecyndelice on rim hadum, Fder, and his Sunu, t is his Wisdom, and se Halga Gast, see is heora begra Lufu and Willa. Heora gecynd is untodledlic, fre wunigende on anre Godcundnysse. Se ylca cw eah-hwere be his gecorenum, "Ge sint godas." urh Cristes menniscnysse wurdon menn alysede fram deofles eowte, and urh to-cyme s Halgan Gastes, mennisce men wurdon gedone to godum. Crist underfeng menniscnysse on his to-cyme, and men underfengon God urh neosunge s Halgan Gastes. Se man e nf Godes Gast on him nis h Godes. lces mannes weorc cya hwilc gast hine wissa. Godes Gast wissa symble to halignysse and gdnysse; deofles gast wissa to leahtrum and to mnddum.

The dignity of this day is to be celebrated, because Almighty God, that is the Holy Ghost, himself vouchsafed to visit the children of men at this time. At the birth of Christ the Almighty Son of God became human man, and on this day believing men became gods, as Christ said; "I said, Ye are gods, and ye are all children of the Highest." The chosen are children of God, and also gods, not naturally, but through grace of the Holy Ghost. One God is naturally in three persons, the Father, and his Son, that is, his Wisdom, and the Holy Ghost, who is the Love and Will of them both. Their nature is indivisible, ever existing in one Godhead. The same has, nevertheless, said of his chosen, "Ye are gods." Through Christ's humanity men were redeemed from the thraldom of the devil, and through the coming of the Holy Ghost human men were made gods. Christ received human nature at his advent, and men received God through visitation of the Holy Ghost. The man who has not in him the Spirit of God is not God's. Every man's works show what spirit directs him. The Spirit of God ever directs to holiness and goodness; the spirit of the devil directs to sins and deeds of wickedness.

Se Halga Gast becom tuwa ofer a apostolas. Crist ableow one Halgan Gast upon a apostolas ǽr his upstige, us cweende, "Onfo Haligne Gast." Eft, on isum dge, asende se lmihtiga Fder and se Sunu heora begra Gast to am geleaffullan heape, on ysre worulde wunigende. Se Hlend ableow his Gast on his gingran, for re getacnunge {326}t h and ealle cristene men sceolon lufigan heora nehstan swa swa h sylfe. He sende eft, swa swa h ǽr behet, one ylcan Gast of heofonum, to i t we sceolon lufian God ofer ealle ore ing. An is se Halga Gast, eah e he tuwa become ofer a apostolas. Swa is eac n lufu and twa bebodu, t we sceolon lufian God and menn. Ac we sceolon leornian on mannum hu we magon becuman to Godes lufe, swa swa Iohannes se apostol cw, "Se e ne lufa his broor, one e he gesih, hu mg h lufian God, one e he ne gesih lichamlice?"

The Holy Ghost came twice over the apostles. Christ blew the Holy Ghost on the apostles before his resurrection, thus saying, "Receive the Holy Ghost." Again, on this day, the Almighty Father and the Son sent the Spirit of both to the faithful company dwelling in this world. Jesus blew his Spirit on his disciples for a sign that they and all christian {327}men should love their neighbours as themselves. He sent afterwards, as he had before promised, the Holy Ghost from heaven, to the end that we should love God above all other things. The Holy Ghost is one, though he came twice over the apostles. So also there is one love and two commandments, That we should love God and men. But we should learn by men how we may come to the love of God, as John the apostle said, "He who loveth not his brother, whom he seeth, how can he love God, whom he seeth not bodily?"

We wuria s Halgan Gastes to-cyme mid lofsangum seofon dagas, foran e he onbryrt ure md mid seofonfealdre gife, t is, mid wisdome and andgyte, mid geeahte and strence, mid ingehyde and arfstnysse, and he us gefyl mid Godes ege. Se e urh gode geearnunga becym to issum seofonfealdum gifum s Halgan Gastes, he hf onne ealle geince. Ac se e wile to isre geince becuman, he sceal gelyfan on a Halgan rynnysse, and on Soe Annysse, t se Fder, and his Sunu, and heora begra Gast syndon ry on hadum, and n God untodledlic, on anre Godcundnysse wunigende. ysne geleafan getacnodon a reo usend e rest gebugon to geleafan, fter s Halgan Gastes to-cyme. Swa swa a reo usend wron n werod, swa is seo Halige rynnys n God. And t werod ws swa nmod swilce him eallum wre n heorte and n sawul; foran e re Halgan rynnysse is n godcundnyss, and n gecynd, and n willa, and n weorc unascyrigendlice.

We celebrate the advent of the Holy Ghost with hymns for seven days, because he stimulates our mind with a sevenfold gift, that is, with wisdom and understanding, with counsel and strength, with knowledge and piety, and he fills us with awe of God. He who through good deserts attains to these sevenfold gifts of the Holy Ghost will have all honour. But he who will attain to this honour shall believe in the Holy Trinity, and in True Unity, that the Father, and his Son, and the Spirit of them both are three in persons, and one God indivisible, existing in one Godhead. This faith was betokened by the three thousand who first inclined to belief, after the advent of the Holy Ghost. As those three thousand were one company, so is the Holy Trinity one God. And that company was as unanimous as though they all had one heart and one soul; for of the Holy Trinity there is one Godhead, and one nature, and one will, and one work inseparable.

a geleaffullan brohton heora feoh, and ledon hit t ra apostola foton. Mid am is geswutelod t cristene men ne sceolon heora hiht besettan on woroldlice gestreon, ac on Gode anum. Se gtsere e beset his hiht on his goldhord, he bi swa swa se apostol cw, "am gelc e deofolgyld beg."

The faithful brought their money, and laid it at the feet of the apostles. By this is manifested that christian men should not set their delight in worldly treasure, but in God alone. The covetous who sets his delight in his gold-hoard, is, as the apostle said, "like unto him who practiseth idolatry."

Hi heoldon t gold unwurlice, foran e seo gitsung nfde nnne stede on heora heortan: fori h dydon heora {328}ing him gemne, t h on sore sibbe butan gytsunge beon mihton. H setton heora handa ofer geleaffulle men, and him com to se Halga Gast urh heora biscepunge. Biscopas sind s ylcan hdes on Godes gelaunge, and healda a gesetnysse on heora biscepunge, swa t h setta heora handa ofer gefullude menn, and bidda t se lmihtiga Wealdend him sende a seofonfealdan gife his Gastes, see leofa and rixa butan ende. Amen.

They held the gold as worthless, because covetousness had no place in their hearts: they made their goods in common, {329}that they might be in true peace without covetousness. They set their hands over believing men, and the Holy Ghost came to them through their bishoping. Bishops are of the same order in God's church, and hold that institution in their bishoping, so that they set their hands over baptized men, and pray the Almighty Ruler to send them the sevenfold gift of his Spirit, who liveth and reigneth ever without end. Amen.



Homo quidam erat diues: et reliqua.

Homo quidam erat dives: et reliqua.

Se Wealdenda Drihten sde is bgspell his gingrum, us cweende, "Sum welig man ws mid purpuran and godewebbe geglenged, and dghwamlice mrlice leofode. a lg sum wdla at his geate, and his nama ws Lazarus, se ws lic-rowere:" et reliqua.

The Sovereign Lord spake this parable to his disciples, thus saying, "There was a certain rich man adorned with purple and fine linen, and daily lived sumptuously. A certain poor man lay at his gate, and his name was Lazarus, who was a leper," etc.

is godspel is nu anfealdlice gesǽd. Se halga papa Gregorius us onwreah a digelnysse isre rdinge. He cw, "Ne sde t halige godspel t se rca reafere wre, ac ws uncystig and modegode on his welum." Be isum is to smeagenne, hu se beo gewitnod e oerne beryp, onne se bi to helle fordemed se his agen nolde for Godes lufon syllan. ises mannes uncyst and up-ahefednys hine besencte on cwycsusle, foran e he nfde nane mildheortnysse, t he mid his gestreone his agene sawle alysde. Nu wena sume menn t nan pleoh ne sy on deorwurum gyrlum; ac gif hit gylt nre, onne ne geswutulode t halige godspel swa gewislice be am rican, t he wre mid purpuran and mid godewebbe geglencged. Ne cep nan man deorwyrra reafa buton for ydelum gylpe, solice t he sy toforan orum mannum urh his glencge geteald. Drihten on ore stowe herede {330}Iohannem one Fulluhtere for re teartnysse his reafes, foran e h ws mid olfendes hrum gescryd, wclice and stilice.

This gospel is now simply said. The holy pope Gregory has revealed to us the mystery of this text. He said, "The holy gospel did not express that the rich man was a robber, but that he was parsimonious, and exulted in his wealth." By this it is to be considered how he will be punished who bereaves another, when he is condemned to hell, who would not give his own for love of God. This man's parsimony and pride sank him into quick torment, because he had no compassion, so that with his treasure he might have redeemed his own soul. Now some men will imagine that there is no peril in precious garments, but if there were no sin, the holy gospel would not have so evidently manifested with respect to the rich man, that he was adorned with purple and with fine linen. No man heeds precious garments save for vain pride, verily that he may through his splendour be accounted before other men. The Lord in another place praised John {331}the Baptist for the rudeness of his garment, because he was clothed with camel's hair, poorly and ruggedly.

aa se Hlend sprc be am rican, a cw he, "Sum rice man ws." Eft be am wdlan, "Sum earfa ws gehten Lazarus." Cu is eow t se rica bi namcure on his leode onne se earfa; eah-hwere ne nemde se Hlend one welegan, ac one wdlan; foran e him is cu ra eadmodra manna naman urh gecorennysse, ac he ne cann a modigan urh heora aworpennysse. Sume beladunge mihte se rica habban his uncyste, gif se reoflia wdla ne lge tforan his gesihe: eac wre am earman leohtre on mode, gif he s rican mannes welan ne gesawe. Mislice angsumnyssa he forbr, aa he nfde ne bigleofan, ne hle, ne htera, and geseah one rican halne and deorweorlice geglencgedne brucan his estmettas. Genoh wre am wdlan his untrumnys, eah e he wiste hfde; and eft him wre genoh his hafenleast, eah e he gesundful wre. Ac seo menigfealde earfonys ws his sawle clnsung, and s rican uncyst and up-ahefednys ws his genierung; foron e he geseah s ores yrme, and hine mid toundenum mode forseah. Ac aa he ws fram mannum forsewen, a genealhton a hundas, and his wunda geliccedon. Hundes liccung gehl wunda.

When Jesus spake of the rich man he said, "There was a certain rich man." Again, of the poor man, "There was a certain poor man called Lazarus." It is known to you that a rich man is more known by name among his people than a poor one; nevertheless Jesus named not the wealthy man, but the needy one; because the names of humble men are known to him through election, but he knows not the proud through their rejection. Some excuse the rich man might have had for his parsimony, if the leprous beggar had not lain before his sight: the mind of the poor man would also have been easier, if he had not seen the rich man's wealth. Divers afflictions he endured, seeing that he had neither nourishment, nor health, nor garments, and saw the rich man, hale and sumptuously decorated, enjoying his luxuries. For the beggar his infirmity had been enough, though he had had food; and again, his indigence had been enough for him, although he had been healthful. But the manifold hardship was the cleansing of his soul, and the parsimony and pride of the rich man were his condemnation; because he saw the other's misery, and with inflated mind despised him. But when he was despised of men, the dogs approached, and licked his wounds. The licking of a dog heals wounds.

a gelamp hit t se wdla gewt, and englas ferodon his sawle to s heahfderes wununge Abrahmes; and s rican gast fter forsie wear on helle besenct; and he a one wolde habban him to mundboran, am e he nolde ǽr his cruman syllan. He bd a Abraham mid earmlicre stemne t Lazarus moste his tungan drypan; ac him ns getiod re lytlan lisse, foran e Lazarus ne moste ǽr on life hedan ra crumena his mysan. His tungan he mnde swiost, foran e hit is gewunelic t a welegan on heora gebeorscipe bega derigendlice gafetunge; a ws seo tunge, urh rihtwisnysse edlean, teartlicor gewtnod for his {332}gegafsprce. Se heahfder Abraham him cw to, "u, mn bearn, beo e gemyndig t u underfenge welan on inum life, and Lazarus yrme." es cwyde is swior to ondrdenne onne to trahtnigenne. am rican ws forgolden mid am hwilwendlicum spedum, gif he hwt to gode gefremode; and am earfan ws forgolden mid re yrme, gif he hwt to yfle gefremode. a underfeng se welega his gesle to edleane to sceortum brice, and s earfan hafenleast aclnsode his lytlan gyltas. Hine geswencte seo wdlung, and afeormode; one oerne gewelgode his genihtsumnys, and bephte.

It then happened that the beggar died, and angels bare his soul to the dwelling of the patriarch Abraham; and the rich man's spirit after death was sunk into hell; and he then wished to have him for protector, to whom he would not before give his crumbs. He then bade Abraham with piteous voice, that Lazarus might moisten his tongue; but that little favour was not granted him, because Lazarus might not before in life gather the crumbs of his table. He particularly complained of his tongue, because it is usual that the wealthy in their feasting practise pernicious scoffing; therefore was his tongue, through righteous retribution, more harshly punished {333}for his scoffing speech. The patriarch Abraham said to him, "My son, be thou mindful that thou receivedst riches in thy life, and Lazarus misery." This saying is rather to be feared than expounded. The rich man was requited with transitory prosperity, if he did aught of good; and the poor man was requited with misery, if he had perpetrated aught of evil. Then the wealthy man received his happiness in reward for short enjoyment, and the indigence of the needy one cleansed away his little sins. Poverty afflicted and purified him; his abundance enriched and deceived the other.

Ic bidde eow, men a leofostan, ne forseo ge Godes earfan, eah e hi tallice hwt gefremman; foran e heora yrm afeorma t t seo gehwde oferflowendnys gewem. Hwia be gehwilcum, foran e oft getima yfelum teala for life. Se heahfder cw to am welegan, "Betwux us and eow is gefstnod micel rosm; eah hwa wille fram s to eow, he ne mg; ne eac fram eow to s." Mid micelre geornfulnysse gewilnia a wiercoran t hi moton of re susle e hi on cwylmia, ac seo fstnung re hellican clysinge ne geafa t hi fre ut-abrecon. Eac a halgan beo mid heora Scyppendes rihtwisnysse swa afyllede, t hi nateshwon ne besargia ra wiercorenra yrme; foran e hi geseo a fordnan swa micclum fram him gelfremode, swa micclum swa hi beo fram heora leofan Drihtne ascofene.

I pray you, men most beloved, despise not God's poor, though they perpetrate anything reprehensible; because their misery cleanses that which a little superfluity corrupts. Observe each one, for good often befalls the evil for life. The patriarch said to the wealthy man, "Betwixt us and you is fixed a great vapour; though any-one will pass from us to you, he cannot; nor also from you to us." With great eagerness the wicked desire to pass from the torment in which they suffer, but the fastening of the hellish enclosure never allows them to break out. Also the holy are so filled with their Creator's righteousness, that they in no wise lament the misery of the wicked; because they see the fordone ones as greatly estranged from them, as they are thrust away from their beloved Lord.

Sian se rica wear orwene his agenre alysednysse, a bern him on mod his gebrora gemynd; foran e ra wiercorenra wite tiht for wel oft heora mod unnytwurlice to lufe, swilce hi onne lufian heora siblingas, e ǽr on life ne hi sylfe ne heora magas ne lufedon. Ne lufa se hine sylfne see hine mid synnum bebint. He oncneow Lazarum, one e he ǽr forseah, and he gemunde his gebrora, a e he bftan forlet; foran e se earfa nre fullice gewrecen on am rican, gif he on his wite hine ne oncneowe; and eft {334}nre his wite fulfremed on am fyre, buton he a ylcan pinunga his siblingum gewende.

When the rich man became hopeless of his own deliverance, the remembrance of his brothers entered into his mind; for the punishment of the wicked very often uselessly stimulates their minds to love, so that they then love their relatives, who before in life loved neither themselves nor their kinsmen. He loves not himself who binds himself with sins. He recognized Lazarus, whom he had before despised, and he remembered his brothers, whom he had left behind; for the needy one would not have been fully avenged on the rich, if {335}he in his punishment had not recognized him; and again, his punishment would not have been complete in the fire, unless he had expected the same torments for his relatives.

a synfullan geseo nu hwiltidum a gecorenan on wuldre, e hi forsawon on worulde, t seo angsumnys heora modes e mare sy: and a rihtwisan symle geseo a unrihtwisan on heora tintregum cwylmigende, t heora bliss e mare sy, and lufu to heora Drihtne, e hi ahredde fram deofles anwealde, and fram am mnfullum heape. Ne astyra ra rihtwisra gesih him nnne gan, ne heora wuldor ne wana; foran e r ne bi nn besargung ra mnfulra yrme, ac heora tintrega becym am gecorenum to maran blisse, swa swa on metinge bi forsewen seo blace anlicnys, t seo hwite sy beorhtre gesewen. a gecorenan geseo symle heora Scyppendes beorhtnysse, and fori nis nan ing on gesceaftum him bediglod.

The sinful will now sometimes see the chosen in glory, whom they in the world despised, that the affliction of their minds may be the greater: and the righteous will ever see the unrighteous suffering in their torments, that their bliss and love to their Lord may be the greater, who rescued them from the power of the devil, and from the wicked band. That spectacle will excite no terror to the righteous, nor will their glory wane; for there will be no sorrowing for the misery of the wicked, but their torments will turn to the greater bliss of the chosen, as in a picture a dark likeness is provided, that the white may appear the brighter. The chosen will constantly see their Creator's brightness, and therefore there is nothing in creation concealed from him.

Se welega nolde on life gehyran one lareow Moysen, ne Godes witegan: a wende he eac t his gebrora h woldon forseon, swa swa he dyde, and gyrnde fori t Lazarus h moste warnigan, t h ne becomon to his susle. Se heahfder him andwyrde, "Gif hi forseo Moyses ǽ and ra witegena bodunga, nella h gelyfan, eah hw of deae arise." a e forgimeleasia a eaelican beboda re ealdan ǽ, hu willa h onne gehyrsumian am healicum bebodum Cristes lare, e of deae ars?

The rich man would not in life hear the teacher Moses, or God's prophets: then he thought that his brothers would also despise them as he did, and desired therefore that Lazarus might warn them, so that they came not to his torment. The patriarch answered him, "If they despise the law of Moses and the preachings of the prophets, they will not believe, though one arose from death." Those who neglect the easy commandments of the old law, how will they obey the sublime commandments of Christ's doctrine, who arose from death?

Ic bidde eow, mine gebrora, t ge beon gemyndige s Lazares reste and s rican wite, and do swa swa Crist sylf thte, "Tilia eow freonda on Godes earfum, t h on eowrum geendungum onfon eow into ecum eardung-stowum." Manega Lazaras ge habba nu licgende t eowrum gatum, biddende eowre oferflowendnysse. eah e h syn wclice geuhte, eah-hwere h beo eft eowre ingeras wi one lmihtigan. Solice we sceoldon beodan am earfum t h us bidda, foran e h beo ure mundboran, a e nu wdligende t us bigleofan wilnia. Ne sceole we forseon {336}heora wcnysse, foran e Criste bi geenod urh earfena anfenge, swa swa he sylf cw, "Me hingrode, and ge me gereordodon; me yrste, and ge me scencton; ic ws nacod, and ge me scryddon."

I pray you, my brethren, that ye be mindful of Lazarus's rest and of the rich man's punishment, and do as Christ himself taught, "Gain to yourselves friends among God's poor, that they at your end may receive you into eternal dwelling-places." Many Lazaruses ye have now lying at your gates, begging for your superfluity. Though they are esteemed as vile, they will, nevertheless, be hereafter your interceders with the Almighty. Verily we ought to enjoin the poor to pray for us, because they will be our protectors, who, now begging, desire sustenance of us. We should not despise their {337}vileness, for Christ himself is served through reception of the poor, as he himself said, "I was hungry, and ye fed me; I was thirsty, and ye gave me to drink; I was naked, and ye clothed me."

Nu cwe se halga Gregorius, t sum arwure munuc ws on am earde Licaonia, swie eawfst, his nama ws Martirius. Se ferde, be his abbudes hse, to sumum orum mynstre, on his rende: a gemette he be wege sumne lic-rowere licgende eal tocnen, and nahte his fees geweald: cw t he wolde genealcan his hulce, gif he mihte. a ofhreow am munece s hreoflian mgenleast, and bewand hine mid his cppan and br to mynstreweard. a wear his abbude geswutelod hwne he br, and hrymde mid micelre stemne, and cw, "Yrna, yrna, and undo s mynstres geat ardlice, foran e ure broor Martyrius ber one Hlend on his bce." aa se munuc genealhte s mynstres geate, a wnd se of his swuran e ws hreoflig geuht, and wear gesewen on Cristes gelicnysse. a beseah se munuc up, and beheold hu he to heofonum astah. a cw se Hlend mid am upstige, "Martri, ne sceamode e mn ofer eoran, ne me ne sceama in on heofonum." a efste se abbud wi s muneces, and neodlice cw, "Broor min, hwr is se e u feredest?" He cw, "Gif ic wiste hwt he wre, ic wolde licgan t his fotum. aa ic hine br ne gefredde ic nanre byrene swrnysse." Hu mihte h gefredan niges hefes swrnysse, aa he one ferode e hine br? Nu cwe se halga Gregorius, t se Hlend a gesede one cwyde e he sylf cw, "t t ge do earfum on minum naman, t ge do me sylfum."

Now says the holy Gregory, there was a reverend monk in the country of Lycaonia, very pious, his name was Martyrius. He went by order of his abbot to some other monastery, on his errand, when he found a leper lying by the way all chapped, and having no power of his feet: he said he wished to reach his hut, if he could. Then the monk was grieved for the helplessness of the leper, and he wrapt him in his cloak and bare him towards his monastery. Then it was disclosed to his abbot whom he was bearing, and he cried with a loud voice, and said, "Run, run, and undo the gate of the monastery quickly, for our brother Martyrius bears Jesus on his back." When the monk had reached the gate of the monastery, he who seemed a leper quitted his neck, and appeared in the likeness of Christ. The monk then looked up, and beheld how he ascended to heaven. Then said Jesus, while ascending, "Martyrius, thou wast not ashamed of me on earth, nor will I be ashamed of thee in heaven." Then the abbot hastened towards the monk, and eagerly said, "My brother, where is he whom thou didst carry?" He said, "If I had known who he was, I would have lain at his feet. When I bore him I felt no heaviness of any burthen." How could he feel the heaviness of any weight, when he carried one who bore him? Now says the holy Gregory, Jesus verified the saying which he himself said, "That which ye do for the poor in my name, that ye do for myself."

Hwt is on menniscum gecynde swa mrlic swa Cristes menniscnys? and hwt is atelicor geuht on menniscum gecynde onne is s hreoflian lc, mid toundennesse, and springum, and reocendum stence? Ac se e is arwurful ofer ealle gesceafta, he gemedemode hine sylfne t he wre gesewen on am atelican hwe, to i t we sceolon besargian {338}menniscra manna yrme, and be ure mihte gefrefrian, for lufe s mildheortan and s eadmodan Hlendes; t he us getiige wununge on his rice to ecum life, see us ahredde fram deofles hftnydum; see rixa on ecnysse mid am lmihtigan Fder and am Halgan Gaste, hi ry on anre Godcundnysse wunigende, butan anginne and ende, on worulde. Amen.

What is there in human nature so glorious as the humanity of Christ, and what is esteemed more foul in human nature than the carcase of the leper, with tumours, and ulcers, and reeking stench? But he who is to be venerated above all creatures, vouchsafed to appear in that foul form, to the end that we might pity the misery of human beings, and {339}according to our power comfort them, for love of the merciful and humble Jesus; that he may grant us a dwelling in his kingdom to eternal life, who rescued us from the devil's thraldom; who reigneth to eternity with the Almighty Father and the Holy Ghost, those three existing in one Godhead, without beginning and end, ever to eternity. Amen.



t hlige godspel us seg, t "gerefan and synfulle men genealhton am Hlende, and woldon his lare gehyran. a ceorodon a sunder-halgan and a boceras Iudeiscre eode, foran e se Hlend underfeng a synfullan, and him mid gereordode. a sde se Hlend am Iudeiscum bocerum is bigspel, Hwilc eower hf hund-teontig sceapa:" et reliqua.

The holy gospel tells us, that "publicans and sinners approached Jesus, and desired to hear his doctrine. Then the pharisees and the scribes of the Jewish people murmured, because Jesus received the sinful, and ate and drank with them. Then said Jesus to the Jewish scribes this parable, Which of you hath an hundred sheep," etc.

as word sind digle, ac se trahtnere Gregorius us geopenode t gastlice andgit. Mine gebrora a leofostan, ge gehyrdon on yssere godspellican rdinge, t a synfullan genealhton to s Hlendes sprce, and eac to his gereorde; and a Iudeiscan boceras mid hte t tldon: ac heora tl ns na of rihtwisnysse, ac of nie. Hi wron untrume, eah e hi s ne gymdon. a wolde se heofenlica lce mid geswsum bigspelle t geswell heora heortan welwyllendlice gelacnian, and us cw, "Hwilc eower hf hund-teontig sceapa, and gif he forlys n ra sceapa, onne forlt he a nigon and hund-nigontig on westene, and g secende t n e him losode?" Hundfeald getel is fulfremed, and se lmihtiga hfde hund-teontig sceapa, aa engla werod and mancynn wron his hta: ac him losode n sceap, aa se frumsceapena mann Adam syngigende forleas neorxena-wanges bigwiste. a forlet se lmihtiga Godes Sunu eal engla werod on heofonum, and ferde to eoran, and sohte t {340}n sceap e him twunden ws. aa he hit gemette, he hit br on his exlum to re eowde blissigende. aa he underfeng ure mennisce gecynd, and ure synna abr, a ws t dweligende sceap ongean fered on his halgum exlum. ra sceapa hlaford com ham, afundenum sceape; foran e Crist, fter re rowunge, e he mancyn mid alysde, ars of deae, and astah to heofonum blissigende.

These words are obscure, but the expounder Gregory has opened to us the ghostly meaning. My dearest brothers, ye have heard in this evangelical lesson, that the sinful approached to the speech of Jesus, and also to his refection; and the Jewish scribes censured that with heat; but their censure was not from righteousness, but from envy. They were sick, though they observed it not. Then would the heavenly leech with a pleasant parable benevolently heal the swelling of their hearts, and thus said, "Which of you hath an hundred sheep, and if he lose one of the sheep, then leaveth he [not] the ninety and nine in the waste, and goeth seeking the one that he lost?" An hundredfold number is perfect, and the Almighty had an hundred sheep, when the host of angels and mankind were his possessions: but he lost one sheep, when the first-created man Adam through sin lost the food of Paradise. Then the Almighty Son of God left all the host of angels in heaven, and went to earth, and sought that one {341}sheep that had escaped from him. When he had found it, he bare it on his shoulders to the flock rejoicing. When he assumed our human nature, and bare our sins, then was the wandering sheep brought back on his holy shoulders. The master of the sheep came home, having found his sheep; for Christ after his passion, whereby he redeemed mankind, arose from death, and ascended to heaven rejoicing.

He gelaode his frynd and his nehgeburas. His frynd sind engla heapas, foran e hi healda on heora staelfstnysse singallice his willan. Hi sind eac his nehgeburas, foran e hi bruca re wulderfullan beorhtnysse his gesihe on heora andweardnysse. He cw, "Blissia mid me, foran e ic gemette min forlorene sceap." Ne cw he, 'Blissia mid am sceape,' ac 'mid me,' foran e ure alysednys solice is his bliss; and onne we beo to re heofonlican eardung-stowe geldde, onne gefylle we a micclan mrsunge his gefean. He cw, "Ic secge eow, mare bliss bi on heofonum be anum synfullan men, gif he his synna mid dǽdbote behreowsa, onne sy be nigon and hund-nigontig rihtwisum e nanre behreowsunge ne behofia." is is to smeagenne, hwi sy mare bliss be gecyrredum synfullum, onne be unscyldigum rihtwisum.

He invited his friends and his neighbours. His friends are companies of angels, because they in their steadfastness constantly observe his will. They are also his neighbours, because they enjoy the glorious brightness of his sight in their presence. He said, "Rejoice with me, for I have found my lost sheep." He said not, 'Rejoice with the sheep,' but 'with me,' because our redemption is truly his joy; and when we are led to the heavenly dwelling-place, we then complete the great celebration of his gladness. He said, "I say unto you, there is more joy in heaven over one sinful man, if he rue his sins with repentance, than there is over ninety and nine righteous, who need no repentance." This is to be investigated, why there is more joy over a converted sinner, than over the innocent righteous.

We habba gelomlice gesewen, t gehwylce gebrora, e ne befeollon on healice gyltas, t h ne beo ealles swa carfulle to beganne a earfolican drohtnunge, swilce hi orsorge beon, foran e hi a healican leahtras ne gefremedon; and gehwilce ore e oncnawa a swran gyltas e hi on geogoe adrugon, beo mid micelre sarnysse onbryrde. Hi forseo alyfedlice ing and gesewenlice, and mid wope gewilnia a ungesewenlican and a heofonlican. H forseo h sylfe, and geeadmetta on eallum ingum; and fori e h dweligende fram heora Scyppende gewiton, h willa geinnian a ftran hine mid am uferan gestreonum. Mare bliss bi on heofonum be am gecyrredum synfullum, urh swilce drohtnunga, onne sy be am asolcenum e truwa be him sylfum t he {342}lytle and feawa gyltas gefremode, and eac hwonlice cara ymbe Godes beboda and his sawle earfe. Maran lufe nim se heretoga on gefeohte to am cempan, e fter fleame his wierwinnan egenlice oferwin, onne to am e mid fleame ne twnd, ne eah on nanum gecampe naht egenlices ne gefremode. Ealswa se yrling lufa one cer, e fter ornum and bremelum genihtsume wstmas agif, swior onne he lufige one e ornig ns, ne wstmbre ne bi. Sind eah-hwere forwel mnige rihtwise unscyldige wi heafod-leahtras, and habba hwere ealswa stie drohtnunge swylce hi mid eallum synnum geancsumede wron. am ne mg nan dǽdbeta beon geefenlht, foran e h sind rihtwise and behreowsigende. Be am is to smeagenne hu micclum se rihtwisa mid eadmodre heofunge God gegladige, gif se unrihtwisa mid sore dǽdbote hine gegladian mg.

We have frequently seen that those brethren, who have not fallen into deadly sins, are not altogether so careful to practise a hard course of life, as though they were careless because they had not perpetrated deadly sins; and that others who acknowledge the grievous sins that they have committed in youth, are pricked with great affliction. They despise permitted and visible things, and with weeping desire those invisible and heavenly. They despise and humble themselves in all things; and because through error they have departed from their Creator, they desire to repair the consequent injury with heavenly gains. Greater joy there will be in heaven over the converted sinner, through such endurances, than over a remiss one who is confident in himself, that he has perpetrated little {343}and few sins, and at the same time cares but little about God's commandments and his soul's need. Greater love a general feels in battle for the soldier who after flight boldly overcomes his adversary, than for him who never took to flight, nor yet in any conflict performed any deed of valour. In like manner the husbandman loves the field which after thorns and brambles yields abundant fruits, more than he loves that which was not thorny nor is fruitful. There are, nevertheless, very many righteous guiltless of deadly sins, and yet practise as severe a course of life as though they were troubled with all sins. With these can no penitent sinner be compared, because they are righteous and repentant. By this is to be judged how greatly the righteous with humble lamentation gladdens God, if the unrighteous with true penitence can gladden him.

Drihten rehte a-gyt oer bgspel be tyn scyllingum, and ra n losode and wear gemet. t bgspel getacna eft nigon engla werod. To am teoan werode ws mancyn gesceapen; foran e t teoe wear mid modignysse forscyldigod, and hi ealle to awyrgedum deoflum wurdon awende, and of re heofonlican blisse to helle suslum bescofene. Nu sind a nigon heapas genemnede, angeli, archangeli, uirtutes, potestates, principatus, dominationes, throni, cherubin, seraphin. t teoe forwear. a ws mancynn gesceapen to ge-edstaelunge s forlorenan heapes.

The Lord yet said another parable concerning ten shillings, and of which one was lost and was found. That parable again betokens the nine hosts of angels. Instead of the tenth host mankind was created; for the tenth had been found guilty of pride, and thrust from heavenly bliss to hell torments. There are now nine companies, named, angeli, archangeli, virtutes, potestates, principatus, dominationes, throni, cherubim, seraphim. The tenth perished. Then was mankind created to supply the place of the lost company.

Angeli sind gecwedene Godes bodan; archangeli, healice bodan; uirtutes, mihta, urh a wyrc God fela wundra. Potestates sind nwealdu, e habba anweald ofer a awyrgedan gastas, t hi ne magon geleaffulra manna heortan swa micclum costnian swa hi willa. Principatus sind ealdorscipas, e ra godra engla gyma, and hi be heora dihte a godcundlican gerynu gefylla. Dominationes sind hlafordscypas gecwedene, foran e him gehyrsumia ora engla werod mid micelre undereodnysse. Throni sind rymsetl, a beo gefyllede mid swa micelre gife re lmihtigan {344}Godcundnysse, t se Eallwealdenda God on him wuna, and urh hi his domas tosceat. Cherubin is gecweden gefyllednys ingehydes, oe gewittes: hi sind afyllede mid gewitte swa miccle swior, swa hi gehendran beo heora Scyppende, urh wurscipe heora geearnunga. Seraphim sind gecwedene byrnende, oe, onlende: hi sind swa miccle swior byrnende on Godes lufe, swa micclum swa hi sind to him geeodde; foran e nane ore englas ne sind betweonan him and am lmihtigan Gode. Hi sind byrnende na on fyres wisan, ac mid micelre lufe s Wealdendan Cyninges. Godes rice bi gelogod mid engla weredum and geungenum mannum, and we gelyfa t of mancynne swa micel getel astige t uplice rice, swa micel swa on heofonum belf haligra gasta fter am hryre ra awyrgedra gasta.

Angeli are interpreted, God's messengers; archangeli, high messengers; virtutes, powers, by which God works many miracles. Potestates are powers which have power over the accursed spirits, that they may not tempt the hearts of believing men so much as they desire. Principatus are authorities which have charge of the good angels, and they by their direction fulfil the divine mysteries. Dominationes are interpreted, lordships, because the other hosts of angels obey them with great subjection. Throni are thrones which are filled with such great grace of the Almighty Godhead, that the {345}All-powerful God dwells on them, and through them decides his dooms. Cherubim are interpreted, fullness of knowledge or understanding: they are filled with so much the more understanding as they are nearer to their Creator through the worthiness of their deserts. Seraphim are interpreted burning, or inflaming: they are so much the more burning in love of God as they are associated with him; for there are no other angels between them and the Almighty God. They are burning, not in wise of fire, but with great love of the Powerful King. God's kingdom is composed of hosts of angels and of religious men, and we believe that of mankind as great a number will ascend to that sublime realm as there remained of holy spirits in heaven after the fall of the accursed spirits.

Nigon engla werod r wron to lafe, and t teoe forferde. Nu bi eft seo micelnys geungenra manna swa micel swa ra staelfstra engla ws; and we beo geendebyrde to heora weredum, fter urum geearnungum. Menige geleaffulle men sind e habba lytel andgit to understandenne a deopnysse Godes lare, and willa eah-hwere orum mannum mid arfstnysse cyan ymbe Godes mra, be heora andgites me: as beo geendebyrde to englum, t is, to Godes bydelum. a gecorenan e magon asmeagan Godes digelnysse, and orum bodian mid gastlicre lare, hi beo getealde to heah-englum, t is to healicum bodum. a halgan, e on life wundra wyrcea, beo geendebyrde betwux am heofenlicum mihtum e Godes tacna gefremma. Sind eac sume gecorene menn e aflya a awyrgedan gastas fram ofsettum mannum, urh mihte heora bena: hwrto beo as geendebyrde buton to am heofenlicum anwealdum, be gewylda a feondlican costneras? a gecorenan e urh healice geearnunga a lssan gebroru oferstiga mid ealdorscipe, a habba eac heora dl betwux am heofenlicum ealderdomum. Sume beo swa geungene t h wealda mid heora hlafordscipe ealle uncysta and leahtras on him sylfum, swa t hi {346}beo godas getealde urh a healican clnnysse: be am cw se lmihtiga to Moysen, "Ic e gesette, t u wre Pharaones god." as Godes egnas, e beo on swa micelre geince on gesihe s lmihtigan t hi sind godas getealde, hwider gescyt onne heora endebyrdnysse, buton to am werode e sind hlafordscipas gecwedene? foran e him ore englas undereodde beo.

Nine hosts of angels were left, and the tenth perished. Now the multitude of religious men will be as great as was that of the steadfast angels; and we shall be annexed to their hosts, according to our deserts. Many faithful men there are who have little intellect to understand the deepness of God's lore, and will, nevertheless, with piety declare to other men concerning the glories of God, according to the measure of their intellect: these will be annexed to the angels, that is, to God's messengers. The chosen, who can investigate the mysteries of God, and preach with ghostly lore to others, will be numbered with the archangels, that is, with the high messengers. The holy, who work wonders in life, will be disposed among the heavenly powers who execute God's miracles. There are also some chosen men who drive out the accursed spirits from men possessed, by power of their prayers: whereto shall these be annexed except to the heavenly powers, who control the fiendlike tempters? Those chosen ones, who through high deserts excel their humbler brethren in authority, will have their portion also among the heavenly princes. Some there are so pious that they control with their authority all vices and sins in themselves, so that they are accounted {347}gods through their exalted purity: of these the Almighty said to Moses, "I will set thee that thou be Pharaoh's god." These servants of God, who are in so great honour in the sight of the Almighty that they are accounted gods, to what order are they assigned, unless to the host which is called lordships? for to them other angels are subordinate.

On sumum gecorenum mannum, e mid micelre gimene on andweardum life drohtnia, bi Godes Gastes gifu swa micel, t he on heora heortan swilce on rimsetle sittende toscǽt and dm wundorlice ora manna dda. Hwt sind as buton rymsetl heora Scyppendes, on am e he wunigende mannum dm? Seo soe lufu is gefyllednys Godes ǽ, and se e on his eawum hylt Godes lufe and manna, he bi onne cherubim rihtlice gehten; foran e eal gewitt and ingehyd is belocen on twam wordum, t is Godes lufu and manna. Sume Godes eowan sind onlede mid swa micelre gewilnunge heora Scyppendes neawiste, t hi forseo ealle woruldlice ymbhydignysse, and mid byrnendum mode ealle a ateorigendlican geincu oferstiga, and mid am micclan bryne re heofenlican lufe ore ontenda, and mid larlicre sprce getrymma. Hu magon as beon gecigede buton seraphim, onne hi urh one micclan bryne Godes lufe sind toforan orum eorlicum his neawiste gehendost?

In some chosen men, who live with great heedfulness in the present life, the grace of God's Spirit is so great, that he, sitting on their hearts as it were on a throne, decides and judges wondrously the deeds of other men. What are these but thrones of their Creator, on which abiding he judges men? True love is the completion of God's law, and he who in his moral conduct holds love of God and of men, will be rightly called cherubim; for all understanding and knowledge is contained in two words, namely, love of God and of men. Some servants of God are inflamed with so great a desire for the presence of their Creator, that they despise all worldly care, and with burning mind rise above all perishing honours, and with the great heat of heavenly love enkindle others, and with instructive speech confirm them. How may these be called but seraphim, when through the great heat of love of God they are before other mortals nearest to his presence?

Nu cwe se eadiga Gregorius, "Wa re sawle e orhlyte hyre lif adrih ra haligra mihta," e we nu sceortlice eow gerehton. Ac seo e bedled is am godnyssum, heo geomrige and gewilnige t se cystiga Wealdend urh his gife h geeode am hlyte his gecorenra. Nabba ealle menn gelice gife t Gode, foran e he forgif a gastlican geincu lcum be his gecneordnyssum. Se e lssan gife hbbe, ne ndige he on am foreeondum, foran e a halgan reatas ra eadigra engla sind swa geendebyrde, t hi sume mid undereodnysse orum hyrsumia, and sume mid oferstigendre wurfulnysse am orum sind foresette.

Now says the blessed Gregory, "Woe to the soul that passes its life devoid of the holy virtues," which we have just shortly explained to you. But let the soul which is deprived of those excellences mourn, and desire that the bountiful Ruler will, through his grace, associate it to the lot of his chosen. All men have not like grace from God, for he gives ghostly honours to every one according to his endeavours. Let him who has less grace envy not those more excellent, because the holy companies of blessed angels are so ordered, that some in subordination obey others, and some with transcending dignity are set before others.


Micel getel is ra haligra gasta, e on Godes rice eardia, be am cw se witega Daniel, "usend usenda enodon am Heofonlican Wealdende, and ten usend sian hundfealde usenda him mid wunodon." Oer is enung, oer is mid-wunung. a englas enia Gode e bodia his willan middangearde, and a ing gefylla e him licia. a ore werod, e him mid wunia, bruca re incundan embwltunge his godcundnysse, swa t h nateshwon fram his andweardnysse asende ne gewita. Solice a e to us asende becuma, swa h gefremma heora Scyppendes hse wiutan, t hi eah-hwere nfre ne gewita fram his godcundan myrhe; foram e God is ghwr, eah e se engel stowlic sy. Nis se lmihtiga Wealdend stowlic, foran e he is on lcere stowe, and swa hwider swa se stowlica engel flih, he bi befangen mid his andwerdnysse.


Great is the number of the holy spirits which dwell in God's kingdom, of whom the prophet Daniel said, "Thousand thousands ministered to the Heavenly Ruler, and ten thousand times hundredfold thousands dwelt with him." One thing is ministry, another is, co-dwelling. Those angels minister to God who announce his will to the world, and perform the things which are pleasing to him. The other hosts, that dwell with him, enjoy the closest contemplation of his Godhead, so that they on no account, sent forth, withdraw from his presence. But those who are sent to us so execute their Creator's behest without, that they, nevertheless, depart never from his divine joy; for God is everywhere, though the angel be local. The Almighty Ruler is not local, for he is in every place, and whithersoever the local angel flieth, he will be surrounded with His presence.

Hi habba sume synderlice gife fram heora Scyppende, and eah-hwere heora wurscipe him bi eallum gemne, and t t gehwilc on him sylfum be dle hf, t he hf on orum werode fulfremodlice; be am cw se sealm-wyrhta, "Drihten, u e sitst ofer cherubin, geswutela e sylfne."

Some of them have especial grace from their Creator, and yet their dignity is common to all, and that which each one has in himself partially, he has in another host perfectly; of which the psalmist said, "Lord, thou who sittest above the cherubim, manifest thyself."

We sdon litle r on isre rdinge, t s lmihtigan rymsetl wre betwux am werode e sind throni gecigede: ac hw mg beon eadig, buton he his Scyppendes wununge on him sylfum hbbe? Seraphim sind a gastas gecigede, e beo on Drihtnes lufe byrnende, and eah-hwere eal t heofonlice mgen samod beo onlede mid his lufe. Cherubim is gecweden gefyllednys ingehydes oe gewittes, and eah hwilc engel is on Godes andwerdnysse e ealle ing nyte? Ac fori is gehwilc ra weroda am naman geciged, e a gife getacna e he fulfremedlicor underfeng.

We said a little before in this lesson, that the throne of the Almighty was among the host which are called throni: but who may be happy, unless he have his Creator's dwelling in himself? Seraphim the spirits are called who are burning with love of the Lord, and yet all the heavenly power together is inflamed with his love. Cherubim is interpreted fullness of knowledge or understanding, and yet what angel is there in God's presence who knows not all things? But each of those hosts is therefore called by the name which betokens the gift that it has more perfectly received.

Ac uton suwian hwthwega be am digelnyssum ra heofenlicra ceastergewarena, and smeagan be us sylfum, and geomrian mid behreowsunge ure synna, t we, urh Drihtnes mildheortnysse, a heofonlican wununge, swa swa he us beht, {350}habban moton. He cw on sumere stowe, "On mines Fder huse sind fela wununga;" foran gif sume beo strengran on geearnungum, sume rihtwisran, sume mid maran halignysse geglengede, t heora nan ne beo gelfremod fram am micclan huse, r r gehwilc onfeh wununge be his geearnungum.

But let us cease a little from speaking of the mysteries of the heavenly inhabitants, and meditate on ourselves, and bewail with repentance our sins, that we, through the Lord's mercy, may, as he has promised us, attain to the heavenly {351}dwelling. He said in some place, "In my Father's house are many dwellings," for if some be stronger in deserts, some more righteous, some adorned with greater holiness, none of them may be estranged from the great house, where everyone shall receive a dwelling according to his deserts.

Se miltsienda Drihten cw, t micel blis wre on heofonum be anum dǽdbetan; ac se ylca cw urh his witegan, "Gif se rihtwisa gecyr fram his rihtwisnysse, and beg unrihtwisnysse arleaslice, ealle his rihtwisnysse ic forgyte; and gif se arleasa behreowsa his arleasnysse, and beg rihtwisnysse, ne gemune ic nanra his synna." Behreowsigendum mannum he miltsa, ac h ne beht am elcigendum gewiss lf o merigen. Nis fori nanum synfullum to yldigenne agenre gecyrrednysse, yls e he mid sleacnysse forleose a td Godes fyrstes. Smeage gehwilc man his rran dda, and eac his andweardan drohtnunge, and fleo to am mildheortan Deman mid wpe, a hwile e he anbida ure betrunge, see is rihtwis and mildheort. Solice behreowsa his gedwyld see ne ge-edlh a rran dda; be am cw se Hlend to am gehledan bedredan, "Efne nu u eart gehled, ne synga u heonon-for, yls e e sum ing wyrse gelimpe."

The merciful Lord said, that there was great joy in heaven for one penitent; but the Same said through his prophet, "If the righteous turn from his righteousness, and impiously commit unrighteousness, all his righteousness I will forget; and if the impious repent of his impiety, and do righteousness, I will not remember any of his sins." To repentant men he is merciful, but to the procrastinating he promises not certain life till the morrow. No sinner ought therefore to procrastinate his own repentance, lest he by remissness lose the time of God's respite. Let every man meditate on his former deeds, and also on his present conduct, and fly to the merciful Judge with weeping, while he, who is righteous and merciful, awaits our bettering. He truly repents of his sins who repeats not his former deeds; concerning which Jesus said to the healed bedridden, "Behold, now thou art healed, sin not henceforth, lest something worse befall thee."

Geleaffullum mannum mg beon micel truwa and hopa to am menniscum Gode Criste, see is ure Mundbora and Dema, see leofa and rixa mid Fder, on annysse s Halgan Gastes, on ealra worulda woruld. Amen.

Believing men may have great trust and hope to the human God Christ, who is our Protector and Judge, who liveth and reigneth with the Father, in unity of the Holy Ghost, for ever and ever. Amen.





Se godspellere Lucas awrt on Cristes bc be acennednysse Iohannes s Fulluhteres, us cweende, "Sum eawfst {352}Godes egen ws gehten Zacharias, his gebedda ws geciged Elisabeth. H butu wron rihtwise tforan Gode, on his bebodum and rihtwisnyssum forstppende butan tle. Ns him cild gemne:" et reliqua.

The evangelist Luke wrote in the book of Christ concerning the birth of John the Baptist, thus saying, "There was a {353}certain pious servant of God called Zacharias, his wife was called Elizabeth. They were both righteous before God, walking forth in his commandments and righteousnesses without blame. They had no child in common," etc.

"Eal his reaf ws awefen of olfendes hǽrum, his bigleofa ws stilic; ne dranc he wines drenc, ne nanes gemencgedes wtan, ne gebrowenes: ofet hine fedde, and wude-hunig, and ore waclice igena."

"All his garment was woven of camel's hair, his food was coarse; he drank not drink of wine, nor of any mixed or prepared fluid: fruit fed him and wood-honey, and other common things.

"On am fifteoan geare s caseres rices Tyberii com Godes word ofer Iohannem, on am westene; and he ferde to folces neawiste, and bodade Iudeiscum folce fulluht on synna forgyfenysse, swa swa hit awriten is on Isaies witegunge."

"In the fifteenth year of the reign of the emperor Tiberius, the word of God came upon John, in the waste, and he went into the presence of people, and preached to the Jewish folk baptism for the forgiveness of sins, as it is written in the prophecy of Isaiah."

Cristes fulluht he bodade toweard eallum geleaffullum, on am is synna forgyfenys urh one Halgan Gst. Iohannes eac be Godes dihte fullode a e him to comon ra Iudeiscra eoda, ac his fulluht ne dyde nnre synne forgyfenysse, foran e he ws Godes bydel, and na God. He bodade mannum s Hlendes to-cyme mid wordum, and his halige fulluht mid his agenum fulluhte, on am he gefullode one unsynnian Godes Sunu, e nnre synne forgyfenysse ne behfade.

The baptism of Christ to come he preached to all believers, in which is forgiveness of sins through the Holy Ghost. John also, by God's direction, baptized those who came to him of the Jewish nations, but his baptism wrought no forgiveness of sin, for he was God's messenger, and not God. He announced to men the advent of Jesus with words, and His holy baptism with his own baptism, with which he baptized the sinless Son of God, who needed no forgiveness of sin.

Rihtlice weora Godes gelaung isne dg s mran Fulluhteres gebyrd-tide, for am manegum wundrum e gelumpon on his acennednysse. Godes heah-engel Gabrihel bodade am fder Zacharan his acennednysse, and his healican geincu, and his mrlican drohtnunge. t cild on his modor innoe oncneow Marian stemne, Godes cynnestran; and on innoe a-gyt beclysed, mid wtigendlicre fgnunge getcnode one halwendan to-cyme ures Alysendes. On his acennednysse he tbrd re meder hire unwstmbrnysse, and s fder tungan his nama unbnd, e mid his agenre geleafleaste adumbod ws.

Rightly does God's church honour this day, the birth-tide of the great Baptist, for the many wonders which happened at his birth. God's archangel Gabriel announced his birth to Zacharias his father, and his high honours, and his illustrious life. The child in his mother's womb knew the voice of Mary, the parent of God; and in the womb yet closed, betokened with prophetic joy the salutary advent of our Redeemer. At his birth he removed from his mother her barrenness, and his name unbound the tongue of his father, who by his own want of belief had been made dumb.

reora manna gebyrd-tide freolsa seo halige gelaung: s Hlendes, see is God and mann, and Iohannes his bydeles, and re eadigan Marian his moder. Ora gecorenra {354}manna, e urh martyrdom, oe urh ore halige geearnunga, Godes rice geferdon, heora endenextan dg, see h fter gefyllednysse ealra earfonyssa sigefste to am ecan life acende, we wuria him to gebyrd-tide; and one dg, e h to isum andweardan life acennede wron, we lta to gymeleaste, foran e h comon hider to earfonyssum, and costnungum, and mislicum frcednyssum. Se dg bi gemyndig Godes eowum e a halgan, fter gewunnenum sige, asende to ecere myrhe fram eallum gedreccednyssum, and se is heora soe acennednys; na wplic, swa swa seo rre, ac blissigendlic to am ecum life. Ac us is to wurigenne mid micelre gecnyrdnysse Cristes gebyrd-tide, urh a us com alysednys.

The holy church celebrates the birth-tide of three persons,—of Jesus, who is God and man, and of John his messenger, and of the blessed Mary his mother. Of other chosen {355}persons, who, through martyrdom, or through other holy merits, have gone to the kingdom of God, we celebrate as their birth-tide their last day, which, after the fulfilment of all their labours, brought them forth victorious to eternal life; and the day on which they were born to this present life we let pass unheeded, because they came hither to hardships, and temptations, and divers perils. The day is memorable to the servants of God which sends his saints, after victory won, to eternal joy from all afflictions, and which is their true birth; not tearful as the first, but exulting in eternal life. But the birth-tide of Christ is to be celebrated with great care, through which came our redemption.

Iohannes is geendung re ealdan ǽ and anginn re nwan, swa swa se Hlend be him cw, "Seo ealde ǽ and wtegan wron o Iohannes to-cyme." Sian ongann godspel-bodung. Nu for his micclan halignysse is gewurod his acennednys, swa swa se heah-engel behet his fder mid isum wordum, "Manega blissia on his gebyrd-tide." Mara, Godes cynnestre, nis nanum orum gelic, foran e heo is mden and modor, and one abǽr e h and ealle gesceafta gesceop: is heo fori wel wyre t hire acennednys arwurlice gefreolsod sy.

John is the ending of the old law and the beginning of the new, as Jesus said of him, "The old law and the prophets were till the coming of John." Afterwards began the gospel-preaching. Now, on account of his great holiness, his birth is honoured, as the archangel promised his father with these words, "Many shall rejoice in his birth-tide." Mary, the parent of God, is like to none other, for she is maiden and mother, and bare him who created her and all creatures: therefore is she well worthy that her birth should be honourably celebrated.

a magas setton am cilde naman, Zacharias, ac seo modor him wicw mid wordum, and se dumba fder mid gewrite; foran e se engel, e hine cydde toweardne, him gesceop naman be Godes dihte, Iohannes. Ne mihte se dumba fder cyan his wife hu se engel his cilde naman gesette, ac, urh Godes Gastes onwrigenysse, se nama hire wear cu. Zacharias is gereht, 'Gemindig Godes;' and Iohannes, 'Godes gifu;' foran e he bodade mannum Godes gife, and Crist toweardne, e ealne middangeard mid his gife gewissa. He ws asend toforan Drihtne, swa swa se dgsteorra g beforan re sunnan, swa swa bydel tforan deman, swa swa seo Ealde Gecynys tforan re Niwan; {356}foran e seo ealde ǽ ws swilce sceadu, and seo Niwe Gecynys is sofstnys urh s Hlendes gife.

The relatives bestowed on the child the name of Zacharias, but the mother contradicted them by words, and the dumb father by writing; because the angel who had announced that he was to come, had, by God's direction, given him the name of John. The dumb father could not have informed his wife how the angel had bestowed a name on his child, but by revelation of the Spirit of God the name was known to her. Zacharias is interpreted, 'Mindful of God;' and John, 'God's grace;' because he preached to men the grace of God, and that Christ was to come, who directs all the earth with his grace. He was sent before the Lord, as the day-star goes before the sun, as the beadle before the judge, as the Old Testament before the New; for the Old Law was {357}as a shadow, and the New Testament is truth through the grace of Jesus.

Anes geares cild h wron, Crist and Iohannes. On isum dge acende seo unwstmbre moder one mran witegan Iohannem, se is gehrod mid isum wordum, urh Cristes mu, "Betwux wifa bearnum ne ars nan mrra man onne is Iohannes se Fulluhtere."

They were children of the same year, Christ and John. On this day the barren mother brought forth the great prophet John, who is praised in these words by the mouth of Christ, "Among the children of men there hath not arisen a greater man than is John the Baptist."

On middes wintres msse-dge acende t halige mden Maria one Heofenlican eling, se nis geteald to wifa bearnum, foron e he is Godes Sunu on re Godcundnysse, and Godes and mdenes Bearn urh menniscnysse. Iohannes forfleah folces neawiste on geogoe, and on westene mid stire drohtnunge synna forbeah. Se Hlend betwux synfullum unwemme fram lcere synne urhwunode. Se bydel gebigde on am timan micelne heap Israhela eode to heora Scyppende mid his bodunge. Drihten dghwamlice of eallum eodum to his geleafan, urh onlihtinge s Halgan Gastes, ungerim sawla gebig.

On the mass-day of midwinter the holy maiden Mary brought forth the Heavenly Prince, who is not numbered with the children of men, because he is the Son of God in his Godhead, and the Son of God and of a maiden by his human nature. John fled from the presence of people in his youth, and in the waste, with austere life-course, avoided sin. Jesus continued among the sinful pure from every sin. The crier inclined, at that time, a great body of the people of Israel to their Creator by his announcement. The Lord daily inclines souls without number of all nations to his faith, through enlightening of the Holy Ghost.

t halige godspel cwy be am Fulluhtere, t he forestope am Hlende on gaste and on mihte s witegan Helian; foran e he ws his forrynel t am rran to-cyme, swa swa Helias bi t am ftran togeanes Antecriste. Nis butan getacnunge t s bydeles acennednys on re tide ws gefremod e se woruldlica dg wanigende bi, and on Drihtnes gebyrd-tide weaxende bi. as getacnunge onwreah se ylca Iohannes mid isum wordum, "Criste gedafena t he weaxe, and me t ic wanigende beo." Iohannes ws hraor mannum cu urh his mrlican drohtnunga, onne Crist wre, foran e h ne teowde his godcundan mihte, ram e h ws ritig geara on re menniscnysse. a ws he geuht am folce t h witega wre, and Iohannes Crist. Hwt a Crist geswutelode hine sylfne urh miccle tacna, and his hlisa weox geond ealne middangeard, t he so God ws, see ws ran witega geuht. Iohannes solice ws wanigende on his hlisan, foran e he {358}wear oncnawen witega, and bydel s Heofonlican elinges, see ws lytle r Crist geteald mid ungewissum wenan. as wanunge getacna se wanigenda dg his gebyrd-tide, and se eonda dg s Hlendes acennednysse gebcna his eondan mihte fter re menniscnysse.

The holy gospel says of the Baptist, that he preceded Jesus in spirit and in power of the prophet Elias; because he was his forerunner at his first advent, as Elias will be at the second against Antichrist. It is not without signification that the birth of the crier was completed on the day when the worldly day is waning, and that it is waxing on the birth-tide of the Lord. This signification the same John revealed in these words, "It is befitting Christ that he wax, and me that I be waning." John was sooner known to men, through his illustrious life-course, than Christ was, for He manifested not his divine power, ere that he had been thirty years in human nature. Then it seemed to the people that he was a prophet, and that John was Christ. But Christ manifested himself by many great miracles, and his fame waxed through all the world, that he was true God, who before that had seemed a prophet. But John was waning in his fame, for he was {359}acknowledged a prophet, and the proclaimer of the Heavenly Prince, who a little before had by uncertain supposition been accounted Christ. The waning day of his birth-tide betokens this waning, and the increasing day of the birth of Jesus signifies his increasing power according to his human nature.

Fela witegan mid heora witegunge bodedon Drihten toweardne, sume feorran sume nen, ac Iohannes his to-cyme mid wordum bodade, and eac mid fingre gebicnode, us cweende, "Loca nu! Efne her g Godes Lamb, see tbret middangeardes synna." Crist is manegum naman genemned. He is Wisdom gehten, foran e se Fder ealle gesceafta urh hine geworhte. He is Word gecweden, foran e word is wisdomes geswutelung. Be am Worde ongann se godspellere Iohannes a godspellican gesetnysse, us cweende, "On fryme ws Word, and t Word ws mid Gode, and t Word ws God." He is Lamb gehten, for re unscignysse lambes gecyndes; and ws unscyldig, for ure alysednysse, his Fder liflic onsgednys, on lambes wisan geoffrod. He is Leo geciged of Iudan mge, Dauides wyrtruma, foran e he, urh his godcundlican strence, one miclan deofol mid sige his rowunge oferswide.

Many prophets by their prophecy announced the Lord to come, some from afar some near, but John announced his advent by words, and also with his finger signified it, thus saying, "Look now! Behold here goeth the Lamb of God, who shall take away the sins of the world." Christ is named by many names. He is called Wisdom, because the Father wrought all things through him. He is called Word, because a word is the manifestation of wisdom. The evangelist John began the evangelical memorial with the Word, thus saying, "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." He is called Lamb, from the innocence of the lamb's nature; and was guiltless, for our redemption, offered a living sacrifice to his Father in the manner of a lamb. He is called the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, because, through his godly strength he overcame the great devil by the victory of his passion.

Se halga Fulluhtere, e we ymbe spreca, astealde stilice drohtnunge, ger ge on scrude ge on bgwiste, swa swa we hwene ror rehton; foran e se Wealdenda Hlend us be him cweende ws, "Fram Iohannes dagum Godes rice ola neadunge, and a strecan-md hit gegripa." Cu is gehwilcum snoterum mannum, t seo ealde ǽ ws eaelicre onne Cristes Gesetnys sy, foran e on re ns micel forhfednys, ne a gastlican drohtnunga e Crist sian gesette, and his apostoli. Oer is seo gesetnys e se cyning bytt urh his ealdormenn oe gerefan, oer bi his agen gebann on his andweardnysse. Godes rice is gecweden on isre stowe seo hlige gelaung, t is eal cristen folc, e sceal mid neadunge and strecum mode t heofonlice rice geearnian. {360}Hu mg beon butan strece and neadunge, t gehw mid clnnysse t gle gecynd urh Godes gife gewylde? Oe hw gestil hatheortnysse his modes mid geylde, butan earfonysse? oe hw awent modignysse mid sore eadmodnysse? oe hw druncennysse mid syfernysse? oe hw gitsunge mid rmgifulnysse, butan strece? Ac se e his eawas mid anmodnysse, urh Godes fultum, swa awent, he bi onne to orum menn geworht; oer he bi urh gdnysse, and se ylca urh edwiste, and he gelc onne urh strece t heofenlice rice.

The holy Baptist of whom we are speaking, established a rigid life-course, both in raiment and in food, as we have mentioned a little before; for the Mighty Jesus was thus saying of him, "From the days of John the kingdom of God suffereth compulsion, and the violent seize it." It is known to every intelligent man, that the old law was easier than the Institute of Christ is, for in it there was no great continence nor the ghostly courses which Christ and his apostles afterwards established. One thing is the institute which the king ordains through his nobles or officials, another is his own edict in his presence. The holy church is in this place called God's kingdom, that is, all christian people, who shall with force and violence earn the heavenly kingdom. {361}How can it be without violence and compulsion, that any one by chastity overcomes libidinous nature through God's grace? Or who shall still the frenzy of his mind with patience, without difficulty? or who shall exchange pride for true humility? or who drunkenness for soberness? or who covetousness for munificence, without violence? But he who, through God's support, so changes his ways with steadfastness, will then be made another man; another he will be in goodness, and the same in substance, and he will then by violence seize the heavenly kingdom.

Twa forhfednysse cynn syndon, n lichamlic, oer gastlic. An is, t gehw hine sylfne getemprige mid gemete on ǽte and on wte, and werlice a oferflowendlican ygene him sylfum tbrede. Oer forhfednysse cynn is deorwurre and healicre, eah seo oer gd sy: styran his modes styrunge mid singalre gemetfstnysse, and campian dghwamlice wi leahtras, and hine sylfne reagian mid styrnysse re gastlican steore, swa t h a rean deor eahta heafod-leahtra swilce mid isenum midlum gewylde. Deorwyre is eos forhfednys, and wulderfull rowung on Godes gesihe, a yfelan geohtas and unlustas mid agenre cynegyrde gestyran, and fram derigendlicere sprce, and pleolicum weorce hine sylfne forhabban, swa swa fram cwylmbrum mettum. Se e as ing gecneordlice beg, he grip untweolice t behtene rce mid Gode and eallum his halgum. Micel strec bi, t mennisce menn mid eadmodum geearnungum a heofenlican myrhe begytan, e a heofenlican englas urh modignysse forluron.

There are two kinds of continence, one bodily, the other ghostly. One is, that everyone govern himself with moderation in food and in drink, and manfully remove from himself superfluous aliment. The second kind of continence is more precious and exalted,—though the other is good,—to guide the agitation of his mind with constant moderation, and fight daily against sins, and chastise himself with the sternness of ghostly correction, so that he restrain the fierce beast of the eight capital sins as it were with iron bonds. Precious is this continence and glorious suffering in the sight of God, to govern evil thoughts and sinful pleasures with our own sceptre, and to abstain from injurious speech and perilous work, as from death-bearing meats. He who sedulously performs these things, seizes undoubtedly the promised kingdom with God and all his saints. Great violence it is through which human beings with humble merits obtain that heavenly joy, which the heavenly angels lost through pride.

Us gelustfulla gyt furur to sprecenne be an halgan were Iohanne, him to wurmynte and s to beterunge. Be him awrt se witega Isaias, t he is "stemn clypigendes on westene, Gearcia Godes weig, do rihte his paas. lc dene bi gefylled, and lc dn bi geeadmet, and ealle wohnyssa beo gerihte, and scearpnyssa gesmeode." Se witega hine het stemn, foran e he forestp Criste, e is Word {362}gehaten: na swilc word swa menn spreca, ac he is s Fder Wisdom, and word bi wisdomes geswutelung. t Word is lmihtig God, Sunu mid his Fder. On lcum worde bi stemn gehyred, ǽr t word fullice gecweden sy. Swa swa stemn forestp worde, swa forestp Iohannes am Hlende on middangearde; foran e God Fder hine sende tforan gesihe his Bearnes, t he sceolde gearcian and dftan his weig. Hwt a Iohannes to mannum clypode as ylcan word, "Gearcia Godes weig." Se bydel e boda rihtne geleafan and gode weorc, he gearca one weig cumendum Gode to ra heorcnigendra heortan.

It delights us to speak yet further of the holy man John, for his honour and our bettering. Of him the prophet Isaiah wrote, that he is "the voice of one crying in the waste, Prepare the way of God, make right his paths. Every valley shall be filled, and every hill shall be lowered, and all crookednesses shall be straightened, and sharpnesses smoothed." The prophet called himself a voice, because he preceded {363}Christ, who is called the Word: not such a word as men speak, but he is the Wisdom of the Father, and a word is the manifestation of wisdom. The Word is Almighty God, the Son with his Father. In every word the voice is heard before the word is fully spoken. As the voice precedes the word, so did John precede Jesus on earth; for God the Father sent him before the sight of his Son, that he might prepare and make ready his way. But John cried these same words to men, "Prepare the way of God." The crier who announces right belief and good works, prepares the way for the coming God to the heart of the hearkeners.

Godes weg bi gegearcod on manna heortan, onne h re Sofstnysse sprce eadmodlice gehyra, and gearuwe beo to Lifes bebodum; be am cw se Hlend, "Se e me lufa, he hylt min bebod, and min Fder hine lufa, and wit cuma to him, and mid him wunia." His paas beo gerihte, onne urh gode bodunge aspringa clne geohtas on mode ra hlystendra. Dena getcnia a eadmodan, and dna a modigan. On Drihtnes to-cyme wurdon dena afyllede, and dna geeadmette, swa swa he sylf cw, "lc ra e hine onhef bi geeadmet, and se e hine geeadmet bi geuferod." Swa swa wter scyt of re dne, and tstent on dene, swa forflih se Halga Gast modigra manna heortan, and nim wununge on am eadmodan, swa swa se witega cw, "On hwam gerest Godes Gast buton on am eadmodan?" wyrnyssa beo gerihte, onne wyrlicra manna heortan, e beo urh unrihtwisnysse hcas awegde, eft urh regol-sticcan re soan rihtwisnysse beo geemnode. Scearpnyssa beo awende to smeum wegum, onne a yrsigendan mod, and unlie gecyrra to manwrnysse, urh ongyte re upplican gife.

The way of God is prepared in the heart of men, when they humbly hear the speech of Truth, and are ready to the commandments of Life; of whom Jesus said, "He who loveth me holdeth my commandment, and my Father loveth him, and we will come to him, and will dwell with him." His paths shall be straight, when, through good preaching, pure thoughts spring up in the mind of the listeners. Valleys betoken the humble, and hills the proud. At the Lord's advent valleys shall be filled, and hills lowered, as he himself said, "Everyone of them who exalteth himself shall be humbled, and he who humbleth himself shall be exalted." As water rushes from the hill and stands in the valley, so flees the Holy Ghost from the heart of proud men, and takes his dwelling in the humble, as the prophet said, "In whom resteth the Spirit of God but in the humble?" Crookednesses shall be straight, when the hearts of perverse men, which are agitated by the hooks of unrighteousness, are again made even by the ruling-rods of true righteousness. Sharpnesses shall be turned to smooth ways, when angry and ungentle minds turn to gentleness through infusion of the heavenly grace.

Langsumlic bi us to gereccenne, and eow to gehyrenne ealle a deopnyssa s mran Fulluhteres bodunge: hu he a heardheortan Iudeiscre eode mid stearcre reale and {364}stire myngunge to lfes wege gebigde, and fter his rowunge hellwarum Cristes to-cyme cydde, swa swa he on life mancynne agene alysednysse mid hludre stemne bealdlice bodade.

Tedious it would be for us to recount and for you to hear all the depths of the great Baptist's preaching: how with strong reproof and severe admonition he inclined the {365}hard-hearted of the Jewish people to the way of life, and after his suffering announced Christ's advent to the inhabitants of hell, as he in life had with loud voice boldly preached their own redemption to mankind.

Uton nu biddan one Wealdendan Hlend, t he, urh his s mran Forryneles and Fulluhteres ingunge, s gemiltsige on andweardum lfe, and to am ecan gelde, am sy wuldor and lf mid Fder and Halgum Gaste on ecnysse. Amen.

Let us now pray the Powerful Saviour, that he, through the mediation of the great Forerunner and Baptist, be merciful to us in the present life, and lead us to the life eternal, to whom be glory and praise with the Father and the Holy Ghost, ever to eternity. Amen.





Venit Iesus in partes Csareae Philippi: et reliqua.

Venit Jesus in partes Csare Philippi: et reliqua.

Matheus se Godspellere awrt on re godspellican gesetnysse, us cweende, "Drihten com to anre burhscire, e is geciged Cesarea Philippi, and befrn his gingran hu menn be him cwyddedon. H andwyrdon, Sume menn cwea t u sy Iohannes se Fulluhtere, sume secga t u sy Helas, sume Hieremias, oe sum oer witega. Se Hlend a cw, Hwt secge ge t ic sy? Petrus him andwyrde, u eart Crist, s lifigendan Godes Sunu. Drihten him cw to andsware, Eadig eart u, Simon, culfran bearn, foran e flsc and blod e ne onwreah isne geleafan, ac min Fder see on heofonum is. Ic e secge, t u eart stnen, and ofer ysne stn ic timbrige mine cyrcan, and helle gatu naht ne magon ongean h. Ic betce e heofonan rices cge; and swa hwt swa u bintst on eoran, t bi gebunden on heofonum; and swa hwt swa u unbintst ofer eoran, t bi unbunden on heofonum."

Matthew the Evangelist wrote in the evangelical Testament, thus saying, "The Lord came to a district, which is called Csarea Philippi, and asked his disciples how men spake concerning him. They answered, Some men say that thou art John the Baptist; some men say that thou art Elias; some Jeremias, or some other prophet. Jesus then said, What say ye that I am? Peter answered him, Thou art Christ, Son of the living God. The Lord said to him in answer, Blessed art thou, Simon, son of a dove, for flesh and blood hath not revealed to thee this belief, but my Father who is in heaven. I say to thee, thou art of stone, and on this stone I will build my church, and the gates of hell may not aught against it. I will commit to thee the key of the kingdom of heaven, and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth, that shall be bound in heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt unbind on earth, that shall be unbound in heaven."

Beda se trahtnere us onwrih a deopnysse ysre rdinge, and cwy, t Philippus se fyerrca a buruh Cesarea getimbrode, and on wurmynte s caseres Tiberii, e he under {366}rixode, re byrig naman gesceop, 'Cesaream,' and for his agenum gemynde to am naman geyhte, 'Philippi,' us cweende, 'Cesarea Philippi,' swilce seo burh him bm to wurmynte swa genemned wre.

Beda the expositor reveals to us the mystery of this reading, and says, that Philip the tetrarch built the city of Csarea, and, in honour of the emperor Tiberius, under whom {367}he governed, devised for the city the name of Csarea, and in memorial of himself added to the name, 'Philippi,' thus saying, 'Csarea Philippi,' as though the city were so named in honour of them both.

aa se Hlend to re burhscire genealhte, a befrn h, hu woruld-menn be him cwyddedon: na swilce h nyste manna cwyddunga be him, ac h wolde, mid sore andetnysse s rihtan geleafan, adwscan one leasan wenan dweligendra manna. His apostoli him andwyrdon, "Sume men cwyddia t u sy Iohannes se Fulluhtere, sume secga t u sy Helias, sume Hieremias, oe n ra witegena." Drihten a befrn, "Hwt secge ge t ic sy?" swylce he swa cwde, 'Nu woruld-menn us dwollice me oncnawa, ge e godas sind, hu oncnawe ge me?' Se trahtnere cw 'godas,' foran e se soa God, see ana is lmihtig, hf geunnen one wurmynt his gecorenum, t h h godas gecig. Him andwyrde se gehyrsuma Petrus, "u eart Crist, s lifigendan Godes Sunu." He cw 's lifigendan Godes,' for twminge ra leasra goda, a e hene eoda, mid mislicum gedwylde bephte, wurodon.

When Jesus drew near to the district, he asked, how the men of the world spake of him: not as though he knew not the speeches of men concerning him, but he would, by a true confession of the right belief, destroy the false imagination of erring men. His apostles answered him, "Some men say that thou art John the Baptist, some say that thou art Elias, some Jeremias, or one of the prophets." The Lord then asked, "What say ye that I am?" as if he had thus said, 'Now the men of the world thus erroneously know me, how do ye, who are gods, know me?' The expositor said 'gods,' because the true God, who alone is Almighty, has granted that dignity to his chosen, that he calls them gods. The obedient Peter answered him, "Thou art Christ, Son of the living God." He said 'of the living God,' in distinction from the false gods, which the heathen nations, by various error deceived, worshipped.

Sume h gelyfdon on deade entas, and him deorwurlice anlicnyssa arrdon, and cwdon t h godas wron, for re micelan strence e h hfdon: ws eah heora lf swie mnfullic and bysmurfull; be am cw se witega, "ra henra anlicnyssa sind gyldene and sylfrene, manna handgeweorc: h habba dumne mu and blinde eagan, deafe earan and ungrapigende handa, ft butan fee, bodig butan life." Sume h gelyfdon on a sunnan, sume on one monan, sume on fyr, and on manega ore gesceafta: cwdon t h for heora fgernysse godas wron.

Some of them believed in dead giants, and raised precious idols to them, and said that they were gods, on account of the great strength they had: yet were their lives very criminal and opprobrious; of whom the prophet said, "The idols of the heathen are of gold and of silver, men's handiwork: they have a dumb mouth and blind eyes, deaf ears and unhandling hands, feet without pace, body without life." Some of them believed in the sun, some in the moon, some in fire, and in many other creatures: they said that on account of their fairness they were gods.

Nu todlde Petrus swutelice one soan geleafan, aa he cw, "u eart Crist, s lifigendan Godes Sunu." Se is lybbende God e hf lf and wununge urh hine sylfne, butan anginne, and see ealle gesceafta urh his agen Bearn, t is, his Wisdom, gesceop, and him eallum lf forgeaf urh {368}one Halgan Gast. On issum rym hdum is an Godcundnys, and n gecynd, and n weorc untodledlice.

Now Peter manifestly distinguished the true belief, when he said, "Thou art Christ, Son of the living God." He is the living God who has life and existence through himself, without beginning, and who created all creatures through his own Son, that is, his Wisdom, and to them all gave life {369}through the Holy Ghost. In these three persons is one Godhead, and one nature, and one work indivisibly.

Drihten cw to Petre, "Eadig eart u, culfran sunu." Se Halga Gast ws gesewen ofer Criste on culfran anlicnysse. Nu gecigde se Hlend Petrum culfran bearn, foran e he ws afylled mid bilewitnysse and gife s Halgan Gastes. He cw, "Ne onwreah e flsc ne blod isne geleafan, ac min Fder see on heofenum is." Flsc and blod is gecweden, his flsclice mi. Nfde he t andgit urh mglice lare, ac se Heofenlica Fder, urh one Halgan Gast, isne geleafan on Petres heortan forgeaf.

The Lord said to Peter, "Blessed art thou, son of a dove." The Holy Ghost appeared over Christ in likeness of a dove. Now Jesus called Peter the child of a dove, because he was filled with meekness and with the grace of the Holy Ghost. He said, "Neither flesh nor blood hath revealed unto thee this belief, but my Father who is in heaven." His fleshly condition is called flesh and blood. He had not that intelligence through parental love, but the Heavenly Father gave this belief into Peter's heart through the Holy Ghost.

Drihten cw to Petre, "u eart stnen." For re strence his geleafan, and for anrdnysse his andetnysse he underfencg one naman, foran e he geeodde hine sylfne mid fstum mode to Criste, see is 'stn' gecweden fram am apostole Paule. "And ic timbrige mine cyrcan uppon isum stane:" t is, ofer one geleafan e u andetst. Eal Godes gelaung is ofer am stane gebytlod, t is ofer Criste; foran e he is se grundweall ealra ra getimbrunga his agenre cyrcan. Ealle Godes cyrcan sind getealde to anre gelaunge, and seo is mid gecorenum mannum getimbrod, na mid deadum stanum; and eal seo bytlung ra liflicra stana is ofer Criste gelogod; foran e we beo, urh one geleafan, his lima getealde, and h ure ealra heafod. Se e ne bytla of am grundwealle, his weorc hryst to micclum lyre.

The Lord said to Peter, "Thou art of stone." For the strength of his belief, and for the steadfastness of his profession he received that name, because he had attached himself with firm mind to Christ, who is called 'stone' by the apostle Paul. "And I will build my church upon this stone:" that is, on that faith which thou professest. All God's church is built on that stone, that is, upon Christ; for he is the foundation of all the fabrics of his own church. All God's churches are accounted as one congregation, and that is constructed of chosen men, not of dead stones; and all the building of those living stones is founded on Christ; for we, through that belief, are accounted his limbs, and he is the head of us all. He who builds not from that foundation, his work falls to great perdition.

Se Hlend cw, "Ne magon helle gatu naht togeanes minre cyrcan." Leahtras and dwollic lr sindon helle gatu, foran e h lda one synfullan swilce urh geat into helle wite. Manega sind a gatu, ac heora nan ne mg ongean a halgan gelaunge, e is getimbrod uppon am fstan stane, Criste; foran e se gelyfeda, urh Cristes gescyldnysse, twint am frecednyssum ra deoflicra costnunga.

Jesus said, "The gates of hell may not aught against my church." Sins and erroneous doctrine are the gates of hell, because they lead the sinful, as it were through a gate, into hell-torment. Many are the gates, but none of them can do aught against the holy church, which is built upon that fast stone, Christ; for the faithful man, through the protection of Christ, avoids the perils of diabolical temptations.

He cw, "Ic e betce heofonan rices cge." Nis seo cig gylden, ne sylfren, ne of nanum antimbre gesmiod, ac is se anweald e him Crist forgeaf, t nan man ne cym {370}into Godes rice, buton se halga Petrus him geopenige t infr. "And swa hwt swa u bintst ofer eoran, t bi gebunden on heofonum; and swa hwt swa u unbintst ofer eoran, t bi unbunden on heofenan." isne anweald he forgeaf nu Petre, and eac syan, ǽr his upstige, eallum his apostolum, aa he him on-ableow, us cwende, "Onfo Haligne Gast: ra manna synna e ge forgyfa, beo forgyfene; and am e ge forgifenysse ofunnon, him bi oftogen seo forgyfenys."

He said, "I will commit to thee the key of the kingdom of heaven." That key is not of gold nor of silver, nor forged of any substance, but is the power which Christ gave him, {371}that no man shall come into God's kingdom, unless the holy Peter open to him the entrance. "And whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth, that shall be bound in heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt unbind on earth, that shall be unbound in heaven." This power he then gave to Peter and likewise afterwards, ere his ascension, to all his apostles, when he blew on them, thus saying, "Receive the Holy Ghost: the sins of those men which ye forgive shall be forgiven; and from those to whom ye refuse forgiveness, forgiveness shall be withdrawn."

Nella a apostoli nnne rihtwisne mid heora mansumunge gebindan, ne eac one mnfullan miltsigende unbindan, butan he mid sore dǽdbote gecyrre to lifes wege. one ylcan andweald hf se lmihtiga getiod biscopum and halgum msse-preostum, gif h hit fter re godspellican gesetnysse carfullice healda. Ac fori is seo cig Petre sinderlice betht, t eal eodscipe gleawlice tocnwe, t swa hw swa oscyt fram annysse s geleafan e Petrus a andette Criste, t him ne bi getiod naor ne synna forgyfenys ne infr s heofenlican rices.

The apostles will not bind any righteous man with their anathema, nor also mercifully unbind the sinful, unless he with true repentance return to the way of life. The same power has the Almighty granted to bishops and holy mass-priests, if they carefully hold it according to the evangelical volume. But the key is especially committed to Peter, that every people may with certainty know, that whosoever deviates from the unity of the faith which Peter then professed to Christ, to him will be granted neither forgiveness of sins nor entrance into the kingdom of heaven.



We wylla fter isum godspelle eow gereccan ra apostola drohtnunga and geendunge, mid scortre race; foran e heora rowung is gehwr on Engliscum gereorde fullice geendebyrd.

We will after this gospel relate to you the lives and end of those apostles in a short narrative, because their passion is everywhere fully set forth in the English tongue.

fter Drihtnes upstige ws Petrus bodigende geleafan am leodscipum e sind gecwedene Galatia, Cappadocia, Bithinia, Asia, Italia. Syan, ymbe tyn geara fyrst, h gewende to Romebyrig, bodigende godspel; and on re byrig h gesette his biscop-setl, and r gest fif and twentig geara, lrende a Romaniscan ceastregewaran Godes mra, mid micclum tacnum. His wierwinna ws on eallum his frelde sum dr, se ws Simon gehten. es dr ws mid {372}am awyrgedum gaste to am swye afylled, t he cw t he wre Crist, Godes Sunu, and mid his drycrfte s folces geleafan amyrde.

After the Lord's ascension Peter was preaching the faith to the nations which are called Galatia, Cappadocia, Bithynia, Asia, Italy. Afterwards, after a space of ten years, he returned to Rome, preaching the gospel; and in that city he set his episcopal seat, and there sat five and twenty years, teaching the Roman citizens the glories of God, with many miracles. His adversary in all his course was a certain magician, who was called Simon. This magician was filled {373}with the accursed spirit to that degree, that he said that he was Christ, the Son of God, and with his magic corrupted the faith of the people.

a gelmp hit t man ferede anre wuduwan suna lc r Petrus bodigende ws. He a cw to am folce and to am dr, "Genealǽca re bre, and gelyfa t s bodung so sy, e one deadan to life arr." Hwt a Simon wear gebyld urh deofles gast, and cw, "Swa hrae swa ic one deadan arǽre, acwella minne wierwinnan Petrum." t folc him andwyrde, "Cucenne we hine forbrna." Simon a mid deofles crfte dyde t s deadan lc styrigende ws. a wende t folc t he geedcucod wre. Petrus a ofer eall clypode, "Gif he geedcucod sy, sprece to s, and astande; onbyrige metes, and ham gecyrre." t folc a hrymde hlddre stemne, "Gif Simon is ne de, h sceal t wite olian e h e gemynte." Simon to isum wordum hine gebealh and fleonde ws, ac t folc mid ormǽtum edwite hine gehfte.

Then it happened that the corpse of a widow's son was borne where Peter was preaching. He said to the people and to the magician, "Draw near to the bier, and believe that his preaching is true who raises the dead to life." Simon was hereupon emboldened by the spirit of the devil, and said, "As soon as I shall have raised the dead, kill my adversary Peter." The people answered him, "We will burn him alive." Simon then, through the devil's craft, made the corpse of the dead to move. The people then imagined that he was restored to life: but Peter cried above all, "If he be restored to life, let him speak to us, and stand up; let him taste food, and return home." The people then exclaimed with loud voice, "If Simon do this not, he shall undergo the punishment which he devised for thee." Simon at these words was angry, and was fleeing away, but the people with unmeasured reproach seized on him.

Se Godes apostol a genealhte am lice mid aenedum earmum, us biddende, "u, leofa Drihten, e s sendest to bodigenne inne geleafan, and s behete t we mihton, urh inne naman, deoflu todrfan, and untrume gehlan, and a deadan arran, arǽr nu isne cnapan, t is folc oncnwe t nan God nys buton u ana, mid inum Fder, and am Halgan Gaste." fter isum gebede ars se deada, and gebgedum cneowum to Petre cw, "Ic geseah Hlend Crist, and h sende his englas for for inre bene, t h me to life gelddon." t folc a mid anre stemne clypigende cw, "An God is e Petrus boda:" and woldon forbǽrnan one dr, ac Petrus him forwyrnde; cw, t se Hlend him thte one regol, t h sceoldon yfel mid gde forgyldan.

The apostle of God then drew near to the corpse with outstretched arms, thus praying, "Thou, beloved Lord, who hast sent us to preach thy faith, and hast promised us that we might, through thy name, drive away devils, and heal the sick, and raise up the dead, raise up now this lad, that this people may know that there is no God but thou alone, with thy Father and the Holy Ghost." After this prayer the dead rose up, and with bended knees said to Peter, "I saw Jesus Christ, and he sent his angels forth at thy prayer, that they might lead me to life." The people then crying with one voice said, "There is one God that Peter preaches:" and would burn the magician, but Peter forbade them, saying, that Jesus had taught them the rule, that they should requite evil with good.

Simon, aa he am folce twunden ws, getgde nne ormǽtne ryan innan am geate r Petrus inn hfde, t {374}he fǽrlice hine abtan sceolde. Hwt a Petrus cm, and one ryan untgde mid isum bebode, "Yrn, and sege Simone, t he leng mid his drycrfte Godes folc ne bepce, e h mid his agenum blode gebohte." And h sona getengde wi s drs, and hine on fleame gebrohte. Petrus wear fterweard us cweende, "On Godes naman ic e bebeode, t u nnne to on his lice ne gefstnige." Se hund, aa h ne moste his lichaman derian, totr his hteru sticmlum of his bce, and hine drf geond a weallas, eotende swa swa wulf, on s folces gesihe. He a tbrst am hunde, and to lngum fyrste sian, for re sceame, ns gesewen on Romana-byrig.

Simon, when he had escaped from the people, tied a huge mastiff within the gate where Peter had his dwelling, that he {375}might suddenly devour him. But Peter came and untied the mastiff with this injunction, "Run, and say to Simon, that he no longer with his magic deceive God's people, whom he bought with his own blood." And he forthwith hastened towards the magician, and put him to flight. Peter afterwards thus spake, "In the name of God I command thee that thou fasten no tooth on his body." The dog, when he might not hurt his body, tore his garments piecemeal from his back, and, howling like a wolf, drove him along the walls, in sight of the people. He then escaped from the dog, and for a long time after, for shame, was not seen in Rome.

Syan eft on fyrste he begeat sumne e hine besprc to am casere Nerone, and gelmp a t se awyrgeda ehtere one deofles en his freondscipum geeodde. Mid am e hit us gedn ws, a teowde Crist hine sylfne Petre on gastlicere gesihe, and mid yssere tihtinge hine gehyrte, "Se dr Simon and se wlhreowa Nero sind mid deofles gaste afyllede, and syrwia ongean e; ac ne beo u afyrht; ic beo mid e, and ic sende minne eowan Paulum e to frofre, se stp to merigen into Romana-byrig, and gt mid gastlicum gecampe winna ongean one dr, and hine awurpa into helle grunde: and gt sian samod to minum rice becuma mid sige martyrdomes."

After a time he got some one to speak of him to the emperor Nero, and it happened that the accursed persecutor associated the devil's minister in his friendship. When this had taken place, Christ appeared to Peter in a ghostly vision, and encouraged him with this incitement, "The magician Simon and the cruel Nero are filled with the spirit of the devil, and machinate against thee, but be thou not afraid; I will be with thee, and I will send my servant Paul for thy comfort, who shall enter into Rome to-morrow, and ye shall fight in ghostly conflict against the magician, and shall cast him into the abyss of hell, and ye shall afterwards together come to my kingdom with the triumph of martyrdom."

Non passus est Paulus, quando uinctus Romam perductus est, sed post aliquot annos, quando sponte illuc iterum reuersus est. is gelmp swa solice. On one oerne dg com Paulus into re byrig, and heora ger oerne mid micelre blisse underfeng, and wron togdere bodigende binnan re byrig seofon monas am folce lifes weig. Beah a ungerim folces to cristendome urh Petres lare; and eac s caseres gebedda Libia, and his heah-gerefan wf Agrippina wurdon swa gelyfede t h forbugon heora wera neawiste. urh Paules bodunge gelyfdon s caseres egnas and {376}hredcnihtas, and fter heora fulluhte noldon gecyrran to his hrede.

Non passus est Paulus, quando vinctus Romam perductus est, sed post aliquot annos, quando sponte illuc iterum reversus est. This in sooth so happened. On the next day Paul came into the city, and each of them received the other with great joy, and they were together seven months preaching within the city the way of life to the people. People without number then inclined to christianity through the teaching of Peter; and also Livia the emperor's consort, and the wife of his chief officer, Agrippina, were so imbued with the faith, that they eschewed the intercourse of their husbands. Through the preaching of Paul the servants and domestics of the {377}emperor believed, and after their baptism would not return to his family.

Simon se dr worhte a rene nddran, styrigende swylce heo cucu wre; and dyde t a anlicnyssa ra henra hlihhende wron and styrigende; and he sylf wear frlice upp on re lyfte gesewen. r-to-geanes gehlde Petrus blinde, and healte, and deofol-seoce, and a deadan arrde, and cw to am folce t h sceoldon forfleon s deofles drcrft, yls e h mid his lotwrencum bephte wurdon. a wear is am casere gecydd, and he het one dr him to gefeccan, and eac a apostolas. Simon brd his hiw tforan am casere, swa t he wear frlice geuht cnapa, and eft hrwenge; hwltidum on wimmannes hade, and eft rrihte on cnihthade.

Simon the magician then wrought a brazen serpent, moving as if it were alive, and made the idols of the heathens laughing and moving; and he himself suddenly appeared up in the air. On the other hand Peter healed the blind, and the halt, and the possessed of devils, and raised up the dead, and said to the people that they should flee from the magic of the devil, lest they should be deceived by his wiles. This was then made known to the emperor, and he commanded the magician to be fetched to him, and also the apostles. Simon changed his appearance before the emperor, so that he suddenly seemed a boy, and afterwards a hoary man; sometimes in a woman's person, and again instantly in childhood.

a Nero t geseah, a wende h t he Godes Sunu wre. Petrus cw t h Godes wiersaca wre, and mid leasum drcrfte forscyldigod, and cw t he wre gewiss deofol on menniscre edwiste. Simon cw, "Nis na gedafenlic t u, cyning, hlyste anes leases fisceres wordum; ac ic isne hosp leng ne forbere: nu ic beode minum englum t h me on isum fiscere gewrecon." Petrus cw, "Ne ondrde ic ine awyrgedan gastas, ac h weora afyrhte urh mines Drihtnes geleafan." Nero cw, "Ne ondrtst u e, Petrus, Simones mihta, e mid wundrum his godcundnysse geswutela?" Petrus cw, "Gif he godcundnysse hbbe, onne secge he hwt ic ence, oe hwt ic dn wylle." Nero cw, "Sege me, Petrus, on sundor-sprce hwt u ence." He a leat to s caseres eare, and het him beran diglice berenne hlf; and he bletsode one hlf, and tobrc, and bewand on his twam slyfum, us cweende, "Sege nu, Simon, hwt ic ohte, oe cwde, oe gedyde." He a gebealh hine, foran e he ne mihte geopenian Petres digelnysse, and dyde a mid drcrfte t r comon micele hundas, and rsdon wi Petres weard; ac Petrus teowde one gebletsodan hlf am hundum, and h rrihte of heora {378}gesihe fordwinon. He a cw to am casere, "Simon me mid his englum geiwde, nu sende he hundas to me; foran e he nf godcundlice englas, ac hf hundlice." Nero cw, "Hwt is nu, Simon? Ic wene wit sind oferswide." Simon andwyrde, "u goda cyning, nat nn man manna geohtas buton Gode anum." Petrus andwyrde, "Untwylice u lihst t u God sy, nu u nast manna geohtas."

When Nero saw that, he imagined that he was the Son of God. Peter said that he was God's adversary, and guilty of false magic, and said that he was certainly the devil in human substance. Simon said, "It is not fitting that thou, king, shouldst listen to the words of a false fisher; but I will no longer bear this contumely: I will now command my angels to avenge me on this fisher." Peter said, "I fear not thy accursed spirits, but they will become terrified through the faith of my Lord." Nero said, "Fearest thou not, Peter, the powers of Simon, who manifests to thee his divinity by miracles? " Peter said, "If he have divinity, then let him say what I think, or what I will do." Nero said, "Tell me, Peter, in speech apart, what thou thinkest." He then bent to the emperor's ear, and ordered a barley loaf to be privately brought to him; and he blessed the loaf, and brake, and wrapt it in his two sleeves, thus saying, "Say now, Simon, what I thought, or said, or did." He was then wroth, for he could not open Peter's secret, and caused by magic large dogs to come, and rush towards Peter; but Peter showed the blessed bread to the dogs, and they straightways vanished from their {379}sight. He then said to the emperor, "Simon threatened me with his angels, now he sends dogs to me; because he has not divine angels, but has doglike." Nero said, "What is now, Simon? I ween we are overcome." Simon answered, "Thou good king, no one knows men's thoughts but God alone." Peter answered, "Undoubtedly thou liest that thou art God, now thou knowest not men's thoughts."

a bewende Nero hine to Paulum, and cw, "Hw ne cwest u nn word? Oe hwa teah e? oe hwt lrdest u mid inre bodunge?" Paulus him andwyrde, "La leof, hwt wille ic isum forlorenum wiersacan geandwyrdan? Gif u wilt his wordum gehyrsumian, u amyrst ine sawle and eac inne cynedom. Be minre lare, e u axast, ic e andwyrde. Se Hlend, e Petrum lrde on his andweardnysse, se ylca me lrde mid onwrigenysse; and ic gefylde mid Godes lare fram Hierusalem, ot ic com to Iliricum. Ic lrde t men him betweonan lufodon and gerwuredon. Ic thte am rcan, t h ne onhofon h, ne heora hiht on leasum welan ne besetton, ac on Gode anum. Ic thte am medeman mannum, t h gehealdene wron on heora bigwiste and scrude. Ic bebead earfum, t h blissodon on heora hafenleaste. Fderas ic manode, t h mid steore Godes eges heora cild geeawodon. am cildum ic bead, t h gehyrsume wron fder and meder to halwendum mynegungum. Ic lrde weras, t h heora ǽwe heoldon, foran t se wer gewitna on wbrcum wife, t wrec God on ǽwbrcum were. Ic manode ǽwfste wf, t h heora weras inweardlice lufodon, and him mid ege gehyrsumodon, swa swa hlafordum. Ic lrde hlafordas, t h heora eowum lie wron; foran e h sind gebroru for Gode, se hlaford and se eowa. Ic bebead eowum mannum, t h getreowlice, and swa swa Gode heora hlafordum eowdon. Ic thte eallum geleaffullum mannum, t h wurian nne God lmihtigne and ungesewenlicne. Ne leornode ic as lare t nanum eorlicum menn, ac Hlend {380}Crist of heofonum me sprc to, and sende me to bodigenne his lre eallum eodum, us cweende, 'Far u geond as woruld, and ic beo mid e; and swa hwt swa u cwyst oe dest, ic hit gerihtwisige.'" Se casere wear a ablicged mid isum wordum.

Nero then turned to Paul, and said, "Why sayest thou no word? Or who has taught thee? or what hast thou taught with thy preaching?" Paul answered him, "O sir, why shall I answer this lost adversary? If thou wilt obey his words, thou wilt injure thy soul, and also thy kingdom. Concerning my teaching, which thou askest, I will answer thee. Jesus, who while present taught Peter, the same by revelation taught me; and I have filled with the precepts of God from Jerusalem until I came to Illyricum. I taught that men should love and honour each other. I taught the rich not to exalt themselves, nor to place their hope in false wealth, but in God alone. I taught men of moderate means to be frugal in their food and clothing. I enjoined the poor to rejoice in their indigence. Fathers I exhorted to bring up their children in the fear of God. Children I enjoined to be obedient to the salutary admonitions of father and mother. I taught husbands to keep inviolate their wedlock, because that which a man punishes in an adulterous wife, God will avenge in an adulterous husband. I exhorted pious wives inwardly to love their husbands, and with awe obey them as masters. I taught masters to be kind to their servants; because they are brothers before God, the master and the servant. I commanded serving men faithfully and as God to serve their masters. I taught all believing men to worship one God Almighty and invisible. I learned not this lore of any earthly man, but {381}Jesus Christ spake to me from heaven, and sent me to preach his doctrine to all nations, thus saying, 'Go thou throughout the world, and I will be with thee, and whatsoever thou sayest or doest, I will justify it.'" The emperor was then astonished at these words.

Simon cw, "u gda cyning, ne understenst u isra twegra manna gereonunge ongean me. Ic com Sofstnys, ac as weoriga wi me. Ht nu arran nne heahne torr, t ic one astige; foran e mine englas nella cuman to me on eoran betwux synfullum mannum: and ic wylle astigan to minum fder, and ic bebeode minum englum, t hi e to minum rice gefeccan." Nero a cw, "Ic wylle geseon gif u as beht mid weorcum gefylst;" and het a one torr mid micclum ofste on smeum felda arran, and bebead eallum his folce t hi to yssere wfersyne samod comon. Se dr astah one torr tforan eallum am folce, and astrehtum earmum ongann fleogan on a lyft.

Simon said, "Thou good king, thou understandest not the plot of these two men against me. I am the Truth, but these thwart me. Command now a high tower to be raised, that I may ascend it; for my angels will not come to me on earth among sinful men: and I will ascend to my father, and I will command my angels to fetch thee to my kingdom." Nero then said, "I will see if thou fulfillest these promises by deeds;" and then bade the tower be raised with great haste on the smooth field, and commanded all his people to come together to this spectacle. The magician then ascended the tower before all the people, and with outstretched arms began to fly in the air.

Paulus cw to Petre, "Broer, u wre Gode gecoren r ic, e gedafna t u isne deofles en mid inum benum afylle; and ic eac mine cneowu gebige to re bene." a beseah Petrus to am fleondan dr, us cweende, "Ic halsige eow awirigede gastas, on Cristes naman, t ge forlton one dr e ge betwux eow feria;" and a deoflu rrihte hine forleton, and he feallende tobrst on feower sticca. a feower sticca clifodon to feower stanum, a sind to gewitnysse s apostolican siges o isne andweardan dg. Petres geyld geafode t a hellican fynd hine up geond a lyft sume hwile feredon, t he on his fylle y hetelicor hreosan sceolde; and se e lytle r beotlice mid deoflicum fierhaman fleon wolde, t he a frlice his fee forlure. Him gedafenode t h on heannysse ahafen wurde, t h on gesihe ealles folces hreosende a eoran gesohte.

Paul said to Peter, "Brother, thou wast chosen of God before me, to thee it is fitting that thou cast down this minister of the devil with thy prayers; and I will also bend my knees to that prayer." Peter then looked towards the flying magician, thus saying, "I conjure you, accursed spirits, in the name of Christ, to forsake the magician whom ye bear betwixt you;" and the devils instantly forsook him, and he falling brake into four pieces. The four pieces clave to four stones, which are for witness of the apostolic triumph to this day. Peter's patience allowed the hellish fiends to bear him somewhile up through the air, that in his fall he might descend the more violently; and that he, who menacingly a little before would fly with devilish wings, might suddenly lose his footing. It was befitting him to be raised up on high, that, in the sight of all the people, falling down, he might seek the earth.

Hwt a, Nero bebead Petrum and Paulum on bendum gehealdan, and a sticca Simones hreawes mid wearde {382}besettan: wende t h of deae on am riddan dge arisan mihte. Petrus cw, "es Simon ne ge-edcuca ǽr am gemǽnum riste, ac he is to ecum witum genierod." Se Godes wierwinna a, Nero, mid geeahte his heah-gerefan Agrippan, het Paulum beheafdian, and Petrum on rode ahn. Paulus a, be s cwelleres hse, underbeah swurdes ecge, and Petrus rode-hengene astah. aa h to re rode geld ws, he cw to am cwellerum, "Ic bidde eow, wenda min heafod adne, and astrecca mine ft wi heofonas weard: ne eom ic wyre t ic swa hangige swa min Drihten. He astah of heofonum for middangeardes alysednysse, and wron fori his ft nier awende. Me he clypa nu to his rice; awenda fori mine ftwelmas to an heofonlican wege." And a cwelleras him a s getiodon.

Nero then commanded Peter and Paul to be held in bonds, and the pieces of Simon's carcase to be guarded by a watch: {383}he weened that he could arise from death on the third day. Peter said, "This Simon will not be requickened before the general resurrection, but he is condemned to everlasting torments." Then God's adversary, Nero, with the counsel of his chief officer Agrippa, commanded Paul to be beheaded, and Peter hanged on a cross. Paul then, at the executioner's command, bowed his neck under the sword's edge, and Peter ascended the cross. While he was being led to the cross, he said to the executioners, "I beseech you, turn my head down, and stretch my feet towards heaven: I am not worthy to hang as my Lord. He descended from heaven for the redemption of the world, and therefore were his feet turned downwards. He now calls me to his kingdom; turn therefore my foot-soles to the heavenly way." And the executioners granted him this.

a wolde t cristene folc one casere acwellan, ac Petrus mid isum wordum h gestilde: "Mn Drihten for feawum dagum me geswutelode t ic sceolde mid ysre rowunge his ftswaum fylian: nu, mine bearn, ne gelette ge minne weg. Mine ft sind nu awende to am heofenlican life. Blissia mid me; nu to-dg ic onf minre earfonysse edlean." He ws a biddende his Drihten mid isum wordum: "Hlend mn, ic e betce ine scep, e u me befstest: ne beo hi hyrdelease onne h e habba." And h mid isum wordum ageaf his gast.

Then would the christian people slay the emperor, but Peter stilled them with these words: "My Lord a few days ago manifested to me that I should follow his footsteps with this suffering: now, my children, hinder not my way. My feet are now turned to the heavenly life. Rejoice with me; now to-day I shall receive the reward of my tribulation." He was then praying his Lord with these words: "My Saviour, I commit to thee thy sheep, which thou didst entrust to me: they will not lack a shepherd when they have thee." And with these words he gave up his ghost.

Samod h ferdon, Petrus and Paulus, on isum dge, sigefste to re heofonlican wununge, on am syx and rittegoan geare fter Cristes rowunge, mid am h wunia on ecnysse. Igitur Hieronimus et quique alii auctores testantur, quod in una die simul Petrus et Paulus martirizati sunt.

Together they went, Peter and Paul, on this day, triumphant to the heavenly dwelling, in the six and thirtieth year after Christ's passion, with whom they continue to eternity. Igitur Hieronymus et quique alii auctores testantur, quod in una die simul Petrus et Paulus martyrizati sunt.

fter heora rowunge rrihte comon wlitige weras, and uncue eallum folce: cwdon t hi comon fram Hierusalem, to y t hi woldon ra apostola lc bebyrian; and swa dydon mid micelre arwurnysse, and sdon am folce, t {384}h micclum blissian mihton, foran e hi swylce mundboran on heora neawiste habban moston.

Immediately after their passion there came beauteous men, and unknown to all the people: they said that they came from Jerusalem, that they might bury the bodies of the apostles; and so did with great honour, and said to the people, that {385}they might greatly rejoice at having such patrons in their proximity.

Wite ge eac t es wyrresta cyning Nero rice fter cwale isra apostola healdan ne mt. Hit gelmp a t eal s wlhreowan caseres folc samod hine hatode, swa t hi rddon anmodlice t man hine gebunde, and o dea swunge. Nero, aa he s folces eaht geacsode, wear to feore afyrht, and mid fleame to wuda getengde. a sprang t word t h swa lange on am holte on cyle and on hungre dwelode, ot hine wulfas totron.

Know ye also that this worst of kings, Nero, could not hold his realm after the death of these apostles. It befell that all the people together of the cruel emperor hated him, so that they resolved unanimously to bind and scourge him to death. When Nero heard of the people's counsel he was mortally afraid, and hastened in flight to the wood. Then the rumour sprang up that he continued so long in the wood, in cold and hunger, until wolves tore him in pieces.

a gelmp hit fter am, t Grecas gelhton ra apostola lichaman, and woldon east mid him ldan. a fringa gewear micel eor-styrung, and t Romanisce folc yder onette, and a lc ahreddan, on re stowe e is gehten Catacumbas; and h r heoldon oer healf gear, ot a stowa getimbrode wron, e h sian on alde wron, mid wuldre and lfsangum. Cu is geond ealle eodscipas t fela wundra gelumpon t ra apostola byrgenum, urh s Hlendes tie, am sy wuldor and lf on ecnysse. Amen.

It happened after that, that Greeks seized the bodies of the apostles, and would take them with them eastward. There then was suddenly a great earthquake, and the Roman people hastened thither, and rescued the bodies, in the place which is called the Catacombs, and they preserved them there a year and a half, until the places were built in which they were afterwards laid, with glory and hymns. It is known among all nations that many wonders happened at the tombs of those apostles, through permission of Jesus, to whom be glory and praise ever to eternity. Amen.





Godes gelaung wura isne dg am mran apostole Paule to wurmynte, foram e he is gecweden ealra eoda lreow: urh sofste lare ws eah-hwere his martyrdm samod mid am eadigan Petre gefremmed. H ws fram cildhde on re ealdan ǽ getogen, and mid micelre gecnyrdnysse on re begriwen ws. fter Cristes rowunge, aa se soa geleafa asprng urh ra apostola bodunge, a ehte he cristenra manna urh his nytennysse, and sette on cwearterne, and eac ws on geafunge t s forman cyeres {386}Stephanes slege: nis eah-hwere be him gerd, t h handlinga nigne man acwealde.

The church of God celebrates this day in honour of the great Apostle Paul, for he is called the teacher of all nations: though his martyrdom, for true doctrine, was accomplished with the blessed Peter's. He had from childhood been bred up in the old law, and by great diligence was therein deeply imbued. After Christ's passion, when the true faith had sprung up through the preaching of the apostles, he persecuted christian men through his ignorance, and set them in prison, and was also consenting to the slaying of the first {387}martyr Stephen: it is not, however, read of him that he killed any man with his own hands.

"He nam a gewrit t am ealdor-biscopum to re byrig Damascum, t h moste gebindan a cristenan e h on re byrig gemette, and geldan to Hierusalem. a gelamp hit on am sie t him com frlice to micel leoht, and hine astrehte to eoran, and he gehyrde stemne ufan us cweende, Saule, Saule, hw ehtst u mn? Yfel bi e sylfum t u spurne ongean a gde. He a mid micelre fyrhte andwyrde re stemne, Hwt eart u, leof Hlaford? Him andwyrde seo clypung re godcundan stemne, Ic eom se Hlend e u ehtst: ac ars nu, and far for to re byrig; r e bi gesǽd hwt e gedafenige to donne. H ars a, ablendum eagum, and his geferan hine swa blindne to re byrig gelddon. And he r andbidigende ne onbyrigde tes ne wtes binnan reora daga fce."

"He took then letters of the high priests for the city of Damascus, that he might bind the christians that he found in the city, and lead them to Jerusalem. Then it happened on the journey that a great light came suddenly on him, and prostrated him on the earth, and he heard a voice from above thus saying, Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me? Evil will it be to thee to spurn against the goad. He then in great fright answered the voice, Who art thou, dear Lord? The calling of the divine voice answered him, I am Jesus whom thou persecutest: but arise now, and go forth to the city; there shall it be said unto thee what it befitteth thee to do. He arose then with blinded eyes, and his companions led him thus blind to the city. And there abiding he tasted neither meat nor drink for a space of three days."

"Ws a sum Godes egen binnan re byrig, his nama ws Annanas, to am sprc Drihten ysum wordum, Annana, ars, and gecum to minum eowan Saulum, se is biddende minre miltsunge mid eornestum mode. He andwyrde re drihtenlican stemne, Min Hlend, hu mg ic hine gesprecan, see is ehtere inra halgena, urh mihte ra ealdor-biscopa? Drihten cw, Far swa ic e sde, foran e h is me gecoren ftels, t h tobere minne naman eodum, and cynegum, and Israhela bearnum; and he sceal fela rowian for minum naman. Annanas a becom to am gecorenan cempan, and sette his handa him on-uppan mid isre gretinge, Saule, min broor, se Hlend, e e be wege gesprc, sende me wi n, t u geseo, and mid am Halgan Gaste gefylled sy. a, mid isum wordum, feollon swylce fylmena of his eagum, and he rrihte gesihe underfeng, and to fulluhte beah. Wunode a sume feawa daga mid am Godes eowum binnan re byrig, and mid micelre bylde am Iudeiscum bodade, t Crist, e h wisocon, is s lmihtigan Godes Sunu. H wurdon swilice {388}ablicgede, and cwdon, La h, ne is es se wlhreowa ehtere cristenra manna: hmeta boda he Cristes geleafan? Saulus solice micclum swyrode, and a Iudeiscan gescende, mid anrdnysse seende, t Crist is Godes Sunu."

"There was then a servant of God within the city, his name was Ananias, to whom the Lord spake in these words, Ananias, arise, and go to my servant Saul, who is praying for my mercy with earnest mind. He answered the divine voice, My Saviour, how may I speak to him who is the persecutor of thy saints, through the power of the chief priests? The Lord said, Go as I have said to thee, for he is to me a chosen vessel, to bear my name to nations, and to kings, and to the children of Israel; and he shall suffer much for my name. Ananias went then to the chosen champion, and set his hands upon him with this greeting, Saul, my brother, Jesus, who spake to thee on the way, hath sent me to thee, that thou mayest see, and be filled with the Holy Ghost. Then with these words there fell as it were films from his eyes, and he straightways received sight, and submitted to baptism. He continued then some few days with the servants of God within the city, and with great boldness preached to the Jews, that Christ, whom they had denied, is the Son of Almighty God. They were greatly astonished, and said, What! is not this {389}the cruel persecutor of christian men: how preacheth he the faith of Christ? But Saul increased much in strength, and shamed the Jews, with steadfastness verifying that Christ is the Son of God."

"Hwt a, fter manegum dagum gereonodon a Iudeiscan, h h one Godes cempan acwellan sceoldon, and setton a weardas to lcum geate re ceastre. Paulus ongeat heora syrwunge, and a cristenan hine genamon, and on anre wilian aleton ofer one weall. And he ferde ongean to Hierusalem, and hine geculhte to am halgan heape Cristes hiredes, and him cydde h se Hlend hine of heofenum gesprc. Syan, fter sumum fyrste, com clypung of am Halgan Gaste to am geleaffullan werode, us cweende, Asenda Paulum and Barnaban to am weorce e ic h gecoren hbbe. Se halga heap a, be Godes hse and gecorennysse, h asendon to lrenne eallum leodscipum be Cristes to-cyme for middangeardes alysednysse."

"Then after many days the Jews deliberated how they might kill the champion of God, and set wards at every gate of the city. Paul got knowledge of their machination, and the christians took him, and let him down over the wall in a basket. And he went again to Jerusalem, and announced himself to the holy fellowship of Christ's family, and made known to them how Jesus had spoken to him from heaven. After some time a voice came from the Holy Ghost, to the faithful company, thus saying, Send Paul and Barnabas to the work for which I have chosen them. The holy fellowship then, by God's command and election, sent them to teach all countries concerning the coming of Christ for the redemption of the world."

"Barnabas ws a Paules gefera t re bodunge to langum fyrste. a t nextan wear him geuht t hi ontwa ferdon, and swa dydon. Paulus wear a afylled and gefrefrod mid s Halgan Gastes gife, and ferde to manegum leodscipum, sawende Godes sd. On sumere byrig he ws twelf mona, on sumere twa gear, on sumere reo, and gesette biscopas, and msse-preostas, and Godes eowas; ferde sian for to orum leodscipe, and dyde swa gelice. Asende onne eft ongean rend-gewritu to am geleaffullum e he r thte, and h swa mid am gewritum tihte and getrymde to lifes wege."

"Thus was Barnabas Paul's companion in preaching for a long time, when at last it seemed good to them to go apart, and they did so. Paul was then filled and comforted with the grace of the Holy Ghost, and went to many countries, sowing God's seed. In one city he was twelve months, in one two years, in one three, and appointed bishops, and mass-priests, and servants of God; he went afterwards to another country, and did in like manner. But he sent back letters to those whom he before had taught, and so by those letters stimulated and confirmed them in the way of life."

We willa nu mid sumere scortre trahtnunge as rdinge oferyrnan, and geopenian, gif heo hwt digles on hyre hbbende sy. Paulus ehte cristenra manna, na mid nie, swa swa a Iudeiscan dydon, ac he ws midspreca and bewerigend re ealdan ǽ mid micelre anrdnysse: wende t Cristes geleafa wre wierwinna re ealdan gesetnysse: ac se Hlend e gesette a ealdan ǽ mid mislicum {390}getacnungum, se ylca eft on his andweardnysse h awende to sofstnysse fter gastlicre getacnunge. a nyste Paulus a gastlican getacnunge re ǽ, and ws fori hyre forespreca, and ehtere Cristes geleafan. God lmihtig, e ealle ing wt, geseah his geanc, t h ne ehte geleaffulra manna urh andan, ac urh ware re ealdan ǽ, and hine a gesprc of heofonum, us cweende, "Saule, hw ehtst u mn? Ic eom seo Sofstnys e u werast; geswic re ehtnysse: derigendlic bi e t u spurne ongean a gde. Gif se oxa spyrn ongean a gde, hit dere him sylfum; swa eac hearma e in gewinn togeanes me." He cw, "Hw ehtst u mn?" foran e he is cristenra manna heafod, and besarga swa hwt swa his lima on eoran rowia, swa swa he urh his witegan cw, "Se e eow hrepa, hit me bi swa egle swylce he hreppe a seo mines eagan." He wear astreht, us cweende, "Hwt eart u, Hlaford?" His modignes wear astreht, and seo soe eadmodnys wear on him arred. He feoll unrihtwis, and wear arred rihtwis. Feallende he forleas lichamlice gesihe, arisende he underfeng his modes onlihtinge. ry dagas he wunode butan gesihe, foran e he wisc Cristes rist on am riddan dge.

We will now run over this reading with a short exposition, and explain any obscurity there may be contained in it. Paul persecuted christian men, not with hate, as the Jews did, but he was a partizan and defender of the old law with great steadfastness: he thought that the faith of Christ was an adversary to the old covenant: but Jesus who had established the old law by divers miracles, the same afterwards by his {391}presence changed it to truth, according to its ghostly signification. Now Paul knew not the ghostly signification of that law, and was therefore its advocate, and a persecutor of the faith of Christ. God Almighty, who knows all things, saw his thoughts, that he did not persecute faithful men from rancour, but for the defence of the old law, and spake to him from heaven, thus saying, "Saul, why persecutest thou me? I am the Truth which thou defendest; cease from persecution: hurtful will it be to thee to spurn against the goad. If the ox spurneth against the goad, it hurteth himself; so also harmeth thee thy warfare against me." He said, "Why persecutest thou me?" because he is the head of christian men, and bewails whatsoever his limbs suffer on earth, as he said through his prophet, "He who toucheth you, it shall be to me as painful as if he touched the sight of my eye." He was prostrated, thus saying, "Who art thou, Lord?" His pride was prostrated, and true humility was raised up in him. He fell unrighteous, and was raised righteous. Falling he lost bodily sight, rising he received his mind's enlightening. Three days he continued without sight, because he had denied the resurrection of Christ on the third day.

Annanias is gereht, on Hebreiscum gereorde, 'scp.' t bilewite scp a gefullode one arleasan Saulum, and worhte hine arfstne Paulum. He gefullode one wulf and geworhte to lambe. He awende his naman mid eawum; and ws a sofst bydel Godes gelaunge, see r mid rere ehtnysse hi geswencte. He wolde forfleon syrewunge Iudeiscre eode, and geafode t hine man on anre wilian ofer one weall nyer alt: na t h nolde for Cristes geleafan dea rowian, ac fori he forfleah one ungeripedan dea, foran e he sceolde rest menigne mann mid his micclum wisdome to Gode gestrynan, and syan mid micelre geince to martyrdome his swuran astreccan. Micele maran witu he rowode sian for Cristes naman, onne he ǽr his gecyrrednysse {392}cristenum mannum gebude. Saulus se arleasa beswng a cristenan, ac fter re gecyrrednysse ws se arfsta Paulus for Cristes naman oft beswungen. ne h ws gestned o dea, swa t a ehteras hine for deadne leton, ac s on merigen h ars, and ferde ymbe his bodunge. He ws gelomlice on mycelre frecednysse, ger ge on sǽ ge on lnde, on westene, betwux sceaum, on hungre and on urste, and on manegum wccum, on cyle, and on ncednysse, and on manegum cwearternum: swa h onette mid re bodunge, swylce h eal mennisc to Godes rce gebringan wolde: ger ge mid lre, ge mid gebedum, ge mid gewritum h symle tihte to Godes willan. He ws geld to heofonan o a riddan fleringe, and r h geseh and gehyrde Godes digelnysse, a h ne moste nanum men cyan. H besargode mid wope ora manna synna, and eallum geleaffullum h teowde fderlice lufe. Mid his hand-crfte he teolode his and his geferena fordda, and r-to-eacan nis nan ing tocnawen on sore eawfstnysse t his lareowdom ne gestaelode. a ore apostoli, be Godes hse, leofodon be heora lre unpleolice; ac eah-hwere Paulus ana, see ws on woruld-crfte teld-wyrhta, nolde a alyfdan bigleofan onfn, ac mid agenre teolunge his and his geferena neode foresceawode. His lra and his drohtnunga sind s unasmeagendlice, ac se bi geslig e his mynegungum mid gecneordnysse gehyrsuma.

Ananias signifies in the Hebrew tongue, sheep. The gentle sheep then baptized the impious Saul, and made him the pious Paul. He baptized the wolf and made him a lamb. He changed his name with his character; and he was then a true proclaimer of God's church, who had before afflicted it with fierce persecution. He would flee from the machination of the Jewish people, and consented to be let down in a basket over the wall: not because he would not suffer death for the faith of Christ, but because he would flee from immature death; for he had first to gain many a man to God by his great wisdom, and afterwards with great honour stretch out his neck to martyrdom. Much greater torments he suffered afterwards for Christ's name, than he had ordered for {393}christian men before his conversion. Saul the impious scourged the christians, but after his conversion the pious Paul for the name of Christ was often scourged. Once he was stoned almost to death, so that his persecutors left him for dead, but in the morning he arose and went about his preaching. He was frequently in great peril, both by sea and by land, in the waste, among thieves, from hunger and from thirst, and from many watchings, from cold, and from nakedness, and from many prisons: he so hastened with his preaching, as though he would bring all mankind to God's kingdom: as well with precepts as with prayers and with letters, he ever stimulated to the will of God. He was led to heaven as far as the third flooring, and there he saw and heard God's secret, which he might not make known to any man. He bewailed with weeping the sins of other men, and to all the faithful he showed fatherly love. By his handicraft he toiled for his own and his companions' support, and in addition thereto there was nothing known in true piety which his instruction did not confirm. The other apostles lived, by God's command, by their teaching, free from danger; but, nevertheless, Paul alone, who by worldly craft was a tent-wright, would not receive the sustenance allowed, but by his own toil provided for his own and his companions' need. His precepts and his acts are to us inscrutable, but happy will he be who obeys his admonitions with diligence.



Dixit Simon Petrus ad Iesum: et reliqua.

Dixit Simon Petrus ad Jesum: et reliqua.

"He forlt ealle woruld-ing, and am Hlende anum folgode," swa swa is godspel cwy, e ge n t isre enunge gehyrdon.

"He forsook all worldly things, and followed Jesus only," as this gospel says, which ye now at this service have heard.

"On re tde cw Petrus se apostol to am Hlende, Efne we forleton ealle woruld-ing, and e num fyliga: hwt dest u us s to leane?" et reliqua.

"At that time Peter the apostle said to Jesus, Behold we have left all worldly things, and follow thee only: what wilt thou do for us in reward thereof?" etc.

Micel truwa hwearftlode on Petres heortan: he na sprc {394}for ealne one heap, "We forleton ealle ing." Hwt forlet Petrus? He ws fiscere, and mid am crfte his teolode, and eah h sprc mid micelre bylde, "We forleton ealle ing." Ac micel he forlt, and his gebroru, aa h forleton one willan to agenne. eah hw forlte micele hta, and ne forlt a gitsunge, ne forlt he ealle ing. Petrus forlet lytle ing, scripp and net, ac he forlet ealle ing, aa he, for Godes lufon, nan ing habban nolde. He cw, "We fyliga e." Nis na fulfremedlic fela hta to forltenne, buton he Gode folgige. Solice a henan uwitan fela inga forleton, swa swa dyde Socrates, see ealle his hta behwyrfde wi anum gyldenum wecge, and syan awearp one wecg on wdre sǽ, t seo gitsung ra hta his willan ne hrmde, and abrude fram re woruldlican lare e he lufode: ac hit ne fremede him swa gedn, foran e he ne fyligde Gode, ac his agenum willan, and fori nfde a heofenlican edlean mid am apostolum, e ealle woruld-ing forsawon for Cristes lufon, and mid gehyrsumnysse him fyligdon.

Great trust revolved in the heart of Peter: he alone spake {395}for the whole company, "We have forsaken all things." What did Peter forsake? He was a fisher, and by that craft provided for himself, and yet he spake with great boldness, "We have forsaken all things." But he and his brothers forsook much, when they forsook the will to possess. Though any one forsake great possessions, and forsake not avarice, he forsakes not all things. Peter forsook little things, scrip and net, but he forsook all things, when, for love of God, he would have nothing. He said, "We follow thee." It is not complete to forsake many possessions, unless a man follow God. For the heathen philosophers forsook many things, as Socrates did, who exchanged all his possessions for a wedge of gold, and then cast the wedge into the wide sea, that desire of possessions might not obstruct his will, and draw it from the worldly lore that he loved: but it profited him not so to do, because he did not follow God, but his own will, and had not therefore heavenly reward with the apostles, who, for love of Christ, despised all worldly things, and with obedience followed him.

Petrus a befrn, "Hwt sceal us getimian? We dydon swa swa u us hete, hwt dest u us to edleane? Se Hlend andwyrde, So ic eow secge, t ge e me fyliga sceolon sittan ofer twelf dmsetl on re edcynninge, onne ic sitte on setle mines mgenrymmes; and ge onne dema twelf Israhela mgum." Edcynninge he het t gemnelice rist, on am beo ure lichaman ge-edcynnede to unbrosnunge, t is to ecum ingum. Tuwa we beo on isum life acennede: seo forme acennednys is flsclic, of fder and of meder; seo oer acennednys is gastlic, onne we beo ge-edcennede on am halgan fulluhte, on am us beo ealle synna forgyfene, urh s Halgan Gastes gife. Seo ridde acennednys bi on am gemnelicum riste, on am beo ure lichaman ge-edcennede to unbrosnigendlicum lichaman.

Peter then asked, "What shall become of us? We have done as thou commandedst us, what wilt thou do for us in reward? Jesus answered, Verily I say unto you, that ye who follow me shall, at the regeneration, sit on twelve judgement-seats, when I shall sit on the seat of my majesty; and ye then shall judge the twelve tribes of Israel." He called the common resurrection, regeneration, at which our bodies will be regenerated to incorruption, that is to eternity. Twice we are born in this life: the first birth is fleshly, of father and of mother; the second birth is ghostly, when we are regenerated at the holy baptism, in which all our sins will be forgiven us, through grace of the Holy Ghost. The third birth is at the common resurrection, at which our bodies will be regenerated to incorruptible bodies.

On am riste sitta a twelf apostoli mid Criste on heora {396}domsetlum, and dema am twelf migum Israhela eode. is twelffealde getel hf micele getacnunge. Gif a twelf mga na beo gedemede t am micclum dome, hwt de onne seo reotteoe mig, Leui? Hwt do ealle eoda middangeardes? Wenst u t h beo asyndrode fram am dome? Ac is twelffealde getel is geset for eallum mancynne ealles ymbhwyrftes, for re fulfremednysse his getacnunge. Twelf tida beo on am dge, and twelf monas on geare; twelf heahfderas sind, twelf witegan, twelf apostoli; and is getel hf maran getacnunge onne a ungelredan undergitan magon. Is nu fori mid isum twelffealdum getele ealles middangeardes ymbhwyrft getacnod.

At the resurrection the twelve apostles will sit with Christ {397}on their judgement-seats, and will judge the twelve tribes of the people of Israel. This twelvefold number has great signification. If the twelve tribes only will be judged at the great doom, what then will the thirteenth tribe, Levi, do? What will do all the nations of the world? Thinkest thou that they will be sundered from the doom? But this twelvefold number is set for all mankind of all the orb, for the perfectness of its signification. There are twelve hours in the day, and twelve months in the year; there are twelve patriarchs, twelve prophets, twelve apostles; and this number has a greater import than the unlearned may understand. By this twelvefold number therefore the orb of the whole earth is now signified.

a apostoli and ealle a gecorenan e him geefenlhton beo deman on am micclum dge mid Criste. r beo feower werod t am dome, twa gecorenra manna, and twa wiercorenra. t forme werod bi ra apostola and heora efenlcendra, a e ealle woruld-ing for Godes naman forleton: h beo a demeras, and him ne bi nan dm gedemed. Oer endebyrdnys bi geleaffulra woruld-manna: him bi dm gesett, swa t hi beo asyndrede fram gemanan ra wiercorenra, us cweendum Drihtne, "Cuma to me, ge gebletsode mines Fder, and onfo t rce e eow is gegearcod fram fryme middangeardes." An endebyrdnys bi ra wiercorenra, a e cie hfdon to Gode, ac h ne beeodon heora geleafan mid Godes bebodum: as beo fordemede. Oer endebyrdnys bi ra henra manna, e nane cye to Gode nfdon: isum bi gelst se apostolica cwyde, "a e butan Godes ǽ syngodon, h eac losia butan lcere ǽ." To isum twam endebyrdnyssum cwe onne se rihtwisa Dema, "Gewita fram me, ge awyrigedan, into am ecum fyre, e is gegearcod deofle and his awyrgedum gastum."

The apostles and all the chosen who imitated them will be judges on the great day with Christ. There will be four assemblages at the great doom, two of chosen men, and two of rejected. The first assemblage will be of the apostles and their imitators, who forsook all worldly things for the name of God: they will be the judges, and to them shall no judgement be judged. The second class will be of faithful men of this world: on them will doom be set, so that they will be sundered from the fellowship of the rejected, the Lord thus saying, "Come to me, ye blessed of my Father, and receive the kingdom which is prepared for you from the beginning of the world." One class will be of those rejected, who had knowledge of God, but did not cultivate their faith with God's commandments: these will be condemned. The other class is of those heathen men, who have had no knowledge of God: on these will be fulfilled the apostolic sentence, "Those who have sinned without God's law, shall perish also without any law." To these two classes the righteous Judge will then say, "Depart from me, ye accursed, into the everlasting fire, which is prepared for the devil and his accursed spirits."

t godspel cwy for gyt, "lc ra e forlt, for {398}minum naman, fder oe moder, gebroru oe geswystru, wf oe bearn, land oe gebytlu, be hundfealdum him bi forgolden, and he hf r-to-eacan t ece lf." Hundfeald getel is fulfremed, and se e forlt a ateorigendlican ing for Godes naman, he underfeh a gastlican mede be hundfealdum t Gode. es cwyde belimp swye to munuchdes mannum, a e for heofenan rces myrhe forlta fder, and moder, and flsclice siblingas. H underfo manega gastlice fderas and gastlice gebroru, foran e ealle s hdes menn, e regollice lybba, beo him to fderum and to gebrorum getealde, and r-to-eacan h beo mid edleane s ecan lifes gewelgode. a e ealle woruld-ing be Godes hse forseo, and on gemnum ingum bigwiste habba, h beo fulfremede, and to am apostolum geendebyrde. a ore e as geince nabba, t hi ealle heora hta samod forltan magon, h dn onne one dl for Godes naman e him to onhagige, and him bi be hundfealdum celice geleanod swa hwt swa h be anfealdum hwilwendlice dla.

The gospel says yet further, "Everyone who forsaketh, {399}for my name, father or mother, brothers or sisters, wife or children, land or dwellings, shall be requited an hundredfold, and he shall have, in addition thereunto, everlasting life." An hundredfold number is perfect, and he who forsakes perishable things for the name of God, will receive from God ghostly meed an hundredfold. This saying is especially applicable to men of monastic order, who, for the joy of heaven's kingdom, forsake father, and mother, and fleshly relations. They receive many ghostly fathers and ghostly brothers, for all men of that order, who live after rule, are accounted as their fathers and brothers, and, in addition thereto, they will be enriched with the reward of everlasting life. Those who, at God's behest, despise all worldly things, and have their subsistence in common, are perfect, and will be classed with the apostles. Others, who have not the merit of being able to forsake all their possessions together, let them then give, for the name of God, what portion it may please them, and they will be eternally rewarded an hundredfold for whatsoever they singly and temporarily distribute.

Micel todl is betwux am gecyrredum mannum: sume h geefenlca am apostolum, sume h geefenlca Iudan, Cristes belǽwan, sume Annanian and Saphiran, sume Giezi. a e ealle gewitendlice ing to ra apostola efenlcunge forseo, for intingan s can lifes, h habba lf and a can edlean mid Cristes apostolum. Se e betwux munecum drohtnigende, on mynstres htum mid fcne swica, he bi Iudan gefera, e Crist belwde, and his wite mid hellwarum underfeh. Se e mid twyfealdum geance to mynsterlicre drohtnunge gecyr, and sumne dl his hta dl, sumne him sylfum gehylt, and nf nnne truwan to am lmihtigan, t he him foresceawige andlyfene and gewǽda and oere neoda, he underfeh one awyrgedan cwyde mid Annanian and Saphiran, e swicedon on heora agenum htum, and mid frlicum deae tforan am apostolum steorfende {400}afeollon. Se e on muneclicere drohtnunge earfohylde bi, and gyrn ra inga e h on woruldlicere drohtnunge nfde, oe begitan ne mihte, buton twyn him genealh se hreofla Giezi, s witegan cnapan, and t t he on lichaman gerowade, t rowa es on his sawle. Se cnapa folgode am mran witegan Eliseum: a com him to sum rice mann of am leodscipe e is Siria gehten, his nama ws Nmn, and he ws hreoflig. a becom h to am Godes witegan Eliseum, on Iudea lande, and he urh Godes mihte fram re coe hine gehlde. a bead he am Godes menn, for his hle, deorwure sceattas. Se witega him andwyrde, "Godes miht e gehlde, na ic. Ne underf ic in feoh: anca Gode inre gesundfulnysse, and brc inra hta." Nmn a gecyrde mid ealre his fare to his agenre leode.

There is a great difference among converted men: some imitate the apostles, some imitate Judas the betrayer of Christ, some Ananias and Sapphira, some Gehazi. Those who, in imitation of the apostles, despise all transitory things for the sake of everlasting life, shall have praise and everlasting reward with Christ's apostles. He who, living among monks, guilefully deceives in the property of the monastery, will be the companion of Judas, who betrayed Christ, and will receive his punishment with the inmates of hell. He who with twofold thoughts turns to monastic life, and bestows one part of his property, holds one to himself, and has no trust in the Almighty, that he will provide for him food and garments and other needs, will receive the accursed sentence with Ananias and Sapphira, who deceived in their own property, and fell dying with sudden death before the apostles. {401}He who in monastic life is ill-inclined, and yearns for the things which he had not in worldly life nor could obtain, without doubt to him approximates the leper Gehazi, the prophet's servant, and that which he suffered in body, this suffers in his soul. The servant followed the great prophet Elisha: then there came to him a rich man of the nation which is called Syria, his name was Naaman, and he was leprous. He came then to God's prophet, Elisha, in Judea, and he, through God's might, healed him from that disease. He then offered to the man of God, for his health, precious treasures. The prophet answered him, "God's might hath healed thee, not I. I will not receive thy money: thank God for thy health, and enjoy thy possessions." Naaman then returned with all his company to his own people.

a ws s witegan cnapa, Gyezi, mid gitsunge undercropen, and of-arn, one egen Nmn us mid wordum liccetende, "Nu frlice comon tweigra witegena bearn to minum lareowe: asend him twa scrud and sum pund." Se egen him andwyrde, "Waclic bi him swa lytel to sendenne; ac genim feower scrud and twa pund." He a gewende ongean mid am sceattum, and bediglode his fr wi one witegan. Se witega hine befrn, "Hwanon come u, Giezi?" He andwyrde, "Leof, ns ic on nanre fare." Se witega cw, "Ic geseah, urh Godes Gst, a se egen alyhte of his crte, and eode togeanes e, and u name his sceattas on feo and on reafe. Hafa u eac for mid am sceattum his hreoflan, u and eal in ofspring on ecnysse." And h gewende of his gesihe mid snaw-hwitum hreoflan beslagen.

Then was the prophet's servant, Gehazi, beguiled by avarice, and he ran off, the officer Naaman thus deceiving by words, "Now suddenly the sons of two prophets are come to my master: send him two garments and a pound." The officer answered him, "It will be mean to send him so little; but take four garments and two pounds." He then returned with the treasures, and concealed his journey from the prophet. The prophet asked him, "Whence comest thou, Gehazi?" He answered, "Sir, I was on no journey." The prophet said, "I saw through the Spirit of God, that the officer alighted from his chariot, and went towards thee, and thou tookest his treasures in money and in raiment. Have also henceforth with the treasures his leprosy, thou and all thy offspring for ever." And he turned from his sight stricken with snow-white leprosy.

Is nu fori munuchdes mannum mid micelre gecnyrdnysse to forbugenne as yfelan gebysnunga, and geefenlcan am apostolum, t h, mid him and mid Gode, t ce lf habban moton. Amen.

Now it is therefore for monastic men to shun with great care these evil examples, and to imitate the apostles, that they, with them and with God, may have everlasting life. Amen.





Cum adpropinquaret Iesus Hierusalem: et reliqua.

Cum adpropinquaret Jesus Hierusalem: et reliqua.

"On sumere tide ws se Hlend farende to Hierusalem: aa he genealhte re ceastre and h h geseah, a weop h ofer h:" et reliqua.

"On a time Jesus was going to Jerusalem: when he came near to the city and saw it, he wept over it," etc.

Gregorius se trahtnere cw, t se Hlend beweope re ceastre toworpennysse, e gelamp fter his rowunge, for re wrace heora mndda, t h one heofenlican eling mnfullice acwellan woldon. He sprc mid woplicre stemne, na to am weorc-stnum, oe to re getimbrunge, ac sprc to am ceastergewarum, a h mid fderlicere lufe besargode, foran e h wiste heora forwyrd hrdlice toweard. Feowertig geara fyrst Godes mildheortnys forlt am wlhreowum ceastergewarum to behreowsunge heora mndda, ac h ne gymdon nanre ddbote, ac maran mndda gefremedon, swa t h oftorfodon mid stanum one forman Godes cyere Stephanum, and Iacobum, Iohannes broer, beheafdodon. Eac one rihtwisan Iacobum h ascufon of am temple, and acwealdon, and ehtnysse on a ore apostolas setton. Seo Godes gelaung, e on re byrig, fter Cristes rowunge, under am rihtwisan Iacobe drohtnigende ws, ferde eal samod of re byrig to anre wc wi a Iordanen; foran e him com to Godes hǽs, t hi sceoldon fram re mnfullan stowe faran, ram e seo wracu come. God a oncneow t a Iudeiscan nanre dǽdbote ne gymdon, ac m and m heora mndda geyhton: sende him a to Romanisc folc, and h ealle fordyde.

Gregory the expounder said, that Jesus bewailed the overthrow of the city, which happened after his passion, in vengeance of their crimes, because they would sinfully slay the heavenly Prince. He spake with weeping voice, not to the work-stones, nor to the building, but spake to the inhabitants, whom he bewailed with fatherly love, because he knew that their destruction was speedily to take place. A space of forty years the mercy of God left the cruel inhabitants for repentance of their crimes, but they cared for no penitence, but perpetrated greater crimes, so that they slew with stones Stephen, the first martyr of God, and beheaded James, the brother of John. The righteous James also they thrust from the temple, and slew, and raised persecution against the other apostles. The congregation of God which, after Christ's passion, was continuing in the city under the righteous James, went all together from the city to a village on the river Jordan; for God's command had come to them, that they should go from the wicked place, ere the vengeance came. God knew then that the Jews cared for no penitence, but more and more increased their crimes: he therefore sent to them the Roman people, and they ruined them all.

Uespasianus hatte se casere, e on am dagum geweold ealles middangeardes cynedomes. S asende his sunu Titum to oferwinnenne a earman Iudeiscan. a gelmp hit swa t h wron gesamnode binnan re byrig Hierusalem, six hund usend manna, swylce on anum cwearterne beclysede; and h wurdon a utan ymbsette mid Romaniscum here swa lange t r fela usenda mid hungre wurdon acwealde; and for re menigu man ne mihte h bebyrigan, ac awurpon {404}a lc ofer one weall. Sume eah for miglicre sibbe h bebyrigan woldon, ac h hrdlice for mgenleaste swulton. Gif hwa hwt lytles niges bigwistes him sylfum gearcode, him scuton sona to reaferas, and one mete him of am mue abrudon. Sume h cuwon heora gesc, sume heora htera, sume streaw, for re micclan angsumnysse s hatan hungres. Hit nis na gedafenlic t we on isum halgan godspelle ealle a sceamlican yrmu gereccan e gelumpon am ymbsettum Iudeiscum, ran e hi on hand gn woldon. Wear a se msta dl ra arleasra mid am bysmerlicum hungre adyd, and a lafe s hungres ofsloh se Romanisca here, and a burh grundlunga towurpon, swa t r ne belf stn ofer stne, swa swa se Hlend ǽr mid wope gewtegode. ra cnapena e binnan syxtyne geara ylde wron, hund-nigontig usenda h tosendon to gehwylcum leodscipum to eowte, and on am earde ne belf nan ing s awyrgedan cynnes. Seo burh wear syan on ore stwe getimbrod, and mid am Sarasceniscum gesett.

Vespasian the emperor was called, who in those days ruled the kingdom of the whole world. He sent his son Titus to conquer the miserable Jews. It then so happened that they were assembled within the city of Jerusalem, six hundred thousand men, enclosed as it were in a prison; and they were surrounded without by the Roman army so long that many thousands were killed by hunger; and they could not bury them by reason of the number, but cast the corpses over the {405}wall. Some, however, would bury them for the sake of kinship, but they soon died from weakness. If any one had provided any little sustenance for himself, robbers would suddenly rush on him, and pull the meat from his mouth. Some chewed their shoes, some their garments, some straw, for the great anguish of hot hunger. It is not fitting that we, in this holy gospel, recount all the shameful miseries which befell the besieged Jews before they would yield. The greater part of the wicked ones was then destroyed by the ignominious famine, and the Roman host slew the leavings of the famine, and razed the city to the ground, so that there remained not stone over stone, as Jesus had erewhile with weeping prophesied. Of boys who were within sixteen years of age, they sent ninety thousand to all nations in slavery, and in the country there remained nothing of the accursed race. The city was afterwards built in another place, and peopled with Saracens.

Se Hlend geswutelode for hwilcum intingan eos tostencednys re byrig gelumpe, aa h cw, "Foran e u ne oncneowe one timan inre geneosunge." He geneosode a buruhware urh his menniscnysse, ac h nron his gemyndige, naor ne urh lufe ne urh ege. Be re gymeleaste sprc se witega mid ceorigendre stemne, us cweende, "Storc and swalewe heoldon one timan heora to-cymes, and is folc ne oncneow Godes dm." Drihten cw to re byrig, "Gif u wistest hwt e toweard is, onne weope u mid me. Witodlice on isum dge u wunast on sibbe, ac a toweardan wraca sind nu bediglode fram inum eagum." Seo buruhwaru ws wunigende on woruldlicere sibbe, aa heo orsorhlice ws undereodd flsclicum lustum, and hwonlice hgode ymbe a toweardan yrma, e hyre a-gyt bediglode wron. Gif heo re yrme forewittig wre, ne mihte heo mid orsorgum mode re gesundfulnysse andweardes lifes brucan.

Jesus showed for what cause this dispersion of the city happened, when he said, "Because thou knewest not the time of thy visitation." He visited the inhabitants in his humanity, but they were not mindful of him, neither by love nor by fear. Of that heedlessness the prophet spake with lamenting voice, thus saying, "The stork and the swallow keep the time of their coming, and this people knew not the doom of God." The Lord said to the city, "If thou knewest what is to befall thee, then wouldst thou weep with me. Verily on this day thou dwellest in peace, for the vengeances to come are now hidden from thine eyes." The inhabitants were dwelling in worldly peace, while they were heedlessly subservient to fleshly lusts, and little thought of the miseries to come, which were yet hidden from them. If they had been foreknowing of that misery, they could not with heedless mind have enjoyed the prosperity of the present life.


Drihten adrfde of am temple a cpmen, us cweende, "Hit is awriten, t min hs is gebed-hs, and ge hit habba gedon sceaum to screafe." t tempel ws Gode gehalgod, to his enungum and lofsangum, and to gebedum am geleaffullum; ac a gytsigendan ealdor-biscopas geafedon t r cyping binnan gehfd wre. Drihten, aa he t unriht geseah, he worhte ne swipe of rpum, and h ealle mid gebeate t-ascynde. eos todrfednys getacnode a toweardan toworpennysse urh one Romaniscan here, and se hryre gelmp swyost urh gyltas ra ealdor-biscopa e, binnan am temple wunigende, mid gehywedre halignysse s folces lc underfengon, and ra manna ehton e butan lace t tempel gesohton. Hwt ws t tempel buton swylce sceaena scrf, aa a ealdor-biscopas mid swylcere gytsunge gefyllede wron, and a leaslican ceapas binnan am Godes huse geafedon? Hit is on orum godspelle awriten, t r ston myneteras, and r wron gecype hryeru, and scp, and culfran. On am dagum, fter gesetnysse re ealdan ǽ, man offrode hryeru, and scp, and culfran, for getacnunge Cristes rowunge: a tihte seo gitsung a sacerdas t man illic orf r to ceape hfde, gif hw feorran come, and wolde his lc Gode offrian, t h on gehendnysse to bicgenne gearu hfde. Drihten a adrfde illice cypan of am halgan temple, foran e hit ns to nanum ceape arred, ac to gebedum.


The Lord drove the chapmen from the temple, thus saying, "It is written, that my house is a house of prayer, and ye have made it a den for thieves." The temple was hallowed to God, for his services, and songs of praise, and prayers of the faithful; but the covetous high-priests allowed chapping to be held therein. The Lord, when he saw that wickedness, made a scourge of ropes, and with beating hurried them all out. This dispersion betokened the future destruction by the Roman army, and the ruin happened chiefly through the sins of the high-priests, who, dwelling within the temple, with pretended holiness received the people's offerings, and persecuted those men who sought the temple without offerings. What was that temple but, as it were, a den of thieves, when the chief priests were filled with such covetousness, and allowed false bargains within the house of God? It is written in another gospel, that there sat moneyers, and there were oxen for sale, and sheep, and doves. In those days, according to the institute of the old law, they offered oxen, and sheep, and doves, in token of Christ's passion: then covetousness stimulated the priests to have such animals there for sale, that, if any one came from afar, and would offer his gift to God, he might have it ready at hand to buy. The Lord then drove such chapmen from the holy temple, because it was not raised for any trading, but for prayers.

"Him a to genealhton blinde and healte, and he hi gehlde, and ws lrende t folc dghwomlice binnan am temple." Se mildheorta Drihten, e lt scinan his sunnan ofer a rihtwisan and unrihtwisan gelice, and sent renas and eorlice wstmas gdum and yfelum, nolde ofteon his lare am wyrum Iudeiscum, foran e manega wron gde betwux am yfelan, e mid re lare gebeterode wron, eah e a wyran hyre wicwdon. H eac mid wundrum a lare getrymde, t a gecorenan y geleaffulran wron: and a wiercorenan nane beladunge nabba, foran e h ne {408}urh godcunde tacna, ne urh lflice lare, am sofstan Hlende gelyfan noldon. Nu cwy se eadiga Gregorius, t heora toworpennys hf sume gelicnysse to gehwilcum wyrlicum mannum, e blissia on yfel-ddum, and on am wyrstan ingum fgnia. Swilcera manna besarga se mildheorta Drihten dghwomlice, see a a losigendlican buruhware mid tearon bemǽnde. Ac gif h oncneowon a genierunge e him onsih, h mihton h sylfe mid sarigendre stemne heofian.

"Then the blind and the halt drew near unto him, and he healed them, and was teaching the folk daily within the temple." The merciful Lord, who lets his sun shine over the righteous and unrighteous alike, and sends rains and earthly fruits to the good and evil, would not withdraw his instruction from the perverse Jews, because many were good among the evil, who were bettered by that instruction, although the perverse opposed it. He also confirmed his instruction by miracles, that the chosen might be the more believing: and the rejected shall have no excuse, because they neither by divine {409}signs, nor by vital lore, would believe in the true Saviour. Now the blessed Gregory says, that their desolation has some likeness to all perverse men, who exult in evil deeds, and rejoice in the worst things. Such men the merciful Lord bewails daily, who then the perishing townsfolk with tears bemoaned. But if they knew the condemnation that hangs over them, they would themselves lament with sorrowing voice.

Solice re losigendlican sawle belimp es fterfiligenda cwyde, "On ysum dge u wunast on sibbe, ac seo towearde wracu is nu bediglod fram inum eagum." Witodlice seo wyre sawul is on sibbe wunigende on hire dge, onne heo on gewitendlicere tide blissa, and mid wurmyntum bi up-ahafen, and on hwilwendlicum bricum bi ungefoh, and on flsclicum lustum bi tolysed, and mid nanre fyrhte s toweardan wites ne bi geegsod, ac bedygela hire sylfre a fterfiligendan yrma; foran gif heo embe a smea, onne bi seo woruldlice bliss mid re smeagunge gedrefed. Heo hf onne sibbe on hire dge, onne heo nele a andweardan myrhe gewǽcan mid nnre care re toweardan ungesle, ac g mid beclysedum eagum to am witnigendlicum fyre. Seo sawul e on as wisan nu drohtna, heo is to geswencenne onne a rihtwisan blissia; and ealle a ateorigendlican ing, e heo nu to sibbe and blisse tala, beo hire onne to byternysse and to ceaste awende; foran e heo micele sace wi h sylfe hf, hw heo a genierunge, e heo onne ola, nolde r on life mid nigre carfulnysse foresceawian. Be am is awriten, "Eadig bi se man e symle bi forhtigende; and solice se heardmoda befyl on yfel." Eft on ore stowe mynega t halige gewrit, "On eallum inum weorcum beo u gemyndig ines endenextan dges, and on ecnysse u ne syngast."

Verily this following sentence applies to the perishing soul, "On this day thou dwellest in peace, for the vengeance to come is now hidden from thine eyes." The perverse soul is indeed dwelling in peace in its day, when in transient time it rejoices, and is exalted with dignities, and in temporary enjoyments is immoderate, and is dissolved in fleshly lusts, and is awed by no fear of future punishment, but hides from itself the miseries following after; because if it reflect on them, then will worldly bliss be troubled by that reflection. It has then peace in its day, when it will not afflict the present mirth with any care for the future unhappiness, but goes with closed eyes to the penal fire. The soul which in this wise now lives, shall be afflicted when the righteous rejoice; and all the perishable things, which it now accounts as peace and bliss, shall then be turned for it to bitterness and strife; for it will have great contention with itself, why it would not before in life with any carefulness foresee the condemnation which it then is suffering. Concerning which it is written, "Blessed is the man who is ever fearing; and verily the hardened shall fall into evil." Again in another place holy writ admonishes, "In all thy works be thou mindful of thy last day, and in eternity thou wilt not sin."

Seo halige rding cwy, "Se tyma cym t ine fynd e ymbsitta mid ymbtrymminge, and e on lce healfe {410}genyrwia, and to eoran e astrecca, and ine bearn samod e on e sind." ra sawla fynd sind a hellican gastas e besitta s mannes forsi, and his sawle, gif heo fyrenful bi, to re geferrǽdene heora agenre genierunge mid micelre angsumnysse ldan willa. a deoflu teowia re synfullan sawle ger ge hyre yfelan geohtas, and a derigendlican sprca, and a mnfullan dda, and h mid mnigfealdum reatungum geangsumia, t heo on am forsie oncnwe mid hwilcum feondum heo ymbset bi, and eah nn ut-fr ne gemet, hu heo am feondlicum gastum ofleon mage. To eoran heo bi astreht urh hire scylda oncnawennysse, onne se lichama e heo on leofode to duste bi formolsnod. Hire bearn on deae hreosa, onne a nalyfedlican geohtas, e heo nu acen, beo on re endenextan wrace eallunga toworpene, swa swa se sealm-sceop be am gyddigende sang, "Nella ge getruwian on ealdormannum, ne on manna bearnum, on am nis nan hǽl. Heora gast gewit, and h to eoran gehwyrfa, and on am dge losia ealle heora geohtas."

The holy lesson says, "The time cometh that thy foes shall encompass thee with a leaguer, and shall straiten thee on {411}every side, and shall prostrate thee to earth, together with thy children which are in thee." The foes of the soul are the hellish spirits which beset a man's departure, and with great tribulation will lead his soul, if it be sinful, to the fellowship of their own damnation. The devils show to the sinful soul its evil thoughts, and pernicious speeches, and wicked deeds, and with manifold reproaches afflict it, that on its departure it may know by what foes it is beset, and yet find no outlet whereby it may flee from the hostile spirits. To earth it shall be prostrated by a knowledge of its sins, when the body in which it lived shall be rotted to dust. Its children shall fall in death, when the unallowed thoughts, which it now gives birth to, shall, in the last vengeance, be wholly rendered vain, as the psalmist melodiously sang, "Trust not in princes, nor in the children of men, in whom there is no health. Their spirit departs, and they return to earth, and in that day all their thoughts perish."

Solice on am godspelle fylig, "And h ne forlǽta on e stn ofer stne." t wyre mod, onne hit gehp yfel ofer yfele, and wyrnysse ofer wyrnysse, hwt de hit buton swilce hit lecge stn ofer stne? Ac onne seo sawul bi to hire witnunge geld, onne bi eal seo getimbrung hire smeagunge toworpen; foran e heo ne oncneow a td hire geneosunge. On manegum gemetum geneosa se lmihtiga God manna sawla; hwiltidum mid lare, hwilon mid wundrum, hwilon mit untrumnyssum; ac gif heo as geneosunga forgymeleasa, am feondum heo bi betht on hire geendunge, to ecere witnunge, am e heo ǽr on life mid healicum leahtrum gehyrsumode. onne beo a hire witneras on re hellican susle, a e ǽr mid mislicum lustum hi to am leahtrum forspeonon.

Verily in the gospel it follows, "And they shall not leave in thee stone over stone." The perverse mind, when it heaps evil over evil, and perversity over perversity, what does it, but as though it lay stone over stone? But when the soul shall be led to its punishment, then will all the structure of its cogitation be overthrown; for it knew not the time of its visitation. In many ways the Almighty God visits the souls of men; sometimes with instruction, sometimes with miracles, sometimes with diseases; but if it neglect these visitations, it will be at its end delivered for eternal punishment to fiends, whom it had previously with deadly sins obeyed in life. Then shall those be its tormentors in hell-torment, who had before allured it by divers pleasures to those sins.

Drihten eode into am temple, and mid swipe a cypan ut-adrfde. a cypmen binnon am temple getacnodon {412}unrihtwise lreowas on Godes gelaunge. r wron gecype oxan, and scp, and culfran, and r ston myneteras. Oxa teola his hlaforde, and se lareow syl oxan on Godes cyrcan, gif he beg his hlafordes teolunga, t is, gif he boda godspel his undereoddum, for eorlicum gestreonum, and na for godcundre lufe. Mid sceapum he manga, gif he dysigra manna herunga cep on arfstum weorcum. Be swylcum cw se Hlend, "Hi underfengon edlean heora weorca;" t is se hlisa idelre herunge, e him gecweme ws.

The Lord went into the temple, and with a scourge drove out the chapmen. The chapmen within the temple betokened {413}unrighteous teachers in God's church. There were for sale oxen, and sheep, and doves, and there sat moneyers. The ox toils for his lord, and the teacher sells oxen in God's church, if he perform his Lord's tillage, that is, if he preach the gospel to those under his care, for earthly gains, and not for godly love. With sheep he traffics, if he seek after the praises of foolish men in pious works. Of such Jesus said, "They have received the reward of their works;" that is the fame of idle praise, which was pleasing to them.

Se lreow bi culfran cypa, e nele a gife, e him God forgeaf butan his geearnungum, orum mannum butan sceattum nytte dn; swa swa Crist sylf thte, "Butan ceape ge underfengon a gife, sylla h orum butan ceape." Se e mid gehywedre halignysse him sylfum teola on Godes gelaunge, and nateshwn ne cara ymbe Cristes teolunge, se bi untwylice mynet-cypa getalod. Ac se Hlend todrf swylce cypan of his huse, onne h mid genierunge fram geferrdene his gecorenra h totwm.

The teacher is a chapman of doves, who will not without money give for use of other men, the gift which God, without his deserts, has given to him; as Christ himself taught, "Without price ye have received the gift, give it to others without price." He who with assumed holiness toils for himself in God's church, and cares nothing for Christ's tillage, will undoubtedly be accounted a money-chapman. But Jesus will drive such chapmen from his house, when, with condemnation, he shall separate them from the fellowship of his chosen.

"Min hs is gebed-hs, and ge hit habba gedn sceaum to scrfe." Hit getma forwel oft t a wyran becuma to micclum hde on Godes gelaunge, and h onne gastlice ofslea mid heora yfelnysse heora undereoddan, a e h sceoldon mid heora benum gelffstan. Hwt sind yllice buton sceaan? Anes gehwilces geleaffulles mannes md is Godes hs, swa swa se apostol cw, "Godes tempel is halig, t ge sind." Ac t md ne bi na gebed-hs, ac sceaena scrf, gif hit forlys unscignysse and bilewitnysse sore halignysse, and mid wyrlicum geohtum hga orum dara.

"My house is a prayer-house, and ye have made it a den for thieves." It happens too often that the perverse come to great dignity in God's church, and they then, with their evilness, spiritually slay those placed under their care, whom they ought with their prayers to quicken. What are such but thieves? The mind of every believing man is a house of God, as the apostle said, "The temple of God is holy, which ye are." But the mind will be no prayer-house, but a den of thieves, if it lose the innocence and meekness of true holiness, and with perverse thoughts meditate harm to others.

"And he ws tcende dghwomlice binnan am temple." Crist lrde a t folc on his andweardnysse, and he lr nu dghwomlice geleaffulra manna md mid godcundre lre smeaancellice, t h yfel forbugon and gd gefremman. Ne bi na fulfremedlic am gelyfedan t h yfeles geswice, buton h gd gefremme. Se eadiga Gregorius cw, "Mine gebroru, ic wolde eow ane lytle race gereccan, seo mig earle eower md getimbrian, gif ge mid gymene h gehyran {414}wylla. Sum elboren mann ws on re scire Ualeria, se ws gehten Crisaurius, se ws swa micclum mid leahtrum afylled swa micclum swa h ws mid eorlicum welum gewelgod. He ws tounden on modignysse, and his flsclicum lustum undereod, and mid ungefohre gytsunge ontend. Ac aa God gemynte his yfelnysse to geendigenne, a wear h geuntrumod, and to forsie gebroht. a on re ylcan tide e h geendian sceolde, a beseah h up, and stodon him abutan swearte gastas, and mid micclum reate him onsigon, t h his sawle on am forsie mid him to hellicum clysungum gegripon. He ongnn a bifian and blcian, and ungefohlice swtan, and mid micclum hreame fyrstes biddan, and his sunu Maximus, one ic geseah munuc syan, mid gedrefedre stemne clypode, and cw, Min cild, Maxime, gehelp min; onfoh me on inum geleafan: ns ic e derigende on nigum ingum. Se sunu a Maximus mid micclum heofe gedrefed, him to cm. H wand a swa swa wurm; ne mihte geolian a egeslican gesihe ra awyrgedra gasta. H wende hine to wage, r hi him twron; he wende eft ongean, r h h funde. aa h swa swie geancsumod his sylfes rwene ws, a hrymde h mid micelre stemne, and us cw, Lta me fyrst o to merigen, huru-inga fyrst o to merigen: ac mid isum hreame a blacan fynd tugon a sawle of am lichaman, and awg gelddon." Be am is swutol, t seo gesih him wear teowod for ora manna beterunge, na for his agenre. La hwt fremode him, eah e h on forsie a sweartan gastas gesawe, onne he ne moste s fyrstes habban e he gewilnode? Ac uton we beon carfulle, t ure tima mid ydelnysse s ne losige, and we onne to wel-ddum gecyrran willan, onne us se dea to forsie gereata.

"And he was teaching daily within the temple." Christ then taught the people in his presence, and he now daily teaches the minds of believing men with godly lore, by meditation, to eschew evil and perform good. It is not perfect for the believing man to cease from evil, unless he performs good. The blessed Gregory said, "My brothers, I would relate to you a little narrative, which may greatly edify your minds, if ye with heedfulness will hear it. There was a {415}certain nobleman in the province of Valeria, who was called Chrysaurius, who was as much filled with sins as he was enriched with earthly riches. He was inflated with pride, and a slave to his fleshly lusts, and inflamed with excessive covetousness. But when God designed to put an end to his wickedness, he became sick, and brought to departure hence. Then at the very time that he should die, he looked up, and there stood about him swart spirits, and in a great company descended on him, that they might snatch his soul, on its departure, with them to the barriers of hell. He began then to tremble and grow pale, and incredibly to sweat, and with great cry to pray for a respite, and with troubled voice called his son Maximus, whom I afterwards saw as a monk, and said, My child, Maximus, help me; receive me in thy faith: I have not in any way been hurtful to thee. The son Maximus then, troubled with great sorrowing, came to him. He was then turning like a worm; he could not endure the dreadful sight of the accursed spirits. He turned himself to the wall, there they were present to him; he turned back again, there he found them. When he, so greatly afflicted, was hopeless of himself, he cried with a loud voice, and thus said, Grant me a respite till to-morrow, at least a respite till to-morrow: and with this cry the black fiends drew the soul from the body, and led it away." From this it is manifest, that the vision was shown to him for the bettering of other men, not for his own. Alas, what did it profit him, though, on his departure, he saw the swart spirits, when he might not have the respite which he desired? But let us be careful, that our time escape not from us in vanity, and we turn to good deeds, when death urges us to departure.

u, lmihtiga Drihten, gemiltsa us synfullum, and urne forsi swa gefada, t we, gebettum synnum, fter isum frecenfullum life, inum halgum geferlhte beon moton. Sy e lf and wuldor on ealra worulda woruld. Amen.

Thou, Almighty Lord, have mercy on us sinful, and so order our departure, that we, having atoned for our sins, may, after this perilous life, be associated with thy saints. To thee be praise and glory for ever and ever. Amen.







On Decies dge, s wlhreowan caseres, ws se halga biscop Sixtus on Romana byrig drohtnigende. a frlice het h his gesihum, one biscop mid his preostum samod geandwerdian. Sixtus a unforhtmod to his preostum clypode, "Mine gebrora, ne beo ge afyrhte, cuma, and eower nan him ne ondrde a scortan tintregunga. a halgan martyras gerowodon fela pinunga, t h orsorge becomon to wulder-beage s ecan lifes." a andwyrdon his twegen diaconas, Felicissimus and Agapitus, "u, ure fder, hwider fare we butan e?" On re nihte wear se biscop mid his twm diaconum hrdlice to am reum ehtere gebroht. Se casere Decius him cw to, "Geoffra ine lc am undeadlicum godum, and beo u ra sacerda ealdor." Se eadiga Sixtus him andwyrde, "Ic symle geoffrode, and gt offrige mine lc am lmihtigan Gode, and his Suna, Hlendum Criste, and am Halgum Gaste, hluttre onsgednysse and ungewemmede." Decius cw, "Gebeorh e and inum preostum, and geoffra. Solice gif u ne dest, u scealt beon eallum orum to bysne." Sixtus solice andwyrde, "Hwene r ic e sde, t ic symle geoffrige am lmihtigum Gode." Decius a cw to his cempum, "Lda hine to am temple Martis, t he am gode Marti geoffrige: gif he nelle offrian, beclysa hine on am cwearterne Mamortini." a cempan hine lddon to am deofolgylde, and hine reatodon t he re deadan anlicnysse his lc offrian sceolde. aa he s caseres hse forseah, and am deofolgylde offrian nolde, a gebrohton hi hine mid his twam diaconum binnan am blindan cwearterne.

In the time of Decius, the cruel emperor, the holy bishop Sixtus was dwelling in Rome. Then he suddenly commanded his counts to bring the bishop together with his priests before him. Sixtus then with fearless mind called to his priests, "My brothers, be ye not afraid, come, and let none of you dread short torments. The holy martyrs suffered many tortures, that they might fearless come to the glory-crown of everlasting life." His two deacons, Felicissimus and Agapetus, then answered, "Thou, our father, whither shall we go without thee?" On that night the bishop with his two deacons was quickly brought to the cruel persecutor. The emperor Decius said to him, "Offer thy gift to the immortal gods, and be thou the chief of the priests." The blessed Sixtus answered him, "I have ever offered and will yet offer my gift to the Almighty God, and his Son, Jesus Christ, and to the Holy Ghost, in pure and unpolluted sacrifice." Decius said, "Take heed for thyself and thy priests, and offer; for if thou dost not, thou shalt be an example to all others." But Sixtus answered, "A little before I said to thee, that I always offer to Almighty God." Decius then said to his soldiers, "Lead him to the temple of Mars, that he may offer to the god Mars: if he will not offer, shut him in the prison Mamortinum." The soldiers led him to the temple, and urged him to offer his gift to the dead image. When he despised the emperor's command, and would not offer to the idol, they brought him with his two deacons into the dark prison.

a betwux am com Laurentius, his erce-diacon, and one halgan biscop mid isum wordum gesprc, "u, mn fder, hwider siast u butan inum bearne? u halga {418}sacerd, hwider efst u butan inum diacone? Ns in gewuna t u butan inum diacone Gode geoffrodest. Hwt mislicode e, min fder, on me? Geswutela ine mihte on inum bearne, and geoffra Gode one e u getuge, t u y orsorglicor becume to am elan wulder-beage." aa se eadiga Laurentius mid isum wordum and ma orum bemǽnde t he ne moste mid his lareowe rowian, a andwyrde se biscop, "Min bearn, ne forlte ic e, ac e gerist mara campdom on inum gewinne. We underfo, swa swa ealde men, scortne ryne s leohtran gewinnes; solice u geonga underfehst miccle wulderfulran sige t isum rean cyninge. Min cild, geswic ines wopes: fter rim dagum u cymst sigefst to me to am ecum life. Nim nu ure cyrcan mamas, and dl cristenum mannum, be an e e gewyr."

Then among them came his archdeacon Lawrence, and spake to the holy bishop in these words, "Thou, my father, whither goest thou without thy child? Thou holy priest, {419}whither hastenest thou without thy deacon? It was not thy wont to offer to God without thy deacon. What has displeased thee, my father, in me? Show thy power on thy child, and offer to God him whom thou hast trained up, that thou the less sorrowfully attain to the noble crown of glory." When the blessed Lawrence had, with these words and others more, lamented that he might not suffer with his teacher, the bishop answered, "My child, I forsake thee not, but thee befits a greater struggle in thy conflict. We, as old men, shall undergo the short course of a lighter conflict: but thou, a young man, wilt undergo a much more glorious triumph from this cruel king. My child, cease thy weeping: after three days thou wilt come to me triumphant to everlasting life. Take thou our church's treasures, and distribute to christian men, as it may seem good unto thee."

Se erce-diacon a, Laurentius, be s biscopes hse ferde and dlde re cyrcan mamas preostum, and leodigum earfum, and wudewum, lcum be his neode. He com to sumere wudewan, hire nama ws Quiriaca, seo hfde behyd on hire hame preostas and manega lwede cristenan. a se eadiga Laurentius woh heora ealra ft, and a wudewan fram hefigtimum heafod-ece gehlde. Eac sum ymesene man mid wope his ft gesohte, biddende his hle. Laurentius a mearcode rode-tacen on s blindan eagan, and he rrihte beorhtlice geseah. Se erce-diacon a-gyt geaxode m cristenra manna gehwr, and h r his rowunge mid gastlicere sibbe and mid ft-weale geneosode.

The archdeacon Lawrence then, at the bishop's command, went and distributed the church's treasures to priests, and poor strangers, and widows, to each according to his need. He came to a widow, whose name was Quiriaca, who had hidden in her dwelling priests and many lay christians. Then the blessed Lawrence washed the feet of them all, and healed the widow of a wearisome headache. A blind man also with weeping sought his feet, praying for his cure. Lawrence then marked the sign of the rood on the blind man's eyes, and he straightways saw brightly. The archdeacon heard yet of more christian men elsewhere, and before his passion visited them with ghostly peace and with foot-washing.

aa h anon gewende, a ws his lreow Sixtus mid his twam diaconum of am cwearterne geldd, tforan am casere Decium. He wear a gehthyrt ongean one halgan biscop, us cweende, "Witodlice we beorga inre ylde: gehyrsuma urum bebodum, and geoffra am undealicum godum." Se eadiga biscop him andwyrde, "u earming, beorh e sylfum, and wyrc ddbote for ra halgena blode {420}e u agute." Se wlhreowa cwellere mid gebolgenum mode cw to his heah-gerefan, Ualeriane, "Gif es bealdwyrda biscop acweald ne bi, sian ne bi ure ege ondrdendlic." Ualerianus him andwyrde, "Beo he heafde becorfen. Hat h eft to s godes temple Martis gelǽdan, and gif h nella to him gebigedum cneowum gebiddan, and heora lc offrian, underfn h beheafdunge on re ylcan stowe." s caseres cempan hine lddon to am deofolgylde mid his twam diaconum: a beseah se biscop wi s temples, and us cw, "u dumba deofolgyld, urh e forleosa earme menn t ece lif: towurpe e se lmihtiga Godes Sunu." a mid am worde tobrst sum dl s temples mid frlicum hryre. Laurentius a clypode to am biscope, "u halga fder, ne forlǽt u me, foran e ic aspende re cyrcan mamas swa swa u me bebude." Hwt a cempan a hine gelhton, foran e h gehyrdon hine be am cyrclicum madmum sprecan. Sixtus a solice underhnh swurdes ecge, and his twegen diaconas samod, Felicissimus and Agapitus, tforan am temple, on am sixtan dge yses mones.

When he returned thence, his teacher Sixtus with his two deacons was led from the prison, before the emperor Decius. He was then exasperated against the holy bishop, thus saying, "Verily we have regard for thy age: obey our commands, and offer to the immortal gods." The holy bishop answered him, "Thou wretch, have regard for thyself, and make atonement for the blood of the saints which thou hast {421}shed." The bloodthirsty executioner with wrathful mind said to his chief officer Valerianus, "If this audacious bishop be not slain, awe for us will be no longer formidable." Valerianus answered him, "Let his head be cut off. Order them again to the temple of the god, and if they will not pray to him with bended knees, and offer their gifts, let them suffer decapitation on the same place." The emperor's soldiers led him to the temple with his two deacons: then the bishop looked towards the temple, and thus said, "Thou dumb idol, through thee miserable men lose everlasting life: may the Almighty Son of God overthrow thee!" Then at that word a part of the temple burst asunder with a sudden fall. Lawrence then cried to the bishop, "Thou holy father, forsake me not, for I have distributed the church's treasures as thou commandedst." At this the soldiers seized him, for they heard him speak of the church's treasures. Sixtus then sank under the sword's edge, and his two deacons with him, Felicissimus and Agapetus, before the temple, on the sixth day of this month.

Laurentius witodlice wear sian gebroht to am casere, and se rea cwellere hine a befrn, "Hwr sind re cyrcan madmas e e bethte wron?" Se eadiga Laurentius mid nanum worde him ne geandwyrde. On am ylcan dge bethte se Godes feond one halgan diacon his heah-gerefan Ualeriane, mid ysum bebode, "Ofgang a madmas mid geornfulnysse, and hine gebig to am undeadlicum godum." Se gerefa a hine bethte his gingran, s nama ws Ypolitus, and he hine beclysde on cwearterne mid manegum orum. a gemette h on am cwearterne nne henne man, se ws urh micelne wp ablend. a cw he him to, "Lucille, gif u gelyfst on Hlend Crist, he onliht ine eagan." He andwyrde, "fre ic gewilnode t ic on Cristes naman gefullod wre." Laurentius him to cw, "Gelyfst u mid ealre heortan?" He andwyrde mid wope, "Ic {422}gelyfe on Hlend Crist, and am leasum deofolgyldum wisace." Ypolitus mid geylde heora wordum heorcnode. Se gesliga Laurentius thte a am blindan sone geleafan re Halgan rynnysse, and hine gefullode. Lucillus fter am fulluht-be mid beorhtre stemne clypode, "Sy gebletsod se Eca God, Hlend Crist, e me urh his diacon onlihte. Ic ws blind bm eagum, nu ic beorhtlice leohtes bruce." Witodlice a fela ore blinde mid wope comon to am eadigan diacone, and h asette his handa ofer heora eagan, and h wurdon onlihte.

But Lawrence was afterwards brought to the emperor, and the fierce executioner asked him, "Where are the church's treasures which were committed to thee?" The blessed Lawrence answered him not a word. On the same day the foe of God committed the holy deacon to his chief officer Valerianus, with this command, "Exact the treasures with importunity, and make him bow to the immortal gods." The officer then committed him to his junior, whose name was Hippolytus, and he shut him in a prison with many others. He found in the prison a heathen man, who was blind through great weeping. He said to him, "Lucillus, if thou wilt believe in Jesus Christ, he will enlighten thine eyes." He answered, "I have ever desired to be baptized in the name of Christ." Lawrence said to him, "Believest thou with all thy heart?" He answered with weeping, "I believe in Jesus {423}Christ, and renounce the false idols." Hippolytus with patience listened to their words. The blessed Lawrence then taught the blind man true belief in the Holy Trinity, and baptized him. Lucillus, after the baptismal bath, cried with clear voice, "Blessed be the Eternal God, Jesus Christ, who has enlightened me through his deacon. I was blind with both eyes, now I clearly enjoy the light." Then there came many other blind with weeping to the blessed deacon, and he set his hand over their eyes, and they were enlightened.

Se tn-gerefa Ypolitus cw a to am diacone, "Geswutela me re cyrcan madmas." Laurentius cw, "Eala u Ypolite, gif u gelyfst on God Fder, and on his Sunu Hlend Crist, ic e geswutelige a madmas, and t ece lf behate." Ypolitus cw, "Gif u as word mid weorcum gefylst, onne do ic swa u me tihst." Laurentius a halgode fant, and hine gefullode. Solice Ypolitus fter am fulluht-be ws clypigende mid beorhtre stemne, "Ic geseah unscigra manna sawla on Gode blissigan." And he mid tearum to am eadigan diacone cw, "Ic halsige e on s Hlendes naman, t eal min hwrden gefullod wure." Witodlice Laurentius mid blium mode him s getiode, and nigontyne wera and wifa his hwisces mid wuldre gefullode.

The town-reeve, Hippolytus, said to the deacon, "Show me the church's treasures." Lawrence answered, "O thou Hippolytus, if thou wilt believe in God the Father, and in his Son Jesus Christ, I will show thee the treasures, and promise thee everlasting life." Hippolytus said, "If thou wilt indeed fulfil those words, I will do as thou exhortest me." Lawrence then hallowed a font, and baptized him. Verily Hippolytus, after the baptismal bath, cried with a clear voice, "I saw the souls of innocent men rejoicing in God." And he said with tears to the blessed deacon, "I beseech thee, in the name of Jesus, that all my household might be baptized." Lawrence granted him this with cheerful mind, and with glory baptized nineteen men and women of his family.

fter isum sende se heah-gerefa, and bebead Ypolite t he Laurentium to s cynges cafer-tune geldde. Ypolitus t bebod mid eadmodre sprce cydde am eadigan Laurentie. He cw, "Uton faran, foran e me and e is wuldor gegearcod." Hi a hrdlice comon, and unforhte him tforan stodon. a cw Ualerianus to am halgan cyere, "Awurp nu ine anwilnysse, and agif a madmas." Se Godes cyere him andwyrde, "On Godes earfum ic h aspende, and h sind a ecan madmas, e nfre ne beo gewanode." Se gerefa cw, "Hwt fagettest u mid wordum? Geoffra ine lc urum gudum, and forlǽt one {424}drycrft e u on getruwast." Laurentius cw, "For hwilcum ingum neada se deofol eow t ge cristene men to his biggengum reatnia? Gif hit riht sy t we to deoflum us gebiddon swior onne to am lmihtigan Gode, deme ge hw s wurmyntes wure sy, se e geworht is, oe se e ealle ing gesceop." Se casere a andwyrde, "Hwt is se e geworht is, oe hwt is se e geworhte?" Godes cyere cw, "Se lmihtiga Fder ures Hlendes is Scyppend ealra gesceafta, and u cwyst t ic me gebiddan sceole to dumbum stanum, a e sind agrafene urh manna handa." Hwt se casere a hine gebealh, and het on his gesihe one diacon unscrydan, and wlhreowlice swingan, and se casere sylf clypode, "Ne hyrw u ure godas." Se eadiga Laurentius on am tintregum cw, "Witodlice ic ancige minum Gode, e me gemedemode to his halgum; and u, earming, eart geancsumod on inre gewitleaste." Decius cw to am cwellerum, "Arra hine upp, and teowia his gesihum eal t wita-tl." a wurdon hrdlice foraborene isene clutas, and isene clawa, and isen bedd, and leadene swipa and ore gepilede swipa. a cw se casere, "Geoffra ine lc urum godum, oe u bist mid eallum isum pinung-tlum getintregod." Se eadiga diacon cw, "u ungesliga, as estmettas ic symle gewilnode: h beo me to wuldre, and e to wite." Se casere cw, "Geswutela us ealle a mnfullan ine gelican, t eos burh beo geclnsod; and u sylf geoffra urum godum, and ne truwa u nateshwon on inum gold-hordum." a cw se halga martyr, "Solice ic truwige, and ic eom orsorh be minum hordum." Decius andwyrde, "Wenst u la t u beo alysed mid inum hordum fram isum tintregum?" and het a mid gramlicum mode t a cwelleras mid stearcum saglum hine beoton. Witodlice Laurentius on am gebeate clypode, "u earming, undergyt huru nu t ic sgrige be Cristes madmum, and ic ine tintregu naht ne gefrede." Decius cw, "Lecga a isenan clutas hate glowende to {426}his sidan." Se eadiga martyr a ws biddende his Drihten, and cw, "Hlend Crist, God of Gode, gemiltsa inum eowan, foran e ic gewreged e ne wisoc, befrinen ic e geandette." a het se casere hine arran, and cw, "Ic geseo t u, urh inne drycrft, as tintregan gebysmerast; eah-hwere ne scealt u me gebysmrian. Ic swerige urh ealle godas and gydena, t u scealt geoffrian, oe ic e mid mislicum pinungum acwelle." Laurentius a bealdlice clypode, "Ic on mines Drihtnes naman nateshwon ne forhtige for inum tintregum, e sind hwilwendlice: ne ablin u t u begunnen hfst."

After this the chief officer sent, and commanded Hippolytus to lead Lawrence to the king's court. Hippolytus with humble speech made known that command to the blessed Lawrence. He said, "Let us go, for glory is prepared for me and for thee." They went quickly, and stood fearless before him. Then said Valerianus to the holy martyr, "Cast away now thy obstinacy, and give up the treasures." The martyr of God answered him, "On God's poor I have spent them, and they are the everlasting treasures which will never be diminished." The officer said, "Why playest thou with words? Offer thy gift to our gods, and forsake the magic {425}in which thou trustest." Lawrence said, "For what reason does the devil compel you to urge christian men to his worship? If it be right that we should pray to devils rather than to the Almighty God, judge which is worthy of that honour, he who is made, or he who created all things." The emperor then answered, "What is he who is made, or what is he who made?" God's martyr said, "The Almighty Father of our Saviour is the Creator of all creatures, and thou sayest that I shall pray to dumb stones, which are carved by the hands of men." The emperor was then wroth, and commanded the deacon to be unclothed in his sight, and cruelly scourged, and the emperor himself cried, "Insult not our gods." The blessed Lawrence said in torments, "Verily I thank my God, who has vouchsafed to number me with his holy; and thou, wretch, art afflicted in thy foolishness." Decius said to the executioners, "Raise him up, and manifest to his sight all the torture-tools." Then were quickly brought forth iron plates, and iron claws, and an iron bed, and leaden whips, and other leaded whips. Then said the emperor, "Offer thy gift to our gods, or thou shalt be tortured with all these torture-tools." The blessed deacon said, "Thou unblessed, these luxuries I have ever desired; they will be to me a glory, and to thee a torment." The emperor said, "Declare to us all the wicked thy like, that this city may be cleansed; and do thou thyself offer to our gods, and trust thou in no wise to thy treasures." Then said the holy martyr, "Verily I trust, and I am careless for my treasures." Decius answered, "Thinkest thou then that thou wilt be redeemed by thy treasures from these torments?" and then in angry mood commanded the executioners to beat him with stout clubs. But Lawrence, during the beating, cried, "Thou wretch, know at least that I triumph regarding Christ's treasures, and I feel not thy torments." Decius said, "Lay the {427}iron plates glowing hot to his side." The blessed martyr then was praying to his Lord, and said, "Saviour Christ, God of God, have mercy on thy servant, for, accused, I denied thee not; questioned, I acknowledged thee." Then the emperor commanded him to be raised, and said, "I see that thou, through thy magic, mockest these torments; nevertheless thou shalt not mock me. I swear by all the gods and goddesses, that thou shalt offer, or I will slay thee by divers tortures." Lawrence then boldly cried, "I, in the name of my Lord, in no wise fear thy torments, which are transitory: cease thou not from what thou hast begun."

a wear se casere mid swylicere htheortnysse geyrsod, and het one halgan diacon mid leadenum swipum langlice swingan. Laurentius a clypode, "Hlend Crist, u e gemedemodest t u to menniscum menn geboren wre, and us fram deofles eowte alysdest, onfoh minne gst." On re ylcan tide him com andswaru of heofonum, us cweende, "Gyt u scealt fela gewinn habban on inum martyrdome." Decius a gehthyrt clypode, "Romanisce weras, gehyrde ge ra deofla frofor on isum eawbrcum, e ure godas geyrsode ne ondrt, ne a asmeadan tintregan? Astrecca hine, and mid gepiledum swipum swingende geangsumia." Laurentius a astreht on re hengene, mid hlihendum mue ancode his Drihtne, "Drihten God, Fder Hlendes Cristes, sy u gebletsod, e us forgeafe ine mildheortnysse; cy nu ine arfstnysse, t as ymbstandendan oncnawon t u gefrefrast ine eowan." On re tide gelyfde n ra cempena, s nama ws Romanus, and cw to am Godes cyere, "Laurentie, ic geseo Godes engel standende tforan e mid hand-clae, and wipa ine swatigan limu. Nu halsige ic e, urh God, t u me ne forlte." a wear Decius mid facne afylled, and cw to his heah-gerefan, "Me inc t we sind urh drycrft oferswide." And he het a alysan one diacon of re hengene, and betcan am tn-gerefan Ypolite, and nyste a-gt t h cristen ws.

Then was the emperor excited with violent fury, and commanded the holy deacon to be scourged a long time with leaden whips. Lawrence then cried, "Saviour Christ, thou who hast vouchsafed to be born a mortal man, and hast redeemed us from the devil's thraldom, receive my spirit." At the same time an answer came to him from heaven, thus saying, "Yet thou shalt have much affliction in thy martyrdom." Decius then furious cried, "Roman men, heard ye the comfort of the devils to this impious, who dreads not our irritated gods, nor the devised torments? Stretch him, and, scourging with leaded whips, afflict him." Lawrence then, stretched on the cross, with laughing mouth thanked his Lord, "Lord God, Father of Jesus Christ, be thou blessed, who hast given us thy mercy; manifest now thy favour, that these standing about may know that thou comfortest thy servants." At that time one of the soldiers, whose name was Romanus, believed, and said to the martyr of God, "Lawrence, I see God's angel standing before thee with a hand-cloth, and wiping thy sweating limbs. I now beseech thee, through God, that thou forsake me not." Then was Decius filled with guile, and said to his chief officer, "Methinks that we are overcome by magic." And he then ordered the holy deacon to be loosened from the cross, and delivered to the town-reeve Hippolytus, and knew not yet that he was a christian.


a betwux am brohte se gelyfeda cempa Romanus ceacfulne wteres, and mid wope s halgan Laurenties ft gesohte, fulluhtes biddende. Laurentius a hrdlice t wter gehalgode, and one geleaffullan egen gefullode. aa Decius t geaxode, a het he hine wǽdum bereafian, and mid stearcum stengum beatan. Romanus a ungeaxod clypode on s caseres andwerdnysse, "Ic eom cristen." On re ylcan tide het se rea cwellere hine underhngan swurdes ecge. Eft on re ylcan nihte, fter s cempan martyrdome, ferde Decius to am hatum baum wi t botl Salustii, and het one halgan Laurentium him to gefeccan. a ongann Ypolitus sarlice heofian, and cw, "Ic wylle mid e siian, and mid hluddre stemne hryman, t ic cristen eom, and mid e licgan." Laurentius cw, "Ne wep u, ac swior suwa and blissa, foran e ic fare to Godes wuldre. Eft fter lytlum fyrste, onne ic e clypige, gehyr mine stemne, and cum to me."


Then meanwhile the believing soldier Romanus brought a jugful of water, and with weeping sought the feet of the holy Lawrence, craving baptism. Lawrence then quickly hallowed the water, and baptized the believing servant. When Decius heard of it, he ordered him to be stript of his garments and beaten with stout staves. Romanus then unasked cried in the emperor's presence, "I am a christian." At the same time the fierce executioner ordered him to fall under the sword's edge. Again, on the same night, after the soldier's martyrdom, Decius went to the hot baths, opposite the house of Sallust, and commanded the holy Lawrence to be fetched to him. Then Hippolytus began sorely to lament, and said, "I will go with thee, and with loud voice cry that I am a christian, and lie with thee." Lawrence said, "Weep not, but rather be silent and rejoice, for I go to God's glory. After a little time hence, when I call, hear my voice, and come to me."

Decius a het gearcian eal t pinung-tl tforan his dmsetle, and Laurentius him wear to geld. Decius cw, "Awurp one truwan ines drycrftes, and gerece s ine mge." Se eadiga Laurentius andwyrde, "fter menniscum gebyrde ic eom Hispanienscis, Romanisc fostor-cild, and cristen fram cild-cradole, getogen on ealre godcundre ǽ." Decius andwyrde, "Solice is seo ǽ godcundlic e e swa gebylde t u nelt ure godas wurian, ne u nanes cynnes tintregan e ne ondrtst." Laurentius cw, "On Cristes naman ne forhtige ic for inum tintregum." Se wlhreowa casere a cw, "Gif u ne offrast urum godum, eall eos niht sceal beon aspend on e mid mislicum pinungum." Laurentius cw, "Nf min niht nane forsworcennysse, ac heo mid beorhtum leohte scin." a het se wlhreowa mid stanum s halgan mu cnucian. Hwt a Laurentius wear gestrangod urh Godes gife, and mid hlihendum mue cw, "Sy e lf, Drihten, foran e u eart ealra inga God." Decius cw to am cwellerum, {430}"Ahebba t isene bed to am fyre, t se modiga Laurentius hine ron gereste." H rrihte hine wdon bereafodon, and on am heardan bedde astrehton, and mid byrnendum gledum t bed undercrammodon, and hine ufan mid isenum geaflum ydon.

Decius then commanded all the torture-tools to be prepared, before his doom-seat, and Lawrence was led to him. Decius said, "Cast away trust in thy magic, and recount to us of thy family." The blessed Lawrence answered, "According to human birth I am Spanish, a Roman foster-child, and a christian from my cradle, trained up in all divine law." Decius answered, "In sooth the law is divine, which has so emboldened thee that thou wilt not worship our gods, nor dreadest any kind of torment." Lawrence said, "In the name of Christ I fear not for thy torments." The cruel emperor then said, "If thou offerest not to our gods, all this night shall be spent on thee with divers tortures." Lawrence said, "My night has no darkness, but shines with bright light." Then the cruel one commanded the mouth of the saint to be struck with stones. But Lawrence was strengthened through the grace of God, and said with laughing mouth, "Lord, be to thee praise, for thou of all things art God." Decius said to the executioners, "Raise the iron bed to the {431}fire, that the proud Lawrence may rest thereon." They straightways bereft him of his garments, and stretched him on the hard bed, and filled the bed underneath with burning coals, and from above pierced him with iron forks.

Decius cw a to am Godes cyere, "Geoffra nu urum godum." Laurentius andwyrde, "Ic offrige me sylfne am lmihtigan Gode on bre wynsumnysse; foran e se gedrefeda gast is Gode andfenge onsgednys." Solice a cwelleras tugon a gleda singallice under t bedd, and wi-ufan mid heora forcum hine ydon. a cw Laurentius, "Eala ge ungesligan, ne undergyte ge t eowre gleda nane hǽtan minum lichaman ne gedo, ac swior clinge?" He a eft mid am wlitegostan nebbe cw, "Hlend Crist, ic ancige e t u me gestrangian wylt." He a beseah wi s caseres, us cweende, "Efne u, earming, brddest nne dl mines lichaman, wend nu one oerne, and et." He cw a eft, "Hlend Crist, ic ancige e mid inweardre heortan, t ic mt faran into inum rice." And mid ysum worde h ageaf his gast, and mid swylcum martyrdome t uplice rice geferde, on am he wuna mid Gode on ecnysse. a forlt se wlhreowa casere one halgan lichaman uppon am isenan hyrdle, and tengde mid his heahgerefan to am botle Tyberianum.

Decius said to the martyr of God, "Offer now to our gods." Lawrence answered, "I will offer myself to the Almighty God, in the odour of pleasantness; for the afflicted spirit is an acceptable sacrifice to God." But the executioners drew the burning coals constantly under the bed, and from above pierced him with their forks. Then said Lawrence, "O ye unblessed, understand ye not that your glowing embers cause no heat to my body, but rather cooling?" He then again with the most beautiful countenance said, "Saviour Christ, I thank thee that thou wilt strengthen me." He then looked towards the emperor, thus saying, "Behold, thou, wretch, hast roasted one part of my body, turn now the other, and eat." He then said again, "Saviour Christ, I thank thee with inward heart, that I may go into thy kingdom." And with these words he gave up his ghost, and with such martyrdom went to the realm on high, in which he dwelleth with God through all eternity. The cruel emperor then left the holy body on the iron hurdle, and with his chief officer hastened to the house of Tiberius.

Ypolitus a bebyrigde one halgan lichaman mid micelre arwurnysse on re wudewan leger-stowe Quiriace, on ysum dgerlicum dge. Witodlice t re byrgene wacode micel menigu cristenra manna mid swilicere heofunge. Se halga sacerd Iustinus a him eallum gemssode and gehuslode. fter isum gecyrde Ypolitus to his hame, and mid Godes sibbe his hywan gecyste, and h ealle gehuslode. a frlice, mid am e h gest, comon s caseres cempan, and hine gelhton, and to am cwellere gelddon. Hine befrn a Decius mid smercigendum mue, "Hwt la, eart u to dry awend, foran e u bebyrigdest Laurentium?" {432}He andwyrde, "t ic dyde na swa swa dry, ac swa swa cristen." Decius a yrsigende het mid stanum his mu cnucian, and hine unscrydan, and cw, "La h, nre u geornful biggenga ura goda? and nu u eart swa stunt geworden t furon e ne sceama inre ncednysse." Ypolitus andwyrde, "Ic ws stunt, and ic eom nu ws and cristen. urh nytenysse ic gelyfde on t gedwyld e u gelyfst." Decius cw, "Geoffra am godum yls e u urh tintrega forwure, swa swa Laurentius." He andwyrde, "Eala gif ic moste am eadigan Laurentium geefenlcan!" Decius cw, "Astrecca hine swa nacodne, and mid stium saglum beata." aa h langlice gebeaten ws, a ancode he Gode. Decius cw, "Ypolitus gebysmra eowre stengas; swinga hine mid gepiledum swipum." Hi a swa dydon, ot h ateorodon. Ypolitus clypode mid hluddre stemne, "Ic eom cristen." Eornostlice se rea casere, aa he ne mihte mid nanum pinungum hine geweman fram Cristes geleafan, a het he his heah-gerefan t h mid wlhreawum deae hine acwellan sceolde.

Hippolytus then buried the holy body with great reverence in the burial-place of the widow Quiriaca, on this present day. But at the grave there watched a great many christian men with great lamentation. The holy priest Justin celebrated mass to and houseled them all. After this Hippolytus returned to his home, and with God's peace kissed his family, and houseled them all. Then suddenly, while he was sitting, the emperor's soldiers came, and seized him, and led him to the executioner. Decius then asked him with smiling mouth, "What, art thou turned magician, since thou hast buried {433}Lawrence?" He answered, "I did not that as a magician, but as a christian." Decius then in wrath ordered his mouth to be stricken with stones, and him to be stript, and said, "How, wast thou not a diligent worshiper of our gods? and now thou art become so foolish that thou art not ashamed of thy nakedness." Hippolytus answered, "I was foolish, and I am now wise and a christian. Through ignorance I believed in the error in which thou believest." Decius said, "Offer to the gods, lest, as Lawrence, thou perish by torments." He answered, "O, if I might imitate the blessed Lawrence!" Decius said, "Stretch him thus naked, and beat him with strong clubs." When he had long been beaten he thanked God. Decius said, "Hippolytus mocks your staves, scourge him with leaded whips." They then did so, till they were worn out. Hippolytus cried with a loud voice, "I am a christian." So the fierce emperor, when he could not, by any torments, seduce him from belief in Christ, commanded his chief officer to slay him by the most cruel death.

On am ylcan dge asmeade Ualerianus his hta, and gemette nygontyne wera and wifa his hwisces, e wron t s eadigan Laurenties handum gefullode. To am cw Ualerianus, "Sceawia eowre ylde, and beorga eowrum feore, yls e ge samod losian mid eowrum hlaforde Ypolite." Hi a anmodlice andwyrdon, "We wilnia mid urum hlaforde clnlice sweltan, swior onne unclnlice mid eow lybban." a wear Ualerianus earle gehthyrt, and het ldan Ypolitum of re ceastre mid his hiwum. a se eadiga Ypolitus gehyrte his hired, and cw, "Mine gebrora, ne beo ge dreorige ne afyrhte, foran e ic and ge habba nne Hlaford, God lmihtigne." Solice Ualerianus het beheafdian on Ypolitus gesihe ealle his hiwan, and hine sylfne het tigan be am fotum to ungetemedra horsa swuran, and swa teon geond ornas and bremelas: and he a mid am tige his gast ageaf on am reotteoan dge {434}ises mones. On re ylcan nihte gegaderode se halga Iustinus heora ealra lic, and bebyrigde.

On the same day Valerianus took an account of his property, and found nineteen men and women of his family, who had been baptized at the hands of the blessed Lawrence. To them said Valerianus, "Consider your age, and have regard for your life, lest ye perish together with your lord Hippolytus." They unanimously answered, "We desire to die purely with our lord, rather than to live impurely with you." Then was Valerianus greatly irritated, and ordered Hippolytus to be led from the city with his household. The blessed Hippolytus then cheered his household, and said, "My brothers, be ye not sad nor afraid, for I and ye have one Lord, God Almighty." So Valerianus ordered, in the sight of Hippolytus, all his domestics to be beheaded, and himself he ordered to be tied by the feet to the necks of untamed horses, and so to be drawn through thorns and brambles: and he with that binding gave up his ghost on the thirteenth day of {435}this month. On the same night the holy Justin gathered the bodies of them all and buried them.

Eornostlice fter ra halgena rowunge, ferde Decius on gyldenum crte and Ualerianus samod to heora henum gylde, t h a cristenan to heora mnfullum offrungum gereatodon. a wear Decius frlice mid feondlicum gaste awd, and hrymde, "Eala u, Ypolite, hwider tihst u me gebundenne mid scearpum racenteagum?" Ualerianus eac awd hrymde, "Eala u, Laurentius, unsoftlice tihst u me gebundenne mid byrnendum racenteagum." And he rrihte swealt. Witodlice Decius egeslice awedde, and binnon rym dagum mid deoflicre stemne singallice hrymde, "Ic halsige e, Laurentius, abln hwthwega ra tintregena." Hwt a, la asprang micel heofung and sarlic wp on am hame, and s caseres wf ht t-aldan ealle a cristenan e on cwearterne wron, and Decius on am riddan dge mid micclum tintregum gewt.

But after the passion of those saints, Decius and Valerianus went together in a golden chariot to their temple, that they might force the christians to their wicked offerings. Then became Decius suddenly frantic with a fiendlike spirit, and cried, "O thou, Hippolytus, whither drawest thou me bound with sharp chains?" Valerianus also frantic cried, "O thou, Lawrence, unsoftly thou drawest me bound with burning chains." And he forthwith died. But Decius became horribly frantic, and for three days, with fiendlike voice, constantly cried, "I beseech thee, Lawrence, cease somewhat of those torments." Hereupon great lamentation and sore weeping arose in the dwelling, and the emperor's wife ordered all the christians who were in prison to be led out, and on the third day Decius in great torments departed.

Solice seo cwn Triphonia gesohte s halgan sacerdes ft Iustines mid biterum tearum, and hire dohtor Cyrilla samod, biddende s halgan fulluhtes. Iustinus a mid micelre blisse h underfeng, and him bebead seofon dagena fsten, and h syan mid am halgum fulluht-be fram eallum heora mnddum awoh. aa s caseres egnas gehyrdon t seo cwn Triphonia and Decius dohtor Cyrilla to Cristes geleafan, and to am halwendum fulluhte gebogene wron, h a mid heora wifum gesohton one halgan sacerd, and bdon miltsunge and fulluhtes. Se eadiga Iustinus, isum gewordenum, rdde wi a cristenan hwne h to bisceope ceosan woldon on Sixtes setle. Hi a anmodlice sumne arwurfulne wer gecuron, s nama ws Dionisius, one gehadode se bisceop Maximus, of re byrig Ostiensis, to am Romaniscum bisceop-setle, wi wurmynte.

But the queen Tryphonia, together with her daughter Cyrilla, sought the feet of the holy priest Justin with bitter tears, praying for holy baptism. Justin then with great joy received them, and enjoined them a fast of seven days, and afterwards, by the holy baptismal bath, washed them from all their sins. When the emperor's thanes heard that the queen Tryphonia and the daughter of Decius, Cyrilla, had turned to the faith of Christ and to the salutary baptism, they with their wives sought the holy priest, and prayed for mercy and baptism. The blessed Justin, these things being done, took counsel with the christians, whom they would choose for bishop in the chair of Sixtus. They then unanimously chose a venerable man whose name was Dionysius, whom the bishop Maximus, of the city of Ostia, consecrated to the Roman episcopal see with honour.

Uton nu biddan mid eadmodre stemne one halgan Godes cyere Laurentium, s freols-td geswutela es andwerda dg ealre geleaffulre gelaunge, t he us ingige wi one {436}Heofenlican Cyning, for s naman he rowode mid cenum mode menigfealde tintregu, mid am he orsorhlice on ecnysse wuldra. Amen.

Let us now pray with humble voice the holy martyr of God, Lawrence, whose festival this present day makes known to all the faithful church, that he intercede for us with the {437}Heavenly King, for whose name he suffered with bold mind many torments, with whom he free from care glorieth to eternity. Amen.





Hieronimus se halga sacerd awrt nne pistol be forsie re eadigan Marian, Godes cennestran, to sumum halgan mdene, hyre nama ws Eustochium, and to hyre meder Paulam, seo ws gehalgod wydewe. To ysum twam wifmannum awrt se ylca Hieronimus, menigfealde traht-bec, foran e hi wron haliges lifes men, and swie gecneordlcende on boclicum smeagungum. es Hieronimus ws halig sacerd, and getogen on Hebreiscum gereorde, and on Greciscum, and on Ledenum fulfremedlice; and he awende ure bibliothecan of Hebreiscum bocum to Leden sprce. He is se fyrmesta wealhstod betwux Hebreiscum, and Grecum, and Ledenwarum. Twa and hund-seofontig boca re ealdan ǽ and re niwan he awende on Leden to anre Bibliothecan, buton orum menigfealdum traht-bocum e he mid gecneordum andgite deopancollice asmeade. a t nextan he dihte isne pistol to re halgan wydewan Paulam, and to am Godes mdene Eustochium, hyre dehter, and to eallum am mdenlicum werode, e him mid drohtnigende wron, us cweende:

Jerome the holy priest wrote an epistle on the decease of the blessed Mary, the mother of God, to a holy maiden, whose name was Eustochium, and to her mother Paula, who was a hallowed widow. To these two women the same Jerome wrote several treatises; for they were persons of holy life, and very diligent in book-studies. This Jerome was a holy priest, and instructed in the Hebrew tongue, and in Greek and Latin perfectly; and he turned our library of Hebrew books into the Latin speech. He is the first interpreter betwixt the Hebrews, and Greeks, and Latins. Seventy-two books of the old and of the new law he turned into Latin, to one 'Bibliotheca,' besides many other treatises which he profoundly devised with diligent understanding. Then at last he composed this epistle to the holy widow Paula, and to the maiden of God, Eustochium, her daughter, and to all the maidenly company who were living with them, thus saying:

Witodlice ge neadia me t ic eow recce hu seo eadige Maria, on isum dgerlicum dge to heofonlicere wununge genumen ws, t eower mdenlica heap hbbe as lac Ledenre sprce, hu es mra freolsdg geond ghwylces geares ymbryne beo aspend mid heofonlicum lofe, and mid gastlicere blisse gemrsode sy, yls e eow on hand {438}becume seo lease gesetnys e urh gedwolmen wide tosawen is, and ge onne a gehiwedan leasunge for sore race underfon.

Verily ye compel me to relate to you how the blessed Mary, on this present day was taken to the heavenly dwelling, that your maidenly society may have this gift in the Latin speech, how this great festival, in the course of every year, is passed with heavenly praise, and celebrated with ghostly bliss, lest the false account should come to your {439}hand which has been widely disseminated by heretics, and ye then receive the feigned leasing for a true narrative.

Solice fram anginne s halgan godspelles ge geleornodon hu se heah-engel Gabriel am eadigan mdene Marian s heofonlican elinges acennednysse gecydde, and s Hlendes wundra, and re gesligan Godes cennestran enunge, and hyre lifes dda on am feower godspellicum bocum geswutollice oncneowon. Iohannes se Godspellere awrt on Cristes rowunge, t he sylf and Maria stodon mid dreorigum mode wi re halgan rode, e se Hlend on gefstnod ws. a cw he to his agenre meder, "u fmne, efne her is in sunu." Eft he cw to Iohanne, "Loca nu, her stent in modor." Syan, of am dge, hfde se Godspellere Iohannes gymene re halgan Marian, and mid carfulre enunge, swa swa agenre meder, gehyrsumode.

Verily from the beginning of the holy gospel ye have learned how the archangel Gabriel declared to the blessed Mary the birth of the Heavenly Prince, and the miracles of Jesus, and the ministry of the blessed mother of God and the deeds of her life ye have manifestly known from the four evangelical books. John the Evangelist wrote that, at Christ's passion, he himself and Mary stood with sorrowing mind opposite the holy rood, on which Jesus was fastened. Then said he to his own mother, "Thou woman, behold, here is thy son." Again he said to John, "Look now, here standeth thy mother." Afterwards, from that day, the Evangelist John had charge of the holy Mary, and with careful ministry obeyed her as his mother.

Drihten, urh his arfstnysse, bethte t eadige mden his cennestran am clnan men Iohanne, see on clnum mghade symle wunode; and he fory synderlice am Drihtne leof ws, to an swie, t he him one deorwuran mam, ealles middangeardes cwne, betcan wolde; gewislice t hire clnesta mghd am clnan men geeod wre mid gecwemre geferrdene on wynsumre drohtnunge. On him bm ws an miht ansundes mghades, ac oer intinga on Marian; on hire is wstmbre mghd, swa swa on nanum orum. Nis on nanum orum men mghd, gif r bi wstmbrnys; ne wstmbrnys, gif r bi ansund mghd. Nu is fori gehalgod ger ge Marian mghd ge hyre wstmbrnys urh a godcundlican acennednysse; and heo ealle ore oferstih on mghade and on wstmbrnysse. eah-hwere, eah heo synderlice Iohannes gymene betht wre, hwere heo drohtnode gemnelice, fter Cristes upstige, mid am apostolicum werode, infarende and utfarende betwux him, and hi ealle mid micelre arwurnysse and lufe hire enodon, and heo him {440}culice ealle ing ymbe Cristes menniscnysse gewissode; foran e heo fram fryme gewislice urh one Halgan Gast hi ealle geleornode, and mid agenre gesihe geseah; eah e a apostoli urh one ylcan Gast ealle ing undergeaton, and on ealre sofstnysse gelrede wurdon. Se heah-engel Gabriel hi ungewemmede geheold, and heo wunode on Iohannes and on ealra ra apostola gymene, on re heofonlican scole, embe Godes ǽ smeagende, ot God on ysum dge hi genam to am heofonlican rymsetle, and hi ofer engla weredum geufrode.

The Lord, through his piety, committed the blessed maiden his mother to the chaste man John, who had ever lived in pure virginity; and on that account he was especially dear to the Lord, so much so that he would commit to him that precious treasure, the queen of the whole world: no doubt, that her most pure virginity might be associated with that chaste man with grateful fellowship in pleasant converse. In them both was one virtue of unbroken chastity, but a second attribute in Mary; in her is fruitful virginity, so as in no other. In no other person is there virginity, if there be fruitfulness; nor fruitfulness, if there be perfect virginity. Therefore now are hallowed both the virginity of Mary and her fruitfulness through the divine birth; and she excels all others in virginity and in fruitfulness. Nevertheless, though she was especially committed to the care of John, yet she lived in common, after Christ's ascension, with the apostolic company, going in and going out among them, and they all with great piety and love ministered to her, and she fully {441}informed them of all things touching Christ's humanity; for she had from the beginning accurately learned them through the Holy Ghost, and seen them with her own sight; though the apostles understood all things through the same Ghost, and were instructed in all truth. The archangel Gabriel held her uncorrupted, and she continued in the care of John and of all the apostles, in the heavenly company, meditating on God's law, until God, on this day, took her to the heavenly throne, and exalted her above the hosts of angels.

Nis gerd on nanre bec nan swutelre gewissung be hire geendunge, buton t heo nu to-dg wuldorfullice of am lichaman gewt. Hyre byrigen is swutol eallum onlociendum o ysne andweardan dg, on middan re dene Iosaphat. Seo dene is betwux re dune Sion and am munte Oliueti, and seo byrigen is teowed open and emtig, and r on-uppon on hire wurmynte is arred mre cyrce mid wundorlicum stn-geweorce. Nis nanum deadlicum men cu h, oe on hwylcere tide hyre halga lichama anon gebroden wre, oe hwider he ahafen sy, oe hwer heo of deae arise: cwdon eah gehwylce lareowas, t hyre Sunu, see on am riddan dge mihtilice of deae ars, t he eac his moder lichaman of deae arrde, and mid undeadlicum wuldre on heofonan rice gelogode. Eac swa gelice forwel menige lareowas on heora bocum setton, be am ge-edcucedum mannum e mid Criste of deae arison, t hi ecelice arrede synd. Witodlice hi andetton t a arredan men nron sofste gewitan Cristes ristes, buton hi wron ecelice arrede. Ne wicwee we be re eadigan Marian a ecan riste, eah, for wrscipe gehealdenum geleafan, us gedafena t we hit wenon swior onne we unrdlice hit gesean t e is uncu buton lcere frcednysse.

There is not read in any book any more manifest information of her end, but that she on this day gloriously departed from the body. Her sepulchre is visible to all beholders to this present day, in the midst of the valley of Jehosaphat. The valley is between Mount Sion and the mount of Olives, and the sepulchre appears open and empty, and thereupon is raised, in her honour, a large church, with wondrous stone-work. To no mortal man is it known how, or at what time her holy body was brought from thence, or whither it be borne, or whether she arose from death: though some doctors say, that her Son, who on the third day mightily from death arose, that he also raised his mother's body from death, and placed it with immortal glory in the kingdom of heaven. In like manner very many doctors have set in their books concerning the requickened men who arose from death with Christ, that they are raised for ever. They profess verily that those raised men would not have been true witnesses of Christ's resurrection, unless they had been raised for ever. Nor do we deny the eternal resurrection of the blessed Mary, though for caution, preserving our belief, it befits us that we rather hope it, than rashly assert what is unknown without any danger.

We rda gehwr on bocum, t forwel oft englas comon to godra manna forsie, and mid gastlicum lofsangum heora sawla to heofonum gelddon. And, t gyt swutollicor is, {442}men gehyrdon on am forsie wpmanna sang and wifmanna sang, mid micclum leohte and swetum bree: on am is cu t a halgan men e to Godes rice urh gode geearnunga becomon, t hi on ora manna forsie heora sawla underfo, and mid micelre blisse to reste gelda. Nu gif se Hlend swilcne wurmynt on his halgena forsie oft geswutelode, and heora gastas mid heofonlicum lofsange to him gefeccan het, hu miccle swior wenst u t he nu to-dg t heofonlice werod togeanes his agenre meder sendan wolde, t hi mid ormtum leohte and unasecgendlicum lofsangum hi to am rymsetle gelddon e hire gegearcod ws fram fryme middangeardes.

We read here and there in books, that very often angels came at the departure of good men, and with ghostly hymns led their souls to heaven. And, what is yet more certain, {443}men, at their departure, have heard the song of men and women, with a great light and sweet odour: by which is known that those holy men who through good deserts come to God's kingdom, that they, at the departure of other men, receive their souls, and with great joy lead them to rest. Now if Jesus has often showed such honour at the death of his saints, and has commanded their souls to be conducted to him with heavenly hymn, how much rather thinkest thou he would now to-day send the heavenly host to meet his own mother, that they with light immense, and unutterable hymns might lead her to the throne which was prepared for her from the beginning of the world.

Nis nan twynung t eall heofonlic rym a mid unasecgendlicere blisse hire to-cymes fgnian wolde. Solice eac we gelyfa t Drihten sylf hire togeanes come, and wynsumlice mid gefean to him on his rymsetle hi gesette: witodlice he wolde gefyllan urh hine sylfne t he on his ǽ bebead, us cweende, "Arwura inne fder and ine moder." He is his agen gewita t he his Fder gearwurode, swa swa he cw to am Iudeiscum, "Ic arwurige minne Fder, and ge unarwuria me." On his menniscnysse he arwurode his moder, aa he ws, swa swa t halige godspel seg, hire undereod on his geogohade. Micele swior is to gelyfenne t he his modor mid unasecgendlicere arwurnysse on his rice gewurode, aa he wolde fter re menniscnysse on ysum life hyre gehyrsumian.

There is no doubt that all the heavenly host then with unspeakable bliss would rejoice in her advent. Verily we also believe that the Lord himself came to meet her, and benignly with delight placed her by him on his throne: for he would fulfil in himself what he had in his law enjoined, thus saying, "Honour thy father and thy mother." He is his own witness that he honoured his Father, as he said to the Jews, "I honour my Father, and ye dishonour me." In his human state he honoured his mother, when he was, as the holy gospel says, subjected to her in his youth. Much more is it to be believed that he honoured his mother with unspeakable veneration in his kingdom, when he would, according to human nature, obey her in this life.

es symbel-dg oferstih unwimetenlice ealra ora halgena msse-dagas swa micclum swa is halige mden, Godes modor, is unwimetenlic eallum orum mdenum. es freolsdg is us gearlic, ac he is heofonwarum singallic. Be ysre heofonlican cwne upstige wundrode se Halga Gast on lofsangum, us befrinende, "Hwt is eos e her astih swilce arisende dg-rima, swa wlitig swa mna, swa gecoren swa sunne, and swa egeslic swa fyrd-truma?" Se Halga Gast wundrode, foran e he dyde t eal heofonwaru {444}wundrode ysre fmnan upfreldes. Maria is wlitigre onne se mna, foran e heo scin buton teorunge hire beorhtnysse. Heo is gecoren swa swa sunne mid leoman healicra mihta, foran e Drihten, see is rihtwisnysse sunne, h geceas him to cennestran. Hire fr is wimeten fyrdlicum truman, foran e heo ws mid halgum mgnum ymbtrymed, and mid engla reatum.

This festival excels incomparably all other saints' mass-days, as much as this holy maiden, the mother of God, is incomparable with all other maidens. This feast-day to us is yearly, but to heaven's inmates it is perpetual. At the ascension of this heavenly queen the Holy Ghost in hymns uttered his wonder, thus inquiring, "What is this that here ascends like the rising dew of morn, as beauteous as the moon, as choice as the sun, and as terrible as a martial band?" The Holy Ghost wondered, for he caused all {445}heaven's inmates to wonder at the ascension of this woman. Mary is more beauteous than the moon, for she shines without decrease of her brightness. She is choice as the sun with beams of holy virtues, for the Lord, who is the sun of righteousness, chose her for his mother. Her course is compared to a martial band, for she was surrounded with heavenly powers and with companies of angels.

Be issere heofonlican cwne is gecweden gyt urh one ylcan Godes Gast: he cw, "Ic geseah a wlitegan swilce culfran astigende ofer streamlicum rium, and unasecgendlic br stemde of hire gyrlum; and, swa swa on lengctenlicere tide, rosena blostman and lilian hi ymtrymedon." ra rosena blostman getacnia mid heora readnysse martyrdom, and a lilian mid heora hwitnysse getacnia a scinendan clnnysse ansundes mghdes. Ealle a gecorenan e Gode geugon urh martyrdom oe urh clnnysse, ealle hi gesiodon mid re eadigan cwne; foran e heo sylf is ger ge martyr ge mden. Heo is swa wlitig swa culfre, foran e heo lufode a bilewitnysse, e se Halga Gast getacnode, aa he ws gesewen on culfran gelicnysse ofer Criste on his fulluhte. Ore martyras on heora lichaman rowodon martyrdom for Cristes geleafan, ac seo eadige Maria ns na lichamlice gemartyrod, ac hire sawul ws swie geangsumod mid micelre rowunge, aa heo stod dreorig foran ongean Cristes rode, and hire leofe cild geseah mid isenum nglum on heardum treowe gefstnod. Nu is heo mare onne martyr, foran e heo rowode one martyrdom on hire sawle e ore martyras rowodon on heora lichaman. Heo lufode Crist ofer ealle ore men, and fory ws eac hire sarnys be him toforan ora manna, and heo dyde his dea hire agenne dea, foran e his rowung swa swa swurd urhferde hire sawle.

Of this heavenly queen it is yet said by the same Spirit of God, "I saw the beauteous one as a dove mounting above the streaming rills, and an ineffable fragrance exhaled from her garments; and, so as in the spring-tide, blossoms of roses and lilies encircled her." The blossoms of roses betoken by their redness martyrdom, and the lilies by their whiteness betoken the shining purity of inviolate maidenhood. All the chosen who have thriven to God through martyrdom or through chastity, they all journeyed with the blessed queen; for she is herself both martyr and maiden. She is as beauteous as a dove, for she loved meekness, which the Holy Ghost betokened, when he appeared in likeness of a dove over Christ at his baptism. Other martyrs suffered martyrdom in their bodies for Christ's faith, but the blessed Mary was not bodily martyred, but her soul was sorely afflicted with great suffering, when she stood sad before Christ's rood, and saw her dear child fastened with iron nails on the hard tree. Therefore is she more than a martyr, for she suffered that martyrdom in her soul which other martyrs suffered in their bodies. She loved Christ above all other men, and, therefore, was her pain also for him greater than other men's, and she made his death as her own death, for his suffering pierced her soul as a sword.

Nis heo nanes haliges mgnes bedled, ne nanes wlites, ne nanre beorhtnysse; and fory heo ws ymbtrymed mid rosan and lilian, t hyre mihta wron mid mihtum {446}underwriode, and hire fgernys mid clnnysse wlite wre geyht. Godes gecorenan scina on heofonlicum wuldre lc be his geingcum; nu is geleaflic t seo eadige] cwn mid swa micclum wuldre and beorhtnysse ore oferstige, swa micclum swa hire geincu ora halgena unwimetenlice sind.

She is void of no holy virtue, nor any beauty, nor any brightness; and therefore was she encircled with roses and lilies, that her virtues might be supported by virtues, and her {447}fairness increased by the beauty of chastity. God's chosen shine in heavenly glory, each according to his merits; it is therefore credible that the blessed] queen with so much glory and brightness excels others, as much as her merits are incomparable with those of the other saints.

Drihten cw r his upstige, t on his Fder huse sindon fela wununga: solice we gelyfa t he nu to-dg a wynsumestan wununge his leofan meder forgeafe. Godes gecorenra wuldor is gemetegod be heora geearnungum, and nis hwere nn ceorung ne nda on heora nigum, ac h ealle wunia on sore lufe and healicere sibbe, and lc blissa on ores geincum swa swa on his agenum.

The Lord said before his ascension, that in his Father's house are many dwellings: therefore we believe that he now to-day gave to his mother the most pleasant dwelling. The glory of God's chosen is measured by their deserts, and yet there is no murmuring nor envy in any of them, but they all dwell in true love and profound peace, and each rejoices in another's honours as in his own.

Ic bidde eow, blissia on yssere freols-tide: witodlice nu to-dg t wuldorfulle mden heofonas astah, t heo unasecgendlice mid Criste ahafen on ecnysse rixige. Seo heofenlice cwn wear to-dg generod fram yssere mnfullan worulde. Eft ic cwee, fgnia foran e heo becom orsorhlice to am heofonlicum botle. Blissige eal middangeard, foran e nu to-dg us eallum is urh hire geearnunga hǽl geyht. urh ure ealdan modor Euan us wear heofonan rices geat belocen, and eft urh Marian hit is us geopenod, urh t heo sylf nu to-dg wuldorfullice inn-ferde.

I pray you, rejoice in this festival: verily now to-day that glorious maiden ascended to heaven, that she, ineffably exalted with Christ, may for ever reign. The heavenly queen was to-day snatched from this wicked world. Again I say, rejoice that she, void of sorrow, is gone to the heavenly mansion. Let all earth be glad, for now to-day, through her deserts, happiness is increased to us all. Through our old mother Eve the gate of heaven's kingdom was closed against us, and again, through Mary it is opened to us, by which she herself has this day gloriously entered.

God urh his witegan us bebead t we sceolon hine herian and mǽrsian on his halgum, on am he is wundorlic: micele swior gedafena t we hine on isre mran freols-tide his eadigan meder mid lofsangum and wurfullum herungum wurian sceolon; foran e untwylice eal hire wurmynt is Godes herung. Uton nu fori mid ealre estfulnysse ures modes as mran freols-tide wurian, foran e t sift ure hǽle is on lofsangum ures Drihtnes. a e on mighde wunia blission h, foran e h geearnodon t beon t h heria: habbon h hge t h syn swilce t h wurfullice herigan magon. a e on clnan wudewanhde sind, herion h and arwurion, foran e swutol is t h ne magon beon clne buton urh Cristes gife, seoe ws {448}fulfremedlice on Marian e h heriga. Herigan eac and wurian a e on sinscipe wunia, foran e anon flew eallum mildheortnys and gifu t h herigan magon. Gif hwa synful sy, he andette, and nalǽs herige, eah e ne beo wlitig lf on s synfullan mue; hwere ne geswice h re herunge, foran e anon him is behten forgyfenys.

God has commanded us through his prophets, that we should praise and magnify him in his saints, in whom he is wonderful: much more fitting is it that we, on this great festival of his blessed mother, should worship him with hymns and honourable praises; for undoubtedly all honour to her is praise of God. Let us now, therefore, with all the devotion of our mind honour this great festival, for the way of our salvation is in hymns to our Lord. Let those who continue in maidenhood rejoice, for they have attained to be that which they praise: let them have care that they be such that they may praise worthily. Let those who are in pure widowhood praise and honour her, for it is manifest that they cannot be pure but through grace of Christ, which was {449}perfect in Mary whom they praise. Let those also who are in wedlock praise and honour her, for thence flow mercy and grace to all that they may praise her. If any one be sinful, let him confess, and not the less praise, though praise be not beautiful in the mouth of the sinful; yet let him not cease from praise, for thence is promised to him forgiveness.

es pistol is swie menigfeald s to gereccenne, and eow swie deop to gehyrenne. Nu ne onhaga s na swior be am to sprecenne, ac we wylla sume ore trimminge be re mran Godes meder gereccan, to eowre gebetrunge. Solice Maria is se msta frofer and fultum cristenra manna, t is forwel oft geswutelod, swa swa we on bocum rda.

This epistle is very complex for us to expound, and very deep for you to hear. It does not now seem good to us to speak more concerning it, but we will relate for your bettering some other edifying matter of the great mother of God. Verily Mary is the greatest comfort and support of christian men, which is very often manifested, as we read in books.

Sum man ws mid drycrfte bepht, swa t h Criste wisc, and wrt his hand-gewrit am awyrgedan deofle, and him mannrdene befste. His nama ws Theophilus. He a eft syan hine beohte, and a hellican pinunge on his mode weolc; and ferde a to sumere cyrcan e ws to lofe re eadigan Marian gehalgod, and r-binnan swa lange mid wope and fstenum hire fultumes and ingunge bd, ot heo sylf mid micclum wuldre him to com, and cw, t heo him geingod hfde wi one Heofenlican Deman, hire agenne Sunu.

Some man was so deluded by magic that he denied Christ, and wrote his chirograph to the accursed devil, and entered into a compact with him. His name was Theophilus. He afterwards bethought himself, and revolved in his mind the torment of hell; and went then to a church that was hallowed to the praise of the blessed Mary, and therein so long with weeping and fasts prayed for her aid and intercession, till she herself with great glory came to him, and said, that she had interceded for him with the Heavenly Judge, her own Son.

We wylla eac eow gereccan be geendunge s arleasan Godes wiersacan Iulianes.

We will also relate to you concerning the end of the impious adversary of God, Julian.

Sum halig biscop ws Basilius gehten, se leornode on anre scole, and se ylca Iulianus samod. a gelamp hit swa t Basilius wear to biscope gecoren to anre byrig e is gehten Cappadocia, and Iulianus to casere, eah e he ror to preoste bescoren wre. Iulianus a ongann to lufigenne hengyld, and his cristendome wisc, and mid eallum mode henscipe beeode, and his leode to an ylcan genydde. a t suman cyrre tengde h to fyrde ongean Perscisne leodscipe, and gemette one biscop, and cw him to, "Eala, u Basili, nu ic hbbe e oferogen on uwitegunge." Se biscop him andwyrde, "God forgeafe t u uwitegunge {450}beeodest:" and h mid am worde him bead swylce lc swa he sylf breac, t wron ry berene hlafas, for bletsunge. a het se wiersaca onfon ra hlafa, and agifan am biscope togeanes grs, and cw, "He bead s nytena fdan, underfo h grs to leanes." Basilius underfeng t grs, us cweende, "Eala u casere, solice we budon e s e we sylfe bruca, and u us sealdest to edleane ungesceadwisra nytena andlyfene, na us to fdan, ac to hospe." Se Godes wiersaca hine a gehathyrte, and cw, "onne ic fram fyrde gecyrre ic towurpe as burh, and hi gesmeige, and to yrlande awende, swa t heo bi cornbre swior onne mannbre. Nis me uncu in dyrstignys, and issere burhware, e urh ine tihtinge a anlicnysse, e ic arrde and me to gebd, tobrcon and towurpon." And h mid isum wordum ferde to Persciscum earde.

There was a certain bishop named Basilius, who had learned in a school together with this same Julian. It so happened that Basilius was chosen to be bishop of a place called Cappadocia, and Julian to be emperor, though he earlier had been shorn for a priest. Julian then began to love idolatry, and renounced his christianity, and with all his mind cultivated heathenism, and compelled his people to the same. Then at a certain time he went on an expedition against the Persian nation, and met the bishop, and said to him, "O thou Basilius, I have now excelled thee in philosophy." The bishop answered, "God has granted to you to cultivate philosophy:" {451}and with that word he offered him such a gift as he himself partook of, that was three barley loaves, for a blessing. Then the apostate commanded the loaves to be received, and grass to be given to the bishop in return, and said, "He has offered us the food of beasts, let him receive grass in reward." Basilius received the grass, thus saying, "O thou emperor, verily we have offered to thee what we ourselves partake of, and thou hast given us in reward the sustenance of irrational beasts, not as food for us but as insult." The adversary of God then became angry, and said, "When I return from the expedition I will overthrow this city, and level it, and turn it to arable land, so that it shall be cornbearing rather than manbearing. Thy audacity and that of these citizens is not unknown to me, who at thy instigation brake and cast down the image which I had raised and prayed to." And with these words he went to the Persian territory.

Hwt a Basilius cydde his ceastergewarum s rean caseres eowrace, and him selost rdbora wear, us cweende, "Mine gebrora, bringa eowre sceattas, and uton cunnian, gif we magon, one rean wiersacan on his geancyrre gegladian." Hi a mid gldum mode him to brohton goldes, and seolfres, and deorwurra gimma ungerime hypan. Se bisceop a underfeng a madmas, and bebead his preostum and eallum am folce, t h heora lc geoffrodon binnon am temple e ws to wurmynte re eadigan Marian gehalgod, and het h r-binnon andbidigan mid reora daga fstene, t se lmihtiga Wealdend, urh his moder ingrdene towurpe s unrihtwisan caseres andgit. a on re riddan nihte s fstenes geseah se bisceop micel heofenlic werod on lce healfe s temples, and on middan am werode st seo heofenlice cwn Maria, and cw to hire tstandendum, "Gelngia me one martyr Mercurium, t he gewende wi s arleasan wiersacan Iulianes, and hine acwelle, see mid toundenum mode God minne Sunu forsih." Se halga cyere Mercurius gewǽpnod hrdlice {452}cm, and be hyre hse ferde. a eode se bisceop into re ore cyrcan, r se martyr inne lig, and befrn one cyrcweard hwr s halgan wpnu wron? He swr t h on fnunge t his heafde witodlice h gesawe. And he rrihte wende to Sca Marian temple, and am folce gecydde his gesihe, and s wlhreowan forwyrd. a eode h eft ongean to s halgan martyres byrgenne, and funde his spere standan mid blode begleddod.

Hereupon Basilius made known to his fellow-citizens the cruel emperor's threat, and was a most excellent counsellor to them, thus saying, "My brothers, bring your treasures, and let us endeavour, if we can, to gladden the cruel apostate on his return." They then with glad mind brought to him of gold, and silver, and precious gems an immense heap. Thereupon the bishop received the treasures, and commanded his priests and all the people to offer their gifts within the temple that was hallowed to the honour of the blessed Mary, and bade them therein abide, with a fast of three days, that the Almighty Ruler, through his mother's intercession, might turn to naught the resolve of the unrighteous emperor. Then on the third night of the fast the bishop saw a great heavenly host on each side of the temple, and in the midst of the host sat the heavenly queen Mary, and said to her attendants, "Bring to me the martyr Mercurius, that he may go against the impious apostate Julian, and slay him, who with inflated mind despises God my Son." The holy martyr Mercurius {453}came armed speedily, and went by her command. The bishop then went into the other church, in which the martyr lay, and asked the churchward, where the weapons of the saint were? He swore that he certainly saw them at his head in the evening. And he straightways returned to St. Mary's temple, and made known to the people what he had seen, and the destruction of the tyrant. He then went again to the holy martyr's sepulchre, and found his spear standing stained with blood.

a fter rim dagum com n s caseres egna, Libanius hatte, and gesohte s bisceopes ft, fulluhtes biddende, and cydde him and ealre re buruhware s arleasan Iulianes dea: cw t seo fyrd wcode wi a ea Eufraten, and seofon weard-setl wacodon ofer one casere. a com r stppende sum uncu cempa, and hine hetelice urhyde, and rrihte of hyra gesihum fordwn; and Iulianus a mid anrcum hreame forswealt. Swa wear seo burhwaru ahred urh Sca Marian wi one Godes wiersacan. a bead se bisceop am ceastergewarum hyra sceattas, ac hi cwdon t hi uon ra laca am undeadlican Cyninge, e hi swa mihtelice generede, micele bet onne am deadlican cwellere. Se bisceop eah nydde t folc t hi one riddan dl s feos underfengon, and he mid am twam dlum t mynster gegdode.

Then after three days came one of the emperor's officers called Libanius, and sought the bishop's feet, praying for baptism, and informed him and all the citizens of the death of the impious Julian: he said that the army was encamped on the river Euphrates, and seven watches watched over the emperor. Then came there walking an unknown warrior, and violently pierced him through, and straightways vanished from their sight; and Julian then with a horrible cry expired. So were the citizens saved through St. Mary from the adversary of God. Then the bishop offered their treasures to the citizens, but they said, that they would give those gifts to the Immortal King, who had so powerfully saved them, much rather than to the mortal murderer. The bishop, nevertheless, compelled the people to receive a third part of the money, and with the two parts endowed the monastery.

Gif hw smeage hu is gewurde, onne secge we, t es martyr his lf adreah on lwedum hade; a wear he urh henra manna ehtnysse for Cristes geleafan gemartyrod; and cristene men syan his halgan lichaman binnon am temple wurfullice gelgedon, and his wpna samod. Eft, aa seo halige cwn hine asende, swa swa we n hwene ǽr sdon, a ferde his gast swyftlice, and mid lichamlicum wpne one Godes feond ofstng, his weard-setlum onlocigendum.

If any one ask how this happened, we say, that this martyr had spent his life in a lay condition, when, through the persecution of heathen men, for belief in Christ, he was martyred; and christian men afterwards honourably deposited his holy body within the temple, together with his weapons. Afterwards, when the holy queen sent him, as we have said a little before, his spirit swiftly went, and with a bodily weapon stabbed the foe of God, while his guards were looking on.

Mine gebrora a leofostan, uton clypigan mid singalum benum to re halgan Godes meder, t heo s on urum {454}nydearfnyssum to hire Bearne geingige. Hit is swie geleaflic t he hyre miceles inges tiian wylle, see hine sylfne gemedemode t he urh h, for middangeardes alysednysse, to menniscum men acenned wurde, see fre is God butan anginne, and nu urhwuna, on anum hade, so man and so God, on ecnysse. Swa swa gehwilc man wuna on sawle and on lichaman n mann, swa is Crist, God and mann, n Hlend, see leofa and rixa mid Fder and Halgum Gaste on ealra worulda woruld. Amen.

My dearest brothers, let us call with constant prayers to the holy mother of God, that she may intercede for us in {455}our necessities with her Son. It is very credible that he will grant much to her, who vouchsafed through her to be born a human being for the redemption of the world, who is ever God without beginning, and now exists, in one person, true man and true God, ever to eternity. So as every man exists in soul and body one man, so is Christ, God and man, one Saviour, who liveth and reigneth with the Father and the Holy Ghost for ever and ever. Amen.





Wyrd-writeras secga t ry leodscipas sind gehtene India. Seo forme India li to ra Silhearwena rice, seo oer li to Medas, seo ridde to am micclum garsecge; eos ridde India hf on anre sidan eostru, and on oere one grimlican garsecg. To yssere becm Godes apostol Bartholomeus, and eode into am temple to am deofolgylde Astaro, and swa swa leodig r wunade. On am deofolgylde wunade swilc deofol e to mannum urh a anlicnysse sprc, and gehlde untruman, blinde and healte, a e he sylf ǽr awyrde. He derode manna gesihum, and heora lichaman mid mislicum untrumnyssum awyrde, and andwyrde him urh a anlicnysse, t hi him heora lc offrian sceoldon, and he hi gehlde; ac he him ne heolp mid nanre hle, ac aa hi to him bugon, a geswac he re lichamlican gedreccednysse, foran e he ahte a heora sawla. a wendon dysige men t he h gehlde, aa he re dreccednysse geswac.

Historians say that there are three nations called India. The first India lies towards the Ethiopians' realm, the second lies towards the Medes, the third on the great ocean; this third India has on one side darkness, and on the other the grim ocean. To this came the apostle of God Bartholomew, and went into the temple to the idol Ashtaroth, and as a stranger there remained. In the idol dwelt a devil such that he spake to men through the image, and healed the sick, the blind and the halt, whom he had himself previously afflicted. He injured men's sight, and afflicted their bodies with divers diseases, and answered them through the image, that they should offer to him their gifts, and he would heal them; but he helped them not with any healing, but when they bowed to him, he ceased from the bodily affliction, for he then possessed their souls. Then foolish men thought that he healed them, when he ceased from afflicting them.

a mid am e se apostol into am temple eode, a adumbode se deofol Astaro, and ne mihte nanum ra e h {456}awyrde gehelpan, for s halgan Godes egnes neawiste. a lagon r binnan am temple fela adligra manna, and dghwomlice am deofolgylde offrodon; ac aa h gesawon t he heora helpan ne mihte, ne nanum andwyrdan, a ferdon h to gehendre byrig, r r oer deofol ws gewurod, s nama ws Beri, and him offrodon, and befrunon, hwi heora god him andwyrdan ne mihte? Se deofol a Beri andwyrde, and cw, "Eower god is swa fste mid isenum racenteagum gewrien t he ne gedyrstlc t he furon orige oe sprece syan se Godes apostol Bartholomeus binnan t tempel becom." H axodon, "Hwt is se Bartholomeus?" Se deofol andwyrde, "He is freond s lmihtigan Godes, and i he com to yssere scire t he aidlige ealle a hengyld e as Indiscan wuria." H cwdon, "Sege us his nebwlite, t we hine oncnawan magon." Beri him andwyrde, "He is blcfexede and cyrps, hwit on lichaman, and he hf steape eagan, and medemlice nosu, and side beardas, hwon hrwencge, medemne wstm, and is ymbscryd mid hwitum oferslype, and binnan six and twentig geara fce: ns his reaf hrig ne tosigen, ne his scos forwerode. Hund sion he big his cneowa on dge, and hund sion on nihte, biddende his Drihten. His stemn is swylce ormte byme, and him fara mid Godes englas, e ne geafia t him hunger derige, oe nig ateorung. fre he bi anes modes, and gld urhwuna. Ealle ing he foresceawa and wt, and ealra eoda gereord he cann. Nu iu he wt hwt ic sprece be him, foran e Godes englas him eowia, and ealle ing cya. onne ge hine seca, gif he sylf wyle, ge hine gemeta; gif he nele, solice ne finde ge hine. Ic bidde eow t ge hine geornlice biddon t he hider ne gewende, els e Godes englas e him mid synd me gebeodon t hi minum geferan Astaro gebudon." And se deofol mid isum wordum suwode.

When the apostle went into the temple, the devil Ashtaroth became dumb, and could not help any of those whom he had {457}afflicted, for the presence of the holy servant of God. There lay there within the temple many sick men, and offered daily to the idol; but when they saw that he could not help them, nor answer any one, they went to a neighbouring city, where another devil was worshiped, whose name was Berith, and offered to him, and asked, why their god could not answer them? The devil Berith then answered, and said, "Your god is so fast bound with iron chains, that he dares not even breathe or speak since God's apostle Bartholomew came within the temple." They asked, "Who is Bartholomew?" The devil answered, "He is a friend of the Almighty God, and he is come to this province that he may render vain all the idols which these Indians worship." They said, "Describe to us his countenance, that we may know him." Berith answered them, "He has fair and curling locks, is white of body, and has deep eyes and moderate sized nose, and ample beard, somewhat hoary, a middling stature, and is clad in a white upper garment, and is within six and twenty years old: his raiment is not dirty nor threadbare, nor are his shoes worn out. A hundred times he bows his knees by day, and a hundred times by night, praying to his Lord. His voice is as an immense trumpet, and God's angels go with him, who allow not hunger to hurt him, nor any faintness. He is ever of one mind, and continues glad. All things he foresees and knows, and he understands the tongues of all nations. Now long ago he knows what I am saying of him, for God's angels minister and make known all things to him. When ye seek him, if he himself will, ye will find him; if he will not, verily ye will find him not. I pray you that ye earnestly beseech him not to come hither, lest God's angels who are with him command to me what they have commanded to my companion Ashtaroth." And with these words the devil was silent.

Hi gecyrdon ongean, and sceawodon lces leodiges mannes andwlitan and gyrlan, and hi nateshwon, binnan {458}twegra daga fce, hine ne gemetton. a betwux isum hrymde sum wd mann urh deofles gast, and cw, "Eala u Godes apostol, Bartholomee, ine gebedu geancsumia me, and ontenda." Se apostol a cw, "Adumba, u unclna deofol, and gewit of am menn." And rrihte wear se mann geclnsod fram am fulan gaste, and gewittiglice sprc, see for manegum gearum awedde.

They turned back, and beheld the countenance and garments of every man, and, during a space of two days, they {459}did not find him. Then in the meanwhile some madman cried through the devil's spirit, and said, "O thou apostle of God, Bartholomew, thy prayers torment and exasperate me." The apostle then said, "Be dumb, thou unclean devil, and depart from the man." And straightways the man was cleansed from the foul spirit, and spake rationally, who had been mad for many years.

a geaxode se cyning Polimius be am witseocum menn, hu se apostol hine fram re wdnysse ahredde, and het hine to him gelangian, and cw, "Min dohtor is hreowlice awed: nu bidde ic e t u h on gewitte gebringe, swa swa u dydest Seustium, see for manegum gearum mid egeslicere wdnysse gedreht ws." aa se apostol t mden geseah mid heardum racenteagum gebunden, foran e heo bt and totr lcne e heo gercan mihte, and hire nan man genealcan ne dorste, a het se apostol h unbindan. a enas him andwyrdon, "Hwa dearr hi hreppan?" Bartholomeus andwyrde, "Ic hbbe gebunden one feond e hi drehte, and ge gt hi ondrda. Ga to and unbinda hi, and gereordiga, and on rne merigen lǽda h to me." Hi a dydon be s apostoles hse, and se awyrigeda gast ne mihte na leng hi dreccan.

Then the king Polymius heard of the maniac, how the apostle had saved him from that madness, and he commanded him to be fetched to him, and said, "My daughter is cruelly frantic: now I beseech thee to bring her to her wits, as thou didst Seustius, who for many years had been afflicted with dreadful madness." When the apostle saw the maiden bound with hard chains (because she bit and tore everyone whom she could reach, and no man durst approach her), he ordered her to be unbound. The servants answered him, "Who dares to touch her?" Bartholomew answered, "I have bound the fiend that tormented her, and ye yet fear her. Go to and unbind her, and give her to eat, and to-morrow early lead her to me." They did then as the apostle ordered, and the accursed spirit could no longer torment her.

a s on merigen se cyning Polimius gesymde gold, and seolfor, and deorwure gymmas, and pllene gyrlan uppan olfendas, and sohte one apostol, ac he hine nateshwon ne gemette. Eft s on merigen com se apostol into s cyninges bure, beclysedre dura, and hine befrn, "Hwi sohtest u me mid golde, and mid seolfre, and mid deorwurum gymmum and gyrlum? as lc behofia a e eorlice welan seca; ic solice nanes eorlices gestreones, ne flsclices lustes ne gewilnige; ac ic wille t u wite t s lmihtigan Godes Sunu gemedemode hine sylfne t h urh mdenlicne inno acenned wear, see geworhte heofonas and eoran and ealle gesceafta; and he hfde anginn on re menniscnysse, see nfre ne ongann on {460}godcundnysse, ac he sylf is anginn, and eallum gesceaftum, ger ge gesewenlicum ge ungesewenlicum, anginn forgeaf. t mden e hine gebr forhogode lces weres gemanan, and am lmihtigan Gode hire mghad behet. Hire com to Godes heah-engel Gabriel, and hire cydde s heofonlican elinges to-cyme on hire inno, and heo his wordum gelyfde, and swa mid am cilde wear."

Then on the morrow the king Polymius loaded gold, and silver, and precious gems, and purple garments upon camels, and sought the apostle, but he found him not. On the morrow the apostle came into the king's bower, the door being closed, and asked him, "Why soughtest thou me with gold, and with silver, and with precious gems, and garments? These gifts those require who seek earthly wealth; but I desire no earthly treasure, nor fleshly pleasure; but I wish thee to know that the Son of Almighty God vouchsafed to be born of a maidenly womb, who wrought heaven and earth and all creatures; and he had beginning in humanity who never began in his divine nature, for he is himself beginning, {461}and to all creatures, both visible and invisible, gave beginning. The maiden who bare him despised every man's fellowship, and to the Almighty God promised her maidenhood. To her came God's archangel, Gabriel, and announced to her the advent of the Heavenly Prince into her womb, and she believed his words, and so was with child."

Se apostol a am cyninge bodade ealne cristendom, and middangeardes alysednysse urh s Hlendes to-cyme, and hu he one hellican deofol gewylde, and him mancynnes benmde, and cw, "Drihten Crist, see urh his unscyldigan dea one deofol oferswide, sende us geond ealle eoda, t we todrfdon deofles enas, a e on anlicnyssum wunia, and t we a henan e hi wuria of heora anwealde tbrudon. Ac we ne underfo gold ne seolfor, ac forseo, swa swa Crist forseah; foran e we gewilnia t we rice beon on his rice, on am nf adl, ne untrumnyss, ne unrotnyss, ne dea, nnne stede, ac r is ece gesl and eadignys, gefea butan ende mid ecum welum. Fori ic ferde to eowerum temple, and se deofol e eow urh a anlicnysse geandwyrde, urh Godes englas e me sende, is gehft. And gif u to fulluhte gebihst, ic do t u one deofol gesihst, and gehyrst mid hwilcum crfte he is geuht t he untrumnysse gehle. Se awyrigeda deofol, sian he one frumsceapenan mann beswc, syan he hfde anweald on ungelyfedum mannum, on sumum maran, on sumum lssan: on am maran e swior synga, on am lssan e hwonlicor synga. Nu de se deofol mid his lotwrencum t a earman men geuntrumia, and tiht h t h sceolon gelyfan on deofolgyld: onne geswic he re gedreccednysse, and hf heora sawla on his anwealde; onne h cwea to re deofollican anlicnysse, u eart min god. Ac es deofol, e binnan eowrum temple ws, is gebunden, and ne mg nateshwn andwyrdan am e him to gebidda. Gif u wylt afandian t ic so secge, ic hate hine faran into re {462}anlicnysse, and ic do t he andet is ylce, t he is gewrien, and nane andsware syllan ne mg."

The apostle then preached to the king all christianity, and the redemption of the world through the advent of Jesus, and how he overcame the hellish devil, and deprived him of mankind, and said, "The Lord Christ, who through his innocent death overpowered the devil, has sent us among all nations, to drive away the devil's ministers, who dwell in images, and to withdraw the heathen who worship them from their power. But we receive not gold nor silver, but despise, as Christ despised them; for we desire to be rich in his kingdom, in which neither sickness, nor infirmity, nor sadness, nor death, has any place, but there is eternal happiness and bliss, joy without end with eternal riches. Therefore came I to your temple, and the devil, who answered you through the image, is made captive by the angels of God who sent me. And if thou consentest to be baptized, I will cause thee to see the devil, and to hear by what craft he appears to heal sickness. The accursed devil, after that he had deceived the first-created man, had power over unbelieving men, over some greater, over some less: on those greater who sin more, on those less who sin in less degree. Now the devil by his wiles causes miserable men to fall sick, and instigates them to believe in an idol: then ceases he from afflicting them, and has their souls in his power; then they say to the image, Thou art my god. But the devil, which was within your temple, is bound, and cannot answer those who pray to him. If thou wilt prove whether I speak truth, I will command {463}him to go into the image, and I will make him confess the same, that he is bound and can give no answer."

a andwyrde se cyning, "Nu to-merigen hf is folc gemynt t h heora lc him offrion, onne cume ic rto, t ic geseo as wunderlican dda." Witodlice on am orum dge com se cyning mid re burhware to am temple, and a hrymde se deofol mid egeslicere stemne urh a anlicnysse, and cw, "Geswica, earme, geswica eowra offrunga, els e ge wyrsan pinunge rowion onne ic. Ic eom gebunden mid fyrenum racenteagum fram Cristes englum, one e a Iudeiscan on rde ahngon: wendon t se dea hine gehftan mihte; he solice one dea oferswyde, and urne ealdor mid fyrenum bendum gewra, and on am riddan dge sigefst ars, and sealde his rode-tcen his apostolum, and tosende h geond ealle eoda. An ra is her, e me gebundenne hylt. Ic bidde eow t ge me to him geingion, t ic mote faran to sumere ore scire."

Then the king answered, "Now to-morrow this folk has designed to offer him their gifts, then will I come thereto, that I may see these wonderful deeds." So on the second day the king with the citizens came to the temple, and then the devil cried with terrific voice through the image, and said, "Cease, ye miserable, cease your offerings, lest ye suffer worse torment than I. I am bound with fiery chains by the angels of Christ, whom the Jews hanged on a cross: they thought that death might hold him captive; but he overcame death, and bound our prince with fiery chains, and on the third day arose victorious, and gave his rood-sign to his apostles, and sent them among all nations. One of them is here, who holds me bound. I pray you that ye intercede for me to him, that I may go to some other province."

a cw se apostol Bartholomeus, "u unclna deofol, andette hw awyrde as untruman menn." Se unclna gast andwyrde, "Ure ealdor, swa gebunden swa he is, sent us to mancynne, t we h mid mislicum untrumnyssum awyrdon; rest heora lichaman, foran e we nabba nnne anweald on heora sawlum, buton hi heora lc us geoffrion. Ac onne h for heora lichaman hle us offria, onne geswice we s lichaman gedreccednysse, foran e we habba syan heora sawla on urum gewealde. onne bi geuht swilce we hi gehlon, onne we geswica ra awyrdnyssa. And menn us wuria for godas, onne we solice deoflu sind, s ealdres gingran e Crist s mdenes Sunu gewra. Fram am dge e his apostol Bartholomeus hider com, ic eom mid byrnendum racenteagum earle fornumen, and fori ic sprece e he me het; elles ic ne dorste on his andwerdnysse sprecan, ne furon ure ealdor."

Then said the apostle Bartholomew, "Thou unclean devil, confess who has afflicted these sick men." The unclean spirit answered, "Our prince, bound as he now is, sent us to mankind, that we might afflict them with divers infirmities; first their bodies, for we have no power over their souls, unless they offer us their gifts. But when they for their bodies' health offer to us, then cease we from afflicting the body, for we have then their souls in our power. Then it seems as though we heal them, when we cease from those afflictions. And men worship us for gods, while we truly are devils, disciples of the chief whom Christ, the maiden's Son, has bound. From the day on which his apostle Bartholomew came hither, I am grievously tormented with burning chains, and therefore I speak what he has commanded me; else I durst not speak in his presence, nor even our chief."

a cw se apostol, "Hwi nelt u gehlan as untruman, swa swa in gewuna ws?" Se sceocca andwyrde, "onne {464}we manna lichaman deriga, buton we re sawle derian magon, a lichaman urhwunia on heora awyrdnysse." Bartholomeus cw, "And h becume ge to re sawle awyrdnysse?" Se deofol andwyrde, "onne h gelyfa t we godas sind, and us offria, onne forlǽt se lmihtiga God h, and we onne forlǽta one lichaman ungebrocodne, and cepa re sawle e s to gebeah, and heo onne on ure anwealde bi."

Then said the apostle, "Why wilt thou not heal the sick, as thy custom was?" The devil answered, "When we injure {465}the bodies of men, unless we can injure the soul, the bodies continue in their affliction." Bartholomew said, "And how come ye to the affliction of the soul?" The devil answered, "When they believe that we are gods, and offer to us, then the Almighty God forsakes them, and we then leave the body undiseased, and attend to the soul that has bowed to us, and which is then in our power."

a cw se apostol to eallum am folce, "Efne nu ge habba gehyred hwilc es god is e ge wendon t eow gehlde; ac gehyra nu one soan God, eowerne Scyppend, e on heofonum earda; and ne gelyfe ge heonon-for on idele anlicnyssa: and gif ge willa t ic eow to Gode geingige, and t as untruman hle underfon, towurpa onne as anlicnysse, and tobreca. Gif ge is do, onne halgige ic is tempel on Cristes naman, and eow r on-innan mid his fulluhte fram eallum synnum awea." a het se cyning a anlicnysse towurpan. Hwt t folc a caflice mid rapum hi bewurpon, and mid stengum awegdon; ac hi ne mihton for am deofle a anlicnysse styrian.

Then said the apostle to all the people, "Lo, now ye have heard what sort of god this is that ye thought healed you; but hear now the true God your Creator, who dwells in heaven; and believe not henceforth in vain images: and if ye will that I intercede for you with God, and that these sick receive health, overthrow and break this image. If this ye do, then will I hallow this temple in the name of Christ, and therein wash you with his baptism from all sins." The king then commanded the image to be cast down. The people then promptly cast ropes about it, and plied it with poles, but they could not, for the devil, stir the image.

a het se apostol tolysan a rapas, and cw to am awyrgedan gaste e hire on sticode, "Gyf u wylle t ic e on niwelnysse ne asende, gewit of yssere anlicnysse, and tobrec h, and far to westene, r nan fugel ne flyh, ne yrling ne era, ne mannes stemn ne sweg." He rrihte t-gewt, and sticmlum tobrc a anlicnysse, and ealle a grftas binnon am temple tobrytte. t folc a mid anre stemne clypode, "An lmihtig God is, one e Bartholomeus boda." Se apostol a astrehte his handa wi heofonas weard, us biddende, "u lmihtiga God, on am e Abraham gelyfde, and Isaac, and Iacob; u e asendest inne ancennedan Sunu, t he us alysde mid his deorwuran blode fram deofles eowdome, and hf us geworht e to bearnum; u eart unacenned Fder, he is Sunu of e fre acenned, and se Halga Gast is fre forstppende of e and of inum {466}Bearne, se forgeaf us on his naman as mihte, t we untrume gehlon, and blinde onlihton, hreoflige geclnsian deoflu aflian, deade arran, and cw to s, So ic eow secge, Swa hwt swa ge bidda on minum naman t minum Fder, hit bi eow getiod. Nu bidde ic on his naman t eos untrume menigu sy gehled, t hi ealle oncnawon t u eart ana God on heofonan, and on eoran, and on sǽ, u e hle ge-edstaelast urh one ylcan urne Drihten, see mid e and mid am Halgan Gaste leofa and rixa on ealra worulda woruld." Mid am e h andwyrdon, "Amen," a wear eall seo untrume menigu gehled: and r com a fleogende Godes engel scinende swa swa sunne, and fleah geond a feower hwemmas s temples, and agrof mid his fingre rode-tacn on am fyerscytum stnum, and cw, "Se God e me sende cw, t swa swa as untruman synd gehlede fram eallum coum, swa he geclnsode is templ fram s deofles fulnyssum, one e se apostol het to westene gewitan. And God bebead me t ic one deofol eowrum gesihum r teowige. Ne beo ge afyrhte urh his gesihe, ac mearcia rode-tacen on eowrum foreheafdum, and lc yfel gewit fram eow."

Then the apostle commanded the ropes to be loosed, and said to the accursed spirit which staid in it, "If thou wilt that I send thee not into the abyss, depart from this image, and break it, and go to the waste, where no bird flies, nor husbandman ploughs, nor voice of man sounds." He forthwith came out, and brake the image piecemeal, and crushed all the carvings within the temple. The people then with one voice cried, "There is one Almighty God, whom Bartholomew preaches." The apostle then stretched out his hand towards heaven, thus praying, "Thou Almighty God, in whom Abraham believed, and Isaac, and Jacob; thou who hast sent thine only begotten Son, that he might redeem us with his precious blood from the devil's thraldom, and hath made us to be thy children; thou art the unbegotten Father, he is the Son ever of thee begotten, and the Holy Ghost is {467}ever proceeding from thee and thy Son, who hath given us in hi