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Title: A Brief Handbook of English Authors

Author: Oscar Fay Adams

Release Date: August 14, 2011 [EBook #37072]

Language: English

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Copyright, 1883,

All rights reserved.

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Links to Author Name first letters



This brief handbook is intended simply for every-day use, when reference to larger works of the kind may not be convenient. Experience has proved that the small book which can be readily taken up is consulted far more frequently than the ponderous volume that requires great muscular exertion to lift.

In the world of letters as in the world of society conventionality plays no unimportant part, as every student of literature knows. That there is such a thing as "conventional immortality" every biographical dictionary yields abundant evidence. Even so small a work as this must necessarily contain many names that have achieved this conventional immortality through the accident of circumstance. Some literary fames are among the legacies left by preceding centuries to the present one to account for and explain. And when all is said, "the iniquity of oblivion blindly scattereth her poppy and dealeth with the memory of men without distinction to merit of perpetuity."


Erie, Pa., October 28, 1883.


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Abbott, Edwin A. 1838 ——. Shakespearean scholar. Author of a Shakespearean Grammar, a Handbook of Elizabethan English, etc. Pub. Mac. Rob.

A'Becket, Gilbert Abbot. 1811–1856. Humorist. Author Comic Hist. of England, Comic Hist. of Rome, Comic Blackstone, etc. Pub. Apl. Lip.

Adams, Mrs. Sarah (Flower). 1805–1848. Known chiefly by her hymn, "Nearer, my God, to Thee."

Adams, Wm. 1814–1848. Religious writer. Author of Sacred Allegories, etc. See Edition of 1869, with Life. Pub. Lip.

Addison, Joseph. 1672–1719. Essayist and poet. His tragedy of Cato is now little read, but his Hymns still continue deservedly popular. As a prose writer A. has exercised an influence upon the manners, morals, and general culture of his time not easily overestimated. His style is graceful, gentle, and persuasive. With Steele he created the Periodical Essay, and was the chief contributor to the Tatler, Spectator, and Guardian. See Thackeray's Eng. Humorists, Aikin's Memorials of Addison. Pub. Har. Lip.

Aguilar [ä-ge-lar´], Grace. 1816–1847. Novelist. Home Influence, Woman's Friendship, and Days of Bruce are her chief works. Pub. Apl. Har.

Aikin [ā´kin], John. 1747–1822. Biographer and[2] miscellaneous writer. One of the authors of Evenings at Home. Pub. Har.

Aikin, Lucy. 1781–1864. Dau. to J. A. Historian and poet. Author Memoirs of the Courts of Elizabeth, James I., Charles I., Memorials of Addison, etc.

Ainsworth, Robert. 1660–1743. Classical lexicographer.

Ainsworth, Wm. Francis. 1807 ——. Geologist and traveller. Author Travels in Asia Minor, Researches in Assyria, Babylonia, and Chaldea, etc.

Ainsworth, Wm. Harrison. 1805–1882. Cousin to W. F. A. Novelist. His historical novels are numerous, but Jack Sheppard is his most famous work, and has been 8 times dramatized. His popularity has been very great, many of his works having been translated into most European languages, yet their literary merit is not high, and the influence of Jack Sheppard, in particular, is pernicious. Pub. Har. Rou. Pet.

Airy, George Biddell. 1801 ——. Astronomer. Author Essays on the Invasion of Britain by Julius Cæsar, and numerous scientific papers of value.

Akenside, Mark. 1721–1770. Poet and physician. Author of a philosophical poem in blank verse on The Pleasures of the Imagination. Pub. Hou.

Alcuin [ăl´-kwin]. c. 735–804. Abp. York. Writer of Latin commentaries, dogmatic treatises, and numerous Latin poems.

Aldhelm. 656–709. Anglo-Latin poet. His principal theme is the praise of virginity, on which he has written in both prose and verse.

Alexander, Adam. 1741–1809. Scotch grammarian. Author of Classical Biog. etc.


Alexander, Mrs. Cecil Frances. 18— ——. Poet. Best known by her famous poem, The Burial of Moses. Pub. Dut. Mac.

Alexander, Mrs. Novelist. See Hector, Mrs. Annie Alexander.

Alexander, Wm. c. 1580–1640. Scotch poet. Author Recreations with the Muses, Doomsday, etc. Style didactic and heavy. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 2.

Alford [awl'ford], Henry. 1810–1871. Dean of Canterbury. Author of Poems, a valuable edition of the Greek Testament, a much criticised Plea for the Queen's English, etc. See Life, Journals, and Letters. See Moon's The Dean's English. Pub. Har. Ran. Rou.

Alfred the Great. 848–901. The Father of English Prose. An untiring scholar whose labors gave form and dignity to the English tongue. His translations from the Latin are numerous and valuable, among them being Bæda's Ecclesiastical History and Boethius's Consolations of Philosophy. See Green's Making of England.

Alfric. —— 1006. Abp. Canterbury. A noted theologian and grammarian. His 80 Homilies his chief work. He translated the books of Moses and wrote many theological works.

Alison, Archibald. 1757–1839. Scotch theological writer. Essays on Taste, etc. Pub. Har.

Alison, Sir Archibald. 1792–1867. Son to preceding. Historian. Author of a Hist. of Europe in 18 vols. and a Life of Marlborough. Pub. Har.

Allein [ăl'lĕn], Joseph. 1633–1668. Theologian. Author of Alarm to the Unconverted.

Allen, Chas. Grant. 1848 ——. Author of Physiological Æsthetics, Color and Sense, Force and Energy, etc. Pub. Apl.[4]

Allingham, Wm. 1828 ——. Irish poet. Author Day and Night Songs, Songs, Ballads and Stories, etc. Pub. Mac.

A. L. O. E. See Tucker, Charlotte.

Andrews, Lancelot. 1555–1626. Bp. Winchester. The most eminent preacher of his time, and a High Church theologian of great rigor and learning. He was one of the translators of the Bible and author of 4 vols. of Sermons and a Manual of Private Devotions. Style involved and artificial. Pub. Dut.

Anster, John. 1798–1867. Irish poet. Author of a much admired translation of Faust.

Anstey, Christopher. 1724–1805. Poet. The New Bath Guide (pub. 1766) is his chief work and was the most popular book of its day. It is a lively, versified description of life and manners of Bath. See his Works, pub. 1808, with Life, by his son.

Arbuthnot [är´bŭth-not], John. 1675–1735. Humorist. Author Hist. John Bull, Art of Political Lying, Memoirs of P. P. Clark of this Parish, and supposed author of the greater part of the famous satire upon the abuses of learning, the Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus.

Armstrong, John. 1709–1779. Scotch poet and physician. Author of the Art of Preserving Health, a poem of much originality of style.

Arnold, Edwin. 1832 ——. Poet and journalist. His chief work, The Light of Asia, gives him a high rank among modern poets. The subject is the life of Buddha. He has translated much from the Sanskrit, and is the author of Griselda, Lyrical and Dramatic Poems, The Indian Song of Songs, Pearls of the Faith, etc. Style elevated and versification musical. Pub. Rob.[5]

Arnold, Matthew. 1822 ——. Son to succeeding. Poet and essayist. His poetry is pervaded by a vein of doubt and mistrust, although elevated in character and of great merit. Tristram and Iseult, and Thyrsis, an elegy on the poet Clough, are among his best poems. His prose works are numerous and important. Literature and Dogma, and Essays in Criticism are among the best known. The phrase "sweetness and light" was made familiar by him. See Hutton's Essays, Swinburne's Essays and Studies, Stedman's Victorian Poets, Edinburgh Rev. April, 1869. Pub. Har. Mac. Ho. Ste.

Arnold, Thomas. 1795–1842. Head Master of Rugby. Author Hist. Rome and Lect. on Modern Hist. He exercised a great and beneficial influence upon the minds of the young Englishmen of his time. See Life and Correspondence of Arnold, by A. P. Stanley, and Hughes' School Days at Rugby. Pub. Apl.

Arnold, Thos. Kerchever. 1800–1853. Author of classical text-books. Pub. Apl.

Arnold, Wm. Delafield. 1828–1859. Son to T. A. Writer of historical sketches and lectures.

Arnott, Neil. 1788–1874. Scotch scientist. Author Elements of Physics, etc. Pub. Apl.

Ascham [ăs´kam], Roger. 1515–1568. Tutor of Lady Jane Grey and Q. Elizabeth. Author of Toxophilus, a treatise on the bow, and The Schoolmaster. A. possessed a clear, correct style.

Ashe, Thomas. 1836 ——. Poet. Author of The Sorrows of Hypsipyle, etc.

Ashmole, Elias. 1617–1692. Antiquary. Author of Laws of the Order of the Garter, etc.

Atterbury, Francis. 1662–1732. Bp. Rochester. Theologian. Author Sermons and numerous controversial writings.[6]

Aubrey, John. 1626–1697. Antiquary. A. published a collection of popular superstitions.

Austen, Jane. 1775–1817. Novelist. Author of Pride and Prejudice, Sense and Sensibility, Northanger Abbey, Mansfield Park, Persuasion, Emma, The Watsons, and Lady Susan. These novels are examples of the finest literary art, and have delighted cultured minds for almost three generations. Her character-drawing is strong and realistic. See Atlantic Monthly, Feb. 1863. See Jane Austen and her Works by Sarah Tytler (pub. 1881). Pub. Har. Por. Lit. Rou.

Austin, Alfred. 1834 ——. Poet and novelist. Author of An Artist's Proof, Interludes, The Human Tragedy, etc. Pub. Mac.

Austin, Mrs. Sarah. 1793–1867. Author Characteristics of Goethe, and of numerous translations from the German.

Ayton [ā´tun], Sir Robert. 1570–1638. Scotch poet. Remembered for his lyric, "I do confess thou'rt smooth and fair."

Aytoun [a´tun], Wm. Edmondstoune. 1813–1865. Scotch poet. Author Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers, Bothwell, Edinburgh after Flodden, and with T. Martin, of the Bon Gaultier Ballads. See Memoir by Theodore Martin. Pub. Arm. Hou.

Babbage, Chas. 1790–1871. Mathematician and philosopher. Author of The Economy of Manufactures and Machinery, A Ninth Bridgewater Treatise, etc.

Bacon, Francis. Viscount St. Albans and Baron Verulam. 1561–1626. Philosopher. The Founder of Inductive Philosophy. He wrote, in both Eng. and Latin, The advancement of Learning, Novum Organum and Historia Naturalis et Experimentalis[7] from the Instauratio Magna, which embodies his system of philosophy. His Essays are his most important English work. A man of great genius and wonderful intellectual activity whose writings cover a wide range. He awakened the scientific spirit in England and gave it form. The best edition of B. is that by James Spedding. See Life and Letters of Bacon, by James Spedding (1870), also W. H. Dixon's Personal History of Lord Bacon. Pub. Hou.

Bacon, Roger (Friar.) 1214–1292. Philosopher. The great light of the thirteenth century. In his Opus Major he anticipated many inventions of later times, and displayed a familiarity with all branches of study of his day.

Bage, Robert. 1728–1801. Novelist. Author of Man as he Is, The Fair Syrian, etc. See Life, by Walter Scott.

Bagehot [bāj´ut], Walter. 1826–1877. Essayist and journalist. Author of Lombard Street, Physics and Politics, The Eng. Constitution, and Essays on Silver. See Living Age, April 19, 1879. Pub. Apl. Lit. Scr.

Bailey, Philip James. 1816 ——. Poet. Author of Festus, The Angel World, The Mystic, The Age, etc. Festus, which had a brief popularity, is a work of unequal merit, but contains a few brilliant passages.

Baillie, Joanna. 1764–1851. Scotch dramatist. Has been called "the female Shakespeare." Author of Plays on the Passions, etc. Her tragedy of De Montfort is her finest effort. See complete Works in one vol. with Life (1853). See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 4.


Baker, Sir Samuel White. 1821 ——. Traveller. Author of the Albert Nyanza, The Nile Tributaries of Abyssinia, Ismaïlia, etc. Pub. Har. Lip. Mac.

Balfour, Francis Maitland. 1851–1882. Biologist. Author Elements of Comparative Embryology. Development of the Elasmobranch Fishes, etc. Style acute and original. See Fortnightly Rev. Nov. 1882. Pub. Mac.

Banim [bā´nim], John. 1798–1842. Irish novelist. His novels deal almost exclusively with the tragic side of Irish peasant life. See Life, by P. J. Murray, 1857.

Banks, Sir Joseph. 1743–1820. Naturalist. See Cuvier, Elegy on Sir J. Banks, 1821.

Barbauld [bar´bawld or bar-bō´], Mrs. Anna Lætitia. 1743–1825. Miscellaneous writer. Author of Hymns in Prose, Miscellaneous Poems, etc. Among her best efforts is the exquisite little poem, Life. Some of her religious poetry is deservedly popular. Style easy and graceful. See edition with Memoir, by L. Aikin, 1827.

Barbour, John. 1316–1396. Archdeacon of Aberdeen. Scotch poet. His Bruce, a metrical hist. in 13,000 octosyllabic lines, is a chronicle of the life of King Robert I., and has historical value as well as literary merit. See Craik's Eng. Lit. vol. I.

Barclay, Robert. 1648–1690. Scotch writer. His Apology for the Quakers was first pub. in Latin.

Barham [băr´am], Richard Harris. 1788–1845. Humorous poet. Author of the Ingoldsby Legends, a witty volume of facile rhymes. Pub. Por. Wid.

Baring-Gould, Sabine. 1834 ——. Author Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, Lives of the Saints, etc. See Lit. World, Jan. 13, 1883. Pub. Apl. Lip. Rob.

Barnard, Lady Anne. 1750–1825. Scotch poet. Author of Auld Robin Gray.[9]

Barnfield, Richard. 1574-c. 1605. Poet. His ode "As it fell upon a day" was once ascribed to Shakespeare. See Warton's Eng. Poetry.

Barrow, Isaac. 1630–1677. Theologian and mathematician. Author of Sermons and Mathematical works of almost equal renown. See Selections from, pub. 1866. Pub. Mac.

Barton, Bernard. 1784–1849. A Friend of Lamb's. "The Quaker Poet." Author of Poetic Vigils, Devotional Verses, etc., the literary merit of which is but slight.

Baxter, Richard. 1615–1691. Theologian. A voluminous writer, but now best known by his Saints' Rest, and Call to the Unconverted. See edition of 1850 in 23 vols. with Life. Pub. Clx.

Bayley, Thos. Haynes. 1797–1839. Song writer. Author of I'd be a Butterfly, She wore a Wreath of Roses, We met, 't was in a Crowd, etc.

Bayne, Peter. 1830 ——. Essayist and biographer. Author of Christian Life, Essays in Biographical Criticism, Life of Hugh Miller, etc. Pub. Har. Rou.

Beale, Lionel Smith. 1828 ——. Scientific writer of note. Author of How to Work with the Microscope, Protoplasm, The Mystery of Life, etc.

Beattie [bee´tĭ1; or bā´tĭ], James. 1735–1803. Scotch poet. Author of The Minstrel, a long, prosy poem in Spenserian stanza, and a prose Essay on Truth. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 3. Pub. Hou.

Beaumont, Francis. 1586–1615. Dramatist. Colleague of John Fletcher. Their collected plays amount to 52, of which 14 were in part the work of B., but his separate authorship is not easy to trace. B. and F. in their day were more popular than Shakespeare, but none of their plays now keep the stage. Their blank verse is melodious and their[10] wit and humor sparkling, but their plays reflect the full coarseness of the time. Among plays written by them jointly are Philaster, Thierry and Theodoret, A King and No King, and the comedy of The Knight of the Burning Pestle. See Fletcher, John. See Schlegel's Dramatic Lit., Hazlitt's Dramatic Lit. and Hallam's Lit. of Europe. Pub. Apl.

Beaumont, Sir John. 1582–1628. Bro. to F. B. Author Bosworth Field, a poem in heroic verse.

Beckford, Wm. 1760–1844. Author of Vathek, an Oriental romance. Style luxuriant. See Chambers' Cyc. Eng. Lit.

Beddoes, Thos. Lovell. 1803–1849. Poet. Author The Bride's Tragedy, Death's Jest-Book, etc. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 4.

Bede, Cuthbert. See Bradley, Edward.

Bede, Beda, or Bæda, The Venerable. 673–735. "First among Eng. scholars, first among Eng. theologians, first among Eng. historians." His whole life was passed in the monastery of Yarrow, where he composed more than 40 Latin works, the greatest of which is the Eccl. Hist. of the Eng. Nation. On the day of his death was finished his translation of St. John's Gospel into Eng., being the earliest example of Eng. prose. See edition of Bede by Dr. Giles, 6 vols. 1843-4. See Green's Short Hist. of the Eng. People, also Green's Making of England. Pub. Dut.

Behn [bĕn], Mrs. Aphra. 1642–1689. Novelist and dramatist. Known in her day as Astræa. Author of The Forced Marriage, Oronooko, etc. A lively, immoral writer. See edition of 1871. See Miss Kavanagh's Eng. Women of Letters, and Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 2.[11]

Bellenden, Wm. fl. c. 1615. Scotch classical writer. Author De Statu.

Bentham, Jeremy. 1748–1832. Philosopher and political economist. Founder of the Utilitarian school of thought, and a valued authority upon jurisprudence. Many reforms in Eng. jurisprudence are traceable to his influence. See edition of 1843 in 11 vols. See Edinburgh Rev. Oct. 1843.

Bentley, Richard. 1662–1742. Classical writer. Author Dissertations on the Epistles of Phalaris, works provoked by his famous controversy with Boyle, and which rank as masterpieces of argument. They display great learning, a rapid, concise style, and a sarcastic wit. See Bentley, by R. C. Jebb, in Eng. Men of Letters.

Berkeley, George. 1684–1753. Bp. Cloyne. Irish metaphysician. An eccentric but pure-minded thinker, in whose Principles of Human Knowledge is denied the existence of matter. Other works of B. are Alciphron or the Minute Philosopher, Theory of Vision, Siris, etc. Also the poem in which occurs the famous line, "Westward the course of empire takes its way." See edition of Berkeley, by Fraser, 4 vols. Oxford, 1871.

Berners, Lord. 1469–1532. Translator of Froissart's Chronicle. The translation is faithful and is a masterpiece of picturesque and spirited English.

Berners, Juliana. c. 1388-c. 1461. Author of the Bokys of Hunting and Hawking. See Warton's Hist. Eng. Poetry.

Besant, Walter. 1838 ——. Novelist. Colleague of James Rice, and with him author of The Seamy Side, Ready Money Mortiboy, the Chaplain of the Fleet, Shepherds All and Maidens Fair, etc. Sole author of The Revolt of Man, Life of E. H. Palmer, etc. See Rice, James. Pub. Har. Rob. Dut.[12]

Beveridge, Wm. 1638–1708. Bp. St. Asaph. Theologian. Thesaurus Theologicus, Expositions of the Catechism and 39 Articles, and Private Thoughts are some of his chief works.

Bickerstaff, Isaac. 1735-c. 1788. Dramatist. Author of Maid of the Mill, Love in a Village, etc. See Hazlitt's Essays on the Comic Writers.

Bickersteth, Edward. 1786–1850. Religious writer. Author of The Scripture Help, etc. See edition of his Works in 17 vols. 1853. See Memoir of, by T. R. Birks, 1851.

Bickersteth, Edward Henry. 1825 ——. Son to E. B. Religious Poet. Author of Yesterday, To-Day and Forever, The Two Brothers, etc. Pub. Ca. Dut.

Bickersteth, Rob't. 1816 ——. Bp. Ripon. Religious writer. Author of Lent Lectures, Bible Landmarks, etc.

Birch, Thomas. 1705–1766. Historian and biographer. Author of a General Dictionary, Historical and Critical.

Black, Wm. 1841 ——. Novelist. A prolific writer, the best of whose works are A Daughter of Heth, Princess of Thule, Strange Adventures of a Phaeton, and Macleod of Dare. They evince rare powers of description and much constructive skill. See Harper's Mag. Dec. 1882. Pub. Har.

Blackie, John Stuart. 1809 ——. Scotch poet and scholar. For 30 years Greek Professor at Edinburgh Univ. His numerous works include Greek, Latin, and German translations, several vols. of poems, and a famous work on Self-Culture which has been translated into every European language. Pub. Scr.

Blackmore, Sir Richard. 1650–1729. Poet. Author of the epics The Creation, and Prince Arthur.[13]

Blackmore, Richard Doddridge. 1825 ——. Novelist. Author Lorna Doone, Maid of Sker, Alice Lorraine, Erema, Mary Anerly, Christowell, etc. A vigorous and original writer. Lorna Doone is his finest work. Pub. Har. Lip.

Blackstone, Sir Wm. 1723–1780. Jurist. Author of Commentaries on the Laws of England, an authoritative work. See Campbell's Lives of the Chief Justices. Pub. Har. Lip.

Blair, Hugh. 1718–1800. Author of the once famous Lectures on Rhetoric. Pub. Por.

Blair, Robert. 1699–1747. Poet. Author of The Grave, a dull, didactic, but once popular poem. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 3.

Blake, Wm. 1757–1827. Artist and poet. Author of Poetical Sketches, Songs of Innocence and Experience, etc. A writer of rare simplicity and beauty. An Elizabethan poet of the 19th cent. See editions of his poems by Shepherd and Rossetti, and Life by Gilchrist, 1863 and 1881, also Swinburne's Study of Blake, 1863. Pub. Rob.

Blamire, Susanna. 1747–1794. Poet. Author of the fine lyrics, The Siller Crown, What Ails this Heart o' Mine, etc.

Blanchard, Edward Laman. 1820 ——. Dramatist and novelist.

Blanchard, Laman. 1803–1845. Littérateur. See Bulwer's Memoir of, with Blanchard's Essays and Sketches, 1849.

Blessington, Marguerite, Countess of. 1789–1849. Society novelist. See Life and Correspondence edited by D. R. Madden.

Bloomfield, Robert. 1766–1823. Pastoral poet. Author of The Farmer's Boy, Rural Tales, The Horkey, etc. Pub Por. Rou.[14]

Blunt, John Henry. 1823 ——. Theologian. Author Hist. Reformation in Ch. of England and editor Dict. Sects and Heresies, etc. Pub. Dut.

Blunt, John James. 1794–1855. Ecclesiologist. Author Hist. Christian Ch. in the first three centuries, etc. Pub. Ca.

Bolingbroke, Lord. See St. John, Henry.

Bonar, Horatius. 1808 ——. Scotch poet. Author Hymns of Faith and Hope, etc. Pub. Ca.

Borrow, George. 1803–1881. Author of Gipsies of Spain, Bible in Spain, Lavengro, The Romany Rye, Romany Word Book, etc. See Autobiography, 1851. Pub. Ca. Har.

Boswell [boz´well], Alexander. 1775–1822. Poet. Son to J. B. His song, Jenny Dang the Weaver, is his best known production.

Boswell, James. 1740–1795. Biographer. His Life of Dr. Samuel Johnson is an incomparable work. Pub. Ho. Lit. Rou.

Boswell, James. 1779–1822. Son to preceding. Shakespearean scholar.

Boucicault [boo-se-ko´], Dion. 1822 ——. Dramatist. Among his very numerous popular plays, London Assurance, Rip Van Winkle, The Corsican Brothers, Led Astray, and the Shaughran are perhaps the best. See Johnson's Cyc.

Bowles, Wm. Lisle. 1762–1850. Poet. Author Fourteen Sonnets, Village Verse Book, etc. A graceful writer, to whom Wordsworth and Coleridge attributed their own poetic inspiration.

Bowring [bour´ing], Sir John. 1792–1872. Philologist and poet. Best known as a writer of hymns of great beauty, among others, the familiar Watchman, Tell us of the Night. See Autobiographical Recollections, 1877. Pub. Dut.[15]

Boyd, Andrew Kennedy Hutchinson. 1825 ——. Scotch essayist. Author of Essays by a Country Parson, Graver Thoughts, Autumn Holidays, etc. He signed his essays with his initials A. K. H. B.

Boyle, Chas. 1676–1731. Famous for his controversy with Bentley concerning the Epistles of Phalaris. See Bentley, Richard.

Boyle, Robert. 1626–1691. Philosopher. A voluminous writer upon metaphysics and natural sciences.

Braddon, Miss. See Maxwell, Mrs. Mary E.

Bradley, Edward. "Cuthbert Bede." 1827 ——. Humorist. Author Adventures of Verdant Green, etc.

Bradley, James. 1692–1762. Astronomical writer.

Brady, Nicholas. 1659–1726. Chiefly known for his share in the version of the Psalms prepared by him with Nahum Tate.

Bray, Mrs. Anna Eliza. 1790–1883. Miscellaneous writer of note. See Lit. World, Feb. 24, 1883.

Brewer, E. Cobham. 1810 ——. Author Reader's Handbook, Dict. Phrase and Fable, Guide to Science, etc. Well edited and valuable books of reference. Pub. Clx. Lip.

Brewster, Sir David. 1781–1868. Scientist. Author Natural Magic, More Worlds than One, Lives of Newton, Kepler, etc. See Life, by his daughter, 1869. Pub. Har.

Brontë [brŏn´te], Anne. 1820–1849. Novelist. Sister to C. B. Author of Tenant of Wildfell Hall and Agnes Gray. Pub. Har.

Brontë, Charlotte. 1816–1855. Sister to A. B. and E. B. Novelist. Author of The Professor, Jane Eyre, Shirley, and Villette. A writer of great power and originality, whose Jane Eyre marks an[16] era in the history of fiction. See Charlotte Brontë by T. W. Reid, 1877; Life of by Mrs. Gaskell, and H. Martineau's Biographical Sketches. Pub. Har.

Brontë, Emily. 1819–1848. Sister to C. B. Novelist. Her Wuthering Heights shows in places greater power than either of her sisters possessed, but as a whole is strained and unnatural. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 4. Emily Brontë, by A. Mary F. Robinson, and London Athænum, June 16, 1883. Pub. Har.

Brooke, Arthur. —— c. 1563. Poet. Wrote the Tragical Hist. of Romeo and Juliet, a paraphrase of Bandello's novel, the source of Shakespeare's drama.

Brooke, Charlotte. —— 1793. Daughter to H. B. Author of Reliques of Irish Poetry translated into Eng. verse, etc.

Brooke, Mrs. Frances Moore. 1745–1789. Author of several novels, the opera Rosina, and a periodical called The Old Maid.

Brooke, Henry. 1706–1783. Author of plays, poems, and a once famous novel called The Fool of Quality. Pub. Mac.

Brooke, Lord. See Greville Fulk.

Brooke, Stopford. 1832 ——. Religious writer. Author Life of F. W. Robertson, Freedom in the Ch. of England, Christ in Modern Life, Theology in the Eng. Poets, Primer of Eng. Lit., Sermons, etc. Style clear, thoughtful, and strong. Pub. Apl. Mac.

Brooks, Chas. Shirley. 1815–1874. Dramatist and Novelist. Author Poems of Wit and Humor, The Gordian Knot, etc. Pub. Har.


Broome, Richard. —— 1562. Dramatist. Wrote in conjunction with others.

Brougham [broo´am or broo´m], Henry, Lord. 1779–1868. Statesman and orator. A man of strong intellect, whose speeches are among the ablest of his time. A versatile writer, among whose numerous works are Eloquence of the Ancients and Lives of Men of Letters. See Autobiography pub. 1871; Edinburgh Rev. April, 1858, and Life by Lord Campbell. His works in 10 vols., pub. 1857.

Broughton, Rhoda. 18— ——. Novelist. Author of Red as a Rose is She, Nancy, Belinda, etc. Style spirited, but wanting in refinement of expression. Pub. Lit.

Brown, John. 1810–1882. Scotch essayist and physician. Best known by his exquisite story of Rab and his Friends. Pub. Hou.

Brown, Thomas. 1778–1820. Scotch philosophical writer.

Brown, Tom. 1663–1704. Humorous and immoral poet and miscellaneous writer.

Browne, Edward Harold. 1811 ——. Bp. Winchester. Theologian. Author of The Pentateuch and Elohistic Psalms, Sermons on the Atonement, etc. Pub. Dut.

Browne, Isaac Hawkins. 1706–1760. Poet. Author of A Pipe of Tobacco, etc.

Browne, Sir Thos. 1605–1682. Author of a treatise on Christian Morals, Religio Medici, Hydriotaphia or Urn-Burial, etc. A writer of striking genius whose works will always attract thoughtful readers. Style meditative and imaginative, but frequently obscure. See complete edition in Bohn's Antiquarian Library. Pub. Mac. Rob.

Browne, Wm. 1590–1645. Poet. Wrote Britannia's Pastorals, Shepherd's Pipe, etc. His style is[18] easy and harmonious, and some of his lyrics are yet read.

Browning, Mrs. Elizabeth Barrett. 1809–1861. Poet. By many critics given the highest place among poets of her sex, but her verse, in the main, appeals to a limited class of readers. It has a masculine strength, a passionate vehemence of expression, and it is often pathetic and tender, but its frequent obscurity is a grave defect. Aurora Leigh, Casa Guidi Windows, and Sonnets from the Portuguese, are among her chief works. See Letters of, edited by R. H. Hone, 1877, Contemporary Rev. 1873, and Stedman's Victorian Poets. Pub. Mil.

Browning, Robert. 1812 ——. Poet. Husband to E. B. B. Author of a long series of poems, some of them obscure and enigmatical to the last degree, but all bearing the marks of great genius. Paracelsus, Sordello, Pippa Passes, The King and The Book, Fifine at the Fair, and Jocoseria are some of them. His circle of sincere admirers is small, but shorter poems of his, like Hervé Riel, and the Pied Piper of Hamelin, are widely known and read. See Lit. World, March 11, 1882, Century Mag. December, 1881, and Stedman's Victorian Poets. Pub. Hou.

Brunton, Mrs. Mary Balfour. 1778–1818. Scotch novelist. Author Self Control and Discipline. Pub. Har.

Bryant, Jacob. 1715–1804. Classical and mythological writer.

Bryce, James. 1810 ——. Historian. Author Native Education in India, and The Holy Roman Empire. Pub. Har. Mac.

Brydges, Sir Sam'l Egerton. 1762–1837. A prolific writer in verse and prose. Style often fantastic and eccentric.[19]

Buchanan, George. 1506–1582. Scotch poet and historian. Wrote a Latin version of the Psalms, and a Latin Hist. of Scotland. See Hallam's Lit. of Europe.

Buchanan, Robert. 1841 ——. Scotch poet. Author Idyls and Legends, London Poems, Balder the Beautiful, etc. A writer of some power, but one whose verse is marred by frequent affectations. See Stedman's Victorian Poets, and Contemporary Rev. November, 1873. Pub. Har. Hou. Rou.

Buckhurst, Lord. See Sackville, Thos.

Buckingham, Duke of. See Villiers, George.

Buckinghamshire, Duke of. See Sheffield, John.

Buckland, Francis Trevelyan. 1826–1880. Naturalist. Son to W. B. Author Curiosities of Nat. Hist., Familiar Hist. British Fishes, etc.

Buckland, Wm. 1784–1856. Geological writer of note.

Buckle, Henry Thos. 1822–1862. Historian. His great work, The Hist. of Civilization, was left unfinished. His style is easy and flowing, but his inferences and conclusions are frequently controverted. See Atlantic Monthly, Jan. and April, 1863. Pub. Apl.

Budgell, Eustace. 1685–1736. Essayist. Author of all the papers in the Spectator signed X.

Bull, George. 1634–1710. Bp. St. David's. Theologian. An opponent of Calvinism, against which his Latin treatise, Harmonia Apostolica, is aimed.

Bulwer-Lytton, Sir Edward Geo. 1805–1873. Novelist and Poet. Several of his 25 novels, like The Caxtons, My Novel, Harold, and Kenelm Chillingly, are masterpieces of their kind. Others as well known are Pelham, Zanoni, Last Days of Pompeii, Rienzi, etc. Richelieu, Money, and Lady of[20] Lyons are his most popular dramas. King Arthur and The New Timon are two of his longer poems. See Memoir, by Lord Lytton, Quarterly Rev., Jan. 1865, Blackwood's Mag. Mar., 1873, and Tennyson's poem The New Timon. Pub. Har.

Bulwer-Lytton, Edward Robert. "Owen Meredith." 1831 ——. Poet. Son to preceding. Author of Lucile, Fables in Verse, The Ring of Amasis, etc. His verse has melody and strength, but Lucile, his chief poem, a novel in verse, is asserted to be a plagiarism. See Stedman's Victorian Poets.

Bunyan, John. 1628–1688. Allegorist. Author Pilgrim's Progress, Holy War, etc. The first named is the most famous allegory in the world. The product of a strong, vivid imagination, it holds the attention of cultured and uncultured minds alike. See Biographies of, by Southey, and Macaulay, and Bunyan, by J. A. Froude in Eng. Men of Letters.

Burke, Edmund. 1730–1797. Orator and statesman. As a political writer he has few equals. Among his best efforts are Letters on a Regicide Peace, Letters to a Noble Lord, and Orations on the Impeachment of Warren Hastings. Style polished and cultured. See Morley's Life of, 1867. See select works edited by E. J. Payne, 1874.

Burnand, Francis Cowley. 1837 ——. Author Happy Thoughts, The New History of Sanford and Merton, etc. Pub. Rob.

Burnet, Gilbert. 1643–1715. Bp. Salisbury. Historian. Author Hist. Reformation, Hist. My Own Times, etc. A vivacious, diffuse narrator. See Macaulay's Hist. of England. Pub. Dut. Mac.

Burnet, James. Lord Monboddo. 1714–1799. An eccentric writer, noted for his theory that mankind[21] once had tails, which the habit of sitting on had worn away.

Burnet, Thos. 1635–1715. Author Telluris Sacra Theoria, a fantastic system of Geology, written in an eloquent and majestic style.

Burney, Charles. 1726–1814. Author Gen. Hist. of Music, Life of Metastasio, etc. See Life, by his daughter, Madame D'Arblay.

Burney, Frances. See D'Arblay, Madame.

Burns, Robert. 1759–1796. Scotch poet. A singer of love songs. His verse shows a gentle, tender spirit, and a sympathy for all created things, new to the poetry of his day. Tam O'Shanter, Twa Dogs, and The Jolly Beggars, show the humorous side of his nature. The Cotter's Saturday Night, Auld Lang Syne, A Man's a Man for a' That, are universally known, and some of his lyrics will last as long as the language. See Carlyle's Misc. Essays; Craik's Eng. Lit. vol. 2; also Burns, by Shairp, in Eng. Men of Letters. Pub. Apl. Har. Hou. Por.

Burton, John Hill. 1809–1881. Scotch historian. Author Life and Correspondence of David Hume, Hist. Reign of Q. Anne, Hist. Scotland, etc.

Burton, Robert. 1576–1640. Author of Anatomy of Melancholy. Style fantastic, original, and diffuse. Pub. Apl. Clx. Dut.

Butler, Alban. 1710–1773. Author Lives of the Fathers, Saints, etc., Letters on the Hist. of the Popes, etc. See edition of the Lives, 1812, with Life of A. Butler by Chas. Butler.

Butler, Charles. 1750–1832. Neph. to A. B. Author Horæ Biblicæ, continuation of the Lives of the Saints, etc. See Alibone's Dict.

Butler, Joseph. 1692–1752. Bp. Bristol. Theologian. His great work, Analogy between Natural[22] and Revealed Religion, is much studied and admired. See edition of his works, 1867. Pub. Har.

Butler, Samuel. 1612–1680. Satirical poet. His Hudibras, written in ridicule of the Puritans, is witty and spirited, but too long for the taste of modern readers. See edition of his works by Gilfillan, 1854. Pub. Apl.

Butler, Wm. Archer. 1814–1848. Author Lect. on Hist. of Ancient Philosophy, etc. See Woodward's Life of. Pub. Ca. Mac.

Byrd, Wm. 1540–1623. Poet. Author of the famous lines beginning, "My mind to me a kingdom is."

Byrom, John. 1691–1763. Pastoral poet.

Byron, Henry James. 1835 ——. Dramatist. Author Babes in the Wood, Our Boys, Not such a Fool as he Looks, Good News, etc.

Byron, Lord. See Gordon, George.

Cædmon [kād´mo̯n]. —— c. 680. Anglo-Saxon poet. A monk of Whitby, who wrote about 670 a metrical paraphrase of the Scriptures. It is accented and alliterative, like all Anglo-Saxon poetry, and marks the beginning of Eng. poetry. See Thorpe's edition of, London, 1832.

Calamy, Edmund. 1600–1666. Theological writer.

Calamy, Edmund. 1671–1732. Grandson to preceding. Author of the Nonconformists' Memorial, Defence of Moderate Nonconformity, etc. See his history of his Life and Times, edited by Rutt, 1829.

Calverley, Chas. Stuart. 1831 ——. Poet. Author of Fly-Leaves, translation of Theocritus, etc. Pub. Ho.

Camden, Wm. 1551–1623. Antiquary. Author of Britannia, a Latin description of Britain, etc.[23]

Campbell, George. 1709–1796. Scotch theologian. Author Dissertations on Miracles, Philosophy of Rhetoric, Lect. on Eccl. Hist., etc. Pub. Har.

Campbell, John. 1708–1775. Historical and political writer.

Campbell, John, Lord Chancellor. 1779–1861. Biographer. Author Lives of the Lord Chancellors, and Lives of the Chief Justices. See Edinburgh Rev. Oct. 1857; and see H. Martineau's Biographical Sketches. Pub. Apl. Lit.

Campbell, Thomas. 1774–1844. Scotch poet. Author Pleasures of Hope, Gertrude of Wyoming, etc., poems artificial in cast. His lyrics, like Hohenlinden, Ye Mariners of England, etc., are fine specimens of lyric verse. See Life of by Dr. Beattie, 1849. See W. M. Rossetti's edition of his poems with critical introduction.

Canning, George. 1770–1827. Writer of witty parodies. Needy Knife-Grinder, etc.

Carew, Lady Elizabeth. Fl. c. 1613. Author of the tragedy of Marian.

Carew, Thomas. 1589–1639. Poet. His poems are brief and mainly amatory in character. See complete edition by W. Carew Hazlitt. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 2.

Carey, Henry. 1663–1743. Dramatist and poet. Author Chrononhotonthologos, The Dragon of Wantley, the ballad of Sally in our Alley, and God Save the King.

Carleton, Wm. 1798–1869. Irish novelist. Style vigorous and picturesque. Pub. Rou.

Carlyle, Thomas. 1795–1881. Essayist and historian. Author of Essays, Chartism, Heroes and Hero-Worship, Sartor Resartus, Past and Present, Latter-Day Pamphlets, Life of Sterling, History[24] French Revolution, Life of Frederick the Great, etc. A vigorous, opinionated writer, with a style which is vivid and picturesque, but often wordy and obscure. A man of great but wayward intellectual powers. See Eclectic Mag. 1881. Reminiscences by Carlyle; Letters of Jane Welsh Carlyle, and Emerson and Carlyle. Pub. Hon. Har. Lip.

Carpenter, Lant. 1780–1840. Theological writer.

Carpenter, Wm. Benj. 1813 ——. Physiologist of note. Son to L. C. Author of Principles of Human Physiology, Zoölogy, and the Instinct of Animals, The Microscope, etc. Pub. Apl.

Carr, J. Comyns. 1849 ——. Art Critic and Editor. Author of Drawing by the Italian Masters, St. Albans, Essays, etc.

Carte, Thos. 1686–1754. Historian. Author Hist. England to 1654.

Carter, Elizabeth. 1717–1806. Classical writer. Author of a translation of Epictetus and original poems. The most learned woman of her time.

Cartwright, Wm. 1611–1643. Poet. He enjoyed a great reputation in his day.

Carey, Henry Francis. 1772–1844. Poet. Author of a much admired blank verse translation of Dante. See Memoirs of, by his son, 1847.

Caxton, Wm. 1412–1492. The first Eng. printer. Was author and translator of some 60 books.

Cayley, Arthur. 1821 ——. Mathematical writer.

Cecil [sĕs´il or sis´il], Wm. 1520–1598. Statesman. Author of Precepts addressed to his son.

Centlivre [sent-lĭv´er], Mrs. Susanna. 1680–1723. Dramatist. Her best comedies are The Busybody and The Wonder, the last of which still keeps the stage. See Atlantic Monthly, June, 1882.

Challoner, Bp. Richard. 1691–1781. Author of an[25] Eng. version of the Bible, Grounds of the Catholic Doctrine, etc.

Chalmers [chaw´merz], George. 1742–1825. Scotch historian.

Chalmers, Thomas. 1780–1847. Scotch theologian. The most powerful preacher of his time. Author of Natural Theology, Christian Evidences, etc. See Memoirs of, by Wm. Hanna; do. by F. Wayland; also, Spare Hours, 1st series, by Dr. John Brown. Pub. Har.

Chamberlayne, Wm. 1619–1689. Poet. Author Love's Victory and Pharonidia.

Chambers, Robert. 1802–1871. Scotch publisher. Author of the noted Vestiges of the Nat. Hist. of Creation, etc. See Memoirs of, by W. Chambers.

Chambers, Wm. 1800–1883. Scotch publisher. Bro. to R. C. Author Memoirs of Rob't Chambers, Wintering at Mentone, etc. The brothers were joint editors of many popular works: Information for the People, Encyclopædia, Book of Days, Miscellany, etc. Pub. Lip.

Chapman, George. 1557–1634. Dramatist. Chiefly noted for a fine translation of Homer in 14-syllable verse. See his Homer, 4 vols., London, 1858; Dramatic Works, 1873; George Chapman, by Swinburne.

Chapone [shă-pōn´], Mrs. Hester. 1727–1801. Author of treatises on Morals and Philosophy.

Charles, Mrs. Elizabeth Rundle. 1826 ——. Author of the noted Schönberg-Cotta Family, and other excellent semi-religious stories. Pub. Do.

Charlesworth, Maria Louisa. 1830–1880. Author of much religious fiction, of which Ministering Children is the best example. Pub. Apl. Ca.

Chatham, Lord. See Pitt, Wm.[26]

Chatterton, Thomas. 1752–1770. Poet. Author of imitations of old Eng. poetry, which for a short time deceived the scholars of that day, and as the work of a boy of 17 were very remarkable. See Chatterton, a Biographical Study, by Daniel Wilson, London, 1870. Pub. Hou.

Chaucer, Geoffrey. 1340–1400. Poet. Author of numerous lesser poems, but The Canterbury Tales is his greatest work. He is rightly called the Father of Eng. Song, since it is with him that Eng. poetry really begins. He gave form to the language, and blended the French and Eng. influences into a harmonious whole. His verse, in the main, is easy and musical, and shows a love of nature. See publications of the Chaucer Society. Chaucer, by A. W. Ward. See Gilman's edition of Chaucer in 3 vols., 1879. Pub. Hou.

Chesterfield, Earl of. See Stanhope, Philip.

Chettle, Henry. Fl. c. 1600. Dramatist. Prolific, but valueless.

Chillingworth, Wm. 1602–1644. Theologian. Author of Religion of Protestants a Safe Way to Salvation, a celebrated work. See Oxford edition, 3 vols., 8vo, 1838.

Chitty, Joseph. 1776–1841. Jurist. Author of Practical Treatise on Criminal Law, Synopsis of Practice, and other invaluable legal text-books. Pub. Lip.

Chorley, Henry Fothergill. 1808–1872. Musical critic. Author Thirty Years' Musical Recollections, Criticisms on Modern German Music, etc., and of numerous songs and opera librettos. See Autobiography, Memoirs and Letters, 2 vols., London, 1873. Pub. Ho.

Christmas, Henry. See Noel-Fearn.[27]

Church, Alfred John. 1829 ——. Stories from Homer, Stories from Virgil, Poems, etc. Of the poems, Unseen is one of the best. Pub. Har.

Church, Richard Wm. 1815 ——. Author Life of Anselm, University Sermons, Civilization before and after Christianity, Sacred Poetry of Early Religions, Spenser in Eng. Men of Letters, etc. Pub. Har. Mac.

Churchill, Charles. 1731–1764. Satirical poet. The Rosciad is his chief work. Was at one time an extremely popular poet. See Essay on, by Macaulay.

Cibber [sĭb´ber], Colley. 1671–1757. Dramatist. Author of The Careless Husband, She Would and She Would Not, and some 20 other plays. See his Apology for his Life.

Clare, John. 1793–1864. Pastoral poet. Author Poems of Rural Life and Scenery, etc. Some of his verse has great beauty. See J. L. Cherry's Life of, London, 1873.

Clarendon, Earl of. See Hyde, Edward.

Clarke, Adam. 1760–1832. Irish bibliographer. Author Commentary on the Bible, Bibliographical Dict., Succession of Sacred Lit., etc. An industrious, careful writer. Pub. Phi.

Clarke, Charles Cowden. 1787–1877. Author of Shakespeare Characters, Molière Characters, Riches of Chaucer, etc. Pub. Scr.

Clarke, Mrs. Mary Cowden. 1809 ——. Wife to C. C. C. Shakespearean scholar. Author of the noted Concordance of Shakespeare, World-Noted Women, and several vols. of verse. With her husband was editor of an annotated edition of Shakespeare, 1869. Pub. Cas. Lit.

Clarke, Samuel. 1675–1729. Metaphysician. Author of numerous metaphysical works written in a simple yet vigorous and eloquent style.[28]

Cleveland, John. 1613–1658. Poet. A famous Cavalier writer. His verse is satirical and amatory in character.

Clifford, Wm. Kingdon. 1845–1879. Scientist. Author Lect. and Essays, Elements of Dynamics, Seeing and Thinking, and Mathematical Papers. See biographical introduction to Lect. and Essays, by F. Pollock. Pub. Mac.

Clive, Mrs. Archer. 1801 ——. Novelist. Author Paul Ferrol, Why Paul Ferrol Killed his Wife, etc.

Clough [kluf], Arthur Hugh. 1819–1861. Author of The Bothie of Tober-na Vuolich, Amours de Voyage, both hexameter poems, Dipsychus, and minor poems. His verse shows a mastery of metre and a thoughtful, earnest spirit. See Atlantic Monthly, April, 1862; Hutton's Essays; Matthew Arnold's Essays in Criticism; Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 4. Pub. Ho. Mac.

Cobbe, Frances Power. 1822 ——. Philosophical writer. Author of Intuitive Morals, Religious Duty, Darwinism in Morals, The Peak in Darien, Duties of Women, etc. A clear, able, and vigorous writer. Pub. El.

Cobbett, Wm. 1762–1835. Political writer. Style idiomatic and rancorous. See Robert Walker's How to Get on in the World, as Demonstrated by the Life and Language of William Cobbett.

Cobden, Richard. 1804–1865. Statesman. See Political Writings of London, 1867; Speeches, etc., in London, 1870; Gilchrist's Life of, 1865; and Recollections of, by Ashworth. Pub. Apl.

Cockburn [kō´burn], Henry Thos., Lord. 1779–1854. Jurist. Author Life and Correspondence of Lord Jeffrey, and Memorials of his Times.

Coke, Sir Edward. c. 1549–1634. Jurist. Best[29] known by his famous Coke upon Littleton, or the First Institute.

Colenso, John Wm. 1814–1883. Bp. Natal. Theologian. Author of The Pentateuch and Joshua Critically Examined, Lect. on the Pentateuch and Moabite Stone, etc. An able and vigorous writer.

Coleridge [kōl´rĭj], Hartley. 1796–1849. Poet. Son to S. T. C. Author of Poems, Essays, Life of Massinger, etc. Style in both prose and verse clear and beautiful. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 4.

Coleridge, Henry Nelson. 1800–1843. Neph. to S. T. C. Essayist. Style able and scholarly.

Coleridge, John Taylor. 1790–1876. Neph. to S. T. C. Author of an annotated Blackstone, Memoir of John Keble, etc.

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor. 1772–1834. Poet and philosopher. Author of The Ancient Mariner, Christabel, Kubla Khan, etc., in verse; Lect. on Shakespeare, Table-Talk, The Friend, Biographia Literaria, etc., in prose. A man of great genius, who accomplished little commensurate with it. His best, however, is unsurpassable. See 9 vol. edition, N. Y., 1853-4. See Gilman's Life of; Personal Recollections of Joseph Cottle.

Coleridge, Sara. 1803–1852. Dau. to S. T. C. and wife to H. N. C. Editor of her father's works, and author of the exquisite romance Phantasmion. A writer of much critical ability. See Memoir of. Pub. Har. 1873.

Collier, Jeremy. 1650–1726. Theologian. His famous pamphlet against the immorality of the stage greatly helped to purify Eng. literature.

Collier, John Payne. 1789–1883. Shakespearean scholar. Best known in connection with the famous Collier MSS. of Notes and Emendations to[30] the text of Shakespeare. See Atlantic Monthly, Oct., 1859, and Sept., 1861. Pub. Scr.

Collins, Mortimer. 1827–1876. Novelist. Author Sweet Anne Page, Marquis and Merchant, etc. Pub. Apl. Har.

Collins, Wm. 1720–1756. Poet. Famous for his musical odes, as The Passions, Evening, and the poem How Sleep the Brave. C. occupies a high place among minor poets. See Johnson's Lives of the Poets.

Collins, Wm. Wilkie. 1824 ——. Novelist. Excels all other novelists in the construction of plots. The Woman in White is his most famous story. Pub. Har.

Colman, George. 1733–1794. Dramatist. Composed nearly 30 comedies, of which The Jealous Wife is one of the best.

Colman, George. The Younger. 1762–1836. Dramatist. Son to preceding. A writer of spirited comedies, such as The Heir-at-Law, Poor Gentleman, John Bull, The Iron Chest, etc.

Combe [koom], Andrew. 1797–1847. Scotch physiological writer. Pub. Har.

Combe, George. 1788–1858. Scotch phrenologist. Bro. to A. C. Author Constitution of Man, etc. See H. Martineau's Biographical Sketches and Capen's Reminiscences of G. Combe. Pub. Har.

Congreve [kŏng´grēv], Wm. 1670–1729. Dramatist. Author of the tragedy of The Mourning Bride, and of The Double Dealer, Old Bachelor, Love for Love, and other coarse but brilliant comedies. See edition by Leigh Hunt, London, 1849.

Conybeare [kŭn´ĭ-bĕr], John. 1692–1755. Theologian of note.

Conybeare, John Josias. 1779–1824. Grandson to[31] J. C. Antiquary. Author of Illustrations of Anglo-Saxon Poetry, a work of much value.

Conybeare, Wm. Daniel. 1787–1857. Geological writer of note.

Conybeare, Wm. John. —— 1857. Theologian. Author with Dean Howson of The Life and Epistles of St. Paul. Pub. Ran. Scr.

Cook, Eliza. 1817 ——. Poet. Author of The Old Arm Chair, etc. Style simple and tender.

Coombe [koom], Wm. 1741–1823. A voluminous satirical and humorous writer, best known by his poem Dr. Syntax. Pub. Rou.

Cooper, Anthony Ashley. 3d Earl of Shaftesbury. 1671–1713. Ethical writer. Author of Characteristics of Men, etc.

Copleston [kop´ȇl-stȏn], Edward. 1776–1849. Bp. Llandaff. Theological writer.

Corbet, Richard. 1562–1635. Bp. Norwich. Poet of indifferent merit.

Cornwall, Barry. See Procter, B. W.

Coryat, Thomas. 1577–1617. Writer of travels. Best known by Coryat's Crudities, entertaining, but full of affectations.

Costello, Dudley. 1803–1865. Novelist. Author Stories from a Screen, Faint Heart Never Won Fair Lady, The Millionaire, etc.

Costello, Louisa Stuart. 1815–1870. Novelist and writer of travels. Sister to D. C. Author of The Queen Mother, the Rose Garden of Persia, etc.

Cottle, Joseph. 1770–1853. Poet. Best known, however, by his Reminiscences of Coleridge and Southey.

Cotton, Charles. 1630–1687. Poet and translator of Montaigne.

Cotton, Nathaniel. 1721–1788. Poet. Author Visions in Verse, Miscellanies.[32]

Cotton, Sir Robert. 1570–1631. Antiquary and historical collector.

Coverdale, Miles. 1487–1568. Bp. Exeter. Translator, with Tyndale, of the Bible. The first translation of the whole Bible was by C., and appeared in 1635.

Cowley, Abraham. 1618–1667. Poet and essayist. His popularity, once great, is now slight. His verse is ingenious, but contains little poetic feeling. His most pretentious poem is The Davideis. See Aikin's edition, 3 vols., 1802.

Cowper [koo´per or kow´per], Wm. 1731–1800. Poet. His verse is mainly religious or didactic, but his humorous ballad of John Gilpin is widely famous. He was the author of many beautiful and well-known hymns, of a long poem, The Task, and the exquisite Lines on My Mother's Picture. Style quiet and meditative. The best edition of C. is that by Southey, with biography, 1838. See Cowper, by Goldwin Smith, in Eng. Men of Letters.

Cox, Sir George W. 1827 ——. Historian. Author Hist. of Greece, Mythology of the Aryan Nations, Tales of Ancient Greece, etc. Pub. Apl. Har. Ho.

Coxe, Wm. 1744–1828. Historian. Author Hist. House of Austria, Kings of Spain, Memoirs of Duke of Marlborough, etc. A standard writer. Pub. Apl.

Crabbe, George. 1754–1832. Poet. Writer of realistic, matter-of-fact narrative poems: The Village, The Parish Register, etc. See complete edition of 1834, 8 vols., with Life. See Atlantic Monthly, May, 1880, "A Neglected Poet."

Crabbe, George. 1778–1834. Philologist. Author of Hist. Eng. Law and a noted work on Eng. Synonyms. Pub. Har.[33]

Craig-Knox, Mrs. Isa. 1831 ——. Scotch poet. Author Ode to Burns, Duchess Agnes, etc. Pub. Cas.

Craik, Mrs. Dinah Maria Mulock. 1826 ——. Novelist and poet. Author of quiet, helpful, earnest stories, among which John Halifax, Gentleman, is the most noted. Others are, A Brave Lady, A Noble Life, A Woman's Kingdom, Mistress and Maid, etc. Philip My King and Douglas are two of her finest poems. Pub. Har. Hou. Mac.

Craik, George Lillie. 1799–1866. Historian. Author of a valuable Hist. Eng. Lit., The English of Shakespeare, Bacon and his Philosophy, etc. See Rolfe's Craik's English of Shakespeare. Pub. Scr.

Cranmer, Thos. 1489–1555. Abp. Canterbury. Theologian. See Archdeacon Todd's Life of, 1831.

Crashaw [crăsh´aw], Richard. c. 1620–1650. Poet. Author of Steps to the Temple, etc. His verse is fanciful and mystical, but always melodious. See Turnbull's complete edition of London, 1858. See G. MacDonald's England's Antiphon and Cornhill Mag., April, 1883.

Creasy, Sir Edward Shepherd. 1812–1878. Historian. Author Fifteen Decisive Battles of the World, Hist. Ottoman Turks, Hist. of England. Pub. Ho. Har.

Croker, John Wilson. 1780–1857. Essayist and historical writer. Style caustic and vigorous. See H. Martineau's Biographical Sketches.

Croker, Thos. Crofton. 1798–1854. Irish novelist. Author of romances and fairy tales, the latter of great beauty.

Croly, George. 1780–1860. Irish poet. Author Angel of the World, Catiline, etc. His verse has a showy, tinsel brilliancy. Pub. Har. Rou.[34]

Cruden [kroo´den], Alexander. 1701–1770. Scotch theologian. Famous as the author of the well-known Concordance to the Bible. Pub. Lip. Ran. Wh.

Cudlip, Mrs. Annie Pender, "Annie Thomas." 18— ——. Novelist. Author Denis Donne, A Passion in Tatters, Playing for High Stakes, etc. Pub. Har.

Cudworth, Ralph. 1617–1688. Philosopher. His True Intellectual System ranks among Eng. prose classics. See edition 1845, 3 vols.

Cumberland, Richard. 1632–1718. Bp. Peterborough. Philosophical writer.

Cumberland, Richard. 1732–1811. Great-grandson to preceding. Poet and dramatist. Wrote The West Indian, Wheel of Fortune, and other rather sentimental comedies. See edition of his dramas, by Jansen, 1813.

Cumming, John. 1810–1881. Scotch theologian and popular London preacher. Author Apocalyptic Sketches, Fall of Babylon Foreshadowed, etc.

Cunningham, Allan. 1785–1842. Scotch poet and critic. C. wrote many spirited songs, among which A Wet Sheet and a Flowing Sea is best known. Author Hist. British Painters, Life of Wilkie, etc. See Poems and Songs of, edited by Peter Cunningham, 1847. Pub. Har.

Cunningham, John. 1729–1773. Irish lyrical poet.

Cunningham, John Wm. 1780–1861. Poet.

Cunningham, Peter. 1816–1869. Son to A. C. Antiquary. Author Handbook of London, Modern London, Memoir of J. M. W. Turner, etc.

Dalrymple, Sir David. 1726–1792. Scotch historian. Author Annals of Scotland, etc.[35]

Dalrymple, John Hamilton. 1726–1810. Scotch historian. Author Memoirs of Great Britain.

Daniel, Samuel. 1562–1619. Poet and historian. D. wrote a Hist. of the Civil Wars in 8-line stanzas, also a prose Hist. of England. See Campbell's Specimens of Eng. Poets.

D'Arblay, Madame, née Frances Burney. 1752–1840. Novelist. Author Evelina, Cecilia, Camilla, etc. See her Diary, pub. 1846; also Contemporary Rev., Dec., 1882. Pub. Har. Rob.

Darwin, Chas. Robert. 1809–1882. Naturalist. The most notable scientist of the age, and the originator of the Evolution Theory. He had a clear, well-balanced mind, and his statements are based on careful observation and reflection. Origin of Species, Variation under Domestication, Expression of Emotion in Man and Animals, Descent of Man, Insectivorous Plants, and Movements in Plants are his chief works. See Atlantic Monthly, June, 1882; Century Mag., Jan., 1883. Pub. Apl.

Darwin, Erasmus. 1731–1802. Grandfather to C. D. Poet and physician. Author of The Botanic Garden, a hard, metallic poem of a scientific cast, polished and elaborated to excess. See Miss Seward's Memoirs of; Craik's Eng. Lit., vol. 2; Krause's Life of.

Davenant, Sir Wm. 1605–1688. Dramatist. D. wrote 25 comedies and tragedies, and the long and feeble heroic poem Gondibert. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 2.

Davies, Sir John. 1570–1626. Poet. Author of Nosce Teipsum, a poem on the immortality of the soul, of great power and beauty, and a poetical treatise on dancing, entitled Orchestra. See Grosart's complete edition, 1876. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1.[36]

Davy, Sir Humphrey. 1778–1829. Chemist. Author Researches Chemical and Philosophical, Elements of Chemical Philosophy, Consolations of Travel, etc. See Life and Works of, by John Davy, 9 vols., London, 1840. Pub. Rob.

Day, Thomas. 1748–1789. Author of the famous juvenile tale Sandford and Merton. Pub. Har. Hou. Rob.

Defoe, Daniel. 1661–1731. Political writer and novelist. His stories form the link connecting the tales and romances of the 17th cent. with the novel of the 18th. Moll Flanders, Capt. Singleton, and Robinson Crusoe are among his chief works. Style lively, rapid, and realistic. See Oxford edition, 20 vols., 1840. See Life, by Lee, 3 vols.; also, Defoe, by Wm. Minto, in Eng. Men of Letters.

Dekker, Thomas. c. 1570–1641. Dramatist. Author Satiriomastix, etc. D. wrote mainly with other dramatists, but so far as his separate work can be traced, it shows tenderness and pathos. See Eng. edition of Dekker, 1873. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 2.

De la Rame [deh-lä-rä-mā´], Louisa, "Ouida." 1840 ——. Novelist. Author of Strathmore, Moths, Bebée, Wanda, etc. An entertaining, sprightly writer, of much genius, whose works are of a doubtful moral tendency. Pub. Lip.

De Morgan, Augustus. 1806–1871. Mathematician. Author Essays on Probabilities, Formal Logic, Paradoxes and Problems, etc.

Denham, Sir John. 1615–1668. Poet. His poem Cooper's Hill shows fine descriptive powers. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 2.

Dennis, John. 1657–1734. Dramatist and critic. Author of A Plot and No Plot, Appius and Virginia,[37] The Usefulness of the Stage, The Grounds of Criticism, etc.

De Quincey, Thomas. 1785–1859. Critic and essayist. A great master of Eng. prose. He possessed great acuteness and fine descriptive powers, but lacked creative ability. Confessions of an Opium-Eater and Murder Considered as one of the Fine Arts are two of the best examples of his style. See Page's Life of, 1877; Biographical Sketches by H. Martineau. Pub. Hou.

Derby, Earl of. See Stanley, Edward G. S.

De Redcliffe, Lord Stratford. 1788–1880. Poet and theologian.

De Vere, Sir Aubrey. 1788–1846. Irish poet. Author Julian the Apostate, etc.

De Vere, Aubrey Thos. 1814 ——. Irish poet. Son to preceding. Author May Carols, Irish Odes, The Sisters, etc. His verse is pleasing, and possesses merit.

De Vere, Edward. Earl of Oxford. 1545–1604. Poet.

Dibdin, Charles. 1745–1814. Poet and miscellaneous writer. Author of a complete Hist. of the Eng. Stage, but best known by his naval songs, over 1200 in number. For the latter, see Hogarth's edition, 1843.

Dibdin, Thos. 1771–1841. Son to C. D. A prolific song-writer and playwright. Author of a Metrical Hist. of England, etc.

Dibdin, Thos. Frognall. 1776–1847. Bibliographer. Neph. to C. D. Author Bibliomania, Typographical Antiquities of Gt. Britain, Bibliographical Decameron, etc.

Dicey, Edward Stephen. 1832 ——. Journalist. Author Memoir of Cavour, Rome in 1860, The Schleswig-Holstein War, etc.[38]

Dick, Thomas. 1772–1857. Scotch writer. The Christian Philosopher is his best known work. Pub. Har. Clx. Phi.

Dickens, Charles. 1812–1870. Novelist. Author of some 30 novels and tales, all bearing marks of genius and originality. He is widely read and admired, and his novels delight readers of all ages. His principal faults consist in elaborating and dwelling on the grotesque and unattractive side of humanity, and in overstraining the pathetic portions of his novels. Pickwick Papers, Nicholas Nickleby, Tale of Two Cities, David Copperfield, Oliver Twist, and the Christmas Carol are among the best of his works. See Fields's Yesterdays with Authors, and Lives by Forster and Mackenzie. Pub. Apt. Est. Har. Hou. Le. Lip. Lit. Pet. Por. Rou. Os.

Digby, Sir Kenelm. 1603–1665. Philosophical writer.

Digby, Kenelm Henry. 1800 ——. Archæologist. Author Mores Catholici, The Broad Stone of Honor, etc. An industrious and careful writer.

Dilke, Chas. Wentworth. 1789–1864. Critical writer of note.

Dilke, Sir Chas. Wentworth. 1843 ——. Grandson to preceding. Traveler and political writer. Author Greater Britain, The Fall of Prince Florestan of Monaco, etc. Pub. Har. Lip. Mac.

Dillon, Wentworth. Earl of Roscommon. 1633–1684. Poet. Essay on Translated Verse is his chief work. Style elegant and cold.

Disraeli [diz-rā´el-ee], Benj. 1805–1881. Novelist and statesman. Son to I. D. A talented and successful writer, possessed of great energy and strength of will. In his novels the leading people[39] of his time are satirized. Vivian Gray, his first novel, and Endymion, his last, appeared fifty-five years apart. Others are Contarini Fleming, Henrietta Temple, Coningsby, Venetia, Tancred, and Lothair, all brilliant and showy productions. Pub. Apl. Har.

Disraeli, Isaac. 1766–1848. An industrious writer of miscellaneous works, the best known being Curiosities of Lit., Calamities of Authors, Quarrels of Authors, etc. See edition of, by his son, 1850. Pub. Arm. Har. Rou.

Dixon, Wm. Hepworth. 1821–1879. Historian and biographer. Author Personal Hist. of Lord Bacon, New America, Hist. of Two Queens, Her Majesty's Tower, etc. Pub. Har. Lip.

Dobell [dŏ-bell´], Sydney. 1824–1874. Poet. A writer who has an honorable place among modern minor poets. Author of The Roman, Balder, etc. See Stedman's Victorian Poets; Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 4. See complete English edition, 1875; also, Life and Letters of, London, 1879.

Dobson, Austin. 1840 ——. Poet and critic. Author Vignettes in Rhyme, Proverbs in Porcelain, etc. An exceedingly graceful writer, whose poems all show a cultivated imagination and much tenderness of expression. Among the best are After Sedan, The Dead Letter, and The Young Musician. Fielding, in Eng. Men of Letters, is his chief prose work. Pub. Ho.

Doddridge, Philip. 1702–1751. Moralist. Author Rise and Progress of Religion in the Soul, Family Expositor, Hymns, etc. Style plain and simple. See edition of, Leeds, 1802, 10 vols.; also, Life and Correspondence, 5 vols., London, 1831, and Life, by D. A. Harsha.[40]

Dodsley, Robert. 1703–1764. Poet and publisher. Author Economy of Human Life, etc. Best known by his Collection of Old Plays. See edition by W. Carew Hazlitt, 1875.

Donne [dŏn], John. 1573–1631. Poet and theologian. His versification is rugged, and his style obscure and fantastic, but his poems, both religious and amatory, contain much beauty of thought. His seven Satires are vigorous efforts. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1. See Dean Alford's 6 vol. edition, 8vo, London, 1838. Pub. Hou.

Doran, John. 1807–1878. Biographer. Author Lives of Queens of the House of Hanover, Monarchs Retired from Business, Hist. Court Fools, New Pictures and Old Panels, etc. Pub. Arm.

Dorset, 6th Earl of. See Sackville, Geo.

Dorset, 1st Earl of. See Sackville, Thos. See Buckhurst, Lord.

Douglas, Gawain. 1474–1522. Bp. Dunkeld. Scotch poet. D. was the first metrical translator of Virgil in Gt. Britain. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1. See complete Eng. edition by J. Small, 1874.

Dowden, Edward. 1843 ——. Poet and Shakespearean scholar. Author Shakespeare's Mind and Art, Southey, in Eng. Men of Letters, Poems, etc. Pub. Har.

Drayton, Michael. 1563–1631. Poet. His chief work is the Polyolbion, a poetical description of Britain in 100,000 lines. A far better work is the Nymphidia, an exquisitely graceful, mock heroic fairy poem. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1.

Drummond, William [of Hawthornden]. 1585–1649. Scotch poet. His Sonnets are his best production. See Memoirs by Masson, 1863. Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1.[41]

Dryden, John. 1631–1700. Poet and dramatist. His verse takes a wide range: in satire we have Absalom and Achitophel, MacFlecknoe, etc.; in theology, Religio Laici, Hind and Panther, etc.; in drama, some thirty plays; in translation, his Virgil; and in lyric poetry, his magnificent Ode for St. Cecilia's Day. D. had great genius, not always worthily employed. His dramas, when not stilted, are licentious, and as a satirist he is bitter, personal, and coarse. See Masson's Essays, and Lowell's Among My Books; also, Dryden, by Saintsbury, in Eng. Men of Letters. Pub. Hou. Har. Rou.

Dugdale, Sir Wm. 1605–1685. Antiquary. Author Antiquities of Warwickshire, and other valuable antiquarian works.

Dunbar, Wm. 1465–1530. Scotch poet. D. wrote The Thistle and Rose, The Golden Terge, etc. His witty, striking, and original genius is closely akin to that of Burns. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1.

D'Urfey, Thos. 1650–1723. Dramatist. Witty, but coarse and immoral.

Dutt, Toru. 1856–1877. Hindu poetess. A writer of much genius. Ballads of Hindustan, and Sheafs Gleaned from French Fields, a vol. of fine Eng. translations, are her chief works. See Lit. World, June 17, 1882.

Dyce, Alexander. 1798–1869. Scotch Shakespearean scholar of note. See his edition of Shakespeare, with Glossary, 1867.

Dyer, George. 1755–1841. Author Hist. University of Cambridge, etc.

Dyer, John. 1698–1758. Welsh poet. Author Grongar Hill, The Fleece, and Ruins of Rome. His verse is natural and unaffected. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 3.[42]

Dyer, Thos. Henry. 1804 ——. Historian. Author Hist. Modern Europe, Ancient Athens, Hist. Kings of Rome, Hist. City of Rome, and Life of Calvin. Pub. Lit.

Eadmer [ĕd´mer]. —— 1124. Bp. St. Andrews. Wrote a Latin Hist. of his Own Time.

Earle, John. 1601–1655. Bp. Worcester. The reputed author of the Micosmography, a remarkable vol. of studies of character.

Eastlake, Sir Chas. 1793–1865. Artist. Author Hist. Gothic Revival, Materials for a Hist. Oil Painting, etc. See Lady Eastlake's Biography of, 1870.

Eden [ē´den], Sir Fred'k Morton. 1766–1809. Author of a valuable Hist. of the Laboring Classes of England, etc.

Edgeworth, Maria. 1767–1849. Novelist. Author Rosamond, Castle Rackrent, Belinda, Helen, etc. Style didactic, but entertaining. Her juvenile tales are numerous and popular. See Study of Miss Edgeworth, by Mrs. Oliver, 1882. Pub. Har. Lip. Rou.

Edwards, Amelia Blandford. 1831 ——. Novelist and Egyptologist. Author Barbara's History, Lord Brackenbury, etc. A writer of much talent, whose rank among Eng. novelists is a high one. See Lit. World, June 4, 1881. Pub. Har. Por. Rou.

Edwards, Mrs. Annie. 18— ——. Novelist. Susan Fielding, Ought We to Visit Her? and Archie Lovell are among the best of her excellent novels. Pub. Sh.

Edwards, Matilda Betham. 1836 ——. Novelist. Cousin to A. B. E. Author Doctor Jacob, Kitty, etc. Style clear and picturesque. Pub. Har. Lip. Rob.[43]

Edwards, Richard. 1523–1566. Poet. Principal author of the famous poetical collection of his day, The Paradise of Dainty Devices.

Eliot, George. See Evans, Marian.

Ellicott, Chas. John. 1819 ——. Bp. Gloucester and Bristol. Theologian. Author The New Testament Commentary, Historical Lect. on the Life of Christ, etc. Pub. Arm. Dra. Dut.

Elliott, Ebenezer. 1781–1849. Poet. Known as the Corn-Law Rhymer. His verse is earnest and ardent, and shows much feeling. See Life of, by Searle. See Eng. edition, 1876.

Ellis, George. 1745–1815. Antiquarian of note. Best known by his valuable work, Specimens of Early Eng. Poets.

Ellis, Sir Henry. 1777–1869. Antiquarian writer.

Ellis, Mrs. Sarah [Stickney]. 1812–1872. Author Women of England, Daughters of England, Wives of England, Mothers of England, etc.

Ellwood, Thos. 1639–1713. Poet. Author of a dull poem entitled The Davideis.

Elphinstone [ĕl´fin-stȏn], James. 1721–1809. Scotch grammarian.

Elphinstone, Mountstuart. 1779–1859. Historical writer. Author Hist. of India, etc.

Elyot [ĕl´ĭ-ȏt], Sir Thos. c. 1495–1546. Moralist. Author Defence of Good Women, etc.

Emerson-Tennent, Sir James. 1804–1869. Historical writer.

Erskine, Thos. 1750–1823. Jurist. See Select Speeches, with Memoir by Walford, 2 vols., 8vo, London, 1870.

Etheridge, Sir George. 1636–1694. Comic dramatist. Author of The Comical Revenge, She Would if She Could, etc. Style sprightly and witty. See Living Age, Apr. 30, 1881.[44]

Evans, Marian, "George Eliot." 1820–1880. Novelist and poet. A complete list of her works comprises translations of Strauss's Life of Jesus and Feuerbach's Essence of Christianity; the novels, Scenes of Clerical Life, Adam Bede, Mill on the Floss, Silas Marner, Romola, Felix Holt, Middlemarch, and Daniel Deronda; the long poems, Spanish Gypsy, Agatha, Legend of Jubal, and How Lisa Loved the King, with a few short ones; and a vol. of essays, entitled Impressions of Theophrastus Such. The strength of her novels lies in their wonderful delineations of character, their subtle analysis of motive as acted on by circumstance, and the lofty wisdom that infuses the whole. They awaken the best impulses of humanity, and appeal to all the finer sympathies. Her style is strongly marked, often picturesque, and her descriptions clear and distinct. Her poems, though containing many beautiful passages, do not, with one or two exceptions, take a high rank. The best one is probably the famous O May I Join the Choir Invisible. See George Eliot, by Mathilde Blind; Hutton's Essays; Cent. Mag., Nov., 1881; Eclectic Mag., April, 1881; Lit. World, Feb. 24, 1883; and Galaxy Mag., June, 1869.

Evelyn, John. 1620–1706. Agricultural writer. Author of Sylva Terra and a famous Diary, which accurately reflects the manners of his time. See Diary and Letters of, edited by John Forster, 1857. See London edition, 1875.

Faber Frederick William. 1815–1863. Religious poet. Author of a number of beautiful and popular Hymns. Pub. Dut. Mur. Wh. Rou.

Faber, George Stanley. 1773–1854. Theologian.[45] Author of The Sacred Calendar of Prophecy, etc. Style clear and exact.

Fabyan, Robert, c. 1456–1512. Chronicler. Wrote a Concordance of Histories, which begins with Brutus and ends with his own time.

Fairfax, Edward. —— 1632. Poet. Author of a fine translation of Tasso. See Am. edition, 1855, 12mo.

Falconer [fawk´ner], Wm. 1730–1769. Scotch poet. Author of The Shipwreck, a poem of considerable beauty, and a Marine Dict. See Campbell's Specimens of the Eng. Poets. Pub. Hou.

Fanshawe, Sir Richard. 1608–1666. Poet. Translator of Camoens's Lusiad, and author of some graceful poems.

Faraday, Michael. 1791–1867. Chemist. Author of numerous scientific works, The Chemistry of a Candle, Physical Forces, etc. See Life and Letters of, 1870, by J. Bruce Jones, Tyndall's Faraday as a Discoverer, and Life, by J. H. Gladstone. Pub. Har. Rou.

Farjeon, Benjamin Leopold. 1833 ——. Novelist. Joshua Marvel, Grif, Blade-o'-Grass, London's Heart, and Bells of Penraven are among his best works. Style akin to that of Dickens. Pub. Har.

Farmer, Richard. 1735–1797. Shakespearean scholar. Author Essay on the Learning of Shakespeare.

Farquhar [far´kwar or far´kär], George. 1678–1707. Irish dramatist. A writer of brilliant, sparkling comedies, full of good feeling. The Beaux' Stratagem and The Recruiting Officer are the best. See his comedies edited by Leigh Hunt. See Atlantic Monthly, March, 1882.


Farrar, Frederic Wm. 1831 ——. Theologian. Author Life of Christ, Eternal Hope, Life and Epistles of St. Paul, Seekers after God, etc. Of several stories by him, St. Winifred's is perhaps the best. Pub. Cas. Dut. Fu. Lip. Mac.

Fawcett, Henry. 1833 ——. Writer on Political Economy. Author Free Trade and Protection, Pauperism—its Causes and Remedies, Manual of Political Economy, etc. Pub. Mac.

Fawcett, Millicent Garrett. 1847 ——. Wife to H. F. Author Tales in Political Economy, Political Economy for Beginners, etc. Pub. Mac.

Feltham, Owen. c. 1608–1677. Essayist. Author Divine and Moral Resolves. Style pointed and sententious.

Fenton, Elijah. 1683–1730. Poet. Assisted Pope in translating the Odyssey. His original verse is not unmusical.

Ferguson, Adam. 1724–1816. Scotch historian and philosopher. Author Hist. of Civil Society, Hist. Progress and Termination of Roman Empire, etc. Style clear and scholarly.

Ferguson, James. 1710–1776. Scotch philosophical and mathematical writer.

Fergusson, James. 1808 ——. Scotch architectural writer of note. Author Hist. of Architecture. Pub. Lit.

Fergusson, Robert. 1750–1774. Scotch poet. Author of The Farmer's Ingle, etc. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 3.

Ferrar, Nicholas. 1592–1637. Religious writer. See Atlantic Monthly, Aug. 1871.

Ferrier, James. 1808–1864. Scotch metaphysician. His Institutes of Metaphysics is a work of much learning and acuteness.

Ferrier, Susan Edmonstone. 1782–1854. Scotch[47] novelist. Aunt to J. F. Author of Marriage, The Inheritance, and Destiny. Her works show much humor and are piquant in style. See Eng. edition 1841. See Temple Bar, Nov., 1878, and London Lit. World, March 31, 1882. Pub. Har. Rou.

Fielding, Henry. 1707–1754. Novelist. With Richardson he founded a new school of fiction, distinguished by a careful study of character and a more truthful drawing of human nature than what had preceded. Joseph Andrews, Amelia, and Tom Jones, though stamped with the coarseness of his age, will continue to be read for their originality, wit, and acute reflections. See Thackeray's Eng. Humorists, Masson's Novelists and their Styles, and Dobson's Fielding in Eng. Men of Letters. Pub. Har. Lit. Rou.

Finlay, George. 1800–1875. Scotch historian. Author Hist. Greece under the Romans, Hist. Byzantine and Greek Empires, Hist. Greece under Ottoman and Venetian Dominion, and Hist. of the Greek Revolution. A standard authority. Pub. Mac.

Fisher, Edward. 1620–1660. Welsh theologian. Author of a noted controversial work called The Marrow of Modern Divinity.

Fitzgerald, Edward. 1808–1883. Translator of note. Author of scholarly translations of Omar Khayyam, Calderon, and Æschylus.

Fitzgerald, Percy. 1834 ——. Novelist and littérateur. Author Romance of the English Stage, etc.

Fitzgerald, Wm. 1814 ——. Bp. Killaloe. Theologian. Author Holy Scripture, The Ultimate Rule of Faith, Life of Butler, etc.

Flamsteed, John. 1646–1719. Astronomical writer.[48]

Fletcher, Sir Andrew [of Saltoun]. 1663–1716. Political writer. See Erskine's Life of, 1792.

Fletcher, Giles. 1588–1623. Poet. Bro. to P. F. and cousin to J. F. Author Christ's Victory and Triumph, a long poem in 8-line stanzas. See Works edited by Grosart, 1876. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 2.

Fletcher, John. 1576–1625. Dramatist. Colleague of Beaumont. Among plays attributed solely to F. are Rule a Wife and Have a Wife, Beggar's Bush, and the exquisite pastoral drama The Faithful Shepherdess. He wrote, also, portions of Shakespeare's Two Noble Kinsmen and Henry VIII., perhaps his finest effort being the famous Wolsey Soliloquy in the latter. See Beaumont, F. See Dyce's edition, 1843. See Lamb's Specimens of the Dramatic Poets, Schlegel's Dramatic Lit., and Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 2.

Fletcher, Mrs. Maria Jane. [Jewsbury.] 1800–1833. Poet.

Fletcher, Phineas. 1584–1650. Poet. Bro. to G. F. and cousin to J. F. F. wrote a long and curious allegorical and anatomical poem, The Purple Island. The subject, fantastically and minutely treated, is the human body. See Southey's Early Eng. Poets.

Florio, John. 1545–1625. Grammarian.

Fonblanque [fŏn-blănk´], Albany. 1797–1872. Journalist. Author England under Seven Administrations. See Life and Labors of, 1874.

Foote, Samuel. 1721–1777. Comic dramatist. The Liar and one or two other farces of his still keep the stage. See Fosters Essays and Life by Coke, 1805.

Forbes, Alexander Penrose. 1817–1875. Bp. Brechin.[49] Theologian. Author Explanation of the Thirty-Nine Articles, etc. See Memoir, 1876. Pub. Dut.

Forbes, Archibald. 1838 ——. Scotch journalist. Author Soldiering and Scribbling, Glimpses through the Cannon Smoke, etc. Pub. Osg. Rou.

Forbes, James David. 1809–1868. Scientist. Author Theory of Glaciers, etc. See Life and Letters of by John C. Shairp, 1873.

Ford, John. 1586–1639. Dramatist. His plays all deal with unhappy love, but are powerful though morbid. The Broken Heart, his best work, is a masterpiece of pathos. His style possesses great beauty. See Moxon's edition Old Eng. Dramatists, and Swinburne's Essays and Studies.

Forrester, Mrs. 18— ——. Novelist. Author Dolores, Diana Carew, Mignon, etc. Pub. Lip.

Forster, John. 1812–1876. Essayist and biographer. Author lives of Dickens, Goldsmith, Landor, Swift, Statesmen of the Commonwealth of Eng., etc. Pub. Apl. Har. Lip.

Fortescue, Sir John. c. 1395–1485. Legal writer. De Laudibus Legum Angliæ.

Foster, John. 1770–1843. Essayist. His style has both vigor and beauty. Pub. Ca.

Fothergill, Jessie. 18— ——. Novelist. Author The First Violin, Kith and Kin, One of Three, etc. Pub. Ho.

Fox, Chas. James. 1749–1806. Orator and historian. See edition of his Speeches, 6 vols., London, 1815, and Life, by Geo. O. Trevelyan.

Fox, George. 1624–1690. Theological writer. Founder of the Society of Friends. See Life, by S. M. Janney.

Fox, John. 1517–1587. Martyrologist. Author of the famous Book of Martyrs. Pub. Cas. Clx.[50]

Francillon, R. E. 1841 ——. Novelist. Author Under Slieve Ban, Rare Good Luck, Queen Cophetua, etc. Pub. Apl. Ho.

Francis, Sir Philip. 1740–1818. Political writer. Supposed author of the famous Junius Letters, a series of powerful political tracts. See Junius, Johnson's Cyc. Pub. Rou.

Fraser, James Baillie. 1783–1856. Novelist and traveller. Author of The Kuzzilbash, Hist. Persia, etc. See Chambers Cyc. Eng. Lit., vol. 2.

Freeman, Edward Augustus. 1823 ——. Historian. Author Hist. Norman Conquest, Wm. Rufus and Henry First, Hist. Architecture, Unity of Hist., etc. An eminently thorough, accurate writer, whose Norman Conquest is one of the most important of English histories. Style animated and scholarly. Pub. Ho. Mac.

Fremantle, Wm. Henry. 1831 ——. Theologian. Author The Gospel of the Secular Life, Bampton Lect. 1883, etc. Pub. Scr.

Freer, Martha Walker. 1822 ——. Historian. Author Life of Marguerite of Navarre, Life of Henry III. of France, etc.

Frere [freer], John Hookham. 1769–1846. Poet. A writer of merit in translation and in original verse. See Eng. edition of, 2 vols., London, 1872.

Friswell, James Hain. 1827–1878. Essayist. Author Familiar Words, The Gentle Life, Francis Spira and other Poems, etc. Pub. Por.

Froude [frood], James Anthony. 1818 ——. Historian and essayist. Author Hist. of England, The English in Ireland, Short Studies on Great Subjects, The Nemesis of Faith, etc. His historical portraits are brilliant and his historical grouping dramatic, but his judgments of men and motives[51] are open to criticism. All his works show great labor and research. Pub. Har. Scr.

Froude, Richard Hurrel. 1803–1836. Bro. to J. A. F. Religious writer. See Remains of, 4 vols., London, 1838.

Fuller, Thomas. 1608–1661. Historian and biographer. Author Ch. Hist., Hist. of Worthies of England, Sermons, Holy State, etc. A quaint, humorous, original writer of great eminence in his own day and still read with pleasure. See Life, by Russell, 1844. Pub. Dut. Mac.

Fullerton, Lady Georgiana. 1812 ——. Novelist. Grantley Manor, Constance Sherwood, Too Strange Not to be True, and Lady Bird, are some of her works. Pub. Apl. Cath. Pi.

Furnivall, Fred'k James. 1825 ——. Shakespearean scholar. Editor of the Leopold Shakespeare.

Fyffe, Chas. Alan. 1845 ——. Historian. Author Modern Europe, Hist. Greece in Appleton's Hist. Primers, etc. Pub. Apl. Ho.

Gale, Theophilus. 1628–1678. Theologian. Author of The Court of the Gentiles.

Galt, John. 1779–1839. Scotch novelist. Author Annals of a Parish, Ayrshire Legatees, Life Lord Byron, etc. A prolific writer who has carefully drawn Scotch provincial and peasant life. See Autobiography, 1834. Pub. Har.

Gardiner, Sam'l Rawson. 1829 ——. Historian. Author of The 30 Years' War, 1618–1648. Eng. Hist. for Students, etc. Pub. Ho.

Garrett, Edward. See Mayo, Mrs. Isabella.

Garrick, David. 1716–1779. Dramatist. Author Lying Valet, Miss In her Teens, etc. See Life, by Percy Fitzgerald, 1872.[52]

Garth, Samuel. 1672–1719. Poet and physician. His mock epic, The Dispensary, is a feeble work. See Ward's English Poets, vol. 3.

Gascoigne, Mrs. Caroline Leigh. 1813 ——. Novelist and poet. Author Doctor Harold, etc.

Gascoigne, George. 1530–1577. Poet. The Steel Glass his chief work. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1.

Gaskell, Mrs. Elizabeth Cleghorn. 1810–1865. Novelist and biographer. Author of Ruth, Sylvia's Lovers, Wives and Daughters, Mary Barton, etc. Her books are earnest and well written; Cranford, in fact, is almost a classic work, and her Life of Charlotte Brontë is a much-admired biography. See Lit. World, July 1, 1882. Pub. Apl. Har.

Gast, John. 1715–1788. Irish historian.

Gatty, Alfred. 1813 ——. Author The Vicar and His Duties, Study of In Memoriam, etc.

Gatty, Mrs. Margaret. 1809–1873. Wife to A. G. Author Parables from Nature, The Fairy Godmother, Proverbs Illustrated, Aunt Judy's Tales, etc. Pub. Ca. Put.

Gauden, John. 1605–1664. Bp. Worcester. His Ikōn Basilikē professed to be the work of Charles I., of whose sufferings it was an account, and its true authorship has occasioned much controversy.

Gay, John. 1688–1732. Poet and dramatist. G. wrote The Beggar's Opera, a famous musical drama, and numerous other works. See edition of his Poems, London, 1806. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 3, and Gay's Fables edited by Austin Dobson. Pub. Apl.

Gell [jĕl], Sir Wm. 1777–1836. Archæologist. Author Topography of Rome, etc.


Geoffrey [jĕf´rĭ] of Dunstable. —— 1146. Author of a miracle play of St. Catherine 1110, usually considered the first dramatic work in any modern language.

Geoffrey of Monmouth. c. 1100–1154. Bp. St. Asaph, Anglo-Saxon Chronicler.

Gibbon, Edward. 1737–1794. Historian. Author of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire; a masterly work, artistically conceived and carried out, with great research and careful detail. See Milman's edition, 1845. See Autobiography edited by Milman, 1839. Pub. Har. Por.

Gifford, Wm. 1757–1826. Critic and reviewer. G. wrote the Baviad and Mæviad, two sharp literary satires, and as editor of the Quarterly Review was author of many bitter, satirical reviews. See Hazlitt's Spirit of the Age.

Gilbert, Wm. 1540–1603. Philosophical writer. Author De Magnete.

Gilbert, Wm. 18— ——. Novelist. Author De Profundis, etc.

Gilbert, Wm. Schevenck. 1836 ——. Dramatist and humorous poet; son to preceding. Author of The Bab Ballads, Original Plays, and of the librettos of Pinafore, Pirates of Penzance, The Sorcerer, Patience, Iolanthe, etc. See Scribner's Mag., Sept. 1879. Pub. Por. Rou. Scr.

Gilchrist, Alexander. 1827–1861. Biographer and art writer. Author lives of Blake and Etty.

Gildas. fl. c. 510. Anglo-Latin Chronicler. See Stevenson's edition, London, 1838.

Gilfillan, George. 1813–1878. Scotch miscellaneous writer. Author Gallery of Literary Portraits, Life of Walter Scott, Bards of the Bible, etc. Pub. Har.

Gilfillan, Robert. c. 1798–1850. Scotch poet.[54]

Gillies, John. 1747–1836. Scotch historian. Author Hist. Ancient Greece, etc.

Gilpin, John. 1724–1804. Critic and biographer. Author Life of Bernard Gilpin, etc.

Giraldus, Cambrensis. 1147–1216. Welsh historian and poet.

Girdlestone, Chas. 1797–1881. Religious writer. Author Concordance to the Prayer-Book, etc.

Gladstone, Wm. Ewart. 1809 ——. Statesman and essayist. Author of Juventus Mundi, Homeric Studies, The Vatican Decrees, etc. Style polished and able. See Sketch of, by H. W. Lucy, Short Life of, by C. H. Jones, and Life, by Geo. Barnett Smith. Also Harper's Mag., April, 1882. Pub. Apl. Har. Scr.

Gloucester [glŏs-ter], Robert of. fl. c. 1280. Rhyming chronicler.

Glover, Richard. 1712–1785. Poet. Author of Leonidas, an epic, Hosier's Ghost, etc. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 3.

Godwin, Mrs. Mary Wollstonecraft. 1759–1797. Wife to W. G. Author Vindication of the Rights of Women, etc. Style bold and able. See Atlantic Monthly, Dec. 1880.

Godwin, Wm. 1756–1836. Philosopher and novelist. Author Caleb Williams, St. Leon, Cloudesly, Answer to Malthus, Political Justice, etc. See Life, by Kegan Paul, 1876, and Leslie Stephen's Hours in a Library. Pub. Har.

Goldsmith, Oliver. 1728–1774. Irish poet and novelist. A writer of great delicacy and purity of sentiment, possessing a simple, delightful style. His poems, The Deserted Village and The Traveller, are charming pieces of description; his comedies, The Good-Natured Man and She Stoops to Conquer,[55] are bright and sparkling, the latter being perennially fresh; and his novel, The Vicar of Wakefield, is an Eng. classic. See Lives, by Prior, Forster, W. Irving, and Goldsmith by Wm. Black in Eng. Men of Letters. See Select Poems of, edited by W.J. Rolfe. Pub. Clx. Har.

Good, John Mason. 1764–1827. Physician and miscellaneous writer. Author Study of Medicine, The Book of Nature, Medical Technology, etc. Pub. Har.

Gordon, George, Lord Byron. 1788–1824. Childe Harold, Prisoner of Chillon, and Don Juan are his finest poems. A writer of great power and strong personality, whose talent was warped by license and self-will. Don Juan, his most brilliant poem, sins deeply against morality. Manfred, The Giaour, and Lara are striking poems. See Lives by Galt, Moore, E. Brydges, Lake, and Elze; also, Byron, by Nichols, in Eng. Men of Letters, and the Real Lord Byron by J. C. Jeaffreson. See Quarterly Rev., July, 1868, and prefaces to respective editions by Wm. Rossetti and A. C. Swinburne.

Gore, Mrs. Catherine Grace. 1799–1861. Novelist. A prolific writer of society tales. Author of The Cabinet Minister, The Royal Favorite, etc. Pub. Har.

Gosse, Edmund W. 1849 ——. Poet and critic. Son to P. H. G. Author of Viol and Flute, King Erik, New Poems, Grey in Eng. Men of Letters, etc. A lyrist of much merit. See Harper's Mag. May, 1882, "Some London Poets." Pub. Har. Ho.

Gosse, Philip Henry. 1810 ——. Zoölogist. Author Romance of Natural Hist., Marine Zoölogy, Evenings with the Microscope, etc. Pub. Apl. A. T. S. Lip.[56]

Goulbourn, Edward Meyrick. 1818 ——. Religious writer. Author Thoughts on Personal Religion, The Holy Catholic Ch., Pursuit of Holiness, etc. Pub. Apl.

Gould, Baring. See Baring-Gould.

Gower, John. 1350–1402. Poet. G. wrote the Speculum Meditantis, in French, Vox Clamantis, in Latin, and Confessio Amantis in Eng. See edition, 3 vols. 8vo, London, 1857. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1; also Rolfe's edition of Pericles.

Græme [grām], John. 1748–1772. Scotch poet.

Graham, Ennis. See Molesworth, Mrs.

Grahame, James. 1765–1811. Scotch poet. Author of The Sabbath, etc.

Grahame, James, Marquis of Montrose. 1612–1650. Lyric poet. Author of the famous lyric My Dear and Only Love. See Biographies by Napier, 1856, and Grant, 1858.

Grahame, James. 1790–1842. Scotch historian. Author Hist. U. S., etc. Style dignified and impartial.

Granger, James. 1716–1766. Historian. Author Biographical Hist. of England.

Grant, Mrs. Anne [of Laggan]. 1755–1838. Scotch poet and miscellaneous writer. Author Memoirs of an American Lady 1808, etc. See Memoirs and Correspondence of, 3 vols., 1844. Pub. Mu.

Grant, James. 1806 ——. Journalist. Author of The Bench and the Bar, Sketches in London, etc.

Grant, James. 1822 ——. Scotch novelist. Author Hist. of India, and a long list of novels which do not take a very high rank. Pub. Cas. Rou.

Grattan, Thos. Colley. 1796–1864. Irish novelist and poet. Author Highways and Byways, Hist. of the Netherlands, etc. Pub. Har.[57]

Gray, David. 1831–1861. Scotch poet. Author of The Luggie, etc. See H. G. Bell's edition, 1874. See R. Buchanan's David Gray and Other Essays, 1868.

Gray, Thomas. 1716–1771. Poet. Author of The Bard, Progress of Poesy, Elegy in a Country Churchyard, etc. A writer of much refinement of expression and quiet sentiment. The calm beauty of the Elegy has made it one of the most popular of Eng. poems. See Gray, by E. W. Gosse, in Eng. Men of Letters, Mason's Biog., 1778, and Selected Poems of, edited by W. J. Rolfe.

Green, John Richard. 1837–1883. Historian. Author Short Hist. of the Eng. People, The Making of England, Stray Studies, Hist. of the Eng. People, etc. A picturesque, accurate writer, with great originality and clearness of style. See N. Y. Nation, March 29, 1883, Contemporary Rev., May, 1883, Journal of Education, June, 1883, British Quarterly Rev., July, 1883, and Fortnightly Rev., May, 1883. Pub. Apl. Har. Mac.

Green, Matthew. 1696–1737. Poet. The author of a curious reflective poem called The Spleen. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 3.

Greene, Robert. 1560–1592. Dramatist. A prolific writer of humorous plays, but now best known by his confession entitled Greene's Groat's Worth of Wit bought with a Million of Repentance. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1.

Greenwell, Dora. 1821–1882. Poet and miscellaneous writer. Author Stories That Might be True, The Patience of Hope, John Woolman, Camera Obscura, A Present Heaven, etc. Pub. Dut.

Greg, Wm. Rathbone. 1812–1881. Essayist. Author of Rocks Ahead, Enigmas of Life, Literary[58] and Social Judgments, Creed of Christendom, etc., works of a thoughtful, pessimistic cast. See Macmillan's Mag., June, 1883. Pub. Ho.

Grenville, George, Lord Nugent. 1788–1850. Author Memorials of Hampden, Lands Classical and Lay, etc.

Greville, Sir Fulke, Lord Brooke. 1554–1628. Poet and philosopher. Author Life of Sydney, etc. See Grosart's edition of, 1870. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1.

Griffin, Gerald. 1803–1840. Irish poet and novelist. Author of The Collegians, etc. See complete Eng. edition by Griffin, 1857. Pub. Rou. Sad.

Grindon, Leopold Hartley. 1818 ——. Author Life—its Nature, Varieties, and Phenomena, The Shakespeare Flora, etc. Pub. Lip.

Grosseteste [grōs-test], Robert. c. 1175–1253. Bp. London. Anglo-Norman poet.

Grote, George. 1794–1871. Historian. Best known by his Hist. of Greece, a standard work. See Life, by Mrs. Grote, 1873. Pub. Har. Lit.

Grove, George. 1820 ——. Musical critic. Author Dict. of Music and Musicians, etc. Pub. Mac.

Guest, Lady Charlotte. See Schreiber, Lady Charlotte.

Gunter, Edmund. 1581–1626. Mathematical writer. Inventor of the terms co-sine, co-tangent, etc. The phrase "according to Gunter" arose from his scale of measurement being the standard one.

Gurney, Joseph John. 1788–1847. Philanthropist. Author Notes on Prison Discipline, and numerous religious works. Pub. Lip.

Guthrie [gŭth´rĭ], Thomas. 1803–1873. Scotch philanthropist. Author Plea for Ragged Schools, Man and the Gospel, Out of Harness, etc. See Life, 1873. Pub. Ca.[59]

Guthrie, Wm. 1708–1770. Scotch historian. Author Hist. of England, Hist. of Scotland, etc. His works have been entirely superseded by later authorities.

Habington, Wm. 1605–1654. Poet. An ingenious writer of love poems. See Eng. edition by Arber, 1870. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 2.

Hailes, Lord. See Dalrymple, Sir D.

Hakluyt [hăk´loot], Richard. 1553–1616. Chronicler and geographer. Hakluyt's Voyages is an important collection of narratives of earlier or contemporary voyages. See edition of, 5 vols. 4to, London, 1809–12.

Hale, Sir Matthew. 1609–1676. Moral and religious writer. See Life by Burnet in Wordsworth's Ecclesiastical Biog.

Hales, John. 1584–1656. Polemical writer. Styled "The Ever Memorable." Chiefly noted for his Golden Remains. See Life by Des Maizeaux.

Hales, Stephen. 1677–1761. One of the earliest writers on vegetable physiology.

Hales, Wm. 1769–1831. Irish theologian.

Haliburton, Thos. Chandler. 1805–1865. Nova Scotian humorist. Author Sam Slick, etc. Pub. Di. Har. Hou. Rou.

Halifax, Earl of. See Montagu, Chas.

Halifax, Marquess. See Saville, George.

Hall, Mrs. Anna Maria. 1805–1881. Wife to S. C. H. Irish novelist and miscellaneous writer. Author Sketches of Irish Character, The Outlaw, The Whiteboy, etc. Pub. Har.

Hall, Basil. 1798–1844. Scotch writer of travels.


Hall, Edward. —— 1547. Chronicler. A minute and valuable writer.

Hall, Joseph. 1547–1676. Bp. Norwich. Theologian and satirist. Sometimes styled the founder of Eng. satire. A vivacious and excellent writer. See edition 1837. See Hannay's Satire and Satirists, and Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1.

Hall, Newman, 1816 ——. Congregationalist religious writer. Author Come to Jesus, The Forum and the Vatican, etc. Pub. Phi. Sh.

Hall, Robert. 1764–1831. Baptist religious writer. Author Sermons on Modern Infidelity, Reflections on War, etc. Style scholarly, eloquent, and refined. See Works of, with Memoir, by O. Gregory, 6 vols., London; also, Biog. by J. W. Morris, 1846, and Life by Paxton Hood.

Hall, Samuel Carter. 1801 ——. Miscellaneous writer. Author The Stately Homes of England, Book of Memories, Retrospect of a Long Life, etc. Pub. Apl.

Hallam, Arthur Henry. 1811–1833. Poet and essayist. Son to H. H. A young writer whose loss inspired Tennyson's In Memoriam. See Remains, with Life, by his father, 1834; Remains in Verse and Prose, 1862. See Life, by Dr. John Brown; also, Atlantic Monthly, Dec. 1860.

Hallam, Henry. 1777–1859. Historian and critic. Author Hist. Middle Ages, Constitutional Hist. England, Lit. of Europe, etc. An impartial writer whose works are of great value, but whose style lacks animation and freshness. See H. Martineau's Biographical Sketches. Pub. Arm. Har. Lit.

Halliwell-Phillips, James Orchard. 1820 ——. Shakespearean scholar. Editor of Shakespeare, 16 vols. folio, 1865. Author Dict. Archaic Words, Life of Shakespeare, Last Days of Shakespeare, etc.[61]

Hamerton [hăm´er-ton], Philip Gilbert. 1834 ——. Art Critic. Author Thoughts on Art, A Painter's Camp, The Unknown River, The Intellectual Life, etc. A writer of authority in his department. Style graceful and refined. Pub. Mac. Rob.

Hamilton, Mrs. Elizabeth. 1758–1816. Scotch writer. Best known by her Letters of a Hindoo Rajah and The Cottagers of Glenburnie. See Chambers' Cyc. Eng. Lit.

Hamilton, Sir Wm. 1788–1856. Scotch metaphysician. Author Discussions on Philosophy, etc. His clear, dignified style is much admired. Pub. Apl.

Hannay, James. 1827–1873. Novelist and miscellaneous writer. Author Singleton Fontenoy, Studies on Thackeray, etc. Pub. Har. Rou.

Hardy, Thomas. 1840 ——. Novelist. Author Far From the Madding Crowd, The Return of the Native, A Pair of Blue Eyes, Two on a Tower, etc. A novelist of high rank. His character-drawing is sharp and incisive, his studies of peasant life truthful and sympathetic, and his descriptive passages masterly. Pub. Ho.

Hare, Augustus Julius Charles. 1834 ——. Neph. to J. C. H. and A. W. H. Author Walks in London, Walks in Rome, Days Near Rome, Memorials of a Quiet Life, etc. Pub. Por. Ran. Rou.

Hare, Augustus Wm. 1793–1834. Author Alton Sermons, etc. Pub. Ran. Rou.

Hare, Francis. 1688–1740. Bp. Chichester. Controversial writer.

Hare, Julius Chas. 1796–1855. Bro. to A. W. H., and with him author of Guesses at Truth. Author Life of Sterling, Victory of Faith, etc. Pub. Dut. Mac.[62]

Harrington, James. 1611–1677. Political philosopher. Author of The Oceana.

Harrington, John. 1534–1582. Poet. See Hannah's Courtly Poets.

Harrington, Sir John. 1561–1612. Poet. Son to preceding. First English translator of Ariosto.

Harrison, Frederic. 1831 ——. Positivist and philosopher. Author Order and Progress, The Meaning of History, etc., and translator of Comte's Social Statics.

Hartley, David. 1705–1757. Philosopher. Observations on Man his chief work.

Harvey, Gabriel. 1545–1637. Poet. One of the first to write English hexameter.

Harvey, Wm. 1578–1657. Physician. Discoverer of the circulation of the blood. See Works of, edited by the Sydenham Society, London, 1847.

Havergal, Frances Ridley. 1836–1879. Author of much devotional verse. Pub. Dut. Ran.

Haweis [hoys], Hugh Reginald. 1838 ——. Religious and miscellaneous writer. Author Thoughts for the Times, Speech in Season, Current Coin, Arrows in the Air, Poets in the Pulpit, Unsectarian Family Prayer, Music and Morals, Pet, or Pastimes and Penalties, Ashes to Ashes, and My Musical Life. Pub. Har. Ho.

Haweis, Mrs. Mary Eliza [Joy]. 1852 ——. Wife to H. R. H. Author Chaucer for Children, Chaucer for Schools, Chaucer's Beads, The Art of Beauty, The Art of Dress, The Art of Decoration, and Beautiful Houses. The illustrations and cover designs of her own and her husband's works are by Mrs. Haweis. Pub. Har.

Hay, Mary Cecil. 1844 ——. Novelist. Author of Old Myddleton's Money, The Arundel Motto, The Squire's Legacy, etc. Pub. Har.[63]

Hayley, Wm. 1745–1820. Poet. Of mediocre ability, but once very popular. Author Life Wm. Cowper, etc. See Autobiography, 1823.

Hayward, Mrs. Eliza. 1693–1756. Author of The New Utopia, The Female Spectator, etc. A voluminous writer of miscellaneous works of slight merit.

Hazlitt, Wm. 1778–1830. Critical essayist. Author Table-Talk, Lect. on Shakespeare, Lect. on the Eng. Poets, etc. His criticisms on art and the drama are of high order. His style is picturesque and his imagination rich, but his works are sometimes deficient in moderation and judgment. See Life of, by his grandson, 1867. Pub. Lip.

Hazlitt, Wm. Carew. 1843 ——. Grandson to W. H. Littérateur. Author Hist. Venetian Republic, Memoirs Wm. Hazlitt, Handbook to Early Eng. Lit. etc.

Head, Sir Francis Bond. 1793–1875. Miscellaneous writer. Among his numerous works Bubbles from the Brunnen of Nassau is one of the best known. Pub. Har.

Heber, Reginald. 1783–1826. Poet. Bp. Calcutta. A talented writer, best known by his hymns, viz.: The Missionary Hymn, Holy, Holy, Holy, and Epiphany. See Life, by Mrs. Heber, 1830. Last Days of Heber, by Robinson, and Memoirs by Potter and Taylor.

Hector, Mrs. Annie Alexander. "Mrs. Alexander." 1825 ——. Irish novelist. Author of The Wooing O't, Her Dearest Foe, The Freres, The Admiral's Ward, Which Shall It Be, etc. Style fresh, healthful, and pleasing. Pub. Ho.

Helps, Sir Arthur. 1818–1875. Historian and essayist. Author Hist. of the Spanish Conquest in[64] America, Realmah, Casimir, Maremma, etc. His style is quiet and graceful, and Friends in Council, his best work, is strong and helpful. Pub. Har. Rob. Rou.

Hemans [hĕm´anz], Mrs. Felicia Dorothea. 1793–1835. Poet. Without possessing great force some of her poems have yet taken a firm hold upon popular sympathies. Casabianca, Graves of a Household, and The Pilgrim Fathers are examples. Her verse is graceful and sweet, but not strong. See Memorials of, by H. F. Chorley, 1836. Pub. Lip. Por. Rou.

Henry VIII. 1491–1547. Author of controversial, anti-Lutheran treatises. See Brewer's edition of, 1862.

Henry, Matthew. 1662–1714. Theologian. Author of a noted Exposition of the Bible, of which the best edition is that of London, 1869. See Lives by Tony and Williams. Pub. Ca.

Henry, Robert. 1718–1790. Scotch historian. His Hist. of Gt. Britain was the first to take account of manners and the state of society from a purely historical basis.

Henryson, Robert. fl. c. 1490. Scotch poet. H. wrote the beautiful pastoral of Robin and Makyne, found in Percy's Reliques. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1.

Herbert, Lord Edward. 1581–1648. Historian and theologian. His De Veritate is a plea for Deism. Style dignified and able. See Autobiography, edited by W. D. Howells. Pub. Hou. See Lord Herbert de Cherbury by Chas. de Rémusat, Paris, 1874.

Herbert, George. 1593–1632. Religious poet. Bro. to preceding. Author of The Temple. His verse[65] is elevated in tone, but marred by quaint and fantastic conceits. See Lives, by Walton, 1670, and Duyckinck, 1858. See Grosart's edition, with Memoir, 1875.

Herbert, Wm. 1778–1847. Poet. Author of some spirited translations from the Norse and other tongues, and of some excellent original poems.

Herrick, Robert. 1591–1674. Poet. Author of Hesperides, etc. A skillful lyrist whose airy gracefulness will always continue to delight. See Grosart's complete edition of, 1877; also, Abbey's Illustrated Selections from, 1882. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 2, and Temple Bar, May, 1883.

Herschel, Caroline Lucretia. 1750–1840. Astronomer. Author Catalogue of Stars. See Life and Correspondence of, 1876. Pub. Apl.

Herschel, Sir John Frederick Wm. 1792–1871. Astronomer. Neph. to C. L. H. Author Study of Nat. Philosophy, Outlines of Astronomy, Physical Geography, etc. Pub. Apl. Har. Rou.

Hervey, Lord John. 1696–1743. Author Memoirs Reign of George II. See edition of, 1848, with Life by J. W. Croker.

Hervey, James. 1714–1758. Moralist. Author Meditations, etc. Pub. Ca.

Heylin, Peter. 1600–1662. Microcosmus is his most noted work.

Heywood, Jasper. 1535–1598. Son to J. H. Author of rhymed translations of Seneca.

Heywood, John. 1506–1565. Dramatist. Writer of grotesque Interludes.

Heywood, Thomas. —— 1640. Dramatist. Was a frequent colleague of other dramatists, and a writer of much talent, with a tender, graceful style. See complete edition of, London, 1874, 6 vols.[66]

Hoadley, Benj. 1670–1761. Bp. Winchester. Theological writer.

Hoadley, Benj. 1706–1757. Dramatist. Son to preceding.

Hobbes, Thos. 1588–1679. Philosopher. A profound thinker, whose Leviathan, a treatise on monarchical government, is his best known work. See Molesworth's complete edition of, 16 vols., London, 1845.

Hogg, James. 1770–1835. Scotch poet. Called "The Ettrick Shepherd." Author of The Queen's Wake, etc. Style diffuse, but graceful and imaginative. See Collected Works, 1869.

Holcroft, Thomas. 1745–1809. Dramatist. Best known by his novel The Marriage of Figaro, and his famous comedy The Road to Ruin. See Memoirs, edited by Hazlitt, 1816.

Holinshed, Raphael. —— c. 1580. Chronicler. From him Shakespeare drew in part the stories of Cymbeline, Henry VI., Richard II., Richard III., Henry IV., Henry V., Macbeth, Lear, and Henry VIII.

Holyoake, George Jacob. 1817 ——. Writer on social science. Author of The Logic of Facts, Hist. of Coöperation in England, etc. Pub. Lip.

Home, Henry, Lord Kames. 1696–1782. Scotch philosopher. Author Elements of Criticism, etc. See Life, by A. F. Tytler. Pub. Por. Sh.

Home, John. 1724–1808. Dramatist. H. wrote the once popular play Douglas, which contains the famous lines, "My name is Norval," etc. See complete works of, with Life, by Mackenzie, 3 vols., 8vo, Edinburgh, 1822.

Hone, Wm. 1779–1842. Satirist. Chiefly known by his compilations; as, The Every-Day Book, The Table-Book, etc.[67]

Hood, Edwin Paxton. 1820 ——. Biographer. Author Lives of Wordsworth and Swedenborg, The Uses of Biography, etc. Pub. Arm. Do. Lip.

Hood, Thomas. 1798–1845. Poet and humorist. A writer whose fame as a wit has overshadowed his merits as a poet. His style, when not professedly humorous, is tender and graceful. For moral earnestness The Bridge of Sighs and The Song of the Shirt cannot be surpassed. See E. P. Sargent's edition, Pub. Apl.; also, F. J. Child's edition. Pub. Dut. Hon. Por. Put. Rou.

Hood, Thomas. 1835–1875. Miscellaneous writer. Son to preceding. Author of The Rhymster, etc.

Hook, Theodore Edward. 1788–1842. A writer of novels of fashion, inartistic in form, but full of humor. His power of extempore verse-making was remarkable. See Life, by Barham, 1848. Pub. Rou.

Hook, Walter Farquhar. 1798–1875. Neph. to T. E. H. Author Lives Abps. Cant., Ecclesiastical Biog., Ch. Dict., etc. See Life and Letters. Pub. Dut.

Hooker, Joseph Dalton. 1817 ——. Botanist. Son to W. J. H. Author Student's Flora British Islands, etc. Pub. Mac.

Hooker, Richard. 1553–1600. Theologian. Author The Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity. The greatest prose writer of the Elizabethan age. See Keble's edition, 3 vols. Pub. Mac.

Hooker, Sir Wm. Jackson. 1785–1865. Botanist. Author British Ferns, Garden Ferns, British Flora, etc. Pub. Put.

Hope, Alex. James Beresford. 1820 ——. Son to T. H. Author of the Eng. Cathedral in the 19th Cent., Worship in the Church of England, etc.[68]

Hope, Thomas. 1770–1831. Miscellaneous writer. Author Costumes of the Ancients, Household Furniture, etc., and the famous Oriental tale Anastasius. Pub. Har.

Horne, George. 1730–1792. Bp. Norwich. Theologian. Author of a noted Commentary on the Psalms. Pub. Ca.

Horne, Richard Hengist. 1803 ——. Dramatic poet. Author Gregory VII., Cosmo de Medici, Ballads and Romances, Orion, etc. A writer of much power, whose circle of readers is undeservedly small. See Stedman's Victorian Poets. Pub. Rob. Rou.

Horne, Thos. Hartwell. 1780–1862. Theologian. Best known by his Introduction to the Scriptures. Pub. Ca.

Horne-Tooke, John. 1736–1812. Philologist. Author The Diversions of Purley, etc. See Memoirs, by Hamilton, 1812, Stephens, 1813, Graham, 1828, N. Y.

Horner Francis. 1778–1817. Writer on political economy and one of the founders of the Edinburgh Rev. See Memoir and Correspondence, 1843.

Horsley, Samuel. 1733–1806. Bp. St. Asaph. Theological and controversial writer of note. See Works of, 6 vols., London, 1845.

Houghton, Lord. See Milnes, R. M.

Hoveden de [hōv´den], Roger. fl. c. 1200. Chronicler. See Bohn's Antiquarian Library.

Howard, Henry, Earl of Surrey. 1515–1547. His verse is mainly lyrical, his love songs being his best; nevertheless he first introduced blank verse into Eng. poetry. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1.

Howe, John. 1630–1705. Theological writer. See Life, by Rogers, 1836. Pub. Dra.[69]

Howell, James. 1594–1666. Miscellaneous writer. See Arber's reprints of Instructions for Foreign Travel, etc.

Howitt, Anna Mary. Dau. to W. H. and M. H. See Watts, Mrs. A. M.

Howitt, Mrs. Mary Botham. 1799 ——. Wife to W. H. An industrious author of numerous popular poems, mainly juvenile, of several excellent prose tales, and of numerous translations from the Swedish, German, and Danish, the most noted of these being the works of Fredrika Bremer and Hans Andersen. Her work is characterized by earnestness and sincerity of purpose. See the Biograph, Aug. 1880. Pub. Alp. Har. Rob. Rou.

Howitt, Wm. 1796–1879. Poet and Miscellaneous Writer. A versatile author whose Rural Life in England, Book of the Seasons, etc., have been deservedly popular. His wife was co-author with him of many books. Pub. Har. Rou.

Howson, John Saul. 1816 ——. Dean of Chester. Theologian. Author Life and Epistles of St. Paul [with W. J. Conybeare], Companions of St. Paul, Metaphors of St. Paul, Miracles of Christ, etc. Pub. Mac. Rou.

Hoyle [hoil], Edward. 1672–1769. A noted writer upon Games. Pub. Lip. Rou.

Hugesson. See Knatchbull-Hugesson.

Hughes, John. 1677–1720. Poet and essayist. A contributor to The Spectator.

Hughes, Thomas. 1823 ——. A popular writer whose School Days at Rugby, Tom Brown at Oxford, Life of King Alfred, Manliness of Christ, Scouring of the White Horse, etc., have been widely read. Pub. Hou. Mac. Por.

Hume, David. 1711–1766. Scottish historian and[70] philosopher. Author Philosophical Essays, Hist. of England, etc. His style possesses originality and spirit, but as a historian he is inaccurate. See Life and Correspondence of, by T. Hill Burton, Edinburgh, 1847; also Hume, by T. H. Huxley in Eng. Men of Letters. Pub. Har. Lip. Por.

Hunt, James Henry Leigh. 1784–1859. Poet and essayist. Francesca da Rimini and Legend of Florence are his finest poems, but Abou-Ben-Adhem is the best known. A writer whose happy, genial spirit expresses itself in his prose and verse. See Autobiography edited by his son, 1850. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 4, and Century Mag. March, 1882. Pub. Har. Rob. Rou.

Hunter, Mrs. Anne. 1742–1821. Poet. Her lyrics possess much beauty, and some of them were set to music by Haydn. "My mother bids me bind my hair" is well known.

Hurd, Richard. 1720–1808. Bp. Worcester. Theologian. Author Dialogues, Sermons, etc. See edition 1811, 8 vols.

Hutcheson, Francis. 1694–1747. Irish metaphysician. Author of a System of Moral Philosophy, etc. Founder of the Scotch Metaphysical School.

Hutchinson, Mrs. Lucy. 1620–1659. Known to literature by her admirable Memoirs of her husband first published in 1808.

Hutton, Richard Holt. 1826 ——. His main work in the London Spectator. Author Essays, Theological and Literary. Pub. Har. Mac. Por.

Huxley, Thomas Henry. 1825 ——. Naturalist. Author Man's Place in Nature, Comparative Anatomy, Protoplasm, Lay Sermons, etc. A leader in modern thought and investigation. Pub. Apl. Mac.[71]

Hyde, Edward, Earl of Clarendon. 1608–1673. Historian. Author Hist. of the Great Rebellion. His style is defective, but he is fully master of his subject.

Inchbald, Mrs. Elizabeth. 1753–1821. Novelist and dramatist. Her novels, A Simple Story and Nature and Art were once popular, and some of her plays are yet acted. The best are Such Things Are, Wives as They Were and Maids as They Are, and Lovers' Vows. See Boaden's Life of, 1833; also Miss Kavanagh's Eng. Women of Letters. Pub. Har.

Ingelow [ĭn´jĕ-low], Jean. 1830 ——. Poet and novelist. Her novels Off the Skelligs, Don John, etc., though popular and entertaining, are inartistic in construction. Her poetry, though occasionally obscure, is always graceful and beautiful. Songs of Seven, The High Tide, and Divided are among the best. Pub. Rob. Rou.

Ingleby, Clement Mansfield. 1823 ——. Shakespearean scholar. Author of Shakespeare—the Man and the Book, View of the Shakespeare Controversy, etc.

Inglis, Henry David. 1795–1835. Scotch writer of travels.

Ingulphus. 1030?-1109. A monk to whom was long ascribed the famous History of the Abbey of Croyland. See Bohn's Antiquarian Library.

Ireland, Wm. Henry. 1777–1835. Shakespearean forger. Author of a wretched play called Vortigern, which he asserted to be by Shakespeare. See Ingleby's Shakespeare, The Man and the Book, Part 2.

Irons, Wm. 1812–1883. Theologian. Author of[72] The Whole Doctrine of Final Causes, Parochial Lect., Sermons for the People, Hymns from the Hebrew, Athanasius Contoa Mundum, etc. Pub. Dut.

Irving, Edward. 1792–1834. Scotch theologian. Founder of the Irvingite, or Catholic Apostolic Church. See Lives by Wilkes and Mrs. Oliphant; also Carlyle's Reminiscences.

James I. King of Scotland. 1394–1437. Poet. The King's Quhair is a long love poem in 7-line stanzas, and pure and sweet in sentiment. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1.

James V. King of Scotland. 1511–1542. Poet. Supposed author of Peebles to the Play and Christ's Kirk on the Green: comic and satirical ballads.

James VI. of Scotland, I. of England. 1566–1625. Author of some feeble poetry, a number of theological treatises and a famous Counterblast Against Tobacco.

James, George Payne Rainsford. 1801–1860. Novelist. Author of an immense number of novels with a strong likeness to each other. Beginning by imitating Scott, he ended by copying himself. Pub. Har. Rou.

Jameson, Mrs. Anna. 1797–1860. An able writer who touched upon many topics. Characteristics of Women, Sacred and Legendary Art, and Diary of an Ennuyée, are some of her books. Her dissertations upon Shakespeare's women are keenly appreciative. See Memoir of, by Geraldine Macpherson; also H. Martineau's Biographical Sketches. Pub. Apl. Har. Hou. Por. Rou.

Jeaffreson, John Cordy. 1831 ——. Novelist and biographer. Author Live It Down, The Real Lord Byron, etc. Pub. Har.[73]

Jeffrey, Lord Francis. 1773–1850. Scotch critic and essayist. One of the founders of the Edinburgh Review. A writer of great merit, but one whose judgment was often warped by prejudice. See Life by Lord Cockburn, 1852.

Jenkins, Edward. 1838 ——. Political satirist. Author Ginx's Baby, Lord Bantam, Haverholme, etc. Pub. Har.

Jenyns, Soame. 1704–1787. Moralist. See complete works of, London, 1790.

Jephson, Robert. 1736–1803. Dramatist. The Court of Narbonne and Duke of Braganza were successful tragedies in their day.

Jerdan, Wm. 1782–1869. Journalist. See Autobiography, 1853.

Jerrold, Douglas Wm. 1803–1857. Dramatist and humorist. Black-Eyed Susan and Rent Day are his best dramas. Of his other works, A Man Made of Money, Chronicles of Clovernook, and The Caudle Lectures are most noted. See Life by his son. Pub. Har. Hou. Rou.

Jerrold, Wm. Blanchard. 1826 ——. Miscellaneous writer. Son to D. W. J. Author Imperial Paris, Napoleon III., etc.

Jevons, Wm. Stanley. 1835–1882. Political economist. Author The State in Relation to Labor, Methods of Social Reform and other Essays, Investigations in Currency and Finance, etc. Pub. Apl. Mac.

Jewsbury, Geraldine Endsor. 1821–1880. Novelist and journalist. Author of Zoë, Half Sisters, Constance Herbert, etc. Pub. Har.

Jewsbury, Maria Jane. Sister to G. E. J. See Fletcher, Mrs.

Johnson, Samuel. 1705–1773. Dramatist. Author Hurlothrumbo, etc.[74]

Johnson, Samuel. 1709–1784. Lexicographer and miscellaneous writer. Author of London, a poetical satire, Rasselas, a didactic novel, Lives of the Poets, Dict. of the Eng. Lang., and numerous other works. His style is heavy and ponderous, but dignified, sonorous, and peculiarly his own. He was the greatest literary figure in England between 1745 and 1784. See Boswell's Life of, edited by J. W. Croker; also Johnson by Leslie Stephen in Eng. Men of Letters. Pub. Har. Le. Lit. Mac.

Johnston, Arthur. 1587–1641. Scotch poet. Noted for a fine Latin translation of the Psalms.

Johnstone, Charles. —— 1800. Novelist. His Adventures of a Guinea was once popular. See W. Scott's Lives of Eminent Novelists.

Jones, Sir Wm. 1746–1794. Poet, Orientalist, and translator. See edition of 1807 with Life.

Jonson, Ben. 1574–1637. Dramatist. A robust, dignified writer, more popular in his day than Shakespeare. Volpone, Silent Woman, Alchemist, Every Man in his Humor, and Every Man out of his Humor are his best comedies: Catiline and Sejanus his only tragedies. His pastoral drama, The Sad Shepherd, is graceful and sweet. See Cunningham's edition of Johnson, 1870, and Schlegel's Dramatic Literature. Pub. Apl. Rou.

Jortin, John. 1698–1770. Ecclesiastical historian.

Jowett, Benjamin. 1817 ——. Greek scholar. Translator of Plato and Thucydides. Pub Scr.

Junius. See Francis, Sir Philip.

Kames, Lord. See Home, Henry.

Kavanagh [kav´a-nä´ or kav´a-nah´], Julia. 1824–1877. Irish novelist. Author Nathalie, Eng. Women of Letters, Beatrice, etc. Pub. Apl. Ho.[75]

Kaye, Sir John Wm. 1814–1876. Military historian. Author Hist. War in Afghanistan 1851, Hist. Sepoy War, Lives of Indian Officers, Essays of an Optimist, etc. Pub. Lip. Rou.

Keary, Annie. 1825–1879. Novelist. Author Castle Daly, A Doubting Heart, Heroes of Asgard, Clemency Franklyn, etc. See Memoir of, by her Sister; also Catholic World, July, 1879. Pub. Har. Mac. Por.

Keats, John. 1795–1821. Poet. A great master of the music of verse. The Ode on a Grecian Urn and Ode to a Nightingale are nearly perfect poems. The Eve of St. Agnes, Isabella, Hyperion and Endymion are longer poems, full of sensuous richness of expression and intensity of feeling. See Rossetti's edition of. See Life of, by Lord Houghton.

Keble [kĕb´l], John. 1792–1866. Religious poet. Author Christian Year, Lyra Innocentium, etc. Versification musical and refined. See Shairp's Studies in Poetry and Philosophy, C. Yonge's Musings over the Christian Year, Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 4, and Memoir by J. T. Coleridge. Pub. Dut.

Keddie, Henrietta, "Sarah Tytler." 1827 ——. Novelist. Author Citoyenne Jacqueline, What She Came Through, and several valuable literary and artistic handbooks. Pub. Har. Rob. Rou.

Keightley [kīt´lĭ], Thomas. 1789–1872. Historian. Author Hist. England to 1839, Outlines of Hist., Mythology of Ancient Greece, etc. Pub. Apl. Har. Lip.

Kemble, Adelaide. See Sartoris, Mrs.

Kemble, Frances Anne. 1811 ——. Poet and miscellaneous writer. See Allibone's Dict. Pub. Har. Ho.

Kemble, John Mitchell. 1807–1857. Anglo-Saxon[76] scholar. Bro to A. K. and F. A. K. Author of The Saxons in England, etc. A writer of authority in his department.

Ken, Thomas. 1637–1711. Bp. Bath and Wells. Poet. His Morning and Evening Hymns introduced a simpler, sincerer style of religious poetry. See Life, by Duyckinck.

Kenney, Charles Lamb. 1823–1881. Dramatist. Author lives of Balzac and Balfe, etc. Pub. Rou.

Kenney, James. 1780–1849. Dramatist. Author Raising the Wind, etc.

King, Henry. 1591–1669. Bp. Chichester. Religious poet.

Kinglake, Alex. Wm. 1802 ——. Historian. A brilliant and powerful writer. Author Hist. Crimean War, Eothen, etc. Pub. Arm. Har.

Kingsley, Charles. 1819–1875. Novelist and poet. Author of Andromeda, the finest Eng. hexameter poem, and the stories, Alton Locke, Yeast, Westward Ho, Hypatia, At Last, etc. Style forcible but uneven. See Life by Mrs. Kingsley, 1876. Pub. Apl. Har. Mac. Lip. Scr.

Kingsley, Henry. 1830–1876. Novelist. Bro. to C. K. Author Ravenshoe, Silcote of Silcotes, Austin Elliott, Hetty, etc. Pub. Do. Har. Mac. Rou.

Kingston, Wm. H. G. 1843–1880. Author of spirited tales of adventure for young readers. Pub. Arm. Cas. Lip. Rou.

Kitchener, Wm. 1775–1827. Physician. Author of the Cook's Oracle, etc. Pub. Har.

Kitto, John. 1804–1854. Author of the Pictorial Bible, Cyc. of Biblical Lit., etc. Pub. Ca. Phi.

Knatchbull-Hugesson, Edward. 1829 ——. Writer for children. Author Crackers for Christmas and several vols. of fairy tales. Pub. Apl. Har. Rou.[77]

Knight, Charles. 1791–1873. Shakespearean scholar and miscellaneous writer. Author of a Pictorial Hist. England, etc. Editor of a Pictorial Shakespeare, etc. See Passages from the Life of (pub. Put.). Pub. Fu. Lip. Por.

Knight, Richard Payne. 1750–1824. Poet and antiquary. His verse is worthless, but his archæological works are much esteemed. See edition, 1874, N. Y.

Knolles [nōlz], Richard. 1540–1610. Historian. His Hist. of the Turks was much praised by Dr. Johnson and Hallam.

Knowles, Herbert. 1798–1817. Religious poet.

Knowles, James Sheridan. 1794–1862. Irish dramatist. His best tragedies are Caius Gracchus, Virginius, and Wm. Tell. The Hunchback is his finest comedy. While his works will not bear severe criticism, they are popular and among the best acting of modern plays. See edition, 1873.

Knowles, Richard Brinsley. 1819?-1882. Son to J. S. K. Journalist and historical writer. Was author of the comedy The Maiden Aunt.

Knox, Mrs. Craig. See Craig-Knox.

Knox, John. 1505–1572. Scotch theologian. Author Hist. Reformation in Scotland, and First Blast Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women. See Lives by Smeaton, 1572; McCrie, 1812; Niemeyer, 1824; Laing, 1847, and Brandes, 1863. See Fraser's Mag. April, 1875; also Lorimer's John Knox and the Church of England.

Knox, Vicesimus. 1752–1821. Essayist. Author Winter Evenings, Family Lect., etc.

Knox, Wm. 1789–1825. Scotch poet. Best remembered for his poem "O why should the spirit of mortal be proud!" Pub. Le.[78]

Kyd, Thomas. fl. c. 1590. Dramatist. Author Hieronimo, The Spanish Tragedy, etc. See Lamb's Dramatic Poets.

Kynaston, Francis. 1587–1642. Poet.

Laffan, May. 18— ——. Novelist. Author Hogan, M. P., Flitters, Tatters and the Counsellor, Christy Carew, and The Honorable Miss Ferrard. Pub. Ho. Mac.

Lang, David. 1793–1878. Librarian and bibliographer. A literary student of great diligence, and editor and author of some two hundred and fifty works.

Laing, Malcolm. 1762–1818. Scotch historian. Author Hist. of Scotland, etc. Style independent and truthful.

Laing, Samuel. 1780–1868. Traveler. Author Norway, Tour in Sweden, etc., and translator of the Heimskringla, or Chronicle of the Kings of Norway.

Lamb, Caroline, Lady. 1785–1828. Novelist. Author Glenarvon, Graham Hamilton, etc.

Lamb, Charles. 1775–1834. Essayist. A humorist who is unsurpassed for gentleness and purity of style. Essays of Elia, Rosamond Gray, a tale, John Woodvil, a drama; and Specimens of Old Eng. Dramatists are his chief works. Among the Essays Dream-Children is the most nearly perfect. See Lives by Talfourd, Fitzgerald, and Procter. See Centenary edition of, 1875. Pub. Arm. Clx. Har. Lip. Rou.

Lamb, Mary Anne. 1765–1847. Sister to C. L. and co-author with him of Tales from Shakespeare, Poetry for Children, etc. See W. Carew Hazlitt's edition of Poems, Letters, etc. of Chas. and Mary[79] Lamb, 1874; and Mary Lamb, by Anne Gilchrist, in Famous Women.

Landon, Letitia Elizabeth [Mrs. Maclean], 1802–1838. Poet and novelist. Her verse is melodious and delicate, but is lacking in force. See Poems of, edited by W. B. Scott, 1873. See Life by L. Blanchard, 1841, and Living Age, Jan. 6, 1883. Pub. Apl.

Landor, Walter Savage. 1775–1864. Poet and prose writer. Author Gebir, Heroic Idyls, Hellenics, etc., and of numerous prose works, of which the Imaginary Conversations is the chief. A strong, original writer, self asserting and unrestrained. See Forster's Life of, Stedman's Victorian Poets, Atlantic Monthly, April, May, and June, 1864, and Feb. 1883, H. Martineau's Biographical Sketches, and Landor, by Colvin, in Eng. Men of Letters. Pub. Lip. Rob.

Lane, Edward Wm. 1801–1876. Orientalist. Author Modern Egyptians, Arabic Lexicon, etc., and translator of the Arabian Nights. Pub. Lit.

Lang, Andrew. 1844 ——. Poet. Author Ballads in Blue China, Helen of Troy, etc. See Harper's Mag. May, 1882, "Some London Poets." Pub. Mac.

Langhorne, John. 1735–1779. Poet and translator of Plutarch.

Langland, Wm. c. 1322-c. 1400. Poet. Author Vision of Piers Plowman, an allegorical, satirical poem, aimed at the corruptions of the church. See edition by Wright, 1856; also Skeat's edition. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1. Pub. Mac.

Lardner, Dionysius. 1793–1859. Scientific writer.

Lardner, Nathaniel. 1684–1768. Theological writer. See Collected Works, with Memoir by Kippis, 1788.[80]

Latham, Rob't Gordon. 1812 ——. Ethnologist. Author Man and His Migrations, etc.

Latimer, Hugh. c. 1491–1555. Bp. Worcester. Theologian. His Sermons are rude but forcible and strongly idiomatic discourses. See Corrie's edition. London, 4 vols. 8vo, 1845. See Life, by Demaus, 1869; and Tulloch's Leaders of the Reformation.

Law, Wm. 1686–1761. Theologian. Author Serious Call to a Higher Life, etc. See Life, by Tighe, 1813.

Lawrence, Geo. Alfred. 1827–1876. Novelist. Author Guy Livingstone, Sword and Gown, Sans Merci, Anteros, Maurice Dering, etc. Pub. Har. Lip.

Layamon. fl. c. 1200. Author The Brut, or Chronicle of Britain, a famous semi-Saxon poem. Style earnest and simple. See F. Madden's edition, 1847.

Layard [lā-ard], Austen Henry. 1817 ——. Archæologist. Author Nineveh and its Remains, Monuments of Nineveh, etc. Pub. Har.

Lear, Edward. 18— ——. Author Journal of a Landscape Painter, Nonsense Book, etc. Pub. Rob.

Lecky, Wm. Edw. Hartpole. 1838 ——. Irish historian. Author Hist. Rationalism, Hist. European Morals, Hist. England in the 18th Cent. etc. A careful, dignified writer who treats of history philosophically. Pub. Apl.

Lee, Frederick George. 1832 ——. Theologian and poet. Author of Historical Sketches of the Reformation, Lyrics of Life and Light, etc. See The Biograph, Aug. 1880. Pub. Dut.

Lee, Harriet. 1766–1851. Author [with Sophia L.] of the Canterbury Tales, a series of tales of much power. Byron's Werner is a version of one of them.[81]

Lee, Holme. See Parr, Harriet.

Lee, Nathaniel. 1655–1692. Dramatist. Alexander the Great is one of his tragedies.

Lee, Sophia. 1750–1824. Novelist. Sister to H. L. Author of two of the Canterbury Tales, of several novels, and of the comedy The Chapter of Accidents.

Lee, Wm. 1815–1883. Irish theologian and ecclesiologist. His chief work is the Donnellan Lect. on the Inspiration of Scripture. A profound biblical scholar. Pub. Ca.

LeFanu, J. Sheridan.?—— 1874. Novelist. Author All in the Dark, Tenants of Malory, etc. Pub. Har.

Leighton [lā-ton], Rob't. 1613–1684. Abp. Glasgow. Theologian. His style is still much admired. See Pearson's edition, London, 1828, N. Y. 1859. Pub. Ca.

L. E. L. See Landon.

Leland, John. 1506–1552. Antiquarian. Author The Itinerary, etc.

Lemon, Mark. 1809–1870. Journalist, novelist, and dramatist. The Serious Family is his best known farce. Author Jest Book, etc. Pub. Mac.

Lempriere [lĕm´prĭ-er, or lem-preer´], John. 1765–1824. Scholar of note. Author of a Classical Dict., and a Universal Biography. Pub. Lip. Put. Rou.

Lennox, Mrs. Charlotte. 1720–1804. Novelist. Author Harriet Stuart and The Female Quixote.

Lesley, John. 1527–1596. Bp. Ross. Scotch historian. See Thomson's Edition, 1830.

Leslie, Chas. 1650–1722. Irish theologian. Leslie wrote A Short and Easy Method with the Deists, a controversial work once noted.[82]

Leslie, Chas. Rob't. 1794–1859. Artist. Author Handbook for Young Painters, Memoirs Sir John Constable, Life and Times Sir Joshua Reynolds, etc. See Autobiographical Recollection of, edited by Tom Taylor, 1860.

L'Estrange [lĕs-trānj], Sir Roger. 1616–1704. Political writer and translator.

Lever [lē´ver], Chas. James. 1806–1872. Irish novelist. Author Harry Lorrequer, Charles O'Malley, etc., rollicking tales not greatly approved by the present taste. His later novels, like That Boy at Norcott's, etc., are soberer in tone. Pub. Har.

Lewes [lū-is], Geo. Henry. 1817–1878. Philosopher and critic. Author Problems of Life and Mind, Life of Goethe, Hist. of Philosophy, etc. Pub. Apl. Ho. Hou.

Lewes, Mrs. G. H. See Evans, Marian.

Lewis, Sir Geo. Cornwall. 1806–1863. Political and historical writer. See Letters of, 1870.

Lewis, Matthew Gregory. 1775–1818. Novelist. Famous as the author of The Monk, a fantastic, demoniac tale. See Life and Correspondence, 1839.

Leyden [li´den], John. 1775–1811. Scotch poet and Orientalist. See edition of his poems, 1858.

Liddell [lĭd´del], Mrs. Catharine Christina Fraser-Tytler. 1848 ——. Poet and novelist. Author Mistress Judith, Jonathan, Songs in Minor Keys, etc. Pub. Ho. Mac.

Liddell, Mrs. Edward. See Liddell, Mrs. C.

Liddell, Henry George. 1811 ——. Classical scholar. Author of a Hist. of Rome, and co-author with Scott of the noted Greek lexicon known as Liddell-and-Scott's. Pub. Har.

Liddon, Henry, Parry. 1830 ——. Theologian. Author Bampton Lect. 1867, University Sermons,[83] Sermons to the People, etc. A leader of High Church thought. Pub. Dut.

Lightfoot, Joseph Barber. 1828 ——. Bp. Durham. Biblical commentator. Pub. Mac.

Lillo, George. 1693–1739. Dramatist. Author George Barnwell, Fatal Curiosity, and Arden of Feversham. A master of dramatic situations.

Lindsay, Sir David. 1490–1557. Scotch poet. See Chalmers' edition with Life, 1806. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1.

Lingard, John. 1771–1859. Historian. Author Hist. England, Antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon Ch., etc. His history has a high rank and is valued as a fair statement of facts from a Roman Catholic standpoint. Pub. Est.

Linton, Mrs. Eliza Lynn. 1822 ——. Novelist. Wife to W. J. L. Author Lizzie Lorton, Sowing the Wind, etc. Pub. Har. Lip. Rou.

Linton, Wm. James. 1812 ——. Poet and Engraver. Author Claribel, Hist. Wood Engraving, Life Thos. Paine, etc. See Stedman's Victorian Poets. Pub. Est. Le.

Livingstone, David. 1817–1873. African explorer. Author Expedition to the Zambesi, Last Journals, etc. Pub. Har.

Lloyd, Chas.?—— 1839. Poet. Co-author with Chas. Lamb.

Lloyd, Robert. 1733–1764. Poet. See Collected Works with Life, by Kenrick, 1774.

Locke, John. 1632–1704. Philosopher. Author of the famous Essay on the Understanding, a work of great penetration and power. See Life by Fox-Bourne, and Locke, by T. Fowler in Eng. Men of Letters. Pub. Apl.


Locker, Frederick. 1821 ——. Poet. Author London Lyrics, etc. Style airy and graceful. See Century Mag. Feb. 1883.

Lockhart, John Gibson. 1794–1854. Scotch critic and biographer. A writer of much talent and for 27 years editor of the Quarterly Rev.: author Lives of Nelson, Scott, Burns, Napoleon, etc. See H. Martineau's Biographical Sketches. Pub. Har. Ho. Hou.

Lockyer, Joseph Norman. 1836 ——. Astronomer. Author Contributions to Solar Physics, etc. Pub. Apl. Mac.

Lodge, Edmund. 1756–1839. Historian. Author Illustrations of British Hist., Portraits of Illustrious Persons of Gt. Britain, etc.

Lodge, Thomas. c. 1555–1625. Dramatist and Poet. To his novel Roslynde; Euphues Golden Legacy, Shakespeare owes the plot and incidents of As You Like It. See As You Like It, Rolfe's edition, and Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. I.

Logan, John. 1748–1788. Scotch poet. His verse is fresh and simple, and his Song to the Cuckoo has great beauty. See edition 1805, with Life.

Long, George. 1800–1879. Classical scholar. Author Roman Law, Decline and Fall of the Roman Republic, etc.

Loudon, Mrs. Jane. 1800–1858. Wife to J. C. L. Author of The Mummy, a tale, and several horticultural works. Pub. Rou. Wil.

Loudon, John Claudius. 1783–1843. Scotch horticulturist. His Arboretum Britannicum is his chief work.

Lovelace, Sir Richard. 1618–1658. Poet. His verse is principally amatory, and some of his songs are perfect of their kind. To Althea and To Lucasta are the most famous. See Carew Hazlitt's edition of 1864, and Ward's English Poets, vol. 2.[85]

Lover, Samuel. 1797–1868. Irish dramatist, novelist, and poet. Rory O'More and Handy Andy are his best known novels. His most famous song is Rory O'More. See Life by Bayle Bernard, 1874, and Samuel Lover, by A. J. Symington. Pub. Por. Rou.

Lower, Mark Antony. 1813–1876. Author Eng. Surnames, Curiosities of Heraldry, Patronymica Britannica, etc.

Lowndes, Wm. Thos.?—— 1843. Bibliographer. Author British Librarian and The Bibliographer's Manual.

Lowth [louth], Rob't. 1710–1787. Bp. London. Son to W. L. A classical and theological writer of great learning. See Life, by Peter Hall, 1834.

Lowth, Wm. 1661–1732. Theologian of note.

Lubbock, Sir John. 1834 ——. Naturalist. Author Origin of Civilization, Pre-Historic Times, British Wild Flowers, etc. Pub. Apl. Mac.

Lydgate, John. 1370–1450. Poet. An exceedingly diffuse rhymer. See minor works of pub. by the Percy Soc. 1842, and Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. I.

Lyell, Sir Chas. 1797–1875. Geologist. Author Elements of Geology, Travels in N. America, Antiquity of Man, etc. Pub. Apl. Har. Lip.

Lyly or Lily, John. 1553–1598. Dramatic poet. His dramas are forgotten, but his prose romance, Euphues and his England, is remembered for the great influence it had upon the speech of the time. L. was a reformer, though pedantic and fantastic. Euphuism has been ridiculed by Sydney, Jonson, Shakespeare, and Walter Scott. See Collins's Hist. Dramatic Poetry, Lamb's Specimens Early Eng. Poets, and Chas. Kingsley's Westward Ho.

Lyndsay. See Lindsay, David.[86]

Lyte, Henry Francis. 1793–1847. Poet. His hymn, Abide with Me, is widely known. Pub. Le. Ran.

Lyttleton, George, Lord. 1709–1773. Author Dialogues of the Dead, Hist. Henry II., etc. See Life, by Phillimore, 1845.

Lytton. See Bulwer-Lytton.

Macaulay, Mrs. Catherine. 1733–1791. Historian. Author Hist. of England during the Stuart dynasty, etc.

Macaulay, Thos. Babington, Lord. 1800–1859. Poet, essayist, and historian. A brilliant but partisan writer. The impetuous rush and vigor of his Lays of Ancient Rome obscure their poetical defects. His essays are numerous and cover a wide range. His Hist. of England is a superb piece of writing but it lacks the calm impartiality that a history should possess. See Lines by Milman, F. Arnold and G. O. Trevelyan; Macaulay, by J. C. Morrison in Eng. Men of Letters; and H. Martineau's Biographical Sketches. Pub. Apl. Arm. Clx. Har. Hou. Lip. Lit. Por. Rou.

MacDonald, George. 1824 ——. Scotch novelist and poet. His work is all of an earnest, religious cast, but marred sometimes by mannerisms and vagueness of touch. Robert Falconer, Alec Forbes, and St. George and St. Michael are the best of his numerous novels. Phantastes contains some of his best poetry. See Lit. World, May 19, 1883. Pub. Apl. Do. Har. Lip. Mac. Rob. Rou. Scr.

Mackarness, Mrs. Henry. 1826–1881. Author of the tale A Trap to Catch a Sunbeam, etc. Pub. Rou.

Mackay, Chas. 1812 ——. Scotch poet and miscellaneous writer. Author Town Lyrics, etc. See [87]Poems of, edition 1876. Pub. Rou.

Mackay, Wm. 1803–1882. Philosopher. Author Progress of the Intellect, Eternal Gospel, etc.

Mackenzie, Sir George. 1636–1691. Scotch miscellaneous writer. A voluminous author of much eminence in his day.

Mackenzie, Henry. Scotch novelist and essayist. Author the famous novel, The Man of Feeling, etc. See collected works, 1808. Pub. Har.

Mackintosh, Sir James. 1765–1832. Ethical and historical writer. See Memoirs by his son. Pub. Har.

Macklin, Chas. 1690–1797. Irish dramatist. Author of the bright comedy, The Man of the World. M. appeared on the stage as an actor till nearly 100. See Memoirs of, 1804.

Macleod [măk-lowd´], Norman. 1812–1872. Scotch miscellaneous writer. Author of The Starling, Reminiscences of a Highland Parish, etc. See Life by his brother, and Memoir by Alex. Strahan. Pub. Do. Lip. Rou.

Macneil, Hector. 1746–1818. Scotch poet. Author Will and Jean, etc.

Macpherson, James. 1738–1796. Scotch poet. Supposed author of a series of poems purporting to be by Ossian, an ancient Gaelic bard. These forgeries were immensely popular in spite of their wild and over-strained diction. M. never revealed the secret of their authorship. See H. Morley's Shorter Eng. Poems.

Macquoid, Mrs. Katherine S. 18— ——. Novelist. Author Patty, Beside the River, Too Soon, etc., and several vols. of travel, Through Normandy, Through Brittany, etc. Pub. Apl. Har. Lip. Mac. Ran. Rou.


Madden, Richard Robert. 1798 ——. Poet and miscellaneous writer. Author The Infirmities of Genius, etc.

Magee, Wm. 1765–1831. Abp. Dublin. Theologian. His best known work is the Discourses on the Atonement. See complete works, 1842.

Magee, Wm. Connor. 1821 ——. Bp. Peterborough. Grandson to Wm. M. Religious writer. Author Sermons, Lectures, etc. Style eloquent and forcible.

Maginn, Wm. 1793–1842. Irish humorist. Style learned, witty, and brilliant. See Works, edited by R. S. Mackenzie, 5 vols., N. Y. 1857. Pub. Wid.

Mahaffey, John Peytland. 1839 ——. Author Hist. Classical Greek Lit., Old Greek Life, Rambles and Studies in Greece, Greek Social Life, Old Greek Education, etc. Pub. Apl. Har. Mac.

Mahoney, Francis, "Father Prout." 1805–1866. Irish poet and journalist. M. wrote the noted poem, The Bells of Shandon.

Maine, Sir Henry James Sumner. 1822 ——. Jurist. Author Roman Law, Ancient Law, Village Communities, Early Hist. of Institutions, etc. Pub. Ho.

Maitland, Edward. 18— ——. Novelist. Author The Higher Law, The Pilgrim and the Shrine, and By-and-By. Pub. Put.

Maitland, Sir Richard. 1496–1586. Scotch poet.

Malcolm, Sir John. 1769–1833. Diplomatist. Author Hist. of Persia, Political Hist. India, Life of Lord Clive, etc. See Kaye's Life of, London, 1856.

Mallet, David. 1700–1765. Scotch poet. Author Ballads, etc.

Mallock, Wm. Hurrel. 1849 ——. Novelist. Author Is Life Worth Living, The New Republic, Positivism on an Island, Romance of the 19th Cent., etc. A writer of much force and originality.[89]

Malmesbury, Wm. of. 1095?-1143. Anglo-Norman historian.

Malone, Edmund. 1741–1812. Shakespearean scholar. Editor of the edition of 1790. See Life, by Prior, 1860.

Malory, Sir Thomas. 1430?-1496. Author or translator of the famous romance, The Morte d'Arthur. Pub. Mac.

Malthus, Thos. Robt. 1766–1834. Political economist. Author of a celebrated Essay on the Principle of Population. See Life, by Otter, 1836.

Mandeville, Bernard. 1670–1733. Philosopher. Author of the noted Fable of the Bees, or Private Vices Public Benefits, etc. See Craik's Eng. Lit. vol. 2.

Mandeville, Sir John. 1300–1372. "The first writer in formed English." He traveled extensively and wrote an entertaining account of his travels.

Manley, Mrs. Mary de la Riviere. 1672–1724. Novelist and dramatist. She wrote the noted political satire, The New Atlantis.

Manners, John Lord. 1818 ——. Poet. Author England's Trust, English Ballads, etc.

Manning, Anne. 1807 ——. Novelist. Author Mary Powell, Household of Sir Thos. More, Passages in the Life of the Faire Gospeller, etc. Pub. Do.

Manning, Henry Edw., Cardinal. 1808 ——. Theologian. Author Temporal Power of the Pope, Parochial Sermons, The Vatican Decrees, etc. See Century Mag. May, 1883. Pub. Apl. Sad.

Mannyng, Robert. fl. c. 1340. Rhyming chronicler.

Mansel, Henry Longueville. 1820–1871. Philosopher. Author The Limits of Religious Thought,[90] Philosophy of Consciousness, Bampton Lect., 1858, etc. Pub. Apl. Mac.

Mant, Richard. 1776–1848. Bp. Killaloe. Religious writer. Author Poems, Hist. Ch. of Ireland, etc.

Mantell, Gideon Algernon. 1790–1852. Geological writer of note. Author Thoughts on a Pebble, Medals of Creation, etc.

Map, or Mapes, Walter. 1150–1196. Anglo-Norman poet and romancer.

Marlowe, Christopher. 1564–1593. Dramatist and poet. The greatest dramatist before Shakespeare. His Tamburlaine was the first blank verse play acted. Faustus, Jew of Malta, and Edward II. are powerful dramas. The influence of Marlowe is traceable in several of Shakespeare's plays. See editions by Cunningham and Dyce. See Schlegel's Dramatic Lit. Pub. Mac. Rou.

Marryatt, Frederick. 1792–1849. Marine novelist. Peter Simple, Jacob Faithful, and Midshipman Easy are among the best of his novels. They are lively, inartistic tales, full of broad fun and drollery. See Life, by his daughter Florence, 1872. Pub. Apl. Har. Lip. Rob.

Marryatt, Florence. See Ross-Church, Mrs.

Marsh, Mrs. Anne Caldwell.?—— 1874. Novelist. Author Ravenscliffe, Emilia Wyndham, Lettice Arnold, etc. Pub. Har.

Marsh, Herbert. 1757–1839. Bp. Peterborough. A profound writer on politics and divinity. Author of a noted Hist. of the Politics of Gt. Britain and France.

Marston, John. 1575–1634. Dramatist and satirist. See Halliwell's edition, 3 vols., London, 1856.


Marston, Philip Bourke. 1850 ——. Poet. Son to W. M. Author Song-Tide, All in All, etc., and of numerous sketches and tales. His verse is strongly subjective in tone. See Stedman's Victorian Poets.

Marston, Westland. 1820 ——. Dramatist and poet. The Patrician's Daughter is one of his best plays.

Martin, Theodore. 1816 ——. Translator and biographer. Author of Life of the Prince Consort, etc., and with W. E. Aytoun of the Bon Gualtier Ballads. See The Biograph, Jan. 1879. Pub. Apl. Por.

Martineau, Harriet. 1802–1876. Miscellaneous writer. Her illustrations of political economy are in the form of fiction. Deerbrook and The Hour and the Man are her most noted romances. Style strong, clear, and original. See Autobiography, 1876. Pub. Har. Ho. Mac. Por. Rob. Rou.

Martineau, James. 1805 ——. Theologian. Bro. to H. M. A leader of Unitarian thought. Author Studies of Christianity, Hymns of Praise and Prayer, Religious and Modern Materialism, Endeavors after a Christian Life, etc. Pub. Ho. Put. Rob. A. U. A.

Marvell, Andrew. 1620–1678. Poet and controversialist. As the former he ranks among the first of the minor poets of his time. His fancy is delicate and quaint. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 2. Pub. Har.

Marzials, Théophile. 1850 ——. Poet and musician. Author of The Gallery of Pigeons, etc. Of his songs Twickenham Ferry is one of the best known. See The Biograph, March, 1880.

Mason, Wm. 1725–1797. Poet. His verse is wordy and feeble.[92]

Massey, Gerald. 1828 ——. Poet. Author Babe Christabel, Craigcrook Castle, etc. His verse has more sweetness than strength. See Stedman's Victorian Poets.

Massinger [măs´sĭn-jĕr], Philip. 1584–1640. A writer of much power whose style is clear and flexible. The Virgin Martyr, Fatal Dowry, City Madam, and A New Way to Pay Old Debts, are his finest plays. The latter is often acted. See Works of, edited by Gifford, 4. vols.

Masson, David. 1822 ——. Scotch biographer and critic. Author British Novelists, Biographical and Critical Essays, Recent British Philosophy, etc. His chief work is a Life of Milton, a book of great merit and ability. See The Biograph, vol. 3. Pub. Mac. Apl.

Mathers, Helen. See Reeves, Mrs.

Mathias, Thos. James. 1776–1835. Supposed author of the poem The Pursuits of Literature.

Maturin [măt-yoo´rĭn], Chas. Robert. 1782–1824. Irish novelist. Author Melmoth, an extravagant romance, and the tragedy of Bertram.

Maurice [maw´rĭss], John Frederic Denison. 1805–1872. Theologian and ethical writer. A prominent Broad Church clergyman, writing much and well upon theology, philosophy, and other subjects. A Hist. Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy is his chief work. Others are Theological Essays, The Bible and Science, and the Friendship of Books. Pub. Le. Mac.

Maxwell, James Clerk. 1831 ——. Scientific writer of note. Pub. Apl. Mac.

Maxwell, Mrs. Mary E. [Braddon]. 1837 ——. Novelist. A writer of sensational tales, among which Aurora Floyd is the most famous. Her[93] latest novels show a greatly improved style. Pub. Har.

Maxwell, Wm. Hamilton. 1794–1850. Irish novelist. His fiction is military in character. Pub. Rou.

Maxwell, Sir Wm. Stirling. 1818–1878. Author The Cloister Life of Chas. V., Velasquez and his Works, etc.

May, Sir Thos. Erskine. 1815 ——. Historian. Author Constitutional Hist. England, Hist. Democracy in Europe, etc. Style careful and thoughtful. See Lit. World, April, 1878, and The Biograph, March, 1880. Pub. Arm. Wid.

Mayhew, Augustus. 1812–1875. Littérateur.

Mayhew, Edward. 1813 ——. Veterinary writer. Bro. to A. M. Author Illustrated Horse Doctor, etc. Pub. Apl. Lip. Rou.

Mayhew, Henry. 1812–1876. Bro. to two preceding. Author London Labor and London Poor, German Life and Manners and numerous humorous works. Pub. Har. Rou.

Mayhew, Horace. 1819–1872. Humorist. Bro. to three preceding. Author Letters Left at the Pastry Cook's, etc.

Mayhew, Thomas. 1810 ——. Bro. to four preceding. Editor of the Penny National Library.

Mayne, John. 1761–1836. Scotch poet. Author of The Siller Gun, Logan Braes, etc.

Mayo, Mrs. Isabella Fyvie, "Edward Garrett." 1843 ——. Religious novelist. Author By Still Waters, Occupations of a Retired Life, Gold and Dross, etc. Pub. Do.

McCarthy, Denis Florence. 1820–1880. Poet and miscellaneous writer. Author Ballads, Poems, and other Lyrics, etc., and translator of the dramas of Calderon.[94]

McCarthy, Justin. 1830 ——. Novelist and historian. Author Linley Rochford, Dear Lady Disdain, etc., and of a valuable Hist. of Our Own Times. Style graphic and forcible. Pub. Har.

McCulloch, John Ramsay. 1789–1864. Political economist. Author Principles of Political Economy, Dict. of Commerce, Statistical Account of the British Empire, etc.

Melmoth, Wm. 1710–1799. Translator of Pliny. Author Lælius, or Friendship, etc.

Melville, Sir James. 1535–1606. Scotch writer. Author Historical Memoirs.

Melville, J. G. Whyte. 1821–1878. Novelist. Author Kate Coventry, The White Rose, Katerfelto, etc. Style rapid and spirited. Pub. Apl. Por.

Meredith, Owen. See Bulwer-Lytton, E. R.

Merivale, Chas. 1808–1874. Historian. Author Hist. Latin Christianity, Fall of the Roman Republic, Hist. of the Romans under the Empire, etc. A writer of much ease and dignity of style, whose historical estimates are careful and valuable. Pub. Apl. Har. Rou.

Merivale, Herman. 1806–1874. Historical writer. Bro. to C. M.

Merrick, James. 1720–1769. Poet. His poem The Chameleon is well known.

Miall, Edward. 1809–1881. Political writer. Author Ethics of Non-Conformity, The Voluntary Principle, etc.

Mickle, Wm. Julius. 1734–1788. Scotch poet. His poem, Cumnor Hall, suggested Scott's Kenilworth. See Works of, 1808.

Middleton, Conyers. 1683–1750. Theologian. M. wrote a Life of Cicero and a Free Inquiry into the Miraculous Powers of the Church.[95]

Middleton, Thomas. 1570–1627. Dramatist. The Witch of Edmonton, a tragi-comedy, is his most noted play. See Dyce's edition, 1840.

Mill, James. 1773–1836. Scotch historian and philologist. Author of an impartial Hist. British India, Analysis of the Mind, etc.

Mill, John Stuart. 1806–1873. Philosopher. Son to J. M. A profound but cold thinker and writer. Author System of Logic, Political Economy, Liberty, Subjection of Women, etc. See Autobiography, Table's Eng. Lit., and Caroline Fox's Memories of old Friends. Pub. Apl. Har. Ho. Lit.

Miller, Hugh. 1802–1856. Geologist. Author Old Red Sandstone, Footprints of the Creator, etc., works which greatly helped to popularize the study of geology. See Life, by Peter Bayne. Pub. Ca.

Miller, Thomas. 1808 ——. Poet and novelist. Author Rural Sketches, Country Scenes, Fair Rosamond, Songs for British Riflemen, etc. Pub. Rou.

Milman, Henry Hart. 1791–1868. Poet and historian. M. was author of Fazio, a successful drama, of an excellent Hist. of the Jews, of numerous poems, and editor of an annotated Gibbon. Pub. Arm. Har. Lit. Por. Put. Rou.

Milnes [milnz], Richard Monckton, Lord Houghton. 1809 ——. Poet and littérateur. Author Poems of Many Years, Life of Keats, etc. See Stedman's Victorian Poets. Pub. Rob.

Milton, John. 1608–1674. Poet. His literary life sharply defines itself into 3 periods; in the first, 1626–1640, he wrote the poems L'Allegro, Il Penseroso, the Pastoral of Comus, and the elegy Lycidas. During the second, 1640–1660, he wrote prose treatises, mainly controversial, such as the Areopagitica, and his sonnets. After 1660 came the great epics,[96] Paradise Lost, and Paradise Regained, and the choral drama Samson Agonistes. A great artist, he created the Eng. epic, infusing it with his own severe strength and dignity. He had no humor or feeling for dramatic situation but he could be both graceful and tender as his early poems show. He was the great Puritan poet. Of the numerous Lives of Milton the best are, Masson's and Mark Pattison's Milton in Eng. Men of Letters. Pickering's, Rossetti's and Masson's are among the best editions of his poems. For complete edition of his prose works see Bohn's Standard Library. See Hines's Study of Paradise Lost. Pub. Mac.

Minto, Wm. 1845 ——. Littérateur. Author Characteristics of Eng. Poets, from Chaucer to Shirley, Manual of Eng. Prose Lit., Defoe in Eng. Men of Letters, etc. Pub. Har.

Mitford, John. 1781–1859. Poet and critic.

Mitford, Mary Russell. 1786–1855. Miscellaneous writer. Author of the tragedies Julian, Rienzi, Foscari, etc., and the charming series of those sketches entitled Our Village. See Fields' Yesterdays with Authors, and The Friendships of Mary Russell Mitford. Pub. Har.

Mitford, Wm. 1744–1827. Historian. Author Hist. of Greece, etc. See Life, by Lord Redesdale.

Mivart, St. George. 1827 ——. Naturalist. Author The Genesis of Species, Contemporary Evolution, The Cat, etc. Pub. Apl. Mac. Scr.

Moberly, Geo. 1803 ——. Bp. Salisbury. Religious writer. Pub. Dut.

Moir [moi´ȇr], David Macbeth. 1798–1851. Scotch poet and novelist.


Molesworth, Mrs. Mary Louisa [Stewart], "Ennis Graham." 1841 ——. Scotch novelist. Author of the novels Hathercourt and Miss Bouverie, and of numerous excellent juvenile works of which The Cuckoo Clock, Carrots, and The Tapestry Room are well-known examples. See The Spectator, Jan. 1880, Jan. 1881, and Jan. 1882. Pub. Har. Ho. Mac. Rou.

Monboddo, Lord. See Burnet, James.

Montagu, Chas. Earl of Halifax. 1661–1715. Poet. Co-author with Prior of The City Mouse and the Country Mouse, and author of miscellaneous poems. See Johnson's Lives of the Poets.

Montagu, Mrs. Elizabeth. 1720–1800. Founder of the Blue Stocking Club and author of a once famous essay on the Genius of Shakespeare. See Doran's A Lady of the Last Century.

Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley. 1690–1762. Famous for her brilliant and satirical Letters. See Letters of, edited by Mrs. S.J. Hale, N. Y., 1856.

Montgomery [mȏnt-gŭm-ĕr-ĭ], James. 1771–1854. Scotch poet. His verse is not strong, but some of his hymns are general favorites. See Critical Essays, by A. K. H. Boyd. Pub. Hou. Rou.

Montgomery, Robert. 1808–1855. Poet. Author Satan, etc. Style stilted, showy, and unnatural. See Macauley's Miscellaneous Essays.

Montrose, Marquis of. See Grahame, James.

Moore, Edward. 1712–1757. Dramatist. Author of the tragedy, The Gamester.

Moore, John. 1730–1802. Scotch novelist. Author Zeluco, Edward, Mordaunt, etc. See Works, with Memoir, 7 vols., Edinburgh, 1820.

Moore, Thomas. 1779–1852. Irish poet. Author of Irish Melodies, which take high rank as lyrics, Lalla Rookh, a vol. of brilliant and showy oriental poetry, and of much other verse, as well as several[98] prose works. Though by no means a great poet, he has always been a popular one. See R. H. Montgomery's Life of, 1850; also Earl Russell's edition of Moore's Diary. Pub. Apl. Arm. Clx. Har. Hou. Le. Lip. For. Rou. Scr.

More, Hannah. 1745–1833. Dramatist and ethical writer. Author of Percy, a drama, and of numerous popular moral tales, of which The Shepherd of Salisbury Plain is the most famous. See complete works, 1853. See Lives by Shaw, Roberts, Thompson, and Smith. Pub. Ca. Har. Lip.

More, Henry. 1614–1687. Philosopher. A writer whose mystical theories are expressed in a clear, limpid style.

More, Sir Thomas. 1480–1530. Philosopher. His famous prose romance, The Utopia, embodies many of his philosophical views. See Life by Sir James Mackintosh. Pub. Mac.

Morell, Thomas. 1703–1784. Philologist. Author of the text of the Oratorios of Joshua and Judas Maccabæus.

Morgan, Lady Sydney Owenson. 1783–1859. Irish novelist. Author Wild Irish Girl, Absenteeism, etc. A voluminous author, spirited but wanting in refinement.

Morier, James. 1780–1849. Oriental novelist. Hajji Baba is his most noted work. Pub. Rou.

Morley, Henry. 1822 ——. Author Hist. Eng. Lit., Tables of Eng. Lit., Journal of a London Playgoer, Life of Palissy the Potter, etc. Pub. Cas.

Morley, John. 1838 ——. Essayist and biographer. Author Lives of Voltaire and Rousseau, Limits of the Historic Method, On Compromise, Burke on Eng. Men of Letters, etc. Pub. Apl. Har.


Morris, Wm. 1834 ——. The Defence of Guinevere, Life and Death of Jason, and The Earthly Paradise are his chief poems. His verse is mainly classical or mediæval in subject and epic in form. See Stedman's Victorian Poets and Swinburne's Essays and Studies. Pub. Rob.

Mortimer, Mrs. Favell Lee. 1802–1878. Religious writer. Author Reading Without Tears, Peep of Day Series, etc. Pub. Ca. Har. Hou.

Morton, Thomas. 1764–1838. Dramatist. Author Speed the Plough, Secrets Worth Knowing, etc. See Gentleman's Mag. Dec. 1838.

Moss, Thomas. 1740–1808. Poet. Author of the famous poem beginning "Pity the sorrows of a poor Old Man."

Motherwell, Wm. 1797–1858. Scotch poet. Jeanie Morrison, The Cavalier's Song, and others of his ballads possess great lyric beauty. See edition 1849.

Mozley, James Bowling. 1813–1878. Theologian. Author Lect. on the Miracles, On Subscription to the Articles, Sermons, Essays, Historical, Theological, etc. A clear, masterly thinker. Pub. Dut.

Mozley, Thomas. 1806 ——. Bro. to J. B. M. Author Reminiscences of Oriel College and the Oxford Movement. Pub. Hou.

Mudie [moo´dĭ or mū´dĭ] Robert. Scotch naturalist. Author of some 90 vols. mainly on natural history; British Birds is his most important work. Pub. Har.

Muller, Friedric Max. 1823 ——. German philologist. Author Chips from a German Workshop, Science of Lang., Hist. Ancient Sanskrit Lit., etc. Pub. Mac. Scr.

Muloch, Dinah Maria. See Craik, Mrs.

Munday, Anthony. 1553–1633. Dramatist. See Carew Hazlitt's Early English Literature.[100]

Murchison, Sir Roderick I. 1792–1871. Geologist of note. See Memoirs of, by Geikie, 2 vols., London, 1874.

Mure, Wm. 1799–1860. Scotch historian. Author Critical Hist., Lang. and Lit. of Ancient Greece, The Calendar of the Zodiac of Ancient Egypt, etc.

Murphy, Arthur. 1730–1805. Dramatist. Of his 23 plays The Grecian Daughter and The Way to Keep Him were the most popular.

Murray, Alexander. 1775–1813. Scotch philologist. Author Hist. European Languages.

Murray, Hugh. 1779–1841. Scotch geographer. Author of the Encyclopedia of Geography, etc. Pub. Har.

Myers, Ernest. 18— ——. Poet. Author of The Puritans, The Defence of Rome, and other Poems, etc. Pub. Mac.

Myers, Frederic Wm. Henry. 1843 ——. Poet and littérateur. Author of St. Paul, a poem, The Renewal of Youth and other Poems, Wordsworth in Eng. Men of Letters, and Essays Modern and Classical. A thoughtful writer, possessing a graceful and scholarly style. Pub. Har. Mac. Ran.

Nabbes, Thomas. 1600–1645. Dramatist.

Nairne, Baroness. See Oliphant, Carolina.

Napier, Admiral Sir Chas. 1786–1860. Military historian. Cousin to Sir C. J. N. Author Hist. Baltic Campaign, etc. See Life and Correspondence, 1862.

Napier, Gen. Sir Chas. James. 1782–1853. Author Lights and Shadows of Military Life, Hist. Ionian Islands, etc. See Life and Opinions of, 4 vols., London, 1857.


Napier, Capt. Henry Edward. 1789–1853. Historian. Bro. to Sir C. J. N. Author of a valuable Hist. of Florence in 7 vols. Style easy and flowing.

Napier, John. 1550–1617. Scotch mathematical writer. Inventor of logarithms.

Napier, Macvey. 1776–1847. Scotch writer. Editor of the supplement and 7th edition of the Encyc. Brit. and for 17 years editor of the Edinburgh Rev.

Napier, Mark. 1798 ——. Biographer. Author Memorials of Montrose, Life and Times of Montrose, etc.

Napier, Gen. Sir Wm. Francis Patrick. 1785–1860. Military historian. Bro. to Sir. C. J. N. and H. E. N. His great work is the Hist. of the Peninsular War, a work of great value, possessing a perennial charm. See H. Martineau's Biographical Sketches, and Life by H. A. Bruce, 1863. Pub. Arm. Rou.

Nares, Edward. 1762–1841. Elements of General Hist. and the novel, Thinks I to Myself, are among his chief works.

Nares, Robert. 1753–1829. Critical and theological writer. Cousin to E. N.

Nash, Thomas. 1577–1600. Dramatist. Author Summer's Last Will and Testament, and of many brilliant satirical pamphlets. See edition of Pierre Penniless, with Life of Nash by Collier, 1842.

Neville, Henry. 1620–1694. Political philosopher. Author of Plato Redivivus, a dialogue concerning government.

Newcastle, Margaret, Duchess of. 1624–1673. An untiring writer of tasteless works in verse and prose. See Poems of, edited by E. Brydges, 1813.

Newcome, Wm. 1729–1800. Abp. Armagh. Theologian. Author Harmony of the Gospels, etc.


Newman, Francis Wm. 1805 ——. Miscellaneous writer. Author of Phases of Faith, etc. He has written largely on religious topics from a rationalistic standpoint.

Newman, Cardinal John Henry. 1801 ——. Theologian. Bro. to F. W. N. Author Tract No. 90, Parochial Sermons, Theory of Religious Belief, The Grammar of Assent, Apologia Pro Vita Sua, Poems, etc. The Apologia is one of the very finest of autobiographies. Style clear, polished, and logical. See Century Mag. June, 1882. Pub. Cath.

Newton, Sir Isaac. 1642–1727. Mathematical philosopher. A writer of clear, comprehensive intellect, Author of the Principia and a valuable treatise on Optics, etc. See Brewster's Life of. Pub. Mac.

Newton, John. 1722–1807. Devotional writer. Co-author with Cowper of the Olney Hymns. See Works of London, 6 vols. 8vo, 1816.

Nichol, John. 1833 ——. Scotch littérateur. Author Sketch Am. Lit., the drama of Hannibal, Tables of European Lit. and Hist., and a brilliant monograph on Byron in Eng. Men of Letters. See Lit. World. Feb. 24, 1883. Pub. Apl. Har.

Nichol, John Pringle. 1804–1859. Astronomer. Author The Solar System, The Stellar Heavens, Dict. Physical Sciences, etc.

Nicholas, Thomas. 1820–1879. Ethnologist and historian. Author Pedigree of the Eng. People, Hist. of Wales, etc.

Nicholson, Wm. 1655–1727. Abp. Cashel. Antiquarian writer.

Nicol, Henry. 1845–1881. Philologist. Author Hist. Eng. Sounds.

Nicolas, Sir Nicholas Harris. 1799–1848. Genealogist. Author Hist. Orders of Knighthood of the Brit. Empire, etc.[103]

Nicoll, Robert. 1814–1837. Scotch poet.

Noel-Fearn, Henry [Christmas]. 1811–1868. Miscellaneous writer. Author Science and History, Preachers and Preaching, etc.

Norris, John. 1657–1711. Platonic philosopher. Author Theory of the Ideal World, etc.

North, Christopher. See Wilson, John.

Norton, Mrs. Caroline Elizabeth Sheridan [Lady Maxwell]. 1808–1877. Poet and novelist. Her verse has much grace and intensity of feeling. Bingen on the Rhine is her most quoted poem. Pub. Har. Lip. Mac. Ran.

Norton, Thomas. 1532–1584. Dramatist. Co-author with Sackville of the tragedy Ferrex and Porrex, and assistant of Sternhold and Hopkins in their metrical version of the Psalms.

Nugent, Lord. See Grenville, George.

Occam, Wm. of. 1270–1347. Philosopher. Defender of the doctrine of Nominalism and the greatest logician of the Middle Ages.

Occleve, Thos. c. 1370–1454. Poet. His verse has little merit.

O'Hare, Kane. 1722–1782. Irish dramatist.

O'Keefe, John. 1747–1833. Irish dramatist. The best of his numerous plays and operas, some of which are still acted, is Wild Oats.

Oldham, John. 1653–1683. Poet. Author of Satires against the Jesuits. Style spirited and forcible. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 2.

Oldmixon, John. 1673–1742. Dramatist and historian. His plays and histories are of slight value, and his chief title to remembrance is Pope's satire upon him in The Dunciad.


Oldys, Wm. 1696–1761. Biographer and antiquarian. Best known by his famous little poem, The Fly and the Cup of Ale.

Oliphant, Carolina, Baroness Nairne. 1766–1845. Scotch poet. Her songs, such as Land o' the Leal, Caller Herrin', etc., take a high rank. See Complete Works, with Life by C. Rogers, Edinburgh, 1869.

Oliphant, Laurence. 1829 ——. Satirist and miscellaneous writer. Author of Piccadilly, a Fragment of Contemporaneous Biography, Tender Recollections of Irene McGillicuddy, Altiora Peto, etc. Pub. Apl. Har.

Oliphant, Mrs. Margaret. 1828 ——. Novelist. Author of a long series of novels, all good, and some very fine, and much well written biography. Her style is even, her turns of expression felicitous and her character drawing truthful. The Perpetual Curate, Chronicles of Carlingford, Zaidee, Harry Joscelyn, Son of the Soil, Lady Jane, The Little Pilgrim, and the Literary Hist. of England are some of her best books. Few authors have written so much and so uniformly well. Pub. Apl. Har. Ho. Lip. Mac. Por.

O'Meara, Barry Edward. 1780–1836. Napoleonic writer. Author Letters from St. Helena, Memoirs of Napoleon, Napoleon in Exile, etc. Pub. Arm. Wid.

Opie, Mrs. Amelia [Alderson]. 1769–1853. Novelist and poet. Father and Daughter is her best novel, The Orphan Boy her most familiar poem. Style simple and pathetic. See Miss Brightwell's Life of, London, 1834, and H. Martineau's Biographical Sketches. Pub. Ca.

Orme, Robert. 1728–1801. Historian. Hist. British in India, etc.

O'Shaughnessy [o'shaw´nĕ-sĭ], Arthur W. E. 1844–1881. [105] Author Songs of a Worker, Lays of France, Music and Moonlight, etc. See Stedman's Victorian Poets, and Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 4, 2d edition.

Ossian. Mythical Keltic bard. See Macpherson, James.

Ottley, Wm. Young. 1771–1836. Art writer. Author The Italian School of Design, Engravers and their Works, etc.

Otway, Thomas. 1651–1685. Dramatist. A tragic writer of great pathos. His greatest works, Venice Preserved and The Orphan are still occasionally acted. See Works with Life, by Thornton, 1813.

Ouida. See De la Ramé, Louisa.

Ousely [ooz´lĭ], Sir Wm. 1771–1842. Orientalist. Author Oriental Collections, Travels in Persia, etc.

Overbury, Sir Thomas. 1581–1613. Poet and philosopher. Characters, his chief work, contains an exquisite and oft quoted description of A Fair and Happy Milkmaid.

Owen, John. 1616–1683. Theologian. Style heavy and labored. See edition of 1826 with Life. Pub. P. B.

Owen, Richard. 1804 ——. Scientific writer of note. Author Lect. on Comparative Anatomy, etc.

Owen, Robert. 1771–1858. Writer on social reforms. See H. Martineau's Biographical Sketches.

Owenson, Sydney. See Morgan, Lady.

Oxenden, Ashton. 1808 ——. Bp. Montreal. Religious writer. Author Pathway of Safety, Our Church and her Services, Thoughts for Lent, etc. Pub. Dut. Ran. Wh.

Oxenford, John. 1812–1877. Dramatist and critic. Translator of Goethe's Autobiography.[106]

Paley, Frederic Apthorp. 1817 ——. Classical scholar. Grandson to W. P. Editor and translator of numerous classical works.

Paley, Wm. 1743–1805. Moral philosopher. Author Natural Theology, Elements of Moral and Political Philosophy, etc. See Complete Works, 4 vols., London, 1838, biography by Meadley, 1839. Pub. Ca. Nel. Har.

Palgrave [pawl´grāv], Sir Francis. 1788–1861. Historian. Author Hist. of the Anglo-Saxons, Rise and Progress of the Eng. Commonwealth, Anglo-Saxon Period, Hist. of Normandy and of England, etc. Pub. Mac.

Palgrave, Francis Turner. 1824 ——. Poet and critic. Son to F. P. Author Essays on Art, Hymns, Lyrical Poems, etc. See Stedman's Victorian Poets. Pub. Mac. Por. Ran. Rou.

Palgrave, Wm. Gifford. 1826 ——. Traveller. Son to F. P. Author Essays on the Eastern Question, Dutch Guiana, Herman Agha, etc. Pub. Ho. Mac.

Palmer, Sir Roundell [Baron Selborne]. 1812 ——. Author of the Book of Praise. Pub. Mac.

Pardoe [par´dō], Julia. 1806–1862. Novelist and historical writer. Author Court and Reign of Francis I., etc. Pub. Har. Pet.

Paris, Matthew.?—— 1259. Historical writer. See Bohn's Antiquarian Library.

Park, Mungo. 1771–1805. Scotch explorer and writer of travels. Pub. Har.

Parker, John Henry. 1806 ——. Writer on Architecture. Author Glossary of Arch., Introduction to the Study of Gothic Arch., Domestic Arch. of the Middle Ages, etc., Pub. Lit.

Parnell [par´nell], Thomas. 1669–1718. Poet. Author of The Hermit, etc. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 3. Pub. Hou. [107]

Parr, Harriet ["Holme Lee"]. 18— ——. Novelist. Author Sylvan Holt's Daughter, Kathie Brande, For Richer for Poorer, etc. Pub. Har. Por.

Parr, Mrs. Louisa. 18— ——. Novelist. Author Dorothy Fox, Adam and Eve, etc. Pub. Ho. Lip.

Parr, Samuel. 1747–1825. Classical scholar and critic. See Field's Memoirs of, 1828.

Pater, Walter H. 1838 ——. Author Studies on the Hist. of the Renaissance. Pub. Mac.

Patmore, Coventry Kearsey Dighton. 1823 ——. Poet. Author Angel in the House, Faithful Forever, and other vols. of rather commonplace verse. See Stedman's Victorian Poets. Pub. Dut. Mac.

Pattison, Mark. 1813 ——. Author Tendencies of Religious Thought in England, a noted Biography of Isaac Casaubon, Milton in Eng. Men. of Letters, etc. Pub. Har.

Payn, James. 1830 ——. Novelist. A writer of excellent stories; Lost Sir Massingberd, and By Proxy, being among the best. Pub. Apl. Har. Pet.

Peacock, Thos. Love. 1785–1866. Novelist and poet. Maid Marian, Headlong Hall, etc., are lively, witty novels. See Complete Works edited by Cole, 1875. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 4.

Pearson, Charles Henry. 1830 ——. Historian. Author Hist. of England in the Early and Middle Ages. Pub. Put.

Pearson, John. 1613–1686. Bp. Chester. Theologian. His Exposition of the Creed is still a standard theological work. Pub. Apl. Mac.

Pecock, Reginald. 1390–1460. Bp. Chichester. Theologian. Author of The Repressor, etc. See Morley's Eng. Writers, vol. 2.

Peele, George. 1552–1598. Dramatist and poet. Author Arraignment of Paris, Absalom, Edward I.,[108] etc. In places Peele's verse is very musical. See Lamb's Dramatic Poets; also Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1, and Ulrici's Dramatic Art.

Penn, Wm. 1644–1718. No Cross No Crown, his most noted work, sets forth the doctrines of the Quakers. See Lives, by H. Dixon, Janney, and Wirt.

Pennant, Thomas. 1726–1798. Antiquarian and writer on natural history.

Pennell, Henry Cholmondeley [chŭm´lĭ]. 1836 ——. Poet. Author of Puck on Pegasus, Pegasus Re-saddled, etc., and several works on Angling. Pub. Rou.

Pepys [peeps or pĕps], Samuel. 1633–1703. Author of a famous Diary presenting an extremely lifelike picture of the time of Charles II. See Samuel Pepys and the World he Lived In, by Henry B. Wheatly. See Braybrooke edition, pub. Apl.; Bright edition, London, pub. Bi.

Percy, Thos. 1728–1811. Bp. Dromore. Poet and editor of the famous Reliques of Ancient Eng. Poetry, a work of great influence upon subsequent Eng. verse. See Hales's and Furnivall's edition, 1868. Pub. Por. Rou.

Phillimore, John George. 1809–1865. Jurist. Author Hist. Law of Evidence, Principles and Maxims of Jurisprudence. Pub. Mac.

Phillimore, Robert Joseph. 1810 ——. Jurist. Bro. to J. G. P. Author Civil and Canon Law, Eccl. Law Church of England, etc. Pub. Jo.

Philips, Ambrose. 1675–1749. Dramatist. A writer of trifling merit, who is chiefly remembered on account of Pope's vindictive satire upon him.

Philips, John. 1676–1708. Poet. Author of the mock-heroic poem The Splendid Shilling.[109]

Philips, Mrs. Katharine. 1631–1664. Poet. Known as "The Matchless Orinda."

Phillips, Halliwell. See Halliwell-Phillips.

Pickering, Ellen.?—— 1843. Novelist. Author Who Shall be Heir, Secret Foe, etc. Pub. Har.

Pindar, Peter. See Wolcott, John.

Pinkerton, John. 1758–1826. Scotch historian and antiquary. His Hist. of Scotland and other works are fiercely controversial in tone.

Piozzi [pē-ŏt´see], Mrs. Hester [Lynch]. Mrs. Thrale. 1740–1821. Author Anecdotes of Dr. Johnson, etc., and the well-known poem The Three Warnings. See Autobiography, Letters, etc., 1861.

Pitt, Wm., Lord Chatham. 1708–1778. Statesman. His numerous Speeches rank among the finest of their class.

Planche [plon-shā´], James Robinson. 1796–1870. Dramatist. A prolific writer of dramas, fairy extravaganzas and farces; Prince Charming, Yellow Dwarf, etc. See Bric-a-brac Series, 1st vol., and The Biograph, March, 1880.

Plumptre, Edward Hayes. 1821 ——. Poet and translator. Author Lazarus and other Poems, etc., Byways of Scripture, etc., and translation of Sophocles and Æschylus. His verse is didactic in character. Pub. Dut. Mac. Rou.

Pole, Reginald, Cardinal. 1500–1558. Theological writer.

Pollock, Frederick. 1845 ——. Jurist. Author Principles of Contract, Digest of Law of Partnership, Spinoza: his Life and Philosophy, and The Land Laws in Macmillan's Eng. Citizen Series. Pub. Mac. Th.

Pollock, Robert. 1799–1827. Scotch poet. Author of The Course of Time, a heavy, didactic, blank-verse poem, once very popular. Pub. Apl. Ca. Clx.[110]

Pomfret, John. 1667–1703. Poet. Author of The Choice. See Life, by Dr. Johnson.

Poole, John. 1786–1872. Dramatist and humorist. Author of the comedy, Paul Pry, Little Pedlington, a vol. of witty sketches, The Comic Sketch-Book, etc.

Poole, Matthew. 1624–1679. Biblical Commentator. Pub. Ca.

Pope, Alexander. 1688–1744. A correct, polished poet whose verse lacks sentiment and feeling. The heroic couplet is his usual measure. His translation of Homer, though a fine effort, lacks the freshness and spontaneity of its original. His chief poems are Essay on Man, Moral Essays, The Dunciad, a talented but terrible satire, and The Rape of the Lock, a brilliant, glittering piece of literary trifling. See editions of, by A. W. Ward, Cowden-Clarke, and Rossetti. See Lowell's My Study Windows; also Leslie Stephen's Pope in Eng. Men of Letters. Pub. Apl. Le. Mac. Rou.

Porson, Richard. 1759–1808. Classical scholar and writer of note. See Watson's Life of, 1861.

Porter, Anna Maria. 1781–1832. Novelist. Don Sebastian is perhaps the best of her numerous novels.

Porter, Jane. 1776–1850. Novelist. Sister to A. M. P. The famous romances Thaddeus of Warsaw and Scottish Chiefs are her chief works. Pub. Apl. Le. Lip. Por.

Powell, Baden. 1796–1860. Philosopher. Author Hist. Nat. Philosophy, Spirit of Inductive Philosophy, Study and Evidence of Christianity, etc.

Poynter, E. Frances. 18— ——. Novelist. Author My Little Lady, Ersilia, Among the Hills, etc. Pub. Ho.[111]

Praed [prād], Winthrop Mackworth. 1802–1839. Poet. A writer of pleasing verse, of which the Belle of the Ball is a good example. See Complete Works, edited by Sir Geo. Young. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 4. Pub. Arm.

Price, Bonamy. 1807 ——. Political economist. Author Practical Political Economy, Currency and Banking, Principles of Currency, etc. Pub. Apl.

Prideaux [prĭd´o, or prĭd-ŭx], Humphrey. 1648–1724. Theologian. Noted for his Connection of the Old and New Testaments. Pub. Har. Mac.

Priestley, Joseph. 1733–1804. Theologian and scientist. Author of over 300 books on chemistry, theology, metaphysics, etc. See Works of, 1824, 26 vols. See Life of, by Corry.

Pringle, Thomas. 1789–1834. Scotch poet. His best poem is the spirited Afar in the Desert. See Grant Wilson's Poets of Scotland.

Prior, Matthew. 1664–1721. Poet. A sprightly writer whose light and airy style is seen to best advantage in his comic narrative poems. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 3. Pub. Hou.

Procter, Adelaide Anne. 1825–1864. Poet. Dau. to B. W. P. Author Legends and Lyrics. See Stedman's Victorian Poets. Pub. Hou.

Procter, Bryan Waller, "Barry Cornwall." 1790–1874. Poet. A writer of somewhat over-praised lyric verse. The tragedy of Mirandola is his finest dramatic effort. See Autobiography. Compare Stedman's Victorian Poets and Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 4.

Proctor Richard Anthony. 1837 ——. Astronomer. Author Other Worlds than Ours, Our Place Among the Infinities, etc. Pub. Apl. Arm. Lip. Put.[112]

Prout, Father. See Mahoney, Francis.

Prynne, Wm. 1600–1669. Political and antiquarian writer.

Pugin [pū-jin], Augustus. 1792–1832. Architectural writer of note.

Pugin, Augustin Welby Northmore. 1812–1852. Architect. Son to A. P. Author Examples of Gothic Architecture, Glossary of Eccl. Ornament, etc. See Ferrey's Recollections of A. W. N. Pugin and Augustus Pugin, 1861.

Purchas, Samuel. 1577–1628. Chronicler and compiler of travels.

Pusey [pū´zĭ], Edward Bouverie. 1800–1882. Theologian. Author Hist. Councils of the Church, Doctrine of the Real Presence, etc, and many of the Tracts for the Times. The earlier Ritualists were named Puseyites. His influence greatly deepened the religious feeling of the Anglican Church. See Life, by Liddon. Pub. Apl.

Pusey, Philip Edward. 18—-1880. Theological writer. Son to E. B. P.

Puttenham, George. 1530-c. 1600. Author of The Art of Eng. Poesie.

Pye, Henry James. 1745–1813. Poet. Author of very indifferent verse.

Quarles, Francis. 1592–1644. Poet. An ingenious versifier, very popular in his own day, and now chiefly known by his Divine Emblems and a vol. of prose maxims entitled Enchiridion.

Quarles, John. 1624–1665. Poet. Son to F. Q. Author Divine Meditations, etc. His verse is marked by the same fantastic, labored conceits as that of his father.

Quincey, Thos. de. See De Quincey.[113]

Radcliffe, Mrs. Ann [Ward]. 1764–1823. Novelist. A writer of powerful sensational romances, the best known of which are The Mysteries of Udolpho and Romance of the Forest. See Memoir of, by Talfourd, and Memoir of, by Miss Rossetti. Pub. Clx. Rou.

Raleigh [raw´lĭ], Sir Walter. 1532–1618. His chief work, The Hist. of the World, has great literary merit. See Lives, by Whitehead, Oldys, Birch, Cayley, Thomson, Tytler, Napier, St. John, and Edwards. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1.

Ramsay [răm´zĭ], Allan. 1685–1758. Scotch poet. Author of the pastoral poem The Gentle Shepherd. See edition 1800, with Life; also Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 3.

Ramsay, Edward Bannerman. 1793–1872. Author of the famous Reminiscences of Scottish Life and Character, Sermons, Pulpit Table-Talk, etc. See 23d edition of the Reminiscences, 1874, and Memorials and Recollections, by C. Rogers.

Randolph, Thos. 1605–1634. Poet and dramatist. His works are inferior in quality. The Jealous Lover is one of his plays. See Works of, edited by Carew Hazlitt, 1875, and Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 2.

Rankine, Wm. John Macquorn. 1820–1872. Writer on mechanics. Author Applied Mechanics, The Steam Engine, Songs and Fables, etc. See Memoir, by P. G. Tait. Pub. Apl. Mac.

Rawlinson, George Henry. 1815 ——. Historian. Author The Five Great Monarchies of the Eastern World, Manual of Ancient Hist., The Seventh Great Oriental Monarchy, etc. Pub. Apl. Do. Est. Har. Mac.

Rawlinson, Sir Henry Creswicke. 1810 ——. Archæological writer of note. Bro. to G. H. R.[114]

Ray, John. 1628–1705. Naturalist. Author of the Historia Plantarum, etc. See Life, by Wm. Derham, 1760.

Reach, Angus Bethune. 1821–1856. Novelist and miscellaneous writer. Author of Leonard Lindsay, The Natural Hist. of Bores and Humbugs, The Comic Bradshaw, etc. See Chas. Mackay's Recollections. Pub. Rou.

Reade, Charles. 1814 ——. Novelist. A writer of strong genius, whose style is piquant and aggressive. Put Yourself in his Place, Griffith Gaunt, The Cloister and the Hearth, and Christie Johnstone are among his best novels. See Atlantic Monthly, Aug. 1864. Pub. Har.

Redding, Cyrus. 1785–1870. Miscellaneous writer. Author of A Wife and Not a Wife, Remarkable Misers, Past Celebrities, etc.

Reeve, Clara. 1725–1803. Novelist. Author Old English Baron, etc.

Reeve, Lovell. 1814–1865. Conchologist. Author Conchologia Iconica, Elements of Conchology, Conchologia Systematica, etc. Pub. Put.

Reeves, Mrs. Helen Buckingham [Mathers]. 1852 ——. Novelist. Author of Cherry Ripe, Comin' thro' the Rye, My Lady Green Sleeves, As He Comes Up the Stair, Land o' the Leal, Sam's Sweetheart, etc. Pub. Apl.

Reid, Mayne. 1818–1883. Author of tales of adventure for young readers. Pub. Rou. Sh.

Reid, Thomas. 1710–1796. Scotch metaphysician. Author Inquiry into the Human Mind, Essays on the Intellectual Powers, etc. See Hamilton's edition of Reid, 1846.

Reynolds, Frederick. 1765–1841. Dramatist. Author of nearly 100 plays, of which The Dramatist and Folly as it Flies are the best.[115]

Reynolds, George W. M. —— 1879. Novelist. Author Mysteries of London, Reformed Highwayman, etc. Style sensational, and influence pernicious. Pub. Di. Pet.

Reynolds, Sir Joshua. 1723–1792. Artist. Author Discourse on Painting. See Malone's edition of, 1797. See Lives by Malone, Northcote, Farrington, Cotton, and Leslie, Mrs. Thackeray-Ritchie's Miss Angel, and Reynolds as a Portrait Painter, by J. E. Collins.

Ricardo [re-kar´do], David. 1792–1823. Political economist. Author High Price of Bullion, Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, etc. See McCulloch's edition, 1846.

Rice, James. 1843–1882. Novelist. Colleague of Walter Besant, and author with him of Sweet Nelly My Heart's Delight, Golden Butterfly, and other novels. See Besant, Walter. Pub. Har.

Richards, Alfred Bate. 1820–1876. Poet and dramatist. Author of Cromwell, Vandyck, and other dramas, Medea, and other vols. of poems, and the novel So Very Human.

Richardson, Chas. 1775–1865. Lexicographer. Author of an Eng. Dict. and The Study of Language.

Richardson, Samuel. 1689–1761. Novelist. Author Pamela, Clarissa Harlowe, and Sir Charles Grandison. The slow movement of these stories does not appeal readily to modern taste, but they display a wonderful knowledge of the workings of the human heart. Clarissa, the best, is a fine piece of realism. See Taine's Eng. Lit., Masson's Novelists and their Styles, and Leslie Stephen's Hours in a Library. Pub. Ho. Rou.

Richmond, Leigh. 1772–1827. Moralist. Author The Dairyman's Daughter, etc. Pub. Ca. Phi. Rou.[116]

Riddell, Mrs. Charlotte Eliza Lawson. 18— ——. Novelist. Author George Geith, A Life's Assize, The Senior Partner, etc. Pub. Clx. Est. Har. Pet.

Riddell, Henry Scott. 1798–1870. Scotch poet. See Grant Wilson's Poets of Scotland.

Riddell, Mrs. J. H. See Riddell, Mrs. Charlotte.

Ritchie, Mrs. Anne Isabella. See Thackeray-Ritchie.

Ritchie, Leitch. 1801–1865. Miscellaneous writer. Author of Headpieces and Tailpieces, Wearyfoot Common, Romance of French History, etc.

Ritson, Joseph. 1752–1803. Antiquary and critic.

Roberts, Margaret. 1833 ——. Novelist. Author Mademoiselle Mori, Denise, The Atelier du Lys, In the Olden Time, On the Edge of the Storm, Osé, Tempest tossed, Madame Fontenoy, Summerleigh Manor, etc. Pub. Ho.

Robertson, Frederick Wm. 1816–1853. Religious writer. Author 4 vols. of sermons, which rank among the finest religious utterances of the age. See Life, by Stopford Brooke, and Blackwood's Mag., Aug. 1862. Pub. Dut. Har.

Robertson, James Burton. 1800 ——. Historical writer. Author Lect. on Various Subjects of Ancient and Modern Hist., etc.

Robertson, James Craigie. 1813–1882. Ecclesiastical historian. Author Hist. of the Christian Church, Biography of Thomas a Becket, etc.

Robertson, Thos. Wm. 1829–1871. Dramatist. Author David Garrick, Ours, Caste, M. P., and other lively and popular plays.

Robertson, Wm. 1721–1793. Scotch historian. Author Hist. Scotland, Hist. Reign of Charles V., Hist. Discovery of America, etc. His style is picturesque, but his statements are sometimes inaccurate.[117] See Prescott's Robertson's Charles V. Pub. Har.

Robinson, A. Mary F. 185– ——. Poet and littérateur. Author of A Handful of Honeysuckle, The Crowned Hippolytus, Rural England, and Emily Brontë, in Famous Women Series, etc. Pub. Rob.

Robinson, Frederick Wm. 1830 ——. Novelist. Author of A Bridge of Glass, As Long as she Lived, Poor Zeph, Her Face was her Fortune, Little Kate Kirby, Second-Cousin Sarah, Stern Necessity, True to Herself, etc. Pub. Har.

Robinson, Henry Crabb. 1775–1867. He left an entertaining Diary, published in 1869. Pub. Hou. Mac.

Robinson, Mrs. Mary. 1758–1800. Poet and actress. Known to her contemporaries as "Perdita, the Fair."

Rochester, Earl of. See Wilmot, John.

Rogers, Charles. 1825 ——. Scotch antiquarian writer. Author of A Century of Scottish Life, Boswelliana, Scotland: Social and Domestic, etc.

Rogers, Henry. 1810–1877. Critic. Author Eclipse of Faith, Reason and Faith, etc. Pub. Rou. Scr.

Rogers, Samuel. 1763–1855. Poet. Author Pleasures of Memory, a fine though labored production, Italy, etc. See Hazlitt's Eng. Poets. Pub. Lip.

Romilly, Sir Samuel. 1757–1818. Jurist. Author of Speeches, etc. See Autobiography, 1840.

Roscoe, Henry. 1800–1836. Son to W. R. Author Lives of Eminent Lawyers, etc. Pub. Jo.

Roscoe, Thos. 1791–1871. Son to W. R. Translator of important Italian works.

Roscoe, Wm. 1753–1831. Historian. Author Lives of Lorenzo de Medici and Leo X., etc. A careful,[118] painstaking writer, whose works, written in an easy, flowing style, are standard of their kind. See Life of, by Henry Roscoe.

Roscommon, Earl of. See Dillon, Wentworth.

Rose, George. "Arthur Sketchley." 1830–1882. Littérateur. Best known by his humorous Mrs. Brown sketches. Pub. Rou.

Rose, Henry John. 1801–1873.} Authors of a General} Biographical Rose, Hugh James. 1795–1838.} Dict., etc. Bro. to preceding.}

Rose, Wm. 1762–1790. Scotch pastoral poet. His Praise of the Highland Maid is one of his best poems. See Grant Wilson's Poetry of Scotland.

Rose, Wm. Stewart. 1775–1843. Poet. Translator of Ariosto.

Ross, Alexander. 1699–1784. Scotch poet. Best known by his ballad Woo'd and Married and a'. See Irving's Scottish Writers.

Ross-Church, Mrs. Florence [Marryatt]. 1837 ——. Novelist. Author Her Lord and Master, The Prey of the Gods, No Intentions, etc. Pub. Har.

Rossetti [rŏs-sĕt´tee], Christina Georgina. 1830 ——. Poet. Author of The Pageant, Sonnet of Sonnets, Goblin Market, etc. Style serious and earnest. See Stedman's Victorian Poets. Pub. Mac. Rob.

Rossetti, Dante Gabriel. 1828–1882. Poet and artist. Bro. to C. G. R. A writer of the so-called Pre-Raphaelite school, whose verse is passionate and musical. Sister Helen, The Blessed Damozel, and Rose Mary are his most striking poems. See Stedman's Victorian Poets, Swinburne's Essays and Studies, Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 4, 2d edition, Essays Modern, by F. W. H. Myers, Wm. Sharp's[119] Record and Study of Rossetti, Cornhill Mag. Feb. 1883, Contemporary Rev. Feb. 1883, Harper's Mag. Nov. 1882, and English Illus. Mag. Oct. 1883. Pub. Rob.

Rossetti, Maria Francesca. 1827–1875. Commentator on Dante. Sister to two preceding. Author The Shadow of Dante, etc. Pub. Rob.

Rossetti, Wm. Michael. 1829 ——. Biographer and critic. Author Fine Art, etc. Bro. to three preceding. Pub. Mac.

Rowe [rō], Nicholas. 1673–1718. Dramatist and Shakespearean editor. Author Jane Shore, Fair Penitent, etc. His dramas are melancholy, but never licentious, like those of his contemporaries.

Rowley, Wm. fl. c. 1625. Dramatist. Colleague of Dekker and Ford in the Witch of Edmonton, and of Massinger and Middleton in the Old Law.

Roy, William. fl. c. 1525. Poet. Author of a singular satire upon Wolsey and the clergy, entitled Read me and be not Wroth, for I say Nothing but Troth.

Roydon, Matthew. fl. c. 1585. Poet. Author of the beautiful Lament for Astrophel, an elegy upon Sir Philip Sidney.

Ruskin, John. 1819 ——. Art critic. Author Modern Painters, Stones of Venice, Seven Lamps of Architecture, Sesame and Lilies, Fors Clavigera, etc. Style original, masterly, and of rare beauty. Its chief defect is a vein of petulance and intolerance, which is strongest in his latest books. Pub. Wil.

Russell, John, Earl. 1792–1878. Statesman. Author Causes of the French Revolution, Life and Times of Chas. James Fox, Establishment of the Turks in Europe, etc. Pub. Rob.[120]

Russell, John Scott. 1808 ——. Engineer. Author Modern System of Naval Architecture, a work of great practical value. Pub. Apl.

Russell, Michael. 1781–1848. Bp. Glasgow. Scotch historian.

Russell, Lady Rachel. 1636–1723. Her Letters are of much literary and historical value. See Earl Russell's edition, 1854.

Russell, Wm. 1741–1793. Scotch historian. Author Hist. Modern Europe, etc. Pub. Har.

Russell, Wm. Clark. 1844 ——. Marine novelist. Author Wreck of the Grosvenor, A Sailor's Sweetheart, An Ocean Free Lance, Jack's Courtship, Little Loo, etc. Style original and spirited. Pub. Har.

Russell, Wm. Howard. 1821 ——. Journalist. Author Hist. of the Crimean War, Diary North and South, Diary in India, Hesperothen, etc. Pub. Har. Rou.

Ryle, John Charles. 1816 ——. Bp. Liverpool. A popular religious writer. Author Expository Thoughts on the Gospels, etc. Pub. Ca. Phi. Ran.

Rymer, Thos. 1638–1714. Antiquary and critic. Author of Edgar, a play, The Tragedies of the Last Age Considered, etc., and compiler of Rymer's Fœdera, a collection of treatises, etc.

Sackville, Chas., Earl of Dorset. 1637–1705. Poet Author of the bright, lively song To all you Ladies now on Land. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 2.

Sackville, Thos., Earl of Dorset and Lord Buckhurst. 1536–1608. Poet. Author of the Induction and one tale of the Mirror for Magistrates, and, with Thos. Norton, of the tragedy of Gorboduc. See edition 1820.[121]

Sadler, Michael Thos. 1780–1830. Author of The Law of Population, etc.

Sainsbury, Wm. Noel. 1825 ——. Editor of Colonial Calendar of State Papers, America and West Indies, 1574–1668, etc.

St. John, Bayle. 1822–1859. Miscellaneous writer. Son to J. A. St. John. Author Village Life in Egypt, Memoirs of St. Simon, The Turks in Europe, etc.

St. John, Henry, Viscount Bolingbroke. 1678–1751. Political essayist. His Letter to Sir Wm. Windham [a vol. of 300 pages] is his chief work.

St. John, Horace Roscoe. 1832 ——. Son to J. A. St. John. Author The Indian Archipelago, Hist. British Conquests in India, etc.

St. John, James Augustus. 1801–1875. Miscellaneous writer. Author of The Anatomy of Society, The Nemesis of Power, Manners and Customs of Ancient Greece.

St. John, Percy Bolingbroke. 1821 ——. Writer of tales of adventure. Son to J. A. St. John. Author The Arctic Crusoe, The Creole Bride, The Red Queen, etc.

St. John, Spenser. 1826 ——. Son to J. A. St. John. Author Life in the Forests of the Far West, etc.

Saintsbury, Geo. Warner. 1845 ——. Littérateur. Author Dryden, in Eng. Men of Letters, Primer of French Lit., etc. Pub. Har. Mac.

Sala, George Augustus. 1828 ——. Novelist, essayist, and journalist. Author Quite Alone, Twice Round the Clock, Paris Herself Again, etc. Pub. Fu. Har. Rou.

Sale, George. 1680–1736. Orientalist. Translator of the Koran. Pub. Lip.[122]

Sanderson, Robert. 1587–1663. Bp. Salisbury. Theological writer of great learning. Pub. Mac.

Sandys, George. 1577–1644. Poet and traveler. Translator of Ovid. See Tyler's Am. Lit. vol. 1.

Sartoris, Mrs. Adelaide [Kemble]. 1816–1879. Author of A Week in a French Country House, a work of great freshness and beauty, and of Medusa and Other Tales.

Savage, Marmion. —— 1872. Irish novelist. Author of The Bachelor of the Albany, The Woman of Business, Reuben Medlicott, etc. Pub. Apl.

Savage, Richard. 1698–1743. Poet. A writer of languid verse, and held in remembrance mainly by Johnson's Biography of him.

Saville, George, Marquess of Halifax. 1630–1695. Political writer. The literary merit of his treatises is considerable.

Saville, Sir Henry. 1549–1622. Antiquarian. Editor of a noted edition of Chrysostom, 1613.

Sawyer, Wm. 1828 ——. Poet. Author of A Year of Song, The Legend of Phillis, etc.

Sayce, Archibald Henry. 1846 ——. Philologist. Author of An Assyrian Grammar, Principles of Comparative Philology, Introduction to the Science of Language, etc.

Schreiber, Lady Charlotte Elizabeth. c. 1814-c. 1879. Welsh writer. Translator of The Mabinogion.

Scot, Sir Alexander. fl. c. 1562. Scotch poet. His verse is amatory in tone. See edition by David Laing, 1821. See Grant Wilson's Poets of Scotland.

Scott, John. 1730–1783. Scotch poet. His productions are flavorless and poor.

Scott, Michael. 1789–1835. Novelist. Author Tom Cringle's Log, etc.[123]

Scott, Sir Michael. fl. c. 1250. Scotch philosopher.

Scott, Robert. 1811 ——. Classical scholar. One of the editors of Liddell and Scott's Greek Lexicon.

Scott, Thomas. 1747–1821. Commentator. Author Bible Commentary, etc. Pub. Lip.

Scott, Sir Walter. 1771–1832. Scotch novelist and poet. Author of a long series of romances, beginning with Waverley, in 1814, and ending with Anne of Geierstein, in 1829. S. first made the novel a really great power in life as well as in literature. The flow of his narrative is always animated and infused with a kindly spirit. Guy Mannering, Ivanhoe, Old Mortality, and Quentin Durward are among the best of his novels. The Lady of the Lake, Marmion, and Lay of the Last Minstrel are fine narrative poems, filled with vivid descriptions of Scotch scenery. See Taine's Eng. Lit., Masson's Novelists and Their Styles, and Hutton's Scott, in Eng. Men of Letters. See also The Waverley Dict., by May Rogers.

Scott, Wm. Bell. 1811 ——. Poet and art writer. Author The Year of the World, Life of Albert Dürer, etc. See Grant Wilson's Poets of Scotland. Pub. Rou.

Scrivener, Frederick Henry. 1813 ——. Biblical scholar. Author of a Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament, and editor of a Greek Testament, The Cambridge Paragraph Bible, etc. Pub. Ho.

Sedley, Sir Chas. 1639–1701. Lyric and dramatic poet. S. wrote the comedy of The Mulberry Garden. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 2.

Seeley, John Robert. 1834 ——. Author Ecce Homo, Lect. and Essays, Roman Imperialism, etc. Style clear and strong. See Myers's Essays, Modern. Pub. Mac. Rob.[124]

Selden, John. 1584–1654. Antiquarian. Author Titles of Honor, Hist. of Titles, etc. A man of wide learning, whose Table-Talk is his best known work. See Lives, by Wilkins, 1726, Aiken, 1773, and Johnson, 1835.

Selwyn, Geo. Augustus. 1809–1878. Bp. Lichfield. Author Tribal Analysis of the Bible, Are Cathedral Institutions Useless? etc. Pub. Mac.

Senior, Nassau Wm. 1790–1864. Political economist. Author Lect. on Population, Essays on Fiction, etc.

Settle, Elkanah. 1648–1724. Dramatist. A writer of trifling merit but the rival of Dryden in his time.

Seward, Anna. 1747–1809. Poet. Although called in her day "the Swan of Lichfield," her verse is weakly sentimental and commonplace.

Sewell, Elizabeth Missing. 1815 ——. Poet and novelist. Author Amy Herbert, Margaret Percival, etc. A writer of excellent stories, which have a strong High Church flavor. Pub. Apl. Dut. Har. Ho.

Sewell, Wm. 1805–1874. Religious writer. Bro. to E. M. S. Author of Christian Morals, etc.

Shadwell, Thos. 1640–1692. Dramatist. Author of 17 plays, but chiefly remembered as the butt of Dryden's satire MacFlecknoe.

Shaftesbury, 3d Earl of. See Cooper, Anthony Ashley.

Shairp, John Campbell. 1819 ——. Scotch essayist. Author Culture and Religion, Aspects of Poetry, Studies in Poetry and Philosophy, Poetic Interpretation of Nature, Burns, in Eng. Men of Letters, etc. Pub. Har. Hou.

Shakespeare, Wm. 1564–1616. The world's greatest dramatist. Author of 37 plays, in two of which,[125] Henry VIII. and Two Noble Kinsmen, Fletcher is supposed to have had a hand. The others are King John, Richard II., Richard III., the two parts of Henry IV., Henry V., the three parts of Henry VI., all historical plays; the tragedies, Hamlet, Macbeth, Othello, Lear, Antony and Cleopatra, Timon of Athens, Coriolanus, Julius Cæsar, Romeo and Juliet, and Troilus and Cressida; and the comedies, or tragi-comedies, Midsummer Night's Dream, Comedy of Errors, Love's Labor's Lost, Taming of the Shrew, Two Gentlemen of Verona, Merchant of Venice, All's Well that Ends Well, Much Ado About Nothing, As You Like It, Merry Wives of Windsor, Measure for Measure, Winter's Tale, Tempest, Twelfth Night, Pericles, and Cymbeline. S. was also the author of the poems Lucrece, Venus and Adonis, and 154 Sonnets. No writings, save the Scriptures, have ever moved the world like those of Shakespeare, which appeal to every emotion in the mind of man. He has no equals; there are none with whom he may be compared. Among the best complete Am. editions are White's Riverside, pub. Hou.; Rolfe's, pub. Har.; and Hudson's, pub. Gi. See also Furness's Variorum Macbeth, Lear, Hamlet, and Romeo and Juliet, pub. Lip.

Sharpe, Samuel. 1800 ——. Historian. Author Hist. Egypt, Hist. Hebrew Nation and Lit., Texts from the Bible Explained by Ancient Monuments, etc.

Sheffield, John, Duke of Buckingham. 1649–1720. Author Essay on Poetry, a poem in heroic measure, polished and prosaic.

Sheil [sheel], Richard Lalor. 1791–1851. Irish dramatist. Author Evadne, The Apostate, Sketches of the Irish Bar, etc. See Biographies, by McNevin, 1845, and McCulloch, 1855. Pub. Arm.[126]

Shelley, Mrs. Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin. 1797–1851. Novelist. Wife to P. B. S. Author Frankenstein, a repulsive but powerful romance, Valperga, Perkin Warbeck, etc.

Shelley, Percy Bysshe [bĭsh]. 1792–1822. Poet. An imaginative genius of the highest order. Author of Queen Mab, Prometheus Unbound, Alastor, The Cenci, etc. Some of his best work is seen in the Adonais, an elegy upon Keats, and the Ode to a Skylark, while all his poems possess an ethereal beauty quite unlike anything else in literature. See Atlantic Monthly, Feb. 1863, Macmillan's Mag. June, 1861, Shelley and his Writings, by C. S. Middleton, Symonds' Shelley, in Eng. Men. of Letters, and Swinburne's Essays and Studies. Pub. Lit. Mac. Por. Rou.

Shenstone, Wm. 1714–1763. Pastoral poet. Author of The Schoolmistress, a poem in Spenserian stanza, and of pastoral ballads. See Gilfillan's edition of, Edinburgh, 1854. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 3.

Sheridan, Mrs. Frances. 1724–1766. Novelist and dramatist. Wife to T. S.

Sheridan, Richard Brinsley. 1751–1816. Irish dramatist. Son to F. S. and T. S. A sparkling, witty writer. Author of The Duenna, an opera, The Critic, a farce, and The Rivals and School for Scandal, two of the best comedies in the Eng. language. See Works, edited by J. B. Browne, 1873, and F. Stainforth, 1874; also edition of 1883, with Introduction, by R. G. White. See Life of, by Moore, Atlantic Monthly, Oct. 1883, and Sheridan, by Mrs. Oliphant, in Eng. Men. of Letters. Pub. Do. Rou.

Sheridan, Thomas. 1721–1788. Irish lexicographer. Author Dict. Eng. Lang., etc.[127]

Sherlock, Wm. 1678–1761. Bp. London. Theologian of note.

Sherwood, Mrs. Mary Martha. 1775–1851. Writer of an immense number of religious tales, once very popular. Little Henry and his Bearer is one of the best known. See Life, 1874. Pub. Ca. Har. Wh.

Shirley, James. 1594–1666. Dramatist. The latest of the Shakespearean dramatists. Better known than any of his 40 plays is the noble poem Death's Final Conquest. See Dyce's Life of, 1833, and Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 2.

Shorthouse, Joseph Henry. 1834 ——. Novelist. Author of John Inglesant and Little Schoolmaster Mark. Pub. Mac.

Sidgewick, Henry. 1838 ——. Political economist. Author of The Principles of Political Economy, The Methods of Ethics, Ethics in Encyc. Britan., etc. A precise and impartial thinker. Pub. Mac. Put.

Sidney, Algernon. 1622–1683. Political writer. Author Discourses on Government, etc. See Life, by Meadley, 1813.

Sidney or Sydney, Sir Philip. 1554–1586. Poet and prose writer. Author of Sonnets, the prose romance Arcadia, and The Apologie for Poetrie, with which latter work literary criticism may be said to begin. See Grosart's complete edition, 1877. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1, Masson's Eng. Novelists, and Life, by Fox-Bourne, 1862.

Simcox, Geo. Augustus. 1841 ——. Poet and littérateur. Author Prometheus Unbound, a tragedy, Poems and Romances, and a Hist. of Latin Lit. Pub. Har. Rou.

Simpson, Sir James Young. 1811–1870. Scotch medical writer of note. Pub. Apl. Lip.[128]

Simpson, Thomas. 1710–1761. Mathematician. Author of a long series of mathematical works.

Simson, Robert. 1687–1768. Scotch mathematician. Author of a noted translation of Euclid.

Sinclair, Mrs. Catherine. 1800–1864. Scotch novelist. Author of Beatrice, Modern Society, Jane Bouverie, etc. Pub. Har.

Singer, Samuel Weller. 1783–1868. Shakespearean scholar. His edition of Shakespeare appeared in 1826.

Skeat [skeet], Walter Wm. 1835 ——. Philologist. Editor of numerous Early Eng. and Anglo-Saxon works, and author of an Etymological Dict. of the Eng. Language. Pub. Mac.

Skelton, John. c. 1460–1529. Poet. Author Why Come Ye Not to Court? a fierce satire upon Wolsey, Colin Clout, and the Boke of Phyllype Sparowe. His verse is rugged and harsh, but very powerful. See Dyce's edition, 1843, and Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1. Pub. Hou.

Skene, Wm. Forbes. 1809 ——. Antiquarian. Author The Highlanders of Scotland, Chronicles of the Picts and Scots, etc.

Sketchley, Arthur. See Rose, Geo.

Skinner, John. 1721–1807. Scotch poet. Tullochgorum is his most noted poem. See Poems of, with Memoir, 1859.

Smart, Benj. Humphrey. c. 1785–1872. Lexicographer. The chief of his numerous works is a Pronouncing Dict., which first appeared in 1836.

Smart, Christopher. 1722–1770. Poet. Author of a noted satire called The Hilliad and the famous Song to David. See edition 1791.

Smart, Hawley. 18— ——. Novelist. Author Breezie Langton, Bound to Win, etc. Pub. Apl.[129]

Smedley, Edward. 1789–1836. Historian. Author Religio Clerici, Hist. Reformed Religion in France, Hist. France, etc. Pub. Har.

Smedley, Francis Edward. 1819–1865. Novelist. Author Frank Fairleigh, Harry Coverdale's Courtship, etc. Pub. Pet. Rou.

Smedley, Menella Bute. c. 1825-c. 1875. Poet. Sister to F. E. S. Author of Nina, Twice Lost, and other prose tales. One of the finest of her poems is The Little Fair Soul. Pub. Rou.

Smee, Alfred. 1819 ——. Scientific writer of note. Pub. Put.

Smiles, Samuel. 1819 ——. Scotch writer. Author Self Help, Thrift, Life of a Scotch Naturalist, Life of Geo. Stephenson, etc. Pub. Har. Lip. Rou.

Smith, Adam. 1723–1790. Political economist. Author of The Wealth of Nations, the theory of which is that labor is the source of wealth. See Lives by Brougham, Playfair, and Smellie. Pub. Mac. Put.

Smith, Albert Richard. 1816–1860. Novelist. Author Christopher Tadpole, etc.

Smith, Alexander. 1830–1867. Scotch poet and essayist. Author Edwin of Deira, Life Drama, City Poems, etc. His verse achieved a sudden but brief popularity. It is brilliant, but uneven. His prose, of which A Summer in Skye is the best example, is excellent. See Life, by Alexander, 1868, and Stedman's Victorian Poets.

Smith, Mrs. Charlotte. 1749–1806. Poet and novelist. Elegiac Sonnets are her principal poems, and The Old Manor House is her best novel.

Smith, George. c. 1825–1876. Orientalist. Author of The Chaldean Account of Genesis, Assyrian Discoveries, Records of the Past, etc. Pub. Scr.[130]

Smith, Goldwin. 1823 ——. Miscellaneous writer. Author Lect. and Essays, The Study of Hist., Three Eng. Statesmen, etc. Pub. Har. Mac.

Smith, Horace. 1779–1849. Poet and novelist. Author of the noted poem Address to a Mummy, of five of the Rejected Addresses published by Horace and James Smith, and of several novels,—The Moneyed Man, Brambletye House, etc. Pub. Har. Ho. Put.

Smith, Isaac Gregory. 1826 ——. Religious writer. Author Characteristics of Christian Morality, etc. Pub. Dut.

Smith, James. 1775–1839. Poet and critic. Bro. to H. S. Author of five of the travesties in Rejected Addresses, viz., those on Wordsworth, Cobbett, Southey, Coleridge, and Crabbe. See Memoirs of, by Horace Smith, 1840. Pub. Ho. Put.

Smith, James. 1824 ——. Scotch poet and novelist.

Smith, John Pye. 1775–1851. Theologian. Author Letters to Belsham, etc.

Smith, Robert Payne. 1818 ——. Religious writer. Author Bampton Lect., 1869, etc. Pub. Mac.

Smith, Sarah, "Hesba Stretton." 18— ——. Novelist. Author Bede's Charity, Through A Needle's Eye, and other excellent novels. Pub. Do. Rou.

Smith, Sydney. 1771–1845. Essayist and humorist. Author of the Plymley Letters, etc. A perfect master of an intensely amusing and sarcastic style of reasoning. See Duyckinck's Wit and Wisdom of Sydney Smith. Pub. Apl. Har. Rou.

Smith, Thos. Southwood. 1788–1861. Medical writer of note. Author Philosophy of Health, The use of the Dead to the Living, etc. Pub. Clx. Lip.

Smith, Wm. 1769–1839. Geological writer of eminence. See Life, by Phillips, 1844.[131]

Smith, Wm. 1813 ——. Classical lexicographer. Author Dict. Greek and Roman Antiquities, Dict. of the Bible, etc. Pub. Apl. Est. Har. Hou. Lit. Por.

Smith, Wm. Robertson. 1847 ——. Scotch theologian of note. Author of The Old Testament in the Jewish Church, etc. Pub. Apl.

Smollett, Tobias George. 1721–1771. Author of Roderick Random; Peregrine Pickle, Count Fathom, Humphrey Clinker, etc., novels whose coarseness is scarcely atoned for by their wit and vivacity. See Complete Works, 1872. See Thackeray's Eng. Humorists and Masson's Novelists and Their Styles. Pub. Har. Rou.

Smyth, Chas. Piazzi. c. 1820 ——. Egyptologist. Son to W. H. S. Author Our Inheritance in the Gt. Pyramid, Life and Work at the Gt. Pyramid, etc. An ingenious but somewhat fanciful thinker. Pub. Est. Rou. Scr.

Smyth, Wm. Henry. 1788–1865. Hydrographer. Author of a noted work on the physical geography of the Mediterranean. Pub. Mac.

Smythe, Geo. Sydney, Viscount Strangford. 1818–1857. Novelist. Author of Historic Fancies and Angela Pisani.

Somers, Lord John. 1651–1716. Jurist. Author of the noted "Somers Tracts." See Walter Scott's edition, 13 vols. 4to, 1815. See Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors.

Somerville, Mrs. Mary. 1780–1872. Scotch astronomer. Author Mechanism of the Heavens, Connection of the Physical Sciences, Physical Geography, etc. See Personal Recollections, by Mrs. Somerville, 1873. Pub. Har. Rob. Sh.

Somerville, Wm. 1682–1742. Poet. Author of The Chase, etc. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 3.[132]

Sotheby [sŭth´ȏ-bĭ], Wm. 1757–1833. A fine translation of Wieland's Oberon is his best known work.

South, Robert. 1633–1716. A witty theologian, whose Sermons possess vitality and are still read. Pub. Dut. Hou.

Southern [sŭth´ern], Thos. 1660–1746. Irish dramatist. Author Oroonoko, The Fatal Dowry, etc. His plays were once very popular and show great power.

Southey [sowth´ĭ], Mrs. Caroline Anne [Bowles]. 1787–1854. Poet. Wife to R. S. Author of The Young Gray Head, The Pauper's Death Bed, etc. Style harmonious and pathetic. Pub. Rou.

Southey, Robert. 1774–1843. Poet and essayist. Author of Thalaba, Curse of Kehama, Roderick, Madoc, etc. As a whole his verse is a good deal like prose, but prose of an excellent quality. The Doctor is one of his most noted prose works. See Life, by C. T. Browne, and Dowden's Southey, in Eng. Men of Letters. Pub. Apl. Har. Hou. Rou.

Southwell, Robert. 1560–1595. Poet. Content and Rich and Times go by Turns are among his best poems. His verse has much quiet beauty. See MacDonald's England's Antiphon and Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1.

Spedding, James. 1808–1881. Baconian scholar. Editor Lord Bacon's works, author Life and Letters of Bacon, Reviews and Discussions, Evenings with a Reviewer, etc. Pub. Hou.

Speed, John. 1552–1629. Antiquary. Hist. Great Britain, etc.

Spelman, Sir Henry. 1562–1641. Antiquary. Author Hist. Eng. Councils, Glossarium Archæologicum, etc.


Spencer, Herbert. 1820 ——. Philosopher. Author Social Statics, Principles of Psychology, Study of Sociology, Education, Descriptive Sociology, etc. Pub. Apl.

Spencer, Wm. Robert. 1770–1834. Poet. Beth-Gélert is his best known poem.

Spenser, Edmund. 1552–1599. Poet. Shepherd's Calendar, Mother Hubbard's Tale, Amoretti, Epithalamion, and Prothalamion are the best of his minor poems. The Faerie Queene, an allegory in 6 books, is his greatest work, the interest of which lies not in the poem as a narration, but in its symbolic representation of the soul at war with evil. See Todd's Variorum edition, and editions by Payne Collier, 1862, and Morris, 1869. See Craik's Spenser and his Poetry, Morley's Library Eng. Lit., and Church's Spenser, in Eng. Men of Letters. Pub. Mac. Hou.

Spottswood or Spottiswoode, John. 1565–1639. Abp. St. Andrew's. Ecclesiastical historian. Author Hist. Church of Scotland, etc. See Russell's edition, 1851.

Sprat, Thos. 1636–1713. Bp. Rochester. Theologian. Author Hist. Royal Society, Life of Cowley, Poems, Sermons, etc.

Spurgeon, Chas. Haddon. 1834 ——. Author several vols. of Sermons, John Ploughman's Talks, etc. Pub. Ca. Scr. Sh.

Stanhope, Philip Dormer, Earl of Chesterfield. 1694–1773. Author of the celebrated Letters to his Son, Philip Stanhope, the morality of which has been much debated. Style polished and able.

Stanhope, Philip Henry, Lord Mahon. 1805–1875. Author Hist. of England, Hist. War of the Spanish Succession, etc. Pub. Lit.

Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn. 1815–1881. Theologian. Author Lect. on the Jewish Church, Lect. on the[134] Eastern Church, Christian Institutions, Life of Dr. Arnold, etc. A writer of much vigor and strength, whose wide sympathies are clearly shown in his works. See Century Mag. Jan. 1883, and Myers's Essays Modern. Pub. Arm. Dut. Har. Mac. Scr.

Stanley, Thomas. 1625–1678. Poet. Beside a vol. of quaint verse S. wrote a Hist. of Philosophy.

Staunton [stän´tȏn], Howard. 1810–1874. Shakespearean scholar. His library edition of Shakespeare appeared in 1863. Pub. Rou.

Steele, Sir Richard. 1671–1729. Essayist. S. began the periodical Essay by The Tatler in 1709, and wrote afterwards with Addison in The Spectator and The Guardian. Author also of The Christian Hero. See Thackeray's Eng. Humorists.

Steevens, George. 1736–1800. Shakespearean scholar. S. edited with Dr. Johnson the edition of 1773, and with Isaac Reed those of 1785 and 1793.

Stephen, Sir James. 1789–1859. Historian and essayist. Author Essays in Eccl. Biography, Lect. on Hist. of France, etc. See Life, by his son, 1860. Pub. Har.

Stephen, Sir James Fitzjames. 1829 ——. Jurist. Son to preceding. Author General View of the Criminal Law of England, Essays by a Barrister, etc. Pub. Mac. Th.

Stephen, Leslie. 1832 ——. Littérateur. Neph. to Sir J. S. Author of a brilliant Hist. Eng., Thought in the Eighteenth Cent., Science of Ethics, Hours in a Library, and Pope, Johnson, and Swift, in Eng. Men of Letters. Pub. Har. Scr.

Stephenson, Mrs. Eliza [Tabor]. 1835 ——. Novelist. Author St. Olave's, Jeanie's Quiet Life, The Blue Ribbon, Meta's Faith, The Senior Songman, etc. St. Olave's, her best work, has been very popular. Pub. Har.[135]

Sterling, John. 1806–1844. Poet and critic. See Lives, by Hare, 1848, T. Carlyle, 1851; also, Caroline Fox's Memories of Old Friends.

Sterne, Lawrence. 1713–1768. Humorist. Author of Tristram Shandy and The Sentimental Journey, two rambling, fantastic books, with a slender thread of story in each. The quaintness is affected, and the humor sometimes obscure, but the character drawing is inimitable. See Life, by Fitzgerald, Taine's Eng. Lit., Masson's Eng. Novelists and Their Styles, and H. D. Traill's Sterne, in Eng. Men of Letters. Pub. Clx. Lip. Rou.

Sternhold, Thos. c. 1500–1549. Associate with Hopkins in a metrical version of the Psalms.

Stevenson, John Hall. 1718–1785. Poet. Author Crazy Hall Tales, etc.

Stevenson, Robert Louis. 18— ——. Author of Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes, An Inland Voyage, The New Arabian Nights, etc. Pub. Rob.

Stewart, Dugald. 1753–1828. Scotch metaphysician. Author Philosophical Essays, Philosophy of the Active and Moral Powers, etc.

Still, John. 1543–1607. Bp. Bath and Wells. To him has been doubtfully attributed the comedy Gammer Gurton's Needle, one of the very earliest English plays. See Dodsley's Old Plays.

Stillingfleet, Edward. 1635–1699. Bp. Worcester. Controversial writer of note. Pub. Mac.

Stirling, Earl of. See Alexander, Wm.

Stirling, Sir Wm. Maxwell. See Maxwell Stirling.

Stormonth, James. 1825–1882. Scotch lexicographer. Author Dict. of Scientific Terms, Etymological Dict., etc.


Stoughton, John. 18— ——. Religious historian. Author Hist. of Religion in England from the Opening of the Long Parliament to the End of the Eighteenth Cent., and Introduction to Historical Theology. Pub. Arm. Phi.

Stow, John. 1525–1605. Chronicler.

Strangford, Viscount. See Smythe, G. S.

Street, Geo. Edmund. 1824–1881. Gothic architect. Author The Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages, Gothic Architecture in Spain, etc. See The Biograph, Aug. 1880.

Stretton, Hesba. See Smith, Sarah.

Strickland, Agnes. 1796–1874. Historical writer. Author Lives of the Queens of England, Lives of the Queens of Scotland, Lives of the Seven Bishops, etc. Pub. Har. La. Lip. Por.

Strutt, Joseph. 1742–1802. Antiquarian. Author Sports and Pastimes of the People of England, Biographical Hist. of Engravers, etc. Pub. Rou.

Strype, John. 1643–1737. Historian. Author Annals of the Reformation, Life of Cranmer, etc.

Stuart, Gilbert. 1742–1786. Historian. Author View of Society in Europe, Hist. of Scotland, etc. An accurate but prejudiced writer.

Stubbs, Wm. 1825 ——. Historian. Author of The Constitutional Hist. of England, The Early Plantagenets, etc. Pub. Est. Mac.

Stukely, Wm. 1687–1765. Antiquarian writer.

Suckling, Sir John. 1609–1641. Of his gay, airy verse, the Ballad upon a Wedding is most widely known. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 2.

Sugden, Edward B., Baron St. Leonards. 1781–1875. Jurist of high rank. Author Handy Book on Property Law, etc. Pub. Jo.

Sumner, John Bird. 1780–1862. Abp. Canterbury. Religious writer. Author Practical Reflections, etc.

Surrey, Earl of. See Howard, Henry.[137]

Swain, Charles. 1803–1874. Poet. His verse is pleasing, but has little strength. Pub. Rob.

Swift, Jonathan. 1667–1745. Irish satirist. Author Battle of the Books, Tale of a Tub, Drapier's Letters, Gulliver's Travels, etc. Style coarse, bitterly savage and personal, but of great vigor, keenness, and force. See Lives, by T. Sheridan and Forster; also, Taine's Eng. Lit., Thackeray's Eng. Humorists, Leslie Stephen's Swift, in Eng. Men of Letters, and Masson's Novelists. Pub. Hou.

Swinburne, Algernon Charles. 1837 ——. Poet and critic. Author of Atalanta in Calydon, Song of Italy, Chastelard, Mary Stuart, Bothwell, Tristram, etc. Tristram is the finest of his long poems, and A Child's Song in Winter one of the best of the minor ones. His verse shows wonderful melody and perfect mastery of metre even when most obscure, and abounds in vivid and exquisite descriptions. See Stedman's Victorian Poets and Lowell's My Study Windows. Pub. Ho.

Sylvester, Joshua. 1563–1618. Poet. Translator of the French poet Du Bartas, and known in his day as Silver-Tongued Sylvester.

Symonds, John Addington. 1840 ——. Poet and critic. Author Hist. of the Renaissance in Italy, Studies of the Greek Poets, Sketches and Studies in Southern Europe, Italian Byways, etc., and two vols. of poems, entitled New and Old and Many Moods. Pub. Har. Ho. Os.

Tabor, Eliza. See Stephenson, Mrs.

Tait, Archibald Campbell. 1811–1882. Abp. Canterbury. Theologian. Author Dangers and Safeguards of Modern Theology, etc. Pub. Mac.

Talfourd [tawl´furd], Sir Thomas Noon. 1795–1854.[138] Dramatic poet. Author of The Athenian Captive, Glencoe, The Castilian, etc., but chiefly known by his fine tragedy Ion, and Final Memorials of Chas. Lamb.

Tannahill, Robert. 1774–1810. Scotch poet. His lyrics possess a sweetness like those of Burns. Braes of Balquither and The Flower of Dumblane are familiar examples. See Centenary edition, 1874.

Tate, Nahum. 1652–1715. Associate with Brady in a noted metrical version of the Psalms, and author of several plays.

Tautphoeus, Baroness. 18— ——. Novelist. Author of The Initials, Quits, Cyrilla, At Odds, etc. Pub. Ho. Lip.

Taylor, Brook. 1685–1731. Mathematician. Author Methods of Increment and inventor of Taylor's Theorem.

Taylor, Sir Henry. 1800 ——. Dramatic poet. Author Edwin the Fair, Philip Van Artavelde, Isaac Comnenus, etc. Philip Van Artavelde, his finest work, ranks high in modern dramatic poetry. See edition 1863. See Fortnightly Review, vol. 1, and The Biograph, vol. 2. Pub. Lip.

Taylor, Isaac. 1787–1865. Miscellaneous writer. Author Elements of Thought, The Spirit of Hebrew Poetry, The World of Mind, etc. Pub. Ca. Dut. Har. Mac.

Taylor, Jane. 1783–1824. Moral and religious writer. Sister to I. T. Author with her sister Ann of Hymns for Infant Minds, etc. Pub. Ca. Har. Por. Rou.

Taylor, Jeremy. 1613–1667. Bp. Down and Connor. Theologian. His best works are Sermons, The Great Exemplar, and Holy Living and Holy[139] Dying. His warmth of imagination and poetic fervor render his prose both musical and eloquent, while his long, involved sentences are managed with the rarest skill. See Heber's edition, 15 vols., 1820. See Life, by Wilmott, 1847. Pub. Ca. Clx. Dut. Lip.

Taylor, John. 1580–1654. Poet. Called the Water Poet. A voluminous writer but one of little interest to modern readers.

Taylor, Robert. fl. c. 1600. Dramatist. Author of The Hog hath Lost his Pearl, etc.

Taylor, Thomas. 1758–1835. Philosophical writer. Known as the Platonist.

Taylor, Tom. 1817–1880. Dramatist. Of his many excellent plays, The Ticket-of-Leave Man is the most popular. See Eclectic Mag. Oct. 1880.

Taylor, Wm. 1765–1836. His translations of Goethe, Schiller, and Lessing promoted greatly the study of German literature in England.

Temple, Frederick. 1821 ——. Bp. Exeter. Theologian of the Broad Church school. Author Sermons in Rugby School, etc. Pub. Mac.

Temple, Sir Wm. 1628–1699. Philosophical essayist. The best edition of his works is 4 vols. 8vo, London, 1814.

Tennant, Wm. 1774–1848. Scotch poet. Author of the humorous, mock-heroic poem, Auster Fair, etc. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 4.

Tennent, Sir James. See Emerson-Tennent.

Tennyson, Alfred. 1809 ——. Poet Laureate. In Memoriam, Idyls of the King, The Princess, Maud, and Enoch Arden, with the dramas Harold and Queen Mary, comprise his longest poems. Among the finest of the shorter ones are Œnone, Ulysses, The Talking Oak, Lotus Eaters, Lady of Shalott,[140] The Gardener's Daughter, The Revenge, and Locksley Hall, and of the brief songs, Tears, Idle Tears, and Late, so Late. The poetry of T., taken as a whole, represents the highest water mark of the non-dramatic poetry of the English-speaking world. In it is united a perfect mastery of words and metre with a widely cultured, thoughtful imagination. See Hutton's Essays, Stedman's Victorian Poets, Buchanan's Master Spirits, Tavish's Studies in Tennyson, Gatty's Study of In Memoriam, Genung's Study of In Memoriam, Atlantic Monthly, Sept. 1879. Pub. Har. Hou. Os.

Tennyson-Turner, Chas. 1808?-1881. Poet. Bro. to A. Tennyson. Style delicate and meditative. His Sonnets have been greatly praised. See Living Age, Dec. 31, 1881.

Tennyson, Frederick. 1806 ——. Poet. Bro. to two preceding. Author Days and Hours, etc. Style artistic and elegant. The Blackbird is one of his best poems. See Stedman's Victorian Poets.

Thackeray-Ritchie, Mrs. Anne Isabella. 1842 ——. Dau. to W. M. T. Novelist. Author of Miss Angel, Old Kensington, Village on the Cliff, etc. Style quiet, picturesque, and refined. Pub. Har.

Thackeray, Wm. Makepeace. 1811–1863. Novelist. Author of Vanity Fair, Newcomes, Pendennis, Virginians, Henry Esmond, Philip, Denis Duval, Hoggarty Diamond, Barry Lyndon, etc. Of these Esmond must rank highest as a piece of literary art. His style presents a union of the satirical and the humorous, the cynical and the kindly, which perplexes some readers, but is almost always an example of excellent English. The End of the Play and Bouillebaisse are his two best poems. See[141] Hannay's Studies on Thackeray in Every Saturday, vol. 6, Old Series, Shepard's Pen Pictures of Modern Authors, Rideing's Stray Moments with Thackeray, and Taylor's Thackeray the Humorist. Pub. Har. Ho. Lip.

Theobald [thee-o-bawld, or tĭb´bald], Lewis. 1688–1744. Dramatist and Shakespearean editor. His edition of Shakespeare appeared in 1733, and is of great merit. T. was savagely and unjustly satirized by Pope in the Dunciad.

Thirlwall, Connop. 1797–1875. Bp. St. David's. Historian. Author of a valuable Hist. of Greece Pub. Har. Rob.

Thomas, Annie. See Cudlip, Mrs. Pender.

Thoms, Wm. John. 1803 ——. Antiquarian writer.

Thomson, James. 1700–1748. Scotch poet. Author of The Seasons, Castle of Indolence, etc. His style is somewhat heavy, but his feeling for nature is genuine and his descriptions are fine. See Lives, by Buchan, Gilfillan, and Bell; also, Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 3. Pub. Apl. Clx. Hou.

Thomson, James. 1834–1882. Scotch poet. Author of a sombre but striking poem, The City of Dreadful Night. See To-day, July, 1883, and Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 4, 2d edition.

Thomson, Mrs. Katharine. 1800–1862. Historical writer.

Thomson, Wm. 1819 ——. Abp. York. Religious writer.

Thornbury, Geo. Walter. 1828–1876. Novelist and poet. Author Life of Turner, True as Steel, Greatheart, etc. Culloden and The Jester's Sermon are among his best poems. Style spirited and strong. See Stedman's Victorian Poets. Pub. Ho.

Thornton, Bonnell. 1724–1768. Dramatist and translator.[142]

Thornton, Wm. Thomas. 1818 ——. Political economist. Author Over-Population and its Remedy, Plea for Peasant Proprietors, On Labor, Old-Fashioned Ethics and Common-Sense Metaphysics, Poems, etc. Pub. Mac.

Thorold, Anthony Wilson. 18— ——. Bp. Rochester. Religious writer. Author The Presence of Christ, The Threshold of Private Devotions, etc. Pub. Ran.

Thrale, Mrs. See Piozzi, Mrs.

Thurlow, Lord Edward Hovell. 1781–1829. Poet. Author Ariadne, etc.

Tickell, Richard. —— 1793. Humorist. Author of The Anticipation, an amusing forecast of the debates in the Parliament of 1778.

Tickell, Thomas. 1686–1740. Poet and essayist. Grandfather to R. T. Author of a fine elegy upon Addison, the ballad of Colin and Lucy, several papers in the Spectator, etc. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 3. Pub Hou.

Tighe [tī], Mrs. Mary Blackford. 1773–1810. Irish poet. Subject of Moore's poem "I saw thy form in youthful prime," and author of Psyche, a highly imaginative poem in Spenserian stanza.

Tillotson, John. 1630–1694. Abp. Cant. His Sermons, still occasionally read, are sedate and solid in style.

Timbs, John. 1801–1875. Miscellaneous writer. Author Anecdote-Biography, Curiosities of London, Club Life in London, etc. Pub. Har. Rou.

Tindal, Matthew. 1657–1733. Religious controversial writer.

Tobin, John. 1770–1804. Dramatist. Author, among other plays, of the romantic, popular comedy The Honeymoon. See Memoirs, by E. S. Benger, 1820.[143]

Todd, Henry John. 1763–1845. Littérateur. Author Life of Cranmer, Account of the Deans of Canterbury, etc., and editor of Spenser, Milton, and Johnson's Dict.

Tonna, Mrs. Charlotte Elizabeth [Brown]. 1792–1846. Writer of moral and religious tales. Known as an author by her signature Charlotte Elizabeth.

Tooke, John Horne. See Horne-Tooke.

Toplady, Augustus Montague. 1740–1778. Theologian and hymn writer. Chiefly known by the famous hymn Rock of Ages. See Works, 1869.

Tourneur, Cyril. fl. c. 1600. Dramatist. Author The Atheist's Tragedy, Revenger's Tragedy, etc. His plays show great power and dramatic skill.

Townley, James. 1715–1788. Dramatist. Author of the witty farce High Life Below Stairs, etc.

Townshend [townz´end], Chauncey Hare. 1798–1868. Poet and prose writer. Author Sermons in Sonnets, Facts in Mesmerism, Mesmerism Proved, etc. Pub. Har.

Trafford, F. G. See Riddell, Mrs. C. E.

Tregelles, Samuel Prideaux. 1813–1875. Biblical scholar of note. Author The Englishman's Greek Concordance to the New Testament, etc.

Trelawney, Edward John. 1792–1881. Novelist. Author Adventures of a Younger Son, Recollections of the Last Days of Shelley and Byron, etc.

Trench, Richard Chenevix. 1807 ——. Abp. Dublin. Poet, philologist, and theologian. Author Notes on the Miracles, Study of Words, English Past and Present, Poems, etc. See Myers's Essays Modern. Pub. Apl. Arm. Mac. Scr.

Trevelyan, George Otto. 1838 ——. Miscellaneous writer. Author Cawnpore, Life of Macaulay, etc. Pub. Har.[144]

Trimmer, Mrs. Sarah. 1741–1810. Miscellaneous writer. Author Fabulous Histories, Abridgments of Scripture Hist., Sermons for Family Reading, etc. Pub. Rou.

Trollope, Anthony. 1815–1882. Novelist. Son to F. M. T. Author of a very long list of excellent novels, the best of which are, He Knew he was Right, Barchester Towers, Marion Fay, Doctor Thorne, and Framley Parsonage. His stories are never dull; the current of the narrative flows easily and the characters are well sketched, but the English is sometimes a little careless. See Autobiography; also, Blackwood's Mag. Feb. 1883, Century Mag. July, 1883, and Princeton Review, July, 1883. Pub. Har. Lip. Mac. Pet. Por. Rou.

Trollope, Edward. 1817 ——. Bp. Nottingham. Archæological and architectural writer of note. Cousin to A. T. and T. A. T.

Trollope, Mrs. Frances Eleanor [Tiernan]. 18— ——. Novelist. Wife to T. A. T. Author of Aunt Margaret's Trouble, Anne Furness, Among Aliens, Mabel's Progress, The Sacristan's Household, Veronica, etc. Pub. Har.

Trollope, Mrs. Frances [Milton]. 1778–1863. Novelist. Author Domestic Manners among the Americans, Widow Barnaby, etc. A voluminous, witty, but inartistic writer. Pub. Har. Rou.

Trollope, Thomas Adolphus. 1810 ——. Novelist and historian. Son to F. M. T. Author Lindisfarne Chase, Filippo Strozzi, La Beata, Hist. Florentine Commonwealth, Life Pope Pius IX., The Papal Conclaves, etc. See "Eng. Authors in Florence," Atlantic Monthly, Dec. 1864. Pub. Har. Mac. Pet.


Tucker, Abraham. 1705–1774. Metaphysician. Author of The Light of Nature Pursued, published under the pseudonym Edward Search.

Tucker, Charlotte. "A. L. O. E." 1830 ——. Writer of religious juvenile fiction. Pub. Ca. Nel.

Tulloch, John. 1822 ——. Scotch theologian. Author Theism, Leaders of the Reformation, Christ of the Gospels and Christ of Modern Criticism, etc. See The Biograph, vol. 3. Pub. Mac. Phi. Rou. Scr.

Tupper, Martin Farquhar. 1810 ——. Poet and prose writer. Author of The Proverbial Philosophy, and other popular but exceedingly commonplace poems. Some of his prose tales are excellent; of these Crock of Gold is the best known. Pub. Arm. Pet.

Turberville, George. 1530-c. 1595. Poet. Author Tragical Tales, etc.

Turner, Chas. Tennyson. See Tennyson-Turner.

Turner, Dawson. 1775–1858. Author Nat. Hist. of Sea Weeds, etc.

Turner, Sharon. 1768–1847. Historian. His chief works are Hist. of England in the Middle Ages, Sacred Hist. of the World, and a valuable Hist. of the Anglo-Saxons. Pub. Har.

Tusser, Thomas. 1515–1580. Poet. Author of A Hondreth Good Points of Husbandrie, expanded by later writers into Five Hundred Points of Good Husbandrie. See Mavor's edition, 1812.

Tylor, Edward Burnett. 1832 ——. Ethnologist. Author of Anahauc, or Mexico and the Mexicans, Researches into the Early Hist. of Mankind, Anthropology and Primitive Culture. A writer of thorough scientific knowledge, possessing an admirable style. Pub. Apl. Ho.

Tyndale or Tindal, Wm. 1477–1536. Translator[146] of the New Testament, 1525. Tyndale's version was afterwards revised by Coverdale. See Offor's Life of, 1836.

Tyndall, John. 1820 ——. Irish physicist. Author Glaciers of the Alps, Heat as a Mode of Motion, Lect. on Light, On Radiation, etc. Pub. Apl.

Tyrwhitt [tĕr´ĭt], Thomas. 1730–1786. Antiquary and Chaucerian scholar. Editor of the works of Chaucer and Chatterton. A scholar of singular insight, whose conjectures have nearly all been sustained by texts of which he knew nothing.

Tytler [tīt´lȏr], Alex Fraser, Lord Woodhouselee. 1747–1813. Scotch historian. Son to Wm. T. Author Elements of Gen. Hist., Essay on Military Law, etc. Pub Clx. Har.

Tytler, C. C. Fraser. Great-niece to P. F. T. See Liddell, Mrs.

Tytler, Patrick Fraser. 1791–1849. Scotch historian and biographer. Son to A. F. T. Author Scottish Worthies, etc., and a standard Hist. of Scotland. Pub. Har.

Tytler, Sarah. See Keddie, Henrietta.

Tytler, Wm. 1711–1792. Scotch historical and critical writer.

Udall [yoo´dăl], Nicholas. 1506–1556. Dramatist. Author Ralph Roister Doister, the first Eng. comedy. It is known to have been acted before 1551. See Arber's reprint.

Upcott, Wm. 1779–1845. Bibliographer of note.

Urquhart [ȗrk´ȃrt], David. 1805 ——. Scotch writer. Author Turkey and its Resources, The Progress of Russia, the Pillars of Hercules, etc. Pub. Har.

Usher or Ussher, James. 1580–1656. Abp. Armagh.[147] Chronologist. Author Chronological Tables of Universal Hist. from the Creation to Vespasian. The marginal dates in the authorized version of the Bible are from Usher. See Complete Works, 17 vols., Dublin, 1864. See Life, by Aikin.

Valpy, Abraham John. 1787–1854. Shakespearean editor. His illustrated Shakespeare, 15 vols., appeared in 1834.

Vanbrugh [văn´broo], Sir John. 1666–1726. Dramatist and architect. Author of a dozen brilliant but coarse comedies, among which The Relapse, Revoked Wife, The Confederacy, and Journey to London are the best.

Vaughan [vawn or vaw´ȃn], Chas. James. 1816 ——. Theologian. Author Heroes of Faith, Epistles of St. Paul for Eng. Readers, etc. A leader of Broad Church thought. Pub. Dut. Mac. Phi. Rou.

Vaughan, Henry. 1621–1695. Poet. His verse is religious in character, and is as frequently harsh in sound as quaint in form. Silex Scintillans is the title of his principal work. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 2, MacDonald's England's Antiphon, and Dr. John Brown's Spare Hours, 1st Series. Pub. Hou.

Vaughan, Robert. 1795–1868. Miscellaneous writer. Author of Congregationalism, the Age of Great Cities, Revolutions in English Hist., etc.

Vaughan, Robert Alfred. 1823–1855. Son to R. V. Author Hours with the Mystics, etc. See Memoir by his father, 1858.

Vaux [vawks], Thomas, Lord. 1510–1557. Poet. Author of the Grave-digger's song in Hamlet and the meditative poem Thought.

Veitch, John. 1829 ——. Scotch philosophical writer. Author Memoirs of Dugald Stewart and Sir Wm. Hamilton, etc.[148]

Venn, Henry. 1725–1797. Religious writer. Author Complete Duty of Man, etc. See Life, by Henry Venn, 1834.

Vere, De, Sir Aubrey. See De Vere, Sir Aubrey.

Vere, De, Aubrey Thomas. See De Vere, Aubrey.

Vere, De, Edward, Earl of Oxford. See De Vere, Edward.

Villiers, George, Duke of Buckingham. 1627–1688. Dramatist. Author The Rehearsal and Battle of Sedgemoor.

Viner [vī´nȏr], Chas. 1680–1756. Legal writer. Author Complete Abridgment of Law and Equity.

Wace, Maistre Richard. c. 1120–1184. Anglo-Norman poet. Author of the Brut d'Angleterre and the Roman de Rou: the first poem of 12,000 lines, the latter of 17,000.

Waddington, George. 1793–1869. Historian. Author Hist. of the Church, Hist. Reformation on the Continent, etc. Pub. Har.

Wakefield, Gilbert. 1756–1801. Theological and classical writer. His annotated edition of Lucretius is one of his chief works.

Wakefield, Mrs. Priscilla. 1751–1832. Miscellaneous writer.

Walcott, Mackenzie Edward Chas. 1822 ——. Archæologist. Author Sacred Archæology. Cathedral Cities of England and Wales, Memorials of Canterbury, etc.

Walford, Edward. 1823 ——. Littérateur. Author Handbook of the Greek Drama, etc. See The Biograph, vol. 1.

Walford, Mrs. Lucy Bethia [Colquhoun]. 1845 ——. Novelist. Author Mr. Smith, Pauline, Cousins, Troublesome Daughters, Dick Netherby, etc. Pub. Ho.[149]

Walker, John. 1732–1807. Lexicographer. His Dict. of the English Language appeared in 1775.

Wallace, Alfred Russel. 1822 ——. Naturalist. Author Travels on the Amazon, The Malay Archipelago, Geographical Distribution of Animals, etc. Independently of Darwin, W. originated a theory of natural selection. Pub. Har. Mac.

Wallace, Donald Mackenzie. 1841 ——. Traveler. Author of Russia, etc. Pub. Ho.

Waller, Edmund. 1605–1687. Poet. Go, Lovely Rose, On a Girdle, and Old Age and Death are some of his best poems. See Bell's edition, 1866. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 2.

Waller, John Francis. 1810 ——. Poet and prose writer. Author Poems, The Slingsby Papers, etc., and editor of the Imperial Dict. of Universal Biography. Pub. Cas.

Wallis, John. 1616–1703. Mathematician. Author numerous works on algebra, geometry, etc.

Walpole [wŏl´pol], Horace. 1717–1797. Miscellaneous writer. Author Castle of Otranto, a sensational romance, The Mysterious Mother, a tragedy, Historic Doubts concerning Richard III., etc. A brilliant but superficial writer. See Memoirs of, 1851; also, Living Age, vol. 13, "Strawberry Hill."

Walter, John. 1739–1812. Journalist. Founder of the London Times, 1788.

Walton, Brian. 1600–1661. Bp. Chester. Editor of the London Polyglott Bible. See Life, by Todd, 1821.

Walton, Izaak. 1593–1683. Biographer and angler. The Complete Angler, his chief work, is a book of much quiet beauty. Pub. Lit.

Warburton, Eliot Bartholomew Geo. 1810–1852. Irish novelist and miscellaneous writer. Author[150] The Crescent and the Cross, Prince Rupert and the Cavaliers, etc.

Warburton, George. —— 1857. Bro. to E. B. G. W. Author Conquest of Canada, Hochelaga, etc. Pub. Har.

Warburton, Wm. 1698–1779. Bp. Gloucester. A learned and brilliant but arrogant author. He wrote The Divine Legation of Moses, and published an edition of Shakespeare in 1747. See Life, by Watson, 1863, and Quarterly Rev. June, 1812.

Ward, Robert Plumer. 1765–1846. Novelist. Author Tremaine, De Vere, De Clifford, and Chatsworth; metaphysical, philosophical, and political narratives. See Memoirs, 1850. Pub. Har.

Waring, Anna L. 18— ——. Welsh poet. Author of Hymns and Meditations. Pub. Dut.

Warner, Ferdinando. 1703–1768. Historian. Author Eccl. Hist. England, Hist. Ireland, etc.

Warner, Wm. 1558–1609. Poet. Author of Albion's England, a hist. of England from the Deluge to Elizabeth, containing 10,000 14-syllable lines. It is humorous, spirited, and even pathetic in places. See Craik's Eng. Lit., vol. 1, and Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1.

Warren, John Leicester. 18— ——. Poet. Author Philoctetes, Rehearsals, Orestes, Searching the Net, etc. See Stedman's Victorian Poets. Pub. Rou.

Warren, Samuel. 1807–1877. Novelist and physician. Author Diary of a Physician, and the famous novel Ten Thousand a Year. Pub. Har. Por.

Warton, Joseph. 1722–1800. Poet and critic. See Biography, by Wool, 1806.

Warton, Thomas. 1728–1790. Poet and critic.[151] Bro. to J. W. A valuable Hist. Eng. Poetry is his chief prose work. See Carew Hazlitt's edition. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 3. Pub. Rou.

Waterton, Charles. 1782–1865. Naturalist. Author Essays on Nat. Hist., etc. Pub. Mac.

Watson, Richard. 1737–1816. Bp. Llandaff. Theologian. Author of Apologies for Christianity and the Bible, etc. See Autobiography, 1817. Pub Phi.

Watson, Robert. 1730–1780. Scotch historian. Author of a worthless Hist. of Philip II.

Watson, Thomas. 1560–1592. Poet. His Sonnets have been much praised. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1.

Watts, Alaric Alexander. 1799–1864. Poet. Author Poetical Sketches, Lyrics of the Heart, etc.

Watts, Mrs. Anna Mary [Howitt]. 1824 ——. Artist and miscellaneous writer. Author of The Art Student in Munich, Pioneers of Spiritualism, containing Lives of Dr. Justinius Kerner and Wm. Howitt, written from the psychological point of view, etc.

Watts, Isaac. 1674–1748. Religious poet. Author Psalms and Hymns, etc. While some of his verse is hardly more than doggerel, he sometimes rises to a lofty plane of expression. See Life, by Milner, 1834. Pub. Ca. Hou. Rou.

Waugh [waw], Edwin. 1817 ——. Dialect poet. Author Lancashire Songs, etc.

Webster, Mrs. Augusta. 1840 ——. Poet. Author Dramatic Studies, Portraits, A Woman Sold, translations from Euripides, etc. Her verse is strong and original in tone. See Stedman's Victorian Poets. Pub. Mac.

Webster, John. c. 1582–1638. Dramatist. Author of the tragedies of The White Devil, Duchess of[152] Malfy, Guise, Devil's Law Case, Appius and Virginia, etc. W. is the greatest master of the terrible among Eng. dramatists. See Dyce's edition 1830, and Hazlitt's 1857. Pub. Rou.

Wesley, Chas. 1708–1788. Hymn writer of note. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 3.

West, Gilbert. 1705–1756. Theologian and poet. Translator of Pindar and author of the able treatise Observations on the Resurrection.

Westcott, Brooke Foss. 1825 ——. Theologian. Author Hist. Canon of the New Testament, Hist. of the Eng. Bible, The Bible and the Church, etc. Pub. Har. Mac.

Westwood, Thos. 1814 ——. Poet. Author Beads from a Rosary, Quest of the Sancgreal, Berries and Blossoms, etc.

Whately [hwāt´lĭ], Richard. 1787–1863. Abp. Dublin. Essayist. Author New Testament Difficulties, Political Economy, Logic and Rhetoric, etc. A thinker of logical but unimaginative powers. See Life and Correspondence, edited by his daughter, 1864, and H. Martineau's Biographical Sketches. Pub. Ca. Dra. Har. Sh.

Whetstone, Geo. fl. c. 1580. Dramatist. From his play Promos and Cassandra Shakespeare has drawn the story of Measure for Measure.

Whewell [hū´e̯l], Wm. 1794–1866. Philosopher. Author Hist. Inductive Sciences, Plurality of Worlds, Hist. Moral Philosophy in England, Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences, etc. Pub. Apl. Har.

Whiston, Wm. 1667–1752. Theologian and mathematician. Author of A New Theory of the Earth, etc., and editor of Josephus. Pub. Por.

Whitaker, John. 1735–1808. Historian. Author Hist. of Manchester, Mary, Queen of Scots, Vindicated, etc.[153]

White, Gilbert. 1720–1793. Author of the Naturalist's Calendar and the delightful Nat. Hist. of Selborne. See Buckland's edition, London, 1875. See Fraser's Mag., March, 1879. Pub. Har. Mac. Rou.

White, Henry. 1835 ——. Archæologist and religious writer. Author Historical Memorials of the Savoy Conferences on Art and History, etc. See The Biograph, Aug. 1880.

White, Henry Kirke. 1785–1806. Poet. His verse is mediocre and crude. See Life, by Southey. Pub. Apl. Hou.

White, James. 1804–1862. Historical writer. Author Historical Landmarks, The Eighteen Christian Centuries, Hist. of France, Hist. of England, etc. Pub. Apl. Rou.

White, Joseph Blanco. 1775–1841. Miscellaneous writer. His Sonnet on Night is widely known and esteemed.

Whitehead, Paul. 1710–1774. Poet. Style witty and satirical.

Whitehead, Wm. 1715–1785. Poet. Of his seven indifferent dramas the best are Creusa and The Roman Father. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 3.

Whitelocke, Bulstrode. 1605–1676. Historical writer. His Memorials of Eng. Affairs and other works are of much value.

Wicklif, John. 1324–1384. Reformer. Translator of the Bible. See T. Arnold's Select Eng. Works of 1871. See Biography, by Vaughan, 1853. Pub. Mac.

Wilberforce, Robert Isaac. 1802–1857. Theological writer. Son to W. W.

Wilberforce, Samuel. 1805–1873. Bp. Oxford. Son to W. W. Author Hist. P. E. Church in America, Sermons, Eucharistica, etc. See Life, 1883. Pub. Ca. Dut.[154]

Wilberforce, Wm. 1759–1833. Philanthropist. Author Practical View of Christianity, etc. See Life, by his sons, 5 vols., London, 1838; also, Life, by John Stoughton.

Wilde, Oscar. 1856 ——. Irish poet. Charmides and Ave Imperatrix are among his finest poems. His verse is musical, but frequently erotic. See The Biograph, Aug. 1880. Pub. Rob.

Wilkie, Wm. 1721–1772. Scotch poet. Author of The Epigoniad.

Wilkins, John. 1614–1672. Bp. Chester. Of his many works, the chief is the Discovery of a New World, which attempts to prove the feasibility of a passage from the earth to the moon.

Wilkinson, Sir John Gardner. 1797–1875. Egyptologist. Author Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians, Architecture of Ancient Egypt, Modern Egypt, etc. See Memoir, by his wife, 1876. Pub. Har. Lit.

Wilkinson, John James Garth. 1812 ——. Physician. Author Biography of Swedenborg, The Human Body, The Ministry of Health, etc. Pub. Lip.

Williams, Sir Chas. Hanbury. 1709–1759. Satirist and poet.

Williams, Helen Maria. 1762–1827. Poet and political writer. Author of the familiar hymn beginning "While Thee I seek, Protecting Power."

Williams, Monier. 1819 ——. Sanskrit scholar. Author Eng. and Sanskrit Dict., and Sanskrit and Eng. Dict., etc. Pub. Mac.

Williams, Rowland. 1817–1870. Welsh theologian. See Life, by his wife, 1874.

Wills, Wm. Gorman. 1828 ——. Dramatist and novelist. Eugene Aram, Jane Shore, Charles I.,[155] and Mary Stuart are some of his plays. Pub. Har.

Wills, Wm. Henry. 1810–1880. Journalist and miscellaneous writer. Pub. Har.

Wilmot, John, Earl of Rochester. 1647–1680. Poet. A writer of numerous gay, witty, but extremely licentious lyrics.

Willmott, Robert Avis. 1809–1863. Poet and biographer. Author Life of Jeremy Taylor, and editor of Herbert, Gray, Cowper, etc. Pub. Rou.

Wilson, Daniel. 1816 ——. Miscellaneous writer. Author of Prehistoric Annals of Scotland, Prehistoric Man, Caliban the Missing Link, Chatterton: a Biographical Study, etc. Pub. Mac.

Wilson, George. 1818–1859. Chemist and essayist. Author Five Gateways to Knowledge, Life Prof. Forbes, etc. See Memoir, by his sister. Pub. Mac.

Wilson, Horace Hayman. 1788–1860. Sanskrit scholar. Author Hist. Cashmere, translation of the Rig-Veda, etc.

Wilson, John, "Christopher North." 1785–1854. Poet and essayist. Author of the poems The Isle of Palms and The City of the Plague, of the stories Margaret Lyndsay and Lights and Shadows of Scottish Life, and of the famous Noctes Ambrosianæ. His style could be tender and pathetic, but as a reviewer it was often coarse, prejudiced, and brutal. See Ferrier's edition, 12 vols. See Life, by Mrs. Gordon, 1862. Pub. Arm. Ca. Wid.

Wilson, Sir Thomas. 1523–1581. Author of The Art of Rhetoric, etc.

Wilson, Wm. 1801–1860. Scotch poet. See Grant Wilson's Poets of Scotland.

Winchelsea, Countess Anne. c. 1700–1720. Poet. Author of The Nocturnal Reverie, etc. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 3.[156]

Wingate, David. 1828 ——. Scotch poet. Author Annie Weir, etc. See Grant Wilson's Poets of Scotland.

Winkworth, Catherine. 1825–1878. Hymnologist. Editor Hymns of the Ages, Lyra Germanica, etc. Pub. Mac.

Winslow, Forbes Benignus. 1810–1874. Physician. Author Physic and Physicians, The Anatomy of Suicide, Lectures on Insanity, Obscure Diseases of the Brain, etc.

Wiseman, Nicholas, Cardinal. 1802–1865. Miscellaneous writer. Author works on religion, science, art, literature, etc.

Wither, George. 1588–1677. Poet. A voluminous writer, best known by his Shepherd's Resolution and The Steadfast Shepherd. Style forcible and original. See Craik's Eng. Lit., vol. 2, and Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 2.

Wolcott [wŏl´kȏt, or wŏŏl´kȏt], John, "Peter Pindar." 1738–1819. Poet. Author of numerous witty, satirical poems, as The Lousiad, Bozzy and Piozzi, and the Lyric Odes of Peter Pindar, many of which were in ridicule of George III.

Wolfe, Charles. 1791–1823. Irish poet. Author of the famous Lines on the Burial of Sir John Moore. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 4.

Wollstonecraft, Mary. See Godwin, Mrs. Mary.

Wood, Anthony. 1632–1695. Antiquary. Author Athenæ Oxonienses, etc. See Rawlinson's Life, 1811.

Wood, Mrs. Ellen [Price]. 1820 ——. Novelist. Of her many novels, East Lynne is the most famous. Johnny Ludlow is one of her best books. Pub. Di. Pet.

Wood, Mrs. Henry. See Wood, Mrs. Ellen.[157]

Wood, John George. 1827 ——. Naturalist. Author Homes without Hands, Bible Animals, Common Objects of the Sea and Shore, etc. Pub. Cas. Har. Por. Rou.

Woodhouselee, Lord. See Tytler, A. F.

Woolner, Thomas. 1825 ——. Sculptor and poet. Author My Beautiful Lady, etc. Style delicate and pure. Pub. Mac.

Worboise, Mrs. Emma Jane. 1825 ——. Novelist. Author Helen Bury, Lights and Shadows of Christian Life, Thornycroft Hall, etc. Pub. Rou.

Wordsworth, Chas. 1806 ——. Bp. St. Andrew's. Son to succeeding. Neph. to W. W. Author Shakespeare's Knowledge and Use of the Bible, The Bible in the Authorized Version with Notes and Introduction, etc. Pub. Dut. Mac.

Wordsworth, Christopher. 1774–1846. Bro. to W. W. Author Eccl. Biography, etc.

Wordsworth, Christopher. 1807 ——. Bp. Lincoln. Son to preceding. Author Hist. Church in Ireland, Memoirs Wm. Wordsworth, etc. Pub. Dut.

Wordsworth, Wm. 1770–1850. His poems number in all 485, including the long poems, The Excursion, Peter Bell, White Doe, and the Prelude. The best of his verse is contained in the Ode on Immortality, Tintern Abbey, Ode to Duty, Laodamia, The Cuckoo, Lucy, and a few of the Sonnets, some of which are nearly perfect of their kind. Much of his verse contains little of real interest, but his best is poetry of the very highest type. See Grosart's complete edition, 1875. See Lives, by Bp. Wordsworth, Phillips, and Paxton Hood; also, Myers's Wordsworth, in Eng. Men of Letters, Masson's Essays, and Shairp's Studies in Poetry. Pub. Hou. Mac. Por. Rou.[158]

Worsley, Philip Stanhope. —— 1866. Poet. Translator of the Iliad.

Wotton, Sir Henry. 1586–1639. Poet and miscellaneous writer. His most familiar poem is the one beginning, "How happy is he born and taught." See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 2.

Wotton, Wm. 1666–1726. Author of the Reflections upon Ancient and Modern Learning, one of the original sources of the Boyle and Bentley controversy.

Wrangham, Francis. 1769–1843. Poet and translator from the classics.

Wraxall, Sir Fred'k Chas. Lascelles. 1828–1865. Novelist. Author Wild Oats, Camp Life, Memoirs Queen Hortense, etc.

Wraxall, Sir Nathaniel. 1751–1831. Historical writer. Author Memoirs Kings of France, Hist. France, Historical Memoirs of my own Time, etc.

Wright, Thomas. 1810 ——. Archæologist. Author Domestic Manners in England in the Middle Ages, Wanderings of an Antiquary, Hist. of Caricature and the Grotesque, Womankind in Western Europe, etc. Pub. Apl.

Wright, Wm. Aldis. 1836 ——. Shakespearean scholar. Co-editor with Clark of the Cambridge Shakespeare, 9 vols., 1866, and of the Globe Shakespeare.

Wyatt, Sir Thomas. 1503–1542. Poet. Author of love lyrics, one of the finest being Forget not yet the Tried Intent. See Poems with Memoir, 1831. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 1. Pub. Hou.

Wycherley [wĭtch-e̯r-lĭ], Wm. 1640–1715. Dramatist. The Country Wife and The Plain Dealer are the best of his plays, all of which are witty, sprightly, and immoral. See edition of 1831, with Congreve, Farquhar, and Vanbrugh. Pub. Ron.[159]

Wyckliffe. See Wiclif, John.

Wynter, Andrew. 1819–1876. Miscellaneous writer. Author Our Social Bees, Curiosities of Civilization, Borderlands of Insanity, etc. Pub. Put.

Yates, Edmund Hodgson. 1831 ——. Novelist. Author Black Sheep, The Yellow Flag, Kissing the Rod, Wrecked in Port, etc. Pub. Apl. Har. Rou.

Yonge [yŭng], Charles Duke. 1812 ——. Historian. Author Hist. British Navy, Hist. Eng. Revolution of 1688, Hist. France Under the Bourbons, Three Centuries of Modern Hist., etc. Pub. Apl. Har.

Yonge, Charlotte Mary. 1823 ——. Novelist. Cousin to C. D. Y. An industrious writer, of whose 50 vols. more than 30 are fictions. The Heir of Redclyffe is her most noted book; others are Heartsease, Hopes and Fears, and The Daisy Chain. Her work is all careful, well intentioned, and strongly High Church in character. Pub. Apl. Dut. Est. Har. Ho. Lip. Lo. Mac. Phi. Rob.

Youatt [yoo´a̯t], Wm. 1777–1847. Veterinary writer. Author of The Horse, Cattle, Sheep, The Pig, and other similar standard works. Pub. Ju. Lip. Por. Rou.

Young, Arthur. 1741–1820. Agricultural writer of note. Author Rural Economy, Six Months' Tour through North of England, etc. See Allibone's Dict. and Donaldson's Agricultural Biography.

Young, Edward. 1684–1765. Poet. Author Night Thoughts, etc. Style strained and affected. See Ward's Eng. Poets, vol. 3. Pub. Apl. Ca. Hou.

Young, Thomas. 1773–1829. Scientific writer of eminence. See Peacock's Life of.[160]

Zouch, Richard. c. 1590–1660. A voluminous legal writer.

Zouch, Thomas. 1737–1815. Miscellaneous writer. Author Memoirs Sir Philip Sidney, Izaak Walton, etc.[161]


Bain, Alexander. 1818 ——. Philosopher. Author The Senses and the Intellect, The Emotions and the Will, Study of Character, Mental and Moral Science, Logic, Mind and Body, Education as a Science, Life of John Stuart Mill, etc. Pub. Apl. Ho.

Barnes, Wm. 1810 ——. Poet and philologist. Author of Poems of Rural Life in the Dorset Dialect, Grammar of the Dorset Dialect, etc. Pub. Rob.

Bastian, Henry Charlton. 1837 ——. Physician. Author The Beginnings of Life, Evolution and the Origin of Life, Common Forms of Paralysis from Brain Disease, etc. Pub. Apl. Mac.

Blackburn, Henry. 1830 ——. Traveler. Author Travelling in Spain, Normandy Picturesque, The Pyrenees, Artists and Arabs, Art in the Mountains, etc. Pub. Os.

Browning, Oscar. 1837 ——. Littérateur. Author of Hist. Educational Theories. Modern England, 1820–1874, Modern France, 1815–1880, etc., and articles in Encyc. Brit. on Cæsar, Carthage, Dante, Goethe, etc. Pub. Har.

Buxton, Mrs. B. H. [Bee]. 1844 ——. Dramatic novelist. Author of Jennie of the Prince's, Great Grenfell Gardens, Nell: on and off the Stage, From the Wings, etc. See the Biograph, Aug. 1880. Pub. Har. Rou.[162]

Clark, Wm. George. 1821–1878. Shakespearean scholar. Co-editor with Wm. Aldis Wright, of the Cambridge and Globe editions of Shakespeare.

Coleridge, Derwent. 1800–1883. Miscellaneous writer. Son to S. T. Coleridge. Author Scriptural Character of the English Church, Memoir of Hartley Coleridge, Life of Praed, etc.

Cook, Dutton. 1832–1883. Novelist and dramatic critic. Author of Young Mr. Nightingale, Art in England, The Book of the Play, etc.

Craik, Georgiana Marion. 1831 ——. Novelist. Author of Faith Unwin's Ordeal, Mildred, Sylvia's Choice, Dorcas, Two Women, Winnifred's Wooing, Only a Butterfly, The Cousin from India, Anne Warwick, Miss Moore, etc. Pub. Har. Rou.

Crosland, Mrs. Camilla [Toulmin]. 1812 ——. Miscellaneous writer. Author Hubert Freeth's Prosperity, The Island of the Rainbow, Hildred the Daughter, Stratagems, etc. Pub. Lip. Rou.

Crosland, Mrs. Newton. See Crosland, Mrs. Camilla.

Geikie, Alexander. 1835 ——. Geologist. Author The Story of a Boulder, Phenomena of the Glacial Drift of Scotland, etc.

Harris, George. 1809 ——. Philosophical writer. Author True Theory of Representation in a State, Theory of the Arts, Civilization as a Science, Philosophical Treatise on the Nature and Constitution of Man, etc. See the Biograph, Aug. 1880. Pub. Apl.

Sheppard, Elizabeth Sara. —— 1862. Novelist. Author Rumor, Counterparts, Almost a Heroine, and the famous musical romance Charles Auchester. See Atlantic Monthly, June, 1862.[1]

End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of A Brief Handbook of English Authors, by 
Oscar Fay Adams


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