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Title: The Influence of the Organ in History
       Inaugural Lecture of the Department of the Organ in the
              College of Music of Boston University

Author: Dudley Buck

Release Date: October 18, 2011 [EBook #37786]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


Produced by Chris Curnow, Hunter Monroe, Joseph Cooper and
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Inaugural Lecture of the Department of the Organ in the College of Music of Boston University




New Edition, with Illustrations.

Office of "The Musical Standard."


I.—Pneumatic-Organ from a MS. Psalter of Eadwine in the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge (Frontispiece).
II.—Peruvian Pan's Pipes, Double Set. From a Tomb in Africa 10
III.—Early Form of the Regals. From Lucinius' Musurgia, sen Praxis Musicæ, 1536 19
IV.—From Gori's Thesaurus Diptychorum. Said to be from an Ancient MS. of the Time of Charlemagne 22
V.—A Positive Organ. From Ambrosius Wilphlingseder's Erotemata, Musices Praticae, Nuremberg, 1563 31
VI.—A Curious Engraving showing an Organist Performing upon an Instrument with Broad Keys. From Franchinus Gaffurius' Theorica Musica, 1492 34
VII.—The Ancient Mode of Organ Blowing. From Praetorius' Theatrum Instrumentorum, 1620 46
VIII.—Terra-Cotta Model of Hydraulic Organ. Cir. 150 a.d. Carthage Museum. From Hermann Smith's "The Making of Sound in the Organ and in the Orchestra" 47
IX.—Rev. F. W. Galpin's Working Reproduction of the Roman Hydraulus. From Hermann Smith's "The Making of Sound in the Organ and in the Orchestra" 48



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Ladies and Gentlemen:—

It having become my duty to deliver this, the inaugural lecture of the organ department attached to this institution, I have found myself considerably embarrassed as to choice of subjects.

The trouble lay in the quantity of material at hand, and not in any lack of it.

The history of the Organ runs back so far into the centuries, that no matter what point one might select for examination, it can scarcely be brought into the scope of a lecture except in a very empty and skeleton form. You will bear with me, then, for the superficial manner in which I shall be forced to treat many important points. As many of those present do not propose to make a study of the organ, I shall avoid[Pg 12] treating of the instrument itself in any technical sense, and would offer a few thoughts on the subject of

The Influence Of the Organ in History,

with a glance at the "schools of playing" thus created.

The Organ is called the "king of instruments."

This phrase has been used so often that it has become decidedly well worn and trite. None the less, however, is the expression full of significance; and to what an extent (especially in a historical sense) is known to but comparatively few persons, among whom I fear far too few organists would be found.

To bring up some of these neglected facts; to examine them in their historical and theoretical bearing, as well as in practice; to thus create a greater love for and appreciation of the instrument on the part of its students,—to do this, I say, is, if I apprehend it aright, one of the principal objects which the Boston University has had in view in founding this department.

The organ, then, is called the "king of instruments."

If we look at the phrase a little closer, it will be perceived that the simile is a striking one. A king, in the so-called "good old times of yore," if he were a man of any force of character, generally possessed, along with the divine right theoretical, any quantity of the human power practical. The day of more or less ornamental constitutional figure-heads had not yet arrived.

In other words, the live kings of the past, of the feudal time, moulded to their own tastes and characters their age, their people, or only their court, according to the innate ability they might possess. In turn they were themselves affected, to a degree, by their surround[Pg 13]ings, but to a far lesser extent than is the case at this day, the balance of influence remaining largely in their favour.

I will endeavour to show that among musical instruments this "kingship," as regards the organ, held good in a parallel way,—that by its own nature as to construction, by its very faults and weaknesses, by the mission it was called upon to fulfil, it did, in very fact, long reign supreme as king of instruments.

Absolute power, as represented by a monarch, became narrowed down, in the lapse of centuries, by external forces working out their own independence, thus checking and limiting this absolutism. Here, too, I will endeavour to draw a parallel, and show that as years rolled on, the influence of the organ upon music in the abstract diminished. The process became inverted, and music began to affect the organ, rather than the organ it. To this we owe the vast improvements in the construction of the instrument, the many additions of new qualities of tone, and numberless new inventions of value still going on in our day, with a rapidity difficult to keep pace with. To fairly appreciate this past or present relation of things, it becomes necessary to take a hasty and necessarily superficial glance backward at the origin of the organ,—its invention and development.

All writers attribute the origin of the organ to that simplest as well as most ancient of musical instruments, called by the Greeks the "pipes of Pan,"—Pan, in the ancient mythology, being the god of the woods and groves. It consisted of a few hollow reeds of various lengths, securely bound together, and blown by the lips. We still occasionally see and hear this instrument in our streets, performed upon by those nomadic "sons of art," the organ-grinders. The per[Pg 14]former being obliged to move his head continually from side to side, an unpleasant and fatiguing operation, soon led to an attempt to blow these tubes artificially. From this resulted the placing of the pipes upon a small wind-chest, and the addition of a primitive bellows, the whole being easily carried and operated by one performer. Of particular value in the establishment of this historical fact was the discovery, in Syria, among some ancient ruins, of a sculptured figure playing on such an instrument. Although much mutilated, all the more important parts were still intact. This interesting relic was brought to England about the year 1853.

It should be mentioned here, that the word "organ," not unfrequently found in the Bible, should not be supposed to refer to any such instrument as the name would suggest to our minds. Both with the Greeks and Romans the term translated "organ" simply meant an "instrument,"—and that of any kind, but with usage apparently favouring its application to musical instruments.

Upon the application of the bellows to supply wind, instead of the human lungs, the fingers were used to stop the pipes, and thus prevent their sounding all at once, which it is evident they would have done, standing on a simple wind-chest, which was filled by the bellows. As the number of pipes was gradually increased, the difficulty of managing them by hand of course became greater and greater. This in time led to the invention of the pallet, or valve, to control the admission of wind to each pipe, and by the close of the eleventh century we find it chronicled that there existed at Magdeburg an organ with a key-board comprising sixteen keys. From this time the name of the[Pg 15] instrument begins to correspond with our modern idea of the same; its invention was a realized fact, although but a germ of that development which has since raised organ-building to its artistic importance. It must be borne in mind that the pedal organ, with its keys for the feet, was a much later invention. Meantime, the first keys made use of measured from three to five inches and a half wide. Consequently, the title of the performer on this instrument, in the eleventh century, was not that of organ-player, but organ-beater, the keys being struck by the fist, which was protected by a heavy glove. There was, it must be remembered, but one rank of pipes, and these could seldom, if ever, have been in tune, from the fact that they had no means of regulating the wind pressure; while in organs of later date, and at the present day, an even wind is secured principally by weights placed upon the bellows, and the creation of a reservoir of compressed air. At this early time the wind supply was furnished by the common bellows as used by blacksmiths. Thus the supply and consequent pressure of the wind would necessarily be in direct proportion to the muscle or activity of the blowers.

While the various discoveries and improvements in organs of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries were slowly progressing, almost the only vocal music the world knew were the Gregorian tones, or plain song of the Early Church. Harmony was entirely unknown, and indeed remained so for many a long year in anything like our modern significance. It is not my purpose here to enter into even a partial examination of the parallel progress of melody and harmony at this age of the world. You have already heard it treated by an abler pen than mine; nor does it properly belong to this department, except in so far as it becomes necessary to[Pg 16] note any decided influence exerted by the one upon the other. This influence, as exerted by the organ upon Church music, did not begin as early as might be supposed. Rimbault, in his work on the "History of the Organ" (which I shall have occasion frequently to quote), states that "even in the thirteenth century, the priests of both the Greek and Roman Churches thought the use of organs in divine service scandalous and profane. They preferred rendering divine worship as simple as possible, in order to distinguish it from that of the Jews and Pagans. Even to this day the Greek Church does not tolerate the use of organs in their public services. Notwithstanding these opinions, the use of organs, and even other instruments, gradually became almost universal, not only in great churches, but in those of monasteries, convents, and small towns. The historians of this era celebrate several monks distinguished for the art of playing on the organ. For some time, however, organs were not used in the ordinary celebration of the offices, but only on great feasts and solemn occasions. These first monastic and conventual organs were very small, being only used to play the melody of the plain song in unison with the voices."

In spite of the disrepute into which the whole monastic system fell, there is no question but that the monks and friars were the great conservators and preservers of all the fine arts, and even mechanics, during the troubled times of the Middle Ages. As the prejudice against the employment of instrumental music in the church services began to disappear, nothing was more natural than that the monks, having both the leisure and pecuniary means, and containing among their number the best educated men of the day, should turn[Pg 17] their attention to organ-building, animated by the same spirit which led them to decorate and ornament their churches and monasteries. Thus we find that it is to them we owe the improvement of the hitherto clumsy key-board, extending its compass both upward and downward to the extent of some three octaves, and so reduced both fall and breadth of the keys that they could be pressed down by the fingers, instead of struck by the fist; certainly no small improvement. The first organ possessing keys to give the chromatic tones or semitones was built by a priest—Nicholas Faber by name—about 1360.

It now behoves us to glance for a moment at the influence which the organ already began to exert upon music, or the art composition, and to show how the instrument became to show proofs of that right to the title, "king of instruments," in the sense I have adopted. It must be kept in mind that the veriest twilight dawn of the knowledge of harmony had scarcely begun. Yet what can be conceived more natural, than that the organist of that day, even, should stumble on the fact that different tones in conjunction were more agreeable to the ear than the bare unison, which was at first the only accompaniment of the choral song? This being noted, the next logical step was to try and produce the same approved effect with the voices themselves. In the "History of the Modern Music of Western Europe," by Kiesewetter, the following passage occurs. He is not speaking of the organ, but of the origin and development of the science of harmony.

He says: "The union of different human voices which now occurred to their thoughts (the early harmonists), was an imitation not altogether happy, per[Pg 18]haps, of that which in various instances they had discovered with the organ!" Here the fact that the organ was even then beginning to assert itself, to mould the minds of the early writers, in fact, to claim its royal dues, is pretty conclusively shown.

Time would altogether fail me in the scope that this lecture must necessarily occupy, to trace down this influence, once established, through the long cycle of years that followed; the theoretic science and practical application keeping pace with the mechanical development, until it found its full culmination and glory in the new-born science of Counterpoint. This science, which has given polish to the mightiest thoughts of the greatest masters of our art (and in totally different departments than mere organ-playing),—a science, without a satisfactory knowledge of which no man can call himself a thoroughly educated musician,—sprang from just this source.

How often we hear the remark that contrapuntal treatment is best suited to the organ! True; but how many reflect that the organ, so to speak, first dictated counterpoint to the world? An influence, which (the free forms being derived from the stricter) is carried clear down into the realm of Italian opera, i.e., when it is good of its kind. Is not, then, this influence, which the organ has indisputably exerted upon not merely its own literature, but the musical literature at large, an all-sufficient proof of its right to the royal title? It must be borne in mind that this absolutism, as in matters political (to carry out the simile), was possible at this stage of the world in matters musical, because not even the harpsichord, clavichord, spinet, or any of those presentiments of the modern pianoforte, by whatever name they were called, had as yet made their[Pg 19] appearance. The organ was, for the time, the sole keyed instrument.

In view of these facts, it seems to me that it may be justly claimed that the title "king of instruments" should be based on far nobler and more historic grounds than is usually done, and that we should not content ourselves with explaining this phrase as arising from the circumstances that it is the instrument which can, of its own resources, make the loudest noise!


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The organ nomenclature has, as is the way of the world, changed somewhat from age to age. In accounts of the old English organ, we frequently find this and that church being referred to as possessing a "payre of organs." This has been variously interpreted, some supposing it to refer to organs of two manuals, which explanation seems natural enough; but the best authorities explain it as meaning an organ which possesses more than one rank of pipes, or more than one stop. Rimbault, who takes this view, says the expression is to be regarded as a phrase of nearly obsolete English, and to be taken in the same sense as we still sometimes say "a pair of stairs," instead of a "flight of stairs." One proof of this interpretation that he cites is interesting. During the great Cromwellian rebellion, and the rule of the Roundheads in England, a great many organs were destroyed by the soldiery, who considered them a relic of Popery. At this time, a certain Mr. Pepys, whose diary is still extant, travelled about considerably and interested himself in the organ, as well as some other matters, as will be seen from the following extract from the aforesaid diary. The point to us (although by no means the only one to him) lies[Pg 24] in the fact that he uses the words "the organ" and the "pair of organs" as evidently, synonymous. He writes as follows:—

April 5, 1667. "To Hackney: where good beef tongue, and things to eat and drink, and very merry, the weather being mighty pleasant; and here I was told, that at their church they have a fair PAIR OF ORGANS, which play while the people sing, which I am mighty glad of wishing the like at our church at London, and would give £50 towards it."

April 21, 1667. "To Hackney church, where very full, and found much difficulty to get pews. I offered the sexton money, and he could not help me.... That which I chiefly went to see was the young ladies of the schools, whereof there is great store, very pretty" (you see how history repeats itself); "and ALSO the ORGAN, which is handsome and tunes the psalms, and plays with the people; which is mighty pretty, and makes me mighty earnest to have a pair at our church, I having almost a mind to give them a pair, if they would settle a maintenance on them for it."

Mr. Pepys' heart was evidently in the right place, and the thought of having the church provide a fund for the proper tuning and repair of the organ, not only sensible, but, to quote his own words, "a mighty pretty" idea.

The invention of the pedal key-board, that most important and characteristic part of the organ, seems to have occurred about the beginning of the fourteenth century. There is no reliable account of who first made this addition, it being claimed by various parties. The sixteenth century was the period when the arts of sculpture, painting, and architecture had gained what might[Pg 25] almost be termed a modern artistic polish, in not a few instances, indeed, surpassing all that the moderns have accomplished. The early school of church painters had become modified. Grace and relative refinement had largely taken the place of the early stiffness of design and execution, and in sculpture and architecture were witnessed many of the results which are still the wonder of the world. With this refinement came a taste for luxury and a love of ornament which in the seventeenth and early part of the eighteenth century had extended to and affected organ-building, at least externally.

Seidel, in his work on the organ, gives this excellent account of the tendency referred to:—

"At this time, great industry and expense was bestowed upon the external decoration of the organ. The entire case was ornamented with statues, heads of angels, vases, foliage, and even figures of animals. Sometimes the front pipes were painted with grotesque figures, and the lips of the pipes made to resemble lions' jaws. They went further, and threw away the money, which might have been expended in a worthier manner, on the display of the most tasteless and absurd tricks of art, degrading thereby—doubtless unintentionally—a noble instrument, intended for sacred purposes, into a raree-show. Among these ornaments, the figures of angels played a very conspicuous part; trumpets were placed in their hands, which by means of mechanism could be moved to and from the mouth. Carillons (bells) too, and kettle-drums, were performed upon by the movable arms of angels." (Think of an angel playing upon a kettle-drum!). "In the midst of this heavenly host, sometimes a gigantic angel would be exhibited hovering in a 'glory' over the organ, beating time with his bâton as conductor of this super-earthly orchestra![Pg 26]

"Under such circumstances, the firmament, of course, could not be dispensed with. So we had wandering suns and moons, and jingling stars in motion. Even the animal kingdom was summoned to activity. Cuckoos, nightingales, and every species of bird, singing, or rather chirping, glorified the festival of Christmas, and announced to the assembled congregation the birth of the Redeemer. Eagles flapped their wings, or flew towards an artificial sun. The climax, however, of all these rarities, was the fox-tail. It was intended to frighten away from the organ all such inquisitive persons as had no business near it. Thus, when they pulled out this draw-stop, suddenly a large fox-tail flew into their faces! It is clear that by such absurd practices, curiosity was much rather excited than stopped, and that all this host of moving figures, and their ridiculous jingling, disturbed meditation, excited the curiosity of the congregation, and thus disparaged the sublimity of divine service."

Of course all this nonsense in due time brought its own cure with it. The money expended was diverted towards its worthy and legitimate object, and to-day, in Europe, but few such relics of the past can be found, and those generally in out-of-the-way places. I have myself seen but one organ containing any of these absurdities. That was in a small town of Camin, on the Baltic sea-coast of North Prussia, and I was informed by the old organist (as Seidel says) that these things were reserved for Christmas and Easter!

While the power, compass, and variety of organ tone, as well as the mechanism of the instrument, made steady progress throughout the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the science of harmony in the largest sense kept even pace with it, and, perhaps, received even a[Pg 27] greater relative development. Meantime, the orchestral instruments of the day had received a fair share of improvement. The harpsichord had been invented, and sufficiently perfected to be worthy of the powers of such a master as Sebastian Bach. With the appearance of this great man the art of counterpoint reached its culmination, never surpassed, if even equalled in isolated instances, by any subsequent writer. His organ compositions cover every resource, both in design and execution, possible to the organ of his day; and yet, I do not think it too much to say that, had Bach never written a single organ piece, his claims for recognition as a great composer would remain substantially the same. His greatest works are to be found among his vocal and orchestral writings. Let us examine for a moment the reason for this, and of the influence of the "king of instruments" upon musical composition at this time.

We have seen that contrapuntal treatment, so-called, owed its origin to the nature of the organ. Vocal music, at the time of which we speak, felt the same influence and followed the same form. Now, if we open one of the vocal and orchestral scores of Bach, we shall see that while he gives the instruments more freedom than his predecessors, in consequence of their largely increased powers and the proportional increased ability of the executants of his day, yet the contrapuntal influence is everywhere visible. It was the period of strict form. As we count back such cycles, it was but a relatively short time since music had been "without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep," artistically speaking. Music was a serious matter. They revelled in fugue, and even danced contrapuntally. Although not a direct influence, perhaps,[Pg 28] is not this state of things, after all, a sufficient proof of the absolutism of the organ in a derived manner,—the regal sway of the king of instruments at this period? Bach breathed new life into these dry and purely scientific forms, and it is his greatest glory that in many, if not all, of his profoundest works, his genius enabled him to unite the emotional and æsthetic element with the purely intellectual and scientific.

While the improvement of the organ, as respects both tone, mechanism and general capabilities, continued, and still continues at the present day, it is noteworthy that from the time of Bach, of all others, the influence of the organ upon music at large began to diminish. From this point we have to consider the decline of this influence, showing that music began to emancipate itself, each instrument claiming and receiving its own especial rights and treatment, long before a similar dawn of liberty began in the political world. Two reasons conduced to this change.

First, the requirements of music, which found no prototype in the organ of that day. As the instruments were then built, they possessed but little variety of tone, the swelling or diminishing of which was an impossibility; nor had the organist any mechanical assistance whatever to enable him to vary the combinations of stops.

Second, the invention of the harpsichord. This instrument, the avant-courier of the pianoforte, to which we have already referred, had already become sufficiently popular to make its own peculiar influence felt. This consisted in the power of crescendo and diminuendo according to the force exerted by the player, and a light touch which offered no impediment to rapid execution, besides certain other effects through its characteristic tone impossible upon the organ.[Pg 29]

The light touch of the harpsichord, as compared with the heavy and fatiguing action of the organs of that day, was necessarily a source of great attraction; and the instrument itself, although far from finding a home in every household, as the piano has in our time, yet possessed the merit of being portable.

It was not long before the transition period began,—that period in which musicians and composers tested and decided upon that which was best and most fitting in the treatment of these respective instruments. Nowhere can we find more evident signs of this time of experiment, this gradually leaving old landmarks and seeking a new form of expression, than in the works of Bach himself.

In the "Well-Tempered Clavier" we find preludes and fugues impossible to properly interpret on any other instrument except the piano, placed side by side with those whose real significance can only be developed upon the organ. In a portion of the pieces written especially for the organ, we find, on the other hand, passages which to modern ears are only fit for and tolerable on the piano. The dividing lines of effect, not to say possibility, had not as yet been fully marked out. The organ was no more disposed to give up its long sway, and be narrowed to its own particular sphere, than any other sovereign, when the limiting influences of modern times first began to make themselves felt. Like them, however, it was obliged to yield. Little by little the piano emancipated itself from the strict contrapuntal chain which bound it to the organ, until, in the sonatas of Mozart and Beethoven, it emerged into a new life.

Here it was strengthened by the free contrapuntal treatment it received, like the fruits of early education[Pg 30] showing themselves in new and original forms,—speaking a language founded indeed on the past, but new, fresh, and sparkling; or, when adopting the strict style, taking it up as a matter of choice, but not of compulsion. Such results followed the invention of the harpsichord,—the early piano,—and here we must leave it. It would, however, be an interesting subject to trace this development down to Chopin, Liszt, and the modern Titans of the piano, showing how gradually the mutual treatment of piano and organ disappeared and what was substituted in their place. It could, however, only be satisfactorily done by musical examples.

Meanwhile the orchestra blossomed into a new significance. To us moderns who read its history, or look back into the scores which antedate this time, it does not seem so much a period to be described, as that of progress, as that of a veritable new birth itself, a new creation. And this is, indeed, the fact; for no improvements in ancient instruments, although they took place, nor addition of new ones, can account for the change which now occurred in the orchestra. Here it was the man, not the instrument; and the name of Joseph Haydn will always be quoted as "Father of the Modern Orchestra."

The organ lost nothing of real value to itself by this increased significance of other branches of instrumental music. Its sphere became defined, and in Germany quite limited, as to this day it is but rarely employed there in the way of accompaniment beyond supporting the choral song of the congregation. In France and England it has been different, the organ having been employed to accompany many anthems and other extended pieces of music, which in Germany (at least in the larger cities) would be given with the orchestra.[Pg 31] It should be noticed that to England we owe one great improvement, which, especially for the rôle the organ is called upon to fill in this country, can scarcely be overrated. I refer to the invention of the swell, and the great variety of effects we are enabled to achieve by its means in both accompaniment and solo playing.


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In the London "Spectator" of Feb. 8, 1712, is the following announcement:—

"Whereas, Mr. Abraham Jordan, senior and junior, have, with their own hands, joynery excepted, made and erected a very large organ in St. Magnus' church, at the foot of London bridge, consisting of four sets of keys, one of which is adapted to the art of emitting the sounds by swelling the notes, which was never in any organ before; this instrument will be publicly opened on Sunday next, the performance by Mr. John Robinson. The above said Abraham Jordan gives notice to all masters and performers, that he will attend every day next week at the said church, to accommodate all those gentlemen who shall have a curiosity to hear it."

Very little is known of this Mr. Jordan, except that his invention pleased greatly, and was found of such practical use, that not only were all new organs in England (virtually from this date) furnished with swells, but himself and son found much occupation in adapting and adding their invention to the older London organs. The lack of a swell is the weakest point of the great majority of German organs. Even Dr. Burney, fifty[Pg 36] years after swells had become common in England, expresses, in his famous work entitled The Present State of Music in Germany, the Netherlands and United Provinces, two volumes, also The Present State of Music in France and Italy, his great surprise to find them utterly unknown upon the Continent. His remarks would hold true at the present day with but little modification, as far as Germany is concerned, few instruments outside the larger ones of recent date possessing this great improvement. The reason of this is to be found, partly in the extremely conservative character of their organ-builders, almost a national trait, and still more in the fact that but little use would be found for a swell organ outside solo playing. With us, nearly the reverse is true, the swell being most indispensable in accompanying choirs as here constituted. Notwithstanding this neglect of what seems to us an indispensable addition to the instrument, the glory of the invention and perfection of the organ justly belongs to Germany. Modern organ-building requires the most profound study of the laws both of mechanics and acoustics, and the German mind was constitutionally fitted, by a natural depth and thoroughness of thought, together with the truly artistic quality of patience, to be successful in solving this great problem,—the creation of the most complex instrument known.

France, too, has produced her great organs and organ-builders. If often lacking the sublimity and solidity of tone characteristic of many of the famous German organs, they interest (particularly the American taste) by a greater variety of the so-called "fancy," or solo stops. This difference, too, has grown out of the nature of the duties demanded of the organ and the organist in the service of the Roman Catholic church,[Pg 37] and it is these differences of usage which in process of time, combining with further differences of national taste, led to that varied style and treatment which we denominate "Schools of Playing."

We divide these schools into the German, French, and English.

The first of these, the German school, is especially characterized by the importance given to the use of the pedals, the feet being called upon to execute passages of equal melodic value with that assigned to the fingers. This renders it the school of schools for those who would really attain a mastery of the instrument, and gain that independence of foot and finger so difficult to acquire. In fact, it is only possible by a thorough study of the great masters in this school of playing, to destroy that sympathy which exists between the left hand and the feet. This sympathy lies in the fact that should a pedal passage ascending occur in conjunction with a left-hand passage descending, the natural inclination of the left hand is to follow the pedal, instead of executing its own independent part. Of course the same trouble is experienced if the conditions, as just stated, should be reversed. This is the great difficulty of the obbligato, or independent mode of treating the pedals, to conquer which may fairly be termed a life-study. For this reason the earnest student should always begin his studies in this school, and not deviate therefrom until such time as a reasonable degree of skill has been attained, and the sympathy between hands and feet, before alluded to, measurably overcome. And here let me say that far too many of those who feel themselves drawn towards the study of the organ, approach such study unprepared. The organ, as a keyed instrument, has all the main points of technique[Pg 38] in common with the piano. All the varied forms of scales, arpeggios, &c., together with the necessary independence of finger requisite to play in the legato style, should first be learned upon the piano, where, by the way, it can be more speedily acquired. Pupils who, having accomplished this, proceed to the study of the organ, can at once begin with the peculiarities and characteristic difficulties of the instrument, and as far as the pedal is concerned, will make far more rapid progress if fair manual players. They are thus enabled to concentrate their attention upon that which is new and strange to them. Such would undoubtedly be the testimony of all those who have had experience in this branch of teaching.

Without questioning the pre-eminence of the German school in all matters of technique and pure science, although educated in that school myself, I would not claim for it, as do some, that it is the Alpha and Omega of all true organ playing. Viewed in relation to the modern organ as it exists to-day, especially in France, England, and America, it seems to me that the instrument is in advance of the school, or that the school is weak in the two following points:—

First: It does not make a sufficient employ of registration within the limits of one and the same composition. Beauties of contrast, to be obtained by this means, are too frequently regarded as a matter of less than secondary importance. This, I am aware, arises from the fact that the majority of German organs are incapable of producing such variety, being built with a single eye to accompanying the congregation. In the direction of the grand and sublime, this school is unequalled; but surely there are many[Pg 39] effects possible to-day which lay no claim to profundity, and yet are pleasing and worthy of employment by a true artist.

Second: Ignoring the emotional element in organ music to a great extent, and substituting the purely intellectual and technical. In their melodies we recognize the true inspiration of the great composers. The scientific setting they may give them, the technical dress in which they may clothe them, thus often greatly enhancing their beauty, is, after all, a matter of pure science acquired through schooling and dignified by talent. This appeals to the intellect, and is a most desirable object of study; but the melodic inspiration itself appeals to the heart, and, as the God-given quality, is the higher of the two. Now the German writers for the organ, from Bach to this day, have, as a rule (to which I am aware there are some marked exceptions), apparently avoiding giving to the organ that melodious element which their great composers have so beautifully done, not only in their symphonic writings, but also in their smallest works for the piano or other instruments. The mere lack of means for expression (by means of the swell or other mechanical appliances) is hardly a sufficient explanation of this, nor do I see anything in the character of the organ to account for it. That the great German writers following Bach (Mendelssohn excepted), but more especially the masters of the more recent so-called Romantic School, have contributed little or nothing towards the literature of the organ, is really explained by the following remark of Berlioz, in his treatise on "Modern Instrumentation." Speaking of writing properly for the organ, he says: "The special resources are here so vast and numerous, that the[Pg 40] composer will never be well acquainted with them, as it appears to me, unless he be himself an accomplished organist."

The French school of organ playing is usually light, sensational, often pleasing, but too often frivolous and unworthy of the instrument. Yet in a certain direction they have had their great men. No one who has had the opportunity of hearing Lefebure Wely extemporize on that great organ at the church of Saint Sulpice, in Paris, but must acknowledge that the performance was masterly, although widely different from the German school. In fact, these extempore performances of Wely's were far better than his published compositions. The prevailing tone of the French organ-playing is dramatic, and, as before said, too often sensational. As might be expected from the national character, it forms a great contrast to the German style. The use of the pedal for melodic phrases is rare, it being more generally employed simply to give the fundamental support of the harmonies and passages executed upon the manuals. On the other hand, much attention is paid to registration, and frequently much talent displayed in this direction; besides, their organs are built in a manner calculated to assist the player in this respect. Of course the Romish ceremonial, the universally dominant religion in France, gives much opportunity for display of this kind. To judge any of these varieties of organ-playing, it will be seen that the standpoint of use to which the instrument is to be put must be carefully borne in mind. Although this school is by no means devoid of excellencies, it is not to be recommended to the American student who is seeking a solid foundation in organ-playing. Still it may be employed to advantage, both in the way of[Pg 41] recreation, general culture, and especially as studies in registration, after the "weightier matters of the law" have received due attention.

The English school, as a distinctive method of treatment, can hardly be said to exist. It forms a sort of middle ground between the two schools of which I have just spoken, and their organs may be described in the same manner as to characteristics of building. In America, of late years, we have followed suit, copying Germany in the voicing of most of our open and stopped pipes, both metal and wood; copying France in the main characteristics of their reed voicing (in which they were long pre-eminent), and copying England in the general plan of our organs, together with their conveniences of mechanism and effects of combination.

In spite of the fact, then, that England has no distinctive national school of the instrument, still there is probably no country where so much interest is taken in organs and organ-playing as in the England of to-day. Her prominent organists are solidly founded on the German school; but while they execute these great works in a masterly manner, their repertoire extends over a far wider range and variety of compositions than the German school alone can supply. This seems to me to be praiseworthy, for although the practice of this theory may be carried too far, and it is certain that everything cannot even approximately be played upon the organ; yet, in view of the vast improvements of the last twenty years, all tending to assist the players in producing effects impossible heretofore, why should the use of these means be ignored? The English organists, to this end, have made a vast number of arrangements and adaptations from works not ori[Pg 42]ginally composed for the organ. Very many of these are just as effective as if originally composed for the instrument, and so far form a welcome addition to organ literature; inasmuch as they generally embody the use of the new improvements and facilities referred to. On the other hand, many of these go too far, and attempt transcriptions of compositions totally opposed to the genius of the organ. The careful student will, however, easily be able to recognize and avoid such, if he has had the proper foundation laid before attempting works of this class.

There are those, however (and their opinions are entitled to respect), who claim that such free treatment of the organ is improper. These persons would, with little or no exception, limit the repertoire to such works as have been originally written for the organ; and when they got outside fugue or canon, would still remain carefully within the limits of purely contrapuntal orthodoxy. Any other treatment is styled "illegitimate." I had hoped to avoid this terrible word,—the great bugbear among conscientious students of the organ,—nor do I propose to enter into any analysis of what the "legitimate" may or may not consist in. The fact is, we should all retain our original opinions very much according to our early education, natural tastes, and impressions. There has been much controversy on this point, and I do not think it necessary to contribute to that. In any case, where the subject under discussion cannot be considered as a positive right or wrong, but largely as a matter of taste or preference, there will always be a difference of opinion.

Froude, the historian, says in one of his published lectures: "Controversy has kept alive a certain quantity of bitterness; and that, I suspect, is all that it[Pg 43] would accomplish if continued till the day of judgment.... Each polemic writes for his own partisans, and makes no impression on his adversary." So it would be in this case.

The inference which I draw from this superficial glance at the main characteristics of these three schools, is this:—

The American student who would excel as an organist, must first be thoroughly educated in the German school of playing. Here alone can he gain the solid technique which will fit him for the execution of any tasks he may propose to himself. Only from that mine of musical wealth, the German school, especially as represented by Bach, can the suitable foundation-stones for the desired structure be derived. But with this foundation broadly and deeply laid, as the building progresses upward, the best of architects may, without fear, add many things that simply please the eye, but bear no relation whatever to the strength or durability of the edifice. So with the education of the organ student; first the broad foundation, and then a judicious liberalism. His auditors will always remain the great public, and that public to the end of time will never be so versed in musical science that it can appreciate the stricter forms of organ music. But very many among the public can appreciate, or at least enjoy; and this number is increasing from year to year. I am by no means arguing that the organist should avoid these stricter forms on this account; quite the contrary; but simply that the judicious liberalism above referred to should provide as great a variety of musical food as will suit and satisfy the musical appetite within the means of the instrument as it now exists. Nor should the "milk for babes" be despised.[Pg 44] The workings of this principle will surely attract rather than repel, and maturer musical strength will instinctively call for heartier food. We have to deal with men as we find them, and tastes vary. A programme intended for a miscellaneous audience is, after all, only a musical bill of fare. Real musical hunger can only be satisfied with solids; but if we first quiet the deeper cravings with roast beef, I know of no moral obligation why we should not finish with ice-cream, if inclination should point that way. To invert the order would be manifestly unsound.

To my mind, then, the duty of the American organist of to-day is to be eclectic. He has no "call" to tie himself up exclusively and strictly to any one particular school; nor, if he pursues the right course, need his education, technical or æsthetic, suffer on this account. But he must justify this argument by being thorough in what he undertakes. The skill with which a thing is done goes far to justify it, if there is any question at all about the matter. Not that I suppose that many can be found, who, with all talent and due diligence, can equally excel in all styles; still the effect of liberalism in this respect cannot but have a good effect upon the general culture, and aid not a little towards the accomplishment of that great problem, professional success.

I cannot close without a congratulatory word respecting the standing, present and prospective, of the profession in America to-day. I am proud that we begin to be able to point to so many musicians (even if the number is still relatively few) who, both from their own scientific standpoint, and from that of general culture, are deemed worthy of being placed side by side with the other learned professions. Is not the creation[Pg 45] of this college as a branch of a university course, proof of this comparatively new but happily increasing appreciation? Of what importance, then, to keep this present status intact, to secure it, to increase it, by upholding the dignity of our profession! Let such as propose to devote their lives to it, both feel and practise the idea so beautifully expressed by Schiller in his "Ode to the Artists"—

"O, Sons of Art! man's dignity to you is given,
Preserve it, then!
It falls with you; with you ascends to heaven."

While you her thousand paths are tracing,
Press onward, keeping truth in sight!
Come, all together, stand embracing
Before the throne where paths unite!"

Printed by the New Temple Press, Grant Road, Croydon.

[Pg 46]


[Pg 47]

in the Organ and in the Orchestra. TERRA-COTTA MODEL OF HYDRAULIC ORGAN. CIR. 150 A.D. CARTHAGE MUSEUM. FROM HERMANN SMITH'S The Making of Sound in the Organ and in the Orchestra.

[Pg 48]

in the Organ and in the Orchestra. REV. F. W. GALPIN'S WORKING REPRODUCTION OF THE ROMAN HYDRAULUS. FROM HERMANN SMITH'S The Making of Sound in the Organ and in the Orchestra.



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In the above notes Chopin alludes to many of his compositions as well as relating the conditions under which they were written.

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These notes on each of the "Lieder" will help the student in playing these homely and easily intelligible compositions.

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Mozart and Religion.

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Schubert—the most poetical musician that ever was.—LISZT.

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Wagner writing to his friend Uhlig said:

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TRIBAL MUSIC AND DANCING IN THE SOUTHERN SUDAN, at Social and Ceremonial Gatherings. A descriptive account of the music, rhythm, etc., from personal observation. By DR. A. N. TUCKER. 5 illustrations, 61 music examples illustrating the dances, songs and rhythm. 57 pages, demy 8vo, 10s. 6d. net (or paper, 6s. 6d. net).

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ON CONDUCTING. By RICHARD WAGNER. Translated by E. DANNREUTHER. Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, 7s. 6d. net.

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NOTES ON CONDUCTING AND CONDUCTORS. By T. R. CROGER, F.R.G.S., F.Z.S., also the Organising and Conducting of Amateur Orchestras, with three full-page Illustrations of the various "Beats" and Plan of the Orchestra. Fifth Impression, Revised and Enlarged. Crown 8vo, cloth, 6s. net (paper, 3s. net).

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TECHNICS OF THE ORGAN. An Illuminative Treatise on many Points and Difficulties connected therewith. Special Treatment of Rhythm, Minimisation of the Use of Accessories, Extemporisation, Expressive Regulation of Organ Tone and Accompaniment. By EDWIN EVANS, Senior, F.R.C.O. With over 100 Music Examples. 4to, cloth, 12s. 6d. net.

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ORGAN OF THE ANCIENTS FROM EASTERN SOURCES (Hebrew, Syriac and Arabic). By HENRY GEORGE FARMER, M.A., Ph.D., Carnegie Research Fellow. Foreword by CANON F. W. GALPIN. With numerous Illustrations. Square 8vo, cloth, 27s. 6d. net.

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THE ORGAN: A Comprehensive Treatise on its Structure, Capabilities, History and Bibliography. With Criticisms and Depositories, preceded by an Analytical Consideration of general Bibliographical and Catalogual Construction. By J. W. WARMAN, late Organist of the Anglican Cathedral, Quebec. Four parts [A to Nou. (the rest unprinted)], 15s. net.

The parts advertised above are all that have been published, as the untimely death of Mr. Warman prevented the completion of the work. The book is a mine of wealth for those interested in organ subjects. The author devoted the best part of his life in compiling the work and collecting material for his subject.

SOME CONTINENTAL ORGANS (Ancient and Modern) and their Makers. With Specifications of many of the fine Examples in Germany and Switzerland. By JAMES I. WEDGEWOOD. Post 8vo, cloth, 6s. 6d. net.

Contains specification and a brief critique of some of the famous old Continental organs. Describes also several up-to-date Continental organs. Amongst others particulars are given of those at Haarlem, Cologne, Aix-la-Chapelle, Frankfort, Heidelberg, Ulm, Stuttgart, Einsiedeln, Strassburg and Antwerp. This work forms a valuable supplement to Hopkins's and Rimbault's great treatise.

MODERN ORGAN TUNING, The How and Why, Clearly Explaining the Nature of the Organ Pipe and the System of Equal Temperament, together with an Historic Record of the Evolution of the Diatonic Scale from the Greek Tetrachord. By HERMANN SMITH. Crown 8vo, cloth, 7s. 6d. net.

"The greatest authority on acoustical matters connected with organ pipes who has ever lived," says Mr. G. A. Audsley of Hermann Smith in his "Art of Organ Building."


See page 25 for list of about sixty works in this series, including works by Wagner, Tchaïkovsky, Beethoven, Mozart, Handel, Berlioz, Glinka, Schubert, Gounod, Hérold, Mendelssohn, Meyerbeer, Balfe, Auber, Rossini, Weber, Wallace, Suppé, Adam, Thomas, Nicolai, Sterndale-Bennett, Cornelius and Flotow, chiefly arranged by Edwin Evans.

THE INFLUENCE OF THE ORGAN IN HISTORY. By DUDLEY BUCK. Fresh issue with Illustrations. Crown 8vo, cloth, 4s. net (or paper, 2s. net).

ORGANIST'S REPERTOIRE GUIDE. An International Repertoire Guide (Historical, Educational and Descriptive) to Foreign, British and American Works. By HERBERT WESTERBY, B.B.C. Organ Recitalist (author of "Liszt, Composer, and his Piano Works"). 4to, cloth, 17s. 6d. net.

Describes the best Organ Music of foreign countries as well as of Britain and America.

A large and beautifully presented quarto work, fully illustrated by thirty-six plates on fine art paper, comprising seven English and sixteen foreign organs, thirty-one portraits, and illustrations of the houses of Bach and Handel.

REFORM IN ORGAN BUILDING. By THOMAS CASSON. Crown 8vo, sewed, 2s. 6d. net.


THE BYRD ORGAN BOOK, for Piano or Organ. A Collection of 21 Pieces (Pavans, Galliards, etc.), by William Byrd, 1543-1623, edited from the Virginal MSS., and now first published in Modern Notation. By M. H. GLYN, 7s. 6d.

"A charming collection."—West Sussex Gazette.


THE ORGAN FIFTY YEARS HENCE. A Study of its Development in the Light of its Past History and Present Tendencies. By FRANCIS BURGESS, F.S.A., Scot. 8vo, 2s. net.


Arranged from Full Score by Edwin Evans, Senr. (except where other wise stated).

Price 3/-net each.

ATHALIE (Mendelssohn).
BARBER OF BAGDAD (Peter Cornelius).
CORSAIR (Berlioz).
EGMONT (Beethoven).
FAUST (Gounod).
FAUST (Wagner).
FIGARO (Mozart).
FINALE (Rubinstein's Sonata, Op. 12).
FREISCHUTZ (Weber). A. Whittingham.
ITALIANA (Rossini).
KING LEAR (Berlioz).
KING STEPHEN (Beethoven). P. J. Mansfield.
LA CLEMENZA DI TITO (Mozart). P. J. Mansfield.
L'AFRICAINE (Meyerbeer).
LARGO from Beethoven's Sonata in E flat. W. A. C. Cruikshank.
LURLINE (Wallace).
MARITANA (Wallace).
MIGNON (A. Thomas).
NAIADES, THE (Sterndale Bennett).
OBERON (Weber). A. Whittingham.
OTHO (Handel). W. A. C. Cruikshank.
1812 OVERTURE (Tschaikowsky).
PARSIFAL (Wagner).
RAYMOND (Thomas).
RIENZI (Wagner).
ROSAMUNDE (Schubert).
RUY BLAS (Mendelssohn).
SCIPIO (Handel).
SIRENE, LA (Auber).
SON AND STRANGER (Mendelssohn). W. A. C. Cruikshank.
TANCREDI (Rossini).
WAVERLEY (Berlioz).
WILLIAM TELL (Rossini). A. Whittingham.
ZAMPA (Hérold).


Price 2/-net each.

*CALIPH OF BAGDAD (Boieldieu).
GUY MANNERING (Sir H. R. Bishop).
IDOMENEO (Mozart).
IL BARBIERE (Rossini).
*IL TANCREDI (Rossini).
MAGIC FLUTE (Zauberflöte), (Mozart).
MARITANA (Wallace).
RAYMOND (Thomas).
*ZAMPA (Hérold).

* Also arranged as Duet (piano, 4 hands), price 2/6 net.


THE PIANO WORKS OF BRAHMS. By EDWIN EVANS, Senior. Historical, Descriptive and Analytical Account of each Work treated in the Order of the Opus number, and preceded by a Didactic Section. 8vo, cloth, 30s. net.

The above volume is a complete technical account of the piano works. It forms a part of the Historical, Descriptive and Analytical Account of the Entire Works of Brahms advertised on page 2.

HOW TO PLAY BACH'S 48 PRELUDES AND FUGUES. A Guide Book for the use of Piano Students as an aid to the Unravelling and Interpretation of these Masterpieces, ensuring a more Intelligent Keyboard Rendering. By C. W. WILKINSON. Crown 8vo, cloth, 10s. net.

NATURAL TECHNICS IN PIANO MASTERY. A Complete and Authoritative Manual, covering every phase of Piano Playing and Study. Many Diagrams of Hand and Finger Technique and some Music Examples. By JACOB EISENBERG. Crown 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. net.

PARTHENIA, or the First Musick ever printed for the Virginals. 21 Compositions by three Famous 16th and 17th century Masters, William Byrd, Dr. John Bull and Orlando Gibbons. Arranged for the Piano and freed from the errors of Dr. Rimbault's edition by accurate comparison with the original text by MARGARET H. GLYN. Folio, 12s. 6d. net.

This edition of "Parthenia" has been entirely re-engraved.

THE APPROACH TO LISZT. A Course of Modern Tonal-Technique for the Piano, in the form of Graded Studies from the Moderately Difficult to the Master Stage. By HERBERT WESTERBY, Mus.Bac. Lond., F.R.C.O., etc. Folio, 5s. 6d. net.

Preliminary Studies in Touch and Phrasing in all Keys. Based on the Scales and Broken Chords.

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Advanced Sequential Studies on the Black Keys, with Sixteen Excerpts from Liszt's Piano Works. The Master Works: Fifty-eight Excerpts from Liszt.

THE ART OF TUNING THE PIANOFORTE. A New Comprehensive Treatise to enable the Musician to Tune his Piano upon the System founded on the Theory of Equal Temperament. By HERMANN SMITH. New Edition, thoroughly Revised. Crown 8vo, limp cloth, 6s. net.

ESSENTIALS IN PIANO-PLAYING, and other Musical Studies. By J. ALFRED JOHNSTONE, Hon. L.Mus., T.C.L. Portrait, 243 pages. Crown 8vo, cloth, 10s. net.

EXTEMPORISING AT THE PIANO MADE EASY. A Manual for Beginners in Musical Composition. Hints and Aids for the "From Brain to Keyboard" Composer. By REV. E. H. MELLING, F.R.C.O. 8vo, limp cloth, 3s. 6d. net (paper 2s. net).


THE ARTIST AT THE PIANO. Essays on the Art of Musical Interpretation. By GEORGE WOODHOUSE. New and Revised Edition. Portrait of Paderewski. 8vo, cloth, 5s. 6d. net.

The celebrated pianist, Paderewski, after reading the manuscript of this stimulating volume, wrote: "The booklet is quite a remarkable work and a really valuable contribution to the philosophy of pianistic art."

THE STUDENT'S GUIDE TO THE ART OF TEACHING THE PIANOFORTE. By CYRIL R. H. HORROCKS, L.R.A.M., L.T.C.L., A.R.C.M. With an Extensive and Carefully Graded List of Studies and Course of the Great Masters. Numerous Musical Examples. Second edition, Revised. Crown 8vo, cloth, 10s. net.

Until quite recently it was thought impossible to give practical instructions on the art of teaching, but the error of this idea has been proved by the great success of the teachers' class at the various musical institutions. The author's aim is to supply a guide-book expressly for beginners and those with limited experience in the art.

PIANOFORTE TEACHER'S GUIDE. By L. PLAIDY. Translated by FANNY RAYMOND RITTER. Crown 8vo, boards, 3s. net (paper, 2s. net).

"Some of the finest pianists of the day owe much of their technical facility to Plaidy's excellent method."—Bazaar.

CANDIDATE'S SCALE AND ARPEGGIO TESTS for the Piano. In the Primary, Elementary and Junior Grades of all Local Examinations in Music, and the Higher and Lower Divisions of the Associated Board of the R.A.M. and R.C.M. By WILSON MANHIRE. 1s. net.

TECHNICAL STUDY IN THE ART OF PIANOFORTE PLAYING (Deppe's Principles). By C. A. EHRENFECHTER. With numerous Illustrations. Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, 6s. net.

CONTENTS: Position—Arm—Wrist—Fingers; Touch (Tone Production); Legato; Equality of Tone; Tension and Contraction; Five Finger Exercises; Skips; The Scale; Arpeggio Chords; Firm Chords; High Raising of the Arm; Melody and its Accompaniment; Connection of Firm Chords; The Tremolo: The Shake (Trill); The Pedal; Fingering.

HOW TO ACCOMPANY AT THE PIANO. By EDWIN EVANS. (Plain Accompaniment, Figurated Accompaniment, Practical Harmony for Accompanists). 172 Music Examples which are made Clear by the Explanatory Text. Crown 8vo, cloth, 10s. net.

GRADUATED SCALE AND ARPEGGIO MANUAL. Compiled for the various Exams. By HENRY SAINT-GEORGE. 3s. net.

A SYSTEM OF STUDY OF SCALES AND CHORDS. Being Chapters on the Elements of Pianoforte Technique. By B. VINE WESTBROOK, F.R.C.O. Numerous Examples. New and Revised edition. 8vo, 3s. net.

The author outlines a scheme which abolishes the drudgery and inspires the pupil with an enthusiasm for practice and formulates a method or system in which that practice may be carried out.

PIANO CLASSES IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS. By AUDREY KING. With Music Examples. Crown 8vo, 1s. net.

HOW TO PLAY 110 FAVOURITE PIANO SOLOS. Being the 4 Series complete in 1 vol. of "Well-Known Piano Solos: How to Play them with Understanding, Expression and Effect." By CHARLES W. WILKINSON. Crown 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. net.

WELL-KNOWN PIANO SOLOS. How to Play them with Understanding, Expression and Effect. By C. W. WILKINSON. Four Series, 2s. each (each series containing about 26 articles), or four in one vol. as above.

Contents of the First Series:—SINDING, Rustle of Spring. SCARLATTI, Pastorale le Capriccio. PADEREWSKI, Minuet in G. HANDEL, Harmonious Blacksmith. RUBINSTEIN, Melody in F. SCHARWENKA, Polish Dance. SCHUMANN, Nachtstücke. GODARD, Mazurka. DELIBES, Pizzicati from Sylvia. GRIEG, Wedding Day at Troldhangen. ELGAR, Salut d'Amour. PADEREWSKI, Melodie. RAFF, La Fileuse. TCHAÏKOVSKY, Troika. GODARD, Berger et Bergères. CHAMINADE, Pierrette. MOSZKOWSKI, Etincelles. PADEREWSKI, Minuet in A major. GRIEG, Norwegian Bridal Procession. LISZT, Regata Veneziana. CHAMINADE, Automne. MOSZKOWSKI, Serenata. LACK, Valse Arabesque. SCHUMANN, Arabeske. CHOPIN, Etude in G flat. DURAND, First Valse.

Draws one's attention to the beauties in a piece, explains difficulties here and there, draws attention to a pedal effect and any peculiarity of fingering, and generally gives all the information a professor is expected to give to his pupils.

DELIVERY IN THE ART OF PIANOFORTE PLAYING, On Rhythm, Measure, Phrasing, Tempo. By C. A. EHRENFECHTER. Second Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, 6s. net.

"The section with reference to accent is particularly good. There are numerous illustrations from the works of the masters."—W. H. WEBBE in The Pianist's A. B. C.

PIANO TOUCH, PHRASING AND INTERPRETATION. By J. Alfred Johnstone. Crown 8vo, cloth, 7s. 6d. net.

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REEVES' VAMPING TUTOR. Art of Extemporaneous Accompaniment, or Playing by Ear on the Pianoforte, Rapidly Enabling anyone having an Ear for Music (with or without any Knowledge of Musical Notation) to Accompany with Equal Facility in any Key. Practical Examples. By FRANCIS TAYLOR. New Edition, to which is added Instructions for Accompaniment with Equal Facility in every Key illustrated by Examples. Folio, 2s. net.

THE DEPPE FINGER EXERCISES for Rapidly Developing an Artistic Touch in Pianoforte Playing, Carefully Arranged, Classified and Explained by AMY FAY (Pupil of Tausig, Kullak, Liszt and Deppe). Folio, English or Continental Fingering, 2s. net.


REEVES' POPULAR PIANOFORTE TUTOR. Rudiments of Music, Exercises with Popular Airs, Major and Minor Scales. With Illustration of Fingerboard. Folio, 2s. 6d. net.


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THEORY OF MUSIC FOR YOUNG MUSICIANS. With Answers given to all the Questions, and a Dictionary of necessary Musical Terms. By MARY SHARP. Limp cloth, 2s. 6d. net (paper covers, 1s. 6d. net).

102 TEST QUESTIONS ON THE GENERAL RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC. In Groups of Six each Lesson, for Written or Oral Use. By WILSON MANHIRE, L.R.A.M. 6d. net.

PRIMARY COURSE IN THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC, With Hints on Answering Questions (Written Work) for All Examinations in the Primary, Elementary and Preparatory Grades. By WILSON MANHIRE, L.R.A.M., etc. 2s. net.

EXAMINATION CANDIDATE'S GUIDE to Scale and Arpeggio Piano Playing (with Tests). All that is required for the Various Exams. By WILSON MANHIRE, L.R.A.M. 3s. net.


STUDIES IN MODULATION for Practical and Theoretical Purposes. By PERCY BAKER, F.R.C.O., etc. Cloth, 5s. 6d. net (paper, 3s. net).

MUSICAL FORM, A Handbook to, for Instrumental Players and Vocalists. By E. VAN DER STRAETEN. With Musical Examples, 205 pages. 8vo, cloth, 6s. 6d. net (paper 4s. net).

The part of the work on Dance Forms gives a history and description of the Suite or Partita, Allemande, Courante, Sarabande, Gigue, Gavotte, Musette, Bourrée, Branle, Passepied, Rigaudon, Loure, Pavane, Galliard, Tambourin, Cebell, Rondo, Menuet, Polonaise, Mazurka, Bolero, Tarantella, Saltarello, March, Ciaccone and Passacaglia.

STUDIES IN HISTORICAL FACTS AND MUSICAL FORM. Being a Guide and Note Book for a more Systematic Preparation of the General Knowledge Papers now set at the Universities and Colleges of Music. By PERCY BAKER. Cloth, 5s. 6d. net (paper, 3s. net).

MOZART AND THE SONATA FORM. By J. R. TOBIN, Mus.B. See Pianoforte Section.

FUGUE. A Conversational Address delivered to the Incorporated Guild of Church Musicians. By J. H. LEWIS, Mus.Doc. (Victoria College of Music). Crown 8vo, limp cloth, 2s. net.

MUSICAL EXPRESSIONS, PHRASES AND SENTENCES, with their Corresponding Equivalents in French, German and Italian. By F. BERGER. 8vo, cloth, 5s. 6d. net (paper, 3s. net).

RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC, Set forth in Graded QUESTIONS with ANSWERS, for Use of Candidates preparing for the Examinations of R.A.M., R.C.M. and T.C.L. By B. HOWARTH, L.R.A.M. and A.R.C.M. Crown 8vo, 2s. net.

The Answers are always on the right hand page and can be covered over if desired, the Questions being on the corresponding left hand pages.

ELEMENTARY LESSONS ON SIGHT-SINGING. Combining the Staff and Tonic Sol-fa Notations. With Music Examples throughout. By J. W. ROSSINGTON, L.R.A.M. Cloth, 3s. 6d. net; paper, 2s. net.

For many singers there is only one method of becoming good sight-readers, viz., combining the tonic sol-fa with the staff notation. It is hoped that a perusal of these elementary lessons will show the principles on which this combination is effected, and simplify the somewhat difficult task of sight-reading.

STEPS IN HARMONY. With Copious Explanatory Examples and Graded Test Exercises. A Handbook for Students. By DR. CHURCHILL SIBLEY. With Music Examples throughout. Crown 8vo, boards, cloth back, 6s. net (paper, 3s. 6d. net).

It is believed that he who thoroughly masters the contents of these pages will be prepared to study intelligently the harmonic structure of the works of the great masters, and also to follow critically the changeful tendencies of the present day.

600 QUESTIONS AND 600 EXERCISES IN ELEMENTARY MUSICAL THEORY. By W. H. PALMER. Crown 8vo, cloth, 5s. net (paper covers, 3s. net).

Intended as a help to the private student and to the candidate preparing for the several musical examinations.

THE MODAL ACCOMPANIMENT OF PLAIN CHANT. A Practical Treatise. By EDWIN EVANS, Senior, F.R.C.O. Part I, Theoretical; Part II, Practical School of Plain Chant Accompaniment, consisting of 240 Exercises, with an Appendix of Notes. Crown 8vo, cloth, 8s. 6d. net.

THE HARMONISING OF MELODIES. A Text-Book for Students and Beginners. By H. C. BANISTER. Third Edition, with numerous Musical Examples. Crown 8vo, limp cloth, 5s. net.

MUSICAL ANALYSIS. A Handbook for Students. By H. C. BANISTER. With Musical Illustrations. Crown 8vo, limp cloth, 5s. net (paper covers, 2s. 6d. net).

THE ART OF MODULATING. A Series of Papers on Modulating at the Pianoforte. By HENRY C. BANISTER. With 62 Musical Examples. Crown 8vo, cloth, 6s. net (paper covers, 3s. 6d. net).

MODERN CHORDS EXPLAINED. (The Tonal Scale in Harmony.) By ARTHUR G. POTTER. Musical Examples from C. Debussy, Richard Strauss and Granville Bantock. 8vo, cloth, 4s. net (paper covers, 2s. net).

EXERCISES IN VOCAL SCORE READING. Collected from the Works of Orlando di Lasso, Palestrina, Vittoria, Barcroft, Redford, Peter Certon, Byrd, Gibbons, Croft, Rogers, Boyce, etc. For Students preparing for the R.C.O. and other Examinations. By JAMES LYON, Mus.Doc. Oxon. 4to, 4s. 6d. net.



These exercises are printed in open score so as to be of use in score reading tests. This volume forms a key to "Exercises in Figured Bass" by the same author (see above).

HOW TO COMPOSE. A Practical Guide to the Composition of all Works within the Lyric Form, and which include the Valse, Gavotte, Mazurka, Polonaise, March, Minuet, and all Ordinary Dance Forms; as also the Nocturne, Impromptu, Berceuse, Reverie and Similar Characteristic Pieces. By EDWIN EVANS, Senior, F.R.C.O. With 60 Musical Examples. Crown 8vo, cloth, 7s. 6d. net.

THE RUDIMENTS OF GREGORIAN MUSIC. By FRANCIS BURGESS, F.S.A., Scot. Second Impression. Crown 8vo, limp cloth, 2s. 6d. net (paper, 1s. 6d. net).

MUSICAL PRONOUNCING DICTIONARY. By DR. DUDLEY BUCK. Eighth Edition, with the Concise Explanation and Pronunciation of each Term. Edited and Revised by A. WHITTINGHAM. Crown 8vo, cloth, 3s. net (paper, 1s. 6d. net).

A most valuable and useful little book to all musical people. The method adopted for giving the pronunciation of each term is most concise and clear.

A FIRST BOOK OF MUSIC FOR BEGINNERS, Embodying English and Continental Teaching. By ALFRED WHITTINGHAM. Sixth Thousand. Crown 8vo, sewed, 4d. net.

HARMONY, EASILY AND PROGRESSIVELY ARRANGED. Presenting in a Simple Manner the Elementary Ideas as well as the Introduction to the Study of Harmony. With about 300 Musical Examples and Exercises. By PAUL COLBERG. Crown 8vo, cloth, 7s. 6d. net.

AUGUST WILHELMJ says: "This work is distinguished by brevity and clearness. I most warmly recommend it."

COMPEND OF MUSICAL KNOWLEDGE. By PERCY BAKER, F.R.C.O., L.Mus. T.C.L. Being a Guide with Notes, Hints and Articles on the Study of Examination Questions. Crown 8vo, cloth, 6s. net (paper, 3s. 6d. net).

Primarily to help candidates entering for the R.C.O. and T.C.L. Diplomas, though containing much information for the amateur musician and general reader. Indispensable to teachers in guiding their pupils through a course of study dealing with a large number of subjects like those set for the F.R.C.O. and A.R.C.O.

ELEMENTARY MUSIC. A Book for Beginners. By DR. WESTBROOK. With Questions and Vocal Exercises. Fifteenth Thousand. Crown 8vo, cloth, 4s. net (paper, 2s. net).

CONTENTS: 1. The Staff and its Clefs. 2. Notes and their Rests. 3. Bars and Time. 4. Accidentals. 5. Keys and Scales. 6. Intervals. 7. Musical Pitch. 8. Accent. 9. Secondary Signs. 10. Ornaments and Groups of Notes. 11. Voices and Scores. 12. Church Modes. 13. Italian and other Directions. 14. Foreign Note-Names. 15. Questions. 16. Vocal Exercises.

"His explanations are extremely clear. The questions at the end will be found very useful."—Musical Times.

EXERCISES ON GENERAL ELEMENTARY MUSIC. A Book for Beginners. By K. PAIGE. Fourth Edition. Part I, 1s. 6d. net; Part II, 2s. net. Crown 8vo, paper (2 parts complete in cloth, 5s. net).

CONTENTS OF PART I: 1. Pitch. 2. Length of Sounds. 3. Time. 4. Time and Accent. 5. Intervals. 6. Scales. 7. Transposition. 8. Syncopation. 9. Signs and Abbreviations. 10. Notation. 11. Miscellaneous Questions and Exercises.

CONTENTS OF PART II: 1. Triads. 2. First Inversion of a Triad. 3. Second Inversion of a Triad. 4. Dissonances. 5. Suspensions. 6. Sequences. 7. Cadences. 8. Dominant Sevenths, etc.

HOW TO MEMORISE MUSIC. By C. F. KENYON. With numerous Musical Examples. Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, 5s. net.

"Mr. Kenyon proves himself an excellent guide; and indeed we know of no other work devoted to the subject with which he has dealt so thoroughly and so successfully."—Glasgow Herald.

HOW TO HARMONIZE MELODIES. With Hints on Writing for Strings and Pianoforte Accompaniments. By J. HENRY BRIDGER, Mus.Bac. With Musical Examples throughout. Crown 8vo, cloth, 6s. net.

THE ART OF MODULATION. A Handbook showing at a Glance the Modulations from one Key to any other in the Octave, consisting of 1,008 Modulations. For the Use of Organists and Musical Directors. Edited by CARLI ZOELLER. Third Edition. Roy. 8vo, cloth, 8s. net (paper, 5s. net).

THE STUDENT'S BOOK OF CHORDS. With an Explanation of their Inversions and Resolutions. By PASCAL NEEDHAM. Crown 8vo, sewed, 1s. 6d. net.

The chords with their inversions and resolutions are briefly and clearly explained.

TRANSPOSITION AT SIGHT. For Students of the Organ and Pianoforte. By H. E. NICHOL. Fourth Edition, with numerous Musical Exercises. Crown 8vo, cloth, 3s. 6d. net; paper, 2s. net.

The practice of transposing upon the lines here laid down develops the "mental ear," quickens the musical perception and gives ease in sight reading; as it is evident that, if the student can transpose at sight, he will not have much difficulty in merely playing at sight. Free use is made of the tonic sol-fa as well as the standard notation in many musical examples.


THE STUDENT'S HELMHOLTZ. Musical Acoustics, or the Phenomena of Sound as Connected with Music. By JOHN BROADHOUSE. With more than 100 Illustrations. Fifth Impression. Crown 8vo, cloth, 12s. 6d. net.

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VIOLINIST'S MANUAL. A Treatise on Construction, Choice, Care, Adjustment, Study and Technique of the Violin. Full of Useful and Practical Advice regarding the Violin and Bow. By H. F. GOSLING. Numerous Illustrations and an Index. Crown 8vo, cloth, 15s. net.

VIOLIN TECHNICS, or How to Become a Violinist. Exact Instructions, Step by Step, for its Accomplishment with or without a Teacher. By "FIRST VIOLIN." 3s. net.

PLAYING AT SIGHT FOR VIOLINISTS and Others in an Orchestra. Valuable Hints and Aids for its Mastery. By SYDNEY TWINN. Post 8vo, 3s. net.


TONAL SCALES AND ARPEGGIOS FOR VIOLIN. Introductory to the Unusual Intonation and Finger-grouping of Advanced Modern Music. By SYDNEY TWINN. 4to, 3s. net.

"These scales will be useful to advanced players who find difficulties in the unusual intonation and technique of modern music"—Strad.

SCALES AND ARPEGGIOS. Indispensable Studies for the Violin. Edited by ALBERT GRAFF. 1s. 6d. net.


VIOLINIST'S ENCYCLOPÆDIC DICTIONARY. Containing the Explanation of about 4,000 Words, Phrases, Signs, References, etc., Foreign, as well as English, used in the Study of the Violin, and also by String Players generally, by F. B. EMERY, M.A. New and enlarged edition, doubled in size. 246 pp., crown 8vo. Cloth 10s. net, paper, 7s. 6d. net, or on India paper and bound in red pegamoid rounded corners, 12s. 6d. net. Suitable for student or travel.

70 PREPARATORY VIOLIN EXERCISES for Beginners in the First Position, carefully Graduated, Supplementary to the First Instruction Book. By WILSON MANHIRE, L.R.A.M., A.R.C.M., etc. 2s. 6d. net.

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I here lay before the public that information and advice which I have hitherto been content to reserve for the sole use of my own pupils. During a considerable experience, both as a student and as a teacher of the violin, I have naturally pieced together quite a variety of small hints and items of information which, though modest enough individually, have been found on the whole to be of no inconsiderable value, not only with regard to my own playing, but also—and which is of far more importance—in enabling me to impart a knowledge of the art to others.

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SKETCHES OF GREAT VIOLINISTS AND GREAT PIANISTS. Biographical and Anecdotal, with Account of the Violin and Early Violinists. Viotti, Spohr, Paganini, De Beriot, Ole Bull, Clementi, Moscheles, Schumann (Robert and Clara), Chopin, Thalberg, Gottschalk, Liszt. By G. T. FERRIS. Third Edition. Crown 8vo, cloth, 8s. 6d. net.

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BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF FIDDLERS. Including Performers on the Violoncello and Double Bass, Past and Present. Containing a Sketch of their Artistic Career, together with Notes of their Compositions. By A. MASON CLARKE. 9 Portraits. Post 8vo, cloth, 10s. net.

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Included in the above are some interesting recollections and anecdotes of Ole Bull.

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HOW TO MAKE A VIOLIN, Practically Treated. By J. BROADHOUSE. New and Revised Edition. With 47 Illustrations and Folding Plates and many Diagrams, Figures, etc. Crown 8vo, cloth, 10s. 6d. net.

CONTENTS: Introduction—The Parts of the Violin—On the Selection of Wood—The Tools required—The Models—The Mould—The Side-pieces and Side Linings—The Back—Of the Belly—The Thickness of the Back and Belly—The Bass Bar—The Purfling—The Neck—The Fingerboard—The Nut and String Guard—Varnishing and Polishing—Varnishes and Colouring Matter—The Varnish—A Mathematical Method of Constructing the Outline—The Remaining Accessories of the Violin.

This new edition had the advantage of being revised throughout by a celebrated violin maker.

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TWELVE LESSONS ON BREATHING AND BREATH CONTROL. For Singers, Speakers and Teachers. By G. E. THORP. Crown 8vo, paper, 2s. 6d. net.

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SIX SPIRITUAL SONGS FOR UNACCOMPANIED CHORUS, with Piano Accomp. (for Practice). By RUTLAND BOUGHTON. In one vol. Roy. 8vo, 2s. 6d. net.

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ENGLISH MUSIC (1604-1904). Seventeen Lectures delivered at the Music Loan Exhibition of the Worshipful Company of Musicians. By T. L. SOUTHGATE, W. H. CUMMINGS, H. WATSON, E. MARKHAM LEE, J. FINN, SIR F. BRIDGE, A. S. ROSE, A. H. D. PRENDERGAST, F. J. SAWYER, G. F. HUNTLY, D. J. BLAIKLEY, REV. F. W. GALPIN, W. W. COBBETT, J. E. BORLAND, A. H. LITTLETON and SIR E. CLARKE. Frontispiece and 115 Illustrations (Portraits, Instruments, Title Pages, etc.). Musical Examples. 16s. net.

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BAGPIPE. By W. H. GRATTAN FLOOD. Its History, Origin of Reed Pipes, the Pipes of ancient Celtic Ireland and Wales, the Scottish scene and Scottish melodies, changes from 16th to 19th centuries. 26 illustrations, glossary, bibliography, list of players, index. Pp. xx, 237, 15s. net.


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and which include the Valse, Gavotte, Mazurka, Polonaise, March, Minuet and all Ordinary Dance Forms; as also the Nocturne, Impromptu, Berceuse, Reverie and Similar Characteristic Pieces.



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