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Volume 5, Appendix, by Various

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Title: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 5, Appendix
       Author List

Author: Various

Release Date: August 21, 2010 [EBook #33477]

Language: English

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FIRST edition, published in three volumes, 1768-1771.
SECOND ten 1777-1784.
THIRD eighteen 1788-1797.
FOURTH twenty 1801-1810.
FIFTH twenty 1815-1817.
SIXTH twenty 1823-1824.
SEVENTH twenty-one 1830-1842.
EIGHTH twenty-two 1853-1860.
NINTH twenty-five 1875-1889.
TENTH ninth edition and eleven supplementary volumes, 1902-1903.
ELEVENTH published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910-1911.



in all countries subscribing to the
Bern Convention



of the



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Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

342 Madison Avenue


Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910,
The Encyclopædia Britannica Company.




A. Bo.* Auguste Boudinhon, D.D., D.C.L.
Professor of Canon Law at the Catholic University of Paris. Honorary Canon of Paris. Editor of the Canoniste Contemporain.
{ Canon Law: General; Cardinal.
A. C. S. Algernon Charles Swinburne.
See the biographical article, Swinburne, Algernon Charles.
{ Chapman George (in part).
A. E. H. A. E. Houghton.
Formerly Correspondent of The Standard in Spain. Author of Restoration of the Bourbons in Spain.
{ Camacho; Canovas del Castillo; Castelar y Ripoll.
A. E. S. Arthur Everett Shipley, F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.L.S.
Fellow, Tutor and Lecturer of Christ’s College, Cambridge. University Reader in Zoology. Formerly University Lecturer on the Advanced Morphology of the Invertebrata. Author of Zoology of the Invertebrata. Editor of the Pitt Press Natural Science Manuals, &c.
{ Chaetognatha; Chaetosomatida.
A. Go.* Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A.
Lecturer in Church History at the University of Manchester.
{ Carranza.
A. H. J. G. Abel Hendy Jones Greenidge, D.Litt. (Oxon.), (d. 1905).
Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Hertford College, Oxford, and of St John’s College, Oxford. Author of Infamia in Roman Law; Handbook of Greek Constitutional History; Roman Public Life, History of Rome. Joint-author of Sources of Roman History, 133-70 b.c.
{ Censor: Ancient.
A. H. S. Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce, D.Litt., LL.d.
See the biographical article, Sayce, A. H.
{ Caria.
A. J. G. Rev. Alexander James Grieve, M.A., B.D.
Professor of New Testament and Church History at the United Independent College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University and Member of Mysore Educational Service.
{ Catechism; Calvin (in part).
A. L. Andrew Lang.
See the biographical article, Lang, Andrew.
{ Casket Letters.
A. Lo. Auguste Longnon.
Professor at the Collège de France. Director of the École des hautes études. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Member of the Institute. Author of Livre des vassaux du Comté de Champagne et de Brie; Géographie de la Gaule au VI siècle; Atlas historique de la France depuis César jusqu’à nos jours; &c.
{ Champagne.
A. M. C. Agnes Mary Clerke.
See the biographical article, Clerke, A. M.
{ Cassini.
A. M. Cl. Agnes Muriel Clay (Mrs Wilde).
Late Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Joint-author of Sources of Roman History, 133-70 b.c.
{ Centumviri.
A. N. Alfred Newton, F.R.S.
See the biographical article, Newton, Alfred.
{ Canary; Capercally.
A. P. C. Arthur Philemon Coleman. F.R.S.
Professor of Geology, University of Toronto.
{ Canada: Geography.
A. P. H. Alfred Peter Hillier, M.D. M.P.
Author of South African Studies; The Commonweal; &c. Served in Kaffir War, 1878-1879. Partner with Dr L.S. Jameson in medical practice in South Africa till 1096. Member of Reform Committee, Johannesburg, and Political Prisoner at Pretoria, 1895-1896. M.P. for Hitchin division of Herts, 1910.
{ Cape Colony: § History (in part).
A. SI. Arthur Shadwell, M.A., M.D., LL.D., F.R.C.P.
Member of Council of Epidemiological Society. Author of The London Water-Supply; Industrial Efficiency; Drink, Temperante and Legislation.
{ Cancer.
A. S. C. Alan Summerly Cole, C.B.
Assistant Secretary for Art, Board of Education, 1900-1908. Took part in organization of the Textile Manufacturers’ Section, St Louis Exhibition, 1904. Author of Ancient Needle Point and Pillow Lace; Embroidery and Lace; Ornament in European Silks;&c.
{ Carpet.
A. V. De P. A. van de Put.
Assistant, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. Author of Hispano-Moresque Ware of the XV. Century; The Aragonese Double-Crown and the Borja or Borgia Device.
{ Ceramics: § Hispano-Moresque.
A. Wa. Arthur Waugh, M.A.
Managing Director of Chapman & Hall, Ltd., Publishers. Formerly literary adviser to Kegan Paul & Co. Author of Alfred Lord Tennyson; Legends of the Wheel; Robert Browning in "Westminster Biographies." Editor of Johnson’s Lives of the Poets.
{ Calverley, C. S.
A. W. H.* Arthur William Holland.
Formerly Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray’s Inn, 1900.
{ Charlemagne.
A. Z. Alice Zimmern.
Author of Methods of Education in the United States; The Renaissance of Girls’ Education in England; Women’s Suffrage in Many Lands; &c.
{ Carpenter, Mary.
B. Bl. Bertram Blount, F.C.S., F.I.C.
Consulting Chemist to the Crown Agents for the Colonies. Hon. President, Cement Section of International Association for Testing Materials, Buda-Pesth. Author of Practical Electro-Chemistry.
{ Cement.
B. Ra. Bernard Rackham, M.A.
Assistant, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington.
{ Ceramics: § German, Dutch and Scandinavian.
C. F. A. Charles Francis Atkinson.
Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.
{ Castle (in part).
C. F. C. C. F. Cross., B.Sc. (Lond.), F.C.S., F.I.C.
Analytical and Consulting Chemist.
{ Cellulose.
C. J. J. Charles Jasper Joly, F.R.S., F.R.A.S. (1864-1906).
Royal Astronomer of Ireland and Andrews Professor of Astronomy in the University of Dublin, 1897-1906. Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. Secretary of the Royal Irish Academy.
{ Camera Lucida; Camera Obscura (in Part).
C. L. H. Caldwell Lipsett.
Formerly Editor of the Civil and Military Gazette, Lahore, India. Author of Lord Curzon in India; &c.
{ Ceylon (in part).
C. Pf. Christian Pfister, D-ès-L.
Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Études sur le règne de Robert le Pieux.
{ Capitulary; Carolingians; Charibert; Charles Martel.
C. R. B. Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt.
Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford. University Lecturer in the History of Geography. Author of Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.
{ Cam, Diogo; Carpini (in part); Chang Chun.
C. S. L. Charles Stewart Loch, D.C.L. (Oxford), LL.D. (St Andrews).
Secretary to the Council of the London Charity Organization Society since 1875. Member of the Royal Commission on the Poor Laws. Dunkin Trust Lecturer, Manchester College, Oxford, 1896 and 1902. Vice-President, Royal Statistical Society, 1894-1895-1897-1901. Author of Charity Organization; Old Age Pensions and Pauperism; Methods of Social Advance; &c.
{ Charity and Charities.
D. E. J. Rev. D. E. Jenkins.
Calvinistic Methodist Minister, Denbigh. Author of Life of Lewis Charles Edwards of Bala.
{ Calvinistic Methodists; Charles, Thomas.
D. F. T. Donald Francis Tovey.
Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works.
{ Cantata.
D. G. H. David George Hogarth, M.A.
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907; Director, British School at Athens, 1897-1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.
{ Cappadocia (in part).
D. H. David Hannay.
Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal Navy; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c.
{ Carvajal, Luisa de; Château-Renault.
D. Ll. T. Daniel Lleufer Thomas.
Barrister at law, Lincoln’s Inn. Stipendiary Magistrate at Pontypridd and Rhondda.
{ Cardiff.
D. Mn. Rev. Dugald Macfadyen, M.A.
Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Author of Constructive Congregational Ideals; &c.
{ Campbell, John McLeod; Chalmers, Thomas (in part).
E. Ar. Edward Armstrong, M.A.
Fellow of the British Academy. Fellow, Bursar and Lecturer in Modern History, Queen’s College, Oxford. Warden of Bradfield College. Lecturer to the University in Foreign History, 1902-1904. Author of The Emperor Charles V.; Elisabeth Farnese; Lorenzo de Medici; The French Wars of Religion; &c.
{ Charles V., Emperor.
E. A. J. E. Alfred Jones.
Author of Old English Gold Plate; Old Church Plate of the Isle of Man; Old Silver Sacramental Vessels of Foreign Protestant Churches in England; Illustrated Catalogue of Leopold de Rothschild’s Collection of Old Plate; A Private Catalogue of The Royal Plate at Windsor Castle; &c.
{ Cellini, Benvenuto (in part).
E. B.* Ernest Charles François Babelon.
Professor at the Collège de France. Keeper of the department of Medals and Antiquities at the Bibliothèque Nationale. Member of the Académie des Inscriptions de Belles Lettres, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Descriptions Historiques des Monnaies de la République Romaine; Traités des Monnaies Grecques et Romaines; Catalogue des Camées de la Bibliothèque Nationale.
{ Carthage: Ancient.
E. C. Edward Caird, D.C.L., D.Litt.
See the biographical article, Caird, Edward.
{ Cartesianism.
E. C. B. Rt. Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., M.A., D.Litt. (Dublin).
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of "The Lausiac History of Palladius," in Cambridge Texts and Studies, vol. vi.
{ Camaldulians; Canon: Church Dignitary; Capuchins; Carmelites; Carthusians; Celestines.
E. C. Q. Edmund Crosby Quiggin, M.A.
Fellow of, and Lecturer in Modern Languages and Monro Lecturer in Celtic at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.
{ Celt: Languages and Literature.
E. G. Edmund Gosse, LL.D.
See the biographical article, Gosse, Edmund
{ Canzone; Carew, Thomas; Cavendish, George; Chansons de Geste; Chant Royal.
E. Gr. Ernest Arthur Gardner.
See the biographical article, Gardner, Percy.
{ Calydon; Ceos; Cephalonia.
E. H. B. Sir Edward Herbert Bunbury, Bart., M.A., F.R.G.S. (d. 1895).
M.P. for Bury-St-Edmunds, 1847-1852. Author of a History of Ancient Geography, &c.
{ Cappadocia (in part).
E. H. G. E. H. Godfrey.
Editor, Census and Statistics Office, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa.
{ Canada: § Agriculture.
E. H. M. Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A.
University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College.
{ Carpi: Ancient Tribes.
E. L. W. Sir Edward Leader Williams (d. 1910).
Vice-President, Institute of Civil Engineers. Consulting Engineer, Manchester Ship Canal. Chief Engineer of the Manchester Ship Canal during its construction. Author of papers printed in Proceedings of Institute of Civil Engineers.
{ Canal.
Ed. M. Eduard Meyer, Ph.d., D.Litt. (Oxon.), LL.d. (Chicago).
Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des Alterthums; Geschichte des alten Aegyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstämme.
{ Cambyses.
E. O.* Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc.
Consulting Surgeon to St Mary’s Hospital, London, and to the Children’s Hospital, Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Late Examiner in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, London and Durham. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.
{ Carbuncle.
E. Pr. Edgar Prestage.
Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Examiner in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. Commendador Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society, &c. Author of Letters of a Portuguese Nun; Azurara’s Chronicle of Guinea; &c.
{ Camoens; Castello Branco; Castilho.
E. Tn. Rev. Ethelred Leonard Taunton (d. 1907).
Author of The English Black Monks of St Benedict; History of the Jesuits in England; &c.
{ Campeggio; Campion, Edmund; Cano, Melchior; Cassander, George; Castellesi.
E. V. Rev. Edmund Venables, M.A., D.D. (1819-1895).
Canon and Precentor of Lincoln. Author of Episcopal Palaces of England.
{ Catacomb (in part).
F. C. C. Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. (Giessen).
Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals (1909); &c.
{ Cathars.
F. J. H. Francis John Haverfield, M.a., LL.D. (Aberdeen), F.S.A.
Camden Professor of Ancient History at Oxford University. Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. Formerly Senior Censor, Student, Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church, Oxford. Ford’s Lecturer, 1906. Author of Monographs on Roman History, &c.
{ Celtiberia; Cassiterides.
F. Ll. G. Francis Llewelyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D. (Leipzig), F.S.A.
Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial German Archaeological Institute.
{ Canopus.
F. H. M. Col. Frederic Natusch Maude, C.B.
Lecturer in Military History at Manchester University. Author of War and the World Policy; The Leipzig Campaign; The Jena Campaign.
{ Cavalry.
F. Px. Frank Puaux.
President of the Société de l’Histoire du Protestantisme français. Author of Les précurseurs français de la Tolérance; Histoire de l’établissement des protestants français en Suède; L’Église réformée de France; &c.
{ Camisards; Cavalier, Jean.
F. R. C. Frank R. Cana.
Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.
{ Cameroon; Cape Colony.
F. W. R.* Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. President of the Geologists’ Association, 1887-1889.
{ Carbonado; Cassiterite; Cat’s Eye; Celestine; Chalcedony.
G. A. B. George A. Boulenger, F.R.S., D.Sc., Ph.D. (Giessen).
Assistant in the Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Vice-President of the Zoological Society.
{ Carp; Cat-Fish.
G. G. Co. George Gordon Coulton, M.A.
Birkbeck Lecturer in Ecclesiastical History, Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Medieval Studies; Chaucer and his England; From St Francis to Dante; &c.
{ Celibacy.
G. H. C. G. H. Carpenter, B.Sc.
Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Author of Insects: their Structure and Life.
{ Chafer.
G. M. W. George Mckinnon Wrong, M.A., F.R.S. (Canada).
Professor of History at Toronto University. Author of A Canadian Manor and its Seigneurs; The British Nation: a History; &c.
{ Canada: History to Federation.
G. R. P. George Robert Parkin, LL.D., C.M.G.
See the biographical article, Parkin, G. R.
{ Canada: History from Federation.
G. W. T. Rev. Griffithes Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D.
Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford.
{ Carmathians.
H. A. M. S. Henry A. M. Smith.
{ Calhoun, John C.
H. B. Wa. Henry Beauchamp Walters, M.A., F.S.A.
Assistant to Keeper of Greek and Roman Antiquities, British Museum. Author of The Art of the Greeks; History of Ancient Pottery; Catalogue of the Greek and Etruscan Vases in the British Museum, vol. ii.; Catalogue of Bronzes, Greek, Roman and Etruscan; &c.
{ Ceramics: Greek, Etruscan and Roman.
H. Ch. Hugh Chisholm, M.A.
Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; co-editor of the 10th edition.
{ Campbell Bannerman, Sir H.; Canon: Music; Chamberlain, J.
H. De. Hippolyte Delehaye, S.J.
Assistant in the compilation of the Bollandist publications: Analecta Bollandiana and Acta Sanctorum.
{ Canonization.
H. F. G. Hans Friedrich Gadow, F.R.S., Ph.D.
Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. Author of Amphibia and Reptiles.
{ Chameleon.
H. L. C. Hugh Longbourne Callendar, F.R.S., LL.D. (Mcgill Univ.).
Professor of Physics, Royal College of Science, London. Formerly Professor of Physics in McGill College, Montreal, and in University College, London.
{ Calibration; Calorimetry.
H. M. V. Herbert M. Vaughan, F.S.A.
Keble College, Oxford. Author of The Last of the Royal Stuarts; The Medici Popes; The Last Stuart Queen.
{ Charles Edward.
H. P. B. H. P. Biggar.
Author of The Voyages of the Cabots to Greenland.
{ Cartier, Jacques.
H. R. H. Henry R. H. Hall, M.A.
Assistant in the Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities, British Museum.
{ Ceramics: Egypt and Western Asia.
H. Sy. Henry Symons.
Assistant in the British Museum. Formerly Lecturer in Greek and Roman History at Bedford College, London.
{ Chambord, Comte de.
H. T. A. Rev. Herbert Thomas Andrews.
Professor of New Testament Exegesis, New College, London. Author of The Commentary on Acts in the Westminster New Testament; Handbook on the Apocryphal Books in the Century Bible.
{ Catechumen.
H. W. R.* Rev. Henry Wheeler Robinson, M.A.
Professor of Church History in Rawdon College, Leeds. Senior Kennicott Scholar, Oxford, 1901. Author of Hebrew Psychology in Relation to Pauline Anthropology (in Mansfield College Essays); &c.
{ Canticles (in part).
H. W. S. H. Wickham Steed.
Correspondent of The Times at Vienna. Correspondent of The Times at Rome, 1897-1902.
{ Cavallotti.
H. Y. Colonel Sir Henry Yule, K.C.S.I.
See the biographical article, Yule, Sir H.
{ Carpini (in part).
J. A. B. Sir Jervoise Athelstane Baines, C.S.J.
President, Royal Statistical Society, 1909-1910. Census Commissioner under the Government of India, 1889-1893. Employed at India Office as Secretary to Royal Commission on Opium, 1894-1895. Author of Official Reports on Provincial Administration on Indian Census Operations; &c.
{ Census.
J. A. H. John Allen Howe, B.Sc.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London.
{ Callovian; Cambrian System; Caradoc Series; Carboniferous System; Chalk.
J. A. M‘N. J.A. M‘Naught.
Member of the Jury for Carriage Building, Paris Exposition, 1900.
{ Carriage
J. Bt. J. Bartlett.
Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c., at King’s College, London. Member of Society of Architects. Member of Institute of Junior Engineers.
{ Carpentry
J. C. M. James Clerk Maxwell, F.R.S.
See biographical article: Maxwell, James Clerk.
{ Capillary Action (in part).
J. D. Pr. John Dyneley Prince, Ph.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York. Took part in the Expedition to Southern Babylonia, 1888-1889. Author of A Critical Commentary on the Book of Daniel.
{ Chaldea.
J. P. D. Sir J. Frederick Dickson, K.C.M.G.
Reorganized the North-West Province of Ceylon. Editor and translator of the Upasampada-Kammavaca and the Patimokha.
{ Ceylon (in part).
J. F.-K. James Fitzmaurice-kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S.
Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. Norman MacColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. Corresponding Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c.
{ Campoamar y Campooserio; Castillo Solorzano; Celestina, La; Cervantes.
J. H. F. John Henry Freese, M.A.
Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge.
{ Calpurnius, Titus.
J. H. R. John Horace Round, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.).
Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and Pedigree.
{ Castle (in part); Castle Guard.
J. Hl. R. John Holland Rose, M.A., Litt.D.
Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I.; Napoleonic Studies; The Development of the European Nations; The Life of Pitt; chapters in the Cambridge Modern History.
{ Cambacérès.
J. M‘D. James Macdonald, M.A., LL.D.
Vice-President of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1895-1897. Rhind Lecturer on Archaeology, 1897. Author of Tituli Hunteriani: an Account of the Roman Stones in the Hunterian Museum.
{ Chalmers, George.
J. P.-B. James George Joseph Penderel-Brodhurst.
Editor of the Guardian (London).
{ Chair.
J. P. E. Jean Paul Hippolyte Emmanuel Adhémar Esmein.
Professor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Member of the Institute of France. Author of Cours élémentaire d’histoire du droit français; &c.
{ Chatelet.
J. R. C. Joseph Rogerson Cotter, M.A.
Assistant to the Professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy, Trinity College, Dublin. Editor of 2nd edition of Preston’s Theory of Heat.
{ Calorescence.
J. S. F. John Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S.
Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London.
{ Charnockite.
J. T. Be. John T. Bealby.
Joint author of Stanford’s Europe. Formerly editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin’s Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c.
{ Caspian Sea (in part); Caucasia; Caucasus (in part).
J. T. C. Joseph Thomas Cunningham, M.A., F.Z.S.
Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly Assistant Professor of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association, and Fellow of University College, Oxford. Author of numerous papers in scientific journals.
{ Cephalopoda.
J. Wa. Major-General James Waterhouse.
Indian Staff Corps. Vice-President of the Royal Photographic Society. Assistant Surveyor-General in charge of Photographic Operations in the Surveyor-General’s Office, Calcutta, 1866-1897. Took part in the observation of total eclipses, 1871 and 1875, and of transit of Venus, 1874. President of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1888-1890. Author of The Preparation of Drawings for Photographic Reproduction; &c.
{ Camera Obscura: History.
J. W. D. Captain J. Whitly Dixon, R.N.
Nautical Assessor to the Court of Appeal.
{ Capstan.
J. W. He. James Wycliffe Headlam, M.A.
Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education. Formerly Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, and Professor of Greek and Ancient History at Queen’s College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the German Empire; &c.
{ Caprivi.
L. D.* Monseigneur Louis Marie Olivier Duchesne.
See the biographical article: Duchesne, L. M. O.
{ Calixtus I.; Celestine I.
L. J. B. Lawrence J. Burpee.
Author of The Search for the Western Sea. Joint author (with Henry J. Morgan) of Canadian Life in Town and Country.
{ Canada: Literature, English-Canadian.
L. J. S. Leonard James Spencer, M.A.
Assistant in the Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine.
{ Cerargyrite; Cerussite; Chabazite; Chalybite.
L. S. Sir Leslie Stephen, K.C.B., Litt.D.
See the biographical article: Stephen, Sir Leslie.
{ Carlyle.
L. V.* Luigi Villari.
Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Dept.). Formerly Newspaper Correspondent in east of Europe. Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906, Philadelphia, 1907, and Boston, U.S.A., 1907-1910. Author of Italian Life in Town and Country; &c.
{ Cantu; Cappello; Capponi, G. and P.; Caracciolo; Carbonari; Carmagnola; Carrara; Cavour.
M. Br. Margaret Bryant.
{ Chapman, George (part); Charlemagne: Legends.
M. G. Moses Gaster, Ph.D. (Leipzig).
Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic Communities of England. Vice-President, Zionist Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Ilchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and Byzantine Literature, 1886 and 1891. President, Folklore Society of England. Vice-President Anglo-Jewish Association. Author of History of Rumanian Popular Literature; &c.
{ Cantacuzmo; Cantemir.
M. H. S. Marion H. Spielmann, F.S.A.
Formerly Editor of the Magazine of Art. Member of Fine Art Committee of International Exhibitions of Brussels, Paris, Buenos Aires, Rome, and the Franco-British Exhibition, London. Author of History of "Punch"; British Portrait Painting to the Opening of the 19th Century; Works of G. F. Watts, R.A.; British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-day; Henriette Ronner; &c.
{ Caricature; Cartoon.
M. J. de G. Michael Jan de Goeje.
See the biographical article: Goeje, Michael Jan de.
{ Caliphate.
M. P. Rev. Mark Pattison.
See the biographical article: Pattison, Mark.
{ Casaubon, Isaac.
N. E. D. Narcisse Eutrope Dionne, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. (Canada).
Librarian of the Legislature of the Province of Quebec. Chief Editor of Le Courrier du Canada, 1880-1884. Chief Inspector of Federal Licences, 1884-1886. Chief Editor of Le Journal de Quebec, 1886. Author of Life of Samuel Champlain, Founder of Quebec; Life of Jacques Cartier, discoverer of Canada; La Nouvelle France, 1540-1603; Quebec et Nouvelle France; &c.
{ Champlain, Samuel de.
N. W. T. Northcote Whitbridge Thomas, M.A.
Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the Société d’Anthropologie de Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and Marriage in Australia; &c.
{ Cannibalism.
O. Ba. Oswald Barron, F.S.A.
Editor of The Ancestor, 1902-1905.
{ Cecil.
O. Br. Oscar Briliant.
{ Carpathian Mountains (in part).
O. M. D. Ormonde Maddock Dalton, M.A., F.S.A.
Assistant Keeper, Department of British and Medieval Antiquities, British Museum. Corresponding Member of the Imperial Russian Archaeological Society. Author of Guide to the Early Christian and Byzantine Antiquities; &c.
{ Catacomb (in part).
P. A. Paul Daniel Alphandéry.
Professor of the History of Dogma, École Pratique des Hautes Études, Sorbonne, Paris. Author of Les Idées morales chez les hétérodoxes latines au début du XIII^e siècle.
{ Capistrano.
P. A. K. Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin.
See the biographical article: Kropotkin, P. A.
{ Caspian Sea (in part); Caucasus (in part).
P. C. Y. Philip Chesney Yorke, M.A.
Magdalen College, Oxford.
{ Catherine of Aragon; Charles I.; Charles II.
P. La. Philip Lake, M.A., F.G.S.
Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge University. Formerly of the Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian Trilobites. Translator and Editor of Kayser’s Comparative Geology.
{ Carpathian Mountains (in part); Caucasus: Geology.
P. Vn. Percival Sylvanus Vivian.
Author of Poems of Marriage. Editor of the Poetical Works of Thomas Campion.
{ Campion, Thomas.
P. A. M. Percy Alexander Macmahon, F.R.S., D.Sc.
Late Major R.A. Deputy Warden of the Standards. Board of Trade. Joint-General Secretary of the British Association. Formerly Professor of Physics, Ordnance College, and President of London Mathematical Society.
{ Cayley.
R. The Rt. Hon. Lord Rayleigh.
See the biographical article: Rayleigh, 3rd Baron.
{ Capillary Action (in part).
R. A.* Robert Anchel.
Archivist to the Department de l’Eure.
{ Cambon, Pierre Joseph; Cathelineau.
R. Ad. Robert Adamson.
See the biographical article: Adamson, R.
{ Category (in part).
R. A. S. M. Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A.
Director of Excavations for the Palestine Exploration Fund.
{ Capernaum; Carmel.
R. G. Richard Garnett.
See the biographical article: Garnett, Richard.
{ Cardan.
R. I. P. R. I. Pocock, F.Z.S.
Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London.
{ Centipede.
R. K. D. Sir Robert Kennaway Douglas.
Formerly Keeper of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. at the British Museum, and Professor of Chinese, King’s College, London. Author of The Language and Literature of China; &c.
{ Canton.
R. L.* Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S.
Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; The Deer of all Lands; The Game Animals of Africa; &c.
{ Camel; Capuchin Monkey; Carnivora; Cat; Cavy; Cetacea; Chamois.
R. L. H. Robert Lockhart Hobson.
Assistant in the Department of British and Medieval Antiquities, British Museum. Author of Porcelain: Oriental, Continental and British; Marks on Pottery and Porcelain (with W. Burton); and Catalogue and Guide of English Pottery and Porcelain in British Museum.
{ Ceramics: Medieval and Later Italian; Persian, Syrian, Egyptian and Turkish.
R. N. B. Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909).
Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia, the Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1313-1900; The First Romanovs, 1613-1725; Slavonic Europe, the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1796; &c.
{ Canute; Canute VI; Casimir III.; Casimir IV.; Catherine I.; Charles I. (Hungary); Charles IX., X., XI., XII. (Sweden); Charles XIII., XIV., XV. (Sweden and Norway).
R. Po. René Poupardin, D. ès L.
Secretary of the École des Chartes. Honorary Librarian at the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. Author of Le Royaume de Provence sous les Carolingiens; Recueil des chartes de Saint-Germain; &c.
{ Charles the Bold.
R. P. S. R. Phené Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A.
Master of the Architectural School and Surveyor, Royal Academy, London. Past President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King’s College, London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Edited Fergusson’s History of Architecture. Author of Architecture East and West; &c.
{ Campanile; Capital: Arch.; Cathedral: Arch.; Ceiling.
R. S. C. Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Litt. (Cantab.).
Professor of Latin in the University of Manchester. Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff; and Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects.
{ Campania (in part).
R. W. Robert Wallace, F.R.S. (Edin.), F.L.S.
Professor of Agriculture and Rural Economy at Edinburgh University, and Garton Lecturer on Colonial and Indian Agriculture. Professor of Agriculture, R.A.C., Cirencester, 1882-1885. Author of Farm Live Stock of Great Britain; Indian Agriculture; The Agriculture and Rural Economy of Australia and New Zealand; Farming Industries of Cape Colony; &c.
{ Cattle (in part).
R. We. Richard Webster, A.M.
Editor of Elegies of Maximianus.
{ Channing, William E.
ST C. Viscount St Cyres.
See the biographical article: Iddesleigh, 1st Earl of.
{ Casuistry.
S. D. Samuel Davidson, D.D.
See the biographical article: Davidson, Samuel.
{ Canon: Scriptures.
T. As. Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt., F.S.A.
Director of the British School of Archaeology at Rome. Corresponding Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1897. Author of The Classical Topography of the Roman Campagna; &c.
{ Camerino; Campania (in part); Canosa; Canusium; Capena; Capri; Capua; Carales; Carsioli; Casilinum; Casinum; Cassia, Via; Catania; Caudine Forks; Cefalu; Centuripe; Cesena.
T. A. H. Captain Thomas A. Hull, R.N.
Formerly Superintendent of Admiralty Charts.
{ Chart.
T. Ba. Sir Thomas Barclay, M.P.
Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910.
{ Capture.
T. F. C. Theodore Freylinghuysen Collier, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., U.S.A.
{ Carthage, Synods of; Chalcedon, Council of.
T. K. C. Rev. Thomas Kelly Cheyne. D.Litt., D.D.
See the biographical article: Cheyne, T.K.
{ Canaan, Canaanites.
T. M. F. Thomas Macall Fallow, M.A., F.S.A.
Formerly editor of The Antiquary, 1895-1899. Author of Memorials of Old Yorkshire; The Cathedral Churches of Ireland.
{ Cathedral.
T. W. F. Thomas William Fox.
Professor of Textiles in the University of Manchester. Author of Mechanics of Weaving.
{ Carding.
W. A. B. C. Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S.
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David’s College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in History; &c. Editor of The Alpine Journal, 1880-1889.
{ Cannes; Chamonix; Chartreuse, La Grande.
W. A. P. Walter Alison Phillips, M.A.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c.
{ Canon: Church Dignitary; Capo d’Istria; Carlsbad Decrees; Chasuble.
W. B.* William Burton, Hon. M.A. (Vict.), F.C.S.
Chairman, Joint-Committee of Pottery Manufacturers of Great Britain. Examiner for Board of Education in Pottery Design and for Technological Examinations in Pottery Manufacture. Author of English Stoneware and Earthenware; Porcelain; &c.
{ Ceramics (in part).
W. B. D. William Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., D.Sc.
See the biographical article: Dawkins, William Boyd.
{ Cave.
W. B. Du. William Bartlett Duffield, M.A.
Barrister at Law, Inner Temple. Secretary to the Royal Commission on Canals, 1906-1910.
{ Chartered Companies.
W. F. C. William Feilden Craies, M.A.
Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law at King’s College, London. Editor of Archbold’s Criminal Pleading (23rd edition).
{ Capital punishment.
W. F. W. Walter Francis Willcox, LL.B., Ph.D.
Dean of, and Professor of Political Economy and Statistics at, Cornell University. Formerly Chief Statistician and now Special Agent of the U.S. Census Bureau. Author of The Divorce Problem--a Study in Statistics; Social Statistics of the United States; &c.
{ Census: U.S.A.
W. Fr. William Fream (d. 1907), LL.D., F.G.S., F.L.S., F.S.S.
Author of Handbook of Agriculture. Formerly Agricultural Correspondent of The Times.
{ Cattle (in part).
W. G.* Walcot Gibson, D.Sc., F.G.S.
Geologist on H.M. Geological Survey. Author of The Gold-bearing Rocks of the S. Transvaal; Mineral Wealth of Africa; The Geology of Coal and Coal Mining; &c.
{ Cape Colony: Geology.
W. G. F. P. Sir Walter George Frank Phillimore, Bart., D.C.L., LL.D.
Judge of the King’s Bench Division. President of International Law Association, 1905. Author of Book of Church Law. Editor of 2nd ed. of Phillimore’s Ecclesiastical Law; 3rd ed. of vol. iv. of Phillimore’s International Law; &c.
{ Canon Law: Anglican.
W. G. M. Walter G. M‘Millan, F.C.S., M.I.M.E. (d. 1904).
Formerly Secretary of the Institute of Electrical Engineers. Lecturer on Metallurgy, Mason College, Birmingham. Author of A Treatise on Electro-Metallurgy.
{ Carborundum.
W. Ha. Rev. William Hanna, LL.D., D.D. (1802-1882).
Minister of St John’s Free Church, Edinburgh, 1850-1866. Author of Life of Dr Chalmers; Wycliffe and the Huguenots; Martyrs of the Scottish Reformation.
{ Chalmers, Thomas (in part).
W. J. G. William John Gruffydd, M.A.
Lecturer in Celtic, University College, Cardiff. Examiner in Welsh to the Central Welsh Board for Intermediate Education. Author of Caneuon a Cherddi: An Anthology of Medieval Welsh Poetry.
{ Celt: Literature, Welsh.
W. L.* Walter Lehmann, M.D.
Directorial Assistant of the Royal Ethnographical Museum, Munich. Conducted Exploring Expedition in Mexico and Central America, 1907-1909. Author of many publications on Mexican and Central American Archaeology.
{ Central America: Archaeology.
W. L. A. Rev. William Lindsay Alexander, D.D., LL.D., F.R.S. (Edin.) (1808-1884).
Classical Tutor, Lancashire Independent College. Pastor of Independent Chapel, N. College Street, Edinburgh. One of the Old Testament Revisers. Author of A Moral Philosophy.
{ Calvin (in part).
W. L. G. William Lawson Grant, M.A.
Professor at Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada. Formerly Beit Lecturer in Colonial History at Oxford University. Editor of Acts of the Privy Council, Colonial series; Canadian Constitutional Development (in collaboration).
{ Canada: Statistics; Cartier, Sir Georges Etienne.
W. M. R. William Michael Rossetti.
See the biographical article: Rossetti, Dante Gabriel.
{ Canova; Caracci; Cartoon; Cellini, Benvenuto (in part); Charlet.
W. Ri. William Ridgeway, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D. (Aberdeen), D.Litt.
Fellow of the British Academy. Disney Professor of Archaeology at Cambridge University. Professor of Greek, Queen’s College, Cork, 1883. Ex-President of Cambridge Philological, Antiquarian and Classical Societies. Author of The Oldest Irish Epic; Origin of Metallic Currency and Weight Standards; The Early Age of Greece; &c.
{ Celt.
W. R. B. Rt. Rev. William Robert Brownlow, M.A., D.D. (d. 1901).
Roman Catholic Bishop of Clifton. Provost and Domestic Prelate to Pope Leo XIII. Co-editor of English Roma Sotterranea. Author of Early Christian Symbolism; Lectures on Sacerdotalism, on Catacombs and other Archaeological Subjects. Translator of Cur Deus Homo and Vitis mystica.
{ Catacomb (in part).
W. R. S. William Robertson Smith
See the biographical article: Smith, William Robertson.
{ Canticles (in part).
W. Wo. William Wood, D.C.L., F.R.S. (Canada).
Lieut.-Col., Canadian Militia. Formerly President of the English Section of the Royal Society of Canada and of the Historic Landmarks Association. Author of The Fight for Canada; The Logs of the Conquest of Canada, &c.
{ Canada: Literature, French-Canadian.
W. W. R.* William Walker Rockwell, Lic. Theol.
Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York.
{ Celestine III. and V.
W. Y. S. William Young Sellar.
See the biographical article: Sellar, William Young.
{ Catullus (in part).

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.






Cambridge, Earls and Dukes of.

Cambridge, England.


Campbell, Thomas.

Canary Islands.

Canning, George.


Cape Town.

Cape Verde Islands.

Capital (Economics).


Carbolic Acid.



Cards, Playing.

Carducci, Giosue.


Carlisle, Earls of.







Carnegie, Andrew.



Caroline Islands.






Catherine, Saint.

Catherine II.

Catherine de’ Medici




Cavaignac, Louis Eugène.


Cavendish, Henry.

Caxton, William.





Chambers, Robert.



Channel Islands.

Chantrey, Sir Francis.

Charles V., VI., VII. of France.

Charles, Archduke of Austria.

Charles Albert, king of Sardinia.

Charles Augustus.





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