The Project Gutenberg EBook of Curiousities of Great Britain: England and
Wales Delineated Vol. 1, by Thomas Dugdale

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

Title: Curiousities of Great Britain: England and Wales Delineated Vol. 1
       Historical, Entertaining & Commercial; Alphabetically
              Arranged. 11 Volume set.

Author: Thomas Dugdale

Other: William Burnett

Release Date: September 25, 2011 [EBook #37519]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


Produced by Robert Cicconetti, Graeme Mackreth and the
Online Distributed Proofreading Team at
(This file was produced from images generously made
available by The Internet Archive/Canadian Libraries)





Historical, Entertaining & Commercial.

Alphabetically arranged

By Thomas Dugdale. Antiquarian.

assisted by WILLIAM BURNETT.civil engineer.

title page

Drawn by J. Satmon     Engraved by E. Mansill
Drawn & Engraved for Dugdales England & Wales Delineated.

Drawn by J. Marchant.    Engraved by D. Buckle.
Drawn & Engraved for Dugdales England & Wales Delineated.

Drawn & Engraved for Dugdales England & Wales Delineated.

The birth place of The Prince of Wales, born, Nov.r 9. 1841, also of the Princess Royal, born. Nov.r 21, 1840.
Drawn & Engraved for Dugdales England & Wales Delineated.

Drawn & Engraved for Dugdales England & Wales Delineated.


Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.

post office
St. Martins le-Grand
Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.


Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.

West Tower of
Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.

Drawn & Engraved by J. Grey
Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.


Among the numerous distinguished individuals to whom Bristol has had the honour of giving birth, are Lilly, Chatterton, Mrs. Mary Robinson, Mrs. Hannah More, Southey, Sebastian Cabot, the first discoverer of the continent of America, & many others.

About a mile down the river from this Castle, is St. Robert's Cave, the scene of the murder committed by Eugene Aram, which was discovered thirteen years afterwards.

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.

This place is celebrated in history as the spot where the assembled barons in 1215, obtained from King John, the grant of Magna Charta.

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.

Drawn & Engraved for DUGDALES ENGLAND & WALES Delineated.

Charles Street Mary-le-bone.
This Hospital was instituted for sick & lame patients in 1745. The present substantial building was completed in 1835.


click on image for larger version


click on image for larger version
With its Railroads & Canals.


click on image for larger version


click on image for larger version


click on image for larger version


click on image for larger version


click on image for larger version


click on image for larger version


click on image for larger version


click on image for larger version




bo borough hun hundred ra rape W. West
chap chapelry la lathe ti tithing N. North
co county lib liberty to township S. South
dis district m. t. market town vil village S.E. South-East
div division pa parish wap wapentake S.W. South-West
ext. p. extra parochial pre precinct ward wardship N.E. North-East
ham hamlet qr quarter E. East N.W. North-West
E.R. York.—N.R. York.—or W.R. York ... East, North, or West Riding of Yorkshire.
Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
34 Abbas Combe pa Somerset Wincanton 3 Milborne Port 6 Shaftesbury 8 105 448
15AbbenhallpaGloucester Newnham4Mitchel Dean1Monmouth13116235
42AbberleypaWorcester Bewdley6Tenbury11Kidderminst8125590
42AbbertonpaWorcesterPershore 6Alcester8Worcester1010390
17Abbey-Holm[B]pa CumberlandWigton6Allonby7Carlisle173093056

[A] ABBERBURY, or Alberbury, a parish and township, partly in the hundreds of Cawrse and Deythur, in the county of Montgomery, and partly in that of Ford, in the county of Salop. Warine, sheriff of this county in the reign of Henry I., founded an abbey for black monks, a cell to Guardmont, in Limosin, which, at the suppression of alien priories was bestowed by Henry VI. upon the college founded by Archbishop Chiechley. Benthall, Eyton, Rowton, Amaston, and Wollaston, are all townships of this parish. At Glyn, in this parish, is the celebrated Old Parr's cottage and birth-place, who lived in the reigns of ten kings and queens. Old Parr's cottage, which has undergone but little alteration since his time; it is timber-framed, rare, and picturesque, within view of Rodney's Pillar on Bredden Hill, in Montgomeryshire. In Wollaston Chapel is a brass plate, with his portrait thus inscribed: "The old, old, very old man, Thomas Parr, was born at the Glyn, in the township of Wennington, within the chapelry of Great Wollaston, and parish of Alberbury, in the county of Salop, in 1483. He lived in the reigns of ten kings and queens of England, viz. King Edward IV., King Edward V., King Richard III., King Henry VII., King Henry VIII., King Edward VI., Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth, King James I., and Charles I.; he died in London, (sixteen years after his presentation to Did penance at the age of 105. King Charles,) on the 13th of November, 1635, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, on the 15th of the same month, aged one hundred and fifty-two years and nine months. At the age of one hundred and five, he did penance in the church of Alberbury, for criminal connexion with Catherine Milton, by whom he had offspring."

[B] ABBEY-HOLM is a small town in the ward of Allerdale. The original consequence of this little town was derived from an abbey of Cistercian monks, founded here, about the twelfth century, by Henry I. of England, as the crown rolls imply. Its benefactors were many in number, and by the magnificent grants and privileges with which it was endowed, it acquired so much importance, that during the reigns of Edward I. and II. its abbots, though not mitred, were frequently summoned to sit in parliament. The abbey was pillaged and burnt during the incursion of Robert Bruce, but afterwards rebuilt with great magnificence; few vestiges, however, of its monastic buildings now remain. From the ruins the Parochial Chapel was formed, and there yet stands a part of the church in its original form. During the reign of Henry VIII. the abbey was chiefly dilapidated; the church continued in good condition till the year 1600, when the steeple, one hundred and fourteen feet high, suddenly fell down, and by its fall destroyed great part of the chancel. Its total ruin was nearly accomplished by an accidental fire five years afterwards. This fire took place on April 18, The Abbey destroyed by the accidental firing of a daw's nest. 1604, and was occasioned by a servant carrying a live coal into the roof of the church, to search for an iron chisel; the boisterous wind blew the coal out of his hand into a daw's nest, by which the whole was ignited, and within less than three hours it consumed both the body of the chancel and the whole church, except the south side of the low church, which was saved by means of a stone vault. Almost due-west from Abbey-Holm, in a strong situation near the sea coast, are some remains of Wulstey Castle, a fortress, which was erected by the abbots to secure their treasures, books, and charters from the sudden depredations of the Scots. "In this castle," observes Camden, "tradition reports, that the magic works of Sir Michael Scot (or Scotus), Michael Scot, the magician. were preserved, till they were mouldering into dust. He professed a religious life here about the year 1290, and became so versed in the mathematics, and other abstruse sciences, that he obtained the character of a magician, and was believed, in that credulous age, to have performed many miracles." The story of Michael Scot forms a beautiful episode in Scott's "Lay of the Last Minstrel," the notes to which furnish some curious information respecting that extraordinary personage. Sir Michael Scot, of Balwearie, we are told, flourished during the thirteenth century, and was one of the ambassadors sent to bring the Maid of Norway to Scotland, upon the death of Alexander III. Scottish legends. His memory survives in many a legend; and in the south of Scotland, any work of great labour and antiquity is ascribed either to the agency of auld Michael, of Sir William Wallace, or the devil. The following are amongst the current traditions concerning Michael Scot:—He was chosen, it is said, to go upon an embassy, to obtain from the King of France satisfaction for certain piracies committed by his subjects upon those of Scotland. Instead of preparing a new equipage and splendid retinue, he evoked a fiend in the shape of a huge black horse, mounted The fiend horse. upon his back, and forced him to fly through the air towards France. When he arrived at Paris, he tied his horse to the gate of the palace, and boldly delivered his message. An ambassador with so little of the pomp and circumstance of diplomacy was not received with much respect, and the king was about to return a contemptuous refusal to his demand, when Michael besought him to suspend his resolution till he had seen his horse stamp three times: the first stamp shook every steeple in Paris, and caused all the bells to ring; the second threw down three of the towers of the palace; and the infernal steed had French King's concession. lifted up his hoof to give the third stamp, when the king rather chose to dismiss Michael, with the most ample concessions, than to stand to the probable consequences. Another time, it is said that, while residing at the tower of Oakwood, upon the Ettrick, about three miles above Selkirk, having heard of the fame of a sorceress, called the Witch of The witch of Falsehope. Falsehope, who lived on the opposite side of the river, Michael went one morning to put her skill to the test, but was disappointed by her positively denying any knowledge of the necromantic art. In his discourse with her, he laid his wand inadvertently on the table which the hag observing, suddenly snatched it up and struck him with it. Feeling the force of the charm, he rushed out of the house; but as it had conferred on him the external appearance of a hare, his servant, who waited without, hallooed upon the discomfited wizard his own greyhounds, and pursued him so close, that, in order to obtain a moment's breathing to reverse the charm, Michael, after a very fatiguing course, was fain to take refuge in his own common sewer.

Fair, October 29, for horses and horned cattle.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
16Abbots AnnpaHantsAndover2Salisbury16Stockbridge666562
11Abbots BickingtonpaDevonHolsworthy6Torrington9Hartland1322077
35Abbots Bromley[A]paStaffordUttoxeter7Lichfield10Stafford1111291621

[A] ABBOTS BROMLEY. The hobby-horse dance, an ancient custom, was observed here till the civil war.—Ten or twelve of the dancers carried, on their shoulders, deers' heads, painted with the arms of Paget, Hobby-horse dance Bagot, and Welles, to whom the chief property of the town belonged. The horns yet hang up in the church, but the custom is now discontinued. The parish includes Bromley, Bagot's liberty, and Bromley Hurst township. Bagot's park is the deer-park of Lord Bagot, whose seat is at Blithefield.

Market, Tuesday.Fairs, Tuesday before Mid-lent Sunday, May 22, September 4, for horses and horned cattle.

[B] ABBOTSBURY consists of a single parish, divided into three streets, nearly in the form of the letter Y, lying in a valley surrounded and protected by bold hills near the sea. There is a tradition that this Tradition of St. Peter place was called Abodesbyry by St. Peter himself, in the infancy of Christianity, but it is more probably supposed to have derived its name from the magnificent abbey, originally founded here, in the early part of the eleventh century. The ruins of the abbey (which was once large and splendid, but is now nearly demolished), consist of a large barn, a A ruined abbey. stable, supposed to have been the dormitory, a porch which belonged to the conventual church, the principal entrance, a portion of the walls, and two buildings conjectured to have been used for domestic purposes. The barn, which, when entire, was the largest in the county, is now so dilapidated, that only a part of it can be used. The church, in which Orcus and his wife, the founders, were buried, is, with the exception of the porch and a pile of ruins under some neighbouring elms, totally destroyed; but the numerous chantries and chapels which belonged to it sufficiently prove its ancient magnificence. On an eminence, at a short distance from the town, stands a small building called St. Catherine's St. Catherine's chapel, a sea mark. Chapel, which is supposed to have been erected about the time of Edward IV., and which from its height and lofty situation, serves both for a sea and land mark. Abbotsbury Church appears to have been built a short time before the reformation; the pulpit is pierced by musket balls, said to have been fired by Cromwell's soldiers, at the officiating minister, whom, however, they missed. But it is more likely to have occurred at the time of Sir Anthony Astley Cooper's attack on the royalists, at the siege of Sir John Strangeway's house, in 1651. About Wild fowl decoy, and swannery. a mile to the south-west of Abbotsbury, is the "decoy," where great quantities of wild fowl are annually taken. But the object which most engages the attention of strangers, in the neighbourhood of this town, is the celebrated "swannery," which, not long since, was the property of the Earl of Ilchester. In the open or broad space of the fleet are kept six or seven hundred swans, formerly one thousand five hundred, including hoppers—a small species of swans, who feed and range, and return home again.

Fair, July 10, for sheep and toys.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
11Abbotshamm.t.& paDevonBideford2Torrington7Barnstaple10204386
44Abbotside,H.&Low paN.R. YorkAskrigg0Middleham7Richmond12208762
34Abbotts IslepaSomersetIlminster4Ilchester11Taunton10133380
11Abbotts KerswellpaDevonNewton Bush2Totness7Torquay6189442
18Abbotts Langley[A] paHertsSt. Albans4Watford4Hemel Hemp6171980
34Abbots LeighpaSomersetBristol3Bedminster3Keynsham9116360
15AbbotsleypaHuntsSt. Neots4Huntingdon12Potton458369
42Abbots MortonpaWorcesterEvesham4Alcester8Pershore699236
12Abbots StokepaDorsetBeaminster3Crewkerne10 Bridport6143587
16AbbotstonpaHantsAlresford4Basingstoke 12Winchester9 57248
33AbdonpaSalopLudlow9Bridgenorth 11 Ch. Stretton9 153170
53Abenbury FechamtoFlintshireWrexham4Chester10Mold7187111
52Abenbury VawrtoDenbighWrexham3Llangollen12Mold8187214
51AberaerontoCardiganAberystwith 17Lampeter14Cardigan23208...
51Aberarthvil & paCardiganLampeter14Aberystwith 14Tregaron13222976
56Aber BechantoMontgomeryNewtown2Montgomery7Welsh Pool11178...
52AbercwhilertoDenbighDenbigh4St. Asaph3Caerwys4208487
54Aberavon [C]bo. & paGlamorganNeath6Bridgend14Swansea11192572
50Aberconway [D]m.t.CaernarvonBangor15Llanrwst12Caernarvon 24 236 1245

[A] ABBOTTS LANGLEY. Before the Conquest, and till the dissolution of the monasteries, this place was in the possession of the abbots of St. Albans. About the time of Henry I., Nicholas Breakspear, Englishman made Pope. a native of this place, was advanced to the rank of cardinal, and at length became pope, by the title of Adrian IV.; being the only Englishman that ever attained that dignity. He died, not without suspicion of poison, in 1158.

[B] ABER (which signifies the mouth of a river, port, or harbour) is situated on the river Gwyngregyr, which here discharges itself into the Irish Sea. The native Welsh princes had a palace at this place, some remains of which are shewn as the residence of Llewelyn ap Ferry to Anglesea. Griffith. It is one of the ferries to Anglesea, and a convenient place from which to visit the formidable Penmaen Mawr mountain. The passage from hence across the Laven Sands to Beaumaris is by no means safe, as the sands frequently shift; but the large bell of this Laven sands dangerous. The bell constantly tolled in foggy weather. village is constantly rung in foggy weather, in the hope that its sound may serve to direct those whom imperious necessity obliges to cross under all disadvantages. Two miles from this pleasing village, following the banks of the stream, which flows through highly picturesque scenery, there is a most romantic glen, and a very fine waterfall; the upper part Romantic glen, and waterfall. of this cataract is sometimes broken into three or four divisions, by the rugged force of the impending cliff, but the lower one forms a broad sheet, and descends about sixty feet, in a very grand style.

Mail arrives 3.15 A.M., departs 9.32 P.M.—Inn, Bull.

[C] ABERAVON is situated at the mouth of the river Avon, on Swansea Bay, and has a harbour for small vessels. Although no charter exists for a market, one has been held here, more than a century past. There is a ridiculous belief, amongst the people of this place, that every Christmas Day, and that day alone, a large salmon presents himself Singular account of a Salmon. in the river, and allows himself to be caught and handled by any one who chooses; but it would be considered an act of impiety to detain him.

Fair, April 30.

[D] ABERCONWAY is an ancient fortified town, beautifully situated upon the estuary of the river Conway. The town is nearly of a triangular shape, and is thought by some to have been the Conovium of The Conovium of the Romans. the Romans. The annals of this place commence no earlier than with the history of its castle, which was erected in 1284, by command of Edward I., as a security against the insurrections of the Welsh. Soon after its erection, the royal founder was besieged in it, and the garrison almost reduced by famine to surrender, when they were extricated by the arrival of a fleet with provision. At the commencement of the civil wars, it was garrisoned on behalf of the king, by Dr. John Williams, Archbishop of York. In 1645 he gave the government of the castle to his nephew, William Hookes. Two years after, Prince Rupert superseded the Archbishop in the command of North Wales. He endeavoured to obtain redress from the king, but failed. Enraged at this injury, he joined Mytton, and assisted in the reduction of the place. The town was taken by storm, August 15, 1646, but the castle did not Town taken by storm, in 1646. surrender till November 10. This fortress remained in tranquillity till a grant was made of it, by King Charles, to the Earl of Conway and Kilulta; when he had scarcely obtained possession, before he ordered an agent to remove the timber, iron, lead, and other materials. It was held on lease, by Owen Holland, Esq. from the crown, at an annual rent of six shillings and eightpence, and a dish of fish to Lord Holland, as Curious tenure—6s. 8d. and a dish of fish. often as he passed through the town. Thus, unprotected, it has suffered material injuries from wind and weather, and is reduced to a state of rapid decay. The ruins are remarkably picturesque, and very extensive. The town was surrounded by high massive walls, twelve feet thick, strengthened at intervals by twenty-four circular and semi-circular towers; these, with the four principal gateways, remain in tolerable preservation. There are scarcely any remains of the Cistercian Cistercian Abbey, founded by Llewelyn ap Jorwerth in 1185. Abbey, founded by Llewelyn ap Jorwerth, in 1185. The church contains a few modern monuments, belonging to the family of the Wynnes, formerly of this place. The font appears ancient; it is composed of black marble, curiously carved, and supported by a cluster of pilasters, standing upon a pedestal. In Castle Street is a very old house, called the college, which has a singular window, decorated with several coats of arms of the Stanley family. A day school is also kept in an ancient mansion, called Plas Mawr, situated near the market place, which was erected in 1585, by Robert Wynne, Esq. of Gwyder. The river Conway rises out of Llyn Conway, at the south extremity of the county, in the mountains of Penmachno. The ferry is of importance, as it lies upon one of the great roads from London to Ireland, but is justly considered a dangerous The ferry considered dangerous; loss of the Irish mail and 14 passengers, in 1806. passage, and many are the accidents which have occurred. On Christmas Day, 1806, the boat conveying the Irish mail coach, was lost, and all the passengers, including the coachman and guard, were drowned, except two. At the Ferry-house a noble bay is formed where the tide enters the river. In this view, indeed, there are all the ingredients of a sublime and beautiful landscape. Few rivers, in England or Wales, in so short a course as twenty-nine miles, present so great a variety of beautiful scenery. Below Luna Hall, the falls of the Conway exhibit Falls of the Conway present a noble cataract, shooting from a solid rock. a noble cataract, about fifty feet; the stream of water, shooting directly from one aperture in the solid rock to a considerable distance, descends into a rocky basin, surrounded by hanging woods. One mile below this town, at Trefriw, the river becomes navigable, and contributes to the supply of the surrounding county. In Conway town there still exists Pearl fishery and suspension bridge. a pearl fishery, and a chain suspension bridge has been recently erected in lieu of a dangerous ferry. The vale of Conway teems with interesting objects. Upon the west side is the abrupt termination of the Snowdon chain, down the declivities of which, through innumerable chasms, fissures, and channels, rush the superfluous waters of the lakes above, to mingle with the parent ocean. The principal employment of the poor, in this neighbourhood, is gathering the different species of fuci, commonly Manufactory of barilla. called sea-wreck, thrown up by the tide, or growing upon the breakers. This wreck they put into a kind of square fireplace, made upon the sand, and heat it till it becomes a liquid and forms a cake; when further baked or burnt it resembles cinders, and is called barilla or impure fossil alkali; in this state it is sold to manufacturers of soap and glass.

Market, Friday.—Fairs, March 26, April 30, June 20, August 19, September 16, October 20, and November 15.—Inns, Harp, Bull's Head, and White Lien.—Mail arrives 2 A.M., departs 10¾ P.M.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
54Aberdare[A]paGlamorgMer. Tydvil6Bridgend18Brecon201823961
50AberdaronpaCaernarvonPwllheli16Nevin16Bardsey Isle52581389
54Aberddaw, EasthamGlamorgCowbridge5Bridgend10Llandaff12179...
45Aberford[C]m.t. & paW.R. YorkTadcaster6Leeds8Ferry Bridge9186925
26Abergavenny[D]m.t. & paMonmouthMonmouth17Crickhowell7Usk91454230

[A] ABERDARE. Fairs, for cattle, April 19, Whit-Monday, November 14.

[B] ABEREDWY. This delightful village derived its name from its situation, near the junction of the River Wye and Edwy. Nothing in nature can exceed the beauty of the neighbouring scenery. The Edwy descends through lofty walls of rock; in some places, broken into crags, which frightfully overhang the abyss. Near the place are the ruins of a castle, the retreat of the last native Welsh Prince, Llewelyn ap Ruined castle—the retreat of Llewelyn, the last native Prince of Wales. Gruffydd. The object of Llewelyn's journey to Aberedwy was to consult the chief persons of the district, upon the best means of successfully opposing the King of England, then invading Wales. On his arrival he found himself disappointed. Instead of meeting with friends, he was surrounded by the enemy. Edmund Mortimer and John Gyfford, acquainted with his route, marched from Herefordshire, with their troops to meet him. The enemy were numerous—resistance was in vain—Llewelyn withdrew to Builth. The mountains being covered with snow, he caused the shoes of his horse to be reversed, in order to His horses shoes reversed. baffle pursuit, but the treacherous smith betrayed him. Llewelyn broke down the bridge of Builth, but was closely followed by the English forces, who fruitlessly attempted to gain it. Sir Elias Walwyn Betrayed by his smith. crossed the river, with a detachment, about eight miles below, at a place called Little Tom's Ferry Boat, and coming unexpectedly on the Welsh army, routed them. Llewelyn himself was attacked and slain, unarmed, in a narrow valley, not two hundred yards from the scene of action. Adam Francton, the murderer of Llewelyn, took no notice of His army routed, and himself slain. his victim, but joined in the pursuit of the Welsh. Returning with the view of plundering the slain, he discovered the wounded person was no other than the Prince of Wales; for on stripping him, he found a letter in cipher and his privy seal. The brutal Francton, overjoyed that the Welsh prince had fallen into his hands, cut off his head, and sent His head sent to the King of England. it to the King of England, and thus perished the last native Prince of Wales.

[C] ABERFORD is situated upon the River Cock, on the great northern road, on the banks of which river was fought the famous battle of Towton, in 1461, so called from a village in the vicinity. The town consists of a long straggling street, in the north of which are the remains of a Norman Here the famous battle of Towton was fought. fortification, called Castle Carey; and the whole is in the line of the ancient Roman road. This town is curiously situated, as respects township: the west side is in Aberford-cum-Parlington; the east of the same end is Lotherton-cum-Aberford, and the north of the river is Aberford alone.

Mail arrives 4.11 P.M., departs 8.46 A.M.Inn, Swan.

[D] ABERGAVENNY, (the ancient Gobanium of the Romans,) and its Gobanium of the Romans. environs, have strong claims to the traveller's attention. Its castle and delightful terrace overlook the rich vale of Usk; its church, abounding in costly sculptured tombs, its beautifully variegated mountains, all conspire to render this place particularly attractive. This town was once fortified, and many portions of the work remain, particularly Tudor's Gate. Tudor's Gate. The western entrance is furnished with two portcullises, and remarkable for the beautifully composed landscape seen through it. The style of building which forms the remains of this fortress marks its origin to have been subsequent to the Norman epoch. Excursions are frequently made to Blaenavon Iron Works, about six miles distant, Blaenavon Iron Works. 4000 men employed. which employ upwards of four thousand men. The mountainous territory containing these mineral treasures of iron, was demised by the crown to the Earl of Abergavenny, and is held under a lease by Hill and Co. A principal excursion from Abergavenny is that which leads northwards to Llanthony Abbey, a majestic ruin, seated in Llanthony Abbey, a majestic ruin in the black mountains. a deep recess of the black mountains, at the very extremity of Monmouthshire. Abergavenny is a place of much resort, being the thoroughfare from the west of Wales to Bath, Bristol, and Gloucestershire. Its principal manufacture is flannel, and its annual fairs for cattle are well attended.

Mail arrives 2 P.M., departs 11 A.M.—Inns, Angel, and Greyhound.—Bankers, Hill and Co., draw upon Esdaile and Co.,—Jones and Co., draw upon Williams and Co.—Fairs, May 14, lean cattle and sheep; 1st Monday after Trinity, linen and woollen cloths; September 25, horses, hogs, and flannel.—Market Tuesday.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
52Abergelem.t. & paDenbighSt. Asaph7Holywell17Aberconway122242506
49AbergorlechchapCaermarLlandilo Var7Lampeter9Caermar14209
49Abergwilleyto & paCaermarCaermar2Llandilo Var15Newcastle 16 214 2675
49AbermarlestoCaermarLlandovery 7Llangadock3Lampeter14198
49AbernantpaCaermarCaermar4Llaugharne10Newcastle 11 222 654
54AberpergwmchapGlamorgNeath10Brecon20Merthyr Tyd 13 188
56Aber-RhiwpaMontgomeryWelsh Pool 5Montgomery 4 Newtown 9 172 2429
51Aberystwith[A]m.t. & paCardiganTregaron15Machynlleth18Aberllelwyn52084128
26Aberystwithpa & chapMonmouthAbergaven7Crickhowell7Pontypool81535992

[A] ABERYSTWITH, a market town and seaport in the hundred of Glenaur Glynn, and also a township in the parish of Llanbadarn Vawr. It is situated at the confluence of the rivers Ystwith and Rhyddol, at which the former falls into the sea in the bay of Cardigan. The building of a castle, of which some vestiges remain, is attributed to Edward I. It stands on a craggy eminence projecting into the sea at the west of the town, and affords a magnificent view of the whole line of Welsh coast within the bay of Cardigan. The streets are steep and uneven.—The houses, which are principally formed of dark slate, present a very singular appearance. For some years past its celebrity, as a summer retreat and bathing-place, has been annually increasing, which is greatly Fine bathing place. contributed to by the beauty of the neighbourhood, and the commanding prospects around. The roads to it have been made excellent, and the customary amusements of plays and assemblies during the season add to the attractions for summer visitants. There was formerly a herring fishery, and the practice of fishing is still carried on with considerable advantage by the natives. About seven miles north of Aberystwith, on the sea coast, a considerable extent of land, has, by drainage, been Twelve miles of embankment. recovered; twelve miles of embankment have been formed; and two navigable cuts, with a road of three miles and a stone bridge completed.

Mail arrives 7 A.M. departs 5 P.M.—Fairs, 1st Monday in May and November, chiefly for hiring servants.—Bankers, W. Davis and Co., draw on Esdaile and Co.—Inns, Gogerddon Arms, Old Lion, and Talbot.—Markets, Monday and Saturday.

[B] ABINGDON, at the very edge of the county of Berkshire, was called Shovesham, by the Anglo-Saxons, until the foundation of the Monastery of Benedictine monks. abbey, from which period it began to assume the name of Abbandeen, or the Town of the Abbey. This monastery, the monks of which were Benedictines, was founded by Cissa, an Anglo-Saxon monarch, in 675. During the reign of Alfred it was demolished by the Danes, and remained in ruins till King Edgar partly restored it, in 954. Ethelwold, the abbot at that time, erected and embellished the church, and his successors contributed to its increase. After the Conquest, the wealth and grandeur of the abbey were equal to any similar foundation in England. William the Conqueror kept Easter in the abbey, A.D. 1084; William the Conqueror kept Easter, and his son was educated here. Jeffery of Monmouth buried in the abbey. and here was educated his youngest son, Henry, surnamed Beauclerc, afterwards King Henry I., in whose reign, one of the most eminent characters who received sepulture within the abbey, was the celebrated Jeffery of Monmouth, author of the British History,—a work, from which some of our best poets have derived materials for their sublime compositions. Shakspeare's Lear, and Milton's Comus, were both supplied from Jeffery's history. He flourished in the reign of Henry I. Among the natives of Abingdon, whose talents have rendered their possessors eminent, was Sir John Mason, a statesman of the sixteenth century. His memory is the more worthy to be revered, because, from a very obscure origin, his genius and perseverance Sir J. Mason, born here—his father a cow-herd. advanced him to the rank of privy-counsellor, ambassador to France, and chancellor of the University of Oxford. His father was a cow-herd and his mother, sister to one of the abbey monks, who attended to his early tuition, and sent him to Oxford, where he became a fellow of All Souls' college. While in this situation, the liveliness of his temper occasioned him to be chosen to compliment Henry VIII. on his visit to the University, in the year 1523, which being executed in a most graceful manner, engaged the favour of the monarch, who promoted him to the honourable offices above-mentioned. He died in 1566, and was buried in St. Paul's cathedral.

Mail arrives 2.49 A.M., departs 12.10 A.M.—Fairs, 1st Monday in Lent, May 6, June 20, August 6, September 19, cattle; Monday before Old Michaelmas, statute, and December 11, horses and cattle.—Bankers, Knapp and Co., draw on Williams and Co.—Inns, Crown and Thistle, and Queen's Arms.—Markets, Monday and Friday.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
37AbingerpaSurrey Dorking4Guildford10 Ockley527767
15AbinghallpaGloucester Newnham6Mitchel Dean1 Monmouth12118235
28AbingtonpaNortham Northam2Wellingboro9 Moulton367155
6Abington,Gt.& Lit.paCambridge Linton3Cambridge9 Newmarket1250594
6Abington in the ClaypaCambridge Royston5Potton7 Cambridge1542259
23Ab KettlebypaLeicesterMelton Mow3Leicester16 Loughboro13108331
15AblingtontiGloucesterFairford5Cirencester7 Northleach785103
10AbneyhamDerbyTideswell5Sheffield14 Chapel-Frith8164112
49Above SawddehamCaermarLlangadock1Llandovery7 Llandilo Var8195803
22Above TowndivLancashireGarstang11Burton11 KirkbyLons15240591
22AbramtoLancashireWigan4Bolton9 Chorley11197511
15Abson with WickchapGloucesterBristol8Sodbury5 Marshfield4107824
21AbthorpchapNorthamTowcester3Brackley9 Banbury1563477
54AburthinpaGlamorgLlantrissant 8 Bridgend 7 Cowbridge1173...
24AbypaLincolnAlford2Louth9 Horncastle12142204
46Acaster MalbispaW.R. YorkYork4Selby8 Tadcaster8190707
46Acaster SelbytoW.R. York...5...7 ...8190201
22Accrington, NewtoLancasterBlackburn4Haslingden5 Burnley82084960
22Accrington, OldchapLancaster...6...4 ...62081323
30AchurchpaNorthamThrapston4Oundle4 Kettering1273239
43AcklampaN.R. YorkNew Malton6Gt. Driffield15 York14210827
44AcklamchapN.R. YorkYarm5Stockton3 Guisboro9244371
28AcklingtontoNorthumAlnwick8Morpeth13 Rothbury13300285
45AcktontoW.R. YorkPontefract3Wakefield5 Leeds917451
45Ackworth[A]paW.R. York...3...7 ...111741660

[A] ACKWORTH is a parish and township, in the upper division of Osgold Cross Wapentake, nominally divided into higher and lower Quakers' school. Ackworth. It is celebrated for its Quakers' School, which was purchased in 1777, with eighty-five acres of land, from the trustees of the Foundling Hospital, and rendered a seminary for the children of the more humble class of Friends. The number of pupils, is one hundred and eighty boys, and one hundred and twenty girls.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
27Acle[A]m. t. & paNorfolkNorwich11Yarmouth9 Loddon8121820
45AcombpaW.R. YorkYork2Wetherby10 New Malton20201882
29Acomb EasttoNorthumbCorbridge15Aldston Moor9 Hexham1127536
29Acomb WesttoNorthumb...5...18 ...3275523
17Aconbury[B]chapHerefordHereford4Ross9 Ledbury14130163
21AcrisepaKentFolkstone4Dover8 Canterbury1167194
7Actonto & paChesterNantwich2Tarporley9 Middlewich111663928
7ActontoChesterNorthwich4Frodsham7 Chester15177309
52ActontoDenbighWrexham1Holt5 ...9190215
25ActonpaMiddlesexHarrow8Brentford3 Uxbridge1052453
29ActontoNorthumbAlnwick8Rothbury8 Morpeth1030091
36ActonpaSuffolkLavenham3Sudbury3 Bildeston857565
42Acton BeauchamppaWorcesterBromyard4Worcester11 Ledbury10122239
33Acton Burnell[C]to & paSalopWenlock7Shrewsbury7 Ch. Stretton7155381

[A] ACLE. Market, Thursday.—Fair, Wednesday before Michaelmas day.

[B] ACONBURY. At this place a nunnery of the order of St. Augustine was founded by Margery, wife of Walter de Lacey, in the reign Nunnery. of King John. The Cliffords were large benefactors to this house, which, at the dissolution, possessed £75. 7s. 6d. per annum. There are some remains yet standing, occupied as a farm house. On the summit of Aconbury Hill, a bold and extensive eminence, well wooded, and commanding a charming view over the adjacent county, are traces of a large encampment.

[C] ACTON BURNELL is celebrated for the remains of an ancient castle, founded by Robert Burnell, bishop of Bath and Wells, a man of eminent abilities, first treasurer, and afterwards chancellor of England, who was much employed by King Edward I. in Welsh affairs. He died at Berwick, in 1292, and was buried in the cathedral at Wells. The castle is a quadrangular building, with a square tower at each corner. The hall in which King Edward I. held his parliament, in 1283, was Edward I. held his parliament here in 1283. 183 feet long, by 41 broad, but the gable ends only remain. The Statutum de Mercatoribus enacted here, is from that circumstance better known as the Statute of Acton Burnell. The successor of the bishop, at the castle, was Sir Edward Burnell, son of Philip Burnell and Maud, daughter of Richard Arundel. He served in many actions in Scotland, under Edward I., and always appeared in great splendour, attended by a chariot decked with banners of his arms. He was summoned to parliament from the fifth to the eighth year of Edward the second's reign, and died in 1315. In 1346, the castle came into the possession of Nicholas Lord Burnell, who died in 1382, and is buried in the church under an altar tomb, inlaid with his effigy in brass. In the reign of Henry VI. the Lovell Lord Burnell's effigy in brass on the altar tomb. family were in possession of this estate, which was forfeited by Lord Lovell, in consequence of his adherence to King Richard III. Henry VII. being seated on the throne, granted Acton Burnell, together with other estates in this county, to Jasper Tudor, Earl of Bedford; after whose death it reverted to the crown, and Henry VIII. granted it to Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey, distinguished for his valour at the battle of Flodden. Sir Humphrey Lee, of Langley, in this parish, was created a baronet, May 3, 1620. Acton Burnell Park is now the residence of Sir Edward Joseph Smythe, Bart. whose family have been seated here from the time of Charles II., when Sir Edward Smythe, of Esh, in Durham, The seat of Sir E.J. Smythe. created a baronet, Feb. 23, 1660, married the daughter and heiress of Sir Richard Lee, Bart. of Langley. The mansion, on a verdant lawn, bordered by a shrubbery, presents a handsome elevation of fine white stone, having a noble Ionic portico, under which is the carriage entrance. Behind the house is the deer park, on a finely wooded eminence, affording one of the most beautiful prospects in the county. The chapelry of Ruckley and Langley is in this parish.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
7Acton GrangetoChesterWarrington4Northwich10 Runcorn5183148
15Acton IronpaGloucesterChip. Sodbu2Thornbury7 Bristol91121372
33Acton PigottchapSalopMuch Wenlo6Shrewsbury8 Ch. Stretton9154...
33Acton ReynoldtoSalopShrewsbury8Wem6 Drayton12152173
33Acton RoundchapSalopWenlock3Bridgenorth6 Ludlow17145203
33Acton ScottpaSalopCh. Stretton 4Bish. Castle10 Ludlow10155204
35Acton Trussellto & paStaffordPenkridge3Stafford4 Lichfield15131551
15Acton TurvillechapGloucesterTetbury11Chippenham12 Sodbury5102236
35AdbastonpaStaffordEccleshall14Newport5 Hodnet7152601
31Adderbury Eastto & paOxfordBanbury3Deddington3 Aynhoe4702471
33AdderleypaSalopDrayton4Whitchurch8 Wem12157468
29AdderstontoNorthumbBeiford3Alnwick12 Wooler10319322
17AdfortontoHerefordLudlow8Presteign8 Knighton8150218
9AddinghampaCumberlandKirk Oswald2Penrith8 Aldstn Moor12291719
45AddinghampaW.R. YorkSkipton5Ottley8 Keighley52132251
37Addington[A]paSurreyCroydon4Westerham10 Bromley512463
5AddingtonpaBucksWinslow2Buckingham5 Bicester115074
21AddingtonpaKentMaidstone7Rochester8 Wrotham327206
28Addington, Gtto & paNorthampThrapston4Kettering7 Higam Ferrers570282
28Addington, Litto & paNorthamp...5...8 ...570264
21AddishampaKentWingham3Canterbury6 Sandwich662390
45Addle[B]to & paW.R. YorkLeeds5Ottley6 Bradford82051063
46Addle-cum-EccuptoW.R. York...5...6 ...8291703
45Addlingfleet[C]paW.R. YorkSnaith11Burton2 Howden6170478

[A] ADDINGTON is on the borders of Kent. Addington Place, a seat erected by Alderman Trecothick, in 1772, was purchased in 1807, for the residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The manor of Addington is held by the feudal service of finding a man to make a mess, called Gerout, in the king's kitchen, at the coronation, and serving it up in Coronation custom. his own person at Westminster Hall. In the reign of William the Conqueror, Addington appears to have been held by Tezelin, cook to the king, which accounts for the origin of the required culinary service. The Archbishop of Canterbury is now the claimant of the service alluded to. Near the village is a curious cluster of tumuli, or mounds Cluster of tumuli. of earth raised over the bodies of the slain, about twenty-five in number, of inconsiderable height. One of them is nearly forty feet in diameter, two are about half that size, and the rest very small.

[B] ADDLE. The church in this town is considered to be one of the most perfect specimens of Roman architecture remaining in England. In 1702, the traces of an ancient Roman town, with fragments of urns, Roman architecture. and of an aqueduct of stone were found in the adjacent moor.

[C] ADDLINGFLEET. A parish and township in the lower division of Osgold Cross, including the townships of Fockerby, Haldenby, and Eastoft. The village is situated very near the junction of the Trent with the Humber, the latter river being one of the largest in the kingdom, formed by the united waters of the Trent, Ouse, Derwent, Aire, and other minor streams. At this part it is about a mile broad, it is the Abus of Ptolemy. It runs towards the east, washing the port of Hull, where it receives the river called by the same name; from thence, taking a south-easterly direction, it expands itself into Boundary between Yorkshire and Lincolnshire. an estuary nearly seven miles across, and mingles with the German ocean. This river, which, with very few exceptions, receives all the waters of Yorkshire from the Ouse, and the greater part of those from the midland counties from the Trent, commands the inland navigation of very extensive and commercial parts of England; namely, those of the Mersey, Dee, Ribble, Severn, Thames, and Avon; it also forms the boundary between Yorkshire and Lincolnshire.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
7AdlingtontoCheshireMacclesfield 6Stockport6 Altringham101721066
22Adlington[A]toLancasterWigan4Chorley4 Bolton92641082
24Addlethorpeto & paLincolnAlford7Spilsby11 Wainfleet9134176
15AdlestroppaGloucesterStow4Burford11 Moreton686196
22AdmarshchapLancasterBurton11Kirkby Lon15 Garstang12240...
5AdstockpaBucksWinslow3Buckingham4 Bicester1152445
28AdstonehamNorthampTowcester7Daventry8 Brackley1067166
8AdventchapCornwallCamelford2Bodmin10 Launceston15230246
45Adwalton[B]hamW.R. YorkBradford4Leeds7 Huddersfield8192...
31AdwellpaOxfordTetsworth2Thame5 Watlington44148
45Adwick-on-DearnechW.R. YorkRotherham6Barnsley8 Doncaster7167145
45Adwickpa & toW.R. YorkDoncaster4Thorne10 Pontefract9166918
12Aff-PiddlepaDorsetDorchester9Bere Regis4 Blandford12111442
7AgdentoChesterMalpas3Whitchurch3 Nantwich11177104
7AgdentoChesterKnutsford6Warrington10 Altringham117999
43AgelthorpetoN.R. YorkMiddleham3Bedale6 Masham4226188
8Agnes, St[C]chaCornwallTruro9Redruth7 Falmouth142566642

[A] ADLINGTON. Through this township runs the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. It contains several coal mines. Adlington Hall, the seat Seat of Sir. Robert Clayton, Bart. of Sir Robert Clayton, Bart., was rebuilt about 1780; it stands in a low situation, on the borders of an extensive park, and contains some very good pictures, amongst which is a head of Charles I., taken after death. Ellerbeck Hall is the seat of John Hodson, Esq. In this neighbourhood is Park Hall, the seat of R.P. German, Esq. The inhabitants of Adlington are chiefly employed in the cotton manufactories of the vicinity.

[B] ADWALTON formerly possessed a market which is now disused. On Adwalton Moor, a battle was fought, in 1642, between Battle fought here in 1642. the Earl of Newcastle, commanding for the king, and the parliamentary general, Lord Fairfax, in which the latter was defeated.

Fairs, February 6, March 9, Easter Thursday, Thursday fortnight after Easter, Whit-Thursday; and every second Thursday thence to Michaelmas, for lean cattle; November 5, and December 23.

[C] St. AGNES is situated on the Bristol Channel. The town and parish, including a considerable mining district, is thickly strewed with the cottages of the miners. It is more frequently called Lighthouse Very high and strong light-house. Island, from a very high and strong light-house erected here, to warn the mariner from the rocks, which are more numerous about this than any other of the Scilly Islands. This building is upwards of sixty feet high, and stands on the most elevated ground. The light is produced by twenty-one parabolic reflectors of copper, plated with silver, and having each an argand lamp in its focus. The reflectors are disposed of in three clusters, of seven in each cluster, and the frame in which they are fixed stands perpendicularly to the horizon, on a shaft united to a machine below, which makes the whole revolve every two minutes. By this motion the light progressively sweeps the whole horizon; and by its gradual intermission and increase, it is readily distinguished from any other. Its brilliancy is also extraordinary; and by these combined efforts its benefits are greatly increased, as the seaman is at once rendered completely sensible of his situation. This light was designed by the ingenious Mr. Adam Walker, (lecturer on natural and experimental philosophy,) under whose inspection it was constructed. The light-house itself is of stone, and was erected, as appears from an inscription over the door, by Captain Hugh Till, and Captain Simon Bayley, in the year 1680. The charges attending the light are defrayed by the Trinity House. At St. Agnes is a pilchard St. Agnes' beacon. fishery. St. Agnes' Beacon, six hundred and sixty-four feet above the level of the sea, is formed out of an ancient cairn, or tumulus of stones; near which, a summer-house has been built, from whence is a fine view of St. Ives, and an extensive sea prospect. Near the same spot is St. Agnes' Well, of which many miraculous stories are in circulation, from its presumed holy and sanative properties.

This place gave birth to John Opie, whose persevering genius Birthplace of John Opie, the painter. advanced him to the highest rank in his profession. He was born at Harmony Cot, in May 1761. The opening years of his existence indicated that he must plod through life in the dull occupation of a carpenter, as successor to his father and grandfather. He distinguished himself at a very early period, for originality and strength of mind, and at twelve years of age commenced an evening school in St. Agnes, teaching arithmetic and writing, and reckoning amongst his scholars some who had nearly doubled his years. His first humble attempts at First attempts at portrait painting. portrait painting were with a smutty stick, against the white-washed wall of his paternal cottage, where he exhibited, in dark colours, very striking likenesses of the whole family. His next step was to draw with ochre on cartridge paper. He was apprenticed to his father, but from some unascertainable cause was turned over to a sawyer; and it was literally in the bottom of a saw-pit that Dr. Walcot, better known by the appellation of Peter Pindar, (who had previously seen and admired some of Opie's rude drawings,) first beheld this untutored Genius fostered by Dr. Walcot. child of genius, under whose patronage he was protected, and his fame promoted. After visiting Exeter, (where he was persuaded to change his surname, which originally was Hoppy, to that of Opie,) finding his success was commensurate with his abilities, it was soon determined they should be brought to act in a wider sphere; and, in 1780, the Doctor and his pupil repaired to London, where not agreeing as to the mode of living together, they separated, and although their attachment had been cemented by long-continued kindness, subsequently to Anecdotes of Opie. this period, yet they were never after cordially united. The opinion Opie entertained of the services which he had received from the Doctor, may be gathered from the following curious note of hand, which was said to be in the possession of the latter: "I promise to paint, for Dr. Walcot, any picture or pictures, he may demand, as long as I live; otherwise, I desire the world will consider me as a ... ungrateful son of a ..., John Opie." It is not certain that he ever deviated from this voluntary obligation, but it is matter of pleasant remark, that he always made his friend pay eighteen-pence for the canvass! Opie was as fortunate in Introduction to the King. London as he had been at Exeter. To Pindar, however, he was indebted for his introduction to public notice. Through him his pictures were shown to Mrs. Boscawen, by whom Opie was introduced to the late Mrs. Delaney, who procured for him the notice of King George III. An opportunity was contrived for the royal family to see his picture of the The Old Beggar Man; soon after which, Opie was honoured with a command to repair to Buckingham House. The artist's account of this interview was given in the following characteristical manner to Walcot, who has often been heard to relate it with great humour. "There was Mr. West," said Opie, "in the room, Opie's relation of his interview with royalty. and another gentleman. First, her majesty came in; and I made a sad mistake in respect to her, till I saw her face, and discovered by her features that she was the queen. In a few minutes his majesty came hopping in. I suppose," said Opie, "because he did not wish to frighten me. He looked at the pictures and liked them; but he whispered to Mr. West—'tell the young man I can only pay a gentleman's Royal economy. price for them.'" The picture which his majesty bought was that of A Man Struck by Lightning. The price given was £10, with which Opie returned to the Doctor full of spirits. His friend, when he heard the story, said, "Why, John, thou hast only got £8. for thy picture." "Indeed, but I have though," cried Opie, "for I have got the £10. safe in my pocket." On this he showed him the money. "Aye," rejoined the Doctor, "but dost thou know his majesty has got the frame for nothing, and that is worth £2." "D—- it, so he has," cried Opie—"I'll go back and knock at the door, and ask for the frame; D—- it, I will." He was actually about to put his resolve into execution, till dissuaded by the Doctor. Popularity naturally followed this notice of royalty. The ladies, however, soon deserted him, as his likenesses were not flattering; for where Nature had been niggardly, Opie refused to be liberal. He afterwards became better acquainted with the art of pleasing them; a change which has been attributed to Mrs. Opie, who used to stand over him, and endeavour to make him sensible of the graces of the female form. It was in the year 1786, First known as an exhibitor at Somerset House, 1786. that Mr. Opie became known as an exhibitor at Somerset House; soon after which he aspired to academical honours, and ultimately attained the rank of Royal Academician, and afterwards succeeded Fuseli, in the professorship of painting. He was twice married, but at what period his first hymeneal union occurred we are not informed—it was inauspicious. His second marriage, which took place on May 8, 1798, was more fortunate; and in the society of the late Mrs. Opie, the amiable author of many beautiful and interesting literary compositions, he enjoyed a delightful relief from the toilsome duties of his profession. Mr. Opie was in the daily acquisition of wealth and fame, and rapidly advancing to the very zenith of popularity, when his mortal career was suddenly closed by death, on Thursday, April 9, 1807, in the Died in 1807. forty-sixth year of his age. "As a portrait painter he has great claims to praise, particularly in his men, which are firm, bold, and freely delineated, and occasionally well coloured. His women are heavy, inelegant, and chiefly accompanied with a hardness that destroys all beauty."

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
9AglionbytoCumberlandCarlisle3Brampton6 Penrith18302107
22AightontoLancasterClitheroe6Blackburn7 Preston122101980
43AikbertoN.R. YorkMiddleham5Richmond6 Bedale423443
46AiketoE.R. YorkBeverley6M. Weighton9 Gt. Driffield719086
9Aiktonto & paCumberlandWigton4Carlisle9 Abbey-holm7309753
24AilsbypaLincolnshireGt. Grimsby 4Caistor 9 Barton15165...
28AilsworthhamNorthampPeterboro4M. Deeping9 Stamford983289
43Ainderby MyerstoN.R. YorkCatterick3Richmond4 Middleham7222...
43Ainderby QuernhowtoN.R. YorkThirsk6Northallerton 8 Ripon7217107
43Ainderby Steepleto & paN.R. YorkBedale5...2 Darlington12223802
9AinstablepaCumberlandPenrith11Carlisle11 Kirk Oswald5295...
46AinstiedisW.R. York............ ......1998740
43AiskewtoN.R. YorkBedale1Northallerton 6 Richmond9223586
44AismonderslyW.R. YorkRipon1Aldborough5 Masham7212...
22AinsworthtoLancasterManchester 7Bury3 Bolton81891584
9AinthorntoCumberlandWigton10Carlisle12 Gretna Green8315203
22AintreetoLancasterLiverpool6Ormskirk8 Prescott10212247
44AirtontoW.R. YorkSettle6Skipton6 Arnecliff7230179
43AiryholmetoN.R. YorkNew Malton7York16 Helmsley6223...
43AisenbytoN.R. YorkBorobridge6Ripon6 Thirsk5211...
43Aislabyto & paN.R. YorkWhitby2Scarboro18 Pickering15237402
13AislabytoDurhamStockton4Darlington11 Yarm1244143
24Aisthorpeto & paLincolnLincoln7Gainsboro12 Kirton1214089
29AkeldtoNorthumbWooler2Coldstream9 Kirk Newton3322171
5Akeleyto & paBucksBrackley9Buckingham3 Sto. Stratford659291
36AkenhampaSuffolkIpswich4Woodbridge9 Needham773119
18Albans, St[A]bo & toHertsWatford8Dunstable12 Hatfield6214772

[A] St. ALBANS is situated on the river Ver, or Muss, and consists of three parishes; parts of two of which, extend beyond the limits of the Originally the British metropolis. borough. It is said to have been the site of the ancient British metropolis of Cassibelanus, and is very near that of the ancient Roman Verulam, mentioned by Tacitus, being the same as the Saxon Watlingceaster, so called because seated on the road called Watling-street. It was here that Queen Boadicea made her celebrated assault on the Romans, and failed, after an immense slaughter of seventy thousand men. In 795, Offa, king of Mercia, erected an abbey here, in memory of St. Alban, the British protomartyr, who was born here in the third century. He served in the Roman army, but was converted to Christianity by a monk, named Amphilabus, and suffered during the Dioclesian persecution, A.D. 303. The abbey subsequently obtained great privileges, and became very rich, the revenues at the dissolution amounting to upwards of £2500. per annum. Monastic foundations had their origin in this country, about the time of St. Augustine, who came from Rome, to convert the Pagan Saxons to Christianity; and when Offa ascended the throne of Mercia, about twenty great monasteries had been founded in England, and about the same number of episcopal sees established. Offa's zeal prompted him to do what many of his crowned predecessors King Offa's extraordinary vision, which induced him to build the abbey. had done; but being undetermined whom to select as the patron saint of his establishment, it is recorded that, while at the city of Bath, an angel appeared to him in the silence of the night, desiring him to raise out of the earth the body of Alban, the first British martyr, and place his remains in a suitable shrine. Even the memory of Alban had been lost for three hundred and forty years; but the king assembling his clergy and people at Verulam, an active search was made for his body with prayer, fasting, and alms; when it is said a ray of light was seen by all to stand over the place of burial, similar to the star that conducted the magi to Bethlehem. The ground was therefore opened, and, in the presence of the king, the body of Alban was found. Offa is said to have placed a golden circle round the head of the St. Alban's body found after a lapse of 494 years; a golden circle placed round his head. deceased, with an inscription, to signify his name and title, and immediately caused the remains of the saint to be conveyed to a small chapel, without the walls of Verulam, as the town was then called, until a more noble edifice could be raised for its reception. This is said to have occurred on the 1st day of August, 791, four hundred and ninety-four years after the martyrdom of Alban. Offa afterwards made a journey to Rome, and obtained the desired privileges of his intended foundation, with great commendations for his zeal and piety, from the pope, when he undertook to build a stately church and monastery, to the memory of St. Alban. From this abbey the town originated, which early obtained considerable importance. The abbey church, which claims particular attention for its size, beauty, and antiquity, is constructed of Roman brick, to which age has given the appearance of stone. A stone screen, erected before the communion table, in 1461, is much admired for the richness and lightness of its sculpture. The tombs of the founder, Offa, and that of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, are shown here; and, not Duke of Gloucester's body found nearly entire. many years ago, the leaden coffin, containing the body of the latter, was opened, and the corpse found nearly entire. The Roman antiquities discovered on the site have been very numerous. The effect of the venerable abbey, when seen from a distance, is extremely imposing; situated upon an eminence, its massive towers rise majestically above the houses of the ancient town, which is well, known to have derived its first importance from the Romans, since which, it has increased chiefly under the protecting influence of successive abbots of this rich and powerful monastery. The prospect of its mouldering ruins, forces upon the mind a melancholy train of reflection on the instability of all human institutions.

Market, Saturday.—Fairs, March 25 and 26; October 10 and 11, for horses, cows, sheep, and hiring servants.—Inns, Angel, and White Hart.—Mail arrives 10.15 P.M. Departs 4.30 A.M.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
38AlbournpaSussexHurst2Brighton8 Cuckfield642362
33Albrightonto & chapSalopShrewsbury4Wem7 Ellesmere121571054
33AlbrightonpaSalopShiffnall6Bridgnorth10 Wolverhamp713798
27AlburghpaNorfolkHarleston3Bungay5 Norwich16103586
31AlburypaOxfordTetsworth3Thame4 Wheatley345239
18AlburypaHertsBp Stortford5Standon4Buntingford 7 35631
27AlbypaNorfolkAylesham6Cromer5N. Walsham6126346
12AlcesterlibDorsetShaftesbury 1 Sherborne16 Salisbury 20 101227
39Alcester[A]m.t.& paWarwickWarwick16Stratford 8Bromsgrove12 103 2405
19AlconburypaHuntsHuntingdon4Kimbolton 8Stilton9 63 765
19Alconbury WestonchapHunts...5...8...863441
43AldboroughtoN.R. YorkRichmond7Darlington 5 Bernard Cas 10 240522
46Aldboroughto & paE.R. YorkHull11Hornsea6Hedon6185620
45Aldborough[B]pa & toW.R. YorkYork18Thirsk10Ripon62072447
41Aldbourn[C]to & paWiltsMarlboro7Ramsbury3Swindon8731418
18AldburypaHertsTring3Dunstable 7Berkhampst4 34 695
22AldcliffehamLancasterLancaster2Garstang 10Kirk. Londs. 17 23896
36Aldeburgh[D]m. t.SuffolkOrford5Saxmundha 7Dunwich10 941341

[A] ALCESTER is situated at the confluence of the two small rivers, Alne and Arrow, having a bridge over each. It is supposed to have been a Roman station; Roman coins, urns, and similar relics, A Roman station. having been frequently found here. The Roman way of Icknield Street also passed through it, and from its situation it is deemed the Alana of Richard of Cirencester. It was anciently a borough by prescription, Many relics of antiquity found. and of some note in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, when it became the property of the Beauchamps, and afterwards of the Grevilles. The church is a fine gothic structure; the market is well supplied with corn; and the manufacture of needles is very extensive. Here is a Free School, founded by Walter Newport, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and various alms-houses and small charities, originating in different benefactors. Traces of the site of Traces of an abbey founded by King Stephen. an abbey, founded in the reign of King Stephen, to the north of the town, are still visible.

Market, Tuesday.—Mail arrives 9½ A.M., departs 8½ P.M.—Inn, Angel.—Fairs, March 20, June 23, Tuesday before April 5, May 18, 2nd Tuesday in July, for cheese.

[B] ALDBOROUGH. Fair, September 4.

[C] ALDBOURN. Market, Tuesday.

[D] ALDEBURGH is pleasantly situated in the valley of Slaughton, and bounded on the eastern side by the sea, which has made considerable encroachments, and nearly washed a street away. The river Ald runs on the south side, and forms a convenient quay. The town is mean in construction, and chiefly inhabited by fishermen and seafaring people. Soles, lobsters, and other fish are abundant. It is remarkable as the birth-place of the late Rev. George Crabbe, emphatically styled Birth place of the Rev. George Crabbe, the poet. Biographical sketch of his life. the Poet of the Poor, who was born December 24, 1754. His father was an officer in the Customs, and at first gave him an education, merely suitable to follow the same pursuit; but when his prospects brightened, he removed his son to a classical seminary, where he was instructed for a surgeon and apothecary, to which profession he was in due time apprenticed, but relinquished all views of establishing himself in practice. At a very early period he became a versifier; and among his precocious attempts was a prize poem, on Hope, which was inserted in the Lady's Magazine, then published by Mr. Wheeble. Crabbe came to London, in 1778, with £3. in his Crabbe's arrival in London, 1778. pocket, and made versification his chief study. His first published work was The Candidate, a poem, in quarto, which came into the world anonymously, in 1780, and was favourably received. A short time afterwards, his poverty and poetry induced him to seek the His first published work well received. patronage of Edmund Burke, to whom he submitted a large quantity of miscellaneous composition; he had no introduction to Mr. Burke, excepting his own letter, stating his circumstances; no recommendation but his distress, and yet his application was attended with success. His patron introduced him to some of the first men in the country, and soon after became the means of benefiting his fame and fortune; he selected from young Crabbe's works, The Library and The Village, suggesting at the same time certain corrections and improvements. Among the eminent persons to whom he was thus introduced, was the Right Hon. Charles James Fox, Sir Joshua Reynolds, at whose mansion he first Crabbe's introduction to eminent persons. beheld, and was made known to, Dr. Johnson, who gave the young poet his opinion of The Village. Mr. Burke having directed Mr. Crabbe's views to the church, in 1781 he was ordained a deacon by the Bishop of Norwich, and priest by the same dignitary in the following year; he was next appointed domestic chaplain to the Duke of Rutland at Belvoir Castle. As Mr. Crabbe had not received a university education, he was offered a degree by Trinity College, Cambridge, but eventually received the grant from the Archbishop of Canterbury, at Lambeth, and thus became a Bachelor of Laws. Burke also Promoted to the church. introduced Mr. Crabbe to Lord Chancellor Thurlow, who presented him to rectories in Dorset and Lincoln consecutively. He had previously a curacy at Strathorn, a village near Belvoir Castle, where he married and became a father; he was universally respected for his talents and virtues, and died at Trowbridge, at seven o'clock in the morning of Died at Trowbridge 1132. the 8th of February, 1832. The publications of Mr. Crabbe have placed him high on the roll of British Poets.

Market, Wednesday and Saturday.—Fairs, March 1, and May 3, for toys.—Inn, White Lion.—Mail arrives at 9½ A.M. departs 5½ P.M.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
18AldenhampaHertsWatford3St. Albans6Elstree3171494
28AldertonpaNorthampTowcester4Northampton9Sto. Stratford958162
7Aldfordto & paChesterChester5Malpas10Tarporley9177710
45AldfieldtoW.R. YorkRipon3Ripley4Borobridge7208133
21Aldington[B]paKentHythe6Ashford7New Romney860732

[A] ALDERMASTON. Fairs, May 6, July 7, for horses and cattle, and October 11, for pedlery.

[B] ALDINGTON. Elizabeth Barton, commonly called the Holy Maid of Kent, a religious impostor, lived in the reign of Henry VIII. She was a servant at Aldington, and having been for a long The History of the Holy Maid of Kent. time afflicted with convulsions, which distorted her limbs and countenance, and threw her body into the most violent agitations, acquired a power of counterfeiting the same appearances whenever she pleased. Richard Master, who then held this living, with other ecclesiastics, thinking her a proper instrument for their purpose, induced her to pretend that all she said and did, was by a supernatural impulse, and taught her to act her part in the most perfect manner. Thus she pretended to be honoured with visions; to hear heavenly voices and most ravishing melody; she declaimed against the wickedness of the times, against heresy and innovations; exhorting all persons to frequent the church, to hear masses, to make frequent confessions, and to pray to our lady, and all saints. This artful management, with her apparent piety, virtue, and austerity of life, completely deceived even Sir Thomas More, Bishop Fisher, and Archbishop Warham, the last of which appointed commissioners to examine her, to whom she was instructed to say, in her counterfeit trances, that she should never recover till she went to visit the image of the Virgin Mary, in a chapel dedicated to her in this parish, which was done. After that she pretended that she was called to be a nun, and the Archbishop being fully satisfied with the reports, had her placed in the nunnery of St. Sepulchre, Canterbury, Holy Maid of Kent. where she alleged she had visions and revelations of a divine nature, so as to completely impose upon the public. The main object of the priests, her managers, was directed publicly to announce how God had revealed to her, "that in case the king should divorce Queen Catherine of Anjou, and take another wife during her life, his royalty would not be of a month's duration, but that he should die the death of a villain," which created considerable excitement, and much controversy: encouraged by the lenity of the government, the ecclesiastics in this conspiracy, resolved to publish the revelations of the nun throughout the kingdom. They had communicated them to the Pope's Ambassadors, and exhorted Queen Catherine to persist in her resolutions. At length this The imposture detected. confederacy became a serious affair, and Henry ordered the maid and her accomplices to be examined in the Star Chamber, where they confessed all the particulars of the imposture; and afterwards, upon a scaffold erected at Paul's Cross, were compelled to hear their confession publicly read; they were confined in the Tower until the meeting of parliament, by whom the whole affair was pronounced to be a conspiracy against the king's life, and crown. The nun, and her confederates, were Herself and confederates executed at Tyburn. eventually attainted of high treason, and executed at Tyburn, April 20th, 1534, where she confessed the imposture, laying the blame on her accomplices, the priests; craving pardon of God, and the King.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
35AldridgepaStaffordWalsall3Sut. Coldfield4Lichfleld61161804
9Aldstone Moor[A]to & paCumberlandCarlisle25Kirk Oswald12Haltwhistle102726858
44AldwarktoN. R YorkBorobridge5Easingwold4Knaresboro9202190
45AldwarketoW. R YorkRotherham2Sheffield4Barnsley8172
28Aldwinckle-all Saints p NorthampThrapston 3 Kettering 10 Oundle 5 76 247
28Aldwinckle-St PeterpaNorthamp...3...10...576171
4Aldsworth[B]paBerksEast Ilsley4Wallingford7Newbury1150268

[A] ALDSTONE MOOR, in Leath Ward, is situated on the borders of Northumberland, in the most picturesque and romantic part of the Picturesque and Romantic scenery. county. The town itself stands upon a hill, at the bottom of which runs the river Tyne. The immediate vicinity abounds in lead-mines, on estates which once belonged to the Derwentwater family. On the attainder of the last earl, they were granted in aid of the support of Greenwich Hospital, from the trustees of which national institution, the mines are at present leased. Satin spar is found in this parish; there is also a pool on Gildersdale Fell, the slime of which is used for painting The slime of a pool use for painting yellow. yellow. About three miles from the town, are the earthworks of Whitley castle, where relics of antiquity have frequently been discovered.

Market, Saturday.—Fairs, last Thursday in May, 1st Thursday in September, for cattle, horses, linen and woollen cloth.

[B] ALDWORTH is pleasantly situated on a hill: here was anciently a mansion belonging to the family of De La Beche, the site of which is now Beach Farm. In the churchyard is a remarkable yew-tree, the Remarkable yew-tree, nine yards round. trunk measuring nine yards in circumference, at upwards of four feet from the ground. The church is celebrated for its very ancient monuments, nine in number, disposed in enriched arches on each side, and Church celebrated for ancient monuments. in the centre of the interior; these are supposed to belong to the De La Beche family, and from the costume of the figures upon the tombs, may be referred to the fourteenth century; six of them are knights in armour; two are females, and one in the common habit of the time; some of the knights are represented lying cross-legged; these had vowed, or accompanied a crusade; the workmanship is excellent, and the attitude and expression of each of the figures that remain perfect, are exceedingly graceful, but several of the monuments are now considerably mutilated. The font is very ancient, and remarkably plain, but very capacious, and somewhat singular in its form.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
24Alfordm.t. & paLincolnSaltfleet12Lincoln34Louth111421784
34AlfordpaSomersetShepton7Castle Cary2Glastonbury8115137
42AlfrickchapWorcesterBromvard6Worcester8Gt. Malvern10119493
24AlgarkirkpaLincolnFosdyke Br.3Boston6Donnington7111651
15Alkingtonti & toGloucesterOld Passage10Berkeley1Dursley31131167
41Alcanningspa & toWiltsCalne7Devizes4Marlborough988811
29Allendalepa & toNorthumbAldsto. Moor10Hexham8Haltwhistle102735540
8Allen, St.paCornwallSt. Michael4Truro4Falmouth12252637
29Allentonpa & toNorthumbWooler16Rothbury8Bellingham15310822
43AllerstonpaN.R. YorkNew Malton8Pickering5Scarborough10220385
46AllerthorpepaE.R. YorkYork11Pocklington 2M. Weighton6212 185
43AllerthorpetoN.R. YorkNorthallerton6Bedale5Thirsk6218167
34Allerton ChapelpaSomersetWells10Axbridge3Bridgewater11132313
45Allerton ChapelpaW.R. YorkHalifax7Leeds2Bradford81941730
45AllertontoW.R. YorkOttley5Bradford4Keighly42001733
45Allerton BywatertoW.R. YorkWakefield6Pontefract5Leeds6182375
45Allerton Mauleverer[B]pW.R. YorkWetherby5Knaresboro4Borobridge5202

[A] ALFRETON, is situated about two miles from the commencement of the moors, which extend so widely in this county. The town is Built by King Alfred. supposed to have been built by King Alfred, and to derive its name from him. The spot is shown where the house stood in which he lived. The inhabitants are principally employed in a stocking manufactory, and in the neighbouring collieries. Earthenware is also made in this place, and the Monday market, for corn, is considerable. In 700 Roman coins found here. Greenhill Lane, near this town, seven hundred Roman coins, were discovered by a labourer employed in repairing a fence.

Markets, Monday and Friday.—Mail arrives 2¼ P.M., departs 9¼ A.M.—Fairs, horses and cattle, October 8, and November 22, statute.—Inns, Angel, and George.

[B] ALLERTON MAULEVERER, is situated in a very beautiful part of Yorkshire. The park now in the possession of Lord Stourton, consists of about four hundred acres, in which is a superb mansion; the land is Extensive park and mansion. very rich, and charmingly diversified by a variety of hills, dales, and groves, which are considerably enlivened, and receive much additional beauty, from a very fine expanse of water. An octagonal tower has Picturesque tower. been built on a lofty hill, finely shaded with trees; it consists of two rooms, and is approached by a double flight of steps, each of which, as well as the terrace around the building, are protected by iron palisades. From this commanding situation, all the various beauties of the park are seen to the greatest advantage, and many extensive and diversified prospects are enjoyed. Here was a priory of Benedictine Here was a Priory of Benedictine monks. monks, founded by Richard Mauleverer, in the reign of Henry II., which was dissolved about three centuries afterwards by King Henry VI. The manor was the seat of the Mauleverer family for more than five hundred years, when Sir Richard, the last heir, who died unmarried, left the estate by will to his mother, who, afterwards by marriage, conveyed it to the Arundel family, and from them it became the property of the Honourable, William Monkton Arundel, Viscount Galway, whose son, the late Lord Galway, sold it in the year 1786, to the late Duke of York, who afterwards occasionally resided in the park, with George IV., then Prince of Wales. The estate, comprising four thousand five hundred and twenty-five acres, was sold by the Royal Duke to Sale of the estate by the late Duke of York, for £110,000. Colonel Thornton, for £110,000; and was, in 1805, resold by that gentleman to the late Lord Stourton, father of the present proprietor. The mansion stands on a gentle elevation; it was erected by his Royal Highness the Duke of York, and has since been considerably improved.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
23AllextonpaLeicesterRockingham6M. Harboro9Uppingham58968
9AllhallowspaCumberlandWigton5Market Ireby4Allonby7308205
12AllingtonpaDorsetBridport1Lyme Regis8Beaminster51361300
21Allington[A] paKentMaidstone2Rochester7Wrotham8 32 37

[A] ALLINGTON. Situated in the hundred of Larkefield, in the lathe of Aylesford, near the river Medway. Allington Castle was originally built in the Saxon times, by a noble family denominated The castle. Columbary, but was razed afterwards by the Danes. The manor was given after the conquest to Bishop Odo, (in whose time there was Mansion given to Bishop Odo. a church at Allington,) and on his disgrace, to the great Earl Warrenne, who is stated to have had the castle rebuilt, which, however, seems to be doubtful, as the famous Sir Stephen Penchester, constable of Dover Castle, in the reign of Edward I., and then owner of this manor, had a license to fortify, and embattle, his mansion-house here. It passed afterwards to the Cobham family; and from them to the Brents, by whom it was alienated to Sir Henry Wyatt, a descendant from Sir Henry Wyatt deprived of seventeen manors and his liberty, for treason. a worthy Yorkshire family; who, besides losing seventeen manors, was deprived of his liberty for engaging in the plot against Richard III. in favour of the Earl of Richmond; but when success had crowned the attempts of the latter, he was released by the new king, knighted, made banneret, a knight of the bath, and a privy counsellor. He made this castle his residence; and here was born his accomplished son and successor, Sir Thomas Wyatt. This gentleman who was equally renowned, as a scholar, a soldier, and a statesman, (in consequence of which he was considered to be "the delight of the muses and mankind") made this a "fair seat," and was visited here by Henry VIII., Sir Thomas Wyatt, was an accomplished scholar, soldier and statesman. (as his father Sir Henry had also been,) with whom he was a great favourite; though he appears in some degree to have unintentionally excited his jealousy, through the admiration which his accomplishments had raised in the breast of the fascinating Anne Boleyn. He died in his thirty-eighth year, at Sherborne, in Dorsetshire, of a violent fever. His son Sir Thomas Wyatt, the younger, being deprived of his estates and life, for treason against Queen Mary, this castle and manor became vested in the crown, and were granted, on lease by Elizabeth, to John Astley Esq., master of her jewels, in her eleventh year. His son, Sir John Astley, afterwards had the whole granted to him by the queen's letters patent, dated in her twenty-sixth year, and from Parish consists of one house, a church, and a cottage. his family it was transferred to that of Lord Romney, and is now the property of the present earl. The remains of the castle are particularly curious and interesting, but give the idea rather of a fortified dwelling, than of a place of strength. The moat still exists, as does the entrance gateway, which was erected by the Cobhams. Besides the castle and parsonage, (a mere cottage,) there is only one house in this parish; though Sir Stephen de Penchester is recorded to have procured a grant of a market weekly, and a three days annual fair for his manor of Allington.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
11Allington, EastpaDevonKingsbridge4Dartmouth6Totness7205677
11Allington, WestpaDevon...1Modbury7Plymouth18207872
24Allington, WestpaLincolnGrantham5Newark10M. Mowbray 16 115 357
22Allithwaite, UppertoLancasterCartmel3Hawkeshead11Ulverstone 11 255 759
22Allithwaite, Ferry 6 257 838
9AllonbytoCumberlandWigton11Cockermouth9Abbey-Holm 8 315 783
36All Saints, St. ElmpaSuffolkHalesworth5Bungay5Harleston5105439
17AlmeleypaHerefordWeobly5Kington4Leominster 13150 670
12Almer, WestpaDorsetBlandford6Bere Regis6Wimborne7107
35AlmingtontoStaffordDrayton1Newcastle12Eccleshall 10 158 340
39Almington & DelphtoWarwickTamworth2Atherstone7Coleshill 10 112 264
38AlmodingtonpaSussexChichester6Bognor10Selsea-Bill 4 68
45Almondbury[A]pa & toW.R. YorkHuddersfield2Barnsley10Wakefield918630606
15Almondsburypa & tiGloucesterThornbury4Old Pas. Hou.5Bristol81171408
34AlmsfordpaSomersetCastle Cary1Bruton4Glastonbury 9 114 304
43Alnepa & toN.R. YorkEasingwold3Borobridge6Thirsk92121967
39Alne, Greatchap & toWarwickAlcester3Henley-Arden5Stratford7103343
29Alnhampa & toNorthumbAlnwick14Wooler11Rothbury9314278
29Alnwick[B]m. t. & paNorthumbNewcastle34Morpeth19...11 308 6788

[A] ALMONDBURY is situated near the river Calder, in the upper division of the wapentake of Aybrigg. Here is a grammar school, Grammar school founded by James I. founded by patent from James I. and endowed with about £120 per annum. This place is noted for its extensive woollen manufactories. It was anciently called Albanbury. In the neighbourhood traces of an ancient castle, on an eminence, are still discernable. It is supposed, by some antiquarians, to have been the Campodonum of the Ancient castle.Campodonum of the Romans. Romans, and subsequently a royal seat of some of the Saxon kings.

[B] ALNWICK, is on the high road from London to Berwick, and usually regarded as the capital of the county. It is situated partly in the southern division of Barnborough Ward, and partly in the eastern division of Coquetdale Ward. It is built irregularly, on the declivities of a hill, near the river Alne, over which a handsome stone bridge was erected by the late Duke of Northumberland, which bears the Percy crest on the parapet; there is also another bridge, of one arch, lower down the river; these two bridges serve as boundaries to the fine lawns surrounding the castle. At the head of Pottergate is a tower or clock-house, built in 1786. An abbey of Premonstratension canons An abbey of monks, founded in 1147. was founded at Alnwick by Eustace St. John, in the year 1147. It was pleasantly situated on the northern margin of the Alne, the site of which was granted, in 1549, to Ralph Sadler, and Lawrence Wennington, after which it became the seat of the Brandling family, and also of the Doubleday family, by whom it was sold to the Duke of Northumberland. A fine gate house still remains, on which the Percy arms is visible. This town has a spacious market place, and a considerable town hall, in which the sessions and county courts are held. It is paved, watched, and lighted, under an act passed in 1821. Although the county town, the assizes are held at Newcastle. Alnwick Castle has been for many centuries a fortress of great Fortress of great strength. strength, and the family mansion of the Percys'; it stands on an eminence on the south side of the Alne, opposite to the town, and commands a beautiful view of the country. The walls are flanked with sixteen gothic towers, the battlements of which, are ornamented with figures of ancient warriors: it is very celebrated in border history, and was peculiarly fatal to the kings of Scotland, of whom Malcolm II. and his son Edward, The fall of Malcolm II. and his son Edward. fell before it; and William, surnamed the Lion, was taken prisoner. The castle has lately undergone a complete repair; great attention having been paid to the restoration of the gothic ornaments in their original style. The chapel has been rendered extremely beautiful, by the introduction of a ceiling, in imitation of the celebrated one of King's College, Cambridge. There is also a handsome window, on the model of one at York Minster, and the walls are painted in the manner of those of the cathedral of Milan. The tenants of the estate at Alnwick, in the year 1818, erected a monument to the memory of Monument to the memory of the late Duke of Northumberland. the late Duke of Northumberland, who died in 1817, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. The Percy column, as it is called, stands on a beautiful knoll, adjoining the road on the southern entrance to the town; it rises without a pedestal, and may be seen in every direction, it is eighty-three feet in height, but may be ascended easily by a circular flight of stairs within. There is an immemorial custom continued here on the proclamation of the several Curious customs in Alnwick. fairs; divers adjacent townships, which are free of toll in the borough, by this service, send their deputies to attend the bailiff, on the eve of the fair, when he makes proclamation; after which they keep watch all night in every part of the town, and this is the most perfect remains of watch and ward retained in any part of this country. It is said that King John, having endured considerable inconvenience from the miry state of the roads, in humorous revenge, directed that for the future, the freemen of Alnwick, should be made in the following manner, which is still observed.—On St. Mark's day, those who Making freemen at Alnwick through a muddy pool. are to be made free, assemble in the market place, dressed in white, with white caps, and a sword by their side. They proceed on horseback from this place to the town moor, headed by the four chamberlains, attired in the same manner, where they alight and rush through a muddy pool; having performed this ceremony, they change their soiled garments, and return to the town. Here is a free school, supported by a revenue arising out of the tolls, and various minor charities.

Market, Saturday,—Mail arrives 6¼ A.M., departs 5½ P.M.—Fairs, Palm Sunday eve, for shoes, hats, &c.; May 12th, horses and horned cattle; last Monday in July, linen and woollen cloth; 1st Tuesday in October, and October 28th, horses and cattle; and Saturday before Christmas Day, for shoes, hats, and woollens.—Bankers, Ridley and Co., draw on Glynn and Co.—Inn, White Swan.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
14AlresfordpaEssexColchester5St. Osyth6Manningtre856297
16Alresford, New[A]m.t.HantsSouthamp.19Winchester7Alton10571437

[A] NEW ALRESFORD, is in the north division of the hundred of Alton: seated on the river Itchin, at no great distance from its source. It was anciently a more populous place than at present, the navigation Formerly a populous place. of the river, having at one time extended from Southampton to this town; whereas, it now ceases at Winchester. Alresford is divided into two parishes, of which that of Old Alresford is deemed the mother church. The town, which formerly sent a member to parliament, is governed by a bailiff and eight burgesses; and the petty sessions are held here. There is a manufacture of linseys of some consequence, but generally speaking, the trade is much decayed. At Tichbourne Tichbourne Hall, seat of Sir H. Tichbourne. Hall, about two miles distant, the seat of Sir H. Tichbourne, there has been bestowed annually, on Lady Day, from the reign of Henry II. a gift to every applicant of twopence in bread or money; of which bounty, in some years, no less than seventeen hundred persons have partaken.

Market, Thursday.—Mail arrives 3½ A.M. departs 11½ P.M.—Fairs, last Thursday in July, and October 17, sheep, &c.—Bankers, Knapp & Co. draw on Barclay & Co.—Inn, Swan.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
16Alresford, OldpaHantsSouthamp.19Winchester7Alton1057459
35Alewas HayesdisStafford...4...9...612477
42AlstonechapWorcesterTewkesbury 5Evesham7Pershore7 101 78
35Alstonefieldpa & toStaffordAshbourn6Longnor6Winster81445169
8AlternonpaCornwallLaunceston 8Camelford8Bodmin16 222 1069
22Althamto & chapLancasterBurnley5Colne11Blackburn6212413
14AlthornepaEssexMaldon6Southminster 3Rochford6 42 352
24Althorppa & toLincolnBurton5Epworth5Glandford Br 12 165 981
27AlthorpehamNorfolkFakenham2N. Walsingh.3Holt101119
45AltoftstoW.R. YorkWakefield4Leeds8Pontefract3186502
16Alton[A]m.t. & paHantsSouthamp.29Basingstok e10Farnham10472742
41Alton BarnespaWiltsMarlboro7Devizes7Pewsey482138
12Alton PancraspaDorsetDorchester7Cerne-Abbas3Sherborne10120210
41Alton PriorschapWiltsDevizes7Marlboro7Pewsey482205

[A] ALTON is seated on the river Wye; it is a pleasant open town, consisting of three streets, of which the principal contains some handsome houses. It is governed by a constable appointed by the magistracy, and a petty sessions are held in the town. The district around is celebrated for the superiority of its hop plantations, and Celebrated for hops, and manufactures in serges and other worsted fabrics. possesses manufactures of druggets, serges, and other worsted fabrics, which are dyed in the wool. It was at Alton that Sir William Waller, in December 1643, obtained some advantages over the forces of Lord Hopton, who had taken his post in the town, the regiment commanded by Colonel Bowles retreated to the church, but not having time to barricade Church converted to a fortress. the doors, threw down their arms, and surrendered; but the Colonel himself, refusing quarter, was slain on the spot. Amongst the celebrated men to whom this town has given birth, may be mentioned William de Alton, a Dominican Friar, who lived in the time of Edward II., and wrote on the universality of the pollution of mankind by original sin. John Pitts, the Roman Catholic Biographer, who was born in 1560, and died in 1616; and William Curtis the Botanist, who was born about 1746, and died in 1799.

Market, Saturday.—Mail arrives 2 A.M. departs 12¾ A.M.—Fairs, Saturday before May, sheep and lambs, September 29, cattle and toys.—Commercial Banking Company, draw on Williams, and Co.—Inn, Swan.

[B] ALTRINGHAM is a very neat market-town in the parish of Bowden, and hundred of Bucklow, near which the Duke of Bridgewater's canal passes from the Mersey at Runcorn, to Manchester; it Yarn, cotton, and worsted manufactories possesses several factories of yarn, cotton, and worsted, and the vicinity supplies the markets of Manchester well with fruit and vegetables. This town was anciently a fee for the barons of Dunham Massey, one of whom granted to it a guild mercatory in the thirteenth century.

Market, Tuesday.—Mail arrives 4½ A.M., departs 9½ P.M.—Fairs, April 29, August 5, November 22, for cattle and drapery.—Inns, Bowling Green and Unicorn.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
10Alvastonto & chapDerbyDerby4Kegworth8Burton12124364
33Alvelypa & toSalopBridgenorth6Bewdley8Cleobury9133836
45AlverthorpetoW.R. YorkWakefield1Leeds7Dewsbury51834859
15Alveston[B]paGloucesterThornbury3New Pas6Bristol9119800
35Alvetonpa & toStaffordCheadle4Uttaxeter6Ashbourn8422391
45AlwoodleytoW.R. YorkLeeds4Ottley5Wetherby8193142
16Ambersham, NorthtiHantsMidhurst3...4Haslemere6 49 121
16Ambersham, SouthtiHants...3...4...649183
35AmblecoathamStaffordStourbridge 1 Dudley 4 Wolverhamp 8 122 1157
40Ambleside[C]mt & chapWestmorlndKendal13Helvelyn8Winanderm12781095

[A] ALVECHURCH is situated in the middle division of the hundred of Halfshire; it was formerly a borough and governed by a bailiff, chosen annually at the court of the lord of the manor. The church is a large Church of Anglo Norman architecture. structure of Anglo Norman architecture, but the tower is modern. It however contains many ancient monuments: a hospital was founded here by Nicholas Lewkenor, of Hadsor, in 1580. The bishops of the county formerly had a palace here. Bishop Brain, Chancellor of England, in the reign of Edward III., to whom the Black Prince, wrote a circumstantial account of the battle of Poicters, died here in 1361. Bishop Latimer put it in repair in the reign of Henry VIII., it seems to have been merely a timber building. It has not been inhabited by any Bishop since the restoration, and was nearly a century ago, entirely pulled down, when the park was converted into farms. The river Arrow, which rises in the Lickey Hills, runs through the parish, towards Dilapidations of time. Beoley Park, and Warwickshire; and the Ikenield Street, also passes it. This town formerly consisted of several streets, but is now fallen into decay, it however, receives some benefit from the Worcester canal, which passes it, and joins the Stratford-and-Avon canal, at King's Norton.

[B] ALVESTON. This parish contains the vestiges of two Roman Two Roman camps. camps; the one on the top of a hill called Oldbury, near the Severn; the other called Castle Hill; in both which places, various relics of antiquity have been discovered.

[C] AMBLESIDE is seated on the decline of a hill, at the extremity of the romantic lake Winandermere, of which a branch passes through the town. It is held by Horsley, to be the site of the Roman Dictus. Site of the Roman Dictus. It is scarcely in the power of language to do justice to the romantic beauties of this neighbourhood; perhaps the most beautiful scenery in England, is to be found in its vicinity. Here is an extensive manufactory of woollen cloth.

Market, Wednesday.—Fairs, Wednesday after Whit-Sunday, for horned cattle October 29, ditto and sheep—Mail arrives 9½ A.M., departs 7 A.M.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
31Ambrosdenpa & toOxfordBicester2Aylesbury14Oxford1251914
5Amersham[A]bo. m. t. & paBucksAylesbury14Chesham3Beaconsfield5262612
41Amesbury[B]m.t. & paWiltsSalisbury7Stone-Henge3Andover1477544

[A] AMERSHAM, or Agmondesham is situated on the Misbourne, a branch of the river Colne. The town which is seated in a vale between two wooded hills, consists of a long street on the road from Uxbridge to Wendover; it is intersected about the centre, by a cross street from Chesham to High Wycombe, at the point of which stands the church. The market is held in the Market House, or Town Hall, built by Sir William Drake, about 1680; it is a brick building supported by pillars Town Hall, built by Sir W. Drake, 1680. and arches, with a lanthorn and clock, and said to be the handsomest in the county. Amersham was a parliamentary borough by prescription, but by the Reform Bill of 1832, is now disfranchised. The church was extensively repaired in 1778, in the chancel of which are monuments of the family of the Bents of Leicestershire, who had a seat in the parish; and a monument of Henry, son of Sir Patrick Curwen, Bart., who died in 1638; and also several monuments of the Drake family, in the chancel and the adjoining mausoleum; among which are those of Montague Gerrard, by Sheemaker, and the wife of the late Mr. Drake, by Henry Cheere. About a mile northward from the town, is Shardeloes Park, the seat of Sir Thomas Tyrwhitt Drake: the estate was formerly in the Shardeloes park. possession of the Brudenell's, which family terminated in a peeress, and brought Shardeloes to the Cheynes; afterwards it became the seat of William Totehill, Esq., where he entertained Queen Elizabeth in Entertainment of Queen Elizabeth. one of her progresses. Francis Drake, of East Sherwin, Surrey, who was one of the gentlemen of the bedchamber to James I., married Jane, the daughter and heiress of William Totehill, Esq. The mansion is beautifully situated on the brow of a hill, overlooking an immense sheet of water, covering thirty-five acres, and commands a delightful prospect, particularly towards the east, where the town of Amersham, and the surrounding eminences, covered with wood, present a very picturesque appearance. The gardens, formerly much admired for Picturesque views. their beauty, were originally formed by Sir William Drake, about 1666, but have been modernized by Richmond, for the late proprietor. Here is also a Free Grammar School, the scholars of which are entitled to three exhibitions in Corpus Christi College, Oxford, bequeathed by Dr. Challoner, a canon of Windsor, in 1620; and likewise four alms houses, with other minor charities. The manufactures are chiefly lace, sacking, and all kinds of white cotton, wrought by machinery; and the markets are well attended.

Market, Tuesday.—Fairs, Whit-Monday for horned cattle, and September 19, for cattle, and statute.—Inns, Crown and Griffin.—Mail arrives 7 A.M., departs 9¼ P.M.

[B] AMESBURY, or Ambresbury, is situated on the river Avon, and is said to derive its name and origin from an abbey, founded by the British Prince Ambrosius; which abbey was subsequently changed Founded by the British Prince Ambrosius. into a convent of Benedictine monks, of which some remains are still to be seen. In the parish, and about two miles from the town, is the celebrated British monument, known by the name of Stone-henge. Antiquaries differ in their opinions as to the probable application of this structure; the majority, however, deem it to have been a druidical Stone-henge. temple, or a grand tribunal of justice. Out of twenty-four enormous stones, of which the outer circular range appears to have been formed, seventeen are still standing, and seven on the ground; of the inner circle, eleven out of the nineteen of which it was formed are still upright, and the remainder prostrate. The distance of the inner circle from the outer one is about eight feet, forming a walk between the two of about three hundred feet in circumference; the stones are from eighteen to twenty feet high, from six to seven feet broad, and about three feet thick, and there is an appearance of the whole having been surrounded with a trench, over which were three passages. There are numerous barrows and tumuli around it, where many skeletons and military weapons have been discovered. Conjecture has been at a loss to ascertain the means by which such solid masses could have been conveyed, and placed in so elevated a situation without the aid of machinery. It stands near the summit of a hill; even at the distance of half a mile the appearance is awful; but on a nearer approach, the eye is still more delighted with the greatness of its contour. On entering the building, either on foot or horseback, these Its awful appearance. ruins fill the mind with astonishment, which it is impossible for the pen adequately to describe. Other buildings have fallen by piece-meal—here a single stone is a ruin. As you advance farther, the greatness of every part, and the singular construction of the whole, causes additional surprise. Some authors suppose that this noble temple does not owe its defacement so much to the introduction of Christianity, as to the rude and barbarous hands of the neighbouring peasantry, who have carried away the stones for their own purposes. At a house which occupies part of the ancient nunnery, Nunnery of St. Augustine. a society of nuns of St. Augustine, from Flanders, have taken up their abode, probably attracted by the supposed sanctity of the situation. Near the town stands the once celebrated house of the Dukes of Queensbury, built by Inigo Jones, and subsequently improved by the Earl of Burlington. The neighbourhood abounds with clay used for making tobacco pipes, and the river Avon supplies a very much admired species of fish called loach. In the vicinity is a camp, called Vespasians. It consists Camp of 39 acres. of a triangular area of 39 acres, defended by a ditch and vallum, and bounded on two sides by the Avon. This may have been occupied by the Romans, but its construction and position indicate a British origin.

Market, Friday.—Mail arrives 11 P.M., departs 4 A.M.—Fair, May 17, June 22, December 18, for horses, sheep, and horned cattle.—Inn, George.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
43AmotherbytoN.R. YorkNew Malton3Pickering7Helmsley11221246
15Ampney CrucipaGloucesterCirencester3Northleach9Lechlade987599

[A] ALMWICH, a seaport town in the parish of the same name, in the hundred of Twerclyn. It is situated on the north coast of the Island of Anglesey; and from a small village (in consequence of the discovery of a rich copper-mine in the Parys mountain) has been augmented into a considerable town: the appearance of this celebrated mountain is very rude; it is bare of vegetation, in consequence of the suffocating fumes which issue from it. The Romans are supposed to have obtained copper ore From this place the Romans obtained copper ore. from this place, as many vestiges of what, it is imagined, were their operations, are still traceable. The great riches of the site were not, however, discovered until March 2, 1768, by the lessees of Sir Nicholas Bayley, afterwards Earl of Uxbridge; and equally successful was the Rev. Edward Hughes, proprietor of another part of the same ridge. The substance of the mountain being ore, it has not been worked in the usual way, by shafts and levels, but by direct excavation. "Nature," Mr. Pennant observes, "hath been profuse in bestowing her mineral favours on this spot, for above the copper ore, and not more than three-quarters of a yard beneath the common soil, is a bed of yellowish greasy clay, from one to four yards thick, containing lead ore, and yielding from six hundred to a thousand pounds weight of lead from one ton; and one ton of the metal Lead ore which yields silver also. yields not less than fifty-seven ounces of silver. Mixed with the earth are frequently certain parts, of the colour of cinnabar; whether these are symptomatic of the sulphurous arsenical silver ores, or of quick-silver, I will not pretend to decide. Something interferes with the successful smelting of this earth in the great, insomuch that it has not yet been of that profit to the adventurers, which might reasonably be expected from the crucible assays of it." From this mountain arises a mineral water, which turns the syrup of violets red, without any signs of chalybeate. To enumerate the Various minerals. mineral substances found from time to time would prove a tedious employment, and perhaps an unimportant one. The following are the principal and most useful:—1. Yellow sulphurated copper ore; 2. Native copper, in small quantities; 3. Sulphate of copper, both chrystallized and in solution; 4. Sulphate of lead, containing a small portion of silver; 5. Black ore, containing copper with galenea, calamine, and some silver; 6. Native sulphur. Not far from Parys Mountain is the port whence the ore brought The port, a chasm between the rocks. from the mines is transported to Liverpool and Swansea; it is a chasm between two rocks, large enough to receive thirty vessels, each 200 tons. The two companies employ fifteen brigs, from 100 to 150 tons burden, besides sloops and other craft. The articles exported from these copper mines are principally a coarse copper from the smelting-house, a richer copper ore, dried precipitate of copper from the vitriol pits, refined sulphur, ochre, alum, and green vitriol. Though much improved by the copper companies, this port is so exposed to the swell of the ocean, as to make it difficult and dangerous of access, during the prevalence of high northerly winds.

Fair, November 12.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
15Ampney Down[A]paGloucesterCirencester6Cricklade3Fairford485463
15Ampney, St. Mary,}
         or Ashbrook }
pa DittoCirencester 4 Fairford 5 Bibury3 88115
15Ampney, St. PeterDittoCirencester 4Fairford4 Cricklade5 86180
43Ampleforthpa & toN.R. YorkHelmsley4New Malton13York18223623
3Ampthill [B]m.t. & paBedfordBedford8Woburn7Toddington7461688

[A] AMPNEY DOWN. The church of this place is very curious, and is said to have been built by the Knights Templars, about the year 1260. The church built by the Knights Templars. Under the window at the south-end of the transept, is the tomb of Sir Nicholas de Villiers and his lady, with their effigies, represented under an arch. The knight is represented as a crusader, in mail and surtout, with his legs crossed, his feet resting on a lion, and his right hand on the hilt of his sword; on his left arm is a shield bearing the Cross of St. George, charged with five escalop-shells. This figure is of hard blue stone; that of the lady is of free-stone, and much mutilated. Below the effigies of the knight is a mutilated inscription in the Saxon character. An ancient mansion, built by the family of the Hungerfords, in the reign of Henry the Eighth, was repaired and modernized, as to its exterior, a few years ago. It belongs, with the manor, to the family of Eliot, of Port Eliot, in Cornwall.

[B] AMPTHILL is situated between two hills in the centre of the county. Here is an obelisk of Portland stone, forming a receptacle for a pump; and also a Gothic cross, which was erected in 1744, to the memory of Catherine of Arragon, by the Earl of Upper Ossory, who was then proprietor of Ampthill Park, at a former period the residence of that ill-treated Queen. Under a pear-tree in Ampthill park Sir Philip Sydney wrote part of his Arcadia. This park, which lies to the west of the town, is now the seat of Lord Holland; it was constituted a royal domain by Henry VIII., who conferred a name on the annexed estates, the "Honour of Ampthill;" the old castle in which Queen Catherine resided, stood on a more elevated ground than the present mansion, which is a magnificent structure, with wings, and a flight of steps leading to a handsome hall; the park, which is now united with that of Houghton, is spacious, and presents several most delightful prospects. At the entrance of Ampthill Park there is a pear tree, under which it is reported that Sir Philip Sydney wrote a part of his Arcadia.

Mail arrives 6 A.M.. departs 8½ P.M.—Fairs, May 4, and November 30, for cattle.—Inn, White Hart.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
18Amwell, Great[B]paHertfordWare1Hoddesdon3Hertford3201321
18Amwell, LittlechapHertfordWare1Hoddesdon3Hertford320369
32Anderson, or AnderstonepaDorsetBlandford7Bere Regis3Poole1211054
36Andover[D]m.t. & paHantsSalisbury18Stockbridge7Whitchurch7644843

[A] AMROTH. The castle of Amroth, now modernized, from the house formerly called Eare Wear, was in the 15th century, a settlement of the Elliott's. The present proprietor is Captain Ackland, by purchase, from a female representative of the Elliotts. The most judiciously assimilating additions have been made so as to give it every appendage of convenience and luxury. The antique porch is nicely preserved. The conservatory and grapery are entered from the dining-rooms, which was once a vaulted roofed ale cellar, or castle prison. A portion of this vault remains unaltered. From the lawn is a beautiful and interesting view of Tenby. The View of Tenby. church of Amroth, on the road to Ludchurch, is situated on a limestone rock, which has been reduced on every side, and is remarkable for a curiously disposed tower.

[B] GREAT AMWELL is supposed to have derived its name from Emma's Emma's Well, one of sources of the New River Well, a pure water-fountain that issues from a hill, and forms one of the sources of the New River. Here is a monument erected by Mr. Milne, to the ill-requited Sir Hugh Middleton, in a small islet formed by the said river. Sir Hugh, notwithstanding the assistance afforded him by Parliament, and the City of London, ruined himself by procuring supplies of water to the metropolis. Great mystery envelopes the latter period of his life. It is traditionally reported that he retired to the village of Kemberton, Indigence of Sir Hugh Middleton. near Shiffnall, in Shropshire, where he resided some time in great indigence, under the assumed name of Raymond, and it is said that during such residence he was actually employed in paving the streets. The poet Warner, author of "Albion's England," lies interred here. The church is situated on an eminence, the picturesque beauty of which has been justly celebrated by the admirable poet, usually denominated Scott of Amwell, from his residence in the village, and the title of his poem.

[C] ANCASTER. This parish is situated on the great Roman road, called Ermin-street, and bears strong evidence of having been a Roman station; many authors unite to fix here the ancient Causennæ. It occupies a low situation, and at the north end flows a small brook. From the vestiges which remain of military works it has certainly been a place of great strength. A great number of coins, and other antiquities, have been found here in such quantities, as to become a source of considerable emolument to the inhabitants of the place; so much so, that at one time many became extensive dealers in them. These coins are of various Emperors. Several Mosaic pavements. mosaic pavements have also been discovered here. It is highly probable from these circumstances, that Ancaster was the Causennæ of Antoninus. About the town are several quarries of stone, which is found very near the surface. Ancaster once gave the title of Duke to the head of the Bertie family, but that Dukedom is now extinct.

[D] ANDOVER, situated on the river Anton, is supposed to have been the Andaoreon of the Romans; and this opinion seems to have been countenanced by the remains of several ancient encampments in the neighbourhood, and by the Roman road, which runs from Winchester to Cirencester, and passes through the town. The antiquity of the corporation is as remote as the reign of John, but the present charter was granted by Queen Elizabeth; the town is extensive, and two of the streets are handsome and wide. There is a spacious town-hall, supported by arches, under which the weekly market is held. The church, situated at the north of the town, is a large Gothic building, consisting of a nave, side aisles, and chancel, with a transept on the north, and a low tower rising from the centre; it existed in the time of the Conqueror, and is dedicated to St. Mary. Within Weyhill Fair. four miles of the town is held the great annual fair of Weyhill, which, as it lasts for a week, causes much circulation of money in Andover. In addition to the many small Roman encampments in the immediate neighbourhood, there is a very large one on the summit of Bury Hill, about two miles to the S.S.W.

Market, Saturday.—Mail arrives 2¾ A.M., departs 11¾ P.M.—Fairs, Friday and Saturday after Mid-Lent, for cheese, horses, and leather; May 17, November 13, for sheep, horses, leather, and cheese.—Bankers, T. & W. Heath, draw on Masterman and Co.—Inns, Star and Garter, and White Hart.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
54Andrew, St.paGlamorganCardiff5Llandaff5Cowbridge8165474
54Andrew, St. MinorpaGlamorganCowbridge 3Bridgend 6 Cardiff 15 175 16
36Andrew, St. IlketshallpaSuffolkBungay4 Beccles 4 Halesworth 7 106 512
29Angerton (High)toNorthumbMorpeth9Hartburn1Rothbury1229064
29Angerton, (Low)toNorthumb...9...2...1328955
57AnglepaPembrokePembroke9Milford by W6The Lightho.4264458
47Anglesey, Isle of[A]North Wales48328

[A] ANGLESEY (Isle and County of), forms one of the six counties of North Wales, and is situated at the north western extremity of the principality. It is watered on three sides by the Irish sea, and separated on the eastern side from Caernarvonshire, by the serpentine strait of Menai, from three-quarters to half a mile broad. Its form is irregular, being indented with many small bays and creeks, which gave it some maritime importance under its native princes. It has received numerous appellations from the ancient Britons; the most approved of which was Mon, signifying remote, Latinised by the Romans into Mona, the "nurse of Wales," from its fruitfulness; and changed by the Saxons into Angles-ey, or the Englishman's Island. It was the principal establishment of the Originally the principal establishment of the Druids. Druids in Britain, until this island was invaded by the Romans, A.D. 59, under Suetonius Paulinus, who ordered their groves to be cut down, and stationed a garrison to insure obedience. The climate of Anglesey is mild, and the sea-breezes render the weather more temperate here than in the other counties of North Wales, although from the same cause it is less clear: that portion of the island which borders on the Menai, the site of the terrific Druidical groves, is richly wooded. The interior, on the contrary, owing to the great scarcity of fuel, has been rendered nearly devoid of wood; and the greater part of the island possesses little of hill and dale beyond a gentle and undiversified undulation of surface; its general aspect is uninviting and cheerless. The land, however, is good, and under proper management very productive, as respects both tillage and pasturage. About 25,000 head of black cattle (exclusive of sheep and hogs), are Annual exportation of cattle. annually supplied to the English market, where they are much admired for their flavour and tenderness, occasioned by the short bite of the pasturage on which they feed. Before the erection of the suspension bridge, the passage of the numerous droves of cattle at the five authorized ferries of the Menai, was a very extraordinary sight; they were made to swim over, guided by the drovers in boats. Butter, cheese, hides, tallow, wax, and honey, form also great articles of trade here; throughout the island there are but few manufactures of any importance. The shore abounds in some of the most highly prized marine productions, and is especially celebrated Prized for its marine productions. for the variety and beauty of its sea shells. Anglesey is as interesting to the antiquary, as to the natural philosopher. The ancient British vestiges are very numerous; comprising no less than twenty-eight cromlechs, or Druidical altars, together with circles, monumental stones, entrenchments, and other remains of a similar description, both British and Roman, which will receive attention in their proper places; several of the parish churches (of which the whole, seventy-four, stand near the coast), with various monastic remains, also deserve examination on the score of antiquity. Mona, now Anglesey, was the chief seat of the Druids, A.D. 59. Suetonius Paulinus, in the reign of Nero, was invested with the command of Invasion of the Romans an army, and prepared to signalize his name by victories over those barbarians. Finding this island the chief seat of the Druids, he resolved to attack it, and bring into subjection a place which was the centre of their superstition, and which afforded protection to all their baffled forces. The Britons endeavoured to obstruct his landing on this sacred island, both by the force of their arms, and the terrors of their religion. The women and priests were intermingled with the soldiers upon the shore; and running about with flaming torches in their hands, and tossing their disheveled hair, they struck greater terror into the astonished Romans by their howlings, cries and execrations, than the real danger from the armed forces was able to inspire. But Suetonius, exhorting his troops to disregard the menaces of a superstition which he despised, impelled them to the attack, drove the Britons off the field, burned the Druids in the same fires which those The Druids burnt in the fires they had prepared for their enemies. priests had prepared for their captive enemies; destroyed all their consecrated groves and altars—and having thus triumphed over the religion of the Britons, he thought his future progress would be easy in reducing the people to subjection; but in this expectation he was disappointed. The circumference of the island is seventy-six miles. The sea-passage from Holyhead to Dublin, is about sixty miles, which is now traversed by steam packets daily. Next to agriculture, and the rearing of cattle, mining affords most employment to the labouring population; a great number of persons are also engaged in fishing and catching wild-fowl, round the coast. It comprises 200,000 acres of land.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
37AgmeringpaSussexL. Hampton4Arundel4Steyning858928
46AngramtoN.R. YorkTadcaster3Wetherby7York619467
43Angram GrangetoN.R. YorkEasingwold4Thirsk7Borobridge1121728
29Anick GrangetoNorthumb...2...3...1827836
46AnlabytoE.R. YorkHull4Beverley7South Cave7171
27AnmerpaNorfolkCastle Rising 6 Burnham M. 10 Lynn 11 106132
30AnnesleypaNottinghamMansfield6Nottingham 10 Newsted Ab. 3 134402
35Anslow, or AnnesleytoStaffordBurton-on-T.3Uttoxeter9Abbots Brom8128270

[A] ANSLEY became the property of the Ludford family, by purchase, in 1613. Ansley Hall, an irregular but commodious residence, the manorial seat of John Newdigate Ludford, Esq., is situated in an extensive park, A hermitage and Chinese temple. rich in natural and artificial beauties, containing a hermitage erected with the materials of an ancient oratory, in which Warton, who visited it in 1758, left his beautiful verses, beginning:—

Beneath this stony roof reclined,
I sooth to peace my pensive mind.

On an insulated spot is also a Chinese temple, or cell, which contains a monument of the Purefoy family, removed from Caldecote Church in 1796. Ansley church has some remains of Saxon and early Norman architecture, and a square tower of remarkable beauty at the west end.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
18Anstey[A]paHertsBarkway3Buntingford4Stocking Pel. 4 33 417
23AnsteychapLeicesterLeicester4Mount Sorrel 5 Loughboro' 8 100 850
11Anstey, EastpaDevonDulverton3S. Moulton10Bampton6169166
11Anstey, WestpaDevon...4...9...7169226
45Anstonto & paW.R. YorkWorksop6Tickhill7Sheffield10152776
8Anthony, St.paCornwallFalmouth5Helston8Lizard Point12275300
8Anthony, St.paCornwallSt. Mawes2Falmouth3Truro9270144
27AntinghampaNorfolkN. Walsham3Cromer6Aylesham6126248
8Anthony, West,
or St.Jacobs[B]
paCornwallDevonport4Saltash4St. Germains31233099
24AnwickpaLincolnSleaford5Tattershall 8Metheringh 9 120235
24Appleby[C]paLincolnGlandford B. 7Burton5Barton8 163517

[A] ANSTEY. In this village are the remains of a castle, built in the Ruins of a Castle. reign of the Conqueror, by Eustace, Earl of Boulogne, for the purpose of keeping the English in greater subjection; it was demolished in the time of Henry III., and the parish church formed of its materials. The moat surrounding the mount upon which the keep was built, with additional works made in the reign of King John, still remains. In the south aisle of the church is an ancient monument, with the effigies, as traditionally reported, of Richard de Anstre the founder. The Roman road called Ermine Street, passes through this village.

[B] ST. ANTHONY, consists of the two manors of East and West Anthony, formerly in the Dawney family, but now in that of the Carews. East Anthony House, the seat of the Right Hon. Reginald Pole Carew, M.P., is situated on a branch of the Lynher Creek, nearly opposite Trematon Mount Edgecomb. Castle. It is a large square building, of Pentuan stone, finished by Gibbs the architect, about the year 1721. This mansion contains a respectable collection of old portraits, amongst which is one of Richard Carew, the historian, with a device of a diamond on an anvil, with a hammer suspended over it. The church contains several monuments well Seat of the Carew family. deserving attention. Besides numerous memorials of the Carew family, there is in the chancel, the form of a lady, on a brass plate, beneath an elegant gothic canopy, in memory of Margery Arundell, who died Lady of the Manor in the early part of the fifteenth century. Sir Alexander Carew, a gentleman of large property, and one of the representatives of the county, at the commencement of the civil wars, being averse to the measures of the court, and having been intrusted by Parliament with the command of St. Michael's Island and Fort, he attempted to deliver them into the King's Sir A. Crew beheaded. possession; but the design being discovered to the Parliament, he was suddenly seized and carried prisoner to Plymouth, and there the women were so enraged against him, that it was with difficulty he was rescued from their vengeance. From thence he was conveyed by sea to London, where he was expelled by the Commons, and being tried by a court-martial, was found guilty and beheaded on Tower Hill, December 23, 1644. West Anthony, or St. Jacobs. This is a very pleasing village, which has risen into importance from its proximity to the towns of Devonport, Plymouth and Stonehouse; it is a favourite residence of the officers connected with the dockyards and navy at these important towns. Near this place is Mount Edgecomb, the residence of the Earl of that title; it is celebrated for the beauty of its situation, near the sea, and being a much admired stroll for the inhabitants of, and visitors to Plymouth.

[C] APPLEBY is situate on the river Ancholme, which rises in the wolds near Market Raisin, whence, it takes a northerly direction near Glandford Bridge, it is navigable to the Humber for barges of small burden. That very ancient British road—the Ermine-street—passes through the village. This line of road was afterwards adopted by the Romans; it enters the county to the west of Stamford, and preserving nearly a due northerly direction, passing through the city of Lincoln, continues its course to the banks of the Humber; it is cast up to a great height, and is in some places seven yards in breadth.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
10 Appleby, G. & Lit.[A] pa Derb. & Leic. Ashby 6 M. Bosworth 7 Atherstone 7 1121150
40Appleby[B]m.t. & paWestmorBrough8Penrith14Orton92701459

[A] APPLEBY, a populous village, which connects the four counties of Leicester, Derby, Stafford, and Warwick. Here is a free grammar school for 100 boys, founded by Sir John Moore, in 1697.

[B] APPLEBY. This town is situated on the river Eden, by which it is almost surrounded, and by some antiquaries it is supposed to occupy the site of the Roman station Aballaba. It has been the county town since the reign of Edward the Confessor. It is governed by a Mayor, Aldermen, and capital Burgesses; the Mayor having authority to arrest for any sum without limitation. Appleby did send two representatives to Parliament, but has been disfranchised by the Reform Bill. It has many times been assailed by the Scots, who burnt it in 1388; and in 1598 it Burnt by the Scots. suffered seriously by a pestilence, from which time it has never recovered its former size and consequence. The town at present consists of one broad street, built irregularly on the slope of a hill, at the upper part of which stands the castle, which is of early Norman, if not of Saxon origin; and at the lower end the parish church. The ancient market houses or cloisters, were pulled down in 1811, and a handsome gothic building, erected by Smirke, in their stead. Here are also a town-hall and gaol; and at each end of the town stands a stone obelisk or cross. Appleby received charters from Hen. II., John, and Hen. III., all which were given up to James II., since which period it has subsisted as a borough by prescription. Crackenthorpe Hall, a manorial residence in this parish, was from the earliest period of authenticated record, the mansion of the Machels, a Saxon family, who eventually alienated it to the late Earl of Lonsdale. Near this seat, which is at present neglected, is a Roman camp 300 yards long and 150 yards broad, with three entrances, and a watch tower or fort, at the distance of bow-shot. Appleby has produced some eminent characters, among whom should be noticed Thomas de Veripont, Bishop of Carlisle, in 1255. Thomas de Appleby, Bishop of Carlisle, in 1363. Roger de Appleby, Bishop of Ossory, Eminent characters born here. in 1404; and Dr. Christopher Potter, Provost of Queen's College, Oxford, Prebendary of Windsor, and Dean of Worcester; the last named was vice-chancellor of Oxford when the civil wars of Charles I. broke out, and sent all his plate to the king, stating that he would drink as Diogenes did, from the hollow of his hand, before his majesty should want. Here is a free Grammar School, richly endowed, which is open to all the children of the town upon paying 2s. 6d. per quarter to the Master; and also five scholarships, founded by the Earl of Thanet at Queen's College, Oxford, and entitled to participate in five exhibitions of £60. per annum at the same college, on the foundation of Lady Elizabeth Hastings. An Hospital for thirteen widows, founded by the celebrated Anne, Countess of Pembroke and Montgomery, heiress of the Cliffords, the possessors of the castle for several centuries; by the marriage of whose eldest daughter it became the property of the family of Tufton, Earl of Thanet. The main portion of the present castle which is of a square form, was built in 1686 out of the ruins of a part of the former, by Thomas, Earl of Thanet. Appleby Castle survived the attacks of the Parliamentary Army, under the Appleby castle. influence of its owner, the aforesaid Countess Anne, but was compelled to yield in 1648. The church of St. Lawrence, which was partly built by the same spirited lady, contains a noble monument to her memory. The market is one of the best supplied with corn in its vicinity. It however possesses but little trade, and no manufacture of importance.

Market, Saturday—Mail arrives at 1½ A.M., departs 11¼ P.M.—Fairs, October 7 and 8, for sheep, &.C; November 24, for sheep and oxen; November 5, for pigs.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
11AppledorepaDevonBideford 2Torrington11Barnstaple7 2041450
21Appledore[A]m.t. & paKentTenterden 4New Romney7Rye6 61698
38AppledrampaSussexChichester 2Portsmouth16Petersfield 13 64188
16AppledurcombehamHantsNewport6 Niton3Shanklin3 91
5ApplefordchapBerksAbingdon4 Dorchester3Wallingford6 52179
16Appleshaw,[B]vil. & chapHantsLudgershall 4 Andover 5Salisbury18 68355
40Applethwaite[C]toWestmorAmbleside5 Bowness3Kendall8 270417
4Appleton[D]to & paBerksAbingdon5 Oxford6Wantage10 61441
22AppletontoLancashireWarrington7 Prescot5Liverpool11 1951439
44AppletontoN.R. YorkCatterick3 Richmond4Bedale6 22883
43Appleton-le-MoorstoN.R. YorkPickering5 Kirkby3Helmsley8 231269
43Appleton-le-StreettoN.R. YorkNew Malton4 Pickering7York18 218860
46Appleton-RoebucktoN.R. YorkYork7 Selby8Tadcaster5 189538
44Appleton-on-WisktoN.R. YorkYarm7 Northallerton7Darlington11 232553
30AppletreehamNorthampBanbury7 Daventry10Southam9 7783
44Appletrewick[E]toN.R. YorkSkipton8 Settle16Burnsall1 224425

[A] APPLEDORE is situated on the banks of the river Rother, in the hundred of Blackburn, lathe of Scray, and was a place of some maritime Principally inhabited by Graziers. consequence in the reign of Alfred. The town is at present chiefly inhabited by graziers and others employed in the marshes, to which it is very near. The church is built on the foundation of a castle or fort, which had been erected by the Danes, who sailed up to this town in the year 893.

Market. Tuesday.—Fairs. Jan. 11, and 4th Mon. in June for cattle and pedlery.

[B] APPLESHAW.—Great Show Fair, Friday and Saturday before Weyhill Fair. Nov. 4 and 5, all for sheep.

[C] APPLETHWAITE. All the fisheries on the lovely lake of Winandermere belong to the inhabitants of this thriving village, and subject Lake of Winandermere. only to a tithe of the fish caught to the Rector of Winandermere, who makes composition for the same, by a sum prescribed by each boat. The red char, esteemed so great a delicacy, is said to be peculiar to the lakes of Winandermere and Ullswater; this delicious fish is taken in nets Grand Regatta. during the months of October and May, when they are potted and sent to different parts of the kingdom. About the beginning of September a grand regatta is given on the lucid waters of the lake, attended by families of the first distinction.

[D] APPLETON. This village was the birth place of the famous physician and chemist, Edmund Dickinson, who was born in the year 1624. At 20 years of age he went to the university of Oxford; in 1655, (he published a work to prove) that the Greeks borrowed the story of the Pythian Apollo, Birth place of the learned Edmund Dickinson and all that related to the Oracle of Delphos, from the Holy Scriptures. In consequence of some excellent cures, he was appointed Physician to Charles II., and afterwards became a convert to the doctrine of the Transmutation of Metals; and wrote a work, the object of which is to prove, "that the method and mode of the creation of the universe, (according to the principles of true philosophy,) are strictly and concisely laid down by Moses." He died in 1707.

[E] APPLETREWICK. In this village was born William Craven, the founder of the noble House of Craven, who by his industry and good House of Craven. conduct arose from an humble station to the dignity of Lord Mayor of London—a proof of the advantages attendant on industry.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
45ArdentoW.R. YorkThirsk10Stokesley11Kirkby10227130
38Ardingley[B]paSussexCuckfield4E. Grinstead7Crawley733587
4ArdingtonpaBerksWantage3Abingdon8East Ilsley757404
14ArdleighpaEssexColchester 5Manningtree4Dedham2 56 1545
45ArdsleytoW.R. YorkBarnsley2Wakefield11Rotherham81721029
45Ardsley,[C] East & Westto & paW.R. YorkWakefield5Leeds6Huddersfield111872303

[A] ARBORFIELD, in the hundred of Sonning. In this parish, near the church, is an ancient Manor-house, well worthy of the observation of the Antiquary; it was built by the family of the Standens, who were Lords of the Manor in the 17th century. The last male heir of this ancient family Molly Mogg. was Edward Standen, the person alluded to in the popular ballad of Molly Mogg.

Fair, October 5, cattle.

[B] ARDINGLEY. In the parish church are several monuments of the ancient families of the Wakehursts and Culpeppers; one of which is a tomb to the memory of Nicholas Culpepper and his lady, who died in the beginning of the sixteenth century. This monument bears his portraiture with that of his wife and eighteen children. Nicholas Culpepper, the celebrated Culpepper, the herbalist and astrologer. herbalist and astrologer, was born in London in 1616, and after receiving his education at the university of Cambridge, was apprenticed to an apothecary. He came to London and settled in Spitalfields about 1642. He commenced a war with the College of Physicians, by accusing them of deceit and ignorance, and published a translation of their "Dispensary," giving an account of the supposed virtues of each drug, and the complaints in which they were used. He was also author of the "Herbal," which is written with much clearness, and distinctly explained. It passed through many editions. From the tenor of his writings, it may be gathered that he joined or at least favoured the Jesuits.

Fair, May 30, Pedlary.

[C] ARDSLEY. The birth place of James Nayler, a Quaker, who was remarkable both on account of the extravagance of the delusions which for J. Nayler, the Quaker, a remarkable fanatic; some time possessed him and his followers, and the excessive severity of the punishment which was inflicted upon him. He was the son of an industrious little farmer, who supported his family by the cultivation of his own estate. About the age of twenty-two he married, and removed into the parish of Wakefield, where he continued till the breaking out of the civil wars in 1641. He then entered into the parliament army, and served as a soldier eight or nine years, at first under Lord Fairfax, and becomes a soldier. afterwards as quarter-master in major-general Lambert's troop in Scotland; till, being disabled by sickness, he returned home about the year 1649. At this time he was a member of the Independent party, and continued so till the year 1651, when the preaching of George Fox made him a convert to the communion of the Quakers, as they are called. Among them he soon commenced preacher, and, according to their judgment, acquitted himself well both in speaking and writing.

In the beginning of the following year he imagined he heard a voice, calling upon him to renounce his kindred and his father's house, and go into the west, promising that God would be with him. In obedience to this voice, which he believed to be the voice of God, he went about preaching from place to place, and greatly increased the numbers of the new sect. Towards the close of the year 1654, or early in 1655, he came to London, where he found a meeting of Friends which had been established by Edward Burrough and Francis Howgill, among whom he so greatly distinguished himself by his preaching, that many drew invidious comparisons between him and his brethren, which created uneasiness and differences in the society. To such a length did these proceed, that some women, admirers of Nayler, assumed the liberty of interrupting and disputing with Howgill and Burrough in the midst of their preachings, and thus disturbed the peace of the meetings. For this conduct they were reproved by these preachers; upon which they complained so loudly and passionately to Nayler, that he was weak enough to take their part, and was so intoxicated with their flattering praises, that he became estranged from his best friends, who strongly disapproved of and lamented his conduct. In the year 1658 we find him in Devonshire, where he was committed to Exeter Committed to Exeter Jail for blasphemy. jail for propagating his opinions. Here he received letters from some of his female admirers and others, written in the most extravagant strains, calling him the everlasting Son of righteous—the Prince of peace—the only begotten Son of God—the fairest among ten thousand, &c., and some of his followers kneeled before him in the prison, and kissed his feet. It is but justice, however, to the Quakers in general to mention, that they had now disowned Nayler and his adherents.

Soon afterwards Nayler was released from imprisonment, and intended to return to London, but, taking Bristol in his way, as he passed through Glastonbury and Wells, his deluded attendants strewed their garments before him. When they came to Bedminster, about a mile from Bristol, Extravagant conduct of his admirers. they carried their extravagance to the highest pitch; for they formed a procession in imitation of our Saviour's entrance into Jerusalem, in which a man walked bare-headed before Nayler, and a woman led his horse, while other women spread their scarfs and hankerchiefs in the road, and the company sung, "Holy, holy, holy is the Lord God of hosts; Hosanna in the highest! holy, holy is the Lord God of Israel!" In this manner these mad people made their entrance into Bristol, marching through the mire and dirt, to the amazement of some, and the diversion of others; but the magistrates thought proper to interfere, and, after what had passed, committed them to prison. Soon afterwards they were sent to London and a committee was appointed by parliament to examine witnesses against Nayler, upon a charge of blasphemy, for admitting religious worship to be paid ti him, and for assuming the names and incommunicable titles and attributes of our blessed Saviour. Before the committee, he did not deny what was alleged concerning the extraordinary proceeding in Exeter jail, and at his entrance into Bristol; while defending himself by maintaining that the honours which he received were not shown to him, but to Christ who dwelt within him; and if they were offered to any other than to Christ, he disowned them.

However, the committee having made a report to the house on the fifth of December, declaring the charge well founded, on the following day he was sent for, and heard at the bar; and on the eighth they resolved that "James Nayler is guilty of horrid blasphemy, and that he is a grand impostor, Condemned by the House of Commons for blasphemy. and a great seducer of the people." The next business to be determined on was, the nature of the punishment to be inflicted on him; which occupied the debate of the house, both on forenoons and afternoons, till the 16th of December, many members being for putting him to death, (and losing their vote, as secretary Thurloe informs us, only by fourteen voices,) while many other members totally disapproved of the severity which was used against him. At length, on the following day, after a considerable debate, the majority came to the resolution, "That James Nayler be set in the pillory, in the Palace-yard, Westminster, during the space of two hours, on Thursday next; and be whipt by the hangman through the streets from Westminster to the Old Exchange, and there likewise be set with his head in the pillory, for the space of two hours, between the hours of eleven and one on Saturday next; in each place wearing Cruel sentence—his tongue bored with a hot iron. a paper, containing an inscription of his crimes: And that at the Old Exchange, his tongue be bored through with a hot iron; and that he be there also stigmatized in the forehead with the letter B: That he be afterwards sent to Bristol, and be conveyed into and through the said city on horseback, with his face backward, and there also publicly whipt the next market-day after he comes thither: And that from thence he be committed to prison in Bridewell, London, and there to labour hard till he be released by parliament; and, during that time, be debarred the use of pen, ink, and paper, and shall have no relief but what he earns by his daily labour."

On the eighteenth of December, the first part of it was carried into execution with the greatest rigour; but he was brought into a state of such extreme weakness by his cruel whipping, that, upon repeated applications to the parliament, his punishment was respited for one week. The His punishment respited Protector was then addressed, and wrote a letter to the house, which, though it occasioned some debate, obtained no resolution in favour of the prisoner. On this the petitioners presented a second address to Cromwell; but, it is said the influence of the ministers prevented its effect.

On the twenty-seventh of December, the remainder of Nayler's sentence was executed at the Old Exchange. Afterwards he was sent to Bristol, where he was publicly whipt, from the middle of Thomas-street, over the bridge to Broad-street. From Bristol, he was brought back to Bridewell, London, where he was confined about two years; during which his mind recovered from the frenzy which had governed it, and he felt deep humiliation and sincere repentance on account of his past conduct.

After the protector's death, Nayler was released from prison, and went to Bristol, where, in a public meeting, he made a confession of his offence His contrition and death. and fall, in a manner so affecting as to draw tears from most of those who were present, and having afforded satisfactory evidence of his unfeigned contrition, was again received into the communion of his friends.

Nayler did not long survive his enlargement, for having left London in October 1660, with the intention of going home to his wife and children at Wakefield, he was taken ill in Huntingdonshire, where, it is said, he was robbed and left bound in a field. Whether he received any personal injury is not known, but being found towards evening by a countryman, he was carried to a friend's house, at Holm, near King's Ripon, where he expired in the month of December, when about 44 years of age. The expressions uttered by him about two hours before his death, both in justice to his name, which is so conspicuous in the history of the reveries of the human imagination, and on account of their own excellence, ought not to be omitted in the memoirs of his life.

"There is a spirit which I feel," said he, "that delights to do no evil, nor to revenge any wrong, but delights to endure all things, in hopes to enjoy its own in the end. Its hope is to outlive all wrath and contention, and to weary out all exaltation and cruelty, or whatever is of a nature contrary to itself. It sees to the end of all temptation: as it bears no evil in itself, so it conceives none in thoughts to any other. If it be betrayed, it bears it, for its ground and spring is the mercies and forgiveness of God. Its crown is meekness, its life is everlasting love unfeigned, and takes its kingdom with entreaty and not with contention, and keeps it by lowliness of mind."

His writings were collected together, and published in an octavo volume in 1716.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
42Areley, KingspaWorcesterBewdley4Kiddermin.5Worcester11122372
35Areley, UpperpaWorcesterBewdley3Kiddermin.5Stourbridge10131735
46ArgampaE.R. YorkBridlington5Hunmanby3Gt. Driffield1221129
45ArkendalechapW.R. YorkKnaresboro'3Boro'bridge4Ripley6203260
45Arkengarth-Dale[A] W.R. York Richmond 11 Askrigg 7 Reeth3 245 1446
14ArkesdenpaEssexSaff. Walden7Chesterford7Royston740490
23Arkholmto & chapLancasterKirby Lonsd5Lancaster10Burton4250349
45ArkseypaW.R. YorkDoncaster2Thorne8Tickhill81641171
11ArlingtonpaDevonBarnstaple6Ilfracomb8S. Molton12193235
38ArlingtonpaSussexHailsham4Lewes9East Bourne762727
9Armathwaite[C]chapCumberlandCarlisle10Kirk Oswald5Penrith9292...
46ArminchapW.R. YorkSnaith6Howde3Thorne9175567
35Armitage[D]paStaffordRugeley2Abbots Brom5Lichfield6124977
45Armley[E]toW.R. YorkLeeds2Bradford7Wakefield91925159

[A] ARKENGARTH-DALE contains lead mines, which were worked in the reign of King John, and they are still so valuable, that a few years Valuable lead mines. ago the produce was estimated at 2000 tons annually; the inhabitants are chiefly miners.

[B] ARLSEY, or ARSLEY. This village was anciently a market town. In "Doomsday Book," (a book made by order of William the Conqueror, in which all the estates of the kingdom were registered;) its market on Wednesday is recorded, and the tolls valued at 10s. per annum. A fair was held here so long past as the year 1270; but both the market and fair have long been disused. An ancient entrenchment near An ancient entrenchment. the road to Baldock, called Etonbury, was probably the original site of the castle occupied by the Lords of the Manor. This castle appears to have a place of considerable strength. Amongst the ancient monuments in the church is one erected to the memory of Richard Edwards, who is called on his epitaph, the last Grand Reader of the Temple.

[C] ARMATHWAITE. Near this village is a castle, situated on the of the delightful river Eden, in a deep vale; the building from its monastic gloom, appears rather to have been calculated for seclusion than security. The front has been modernized, and is built of hewn stone. Its antiquity has not been ascertained, certain it is the Skeltons resided here as early as the reign of Henry VIII. The most romantic and picturesque scenery surrounds this lovely spot. A magnificent hill throws its solemn shade on the tranquil surface of the river, here broadened into a lake like form. Amongst other grand masses of rock is a projecting crag Rendezvous of wild cats of a bold and grotesque form called the Cat Glent, the rendezvous of many wild inhabitants of the feline tribe; beyond these is a mill and a few sequestered cottages. From this spot the river Eden is no longer tranquil, but rushing down a cataract pours in sonorous violence over a bed of opposing rock, whose immovable crags whirl the stream into eddies as it passes them in its fury. Near this place a nunnery was established by William Rufus, Nunnery founded by William II. who like other profligates, "trembled amidst his impiety," and was willing enough to secure a chance of heaven, provided it could be obtained by any other means than virtuous practice. At the dissolution of Monasteries, owing to the frequent hostilities between the Scots and English, their income amounted to only 18 guineas per annum.

[D] ARMITAGE is situated on the river Soar, in the hundred of Offlow, South, including the hamlet of Handsacre. The entrance to the church is very curiously built in the Saxon style, and the chapel is separated from the nave by a handsome arch. The Grand Trunk Canal passes through a A remarkable tunnel. very noble subterraneous cavern or tunnel, in this parish. The town received its name from having been the residence of a hermit.

[E] ARMLEY. This township is in the parish of St. Patrick, and the liberty of Leeds. It is situated on the banks of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, and of the river Aire, on which there are a number of mills employed in various branches of the clothing trade. An object once of great antiquarian curiosity, called Giants Hill, which was a Danish fortification, is now scarcely traceable, in consequence of its having been cut through to form the Leeds and Liverpool canal.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
45ArmthorpepaW.R. YorkDoncaster3Thorne7Bawtry7162368
45Arncliffeto & paW.R. YorkSettle9Askrigg12Middleham15231964
12ArnepaDorsetWareham5Poole5Corfe Castle5110171
7ArrowtoChesterGreat Neston6Liverpool5Chester1820091
39Arrowto & paWarwickAlcester1Stratford8Henley in Ar.8103466
45ArthingtontoW.R. YorkOtley5Wetherby9Leeds7198360
9Arthuret[B]paCumberlandLongtown1Gretna Green4Carlisle73102903
38Arundel[C]bo to & paSussexChichester10Bognor7Worthing.10552803
26Arvans, & paMonmouthChepstow3Tintern Abb.3Monmouth10138304

[A] ARRINGTON. This village was anciently called Ermington. It is near Lord Hardwicke's Park. At this place, in the year 1721, the skeletons of sixteen human bodies were found in digging for a water course, Sixteen skeletons found here. within two feet of the surface of the ground. Some pieces of iron much rusted, conjectured to have been pieces of swords were also found. It is supposed the skeletons were the remains of persons who had been killed in endeavouring to obtain possession of the pass over the river Cam, during the civil wars.

[B] ARTHURET. This village is situated on a point of land which in early times was said to have been called Arthur's Head, from whence the name is derived. In this place was both born and buried, Archibald Armstrong, Jester to both King James I., and Charles I. By an incident suitable to his profession, his funeral took place on "All Fools Day," the A merry jester buried on "All Fool's Day." first of April. He was banished the court for speaking too freely of Archbishop Laud's measure of introducing the Liturgy into Scotland, which had produced a considerable tumult. On the arrival of the news of these riots in England, Archy facetiously asked his grace, "Who's the fool now." The joke was bitterly resented by the prelate, who procured an order of council to banish him from the court, for speaking disrespectful words of the Archbishop of Canterbury. This parish is bounded partly by Solway Frith, and forms part of the debateable lands so celebrated in Scottish history; these lands and the celebrated Solway Moss, we shall have occasion to speak further of in the course of the work.

[C] ARUNDEL, is situated on the declivity of a hill, on the north bank of the river Arun, over which there is a bridge. It consists of two principal streets, one of which runs north and south, and the other westward from the point of the union. Many of the houses are built in the castellated style. The church, situated at the north end of the town, originally belonged to a priory of Benedictines, and is supposed to have been founded soon after the conquest of Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Arundel. It is a handsome gothic building with transepts, from the centre of which rises a square tower, with a wooden spire. Some beautiful monuments of Beautiful monuments in the church. the Earls of Arundel may be seen; and one, more magnificent than the rest, is of alabaster, a calcareous earth, which differs from marble, in being combined not with carbonic, but with sulphuric acid. This monument is erected to the memory of Thomas Fitz-Alan, and Beatrice, his countess, a daughter of John, King of Portugal. The charter by which the town is governed, was granted by Queen Elizabeth. It formerly sent two members, but by the Reform Bill, it now sends but one; the ten pound householders are calculated at 380. The borough comprises the parish of Arundel and the returning officer is the mayor. Here was formerly a harbour sufficient to contain vessels of one hundred tons burthen, but it has suffered great damage by the sea. Great quantities of Quantities of Sussex oak shipped from this place. timber for ship building, are still shipped from this place, which has but little trade, yet it is much benefitted in summer by the numerous visitors who resort to it for sea bathing. Of the castle, which stands on the north-east side of the town, mention is first made in the will of King Alfred, who bequeathed it, with the town, to his nephew Adhelm. A popular Tradition ascribes the foundation of the castle to a giant. tradition ascribes the foundation of it to Beris, "a giant of ancient times," in confirmation of which opinion a tower is still pointed out, called Beris Tower. The Conqueror gave it to his kinsman Roger de Montgomery, whom he also created Earl of Arundel, which title belonged to three persons of this family, till Robert Bellesme was outlawed by Henry I. for the assistance he gave to that monarch's brother, Robert. The castle was then settled on Queen Adeliza, who, after the death of her royal consort, gave her hand to William de Albini, one of the most accomplished men of his age. Here the dowager-queen performed the rites of hospitality towards the Empress Maud, in the attempt of that princess to ascend the throne. The last male heir of the name of Albini, died in 1243, when the castle and manor of Arundel fell to his sister, Isabel, whose husband, John Fitz-Alan, made the castle his residence, and assumed the title of Earl of Arundel. The fourth in descent from him forfeited his life and estates, in the attempt to ruin the Despensers, favourites The king presided at the execution of one of its lords. of Edward II.; but the estates were restored to his son, whose successor, in the reign of Richard II., being accused of a conspiracy to seize the king, and put to death the lords of the council, was beheaded; the king presiding at the execution. His son, Thomas Fitz-Alan, was reinstated by Henry IV.; but, he dying without issue, in 1415, the castle devolved to his cousin, Sir John Fitz-Alan, who laid claim to, and obtained the title, on which an act was passed, that the possession of this castle and honour conferred the dignity of Earl without creation. The last Fitz-Alan died in the 22d of Elizabeth, leaving a daughter, who married Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, thus carrying the earldom and estate into that family, to whom they still belong.

Concerning the true period of the foundation of this castle, many conjectures have been entertained. On account of the bricks inserted in the walls of the keep, it has been attributed to the Romans; but such a proof The great antiquity of the castle. is not allowed by the best antiquaries. Its pretensions to the era of the Saxon kings are more explicit. The more ancient parts are the keep or citadel, and the towers which flank the gateway, and connect the whole by means of a sally port. The keep stands upon an artificial mound, the height of which, from the fosse, is one hundred and ten feet on one side, and eighty on the other. Of its external wall, the height is thirty feet, supported by projecting ribs or buttresses. It is eight feet thick, with a wall on the inside, guarded by a parapet as many feet high. The diameter of the room which is faced with Norman or Caen stone, is sixty-seven feet by fifty-nine. There are also Roman bricks placed in the herring-bone fashion, which is observable in most Saxon buildings. In the centre is a subterraneous room and passage; and in a tower attached to the keep, is a well three hundred feet deep. The approach is by a time-worn staircase, and over a narrow pass, commanding the entrance to the building, which bears the marks of a portcullis. The more ancient one towards the east still retains a very rich Saxon door-case. In the tower above the present entrance, was a small chapel or oratory, dedicated to St. George. The The castle dungeons of remarkable depth. tower and gateway facing the base court of the castle are apparently co-temporary with the keep. The other towers are built with flint. The dungeons are on the right and left of the gateway. They consist of eight wards, protected by a draw-bridge from the castle moat. The lower wards are very deep, and partly filled up with rubbish. The foundation walls of these dungeons are not known, although efforts have been employed to discover the length and depth of these frightful abodes. The Empress Maud's apartments are in the tower, above the old gateway. They consist of three bed-rooms. The Saxon keep may justly be termed the ivy-mantled tower, for the walls are literally covered with its leaves. The late Duke of Norfolk was very partial to this retired spot. Here are several remarkably curious owls, elegant, and extremely large; some of them Remarkable owls measuring across the wings, from eight to ten feet. Their plumage is particularly beautiful, and their eyes brilliant. The late duke purchased them from North America. There are many traces of ancient remains about the keep or tower. The spot where the boilers stood, for the purpose of melting the lead to pour down upon the besiegers, and those used for culinary purposes, are still visible. The marks of cannon balls discharged against the tower during the siege of the parliamentary forces, are observable in many places. The ground plan of the present castle nearly resembles that of Windsor Castle, in the exact proportion of nine to fourteen. When the late Duke of Norfolk took possession, the castle was little better than a heap of ruins, but his Grace has restored it to its original magnificence. The building is of free-stone, from the quarries in Yorkshire; and those of a brown cast were carefully selected, in order that they might assimilate in colour with the old remains. The new walls have The late Duke of Norfolk restored the castle to its ancient magnificence. risen upon the ancient model, and correspond with the old ones in solidity of fabric, as well as dignity of ornament. An entire new front of massy stone, which differs materially from the others, particularly in exhibiting the insignia of the Howards, mixed with those of their predecessors, and two colossal figures of liberty and hospitality, ornament the grand entrance. In raising this front, the late duke had the opportunity of enlarging the mansion, and gaining the space now occupied on the basement story, by a long range of servants' offices, including a new kitchen, with two fire places, bake-house, scullery, the steward's and housekeeper's rooms, &c. The cellars are of immense length. The duke weekly employed from 100 to 200 labourers, mechanics, and artists, in the improvement and decorations of this noble edifice, for upwards of twenty-five Employed from 100 to 200 labourers for 25 years. years. The arrangements were formed entirely from his own ideas, and in the progress of the plan, he was exclusively his own architect. On the west wing is a beautiful sculptured basso relievo historical representation of King Alfred receiving the report of the jury, as established in his reign. The costume and draperies are finely carved in stone. The interior of the castle is fitted up with great taste and effect. The richest mahogany has been used in almost every decoration. The walls being more than six feet thick, form a kind of frame for each window, which is five feet deep on the inside, and the whole of this spacious case is lined with mahogany. The window frames which hold the magnificent plate glass panes, three feet each in height, are of the same material; and the solid mahogany doors are held in cases of the thickness of the inner walls, perhaps, four feet deep, all lined with pannels of the richest grain.

In the Barons room the following inscription appears:—

in the year of Christ, 1806,
in the 60th year of his age,
dedicated this stone
To Liberty, asserted by the Barons,
in the reign of John."

On the 15th of June, 1815, a great festival took place for celebrating the centenary of the signing of Magna Charta. There was a splendid assemblage of the nobility and persons of distinction. Complete suits of ancient Festival to celebrate the signing of Magna Charter held here. armour, with swords and spears, forged in ancient times, and for very different purposes, were either suspended from, or hung around the walls; and every adventitious aid was adopted to give state and majesty to this celebration of the magnanimous conduct of the Barons of England. Nearly three hundred distinguished guests sat down. The head of the table was ornamented with a noble baron of beef, surmounted by the ducal coronet, and the banners of the illustrious house of Norfolk.

The castle occupies a mile in circumference, and the beautiful domains which surround this magnificent structure, are more than seven miles and The times when the castle may be inspected by visitors. a half in circumference, enclosed with a strong fence railing. The grounds are well laid out, in gardens, shrubberies, and plantations. There are three agreeable towers in the park; High Horn, commanding an extensive prospect; and Mount Pleasant, covered with ivy, overlooking the beautiful vale of Sussex. The late duke built another tower, facing the road to Petworth, called the White Ways. The castle is open to the inspection of visitors on the first Sunday in the month after divine service, and on every Monday in the year.

When the buildings on the Norfolk estate adjoining the Strand, London, were erected, it was legally settled, that the whole of the rents, should be expended Estates in London devoted to keep it in repair. for the sole purpose of keeping up Arundel Castle; this has always been acted upon. The original rents having long since fallen in—and the increased income that has been produced by that cause, joined to the general increase of rents in that quarter, has been so great, that it now requires very great ingenuity to contrive the means of laying out all that money according to the directions of the original entail; and this is the real cause of the magnificent style in which that ancient baronial castle is still supported. The estate thus mentioned, comprises the whole of Surrey-street, Arundel-street, Howard-street, and Norfolk-street, which are the entire property of the Norfolk family.

Markets, Wednesday and Saturday.—Mail arrives 7.40. A.M., departs 5.30. P.M.—Fairs, May 14, cattle and hogs; August 21, hogs, cattle, and sheep; September 25, cattle and sheep; December 17, cattle and pedlary; second Tuesday in every month for cattle.—Bankers, Henty and Co., draw on Lubbock and Co.; Hopkins and Co., draw on Williams and Co.—Inns, Crown, and Norfolk Arms.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
40Asaph, St.[A]city & paDenbighHolywell10Abergeley7Holyhead572083144
39Ascoteex. pa. hamWarwickSoutham2Warwick9Kineton88212

[A] ST. ASAPH. This city is seated on the decline of a pleasant eminence, between the rivers Clwyd and Elwy, which renders the first appearance striking, though it contains little more than one street. The church stands in the lower part of the town, and serves for the use of the parishioners, the cathedral not being used for parochial purposes; the latter was built about the close of the fifteenth century; it consists of a choir, a nave, two aisles, and a transept. During the protectorship of Cromwell the palace and cathedral were much injured by the post-master, who made great havoc The font of the cathedral used for watering horses. in the choir of the cathedral, using the font as a trough for watering his horses; and by way of venting his spleen on the clergy, tied up calves in the bishop's throne. Several very eminent men have been bishops of St. Asaph, including Dr. Isaac Barrow, William Beveridge, and Samuel Horsley, the former of whom founded an alms-house for eight poor widows. Bishop Hughes, who died 1600, founded, and endowed the Free Grammar School. The neighbourhood possesses several land proprietors who have given great encouragement to agriculture, amongst whom may be included Dean Shipley, who stimulated the practical farmers to emulation, by premiums, and other encouragement. To this spirited dignitary, so well known in the history of the law of libel, a very handsome monument has been erected in the cathedral.

Market Saturday.—Fairs, Easter Tuesday, July 15, October 16, December 26, for cattle.—Inn, White Lion.

[B] ASBY, once called Askeby. This parish consists of four manors. The church is ancient, its beauty has been much disfigured by repairs; it has even been diminished in size, as appears by an arch now filled up in the north wall. At Sayle Bottom are several tumuli—some circular, others rectangular. At Garthorne Hall, a tumulus was found to contain human bones and a large sword, and another containing three entire skulls. Pate Hole, in this parish, is a remarkable cavern in a limestone rock, Pate Hole, an immense cavern. consisting of two galleries, one 430 yards long, towards the north east, the other, 230 yards long, making a large sweep from the extremity of the first to its middle; together, they resemble the letter P. At the end of the first gallery is a lofty dome, and a pool 20 yards long, 6 broad, and 3 deep; and in the second are two perpendicular chasms of unknown extent, from whence proceed in rainy seasons torrents of water, which fill the cavern and discharge themselves from its entrance. The noise of these operations resemble at first gentle music, but increases to the pitch of the loudest. In one part is a petrifying spring, which always stands at one temperature.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
39AscotthamWarwickShipston7L. Compton3Kineton1278...
31Ascottham & chapOxfordBensington5Dorchester4Oxford106197
16Ash, or AshepaHantsWhitchurch6Basingstoke7Kingsclere653114

[A] ASHE is situated in Musbury parish, which lies in the hundred of Axminster, two miles east by north from Colyton. It is the birth place of the celebrated John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough: this distinguished The birth-place of the celebrated Duke of Marlboro'. erson was born here in the year 1650. He received only an indifferent education, for his father took him to court at the age of twelve years, when he became page, as his sister, Arabella, became mistress to the Duke of York. In 1660, he obtained a pair of colours in the Guards. His first service was at the siege of Tangier, and, on his return from thence, he became the favourite of the Duchess of Cleveland, who gave him £5,000 with which he purchased an annuity for life. He afterwards served under the great Turenne, who was so pleased with his person and bravery as to call him the handsome Englishman. At the siege of Maestricht he so distinguished himself, that the King of France publicly thanked him. On his return he was made lieutenant-colonel, gentleman of the bedchamber, and master of the robes to the Duke of York, whom he attended to Holland and Scotland; and about this time married Miss Jennings, maid of honour to the Princess, afterwards Queen Anne. In 1682, he was shipwrecked with the Duke of York, in their passage to Scotland, on which occasion his royal highness expressed the greatest anxiety to save his favourite. The same year he was made a peer, by the title of Baron Eymouth, in Scotland; and when James came to the crown, he was sent to France to notify the event. In 1685, he was created Lord Churchill, of Sandridge. The same year he suppressed Monmouth's rebellion, and took him prisoner. He took Monmouth prisoner in the reign of James II. He continued to serve James with great fidelity, till the arrival of the Prince of Orange, and then left him, for which he has been stigmatized, and perhaps not unjustly, with base ingratitude. His own apology was a regard for the religion and constitution of his country. He was created Earl of Marlborough by King William in 1689, and appointed commander of the English army in the low countries. He next served in Ireland, and reduced Cork, with other strong places. In 1692, he was suddenly dismissed from his employments, and committed to the Tower: he was, however, very soon released, but the cause of this disgrace was never clearly explained. After the death of Queen Mary he was restored to favour; and at the close of that reign he had the command of the English forces in Holland, and the States chose him captain-general of their forces. On the commencement of the reign of Anne, he recommended a war with France, and his advice was adopted. In the first campaign of 1702, he took a number of strong towns, particularly Liege. In the following year he Created a Duke by Queen Anne. was created a Duke. In 1704, he joined Prince Eugene, in conjunction with whom he conquered the French at Hochstedt, took Marshal Tallard prisoner, and brought him to England, with 26 other officers of rank, 121 standards, and 179 colours. He then received the grant of the manor of Woodstock. In 1706, he fought the famous battle of Ramilies. This battle accelerated the fall of Louvain, Brussels, and other important places. He arrived in England, and received fresh honours from the Queen and Parliament. Blenheim house built for him. Blenheim house was ordered to be built, and a pension of £5,000. a year was awarded him. In 1709, he defeated Marshal Villars at Malplaquet. In the year 1711, he returned to England with additional laurels, but was soon after dismissed from his employments. To add to this unjust treatment, a prosecution was commenced against him for applying the public money to his private purposes. Indignant at such conduct, he went into voluntary banishment till 1714, when he landed at Dover, amidst the acclamations of the people. George I. restored him to his military employments, but he retired from his appointments to Windsor, and died in 1722. His remains were interred with great pomp in Westminster Abbey. His Died in the 8th year of the reign of Geo. I. Duchess outlived him several years. She was a woman of a strong mind, but overbearing passions. Her letters have been printed, and display uncommon sagacity, blended with a great share of vanity. The mansion house in which the Duke was born, now in a state of ruin, was rebuilt shortly after the civil wars, by Sir John Drake, whose daughter had married Sir Winston Churchill.

Fairs, April 6, and Oct. 11, for pedlary.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
4AshamsteadchapBerksEast Ilsley5Streatley4Newbury949346
31AshamsteadchapOxfordGt. Marlow4H. Wycombe4Henley635...
36Ash BockingpaSuffolkNeedham6Ipswich6Woodbridge875234
10Ashbourn[A]m.t. & paDerbyDerby13Leek16Wirksworth91394756

[A] ASHBOURN is very pleasantly situated in a rich valley on the eastern side of the Dove, over which is a stone bridge. It is divided into two parts by a rivulet, which is called Henmore, the southern part of which is termed Compton, the ancient Campdene. From the descent of the hill on the Derby road, the view of the place as it presents itself embosomed amongst the hills is beautifully picturesque. It is a neat town, but there is nothing remarkable in its buildings. At the time of the conquest it was a royal manor, and subsequently became a part of the Duchy of A royal manor of the Saxon Kings made part of the Duchy of Lancaster. Lancaster, until it was sold by Charles I. It is supposed that the church, which is dedicated to St. Oswald, was finished in the thirteenth century; in it are many monuments to the Cockaines, Bradburns, and Boothby's, successively possessors of the manors. Sir Thomas Cockaine and other natives, founded a Free Grammar School, in the reign of Elizabeth, for children of the town and neighbourhood, and also a second for the poorer class of children of both sexes. Here are also a chapel and a neat row of alms-houses, founded in 1800 by a native named Cooper, who made a fortune in London, for six poor men and women, and several other hospitals for decayed house-keepers, including one for the maintenance of four clergymen's widows. A very considerable trade is carried on here in cheese and malt, many horses and cattle are sold at its fairs. Much lace is made here, and a great many persons are employed in the iron and cotton factories in the neighbourhood. The romantic and beautiful glen of Dovedale is within a short distance. This town is one of the polling places for the southern division of the county.

Market, Saturday.—Mail arrives 11 A.M., departs 2¾ P.M.—Fairs, first Tuesday in January, and Feb. 13, for horses and horned cattle, April 3, May 21, and July 5, for horses, horned cattle, and wool. August 16, October 20, and November 29, for horses, and horned cattle; the fairs for horses begin two or three days before the fair-day.—Inns, Blackmoor's Head and Green Man.—Bankers, Arkwright and Co.; drawn on Smith, Payne, and Co.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
38Ashburnham[A]paSussexBattle6Hailsham6East Bourne 1155 721
11Ashburton[B]bo. m.t. & paDevonExeter20Torquay13Totness71924165
4Ashburyto & paBerksLambourn16Wantage10Highworth770698
24AshbypaLincolnGt. Grimsby7Caistor9Louth12160179
28Ashby, ColdpaNorthampNorthamp12Daventry10Harborough1078385
23Ashby-de-la-Zouch [C]m.t. & paLeicesterLeicester18Kegworth10M Bosworth101154727

[A] ASHBURNHAM is in the hundred of Foxearle, and rape of Hastings. This village gives the name and title of Earl to the representatives of the ancient family of Ashburnham, who possessed this manor before the conquest. The shirt and white silk drawers in which Charles I. was executed, Bequests of Charles I. made on the scaffold. on the 30th of January, 1649, and also the watch which he gave to Mr. John Ashburnham, on the scaffold, are still preserved in the church, having been bequeathed by one of his descendants to the clerk of this parish for ever, and are exhibited as great curiosities.

[B] ASHBURTON is situated in a valley encompassed by hills; it is about a mile from the river Dart, and consists principally of one long street, through which runs the high road from London to Plymouth. The houses are neat, and most of them covered with slate, of which there is abundance in the vicinity. The manor belonged to the crown in the reign of James I., but it has since passed through various private hands. The town, which is governed by a portreeve, chosen at the court leet and baron of the manor, is a borough by prescription, (that is to say, a custom continued until it has the force of law;) and was constituted one of the four stannary One of the four stannary towns of the county. towns of Devon, by a charter of Edward I., in the twenty-sixth year of whose reign it sent two members to Parliament, but only returned members once subsequently until 1640, in which year its privilege was restored: by the late reform bill, it now returns but one member; the electors on the old constituency were 101, and £10 householders 342. The portreeve is the returning-officer. The borough comprises the parish of Ashburton.

Market, Saturday.—Fairs, first Thursday in March; first Thursday in June; August 10; November 11, for horned cattle.—Inns, London and Golden Lion.—Mail arrives 5 P.M., departs 9¾ A.M.

[C] ASHBY-DE-LA-ZOUCH is situated in a fertile valley on the borders of Derbyshire, through which runs the small river Gilwiskaw. Its distinctive appellation is derived from the ancient family of the Zouches, who came into possession of the manor in the reign of Henry III. It afterwards An ancient family gave their name to the town. devolved to the crown, by which it was granted to the noble family of Hastings, in right of whom the Marquis of that title still possesses it. The town is chiefly comprised in one street, from which branches several smaller ones. The church is a handsome ancient edifice, built of stone, consisting of a nave and two aisles, separated by four lofty arches, springing from fluted pillars. Here are also places of worship for the Calvinistic and Wesleyan Methodists, Presbyterians, and others. A free grammar school was founded in this town by Henry Earl of Huntingdon, in 1567; and another free school for 26 boys, by Isaac Dawson, in 1669. The manufactures established here are chiefly those of cotton and woollen stockings, and hats. There is also a good trade in malt, and the fairs are celebrated for the sale of fine horses and cattle. The mansion at Ashby was A noble mansion constructed out of the ruins of Ashby Castle. remarkable for its magnitude and strength, and continued for 200 years the residence of the family of Sir William Hastings, knt., a particular favourite of Edward IV., who was elevated by that monarch to several offices of high trust and dignity. It stood on a rising ground, at the south end of the town, and was composed of brick and stone from the ruins of Ashby Castle.

Market, Saturday.—Fairs, Shrove-Monday, Easter Tuesday, Whit-Tuesday, last Monday in September, November 10, for horses, cows, and sheep.—Bankers, Fishers and Co.; draw upon Hoare, Barnet, and Co.—Mail arrives 10.30 morning; departs 4.0 afternoon.—Inns, Queen's Head, and White Hart.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
23Ashby Folvilleto & paLeicesterMelton Mow.6Leicester10Houghton6104391
23Ashby MagnapaLeicesterLutterworth4Hinckley11Leicester1193330
23Ashby ParvapaLeicester...3...8...1392169
24Ashby Puerorum[A]paLincolnSpilsby5Alford7Louth10137101
28Ashby St. Ledger[B] paNorthamp Daventry 4 Northamp 14 Welford9 76 257

[A] ASHBY PUERORUM. In the year 1804, a Roman sepulchre was discovered near this place, by a labourer who was cutting a ditch. It consisted of a stone chest, which laid 3 feet below the surface of the earth; the lid fitted nearly to the sides, hanging a little over the edge, so that when it was removed; no dirt of any kind was found to have gained admittance during a period of nearly two thousand years. The chest was formed of free stone, of a kind found in abundance on Lincoln Heath. The urn was of strong glass A very ancient urn of green glass found here. well manufactured, and of a greenish colour. The glass was as perfect and the surface as smooth as if just taken out of the fire. This receptacle of the ashes was nearly filled with small pieces of bone, many of which, from the effect of ignition, were white throughout the whole substance. Among the fragments was discovered a small lacrymatory, which had been broken, from the curiosity of the person who discovered it, to ascertain whether it contained any thing of value.

[B] ASHBY ST. LEDGER is situated near a rivulet that flows into the river Nen. The additional name of St. Ledger is borrowed from the patron saint to whom the church is dedicated. This structure consists of a nave and aisles, with a tower and spire. At the upper end of the north aisle are still remaining the steps which led to the rude loft between the chancel and the nave. Here are three piscinas for holy water. Several ancient monumental inscriptions may be seen in the chancel. On an altar tomb within the communion rails, are the recumbent figures of a man and woman, with an inscription in black letter, commemorative of An ancient monument of the Catesby family. William Catesby and Margaret his wife, bearing date 1493. Catesby was one of the three families who ruled the nation under Richard's usurpation, and constituted the triumvirate which is alluded to in the old distich:—

The rat, and the cat, and Lovel the dog,
Do govern all England under the hog.

The rat was Richard Ratcliff, the cat William Catesby, the dog Lord Lovel, and the hog for Richard, it being then the regal crest. William Catesby became a distinguished character; he was made esquire of the King's body; Chancellor of the Marshes for life; and one of the Chamberlains of the Exchequer. Being taken prisoner at the battle of Bosworth field, Catesby taken prisoner at Bosworth field. while fighting by his patron's side, he was conducted to Leicester, and beheaded as a traitor. At the eastern end of both aisles, are two places, formerly appropriated as places of sepulture for the two great Lords of Ashby. One of these belonged to the Catesby family; but most of the inscriptions are effaced. The manorial house of Ashby is a good old family mansion, occupied by the widow of the late John Ashby, Esq. A small room in the detached offices belonging to the house is still shown as having been the council-chamber, where the gunpowder-plot conspirators The gunpowder plot conspirators met here. held their deliberations. Robert Catesby, one of the descendants of the family, was at the head of this conspiracy, for which he was tried, condemned, and executed; and his head, together with that of his father-in-law, Thomas Percie, who was involved in his guilt, were fixed on the top of the Parliament-house.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
24Ashby WestpaLincolnHorncastle2Louth12Wragby13138391
14Ashdon or Ashingdonto & paEssexSaff. Walden 4 Haverhill 6 Linton 4 45 1103
36Ashfield Great[C]paSuffolkStowmarket7Ixworth5Botesdale876408

[A] ASHCOMBE is a parish in the hundred of Exminster. Here is a mansion of Lord Arundel's, situated in a large amphitheatre of hills, richly wooded at their base, and at their summit often studded with herds of sheep or deer. The only entrance to this romantic dale is from the north, by a road, which though perfectly safe, falls precipitately down a narrow ridge of one of the hills.

[B] ASHENDEN. This manor has been from time immemorial in the Grenville family. John Bucktot, a priest, gave the manor of Little Pollicott, to Lincoln College, in Oxford, about 1479; and what renders it particularly remarkable, is the circumstance of the manor house being used A retiring place for collegians in the time of the plague. as a retiring place for the members of the college at the time of the plague. In Ashenden Church, is an ancient figure of a crusader, under an arch, rudely ornamented with foliage; which according to tradition, is the tomb of John Bucktot; this appears however to be erroneous, as it is evidently the tomb of a layman, and from the chevron on the shield, one of the Stafford family, anciently lords of Great Pollicott.

[C] ASHFIELD. This obscure village gave birth to the celebrated Lord Chancellor Thurlow, and his brother, the late Bishop of Durham; they The birth-place of Lord Chancellor Thurlow. were the sons of the vicar, under whose auspices they were educated. On leaving the university, the former entered himself of the Inner Temple, but did not distinguish himself at the bar, until his abilities were employed upon the Douglas case; after which he became successively Solicitor-General, Attorney-General, and Lord High Chancellor. He was elevated to the peerage by the title of Baron Thurlow, of Ashfield. In 1786, he was made Teller of the Exchequer, and created Baron Thurlow, of Thurlow: he retired in 1793, and died at Brighton in 1806. He was succeeded in the peerage by his nephew, the son of his brother, the Bishop of Durham. He was never married, but he left three illegitimate daughters, to two of whom he bequeathed large property; the other having offended him by an imprudent marriage, he left her only a small annuity.

[D] ASHFORD. This village is frequently called Ashford in the water, from the lowness of its situation. It is seated on the banks of the river Wye. The only remains of the residence of the Plantagenets of Woodstock (who had a castle here) is a moat, half filled with rubbish. Sir William Cavendish, the favourite of Cardinal Wolsey, purchased this estate of the Earl of Westmoreland; and the Duke of Devonshire, a descendant of that family, still continues the proprietor. The works in this Extensive works for sawing and polishing marble. village for sawing and polishing marble, were the first ever established in England. They were originally constructed by Mr. Henry Watson, of Bakewell, about 80 years since, but though he obtained a patent, to secure the gain arising from this invention, the advantages were unequal to his expectations. Mr. John Platt, architect, of Rotherham, in Yorkshire, rented the quarries of black and grey marble, the only ones of the kind now worked in Derbyshire. The sweeping mill, as it is called, from its circular motion, will level a floor of eighty superficial feet of marble slabs at one time.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
21Ashford[A]m.t. & paKentCanterbury15Folkestone17Maidstone19532809
33Ashford BowdlerpaSalopLudlow3Tenbury6Leominster913799
33Ashford CarbonelpaSalop...3...6...9137289
23AshfordbypaLeicesterMelton Mow.3Loughbro'11Leicester13108467
27AshillpaNorfolkWatton4Swaffham6E. Dereham1094700

[A] ASHFORD is situated about twelve miles from the sea, on an eminence rising from the northern bank of the small river Stour, and on the high road between Hythe and Maidstone. The town, which is a liberty of itself, originated from the ruins of Great Chart, an ancient market town, Origin of the town of Ashford. which gave name to the hundred, and was destroyed in the Danish wars. It was then called Asscheford, and, in some early documents, Estefort and Enetesford, from the ford over the river Stour; the ancient name of which was Esshe or Eschet. It is pleasantly situated near the confluence of the upper branches of the river Stour, over one of which there is a bridge. The manor received the privilege of a market so early as Edward I. The town is governed by a mayor, and possesses a court of record for the recovery of debts, not exceeding twenty marks. The church is a spacious and handsome fabric, consisting of a nave, aisles, and three chancels, with a lofty and well-proportioned tower. There are several ancient monuments, especially one of a Countess of Athol, who died in 1365, whose effigy exhibits the female costume of that age, in a very remarkable manner. The college made into a parsonage house: The ancient college, founded by Sir John Fogge owner of the manor, in the reign of Edward IV., was dissolved in that of Henry VII., and the house given to the vicar for a residence. It still exists, although latterly much modernised. Here is a Free Grammar School, founded by Sir Norton Knatchbull, in the reign of Charles I., and various minor charities. The inhabitants of this town and its vicinity are much engaged in the rearing and fattening of cattle, for the sale of which its markets and fairs are much celebrated.

Market Saturday. A stock market held on the 1st and 3rd Tuesday in every month.—Fairs May 17, and August 2, for wool; September 9, October 12, and 24, for horses, cattle and pedlary.—Inns, George, Royal Oak, and Saracen's Head.—Bankers, G. and W. Jemmett, draw on Esdaile and Co.—Mail arrives 8.0 morning; departs 5.15 afternoon.

[B] ASHFORD. This place was originally called Exeford, from its ford over the river Exe; the village is now but of little importance. It lies in that level part of the county, formerly occupied by Hounslow Heath, the Hounslow Heath. terror of the western traveller, from the numerous robberies committed on its highways. Ashford Common was selected for military reviews; it has however, for some years been inclosed, and the review ground is now near Hounslow. The chapel is a plain brick building, possessing no claims on the attention of the antiquary; it was erected in 1796 by voluntary contribution.

[C] ASHILL.—Fairs, April 9, and September 10.

[D] ASHINGDON. This place is memorable in the early periods of our history. "Nothing is more surprising," observes Gough, in his Additions to Camden, "than the errors all antiquaries have hitherto lain under with respect to the scene of the battle between Edmund Ironside and the The site of an engagement between Edm. Ironside and the Danes. Danes." Though they had the authority of Mr. Camden against them, they have caried it quite across the county to the northern extremity and as far from the sea as possible, in defiance of every circumstance that could fix it there. In a marsh in Woodham Mortimer parish, on the river Burnham or Crouch, are twenty-four barrows grouped in pairs, and most of them surrounded by a ditch, supposed to be the burial places of the Danes, who probably landed at Bradwell, a village near the mouth of the Blackwater River, fourteen miles distant.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
34Asholt, or AisholtpaSomersetBridgewater7Stowey3Taunton8146228
10Ashover[B]to & paDerbyAlfreton7Chesterfield7Matlock31473179

[A] ASHLEY, was formerly distinguished by a fair and market, it is now remarkable only for a large mansion, which was once the seat of the Georges. The church, an ancient building, with a square embattled tower, is principally interesting for its arches; some of which are round, and others pointed, resting on slender clustered pillars, with massy capitals of foliage. The font is large, round, and very rude in its workmanship.

[B] ASHOVER. This village is of great antiquity, being mentioned in the Doomsday Book, as having a church and a priest. In the church is an ancient font, supposed to be Saxon; the base is of stone; the lower part is of an hexagonal form; the upper part circular, surrounded with twenty figures, in devotional attitudes, embossed in lead, in ornamental niches. There are also some ancient monuments of the Babington family, who were for a long time seated at Dithicke, a chapelry in this parish. Anthony Babington was executed for high treason in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, having engaged in a conspiracy to destroy that princess. A singular rocking stone, formerly an idol. On the declivity of a hill on Ashover Common is a rocking stone, called Robin Hood's Mark, which measures about twenty-six feet in circumference. From its extraordinary position, it appears not only to have been the work of art, but to have been placed with great ingenuity. About 200 yards to the north is a singularly shaped work, called the Turning-stone, nine feet high: it is supposed to have been a rock idol. Overton Hall, in this vicinity, was once the seat of Sir Joseph Banks, the President of the Royal Society.

[C] ASHRIDGE was formerly called Escrug. In very early times this village is reported to have possessed a royal palace; which, when the estate became the property of Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, son to Richard, King of the Romans, was converted into a college for Bonhommes (or monks who followed the rules of St. Augustine,) and endowed with the manors of Ashridge, Gaddesden, and Hemel Hempstead. A parliament was held here by Edward the First, in the year 1291; and, though of short continuance, it was distinguished by a spirited debate on the origin and necessary use of fines. After the dissolution, the monastery appears A parliament held here by Edward I. to have become the seat of royalty; and Norden describes it as the place "wherein our most worthy and ever famous Queen Elizabeth lodged, as in her owne, being a more statelie house." This queen, in the 17th year of her reign, granted it to John Dudley, and John Ayscough, who The manor house a favourite seat of Queen Elizabeth. within the short period of a fortnight, conveyed it to Henry, Lord Cheny, whose lady sold it to Ralph Marshal, by whom it was again conveyed to Randolph Crew and others, and soon afterwards granted to Egerton, Lord Ellesmere, ancestor to the late Duke of Bridgewater; several of whose family are buried in the neighbouring church of Little Gaddesden. The old college, the greater part of which was standing in the year 1800, exhibited a fine specimen of the gothic architecture of the thirteenth century. The cloisters were particularly beautiful. The walls were painted in fresco with Scripture subjects. The late Duke of Bridgewater pulled down the whole of these buildings, the materials of which were disposed of in lots; the present earl, the dukedom being extinct, has erected a most magnificent mansion at a great expense. Ashridge Park, which contains some very fine oak and beech trees, is pleasingly varied with hill and dale. It is about five miles in circumference.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
11AshtonpaDevonChudleigh4Exeter6Moreton Ha.6174333
28AshtonpaNorthampNorthamp7Towcester5Stoney Strat.762380
28AshtonhamNorthampWandsford5Stamford5M. Deeping489126
34Ashton, Long[B]paSomersetBristol3Keynsham7Axbridge141201423

[A] ASHTON. Near this village is Ashton Hall, a seat of his Grace the Duke of Hamilton. It formerly belonged to the family of the Laurences, but came into the present family by the marriage of James, Earl of Arran, afterwards Duke of Hamilton, with Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Seat of the Duke of Hamilton. Lord Gerrard Digby, of Bromley. The mansion is a large building, with some square embattled towers, an ancient hall, and other features of a magnificent baronial castle. It is situated in a fine park, through which flows a small rivulet, forming a narrow bay, at the western side of the grounds. The park abounds with wood, and is agreeably diversified with hill and dale, and affords, from many parts, extensive views across the river Lune to Morecambe Bay, the Irish sea, &c. The mansion has undergone considerable alteration, yet care has been taken to preserve its ancient character.

Mail arrives at Galgate Bridge, one mile distant, 9.20 P.M.; departs 2.20 morn.

[B] ASHTON, or LONG ASHTON, is situated in a rich woody vale, protected on the north by a range of picturesque though bleak hills, and on the north lies the lofty ridge of Dundry. In this parish the inhabitants raise fruit and vegetables for the Bristol market. There is much garden-ground in Long Ashton, in which many Roman coins have been discovered. The houses are in general well-built, much company resorting thither during the summer season. The circumjacent scenery is delightful, and in the vicinity are the remains of two Roman encampments, Stokeleigh and Burwalls. The church is an old but very handsome building, founded by the family of Lyons; the nave and aisles are divided from the chancel by a beautiful gothic screen of fret and flower work, painted and gilt, and executed in the most admirable style. One of the 6 bells contained in the tower is inscribed "Sancte Johannes Baptiste ora pro nobis;" on the tower are the arms of Lyons, in stone. Amongst several painted figures and coats of arms on the glass of the windows, are the portraits of Edward IV. and his Queen, Elizabeth Widville. Here are several handsome monuments, but that of Sir Richard Choke and his lady is eminently magnificent and beautiful. Ashton Court, the manor house, originally founded by the Lyons family, but materially altered by Inigo Jones, occupies the S.E. slope of Ashton Down, and the remains of another old manor house, called the Lower Court, still stands in a valley to the S.W. of the village.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
22Ashton-in-Mackerfield[B]to & chap Lancaster Newton 3 Prescot 7Wigan5 196 5912
7Ashton-upon-Merseyto & paChesterStockport9Manchester7Altringham41842078

[A] ASHTON-UNDER-LYNE is a large town situated at the south-eastern extremity of the county. It consists of several narrow streets, built on a high bank, which rises from the river Tame. It appears from an ancient manuscript, that Ashton was formerly a borough, yet for some centuries it sent no members to Parliament; but, by the Reform Bill of 1832, it now returns one member, and the mayor of the town is the returning officer. The borough comprises the whole district, over which the lighting and paving act of the 7th and 8th of Geo. IV. extends. A Court of Requests for the recovery of £5. Defendants may be followed. court is held here for the recovery of debts, not exceeding five pounds, by 48th Geo. III. c. 18; any person may sue, under the general regulations, and defendants sued elsewhere are to have their costs. Defendants removing out of the jurisdiction, may be followed in person and goods, by removing the record to the superior courts, but wagers, &c. are not recoverable. The principal part of the landed property of this parish belongs to the Earl of Stamford, in whose family it was conveyed, by the marriage of Sir William Booth to the daughter of Sir Thomas Asheton, whose family possessed The lord of the manor possessed a power of life and death. some peculiar privileges in this manor: among which was, the power of life and death over their tenantry. In commemoration of this privilege, and its having been sometimes exercised, a field near the old hall is still called Gallows Meadow. There is also an ancient custom Custom of riding the black lad. here, called "riding the black lad," celebrated every Easter Monday, to perpetuate some act of great tyranny exercised by Sir Ralph Asheton, in 1483, when vice-constable of England. The ceremony consists in exhibiting the effigies of a man on horseback through the streets, which is afterwards suspended on the cross in the market place, and there shot. The figure was formerly cased in armour, and the expenses of it were defrayed by the court. Another account of the origin of this custom states, that Thomas Asheton, in the reign of Henry III., particularly distinguished himself at the battle of Neville's Cross, and bore away the standard from the Scotch King's tent. For this heroic deed the King conferred on Ashton the honour of Knighthood, who, on his arrival at his manor instituted the custom described. At the village of Fairfield, in Moravian settlement. this parish, there is a Moravian settlement, who have erected a chapel for their followers. The males are principally employed in spinning and weaving: they form a very industrious and orderly community. On the western side of the town is Ashton Moss, which supplies the poor with peat turf. Oak and fir trees are frequently found by those who dig for the peat.

Market, Wednesday.—Fairs, March 23, April 29, July 25, and November 21, for horned cattle, horses, and toys.—Bankers, Buckley, Roberts, and Co.; draw in London on Jones, Lloyd, and Co.—Inn, Commercial Hotel.

[B] ASHTON. This village is generally called Ashton in Makerfield, or Ashton in the Willows; it enjoys a very pleasant situation on the road between Newton and Wigan. The hardware and cotton manufactories give employment to the inhabitants. The church is a large old building, part of which appears to have been erected by the lords of the manor. On the pews are some ancient carvings; and in the windows are exhibited some painted figures. Several of the Ashtons lie interred here, and their names are inscribed on the windows. Near the church is a curious mansion, called the Old Hall, the oldest parts of which are said to have been built in 1483; adjoining this stands a pile, which was formerly used as a prison.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
41Ashton-Steeple[A]pa & tiWiltsTrowbridge3Melksham4Devizes7961754
41Ashton, WesttoWilts...3...5...998374
21AshurstpaKentTunbridge7Tunbr. Wells5Groombridge234206
38AshurstpaSussexSteyning4Henfield3W. Grinstead447423
34AshwickpaSomersetShepton Mall4Frome9Wells6118995
27AshwickenpaNorfolkLynn5Castle Rising5Swaffham109880
43AsketoN.R. YorkRichmond2Reeth8Darlington11235105

[A] ASHTON, or STEEPLE ASHTON is remarkable for its lofty and elegant church, which was built about the year 1480, though the chapels and a part of the chancel appear of a still earlier date. The tower which is high and handsome, was formerly surmounted by a spire or steeple, whence the village had its distinctive appellation. An inscription informs us that, in the year 1670, the spire being in height 93 feet above the tower, was rent by a violent thunder storm, and that in the same year, being The church steeple twice thrown down by storms. almost re-erected, it was by a second storm again destroyed. The roof of the nave is formed by intersecting arches, which rest on canopied niches, adorned with whole length figures or flowers; and that of the aisles is profusely decorated with sculpture and tracery work, while the windows display some splendid remains of painted glass, the whole corresponding with the exterior in style and effect. Plot informs us that there was dug up at Steeple Ashton, a pavement, which he considered to be Roman, though different in materials and design from those commonly regarded as such. The Madrepore stone is found among the fossil productions of Ashton. Rowd Ashton, the seat of Richard Godolphin Long, Esq., is situated in a large and well wooded park. The Kennet and Avon canal from London to Bristol passes near this village.

[B] ASHWELL. This village, situate on the river Rhee, on the borders of Cambridgeshire, derives its present name from Escewelle, and is supposed by Camden to be of Roman origin, from the frequent discovery of Roman coins, and sepulchral urns, in an adjacent earthwork, or fortification, called Arbury banks. It is in a low situation on the northern edge of the county. Here a considerable spring breaks out from Powerful spring oozing from a rock. a rocky bank overhung with lofty ash-trees, from which a continued quantity of water flows, and being quickly collected into one channel, turns a mill, and soon after becomes a river. From this spring and these ash-trees, it is supposed the Saxons gave it the name of Ashwell. The village was anciently a demesne of the Saxon kings; but before the time of Edward the Confessor, it was granted to the Abbots of St. Peter's, at Westminster, to whom it continued to belong till the dissolution, when the Abbey was erected into a deanery, and after that into a bishopric; it, however, followed the fate of similar foundations; and when the bishopric was dissolved, in the reign of Edward VI., it was granted, with other manors, to the see of London, in which it is still invested. The church consists of a nave, aisle, and chancel, with a tower at the west-end, surmounted by a spire. In the chancel are several slabs, formerly inlaid with brasses. Among the inscriptions, Weever notices one with the words, "Orate pro—Walter Sommoner." "I reade," says Weever, "that one Walter Sumner held the manor of Ashwell of the King, by pettie sergeantie; viz. to find the king spits to rost his meate upon the day of his coronation: and John Sumner, his sonne, held the same manor by service, to turne a spit in the king's kitchen upon the day of his coronation."

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
45Askerne or Askeron[A]toW.R. YorkDoncaster7Ferry-bridge 8 Snaith 10 169 256
30AskhamchapNottinghamTuxford3Gamston3E. Retford6140329
40Askham[C]to & paWestmorPenrith4Lowther2Bampton4280587
43Askham Bryanto & paN.R. YorkYork4Tadcaster6Wetherby10196341
43AskhampaN.R. YorkYork5...5...9195234
43Askrigg[D]m.t. & chapN.R. YorkMiddleham12Reeth7Hawes5246737

[A] ASKERNE. This village is one of the numerous places in the West Riding, which enjoys the distinction of a mineral spring. The water resembles that of Harrowgate Spa; but taken internally, differs materially in its operation, acting chiefly as a diuretic without any of that cathartic or purgative power, for which the Harrowgate waters are so remarkable. The village is situated at the foot of a hill; the spring rises at the distance of a few yards only from a piece of water called Askerne Pool, seven acres in extent, and is much frequented by rheumatic or scorbutic patients, who seldom fail to obtain the relief which they seek. Near this place it is The Saxon leader Hengist put to death. said the British Prince Ambrosius defeated and put to death the fierce Saxon leader Hengist.

[B] ASKERTON. At this village there is a castle which was built by the Barons Dacre. This well known name is derived from the exploits of one of their ancestors at the siege of Acre, or Ptolemais, under Richard Cœ]ur de Lion. There were two powerful branches of that name. The first family, called Lord Dacres of the South, held the castle of the same name, and are ancestors to the present Lord Dacre. The other family, descended Seat of Lord Dacre. from the same stock, were called Lord Dacres of the North, and were Barons of Gillesland and Graystock. A chieftain of the latter branch was warden of the West Marshes, during the reign of Edward VI. He was a man of a hot and obstinate character, as appears from some particulars of Lord Surrey's letter to Henry VIII., giving an account of his behaviour at the siege and storm of Jedburgh. The castle was formerly garrisoned by the Serjeant of Gillesland, who sometimes commanded and led the inhabitants against the Scots.

[C] ASKHAM. This place consists of two manors. The hall, built in 1574, on the river Lowther, has an embattled roof, and a sombre aspect well suited to the gloom of the surrounding scenery. Several remarkable Druid's Cross. heaps of stones, among which, one is called the Druid's Cross, are in this neighbourhood; and also a large cairn, called the White-raise.

Mail arrives at Lowther 1½ miles distant 2.30 morning; departs 8 evening.

[D] ASKRIGG. This ancient market town is situated near the river Ure and Swaledale Forest: it resembles a large village, and the occupations of the inhabitants are principally the knitting of stockings and making butter or cheese. It is remarkable, chiefly, for some considerable cataracts in its neighbourhood: as Millgill Force, a fall of from twenty to thirty yards; Whitfields Force, a grand specimen of the picturesque; and Hardrow Cataract 100 feet in height. Force, where the water falls in one grand sheet from a perpendicular height of one hundred feet. This town is one of the polling places appointed under the Reform Bill of 1832, for the North Riding.

Market, Thursday.—Fairs, May 10, horned cattle; May 12, and first Thursday in June, woollen cloth, pewter, brass, and milliners' goods; October 28, horned cattle; October 29, woollens, &c.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
45AskwithtoW.R. YorkOtley3Skipton12Ripley12208400
36Aspal StonehampaSuffolkDebenham4Needham5Stowmarket780633
9Aspatria[B]to & paCumberlandCockermouth8Wigton9Allonby4311761
39AspleyhamWarwickHenley-in Ar.2Alcester7Stratford799106
3Aspley GuisepaBedfordWoburn2Ampthill7Wavenden3431014
46AsselbytoE.R. YorkHowden2Selby7Snaith7178297

[A] ASLACKBY. In this village, which is on the direct road from London to Lincoln, there was a commandery, or associated body of Knights Templars, founded in the time of Richard I., by John le Mareshall. It afterwards served for the hospitallers, and at the suppression of this society, the property was transferred to Edward, Lord Clinton. A farm-house, which now occupies the site of the old circular church, is called the temple. Of that ancient structure there yet remains a square embattled Ancient village. tower of two stories. The lower story is vaulted, and formed of eight groins, in the centre of which is displayed eight shields, and various coats of arms. The parish church is a handsome building, with an embattled tower at the west end. A castle formerly stood here, but no vestiges of the walls can now be seen: remnants, however, of the foss and earthworks point out the spot where it was situated.

Mail arrives 7.40 morn.; departs 6.45 evening.

[B] ASPATRIA, or ASPATRIC, is a long straggling village on the side of a hill, about five miles distant from the Irish sea. It now forms part of the estate of the Earl of Egremont, but is supposed to have derived its name from Gospatrick, Earl of Dunbar. On removing the earth of a barrow, which stood at Beacon-hill, an eminence about 200 yards to the north of the village, in the year 1790, a human skeleton was found in a Prodigious skeleton, 7ft. from the head to the ancle-bone. kind of chest, or kistvaen, formed by two large cobblestones at each end, and the same on each side. The feet were decayed and rotted off, but from the head to the ancle-bone, the skeleton measured seven feet. On exposure to the atmospheric air the other bones soon mouldered away. Near the shoulder, on the left side, was a broad sword five feet long, the guard of which was elegantly inlaid with silver flowers: a dirk, or dagger, lay on the right side; it was one foot and a half long, and the handle seemed to have been studded with silver. There were likewise found part of a golden fibula, or buckle, a broken battle-axe, an ornament for the end of a belt, a part of which yet remained, part of a spur, and a bit resembling Ancient relics found. modern snaffle. Various figures, rudely sculptured, remained on the stones which enclosed the left side of the chest; they chiefly represented circles, each having within a cross in relief. Hayman Rooke, Esq., the learned antiquary, from whose account the above particulars are taken, supposed that the personage whose remains were found was buried soon after the first dawning of Christianity; and also, inferred from the rich ornaments found in the tomb, that he was a chieftain of high rank.

[C] ASSENDON. At this township is a land spring, reputed the most eminent of its kind in England. The water only appears after a continuance of wet weather, but then issues forth in such abundance, that mills might be turned by the current, and the adjacent lowlands are inundated. This spring has been supposed by some to act on the principle Wonderful spring. of a natural syphon, and to be supplied from subterranean sources; but this is evidently erroneous, as the seasons of its flowing are uniformly after heavy rains.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
45Asson-ThorpehamW.R. YorkThorne4Snaith5Doncaster9170...
24AsterbypaLincolnHorncastle7Louth7M. Raisin.13143231

[A] ASTBURY, or AUSTBURY, is an extensive village and contains several gentlemen's seats. The church is a handsome gothic structure, with a lofty steeple. In the church yard are two ancient monuments, ornamented with the insignia of knighthood, but the names of the families whose memories they were intended to record are now lost. The parish of Astbury contains no less than twelve townships, of which the market Contains 12 townships. town of Congleton is one. Each of these townships has its overseer and other officers, but the whole parish is under the government of one church-warden, the office of which is served in rotation by eight persons, vulgarly denominated the "Posts of the Parish;" though they should properly be called Provosts.

[B] ASTHALL. At this village is an old manorial mansion, now used as a farm-house, which was formerly the residence of Sir Richard Jones, one of the Judges of the Court of Common Pleas in the reign of Charles the First. In the north aisle of the church stands a large stone coffin, Alice Corbett. said to contain the remains of Alice Corbett, concubine to Henry I.

Mail arrives 5 morning; departs 9.35 evening.

[C] ASTLEY. This manor was held, in the reign of Henry II., by Philip de Estley, of the Earl of Warwick, by the service of holding the Earl's Singular tenure. stirrup when he mounted or alighted from his horse. From this person are descended two families, seated at Hill Morton, in this county, and at Patshull, in Staffordshire. In the reign of Henry V. the estate passed by marriage to the Greys of Ruthin, from whom it descended to Henry Grey, Marquis of Dorset, and Duke of Suffolk, beheaded in the reign of Queen Mary, for an attempt to make Lady Jane Grey queen. The manor belongs at present to F.P. Newdigate, Esq. Astley Castle is surrounded by a moat, along the inner edge of which lie the remains of massive walls. The habitable part of the mansion is probably not older than the time of Mary; but it is clad in a garb of ivy, and other evergreens, which renders it singularly picturesque. In one room is preserved a portrait of the factious Suffolk, respecting whose capture the following particulars are related:—"Finding that he was forsaken, he put himself under the trust Lord Suffolk betrayed by his keeper. of one Underwood, as it is said, a keeper of his park here at Astley, who hid him for some few days in a large hollow tree, standing about two bow-shots from the church; but, being promised a reward, he betrayed him." The church of Astley having been made collegiate, by Lord Thomas de Astley, was by him rebuilt, and adorned with a spire, so lofty that it served as a land-mark in the deep wood-lands of the district, and was popularly termed "The lanthorn of Arden."—The interior is curious and interesting, although many monuments and decorations have been removed or destroyed at various times. On an altar-tomb at the west-end are the effigies, in alabaster, of a warrior and a lady; and on another, is the mutilated figure of a female in a recumbent posture: both are without inscription.

[D] ASTLEY. This village is situated on the Severn, it was noted before the dissolution, for its priory of Benedictines, and is now remarkable chiefly for a hermitage formed in the living rock, and recently converted into an Hermitage. ale-house. The church, built in the Saxon style of architecture, contains some monuments and a few fragments of stained glass. Here is the ancient seat called Glasshampton.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
33Astley AbbotspaSalopBridgenorth2M. Wenlock7Madeley6142666
7Astonto & chapChesterFrodsham3Northwich8Warrington8181197
56AstontoMontgomeryCh. Stretton10Montgomery7Bishop's Cas.216184
46Aston[C]to & paN.R. YorkRotherham6Sheffield8Maltby6156564

[A] ASTON. The village and manor of Aston was an ancient demesne of the Saxon kings. Henry VIII. granted the manor to Sir John Boteler, of Walton Wood Hall; but the house now standing at Aston Place, indicates earlier antiquity than the time of that sovereign. Westward of the village, The six hills. on the eastern side of the great North road, are six large barrows, thought to be of Danish origin; from their immediate proximity to the road-side they excite the curiosity and attention of most persons travelling northward: two of them have been opened, but were not found to contain any thing of sufficient interest to be here recorded.

[B] ASTON is in the Birmingham division of the Hundred of Hemlingford. It may be deemed a part of Birmingham, being inhabited chiefly by Part of Birmingham. artisans in the various branches of manufacture for which that town is distinguished. Aston Hall, the seat of Heneage Legge, Esq., was first erected by Sir Thomas Holt, Bart. in the reign of James I. It was several times plundered during the troubles of his successor, who was entertained here for two nights a short time before the battle of Edgehill, which occurred on October 23, 1642, between the Royalists and the Parliamentary forces. Sir T. Holt endowed an alms-house for five poor men and women in this parish.

[C] ASTON, is a parish and township with Aughton, in the wapentake of Strafforth and Tickhill. In the church, which is dedicated to All Saints, is an ancient monument, under which lie buried Lord D'Arcy and his three wives. There is also a marble slab to the memory of the poet The poet Mason's monument. Mason, who was rector of this parish. This distinguished poet was the son of a clergyman in Yorkshire, in which county he was born in the year 1725. He became a student of St. John's College, Cambridge, and subsequently a fellow of Pembroke Hall, in the same university. His debut in the literary world was made by the publication of "Isis," a poem, in which he satirized the Jacobitish and High Church principles of the University of Oxford. A reply was written by Thomas Warton, entitled "The Triumph of Isis." In 1752 he published a tragedy with choral odes on the ancient Greek model, called "Elfrida." Having taken orders in the church, he was presented with the living of Aston, and appointed one of the royal chaplains. In 1759 appeared his "Caractacus," a drama on a kindred plan with the former. Both of these pieces were afterwards introduced on the stage, they however met with very little success. In 1762, Mr. Mason was made precentor of York, to which preferment a canonry was annexed. One of his principal works, entitled "The English Garden," a poem, in four books, appeared in the years 1772, 1777, 1779, and 1781. 4to.; this was translated into French and German. In 1775 he published the exquisite poems of his friend Gray, with a Memoir of his Life. At the beginning of the American War, Mr. Mason became An advocate for freedom dismissed from his chaplainship. so active an advocate for freedom, as to give offence at court, and he was in consequence dismissed from his chaplainship. It is said he felt alarmed at the frightful consequences of the French Revolution, and his zeal cooled towards the latter end of his life. He died April 7, 1797.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
5Aston-Clinton[A]to & paBucksTring4Ivinghoe5Aylesbury4351001
33Aston-EyretoSalopBridgenorth3M. Wenlock5Madeley714363
23Aston-Flamvilleto & pLeicesterHinckley3Lutterworth8Leicester13971703
28Aston on the Walls,to & paNorthampBanbury8Daventry9Towcester1171240
31Aston-Middleto & paOxfordDeddington3Woodstock8Bicester964121
5Aston-SandfordpaBucksThame4Aylesbury6P. Risboro'54282
31Aston-Steeple[B]to & paOxfordDeddington4Woodstock7Bicester964562
4Aston-TirroldpaBerksWallingford6E. Illsley6Streatley550343
15Aston-upon-Carronpa and tiGloucesterTewkesbury2Cheltenham9Evesham10104166
28Astrope, or Asthorpe[C]hamNorthampBrackley6Banbury4Deddington569...

[A] ASTON CLINTON is in the first division of Aylesbury hundred. The manor was the property of the late Lord Lake, who died in 1808, during the trial of General Whitelock, who was cashiered for his misconduct at Buenos Ayres at the commencement of that year. At St. Leonard's, a hamlet of this parish, about four miles from Aston church, is an ancient chapel, said to have been a chantry chapel to the Abbey of Missenden. It Monument of one of Queen Anne's officers. contains, among other monuments, that of General Cornelius Wood, an officer who distinguished himself in the reign of Queen Anne, and who died in 1712. It is ornamented with a bust of the general in white marble, surrounded with military trophies. This chapel is endowed with an estate, vested in ten trustees, who have the appointment of the minister.

[B] STEEPLE ASTON. At this village, Dr. Samuel Radcliffe, principal of Brazennose College, Oxford, and rector of this church, founded a free Dr. Samuel Radcliffe. school in 1640, and endowed it with ten pounds per annum; he died in the year 1648, and is buried in the church. He also endowed an alms-house for poor women in this parish. A tessalated pavement was ploughed up here in the 17th century.

[C] ASTROPE. This hamlet is in the parish of King's Sutton. The village is worthy of remark, from the church having a tower crowned with a handsome and lofty spire, decorated with crocketed pinnacles. Here is a remarkably fine mineral spring, called St. Rumbald's Well, which A mineral spring famous for curing consumption, jaundice, &c. was formerly in considerable repute. When drank at the fountain head, the water is considered a specific in cases of female obstructions, and in the first and second stages of consumptions. In the jaundice it seldom fails; and in dropsical cases is frequently administered with success. Persons whose constitutions have been weakened by free living, find themselves renovated by its virtues. The water has a brisk pleasant taste, and is very clear and spirituous. Astrope Hall was formerly the residence of the Lord Chief Justice Willes.

[D] ASTWELL. In this hamlet is an ancient mansion, formerly the seat of the Earl of Ferrers. Several of the rooms exhibit in the wainscot Seat of Earl Ferrers and chimney pieces, armorial bearings and other carved decorations. A dilapidated room at the east end was formerly a chapel.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
5AstwoodpaBucksNewport Pag6Woburn10Olney651268
33AtchampaSalopShrewsbury4Acton Burn.6Shiffnal14149463
54Athan, St.[A]paGlamorganCowbridge4Cardiff15Bridgend10174312
12AthelamptonpaDorsetDorchester7Bere Regis7Blandford1311679
36Athelington, or AllingtonpaSuffolkEye5Framlingham8Debenham688129
34Athelney, Isle ofSomerset
11AtheringtonpaDevonTorrington7Barnstaple8S. Molton9204592
39Atherstone[B]m.t. & paWarwickNuneaton6Sheepy3Tamworth81053870

[A] ST. ATHAN. In this village is a castle, called East Orchard, built in the year 1691, by Roger Berkrols; it stands on the edge of an extensive flat: a luxuriant wild fig tree grows out of the cement of the chapel walls. Perhaps the Turkey fig tree might be propagated with more success, grafted upon this wildling, which probably originated in the cultivated fig planted in the gardens of the Norman lords. In St. Athan's church there The largest inhabited castle in Wales. are two uncommonly fine gothic monuments of the Berkrol's family: there are likewise in this parish the remains of two castles—West Orchard and Castleton; but these are not of such great antiquity. From this spot there is a good view of Fonmore, or Fronmon Castle, which is the most extensive and august of the Welch inhabited castles. The kitchen is said to be the largest in the kingdom. In Fronmon castle is an excellent portrait of Oliver Cromwell. The flat and steep-holms are seen from this neighbourhood: the former has its light-house. It is situated nearly ten miles from the sea lock of the canal, and three miles from the adjacent steep-holms, which is a smaller island than the former, though more conspicuous from its great height above the water; it is quite barren and uninhabited. The flat holms at low tide is an extensive sheet of mud, excepting one deep Account of the dangerous beach. channel. The landing place is near the castle rock, a dangerous, but romantic beach, so called from its similarity to a castle, it is very large, and is said to resemble Abergavenny castle. In the centre is a bold arch, which at high water is covered. The hollow sound of the sea roaring through the arch, and the waves occasionally retreating, and then forcing their way back with redoubled fury, has an uncommonly fine effect. At low tide the shore all around the base is dry. The island is four or five miles in circumference; the soil is good, and would, if well cultivated, be very productive. From the light-house, which is 80 feet in height, is a delightful prospect of the Bristol Channel and the shores of Somerset and Glamorgan. It is the resort of many visitors in the summer season.

[B] ATHERSTONE. This market town is supposed to have derived its name from "a stone" under which an "adder" of enormous size was found; it is situated on the Watling Street, and divided from Leicestershire by the river Anker, and was a place of some importance at the Conquest: at which time the town was given to the monks of Bee in Normandy, who obtained for it a market day and an annual fair, which Some foreign monks obtained this market. brought it into consequence. A monastery of friars, (Hermits of Saint Augustine,) was founded at Atherstone in the year 1375. The church belonging to the friary was completed in the reign of Richard II. A free grammar school was founded here by Sir William Devereux and two other benevolent persons in the year 1573. The chancel of the friary church was appropriated to the use of this seminary, and is still dedicated to the same purpose. The mansion, or hall house was sometime after separated from the chapel, and rebuilt at a short distance upon a pleasant bank, commanding an extensive view over the adjacent counties of Leicester, Derby, and Stafford. Two nights before the battle of Bosworth Field (which is but nine miles distant), the Duke of Richmond lay at Atherstone, where he had his interview with the two Stanley's, in which such measures of co-operation were concerted as occasioned the overthrow of King Richard III., and it is said, that many persons from the subsequent battle were buried below this old mansion, from which the spot has retained the name of the bloody bank. It appears, however, to have been so called from being the place where contests of less serious results were usually decided by the young champions of the ancient foundation school, which is still supported by a respectable endowment. Atherstone Hall has Atherstone Hall. recently been much improved by extended buildings and ornamental plantations. It is situated near Merevale Hall, the seat of D.S. Dugdale, Esq., and Grendon Hall, that of Sir G. Chetwynd, Bart. Here are manufactories of hats, ribbons, and shalloons, and considerable business is done at the four annual fairs; that in September being the most considerable in England for the sale of cheese. The passage of the Coventry canal, uniting with that of the Trent and Mersey, within a hundred yards of the town, adds very considerably to its facilities of trading. The poet Drayton, author of the "Polyolbion," was a native of Atherstone.

Market, Tuesday.—Fairs, April 7, for horses, cows, and sheep; July 18, holyday; September 19, for horses, cows, and cheese; December 4, for horses and fat cattle.—Mail arrives 8.41 A.M.; departs 5.36 P.M.—Inns, Red Lion, and Three Tuns.—Bankers, W. and J.H. Chapman; draw upon Spooner and Co.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
22Atherton, or Chowbentsto & chapLancasterNewton7Bolton5Wigan71984181
24AtterlytoLincolnMar. Rising9Brigg10Gainsboro'12148110
45AttercliffetoW.R. YorkSheffield2Rotherham4Barnsley131623741
31Attingtonex. p.hamOxfordTetsworth1Thame3Watlington6427
27Attleborough[B]m.t. & pNorfolkNorwich15Buckenham4Watton10941939

[A] ATTENBOROUGH. This village, supposed to be the ancient Attenton, lies nearly on the banks of the river Trent. Its church is large, and also well filled: it serves for Chilwell, Toueton, and part of Bramcote. This place is remarkable, for having given birth to Henry Ireton, the regicide, Birth-place of the regicide, son-in-law of Oliver Cromwell. son-in-law of Oliver Cromwell. He was the eldest son of Gervase Ireton, Esq., and brother to Sir John Ireton, Lord Mayor of London in 1658. He was a gentleman commoner of Trinity College, Oxford, in 1629, and at the age of 19 he took one degree in Arts. Wood tells us, that he had the character in that college of a stubborn and saucy fellow towards the seniors. Afterwards he went to the Middle Temple, where he became grounded in the common law. When the rebellion broke out he took up arms against the king, was a recruiter in the long parliament, and about that time married Bridget, one of the daughters of Cromwell, then only colonel of a regiment. He became first a captain, afterwards colonel, and at length commissary-general, in 1645. He is said to have been the best prayer-maker and preacher in the whole army. He drew up the famous remonstrance requiring justice to be done on their sovereign. He sat as judge on the king's trial, and was one of the committee that appointed the time and place of execution. In Cromwell's expedition to Ireland, he was appointed second in command, with the rank of major-general, and was afterwards made president of Munster; being left as deputy by Cromwell, in 1649, he died the next year of a sudden disorder at Limerick. On his death, the parliament settled a pension of £2000. per annum on his widow and children, out of the estates of the Duke of Buckingham.

[B] ATTLEBOROUGH, or ATTLEBURGH. This small market town was formerly a place of considerable consequence. During the Saxon era it was a post of strength and served as a check to the Danes in their predatory incursions. Its fortifications are said to have been conspicuous in the time of Henry II. Attleborough formerly belonged to the Mortimers; from them it passed to the Ratcliffe family, of whom it was purchased by Sir Francis Blickley, Bart., whence it came into possession of the family of Ash. A college, dedicated to the Holy Cross, was founded here in the reign of Richard II., by Sir Robert de Mortimer, for a custos and four fellows. The church, with the east end is entire; it is in the collegiate form, and consists of a large nave with aisles and a north and south transept; it contains the monuments of many persons of distinction. On a flat stone in the nave is an inscription to the memory of Captain John Gibbs, a celebrated horse racer and gamester, in the reign of Charles I. Anecdote of Captain J. Gibbs. This person having laid a wager that he would drive his carriage and four horses up and down the steepest place of the Devil's Ditch, on Newmarket Heath, succeeded in winning the bet, by making a very light chaise, with a jointed perch, and without any pole. It is worthy of remark, that the first turnpike road in the kingdom, was made at Attleborough, by an Act passed for that purpose in 1707.

Market, Thursday.—Fairs, Thursday before Easter; Thursday after Holy Trinity; August 15, for cattle and Toys.—Mail arrives 7.27 A.M.; departs 6.38 P.M.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
46Atwicketo & paE.R.YorkHornsea2Bridlington12Beverley13189285
24Aubornto & paLincolnLincoln8Newark10Navenby6127356
13Auckland, St. Andrew[A]to & paDurhamBp. Auckland1Darlington11Durham1124811137
13Auckland, St. HelenchDurham...3...10...13246410
13Auckland, WesttoDurham...3...10...132461106
14Audley End[B]hamEssexSaff. Walden1Newport2Chesterford442
7Audlemto & paChesterNantwich6Whitchurch9Woore51632978

[A] ST. ANDREWS, AUCKLAND. This place is celebrated for the church having been made collegiate by Bishop Beck, although it is probable there was some foundation here before the time of that prelate. The edifice is situated on a rising ground, in a valley near the banks of the river Gaunless, and has the form of a cross with a tower at the west end. In the inside is a curious wooden figure, said to be an effigy of one of Curious effigy. the family of Polland, which represents a knight sitting cross-legged and dressed in a coat of mail, with his hands raised and his feet resting on a lion.

[B] AUDLEY END is principally celebrated for its vicinity to Audley House, which was sold by the third Earl of Suffolk, to Charles II., for £50,000., the king, however, left a great part of the sum on mortgage. The present mansion, though a large and magnificent structure, consists only of a small part of the original building, owing to its curtailment at various times. When in its perfect state, it was esteemed one of the most splendid and capacious mansions in the country; and, if not superior, was nearly equal to the palaces of Hampton Court, Nonsuch, and Richmond. At the time when it was first built, large, rather than comfortable or handsome houses were fashionable. Influenced by these sentiments, Thomas Howard, the first Earl of Suffolk, (as Walpole observes,) determined to have "an immense pile of building," and £190,000. was expended upon its erection. It is said that, when the house was finished, King James was invited to see it. Having surveyed the structure with Anecdote of James I. great astonishment, the earl asked him "how he liked it?" "Very well," replied James, "but troth man," continued he sarcastically, "it is too much for a king, but it may do for a Lord High Treasurer." An elegant domestic chapel, constructed by the late Lord Howard, occupies the north west corner of the house. It is fitted up with clustered columns, pointed arches, and fan like tracery; and, in imitation of a cathedral, it has a nave, side-aisles and transepts. The windows are filled with painted glass, by Pickett of York, who executed them in 1771, from Biaggio Rebecca's designs.

Fair, August 5, for cheese.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
35Audleyto & paStaffordNewcastle4Leek14Congleton91543617
22AughtonchapLancasterLancaster7K. Lonsdale8Burton7217199
46Aughton[A]to & paE.R. YorkHowden7Selby7York11189665
45AughtontoW.R. YorkRotherham5Sheffield7Tickhill11156
15Aust, or Aust-Clive[C]ti. & chapGloucesterThornbury4Bristol11Chepstow5123203

[A] AUGHTON. This village is chiefly distinguished for having been the seat of an ancient and respectable family long since extinct, or dispersed. Once the seat of Sir Robert Aske. The Askes, who succeeded the family of Hai, resided here from about the year 1365, till the reign of Charles I., when the head of the family was one of the judges of that unfortunate monarch. Of this family, also, was Sir Robert Aske, a man of daring and enthusiastic courage, possessing considerable talents, who headed the insurrection called "the Pilgrimage of Grace," in the days of Henry VIII. Of the family seat, nothing remains but the site, marked by several moats.

[B] AUKBOROUGH. Dr. Stukely having discovered a Roman castrum and a vicinal road here, supposed it to be the Aquis of Ravennas. The Roman station is square, each side 300 feet; the entrance is at the north, and the west side faces the steep cliff that over-hangs the Trent. The situation of this castle at the north-west angle of Lincolnshire, renders it a kind of watch tower over Nottingham and Yorkshire, which it surveys. The camp is now called "Countess Close," and tradition speaks of a Countess of Warwick having resided here. The vallum and ditch are nearly entire; a square plat called the "Oreen," is supposed to have been appropriated for the soldiers when on duty. Within this is a round walk into a labyrinth, called Julian's Bower; these bowers are usually Julian's bower. found in the neighbourhood of Roman towns, and are objects of great curiosity to uninformed people. Dr. Stukeley is of opinion that they were the arena of some of their ancient games, brought into Italy from Troy, and that they derived their name from "borough," any work consisting of ramparts of earth, and not from "bower" an arbour. The views in this neighbourhood are very beautiful; the winding Trent with its rich level plains of meadow, all alive with herds of cattle; the cliff, commanding a noble view of the three rivers; the hanging woods and ornamented walks, all form a great contrast to what Lincolnshire is often represented by those who have visited only the fenny parts of this fertile county.

[C] AUST, or AUST CLIVE. Here is a celebrated ferry over the Severn into South Wales. The Proprætor, Ostorius Scapula, was accustomed to ferry his legions over near this place. In the time of Edward the Elder, Celebrated passage into South Wales. who was lying here with his army, Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, was stationed at Beachley, on the opposite bank. Llewellyn, who was required to pay homage to the English Sovereign, refused to cross the passage; but Edward immediately crossing in a boat, was seen, as he approached the shore by Llewellyn, who, overcome by the condescension, rushed into the water, and taking the monarch upon his shoulders, carried him to land, and did him homage for the principality. The Severn is here nearly two miles across.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
8Austell, or St. Austle[A]m.t. & paCornwallTruro14Lostwithiel9Grampound62438758
45Austerfieldto & chapW.R. YorkBawtry2Thorne11Doncaster9155280

[A] ST. AUSTELL is a considerable market town, which belongs to the north-eastern division of the county, and is one of the polling places. The petty sessions of the hundred of Powder are held here. Considerable quantities of corn and other articles are brought to the market. The town is seated on the eastern side of a hill which slopes gradually to a rivulet which runs along a narrow valley; this stream, and the inequality of the ground, have been rendered eminently useful to the manufactories of the neighbourhood. The water which has been conducted round the side of the hills, in its course impels the machinery of several stamping-mills, which have been erected on different levels. It is also employed to cleanse and separate the tin from the pounded mass. Through its vicinity to the great tin mine of Polgooth, St. Austell has within the last sixty or seventy years, considerably increased in the number of its Blackmore Court held here. houses and inhabitants. The holding of the Blackmore Court here, which is the most considerable of the stannary courts, or courts relating to the tin works, have also contributed to augment its prosperity. The old town, or rather village, was at some little distance to the east, and its site is still marked by a few cottages; the present town is the regular thoroughfare for travellers from Plymouth to Falmouth; the streets are very narrow, and not having any pavement for foot passengers are somewhat unsafe. The only blowing houses in the county are at the east end of this town; they are three in number, and very spacious; the old smelting houses are supplied with coals, and are reverberatory; but in these blowing houses the fire is of charcoal, and ignited by air impelled through tubes by cylinders instead of bellows; this mode of fluxing the ore is considered by the workmen far preferable to the other. The inhabitants of this town, from its proximity to the sea, are principally employed in the pilchard fishery and in mining; there is however a small manufactory of serges. The parish church is a fine old fabric, consisting of three aisles; the tower and some other parts of the structure are fancifully ornamented; various carvings, monstrous heads, angels, and other figures appear on the cornices. From the repetition of the shovel, pick, hammers, and other tools, it seems probable that the miners were the principle contributors towards the expences of the building. In the year 1774, as some tinners were searching for tin in a stream work near the town, about seventeen feet under the surface of the ground, they discovered a silver cup, which is now used for wine at the Communion table, in which were several ancient pieces of gold and silver ornaments; they consisted of bracelets, rings, and buckles, Silver cup found 17ft. under ground. evidently for a person of high rank, with many of the most curious Saxon coins ever discovered at one time. All these articles fell out on moving the ground, and some were probably lost in shovelling out the rubbish; those which were picked up were dispersed about the country, and many of them broken. The celebrated Pentuan stone quarry, from which the materials of many churches and family seats have been taken, is in this parish. Polgooth mine (before mentioned) was considered the richest ever worked in England, and is situated about two miles south-west of the town. The surrounding country appears for many miles bleak, desolate, and barren, yet its bowels contain vast treasures; though, as a talented author has observed, "like the shabby mien of a miser, its aspect does not correspond with its hoards." The shafts by which the miners descend, and through which the ore is raised to the surface, are scattered over a considerable extent of sterile ground, whose dreary appearance, and the sallow countenances of the miners, concur to excite ideas of gloom, apprehension, and melancholy. The number of shafts is not less than fifty, from twenty to thirty of which are constantly in use. When a stranger is induced to descend, he is previously accoutred in a flannel shirt and trowsers, a close cap, an old hat to shelter his face from droppings, and a thick pair of shoes. A lighted candle is put into one hand, and a spare one suspended to a button of his jacket. Every part of the ordinary clothing is laid aside, and the flannel dress worn close to the skin, in order to absorb the profuse perspiration which the closeness of the mine or the labour of mounting the ladders may occasion.

Market, Friday.—Fairs, Whit Thursday, and Nov. 30, for oxen, sheep, and cloth.—Mail arrives 12.35 afternoon; departs 10.27. morning.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
45Austhorpe[A]toW.R. YorkLeeds4Wetherby10Abberford5189150
45AustonleytoW.R. YorkHuddersfield8Barnsley9Wakefield111811420
45AustwicktoW.R. YorkSettle5Ingleton9Hawes20241614
41Avebury, or Abury[B]paWiltsMarlborough7Swindon11Calne682747
14AveleypaEssexPurfleet2G. Thurrock4Wennington421758
15AveningpaGloucesterTetbury4M. Hampton5Horseley3992396

[A] AUSTHORPE. This township gave birth to the celebrated civil engineer John Smeaton, distinguished as the architect of Eddystone Light-house, and, as the conductor of various other important undertakings. He Birth-place of Smeaton the architect. was the son of an attorney, who, observing that he had a strong taste for mechanics, wisely allowed him to follow the impulse of his genius, and become a mathematical instrument maker. He commenced business in that capacity, in Holborn, London, in 1750. His great undertaking—the erection of the light-house on the Eddystone rock, was accomplished in the year 1759, and it was executed in such a manner as almost to bid defiance to the power of time or accident. His death took place in his native village, September 8, 1792.—See Eddystone Light-house.

[B] AVEBURY or ABURY, is situated within the very area of a British temple, and claims the particular attention of the topographer and antiquary. The enclosure, which is formed by a wide and deep ditch, and a lofty external vallum, contains many large stones, some of which are erect, and the others lying on the ground. Southward of this place, at some distance, are other large stones, erect or prostrate; and, westward, are two others, erect. Several walls and houses of the village are constructed A British temple formed of enormous stones. with broken masses of these ponderous monuments; yet enough remains to excite curiosity and prompt research. The following is a description of this great temple, in its original state:—Immediately within the ditch, and encompassing the whole area, was a continued series of large upright stones, consisting of one hundred in number; these stones were placed at the distance of twenty-seven feet from each other, and usually measured from fifteen to seventeen feet in height, and about forty feet in circumference. Within the area of this circle, the diameter of which was about 1400 feet, were two double circles; the exterior circles were about 466 feet in diameter, and formed by thirty stones of similar dimensions equally distant from each other, as in the large enclosing circle. Of these singular stones there are but few remaining; but from the extraordinary dimension of these relics of antiquity, the traveller may judge for himself the correctness of our notice.

Mail arrives at Beckhampton Inn, (1 mile distant,) at 5.20 morning; departs 9.45 night.

[C] AVERHAM. This place is principally remarkable for a monument contained in the church erected to the memory of Sir William Sutton, once lord of the manor, on which it is quaintly recorded that he had sixteen children, and an equal number of each sex; of whom the one half

"Ushered to heaven their father, and the other
Remained behind him to attend their mother."

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
39Avon DassettpaWarwickBanbury6Kineton6Southam975
11AwliscombepaDevonHoniton2Ottery St.M.6Collumpton10154598
34Axbridge[C]bo. m.t. & pSomersetWells10Chedder2Bristol18130998

[A] AVINGTON. Sir Francis Burdett is lord of this manor, and patron Sir Francis Burdett. of the rectory. The church, which remains nearly in its original state, exhibits a curious specimen of Saxon architecture. Within the walls it measures 75 feet by 14 feet and a half. The nave is separated from the chancel by an arch richly ornamented by a zig-zag moulding, and a great variety of grotesque heads springing from two enriched piers; the arch is formed of the segments of two circles, each having different centres. In this church there is also a very singular font, of rude workmanship, surrounded with grotesque figures, executed in bass-relief; that is to say, sculpture, the figures of which do not stand out from the ground in their full proportion.

[B] AVINGTON, anciently Abyngton, is remarkable for its beautiful park, the seat of Chandos Grenville, Duke of Buckingham, Lord Lieutenant Seat of the Duke of Buckingham. of the county of Bucks. The manor was originally a royal demesne, or estate in lands, and was given by king Edgar to the monastery of St. Swithin at Winchester, in the year 961; it continued in the possession of that house until the dissolution of monasteries, when it became the property of the clerks of Mitcheldever, (a village about five miles distant,) with whom it remained until the reign of Elizabeth; and then passed to the Bruges, or Brydges family, afterwards raised to the dukedom of Chandos. Anna Maria Brudenell, the infamous Countess of Shrewsbury, married one of this family; her former husband, the Earl of Shrewsbury, died from a wound received in a duel with the Duke of Buckingham, during the fighting of which the Countess had the audacity to hold the horse of her gallant, disguised as a page. Charles the Second was frequently the A seat of one of the paramours of Charles II. guest of this notorious woman at the mansion of Avington, which thus became the scene of that licentious monarch's pleasures. The mansion, which is mostly built of brick, has been greatly improved since it came into the possession of the present proprietor. It is situated in a well planted and secluded valley, nearly environed with high downs, which from their bare and open state, form a singular though not unpleasing contrast with the scenery immediately contiguous to the house. Several of the apartments are fitted up with great elegance, and enriched by a choice collection of valuable paintings.

[C] AXBRIDGE. This town is one of the polling places for the eastern division of the county of Somerset, but the court for the election of the Knights of the Shire is at Wells. The borough sent members to parliament during the reigns of the three first Edwards, but was afterwards excused on the plea of poverty. It consists chiefly of one street, winding A borough excused on a plea of poverty. from east to west, about half a mile in length. The shambles and market are towards the east end. Although so small, it is governed by a corporation, consisting of a mayor, bailiff, and ten aldermen, and twenty-two burgesses, with a recorder, town-clerk, and other officers. Knit hose are manufactured in this town. The church, occupying an eminence, near the market-house, is a large and handsome gothic structure, in the form of a cross. The cloth of the communion table is elegantly wrought in silk, by Mrs. Abigail, who employed seven years in completing it. This lady, and several of her family, have monuments in the church.

Market, Saturday.—Fairs, Feb 23, and March 25, for cattle, sheep,cheese, and toys.—Mail arrives 2.0 afternoon; departs 11.0 morning.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
11Axminster[A]m.t.DevonBridport12Honiton10Lyme Regis61472719
13Aycliffe-Greatto & pDurhamDarlington5Sedgfield7Durham132461564
11Aylesbearto&pa DevonOttery, St.M.5Exeter10Sidmouth81661025
5Aylesbury[B]bo. m.t. & paBucksTring7Winslow11Wendover5384907

[A] AXMINSTER is very irregularly built, and the houses are inelegant, but the air of the town is reckoned highly salubrious. The petty sessions of the hundred of Axminster are held here. The lower orders are mostly employed in manufacturing carpets, leather breeches, gloves, &c. The Trade. manner of weaving carpets here is different from that pursued at most other places; the carpets being woven in the piece, and several hands employed at the same loom. The common patterns are flowers, roses, &c., though the Turkey and Persian carpets have been imitated with success. In many large pieces Roman tesselated pavements have been copied, which have produced a very rich effect. The tunnel between Charmouth and was opened in the month of January, 1832. This improvement is substantially constructed with an elliptic arch, capable of allowing two stage waggons of the largest size to pass on it, and is rather more than A remarkable tunnel through a lofty hill. seventy yards in length. By the completion of this tunnel the longest and steepest hill between London and Exeter is avoided. A gentleman who visited the tunnel during the height of the ensuing summer, remarked the astonishing coolness which he felt within this hill's enclosed semi-cylinder; no sooner, however, had he left it, than he fainted from the difference of temperature between this subterraneous passage and that of the open air.

Market. Saturday—Fairs, St. Marks Day; April 30; Wednesday after June 24; Wednesday after Oct 10.—Mail arrives 1.20 afternoon; departs 12.51 afternoon.

[B] AYLESBURY. The Æglesbury of the Saxons, is a considerable market town, situated near the centre of the county, rising gradually on all sides in a rich and extensive tract, denominating the "Vale of Aylesbury." Drayton in his Poly-Albion has the following lines descriptive of this celebrated vale:—

Aylesbury's vale that walloweth in her wealth,
And (by her wholesome air continually in health)
Is lusty, firm, and fat; and holds her youthful strength.

This was originally a strong British town, which maintained its independence till the year 571, when it was reduced by the West Saxons. In the year 600, it became famous as the burial place of St. Osyth, who was St. Osyth. born at Quarrendon, two miles distance, and beheaded in Essex by the Pagans. Her relics were interred in this church, and are said to have performed many miracles; a religious house was founded in honour of William the Conqueror, who parcelled it out under the singular tenure:—that Singular tenure of this manor. the tenants should find litter or straw for the king's bedchamber three times a year, if he came that way so often, and provide him with three eels in winter, and three green geese in summer. In the reign of Henry VIII., the manor was sold by Thomas Boleyn, Earl of Wilts, father of Queen Anne Boleyn, to Sir John Baldwin, whose daughter took it in marriage to Robert Pakington, who was murdered in the year 1537, on account of his zeal for the reformed religion. It continued in this family till the year 1801, when it was sold by Sir John Pakington, Bart., to the Marquis of Buckingham. How completely the manor and the town itself were in the possession of the Pakington family, will appear from the following remarkable letter preserved in the Chapel of the Rolls, among the returns of Parliament writs of the fourteenth of Queen Elizabeth:—"To all Christian people, to whom this present writing shall come: I, Remarkable Parliamentary writ. Dorothy Pakington, late wife of Sir John Pakington, lord and owner of the town of Aylesbury, send greeting. Know ye me, the said Dorothy Pakington, to have chosen, named, and appointed my trusty and well-beloved Thomas Litchfield, and George Burden, Esqrs., to be my burgesses of my said town of Aylesbury; and whatever the said Thomas and George, burgesses, shall do in the service of the Queen's Highness in the Parliament to be holden at Westminster on the 8th of May next ensuing the date hereof, I the same Dorothy Pakington do ratify and approve to be of my own act as fully and wholly as if I were witness or present there. In witness whereof, to these presents, I have set my seal, this 4th day of May, in the 14th year of the reign of my Sovereign Lady Elizabeth, by the grace of God, of England, France, and Ireland, Queen, &c." Aylesbury was made a borough town by a charter of Queen Mary, in 1554. The Reform Bill has made no alteration in the number of members. The electors are those of the old constituency, consisting of freeholders of the hundred, and house-keepers not receiving alms; the freeholders of the hundred are estimated at 838; and the ten pound householders at 314; total 1152. The limits of the borough are unaltered, and the returning officers are the constables of the borough. The town is also one of the polling places for this county, which now returns three members. The county gaol is still at Aylesbury, but the Summer Assizes were restored to Buckingham, through the exertions of Lord Cobham and the Grenville family in the year 1758. The only manufacture at Aylesbury is that of lace-making: the weekly market is a very plentiful one for provision, and much business is done here at the annual fairs.

Market, Saturday—Fairs, Friday after Jan. 18; Saturday before Palm Sunday; May 8; June 14; September 25; October 12, for cattle. Bankers, Rickford and Son, draw on Praed's and Co—Mail arrives 12.40 morning; departs 2.19 morning.—Inns, George, and White Hart.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
24AylesbypaLincolnG. Grimsby4Barton17Caistor9166144
23Aylestoneto & paLeicesterLeicester3Lutterworth10Hinckley1096758

[A] AYLESFORD is seated on the banks of the Medway, by which the parish is divided. The church is so singularly situated, from being placed on a rising ground, that persons in the churchyard can almost look down the chimnies of the houses. The neighbourhood is famed as having been the spot where, we are told by ancient historians, a sanguinary battle was The site of a Saxon battle. fought in 445, between the Britons and Saxons; the conflict having taken place about five years after the first landing of the latter in Britain. It appears from our chronicles that Vortimer, then monarch of this island, having first defeated his enemies on the banks of the Darent, in Kent, pursued their routed forces to Aylesford; at which place the Saxons had passed to the eastern side of the Medway, where a most obstinate and bloody battle took place between the contending armies, when the fate of the day, having long remained undecided, at length terminated favourably for the Britons. In that decisive affair, Horsa, brother of Hengist, the Saxon chief, and Catigrinus, brother to King Vortimer, are said to have contended hand to hand, when both died bravely upon the spot. Horsa, if tradition may be credited, was interred about three miles north of Aylesford, at a spot still bearing the name of Horsted; that is to say, "the place of Horsa;" where, in the adjoining fields, large stones are still dispersed over the soil; some in erect positions, while others, from lapse of time, have been thrown down; being, there is little doubt, placed there as memorials of the Saxon warriors slain in that famous encounter. Prince Cartigrinus is supposed to have been inhumed still nearer the field of slaughter, on the summit of an acclivity, about one mile north of Aylesford, and a quarter of a mile west from the high road leading from Rochester to Maidstone; at which place, Kitt's Cotty House still stands, as Kitt's Cotty House. represented in our engraving. This memorial consists of four large stones, of the pebble kind, two placed in the ground, being partly upright, forming two sides, a third standing in the middle between them, while the fourth, being the largest, is laid transversely over them, thus forming a covering. None of these stones bear the imprint of the chisel, or any sign whatsoever of manual labour. Alfred and Edmund Ironside defeated the Danes in this vicinity. Sir Charles Sedley, of poetical and dissolute notoriety, was a native of this place; as was also Sir Paul Rycaut, the celebrated eastern traveller.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
27Aylsham[A]m.t. & paNorfolkNorwich12Cromer11Reepham71182334
17Aymesteryto & paHerefordLeominster9Kington11Ludlow111461006
18Ayott, St. LawrencepaHertsWelwyn3Luton7St. Albans728134
18Ayott, St. PeterpaHerts...2Hatfield5...725271
43Aysgarthto & paN.R. YorkMiddleham9Askrigg4Reeth72415796
43Ayton Eastto & paN.R. YorkScarborough4N. Malton16Whitby20217360
43Ayton WesttoN.R. York...5...16...20217256
43Ayton Greatto & paN.R. YorkStokesley4Guisboro'5Stockton102401105
43Ayton Littleto & paN.R. York...4...5...1024068
45Azerley, or CozenleytoW.R. YorkRipon5Masham5Bedale11217579

[A] AYLSHAM is situated on the southern side of the river Brue, which is navigable hence to Yarmouth, for barges of about 13 tons burthen. Aylsham during the reigns of Edward II. and III., was the chief town in this part of the kingdom for the linen manufacture; but in succeeding Trade. reigns, that business was superseded by the woollen manufacture; and in the time of James I., the inhabitants were principally employed in knitting worsted stockings, breeches, and waistcoat pieces. Since the introduction of frame knitting, that trade has also been lost; the town is governed by a bailiff. Aylsham church is said to have been erected by John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, the court of which duchy was at one period held here. There is a spa in the neighbourhood, the water of which has obtained considerable reputation for its medicinal properties in chronic disorders.

Market, Tuesday.—Fairs, March 23; last Tuesday in September for lean cattle, ordinary horses, and pedlary; and October 6, for cattle.—Mail arrives 12.30 afternoon; departs 2.0 afternoon.—Bankers, Copeman and Co., draw upon Hankey and Co.

[B] AYNHO is a large and respectable village seated on a rock, below which issues a powerful spring of water, called the Town Well, which Town Well. after running through the vale below, contributes to the supply of the Charwell. The church contains numerous monuments, several of which belong to the Cartwright family, who have long been in possession of the manor, and whose descendant R.W. Cartwright, Esq., has a handsome seat, the interior of which is adorned with a fine collection of paintings. An hospital was founded here for poor and sick travellers. The building is still standing, but is now occupied as a private house.

Name.Rises.Falls. Name.Rises.Falls.
Aire[A]YorkshireOuse. ArrowHerefordshLug
AlanCornwallSt. George's Channel. ArrowWorcestershAvon.
AldSuffolkSea near Aldborough. ArthCardiganshIrish Sea.
AlderSussexSea at Shoreham ArtroMerionethshLandeber.
AllenDorsetshireStour ArunSussexSea.
AllenFlintshire AsterySussexSea.
Allow, EastDurhamTyne. AtreeCornwallTamer.
Allow, WestNorthumTyne. AuneDevonshireSea.
Allow, WestAngleseaIrish Sea Avon Upper[D]NorthampSevern.
Alne[B]NorthumbTyne. Avon Lower[E]WiltshireEnglish Channel.
AltLancashireIrish Sea AvonGlamorganshSevern.
AmondCaermarLougher Avon, WestGoucestershSevern.
Ancholme[C]LincolnshireHumber. AvonMonmouthshUske.
AndeHants AvonMerionethshIrish Sea.
AngelMontgomDovey. AxeDorsetshireBritish Channel.
AnkhamLincolnshireHumber. AxeSomersetshSevern.
AnkerLeicestershTame. AyronCardiganshIrish Sea.
AnnisorPembrokeshIrish Sea

[A] AIRE, (The) rises from a small lake on the moors of Yorkshire, north-east from Settle, descending through Aire-dale and Craven in its course to the south-east, which it pursues as far as Leeds, where, turning eastward, and meeting the Calder, it passes under Ferrybridge, flowing through the flattest portion of Yorkshire; and receiving the Don, a little Booth Ferry. north of Snaith, it unites with the Ouse above Booth Ferry, near Howden. This river is of greater extent than the Calder, and much its superior in navigation, being also joined by numerous canals from the west. Its origin is almost mountainous, in the midst of the wildest moors; and Aire-dale retains much of the same characteristic features of that line of country. The district of Craven is singularly romantic, being a rich vale, bounded by high hills, with the town of Skipton in its centre; below which it forms a beautiful valley to Keighley, full of trade and population; Kirkstall Abbey. the Aire passes the picturesque ruin of Kirkstall Abbey, in its way to Leeds, the manufactories and villas of which flourishing place, and its vicinity, encompass its banks; after which it divides one of the richest plains in the kingdom to Ferrybridge, not far from the eminence where the town of Pontefract appears a conspicuous object, with its ruined castle and ancient church. Afterwards the Aire can boast little of beauty, as it advances through a level district to join the Ouse.

[B] ALNE, (The) is a small river which rises on the border of Roxburgshire, but within the limits of Northumberland, and a little north of the source of the Coquet. The great and attractive objects which grace its borders are placed in the far-extended territory of the Duke of Northumberland, Brisley Tower. at the entrance to which the lofty building, called Brisley Tower, thickly environed by plantations, overlooks all the wild country of Northumberland, including the bold range of Cheviot-hills on the north-west, close to the Scottish border. The Alne then enters a charming valley, beneath the ivied walls of Hulne Abbey, winding delightfully between lawns, woods, and groupes of trees and cottages, admirably disposed. From these monastic and rustic recesses, the river emerges into a spacious park, widened considerably by art, and gliding through the arches of a fine Alnwick Castle. Castellan bridge, is proudly overlooked by the numerous towers, and lofty citadel of Alnwick Castle, the superb seat of the Northumberland family.

[C] ANCHOLME. This small river, rising in the wolds of Lincolnshire, not far from Market Raisin, is navigable from Glandford Bridge to the Humber, and in its course intersecting the extensive tract of the Wolds, which stretches out from Lincoln northward to Barton, and forms a ridge across some intermediate valleys, terminates in the fens near Spilsby Louth. Brocklesby Park, in the extensive domains of Lord Yarborough, occupies the centre of this district, on the highest point of which his lordship has built a superb chapel and mausoleum, in a very excellent Grecian taste, adorned with appropriate statues and marbles, from Italy. This building, from its position, commands the whole surrounding country, with the port of Hull, across the Humber; forming also a sea-mark, and an interesting object, admirable for the elegance of its design and execution. Thornton College is a curious remnant of antiquity in this neighbourhood, founded in the reign of King Stephen; great part of which is yet preserved, with some modern additions.

[D] AVON, (The Upper) rising in Northamptonshire, on the borders of Leicestershire, adds great beauty to the delightful territory of Warwick Castle, as it flows beneath the cliff on which those lofty towers projecting Warwick Castle. before the town and church are situated. It then glides through a charming country to Stratford-on-Avon, celebrated as the birth-place of Shakspeare, and where the remains of the immortal bard are deposited. From thence it traverses the great level of Worcestershire by Evesham, having received the lesser Stour at Stratford, and turning to the South at Pershore, meets the Severn at the flourishing town of Tewksbury.

[E] AVON (The Lower) rises in the hilly district of North Wiltshire, bordering on Gloucestershire, not far from Wootton Basset; its source is near that of the great river Thames, and both are said to have their origin from various springs, not accurately defined. Emerging from the hills, it makes a compass to fall into the vale leading from Christian Malford Bath. to Chippenham, advancing through the cloathing district of Wiltshire, bordering upon that of Somersetshire, and for a considerable extent divides those counties. Its course is at first southward, making a long compass by the west towards the north, and then to the west; at last, encircling the city of Bath on two sides, from whence it pursues nearly the same direction, with frequent meanders to Bristol. It then inclines to the north-west, as it conveys the abundant trade of that opulent city to the Severn, by its conflux constituting the Bristol Channel at King's-road.


Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
27Babingley,[A] or BaburghleypaNorfolkCas. Rising2Lynn6Heacham810238
34BabingtonpaSomersetFrome5Bath10Shepton Mal.9109206

[A] BABINGLEY. In this parish, the first Christian church in East Anglia is said to have been built. Several hills in the vicinity, called Christian Hills, render the opinion highly probable. The village is situated near that part of the Lincolnshire wash called Lynn Deeps.

[B] BABRAHAM, anciently Badburham, is situated in the hundred of Chilford. This place, which was one of the manors of Algar, Earl of Mercia, at the time of the Norman survey, formerly had a market on Mondays. About the year 1576, the whole manorial property in the parish fell into the possession of Sir Horatio Palavicini, a Genoese. According to the Singular anecdote of the Pope's Tax-gatherer. tradition of the neighbourhood, this gentleman was collector of the Pope's taxes in England, in the reign of Queen Mary, on whose death, and the consequent change in religion under Elizabeth, he (like the Vicar of Bray,) changed his faith, converted the Pope's money to his own use, and settled in this country. The following whimsical epitaph relates to this occurrence: it is printed in "Lord Orford's Anecdotes of Painting"—

"Here lyes Horatio Palavazine,
Who robbed the Pope to lend the Queen.
He was a thief—a thief? Thou lyest:
For what! he robb'd but Antichrist,
Him death with besome swept from Bab'ram.
Into the bosom of ould Abraham:
But then came Hercules with his club,
And struck him down to Belzebub."

Sir Horatio was in great favour with Queen Elizabeth. He was naturalised, The Queen's favorite. by patent, in 1516, and commanded one of the English men-of-war in the great battle with the Spanish Armada, in 1588; and he was employed by the Queen, in her negotiations with the German Princes: he died at his seat, in this parish, on the 6th of July, 1600. It appears by the register kept in the church, that his children were baptized and buried here: it is also recorded, that the marriage of Sir Horatio's widow with Sir Oliver Cromwell, the Protector's uncle, took place exactly a year and a day after her husband's decease. The poor of this parish are partly maintained by a bequest of £97. a year, expended under certain restrictions imposed by the donor. Here is an alms-house, and a free school, founded by Levinus Bush, Esq., and his sister, Mrs. Judith Bennet; and the yearly sum of £25. is appropriated to the apprenticing of children.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
30Babworth[A]paNottinghamEast Retford1Blyth6Worksop7146449
56Bacheldre, or BacheldreftoMontgomeryBis. Castle4Montgomery5Welshpool12163
49Bach-Yrys, or MachunisIsleCaermarthLlanelly4Lougher4Pont ar Dulas7223
7Backfordto & paChesterChester3Park Gate12Liverpool16186487
34Backwell, or BachwellpaSomersetBristol7Pensford8Axbridge121251038
29Backworth, or BlackworthtoNorthumbN. Shields6Newcastle7Blyth7281243
17BactonpaHerefordHereford12Llanthony A6Hay14139178
27BactonpaNorfolkN. Walsham5Cromer10Worsted7128498

[A] BABWORTH. The hall is the seat of the Hon. J.B. Simpson; it a plain white-fronted edifice, the surrounding grounds which are very beautiful, were laid out by the celebrated Repton. Babworth church is a neat gothic building, with a small steeple; it is worthy of remark, Trees grow out of the roof of the church. that there are two trees growing out of the roof of the south porch. Near this village the ground begins to rise, and displays the most enchanting scenery of woods, lawns, glades, heaths, cultivated farms, and ornamental seats. The late Paul Sandby, Esq., R.A., who died on the 8th of November, 1809, was descended from a branch of the Sandby family, of Babworth, and was born at Nottingham, in 1732. In 1746 he went to London, and having an early bias towards the arts, he got introduced into the drawing room of the Tower. After two years he was appointed draughtsman, under the inspection of Mr. David Watson, who was employed Paul Sandby, Esq. by the late Duke of Cumberland to take a survey of the Highlands. During this excursion he made several sketches from the terrific scenery of that romantic country, from which he afterwards made a number of small etchings, which were published in a folio volume. From this circumstance, perhaps, we may account for the bold and striking style by which the paintings of this excellent artist are so peculiarly distinguished. In 1752, he quitted this employment and resided with his brother at Windsor. Several of the most beautiful views in the neighbourhood of Windsor and Eton, now became the subject of his pencil; here also he obtained that skill in depicting gothic architecture which gave so beautiful an effect to those landscapes that Sir Joseph Banks purchased them all at a very liberal price. Mr. Sandby published several prints in ridicule of the inimitable Hogarth's "Analysis of Beauty," but he afterwards declared, that had he known the merits of that exquisite painter at the time, he Sandby the painter. should not have dared to depreciate them. On the institution of "the Royal Academy," he was elected one of the Academicians. He was afterwards appointed chief drawing master of the Royal Academy at Woolwich, and held the office with honour and credit to the day of his death.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
39Baddesley-ClintonpaWarwickWarwick7Solihull6Henley in A.697110
14Baddow (Great)[D]paEssexChelmsford2Witham10Maldon9311719

[A] BADBY. This extensive village is situated on the brow of a hill, in the large uninclosed district of Badby-Down. Here are numerous springs, Quarries. and several quarries of flag-stone, which, from its excellence, is very extensively employed for the purposes of building and paving. On the summit of Arbury Hill, in this parish, is a large encampment, which is attributed to the Romans: the ramparts are very steep, and the whole is encompassed by a very wide and deep foss.

[B] BADDESLEY. This village was celebrated a short time ago for a singular tree it contained, from which was frequently heard to issue groans as though uttered by a person in acute agony. The tree was an elm, young, vigorous, and to all appearance perfectly sound; and what is most wonderful, naturalists could assign no physical reason for the phenomena. Its fame spread far and wide; a pamphlet was written with an account of it, and persons came miles to visit it. The tree, however, it would seem The groaning tree. with the fickleness attendant too often upon those who have gained celebrity, would not always groan, yet no cause could be assigned for its temporary cessations, either from seasons or weather. Many superstitious tales were raised by the country people and alleged as reasons for this singular occurrence; and for eighteen or twenty months it continued an object of considerable interest; a gentleman of the name of Forbes, making an experiment to discover its cause, by boring a hole in its trunk, put a period to its agonies, it never groaned again. It was afterwards rooted up with a further view to make a discovery, but in vain. It is universally believed that there was no trick in the affair, but that some natural cause really existed, though never understood.

[C] BADDILEY. A parish in the hundred of Nantwich. This place is principally remarkable for its church, standing on a small green surrounded by farm buildings. It consists of a small nave and chancel, and was constructed entirely of English oak; it is of the most remote antiquity, and presented a most unique specimen of ecclesiastical buildings of timber, previous to the introduction of stone; the upright timbers being much An oaken church. decayed were cased with brick in 1811, it having stood so many centuries that it was in danger of falling; the roof and ceiling are still in fine preservation. In the chancel are remains of some ancient stalls, and two elegant marble monuments, erected to the Mainwaring family, who were lords of the manor. Baddiley Hall, the former residence of this family, was a very old irregular building of timber and plaister, but has been lately pulled down.

[D] BADDOW. (Great). This extensive, populous, and genteel village, from its peculiarly delightful situation, has become the residence of a considerable number of highly respectable families. Previous to the conquest, the manor was part of the possessions of Algar, Earl of Mercia. In consequence, however, of the rebellion of his son and successor, Earl Eadwine, who was slain in battle, this lordship, with other estates, was granted by King William to the monastery of the Holy Trinity at Caen, in Normandy. In the reign of Henry I., the crown was again possessed of it, and about the same period, the Earls of Gloucester became its proprietors; from which time, after having been vested in many noble families, it is now in the possession of the family of Houblon. Two chauntries of some value were formerly in the church.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
14Baddow, Little[A]paEssexChelmsford5Witham6Maldon734548
15Badminton, Great[C]paGloucesterSodbury6Tetbury10Malmesbury10106529

[A] BADDOW, (Little). The church at this place contains a rich and splendid monument to the memory of Sir Henry Mildmay, Knight, who Sir Henry Mildmay. died in October, 1639. He is represented in a full suit of armour, reposing under a dome, which rests upon black marble pillars; two female figures kneel at his feet; the one elderly, and dressed in a scarf and hood, the other young, and magnificently attired in the fashion of the time. The head of the knight is supported by a pillow. From a latin inscription upon an oval tablet, we learn that Sir Henry having served as a soldier in the Irish wars, was for his gallantry knighted in the field. The carved effigies of two female figures, said by tradition to have been sisters and founders of this church, occupy recesses in the south wall of the centre aisle. Upon examining the two graves in which it was supposed that Skeletons found. the corpses of the persons whose figures stood in the niches were interred, in one of them were found three skeletons, and two in the other, but without the slightest vestige of wood, linen, coffin, or any other covering to the bodies. In the year 1817, Edward Bullin, Esq., bequeathed 196 acres of land, and a wood containing thirty-six acres, for the purpose of clothing and educating the children in this parish and that of Boreham.

[B] BADLESMERE. Bartholomew de Badlesmere, lord of the manor in the reign of Edward the Second, obtained a license for founding a house of regular canons in this place. The church is a small and very plain Curious carvings in wood. Saxon structure. In the porch are the fronts of two ancient wooden seats, carved in high relief; one represents a shield, on which are the star, ribbon, and motto of the order of the garter: on the other are some Scriptural sentences, relative to the Holy Trinity, in four circles, united by bands; so that the words Pater, Filius, Spisces and Deus, though only once repeated in the circles, form a part of every sentence.

[C] BADMINTON, (Great) has been the seat of the ducal family of Beaufort, ever since the demolition of Ragland Castle, in the civil wars. Badminton Duke of Beaufort's seat. House, the family residence of the duke, is situated in a noble park nearly nine miles in circumference, through which various avenues have been formed. It was erected by the first duke of Beaufort in the year 1682. It is a very extensive building, on the French model. In the hall is a large sarcophagus of Roman sculpture, representing a bacchanalian procession; this was given to the third duke of Beaufort, by Cardinal Alberoni. By that distinguished prelate, who died in 1745, many curious and original paintings were procured during his residence in Italy; among them is a Holy Family, by Raphael; and several by Guido and Carlo Dolci are much esteemed. He also purchased the very singular and finely painted satirical picture by Salvator Rosa, for which that artist was expelled Rome. "The Sovereigns of the different nations are here depicted by different animals, as an eagle, a wolf, a sheep, a hog, a fox, a cow, and an ass; the latter has the pontifical pall thrown over him, and the blind goddess, Fortune, is represented showering her gifts over the whole group." Some excellent landscapes, by the Italian masters, are also preserved here; Fine paintings. and a very fine series of fourteen portraits, of the Beauforts, from John of Gaunt, from whom they trace their genealogy. Badminton church is an elegant structure; it was built by the late duke in 1785, and contains many monuments of the Beaufort family.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
15Badminton, LittletiGloucesterSodbury6Tetbury10Malmesbury10106116
45BadsworthpaW.R. YorkPontefract5Wakefield9Doncaster11171782
43BagbychapN.R. YorkThirsk3Borobridge11Easingwold8220289

[A] BAGINTON. The Hall, a seat of a descendant of the Bromley family, who purchased the estate in the reign of James I., was built by secretary Bromley. This gentleman, one of the most honest and able servants of Queen Anne, was Speaker of the House of Commons. In proof of the high estimation in which he was held, it is necessary only to cite a memorable circumstance relative to the residence under notice. In Once destroyed by fire. 1706, the family seat at Baginton was reduced to the ground by fire. Intelligence of this calamity was conveyed to the owner while attending his duty in the House of Commons, and a considerable sum was immediately voted by parliament towards a restoration of the structure. Here is barely to be traced the site of the castellated residence of Sir William Bagot, a firm adherent of Richard II., at which the Duke of Hereford, afterwards Henry IV., lodged the night previous to his projected personal contest with Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, in the presence of the King on Gosford Green, where the lists were formed; the scene is admirably described by Shakespeare.

[B] BAGLAN is a parish in the hundred of Neath. The village is of the most romantic beauty, and the scenery in the neighbourhood is of a delightful character. Near this place is Britton Ferry, which is interesting, not only on account of its sylvan fascinations, but as being the domain of Lord Jersey, whose extensive plantations spread over several bold hills Lord Jersey's seat. westward of the Neath river, a stream which here emerges in a fine sweep, between woody banks, partly broken into cliffs and at a short distance descends into the sea. "From a delightful shady walk over the stream, we branched off," says Mr. Barber, "into an 'alley green,' which led us up a steep hill, covered with large trees, and tangled underwood; the ascent was judiciously traced, where several bare crags, projecting from the soil, formed an opposite contrast to the luxuriant verdure which prevailed around. On gaining the summit, the charms of Britton Ferry disclosed themselves in 'an ample theatre of sylvan grace,' of more than common beauty: beyond which, the Bristol Channel, Britton Ferry. bounded by the aerial tint of its opposite coast, formed the distance. From this roaming prospect, however, the eye gladly returned to gaze on the local beauties of the scene, the tufted knoll, the dark glade, and the majestic river." The mansion is a very ordinary building; the house is low having two wings, with attic windows in the roof, ornamented with a bullustraded parapet. The neat simplicity of the hamlet deserves remark; perhaps the church is unrivalled, both for its picturesque situation, and moral interest. The custom of planting evergreens over the remains Planting evergreens over graves. of departed friends, and bedecking them with flowers at certain seasons of the year, is here attended to with peculiar care; and to this pleasing tribute of tenderness and affection the "Bard of Avon" refers in the following beautiful lines:—

"With fairest flowers while summer lasts,
I'll sweeten thy sad grave, thou shalt not lack
The flower that's like thy face, pale primrose: nor
The azured harebell, like thy veins: no, nor
The leaf of eglantine, whom not to slander,
Out-sweetened not thy breath."

David Ap Gwillym also beautifully alludes to this practice: "Oh, while thy season of flowers, and thy tender sprays thick of leaves remain, I will pluck the roses from the brakes, the flowers from the meads, the vivid trefoils, beauties of the ground, and the gaily smiling bloom of the verdant herbs, humbly will I lay them on the grave of Ivor!" This part of Wales is so mild in its climate, that myrtles, magnolias, and other tender exotics, grow luxuriantly in the open air. Near Baglan is a well with medicinal properties, but many superstitious notices are associated with its use in the neighbourhood.

Mail arrives at Aberavon, 2 miles distant, 6 evening; departs, 7.30 morning.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
4Bagley WoodtiBerksAbingdon3Oxford3Cumnor45721
23BagworthchapLeicesterM. Bosworth5Ashby9Leicester10108328
45Baildon[B]to & chapW.R. YorkBradford5Otley6Keighley72013041

[A] BAGSHOT is a village on the great western road, in the parish of Windlesham, and hundred of Woking. Bagshot heath derives its name from this village; it is one of the most extensive wastes in the kingdom, and was formerly the scene of many highway robberies. Its appearance is extremely desolate, but it is useful in supplying the inhabitants with fuel, and feeds a great number of sheep, the mutton of which is excellent; but like other animals fed on a similar pasture, the sheep are small. On the edge of the heath are several noblemen's seats. Among which, Hall Grove, the residence of Mrs. Birt; Chobham Place, S. Thornton, Esq.; South Hill Park, the Earl of Limerick; and Easthampstead Park, the seat of the Marquis of Downshire; are deserving the notice of the curious traveller. Bagshot heath. Bagshot Park to the north of the village, was once the seat of his late Majesty George IV. when Prince of Wales; after which time it was inhabited by the late Duke of Gloucester, (brother-in-law of his present Majesty) until the day of his decease, which occurred on the 30th of November, 1834, in the 58th year of his age; his remains were interred in St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, on the 11th of the following month. Bagshot was formerly a lordship of the kings of England, and was much resorted to by James I., and Charles I., to enjoy the pleasures of the chace.

Mail arrives 10.14 night; departs 3.28 morning—Inns, King's Arms, and White Hart.

[B] BAILDON is in the parish of Otley and wapentake of Skyrack, and is situated on the river Aire. The inhabitants are principally engaged in trade and manufactures. The Leeds and Liverpool Canal passes within a mile and a half from this place.

Fair, first Saturday in March and November, for horses, horned cattle &c.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
43BainbridgetoN.R. YorkAskrigg2Hawes4Middleham13246831
46BaintonpaE.R. YorkG. Driffield6Beverley11Weighton10196300
10Bakewell[A]mt & paDerbyChesterfield11Manchester35Wirksworth131539503

[A] BAKEWELL. This ancient market town, in which the petty sessions for the High Peak are holden, is situated on the western bank of the river Wye. Of late years, the market has dwindled into insignificance, but the parish is the most extensive in Derbyshire; its length is more than 20 miles, and its breadth upwards of eight. The pasturage in this neighbourhood is remarkably good. The town was anciently called Bath-quelle; it appears to have derived its name from its Bath-well, the immediate site of which has been for many years occupied by a collector of minerals and fossils for private cabinets. From the circumstance of a Roman altar, and other antiquities having been discovered here, there can be but little doubt that Bakewell was a place of some note in the time of the Romans. At the Conquest, Bakewell had two priests and a church. The manor then belonged to William Peverell, ancestor of the Peveril celebrated Seat of the Peverils of the Peak. in the admirable romance by Sir Walter Scott, styled "Peveril of the Peak." Bakewell church is an ancient structure, with a lofty spire. Near the entrance of the town, from Ashford, is a mill, for the carding, roving, doubling, spinning, and twisting of cotton, in which some hundreds of persons of both sexes are employed; the mill was erected by the late Sir Richard Arkwright, the founder of the cotton Sir Richard Arkwright. trade in this neighbourhood. This distinguished character, whose perseverance and admirable inventions raised him from one of the most humble occupations in society—that of a barber—to affluence and honour, was the youngest of thirteen children, and was born in the year 1732, at Preston, in Lancashire. A considerable manufacture of linen goods, and of linen and cotton mixed, was then carried on in that neighbourhood, and Mr. Arkwright had an opportunity of becoming intimately acquainted with the various operations; and being a man of superior powers, he directed his thoughts to the improvement of the mode of spinning, which had probably been conducted for ages without thought of change. The first hint respecting the means of effecting this improvement, he said, he accidentally received from seeing a red hot iron bar elongated, by being passed between iron cylinders. The difficulties which he experienced before he could bring his machine into use, even after its construction was sufficiently complete to demonstrate its value, would, perhaps, have for ever retarded its completion, had his genius and application been less ardent. His pecuniary means were not such as to enable him to commence business on his own account, and few were willing to incur the necessary risk. At length, however, he secured the co-operation of some persons who saw the merits of the invention, and were willing to assist his endeavours, and he obtained his first patent for spinning by means of rollers in the year 1769. To avoid the inconvenience of establishing a manufacture Cotton mills. of this kind at the great seat of the cotton manufacture, as it then existed, he removed to Nottingham, when, in conjunction with his partners, he erected his first mill, which was worked by horses. This mode being found too expensive, another mill on a larger scale was erected at Cromford, the machinery of which was put in motion by water. Mr. Arkwright soon effected many improvements in the mode of preparing the cotton for spinning, and invented a variety of ingenious machines for that purpose, in the most correct and expeditious manner, for all which he obtained a patent in the year 1775, and thus completed a series of machinery so various and complicated, yet so admirably combined as to excite universal approbation. That all this should have been accomplished by a single man, without education, without mechanical knowledge, or even mechanic's experience, is truly extraordinary; and is, perhaps, equal to any known example of the wonderful powers of the human mind, when steadily directed to one object. However, at the same time that he was inventing or improving the machinery, he was engaged in various undertakings which might have been thought incompatible with other pursuits. He was taking measures to secure himself a fair proportion of the fruits of his industry and ingenuity—he was greatly extending the business—he was introducing into every department of the manufactory, a novel system of industry, economy, order, and cleanliness; the whole of which he so effectually accomplished, that his example may be regarded as the origin of almost all similar improvements. During this entire period, he was afflicted with a violent asthma, which sometimes threatened the immediate termination of his existence; and for some time previously to his death, he was rendered incapable of continuing his usual pursuits, by a complication of diseases, which, at length, deprived him of life at the Rock House, Cromford, on the 23d of August, 1792. The honour of Knighthood was bestowed on him by George III., in December, 1786, when he presented an address to that monarch. Dr. Thomas Denman, an eminent Dr. Thomas Denman. physician, was born at this place in 1733; after the death of Dr. William Hunter, he was considered as the most eminent man of his profession. Towards the decline of his life he gradually relinquished the more laborious parts of his profession to his son-in-law, Sir Richard Croft, and became a consulting physician. His death, which was very sudden, took place on the 26th of November, 1815. He left two daughters and a son, the latter of whom, adopting the legal profession, is now Lord Chief Justice of the Court of King's Bench.

Market, Friday.—Fairs, Easter Monday; Whit Monday; August 26; Monday after October 10; Monday after November 22, for cattle and horses,—Inn, Rutland Arms, allowed to be one of the best Inns in the kingdom, and is much frequented by anglers during the summer season.—Mail arrives 12.10 afternoon; departs 6.0 morning.

Fair, first Saturday in March and November, for horses, horned cattle &c.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
55Bala[A]toMerionethShrewsbury41Dolgelly18Corven 12 195 1163

[A] BALA is situated at the outlet of the lake of the same name. It is a clean and populous market town, consisting of one wide principal street, and others crossing it at right angles. The houses are in general built very low. The young women commonly go barefooted; they are however well formed, and have little of the strong Welsh physiognomy. At this place is carried on a great trade in woollen gloves and stockings. Just before the entrance of the town is an artificial mount called "Tommen y Bala," (the tumulus of Bala) which is supposed to be of Roman origin, and placed here with a small castle on its summit to secure the pass towards the sea, which is about twenty-five miles distant. Bala Lake, or Llyn Tegid, is a quarter The largest lake in Wales. of a mile south of the town; it is the largest lake in Wales, being about four miles long, and in some places near a mile in breadth. At Bryn Goleu, its depth is several fathoms. The scenery around is mountainous, and it forms the principal attraction of the vicinity, yet it possesses none of the grand discriminating traits of the lakes of Scotland or Ireland. The overflowings of this lake are sometimes dreadful; but this only happens when the winds rush from the mountains at the upper end. In stormy weather, when swelled by torrents, the water is driven to the height of eight or nine feet, covering great part of the vale of Edeirnion, and almost threatening the town with destruction. In calm settled weather, it has been so smooth as to be frozen over. The river Dee rises from under Arran ben Llyn, the high mountain at the head of the lake; and according to Giraldus Cambriensis, Drayton, and others, passes through this immense body of water without deigning to intermix its waters, as the Rhone is said to pass through the lake of Geneva, and the classic Alpheus through the waters of the Adriatic. Hence it has been asserted, The lake fisheries. that salmon are never found in the lake, or gwiniad in the river; it however abounds with a variety of excellent fish, among which we may mention pike, trout, perch, and eels. The fishery in the 13th century belonged to the Abbey of Basingwerk; the whole property is vested at present in Sir Watkyn Williams Wynne, Bart., who allows the fishermen to be occasionally employed in attending fishing parties with a boat and nets, without such privilege no person is allowed the use of nets; but angling is freely permitted, and gentlemen as distant as from London visit this place entirely for the sake of indulging in this amusement. Of the inns at Bala, Mr. Hutton says, "although I have often only reposed one night at an inn, yet from agreeable treatment and conversation, I found some regret the next morning at parting; and though I saw the people but once, my mind revolted at the idea of seeing them no more." The town of Bala is governed by two bailiffs, and a common council, and the assizes are held here and at Dolgelly alternately; it is likewise one of the polling places for the county.

Market Saturday—Fairs, May 14; July 10; Sep. 11 and 22; Oct. 24; and Nov. 8.—Mail arrives 8.0 morning; departs 5.0 afternoon.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
45Balby[A]toW.R. YorkDoncaster2Tickhill6Rotherham11163420
38BalcombepaSussexCuckfield4Horsham10E. Grinstead933641

[A] BALBY. In this village George Fox, the founder of the Society of Friends, or Quakers, held his first meetings. His father, who was a George Fox the Quaker. weaver, gave him a very religious education; he was apprenticed to a grazier, and much employed as a shepherd. From his earliest infancy he displayed a tendency to enthusiasm, and no doubt his solitary employment tended to confirm it. At the early age of nineteen he persuaded himself that he was called to exercise his faculties, solely in the affairs of religion. Forsaking his relations, he determined to devote himself to that alone. Equipped in a leathern doublet, he wandered from place to place, subsisting by the charity of those who received his doctrines. At length he reached the metropolis, where, being discovered by his friends, he was earnestly invited to return. This, however, he refused to do, and after remaining with them a short time, he again betook himself to his itinerant habits. He now walked abroad in retired places, fasting and studying the Bible by day and night, and sometimes a hollow tree was his habitation, book in hand, for a day together. In 1648, he publicly propagated his opinions, commencing as public preacher at Manchester, which place he frequently left to perambulate the adjacent towns, preaching in the market-houses. About this time he began to adopt the manners and habits which are peculiar to the society following his religious opinions; nor was he free from the persecution which constantly follows novelty, in any thing regarded as an innovation of a religious nature. At Derby, the disciples of Fox were first denominated Quakers, from the His wanderings and imprisonment. trembling delivery of their sentences, and their calls on the magistrates to tremble before the Lord. In 1655, Fox was sent a prisoner to Cromwell, who immediately liberated him upon ascertaining the peaceful nature of his doctrines. He was, however, treated by the country magistracy with great severity, from his frequently interrupting ministers, even during divine service, and more than once the Protector, Oliver Cromwell, exerted himself to obtain his freedom. A fast having been appointed on account of the persecution of Protestants in foreign countries, he addressed a letter to the heads and governors of the nation, descrying, in most forcible terms, the impropriety of having recourse to severity of a similar nature at home. Charles II. liberated him from prison in the year 1666, and from that time they formally united as a "Society of Friends." Three years afterwards he married the widow of Judge Fell, in the simple unostentatious manner practised by the sect to the present day. His health, however, was impaired by imprisonment and suffering, and he lived in a more retired manner to the day of his death, which took place in the year 1690, in the 67th year of his age.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
43Baldersley[A]toN.R. YorkRipon6Thirsk6Borobridge8214267
18Baldock[B]m.t.& paHertfordHertford19Biggleswade8Stevenage6371704
31Baldon MarshpaOxfordOxford7Abingdon7Wheatley752318

[A] BALDERSLEY. Near this village is an extensive common, called Hutton Conyers Moor, on which there is a rabbit-warren; the inhabitants have a right of estray for their sheep on this moor, in conjunction with some other townships, and each township has a shepherd. The lord's Right of Common. shepherd has a pre-eminence of tending his sheep on every part of the common; and wherever he herds the lord's sheep, the several other shepherds are to give place to him, and give up what is termed their hofiong place, so long as they are depastured thereon. The lord's court is held on the first of January; the shepherds attend the court, and each do fealty by bringing a large apple-pye and a two-penny sweet-cake; each pye is divided into two parts, and distributed by the bailiff between the steward, the tenant of the rabbit-warren, and the shepherds of the townships, reserving Singular custom. a portion however for himself. Each pye contains about a peck of flour, and the bailiff measures them with a rule to see that they are of the proper dimensions; should they not be so he threatens to fine the town; he, however, has to provide furmenty (a food made by boiling wheat in milk) and mustard. The furmenty is put into an earthen pot, and the top of the dish placed level with the ground, all persons present are invited to partake; those who do not accept the invitation are deemed disloyal to their lord. Every shepherd is compelled to bring a spoon with him, and in cases of neglect, or wilful pleasantry, they are obliged to sup the hot furmenty from the pot, and the bystanders not unfrequently plunge the offenders head into the mixture, as a matter of diversion.

[B] BALDOCK is situated between two hills, at the intersection of the great north road, and the Roman Ikeneld street. It was formerly the property of the Knights Templars, to whom Gilbert, Earl of Pembroke, gave the site; it was then called Baudoc: but some antiquarians, with little reason, derive its name from Balbec, a city in Syria, from which this order of knights was expelled by the Saracens. It principally consists of one long ancient street. The church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a spacious structure, and was built by the Knights Templars, and again partly rebuilt in the early part of the fifteenth century. All the early portion of this structure is of pure Roman architecture, and the latter of the florid gothic. The steeple, which is octagonal, was rebuilt a few years ago. In the church is a richly carved oaken screen, part of the ancient rood-loft, Sharks' teeth found in cutting through a hill. and a very curious font. In cutting through Baldock-hill, to form a new road, a number of fossils, consisting of cornua ammonis, sharks' teeth, &c., were discovered. There is a curious custom in this manor. When the Steward holds his Court Leet, the bell tolls, to summons the copyhold tenants together, to do their suit and service at dinner, to which every baker sends a loaf of bread, and every victualler a flagon of ale or beer. The object of this custom is intended for the Court Leet to examine the measures, as well as to judge of the quality of the articles of food.

Market, Thursday.—Fairs, March 7; last Thursday in May; August 5; October 2; December 11, for cheese, cattle, and household goods.—Mail arrives 12.31 morning, departs 2.16 morning.—Bankers, Williamson and Co., draw on Hoare and Co.—Inn, White Hart.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
27BalepaNorfolkHolt5Cley6Walsingham 6 117 275
43BalketoN.R. YorkThirsk4Helmsley10Easingwold922272
46Balke-HolmetoE.R. YorkHowden2South Cave10Weighton12182107
14Ballingdonpa chapEssexSudbury1Halstead8Bury1754283
45BalnetoW.R. YorkSnaith4Pontefract10Thorne8173343
31BalscotthamOxfordBanbury5Chip Norton14Deddington974213
34BaltonsboroughpaSomersetGlastonbury4Somerton4Cas. Caray8121675
29Bambroughto & paNorthumbBelford5Holy Island6Alnwick153243949
10BamfordhamDerbyS. Middleton6Sheffield11Castleton4165238
11Bampton[B]m.t. & paDevonExeter23Tiverton7Morebath21621961
31Bampton[C]m.t. & paOxfordOxford16Witney5Farringdon7712514

[A] BAMBROUGH CASTLE is situated on the romantic coast of Northumberland, near an obscure town of the same name; it stands upon a triangular rock, high, rugged, and abrupt on the land side. But we leave its description, which would be too lengthy, and turn rather to the account of the benevolent institution founded in 1720, by Lord Crewe, Bishop of Seat of the Bishop of Durham. Durham, of which it is the seat. The keep of the castle is fitted up for suffering seamen, and property which may have been rescued from the fury of the ocean. Regulations were also adopted to prevent accidents on the coast, and to alleviate misfortunes when they had occurred. A nine-pounder placed at the bottom of the great tower, gives signals to ships in distress; and in case of a wreck announces it to the Custom-house officers, who hasten to prevent its being plundered. In addition to this, during a storm, horsemen patrol the coast, and rewards are paid for the earliest intelligence of vessels in distress. A flag is always hoisted when Noble charity. any ship is seen in distress on the Fern Islands or Staples; or a rocket thrown up at night, which gives notice to the fishermen of Holy Island, who put off to the spot when no boat from the main can get over the breakers. There has also been life-boats added to the establishment. Within the walls of the castle are supported two free-schools, an infirmary, thirty beds for shipwrecked sailors, and a granary, whence poor persons are supplied with provision at the first price. There is also a library, the books of which are circulated gratuitously for twenty miles round. This philanthropic endowment has not been suffered to decay with the romance of olden time, but the charitable intentions of the testator are fulfilled so as to exhibit a lasting record of his active benevolence.

[B] BAMPTON. A market town, situated near the little river Batherme, which flows into the Exe at about one mile distance. Mr. Polwhele considers that this was a Roman station, and here, probably, the Romans had artificial hot-baths. A chalybeate spring in this neighbourhood is much celebrated for its medicinal qualities. John de Bampton, a Carmelite, John de Bampton. who was the first who publicly read Aristotle in Cambridge, was born here: he died in 1391. The manufactures of the place are serges and pottery.

Market, Saturday.—Fairs, Whit Tuesday, and last Thursday in October, for cattle.

[C] BAMPTON. Here are some slight remains of an ancient castle, supposed to have been erected in the reign of King John. The celebrated poet, John Philips, the son of Dr. Stephen Philips, archdeacon John Philips the poet. of Salop, was born in this town, on the 30th of December, 1676, and after the preliminary process of juvenile education, was sent to Winchester, where he was distinguished by the superiority of his exercises, and at school endeared himself to all his companions and superiors: it is related of him, that he seldom mingled in the play of other boys, but retired to his chamber, and indulged in the study of the poets and of the ancient and modern classics, particularly Milton. In 1694, he was removed to Christchurch, Oxford, where he finished all his University acquirements; but Milton—the immortal Milton—continued to be his uninterrupted day dream: and he might have exclaimed in the language of that poet, I will study the magnificence of thy etherial phantasy,

"From morn till noon, from noon to dewey eve,
When Urania visits my nightly
Slumbers, or when morn purples the east."

It is said that there was not an allusion in "Paradise Lost," drawn from any hint either in "Homer," or "Virgil," to which he could not immediately refer. While at Oxford he was honoured with the friendship of Mr. Edmund Smith, author of the Tragedy of "Phaedra and Hippolitus;" and also with Philips's poetical works. that of the most polite and favoured of the gentlemen in the University. His first poem was published in 1703, entitled, "The Splendid Shilling," which has the merit of an original design. His next poem, entitled "Blenheim," which he wrote as a rival to Addison's poem on the same subject, was published in 1705, and procured him the patronage of Mr. Henry Saint John, afterwards Lord Bolingbroke. Independent of poetry, Philips was an excellent botanist; in 1706 he produced his third poem on "Cyder," founded on the model of Virgil's Georgics, a book not only of entertainment but of science; and soon afterwards, a latin Ode, "to Henry Saint John, Esq.," said to have been the poet's masterpiece. "It is gay and elegant," says Dr. Johnson, "and exhibits several artful accommodations of classic expressions to new purposes." At the time of his illness, Philips was meditating a poem to be called "The Last Day;" death put an end to so solemn and majestic a finale of genius. He died at Hereford, of a lingering consumption, February 15, 1708, in the thirty-third year of his age, and was buried in the cathedral of that city. Sir Simon Harcourt, afterwards Lord Chancellor, erected a monument to his memory in Westminster Abbey, the epitaph upon which was written by Character and death. Doctor Atterbury. Philips was a gentleman of a modest and amiable disposition, "and always praised without contradiction," (says Dr. Johnson) "as a man, modest, blameless, and pious, who bore a narrow fortune without discontent—and tedious and painful maladies without impatience; beloved by those who knew him, but not ambitious to be known."

Market, Wednesday.—Fairs, March 26, and August 26, for cattle and toys.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
40Bampton[A]to & paWestmorlndOrton10Penrith9Shap4282636
9Bampton, LittletoCumberlandWigton5Carlisle7Longtown10311213

[A] BAMPTON. The river Lowther runs through this parish. Here is a beautiful lake, called Haweswater, three miles long, and half a mile Haweswater lake. broad; it is environed by lofty mountains, conveying to the mind a grand and imposing appearance: its eastern side is sheltered by rocky eminences, plentifully clothed with verdure, while the western side displays the open fields, with all the sweet varieties of culture. A lead mine has lately been discovered in the neighbourhood. The free grammar-school was founded by Thomas Sutton, D.D., who vested in trustees the sum of £500., collected from estates out of the parish of St. Saviour, Southwark, and other places. Here, also, three parochial libraries were established respectively, in the years 1710, 1750, 1752, comprising about 800 volumes. Thomas Gibson, M.D., who married the daughter of Richard Cromwell, Protector, Dr. Thomas Gibson. was Physician-General of the army, and a native of this parish. He was the author of a system of anatomy. The learned doctor, having laid the foundation of his classical learning at a school in this county, he entered as scholar at Queen's College, Oxford, in 1686. The study of the northern languages about this period was particularly cultivated at the University, and Mr. Gibson rigidly applied himself to that branch of literature, in which he was assisted by Dr. Hicks. In a short time he translated into Latin the "Chronicon Saxonicum," and published it together with the Saxon original. Dr. Gibson had an early and strong inclination to search the antiquities of his own country, and being well versed in the knowledge of its original languages, he applied himself with great diligence, and in a few years produced his edition of "Camden's Britannica," An Antiquarian. and concluded this branch of learning with "Reliquæ Spelmannianæ," or the posthumous works of Sir Henry Spelman, relating to the laws and antiquities of England, which, with a life of the author, he published at Oxford, in 1698, and dedicated his work to Archbishop Tenison. About this time he was taken as Domestic Chaplain to the Archbishop's family, and soon afterwards was made Rector of Lambeth, and Archdeacon of Surrey. Upon the death of the Archbishop, in 1715, Dr. Wake, Bishop of Lincoln, succeeded him, and Dr. Gibson was appointed to that See; and Dr. Robinson also dying, in 1720, Gibson was appointed Bishop of Made Bishop of London. London. The ministry were so sensible of his great abilities, that a sort of ecclesiastical ministry was committed to his charge for several years. He died on the 6th of September, 1748, with true Christian fortitude, and in perfect tranquillity of mind.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
53BanneltoFlintHawarden 3 Mold 4 Wrexham 10 196
31Banbury[A]bo. & m.t.OxfordOxford21Woodstock16Southam14765906

[A] BANBURY is pleasantly situated on the small river Charwell, and its staple commodities seem to be cheese and cakes; the former, even in Shakspeare's time, appear to have been celebrated, for Bardolph, when accused Cheese and cakes. by "Slender" of robbing him of his two milled sixpences, exclaims, "You Banbury cheese." The cakes have made this town more celebrated than even its political engagements. The castle of Banbury was founded in the year 1153, by Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln, and continued an episcopal residence till the reign of Henry VI. During the contentions between the houses of York and Lancaster, when civil discord was a familiar incident in this neighbourhood, Banbury suffered much; but more particularly in the memorable engagement, called "The Battle of Banbury," fought Battle of Banbury. about three miles from the town, in 1469. It took place on a plane called Danesmoor, near Edgecote. The Earl of Warwick was the commander of the Lancasterian forces, and the Yorkists were led by the Earls of Stafford and Pembroke, who had possession of the town. After one of the most determined conflicts ever recorded, the Yorkists were routed; the Earl of Pembroke and his brother were both taken and beheaded, and Edward IV. himself made prisoner a few days after. In 1642, the towns-people took part with the Parliament, but after the battle of Edgehill, this castle was taken by the royalists, under Sir William Compton, who defended it for 13 weeks against all the efforts of Sir John Fiennes, until the garrison was relieved by the Earl of Northampton. It suffered a further siege of 10 weeks, under Sir William Waller, and surrendered on honourable terms. Leland, who wrote in the Reign of Henry VIII., says, "In this castle is a terrible prison for convict men." A stone vault, with grated windows, and traces of the inner ditch, is supposed to have been Once a celebrated grammar
the terrible prison alluded to, but very small remains exist in the present day. The free grammar-school is now wholly abandoned, and the school-house let out on lease by the corporation. This is much to be regretted, as it was formerly held in such high estimation, that the statutes of this establishment were taken as a model for St. Paul's school, London; and the statutes of the free grammar-school of Manchester, in 1524, ordain, that the grammar taught in that school, should be taught only "after the manner of the school at Banbury, in Oxfordshire, which is called Stanbridge's Grammar." Mr. Stanbridge, the celebrated grammarian alluded to, was a highly learned man, and tutor to Sir Thomas Pope. Adjoining the Ram Inn is a sulphurous well, and at a small distance from the town is a chalybeate spring. The pyrites aureus, or golden fire-stone, is frequently found in this neighbourhood. Among other interesting remains about the town is an ancient hospital, dedicated to St. John, now converted into a farm-house. This borough returns one member to parliament, as it did before the passing of the Reform Bill. Electors. The electors of the old constituency were but 18 in number, but the £10. householders are about 365. The borough comprises the parish, and the returning-officer is the Mayor.

Market, Thursday.—Fairs, Thursday after Jan. 18, for cattle, horses, and sheep: first Thursday in Lent; second Thursday before Easter, cattle and sheep; Ascension Day; Thursday and Friday in Trinity week; August 13, horses, cows, and sheep; Thursday after Old Michaelmas, hogs and cheese; October 30; and second Thursday before Christmas. Cheese, hops, and cattle.—Mail arrives 4.15 morning; departs 10.34 night.—Bankers, (Old Bank) Cobb and Co., draw on Jones, Lloyd, and Co.; Gibbons and Co., draw on Robarts and Co.; Gillett and Co., draw on Esdaile and Co.—Inns, Red Lion, and White Lion.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
50Bangor[A]city & paCaernarvonCaernarvon 9 Aberconway 15 Holyhead 24 245 4751

[A] BANGOR, which signifies the beautiful choir, is a Bishop's See; compared to its former size, it is now but an inconsiderable place. It is seated at the mouth of the Menai, near its opening to the Lavan sands, in a narrow valley, between two low ridges of slate rock, opening to the south, towards the majestic mountain, Snowdon, which rises 3571 feet above the level of the sea. Mr. Warner, the intelligent Welsh tourist, and his companion, spoke in raptures of this place. The beauty, repose, and retirement of the whole pleased them wonderfully. The latter observed, "If he were Bishop of Bangor, the only translation he would covet would be, thence to heaven." The former agreed with him, that "Were fate to throw him also into such a spot, very few attractions would have sufficient force to elicit him from it." They had "Never seen a place which united so many beauties in so narrow a circle." From this city the new road finds its way through a low pass in the adjacent ridge, and descends gently along the face of the sloping bank to the great bridge: this road is very smooth and well protected, and worthy of the The suspension bridge. magnificent scenery by which it is surrounded. Menai suspension bridge is distant about two miles and a half from Bangor. This noble bridge is substituted for the inconvenient ferry; it is 100 feet above the level of high water, even at spring tides. The cathedral is a low plain building, dedicated to St. Deiniol, to whom it owed its origin about the year 525, and he was elected the first bishop in 550. He was the son of Dinothus, Abbot of Bangor-iscoed, and reared under the auspices of a Welsh prince, patron of the bard Talliesin, and perhaps the most liberal prince of his time. In 1402 it was burnt down, during the rebellion of Owen Glendower; and what is rather singular, it was suffered to remain in ruins during the space of 90 years, when the choir was rebuilt by the Bishop in the reign of Henry VII. But that cruel ravager of ecclesiastical property, Bishop Cathedral. Bulkeley, not only alienated the lands belonging to the cathedral, but even had the audacity to sell the bells of the church. The choir is fitted up in a style of neat and simple elegance, and ornamented with an excellent organ, the gift of Dr. Thomas Lloyd, in 1779. The chapter consists of a dean, three archdeacons, two precentors, two vicars choral, six minor canons, six lay clerks, and eight choristers, with an income of £2,000. per annum. The windows of the cathedral were formerly very handsomely ornamented with stained glass, but in the civil wars of Charles I. the soldiers destroyed these, amongst other things. The most conspicuous monument in this building is that erected to the memory of Owen Gwynedd, one of the ancient princes of Wales. Here are several Dissenting meeting-houses, and the town is the resort of many visitors during the summer season; upwards of 50,000 annually are said to remain for longer or shorter periods. Steam-packets ply between this place and Liverpool.

Market, Friday.—Fairs, April 5; June 25; September 16; and October 28.—Mail arrives at Menai Bridge 4.15 morning; departs 8.32 afternoon.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
53Bangor[A]vil & paFlintEllesmere11Overton3Wrexham51741389
27BanhampaNorfolkEast Harling5Buckenham2Diss7921297
45Bank-NewtontoW.R. YorkSkipton5Settle11Burnley15221125
27BanninghampaNorfolkAylesham3N. Walsham5Cromer9121369
40BarbonchapWestmorl.Kirkby Lons.3Sedbergh7Kendal11258318

[A] BANGOR ISCOED is situated on the banks of the river Dee, which here passes under a bridge of five arches. This place, at present very inconsiderable, is famed on account of having been the site of the most ancient monastery in the kingdom, founded by Lucius, the son of Coel, the first Christian King of Britain, sometime previous to the year 180. This abbey The first abbey established in Britain. was remarkable for its valuable library, and the number of learned men trained within its venerable walls. Gildas Ninnius, who lived in the 7th century, was one of its abbots. He wrote in Latin an incorrect history of England, which is still extant. According to Speed, this monastery, in the year 596, contained no less than 2,400 monks, 100 of which passed in their turns one hour of devotion; there are no remains of the monastery existing.

[B] BANSTEAD is celebrated for the excellent herbage which the neighbouring downs afford the sheep, which are highly prized for the delicate flavour of the mutton. There are many elegant seats in the vicinity, amongst which are Banstead House, Miss Motteux; Cold Blow Cottage, General Sir Edward Howorth; and the Oaks, the seat of the Earl of Seat of the Earl of Derby. Derby. This celebrated villa was erected by a society of gentlemen, called the "Hunter's Club," and the present noble proprietor can accommodate his guests with more than 50 bed chambers; and a pack of hounds are kept on the establishment, which has been long noted for its hospitality. On the 26th of February, 1834, Mr. John Richardson, a farmer, returning from Epsom to Banstead, was robbed and murdered on these downs.

[C] BANWELL is an agreeable village, situated under the northern declivity of the Mendip hills, and is supposed to derive its name from a spring strongly impregnated with mineral properties, which expands into a fine sheet of water, and after turning two mills, empties itself into the channel near the ruins of Woodspring Priory. The church, which is a fine specimen of the florid gothic of the Tudor age, contains a richly carved screen and rood loft, a beautiful sculptured stone pulpit, and several windows of the richest stained glass. This manor has been Formerly a Bishop's Palace. in the possession of the Bishops of Bath and Wells, from the reign of Edward the Confessor, with little exception, till the present time. They had for many centuries a palace here, but nothing of it remains except a private residence called Banwell Court, still interesting for its antiquity. The park has been divided into enclosures, which afford at every point a most pleasing variety of landscapes. The Bishop of Bath and Wells has also a cottage ornee, for the accommodation of his family and of the numerous visitors which are driven hither to view the two singular caverns which have been discovered of late years in this neighbourhood. The monastery of Banwell was founded by the early Saxon monarchs. Asserius, or Asser, the scholar and biographer of King Alfred, was made Abbot by that monarch. This Abbey was destroyed by the Danes; it was afterwards restored, but never recovered its pristine importance; for instead of arriving at the point of prosperity usual in Royal foundations, it sunk into obscurity long prior to the dissolution of religious houses. Banwell is remarkable for two extraordinary caverns discovered in the Extraordinary caverns. year 1824, which occasioned no inconsiderable number of the curious to resort to the village. They were first discovered by some workmen digging a shaft in search of Calamine, which intersected a steep narrow fissure; after they had descended about 80 feet it opened into a spacious cavern, 150 feet long and 30 broad, and about 30 feet high. This is called the stalactite cavern, from the beautiful specimens of crystalized stalactite, which lay covering huge fragments of rock about the floor. In this place were found two pieces of candle, encrusted with lime, supposed to have been left by the miners after working for ochre, calamine, &c. A rich vein of iron ore, with some cobalt and manganese, was also discovered, the working of which has long since commenced, and the produce is conveyed to the smelting works on the southern coast of Wales. The workmen, in order to facilitate an easier method of entrance, opened another fissure lower in the rock, when suddenly another cavern presented itself, the floor of which was covered with a mass of sand, limestone, teeth, bones, &c. Professor Buckland, who surveyed this place, states, that a shaft being driven into this mass, proved it to have been nearly 40 feet deep. The bones consisted of various specimens of the ox tribe, including Antediluvian bones. the elk. Skeletons of the wolf, and a gigantic bear, in point of preservation, like what are to be found in ordinary churchyards—supposed to be of antediluvian origin, where found here. In the roof of the cave is a large chimney-like shaft, formerly rising to the surface, but now blocked up by fragments of limestone, mud, and sand, adhering together by incrustation, and through which dreadful pitfall, it is presumed, this immense number of beasts were precipitated at the great inundation. The rubbish has been partially cleared, and the bones are used to decorate the sides of the walls. A British earthwork crowns the summit of the neighbouring eminence, enclosing, within its irregular rampart, an area of about 20 acres; and, about a quarter of a mile further, is an entrenchment nearly square, the ground in the centre of which is elevated in the form of a cross.

Fairs, Jan. 18, and July 18, for cattle, sheep, and cheese.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
39BarchestonpaWarwickShipston2Kineton9L. Compton583198
44BardenpaN.R. YorkLeyburn3Richmond4Bedale8231106
44Bardento & chapW.R. YorkSkipton8Paitley Brid.9Otley13218214

[A] BARDFIELD, (Great.) Market, formerly Tuesday (now disused.)—Fair, June 22, for cattle and toys.

[B] BARDNEY, anciently Beardanam, is situated in a marsh on the north bank of the river Witham. An abbey was founded in the time of the Saxons, prior to the year 641. Here Ethelred, divesting himself of the splendour of royalty, retired to devote his days to religion, and became superior of the monastery. King Oswald is said to have been buried here, but the body King Oswald buried here. was afterwards removed to the church of Gloucester. The hand was retained by the monks as a relique, to which they ascribed the power of working miracles, and for a long period imposed upon the credulity of superstitious pilgrims. In the year 870 the monastery was burned by the Danes, but was afterwards rebuilt by Gilbert De Gaunt, Earl of Lincoln, who annexed to it several extensive estates. At the dissolution its annual revenues were estimated at £429. 7s.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
23Bardon ParktoLeicesterLeicester9Loughboro'5Ashby910765
50Bardsey Isle[A]CaernarvonAberdaron 4 Pwllheli 20 Nevin 18 256 84
45Bardsey[B]to & paW.R. YorkWetherby5Leeds9Tadcaster8193331

[A] BARDSEY ISLE, is near the south-east point of the promontory of Llyn, in Caernarvonshire: it is of a moderate elevation; in length two miles, and in breadth one. The third part of its contents of 370 acres, occupied by a high mountain, affords sustenance to a few sheep and rabbits. It is about a league distant from the main land, and only accessible to the mariner on its south-east side, where there is a small well-sheltered No reptiles on this island. harbour. There is no reptile ever seen on this island, except the common water-lizard. The soil is clayey, but produces excellent barley and wheat. The inhabitants are employed in cultivating the land, and in fishing. The abbot's house is a large stone building, occupied by several families, and near it is a singular chapel, or oratory, being a long arched edifice, with a insolated stone altar near the east end. Dubricius, archbishop of Caerleon, almost worn out with age, resigned his see to St. David, retired here, and died in 522. He was interred upon the spot, but such was the veneration paid to his memory in after ages, that about the year 1107, his remains were removed, by the procurement of Urban, then Bishop of Llandaff, and re-interred in the cathedral of that see, of which he had been the first bishop. St. Dubricius was a man of singular eminence St. Dubricius. for learning and piety. He was Archbishop of Caerleon, and Metropolitan of all Wales, in the time of Aurelius Ambrosius; and prior to this elevation, he taught a school on the banks of his native river, which was much resorted to from all Christian countries.

[B] BARDSEY, comprises the township of Bardsey, with Rigton and Wathersome. Near the church is a mound called Castle Hill, supposed to have been the site of a Roman fortress. At Bardsey Grange, in this parish, resided occasionally, and died, Francis Thorpe, the tyrannical Baron of the Exchequer; but the same house is rendered memorable as the birth place of the poet Congreve, in 1670. This clever and celebrated Birth-place of Congreve, the poet. poet, was baptised in the church of this village in the month of February of the same year. When an infant he was carried to Kilkenny, by his father, who had the command of the army there. He received his education in the school of Kilkenny, and from these circumstances it is probable that persons had fallen into the erroneous impression that Congreve was a native of Ireland. In 1685 he was admitted into the university of Dublin. In 1691 he became a member of the society of the Middle Temple, but soon relinquished the dry study of the Law. At the age of twenty-one, he published his novel called "Incognita," His works. or, "Love and Duty Reconciled." Soon afterwards, he brought out the Comedy, called "The Old Bachelor," of which Dryden says, "he never saw such a first play in his life;" it was performed in 1793, with the most unbounded applause. Lord Falkland wrote the prologue. The singular success and merits of this production, recommended him to the patronage and notice of the Earl of Halifax, who settled him in an office of six hundred a year, and during his life patronised him in every way he could. His next piece was "The Double Dealer." On the death of Queen Mary, in 1693, he wrote a Pastoral on the occasion, entitled "The Mourning Muse of Alexis," upon the appearance of which King William, her husband, granted him an annuity of £100. per annum. In 1695, he produced his Comedy, called "Love for Love;" and in 1697, the beautiful Tragedy of "The Mourning Bride." Having lived a high and honorable Died in Surrey-st., London. life amongst the most celebrated wits and classical men of the age, he died at his house in Surrey-street, in the Strand, January 19, 1729. On the 26th his corpse lay in state in the Jerusalem Chamber, at Westminster, and the same evening was carried into Henry the Seventh's Chapel, and afterwards buried in the Abbey. His pall was supported by the Duke of Bridgewater, Earl Godolphin, Lord Cobham, Lord Wilmington, Hon. George Berkeley, Esq., and Brigadier-General Churchill. Dr. Johnson says, "He has merit of the highest kind; he is an original writer, who borrowed neither the models of his plot, nor the manner of his dialogue." And Voltaire remarks, "That he raised the glory of comedy to a greater height than any English writer before or since his time."

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
22BaretoLancasterLancaster3Burton10K. Lonsdale14243110
23BaresleytoLeicesterLeicester10Melton8M. Sorrel10105...
31Barford,(Great)[A]paBedfordBedford6St. Neots7Potton753731
3Barford,(Great)paOxfordDeddington2Banbury6Chip Norton1171350
3Barford,(Little)[B]paBedfordSt. Neots3Potton7Biggleswade954176
31Barford, St. John's, chOxford Deddington 3 Banbury 5 Chip Norton 11 72 131
41Barford, St. Martin, pa Wilts Wilton 3 Salisbury 6 Hindon 10 87 570
43BarforthtoN.R. YorkRichmond10Barnard Cas10Darlington9243128

[A] BARFORD, (Great). At this place is a piece of land, called White Bread Close, left, as is generally believed, by one of the Shepherd family, formerly residents of considerable opulence in the parish, for the purpose of purchasing loaves of white bread, to be thrown among the populace from Curious custom. the church porch. This whimsical custom at last became such a scene of scrambling, fighting, and disorder, that it was prohibited by the curate, and the money applied towards the purchase of coals for the poor, at Christmas. The boys, and even men, seemed to have participated in this sport, the same as at a game at foot-ball, or other play; and an old gentleman in the adjoining village fully remembers taking an active part in the scramble, and bearing off the wheaten loaf in triumph.

[B] BARFORD, (Little), is situated in the hundred of Biggleswade, and is chiefly celebrated as the birth-place of Rowe, the dramatic poet, who was born here in the year 1673. His father having designed him for the study Rowe, the Dramatist. of the law, took him from school at the age of sixteen, and entered him a student in the Middle Temple. He made considerable progress, and was called to the bar, but Homer and Virgil had more charms for him than either Coke or Littleton. He was strongly solicited by his friends to practice, but nothing could overcome his affection for the muses; and his play, the "Ambitious Step-mother," having been received with great applause, he resolved to make poetry his profession. He had imbibed in his youth the most noble sentiments of liberty, of which he gave a specimen in his Tragedy of "Tamerlane." This was the second play that he wrote, and until of late years it was usual to perform it on the 4th and 5th of November, in commemoration of the gunpowder treason, and the landing of King William. Mr. Rowe being out of all employment, went one day to wait on the Earl of Oxford, Lord High Treasurer of England, when, among other things his Lordship asked him, whether he understood Spanish. He replied in the negative, and his Lordship said he would advise him to learn it as soon as possible. Rowe took his leave, applied himself to the study of that language, and expecting some lucrative employment, again waited upon him. How great was his disappointment, when his Lordship, on being informed of his acquisition, merely exclaimed, Anecdote. "How happy are you, Mr. Rowe, that you can now enjoy the pleasure of reading "Don Quixote" in the original!" His death took place on the 6th of December, 1718, in the 45th year of his age, and he was buried with great funeral pomp, in Westminster Abbey, where a handsome monument is erected to his memory.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
24BarholmpaLincolnM. Deeping4Stamford6Bourn894155
14Barking[A]m.t. & paEssexRomford5Woolwich4Ilford278036
36BarkingpaSuffolkNeedham Mt1Stow Market4Ipswich10701884

[A] BARKING, in the hundred of Beacontree. The name is derived, according Origin of its name. to some writers, from the Saxon words Beorce—a birch tree, and Ing—a meadow; but the most natural presumption is, that it takes its name from Berging, signifying a fortification in a meadow, and which seems to be borne out, as there is an encampment still to be traced, of the most extensive dimensions, being more than forty-eight acres in the area; near to which is a spring of fine water, which no doubt supplied the inmates. In 870, Barking was burnt by the Danes, and the abbey destroyed, and Burnt by the Danes. the nuns either murdered or dispersed. Soon after the conquest, King William retired to this place, while the Tower of London was being erected, not deeming it safe to continue in that city; and here he was visited during the preparation for his coronation, by Earl Edwin, of Mercia; Morcar, Earl of Northumberland; and many others of the nobility, who swore fealty to him, on the restoration of their estates. It is situated on the river Roding, which branches off in two different streams, and unites with the Thames about two miles distant. Barking Creek is navigable for ships of 80 tons burden, and the coal and timber, together with the fishing trade, is carried on to a considerable extent. About a hundred fishing smacks sail from this town. Near the creek is a large flour mill, formerly belonging to the abbey; and in the vicinity of the town are extensive potatoe grounds for the supply of the London market. Barking is rather a dull town, from the want of a main thoroughfare; it has the appearance of antiquity stamped upon it, particularly the market-house, which is an extensive and ancient building of timber and plaster, of the age of Elizabeth. Here is a town-hall and work-house. A free quay for landing goods, subject to a table of regulations, and a spacious new road from the Commercial-road, through Eastham and Wallend to Barking. The church is dedicated to St. Margaret, and is a spacious ancient structure, with a lofty embattled tower at the west end, having a beacon turret at one corner. A free-school, which now occupies part of the work-house, was founded by Sir James Campbell, in 1641, who bequeathed a sum of £666. 13s. 4d. for that purpose. John Fowke, Esq., bequeathed certain lands for the maintenance of eight boys in Christ's Hospital, two of whom are chosen from this parish. The importance formerly Once a town of importance. attached to the town of Barking was almost entirely to be attributed to the magnificent abbey that was established here in the year 670, by Erkenwald, Bishop of London, for nuns of the Benedictine order: it was dedicated to the Virgin Mary. This abbey was governed by a succession of Abbesses, of noble, and even royal descent After the destruction of the establishment by the Danes, in the year 870, it was again rebuilt in a style of greater splendour than before, and on the death of King Edgar, in 970, his queen became Abbess. From the earliest period to the time of its dissolution, it may be said to have been a seminary for the principal gentry of England. Its revenues amounted, at the suppression of the religious houses, to £1084. 6s. 2-3/4d. Destruction has done its worst to this beautiful abbey, for at present little or nothing remains but the gateway, an interesting object, and in good preservation; over which is a room, called the Chapel of the Holy Ghost. This gateway was denominated the fire-bell gate, from its having anciently contained the curfew; it is a square embattled structure, with an octagonal turret at one of the angles. The arch of the entrance is finely pointed, and enriched with deeply receding mouldings; above is a canopied niche, under a fine gothic window of three lights. Among the ruins of the abbey were discovered a fibula, and a gold ring, on which were engraved, the Salutation of the Virgin Mary, and the initials I.M. The tyranny exercised over the tenants of this manor by the fraternity, would almost create a feeling of surprise in our present liberal and enlightened age, were they not perfectly well known in a thousand other instances. The manor of Clayhall was held under the Abbess and convent of Barking, by the following services: viz. that every tenant should come in person to the Abbey Church, on the vigil of St. Ethelburg the Virgin, and there attend and guard the high altar, from the first hours of Vespers till nine the next morning; and that he should be ready at all times, with a horse and a man, to attend the Abbess and her steward, when going upon the business of the convent, Singular services by which the manor of Clayhall was held. any where within the four seas. And, lastly, that the Abbess should have by way of herriot, upon the death of every tenant, his best horse and accoutrements: these services, however, did not exempt them from the quit rents. Besides the above tenure, there were other vexatious contingencies; viz. one (Robert Gerard) was among other services, to gather a full measure of nuts, called a pybot, four of which should make a bushel; to go a long journey on foot once a year to Colchester, Chelmsford, Ely, or the like distances, on the business of the convent, carrying a pack; and other shorter distances, such as Brentford, &c., and maintaining himself upon the road. He was to pay a fine upon the marriage of his daughter, if she married beyond the limits of the manor. If his daughter had an illegitimate child, he was to make the best terms he could with the Abbess, for the fine called Kyldwyte. It appears also, that he could not even sell his ox fed by himself, without the Abbess's permission. Some of the tenants, according to Blount, were obliged to watch and guard thieves in the Abbess's prison. A few miles distant, in a glade in Hainhault Forest, formerly stood an oak, famed through many centuries, and known by the Fairlop oak. name of Fairlop Oak. Its age is traced by the traditions of the country half way through the Christian era. Part of this noble tree has been converted into the pulpit of St. Pancras new church. Its rough fluted stem was 36 feet in circumference, and about a yard from the ground, divided into eleven immense arms; yet not in the horizontal manner of an oak, but rather that of a beech. Beneath its shade, which formerly overspread an area of three hundred feet in circuit, an annual fair was held on the 2nd of July, and no booth was suffered to be raised beyond the extent of its boughs. The fair is still continued on the same spot the first Friday in July.

Market disused.—Fair, October 22, for toys. It lies within the three-penny post delivery.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
45BarkislandtoW.R. YorkHalifax4Huddersfield8Rochdale131962292
23BarkstonpaLeicesterMelton12Belvoir Cas.4Bingham7115297
46Barkstone AshtoW.R. YorkTadcaster6Abberford5York15185265
18Barkwayto & paHertsHertford15Puckeridge8Cambridge17351108
24Barkwith, EastpaLincolnWragby3M. Raisin8Louth12147187
24Barkwith, WestpaLincoln...3...8...11146113
46BarlbychapE.R. YorkSelby2York13Howden12183348
46BarlowtoW.R. YorkSelby3Snaith6Howden8179225
10Barlow, GreatchapDerbyChesterfield4Dronfield3Sheffield10154581
10Barlow, LittletoDerby...5...3...1015558
46Barmby on the M.chapE.R. YorkHowden5Selby6Snaith6180525
46Barnby on Donto & paW.R. YorkDoncaster6Thorne7...9168617
46Barmby on Moor,to & pE.R. YorkPocklington2York11M. Weighton8210440
43BarmstonpaE.R. YorkBridlington7Driffield10Hornsea8200223
13Barnard Castle[C] t & p Durham Middleton 10 Darlington 17 Staindrop 6 246 4430

[A] BARMING. Of this village the learned antiquarian, Mark Noble, was rector. His principal works were a history of the College of Arms, a Mark Noble. Genealogical History of the Royal Families of Europe, Memoirs of the Protectorate House of Cromwell; and, also, of the illustrious house of Medici. On St. Thomas's Day there is an annual solicitation for charity, and with the money raised loaves of bread are purchased, and distributed to the resident poor. Great quantities of hops, cherries, and filberts, are grown in this parish.

[B] BARMOUTH, near the conflux of the river Maw, or Mawddach, is a village singularly situated; the houses are disposed, either among the sand, in a low situation, or at different heights on the side of a huge A very curiously built town. rock, like a part of the city of Edinburgh, and are said to resemble the town of Gibraltar. These houses form eight tiers, to which there is no approach, but by steps cut in the rock. The floors of one row are about level with the tops of the chimnies immediately in front; so that a person standing at his door may look down the chimnies of the neighbourhood below. The first range regales the second with its smoke, the second the third, &c. till we arrive at the uppermost, which, in a westerly wind, takes the mixed perfume of all. Barmouth is the port of Merionethshire, not far from which the river Mawddach has its commencement. "Proceeding along the banks of this river towards Dolgelly," says Mr. Bingley, "when it was high water, the whole bed of the river being filled, made the different landscapes in the scene appear truly picturesque. The first two miles which lay along, what the inhabitants of Barmouth call, the Beach, formed the most interesting part of the journey. In the composition of the views, scarcely any thing appeared wanting; there was every requisite of mountain and vale, wood, water, meadows, and rocks, arranged in beautiful order. Beyond the beach, the road winds at a little distance from the river, among the low mountains; and from different stations, I had views of the most elegant and picturesque landscapes, the river partly hidden by intervening mountains. This stream is much diminished in width and depth: at present it will not admit so much as a pleasure-boat to reach Dolgelly, which obliges company to walk three-quarters of a mile to the town."

[C] BARNARD CASTLE. The castle from which the town appears to have derived its name, was founded by Barnard, son of Guy Baliol, who Guy Baliol. accompanied William the Conqueror to England, and to whom William Rufus granted the noble forests of Teesdale and Marwood. Edward the First, determined to mortify the Bishop of Durham and to abridge his power; he, therefore, gave this castle to Guy Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, in whose family it continued for five generations. It afterwards came to the crown, and the tyrant Richard III. who took very great delight in this place, contributed much to its beauty by the most tasteful embellishments; his armorial bearings still appear, not only on the castle but over many parts of the town, and it has been a crown domain ever since. Hutchinson in his history of the county of Durham, describes the remains of the castle as covering about six acres and three quarters of ground. The parts which were of chief strength, stand on the very brink of a steep rock, about eighty feet above the level of the river Tees, commanding a most beautiful prospect up the river. The area on the side of the market-place, appears not to have had any communication with the chief strongholds and bulwarks of the fortress, and is separated from the interior buildings by a deep fosse which surrounds the rest of the castle. In an adjoining ground called the Flatts, is a large reservoir cut in swampy ground; water was collected and conveyed to the castle in pipes, to supply the garrison and cattle enclosed within the walls of the outer areas in times of public danger. This area is now a pasture for sheep, and other parts enclosed by the walls have been converted into orchards.

Market, Wednesday.—Fairs, Wednesday in Easter and Whitsun Week, St. James's Day, and July 25, for horses, cattle, and sheep.—Bankers, W. Skinner and Co. draw on Barclay and Co.—Inns, King's Head, and Rose and Crown.—Mail arrives 6.40 morning; departs 2.40 afternoon.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
45BarnbowtoW.R. YorkLeeds6Tadcaster9Abberford4190
45Barnbrough[A]paW.R. YorkDoncaster7Rotherham8Barnsley10167520
43BarnbytoN.R. YorkWhitby5Guisboro16Scarborough23238224
30Barnby-on-MoortoNottinghamEast Retford3Bawtry5Blyth3148206

[A] BARNBROUGH. The church is dedicated to Saint Peter, and contains a rude painting commemorative of "a serious contest that took place between a man and a wild cat." This conflict, which every body in Barnbrough firmly believes, is said to have occurred about the middle of the fifteenth century, between Percival Cresacre, lord of the manor, and a wild cat o' mountain. He is reported to have been attacked in one of the little woods in the neighbourhood, by this furious animal, and a running fight was kept up till they reached the church porch, where the mortal combat ended in the death of both. That some such circumstance Contest between the lord of the manor and a wild cat. did occur, is conjectured from the crest which the family afterwards adopted, viz. a cat o' mountain, which is still to be seen on the tower of the church; and the tradition is said to be further confirmed by the figure of an animal at the foot of the oak statue of this Cresacre, and also a rubiginous stone in the pavement of the porch of the church. We have many evidences in history that cats were beasts of chase, particularly in the charter of Ranulph Piperking, granted by Edward the Confessor:—

Hart and hind, doe and bock,
Fox and cat, hare and brock.

and again,

Four greyhounds and six raches,
For hare and fox and wild cates.

In the church is an ancient monument of Alicia Cresacre, wife of the above gentleman, who died in 1450, on which is carved in old text:—

Our bodys in stonys lye full still,
Our saulys in wandyr at Godys will.

In the north chancel is the monument of Percival Cresacre, a richly decorated altar-tomb under a flat arch, at the crown of which is the family arms, viz. three lions rampant, purple, on a gold shield. The effigies of Cresacre is in fine preservation, composed of carved oak, and representing a knight in a suite of plate armour, with his arms painted on a shield, and an animal (supposed to be a lion) at his feet. His sword which hung from his belt has been taken away, and both monuments are decorated with the favorite device of the family, a rosary of beads.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.

[A] BARN-ELMS. On the adjoining common stood the house in which the members of the celebrated Kit Cat Club assembled. Their Kit Cat Club house. original place of meeting was in London, but Jacob Tonson, the bookseller, who was their secretary, caused it to be transferred to a house belonging to himself, at Barn-Elms, and built a handsome room for their accommodation. The portrait of each member was painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller, but the apartment not being sufficiently large to receive half-length pictures, a shorter canvas was adopted, and hence proceeded the technical term of Kit Cat size. We give a further account of this club from the graphic pen of Sir Richard Phillips, in his "Morning's Walk from London to Kew," 1817. "A lane in the north-west corner of the common brought me to Barn-Elms, where now resides a Mr. Hoare, a banker, of London. The family were from home, and I had some difficulty to gain admittance, the servants knowing nothing either of the club, or its former occupant. A walk covered with docks, thistles, nettles, and high grass, led from the remains of a gateway in the garden wall to the door which opened into the building. Ah! thought I, through this desolate avenue, the finest geniuses in England daily proceeded to meet their friends. Yet, within a century, how changed—how deserted—how revolting! A cold chill seized me as the man unfastened the decayed door, and I beheld the once elegant hall filled with cobwebs, a fallen As described by Sir Richard Phillips in 1817. ceiling, and accumulating rubbish. The door on the left led to a spacious, and once superb, staircase—now in ruins. The entire building, for want of ventilation, having become food for the fungus, called dry-rot, the timbers had lost its cohesive powers. I ascended the staircase, therefore, with a degree of danger to which my conductor would not expose himself, but was well requited for my pains. Here I found the Kit-Cat Club-room, nearly as it existed in the days of its glory. It is 18 feet high, and 40 feet long, by 20 wide. The mouldings and ornaments were in the most superb fashion of its age, but the whole was falling to pieces from the effects of the dry-rot. My attention was chiefly attracted by the faded cloth-hangings of the room, whose red colour once set off the famous portraits of the club that hung around it. Their marks and sizes were still visible, and their numbers and names remained, as written in chalk for the guidance of the hanger. Thus was I, as it were, brought into contact with Addison and Steele, and Congreve, and Garth, and Dryden, and with many hereditary nobles, remembered only because they were patrons of those natural nobles. I read their names aloud—I invoked their departed spirits—I was appalled by the echo of my own voice. The holes in the floor, the forest of cobwebs in the windows, and a swallow's nest in the corner of the ceiling, proclaimed that I was viewing a vision of the dreamers of a past age; that I saw realized before me the speaking vanities of the anxious career of man. On rejoining Mr. Hoare's servant in the hall below, he informed me that his master intended to pull the building down, and form of it a riding-house. I learn that this design has since been executed. The Kit-Cat pictures were painted early in the eighteenth century, and about the year 1710 were brought to this spot, but the room I have been describing was not built till ten or fifteen years afterwards. They were 42 in number, and are now in the possession of a Mr. Baker, of Hertingford-bury, where I lately saw them splendidly lodged, and in fine preservation. It may be proper to observe, that the house of Mr. Hoare was not the house of Mr. Tonson, and that Mr. Tonson's house stood nearer to the Kit-Cat club-rooms, having a few years since been taken down." A person died in this place, leaving in his will an annual sum, to be laid out in roses to be planted on his grave. The spot is distinguished by a stone tablet on the outside of the wall of the church, enclosed by pales, with some rose-trees planted on each side of it. This tablet is dedicated to the memory of Edward Rose, citizen of London, who died in 1653, and left £20. to the poor of Barnes, for the purchase of an acre of land, on condition that the pales should be kept up, and the rose-trees preserved.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
18Barnet-Chipping[A]m.t.HertsSt. Albans10Whetstone2Hatfield9112369
18Barnet, EastpaHertsEnfield5Highgate6Barnet310547
25Barnet, Friern[B]paMiddlesexFinchley2Barnet3Hornsey49543

[A] BARNET. This small busy town occupies an elevated situation on the high north road; and near this place was fought, in the year 1471, the famous battle between the houses of York and Lancaster, which terminated Battle between the houses of York and Lancaster. in the death of the Earl of Warwick, and established King Edward the Fourth upon the throne. An obelisk was erected by Sir Jeremy Sambrook, in memory of the battle in the year 1740. In the church is an altar monument in commemoration of Thomas Ravensworth, Esquire, whose effigy, in a recumbent position, is represented on the tomb in veined marble. He died in 1630. Several others of his family are also buried here; and among these, James, his eldest son, who erected and endowed an alms-house, or hospital in Barnet, "for six poor ancient women, being widows or maidens, inhabitants of the town; and neither common beggars, common drunkards, back-biters, tale-bearers, common scolds, thieves or other like persons of infamous life, or evil name or repute; or vehemently suspected of sorcerie, witchcraft, or charming, or guilty of perjury: nor any ideot or lunatic are admitted." The annual value of the original endowment is now about £45.; besides which, the trustees have a further income of £30. annually, arising from other sources. Another alms-house for six poor widows, was built and endowed about the year 1723, under the will of John Garrett, Gent., who bequeathed £800. for that purpose. Near the Mineral spring. race ground, on Barnet Common, is a mineral spring, of a mild purgative nature, that was discovered about the middle of the 17th century, and was formerly in much repute. A few years ago a subscription was made for arching it over and erecting a pump. The town is at present governed by a presiding magistrate, a high constable and subordinate officers. The inhabitants of this township enjoy a very extensive common right over the adjoining wastes and chace. Between Barnet and South Mims, an extensive improvement has been effected in the road, which was a series of angular turnings and unnecessary hills, to an extent which renders it surprising how such glaring imperfections were suffered to exist, when a sufficiently direct line could be obtained.

Market, Monday. Fairs April 8, 9, 10, linen drapery, mercery, toys, &c. The harvest fair or Welsh fair, September 4, 5, Welsh cattle and horses; Sept. 6, mercery, &c. and sometimes a few horses, pigs, &c. The Leeds Mail arrives 9.11 evening, departs 7.48 evening. The Glasgow mail arrives 9.20 evening; departs 4.18 morning. Inns, Duke of Wellington, Green Man, and Red Lion.

[B] BARNET, (Friern). John Walker, the author of a celebrated dictionary, was a native of this place, and was born in the year 1732. Birth place of Walker, author of the pronouncing dictionary. About the year 1767, he joined with a Mr. Usher in setting up a school at Kensington; this speculation not succeeding he removed to London, where he gave lectures on elocution. It is said that in his early youth he studied the art, intending to make the stage his profession, although his very questionable success induced him to adopt another pursuit. Mr. Walker was an amiable as well as a learned man; he was the author of several elementary works: such as "The Rhetorical Grammar," "Elements of Elocution," "Key to the correct pronunciation of Greek, Latin, and Scriptural names," and a "Rhyming Dictionary." He died at his house in Tottenham Court Road, August 1, 1807. This parish includes the hamlet of Colney Hatch, half of Whetstone, and a part of Finchley Common.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
44Barninghampa & toN.R. YorkGreta Bridge2Richmond10Barnard Cas.5238550
27Barningham, LittlepaNorfolkAylsham6Holt6Cromer8119227
27Barningham WinterpaNorfolk...6...7...8120114
45Barnoldswickpa & toW.R. YorkColne5Skipton6Clitheroe102232724
45Barnsley[A]m.t. & toW.R. YorkYork39Rotherham13Hudderfield1717210330
11Barnstaple[B]bo.& mtDevonExeter38S. Molton12Ilfracomb101936840

[A] BARNSLEY. This large market town is built chiefly of stone, but being surrounded by coal pits and iron works, the smoke from which obscures the air, it is generally known by the name of Black Barnsley. The trade. The black glass bottles made here are of excellent quality, and the manufacture of linen is carried on to a great extent. Here also is made the best wire in the kingdom for needles. The town is seated on the side of a hill; the trade and population have considerably increased since the completion of the navigable canal, by means of which communications are opened with Wakefield, and all parts of the kingdom. The land in the vicinity of this town is highly distinguished for its fertility; the manor is possessed by the Duke of Leeds.

Market, Wednesday.—Fairs, Wednesday before Feb. 28, horned cattle and swine; May 12, ditto; October 10, ditto, horses, and cheese.—Mail arrives 2.55 afternoon; departs 11.31 night.—Bankers, Becket and Co., draw on Glyn and Co.—Inns, King's Head, and White Bear.

[B] BARNSTAPLE is said to derive its name from Bar, which in the ancient British signified the mouth of a river; and the Saxon word Staple, Incorporated by Henry I. a mart. It is situated in the hundred of Braunton, and returns two members to parliament. The town appears to have been incorporated by Henry I., yet it retains some traces of feudal jurisdiction; a number of common burgesses claiming a right to vote with the corporate officers for members of parliament. The £10. householders are about 607; the returning officer is the mayor, who with two bailiffs, two aldermen, twenty-two common councilmen, and other officers form the corporation. Barnstaple is one of the neatest and most respectable towns in the county; it lies on the eastern bank of the river Taw, in a broad and fertile vale, bounded by a semi-circular range of hills. The Taw here spreads to a considerable breadth, but from the great accumulation of sand, the port is Amusements, &c. shallow, and vessels of more than 200 tons are not able to enter. Over the river is a bridge of sixteen arches, which is said to have been built by one of the Tracys, at the time that family were lords of the manor. The streets are spacious and regular, and the buildings generally good. The town, indeed, boasts some of the marks of a metropolis; there are balls every fortnight, and a regular theatre, and nothing but a good pavement is wanted to make it highly agreeable. A noble quay extends some way along the river, terminated by a handsome piazza, over the centre of which stands the statue of Queen Anne, with an inscription, testifying to the loyalty of Robert Rolle, of Stevenstone, in this county, the erector. The woollen trade formerly carried on here with considerable spirit, greatly increased the wealth of the town, and enabled its inhabitants to erect a number of very respectable houses: this trade has of late failed, but the manufacture of baize, silk stockings and waistcoat pieces, still gives life to the place. Besides this source of wealth and population, the beauty of the surrounding country, and the cheapness of provisions, have induced many respectable families to reside here entirely; a circumstance which renders Barnstaple the most genteel town in the north of Devon. Here is a celebrated Grammar School, which has been founded about three centuries, and is famous for having educated a number of distinguished Eminent men educated here. men; among whom were John Jewel, Bishop of Salisbury: his Theological antagonist, Thomas Harding, Professor at Louvain: the poet Gay, and the learned Dr. Musgrave. Bishop Jewel was a learned divine, who lived in the reigns of the last sovereigns of the house of Tudor, and was born near Ilfracombe, in 1522. Having acquired the rudiments of his learning in this school, he was removed to Merton College, Oxford. He was a most zealous and able champion of the Christian faith; and was indefatigable in the pursuit of knowledge, even at the expense of his health, which was materially injured by the closeness of his application. About the year 1551, he obtained the rectory of Sunningwell, in Berkshire, where he was much beloved for his zeal and assiduity as a parish priest. When Queen Mary succeeded her brother Edward, Jewel was deprived of an office he held in the university; and, notwithstanding he subscribed to a confession of faith drawn up by the Catholics, yet suspicions were entertained of his sincerity, and fearing he should be prosecuted as an heretic, he withdrew from Oxford, and made his escape to the continent. On the death of Queen Mary, Jewel returned to England, and was received very favorably by Queen Elizabeth, who raised him to the bishoprick of Salisbury, in the year 1560. From this time until the day of his death, he was principally engaged in his pastoral duties, and in the defence and support Gay, the Poet, born here. of the Protestant faith. He died September 1571. The admirable moralist and poet, Gay, was also educated in this school; he was the composer of "The Beggar's Opera," the notion of which appears to have been afforded by Swift. The purpose of this singular performance, was to bring into ridicule the Italian Opera, and it is not easy to define the mixture of pathos and ridicule which distinguishes this remarkable production. His celebrated "Fables," written for the instruction of the Duke of Cumberland, have been the means of unqualified delight to millions. His first poem, entitled "Rural Sports," and dedicated to Mr. Pope, gained him the friendship of that poet. The year following he was appointed Secretary to the Duchess of Monmouth: at this time he printed his "Trivia," in the composition of which he was assisted by Swift. He died of an inflammation of the bowels, in 1732, (sincerely lamented by all who knew him,) and was buried in Westminster Abbey, where his monument exhibits an epitaph by Pope, which is written with tasteful tenderness.

Market, Friday.—Fairs, September 19; Friday before April 21; second Friday in December, for cattle. These are considerable fairs, but are called great markets, as there is no charter to hold fairs on those days.—Mail arrives 7.0 morning; departs 5.0 afternoon.—Bankers, Pyke, Law and Co.; draw on Barclay and Co.; Drake and Co. draw on Esdaile and Co.—Inns, Fortescue Arms; Golden Lion; Kings Arms.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
7BarnstontoChesterPark Gate4Liverpool5Chester14198112

[A] BARNWELL derives its name from some wells, which in the age of superstition, were widely famed for the miraculous cures they performed in diseases of children. Sacred veneration was at length paid them, and pilgrims from distant parts resorted hither to adore the spirit which infused such wonderful virtues into the waters. A castle was erected here in the reign of Henry I., by Reginald le Moine, and became afterwards the baronial residence of the family of the Montagues. The remains of this once magnificent structure consist of four circular massy bastion towers, each forming an angle of a quadrangular court, inclosed by walls three feet thick; the grand gateway on the south side is flanked by similar towers. The whole forms a fine and curious ruin, and is a rare specimen of the early Norman castellated form of building.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
28Barnwell, St. And.paNorthampOundle2Thrapston6Stamford1779284
35Barr, Great[A]paStaffordWalsall4Wednesbury4Birmingham5114779
35Barr, PerryhamStafford...5Birmingham5Sutton3114777
4Barrington, Great[B]paBerks & GlosBurford4Northleach7Stow876532
15Barrington, LittlepaGloucesterBurford4Stow8Northleach776162

[A] GREAT BARR is an agreeable village, which has long been the property of the Scott family, who have here one of the finest mansions in the county. This seat stands in a beautiful valley, affording the most delightful prospects of hill and dale, varied by wood and water. Shady walks and rustic seats furnish the most attractive conveniences for the promenade. One object in particular fixes the attention; it is an urn near the flower garden, to the memory of Miss Mary Dolman, the cousin of Shenstone, whose elegant pen supplied a beautiful tribute in Latin. The summit of Barr Beacon, which is 653 feet in height, was the spot from Barr Beacon, 653 feet high. whence the Druids gave notice, by watch-fires, of their periodical sacrifices; and it was used both by the Saxons and the Danes, as a beacon to alarm the country in times of danger. The chapel of the village is of remarkable beauty; its eastern window contains a painting on glass by Mr. Eginton, who has improved upon the design of the Rev. Mr. Peter's "Spirit of a Child."

[B] GREAT BARRINGTON is a parish containing about 1000 acres, including some portion of Oxfordshire within its limits, as well as a small tract belonging to Berkshire. Previous to the conquest, the manor was held by Earl Harold; the present owner is Lord Dynevor, Lord Lieut. and Cust. Rot. of Carmarthen. Barrington church appears to have been erected about the time of Henry VII. Beneath one of the windows of the aisle are the monument and effigies of Captain Edward Bray, Capt. Edward Bray. grandfather of Sir Giles Bray, lord of the manor, who is represented in armour, with a ruff round his neck and a sword girt on the "right" side. This peculiarity originated from the captain having killed a man at Tilbury camp; and, in token of his sorrow, he determined never more to use his right hand. Lord Chancellor Talbot was buried in this church; he was the son of William Talbot, Bishop of Durham, and was born in the year 1684. After being elected a fellow of All Soul's College, Oxford, he married, and consequently was compelled to give up his fellowship. When he left the university, he was admitted a member of the society of Lincoln's Inn, and was speedily called to the bar. He was chosen to represent the now disfranchised borough of Tregony, in Cornwall, and afterwards was made member for the city of Durham. He died in the enjoyment of the highest character, after a short illness, on the 14th of February, 1737. Few Chancellors have been more lamented, both in public and private life. Lord Talbot acquired universal esteem. The Hall was built by him in the year 1734, soon after which it was destroyed by fire. The grounds furnish a good specimen of the "ferme ornee," (ornamental farm) and the park, about three miles in circumference, is well planted with a variety of beautiful trees.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
33BarrowpaSalopM. Wenlock4Bridgenorth6Broseley2146351
7Barrow, Greatpa & toChesterChester6Northwich13Tarporley5183436
34Barrow, NorthpaSomersetCastle Carey3Ilchester8Wincanton8116150
34Barrow, SouthpaSomerset...4...7...9117139
23Barrow-on-Soar[A]pa & toLeicesterMount Sorrel2Loughboro'3Leicester91076254
54Barry Isle[B]IsleGlamorgan...9...8...9169...

[A] BARROW. This large and pleasant village appears to have taken its name from an ancient tumulus. It is occupied principally by gentlemen farmers, many of whom, however, derive great profit from the quantities of lime which they get up and burn. This village having been for many Superior lime quarries. centuries celebrated for a hard blue stone, similar to that in the vale of Belvoir, and when calcined, produces a very fine matter, from which is prepared a particularly hard, firm, and greatly esteemed cement. Various fossil remains are found amongst the limestone. One of the petrifactions, still preserved at Cambridge, with Dr. Woodward's fossils, is a plain and bold representation of a flat-fish, about twelve inches long. Mr. Jones, in his "Philosophical Disquisitions," notices it by saying, that "our country hath lately afforded what I apprehend to be the greatest curiosity of the sort that ever appeared. It is the entire figure of a bream, more than a foot in length, and of a proportionable depth, with the scales, fins, and gills, fairly projecting from the surface, like a sculpture in relievo, and with all the lineaments, even to the most minute fibres of the tail, so complete, that the like was never seen before." Dr. William Beveridge, one of the most learned prelates of the English church, was born here in the year 1638. At St. John's College, Cambridge, he applied The pious Beveridge born here. himself with intense application to the study of oriental literature. He reviewed the Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, Arabic, and Samaritan tongues, and produced a Syriac grammar. He was raised to the see of St. Asaph, in the year 1704, but he enjoyed his new dignity for a short period,—his death took place in the year 1708. In his divinity he was Calvinistic; from the simplicity and piety of his character, he was beloved by all parties. He lies buried in St. Paul's Cathedral.

[B] BARRY ISLAND, the name of which has been thought to have been derived from St. Baroche, a hermit, who, according to Cressy, died here in the year 700. This island, which lets for about £80. a year, is estimated to contain about 300 acres. In Leland's time there was, in the middle of it, a "fair little chapel used," but there was no dwelling. Since that period, however, a house has been erected for the residence of a farmer, which, in the summer, is converted into a boarding-house, for the reception of sea-bathers. The family of Giraldus de Barri, are said to Remarkable noises heard here. have taken their title from this island, of which they were once lords. "It is remarkable," observes Giraldus, "that in a rock near the entrance of the island, there is a small cavity, to which, if the ear is applied, a noise is heard like that of smiths at work—the blowing of bellows, strokes of hammers, grinding of tools, and roaring of furnaces; and it might easily have been imagined, that such noises which are continued at the ebb and flow of the tides, were occasioned by the influx of the sea under the cavities of the rocks." Sir Richard Hoare, in his additions to Giraldus, observes as follows:—"Towards the southern part of the island, on a spot called Nell's Point, is a fine well, to which great numbers of women resort on Holy Thursday, and, having washed their eyes at the spring, each drops a pin into it. The landlord of the boarding-house told me, Curious custom. that on clearing out the well he took out a pint full of these votive offerings." On the main land, opposite the western extremity of the island, lies the village of Barry, near which are some remains of the castle. A few miles north-westward from Barry are the remains of Penmark castle, anciently the property of Sir Gilbert Humphreville, one of the followers of Fitzhamon. Llancarvan, in this vicinity, was once the seat of a religious house, said to have been founded by Cadoc the Wise, in the 6th century. Llancarvan is also distinguished as the birth-place of Caradoc, the Welsh annalist, who compiled a history of the Principality, from the abdication of Cadwaladyr, 686, to his own time. Tref Walter, or Walterston, in this parish, was the residence of Walter de Mapes, a writer of some note towards the middle of the 12th century. He was Archdeacon of Oxford, and Chaplain to Henry I. He built the church of Llancarvan, a large substantial edifice, and the village of Walterston, with a mansion for himself. His literary labours comprise a translation of the British Chronicle into Latin, and a Welsh version of Geoffrey of Monmouth's fabulous paraphrase of the same work. He wrote also a Treatise on Agriculture in the Welsh language.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
27Barsham, (East)paNorfolkFakenham3Walsingham3Burnham M.10102219
27Barsham, (North)paNorfolkWalsingham2Wells6Fakenham411384
27Barsham, (West)paNorfolkFakenham3Walsingham3Creek4112101
7Barthomley[A]pa & toChesterSandbach7Newcastle7Nantwich11157449
6Bartlow[B]paCambridgeLinton2Haverhill6Saff. Walden648106
14Bartlow EndhamEssex...3...6...547205
4BartonhamBerksOxford6E. Illsley9Dorchester75614

[A] BARTHOMLEY contains several townships. The nave of the church has a richly carved wooden roof, dated 1589. On the 22d of December, 1643, a troop of Lord Byron's passing through the village, made an attack upon this venerable edifice, into which several of the inhabitants had gone for safety; they soon got possession of it, and having set fire to the forms, rushes, and mats, made such a smoke that the men who had retreated into the steeple were obliged to call for quarter, but their assailants having got them into their power, are said to have stripped them all, and most cruelly murdered twelve of them in cold blood, three only Cruel murder. being suffered to escape. A free school was founded here, in the year 1676, by the Rev. Mr. Steele, in which ten children are educated. In the year 1787, Mrs. Mary, Mrs. Margaret, and Mrs. Judith Alsager, ladies of the manor, obtained an Act of Parliament to enable them to finish a new church, or chapel, to be called Christ's Church, or Chapel, in that township. The same ladies built a school-house, and founded a school there, for the education of children of both sexes.

[B] BARTLOW. Near this place, are four contiguous barrows, known by the name of Bartlow Hills, from their situation with respect to Bartlow Church. These are vulgarly, though erroneously, regarded as the tumuli raised over the slain in the battle fought between Edmund Ironside and the Danish King, Canute, in the year 1016. It is evident, indeed, from our account of Ashington, at page 50, that the place of action should be sought for, rather in the vicinity of the sea than at the northern extremity of the county. Camden states, that these stone coffins, with broken human bones in them, were found in one of these barrows; and Hollingshead affirms, that two bodies were found in one stone coffin. Mr. Gough remarks, that we do not find the use of stone coffins amongst the northern nations in their Pagan state; and the Danes were not converted until long after the time of Canute. The origin of these barrows, therefore, cannot now be traced.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
40Barton, (High),[A]pa & toWestmorlndAppleby3Orton6Brough112721537
23BartonhamLeicesterM. Bosworth2Leicester14Ashby10108163
27Barton BendishpaNorfolkStoke Ferry4Swaffham8Downham892459
3Barton in the ClaypaBedfordSilsoe3Luton7Ampthill438720
44Barton, St. Cuthbertpa & toN.R. YorkDarlington5Richmond7Barnard Cas14238499
34Barton, St. David's,paSomersetSomerton4Glastonbury7Castle Cary7120410
36Barton, (Great)paSuffolkBury3Ixworth4Thetford1374702
5Barton HartshornepaBuckinghamBuckingham4Bicester8Brackley659145
39Barton on the heath[B]paWarwickShipston6L. Compton2Chip. Norton779208

[A] BARTON. Stockbridge Hall, an ancient edifice, was the seat of the Lancasters, whose arms are yet seen on the ceiling of the dining-room, and who continued here through twelve generations, when their estates fell to the Lowthers. The church, which is a low and extensive building, with a heavy tower between the chancel and the nave, contains the tomb of one Remarkable epitaph. of the Lancasters; some escutcheons of several families in the neighbourhood, and a brass plate, on which is this remarkable epitaph:—

"Under this stone, reader, interred doth lie,
Beauty and virtue's true epitomy.
At her appearance the noone sun
Blushed and shrunk in, 'cause quite undone.
In her concentered did all graces dwell;
God plucked my rose that he might take a smell.
I'll say no more, but weeping, wish I may,
Soone with thy dear chaste ashes come to lay."

The lady thus extravagantly eulogised, was Frances, the wife of Launcelot Dawes; she died in 1673. Barton school was founded in 1641, by four priests, natives of this parish.

[B] BARTON. Near this village is a large stone, called Four-shire stone, from its forming the point of junction of the four counties of Gloucester, Worcester, Warwick, and Oxford. Here once resided an attorney of so pacific a disposition that he usually acted as mediator when disputes arose. This anomalous person, named Dover, instituted the annual festivities termed Cotswold Games, and was for forty years their chief supporter. Cotswold games. These diversions were celebrated upon the Cotswold Hills, in Gloucestershire, and prodigious multitudes are said to have resorted to them. They consisted of wrestling, cudgel-playing, leaping, pitching the bar, throwing the sledge, tossing the pike, with various other feats of strength and activity. A castle of boards was erected on this occasion, from which guns were frequently discharged. Dover received permission from James I. to hold these sports, and he appeared at their celebration in the very clothes which that monarch had formerly worn; but it is said there was much more dignity in his form and aspect. John Heywood, the epigramatist, speaking of these games, says—

"He fometh like a bore, the beaste should seem bold,
For he is as fierce as a lyon of Cotsolde."

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
22Barton on IrwelltoLancasterManchester6Newton14Warrington141858976
36Barton, LittlepaSuffolkMildenhall1Newmarket9Bury1270591
44Barton, St. Mary,chapN.R. YorkDarlington5Richmond7Barnard Cas.14238....
35BartonchapStaffordBurton on Tr.5Lichfield9Abbotts Brom81301344
28Barton SegravepaNorthamp.Kettering2Thrapston8Wellingboro875203
16Barton StaceypaHants.Whitchurch6Andover6Winchester962626
31Barton Steeple[B]paOxfordDeddington5Woodstock7Charlbury963606
15Barton StreethamGloucesterGloucester1Cheltenham9Ross17103786
43Barton in StreetpaN.R. YorkNew Malton5Pickering5Helmsley10222436
27Barton TurfpaNorfolkColtishall5Worstead4Norwich13121391
31Barton WestcottpaOxfordEnstone4Woodstock7Deddington564258
43Barton in the Willows,tN.R. YorkYork10New Malton8Sutton10206202
45BarughtoW.R. YorkBarnsley3Wakefield9Huddersfield14175946
43Barugh, Gt. & Little,paN.R. YorkPickering3New Malton5Scarborough18223294
23BarwellpaLeicesterHinckley2M. Bosworth7Leicester111011505
14BarwickpaEssexChipp. Ongar6Dunmow8Chelmsford102797
41Barwick BassetpaWiltsCalne7Swindon8Marlborough883164

[A] BARTON. This ancient town is pleasantly situated about three-quarters of a mile from the southern bank of the Humber. It was formerly surrounded by a rampart and fossee, the remains of which are still discernable. It was doubtless a place of great strength before the conquest, and served as a barrier against the irruptions of the Saxons and Danes. At the period of the conquest it was a principal port of the Humber, and Once a place of importance. until the rise of Kingston-upon-Hull it enjoyed an extensive commerce. At present its derives its principal consequence from being the point whence the communication with the Lincoln road is continued across the Humber to Hull, a distance of about six miles and a half.

Market, Monday.—Fair, Trinity Thursday, for cattle.—Mail arrives 3.0 afternoon; departs 11.15 morning—Inn, The Waterside Inn.

[B] STEEPLE BARTON. In this parish is situated Rowsham, which was, for several centuries, the seat of the Dormers, and it continued in their possession until the decease of General Dormer, in the year 1750. That gentleman bequeathed the mansion and estates to his cousin, Sir Rowsham House. Clement Cottrell, Knight, Master of the Ceremonies to George II., who annexed the name of Dormer to his own, and in whose family the property has since remained. The situation is extremely fine, and the grounds, which were laid out by Kent, during the life-time of General Dormer, afford a variety of picturesque and pleasant views. The mansion was built in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, but a few alterations were made at subsequent periods. The walls are embattled, and the doors are singularly enough perforated with holes (with slides to cover) so as to admit muskets being pointed through them. There is a large hall, and valuable library, containing many old and rare authors. A very excellent collection of paintings, (about 180 in number), and of busts and other figures in bronze, (amounting to fifty-five), has also been formed here. Horace Walpole, in one of his eloquent letters to George Montague, has thus spoken of this place:—"But the greatest pleasure we had, was in seeing Sir Charles Cotterell's, at Rowsham: it reinstated Kent with me; he has no where shewn so much taste. The house is old, and was bad; he has improved it—stuck as close as he could to gothic; has made a delightful library, and the whole is comfortable. The garden is Daphne in little, the sweetest little groves, streams, glades, porticoes, cascades, and rivers imaginable: all the scenes are perfectly classic. Well, if I had such a house, such a library, so pretty a place, and so pretty a wife, I think I should let King George send to Herenhausen for a Master of the Ceremonies." The pleasure-grounds are beautifully shaded by flourishing and noble beech trees; they are also ornamented by several stone statues, which all throw up water, except a very fine one of the dying gladiator, and a group of the lion tearing the horse, by Sheemacher.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
45Barwickpa & toW.R. YorkWetherby7Tadcaster7Abberford21881922
45BashalltoW.R. YorkClitheroe5Lancaster16Blackburn10222310
16Basing, Old[C]to & chHantsBasingstoke2Odiham5Alton12441113

[A] BASFORD lies in a bottom, approached from the race-ground. The scenery around it is rich in the extreme. This village has greatly increased The trade. of late, from various manufactures, and the improvements consequent upon them. Here are corn and cotton-mills, and the bleaching and dying branches of business are carried on with considerable success. The church has a very handsome spire, with a nave and side aisles in very good order, but there are no ancient inscriptions. The importance of this place has also been kept up, by its being the seat of the Court of the Honour of Peverel, since it was removed from Nottingham. It sits twice in the year, to try causes as high as £50. A jail for the court is situated here, which Howard describes as having, at the time of his writing, merely one room, with three beds; but the keepers told him he had another little room for women prisoners, of whom there being none in his custody, he applied the apartment to domestic uses. A bowling-green, close by the jail, is much frequented by the inhabitants of Nottingham. At Mapperley, a hamlet in this parish, is a handsome seat of Ichabod Wright, Esq., a banker of Nottingham.

[B] BASFORD. Here was born, in 1630, the celebrated Charles Cotton, a burlesque poet of the seventeenth century. He received his education Charles Cotton. at Cambridge, and afterwards travelled through France. On his return to England he resided with his father at Basford, in the neighbourhood of the Peak. His first production was, a poetical essay on the gallant Earl of Derby. In 1656, he married a daughter of Sir Thomas Hutchinson, a Nottinghamshire Knight. Two years after this his father died; he then succeeded him in the family estate, which was encumbered with mortgages: being of an improvident disposition, he was subject to constant embarrassments, and was even confined for some months in a prison for debt. After the death of his first wife, he married the Countess Dowager of Ardglass. He died at Westminster in 1687. Some of his poems, of considerable merit, were published after his death.

[C] BASING, or OLD BASING, though a small village, is of some importance, as the scene of a desperate and bloody battle between the Danes and the Saxons, in 871, commanded by King Ethelred and his brother Alfred, when the latter were defeated. It was, however, rendered more famous by the gallant stand made against the parliamentary forces in the reign of Charles I., by John Poulet, Marquis of Winchester, a lineal descendant Great battles fought here. of Hugh de Port, who, at the time of the Domesday Survey, held 55 lordships in this county. This small village was the principal of these extensive possessions, and appears to have been the very site of a castle, as mention of the land of the old castle of Basing is made in a grant allowed by John de Port, to the neighbouring priory at Monks Sherborne, in the reign of Henry II. His grandson, William, assumed the surname of St. John; and Robert, Lord St. John, in the 43d of Henry III., obtained a license to fix a pole upon the bann of his moat, at Basing, with permission to continue it so fortified during the pleasure of the King. In the reign of Richard II., Basing was transferred by marriage to the Poynings; and again, in the time of Henry VI., to the Paulets, by the alliance of Constance with Sir John Paulet, of Nunny Castle, in Somersetshire. Sir William Paulet, Knt., third in descent from this couple, created Baron St. John, of Basing, by Henry VIII.; and Earl of Wiltshire, and Marquis of Winchester, by Edward VI., was a very accomplished and polite nobleman, greatly in favour at court during most of the successive changes that occurred in the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth. He held the office of treasurer nearly 30 years, sustaining himself by the courtly maxim, of "being a willow, and not an oak." He rebuilt Basing Castle, in a magnificent, and even in a princely style; indeed, so much so, that Camden, in allusion to the immense expense of living entailed on his family by its splendour, observes that, "it was so overpowered by its own weight, that his posterity has been forced to pull down a part of it." Here, in 1560, he entertained Queen Elizabeth with "all good cheer," and so much to her satisfaction, that she playfully Queen Elizabeth splendidly entertained here for 13 days. lamented his great age; "for by my troth," said she, "if my Lord Treasurer were but a young man, I could find it in my heart to have him for a husband before any man in England." William, the great-grandson of this nobleman, and fourth Marquis of Winchester, had also, in 1601, the honour of having Queen Elizabeth for a guest for "thirteen days, to the great charge of the sayde Lorde Marquesse." During her residence here, the Duke of Biron, accompanied by about 20 of the French nobility, and a retinue of about 400 persons, were accommodated at the Vine, the seat of Lord Sandys, which had been purposely furnished with hangings and plate from the Tower, and Hampton Court, and with seven score beds and furniture, "which the willing and obedient people of the countrie of Southampton, upon two days' warning, had brought in thither to lend the Queen." When Elizabeth departed from Basing, she affirmed, that "she had done that in Hampshire, that none of her ancestors ever did; neither that any Prince in Christendom could do: that was, she had in her progresses, in her subject's houses, entertained a royal ambassador, and had royally entertained him." John, son of the preceding, and fifth Marquis of Winchester, was the brave nobleman who rendered his name immortal by his gallant defence of Basing House, in the cause of Charles I., during a tedious succession of sieges and blockades, which, with short intermissions, continued upwards of two years. The journal of the siege, printed in Oxford, in 1645, is one of the most eventful pieces of history during the civil war. The final investment appears to have been undertaken by Cromwell, who took it by storm, in October 1645, and burnt it to the ground, in despite of the Aimez Loyaulte, which the Marquis Burnt by Cromwell. had written with a diamond in every window, and which has ever since been the motto of the family arms. The plunder obtained on this occasion is said to have amounted to £200,000. in cash, jewels, and rich furniture. The number of soldiers slain before the walls from the commencement of the siege, is recorded to have been upwards of 2,000. There is a traditionary report, that the garrison was partly surprized through some of the troops being engaged at cards when the assault commenced. From a survey made in 1798, it appears that the area of the works, including the garden and entrenchments, occupied about fourteen acres and a half. The form was extremely irregular, the ditches very deep, and the ramparts high and strong; some of the remains are yet very bold and striking. The site of the ruins is particularly commanding. The canal from Basingstoke has been cut through a part of the works, and the outward entrenchments have been rendered very obscure and imperfect from recent improvements in the grounds. The brave Marquis, whose property was reduced to ruin in the cause of his Sovereign, lived to the restoration, but received no recompence for his immense losses. He died in 1674, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Charles, who, when he saw that other men of sense were at their wits' end, in the arbitary and tyrannical reign of James II., thought it prudent to assume the character of a madman, as the first Brutus did, in the reign of Tarquin. He danced, hunted, or hawked, a part of the day, went to bed before noon, and constantly sat at table all night. He went to dinner at six or seven in the evening, and his meal lasted till six or seven in the morning; during which time he ate, drank, smoked, talked, or listened to music. The company that The sixth Marquis of Winchester, a singular character. dined with him were at liberty to rise and amuse themselves, or to take a nap, whenever they were so disposed; but the dishes and bottles were all the while standing upon the table. Such a man as this was thought a very unlikely person to concern himself with politics, or with religion. By this conduct, he was neither embroiled in public affairs, nor gave the least umbrage to the court; but he exerted himself so much in the revolution, that he was, for his eminent services, created Duke of Bolton: he afterwards raised a regiment of foot for the reduction of Ireland. Charles, son of the former, and second Duke of Bolton, assisted in the great work of the revolution; and was one of the noblemen appointed at Exeter, in November, 1688, to manage the revenues of the Prince of Orange, as Sovereign of England. In 1717, he was declared Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. Charles, the eldest son, and third Duke of Bolton, filled several high offices in the state. This nobleman, on the death of his first wife, from whom he had long been separated, wedded the celebrated Lavinia Beswick, or Fenton, more known by the name of Polly Peachem, from her celebrity Polly Peachem. in the performance of that character in the "Beggar's Opera." The parish church of Basing is a large, ancient, and curious structure, standing at a short distance from the site of Basing House, with a tower rising in the centre. In a niche at the west-end is a figure of the Virgin Mary: the roof is supported by round arches, springing from massive columns. This edifice was repaired in 1510, by Sir John Paulet, who, with his father, John Paulet, Esq., and their respective wives, lie buried beneath two arched tombs, one on each side the chancel. Beneath the south aisle is the family vault of the Paulets, in which six Dukes of Bolton, with many of their noble relations, are deposited. A mural monument has also been erected in this church to the memory of Francis Russel, Esq., F.R.S. and F.S.A., a native of Basingstoke, who assisted Mr. Nichols in his History of Leicestershire. He died in 1795.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
16Basingstoke[A]mt & pHants.Andover13Reading15Winchester 17 46 3581

[A] BASINGSTOKE. This large, ancient, and populous town is situated in a pleasant and well-wooded part of the county, and commands a considerable trade from its standing at the junction of five great roads. In the "Domesday Book" it is mentioned as always having been a royal Royal manor. manor, and as never having paid any tax, nor been distributed into hides: it is also noticed in that survey as having a market, whose tolls were worth "thirty shillings": we presume this to have been the weekly collection—a large sum in those days. From this town a canal was made to the river Wey, in Surrey; it was commenced in 1778. Its length is thirty-seven miles and a quarter, and the expense of cutting it amounted to £100,000. A large portion of this sum was laid out in forming a tunnel, nearly three quarters of a mile in length, through a hill near Odiham. Besides corn and flour, coals, timber, manure, and goods of almost every description are conveyed to different parts of the country by this channel. The first barge arrived at Basingstoke Wharf in January, 1794. Among the numerous projected advantages which led to the formation of the canal, was, the presumed cultivation of Bagshot Heath, and other heaths within the line of its course. A beautiful ruin overlooks the town on the north side, called Holy Ghost chapel. This was founded by Sir William, afterwards Lord Sandys, who with Bishop Fox, obtained a licence from Henry VIII. to found a brotherhood, to continue in perpetual succession, for the maintenance of a priest to perform divine service, and for the instruction of youth in literature. On an eminence in the vicinity, is an ancient encampment of an elliptical form, supposed to be British, three thousand three hundred Aubrey Camp. feet in circumference; it is called "Aubrey Camp," or familiarly "Bury Bank;" the ditch on the outside is partly filled up by the labours of the agriculturist; and in Rook's Down, in this neighbourhood, while cutting a new road in 1831, a number of human skeletons were discovered, supposed to be of those who fell in some battle fought near this place. The free grammar school adjoins the venerable ruins of the chapel of the Holy Ghost; it is an ancient edifice, and is supposed originally to have been the parish church. This grammar school was first founded by Sir William Sandys, in connexion with the "Guild of the Holy Ghost," and was re-established upon the dissolution of that fraternity, by Queen Mary, in the succeeding reign. There are twelve boys at present on the foundation. Drs. Jos. Warton, the refined poet and critic, and his brother Thomas Warton, Poet Laureate, were both educated here, under their father, Thomas Warton, B.D., Professor of Poetry in the university of Oxford, a writer of considerable ability. John De Basinge, a learned Greek scholar, a friend and contemporary of that intelligent historian, Matthew Paris, was a native of this town. He was a man eminent for piety and learning, and a perfect master of the Greek and Latin languages—an eloquent orator—an able mathematician, and a sound divine. Having laid the foundation of his university learning at Oxford, he went to Paris, and from thence to Athens; upon his return to England, he brought over several curious Greek manuscripts, and introduced the use of Greek numerical figures Eminent men born
into this country; and to facilitate the knowledge of that rich language, which at that remote period was very little known or appreciated in the western world. He translated from the Greek, into the Latin, the celebrated Grammar, entitled "The Denatus of the Greeks," and the learning and piety of this truly good man, recommended him to the esteem of all the lovers of literature of that time: particularly that of Robert Grosteste, Bishop of Lincoln, by whom he was promoted from the Archdeaconry of London, to that of Leicester; he died in 1252. Among other subjects he wrote a Latin translation of the harmony of the four Gospels; and it was this learned individual that informed Robert, Bishop of Lincoln, that he had seen at Athens, a book called "The Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs," upon which the Bishop sent for it and translated it into Latin; this valuable MS. was first printed in 1555, and has often been reprinted in English. At Basingstoke, was also born Sir James Lancaster, an eminent navigator, who in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, explored the Arctic Sea. Thomas Warton, the historian of English Poetry, was descended from an ancient and honorable family in Beverly, County York, and born at Basingstoke, in 1728; from his infancy he discovered a vein for poetry, and at the age of nine years he wrote to his sister that remarkable production of his genius: viz. a translation from the Latin of Martial:—

"When bold Leander sought his distant fair,
(Nor could the sea a braver burthen bear)
Thus to the swelling waves he spake his woe,
Drown me on my return—but spare me as I go."

This curious document bears date from the school of Basingstoke, Nov. 1737. In March 1773, at the age of sixteen, he was admitted a Commoner at Trinity College, Oxford, and soon after elected a Scholar. At this college Mr. Warton continued, with trifling intervals, forty-seven years. In 1745, he published "The Pleasures of Melancholy." In 1749, in consequence of a foolish riot occasioned by some of the scholars, Mason, the Poet, produced a poem called the "Isis," reflecting upon the loyalty of the college, upon which Mr. Warton immediately wrote the "Triumph of Isis," a poem of some merit, and a severe commentary upon the other production. About this time, his talents being generally acknowledged, he became Poet Laureate, and in 1750 he took a Master's Degree, and in 1751 succeeded to a Fellowship. In 1754 he published his observations on the "Faerie Queene of Spencer." In 1757, upon the resignation of Mr Hawkins, of Pembroke College, he was elected Professor of Poetry, which he held according to the usual custom for ten years. He died, May 21, 1790. Basingstoke is one of the polling places for the northern division of the county.

Market, Wednesday.—Fairs, Easter Tuesday, for cheese and cattle; Whit-Wednesday for pedlary; September 23, for cattle and hiring servants, Devonport. Mail arrives 12.55 morning; departs 1.48 morning.—Bankers, Raggett and Co., draw on Masterman and Co.—Inn, Crown.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
53Basingwerk[A]vilFlintHoleywell1Flint5Park Gate7204

[A] BASINGWERK. This place is chiefly celebrated for the remains of its ancient abbey; for the vestiges of a house belonging to the Knights Templars; and for a castle, once the key to this part of the country. The abbey, which had the names also of Maes-Glas and Greenfield monastery, Ancient Abbey. is beautifully situated in a meadow between two hills, on the eastern side of the mouth of the Holywell river. It was founded, according to Tanner, in 1131, by Ranulph, Earl of Chester; others say in 1150, by Henry II. The abbot was frequently summoned to attend in parliament by Edward I. and at the dissolution of monasteries, the annual revenue amounted to £150 7s. 3d. The remains convey an imperfect idea of the original architecture. The doors and lower arches were semi-circular and unornamented, the windows were long, narrow, and pointed; but the south wall of the transept, one doorway, and one pointed arch, are all that remain of the church, and the offices have entirely disappeared. At a short distance from the ruins is an oak of great age, called the Abbot's Oak, which measures fifteen feet two inches in circumference. But the oaks and elms in this neighbourhood, though of a large size, appear withered and blasted by the effect of the channel breezes; the sycamores and maples are the only trees that flourish; a useful hint to planters. The house for the lay order of the Knights Templars, was instituted by Henry II., for the purpose of defence against the inroads of the Welsh, and of this no more than some portion of the offices remain. Vestiges of the castle Mostyn Hall. are yet visible in the fragments and foundation of a wall at some distance from the abbey, on the very margin of Watts-dyke. On a slope among hanging woods, near the township of Bagilt, stands Bagilt hall, a substantial mansion of ancient erection, late the seat of Paul Panton, Esq. Mostyn hall, a seat of Sir Thomas Mostyn, exhibits a variety of interesting features. Approached by a venerable avenue and a magnificent gateway, it stands in a small but beautiful park; it consisted originally of a square tower and two halls, in the larger of which the festive orgies of the baronial board were performed; but large additions were made in 1631, and many of its pristine features are defaced. Numerous paintings decorate the rooms, consisting for the most part of portraits, which illustrate all the varieties of costume in the several ages of their production; among the treasures of art are also many unique statues, busts, bronzes, and other articles of ancient or foreign production. In this neighbourhood are numerous collieries, the different appearance of which are phenomena interesting to the geologist. On the summit of a height called Mostyn mountain, is a monumental stone denominated Maen Achwynfan (the stone of lamentation). Its form is that of an obelisk; in height twelve feet, and two feet-four in thickness. It is probably a memorial of the dead slain in battle; but there appear to be no certain grounds for determining the period of its formation.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
23Basset Houseex.p.libLeicesterLeicester13Atherstone8Lutterworth1110023
24BastonpaLincolnM. Deeping4Bourn4Stamford993709

[A] BASSALEG, a beautiful picturesque little village. In this parish was a Priory of black monks of the Benedictine order, founded by Robert de Haye, and Gundreda, his wife, between the years 1101 and 1120. No remains of this building exist but a ruin in a wood, about one mile distant from the church, called Coed-y-monachty, which is supposed to have been part of the structure. At about one mile distant, near the road to Llanfihangel, is a circular encampment, called Careg-y-saesson, but almost obscured by underwood. Its name has induced some to attribute it to the Saxons, but saesson is a term of reproach, which the Welsh bestow on all foreigners. The entrenchment is a single foss and rampart of earth. About one mile distant is another of a singular shape, with loose stones lying in the foss, probably the remains of walls. These fortresses are apparently British, and a meadow near Machen Place, called Maes Arthur, records the memory of that celebrated hero. From Bassaleg to the vale of Machen, the country is undulating and fertile. This vale is pleasingly Machen place. sequestered, yet intermixed with wildness and cultivation. The hills which skirt it are partly covered with herbage, and partly overhung with thick forests. The Rumney continues the boundary of the two counties of Monmouth and Glamorgan. This river, with the church, and Machen hill, almost covered with lime-kilns, give variety and cheerfulness to the scenery. Machen Place lies at the commencement of the vale, under the hanging groves of Rupara. A circular apartment called the hunting-room is decorated with a rich stuccoed ceiling, representing Diana in the middle, surrounded with seats, churches, and parties, in twelve compartments.

[B] BATH. This ancient and far-famed city is the chief ornament of the west of England; that it is indebted to its medicinal springs for its origin as well as importance, there can be little doubt, but the period of its foundation is altogether unknown. The discovery of its springs, or rather, of their virtues, was for a long time ascribed to King Bladud, traditionally recorded "as the son of Lud Hudibras, King of Britain, about 2,500 years ago. In his youth he became infected with the leprosy, and, at the petition of the courtiers, who feared the contagion, was banished by his father from the palace. The Queen, on his departure, gave him a ring, as a token by which he should make himself known to her if ever he recovered. The young prince, when he reached Keynsham, met with a swineherd, by whom he was retained as an assistant. In a short time, King Bladud. he perceived that he had tainted the pigs with his leprosy. To conceal this misfortune, he sought permission to drive the herd to the opposite side of the Avon, under pretext that the acorns there were finer, and more abundant. Passing the river at a ford, since denominated Swineford, he led his herd to the hills on the north-side of Bath. While he was addressing his prayers to the rising sun, the pigs, impelled by a sudden phrenzy, ran up the valley to the spot where the hot-springs, boiling up, The discovery of the Baths. mixed their waters with the decayed weeds and foliage, and formed a bog. In this warm oozy-bed they began to roll, and wallow with delight; nor could their keeper allure them away, until extreme hunger pressed them to follow him. On washing them, he perceived that some had shed their white scurf; and he had not been many days longer in these parts, here he perceived that one of his best sows, which had been long wandering in the mire about the waters, was perfectly cured. Bladud, judging that the remedy which had succeeded in a particular instance, would prove generally efficacious, stripped himself naked, alternately rolled in the mud, and washed in the waters; and, after a few repetitions of this discipline, came out perfectly sound. Elated by this good fortune, he drove home his Bladud and his pigs. pigs, returned to court, and, shewing his ring, was recognized with rapture, and restored to his former rank and dignity. His father afterwards determined on sending him to Athens, to improve his natural genius. A splendid retinue was ordered to attend him; but Bladud preferred to travel as a private person, considering the parade of grandeur as an impediment to the acquisition of knowledge. After devoting eleven years to the study of literature, mathematics, and necromancy, he returned to Britain, was appointed Regent during his father's old age, and succeeded to the throne after his death. One of his first public works was the erection of a city near the springs, which thenceforward became the capital of the British monarchs. In his old age he devoted himself to the formation of visionary projects; the most daring of which was the construction of a pair of wings to fly with. In one of his attempts he fell and broke his neck, much to the grief of his subjects, who had enjoyed the blessings of his wise government more than twenty years." This account of the origin of Bath was long popular; but the inquiries of the present day have proved it unworthy of credit, and have adduced reasons to conclude that the city was founded by the Romans, about the middle of the first century. The The Roman city. form of the city approached to a parallelogram, extending on one side so as to form an outline somewhat pentagonal, and stretching in length, from east to west, about 1200 feet, and in the broadest parts, from north to south, 1140 feet. The wall, which enclosed this space, appears, from subsequent discoveries, to have been twenty feet above ground in height, and in thickness sixteen feet at the base, and eight at the summit, strengthened with five towers, rising at the angles, and having four portæ, or entrances, facing the cardinal points, which were connected by two grand streets, dividing the city into four parts, and intersecting each other at the centre. Near the point of intersection were the springs, which the Romans converted into magnificent baths, by attaching to them suitable edifices, which, when complete, extended to two hundred and forty feet from east to west, and one hundred and twenty from north to south. The Roman appellation of the city, expressive of the genial heat and vigour derived from the springs, was Aquæ Solis, the waters of the sun. Roads were soon constructed to communicate with the neighbouring posts and encampments, and "a little Rome began to adorn a dreary and inhospitable wild." Agricola passed a winter here, after his successful campaign in Wales; and Arian erected here a "fabrica," or college of armourers. About the year 208, Geta, the younger son of Septimius Severus, resided in Bath, while his father was in Caledonia, quelling an insurrection. Some complimentary statues were raised on this and other occasions. The most eminent of the Roman structures was the temple of Minerva, on Their temples and baths. the eastern side of the great fosse-way, and nearly mid-way between the Porta Decumana, and the Porta Flumentana. Its western front consisted of a portico, supported by large fluted columns, of the Corinthian order. Behind this temple, towards the east, stood the splendid baths, the foundations of which were discovered in 1755, at the depth of twenty feet beneath the surface. Of the remains of Roman grandeur discovered from time to time, various specimens are preserved, and deposited, by order of the corporation, in a small building erected for the purpose, at the end of Bath-street. In the year 493, a large army of Saxons, under the command of Ælla, and his three sons, Cymenus, Pleting, and Cissa, encamped on Lansdown, and laid siege to Bath. At this period the heroic Arthur was performing wonders in favour of his countrymen. Apprized of the operations of the Saxon general, he hastened after him, attacked, and defeated him in a bloody and obstinate battle. About twenty-seven years afterwards, he again delivered Bath from the assaults of these ferocious invaders, by defeating a powerful army, on which occasion he is said to have slain four hundred and forty men with his own hand. John de Villula, a native of Tours, purchased the demesne of Rufus, in 1090, for five hundred marks, and obtained permission to remove the Pontifical seat from Wells thither; he rebuilt the monastery and church, restored the public and private edifices, and thus became the founder of a new city, on the ruins of the old one. Henry I. confirmed and extended the privileges The monastery. which his predecessor had granted, by adding the hidage of the city; and, in 1106, Villula, then Bishop of Bath, conferred the whole on the monastery of St. Peter. Henry paid a visit to Bath in the Easter of 1107. The city remained in the possession of the bishops until 1193, when Savaric gave it to Richard I., in exchange for the rich Abbey of Glastonbury. The prior, however, continued to hold the city under an annual rent of thirty pounds, exclusive of the levies which were made by the king on extraordinary emergencies. One of these occurred in the forty-seventh year of Edward III., to the amount of £13. 6s. 8d., a sum which conveys the idea of the inferiority of Bath, in point of population, to Bristol, which paid seven times as much. Four years after that period, the number of lay inhabitants in the city, above the age of fourteen, amounted to 570, and that of the clerics, in the archdeaconry, to 201. In this and succeeding reigns the property of the monastery was greatly augmented; and the monks of Bath are said to have cultivated the manufacture of cloth to such an extent as to render it one of the principal cities in the west of England for that branch of trade. This city sent Members to Parliament Monks were clothiers. as early as 1297. Queen Elizabeth, in 1590, granted a charter, which declared Bath to be a city of itself, and constituted a certain number of the citizens as a corporation, by "the name of the Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens of the City of Bath." In the reign of James II. the corporation shut the gates against the Duke of Monmouth, when he summoned them, and apprehended the few adherents to his cause that remained within their walls. Six of these unfortunate persons afterwards fell victims to the vindictive cruelty of Jefferies. The Jacobite principles prevailed at Bath long after the revolution; and Carte, the historian, is said to have headed a party in favour of the pretender, during the rebellion of 1715. Being discovered, he leaped out of a window in his canonicals, and fled. The city is nearly surrounded by an amphitheatre of hills of considerable height. This range of hills opens to allow a course for the Avon, which winds around it, receiving numerous articles of merchandize, from hence conveyed in barges to Bristol. Bath is divided into four parishes: St. Peter and St. Paul, St. James, St. Michael, and Walcot, exclusive of the out parishes of Bath-Hampton, Bath-Wick, Bath-Ford, and Bath-Easton. Cathedral and other churches. The parish of St. Peter and St. Paul occupies the centre of the city, and formerly contained two churches, the abbey church, and the church of St. Mary of Stall, which stood on the spot of ground now occupied by the houses connected with the Pump-room Piazza. The Abbey church of Bath is of that class of architecture commonly denominated the Florid Gothic. It remains in the same form as when finished in 1532. It was founded by Oliver King, Bishop of Bath and Wells. It is in length, from east to west, 210 feet; length of the cross aisles, from north to south, 126 feet; breadth of the body and aisles, 72 feet; height of the tower, 152 feet; and the height of the roof, or vaulting, 78 feet. The west window is of extreme richness. The buttresses, on each side of the aisle windows, are ornamented with rolls, containing inscriptions, not now legible, but are said to contain the following allegorical allusion to the founder's name, taken out of the book of Judges, chap. ix. verse 8:—

"Trees, going to choose their king,
Said—be to us the Olive king."

The windows of this church, fifty-two in number, are supposed to have given rise to its appellation of the Lantern of England. Here are various monuments, ancient and modern, and a handsome altar-piece, representing The Wise Men's Offering, given by General Wade. Here is also a fine specimen of monumental architecture in the little chapel, or oratory of Prior Bird, who died in 1525. This chapel has suffered much from having its tracery despoiled, and a part of it cut away to make room for a wooden seat, called the Bishop's Throne. One of the most beautiful and conspicuous monuments which ornament the transepts and nave is, that of Bishop Montague, at the north centre end of the nave. It is an altar-tomb, over which the effigy of the prelate in his robes, lies prostrate on its Quin's monumental
back. Opposite to this is a pillar, bearing a neat monument, having on a pyramid of Sienna marble, a medallion, with a half-length figure of the witty and celebrated Quin. On a tablet below is the following inscription:

"That tongue which set the table in a roar,
And charm'd the public ear, is heard no more:
Closed are those eyes, the harbingers of wit,
Which spake, before the tongue, what Shakspeare writ;
Cold is that hand, which living was stretch'd forth,
At friendship's call to succour modest worth.
Here lies James Quin:—Deign, reader, to be taught,
Whate'er thy strength of body, force of thought,
In nature's happiest mould however cast,
'To this complexion thou must come at last.' D. GARRICK.

Near the last mentioned monument lies buried the celebrated Beau Nash, long master of the ceremonies at Bath. Richard Nash was a native of Swansea in Glamorganshire, and was born October 18, 1674. His parents Account of the celebrated Beau Nash. were in a respectable situation of life; and young Nash received a competent classical education at Carmarthen school, from whence he was sent to Jesus College, Oxford, at the early age of sixteen. He was intended for the profession of the law; but this study was too dull and dry for a person of his volatile turn. Pleasure was the goddess he adored; and to whose service he devoted himself. He soon involved himself in an intrigue with an artful female in Oxford, of which description there are always numbers who are laying baits for young men of family or personal appearance, and in consequence of this he was removed from the University. His relations now purchased a pair of colours for him in the army; and here his taste for gallantry and dissipation would have been fully gratified, had not his inferior rank, and the duties attached to it, subjected him to subordination and restraint, which appeared intolerable to a man born for empire, and whose ruling passion was too strong to submit to control. He, therefore, left the army in disgust, and returned to the law, which he had discarded, by entering himself a student of the Middle Temple. Soon afterwards Nash was presented with an opportunity of exercising his natural talents. It had been an ancient custom with the society to which he now belonged, to entertain every new sovereign with a revel and a pageant. On the accession of William, Prince of Orange, Nash was selected as the most proper person to conduct this mighty business; and he succeeded so Refused to be knighted. well, that, it is said, William offered to knight him, an honour which he declined. His abilities, however, had attracted public notice, and this paved the way to his future success. Bath then beginning to rise into some little repute as a place of fashionable resort, Nash was induced to visit it in pursuit of pleasure, and soon made himself conspicuous by his taste, wit, and gaiety. At this period, it was the fashion for both sexes to bathe together quite naked, and for ladies to adorn their heads before they entered the bath with all the lures of dress. By these means their charms were set off to such advantage, that the husband of a lady in the Cross Bath, who with Nash and other spectators were admiring the female dabblers, told his wife "she looked like an angel, and he wished to be with her." Nash seized the favourable occasion to establish his reputation as a man of gallantry and spirit, and therefore suddenly taking the gentleman by the collar and the waistband of his breeches, soused him over the parapet into the bath. The consequence was a duel, in which Nash was wounded in the sword-arm; and, as it does not appear he was fond of fighting, it is probable that this incident prompted him when he rose to power, to issue his edict against wearing swords at Bath, "except by such as were not entitled to wear them at any other place." About this time a vacancy happening in the office of master of the ceremonies, a place hitherto of little profit or honour, the well known talent of Nash for the direction and invention of amusements, operated so much in his favour, that he was chosen "arbiter elegantiarum," and invested with the fullest power to order, arrange, and improve, the manner of the company, routine of amusements, and points of etiquette. Under the equal administration of Conduct of Nash towards the Princess Amelia. Nash, no rank could protect the offender, nor any dignity of situation influence him to connive at a breach of his laws. He deliberately desired the Duchess of Queensbury, who appeared at a dress ball in an apron, to take it off; and when the Princess Amelia requested to have one dance more after eleven o'clock, he replied, that the laws of Bath, like those of Lycurgus, were unalterable. This firmness of character was attended with the most beneficial consequences; and Nash, not ignorant what majesty is when stripped of its externals, took care by his dress and equipage to support the rank he assumed. He wore a large white hat, and drove a carriage with six greys, escorted by several persons on horseback, and foot, with French horns and other kinds of musical instruments. The Prince of Wales, the Prince of Orange, the nobility and gentry, all treated him with respect; and the corporation, who might be considered as his privy council, never took any steps without his fiat. His prosperity was of long duration; and, if a man who supported himself by gambling and intrigues, can be said to deserve prosperity, it was justly due to this celebrated character: but at length age and infirmities approached! and though Horace says, we should preserve consistency to the last, it appeared ridiculous to see grey hairs and decrepitude aping the gaiety and hilarity of youth. His admirers in consequence fell off; and he lived to be sensible of the folly of a life solely devoted to pleasure, and the vanity of pomp, whether real or affected.—Beau Nash died February His death. 3, 1761, and was buried at the expence of the corporation, in the abbey church, with much pomp and solemnity. The crowd that attended his funeral was so great, that not only the streets were filled, but the very tops of the houses were covered with spectators.—Amongst the places of Dissenting Chapels. worship for the Dissenters, are the Unitarian chapel, in Trim Street; the Baptist chapel, in Garrard Street; the Quaker's meeting-house on St. James's Parade; the chapel of the Unitas Fratrum, or Moravians, in Monmouth Street; a chapel belonging to the Wesleyan Methodists, in New King Street; an Independant Calvinist chapel, in Argyle Street; a sort of semi-episcopal chapel, in the connection of the late Countess of Huntingdon, in Harlequin Row; and a Roman Catholic chapel in Orchard Street. The original pump-room, began in 1704, was opened under the auspices of Mr. Nash. Its object was to enable the drinkers to take exercise without exposing themselves to the weather. The room was enlarged in 1751; a portico, stretching from it in a northerly direction, was added in 1786; and a superb western frontispiece in 1791. Five years afterwards, Mr. Baldwin the architect, erected a new pump-room on the site of the old one, on a more extensive and magnificent scale. During the full season, a company of musicians perform in the gallery every morning. Those who drink the waters, are expected to pay about a guinea per month, besides a gratuity to the pumper. The public baths are the King's Bath, and Queen's Bath, which are connected with each other; the Hot Bath, and the Cross Bath. The private baths are those belonging to the corporation, in Stall Street, adjoining the King's Bath, built in 1788, with dry pumps, sudatories, and every other accommodation; and the neat and convenient baths, called the Duke of Kingston's, or the Abbey Baths, belonging to Earl Manvers. The latter are supplied from the same source as the great pump-room. The Bath springs are said to have three distinct sources, the King's Bath, the Hot Bath, and the Cross Bath, which arise within a small distance of each other. They contain a small quantity of carbonic acid gas, and also of azotic gas; some sulphate of soda, and muriate of soda; selenite, carbonate of lime; siliceous earth; and a portion of oxyd of iron. These waters, taken internally, operate as a stimulant; they increase the action of the blood-vessels, and promote the various secretions, particularly those Use of the waters in certain disorders. of urine and perspiration. The diseases in which their external and internal uses render most service, are affections of the liver and stomach, jaundice, hypochondriasis, and chlorosis. They are especially efficacious in that state of gout termed atonic. The external application of the water is highly beneficial in palsy, chronic rheumatism, cutaneous diseases, scrofula, lameness, contractions, &c. The water, in all cases, should if practicable, be drunk hot from the pump. Its effect on the stomach and nerves are sometimes remarkably speedy; persons who have lost their appetites and spirits by high living, have, by using them a few days, recovered their powers of digestion and cheerfulness of mind. The quantity taken is seldom more than a pint and a half in the course of the day, and is divided into three portions, two before breakfast, allowing half an hour between them, and a third at noon. The condition of the patient is, however, to be strictly attended to: and the quantity must be regulated at the discretion of the physician. The General Hospital of this city was established for the reception of all the sick poor in the united kingdom, whose complaints require relief from the springs of the place; excepting the resident poor, who have the advantage of taking the waters at their own houses, at a moderate charge. Edward the Sixth granted upwards of eighty tenements, gardens, &c. within the city and its suburbs, for the purpose of founding a grammar-school at Bath, and maintaining ten poor folk within the said town for ever. The Bath Theatre is scarcely inferior to those of the metropolis. The present building was erected The Theatre. about the year 1805, in the centre of the city; and from its height, it forms a prominent object in the distance from all its environs. There are three entrances; the grand front being in Beaufort Square. The audience part is somewhat smaller than was that of the late Covent Garden Theatre, but the space behind the curtain is much larger. The length, within the main walls, is one hundred and twenty feet; the breadth sixty feet; and the height seventy. The exterior buildings are very extensive; there are three lofty tiers of boxes, affording a depth of rows towards the centre. Cast iron bronzed pillars are placed at a distance of two feet from the front, by which the first row of each circle appears as a balcony, independent of the main structure, and thus an inconceivable lightness is obtained. The private boxes are inclosed with gilt lattices: the entrance to them is by a private house, part of the property connected with the theatre, and they are accommodated with a suite of retiring rooms. The decorations are very splendid, particularly the ceiling. The Harmonic Society was instituted under the patronage of Dr. Harrington; and there is another musical society, called the York House Catch Club. The Sydney Sydney Gardens. Garden Vauxhall, at the extremity of Great Pulteney Street, abounds with groves, vistas, lawns, serpentine walks, alcoves, bowling-greens, grottoes and labyrinths. It is known to have contained four thousand persons. The riding school affords the public, amusement in wet weather. Lansdown races are in June and July. Besides the Public Library, the circulating libraries are numerous and well supplied, and the harmonic concerts and local institutions of a literary character, are easily accessible. It is intended to convert the common fields in the neighbourhood of Marlborough Buildings into a public park, laid out with numerous rides and walks, ornamental fountains, and plantations. Hackney coaches, and chariots, on the same principle as those used in London, are established here.

Markets, Wednesday and Saturday.—Fairs, February 14; (Holloway) July 10; and Aug. 10, (Lansdown) for cattle, horses and all kinds of merchandise. The Falmouth Mail arrives 7.54 morning, and departs 6.30 afternoon. The Carmarthen Mail arrives 7.48 morning, and departs 6.56 afternoon.—Bankers, (Bladud Bank) Tufnell and Co.; draw on Jones, Lloyd and Co.; Tugwell and Co., draw on Barnard and Co.; (Old Bank) Hobhouse and Co., draw on Jones, Lloyd and Co.; (City Bank) Smith and Moger, draw on Barclay and Co.—Inns, York Hotel, White Hart, White Lion, Greyhound, Castle, and Elephant and Castle.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
45Batleypa & toW.R. YorkWakefield7Leeds8Bradford818911335
43BatterslyhamN.R. YorkStokesley5Gisborough7Helmsley1424277

[A] BATHEASTON. This village is situated on the London road from Bath. The upper part contains the church, and amongst some handsome houses, is one which was formerly the residence of John Wood, Esq., the ingenious architect, to whom Bath owes many of its noblest buildings. The church is antique. At the west-end it has a fine square tower, one hundred feet high. The inside is remarkable for its neat and decent appearance. A custom long observed at the villa of Sir John Millar, Bart., displays his elegance and refinement in the choice of his amusements, as well as of his visitors. He had purchased an antique vase, discovered at Frescati, in Italy, in 1759; and having placed it in a room convenient for the purpose, he consecrated it to Apollo, and ordained Lady Miller, high priestess. He then issued a general invitation to all votaries of the muses, to assemble on a certain day in each week, and offer their poetical oblations The vase of Apollo. at the shrine; the degree of merit each possessed was decided by the public voice, and the author of the best was crowned with myrtle. A collation succeeded. This attic pastime continued for some years, till some witling contaminated the purity of the urn by a licentious composition, and the vessel was closed for ever. Two small volumes of these effusions have been published.

[B] BATTERSEA is seated on the Thames, and gives the title of Baron to the family of St. John. The church contains many monuments, chiefly of the above noble family; particularly one in grey marble, to the memory of the celebrated statesman, Henry St. John, Viscount Bolingbroke, and of his second wife, whose profiles are sculptured in bass-relief. A monument near the south wall, represents Sir Edward Wynter in the act of Sir E. Wynter's exploits. performing two extraordinary exploits, thus described in his epitaph:—

Alone, unarmed, a tyger he oppressed,
And crush'd to death the monster of a beast.
Twice twenty mounted Moors he overthrew,
Singly on foot, some wounded, some he slew,
Dispersed the rest—what more could Sampson do?

A neat tablet, at the east end of the church, commemorates Thomas Astle, who was long a distinguished member of the Society of Antiquaries, Keeper of the Records in the Tower, a Trustee of the British Museum, and author of Treatise "on the Origin and Progress of Writing." He died in 1802, and left a valuable collection of manuscripts. Here are also interred, Arthur Collins, Esq., known as the author of an "Historical Account of the Peers and Baronets of England;" William Curtis, author of the "Flora Londinensis," and the Rev. Joseph Gardner, author of "Views on the Rhine," and otherwise distinguished by his attachment to the arts. Bolingbroke House was a spacious edifice, said to have contained Bolingbroke house. fifty rooms on a floor, of which a few only remain; among which is the favourite apartment of Lord Bolingbroke, wainscotted with cedar. A horizontal air-mill now occupies the site of this mansion, and in the gardens have been erected bullock-houses. Sherwood Lodge, near the Thames, is the residence of James Wolf, Esq. whose valuable collection of plaster-casts, from antique statues, are deposited in a gallery of Doric architecture, remarkable for the purity of its style. A wooden bridge was built over the Thames at this place, in 1771.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
38Battle[A]m.t. & paSussexTunbridge26Hastings8Bexhill6562999

[A] BATTLE, anciently called Epiton, derived its present denomination from the conflict between William the Norman, and Harold Harefoot, which decided the fate of these realms, and gave to the former the surname of Conqueror. This engagement happened on the 14th of October, 1066, and continued from morning until sunset, when the Normans had sustained a loss of 15000 men, and the English four times that number, among whom was their king. The Conqueror, grateful for his victory, and in performance of a vow, commenced the foundation of an abbey on that part of the field where the battle had raged most fiercely, causing the high altar to be raised on the spot where the body of his valiant antagonist; or, as others say, his standard had been found. This The Abbey. abbey was dedicated to St. Martin, and the privileges enjoyed by the superiors within its precincts were almost regal; an exclusive right of inquest in cases of murder—the property of all treasure discovered there—free warren and exemption, even for their tenants, from all ecclesiastical jurisdiction—right of sanctuary for their church in cases of homicide—and the power of pardoning any condemned thief whom they should meet going to execution. From the foundation of this abbey, till its dissolution, it was governed by thirty-one abbots. Sometime after the latter period, it was the property of the Montagues, who sold it to Sir Thomas Webster, and that gentleman made it his residence. Sir Godfrey Webster, Bart., is the present owner. In its present state, Battle Abbey bears ample testimony to its ancient magnificence, the ruins being extensive, and exhibiting a mixture of the light Norman with the solid Saxon architecture. These remains occupy two sides of a quadrangle, of which one is an ancient gateway. Nine elegant arches, now filled up, are all that remain of the church. Two detached buildings, supposed to have been refectories, are now converted into offices. The town of Battle consists of one street, and has a handsome church, the windows of which are embellished with stained glass. The chancel contains a fine altar-monument to the memory of Sir Anthony Browne, armour-bearer to Henry VIII. This place is celebrated for a manufacture of gunpowder, inferior only to that at Dartford.

Market, Thursday.—Fairs, Whit-Monday; Nov. 22, cattle and pedlary; second Tuesday in every month, cattle.—Bankers, Smith, Gill, and Co., draw on Spooner and Co.—Mail arrives 4.20 morning; departs 9.40 afternoon.—Inn, George.

[B] BATTLE. The church is placed upon an eminence on the east side of the Escir river. It is a low edifice surrounded by a cemetry, bounded by a wall. A few straggling houses give this place the name of a village. History has fixed this spot as the scene of action where the fate of Brecknockshire Scene of a Welsh battle. was decided, upon its attack by Bernard Newmarch. The vestiges which indicate such an event, are, a well called Ffynon Pen Rhys; a lane called Heol y Cymri, and a long upright stone below the church on the south side; no other vestiges remain to recall the event. Half a mile eastward from Battle, appears the stately residence of the vicar of Llandevalle. Upon the wall of an inner court is an inscription in Latin. From the windows of this house are three most beautiful views; on the east side through a small vista, are seen the village of Llanddew, and in the back ground the black mountain beyond Talgarth. From the library, in which is a capital picture of our Saviour bearing the Cross, by Correggio, looking west, is the vale of Usk, with the highly ornamented grounds above Penpont; beyond which, Abercamlais, and the mountains in Llywel and Devynock close the scene. Nearly opposite is the gradually rising knoll of Benni, covered to the top on all sides with wood, beyond which appear the precipitous and majestic summits of the Beacons. Merthyr Cynog, or Saint Cynog, lies about four miles north. Cynog or Canoc, was the illegitimate son of Brychan Brecheinog. He was slain or murdered in one of the early eruptions of the Saxons into Wales, in the 5th century, on the summit of a hill in this parish, nearly opposite Castlemadoc, called Vanoleu, and according to Owen, was buried in Merthyr church. The edifice which remains, does not appear to be of an earlier date than the Norman era; it is situated upon a lofty ridge between the vales of Escir fawr and Escir fechan, in nearly the centre of the parish. It resembles a large barn, in which are some divisions, like pens for sheep, thrown in disorder to rot, when unfit for use.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
25Battle BridgehamMiddlesexHolborn Bars1Paddington2Hoxton21
56BauseleytoMontgomeryWelch Pool10Shrewsbury12Oswestry11165365
29Bavington, GreattoNorthumbHexham12Bellingham12Newcastle208870
29Bavington, LittletoNorthumb...11...12...229172

[A] BATTLEDEN lies between the two great north-western roads. The family of Firmband, or Fremband, twice represented the county in parliament, as early as the reign of Edward III. In the reign of Elizabeth it became the property of the Duncombes; and it is to one of this family that we are indebted for the accommodation of the now antiquated sedans, The invention of Sedan chairs. or close chairs; and in the year 1634, Duncombe is said to have procured a patent, which vested in him and his heirs the right of carrying persons "up and down in them," for a certain term. "It is probable, (observes Lysons,) that Sir Saunders, who was a great traveller, had seen them at Sedan, where Dr. Johnson, supposes that they were first made; and it is remarkable that Captain Bayley first introduced the use of Hackney Coaches in the same year." In the year 1706, this manor was purchased by Allen Bathurst, Esq., a distinguished political character during the reigns of Queen Anne and George I. It was for many years the country seat of Lord Bathurst, and the resort of a celebrated constellation of wits, of whom he was the patron and friend.

[B] BATTLEFIELD is a parish in the liberties of Shrewsbury, and derives its name from a sanguinary battle which was fought there on Saturday the 21st of July, 1403, between Henry the Fourth and the Battle between Henry the Fourth and Percy of Northumberland. Rebels, under Percy, Earl of Nothumberland, and in which Lord Henry Percy, well known as the valiant Hotspur, was slain, together with nearly 2300 gentlemen and others, and upwards of 600 common soldiers fell on that memorable occasion. After this signal victory, Henry the fourth caused a collegiate church to be erected on the spot for secular canons, which was dedicated to Saint Mary Magdalene, the battle having been fought on the anniversary of that day. This college was dissolved in the general wreck of establishments of this kind, when its revenues amounted to £54 10s. 4d. per annum; it is now the parish church. At the east end, over the altar window, is a figure of Henry the Fourth, much defaced by the corroding hand of time. In a niche in the south wall, is a rude carving in wood of the Virgin and child; and in the east window are still to be traced some mutilated remains of stained glass; but the most interesting object in this church, is a splendid gothic monument, recently erected to the memory of the late John Corbet, Esq. of Sundorne. This beautiful specimen of architecture is called Splendid monument. the Tudor gothic; the interior represents the miniature aisle of a cathedral or cloister, with its elaborately groined roof, and the front is adorned by the heraldic blazonings of the family. This fine and highly prized piece of art was designed by the Rev. Archdeacon Owen, of Shrewsbury, and most admirably executed by Messrs. Carline of that town, in a warmly tinted fine grained stone, from the Grinshill quarries in the neighbourhood.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
27BawburghpaNorfolkNorwich5Wymondham5E. Dereham12105440
27BawseypaNorfolkLynn3Cas. Rising4Middleton39939
46Bawtry[A]m.t.W.R. YorkDoncaster9E. Retford8Gainsboro'131531149

[A] BAWTRY is a small town situated on the edge of Yorkshire, adjoining Nottinghamshire. It is handsome and well built; and the high street, through which lies the great North Road from London to Edinburgh, is very broad, and contains some elegant houses. At the upper part of this street is the market-place, in which are some excellent shambles. The town stands on a gentle but pleasant eminence, which slopes from the north and east down to the river Idle, which river is navigable to this place for small craft. On the western side of the town the ground is high and exceedingly pleasant, but the eastern, or marshy side, is subject to frequent winter inundations. The object which most travellers consider more especially worthy of attention, is the elegant mansion of the Viscountess Galway. The edifice is built of brick and is pleasantly situated at the southern extremity of the town; it has an extensive and handsome front, but a high brick wall secludes it from public view. The pleasure Seat of the Viscountess Galway. grounds which are kept in excellent condition, are stocked with Chinese pheasants, and other rare and curious birds. Near this place the Archbishops of York had a palace; and at this mansion, Archbishop Savage, in the time of Henry VII. delighted to take his pleasure in hunting; and in the next reign it was the residence of Cardinal Wolsey. The palace stood in a very low and damp situation, close to the confluence of the small river Ryton with the Idle. The great gateway, and the porter's lodge, were taken down towards the end of the last century, and what remains of the palace has been converted into a farm house.

Market, Saturday.—Fairs, Whit-Tuesday; and November 22, for cattle and horses.—Inn, Crown—Mail arrives 2.0 afternoon; departs 11.30 morning.

[B] BAYSWATER is situated on the Oxford Road, and is the first place passed after leaving London; it has been much increased of late by the building of new streets and genteel residences. A reservoir, under the same management as the water works of Chelsea, is in the neighbourhood. Bayswater Tea Gardens were formerly the Botanic gardens of Sir John Hill, who cultivated there his medicinal plants, and prepared his Water Dock, Essence, and Balsam of Honey. The reservoir before mentioned, was intended for the supply of the palace at Kensington, and the bason before the palace was to be kept constantly full by the proprietors; and, it was upon this condition that the property was granted them. It now supplies that part of the city estates situated in about Bond-street, with water.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
14Baythorne EndEssex Haverhill 4 Ridgewell 2 G. Yeldham 5 55
27BeachamwellpaNorfolkSwaffham6Stoke Ferry6Marham594263
27BeaconNorfolk Cromer 6 Lt. Houses 10 Bacton 5 135
5Beaconsfield[C]to & paBucksUxbridge8Wycombe6Amersham6231763

[A] BEACHAMPTON. The remains of the mansion of the Bennetts have been converted into a farm-house, but the great hall is still standing. In the parish church are some monuments of this family; among which there is one to the memory of Sir Simon Bennett, who was created a baronet in 1627, and is recorded in history as having been a great friend to the poor, and to University College, Oxford. This monument, it appears, was set up by the college 100 years after his death, and great blame is imputed to them for having delayed it so long. Mr. William Elmer, Free grammar school. by his will, bearing date 1648, founded a free grammar school in this parish. The school-house was finished in 1667. The master, by an express clause in the founder's will, must be a single man, and is to reside in the school-house. It is endowed with lands, which are charged with the payment of a certain pension of £2. per annum, to eight poor men, and £1. per annum to as many poor women; and it is further provided, that three of each of these shall be inhabitants of this parish.

[B] BEACHLEY from its almost insulated situation, has always been of great importance in a military point of view, for there are extensive earthworks of British origin still remaining. Offa's-dyke, which terminates here, is still to be traced. In the civil wars this place was considered of much importance, for Prince Rupert despatched a body of 500 horse and foot to occupy and fortify it. But history relates, that even before the fortifications were completed, the garrison was dislodged with great loss, by Governor Massie. After this, a battle was fought between the royalists and the parliamentary forces, under Sir John Wyntor, when the latter was defeated with the loss of 220 men; and it is currently reported that Once a place of great importance. he himself was forced to leap from the cliff into the river Severn, where a small boat lay ready to receive him; it is certain the place still goes by the name of "Wyntor's leap." The ferry over the river Severn has been before mentioned at page 63. Here is an inn called Beachley Passage House Inn. The time of high water is nearly the same as at Bristol Quay, and is always to be seen in the Bristol Newspapers. If the wind be northerly, this passage may be crossed for five hours before high-water; and if the wind be southerly or westerly, it may be passed for seven hours after high-water.

[C] BEACONSFIELD is a small place, although it is one of great thoroughfare, but the market is almost wholly disused; in fact, Wycombe and Uxbridge appear to have drawn away the business. The manor, anciently an estate of the Windsors, afterwards became the property of the Monks of Burnham Abbey, a building but a few miles distant. Edmund Waller, the poet. Waller, the poet, was born at Coleshill, in this neighbourhood, at which place see his life; he was proprietor of the very pleasing seat, called Hall Barns, an ancient mansion belonging to the family; he lies buried in the churchyard, and a monument has been erected to his memory, with a latin inscription, too long and too dry to be given in our work. Gregories, in this parish, was the seat of the celebrated Edmund Burke, who, for critical taste and brilliancy of language, will ever be ranked amongst the most fascinating of English writers. His company was sought for by all The celebrated Edmund Burke. who could make the slightest pretension to kindred genius. He died in this town, and was buried in the church, where a marble tablet is set up, with a short inscription, to his memory. The apartments at Butler's Court, formerly Gregories, contained some fine paintings, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, and some valuable marbles. This seat, we believe, came into the possession of Mr. Burke through the friendship of Lord Verney and the Marquis of Rockingham, by whose munificence he was enabled to purchase it. The widow of the late Mr. Burke continued to reside at Butler's Court till the period of her death, which took place a few years after that of her late husband; the mansion and estate was afterwards purchased by James Dupre, Esq., who let the house to the master of a boarding-school, and in whose occupation it was destroyed by fire: the grounds have since been adapted to the purpose of agriculture. For the following interesting sketch of the illustrious and distinguished statesman, (Burke,) we are indebted to Dr. Watkin's Biographical Dictionary:—"He was born at Dublin, in 1730. His father was an attorney, and a Protestant. The son received his education under Abraham Shackleton, a Quaker, who kept a school at Ballytore, near Carlow, and it is recorded to the honour of Mr. Burke, that whenever he visited Ireland he always paid his respects to his old tutors: in 1746 he entered as a scholar at Sketch of his life. Trinity College, which he left on taking his bachelor's degree in 1749, and soon after became candidate for the professorship of logic at Glasgow, but did not succeed. In 1753 he entered of the Middle Temple, where he applied more to general literature than to the law, and supported himself by writing for the booksellers. Falling ill, through too close an application to his studies, he removed to the house of Dr. Nugent, a physician, whose daughter he afterwards married. In 1756 he published a pamphlet, entitled, "A Vindication of Natural Society." This piece was purposely drawn up in the manner of Lord Bolingbroke, and for a time imposed upon the friends of that writer as his real productions. His next performance was the Essay on the Sublime and Beautiful, published in 1757. This philosophical piece of criticism, written in a fine and elegant style, procured the author a great reputation, and the esteem of the first literary characters of the age; the principal of whom was Dr. Johnson. In 1758, he suggested to Mr. Dodsley, the bookseller, the plan of the "Annual Register," the historical part of which he wrote for several years. In 1761 he went to Ireland as the companion of his friend Mr. Hamilton, secretary to the Earl of Halifax, then Lord-Lieutenant. That gentleman, who was generally known by the name of Single-speech Hamilton, from the circumstance of his making only one speech in parliament, but one of uncommon eloquence, procured him a pension of £300. on the Irish establishment. On his return from Ireland he was made private secretary to the Marquis of Rockingham, First Lord of the Treasury, who brought him into parliament for Wendover. The Rockingham party continued in power but a short time, and on going out of office, Mr. Burke wrote a forcible pamphlet upon the subject, entitled, "A Short Account of a Short Administration;" after which, he became an active member of the opposition, as a senator and also as a writer. A pamphlet of his, entitled, "Thoughts on the Causes of the present Discontents," excited considerable interest as a bold exposure of court intrigues and favourites, in controlling the operations of ministers. In the struggle between Great Britain and the colonies, Mr. Burke bore a distinguished part as an opponent to the ministry. His speeches were vehement, and had so powerful an influence upon the people, that the citizens of Bristol, in 1774, invited him to be one of their representatives, without his being at the least expense. But at the next election in 1780, he was rejected by them for having supported the Irish petition for a free trade, and the bill for relieving Roman Catholics. He was then returned for Malton, in Yorkshire. At this time he gained great popularity by his introduction of a bill for a reform in the national expenditure, on which he spent prodigious labour, but it was unsuccessful. When the Marquis of Rockingham returned to power on the resignation of Lord North, in 1782, Mr. Burke obtained the post of Paymaster-general of the Forces, and a seat in the Privy Council; but this was of short duration, for on the death of his patron, Lord Shelbourne became First Lord of the Treasury, and Mr. Burke, with several of his friends, resigned their places. In the coalition, which for a little while succeeded the Shelbourne administration, Mr. Burke had his share both of emolument and abuse. The leading particulars of his political life, after this, were his exertions against Mr. Hastings, in which he manifested uncommon industry to fasten guilt upon that gentleman, with no small share of personal asperity; his vigorous opposition to Mr. Pitt's design of forming a limited regency on the King's illness in 1788; and above all, his ardour against the actors and defenders of the French revolution. On the latter subject he evinced peculiar sagacity at the outset, and when many worthy men were rejoicing at the prospect of rising liberty and happiness to the world, Mr. Burke predicted, with remarkable precision, the desolation, bloodshed, anarchy, and misery which ensued. He displayed his detestation of the revolutionists in the House of Commons, and separated himself in consequence from Mr. Fox, and many other of his old associates. In 1790 he published his famous "Reflections on the Revolution in France," which attracted wonderful attention, and produced a surprising effect upon the public mind. Many publications appeared in answer to this book; the most noted of which was Paine's pamphlet, entitled "The Rights of Man," wherein the principles of republicanism were so artfully addressed to the feelings of ordinary persons, as to excite for a time no small alarm to the friends of government. Mr. Burke, after this, published a variety Burke's reflections on the French revolution, &c. of pamphlets in support of his positions: as, "A Letter to a Member of the National Assembly;" "An Appeal from the New Whigs to the Old;" "Thoughts on a Regicide peace," &c. His zeal on this occasion, as well as his extraordinary talents, recommended him to the royal favour, and he obtained a pension, which gave room for those who had been galled by his arguments, to reproach him, and some illiberal animadversions were made upon him in the senate, which drew from him that admirable defence, his "Letter to a Noble Lord," in which he retaliates upon a celebrated Duke in a strain of keen irony and dignified remonstrance. Mr. Burke withdrew from parliament in 1794, leaving his seat for Malton to his son, an accomplished young man, who died shortly after. This melancholy event hastened his death, which happened the 8th His death. of July, 1797. A little before his death he caused to be read to him Addison's paper in the Spectator, on the Immortality of the Soul. Mr. Burke was very amiable in his private life, of correct deportment, faithful in his attachments; charitable to the poor, and religious without being superstitious. He had a fine taste for the arts, and was fond of gardening and architecture," Bulstrode, the seat of the Duke of Portland, is within three miles of the town; a more detailed account of this elegant mansion will be given in a future portion of our work.

Market, Wednesday.—Fairs, Feb. 13; and Holy Thursday, for horses, cows, and sheep.—Mail arrives 11.10 night; departs, 3.30 morning.—Inn, Saracen's Head.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
43BeadlamtoN.R. YorkHelmesley3Kirkby2Gillamoor3225157
45BeaghalltoW.R. YorkPontefract6Snaith7Selby6178563
36Bealing, GreatpaSuffolkWoodbridge3Ipswich7Wickham876367
36Bealing, LittlepaSuffolk...4...6...975272
12Beaminster,[A]m.t.& chDorsetDorchester18Bridport6Crewkerne71412968
45BeamsleytoW.R. YorkSkipton6Addingham2Otley10215279
37Bear Green..SurreyDorking4Horsham9Capel228...
40Beathwaite Green,hamWestmorlndKendal6Millthorpe3Burton7258...
10Beauchief Abbey,e.p.lDerbySheffield4Dronfield4Chesterfield1016085

[A] BEAMINSTER is a town of very great antiquity; it is situated on a fertile spot near the banks of the small river Birt. The prebendaries of Salisbury were formerly lords of the manor, until the parliamentary commissioners (who appear to have made very free with church property) seized it, and for a time it passed into other hands, but it was only for a time: the right at length became acknowledged, and in the possession of the prebendaries of Sarum it now remains. This town has suffered much by the devastation of fire, and still more by the destructive sword of civil, or rather uncivil, warfare. Britton speaks of a record of the former being preserved in a blank leaf of an old Bible, in the possession of a gentleman of this town, which memorandum ran as follows:—"The towne of Beaminster was burnt on Palme Sunday, being the 14th day of April, and in Destroyed by fire in 1644. the year of our Lord 1644. At the same time prince Maurice, being in the towne seven dayes before the fire, and there continued till the fire burnt him out of his quarters. The fire was first kindled in John Sergeant's house, in North-street; it was a musket discharged in the gable; and it was wild-fire, and the winde lying directly with the towne, the whole place was destroyed in two hours; and those goods for the most part which were saved out of the fire were carried away by the soldiers. There were seven score and four dwelling-houses, besides barns and stables, burnt." An eye-witness in Sir Thomas Fairfax's army describes it as "a place of the pitifullest spectacle that man can behold; hardly a house left not consumed by fire." Two thousand pounds were granted by the parliament to assist in re-building the town: this, with other sums, raised by the neighbouring gentry, answered the purpose. But it appears that the place was doomed to destruction, for in June, 1684, it Burnt down in 1684, and again in 1781. was again consumed, and the loss is said to have amounted to £10,000.: nor did its misfortunes end here, for in the gusty month of March, in the year 1781, upwards of fifty dwelling-houses, besides barns, stables, and other buildings, were reduced to ruins in the short space of three hours. Mrs. Tucker founded a free-school here, in 1684, for the purpose of affording education to twenty of the poorest boys in the town; three or four of these boys were to be apprenticed annually, and it is necessary that one of these, at least, should become a seaman. The Rev. Mr. Samuel Hood, father of Lord Hood, was master of this school in the year 1715. The inhabitants are principally engaged in the manufacture of sail-cloth, and in the production of iron, tin, and copper ware. The work-house is a large commodious building; formerly an alms-house.

Market, Thursday.—Fairs, April 4; September 19, for horses, sheep, and cattle.

[B] BEAUDESERT. This place is situated in the hundred of Barlichway. The church is dedicated to St. Nicholas, and exhibits some good specimens of ancient architecture. The village was the birth-place of Richard Jago, the poet, who was the son of the rector: he was born in 1715, and was educated at Solihull grammar-school, about eleven miles distant from this place. His first poetical production which attracted notice was an "Elegy on the Death of a Blackbird," and this was followed by a poem, descriptive of the "Battle of Edgehill," which is considered the most finished of his works: the subject was in all probability suggested by his residence in the neighbourhood of the scene of action. He died on the 8th of April, 1781.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
23Beau Manorex. pl.LeicesterMount Sorrel3Loughboro3Leicester810698

[A] BEAULIEU. The river Exe, over which there is a bridge, is navigable up to this village. Here is a manufacture of coarse sacking. The ruins of Beaulieu Abbey are beautifully situated on the eastern banks of the river. The delightful valley which surrounds these venerable remains, is of a circular form, bounded by well-wooded hills, and in itself, consists of a rich variety of ground. The Abbey was founded, A.D. 1204, by The Abbey founded by King John. King John, for monks of the Cistercian order; a class of friars to which that monarch had been previously particularly adverse. The king, it is said, after various oppressive measures exercised against the Cistercians, summoned the Abbots and principals of that order, to Lincoln, whither they hastened, flattering themselves that he would there confer upon them some marks of his grace and favor. Instead of this, say the monkish historians, "the savage monarch ordered the Abbots to be trodden to death, by horses: but none of his attendants being found sufficiently cruel to obey the sanguinary command, the ecclesiastics, dreadfully alarmed, retired hastily to their inn. In the course of the ensuing night, when the monarch slumbered on his bed, he dreamt that he was standing before a Judge, accompanied by the Cistercian Abbots, who were commanded to scourge him severely with rods and thongs; and when he awoke in the morning, he declared that he still felt the smart of the beating. On relating this dream to a certain ecclesiastic of his court, The king's singular dream. he was advised to crave pardon of the Abbots, whom he had before so barbarously treated; and assured, that the Almighty had been infinitely merciful to him, in thus revealing the mysteries of his dispensations, and affording him paternal correction. The king, adopting this counsel, ordered the Abbots to attend him; and, contrary to their expectations, received them with kindness:" and the remembrance of his dream still continuing to influence his conduct, he shortly after granted a charter for the foundation of the Abbey of Beaulieu. It was greatly enriched by succeeding grants; and at the Dissolution, its possessions were estimated at the annual value of £428. 6s. 8d. The manor of Beaulieu, with all its rights, privileges, and appurtenances, (the rectory and right of patronage excepted), was granted to Thomas Wriothesley, Esq. afterwards Earl of Southampton. The circumference of the manor embraces an extent of 28 The manor extends 28 miles. miles, and the clear annual revenue amounts to between £4000 and £5000. The immediate precincts of the Abbey were encircled by a stone wall, the remains of which are richly mantled with ivy. An edifice, nearly square, now called the palace, but originally built for the Abbot's lodging, was converted into a family seat after the Dissolution. Over the entrance is a canopied niche, in which stood the image of the Virgin Mary. The hall is a well proportioned room, handsomely vaulted, the ribs springing from pilasters, and spreading over the roof in beautiful ramifications. Eastward from this edifice is a long building, supposed from the extent and height of the apartments, to have been the dormitory; beneath it are several good cellars. The ancient kitchen is also standing, and near it is the refectory, a plain stone edifice, with strong buttresses: this is now the parish church of Beaulieu; the Abbey church, which stood to the north-east, having been entirely destroyed. On the west side is the ancient rostrum, or pulpit, from which lectures were read when the monks were assembled at their meals below. The site of the Abbey Church may be traced by the unevenness of the ground; but not a vestige of the building is remaining. Fragments of demolished tombs are occasionally dug up here, this having been the burial-place of various illustrious and noble personages, Burial place of Queen Eleanor. and among them, Queen Eleanor, mother of King John. Some traces of the cloisters are yet distinguishable. Whilst Beaulieu Abbey was invested with the privilege of a sanctuary, its walls afforded a temporary protection to Margaret of Anjou, Queen of Henry VI.; who, returning from the continent, in expectation of being reinstated in her former dignity, was informed of the imprisonment of her husband, the destruction of his army, and the death of the Earl of Warwick, and the elevation to the throne of Edward IV. Another celebrated fugitive, to whom this abbey afforded sanctuary, was Perkin Warbeck, who, after many vicissitudes, was executed at Tyburn, in 1499.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.

[A] BEAUMARIS, though but a small place, is the capital of the island; it is finely situated on a low shore, called Beaumaris Bay. The present town appears to have originated from the circumstance of a castle having been erected here about the close of the 13th century, by Edward I. It lies Chief town in Anglesea. close to the town, covering a large space of ground, in a low situation. Its erection was subsequent to its proud rivals Conway and Caernarvon. The necessity of the present castle arose from Rhyddlan, upon the opposite shore, being often possessed by the Welsh princes. It appears to have been the last of the three great fortresses erected by Edward. On the conquest of Wales in 1295, he fixed upon this spot with a view of surrounding it with a fosse, for the double purpose of defence, and bringing small craft to unload their cargoes under its walls, by a canal, part of which was, till lately, remaining. From the period of its erection to the time of Charles I., it does not appear to have been at all conspicuous on the page of history. A communication was made between various parts of the inner court, by means of a surrounding gallery, about six feet wide, a considerable portion of which is yet entire. Within recesses, in the sides of the gallery, are several square apertures, apparently once furnished with trap doors, which opened into rooms beneath; but their use has not been ascertained. Mr. Grose thinks they might have been used for the purposes of imprisonment. A tennis, fives court, and bowling-green, have been formed within the interior. The town of Beaumaris was surrounded with walls, for its defence, and placed under the government of a corporation, endowed with various privileges and lands. Mr. Lloyd supposes, from local tokens being circulated by opulent tradesmen, about the year 1650, of which he had several in his possession, that it was a place of considerable traffic. The present town consists of several streets, of which one terminated by the castle is handsome, and the houses are generally well built. Beaumaris is much frequented during the summer months, by Much frequented in summer. numerous genteel families, attracted by the pleasantness of this part of the island, and to avail themselves of the benefit of sea-bathing. The parochial church is a handsome structure, consisting of a chancel, nave, and two aisles, with a large square embattled tower. In the vestry adjoining were deposited the remains of lady Beatrice Herbert, daughter of the celebrated mirror of chivalry, the Lord Herbert of Cherbury. Near which lies interred the Rev. Gronwy Davies, with an inscription concluding as follows:

"Here lies learning, friendship, love;
And innocency of the dove.
Within this grave and in the dust
His ever courteous body must
Until the resurrection lie;
Then he shall live and death shall die."

The free-school was erected and liberally endowed by David Hughes, Esq., in the year 1603, who ten years afterwards founded also an excellent alms-house for six poor persons, to whom he granted small annuities. He was born about the middle of the 16th century, in a cottage now in ruins. He left the island early in life, in a very humble station, but by prudence and propriety of conduct, he made a decent fortune.

"'T is here the active worth of Hughes appears,
A blessed asylum for the wreck of years!
If there his views the opening mind engage,
Here he supports the trembling limbs of age;
His breast embrac'd within his godlike plan,
At once the morn and evening hours of man!
And ye who here his lasting bounty share,
Whose tranquil days decline without a care!
If still, as night shall close, day greet your eyes,
No grateful aspirations reach the skies,
Indignant heaven beholds you with a frown,
Nor gives the ingrate, life's immortal crown." Lloyd.

The old town-hall, built in 1563, has been taken down, and under the patronage of Lord Viscount Bulkeley, another more elegant has been erected upon its site. The town, re-incorporated in the 4th year of Elizabeth, is governed by a mayor, recorder, two bailiffs, twenty-four burgessess, Its government. two serjeants at mace, a town clerk, jailor, four constables, and a water-bailiff. The county hall is a small low building, being neither conveniently formed nor respectable in its appearance. The custom-house stands upon the green near the edge of the water. Beaumaris bay consists of an expansive opening in front of the town, so sheltered by the island of Priesholme and the great Ormeshead, as to allow vessels of considerable burden to ride in safety, during the most stormy weather. The depth of water near the town, at ebb-tide, is from six to seven fathoms, but the channel scarcely exceeds a quarter of a mile in breadth. The greater part of the bay is left dry for several miles when the tide is out, which part is called the Lavan Sands. These once formed a habitable hundred, belonging to the territory of Arson. They were formerly called Wylofaen, or the place of Weeping, from the shrieks and lamentations of the inhabitants at the time when the land was overwhelmed by the sea. Lavan is a corruption Lavan sands of Traeth Talaven, or the fermented heap, allusive to the boiling up of water in the quicksands. The ferry was granted by charter to the corporation in the 4th year of Elizabeth: it lies near the town. The place of embarking or landing is the point anciently known under the appellation of Penrhyn Safness, but afterwards Osmund's Air, from a malefactor, who on his way to execution, being asked where he was going, answered, "To take the air." The walk over the sand at low water is firm and good; they should be passed three hours after high water, and will be safe for four hours; or in other words, two hours before low water and two after. Precautions are essentially necessary to be taken, for near the times of the sands being Caution. covered by the sea they are frequently shifting, and in many places become so watery or quick, as to have proved both dangerous and fatal. This way is equally perilous in foggy weather, but as some persons are necessitated to pass in every season, the large bell at Aber is humanely rung, to direct them towards the sound.

Market, Wednesday and Saturday.—Fairs, Feb. 13, Holy Thursday, Sept. 19, and Dec. 19, for cattle.—Inn, Bull's Head.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
13Beaumont HilltoDurhamDarlington4Sedgefield9Stockton11245
23BeaumontLeysex. plLeicesterLeicester2Belgrave1Grooby410028
16BeaworthtiSouthamp.Alresford5Bis Waltham7Winchester562156
7Bebbington, UppertoChesterGreat Neston7Liverpool6Chester13201273
7Bebbington,Low. t & pChesterGreat Neston5Liverpool7Chester13201440

[A] BECCLES is a large and well-built town, situated on the river Waveny, which is navigable from this place to Yarmouth, and divides in its course the counties of Suffolk and Norfolk. It is governed by a portreeve and thirty-six burgesses, the office of the former being held in rotation by twelve of the latter. The church is gothic, with a steeple, containing twelve bells, and a porch, which is considered a fine specimen of the florid gothic. The ruins of Endgate church may be seen out of the town, but the inhabitants Fine gothic church. of the village appear to have been long esteemed parishioners of Beccles. Here is a theatre, a town hall, a jail, and a free school, endowed with 100 acres of land, in the reign of James I.; and a good grammar-school founded by Dr. Falconberge, and endowed with an estate, then worth forty pounds per annum, although now considerably increased in value. Near the town is a large common, on which the inhabitants of the town have the privilege of feeding their cattle on easy terms. In 1586 a fire consumed eighty houses in this place, and property to the amount of £20,000.

Market, Saturday.—Fairs, Whit Monday, June 29, and October 2, for horses and pedlary.—Bankers, Gurney and Co., draw on Barclay and Co.—Mail arrives 10.15 morning; departs 3.45 afternoon.—Inns, King's Head, and White Lion.

[B] BECKENHAM. The church of this village is a neat edifice, containing many monuments of the Style, Raymond, Burrell, and other families. On a slab in the chancel, is a remarkable brass, to the memory of dame Margaret, wife of Sir William Dalsell, Knt., and daughter of John Barnes. Esq., of Redhall, in Norfolk, who died 1563: she is represented in a flowered petticoat, and close-bodied gown; the sleeves slashed at the shoulders, and hanging down to the feet. Here is also the monument of Mrs. Jane Clarke, wife of Dr. Clarke, physician at Epsom, with an elegant inscription, by Gray. The parish register, under the date of Oct. 24, 1740, also records the burial of Margaret Finch, who lived to the Queen of the gipsies died here, at the age of 109. age of 109 years. She was one of the people called gipsies, and had the title of their queen. After travelling over various parts of the kingdom, during the greater part of a century, she settled at Norwood, whither her great age, and the fame of her fortune-telling, attracted numerous visitors. From a habit of sitting on the ground, with her chin resting on her knees, the sinews at length became so contracted, that she could not rise from that posture: after her death, they were obliged to inclose her body in a deep square box. Her funeral was attended by two mourning coaches: a sermon was preached upon the occasion, and a great concourse of people attended the ceremony. Her picture adorns the sign-post of a house of public entertainment in Norwood, called the Gipsy House. Beckenham-place, the seat of John Cator, Esq., is partly in the parish of Bromley; but the mansion itself is in that of Beckenham. Rear-Admiral Sir Piercy Brett, who died in 1781, (and with his lady, lies buried in the church,) resided here. The estate, which had long been owned by the St. Johns, was alienated to the Cators, in 1773. The house is a handsome building, commanding a beautiful prospect. Kent House, the ancient seat of the Lethieullers, in Beckenham parish, is now occupied as a farm: the estate belongs to J.J. Angerstein, Esq. Clay Hill, or the Oakery, also in this parish, was the property of the late learned Edward King, Esq., F.R., and A.S. This gentleman, who was a native of Norfolk, was elected president of the Society of Antiquaries on the decease of Dr. Milles, in 1784; but, on the succeeding election in the year following, he was obliged to relinquish the chair to the Earl of Leicester, after an unprecedented contest. He was the author of various works; the principal of which are, his "Observations on Ancient Castles;" "Morsels of Criticism," tending to illustrate the Scriptures; and the "Monumenta Antiqua." He died in 1806, at the age of 72.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
9Beckermet, St. Bridgetts.paCumberlandEgremont3Ravenglass10Whitehaven9291545
9Beckermet, St. JohnspaCumberland...4...9...10290549
27Beckham, EastpaNorfolkCromer5Holt5Aylesham912450
27Beckham, WestpaNorfolk...5...5...9124156
30BeckinghampaNottinghamGainsbro'3E. Retford7Bawtry10152481
45Beckwith ShawYork West End 4 Otley 7 Ripley 5 64
44Bedale[C]m.t. & paN.R. YorkNorthallerton8Leeming3Richmond102232707

[A] BECKHAMPTON. Near this place is an enormous tumulus, perhaps the largest in England; it is called Silbury Hill, and common belief declares it the place of sepulchre of some British king. The two antiquaries, Silbury Hill. Greethead and Stukeley differ, as antiquaries frequently do, with regard to which of the British monarchs the honor of being supposed to lie beneath this stupendous monument should belong. The former learned writer asserting it to be that of Prydain, and the latter calling it that of Cynneda. Scattered over the neighbouring downs are numerous large stones called the Grey Wethers; they bear this name from their resemblance to a flock of sheep. Beckhampton Inn, stands at the junction of the two great Mail roads, leading from London to Bath; the southern road passing through Devizes and Melksham; and the northern through Calne and Chippenham. The inn is a large brick building, but has a most desolate appearance, according well with the character of the gloomy downs on the margin of which it stands; yet the traveller would do well to refresh here, as there is but little accommodation for many miles beyond.

The Falmouth Mail which passes through Devizes, arrives 5.5 morning; departs 9.20 night. The Bristol Mail which passes through Calne, arrives 5.5 morning; departs 9.35 night.

[B] BECKINGTON was formerly a place of much importance in the clothing business, but the decline of that trade in the west of England has much reduced the town. It was the birth-place of Thomas Beckington, an English prelate, who was one of the three appointed to draw up a code of laws in conformity with which the Wickliffites were to be proceeded against. His book against the salique law is still in the possession of the Lambeth library.

[C] BEDALE is a tolerably well built town, situated in a rich valley, which with the surrounding country is exceedingly fertile, and both corn and grass yield abundant crops. The town lies to the west of the Great; Glasgow road, about two miles from Leeming Lane. Hornby Castle, the Seat of the Duke of Leeds. seat of the Duke of Leeds, deserves the admiration of the tourist. Bedale church is a large and handsome edifice, and the tower is said to have been constructed with so much strength, as to enable the inhabitants to defend themselves therein, during the inroads of the Scots.

Market, Tuesday.—Fairs, Easter Tuesday, Whit-Tuesday; June 6 and 7; July 5 and 6, for horses, cattle, sheep, leather, &c.; Oct. 11 and 12, horned cattle, sheep, hogs and leather; and Monday-week before Christmas, for horned cattle and sheep. The Glasgow Mail arrives at Leeming Lane, two miles distant 7.54 evening; departs 4.58 morning.—Inns, Black Swan, and the Swan.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
13Bedburn, NorthtoDurhamBis. Auckld6Wolsingham4Durham12254387
13Bedburn, SouthtoDurham...6...4...12254296

[A] BEDDGELART, is situated in a beautiful tract of meadows, at the junction of three vales, near the conflux of the Glas Lyn, or Gwynant, or Nant Colwyn. Nant hwynant, and the Colwyn, which flows through Nant Colwyn, a vale which leads to Caernarvon. Its situation was the fittest in the world, says Mr. Pennant, to inspire religious meditation, amid lofty mountains, woods, and murmuring streams. The church is small, yet the loftiest in Snowdonia. The east window consists of three narrow slips. The roof is neat, and there yet remains some very pretty fret work. A side chapel is supported by two neat pillars and gothic arches. This church has been conventual, belonging to a priory of Augustines, dedicated to the Virgin. They were probably of the class called Gilbertines, consisting of both men and women, living under the same roof, but divided by a wall, as a piece of ground near the church is called Dol y Llein (the meadow of the nun). No remnant of the priory however exists. The ground on the south side of the church seems to have been the spot whereon the buildings stood which the monks formerly inhabited. There are two or three arched doors on that side the church, through which probably the friars entered. The ancient mansion-house near the church might have been the residence of the prior. In this house is shown an old pewter mug, that will hold upwards of two quarts; and any person able to grasp it with one hand, while full of ale, and to drink it off at one draught, is entitled to Ancient pewter mug. the liquor gratis, and the tenant is to charge it to the lord of the manor as part payment of his rent. Tradition says, that Llewelyn the Great came to reside at Beddgelart during the hunting season, with his wife and children; and one day, the family being absent, a wolf had entered the house. On returning, his greyhound, called Ciliart, met him, wagging his tail, but covered with blood. The prince being alarmed, ran into the nursery, and found the cradle in which the child had lain covered with blood. Imagining the greyhound had killed the child, he immediately drew his sword and slew him, but on turning up the cradle, Tradition of a wolf and child. he found under it the child alive, and the wolf dead. This so affected the prince, that he erected a tomb over his faithful dog's grave, where, afterwards, the parish church was built, and called from this accident, Bedd-Cilihart, or the grave of Cilihart. In the Welch annals this region is styled the forest of Snowdon. It is a subject of great regret to most tourists, that many of the rocks which surround Beddgelart, though once covered with oaks, are now naked. One proprietor, however, is raising new plantations upon his estate. Snowdonia, though once a forest, contains now scarcely a tree. Salmon is very plentiful here, selling sometimes as low as three-farthings a pound; the average price is about four-pence. The best land lets at 20s. an acre; but the average of the neighbourhood is from 2s. 6d. to 5s., with unlimited right of common upon the mountains. In this little plain is an almost inexhaustible turbary, or right of digging turf. There is a comfortable inn at this place, called Beddgelart Hotel. It is marked by the emblem of the Guide to the mountains. goat, with the following appropriate motto. "Patria mea Petra." My country is a rock. The guide to the mountains is the harper of the house; or a resident in the village. William Lloyd, the schoolmaster of this place, was long noted as an intelligent "conductor to Snowdon, Moel Hebog, Dinas Emrys, Llanberis pass, the lakes, waterfalls, &c.; he was also a collector of crystals, fossils, and natural curiosities found in these regions. Dealer in superfine woollen hose, socks, gloves, &c.," but in the year 1804, he finally emerged from all sublunary avocations, to the regions beyond the grave. Opposite to the village of Beddgelart, is Moel Hebog (the hill of flight) which Lord Lyttelton ascended. [see Festiniog.] In a bog near that mountain, was found in 1784, a most curious brass shield, which was deposited with Mr. Williams, of Llanidan; its diameter was two feet two inches, the weight four pounds; in the centre was a plain umbo projecting above two inches; the surface was marked with twenty-seven Brass shield found. smooth concentric elevated circles, and between each a depressed space of the same breadth with the elevated parts, marked by a single row of smooth studs. The whole shield was flat and very flexible. This was probably Roman, for the Welsh despised every species of defensive armour. In ascending the summit of Snowdon from this place, a neighbouring vale is passed, which is by far the most beautiful of the vales among these mountains. It is about six miles long, and affords a great variety of wood, lakes, and meadows. The vale of Llanberis is the only one which may be said to rival it; but their characters are so different, that they cannot with propriety be compared. On the left, about a mile and a half up the valley, is a lofty wood-clad rock, called the fort of Ambrosius, or Merlin Ermys, a magician who was sent for to this place from Caermarthen, by Vortigern, who was king of Britain from 449 to 466. Upon its summit is a level piece of ground, and the remains of a square fort; and upon the west side, facing Beddgelart, there are traces of a long wall. It stands detached from other rocks, and at a distance appears in the form of a man's hat. Adjoining is a stony Groves of the magicians. tract called the cells or groves of the magicians. In the next field, a number of large stones are called the tombs of the magicians. It was to this place that Vortigern retired, when he found himself despised by his subjects, and unable to contend longer with the treacherous Saxons, whom he had introduced into his kingdom. It is probable that this insular rock afforded him a temporary residence till he removed to his final retreat in Nant Gwrtheyrn, or Vortigern's Valley. Speed says, probably without truth, that Vortigern married his own child by Rowena, daughter of Hengist, the Saxon prince, and had by her one son. There is a tradition, that Madog, the son of prince Owen Gwynedd, resided in this vale for some time before he left his country for America. The entrance from Beddgelart, is but the breadth of a narrow rugged road, close by the river's side, in which there is nothing inviting; but passing on, the traveller advances upon enchanted ground, where he finds extensive meadows, expanding at every turn of rock, smooth as a bowling green; beautiful lakes and meandering rivers, abounding in fish; mountains towering one above the other in succession, while to the left, Snowdon overtops them all, seeming Snowdon. like another Atlas, to support the firmament. Mr. Pennant, says he continued his walk along a narrow path above the lake, as far as the extremity; then descending, reached the opposite side, in order to encounter a third ascent, as arduous as the preceding. This brought him into the horrible crater immediately beneath the great precipice of Wyddfa; its situation is dreadful, surrounded by more than three parts of a circle, with the most horrible precipices of the highest peak of Snowdon. The strange break, called the pass of the Arrows, was probably a station for the hunters to watch the wandering of the deer. The margin of Ffynmon-las here appeared to be shallow and gravelly, the waters had a greenish cast, but what is very singular, the rocks reflected into them seemed varied with stripes of the richest colours, like the most beautiful lute-strings, and The pass of the Arrows. changed almost to infinity. Here he observed the wheat-ear, a small and seemingly tender bird, and yet almost the only small one, or indeed the only one, (except the rock-ouzel) that frequents these heights; the reason is evidently the want of food. The mountainous tract near Snowdon, scarcely yields any corn; the produce is cattle and sheep, which during summer they keep very high in the mountains, followed by their owners with their families, who reside during that season in their Havod-dai, or summer dwelling, or dairy houses, as the farmers in the Swiss Alps do in their Sennes. These houses consist of a long low room, with a hole at one end to let out the smoke, from the fire which is made beneath. Their furniture is very simple, stones are the substitutes for stools, and the beds are of hay, ranged along the sides: they manufacture their own clothes and dye them with plants, collected from the rocks. During summer, the men pass The summer habits of the mountaineers. their time in harvest work, or tending their herds; the women in milking, or making butter and cheese of the milk for their own consumption. The diet of these mountaineers is very plain, consisting of butter, cheese and oat bread; their drink is whey, not but that they have their reserve of a few bottles of very strong beer, by way of cordial, in sickness. They are people of good understanding, wary, and circumspect; usually tall, thin, and of strong constitutions, from their way of living. Towards winter, they descend to their old dwelling, where they lead, during that season, a vacant life, in carding, spinning, knitting, &c. The height of Snowdon is 3571 feet.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
37Beddingtonpa & toSurreyCroydon2Sutton3Ewell6111429
25Bedfont, EastpaMiddlesexStaines3Hounslow4Colnbrook613968
25Bedfont, WestpaMiddlesex...3...4...6

[A] BEDFORDSHIRE. This county, before the Roman invasion, was part of the district inhabited by a race of people whom the invaders denominated Cassii. Afterwards, in A.D. 310, it was a third part of the division named Flavia Cæsariensis. After that, it was attached to the kingdom of Mercia. In 827 it became subject to the West Saxons. It was first called Bedfordshire in the reign of Alfred the Great, probably from Bedan Forda: i.e. The Fortress on the Ford; there being fortifications on the borders of the river Ouse. It is an inland county, bounded on the north by Huntingdonshire and Northamptonshire; west by Buckinghamshire; An inland county. south by Bucks and Herts; and east by Herts and Cambridgeshire. Its form approaches an irregular parallelogram, with many deep and almost isolated indentations. The extent is about 36 miles in the greatest length, and the greatest breadth about 22 miles; it contains 465 square miles; circumference about 95 miles. It is divided into 9 hundreds, 125 parishes, 10 market towns, 58 vicarages, 550 villages, having a total population of 95,383 inhabitants. It belongs to the Norfolk circuit, and is in the diocese of Lincoln; subject to an archdeaconal jurisdiction, being divided into six deaneries. The climate is deemed mild and genial. The prevailing winds south westerly; the north east winds being regarded as indicating a cold summer and a severe winter. The soil is of an exceedingly Climate mild. mixed and varied character; but much the greatest portion is of a clayey nature, particularly in parts north of Bedford. The south districts are chalky. A slip extending diagonally from Woburn to near Biggleswade is a mixed sand; an almost equal portion from the vicinity of Biggleswade to the neighbourhood of Bedford, partakes of a rich gravelly soil; part of which, near the town of Biggleswade and village of Sandy, is successfully cultivated for the production of garden vegetables to a considerable Value of the land. extent. So peculiarly is that soil adapted for such produce, that it is in some instances let for more than £14. per acre; and generally from £4. to £9. may be considered as a fair rent for that luxuriant soil. There can be no standard or real average as to the value of land; as the value, like the soil itself, is exceedingly variable. Rivers.—The Ouse and the Ivel are the chief; both of which abound with fish of various kinds. The Ouse is remarkable for very great and sudden inundations. The Grand Junction Canal skirts this county at Leighton Buzzard. The natural produce consists chiefly in corn, garden vegetables, cheese and butter. There is a little ironstone, limestone, and a few extraneous fossils. There are several mineral springs, but none of any celebrity. The principal landed proprietor is the Duke of Bedford. His Grace possesses estates in about 25 parishes; under the auspices of whom and of his illustrious brother, the county is indebted for immense agricultural improvements.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
3Bedford[A]boBedfordSt. Albans30Oxford55Cambridge30516959

[A] BEDFORD. This is an ancient corporation, the earliest charter of which is dated in 1160. It is governed by a mayor, recorder, aldermen, two chamberlains, and thirteen common councilmen. Whoever may have been a mayor is always afterwards reputed as an alderman. The mayor and bailiffs are chosen annually out of the freemen. As early as the year Very ancient corporation. 1295, it sent two members to parliament. The Duke of Bedford takes his title from this town, which first gave title of duke to the victorious prince John Plantagenet, Regent of France, during the minority of his nephew, Henry VI. as it did in the reign of Edward IV. first to John Nevil, Marquis of Montacute, and then to the king's third son, George Plantagenet; but he dying an infant, the title lay vacant till Henry VII. created his uncle, Jasper Tudor, Duke of Bedford, who also died without issue; and thus far the title was enjoyed by the first possessor only of each family. But King Edward VI. making John, Lord Russel, Earl of Bedford, the dignity has ever since been in that illustrious house, with an advancement of it to the title of Duke, by King William III. The history Origin of the Bedford family. of the noble family of Russell is curious and interesting. They appear to have originated in Dorsetshire, and owe their greatness to an accident on that coast. In the reign of Henry VII., Philip, Archduke of Austria, being bound for Spain, the heiress of which kingdom he had married, was obliged by a storm to put on shore at Weymouth, where he was received by Sir Thomas Frenchard, of Wolverton, Knt., who, till he could inform the court of the event, sent for his neighbour Mr. John Russell, then lately returned from his travels, to entertain his illustrious guests. The Archduke was so pleased with his conversation, that he recommended him to the king of England, who soon advanced him to several honourable posts, and his son Henry VIII. created him Baron Russell of Cheneys, in the county of Bucks, which estate he afterwards acquired by marriage. He was made by Henry VIII. lord warden of the stannaries, and lord admiral of England and Ireland, knight of the garter, and lord privy seal. In the reign of Edward VI. he was lord high steward for the coronation, and had a grant of Woburn Abbey, and was in the 3rd of Edward VI. 1549, created earl of Bedford. He had the honour to conduct over to England, Philip of Spain, grandson to the prince who first brought him to court and advancement. He died 1554, and was succeeded by his son Francis, who died in 1585, and was buried at Cheneys, as were most of his descendants. His son Francis being killed a day or two before his father's death, by the Scotch in the marches, his son Edward succeeded his grandfather, and died 1627; he was succeeded by his cousin Francis, son of his uncle William, lord Russell, of Thornhaugh, lord deputy of Ireland, in the reign of Elizabeth. This Francis was the first projector of the draining of the great level of the fens, called after Bedford Level. him, Bedford Level, and dying 1641, was succeeded by his eldest son William, who after having several times joined both parties during the civil war, at last adhered to the royal cause, and suffered a severe loss in the death of his only son by the very family whom he had supported; to compensate for which he was created by King William, Marquis of Tavistock, and Duke of Bedford, and dying in 1700, was succeeded by his grandson Wriothesley. He, in 1711, by his son and namesake, and he 1732, by his brother John, who, dying in 1771, was succeeded by his grandson Francis, the late duke, who died rather suddenly, of an illness occasioned by a rupture, on the 2nd of March, 1802, in the 37th year of his age. His brother, Lord John Russell, succeeded him in his title and estates. This nobleman, so suddenly and unexpectedly raised to ducal honours, was born on the sixth of July, 1766; and, on the 21st of March, 1786, before he had completed his twentieth year, he married at Brussels, Georgiana Elizabeth, the second daughter of Viscount Torrington. This lady died on the 11th of October, 1801; leaving issue, Francis, born May 10, 1788; George William, born May 8, 1790; and John, born August 19, 1792. Shortly after his accession to the title, his grace married a second time, Georgiana, the fifth daughter of the duke of Gordon, by whom he had several children. After the death of Mr. Pitt, when Mr. Fox and his friends succeeded to power, his grace was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland; a post which, without distinguishing himself as a party man, he filled to the entire and general satisfaction of the public. When Henry II. granted a charter to the burgesses First charter granted by Henry II. of the town of Bedford, he rendered it subject to the payment of £40. per annum, as a fee-farm rent to the crown. Their mercantile guild and ancient privileges were confirmed by the succeeding monarch, who also granted new privileges and immunities similar to those enjoyed by the burgesses of Oxford. Richard II. granted still more extended privileges, and among others a view of Frankpledge within the borough. In this monarch's charter the corporation are styled the mayor, bailiffs, and burgesses. In the reign of Edward I. the liberties of the town were seized by that monarch, the bailiffs having neglected to discharge the fee-farm rent. In the reign of Henry VI. the town being much decayed, many houses gone to ruin, and the trade of it brought low, and the usual issues discontinued, the inhabitants petitioned the king to shew them his grace: accordingly he granted that the yearly rent should be remitted in part for a time. In the reign of Henry VII. it was permanently reduced, through the interposition of Sir Reginald Bray, then Prime Minister, to £20. per annum, and afterwards to £16. 5s. 8d. which rent is now payable to their successors. The last renewal of the charter of incorporation was in the reign of King James II. in whose time the mayor and aldermen were removed from their respective offices, by royal mandate, for neglecting to elect two burgesses to serve in parliament. The members were in consequence chosen by his Majesty's ministers. The right of election was determined in 1690, to be in the burgesses, freemen, and inhabitant householders not receiving alms. The number of voters is nearly 500. Bedford is a place of great antiquity, and is supposed by some writers to have been the Lactidorum of Antoninus; but Camden objects to this, on the ground that the town is not situated on any Roman road, neither have any Roman coins been found there. Its situation is upon the Ouse, by which it is divided into two parts, in the direction of east and west. This circumstance enables it to carry on a considerable trade with Lynn. In the Saxons' time, Bedford was a place of considerable consequence: as King Offa buried here. appears from its having been chosen by Offa, the powerful King of the Mercians, for his burial place. His bones were interred in a small chapel, which being situated on the brink of the river Ouse, was afterwards undermined and swept away by the floods, during an inundation. Bedford, as has been already stated, was also famous for a victory gained in the year 572, by Cuthwlf, the Saxon king, over the Britons. The Danes once destroyed this town; but Edward the Elder repaired it, and united the town on the south side of the river, called Mikesgate, to Bedford, on the north side of it; since which they have both gone by this name. After the conquest, Pain de Beauchamp, the third Baron of Bedford, built a castle here, encompassed with a mighty rampart of earth, and a high wall, the whole so strong that King Stephen, who besieged and took it in his war with the Empress Maud, was glad to grant the garrison honourable terms. In the barons' wars it was again besieged, and for want of relief, taken by King John's forces under Fulco de Brent, to whom the King gave it for a reward; but for his subsequent behaviour he took it from him, and caused it to be demolished, though it was not quite level till the reign of Henry III. The celebrated John Bunyan, whom we shall notice John Bunyan. hereafter, was ordained co-pastor of the congregation of St. Peter's, in 1671, and continued in that situation until he died in 1688. The chair in which he used to sit is still preserved as a relic in the vestry of the chapel. As early as the year 1745, the Moravians, or society of Unitas Fratrum, had an establishment at Bedford, where they built a neat chapel in 1750. Of late years, however, the number of these recluse and inoffensive sectaries has considerably declined; and the house adjoining to the chapel, which was formerly appropriated to the brethren and the sisters of the society, has been converted into a school. In the year 1556, Sir Noble charity, founded by Sir William Harper. William Harper founded a free school in Bedford, for the instruction of children of the town in grammar and good manners. The school-house was rebuilt in 1767, when a statue of the founder was placed in the front, with a latin inscription beneath, to the following effect:—

"Behold, Traveller, the Bodily Resemblance
Of Sir William Harper, Knight;
Of this School,
Thus spacious and Adorned,
The Munificent Founder,
The Picture of His Mind,
Is Dedicated in the Table of Benefactions."

The warden and fellows of New College, Oxford, are visitors of this school, and have the appointment of the masters and ushers. The master's salary is £260. with coals and candles; that of the second master is £160., with the same allowance of fire and candle. The writing-master has a salary of £80. per annum. Sir William Harper, for the support of this excellent institution, conveyed to the corporation thirteen acres and one rood of land, lying in the parish of St. Andrew, Holborn, which he had purchased for the sum of £180.; he also conveyed his late dwelling-house, &c., at Bedford. The revenues of these estates were also to be applied towards apportioning maidens of the town on their entrance into the marriage estate. In the year 1660, the corporation leased the whole of the lands in the parish of St. Andrew, Holborn, for the term of 41 years, at the yearly rent of £99. In the year 1684, a reversionary Its revenues. lease was granted for the further term of 51 years, at the improved rent of £150. In consequence of granting these leases, a great number of houses were built, and the following streets covered the above-mentioned thirteen acres of meadow land:—Bedford-street, Bedford-row, Bedford-court, Princes-street, Theobald's-road, North-street, East-street, Lamb's Conduit-street, Queen-street, Eagle-street, Boswell-court, Queen-street, Harper-street, Richbell-court, Hand-court, Gray's Inn-passage, Three Cup-yard, &c. The annual rent of these buildings is now considerably increased, and it is expected that in a few years it will amount to upwards of £30,000. This extraordinary increase of revenue occasioned the trustees to apply to parliament for two several acts to regulate its disposal, and to extend the objects of the charity. By the priorism contained in these acts of parliament, the maintenance of the master and usher of the grammar-school, and the maintenance of a master, and two ushers to the English school, is provided. Three exhibitions of £40. per annum, are given to scholars from the free school, either at Oxford or Cambridge, during the space of six years. The sum of £800. per annum is appropriated for marriage portions, to be given by lot in sums of £20. each, to forty poor maidens of Bedford, of good fame and reputation, not under sixteen years of age, and not exceeding fifty. They are not to marry within two months after receiving the marriage portion, otherwise to forfeit it. The men to whom they are to be married must not be vagrants or persons of bad fame or reputation. A yearly sum of £3,000. per annum is also appropriated by the last act, for the maintenance of twenty-six boys in an hospital or school of industry, and £700. to be laid out in apprentice fees for fifteen poor boys and five girls, to be chosen by lot. The trustees have likewise been enabled to build alms-houses for Alms-houses. a number of poor men and women. The weekly allowance to each is 3s., and 40s. annually for clothing. If a poor man and his wife live together, they are allowed to the amount of 5s. per week. One hundred pounds per annum is appropriated to be given in sums of £5. each, to twenty poor girls upon their going out to service. The residue of the income is to be laid out in buildings, and in endowing more alms-houses, or building cottages to be let at a low rent to the poor. Here are also a house of industry, and an infirmary, which are well supported. Lace-making employs a great number of the lower classes, both in the town and county of Bedford. The lace is chiefly made by women; and children at the Lace-making,
the chief trade.
early age of four years are set down to it. On certain days, the persons appointed by the dealers collect the lace of the different villages, and convey it to the London market. A strong stone bridge connects the northern and southern parts of the town. "This bridge," says Grose, "is one hundred and sixteen yards in length, four and a half broad, and has a parapet three feet and a half high; this, it is said, was erected in the reign of Queen Mary, out of the ruins of St. Dunstan's church, which stood on the south side of the bridge. It has seven arches, and near the centre were two gate-houses; that on the north, being used for a prison, and that on the south served as a store-house for the arms and ammunition of the troops quartered here. These gate-houses were taken down in the year 1765, and six lamps set up on posts at proper distances." The town-hall, or sessions-house, in which the assizes for the county are holden, is situated in an area before St. Paul's church. It was erected in the year 1753, and is a capacious and handsome structure.

Markets, Tuesday and Saturday.—Fairs, First Tuesday in Lent, April 21, July 5, Aug. 21, Oct. 11, and Dec. 19, for all kinds of cattle.—Mail arrives 1.14 morning; departs 2.54 afternoon.—Banker, Thomas Barnard, draws on Kay and Co.—Inns, George, and Swan.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
33BedstonpaSalopKnighton4Ludlow11Bishops' Cas.10153159
3Bedwall GreenhamBedfordDunstable2Toddington3Hockliffe536

[A] BEDLINGTON, though within the county of Northumberland, belongs to Chester ward, in the county of Durham. It lies between the rivers Wansbeck and Blythe. The monks of Durham, in their flight to Lindisfarne, before the arms of the Conqueror, with the incorruptible body of St. Cuthbert, rested all night here. The Rev. Francis Woodmas, the expositor of St. Chrysostom, was vicar here from 1696 to 1710. The Blast furnaces. Bedlington blast furnace, for smelting iron, was some years since taken down. At the Bebside and Bedlington Mills, about fifty men are employed. An unsuccessful attempt was a few years ago made to establish a manufactory of printed cottons at Stannington bridge, in this neighbourhood.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
41Bedwin, Great[A]paWiltsMarlborough7Ramsbary5Hungerford6712191
41Bedwin, LittlepaWilts...8..4..570587
4Beech HilltiBerksReading7Aldermaston5Kingsclere746249
38Beeding, UpperpaSussexSteyning1Shoreham5Brighton1051589
38Beeding, LowertiSussex...2...5...1051533
4BeedonpaBerksE. Ilsley3Newbury7Hungerford1257306
43Beefordpa & toE.R. YorkDriffield7Bridlington10Beverley13196894

[A] BEDWIN was a market-town, and supposed by Stukeley to have been the Leucomagus of the Romans; it certainly was a chief city of the Saxons, who built a castle there. It was a borough by prescription, sending two members to parliament, and is governed by a portreeve, and exercises many of its original rights, although considerably reduced in population. The church, a cruciform building of flints, with a central tower, is ancient and curious in itself, and for the monuments which it contains. The obtusely pointed arches of the nave, ornamented with zig-zag and billetted mouldings, rest on capitals, richly adorned with flowers, grotesque heads, and other figures. In the south transept are two tombs, which commemorate Adam and Roger de Stocre, Lords, according to Leland, of "Stoke Haulle thereby." The chancel contains the noble altar monument of Sir John Seymour, of Wolphall, father of the Protector, Somerset, and other distinguished persons. Near this tomb are two brass plates, on one of which is the figure of a lady, with her hands folded, and the inscription—"Julia Seymour;" the other commemorates Monument of Julia Seymour, sister to Lady Jane Grey. a son of Sir John Seymour. The manor of Bedwin, which once belonged to Gilbert, Earl of Clare, husband of Anna d'Acres, was purchased by the late Earl of Aylesbury. This place gave birth, in 1621, to Dr. Thomas Willis, a learned physician, who wrote several works on his art, was appointed physician in ordinary to Charles II., and died of pleurisy in 1675. On Castle-hill is an entrenchment, in area two acres, with some foundations, supposed to be those of a castle, founded by the Saxons. Chisbury Castle is an entrenchment more than fifteen acres in extent, supposed to have been begun by the Britons, and sometime occupied by the Romans. The neighbouring village of Little Bedwin has a church built of flints, in the Anglo-Norman style of architecture, with a nave, aisles, chancel, and tower.

Market, formerly Tuesday (disused).—Fairs, April 23, and July 26, for horses, cows, and sheep.

[B] BEERALSTON. This place once had the privilege of sending two members to parliament. It is chiefly inhabited by labourers employed in agriculture and mining. The borough was under the influence of the Earl of Beverley. The right of election was vested in those who had land in the borough, and paid three-pence acknowledgment to the Lord of the Manor, who varied the number of electors at his pleasure, by granting Electioneering abuses. burgage-tenures, which were generally resigned when the election was concluded, to as many of his partisans as were requisite. The portreeve, chosen annually in the Lord's court, was the returning-officer. The first members were returned in the twenty-seventh of Elizabeth. Risdon mentions that Beare was bestowed by William the Conqueror on a family descended from the house of Alencon in France, and that it still continues its name under the corruption of Bere-Alson. In the reign of Henry II., Henry Ferrers had a castle here, which came to the possession of his descendant Martin Ferrers, the last of the house, in the time of Edward III. The manor then came to the Champernounes, and passed respectively through the families of Willoughby, Mountjoy, Maynard, and Stamford, to the present possessor, the Duke of Northumberland. In this place are several lead-mines, now of inconsiderable value, though sometimes impregnated with silver; but in the reign of Edward I., it is said, that in the space of three years 1,600 pounds weight of silver was obtained. Since that time no considerable quantity has ever been procured.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
11Bere Ferris[A]paDevonSaltash3Plymouth6Tavistock82151876
12Bere HacketpaDevonSherborne4Yeovil4Beaminster12121110
12Bere Regis[B]m.t.& paDorsetWareham7Blandford9Dorchester121131170

[A] BERE FERRIS. This parish is situated south by west from Tavistock. Here, observes Risdon, "lieth Ley, the ancient possession of a family so called, whence the name tooke that honor; for from hence Sir James Ley, Knt., Lord Chief Justice of England, and High Treasurer, created afterwards Earle of Marlborough, descended; a lawgiver in the chief place of justice, and a preserver of venerable antiquity, whose noble thoughts were so fixed on virtue, and his discourses embellished with wisdome, and his heart with integrity, that his words did never bite, nor his actions wrong any man, to give him just cause of complaynt." A honest lawyer. Amongst several ancient monuments in Bere-Ferris Church, is one under an arched recess, of a cross-legged knight half inclined on his right side, with his right hand on his sword; and another of a knight and his lady, under a richly ornamented arch in the chancel. Among the figures painted on the east window is that of William Ferrers, who was probably the builder of this fabric, as he is represented kneeling, and holding the model of a church in his hand.

[B] BERE REGIS is situated in the Blandford division of the county. Drs. Stukeley and Coker conjecture that this place was the site of a Roman station; an opinion which is confirmed by a large entrenchment upon Woodbury Hill, about half a mile north-east of the parish. The area of this place, which contains about ten acres, is surrounded by triple ramparts, that in some places are high and deep. On the summit, which commands a very extensive prospect, a fair is annually holden. This fair begins on the Nativity of the Virgin, and continues through the five following days: though of late years it has much decreased; it was once the most considerable in the west of England. Queen Elfrida, to whom the manor belonged, is said to have retired to her seat in this place, after the The residence of Queen Elfrida. murder of her son-in-law, Edward the Martyr. King John also appears to have made it his residence. In the reign of Henry III. the manor was bestowed on Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester; but, as a consequence attending his rebellion, it was taken from him, and granted to the King's brother, Edmund. Edmund gave a moiety of it to the Abbess of Tarent, who, in the reign of Edward I. claimed for her manor of Bere a fair, a market, a free-warren, and the whole forest of Bere. Her moiety of these was granted her. At the dissolution, Henry VIII., for the sum of £680. 16s. 8d. granted the manor to Robert Turberville, to whose ancestors the other moiety had belonged for ages. The mansion of the Turbervilles still remains: it is an ancient irregular structure, built with stone, and its windows contain various quarterings of the Turberville family and its alliances. Bere Regis, though it does not appear ever to have been represented in parliament, was incorporated in the time of Edward I. Its market is ancient, as appears from King John's having confirmed it to the inhabitants. The church is a large and handsome structure, and contains numerous monuments of the Turberville and other families. The town of Bere Regis has suffered twice by fire: once in 1634, and again in 1788. After the latter fire the inhabitants found shelter in the booths erected for the fair. The most distinguished natives of the place have been James Turberville, Bishop of Exeter, and John Morton, Archbishop of Canterbury.

Market, Wednesday.—Fair, September 18.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
9Bees, St.[A]to & paCumberlandEgremont3Whitehaven4Buttermere13296517
24BeesbypaLincolnLouth9Grimsby9M. Raisin1215899
24Beesby in the Marsh,paLincolnAlford3Saltfleet10Louth9144132

[A] BEES, (ST.) This ancient village is situated in the Ward of Allerdale, west by north from Egremont. It is understood to have derived its name and origin from a religious house, which was founded here about the year 650, by St. Bega, an Irish nun of great sanctity. On the death of Bega, Early history. a church was erected in honour of her virtues; but both these establishments having been destroyed by the Danes, William, son of Ranulph de Meschines, replaced them by a new foundation of Benedictine monks, and made it a cell to the Abbey of St. Mary at York: in the time of Henry I. The manor was granted after the dissolution to Sir Thomas Chaloner, by Edward VI. in the last year of his reign. It next became the property of a family named Wyberg, from whom, under a fore-closed mortgage, it passed to an ancestor of the Earl of Lonsdale, about the year 1663. St. Bees church, which was erected about the time of Henry I., had the form of a cross, and great part of it is yet standing. The east-end is unroofed, and in ruins: the nave, however, is fitted up as the parish church, and the cross aisle is used as a place of sepulchre. The ancient chancel has narrow lancet windows, ornamented with double mouldings, and pilasters, with rich capitals. At the east end are niches, of a singular form, with pointed arches, supported on well proportioned pillars, having capitals adorned with rich engravings. The whole edifice is of red free-stone. A free grammar school was founded in the village of St. Bees by Archbishop Girandal, under a charter from Queen Elizabeth, towards the close of the sixteenth century. This prelate was born in the neighbouring village of Helsingham, in the year 1519. He was educated at Cambridge, where he obtained a fellowship at Pembroke Hall. Being attached to the principles of the Reformation, Bishop Ridley made him his chaplain, and precentor of St. Pauls. He was also appointed chaplain to the King, and prebendary of Westminster; but on the accession of Mary he retired to Germany, and settled at Strasburgh. When Elizabeth ascended the throne he returned home, and was employed in revising the Litany. In 1559 he was chosen master of Pembroke Hall, and the same Archbishop Girandal. year preferred to the see of London, from whence, in 1570 he was translated to York, and in 1575 to Canterbury. Two years afterwards he was suspended from his archiepiscopal functions, for refusing to obey the Queen's order to suppress prophecyings, or the associations of the clergy to expound the Scriptures. His sequestration was taken off, though he never completely recovered the royal favour. He died at Croydon, 1583. He contributed to Fox's acts and monuments. James I. afterwards increased the endowments, which have been since augmented by divers benefactors. Several scholars of great eminence have received the rudiments of education in this seminary. It is remarkable, however, that, till a few years ago, the school had not undergone any material change since its foundation. Occasional repairs were indeed found absolutely necessary for the support of the buildings, but no improvement seems ever to have been attempted. Through the munificence of the Earl of Lonsdale this long respected seminary has been put into complete order, and made more suitable to the purpose intended by the pious founder than it had been at any time since its erection. Exclusive of what has been done at the spacious school-room, the library is rendered more commodious. The master's house, which adjoins the school, has been enlarged, some parts of it rebuilt, a good garden well walled round, and the whole made a very comfortable and eligible residence.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
27BeestonpaNorfolkSwaffham7E. Dereham6Castle Acre5100702
45BeestonchapW.R. YorkLeeds2Birstall5Huddersfield91902128
27Beeston, St. AndrewpNorfolkNorwich4Worstead9Acle911349
27Beeston, St. Lawren.pNorfolkColtishall4...3Norwich1112052
27Beeston RegispaNorfolkCromer4Holt7Cley8126246
40Beethom[B]pa & toWestmorlndBurton4Millthorpe1Kendal102521639
27BeetleypaNorfolkE. Dereham4Foulsham6Fakenham9104381

[A] BEESTON. Near this village are the remains of a castle, once deemed impregnable; it is situated on a sandstone rock, 366 feet in perpendicular height. So strong was this fortress considered, that it became a proverb in the neighbourhood to say, "It is as strong as Beeston Castle." The area contains five acres, and was rendered unapproachable by means of a very wide ditch. In the reign of Charles I. it underwent a lengthened siege, or rather blockade, for all communications were cut off with the neighbourhood for a long term; at last it was compelled to surrender, and the parliament ordered it to be dismantled. During the period of the threatened invasion of the French, in 1803, this castle was fixed upon by the lieutenancy of the county, as the site for a signal station and beacon. The ancient and craggy walls are beautifully mantled over with a luxuriant Castle on a rock. covering of ivy, and the base of the hill abounds with several varieties of rare plants. The well of the castle is nearly 300 feet deep, and the peasantry firmly believe that it contains a vast store of riches, which have been thrown into it during the civil wars. A mineral spring was discovered here a few years ago. The inhabitants of Chester consider it a favourite holiday indulgence to visit this castle in a pleasure excursion; and by application to an old woman in the village, who may be A favourite place of resort. considered the female warden of the place, travellers can be conducted to the summit of the building. The views from the ramparts are beautiful, extending over the whole Vale Royal of Cheshire, to the estuaries of the rivers Mersey and Dee: that side of the hill which forms a precipice rises perpendicularly 160 feet from the base of the elevation, and upon looking down from the high pinnacle of the castle wall, it is sufficient to call to remembrance the sublime poetic effusion of our immortal bard:—

"How fearful
And dizzy 'tis, to cast ones eyes so low,
The crows and choughs, that wing the mid-way air,
Shew scarce as gross as beetles.

"I'll look no more,
Lest my brain turn, and the deficient sight,
Topple down headlong."

[B] BEETHOM. This mountainous and highly interesting parish is situated in the Kendal Ward, at the south-western extremity of the county of Westmoreland, on both sides of estuaries of the river Kent, which is navigable for small craft as far as the hamlet of Storch, and comprises the chapelries of Witherslack, and the townships of Beetham, Farleton, Haverbrack, and Methop, with Ulpha. The parish church is dedicated to St. Michael, the patron saint of mountainous and hilly parishes: it is a neat building, situated in a fine vale, or holm ground, commanding the richest variety of wood, water, and rocky scenery. Here are two fine old monuments to the memory of Thomas de Beetham and his lady, who lived in the reign of Richard III. Here was anciently a chapel, dedicated to St. John, and near it, in a garden, a considerable number of human bones were dug up; it was situated about forty yards from the present school-house. Some few years since a mole cast up an amber bead, and with it an oval piece of silver, about the size of a shilling; it was perforated through the middle, and on one side was an impression of the crucifixion, with the letters J.N.R.J.; on the right of which was a crescent, and on the left a rising sun; at the bottom, the Virgin Mary, in a weeping attitude: on the reverse, a lamb, with a standard, and St. Andrews' cross. The parsonage, or rectory-house, which stood on the north-east corner of the churchyard, was formerly called the college of St. Mary's. The Hilton family had also a handsome house near this spot, which was enlarged and improved by George Hilton, an eccentric squire, George Hilton, an eccentric character. and well known character in this neighbourhood about the commencement of the last century. This George Hilton was a Roman Catholic, and joined the Scotch rebels in 1715, upon whose defeat he made his escape, but was pardoned by the act of grace the year following, and afterwards retired to a house which he built at the south end of Beethom Park. Mr. Hutton, the historian of this place, says, "that he discovered a diary, in an old chest, which was kept by this gentleman, taken by himself every night, but which was afterwards lost. 'On Sunday, (says he in one place,) I vowed to abstain from three things during the ensuing week (Lent), viz. women, eating of flesh, and drinking of wine; but, alas! the frailty of good resolutions. I broke them all! Conversed with a woman—was tempted to eat the wing of a fowl—and got drunk at Milnthorp.'" Of this parish the Rev. William Hutton was vicar, who wrote a folio book of collections for its history, which he deposited in the vestry for the information of posterity, with blank pages to be filled up as materials should occur. He was an amiable man, and an indefatigable antiquarian. The old manor house, called the Hall of Beethom, was a fine old castellated mansion, but now unfortunately in ruins. One large apartment in this castle is still called the hall, and according The Hall. to the laudable practice of ancient hospitality, was devoted to the purpose of entertaining the friends and dependants of the family: and hence came the proverb—

"'Tis merry in the hall
When beards wag all."

The remains of a room, formerly used as a chapel, still exist; and the ruins of this fine mansion are of considerable extent. The ruins of another hall in this parish are also to be seen in Cappleside Demesne, consisting of a front and two wings, comprising an extent of 117 feet of frontage. Also an ancient tower, now in ruins, called Helslack Tower: and another tower, called Arnside Tower; equally neglected. These towers seem to have been intended to guard the Bay of Morecambe, as similar buildings are erected on the opposite side of the river. A grammar school was founded here in 1663, and rebuilt in 1827. It has an endowment of about £40. a year, arising out of lands bequeathed for the instruction of fifty poor boys.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
58Beggars' BushRadnorKnighton8Presteign2New Radnor6153...
31Beggars' BushOxfordNettlebed4Benson2Wallingford344...
58BeguildypaRadnorKnighton6New Radnor12Bettws41711043
21BeighamKentLamberhurst3Tunb. Wells3Brenchley538...
36BeightonpaSuffolkBury6Woolpit2Stow Market871238
46Beilbyto & chapE.R. YorkPocklington4M. Weighton6York13192239
46BelbytoE.R. YorkHowden1South Cave11Hull2318144
14Belchamp OtenpaEssexHeadingham5Sudbury5Clare453397
14Belchamp, St. PaulspEssex...6...6...354808
14Belchamp Wallers[A]paEssex...6...3...553670
29Belford[B]m.t. & paNorthumb.Newcastle49Alnwick5Berwich153222030
46BellasizetoE.R. YorkHowden5South Cave7Blacktoft3185189
18Bell BarHertsBarnet6Hatfield3Hertford817...

[A] BELCHAMP, or Belchamp Wallers, in the hundred of Hinckford, lies north-east by north from Castle Headingham. The church, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, is lofty and neat, and contains an orchestra, with a fine toned organ. Here is a capacious vault which belongs to the Raymond family; and an elegant marble monument dedicated to them in the chancel. Mrs. Raymond has established in this village a Sunday Belchamp Hall. school for fifty children belonging to the poor. Belchamp Hall, in this parish, is the residence of the Raymond's, one of whose ancestors came into England with the Conqueror, and whose family have resided in this neighbourhood upwards of two centuries. The house is a substantial and commodious building, whose principal or south-eastern front is for the most part composed of foreign bricks. It is situated on a pleasant lawn, sloping gradually to a small river, within 200 yards of the front. A spacious and extensive terrace, skirted with lofty trees, at the end of which is an ancient building, ornamented with painted glass, lies to the south. At the other end is a lofty mount, with another ornamental building on its summit. This mansion contains an interesting collection of pictures by some of the most esteemed masters; among them are the following:—The Wise Men's Offering, an altar-piece; Albert Durer. This picture, with a large gun, some pistols, and powder flasks, inlaid with gold and ivory, were presented to the Raymonds, by Sir William Harris, a sea-officer, who took them, with other property, on the defeat of the Spanish Armada, in 1588. A three-quarter portrait of Sir Hugh Middleton, Bart., in whose public spirit the New river originated, and another of his wife, are both by Cornelius Jansen. Goldingham Hall, in the parish of Bulmer, adjoining Belchamp, was the residence of Sir Hugh.

[B] BELFORD is a little market town pleasantly situated on the side of a hill about two miles from the river Lear, and being a post-town, and on the great north road, has several good inns. The buildings in general are neat, and the church is a handsome structure, erected in 1700. Near this place on a rising ground, are the ruins of an ancient chapel, surrounded by several tall oaks; and at a little distance, are the remains of a Danish camp, apparently of great strength, surrounded by a deep ditch. The annual races formerly run at Beadnall, now take place at this town.

Market, Tuesday—Fairs, Tuesday before Whit-Sunday, and August 23, for black cattle, sheep, and horses. The Edinburgh Mail arrives 7.49 morning; departs 3.36 afternoon.—Inn, Blue Bell.

[C] BELLEAU. At this place, which takes it name from the excellent springs that issue from the chalk hills in the neighbourhood, are the ruins of what is called the Abbey. These consist of part of a turret, and two Abbey Ruins. gateways, which convey an idea of its being a place of considerable importance. The walls are covered with ivy, and overhung with lofty ash trees. After the civil war, this place was granted to the eccentric Sir Harry Vane, who used to amuse himself on Sundays in assembling here his country neighbours, to whom he addressed his pious discourses. The church of Belleau is said, by Gough, to have been attached to the neighbouring monastery of Ailby; but neither Tanner nor the Monasticon mention such a religious house.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
44BellerbychapN.R. YorkLeyburn1Richmond7Middleham4236417
29Bellingham[A]m.t. & paNorthumbHexham16Haltwhistle17Wark42941460
29BellistertoNorthumb...16Aldstone M.12Haltwhistle2281120
18BelswainshamHertsH. Hempsted 2 Watford 7 Ivinghoe 12 22

[A] BELLINGHAM, lies N. N W. from Hexham. It gave name to an ancient family, who were seated here in 1378. Some ruins of their castle still remain. The chapel, dedicated to St. Cuthbert, is roofed with stone arches in rib-work: there are many gravestones in its floor, sculptured with swords, and other warlike emblems. Nearly opposite, on the south side of the North Tyne, is Heslieside, the seat of the Charlton family, since the time of Edward the Sixth. The old mansion-house, built after the manner of Lowther Hall, in Westmoreland, was burnt down about eighty years ago, and then rebuilt. The present edifice stands on a gentle eminence: the grounds are well wooded, and diversified with fine sheep-walks; and the gardens and fruit walls are very productive. Five miles above this place is Falstone chapel; and about seven miles further up is Keelder Castle, formerly the residence of a famous border chieftain, but at present a shooting-box of the Duke of Northumberland. The moors here are scattered over with cairns, tumuli, and Druidical monuments. Of Tarset Hall, about two miles above Heslieside, only some slight remains are visible. Of Chipchase Castle, the old tower still remains. Its Chipchase Castle. roof is built on corbels, and it has openings through which to throw down stones or scalding water upon an enemy. The tattered fragments of Gothic painting on the walls, are exceedingly curious. Soon after it came to the family, (its present owners,) the mansion was thoroughly repaired, and much improved; the chapel on the lawn was rebuilt, the gardens made, and the grounds covered with extensive plantations. This delightful residence is surrounded with scenery of the richest and most enchanting kind. The rooms in it are fitted up in a splendid style, and ornamented with several excellent paintings. A bridge was erected over the Burn at the east end of the town in 1826.

Market, Tuesday.—Fair, Saturday after September 15, for cattle, sheep, linen and woollen cloth.

[B] BELPER, or Belpar, anciently Beaupoire, is situated on the banks of the Derwent, in the hundred of Appletree. It is a chapelry of Duffield; and, though formerly an inconsiderable village, its population now exceeds, with the exception of Derby, every other town in the county. The great increase of population began from three large cotton mills of Messrs. Strutts, the first of which was erected in 1776. Two of them yet remain; but the third was destroyed by fire early in the year 1803. The largest of these mills is 200 feet long, 300 feet wide, and six stories high: it is considered Manufactories. fire proof, as the floor is built on brick arches, and paved with brick. The two water-wheels, which are employed in the machinery in this building, are remarkable for magnitude and singularity of construction; one of them being 40 feet long, and 18 in diameter; and the other 48 feet long, and 12 feet in diameter. As timber could not be procured large enough to form the axles of these wheels in the common manner, they are constructed circularly and hollow, of a number of pieces, and hooped in the manner of a cask. One of the shafts is six feet in diameter, and the other nine. The shuttles are constructed in one piece, so as to support the lateral pressure of the water, although it is ten feet deep, by resting one upon another. This is different from the usual mode of construction, in which they are supported by large perpendicular beams at every six or seven feet, in order to sustain this lateral pressure. About twelve or thirteen hundred people are employed at these mills; and the proprietors have built many houses, and a chapel, for their accommodation. Cotton Mills. Near the mills a stone bridge of three arches has been erected across the Derwent, at the expence of the county, the former one having been washed down by a dreadful flood, in 1795. At a short distance, lower down the river, is a bleaching mill, belonging to the same proprietors; an iron forge, and two cotton mills; one of them constructed like that before described. A stone bridge was also erected here by these gentlemen in 1792. These mills afford regular employment to about 600 persons. A Sunday school has been established here, and another at Belper, for the instruction of the children employed at the cotton works.

Market, Saturday.—Mail arrives 1.30 afternoon; departs 8.45 morning.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
24Belvoir[B]ex pa. libLeicesterGrantham7Newark16Colterswrth10112105
43BemptonpaE.R. YorkBridlington3Flamborough3Hunmanby7210287

[A] BELTON. The church is a small ancient structure. The tower appears to have been rebuilt in the year 1637, and at a subsequent period, the chancel has been renewed. The church is extremely neat, and has Belton House. in the south window six pieces of stained glass, illustrative of scriptural subjects. Within the nave are several splendid monuments. Belton House, near Grantham, the residence of Earl Brownlow, is situated on a beautiful lawn, in a wooded valley, through which the river Witham winds its course. The mansion was built in the year 1689, from designs by Sir Christopher Wren. The form of the building is that of the letter H, a stile of architecture peculiar to that period. It is of stone, and presents four uniform elevations. The apartments are lofty, and well proportioned. Several of the rooms are highly ornamented with carving by Gibbons. The late Lord Brownlow made considerable improvements in the mansion. He took down the cupola and balustrade from the roof. The drawing room was considerably enlarged, and a new entrance at the south front made. Here are many pictures by celebrated masters of the Flemish and Italian schools, with numerous family portraits by Lely, Reynolds, Kneller, Romney and others. Among the latter we may remark a portrait of Sir John Cust, Bart., Speaker of the House of Commons, in his robes, by Sir Joshua Reynolds. William III. in his progress through the northern counties, honoured Belton House with his presence. The park comprises an area of five miles in circumference, inclosed by a wall; numerous plantations of fine trees are highly ornamental to the place. Sir John Brownlow, K.B. afterwards Viscount Tyrconnel, enriched the library with a valuable collection of books; he also formed some extensive gardens, which have since been more adapted to the modern taste in gardening.

[B] BELVOIR. The Castle is one of the most magnificent structures in the kingdom. It is placed on an abrupt elevation of a kind of natural cliff, forming the termination of a peninsular hill. It has been the seat of Manners, Dukes of Rutland, for several generations, and claims the priority of every other building in the county in which it is situated. Belvoir has been the site of a Castle ever since the Norman conquest; and its possessors have been chiefly persons of eminence who have figured in the pages of history. The view from the terraces and towers comprehends the whole vale of Belvoir and the adjoining country as far as Lincoln, including twenty-two of the Duke of Rutland's manors. On the southern slope of the hill are enclosed-terraces, on which there are several flower-gardens, The Castle. surrounded by shrubberies. The park is of great extent, containing fine forest trees, which form a woodland beneath the hill so extensive as to afford shelter for innumerable rooks. Its interior and furniture is of the most superb and costly description; it also contains one of the most valuable collections of paintings in this country, whether considered for the variety of the schools, or the works of each master. A conflagration took place in the year 1816, which consumed a great portion of the ancient part of the castle, and several of the pictures. A curious anecdote is related, illustrative of the folly and superstition of ancient times, which may not be uninteresting to add. Joan Flower and her two; daughters who were servants at Belvoir Castle, having been dismissed the family, in revenge made use of all the enchantments, spells, and charms that were at that time supposed to answer their malicious purposes. Henry the eldest son died soon after their dismissal, but no suspicion of witchcraft arose till five years after, when the three women who are said Charge of witchcraft. to have entered into a formal contract with the devil, were accused of "murdering Lord Henry Ross by witchcraft and torturing the Lord Francis his brother and Lady Catherine his sister." After various examinations they were committed to Lincoln gaol. The mother died at Ancaster, on her way thither, having wished the bread and butter she ate might choak her if she was guilty. The daughters were tried before Sir Henry Hobbert, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, and Sir Edward Bromley, one of the Barons of the Exchequer; they confessed their guilt and were executed at Lincoln, March 11, 1618.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.

[A] BEMERTON, a parish in the hundred of Branch and Dole. The rectory of this place is interesting, as having been the residence of no less than four celebrated characters, viz. Dr. Walter Curie, Bishop of Bath Celebrated men. and Wells, and afterwards of Winchester, who died in 1647; George Herbert, called the divine, who died in 1635; John Norris, a metaphysical writer, who died in 1711; and, lastly, Mr. Archdeacon Coxe, the traveller and historian, who died in 1828: all of them gentlemen highly distinguished in the annals of literature.

[B] BENEFIELD. In this parish are some remarkable cavities, called Swallows, which have opened a wide field of speculation among philosophers, who have grounded, upon the singular phenomena they exhibit, some new systems with regard to the theory of the earth. These swallows are situated about a furlong west of the village, and are nine in number. Geological curiosities. Through these cavities, the land-flood waters constantly pass and disappear. They are of a circular form, and of various diameters; some having an oblique, and others a perpendicular descent, opening beneath the apertures into large spaces, which exhibit several smaller conduits, through which the waters pass, to join perhaps, some subterranean river, or mingle with the grand abyss of waters, which some philosophers have placed in the centre of the earth.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
14Benfleet, NorthpaEssexRayleigh4Billericay6Southend629300
14Benfleet, South[B]paEssex...4...9...632533
44BenningboroughtoN.R. YorkYork7Boro'bridge8Wetherby1020493
46BenningholmetoE.R. YorkBeverly7Hornsea7Hull8182103

[A] BENENDEN, or Biddenden, three miles south east from Cranbrook, is at present populous, though the clothing manufacture, which first occasioned the increase of the population of this part of the county, in the reign of Edward the Third, has for many years failed here. Several good houses still remaining, discover the prosperity of the former inhabitants. The church is a handsome regular building, and its tower a structure of considerable height and strength. By the old part now remaining, it appears to have been originally but small. The interior contains several ancient brasses, and among them, one for the Goldwells of Great Chart; with the dates 1452, and 1499, in Arabic numerals: the rebus of this name, a golden fountain, or well, is also in one of the windows. A free grammar school, now degenerated into a complete sinecure, was founded here in the year 1522. There is a tradition in this parish, that a bequest for the use of the poor, of 20 acres of land, now called the Bread and Cheese land, lying in five pieces, was given by two maiden sisters, commonly The Biddenden maids. called the "Biddenden Maids," of the name of Chulkhurst, "who were born joined together by the hips and shoulders, in the year 1100;" and having lived in that state thirty-four years, died within about six hours of each other. This tale is affected to be established by the correspondent figures of two females impressed on cakes, which after Divine service, in the afternoon, on every Easter Sunday, are distributed to all comers, and not unfrequently to the number from 800 to 1000. At the same time, about 270 loaves, weighing three pounds and a half each, and cheese in proportion, are given to the poor parishioners; the whole expence being defrayed from the rental of the bequeathed lands. The marvellous part of the story however, was wholly discredited by the well informed, until the visit of the Siamese twins to this country revived it with some appearance of truth.

[B] BENFLEET lies south-west by south from Rayleigh. Here was a castle, built by Hastings, the celebrated Danish pirate, and which building A pirate's castle. Matthew of Westminster described, as having deep and wide ditches. This fortress Alfred the Great took and destroyed in the year 890; Hasting's wife and two sons taken therein, were sent to London. The creeks entering the Thames round Benfleet are celebrated for their oysters.

[C] BENNINGTON, called Belintone in the Domesday Book, was a seat of the Mercian kings; and here a great council of nobility and prelates was assembled about the year 850, under King Bertulph, who on the complaint of Askill, a monk of Croyland, of the great devastations committed on the property of that monastery by the Danes, granted the monks a new charter of divers "splendid liberties," and several extensive manors. In Ancient charters. the 33d of Edward I. a charter of a weekly market, and a fair annually, was granted for this manor; but the former has long fallen into disuse! The manor was long in possession of the Bourchiers, Earls of Essex. Robert, the third Earl, after his divorce from the infamous Lady Francis Howard, his first wife, in 1613, sold it to Sir Julius Cæsar, Knt., from whom it descended to his son and heir, Sir Charles Cæsar. This gentleman was appointed Master of the Rolls in 1638; and, after being twice married, and having fifteen children by both wives, died of the small-pox, at Bennington, in 1643: this disease proved fatal also to several of his issue, and among them, to Julius, his eldest surviving son, who dying within a few days, was buried in the same grave with his father. Henry, his next son, and heir, represented this county in the two first parliaments held in the reign of Charles II.; and he was knighted by that sovereign in 1660: he also died of the small-pox, in January 1667. The small-pox fatal to Cheshires. This manor was sold to the trustees under the will of Sir John Cheshire, Knt. His great nephew, John Cheshire, Esq., resided in a small mansion near the ancient castle at Bennington, which stood westward from the church, and most probably occupied the spot whereon stood the palace of the Saxon Kings. The artificial mount of the keep, with the surrounding ditch, are still to be seen. The old manor-house that had been inhabited by the Cæsars, stood in the park, at a small distance from the village, but was burnt down about fifty years ago. A small edifice, since erected on the site, was for some years occupied by Mr. Bullock. Bennington church is a small fabric, consisting of a nave and a chancel, with a tower at the west end, and a chapel or burial-place connected with the chancel on the north. Here are two ancient monuments, under arches, which form Their monuments. part of them, each exhibiting recumbent figures of a knight and a lady. Many of the Cæsars lie buried here. The Benstede family, sometime lords of the manor, are supposed to have built this church, as their arms are displayed both upon the roof and on the tower. In a niche over the south porch, St. Michael and the dragon are sculptured.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
14BentfieldhamEssexStanstead2B. Stortford4Saff. Walden934505
44Benthampa & toW.R. YorkSettle12Ingleton5Lancaster132473957
35Bentleyto & libStaffordWalsall2S. Coldfield7Lichfield812099
46BentleytoW.R. YorkDoncaster2Arksey1Thorne101641144
10Bentley, FennypaDerbyAshborne3Wirksworth8Derby16142308
14Bentley, GreatpaEssexColchester9Manningtree9Harwich1360978
10Bentley, HungrytoDerbyAshborne6Derby10Uttoxeter913692
14Bentley, LittlepaEssexManningtree5Colchester9Harwich1060438
42Bentley,Up. & L.hamWorcesterBromsgrove3Redditch3Birmingham14113
29Benton, LittletoNorthumbNewcastle4N. Shields6Blyth9278
29Benton, Long[B]paNorthumb...4...6...92785547

[A] BENSINGTON was an ancient British town, taken from the original inhabitants by Ceaulin, in the year 572. The west Saxons held the place for two centuries, and appear to have constructed a castle for its defence; but it was reduced by Offa, king of the Mercians, who defeated his rival in a sanguinary contest. To the west of the church are a quadrangular A Mercian King. bank and trench. Three sides of the embankment are much defaced. Plot mentions an "angle of King Offa's palace near the church;" by which he probably alludes to the same spot. In this village are several modern buildings. The church, which is gothic, has been built at different times. In the brick flooring of the nave are some ancient stones, with mutilated brasses. Here is a Sunday-school supported by subscription; and a meeting-house for methodists.

[B] LONG BENTON. A dreadful calamity occurred at Heaton Colliery, in this neighbourhood, on the morning of May 3, 1815, when, by Dreadful accident. the sudden influx of water from an old mine, Mr. Miller, (the under-viewer, who left a wife and eight children), 22 workmen, 42 boys, and 37 horses, perished; and 25 widows, with about 80 children, were left to bemoan the sudden death of their husbands and fathers. Steam-engines were immediately employed, and every exertion was made for the recovery of the bodies; notwithstanding which, it was not till the 6th of January, in the following year, that the first body was found. It was that of an old man employed on the waggon-way: and a fact worthy of notice is, that the waste-water in which he had been immersed had destroyed the woollen clothes, and corroded the iron parts of a knife the deceased had in his pocket, yet his linen and the bone-haft of his knife remained entire. Shortly after, Mr. Miller, and a few others, were discovered: they had met a similar fate, having been overtaken by the water about a hundred yards from the shaft to which they had been hastening to save themselves. But the lot of these eight persons may be considered fortunate, when compared with the unhappy beings left at work towards the rise of the mine, and as yet unconscious of their dreadful situation. About the 16th of February, the higher parts of the workings were explored; and now a scene truly Fifty-six lives lost in a mine. horrible was presented to view: for here lay the corpses of 56 human beings, whom the water had never reached, being situated 35 fathoms above its level. They had collected together near the crane, and were found within a space of 30 yards of each other; their positions and attitudes were various; several appeared to have fallen forwards from off an inequality, or rather step, in the coal on which they had been sitting; others, from their hands being clasped together, seemed to have expired while addressing themselves to the protection of the Deity; two, who were recognized as brothers, had died in the act of taking a last farewell by grasping each other's hand: and one poor boy reposed in his father's arms. Two slight cabins had been hastily constructed by nailing up deal boards, and in one of these melancholy habitations three of the stoutest miners had breathed their last. A large lump of horse flesh, wrapped up in a jacket, nearly two pounds of candles, and three others, which had died out when half-burned, were found in this apartment, if it can be so called. One man, well known to have possessed a remarkably pacific disposition, had retired to a distance to end his days alone, and in quiet. Another had been placed to watch the rise or fall of the water; to ascertain which, sticks had been placed, and was found dead at his post. There were two horses in the part of the mine to which the people had retired; one had been slaughtered, its entrails taken out, and hind quarters cut up for use; the other was fastened to a stake, which it had almost gnawed to pieces, as well as a corfe or coal basket that had been left within its reach. That these ill-fated people perished for want of Cause of their death. respirable air, and not from hunger and thirst, is certain; for most of the flesh cut from the horse, with a considerable quantity of horse-beans, were unconsumed, and a spring of good water issued into this part of the colliery; besides, the unburned remains of candles afford evidence of a still stronger nature; and by these data the coroner's jury was enabled to pronounce a verdict accordingly. The overman had left the chalk-board, in which it is usual to take down an account of the work done, together with his pocket-book, in an empty corfe; on these some memorandum might have been expected to be noted: but no writing subsequent to the catastrophe appeared on either.—The bodies of those men which had lain in wet places were much decayed; but where the floor was dry, though their flesh had become much shrivelled, they were all easily recognised by their features being entire.

Map Names of Places County Number of Miles From Dist.
45Bents-GreenW.R. YorkSheffield3Bakewell13Castleton12163...
14BerdinpaEssexStanstead6Saff. Walden9Bis. Stortford636342
36Bergholt, EastpaSuffolkHadleigh6Ipswich8Manningtree3631360
14Bergholt, WestpaEssexColchester4Witham13Halstead1010786
15Berkeley[A]m.t. & paGloucesterDursley 6 Chepstow 13 Thornbury 7 114 3899

[A] BERKELEY. This ancient, but small town, is situated upon a pleasant eminence in the beautiful vale of Berkeley, almost east from the Severn. In the Domesday book, it is termed a royal domain and free borough. A nunnery is said to have existed here in the reign of Edward the Confessor; the frail sisters of which were dispossessed of their estates, including the manor, by the craft of Earl Godwin, who found means to introduce into the community a profligate young man, by whom the nuns were seduced. This conduct being reported to the King, the nunnery was The nunnery. dissolved, and its possessions granted to the Earl. The Conqueror afterwards bestowed the manor on Roger, surnamed De Berkeley, a chieftain who had accompanied him to England. Roger, his grandson, taking part with Stephen, against Henry II., was deprived of his lands; and Berkeley was given by that monarch to Robert Fitzharding, Governor of Bristol, in reward for his eminent services. This nobleman was descended from the Kings of Denmark, and in his posterity the extensive manor of Berkeley, one of the largest in England, is still vested. Berkeley church appears to be of the age of Henry II., though it has undergone various alterations. Near the pulpit is a curious tomb, in memory of Thomas, second Lord Berkeley, and Margaret, his first wife. Here also are various other monuments of this family. The tower, which stands at some distance from the church, was constructed about seventy years ago. In the churchyard is the well known ludicrous epitaph, written by Dean Swift, in memory of "Dickey Pearce, the Earl of Suffolk's fool." Berkeley Castle appears to have been founded by Roger de Berkeley, soon after the The castle. Conquest; but various important additions were made to it during the reigns of Henry II., Edward II., and Edward III. The form of the castle approaches nearest to that of a circle; and the buildings are included by an irregular court, with a moat. The keep is flanked by three semi-circular towers, and a square one of subsequent construction: its walls are high and massive: the entrance into it is under an arched doorway, with ornamental sculpture in the Norman style, similar to one at Arundel Castle. This fortress has been the scene of various memorable transactions; the most remarkable, perhaps, was that of the murder of Murder of Edward II. Edward II., in September, 1327, thus noticed by Gray:—

"Mark the year, and mark the night,
When Severn shall re-echo with affright,
The shrieks of death through Berkeley's roofs that ring;
Shrieks of an agonising King!"

Tradition states, that when the murder of King Edward had been determined on, Adam, Bishop of Hereford, at the instigation of the Queen, wrote to the keeper the following words; which, not possessing the distinctness imported by punctuation, were capable of a double construction:

"Edwardum occidere nolite timere bonum est."
Edward the King kill not to fear is good.

The keeper, easily divining the wicked wishes of his employer, put his royal master to death. According to another account, when the death of this unfortunate, but weak sovereign, had been resolved on by the Queen and Mortimer, her infamous paramour, he was removed from Kenelworth to Berkeley Castle, by Sir John Maltravers and Sir Thomas Gourney, to whose keeping he had been previously committed. Thomas, second Lord Berkeley, then owner of the castle, treated him with civility and kindness, but was, in a short time, obliged to relinquish his fortress to the government of Maltravers and Gourney, by whom the King was soon afterwards murdered, in the most brutal and savage manner. "His crie," says Holinshed, "did move many within the castell and town of Birckelei to compassion, plainly he