The Project Gutenberg EBook of An Examination of the Testimony of the Four Evangelists by Simon Greenleaf, LL.D.

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at http://www.gutenberg.org/license

Title: An Examination of the Testimony of the Four Evangelists

Author: Simon Greenleaf, LL.D.

Release Date: January 17, 2011 [Ebook #34989]

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8


***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK AN EXAMINATION OF THE TESTIMONY OF THE FOUR EVANGELISTS***

An

Examination of the Testimony

of the

Four Evangelists,

by the Rules of Evidence Administered

in

Courts of Justice.

With an Account of the Trial of Jesus.

By Simon Greenleaf, LL.D.

Dane Professor of Law in Harvard University

Second Edition

Revised and Corrected by the Author.

London:

A. Maxwell & Son, 32, Bell Yard, Lincoln's Inn;

W. Smith, 113, Fleet Street;

Hodges & Smith, Dublin; T. & J. Clark, Edinburgh.

1847


[pg iii]

Advertisement.

In introducing to the notice of the British Public, Mr. Professor Greenleaf's Harmony of the Four Gospels, the publishers have much satisfaction in announcing, that it has become a Standard Work in the United States of America: and its intrinsic value has induced them to make it known, in the hope of promoting its circulation, in this country.

The spirit of infidelity is far more restless and active on the other side of the Atlantic, than, happily, it has been in our highly-favoured land: and, in consequence, it has called forth some of the most able and powerful minds to correct and subdue it. Among these advocates of Divine Revelation, the profound lawyer, Professor Greenleaf, holds a most honourable and distinguished place; and his work may justly be regarded as combining sound and practical knowledge with well-directed zeal and piety. Its character has been very fairly appreciated in two leading North American journals, from which the following extracts are made, as indicative of its contents, and also of the high estimation in which its learned author is deservedly held in his own country.

EXTRACT OF A NOTICE OF PROFESSOR GREENLEAF ON THE FOUR GOSPELS, OCTOBER 24, 1846, IN THE NEW YORK OBSERVER.

The Author is a lawyer, very learned in his profession, acute, critical and used to raising and meeting practical doubts. Author of a treatise on the law of evidence, which has already become a classic in the hands of the profession which he adorns, and teaches in one of the Law Seminaries which do honour to our country in the eyes of Europe, he brings rare qualifications for the task he assumes. That he [pg iv] should, with the understanding and from the heart, accept the Gospel as the truth, avow it as his Hope, and seek to discharge a duty to his fellow-men by laying before them the grounds on which he founds this acceptance and this hope, are cheering circumstances to the Christian, and present strong appeals to the indifferent.

To his profession, to the lawyers of the country, however, this work makes a strong appeal. They are a very secular profession. Their business is almost wholly conversant with material interests. Their time is absorbed in controversies, of passion, or of interest. Acute, critical, and disputatious, they apparently present a field unpropitious for the acceptance of a religion, spiritual, disinterested, and insisting on perfect holiness. Still, they necessarily need to know and must enforce the rules of finding truth and justice; the principles for ascertaining truth and dispensing justice are the great subjects of all their discussions, so far as they are discussions of any general principle. From this cause it is, that this profession has numbered among its members, in every age, Christians of great eminence, and in our own day and country, we cannot turn to the eminent men of this profession in any large community, without the satisfaction of finding our Faith embraced by those whose habits of practical as well as speculative investigation render them evidently the best able to appreciate its claims and to detect any imperfections in its proof.

So we trust it always may be; and we are assured that the best models of the mode of investigating matters of legal controversy as the proof of facts, are writings on the evidences. Paley's treatise and that of Chalmers, on the oral testimony in favour of Christ's mission, Paley's examination of the writings of the apostle Paul, are, we are assured, the best models extant for forming the habit of examining oral and documentary evidence. These are subjects on which it is of vital importance, in a secular view, that a lawyer's habits should be right: in a spiritual view the importance is unspeakable. Mr. Greenleaf has doubtless felt this truth, and has also felt that his position would give to his labours some authority with his brethren and with the public. He has given himself honourably to the labour, and spread its results before the world.

It is long since Infidelity has found its advocates among the truly learned. Among the guesses and speculations of a small portion of unsanctified medical men, she still finds now and then a champion. Historians and philosophers have long since discussed her pretensions. And now from the Jurists and Lawyers, the practical masters of this kind of investigation, works are appearing, whereby not only an earnest reception of the Gospel is manifested, but the mode and means of action and of credit by which all human affairs are governed.

We lose in respect to our own investigations on this subject by its very sacredness. We have an idle dread, that it is not open to free investigation: to severe practical tests. We need to be invited, to be pressed to examine this subject freely. Dr. Chalmers in one department of this inquiry has led the way. Mr. Greenleaf in another has also presented an example. And it will not be competent, after these men have thus investigated and taught the rules and laws of investigation, for any man who is not willing to arrogate superior claims to learning and ability, to turn aside superciliously from an examination of the Gospels.

Such are our views of this work, which we commend to all: to the legal profession, from the character of its topics and the rank of its author: to men desirous of knowledge, in every rank in life, because of its presenting this subject under such a treatment as every-day practical questions are treated with. [pg v] It does not touch the intrinsic evidences of the Gospel: those which to the believer are, after all, the highest proofs. But it is to be remembered, that these are proofs which are not satisfactory until an examination of the outward evidences has led men to the conviction, that the Gospels cannot be false.

FROM THE NORTH AMERICAN REVIEW.

Professor Greenleaf on the Gospels, and Strauss' Life of Jesus.—Of course we place the titles of these two books together only by way of contrast. They relate, it is true, to the same general subject; but it is hard to conceive of two works more unlike in their scope, character, and purpose. The object of the one is to prove, and of the other to disprove, the Christian religion. The one is the production of an able and profound lawyer, a man who has grown grey in the halls of justice and the schools of jurisprudence,—a writer of the highest authority on legal subjects, whose life has been spent in weighing testimony and sifting evidence, and whose published opinions on the rules of evidence are received as authoritative in all the English and American tribunals,—for fourteen years the highly respected colleague of the late Mr. Justice Story, and now the honoured head of the most distinguished and prosperous school of English law in the world. The other is the work of a German professor and speculatist, also profoundly learned in his way,—an ingenious and erring framer of theories of the most striking character, almost unheard of till his brain either conceived them or gave them currency, though relating to topics with which men have been familiar for eighteen centuries,—a subtle controversialist, whose work, as he himself avows, is deeply tinged with the most strongly marked peculiarities of the philosophy and theology of his countrymen. We presume the most ardent admirer of Dr. Strauss will not object to our characterising the two works as excellent specimens, the one of clear and shrewd English common sense, the other of German erudition, laborious diligence, and fertility in original speculation. And if the subject of inquiry were one that involved his own temporal and immediate interests, and it were necessary to determine which of these two writers would give the wiser and safer counsel, or the more trustworthy opinion, we suppose the same person would agree with us in making the choice.

On the publishers announcing to Professor Greenleaf their wish to introduce his Harmony to the notice of the British Public, he with equal promptitude and kindness communicated to them some important additions to his Introduction, and also numerous valuable notes, more particularly adapted to the use of Theological Students. These are now printed for the first time: and at the suggestion of a very eminent and learned clergyman of the Established Church, the publishers have added in an Appendix an accurate and elegant translation of the late learned French Advocate, A. M. J. J. Dupin's Refutation of the eminent Jewish writer, Joseph Salvador's “Trial and [pg vi] Condemnation of Jesus,” executed by the late distinguished American Lawyer and Statesman, John Pickering, LL.D., Counsellor at Law, and President of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (sometime Secretary to the American Embassy in this country); who has most truly characterised M. Dupin's examination of Salvador, as being “conducted with an ability, learning, animation, and interest, that leave nothing to be desired.”

[pg vii]

To The Members Of The Legal Profession.

Gentlemen,

The subject of the following work I hope will not be deemed so foreign to our professional pursuits, as to render it improper for me to dedicate it, as I now respectfully do, to you. If a close examination of the evidences of Christianity may be expected of one class of men more than another, it would seem incumbent on us, who make the law of evidence one of our peculiar studies. Our profession leads us to explore the mazes of falsehood, to detect its artifices, to pierce its thickest veils, to follow and expose its sophistries, to compare the statements of different witnesses with severity, to discover truth and separate it from error. Our fellow-men are well aware of this; and probably they act upon this knowledge more generally, and with a more profound repose, than we are in the habit of considering. The influence, too, of the legal profession upon the community is unquestionably great; conversant, as it daily is, with all classes and grades of men, in their domestic and social relations, and in all the affairs of life, from the cradle to the grave. This influence we are constantly exerting for good or ill; and hence, to refuse to acquaint ourselves with the evidences of the Christian religion, or to act as though, having fully examined, we lightly esteemed them, is to assume an appalling amount of responsibility.

The things related by the Evangelists are certainly of the most momentous character, affecting the principles of our conduct here, and our happiness for ever. The religion of Jesus Christ aims at nothing less than the utter overthrow of [pg viii] all other systems of religion in the world; denouncing them as inadequate to the wants of man, false in their foundations, and dangerous in their tendency. It not only solicits the grave attention of all, to whom its doctrines are presented, but it demands their cordial belief, as a matter of vital concernment. These are no ordinary claims; and it seems hardly possible for a rational being to regard them with even a subdued interest; much less to treat them with mere indifference and contempt. If not true, they are little else than the pretensions of a bold imposture, which, not satisfied with having already enslaved millions of the human race, seeks to continue its encroachments upon human liberty, until all nations shall be subjugated under its iron rule. But if they are well founded and just, they can be no less than the high requirements of Heaven, addressed by the voice of God to the reason and understanding of man, concerning things deeply affecting his relations to his sovereign, and essential to the formation of his character and of course to his destiny, both for this life and for the life to come. Such was the estimate taken of religion, even the religion of pagan Rome, by one of the greatest lawyers of antiquity, when he argued that it was either nothing at all, or was everything. Aut undique religionem tolle, aut usquequaque conserva.1

With this view of the importance of the subject, and in the hope that the present work may in some degree aid or at least incite others to a more successful pursuit of this interesting study, it is submitted to your kind regard, by

Your obedient servant,
Simon Greenleaf.
Harvard University,
Dane Hall, May 1, 1846.
[pg ix]

Contents And Synopsis Of The Harmony.

The figures in the first column refer to the corresponding Sections in Newcome's Harmony. Those in the second column to the Sections in this Work.

Sect.Sect.Contents.Matt. MarkLukeJohn
Part I.
events connected with the birth and childhood of our lord.
Time: About thirteen and a half years.
11Preface to Luke's Gospel.1, 1-4
32An Angel appears to Zacharias. Jerusalem.1, 5-25
43An Angel appears to Mary. Nazareth.1, 26-38
54Mary visits Elizabeth. Juttah.1, 39-56
65Birth of John the Baptist. Juttah.1, 57-80
7, 86An Angel appears to Joseph. Nazareth.1, 18-25
87The Birth of Jesus. Bethlehem.2, 1-7
108An Angel appears to the Shepherds. Near Bethlehem.2, 8-20
11, 129The circumcision of Jesus, and his presentation in the Temple. Bethlehem. Jerusalem.2, 21-38
1310The Magi. Jerusalem. Bethlehem.2, 1-12
1311The flight into Egypt. Herod's cruelty. The return. Bethlehem. Nazareth.2, 13-232, 39-40
1412At twelve years of age Jesus goes to the Passover. Jerusalem.2, 41-52
913The Genealogies.1, 1-173, 28-38
Part II.
announcement and introduction of our lord's public ministry.
Time: About one year.
1514The Ministry of John the Baptist. The Desert. The Jordan.3, 1-121, 1-83, 1-18
1615The Baptism of Jesus. The Jordan.3, 13-171, 9-113, 21-23
1716The Temptation. Desert of Judea.4, 1-111, 12, 134, 1-13
217Preface to John's Gospel.1, 1-18
1818Testimony of John the Baptist to Jesus. Bethany beyond Jordan.1, 19-34
1819Jesus gains Disciples. The Jordan. Galilee?1, 35-52
1920The Marriage at Cana of Galilee.2, 1-12
Part III.
our lord's first passover, and the subsequent transactions until the second.
Time: One year.
2021At the Passover Jesus drives the Traders out of the Temple. Jerusalem.2, 13-25
2122Our Lord's discourse with Nicodemus. Jerusalem.3, 1-21
2223Jesus remains in Judea and baptizes. Further testimony of John the Baptist.3, 22-36
2324Jesus departs into Galilee after John's imprisonment4, 12. 14, 3-51, 14. 6, 17-204, 14. 3, 19, 20.4, 1-3
2325Our Lord's discourse with the Samaritan woman. Many of the Samaritans believe on him. Shechem or Neapolis.4, 4-42
2426Jesus teaches publicly in Galilee.4, 171, 14. 154, 14, 154, 43-45
2427Jesus again at Cana, where he heals the son of a nobleman lying ill at Capernaum. Cana of Galilee.4, 46-54
2528Jesus at Nazareth; he is there rejected, and fixes his abode at Capernaum.4, 13-164, 16-31
2629The call of Simon Peter and Andrew, and of James and John, with the miraculous draught of fishes. Near Capernaum.4, 18-221, 16-205, 1-11
2730The healing of a Demoniac in the Synagogue. Capernaum1, 21-284, 31-37
2831The healing of Peter's wife's mother, and many others. Capernaum.8, 14-171, 29-344, 38-41
2832Jesus with his Disciples goes from Capernaum throughout Galilee.4, 23-251, 35-394, 42-44
2933The healing of a Leper. Galilee.8, 2-41, 40-455, 12-16
3034The healing of a Paralytic. Capernaum.9, 2-82, 1-125, 17-26
3135The call of Matthew. Capernaum.9, 92, 13, 145, 27,
Part IV.
our lord's second passover, and the subsequent transactions until the third.
Time: One year.
3236The Pool of Bethesda; the healing of the infirm man; and our Lord's subsequent discourse. Jerusalem.5, 1-47
3337The Disciples pluck ears of grain on the Sabbath. On the way to Galilee?12, 1-82, 23-286, 1-5
3438The healing of the withered hand on the Sabbath. Galilee.12, 9-143, 1-66, 6-11
3439Jesus arrives at the Sea of Tiberias, and is followed by multitudes. Lake of Galilee.12, 15-213, 7-12
3540Jesus withdraws to the Mountain, and chooses the Twelve; the multitudes follow him. Near Capernaum.10, 2-4,3, 13-196, 12-19
3641The Sermon on the Mount. Near Capernaum.5,1,-8,16, 20-49
3742The healing of the Centurion's servant. Capernaum.8, 5-137, 1-10
3843The raising of the Widow's son. Nain.7, 11-17
3944John the Baptist in prison sends Disciples to Jesus. Galilee. Capernaum?11, 2-197, 18-35
4045Reflections of Jesus on appealing to his mighty Works. Capernaum.11, 20-30
4146While sitting at meat with a Pharisee, Jesus is anointed by a woman who had been a sinner. Capernaum?7, 36-50
4247Jesus, with the Twelve, makes a second circuit in Galilee.8, 1-3
4248The healing of a Demoniac. The Scribes and Pharisee blaspheme. Galilee.12, 22-373, 19-3011, 14, 15, 17-23
43, 4449The Scribes and Pharisees seek a sign. Our Lord's reflections. Galilee.12, 38-4511, 16, 24-36
4550The true Disciples of Christ his nearest relatives. Galilee.12, 46-503, 31-358, 19-21
4651At a Pharisee's table, Jesus denounces woes against the Pharisees and others. Galilee.11, 37-54
4752Jesus discourses to his Disciples and the multitude. Galilee.12, 1-59
4853The slaughter of certain Galileans. Parable of the barren Fig-tree. Galilee.13, 1-9
4954Parable of the Sower. Lake of Galilee. Near Capernaum?13, 1-234, 1-258, 4-18
4955Parable of the Tares. Other Parables. Near Capernaum?13, 24-534, 26-34
5056Jesus directs to cross the Lake. Incidents. The tempest stilled. Lake of Galilee.8, 18-274, 35-418, 22-25, 9, 57-62
5157The two Demoniacs of Gadara. S. E. coast of the Lake of Galilee.8, 28-34, 9, 15, 1-218, 26-40
5258Levi's Feast. Capernaum.9, 10-172, 15-225, 29-39
5259The raising of Jairus's daughter. The woman with a bloody flux. Capernaum.9, 18-265, 22-438, 41-56
53, 5460Two blind men healed, and a dumb spirit cast out. Capernaum?9, 27-34
5561Jesus again at Nazareth, and again rejected.13, 54-586, 1-6
56, 57, 58, 5962A third circuit in Galilee. The Twelve instructed and sent forth. Galilee.9, 35-38, 10, 1, 5-42, 11, 16, 6-139, 1-6
60, 6163Herod holds Jesus to be John the Baptist, whom he had just before beheaded. Galilee? Perea.14, 1, 2, 6-126, 14-16, 21-299, 7-9
62, 6364The Twelve return, and Jesus retires with them across the Lake. Five thousand are fed. Capernaum. N. E. coast of the Lake of Galilee.14, 13-216, 30-449, 10-176, 1-14
6465Jesus walks upon the water. Lake of Galilee. Gennesareth.14, 22-366, 45-566, 15-21
65, 8366Our Lord's discourse to the multitude in the Synagogue at Capernaum. Many Disciples turn back. Peter's profession of faith. Capernaum.6, 22-71, 7, 1
Part V.
from our lord's third passover until his final departure from galilee at the festival of tabernacles.
Time: Six months.
6667Our Lord justifies his disciples for eating with unwashen hands. Pharisaic Traditions. Capernaum.15, 1-207, 1-23
6768The daughter of a Syrophenician woman is healed. Region of Tyre and Sidon.15, 21-287, 24-30
68, 6969A deaf and dumb man healed; also many others. Four thousand are fed. The Decapolis.15, 29-387, 31-37, 8, 1-9
69, 7070The Pharisees and Sadducees again require a sign. (See § 49.) Near Magdala.15, 39, 16, 1-48, 10-12
7171The Disciples cautioned against the leaven of the Pharisees, etc. N. E. coast of the Lake of Galilee.16, 4-128, 13-21
7272A blind man healed. Bethsaida. (Julias).8, 22-26
7373Peter and the rest again profess their faith in Christ. (See § 66.) Region of Cesarea Philippi.16, 13-208, 27-309, 18-21
7474Our Lord foretells his own death and resurrection, and the trials of his followers. Region of Cesarea Philippi.16, 21-288, 31-38, 9, 19, 22-27
7576The Transfiguration. Our Lord's subsequent discourse with the three Disciples. Region of Cesarea Philippi.17, 1-13,9, 2-139, 28-36
7676The healing of a Demoniac, whom the Disciples could not heal. Region of Cesarea Philippi.17, 14-219, 14-299, 37-43
7777Jesus again foretells his own death and resurrection (See § 74.) Galilee.17, 22, 29, 30-329, 43-45
7878The tribute-money miraculously provided. Capernaum.17, 24-279, 33
7979The Disciples contend who should be greatest. Jesus exhorts to humility, forbearance, and brotherly love. Capernaum.18, 1-359, 33-509, 46-50
8080The Seventy instructed and sent out. Capernaum.10, 1-16
81, 9581Jesus goes up the Festival of Tabernacles. His final departure from Galilee. Incidents in Samaria.9, 51-567, 2-10
95, 9682Ten Lepers cleansed. Samaria.17, 11-19
Part VI.
the festival of the tabernacles and the subsequent transactions until our lord's arrival at bethany, six days before the fourth passover.
Time: Six months less one week.
8183Jesus at the Festival of Tabernacles. His public teaching. Jerusalem.7, 11-53, 8, 1
8284The woman taken in Adultery. Jerusalem.8, 2-11
8385Further public teaching of our Lord. He reproves the unbelieving Jews, and escapes from their hands. Jerusalem.8, 12-59
8686A lawyer instructed. Love to our neighbour defined. Parable of the Good Samaritan. Near Jerusalem.10, 25-37
9987Jesus in the house of Martha and Mary. Bethany.10, 38-42
8788The Disciples again taught how to pray. Near Jerusalem.11, 1-13
8589The Seventy return. Jerusalem?10, 17-24
8490A man born blind is healed on the Sabbath. Our Lord's subsequent discourses. Jerusalem.9, 1-41, 10, 1-21
100, 10191Jesus in Jerusalem at the Festival of Dedication. He retires beyond Jordan. Jerusalem. Bethany beyond Jordan.10, 22-42
10292The raising of Lazarus. Bethany.11, 1-46
10293The counsel of Caiaphas against Jesus. He retires from Jerusalem. Jerusalem. Ephraim.11, 47-54
103, 8894Jesus beyond Jordan is followed by multitudes. The healing of the infirm woman on the Sabbath. Valley of Jordan. Perea.19, 1. 210, 113, 10-21
8995Our Lord goes teaching and journeying towards Jerusalem. He is warned against Herod. Perea.13, 22-35
9096Our Lord dines with a chief Pharisee on the Sabbath. Incidents. Perea.14, 1-24
9197What is required of true Disciples. Perea.14, 25-35
9298Parables of the Lost Sheep, etc. Parable of the Prodigal Son. Perea.15, 1-32
9399Parable of the Unjust Steward. Perea.16, 1-13
93100The Pharisees reproved. Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus. Perea.16, 14-31
94101Jesus inculcates forbearance, faith, humility. Perea.17, 1-10
97102Christ's coming will be sudden. Perea.17, 20-37
98103Parables. The importunate Widow. The Pharisee and Publican. Perea.18, 1-14
103104Precepts respecting divorce. Perea.19, 3-1210, 2-12
104105Jesus receives and blesses little Children. Perea.19, 13-1510, 13-1618, 15-17
105106The rich Young Man. Parable of the Labourers in the Vineyard. Perea.19, 16-30, 20, 1-1610, 17-3118, 18-30
106107Jesus a third time foretells his Death and Resurrection. (See § 74, § 77.) Perea.20, 17-1910, 32-3418, 31-34
107108James and John prefer their ambitious request. Perea.20, 20-2810, 35-45
108109The healing of two blind men near Jericho.20, 29-3410, 46-5218, 35-43, 19, 1
109110The visit to Zaccheus. Parable of the ten Minae. Jericho.19, 2-28
110111Jesus arrives at Bethany six days before the Passover.11, 55-57, 12, 1.9-11
Part VII.
our lord's public entry into jerusalem, and the subsequent transactions before the fourth passover.
Time: Five days.
111112Our Lord's public Entry into Jerusalem. Bethany.21, 1-11, 14-1711, 1-1119, 29-4412, 12-19
112113The barren Fig-tree. The cleansing of the Temple. Bethany, Jerusalem.21, 12. 13, 18. 1911, 12-1919, 45-48, 21, 37.38
113114The barren Fig-tree withers away. Between Bethany and Jerusalem.21, 20-2211, 20. 2
114115Christ's authority questioned. Parable of the Two Sons. Jerusalem.21, 23-3211, 27-3320, 1-8
114116Parable of the wicked husbandmen. Jerusalem.21, 33-4612, 1-1220, 9-19
114117Parable of the Marriage of the King's Son. Jerusalem.22, 1-14
115118Insidious question of the Pharisees: Tribute to Cæsar. Jerusalem.22, 15-2212, 13-1720, 20-26
115119Insidious question of the Sadducees: The Resurrection. Jerusalem.22, 23-3312, 18-2720, 27-40
115120A lawyer questions Jesus. The two great Commandments. Jerusalem.22, 34-4012, 28-34
115121How is Christ the son of David? Jerusalem.22, 41-4612, 35-3720, 41-44
116122Warnings against the evil example of the Scribes and Pharisees. Jerusalem.23, 1-1212, 38.3920, 45.46
116123Woes against the Scribes and Pharisees. Lamentation over Jerusalem. Jerusalem.23, 13-3912, 4020, 47
117124The Widow's mite. Jerusalem.12, 41-4421, 1-4
111125Certain Greeks desire to see Jesus. Jerusalem.12, 20-36
111126Reflections upon the unbelief of the Jews. Jerusalem.12, 37-50
118127Jesus, on taking leave of the Temple, foretells its destruction and the persecution of his Disciples. Jerusalem. Mount of Olives.24, 1-1413, 1-1321, 5-19
118128The signs of Christ's coming to destroy Jerusalem, and put an end to the Jewish State and Dispensation. Mount of Olives.24, 15-4213, 14-3721, 20-36
118129Transition to Christ's final coming at the Day of Judgment. Exhortation to watchfulness. Parables: The ten Virgins. The five Talents. Mount of Olives.24, 43-51, 25, 1-30
119130Scenes of the Judgment Day. Mount of Olives.25, 31-46
120131The Rulers conspire. The supper at Bethany. Treachery of Judas. Jerusalem. Bethany.26, 1-1614, 1-1122, 1-612, 2-8
121132Preparation for the Passover. Bethany. Jerusalem.26, 17-1914, 12-1622, 7-13
Part VIII.
the fourth passover; our lord's passion; and the accompanying events until the end of the jewish sabbath.
Time: Two days.
122133The Passover Meal. Contention among the Twelve. Jerusalem.26, 2014, 1722, 14-18, 24-30
123134Jesus washes the feet of his disciples. Jerusalem,13, 1-20
124136Jesus point out the Traitor. Judas withdraws. Jerusalem.26, 21-2514, 18-2122, 21-2313, 21-35
125136Jesus foretells the fall of Peter, and the dispersion of the Twelve. Jerusalem.26, 31-3514, 27-3122, 31-3813, 36-38
126, 128137The Lord's Supper. Jerusalem.26, 26-2914, 22-2522, 19.20
127, 129138Jesus comforts his Disciples. The Holy Spirit promised. Jerusalem.14, 1-31
129139Christ the true Vine. His Disciples hated by the world. Jerusalem.15, 1-27
129140Persecution foretold. Further promise of the Holy Spirit. Prayer in the name of Christ. Jerusalem.16, 1-33
130141Christ's last prayer with his disciples. Jerusalem.17, 1-26
131142The agony in Gethsemane. Mount of Olives.26, 30, 36-4614, 26, 32-4222, 39-4618, 1
132143Jesus betrayed, and made prisoner. Mount of Olives.26, 47-5614, 43-5222, 47-5318, 2-12
133, 134144Jesus before Caiaphas. Peter thrice denies him. Jerusalem.26, 47-5614, 53.54, 66-7222, 54-6218, 13-18, 25-27
134145Jesus before Caiaphas and the Sanhedrim. He declares himself to be the Christ; is condemned and mocked. Jerusalem.26, 59-6814, 55-6522, 63-7118, 19-24
135146The Sanhedrim lead Jesus away to Pilate. Jerusalem.27, 1. 2, 11-1415, 1-523, 1-5, 23, 6-1218, 28-38
136147Jesus before Herod. Jerusalem.23, 6-12
138148Pilate seeks to release Jesus. The Jews demand Barabbas. Jerusalem.27, 15-2615, 6-1523, 13-2518, 39. 40
138149Pilate delivers up Jesus to death. He is scourged and mocked. Jerusalem.27, 26-3015, 15-1919, 1-3
138150Pilate again seeks to release Jesus. Jerusalem.19, 4-16
139151Judas repents and hangs himself. Jerusalem.27, 3-10
138, 140152Jesus is led away to be crucified. Jerusalem.27, 31-3415, 20-2323, 26-3319, 16.17
141153The Crucifixion. Jerusalem.27, 35-3815, 24-2823, 33.3419, 18-24
141154The Jews mock at Jesus on the Cross. He commends his mother to John. Jerusalem.27, 39-4415, 29-32, 15, 33-3723, 35-37, 39-4319, 25-27
141155Darkness prevails. Christ expires on the cross. Jerusalem.27, 45-5023, 44-4619, 28-30
142, 144156The vail of the Temple rent, and graves opened. Judgment of the Centurion. The Women at the Cross. Jerusalem.27, 51-5615, 38-4123, 45, 47-49
142157The taking down from the Cross. The burial. Jerusalem.27, 57-6115, 42-4723, 50-5619, 31-42
143158The Watch at the Sepulchre. Jerusalem.27, 62-66
Part IX.
our lord's resurrection, his subsequent appearances, and his ascension.
Time: Forty days.
144159The Morning of the Resurrection. Jerusalem.28, 2-416, 1
145160Visit of the Women to the Sepulchre. Mary Magdalene returns. Jerusalem.28, 116, 2-424, 1-320, 1. 2
145161Vision of Angels in the Sepulchre. Jerusalem.28, 5-716, 5-724, 4-8
145162The Women return to the City. Jesus meets them. Jerusalem.28, 8-1016, 824, 9-11
146163Peter and John run to the Sepulchre. Jerusalem.24, 1220, 3-10
147, 148164Our Lord is seen by Mary Magdalene at the Sepulchre. Jerusalem.16, 9-1120, 11-18
149165Report of the Watch. Jerusalem.28, 11-15
150166Our Lord is seen of Peter. Then by two Disciples on the way to Emmaus. Jerusalem. Emmaus.16, 12.1324, 13-35
151167Jesus appears in the midst of the Apostles, Thomas being absent. Jerusalem.16, 14-1824, 36-4920, 19-23
152168Jesus appears in the midst of the Apostles, Thomas being present. Jerusalem.20, 24-29
153169The Apostles go away into Galilee. Jesus shows himself to seven of them at the Sea of Tiberias. Galilee.28, 1621, 1-24
154170Jesus meets the Apostles and above five hundred Brethren on a Mountain in Galilee. Galilee.28, 16-20
155171Our Lord is seen of James; then of all the Apostles. Jerusalem.16, 19.2024, 50-53
156172The Ascension. Bethany.20, 30.31
157173Conclusion of John's Gospel.21, 25
[pg xvii]

Table for Finding Any Passage in the Harmony.

Matthew.

Chap.Verse.Sect.
i.1-1713
18-256
ii.1-1210
13-2311
iii.1-1214
13-1715
iv.1-1116
1224
13-1628
1726
18-2229
23-2532
v.1-4841
vi.1-3441
vii.1-2941
viii.141
2-433
5-1342
14-1731
18-2756
28-3457
ix.157
2-834
935
10-1758
18-2659
27-3460
35-3862
x.162
2-440
5-4262
xi.162
2-1944
20-3045
xii.1-837
9-1438
15-2139
22-3748
38-4549
46-5050
xiii.1-2354
24-5355
54-5861
xiv.1, 263
3-524
6-1263
13-2164
22-3665
xv.1-2067
21-2868
29-3869
3970
xvi.1-470
4-1271
13-2073
21-2874
xvii.1-1375
14-2176
22, 2377
24-2778
xviii.1-3579
xix.1, 294
3-12104
13-15105
16-30106
xx.1-16106
17-19107
20-28108
29-34109
xxi.1-11112
12-13113
14-17112
18-19113
20-22114
28-32115
33-46116
xxii.1-14117
15-22118
23-33119
34-40120
41-46121
xxiii.1-12122
13-39123
xxiv.1-14127
15-42128
43-51129
xxv.1-30129
31-46130
xxvi.1-16131
17-19132
20133
21-25135
26-29137
30142
31-35136
36-46142
47-56143
57, 58144
59-68145
69-75144
xxvii1, 2146
3-10151
11-14146
15-26148
26-30149
31-34152
35-38153
39-44154
45-50155
51-56156
57-61157
62-66158
xxviii.1160
2-4159
5-7161
8-10162
11-15165
16169
16-20170
[pg xviii]

Mark.

Chap.Verse.Sect.
i.1-814
9-1115
12, 1316
1424
14, 1526
16-2029
21-2830
29-3431
35-3932
40-4533
ii.1-1234
13, 1435
15-2258
23-2837
iii.1-638
7-1239
13-1940
19-3048
31-3550
iv.1-2554
26-3455
35-4156
v.1-2157
22-4359
vi.1-661
6-1362
14-1663
17-2024
21-2963
30-4464
45-5665
vii.1-2367
24-3068
31-3769
viii1-969
10-1270
13-2171
22-2672
27-3073
31-3874
ix.174
2-1375
14-2976
30-3277
3378
33-5079
x.194
2-12104
13-16105
17-31106
32-34107
35-45108
46-52109
xi.1-11112
12-19113
20-26114
27-33115
xii.1-12116
13-17118
18-27119
28-34120
35-37121
38, 39122
40123
41-44124
xiii.1-13127
14-37128
xiv.1-11131
12-16132
17133
18-21135
22-25137
26142
27-31136
32-42142
43-52143
53, 54144
55-65145
66-72144
xv.1-5146
6-15148
15-19149
20-23152
24-28153
29-32154
33-37155
38-41156
42-47157
xvi.1159
2-4160
5-7161
8162
9-11164
12, 13166
14-18167
19, 20172

Luke.

Chap.Verse.Sect.
i.1-41
5-252
26-383
39-564
57-805
ii.1-77
8-208
21-389
39, 4011
41-5212
iii.1-1814
19-2024
21-2315
23-3813
iv.1-1316
1424
14, 1526
16-3128
31-3730
38-4131
42-4432
v.1-1129
12-1633
17-2634
27, 2835
29-3958
vi.1-537
6-1138
12-1940
20-2641
27-3041
3141
32-3641
37-4941
vii.1-1042
11-1743
18-3544
36-5046
viii.1-347
4-1854
19-2150
22-2556
26-4057
41-5659
ix.1-662
7-963
10-1764
18-2173
22-2774
28-3675
37-4376
43-4577
46-5079
51-5681
57-6256
x.1-1680
17-2489
25-3786
38-4287
xi.1-1388
14, 1548
1649
17-2348
24-2849
29-3649
37-5451
xii.1-5952
xiii.1-953
10-2194
22-3595
xiv.1-2496
25-3597
xv.1-3298
xvi.1-1399
14-31100
xvii.1-10101
11-1982
20-37102
xviii.1-14103
15-17105
18-30106
31-34107
35-43109
xix.1109
2-28110
29-44112
45-18113
xx.1-8115
9-19116
20-26118
27-40119
41-44121
45-46122
47123
xxi.1-4124
5-19127
20-36128
37, 38118
xxii.1-6131
7-13132
14-18133
19, 20137
21-23135
24-30133
31-38136
39-46142
47-53143
54-62144
63-71145
xxiii.1-5146
6-12147
13-25148
26-33152
33-34153
35-37154
38153
39-43154
44-46155
45156
47-49156
50-56157
xxiv.1-3160
4-8161
9-11162
12163
13-35166
36-49167
50-53172

John.

Chap.Verse.Sect.
i.1-1817
19-3418
35-5219
ii.1-1220
13-2521
iii.1-2122
22-3623
iv.1-324
4-4225
43-4526
46-5427
v.1-4736
vi.1-1464
15-2165
22-7166
vii.166
2-1081
11-5383
viii.183
2-1184
12-5985
ix.1-4190
1-2190
22-4291
xi.1-4692
47-5493
55-57111
xii.1111
2-8131
9-11111
12-19112
20-36125
37-50126
xiii.1-20134
21-35135
36-38136
xiv.1-31138
xv.1-27139
xvi.1-33140
xvii.1-26141
xviii.1142
2-12143
13-18144
19-24145
25-27144
28-38146
39-40148
xix.1-3149
4-16150
16, 17152
18-24153
25-27154
28-30155
31-42157
xx.1, 2160
3-10163
11-18164
19-23167
24-29168
30, 31173
xxi.1-24169
25173
[pg xx]

Advertisement To This Edition.

The arrangement of the Gospels by Dr. Robinson was adopted in this work, it being the latest published in the United States, and by a scholar of the highest reputation. But by comparing his order with that of Archbishop Newcome, as shown in contiguous columns in the Table of Contents and Synopsis of the Harmony, it will be found that they differ only in a very few unimportant particulars, not at all affecting the general scheme or structure of the Harmony, or the purposes of this examination. I have, however, in several places omitted their transposition of the verses of the text, occurring within the limits of a section; it being more convenient to insert them in the order in which they were written by the Evangelists.

The preliminary Dissertation has been revised and enlarged, and some further notes added to the text, which is printed conformably to the common octavo edition of the American Bible Society, except in a few places, where the article a was accidentally printed instead of an, in the words an house, &c.

Cambridge, Massachusetts,
March 1, 1847.
[pg 001]

An Examination, Etc.

§ 1. In examining the evidences of the Christian religion, it is essential to the discovery of truth that we bring to the investigation a mind freed, as far as possible, from existing prejudice and open to conviction. There should be a readiness, on our part, to investigate with candour, to follow the truth wherever it may lead us, and to submit, without reserve or objection, to all the teachings of this religion, if it be found to be of divine origin. “There is no other entrance,” says Lord Bacon, “to the kingdom of man, which is founded in the sciences, than to the kingdom of heaven, into which no one can enter but in the character of a little child.”2 The docility which true philosophy requires of her disciples is not a spirit of servility, or the surrender of the reason and judgment to whatsoever the teacher may inculcate; but it is a mind free from all pride of opinion, not hostile to the truth sought for, willing to pursue the inquiry and impartially to weigh the arguments and evidence, and to acquiesce in the judgment of right reason. The investigation, moreover, should be pursued with the serious earnestness which becomes the greatness of the subject—a subject fraught with such momentous consequences to man. It should be pursued as in the presence of God, and under the solemn sanctions created by a lively [pg 002] sense of his omniscience, and of our accountability to him for the right use of the faculties which he has bestowed.

§ 2. In requiring this candour and simplicity of mind in those who would investigate the truth of our religion, Christianity demands nothing more than is readily conceded to every branch of human science. All these have their data, and their axioms; and Christianity, too, has her first principles, the admission of which is essential to any real progress in knowledge. “Christianity,” says Bishop Wilson, “inscribes on the portal of her dominions, ‘Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little child, shall in nowise enter therein.’ Christianity does not profess to convince the perverse and headstrong, to bring irresistible evidence to the daring and profane, to vanquish the proud scorner, and afford evidences from which the careless and perverse cannot possibly escape. This might go to destroy man's responsibility. All that Christianity professes, is to propose such evidences as may satisfy the meek, the tractable, the candid, the serious inquirer.”3

§ 3. The present design, however, is not to enter upon any general examination of the evidences of Christianity, but to confine the inquiry to the testimony of the Four Evangelists, bringing their narratives to the tests to which other evidence is subjected in human tribunals. The foundation of our religion is a basis of fact—the fact of the birth, ministry, miracles, death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus Christ. These are related by the Evangelists as having actually occurred, within their own personal knowledge. Our religion, then, rests on the credit due to these witnesses. Are they worthy of implicit belief, in the matters which they relate? This is the question, in all human tribunals, in regard to persons testifying before them; and we propose to test the veracity of these witnesses, by the same rules and means which are there employed. The importance of the facts testified, and their relations to the affairs of the soul, and the life to come, can make no difference in the principles or the mode of weighing the evidence. It is still the evidence of matters of fact, capable of being seen and known [pg 003] and related, as well by one man as by another. And if the testimony of the Evangelist, supposing it to be relevant and material to the issue in a question of property or of personal right, between man and man, in a court of justice, ought to be believed and have weight; then, upon the like principles, it ought to receive our entire credit here. But if, on the other hand, we should be justified in rejecting it, if there testified on oath, then, supposing our rules of evidence to be sound, we may be excused if we hesitate elsewhere to give it credence.

§ 4. The proof that God has revealed himself to man by special and express communications, and that Christianity constitutes that revelation, is no part of these inquiries. This has already been shown, in the most satisfactory manner, by others, who have written expressly upon this subject.4 Referring therefore to their writings for the arguments and proofs, the fact will here be assumed as true. That man is a religious being, is universally conceded, for it has been seen to be universally true. He is everywhere a worshipper. In every age and country, and in every stage, from the highest intellectual culture to the darkest stupidity, he bows with homage to a superior Being. Be it the rude-carved idol of his own fabrication, or the unseen divinity that stirs within him, it is still the object of his adoration. This trait in the character of man is so uniform, that it may safely be assumed, either as one of the original attributes of his nature, or as necessarily resulting from the action of one or more of those attributes.

§ 5. The object of man's worship, whatever it be, will naturally be his standard of perfection. He clothes it with every attribute, belonging, in his view, to a perfect character; and this character he himself endeavours to attain. He may not, directly and consciously, aim to acquire every virtue of his deity, and to avoid the opposite vices; but still this will be the inevitable consequence of sincere and constant worship. As in human society men become assimilated, both in manners [pg 004] and in moral principles, to their chosen associates, so in the worship of whatever deity men adore, they “form to his the relish of their souls.” To suppose, then, that God made man capable of religion, and requiring it in order to the development of the highest part of his nature, without communicating with him, as a father, in those revelations which alone could perfect that nature, would be a reproach upon God, and a contradiction.5

§ 6. How it came to pass that man, originally taught, as we doubt not he was, to know and to worship the true Jehovah, is found, at so early a period of his history, a worshipper of baser objects, it is foreign to our present purpose to inquire. But the fact is lamentably true, that he soon became an idolater, a worshipper of moral abominations. The Scythians and Northmen adored the impersonations of heroic valour and of bloodthirsty and cruel revenge. The mythology of Greece and of Rome, though it exhibited a few examples of virtue and goodness, abounded in others of gross licentiousness and vice. The gods of Egypt were reptiles, and beasts and birds. The religion of Central and Eastern Asia was polluted with lust and cruelty, and smeared with blood, rioting, in deadly triumph, over all the tender affections of the human heart and all the convictions of the human understanding. Western and Southern Africa and Polynesia are, to this day, the abodes of frightful idolatry, cannibalism, and cruelty; and the aborigines of both the Americas are examples of the depths of superstition to which the human mind may be debased. In every quarter of the world, however, there is a striking uniformity seen, in all the features of paganism. The ruling principle of her religion is terror, and her deity is lewd and cruel. Whatever of purity the earlier forms of paganism may have possessed, it is evident from history that it was of brief duration. Every form, which history has preserved, grew rapidly and steadily worse and more corrupt, until the entire heathen world, before the coming of Christ, was infected with that loathsome leprosy of pollution, described [pg 005] with revolting vividness by St. Paul, in the beginning of his Epistle to the Romans.

§ 7. So general and decided was this proclivity to the worship of strange gods, that, at the time of the deluge, only one family remained faithful to Jehovah; and this was a family which had been favoured with his special revelation. Indeed it is evident that nothing but a revelation from God could raise men from the degradation of pagan idolatry, because nothing else has ever had that effect. If man could achieve his own freedom from this bondage, he would long since have been free. But instead of this, the increase of light and civilization and refinement in the pagan world has but multiplied the objects of his worship, added voluptuous refinements to its ritual, and thus increased the number and weight of his chains. In this respect there is no difference in their moral condition, between the barbarous Scythian and the learned Egyptian or Roman of ancient times, nor between the ignorant African and the polished Hindu of our own day. The only method, which has been successfully employed to deliver man from idolatry, is that of presenting to the eye of his soul an object of worship perfectly holy and pure, directly opposite, in moral character, to the gods he had formerly adored. He could not transfer to his deities a better character than he himself possessed. He must for ever remain enslaved to his idols, unless a new and pure object of worship were revealed to him, with a display of superior power sufficient to overcome his former faith and his present fears, to detach his affections from grosser objects, and to fix them upon that which alone is worthy.6 This is precisely what God, as stated in the Holy Scriptures, has done. He rescued one family from idolatry in the Old World, by the revelation of himself to Noah; he called a distinct branch of this family to the knowledge of himself, in the person of Abraham and his sons; He extended this favour [pg 006] to a whole nation, through the ministry of Moses; but it was through that of Jesus Christ alone that it was communicated to the whole world. In Egypt, by the destruction of all the objects of the popular worship, God taught the Israelites that he alone was the self-existent Almighty. At the Red Sea, he emphatically showed them that He was the Protector and Saviour of his people. At Sinai, he revealed himself as the righteous Governor who required implicit obedience for men, and taught them, by the strongly marked distinctions of the ceremonial law, that he was a holy Being, of purer eyes than to behold evil, and that could not look upon iniquity. The demerit of sin was inculcated by the solemn infliction of death upon every animal, offered as a propitiatory sacrifice. And when, by this system of instruction, he had prepared a people to receive the perfect revelation of the character of God, of the nature of his worship, and of the way of restoration to his image and favour, this also was expressly revealed by the mission of his Son.7

§ 8. That the books of the Old Testament, as we now have them, are genuine; that they existed in the time of our Saviour, and were commonly received and referred to among the Jews, as the sacred books of their religion;8 and that the text of the Four Evangelists has been handed down to us in the state in which it was originally written, that is, without having been materially corrupted or falsified, either by heretics or Christians; are facts which we are entitled to assume as true, until the contrary is shown.

The genuineness of these writings really admits of as little doubt, and is susceptible of as ready proof, as that of any ancient writings whatever. The rule of municipal law on this subject is familiar, and applies with equal force to all ancient writing, whether documentary or otherwise; and as it comes first in order, in the prosecution of these inquiries, it may, for the sake of mere convenience, be designated as our first rule.

[pg 007]
Every document, apparently ancient, coming from the proper repository or custody, and bearing on its face no evident marks of forgery, the law presumes to be genuine, and devolves on the opposing party the burden of proving it to be otherwise.

§ 9. An ancient document, offered in evidence in our courts, is said to come from the proper repository, when it is found in the place where, and under the care of persons with whom, such writings might naturally and reasonably be expected to be found; for it is this custody which gives authenticity to documents found within it.9 If they come from such a place, and bear no evident marks of forgery, the law presumes that they are genuine, and they are permitted to be read in evidence, unless the opposing party is able successfully to impeach them.10 The burden of showing them to be false and unworthy of credit, is devolved on the party who makes that objection. The presumption of law is the judgment of charity. It presumes that every man is innocent until he is proven guilty; that everything has been done fairly and legally, until it is proved to have been otherwise; and that every document, found in its proper repository, and not bearing marks of forgery, is genuine. Now this is precisely the case with the Sacred Writings. They have been used in the church from time immemorial, and thus are found in the place where alone they ought to be looked for. [pg 008] They come to us, and challenge our reception of them as genuine writings, precisely as Domesday Book, the Ancient Statutes of Wales, or any other of the ancient documents which have recently been published under the British Record Commission, are received. They are found in familiar use in all the churches of Christendom, as the sacred books to which all denominations of Christians refer, as the standard of their faith. There is no pretence that they were engraven on plates of gold and discovered in a cave, nor that they were brought from heaven by angels; but they are received as the plain narratives and writings of the men whose names they respectively bear, made public at the time they were written; and though there are some slight discrepancies among the copies subsequently made, there is no pretence that the originals were anywhere corrupted. If it be objected that the originals are lost, and that copies alone are now produced, the principles of the municipal law here also afford a satisfactory answer. For the multiplication of copies was a public fact, in the faithfulness of which all the Christian community had an interest, and it is a rule of law, that, in matters of public and general interest, all persons must be presumed to be conversant, on the principle that individuals are presumed to be conversant with their own affairs. Therefore it is that, in such matters, the prevailing current of assertion is resorted to as evidence, for it is to this that every member of the community is supposed to be privy.11 The persons, moreover, who multiplied these copies, may be regarded, in some manner, as the agents of the Christian public, for whose use and benefit the copies were made; and on the ground of the credit due to such agents, and of the public nature of the facts themselves, the copies thus made are entitled to an extraordinary degree of confidence, and, as in the case of official registers and other public books, it is not necessary that they should be confirmed and sanctioned by the ordinary tests of truth.12 If any ancient document concerning our public [pg 009] rights were lost, copies which had been as universally received and acted upon as the Four Gospels have been, would have been received in evidence in any of our courts of justice, without the slightest hesitation. The entire text of the Corpus Juris Civilis is received as authority in all the courts of continental Europe, upon much weaker evidence of its genuineness; for the integrity of the Sacred Text has been preserved by the jealousy of opposing sects, beyond any moral possibility of corruption; while that of the Roman Civil Law has been preserved only by tacit consent, without the interest of any opposing school, to watch over and preserve it from alteration.

§ 10. These copies of the Holy Scriptures having thus been in familiar use in the churches, from the time when the text was committed to writing; having been watched with vigilance by so many sects, opposed to each other in doctrine, yet all appealing to these Scriptures for the correctness of their faith; and having in all ages, down to this day, been respected as the authoritative source of all ecclesiastical power and government, and submitted to, and acted under in regard to so many claims of right, on the one hand, and so many obligations of duty, on the other; it is quite erroneous to suppose that the Christian is bound to offer any further proof of their genuineness or authenticity. It is for the objector to show them spurious; for on him, by the plainest rules of law, lies the burden of proof.13 If it were the case of a claim to a franchise, and a copy of an ancient deed or charter were produced in support of the title, under parallel circumstances on which to presume its genuineness, no lawyer, it is believed, would venture to deny either its admissibility in evidence, or the satisfactory character of the proof. In a recent case in the House of Lords, precisely such a document, being an old manuscript copy, purporting to have been extracted [pg 010] from ancient Journals of the House, which were lost, and to have been made by an officer whose duty it was to prepare lists of the Peers, was held admissible in a claim of peerage.14

§ 11. Supposing, therefore, that it is not irrational, nor inconsistent with sound philosophy, to believe that God has made a special and express revelation of his character and will to man, and that the sacred books of our religion are genuine, as we now have them; we proceed to examine and compare the testimony of the Four Evangelists, as witnesses to the life and doctrines of Jesus Christ; in order to determine the degree of credit, to which, by the rules of evidence applied in human tribunals, they are justly entitled. Our attention will naturally be first directed to the witnesses themselves, to see who and what manner of men they were, and we shall take them in the order of their writings; stating the prominent traits only in their lives and characters, as they are handed down to us by credible historians.

§ 12. Matthew, called also Levi, was a Jew of Galilee, but of what city is uncertain. He held the place of publican, or tax-gatherer, under the Roman government, and his office seems to have consisted in collecting the taxes within his district, as well as the duties and customs levied on goods and persons, passing in and out of his district or province, across the lake of Genesareth. While engaged in this business, at the office or usual place of collection, he was required by Jesus to follow him, as one of his disciples; a command which he immediately obeyed. Soon afterwards, he appears to have given a great entertainment to his fellow-publicans and friends, at which Jesus was present; intending probably both to celebrate his own change of profession, and to give them an opportunity to profit by the teaching of his new Master.15 He was constituted one of the twelve apostles, and constantly attended the person of Jesus as a faithful follower, until the crucifixion; and after the ascension of his Master he preached the gospel for [pg 011] some time, with the other apostles, in Judea, and afterwards in Ethiopia, where he died.

He is generally allowed to have written first, of all the evangelists; but whether in the Hebrew or the Greek language, or in both, the learned are not agreed, nor is it material to our purpose to inquire; the genuineness of our present Greek gospel being sustained by satisfactory evidence.16 The precise time when he wrote is also uncertain, the several dates given to it among learned men, varying from a.d. 37 to a.d. 64. The earlier date, however, is argued with greater force, from the improbability that the Christians would be left for several years without a general and authentic history of our Saviour's ministry; from the evident allusions which it contains to a state of persecution in the church at the time it was written; from the titles of sanctity ascribed to Jerusalem, and a higher veneration testified for the temple than is found in the other and later evangelists; from the comparative gentleness with which Herod's character and conduct are dealt with, that bad prince probably being still in power; and from the frequent mention of Pilate, as still governor of Judea.17

§ 13. That Matthew was himself a native Jew, familiar with the opinions, ceremonies, and customs of his countrymen; that he was conversant with the Sacred Writings, and habituated to their idiom; a man of plain sense, but of little learning, except what he derived from the Scriptures of the Old Testament; that he wrote seriously and from conviction, and had, on most occasions, been present, and attended closely, to the transactions which he relates, and relates, too, without any view of applause to himself; are facts which we may consider established by internal evidence, as strong as the nature of the case will admit. It is deemed equally well proved, both by internal evidence and the aid of history, that he wrote for the use of his countrymen the Jews. Every circumstance is noticed which might conciliate their belief, and every unnecessary expression is avoided which might obstruct it. They looked for the Messiah, [pg 012] of the lineage of David, and born in Bethlehem, in the circumstances of whose life the prophecies should find fulfilment, a matter, in their estimation, of peculiar value; and to all these this evangelist has directed their especial attention.18

§ 14. Allusion has been already made to his employment as a collector of taxes and customs; but the subject is too important to be passed over without further notice. The tribute imposed by the Romans upon countries conquered by their arms was enormous. In the time of Pompey, the sums annually exacted from their Asiatic provinces, of which Judea was one, amounted to about four millions and a half sterling, or about twenty-two millions of dollars. These exactions were made in the usual forms of direct and indirect taxation; the rate of the customs on merchandise varying from an eighth to a fortieth part of the value of the commodity; and the tariff including all the principal articles of the commerce of the East, much of which, as is well known, still found its way to Italy through Palestine, as well as by the way of Damascus and of Egypt. The direct taxes consisted of a capitation-tax and a land-tax, assessed upon a valuation or census, periodically taken, under the oath of the individual, with heavy penal sanctions.19 It is natural to suppose that these taxes were not voluntarily paid, especially since they were imposed by the conqueror upon a conquered people, and by a heathen, too, upon the people of the house of Israel. The increase of taxes has generally been found to multiply discontents, evasions and frauds on the one hand, and, on the other, to increase vigilance, suspicion, close scrutiny, and severity of exaction. The penal code, as revised by Theodosius, will give us some notion of the difficulties in the way of the revenue officers, in the earlier times of which we are speaking. These difficulties must have been increased by the fact that, at this period, a considerable portion of the commerce of [pg 013] that part of the world was carried on by the Greeks, whose ingenuity and want of faith were proverbial. It was to such an employment and under such circumstances, that Matthew was educated; an employment which must have made him acquainted with the Greek language, and extensively conversant with the public affairs and the men of business of his time; thus entitling him to our confidence, as an experienced and intelligent observer of events passing before him. And if the men of that day were, as in truth they appear to have been, as much disposed as those of the present time, to evade the payment of public taxes and duties, and to elude, by all possible means, the vigilance of the revenue officers, Matthew must have been familiar with a great variety of the forms of fraud, imposture, cunning, and deception, and must have become habitually distrustful, scrutinizing, and cautious; and, of course, much less likely to have been deceived in regard to many of the facts in our Lord's ministry, extraordinary as they were, which fell under his observation. This circumstance shows both the sincerity and the wisdom of Jesus, in selecting him for an eye-witness of his conduct, and adds great weight to the value of the testimony of this evangelist.

§ 15. Mark was the son of a pious sister of Barnabas, named Mary, who dwelt at Jerusalem, and at whose home the early Christians often assembled. His Hebrew name was John; the surname of Mark having been adopted, as is supposed, when he left Judea to preach the gospel in foreign countries; a practice not unusual among the Jews of that age, who frequently, upon such occasions, assumed a name more familiar than their own to the people whom they visited. He is supposed to have been converted to the Christian faith by the ministry of Peter. He travelled from Jerusalem to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas, and afterwards accompanied them elsewhere. When they landed at Perga in Pamphylia, he left them and returned to Jerusalem; for which reason, when he afterwards would have gone with them, Paul refused to take him. Upon this, a difference of opinion arose between the two apostles, and they separated, Barnabas taking Mark with him to Cyprus. Subsequently he accompanied Timothy to Rome, at the express desire of Paul. [pg 014] From this city he probably went into Asia, where he found Peter, with whom he returned to Rome, in which city he is supposed to have written and published his Gospel. Such is the outline of his history, as it is furnished by the New Testament.20 The early historians add, that after this he went into Egypt and planted a church in Alexandria, where he died.21

§ 16. It is agreed that Mark wrote his Gospel for the use of Gentile converts; an opinion deriving great force from the explanations introduced into it, which would have been useless to a Jew;22 and that it was composed for those at Rome, is believed, not only from the numerous Latinisms it contains, but from the unanimous testimony of ancient writers, and from the internal evidence afforded by the Gospel itself.

§ 17. Some have entertained the opinion that Mark compiled his account from that of Matthew, of which they supposed it an abridgment. But this notion has been refuted by Koppe, and others,23 and is now generally regarded as untenable. For Mark frequently deviates from Matthew in the order of time, in his arrangement of facts; and he adds many things not related by the other evangelists; neither of which a mere epitomizer would probably have done. He also omits several things related by Matthew, and imperfectly describes others, especially the transactions of Christ with the apostles after the resurrection; giving no account whatever of his appearance in Galilee; omissions irreconcilable with any previous knowledge of the Gospel according to Matthew. To these proofs we may add, that in several places there are discrepancies between the accounts of Matthew and Mark, not, indeed, irreconcilable, but sufficient to destroy the probability that the latter copied from the former.24 The striking coincidences between them, in style, words, and things, in other places, may be accounted for by considering that Peter, who is supposed to have dictated this [pg 015] Gospel to Mark, was quite as intimately acquainted as Matthew with the miracles and discourses of our Lord; which, therefore, he would naturally recite in his preaching; and that the same things might very naturally be related in the same manner, by men who sought not after excellency of speech. Peter's agency in the narrative of Mark is asserted by all ancient writers, and is confirmed by the fact, that his humility is conspicuous in every part of it, where anything is or might be related of him; his weaknesses and fall being fully exposed, while things which might redound to his honour, are either omitted or but slightly mentioned; that scarcely any transaction of Jesus is related, at which Peter was not present, and that all are related with that circumstantial minuteness which belongs to the testimony of an eye-witness.25 We may, therefore, regard the Gospel of Mark as an original composition, written at the dictation of Peter, and consequently as another original narrative of the life, miracles, and doctrines of our Lord.

§ 18. Luke, according to Eusebius, was a native of Antioch, by profession a physician, and for a considerable period a companion of the apostle Paul. From the casual notices of him in the Scriptures, and from the early Christian writers, it has been collected, that his parents were Gentiles, but that he in his youth embraced Judaism, from which he was converted to Christianity. The first mention of him is that he was with Paul at Troas;26 whence he appears to have attended him to Jerusalem; continued with him in all his troubles in Judea; and sailed with him when he was sent a prisoner from Cæsarea to Rome, where he remained with him during his two years' confinement. As none of the ancient fathers have mentioned his having suffered martyrdom, it is generally supposed that he died a natural death.

§ 19. That he wrote his Gospel for the benefit of Gentile converts is affirmed by the unanimous voice of Christian antiquity; and it may also be inferred from its dedication to a Gentile. He is particularly careful to specify various circumstances [pg 016] conducive to the information of strangers, but not so to the Jews; he gives the lineage of Jesus upwards, after the manner of the Gentiles, instead of downwards, as Matthew had done; tracing it up to Adam, and thus showing that Jesus was the promised seed of the woman; and he marks the eras of his birth, and of the ministry of John, by the reigns of the Roman emperors. He also has introduced several things, not mentioned by the other evangelists, but highly encouraging to the Gentiles to turn to God in the hope of pardon and acceptance; of which description are the parables of the publican and pharisee, in the temple; the lost piece of silver; and the prodigal son; and the fact of Christ's visit to Zaccheus the publican, and the pardon of the penitent thief.

§ 20. That Luke was a physician, appears not only from the testimony of Paul,27 but from the internal marks in his Gospel, showing that he was both an acute observer, and had given particular and even professional attention to all our Saviour's miracles of healing. Thus, the man whom Matthew and Mark describe simply as a leper, Luke describes as full of leprosy;28 he, whom they mention as having a withered hand, Luke says had his right hand withered;29 and of the maid, of whom the others say that Jesus took her by the hand and she arose, he adds, that her spirit came to her again.30 He alone, with professional accuracy of observation, says that virtue went out of Jesus, and healed the sick;31 he alone states the fact that the sleep of the disciples in Gethsemane was induced by extreme sorrow; and mentions the blood-like sweat of Jesus, as occasioned by the intensity of his agony; and he alone relates the miraculous healing of Malchus's ear.32 That he was also a man of a liberal education, the comparative elegance of his writings sufficiently show.33

§ 21. The design of Luke's Gospel was to supersede the [pg 017] defective and inaccurate narratives then in circulation, and to deliver to Theophilus, to whom it is addressed, a full and authentic account of the life, doctrines, miracles, death and resurrection of our Saviour. Who Theophilus was, the learned are not perfectly agreed; but the most probable opinion is that of Dr. Lardner, now generally adopted, that, as Luke wrote his Gospel in Greece, Theophilus was a man of rank in that country.34 Either the relations subsisting between him and Luke, or the dignity and power of his rank, or both, induced the evangelist, who himself also “had perfect understanding of all things from the first,” to devote the utmost care to the drawing up of a complete and authentic narrative of these great events. He does not affirm himself to have been an eye-witness; though his personal knowledge of some of the transactions may well be inferred from the “perfect understanding” which he says he possessed. Some of the learned seem to have drawn this inference as to them all, and to have placed him in the class of original witnesses; but this opinion, though maintained on strong and plausible grounds, is not generally adopted. If, then, he did not write from his own personal knowledge, the question is, what is the legal character of his testimony?

§ 22. If it were “the result of inquiries, made under competent public authority, concerning matters in which the public are concerned”35 it would possess every legal attribute of an inquisition, and, as such, would be legally admissible in evidence, in a court of justice. To entitle such results, however, to our full confidence, it is not necessary that they should be obtained under a legal commission; it is sufficient if the inquiry is gravely undertaken and pursued, by a person of competent intelligence, sagacity and integrity. The request of a person in authority, or a desire to serve the public, are, to all moral intents, as sufficient a motive as a legal commission.36 Thus, [pg 018] we know that when complaint is made to the head of a department, of official misconduct or abuse, existing in some remote quarter, nothing is more common than to send some confidential person to the spot, to ascertain the facts and report them to the department; and this report is confidently adopted as the basis of its discretionary action, in the correction of the abuse, or the removal of the offender. Indeed, the result of any grave inquiry is equally certain to receive our confidence, though it may have been voluntarily undertaken, if the party making it had access to the means of complete and satisfactory information upon the subject.37 If, therefore, Luke's Gospel were to be regarded only as the work of a contemporary historian, it would be entitled to our confidence. But it is more than this. It is the result of careful inquiry and examination, made by a person of science, intelligence and education, concerning subjects which he was perfectly competent to investigate, and as to many of which he was peculiarly skilled, they being cases of the cure of maladies; subjects, too, of which he already had the perfect knowledge of a contemporary, and perhaps an eye-witness, but beyond doubt, familiar with the parties concerned in the transactions, and belonging to the community in which the events transpired, which were in the mouths of all; and the narrative, moreover, drawn up for the especial use, and probably at the request, of a man of distinction, whom it would not be for the interest nor safety of the writer to deceive or mislead. Such a document certainly possesses all the moral attributes of an inquest of office, or of any other official investigation of facts; and [pg 019] as such is entitled, in foro conscientiæ, to be adduced as original, competent and satisfactory evidence of the matters it contains.

§ 23. John, the last of the evangelists, was the son of Zebedee, a fisherman of the town of Bethsaida, on the sea of Galilee. His father appears to have been a respectable man in his calling, owning his vessel and having hired servants.38 His mother, too, was among those who followed Jesus and “ministered unto him39;” and to John himself, Jesus, when on the cross, confided the care and support of his own mother.40 This disciple also seems to have been favourably known to the high priest, and to have influence in his family; by means of which he had the privilege of being present in his palace at the examination of his Master, and of introducing also Peter, his friend.41 He was the youngest of the apostles, was eminently the object of our Lord's regard and confidence; was on various occasions admitted to free and intimate intercourse with him; and is described as “the disciple whom Jesus loved.”42 Hence he was present at several scenes, to which most of the others were not admitted. He alone, in company with Peter and James, was present at the resurrection of Jairus's daughter, at the transfiguration on the mount, and at the agony of our Saviour in the garden of Gethsemane.43 He was the only apostle who followed Jesus to the cross, he was the first of them at the sepulchre, and he was present at the several appearances of our Lord after his resurrection. These circumstances, together with his intimate friendship with the mother of Jesus, especially qualify him to give a circumstantial and authentic account of the life of his Master. After the ascension of Christ, and the effusion of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost, John became one of the chief apostles of the circumcision, exercising his ministry in and near Jerusalem. From ecclesiastical history we learn that, after the death of Mary the mother of Jesus, he proceeded to Asia Minor, where he founded and presided over seven churches, in as many cities, but resided chiefly at [pg 020] Ephesus. Thence he was banished, in Domitian's reign, to the isle of Patmos, where he wrote his Revelation. On the accession of Nerva he was freed from exile, and returned to Ephesus, where he wrote his Gospel and Epistles, and died at the age of one hundred years, about A.D. 100, in the third year of the emperor Trajan.44

§ 24. The learned are not agreed as to the time when the Gospel of John was written, some dating it as early as the year 68, others as late as the year 98; but it is generally conceded to have been written after all the others. That it could not have been the work of some Platonic Christian of a subsequent age, as some have without evidence asserted, is manifest from references to it by some of the early fathers, and from the concurring testimony of many other writers of the ancient Christian church.45

§ 25. That it was written either with especial reference to the Gentiles, or at a period when very many of them had become converts to Christianity, is inferred from the various explanations it contains, beyond the other Gospels, which could have been necessary only to persons unacquainted with Jewish names and customs.46 And that it was written after all the others, and to supply their omissions, is concluded, not only from the uniform tradition and belief in the church, but from his studied omission of most of the transactions noticed by the others, and from his care to mention several incidents which they have not recorded. That their narratives were known to him, is too evident to admit of doubt; while his omission to repeat what they had already stated, or, where he does mention the same things, his relating them in a brief and cursory manner, affords incidental but strong testimony that he regarded their accounts as faithful and true.47

§ 26. Such are the brief histories of the men, whose narratives we are to examine and compare; conducting the examination and weighing the testimony by the same rules and principles [pg 021] which govern our tribunals of justice in similar cases. These tribunals are in such cases governed by the following fundamental rule:—

In trials of fact, by oral testimony, the proper inquiry is not whether it is possible that the testimony may be false, but whether there is sufficient probability that it is true.

It should be observed that the subject of inquiry is matter of fact, and not of abstract mathematical truth. The latter alone is susceptible of that high degree of proof, usually termed demonstration, which excludes the possibility of error, and which therefore may reasonably be required in support of every mathematical deduction. But the proof of matters of fact rests upon moral evidence alone; by which is meant not merely that species of evidence which is employed in cases respecting moral conduct, but all the evidence which we do not obtain either from our own senses, from intuition, or from demonstration. In the ordinary affairs of life we do not require nor expect demonstrative evidence, because it is inconsistent with the nature of matters of fact, and to insist on its production would be unreasonable and absurd. And it makes no difference, whether the facts to be proved relate to this life or to the next, the nature of the evidence required being in both cases the same. The error of the sceptic consists in pretending or supposing that there is a difference in the nature of the evidence, where there is no difference in the nature of the things to be proved; and in demanding demonstrative evidence concerning things which are not susceptible of any other than moral evidence alone, and of which the utmost that can be said is that there is no reasonable doubt of their truth.48

§ 27. In proceeding to weigh the evidence of any proposition of fact, the previous question to be determined is, when may it be said to be proved? The answer to this question is furnished by another rule of municipal law, which may be thus stated:—

A proposition of fact is proved, when its truth is established by competent and satisfactory evidence.

By competent evidence, is meant such as the nature of the [pg 022] thing to be proved requires; and by satisfactory evidence, is meant that amount of proof, which ordinarily satisfies an unprejudiced mind, beyond any reasonable doubt. The circumstances which will amount to this degree of proof can never be previously defined; the only legal test to which they can be subjected is, their sufficiency to satisfy the mind and conscience of a man of common prudence and discretion, and so to convince him, that he would venture to act upon that conviction in matters of the highest concern and importance to his own interest.49 If, therefore, the subject is a problem in mathematics, its truth is to be shown by the certainty of demonstrative evidence. But if it is a question of fact in human affairs, nothing more than moral evidence can be required, for this is the best evidence which, from the nature of the case, is attainable. Now as the facts, stated in Scripture History, are not of the former kind, but are cognizable by the senses, they may be said to be proved when they are established by that kind and degree of evidence which, as we have just observed, would, in the affairs of human life, satisfy the mind and conscience of a common man. When we have this degree of evidence, it is unreasonable to require more. A juror would violate his oath, if he should refuse to acquit or condemn a person charged with an offence, where this measure of proof was adduced.

§ 28. Proceeding further, to inquire whether the facts related by the Four Evangelists are proved by competent and satisfactory evidence, we are led, first, to consider on which side lies the burden of establishing the credibility of the witnesses. On this point the municipal law furnishes a rule, which is of constant application in all trials by jury, and is indeed the dictate of that charity which thinketh no evil.

In the absence of circumstances which generate suspicion, every witness is to be presumed credible, until the contrary is shown; the burden of impeaching his credibility lying on the objector.50
[pg 023]

This rule serves to show the injustice with which the writers of the Gospels have ever been treated by infidels; an injustice silently acquiesced in even by Christians; in requiring the Christian affirmatively, and by positive evidence, aliunde, to establish the credibility of his witnesses above all others, before their testimony is entitled to be considered, and in permitting the testimony of a single profane writer, alone and uncorroborated, to outweigh that of any single Christian. This is not the course in courts of chancery, where the testimony of a single witness is never permitted to outweigh the oath even of the defendant himself, interested as he is in the cause; but, on the contrary, if the plaintiff, after having required the oath of his adversary, cannot overthrow it by something more than the oath of one witness, however credible, it must stand as evidence against him. But the Christian writer seems, by the usual course of the argument, to have been deprived of the common presumption of charity in his favour; and reversing the ordinary rule of administering justice in human tribunals, his testimony is unjustly presumed to be false, until it is proved to be true. This treatment moreover, has been applied to them all in a body; and, without due regard to the fact, that, being independent historians, writing at different periods, they are entitled to the support of each other: they have been treated, in the argument, almost as if the New Testament were the entire production, at once, of a body of men, conspiring by a joint fabrication, to impose a false religion upon the world. It is time that this injustice should cease, that the testimony of the evangelists should be admitted to be true, until it can be disproved by those who would impugn it; that the silence of one sacred writer on any point, should no more detract from his own veracity or that of the other historians, than the like circumstance is permitted to do among profane writers; and that the Four Evangelists should be admitted in corroboration of each other, as readily as Josephus and Tacitus, or Polybius and Livy.51

[pg 024]

§ 29. But if the burden of establishing the credibility of the evangelists were devolved on those who affirm the truth of their narratives, it is still capable of a ready moral demonstration, when we consider the nature and character of the testimony, and the essential marks of difference between true narratives of facts and the creations of falsehood. It is universally admitted that the credit to be given to witnesses depends [pg 025] chiefly on their ability to discern and comprehend what was before them, their opportunities for observation, the degree of accuracy with which they are accustomed to mark passing events, and their integrity in relating them. The rule of municipal law on this subject embraces all these particulars, and is thus stated by a legal text-writer of the highest repute.

The credit due to the testimony of witnesses depends upon, firstly, their honesty; secondly, their ability; thirdly, their number and the consistency of their testimony; fourthly, the conformity of their testimony with experience; and fifthly, the coincidence of their testimony with collateral circumstances.52

Let the evangelists be tried by these tests.

§ 30. And first, as to their honesty. Here they are entitled to the benefit of the general course of human experience, that men ordinarily speak the truth, when they have no prevailing motive or inducement to the contrary. This presumption, to which we have before alluded, is applied in courts of justice, even to witnesses whose integrity is not wholly free from suspicion; much more is it applicable to the evangelists, whose testimony went against all their worldly interests. The great truths which the apostles declared, were, that Christ had risen from the dead, and that only through repentance from sin, and faith in him, could men hope for salvation. This doctrine they asserted with one voice, everywhere, not only under the greatest discouragements, but in the face of the most appalling terrors that can be presented to the mind of man. Their master had recently perished as a malefactor, by the sentence of a public tribunal. His religion sought to overthrow the religions of the whole world. The laws of every country were against the teachings of his disciples. The interests and passions of all the rulers and great men in the world were against them. The fashion of the world was against them. Propagating this new faith, even in the most inoffensive and peaceful manner, they could expect nothing but contempt, opposition, revilings, bitter persecutions, stripes, imprisonments, torments and cruel deaths. Yet this faith they zealously did propagate; and all these [pg 026] miseries they endured undismayed, nay, rejoicing. As one after another was put to a miserable death, the survivors only prosecuted their work with increased vigour and resolution. The annals of military warfare afford scarcely an example of the like heroic constancy, patience and unblenching courage. They had every possible motive to review carefully the grounds of their faith, and the evidences of the great facts and truths which they asserted; and these motives were pressed upon their attention with the most melancholy and terrific frequency. It was therefore impossible that they could have persisted in affirming the truths they have narrated, had not Jesus actually risen from the dead, and had they not known this fact as certainly as they knew any other fact.53 If it were morally possible for them to have been deceived in this matter, every human motive operated to lead them to discover and avow their error. To have persisted in so gross a falsehood, after it was known to them, was not only to encounter, for life, all the evils which man could inflict, from without, but to endure also the pangs of inward and conscious guilt, with no hope of future peace, no testimony of a good conscience, no expectation of honour or esteem among men, no hope of happiness in this life, or in the world to come.

§ 31. Such conduct in the apostles would moreover have been utterly irreconcilable with the fact, that they possessed the ordinary constitution of our common nature. Yet their lives do show them to have been men like all others of our race; swayed by the same motives, animated by the same hopes, affected by the same joys, subdued by the same sorrows, agitated by the same fears, and subject to the same passions, temptations and infirmities, as ourselves. And their writings show them to have been men of vigorous understandings. If [pg 027] then their testimony was not true, there was no possible motive for its fabrication.

§ 32. It would also have been irreconcilable with the fact that they were good men. But it is impossible to read their writings, and not feel that we are conversing with men eminently holy, and of tender consciences, with men acting under an abiding sense of the presence and omniscience of God, and of their accountability to him, living in his fear, and walking in his ways. Now, though, in a single instance, a good man may fall, when under strong temptations, yet he is not found persisting, for years, in deliberate falsehood, asserted with the most solemn appeals to God, without the slightest temptation or motive, and against all the opposing interests which reign in the human breast. If, on the contrary, they are supposed to have been bad men, it is incredible that such men should have chosen this form of imposture; enjoining, as it does, unfeigned repentance, the utter forsaking and abhorrence of all falsehood and of every other sin, the practice of daily self-denial, self-abasement and self-sacrifice, the crucifixion of the flesh with all its earthly appetites and desires, indifference to the honours, and hearty contempt of the vanities of the world; and inculcating perfect purity of heart and life, and intercourse of the soul with heaven. It is incredible, that bad men should invent falsehoods, to promote the religion of the God of truth. The supposition is suicidal. If they did believe in a future state of retribution, a heaven and a hell hereafter, they took the most certain course, if false witnesses, to secure the latter for their portion. And if, still being bad men, they did not believe in future punishment, how came they to invent falsehoods, the direct and certain tendency of which was to destroy all their prospects of worldly honour and happiness, and to ensure their misery in this life? From these absurdities there is no escape, but in the perfect conviction and admission that they were good men, testifying to that which they had carefully observed and considered, and well knew to be true.54

[pg 028]

§ 33. In the second place, as to their ability. The text writer before cited observes, that the ability of a witness to speak the truth, depends on the opportunities which he has had for observing the fact, the accuracy of his powers of discerning, and the faithfulness of his memory in retaining the facts, once observed and known.55 Of the latter trait, in these witnesses, we of course know nothing; nor have we any traditionary information in regard to the accuracy of their powers of discerning. But we may well suppose that in these respects they were like the generality of their countrymen, until the contrary is shown by an objector. It is always to be presumed that men are honest, and of sound mind, and of the average and ordinary degree of intelligence. This is not the judgment of mere charity; it is also the uniform presumption of the law of the land; a presumption which is always allowed freely and fully to operate, until the fact is shown to be otherwise, by the party who denies the applicability of this presumption to the particular case in question. Whenever an objection is raised in opposition to the ordinary presumptions of law, or to the ordinary experience of mankind, the burden of proof is devolved on the objector, by the common and ordinary rules of evidence, and of practice in courts. No lawyer is permitted to argue in disparagement of the intelligence or integrity of a witness, against whom the case itself afforded no particle of testimony. This is sufficient for our purpose, in regard to these witnesses. But more than this is evident, from the minuteness of their narratives, and from their history. Matthew was trained, by his calling, to habits of severe investigation and suspicious scrutiny; and Luke's profession demanded an exactness of observation equally close and searching. The other two evangelists, it has been well remarked, were as much too unlearned to forge the story of their Master's life, as these were too learned and acute to be deceived by imposture.

§ 34. In the third place, as to their number and the consistency of their testimony. The character of their narratives is like that of all other true witnesses, containing, as Dr. Paley observes, substantial truth, under circumstantial variety. There [pg 029] is enough of discrepancy to show that there could have been no previous concert among them; and at the same time such substantial agreement as to show that they all were independent narrators of the same great transaction, as the events actually occurred. That they conspired to impose falsehood upon the world is, moreover, utterly inconsistent with the supposition that they were honest men; a fact, to the proofs of which we have already adverted. But if they were bad men, still the idea of any conspiracy among them is negatived, not only by the discrepancies alluded to, but by many other circumstances which will be mentioned hereafter; from all which, it is manifest that if they concerted a false story, they sought its accomplishment by a mode quite the opposite to that which all others are found to pursue, to attain the same end. On this point the profound remark of an eminent writer is to our purpose; that “in a number of concurrent testimonies, where there has been no previous concert, there is a probability distinct from that which may be termed the sum of the probabilities resulting from the testimonies of the witnesses, a probability which would remain, even though the witnesses were of such a character as to merit no faith at all. This probability arises from the concurrence itself. That such a concurrence should spring from chance, is as one to infinite; that is, in other words, morally impossible. If therefore concert be excluded, there remains no cause but the reality of the fact.”56

§ 35. The discrepancies between the narratives of the several evangelists, when carefully examined, will not be found sufficient to invalidate their testimony. Many seeming contradictions will prove, upon closer scrutiny, to be in substantial agreement; and it may be confidently asserted that there are none that will not yield, under fair and just criticism. If these different accounts of the same transactions were in strict verbal conformity with each other, the argument against their credibility would be much stronger. All that is asked for these witnesses is, that their testimony may be regarded as we regard the testimony of men in the ordinary affairs of life. This they are [pg 030] justly entitled to; and this no honourable adversary can refuse. We might, indeed, take higher ground than this, and confidently claim for them the severest scrutiny; but our present purpose is merely to try their veracity by the ordinary tests of truth, admitted in human tribunals.

§ 36. If the evidence of the evangelists is to be rejected because of a few discrepancies among them, we shall be obliged to discard that of many of the contemporaneous histories on which we are accustomed to rely. Dr. Paley has noticed the contradiction between Lord Clarendon and Burnett and others in regard to Lord Strafford's execution; the former stating that he was condemned to be hanged, which was done on the same day; and the latter all relating that on a Saturday he was sentenced to the block, and was beheaded on the following Monday. Another striking instance of discrepancy has since occurred, in the narratives of the different members of the royal family of France, of their flight from Paris to Varennes, in 1792. These narratives, ten in number, and by eye-witnesses and personal actors in the transactions they relate, contradict each other, some on trivial and some on more essential points, but in every case in a wonderful and inexplicable manner.57 Yet these contradictions do not, in the general public estimation, detract from the integrity of the narrators, nor from the credibility of their relations. In the points in which they agree, and which constitute the great [pg 031] body of their narratives, their testimony is of course not doubted; where they differ, we reconcile them as well as we may; and where this cannot be done at all, we follow that light which seems to us the clearest. Upon the principles of the sceptic, we should be bound utterly to disbelieve them all. On the contrary, we apply to such cases the rules which, in daily experience, our judges instruct juries to apply, in weighing and reconciling the testimony of different witnesses; and which the courts themselves observe, in comparing and reconciling different and sometimes discordant reports of the same decisions. This remark applies especially to some alleged discrepancies in the reports which the several evangelists have given of the same discourses of our Lord.58

[pg 032]

§ 37. In the fourth place, as to the conformity of their testimony with experience. The title of the evangelists to full credit for veracity would be readily conceded by the objector, if the facts they relate were such as ordinarily occur in human experience. But they also relate events which were miraculous, or out of the ordinary course of human experience, and on this circumstance an argument is founded against their credibility. Miracles, say the objectors, are impossible; and therefore the evangelists were either deceivers or deceived; and in either case their narratives are unworthy of belief. Spinosa's argument against the possibility of miracles, was founded on the broad and bold assumption that all things are governed by immutable laws, or fixed modes of motion and relation, termed the laws of nature, by which God himself is of necessity bound. This erroneous assumption is the tortoise, on which stands the elephant that upholds his system of atheism. He does not inform us who made these immutable laws, nor whence they derive their binding force and irresistible operation. The argument supposes that the creator of all things first made a code of laws, and then put it out of his own power to change them. The scheme of Mr. Hume is but another form of the same error. He deduces the existence of such immutable laws from the uniform course of human experience. This, he affirms, is our only guide in reasoning concerning matters of fact; and whatever is contrary to human experience, he pronounces incredible.59 Without stopping to examine the correctness of [pg 033] this doctrine, as a fundamental principle in the law of evidence, it is sufficient in this place to remark, that is contains this [pg 034] fallacy; it excludes all knowledge derived by inference or deduction from facts, confining us to what we derive from [pg 035] experience alone, and thus depriving us of any knowledge, or even rational belief, of the existence or character of God. Nay more, it goes to prove that successive generations of men can make no advancement in knowledge, but each must begin de novo, and be limited to the results of its own experience. [pg 036] But if we may infer, from what we see and know, that there is a Supreme Being, by whom this world was created, we may certainly, and with equal reason, believe him capable of works which we have never yet known him to perform. We may fairly conclude that the power which was originally put forth to create the world is still constantly and without ceasing exerted to sustain it; and that the experienced connexion between cause and effect is but the uniform and constantly active operation of the finger of God. Whether this uniformity of operation extends to things beyond the limits of our observation, is a point we cannot certainly know. Its existence in all things that ordinarily concern us may be supposed to be ordained as conducive to our happiness; and if the belief in a revelation of peace and mercy from God is conducive to the happiness of man, it is not irrational to suppose that he would depart from his ordinary course of action, in order to give it such attestations as should tend to secure that belief. “A miracle is improbable, when we can perceive no sufficient cause, in reference to his creatures, why the Deity should vary his modes of operation; it ceases to be so, when such cause is assigned.”60

§ 38. But the full discussion of the subject of miracles forms no part of the present design. Their credibility has been fully established, and the objections of sceptics most satisfactorily met and overthrown, by the ablest writers of our own day, whose works are easily accessible.61 Thus much, however, may [pg 037] here be remarked; that in almost every miracle related by the evangelists, the facts, separately taken, were plain, intelligible, transpiring in public, and about which no person of ordinary observation would be likely to mistake. Persons blind or crippled, who applied to Jesus for relief, were known to have been crippled or blind for many years; they came to be cured; he spake to them; they went away whole. Lazarus had been dead and buried four days; Jesus called him to come forth from the grave; he immediately came forth, and was seen alive for a long time afterwards. In every case of healing, the previous condition of the sufferer was known to all; all saw his instantaneous restoration, and all witnessed the act of Jesus in touching him, and heard his words.62 All these, separately considered, were facts, plain and simple in their nature, easily seen and fully comprehended by persons of common capacity and observation. If they were separately testified to, by different witnesses of ordinary intelligence and integrity, in any court of justice, the jury would be bound to believe them; and a verdict, rendered contrary to the uncontradicted testimony of credible witnesses to any one of these plain facts, separately taken, would be liable to be set aside, as a verdict against evidence. If one credible witness testified to the fact, that Bartimeus was blind, according to the uniform course of administering justice, this fact would be taken as satisfactorily proved. So also, if his subsequent restoration to sight were the sole fact in question, this also would be deemed established, by the like evidence. Nor would the rule of evidence be at all different, if the fact to be proved were the declaration of Jesus, immediately preceding his restoration to sight, that his faith had made him whole. In each of these cases, each isolated fact was capable of being accurately observed, and certainly known; and the evidence demands our assent, precisely as the like evidence upon any other indifferent subject. The connexion of the word or the act of Jesus with the restoration of the blind, lame and dead, to sight, and health, [pg 038] and life, as cause and effect, is a conclusion which our reason is compelled to admit, from the uniformity of their concurrence, in such a multitude of instances, as well as from the universal conviction of all, whether friends or foes, who beheld the miracles which he wrought. Indeed, if the truth of one of the miracles is satisfactorily established, our belief cannot reasonably be withheld from them all. This is the issue proposed by Dr. Paley, in regard to the evidence of the death of Jesus upon the cross, and his subsequent resurrection, the truth of which he has established in an argument, incapable of refutation.

§ 39. In the fifth place, as to the coincidence of their testimony with collateral and contemporaneous facts and circumstances. After a witness is dead, and his moral character is forgotten, we can ascertain it only by a close inspection of his narrative, comparing its details with each other, and with contemporary accounts and collateral facts. This test is much more accurate than may at first be supposed. Every event which actually transpires, has its appropriate relation and place in the vast complication of circumstances, of which the affairs of men consist; it owes its origin to the events which have preceded it, is intimately connected with all others which occur at the same time and place, and often with those of remote regions, and in its turn gives birth to numberless others which succeed. In all this almost inconceivable contexture, and seeming discord, there is perfect harmony; and while the fact, which really happened, tallies exactly with every other contemporaneous incident, related to it in the remotest degree, it is not possible for the wit of man to invent a story, which, if closely compared with the actual occurrences of the same time and place, may not be shown to be false.63 Hence it is, that a false witness will not willingly detail any circumstances, in which his testimony will be open to contradiction, nor multiply them where there is danger of his being detected by a comparison of them with other accounts, equally circumstantial. He will rather deal in general statements and broad assertions, and if he finds it necessary for his purpose to employ names and particular circumstances [pg 039] in his story, he will endeavor to invent such as shall be out of the reach of all opposing proof; and will be the most forward and minute in details, where he knows that any danger of contradiction is least to be apprehended.64 Therefore it is, that variety and minuteness of detail are usually regarded as certain tests of sincerity, if the story, in the circumstances related, is of a nature capable of easy refutation if it were false.

§ 40. The difference, in the detail of circumstances, between artful or false witnesses and those who testify the truth, is worthy of especial observation. The former are often copious and even profuse in their statements, as far as these may have been previously fabricated, and in relation to the principal matter; but beyond this, all will be reserved and meagre, from the fear of detection. Every lawyer knows how lightly the evidence of a non-mi-recordo witness is esteemed. The testimony of false witnesses will not be uniform in its texture, but will be unequal, unnatural, and inconsistent. On the contrary, in the testimony of true witnesses there is a visible and striking naturalness of manner, and an unaffected readiness and copiousness in the detail of circumstances, as well in one part of the narrative as another, and evidently without the least regard either to the facility or difficulty of verification or detection.65 It is easier, therefore, to make out the proof of any fact, if proof it may be called, by suborning one or more false witnesses, to testify directly to the matter in question, than to procure an equal number to testify falsely to such collateral and separate circumstances as will, without greater danger of detection, lead to the same false result. The increased number of witnesses to circumstances, and the increased number of the circumstances themselves, all tend to increase the probability of detection if the witnesses are false, because thereby the points are multiplied in which their statements may be compared with each other, as well as with the truth itself, and in the same proportion is increased the danger of variance and inconsistency.66 [pg 040] Thus the force of circumstantial evidence is found to depend on the number of particulars involved in the narrative; the difficulty of fabricating them all, if false, and the great facility of detection; the nature of the circumstances to be compared, and from which the dates and other facts are to be collected; the intricacy of the comparison; the number of the intermediate steps in the process of deduction; and the circuity of the investigation. The more largely the narrative partakes of these characters, the further it will be found removed from all suspicion of contrivance or design, and the more profoundly the mind will repose on the conviction of its truth.

§ 41. The narratives of the sacred writers, both Jewish and Christian, abound in examples of this kind of evidence, the value of which is hardly capable of being properly estimated. It does not, as has been already remarked, amount to mathematical demonstration; nor is this degree of proof justly demandable in any question of moral conduct. In all human transactions, the highest degree of assurance to which we can arrive, short of the evidence of our own senses, is that of probability. The most that can be asserted is, that the narrative is more likely to be true than false; and it may be in the highest degree more likely, but still be short of absolute mathematical certainty. Yet this very probability may be so great as to satisfy the mind of the most cautious, and enforce the assent of the most reluctant and unbelieving. If it is such as usually satisfies reasonable men, in matters of ordinary transaction, it is all which the greatest sceptic has a right to require; for it is by such evidence alone that our rights are determined, in the civil tribunals; and on no other evidence do they proceed, even in capital cases. Thus, where a house had been feloniously broken open with a knife, the blade of which was broken and left in the window, and the mutilated knife itself, the parts perfectly agreeing, was found in the pocket of the accused, who gave no satisfactory explanation of the fact, no reasonable doubt remained of his participation in the crime. And where a murder had been committed by shooting with a pistol, and the prisoner was connected with the transaction by proof that the wadding of the pistol was part of a letter addressed to him, the remainder of [pg 041] which was found upon his person, no juror's conscience could have reproached him for assenting to the verdict of condemnation.67 Yet the evidence, in both cases, is but the evidence of circumstances; amounting, it is true, to the highest degree of probability, but yet not utterly inconsistent with the innocence of the accused. The evidence which we have of the great facts of the Bible history belongs to this class, that is, it is moral evidence; sufficient to satisfy any rational mind, by carrying it to the highest degree of moral certainty. If such evidence will justify the taking away of human life or liberty, in the one case, surely it ought to be deemed sufficient to determine our faith in the other.

§ 42. All that Christianity asks of men on this subject, is, that they would be consistent with themselves; that they would treat its evidences as they treat the evidence of other things; and that they would try and judge its actors and witnesses, as they deal with their fellow-men, when testifying to human affairs and actions, in human tribunals. Let the witnesses be compared with themselves, with each other, and with surrounding facts and circumstances; and let their testimony be sifted, as if it were given in a court of justice, on the side of the adverse party, the witnesses being subjected to a rigorous cross-examination. The result, it is confidently believed, will be an undoubting conviction of their integrity, ability, and truth. In the course of such an examination, the undesigned coincidences will multiply upon us at every step in our progress; the probability of the veracity of the witnesses and of the reality of the occurrences which they relate will increase, until it acquires, for all practical purposes, the value and force of demonstration.

§ 43. It should be remembered, that very little of the literature of their times and country has come down to us; and that the collateral sources and means of corroborating and explaining their writings are proportionally limited. The contemporary writings and works of art which have reached us, have invariably been found to confirm their accounts, to reconcile what was apparently contradictory, and supply what seemed defective or [pg 042] imperfect. We ought therefore to conclude, that if we had more of the same light, all other similar difficulties and imperfections would vanish. Indeed they have been gradually vanishing, and rapidly too, before the light of modern research, conducted by men of science in our own times. And it is worthy of remark, that of all the investigations and discoveries of travellers and men of letters, since the overthrow of the Roman empire, not a vestige of antiquity has been found, impeaching, in the slightest degree, the credibility of the sacred writers; but, on the contrary, every result has tended to confirm it.

§ 44. The essential marks of difference between true narratives of facts and the creations of fiction, have already been adverted to. It may here be added that these attributes of truth are strikingly apparent throughout the gospel histories, and that the absence of all the others is equally remarkable. The writers allude, for example, to the existing manners and customs, and to the circumstances of the times and of their country, with the utmost minuteness of reference. And these references are never formally made, nor with preface and explanation, never multiplied and heaped on each other, nor brought together, as though introduced by design; but they are scattered broad-cast and singly over every part of the story, and so connect themselves with every incident related, as to render the detection of falsehood inevitable. This minuteness, too, is not peculiar to any one of the historians, but is common to them all. Though they wrote at different periods, and without mutual concert, they all alike refer incidentally to the same state of affairs, and to the same contemporary and collateral circumstances. Their testimony, in this view, stands on the same ground with that of four witnesses, separately examined before different commissioners, upon the same interrogatories, and all adverting incidentally to the same circumstances as surrounding and accompanying the principal transaction, to which alone their attention is directed. And it is worthy of observation that these circumstances were at that time of a peculiar character. Hardly a state or kingdom in the world ever experienced so many vicissitudes in its government and political relations, as [pg 043] did Judea, during the period of the gospel history. It was successively under the government of Herod the Great, of Archelaus, and of a Roman magistrate; it was a kingdom, a tetrarchate, and a province; and its affairs, its laws, and the administration of justice, were all involved in the confusion and uncertainty naturally to be expected from recent conquest. It would be difficult to select any place or period in the history of nations, for the time and scene of a fictitious history or an imposture, which would combine so many difficulties for the fabricator to surmount, so many contemporary writers to confront him with, and so many facilities for the detection of falsehood.68

§ 45. “Had the evangelists been false historians,” says Dr. Chalmers, “they would not have committed themselves upon so many particulars. They would not have furnished the vigilant inquirers of that period with such an effectual instrument for bringing them into discredit with the people; nor foolishly supplied, in every page of their narrative, so many materials for a cross-examination, which would infallibly have disgraced them. Now, we of this age can institute the same cross-examination. We can compare the evangelical writers with contemporary authors, and verify a number of circumstances in the history, and government, and peculiar economy of the Jewish people. We therefore have it in our power to institute a cross-examination upon the writers of the New Testament; and the freedom and frequency of their allusions to these circumstances supply us with ample materials for it. The fact, that they are borne out in their minute and incidental allusions by the testimony of other historians, gives a strong weight of what has been called circumstantial evidence in their favour. As a specimen of the argument, let us confine our observations to the history of our Saviour's trial, and execution, and burial. They brought him to Pontius Pilate. We know both from Tacitus and Josephus, that he was at that time governor of Judea. A sentence from him was necessary before they could proceed to the execution of Jesus; and we [pg 044] know that the power of life and death was usually vested in the Roman governor. Our Saviour was treated with derision; and this we know to have been a customary practice at that time, previous to the execution of criminals, and during the time of it. Pilate scourged Jesus before he gave him up to be crucified. We know from ancient authors, that this was a very usual practice among the Romans. The accounts of an execution generally run in this form: he was stripped, whipped, and beheaded or executed. According to the evangelists, his accusation was written on the top of the cross; and we learn from Suetonius and others, that the crime of the person to be executed was affixed to the instrument of his punishment. According to the evangelists, this accusation was written in three different languages; and we know from Josephus that it was quite common in Jerusalem to have all public advertisements written in this manner. According to the evangelists, Jesus had to bear his cross; and we know from other sources of information, that this was the constant practice of these times. According to the evangelists, the body of Jesus was given up to be buried at the request of friends. We know that, unless the criminal was infamous, this was the law or the custom with all Roman governors.”69

§ 46. There is also a striking naturalness in the characters exhibited in the sacred historians, rarely if ever found in works of fiction, and probably nowhere else to be collected in a similar manner from fragmentary and incidental allusions and expressions, in the writings of different persons. Take, for example, that of Peter, as it may be gathered from the evangelists, and it will be hardly possible to conceive that four persons, writing at different times, could have concurred in the delineation of such a character, if it were not real; a character too, we must observe, which is nowhere expressly drawn, but is shown only here and there, casually, in the subordinate parts of the main narrative. Thus disclosed, it is that of a confident, sanguine, and zealous man; sudden and impulsive, yet [pg 045] humble and ready to retract; honest and direct in his purposes; ardently loving his master, yet deficient in fortitude and firmness in his cause.70 When Jesus put any question to the apostles, it was Peter who was foremost to reply;71 and if they would inquire of Jesus, it was Peter who was readiest to speak.72 He had the impetuous courage to cut off the ear of the High Priest's servant, who came to arrest his master; and the weakness to dissemble before the Jews, in the matter of eating with Gentile converts.73 It was he who ran with John to the sepulchre, on the first intelligence of the resurrection of Jesus, and with characteristic zeal rushed in, while John paused without the door.74 He had the ardour to desire and the faith to attempt to walk on the water, at the command of his Lord, but as soon as he saw the wind boisterous, he was afraid.75 He was the first to propose the election of another apostle in the place of Judas;76 and he it was who courageously defended them all, on the day of Pentecost, when the multitude charged them with being filled with new wine.77 He was forward to acknowledge Jesus to be the Messiah;78 yet having afterwards endangered his own life by wounding the servant of the High Priest, he suddenly consulted his own safety by denying the same Master, for whom, but a few hours before, he had declared himself ready to die.79 We may safely affirm that the annals of fiction afford no example of a similar but not uncommon character, thus incidentally delineated.

§ 47. There are other internal marks of truth in the narratives of the evangelists, which, however, need here be only alluded to, as they have been treated with great fulness and force by able writers, whose works are familiar to all.80 Among [pg 046] these may be mentioned the nakedness of the narratives; the absence of all parade by the writers about their own integrity, of all anxiety to be believed, or to impress others with a good opinion of themselves or their cause, of all marks of wonder, or of desire to excite astonishment at the greatness of the events they record, and of all appearance of design to exalt their Master. On the contrary, there is apparently the most perfect indifference on their part, whether they are believed or not; or rather, the evident consciousness that they were recording events well known to all, in their own country and times, and undoubtedly to be believed, like any other matter of public history, by readers in all other countries and ages. It is worthy, too, of especial observation, that though the evangelists record the unparalleled sufferings and cruel death of their beloved Lord, and this too, by the hands and with the consenting voices of those on whom he had conferred the greatest benefits, and their own persecutions and dangers, yet they have bestowed no epithets of harshness or even of just censure on the authors of all this wickedness, but have everywhere left the plain and unincumbered narrative to speak for itself, and the reader to pronounce his own sentence of condemnation; like true witnesses, who have nothing to gain or to lose by the event of the cause, they state the facts, and leave them to their fate. Their simplicity and artlessness, also, should not pass unnoticed, in readily stating even those things most disparaging to themselves. Their want of faith in their Master, their dulness of apprehension of his teachings, their strifes for preëminence, their inclination to call fire from heaven upon their enemies, their desertion of their Lord in his hour of extreme peril; these, and many other incidents tending directly to their own dishonour, are nevertheless set down with all the directness and sincerity of truth, as by men writing under the deepest sense of responsibility to God. Some of the more prominent instances of this class of proofs will be noticed hereafter, in their proper places, in the narratives themselves.

[pg 047]

§ 48. Lastly, the great character they have portrayed is perfect. It is the character of a sinless Being; of one supremely wise and supremely good. It exhibits no error, no sinister intention, no imprudence, no ignorance, no evil passion, no impatience; in a word, no fault; but all is perfect uprightness, innocence, wisdom, goodness and truth. The mind of man has never conceived the idea of such a character, even for his gods; nor has history nor poetry shadowed it forth. The doctrines and precepts of Jesus are in strict accordance with the attributes of God, agreeably to the most exalted idea which we can form of them, either from reason or from revelation. They are strikingly adapted to the capacity of mankind, and yet are delivered with a simplicity and majesty wholly divine. He spake as never man spake. He spake with authority; yet addressed himself to the reason and the understanding of men; and he spake with wisdom, which men could neither gainsay nor resist. In his private life, he exhibits a character not merely of strict justice, but of overflowing benignity. He is temperate, without austerity; his meekness and humility are signal; his patience is invincible; truth and sincerity illustrate his whole conduct; every one of his virtues is regulated by consummate prudence; and he both wins the love of his friends, and extorts the wonder and admiration of his enemies81. He is represented in every variety of situation in life, from the height of worldly grandeur, amid the acclamations of an admiring multitude, to the deepest abyss of human degradation and woe, apparently deserted of God and man. Yet everywhere he is the same; displaying a character of unearthly perfection, symmetrical in all its proportions, and encircled with splendour more than human. Either the men of Galilee were men of superlative wisdom, of extensive knowledge and experience, and of deeper skill in the arts of deception, than any and all others, before or after them, or they have truly stated the astonishing things which they saw and heard.

The narratives of the evangelists are now submitted to the reader's perusal and examination, upon the principles and by the rules already stated. For this purpose, and for the sake of more ready and close comparison, they are arranged in juxtaposition, [pg 048] after the general order of the latest and most approved harmonies. The question is not upon the strict propriety of the arrangement, but upon the veracity of the witnesses and the credibility of their narratives. With the relative merits of modern harmonists, and with points of controversy among theologians, the writer has no concern. His business is that of a lawyer, examining the testimony of witnesses by the rules of his own profession, in order to ascertain whether, if they had thus testified on oath, in a court of justice, they would be entitled to credit; and whether their narratives, as we now have them, would be received as ancient documents, coming from the proper custody. If so, then it is believed that every honest and impartial man will act consistently with that result, by receiving their testimony in all the extent of its import. To write out a full commentary or argument upon the text, would be a useless addition to the bulk of the volume; but a few notes have been added for illustration of the narratives, and for the clearing up of apparent discrepancies, as being all that members of the legal profession would desire.

[pg 049]

Harmony Of The Gospels.

Part I. Events Connected With The Birth And Childhood Of Jesus.

Time. About thirteen and a half years.

[pg 050]

§ 1. Preface to Luke's Gospel.

Luke.
CH. I. 1-4.
Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to set forth in order a declaration of those things which are most surely believed among us,
2 Even as they delivered them unto us, which from the beginning were eye-witnesses, and ministers of the word;
3 It seemed good to me also, having had perfect understanding of all things from the very first, to write unto thee in order, most excellent Theophilus,
4 That thou mightest know the certainty of those things wherein thou hast been instructed.

§ 2. An Angel appears to Zacharias. Jerusalem.

Luke.
CH. I. 5-25.
5 There was in the days of Herod the king of Judea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the course of Abia: and his wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elisabeth.
6 And they were both righteous before God, walking in all the commandments and ordinances of the Lord blameless.
7 and they had no child, because that Elisabeth was barren; and they both were now well stricken in years.
8 And it came to pass, that, while he executed the priest's office before God in the order of his course,
9 According to the custom of the priest's office, his lot was to burn incense when he went into the temple of the Lord.
10 And the whole multitude of the people were praying without, at the time of incense.
11 And there appeared unto him an angel of the Lord, standing on the right side of the altar of incense.
12 And when Zacharias saw him, he was troubled, and fear fell upon him.
13 But the angel said unto him, Fear not, Zacharias: for thy prayer is heard; and thy wife Elisabeth shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John.
14 And thou shalt have joy and gladness, and many shall rejoice at his birth.
15 For he shall be great in the sight of the Lord, and shall drink neither wine nor strong drink; and he shall be filled with the Holy Ghost, even from his mother's womb.
16 And many of the children of Israel shall he turn to the Lord their God.
17 And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias,82 to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord.
18 And Zacharias said unto the angel, Whereby shall I know this? for I am an old man, and my wife well stricken in years.
19 And the angel, answering, said unto him, I am Gabriel, that stand in the presence of God, and am sent to speak unto thee, and to shew thee these glad tidings.
20 And behold, thou shalt be dumb, and not able to speak, until the day that these things shall be performed, because thou believest not my words, which shall be fulfilled in their season.
21 And the people waited for Zacharias, and marvelled that he tarried so long in the temple.
22 And when he came out, he could not speak unto them: and they perceived that he had seen a vision in the temple; for he beckoned unto them, and remained speechless.
23 And it came to pass, that as soon as the days of his ministration were accomplished, he departed to his own house.
24 And after those days his wife Elisabeth conceived, and hid herself five months, saying,
25 Thus hath the Lord dealt with me in the days wherein he looked on me, to take away my reproach among men.
[pg 054]

§ 3. An Angel appears to Mary. Nazareth.

Luke.
CH. I. 26-38.
26 And in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God unto a city of Galilee, named Nazareth,
27 To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary.
28 And the angel came in unto her, and said, Hail, thou that art highly favoured, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women.
29 And when she saw him, she was troubled at his saying, and cast in her mind what manner of salutation this should be.
30 And the angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary: for thou hast found favour with God.
31 And behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and bring forth a son, and shalt call his name JESUS.
32 He shall be great, and shall be called the son of the Highest; and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David.
33 And83 he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there shall be no end.
34 Then said Mary unto the angel, How shall this be, seeing I know not a man?
35 And the angel answered and said unto her, The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore also that holy thing which shall be born of thee, shall be called the Son of God.
36 And behold, thy cousin Elisabeth, she hath also conceived a son in her old age; and this is the sixth month with her who was called barren:
37 For with God nothing shall be impossible.
38 And Mary said, Behold the handmaid of the Lord, be it unto me according to thy word. And the angel departed from her.

§ 4. Mary visits Elisabeth. Juttah.

Luke.
CH. I. 39-56.
39 And Mary arose in those days, and went into the hill-country with haste, into a city of Juda,
40 And entered into the house of Zacharias, and saluted Elisabeth.
41 And it came to pass, that when Elisabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the babe leaped in her womb: and Elisabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost.
42 And she spake out with a loud voice and said, Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb.
43 And whence is this to me, that the mother of my lord should come to me?
44 For lo, as soon as the voice of thy salutation sounded in mine ears, the babe leaped in my womb for joy.
45 And blessed is she that believed: for there shall be a performance of those things which were told her from the Lord.
46 And Mary said, My soul doth magnify the Lord,
47 And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour.
48 For he hath regarded the low estate of his handmaiden: for behold, from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed.
49 For he that is mighty hath done to me great things; and holy is his name.
50 And his mercy is on them that fear him, from generation to generation.
51 He hath shewed strength with his arm; he hath scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts.
52 He hath put down the mighty from their seats, and exalted them of low degree.
53 He hath filled the hungry with good things, and the rich he hath sent empty away.
54 He hath holpen his servant Israel, in remembrance of his mercy;
55 As84 he spake to our fathers, to Abraham, and to his seed, for ever.
56 And Mary abode with her about three months, and returned to her own house.
[pg 058]

§ 5. The birth of John the Baptist. Juttah.

Luke.
CH. I. 57-80.
57 Now Elisabeth's full time came that she should be delivered; and she brought forth a son.
58 And her neighbours and her cousins heard how the Lord had shewed great mercy upon her; and they rejoiced with her.
59 And it came to pass, that on the eighth day they came to circumcise the child; and they called him Zacharias, after the name of his father.
60 And his mother answered and said, not so; but he shall be called John.
61 And they said unto her, There is none of thy kindred that is called by this name.
62 And they made signs to his father, how he would have him called.
63 And he asked for a writing-table, and wrote, saying, His name is John. And they marvelled all.
64 And his mouth was opened immediately, and his tongue loosed, and he spake, and praised God.
65 And fear came on all that dwelt round about them: and all these sayings were noised abroad throughout all the hill-country of Judea.
66 And all they that heard them, laid them up in their hearts, saying, What manner of child shall this be! And the hand of the Lord was with him.
67 And his father Zacharias was filled with the Holy Ghost, and prophesied, saying,
68 Blessed be the Lord God of Israel; for he hath visited and redeemed his people,
69 And hath raised up a horn of salvation for us, in the house of his servant David:
70 As he spake by the mouth of his holy prophets, which have been since the world began:
71 That we should be saved from our enemies, and from the hand of all that hate us;
72 To perform the mercy promised to our fathers, and to remember his holy covenant;
73 The oath which he sware to our Father Abraham,85
74 That he would grant unto us, that we, being delivered out of the hand of our enemies, might serve him without fear,
75 In holiness and righteousness before him, all the days of our life.
76 And thou, child, shalt be called the Prophet of the Highest, for thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways;
77 To give knowledge of salvation unto his people, by the remission of their sins,
78 Through the tender mercy of our God; whereby the day-spring from on high hath visited us,
79 To give light to them that sit in darkness and in the shadow of death, to guide our feet into the way of peace.
80 And the child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, and was in the deserts till the day of his shewing unto Israel.
[pg 060]

§ 6. An Angel appears to Joseph. Nazareth.

Matthew.
CH. I. 18-25.
18 Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of the holy Ghost.
19 Then Joseph her husband, being a just man, and not willing to make her a public example, was minded to put her away privily.86
20 But while he thought on these things, Behold, the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife; for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost.
21 And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name JESUS: for he shall save his people from their sins.
22 Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying,
23 Behold,87 a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us.
24 Then Joseph, being raised from sleep, did as the angel of the Lord had bidden him, and took unto him his wife:
25 And knew her not till she had brought forth her first-born son: and he called his name JESUS.
[pg 062]

§ 7. The birth of Jesus. Bethlehem.

Luke.
CH. II. 1-7.
And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree88 from Cesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed.
2 (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.)
3 And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city.
4 And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem, (because he was of the house and lineage of David,)
5 To be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child.
6 And so it was, that while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered.
7 And she brought forth her first-born son, and wrapped him in swaddling-clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn.

§ 8. An Angel appears to the Shepherds. Near Bethlehem.

Luke.
CH. II. 8-20.
8 And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night.
9 And lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them; and they were sore afraid.
10 And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people.
11 For unto you is born this day, in the city of David, a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord.
12 And this shall be a sign unto you; Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling-clothes, lying in a manger.
13 And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying,
14 Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men.
15 And it came to pass, as the angels were gone away from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another, Let us now go even unto Bethlehem, and see this thing which is come to pass, which the Lord hath made known unto us.
16 And they came with haste, and found Mary and Joseph, and the babe lying in a manger.
17 And when they had seen it, they made known abroad the saying which was told them concerning this child.
18 And all they that heard it, wondered at those things which were told them by the shepherds.
19 But Mary kept all these things, and pondered them in her heart.
20 And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God for all the things that they had heard and seen, as it was told unto them.
[pg 064]

§ 9. The circumcision of Jesus and his presentation in the temple. Bethlehem. Jerusalem.

Luke.
CH. II. 21-38.
21 And when eight days were accomplished for the circumcising of the child,89 his name was called JESUS, which was so named of the angel before he was conceived in the womb.
22 And when the days of her purification according to the law of Moses were accomplished, they brought him to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord;
23 (As it is written in the law of the Lord,90 Every male that openeth the womb shall be called holy to the Lord;)
24 And to offer a sacrifice according to that which is said in the law of the Lord,91 A pair of turtle-doves, or two young pigeons.
25 And behold, there was a man in Jerusalem, whose name was Simeon; and the same man was just and devout, waiting for the consolation of Israel: and the Holy Ghost was upon him.
26 And it was revealed unto him by the Holy Ghost, that he should not see death, before he had seen the Lord's Christ.
27 And he came by the Spirit into the temple; and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, to do for him after the custom of the law,
28 Then took he him up in his arms, and blessed God, and said,
29 Lord, now lettest thou thy servant depart in peace, according to thy word:
30 For mine eyes have seen thy salvation,
31 Which thou hast prepared before the face of all people;
32 A light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel.
33 And Joseph and his mother marvelled at those things which were spoken of him.
34 And Simeon blessed them, and said unto Mary his mother, Behold, this child is92 set for the fall and rising again of many in Israel; and for a sign which shall be spoken against,
35 (Yea, a sword shall pierce through thy own soul also;) that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed.
36 And there was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Aser: she was of a great age, and had lived with a husband seven years from her virginity.
37 And she was a widow of about fourscore and four years, which departed not from the temple, but served God with fastings and prayers night and day.
38 And she coming in that instant, gave thanks likewise unto the Lord, and spake of him to all them that looked for redemption in Jerusalem.
[pg 068]

§ 10. The Magi. Jerusalem. Bethlehem.

Matthew.
CH. II. 1-12.
Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the East to Jerusalem,
2 Saying, Where is he that is born king of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him.
3 When Herod the king had heard these things, he was troubled,93 and all Jerusalem with him.
4 And when he had gathered all the chief priests and scribes of the people together, he demanded of them where Christ should be born.
5 And they said unto him, in Bethlehem of Judea: for thus it is written by the prophet,
6 And94 thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, art not the least among the princes of Juda: for out of thee shall come a Governor, that shall rule my people Israel.
7 Then Herod, when he had privily called the wise men, inquired of them diligently what time the star appeared.
8 And he sent them to Bethlehem, and said Go, and search diligently for the young child; and when ye have found him, bring me word again, that I may come and worship him also.
9 When they had heard the king, they departed; and lo, the star, which they saw in the east, went before them, till it came and stood over where the young child was.
10 When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceeding great joy.
11 And when they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother, and fell down, and worshipped him: and when they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts; gold, and frankincense, and myrrh.
12 And being warned of God in a dream that they should not return to Herod, they departed into their own country another way.
[pg 070]

§ 11. The flight into Egypt. Herod's cruelty. The return. Bethlehem. Nazareth.

Matthew.
CH. II. 13-23.
13 And when they were departed, behold, the angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I bring thee word: for Herod will seek the young child to destroy him.
14 When he arose, he took the young child and his mother by night, and departed into Egypt:
15 And was there until the death of Herod: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying,95 Out of Egypt have I called my Son.
16 Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men, was exceeding wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the children that were in Bethlehem, and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had diligently inquired of the wise men.
17 Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet, saying,
18 In96 Rama was there a voice heard, lamentation, and weeping, and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children, and would not be comforted, because they are not.
19 But, when Herod was dead, behold, an angel of the Lord appeareth in a dream to Joseph in Egypt,
20 Saying, Arise, and take the young child and his mother, and go into the land of Israel: for they are dead which sought the young child's life.
21 And he arose, and took the young child and his mother, and came into the land of Israel.
22 But when he heard that Archelaus did reign in Judea in the room of his father Herod, he was afraid to go thither:97 notwithstanding, being warned of God in a dream, he turned aside into the parts of Galilee:
23 And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene.98
[pg 072]

§ 12. At twelve years of age, Jesus goes to the Passover. Jerusalem.

Luke.
CH. II. 41-52.
41 Now his parents went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the passover.
42 And when he was twelve years old99, they went up to Jerusalem after the custom of the feast.
43 And when they had fulfilled the days, as they returned, the child Jesus tarried behind in Jerusalem; and Joseph and his mother knew not of it.
44 But they, supposing him to have been in the company,100 went a day's journey; and they sought him among their kinsfolk and acquaintance.
45 And when they found him not, they turned back again to Jerusalem, seeking him.
46 And it came to pass, that after three days they found him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, both hearing them, and asking them questions.
47 And all that heard him were astonished at his understanding and answers.
48 And when they saw him, they were amazed: and his mother said unto him, Son, why hast thou thus dealt with us? Behold, thy father and I have sought thee sorrowing.
49 And he said unto them, How is it that ye sought me? wist ye not that I must be about my Father's business?
50 And they understood not the saying which he spake unto them.
51 And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth, and was subject unto them: but his mother kept all these sayings in her heart.
52 And Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man.
[pg 074]

§ 13. The Genealogies.

Matthew.
CH. I. 1-17.
The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.
2 Abraham begat Isaac; and Isaac begat Jacob; and Jacob begat Judas and his brethren;
3 And Judas begat Phares and Zara of Thamar; and Phares begat Esrom; and Esrom begat Aram;
4 And Aram begat Aminadab; and Aminadab begat Naasson; and Naasson begat Salmon;
5 And Salmon begat Booz of Rachab; and Booz begat Obed of Ruth; and Obed begat Jesse;
6 And Jesse begat David the king; and David the king begat Solomon of her that had been the wife of Urias;
7 And Solomon begat Roboam; and Roboam begat Abia; and Abia begat Asa;
8 And Asa begat Josaphat; and Josaphat begat Joram; and Joram begat Ozias;
9 And Ozias begat Joatham; and Joatham begat Achaz; and Achaz begat Ezekias;
10 And Ezekias begat Manasses; and Manasses begat Amon; and Amon begat Josias;
11 And Josias begat Jechonias and his brethren, about the time they were carried away to Babylon;
12 And after they were brought to Babylon, Jechonias begat Salathiel; and Salathiel begat Zorobabel;
13 And Zorobabel begat Abiud; and Abiud begat Eliakim; and Eliakim begat Azor;
14 And Azor begat Sadoc; and Sadoc begat Achim; and Achim begat Eliud;
15 And Eliud begat Eleazar; and Eleazar begat Matthan; and Matthan begat Jacob;
16 And Jacob begat Joseph the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, who is called Christ.
17 So all the generations from Abraham to David are fourteen generations; and from David until the carrying away into Babylon are fourteen generations; and from the carrying away into Babylon unto Christ are fourteen generations.
Luke.
CH. III. 23-38, INVERTED.101
38 The son of God, the son of Adam, the son of Seth, the son of Enos,
37 The son of Cainan, the son of Maleleel, the son of Jared, the son of Enoch, the son of Mathusala,
36 The son of Lamech, the son of Noe, the son of Sem, the son of Arphaxad, the son of Cainan,
35 The son of Sala, the son of Heber, the son of Phalec, the son of Ragau, the son of Saruch,
34 The son of Nachor, the son of Thara, the son of Abraham, the son of Isaac, the son of Jacob,
33 The son of Juda, the son of Phares, the son of Esrom, the son of Aram, the son of Aminadab,
32 The son of Naasson, the son of Salmon, the son of Booz, the son of Obed, the son of Jesse,
31 The son of David, the son of Nathan, the son of Mattatha, the son of Menan, the son of Melea,
30 The son of Eliakim, the son of Jonan, the son of Joseph, the son of Juda, the son of Simeon,
29 The son of Levi, the son of Matthat, the son of Joram, the son of Eliezer, the son of Jose,
28 The son of Er, the son of Elmodam, the son of Cosam, the son of Addi, the son of Melchi,
27 The son of Neri, the son of Salathiel, the son of Zorobabel, the son of Rhesa, the son of Joanna,
26 The son of Juda, the son of Joseph, the son of Semei, the son of Mattathias, the son of Maath,
25 The son of Nagge, the son of Esli, the son of Naum, the son of Amos, the son of Mattathias,
24 The son of Joseph, the son of Janna, the son of Melchi, the son of Levi, the son of Matthat,
23 The son of Heli, the son of Joseph,—And Jesus himself ... being (as was supposed)—
[pg 081]

Part II. Announcement And Introduction Of Our Lord's Public Ministry.

Time. About one year.

[pg 082]

§ 14. The Ministry of John the Baptist. The Desert. The Jordan.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. III. 1-12.CH. I. 1-8.
In those days came John the Baptist, preaching in the wilderness of Judea,The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ the Son of God:
2 And saying, Repent ye; for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.As it is written in the prophets,102 Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee;
3 For this is he that was spoken of by the prophet Esaias, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.3 The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.
4 And the same John had his raiment of camel's hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins; and his meat was locusts and wild honey.4 John did baptize in the wilderness, and preach the baptism of repentance, for the remission of sins.
5 Then went out to him Jerusalem, and all Judea, and all the region round about Jordan.5 And there went out unto him all the land of Judea, and they of Jerusalem, and were all baptized of him in the river of Jordan, confessing their sins.
6 And were baptized of him in Jordan, confessing their sins.6 And John was clothed with camel's hair, and with a girdle of a skin about his loins; and he did eat locusts and wild honey;
7 But when he saw many of the Pharisees and Sadducees come to his baptism, he said unto them, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come?7 And preached, saying, There cometh one mightier than I after me, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to stoop down and unloose.
8 Bring forth therefore fruits meet for repentance:8 I indeed have baptized you with water: but he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost.
9 And think not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham to our father: for I say unto you, that God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham.
10 And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees: therefore every tree which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire.
11 I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance: but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire:
12 Whose fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly purge his floor, and gather his wheat into the garner; but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire.
Luke.
CH. III. 1-18.
Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Cesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Iturea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene.
2 Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests,103 the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness.
3 And he came into all the country about Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance, for the remission of sins;
4 As it is written in the book of the words of Esaias the prophet, saying,104 The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.
5 Every valley shall be filled, and every mountain and hill shall be brought low; and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough ways shall be made smooth;
6 And all flesh shall see the salvation of God.
7 Then said he to the multitude that came forth to be baptized of him, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come?
8 Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of repentance, and begin not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham to our father: for I say unto you, That God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham.
9 And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees: every tree therefore which bringeth not forth good fruit, is hewn down, and cast into the fire.
10 And the people asked him, saying, What shall we do then?
11 He answereth and saith unto them, He that hath two coats, let him impart to him that hath none; and he that hath meat, let him do likewise.
12 Then came also publicans to be baptized, and said unto him, Master, what shall we do?
13 And he said unto them, Exact no more than that which is appointed you.
14 And the soldiers likewise demanded of him, saying, And what shall we do? And he said unto them, Do violence to no man, neither accuse any falsely; and be content with your wages.
15 And as the people were in expectation, and all men mused in their hearts of John, whether he were the Christ, or not;
16 John answered, saying unto them all, I indeed baptize you with water; but one mightier than I cometh, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire:
17 Whose fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly purge his floor, and will gather the wheat into his garner; but the chaff he will burn with fire unquenchable.
18 And many other things in his exhortation preached he unto the people.
[pg 084]

§ 15. The Baptism of Jesus. The Jordan.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. III. 13-17.CH. I. 9-11.
13 Then cometh Jesus from Galilee to Jordan unto John, to be baptized of him.9 And it came to pass in those days, that Jesus came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was baptized of John in Jordan.
14 But John forbade him, saying, I have need to be baptized of thee, and comest thou to me?10 And straightway coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens opened, and the Spirit like a dove descending upon him.
15 And Jesus answering said unto him, Suffer it to be so now: for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness. Then he suffered him.11 And there came a voice from heaven saying, Thou art my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.
16 And Jesus, when he was baptized, when up straightway out of the water: and lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him:
17 And lo, a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.
Luke.
CH. III. 21-23.
21 Now, when all the people were baptized, it came to pass, that Jesus also being baptized, and praying, the heaven was opened,
22 And the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape like a dove upon him, and a voice came from heaven, which said, Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased.
23 And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age.
[pg 086]

§ 16. The Temptation. Desert of Judea

Matthew.Mark.
CH. IV. 1-11.CH. I. 12-13.
Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil.12 And immediately the Spirit driveth him into the wilderness.
2 And when he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he was afterward an hungered.13 And he was there in the wilderness forty days tempted of Satan; and was with the wild beasts; and the angels ministered unto him.
3 And when the tempter came to him, he said, If thou be the Son of God, command that these stones be made bread.
4 But he answered and said, It is written105 Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.
5 Then the devil taketh him up into the holy city, and setteth him on a pinnacle of the temple,
6 And saith unto him, If thou be the Son of God cast thyself down, for it is written106 He shall give his angels charge concerning thee: and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone.
7 Jesus said unto him, It is written again,107 Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.
8 Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain and sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them:
9 And saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me.
10 Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written,108 Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.
11 Then the devil leaveth him, and behold, angels came and ministered unto him.
Luke.
CH. IV. 1-13.109
And Jesus, being full of the Holy Ghost, returned from Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness,
2 Being forty days tempted of the devil. And in those days he did eat nothing: and when they were ended, he afterward hungered.
3 And the devil said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, command this stone that it be made bread.
4 And Jesus answered him, saying, It is written, That man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God.
9 And he brought him to Jerusalem, and set him on a pinnacle of the temple, and said unto him, If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down from hence:
10 For it is written, He shall give his angels charge over thee, to keep thee:
11 And in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone.
12 And Jesus answering, said unto him, It is said, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.
5 And the devil, taking him up into a high mountain, shewed unto him, all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time.
6 And the devil said unto him, All this power will I give thee, and the glory of them: for that is delivered unto me, and to whomsoever I will, I give it.
7 If thou therefore wilt worship me, all shall be thine.
8 And Jesus answered and said unto him, Get thee behind me, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.
13 And when the devil had ended all the temptation, he departed from him for a season.
[pg 088]

§ 17. Preface to John's Gospel.

John.
CH. I. 1-18.
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
2 The same was in the beginning with God.
3 All things were made by him; and without him was not anything made that was made.
4 In him was life; and the life was the light of men.
5 And the light shineth in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not.
6 There was a man sent from God, whose name was John.
7 The same came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all men through him might believe.
8 He was not that Light, but was sent to bear witness of that light.
9 That was the true Light, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world.
10 He was in the world, and the world was made by him, and the world knew him not.
11 He came unto his own, and his own received him not.
12 But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name:
13 Which were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.
14 And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.
15 John bare witness of him, and cried, saying, This was he of whom I spake, He that cometh after me, is preferred before me; for he was before me.
16 And of his fulness have all we received, and grace for grace.
17 For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ.
18 No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.
[pg 090]

§ 18. Testimony of John the Baptist to Jesus. Bethany beyond Jordan.

John.
CH. I. 19-34.
19 And this is the record of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem, to ask him, Who art thou?
20 And he confessed, and denied not; but confessed, I am not the Christ.
21 And they asked him, What then? Art thou Elias? And he saith, I am not. Art thou that prophet? And he answered, No.110
22 Then said they unto him, Who art thou? that we may give an answer to them that sent us. What sayest thou of thyself?
23 He said,111 I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord, as said the prophet Esaias.
24 And they which were sent were of the Pharisees.
25 And they asked him, and said unto him, Why baptizest thou then, if thou be not that Christ, nor Elias, neither that prophet?
26 John answered them, saying, I baptize with water: but there standeth one among you, whom ye know not.
27 He it is, who coming after me, is preferred before me, whose shoe's latchet I am not worthy to unloose.
28 These things were done in Bethabara beyond Jordan, where John was baptizing.
29 The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world!
30 This is he of whom I said, After me cometh a man which is preferred before me; for he was before me.
31 And I knew him not: but that he should be made manifest to Israel, therefore am I come baptizing with water.
32 And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him.
33 And I knew him not: but he that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending and remaining on him, the same is he which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost.
34 And I saw and bare record, that this is the Son of God.
[pg 092]

§ 19. Jesus gains disciples. The Jordan. Galilee.

John.
CH. I. 35-51.
35 Again the next day after, John stood, and two of his disciples;
36 And looking upon Jesus as he walked, he saith, Behold the Lamb of God!
37 And the two disciples heard him speak, and they followed Jesus.
38 Then Jesus turned, and saw them following, and saith unto them, What seek ye? They said unto him, Rabbi, (which is to say, being interpreted, Master,) where dwellest thou?
39 He saith unto them, Come and see. They came and saw where he dwelt, and abode with him that day: for it was about the tenth hour.
40 One of the two which heard John speak, and followed him, was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother.
41 He first findeth his own brother Simon, and saith unto him, We have found the Messias; which is, being interpreted, the Christ.
42 And he brought him to Jesus. And when Jesus beheld him, he said, Thou art Simon the son of Jona: thou shalt be called Cephas; which is, by interpretation, a stone.112
43 The day following Jesus would go forth into Galilee, and findeth Philip, and saith unto him, Follow me.
44 Now Philip was of Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter.
45 Philip findeth Nathanael,113 and saith unto him, We have found him of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, Jesus of Nazareth the son of Joseph.
46 And Nathanael said unto him, Can there any good thing come out of Nazareth? Philip saith unto him, Come and see.
47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him, and saith of him, Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile!
48 Nathanael saith unto him, Whence knowest thou me? Jesus answered and said unto him, Before that Philip called thee, when thou wast under the fig-tree, I saw thee.
49 Nathanael answered and saith unto him, Rabbi, thou art the Son of God; thou art the King of Israel.
50 Jesus answered and said unto him, Because I said unto thee, I saw thee under the fig-tree, believest thou? thou shalt see greater things than these.
51 And he saith unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Hereafter ye shall see heaven open, and the angels of God ascending and descending upon the114 Son of man.
[pg 096]

§ 20. The Marriage at Cana of Galilee.

John.
CH. II. 1-12.
And the third day there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee; and the mother of Jesus was there.
2 And both Jesus was called, and his disciples, to the marriage.
3 And when they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine.
4 Jesus saith unto her, Woman, what have I to do with thee? mine hour is not yet come.
5 His mother saith unto the servants, Whatsoever he saith unto you, do it.
6 And there were set there six water-pots of stone, after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three firkins apiece.
7 Jesus saith unto them, Fill the water-pots with water. And they filled them up to the brim.
8 And he saith unto them, Draw out now, and bear unto the governor of the feast. And they bare it.
9 When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water that was made wine, and knew not whence it was, (but the servants which drew the water knew,) the governor of the feast called the bridegroom,
10 And saith unto him, Every man at the beginning doth set forth good wine; and when men have well drunk, then that which is worse: but thou hast kept the good wine until now.
11 This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested forth his glory; and his disciples believed on him.
12 After this he went down to Capernaum, he, and his mother, and his brethren, and his disciples; and they continued there not many days.
[pg 099]

Part III. Our Lord's First Passover, And The Subsequent Transactions Until The Second.

Time. One year.

[pg 100]

§ 21. At the Passover Jesus drives the traders out of the Temple. Jerusalem.

John.
CH. II. 13-25.
13 And the Jews' passover was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.
14 And found in the temple those that sold oxen, and sheep, and doves, and the changers of money, sitting:
15 And when he had made a scourge of small cords, he drove them all out of the temple, and the sheep, and the oxen; and poured out the changers' money, and overthrew the tables;
16 And said unto them that sold doves, Take these things hence: make not my Father's house an house of merchandise.
17 And his disciples remembered that it was written,115 The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up.
18 Then answered the Jews, and said unto him, What sign shewest thou unto us, seeing that thou dost these things?
19 Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.
20 Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt thou rear it up in three days?
21 But he spake of the temple of his body.
22 When therefore he was risen from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this unto them: and they believed the scripture, and the word which Jesus had said.
23 Now, when he was in Jerusalem at the passover, in the feast-day, many believed in his name, when they saw the miracles which he did.
24 But Jesus did not commit himself unto them, because he knew all men.
25 And needed not that any should testify of man: for he knew what was in man.

§ 22. Our Lord's discourse with Nicodemus. Jerusalem.

John.
CH. III. 1-21.
There was a man of the Pharisees named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews:
2 The same came to Jesus by night, and said unto him, Rabbi, we know that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do these miracles that thou doest, except God be with him.
3 Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.
4 Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born when he is old? can he enter the second time into his mother's womb, and be born?
5 Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water, and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.
6 That which is born of the flesh, is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit, is spirit.
7 Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again.
8 The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.
9 Nicodemus answered and said unto him, How can these things be?
10 Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou a master of Israel, and knowest not these things?
11 Verily, verily, I say unto thee, We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen; and ye receive not our witness.
12 If I have told you earthly things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe if I tell you of heavenly things?
13 And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven, even the Son of man which is in heaven.
14 And as116 Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up:
15 That whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life.
16 For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him, should not perish, but have everlasting life.
17 For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through him might be saved.
18 He that believeth on him, is not condemned: but he that believeth not, is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.
19 And this is the condemnation, that light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil.
20 For every one that doeth evil hateth the light, neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved.
21 But he that doeth truth, cometh to the light, that his deeds may be made manifest, that they are wrought in God.
[pg 104]

§ 23. Jesus remains in Judea and baptizes. Further testimony of John the Baptist.

John.
CH. III. 22-36.
22 After these things came Jesus and his disciples into the land of Judea; and there he tarried with them, and baptized.
23 And John also was baptizing in Ænon, near to Salim, because there was much water there: and they came, and were baptized.
24 For John was not yet cast into prison.
25 Then there arose a question between some of John's disciples and the Jews, about purifying.
26 And they came unto John and said unto him, Rabbi, he that was with thee beyond Jordan, to whom thou bearest witness, behold, the same baptizeth, and all men come to him.
27 John answered and said, A man can receive nothing, except it be given him from heaven.
28 Ye yourselves bear me witness, that I said, I am not the Christ, but that I am sent before him.
29 He that hath the bride is the bridegroom: but the friend of the bridegroom, which standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth greatly, because of the bridegroom's voice: this my joy therefore is fulfilled.
30 He must increase, but I must decrease.
31 He that cometh from above, is above all: he that is of the earth is earthly, and speaketh of the earth: he that cometh from heaven is above all.
32 And what he hath seen, and heard, that he testifieth; and no man receiveth his testimony.
33 He that hath received his testimony, hath set to his seal that God is true.
34 For he whom God hath sent, speaketh the words of God: for God giveth not the Spirit by measure unto him.
35 The Father loveth the Son, and hath given all things into his hand.
36 He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life: and he that believeth not the Son, shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him.
[pg 106]

§ 24. Jesus departs into Galilee after John's imprisonment.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. IV. 12.CH. I. 14.
12 Now, when Jesus had heard that John was cast into prison, he departed into Galilee.14 Now, after that John was put in prison, Jesus came into Galilee.
CH. XIV. 3-5.CH. VI. 17-20.
3 For Herod had laid hold on John, and bound him, and put him in prison for Herodias' sake, his brother Philip's wife.17 For Herod himself had sent forth and laid hold upon John, and bound him in prison for Herodias' sake, his brother Philip's wife: for he had married her.
4 For John said unto him, It is not lawful for thee to have her.18 For John had said unto Herod, It is not lawful for thee to have thy brother's wife.
5 And when he would have put him to death, he feared the multitude, because they counted him as a prophet.19 Therefore Herodias had a quarrel against him, and would have killed him; but she could not:
20 For Herod feared John, knowing that he was a just man and an holy, and observed him: and when he heard him, he did many things, and heard him gladly.
Luke.John.
CH. IV. 14.CH. IV. 1-3.
When therefore the Lord knew how the Pharisees had heard that Jesus made and baptized more disciples than John,
2 (Though Jesus himself baptized not, but his disciples,)
14 And Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit into Galilee:3 He left Judea, and departed again into Galilee.
CH. III. 19, 20.
19 But Herod the tetrarch, being reproved by him for Herodias his brother Philip's wife, and for all the evils which Herod had done,
20 Added yet this above all, that he shut up John in prison.
[pg 108]

§ 25. Our Lord's discourse with the Samaritan woman. Many Samaritans believe on him. Shechem or Neapolis.

John.
CH. IV. 4-42.
4 And he must needs go through Samaria.
5 Then cometh he to a city of Samaria, which is called Sychar, near to the parcel of ground that Jacob gave to his son Joseph.
6 Now Jacob's well was there. Jesus therefore being wearied with his journey, sat thus on the well: and it was about the sixth hour.
7 There cometh a woman of Samaria to draw water; Jesus saith unto her, Give me to drink.
8 (For his disciples were gone away unto the city to buy meat.)
9 Then saith the woman of Samaria unto him, How is it that thou, being a Jew, askest drink of me, which am a woman of Samaria? for the Jews have no dealings with the Samaritans.
10 Jesus answered and said unto her, If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that saith to thee, Give me to drink; thou wouldest have asked of him, and he would have given thee living water.
11 The woman saith unto him, Sir, thou hast nothing to draw with, and the well is deep: from whence then hast thou that living water?
12 Art thou greater than our father Jacob, which gave us the well, and drank thereof himself, and his children, and his cattle?
13 Jesus answered and said unto her, Whosoever drinketh of this water, shall thirst again:
14 But whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him, shall never thirst; but the water that I shall give him, shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life.
15 The woman saith unto him, Sir, give me this water, that I thirst not, neither come hither to draw.
16 Jesus saith unto her, Go call thy husband, and come hither.
17 The woman answered and said, I have no husband. Jesus said unto her, Thou hast well said, I have no husband:
18 For thou hast had five husbands, and he whom thou now hast, is not thy husband: in that saidst thou truly.
19 The woman saith unto him, Sir, I perceive that thou art a prophet.
20 Our fathers worshipped in this mountain; and ye say, that in Jerusalem is the place where men ought to worship.
21 Jesus saith unto her, Woman, believe me, the hour cometh, when ye shall neither in this mountain, nor yet at Jerusalem, worship the Father.
22 Ye worship ye know not what: we know what we worship, for salvation is of the Jews.
23 But the hour cometh, and now is, when the true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth: for the Father seeketh such to worship him.
24 God is a Spirit: and they that worship him, must worship him in spirit and in truth.
25 The woman saith unto him, I know that the Messias cometh, which is called Christ; when he is come, he will tell us all things.
26 Jesus saith unto her, I that speak unto thee am he.
27 And upon this came his disciples, and marvelled that he talked with the woman: yet no man said, What seekest thou? or, Why talkest thou with her?
28 The woman then left her waterpot, and went her way into the city, and saith to the men,
29 Come, see a man which told me all things that ever I did: is not this the Christ?
30 Then they went out of the city, and came unto him.
31 In the meanwhile his disciples prayed him, saying, Master, eat.
32 But he said unto them, I have meat to eat that ye not know of.
33 Therefore said the disciples one to another, Hath any man brought him aught to eat?
34 Jesus saith unto them, My meat is to do the will of him that sent me, and to finish his work.
35 Say not ye, There are yet four months, and then cometh harvest? behold, I say unto you, Lift up your eyes, and look on the fields; for they are white already to harvest.
36 And he that reapeth receiveth wages, and gathereth fruit unto life eternal: that both he that soweth, and he that reapeth, may rejoice together.
37 And herein is that saying true, One soweth, and another reapeth.
38 I sent you to reap that whereon ye bestowed no labour: other men laboured, and ye are entered into their labours.
39 And many of the Samaritans of that city believed on him for the saying of the woman, which testified, He told me all that ever I did.
40 So when the Samaritans were come unto him, they besought him that he would tarry with them: and he abode there two days.
41 And many more believed, because of his own word;
42 And said unto the woman, Now we believe, not because of thy saying: for we have heard him ourselves, and know that this is indeed the Christ, the Saviour of the world.
[pg 112]

§ 26. Jesus teaches publicly in Galilee.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. IV. 17.CH. I. 14, 15.
17 From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say, Repent: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.preaching the gospel of the kingdom of God,
15 And saying, the time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand; repent ye, and believe the gospel.
Luke.John.
CH. IV. 14, 15.CH. IV. 43-45.
and there went out a fame of him through all the region round about.43 Now, after two days he departed thence, and went into Galilee.
15 And he taught in their synagogues, being glorified of all.44 For Jesus himself testified, that a prophet hath no honour in his own country.
45 Then when he was come into Galilee, the Galileans received him, having seen all the things that he did at Jerusalem at the feast: for they also went unto the feast.

§ 27. Jesus, again at Cana, heals the son of a nobleman lying ill at Capernaum. Cana of Galilee.

John.
CH. IV. 46-54.
46 So Jesus came again into Cana of Galilee, where he made the water wine. And there was a certain nobleman, whose son was sick at Capernaum.
47 When he heard that Jesus was come out of Judea into Galilee, he went unto him, and besought him that he would come down, and heal his son: for he was at the point of death.
48 Then said Jesus unto him, Except ye see signs and wonders, ye will not believe.
49 The nobleman saith unto him, Sir, come down ere my child die.
50 Jesus saith unto him, Go thy way; thy son liveth. And the man believed the word that Jesus had spoken unto him, and he went his way.
51 And as he was now going down, his servants met him, and told him, saying, Thy son liveth.
52 Then inquired he of them the hour when he began to amend. And they said unto him, Yesterday at the seventh hour the fever left him.
53 So the father knew that it was at the same hour, in the which Jesus said unto him, Thy son liveth: and himself believed, and his whole house.
54 This is again the second miracle that Jesus did, when he was come out of Judea into Galilee.
[pg 114]

§ 28. Jesus is rejected at Nazareth, and fixes his abode at Capernaum.

Matthew.
CH. IV. 13-16.
13 And leaving Nazareth, he came and dwelt in Capernaum, which is upon the sea-coast, in the borders of Zabulon and Napthalim;
14 That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying,117
15 The land of Zabulon, and the land of Napthalim, by the way of the sea, beyond Jordan, Galilee of the Gentiles:
16 The people which sat in darkness, saw great light; and to them which sat in the region and shadow of death, light is sprung up.
Luke.
CH. IV. 16-31.
16 And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up: and, as his custom was, he went into the synagogue on the sabbath-day, and stood up for to read.
17 And there was delivered unto him the book of the prophet Esaias. And when he had opened the book, he found the place where it was written,118
18 The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me to preach the gospel to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to preach deliverance to the captives, and recovering of sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised,
19 To preach the acceptable year of the Lord.
20 And he closed the book, and he gave it again to the minister,119 and sat down.120 And the eyes of all them that were in the synagogue were fastened on him.
21 And he began to say unto them, This day is the scripture fulfilled in your ears.
22 And all bare him witness, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth. And they said, Is not this Joseph's son?
23 And he said unto them, Ye will surely say unto me this proverb, Physician, heal thyself: whatsoever we have heard done in Capernaum, do also here in thy country.
24 And he said, Verily, I say unto you, No prophet is accepted in his own country.
25 But I tell you of a truth, many widows were in Israel in the days of Elias, when the heaven was shut up three years and six months, when great famine was throughout all the land:
26 But unto none of them was Elias sent, save unto Sarepta, a city of Sidon, unto a woman that was a widow.121
27 And many lepers were in Israel in the time of Eliseus the prophet; and none of them was cleansed, saving Naaman the Syrian.122
28 And all they in the synagogue, when they heard these things, were filled with wrath,
29 And rose up, and thrust him out of the city, and led him unto the brow of the hill,123 (whereon their city was built,) that they might cast him down headlong.
30 But he, passing through the midst of them, went his way,
31 And came down to Capernaum, a city of Galilee,
[pg 118]

§ 29. The call of Simon Peter and Andrew, and of James and John, with the miraculous draught of fishes. Near Capernaum.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. IV. 18-22.CH. I. 16-20.
18 And Jesus, walking124 by the sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon called Peter, and Andrew his brother,16 Now as he walked by the sea of Galilee, he saw Simon, and Andrew his brother,
casting a net into the sea; for they were fishers.casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers.
19 And he saith unto them, Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men.17 And Jesus said unto them, Come ye after me, and I will make you to become fishers of men.
20 And they straightway left their nets, and followed him.18 And straightway they forsook their nets, and followed him.
21 And going on from thence, he saw other two brethren, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in a ship with Zebedee their father,125 mending their nets: and he called them.19 And when he had gone a little farther thence, he saw James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, who also were in the ship mending their nets.
22 And they immediately left the ship, and their father, and followed him.20 And straightway he called them: and they left their father Zebedee in the ship with the hired servants, and went after him.
Luke.
CH. V. 1-11.
And it came to pass, that as the people pressed upon him to hear the word of God, he stood by the lake of Gennesaret,
2 And saw two ships standing by the lake: but the fishermen were gone out of them, and were washing their nets.
3 And he entered into one of the ships which was Simon's, and prayed him that he would thrust out a little from the land. And he sat down, and taught the people out of the ship.
4 Now, when he had left speaking, he said unto Simon, Launch out into the deep, and let down your nets for a draught.
5 And Simon, answering, said unto him, Master, we have toiled all the night, and have taken nothing; nevertheless, at thy word I will let down the net.
6 And when they had this done, they enclosed a great multitude of fishes: and their net brake.
7 And they beckoned unto their partners, which were in the other ship, that they should come and help them. And they came, and filled both the ships, so that they began to sink.
8 When Simon Peter saw it, he fell down at Jesus' knees, saying, Depart from me; for I am a sinful man, O Lord.
9 For he was astonished, and all that were with him, at the draught of the fishes which they had taken:
10 And so was also James and John the sons of Zebedee, which were partners with Simon. And Jesus said unto Simon, Fear not: from henceforth thou shalt catch men.
11 And when they had brought their ships to land, they forsook all, and followed him.
[pg 120]

§ 30. The healing of a demoniac in the Synagogue. Capernaum.

Mark.Luke.
CH. I. 21-28.CH. IV. 31-37.
21 And they went into Capernaum; and straightway on the sabbath-day he entered into the synagogue and taught.and taught them on the Sabbath-days.
22 And they were astonished at his doctrine: for he taught them as one that had authority, and not as the scribes.32 And they were astonished at his doctrine: for his word was with power.
23 And there was in their synagogue a man with an unclean spirit; and he cried out,33 And in the synagogue there was a man which had a spirit of an unclean devil; and he cried out with a loud voice,
24 Saying, Let us alone; what have we to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth? art thou, come to destroy us? I know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God.34 Saying, Let us alone; what have we to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth? art thou come to destroy us? I know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God.
25 And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Hold thy peace, and come out of him.35 And Jesus rebuked him, saying, Hold thy peace, and come out of him. And when the devil had thrown him in the midst, he came out of him, and hurt him not.
26 And when the unclean spirit had torn him,126 and cried with a loud voice, he came out of him.36 And they were all amazed, and spake among themselves, saying, What a word is this! for with authority and power he commandeth the unclean spirits, and they come out.
27 And they were all amazed, insomuch that they questioned among themselves, saying, What thing is this? what new doctrine is this? for with authority commandeth he even the unclean spirits, and they do obey him.
28 And immediately his fame spread abroad throughout all the region round about Galilee.37 And the fame of him went out into every place of the country round about.
[pg 122]

§ 31. The healing of Peter's wife's mother and many others. Capernaum.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. VIII. 14-17.CH. I. 29-34.
29 And forthwith, when they were come out of the synagogue, they entered into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John.
14 And when Jesus was come into Peter's house, he saw his wife's mother laid, and sick of a fever.30 But Simon's wife's mother lay sick of a fever; and anon they tell him of her.
15 And he touched her hand, and the fever left her: and she arose, and ministered unto them.31 And he came and took her by the hand, and lifted her up; and immediately the fever left her, and she ministered unto them.
16 When the even was come, they brought unto him many that were possessed with devils: and he cast out the spirits with his word, and healed all that were sick;32 And at even when the sun did set, they brought unto him all that were diseased, and them that were possessed with devils.
17 That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet, saying,127 Himself took our infirmities, and bare our sicknesses.33 And all the city was gathered together at the door.
34 And he healed many that were sick of divers diseases, and cast out many devils; and suffered not the devils to speak, because they knew him.
Luke.
CH. IV. 38-41.
38 And he arose out of the synagogue, and entered into Simon's house. And Simon's wife's mother was taken with a great fever; and they besought him for her.
39 And he stood over her, and rebuked the fever; and it left her: and immediately she arose and ministered unto them.
40 Now, when the sun was setting, all they that had any sick with divers diseases, brought them unto him: and he laid his hands on every one of them, and healed them.
41 And devils also came out of many, crying out, and saying, Thou art Christ the Son of God. And he, rebuking them, suffered them not to speak: for they knew that he was Christ.

§ 32. Jesus with his disciples goes from Capernaum throughout Galilee.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. IV. 23-25.CH. I. 35-39.
35 And in the morning, rising up a while before day, he went out and departed into a solitary place, and there prayed.
36 And Simon, and they that were with him, followed after him.
37 And when they had found him, they said unto him, All men seek for thee.
38 And he said unto them, Let us go into the next towns, that I may preach there also: for therefore came I forth.
23 And Jesus went about all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing all manner of sickness, and all manner of disease among the people.39 And he preached in their synagogues throughout all Galilee, and cast out devils.
24 And his fame went throughout all Syria: and they brought unto him all sick people that were taken with divers diseases and torments, and those which were possessed with devils, and those which were lunatic, and those that had the palsy; and he healed them.
25 And there followed him great multitudes of people from Galilee, and from Decapolis, and from Jerusalem, and from Judea, and from beyond Jordan.
Luke.
CH. IV. 42-44.
42 And when it was day,128 he departed, and went into a desert place; and the people sought him, and came unto him, and stayed him, that he should not depart from them.
43 And he said unto them, I must preach the kingdom of God to other cities also, for therefore am I sent.
44 And he preached in the synagogues of Galilee.
[pg 124]

§ 33. The healing of a leper. Galilee.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. VIII. 2-4.CH. I. 40-45.
2 And behold, there came a leper and worshipped him, saying, Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean.40 And there came a leper to him, beseeching him, and kneeling down to him, and saying unto him, If thou wilt, thou canst make me clean.
3 And Jesus put forth his hand, and touched him, saying, I will; be thou clean. And immediately his leprosy was cleansed.41 And Jesus, moved with compassion, put forth his hand, and touched him, and saith unto him, I will; be thou clean.
42 And as soon as he had spoken, immediately the leprosy departed from him, and he was cleansed.
4 And Jesus saith unto him, See thou tell no man:129 but go thy way, shew thyself to the priest, and offer the gift that Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them.13043 And he straitly charged him, and forthwith sent him away;
44 And saith unto him, See thou say nothing to any man; but go thy way, shew thyself to the priest, and offer for thy cleansing those things which Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them.
45 But he went out, and began to publish it much, and to blaze abroad the matter, insomuch that Jesus could no more openly enter into the city, but was without in desert places: and they came to him from every quarter.
Luke.
CH. V. 12-16.
12 And it came to pass, when he was in a certain city, behold, a man full of leprosy: who, seeing Jesus, fell on his face, and besought him, saying, Lord, if thou wilt, thou canst make me clean.
13 And he put forth his hand and touched him, saying, I will: Be thou clean. And immediately the leprosy departed from him.
14 And he charged him to tell no man: but go, and shew thyself to the priest, and offer for thy cleansing, according as Moses commanded, for a testimony unto them.
15 But so much the more went there a fame abroad of him: and great multitudes came together to hear and to be healed by him of their infirmities.
16 And he withdrew himself into the wilderness, and prayed.
[pg 126]

§ 34. The healing of a paralytic. Capernaum.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. IX. 2-8.CH. II. 1-12.
And again he entered into Capernaum, after some days; and it was noised that he was in the house.
2 And straightway many were gathered together, insomuch that there was no room to receive them, no, not so much as about the door: and he preached the word unto them.
2 And behold, they brought to him a man sick of the palsy, lying on a bed: and Jesus, seeing their faith, said unto the sick of the palsy, Son, be of good cheer; thy sins be forgiven thee.3 And they come unto him, bringing one sick of the palsy, which was borne of four.
4 And when they could not come nigh unto him for the press, they uncovered the roof where he was: and when they had broken it up, they let down the bed wherein the sick of the palsy lay.
5 When Jesus saw their faith, he said unto the sick of the palsy, Son, thy sins be forgiven thee.
3 And behold, certain of the scribes said within themselves, This man blasphemeth.6 But there were certain of the scribes sitting there, and reasoning in their hearts,
7 Why doth this man thus speak blasphemies? who can forgive sins but God only?
4 And Jesus, knowing their thoughts, said, Wherefore think ye evil in your hearts?8 And immediately, when Jesus perceived in his spirit, that they so reasoned within themselves, he said unto them, Why reason ye these things in your hearts?
5 For whether is easier to say, Thy sins be forgiven thee; or to say, Arise, and walk?9 Whether is it easier to say to the sick of the palsy, Thy sins be forgiven thee; or to say, Arise, and take up thy bed, and walk?
6 But that ye may know that the Son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins, (then saith he to the sick of the palsy,) Arise, take up thy bed, and go unto thy house.10 But that ye may know that the Son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins (he saith to the sick of the palsy,)
7 And he arose, and departed to his house.11 I say unto thee, Arise, and take up thy bed, and go thy way into thy house.
8 But when the multitude saw it, they marvelled, and glorified God, which had given such power unto men.12 And immediately he arose, took up the bed, and went forth before them all; insomuch that they were all amazed, and glorified God, saying, We never saw it on this fashion.
Luke.
CH. V. 17-26.
17 And it came to pass on a certain day, as he was teaching, that there were Pharisees and doctors of the law sitting by, which were come out of every town of Galilee, and Judea, and Jerusalem: and the power of the Lord was present to heal them.
18 And behold, men brought in a bed a man which was taken with a palsy: and they sought means to bring him in, and to lay him before him.
19 And when they could not find by what way they might bring him in, because of the multitude, they went upon the house-top, and let him down through the tiling with his couch, into the midst before Jesus.
20 And when he saw their faith, he said unto him, Man, thy sins are forgiven thee.
21 And the scribes and the Pharisees began to reason, saying, Who is this which speaketh blasphemies? Who can forgive sins but God alone?
22 But when Jesus perceived their thoughts, he, answering, said unto them, What reason ye in your hearts?
23 Whether is easier, to say, Thy sins be forgiven thee; or to say, Rise up and walk?
24 But that ye may know that the Son of man hath power upon earth to forgive sins, (he said unto the sick of the palsy,) I say unto thee, Arise, and take up thy couch, and go unto thine house.
25 And immediately he arose up before them, and took up that whereon he lay, and departed to his own house, glorifying God.
26 And they were all amazed, and they glorified God, and were filled with fear, saying, We have seen strange things to-day.
[pg 128]

§ 35. The call of Matthew. Capernaum.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. IX. 9.CH. II. 13, 14.
9 And as Jesus passed forth from thence, he saw a man named Matthew, sitting at the receipt of custom: and he saith unto him, Follow me. And he arose, and followed him.13 And he went forth again by the sea-side; and all the multitude resorted unto him, and he taught them.
14 And as he passed by, he saw Levi131 the son of Alpheus, sitting at the receipt of custom, and said unto him, Follow me. And he arose, and followed him.
Luke.
CH. V. 27, 28.
27 And after these things he went forth, and saw a publican named Levi, sitting at the receipt of custom: and he said unto him, Follow me.
28 And he left all, rose up, and followed him.
[pg 131]

Part IV. Our Lord's Second Passover, And The Subsequent Transactions Until The Third.

Time. One year.

[pg 132]

§ 36. The pool of Bethesda; the healing of the infirm man; and our Lord's subsequent discourse. Jerusalem.

John.
CH. V. 1-47.
After this there was a feast of the Jews: and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.
2 Now there is at Jerusalem, by the sheep market, a pool, which is called in the Hebrew tongue, Bethesda,132 having five porches.
3 In these lay a great multitude of impotent folk, of blind, halt, withered, waiting for the moving of the water.
4 For an angel went down at a certain season into the pool, and troubled the water: whosoever then first after the troubling of the water stepped in, was made whole of whatsoever disease he had.
5 And a certain man was there, which had an infirmity thirty and eight years.
6 When Jesus saw him lie, and knew that he had been now a long time in that case, he saith unto him, Wilt thou be made whole?
7 The impotent man answered him, Sir, I have no man, when the water is troubled, to put me into the pool: but while I am coming, another steppeth down before me.
8 Jesus saith unto him, Rise, take up thy bed, and walk.
9 And immediately the man was made whole, and took up his bed, and walked: and on the same day was the sabbath.
10 The Jews therefore said unto him that was cured, It is the sabbath-day; it is not lawful for thee to carry thy bed.
11 He answered them, He that made me whole, the same said unto me, Take up thy bed, and walk.
12 Then asked they him, What man is that which said unto thee, Take up thy bed, and walk?
13 And he that was healed wist not who it was: for Jesus had conveyed himself away, a multitude being in that place.
14 Afterward Jesus findeth him in the temple, and said unto him, Behold, thou art made whole; sin no more, lest a worse thing come unto thee.
15 The man departed, and told the Jews that it was Jesus which had made him whole.
16 And therefore did the Jews persecute Jesus, and sought to slay him, because he had done things things on the sabbath-day.
17 But Jesus answered them, My Father worketh hitherto, and I work.
18 Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, because he not only had broken the sabbath, but said also, hat God was his Father, making himself equal with God.
19 Then answered Jesus, and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing of himself, but what he seeth the Father do: for what things soever he doeth, these also doeth the Son likewise.
20 For the Father loveth the Son, and sheweth him all things that himself doeth: and he will shew him greater works than these, that ye may marvel.
21 For as the Father raiseth up the dead, and quickeneth them; even so the Son quickeneth whom he will.
22 For the Father judgeth no man; but hath committed all judgment unto the Son:
23 That all men should honour the Son, even as they honour the Father. He that honoureth not the Son, honoureth not the Father which has sent him.
24 Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation; but is passed from death into life.
25 Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour is coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God: and they that hear shall live.
26 For as the Father hath life in himself, so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself;
27 And hath given him authority to execute judgment also, because he is the Son of man.
28 Marvel not at this: for the hour is coming, in the which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice,
29 And shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation.
30 I can of mine own self do nothing: as I hear, I judge: and my judgment is just; because I seek not mine own will, but the will of the Father which hath sent me.
31 If I bear witness of myself, my witness is not true.
32 There is another that beareth witness of me, and I know that the witness which he witnesseth of me is true.
33 Ye sent unto John, and he bare witness unto the truth.
34 But I receive not testimony from man: but these things I say, that ye might be saved.
35 He was a burning and a shining light: and ye were willing for a season to rejoice in his light.
36. But I have greater witness than that of John: for the works which the Father hath given me to finish, the same works that I do, bear witness of me, that the Father hath sent me.
37 And the Father himself which hath sent me, hath borne witness of me. Ye have neither heard his voice133 at any time, nor seen his shape.
38 And ye have not his word abiding in you: for whom he hath sent, him ye believe not.
39 Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: And they are they which testify of me.
40 And ye will not come to me, that ye might have life.
41 I receive not honour from men.
42 But I know you, that ye have not the love of God in you.
43 I am come in my Father's name, and ye receive me not: if another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive.
44 How can ye believe, which receive honour one of another, and seek not the honour that cometh from God only?
45 Do not think that I will accuse you to the Father: there is one that accuseth you, even Moses, in whom ye trust.
46 For had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me: for he wrote of me.
47 But if ye believe not his writings, how shall ye believe my words?
[pg 138]

§ 37. The disciples pluck ears of grain on the Sabbath. On the way to Galilee?

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XII. 1-8.CH. II. 23-28.
At that time Jesus went on the sabbath-day through the corn, and his disciples were a hungered, and began to pluck the ears of corn, and to eat.13423 And it came to pass, that he went through the corn-fields on the sabbath-day; and his disciples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of Corn.
2 But when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto him, Behold, thy disciples do that which is not lawful to do upon the sabbath-day.13524 And the Pharisees said unto him, Behold, why do they on the sabbath-day that which is not lawful?
3 But he said unto them, Have ye not read what David did when he was a hungered, and they that were with him;25 And he said unto them, Have ye never read what David did,136 when he had need, and was a hungered, he and they that were with him?
4 How he entered into the house of God, and did eat the shew-bread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them which were with him, but only for the priests?26 How he went into the house of God, in the days of Abiathar137 the high priest, and did eat the shew-bread, which is not lawful to eat, but for the priests, and gave also to them which were with him?
5 Or have ye not read in the law how that on the sabbath-days the priests in the temple profane the sabbath, and are blameless?138
6 But I say unto you, that in this place is one greater than the temple.
7 But if ye had known what this meaneth,139 I will have mercy, and not sacrifice, ye would not have condemned the guiltless.27 And he said unto them, The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath:
8 For the Son of man is Lord even of the sabbath-day.28 Therefore, the Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath.
Luke.
CH. VI. 1-5.
And it came to pass on the second sabbath after the first, that he went through the corn-fields; and his disciples plucked the ears of corn, and did eat, rubbing them in their hands.
2 And certain of the Pharisees said unto them, Why do ye that which is not lawful to do on the sabbath-days?
3 And Jesus, answering them, said, Have ye not read so much as this, what David did, when himself was a hungered, and they which were with him;
4 How he went into the house of God, and did take and eat the shewbread, and gave also to them that were with him, which it is not lawful to eat but for the priests alone?
5 And he said unto them, That the Son of man is Lord also of the sabbath.
[pg 140]

§ 38. The healing of the withered hand on the Sabbath. Galilee.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XII. 9-14.CH. III. 1-6.
9 And when he was departed thence, he went into their synagogue.And he entered again into the synagogue; and there was a man there which had a withered hand.
10 And behold, there was a man which had his hand withered. And they asked him, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath-days? that they might accuse him.2 And they watched him, whether he would heal him on the sabbath-day; that they might accuse him.
11 And he said unto them, What man shall there be among you, that shall have one sheep, and if it fall into a pit on the sabbath-day, will he not lay hold of it, and lift it out?3 And he saith unto the man which had the withered hand, Stand forth.
4 And he saith unto them, Is it lawful to do good on the sabbath-days, or to do evil? to save life, or to kill? But they held their peace.
12 How much then is a man better than a sheep? wherefore it is lawful to do well on the sabbath-days.5 And when he had looked round about on them with anger, being grieved for the hardness of their hearts, he saith unto the man, Stretch forth thy hand. And he stretched it out: and his hand was restored whole as the other.
13 Then saith he to the man, Stretch forth thy hand. And he stretched it forth; and it was restored whole, like as the other.6 And the Pharisees went forth, and straightway took counsel with the Herodians against him, how they might destroy him.
Luke.
CH. VI. 6-11.
6 And it came to pass also on another sabbath, that he entered into the synagogue, and taught: and there was a man whose right hand was withered:
7 And the scribes and Pharisees watched him, whether he would heal on the sabbath-day; that they might find an accusation against him.
8 But he knew their thoughts, and said to the man which had the withered hand, Rise up, and stand forth in the midst. And he arose, and stood forth.
9 Then said Jesus unto them, I will ask you one thing; Is it lawful on the sabbath-days to do good, or to do evil? to save life, or to destroy it?
10 And looking round about upon them all, he said unto the man, Stretch forth thy hand. And he did so: and his hand was restored whole as the other.
11 And they were filled with madness; and communed one with another what they might do to Jesus.

§ 39. Jesus arrives at the sea of Tiberias, and is followed by multitudes. Lake of Galilee.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XII. 15-21.CH. III. 7-12.
15 But when Jesus knew it, he withdrew himself from thence: and great multitudes followed him, and he healed them all.7 But Jesus withdrew himself with his disciples to the sea: and a great multitude from Galilee followed him, and from Judea,
16 And charged them that they should not make him known:8 And from Jerusalem, and from Idumea, and from beyond Jordan; and they about Tyre and Sidon, a great multitude, when they had heard what great things he did, came unto him.
17 That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by Esaias the prophet,140 saying,
18 Behold my servant, whom I have chosen; my beloved, in whom my soul is well pleased: I will put my Spirit upon him, and he shall shew judgment to the Gentiles.9 And he spake to his disciples, that a small ship should wait on him, because of the multitude, lest they should throng him.
19 He shall not strive, nor cry; neither shall any man hear his voice in the streets.10 For he had healed many; insomuch that they pressed upon him for to touch him, as many as had plagues.
20 A bruised reed shall he not break, and smoking flax,141 shall he not quench, till he send forth judgment unto victory.11 And unclean spirits, when they saw him, fell down before him, and cried, saying, Thou art the Son of God.
21 And in his name shall the Gentiles trust.12 And he straightly charged them, that they should not make him known.
[pg 142]

§ 40. Jesus withdraws to the Mountain and chooses the Twelve; multitudes follow him. Near Capernaum.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. X. 2-4.CH. III. 13-19.
13 And he goeth up into a mountain, and called unto him whom he would: and they came unto him.
14 And he ordained twelve, that they should be with him, and that he might send them forth to preach.
15 And to have power to heal sicknesses, and to cast out devils.
2 Now the names of the twelve apostles are these; The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother;16 And Simon he surnamed Peter.
17 And James the son of Zebedee, and John the brother of James, (and he surnamed them Boanerges, which is, The sons of thunder,)
3 Philip, and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the publican;142 James the son of Alpheus, and Lebbeus,143 whose surname was Thaddeus;18 And Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and James the son of Alpheus, and Thaddeus, and Simon the Canaanite,
4 Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him.19 And Judas Iscariot, which also betrayed him: and they went into a house.
Luke.
CH. VI. 12-19.
12 And it came to pass in those days, that he went out into a mountain to pray, and continued all night in prayer to God.
13 And when it was day, he called unto him his disciples: and of them he chose twelve, whom also he named Apostles;
14 Simon (whom he also named Peter) and Andrew his brother, James and John, Philip and Bartholomew,
15 Matthew and Thomas, James the son of Alpheus, and Simon called Zelotes,
16 And Judas the brother of James, and Judas Iscariot, which also was the traitor.
17 And he came down with them, and stood in the plain; and the company of his disciples, and a great multitude of people out of all Judea and Jerusalem, and from the sea-coast of Tyre and Sidon, which came to hear him, and to be healed of their diseases;
18 And they that were vexed with unclean spirits: and they were healed.
19 And the whole multitude sought to touch him; for there went virtue out of him, and healed them all.
[pg 144]

§ 41. The Sermon on the Mount. Near Capernaum.

Matthew.Luke.
CH. V. VI. VII. VIII. 1.CH. VI. 20-49.
And seeing the multitudes, he went up into a mountain: and when he was set, his disciples came unto him.144
2 And he opened his mouth, and taught them, saying,20 And he lifted up his eyes on his disciples, and said, Blessed be ye poor; for yours is the kingdom of God.
3 Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.21 Blessed are ye that hunger now: for ye shall be filled. Blessed are ye that weep now: for ye shall laugh.
4 Blessed are they that mourn: for they shall be comforted.22 Blessed are ye when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from their company, and shall reproach you, and cast out your name as evil, for the Son of man's sake.
5 Blessed are the meek: for they shall inherit the earth.
6 Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled.
7 Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.
8 Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God.
9 Blessed are the peace-makers: for they shall be called the children of God.
10 Blessed are they which are persecuted for righteousness' sake: for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
11 Blessed are ye when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and shall say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake.
12 Rejoice, and be exceeding glad: for great is your reward in heaven: for so persecuted they the prophets which were before you.23 Rejoice ye in that day, and leap for joy: for behold, your reward is great in heaven: for in the like manner did their fathers unto the prophets.
24 But wo unto you that are rich! for ye have received your consolation.
25 Wo unto you that are full! for ye shall hunger. Wo unto you that laugh now! for ye shall mourn and weep.
26 Wo unto you, when all men shall speak well of you! for so did their fathers to the false prophets.
13 Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be salted? it is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men.
14 Ye are the light of the world. A city that is set on a hill cannot be hid.
15 Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick: and it giveth light unto all that are in the house.
16 let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.
17 Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.
18 For verily, I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.
19 Whosoever therefore shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven: but whosoever shall do, and teach them, the same shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven.
20 For I say unto you, That except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven.
21 Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill, shall be in danger of the judgment:
22 But I say unto you, That whosoever is angry with his brother, without a cause, shall be in danger of the judgment: and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council: but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell-fire.
23 Therefore, if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there rememberest that thy brother hath aught against thee,
24 Leave there thy gift before the altar, and go thy way, first be reconciled to thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift.
25 Agree with thine adversary quickly, while thou art in the way with him; lest at any time the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison.
26 Verily, I say unto thee, Thou shall by no means come out thence, till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing.
27 Ye have heard that it was said by them of old time, Thou shalt not commit adultery:
28 But I say unto you, That whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after her, hath committed adultery with her already in his heart.
29 And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.
30 And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee: for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell.
31 It hath been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorcement:
32 But I say unto you, That whosoever shall put away his wife, saving for the cause of fornication, causeth her to commit adultery: and whosoever shall marry her that is divorced, committeth adultery.
33 Again, ye have heard that it hath been said by them of old time, Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths:
34 But I say unto you, Swear not at all: neither by heaven; for it is God's throne:
35 Nor by the earth; for it is his footstool: neither by Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King:
36 Neither shalt thou swear by thy head; because thou canst not make one hair white or black.
37 But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil.
38 Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.
39 But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also.
40 And if any man will sue thee at the law, and take away thy coat, let him have thy cloak also.
41 And whosoever shall compel thee145 to go a mile, go with him twain.
42 Give to him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee, turn not thou away.
43 Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy:
44 But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you;27 But I say unto you which hear, Love your enemies, do good to them which hate you,
28 Bless them that curse you, and pray for them which despitefully use you.
29 And unto him that smiteth thee on the one cheek, offer also the other; and him that taketh away thy cloak, forbid not to take thy coat also.
30 Give to every man that asketh of thee; and of him that taketh away thy goods ask them not again.
45 That ye may be the children of your Father which is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust.31 And as ye would that men should do to you, do ye also to them likewise.
46 For if ye love them which love you, what reward have ye? do not even the publicans the same?32 For if ye love them which love you, what thank have ye? for sinners also love those that love them.
47 And if ye salute your brethren only, what do ye more than others? do not even the publicans so?33 And if ye do good to them which do good to you, what thank have ye? for sinners also do even the same.
34 And if ye lend to them of whom ye hope to receive, what thank have ye? for sinners also lend to sinners, to receive as much again.
35 But love ye your enemies, and do good, and lend, hoping for nothing again; and your reward shall be great, and ye shall be the children of the Highest: for he is kind unto the unthankful and to the evil.
36 Be ye therefore merciful, as your Father also is merciful.
48 Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.
CH. VI.
Take heed that ye do not your alms before men, to be seen of them: otherwise ye have no reward of your Father which is in heaven.
2 Therefore, when thou doest thine alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do, in the synagogues, and in the streets, that they may have glory of men. Verily, I say unto you, They have their reward.
3 But when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth;
4 That thine alms may be in secret: and thy Father which seeth in secret, himself shall reward thee openly.
5 And when thou prayest, thou shalt not be as the hypocrites are; for they love to pray standing in the synagogues, and in the corners of the streets, that they may be seen of men. Verily, I say unto you, They have their reward.
6 But thou, when thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and when thou hast shut thy door, pray to thy Father which is in secret; and thy Father, which seeth in secret, shall reward thee openly.
7 But when ye pray, use not vain repetitions, as the heathen do: for they think that they shall be heard for their much speaking.
8 Be not yet therefore like unto them: for your Father knoweth what things ye have need of before ye ask him.
9 After this manner therefore pray ye: Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name.
10 Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth as it is in heaven.
11 Give us this day our daily bread.
12 And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors.
13 And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. Amen.
14 For, if ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you:
15 But, if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses.
16 Moreover, when ye fast, be not as the hypocrites, of a sad countenance: for they disfigure their faces, that they may appear unto men to fast. Verily, I say unto you, They have their reward.
17 But thou, when thou fastest, anoint thy head, and wash thy face;
18 That thou appear not unto men to fast, but unto thy Father, which is in secret: and thy Father, which seeth in secret, shall reward thee openly.
19 Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal:
20 But lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal.
21 For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.
22 The light of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light.
23 But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness!
24 No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.
25 Therefore I say unto you, Take no thought for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on. Is not the life more than meat, and the body than raiment?
26 Behold the fowls of the air: for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they?
27 Which of you by taking thought can add one cubit unto his stature?
28 And why take ye thought for raiment? Consider the lilies of the field how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin;
29 And yet I say unto you, That even Solomon, in all his glory, was not arrayed like one of these.
30 Wherefore, if God so clothe the grass of the field, which to-day is, and to-morrow is cast into the oven, shall he not much more clothe you, O ye of little faith?
31 Therefore take no thought, saying, What shall we eat? or, what shall we drink? or, wherewithal shall we be clothed?
32 (For after all these things do the Gentiles seek) for your heavenly Father knoweth that ye have need of all these things.
33 But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness, and all these things shall be added unto you.
34 Take therefore no thought for the morrow: for the morrow shall take thought for the things of itself. Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof.
CH. VII.CH. VI. 20-49.
Judge not, that ye be not judged.37 Judge not, and ye shall not be judged: condemn not, and ye shall not be condemned: forgive, and ye shall be forgiven:
2 For with what judgment ye judge, ye shall be judged: and with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again.
38 Give, and it shall be given unto you; good measure, pressed down, and shaken together, and running over, shall men give into your bosom. For with the same measure that ye mete withal, it shall be measured to you again.
39 And he spake a parable unto them; Can the blind lead the blind? shall they not both fall into the ditch?
40 The disciple is not above his master: but every one that is perfect, shall be as his master.
3 And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but considerest not the beam that is in thine own eye?41 And why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brother's eye, but perceivest not the beam that is in thine own eye?
4 Or how wilt thou say to thy brother, Let me pull out the mote out of thine eye; and behold a beam is in thine own eye?42 Either how canst thou say to thy brother, Brother, let me pull out the mote that is in thine eye, when thou thyself beholdest not the beam that is in thine own eye? Thou hypocrite, cast out first the beam out of thine own eye, and then shalt thou see clearly to pull out the mote that is in thy brother's eye.
5 Thou hypocrite, first cast out the beam out of thine own eye; and then shalt thou see clearly to cast out the mote out of thy brother's eye.
6 Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast ye your pearls before swine, lest they trample them under their feet, and turn again and rend you.
7 Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you:
8 For every one that asketh receiveth; and he that seeketh, findeth; and to him that knocketh, it shall be opened.
9 Or what man is there of you, whom if his son ask bread, will he give him a stone?
10 Or if he ask a fish, will he give him a serpent?
11 If ye then being evil know how to give good gifts unto your children, how much more shall your Father which is in heaven give good things to them that ask him?
12 Therefore all things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them: for this is the law and the prophets.
13 Enter ye in at the strait gate; for wide is the gate, and broad is the way, that leadeth to destruction, and many there be which go in thereat:
14 Because, strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it.
15 Beware of false prophets, which come to you in sheep's clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves.
16 Ye shall know them by their fruits: Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles?
17 Even so every good tree bringeth forth good fruit; but a corrupt tree bringeth forth evil fruit.43 For a good tree bringeth not forth corrupt fruit; neither doth a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit.
18 A good tree cannot bring forth evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree bring forth good fruit.44 For every tree is known by his own fruit: for of thorns men do not gather figs, nor of a bramble-bush gather they grapes.
19 Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire.
20 Wherefore, by their fruits ye shall know them.
45 A good man out of the good treasure of his heart, bringeth forth that which is good; and an evil man, out of the evil treasure of his heart, bringeth forth that which is evil: for of the abundance of the heart his mouth speaketh.
21 Not every one that saith unto me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my father which is in heaven.46 And why call ye me Lord, Lord, and do not the things which I say?
22 Many will say to me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name? and in thy name have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works?47 Whosoever cometh to me, and heareth my sayings, and doeth them, I will shew you to whom he is like.
23 And then will I profess unto them, I never knew you: depart from me, ye that work iniquity.
24 Therefore, whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them, I will liken him unto a wise man, which built his house upon a rock:48 He is like a man which built a house, and digged deep, and laid the foundation on a rock: and when the flood arose, the stream beat vehemently upon that house, and could not shake it: for it was founded upon a rock.
25 And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house, and it fell not: for it was founded upon a rock:
26 And every one that heareth these sayings of mine, and doeth them not, shall be likened unto a foolish man, which built his house upon the sand:49 But he that heareth and doeth not, is like a man that without a foundation built a house upon the earth, against which the stream did beat vehemently, and immediately it fell, and the ruin of that house was great.
27 And the rain descended, and the floods came, and the winds blew, and beat upon that house; and it fell: and great was the fall of it.
28 And it came to pass when Jesus had ended these sayings, the people were astonished at his doctrine.
29 For he taught them as one having authority, and not as the scribes.
CH. VIII.
When he was come down from the mountain, great multitudes followed him.
[pg 160]

§ 42. The healing of the centurion's servant. Capernaum.

Matthew.Luke.
CH. VIII. 5-13.CH. VII. 1-10.
5 And when Jesus was entered into Capernaum, there came unto him146 a centurion, beseeching him,Now, when he had ended all his sayings in the audience of the people, he entered into Capernaum,
6 And saying, Lord, my servant lieth at home sick of the palsy, grievously tormented.2 And a certain centurion's servant, who was dear unto him, was sick, and ready to die.
3 And when he heard of Jesus, he sent unto him the elders of the Jews, beseeching him that he would come and heal his servant.
7 And Jesus saith unto him, I will come and heal him.4 And when they came to Jesus, they besought him instantly, saying, That he was worthy for whom he should do this:
5 For he loveth our nation, and he hath built us a synagogue.
8 The centurion answered and said, Lord, I am not worthy that thou shouldest come under my roof: but speak the word only, and my servant shall be healed.6 Then Jesus went with them. And when he was now not far from the house, the centurion sent friends to him, saying unto him, Lord, trouble not thyself; for I am not worthy that thou shouldest enter under my roof;
9 For I am a man under authority, having soldiers under me: and I say to this man, Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to my servant, Do this, and he doeth it.8 For I also am a man set under authority, having under me soldiers, and I say unto one, Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to my servant, Do this, and he doeth it.
10 When Jesus heard it, he marvelled, and said to them that followed, Verily, I say unto you, I have not found so great faith, no, not in Israel.9 When Jesus heard these things, he marvelled at him, and turned him about and said unto the people that followed him, I say unto you, I have not found so great faith, no, not in Israel.
11 And I say unto you, That many shall come from the east and west, and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven:7 Wherefore neither thought I myself worthy to come unto thee; but say in a word, and my servant shall be healed.
12 But the children of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.
13 And Jesus said unto the centurion, Go thy way; and as thou hast believed, so be it done unto thee. And his servant was healed in the self-same hour.10 And they that were sent, returning to the house, found the servant whole that had been sick.
[pg 162]

§ 43. The raising of the widow's son. Nain.

Luke.
CH. VII. 11-17.
11 And it came to pass the day after, that he went into a city called Nain: and many of his disciples went with him, and much people.
12 Now, when he came nigh to the gate of the city, behold, there was a dead man carried out, the only son of his mother, and she was a widow: and much people of the city was with her.
13 And when the Lord saw her, he had compassion on her, and said unto her, Weep not.
14 And he came and touched the bier: and they that bare him stood still. And he said, Young man, I say unto thee, Arise.
15 And he that was dead sat up, and began to speak: and he delivered him to his mother.
16 And there came a fear on all: and they glorified God, saying, That a great prophet is risen up among us; and, That God hath visited his people.
17 And this rumour of him went forth throughout all Judea, and throughout all the region round about.

§ 44. John the Baptist, in prison, sends disciples to Jesus. Galilee. Capernaum?

Matthew.Luke
CH. XI. 2-19.
2 Now when John had heard in the prison the works of Christ, he sent two of his disciples,18 And the disciples of John shewed him of all these things.
3 And said unto him. Art thou he that should come,147 or do we look for another?19 And John calling unto him two of his disciples, sent them to Jesus, saying, Art thou he that should come? or look we for another?
20 When the men were come unto him, they said, John Baptist hath sent us unto thee, saying, Art thou he that should come? or look we for another?
21 And in that same hour he cured many of their infirmities, and plagues, and of evil spirits; and unto many that were blind he gave sight.
4 Jesus answered and said unto them, Go and shew John again those things which ye do hear and see:22 Then Jesus answering, said unto them, Go your way, and tell John what things ye have seen and heard; how that the blind see, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, the dead are raised, to the poor the gospel is preached.
5 The blind receive their sight, and the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, and the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have the gospel preached to them.14823 And blessed is he, whosoever shall not be offended in me.
6 And blessed is he whosoever shall not be offended in me.
7 And as they departed, Jesus began to say unto the multitudes concerning John, What went ye out into the wilderness to see? A reed shaken with the wind?24 And when the messengers of John were departed, he began to speak unto the people concerning John, What went ye out into the wilderness for to see? A reed shaken with the wind?
8 But what went ye out for to see? A man clothed in soft raiment? Behold, they that wear soft clothing are in kings' houses.25 But what went ye out for to see? A man clothed in soft raiment? Behold, they which are gorgeously apparelled, and live delicately, are in kings' courts.
9 But what went ye out for to see? A prophet? yea, I say unto you, and more than a prophet.26 But what went ye out for to see? A prophet? Yea, I say unto you, and much more than a prophet.
10 For this is he of whom it is written,149 Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee.27 This is he, of whom it is written, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee.
11 Verily, I say unto you, Among them that are born of women, there hath not risen a greater than John the Baptist: notwithstanding, he that is least in the kingdom of heaven, is greater than he.28 For I say unto you, Among those that are born of women, there is not a greater prophet than John the Baptist: but he that is least in the kingdom of God, is greater than he.
29 And all the people that heard him, and the publicans, justified God, being baptized with the baptism of John.
30 But the Pharisees and lawyers rejected the council of God against themselves, being not baptized of him.
12 And from the days of John the Baptist, until now, the kingdom of heaven suffereth violence, and the violent take it by force.
13 For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John.
14 And if ye will receive it, this is Elias which was for to come.150
15 He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.
16 But whereunto shall I liken this generation? It is like unto children sitting in the markets, and calling unto their fellows.31 And the Lord said, Whereunto then shall I liken the men of this generation? and to what are they like?
32 They are like unto children sitting in the market-place, and calling one to another, and saying, We have piped unto you, and ye have not danced; we have mourned to you, and ye have not wept.
17 And saying, We have piped unto you, and ye have not danced; we have mourned unto you, and ye have not lamented.
18 For John came neither eating nor drinking, and they say, He hath a devil.33 For John the Baptist came neither eating bread, nor drinking wine; and ye say, He hath a devil.
19 The Son of man came eating and drinking, and they say, Behold a man gluttonous, and a wine-bibber, a friend of publicans and sinners. But Wisdom is justified of her children.34 The Son of man is come eating and drinking; and ye say, Behold a gluttonous man, and a wine-bibber, a friend of publicans and sinners!
35 But Wisdom is justified of all her children.
[pg 166]

§ 45. Reflections of Jesus on appealing to his mighty works. Capernaum.

Matthew.
CH. XI. 20-30.
20 Then began he to upbraid the cities wherein most of his mighty works were done, because they repented not.
21 Wo unto thee, Chorazin! wo unto thee, Bethsaida! for if the mighty works which were done in you had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes.
22 But I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon at the day of judgment, than for you.
23 And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted unto heaven, shalt be brought down to hell: for if the mighty works which have been done in thee, had been done in Sodom, it would have remained until this day.
24 But I say unto you, That it shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom, in the day of judgment, than for thee.
25 At that time Jesus answered and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes.
26 Even so, Father, for so it seemed good in thy sight.
27 All things are delivered unto me of my Father; and no man knoweth the Son, but the Father; neither knoweth any man the Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him.
26 Come unto me, all ye that labour, and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest.
29 Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me: for I am meek and lowly in heart; and ye shall find rest unto your souls.
30 For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light.
[pg 168]

§ 46. While sitting at meat with a Pharisee, Jesus is anointed by a woman who had been a sinner. Capernaum?

Luke.
CH. VII. 36-50.
36 And one of the Pharisees desired him that he would eat with him. And he went into the Pharisee's house, and sat down to meat.
37 And behold, a woman in the city, which was a sinner, when she knew that Jesus sat at meat in the Pharisee's house, brought an alabaster-box of ointment,
38 And stood at his feet behind him weeping, and began to wash his feet with tears, and did wipe them with the hairs of her head, and kissed his feet, and anointed them with the ointment.
39 Now, when the Pharisee which had bidden him, saw it, he spake within himself, saying, This man, if he were a prophet, would have known who, and what manner of woman this is that toucheth him: for she is a sinner.
40 And Jesus answering, said unto him, Simon, I have somewhat to say unto thee. And he saith, Master, say on.
41 There was a certain creditor, which had two debtors: the one owed five hundred pence, and the other fifty.
42 And when they had nothing to pay, he frankly forgave them both. Tell me, therefore, which of them will love him most?
43 Simon answered and said, I suppose that he, to whom he forgave most. And he said unto him, Thou hast rightly judged.
44 And he turned to the woman, and said unto Simon, Seest thou this woman? I entered into thine house, thou gavest me no water for my feet: but she hath washed my feet with tears, and wiped them with the hairs of her head.
45 Thou gavest me no kiss: but this woman, since the time I came in, hath not ceased to kiss my feet.
46 My head with oil thou didst not anoint: but this woman hath anointed my feet with ointment.
47 Wherefore I say unto thee, Her sins which are many, are forgiven; for she loved much: but to whom little is forgiven, the same loveth little.
48 And he said unto her, Thy sins are forgiven.
49 And they that sat at meat with him, began to say within themselves, Who is this that forgiveth sins also?
50 And he said to the woman, Thy faith hath saved thee; go in peace.
[pg 170]

§ 47. Jesus, with the Twelve, makes a second circuit in Galilee.

Luke.
CH. VIII. 1-3.
And it came to pass afterward, that he went throughout every city and village, preaching and shewing the glad tidings of the kingdom of God: and the twelve were with him.
2 And certain women, which had been healed of evil spirits and infirmities, Mary called Magdalene, out of whom went seven devils,
3 And Joanna the wife of Chuza, Herod's steward, and Susanna, and many others, which ministered unto him of their substance.

§ 48. The healing of a demoniac. The Scribes and Pharisees blaspheme. Galilee.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XII. 22-37.CH. III. 19-30.
19 —— and they went into a house.
20 And the multitude cometh together again, so that they could not so much as eat bread.
21 And when his friends heard of it, they went out to lay hold on him: for they said, He is beside himself.
22 Then was brought unto him one possessed with a devil, blind and dumb; and he healed him, insomuch that the blind and dumb,151 both spake and saw.
23 And all the people were amazed152 and said, Is not this the son of David?
24 But when the Pharisees heard it they said, This fellow doth not cast out devils, but by Beelzebub the prince of the devils.22 And the scribes which came down from Jerusalem, said, He hath Beelzebub, and by the prince of the devils casteth he out devils.
25 And Jesus knew their thoughts, and said unto them, Every kingdom divided against itself, is brought to desolation; and every city or house divided against itself, shall not stand.23 And he called them unto him, and said unto them in parables, How can Satan cast out Satan?
26 And if Satan cast out Satan, he is divided against himself; how shall then his kingdom stand?24 And if a kingdom be divided against itself, that kingdom cannot stand.
25 And if a house be divided against itself, that house cannot stand.
27 And if I by Beelzebub cast out devils, by whom do your children cast them out? therefore they shall be your judges.26 And if Satan rise up against himself, and be divided, he cannot stand but hath an end.
28 But if I cast out devils by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of he will first bind the strong man;27 No man can enter into a strong man's house and spoil his goods, except he will first bind the strong man; and then he will spoil his house.
29 Or else, how can one enter into a strong man's house, and spoil his goods, except he first bind the strong man? and then he will spoil his house.28 Verily, I say unto you, All sins shall be forgiven unto the sons of men, the blasphemies wherewith soever they shall blaspheme:
30 He that is not with me is against me; and he that gathereth not with me, scattereth abroad.29 But he that shall blaspheme against the Holy Ghost hath never forgiveness, but is in danger of eternal damnation:
31 Wherefore I say unto you, All manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men: but the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men.30 Because they said, he hath an unclean spirit.
32 And whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to come.
33 Either make the tree good, and his fruit good; or else make the tree corrupt, and his fruit corrupt: for the tree is known by his fruit.
34 O generation of vipers, how can ye, being evil, speak good things? for out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh.
35 A good man, out of the good treasure of the heart, bringeth forth good things: and an evil man, out of the evil treasure, bringeth forth evil things.
36 But I say unto you, That every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of judgment.
37 For by thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt be condemned.
Luke.
CH. XI. 14, 15, 17-23.
14 And he was casting out a devil, and it was dumb. And it came to pass when the devil was gone out, the dumb spake; and the people wondered.
15 But some of them said, He casteth out devils through Beelzebub, the chief of the devils.
17 But he, knowing their thoughts, said unto them, Every kingdom divided against itself, is brought to desolation; and a house divided against a house, falleth.
18 If Satan also be divided against himself, how shall his kingdom stand? because ye say that I cast out devils through Beelzebub.
19 And if I by Beelzebub cast out devils, by whom do your sons cast them out? therefore shall they be your judges.
20 But if I with the finger of God cast out devils, no doubt the kingdom of God is come upon you.
21 When a strong man armed keepeth his palace, his goods are in peace:
22 But when a stronger than he shall come upon him, and overcome him, he taketh from him all his armour, wherein he trusted, and divideth his spoils.
23 He that is not with me, is against me: and he that gathereth not with me scattereth.
[pg 174]

§ 49. The Scribes and Pharisees seek a sign. Our Lord's reflection. Galilee.

Matthew.Luke.
CH. XII. 38-45.CH. XI. 16, 24-36.
38 Then certain of the scribes and of the Pharisees answered, saying, Master, we would see a sign from thee.And others tempting him, sought of him a sign from heaven.
39 But he answered and said to them, An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign, and there shall no sign be given153 to it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas.29 And when the people had gathered thick together, he began to say, This is an evil generation: they seek a sign, and there shall no sign be given it, but the sign of Jonas the prophet.
40 For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly,154 so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.
41 The men of Nineveh shall rise in judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it: because they repented at the preaching of Jonas,155 and behold, a greater than Jonas is here.30 For as Jonas was a sign unto the Ninevites so shall also the Son of man be to this generation.
42 The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it: for she came from the uttermost parts of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon;156 and behold, a greater than Solomon is here.31 The queen of the south shall rise up in the judgment with the men of this generation, and condemn them: for she came from the utmost parts of the earth, to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and behold, a greater than Solomon is here
32 The men of Nineveh shall rise up in the judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it: for they repented at the preaching of Jonas; and behold, a greater than Jonas is here.
33 No man when he hath lighted a candle putteth it in a secret place, neither under a bushel, but on a candlestick, that they which come in may see the light.
34 The light of the body is thy eye: therefore when thine eye is single, thy whole body also is full of light; but when thine eye is evil, thy body also is full of darkness.
35 Take heed therefore, that the light which is in thee be not darkness.
36 If thy whole body therefore be full of light, having no part dark, the whole shall be full of light; as when the bright shining of a candle doth give thee light.
43 When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest, and findeth none.24 When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest: and finding none, he saith, I will return unto my house whence I came out.
44 Then he saith, I will return into my house from whence I came out; and when he is come, he findeth it empty, swept, and garnished.25 And when he cometh, he findeth it swept and garnished.
45 Then goeth he, and taketh with himself seven other spirits more wicked than himself, and they enter in and dwell there: and the last state of that man is worse than the first. Even so shall it be also unto this wicked generation.26 Then goeth he, and taketh to him seven other spirits more wicked than himself; and they enter in, and dwell there: and the last state of that man is worse than the first.
27 And it came to pass, as he spake these things, a certain woman of the company lifted up her voice, and said unto him, Blessed is the womb that bare thee, and the paps which thou hast sucked.
28 But he said, Yea, rather blessed are they that hear the word of God, and keep it.
[pg 176]

§ 50. The true disciples of Christ his nearest relatives. Galilee.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XII. 46-50.CH. III. 31-35.
46 While he yet talked to the people, behold, his mother and his brethren stood without, desiring to speak with him.31 There came then his brethren and his mother, and standing without, sent unto him, calling him.
47 Then one said unto him, Behold, thy mother and thy brethren stand without, desiring to speak with thee.32 And the multitude sat about him; and they said unto him, Behold, thy mother and thy brethren without seek for thee.
48 But he answered and said unto him that told him, Who is my mother? and who are my brethren?33 And he answered them, saying, Who is my mother, or my brethren? and who are my brethren?
49 And he stretched forth his hand toward his disciples, and said, Behold my mother and my brethren!34 And he looked round about on them which sat about him, and said, Behold, my mother and my brethren!
50 For whosoever shall do the will of my Father which is in heaven, the same is my brother, and sister, and mother.35 For whosoever shall do the will of God, the same is my brother, and my sister, and mother.
Luke.
CH. VIII. 19-21.
19 Then came to him his mother and his brethren, and could not come at him for the press.
20 And it was told him by certain, which said, Thy mother and thy brethren stand without, desiring to see thee.
21 And he answered and said unto them, My mother and my brethren are these which hear the word of God, and do it.

§ 51. At a Pharisee's table, Jesus denounces woes against the Pharisees and others. Galilee.

Luke.
CH. XI. 37-54
37 And as he spake, a certain Pharisee besought him to dine with him: and he went in and sat down to meat.
38 And when the Pharisee saw it, he marvelled that he had not first washed157 before dinner.
39 And the Lord said unto him, Now do ye Pharisees make clean the outside of the cup and the platter; but your inward part is full of ravening and wickedness.
40 Ye fools, did not he that made that which is without, make that which is within also?
41 But rather give alms of such things as ye have; and behold, all things are clean unto you.
42 But wo unto you, Pharisees! for ye tithe mint, and rue, and all manner of herbs, and pass over judgment and the love of God: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone.
43 Wo unto you, Pharisees! for ye love the uppermost seats in the synagogues, and greetings in the markets.
44 Wo unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are as graves which appear not, and the men that walk over them are not aware of them.
45 Then answered one of the lawyers, and said unto him, Master, thus saying, thou reproachest us also.
46 And he said, Wo unto you also, ye lawyers! for ye lade men with burdens grievous to be borne, and ye yourselves touch not the burdens with one of your fingers.
47 Wo unto you! for ye build the sepulchres of the prophets, and your fathers killed them.
48 Truly ye bear witness, that ye allow the deeds of your fathers: for they indeed killed them, and ye build their sepulchres.
49 Therefore also said the wisdom of God, I will send them prophets and apostles, and some of them they shall slay and persecute:
50. That the blood of all the prophets, which was shed from the foundation of the world, may be required of this generation;
51 From the blood of Abel158 unto the blood of Zacharias, which perished between the altar and the temple: verily, I say unto you, It shall be required of this generation.
52 Wo unto you, lawyers! for ye have taken away the key of knowledge: ye entered not in yourselves, and them that were entering in ye hindered.
53 And as he said these things unto them, the scribes and the Pharisees began to urge him vehemently, and to provoke him to speak of many things;
54 Laying wait for him, and seeking to catch something out of his mouth, that they might accuse him.
[pg 180]

§ 52. Jesus discourses to his disciples and the multitude. Galilee.

Luke.
CH. XII. 1-59.
In the mean time, when there were gathered together an innumerable multitude of people, insomuch that they trode one upon another, he began to say unto his disciples first of all, Beware ye of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy.
2 For there is nothing covered, that shall not be revealed; neither hid, that shall not be known.
3 Therefore, whatsoever ye have spoken in darkness, shall be heard in the light; and that which ye have spoken in the ear in closets, shall be proclaimed upon the house-tops.
4 And I say unto you, my friends, Be not afraid of them that kill the body, and after that, have no more that they can do.
5 But I will forewarn you whom ye shall fear; Fear him, which, after he hath killed, hath power to cast into hell; yea, I say unto you, Fear him.
6 Are not five sparrows sold for two farthings, and not one of them is forgotten before God?
7 But even the very hairs of your head are all numbered. Fear not therefore: ye are of more value than many sparrows.
8 Also I say unto you, Whosoever shall confess me before men, him shall the Son of man also confess before the angels of God.
9 But he that denieth me before men, shall be denied before the angels of God.
10 And whosoever shall speak a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but unto him that blasphemeth against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven.
11 And when they bring you unto the synagogues, and unto magistrates, and powers, take ye no thought how or what thing ye shall answer, or what ye shall say:
12 For the Holy Ghost shall teach you in the same hour what ye ought to say.
13 And one of the company said unto him, Master, speak to my brother, that he divide the inheritance with me.
14 And he said unto him, Man, who made me a judge, or a divider over you?
15 And he said unto them, Take heed, and beware of covetousness: for a man's life consisteth not in the abundance of the things which he possesseth.
16 And he spake a parable unto them, saying, The ground of a certain rich man brought forth plentifully:
17 And he thought within himself, saying, What shall I do, because I have no room where to bestow my fruits?
18 And he said, This will I do: I will pull down my barns, and build greater; and there will I bestow all my fruits and my goods.
19 And I will say to my soul, Soul, thou hast much goods laid up for many years; take thine ease, eat, drink, and be merry.
20 But God said unto him, Thou fool, this night thy soul shall be required of thee: then whose shall those things be, which thou hast provided?
21 So is he that layeth up treasure for himself, and is not rich toward God.
22 And he said unto his disciples, Therefore I say unto you, Take no thought for your life, what ye shall eat; neither for the body, what ye shall put on.
23 The life is more than meat, and the body is more than raiment.
24 Consider the ravens: for they neither sow nor reap: which neither have store-house, nor barn; and God feedeth them. How much more are ye better than the fowls?
25 And which of you with taking thought can add to his stature one cubit?
26 If ye then be not able to do that thing which is least, why take ye thought for the rest?
27 Consider the lilies how they grow: they toil not, they spin not; and yet I say unto you, that Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these.
28 If then God so clothe the grass, which is to-day in the field, and to-morrow is cast into the oven; how much more will he clothe you, O ye of little faith?
29 And seek not ye what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink, neither be ye of doubtful mind.
30 For all these things do the nations of the world seek after: and your Father knoweth that ye have need of these things.
31 But rather seek ye the kingdom of God, and all these things shall be added unto you.
32 Fear not, little flock; for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom.
33 Sell that ye have, and give alms: provide yourselves bags which wax not old, a treasure in the heavens that faileth not, where no thief approacheth, neither moth corrupteth.
34 For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.
35 Let your loins be girded about, and your lights burning;
36 And ye yourselves like unto men that wait for their lord, when he will return from the wedding; that, when he cometh and knocketh, they may open unto him immediately.
37 Blessed are those servants, whom the lord when he cometh shall find watching: verily, I say unto you, that he shall gird himself, and make them to sit down to meat, and will come forth and serve them.
38 And if he shall come in the second watch, or come in the third watch, and find them so, blessed are those servants.
39 And this know, that if the good man of the house had known what hour the thief would come, he would have watched, and not have suffered his house to be broken through.
40 Be ye therefore ready also: for the Son of man cometh at an hour when ye think not.
41 Then Peter said unto him, Lord, speakest thou this parable unto us, or even to all?
42 And the Lord said, Who then is that faithful and wise steward, whom his lord shall make ruler over his household, to give them their portion of meat in due season?
43 Blessed is that servant, whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing.
44 Of a truth I say unto you, That he will make him ruler over all that he hath.
45 But and if that servant say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming; and shall begin to beat the men-servants, and maidens, and to eat and drink, and to be drunken;
46 The lord of that servant will come in a day when he looketh not for him, and at an hour when he is not aware, and will cut him in sunder, and will appoint him his portion with the unbelievers.
47 And that servant which knew his lord's will, and prepared not himself, neither did according to his will, shall be beaten with many stripes.
48 But he that knew not, and did commit things worthy of stripes, shall be beaten with few stripes. For unto whomsoever much is given, of him shall much be required; and to whom men have committed much, of him they will ask the more.
49 I am come to send fire on the earth, and what will I, if it be already kindled?
50 But I have a baptism to be baptized with; and how am I straitened till it be accomplished!
51 Suppose ye that I am come to give peace on earth? I tell you, Nay; but rather division:
52 For from henceforth there shall be five in one house divided, three against two, and two against three.
53 The father shall be divided against the son, and the son against the father; the mother against the daughter, and the daughter against the mother; the mother-in-law against her daughter-in-law, and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law.
54 And he said also to the people, When ye see a cloud rise out of the west,159 straightway ye say, There cometh a shower; and so it is.
55 And when ye see the south wind blow, ye say, There will be heat; and it cometh to pass.
56 Ye hypocrites, ye can discern the face of the sky and of the earth; but how is it, that ye do not discern this time?
57 Yea, and why even of yourselves judge ye not what is right?
58 When thou goest with thine adversary to the magistrate, as thou art in the way, give diligence that thou mayest be delivered from him; lest he hale thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and the officer cast thee into prison.
59 I tell thee, thou shalt not depart thence, till thou hast paid the very last mite.
[pg 188]

§ 53. The slaughter of certain Galileans. Parable of the barren fig-tree. Galilee.

Luke.
CH. XIII. 1-9.
There were present at that season some that told him of the Galileans, whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices.
2 And Jesus answering, said unto them, Suppose ye that these Galileans were sinners above all the Galileans, because they suffered such things?
3 I tell you, Nay; but, except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish.
4 Or those eighteen, upon whom the tower in Siloam fell, and slew them, think ye that they were sinners above all men that dwelt in Jerusalem?
5 I tell you, Nay; but, except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish.
6 He spake also this parable: A certain man had a fig-tree planted in his vineyard; and he came and sought fruit thereon, and found none.
7 Then said he unto the dresser of his vineyard, Behold, these three years I come seeking fruit on this fig-tree, and find none: cut it down; why cumbereth it the ground?
8 And he answering, said unto him, Lord, let it alone this year also, till I shall dig about it, and dung it:
9 And if it bear fruit, well: and if not, then after that thou shalt cut it down.
[pg 190]

§ 54. The parable of the sower. Lake of Galilee. Near Capernaum?

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XIII. 1-23.CH. IV. 1-25.
The same day went Jesus out of the house, and sat by the sea-side.And he began again to teach by the sea-side: and there was gathered unto him a great multitude, so that he entered into a ship, and sat in the sea; and the whole multitude was by the sea, on the land.
2 And great multitudes were gathered together unto him, so that he went into a ship, and sat; and the whole multitude stood on the shore.
3 And he spake many things unto them in parables, saying, Behold, a sower went forth to sow;2 And he taught them many things by parables, and said unto them in his doctrine,
3 Hearken; Behold, there went out a sower to sow.
4 And when he sowed, some seeds fell by the way-side, and the fowls came and devoured them up:4 And it came to pass as he sowed, some fell by the way-side, and the fowls of the air came and devoured it up.
5 Some fell upon stony places where they had not much earth: and forthwith they sprung up, because they had no deepness of earth:5 And some fell on stony ground, where it had not much earth; and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of earth:
6 And when the sun was up, they were scorched; and because they had no root, they withered away.6 But when the sun was up it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away.
7 And some fell among thorns; and the thorns sprung up, and choked them:7 And some fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit.
8 But other fell into good ground, and brought forth fruit, some a hundred-fold, some sixty-fold, some thirty-fold.8 And other fell on good ground, and did yield fruit that sprang up, and increased, and brought forth, some thirty, and some sixty, and some a hundred.
9 Who hath ears to hear, let him hear.9 And he said unto them, He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.
10 And the disciples came, and said unto him, Why speakest thou unto them in parables?10 And when he was alone, they that were about him, with the twelve, asked of him the parable.
11 He answered and said unto them, Because it is given unto you to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it is not given.11 And he said unto them, Unto you it is given to know the mystery of the kingdom of God: but unto them that are without, all these things are done in parables:
12 For whosoever hath, to him shall be given, and he shall have more abundance: but whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken away even that he hath.12 That seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest at any time they should be converted, and their sins should be forgiven them.
13 Therefore speak I to them in parables: because they seeing, see not; and hearing, they hear not; neither do they understand.
14 And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of Esaias,160 which saith, By hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing ye shall see, and shall not perceive:
15 For this people's heart is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed; lest at any time they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and should understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them.
16 But blessed are your eyes, for they see: and your ears, for they hear.
17 For, verily I say unto you, That many prophets and righteous men have desired to see those things which ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them.
18 Hear ye therefore the parable of the sower.13 And he said unto them, Know ye not this parable? and how then will ye know all parables?
19 When any one heareth the word of the kingdom, and understandeth it not, then cometh the wicked one, and catcheth away that which was sown in his heart. This is he which received seed by the way-side.14 The sower soweth the word.
15 And these are they by the way-side, where the word is sown; but when they have heard, Satan cometh immediately, and taketh away the word that was sown in their hearts.
20 But he that received the seed into stony places, the same is he that heareth the word, and anon with joy receiveth it;16 And these are they likewise which are sown on stony ground; who, when they have heard the word, immediately receive it with gladness;
21 Yet hath he not root in himself, but dureth for a while: for when tribulation or persecution ariseth because of the word, by and by he is offended.17 And have no root in themselves, and so endure but for a time: afterward, when affliction or persecution ariseth for the word's sake, immediately they are offended.
22 He also that received seed among the thorns is he that heareth the word; and the care of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, choke the word, and he becometh unfruitful.18 and these are they which are sown among thorns; such as hear the word,
19 And the cares of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in, choke the word, and it becometh unfruitful.
23 But he that received seed into the good ground is he that heareth the word, and understandeth it; which also beareth fruit, and bringeth forth, some a hundred-fold, some sixty, some thirty.20 And these are they which are sown on good ground; such as hear the word, and receive it, and bring forth fruit, some thirty-fold, some sixty, and some a hundred.
21 And he said unto them, Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel, or under a bed? and not to be set on a candlestick?
22 For there is nothing hid, which shall not be manifested; neither was any thing kept secret, but that it should come abroad.
23 If any man have ears to hear, let him hear.
24 And he said unto them, Take heed what ye hear: With what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you: and unto you that hear shall more be given.
25 For he that hath, to him shall be given: and he that hath not, from him shall be taken even that which he hath.
Luke.
CH. VIII. 4-18.
4 And when much people were gathered together, and were come to him out of every city, he spake by a parable:
5 A sower went out to sow his seed: and as he sowed, some fell by the way-side; and it was trodden down, and the fowls of the air devoured it.
6 And some fell upon a rock; and as soon as it was sprung up, it withered away, because it lacked moisture.
7 And some fell among thorns; and the thorns sprang up with it, and choked it.
8 And other fell on good ground, and sprang up, and bare fruit a hundred-fold. And when he had said these things, he cried, He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.
9 And his disciples asked him, saying, What might this parable be?
10 And he said, Unto you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God: but to others in parables; that seeing they might not see, and hearing they might not understand.
11 Now the parable is this: The seed is the word of God.
12 Those by the way-side, are they that hear: then cometh the devil, and taketh away the word out of their hearts, lest they should believe and be saved.
13 They on the rock are they, which, when they hear, receive the word with joy; and these have no root, which for a while believe, and in times of temptation fall away.
14 And that which fell among thorns, are they, which, when they have heard, go forth, and are choked with cares, and riches, and pleasures of this life, and bring no fruit to perfection.
15 But that on the good ground are they, which, in an honest and good heart, having heard the word, keep it, and bring forth fruit with patience.
16 No man, when he hath lighted a candle, covereth it with a vessel, or putteth it under a bed; but setteth it on a candlestick, that they which enter in may see the light.
17 For nothing is secret, that shall not be made manifest; neither anything hid, that shall not be known, and come abroad.
18 Take heed therefore how ye hear: for whosoever hath, to him shall be given: and whosoever hath not, from him shall be taken even that which he seemeth to have.
[pg 194]

§ 55. Parable of the tares. Other parables. Near Capernaum?

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XIII. 24-53.CH. IV. 26-34.
24 Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man which sowed good seed in his field:
25 But while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went his way.
26 But when the blade was sprung up, and brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares also.
27 So the servants of the householder came and said unto him, Sir, didst not thou sow good seed in thy field? from whence then hath it tares?
28 He said unto them, An enemy hath done this. The servant said unto him, Wilt thou then that we go and gather them up?26 And he said, So is the kingdom of God, as if a man should cast seed into the ground;
29 But he said, Nay; lest while ye gather up the tares, ye root up also the wheat with them.27 And should sleep, and rise night and day, and the seed should spring and grow up, he knoweth not how.
30 Let both grow together until the harvest: and in the time of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them: but gather the wheat into my barn.28 For the earth bringeth forth fruit of herself; first the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in the ear.
29 But when the fruit is brought forth, immediately he putteth in the sickle, because the harvest is come.
31 Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard-seed, which a man took, and sowed in his field:30 And he said, Whereunto shall we liken the kingdom of God? or with what comparison shall we compare it?
32 Which indeed is the least of all seeds: but when it is grown, it is the greatest among herbs, and becometh a tree, so that the birds of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof.31 It is like a grain of mustard-seed, which when it is sown in the earth, in less than all the seeds that be in the earth:
33 Another parable spake he unto them; The kingdom of heaven is like unto leaven, which a woman took, and hid in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened.32 But when it is sown, it groweth up, and becometh greater than all herbs, and shooteth out great branches; so that the fowls of the air may lodge under the shadow of it.
34 All these things spake Jesus unto the multitude in parables; and without a parable spake he not unto them:33 And with many such parables spake he the word unto them, as they were able to hear it.
35 That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet,161 saying, I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter things which have been kept secret from the foundation of the world.34 But without a parable spake he not unto them: and when they were alone, he expounded all things to his disciples.
36 Then Jesus sent the multitude away, and went into the house: and his disciples came unto him, saying, Declare unto us the parable of the tares of the field.
37 He answered and said unto them, He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man;
38 The field is the world; the good seed are the children of the kingdom; but the tares are the children of the wicked one;
39 The enemy that sowed them is the devil; the harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are the angels.
40 As therefore the tares are gathered and burned in the fire; so shall it be in the end of this world.
41 The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity;
42 And shall cast them into a furnace of fire; there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.
43 Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear.
44 Again, The kingdom of heaven is like unto treasure hid in a field; the which when a man hath found, he hideth, and for joy thereof goeth and selleth all that he hath, and buyeth that field.
45 Again, The kingdom of heaven is like unto a merchant-man seeking goodly pearls:
46 Who, when he had found one pearl of great price, went and sold all that he had, and bought it.
47 Again, The kingdom of heaven is like unto a net, that was cast into the sea, and gathered of every kind:
48 Which, when it was full, they drew to shore, and sat down, and gathered the good into vessels, but cast the bad away.
49 So shall it be at the end of the world: the angels shall come forth, and sever the wicked from among the just,
50 And shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.
51 Jesus saith unto them, Have ye understood all these things? They say unto him, Yea, Lord.
52 Then said he unto them, Therefore every scribe which is instructed unto the kingdom of heaven, is like unto a man that is a householder, which bringeth forth out of his treasure things new and old.
53 And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these parables, he departed thence.
[pg 200]

§ 56. Jesus directs to cross the lake. Incidents. The tempest stilled. Lake of Galilee.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. VIII. 18-27.CH. IV. 35-41.
18 Now when Jesus saw great multitudes about him, he gave commandment to depart unto the other side.And the same day, when the even was come, he saith unto them, Let us pass over unto the other side.
19 And a certain scribe came, and said unto him, Master, I will follow thee whithersoever thou goest.
20 And Jesus saith unto him, The foxes have holes, and the birds of the air have nests; but the Son of man hath not where to lay his head.
21 And another of his disciples said unto him, Lord, suffer me first to go and bury my father.
22 But Jesus said unto him, Follow me; and let the dead bury their dead.
23 And when he was entered into a ship, his disciples followed him.36 And when they had sent away the multitude, they took him even as he was in the ship. And there were also with him other little ships.
24 And behold, there arose a great tempest in the sea, insomuch that the ship was covered with the waves: but he was asleep.37 And there arose a great storm of wind, and the waves beat into the ship, so that it was now full.
25 And his disciples came to him, and awoke him, saying, Lord, save us: we perish.38 And he was in the hinder part of the ship, asleep on a pillow: and they awake him, and say unto him, Master, carest thou not that we perish?
26 And he saith unto them, Why are ye fearful, O ye of little faith? Then he arose, and rebuked the winds and the sea; and there was a great calm.39 And he arose and rebuked the wind, and said unto the sea, Peace, be still: and the wind ceased, and there was a great calm.
40 And he said unto them, Why are ye so fearful? how is that ye have no faith?
27 But the men marvelled, saying, What manner of man is this, that even the winds and the sea obey him!41 And they feared exceedingly, and said one to another, What manner of man is this, that even the wind and the sea obey him?
Luke.
CH. VIII. 22-25.
CH. IX. 57-62.
22 Now it came to pass on a certain day, that he went into a ship with his disciples: and he said unto them, Let us go over unto the other side of the lake.
CH. IX.
57 And it came to pass, that as they went in the way, a certain man said unto him, Lord, I will follow thee whithersoever thou goest.
58 And Jesus said unto him, Foxes have holes, and birds of the air have nests; but the Son of man hath not where to lay his head.
59 And he said unto another, Follow me. But he said, Lord, suffer me first to go and bury my father.
60 Jesus said unto him, Let the dead bury their dead: but go thou and preach the kingdom of God.
61 And another also said, Lord, I will follow thee; but let me first go bid them farewell which are at home at my house.
62 And Jesus said unto him, No man having put his hand to the plough, and looking back, is fit for the kingdom of God.
CH. VIII.
22 And they launched forth.
23 But as they sailed, he fell asleep: and there came down a storm of wind on the lake; and they were filled with water, and were in jeopardy.
24 And they came to him, and awoke him, saying, Master, Master, we perish. Then he arose, and rebuked the wind, and the raging of the water: and they ceased, and there was a calm.
25 And he said unto them, Where is your faith? And they being afraid, wondered, saying one to another, What manner of man is this! for he commandeth even the winds and water, and they obey him.
[pg 202]

§ 57. The two demoniacs of Gadara. S. E. coast of the Lake of Galilee.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. VIII. 28-34.CH. V. 1-21.
CH. IX. 1.
28 And when he was come to the other side, into the country of the Gegesenes,162 there met him two possessed with devils, coming out of the tombs, exceeding fierce, so that no man might pass by that way.And they came over unto the other side of the sea, into the country of the Gadarenes.
2 And when he was come out of the ship, immediately there met him out of the tombs a man with an unclean spirit,
3 Who had his dwelling among the tombs; and no man could bind him, no, not with his chains:
4 Because that he had been often bound with fetters and chains, and the chains had been plucked asunder by him, and the fetters broken in pieces: neither could any man tame him.
5 And always, night and day, he was in the mountains, and in the tombs, crying, and cutting himself with stones.
6 But when he saw Jesus afar off, he ran and worshipped him,
7 And cried with a loud voice, and said, What have I to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of the most high God? I adjure thee by God, that thou torment me not.
8 (For he said unto him, Come out of the man, thou unclean spirit.)
29 And behold, they cried out, saying, What have we to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of God? art thou come hither to torment us before the time?9 And he asked him, What is thy name? And he answered, saying, My name is Legion: for we are many.
10 And he besought him much that he would not send them away out of the country.
30 And there was a good way off163 from them a herd of many swine, feeding.11 Now there was there nigh unto the mountains a great herd of swine164 feeding.
31 So the devils besought him, saying If thou cast us out, suffer us to go away into the herd of swine.12 And all the devils besought him, saying, Send us into the swine, that we may enter into them.
32 And he said unto them, Go. And when they were come out, they went into the herd of swine: and behold, the whole herd of swine ran violently down a steep place into the sea, and perished in the waters.13 And forthwith Jesus gave them leave. And the unclean spirits went out, and entered into the swine: and the herd ran violently down a steep place into the sea, (they were about two thousand) and were choked in the sea.
33 And they that kept them, fled, and went their ways into the city, and told everything; and what was befallen to the possessed of the devils.14 And they that fed the swine fled and told it in the city, and in the country. And they went out to see what it was that was done.
34 And behold, the whole city came out to meet Jesus: and when they saw him, they besought him that he would depart out of their coasts.15 And they come to Jesus, and see him that was possessed with the devil, and had the legion, sitting, and clothed, and in his right mind: and they were afraid.
16 And they that saw it told them how it befell to him that was possessed with the devil, and also concerning the swine.
17 And they began to pray him to depart out of their coasts.
CH. IX.
And he entered into a ship, and passed over, and came into his own city.18 And when he was come into the ship, he that had been possessed with the devil prayed him that he might be with him.
19 Howbeit Jesus suffered him not, but saith unto him, Go home to thy friends, and tell them how great things the Lord hath done for thee, and hath had compassion on thee.
20 And he departed, and began to publish in Decapolis how great things Jesus had done for him. And all men did marvel.
21 And when Jesus was passed over again by ship unto the other side, much people gathered unto him: and he was nigh unto the sea.
Luke.
CH. VIII. 26-40.
26 And they arrived at the country of the Gadarenes, which is over against Galilee.
27 And when he went forth to land, there met him out of the city a certain man, which had devils long time, and ware no clothes, neither abode in any house, but in the tombs.
28 When he saw Jesus, he cried out, and fell down before him, and with a loud voice said, What have I to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of God most high? I beseech thee torment me not.
29 (For he had commanded the unclean spirit to come out of the man. For oftentimes it had caught him: and he was kept bound with chains, and in fetters; and he brake the bands, and was driven of the devil into the wilderness.)
30 And Jesus asked him, saying, What is thy name? And he said, Legion: because many devils were entered into him.
31 And they besought him, that he would not command them to go out into the deep.
32 And there was there a herd of many swine feeding on the mountain: and they besought him that he would suffer them to enter into them. And he suffered them.
33 Then went the devils out of the man, and entered into the swine: and the herd ran violently down a steep place into the lake, and were choked.
34 When they that fed them saw what was done, they fled, and went and told it in the city and in the country.
35 Then they went out to see what was done; and came to Jesus, and found the man out of whom the devils were departed, sitting at the feet of Jesus,165 clothed, and in his right mind: and they were afraid.
36 They also which saw it, told them by what means he that was possessed of the devils was healed.
37 Then the whole multitude of the country of the Gadarenes round about, besought him to depart from them; for they were taken with great fear. And he went up into the ship, and returned back again.
38 Now, the man out of whom the devils were departed, besought him that he might be with him. But Jesus sent him away, saying,
39 Return to thine own house, and shew how great things God hath done unto thee. And he went his way and published throughout the whole city, how great things Jesus had done unto him.
40 And it came to pass, that, when Jesus was returned, the people gladly received him: for they were all waiting for him.
[pg 206]

§ 58. Levi's feast. Capernaum.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. IX. 10-17.CH. II. 15-22.
10 And it came to pass, as Jesus sat at meat in the house,166 behold, many publicans and sinners came and sat down with him and his disciples.15 And it came to pass, that as Jesus sat at meat in his house, many publicans and sinners sat also together with Jesus and his disciples; for there were many, and they followed him.
11 And when the Pharisees saw it, they said unto his disciples, Why eateth your Master with publicans and sinners?16 And when the scribes and Pharisees saw him eat with publicans and sinners, they said unto his disciples, How is it that he eateth and drinketh with publicans and sinners?
12 But when Jesus heard that, he said unto them, They that be whole need not a physician, but they that are sick.17 When Jesus heard it, he saith unto them, They that are whole, have no need of the physician, but they that are sick: I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.
13 But go ye and learn what that meaneth,167 I will have mercy, and not sacrifice: for I am not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.18 And the disciples of John, and of the Pharisees, used to fast: and they come, and say unto unto him, Why do the disciples of John, and of the Pharisees fast, but thy disciples fast not?
14 Then came to him the disciples of John, saying, Why do we and the Pharisees fast oft, but thy disciples fast not?
15 And Jesus said unto them, Can the children of the bride-chamber mourn, as long as the bridegroom is with them? but the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken from them, and then shall they fast.19 And Jesus said unto them, Can the children of the bride-chamber fast, while the bridegroom is with them? As long as they have the bridegroom with them, they cannot fast.
20 But the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then shall they fast in those days.
16 No man putteth a piece of new cloth unto an old garment: for that which is put in to fill it up, taketh from the garment, and the rent is made worse.21 No man also seweth a piece of new cloth on an old garment: else the new piece that filled it up, taketh away from the old, and the rent is made worse.
17 Neither do men put new wine into old bottles: else the bottles break, and the wine runneth out, and the bottles perish: but they put new wine into new bottles, and both are preserved.22 And no man putteth new wine into old bottles: else the new wine doth burst the bottles, and the wine is spilled, and the bottles will be marred: but new wine must be put into new bottles.
Luke.
CH. V. 29-39.
29 And Levi made him a great feast in his own house; and there was a great company of publicans, and of others that sat down with publicans and sinners?
30 But their scribes and Pharisees murmured against his disciples, saying, Why do you eat and drink with publicans and sinners?
31 And Jesus answering, said unto them, They that are whole need not a physician; but they that are sick.
32 I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.
33 And they said unto him, Why do the disciples of John fast often, and make prayers, and likewise the disciples of the Pharisees; but thine eat and drink?
34 And he said unto them, Can ye make the children of the bride-chamber fast, while the bridegroom is with them?
35 But the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then shall they fast in those days.
36 And he spake also a parable unto them; No man putteth a piece of a new garment upon an old: if otherwise, then both the new maketh a rent, and the piece that was taken out of the new, agreeth not with the old.
37 And no man putteth new wine into old bottles; else the new wine will burst the bottles, and be spilled, and the bottles shall perish.
38 But new wine must be put into new bottles, and both are preserved.
39 No man also having drunk old wine, straightway desireth new: for he saith, The old is better.
[pg 208]

§ 59. The raising of Jairus's daughter. The woman with a bloody flux. Capernaum.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. IX. 18-26.CH. V. 22-43.
18 While he spake these things unto them, behold, there came a certain ruler, and worshipped him, saying, My daughter is even now dead: but come and lay thy hand upon her, and she shall live.22 And behold, there cometh one of the rulers of the synagogue, Jairus by name; and when he saw him, he fell at his feet.
19 And Jesus arose, and followed him, and so did his disciples.23 And besought him greatly, saying, My little daughter lieth at the point of death: I pray thee, come and lay thy hands on her, that she may be healed; and she shall live.
20 And behold, a woman which was diseased with an issue of blood twelve years, came behind him, and touched the hem of his garment.24 And Jesus went with him; and much people followed him, and thronged him.
21 For she said within herself, If I may but touch his garment, I shall be whole.25 And a certain woman which had an issue of blood twelve years,
22 But Jesus turned him about, and when he saw her, he said, Daughter, be of good comfort: thy faith hath made thee whole. And the woman was made whole from that hour.26 And had suffered many things of many physicians, and had spent all that she had, and was nothing bettered, but rather grew worse,
27 When she had heard of Jesus, came in the press behind, and touched his garment:
28 For she said, If I may touch but his clothes, I shall be whole.
29 And straightway the fountain of her blood was dried up; and she felt in her body that she was healed of that plague.
30 And Jesus, immediately knowing in himself that virtue had gone out of him, turned him about in the press, and said, Who touched my clothes?
31 And his disciples said unto him, Thou seest the multitude thronging thee, and sayest thou, Who touched me?
32 And he looked round about to see her that had done this thing.
33 But the woman, fearing and trembling, knowing what was done in her, came and fell down before him, and told him all the truth.
34 And he said unto her, Daughter, thy faith hath made thee whole; go in peace, and be whole of thy plague.
35 While he yet spake, there came from the ruler of the synagogue's house certain which said, Thy daughter is dead: why troublest thou the Master any further?
36 As soon as Jesus heard the word that was spoken, he saith unto the ruler of the synagogue, Be not afraid, only believe.
37 And he suffered no man to follow him, save Peter, and James, and John the brother of James.
23 And when Jesus came into the ruler's house, and saw the minstrels and the people making a noise,38 And he cometh to the house of the ruler of the synagogue, and seeth the tumult, and them that wept and wailed greatly.
24 He said unto them, Give place: for the maid is not dead, but sleepeth. And they laughed him to scorn.39 And when he was come in, he saith unto them, Why make ye this ado, and weep? the damsel is not dead, but sleepeth.
25 But when the people were put forth, he went in, and took her by the hand, and the maid arose.40 And they laughed him to scorn. But, when he had put them all out, he taketh the father and the mother of the damsel, and them that were with him, and entereth in where the damsel was lying.
26 And the fame hereof went abroad into all that land.41 And he took the damsel by the hand, and said unto her, Talitha-cumi: which is, being interpreted, Damsel, (I say unto thee) arise.
42 And straightway the damsel arose, and walked; for she was of the age of twelve years. And they were astonished with a great astonishment.
43 And he charged them straitly that no man should know it; and commanded that something should be given her to eat.
Luke.
CH. VIII. 41-56.
41 And behold, there came a man named Jairus, and he was a ruler of the synagogue: and he fell down at Jesus' feet, and besought him that he would come into his house:
42 For he had one only daughter, about twelve years of age, and she lay a-dying. But as he went, the people thronged him.
43 And a woman having an issue of blood twelve years, which had spent all her living upon physicians, neither could be healed of any,
44 Came behind him and touched the border of his garment: and immediately her issue of blood stanched.
45 And Jesus said, Who touched me? When all denied, Peter, and they that were with him, said, Master, the multitude throng thee, and press thee, and sayest thou, Who touched me?
46 And Jesus said, Somebody hath touched me: for I perceive that virtue is gone out of me.
47 And when the woman saw that she was not hid, she came trembling, and falling down before him, she declared unto him before all the people for what cause she had touched him, and how she was healed immediately.
48 And he said unto her, Daughter, be of good comfort: thy faith hath made thee whole; go in peace.
49 While he yet spake, there cometh one from the ruler of the synagogue's house, saying to him, Thy daughter is dead: trouble not the Master.
50 But when Jesus heard it, he answered him, saying, Fear not: believe only, and she shall be made whole.
51 And when he came into the house, he suffered no man to go in, save Peter, and James, and John, and the father and the mother of the maiden.
52 And all wept and bewailed her: but he said, Weep not: she is not dead, but sleepeth.
53 And they laughed him to scorn, knowing that she was dead.
54 And he put them all out, and took her by the hand, and called, saying, Maid, arise.
55 And her spirit came again, and she arose straightway: and he commanded to give her meat.
56 And her parents were astonished: but he charged them that they should tell no man what was done.
[pg 210]

§ 60. Two blind men healed, and a dumb spirit cast out. Capernaum.

Matthew.
CH. IX. 27-34.
27 And when Jesus departed thence, two blind men followed him, crying, and saying, Thou son of David, have mercy on us.
28 And when he was come into the house, the blind men came to him: and Jesus saith unto them, Believe ye that I am able to do this? They said unto him, Yea, Lord.
29 Then touched he their eyes, saying, According to your faith, be it unto you.
30 And their eyes were opened; and Jesus straitly charged them, saying, See that no man know it.
31 But they, when they were departed, spread abroad his fame in all that country.
32 As they went out, behold, they brought to him a dumb man possessed with a devil.
33 And when the devil was cast out, the dumb spake: and the multitudes marvelled, saying, It was never so seen in Israel.
34 But the Pharisees said, He casteth out devils, through the prince of the devils.
[pg 212]

§ 61. Jesus again at Nazareth, and again rejected.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XIII. 54-58.CH. VI. 1-6.
54 And when he was come into his own country, he taught them in their synagogue, insomuch that they were astonished, and said, Whence hath this man this wisdom, and these mighty works?And he went out from thence, and came into his own county; and his disciples follow him.
55 Is not this the carpenter's son? is not his mother called Mary? and his brethren, James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas?2 And when the sabbath-day was come, he began to teach in the synagogue: and many hearing him were astonished, saying, From whence hath this man these things? and what wisdom is this which is given unto him, that even such mighty works are wrought by his hands?
56 And his sisters, are they not all with us? Whence then hath this man all these things?3 Is not this the carpenter, the son of Mary,168 the brother of James, and Joses, and of Juda, and Simon? and are not his sisters here with us? And they were offended at him.
57 And they were offended in him. But Jesus said unto them, A prophet is not without honour, save in his own country, and in his own house.4 But Jesus said unto them, A prophet is not without honour, but in his own country, and among his own kin, and in his own house.
5 And he could there do mighty work, save that he laid his hands upon a few sick folk, and healed them.
58 And he did not many mighty works there, because of their unbelief.6 And he marvelled because of their unbelief.
[pg 214]

§ 62. A third circuit in Galilee. The Twelve instructed and sent forth. Galilee.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. IX. 35-38. CH. X. 1, 5-42.CH. VI. 6-13.
CH. XI. 1.
35 And Jesus went about all the cities and villages, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing every sickness, and every disease among the people.
36 But when he saw the multitudes, he was moved with compassion on them, because they fainted, and were scattered abroad as sheep having no shepherd.
37 Then saith he unto his disciples, The harvest truly is plenteous, but the labourers are few.
38 Pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he will send forth labourers into his harvest.
CHAP. X.
And when he had called unto him his twelve disciples, he gave them power against unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal all manner of sickness, and all manner of disease.7 And he called unto him the twelve, and began to send them forth by two and two, and gave them power over unclean spirits;
5 These twelve Jesus sent forth, and commanded them, saying, Go not into the way of the Gentiles, and into any city of the Samaritans, enter ye not.8 And commanded them that they should take nothing for their journey, save a staff only; no scrip, no bread, no money in their purse:
6 But go rather to the lost sheep of the house of Israel.9 But be shod with sandals; and not put on two coats.
7 And as ye go, preach, saying, The kingdom of heaven is at hand.10 And he said unto them, In what place soever ye enter into a house, there abide till ye depart from that place.
8 Heal the sick, cleanse the lepers, raise the dead, cast out devils: freely ye have received, freely give.
9 Provide neither gold, nor silver, nor brass in your purses;
10 Nor scrip for your journey, neither two coats, neither shoes,169 nor yet staves: (for the workman is worthy of his meat.)
11 And into whatever city or town ye shall enter, inquire who in it is worthy; and there abide till ye go thence.
12 And when ye come into a house, salute it.
13 And if the house be worthy, let your peace come upon it: but if it be not worthy, let your peace return to you.
14 And whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear your words, when ye depart out of that house, or city, shake off the dust of your feet.11 And whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear you, when ye depart thence, shake off the dust under your feet, for a testimony against them. Verify, I say unto you, it shall be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment, then for that city.
15 Verily, I say unto you, It shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah, in the day of judgment, than for that city.
16 Behold, I send you forth as sheep in the midst of wolves: be ye therefore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves.
17 But beware of men: for they will deliver you up to the councils, and they will scourge you in their synagogues.170
18 And ye shall be brought before governors and kings for my sake, for a testimony against them and the Gentiles.
19 But when they deliver you up, take no thought how or what ye shall speak, for it shall be given you in that same hour what ye shall speak.
20 For it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father which speaketh in you.
21 And the brother shall deliver up the brother to death, and the father the child: and the children shall rise up against their parents, and cause them to be put to death.
22 And ye shall be hated of all men for my name's sake: but he that endureth to the end shall be saved.
23 But when they persecute you in this city, flee ye into another: for verily I say unto you, Ye shall not have gone over the cities of Israel till the Son of man be come.
24 The disciple is not above his master, nor the servant above his lord.
25 It is enough for the disciple that he be as his master, and the servant as his lord: if they have called the master of the house Beelzebub, how much more shall they call them of his household?
26 Fear them not therefore: for there is nothing covered, that shall not be revealed; and hid, that shall not be known.
27 What I tell you in darkness, that speak ye in light: and what ye hear in the ear, that preach ye upon the house-tops.
28 And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.
29 Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? and one of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father.
30 But the very hairs of your head are all numbered.
31 Fear ye not therefore, ye are of more value than many sparrows.
32 Whosoever therefore shall confess me before men, him will I confess also before my Father which is in heaven.
33 But whosoever shall deny me before men, him will I also deny before my Father which is in heaven.
34 Think not that I am come to send peace on earth; I came not to send peace, but a sword.
35 For I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law.
36 And a man's foes shall be they of his own household.171
37 He that loveth father or mother more than me, is not worthy of me: and he that loveth son or daughter more than me, is not worthy of me.
38 And he that taketh not his cross, and followeth after me, is not worthy of me.
39 He that findeth his life shall lose it: and he that loseth his life for my sake, shall find it.
40 He that receiveth you, receiveth me; and he that receiveth me, receiveth him that sent me.
41 He that receiveth a prophet in the name of a prophet, shall receive a prophet's reward; and he that receiveth a righteous man in the name of a righteous man, shall receive a righteous man's reward.
42 And whosoever shall give to drink unto one of these little ones, a cup of cold water only, in the name of a disciple, verily, I say unto you, he shall in no wise lose his reward.
CH. XI.
And it came to pass when Jesus had made an end of commanding his twelve disciples, he departed thence to teach and to preach in their cities.And he went round about the villages teaching.
12 And they went out, and preached that men should repent.
13 And they cast out many devils, and anointed with oil many that were sick, and healed them.
Luke.
CH. IX. 1-6.
Then he called his twelve disciples together, and gave them power and authority over all devils, and to cure diseases.
2 And he sent them to preach the kingdom of God, and to heal the sick.
3 And he said unto them, Take nothing for your journey, neither staves, nor scrip, neither bread, neither money; neither have two coats apiece.
4 And whatsoever house ye enter into, there abide, and thence depart.
5 And whosoever will not receive you, when ye go out of that city, shake off the very dust from your feet for a testimony against them.
6 And they departed, and went through the towns, preaching the gospel, and healing everywhere.
[pg 220]

§ 63. Herod holds Jesus to be John the Baptist, whom he had just before beheaded. Galilee? Perea.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XIV. 1, 2, 6-12.CH. VI. 14-16, 21-29.
At that time Herod the tetrarch heard of the fame of Jesus,14 And king Herod heard of him, (for his name was spread abroad,) and he said, That John the Baptist was risen from the dead, and therefore mighty works do shew forth themselves in him.
2 And said unto his servants,172 This is John the Baptist; he is risen from the dead; and therefore mighty works do shew forth themselves in him.15 Others said, That it is Elias. And others said, That it is a prophet, or as one of the prophets.
16 But when Herod heard thereof, he said, It is John, whom I beheaded: he is risen from the dead.
6 But when Herod's birth-day was kept,173 the daughter of Herodias danced before them, and pleased Herod.21 And when a convenient day was come, that Herod on his birth-day made a supper to his lords, high captains, and chief estates of Galilee:
22 And when the daughter of the said Herodias came in, and danced, and pleased Herod, and them that sat with him, the king said unto the damsel, Ask of me whatsoever thou wilt, and I will give it thee.
7 Whereupon he promised with an oath to give her whatsoever she would ask.23 And he sware unto her, Whatsoever thou shalt ask of me, I will give it thee, unto the half of my kingdom.
24 And she went forth, and said unto her mother, What shall I ask? And she said, The head of John the Baptist.
8 And she, being before instructed of her mother, said, Give me here John Baptist's head in a charger.25 And she came in straightway with haste unto the king, and asked, saying, I will that thou give me, by and by, in a charger, the head of John the Baptist.
9 And the king was sorry: nevertheless for the oath's sake, and them which sat with him at meat, he commanded it to be given her.26 And the king was exceeding sorry; yet for his oath's sake, and for their sakes which sat with him, he would not reject her.
10 And he sent, and beheaded John in the prison.27 And immediately the king sent an executioner, and commanded his head to be brought: and he went and beheaded him in the prison;
11 And his head was brought in a charger, and given to the damsel: and she brought it to her mother.28 And brought his head in a charger, and gave it to the damsel; and the damsel gave it to her mother.
12 And his disciples came, and took up the body, and buried it, and went and told Jesus.29 And when his disciples heard of it, they came and took up his corpse, and laid it in a tomb.
Luke.
CH. IX. 7-9.
7 Now Herod the tetrarch heard of all that was done by him: and he was perplexed, because that it was said of some, that John was risen from the dead;
8 And of some, that Elias had appeared; and of others, that one of the old prophets was risen again.
9 And Herod said, John have I beheaded; but who is this of whom I hear such things? And he desired to see him.
[pg 222]

§ 64. The Twelve return. Jesus retires with them across the lake. Five thousand are fed. Capernaum. N. E. coast of the lake.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XIV. 13-21.CH. VI. 30-44.
13 When Jesus heard of it, he departed thence by ship into a desert place apart: and when the people had heard thereof, they followed him on foot out of the cities.30 And the apostles gathered themselves together unto Jesus, and told him all things, both what they had done, and what they had taught.
14 And Jesus went forth, and saw a great multitude, and was moved with compassion toward them, and he healed their sick.31 And he said unto them, Come ye yourselves apart into a desert place, and rest awhile: for there were many coming and going,174 and they had no leisure so much as to eat.
32 And they departed into a desert place by ship privately.
33 And the people saw them departing, and many knew him, and ran afoot thither out of all cities, and outwent them, and came together unto him.
34 And Jesus, when he came out, saw much people, and was moved with compassion toward them, because they were as sheep not having a shepherd: and he began to teach them many things.
15 And when it was evening his disciples came to him, saying, This is a desert place, and the time is now past; send the multitude away, that they may go into the villages, and buy themselves victuals.35 And when the day was now far spent, his disciples came unto him, and said, This is a desert place, and now the time is far passed:
36 Send them away, that they may go into the country round about, and into the villages, and buy themselves bread: for they have nothing to eat.
16 But Jesus said unto them, They need not depart; give ye them to eat.37 He answered and said unto them, Give ye them to eat. And they say unto him, Shall we go and buy two hundred pennyworth of bread, and give them to eat?
17 And they say unto him, We have here but five loaves, and two fishes.
18 He said, Bring them hither to me.38 He saith unto them, How many loaves have ye? go and see. And when they knew, they say, Five, and two fishes.
19 And he commanded the multitude to sit down on the grass, and took the five loaves, and the two fishes, and looking up to heaven, he blessed, and brake, and gave the loaves to his disciples, and the disciples to the multitude.39 And he commanded them to make all sit down by companies upon the green grass.
40 And they sat down in ranks, by hundreds, and by fifties.
41 And when he had taken the five loaves, and the two fishes, he looked up to heaven, and blessed, and brake the loaves, and gave them to his disciples to set before them; and the two fishes divided he among them all.
20 And they did all eat, and were filled: and they took up of the fragments that remained twelve baskets full.42 And they did all eat, and were filled.
43 And they took up twelve baskets full of the fragments, and of the fishes.
21 And they that had eaten were about five thousand men, besides women and children.44 And they that did eat of the loaves, were about five thousand men.
Luke.John.
CH. IX. 10-17.CH. VI. 1-14.
10 And the apostles, when they were returned, told him all that they had done. And he took them, and went aside privately into a desert place, belonging to the city called Bethsaida.After these things Jesus went over the sea of Galilee, which is the sea of Tiberias.
2 And a great multitude followed him, because they saw his miracles which he did on them that were diseased.
11 And the people, when they knew it, followed him: and he received them, and spake unto them of the kingdom of God, and healed them that had need of healing.3 And Jesus went up into a mountain, and there he sat with his disciples.
4 And the passover, a feast of the Jews, was nigh.
5 When Jesus then lifted up his eyes, and saw a great company come unto him, he saith unto Philip,175 Whence shall we buy bread that these may eat?
6 (And this he said to prove him: for he himself knew what he would do.)
12 And when the day began to wear away, then came the twelve, and said unto him, Send the multitude away, that they may go into the towns and country round about, and lodge, and get victuals: for we are here in a desert place.7 Philip answered him, Two hundred pennyworth of bread is not sufficient for them, that every one of them may take a little.
8 One of his disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter's brother, saith unto him,
9 There is a lad here, which hath five barley loaves, and two small fishes: but what are they among so many?
13 But he said unto them, Give ye them to eat. And they said, We have no more but five loaves and two fishes; except we should go and buy meat for all this people.10 And Jesus said, Make the men sit down. (Now there was much grass in the place.) So the men sat down in number about five thousand.
14 (For they were about five thousand men.) And he said to his disciples, Make them sit down by fifties176 in a company.11 And Jesus took the loaves; and when he had given thanks, he distributed to the disciples, and the disciples to them that were set down; and likewise of the fishes, as much as they would.
15 And they did so, and made them all sit down.12 When they were filled, he said unto his disciples, Gather up the fragments that remain, that nothing be lost.
16 Then he took the five loaves, and the two fishes, and looking up to heaven, he blessed them, and brake, and gave to the disciples to set before the multitude.13 Therefore they gathered them together, and filled twelve baskets with the fragments of the five barley loaves, which remained over and above unto them that had eaten.
17 And they did eat, and were all filled: and there was taken up of fragments that remained to them twelve baskets.14 Then those men, when they had seen the miracle that Jesus did, said, This is of a truth that Prophet that should come into the world.
[pg 224]

§ 65. Jesus walks upon the water. Lake of Galilee. Gennesaret.

Matthew.Mark.
Ch. XIV. 22-36.CH. VI. 45-56.
22 And straightway Jesus constrained his disciples to get into a ship, and to go before him unto the other side, while he sent the multitudes away.45 And straightway he constrained his disciples to get into the ship, and to go to the other side before unto Bethsaida, while he sent away the people.
23 And when he had sent the multitudes away, he went up into a mountain apart to pray: and when the evening was come, he was there alone.46 And when he had sent them away, he departed into a mountain to pray.
24 But the ship was now in the midst of the sea, tossed with waves: for the wind was contrary.47 And when even was come, the ship was in the midst of the sea, and he alone on the land.
25 And in the fourth watch of the night Jesus went unto them, walking on the sea.48 And he saw them toiling in rowing; for the wind was contrary unto them: and about the fourth watch of the night he cometh unto them, walking upon the sea, and would have passed by them.
26 And when the disciples saw him walking on the sea, they were troubled, saying, It is a spirit; and they cried out for fear.49 But when they saw him walking upon the sea, they supposed it had been a spirit, and cried out.
27 But straightway Jesus spake unto them, saying, Be of good cheer; it is I; be not afraid.50 (For they all saw him, and were troubled.) And immediately he talked with them, and saith unto them, Be of good cheer: it is I; be not afraid.
28 And Peter answered him and said, Lord, if it be thou, bid me come unto thee on the water.
29 And he said, Come. And when Peter was come down out of the ship, he walked on the water, to go to Jesus.
30 But when he saw the wind boisterous, he was afraid; and beginning to sink, he cried, saying, Lord, save me.51 And he went up unto them into the ship; and the wind ceased; and they were sore amazed in themselves beyond measure, and wondered.
31 And immediately Jesus stretched forth his hand, and caught him, and said unto him, O thou of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt?52 For they considered not the miracle of the loaves; for their heart was hardened.
32 And when they were come into the ship, the wind ceased.53 And when they had passed over, they came into the land of Gennesaret, and drew to the shore.
33 Then they that were in the ship came and worshipped him, saying, Of a truth thou art the Son of God.54 And when they were come out of the ship, straightway they knew him,
34 And when they were gone over, they came into the land of Gennesaret.55 And ran through that whole region round about, and began to carry about in beds those that were sick, where they heard he was.
35 And when the men of that place had knowledge of him, they sent out into all that country round about, and brought unto him all that were diseased;56 And whithersoever he entered, into villages, or cities, or country, they laid the sick in the streets, and besought him that they might touch, if it were but the border of his garment: and as many as touched him were made whole.
36 And besought him that they might only touch the hem of his garment: and as many as touched him were made perfectly whole.
John.
CH. VI. 15-21.
When Jesus therefore perceived that they would come and take him by force, to make him a king, he departed again into a mountain himself alone.
16 And when even was now come, his disciples went down unto the sea,
17 And entered into a ship, and went over the sea toward Capernaum. And it was now dark, and Jesus was not come to them.
18 And the sea arose by reason of a great wind that blew.
19 So when they had rowed about five and twenty or thirty furlongs, they see Jesus walking on the sea, and drawing nigh unto the ship: and they were afraid.
20 But he saith unto them, It is I; be not afraid.
21 Then they willingly received him into the ship: and immediately the ship was at the land whither they went.
[pg 228]

§ 66. Our Lord's discourse in the Synagogue at Capernaum. Many disciples turn back. Peter's profession of faith. Capernaum.

John.
CH. VI. 22-71. CH. VII. 1.
22 The day following, when the people which stood on the other side of the sea saw that there was none other boat there, save that one whereinto his disciples were entered, and that Jesus went not with his disciples into the boat, but that his disciples were gone away alone;
23 (Howbeit there came other boats from Tiberias nigh unto the place where they did eat bread, after that the Lord had given thanks:)
24 When the people therefore saw that Jesus was not there, neither his disciples, they also took shipping, and came to Capernaum, seeking for Jesus.
25 And when they had found him on the other side of the sea, they said unto him, Rabbi, when camest thou hither?177
26 Jesus answered them and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Ye seek me, not because ye saw the miracles, but because ye did eat of the loaves, and were filled.
27 Labour not for the meat which perisheth, but for that meat which endureth unto everlasting life, which the Son of man shall give unto you: for him hath God the Father sealed.
28 Then said they unto him, What shall we do, that we might work the works of God?
29 Jesus answered and said unto them, This is the work of God, that ye believe on him whom he hath sent.
30 They said therefore unto him, What sign shewest thou then, that we may see, and believe thee? what dost thou work?
31 Our fathers did eat manna in the desert; as it is written,178 He gave them bread from heaven to eat.
32 Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Moses gave you not that bread from heaven; but my Father giveth you the true bread from heaven.
33 For the bread of God is he which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world.
34 Then said they unto him, Lord, evermore give us this bread.
35 And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me, shall never hunger; and he that believeth on me, shall never thirst.
36 But I said unto you, That ye also have seen me, and believe not.
37 All that the Father giveth me, shall come to me; and him that cometh to me, I will in no wise cast out.
38 For I came down from heaven, not to do mine own will, but the will of him that sent me.
39 And this is the Father's will which hath sent me, that of all which he hath given me, I should lose nothing, but should raise it up again at the last day.
40 And this is the will of him that sent me, that every one which seeth the Son, and believeth on him, may have everlasting life: and I will raise him up at the last day.
41 The Jews then murmured at him, because he said, I am the bread which came down from heaven.
42 And they said, Is not this Jesus the son of Joseph, whose father and mother we know? how is it then that he saith, I came down from heaven?
43 Jesus therefore answered and said unto them, Murmur not among yourselves.
44 No man can come to me, except the Father which hath sent me draw him: and I will raise him up at the last day.
45 It is written in the prophets,179 And they shall be all taught of God. Every man therefore that hath heard, and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me.
46 Not that any man hath seen the Father, save he which is of God, he hath seen the Father.
47 Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that believeth on me hath everlasting life.
48 I am that bread of life.180
49 Your fathers did eat manna in the wilderness, and are dead.
50 This is the bread which cometh down from heaven, that a man may eat therof, and not die.
51 I am the living bread which came down from heaven: if any man eat of this bread, he shall live for ever: and the bread that I will give is my flesh, which I will give for the life of the world.
52 The Jews therefore strove among themselves, saying, How can this man give us his flesh to eat?
53 Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink his blood, ye have no life in you.
54 Whoso eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, hath eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day.
55 For my flesh is meat indeed, and my blood is drink indeed.
56 He that eateth my flesh, and drinketh my blood, dwelleth in me, and I in him.
57 As the living Father hath sent me, and I live by the Father: so he that eateth me, even he shall live by me.
58 This is that bread which came down from heaven: not as your fathers did eat manna, and are dead: he that eateth of this bread shall live for ever.
59 These things said he in the synagogue, as he taught in Capernaum.
60 Many therefore of his disciples, when they had heard this, said, This is a hard saying; who can hear it?
61 When Jesus knew in himself that his disciples murmured at it, he said unto them, Doth this offend you?
62 What and if ye shall see the Son of man ascend up where he was before?
63 It is the Spirit that quickeneth; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I speak unto you, they are spirit, and they are life.
64 But there are some of you that believe not. For Jesus knew from the beginning who they were that believe not, and who should betray him.
65 And he said, Therefore said I unto you, that no man can come unto me, except it were given unto him of my Father.
66 From that time many of his disciples went back,181 and walked no more with him.
67 Then said Jesus unto the twelve, Will ye also go away?
68 Then Simon Peter answered him, Lord, to whom shall we go? thou hast the words of eternal life.
69 And we believe, and are sure that thou art that Christ, the Son of the living God.
70 Jesus answered them, Have not I chosen you twelve, and one of you is a devil?182
71 He spake of Judas Iscariot the son of Simon: for he it was that should betray him, being one of the twelve.
CH. VII.
After these things Jesus walked in Galilee: for he would not walk in Jewry, because the Jews sought to kill him.
[pg 237]

Part V. From Our Lord's Third Passover, Until His Final Departure From Galilee, At The Festival Of Tabernacles.

Time. Six months.

[pg 238]

§ 67. Our Lord justifies his Disciples for eating with unwashen hands. Pharisaic traditions. Capernaum.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XV. 1-20.CH. VII. 1-23.
Then came to Jesus scribes and Pharisees, which were of Jerusalem, saying,Then came together unto him the Pharisees, and certain of the scribes, which came from Jerusalem.
2 Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition of the elders?183 for they wash not their hands when they eat bread.2 And when they saw some of his disciples eat bread with defiled (that is to say, with unwashen) hands, they found fault.
3 For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, except they wash their hands oft, eat not, holding the tradition of the elders.
4 And when they come from the market, except they wash, they eat not. And many other things there be, which they have received to hold, as the washing of cups, and pots, and brazen vessels, and tables.184
5 Then the Pharisees and scribes asked him, Why walk not thy disciples according to the tradition of the elders, but eat bread with unwashen hands?
3 But he answered and said unto them, Why do ye also transgress the commandment of God by your tradition?6 He answered and said unto them, Well hath Esaias prophesied of you hypocrites, as it is written, This people honoureth me with their lips, but their heart is far from me.
4 For God commanded,185 saying, Honour thy father and mother: and, He that curseth father or mother, let him die the death.7 Howbeit, in vain do they worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.
5 But ye say, Whosoever shall say to his father or his mother, It is a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me;8 For, laying aside the commandment of God, ye hold the tradition of men, as the washing of pots and cups: and many other such like things ye do.
6 And honour not his father or his mother, he shall be free. Thus ye made the commandment of God of none effect by your tradition.9 And he said unto them, Full well ye reject the commandment of God, that ye may keep your own tradition.
7 Ye hypocrites, well did Esaias prophesy of you,186 saying,10 For Moses said, Honour thy father and thy mother; and, Whoso curseth father or mother, let him die the death.
8 This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth, and honoureth me with their lips; but their heart is far from me.11 But ye say, If a man shall say to his father or mother, It is Corban, that is to say, a gift, by whatsoever thou mightest be profited by me; he shall be free.
9 But in vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.12 And ye suffer him no more to do aught for his father or his mother;
13 Making the word of God of none effect through your tradition, which ye have delivered: and many such like things do ye.
10 And he called the multitude, and said unto them, Hear, and understand:14 And when he had called all the people unto him, he said unto them, Hearken unto me every one of you, and understand.
11 Not that which goeth into the mouth defileth a man; but that which cometh out of the mouth, this defileth a man.15 There is nothing from without a man, that entering into him, can defile him: but the things which come out of him, those are they that defile the man.
12 Then came his disciples, and said unto him, Knowest thou that the Pharisees were offended after they heard this saying?16 If any man have ears to hear, let him hear.
13 But he answered and said, Ever plant, which my heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be rooted up.
14 Let them alone: they be blind leaders of the blind. And if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch.
15 Then answered Peter and said unto him, Declare unto us this parable.17 And when he was entered into the house from the people, his disciples asked him concerning the parable.
16 And Jesus said, Are ye also yet without understanding?18 And he saith unto them, Are ye so without understanding also? Do ye not perceive, that whatsoever thing from without entereth into the man, it cannot defile him:
17 Do not ye yet understand, that whatsoever entereth in at the mouth goeth into the belly, and is cast out into the draught?
18 But those things which proceed out of the mouth come forth from the heart; and they defile the man.19 Because it entereth not into his heart, but into the belly, and goeth out into the draught, purging all meats?
19 For out of the heart proceed evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies:20 And he said, That which cometh heart of the man, that defileth the man.
20 These are the things which defile a man: but to eat with unwashen hands defileth not a man.21 For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders,
22 Thefts, covetousness, wickedness, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness;
23 All these evil things come from within, and defile the man.
[pg 242]

§ 68. The daughter of a Syrophenician woman is healed. Region of Tyre and Sidon.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XV. 21-28.CH. VII. 24-30.
21 Then Jesus went thence, and departed into the coasts of Tyre and Sidon.24 And from thence he arose, and went into the borders of Tyre and Sidon, and entered into a house, and would have no man know it: but he could not be hid.
22 And behold, a woman of Canaan came out of the same coasts, and cried unto him, saying, Have mercy on me, O Lord, thou son of David; my daughter is grievously vexed with a devil.25 For a certain woman, whose young daughter had an unclean spirit, heard of him, and came and fell at his feet:
23 But he answered her not a word. And his disciples came and besought him, saying, Send her away; for she crieth after us.26 (The woman was a Greek, a Syrophenician187 by nation,) and she besought him that he would cast forth the devil out of her daughter.
24 But he answered and said, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel.27 But Jesus said unto her, Let the children first be filled: for it is not meet to take the children's bread, and to cast it unto the dogs.
25 Then came she and worshipped him, saying, Lord, help me.
26 But he answered and said, It is not meet to take the children's bread and to cast it to dogs.28 And she answered and said unto him, Yes, Lord: yet the dogs under the table eat of the children's crumbs.
27 And she said, Truth, Lord: yet the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their master's table.29 And he said unto her, For this saying, go thy way; the devil is gone out of thy daughter.
28 Then Jesus answered and said unto her, O woman, great is thy faith: be it unto thee even as thou wilt. And her daughter was made whole from that very hour.30 And when she was come to her house, she found the devil gone out, and her daughter laid upon the bed.
[pg 244]

§ 69. A deaf and dumb man healed; also many others. Four thousand are fed. The Decapolis.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XV. 29-38.CH. VII. 31-37. CH. VIII. 1-9.
29 And Jesus departed from thence, and came nigh unto the sea of Galilee; and went up into a mountain, and sat down there.31 And again departing from the coasts of Tyre and Sidon, he came unto the sea of Galilee, through the midst of the coasts of Decapolis.
30 And great multitudes came unto him, having with them those that were lame, blind, dumb, maimed, and many others, and cast them down at Jesus' feet; and he healed them:32 And they bring unto him one that was deaf, and had an impediment in his speech; and they beseech him to put his hand upon him.
33 And he took him aside from the multitude, and put his fingers into his ears, and he spit, and touched his tongue:
34 And looking up to heaven, he sighed, and saith unto him, Ephphatha, that is, Be opened.
35 And straightway his ears were opened, and the string of his tongue was loosed, and he spake plain.
36 And he charged them that they should tell no man: but the more he charged them, so much the more a great deal they published it;
31 Insomuch that the multitude wondered, when they saw the dumb to speak, the maimed to be whole, the lame to walk, and the blind to see: and they glorified the God of Israel.37 And were beyond measure astonished, saying, He hath done all things well; he maketh both the deaf to hear, and the dumb to speak.
CH. VIII.
32 Then Jesus called his disciples unto him, and said, I have compassion on the multitude, because they continue with me now three days, and have nothing to eat: and I will not send them away fasting, lest they faint in the way.In those days the multitude being very great, and having nothing to eat, Jesus called his disciples unto him, and saith unto them,
2 I have compassion on the multitude, because they have now been with me three days, and have nothing to eat:
3 And if I send them away fasting to their own houses, they will faint by the way: for divers of them came from far.
33 And his disciples say unto him, Whence should we have so much bread in the wilderness, as to fill so great a multitude?4 And his disciples answered him, From whence can a man satisfy these men with bread here in the wilderness?
34 And Jesus saith unto them, How many loaves have ye? And they said, Seven, and a few little fishes.5 And he asked them, How many loaves have ye? And they said, Seven.
35 And he commanded the multitude to sit down on the ground.6 And he commanded the people to sit down on the ground: and he took the seven loaves, and gave thanks, and brake, and gave to his disciples to set before them; and they did set them before the people.
36 And he took the seven loaves and the fishes, and gave thanks, and brake them, and gave to his disciples, and the disciples to the multitude.7 And they had a few small fishes: and he blessed, and commanded to set them also before them.
37 And they did all eat, and were filled: and they took up of the broken meat that was left seven baskets full.8 So they did eat, and were filled: and they took up of the broken meat that was left, seven baskets.
38 And they that did eat were four thousand men, besides women and children.9 And they that had eaten were about four thousand: and he sent them away.
[pg 246]

§ 70. The Pharisees and Sadducees again require a sign. Near Magdala.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XV. 39. CH. XVI. 1-4.CH. VIII. 10-12.
39 And he sent away the multitude, and took ship, and came into the coasts of Magdala.18810 And straightway he entered into a ship with his disciples, and came into the parts of Dalmanutha.
The Pharisees also with the Sadducees came, and, tempting, desired him that he would shew them a sign from heaven.11 And the Pharisees came forth, and began to question with him, seeking of him a sign from heaven, tempting him.
2 He answered and said unto them, When it is evening, ye say, It will be fair weather: for the sky is red.
3 And in the morning, It will be foul weather to-day: for the sky is red and lowering. O ye hypocrites, ye can discern the face of the sky; but can ye not discern the signs of the times?
4 A wicked and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given unto it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas.12 And he sighed deeply in his spirit, and saith, Why doth this generation seek after a sign? Verily I say unto you, There shall no sign be given unto this generation.
[pg 248]

§ 71. The disciples cautioned against the leaven of the Pharisees, &c. N. E. coast of the lake of Galilee.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XVI. 4-12.CH. VIII. 13-21.
4 And he left them, and departed.13 And he left them, and entering into the ship again, departed to the other side.
5 And when his disciples were come to the other side, they had forgotten to take bread.14 Now the disciples had forgotten to take bread, neither had they in the ship with them more than one loaf.
6 Then Jesus said unto them, Take heed and beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees.15 And he charged them, saying, Take heed, beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, and of the leaven of Herod.
7 And they reasoned among themselves, saying, It is because we have taken no bread.16 And they reasoned among themselves, saying, It is because we have no bread.
8 Which when Jesus perceived, he said unto them, O ye of little faith, why reason ye among yourselves, because ye have brought no bread?17 And when Jesus knew it, he saith unto them, Why reason ye, because ye have no bread? perceive ye not yet, neither understand? have ye your heart yet hardened?
18 Having eyes, see ye not? and having ears, hear ye not? and do ye not remember?
9 Do ye not yet understand, neither remember the five loaves of the five thousand, and how many baskets ye took up?19 When I brake the five loaves among five thousand, how many baskets full of fragments took ye up? They say unto him, Twelve.
10 Neither the seven loaves of the four thousand, and how many baskets ye took up?20 And when the seven among four thousand, how many baskets full of fragments took ye up? And they said, Seven.189
11 How is it that ye do not understand that I spake it not to you concerning bread, that ye should beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees?21 And he said unto them, How is it that ye do not understand?
12 Then understood they how that he bade them not beware of the leaven of bread, but of the doctrine of the Pharisees and of the Sadducees.
[pg 250]

§ 72. A blind man healed. Bethsaida. (Julias.)

Mark.
CH. VIII. 22-26.
22 And he cometh to Bethsaida; and they bring a blind man unto him, and besought him to touch him.
23 And he took the blind man by the hand, and led him out of the town;190 and when he had spit on his eyes, and put his hands upon him, he asked him if he saw aught.
24 And he looked up, and said, I see men as trees walking.
25 After that, he put his hands again upon his eyes, and made him look up: and he was restored, and saw every man clearly.
26 And he sent him away to his house, saying, Neither go into the town, nor tell it to any in the town.

§ 73. Peter and the others again profess their faith in Christ. Region of Cesarea Philippi.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XVI. 13-20.CH. VIII. 27-30.
13 When Jesus came into the coasts of Cesarea Philippi, he asked his disciples, saying, Whom do men say that I, the Son of man, am?27 And Jesus went out, and his disciples, into the towns of Cesarea Philippi: and by the way he asked his disciples, saying unto them, Whom do men say that I am?
14 And they said, Some say that thou art John the Baptist: some, Elias; and others, Jeremias, or one of the prophets.28 And they answered, John the Baptist: but some say, Elias; and others, One of the prophets.
15 He saith unto them, But whom say ye that I am?29 And he saith unto them, But whom say ye that I am? And Peter answereth and saith unto him, Thou art the Christ.
16 And Simon Peter answered and said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God.
17 And Jesus answered and said unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon Bar-jona: for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven.
18 And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church: and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.
19 And I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven; and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, shall be loosed in heaven.
20 Then charged he his disciples that they should tell no man that he was Jesus the Christ.30 And he charged them that they should tell no man of him.
Luke.
CH. IX. 18-21.
18 And it came to pass, as he was alone praying, his disciples were with him; and he asked them, saying, Whom say the people that I am?
19 They, answering, said, John the Baptist; but some say, Elias; and others say, That one of the old prophets is risen again.
20 He said unto them, But whom say ye that I am? Peter, answering, said, The Christ of God.
[pg 252]

§ 74. Our Lord foretells his own death and resurrection, and the trials of his followers. Region of Cesarea Philippi.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XVI. 21-28.CH. VIII. 31-38. CH. IX. 1.
21 From that time forth began Jesus to shew unto his disciples, how that he must go unto Jerusalem, and suffer many things of the elders, and chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and be raised again the third day.19131 And he began to teach them, that the Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders, and of the chief priests, and scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again.
22 Then Peter took him, and began to rebuke him, saying, Be it far from thee, Lord: this shall not be unto thee.32 And he spake that saying openly And Peter took him, and began to rebuke him.
23 But he turned, and said unto Peter, Get thee behind me, Satan; thou art an offence unto me: for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but those that be of men.33 But when he had turned about, and looked on his disciples, he rebuked Peter, saying, Get thee behind me, Satan: for thou savourest not the things that be of God, but the things that be of men.
24 Then said Jesus unto his disciples If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me.34 And when he had called the people unto him, with his disciples also, he said unto them, Whosoever will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me.
25 For whosoever will save his life, shall lose it: and whosoever will lose his life for my sake, shall find it.35 For whosoever will save his life, shall lose it; but whosoever shall lose his life for my sake and the gospel's, the same shall save it.
26 For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul? or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul?36 For what shall it profit a man, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?
37 Or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul?
27 For the Son of man shall come in the glory of his Father, with his angels; and then he shall reward every man according to his works.38 Whosoever therefore shall be ashamed of me, and of my words, in this adulterous and sinful generation, of him also shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he cometh in the glory of his Father with the holy angels.
28 Verily I say unto you, There be some standing here, which shall not taste of death, till they see the Son of man coming in his kingdom.1 And he said unto them, Verily, I say unto you, That there be some of them that stand here which shall not taste of death, till they have seen the kingdom of God come with power.
Luke.
CH. IX. 22-27.
22 Saying, The Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders, and chief priests, and scribes, and be slain, and be raised the third day.
23 And he said to them all, If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow me.
24 For whosoever will save his life, shall lose it: but whosoever will lose his life for my sake, the same shall save it.
25 For what is a man advantaged, if he gain the whole world, and lose himself, or be cast away?
26 For whosoever shall be ashamed of me, and of my words, of him shall the Son of man be ashamed, when he shall come in his own glory, and in his Father's, and of the holy angels.
27 But I tell you of a truth, there be some standing here which shall not taste of death till they see the Kingdom of God.
[pg 254]

§ 75. The Transfiguration. Our Lord's subsequent discourse. with the three disciples. Region of Cesarea Philippi.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XVII. 1-13.CH. IX. 2-13.
And after six days,192 Jesus taketh Peter, James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up into a high mountain apart.2 And after six days, Jesus taketh with him Peter, and James, and John, and leadeth them up into a high mountain apart by themselves; and he was transfigured before them.
2 And was transfigured before them: and his face did shine as the sun, and his raiment was white as the light.3 And his raiment became shining, exceeding white as snow; so as no fuller on earth can white them.
3 And behold there appeared unto them Moses and Elias talking with him.4 And there appeared unto them Elias, with Moses: and they were talking with Jesus.
4 Then answered Peter, and said unto Jesus, Lord, it is good for us to be here: if thou wilt, let us make here three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias.5 And Peter answered and said to Jesus, Master, it is good for us to be here: and let us make three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias.
6 For he wist not what to say: for they were sore afraid.
5 While he yet spake, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them: and behold, a voice out of the cloud, which said, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased: hear ye him.7 And there was a cloud that overshadowed them: and a voice came out of the cloud, saying, This is my beloved Son: hear him.
6 And when the disciples heard it, they fell on their face, and were sore afraid.
7 And Jesus came and touched them, and said, Arise, and be not afraid.
8 And when they had lifted up their eyes, they saw no man, save Jesus only.8 And suddenly, when they had looked round about, they saw no man any more, save Jesus only with themselves.
9 And as they came down from the mountain, Jesus charged them, saying, Tell the vision to no man, until the Son of man be risen again from the dead.9 And as they came down from the mountain, he charged them that they should tell no man what things they had seen, till the Son of man were risen from the dead.
10 And they kept that saying with themselves, questioning one with another what the rising from the dead should mean.
10 And his disciples asked him, saying, Why then say the scribes, that Elias must first come?11 And they asked him, saying, Why say the scribes that Elias must first come?
11 And Jesus answered and said unto them, Elias truly shall first come, and restore all things:12 And he answered and told them, Elias verily cometh first, and restoreth all things; and how it is written of the Son of man, that he must suffer many things, and be set at naught.
12 But I say unto you, That Elias is come already, and they knew him not, but have done unto him whatsoever they listed: likewise shall also the Son of man suffer of them.13 But I say unto you, That Elias is indeed come, and they have done unto him whatsoever they listed, as it is written of him.
13 Then the disciples understood that he spake unto them of John the Baptist.
Luke.
CH. IX. 28-36.
28 And it came to pass, about an eight days after these sayings, he took Peter, and John, and James, and went up into a mountain to pray.
29 And as he prayed, the fashion of his countenance was altered, and his raiment was white and glistering.
30 And behold, there talked with him two men, which were Moses and Elias:
31 Who appeared in glory, and spake of his decease which he should accomplish at Jerusalem.
32 But Peter and they that were with him were heavy with sleep: and when they were awake, they saw his glory, and the two men that stood with him.
33 And it came to pass, as they departed from him, Peter said unto Jesus, Master, it is good for us to be here: and let us make three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias: not knowing what he said.
34 While he thus spake, there came a cloud, and overshadowed them: and they feared as they entered into the cloud.
35 And there came a voice out of the cloud, saying, This is my beloved Son: hear him.
36 And when the voice was past, Jesus was found alone. And they kept it close, and told no man193 in those days any of those things which they had seen.
[pg 256]

§ 76. The healing of a demoniac, whom the disciples could not heal. Region of Cesarea Philippi.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XVII. 14-21.CH. IX. 14-29.
14 And when they were come to the multitude, there came to him a certain man kneeling down to him, and saying,14 And when he came to his disciples, he saw a great multitude about them, and the scribes questioning with them.
15 Lord, have mercy on my son; for he is lunatic, and sore vexed, for oft-times he falleth into the fire, and oft into the water.15 And straightway all the people, when they beheld him, were greatly mazed, and, running to him, saluted him.
16 And I brought him to thy disciples, and they could not cure him.16 And he asked the scribes, What question ye with them?
17 And one of the multitude answered and said, Master, I have brought unto thee my son, which hath a dumb spirit;
18 And wheresoever he taketh him, he teareth him; and he foameth and gnasheth with his teeth, and pineth away; and I spake to thy disciples that they should cast him out, and they could not.
17 Then Jesus answered and said, O faithless and perverse generation, how long shall I be with you? how long shall I suffer you? Bring him hither to me.19 He answereth him, and saith, O faithless generation, how long shall I be with you? how long shall I suffer you? Bring him unto me.
20 And they brought him unto him: and when he saw him, straightway the spirit tare him; and he fell on the ground, and wallowed, foaming.
21 And he asked his father, How long is it ago since this came unto him? And he said, Of a child.
22 And oft-times it hath cast him into the fire, and into the waters to destroy him: but if thou canst do any thing, have compassion on us, and help us.
23 Jesus said unto him, If thou canst believe, all things are possible to him that believeth.
24 And straightway the father of the child cried out, and said with tears, Lord, I believe: help thou mine unbelief.
25 When Jesus saw that the people came running together, he rebuked the foul spirit, saying unto him, Thou dumb and deaf spirit, I charge thee, come out of him, and enter no more into him.
26 And the spirit cried, and rent him sore, and came out of him: and he was as one dead; insomuch that many said, He is dead.
18 And Jesus rebuked the devil, and he departed out of him: and the child was cured from that very hour.27 But Jesus took him by the hand, and lifted him up; and he arose.
19 Then came the disciples to Jesus apart, and said, Why could not we cast him out?28 And when he was come into the house, his disciples asked him privately, Why could we not cast him out?
20 And Jesus said unto them, Because of your unbelief: for verily I say unto you, if ye have faith as a grain of mustard-seed, ye shall say unto this mountain, Remove hence to yonder place; and it shall remove; and nothing shall be impossible unto you.29 And he said unto them, This kind can come forth by nothing, but by prayer and fasting.
21 Howbeit, this kind goeth not out, but by prayer and fasting.
Luke.
CH. IX. 37-43.
37 And it came to pass, that on the next day, when they were come down from the hill, much people met him.
38 And behold, a man of the company cried out, saying, Master, I beseech thee look upon my son: for he is mine only child.
39 And lo, a spirit taketh him, and he suddenly crieth out; and it teareth him that he foameth again, and, bruising him, hardly departeth from him.
40 And I besought thy disciples to cast him out, and they could not.
41 And Jesus, answering, said, O faithless and perverse generation, how long shall I be with you, and suffer you? Bring thy son hither.
42 And as he was yet a coming, the devil threw him down, and tare him. And Jesus rebuked the unclean spirit, and healed the child, and delivered him again to his father.
43 And they were all amazed at the mighty power of God.
[pg 260]

§ 77, Jesus again foretells his own death and resurrection. (See § 74.) Galilee.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. xvii. 22, 23.CH. ix. 30-32.
30 And they departed thence, and passed through Galilee; and he would not that any man should know it.
22 And while they abode in Galilee, Jesus said unto them, The Son of man shall be betrayed into the hands of men:31 For he taught his disciples, and said unto them, The Son of man is delivered into the hands of men, and they shall kill him; and after that he is killed, he shall rise the third day.
23 And they shall kill him, and the third day he shall be raised again. And they were exceeding sorry.32 But they understood not that saying, and were afraid to ask him.
Luke.
CH. IX. 43-45.
43 But while they wondered every one at all things which Jesus did, he said unto his disciples,
44 Let these sayings sink down into your ears: for the Son of man shall be delivered into the hands of men.
45 But they understood not this saying, and it was hid from them, that they perceived it not: and they feared to ask him of that saying.

§ 78. The tribute-money miraculously provided. Capernaum.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XVII. 24-27.CH. IX. 33.
24 And when they were come to Capernaum, they that received tribute-money,194 came to Peter, and said, Doth not your Master pay tribute?33 And he came to Capernaum:
25 He saith, Yes. And when he was come into the house, Jesus prevented him, saying, What thinkest thou, Simon? of whom do the kings of the earth take custom or tribute? of their own children, or of strangers?
26 Peter saith unto him, Of strangers. Jesus saith unto him, Then are the children free.
27 Notwithstanding, lest we should offend them, go thou to the sea, and cast a hook, and take up the fish that first cometh up: and when thou hast opened his mouth, thou shalt find a piece of money: that take, and give unto them for me and thee.
[pg 262]

§ 79. The disciples contend who should be the greatest. Jesus exhorts to humility, forbearance and brotherly love. Capernaum.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XVIII. 1-35.CH. IX. 33-50.
33 And being in the house, he asked them, What was it that ye disputed among yourselves by the way?
At the same time came the disciples unto Jesus, saying, Who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven?34 But they held their peace: for by the way they had disputed among themselves, who should be the greatest.
35 And he sat down, and called the twelve, and saith unto them, if any man desire to be first, the same shall be last of all, and servant of all.
2 And Jesus called a little child unto him, and set him in the midst of them,36 And he took a child, and set him in the midst of them: and when he had taken him in his arms, he said unto them,
3 And said, Verily, I say unto you, Except ye be converted, and become as little children, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven.37 Whosoever shall receive one of such children in my name, receiveth me: and whosoever shall receive me, receiveth not me, but him that sent me.
4 Whosoever therefore shall humble himself as this little child, the same is greatest in the kingdom of heaven.38 And John answered him, saying, Master, we saw one casting out devils in thy name, and he followeth not us; and we forbade him, because he followeth not us.
5 And whoso shall receive one such little child in my name, receiveth me.
6 But whoso shall offend one of these little ones which believe in me, it were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and that he were drowned in the depth of the sea.39 But Jesus said, Forbid him not: for there is no man which shall do a miracle in my name, that can lightly speak evil of me.
40 For he that is not against us, is on our part.
7 Wo unto the world because of offences! for it must needs be that offences come; but wo to that man by whom the offence cometh:41 for whosoever shall give you a cup of water to drink in my name, because ye belong to Christ, verily I say unto you, he shall not lose his reward.
8 Wherefore, if thy hand or thy foot offend thee, cut them off, and cast them from thee; it is better for thee to enter into life halt or maimed, rather than having two hands or two feet, to be cast into everlasting fire.42 And whosoever shall offend one of these little ones that believe in me, it is better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he were cast into the sea.
9 And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes, to be cast into hell-fire.43 And if thy hand offend thee, cut it off: It is better for thee to enter into life maimed, than having two hands to go into hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched:
10 Take heed that ye despise not one of these little ones: for I say unto you, That in heaven their angels do always behold the face of my Father which is in heaven.44 Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched.
11 For the Son of man is come to save that which was lost.45 And if thy foot offend thee, cut it off: it is better for thee to enter halt into life, than having two feet to be cast into hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched.
12 How think ye? If a man have a hundred sheep, and one of them be gone astray, doth he not leave the ninety and nine, and goeth into the mountains, and seeketh that which is gone astray?46 Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched.
13 And if so be that he find it, verily I say unto you, he rejoiceth more of that sheep, than of the ninety and nine which went not astray.47 And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out: it is better for thee to enter into the kingdom of God with one eye, than having two eyes, to be cast into hell-fire:
14 Even so it is not the will of your Father which is in heaven, that one of these little ones should perish.48 Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched.
15 Moreover, if thy brother shall trespass against thee, go and tell him his fault between thee and him alone; if he shall hear thee, thou hast gained thy brother.49 For every one shall be salted with fire, and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt.
16 But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established.50 Salt is good: but if the salt have lost his saltness, wherewith will ye season it? Have salt in yourselves, and have peace one with another.
17 And if he shall neglect to hear them, tell it unto the church: but if he neglect to hear the church, let him be unto thee as a heathen man and a publican.
18 Verily, I say unto you, Whatsoever ye shall bind on earth, shall be bound in heaven: and whatsoever ye shall loose on earth, shall be loosed in heaven.
19 Again I say unto you, That if two of you shall agree on earth, as touching anything that they shall ask, it shall be done for them of my Father which is in heaven.
20 For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them.
21 Then came Peter to him, and said, Lord, how oft shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? till seven times?
22 Jesus saith unto him, I say not unto thee, Until seven times: but, Until seventy times seven.
23 Therefore is the kingdom of heaven likened unto a certain king which would take account of his servants.
24 And when he had begun to reckon, one was brought unto him which owed him ten thousand talents.
25 But forasmuch as he had not to pay, his lord commanded him to be sold, and his wife and children, and all that he had, and payment to be made.
26 The servant therefore fell down, and worshipped him, saying, Lord, have patience with me, and I will pay thee all.
27 Then the lord of that servant was moved with compassion, and loosed him, and forgave him the debt
28 But the same servant went out, and found one of his fellow-servants, which owed him a hundred pence: and he laid hands on him, and took him by the throat, saying, Pay me that thou owest.
20 And his fellow-servant fell down at his feet, and besought him, saying, Have patience with me, and I will pay thee all.
30 And he would not: but went and cast him into prison, till he should pay the debt.
31 So when his fellow-servants saw what was done, they were very sorry, and came and told unto their lord all that was done.
32 Then his lord, after that he had called him, said unto him, O thou wicked servant, I forgave thee all that debt, because thou desiredst me:
33 Shouldest not thou also have had compassion on thy fellow-servant, even as I had pity on thee?
34 And his lord was wroth, and delivered him to the tormentors, till he should pay all that was due unto him.
35 So likewise shall my heavenly Father do also unto you, if ye from your hearts forgive not every one his brother their trespasses.
Luke.
CH. IX. 46-50.
46 Then there arose a reasoning among them, which of them should be greatest.
47 And Jesus perceiving the thought of their heart, took a child, and set him by him,
48 And said unto them, Whosoever shall receive this child in my name, receiveth me; and whosoever shall receive me, receiveth him that sent me: for he that is least among you all, the same shall be great.
49 And John answered and said, Master, we saw one casting out devils195 in thy name; and we forbade him, because he followeth not with us.
50 And Jesus said unto him, Forbid him not: for he that is not against us, is for us.196
[pg 266]

§ 80. The Seventy instructed, and sent out. Capernaum.

Luke.
CH. X. 1-16.
After these things, the Lord appointed other seventy also, and sent them two and two before his face into every city, and place, whither he himself would come.
2 Therefore said he unto them, The harvest truly is great, but the labourers are few: pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that he would send forth labourers into his harvest.
3 Go your ways: behold, I send you forth as lambs among wolves.
4 Carry neither purse, nor scrip, nor shoes: and salute no man by the way.197
5 And into whatsoever house ye enter, first say, Peace be to this house.
6 And if the son of peace be there, your peace shall rest upon it: if not, it shall turn to you again.
7 And in the same house remain, eating and drinking such things as they give: for the labourer is worthy of his hire. Go not from house to house.
8 And into whatsoever city ye enter, and they receive you, eat such things as are set before you.
9 And heal the sick that are therein, and say unto them, The kingdom of God is come nigh unto you.
10 But into whatsoever city ye enter, and they receive you not, go your ways out into the streets of the same, and say,
11 Even the very dust of your city which cleaveth on us, we do wipe off against you: notwithstanding, be ye sure of this, that the kingdom of God is come nigh unto you.
12 But I say unto you, That it shall be more tolerable in that day for Sodom than for that city.
13 Wo unto thee, Chorazin! wo unto thee, Bethsaida! for if the mighty works had been done in Tyre and Sidon, which have been done in you, they had a great while ago repented, sitting in sackcloth and ashes.
14 But it shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon at the judgment, than for you.
15 And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted to heaven, shall be thrust down to hell.
16 He that heareth you, heareth me; and he that despiseth you, despiseth me; and he that despiseth me, despiseth him that sent me.
[pg 270]

§ 81. Jesus goes up to the feast of tabernacles. His final departure from Galilee. Incidents in Samaria.

Luke.John.
CH. IX. 51-56.CH. VII. 2-10.
51 And it came to pass, when the time was come that he should be received up, he steadfastly set his face to go to Jerusalem,2 Now the Jews' feast of tabernacles was at hand.
52 And sent messengers before his face: and they went and entered into a village of the Samaritans, to make ready for him.3 His brethren therefore said unto him, Depart hence, and go into Judea, that thy disciples also may see the works that thou doest.
53 And they did not receive him,198 because his face was as though he would go to Jerusalem.4 For there is no man that doeth anything in secret, and he himself seeketh to be known openly. If thou do these things, show thyself to the world.
54 And when his disciples James and John saw this, they said, Lord, wilt thou that we command fire to come down from heaven, and consume them, even as Elias did?5 (For neither did his brethren believe in him.)
55 But he turned, and rebuked them, and said, Ye know not what manner of spirit ye are of.6 Then Jesus said unto them, My time is not yet come: but your time is always ready.
56 For the Son of man is not come to destroy men's lives, but to save them. And they went to another village.7 The world cannot hate you; but me it hateth, because I testify of it, that the works thereof are evil.
8 Go ye up unto this feast: I go not up yet unto this feast; for my time is not yet full come.
9 When he had said these words unto them, he abode still in Galilee.
10 But when his brethren were gone up, then went he also up unto the feast, not openly, but as it were in secret.

§ 82. Ten lepers cleansed. Samaria.

Luke.
CH. XVII. 11-19.
11 And it came to pass, as he went to Jerusalem, that he passed through the midst of Samaria and Galilee.
12 And as he entered into a certain village, there met him ten men that were lepers, which stood afar off:
13 And they lifted up their voices, and said, Jesus, Master, have mercy on us.
14 And when he saw them, he said unto them, Go shew yourselves unto the priests. And it came to pass, that, as they went, they were cleansed.
15 And one of them, when he saw that he was healed, turned back, and with a loud voice glorified God,
16 And fell down on his face at his feet, giving him thanks: and he was a Samaritan.
17 And Jesus answering, said, Were there not ten cleansed? but where are the nine?
18 There are not found that returned to give glory to God, save this stranger.
19 And he said unto him, Arise, go thy way: thy faith hath made thee whole.
[pg 275]

Part VI. The Festival Of Tabernacles And The Subsequent Transactions, Until Our Lord's Arrival At Bethany, Six Days Before The Fourth Passover.

Time. Six months, less one week.

[pg 276]

§ 83. Jesus at the festival of Tabernacles. His public teaching. Jerusalem.

John.
CH. VII. 11-53. CH. VIII. 1.
11 Then the Jews sought him at the feast, and said, Where is he?
12 And there was much murmuring among the people concerning him: for some said, He is a good man: others said, Nay; but he deceiveth the people.
13 Howbeit, no man spake openly of him, for fear of the Jews.
14 Now, about the midst of the feast, Jesus went up into the temple and taught.
15 And the Jews marvelled, saying, How knoweth this man letters, having never learned?
16 Jesus answered them, and said, My doctrine is not mine, but his that sent me.
17 If any man will do his will, he shall know of the doctrine, whether it be of God, or whether I speak of myself.
18 He that speaketh of himself, seeketh his own glory: but he that seeketh his glory that sent him, the same is true, and no unrighteousness is in him.
19 Did not Moses give you the law, and yet none of you keepeth the law? Why go ye about to kill me?
20 The people answered and said, Thou hast a devil: who goeth about to kill thee?
21 Jesus answered and said unto them, I have done one work, and ye all marvel.
22 Moses therefore gave unto you circumcision, (not because it is of Moses, but of the fathers;) and ye on the sabbath-day circumcise a man.199
23 If a man on the sabbath-day receive circumcision, that the law of Moses should not be broken; are ye angry at me, because I have made a man every whit whole on the sabbath-day?
24 Judge not according to the appearance, but judge righteous judgement.
25 Then said some of them of Jerusalem, Is not this he whom they seek to kill?
26 But lo, he speaketh boldly, and they say nothing unto him. Do the rulers know indeed that this is the very Christ?
27 Howbeit, we know this man, whence he is: but when Christ cometh, no man knoweth whence he is.
28 Then cried Jesus in the temple, as he taught, saying, Ye both know me, and ye know whence I am: and I am not come of myself, but he that sent me is true, whom ye know not.
29 But I know him; for I am from him, and he hath sent me.
30 Then they sought to take him: but no man laid hands on him, because his hour was not yet come.
31 And many of the people believed on him, and said, When Christ cometh, will he do more miracles than these which this man hath done?
32 The Pharisees heard that the people murmured such things concerning him: and the Pharisees and the chief priests sent officers to take him.
33 Then said Jesus unto them, Yet a little while am I with you, and then I go unto him that sent me.
34 Ye shall seek me, and shall not find me: and where I am, thither ye cannot come.
35 Then said the Jews among themselves, Whither will he go, that we shall not find him? will he go unto the dispersed among the Gentiles, and teach the Gentiles?
36 What manner of saying is this that he said, Ye shall seek me, and shall not find me, and where I am, thither ye cannot come;
37 In the last day, that great day of the feast,200 Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto me, and drink.
38 He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said,201 out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water.
39 (But this spake he of the Spirit, which they that believe on him should receive, for the Holy Ghost was not yet given, because that Jesus was not yet glorified.)
40 Many of the people therefore, when they heard this saying, said, Of a truth this is the Prophet.
41 Others said, This is the Christ. But some said, Shall Christ come out of Galilee?
42 Hath not the scripture said,202 That Christ cometh of the seed of David, and out of the town of Bethlehem, where David was?
43 So there was a division among the people because of him.
44 And some of them would have taken him; but no man laid hands on him.
45 Then came the officers to the chief priests and Pharisees; and they said unto them, Why have ye not brought him?
46 The officers answered, Never man spake like this man.
47 Then answered them the Pharisees, Are ye also deceived?
48 Have any of the rulers, or of the Pharisees believed on him?
49 But this people who knoweth not the law are cursed.
50 Nicodemus saith unto them, (he that came to Jesus by night, being one of them,)
51 Doth our law judge any man before it hear him, and know what he doeth?
52 They answered and said unto him, Art thou also of Galilee: Search, and look: for out of Galilee ariseth no prophet.
53 And every man went unto his own house.
CH. VIII.
Jesus went unto the mount of Olives:203
[pg 282]

§ 84. The woman taken in adultery. Jerusalem.

John.
CH. VIII. 2-11.
2 And early in the morning he came again into the temple, and all the people came unto him; and he sat down and taught them.
3 And the scribes and Pharisees brought unto him a woman taken in adultery; and when they had set her in the midst,
4 They say unto him, Master, this woman was taken in adultery, in the very act.
5 Now Moses in the law204 commanded us, that such should be stoned:205 but what sayest thou?
6 This they said, tempting him, that they might have to accuse him. But Jesus stooped down, and with his finger wrote on the ground, as though he heard them not.
7 So when they continued asking him, he lifted up himself, and said unto them, He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone206 at her.
8 And again he stooped down, and wrote on the ground.
9 And they which heard it, being convicted by their own conscience, went out one by one, beginning at the eldest, even unto the last: and Jesus was left alone, and the woman standing in the midst.
10 When Jesus had lifted up himself, and saw none but the woman, he said unto her, Woman, where are those thine accusers? hath no man condemned thee?
11 She said, No man, Lord. And Jesus said unto her, Neither do I condemn thee: go, and sin no more.

§ 85. Further public teaching of our Lord. He reproves the unbelieving Jews, and escapes from their hands. Jerusalem.

John.
CH. VIII. 12-59.
12 Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying, I am the light of the world: he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life.
13 The Pharisees therefore said unto him, Thou bearest record of thyself; thy record is not true.
14 Jesus answered and said unto them, Though I bear record of myself, yet my record is true: for I know whence I came, and whither I go: but ye cannot tell207 whence I come, and whither I go.
15 Ye judge after the flesh, I judge no man.
16 And yet if I judge, my judgment is true: for I am not alone, but I and the Father that sent me.
17 It is also written in your law, that the testimony of two men is true.208
18 I am one that bear witness of myself; and the Father that sent me, beareth witness of me.
19 Then said they unto him, Where is thy Father? Jesus answered, Ye neither know me, nor my Father: if ye had known me, ye should have known my Father also.
20 These words spake Jesus in the treasury, as he taught in the temple: and no man laid hands on him, for his hour was not yet come.
21 Then said Jesus again unto them, I go my way, and ye shall seek me, and shall die in your sins: whither I go, ye cannot come.
22 Then said the Jews, Will he kill himself? because he saith, Whither I go, ye cannot come.
23 And he said unto them, Ye are from beneath; I am from above: ye are of this world; I am not of this world.
24 I said therefore unto you, that ye shall die in your sins: for if ye believe not that I am he, ye shall die in your sins.
25 Then said they unto him, Who art thou? And Jesus saith unto them, Even the same that I said unto you from the beginning.
26 I have many things to say, and to judge of you: but he that sent me, is true; and I speak to the world those things which I have heard of him.
27 They understood not that he spake to them of the Father.
28 Then said Jesus unto them, When ye have lifted up the Son of man, then shall ye know that I am he, and that I do nothing of myself; but as my Father hath taught me, I speak these things.
29 And he that sent me is with me: the Father hath not left me alone; for I do always those things that please him.
30 As he spake these words, many believed on him.209
31 Then said Jesus to those Jews which believed on him, If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed;
32 And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.
33 They answered him, We be Abraham's seed, and were never in bondage to any man: how sayest thou, Ye shall be made free?
34 Jesus answered them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever committeth sin, is the servant of sin.
35 And the servant abideth not in the house for ever, but the Son abideth ever.
36 If the Son therefore shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed.
37 I know that ye are Abraham's seed; but ye seek to kill me, because my word hath no place in you.
38 I speak that which I have seen with my Father: and ye do that which ye have seen with your father.
39 They answered and said unto him, Abraham is our father. Jesus saith unto them, If ye were Abraham's children, ye would do the works of Abraham.
40 But now ye seek to kill me, a man that hath told you the truth, which I have heard of God: this did not Abraham.
41 Ye do the deeds of your father. Then said they to him, We be not born of fornication; we have one Father, even God.
42 Jesus said unto them, If God were your Father, ye would love me: for I proceeded forth and came from God; neither came I of myself, but he sent me.
43 Why do ye not understand my speech? even because ye cannot hear my word.
44 Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do: he was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth; because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.
45 And because I tell you the truth, ye believe me not.
46 Which of you convinceth me of sin? And if I say the truth, why do ye not believe me?
47 He that is of God, heareth God's words: ye therefore hear them not, because ye are not of God.
48 Then answered the Jews, and said unto him, Say we not well that thou art a Samaritan, and hast a devil?
49 Jesus answered, I have not a devil: but I honour my Father, and ye do dishonour me.
50 And I seek not mine own glory: there is one that seeketh and judgeth.
51 Verily, verily, I say unto you, If a man keep my saying, he shall never see death.
52 Then said the Jews unto him, Now we know that thou hast a devil. Abraham is dead, and the prophets; and thou sayest, If a man keep my saying, he shall never taste of death.
53 Art thou greater than our father Abraham, which is dead! and the prophets are dead: whom makest thou thyself?
54 Jesus answered, If I honour myself, my honour is nothing: it is my Father that honoureth me, of whom ye say, that he is your God.
55 Yet ye have not known him; but I know him: and if I should say, I know him not, I shall be a liar like unto you: but I know him, and keep his saying.
56 Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day: and he saw it, and was glad.
57 Then said the Jews unto him, Thou art not yet fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham?
58 Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am.
59 Then took they up stones to cast at him: but Jesus hid himself, and went out of the temple, going through the midst of them, and so passed by.
[pg 290]

§ 86. A lawyer instructed. Love to our neighbour defined. Parable of the Good Samaritan. Near Jerusalem.

Luke.
CH. X. 25-37.
25 And behold, a certain lawyer stood up, and tempted him, saying, Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?
26 He said unto him, What is written in the law? how readest thou?
27 And he answering said, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with all thy mind; and thy neighbour as thyself.210
28 And he said unto him, Thou hast answered right: this do, and thou shalt live.211
29 But he, willing to justify himself, said unto Jesus, And who is my neighbour?
30 And Jesus answering, said, A certain man went down212 from Jerusalem to Jericho, and fell among thieves, which stripped him of his raiment, and wounded him, and departed, leaving him half dead.
31 And by chance there came down a certain priest that way; and when he saw him, he passed by on the other side.
32 And likewise a Levite, when he was at the place, came and looked on him, and passed by on the other side.
33 But a certain Samaritan, as he journeyed, came where he was: and when he saw him, he had compassion on him,
34 And went to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring in oil and wine, and set him on his own beast, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him.
35 And on the morrow, when he departed, he took out two pence, and gave them to the host, and said unto him, Take care of him: and whatsoever thou spendest more, when I come again, I will repay thee.
36 Which now of these three, thinkest thou, was neighbour unto him that fell among the thieves?
37 And he said, He that shewed mercy on him. Then said Jesus unto him, Go, and do thou likewise.
[pg 292]

§ 87. Jesus in the house of Martha and Mary. Bethany.

Luke.
CH. X. 38-42.
38 Now it came to pass, as they went, that he entered into a certain village: and a certain woman, named Martha, received him into her house.
39 And she had a sister called Mary, which also sat at Jesus' feet, and heard his word.
40 But Martha was cumbered about much serving, and came to him, and said, Lord, dost thou not care that my sister hath left me to serve alone? bid her therefore that she help me.
41 And Jesus answered, and said unto her, Martha, Martha, thou art careful, and troubled about many things:
42 But one thing is needful; and Mary hath chosen that good part, which shall not be taken away from her.
[pg 294]

§ 88. The disciples again taught how to pray. Near Jerusalem.

Luke.
CH. XI. 1-13.
And it came to pass, that as he was praying in a certain place, when he ceased, one of his disciples said unto him, Lord, teach us to pray, as John also taught his disciples.
2 And he said unto them, When ye pray, say, Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, as in heaven, so in earth.
3 Give us day by day our daily bread.
4 And forgive us our sins; for we also forgive every one that is indebted to us. And lead us not into temptation; but deliver us from evil.
5 And he said unto them, Which of you shall have a friend, and shall go unto him at midnight,213 and say unto him, Friend, lend me three loaves:
6 For a friend of mine in his journey is come to me, and I have nothing to set before him?
7 And he from within shall answer and say, Trouble me not: the door is now shut, and my children are with me in bed; I cannot rise and give thee.
8 I say unto you, Though he will not rise and give him, because he is his friend, yet because of his importunity he will rise and give him as many as he needeth.
9 And I say unto you, Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you.
10 For every one that asketh receiveth; and he that seeketh findeth; and to him that knocketh, it shall be opened.
11 If a son shall ask bread of any of you that is a father, will he give him a stone? or if he ask a fish, will he for a fish give him a serpent?
12 Or if he shall ask an egg, will he offer him a scorpion?
13 If ye then, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your children, how much more shall your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to them that ask him?
[pg 296]

§ 89. The Seventy return. Jerusalem?

Luke.
CH. X. 17-24.
17 And the seventy returned again with joy, saying, Lord, even the devils are subject unto us through thy name.
18 And he said unto them, I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven.
19 Behold, I give unto you power to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy: and nothing shall by any means hurt you.
20. Notwithstanding, in this rejoice not, that the spirits are subject unto you; but rather rejoice, because your names are written in heaven.
21 In that hour Jesus rejoiced in spirit, and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes: even so, Father; for so it seemed good in thy sight.
22 All things are delivered to me of my Father: and no man knoweth who the Son is, but the Father; and who the Father is, but the Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal him.
23 And he turned him unto his disciples, and said privately, Blessed are the eyes which see the things that ye see.
24 For I tell you, That many prophets and kings have desired to see those things which ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them.
[pg 298]

§ 90. A man born blind is healed on the Sabbath. Our Lord's subsequent discourses. Jerusalem.

John.
CH. IX. 1-41. CH. X. 1-21.
And as Jesus passed by, he saw a man which was blind from his birth.
2 And his disciples asked him, saying, Master, who did sin, this man, or his parents, that he was born blind?
3 Jesus answered, Neither hath this man sinned, nor his parents: but that the works of God should be made manifest in him.
4 I must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day: the night cometh, when no man can work.
5 As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world.
6 When he had thus spoken, he spat on the ground, and made clay of the spittle, and he anointed the eyes of the blind man with the clay,
7 And said unto him, Go, wash in the pool of Siloam, (which is by interpretation, Sent.) He went his way therefore, and washed, and came seeing.
8 The neighbours therefore, and they which before had seen him that he was blind, said, Is not this he that sat and begged?
9 Some said, This is he: others said, He is like him: but he said, I am he.
10 Therefore said they unto him, How were thine eyes opened?
11 He answered and said, A man that is called Jesus, made clay, and anointed mine eyes, and said unto me, Go to the pool of Siloam, and wash; and I went and washed, and I received sight.
12 Then said they unto him, Where is he? He said, I know not.
13 They brought to the Pharisees him that aforetime was blind.
14 And it was the sabbath-day when Jesus made the clay, and opened his eyes.
15 Then again the Pharisees also asked him how he had received his sight. He said unto them, He put clay upon mine eyes, and I washed, and do see.
16 Therefore said some of the Pharisees, This man is not of God, because he keepeth not the sabbath-day. Others said, How can a man that is a sinner do such miracles? And there was a division among them.
17 They say unto the blind man again, What sayest thou of him, that he hath opened thine eyes? He said, He is a prophet.
18 But the Jews did not believe concerning him, that he had been blind, and received his sight, until they called the parents of him that had received his sight.
19 And they asked them, saying, Is this your son, who ye say was born blind? How then doth he now see?
20 His parents answered them and said, We know that this is our son, and that he was born blind:
21 But by what means he now seeth, we know not; or who hath opened his eyes, we know not: he is of age; ask him: he shall speak for himself.
22 These words spake his parents, because they feared the Jews: for the Jews had agreed already, that if any man did confess that he was Christ, he should be put out of the synagogue.
23 Therefore said his parents, He is of age; ask him.
24 Then again called they the man that was blind, and said unto him, Give God the praise: we know that this man is a sinner.
25 He answered and said, Whether he be a sinner or no, I know not: one thing I know, that, whereas I was blind, now I see.
26 Then said they to him again, What did he to thee? how opened he thine eyes?
27 He answered them, I have told you already, and ye did not hear: wherefore would ye hear it again? will ye also be his disciples?
28 Then they reviled him, and said, Thou art his disciple, but we are Moses' disciples.
29 We know that God spake unto Moses; as for this fellow, we know not from whence he is.
30 The man answered and said unto them, Why, herein is a marvellous thing, that ye know not from whence he is, and yet he hath opened mine eyes.
31 Now we know that God heareth not sinners; but if any man be a worshipper of God, and doeth his will, him he heareth.
32 Since the world began was it not heard that any man opened the eyes of one that was born blind.
33 If this man were not of God, he could do nothing.
34 They answered and said unto him, Thou wast altogether born in sins, and dost thou teach us? And they cast him out.
35 Jesus heard that they had cast him out: and when he had found him, he said unto him, Dost thou believe on the Son of God?
36 He answered and said, Who is he, Lord, that I might believe on him?
37 And Jesus said unto him, Thou hast both seen him, and it is he that talketh with thee.
38 And he said, Lord, I believe. And he worshipped him.
39 And Jesus said, For judgment I am come into this world; that they which see not might see; and that they which see might be made blind.
40 And some of the Pharisees which were with him heard these words, and said unto him, Are we blind also?
41 Jesus said unto them, If ye were blind, ye should have no sin: but now ye say, We see; therefore your sin remaineth.
CH. X.
Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that entereth not by the door into the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber.
2 But he that entereth in by the door is the shepherd of the sheep.
3 To him the porter openeth; and the sheep hear his voice: and he calleth his own sheep by name, and leadeth them out.
4 And when he putteth forth his own sheep, he goeth before them, and the sheep follow him: for they know his voice.
5 And a stranger will they not follow, but will flee from him: for they know not the voice of strangers.
6 This parable spake Jesus unto them: but they understood not what things they were which he spake unto them.
7 Then said Jesus unto them again, Verily, verily, I say unto you, I am the door of the sheep.
8 All that ever came before me are thieves and robbers: but the sheep did not hear them.
9 I am the door: by me if any man enter in, he shall be saved, and shall go in and out, and find pasture.
10 The thief cometh not, but for to steal, and to kill, and to destroy: I am come that they might have life, and that they might have it more abundantly.
11 I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep.
12 But he that is a hireling, and not the shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, seeth the wolf coming, and leaveth the sheep, and fleeth; and the wolf catcheth them, and scattereth the sheep.
13 The hireling fleeth, because he is a hireling, and careth not for the sheep.
14 I am the good shepherd, and know my sheep, and am known of mine.
15 As the Father knoweth me, even so know I the Father: and I lay down my life for the sheep.
6 And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd.
17 Therefore doth my Father love me, because I lay down my life, that I might take it again.
18 No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This commandment have I received of my Father.
19 There was a division therefore again among the Jews for these sayings.
20 And many of them said, He hath a devil, and is mad; why hear ye him?
21 Others said, These are not the words of him that hath a devil. Can a devil open the eyes of the blind?
[pg 306]

§ 91. Jesus at Jerusalem at the feast of dedication. He retires beyond Jordan. Jerusalem. Bethany beyond Jordan.

John.
CH. X. 22-42.
22 And it was at Jerusalem the feast of the dedication, and it was winter.
23 And Jesus walked in the temple in Solomon's porch.
24 Then came the Jews round about him, and said unto him, How long dost thou make us to doubt? If thou be the Christ, tell us plainly.
25 Jesus answered them, I told you, and ye believed not: the works that I do in my Father's name, they bear witness of me.
28 But ye believe not, because ye are not of my sheep, as I said unto you.
27 My sheep hear my voice, and I know them, and they follow me:
28 And I give unto them eternal life; and they shall never perish, neither shall any pluck them out of my hand.
29 My Father, which gave them me, is greater than all; and none is able to pluck them out of my Father's hand.
30 I and my Father are one.
31 Then the Jews took up stones again to stone him.
32 Jesus answered them, Many good works have I shewed you from my Father; for which of those works do ye stone me?
33 The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy, and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God.
34 Jesus answered them, Is it not written in your law, I said, Ye are gods?214
35 If he called them gods, unto whom the word of God came, and the scripture cannot be broken;
36 Say ye of him whom the Father hath sanctified, and sent into the world, Thou blasphemest; because I said, I am the Son of God?
37 If I do not the works of my Father, believe me not.
38 But if I do, though ye believe not me, believe the works: that ye may know and believe that the Father is in me, and I in him.
39 Therefore they sought again to take him; but he escaped out of their hand,
40 And went away again beyond Jordan, into the place where John at first baptized; and there he abode.
41 And many resorted unto him, and said, John did no miracle; but all things that John spake of this man were true.
42 And many believed on him there.
[pg 308]

§ 92. The raising of Lazarus. Bethany.

John.
CH. XI. 1-46.
Now a certain man was sick, named Lazarus, of Bethany, the town of Mary and her sister Martha.
2 (It was that Mary which anointed the Lord with ointment, and wiped his feet with her hair, whose brother Lazarus was sick.)
3 Therefore his sisters sent unto him, saying, Lord, behold, he whom thou lovest is sick.
4 When Jesus heard that, he said, This sickness is not unto death, but for the glory of God, that the Son of God might be glorified thereby.
5 Now Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus.
6 When he had heard therefore that he was sick, he abode two days still in the same place where he was.
7 Then after that saith he to his disciples, Let us go into Judea again.
8 His disciples say unto him, Master, the Jews of late sought to stone thee; and goest thou thither again?
9 Jesus answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? If any man walk in the day, he stumbleth not, because he seeth the light of this world.
10 But if a man walk in the night, he stumbleth, because there is no light in him.
11 These things said he: and after that he saith unto them, Our friend Lazarus sleepeth; but I go that I may awake him out of sleep.
12 Then said his disciples, Lord, if he sleep, he shall do well.
13 Howbeit Jesus spake of his death: but they thought that he had spoken of taking of rest in sleep.
14 Then said Jesus unto them plainly, Lazarus is dead.
15 And I am glad for your sakes that I was not there, to the intent ye may believe; nevertheless, let us go unto him.
16 Then said Thomas, which is called Didymus, unto his fellow-disciples, Let us also go, that we may die with him.
17 Then when Jesus came, he found that he had lain in the grave four days already.
18 (Now Bethany was nigh unto Jerusalem, about fifteen furlongs off:)
19 And many of the Jews came to Martha and Mary, to comfort them concerning their brother.
20 Then Martha, as soon as she heard that Jesus was coming, went and met him: but Mary sat still in the house.
21 Then said Martha unto Jesus, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died.
22 But I know that even now, whatsoever thou wilt ask of God, God will give it thee.
23 Jesus saith unto her, Thy brother shall rise again.
24 Martha saith unto him, I know that he shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day.
25 Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live:
26 And whosoever liveth, and believeth in me, shall never die. Believest thou this?
27 She saith unto him, Yea, Lord: I believe that thou art the Christ, the Son of God, which should come into the world.
28 And when she had so said, she went her way, and called Mary her sister secretly, saying, The master is come, and calleth for thee.
29 As soon as she heard that, she arose quickly, and came unto him.
30 Now Jesus was not yet come into the town, but was in that place where Martha met him.
31 The Jews then which were with her in the house, and comforted her, when they saw Mary that she rose up hastily, and went out, followed her, saying, She goeth unto the grave to weep there.
32 Then when Mary was come where Jesus was, and saw him, she fell down at his feet, saying unto him, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died.
33 When Jesus therefore saw her weeping, and the Jews also weeping which came with her, he groaned in the spirit, and was troubled,
34 And said, Where have ye laid him? They say unto him, Lord, come and see.
36 Jesus wept.
36 Then said the Jews, Behold how he loved him!
37 And some of them said, Could not this man, which opened the eyes of the blind, have caused that even this man should not have died?
38 Jesus therefore again groaning in himself, cometh to the grave. It was a cave, and a stone lay upon it.
39 Jesus said, Take ye away the stone. Martha, the sister of him that was dead, saith unto him, Lord, by this time he stinketh: for he hath been dead four days.
40 Jesus saith unto her, Said I not unto thee, that if thou wouldest believe, thou shouldest see the glory of God?
41 Then they took away the stone from the place where the dead was laid. And Jesus lifted up his eyes, and said, Father, I thank thee that thou hast heard me.
42 And I knew that thou hearest me always: but because of the people which stand by, I said it, that they may believe that thou hast sent me.
43 And when he thus had spoken, he cried with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth.
44 And he that was dead came forth, bound hand and foot with graveclothes: and his face was bound about with a napkin. Jesus saith unto them, Loose him, and let him go.
45 Then many of the Jews which came to Mary, and had seen the things which Jesus did, believed on him.
46 But some of them went their ways to the Pharisees, and told them what things Jesus had done.
[pg 314]

§ 93. The counsel of Caiaphas against Jesus. He retires from Jerusalem. Jerusalem. Ephraim.

John.
CH. XI. 47-54.
47 Then gathered the chief priests and the Pharisees a council, and said, What do we? for this man doeth many miracles.
48 If we let him thus alone, all men will believe on him: and the Romans shall come, and take away both our place and nation.
49 And one of them, named Caiaphas, being the high priest that same year, said unto them, Ye know nothing at all,
50 Nor consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not.
51 And this spake he not of himself: but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus should die for that nation;
52 And not for that nation only, but that also he should gather together in one the children of God that were scattered abroad.
53 Then from that day forth they took counsel together for to put him to death.
54 Jesus therefore walked no more openly among the Jews; but went thence unto a country near to the wilderness, into a city called Ephraim, and there continued with his disciples.
[pg 316]

§ 94. Jesus, beyond Jordan, is followed by multitudes. The healing of the infirm woman on the Sabbath. Valley of Jordan. Perea.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XIX. 1, 2.CH. X. 1.
And it came to pass, that when Jesus had finished these sayings, he departed from Galilee, and came into the coasts of Judea, beyond Jordan:And he arose from thence, and cometh into the coasts of Judea, by the farther side of Jordan: and the people resort unto him again; and, as he was wont, he taught them again.
2 And great multitudes followed him, and he healed them there.
Luke.
CH. XIII. 10-21.
10 And he was teaching in one of the synagogues on the sabbath.
11 And behold, there was a woman which had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years, and was bowed together, and could in no wise lift up herself.
12 And when Jesus saw her, he called her to him, and said unto her, Woman, thou art loosed from thine infirmity.
13 And he laid his hands on her: and immediately she was made straight, and glorified God.
14 And the ruler of the synagogue answered with indignation, because that Jesus had healed on the sabbath-day, and said unto the people, There are six days in which men ought to work: in them therefore come and be healed, and not on the sabbath-day.
15 The Lord then answered him, and said, Thou hypocrite, doth not each one of you on the sabbath loose his ox or his ass from the stall, and lead him away to watering?
16 And ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan hath bound, lo, these eighteen years, be loosed from this bond on the sabbath-day?
17 And when he had said these things, all his adversaries were ashamed: and all the people rejoiced for all the glorious things that were done by him.
18 Then said he, Unto what is the kingdom of God like? and whereunto shall I resemble it?
19 It is like a grain of mustard-seed which a man took, and cast into his garden, and it grew, and waxed a great tree; and the fowls of the air lodged in the branches of it.
20 And again he said, Whereunto shall I liken the kingdom of God?
21 It is like leaven, which a woman took and hid in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened.
[pg 318]

§ 95. Our Lord goes teaching and journeying towards Jerusalem. He is warned against Herod. Perea.

Luke.
CH. XIII. 22-35.
22 And he went through the cities and villages, teaching, and journeying toward Jerusalem.
23 Then said one unto him, Lord, are there few that be saved? And he said unto them,
24 Strive to enter in at the strait gate: for many, I say unto you, will seek to enter in, and shall not be able.
25 When once the Master of the house is risen up, and hath shut to the door, and ye begin to stand without, and to knock at the door, saying, Lord, Lord, open unto us; and he shall answer and say unto you, I know you not whence ye are:
26 Then shall ye begin to say, We have eaten and drunk in thy presence, and thou hast taught in our streets.
27 But he shall say, I tell you, I know you not whence ye are; depart from me, all ye workers of iniquity.
28 There shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when ye shall see Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, in the kingdom of God, and you yourselves thrust out.
29 And they shall come from the east, and from the west, and from the north, and from the south, and shall sit down in the kingdom of God.
30 And behold, there are last, which shall be first; and there are first, which shall be last.
31 The same day there came certain of the Pharisees, saying unto him, Get thee out, and depart hence; for Herod will kill thee.
32 And he said unto them, Go ye and tell that fox, Behold, I cast out devils, and I do cures to-day and to-morrow, and the third day I shall be perfected.
33 Nevertheless, I must work to-day and to-morrow, and the day following: for it cannot be that a prophet perish out of Jerusalem.
34 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, which killest the prophets, and stonest them that are sent unto thee; how often would I have gathered thy children together, as a hen doth gather her brood under her wings, and ye would not!
35 Behold, your house is left unto you desolate.215 And verily, I say unto you, Ye shall not see me, until the time come when ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.
[pg 320]

§ 96. Our Lord dines with a chief Pharisee on the Sabbath. Incidents. Perea.

Luke.
CH. XIV. 1-24.
And it came to pass, as he went into the house of one of the chief Pharisees to eat bread on the sabbath-day, that they watched him.
2 And behold, there was a certain man before him which had the dropsy.
3 And Jesus answering, spake unto the lawyers and Pharisees, saying, Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath-day?
4 And they held their peace. And he took him, and healed him, and let him go:
5 And answered them, saying, Which of you shall have an ass or an ox fallen into a pit, and will not straightway pull him out on the sabbath-day?
6 And they could not answer him again to these things.
7 And he put forth a parable to those which were bidden, when he marked how they chose out the chief rooms; saying unto them,
8 When thou art bidden of any man to a wedding, sit not down in the highest room, lest a more honourable man than thou be bidden of him;
9 And he that bade thee and him come and say to thee, Give this man place; and thou begin with shame to take the lowest room.
10 But when thou art bidden, go and sit down in the lowest room; that when he that bade thee cometh, he may say unto thee, Friend, go up higher: then shalt thou have worship in the presence of them that sit at meat with thee.
11 For whosoever exalteth himself shall be abased, and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted.
12 Then said he also to him that bade him, When thou makest a dinner or a supper, call not thy friends, nor thy brethren, neither thy kinsmen, nor thy rich neighbours; lest they also bid thee again, and a recompense be made thee.
13 But when thou makest a feast, call the poor, the maimed, the lame, the blind;
14 And thou shalt be blessed: for they cannot recompense thee: for thou shalt be recompensed at the resurrection of the just.
15 And when one of them that sat at meat with him heard these things, he said unto him, Blessed is he that shall eat bread in the kingdom of God.
16 Then said he unto him, A certain man made a great supper, and bade many:
17 And sent his servant at supper-time, to say to them that were bidden, Come, for all things are now ready.
18 And they all with one consent began to make excuse. The first said unto him, I have bought a piece of ground, and I must needs go and see it: I pray thee have me excused.
19 And another said, I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I go to prove them: I pray thee have me excused.
20 And another said, I have married a wife: and therefore I cannot come.
21 So that servant came, and shewed his lord these things. Then the master of the house being angry, said to his servant, Go out quickly into the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in hither the poor, and the maimed, and the halt, and the blind.
22 And the servant said, Lord, it is done as thou hast commanded, and yet there is room.
23 And the lord said unto the servant, Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that my house may be filled.
24 For I say unto you, that none of those men which were bidden, shall taste of my supper.
[pg 324]

§ 97. What is required of true disciples. Perea.

Luke.
CH. XIV. 25-35.
25 And there were great multitudes with him: and he turned, and said unto them,
26 If any man come to me, and hate not his father, and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren, and sisters, yea, and his own life also, he cannot be my disciple.
27 And whosoever doth not bear his cross, and come after me, cannot be my disciple.
28 For which of you, intending to build a tower, sitteth not down first, and counteth the cost, whether he have sufficient to finish it?
29 Lest haply after he hath laid the foundation, and is not able to finish it, all that behold it begin to mock him,
30 Saying, This man began to build, and was not able to finish.
31 Or what king going, to make war against another king, sitteth not down first, and consulteth whether he be able with ten thousand to meet him that cometh against him with twenty thousand?
32 Or else, while the other is yet a great way off, he sendeth an ambassage, and desireth conditions of peace.
33 So likewise, whosoever he be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my disciple.
34 Salt is good: but if the salt have lost his savour, wherewith shall it be seasoned?
35 It is neither fit for the land, nor yet for the dunghill; but men cast it out. He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.
[pg 326]

§ 98. Parables of the lost Sheep, &c. and of the Prodigal Son. Perea.

Luke.
CH. XV. 1-32.
Then drew near unto him all the publicans and sinners for to hear him.
2 And the Pharisees and scribes murmured, saying, This man receiveth sinners, and eateth with them.
3 And he spake this parable unto them, saying,
4 What man of you having a hundred sheep, if he lose one of them, doth not leave the ninety and nine in the wilderness, and go after that which is lost, until he find it?
5 And when he hath found it, he layeth it on his shoulders, rejoicing.
6 And when he cometh home, he calleth together his friends and neighbours, saying unto them, Rejoice with me; for I have found my sheep which was lost.
7 I say unto you, that likewise joy shall be in heaven over one sinner that repenteth, more than over ninety and nine just persons which need no repentance.
8 Either what woman having ten pieces of silver, if she lose one piece, doth not light a candle, and sweep the house, and seek diligently till she find it?
9 And when she hath found it, she calleth her friends and her neighbours together, saying, Rejoice with me; for I have found the piece which I had lost.
10 Likewise, I say unto you, There is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner that repenteth.
11 And he said, A certain man had two sons:
12 And the younger of them said to his father, Father, give me the portion of goods that falleth to me. And he divided unto them his living.
13 And not many days after, the younger son gathered all together, and took his journey into a far country, and there wasted his substance with riotous living.
14 And when he had spent all, there arose a mighty famine in that land; and he began to be in want.
15 And he went and joined himself to a citizen of that country; and he sent him into his fields to feed swine.
16 And he would fain have filled his belly with the husks that the swine did eat; and no man gave unto him.
17 And when he came to himself, he said, How many hired servants of my father's have bread enough and to spare, and I perish with hunger!
18 I will arise and go to my father, and will say unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and before thee,
19 And am no more worthy to be called thy son: make me as one of thy hired servants.
20 And he arose, and came to his father. But when he was yet a great way off, his father saw him, and had compassion, and ran, and fell on his neck, and kissed him.
21 And the son said unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in thy sight, and am no more worthy to be called thy son.
22 But the father said to his servants, Bring forth the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet:
23 And bring hither the fatted calf, and kill it; and let us eat, and be merry:
24 For this my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found. And they began to be merry.
25 Now his elder son was in the field: and as he came and drew nigh to the house, he heard music and dancing.
26 And he called one of the servants, and asked what these things meant.
27 And he said unto him, Thy brother is come; and thy father hath killed the fatted calf, because he hath received him safe and sound.
28 And he was angry, and would not go in; therefore came his father out, and entreated him.
29 And he, answering, said to his father, Lo, these many years do I serve thee, neither transgressed I at any time thy commandment; and yet thou never gavest me a kid, that I might make merry with my friends:
30 But as soon as this thy son was came, which hath devoured thy living with harlots, thou hast killed for him the fatted calf.
31 And he said unto him, Son, thou art ever with me; and all that I have is thine.
32 It was meet that we should make merry, and be glad: for this thy brother was dead, and is alive again; and was lost, and is found.
[pg 330]

§ 99. Parable of the Unjust Steward. Perea.

Luke.
CH. XVI. 1-13.
And he said also unto his disciples, There was a certain rich man which had a steward; and the same was accused unto him that he had wasted his goods.
2 And he called him, and said unto him, How is it that I hear this of thee? give an account of thy stewardship: for thou mayest be no longer steward.
3 Then the steward said within himself, What shall I do? for my lord taketh away from me the stewardship: I cannot dig; to beg I am ashamed.
4 I am resolved what to do, that when I am put out of the stewardship, they may receive me into their houses.
5 So he called every one of his lord's debtors unto him, and said unto the first, How much owest thou unto my lord?
6 And he said, A hundred measures of oil. And he said unto him, Take thy bill, and sit down quickly, and write fifty.
7 Then said he to another, And how much owest thou? And he said, A hundred measures of wheat. And he said unto him, Take thy bill, and write four-score.
8 And the lord commended the unjust steward, because he had done wisely: for the children of this world are in their generation wiser than the children of light.
9 And I say unto you, Make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness; that when ye fail, they may receive you into everlasting habitations.
10 He that is faithful in that which is least, is faithful also in much; and he that is unjust in the least, is unjust also in much.
11 If therefore ye have not been faithful in the unrighteous mammon, who will commit to your trust the true riches?
12 And if ye have not been faithful in that which is another man's, who shall give you that which is your own?
13 No servant can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon.
[pg 332]

§ 100. The Pharisees reproved. Parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus. Perea.

Luke.
CH. XVI. 14-31.
14 And the Pharisees also, who were covetous, heard all these things, and they derided him.
15 And he said unto them, Ye are they which justify yourselves before men; but God knoweth your hearts: for that which is highly esteemed among men, is abomination in the sight of God.
16 The law and the prophets were until John: since that time the kingdom of God is preached, and every man presseth into it.
17 And it is easier for heaven and earth to pass, than one tittle of the law to fail.
18 Whosoever putteth away his wife, and marrieth another, committeth adultery; and whosoever marrieth her that is put away from her husband, committeth adultery.
19 There was a certain rich man, which was clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day:
20 And there was a certain beggar named Lazarus, which was laid at his gate, full of sores,
21 And desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table: moreover, the dogs came and licked his sores.
22 And it came to pass, that the beggar died, and was carried by the angels into Abraham's bosom. The rich man also died, and was buried:
23 And in hell he lifted up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom.
24 And he cried, and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue: for I am tormented in this flame.
25 But Abraham said, Son, remember that thou in thy lifetime receivedst thy good things, and likewise Lazarus evil things: but now he is comforted, and thou art tormented.
26 And besides all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed: so that they which would pass from hence to you, cannot; neither can they pass to us, that would come from thence.
27 Then he said, I pray thee therefore, father, that thou wouldest send him to my father's house:
28 For I have five brethren; that he may testify unto them, lest they also come into this place of torment.
29 Abraham saith unto him, They have Moses and the prophets, let them hear them.
30 And he said, Nay, father Abraham: but if one went unto them from the dead, they will repent.
31 And he said unto him, If they hear not Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead.
[pg 336]

§ 101. Jesus inculcates forbearance, faith, humility. Perea.

Luke.
CH. XVII. 1-10.
Then said he unto his disciples, It is impossible but that offences will come: but wo unto him through whom they come!
2 It were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he cast into the sea, than that he should offend one of these little ones.
3 Take heed to yourselves: If thy brother trespass against thee, rebuke him; and if he repent, forgive him.
4 And if he trespass against thee seven times in a day, and seven times in a day turn again to thee, saying, I repent; thou shalt forgive him.
5 And the apostles said unto the Lord, Increase our faith.
6 And the Lord said, If ye had faith as a grain of mustard-seed, ye might say unto this sycamine-tree, Be thou plucked up by the root, and be thou planted in the sea; and it should obey you.
7 But which of you having a servant ploughing, or feeding cattle, will say unto him by and by, when he is come from the field, Go and sit down to meat?
8 And will not rather say unto him, Make ready wherewith I may sup, and gird thyself, and serve me, till I have eaten and drunken; and afterward thou shalt eat and drink?
9 Doth he thank that servant, because he did the things that were commanded him? I trow not.
10 So likewise ye, when ye shall have done all those things which are commanded you, say, We are unprofitable servants: we have done that which was our duty to do.

§ 102. Christ's coming will be sudden. Perea.

Luke.
CH. XVII. 20-37.
20 And when he was demanded of the Pharisees, when the kingdom of God should come, he answered them and said, The kingdom of God cometh not with observation.
21 Neither shall they say, Lo here! or, Lo there! for behold, the kingdom of God is within you.
22 And he said unto the disciples, The days will come, when ye shall desire to see one of the days of the Son of man, and ye shall not see it.
23 And they shall say to you, See here! or, See there! go not after them, nor follow them.
24 For as the lightning that lighteneth out of the one part under heaven, shineth unto the other part under heaven; so shall also the Son of man be in his day.
25 But first must he suffer many things, and be rejected of this generation.
26 And as it was in the days of Noe, so shall it be also in the days of the Son of man.
27 They did eat, they drank, they married wives, they were given in marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the ark, and the flood came, and destroyed them all.216
28 Likewise also as it was in the days of Lot: they did eat, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they builded;
29 But the same day that Lot went out of Sodom, it rained fire and brimstone from heaven, and destroyed them all:217
30 Even thus shall it be in the day when the Son of man is revealed.
31 In that day, he which shall be upon the house-top, and his stuff in the house, let him not come down to take it away: and he that is in the field, let him likewise not return back.
32 Remember Lot's wife.218
33 Whosoever shall seek to save his life, shall lose it; and whosoever shall lose his life, shall preserve it.
34 I tell you, in that night there shall be two men in one bed; the one shall be taken, and the other shall be left.
35 Two women shall be grinding together; the one shall be taken, and the other left.
36 Two men shall be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other left.
37 And they answered and said unto him, Where, Lord? And he said unto them, Wheresoever the body is, thither will the eagles be gathered together.
[pg 340]

§ 103. Parables. The importunate Widow. The Pharisee and Publican. Perea.

Luke.
CH. XVIII. 1-14.
And he spake a parable unto them to this end, that men ought always to pray, and not to faint;
2 Saying, There was in a city a judge, which feared not God, neither regarded man.
3 And there was a widow in that city; and she came unto him, saying, Avenge me of mine adversary.
4 And he would not for a while: but afterward he said within himself, Though I fear not God, nor regard man;
5 Yet, because this widow troubleth me, I will avenge her, lest by her continual coming she weary me.
6 And the Lord said, Hear what the unjust judge saith.
7 And shall not God avenge his own elect, which cry day and night unto him, though he bear long with them?
8 I tell you that he will avenge them speedily. Nevertheless, when the Son of man cometh, shall he find faith on the earth?
9 And he spake this parable unto certain which trusted in themselves that they were righteous, and despised others:
10 Two men went up into the temple to pray; the one a Pharisee, and the other a publican.
11 The Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself, God, I thank thee, that I am not as other men are, extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even as this publican.
12 I fast twice in the week, I give tithes of all that I possess.
13 And the publican, standing afar off, would not lift up so much as his eyes unto heaven, but smote upon his breast, saying, God be merciful to me a sinner.
14 I tell you, this man went down to his house justified rather than the other: for every one that exalteth himself shall be abased; and he that humbleth himself shall be exalted.
[pg 342]

§ 104. Precepts respecting divorce. Perea.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XIX. 3-12.219CH. X. 2-12.
3 The Pharisees also came unto him, tempting him, and saying unto him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife for every cause?2 And the Pharisees came to him, and asked him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife? tempting him.
4 And he answered and said unto them, Have ye not read,220 that he which made them at the beginning, made them male and female,3 And he answered and said unto them, What did Moses command you?
5 And said,221 For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they twain shall be one flesh?4 And they said, Moses suffered to write a bill of divorcement, and to put her away.
5 And Jesus answered and said unto them, For the hardness of your heart, he wrote you this precept:
6 Wherefore they are no more twain, but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder.6 But from the beginning of the creation, God made them male and female.
7 They say unto him, Why did Moses then command to give a writing of divorcement, and to put her away?2227 For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and cleave to his wife;
8 He saith unto them, Moses, because of the hardness of your hearts, suffered you to put away your wives: but from the beginning it was not so.8 And they twain shall be one flesh: so then they are not more twain, but one flesh.
9 What, therefore, God hath joined together, let not man put asunder.
9 And I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except it be for fornication, and shall marry another, committeth adultery; and whoso marrieth her which is put away, doth commit adultery.10 And in the house his disciples asked him again of the same matter.
11 And he saith unto them, Whosoever shall put away his wife, and marry another, committeth adultery against her.
10 His disciples say unto him, If the case of the man be so with his wife, it is not good to marry.12 And if a woman shall put away her husband,223 and be married to another, she committeth adultery.
11 But he said unto them, All men cannot receive this saying, save they to whom it is given.
12 For there are some eunuchs, which were so born from their mother's womb: and there are some eunuchs, which were made eunuchs of men: and there be eunuchs, which have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake. He that is able to receive it, let him receive it.
[pg 344]

§ 105. Jesus receives and blesses little children. Perea.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XIX. 13-15.CH. X. 13-16.
13 Then were there brought unto him little children, that he should put his hands on them, and pray: and the disciples rebuked them.13 And they brought young children to him, that he should touch them; and his disciples rebuked those that brought them.
14 But Jesus said, Suffer little children, and forbid them not, to come unto me: for of such is the kingdom of heaven.14 But when Jesus saw it, he was much displeased, and said unto them, Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not: for of such is the kingdom of God.
15 Verily I say unto you, Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little child, he shall not enter therein.
15 And he laid his hands on them, and departed thence.16 And he took them up in his arms; put his hands upon them, and blessed them.
Luke.
CH. XVIII. 15-17.
15 And they brought unto him also infants, that he would touch them: but when his disciples saw it, they rebuked them.
16 But Jesus called them unto him, and said, Suffer little children to come unto me, and forbid them not: for of such is the kingdom of God.
17 Verily, I say unto you, Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little child, shall in no wise enter therein.

§ 106. The rich young man. Parable of the Laborers in the Vineyard. Perea.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XIX. 16-30. CH. XX 1-16.CH. X. 17-31.
16 And behold, one came and said unto him, Good Master, what good thing shall I do that I may have eternal life?17 And when he was gone forth into the way, there came one running, and kneeled to him, and asked him, Good Master, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life?
17 And he said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God: but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the commandments.18 And Jesus said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good, but one, that is God.
18 He saith unto him, Which? Jesus said, Thou shalt do no murder. Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not steal, Thou shalt not bear false witness,19 Thou knowest the commandments, Do not commit adultery, Do not kill, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Defraud not, Honour thy father and mother.
19 Honour thy father and thy mother: and, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.224
20 The young man saith unto him, All these things have I kept from my youth up: what lack I yet?20 And he answered and said unto him, Master, all these have I observed from my youth.
21 Jesus said unto him, If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell that thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come and follow me.21 Then Jesus beholding him, loved him, and said unto him, One thing thou lackest: go thy way, sell whatsoever thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven; and come, take up the cross, and follow me.
22 But when the young man heard that saying, he went away sorrowful: for he had great possessions.22 And he was sad at that saying, and went away grieved: for he had great possessions.
23 Then said Jesus unto his disciples, Verily, I say unto you, That a rich man shall hardly enter into the kingdom of heaven.23 And Jesus looked round about, and saith unto his disciples, How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the kingdom of God!
24 And the disciples were astonished at his words. But Jesus answereth again, and saith unto them, Children, how hard is it for them that trust in riches to enter into the kingdom of God!
24 And again I say unto you, It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.25 It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God.
25 When his disciples heard it, they were exceedingly amazed, saying Who then can be saved?26 And they were astonished out of measure, saying among themselves, Who then can be saved?
26 But Jesus beheld them, and said unto them, With men this is impossible, but with God all things are possible.27 And Jesus, looking upon them, With men it is impossible, but not with God: for with God all things are possible.
27 Then answered Peter, and said unto him, Behold, we have forsaken all, and followed thee; what shall we have therefore?28 Then Peter began to say unto him, Lo, we have left all, and have followed thee.
28 And Jesus said unto them, Verily, I say unto you, That ye which have followed me in the regeneration, when the Son of man shall sit in the throne of his glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel.29 And Jesus answered and said, Verily I say unto you, There is no man that hath left house, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my sake, and the gospel's,
29 And every one that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my name's sake, shall receive a hundred-fold, and shall inherit everlasting life.30 But he shall receive a hundred-fold now in this time, houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, with persecutions; and in the world to come, eternal life.
30 But many that are first shall be last, and the last shall be first.31 But many that are first shall be last; and the last first.
CH. XX.
For the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is a householder, which went out early in the morning to hire labourers into his vineyard.
2 And when he had agreed with the labourers for a penny a day, he sent them into his vineyard.
3 And he went out about the third hour, and saw others standing idle in the market-place,
4 And said unto them, Go ye also into the vineyard; and whatsoever is right, I will give you. And they went their way.
5 Again he went out about the sixth and ninth hour, and did likewise.
6 And about the eleventh hour he went out, and found others standing idle, and saith unto them, Why stand ye here all the day idle?
7 They say unto him, Because no man hath hired us. He saith unto them, Go ye also into the vineyard; and whatsoever is right, that shall ye receive.
8 So when evening was come, the lord of the vineyard saith unto his steward, Call the labourers, and give them their hire, beginning from the last unto the first.
9 And when they came that were hired about the eleventh hour, they received every man a penny.
10 But when the first came, they supposed that they should have received more; and they likewise received every man a penny.
11 And when they had received it, they murmured against the good man of the house,
12 Saying, These last have wrought but one hour, and thou hast made them equal unto us, which have borne the burden and heat of the day.
13 But he answered one of them, and said, Friend, I do thee no wrong: didst not thou agree with me for a penny?
14 Take that thine is, and go thy way: I will give unto this last, even as unto thee.
15 Is it not lawful for me to do what I will with mine own? is thine eye evil because I am good?
16 So the last shall be first, and the first last: for many be called, but few chosen.
Luke.
CH. XVIII. 18-30.
18 And a certain ruler asked him, saying, Good Master, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?
19 And Jesus said unto him, Why callest thou me good? none is good, save one, that is God.
20 Thou knowest the commandments, Do not commit adultery, Do not kill, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Honour thy father and thy mother.
21 And he said, All these have I kept from my youth up.
22 Now, when Jesus heard these things, he said unto him, Yet lackest thou one thing: sell all that thou hast, and distribute unto the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come, follow me.
23 And when he heard this, he was very sorrowful: for he was very rich.
24 And when Jesus saw that he was very sorrowful, he said, How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the kingdom of God!
25 For it is easier for a camel to go through a needle's eye, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God!
26 And they that heard it, said, Who then can be saved?
27 And he said, The things which are impossible with men, are possible with God.
28 Then Peter said, Lo, we have left all, and followed thee.
29 And he said unto them, Verily, I say unto you, There is no man that hath left house, or parents, or brethren, or wife, or children, for the kingdom of God's sake,
30 Who shall not receive manifold more in this present time, and in the world to come life everlasting.
[pg 350]

§ 107. Jesus a third time foretels his Death and Resurrection. (See § 74, § 77.) Perea.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XX. 17-19.CH. X. 32-34.
17 And Jesus, going up to Jerusalem, took the twelve disciples apart in the way, and said unto them,32 And they were in the way, going up to Jerusalem; and Jesus went before them: and they were amazed; and as they followed, they were afraid. And he took again the twelve, and began to tell them what things should happen unto him.
18 Behold, we go up to Jerusalem; and the Son of man shall be betrayed unto the chief priests, and unto the scribes, and they shall condemn him to death,33 Saying, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem; and the Son of man shall be delivered unto the chief priests, and unto the scribes; and they shall condemn him to death, and shall deliver him to the Gentiles;
19 And shall deliver him to the Gentiles to mock, and to scourge, and to crucify him: and the third day he shall rise again.34 And they shall mock him, and shall scourge him, and shall spit upon him, and shall kill him: and the third day he shall rise again.
Luke.
CH. XVIII. 31-34.
31 Then he took unto him the twelve, and said unto them, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem, and all things that are written by the prophets concerning the Son of man shall be accomplished.
32 For he shall be delivered unto the Gentiles, and shall be mocked, and spitefully entreated, and spitted on;
33 And they shall scourge him, and put him to death: and the third day he shall rise again.
34 And they understood none of these things: and this saying was hid from them, neither knew they the things which were spoken.

§ 108. James and John prefer their ambitious request. Perea.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XX. 20-28.CH. X. 35-45.
20 Then came to him the mother of Zebedee's children, with her sons, worshipping him, and desiring a certain thing of him.35 And James and John, the sons of Zebedee, come unto him, saying, Master, we would that thou shouldest do for us whatsoever we shall desire.
21 And he said unto her, What wilt thou? She saith225 unto him, Grant that these my two sons may sit, the one on thy right hand, and the other on the left, in thy kingdom.36 And he said unto them, What would ye that I should do for you?
37 They said unto him, Grant unto us that we may sit, one on thy right hand, and the other on thy left hand, in thy glory.
22 But Jesus answered and said, Ye know not what ye ask. Are ye able to drink of the cup that I shall drink of, and to be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? They say unto him, We are able.38 But Jesus said unto them, Ye know not what ye ask: can ye drink of the cup that I drink of? and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with?
23 And he saith unto them, Ye shall drink indeed of my cup, and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with; but, to sit on my right hand, and on my left, is not mine to give, but it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared of my Father.39 And they said unto him, We can. And Jesus said unto them, Ye shall indeed drink of the cup that I drink of; and with the baptism that I am baptized withal shall ye be baptized:
40 But to sit on my right hand and on my left hand, is not mine to give; but it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared.
24 And when the ten heard it, they were moved with indignation against the two brethren.41 And when the ten heard it, they began to be much displeased with James and John.
25 But Jesus called them unto him, and said, Ye know that the princes of the Gentiles exercise dominion over them, and they that are great exercise authority upon them.42 But Jesus called them to him, and saith unto them, Ye know that they which are accounted to rule over the Gentiles, exercise lordship over them; and their great ones exercise authority upon them.
26 But it shall not be so among you: but whosoever will be great among you, let him be your minister;43 But so shall it not be among you: but whosoever will be great among you, shall be your minister:
27 And whosoever will be chief among you, let him be your servant:44 And whosoever of you will be the chiefest, shall be servant of all.
28 Even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many.45 For even the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many.
[pg 352]

§ 109. The healing of two blind men near Jericho.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XX. 29-34.CH. X. 46-52.
29 And as they departed from Jericho, a great multitude followed him.46 And they came to Jericho: and as he went out of Jericho with his disciples, and a great number of people, blind Bartimeus, the son of Timeus, sat by the highway side, begging.
30 And behold, two blind men sitting by the wayside, when they heard that Jesus passed by, cried out, saying, Have mercy on us, O Lord, thou son of David.47 And when he heard that it was Jesus of Nasareth, he began to cry out and say, Jesus, thou son of David, have mercy on me.
31 And the multitude rebuked them, because they should hold their peace: but they cried the more, saying, Have mercy on us, O Lord, thou son of David.48 And many charged him that he should hold his peace: but he cried the more a great deal, Thou son of David, have mercy on me.
32 And Jesus stood still, and called them, and said, What will ye that I shall do unto you?49 And Jesus stood still, and commanded him to be called: and they call the blind man, saying unto him, Be of good comfort, rise; he calleth thee.
50 And he, casting away his garment, rose, and came to Jesus.
33 They say unto him, Lord, that our eyes may be opened.51 And Jesus answered and said unto him, What wilt thou that I should do unto thee? The blind man said unto him, Lord, that I might receive my sight.
34 So Jesus had compassion on them, and touched their eyes: and immediately their eyes received sight, and they followed him.52 And Jesus said unto him, Go thy way; thy faith hath made thee whole. And immediately he received his sight, and followed Jesus in the way.
Luke.
CH. XVIII. 35-43. CH. XIX. 1.
35 And it came to pass, that as he was come nigh226 unto Jericho, a certain blind man sat by the wayside begging;
36 And hearing the multitude pass by, he asked what it meant.
37 And they told him, that Jesus of Nazareth passeth by.
38 And he cried, saying, Jesus, thou son of David, have mercy on me.
39 And they which went before rebuked him, that he should hold his peace: but he cried so much the more, Thou son of David, have mercy on me.
40 And Jesus stood and commanded him to be brought unto him: and when he was come near, he asked him,
41 Saying, What wilt thou that I shall do unto thee? And he said, Lord, that I may receive my sight.
42 And Jesus said unto him, Receive thy sight: thy faith hath saved thee.
43 And immediately he received his sight, and followed him, glorifying God: and all the people, when they saw it, gave praise unto God.
CH. XIX.
And Jesus entered and passed through Jericho.
[pg 354]

§ 110. The visit to Zaccheus. Parable of the ten Minæ. Jericho.

Luke.
CH. XIX. 2-28.
2 And behold there was a man named Zaccheus, which was the chief among the publicans, and he was rich.
3 And he sought to see Jesus who he was; and could not for the press, because he was little of stature.
4 And he ran before, and climbed up into a sycamore-tree to see him; for he was to pass that way.
5 And when Jesus came to the place, he looked up, and saw him, and said unto him, Zaccheus, make haste, and come down: for to-day I must abide at thy house.
6 And he made haste, and came down, and received him joyfully.
7 And when they saw it, they all murmured, saying, That he was gone to be guest with a man that is a sinner.
8 And Zaccheus stood, and said unto the Lord; Behold, Lord, the half of my goods I give to the poor; and if I have taken any thing from any man, by false accusation, I restore him four-fold.
9 And Jesus said unto him, This day is salvation come to this house, forasmuch as he also is a son of Abraham.
10 For the Son of man is come to seek and to save that which was lost.
11 And as they heard these things, he added and spake a parable, because he was nigh to Jerusalem, and because they thought that the kingdom of God should immediately appear.
12 He said therefore, A certain nobleman went into a far country to receive for himself a kingdom, and to return.227
13 And he called his ten servants, and delivered them ten pounds, and said unto them, Occupy till I come.
14 But his citizens hated him, and sent a message after him, saying, We will not have this man to reign over us.
15 And it came to pass, that when he was returned, having received the kingdom, then he commanded these servants to be called unto him, to whom he had given the money, that he might know how much every man had gained by trading.
16 Then came the first, saying, Lord, thy pound hath gained ten pounds.
17 And he said unto him, Well, thou good servant: because thou hast been faithful in a very little, have thou authority over ten cities.
18 And the second came, saying, Lord, thy pound hath gained five pounds.
19 And he said likewise to him, Be thou also over five cities.
20 And another came, saying, Lord, behold here is thy pound, which I have kept laid up in a napkin:
21 For I feared thee, because thou art an austere man: thou takest up that thou layedst not down, and reapest that thou didst not sow.
22 And he saith unto him, Out of thine own mouth will I judge thee, thou wicked servant. Thou knewest that I was an austere man, taking up that I laid not down, and reaping that I did not sow:
23 Wherefore then gavest not thou my money into the bank, that at my coming I might have required mine own with usury?
24 And he said unto them that stood by, Take from him the pound, and give it to him that hath ten pounds.
25 (And they said unto him, Lord, he hath ten pounds.)
26 For I say unto you, That unto every one which hath, shall be given; and from him that hath not, even that he hath shall be taken away from him.
27 But those mine enemies, which would not that I should reign over them, bring hither, and slay them before me.
28 And when he had thus spoken, he went before, ascending up to Jerusalem.
[pg 358]

§ 111. Jesus arrives at Bethany six days before the Passover. Bethany.

John.
CH. XI. 55-57. CH. XII. 1, 9-11.
55 And the Jews' passover was nigh at hand: and many went out of the country up to Jerusalem before the passover, to purify themselves.
56 Then sought they for Jesus, and spake among themselves, as they stood in the temple, What think ye, that he will not come to the feast?
57 Now both the chief priests and the Pharisees had given a commandment, that, if any man knew where he were, he should shew it, that they might take him.
CH. XII.
Then Jesus, six days before the passover, came to Bethany, where Lazarus was which had been dead, whom he raised from the dead.
9 Much people of the Jews therefore knew that he was there: and they came, not for Jesus' sake only, but that they might see Lazarus also, whom he had raised from the dead.
10 But the chief priests consulted that they might put Lazarus also to death;
11 Because that by reason of him many of the Jews went away, and believed on Jesus.
[pg 361]

Part VII. Our Lord's Public Entry Into Jerusalem, And The Subsequent Transactions Before The Fourth Passover.

Time. Five days.

[pg 362]

§ 112. Our Lord's public entry into Jerusalem. (First Day Of The Week.) Bethany. Jerusalem.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XXI. 1-11, 14-17.CH. XI. 1-11.
And when they drew nigh unto Jerusalem, and were come to Bethphage, unto the mount of Olives, then sent Jesus two disciples,And when they came nigh to Jerusalem, unto Bethphage, and Bethany, at the mount of Olives, he sendeth forth two of his disciples,
2 Saying unto them, Go into the village over against you, and straightway ye shall find an ass tied, and a colt with her: loose them, and bring them unto me.2 And saith unto them, Go your way into the village over against you: and as soon as ye be entered into it, ye shall find a colt tied, whereon never man sat; loose him, and bring him.
3 And if any man say aught unto you, ye shall say, The Lord hath need of them; and straightway he will send them.3 And if any man say unto you, Why do ye this? say ye that the Lord hath need of him; and straightway he will send him hither.
4 All this was done, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying,228
5 Tell ye the daughter of Sion, Behold, thy King cometh unto thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass, and a colt the foal of an ass.
6 And the disciples went, and did as Jesus commanded them,4 And they went their way and found the colt tied by the door without, in a place where two ways met; and they loose him.
5 And certain of them that stood there said unto them, What do ye, loosing the colt?
6 And they said unto them even as Jesus had commanded: and they let them go.
7 And brought the ass and the colt, and put on them their clothes,229 and they set him thereon.7 And they brought the colt to Jesus, and cast their garments on him; and he sat upon him.
8 And a very great multitude spread their garments in the way: others cut down branches from the trees, and strewed them in the way.8 And many spread their garments in the way: and others cut down branches off the trees, and strewed them in the way.
9 And the multitudes that went before, and that followed, cried, saying, Hosanna to the Son of David: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord: Hosanna in the highest.9 And they that went before, and they that followed, cried, saying, Hosanna: Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.
10 Blessed be the kingdom of our father David, that cometh in the name of the Lord: Hosanna in the highest.
10 And when he was come into Jerusalem, all the city was moved, saying, Who is this?
11 And the multitude said, This is Jesus the prophet of Nazareth of Galilee.
14 And the blind and the lame came to him in the temple; and he healed them.
15 And when the chief priests and scribes saw the wonderful things that he did, and the children crying in the temple, and saying, Hosanna to the son of David; they were sore displeased,
16 And said unto him, Hearest thou what these say? And Jesus saith unto them, Yea: have ye never read, Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings thou hast perfected praise?230
17 And he left them, and went out of the city into Bethany, and he lodged there.11 And Jesus entered into Jerusalem, and into the temple: and when he had looked round about upon all things, and now the even-tide was come, he went out unto Bethany, with the twelve.
Luke.John.
CH. XIX. 29-44.CH. XII. 12-19.
29 And it came to pass, when he was come nigh to Bethphage and Bethany, at the mount called the mount of Olives, he sent two of his disciples,12 On the next day, much people that were come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem,
30 Saying, Go ye into the village over against you; in the which at your entering ye shall find a colt tied, whereon yet never man sat: loose him, and bring him hither.
31 And if any man ask you, Why do ye loose him? thus shall ye say unto him, Because the Lord hath need of him.
32 And they that were sent went their way, and found even as he had said unto them.
33 And as they were loosing the colt, the owners thereof said unto them, Why loose ye the colt?
34 And they said, The Lord hath need of him.
35 And they brought him to Jesus: and they cast their garments upon the colt and they set Jesus thereon.
36 And as he went, they spread their clothes in the way.
37 And when he was come nigh, even now at the descent of the mount of Olives, the whole multitude of the disciples began to rejoice and praise God with a loud voice for all the mighty works that they had seen;13 Took branches of palm-trees, and went forth to meet him, and cried, Hosanna; Blessed is the King of Israel that cometh in the name of the Lord.231
38 Saying, Blessed be the King that cometh in the name of the Lord: Peace in heaven, and glory in the highest.14 And Jesus, when he had found a young ass, sat thereon; as it is written,
15 Fear not, daughter of Sion: behold, thy King cometh, sitting on an ass's colt.
16 These things understood not his disciples at the first: but when Jesus was glorified, then remembered they that these things were written of him, and that they had done these things unto him.
17 The people therefore that was with him when he called Lazarus out of his grave, and raised him from the dead, bare record.
18 For this cause the people also met him, for that they heard that he had done this miracle.
39 And some of the Pharisees from among the multitude said unto him, Master, rebuke thy disciples.19 The Pharisees therefore said among themselves, Perceive ye how ye prevail nothing? behold, the world is gone after him.
40 And he answered and said unto them, I tell you, that if these should hold their peace, the stones would immediately cry out.
41 And when he was come near, he beheld the city, and wept over it.
42 Saying, If thou hadst known, even thou, at least in this thy day, the things which belong unto thy peace! but now they are hid from thine eyes.
43 For the days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side,
44 And shall lay thee even with the ground, and thy children within thee: and they shall not leave in thee one stone upon another: because thou knewest not the time of thy visitation.
[pg 366]

§ 113. The barren Fig-tree. The cleansing of the Temple. (Second Day Of The Week.) Bethany. Jerusalem.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XXI. 12, 13, 18, 19.CH. XI. 12-19.
18 Now in the morning, as he returned into the city, he hungered.12 And on the morrow, when they were come from Bethany, he was hungry.
19 And when he saw a fig-tree in the way, he came to it, and found nothing thereon, but leaves only, and said unto it, Let no fruit grow on thee henceforward for ever. And presently the fig-tree withered away.13 And seeing a fig-tree afar off, having leaves, he came, if haply he might find any thing thereon: and when he came to it, he found nothing but leaves: for the time of figs was not yet.
14 And Jesus answered and said unto it, No man eat fruit of thee hereafter for ever. And his disciples heard it.
12 And Jesus went into the temple of God, and cast out all them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the money-changers, and the seats of them that sold doves,15 And they come to Jerusalem: and Jesus went into the temple, and began to cast out them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the money-changers, and the seats of them that sold doves:
16 And would not suffer that any man should carry any vessel through the temple.
13 And said unto them, It is written,232 My house shall be called the house of prayer, but ye have made it a den of thieves.17 And he taught, saying unto them, Is it not written, My house shall be called, of all nations, the house of prayer? but ye have made it a den of thieves.
18 And the scribes and chief priests heard it, and sought how they might destroy him: for they feared him, because all the people was astonished at his doctrine.
19 And when even was come, he went out of the city.
Luke.
CH. XIX. 45-48. CH. XXI. 37, 38.
45 And he went into the temple, and began to cast out them that sold therein, and them that bought,
46 Saying unto them, It is written, My house is the house of prayer, but ye have made it a den of thieves.
47 And he taught daily in the temple. But the chief priests, and the scribes, and the chief of the people sought to destroy him,
48 And could not find what they might do: for all the people were very attentive to hear him.
CH. XXI.
37 And in the day-time he was teaching in the temple; and at night he went out, and abode in the mount that is called the mount of Olives.
38 And all the people came early in the morning to him in the temple, for to hear him.

§ 114. The barren Fig-tree withers away. (Third Day Of The Week.) Between Bethany and Jerusalem.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XXI. 20-22.CH. XI. 20-26.
20 And in the morning, as they passed by, they saw the fig-tree dried up from the roots.
20 And when the disciples233 saw it, they marvelled, saying, How soon is the fig-tree withered away!21 And Peter calling to remembrance, saith unto him, Master, behold, the fig-tree which thou cursed is withered away.
21 Jesus answered and said unto them, Verily, I say unto you, If ye have faith, and doubt not, ye shall not only do this which is done to the fig-tree, but also, if ye shall say unto this mountain, Be thou removed, and be thou cast into the sea; it shall be done.22 And Jesus answering, saith unto them, Have faith in God.
23 For verily I say unto you, That whosoever shall say unto this mountain, Be thou removed, and be thou cast into the sea; and shall not doubt in his heart, but shall believe that those things which he saith shall come to pass; he shall have whatsoever he saith.
22 And all things whatsoever ye shall ask in prayer, believing, ye shall receive.24 Therefore I say unto you, What things soever ye desire when ye pray, believe that ye receive them, and ye shall have them.
25 And when ye stand praying, forgive, if ye have aught against any: that your Father also which is in heaven may forgive you your trespasses.
26 But if ye do not forgive, neither will your Father which is in heaven forgive your trespasses.
[pg 368]

§ 115. Christ's authority questioned. Parable of the two Sons. (Third Day Of The Week.) Jerusalem.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XXI. 23-32.CH. XI. 27-33.
23 And when he was come into the temple, the chief priests and the elders of the people came unto him as he was teaching, and said, By what authority doest thou these things? and who gave thee this authority?27 And they come again to Jerusalem: and as he was walking in the temple, there come to him the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders,
28 And say unto him, By what authority doest thou these things? and who gave thee this authority to do these things?
24 And Jesus answered and said unto them, I also will ask you one thing, which if ye tell me, I in like wise will tell you by what authority I do these things.29 And Jesus answered and said unto them, I will also ask of you one question, and answer me, and I will tell you by what authority I do these things.
25 The baptism of John, whence was it? from heaven, or of men? And they reasoned with themselves, saying, If we shall say, From heaven; he will say unto us, Why did ye not then believe him?30 The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or of men? answer me.
31 And they reasoned with themselves, saying, If we shall say, From heaven; he will say, Why then did ye not believe him?
26 But if we shall say, Of men; we fear the people: for all hold John as a prophet.32 But if we shall say, Of men; they feared the people: for all men counted John, that he was a prophet indeed.
27 And they answered Jesus, and said, We cannot tell. And he said unto them, Neither tell I you by what authority I do these things.33 And they answered and said unto Jesus, We cannot tell. And Jesus answering saith unto them, Neither do I tell you by what authority I do these things.
28 But what think ye? A certain man had two sons; and he came to the first, and said, Son, go work to-day in my vineyard.
29 He answered and said, I will not; but afterward he repented, and went.
30 And he came to the second, and said likewise. And he answered and said, I go, sir: and went not.
31 Whether of them twain did the will of his father? They say unto him, The first. Jesus saith unto them, Verily I say unto you, That the publicans and the harlots go into the kingdom of God before you.
32 For John came unto you in the way of righteousness, and ye believed him not: but the publicans and the harlots believed him: and ye, when ye had seen it, repented not afterward, that ye might believe him.
Luke.
CH. XX. 1-8.
And it came to pass, that on one of those days, as he taught the people in the temple, and preached the gospel, the chief priests and the scribes came upon him, with the elders,
2 And spake unto him, saying, Tell us, By what authority doest thou these things? or who is he that gave thee this authority?
3 And he answered and said unto them, I will also ask you one thing; and answer me:
4 The baptism of John, was it from heaven, or of men?
5 And they reasoned with themselves, saying, If we shall say, From heaven; he will say, Why then believed ye him not?
6 But and if we say, Of men; all the people will stone us: for they be persuaded that John was a prophet.
7 And they answered, That they could not tell whence it was.
8 And Jesus said unto them, Neither tell I you by what authority I do these things.
[pg 370]

§ 116. Parable of the wicked husbandmen. (Third Day Of The Week.) Jerusalem.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XXI. 33-46.CH. XII.
33 Hear another parable; There was a certain householder, which planted a vineyard, and hedged it round about, and digged a wine-press in it, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country:And he began to speak unto them by parables. A certain man planted a vineyard, and set an hedge about it, and digged a place for the wine-fat, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country.
34 And when the time of the fruit drew near, he sent his servants234 to the husbandmen, that they might receive the fruits of it.2 And at the season he sent to the husbandmen a servant,235 that he might receive from the husbandmen of the fruit of the vineyard.
35 And the husbandmen took his servants, and beat one, and killed another, and stoned another.3 And they caught him, and beat him, and sent him away empty.
36 Again he sent other servants more than the first: and they did unto them likewise.4 And again he sent unto them another servant: and at him they cast stones, and wounded him in the head, and sent him away shamefully handled.
5 And again he sent another; and him they killed, and many others; beating some, and killing some.
37 But last of all, he sent unto them his son, saying, They will reverence my son.6 Having yet therefore one son, his well-beloved, he sent him also last unto them, saying, They will reverence my son.
38 But when the husbandmen saw the son, they said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and let us seize on his inheritance.7 But those husbandmen said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and the inheritance shall be ours.
39 And they caught him, and cast him out of the vineyard, and slew him.8 And they took him, and killed him, and cast him out of the vineyard.
40 When the lord therefore of the vineyard cometh, what will he do unto those husbandmen?9 What shall therefore the lord of the vineyard do? He will come and destroy the husbandmen, and will give the vineyard unto others.
41 They say unto him, He will miserably destroy those wicked men, and will let out his vineyard unto other husbandmen, which shall render him the fruits in their seasons.
42 Jesus saith unto them, Did ye never read in the scriptures, The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner: this is the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes?23610 And have ye not read this scripture; The stone which the builders rejected is become the head of the corner:
43 Therefore say I unto you, The kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof.11 This was the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes?
43 Therefore say I unto you, The kingdom of God shall be taken from you, and given to a nation bringing forth the fruits thereof.
44 And whosoever shall fall on this stone, shall be broken: but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder.237
45 And when the chief priests and Pharisees had heard his parables, they perceived that he spake of them.12 And they sought to lay hold on him, but feared the people; for they knew that he had spoken the parable against them: and they left him, and went their way.
46 But when they sought to lay hands on him, they feared the multitude, because they took him for a prophet.
Luke.
CH. XX. 9-19.
9 Then began he to speak to the people this parable: A certain man planted a vineyard, and let it forth to husbandmen, and went into a far Country for a long time.
10 And at the season he sent a servant to the husbandmen, that they should give him of the fruit of the vineyard: but the husbandmen beat him, and sent him away empty.
11 And again he sent another servant: and they beat him also, and entreated him shamefully, and sent him away empty.
12 And again he sent a third: and they wounded him also, and cast him out.
13 Then said the lord of the vineyard, What shall I do? I will send my beloved son: it may be they will reverence him when they see him.
14 But when the husbandmen saw him, they reasoned among themselves, saying, This is the heir: come, let us kill him, that the inheritance may be ours.
15 So they cast him out of the vineyard, and killed him. What therefore shall the lord of the vineyard do unto them?
16 He shall come and destroy these husbandmen, and shall give the vineyard to others. And when they heard it, they said, God forbid.
17 And he beheld them, and said, What is this then that is written, The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner?
18 Whosoever shall fall upon that stone, shall be broken: but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder.
19 And the chief priests and the scribes the same hour sought to lay hands on him; and they feared the people: for they perceived that he had spoken this parable against them.
[pg 372]

§ 117. Parable of the marriage of the King's Son. (Third Day Of The Week.) Jerusalem.

Matthew.
CH. XXII. 1-14.
And Jesus answered and spake unto them again by parables, and said,
2 The kingdom of heaven is like unto a certain king, which made a marriage for his son,
3 And sent forth his servants to call them that were bidden to the wedding: and they would not come.
4 Again he sent forth other servants, saying, Tell them which are bidden, Behold, I have prepared my dinner: my oxen and my fatlings are killed, and all things are ready: come unto the marriage.
5 But they made light of it, and went their ways, one to his farm, another to his merchandise.
6 And the remnant took his servants, and entreated them spitefully, and slew them.
7 But when the king heard thereof, he was wroth: and he sent forth his armies, and destroyed those murderers, and burned up their city.
8 Then saith he to his servants, The wedding is ready, but they which were bidden were not worthy.
9 Go ye therefore into the highways, and as many as ye shall find, bid to the marriage.
10 So those servants went out into the highways, and gathered together all as many as they found, both bad and good: and the wedding was furnished with guests.
11 And when the king came in to see the guests, he saw there a man which had not on a wedding-garment:
12 And he saith unto him, Friend, how camest thou in hither, not having a wedding-garment? And he was speechless.
13 Then said the king to the servants, Bind him hand and foot, and take him away, and cast him into outer darkness: there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.238
14 For many are called, but few are chosen.
[pg 374]

§ 118. Insidious question of the Pharisees. Tribute to Cesar. (Third Day Of The Week.) Jerusalem.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XXII. 15-22.CH. XII. 13-17.
15 Then went the Pharisees, and took counsel how they might entangle him in his talk.13 And they send unto him certain of the Pharisees, and of the Herodians, to catch him in his words.
16 And they sent out unto him their disciples, with the Herodians, saying, Master, we know that thou art true, and teachest the way of God in truth, neither carest thou for any man: for thou regardest not the person of men.14 And when they were come, they say unto him, Master, we know that thou art true, and carest for no man: for thou regardest not the person of men, but teachest the way of God in truth: Is it lawful to give tribute to Cesar, or not?
17 Tell us therefore, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute unto Cesar, or not?
18 But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, Why tempt ye me, ye hypocrites?15 Shall we give, or shall we not give? But he, knowing their hypocrisy, said unto them, Why tempt ye me? bring me a penny, that I may see it.
19 Shew me the tribute-money. And they brought unto him a penny.16 And they brought it. And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription? And they said unto him, Cesar's.
20 And he saith unto them, Whose is this image, and superscription?
21 They say unto him, Cesar's. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Cesar, the things which are Cesar's; and unto God, the things that are God's.17 And Jesus answering, said unto them, Render to Cesar the things that are Cesar's, and to God the things that are God's. And they marvelled at him.
22 When they had heard these words, they marvelled, and left him, and went their way.
Luke.
CH. XX. 20-26.
20 And they watched him, and sent forth spies, which should feign themselves just men, that they might take hold of his words, that so they might deliver him unto the power and authority of the governor.
21 And they asked him, saying, Master, we know that thou sayest and teachest rightly, neither acceptest thou the person of any, but teachest the way of God truly:
22 Is it lawful for us to give tribute unto Cesar, or no?
23 But he perceived their craftiness, and said unto them, Why tempt ye me?
24 Shew me a penny. Whose image and superscription hath it? They answered and said, Cesar's.
25 And he said unto them, Render therefore unto Cesar the things which be Cesar's, and unto God the things which be God's.
26 And they could not take hold of his words before the people: and they marvelled at his answer, and held their peace.
[pg 376]

§ 119. Insidious question of the Sadducees. The Resurrection. (Third Day Of The Week.) Jerusalem.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XXII. 23-33.CH. XII. 18-27.
23 The same day came to him the Sadducees, which say that there is no resurrection, and asked him,18 Then come unto him the Sadducees, which say there is no resurrection; and they asked him, saying,
24 Saying, Master, Moses said, If a man die, having no children, his brother shall marry his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother.23919 Master, Moses wrote unto us, If a man's brother die, and leave his wife behind him, and leave no children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother.
25 Now, there were with us seven brethren: and the first, when he had married a wife, deceased: and having no issue, left his wife unto his brother.20 Now, there were seven brethren: and the first took a wife, and dying left no seed.
26 Likewise the second also, and the third, unto the seventh.21 And the second took her, and died, neither left he any seed: and the third likewise.
27 And last of all the woman died also.22 And the seven had her, and left no seed: last of all the woman died also.
28 Therefore, in the resurrection, whose wife shall she be of the seven? for they all had her.23 In the resurrection therefore, when they shall rise, whose wife shall she be of them? for the seven had her to wife.
29 Jesus answered and said unto them, Ye do err, not knowing the scriptures, nor the power of God.24 And Jesus answering, said unto them, Do ye not therefore err, because ye know not the scriptures, neither the power of God?
30 For in the resurrection they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in heaven.25 For when they shall rise from the dead, they neither marry, nor are given in marriage; but are as the angels which are in heaven.
31 But, as touching the resurrection of the dead, have ye not read that which was spoken unto you by God, saying,26 And as touching the dead, that they rise; have ye not read in the book of Moses, how in the bush God spake unto him, saying, I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?
32 I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?240 God is not the God of the dead, but of the living.27 He is not the God of the dead, but the God of the living: ye therefore do greatly err.
33 And when the multitude heard this, they were astonished at his doctrine.
Luke.
CH. XX. 27-40.
27 Then came to him certain of the Sadducees (which deny that there is any resurrection) and they asked him,
28 Saying, Master, Moses wrote unto us, If any man's brother die, having a wife, and he die without children, that his brother should take his wife, and raise up seed unto his brother.
29 There were therefore seven brethren: and the first took a wife, and died without children.
30 And the second took her to wife, and he died childless.
31 And the third took her; and in like manner the seven also: and they left no children, and died.
32 Last of all the woman died also.
33 Therefore in the resurrection, whose wife of them is she? for seven had her to wife.
34 And Jesus answering, said unto them, The children of this world marry, and are given in marriage:
35 But they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage:
36 Neither can they die any more:241 for they are equal unto the angels; and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection.
37 Now that the dead are raised, even Moses shewed at the bush, when he calleth the Lord the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.
38 For he is not a God of the dead, but of the living: for all live unto him.
39 Then certain of the scribes answering, said, Master, thou hast well said.
40 And after that, they durst not ask him any question at all.
[pg 378]

§ 120. A lawyer questions Jesus. The two great Commandments. (Third Day Of The Week.) Jerusalem.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XXII. 34-40.CH. XII. 28-34.
34 But when the Pharisees had heard that he had put the Sadducees to silence, they were gathered together.28 And one of the scribes came, and having heard them reasoning together, and perceiving that he had answered them well, asked him, Which is the first commandment of all?
35 Then one of them which was a lawyer, asked him a question, tempting him, and saying,
36 Master, which is the great commandment in the law?
29 And Jesus answered him, The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel; The Lord our God is one Lord:
37 Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind.24230 And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment.
38 This is the first and great commandment.31 And the second is like, namely this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: there is none other commandment greater than these.
39 And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.24332 And the scribe said unto him, Well Master, thou hast said the truth: for there is one God; and there is none other but he:
33 And to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, and with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbour as himself, is more than all whole burnt-offerings and sacrifices.
34 And when Jesus saw that he answered discreetly, he said unto him, Thou art not far from the kingdom of God. And no man after that durst ask him any question.
[pg 380]

§ 121. How is Christ the Son of David? (Third Day Of The Week.) Jerusalem.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XXII. 41-46.CH. XII. 35-37.
41 While the Pharisees were gathered together, Jesus asked them,
42 Saying, What think ye of Christ? whose son is he? They say unto him, The son of David.
43 He saith unto them, How then doth David in spirit call him Lord, saying,35 And Jesus answered and said, while he taught in the temple, How say the scribes that Christ is the son of David?
44 The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool?244Holy Ghost, The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool.
45 If David then call him Lord, how is he his son?37 David therefore himself calleth him Lord, and whence is he then his son? And the common people heard him gladly.
46 And no man was able to answer him a word, neither durst any man, from that day forth, ask him any more questions.
Luke.
CH. XX. 41-44.
41 And he said unto them, How say they that Christ is David's son?
42 And David himself saith in the book of Psalms, The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand,
43 Till I make thine enemies thy footstool.
44 David therefore calleth him Lord, how is he then his son?

§ 122. Warnings against the evil example of the Scribes and Pharisees. (Third Day Of The Week.) Jerusalem.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XXIII. 1-12.CH. XII. 38, 39.
Then spake Jesus to the multitude, and to his disciples,38 And he said unto them in his doctrine, Beware of the scribes, which love to go in long clothing, and love salutations in the market-places,
2 Saying, The scribes and the Pharisees sit in Moses' seat:39 And the chief seats in the synagogues, and the uppermost rooms at feasts:
3 All therefore whatsoever they bid you observe, that observe and do: but do not ye after their works: for they say, and do not.
4 For they bind heavy burdens, and grievous to be borne, and lay them on men's shoulders; but they themselves will not move them with one of their fingers.
5 But all their works they do for to be seen of men: they make broad their phylacteries, and enlarge the borders of their garments,
6 And love the uppermost rooms at feasts, and the chief seats in the synagogues,
7 And greetings in the markets, and to be called of men, Rabbi, Rabbi.
8 But be ye not called Rabbi: for one is your Master, even Christ; and all ye are brethren.
9 And call no man your father upon the earth: for one is your Father which is in heaven.
10 Neither be ye called masters: for one is your master, even Christ.
11 But he that is greatest among you, shall be your servant.
12 And whosoever shall exalt himself, shall be abased; and he that shall humble himself, shall be exalted.
Luke.
CH. XX. 45, 46.
45 Then in the audience of all the people, he said unto his disciples,
46 Beware of the scribes, which desire to walk in long robes, and love greetings in the markets, and the highest seats in the synagogues, and the chief rooms at feasts;
[pg 382]

§ 123. Woes against the Scribes and Pharisees. Lamentation over Jerusalem. (Third Day Of The Week.) Jerusalem.

Matthew.Mark.
CH. XXIII. 13-39.CH. XII. 40.
13 But wo unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye shut up the kingdom of heaven against men: for ye neither go in yourselves, neither suffer ye them that are entering, to go in.
14 Wo unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye devour widows' houses, and for a pretence make long prayer: therefore ye shall receive the greater damnation.40 Which devour widows' houses and for a pretence make long prayers these shall receive greater damnation
15 Wo unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye compass sea and land to make one proselyte; and when he is made, ye make him two-fold more the child of hell than yourselves.
16 Wo unto you, ye blind guides, which say, Whosoever shall swear by the temple, it is nothing; but whosoever shall swear by the gold of the temple, he is a debtor.
17 Ye fools, and blind! for whether is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifieth the gold?
18 And whosoever shall swear by the altar, it is nothing; but whosoever sweareth by the gift that is upon it, he is guilty.
19 Ye fools, and blind! for whether is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifieth the gift?
20 Whoso therefore shall swear by the altar, sweareth by it, and by all things thereon.
21 And whoso shall swear by the temple, sweareth by it, and by him that dwelleth therein.
22 And he that shall swear by heaven, sweareth by the throne of God, and by him that sitteth thereon.
23 Wo unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye pay tithe of mint, and anise, and cummin, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith: these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone.
24 Ye blind guides, which strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel.
25 Wo unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess.
26 Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first that which is within the cup and platter, that the outside of them may be clean also.
27 Wo unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye are like unto whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outward, but are within full of dead men's bones, and of all uncleanness.
28 Even so ye also outwardly appear righteous unto men, but within ye are full of hypocrisy and iniquity.
29 Wo unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye build the tombs of the prophets, and garnish the sepulchres of the righteous,
30 And say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets.
31 Wherefore ye be witnesses unto yourselves, that ye are the children of them which killed the prophets.
32 Fill ye up then the measure of your fathers.
33 Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell?
34 Wherefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes; and some of them ye shall kill and crucify, and some of them shall ye scourge in your synagogue, and persecute them from city to city:
35 That upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel, unto the blood of Zacharias, son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar.245
36 Verily, I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation.
37 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!
38 Behold, your house is left unto you desolate.246
39 For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.247
Luke.
CH. XX. 47.
Which devour widows' houses, and for a shew make long prayers: the same shall receive greater damnation.
[pg 386]

§ 124. The Widow's Mite. (Third Day Of The Week.) Jerusalem.

Mark.Luke.
CH. XII. 41-44.CH. XXI. 1-4.