Project Gutenberg's Selections from Viri Romae, by Charles François L'Homond

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Title: Selections from Viri Romae

Author: Charles François L'Homond

Editor: Robert Arrowsmith
        Charles Knapp

Release Date: August 1, 2010 [EBook #33311]

Language: English

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Viri Romae (“stripped” text)
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Upon the reviving perception of the true scope of Latin teaching has followed a return to some of the methods of former times, which, with all their faults, were yet imbued with the true spirit of the Classics. Since for many years the study of Latin lay in bondage to the spirit which regarded the language merely as a corpus vile for grammatical dissection, and ignored the rich literature lying beyond the classical trinity of authors, it is not surprising that it fell into disfavor as unsuited to the requirements of the times. The revival upon which the study has now entered is due largely to a recognition of the fact that mental culture rather than mere mental training is its true aim, and that, with this aim kept steadily in view, the study of Latin is not a barren waste of time and energy, but a most potent agency in securing that broad and sympathetic culture which must ever remain the mark of the educated man. The results of classical study most valuable to the character are surely not to be found in the ability, usually lost after a few years, to recite paradigms faultlessly, to give the principal parts of verbs, and to enumerate the various kinds of cum-constructions and the subdivisions of the ablative. Of far greater worth are the mental breadth and sympathy, the weakening of prejudice and Philistinism, and the increased power of entering into higher forms of enjoyment which must inevitably flow from the study of the life of a great people as revealed in its literature and art.


This conception of the sphere of Latin study has brought with it some modifications of the initial steps and a return to some of the texts in use fifty years since. In the traditional sequence of authors, and particularly in the selection of a purely military work as the means by which to introduce the student to the language, the entrance into the fields of Latin literature has frequently been made so distasteful as to destroy the desire for further exploration. More attractive paths, however, are opening to the beginner; and of these the Viri Romae offers in a notable degree material of real interest to the young, and, from the very outset, gives a foretaste of the contents of the literature.

The history of this work is of interest, as showing an early recognition of the correctness of the standpoint to which we are now returning. It was compiled by a Professor of the University of Paris, Charles François Lhomond, who lived from 1727 to 1794, and enjoyed an enviable reputation as a successful teacher, especially of younger pupils. His experience taught him the need of an introductory text combining interest of story with simplicity of style. The best proof of the excellence of his work is the fact that it has ever since remained a favorite with teachers of Latin. The material is taken from the works of various authors, chiefly Livy and Eutropius, but was simplified by Lhomond in vocabulary and construction wherever necessary to fit it to the requirements of beginners. As its title indicates, it deals with the early stories of Rome, so fascinating in any dress to the young, and it is therefore eminently fitted to arouse a desire for further reading.

The present edition has been prepared with reference to the difficulties most likely to embarrass the young pupil at the outset of the new study. One of the most perplexing of these difficulties is the inability to discover in an alphabetical vocabulary the inflected forms encountered in the text. This is met, in part at least, by giving in italics in the footnotes the vocabulary form of verbs not easily recognizable. For a similar reason grammatical v constructions are, on their first occurrence, explained in simple language, or their nature briefly indicated, in order that the student may more intelligently consult the grammatical references which follow. For purposes of comparison, and as a means of helping the pupil to form proper habits of study and observation, subsequent occurrences are referred to previous instances, or to the tables of constructions on pages xvi-xxvi.

Although the compiler of the Viri Romae greatly simplified the language of his authorities, there yet remain in the early part of the book many constructions which the beginner is not fitted to discuss. It is strongly recommended, therefore, that the treatment of the more difficult and complex of these constructions be postponed to a later period. At the outset the attention of the pupil should be centered upon matters of primary importance and upon the simplest and most common usages, such as the form of the sentence, the relation of its parts to one another, the significance of terminations, and the modes of expressing the constantly recurring relations of time, place, cause, means, purpose, and result. Even these should be treated as simply as possible and with constant regard to English usage. It is the experience of many teachers that reference to a Latin grammar to explain a construction possessed by English as well as by Latin frequently creates a difficulty where the student, if left to his own devices, would have experienced none.

The notes on matters of Roman custom have been made intentionally full with the aim of adding reality to the stories, and of inducing the pupil, under the teacher’s guidance, to discover for himself further details. The use of other accounts, whether in ancient or modern authors, of photographs, plates, and other graphic aids can not be too strongly encouraged, in accordance with the dictum of Horace:—

Segnius irritant animos demissa per aures

Quam quae sunt oculis subiecta fidelibus.


All vowels known to be long have been carefully marked. The text of this edition is, in the main, that of C. Holzer (tenth edition, Stuttgart, 1889). In orthography, however, Brambach has been followed. In the vocabulary compound verbs are given under the simple verbs as an aid to the fuller appreciation of the methods by which they are formed and their meanings derived. The exercises in prose composition have been made simple in order that they may occupy their legitimate place as subordinate and auxiliary to the development of the more important reading power.

The thanks of the editors are due to Mr. E. G. Warner, of the Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute, for his hearty coöperation in the work, and particularly for the labor which he has expended upon the exercises.


August, 1895.




Suggestions to the Student ix
Plan of Rome xxviii
I. Rōmānī Imperiī Exōrdium 1
II. Rōmulus 4
III. Numa Pompilius 8
IV. Tullus Hostīlius 10
V. Ancus Mārcius 15
VI. Lūcius Tarquinius Prīscus 17
VII. Servius Tullius 19
VIII. Tarquinius Superbus 22
IX. Iūnius Brūtus 25
X. Mūcius Scaevola 26
XI. Fabiī Trecentī Sex 27
XII. Lūcius Virgīnius 29
XIII. Titus Mānlius Torquātus 30
XIV. Pūblius Decius 35
XV. Mānius Curius 36
XVI. Gāius Duīlius 38
XVII. Mārcus Atīlius Rēgulus 39
XVIII. Appius Claudius Pulcher 42
XIX. Quīntus Fabius Māximus 43
viii XX. Aemilius Paulus et Terentius Varrō 48
XXI. Pūblius Cornēlius Scīpio Āfricānus 52
XXII. Tiberius Gracchus et Gāius Gracchus 63
XXIII. Gāius Marius 68
XXIV. Lūcius Cornēlius Sulla 74
XXV. Lūcius Lūcullus 77
XXVI. Gnaeus Pompēius Māgnus 80
XXVII. Gāius Iūlius Caesar 86
XXVIII. Mārcus Tullius Cicerō 96
XXIX. Mārcus Brūtus 102
XXX. Octāviānus Caesar Augustus 103
Exercises for Translation 112
Vocabulary 131



To read Latin quickly and intelligently, and to enjoy the reading properly, we must possess (1) a vocabulary, i.e. a collection of Latin words with whose meanings, whether used singly or in combination, we are thoroughly familiar; (2) a knowledge of the inflectional system of the language, i.e. its declensions and conjugations; (3) a knowledge of its syntax; and (4) a knowledge of the plan upon which the Latin sentence is constructed, or, in other words, we must be able to overcome the difficulties arising out of the peculiar order of the words and clauses that form a Latin sentence.

Vocabulary.—Words are the material out of which sentences are constructed. Hence it is of prime importance to know their meanings. The best way, in fact the only way, to acquire a vocabulary, is by constant reading, and by noting carefully the force of individual words as they occur. It soon becomes evident that certain words are very frequently used, especially verbs which denote actions that have to do with everyday life, such as dīcō, , faciō, habeō, veniō, sum, and their compounds. These at least must be mastered at the very outset. It is worth while to notice what prefixes are used in forming compound verbs, and the modifications of meaning which they produce. If the force of the simple verb is mastered, a little practice will enable the student to detect at sight the meaning of any of its compounds without reference to any dictionary.


It is useful also to group together in memory words derived from the same stem, e.g. canō, cantus; certō, certāmen; dūcō, dux; regō, rēx, rēgius; caedō, caedēs. A specially interesting study consists in noting the English words which go back to Latin originals. From various causes a large part of our English vocabulary is borrowed from Latin. Cf. donate with dōnō and dōnum, lucid with lūx, regent with rēx and regō.

Finally, it will be found very helpful constantly to read Latin aloud, for thus the ear will help the eye and words will have meaning when heard as well as when seen. Indeed, we ought to use our ears far more than our eyes in acquiring a Latin vocabulary, in order that Latin words, when heard, shall suggest at once to our minds the same pictures which they suggested to the minds of Roman boys.

Inflections and Syntax.—It is not enough, however, to be familiar with the meanings of individual words, however many we may succeed in mastering. We must possess a knowledge also of inflections, i.e. of the declensions and conjugations, which tell us how individual words may be altered in form in order to express different relations to other words, and of syntax, which tells us how words are combined together into sentences. A knowledge of inflections and an understanding of syntax are the tools by which we arrive at the meaning of sentences as a whole. As the wise workman uses the best and most efficient tools, so one who undertakes to read Latin with speed and pleasure must make his mastery of inflections and syntax as complete as possible. It is assumed that students of this book have already had some drill in the commoner inflections. The principles of syntax can best be studied as they occur in actual reading. The commonest, and therefore most important, are discussed in the notes and illustrated by appropriate references to the grammars in common use and by the tables of constructions on pages xvi to xxvi. A very practical way of fixing the principles of syntax firmly in mind is xi by frequent translation from English into Latin. It should be remembered, however, that we study syntax simply because such study enables us to read and enjoy the great works of Latin literature.

The Order of Words.—The greatest difficulty that confronts the student of Latin literature is the fact that the order of the words in a Latin sentence is widely different from that which he ordinarily finds in an English sentence. This difference is due mainly to two causes. (1) Every Latin sentence is a kind of word picture, in which the meaning is developed stroke by stroke, the separate parts being introduced in the order of their importance. (2) It is a principle of Latin to keep the meaning in suspense until the very end, so that the last word completes not only the form, but also the meaning of the sentence. Both these principles may be seen at work in lines 1 to 5 of selection I, page 1. Proca naturally stands first, partly because the whole work is a story of the deeds of men, partly because at this point he is especially important, as being the reigning king, with power to choose his own successor. The phrase rēx Albānōrum very properly follows, as defining the scene of the action. Numitor and Amūlius are next mentioned because the Latin loves to emphasize contrasts of persons. The sense of the whole is not complete till we reach the very last word, habuit. In the next sentence Numitōrī is first, because now Numitor is more important, as being Proca’s successor. The relative clause quī . . . erat not only states a fact, but also gives the reason why Proca bequeathed his kingdom (rēgnum relīquit) to Numitor. So in the words ut . . . fēcit, the ut-clause tells why Amulius performed the act indicated by the words Rhēam Silviam . . . fēcit, so that by the time we know what the act was we know also exactly why it was performed. The Latin thus pictures the parts of the scene in their true order, for the motive in every case precedes the act. We see therefore that, however strange at times the Latin order may seem to be, there is xii always good reason for it. It is our task at the outset, as it soon will be our pleasure, to determine just what this reason is.

Now this freer order of words in the Latin sentence is rendered possible by the fact that Latin possesses an elaborate inflectional system, whereas English does not. Note, however, that one familiar with Latin declensions would know at once that in the first sentence discussed above Proca was actor (i.e. subject), and Numitor and Amulius acted upon (i.e. object). So in the sentence ut . . . fēcit it is clear that Amulius is the actor and that Rhea Silvia is acted upon. Thus the inflectional system serves to relieve, in part at least, the very difficulty which it creates.

How to Read.—By far the best way for the beginner to make himself familiar with the Latin order and its meaning is to make a practice from the very outset of reading the sentence aloud from beginning to end before attempting to translate at all. If the meaning is not clear at once, a repetition of such reading will often serve to make it clear, provided the student knows the force of the individual words and constructions. If he does not, he must seek the aid of the vocabulary or the notes. Then let him read the sentence once more aloud, slowly and carefully. He should not, however, look into either vocabulary or notes until he has read the Latin through at least once. Progress at first will necessarily be slow, but it will be sure. By every page read in the manner indicated above the pupil is preparing himself to read with more and more intelligence and pleasure the pages that remain. Besides, in this way he reads his Latin precisely as he reads English, word after word, in the order in which it is written, and precisely as a Roman boy 1800 years ago read his Latin story or poem. He will gain further the advantage of training his ear as well as his eye and of making it do its fair share of the work. In translating, too, it will be wise to follow as closely as possible the Latin order. Often it will be found that the resulting English xiii order, even if not very common, is none the less intelligible. So the sentence ut . . . fēcit discussed above may be translated almost exactly in the Latin order.

Latin Composition

Its Value.—An exercise which is very practical and helpful, and which may also become extremely delightful, is the rendering into Latin of English sentences based upon that portion of the Latin text which has already been carefully studied. This exercise is helpful, because it calls upon us to put into practice the knowledge which we have acquired in reading; it may become delightful because it shows us accurately the measure of our advance and thus affords us the pleasure which comes from the feeling that one is making sure progress in a given line of study.

Essentials.—To write Latin well one needs precisely the things which we found necessary in reading (page ix). The words and constructions required in the sentences for translation given on pages 112 to 129 are illustrated by the corresponding pages of the Latin text. The pupil should always endeavor to recall the word, inflectional form, phrase, or construction for himself before referring to his text or to his grammar. In other words, he should make the exercise one of thought rather than of mere mechanical copying from a printed model.

The Object.—We read the Latin text in order to understand the thoughts of the writer. So in turning English sentences into Latin our chief object is to clothe the thoughts which such sentences convey in proper Latin dress, not merely to substitute Latin words for English words. Every language has its own peculiar expressions, which are called idioms. Such expressions can never be literally translated from one language into another. Hence in attempting to turn an English sentence into Latin, we must begin by noting carefully the thought which it expresses, xiv and then consider how the Romans gave expression to that thought.

Choice of Expression.—In Latin, just as in English, it often happens that the same thought may be expressed in several ways, which differ greatly in the words used as well as in the form and expression. In English it is often impossible to give a reason for the choice of one form of expression in preference to others. Sometimes the choice is made consciously for the sake of variety, or because there is a very slight shade of difference in meaning,—so slight that we can perhaps feel it, but cannot put it into words; sometimes unconsciously, because every one falls into the habit of using certain phrases and manners of speech with no deeper reason than the habit. The same is true of Latin writers. Their various forms of expression have been noted and collected, and we find them laid down in the grammars as rules. Some of these expressions are found to be used by the best writers more frequently than others, and these are considered the best models. But the student must avoid the error of confining himself absolutely to one iron-bound form because most stress is laid upon it by the grammars, if he finds other modes of expression in the writings of good authors. By searching out the greatest variety of forms in which an idea may be expressed, by trying to discover the differences in meaning between them, and by placing yourself as far as possible in the writer’s place, you will gain a far greater grasp and appreciation of the language than by learning a single rigid rule and forcing it to fit every case.

One of the central ideas of the following exercises, then, should be to render the thought in as many ways as possible, drawing your authority from the text on which the exercise is based, as well as from your grammar.

Examine the tables on pages xvi to xxvi, where you will find several of the most important constructions treated. Compare the examples given and try to trace out the reasons for the different xv forms. In many cases you will not be able to do so, and are free to choose one of several modes of expression. In others the meaning of the sentences and the aid of the grammar will give the reason for your choice.

Caution.—The pupil should note that all the words and constructions necessary to enable him to write in Latin the sentences given below, pages 112 to 129, are to be found on the pages of the Latin text upon which the exercises are based. An English-Latin vocabulary or dictionary is, therefore, wholly unnecessary. Additional sentences based on the text may be made up by student or teacher as required.

Tables of Constructions

The following tables have been prepared for the purpose of affording the pupil material for study and comparison, by grouping together under appropriate heads examples of certain constructions as they actually occur in this book. It is expected that they will be helpful to the student in two ways: (1) by supplementing and illustrating the notes, and (2) by affording him guides which he may follow in his writing of Latin. No attempt whatever has been made to include under any given head all the examples that are to be found in the text. The pupil will find it both interesting and instructive to add to the lists himself as he finds new instances in his own reading.



1. Place at or near which:

Rōmae, VII, 26, and often; Tarentī, XV, 30; salūbriōra mīlitiae quam domī esse iuvenum corpora, IV, 70 (locative: chiefly used with names of towns);—in siccō, I, 10; in iīs locīs, I, 11; in (on) sinistrīs manibus, II, 21; in colle Quirīnālī, II, 54; in ārā, III, 4; in mediā urbe, V, 23; ponte . . in (over) Tiberī factō, in (at) ōre Tiberis, V, 27;—multīs locīs, XXV, 17; terrā marīque, XXI, 125;—apud Tīcīnum amnem . . apud Trebiam, XIX, 16;—ad Caprae palūdem, II, 44; ad tertium lapidem, XIII, 12; ad flūmen Bagradam, XVII, 18.


1. Place from which:

Curibus . . accītus est, III, 2; Tarquiniīs . . profectus, VI, 1 (simple abl., especially with names of towns);—ā portā . . pergit, XIII, 5; ab urbe profectus, XIII, 13; ā lūdīs pūblicīs revertēns, XVIII, 17;—dēlābitur ē caelō scissō scūtum, III, 15; ex eō locō . . aufūgerat, IV, 20; dōnec novae cōpiae ex Āfricā advenīrent, XVII, 3; ex angustiīs ēvāsit, XIX, 38.

2. Place towards which:

Albam properāvit, I, 25; Quī cum Rōmam vēnisset, III, 3; Rōmam also in IV, 64, V, 20, and often; Pergunt inde Collātiam, VIII, 21; Profectus Delphōs, IX, 4; Carthāginem rediit, XVII, 54; domum dēdūcunt, IV, 31; domum refugiēns, VII, 45; cum . . domum redīret, VII, 48 (simple accusative, chiefly with names of towns);—Cum lupa saepius ad parvulōs . . reverterētur, I, 16; Remum . . ad Amūlium rēgem perdūxērunt, I, 27; ad Gabīnōs sē contulit, VIII, 4;—in Āfricam . . trāiēcit, XVII, 15; in Ītaliam vēnit, XIX, 15; abiēcit in Tiberim, I, 7; Sabīnōs in urbem recēpit, II, 38; aciem in (to) collem subdūxit, IV, 58; cum in (upon) xvii tribūnal ēscendisset, XII, 20; In (against) eum . . rediit, IV, 22; ausae sunt sē inter tēla . . īnferre, II, 36.

3. Way by which:

portā (abl. of means) quā profectī erant, XI, 19; Per (over) loca alta āgmen dūcēbat, XIX, 23; Quī cum . . per montēs, per silvās hūc illūc discurrerent, XIX, 35.


1. Time at which:

Posterō diē, IV, 61, VIII, 24; Prīmō impetū, II, 29; Kalendīs Mārtiīs, III, 20; eā tempestāte, VI, 17; nocte mediā, XIX, 68.

2. Time within which or in the course of which:

Annō trecentēsimō ab urbe conditā, XII, 1; eōdem annō, XIII, 11; bellō Latīnō, XIV, 11; hōc bellō, XIV, 12; in proeliō, VI, 26; In proeliō quōdam, in quō, VII, 8; In quō bellō, XV, 2.2

3. Age:

fīlium tredecim annōrum, VI, 25; Hannibal . . novem annōs nātus, XIX, 1.


1. Duration of time:

Rōmulus septem et trīgintā rēgnāvit annōs, III, 38; rēgnāvit annōs duōs et trīgintā, IV, 75; rēgnāvit annōs quattuor et quadrāgintā, VII, 52; per tōtum bīduum, XIII, 87; omnī deinde vītā, XIII, 60. (This last form should not be imitated.)

2. Extent of space:

Iam aliquantum spatiī . . aufūgerat, IV, 20; centum et vīgintī pedēs longum, XVII, 27; quīnque diērum iter . . abest, XXI, 163.



1. Pure purpose: ut or with the subjunctive:

ut eum subole prīvāret, I, 3; ut populum ferum religiōne mītigāret, III, 3; ut esset index pācis et bellī, III, 25;— fūrtō auferrī posset, III, 16; duo violenta ingenia mātrimōniō iungerentur, VII, 38.

2. Relative clause:

mīsit quī societātem . . peterent, II, 5; Centum . . ēlēgit, quōrum cōnsiliō omnia ageret, II, 40; sacerdōtēs lēgit, quī ancīlia . . cūstōdīrent et . . ferrent, III, 19; Rōmam missus, ubi (= ut ibi) . . interesset, XXVIII, 8.

3. Quō3 (whereby) with subjunctive:

quō frequentius habitārētur, IV, 66 (see note); quō minor turba Rōmae foret, XVIII, 21; quō diūtius in magistrātū esset, XIX, 46.

4. Gerundive:

coniugī dedit ēducandōs, I, 19; īgnem . . perpetuō alendum virginibus dedit, III, 4; agellum colendum locāvit, XVII, 36; ad exercitum lūstrandum, II, 44; mīlitēs ad vindicandum facinus accendit, XII, 26.

5. Future participle:

quasi dē pāce āctūrus, rē vērā ut tempus extraheret, XVII, 2 (see note).

6. Supine:

aquam . . petītum ierat, II, 17; ē suīs ūnum . . mittit scīscitātum, VIII, 8; Cum . . lēgātī Rōmam vēnissent conquestum, XIII, 81; pecora . . quae pāstum prōpulsa essent, XIX, 63.

7. Substantive clauses:

adfīrmāns . . Rōmulum . . praecipere ut sēditiōnibus abstinērent et rem mīlitārem colerent, II, 51-53; Latīnōrum populīs suāsit ut . . xix fānum Diānae . . in Aventīnō monte aedificārent, VII, 25; optāvit ut frāter . . revīvīsceret atque iterum classem āmitteret, XVIII, 19; ēdīxit quis . . in hostēs pūgnāret, XIII, 42; Veritus autem . . poenās daret, XVI, 21; petiit ā patribus cōnscrīptīs quid dē eā rē statuerent, XIII, 83.


1. Pure result: ut or ut nōn with the subjunctive:

ita omnium animōs eā pietāte imbuit ut fidēs . . cīvēs continēret, III, 33; adeō frāctī . . sunt spīritūs . . ut nūllī reī posthāc nisi sacrīs operam daret, IV, 72; ita eōs adliciēns ut apud omnēs plūrimum posset, VIII, 6.

Note that in the main clause there is usually some word like ita, adeō, tam, tālis, is, which paves the way for the result clause.

2. Relative (characteristic):

invenīrī potuit nēmō, quī . . peteret, XXIII, 119; Ūnus adulēscēns fuit, quī audēret querī, XXIV, 50. Here too belongs quīn with the subjunctive: haud procul erat quīn . . āgnōsceret, I, 33; nōn esse dubium quīn . . oportēret, XVI, 27; Nēminī dubium est quīn . . restituerit, XIX, 105.

3. Substantive:

(Rōmulus dīxit) futūrum ut omnium gentium dominī exsisterent, II, 53; oportet dīsciplīnam, quam solvistī, . . restituās, XIII, 54; concessum est ut . . praecinente tībīcine ā cēnā redīret, XVI, 16.


1. Ubi, ut, or postquam with the indicative mood, especially the perfect tense:

Ubi spectāculī tempus vēnit, II, 11; Ut . . increpuēre arma micantēsque xx fulsēre gladiī, IV, 13; Is postquam adolēvit, VII, 7; Quī postquam frequentēs convēnēre, XIII, 52.

2. Dum (while) with the indicative (the tense employed is generally the present):

Ea rēs dum Numitōris animum anxium tenet, I, 36; dum Albānus exercitus inclāmat Cūriātiīs, IV, 23; Latīnus dum ad Tiberim dēscendit, sacerdōs bovem immolāvit, VII, 34.

3. Dum, dōnec (until) with the subjunctive:

dum convalēsceret (indirect discourse also), VII, 17; ut tempus extrāheret, dōnec novae cōpiae ex Āfricā advenīrent, XVII, 3 (partly purpose).

4. Antequam and priusquam with the subjunctive:

Alterum . . priusquam tertius posset cōnsequī, interfēcit, IV, 24; priusquam eīs bellum indīceret, lēgātum mīsit quī rēs repeteret, V, 7; petiit . . nē quid . . statuerent antequam ipse īnspexisset Macedonum . . causam, XIII, 83 (indirect discourse).

5. Cum with the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive:

cum iīs īnsidiātī essent latrōnēs, I, 22; cum Numitor . . comparāret, I, 30; cum (as) Rōmae appropinquārent, II, 15; cum (while) . . cōntiōnem . . habēret, II, 44; Quī cum Rōmam vēnisset, III, 2. This form of temporal clause is extremely common.


1. Relative clause with the subjunctive:

quīppe quī cerneret ferrum ante oculōs micāns, accūsātiōnem dīmīsit, XIII, 8; cum in eam cīvitātem animadvertere dēcrēvisset quae (= cum ea) sibi adversāta fuisset, XXVII, 37.

2. Cum with the subjunctive:

Cum vērō uxōrēs . . nōn habērent, lēgātōs circā vīcīnās gentēs mīsit, xxi II, 3; cum sē invidiōsum . . vidēret, Vēientēs . . adversus Rōmānōs concitāvit, IV, 55; Cum . . facinora clandestīna fierent, Ancus carcerem . . aedificāvit, V, 21-25.

3. Quod,6 quia, quoniam, or quandō, with the indicative:

quia tribus impār erat, . . fugam capessīvit, IV, 18; quandōquidem . . pūgnāvistī, XIII, 53; quia nōn pāruistī, XIII, 77.

4. Quod with the subjunctive:

cum sē invidiōsum apud cīvēs vidēret, quod bellum ūnō paucōrum certāmine fīnīsset, IV, 55-56 (see note); Tarquinius fīlium . . quod in proeliō hostem percussisset, praetextā . . dōnāvit, VI, 25-27.

5. Quasi with the subjunctive (assumed reason):

eum accūsantēs, quasi Numitōris agrōs īnfēstāre solitus esset, I, 28; Is cum īrātus ad mortem dūcī iussisset mīlitem, quasi (because, as was supposed,) interfēcisset commīlitōnem, XIII, 65.

Note.—These clauses resemble those in 4, as giving the reason ascribed to some one other than the writer. They show also that the reason is fictitious, and invented by the person who advances it.


1. Cum (although) with the subjunctive:

cum retinērētur ā propinquīs et amīcīs, tamen Carthāginem rediit, XVII, 53.

2. Quamquam with the indicative:

quamquam . . pellēbātur, XXI, 242.

3. Quamvīs with the subjunctive:

quamvīs sīs molestus, XXVI, 158.



The temporal, causal, and concessive uses of cum have already been given separately. Cum was originally a temporal conjunction. From the temporal idea were developed its other meanings. So the English when frequently contains the ideas of time and cause, or time and concession combined, and while also is frequently at once temporal and concessive. So cum also may represent these ideas in combination as well as separately. In many cases, indeed, it is difficult, if not impossible, to decide which meaning is more prominent: cf.

Cum (when and since) lupa saepius ad parvulōs . . reverterētur, I, 16; Hīs artibus cum (when and although) Hannibalem Fabius . . clausisset, ille . . sē expedīvit, XIX, 31.


1. Form.—

The ablative absolute consists usually of a noun and a participle. The participle is generally passive, but often active: Eō rēgnante, IV, 3; relābente flūmine, I, 9.

2. Often, however, the ablative absolute consists of a noun and adjective, or of two nouns, or a noun and pronoun. In such cases there is an ellipsis of the lost present participle of sum:

māgnā glōriā bellī, IV, 75; parī ferē ōrnātū, X, 6; Appiō iūdice, XII, 15; Valeriō et Cossō cōnsulibus, XIV, 1.

3. Meaning.—The ablative absolute may denote

Time; compare Temporal Clauses, G 1, 2, and 5.

pulsō frātre, rēgnāvit, I, 3; Eā rē cōgnitā, parvulōs . . abiēcit in Tiberim, I, 5; armātīs pāstōribus, Albam properāvit, I, 25.

Note.—This is the original and most frequent use of the ablative absolute.

4. Cause: compare Causal Clauses, H 2 and 3.

ortā inter eōs contentiōne, I, 40; dūrissimā squāmārum lōrīcā omnia tēla facile repellente, XVII, 22; in cōnfertā multitūdine aegrē prōcēdente carpentō, XVIII, 17.

5. Concession:

agrum ēius, omnibus circā vāstātīs, intāctum relīquit, XIX, 39.

6. Often time and cause together: compare note on Cum Clauses, J. Examples are:

mīlitibus sēgnius dīmicantibus, raptum sīgnum in hostem mīsit, VII, 9; occīsō Tatiō, ad Rōmulum potentātus omnis recidit, II, 40.

7. Condition:

male gestā (if he fails), XVI, 31; nē, dēsertō agrō, nōn esset (lest, if he neglected his farm, he might not have), XVII, 34.

8. Means:

advectīs ballistīs et catapultīs (by bringing up, etc.) . . dēiciendus hostis fuit, XVII, 23.

9. Attendant circumstance:

crīnibus passīs, II, 36; māgnā glōriā bellī rēgnāvit, IV, 75; scrībā cum rēge parī ferē ōrnātū sedēbat, X, 6.

10. The ablative absolute is often best translated by the English perfect active participle with an object: armātīs pāstōribus, I, 25, having armed the shepherds. A combination of an abl. abs. and a finite verb is often best rendered by two verbs in the same mood and tense: interēmptō Amūliō, Numitōrem in rēgnum restituit, I, 37, he killed Amulius and restored Numitor to the throne.


In Latin the participles, especially the perfect passive participle, are used far more frequently than in English, and with a xxiv much larger variety of meanings. The use of the participle tends to produce brevity of expression. Thus the Latin participle may be equivalent to

1. A relative clause:

raptae mulierēs, II, 35; Rōmānus . . male sustinentem (= quī male sustinēbat) arma Cūriātium cōnficit, IV, 29; ab laniō cultrō adreptō (with a knife which he caught up from a butcher’s stall), XII, 24; volentibus (= eīs quī volēbant) cōnsulere sē dē iūre praebuit, XIII, 97.

2. A causal clause:

necessitāte compulsus indicāvit, I, 24; nōmina mūtāre nōn potuit dēterritus . . Nāviī auctōritāte, VI, 16; Hōc terrōre cēterī adāctī nōmina prōmptius dedērunt, XV, 25.

3. A concessive clause:

victus (though beaten) crucis supplicium effūgit, XVI, 30.

4. Latin often uses a perfect passive participle in agreement with a noun, where, judging from English usage, we should expect a noun with a limiting genitive:

ob virginēs raptās (on account of the seizure of the maidens), II, 14; Annō trecentēsimō ab urbe conditā (from the founding of the city), XII, 1.

5. English is fond of coördinated verbs, that is, verbs in exactly the same mood, tense, and construction, e.g. ‘They took the ass and saddled him.’ Latin, however, objects to such constructions, and prefers to replace the former of the two verbs by some other form of expression, e.g. a passive or deponent participle. We have to notice here two classes of sentences:

(a) Such sentences as fulmine īctum cōnflagrāsse, IV, 74, which = fulmine īctum esse et cōnflagrāsse, i.e. ‘he was struck by lightning and burned,’ etc.

(b) such sentences as the following: parvulōs alveō impositōs xxv abiēcit, I, 6 = parvulōs alveō imposuit et abiēcit; ēlatam secūrim in ēius caput dēiēcit, VI, 37 = extulit secūrim et in ēius caput dēiēcit; cōniugem ē Cūriā ēvocātum . . rēgem salūtāvit, VII, 47 = cōniugem ē Cūriā ēvocāvit et eum rēgem salūtāvit.


1. Indirect Discourse defined.—

The terms Direct Discourse and Indirect Discourse denote the two distinct ways in which a writer may quote the statement or represent the thought of another person. If the writer gives the exact words in which the statement was made, or in which the thought was formulated (if put into words at all), he is said to use the direct discourse. If, on the other hand, he gives merely the substance or the gist of his own or another’s statements or thoughts, he is said to use the indirect discourse. In Latin, as in English, the indirect discourse is more common than the direct.

2. In passing from the direct discourse to the indirect, numerous changes become necessary. These may, however, be readily grouped under two heads: (a) those which occur in principal clauses, and (b) those which occur in subordinate clauses.

3. Changes in Principal Clauses.—

Principal clauses may be declarative, interrogative, or imperative; that is, they may make a statement, ask a question, or give expression to a command. We thus have to consider three forms of principal clauses: (a) Statements, (b) Questions, (c) Commands.

4. Statements in Indirect Discourse.

All Statements of the Direct Discourse, on passing into the Indirect, fall into the infinitive mood, because they become objects of verbs of saying:

adfīrmāns vīsum (sc. esse) ā sē Rōmulum . . eundemque praecipere, II, 51 (direct form, vīsus est ā mē Rōmulus . . īdemque praecipit); prōclāmābat fīliam suam iūre caesam esse, IV, 43 (direct xxvi form, fīlia mea iūre caesa est); minātur sē vī abstrāctūrum, XII, 12 (direct form (ego) vī tē abstraham).

5. Questions in Indirect Discourse.

All Questions of the Direct Discourse, on passing into the Indirect, fall into the subjunctive mood, because they are in reality dependent on a verb of asking. No example of a question in formal indirect discourse occurs in the selections contained in this book. Indirect questions (cf. p. 3, n. 2), however, fall under this general head as giving some one’s thoughts without quoting his exact words.

6. Commands in Indirect Discourse.

All Commands of the Direct Discourse, on passing into the Indirect, fall into the subjunctive, because they are in reality dependent on some verb like imperāvit, to be supplied in thought:

proinde nē gravārētur sē spectandum praebēre, XXI, 289 (direct form, Nōlī gravārī tē spectandum praebēre); satis cōnstat Sullam . . prōclāmāsse, vincerent, dummodo scīrent, XXVII, 12-15 (direct form, Vincite, dummodo sciātis).

7. Subordinate Clauses in Indirect Discourse.

All Subordinate Clauses of the Indirect Discourse have their verbs in the subjunctive mood:

Tatius . . Tarpēiae optiōnem mūneris dedit, sī . . perdūxisset, II, 19-21 (direct form, dō or dabō optiōnem mūneris, sī . . perdūxeris: see note); Illa petiit quod gererent, II, 21 (direct form, Petō quod . . geritis).

1 See also below, Ablative Absolute, K 3.

2 The form with in is the more exact.

3 This is merely a special form of (2), but its importance entitles it to separate treatment.

4 Cf. also Ablative Absolute, K 3.

5 Cf. also Ablative Absolute, K 4.

6 These conjunctions are regularly used with the indicative. They are employed with the subjunctive only when the writer is indirectly quoting the reason given by some one else.


The grammatical references in the footnotes are to the Latin Grammars in most common use; H = Harkness’ Complete Latin Grammar, references to Harkness’ Standard Grammar being inclosed in parentheses; M = Lane & Morgan; A = Allen & Greenough; G = Gildersleeve; B = Bennett.



The original Latin city comprised only the Palatine and a small portion of the surrounding territory. The Etruscans inhabited the Caelian Hill, and extended toward the Esquiline. The Sabine town occupied the Quirinal, which was originally connected with the Capitoline, on which was the Sabine citadel, by a ridge sloping toward the Forum and the Campus Martius. Ancus Marcius added to the city the Aventine, and built a fortress on the Janiculum. Servius Tullius added the Viminal and Esquiline, and inclosed the seven hills with a line of fortifications, of which one portion is still traceable. The ridge connecting the Capitoline and Quirinal was a barrier which cut the town in two. The only means of communication between the two halves of the city, when its population had reached nearly two million inhabitants, were the narrow strip of land between the Capitoline and the river and a lane ten feet wide crossing the ridge. To relieve the pressure, this ridge was cut away by the Emperor Trajan, in whose Forum on the site of the excavations stands the well-known ‘Trajan’s Column,’ 140 feet high, ‘erected to show to posterity how high was the mountain leveled by the Emperor.’ The business portion of the modern city occupies the Campus Martius, its main artery, the famous ‘Corso,’ following the line of the ancient street shown on the plan. See Lanciani, Ancient Rome, p. 86.

“Stripped” text


As printed I. Romani imperii exordium

Proca, rex Albanorum, Numitorem et Amulium filios habuit. Numitori, qui natu maior erat, regnum reliquit; sed Amulius, pulso fratre, regnavit et, ut eum subole privaret, Rheam Silviam, eius filiam, Vestae sacerdotem fecit, quae tamen Romulum et Remum geminos edidit. Ea re cognita Amulius ipsam in vincula coniecit, parvulos alveo impositos abiecit in Tiberim, qui tunc forte super ripas erat effusus; sed, relabente flumine, eos aqua in sicco reliquit. Vastae tum in iis locis solitudines erant. Lupa, ut fama traditum est, ad vagitum accurrit, infantes lingua lambit, ubera eorum ori matremque se gessit.

Cum lupa saepius ad parvulos veluti ad catulos reverteretur, Faustulus, pastor regius, re animadversa eos tulit in casam et Accae Larentiae coniugi dedit educandos. Adulti deinde hi inter pastores primo ludicris certaminibus vires auxere, deinde venando saltus peragrare et latrones a rapina pecorum arcere coeperunt. Quare cum iis insidiati essent latrones, Remus captus est, Romulus vi se defendit. Tum Faustulus, necessitate compulsus, indicavit Romulo quis esset eorum avus, quae mater. Romulus statim armatis pastoribus Albam properavit.

Interea Remum latrones ad Amulium regem perduxerunt, eum accusantes, quasi Numitoris agros infestare solitus esset; itaque Remus a rege Numitori ad supplicium traditus est; at cum Numitor, adulescentis vultum considerans, aetatem minimeque servilem indolem compararet, haud procul erat quin nepotem agnosceret. Nam Remus oris lineamentis erat matri simillimus aetasque expositionis temporibus congruebat. Ea res dum Numitoris animum anxium tenet, repente Romulus supervenit, fratrem liberat, interempto Amulio avum Numitorem in regnum restituit.

Deinde Romulus et Remus urbem in iisdem locis, ubi expositi ubique educati erant, condiderunt; sed orta inter eos contentione, uter nomen novae urbi daret eamque imperio regeret, auspicia decreverunt adhibere. Remus prior sex vultures, Romulus postea duodecim vidit. Sic Romulus, victor augurio, urbem Romam vocavit. Ad novae urbis tutelam sufficere vallum videbatur. Cuius angustias inridens cum Remus saltu id traiecisset, eum iratus Romulus interfecit, his increpans verbis: “Sic deinde, quicumque alius transiliet moenia mea!” Ita solus potitus est imperio Romulus.

As printed II. Romulus, Romanorum rex primus
753-715 B.C.

Romulus imaginem urbis magis quam urbem fecerat; incolae deerant. Erat in proximo lucus; hunc asylum fecit. Et statim eo mira vis latronum pastorumque confugit. Cum vero uxores ipse populusque non haberent, legatos circa vicinas gentes misit, qui societatem conubiumque novo populo peterent. Nusquam benigne audita legatio est; ludibrium etiam additum: “Cur non feminis quoque asylum aperuistis? Id enim compar foret conubium.” Romulus, aegritudinem animi dissimulans, ludos parat; indici deinde finitimis spectaculum iubet. Multi convenere studio etiam videndae novae urbis, maxime Sabini cum liberis et coniugibus. Ubi spectaculi tempus venit eoque conversae mentes cum oculis erant, tum signo dato iuvenes Romani discurrunt, virgines rapiunt.

Haec fuit statim causa belli. Sabini enim ob virgines raptas bellum adversus Romanos sumpserunt, et cum Romae appropinquarent, Tarpeiam virginem nacti sunt, quae aquam forte extra moenia petitum ierat. Huius pater Romanae praeerat arci. Titus Tatius, Sabinorum dux, Tarpeiae optionem muneris dedit, si exercitum suum in Capitolium perduxisset. Illa petiit quod Sabini in sinistris manibus gererent, videlicet aureos anulos et armillas. Quibus dolose promissis, Tarpeia Sabinos in arcem perduxit, ubi Tatius scutis eam obrui iussit; nam et ea in laevis habuerant. Sic impia proditio celeri poena vindicata est.

Deinde Romulus ad certamen processit, et in eo loco, ubi nunc Romanum Forum est, pugnam conseruit. Primo impetu vir inter Romanos insignis, nomine Hostilius, fortissime dimicans cecidit; cuius interitu consternati Romani fugere coeperunt. Iam Sabini clamitabant: “Vicimus perfidos hospites, imbelles hostes. Nunc sciunt longe aliud esse virgines rapere, aliud pugnare cum viris.” Tunc Romulus, arma ad caelum tollens, Iovi aedem vovit, et exercitus seu forte seu divinitus restitit. Itaque proelium redintegratur; sed raptae mulieres crinibus passis ausae sunt se inter tela volantia inferre et hinc patres, hinc viros orantes, pacem conciliarunt.

Romulus, foedere cum Tatio icto, et Sabinos in urbem recepit et regnum cum Tatio sociavit. Verum haud ita multo post, occiso Tatio, ad Romulum potentatus omnis recidit. Centum deinde ex senioribus elegit, quorum consilio omnia ageret, quos senatores nominavit propter senectutem. Tres equitum centurias constituit, populum in triginta curias distribuit. His ita ordinatis, cum ad exercitum lustrandum contionem in campo ad Caprae paludem haberet, subito coorta est tempestas cum magno fragore tonitribusque et Romulus e conspectu ablatus est. Ad deos transisse vulgo creditus est; cui rei fidem fecit Iulius Proculus, vir nobilis. Orta enim inter patres et plebem seditione, in contionem processit, iureiurando adfirmans visum a se Romulum augustiore forma, eundemque praecipere ut seditionibus abstinerent et rem militarem colerent; futurum ut omnium gentium domini exsisterent. Aedes in colle Quirinali Romulo constituta, ipse pro deo cultus et Quirinus est appellatus.

As printed III. Numa Pompilius, Romanorum rex secundus
716-673 B.C.

Successit Romulo Numa Pompilius, vir inclita iustitia et religione. Is Curibus, ex oppido Sabinorum, accitus est. Qui cum Romam venisset, ut populum ferum religione mitigaret, sacra plurima instituit. Aram Vestae consecravit, et ignem in ara perpetuo alendum virginibus dedit. Flaminem Iovis sacerdotem creavit eumque insigni veste et curuli sella adornavit. Dicitur quondam ipsum Iovem e caelo elicuisse. Hic, ingentibus fulminibus in urbem demissis, descendit in nemus Aventinum, ubi Numam docuit quibus sacris fulmina essent procuranda, et praeterea imperii certa pignora populo Romano daturum se esse promisit. Numa laetus rem populo nuntiavit. Postridie omnes ad aedes regias convenerunt silentesque exspectabant quid futurum esset. Atque sole orto delabitur e caelo scisso scutum, quod ancile appellavit Numa. Id ne furto auferri posset, Mamurium fabrum undecim scuta eadem forma fabricare iussit. Duodecim autem Salios Martis sacerdotes legit, qui ancilia, secreta illa imperii pignora, custodirent et Kalendis Martiis per urbem canentes et rite saltantes ferrent. Annum in duodecim menses ad cursum lunae descripsit; nefastos fastosque dies fecit; portas Iano gemino aedificavit ut esset index pacis et belli; nam apertus, in armis esse civitatem, clausus, pacatos circa omnes populos, significabat.

Leges quoque plurimas et utiles tulit Numa. Ut vero maiorem institutis suis auctoritatem conciliaret, simulavit sibi cum dea Egeria esse conloquia nocturna eiusque monitu se omnia, quae ageret, facere. Lucus erat, quem medium fons perenni rigabat aqua; eo saepe Numa sine arbitris se inferebat, velut ad congressum deae; ita omnium animos ea pietate imbuit, ut fides ac iusiurandum non minus quam legum et poenarum metus cives contineret. Bellum quidem nullum gessit, sed non minus civitati profuit quam Romulus. Morbo exstinctus in Ianiculo monte sepultus est. Ita duo deinceps reges, ille bello, hic pace, civitatem auxerunt. Romulus septem et triginta regnavit annos, Numa tres et quadraginta.

As printed IV. Tullus Hostilius, Romanorum rex tertius
673-641 B.C.

Mortuo Numa Tullus Hostilius rex creatus est. Hic non solum proximo regi dissimilis, sed ferocior etiam Romulo fuit. Eo regnante bellum inter Albanos et Romanos exortum est. Ducibus Hostilio et Fufetio placuit rem paucorum certamine finiri. Erant apud Romanos trigemini fratres Horatii, tres apud Albanos Curiatii. Cum eis agunt reges ut pro sua quisque patria dimicent ferro. Foedus ictum est ea lege, ut, unde victoria, ibi imperium esset.

Icto foedere trigemini arma capiunt et in medium inter duas acies procedunt. Consederant utrimque duo exercitus. Datur signum, infestique armis terni iuvenes, magnorum exercituum animos gerentes, concurrunt. Ut primo concursu increpuere arma micantesque fulsere gladii, horror ingens spectantes perstringit. Consertis deinde manibus, statim duo Romani alius super alium exspirantes ceciderunt; tres Albani vulnerati. Ad casum Romanorum conclamavit gaudio exercitus Albanus. Romanos iam spes tota deserebat. Unum Horatium tres Curiatii circumsteterant. Forte is integer fuit; sed quia tribus impar erat, ut distraheret hostes, fugam capessivit, singulos per intervalla secuturos esse ratus. Iam aliquantum spatii ex eo loco, ubi pugnatum est, aufugerat, cum respiciens videt unum e Curiatiis haud procul ab sese abesse. In eum magno impetu redit, et dum Albanus exercitus inclamat Curiatiis ut opem ferant fratri, iam Horatius eum occiderat. Alterum deinde, priusquam tertius posset consequi, interfecit.

Iam singuli supererant, sed nec spe nec viribus pares. Alter erat intactus ferro et geminata victoria ferox; alter fessum vulnere, fessum cursu trahebat corpus. Nec illud proelium fuit. Romanus exsultans male sustinentem arma Curiatium conficit, iacentem spoliat. Romani ovantes ac gratulantes Horatium accipiunt et domum deducunt. Princeps ibat Horatius, trium fratrum spolia prae se gerens. Cui obvia fuit soror, quae desponsa fuerat uni ex Curiatiis, visoque super umeros fratris paludamento sponsi, quod ipsa confecerat, flere et crines solvere coepit. Movet ferocis iuvenis animum comploratio sororis in tanto gaudio publico; itaque stricto gladio transfigit puellam, simul eam verbis increpans: “Abi hinc cum immaturo amore ad sponsum, oblita fratrum, oblita patriae. Sic eat, quaecumque Romana lugebit hostem.”

Atrox id visum est facinus patribus plebique; quare raptus est in ius Horatius et apud iudices condemnatus. Iam accesserat lictor iniciebatque laqueum. Tum Horatius ad populum provocavit. Interea pater Horatii senex proclamabat filiam suam iure caesam esse; et iuvenem amplexus spoliaque Curiatiorum ostentans, orabat populum ne se, quem paulo ante cum egregia stirpe conspexissent, orbum liberis faceret. Non tulit populus patris lacrimas iuvenemque absolvit admiratione magis virtutis quam iure causae. Ut tamen caedes manifesta expiaretur, pater quibusdam sacrificiis peractis transmisit per viam tigillum et filium capite adoperto velut sub iugum misit; quod tigillum Sororium appellatum est.

Non diu pax Albana mansit; nam Mettius Fufetius, dux Albanorum, cum se invidiosum apud cives videret, quod bellum uno paucorum certamine finisset, ut rem corrigeret, Veientes Fidenatesque adversus Romanos concitavit. Ipse, a Tullo in auxilium arcessitus, aciem in collem subduxit, ut fortunam belli exspectaret et sequeretur. Qua re Tullus intellecta magna voce ait suo illud iussu Mettium facere, ut hostes a tergo circumvenirentur. Quo audito hostes territi et victi sunt. Postero die Mettius cum ad gratulandum Tullo venisset, iussu illius quadrigis religatus et in diversa distractus est. Deinde Tullus Albam propter ducis perfidiam diruit et Albanos Romam transire iussit.

Roma interim crevit Albae ruinis; duplicatus est civium numerus; mons Caelius urbi additus et, quo frequentius habitaretur, eam sedem Tullus regiae cepit ibique deinde habitavit. Auctarum virium fiducia elatus bellum Sabinis indixit. Pestilentia insecuta est; nulla tamen ab armis quies dabatur. Credebat enim rex bellicosus salubriora militiae quam domi esse iuvenum corpora, sed ipse quoque diuturno morbo est implicitus. Tunc vero adeo fracti simul cum corpore sunt spiritus illi feroces, ut nulli rei posthac nisi sacris operam daret. Memorant Tullum fulmine ictum cum domo conflagrasse. Tullus magna gloria belli regnavit annos duos et triginta.

As printed V. Ancus Marcius, Romanorum rex quartus
641-616 B.C.

Tullo mortuo Ancum Marcium regem populus creavit. Numae Pompilii nepos Ancus Marcius erat, aequitate et religione avo similis. Tunc Latini, cum quibus Tullo regnante ictum foedus erat, sustulerant animos, et incursionem in agrum Romanum fecerunt. Ancus, priusquam eis bellum indiceret, legatum misit, qui res repeteret, eumque morem posteri acceperunt. Id autem hoc modo fiebat. Legatus, ubi ad fines eorum venit a quibus res repetuntur, capite velato “Audi, Iuppiter,” inquit “audite, fines huius populi. Ego sum publicus nuntius populi Romani; verbis meis fides sit.” Deinde peragit postulata. Si non deduntur res quas exposcit, hastam in fines hostium emittit bellumque ita indicit. Legatus, qui ea de re mittitur, Fetialis ritusque belli indicendi Ius Fetiale appellatur.

Legato Romano res repetenti superbe responsum est a Latinis; quare bellum hoc modo eis indictum est. Ancus, exercitu conscripto, profectus Latinos fudit et compluribus oppidis deletis cives Romam traduxit. Cum autem in tanta hominum multitudine facinora clandestina fierent, Ancus carcerem in media urbe ad terrorem increscentis audaciae aedificavit. Idem nova moenia urbi circumdedit, Ianiculum montem ponte sublicio in Tiberi facto urbi coniunxit, in ore Tiberis Ostiam urbem condidit. Pluribus aliis rebus intra paucos annos confectis; immatura morte praereptus obiit.

As printed VI. Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, Romanorum rex quintus
616-578 B.C.

Anco regnante Lucius Tarquinius, Tarquiniis, ex Etruriae urbe, profectus, cum coniuge et fortunis omnibus Romam commigravit. Additur haec fabula: advenienti aquila pilleum sustulit et super carpentum, cui Tarquinius insidebat, cum magno clangore volitans rursus capiti apte reposuit; inde sublimis abiit. Tanaquil coniux, caelestium prodigiorum perita, regnum ei portendi intellexit; itaque, virum complexa, excelsa et alta sperare eum iussit. Has spes cogitationesque secum portantes urbem ingressi sunt, domicilioque ibi comparato Tarquinius pecunia et industria dignitatem atque etiam Anci regis familiaritatem consecutus est; a quo tutor liberis relictus regnum intercepit et ita administravit, quasi iure adeptus esset.

Tarquinius Priscus Latinos bello domuit; Circum Maximum aedificavit; de Sabinis triumphavit; murum lapideum urbi circumdedit. Equitum centurias duplicavit, nomina mutare non potuit, deterritus, ut ferunt, Atti Navii auctoritate. Attus enim, ea tempestate augur inclitus, id fieri posse negabat, nisi aves addixissent; iratus rex in experimentum artis eum interrogavit, fierine posset quod ipse mente concepisset; Attus augurio acto fieri posse respondit. “Atqui hoc” inquit rex “agitabam, num cotem illam secare novacula possem.” “Potes ergo” inquit augur, et rex secuisse dicitur. Tarquinius filium tredecim annorum, quod in proelio hostem percussisset, praetexta bullaque donavit; unde haec ingenuorum puerorum insignia esse coeperunt.

Supererant duo Anci filii, qui, aegre ferentes se paterno regno fraudatos esse, regi insidias paraverunt. Ex pastoribus duos ferocissimos deligunt ad patrandum facinus. Ei simulata rixa in vestibulo regiae tumultuantur. Quorum clamor cum penitus in regiam pervenisset, vocati ad regem pergunt. Primo uterque vociferari coepit et certatim alter alteri obstrepere. Cum vero iussi essent in vicem dicere, unus ex composito rem orditur; dumque intentus in eum se rex totus avertit, alter elatam securim in eius caput deiecit, et relicto in vulnere telo ambo foras se proripiunt.

As printed VII. Servius Tullius, Romanorum rex sextus
578-534 B.C.

Post hunc Servius Tullius suscepit imperium, genitus ex nobili femina, captiva tamen et famula. Qui cum in domo Tarquinii Prisci educaretur, ferunt prodigium visu eventuque mirabile accidisse. Flammae species pueri dormientis caput amplexa est. Hoc visu Tanaquil summam ei dignitatem portendi intellexit coniugique suasit ut eum haud secus ac suos liberos educaret. Is postquam adolevit, et fortitudine et consilio insignis fuit. In proelio quodam, in quo rex Tarquinius adversus Sabinos conflixit, militibus segnius dimicantibus, raptum signum in hostem misit. Cuius recipiendi gratia Romani tam acriter pugnaverunt, ut et signum et victoriam referrent. Quare a Tarquinio gener adsumptus est; et cum Tarquinius occisus esset, Tanaquil, Tarquinii uxor, mortem eius celavit, populumque ex superiore parte aedium adlocuta ait regem grave quidem, sed non letale vulnus accepisse, eumque petere, ut interim dum convalesceret, Servio Tullio dicto audientes essent. Sic Servius Tullius regnare coepit, sed recte imperium administravit. Sabinos subegit; montes tres, Quirinalem, Viminalem, Esquilinum urbi adiunxit; fossas circa murum duxit. Idem censum ordinavit, et populum in classes et centurias distribuit.

Servius Tullius aliquod urbi decus addere volebat. Iam tum inclitum erat Dianae Ephesiae fanum. Id communiter a civitatibus Asiae factum fama ferebat. Itaque Latinorum populis suasit ut et ipsi fanum Dianae cum populo Romano Romae in Aventino monte aedificarent. Quo facto, bos mirae magnitudinis cuidam Latino nata dicitur, et responsum somnio datum eum populum summam imperii habiturum, cuius civis bovem illam Dianae immolasset. Latinus bovem ad fanum Dianae egit et causam sacerdoti Romano exposuit. Ille callidus dixit prius eum vivo flumine manus abluere debere. Latinus dum ad Tiberim descendit, sacerdos bovem immolavit. Ita imperium civibus sibique gloriam adquisivit.

Servius Tullius filiam alteram ferocem, mitem alteram habens, cum Tarquinii filios pari esse animo videret, ferocem miti, mitem feroci in matrimonium dedit, ne duo violenta ingenia matrimonio iungerentur. Sed mites seu forte seu fraude perierunt; feroces morum similitudo coniunxit. Statim Tarquinius a Tullia incitatus advocato senatu regnum paternum repetere coepit. Qua re audita Servius dum ad Curiam contendit, iussu Tarquinii per gradus deiectus et domum refugiens interfectus est. Tullia carpento vecta in Forum properavit et coniugem e Curia evocatum prima regem salutavit; cuius iussu cum e turba ac tumultu decessisset domumque rediret, viso patris corpore, cunctantem et frena mulionem inhibentem super ipsum corpus carpentum agere iussit, unde vicus ille Sceleratus dictus est. Servius Tullius regnavit annos quattuor et quadraginta.

As printed VIII. Tarquinius Superbus, Romanorum rex septimus et ultimus
534-510 B.C.

Tarquinius Superbus regnum sceleste occupavit. Tamen bello strenuus Latinos Sabinosque domuit. Urbem Gabios in potestatem redegit fraude Sexti filii. Is cum indigne ferret eam urbem a patre expugnari non posse, ad Gabinos se contulit, patris saevitiam in se conquerens. Benigne a Gabinis exceptus paulatim eorum benevolentiam consequitur, fictis blanditiis ita eos adliciens, ut apud omnes plurimum posset, et ad postremum dux belli eligeretur. Tum e suis unum ad patrem mittit sciscitatum quidnam se facere vellet. Pater nuntio filii nihil respondit, sed velut deliberabundus in hortum transiit ibique inambulans sequente nuntio altissima papaverum capita baculo decussit. Nuntius, fessus exspectando, rediit Gabios. Sextus, cognito silentio patris et facto, intellexit quid vellet pater. Primores civitatis interemit patrique urbem sine ulla dimicatione tradidit.

Postea rex Ardeam urbem obsidebat. Ibi cum in castris essent, Tarquinius Collatinus, sorore regis natus, forte cenabat apud Sextum Tarquinium cum iuvenibus regiis. Incidit de uxoribus mentio; cum suam unusquisque laudaret, placuit experiri. Itaque citatis equis Romam avolant; regias nurus in convivio et luxu deprehendunt. Pergunt inde Collatiam; Lucretiam, Collatini uxorem, inter ancillas lanae deditam inveniunt. Ea ergo ceteris praestare iudicatur. Paucis interiectis diebus Sextus Collatiam rediit et Lucretiae vim attulit. Illa postero die, advocatis patre et coniuge, rem exposuit et se cultro, quem sub veste abditum habebat, occidit. Conclamat vir paterque et in exitium regum coniurant. Tarquinio Romam redeunti clausae sunt urbis portae et exsilium indictum.

In antiquis annalibus memoriae haec sunt prodita. Anus hospita atque incognita ad Tarquinium quondam Superbum regem adiit, novem libros ferens, quos esse dicebat divina oracula: eos se velle venumdare. Tarquinius pretium percontatus est: mulier nimium atque immensum poposcit. Rex, quasi anus aetate desiperet, derisit. Tum illa foculum cum igni apponit et tres libros ex novem deurit; et, ecquid reliquos sex eodem pretio emere vellet, regem interrogavit. Sed Tarquinius id multo risit magis, dixitque anum iam procul dubio delirare. Mulier ibidem statim tres alios libros exussit; atque id ipsum denuo placide rogat, ut tres reliquos eodem illo pretio emat. Tarquinius ore iam serio atque attentiore animo fit; eam constantiam confidentiamque non neglegendam intellegit: libros tres reliquos mercatur nihilo minore pretio quam quod erat petitum pro omnibus. Sed eam mulierem tunc a Tarquinio digressam postea nusquam loci visam constitit. Libri tres in sacrario conditi Sibyllinique appellati. Ad eos, quasi ad oraculum, Quindecemviri adeunt, cum dii immortales publice consulendi sunt.

As printed IX. Iunius Brutus, Romanorum consul primus

Iunius Brutus, sorore Tarquinii Superbi natus, cum eandem fortunam timeret, in quam frater inciderat, qui ob divitias et prudentiam ab avunculo erat occisus, stultitiam finxit, unde Brutus dictus est. Profectus Delphos cum Tarquinii filiis, quos pater ad Apollinem muneribus honorandum miserat, baculo sambuceo aurum inclusum dono tulit deo. Peractis deinde mandatis patris, iuvenes Apollinem consulunt quisnam ex ipsis Romae regnaturus esset. Responsum est eum Romae summam potestatem habiturum, qui primus matrem osculatus esset. Tunc Brutus, velut si casu prolapsus cecidisset, terram osculatus est, scilicet quod ea communis mater omnium mortalium esset.

Expulsis regibus duo consules creati sunt, Iunius Brutus et Tarquinius Collatinus Lucretiae maritus. At libertas modo parta per dolum et proditionem paene amissa est. Erant in iuventute Romana adulescentes aliquot, sodales adulescentium Tarquiniorum. Hi cum legatis, quos rex ad bona sua repetenda Romam miserat, de restituendis regibus conloquuntur, ipsos Bruti consulis filios in societatem consilii adsumunt. Sermonem eorum ex servis unus excepit; rem ad consules detulit. Datae ad Tarquinium litterae manifestum facinus fecerunt. Proditores in vincula coniecti sunt, deinde damnati. Stabant ad palum deligati iuvenes nobilissimi; sed a ceteris liberi consulis omnium in se oculos avertebant. Consules in sedem processere suam, missique lictores nudatos virgis caedunt securique feriunt. Supplicii non spectator modo, sed et exactor erat Brutus. qui tunc patrem exuit, ut consulem ageret.

Tarquinius deinde bello aperto regnum reciperare conatus est. Equitibus praeerat Aruns, Tarquinii filius: rex ipse cum legionibus sequebatur. Obviam hosti consules eunt; Brutus ad explorandum cum equitatu antecessit. Aruns, ubi procul Brutum agnovit, inflammatus ira “Ille est vir” inquit “qui nos patria expulit; ipse en ille nostris decoratus insignibus magnifice incedit.” Tum concitat calcaribus equum atque in ipsum consulem dirigit; Brutus avide se certamini offert. Adeo infestis animis concurrerunt, ut ambo hasta transfixi caderent; fugatus tamen proelio est Tarquinius. Alter consul Romam triumphans rediit. Bruti conlegae funus, quanto potuit apparatu, fecit. Brutum matronae, ut parentem, annum luxerunt.

As printed X. Mucius Scaevola

Cum Porsena Romam obsideret, Mucius, vir Romanae constantiae, senatum adiit et veniam transfugiendi petiit, necem regis repromittens. Accepta potestate cum in castra Porsenae venisset, ibi in confertissima turba prope tribunal constitit. Stipendium tunc forte militibus dabatur et scriba cum rege pari fere ornatu sedebat. Mucius, ignorans uter rex esset, illum pro rege occidit. Apprehensus et ad regem pertractus dextram accenso ad sacrificium foculo iniecit, velut manum puniens, quod in caede peccasset. Attonitus miraculo rex iuvenem amoveri ab altaribus iussit. Tum Mucius, quasi beneficium remunerans, ait trecentos adversus eum sui similes coniurasse. Qua re ille territus bellum acceptis obsidibus deposuit. Mucio prata trans Tiberim data, ab eo Mucia appellata. Statua quoque ei honoris gratia constituta est.

As printed XI. Fabii trecenti sex
479-477 B.C.

Cum adsiduis Veientium incursionibus vexarentur Romani, Fabia gens senatum adit; consul Fabius pro gente loquitur: “Vos alia bella curate; Fabios hostes Veientibus date: id bellum privato sumptu gerere nobis in animo est.” Gratiae ei ingentes actae sunt. Consul e Curia egressus, comitante Fabiorum agmine, domum rediit. Manat tota urbe rumor; Fabium ad caelum laudibus ferunt. Fabii postero die arma capiunt. Numquam exercitus neque minor numero neque clarior fama et admiratione hominum per urbem incessit. Ibant sex et trecenti milites, omnes patricii, omnes unius gentis. Ad Cremeram flumen perveniunt. Is opportunus visus est locus communiendo praesidio. Hostes non semel fusi pacem supplices petunt.

Veientes pacis impetratae cum brevi paenituisset, redintegrato bello inierunt consilium insidiis ferocem hostem captandi. Multo successu Fabiis audacia crescebat. Cum igitur palati passim agros popularentur, pecora a Veientibus obviam acta sunt; ad quae progressi Fabii in insidias delapsi omnes ad unum perierunt. Dies, quo id factum est, inter nefastos relatus est; porta, qua profecti erant, Scelerata est appellata. Unus omnino superfuit ex ea gente, qui propter aetatem impuberem domi relictus erat. Is genus propagavit ad Quintum Fabium Maximum, qui Hannibalem mora fregit.

As printed XII. Lucius Virginius

Anno trecentesimo ab urbe condita pro duobus consulibus decemviri creati sunt, qui adlatas e Graecia leges populo proponerent. Duodecim tabulis eae sunt perscriptae. Ceterum decemviri sua ipsorum insolentia in exitium acti sunt. Nam unus ex iis Appius Claudius virginem plebeiam adamavit. Quam cum Appius non posset pretio ac spe perlicere, unum e clientibus subornavit, qui eam in servitutem deposceret, facile victurum se sperans, cum ipse esset et accusator et iudex. Lucius Virginius, puellae pater, tunc aberat militiae causa. Cliens igitur virgini venienti in Forum (namque ibi in tabernis litterarum ludi erant) iniecit manum, adfirmans suam esse servam. Eam sequi se iubet; ni faciat, minatur se vi abstracturum. Pavida puella stupente, ad clamorem nutricis fit concursus. Itaque cum ille puellam vi non posset abducere, eam vocat in ius, ipso Appio iudice.

Interea missi nuntii ad Virginium properant. Is commeatu sumpto a castris profectus prima luce Romam advenit, cum iam civitas in Foro exspectatione erecta stabat. Virginius statim in Forum lacrimabundus et civium opem implorans filiam suam deducit. Neque eo setius Appius, cum in tribunal escendisset, Virginiam clienti suo addixit. Tum pater, ubi nihil usquam auxilii vidit, “Quaeso,” inquit “Appi, ignosce patrio dolori; sine me filiam ultimum adloqui.” Data venia pater cum filiam seduxisset, ab lanio cultro adrepto pectus puellae transfigit. Tum vero sibi viam facit et respersus cruore ad exercitum profugit et milites ad vindicandum facinus accendit. Concitatus exercitus montem Aventinum insedit; decem tribunos militum creavit; decemviros magistratu se abdicare coegit eosque omnes aut morte aut exilio multavit; ipse Appius Claudius in carcerem coniectus mortem sibi conscivit.

As printed XIII. Titus Manlius Torquatus

Titus Manlius ob ingenii et linguae tarditatem a patre rus relegatus erat. Qui cum audivisset patri diem dictam esse a Pomponio, tribuno plebis, cepit consilium rudis quidem et agrestis animi, sed pietate laudabile. Cultro succinctus mane in urbem atque a porta confestim ad Pomponium pergit: introductus cultrum stringit et super lectum Pomponii stans se eum transfixurum minatur, nisi ab incepta accusatione desistat. Pavidus tribunus, quippe qui cerneret ferrum ante oculos micans, accusationem dimisit. Ea res adulescenti eo maiori fuit honori quod animum eius acerbitas paterna a pietate non avertisset, ideoque eodem anno tribunus militum factus est.

Cum postea Galli ad tertium lapidem trans Anienem fluvium castra posuissent, exercitus Romanus ab urbe profectus in citeriore ripa fluvii constitit. Pons in medio erat: tunc Gallus eximia corporis magnitudine in vacuum pontem processit et quam maxima voce potuit “Quem nunc” inquit “Roma fortissimum habet, is procedat agedum ad pugnam, ut eventus certaminis nostri ostendat utra gens bello sit melior.” Diu inter primores iuvenum Romanorum silentium fuit. Tum Titus Manlius ex statione ad imperatorem pergit: “Iniussu tuo,” inquit, “imperator, extra ordinem numquam pugnaverim, non si certam victoriam videam; si tu permittis, volo ego illi beluae ostendere me ex ea familia ortum esse, quae Gallorum agmen ex rupe Tarpeia deiecit.” Cui imperator “Macte virtute,” inquit “Tite Manli, esto: pergeet nomen Romanum invictum praesta.”

Armant deinde iuvenem aequales: scutum capit, Hispano cingitur gladio, ad propiorem pugnam habili. Exspectabat eum Gallus stolide laetus et linguam ab inrisu exserens. Ubi constitere inter duas acies, Gallus ensem cum ingenti sonitu in arma Manlii deiecit. Manlius vero inter corpus et arma Galli sese insinuans uno alteroque ictu ventrem transfodit et in spatium ingens ruentem porrexit hostem; iacenti torquem detraxit, quem cruore respersum collo circumdedit suo. Defixerat pavor cum admiratione Gallos; Romani alacres obviam militi suo progrediuntur et gratulantes laudantesque ad imperatorem perducunt. Manlius inde Torquati cognomen accepit.

Idem Manlius, postea consul factus bello Latino, ut disciplinam militarem restitueret, edixit ne quis extra ordinem in hostes pugnaret. T. Manlius, consulis filius, cum propius forte ad stationem hostium accessisset, is, qui Latino equitatui praeerat, ubi consulis filium agnovit, “Visne” inquit “congredi mecum, ut singularis certaminis eventu cernatur, quantum eques Latinus Romano praestet?” Movit ferocem animum iuvenis seu ira seu detrectandi certaminis pudor. Itaque oblitus imperii paterni in certamen ruit et Latinum ex equo excussum transfixit spoliisque lectis in castra ad patrem venit. Extemplo filium aversatus consul milites classico advocat. Qui postquam frequentes convenere, “Quandoquidem” inquit “tu, fili, contra imperium consulis pugnasti, oportet disciplinam, quam solvisti, poena tua restituas. Triste exemplum, sed in posterum salubre iuventuti eris. I, lictor, deliga ad palum.” Metu omnes obstupuere; sed postquam cervice caesa fusus est cruor, in questus et lamenta erupere. Manlio Romam redeunti seniores tantum obviam exierunt: iuventus et tunc eum et omni deinde vita exsecrata est.

Operae pretium erit aliud severitatis disciplinae Romanae exemplum proferre, simul ut appareat quam facile severitas in crudelitatem et furorem abeat. Cn. Piso fuit vir a multis vitiis integer, sed pravus et cui placebat pro constantia rigor. Is cum iratus ad mortem duci iussisset militem, quasi interfecisset commilitonem, cum quo egressus erat e castris et sine quo redierat, roganti tempus aliquod ad conquirendum non dedit. Damnatus miles extra castrorum vallum ductus est et iam cervicem porrigebat, cum subito apparuit ille commilito, qui occisus dicebatur. Tunc centurio supplicio praepositus condere gladium carnificem iubet. Ambo commilitones alter alterum complexi ingenti concursu et magno gaudio exercitus deducuntur ad Pisonem. Ille conscendit tribunal furens et utrumque ad mortem duci iubet, adicit et centurionem, qui damnatum militem reduxerat, haec praefatus: “Te morte plecti iubeo, quia iam damnatus es; te, quia causa damnationis commilitoni fuisti; te, quia iussus occidere militem imperatori non paruisti.”

Ceterum Manlianae gentis propriam fere fuisse illam in filios acerbitatem alius Manlius, illius de quo supra diximus nepos, ostendit. Cum Macedonum legati Romam venissent conquestum de Silano, Manlii Torquati filio, quod praetor provinciam expilasset, pater, avitae severitatis heres, petiit a patribus conscriptis ne quid de ea re statuerent, antequam ipse inspexisset Macedonum et filii sui causam. Id a senatu libenter concessum est viro summae dignitatis, consulari iurisque civilis peritissimo. Itaque, instituta domi cognitione causae, solus per totum biduum utramque partem audiebat ac tertio die pronuntiavit filium suum videri non talem fuisse in provincia, quales eius maiores fuissent, et in conspectum suum deinceps venire vetuit. Tam tristi patris iudicio perculsus lucem ulterius intueri non sustinuit et proxima nocte vitam suspendio finivit. Peregerat Torquatus severi et religiosi iudicis partes, satisfactum erat rei publicae, habebat ultionem Macedonia, at nondum erat inflexus patris rigor. Igitur ne exsequiis quidem filii interfuit, ut patribus mos erat apud Romanos, et eo ipso die, quo funus eius ducebatur, aures, ut solebat, volentibus consulere se de iure praebuit.

As printed XIV. Publius Decius

P. Decius, Valerio Maximo et Cornelio Cosso consulibus, tribunus militum fuit. Exercitu Romano in angustiis Gauri montis clauso Decius editum collem conspexit imminentem hostium castris. Accepto praesidio verticem occupavit, hostes terruit, consuli spatium dedit ad subducendum agmen in aequiorem locum. Ipse, colle, quem insederat, undique armatis circumdato, intempesta nocte per medias hostium custodias somno oppressas incolumis evasit. Qua re ab exercitu donatus est corona civica, quae dabatur ei, qui cives in bello servasset. Consul fuit bello Latino cum Manlio Torquato. Hoc bello cum utrique consuli somnio obvenisset eos victores futuros, quorum dux in proelio cecidisset, convenit inter eos uti, utrius cornu in acie laboraret, is diis se Manibus devoveret. Inclinante sua parte Decius se et hostes diis Manibus devovit. Armatus in equum insiluit ac se in medios hostes immisit: corruit obrutus telis et victoriam suis reliquit.

As printed XV. Manius Curius

Manius Curius contra Samnites profectus eos ingentibus proeliis vicit. In quo bello cum permultum agri hominumque maximam vim cepisset, ipse inde ditari adeo noluit, ut, cum interversae pecuniae argueretur, catillo ligneo, quo uti ad sacrificia consueverat, in medium prolato iuraret se nihil amplius de praeda hostili in domum suam convertisse. Curio ad focum sedenti in agresti scamno et ex ligneo catillo cenanti cum magnum auri pondus Samnites attulissent, repudiati ab eo sunt dixitque non aurum habere sibi praeclarum videri, sed iis qui haberent aurum imperare. Quo responso Curius Samnitibus ostendit se neque acie vinci neque pecunia corrumpi posse. Agri capti septena iugera populo viritim divisit; cumque ipsi senatus iugera quinquaginta adsignaret, plus accipere noluit quam singulis civibus erat datum, dixitque perniciosum esse civem, qui eo, quod reliquis tribueretur, contentus non esset.

Postea consul creatus adversus Pyrrhum missus est: cumque in Capitolio delectum haberet et iuniores taedio belli nomina non darent, coniectis in urnam omnium tribuum nominibus primum nomen urna extractum citari iussit et cum adulescens non responderet, bona eius hastae subiecit, deinde cum is questus de iniuria consulis tribunos plebis appellasset, ipsum quoque vendidit, nihil opus esse rei publicae eo cive, qui nesciret parere, dicens. Neque tribuni plebis adulescenti auxilio fuerunt; posteaque res in consuetudinem abiit, ut delectu rite acto, qui militiam detrectaret, in servitutem venderetur. Hoc terrore ceteri adacti nomina promptius dederunt.

His copiis Curius Pyrrhi exercitum cecidit deque eo rege triumphavit. Insignem triumphum fecerunt quattuor elephanti cum turribus suis, tum primum Romae visi. Victus rex relicto Tarenti praesidio in Epirum revertit. Cum autem bellum renovaturus putaretur, Manium Curium iterum consulem fieri placuit. Sed inopinata mors regis Romanos metu liberavit. Pyrrhus enim, dum Argos oppugnat, urbem iam ingressus a iuvene quodam Argivo lancea leviter vulneratus est. Mater adulescentis, anus paupercula, cum aliis mulieribus e tecto domus proelium spectabat; quae cum vidisset Pyrrhum in auctorem vulneris sui magno impetu ferri, periculo filii sui commota protinus tegulam corripuit et utraque manu libratam in caput regis deiecit.

As printed XVI. Gaius Duilius

Gaius Duilius Poenos navali pugna primus devicit. Qui cum videret naves Romanas a Punicis velocitate superari, manus ferreas sive corvos, machinam ad comprehendendas hostium naves tenendasque utilem, excogitavit. Quae manus ubi hostilem apprehenderant navem, superiecto ponte transgrediebatur Romanus et in ipsorum ratibus comminus dimicabant, unde Romanis, qui robore praestabant, facilis victoria fuit. Celeriter sunt expugnatae naves Punicae triginta, in quibus etiam praetoria septiremis capta est, mersae tredecim.

Duilius victor Romam reversus primus navalem triumphum egit. Nulla victoria Romanis gratior fuit, quod invicti terra iam etiam mari plurimum possent. Itaque Duilio concessum est, ut per omnem vitam praelucente funali et praecinente tibicine a cena rediret.

Hannibal, dux classis Punicae, e navi quae iam capiebatur, in scapham saltu se demittens Romanorum manus effugit. Veritus autem, ne in patria classis amissae poenas daret, civium odium astutia avertit, nam ex illa infelici pugna priusquam cladis nuntius domum perveniret quendam ex amicis Carthaginem misit. Qui postquam curiam intravit, “Consulit” inquit “vos Hannibal, cum dux Romanorum magnis copiis maritimis instructis advenerit, num cum eo confligere debeat?” Acclamavit universus senatus non esse dubium quin confligi oporteret. Tum ille “Conflixit” inquit “et superatus est.” Ita non potuerunt factum damnare, quod ipsi fieri debuisse iudicaverant. Sic Hannibal victus crucis supplicium effugit: nam eo poenae genere dux re male gesta apud Poenos adficiebatur.

As printed XVII. Marcus Atilius Regulus

Marcus Regulus cum Poenos magna clade adfecisset, Hanno Carthaginiensis ad eum venit, quasi de pace acturus, re vera ut tempus extraheret, donec novae copiae ex Africa advenirent. Is ubi ad consulem accessit, exortus est militum clamor auditaque vox, idem huic faciendum esse, quod paucis ante annis Cornelio consuli a Poenis factum esset. Cornelius enim, velut in conloquium per fraudem evocatus, a Poenis comprehensus erat et in vincula coniectus. Iam Hanno timere incipiebat, sed periculum astuto responso avertit: “Hoc vero” inquit “si feceritis, nihilo eritis Afris meliores.” Consul tacere iussit eos, qui par pari referri volebant, et conveniens gravitati Romanae responsum dedit: “Isto te metu, Hanno, fides Romana liberat.” De pace, quia neque Poenus serio agebat et consul victoriam quam pacem malebat, non convenit.

Regulus deinde in Africam primus Romanorum ducum traiecit. Clypeam urbem et trecenta castella expugnavit, neque cum hominibus tantum, sed etiam cum monstris dimicavit. Nam cum ad flumen Bagradam castra haberet, anguis mira magnitudine exercitum Romanorum vexabat; multos milites ingenti ore corripuit; plures caudae verbere elisit; nonnullos ipso pestilentis halitus adflatu exanimavit. Neque is telorum ictu perforari poterat, durissima squamarum lorica omnia tela facile repellente. Confugiendum fuit ad machinas advectisque ballistis et catapultis, velut arx quaedam munita, deiciendus hostis fuit. Tandem saxorum pondere oppressus iacuit, sed cruore suo flumen corporisque pestifero adflatu vicina loca infecit Romanosque castra inde submovere coegit. Corium beluae, centum et viginti pedes longum, Romam misit Regulus.

Huic ob res bene gestas imperium in annum proximum prorogatum est. Quod ubi cognovit Regulus, scripsit senatui vilicum suum in agello, quem septem iugerum habebat, mortuum esse et servum, occasionem nactum, aufugisse ablato instrumento rustico ideoque petere se ut sibi successor in Africam mitteretur, ne, deserto agro, non esset unde uxor et liberi alerentur. Senatus, acceptis litteris, res quas Regulus amiserat publica pecunia redimi iussit, agellum colendum locavit, alimenta coniugi ac liberis praebuit. Regulus deinde multis proeliis Carthaginiensium opes contudit eosque pacem petere coegit. Quam cum Regulus nollet nisi durissimis condicionibus dare, a Lacedaemoniis illi auxilium petierunt.

Lacedaemonii Xanthippum, virum belli peritissimum, Carthaginiensibus miserunt, a quo Regulus victus est ultima pernicie: nam duo tantum milia hominum ex omni Romano exercitu refugerunt et Regulus ipse captus et in carcerem coniectus est. Inde Romam de permutandis captivis missus est dato iureiurando. ut, si non impetrasset, rediret ipse Carthaginem. Qui cum Romam venisset, inductus in senatum mandata exposuit; sententiam ne diceret recusavit; quamdiu iureiurando hostium teneretur, se non esse senatorem. Iussus tamen sententiam dicere, negavit esse utile captivos Poenos reddi, illos enim adulescentes esse et bonos duces, se iam confectum senectute. Cuius cum valuisset auctoritas, captivi retenti sunt, ipse, cum retineretur a propinquis et amicis, tamen Carthaginem rediit: neque vero tunc ignorabat se ad crudelissimum hostem et ad exquisita supplicia proficisci, sed iusiurandum conservandum putavit. Reversum Carthaginienses omni cruciatu necaverunt: palpebris enim resectis aliquamdiu in loco tenebricoso tenuerunt: deinde cum sol esset ardentissimus, repente eductum intueri caelum coegerunt; postremo in arcam ligneam, undique clavis praeacutis horrentem et tam angustam, ut erectus perpetuo manere cogeretur, incluserunt. Ita dum fessum corpus, quocumque inclinabat, stimulis ferreis confoditur, vigiliis et dolore continuo interemptus est. Hic fuit Atilii Reguli exitus, ipsa vita clarior et inlustrior.

As printed XVIII. Appius Claudius Pulcher

Appius Claudius, vir stultae temeritatis, consul adversus Poenos profectus priorum ducum consilia palam reprehendebat seque, quo die hostem vidisset, bellum confecturum esse iactitabat. Qui cum, antequam navale proelium committeret, auspicia haberet pullariusque ei nuntiasset, pullos non exire e cavea neque vesci, inridens iussit eos in aquam mergi, ut saltem biberent, quoniam esse nollent. Ea res cum, quasi iratis diis, milites ad omnia segniores timidioresque fecisset, commisso proelio magna clades a Romanis accepta est: octo eorum milia caesa sunt, viginti milia capta. Qua re Claudius postea a populo condemnatus est damnationisque ignominiam voluntaria morte praevenit. Ea res calamitati fuit etiam Claudiae, consulis sorori: quae a ludis publicis revertens, in conferta multitudine aegre procedente carpento, palam optavit ut frater suus Pulcher revivisceret atque iterum classem amitteret, quo minor turba Romae foret. Ob vocem illam impiam Claudia quoque damnata gravisque ei dicta est multa.

As printed XIX. Quintus Fabius Maximus

Hannibal, Hamilcaris filius, novem annos natus, a patre aris admotus odium in Romanos perenne iuravit. Quae res maxime videtur concitasse secundum Punicum bellum. Nam, mortuo Hamilcare, Hannibal causam belli quaerens Saguntum, civitatem Hispaniae Romanis foederatam evertit. Quapropter Roma missi sunt Carthaginem legati, qui Hannibalem, mali auctorem, exposcerent. Tergiversantibus Poenis Quintus Fabius, legationis princeps, sinu ex toga facto “Hic” inquit “vobis bellum et pacem portamus; utrum placet, sumite.” Poenis daret utrum vellet succlamantibus, Fabius, excussa toga, bellum se dare dicit. Poeni accipere se responderunt et, quibus acciperent animis, iisdem se gesturos.

Hannibal superatis Pyrenaei et Alpium iugis in Italiam venit. Publium Scipionem apud Ticinum amnem, Sempronium apud Trebiam, Flaminium apud Trasumenum profligavit.

Adversus hostem totiens victorem missus Quintus Fabius dictator Hannibalis impetum mora fregit; namque, priorum ducum cladibus edoctus belli rationem mutare et adversus Hannibalem, successibus proeliorum insolentem, recedere ab ancipiti discrimine et tueri tantummodo Italiam constituit Cunctatorisque nomen et laudem summi ducis meruit. Per loca alta agmen ducebat modico ab hoste intervallo, ut neque omitteret eum neque cum eo congrederetur; castris, nisi quantum necessitas cogeret, miles tenebatur. Dux neque occasioni rei bene gerendae deerat, si qua ab hoste daretur, neque ullam ipse hosti dabat. Itaque cum ex levibus proeliis superior discederet, militem minus iam coepit aut virtutis suae aut fortunae paenitere.

His artibus cum Hannibalem Fabius in agro Falerno locorum angustiis clausisset, ille sine ullo exercitus detrimento se expedivit. Namque arida sarmenta in boum cornibus deligata principio noctis incendi bovesque ad montes, quos Romani insederant, agi iussit. Qui cum accensis cornibus per montes, per silvas huc illuc discurrerent, Romani miraculo attoniti constiterunt; ipse Fabius, insidias esse ratus, militem extra vallum egredi vetuit. Interea Hannibal ex angustiis evasit.

Dein Hannibal, ut Fabio apud suos conflaret invidiam, agrum eius, omnibus circa vastatis, intactum reliquit. At Fabius, misso Romam Quinto filio, inviolatum ab hoste agrum vendidit eiusque pretio captivos Romanos redemit.

Haud grata tamen Romanis erat Fabii cunctatio: eumque pro cauto timidum, pro cunctatore segnem vocitabant. Augebat invidiam Minucius, magister equitum, dictatorem criminando: illum in ducendo bello sedulo tempus terere, quo diutius in magistratu esset solusque et Romae et in exercitu imperium haberet. His sermonibus accensa plebs dictatori magistrum equitum imperio aequavit. Hanc iniuriam aequo animo tulit Fabius exercitumque suum cum Minucio divisit. Cum autem Minucius temere proelium commisisset, ei periclitanti auxilio venit Fabius. Cuius subito adventu repressus Hannibal receptui cecinit, palam confessus ab se Minucium, se a Fabio victum esse. Redeuntem ex acie dixisse eum ferunt tandem eam nubem, quae sedere in iugis montium solita esset, cum procella imbrem dedisse. Minucius autem periculo liberatus castra cum Fabio iunxit et patrem eum appellavit idemque facere milites iussit.

Postea Hannibal Tarento per proditionem potitus est. Hanc urbem ut Poenis traderent, tredecim fere nobiles iuvenes Tarentini coniuraverant. Hi, nocte per speciem venandi urbe egressi, ad Hannibalem, qui haud procul castra habebat, venerunt. Cui cum quid pararent exposuissent, conlaudavit eos Hannibal monuitque ut redeuntes pecora Carthaginiensium, quae pastum propulsa essent, ad urbem agerent et veluti praedam ex hoste factam aut praefecto aut custodibus portarum donarent. Id iterum ac saepius ab iis factum eoque consuetudinis adducta res est, ut, quocumque noctis tempore sibilo dedissent signum, porta urbis aperiretur. Tunc Hannibal eos nocte media cum decem milibus hominum delectorum secutus est. Ubi portae appropinquarunt, nota iuvenum vox et familiare signum vigilem excitavit. Duo primi inferebant aprum vasti corporis. Vigil incautus, dum beluae magnitudinem miratur, venabulo occisus est. Ingressi proditores ceteros vigiles sopitos obtruncant. Tum Hannibal cum suo agmine ingreditur: Romani passim trucidantur. Livius Salinator, Romanorum praefectus, cum iis, qui caedi superfuerunt, in arcem confugit.

Profectus igitur Fabius ad recipiendum Tarentum urbem obsidione cinxit. Leve dictu momentum ad rem ingentem perficiendam eum adiuvit. Praefectus praesidii Tarentini deperibat amore mulierculae, cuius frater in exercitu Fabii erat. Miles iussus a Fabio pro perfuga Tarentum transiit ac per sororem praefectum ad tradendam urbem perpulit. Fabius vigilia prima accessit ad eam partem muri, quam praefectus custodiebat. Adiuvantibus recipientibusque eius militibus, Romani in urbem transcenderunt. Inde, proxima porta refracta, Fabius cum exercitu intravit. Hannibal nuntiata Tarenti oppugnatione, cum ad opem ferendam festinans captam urbem esse audivisset, “Et Romani” inquit “suum Hannibalem habent: eadem, qua ceperamus, arte Tarentum amisimus.”

Cum postea Livius Salinator coram Fabio gloriaretur, quod arcem Tarentinam retinuisset, dixissetque eum sua opera Tarentum recepisse, “Certe” inquit Fabius ridens, “nam nisi tu amisisses, ego numquam recepissem.”

Quintus Fabius iam senex filio suo consuli legatus fuit; cumque in eius castra veniret, filius obviam patri progressus est, duodecim lictoribus pro more antecedentibus. Equo vehebatur senex neque appropinquante consule descendit. Iam ex lictoribus undecim verecundia paternae maiestatis taciti praeterierant. Quod cum consul animadvertisset, proximum lictorem iussit inclamare Fabio patri ut ex equo descenderet. Pater tum desiliens “Non ego, fili,” inquit “tuum imperium contempsi, sed experiri volui num scires consulem te esse.” Ad summam senectutem vixit Fabius Maximus, dignus tanto cognomine. Cautior quam promptior habitus est, sed insita eius ingenio prudentia ei bello, quod tum gerebatur, proprie apta erat. Nemini dubium est quin rem Romanam cunctando restituerit. Ut Scipio pugnando, ita hic non dimicando maxime civitati Romanae succurrisse visus est. Alter enim celeritate sua Carthaginem oppressit, alter cunctatione id egit, ne Roma opprimi posset.

As printed XX. Aemilius Paulus et Terentius Varro

Hannibal in Apuliam pervenerat. Adversus eum Roma profecti sunt duo consules, Aemilius Paulus et Terentius Varro. Paulo Fabii cunctatio magis placebat; Varro autem, ferox et temerarius, acriora sequebatur consilia. Ambo consules ad vicum, qui Cannae appellabatur, castra communiverunt. Ibi deinde Varro, invito conlega, aciem instruxit et signum pugnae dedit. Hannibal autem ita constituerat aciem, ut Romanis et solis radii et ventus ab oriente pulverem adflans adversi essent. Victus caesusque est Romanus exercitus; nusquam graviore vulnere adflicta est res publica. Aemilius Paulus telis obrutus cecidit: quem cum media in pugna sedentem in saxo oppletum cruore conspexisset quidam tribunus militum, “Cape” inquit “hunc equum et fuge, Aemili. Etiam sine tua morte lacrimarum satis luctusque est.” Ad ea consul: “Tu quidem macte virtute esto! Sed cave exiguum tempus e manibus hostium evadendi perdas! Abi, nuntia patribus ut urbem muniant ac prius quam hostis victor adveniat, praesidiis firment. Me in hac strage meorum militum patere exspirare.” Alter consul cum paucis equitibus Venusiam perfugit. Consulares aut praetorii occiderunt viginti, senatores capti aut occisi triginta, nobiles viri trecenti, militum quadraginta milia, equitum tria milia et quingenti. Hannibal in testimonium victoriae suae tres modios aureorum anulorum Carthaginem misit, quos de manibus equitum Romanorum et senatorum detraxerat.

Hannibali victori cum ceteri gratularentur suaderentque ut quietem iam ipse sumeret et fessis militibus daret, unus ex eius praefectis, Maharbal, minime cessandum ratus, Hannibalem hortabatur ut statim Romam pergeret, die quinto victor in Capitolio epulaturus. Cumque Hannibal illud non probasset, Maharbal “Non omnia nimirum” inquit “eidem dii dedere. Vincere scis, Hannibal; victoria uti nescis.” Mora huius diei satis creditur saluti fuisse urbi et imperio. Hannibal cum victoria posset uti, frui maluit, relictaque Roma in Campaniam divertit, cuius deliciis mox exercitus ardor elanguit, adeo ut vere dictum sit Capuam Hannibali Cannas fuisse.

Numquam tantum pavoris Romae fuit, quantum ubi acceptae cladis nuntius advenit. Neque tamen ulla pacis mentio facta est; quin etiam animo civitas adeo magno fuit, ut Varroni ex tanta clade redeunti obviam irent et gratias agerent, quod de re publica non desperasset: qui, si Poenorum dux fuisset, temeritatis poenas omni supplicio dedisset. Non autem vitae cupiditate, sed rei publicae amore se superfuisse reliquo aetatis suae tempore approbavit. Nam et barbam capillumque submisit, et postea numquam recubans cibum cepit; honoribus quoque, cum ei deferrentur a populo, renuntiavit. dicens felicioribus magistratibus rei publicae opus esse. Dum igitur Hannibal segniter et otiose agebat. Romani interim respirare coeperunt. Arma non erant: detracta sunt templis vetera hostium spolia. Deerat iuventus: servi manumissi et armati sunt. Egebat aerarium: opes suas libens senatus in medium protulit, nec praeter quod in bullis singulisque anulis erat quidquam sibi auri reliquerunt. Patrum exemplum secuti sunt equites imitataeque equites omnes tribus. Denique vix suffecere tabulae, vix scribarum manus, cum omnes privatae opes in publicum deferrentur.

Cum Hannibal redimendi sui copiam captivis Romanis fecisset, decem ex ipsis Romam ea de re missi sunt; nec pignus aliud fidei ab iis postulatum est, quam ut iurarent se, si non impetrassent, in castra esse redituros. Eos senatus non redimendos censuit responditque eos cives non esse necessarios, qui, cum armati essent, capi potuissent. Unus ex iis legatis e castris Poenorum egressus, veluti aliquid oblitus, paulo post in castra erat regressus, deinde comites ante noctem adsecutus erat. Is ergo, re non impetrata, domum abiit; reditu enim in castra se liberatum esse iureiurando interpretabatur. Quod ubi innotuit, iussit senatus illum comprehendi et vinctum duci ad Hannibalem. Ea res Hannibalis audaciam maxime fregit, quod senatus populusque Romanus rebus adflictis tam excelso esset animo.

As printed XXI. Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus

Publius Cornelius Scipio nondum annos pueritiae egressus patrem singulari virtute servavit; qui cum pugna apud Ticinum contra Hannibalem commissa graviter vulneratus in hostium manus iam iam venturus esset, filius interiecto corpore Poenis inruentibus se opposuit et patrem periculo liberavit. Quae pietas Scipioni postea aedilitatem petenti favorem populi conciliavit. Cum obsisterent tribuni plebis, negantes rationem eius esse habendam, quod nondum ad petendum legitima aetas esset, “Si me” inquit Scipio “omnes Quirites aedilem facere volunt, satis annorum habeo.” Tanto inde favore ad suffragia itum est, ut tribuni incepto desisterent.

Post cladem Cannensem Romani exercitus reliquiae Canusium perfugerant; cumque ibi tribuni militum quattuor essent, tamen omnium consensu ad Publium Scipionem, admodum adulescentem, summa imperii delata est. Quibus consultantibus nuntiat Publius Furius Philus, consularis viri filius, nobiles quosdam iuvenes propter desperationem consilium de Italia deserenda inire. Statim in hospitium Metelli, qui conspirationis erat princeps, se contulit Scipio, et cum concilium ibi iuvenum, de quibus adlatum erat, invenisset, stricto super capita consultantium gladio, “Iurate” inquit “vos neque ipsos rem publicam populi Romani deserturos, neque alium civem Romanum deserere passuros: qui non iuraverit, in se hunc gladium strictum esse sciat.” Haud secus pavidi, quam si victorem Hannibalem cernerent, iurant omnes custodiendosque semet ipsos Scipioni tradunt.

Cum Romani duas clades in Hispania accepissent duoque ibi summi imperatores intra dies triginta cecidissent, placuit exercitum augeri eoque proconsulem mitti; nec tamen quem mitterent satis constabat. Ea de re indicta sunt comitia. Primo populus exspectabat ut, qui se tanto dignos imperio crederent, nomina profiterentur; sed nemo audebat illud imperium suscipere. Maesta igitur civitas ac prope inops consilii comitiorum die in campum descendit. Subito P. Cornelius Scipio, quattuor et viginti ferme annos natus, professus se petere, in superiore, unde conspici posset, loco constitit. In quem postquam omnium ora conversa sunt, ad unum omnes Scipionem in Hispania proconsulem esse iusserunt. At postquam animorum impetus resedit, populum Romanum coepit facti paenitere: aetati Scipionis maxime diffidebant. Quod ubi animadvertit Scipio, advocata contione ita magno elatoque animo de bello, quod gerendum esset, disseruit, ut homines cura liberaret speque certissima impleret.

Profectus igitur in Hispaniam Scipio Carthaginem Novam, quo die venit, expugnavit. Eo congestae erant omnes paene Africae et Hispaniae opes, ibi arma, ibi pecunia, ibi totius Hispaniae obsides erant: quibus omnibus potitus est Scipio. Inter captivos ad eum adducta est eximiae formae adulta virgo. Quam ubi comperit inlustri loco inter Celtiberos natam principique eius gentis adulescenti desponsam esse, arcessitis parentibus et sponso eam reddidit. Parentes virginis, qui ad eam redimendam satis magnum auri pondus attulerant, Scipionem orabant ut id a se donum acciperet. Scipio aurum ante pedes poni iussit vocatoque ad se virginis sponso, “Super dotem” inquit “quam accepturus a socero es, haec tibi a me dotalia dona accedent” aurumque tollere ac sibi habere iussit. Ille domum reversus ad referendam Scipioni gratiam Celtiberos Romanis conciliavit.

Deinde Scipio Hasdrubalem victum ex Hispania expulit. Castris hostium potitus omnem praedam militibus concessit, captivos Hispanos sine pretio domum dimisit; Afros vero vendi iussit. Erat inter eos puer adultus regii generis, forma insigni: quem cum percontaretur Scipio quis et cuias esset, et cur id aetatis in castris fuisset, “Numida sum” inquit puer, “Massivam populares vocant: orbus a patre relictus, apud avum maternum, Numidiae regem, educatus sum. Cum avunculo Masinissa, qui nuper subsidio Carthaginiensibus venit, in Hispaniam traieci; prohibitus propter aetatem a Masinissa numquam ante proelium inii. Eo die, quo pugnatum est cum Romanis, inscio avunculo, clam armis equoque sumpto, in aciem exii: ibi, prolapso equo, captus sum a Romanis.” Scipio eum interrogat velletne ad avunculum reverti. Cum, effusis gaudio lacrimis, id vero se cupere puer diceret, tum Scipio puero anulum aureum equumque ornatum donat datisque qui tuto deducerent equitibus dimisit.

Cum Publius Cornelius Scipio se erga Hispanos clementer gessisset, circumfusa multitudo eum regem ingenti consensu appellavit; at Scipio, silentio per praeconem facto, “Nomen imperatoris” inquit, “quo me mei milites appellarunt, mihi maximum est: regium nomen, alibi magnum, Romae intolerabile est. Si id amplissimum iudicatis, quod regale est, vobis licet existimare regalem in me esse animum; sed oro vos ut a regis appellatione abstineatis.” Sensere etiam barbari magnitudinem animi, qua Scipio id aspernabatur, quod ceteri mortales admirantur et concupiscunt.

Scipio recepta Hispania cum iam bellum in ipsam Africam transferre meditaretur, conciliandos prius regum et gentium animos existimavit. Syphacem, Maurorum regem, opulentissimum totius Africae regem, quem magno usui sibi fore speraret, primum tentare statuit. Itaque legatum cum donis ad eum misit C. Laelium, quocum intima familiaritate vivebat. Syphax amicitiam Romanorum se accipere adnuit, sed fidem nec dare nec accipere, nisi cum ipso coram duce Romano, voluit. Scipio igitur in Africam traiecit. Forte ita incidit, ut eo ipso tempore Hasdrubal pulsus Hispania ad eundem portum appelleret, Syphacis amicitiam pariter petiturus. Uterque a rege in hospitium invitatus. Cenatum simul apud regem est; eodem etiam lecto Scipio atque Hasdrubal accubuerunt. Tanta autem inerat comitas in Scipione, ut non Syphacem modo, sed etiam hostem infestissimum Hasdrubalem sibi conciliaret. Scipio, foedere icto cum Syphace, in Hispaniam ad exercitum rediit.

Masinissa quoque amicitiam cum Scipione iungere iam dudum cupiebat. Quare ad eum tres Numidarum principes misit ad tempus locumque conloquio statuendum. Duos pro obsidibus retineri a Scipione iubet; remisso tertio, qui Masinissam ad locum constitutum adduceret, Scipio et Masinissa cum paucis in conloquium venerunt. Ceperat iam ante Numidam ex fama rerum gestarum admiratio viri, sed maior praesentis veneratio cepit: erat enim in vultu maiestas summa; accedebat promissa caesaries habitusque corporis, non cultus munditiis, sed virilis vere ac militaris, et florens iuventa. Prope attonitus ipso congressu Numida gratias de filio fratris remisso agit: adfirmat se ex eo tempore eam quaesivisse occasionem, quam tandem oblatam non omiserit; cupere se illi et populo Romano operam navare. Laetus eum Scipio audivit atque in societatem recepit.

Scipio deinde Romam rediit et ante annos consul factus est. Sicilia ei provincia decreta est permissumque ut in Africam inde traiceret. Qui cum vellet ex fortissimis peditibus Romanis trecentorum equitum numerum complere, nec posset illos subito armis et equis instruere, id prudenti consilio perfecit. Namque ex omni Sicilia trecentos iuvenes nobilissimos et ditissimos, qui equis militarent et secum in Africam traicerent, legit diemque iis edixit, qua equis armisque instructi atque ornati adessent. Gravis ea militia, procul domo, terra marique multos labores, magna pericula adlatura videbatur; neque ipsos modo, sed parentes cognatosque eorum ea cura angebat. Ubi dies quae dicta erat advenit, arma equosque ostenderunt, sed omnes fere longinquum et grave bellum horrere apparebat. Tunc Scipio militiam iis se remissurum ait, si arma et equos militibus Romanis voluissent tradere. Laeti condicionem acceperunt iuvenes Siculi. Ita Scipio sine publica impensa suos instruxit ornavitque equites.

Tunc Scipio ex Sicilia in Africam vento secundo profectus est tanto militum ardore, ut non ad bellum duci viderentur, sed ad certa victoriae praemia. Celeriter naves e conspectu Siciliae ablatae sunt conspectaque brevi Africae litora. Scipio cum egrediens ad terram navi prolapsus esset et ob hoc attonitos milites cerneret, id, quod trepidationem adferebat, in hortationem convertens, “Africam oppressi” inquit, “milites!” Expositis copiis in proximis tumulis castra metatus est. Ibi speculatores hostium in castris deprehensos et ad se perductos nec supplicio adfecit nec de consiliis ac viribus Poenorum percontatus est, sed circa omnes Romani exercitus manipulos curavit deducendos; dein interrogatos num ea satis considerassent, quae speculari erant iussi, prandio dato incolumes dimisit.

Scipioni in Africam advenienti Masinissa se coniunxit cum parva equitum turma. Syphax vero a Romanis ad Poenos defecerat. Hasdrubal, Poenorum dux, Syphaxque Scipioni se opposuerunt, qui utriusque castra una nocte perrupit et incendit. Syphax ipse captus et vivus ad Scipionem pertractus est. Syphacem in castra adduci cum esset nuntiatum, omnis velut ad spectaculum triumphi multitudo effusa est; praecedebat ipse vinctus, sequebatur grex nobilium Maurorum. Movebat omnes fortuna viri, cuius amicitiam olim Scipio petierat. Regem aliosque captivos Romam misit Scipio; Masinissam, qui egregie rem Romanam adiuverat, aurea corona donavit.

Haec et aliae, quae sequebantur, clades Carthaginiensibus tantum terroris intulerunt, ut Hannibalem ex Italia ad tuendam patriam revocarent. Frendens gemensque ac vix lacrimis temperans is dicitur legatorum verba audisse mandatisque paruisse. Respexit saepe Italiae litora, semet accusans, quod non victorem exercitum statim ab Cannensi pugna Romam duxisset. Zamam venerat Hannibal, quae urbs quinque dierum iter a Carthagine abest, et nuntium ad Scipionem misit ut conloquendi secum potestatem faceret. Scipio cum conloquium haud abnuisset, dies locusque constituitur. Itaque congressi sunt duo clarissimi suae aetatis duces. Steterunt aliquamdiu taciti mutuaque admiratione defixi. Cum vero de condicionibus pacis inter eos non convenisset, ad suos se receperunt, renuntiantes armis decernendum esse. Commisso deinde proelio Hannibal victus cum quattuor equitibus fugit. Ceterum constat utrumque de altero confessum esse nec melius instrui aciem nec acrius potuisse pugnari.

Carthaginienses metu perculsi ad petendam pacem oratores mittunt triginta civitatis principes. Qui ubi in castra Romana venerunt, veniam civitati petebant non culpam purgantes, sed initium culpae in Hannibalem transferentes. Victis leges imposuit Scipio. Legati, cum nullas condiciones recusarent, Romam profecti sunt, ut, quae a Scipione pacta essent, ea patrum ac populi auctoritate confirmarentur. Ita pace terra marique parta, Scipio exercitu in naves imposito Romam revertit. Ad quem advenientem concursus ingens factus est; effusa non ex urbibus modo, sed etiam ex agris multitudo viam obsidebat. Scipio inter gratulantium plausus triumpho omnium clarissimo urbem est invectus primusque nomine victae a se gentis est nobilitatus Africanusque appellatus.

Ex his rebus gestis virum eum esse virtutis divinae vulgo creditum est. Id etiam dicere haud piget, quod scriptores de eo litteris mandaverunt, Scipionem consuevisse, priusquam dilucesceret, in Capitolium ventitare ac iubere aperiri cellam Iovis ibi solum diu demorari, quasi consultantem de re publica cum Iove: aedituosque eius templi saepe esse miratos, quod eum id temporis in Capitolium ingredientem canes, semper in alios saevientes, non latrarent. Has vulgi de Scipione opiniones confirmare atque approbare videbantur dicta factaque eius pleraque admiranda, ex quibus est unum huiuscemodi. Adsidebat oppugnabatque oppidum in Hispania, situ moenibusque ac defensoribus validum et munitum, re etiam cibaria copiosum, neque ulla eius potiundi spes erat. Quodam die ius in castris sedens dicebat Scipio atque ex eo loco id oppidum procul videbatur. Tum e militibus, qui in iure apud eum stabant, interrogavit quispiam ex more in quem diem locumque vades sisti iuberet. Et Scipio manum ad ipsam oppidi, quod obsidebatur, arcem protendens, “Perendie” inquit “sese sistant illo in loco,” atque ita factum. Die tertia, in quam vades sisti iusserat, oppidum captum est. Eodem die in arce eius oppidi ius dixit.

Hannibal, a Scipione victus suisque invisus, ad Antiochum, Syriae regem, confugit eumque hostem Romanis fecit. Missi sunt Roma legati ad Antiochum, in quibus erat Scipio Africanus, qui cum Hannibale Ephesi conlocutus ab eo quaesivit, quem fuisse maximum imperatorem crederet. Respondit Hannibal Alexandrum, Macedonum regem, maximum sibi videri, quod parva manu innumerabiles exercitus fudisset. Quaerenti deinde, quem secundum poneret, “Pyrrhum” inquit, “quod primus castra metari docuit nemoque illo elegantius loca cepit et praesidia deposuit.” Sciscitanti denique quem tertium duceret, semet ipsum dixit. Tum ridens Scipio “Quidnam tu diceres” inquit “si me vicisses?” “Tum me vero” respondit Hannibal “et ante Alexandrum et ante Pyrrhum et ante omnes alios imperatores posuissem.” Ita improviso adsentationis genere Scipionem e grege imperatorum velut inaestimabilem secernebat.

Scipio ipse fertur quondam dixisse, cum eum quidam parum pugnacem dicerent, “Imperatorem me mater, non bellatorem peperit.” Idem dicere solitus est non solum dandam esse viam fugientibus, sed etiam muniendam.

Decreto adversus Antiochum bello cum Syria provincia obvenisset Lucio Scipioni, quia parum in eo putabatur esse animi, parum roboris, senatus gerendi huius belli curam mandari volebat conlegae eius C. Laelio. Surgens tunc Scipio Africanus, frater maior Lucii Scipionis, illam familiae ignominiam deprecatus est: dixit in fratre suo summam esse virtutem, summum consilium seque ei legatum fore promisit. Quod cum ab eo esset dictum, nihil est de Lucii Scipionis provincia commutatum: itaque frater natu maior minori legatus in Asiam profectus est et tam diu eum consilio operaque adiuvit, donec triumphum ille et cognomen Asiatici peperisset.

Eodem bello filius Scipionis Africani captus est et ad Antiochum deductus. Benigne et liberaliter adulescentem rex habuit, quamquam ab eius patre tum maxime finibus imperii pellebatur. Cum deinde pacem Antiochus a Romanis peteret, legatus eius Publium Scipionem adiit eique filium sine pretio redditurum regem dixit, si per eum pacem impetrasset. Cui Scipio respondit “Abi, nuntia regi, me pro tanto munere gratias agere; sed nunc aliam gratiam non possum referre, quam ut ei suadeam ut bello absistat et pacis condicionem nullam recuset.” Pax non convenit; tamen Antiochus Scipioni filium remisit tantique viri maiestatem venerari quam dolorem suum ulcisci maluit.

Victo Antiocho cum praedae ratio a L. Scipione reposceretur, Africanus prolatum ab eo librum, quo acceptae et expensae summae continebantur et refelli inimicorum accusatio poterat, discerpsit, indignatus de ea re dubitari, quae sub ipso legato administrata esset. Quin etiam hunc in modum verba fecit: “Non est quod quaeratis, patres conscripti, num parvam pecuniam in aerarium rettulerim, qui antea illud Punico auro repleverim, neque mea innocentia potest in dubium vocari. Cum Africam totam potestati vestrae subiecerim, nihil ex ea praeter cognomen rettuli. Non igitur me Punicae, non fratrem meum Asiaticae gazae avarum reddiderunt; sed uterque nostrum invidia quam pecunia est locupletior.” Tam constantem defensionem Scipionis universus senatus comprobavit.

Deinde Scipioni Africano duo tribuni plebis diem dixerunt, quod praeda ex Antiocho capta aerarium fraudasset. Ubi causae dicendae dies venit, Scipio magna hominum frequentia in Forum est deductus. Iussus causam dicere rostra conscendit et, corona triumphali capiti suo imposita, “Hoc ego die” inquit “Hannibalem Poenum, imperio nostro inimicissimum, magno proelio vici in terra Africa pacemque nobis et victoriam peperi insperabilem. Ne igitur simus adversus deos ingrati, sed censeo relinquamus nebulones hos eamusque nunc protinus in Capitolium Iovi optimo maximo supplicatum.” A rostris in Capitolium ascendit; simul se universa contio ab accusatoribus avertit et secuta Scipionem est, nec quisquam praeter praeconem, qui reum citabat, cum tribunis remansit. Celebratior is dies favore hominum fuit, quam quo triumphans de Syphace rege et Carthaginiensibus urbem est ingressus. Inde, ne amplius tribuniciis iniuriis vexaretur, in Literninum concessit, ubi reliquam egit aetatem sine urbis desiderio.

Cum in Liternina villa se contineret, complures praedonum duces ad eum videndum forte confluxerunt. Quos cum ad vim faciendam venire existimasset, praesidium servorum in tecto conlocavit aliaque parabat, quae ad eos repellendos opus erant. Quod ubi praedones animadverterunt, abiectis armis ianuae appropinquant et clara voce nuntiant Scipioni se non vitae eius hostes, sed virtutis admiratores venisse, conspectum tanti viri, quasi caeleste aliquod beneficium, expetentes; proinde ne gravaretur se spectandum praebere. Haec postquam audivit Scipio, fores reserari eosque introduci iussit. Illi postes ianuae tamquam religiosissimam aram venerati, cupide Scipionis dextram apprehenderunt ac diu deosculati sunt; deinde positis ante vestibulum donis laeti, quod sibi Scipionem ut viderent contigisset, domum reverterunt. Paulo post mortuus est Scipio moriensque ab uxore petiit ne corpus suum Romam referretur.

As printed XXII. Tiberius Gracchus et Gaius Gracchus

Tiberius et Gaius Gracchi Scipionis Africani ex filia nepotes erant. Horum adulescentia bonis artibus et magna omnium spe exacta est: ad egregiam enim indolem optima accedebat educatio. Erant enim diligentia Corneliae matris a pueris docti et Graecis litteris eruditi. Maximum matronis ornamentum esse liberos bene institutos merito putabat mater illa sapientissima. Cum Campana matrona, apud illam hospita, ornamenta sua, illo saeculo pulcherrima, ostentaret ei muliebriter, Cornelia traxit eam sermone quousque e schola redirent liberi. Quos reversos hospitae ostendens, “Haec” inquit “mea ornamenta sunt.” Nihil quidem his adulescentibus neque a natura neque a doctrina defuit; sed ambo rem publicam, quam tueri poterant, perturbare maluerunt.

Tiberius Gracchus, tribunus plebis creatus, a senatu descivit: populi favorem profusis largitionibus sibi conciliavit; agros plebi dividebat; provincias novis coloniis replebat. Cum autem tribuniciam potestatem sibi prorogari vellet et palam dictitasset, interempto senatu omnia per plebem agi debere, viam sibi ad regnum parare videbatur. Quare cum convocati patres deliberarent quidnam faciendum esset, statim Tiberius Capitolium petit, manum ad caput referens, quo signo salutem suam populo commendabat. Hoc nobilitas ita accepit, quasi diadema posceret, segniterque cessante consule, Scipio Nasica, cum esset consobrinus Tiberii Gracchi, patriam cognationi praeferens sublata dextra proclamavit: “Qui rem publicam salvam esse volunt, me sequantur!” Dein optimates, senatus atque equestris ordinis pars maior in Gracchum inruunt, qui fugiens decurrensque Clivo Capitolino fragmento subsellii ictus vitam, quam gloriosissime degere potuerat, immatura morte finivit. Mortui Tiberii corpus in flumen proiectum est.

Gaium Gracchum idem furor, qui fratrem, Tiberium, occupavit. Tribunatum enim adeptus, seu vindicandae fraternae necis, seu comparandae regiae potentiae causa, pessima coepit inire consilia: maximas largitiones fecit; aerarium effudit: legem de frumento plebi dividendo tulit: civitatem omnibus Italicis dabat. His Gracchi consiliis quanta poterant contentione obsistebant omnes boni, in quibus maxime Piso, vir consularis. Is cum multa contra legem frumentariam dixisset, lege tamen lata ad frumentum cum ceteris accipiendum venit. Gracchus ubi animadvertit in contione Pisonem stantem, eum sic compellavit audiente populo Romano: “Qui tibi constas, Piso, cum ea lege frumentum petas, quam dissuasisti?” Cui Piso “Nolim quidem, Gracche” inquit, “mea bona tibi viritim dividere liceat; sed si facies, partem petam.” Quo responso aperte declaravit vir gravis et sapiens lege, quam tulerat Gracchus, patrimonium publicum dissipari.

Decretum a senatu est ut videret consul Opimius ne quid detrimenti res publica caperet: quod nisi in maximo discrimine decerni non solebat. Gaius Gracchus, armata familia, Aventinum occupavit. Consul, vocato ad arma populo, Gaium aggressus est, qui pulsus profugit et, cum iam comprehenderetur, iugulum servo praebuit, qui dominum et mox semet ipsum super domini corpus interemit. Ut Tiberii Gracchi antea corpus, ita Gaii mira crudelitate victorum in Tiberim deiectum est. Caput autem a Septimuleio, amico Gracchi, ad Opimium relatum auro repensum fertur. Sunt qui tradunt infuso plumbo eum partem capitis, quo gravius efficeretur, explesse.

Occiso Tiberio Graccho cum senatus consulibus mandasset, ut in eos, qui cum Graccho consenserant, animadverteretur, Blosius quidam, Tiberii amicus, pro se deprecatum venit, hanc, ut sibi ignosceretur, causam adferens, quod tanti Gracchum fecisset, ut, quidquid ille vellet, sibi faciendum putaret. Tum consul “Quid?” inquit “si te Gracchus templo Iovis in Capitolio faces subdere iussisset, obsecuturusne voluntati illius fuisses propter istam, quam iactas, familiaritatem?” “Numquam” inquit Blosius “voluisset id quidem, sed si voluisset, paruissem.” Nefaria est ea vox, nulla enim est excusatio peccati, si amici causa peccaveris.

Exstat Gaii Gracchi e Sardinia Romam reversi oratio, in qua cum alia tum haec de se narrat: “Versatus sum in provincia, quomodo ex usu vestro existimabam esse, non quomodo ambitioni meae conducere arbitrabar. Nemo possit vere dicere assem aut eo plus in muneribus me accepisse aut mea causa quemquam sumptum fecisse. Zonas, quas Roma proficiscens plenas argenti extuli, eas ex provincia inanes rettuli. Alii amphoras, quas vini plenas extulerunt, eas argento repletas domum reportarunt.”

As printed XXIII. Gaius Marius

C. Marius, humili loco natus, militiae tirocinium in Hispania duce Scipione posuit. Erat imprimis Scipioni carus ob singularem virtutem et impigram ad pericula et labores alacritatem. Cum aliquando inter cenam Scipionem quidam interrogasset, si quid illi accidisset, quemnam res publica aeque magnum habitura esset imperatorem, Scipio, percusso leniter Marii umero, “Fortasse hunc” inquit. Quo dicto excitatus Marius dignos rebus, quas postea gessit, spiritus concepit.

Q. Metellum in Numidiam contra Iugurtham missum, cuius legatus erat, cum ab eo Romam missus esset, apud populum Romanum criminatus est bellum ducere: si se consulem fecissent, brevi tempore aut vivum aut mortuum Iugurtham se in potestatem populi Romani redacturum. Itaque creatus est consul et in Metelli locum suffectus. Bellum ab illo prospere coeptum confecit. Iugurtha ad Gaetulos perfugerat eorumque regem Bocchum adversus Romanos concitaverat. Marius Gaetulos et Bocchum aggressus fudit; castellum in excelsa ripa positum, ubi regii thesauri erant, non sine multo labore expugnavit. Bocchus, bello defessus, legatos ad Marium misit, pacem orantes. Sulla quaestor, a Mario ad regem remissus, Boccho persuasit ut Iugurtham Romanis traderet. Iugurtha igitur vinctus ad Marium deductus est; quem Marius triumphans ante currum egit et in carcerem caenosum inclusit. Quo cum Iugurtha detracta veste ingrederetur, os ridentis in modum diduxisse et stupens similisque desipienti exclamasse fertur: “Pro! quam frigidum est vestrum balneum!” Paucis diebus post in carcere necatus est.

Marius post bellum Numidicum iterum consul creatus bellumque ei contra Cimbros et Teutones decretum est. Hi novi hostes, ab extremis Germaniae finibus profugi, novas sedes quaerebant, exclusique Gallia et Hispania cum in Italiam remigrarent, a Romanis ut aliquid sibi terrae darent petierunt. Repulsi, quod nequiverant precibus, armis petere constituunt. Tres duces Romani impetus barbarorum non sustinuerunt. Omnes fugati, exuti castris. Actum erat de imperio Romano, nisi Marius fuisset. Hic primo Teutones sub ipsis Alpium radicibus adsecutus proelio oppressit. Vallem fluviumque medium hostes tenebant: Romanis aquarum nulla copia. Aucta necessitate virtus causa victoriae fuit. Nam flagitante aquam exercitu Marius “Viri” inquit “estis, en illic aquam habetis.” Itaque tanto ardore pugnatum est eaque caedes hostium fuit, ut Romani victores de cruento flumine non plus aquae biberent quam sanguinis barbarorum. Caesa traduntur hostium ducenta milia, capta nonaginta. Rex ipse Teutobochus in proximo saltu comprehensus insigne spectaculum triumphi fuit: quippe vir proceritatis eximiae super tropaea ipsa eminebat.

Deletis Teutonibus, C. Marius in Cimbros se convertit. Qui cum ex alia parte Italiam ingressi Athesim flumen non ponte nec navibus, sed iniectis arborum truncis, velut aggere, traiecissent, occurrit iis C. Marius. Cimbri legatos ad consulem miserunt, agros urbesque sibi et fratribus postulantes, Teutonum enim cladem ignorabant. Quaerente Mario quos illi fratres dicerent, cum Teutones nominassent, ridens Marius “Omittite” inquit “fratres; tenent hi acceptam a nobis terram aeternumque tenebunt.” Tum legati se ludibrio haberi sentientes ultionem Mario minati sunt, simul atque Teutones advenissent. “Atqui adsunt” inquit Marius “nec sane civile foret vos fratribus vestris non salutatis discedere.” Tum vinctos adduci iussit Teutonum duces, qui in proelio capti erant.

His rebus auditis, Cimbri egrediuntur castris et cum paucis suorum ad vallum Romanum adequitans Boiorix, Cimbrorum dux, Marium ad pugnam provocat et diem pugnae a Romanorum imperatore petit. Proximum dedit consul. Marius cum aciem ita instituisset, ut pulvis in oculos et ora hostium ferretur, incredibili strage prostrata est illa Cimbrorum multitudo: caesa traduntur centum octoginta hominum milia. Nec minor cum uxoribus pugna quam cum viris fuit, cum obiectis undique plaustris, desuper, quasi e turribus, lanceis contisque pugnarent. Victae tamen cum missa ad Marium legatione libertatem non impetrassent, suffocatis elisisque infantibus suis aut mutuis conciderunt vulneribus aut vinculo e crinibus suis facto ab arboribus pependerunt. Canes quoque defendere, Cimbris caesis, eorum domos. Marius pro duobus triumphis, qui offerebantur, uno contentus fuit. Primores civitatis, qui ei aliquamdiu ut novo homini ad tantos honores evecto inviderant, conservatam ab eo rem publicam fatebantur. In ipsa acie Marius duas Camertium cohortes, mira virtute vim Cimbrorum sustinentes contra legem civitate donaverat. Quod quidem factum et vere et egregie postea excusavit, dicens inter armorum strepitum verba se iuris civilis exaudire non potuisse.

Illa tempestate primum Romae bellum civile commotum est. Causam bello dedit C. Marius. Cum enim Sulla consul contra Mithridatem, regem Ponti, missus fuisset, Sulpicius, tribunus plebis, legem ad populum tulit ut Sullae imperium abrogaretur, C. Mario bellum decerneretur Mithridaticum. Qua re Sulla commotus cum exercitu ad urbem venit, eam armis occupavit, Sulpicium interfecit, Marium fugavit. Marius hostes persequentes fugiens aliquamdiu in palude delituit. Sed paulo post repertus extractusque, ut erat nudo corpore caenoque oblitus, iniecto in collum loro Minturnas raptus et in custodiam coniectus est. Missus est ad eum occidendum servus publicus, natione Cimber, quem Marius vultus auctoritate deterruit. Cum enim hominem ad se stricto gladio venientem vidisset “Tune, homo,” inquit “C. Marium audebis occidere?” Quo audito attonitus ille ac tremens abiecto ferro fugit, Marium se non posse occidere clamitans. Marius deinde ab iis, qui prius eum occidere voluerant, e carcere emissus est.

Accepta navicula in Africam traiecit et in agrum Carthaginiensem pervenit. Ibi cum in locis solitariis sederet, venit ad eum lictor Sextilii praetoris, qui tum Africam obtinebat. Ab hoc, quem numquam laesisset, Marius humanitatis tamen aliquod officium exspectabat; at lictor decedere eum provincia iussit, nisi in se animadverti vellet: torveque intuentem et vocem nullam emittentem Marium rogavit tandem ecquid renuntiari praetori vellet? Marius “Abi” inquit, “nuntia vidisse te Gaium Marium in Carthaginis ruinis sedentem.” Duobus clarissimis exemplis de inconstantia rerum humanarum eum admonebat, cum et urbis maximae excidium et viri clarissimi casum ante oculos poneret.

Profecto ad bellum Mithridaticum Sulla, Marius revocatus a Cinna in Italiam rediit, efferatus magis calamitate quam domitus. Cum exercitu Romam ingressus eam caedibus et rapinis vastavit; omnes adversae factionis nobiles variis suppliciorum generibus adfecit: quinque dies continuos totidemque noctes illa scelerum omnium duravit licentia. Hoc tempore admiranda sane populi Romani abstinentia fuit. Cum enim Marius occisorum domos multitudini diripiendas obiecisset, inveniri potuit nemo, qui civili luctu praedam peteret: quae quidem tam misericors continentia plebis tacita quaedam crudelium victorum vituperatio fuit. Tandem Marius, senio et laboribus confectus, in morbum incidit et ingenti omnium laetitia vitam finivit. Cuius viri si examinentur cum virtutibus vitia, haud facile sit dictu utrum bello melior, an pace perniciosior fuerit: namque quam rem publicam armatus servavit, eam primo togatus omni genere fraudis, postremo armis hostiliter evertit.

Erat Marius durior ad humanitatis studia et ingenuarum artium contemptor. Cum aedem Honoris de manubiis hostium vovisset, spreta peregrinorum marmorum nobilitate artificumque Graecorum arte, eam vulgari lapide per artificem Romanum curavit aedificandam. Et Graecas litteras despiciebat, quod doctoribus suis parum ad virtutem profuissent. At idem fortis, validus, adversus dolorem confirmatus. Cum ei varices in crure secarentur, vetuit se adligari. Acrem tamen fuisse doloris morsum ipse ostendit: nam medico, alterum crus postulanti, noluit praebere, quod maiorem esse remedii quem morbi dolorem iudicaret.

As printed XXIV. Lucius Cornelius Sulla
138-78 B.C.

Cornelius Sulla cum parvulus a nutrice ferretur, mulier obvia “Salve” inquit “puer tibi et rei publicae tuae felix,” et statim quaesita quae haec dixisset, non potuit inveniri.

Hic bello Iugurthino quaestor Marii fuit. Qui cum usque ad quaesturae comitia vitam libidine, vino, ludicrae artis amore inquinatam perduxisset, C. Marius consul moleste tulisse traditur, quod sibi gravissimum bellum gerenti tam delicatus quaestor sorte obvenisset. Eiusdem tamen, postquam in Africam venit, virtus enituit. Bello Cimbrico, legatus consulis bonam operam navavit. Consul ipse deinde factus, pulso in exsilium Mario, adversus Mithridatem profectus est. Mithridates enim, Ponticus rex, vir bello acerrimus, virtute eximius, odio in Romanos non inferior Hannibale, occupata Asia necatisque in ea omnibus civibus Romanis, quos quidem eadem die atque hora per omnes civitates interimi iusserat, Europae quoque Italiaeque imminere videbatur. Ac primo Sulla illius praefectos duobus proeliis in Graecia profligavit; dein transgressus in Asiam Mithridatem ipsum fudit; et oppressisset, nisi ad bellum civile adversus Marium festinans qualemcumque pacem componere maluisset. Mithridatem tamen pecunia multavit; Asia aliisque provinciis, quas occupaverat, decedere paternisque finibus contentum esse coegit.

Sulla propter motus urbanos cum victore exercitu Romam properavit; eos, qui Mario favebant, omnes superavit. Nihil autem ea victoria fuit crudelius. Sulla, urbem ingressus et dictator creatus, vel in eos, qui se sponte dediderant, iussit animadverti. Quattuor milia deditorum inermium civium in Circo interfici iussit. Quis autem illos potest computare, quos in urbe passim, quisquis voluit, occidit, donec admoneret Fufidius quidam vivere aliquos debere, ut essent, quibus imperaret. Novo et inaudito exemplo tabulam proscriptionis proposuit, qua nomina eorum, qui occidendi essent, continebantur; cumque omnium orta esset indignatio, postridie plura etiam adiecit nomina. Ingens caesorum fuit multitudo. Nec solum in eos saevivit, qui armis contra se dimicavissent, sed etiam quieti animi cives propter pecuniae magnitudinem proscriptorum numero adiecit. Civis quidam innoxius, cui fundus in agro Albano erat, cum legens proscriptorum nomina se quoque videret ascriptum, “Vae” inquit “misero mihi! me fundus Albanus persequitur.” Neque longe progressus a quodam, qui eum agnoverat, confossus est.

Depulsis prostratisque inimicorum partibus Sulla Felicem se edicto appellavit, cumque eius uxor geminos eodem tunc partu edidisset, puerum Faustum puellamque Faustam nominari voluit. Sed paucis annis post repente contra omnium exspectationem dictaturam deposuit. Dimissis lictoribus diu in Foro cum amicis deambulavit. Stupebat populus eum privatum videns, cuius modo tam formidolosa fuerat potestas; quodque non minus mirandum fuit, privato ei non solum salus, sed etiam dignitas constitit, qui cives innumeros occiderat. Unus adulescens fuit, qui auderet queri et recedentem usque ad fores domus maledictis incessere. Atque ille, cuius iram potentissimi viri maximaeque civitates nec effugere nec placare potuerant, unius adulescentuli contumelias patienti animo tulit, id tantum in limine iam dicens: “Hic adulescens efficiet ne quis posthac tale imperium deponat.”

Sulla deinde in villam profectus rusticari et venando vitam agere coepit. Ibi morbo correptus interiit, vir ingentis animi, cupidus voluptatum, sed gloriae cupidior; litteris Graecis atque Latinis eruditus et virorum litteratorum adeo amans, ut sedulitatem etiam mali cuiusdam poetae aliquo praemio dignam duxerit: nam cum ille epigramma in eum fecisset eique subiecisset, Sulla statim praemium ei dari iussit, sed ea lege, ne quid postea scriberet. Ante victoriam laudandus, in iis vero, quae secuta sunt, numquam satis vituperandus, urbem enim et Italiam civilis sanguinis fluminibus inundavit. Non solum in vivos saeviit, sed ne mortuis quidem pepercit: nam Gai Marii, cuius, etsi postea hostis, aliquando tamen quaestor fuerat, erutos cineres in flumen proiecit. Qua crudelitate rerum praeclare gestarum gloriam corrupit.

As printed XXV. Lucius Lucullus

Lucius Lucullus ingenio, doctrina, virtute fuit insignis. In Asiam quaestor profectus ibi per multos annos admirabili quadam laude provinciae praefuit, deinde absens factus aedilis, continuo praetor, inde ad consulatum promotus est, quem ita gessit, ut omnes diligentiam admirarentur, ingenium agnoscerent. Post ad Mithridaticum bellum missus a senatu non modo opinionem vicit omnium, sed etiam gloriam superiorum ducum. Idque eo fuit mirabilius, quod ab eo laus imperatoria non admodum exspectabatur, qui adulescentiam in forensi opera, quaesturae diuturnum tempus in Asiae pace consumpserat; sed incredibilis quaedam ingenii magnitudo non desideravit usus disciplinam. Itaque cum totum iter et navigationem consumpsisset partim in percontando a peritis, partim in rebus gestis legendis, in Asiam factus imperator venit, cum esset Roma profectus rei militaris rudis.

Lucullus eo bello magnas ac memorabiles res gessit; Mithridatem saepe multis locis fudit; Tigranem, regum maximum, in Armenia vicit, ultimamque bello manum magis noluit imponere, quam non potuit; sed alioqui per omnia laudabilis et bello paene invictus pecuniae cupidini nimium deditus fuit; quam tamen ideo expetebat, ut per luxuriam effunderet. Itaque postquam de Mithridate triumphavit, abiecta omnium rerum cura coepit delicate ac molliter vivere otioque et luxu diffluere: magnifice et immenso sumptu villas aedificavit atque ad eorum usum mare ipsum vexavit. Nam in quibusdam locis moles mari iniecit; in aliis, suffossis montibus, mare in terras induxit, unde eum haud infacete Pompeius Xerxem togatum vocare adsueverat.

Habebat Lucullus villam prospectu et ambulatione pulcherrimam. Quo cum venisset Pompeius, id unum reprehendit, quod ea habitatio esset quidem aestate peramoena, sed hieme minus commoda videretur; cui Lucullus “Putasne” inquit “me minus sapere quam hirundines, quae adveniente hieme sedem commutant?” Villarum magnificentiae respondebat epularum sumptus. Cum aliquando modica ei, utpote soli, cena esset posita, coquum graviter obiurgavit, eique excusanti ac dicenti se non debuisse lautum parare convivium, quod nemo esset ad cenam invitatus, “Quid ais?” inquit iratus Lucullus. “Nesciebasne Lucullum hodie cenaturum esse apud Lucullum?”

Laudanda est Luculli impensa et studium in libris. Nam et multos et optimos conquisivit eosque liberaliter dedit utendos. Patebat omnibus bibliotheca, et in porticus ei adiectas velut ad Musarum aedem veniebant maxime Graeci tempusque ibi iucunde inter se traducebant ab aliis curis liberi. Saepe cum iis versabatur Lucullus et inter magnam doctorum virorum turbam ambulabat.

As printed XXVI. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus

Gnaeus Pompeius, stirpis senatoriae, bello civili se et patrem consilio servavit. Cum enim Pompei pater exercitui suo ob avaritiam esset invisus, facta in eum conspiratione, Terentius quidam, Gnaei Pompei filii contubernalis, hunc occidendum suscepit, dum alii tabernaculum patris incenderent. Quae res cum iuveni Pompeio cenanti nuntiata esset, nihil periculo motus solito hilarius bibit et cum Terentio eadem, qua antea, comitate usus est. Deinde cubiculum ingressus clam subduxit se tentorio et firmam patri circumdedit custodiam. Terentius tum destricto ense ad lectum Pompei accessit multisque ictibus stragula percussit. Orta mox seditione Pompeius se in media coniecit agmina, militesque tumultuantes precibus et lacrimis placavit ac duci reconciliavit.

Eodem bello Pompeius partes Sullae secutus ita se gessit ut ab eo maxime diligeretur. Annos tres et viginti natus, ut Sullae auxilio veniret, paterni exercitus reliquias conlegit, statimque dux peritus exstitit. Magnus illius apud militem amor, magna apud omnes admiratio fuit; nullus ei labor taedio, nulla defatigatio molestiae erat. Cibi vinique temperans, somni parcus; inter milites corpus exercens cum alacribus saltu, cum velocibus cursu, cum validis luctando certabat. Tum ad Sullam iter intendit et in eo itinere tres hostium exercitus aut fudit aut sibi adiunxit. Quem ubi Sulla ad se accedere audivit egregiamque sub signis iuventutem aspexit, desiliit ex equo Pompeiumque salutavit imperatorem et postea ei venienti solebat sella adsurgere et caput aperire et equo descendere, quem honorem nemini nisi Pompeio tribuebat.

Postea Pompeius in Siciliam profectus est, ut eam a Carbone, Sullae inimico, occupatam reciperet. Carbo comprehensus et ad Pompeium ductus est: quem Pompeius, etsi Carbo muliebriter mortem extimescens demisse et flebiliter mortem deprecabatur, ad supplicium duci iussit. Longe moderatior fuit Pompeius erga Sthenium, Siciliae cuiusdam civitatis principem. Cum enim in eam civitatem animadvertere decrevisset, quae sibi adversata fuisset, inique eum facturum Sthenius exclamavit, si ob unius culpam omnes puniret. Interroganti Pompeio quisnam ille unus esset, “Ego” inquit Sthenius “qui cives meos ad id induxi.” Tam libera voce delectatus Pompeius omnibus et Sthenio ipsi pepercit.

Transgressus inde in Africam Iarbam, Numidiae regem, qui Marii partibus favebat, bello persecutus intra dies quadraginta oppressit et Africam subegit adulescens quattuor et viginti annorum. Deinde cum litterae ei a Sulla redditae essent, quibus exercitu dimisso cum una legione successorem exspectare iubebatur, Pompeius, quamquam aegre id ferebat, tamen paruit et Romam revertit. Revertenti incredibilis hominum multitudo obviam ivit; Sulla quoque laetus eum excepit et Magni cognomine consalutavit. Nihilo minus Pompeio triumphum petenti restitit: neque vero ea re a proposito deterritus est Pompeius aususque dicere plures adorare solem orientem quam occidentem: quo dicto innuebat Sullae potentiam minui, suam crescere. Ea voce audita Sulla, confidentia adulescentis perculsus, “Triumphet! triumphet!” exclamavit.

Metello iam seni et bellum in Hispania segnius gerenti conlega datus Pompeius adversus Sertorium vario eventu dimicavit. Maximum ibi in proelio quodam periculum subiit: cum enim vir vasta corporis magnitudine impetum in eum fecisset, Pompeius manum amputavit; sed multis in eum concurrentibus vulnus in femore accepit et a suis fugientibus desertus in hostium potestate erat. At praeter spem evasit: barbari enim equum eius auro phalerisque eximiis instructum ceperant. Dum igitur praedam inter se altercantes partiuntur, Pompeius eorum manus effugit. Altero proelio cum Metellus Pompeio laboranti auxilio venisset, Sertorius recedere coactus dixisse fertur: “Nisi anus illa supervenisset, ego hunc puerum verberibus castigatum Romam dimisissem.” Metellum anum appellabat, quia is, iam senex, ad mollem et effeminatam vitam deflexerat. Sertorio interfecto Pompeius Hispaniam recepit.

Cum piratae illa tempestate maria omnia infestarent et quasdam etiam Italiae urbes diripuissent, ad eos opprimendos cum imperio extraordinario missus est Pompeius. Nimiae viri potentiae obsistebant quidam ex optimatibus et imprimis Quintus Catulus. Qui cum in contione dixisset esse quidem praeclarum virum Cn. Pompeium, sed non esse uni omnia tribuenda, adiecissetque: “Si quid huic acciderit, quem in eius locum substituetis?” summo consensu succlamavit universa contio, “Te, Quinte Catule.” Tam honorifico civium testimonio victus Catulus e contione discessit. Pompeius, dispositis per omnes maris recessus navibus, brevi terrarum orbem illa peste liberavit; praedones multis locis victos fudit; eosdem in deditionem acceptos in urbibus et agris procul a mari conlocavit. Nihil hac victoria celerius, nam intra quadragesimum diem piratas toto mari expulit.

Confecto bello piratico, Gnaeus Pompeius contra Mithridatem profectus in Asiam magna celeritate contendit. Proelium cum rege conserere cupiebat, neque opportuna dabatur pugnandi facultas, quia Mithridates interdiu castris se continebat, noctu vero haud tutum erat congredi cum hoste in locis ignotis. Nocte tamen aliquando cum Pompeius Mithridatem aggressus esset, luna magno fuit Romanis adiumento. Quam cum Romani a tergo haberent, umbrae corporum longius proiectae ad primos usque hostium ordines pertinebant, unde decepti regii milites in umbras, tamquam in propinquum hostem, tela mittebant. Victus Mithridates in Pontum profugit. Pharnaces filius bellum ei intulit, qui, occisis a patre fratribus, vitae suae ipse timebat. Mithridates a filio obsessus venenum sumpsit; quod cum tardius subiret, quia adversus venena multis antea medicamentis corpus firmaverat, a milite Gallo, a quo ut adiuvaret se petierat, interfectus est.

Tigrani deinde, Armeniae regi, qui Mithridatis partes secutus erat, Pompeius bellum intulit eumque ad deditionem compulit. Qui cum procubuisset ad genua Pompei, eum erexit, et benignis verbis recreatum diadema, quod abiecerat, capiti reponere iussit, aeque pulchrum esse iudicans et vincere reges et facere. Inde in Iudaeam profectus Romanorum primus Iudaeos domuit, Hierosolyma, caput gentis, cepit, templumque iure victoriae ingressus est. Rebus Asiae compositis, in Italiam versus ad urbem venit, non, ut plerique timuerant, armatus, sed dimisso exercitu, et tertium triumphum biduo duxit. Insignis fuit multis novis inusitatisque ornamentis hic triumphus; sed nihil inlustrius visum, quam quod tribus triumphis tres orbis partes devictae causam praebuerant: Pompeius enim, quod antea contigerat nemini, primum ex Africa, iterum ex Europa, tertio ex Asia triumphavit, felix opinione hominum futurus, si, quem gloriae, eundem vitae finem habuisset neque adversam fortunam esset expertus iam senex.

Posteriore enim tempore orta inter Pompeium et Caesarem gravi dissensione, quod hic superiorem, ille parem ferre non posset, bellum civile exarsit. Caesar infesto exercitu in Italiam venit. Pompeius, relicta urbe ac deinde Italia ipsa, Thessaliam petit et cum eo consules senatusque omnis: quem insecutus Caesar apud Pharsalum acie fudit. Victus Pompeius ad Ptolemaeum, Aegypti regem, cui tutor a senatu datus erat, profugit, qui Pompeium interfici iussit. Latus Pompei sub oculis uxoris et liberorum mucrone confossum est, caput praecisum, truncus in Nilum coniectus. Deinde caput cum anulo ad Caesarem delatum est, qui eo viso lacrimas non continens illud multis pretiosissimisque odoribus cremandum curavit.

Is fuit Pompei post tres consulatus et totidem triumphos vitae exitus. Erant in Pompeio multae et magnae virtutes ac praecipue admiranda frugalitas. Cum ei aegrotanti praecepisset medicus ut turdum ederet, negarent autem servi eam avem usquam aestivo tempore posse reperiri, nisi apud Lucullum, qui turdos domi saginaret, vetuit Pompeius turdum inde peti, medicoque dixit: “Ergo, nisi Lucullus perditus deliciis esset, non viveret Pompeius?” Aliam avem, quae parabilis esset, sibi iussit apponi.

Viris doctis magnum honorem habebat Pompeius. Ex Syria decedens, confecto bello Mithridatico, cum Rhodum venisset, Posidonium cupiit audire; sed cum audivisset eum graviter esse aegrum, quod vehementer eius artus laborarent, voluit tamen nobilissimum philosophum visere. Mos erat ut, consule aedes aliquas ingressuro, lictor fores percuteret, admonens consulem adesse, at Pompeius fores Posidonii percuti honoris causa vetuit. Quem ut vidit et salutavit, moleste se dixit ferre, quod eum non posset audire. At ille “Tu vero” inquit “potes, nec committam ut dolor corporis efficiat ut frustra tantus vir ad me venerit.” Itaque cubans graviter et copiose de hoc ipso disputavit: nihil esse bonum nisi quod honestum esset, nihil malum dici posse, quod turpe non esset. Cum vero dolores acriter eum pungerent, saepe “Nihil agis,” inquit “dolor! quamvis sis molestus, numquam te esse malum confitebor.”

As printed XXVII. Gaius Iulius Caesar

C. Iulius Caesar, nobilissima Iuliorum genitus familia, annum agens sextum et decimum patrem amisit. Corneliam, Cinnae filiam, duxit uxorem; cuius pater cum esset Sullae inimicissimus, is Caesarem voluit compellere ut eam repudiaret; neque id potuit efficere. Qua re Caesar bonis spoliatus cum etiam ad necem quaereretur, mutata veste nocte urbe elapsus est et quamquam tunc quartanae morbo laborabat, prope per singulas noctes latebras commutare cogebatur; et comprehensus a Sullae liberto, ne ad Sullam perduceretur, vix data pecunia evasit. Postremo per propinquos et adfines suos veniam impetravit. Satis constat Sullam, cum deprecantibus amicissimis et ornatissimis viris aliquamdiu denegasset atque illi pertinaciter contenderent, expugnatum tandem proclamasse, vincerent, dummodo scirent eum, quem incolumem tanto opere cuperent, aliquando optimatium partibus, quas secum simul defendissent, exitio futurum; nam Caesari multos Marios inesse.

Stipendia prima in Asia fecit. In expugnatione Mitylenarum corona civica donatus est. Mortuo Sulla, Rhodum secedere statuit, ut per otium Apollonio Moloni, tunc clarissimo dicendi magistro, operam daret. Huc dum traicit, a praedonibus captus est mansitque apud eos prope quadraginta dies. Per omne autem illud spatium ita se gessit, ut piratis pariter terrori venerationique esset. Comites interim servosque ad expediendas pecunias, quibus redimeretur, dimisit. Viginti talenta piratae postulaverant: ille quinquaginta daturum se spopondit. Quibus numeratis cum expositus esset in litore, confestim Miletum, quae urbs proxime aberat, properavit ibique contracta classe invectus in eum locum, in quo ipsi praedones erant, partem classis fugavit, partem mersit, aliquot naves cepit piratasque in potestatem redactos eo supplicio, quod illis saepe minatus inter iocum erat, adfecit crucique suffixit.

Quaestori ulterior Hispania obvenit. Quo profectus cum Alpes transiret et ad conspectum pauperis cuiusdam vici comites per iocum inter se disputarent num illic etiam esset ambitioni locus, serio dixit Caesar malle se ibi primum esse, quam Romae secundum. Dominationis avidus a prima aetate regnum concupiscebat semperque in ore habebat hos Euripidis, Graeci poetae, versus:

Nam si violandum est ius, regnandi gratia

Violandum est. Aliis rebus pietatem colas.

Cumque Gades, quod est Hispaniae oppidum, venisset, animadversa apud Herculis templum magni Alexandri imagine ingemuit et quasi pertaesus ignaviam suam, quod nihildum a se memorabile actum esset in ea aetate, qua iam Alexander orbem terrarum subegisset, missionem continuo efflagitavit ad captandas quam primum maiorum rerum occasiones in urbe.

Aedilis praeter comitium ac Forum etiam Capitolium ornavit porticibus. Venationes autem ludosque et cum conlega M. Bibulo et separatim edidit: quo factum est ut communium quoque impensarum solus gratiam caperet. His autem rebus patrimonium effudit tantumque conflavit aes alienum, ut ipse diceret sibi opus esse millies sestertium, ut haberet nihil.

Consul deinde creatus cum M. Bibulo, societatem cum Gnaeo Pompeio et Marco Crasso iunxit Caesar, ne quid ageretur in re publica, quod displicuisset ulli ex tribus. Deinde legem tulit ut ager Campanus plebi divideretur. Cui legi cum senatus repugnaret, rem ad populum detulit. Bibulus conlega in Forum venit, ut legi obsisteret, sed tanta in eum commota est seditio, ut in caput eius cophinus stercore plenus effunderetur fascesque ei frangerentur atque adeo ipse armis Foro expelleretur. Qua re cum Bibulus per reliquum anni tempus domo abditus Curia abstineret, unus ex eo tempore Caesar omnia in re publica ad arbitrium administrabat, ut nonnulli urbanorum, si quid testandi gratia signarent, per iocum non, ut mos erat, ‘consulibus Caesare et Bibulo’ actum scriberent, sed ‘Iulio et Caesare,’ unum consulem nomine et cognomine pro duobus appellantes.

Functus consulatu Caesar Galliam provinciam accepit. Gessit autem novem annis, quibus in imperio fuit, haec fere: Galliam in provinciae formam redegit; Germanos, qui trans Rhenum incolunt, primus Romanorum ponte fabricato aggressus maximis adfecit cladibus. Aggressus est Britannos, ignotos antea, superatisque pecunias et obsides imperavit. Hic cum multa Romanorum militum insignia narrantur, tum illud egregium ipsius Caesaris, quod, nutante in fugam exercitu, rapto fugientis e manu scuto in primam volitans aciem proelium restituit. Idem alio proelio legionis aquiliferum ineundae fugae causa iam conversum faucibus comprehensum in contrariam partem detraxit dextramque ad hostem tendens “Quorsum tu” inquit “abis? Illic sunt, cum quibus dimicamus.” Qua adhortatione omnium legionum trepidationem correxit vincique paratas vincere docuit.

Interfecto interea apud Parthos Crasso et defuncta Iulia, Caesaris filia, quae, nupta Pompeio, generi socerique concordiam tenebat, statim aemulatio erupit. Iam pridem Pompeio suspectae Caesaris opes et Caesari Pompeiana dignitas gravis, nec hic ferebat parem, nec ille superiorem. Itaque cum Caesar in Gallia detineretur, et, ne imperfecto bello discederet, postulasset ut sibi liceret, quamvis absenti, alterum consulatum petere, a senatu, suadentibus Pompeio eiusque amicis, negatum ei est. Hanc iniuriam acceptam vindicaturus in Italiam rediit et bellandum ratus cum exercitu Rubiconem flumen, qui provinciae eius finis erat, transiit. Hoc ad flumen paulum constitisse fertur ac reputans quantum moliretur, conversus ad proximos, “Etiamnunc” inquit “regredi possumus; quod si ponticulum transierimus, omnia armis agenda erunt.” Postremo autem “Iacta alea esto!” exclamans exercitum traici iussit plurimisque urbibus occupatis Brundisium contendit, quo Pompeius consulesque confugerant.

Qui cum inde in Epirum traiecissent, Caesar, eos secutus a Brundisio, Dyrrachium inter oppositas classes gravissima hieme transmisit; copiisque quas subsequi iusserat diutius cessantibus, cum ad eas arcessendas frustra misisset, mirae audaciae facinus edidit. Morae enim impatiens castris noctu egreditur, clam naviculam conscendit, obvoluto capite, ne agnosceretur, et quamquam mare saeva tempestate intumescebat, in altum tamen protinus dirigi navigium iubet et, gubernatore trepidante, “Quid times?” inquit “Caesarem vehis!” neque prius gubernatorem cedere adversae tempestati passus est, quam paene obrutus esset fluctibus.

Deinde Caesar in Epirum profectus Pompeium Pharsalico proelio fudit, et fugientem persecutus, ut occisum cognovit, Ptolemaeo regi, Pompeii interfectori, a quo sibi quoque insidias tendi videret, bellum intulit; quo victo in Pontum transiit Pharnacemque, Mithridatis filium, rebellantem et multiplici successu praeferocem intra quintum ab adventu diem, quattuor, quibus in conspectum venit, horis una profligavit acie, more fulminis, quod uno eodemque momento venit, percussit, abscessit. Nec vana de se praedicatio est Caesaris ante victum hostem esse quam visum. Pontico postea triumpho trium verborum praetulit titulum: “Veni, vidi, vici.” Deinde Scipionem et Iubam, Numidiae regem, reliquias Pompeianarum partium in Africa refoventes, devicit.

Victorem Africani belli Gaium Caesarem gravius excepit Hispaniense, quod Cn. Pompeius, Magni filius, adulescens fortissimus, ingens ac terribile conflaverat, undique ad eum auxiliis paterni nominis magnitudinem sequentium ex toto orbe confluentibus. Sua Caesarem in Hispaniam comitata fortuna est: sed nullum umquam atrocius periculosiusque ab eo initum proelium, adeo ut, plus quam dubio Marte, descenderet equo consistensque ante recedentem suorum aciem increpans fortunam, quod se in eum servasset exitum, denuntiaret militibus vestigio se non recessurum; proinde viderent, quem et quo loco imperatorem deserturi essent. Verecundia magis quam virtute acies restituta est. Cn. Pompeius victus et interemptus est. Caesar, omnium victor, regressus in urbem omnibus, qui contra se arma tulerant, ignovit et quinquies triumphavit.

Bellis civilibus confectis, conversus iam ad ordinandum rei publicae statum fastos correxit annumque ad cursum solis accommodavit, ut trecentorum sexaginta quinque dierum esset et, intercalario mense sublato, unus dies quarto quoque anno intercalaretur. Ius laboriosissime ac severissime dixit. Repetundarum convictos etiam ordine senatorio movit. Peregrinarum mercium portoria instituit: legem praecipue sumptuariam exercuit. De ornanda instruendaque urbe, item de tuendo ampliandoque imperio plura ac maiora in dies destinabat: imprimis ius civile ad certum modum redigere atque ex immensa legum copia optima quaeque et necessaria in paucissimos conferre libros; bibliothecas Graecas et Latinas, quas maximas posset, publicare; siccare Pomptinas paludes: viam munire a Mari Supero per Apennini dorsum ad Tiberim usque: Dacos, qui se in Pontum effuderant, coercere: mox Parthis bellum inferre per Armeniam.

Haec et alia agentem et meditantem mors praevenit. Dictator enim in perpetuum creatus agere insolentius coepit: senatum ad se venientem sedens excepit et quendam, ut adsurgeret monentem, irato vultu respexit. Cum Antonius, Caesaris in omnibus bellis comes et tunc consulatus conlega, capiti eius in sella aurea sedentis pro rostris diadema, insigne regium, imposuisset, id ita ab eo est repulsum, ut non offensus videretur. Quare coniuratum in eum est a sexaginta amplius viris, Cassio et Bruto ducibus conspirationis, decretumque eum Idibus Martiis in senatu confodere.

Plurima indicia futuri periculi obtulerant dii immortales. Uxor Calpurnia, territa nocturno visu, ut Idibus Martiis domi subsisteret orabat et Spurinna haruspex praedixerat ut proximos dies triginta quasi fatales caveret, quorum ultimus erat Idus Martiae. Hoc igitur die Caesar Spurinnae “Ecquid scis” inquit “Idus Martias iam venisse?” et is “Ecquid scis illas nondum praeterisse?” Atque cum Caesar eo die in senatum venisset, adsidentem conspirati specie officii circumsteterunt ilicoque unus, quasi aliquid rogaturus, propius accessit renuentique ab utroque umero togam apprehendit. Deinde clamantem “Ista quidem vis est!” Casca, unus e coniuratis, adversum vulnerat paulum infra iugulum. Caesar Cascae bracchium adreptum graphio traiecit conatusque prosilire alio vulnere tardatus est. Dein ut animadvertit undique se strictis pugionibus peti, toga caput obvolvit et ita tribus et viginti plagis confossus est. Cum Marcum Brutum, quem filii loco habebat in se inruentem vidisset, dixisse fertur: “Tu quoque, mi fili!”

Illud inter omnes fere constitit talem ei mortem paene ex sententia obtigisse. Nam et quondam cum apud Xenophontem legisset Cyrum ultima valetudine mandasse quaedam de funere suo, aspernatus tam lentum mortis genus subitam sibi celeremque optaverat, et pridie quam occideretur, in sermone nato super cenam quisnam esset finis vitae commodissimus, repentinum inopinatumque praetulerat. Percussorum autem neque triennio quisquam amplius supervixit neque sua morte defunctus est. Damnati omnes alius alio casu perierunt, pars naufragio, pars proelio; nonnulli semet eodem illo pugione, quo Caesarem violaverant, interemerunt.

Quo rarior in regibus et principibus viris moderatio, hoc laudanda magis est. C. Iulius Caesar victoria civili clementissime usus est; cum enim scrinia deprehendisset epistularum ad Pompeium missarum ab iis, qui videbantur aut in diversis aut in neutris fuisse partibus, legere noluit, sed combussit, ne forte in multos gravius consulendi locum darent. Cicero hanc laudem eximiam Caesari tribuit, quod nihil oblivisci soleret nisi iniurias. Simultates omnes, occasione oblata, libens deposuit. Ultro ac prior scripsit C. Calvo post famosa eius adversum se epigrammata. Valerium Catullum, cuius versiculis famam suam laceratam non ignorabat, adhibuit cenae. C. Memmii suffragator in petitione consulatus fuit, etsi asperrimas fuisse eius in se orationes sciebat.

Fuisse traditur excelsa statura, ore paulo pleniore, nigris vegetisque oculis, capite calvo; quam calvitii deformitatem, quod saepe obtrectatorum iocis obnoxia erat, aegre ferebat. Ideo ex omnibus decretis sibi a senatu populoque honoribus non alium aut recepit aut usurpavit libentius quam ius laureae perpetuo gestandae. Vini parcissimum eum fuisse ne inimici quidem negaverunt. Verbum Catonis est unum ex omnibus Caesarem ad evertendam rem publicam sobrium accessisse. Armorum et equitandi peritissimus, laboris ultra fidem patiens; in agmine nonnumquam equo, saepius pedibus anteibat, capite detecto, seu sol, seu imber erat. Longissimas vias incredibili celeritate conficiebat, ut persaepe nuntios de se praeveniret: neque eum morabantur flumina, quae vel nando vel innixus inflatis utribus traiciebat.

As printed XXVIII. Marcus Tullius Cicero

Marcus Tullius Cicero, equestri genere, Arpini, quod est Volscorum oppidum, natus est. Ex eius avis unus verrucam in extremo naso sitam habuit, ciceris grano similem; inde cognomen Ciceronis genti inditum. Suadentibus quibusdam ut id nomen mutaret, “Dabo operam” inquit “ut istud cognomen nobilissimorum nominum splendorem vincat.” Cum a patre Romam missus, ubi celeberrimorum magistrorum scholis interesset, eas artes disceret, quibus aetas puerilis ad humanitatem solet informari, tanto successu tantaque cum praeceptorum tum ceterorum discipulorum admiratione id fecit, ut, cum fama de Ciceronis ingenio et doctrina ad alios manasset, non pauci, qui eius videndi et audiendi gratia scholas adirent, reperti esse dicantur.

Cum nulla re magis ad summos in re publica honores viam muniri posse intellegeret quam arte dicendi et eloquentia, toto animo in eius studium incubuit, in quo quidem ita versatus est, ut non solum eos, qui in Foro et iudiciis causas perorarent, studiose sectaretur, sed privatim quoque diligentissime se exerceret. Primum eloquentiam et libertatem adversus Sullanos ostendit. Nam cum Roscium quendam, parricidii accusatum, ob Chrysogoni, Sullae liberti, qui in eius adversariis erat, potentiam nemo defendere auderet, tanta eloquentiae vi eum defendit Cicero, ut iam tum in arte dicendi nullus ei par esse videretur. Ex quo invidiam veritus Athenas studiorum gratia petiit, ubi Antiochum philosophum studiose audivit. Inde eloquentiae causa Rhodum se contulit, ubi Molonem, Graecum rhetorem tum disertissimum, magistrum habuit. Qui cum Ciceronem dicentem audivisset, flevisse dicitur, quod per hunc Graecia eloquentiae laude privaretur.

Romam reversus quaestor Siciliam habuit. Nullius vero quaestura aut gratior aut clarior fuit; cum magna tum esset annonae difficultas, initio molestus erat Siculis, quos cogeret frumenta in urbem mittere; postea vero, diligentiam et iustitiam et comitatem eius experti, maiores quaestori suo honores quam ulli umquam praetori detulerunt. E Sicilia reversus Romam in causis dicendis ita floruit, ut inter omnes causarum patronos et esset et haberetur princeps.

Consul deinde factus L. Sergii Catilinae coniurationem singulari virtute, constantia, cura compressit. Catilinae proavum, M. Sergium, incredibili fortitudine fuisse Plinius refert. Stipendia is fecit secundo bello Punico. Secundo stipendio dextram manum perdidit: stipendiis duobus ter et vicies vulneratus est: ob id neutra manu, neutro pede satis utilis, plurimisque postea stipendiis debilis miles erat. Bis ab Hannibale captus, bis vinculorum eius profugus, viginti mensibus nullo non die in catenis aut compedibus custoditus. Sinistra manu sola quater pugnavit, duobus equis, insidente eo, suffossis. Dextram sibi ferream fecit eaque religata proeliatus Cremonam obsidione exemit, Placentiam tutatus est, duodena castra hostium in Gallia cepit. Ceteri profecto, Plinius addit, victores hominum fuere, Sergius vicit etiam fortunam.

Singularem huius viri gloriam foede dehonestavit pronepotis scelus. Hic enim rei familiaris, quam profuderat, inopia multorumque scelerum conscientia in furorem actus et dominandi cupiditate incensus indignatusque, quod in petitione consulatus repulsam passus esset, coniuratione facta senatum confodere, consules trucidare, urbem incendere, diripere aerarium constituerat. Actum erat de pulcherrimo imperio, nisi illa coniuratio in Ciceronem et Antonium consules incidisset, quorum alter industria rem patefecit, alter manu oppressit. Cum Cicero, habito senatu, in praesentem reum perorasset, Catilina, incendium suum ruina se restincturum esse minitans, Roma profugit et ad exercitum, quem paraverat, proficiscitur, signa inlaturus urbi. Sed socii eius, qui in urbe remanserant, comprehensi in carcere necati sunt. A. Fulvius, vir senatorii ordinis, filium, iuvenem et ingenio et forma inter aequales nitentem, pravo consilio Catilinae amicitiam secutum inque castra eius ruentem, ex medio itinere retractum supplicio mortis adfecit, praefatus non se Catilinae illum adversus patriam, sed patriae adversus Catilinam genuisse.

Neque eo magis ab incepto Catilina destitit, sed infestis signis Romam petens Antonii exercitu opprimitur. Quam atrociter dimicatum sit exitus docuit: nemo hostium bello superfuit; quem quisque in pugnando ceperat locum, eum amissa anima tegebat. Catilina longe a suis inter hostium cadavera repertus est: pulcherrima morte, si pro patria sic concidisset! Senatus populusque Romanus Ciceronem patrem patriae appellavit. Cicero ipse in oratione pro Sulla palam praedicat consilium patriae servandae fuisse iniectum sibi a diis, cum Catilina coniurasset adversus eam. “O dii immortales,” inquit “vos profecto incendistis tum animum meum cupiditate conservandae patriae. Vos avocastis me a cogitationibus omnibus ceteris et convertistis ad salutem unam patriae. Vos denique praetulistis menti meae clarissimum lumen in tenebris tantis erroris et inscientiae. Tribuam enim vobis, quae sunt vestra. Nec vero possum tantum dare ingenio meo, ut dispexerim sponte mea in tempestate illa turbulentissima rei publicae, quid esset optimum factu.”

Paucis post annis Ciceroni diem dixit Clodius tribunus plebis, quod cives Romanos indicta causa necavisset. Senatus maestus, tamquam in publico luctu, veste mutata pro eo deprecabatur. Cicero, cum posset armis salutem suam defendere, maluit urbe cedere quam sua causa caedem fieri. Proficiscentem omnes boni flentes prosecuti sunt. Dein Clodius edictum proposuit ut Marco Tullio igni et aqua interdiceretur: illius domum et villas incendit. Sed vis illa non diuturna fuit, mox enim totus fere populus Romanus ingenti desiderio Ciceronis reditum flagitare coepit et maximo omnium ordinum studio Cicero in patriam revocatus est. Nihil per totam vitam Ciceroni itinere, quo in patriam rediit, accidit iucundius. Obviam ei redeunti ab universis itum est: domus eius publica pecunia restituta est.

Gravissimae illa tempestate inter Caesarem et Pompeium ortae sunt inimicitiae, ut res nisi bello dirimi non posse videretur. Cicero quidem summo studio enitebatur ut eos inter se reconciliaret et a belli civilis calamitatibus deterreret, sed cum neutrum ad pacem ineundam permovere posset, Pompeium secutus est. Sed victo Pompeio, a Caesare victore veniam ultro accepit. Quo interfecto Octavianum, Caesaris heredem, fovit, Antonium impugnavit effecitque ut a senatu hostis iudicaretur.

Sed Antonius, inita cum Octaviano societate, Ciceronem iam diu sibi inimicum proscripsit. Qua re audita, Cicero transversis itineribus in villam, quae a mari proxime aberat, fugit indeque navem conscendit, in Macedoniam transiturus. Unde aliquotiens in altum provectum cum modo venti adversi rettulissent, modo ipse iactationem maris pati non posset, taedium tandem eum et fugae et vitae cepit regressusque ad villam “Moriar” inquit “in patria saepe servata.” Satis constat, adventantibus percussoribus, servos fortiter fideliterque paratos fuisse ad dimicandum, ipsum deponi lecticam et quietos pati, quod sors iniqua cogeret, iussisse. Prominenti ex lectica et immotam cervicem praebenti caput praecisum est. Manus quoque abscissae; caput relatum est ad Antonium eiusque iussu cum dextra manu in rostris positum.

Quamdiu res publica Romana per eos gerebatur, quibus se ipsa commiserat, in eam curas cogitationesque fere omnes suas conferebat Cicero et plus operae ponebat in agendo quam in scribendo. Cum autem dominatu unius C. Iulii Caesaris omnia tenerentur, non se angoribus dedidit nec indignis homine docto voluptatibus. Fugiens conspectum Fori urbisque rura peragrabat abdebatque se, quantum licebat, et solus erat. Nihil agere autem cum animus non posset, existimavit honestissime molestias posse deponi, si se ad philosophiam rettulisset, cui adulescens multum temporis tribuerat, et omne studium curamque convertit ad scribendum: atque ut civibus etiam otiosus aliquid prodesse posset, elaboravit ut doctiores fierent et sapientiores, pluraque brevi tempore, eversa re publica, scripsit, quam multis annis ea stante scripserat. Sic facundiae et Latinarum litterarum parens evasit paruitque virorum sapientium praecepto, qui docent non solum ex malis eligere minima oportere, sed etiam excerpere ex his ipsis, si quid insit boni.

Multa exstant facete ab eo dicta. Cum Lentulum, generum suum, exiguae staturae hominem, vidisset longo gladio accinctum, “Quis” inquit “generum meum ad gladium adligavit?”—Matrona quaedam iuniorem se, quam erat, simulans dictitabat se triginta tantum annos habere; cui Cicero “Verum est,” inquit “nam hoc viginti annos audio.”—Caesar, altero consule mortuo die Decembris ultima, Caninium consulem hora septima in reliquam diei partem renuntiaverat; quem cum plerique irent salutatum de more, “Festinemus” inquit Cicero “priusquam abeat magistratu.” De eodem Caninio scripsit Cicero: “Fuit mirifica vigilantia Caninius, qui toto suo consulatu somnum non viderit.”

As printed XXIX. Marcus Brutus

M. Brutus, ex illa gente, quae Roma Tarquinios eiecerat, oriundus, Athenis philosophiam, Rhodi eloquentiam didicit. Eius pater, qui Sullae partibus adversabatur, iussu Pompei interfectus erat, unde Brutus cum eo graves gesserat simultates. Bello tamen civili Pompei causam, quod iustior videretur, secutus dolorem suum rei publicae utilitati posthabuit. Victo Pompeio Brutus a Caesare servatus est et praetor etiam factus. Postea vero, cum Caesar superbia elatus senatum contemnere et regnum adfectare coepisset, populus, praesenti statu haud laetus, vindicem libertatis requirebat. Subscripsere quidam L. Bruti statuae: “Utinam viveres!” Item ipsius Caesaris statuae: “Brutus, quia reges eiecit, primus consul factus est; hic, quia consules eiecit, postremo rex factus est.” Inscriptum quoque est M. Bruti praetoris tribunali: “Dormis, Brute!”

Cognita populi Romani voluntate, Brutus adversus Caesarem conspiravit. Pridie quam Caesar est occisus, Porcia, Bruti uxor, Catonis filia, consilii conscia, egresso cubiculum Bruto, cultellum tonsorium quasi unguium resecandorum causa poposcit eoque velut forte elapso se vulneravit. Clamore deinde ancillarum in cubiculum revocatus obiurgare eam coepit, quod tonsoris praeripuisset officium. Cui secreto Porcia “Non est” inquit “hoc temerarium factum meum, sed in tali statu nostro mei erga te amoris certissimum indicium. Experiri enim volui, si tibi propositum ex sententia parum cessisset, quam aequo animo me ferro essem interemptura.” Quibus verbis auditis Brutus ad caelum manus et oculos sustulisse dicitur et exclamavisse: “Utinam dignus tali coniuge maritus videri possem!”

Interfecto Caesare, cum Antonius vestem eius sanguinolentam ostentans populum veluti furore quodam adversus coniuratos inflammasset, Brutus in Macedoniam concessit ibique apud urbem Philippos adversus Antonium et Octavianum dimicavit. Victus acie, cum in tumulum se nocte recepisset, audita Cassii morte, ne in hostium manus veniret, uni ex comitibus latus transfodiendum praebuit. Antonius Bruti corpus liberto suo sepeliendum tradidit, quoque honoratius cremaretur, inici ei suum paludamentum iussit, iacentem non hostem, sed civem deposito existimans odio. Cumque interceptum a liberto paludamentum comperisset, ira percitus protinus in eum animadvertit, praefatus: “Quid? tu ignorasti cuius tibi viri sepulturam commisissem?” Non eadem fuit Octaviani erga Brutum moderatio, is enim avulsum Bruti caput Romam misit, ut Gai Caesaris statuae subiceretur. Porcia cum victum et interemptum virum suum cognovisset, quia ferrum non dabatur, ardentes ore carbones hausit, virilem patris exitum mulier imitata novo mortis genere.

As printed XXX. Octavianus Caesar Augustus

Octavianus, Iuliae, Gai Caesaris sororis, nepos, quartum annum agens patrem amisit. Ab avunculo adoptatus profectum eum in Hispanias adversus Gnaei Pompei liberos secutus est. Deinde ab eo Apolloniam missus studiis vacavit. Utque primum occisum Caesarem heredemque se comperit, in urbem regressus hereditatem adiit, nomen Caesaris sumpsit conlectoque veteranorum exercitu opem Decimo Bruto tulit, qui ab Antonio Mutinae obsidebatur. Cum autem urbis aditu prohiberetur, ut Brutum de omnibus rebus certiorem faceret, primo litteras misit plumbeis laminis inscriptas, quas ad bracchium religatas urinatores Scultennam amnem transnantes ad Brutum deferebant. Quin et avibus internuntiis utebatur. Columbis enim, quas inclusas ante fame adfecerat, epistulas ad collum religabat easque a proximo moenibus loco emittebat. Illae, lucis cibique avidae, altissima aedificiorum petentes excipiebantur a Decimo Bruto, qui eo modo de omnibus rebus certior fiebat, utique postquam disposito quibusdam locis cibo columbas illuc devolare instituerat.

Bellum Mutinense Octavianus duobus proeliis confecit, quorum in altero non ducis modo, sed militis etiam functus est officio atque in media dimicatione, aquilifero legionis suae graviter saucio, aquilam umeris subisse diuque fertur portasse. Postea reconciliata cum Antonio gratiaiunctisque cum eo copiis, ut Gai Caesaris necem ulcisceretur, ad urbem hostiliter accessit misitque qui nomine exercitus sibi consulatum deposcerent. Cunctante senatu centurio, princeps legationis, reiecto sagulo, ostendens gladii capulum non dubitavit in Curia dicere: “Hic faciet, si vos non feceritis.”

Ita cum Octavianus vicesimo aetatis anno consulatum invasisset, pacem fecit cum Antonio et Lepido, ita ut triumviri rei publicae constituendae per quinquennium essent ipse et Lepidus et Antonius, et ut suos quisque inimicos proscriberent. Quae proscriptio Sullana longe crudelior fuit. Exstant autem ex ea multa vel extremae impietatis vel mirae fidei ac constantiae exempla. T. Toranius, triumvirorum partes secutus, proscripti patris sui, praetorii et ornati viri, latebras, aetatem notasque corporis, quibus agnosci posset, centurionibus edidit, qui eum persecuti sunt. Alius quidam cum proscriptum se cognovisset, ad clientem suum confugit; sed filius eius per ipsa vestigia patris militibus ductis occidendum eum in conspectu suo obiecit.

Cum C. Plotius Plancus a triumviris proscriptus in regione Salernitana lateret, servi eius, comprehensi multumque ac diu torti, negabant se scire ubi dominus esset. Non sustinuit deinde Plancus tam fideles tamque boni exempli servos ulterius cruciari; sed processit in medium iugulumque gladiis militum obiecit. Senatoris cuiusdam servus cum ad dominum proscriptum occidendum milites advenisse cognosset, commutata cum eo veste, permutato etiam anulo, illum postico clam emisit, se autem in cubiculum ad lectulum recepit et ut dominum occidi passus est. “Quanti viri est” addit Seneca, “cum praemia proditionis ingentia ostendantur, praemium fidei mortem concupiscere!”

Octavianus deinde M. Brutum, interfectorem Caesaris, bello persecutus id bellum, quamquam invalidus atque aeger, duplici proelio transegit; quorum priore castris exutus vix fuga evasit. Victor acerbissime se gessit: in nobilissimum quemque captivum non sine verborum contumelia saeviit. Uni suppliciter sepulturam precanti respondisse dicitur iam istam in volucrum fore potestate. Alios, patrem et filium, pro vita rogantes sortiri fertur iussisse ut alterutri concederetur, ac cum, patre quia se obtulerat occiso, filius quoque voluntaria occubuisset nece, spectasse utrumque morientem. Orare veniam vel excusare se conantibus, una voce occurrebat moriendum esse. Scribunt quidam trecentos ex dediticiis electos ad aram divo Iulio exstructam Idibus Martiis hostiarum more mactatos.

Abalienatus postea est ab Antonio, quod is, repudiata Octavia sorore, Cleopatram, Aegypti reginam, duxisset uxorem: quae quidem mulier cum Antonio luxu et deliciis certabat. Una se cena centies sestertium absumpturam aliquando dixerat. Cupiebat discere Antonius, sed fieri posse non arbitrabatur. Postero igitur die magnificam alias cenam, sed cottidianam Antonio apposuit inridenti, quod promisso stare non potuisset. At illa inferri mensam secundam iussit. Ex praecepto ministri unum tantum vas ante eam posuere aceti, cuius asperitas visque margaritas resolvit. Exspectante igitur Antonio quidnam esset actura, margaritam, quam auribus gerebat, detraxit et aceto liquefactam absorbuit. Victum Antonium omnes, qui aderant, pronuntiaverunt.

Octavianus cum Antonio apud Actium, qui locus est in Epiro, navali proelio dimicavit. Victum et fugientem persecutus Aegyptum petiit, et Alexandream, quo Antonius cum Cleopatra confugerat, obsedit. Antonius in ultima rerum desperatione, cum habitu regis in solio regali sedisset, mortem sibi ipse conscivit. Cleopatra, quam Octavianus, Alexandrea in potestatem redacta, magno opere cupiebat vivam comprehendi triumphoque servari, aspidem sibi adferendam curavit eiusque morsu periit. Cleopatrae mortuae communem cum Antonio sepulturam tribuit.

Tandem Octavianus, hostibus victis solus imperio potitus, clementem se exhibuit. Omnia deinceps in eo plena mansuetudinis et humanitatis. Multis ignovit vel iis qui saepe graviter eum offenderant. Reversus in Italiam triumphans Romam ingressus est. Tum bellis toto orbe compositis Iani gemini portas sua manu clausit, quae bis tantum antea clausae fuerant, primum sub Numa rege, iterum post primum Punicum bellum. Tunc omnes praeteritorum malorum oblivio cepit populusque Romanus praesentis otii laetitia perfruebatur. Octaviano maximi honores a senatu delati sunt. Ipse Augustus cognominatus et in honorem eius mensis Sextilis eodem nomine appellatus est, quod illo mense bellis civilibus finis esset impositus. Patris patriae cognomen universi maximo consensu detulerunt ei. Deferentibus lacrimans respondit Augustus his verbis: “Compos factus votorum meorum, patres conscripti, quid habeo aliud, quod deos immortales precer, quam ut hunc consensum vestrum ad ultimum vitae finem mihi perferre liceat!”

Dictaturam magna vi offerente populo deprecatus est. Domini appellationem semper exhorruit eamque sibi tribui edicto vetuit. Immo de restituenda re publica non semel cogitavit, sed reputans et se privatum non sine periculo fore, et rem publicam plurium arbitrio commissum iri, summam retinuit potestatem, id vero studuit ne quem novi status paeniteret. Bene de iis etiam, quos adversarios expertus erat, et sentiebat et loquebatur. Legentem aliquando unum e nepotibus invenit; cumque puer territus volumen Ciceronis, quod manu tenebat, veste tegeret, Augustus librum cepit eoque statim reddito, “Hic vir,” inquit “fili mi, doctus fuit et patriae amans.”

Pedibus saepe per urbem incedebat summaque comitate adeuntes excipiebat. Convenit aliquando eum veteranus miles, qui vocatus in ius periclitabatur rogavitque ut sibi adesset. Statim Augustus unum e comitatu suo elegit advocatum, qui litigatorem commendaret. Tum veteranus exclamavit: “At non ego, te periclitante bello Actiaco, vicarium quaesivi, sed ipse pro te pugnavi,” simulque detexit cicatrices. Erubuit Augustus atque ipse venit in advocationem.

Cum post Actiacam victoriam Octavianus Romam reverteretur, occurrit ei inter gratulantes opifex quidam corvum tenens, quem instituerat haec dicere: “Ave, Caesar, victor, imperator!” Miratus Caesar officiosam avem viginti milibus nummorum emit. Socius opificis, ad quem nihil ex illa liberalitate pervenerat, adfirmavit Caesari habere illum et alium corvum, quem ut adferre cogeretur rogavit. Adlatus verba, quae didicerat, expressit: “Ave, Antoni, victor, imperator!” Nihil exasperatus Caesar satis duxit iubere illum dividere donativum cum contubernali. Salutatus similiter a psittaco emi eum iussit.

Exemplum sutorem pauperem sollicitavit ut corvum institueret ad parem salutationem. Qui impendio exhaustus saepe ad avem non respondentem dicere solebat “Opera et impensa periit!” Aliquando tamen corvus coepit dicere dictam salutationem. Hac audita, dum transit, Augustus respondit: “Satis domi talium salutatorum habeo.” Superfuit corvo memoria, ut et illa, quibus dominum querentem solebat audire, subtexeret: “Opera et impensa periit.” Ad quod Caesar risit emique avem iussit, quanti nullam ante emerat.

Solebat Graeculus quidam descendenti e palatio Caesari honorificum aliquod epigramma porrigere. Id cum frustra saepe fecisset et tamen rursus eum idem facturum duxisset Augustus, breve sua manu in charta exaravit Graecum epigramma et Graeculo advenienti obviam misit. Ille inter legendum laudare mirarique tam voce quam vultu gestuque. Deinde cum accessisset ad sellam, qua Caesar vehebatur, demissa in pauperem crumenam manu paucos denarios protulit, quos principi daret, dixitque se plus daturum fuisse, si plus habuisset. Secuto omnium risu, dispensatorem Caesar vocavit et satis grandem pecuniae summam numerari Graeculo iussit.

Augustus fere nulli se invitanti negabat. Exceptus igitur a quodam cena satis parca et paene cottidiana, hoc tantum insusurravit: “Non putabam me tibi esse tam familiarem.” Cum aliquando apud Pollionem quendam cenaret fregissetque unus e servis vas crystallinum, rapi eum ad mortem Pollio iussit et obici muraenis quas ingens piscina continebat. Evasit e manibus puer et ad pedes Caesaris confugit, nihil aliud petiturus quam ut aliter periret nec esca piscium fieret. Motus est novo crudelitatis genere Caesar et illum quidem mitti, crystallina autem omnia coram se frangi iussit complerique piscinam.

Augustus in quadam villa aegrotans noctes inquietas agebat, rumpente somnum eius crebro noctuae cantu. Qua molestia cum liberari se vehementer cupere significasset, miles quidam, aucupii peritus, noctuam prehendendam curavit, vivamque Augusto attulit, spe ingentis praemii. Cui cum Augustus mille nummos dari iussisset, ille minus dignum praemium existimans dicere ausus est: “Malo ut vivat,” et avem dimisit. Imperatori nec ad irascendum causa deerat nec ad ulciscendum potestas: hanc tamen iniuriam aequo animo tulit Augustus hominemque impunitum abire passus est.

Augustus amicitias neque facile admisit et constantissime retinuit. Imprimis familiarem habuit Maecenatem, equitem Romanum; qui ea, qua apud principem valebat, gratia ita semper usus est, ut prodesset omnibus, quibus posset, noceret nemini. Ius aliquando dicebat Augustus et multos capite damnaturus videbatur. Aderat tum Maecenas, qui per circumstantium turbam perrumpere et ad tribunal propius accedere conabatur. Quod cum frustra tentasset, haec verba in tabella scripsit: “Surge tandem, carnifex!” eamque tabellam ad Augustum proiecit. Qua lecta is statim surrexit neque quisquam est morte multatus.

Habitavit Augustus in aedibus modicis, neque laxitate neque cultu conspicuis, ac per annos amplius quadraginta in eodem cubiculo hieme et aestate mansit. Suppellex quoque eius vix privatae elegantiae erat. Raro veste alia usus est quam confecta ab uxore, sorore, filia neptibusque. Item tamen Romam, quam pro maiestate imperii non satis ornatam invenerat, adeo excoluit, ut iure gloriaretur marmoream se relinquere, quam latericiam accepisset.

Forma fuit Augustus eximia et per omnes aetatis gradus venustissima. Erat tamen omnis lenocinii neglegens et in capite comendo tam incuriosus, ut eo ipso tempore, quo illud tonsoribus committeret, aut legeret aliquid aut etiam scriberet.

Paucis annis antequam moreretur, gravissimam in Germania accepit cladem, tribus legionibus cum duce Varo legatisque et auxiliis omnibus caesis. Hac nuntiata excubias per urbem indixit, ne quis tumultus exsisteret, et magnos ludos Iovi optimo maximo vovit, si res publica in meliorem statum vertisset. Adeo denique consternatum ferunt, ut, per continuos menses barba capilloque submisso, caput interdum foribus inlideret, vociferans: “Quintili Vare, legiones redde!” diemque cladis quotannis maestum habuerit ac lugubrem.

Tandem adflicta valetudine in Campaniam concessit, ubi, remisso ad otium animo, nullo hilaritatis genere abstinuit. Supremo vitae die petito speculo capillum sibi comi iussit et amicos circumstantes percontatus ecquid iis videretur mimum vitae commode transegisse, adiecit solitam clausulam: “Edite strepitum vosque omnes cum gaudio applaudite.” Obiit Nolae sextum et septuagesimum annum agens.


Complete text as printed


Text-only version I. Rōmānī imperiī exōrdium

Proca,1 rēx Albānōrum, Numitōrem et Amūlium fīliōs habuit.
Numitōrī, quī nātū2 māior erat, rēgnum relīquit;3 sed Amūlius,
pulsō4 frātre, rēgnāvit et, ut5 eum subole6 prīvāret,5 Rhēam
2 Silviam, ēius fīliam, Vestae1 sacerdōtem fēcit, quae2 tamen
5 Rōmulum et Remum geminōs ēdidit.34 rē cōgnitā Amūlius ipsam5
see caption
From a coin
see caption
in vincula coniēcit,6 parvulōs
alveō7 impositōs8 abiēcit in
Tiberim, quī tunc forte super
rīpās erat effūsus9; sed, relābente
10 flūmine, eōs aqua in siccō
relīquit. Vāstae tum in iīs
locīs sōlitūdinēs erant. Lupa,
ut fāmā10 trāditum est, ad vāgītum11 accurrit,
īnfantēs linguā10 lambit, ūbera eōrum ōrī7
15 mātremque12 sē gessit.

Cum13 lupa saepius14 ad
parvulōs velutī ad catulōs reverterētur,13 Faustulus, pāstor
rēgius,1516 animadversā eōs tulit in casam et
Accae Lārentiae coniugī dedit17 ēducandōs.18 Adultī19 deinde
20 hī inter pāstōrēs prīmō lūdicrīs20 certāminibus vīrēs auxēre,21
deinde vēnandō22 saltūs peragrāre et latrōnēs ā rapīnā23 pecorum
arcēre coepērunt. Quārē cum13 iīs īnsidiātī essent13 latrōnēs,
Remus captus est, Rōmulus24 vī sē dēfendit. Tum Faustulus,
3 necessitāte compulsus,1 indicāvit Rōmulō quis esset2 eōrum
25 avus, quae māter. Rōmulus statim armātīs3 pāstōribus Albam4

Intereā Remum latrōnēs ad Amūlium rēgem perdūxērunt,5
eum accūsantēs, quasi6 Numitōris agrōs īnfēstāre solitus7 esset;
see caption
itaque Remus ā rēge Numitōrī ad8 supplicium
30 trāditus est; at cum Numitor,
adulēscentis vultum cōnsīderāns, aetātem9
minimēque servīlem indolem comparāret,
haud10 procul erat quīn nepōtem āgnōsceret.
Nam Remus ōris līneāmentīs11 erat mātrī12
35 simillimus13 aetāsque expositiōnis temporibus
congruēbat. Ea rēs dum Numitōris animum anxium tenet,14
repente Rōmulus supervenit,15 frātrem līberat,15 interēmptō Amūliō
avum Numitōrem in rēgnum restituit.15


Deinde Rōmulus et Remus urbem in iīsdem locīs, ubi expositī16
40 ubique ēducātī erant, condidērunt17; sed ortā18 inter eōs
contentiōne, uter nōmen novae urbī daret19 eamque imperiō
regeret, auspicia20 dēcrēvērunt21 adhibēre. Remus prior22 sex
4 vulturēs, Rōmulus posteā duodecim vīdit. Sīc Rōmulus, victor
auguriō,1 urbem Rōmam vocāvit. Ad2 novae urbis tūtēlam sufficere
45 vāllum vidēbātur. Cūius3 angustiās inrīdēns cum Remus
saltū id trāiēcisset, eum īrātus4 Rōmulus interfēcit, hīs increpāns
verbīs: “Sīc5 deinde, quīcumque alius trānsiliet moenia mea!”
Ita sōlus potītus est imperiō6 Rōmulus.

Among the few Trojans who escaped after the fall of Troy was Aeneas, the son of Venus and the hero Anchises. After many wanderings Aeneas reached Italy, married there Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus, king of the Latins, and founded a town called Lavinium, from the name of his wife. He was succeeded by his son Ascanius, who founded a second city, called Alba Longa, and transferred thither the seat of government. The date traditionally assigned to the capture of Troy was 1184 B.C. Hence it is clear that Alba Longa was settled more than 400 years before the foundation of Rome in 754 B.C. To fill this gap a list of fourteen Alban kings, all descendants of Aeneas, was given by the Roman writers. How Rome itself was founded from Alba Longa is described in the text. It should be kept constantly in mind that little faith is to be put in these traditional accounts of Rome’s early history, at least as far as details are concerned. Latin writers tell us that the oldest records of the city perished in the sack of Rome by the Gauls in 388 B.C. The first historical work written by a Roman was published about 215 B.C., more than 500 years after the foundation of the city. Many of the stories were obviously invented to account for institutions which existed in the later times, and the traditional narrative is full of inconsistencies and contradictions.

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1.1 Proca was the twelfth king of Alba Longa.

1.2 nātū māior: ‘greater by birth’ = ‘elder.’

1.3 from relinquō.

1.4 pulsō (pellō) frātre: abl. abs.; ‘his brother having been driven out’ (pass.) = ‘having driven out,’ or ‘when he had driven out his brother’ (act.): H 489 (431): M 638: A 255: G 409: B 227.

1.5 ut prīvāret: purpose: H 568 (497, II): M 893: A 317, 1: G 545: B 282.

1.6 abl. of separation: H 462 (414, I): M 601: A 243, a: G 405: B 214, 1, c.

2.1 See Voc., Vesta.

2.2 quae = sed ea.

2.3 ēdō.

2.4 eā rē cōgnitā (cōgnōscō): cf. p. 1, n. 4.

2.5 i.e. Rhea Silvia.

2.6 coniciō.

2.7 dat. with compound verb: H 429 (386): M 534: A 228: G 347: B 187, III.

2.8 impositōs (impōnō) abiēcit (abiciō) = imposuit et abiēcit. English is fond of coördination of clauses; Latin prefers to subordinate clause to clause. Hence, in general, Latin avoids two coördinated verbs. See p. xxiv, L 5, and H 639 (549, 5): A 292, R.: G 664, R. 1, 2: B 337, 2.

2.9 effundō.

2.10 abl. of means: H 476 (420): M 645: A 248, c, 1: G 401: B 218.

2.11 ad vāgītum: ‘to (their) squalling,’ i.e. to them as they were crying.

2.12 mātrem sē gessit (gerō): ‘conducted herself, acted like a mother.’

2.13 not only ‘when,’ but also ‘because the wolf kept coming back.’ See p. xxii, J.

2.14 ‘very often.’ The comparative often has this intensive force.

2.15 adj. = the genitive of rēx.

2.16 rē . . . tulit (ferō) = rem animadvertit et eōs tulit; cf. p. xxiii, K 10.

2.17 .

2.18 = ut ēducārentur. The gerundive expresses purpose here, as often. See p. xviii, E 4: H 622 (544, N. 2): M 994: A 294, d: G 430: B 337, 7, 2.

2.19 adultī (adolēscō): ‘having grown’ = ‘when grown.’

2.20 lūdicrīs certāminibus: ‘with playful contests,’—such as running, wrestling, and boxing. For the case, cf. n. 10.

2.21 = auxērunt (augeō).

2.22 The abl. of the gerund here denotes manner.

2.23 ‘from the seizure of’ = ‘from stealing.’

2.24 = ‘but Romulus.’

3.1 compellō.

3.2 indir. quest.: H 649, II (529, I): M 810: A 334: G 467: B 300.

3.3 See p. 1, n. 4.

3.4 acc. of limit without preposition: H 418 (380, II): M 515: A 258, b: G 337: B 182, 1, a; cf. English ‘to go home.’

3.5 perdūcō.

3.6 ‘because, as they said’; quasi often denotes a statement or thought of some person other than the writer himself. See p. xxi, H 5.

3.7 soleō.

3.8 ad supplicium: ‘to be punished’; ad with its noun often denotes purpose.

3.9 aetātem . . . comparāret: ‘compared his age with his nature, (which was) by no means that of a slave’; i.e. his appearance and demeanor indicated that he belonged to a higher station than the shepherds.

3.10 haud . . . āgnōsceret: ‘he came very near to recognizing him’; how literally? In this construction quīn = ut nōn, and the subjunctive is one of result: H 595 (504): M 913: A 319, d: G 555: B 284, 3.

3.11 abl. of specification: H 480 (424): M 650: A 253: G 397: B 226, 1.

3.12 similis is construed with both gen. and dat.

3.13 ‘very like’; cf. a similar use of the comparative in l. 16.

3.14 dum, ‘while,’ regularly takes the pres. indic. where English uses the imperfect: H 533, 4 (467, 4): M 917: A 276, e: G 570, R.: B 293.

3.15 historical presents: H 532, 3 (467, III): M 734: A 276, d: G 229: B 259, 3.

3.16 expōnō.

3.17 condō.

3.18 ortā (orior) . . . contentiōne = ‘because a strife arose’; see p. xxiii, K 4.

3.19 indir. quest. depending on contentiōne; cf. n. 2. The strife centered in the question, “Which of us shall rule?”

3.20 Romulus stood on the Palatine Hill, and Remus on the Aventine.

3.21 dēcernō.

3.22 ‘first.’

4.1 ‘by virtue of the augury’; abl. of cause: H 475 (416): M 612: A 245: G 408: B 219.

4.2 Ad . . . tūtēlam: ‘to guard the new city.’ Cf. p. 3, n. 8.

4.3 Render ‘its.’ Latin is fond of closely connecting successive clauses, and for this purpose often employs a relative pronoun, where English uses a simple demonstrative, or a demonstrative or personal pronoun with a conjunction,—generally and, often but or for: cf. p. 2, n. 2.

4.4 ‘in anger.’ An adjective may often be best rendered by an adverb or adverbial phrase.

4.5 Sc. pereat (subjunctive of wish).

4.6 H 477, I (421, I): M 646: A 249: G 407: B 218, 1.

see caption


Text-only version II. Rōmulus, Rōmānōrum rēx prīmus
753-715 B.C.

Rōmulus7 imāginem urbis magis quam urbem fēcerat; incolae
deerant.8 Erat in9 proximō lūcus10; hunc asȳlum fēcit. Et
statim eō mīra vīs11 latrōnum pāstōrumque cōnfūgit. Cum12 vērō
5 uxōrēs ipse1 populusque nōn habērent, lēgātōs circā vīcīnās
5 gentēs mīsit,2 quī3 societātem cōnūbiumque4 novō populō
peterent.3 Nūsquam benīgnē audīta lēgātiō est; lūdibrium etiam
additum5: “Cūr nōn fēminīs quoque asȳlum aperuistis? Id
enim compār foret6 cōnūbium.” Rōmulus, aegritūdinem animī
dissimulāns, lūdōs parat; indīcī7 deinde fīnitimīs spectāculum
10 iubet. Multī convēnēre8 studiō etiam9 videndae novae urbis,
māximē Sabīnī cum līberīs et coniugibus. Ubi spectāculī tempus
vēnit eōque10 conversae11 mentēs12 cum oculīs erant, tum sīgnō
datō iuvenēs Rōmānī discurrunt, virginēs rapiunt.13

Haec14 fuit statim causa bellī. Sabīnī enim ob15 virginēs raptās
see caption
15 bellum adversus Rōmānōs sūmpsērunt,16 et cum
Rōmae17 appropinquārent, Tarpēiam virginem nactī
sunt,18 quae aquam forte19 extrā moenia petītum20
ierat. Hūius pater Rōmānae praeerat arcī. Titus
Tatius, Sabīnōrum dux, Tarpēiae optiōnem mūneris
20 dedit, sī exercitum suum in Capitōlium
6 perdūxisset.1 Illa petiit quod2 Sabīnī in sinistrīs manibus3 gererent,4
vidēlicet aureōs ānulōs et armillās. Quibus dolōsē prōmissīs,
see caption
Tarpēia Sabīnōs in arcem perdūxit, ubi Tatius
scūtīs5 eam obruī iussit; nam et6 ea in laevīs7
25 habuerant.8 Sīc impia prōditiō celerī poenā5 vindicāta

Deinde Rōmulus ad certāmen prōcessit, et in
eō locō, ubi nunc Rōmānum Forum9 est, pūgnam
cōnseruit. Prīmō10 impetū vir inter11 Rōmānōs īnsīgnis, nōmine12
30 Hostīlius, fortissimē dīmicāns cecidit; cūius interitū13 cōnsternātī
Rōmānī fugere coepērunt. Iam Sabīnī clāmitābant: “Vīcimus
perfidōs hospites,14 imbellēs hostēs. Nunc sciunt longē15 aliud
esse virginēs rapere,16 aliud pūgnāre16 cum virīs.” Tunc Rōmulus,
arma ad caelum tollēns, Iovī aedem17 vōvit, et exercitus seu forte
35 seu dīvīnitus restitit.18 Itaque proelium redintegrātur; sed raptae
mulierēs crīnibus19 passīs ausae sunt sē inter tēla volantia īnferre
et hinc patrēs, hinc virōs ōrantēs,20 pācem conciliārunt.

Rōmulus, foedere21 cum Tatiō īctō, et Sabīnōs in urbem recēpit
7 et rēgnum1 cum Tatiō sociāvit. Vērum haud ita multō post,
40 occīsō2 Tatiō, ad Rōmulum potentātus omnis recidit.3 Centum
deinde ex seniōribus ēlēgit, quōrum cōnsiliō4 omnia ageret,5 quōs
senātōrēs nōmināvit propter senectūtem. Trēs equitum6 centuriās
cōnstituit, populum in trīgintā cūriās distribuit. Hīs ita
ōrdinātīs, cum7 ad8 exercitum lūstrandum cōntiōnem in campō9 ad
see caption
From a coin
45 Caprae10 palūdem habēret, subitō coorta est
tempestās cum māgnō fragōre tonitribusque et
Rōmulus ē cōnspectū ablātus11 est. Ad deōs
trānsīsse vulgō crēditus12 est; cuī13 reī fidem
fēcit Iūlius Proculus, vir nōbilis. Ortā14 enim
50 inter patrēs et plēbem sēditiōne, in cōntiōnem
prōcessit,15 iūreiūrandō adfīrmāns vīsum16 ā sē
Rōmulum augustiōre17 fōrmā, eundemque18 praecipere19 ut sēditiōnibus
abstinērent20 et rem mīlitārem colerent20; futūrum21 ut
8 omnium gentium dominī exsisterent. Aedēs in colle Quirīnālī
55 Rōmulō1 cōnstitūta,2 ipse3 prō deō cultus2 et Quirīnus est

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4.7 It has been suggested that the name Rōmulus is derived from Rōma, and that this in turn was made from an ancient word Rumon, ‘river.’ Rōma would then be ‘the town by the river,’ ‘Rivertown’ (cf. English ‘Watertown,’ etc.), and Rōmulus would be ‘the man from Rivertown.’

4.8 dēsum.

4.9 in proximō: ‘near by.’ Phrases consisting of a preposition and a neuter adjective are common, and have the force of adjectives or adverbs.

4.10 This grove lay between the two summits of the Capitoline Hill.

4.11 vīs often means ‘number,’ as here, or ‘quantity’; ‘power’ is used in the same sense in some parts of Great Britain.

4.12 cum: ‘since’: H 598 (517): M 863: A 326: G 586: B 286, 2.

5.1 = Rōmulus. Cf. ipsam, I, 5.

5.2 mittō.

5.3 quī . . . peterent: rel. clause of purpose; see p. xviii, E 2, and H 590 (497, I): M 835: A 317, 2: G 630: B 282, 2.

5.4 In early times the right of intermarriage did not exist between neighboring tribes, except by special treaty.

5.5 Sc. est, which, like esse, is often omitted with the passive, especially in rapid narrative.

5.6 = esset: H 205, 2 (204, 2): M 327: A 119, N.: G 116, N. 1, c: B 100, N. 2.

5.7 indīcī . . . iubet: ‘he bids a show to be announced.’ Such an announcement would carry with it an invitation to be present.

5.8 Cf. p. 2, n. 21.

5.9 i.e. they were not only interested in the games, but they were also curious to see the new city.

5.10 = in spectāculum.

5.11 convertō.

5.12 mentēs cum oculīs: ‘minds and eyes alike.’ The emphasis is on mentēs; they were thinking only of the show.

5.13 In rapid historical narrative, clauses are often set side by side without a connective. See also n. 5 above.

5.14 Haec, referring to the matters related in the preceding paragraph, should theoretically be neuter, but is feminine because the predicate noun causa is feminine. Such attraction is the rule in Latin. H 396, 2 (445, 4): A 195, d: G 211, 5: B 246, 5.

5.15 ob virginēs raptās: ‘on account of the stolen maidens’ = ‘on account of the seizure of the maidens.’ A participle agreeing with a noun is preferred in Latin to an abstract noun with a dependent genitive.

5.16 sūmō.

5.17 dat.; why?

5.18 ‘they happened upon’ (nancīscor).

5.19 forte . . . ierat: ‘had gone by chance’ = ‘happened to have gone.’ Forte is often best rendered by a clause: ‘as it happened,’ or ‘it so happened.’

5.20 supine denoting purpose; see p. xviii, E 6, and H 633 (546): M 1005: A 302: G 435: B 340, 1.

6.1 The subjunctive here, as in gererent, is due to implied indirect discourse; sī perdūxisset represents the fut. perf. indic. of direct discourse sī perdūxeris, ‘if you shall have led’ = ‘if you (shall) lead’; H 646 (527, I): M 1034, 1038: A 337: G 656-7: B 319, B.

6.2 ‘that which.’

6.3 manus often = ‘arm,’ just as pēs = ‘leg.’

6.4 gererent: either ‘wore’ or ‘bore.’ Tarpeia meant it in the former sense; Tatius chose to understand it in the latter.

6.5 Why abl.?

6.6 et ea = ea quoque: ‘these too,’ as well as the armillae and ānulī.

6.7 Sc. manibus.

6.8 Note the tense; they had had these, too, on their arms when the bargain was struck.

6.9 See Vocab., Forum.

6.10 Prīmō impetū: ‘in the very first charge.’ The ablative fixes the time of cecidit.

6.11 inter . . . īnsīgnis: ‘the most conspicuous of the Romans.’ How literally?

6.12 abl. of specification.

6.13 = morte. The abl. includes the ideas of means and cause.

6.14 ‘hosts.’ The relation of host and guest was regarded by the Romans, as by other ancient peoples, as peculiarly sacred.

6.15 longē aliud . . . aliud: ‘one thing . . . quite another.’ Note here the difference between the English and the Latin idiom.

6.16 Infinitives, because the clauses in which they stand are subjects of esse; H 615 (538): M 972: A 270: G 422: B 377.

6.17 This temple was called the Temple of Iuppiter Stator, i.e. the ‘Stayer,’ the god who had stayed the army’s flight.

6.18 resistō: ‘maintained its ground,’ ‘held its own,’ as contrasted with its previous flight (fugere coepērunt).

6.19 crīnibus passīs (pandō): ‘with streaming hair.’

6.20by beseeching’; the abl. of the gerund (ōrandō) might have been used.

6.21 foedere . . . īctō (īcō): ‘having struck a treaty.’ How literally? The abl. abs. is one of the regular substitutes in Latin for the missing perfect active participle. In the phrase foedus īcere, the verb suggests the striking of the victims in the sacrifice which accompanied the making of the treaty.

7.1 rēgnum . . . sociāvit: i.e. henceforth there were two kings.

7.2 By the inhabitants of Laurentum, whose ambassadors he had insulted.

7.3 Note the force of the prefix: the sovereignty ‘came back,’ or ‘devolved again’ upon Romulus, precisely as before he shared it with Tatius.

7.4 abl. of means.

7.5 Cf. p. 5, n. 3.

7.6 See Vocab., eques.

7.7 ‘When’: H 600, II (521, II): M 858: A 325: G 585: B 288.

7.8 ad . . . lūstrandum = ut . . . lūstrāret. What does the gerundive construction express?

7.9 Sc. Mārtiō. See Vocab., campus, and map, p. xxviii.

7.10 Caprae palūdem: ‘Goat Swamp.’

7.11 auferō.

7.12 crēditus est: we would say: ‘it was believed that he,’ etc.; Latin prefers the personal construction, and says: ‘he was believed to have,’ etc.

7.13 cuī . . . fēcit: literally ‘for which thing he made (i.e. secured) belief (i.e. general acceptance).’

7.14 What does the abl. abs. here express? See p. xxiii, K 6.

7.15 prōcēdō.

7.16 Sc. esse. vīsum esse and praecipere depend on adfīrmāns: see H 642 (523, I): M 1023: A 336, 2: G 650: B 314: and p. xxv, M 4.

7.17 augustiōre fōrmā: ‘of more imposing presence’ (than he was while on earth); abl. of characteristic, H 473, 2 (419, II): M 643: A 251: G 400: B 224.

7.18 i.e. Rōmulum.

7.19 Note the change of tense from that in vīsum (esse) above. Proculus actually said: (Rōmulus) praecipit, i.e. he used the historical present. Above vīsum (esse) represents vīsus est of the direct discourse.

7.20 substantive clause of purpose; H 565 (498, I): M 892: A 331: G 546: B 295, 4.

7.21 futūrum ut . . . exsisterent gives the statement, not of Proculus, but of Romulus himself. The inf. futūrum (esse) depends on a verb of saying implied in praecipere. Romulus said exsistētis. Since, however, exsistō has no supine and so no future participle, no direct future infinitive can be formed from it. Hence the phrase futūrum ut with subjunctive becomes necessary: ‘it would happen that they would become,’ etc.

8.1 ‘in honor of Romulus’; dat. of advantage.

8.2 With cōnstitūta and cultus (colō) sc. est.

8.3 For the omission of the conjunction before ipse, cf. p. 5, n. 13.

Text-only version III. Numa Pompilius, Rōmānōrum rēx secundus
716-673 B.C.

Successit Rōmulō Numa Pompilius, vir inclitā iūstitiā4 et
religiōne.4 Is Curibus,5 ex oppidō Sabīnōrum, accītus est. Quī cum
Rōmam vēnisset, ut6 populum ferum religiōne mītigāret, sacra
plūrima īnstituit. Āram Vestae cōnsecrāvit, et īgnem7 in ārā
see caption
From a coin
5 perpetuō alendum virginibus dedit. Flāminem8
Iovis sacerdōtem creāvit eumque īnsīgnī veste9
et curūlī10 sellā adōrnāvit. Dīcitur11 quondam
ipsum Iovem ē caelō ēlicuisse.12 Hīc, ingentibus
fulminibus in urbem dēmissīs, dēscendit in nemus
10 Aventīnum, ubi Numam docuit quibus sacrīs
fulmina13 essent prōcūranda,13 et praetereā imperiī
9 certa1 pīgnora populō Rōmānō datūrum sē esse prōmīsit. Numa
laetus rem populō nūntiāvit. Postrīdiē omnēs ad aedēs2 rēgiās
convēnērunt silentēsque exspectābant3 quid futūrum esset.4 Atque
see caption
From a coin
15 sōle ortō dēlābitur ē caelō scissō5 scūtum, quod
ancīle appellāvit Numa. Id nē6 fūrtō auferrī
posset,6 Māmurium fabrum ūndecim scūta eādem
fōrmā fabricāre iussit. Duodecim autem Saliōs7
Mārtis sacerdōtēs lēgit, quī ancīlia, sēcrēta
20 illa imperiī pīgnora, cūstōdīrent8 et Kalendīs
see caption
Mārtiīs per urbem canentēs et rīte saltantēs
ferrent.8 Annum in duodecim9 mēnsēs ad
cursum lūnae dēscrīpsit; nefāstōs10 fāstōsque
diēs fēcit; portās Iānō11 geminō12 aedificāvit
25 ut esset index pācis et bellī; nam apertus,13 in
armīs esse cīvitātem, clausus,13 pācātōs circā
omnēs populōs, sīgnificābat.

Lēgēs14 quoque plūrimās et ūtilēs tulit
Numa. Ut vērō māiōrem īnstitūtīs15 suīs auctōritātem conciliāret,
10 30 simulāvit1 sibi2 cum deā Ēgeriā esse conloquia nocturna ēiusque3
monitū sē omnia, quae ageret, facere. Lūcus erat, quem4 medium
fōns perennī rigābat aquā; eō saepe Numa sine arbitrīs5
īnferēbat, velut6 ad congressum deae; ita7 omnium animōs eā7
pietāte imbuit, ut fidēs8 ac iūsiūrandum nōn minus quam lēgum
35 et poenārum metus cīvēs continēret.9 Bellum quidem10 nūllum
gessit, sed10 nōn minus cīvitātī prōfuit quam Rōmulus.11 Morbō12
exstīnctus in Iāniculō monte sepultus13 est. Ita duo14 deinceps
rēgēs, ille bellō, hīc pāce, cīvitātem auxērunt. Rōmulus septem
et trīgintā rēgnāvit annōs,15 Numa trēs et quadrāgintā.

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8.4 See p. 7, n. 17.

8.5 Curibus . . . Sabīnōrum: ‘from Cures, a town of the Sabines.’ H 462 (412, II): M 605: A 258, a: G 391: B 229, 1. ‘At Cures, a town of the Sabines,’ would be Curibus, in oppidō Sabīnōrum. The two phrases well illustrate the difference between the treatment of names of towns, and that of common nouns, in expressions intended to denote rest in a place, or motion from a given point.

8.6 ut . . . mītigāret: purpose clause, to be joined with what follows. Phrases and clauses often thus precede the words which they modify.

8.7 īgnem . . . alendum: for the form of expression, see p. 2, n. 18.

8.8 Flāminem . . . creāvit: ‘he appointed a priest to be Jupiter’s Flamen.’ See Vocab., flāmen.

8.9 The distinctive parts of the dress worn by the Flāminēs were (1) a close-fitting woolen cap, from which projected a stick of olive wood, called apex; (2) the toga praetexta (see Vocab., toga); and (3) a laurel crown.

8.10 See Vocab., sella.

8.11 Cf. p. 7, n. 12.

8.12 ēliciō.

8.13 The Romans derived many omens from thunder. Prōcūrāre is the technical word for ‘caring for’ an omen, i.e. warding off all harmful effects by sacrifices.

9.1 ‘trustworthy.’ This word never = ‘certain,’ as in the phrase ‘a certain man.’ In that sense quīdam is used.

9.2 aedēs rēgiās: ‘the palace.’ What two meanings does aedēs bear?

9.3 ‘waited (to see) what,’ etc.

9.4 Why subjunctive? See p. 3, n. 2.

9.5 scindō. dēlābitur . . . scūtum: ‘the heavens were opened and a shield descended.’

9.6 Negative clause of purpose: H 568 (497, II): M 893: A 317, 1: G 545, 3: B 282. On the possession of this ancīle Rome’s power was believed to depend; hence Numa’s care in guarding it.

9.7 Saliōs . . . fēcit: ‘he chose twelve Salii as priests of Mars.’

9.8 Why subjunctive? Cf. p. 5, n. 3.

9.9 Roman writers say that before Numa’s time the year contained only ten months, a statement hardly credible.

9.10 nefāstōs . . . fēcit: ‘he made a distinction between diēs nefāstī and diēs fāstī.’ See Vocab., fāstus and nefāstus.

9.11 Cf. p. 8, n. 1.

9.12 ‘two-headed.’ The reference is to a temple of Janus in the Forum, with two doors opposite each other, so that the whole structure resembled an arch.

9.13 Both adjectives = temporal clauses, signifying respectively ‘when open,’ ‘when shut.’ They agree with Iānus understood, which means the temple, not the god. After Numa’s time the temple remained open till 235 B.C. It was opened again in the same year, and not closed till 29 B.C.

9.14 Lēgēs quoque: ‘Laws too,’ i.e. laws as well as religious ceremonies and priestly orders.

9.15 īnstitūtīs: dative with conciliāret.

10.1 How different in meaning from dissimulāns, II, 9?

10.2 sibi . . . esse conloquia: ‘that he had conversations.’ sibi is dat. of the possessor; H 430 (387): M 542: A 231: G 349: B 190.

10.3 ēius monitū: ‘at her suggestion.’ Cf. quōrum cōnsiliō, II, 41.

10.4 quem medium: ‘the middle of which.’

10.5 Here in its original sense of ‘witness.’

10.6 velut . . . deae: ‘giving it out that he was going to meet the goddess’; velut is used here as quasi is in I, 28. See note there. For ad congressum see p. 3, n. 8. deae is dat. after the prefix in congressum; cf. H 429 (386): M 532: A 228: G 347: B 187, III.

10.7 ita and reinforce each other. ‘To such a degree (ita), and with such () piety,’ etc.

10.8 Here = ‘respect for their oaths (and obligations).’ fidēs ac iūsiūrandum together = ‘their own moral sense,’ as opposed to the restraints of the law.

10.9 subjunctive of result: H 570 (500, II): M 905: A 319, 1: G 552, 2: B 284.

10.10 quidem is concessive, and so = ‘to be sure, it is true.’ Hence quidem . . . sed = quamquam . . . sed tamen.

10.11 Sc. prōfuerat.

10.12 Morbō exstīnctus (exstinguō) means that he died a natural death. We are to feel a contrast here to the miraculous disappearance of Romulus, as described on page 7.

10.13 sepeliō

10.14 duo deinceps rēgēs: ‘two successive kings.’ When an adverb like deinceps stands between an adjective and a noun, it has the value of an adjective.

10.15 acc. of extent of time: H 417 (379): M 513: A 256, 2: G 336: B 181. See also p. xvii, D 1.

Text-only version IV. Tullus Hostīlius, Rōmānōrum rēx tertius
673-641 B.C.

Mortuō16 Numā Tullus Hostīlius rēx creātus est. Hīc nōn
sōlum proximō17 rēgī dissimilis, sed ferōcior etiam Rōmulō18 fuit.
11 Eō rēgnante1 bellum inter Albānōs et Rōmānōs exortum2 est.
Ducibus3 Hostīliō et Fūfetiō placuit rem4 paucōrum certāmine5
5 fīnīrī. Erant apud Rōmānōs trigeminī frātrēs Horātiī, trēs apud
Albānōs Cūriātiī. Cum6 eīs agunt rēgēs ut prō suā quisque
patriā dīmicent7 ferrō. Foedus8 īctum est eā9 lēge, ut, unde10
victōria, ibi imperium esset.

Īctō foedere trigeminī arma capiunt et in medium inter duās
10 aciēs prōcēdunt. Cōnsēderant utrimque duo exercitūs. Datur
sīgnum, īnfēstīque11 armīs ternī12 iuvenēs, māgnōrum13 exercituum
animōs gerentēs, concurrunt. Ut prīmō concursū increpuēre14
arma micantēsque fulsēre15 gladiī, horror ingēns spectantēs16
perstringit. Cōnsertīs17 deinde manibus, statim duo Rōmānī alius
15 super alium exspīrantēs cecidērunt18; trēs Albānī vulnerātī. Ad19
cāsum Rōmānōrum conclāmāvit gaudiō exercitus Albānus. Rōmānōs
iam spēs tōta dēserēbat. Ūnum Horātium trēs Cūriātiī
circumsteterant.20 Forte21 is integer fuit; sed quia tribus impār
erat, ut distraheret hostēs, fugam capessīvit,22 singulōs23 per intervālla
12 20 secūtūrōs esse ratus. Iam aliquantum1 spatiī ex eō locō,
ubi pūgnātum est, aufūgerat, cum respiciēns videt ūnum ē Cūriātiīs
haud procul ab sēsē abesse. In2 eum māgnō impetū redit,
et dum Albānus exercitus inclāmat3 Cūriātiīs ut opem ferant
frātrī, iam Horātius eum occīderat. Alterum4 deinde, priusquam5
25 tertius posset5 cōnsequī, interfēcit.

Iam singulī6 supererant,7 sed nec spē nec vīribus parēs.8 Alter9
erat intāctus ferrō et geminātā victōriā ferōx10; alter fessum11 vulnere,
fessum cursū trahēbat12 corpus. Nec illud proelium fuit.
Rōmānus exsultāns male sustinentem arma Cūriātium cōnficit,13
30 iacentem14 spoliat. Rōmānī ovantēs15 ac grātulantēs Horātium
accipiunt et domum16 dēdūcunt. Prīnceps ībat Horātius, trium frātrum
spolia prae sē gerēns. Cuī17 obvia fuit soror, quae dēspōnsa
fuerat ūnī ex Cūriātiīs, vīsōque18 super umerōs frātris palūdāmentō
spōnsī, quod ipsa cōnfēcerat, flēre et crīnēs19 solvere coepit. Movet
35 ferōcis iuvenis animum complōrātiō sorōris in tantō gaudiō pūblicō;
itaque strictō20 gladiō trānsfīgit puellam, simul eam verbīs21 increpāns:
“Abī22 hinc cum immātūrō amōre ad spōnsum, oblīta23
13 frātrum, oblīta patriae. Sīc eat,1 quaecumque Rōmāna lūgēbit

40 Atrōx id vīsum est facinus2 patribus3 plēbīque; quārē raptus
est in iūs4 Horātius et apud iūdicēs condemnātus. Iam accesserat
līctor5 iniciēbatque6 laqueum. Tum Horātius ad populum prōvocāvit.
Intereā pater Horātiī senex prōclāmābat fīliam suam iūre
caesam7 esse; et iuvenem amplexus8 spoliaque Cūriātiōrum
see caption
45 ostentāns, ōrābat populum nē9 sē, quem paulō
ante cum ēgregiā stirpe cōnspexissent,10 orbum
līberīs11 faceret.9 Nōn tulit populus patris lacrimās
iuvenemque12 absolvit admīrātiōne13 magis
virtūtis quam iūre13 causae. Ut tamen caedēs
50 manifēsta expiārētur, pater quibusdam14 sacrificiīs
perāctīs trānsmīsit per viam15 tigillum et fīlium
capite adopertō velut sub iugum16 mīsit; quod
tigillum Sorōrium17 appellātum est.

Nōn diū pāx18 Albāna mānsit19; nam Mettius
55 Fūfetius, dux Albānōrum, cum20 sē invidiōsum apud cīvēs vidēret,20
14 quod1 bellum ūnō2 paucōrum certāmine fīnīsset, ut3 rem corrigeret,
Vēientēs Fīdēnatēsque adversus Rōmānōs concitāvit. Ipse,
ā Tullō in4 auxilium arcessītus, aciem in collem subdūxit, ut fortūnam
bellī exspectāret et sequerētur. Quā5 rē Tullus intellēctā
60 māgnā vōce ait6 suō illud iussū Mettium facere, ut hostēs ā tergō
circumvenīrentur. Quō audītō hostēs territī et victī sunt. Posterō
diē Mettius cum ad grātulandum Tullō vēnisset, iussū illīus
quadrīgīs7 religātus et in8 dīversa distrāctus9 est. Deinde Tullus Albam
propter ducis perfidiam dīruit et Albānōs Rōmam trānsīre iussit.10

65 Rōma interim crēvit11 Albae ruīnīs12; duplicātus est cīvium
numerus; mōns Caelius urbī additus et, quō13 frequentius
habitārētur,13 eam14 sēdem Tullus rēgiae cēpit ibique deinde habitāvit.
Auctārum15 vīrium fīdūciā ēlātus16 bellum Sabīnīs indīxit. Pēstilentia
15 īnsecūta1 est; nūlla tamen ab armīs quiēs dabātur. Crēdēbat
70 enim rēx bellicōsus2 salūbriōra mīlitiae3 quam domī esse
iuvenum4 corpora, sed ipse quoque5 diuturnō morbō est implicitus.
Tunc vērō adeō6 frāctī7 simul cum corpore sunt spīritūs8
illī ferōcēs, ut nūllī reī posthāc nisi sacrīs operam daret. Memorant
Tullum fulmine9 īctum cum domō cōnflagrāsse. Tullus
75 māgnā glōriā bellī rēgnāvit annōs duōs et trīgintā.

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10.16 Mortuō Numā: abl. abs. = post Numae mortem.

10.17 proximō rēgī: ‘his predecessor.’ Join with dissimilis, which has the same constructions as similis (p. 3, n. 12). Proximus may mean ‘nearest (in the past)’ = ‘last,’ or ‘nearest (in the future)’ = ‘next.’ The context must determine the sense.

10.18 abl. of comparison. H 471 (417): M 615: A 247: G 398: B 217.

11.1 Eō rēgnante: ‘during his reign.’ How does this abl. abs. differ from those in I, lines 3, 5, 18, 37, and 40? Cf. p. xxii, K 1.

11.2 exorior.

11.3 Ducibus . . . placuit: ‘the leaders agreed that,’ etc. The subject of placuit is the clause rem . . . fīnīrī.

11.4 The meanings of rēs are extremely varied. Here rem may be translated ‘dispute,’ and so practically = bellum above. For the mood of fīnīrī, see p. 6, n. 16.

11.5 The abl. here denotes both the means by which and the manner in which the quarrel was to be ended.

11.6 Cum . . . rēgēs: ‘the kings urge them.’ How literally?

11.7 Cf. p. 1, n. 5.

11.8 Cf. p. 6, n. 21.

11.9 eā lēge ut: ‘with the understanding that,’ ‘with the proviso (lēge) that.’ The clause ut . . . esset expresses the purpose which the leaders had in mind in striking the treaty.

11.10 Sc. fuisset. unde = quā ex parte. We would rather say, ‘on which side.’ Latin often thus prefers to view an idea as one of motion from a place where the English views it rather as that of rest at a point. Why?

11.11 īnfēstī armīs: ‘hostile in (respect of) arms,’ i.e. ‘with hostile arms.’

11.12 ‘three on each side.’ Why do we give this meaning to the adjective?

11.13 māgnōrum . . . gerentēs: ‘breathing the spirit of mighty armies.’ So we speak of a person as ‘a host in himself.’

11.14 increpuēre describes the sound made by the spears as they struck the shields.

11.15 fulgeō.

11.16 = spectātōrēs.

11.17 cōnserō.

11.18 cadō.

11.19 Ad cāsum: we say ‘at the fall,’ but the Latin thinks of the shout as rising against (i.e. to greet) the fall.

11.20 circumstō.

11.21 Cf. p. 5, n. 19.

11.22 fugam capessīvit: ‘took (to) flight’; cf. ‘to take to one’s heels.’

11.23 singulōs per intervālla: ‘one by one, at intervals.’

12.1 aliquantum spatiī: ‘some distance.’ spatiī is a partitive genitive; aliquantum is an acc. of extent of space: H 417 (379): M 513: A 257: G 335: B 181.

12.2 In . . . redit (redeō): ‘he turned and made a furious attack upon him.’ How literally?

12.3 inclāmat . . . ferant: ‘was shouting . . . (bidding them) to bear aid.’ For inclāmat, see p. 3, n. 14.

12.4 = secundum, as often.

12.5 H 605, II (520, 2): M 880: A 327: G 577: B 292.

12.6 ‘one on each side.’ Cf. ternī, l. 11, and note there.

12.7 supersum.

12.8 ‘equally matched.’

12.9 alter . . . alter: ‘the one . . . the other (of the two).’ With intāctus cf. integer, l. 18.

12.10 ‘inspirited, emboldened.’

12.11 The repetition of fessum gives emphasis by dwelling upon the fact.

12.12 ‘was dragging,’ i.e. instead of moving with life and vigor. We would rather say, ‘could barely drag his body along.’ So we would render male sustinentem arma, l. 29, as ‘barely able to endure (the weight of) his armor.’

12.13 = occidit.

12.14 ‘as he lay prostrate.’

12.15 ovantēs ac grātulantēs: ‘with rejoicing and congratulations.’ Participles, like adjectives, may have adverbial force.

12.16 accus. of limit of motion; cf. p. 3, n. 4.

12.17 Cf. p. 4, n. 3.

12.18 vīsō . . . spōnsī: ‘when she saw her lover’s cloak,’ etc. Cf. p. 1, n. 4.

12.19 crīnēs solvere: a common token of grief among the Romans. Cf. crinibus passīs, II, 36.

12.20 stringō.

12.21 verbīs increpāns: cf. hīs increpāns verbīs, I, 46.

12.22 abeō.

12.23 oblīta (oblivīscor) frātrum: ‘you who have forgotten,’ or ‘since you have forgotten.’ For the genitives frātrum and patriae, see H 454 (406, II): M 588: A 219: G 376: B 206, 1. Cf. the English ‘forgetful of.’ For the repetition of oblīta see n. 11.

13.1 ‘fare, perish.’ The subject is fēmina, or illa fēmina, as suggested by quaecumque. How? With the whole sentence cf. Sīc . . . mea, I, 47, and see note there.

13.2 facinus, by its derivation from faciō, properly = ‘a deed,’ whether good or bad, but generally ‘a crime.’

13.3 = senātōribus, who were officially styled Patrēs Cōnscrīptī. patribus plēbīque virtually = omnibus.

13.4 ‘court.’

13.5 See Vocab., līctor.

13.6 The tense has dramatic force and = ‘was (actually) putting on.’

13.7 caedō.

13.8 amplector.

13.9 clause of negative purpose: see p. 9, n. 6.

13.10 cōnspiciō. The subjunctive may be explained (1) as caused by attraction to faceret, H 652, 1 (529, II): M 793: A 342: G 663: B 324, or (2) as in informal indir. disc.

13.11 abl. of separation (cf. p. 1, n. 6), to be joined with orbum faceret, which = orbāret.

13.12 After a negative clause the Romans often use que or et, where the English idiom requires but.

13.13 why abl.? see p. 4, n. 1.

13.14 Cf. p. 6, n. 21.

13.15 ‘a (certain) street.’ The street referred to ran up the slope of the Esquiline Hill.

13.16 See Vocab., iugum. The father of Horatius, by making him pass, as it were, beneath the yoke, symbolically executed the sentence of death passed by the judges.

13.17 Sc. Tigillum. Livy says that this beam was renewed from time to time at public expense, even down to his own day. Another memorial of this fight was the Pīla (‘Column’) Horātia, adjoining the Forum, on which Horatius is said to have hung the spoils taken from the Curiatii.

13.18 pāx Albāna = pāx cum Albā īcta.

13.19 maneō.

13.20 cum . . . vidēret: subjunctive of cause. See p. 2, n. 13; p. 4, n. 12; and p. xx, H 2.

14.1 quod . . . fīnīsset: ‘because (as they said),’ etc. The subjunctive is due to the implied indirect discourse, and expresses the thought, not of the writer, but of Mettius’ subjects. See p. xxi, H 4.

14.2 ūnō . . . certāmine: ‘by one contest (only), and that a contest in which but few fought.’ Cf. l. 4.

14.3 ut . . . corrigeret: ‘to set the matter straight,’ i.e. to regain the good will of his people. Join this clause with what follows.

14.4 in auxilium: ‘to give aid,’ an expression of purpose. Cf. ad supplicium, I, 29, and note. Tullus summoned Mettius in accordance with the treaty made before the fight between the Horatii and the Curiatii (l. 7).

14.5 Quā rē . . . intellēctā (intellegō): ‘when he noticed this state of things.’ For quā, see p. 4, n. 3.

14.6 ait . . . circumvenīrentur: Tullus’ purpose in making this statement was partly to frighten the enemy, partly to reassure his own men. Livy relates that Tullus had stationed his own forces against the Veientes, the Albans against the Fidenates. The withdrawal of Mettius exposed the flank of the Romans to attack from the Fidenates, and so was regarded at once by the Romans as proof of treachery.

14.7 abl. of separation (cf. p. 1, n. 6). ligāre and its compounds are construed with either (1) the simple ablative, or (2) the ablative with ab, , or ex.

14.8 in . . . est: ‘was torn limb from limb.’

14.9 distrahō.

14.10 iubeō.

14.11 crēscō.

14.12 abl. of means.

14.13 quō . . . habitārētur: ‘that it might be more densely inhabited,’ i.e. that a larger number of people might be induced to live there. In purpose clauses containing a comparative, quō is used instead of ut: H 568, 7 (497, 2): M 909: A 317, b: G 545, 2; B 282, a. This quō is the abl. sing. neut. of the relative pronoun, and = ut eō, ‘that thereby.’

14.14 eam . . . cēpit (capiō): ‘Tullus chose it (the mountain) as the site of his palace,’ Why is eam feminine, although referring to mōns Caelius, which is masculine? Cf. p. 5, n. 14.

14.15 Auctārum . . . fīdūciā: ‘because of the confidence (begotten) of his increased strength,’ or ‘by his confidence in his increased strength.’ In the former case the gen. is subjective; in the latter it is objective; H 440, 1 and 2 (396, II and III): M 553, 571: A 213, 1, 2: G 363, 1 and 2: B 199, 200.

14.16 efferō.

15.1 īnsequor.

15.2 bellicōsus = a causal clause quod ipse bellicōsus erat.

15.3 mīlitiae quam domī: ‘in war than in peace.’ See H 484, 2 (426, 2): M 622: A 258, d: G. 411, R. 2: B 232, 2; xvi, A 1.

15.4 = ‘the fighting men,’ because iuvenēs (men under 45) were eligible for military duty.

15.5 sed ipse quoque: ‘but (i.e. in spite of this statement) he too.’

15.6 ‘so completely.’

15.7 frangō.

15.8 spīritūs illī ferōcēs: ‘that high spirit of his’; illī = ‘that for which he was so famous.’ Cf. l. 2.

15.9 fulmine īctum . . . cōnflagrāsse = fulmine īctum esse et cōnflagrāsse. Instead of using two coördinated verbs with a common subject, Latin regularly represents the first verb by a perf. pass. part., or by the past part. of a deponent verb, in agreement with that common subject. Cf. p. 2, n. 8, and p. xxiv, L 5.

Text-only version V. Ancus Mārcius, Rōmānōrum rēx quārtus
641-616 B.C.

see caption

Tullō mortuō10 Ancum Mārcium rēgem11
populus creāvit. Numae Pompiliī nepōs
Ancus Mārcius erat, aequitāte12 et
religiōne12 avō similis. Tunc Latīnī, cum quibus
5 Tullō rēgnante īctum foedus erat,
sustulerant13 animōs, et incursiōnem in agrum
Rōmānum fēcērunt. Ancus, priusquam14 eīs
bellum indīceret,14 lēgātum mīsit, quī15 rēs
16 repeteret, eumque1 mōrem posterī accēpērunt. Id autem hōc
10 modō fīēbat. Lēgātus, ubi ad fīnēs eōrum venit ā quibus rēs
repetuntur, capite2 vēlātō “Audī, Iuppiter,” inquit3 “audīte,
fīnēs hūius4 populī. Ego sum pūblicus5 nūntius populī Rōmānī;
verbīs6 meīs fidēs sit.” Deinde peragit pōstulāta. Sī nōn dēduntur
rēs quās expōscit, hastam in fīnēs hostium ēmittit bellumque
15 ita indīcit. Lēgātus, quī eā dē rē mittitur, Fētiālis7 rītusque bellī
indīcendī Iūs Fētiāle appellātur.

Lēgātō Rōmānō rēs repetentī superbē respōnsum8 est ā Latīnīs;
quārē bellum hōc9 modō eīs indictum est. Ancus, exercitū
see caption
cōnscrīptō, profectus10 Latīnōs fūdit et
20 complūribus oppidīs dēlētīs cīvēs Rōmam
trādūxit11. Cum12 autem in tantā hominum
multitūdine facinora clandestīna
fierent, Ancus carcerem13 in mediā urbe
ad14 terrōrem incrēscentis audāciae aedificāvit.
25 Īdem nova moenia urbī circumdedit,
Iāniculum montem ponte15 subliciō
17 in Tiberī factō urbī cōniūnxit, in ōre1 Tiberis Ōstiam urbem
condidit. Plūribus aliīs rēbus intrā paucōs annōs cōnfectīs;
immātūrā morte praereptus obiit.

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15.10 What is the force of this abl. abs.?

15.11 rēgem populus creāvit: This phrase, as it stands, is somewhat misleading. As a matter of fact, the kingship was neither hereditary nor elective. On the death of a king an interrēx, or regent, was chosen, who took the auspices, and the augurs inferred from the signs that the gods favored a certain candidate. He was then elected by the Assembly, and the choice was confirmed by the Senate.

15.12 abl. of specification.

15.13 sustulerant (tollō) animōs: ‘had plucked up courage.’

15.14 Cf. priusquam . . . posset, IV, 25, and note.

15.15 quī . . . repeteret: relative clause of purpose. Rēs repetere = ‘to demand the (stolen) things,’ is a technical phrase of war, and = ‘to demand restitution or satisfaction.’ The opposite is rēs reddere, or rēs dēdere, as in l. 13.

16.1 eum mōrem . . . accēpērunt: ‘that custom posterity (the Romans of later times) adopted.’ Traces of the custom appear as late as the reign of Augustus.

16.2 While praying, the Romans covered their faces with a fold of the toga, that no untoward sight might interrupt their devotions. The lēgātus here covers his face, because he is praying to Jupiter and to the fīnēs, which are personified.

16.3 This word, rather than dīxit, is used with direct discourse, and regularly stands, as here, within the quotation.

16.4 The lēgātus, of course, said fīnēs Albānōrum, or Vēientium, as the case might be.

16.5 ‘official,’ i.e. duly accredited.

16.6 verbīs . . . sit = verbīs meīs crēdite. Cf. II, 48, cuī reī fidem fēcit. sit is a hortatory subjunctive; H 559, 1 (484, II): M 713: A 266: G 263: B 274.

16.7 See Vocab., fētiālis.

16.8 respōnsum . . . Latīnīs = Latīnī respondērunt. The impersonal passive is common.

16.9 hōc: ‘described above,’ in lines 9-16. In l. 9 hōc = ‘described below.’ Hīc more often bears the latter sense, i.e. it refers to what follows.

16.10 profectus . . . fūdit (fundō): cf. p. 15, n. 9.

16.11 ‘transferred, removed.’

16.12 Cum . . . fierent: a causal clause; cf. p. 13, n. 20.

16.13 See Vocab., carcer.

16.14 ad . . . audāciae = ut incrēscentem audāciam terrēret. Cf. p. 3, n. 8, and ad congressum deae, III, 33. audāciae is objective genitive: cf. p. 14, n. 15.

16.15 ponte subliciō: abl. abs., with factō, expressing means. This bridge, the earliest and most famous of the bridges over the Tiber, derived its name from the circumstance that it was always made of wood and supported on piles (sublicae). It is this bridge that figures so largely in Macaulay’s Lays of Ancient Rome, Horatius, stanzas xxix. ff.

17.1 in ōre: ‘at the mouth.’ The town Ostia got its name from its position in ōre Tiberis. It was the port of Rome, and thus attained great importance. Great harbors were built there in the days of the Empire, the remains of which, as well as of the warehouses built for the storage of merchandise from abroad, are still visible.

Text-only version VI. Lūcius Tarquinius Prīscus, Rōmānōrum rēx quīntus
616-578 B.C.

Ancō rēgnante Lūcius Tarquinius, Tarquiniīs,2 ex Etrūriae urbe,
profectus,3 cum coniuge et fortūnīs omnibus Rōmam commigrāvit.
Additur haec fābula: advenientī4 aquila pilleum sustulit5 et super
carpentum,6 cuī7 Tarquinius īnsidēbat, cum māgnō clangōre volitāns
5 rūrsus8 capitī9 aptē reposuit; inde sublīmis10 abiit. Tanaquil
coniux, caelestium11 prōdigiōrum perīta, rēgnum12 eī portendī
intellēxit; itaque, virum complexa, excelsa13 et alta13 spērāre
18 eum iussit. Hās spēs cōgitātiōnēsque sēcum portantēs urbem
ingressī1 sunt, domiciliōque ibi comparātō Tarquinius pecūniā et
10 indūstriā dīgnitātem atque etiam Ancī rēgis familiāritātem
cōnsecūtus2 est; ā quō tūtor līberīs relīctus3 rēgnum intercēpit et ita
administrāvit, quasi4 iūre adeptus5 esset.

Tarquinius Prīscus Latīnōs bellō domuit; Circum6 Māximum
aedificāvit; dē7 Sabīnīs triumphāvit; mūrum8 lapideum urbī
see caption
15 circumdedit. Equitum centuriās9 duplicāvit,
nōmina mūtāre nōn potuit, dēterritus, ut ferunt,
Attī Nāviī auctōritate. Attus enim, eā
tempestāte10 augur inclitus, id fierī posse negābat,
nisi11 avēs addīxissent11; īrātus rēx in12
20 experīmentum artis eum interrogāvit, fierīne posset13
quod ipse mente concēpisset14; Attus auguriō
āctō fierī posse respondit. “Atquī hōc”15 inquit
rēx “agitābam, num cōtem illam secāre
novāculā possem.”13 “Potes16 ergō” inquit
25 augur, et rēx secuisse dīcitur. Tarquinius fīlium tredecim
annōrum,17 quod in proeliō hostem percussisset,18 praetextā19
19 bullāque1 dōnāvit; unde2 haec3 ingenuōrum puerōrum īnsīgnia esse

Supererant4 duo Ancī fīliī, quī, aegrē ferentēs sē paternō5
30 rēgnō fraudātōs esse,6 rēgī īnsidiās parāvērunt. Ex pāstōribus
duōs ferōcissimōs dēligunt ad patrandum facinus. Eī simulātā
rixā in vēstibulō rēgiae tumultuantur. Quōrum7 clāmor cum8
penitus in rēgiam pervēnisset, vocātī ad rēgem pergunt. Prīmō
uterque vōciferārī coepit et certātim9 alter alterī obstrepere.
35 Cum vērō iussī essent in vicem dīcere, ūnus ex10 compositō rem
ōrdītur; dumque intentus in eum sē rēx tōtus āvertit, alter
ēlātam11 secūrim in ēius caput dēiēcit, et relīctō12 in vulnere
tēlō ambō forās sē prōripiunt.

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17.2 Tarquiniīs . . . urbe: ‘from Tarquinii, a city of Etruria.’ Cf. p. 8, n. 5.

17.3 proficīscor.

17.4 Sc. Rōmam: ‘while on his way to Rome.’ The participle agrees with understood, which is a dat. of separation, or disadvantage, with sustulit: H 427 (385, 2): M 539: A 229: G 345, R. 1: B 188, 2, d.

17.5 tollō.

17.6 A two-wheeled carriage, with curtains and an awning.

17.7 cuī: ‘in which.’ Why dat.?

17.8 rūrsus . . . reposuit: since repōnō = ‘to put back,’ or ‘to place again,’ rūrsus is unnecessary.

17.9 More often repōnō is followed by in with the abl., or the acc.

17.10 sublīmis abiit: ‘flew high up in the air and departed.’

17.11 caelestium . . . perīta: ‘skilled in (interpreting) portents from heaven.’ The Romans regarded the Etruscans as exceptionally skillful in such matters. For the gen., see H 451, 1 (399, I, 2). M 573: A 218, a: G 374: B 204, 1.

17.12 rēgnum eī portendī intellēxit: ‘perceived that the sign indicated that he was to be king.’ How literally? According to Livy, the significance of the omen lay in these facts: It came from a favorable quarter of the sky (which, to the Romans, was the east); it concerned his head, the supreme part of his being; hence the removal of his cap by the eagle, the bird of Jupiter, ‘king of gods and men,’ and its restoration, implied that his cap was to be removed and replaced by a crown.

17.13 neuter plural adjectives, used as nouns: ‘an exalted destiny.’

18.1 ingredior.

18.2 cōnsequor.

18.3 relinquō.

18.4 H 584 (513, II): M 944, 945: A 312, and N. 1: G 602 and R.: B 307.

18.5 adipīscor.

18.6 Circum Māximum: see map, p. xxviii. In its final form it could accommodate nearly 300,000 spectators. The Romans of the Empire were passionately devoted to the chariot races of the circus. For a good description of a Roman circus, see Lew Wallace’s Ben Hur, Book V, Chap. XII.

18.7 dē Sabīnīs triumphāvit: ‘he triumphed over’; lit., ‘he got a triumph out of.’ See Vocab., triumphus.

18.8 mūrum . . . circumdedit: ‘he built a stone wall round the city.’ According to Livy, the wall was merely begun by Tarquin and finished by his successor, Servius Tullius.

18.9 Cf. II, 42. Livy says that when Romulus formed the three centuries of horsemen he called one Ramnēs, after his own name, another Titiēnsēs, after King Tatius. Tarquin desired to name the new centuries after himself.

18.10 = tempore.

18.11 nisi . . . addīxissent: ‘unless the birds gave consent,’ i.e. without taking the auspicia and finding them favorable. Cf. I, 42. The subjunctive is due to the indirect discourse. For the tense, see p. 6, n. 1.

18.12 in experīmentum artis: ‘to test his art.’ Cf. p. 14, n. 4.

18.13 Cf. p. 3, n. 2.

18.14 Cf. p. 6, n. 1. The king said ‘Potestne fierī quod in mente concēpī? 

18.15 hōc is emphatic, ‘Ah, but what I had in mind was this.’

18.16 Potes ergō: ‘well, you can.’

18.17 descriptive gen.: H 440, 3 (396, V): M 558: A 215: G 365: B 203.

18.18 Cf. p. 14, n. 1.

18.19 Sc. togā.

19.1 See Vocab., bulla.

19.2 = ex quō: ‘in consequence of this circumstance.’

19.3 Cf. p. 5, n. 14, and p. 16, n. 9.

19.4 ‘were still alive.’

19.5 = patris. Cf. the use of rēgius, I, 17.

19.6 The infinitive depends on aegrē ferentēs. Phrases expressive of emotion, whether of joy or of sorrow, are often followed by the infinitive with subject accus.

19.7 Cf. p. 4, n. 3.

19.8 The conjunction of the subordinate clause is often preceded by one or two words, sometimes by a larger number.

19.9 certātim . . . obstrepere: ‘to (try to) drown each other’s voices’; lit., ‘in eager rivalry to make noise one against (ob) the other.’ Why is alterī dative?

19.10 ex compositō: ‘according to previous agreement.’

19.11 ēlātam secūrim . . . dēiēcit = extulit (‘raised’) et dēiēcit. Cf. p. 2, n. 8.

19.12 relīctō . . . tēlō: we say, ‘leaving the weapon—they flee,’ i.e. we treat the two actions as simultaneous. The Romans say more exactly: ‘having left—they flee,’ i.e. the act of leaving is viewed as prior to that of flight.

Text-only version VII. Servius Tullius, Rōmānōrum rēx sextus
578-534 B.C.

Post hunc Servius Tullius suscēpit imperium, genitus ex nōbilī
fēminā,13 captīvā tamen et famulā. Quī cum in domō Tarquiniī
Prīscī ēducārētur, ferunt14 prōdigium15 vīsū ēventūque mīrābile
20 accidisse. Flammae1 speciēs puerī dormientis caput amplexa est.
5 Hōc vīsū Tanaquil summam2 eī dīgnitātem portendī intellēxit
see caption
coniugīque suāsit ut3 eum haud secus ac suōs līberōs4
ēducāret.3 Is postquam adolēvit, et fortitūdine et cōnsiliō
īnsīgnis fuit. In proeliō quōdam,5 in quō rēx Tarquinius
adversus Sabīnōs cōnflīxit, mīlitibus6 sēgnius
10 dīmicantibus, raptum7 sīgnum in hostem mīsit. Cūius8
recipiendī grātiā Rōmānī tam ācriter pūgnāvērunt, ut et
sīgnum et victōriam referrent. Quārē ā Tarquiniō gener
adsūmptus est; et cum Tarquinius occīsus esset, Tanaquil,
Tarquiniī uxor, mortem ēius cēlāvit, populumque
15 ex superiōre9 parte aedium adlocūta10 ait rēgem grave
quidem, sed nōn lētāle vulnus accēpisse, eumque petere, ut
interim dum convalēsceret,11 Serviō Tulliō12 dictō audientēs essent.
Sīc13 Servius Tullius rēgnāre coepit, sed rēctē imperium administrāvit.
Sabīnōs subēgit14; montēs trēs, Quirīnālem, Vīminālem, Ēsquilīnum
20 urbī adiūnxit; fossās15 circā mūrum dūxit. Īdem cēnsum16
ōrdināvit, et populum in classēs17 et centuriās18 distribuit.


Servius Tullius aliquod urbī decus addere volēbat. Iam1 tum
inclitum erat Diānae Ephesiae fānum.2 Id commūniter3 ā cīvitātibus
see caption
Asiae factum fāma ferēbat. Itaque Latīnōrum
25 populīs suāsit ut et4 ipsī fānum Diānae
cum5 populō Rōmānō Rōmae in Aventīnō monte
aedificārent. Quō6 factō, bōs mīrae māgnitūdinis7
cuīdam Latīnō nāta8 dīcitur, et respōnsum somniō
datum8 eum populum summam imperiī habitūrum,8
30 cūius cīvis bovem illam Diānae immolāsset.9
Latīnus10 bovem ad fānum Diānae ēgit et causam
sacerdōtī Rōmānō exposuit. Ille callidus11 dīxit
prius eum vīvō flūmine manūs abluere dēbēre.
Latīnus dum ad Tiberim12 dēscendit, sacerdōs bovem immolāvit.
35 Ita imperium cīvibus sibique glōriam adquīsīvit.

Servius Tullius fīliam alteram ferōcem, mītem alteram habēns,13
cum Tarquiniī fīliōs parī esse animō14 vidēret, ferōcem15 mītī,
mītem ferōcī in mātrimōnium dedit, nē duo violenta ingenia
22 mātrimōniō iungerentur. Sed mītēs seu forte seu fraude periērunt;
40 ferōcēs mōrum similitūdō coniūnxit. Statim Tarquinius
see caption
ā Tulliā1 incitātus advocātō2 senātū rēgnum
paternum repetere coepit. Quā3
audītā Servius dum ad Cūriam contendit,
iussū Tarquiniī per gradūs4 dēiectus et
45 domum refugiēns interfectus est. Tullia
carpentō vecta in Forum properāvit et
cōniugem ē Cūriā ēvocātum prīma rēgem
salūtāvit; cūius iussū cum ē turbā ac
tumultū dēcessisset5 domumque redīret,
50 vīsō patris corpore, cunctantem et frēna mūliōnem inhibentem
super ipsum6 corpus carpentum agere iussit, unde7 vīcus ille
Scelerātus dictus est. Servius Tullius rēgnāvit annōs quattuor et

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19.13 Livy relates that at the capture of the Latin town Corniculum, Servius’ father was killed and his mother taken prisoner. Out of respect to her high rank, Tanaquil set her free and welcomed her to the palace. There Servius was born, and he was brought up in Tarquin’s household.

19.14 ferunt . . . accidisse: in English, the verb corresponding to ferunt would be parenthetical, thus: ‘a prodigy, they say, happened.’

19.15 prōdigium . . . mīrābile: ‘a prodigy, strange to look upon, and marvelously fulfilled.’ vīsū and ēventū are ablatives of specification to mīrābile: H 480 (424): M 650: A 253: G 397: B 226, 1.

20.1 Flammae speciēs: ‘the semblance of fire.’ We may render the whole sentence, ‘Fire seemed to envelop,’ etc.

20.2 summam . . . intellēxit: cf. p. 17, n. 12.

20.3 Cf. p. 1, n. 5.

20.4 governed by ēducābat understood.

20.5 quīdam and ūnus often have no more force than the English indefinite article.

20.6 mīlitibus . . . dīmicantibus: causal.

20.7 raptum . . . mīsit: cf. p. 2, n. 8. To lose the standard was as much of a disgrace then as it is now to lose the flag.

20.8 Cūius . . . grātiā: an expression of purpose = quod ut reciperet.

20.9 Roman houses in general had no windows on the ground floor.

20.10 Cf. p. 19, n. 12.

20.11 H 603, 2 (519, 2): M 921: A 328: G 572: B 293, III, 2, and p. xx, G 3.

20.12 dat. with dictō audientēs essent, which together = pārērent: H 426 (385, I): M 530: A 227 and N. 2: G 346 and N. 5: B 187, II. dictō is dat. with audientēs, which here itself = ‘obeying.’

20.13 i.e. instead of being formally chosen king by the senate and people (p. 15, n. 11).

20.14 subigō.

20.15 fossās . . . dūxit: this statement harmonizes with VI, 14: see note there. Remains of the wall and ditch are extant, especially along the east side of the Esquiline, Viminal, and Quirinal hills.

20.16 The census was not, as with us, a mere enumeration of the inhabitants, but an enrollment and classification of them according to property for purposes of taxation and military service. Hence the clause in . . . distribuit is in part an explanation of cēnsum ōrdināvit.

20.17 These classes were six in number.

20.18 According to Livy, there were 193 centuries. At elections each century cast a single vote, the opinion of the majority of its members being regarded as the voice of the whole century. The first, or richest class, contained 98 centuries, and so controlled 98 votes, more than a majority.

21.1 Iam tum: ‘even in those early days.’

21.2 This temple was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. See Acts xix, 24 f.

21.3 commūniter . . . factum (esse): ‘that the states of Asia had united in building it.’ How literally?

21.4 et ipsī = etiam ipsī, or ipsī quoque: ‘they too,’ i.e. as well as the cīvitātēs Asiae.

21.5 ‘in conjunction with.’ The whole might have been expressed thus: ut illī (i.e. the Latīnī) et populus Rōmānus . . . aedificārent. Cf. lines 23, 24.

21.6 Quō factō = postquam hōc (i.e. the building of the temple) factum est.

21.7 Cf. p. 18, n. 17.

21.8 Sc. esse. For the personal construction dīcitur, see H 611, 1 (534, I and N. 1): M 962: A 330, b, 1: G 528, 1: B 332.

21.9 Subjunctive, because in a subordinate clause of indir. disc. For the tense, cf. p. 6, n. 1.

21.10The (aforesaid) Latin,’ mentioned in l. 28. This is one of the cases where Latin suffers from the lack of the definite article.

21.11 ‘cunningly.’ Cf. p. 4, n. 4.

21.12 The Tiber ran close to the foot of the Aventine hill on which (l. 26) the temple of Diana stood.

21.13 = cum habēret, ‘since he had.’ cum . . . vidēret is also causal.

21.14 abl. of quality: H 473, 2 (419, II): M 643: A 251: G 400: B 224.

21.15 ferōcem . . . ferōcī: note that the order in the second of these two pairs of words is the reverse of that in the first. Cf. l. 36, alteram ferōcem, mītem alteram. This arrangement is called Chiasmus: H 666, 2 (562): M 1150: A 344, f, and N.: G 682, and R.: B 350, II, c).

22.1 The daughter of Tullius.

22.2 advocātō . . . coepit = senātum advocāvit et . . . coepit. Cf. p. 2, n. 8.

22.3 quā rē . . . contendit: ‘while Servius, after he had heard of this action, was hastening,’ etc. For the tense of contendit, see p. 3, n. 14.

22.4 Sc. Cūriae.

22.5 dēcessisset . . . redīret: ‘had departed . . . and was returning.’

22.6 super ipsum corpus: ‘over the very body’; ipsum emphasizes the wickedness of Tullia. Roman feeling usually required that the utmost respect be shown to the bodies of the dead.

22.7 Used here as in VI, 27.

Text-only version VIII. Tarquinius Superbus, Rōmānōrum rēx septimus et ūltimus
534-510 B.C.

Tarquinius Superbus rēgnum scelestē8 occupāvit.9 Tamen bellō
strēnuus Latīnōs Sabīnōsque domuit. Urbem Gabiōs in potestātem
redēgit fraude Sextī fīliī. Is cum indīgnē ferret eam urbem
ā patre expūgnārī nōn posse,10 ad Gabīnōs sē contulit, patris saevitiam
5 in sē conquerēns. Benīgnē ā Gabīnīs exceptus paulātim
eōrum benevolentiam cōnsequitur, fīctīs blanditiīs ita eōs adliciēns,
23 ut apud omnēs plūrimum posset,1 et ad postrēmum dux bellī
ēligerētur. Tum ē suīs ūnum ad patrem mittit scīscitātum2
quidnam sē3 facere vellet. Pater nūntiō fīliī nihil respondit, sed
10 velut dēlīberābundus4 in hortum trānsiit ibique inambulāns
sequente nūntiō altissima5 papāverum capita baculō dēcussit.
Nūntius, fessus exspectandō, rediit Gabiōs. Sextus, cōgnitō
silentiō patris et factō,6 intellēxit7 quid vellet pater. Prīmōrēs
cīvitātis interēmit patrīque urbem sine ūllā dīmicātiōne
15 trādidit.

Posteā rēx Ardeam urbem obsidēbat. Ibi cum in castrīs essent,
Tarquinius Collātīnus, sorōre8 rēgis nātus, forte cēnābat apud
Sextum Tarquinium cum iuvenibus9 rēgiīs. Incidit10 uxōribus
mentiō; cum suam ūnusquisque laudāret, placuit experīrī.
20 Itaque citātīs11 equīs Rōmam āvolant; rēgiās12 nurūs in convīviō13
et lūxū dēprehendunt. Pergunt inde Collātiam14; Lucrētiam,
Collātīnī uxōrem, inter ancillās lānae15 dēditam inveniunt. Ea
ergō cēterīs praestāre iūdicātur. Paucīs interiectīs diēbus Sextus
Collātiam rediit et Lucrētiae vim16 attulit. Illa posterō diē, advocātīs
25 patre et coniuge, rem exposuit et sē cultrō, quem sub veste
24 abditum habēbat, occīdit. Conclāmat vir paterque et in1 exitium
rēgum coniūrant. Tarquiniō2 Rōmam redeuntī clausae sunt
urbis portae et exsilium indictum.3

In antīquīs annālibus memoriae haec sunt prōdita.4 Anus
30 hospita atque incōgnita ad Tarquinium quondam Superbum rēgem
adiit,5 novem librōs ferēns, quōs esse dīcēbat dīvīna ōrācula: eōs
sē velle6 vēnumdare. Tarquinius pretium percontātus est: mulier
nimium atque immēnsum popōscit. Rēx, quasi7 anus aetāte dēsiperet,
dērīsit.8 Tum illa foculum cum īgnī appōnit et trēs librōs
35 ex novem deūrit; et, ecquid reliquōs sex eōdem pretiō9 emere
vellet, rēgem interrogāvit. Sed Tarquinius id multō rīsit magis,
dīxitque anum iam procul dubiō dēlīrāre. Mulier ibīdem statim
trēs aliōs librōs exūssit10; atque id11 ipsum dēnuō placidē rogat,
ut12 trēs reliquōs eōdem illō pretiō emat. Tarquinius ōre13 iam
40 sēriō atque attentiōre animō13 fit; eam14 cōnstantiam cōnfīdentiamque
nōn neglegendam15 intellegit: librōs trēs reliquōs mercātur
nihilō minōre pretiō9 quam quod erat petītum prō omnibus. Sed
eam mulierem tunc ā Tarquiniō dīgressam16 posteā nūsquam locī
vīsam15 cōnstitit. Librī17 trēs in sacrāriō conditī Sibyllīnīque
45 appellātī. Ad eōs, quasi ad ōrāculum, Quīndecemvirī adeunt, cum
diī immortālēs pūblicē cōnsulendī sunt.

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22.8 Cf. the whole description VII, 40-53.

22.9 not ‘occupied.’

22.10 The infinitive depends on indīgnē ferret, an expression of emotion. Cf. p. 19, n. 6.

23.1 plūrimum posset: ‘he possessed great influence.’ plūrimum is an accusative of extent.

23.2 Cf. p. 5, n. 20.

23.3 refers to Sextus. Sextus asked his father through the messenger: Quidnam mē facere vīs?

23.4 Adjectives ending in -bundus generally have the force of the English present participle active.

23.5 altissima . . . capita = ‘the heads of the tallest poppies.’ How literally?

23.6 factō is here a noun.

23.7 It has been shown that the whole of this story was derived from Greek sources, and that the incident described in the text is, so far as Gabii is concerned, without foundation.

23.8 H 469, 2 (415, II): M 609: A 244: G 395: B 215.

23.9 iuvenibus rēgiīs: ‘the princes.’

23.10 Incidit . . . mentiō: ‘the conversation happened to turn on (the merits of) their (respective) wives.’ How literally?

23.11 citātīs equīs: ‘at top speed.’ How literally?

23.12 rēgiās nurūs: ‘the king’s daughters-in-law,’ i.e. the princes’ wives.

23.13 convīviō et lūxū: ‘a banquet and luxury’ = ‘a luxurious banquet.’

23.14 The home of Collatinus.

23.15 lānae dēditam: ‘wholly intent on spinning.’ In the oldest times the Roman housewife made all the garments of the household. Hence a frequent laudatory inscription on the tombstones of Roman ladies is lānam fēcit. Macaulay had this feature of Roman life in mind when (Horatius, stanza LXX) he wrote:

“When the goodwife’s shuttle merrily

  Goes flashing through the loom.”

23.16 vim attulit (adferō): ‘outraged.’

24.1 in exitium rēgum: ‘to kill the royal family (rēgum).’ For in exitium cf. p. 14, n. 4.

24.2 dat. of disadvantage. Translate: ‘against T., on his return to Rome.’

24.3 Sc. est.

24.4 prōdō.

24.5 adeō.

24.6 infin. because dependent on dīxit understood, to be supplied from dīcēbat.

24.7 quasi . . . dēsiperet: ‘thinking that the old woman’s mind was failing through age.’ See p. 3, n. 6.

24.8 dērīdeō.

24.9 abl. of price: H 478 (422): M 652: A 252: G 404: B 225.

24.10 exūrō.

24.11 explained by the clause ut . . . emat.

24.12 ut . . . emat: a substantive clause of purpose depending on rogat: H 565 (498, I): M 894: A 331: G 546: B 295, 4.

24.13 abl. of quality with fit.

24.14 = tālem, as often.

24.15 sc. esse.

24.16 dīgressam (dīgredior) = postquam dīgressa est.

24.17 Librī . . . appellātī: the Sibyllae were inspired maidens devoted to the worship of Apollo. The most famous, from whom Tarquin was believed to have received the Sibylline books, lived at Cumae, on the coast of Campania, in Italy. The books were placed in a vault beneath the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. When this temple was burned in 83 B.C., the senate sent envoys to Greece to make a new collection of oracular sayings. These also were deposited for a time in the temple of Jupiter after its restoration.


Text-only version IX. Iūnius Brūtus, Rōmānōrum cōnsul prīmus

Iūnius Brūtus, sorōre1 Tarquiniī Superbī nātus, cum2 eandem
fortūnam timēret, in quam frāter inciderat, quī ob dīvitiās et
prūdentiam ab avunculō erat occīsus, stultitiam finxit, unde
Brūtus dictus est. Profectus3 Delphōs4 cum Tarquiniī fīliīs,
5 quōs pater ad Apollinem mūneribus honōrandum mīserat, baculō5
sambūceō aurum inclūsum dōnō6 tulit deō. Perāctīs deinde
mandātīs patris, iuvenēs Apollinem cōnsulunt quisnam ex ipsīs
Rōmae7 rēgnātūrus esset.8 Respōnsum est eum Rōmae7 summam
potestātem habitūrum, quī prīmus mātrem ōsculātus esset.9 Tunc
10 Brūtus, velut sī cāsū prōlāpsus10 cecidisset, terram ōsculātus est,
scīlicet quod ea commūnis māter omnium mortālium esset.


Expulsīs rēgibus duo cōnsulēs11 creātī sunt, Iūnius Brūtus et
Tarquinius Collātīnus12 Lucrētiae marītus. At lībertās
modo parta13 per dolum et prōditiōnem paene āmissa est.
15 Erant in iuventūte Rōmānā adulēscentēs aliquot, sodālēs
adulēscentium Tarquiniōrum.14 Hī cum lēgātīs, quōs rēx ad bona sua
repetenda Rōmam mīserat, dē restituendīs rēgibus conloquuntur,
ipsōs Brūtī cōnsulis fīliōs in societātem cōnsiliī adsūmunt. Sermōnem
eōrum ex servīs ūnus excēpit; rem ad cōnsulēs dētulit.
20 Datae15 ad Tarquinium lītterae manifēstum facinus fēcērunt.
Prōditōrēs in vincula coniectī sunt, deinde damnātī. Stābant ad
pālum dēligātī iuvenēs nōbilissimī; sed ā cēterīs līberī cōnsulis
omnium in sē oculōs āvertēbant. Cōnsulēs in sēdem prōcessēre16
26 suam, missīque līctōrēs nūdātōs1 virgīs caedunt secūrīque feriunt.
25 Suppliciī nōn spectātor modo, sed et2 exāctor erat Brūtus,
quī tunc patrem exuit, ut cōnsulem ageret.3

Tarquinius deinde bellō apertō rēgnum reciperāre cōnātus4 est.
Equitibus praeerat Ārūns, Tarquiniī fīlius: rēx ipse cum legiōnibus
Brutus sequēbātur. Obviam hostī5 cōnsulēs
30 eunt; Brūtus ad explōrandum cum equitātū
antecessit. Ārūns, ubi procul Brūtum
āgnōvit,6 īnflammātus īrā “Ille est vir” inquit
“quī nōs patriā expulit; ipse7 ēn ille nostrīs
decorātus īnsīgnibus māgnificē incēdit.” Tum
35 concitat calcāribus equum atque in ipsum cōnsulem
dīrigit; Brūtus avidē sē certāminī offert. Adeō8 īnfēstīs
animīs concurrērunt, ut ambō hastā trānsfīxī caderent; fugātus
tamen proeliō est Tarquinius. Alter9 cōnsul Rōmam triumphāns
rediit. Brūtī conlēgae fūnus, quantō10 potuit apparātū, fēcit.
40 Brūtum mātrōnae, ut parentem, annum lūxērunt.11

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25.1 Cf. p. 23, n. 8.

25.2 cum: causal; cf. p. 4, n. 12; also p. xx, H 2.

25.3 proficīscor.

25.4 Cf. p. 3, n. 4.

25.5 Join with inclūsum, and cf. p. 2, n. 7.

25.6 dat. of purpose or service: H 433 (390): M 548: A 233, a: G 356: B 191, 2. This dat. is specially common in connection with another dat., as deō here (dat. of advantage).

25.7 locative: H 483 (425, II): M 620: A 258, c, 2: G 411: B 228, 1.

25.8 Cf. p. 3, n. 2. The whole clause is the object of cōnsulunt, ‘consult (by asking).’

25.9 Cf. p. 6, n. 1. The oracle said: Is . . . habēbit, quī . . . erit.

25.10 prōlāpsus (prōlābor) cecidisset (cadō) = prōlāpsus esset et cecidisset.

25.11 See Vocab., cōnsul.

25.12 Cf. VIII, 17.

25.13 pariō.

25.14 The sons of Tarquin, mentioned above, l. 4.

25.15 = quae datae erant. datae = missae, and so is construed with ad and the accusative.

25.16 = prōcessērunt.

26.1 nūdātōs virgīs caedunt = nūdant (eōs) et virgīs caedunt.

26.2 = etiam.

26.3 What does the subjunctive express?

26.4 cōnor.

26.5 dat. after ob in obviam. The rule regarding compound verbs (p. 2, n. 7) holds true often of nouns, adjectives, and adverbs.

26.6 āgnōscō.

26.7 ipse . . . incēdit: the spirit of this dramatic sentence may be reproduced thus: ‘Look at him (ēn ille)! He is actually adorned with our insignia! See in what a lordly way he advances!’

26.8 Adeō, ‘such,’ in part qualifies īnfēstīs, in part paves the way for the result clause ut . . . caderent.

26.9 Alter: ‘the remaining.’ Why may it be so translated?

26.10 quantō . . . apparātū: ‘with the greatest possible splendor.’

26.11 lūgeō.

Text-only version X. Mūcius Scaevola

Cum Porsena12 Rōmam obsidēret, Mūcius, vir Rōmānae13
cōnstantiae, senātum adiit et veniam14 trānsfugiendī petiit, necem
27 rēgis reprōmittēns. Acceptā1 potestāte cum in castra Porsenae
vēnisset, ibi in cōnfertissimā turbā prope tribūnal cōnstitit.
5 Stīpendium tunc forte2 mīlitibus dabātur et scrība cum
rēge parī3 ferē ōrnātū sedēbat. Mūcius, īgnōrāns uter rēx esset,
illum prō rēge occīdit. Apprehēnsus et ad rēgem pertrāctus4
dextram accēnsō5 ad sacrificium foculō iniēcit, velut manum
pūniēns, quod6 in caede peccāsset. Attonitus mīrāculō rēx
10 iuvenem āmovērī ab altāribus iussit. Tum Mūcius, quasi beneficium
remūnerāns, ait trecentōs adversus eum7 suī similēs coniūrāsse.
Quā rē ille territus8 bellum acceptīs obsidibus dēposuit.9
Mūciō prāta trāns Tiberim data,10 ab eō Mūcia appellāta. Statua
quoque eī11 honōris grātiā cōnstitūta est.

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26.12 Tarquinius Superbus had applied to Porsena, king of the Etruscan city of Clusium, for aid in the recovery of his throne. Porsena gathered a large army and marched against Rome. For this story, see Macaulay’s Lays of Ancient Rome, Horatius. Modern authorities on Roman history maintain that Porsena was so successful in his operations that he compelled the Romans to submit to a very humiliating treaty.

26.13 We would say, ‘truly Roman.’

26.14 veniam trānsfugiendī: ‘permission to go over (to the enemy).’

27.1 Acceptā (accipiō) . . . vēnisset = Cum potestātem accēpisset et . . . vēnisset.

27.2 Cf. p. 5, n. 19.

27.3 parī . . . ōrnātū: abl. abs. to denote an attendant circumstance: H 489, 1 (431, 1): M 640: A 255, d, 5: G 409, N.: B 227.

27.4 pertrahō.

27.5 accendō.

27.6 quod . . . peccāsset expresses Scaevola’s thought: see H 588, II (516, II): M 851: A 321: G 541: B 286, 1, and cf. p. 14, n. 1, and p. xxi, H 4.

27.7 eum refers to the king, suī to Scaevola. Scaevola’s speech was: Trecentī adversus tē meī similēs coniūrāvērunt.

27.8 terreō.

27.9 dēpōnō.

27.10 Sc. sunt.

27.11 dat. of advantage with cōnstitūta est.

Text-only version XI. Fabiī trecentī sex
479-477 B.C.

Cum12 adsiduīs Vēientium13 incursiōnibus vexārentur12 Rōmānī,
Fabia gēns senātum adit; cōnsul Fabius prō gente loquitur:
“Vōs alia bella cūrāte; Fabiōs14 hostēs Vēientibus date: id
bellum prīvātō sūmptū15 gerere nōbīs16 in animō est.” Grātiae eī
28 5 ingentēs āctae sunt. Cōnsul ē Cūriā ēgressus, comitante1
Fabiōrum āgmine, domum rediit. Mānat tōtā urbe rūmor; Fabium
ad2 caelum laudibus ferunt. Fabiī posterō diē arma capiunt.
Numquam3 exercitus neque minor numerō neque clārior fāmā et
admīrātiōne hominum per urbem incessit. Ībant sex et trecentī
10 mīlitēs, omnēs patriciī, omnēs ūnīus gentis. Ad Cremeram flūmen
perveniunt. Is opportūnus vīsus est locus commūniendō praesidiō.4
Hostēs nōn5 semel fūsī pācem supplicēs6 petunt.

Vēientēs7 pācis impetrātae cum brevī paenituisset,8 redintegrātō
bellō iniērunt cōnsilium īnsidiīs ferōcem hostem captandī.
15 Multō successū Fabiīs9 audācia crēscēbat. Cum igitur pālātī
passim agrōs populārentur, pecora ā Vēientibus obviam10 ācta
sunt; ad quae prōgressī Fabiī in īnsidiās dēlāpsī11 omnēs ad
ūnum periērunt. Diēs, quō id factum est, inter nefāstōs relātus12
est; porta, quā profectī erant, Scelerāta est appellāta. Ūnus
20 omnīnō superfuit ex eā gente, quī propter aetātem impūberem
domī13 relīctus14 erat. Is15 genus propāgāvit ad Quīntum16 Fabium
Māximum, quī Hannibalem morā17 frēgit.18

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27.12 The subjunctive expresses both time and cause: cf. p. 2, n. 13, and p. xxii, J.

27.13 The Veientes fought almost constantly against Rome from a very early time (cf. IV, 57; Livy says that they were defeated by Romulus) till their city was completely destroyed in 396 B.C.

27.14 Fabiōs . . . date: ‘give the Veientes the Fabii as their enemies,’ i.e. let the war against the Veientes be the special business of the Fabii.

27.15 Cf. p. 24, n. 9.

27.16 nōbīs . . . est: since nōbīs is a dat. of possession (H 430 (387): M 542: A 231: G 349: B 190) with est, the phrase exactly = ‘we have it in mind.’ The subject of est is the clause id . . . gerere. Fabiōs is strongly opposed to vōs.

28.1 comitante . . . āgmine: ‘the Fabii accompanying him in a body.’ How literally?

28.2 ad . . . ferunt: so we ‘laud a person to the skies.’

28.3 Numquam . . . neque . . . neque: in Latin, as in English, two negatives neutralize each other and make an affirmative. To this law there are two regular exceptions in Latin: When a general negative like nōn, numquam, or nēmō is followed (1) by neque . . . neque or (2) by the emphatic nē . . . quidem. In the former case the negation is distributed by the neque . . . neque into two (or more) clauses or phrases; in the latter, the full weight of the negation is concentrated upon a single word or phrase. In English a single negative is always to be employed.

28.4 dat. of purpose: cf. p. 25, n. 6. This construction is especially frequent with phrases consisting of a gerundive and a noun.

28.5 nōn semel: ‘not once (only),’ i.e. repeatedly.

28.6 Cf. p. 4, n. 4.

28.7 Vēientēs . . . paenituisset: lit., ‘when it had repented the V. of the peace which they had secured.’ What is our idiom? paenituisset is wholly impersonal; Vēientēs is acc., though logically its subject, and pācis is gen., though logically its object. H 457 (409, III): M 585: A 221, b: G 377: B 209.

28.8 See p. 2, n. 13.

28.9 dat. of reference: H 425, 4, N. (384, 4, N. 2): M 537: A 235, a: G 346: B 187, II.

28.10 Sc. eīs: ‘to meet them.’

28.11 dēlābor.

28.12 refero.

28.13 locative: H 484, 2 (426, 2): M 622: A 258, d: G 411, R. 2: B 232, 2.

28.14 relinquō.

28.15 Is . . . Māximum: freely ‘he saved the family from extinction and became the ancestor of Maximus.’

28.16 See Selection XIX.

28.17 Fabius, by his ‘policy of masterly inactivity,’ gained the title of Cunctātor, ‘the Delayer.’

28.18 frangō.


Text-only version XII. Lūcius Virgīnius

Annō trecentēsimō1 ab urbe2 conditā prō duōbus cōnsulibus
decemvirī creātī sunt, quī3 adlātās ē Graeciā lēgēs populō
prōpōnerent.4 Duodecim5 tabulīs6 eae sunt perscrīptae. Cēterum
decemvirī7 suā8 ipsōrum īnsolentiā in exitium āctī sunt. Nam
5 ūnus ex iīs Appius Claudius virginem plēbēiam adamāvit. Quam9
cum Appius nōn posset pretiō ac spē perlicere, ūnum ē
clientibus10 subōrnāvit, quī eam in11 servitūtem dēpōsceret,12 facile
victūrum13 sē spērāns, cum ipse esset et accūsātor et iūdex. Lūcius
Virgīnius, puellae pater, tunc aberat mīlitiae causā. Cliēns igitur
10 virginī14 venientī in Forum (namque ibi in tabernīs litterārum15
lūdī erant) iniēcit manum, adfīrmāns suam esse servam. Eam
sequī sē iubet; nī faciat,16 minātur sē vī abstrāctūrum. Pavidā
puellā17 stupente,17 ad clāmōrem nūtrīcis fit concursus. Itaque cum
ille puellam vī nōn posset abdūcere, eam vocat in iūs, ipsō
15 Appiō17 iūdice.17

Intereā missī nūntiī ad Virgīnium properant. Is commeātū
sūmptō ā castrīs profectus prīmā lūce Rōmam advēnit, cum iam
cīvitās in Forō exspectātiōne ērēcta stābat. Virgīnius statim in
Forum lacrimābundus et cīvium opem implōrāns fīliam suam
30 20 dēdūcit. Neque1 eō sētius Appius, cum in tribūnal ēscendisset,
Virgīniam clientī suō addīxit. Tum pater, ubi nihil ūsquam
auxiliī2 vīdit, “Quaesō,” inquit “Appī, īgnōsce patriō dolōrī3;
sine mē fīliam ultimum adloquī.” Datā veniā pater cum fīliam
sēdūxisset, ab laniō cultrō4 adreptō pectus puellae trānsfīgit.
25 Tum vērō sibi viam facit et respersus cruōre ad exercitum profugit
et mīlitēs ad vindicandum facinus accendit. Concitātus
exercitus montem Aventīnum īnsēdit; decem tribūnōs5 mīlitum
creāvit; decemvirōs magistrātū sē abdicāre coēgit6 eōsque omnēs
aut morte aut exiliō multāvit; ipse Appius Claudius in carcerem
30 coniectus mortem sibi cōnscīvit.7

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29.1 The dating is not exact, as the Decemvirs were elected in 451 B.C.

29.2 Cf. p. 5, n. 15.

29.3 quī . . . prōpōnerent: i.e. after studying the laws of Greece, they were to draw up a code and submit it to the people.

29.4 Cf. p. 5, n. 3.

29.5 From this circumstance the code was known as the Lēgēs XII Tabulārum.

29.6 abl. of means; we say ‘on tablets.’ The tablets were of bronze. For many centuries Roman schoolboys had to commit these laws to memory.

29.7 The Decemvirs had been elected for one year, at the end of which time they reported their work still unfinished, and a second board was chosen. The story that follows concerns the second board. All accounts agree that the rule of the first board was in all respects just.

29.8 suā ipsōrum: a strong expression for ‘their own.’

29.9 Cf. p. 4, n. 3.

29.10 See Vocab., cliēns.

29.11 in servitūtem expresses purpose (cf. p. 14, n. 4), and so = ut serva esset.

29.12 Cf. p. 5, n. 3.

29.13 vincō.

29.14 Join with iniēcit manum, and cf. p. 2, n. 7.

29.15 litterārum lūdī: schools where children were taught their A B C’s, i.e. what we should call ‘primary schools.’

29.16 subjunctive as the subordinate clause of the indirect quotation, which depends on minātur. The threat was: Nī (id) fēceris, vī () abstraham.

29.17 abl. abs.

30.1 Neque eō sētius: ‘nevertheless.’ How literally? = ‘for that reason.’

30.2 partitive gen. with nihil: H 441 (397, 1): M 564: A 216, a, 3: G 369: B 201, 2.

30.3 dat. with īgnōsce: H 426, 2 (385, II): M 531: A 227: G 346: B 187, II, a.

30.4 cultrō . . . trānsfīgit: cf. p. 2, n. 8.

30.5 tribūnōs: two armies were in the field against the Sabines and Aequians. The eight Decemvirs who commanded them were deposed, and ten tribunes, or ‘captains,’ were chosen in their place.

30.6 cōgō.

30.7 cōnscīscō. With this whole story cf. Macaulay’s Lays, Virginia.

Text-only version XIII. Titus Mānlius Torquātus

Titus Mānlius ob ingeniī et linguae tarditātem ā patre rūs8
relēgātus erat. Quī cum audīvisset patrī9 diem dictam esse ā
Pompōniō, tribūnō plēbis, cēpit cōnsilium rudis quidem et agrestis
animī,10 sed pietāte laudābile. Cultrō succinctus māne in
5 urbem atque ā portā cōnfēstim ad11 Pompōnium pergit:
intrōductus12 cultrum stringit et super lectum Pompōniī stāns sē eum
trānsfīxūrum minātur, nisi ab inceptā accūsātiōne dēsistat.13 Pavidus
31 tribūnus, quīppe1 quī cerneret ferrum ante oculōs micāns, accūsātiōnem
dīmīsit. Ea rēs adulēscentī23 māiōrī4 fuit honōrī
10 quod animum ēius acerbitās paterna ā pietāte nōn āvertisset,
ideōque eōdem annō tribūnus mīlitum factus est.

Cum posteā Gallī5 ad tertium6 lapidem trāns Aniēnem fluvium
castra posuissent, exercitus Rōmānus ab urbe profectus in citeriōre
see caption
rīpā fluviī cōnstitit. Pōns in mediō7 erat: tunc Gallus
15 eximiā corporis māgnitūdine in vacuum pontem
prōcessit et quam8 māximā vōce potuit “Quem
nunc” inquit “Rōma fortissimum habet, is prōcēdat9
agedum ad pūgnam, ut ēventus certāminis nostrī
ostendat utra gēns bellō sit melior.” Diū inter
20 prīmōrēs iuvenum Rōmānōrum silentium fuit. Tum
Titus Mānlius ex statiōne ad imperātōrem pergit:
“Iniussū10 tuō,” inquit, “imperātor, extrā ōrdinem
numquam pūgnāverim,11 nōn sī certam victōriam
videam11; sī tū permittis, volō ego illī bēluae ostendere mē ex eā
25 familiā ortum esse, quae Gallōrum āgmen ex rūpe Tarpēiā dēiēcit.”12
32 Cuī imperātor “Macte1 virtūte,” inquit “Tite Mānlī, estō: perge
et nōmen Rōmānum invictum praestā.”

Armant deinde iuvenem aequālēs: scūtum capit, Hispānō2
cingitur3 gladiō, ad propiōrem4 pūgnam habilī. Exspectābat eum
see caption
30 Gallus stolidē laetus et linguam ab inrīsū exserēns.
Ubi cōnstitēre5 inter duās aciēs, Gallus ēnsem cum
ingentī sonitū in arma Mānliī dēiēcit. Mānlius vērō
inter corpus et arma Gallī sēsē īnsinuāns ūnō6 alterōque
īctū ventrem trānsfōdit et in spatium ingēns
35 ruentem porrēxit hostem; iacentī7 torquem dētrāxit,
quem cruōre respersum8 collō9 circumdedit10 suō.
Dēfīxerat pavor11 cum admīrātiōne Gallōs; Rōmānī
alacrēs obviam mīlitī suō prōgrediuntur et grātulantēs
laudantēsque ad imperātōrem perdūcunt. Mānlius
40 inde Torquātī cōgnōmen accēpit.


Īdem Mānlius, posteā cōnsul factus bellō Latīnō,
ut dīsciplīnam mīlitārem restitueret, ēdīxit nē12 quis
extrā ōrdinem in hostēs pūgnāret. T. Mānlius,13
cōnsulis fīlius, cum propius forte ad statiōnem hostium
45 accessisset, is, quī Latīnō equitātuī praeerat, ubi cōnsulis fīlium
āgnōvit,14 “Vīsne” inquit “congredī mēcum, ut singulāris certāminis
ēventū cernātur, quantum eques Latīnus Rōmānō praestet?”
Mōvit ferōcem animum iuvenis seu īra seu dētrēctandī15
33 certāminis pudor. Itaque oblītus1 imperiī2 paternī in certāmen
50 ruit et Latīnum3 ex equō excussum trānsfīxit spoliīsque lēctīs
see caption
in castra ad patrem vēnit. Extemplō fīlium āversātus
cōnsul mīlitēs classicō advocat. Quī postquam
frequentēs convēnēre, “Quandōquidem” inquit “tū,
fīlī, contrā imperium cōnsulis pūgnāstī, oportet4
55 dīsciplīnam, quam solvistī, poenā5 tuā restituās.
Trīste exemplum, sed in6 posterum salūbre iuventūtī
eris. Ī,7 līctor, dēligā8 ad pālum.” Metū omnēs
obstupuēre; sed postquam cervīce caesā fūsus est cruor, in questūs
et lāmenta ērūpēre.9 Mānliō Rōmam redeuntī seniōrēs tantum
60 obviam exiērunt: iuventūs et tunc eum et omnī10 deinde vītā
exsecrāta est.

Operae pretium erit aliud sevēritātis dīsciplīnae Rōmānae
exemplum prōferre, simul ut appāreat quam facile sevēritās in11
crūdēlitātem et furōrem abeat. Cn. Pīsō fuit12 vir ā multīs vitiīs
65 integer, sed prāvus et cuī13 placēbat prō cōnstantiā rigor. Is
cum īrātus ad mortem dūcī iussisset mīlitem, quasi14 interfēcisset
commīlitōnem, cum quō ēgressus erat ē castrīs et sine quō redierat,
rogantī15 tempus aliquod ad conquīrendum16 nōn dedit.
Damnātus mīles extrā castrōrum vāllum ductus est et iam cervīcem
70 porrigēbat, cum subitō appāruit ille commīlitō, quī occīsus17
34 dīcēbātur. Tunc centuriō suppliciō praepositus condere gladium
carnificem iubet. Ambō commīlitōnēs alter alterum complexī
ingentī concursū et māgnō gaudiō exercitūs dēdūcuntur ad Pīsōnem.
Ille cōnscendit tribūnal furēns et utrumque ad mortem
75 dūcī iubet, adicit et centuriōnem, quī damnātum mīlitem redūxerat,
haec praefātus1: “Tē morte plectī iubeō, quia iam damnātus
es; tē, quia causa damnātiōnis commīlitōnī fuistī; tē, quia
iussus occīdere mīlitem imperātōrī2 nōn pāruistī.”

Cēterum Mānliānae gentis3 propriam ferē fuisse4 illam in
80 fīliōs acerbitātem alius Mānlius, illīus dē quō suprā dīximus
nepōs, ostendit. Cum Macedonum lēgātī Rōmam vēnissent
conquestum5 dē Sīlānō, Mānliī Torquātī fīliō, quod praetor6 prōvinciam
expīlāsset,7 pater, avītae sevēritātis hērēs, petiit ā patribus8
cōnscrīptīs nē quid dē eā rē statuerent, antequam ipse īnspexisset
85 Macedonum et fīliī suī causam. Id ā senātū libenter concessum
est virō summae9 dīgnitātis, cōnsulārī iūrisque cīvīlis perītissimō.
Itaque, īnstitūtā domī cōgnitiōne causae, sōlus per tōtum bīduum
utramque partem audiēbat ac tertiō diē prōnūntiāvit fīlium suum
vidērī nōn tālem fuisse in prōvinciā, quālēs ēius māiōrēs fuissent,
90 et in cōnspectum suum deinceps venīre vetuit. Tam trīstī patris
iūdiciō perculsus10 lūcem11 ulterius intuērī nōn sustinuit et
proximā12 nocte vītam suspendiō fīnīvit. Perēgerat13 Torquātus sevērī
et religiōsī iūdicis partēs,14 satisfactum erat reī pūblicae, habēbat
ultiōnem Macedonia, at nōndum erat īnflexus patris rigor. Igitur
9515 exsequiīs quidem fīliī interfuit, ut patribus mōs erat apud
35 Rōmānōs, et eō ipsō diē, quō fūnus ēius dūcēbātur, aurēs, ut
solēbat, volentibus cōnsulere sē dē iūre praebuit.

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30.8 Cf. p. 3, n. 4.

30.9 patrī . . . esse: ‘that a day had been set against his father (for trial),’ i.e. ‘that his father had been summoned to appear for trial.’ Among the charges against the elder Manlius was that of cruelty to his son. patrī is a dat. of disadvantage.

30.10 cēpit . . . laudābile: ‘he formed a plan (which, though it gave token) of a rough and uncouth temper (was) nevertheless commendable by reason of the filial devotion (which it showed).’ For quidem . . . sed, cf. p. 10, n. 10. animī is a genitive of quality or description with cōnsilium.

30.11 ad Pompōnium = ‘to (the house of) Pomponius.’

30.12 = a temporal clause: ‘when he had been ushered in.’

30.13 For the mood, cf. p. 29, n. 16.

31.1 quīppe quī: ‘since indeed he,’ etc. quī = cum is (cf. p. 4, n. 3), and the relative clause has its verb in the subjunctive because it expresses a reason: H 592, 1 (517, 3, 1)): M 840: A 320, e, N. 1: G 633: B 283, 3, a.

31.2 dat. of advantage.

31.3 = ‘for this reason,’ explained by quod . . . āvertisset.

31.4 māiōrī fuit honōrī: ‘was all the more credit’; cf. p. 25, n. 6.

31.5 In the fifth century B.C. the Gauls left their homes in northwestern Europe, and, crossing the Alps, gained control of the fertile valley of the Po. Hence that part of the Italian peninsula was called Gallia Cisalpina. Thence they made raids into the lands to the south.

31.6 With tertium sc. ab urbe Rōmā. On all the roads leading from Rome milestones were set up to mark the distance from the gate in the Servian Wall (see map, p. xxviii), by which the road issued from the capital.

31.7 Sc. duōrum exercituum, i.e. ‘between the two armies.’

31.8 quam . . . potuit: cf. p. 26, n. 10.

31.9 subjunctive of exhortation or command: H 559, 1 (484, II): M 713: A 266: G 263, 3: B 274.

31.10 Iniussū tuō: ‘without your consent.’

31.11 subjunctive in an ideal condition: H 576 (509): M 936: A 307, b: G 596: B 303.

31.12 In 388 B.C. the Gauls had captured and destroyed all of Rome save the Capitol, which was commanded by M. Manlius, the father of Titus. He was aroused one night by the cackling of the sacred geese, to find that the Gauls had climbed by a secret path, and had almost effected an entrance. He awoke the garrison, hurled the foremost Gauls back upon their companions, and thus saved the Capitol.

32.1 macte virtūte . . . estō: lit., ‘be glorified in (respect of) your valor.’ The phrase is in part an expression of commendation, like our ‘bravo!’ in part a prayer, like ‘success attend thee!’

32.2 A straight, two-edged sword, not more than two feet long, used for thrusting rather than for striking. The Gallic sword was long and without point.

32.3 = cingit sē, i.e. ‘girds himself,’ not ‘is girded.’

32.4 ‘nearer,’ i.e. hand to hand.

32.5 cōnsistō. What tense?

32.6 ūnō alterōque īctū: ‘with one stroke after the other’; i.e. he killed him with two quick blows.

32.7 Sc. , and render ‘from him as he lay (dead).’ See p. 17, n. 4.

32.8 respergō.

32.9 What case?

32.10 In its compounds, dare more often = ‘to put’ than ‘to give.’

32.11 pavor cum admīrātiōne = pavor et admīrātiō; cf. mentēs cum oculīs, II, 12.

32.12 nē quis . . . pūgnāret: ‘that no one should fight.’ For the subjunctive, see p. 9, n. 6.

32.13 Subject of accessisset. For its position, see p. 19, n. 7.

32.14 āgnōscō.

32.15 dētrēctandī . . . pudor: ‘his unwillingness to decline the fight.’ A literal translation would be impossible. Pudor implies that he was ashamed to decline lest his refusal should be attributed to cowardice.

33.1 oblivīscor.

33.2 dependent on oblītus: H 454 (406, II): M 588: A 219, 1: G 376: B 206, 1.

33.3 excussum trānsfīxit: cf. p. 2, n. 8.

33.4 oportet restituās: ‘it is fitting that you restore.’ Oportet is construed either with the infinitive or with the subjunctive of result with ut omitted.

33.5 Why abl.?

33.6 in posterum (cf. p. 4, n. 9) = ‘for the future.’

33.7 Imperative of .

33.8 Cf. Stābant ad pālum dēligāti, IX, 21.

33.9 ērumpō.

33.10 omnī . . . vītā: ‘throughout his whole subsequent life.’ In this sense the simple acc., or the acc. with per is far more common. deinde, standing between an adj. and a noun, may be rendered by an adj.: cf. p. 10, n. 14.

33.11 in . . . abeat: ‘passes over into,’ ‘degenerates into.’

33.12 fuit . . . sed: we would say, ‘was, to be sure, . . . but, after all,’ i.e. ‘although he was . . . yet.’ In this sense quidem . . . sed is commonly used: cf. p. 10, n. 10.

33.13 H 426 (385, I): M 531: A 227: G 346: B 187, II.

33.14 Cf. p. 3, n. 6.

33.15 Sc. mīlitī, and join with dedit.

33.16 Sc. commīlitōnem.

33.17 Sc. esse.

34.1 praefor.

34.2 H 426 (385): M 531: A 227: G 346: B 187, II.

34.3 Join with propriam. Proprius, like similis, is construed with both the gen. and the dat.

34.4 dependent on ostendit, l. 81.

34.5 supine of conqueror, expressing purpose. Cf. p. 5, n. 20.

34.6 ‘when praetor,’ or ‘during his praetorship.’

34.7 Many, indeed most, governors of provinces enriched themselves by extortion.

34.8 See Vocab., cōnscrīptus.

34.9 summae . . . perītissimō: these words contain the reasons why Id . . . concessum est.

34.10 percellō.

34.11 lūcem . . . sustinuit: ‘he refused to live longer.’ How literally?

34.12 The context must determine whether proximā nocte = ‘the next night’ or ‘last night.’

34.13 pergō.

34.14 ‘role.’ This meaning of partēs is borrowed from the theater.

34.15 nē . . . quidem is a very strong negative, and generally emphasizes some word or phrase placed between the and the quidem.

Text-only version XIV. Pūblius Decius


P. Decius,1 Valeriō2 Māximō et Cornēliō Cossō cōnsulibus,
tribūnus mīlitum fuit. Exercitū Rōmānō in angustiīs Gaurī
montis clausō3 Decius ēditum collem cōnspexit imminentem
hostium castrīs. Acceptō praesidiō verticem4 occupāvit, hostēs
5 terruit, cōnsulī spatium dedit ad subdūcendum āgmen in aequiōrem
see caption
locum. Ipse, colle, quem īnsēderat,5 undique
armātīs circumdatō, intempestā nocte
per6 mediās hostium cūstōdiās somnō oppressās7
incolumis ēvāsit. Quā rē ab exercitū
10 dōnātus est corōnā cīvicā, quae dabātur eī,
quī cīvēs in bellō servāsset. Cōnsul fuit bellō
Latīnō cum Mānliō8 Torquātō. Hōc
bellō cum9 utrīque cōnsulī somniō obvēnisset
eōs victōrēs futūrōs, quōrum dux in proeliō cecidisset,
15 convēnit inter eōs utī, utrīus cornū in aciē labōrāret, is diīs10
sē Mānibus dēvovēret. Inclīnante suā parte Decius sē et hostēs
diīs Mānibus dēvōvit.11 Armātus in equum īnsiluit ac sē in mediōs
hostēs immīsit: corruit obrutus tēlīs et victōriam suīs relīquit.

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35.1 His full name was P. Decius Mus.

35.2 Valeriō . . . cōnsulibus: ‘in the consulship of,’ etc. For the abl. abs. consisting of two nouns, see H 489 (431, 4): M 639: A 255, a: G 409: B 227, 1. For another method of dating events, cf. XII, 1.

35.3 claudō.

35.4 Sc. collis.

35.5 īnsideō.

35.6 per . . . cūstōdiās: ‘through the midst of the enemy’s pickets.’ Cf. l. 17, in mediōs hostēs, ‘against the enemy’s center.’ Note the difference between the Latin and the English idioms. H 497, 4 (440, N. 1-2): M 565: A 193: G 291, R. 2: B 241, 1.

35.7 opprimō.

35.8 Cf. XIII, 41.

35.9 cum . . . obvēnisset: ‘when the two consuls had dreamed.’ How literally? The subject of obvēnisset is eōs . . . cecidisset. So the subject of convēnit is utī . . . dēvovēret.

35.10 See Vocab., Mānēs.

35.11 Decius’ act was called dēvōtiō, and proceeded from the idea that for the victim which the Manes seemed to be claiming another might be substituted. According to Livy, Decius used this formula: “As a substitute for the commonwealth, the army, the legions, and the allies of the Roman people I devote to the Manes myself and the legions and allies of the enemy.”


Text-only version XV. Mānius Curius

Mānius Curius contrā Samnītēs profectus1 eōs ingentibus proeliīs
vīcit.2 In quō bellō cum permultum agrī3 hominumque3
māximam vim4 cēpisset,5 ipse inde6 dītārī adeō7 nōluit, ut, cum
interversae8 pecūniae arguerētur, catīllō9 līgneō, quō10 ūtī ad
5 sacrificia cōnsuēverat,11 in medium prōlātō iūrāret sē nihil amplius
dē praedā hostīlī in domum suam convertisse. Curiō12 ad focum
sedentī in agrestī scamnō et ex līgneō catīllō cēnantī cum māgnum
aurī pondus Samnītēs attulissent,13 repudiātī ab eō sunt dīxitque
nōn14 aurum habēre15 sibi praeclārum vidērī, sed iīs quī habērent
10 aurum imperāre.15 Quō respōnsō Curius Samnītibus ostendit sē
neque aciē vincī neque pecūniā corrumpī posse. Agrī captī septēna
iūgera populō virītim dīvīsit16; cumque ipsī senātus iūgera
quīnquāgintā adsīgnāret, plūs accipere nōluit quam singulīs cīvibus
erat datum, dīxitque perniciōsum esse cīvem,17 quī eō,18 quod
15 reliquīs tribuerētur, contentus nōn esset.19

Posteā cōnsul creātus adversus Pyrrhum missus est: cumque
in Capitōliō dēlēctum habēret et iūniōrēs taediō20 bellī nōmina21
nōn darent, coniectīs in ūrnam omnium tribuum nōminibus
prīmum22 nōmen ūrnā extrāctum citārī iussit et cum adulēscēns nōn
20 respondēret, bona23 ēius hastae subiēcit, deinde cum is
37 questus1 dē iniūriā cōnsulis tribūnōs2 plēbis appellāsset, ipsum quoque
vēndidit, nihil3 opus esse reī pūblicae eō cīve,4 quī nescīret
pārēre, dīcēns. Neque tribūnī plēbis adulēscentī5 auxiliō5 fuērunt;
posteāque rēs6 in cōnsuētūdinem abiit, ut dēlēctū rīte āctō,
25 quī7 mīlitiam dētrēctāret, in servitūtem vēnderētur. Hōc8 terrōre
cēterī adāctī9 nōmina prōmptius dedērunt.

Hīs cōpiīs Curius Pyrrhī exercitum cecīdit10 dēque eō rēge
triumphāvit. Īnsīgnem11 triumphum fēcērunt quattuor elephantī
see caption
cum turribus suīs, tum prīmum Rōmae12
30 vīsī. Victus rēx relīctō Tarentī12 praesidiō
in Ēpīrum revertit. Cum13 autem
bellum renovātūrus putārētur, Mānium
Curium iterum cōnsulem fierī placuit.14
Sed inopīnāta mors rēgis Rōmānōs metū
35 līberāvit. Pyrrhus enim, dum Argōs
oppūgnat,15 urbem iam ingressus ā iuvene
quōdam Argīvō lanceā leviter vulnerātus
est. Māter adulēscentis, anus paupercula,
cum aliīs mulieribus ē tēctō domūs proelium
40 spectābat; quae cum vīdisset Pyrrhum in auctōrem vulneris
suī māgnō impetū ferrī,16 perīculō fīliī suī commōta prōtinus tēgulam
corripuit et utrāque manū lībrātam17 in caput rēgis dēiēcit.

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36.1 proficīscor.

36.2 vincō.

36.3 partitive gen.: cf. p. 30, n. 2.

36.4 Cf. p. 4, n. 11.

36.5 capiō.

36.6 i.e. from the ager, or the money derived from the sale of the hominēs.

36.7 Cf. p. 26, n. 8.

36.8 See p. 5, n. 15; cf. also H 456 (409, II): M 582: A 220: G 378: B 208, 1.

36.9 catīllō . . . prōlātō (prōferō) iūrāret = catīllum prōferret et iūrāret. Cf. p. 2, n. 8.

36.10 H 477, I (421, I): M 253: A 249: G 407: B 218, 1.

36.11 cōnsuēscō.

36.12 Join with attulissent.

36.13 adferō.

36.14 nōn . . . imperāre: ‘it was not the having gold that seemed to him glorious, but the ruling over those who had it.’ Give Curius’ exact words.

36.15 subjects of vidērī: cf. p. 6, n. 16.

36.16 = distribuit.

36.17 We would say, ‘that citizen.’

36.18 H 476, 1 (421, III): M 629: A 254, b, 2: G 401, N. 6: B 219.

36.19 Why subjunctive?

36.20 abl. of cause.

36.21 nōmina dare = to hand in one’s name to a recruiting officer, i.e. ‘to volunteer.’

36.22 prīmum nōmen: i.e. the man whose name was first drawn.

36.23 bona . . . subiēcit: i.e. he sold his goods at auction. At Roman auctions, especially of booty taken in war, a spear was set in the ground, just as nowadays a flag is exposed.

37.1 queror.

37.2 The tribūnī plēbis had been created for the express purpose of protecting the people from unjust treatment by the patrician magistrates, especially the consuls. They could veto the acts of any magistrate.

37.3 nihil (adv. acc.) . . . cīve: ‘the state had no need of that citizen.’

37.4 abl. with opus: H 477, III (414, IV): M 646: A 243, e: G 406: B 218, 2.

37.5 For the two datives see p. 25, n. 6.

37.6 rēs . . . ābiit: i.e. it became a regular custom. Cf. sevēritās . . . abeat, XIII, 63.

37.7 ‘whoever.’

37.8 Hōc terrōre: i.e. ‘by the terror occasioned by this (act).’

37.9 adigō.

37.10 At Beneventum, 275 B.C.

37.11 Īnsīgnem . . . elephantī: ‘this triumph was made notable by the presence of four elephants.’ How literally?

37.12 Cf. p. 25, n. 7.

37.13 Cum . . . putārētur: with renovātūrus sc. esse. For the personal construction, see p. 7, n. 12.

37.14 Sc. populō Rōmānō. Its subject is the clause Mānium . . . fierī; hence the infin. fierī.

37.15was besieging.’ Cf. p. 3, n. 14.

37.16 ‘rushing.’ How literally?

37.17 lībrātam . . . dēiēcit = lībrāvit et dēiēcit.


Text-only version XVI. Gāius Duīlius

see caption

Gāius Duīlius Poenōs nāvālī pūgnā prīmus1 dēvīcit.
Quī cum vidēret nāvēs Rōmānās ā Pūnicīs
vēlōcitāte superārī, manūs ferreās sīve corvōs,
māchinam ad comprehendendās hostium nāvēs
5 tenendāsque ūtilem, excōgitāvit. Quae2 manūs ubi
hostīlem apprehenderant nāvem, superiectō ponte
trānsgrediēbātur Rōmānus3 et in ipsōrum4 ratibus
comminus dīmicābant, unde5 Rōmānīs, quī rōbore
praestābant, facilis victōria fuit. Celeriter sunt
10 expūgnātae nāvēs Pūnicae trīgintā, in quibus etiam
praetōria6 septirēmis7 capta est, mersae8 tredecim.

see caption

Duīlius victor Rōmam reversus prīmus
nāvālem triumphum ēgit. Nūlla victōria
Rōmānīs grātior fuit, quod9 invictī terrā
15 iam etiam marī plūrimum10 possent.9 Itaque
Duīliō concessum est, ut per omnem vītam
praelūcente fūnāli et praecinente tībīcine ā
cēnā redīret.11

Hannibal, dux classis Pūnicae, ē nāvī
20 quae iam capiēbātur, in scapham saltū sē dēmittēns Rōmānōrum
manūs effūgit. Veritus autem, nē12 in patriā classis13 āmissae
39 poenās daret, cīvium odium āstūtiā āvertit, nam ex illā īnfēlīcī
pūgnā priusquam1 clādis nūntius domum2 pervenīret1 quendam
ex amīcīs Carthāginem2 mīsit. Quī postquam cūriam intrāvit,
25 “Cōnsulit” inquit “vōs Hannibal, cum3 dux Rōmānōrum māgnīs
cōpiīs maritimīs īnstrūctīs advēnerit,3 num cum eō cōnflīgere
dēbeat?” Acclāmāvit ūniversus senātus nōn esse dubium quīn4
cōnflīgī oportēret. Tum ille “Cōnflīxit” inquit “et superātus
est.” Ita nōn potuērunt factum damnāre, quod ipsī fierī dēbuisse
30 iūdicāverant. Sīc Hannibal victus crucis supplicium effūgit:
nam eō5 poenae genere dux rē6 male gestā apud Poenōs

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38.1 prīmus dēvīcit: ‘was the first (Roman) to conquer.’ Cf. prīmus ēgit, l. 12. H 497, and 1 (443 and 1): A 191: G 325, R. 6: B 239. Such a phrase as prīmus fuit dēvincere is never used by good writers.

38.2 ‘These’; cf. p. 4, n. 3.

38.3 a collective noun: ‘the Romans.’

38.4 Sc. hostium.

38.5 = ‘and as a consequence.’

38.6 Cf. rēgius, I, 17. The Romans applied the term praetor to the commander of any foreign force.

38.7 Sc. nāvis. At this time Carthaginian ships generally had five banks of oars. In building the fleet commanded by Duilius, the Romans, it is said, took as their model a Carthaginian vessel which had been wrecked on the coast of Italy.

38.8 mergō; sc. sunt.

38.9 Cf. p. 14, n. 1.

38.10 ‘were supreme’; cf. p. 23, n. 1.

38.11 In commemoration also of the victory the Columna Rōstrāta was erected in the Forum.

38.12 nē . . . daret: a clause of purpose, dependent on veritus: H 567 (498, III) M 897: A 331, f: G 550: B 296, 2.

38.13 classis āmissae: ‘for losing the fleet’; see p. 5, n. 15.

39.1 Cf. p. 12, n. 5.

39.2 Why accusative?

39.3 causal subjunctive.

39.4 quīn with a subjunctive of result is regularly used after negative expressions of doubt: H 595, 1 (504, 3, 2): M 913: A 332, g, R.: G 555, 2: B 298.

39.5 eō . . . adficiēbātur: ‘in that way . . . was punished.’ How literally?

39.6 rē male gestā: ‘if unsuccessful.’ How literally?

Text-only version XVII. Mārcus Atīlius Rēgulus


Mārcus Rēgulus cum Poenōs māgnā clāde7 adfēcisset, Hannō
Carthāginiēnsis ad eum vēnit, quasi dē pāce āctūrus,8
vērā ut8 tempus extraheret,8 dōnec9 novae cōpiae ex Āfricā
advenīrent.9 Is ubi ad cōnsulem accessit, exortus10 est mīlitum
5 clāmor audītaque vōx, idem11 huīc faciendum esse, quod paucīs
ante annīs12 Cornēliō cōnsulī ā Poenīs factum esset. Cornēlius
enim, velut in conloquium per fraudem ēvocātus, ā Poenīs
comprehēnsus erat et in vincula coniectus. Iam Hannō timēre
incipiēbat, sed perīculum āstūtō respōnsō āvertit: “Hōc vērō” inquit
40 10 “sī fēceritis,1 nihilō2 eritis Āfrīs3 meliōrēs.” Cōnsul tacēre
iussit eōs, quī pār4 parī referrī volēbant, et conveniēns5 gravitātī
Rōmānae respōnsum dedit: “Istō tē metū, Hannō, fidēs Rōmāna
līberat.” Dē pāce, quia neque Poenus sēriō agēbat et cōnsul
victōriam quam pācem mālēbat, nōn convēnit.

15 Rēgulus deinde in Āfricam prīmus6 Rōmānōrum ducum trāiēcit.
Clypeam urbem et trecenta7 castella expūgnāvit, neque8
cum hominibus tantum, sed etiam cum mōnstrīs dīmicāvit. Nam
cum ad flūmen Bagradam castra habēret, anguis mīrā māgnitūdine
exercitum Rōmānōrum vexābat; multōs mīlitēs ingentī ōre corripuit;
20 plūrēs caudae verbere ēlīsit9; nōnnūllōs ipsō pēstilentis
hālitūs adflātū exanimāvit. Neque is tēlōrum īctū perforārī
poterat, dūrissimā10 squāmārum lōrīcā omnia tēla facile repellente.
Cōnfugiendum11 fuit ad māchinās advectīsque ballistīs12
et catapultīs, velut13 arx quaedam mūnīta, dēiciendus hostis fuit.
25 Tandem saxōrum pondere oppressus14 iacuit, sed cruōre suō flūmen
corporisque pēstiferō adflātū vīcīna loca īnfēcit Rōmānōsque castra
inde submovēre coēgit.15 Corium bēluae, centum et vīgintī pedēs16
longum, Rōmam mīsit Rēgulus.

Huīc ob rēs17 bene gestās imperium in annum proximum prōrogātum
41 30 est. Quod ubi cōgnōvit Rēgulus, scrīpsit senātuī vīlicum
suum in agellō, quem septem iūgerum1 habēbat, mortuum esse et
servum, occāsiōnem nactum,2 aufūgisse ablātō īnstrūmentō3
rūsticō ideōque petere sē ut sibi4 successor in Āfricam mitterētur,
nē, dēsertō agrō, nōn esset unde5 uxor et līberī alerentur.6
35 Senātus, acceptīs litterīs, rēs quās Rēgulus āmīserat pūblicā pecūniā
redimī iussit, agellum colendum7 locāvit, alimenta8 coniugī ac
līberīs praebuit. Rēgulus deinde multīs proeliīs Carthāginiēnsium
opēs contudit9 eōsque pācem petere coēgit. Quam cum
Rēgulus nōllet nisi dūrissimīs condiciōnibus10 dare, ā
40 Lacedaemoniīs illī auxilium petiērunt.


Lacedaemoniī Xanthippum, virum bellī perītissimum, Carthāginiēnsibus
mīsērunt, ā quō Rēgulus victus est ūltimā perniciē10:
nam duo tantum mīlia hominum ex omnī Rōmānō
exercitū refūgērunt et Rēgulus ipse captus et in carcerem
45 coniectus est. Inde Rōmam dē permūtandīs captīvīs missus
est datō iūreiūrandō. ut,11 sī nōn impetrāsset,12 redīret ipse
Carthāginem. Quī cum Rōmam vēnisset, inductus in senātum
mandāta exposuit; sententiam13 nē dīceret recūsāvit; quamdiū14
iūreiūrandō hostium tenērētur, sē nōn esse senātōrem. Iūssus
50 tamen sententiam dīcere, negāvit15 esse ūtile captīvōs Poenōs
42 reddī, illōs enim adulēscentēs esse et bonōs ducēs, sē iam
cōnfectum1 senectūte. Cūius cum2 valuisset auctōritās, captīvī
retentī sunt, ipse, cum retinērētur ā propinquīs et amīcīs, tamen
Carthāginem rediit: neque vērō tunc īgnōrābat sē ad crūdēlissimum
55 hostem et ad exquīsīta supplicia proficīscī, sed iūsiūrandum
cōnservandum3 putāvit. Reversum4 Carthāginiēnsēs omnī
cruciātū necāvērunt: palpebrīs enim resectīs aliquamdiū in locō
tenebricōsō tenuērunt: deinde cum sōl esset ārdentissimus, repente
ēductum intuērī caelum coēgērunt; postrēmō in arcam līgneam,
60 undique clāvīs praeacūtīs horrentem et tam angustam, ut ērēctus
perpetuō manēre cōgerētur, inclūsērunt. Ita dum fessum corpus,
quōcumque inclīnābat, stimulīs ferreīs cōnfoditur, vigiliīs et dolōre
continuō interēmptus est. Hīc fuit Atīliī Rēgulī exitus, ipsā vītā
clārior et inlūstrior.

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39.7 clāde adfēcisset = ‘had inflicted defeat upon.’ Cf. eō genere . . . adficiēbātur, XVI, 31. The reference is to the naval victory off Ecnomus, in Sicily.

39.8 Note carefully the two ways of expressing purpose, the future participle being exactly equivalent to ut with the subjunctive. See p. xviii, E 5; quasi = ‘as if,’ and is contrasted with rē vērā, ‘in reality.’

39.9 The subjunctive in reality expresses purpose. See also p. xx, G 3.

39.10 exorior.

39.11 idem . . . esse: ‘the same thing ought to be done to him.’ The gerundive with esse denotes either physical necessity (‘must’), or moral obligation (‘ought’).

39.12 abl. of the measure of difference: H 479 (423): M 655: A 250: G 403: B 223. paucīs annīs is a sort of temporal adverb with ante.

40.1 Latin is extremely exact in the use of the tenses. Of two past actions the prior is expressed by the pluperfect tense; of two future actions the prior is expressed by the future perfect tense. Apply this principle here. We say simply, ‘if you do.’

40.2 Join with meliōrēs, and cf. p. 39, n. 12.

40.3 i.e. the Carthaginians. To the Roman mind Pūnica fidēs was a synonym for the vilest treachery. So Livy says of the great Hannibal that his character was marred by ‘worse than Punic treachery.’ For Āfrīs, see p. 10, n. 18.

40.4 pār . . . referrī = ‘retaliation.’ How literally?

40.5 ‘consistent with.’

40.6 prīmus . . . trāiēcit: cf. p. 38, n. 1.

40.7 indefinite, like our ‘hundreds of.’ Sēscentī and mīlle are often used in the same way.

40.8 = et nōn (cf. l. 13).

40.9 ēlīdō.

40.10 dūrissimā . . . repellente: what does the abl. abs. express?

40.11 Cōnfugiendum . . . ad: impersonal passive: ‘they had to resort to.’ Cf. p. 39, n. 11.

40.12 The ballistae and catapultae were the artillery of antiquity. It is said that from the ballistae stones weighing one hundred pounds could be sent half a mile.

40.13 velut . . . mūnīta: to be taken with what follows.

40.14 opprimō.

40.15 cōgō.

40.16 acc. of extent (cf. p. 12, n. 1) with longum.

40.17 rēs bene gestās: ‘successes,’ ‘exploits.’ Contrast rē male gestā, XVI, 31, and note.

41.1 Cf. p. 18, n. 17.

41.2 occāsiōnem nactum (nancīscor): ‘seizing the opportunity.’

41.3 īnstrūmentō rūsticō: ‘his farming implements.’

41.4 Join with successor, and cf. p. 26, n. 5.

41.5 unde . . . alerentur: ‘the wherewithal to support,’ etc.

41.6 subjunctive partly of purpose, partly by attraction, for which see p. 13, n. 10.

41.7 colendum: ‘to be tilled’ (cf. p. 2, n. 18), for Regulus’ benefit. In such cases the produce of the farm was divided equally between owner and tenant.

41.8 alimenta . . . praebuit: i.e. they were supported at public expense till the harvest of that year was gathered. No salary was given to Roman officials.

41.9 contundō.

41.10 abl. of manner: H 473, 3 (419, III): M 635: A 248: G 399: B 220, 1.

41.11 ut . . . redīret gives the purpose of the Carthaginians in exacting the oath.

41.12 subjunctive in indirect discourse. Regulus said: Sī nōn impetrāverō, . . . redībō.

41.13 sententiam . . . recūsāvit: ‘he refused to express his opinion.’ recūsāre is construed (1) with the simple infinitive; (2) with and a subjunctive of purpose; (3) with quīn or quōminus and a subjunctive of result.

41.14 quamdiū . . . senātōrem: indirect discourse = ‘(saying that) as long as,’ etc.

41.15 negāvit esse ūtile: ‘he said that it was not expedient.’ In such sentences negāre rather than nōn dīcere is used. The subject of esse is the clause captīvōs . . . reddī.

42.1 ‘exhausted.’

42.2 Here temporal, but in the next line adversative, as is shown by tamen: see p. xxii, J.

42.3 Sc. esse, and cf. p. 39, n. 11.

42.4 Sc. eum: ‘on his return.’ The story is given by no writer earlier than Cicero, and modern historians are inclined to view the whole narrative as fictitious.

Text-only version XVIII. Appius Claudius Pulcher


Appius Claudius, vir stultae temeritātis, cōnsul adversus Poenōs
profectus priōrum ducum cōnsilia palam reprehendēbat
sēque, quō5 diē hostem vīdisset, bellum cōnfectūrum esse
iactitābat. Quī cum, antequam nāvāle proelium committeret,
5 auspicia6 habēret pullāriusque7 eī nūntiāsset, pullōs nōn exīre ē
43 caveā neque vescī, inrīdēns iussit eōs in aquam mergī, ut saltem
biberent, quoniam ēsse1 nōllent. Ea rēs cum, quasi2 īrātīs diīs,
see caption
From the tomb of a Pullārius
mīlitēs ad omnia sēgniōrēs timidiōrēsque
fēcisset, commissō proeliō3
10 māgna clādēs ā Rōmānīs accepta est:
octō eōrum mīlia caesa sunt, vīgintī
mīlia capta. Quā re Claudius posteā ā
populō condemnātus est damnātiōnisque4
īgnōminiam voluntāriā morte
15 praevēnit. Ea rēs calamitātī5 fuit
etiam Claudiae,5 cōnsulis sorōrī: quae
ā lūdīs pūblicīs revertēns, in6 cōnfertā
multitūdine aegrē prōcēdente carpentō,
palam optāvit ut frāter suus Pulcher
20 revīvīsceret atque iterum classem āmitteret,
quō7 minor turba Rōmae foret.7 Ob vōcem illam impiam
Claudia quoque damnāta gravisque89 dicta est multa.

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42.5 quō diē: we should expect diē quō, or eōdem diē quō, but the antecedent, as often, is incorporated into the relative clause and made to agree with the pronoun: H 399, 3 (445, 9): A 200, b: G 616: B 251, 4.

42.6 auspicia habēret: cf. auspicia adhibēre, I, 42.

42.7 pullārius . . . vescī: on setting out for the seat of war, the commanding general often took with him a cage of sacred chickens, in charge of a special keeper (pullārius). If, when food was thrown before them, the chickens ate so greedily that portions of the food fell from their mouths to the ground, it was considered a very favorable omen. The circumstance described in the text would be regarded by the superstitious soldiery as of very dire significance.

43.1 infinitive of edō.

43.2 quasi . . . diīs: ‘because (as they supposed), the gods were angry.’ Cf. p. 3, n. 6. īrātīs diīs is an abl. abs.

43.3 The battle was fought off Drepanum, in Sicily. Appius lost 93 out of 123 ships.

43.4 que here = ‘but,’ a meaning which it bears more frequently after negative sentences (p. 13, n. 12).

43.5 Cf. p. 25, n. 6.

43.6 in . . . carpentō: an abl. abs., giving the cause of optāvit.

43.7 Cf. p. 14, n. 13.

43.8 gravis . . . multa: ‘a heavy fine was imposed upon her.’

43.9 dat. of disadvantage.

Text-only version XIX. Quīntus Fabius Māximus


Hannibal, Hamilcaris10 fīlius, novem11 annōs12 nātus, ā
patre ārīs admōtus odium in Rōmānōs perenne iūrāvit.
Quae rēs māximē vidētur concitāsse secundum13 Pūnicum bellum.
44 Nam, mortuō1 Hamilcare, Hannibal causam bellī quaerēns Saguntum,
5 cīvitātem Hispāniae Rōmānīs2 foederātam ēvertit.
see caption
Quāpropter Rōmā missī sunt Carthāginem
lēgātī, quī Hannibalem, malī auctōrem, expōscerent.
Tergiversantibus Poenīs Quīntus Fabius,
lēgātiōnis prīnceps, sinū ex togā factō “Hīc”
10 inquit “vōbīs bellum et pācem portāmus; utrum3
placet, sūmite.” Poenīs daret4 utrum vellet
succlāmantibus, Fabius, excussā5 togā, bellum
sē dare dīcit. Poenī accipere sē respondērunt et,
quibus6 acciperent animīs, iīsdem sē gestūrōs.7

15 Hannibal superātīs Pȳrēnaeī et Alpium iugīs in Ītaliam vēnit.
Pūblium8 Scīpiōnem apud Tīcīnum9 amnem, Semprōnium apud
Trebiam, Flāminium apud Trasumēnum prōflīgāvit.

Adversus hostem totiēns victōrem missus Quīntus Fabius
dictātor10 Hannibalis impetum morā11 frēgit; namque, priōrum ducum
20 clādibus ēdoctus bellī ratiōnem mūtāre et adversus12 Hannibalem,
succēssibus proeliōrum īnsolentem, recēdere13 ab ancipitī discrīmine
et tuērī tantummodo Ītaliam cōnstituit Cunctātōrisque
nōmen et laudem summī ducis meruit. Per loca alta āgmen
dūcēbat modicō ab hoste intervāllō,14 ut neque omitteret15 eum
45 25 neque cum eō congrederētur; castrīs,1 nisi2 quantum necessitās
cōgeret,2 mīles tenēbātur. Dux neque occāsiōnī3 reī4 bene
gerendae deerat, sī qua ab hoste darētur, neque ūllam ipse hostī
dabat. Itaque cum ex levibus proeliīs superior discēderet,
mīlitem5 minus iam coepit aut virtūtis suae aut fortūnae
30 paenitēre.

Hīs artibus cum Hannibalem Fabius in agrō Falernō locōrum
angustiīs clausisset, ille sine ūllō exercitūs dētrīmentō sē expedīvit.
Namque ārida sarmenta in boum cornibus dēligāta6 prīncipiō7
noctis incendī bovēsque ad montēs, quōs Rōmānī īnsēderant, agī
35 iussit. Quī cum accēnsīs cornibus per montēs, per silvās hūc
illūc discurrerent, Rōmānī mīrāculō attonitī cōnstitērunt; ipse
Fabius, īnsidiās esse ratus,8 mīlitem extrā vāllum ēgredī vetuit.
Intereā Hannibal ex angustiīs ēvāsit.

Dein Hannibal, ut Fabiō apud suōs cōnflāret invidiam, agrum
40 ēius, omnibus circā vāstātīs, intāctum relīquit. At Fabius, missō
Rōmam Quīntō fīliō, inviolātum ab hoste agrum vēndidit ēiusque
pretiō captīvōs Rōmānōs redēmit.

Haud grāta tamen Rōmānīs erat Fabiī cunctātiō: eumque prō
cautō timidum, prō cunctātōre sēgnem9 vocitābant. Augēbat
45 invidiam Minucius, magister10 equitum, dictātōrem crīminandō:
illum in dūcendō bellō sēdulō tempus terere,11 quō diūtius in
magistrātū esset sōlusque et Rōmae et in exercitū imperium
habēret. Hīs sermōnibus accēnsa plēbs dictātōrī12 magistrum
equitum imperiō1 aequāvit. Hanc iniūriam aequō2 animō tulit
50 Fabius exercitumque suum cum Minuciō dīvīsit. Cum autem
Minucius temerē proelium commīsisset, eī3 perīclitantī auxiliō
vēnit Fabius. Cūius subitō adventū repressus Hannibal receptuī4
cecinit, palam cōnfessus5 ab sē Minucium, sē ā Fabiō victum esse.
Redeuntem ex aciē dīxisse eum6 ferunt tandem7 eam nūbem, quae
55 sedēre in iugīs montium solita esset, cum procellā imbrem dedisse.
Minucius autem perīculō līberātus castra cum Fabiō iūnxit et
patrem eum appellāvit idemque facere mīlitēs iussit.

Posteā Hannibal Tarentō8 per prōditiōnem potītus est. Hanc
urbem ut Poenīs trāderent, tredecim ferē nōbilēs iuvenēs Tarentīnī
60 coniūrāverant. Hī, nocte per9 speciem vēnandī urbe ēgressī,
ad Hannibalem, quī haud procul castra habēbat, vēnērunt. Cuī
cum quid parārent exposuissent, conlaudāvit eōs Hannibal monuitque
ut10 redeuntēs pecora Carthāginiēnsium, quae pāstum11 prōpulsa
essent, ad urbem agerent10 et velutī12 praedam ex hoste
65 factam aut praefectō aut cūstōdibus portārum dōnārent.10 Id
iterum ac saepius ab iīs factum eōque13 cōnsuētūdinis adducta rēs
est, ut, quōcumque noctis tempore sībilō dedissent14 sīgnum, porta
urbis aperīrētur. Tunc Hannibal eōs nocte mediā cum decem
mīlibus hominum dēlēctōrum secūtus est. Ubi portae appropinquārunt,
47 70 nōta iuvenum vōx et familiāre sīgnum vigilem excitāvit.
Duo prīmī īnferēbant aprum vāstī corporis. Vigil incautus, dum
bēluae māgnitūdinem mīrātur, vēnābulō occīsus est. Ingressī
prōditōrēs cēterōs vigilēs sōpītōs1 obtruncant. Tum Hannibal
cum suō āgmine ingreditur: Rōmānī passim trucīdantur. Līvius
75 Salīnātor, Rōmānōrum praefectus, cum iīs, quī caedī superfuērunt,
in arcem cōnfūgit.

Profectus igitur Fabius ad recipiendum Tarentum urbem obsidiōne
cinxit. Leve2 dictū mōmentum ad rem ingentem perficiendam
eum adiūvit. Praefectus praesidiī Tarentīnī dēperībat3
80 amōre mulierculae,4 cūius frāter in exercitū Fabiī erat. Mīles
iussus ā Fabiō prō perfugā Tarentum trānsiit ac per sorōrem
praefectum ad5 trādendam urbem perpulit. Fabius vigiliā6 prīmā
accessit ad eam partem mūrī, quam praefectus cūstōdiēbat. Adiuvantibus
recipientibusque ēius mīlitibus, Rōmānī in urbem trānscendērunt.
85 Inde, proximā portā refrāctā,7 Fabius cum exercitū
intrāvit. Hannibal8 nūntiātā Tarentī oppūgnātiōne, cum ad opem
ferendam fēstīnāns captam urbem esse audīvisset, “Et Rōmānī”
inquit “suum9 Hannibalem habent: eādem, quā cēperāmus, arte
Tarentum āmīsimus.”

90 Cum posteā Līvius Salīnātor cōram Fabiō glōriārētur, quod10
arcem Tarentīnam retinuisset,10 dīxissetque eum11 suā operā
Tarentum recēpisse, “Certē” inquit Fabius rīdēns, “nam nisi tū
āmīsissēs,12 ego numquam recēpissem.”12

Quīntus Fabius iam senex fīliō suō cōnsulī lēgātus fuit; cumque
48 95 in ēius castra venīret, fīlius obviam patrī prōgressus est,
duodecim līctōribus prō mōre antecēdentibus. Equō1 vehēbātur
senex neque appropinquante cōnsule dēscendit. Iam ex līctōribus
ūndecim verēcundiā2 paternae māiestātis tacitī praeterierant.
Quod cum cōnsul animadvertisset, proximum līctōrem iussit
100 inclāmāre3 Fabiō patrī ut ex equō dēscenderet. Pater tum
dēsiliēns “Nōn ego, fīlī,” inquit “tuum imperium contempsī, sed
experīrī voluī num scīrēs cōnsulem tē esse.” Ad summam senectūtem
vīxit Fabius Māximus, dīgnus tantō cōgnōmine.4 Cautior5
quam prōmptior habitus est, sed īnsita6 ēius ingeniō prūdentia eī
105 bellō, quod tum gerēbātur, propriē apta erat. Nēminī7 dubium
est quīn8 rem9 Rōmānam cunctandō10 restituerit. Ut Scīpiō
pūgnandō,10 ita hīc nōn dīmicandō10 māximē cīvitātī Rōmānae
succurrisse vīsus est. Alter enim celeritāte suā Carthāginem
oppressit, alter cunctātiōne id11 ēgit, Rōma opprimī posset.

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43.10 In the latter part of the First Punic War Hamilcar had successfully maintained himself for several years in Sicily against the Romans. Subsequently he built up a great Carthaginian empire in Spain, partly to offset the losses which Carthage had sustained in its struggle with Rome, and partly to supply it with the means for a renewal of the conflict.

43.11 novem . . . nātus: ‘when only nine years old.’

43.12 Cf. p. 10, n. 15.

43.13 This war lasted from 218 to 202 B.C.

44.1 When Hamilcar was killed in battle in Spain in 227, his son-in-law Hasdrubal took command of the Carthaginian forces there. He in turn was succeeded by Hannibal in 219.

44.2 dat. with foederātam. Cf. H 428, 3 (385, 4, 3): A 248, a, R.: G 359: B 192, 1. Compare the dat. used with iungō and mīsceō.

44.3 utrum is here a relative pronoun; hence the indicative placet, with which we must supply vōbīs. In utrum vellet, however, utrum is interrogative: hence the subjunctive.

44.4 = a subjunctive in ind. disc. representing an original imperative. See p. xxvi, M 6.

44.5 excutiō.

44.6 quibus . . . animīs, iīsdem: abl. of manner. See p. 42, n. 5.

44.7 Sc. bellum.

44.8 P. Cornelius Scipio, father of the famous P. Cornelius Scipio Africanus Maior, and consul in 218.

44.9 The first two battles were fought in 218, the third in 217.

44.10 See Vocab., dictātor.

44.11 Cf. p. 28, n. 17.

44.12 adversus Hannibalem = a causal clause: ‘since he was facing H.’ Here again the Latin feels the lack of a participle to sum.

44.13 recēdere . . . discrīmine: ‘to avoid (any) hazardous risk.’ recēdere depends on cōnstituit, l. 22.

44.14 modicō . . . intervāllō: we say, ‘at a moderate distance.’ For the abl., see p. 39, n. 12.

44.15 ‘let slip,’ ‘lose sight of.’

45.1 apparently = in castrīs, but really an abl. of means.

45.2 nisi . . . cōgeret: ‘except as far as necessity forced (Fabius to lead them forth).’ cōgeret is an example of the iterative subjunctive, used to denote the frequent repetition of an act. It generally occurs in clauses containing a past tense, and is common in Livy, on whom this story is based.

45.3 neque . . . deerat: ‘missed no chance of scoring a success.’

45.4 reī bene gerendae: cf. p. 40, n. 17.

45.5 mīlitem . . . paenitēre: ‘the soldiers began to be less discontented with (i.e. to be more confident of),’ etc. For the construction, see p. 28, n. 7.

45.6 dēligāta . . . incendī = dēligārī et incendī.

45.7 Why abl.?

45.8 reor.

45.9 Render by a noun: ‘sluggard.’

45.10 See Vocab., magister.

45.11 indirect discourse, dependent on the verb of saying suggested by crīminandō.

45.12 Indirect object with aequāvit, which = aequum fēcit.

46.1 abl. of specification.

46.2 aequō animō is an abl. of manner (p. 41, n. 10), and = ‘patiently.’

46.3 eī . . . auxiliō: ‘to help him in his peril.’ Cf. p. 25, n. 6.

46.4 receptuī cecinit: ‘gave the signal for a retreat.’ receptuī is a dat. of purpose: cf. p. 25, n. 6. canere is used of instrumental music (here of playing on the trumpet) as well as of vocal.

46.5 cōnfiteor.

46.6 i.e. Hannibal.

46.7 tandem . . . dedisse: ‘the cloud . . . had at last brought wind and rain,’ i.e. Fabius, after so long threatening the Carthaginians, had at last proceeded to active measures.

46.8 Cf. p. 4, n. 6.

46.9 per . . . vēnandī: ‘under pretense of hunting.’

46.10 a substantive clause of purpose, object of monuit.

46.11 supine of pāscō, denoting the purpose of prōpulsa essent: cf. p. 5, n. 20.

46.12 veluti . . . factam: ‘as if they (i.e. the cattle) were plunder captured from the foe.’ praedam is accus. by attraction to ea pecora, to be supplied as the object of dōnārent.

46.13 eō . . . est: lit., ‘to such a degree of custom was the matter brought,’ = ‘so customary did this proceeding become.’ cōnsuētūdinis is a partitive gen. with , which strictly = ‘thither, to that point.’

46.14 subjunctive by attraction (p. 13, n. 10) to aperīrētur, which itself denotes result.

47.1 ‘who were buried in slumber.’ The perf. pass. part. here, as often, = a relative clause.

47.2 Leve . . . mōmentum: ‘a circumstance (almost too) trifling to mention.’ For dictū, see p. 19, n. 15.

47.3 dēperībat amōre: ‘was dying for (lit. because of) love,’ i.e. was desperately in love with.

47.4 objective gen. with amōre: cf. p. 14, n. 15.

47.5 ad . . . perpulit (perpellō): ‘drove him to,’ i.e. induced him to, etc.


47.7 refringō.

47.8 emphatic by reason of its position before the conjunction cum: cf. p. 19, n. 8.

47.9 suum Hannibalem: ‘a Hannibal of their own.’

47.10 Cf. p. 14, n. 1.

47.11 i.e. Fabius. Livius said: meā operā tū Tarentum recēpistī.

47.12 A conditional sentence, containing a supposition contrary to the facts: H 579 and N. (510 and N. 1): M 938: A 308: G 597: B 304.

48.1 equō vehēbātur: ‘was riding.’ equō is an abl. of means.

48.2 verēcundiā . . . māiestātis: ‘out of respect for his dignity as a father.’ Explain the case of verēcundiā, also of māiestātis. Roman fathers were as absolutely masters of their children as they were of their slaves. Yet the rights of a son in official position took precedence of the honors due a father.

48.3 Cf. p. 12, n. 3.

48.4 abl. with dīgnus: H 481 (421, III): M 654: A 245, a: G 397, N. 2: B 226, 2.

48.5 Cautior . . . est: = ‘he was accounted cautious rather than alert.’ See H 499 (444, 2): M 429: A 192: G 299: B 240, 4.

48.6 īnsita . . . prūdentia: ‘his innate caution’; lit., the caution implanted in his nature. For ingeniō, see p. 2, n. 7.

48.7 possessive dative: ‘no one has a doubt.’

48.8 Cf. p. 39, n. 4.

48.9 = rem pūblicam.

48.10 abl. of means. With cunctandō cf. morā, l. 19, and cunctātiōne, l. 109.

48.11 id . . . posset: ‘accomplished this, that it should be impossible to overthrow Rome.’ nē . . . posset is a clause of purpose, in apposition with id.

Text-only version XX. Aemilius Paulus et Terentius Varrō


Hannibal12 in Āpūliam pervēnerat. Adversus eum Rōmā
profectī sunt duo cōnsulēs, Aemilius Paulus et Terentius
49 Varrō. Paulō Fabiī cunctātiō magis placēbat; Varrō1 autem, ferōx
et temerārius, ācriōra sequēbātur cōnsilia. Ambō cōnsulēs ad
5 vīcum, quī Cannae appellābātur, castra commūnīvērunt. Ibi
deinde Varrō, invītō2 conlēgā, aciem īnstrūxit et sīgnum pūgnae
dedit. Hannibal autem ita cōnstituerat aciem, ut Rōmānīs3 et
sōlis radiī et ventus ab oriente pulverem adflāns adversī
essent. Victus caesusque est Rōmānus exercitus; nūsquam graviōre
10 vulnere adflīcta est rēs pūblica. Aemilius Paulus tēlīs obrutus
cecidit: quem cum mediā in pūgnā sedentem in saxō opplētum cruōre
cōnspexisset quīdam tribūnus mīlitum, “Cape” inquit “hunc
equum et fuge, Aemilī.4 Etiam sine tuā morte lacrimārum satis
lūctūsque est.” Ad ea cōnsul5: “Tū6 quidem macte virtūte
15 estō! Sed cavē7 exiguum tempus ē manibus hostium ēvādendī
perdās! Abī, nūntiā patribus ut urbem mūniant ac prius quam
hostis victor adveniat, praesidiīs fīrment. Mē in hāc strāge meōrum
mīlitum patere8 exspīrāre.” Alter cōnsul cum paucīs equitibus
Venusiam perfūgit. Cōnsulārēs aut praetōriī occidērunt
see caption
20 vīgintī, senātōrēs captī aut occīsī trīgintā, nōbilēs
virī trecentī, mīlitum quadrāgintā mīlia, equitum
tria mīlia et quīngentī. Hannibal in9 tēstimōnium
victōriae suae trēs modiōs aureōrum ānulōrum10
Carthāginem mīsit, quōs dē manibus
25 equitum Rōmānōrum et senātōrum dētrāxerat.


Hannibalī victōrī cum cēterī grātulārentur suādērentque ut
quiētem iam ipse sūmeret et fessīs mīlitibus daret, ūnus ex ēius
praefectīs, Maharbal, minimē1 cessandum ratus, Hannibalem
hortābātur ut statim Rōmam pergeret, diē quīntō victor in
30 Capitōliō epulātūrus.2 Cumque Hannibal illud nōn probāsset,
Maharbal “Nōn omnia nīmīrum” inquit “eīdem3 diī dedēre.
Vincere scīs, Hannibal; victōriā ūtī nescīs.” Mora hūius diēī satis
crēditur salūtī4 fuisse urbī4 et imperiō.4 Hannibal cum victōriā
posset ūtī, fruī māluit, relīctāque Rōmā in Campāniam dīvertit,
35 cūius5 dēliciīs mox exercitūs ārdor ēlanguit, adeō ut vērē dictum
sit Capuam6 Hannibalī Cannās fuisse.

Numquam tantum pavōris Rōmae fuit, quantum7 ubi acceptae
clādis nūntius advēnit. Neque tamen ūlla pācis mentiō facta est;
quīn8 etiam animō cīvitās adeō māgnō fuit, ut Varrōnī ex tantā
40 clāde redeuntī obviam īrent et grātiās agerent, quod dē rē pūblicā
nōn dēspērāsset: quī, sī Poenōrum dux fuisset,9 temeritātis poenās
omnī suppliciō dedisset.9 Nōn autem vītae cupiditāte, sed reī
pūblicae amōre sē superfuisse10 reliquō aetātis suae tempore
approbāvit. Nam et barbam capillumque submīsit,11 et posteā numquam
45 recubāns12 cibum cēpit; honōribus quoque, cum eī dēferrentur ā
51 populō, renūntiāvit, dīcēns fēlīciōribus magistrātibus1 reī pūblicae
opus esse. Dum igitur Hannibal sēgniter et ōtiōsē agēbat.
see caption
Rōmānī interim respīrāre2
coepērunt. Arma nōn
50 erant: dētrācta sunt
templīs3 vetera hostium
spolia. Deerat iuventūs:
servī manūmissī et armātī
sunt. Egēbat aerārium:
55 opēs suās libēns senātus in medium prōtulit, nec praeter quod in
bullīs singulīsque4 ānulīs erat quidquam sibi aurī relīquērunt.
Patrum exemplum secūtī sunt equitēs imitātaeque equitēs omnēs
tribūs. Dēnique vix5 suffēcēre tabulae, vix scrībārum manūs, cum
omnēs prīvātae opēs in pūblicum dēferrentur.

60 Cum Hannibal redimendī6 suī cōpiam captīvīs Rōmānīs fēcisset,
decem ex ipsīs Rōmam eā dē rē missī sunt; nec pīgnus aliud
fideī ab iīs pōstulātum est, quam ut iūrārent sē, sī nōn impetrāssent,
in castra esse reditūrōs. Eōs senātus nōn redimendōs cēnsuit
responditque eōs cīvēs nōn esse necessāriōs, quī, cum armātī
65 essent, capī potuissent. Ūnus ex iīs lēgātīs ē castrīs Poenōrum
ēgressus, velutī7 aliquid8 oblītus, paulō post in castra erat
regressus, deinde comitēs ante noctem adsecūtus erat. Is ergō, rē
nōn impetrātā, domum abiit; reditū enim in castra sē līberātum
esse iūreiūrandō interpretābātur.9 Quod ubi innōtuit, iussit senātus
52 70 illum comprehendī et vinctum dūcī ad Hannibalem. Ea rēs
Hannibalis audāciam māximē frēgit, quod senātus populusque
Rōmānus rēbus1 adflīctīs tam excelsō esset animō.

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48.12 Since the battle at Lake Trasumenus (XIX, 17), there had been no general engagement between the Romans and Hannibal. The latter, closely watched and followed by Fabius, had marched into southern Italy, hoping to induce the peoples there to desert Rome and join him. When Fabius resigned the dictatorship at the end of the legal period, C. Terentius Varro and L. Aemilius Paulus were elected consuls. Their army numbered 80,000 men, and their instructions were to fight as speedily as possible.

49.1 A further cause of trouble between the consuls was the fact that Paulus was a patrician, Varro a plebeian.

49.2 invītō conlēgā: abl. abs.: ‘though opposed by his colleague.’ How literally? The consuls held supreme command on alternate days.

49.3 Construe with adversī.

49.4 H 83, 5 (51, 5): M 152: A 40, c: G 33, 2: B 25, 1.

49.5 sc. inquit.

49.6 Tū . . . estō: ‘God bless you!’ Cf. p. 32, n. 1.

49.7 cavē . . . perdās = cavē nē . . . perdās: ‘Take care lest,’ etc. For this form see H 561, 2 (489, 2): M 715: A 269, a, 3: G 271, 2: B 276, c. We really have two commands here side by side, thus: ‘Take care’; ‘Don’t waste,’ etc.

49.8 imperative of patior.

49.9 in . . . suae: ‘to prove his victory.’

49.10 The custom of wearing rings was universal among the Romans, having arisen out of their use as signets. Originally they were of iron. When gold rings were first used they served to distinguish the higher classes.

50.1 minimē . . . ratus: ‘thinking that there ought to be no delay.’ With cessandum sc. esse, and see p. 16, n. 8.

50.2 victor . . . epulātūrus: ‘for he would surely dine as victor on the Capitol.’ The fut. part. is often thus used to denote the certain occurrence of a future event. Further, the clause expresses the reason why Maharbal urged H. to proceed to Rome. What were Maharbal’s exact words?

50.3 dat. sing.

50.4 Cf. p. 25, n. 6. Contrast the words of a modern historian: “Hannibal knew Rome better than the simpletons who, in ancient and modern times, have fancied that he might have terminated the struggle by a march on the enemy’s capital.”

50.5 cūius . . . fuisse: a gross exaggeration. Hannibal successfully maintained himself in Italy till recalled in 203.

50.6 Capua, at this time the most powerful city in Italy next to Rome, had formed an alliance with Hannibal after the battle of Cannae.

50.7 Sc. fuit.

50.8 quīn etiam: ‘on the contrary.’

50.9 For the construction, see p. 47, n. 12. For the fact, cf. XVI, 19 ff.

50.10 superfuisse . . . approbāvit: ‘he showed that he had effected his escape (lit., had survived).’

50.11 ‘let grow.’ This manner of showing grief is often mentioned.

50.12 The Romans reclined on the left side at meals. Varro’s act was a kind of penance, since it indicated that he denied himself the pleasures of the table.

51.1 magistrātibus . . . esse: cf. p. 37, notes 3 and 4.

51.2 ‘to repair their losses’; lit., ‘to get their breath again.’

51.3 dat.; cf. p. 2, n. 7. After a victory, captured arms, as well as a portion of the captured treasure, were hung up in some temple as a thank-offering to the gods.

51.4 singulīs . . . ānulīs: ‘a ring apiece.’

51.5 vix . . . manūs: i.e. they hardly had clerks and tablets sufficient to keep the record of contributions.

51.6 redimendī suī: ‘of ransoming themselves.’ H 626, 3 (542, I, N. 1): M 1000: A 298, a: G 428, R. 1: B 339, 5.

51.7 velutī . . . oblītus: ‘pretending to have forgotten something.’ How literally?

51.8 A neuter pronoun or adjective is often used with verbs of remembering or forgetting. Contrast oblīta frātrum, IV, 37, and note.

51.9 ‘maintained, held.’

52.1 abl. abs.: ‘though their affairs were at the lowest ebb.’

Text-only version XXI. Pūblius Cornēlius Scīpiō Āfricānus

see caption

Pūblius Cornēlius Scīpiō2 nōndum annōs
pueritiae ēgressus patrem singulārī virtūte
servāvit; quī3 cum pūgnā4 apud Tīcīnum5
contrā Hannibalem commissā graviter vulnerātus
5 in hostium manūs iam iam6 ventūrus
esset, fīlius interiectō7 corpore Poenīs inruentibus
sē opposuit et patrem perīculō līberāvit.
Quae8 pietās Scīpiōnī posteā aedīlitātem
petentī favōrem populī conciliāvit. Cum obsisterent
10 tribūnī plēbis, negantēs9 ratiōnem ēius esse habendam,
quod nōndum ad petendum lēgitima10 aetās esset, “Sī mē” inquit
Scīpiō “omnēs Quirītēs aedīlem facere volunt, satis annōrum
habeō.” Tantō inde favōre ad suffrāgia itum11 est, ut tribūnī
inceptō dēsisterent.

15 Post clādem Cannēnsem Rōmānī exercitūs reliquiae Canusium
perfūgerant; cumque ibi tribūnī mīlitum quattuor essent, tamen
omnium cōnsēnsū ad Pūblium Scīpiōnem, admodum12 adulēscentem,
summa imperiī dēlāta est. Quibus cōnsultantibus nūntiat
53 Pūblius Fūrius Philus, cōnsulāris virī fīlius, nōbilēs quōsdam
20 iuvenēs propter dēspērātiōnem cōnsilium dē Italiā dēserendā
inīre. Statim in hospitium Metellī, quī cōnspīrātiōnis erat prīnceps,
sē contulit Scīpiō, et cum concilium ibi iuvenum, dē quibus
adlātum1 erat, invēnisset, strictō super cāpita cōnsultantium
gladiō, “Iūrāte” inquit “vōs neque ipsōs rem pūblicam populī
25 Rōmānī dēsertūrōs, neque alium cīvem Rōmānum dēserere
passūrōs2: quī3 nōn iūrāverit, in sē hunc gladium strictum esse
sciat.”4 Haud5 secus pavidī, quam sī victōrem Hannibalem
cernerent,6 iūrant omnēs cūstōdiendōsque sēmet ipsōs Scīpiōnī


30 Cum Rōmānī duās clādēs in Hispāniā accēpissent duoque ibi
summī imperātōrēs7 intrā diēs trīgintā cecidissent, placuit8
exercitum augērī eōque prōcōnsulem mittī; nec tamen
quem mitterent9 satis cōnstābat. Eā dē rē indicta sunt comitia.
Prīmō populus exspectābat ut, quī sē tantō dīgnōs imperiō
35 crēderent,10 nōmina profitērentur; sed nēmō audēbat illud imperium
suscipere. Maesta igitur cīvitās ac prope inops11 cōnsiliī12
comitiōrum diē in campum dēscendit. Subitō P. Cornēlius Scīpiō,
quattuor et vīgintī fermē annōs nātus, professus sē petere,13 in
superiōre, unde14 cōnspicī posset, locō cōnstitit. In quem
40 postquam omnium ōra conversa sunt, ad ūnum omnēs Scīpiōnem in
Hispāniā prōcōnsulem esse iussērunt. At postquam animōrum15
impetus resēdit, populum16 Rōmānum coepit factī paenitēre:
54 aetātī Scīpiōnis māximē diffīdēbant. Quod ubi animadvertit
Scīpiō, advocātā cōntiōne ita māgnō ēlātōque animō dē bellō,
45 quod gerendum esset, disseruit, ut hominēs cūrā līberāret spēque
certissimā implēret.

Profectus igitur in Hispāniam Scīpiō Carthāginem Novam,
quō1 diē vēnit, expūgnāvit. Eō2 congestae3 erant omnēs paene
Āfricae et Hispāniae opēs, ibi arma, ibi pecūnia, ibi tōtīus Hispāniae
50 obsidēs erant: quibus omnibus potītus est Scīpiō. Inter
captīvōs ad eum adducta est eximiae fōrmae adulta virgō. Quam
ubi comperit inlūstrī locō inter Celtibērōs nātam prīncipīque ēius
gentis adulēscentī dēspōnsam esse, arcessītīs parentibus et spōnsō
eam reddidit. Parentēs virginis, quī ad eam redimendam satis4
55 māgnum aurī pondus attulerant, Scīpiōnem ōrābant ut id ā sē
dōnum acciperet. Scīpiō aurum ante pedēs pōnī iūssit vocātōque
ad sē virginis spōnsō, “Super dōtem” inquit “quam acceptūrus
ā socerō es, haec tibi ā mē dōtālia dōna accēdent” aurumque
tollere āc sibi habēre iūssit. Ille domum reversus ad referendam
60 Scīpiōnī grātiam Celtibērōs Rōmānīs conciliāvit.

Deinde Scīpiō Hasdrubalem5 victum6 ex Hispāniā expulit.
Castrīs hostium potītus omnem praedam mīlitibus concessit,
captīvōs7 Hispānōs sine pretiō domum dīmīsit; Āfrōs vērō vēndī
iussit. Erat inter eōs puer adultus rēgiī generis,8 fōrmā
65 īnsīgnī8: quem cum percontārētur Scīpiō quis et cūiās esset, et
cūr id9 aetātis in castrīs fuisset, “Numida sum” inquit puer,
“Massīvam populārēs vocant: orbus ā patre relīctus, apud avum
māternum, Numidiae rēgem, ēducātus sum. Cum avunculō Masinissā,
quī nūper subsidiō Carthāginiēnsibus vēnit, in Hispāniam
55 70 trāiēcī; prohibitus propter aetātem ā Masinissā numquam ante
proelium iniī. Eō diē, quō pūgnātum est cum Rōmānīs, īnsciō
avunculō, clam armīs equōque sūmptō, in aciem exiī: ibi, prōlāpsō
equō, captus sum ā Rōmānīs.” Scīpiō eum interrogat velletne1
ad avunculum revertī. Cum, effūsīs2 gaudiō lacrimīs, id
75 vērō sē cupere puer dīceret, tum Scīpiō puerō ānulum aureum
equumque ōrnātum dōnat datīsque quī3 tūtō dēdūcerent equitibus

Cum Pūblius Cornēlius Scīpiō sē ergā Hispānōs clēmenter gessisset,
circumfūsa multitūdō eum rēgem ingentī cōnsēnsū appellāvit;
80 at Scīpiō, silentiō per praecōnem factō, “Nōmen imperātōris”
inquit, “quō4 mē meī mīlitēs appellārunt, mihi5 māximum est:
rēgium6 nōmen, alibī māgnum, Rōmae intolerābile est. Sī id
amplissimum iūdicātis, quod rēgāle est, vōbīs licet exīstimāre rēgālem
in mē esse animum; sed ōrō vōs ut ā rēgis appellātiōne abstineātis.”
85 Sēnsēre etiam barbarī māgnitūdinem animī, quā Scīpiō id
āspernābātur, quod cēterī mortālēs admīrantur et concupīscunt.

Scīpiō receptā Hispāniā cum iam bellum in ipsam Āfricam
trānsferre meditārētur, conciliandōs7 prius rēgum et gentium
animōs exīstimāvit. Syphācem, Maurōrum rēgem, opulentissimum
90 tōtīus Āfricae rēgem, quem8 māgnō ūsuī9 sibi9 fore10 spērāret,
prīmum tentāre statuit. Itaque lēgātum cum dōnīs ad eum mīsit
C. Laelium, quōcum intimā familiāritāte vīvēbat. Syphāx amīcitiam
Rōmānōrum sē accipere adnuit, sed fidem nec dare
nec accipere, nisi cum ipsō cōram duce Rōmānō, voluit.
95 Scīpiō igitur in Āfricam trāiēcit. Forte ita incidit, ut eō ipsō
56 tempore Hasdrubal1 pulsus Hispāniā ad eundem portum appelleret,2
Syphācis amīcitiam pariter petītūrus.3 Uterque ā rēge in
hospitium invītātus. Cēnātum4 simul apud rēgem est; eōdem
etiam lectō5 Scīpiō atque Hasdrubal accubuērunt. Tanta autem
100 inerat cōmitās in Scīpiōne, ut nōn Syphācem modo, sed etiam
hostem īnfēstissimum Hasdrubalem sibi conciliāret. Scīpiō, foedere
īctō cum Syphāce, in Hispāniam ad exercitum rediit.

Masinissa quoque amīcitiam cum Scīpiōne iungere iam dūdum6
cupiēbat. Quārē ad eum trēs Numidārum prīncipēs mīsit ad
105 tempus locumque conloquiō statuendum. Duōs prō obsidibus retinērī
ā Scīpiōne iubet; remissō tertiō, quī Masinissam ad locum
cōnstitūtum addūceret, Scīpiō et Masinissa cum paucīs in
conloquium vēnērunt. Cēperat iam ante Numidam ex fāmā rērum
gestārum admīrātiō virī, sed māior praesentis7 venerātiō cēpit:
110 erat enim in vultū māiestās summa; accēdēbat prōmissa caesariēs
habitusque corporis, nōn cultus8 munditiīs, sed virīlis vērē ac
mīlitāris, et flōrēns iuventa. Prope attonitus ipsō congressū
Numida grātiās dē9 fīliō frātris remissō agit: adfīrmat sē ex eō
tempore eam quaesīvisse10 occāsiōnem, quam tandem oblātam11
115 nōn omīserit; cupere sē illī et populō Rōmānō operam nāvāre.
Laetus eum Scīpiō audīvit atque in societātem recēpit.

Scīpiō deinde Rōmam rediit et ante annōs12 cōnsul factus est.
Sicilia eī prōvincia dēcrēta est permissumque ut in Āfricam inde
57 trāiceret. Quī cum vellet ex fortissimīs peditibus Rōmānīs
120 trecentōrum equitum numerum complēre, nec posset illōs subitō
armīs et equīs īnstruere, id prūdentī cōnsiliō perfēcit. Namque
ex omnī Siciliā trecentōs iuvenēs nōbilissimōs et dītissimōs, quī
equīs mīlitārent1 et sēcum in Āfricam trāicerent,1 lēgit diemque
iīs ēdīxit, quā2 equīs armīsque īnstrūctī atque ōrnātī adessent.1
125 Gravis ea mīlitia, procul domō, terrā marīque multōs labōrēs,
māgna perīcula adlātūra vidēbātur; neque ipsōs modo, sed parentēs
cōgnātōsque eōrum ea cūra angēbat. Ubi diēs quae dicta
erat advēnit, arma equōsque ostendērunt, sed omnēs ferē
longinquum et grave bellum horrēre appārēbat. Tunc Scīpiō mīlitiam
130 iīs sē remissūrum ait, sī arma et equōs mīlitibus Rōmānīs
voluissent3 trādere. Laetī condiciōnem accēpērunt iuvenēs Siculī.
Ita Scīpiō sine pūblicā impēnsā suōs īnstrūxit ōrnāvitque equitēs.

Tunc Scīpiō ex Siciliā in Āfricam ventō secundō profectus est
tantō mīlitum ārdōre, ut nōn ad bellum dūcī vidērentur, sed ad
135 certa victōriae praemia. Celeriter nāvēs ē cōnspectū Siciliae
ablātae sunt cōnspectaque brevī Āfricae lītora. Scīpiō cum ēgrediēns
ad terram nāvī prōlāpsus esset et ob hōc attonitōs mīlitēs
cerneret, id, quod trepidātiōnem adferēbat, in hortātiōnem convertēns,
“Āfricam oppressī” inquit, “mīlitēs!” Expositīs cōpiīs in
140 proximīs tumulīs castra mētātus4 est. Ibi speculātōrēs hostium
in castrīs dēprehēnsōs5 et ad sē perductōs5 nec suppliciō adfēcit
nec dē cōnsiliīs ac vīribus Poenōrum percontātus est, sed circā
omnēs Rōmānī exercitūs manipulōs cūrāvit dēdūcendōs; dein
interrogātōs6 num ea satis cōnsīderāssent, quae speculārī erant
145 iūssī, prandiō datō incolumēs dīmīsit.


Scīpiōnī in Āfricam advenientī Masinissa sē coniūnxit cum
parvā equitum turmā. Syphāx vērō ā Rōmānīs ad Poenōs dēfēcerat.
Hasdrubal, Poenōrum dux, Syphāxque Scīpiōnī sē opposuērunt,
quī utrīusque castra ūnā nocte perrūpit et incendit.
150 Syphāx ipse captus et vīvus ad Scīpiōnem pertrāctus est.
Syphācem in castra addūcī cum esset nūntiātum, omnis velut ad
spectāculum triumphī multitūdō effūsa est; praecēdēbat ipse1
vinctus, sequēbātur grex nōbilium Maurōrum. Movēbat omnēs
fortūna2 virī, cūius amīcitiam ōlim Scīpiō petierat. Rēgem
155 aliōsque captīvōs Rōmam mīsit Scīpiō; Masinissam, quī ēgregiē rem
Rōmānam adiūverat, aureā corōnā dōnāvit.


Haec et aliae, quae sequēbantur, clādēs Carthāginiēnsibus
tantum terrōris intulērunt, ut Hannibalem ex Ītaliā ad
tuendam patriam revocārent. Frendēns gemēnsque ac vix
160 lacrimīs3 temperāns is dīcitur lēgātōrum vērba audīsse
mandātīsque pāruisse. Respexit saepe Ītaliae lītora, sēmet accūsāns,
quod4 nōn victōrem exercitum statim ab5 Cannēnsī pūgnā Rōmam
dūxisset. Zamam vēnerat Hannibal, quae urbs quīnque diērum
iter6 ā Carthāgine abest, et nūntium ad Scīpiōnem mīsit ut
165 conloquendī sēcum potestātem faceret. Scīpiō cum conloquium haud
abnuisset, diēs locusque cōnstituitur. Itaque congressī sunt duo
clārissimī suae aetātis ducēs. Stetērunt aliquamdiū tacitī mūtuāque
admīrātiōne dēfīxī.7 Cum vērō dē condiciōnibus pācis inter
eōs nōn convēnisset, ad suōs sē recēpērunt, renūntiantēs armīs8
170 dēcernendum esse. Commissō deinde proeliō Hannibal
victus cum quattuor equitibus fūgit. Cēterum9 cōnstat
59 utrumque dē alterō cōnfessum esse nec melius īnstruī aciem nec
ācrius potuisse pūgnārī.

Carthāginiēnsēs metū perculsī1 ad petendam pācem ōrātōrēs
175 mittunt trīgintā cīvitātis prīncipēs. Quī ubi in castra Rōmāna
vēnērunt, veniam cīvitātī petēbant nōn culpam pūrgantēs,2 sed
initium culpae in Hannibalem trānsferentēs.2 Victīs lēgēs
imposuit Scīpiō. Lēgātī, cum nūllās condiciōnēs recūsārent, Rōmam
profectī sunt, ut, quae ā Scīpiōne pacta3 essent, ea patrum ac
180 populī auctōritāte cōnfīrmārentur. Ita pāce terrā marīque
partā,4 Scīpiō exercitū in nāvēs impositō Rōmam revertit. Ad
quem advenientem concursus ingēns factus est; effūsa nōn ex
urbibus modo, sed etiam ex agrīs multitūdō viam obsidēbat.
Scīpiō inter grātulantium plausūs triumphō omnium5 clārissimō
185 urbem est invectus prīmusque nōmine victae ā sē gentis est
nōbilitātus Āfricānusque appellātus.

Ex hīs rēbus gestīs virum eum esse virtūtis dīvīnae vulgō
crēditum est. Id etiam dīcere haud piget,6 quod scrīptōrēs dē
eō litterīs mandāvērunt, Scīpiōnem cōnsuēvisse, priusquam
see caption
190 dīlūcēsceret, in Capitōlium7 ventitāre ac iubēre
aperīrī cellam Iovis ibi sōlum diū dēmorārī,
quasi cōnsultantem dē rē pūblicā cum Iove:
aedituōsque ēius templī saepe esse mīrātōs,
quod eum id8 temporis in Capitōlium
195 ingredientem canēs, semper in aliōs saevientēs,
nōn lātrārent. Hās vulgī dē Scīpiōne
opīniōnēs cōnfīrmāre atque approbāre vidēbantur
dicta factaque ēius plēraque admīranda, ex
quibus est ūnum hūiuscemodī. Adsidēbat oppūgnābatque oppidum
60 200 in Hispāniā, sitū moenibusque ac dēfēnsōribus validum et
mūnītum, rē etiam cibāriā cōpiōsum, neque ūlla ēius potiundī
spēs erat. Quōdam diē iūs in castrīs sedēns dīcēbat Scīpiō atque
ex eō locō id oppidum procul vidēbātur. Tum ē1 mīlitibus, quī
in iūre apud eum stābant, interrogāvit quispiam ex mōre in2
205 quem diem locumque vadēs sistī iubēret. Et Scīpiō manum ad
ipsam oppidī, quod obsidēbātur, arcem prōtendēns, “Perendiē”
inquit “sēsē3 sistant illō in locō,” atque ita factum. Diē4 tertiā,
in quam vadēs sistī iusserat, oppidum captum est. Eōdem diē
in arce ēius oppidī iūs dīxit.

210 Hannibal, ā Scīpiōne victus suīsque invīsus, ad Antiochum,
Syriae rēgem, cōnfūgit eumque hostem Rōmānīs fēcit. Missī
sunt Rōmā lēgātī ad Antiochum, in quibus erat Scīpiō Āfricānus,
quī cum Hannibale Ephesī5 conlocūtus ab eō quaesīvit, quem
fuisse māximum imperātōrem crēderet. Respondit Hannibal
215 Alexandrum, Macedonum rēgem, māximum sibi vidērī, quod
parvā manū innumerābilēs exercitūs fūdisset. Quaerentī deinde,
quem secundum pōneret, “Pyrrhum” inquit, “quod prīmus castra6
mētārī docuit nēmōque illō7 ēlegantius loca8 cēpit et praesidia
dēposuit.” Scīscitantī dēnique quem tertium dūceret, sēmet ipsum
220 dīxit. Tum rīdēns Scīpiō “Quidnam tū dīcerēs9” inquit “sī mē
vīcissēs9?” “Tum10 mē vērō” respondit Hannibal “et ante
Alexandrum et ante Pyrrhum et ante omnēs aliōs imperātōrēs
posuissem.9” Ita imprōvīsō adsentātiōnis genere Scīpiōnem ē
grege imperātōrum velut inaestimābilem sēcernēbat.


225 Scīpiō ipse fertur quondam dīxisse, cum eum quīdam parum
pūgnācem dīcerent, “Imperātōrem mē māter, nōn bellātōrem1
peperit.2” Īdem dīcere solitus est nōn sōlum dandam esse viam
fugientibus, sed etiam mūniendam.

Dēcrētō adversus Antiochum bellō3 cum Syria prōvincia
230 obvēnisset Lūciō Scīpiōnī, quia parum in eō putābātur esse animī,4
parum rōboris,4 senātus gerendī hūius bellī cūram mandārī volēbat
conlēgae ēius C. Laeliō. Surgēns tunc Scīpiō Āfricānus,
frāter māior Lūciī Scīpiōnis, illam familiae īgnōminiam
dēprecātus est: dīxit in frātre suō summam esse virtūtem, summum
235 cōnsilium sēque eī lēgātum fore prōmīsit. Quod cum ab eō esset
dictum, nihil5 est dē Lūciī Scīpiōnis prōvinciā commūtātum:
itaque frāter nātū māior minōrī lēgātus in Asiam profectus est
et tam diū eum cōnsiliō operāque adiūvit, dōnec triumphum ille
et cōgnōmen Asiāticī peperisset.

240 Eōdem bellō fīlius Scīpiōnis Āfricānī captus est et ad Antiochum
dēductus. Benīgnē et līberāliter adulēscentem rēx habuit,6
quamquam ab ēius patre tum7 māximē fīnibus imperiī pellēbātur.
Cum deinde pācem Antiochus ā Rōmānīs peteret, lēgātus ēius
Pūblium Scīpiōnem adiit eīque fīlium sine pretiō redditūrum
245 rēgem dīxit, sī per eum pācem impetrāsset.8 Cuī Scīpiō respondit
“Abī, nūntiā rēgī, mē prō tantō mūnere grātiās9 agere; sed
nunc aliam grātiam nōn possum referre, quam ut eī suādeam10 ut
bellō absistat et pācis condiciōnem nūllam recūset.” Pāx nōn
convēnit11; tamen Antiochus Scīpiōnī fīlium remīsit tantīque virī
250 māiestātem venerārī quam dolōrem suum ulcīscī māluit.

Victō Antiochō cum praedae ratiō ā L. Scīpiōne repōscerētur,
62 Āfricānus prōlātum1 ab eō librum, quō2 acceptae et expēnsae
summae continēbantur et refellī inimīcōrum accūsātiō poterat,
discerpsit, indīgnātus3 dē eā rē dubitārī, quae sub ipsō lēgātō
255 administrāta esset. Quīn etiam hunc4 in modum verba fēcit:
“Nōn5 est quod quaerātis, patrēs cōnscrīptī, num parvam pecūniam
in aerārium rettulerim, quī anteā illud Pūnicō aurō replēverim,
neque mea innocentia potest in dubium vocārī. Cum
Āfricam tōtam potestātī vestrae subiēcerim, nihil ex eā praeter
260 cōgnōmen rettulī. Nōn igitur mē Pūnicae, nōn frātrem meum
Asiāticae gazae avārum reddidērunt; sed uterque nostrum6
invidiā quam pecūniā est locuplētior.” Tam cōnstantem dēfēnsiōnem
Scīpiōnis ūniversus senātus comprobāvit.

Deinde Scīpiōnī Āfricānō duo tribūnī plēbis diem dīxērunt,
265 quod praedā ex Antiochō captā aerārium fraudāsset. Ubi causae
dīcendae diēs vēnit, Scīpiō māgnā hominum frequentiā in Forum
est dēductus. Iussus causam dīcere rōstra cōnscendit et, corōnā7 see caption
triumphālī capitī suō impositā, “Hōc ego diē”
inquit “Hannibalem Poenum, imperiō nostrō
270 inimīcissimum, māgnō proeliō vīcī in terrā
Āfricā pācemque nōbīs et victōriam peperī
īnspērābilem. Nē8 igitur sīmus adversus deōs
ingrātī, sed cēnseō relinquāmus9 nebulōnēs hōs
eāmusque nunc prōtinus in Capitōlium Iovī
275 optimō māximō supplicātum.” Ā rōstrīs in Capitōlium āscendit;
simul sē ūniversa cōntiō ab accūsātōribus āvertit et secūta Scīpiōnem
63 est, nec quisquam praeter praecōnem, quī reum citābat, cum
tribūnīs remānsit. Celebrātior is diēs favōre1 hominum fuit, quam
quō2 triumphāns dē Syphāce rēge et Carthāginiēnsibus urbem est
280 ingressus. Inde, nē amplius tribūnīciīs iniūriīs vexārētur, in
Līternīnum concessit, ubi reliquam ēgit aetātem sine urbis dēsīderiō.

Cum in Līternīnā vīllā sē continēret, complūrēs praedōnum
ducēs ad eum videndum forte cōnfluxērunt. Quōs cum ad vim
faciendam venīre exīstimāsset, praesidium servōrum in tēctō
285 conlocāvit aliaque parābat, quae3 ad eōs repellendōs opus erant.
Quod ubi praedōnēs animadvertērunt, abiectīs armīs iānuae
appropinquant et clārā vōce nūntiant Scīpiōnī sē nōn vītae ēius hostēs,
sed virtūtis admīrātōrēs vēnisse, cōnspectum4 tantī virī, quasi
caeleste aliquod beneficium, expetentēs; proinde nē5 gravārētur
290 sē spectandum praebēre. Haec postquam audīvit Scīpiō, forēs
reserārī eōsque intrōdūcī iussit. Illī postēs iānuae tamquam
religiōsissimam āram venerātī, cupidē Scīpiōnis dextram
apprehendērunt ac diū deōsculātī sunt; deinde positīs ante vēstibulum
dōnīs laetī, quod sibi Scīpiōnem ut vidērent contigisset, domum
295 revertērunt. Paulō post mortuus est Scīpiō moriēnsque ab uxōre
petiit nē corpus suum Rōmam referrētur.

Skip to next selection.

52.2 See Vocab., Āfricānus and Scīpiō.

52.3 quī cum: ‘for when he.’ Cf. p. 4, n. 3.

52.4 ‘in (the course of) the battle.’ pūgna, like bellum and proelium, is often used in the abl. of time without a prep.

52.5 Cf. XIX, 16.

52.6 iam iam . . . esset: ‘was on the very point of falling.’

52.7 interiectō corpore: ‘by interposing his body.’ See p. xxiii, K 8.

52.8 Quae pietās: ‘this act of devotion.’

52.9 negantēs . . . habendam: ‘by saying that no account should be taken of him.’ For negantēs, see p. 41, n. 15. ratiōnem habēre is a phrase of mercantile life.

52.10 Scipio was less than twenty-five years old. In later times no one could be aedile till he had completed his thirty-sixth year.

52.11 impersonal pass. from : ‘they proceeded.’

52.12 admodum adulēscentem: ‘though but,’ etc.

53.1 adlātum erat: impersonal pass.: ‘the news had been brought.’

53.2 patior.

53.3 quī . . . iūrāverit (fut. perf. indic.) = a conditional clause, sī quis nōn iūrāverit. Cf. quī . . . crēderent, l. 35, below.

53.4 Cf. p. 31, n. 9.

53.5 Haud . . . sī: ‘Quite as much frightened as if.’

53.6 Cf. p. 47, n. 12.

53.7 P. Cornelius Scipio and Cn. Cornelius Scipio, respectively father and uncle of Africanus.

53.8 Sc. senātuī or populō.

53.9 Cf. p. 3, n. 2.

53.10 Subjunctive by attraction: see p. 13, n. 10.

53.11 inops cōnsiliī: ‘at its wit’s end.’

53.12 The gen. is regularly used with adjectives denoting fullness or the opposite: H 451, 2 (399, I, 3): M 573: A 218, a: G 374: B 204, 1.

53.13 = ‘to be a candidate.’

53.14 unde . . . posset = ut inde . . . posset; cf. p. 5, n. 3.

53.15 animōrum impetus: ‘enthusiasm,’ ‘excitement.’

53.16 populum . . . paenitēre: cf. Vēientēs . . . paenituisset, XI, 13, and note.

54.1 Cf. p. 42, n. 5.

54.2 = in eum locum.

54.3 congerō.

54.4 satis often = our ‘tolerably.’

54.5 A brother of Hannibal.

54.6 victum . . . expulit = vīcit et expulit.

54.7 = ‘but the captives,’ etc. Cf. p. 2, n. 24, and p. 5, n. 13.

54.8 We have here side by side the gen. and the abl. of characteristic. For the difference between them, see H 473, 2, N. 1 (419, 2): M 558: A 215, N.: G 400, R. 1.

54.9 id aetātis: ‘at that age,’ i.e. though he was so young. The accus. id is variously explained: see H 416, 2 (378, 2): M 507: A 240, b: G 336, N. 2; B 185. aetātis is partitive gen. (p. 30, n. 2) with id.

55.1 Why is vellet subjunctive?

55.2 effūsīs (effundō) . . . lacrimīs: ‘with tears of joy.’ How literally?

55.3 quī . . . dēdūcerent: ‘to escort him.’

55.4 quō . . . appellārunt: Roman soldiers, after a victory, hailed their general as Imperator. It was a way of saying that the leader had won his spurs and had really earned his title, which he had assumed on beginning the campaign.

55.5 ‘in my eyes,’ ‘to my mind’; a dative of reference.

55.6 rēgium nōmen = rēgis nōmen, ‘the title of king.’ Cf. nōmen imperātōris, l. 80, and rēgis appellātiōne, l. 84.

55.7 Sc. esse.

55.8 quem . . . spērāret: causal rel. clause (p. 31, n. 1).

55.9 For the two datives, see p. 25, n. 6.

55.10 future infinitive of sum.

56.1 Son of Gisco (so also in l. 148); to be carefully distinguished from the Hasdrubal of l. 61.

56.2 Sc. nāvem; ‘was sailing.’

56.3 = ut peteret. Cf. p. xviii, E 5.

56.4 Cēnātum . . . est (ab iīs): impers. pass.; ‘they dined.’

56.5 lectō . . . accubuērunt (accumbō): the writer has in mind the Roman custom, according to which men reclined at meals, supporting themselves on the left elbow. Three persons or more occupied the same couch.

56.6 iam dūdum cupiēbat: ‘had long desired.’ Iam diū, iam dūdum, and iam prīdem give to the present the force of the English perfect, to the imperfect the force of the English pluperfect.

56.7 Sc. ēius: ‘of him present’ = ‘now that he met him face to face.’

56.8 cultus (colō) munditiīs: ‘(too) elegantly adorned.’ How literally?

56.9 dē . . . remissō: ‘for the release of his nephew.’ For the construction, see p. 5, n. 15.

56.10 quaerō.

56.11 oblātam (offerō): ‘now that it was at last offered.’

56.12 ‘the legal time’; lēgitima aetās, l. 11. In later days forty-three was the legal age.

57.1 See p. 5, n. 3.

57.2 Sc. diē, for the gender of which, as in diēs, quae dicta erat, l. 127, see Vocab., diēs.

57.3 For mood and tense, see p. 6, n. 1. What did Scipio say?

57.4 ‘pitched,’ lit. ‘measured.’ The Roman camp was always laid out with great care, according to a fixed plan, and was carefully fortified, even if the stay was to last but one night.

57.5 The participles = rel. clauses: see p. xxiv, L 1.

57.6 interrogātōs (sc. eōs) . . . dīmīsit = interrogāvit (eōs) . . . et . . . dīmīsit, or cum (eōs) . . . interrogāsset, . . . dīmīsit.

58.1 = Syphax. For ipse referring to the principal personage, see also I, 5, and II, 4.

58.2 ‘misfortune.’ So fāma = both ‘fame’ and ‘ill repute,’ valētūdō = both ‘health’ and ‘sickness.’

58.3 dat. of indir. object with temperāns.

58.4 quod . . . dūxisset. What does the subjunctive show?

58.5 ab . . . dūxisset: cf. p. 50, n. 4.

58.6 acc. of extent of space: cf. p. xvii, D 2.

58.7 ‘motionless.’

58.8 armīs . . . esse: ‘that the issue must be decided by arms.’ Note the method employed in translating the impers. passive here and in lines 13, 23, and 98, and apply it to pūgnārī, l. 173.

58.9 Cēterum cōnstat: ‘it is, however, well known.’

59.1 percellō.

59.2 Cf. negantēs, l. 10, and p. 6, n. 20.

59.3 pacta (pacīscor) essent: subjunctive by attraction: see p. 13, n. 10.

59.4 pariō.

59.5 i.e. of all ever celebrated in Rome.

59.6 haud piget: sc. ; ‘I am not ashamed.’ piget is construed exactly like paenitet: see p. 28, n. 7.

59.7 Here = the temple, sacred to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva.

59.8 id temporis = eō tempore. Cf. note on id aetātis, l. 66.

60.1 Join ē mīlitibus with quispiam, l. 204.

60.2 in . . . iubēret: ‘when and where he bade (the accused) appear for trial.’ vadēs sistī is the passive of vadēs sistere, a legal phrase = ‘to make one’s bail stand,’ i.e. to make it effective, and so ‘to stand trial.’ Sistere often means ‘to produce in court,’ as in l. 207.

60.3 sēsē sistant: ‘let them produce themselves,’ i.e. appear for trial.

60.4 Diē tertiā = perendiē, l. 206. In counting days, the Romans usually included the day from which they started.

60.5 locative.

60.6 Cf. n. on castra mētātus est, l. 140.

60.7 illō ēlegantius: ‘more judiciously than he.’ For illō, see p. 10, n. 18.

60.8 Sc. castrīs.

60.9 See p. 47, n. 12. dīcerēs is imperfect, as referring to present time; the other verbs denote past time.

60.10 ‘in that event’; = sī tē vīcissem.

61.1 ‘a (mere) fighter.’

61.2 pariō.

61.3 This war lasted from 192 to 190.

61.4 partitive gen. with parum, which is here a noun. In l. 225 it was an adverb.

61.5 nihil . . . commūtātum: ‘no change was made.’ Note that nihil is an adverbial acc. of degree, and that commūtātum est is impersonal.

61.6 ‘treated.’

61.7 tum māximē: ‘at that very moment.’

61.8 Explain mood and tense.

61.9 Distinguish between grātiās agere and grātiam referre.

61.10 Notice that suādeō = merely ‘to advise’; ‘to persuade’ is persuādeō.

61.11 ‘was not arranged.’

62.1 = quī prōlātus erat; cf. p. xxiv, L 1.

62.2 abl. of means (though rendered ‘in which’) both with continēbantur and refellī poterat.

62.3 indīgnātus . . . dubitārī: ‘angry because doubts were raised.’ For the infin. see p. 19, n. 6.

62.4 See p. 16, n. 9. verba fēcit: ‘he delivered a speech.’

62.5 Nōn . . . quaerātis: ‘there is no reason why you should ask’; lit., ‘there is not (anything) as to which,’ etc. H 591, 4 (503, 1, N. 2): M 836: A 320, a: G 631, 2: B 283, 2.

62.6 nostrum, like vestrum, is regularly used only as a partitive gen.

62.7 A crown of laurel, worn by the general at his triumph.

62.8 Nē . . . sīmus: cf. p. 31, n. 9.

62.9 (ut) relinquāmus . . . eāmus is a substantive clause of purpose. For the omission of ut see H 565, 4 (499, 2): M 781: A 331, f, R.: G 546, R. 2: B 295, 8.

63.1 abl. of specification.

63.2 quō (sc. diē) = eō diē quō.

63.3 quae . . . opus erant: ‘which were necessary’; lit. ‘which were a necessity.’ For a very different construction with opus, cf. nihil opus esse . . . eō cīve, XV, 22, and note.

63.4 cōnspectum . . . expetentēs: ‘craving a chance to see so great a man, as a sort of heaven-sent favor.’

63.5 nē . . . gravārētur: the subjunctive is used here in indir. disc., as representing an imperative of the direct: H 642, 4 (523, III): M 1023: A 339: G 652: B 316.

Text-only version XXII. Tiberius Gracchus et Gāius Gracchus

Tiberius et Gāius Gracchī6 Scīpiōnis Āfricānī7 ex fīliā8 nepōtēs
erant. Hōrum adulēscentia bonīs artibus et māgnā omnium spē
64 exācta est: ad ēgregiam enim indolem optima accēdēbat ēducātiō.
Erant enim dīligentiā Cornēliae mātris ā1 puerīs doctī et Graecīs
5 lītterīs2 ērudītī. Māximum mātrōnīs ōrnāmentum esse līberōs
bene īnstitūtōs meritō putābat māter illa sapientissima. Cum
Campāna mātrōna, apud illam hospita,3 ōrnāmenta sua, illō
saeculō4 pulcherrima, ostentāret eī muliebriter,5 Cornēlia trāxit
eam sermōne quoūsque6 ē scholā redīrent līberī. Quōs reversōs
10 hospitae ostendēns, “Haec” inquit “mea ōrnāmenta sunt.” Nihil7
quidem hīs adulēscentibus neque7 ā nātūrā neque7 ā doctrīnā
dēfuit; sed8 ambō rem pūblicam, quam tuērī poterant, perturbāre


Tiberius Gracchus, tribūnus plēbis creātus, ā senātū dēscīvit:
15 populī favōrem profūsīs largītiōnibus sibi conciliāvit;
agrōs9 plēbī dīvidēbat; prōvinciās novīs colōniīs10
replēbat. Cum autem tribūnīciam potestātem sibi prōrogārī11 vellet
65 et palam dictitāsset,1 interēmptō senātū omnia per plēbem agī
dēbēre, viam sibi ad rēgnum parāre vidēbātur. Quārē cum convocātī
20 patrēs dēlīberārent quidnam faciendum esset, statim Tiberius
Capitōlium petit, manum ad caput referēns, quō sīgnō salūtem
suam populō commendābat. Hōc2 nōbilitās ita accēpit, quasi
diadēma pōsceret, sēgniterque cessante cōnsule, Scīpiō Nāsīca,
cum3 esset cōnsōbrīnus Tiberiī Gracchī, patriam cōgnātiōnī
25 praeferēns sublātā dextrā prōclāmāvit: “Quī rem pūblicam salvam
esse volunt, mē sequantur!” Dein optimātēs, senātus atque
equestris4 ōrdinis pars māior in Gracchum inruunt, quī fugiēns
dēcurrēnsque Clīvō Capitōlīnō frāgmentō subselliī īctus vītam,
quam glōriōsissimē dēgere5 potuerat, immātūrā morte fīnīvit.
30 Mortuī Tiberiī corpus in flūmen prōiectum est.


Gāium Gracchum īdem furor, quī frātrem, Tiberium, occupāvit.
Tribūnātum enim adeptus,6 seu vindicandae frāternae necis,
seu comparandae rēgiae potentiae causā, pessima coepit inīre
cōnsilia: māximās largītiōnēs fēcit; aerārium7 effūdit: lēgem dē
35 frūmentō plēbī dīvidendō tulit: cīvitātem8 omnibus Ītalicīs dabat.9
Hīs Gracchī cōnsiliīs quantā10 poterant contentiōne obsistēbant
66 omnēs1 bonī, in quibus māximē Pīsō,2 vir cōnsulāris. Is
cum multa contrā lēgem frūmentāriam dīxisset, lēge tamen lātā
ad frūmentum cum cēterīs accipiendum vēnit. Gracchus ubi
40 animadvertit in cōntiōne Pīsōnem stantem, eum sīc compellāvit
audiente populō Rōmānō: “Quī3 tibi cōnstās, Pīsō, cum eā lēge
frūmentum petās, quam dissuāsistī?” Cuī Pīsō “Nōlim4 quidem,
Gracche” inquit, “mea bona tibi5 virītim dīvidere liceat;
sed sī faciēs, partem petam.” Quō respōnsō apertē dēclārāvit vir
45 gravis et sapiēns lēge, quam tulerat Gracchus, patrimōnium pūblicum


Dēcrētum ā senātū est ut6 vidēret cōnsul Opīmius nē quid
dētrīmentī rēs pūblica caperet: quod nisi in māximō
discrīmine dēcernī nōn solēbat. Gāius Gracchus, armātā
50 familiā,7 Aventīnum occupāvit. Cōnsul, vocātō ad arma populō,
Gāium aggressus est, quī pulsus profūgit et, cum iam8
comprehenderētur, iugulum servō praebuit, quī dominum et mox sēmet
ipsum super dominī corpus interēmit. Ut Tiberiī Gracchī anteā
corpus, ita Gāiī mīrā crūdēlitāte victōrum in Tiberim dēiectum
55 est. Caput autem ā Septimulēiō, amīcō Gracchī, ad Opīmium
relātum aurō9 repēnsum fertur. Sunt10 quī trādunt īnfūsō11
plumbō eum partem capitis, quō gravius efficerētur, explēsse.12

Occīsō Tiberiō Gracchō cum senātus cōnsulibus mandāsset, ut
67 in1 eōs, quī cum Gracchō cōnsēnserant, animadverterētur, Blosius
60 quīdam, Tiberiī amīcus, prō sē dēprecātum2 vēnit, hanc, ut3 sibi
īgnōscerētur, causam adferēns, quod tantī4 Gracchum fēcisset,
ut, quidquid ille vellet, sibi faciendum putāret. Tum cōnsul
“Quid?” inquit “sī tē Gracchus templō Iovis in Capitōliō facēs
subdere iussisset,5 obsecūtūrusne voluntātī illīus fuissēs5
65 propter istam, quam iactās, familiāritātem?” “Numquam” inquit
Blosius “voluisset5 id quidem,6 sed sī voluisset,5 pāruissem.5
Nefāria est ea vōx, nūlla enim est excūsātiō peccātī, sī amīcī
causā peccāveris.

Exstat Gāiī Gracchī ē Sardiniā Rōmam reversī ōrātiō, in quā
70 cum7 alia tum7 haec dē sē nārrat: “Versātus sum in prōvinciā,
quōmodo ex8 ūsū vestrō exīstimābam esse, nōn quōmodo ambitiōnī
meae condūcere arbitrābar. Nēmō possit vērē dīcere assem9
see caption
aut eō plūs in mūneribus mē
accēpisse aut meā causā quemquam
75 sūmptum10 fēcisse. Zōnās, quās
Rōmā proficīscēns plēnās
argentī11 extulī, eās ex prōvinciā
inānēs rettulī. Aliī amphorās,
quās vīnī11 plēnās extulērunt, eās
80 argentō11 replētās domum

Skip to next selection.

63.6 When two persons of the same name are mentioned together, the cognomen is usually put in the plural.

63.7 Africanus Maior.

63.8 Her brother was the adoptive father of the younger Scipio Africanus. The Gracchi were thus connected with two of the most distinguished of the Roman clans, the Cornelian and the Aemilian.

64.1 ā puerīs: we say, ‘from childhood.’

64.2 ‘literature’; abl. of means.

64.3 ‘guest.’

64.4 illō saeculō: temporal abl. We say: ‘for that age.’ The writer of these words was familiar with the extraordinary luxury and extravagance that marked the later history of Rome.

64.5 ‘with womanish pride.’ A tone of contempt often attaches to mulier and its derivatives.

64.6 construed here like dōnec, p. 39, n. 9.

64.7 Cf. p. 28, n. 3.

64.8 sed . . . māluērunt: this whole account of the Gracchi was manifestly written by one who sympathized with the senatorial or aristocratic party. Modern scholars are divided in their interpretations of the motives of the Gracchi.

64.9 The reference is to the ager pūblicus, or land gained in conquest. It belonged in theory to the state, but the greater part of it had fallen into the hands of wealthy capitalists, who, though possessing no legal title to the land, yet regarded it as their own, and resented any attempt to interfere with their occupancy. Meanwhile, the number of small landholders was constantly decreasing. These circumstances tended to drive numbers of poor people to the cities, especially Rome. The universal employment of slave labor aggravated the trouble by shutting the poor out from honest labor. Tiberius attempted to remedy these evils by limiting the number of acres of the public land which might be held by any individual and by distributing the lands thus redeemed among the poorer classes.

64.10 These colonies were intended to aid in relieving the distress at Rome by removing part of the population and supplying such persons with lands.

64.11 It was a general rule that no magistrate should hold the same office for two successive terms. Thus no man could be reëlected consul until ten years after the expiration of the first term. When Tiberius, at the end of his year as tribune, presented himself for reëlection, the aristocrats appealed to this rule. Gracchus might have replied that the rule had often been set aside under special circumstances. Still, on the whole, his conduct seems to have been unconstitutional.

65.1 This statement is probably wholly false. As the champions of the poor against the rich, the Gracchi were hated by the aristocrats, and received no favors at the hands of Roman historians.

65.2 Hōc . . . pōsceret: ‘The nobles interpreted this to mean that he was demanding a kingly crown.’ pōsceret is subjunctive as giving in indirect discourse the thought of the nobles; cf. p. 3, n. 6.

65.3 ‘although.’

65.4 See Vocab., equestris and eques.

65.5 dēgere potuerat: ‘he might have spent.’ Cf. tuērī poterant, l. 12.

65.6 adipīscor.

65.7 aerārium effūdit: ‘he wasted (the money in) the treasury.’ The reference is to the corn law mentioned in the next sentence. This entitled all citizens residing in Rome to a certain measure of corn monthly for less than the market price. The distribution was thus a constant drain upon the treasury.

65.8 ‘citizenship.’

65.9 ‘tried to give.’ The imperfect tense, like the present, often denotes attempted action; cf. dīvidēbat, l. 16, and commendābat, l. 22. He was unable to carry the law, as the citizens of Rome itself were jealous of any extension of the franchise. The Italians did not obtain citizenship till 89 B.C.

65.10 quantā . . . contentiōne: ‘with the greatest possible energy.’ Cf. quantō potuit apparātū, IX, 39, and note.

66.1 omnēs bonī: ‘all loyal citizens.’ bonī, like optimātēs, often has this political meaning. Cf. the derivation of aristocracy.

66.2 Sc. obsistēbat.

66.3 Quī . . . cōnstās: ‘How do you explain your conduct?’ How literally? See (4) quī in vocabulary.

66.4 Nōlim: ‘I should hardly desire’; lit. ‘I should be unwilling.’ The subjunctive is often thus used in a modest assertion: H 556 (486, N. 1): M 719: A 311, b: G 257, 2: B 280, 1. Cf. possit, l. 72. Often, as here, the modesty is assumed ironically.

66.5 Join with liceat.

66.6 ut . . . caperet: this was the formula by which the senate conferred unlimited power upon the consuls. Explain the subjunctives vidēret and caperet, and give the words of the decree as passed by the senate.

66.7 here ‘household.’

66.8 iam comprehenderētur: ‘was on the point of being arrested.’

66.9 aurō . . . fertur: ‘is said to have been paid for with gold.’

66.10 Sunt quī trādunt: ‘there are (those) who relate,’ i.e. ‘some say.’

66.11 infūsō plumbō: ‘by pouring in lead.’ Cf. p. xxiii, K 8. It is said that Opimius had promised to pay its weight in gold for the head of Gaius.

66.12 = explēvisse.

67.1 in eōs . . . animadverterētur: ‘punishment should be visited upon those.’

67.2 Cf. p. xviii, E 6.

67.3 ut . . . īgnōscerētur: a result clause, dependent on causam: ‘a reason as a result of which he ought to be pardoned.’ The subjunctive at times expresses necessity or obligation and propriety.

67.4 tantī . . . fēcisset: ‘he had so highly esteemed Gracchus.’ tantī is a so-called gen. of price or value: H 448, 1 (405): M 576: A 252, a: G 380: B 203, 3. For fēcisset, cf. p. 14, n. 1.

67.5 Cf. p. 47, n. 12.

67.6 quidem emphasizes id. This emphasis in English would be indicated by the stress of the voice, thus: ‘he never would have dreamed of that.’ Cf. Nōlim quidem above, l. 42.

67.7 cum . . . tum: ‘not only . . . but also.’

67.8 ex ūsū vestrō: ‘to your interests.’

67.9 ‘a red cent,’ ‘a farthing,’ as we say.

67.10 sūmptum facere = ‘to be put to expense.’

67.11 Verbs and adjectives denoting fulness and want are construed with either the gen. or the abl., the abl. in reality expressing means.


Text-only version XXIII. Gāius Marius

C. Marius, humilī locō nātus,1 mīlitiae tīrōcinium in Hispāniā
duce Scīpiōne2 posuit.3 Erat imprīmīs Scīpiōnī cārus ob
singulārem virtūtem et impigram4 ad perīcula et labōrēs alacritātem.
Cum aliquandō inter cēnam Scīpiōnem quīdam interrogāsset, sī
5 quid illī5 accidisset, quemnam rēs pūblica aequē māgnum
habitūra esset imperātōrem, Scīpiō, percussō lēniter Mariī umerō,
“Fortāsse hunc” inquit. Quō dictō excitātus Marius dīgnōs
rēbus, quās posteā gessit, spīritūs concēpit.

Q. Metellum6 in Numidiam contrā Iugurtham missum,7 cūius
10 lēgātus erat, cum ab eō Rōmam missus esset, apud populum
Rōmānum crīminātus8 est bellum dūcere9: sī10 sē cōnsulem
fēcissent, brevī tempore aut vīvum aut mortuum Iugurtham sē in
potestātem populī Rōmānī redāctūrum. Itaque creātus est
cōnsul et in Metellī locum suffectus.11 Bellum ab illō
15 prōsperē coeptum cōnfēcit. Iugurtha ad Gaetūlōs perfūgerat
eōrumque rēgem Bocchum adversus Rōmānōs concitāverat. Marius
Gaetūlōs et Bocchum aggressus fūdit; castellum12 in excelsā rīpā
positum, ubi rēgiī thēsaurī erant, nōn sine multō labōre expūgnāvit.
Bocchus, bellō dēfessus, lēgātōs ad Marium mīsit, pācem
20 ōrantēs.13 Sulla14 quaestor, ā Mariō ad rēgem remissus, Bocchō
69 persuāsit ut Iugurtham Rōmānīs trāderet. Iugurtha igitur
vinctus ad Marium dēductus est; quem Marius triumphāns ante
currum ēgit et in carcerem1 caenōsum inclūsit. Quō cum Iugurtha
dētrāctā veste ingrederētur, ōs rīdentis2 in modum dīdūxisse
25 et stupēns similisque dēsipientī exclāmāsse fertur: “Prō! quam
frīgidum est vestrum balneum!” Paucīs diēbus post in carcere
necātus est.

see caption



Marius post bellum Numidicum iterum cōnsul creātus bellumque
eī contrā Cimbrōs3 et Teutonēs dēcrētum est. Hī novī
30 hostēs, ab extrēmīs Germāniae fīnibus profugī, novās sēdēs
quaerēbant, exclūsīque Galliā et Hispāniā cum4 in Ītaliam
remigrārent, ā Rōmānīs ut aliquid sibi terrae darent petiērunt.
Repulsī, quod nequīverant5 precibus, armīs petere cōnstituunt.
Trēs6 ducēs Rōmānī impetūs barbarōrum nōn sustinuērunt.
70 35 Omnēs fugātī,1 exūtī1 castrīs. Āctum2 erat dē imperiō Rōmānō,
nisi3 Marius fuisset. Hīc prīmō Teutonēs sub ipsīs Alpium
rādīcibus adsecūtus proeliō4 oppressit. Vallem fluviumque
medium5 hostēs tenēbant: Rōmānīs6 aquārum nūlla cōpia. Aucta
necessitāte virtūs causa victōriae fuit. Nam flāgitante aquam
40 exercitū Marius “Virī7” inquit “estis, ēn illīc aquam habētis.”
Itaque tantō ārdōre pūgnātum est eaque caedēs hostium fuit, ut
see caption
Rōmānī victōrēs dē cruentō flūmine nōn plūs
aquae biberent quam sanguinis barbarōrum.
Caesa trāduntur hostium ducenta mīlia, capta
45 nōnāgintā. Rēx ipse Teutobochus in proximō
saltū comprehēnsus īnsīgne spectāculum triumphī
fuit: quīppe vir prōcēritātis eximiae
super tropaea ipsa ēminēbat.

Dēlētīs Teutonibus, C. Marius in Cimbrōs sē convertit. Quī
50 cum ex8 aliā parte Ītaliam ingressī Athesim flūmen nōn ponte
nec nāvibus, sed iniectīs9 arborum truncīs, velut aggere,
trāiēcissent, occurrit iīs C. Marius. Cimbrī lēgātōs ad cōnsulem
mīsērunt, agrōs urbēsque sibi et frātribus pōstulantēs,10 Teutonum
enim clādem īgnōrābant. Quaerente11 Mariō quōs illī frātrēs
55 dīcerent, cum Teutonēs nōmināssent, rīdēns Marius “Omittite12
inquit “frātrēs; tenent hī acceptam ā nōbīs terram aeternumque
71 tenēbunt.” Tum lēgātī sē lūdibriō1 habērī sentientēs ultiōnem
Mariō minātī sunt, simul atque Teutonēs advēnissent. “Atquī
adsunt” inquit Marius “nec sānē cīvīle foret vōs frātribus vestrīs
60 nōn salūtātīs discēdere.” Tum vinctōs addūcī iussit Teutonum
ducēs, quī in proeliō captī erant.

Hīs rēbus audītīs, Cimbrī ēgrediuntur castrīs et cum paucīs
suōrum ad vāllum Rōmānum adequitāns Boiorix, Cimbrōrum
dux, Marium ad pūgnam prōvocat et diem pūgnae ā Rōmānōrum
65 imperātōre petit. Proximum dedit cōnsul. Marius cum aciem
ita īnstituisset, ut pulvis2 in oculōs et ōra hostium ferrētur,
incrēdibilī strāge3 prōstrāta4 est illa Cimbrōrum multitūdō: caesa
trāduntur centum octōgintā hominum mīlia. Nec minor cum
uxōribus pūgna quam cum virīs fuit, cum obiectīs undique plaustrīs,
70 dēsuper,5 quasi ē turribus, lanceīs contīsque pūgnārent.
Victae tamen cum missā ad Marium lēgātiōne lībertātem6 nōn
impetrāssent, suffōcātīs ēlīsīsque7 īnfantibus suīs aut mūtuīs8
concidērunt vulneribus aut vinculō ē crīnibus suīs factō ab9
arboribus pependērunt. Canēs quoque dēfendēre, Cimbrīs caesīs,
75 eōrum domōs. Marius prō duōbus triumphīs, quī offerēbantur,
ūnō contentus fuit. Prīmōrēs cīvitātis, quī eī aliquamdiū ut10
novō hominī ad tantōs honōrēs ēvectō11 invīderant, cōnservātam12
ab eō rem pūblicam fatēbantur. In ipsā aciē Marius duās Camertium
cohortēs, mīrā virtūte vim Cimbrōrum sustinentēs13 contrā
80 lēgem14 cīvitāte dōnāverat. Quod quidem factum et vērē et
72 ēgregiē posteā excūsāvit, dīcēns inter armōrum strepitum verba
sē iūris cīvīlis exaudīre nōn potuisse.


Illā tempestāte prīmum Rōmae bellum cīvīle commōtum est.
Causam bellō dedit C. Marius. Cum enim Sulla1 cōnsul
85 contrā Mithridātem,2 rēgem Pontī, missus fuisset, Sulpicius,
tribūnus plēbis, lēgem3 ad populum tulit ut Sullae imperium
abrogārētur, C. Mariō bellum dēcernerētur Mithridāticum. Quā rē
Sulla commōtus cum exercitū ad urbem vēnit, eam armīs occupāvit,
Sulpicium interfēcit, Marium fugāvit. Marius hostēs persequentēs
90 fugiēns aliquamdiū in palūde dēlituit.4 Sed paulō post
repertus extrāctusque, ut erat nūdō corpore caenōque oblitus,5
iniectō in collum lōrō Minturnās raptus et in cūstōdiam coniectus
est. Missus est ad eum occīdendum servus6 pūblicus, nātiōne
Cimber, quem Marius vultūs auctōritāte dēterruit. Cum enim
95 hominem ad sē strictō gladiō venientem vīdisset “Tūne, homō,”
inquit “C. Marium audēbis occīdere?” Quō audītō attonitus ille
ac tremēns abiectō ferrō fūgit, Marium sē nōn posse occīdere
clāmitāns. Marius deinde ab iīs, quī prius eum occīdere voluerant,
ē carcere ēmissus est.

100 Acceptā nāviculā in Āfricam trāiēcit et in agrum Carthāginiēnsem
pervēnit. Ibi cum in locīs sōlitāriīs7 sedēret, vēnit ad eum
līctor Sextiliī praetōris, quī tum Āfricam obtinēbat. Ab hōc,
quem8 numquam laesisset, Marius hūmānitātis tamen9 aliquod
73 officium exspectābat; at līctor dēcēdere eum prōvinciā iussit,
105 nisi in sē animadvertī vellet: torvēque intuentem et vōcem nūllam
ēmittentem Marium rogāvit tandem ecquid renūntiārī praetōrī
vellet? Marius “Abī” inquit, “nūntiā vīdisse tē Gāium
Marium in Carthāginis ruīnīs sedentem.” Duōbus clārissimīs
exemplīs dē incōnstantiā rērum hūmānārum eum admonēbat,
110 cum et urbis māximae excidium et virī clārissimī cāsum ante
oculōs pōneret.

Profectō ad bellum Mithridāticum Sullā, Marius revocātus ā
Cinnā1 in Ītaliam rediit, efferātus magis calamitāte quam domitus.
Cum exercitū Rōmam ingressus eam caedibus et rapīnīs
115 vāstāvit; omnēs adversae factiōnis nōbilēs variīs2 suppliciōrum
generibus adfēcit: quīnque diēs continuōs totidemque noctēs illa
scelerum omnium dūrāvit licentia.3 Hōc tempore admīranda sānē
populī Rōmānī abstinentia fuit. Cum enim Marius occīsōrum
domōs multitūdinī dīripiendās4 obiēcisset, invenīrī potuit nēmō,
120 quī5 cīvīlī6 lūctū praedam peteret5: quae quidem tam misericors
continentia plēbis tacita7 quaedam crūdēlium victōrum vituperātiō
fuit. Tandem Marius, seniō et labōribus cōnfectus, in morbum
incidit et ingentī8 omnium laetitiā vītam fīnīvit. Cūius virī sī
exāminentur cum virtūtibus vitia, haud facile sit dictū9 utrum
125 bellō melior, an pāce perniciōsior fuerit: namque quam rem pūblicam
armātus10 servāvit, eam prīmō togātus10 omnī genere fraudis,
postrēmō armīs hostīliter ēvertit.


Erat Marius dūrior1 ad hūmānitātis2 studia et ingenuārum3
artium contemptor. Cum aedem Honōris dē manubiīs hostium
130 vōvisset, sprētā4 peregrīnōrum marmorum nōbilitāte artificumque
Graecōrum arte, eam vulgārī lapide5 per artificem Rōmānum
cūrāvit aedificandam. Et Graecās litterās dēspiciēbat, quod6
doctōribus suīs parum ad virtūtem prōfuissent. At īdem fortis,
validus, adversus dolōrem cōnfīrmātus. Cum eī varicēs in crūre
135 secārentur, vetuit sē adligārī. Ācrem tamen fuisse dolōris morsum
ipse ostendit: nam medicō, alterum crūs pōstulantī, nōluit
praebēre, quod māiōrem esse remediī quem morbī dolōrem iūdicāret.

Skip to next selection.

68.1 In 157 B.C., near Arpinum in Latium.

68.2 Sc. Āfricānō Minōre.

68.3 = dēposuit: ‘laid aside, completed, served.’

68.4 impigram . . . alacritātem: ‘his energetic eagerness in the direction of (ad),’ etc. = ‘his energy and eagerness to face,’ etc.

68.5 i.e. Scipio.

68.6 Subject of dūcere, l. 11.

68.7 = quī missus erat. Cf. coeptum, l. 15, and p. xxiv, L1.

68.8 crīminātus . . . dūcere: ‘charged him with prolonging.’ crīminārī is treated here as a verb of saying.

68.9 = prōdūcere, ‘prolong.’ Simple verbs not infrequently have the meanings which are more usually borne by some of their compounds. Cf. n. 3 above.

68.10 sī . . . redāctūrum: the words of Marius, reported in indir. disc. Cf. p. xxv, M 4, 7.

68.11 in . . . suffectus: ‘he was appointed to supersede Metellus.’ How literally?

68.12 This fortress lay on the steep, rocky bank of the river Malucha, which separated the dominions of Jugurtha and Bocchus.

68.13 ōrantēs may be explained (1) as = quī pācem ōrābant (cf. n. 7 above); or (2) as expressing purpose, and so = quī pācem ōrārent. In this latter sense, however, the fut. part. active is commonly employed, not the present.

68.14 See next selection.

69.1 The Tullianum: see illustration on p. 16.

69.2 ‘of one smiling.’ Join with modum.

69.3 The Cimbri and Teutones had left their homes in Denmark as early as 113 B.C. Having overrun Gaul, they made their way to the northern slopes of the Alps, defeating three Roman armies on the way (cf. l. 34 below). They did not, however, at once enter Italy, but turned off to Spain, whence they were speedily expelled by the natives.

69.4 For the position of cum, see p. 19, n. 8.

69.5 Sc. petere, or better adipīscī, ‘to secure.’

69.6 Cn. Papirius Carbo, 113; M. Iunius Silanus, 109; Q. Servilius Caepio, 105.

70.1 Sc. sunt.

70.2 Āctum . . . fuisset: ‘it was all up with the Romans had there not been a Marius.’ For erat we should have expected esset, since we have an unreal condition; but the indic., the mood of fact, is used to show that the ruin of the Romans actually was inevitable but for one thing. H 581, 1 (511, 1): M 940: A 308, b: G 597, 2: B 304, 3.

70.3 nisi . . . fuisset: we would say, ‘but for Marius,’ or ‘if it hadn’t been for Marius.’

70.4 in 102, at Aquae Sextiae (now Aix), near Marseilles.

70.5 ‘that ran through (the valley).’

70.6 dat. of possession with erat (to be supplied). On the whole sentence Vallem . . . cōpia, see p. 5, n. 13.

70.7 Virī . . . habētis: a rhetorical, but vigorous way of saying Sī virī (‘true men’) estis, etc., i.e. the getting of water depends wholly on your own courage.

70.8 ‘from a different side’ (from that by which the Teutones had sought to enter Italy). The Cimbri came through the Brenner Pass at the eastern side of the Italian Alps.

70.9 Sc. in flūmen.

70.10 Cf. p. 68, n. 13.

70.11 Quaerente . . . nōmināssent = two temporal clauses: ‘when Marius had asked . . . and they had named.’

70.12 ‘Never mind.’

71.1 sē . . . habērī: ‘that they were being mocked.’ lūdibriō is a dat. of purpose: cf. p. 25, n. 6.

71.2 pulvis . . . ferrētur: cf. XX, lines 7 and 8.

71.3 at the battle of Vercellae (101), near the modern Milan.

71.4 prōsternō.

71.5 ‘from above,’ i.e. from the tops of the wagons.

71.6 Captives were either killed or sold into slavery.

71.7 ēlīdō.

71.8 mūtuīs . . . vulneribus: ‘wounds inflicted by each other.’

71.9 ab . . . pependērunt: ‘hung from trees’ = ‘hanged themselves to trees.’

71.10 ut . . . hominī: ‘as (i.e. because he was) a new man,’ i.e. one whose ancestors had never held any state office. Such a man was not necessarily of plebeian birth.

71.11 ēvectō: ‘when he had been elevated.’ eī . . . ēvectō may also be rendered ‘his elevation.’

71.12 Sc. esse.

71.13 The part. gives the cause of dōnāverat.

71.14 In theory citizenship could be conferred only by action of the comitia tribūta, or assembly in which the people met by tribes.

72.1 See next selection.

72.2 Mithridates the Great waged war thrice with the Romans, 88-84 B.C., 83-81, and 74-66, till finally defeated by Pompey the Great. At the time referred to in the text he had overrun Asia Minor and had entered Greece.

72.3 lēgem . . . tulit: ‘proposed a law before the people,’ i.e. submitted a proposed law to their votes. The proposal was carried. In the civil strife that followed, Sulla led the aristocratic, Marius and Cinna the popular party.

72.4 dēlitēscō.

72.5 oblinō.

72.6 servus pūblicus: i.e. a slave owned by the state. Cf. the phrase ager pūblicus, p. 64, n. 9.

72.7 Carthage had been destroyed by the Romans in 149 B.C.

72.8 quem . . . laesisset (laedō): a causal rel. clause = ‘since he had,’ etc.: H 592 (517): M 839: A 320, e: G 633: B 283, 3.

72.9 tamen looks back to quī . . . obtinēbat, l. 102. The thought is that Marius hoped for some kindly consideration (hūmānitātis aliquod officium) from Sextilius, though his official position would naturally constrain him to be hostile to an outlaw.

73.1 L. Cornelius Cinna, leader with Marius of the popular party and enemy of Sulla. He was consul 86-84, but was killed by his own troops when he ordered them to cross to Greece to fight Sulla, who was preparing to return home at the close of the first Mithridatic War.

73.2 variīs . . . adfēcit: ‘he punished in various ways.’

73.3 ‘lawless reign,’ ‘wild revel.’

73.4 Cf. p. 2, n. 18.

73.5 quī . . . peteret: rel. clause of result: H 591, 1 (503, I): M 838: A 320: G 631: B 283.

73.6 cīvīlī lūctū: ‘at the price of (lit. by means of) grief to his fellow-citizens.’

73.7 tacita . . . fuit: ‘(though) unexpressed was in a sense (quaedam) a criticism,’ etc.

73.8 ingentī . . . laetitiā: ‘to the great joy of every one’; cf. p. 27, n. 3.

73.9 Join with facile, and see p. 19, n. 15.

73.10 armātus = bellō; togātus = pāce. Cf. l. 125. The toga was the regular dress of civilians.

74.1 Erat dūrior ad: ‘He was rather hard as regards,’ i.e. ‘he had no liking for.’

74.2 ‘culture.’

74.3 ingenuārum artium: ‘polite accomplishments.’

74.4 spernō.

74.5 abl. of material: H 470, 1 (415, III): M 610: A 244, d: G 396, and 3.

74.6 quod . . . prōfuissent: ‘because (so he declared) it had been of little service to its teachers in the direction of (attaining) virtue.’ Cf. quod . . . iūdicāret, l. 137, and see p. 14, n. 1.

Text-only version XXIV. Lūcius Cornēlius Sulla
138-78 B.C.

Cornēlius Sulla cum parvulus ā nūtrīce ferrētur, mulier7 obvia
“Salvē” inquit “puer tibi et reī pūblicae tuae fēlīx,” et statim
quaesīta8 quae haec dīxisset, nōn potuit invenīrī.9


Hīc bellō Iugurthīnō10 quaestor Mariī fuit. Quī11 cum12 ūsque
5 ad quaestūrae comitia vītam libīdine, vīnō, lūdicrae13 artis
amōre inquinātam perdūxisset,12 C. Marius cōnsul molestē
tulisse trāditur, quod sibi gravissimum bellum gerentī tam dēlicātus
quaestor sorte14 obvēnisset. Ēiusdem tamen, postquam in
75 Āfricam vēnit, virtūs1 ēnituit. Bellō2 Cimbricō, lēgātus
10 cōnsulis3 bonam operam nāvāvit. Cōnsul ipse deinde factus, pulsō
in exsilium Mariō, adversus Mithridātem4 profectus est. Mithridātēs
enim, Ponticus rēx, vir bellō ācerrimus, virtūte eximius,
odiō in Rōmānōs nōn īnferior Hannibale,5 occupātā Asiā necātīsque
in eā omnibus cīvibus Rōmānīs,6 quōs quidem eādem diē
15 atque hōrā per omnēs cīvitātēs interimī iusserat, Eurōpae quoque
Ītaliaeque imminēre vidēbātur. Ac prīmō Sulla illīus praefectōs
duōbus proeliīs7 in Graeciā prōflīgāvit; dein trānsgressus in
Asiam Mithridātem ipsum fūdit; et oppressisset,8 nisi ad bellum
cīvīle adversus Marium fēstīnāns quālemcumque9 pācem compōnere
20 māluisset.8 Mithridātem tamen pecūniā10 multāvit; Asiā11
aliīsque prōvinciīs,11 quās occupāverat, dēcēdere paternīsque
fīnibus contentum esse coēgit.

Sulla propter mōtūs urbānōs12 cum victōre exercitū Rōmam
properāvit; eōs, quī Mariō favēbant, omnēs superāvit. Nihil
25 autem eā victōriā fuit crūdēlius. Sulla, urbem ingressus et dictātor13
creātus, vel in eōs, quī sē sponte dēdiderant, iussit
animadvertī. Quattuor mīlia dēditōrum inermium cīvium
in Circō interficī iussit. Quis autem illōs potest computāre, quōs
in urbe passim, quisquis14 voluit, occīdit, dōnec admonēret Fūfidius
30 quīdam vīvere aliquōs dēbēre, ut15 essent, quibus15 imperāret.
76 Novō1 et inaudītō exemplō tabulam prōscrīptiōnis2 prōposuit,
quā nōmina eōrum, quī occīdendī essent, continēbantur; cumque
omnium orta esset indīgnātiō, postrīdiē plūra etiam adiēcit nōmina.
Ingēns caesōrum fuit multitūdō. Nec sōlum in3 eōs saevīvit, quī
35 armīs contrā sē dīmicāvissent, sed etiam quiētī animī cīvēs
propter pecūniae māgnitūdinem prōscrīptōrum numerō adiēcit.
Cīvis quīdam innoxius, cuī fundus in agrō Albānō erat, cum
legēns prōscrīptōrum nōmina sē quoque vidēret āscrīptum,
“Vae” inquit “miserō mihi4! mē fundus Albānus persequitur.”
40 Neque5 longē prōgressus ā quōdam, quī eum āgnōverat,
cōnfossus6 est.

Dēpulsīs prōstrātīsque7 inimīcōrum partibus Sulla Fēlīcem8
ēdictō appellāvit, cumque ēius uxor geminōs eōdem tunc partū
ēdidisset, puerum Faustum8 puellamque Faustam8 nōminārī voluit.
45 Sed paucīs annīs post repente contrā omnium exspectātiōnem
dictātūram dēposuit. Dīmissīs līctōribus diū in Forō cum
amīcīs deambulāvit. Stupēbat populus eum prīvātum vidēns,
cūius modo9 tam formīdolōsa fuerat potestās; quodque nōn
minus mīrandum fuit, prīvātō eī nōn sōlum salūs, sed etiam dīgnitās
50 cōnstitit,10 quī cīvēs innumerōs occīderat. Ūnus adulēscēns
fuit, quī11 audēret querī et recēdentem ūsque ad forēs domūs
maledictīs incessere. Atque ille, cūius īram potentissimī virī
māximaeque cīvitātēs nec effugere nec plācāre potuerant, ūnīus
adulēscentulī contumēliās patientī animō tulit, id tantum in12
77 55 līmine iam dīcēns: “Hīc adulēscēns efficiet1 nē quis2 posthāc
tāle imperium dēpōnat.”

Sulla deinde in vīllam profectus rūsticārī et vēnandō3 vītam
agere coepit. Ibi morbō correptus interiit, vir ingentis animī,
cupidus voluptātum, sed glōriae cupidior; lītterīs4 Graecīs atque
60 Latīnīs ērudītus et virōrum lītterātōrum adeō amāns,5 ut
sēdulitātem etiam malī cūiusdam poētae aliquō praemiō dīgnam dūxerit:
nam cum ille epigramma in eum fēcisset eīque subiēcisset,6
Sulla statim praemium eī darī iussit, sed eā lēge,7 nē quid2 posteā
scrīberet. Ante victōriam laudandus,8 in iīs vērō, quae secūta
65 sunt, numquam9 satis vituperandus, urbem enim et Ītaliam cīvīlis
sanguinis flūminibus inundāvit. Nōn sōlum in vīvōs saeviit,
sed nē mortuīs quidem pepercit10: nam Gāī Mariī, cūius, etsī
posteā hostis, aliquandō tamen quaestor fuerat, ērutōs cinerēs in
flūmen prōiēcit. Quā crūdēlitāte rērum praeclārē gestārum glōriam
70 corrūpit.

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74.7 mulier obvia . . . inquit: ‘a woman met them and said.’

74.8 quaesīta . . . dīxisset: ‘though inquiries were made as to who had said this.’ How literally? dīxisset is a subjunctive of indir. question dependent on quaesīta: cf. p. 3, n. 2.

74.9 Cf. VIII, 43.

74.10 Cf. XXIII, 20.

74.11 i.e. Sulla.

74.12 Cf. p. 13, n. 20.

74.13 lūdicrae artis: ‘the sportive art,’ i.e. what we would call ‘the stage,’ or ‘the drama.’ The better classes at Rome looked with disfavor on the theater. Since no free Roman was allowed to appear upon the stage, the actors were slaves or freedmen. The praetor was empowered to flog actors publicly at will.

74.14 After the election of the quaestors their posts were assigned to them by lot.

75.1 ‘ability.’ It was mainly through Sulla’s efforts that Jugurtha was captured.

75.2 Cf. XXIII, 49.

75.3 Q. Lutatius Catulus, colleague of Marius in 101.

75.4 Cf. 72, n. 2.

75.5 abl. of comparison with īnferior: cf. p. 10, n. 18.

75.6 This butchery occurred in 88. The number of victims is variously stated from 80,000 to 150,000.

75.7 At Chaeronea and Orchomenus in Boeotia. Both battles were fought in 86.

75.8 Cf. p. 47, n. 12.

75.9 quālemcumque pācem: ‘peace on any terms.’

75.10 abl. of the penalty: H 456, 3 (410, III): M 584: A 220, b: G 378, R. 3: B 208, 2, b.

75.11 Cf. p. 1, n. 6.

75.12 Cf. XXIII, 113-122.

75.13 Sulla’s dictatorship differed widely from those of former times (1) because his was unlimited in time, whereas the old dictators held office for six months only; (2) his power extended to every department of government, whereas formerly dictators had been created to accomplish some one object.

75.14 quisquis voluit contains the subject of occīdit.

75.15 ut . . . imperāret: ‘that there might be people for him (Sulla) to rule over.’ For quibus . . . imperāret, see p. 5, n. 3.

76.1 Novō . . . prōposuit: ‘He exposed to public view (in the Forum) a proscription list, an unprecedented and unheard of act.’ exemplō: abl. of manner.

76.2 prōscrīptiōnis: Latin often uses a gen. where English employs an adj. or a noun with adj. value.

76.3 in eōs saevīvit: ‘he vented his rage upon those.’

76.4 ethical dat.: H 432 (389, N. 2): M 541: A 235, e: G 351: B 188, 2, b.

76.5 Neque = et nōn, as often at the beginning of clauses.

76.6 cōnfodiō.

76.7 prōsternō.

76.8 These words all = ‘Lucky.’

76.9 ‘just now,’ ‘but a moment before.’

76.10 ‘remained intact.’

76.11 quī audēret is a rel. clause of result = tālis ut audēret. It characterizes or describes the antecedent adulēscēns. See p. 73, n. 5.

76.12 in līmine iam: ‘when he was already at (on) his own threshold,’ i.e. even the brief comment that he deigned to make was not uttered till the last moment.

77.3 vēnandō . . . coepit: cf. I, 21, vēnandō . . . coepērunt, and note.

77.4 Cf. p. 64, n. 2.

77.5 amāns is treated here as an adj., and so construed with the gen. Cf. cupidus voluptātum, l. 59.

77.6 ‘had thrust up from below.’ Sulla was sitting on a tribunal in the Forum.

77.7 Cf. p. 11, n. 9.

77.8 Sc. erat.

77.9 numquam . . . vituperandus (est): ‘can never be blamed enough.’ In negative sentences the gerundive often conveys this idea of possibility. For its other meanings, see p. 39, n. 11.

77.10 parcō.

Text-only version XXV. Lūcius Lūcullus

Lūcius Lūcullus ingeniō, doctrīnā, virtūte fuit īnsīgnis. In
Asiam quaestor profectus ibi per multōs annōs admīrābilī quādam11
laude12 prōvinciae praefuit, deinde absēns factus13 aedīlis,
continuō praetor, inde ad cōnsulātum14 prōmōtus est, quem
5 ita gessit, ut omnēs dīligentiam admīrārentur, ingenium
78 āgnōscerent. Post ad Mithridāticum1 bellum missus ā senātū
nōn modo opīniōnem vīcit2 omnium, sed etiam glōriam superiōrum
ducum. Idque eō3 fuit mīrābilius, quod ab eō laus4 imperātōria
nōn admodum exspectābātur, quī adulēscentiam in forēnsī5 operā,
10 quaestūrae diuturnum tempus in6 Asiae pāce cōnsūmpserat; sed
incrēdibilis quaedam7 ingeniī māgnitūdō nōn dēsīdērāvit ūsūs8
dīsciplīnam. Itaque cum tōtum iter9 et nāvigātiōnem cōnsūmpsisset
partim in percontandō ā perītīs,10 partim in rēbus11 gestīs
legendīs, in Asiam factus12 imperātor vēnit, cum esset Rōmā
15 profectus reī mīlitāris rudis.13

Lūcullus eō bellō māgnās ac memorābilēs rēs gessit; Mithridātem
saepe multīs locīs fūdit; Tigrānem,14 rēgum māximum, in
Armeniā vīcit, ultimamque15 bellō manum magis nōluit impōnere,
quam nōn potuit; sed alioquī per omnia laudābilis16 et bellō paene
20 invictus pecūniae cupīdinī nimium dēditus fuit; quam tamen
ideō expetēbat, ut per lūxuriam effunderet. Itaque postquam
dē Mithridāte triumphāvit,17 abiectā omnium rērum cūrā coepit
dēlicātē ac molliter vīvere ōtiōque et lūxū diffluere: māgnificē et
immēnsō sūmptū vīllās aedificāvit atque ad eōrum ūsum18 mare
79 25 ipsum vexāvit. Nam in quibusdam locīs mōlēs1 marī iniēcit; in
aliīs, suffossīs montibus, mare in terrās indūxit, unde eum haud
īnfacētē Pompēius Xerxem togātum2 vocāre adsuēverat.3

see caption


Habēbat Lūcullus vīllam prōspectū4 et ambulātiōne pulcherrimam.
Quō cum vēnisset Pompēius, id ūnum reprehendit, quod
30 ea habitātiō esset5 quidem aestāte peramoena, sed hieme minus
commoda vidērētur5; cuī Lūcullus “Putāsne” inquit “mē minus
sapere quam hirundinēs, quae adveniente hieme sēdem commūtant?”
Vīllārum māgnificentiae respondēbat epulārum sūmptus.
Cum aliquandō modica eī, utpote6 sōlī, cēna esset posita, coquum
35 graviter obiūrgāvit, eīque excūsantī ac dīcentī sē nōn dēbuisse
lautum parāre convīvium, quod nēmō esset5 ad cēnam invītātus,
80 “Quid ais?” inquit īrātus Lūcullus. “Nesciēbāsne Lūcullum
hodiē cēnātūrum esse apud Lūcullum?”

Laudanda est Lūcullī impēnsa et studium in librīs. Nam et
40 multōs et optimōs conquīsīvit eōsque līberāliter dedit1 ūtendōs.
Patēbat omnibus bibliothēca, et in porticūs eī adiectās velut ad
Mūsārum2 aedem veniēbant māximē Graecī tempusque ibi iūcundē
inter sē trādūcēbant ab aliīs cūrīs līberī. Saepe cum iīs
versābātur Lūcullus et inter māgnam doctōrum virōrum turbam
45 ambulābat.

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77.1 efficiet nē . . . dēpōnat: ‘will prevent any one from resigning.’ For the subjunctive dēpōnat, see p. 9, n. 6.

77.2 The indefinite pronoun quis occurs chiefly after , nisi, , and num. Elsewhere aliquis is used.

77.11 Cf. p. 76, n. 1.

77.12 ‘ability.’

77.13 Sc. est.

77.14 The offices mentioned here formed the cursus honōrum, or official career, through which all desirous of political distinction were required to pass. The aedileship, however, might be omitted.

78.1 Cf. p. 72, n. 2. Lucullus assumed command against Mithridates in 74 B.C.

78.2 ‘surpassed,’ ‘outstripped.’

78.3 causal abl., explained by quod . . . exspectābātur.

78.4 ‘ability.’

78.5 forēnsī operā: ‘legal business,’ i.e. the practice of law. In or near the Forum were the law courts, as well as business places in general.

78.6 in Asiae pāce: ‘in Asia, which was then at peace.’

78.7 quīdam is often used, as here, to soften a phrase which the writer fears may seem exaggerated.

78.8 ūsūs dīsciplīnam: ‘the training of experience.’

78.9 iter et nāvigātiōnem: ‘voyage.’

78.10 ‘experts.’ Sc. reī mīlitāris.

78.11 rēbus gestīs: ‘history’; here, of course, military history especially.

78.12 Cf. our use of the word ‘finished.’

78.13 The statements in lines 9-15 are untrue, since Lucullus had served with distinction under Sulla in the first Mithridatic War.

78.14 King of Armenia, and son-in-law of Mithridates, with whom he had formed alliance.

78.15 ultimam . . . potuit: ‘his failure to put the finishing touches (ultimam manum) to the war was due more to unwillingness than to inability.’ How literally? Here too the biographer shows his prejudice. Lucullus’ failure to end the war was due to the mutiny of his soldiers, who were weary of their incessant exertions, and angry because L. did not permit them to gratify their greed for plunder.

78.16 ‘(though) praiseworthy.’ invictus must be similarly translated.

78.17 Cf. p. 18, n. 7.

78.18 ‘convenience.’

79.1 mōlēs . . . iniēcit: ‘he built huge structures out into the sea.’

79.2 Cf. p. 73, n. 10. Xerxes, king of Persia, made an expedition against Greece in 480 B.C., in the course of which he executed certain important engineering works.

79.3 adsuēscō.

79.4 prōspectū . . . pulcherrimam: ‘with a very beautiful view and promenade.’ prōspectū and ambulātiōne are abl. of specification.

79.5 Why subjunctive?

79.6 utpote sōlī = quod sōlus erat. In phrases like this Latin suffers from the lack of a present part. to sum.

80.1 dedit ūtendōs: i.e. loaned them. For ūtendōs, see p. 2, n. 18.

80.2 The Muses were patrons of literature in its various forms.

Text-only version XXVI. Gnaeus Pompēius Māgnus

see caption

Gnaeus Pompēius,3 stirpis senātōriae, bellō4
cīvīlī sē et patrem cōnsiliō servāvit. Cum enim
Pompēī pater exercituī suō ob avāritiam esset
invīsus, factā in eum cōnspīrātiōne, Terentius
5 quīdam, Gnaeī Pompēī fīliī5 contubernālis, hunc6
occīdendum suscēpit, dum7 aliī tabernāculum
patris incenderent.7 Quae rēs cum iuvenī Pompēiō
cēnantī nūntiāta esset, nihil perīculō mōtus
solitō8 hilarius bibit et cum Terentiō eādem,
10 quā9 anteā, cōmitāte ūsus est. Deinde cubiculum ingressus clam
subdūxit sē tentōriō et fīrmam patrī circumdedit cūstōdiam.
Terentius tum dēstrictō ēnse ad lectum Pompēī accessit multīsque
īctibus strāgula percussit.10 Ortā mox sēditiōne Pompēius sē in
81 media coniēcit āgmina, mīlitēsque tumultuantēs precibus et lacrimīs
15 plācāvit ac ducī reconciliāvit.

Eōdem bellō Pompēius partēs Sullae secūtus ita sē gessit ut ab
eō māximē dīligerētur. Annōs trēs et vīgintī nātus, ut Sullae
auxiliō venīret, paternī exercitūs reliquiās conlēgit, statimque
dux perītus exstitit.1 Māgnus illīus apud mīlitem amor, māgna
20 apud omnēs admīrātiō fuit; nūllus eī2 labor taediō,2 nūlla
dēfatīgātiō molestiae2 erat. Cibī3 vīnīque3 temperāns, somnī parcus4;
inter mīlitēs corpus exercēns cum alacribus saltū,5 cum vēlōcibus
cursū,5 cum validīs luctandō5 certābat. Tum ad Sullam iter
intendit et in eō itinere trēs hostium exercitūs aut fūdit aut sibi
25 adiūnxit. Quem ubi Sulla ad sē accēdere audīvit ēgregiamque
sub sīgnīs iuventūtem āspexit, dēsiliit ex equō Pompēiumque
salūtāvit imperātōrem et posteā eī6 venientī solēbat sellā
adsurgere et caput aperīre et equō dēscendere, quem honōrem nēminī
nisi Pompēiō tribuēbat.

30 Posteā Pompēius in Siciliam profectus est, ut eam ā Carbōne,
Sullae inimīcō, occupātam reciperet. Carbō comprehēnsus et ad
Pompēium ductus est: quem Pompēius, etsi Carbō7 muliebriter
mortem extimēscēns dēmissē et flēbiliter mortem dēprecābātur,
ad supplicium dūcī iussit. Longē moderātior fuit Pompēius ergā
35 Sthenium, Siciliae cūiusdam cīvitātis prīncipem. Cum enim in
eam cīvitātem animadvertere dēcrēvisset, quae8 sibi adversāta
fuisset, inīquē eum factūrum Sthenius exclāmāvit,9 sī ob ūnīus
culpam omnēs pūnīret. Interrogantī Pompēiō quisnam ille ūnus
esset, “Ego” inquit Sthenius “quī cīvēs meōs ad id indūxī.”
82 40 Tam līberā vōce dēlectātus Pompēius omnibus et Stheniō ipsī

Trānsgressus inde in Āfricam Iarbam, Numidiae rēgem, quī
Mariī partibus favēbat, bellō persecūtus intrā diēs quadrāgintā
oppressit et Āfricam subēgit adulēscēns2 quattuor et vīgintī
45 annōrum. Deinde cum litterae eī ā Sullā redditae essent, quibus
exercitū3 dīmissō cum ūnā legiōne successōrem exspectāre
iubēbātur, Pompēius, quamquam aegrē id ferēbat, tamen pāruit et
Rōmam revertit. Revertentī incrēdibilis hominum multitūdō
obviam īvit; Sulla quoque laetus eum excēpit et Māgnī
50 cōgnōmine cōnsalūtāvit. Nihilō minus Pompēiō triumphum petentī
restitit: neque vērō eā rē ā prōpositō dēterritus est Pompēius
aususque4 dīcere plūrēs adōrāre sōlem orientem quam occidentem:
quō dictō innuēbat Sullae potentiam minuī, suam crēscere.
Eā vōce audītā Sulla, cōnfīdentiā adulēscentis perculsus,5
55 “Triumphet! triumphet!” exclāmāvit.

Metellō6 iam senī7 et bellum in Hispāniā sēgnius gerentī
conlēga datus Pompēius adversus Sertōrium variō ēventū dīmicāvit.
Māximum ibi in proeliō quōdam perīculum subiit: cum enim vir
vāstā corporis māgnitūdine impetum in eum fēcisset, Pompēius
60 manum amputāvit; sed multīs8 in eum concurrentibus vulnus in
femore accēpit et ā suīs fugientibus dēsertus in9 hostium potestāte
erat. At praeter spem ēvāsit: barbarī enim equum ēius aurō
phalerīsque eximiīs īnstrūctum cēperant. Dum igitur praedam
inter sē altercantēs10 partiuntur, Pompēius eōrum manūs effūgit.
65 Alterō proeliō cum Metellus Pompēiō labōrantī auxiliō vēnisset,
Sertōrius recēdere coāctus dīxisse fertur: “Nisi anus illa
83 supervēnisset,1 ego hunc puerum verberibus castīgātum Rōmam
dīmīsissem.”1 Metellum anum appellābat, quia is, iam senex,2 ad
mollem et effēminātam vītam dēflexerat. Sertōriō interfectō
70 Pompēius Hispāniam recēpit.

see caption

Cum3 pīrātae illā tempestāte
maria omnia īnfēstārent3 et quāsdam
etiam Ītaliae urbēs dīripuissent,3
ad eōs opprimendōs
75 cum imperiō extraōrdināriō
missus est Pompēius. Nimiae
virī potentiae obsistēbant quīdam
ex optimātibus et imprīmīs Quīntus Catulus. Quī cum in cōntiōne
dīxisset esse quidem4 praeclārum virum Cn. Pompēium, sed4 nōn
80 esse ūnī omnia tribuenda, adiēcissetque: “Sī quid huīc acciderit,
quem in ēius locum substituētis?” summō cōnsēnsū succlāmāvit
ūniversa cōntiō, “Tē, Quīnte Catule.” Tam honōrificō cīvium
tēstimōniō victus Catulus ē cōntiōne discessit. Pompēius,
dispositīs5 per omnēs maris recessūs nāvibus, brevī terrārum orbem
85 illā pēste līberāvit; praedōnēs multīs locīs victōs fūdit; eōsdem
in dēditiōnem acceptōs in urbibus et agrīs procul ā marī
conlocāvit. Nihil hāc victōriā celerius, nam intrā quadrāgēsimum
diem pīrātās tōtō marī expulit.


Cōnfectō bellō pīrāticō, Gnaeus Pompēius contrā Mithridātem
90 profectus in Asiam māgnā celeritāte contendit. Proelium
cum rēge cōnserere cupiēbat, neque6 opportūna dabātur
pūgnandī facultās, quia Mithridātēs interdiū castrīs sē continēbat,
noctū vērō haud tūtum erat congredī cum hoste in locīs īgnōtīs.
Nocte tamen aliquandō cum Pompēius Mithridātem aggressus
95 esset, lūna māgnō fuit Rōmānīs adiūmentō. Quam cum Rōmānī
84 ā1 tergō habērent, umbrae corporum longius prōiectae ad prīmōs
ūsque hostium ōrdinēs pertinēbant, unde dēceptī rēgiī mīlitēs in
umbrās, tamquam in propinquum hostem, tēla mittēbant. Victus
Mithridātēs in Pontum profūgit. Pharnacēs fīlius bellum eī
100 intulit, quī, occīsīs ā patre frātribus, vītae suae ipse timēbat.
Mithridātēs ā fīliō obsessus2 venēnum sūmpsit; quod cum tardius
subīret, quia adversus venēna multīs anteā medicāmentīs corpus
fīrmāverat, ā mīlite Gallō, ā3 quō ut adiuvāret sē petierat,
interfectus est.

105 Tigrānī deinde, Armeniae rēgī, quī Mithridātis partēs secūtus
erat, Pompēius bellum intulit eumque ad dēditiōnem compulit.
see caption
Quī cum prōcubuisset ad genua Pompēī, eum
ērēxit,4 et benīgnīs verbīs recreātum diadēma,
quod abiēcerat, capitī repōnere iussit, aequē5
110 pulchrum esse iūdicāns et vincere rēgēs et
facere. Inde in Iūdaeam profectus Rōmānōrum
prīmus6 Iūdaeōs domuit, Hierosolyma,
caput gentis, cēpit, templumque iūre7
victōriae ingressus est. Rēbus Asiae
115 compositīs, in Italiam versus8 ad urbem9 vēnit, nōn, ut plērīque
timuerant, armātus, sed dīmissō exercitū, et tertium triumphum
bīduō10 dūxit. Īnsīgnis fuit multīs novīs inūsitātīsque ōrnāmentīs
hīc triumphus; sed nihil inlūstrius vīsum, quam quod11 tribus
triumphīs trēs orbis partēs dēvictae causam praebuerant: Pompēius
85 120 enim, quod1 anteā contigerat nēminī, prīmum ex Āfricā,
iterum ex Eurōpā, tertiō ex Asiā triumphāvit, fēlīx opīniōne
hominum futūrus, sī, quem2 glōriae, eundem vītae fīnem habuisset
neque adversam fortūnam esset expertus iam senex.


Posteriōre enim tempore ortā inter Pompēium et Caesarem3
125 gravī dissēnsiōne, quod4 hīc5 superiōrem, ille5 parem ferre
nōn posset, bellum cīvīle exārsit. Caesar īnfēstō6 exercitū
in Ītaliam vēnit. Pompēius, relīctā urbe ac deinde Ītaliā ipsā,
Thessaliam petit et cum eō cōnsulēs senātusque omnis: quem
īnsecūtus Caesar apud Pharsālum aciē fūdit. Victus Pompēius
130 ad Ptolemaeum, Aegyptī rēgem, cuī tūtor ā senātū datus erat,
profūgit, quī Pompēium interficī iussit. Latus Pompēī sub oculīs
uxōris et līberōrum mūcrōne cōnfossum est, caput praecīsum,
truncus in Nīlum coniectus. Deinde caput cum ānulō ad Caesarem
dēlātum est, quī eō vīsō lacrimās nōn continēns illud
135 multīs pretiōsissimīsque odōribus cremandum cūrāvit.

Is fuit Pompēī post trēs cōnsulātūs et totidem triumphōs vītae
exitus. Erant in Pompēiō multae et māgnae virtūtēs ac praecipuē
admīranda frūgālitās. Cum eī aegrōtantī praecēpisset
medicus ut turdum ederet, negārent autem7 servī eam avem
140 ūsquam aestīvō tempore posse reperīrī, nisi apud Lūcullum, quī
turdōs domī sagīnāret, vetuit Pompēius turdum inde petī, medicōque
dīxit: “Ergō,8 nisi Lūcullus perditus dēliciīs esset, nōn vīveret
Pompēius?” Aliam avem, quae parābilis esset, sibi iussit


145 Virīs1 doctīs māgnum honōrem habēbat Pompēius. Ex Syriā
dēcēdēns, cōnfectō bellō Mithridāticō, cum Rhodum vēnisset,
Posīdōnium cupiit audīre2; sed cum audīvisset eum graviter esse
aegrum, quod3 vehementer ēius artūs labōrārent, voluit tamen
nōbilissimum philosophum vīsere. Mōs erat ut, cōnsule4 aedēs
150 aliquās ingressūrō, līctor forēs percuteret,5 admonēns cōnsulem
adesse, at Pompēius forēs Posīdōniī percutī honōris causā vetuit.
Quem ut vīdit et salūtāvit, molestē sē dīxit ferre, quod eum nōn
posset audīre. At ille “Tū vērō” inquit “potes, nec committam
ut dolor corporis efficiat5 ut frūstrā tantus vir ad mē vēnerit.5
155 Itaque cubāns graviter et cōpiōsē dē hōc ipsō disputāvit: nihil
esse6 bonum nisi quod honestum esset, nihil malum dīcī posse,
quod turpe nōn esset. Cum vērō dolōrēs ācriter eum pungerent,
saepe “Nihil agis,” inquit “dolor! quamvīs7 sīs molestus, numquam
tē esse malum cōnfitēbor.”

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80.3 See Vocab., Pompēius.

80.4 The reference is to the war between Marius and Sulla. See selections XXIV and XXV.

80.5 Cf. iuvenī, l. 7. We should say ‘the younger.’ He was at this time but nineteen years of age.

80.6 hunc . . . suscēpit: ‘undertook to kill him.’ How literally? For occīdendum, see p. 2, n. 18.

80.7 dum, though meaning ‘while’ (cf. p. xx, G 2), takes the subjunctive here because of the informal indir. disc. Terenti said: fīlium . . . suscipiam dum aliī incenditis.

80.8 solitō hilarius: ‘with (even) more gaiety than usual.’ solitō is here a noun. Neuter adj. and part. are often so used. For its case, see p. 10, n. 18.

80.9 quā anteā: sc. ūsus erat.

80.10 percutiō.

81.1 ‘proved himself.’

81.2 See p. 25, n. 6.

81.3 objective gen. (p. 14, n. 15) with the part. temperāns, which here = a simple adj. So somnī is obj. gen. with parcus.

81.4 Sc. erat.

81.5 abl. of specification.

81.6 eī venientī: ‘(as a mark of respect) to him when approaching.’ is a dat. of advantage with adsurgere.

81.7 After quem, whose antecedent is Carbō, l. 31, this word might have been omitted without loss of clearness. In fact, such omission is the more usual construction.

81.8 quae . . . fuisset: causal. Note that in forming the pluperfect subjunctive certain writers often use fuisset for esset.

81.9 What were the exact words of Sthenius?

82.1 parcō.

82.2 ‘(being then) a young man.’ Cf. p. 44, n. 12.

82.3 exercitū dīmissō . . . exspectāre = exercitum dīmittere et . . . exspectāre.

82.4 Cf. p. 13, n. 12.

82.5 percellō.

82.6 Quintus Caecilius Metellus, proconsul in Spain 79-76 B.C.

82.7 senī: ‘because he was old.’

82.8 multīs . . . concurrentibus: the abl. abs. here denotes both time and cause; see p. xxiii, K 6. The prefix in concurrentibus conveys the idea of ‘from every side.’

82.9 in . . . erat = ab hostibus captus est.

82.10 altercantēs partiuntur: lit., ‘wrangling they divided’ = ‘they wrangled about the division.’

83.1 Why subjunctive?

83.2though already old.’ The thought is that luxury and effeminacy are especially unbecoming to old age.

83.3 See p. xx, H 2. What is the meaning of the change of tense in dīripuissent?

83.4 Cf. p. 10, n. 10.

83.5 See p. xxiii, K 10.

83.6 neque . . . facultās: ‘but no opportunity,’ etc.

84.1 ā tergō: ‘in the rear.’ See p. 11, n. 10.

84.2 obsideō.

84.3 ā quō . . . petierat: ‘whom he had asked to help him.’ How literally? ut adiuvāret sē is a substantive clause of purpose and object of petierat. See p. 7, n. 20.

84.4 ērigō.

84.5 aequē . . . facere: lit., ‘because he thought it an equally fine thing both to conquer kings and to create them.’ The expression is somewhat careless. We would say: ‘as glorious to create kings as to conquer them.’ aequē pulchrum is predicate, et vincere . . . et facere subject to esse.

84.6 prīmus . . . domuit: cf. p. 38, n. 1.

84.7 iūre victōriae: ‘by right of (i.e. on the strength of) his victory.’

84.8 ‘turning’; lit., ‘having turned himself.’ Cf. n. on cingitur, XIII, l. 29.

84.9 ‘the City,’ i.e. Rome.

84.10 Cf. p. xvii, D 1.

84.11 quod . . . praebuerant: ‘the fact that the conquest of (the) three parts,’ etc. Cf. p. 5, n. 15, and p. xxiv, L 4.

85.1 ‘something which’; its antecedent is the clause prīmum . . . triumphāvit below.

85.2 With quem glōriae, sc. fīnem habuit.

85.3 The famous C. Julius Caesar, for whom see next selection.

85.4 quod . . . posset: ‘because (as men said) the one,’ etc. For the subjunctive, see p. xxi, H 4.

85.5 hīc . . . ille: ‘the one (Caesar) . . . the other (Pompey).’

85.6 īnfēstō exercitū: abl. of accompaniment: H 474, 2, N. 1 (419, III, 1, 1): M 634: A 243, a, N.: G 392, R. 1: B 222, 1.

85.7 autem contrasts negārent with praecēpisset. There is a contrast also between servī and medicus.

85.8 Ergō . . . Pompēius? The force of this sentence can be given only by a free rendering, thus: ‘Shall it be said, then, that Pompey would not be alive, had not Lucullus ruined himself by his luxury?’

86.1 Virīs . . . habēbat: ‘he highly honored learned men.’

86.2 audiō, like our ‘hear,’ is often used of listening to lectures or to teachers.

86.3 quod . . . labōrārent: i.e. because he had the gout.

86.4 cōnsule . . . ingressūrō: ‘whenever the consul,’ etc.; a temporal abl. abs.

86.5 Subjunctive in substantive clauses of result: see p. xix, F 3.

86.6 infinitive, because the clause in which it stands is in apposition to hōc. This use of the infin. is common.

86.7 quamvīs sīs: concessive subjunctive: H 586, II (515, III): M 875: A 313, a: G 606: B 308.

Text-only version XXVII. Gāius Iūlius Caesar

see caption

C. Iūlius Caesar,8 nōbilissimā Iūliōrum genitus
familiā,9 annum agēns sextum et decimum patrem
āmīsit. Cornēliam, Cinnae10 fīliam, dūxit uxōrem;
cūius pater cum esset Sullae inimīcissimus, is11
5 Caesarem voluit compellere ut eam repudiāret;
neque12 id potuit efficere. Quā rē Caesar bonīs
spoliātus cum etiam ad necem quaererētur, mūtātā
veste nocte urbe ēlāpsus13 est et quamquam tunc
87 quārtānae1 morbō labōrābat, prope2 per singulās noctēs latebrās
10 commūtāre cōgēbātur; et comprehēnsus ā Sullae lībērtō, nē3 ad
Sullam perdūcerētur, vix datā4 pecūniā ēvāsit. Postrēmō per
propinquōs et adfīnēs suōs veniam impetrāvit. Satis cōnstat
Sullam, cum dēprecantibus5 amīcissimīs et ōrnātissimīs virīs
aliquamdiū dēnegāsset atque illī pertināciter contenderent,
15 expūgnātum tandem prōclāmāsse, vincerent,6 dummodo scīrent7 eum,
quem incolumem tantō opere cuperent, aliquandō optimātium
partibus, quās sēcum simul dēfendissent, exitiō futūrum; nam
Caesarī multōs Mariōs inesse.

Stīpendia prīma in Asiā fēcit. In expūgnātiōne Mitylēnārum
20 corōnā cīvicā dōnātus est. Mortuō Sullā, Rhodum sēcēdere
statuit, ut per otium Apollōniō Molōnī, tunc clārissimō dīcendī8
magistrō, operam daret. Hūc dum trāicit, ā praedōnibus captus
est mānsitque apud eōs prope quadrāgintā diēs. Per omne autem
illud spatium ita sē gessit, ut pīrātīs pariter terrōrī venerātiōnīque
25 esset. Comitēs interim servōsque ad expediendās pecūniās, quibus
redimerētur, dīmīsit. Vīgintī talenta pīrātae pōstulāverant: ille
quīnquāgintā datūrum sē spopondit. Quibus numerātīs cum
expositus esset in lītore, cōnfēstim Mīlētum, quae urbs proximē9
aberat, properāvit ibique contrāctā classe invectus in eum locum,
30 in quō ipsī praedōnēs erant, partem classis fugāvit, partem mersit,
aliquot nāvēs cēpit pīrātāsque in potestātem redāctōs eō suppliciō,
quod illīs saepe minātus inter iocum erat, adfēcit crucīque


Quaestōrī ūlterior1 Hispānia obvēnit. Quō profectus cum Alpēs
35 trānsīret et ad cōnspectum pauperis cūiusdam vīcī comitēs per
iocum inter sē disputārent num illīc2 etiam esset ambitiōnī locus,
sēriō dīxit Caesar mālle sē ibi prīmum esse, quam Rōmae secundum.
Dominātiōnis avidus3 ā prīmā aetāte rēgnum concupīscēbat
semperque in ōre habēbat hōs Eurīpidis, Graecī poētae, versūs:

40 Nam sī violandum est iūs, rēgnandī grātiā

Violandum est. Aliīs4 rēbus pietātem colās.5

Cumque Gadēs, quod est Hispāniae oppidum, vēnisset, animadversā
apud Herculis templum māgnī Alexandrī imāgine ingemuit
et quasi pertaesus īgnāviam suam, quod nihildum ā sē memorābile
45 āctum esset in eā aetāte, quā iam Alexander orbem terrārum
subēgisset, missiōnem continuō efflāgitāvit ad captandās quam prīmum
māiōrum rērum occāsiōnes in urbe.

Aedīlis praeter comitium ac Forum etiam Capitōlium ōrnāvit
porticibus. Vēnātiōnes autem lūdōsque6 et cum conlēgā M. Bibulō
50 et sēparātim ēdidit: quō7 factum est ut commūnium quoque
impēnsārum sōlus grātiam caperet. Hīs autem rēbus patrimōnium
effūdit tantumque cōnflāvit aes aliēnum, ut ipse dīceret sibi8 opus
esse mīlliēs sēstertium, ut habēret nihil.


Cōnsul deinde creātus cum M. Bibulō, societātem9 cum Gnaeō
55 Pompēiō et Marcō Crassō iūnxit Caesar, nē quid agerētur in
rē pūblicā, quod displicuisset ūllī ex tribus. Deinde lēgem
89 tulit ut ager Campānus plēbī dīvīderētur. Cuī lēgī cum senātus
repūgnāret, rem ad populum dētulit. Bibulus conlēga in Forum
vēnit, ut lēgī obsisteret, sed tanta in eum commōta est sēditiō, ut
60 in caput ēius cophinus stercore plēnus effunderētur fascēsque eī
frangerentur atque adeō ipse armīs Forō expellerētur. Quā rē
cum Bibulus per reliquum annī tempus domō abditus Cūriā abstinēret,
ūnus ex eō tempore Caesar omnia in rē pūblicā ad arbitrium
administrābat, ut nōnnūllī urbānōrum, sī1 quid tēstandī grātiā
65 sīgnārent, per iocum nōn, ut mōs erat, ‘cōnsulibus2 Caesare et
Bibulō’ āctum3 scrīberent, sed ‘Iūliō et Caesare,’ ūnum cōnsulem
nōmine et cōgnōmine prō duōbus appellantēs.

Fūnctus4 cōnsulātū Caesar Galliam prōvinciam accēpit. Gessit
autem novem5 annīs, quibus5 in imperiō fuit, haec ferē: Galliam
70 in prōvinciae fōrmam redēgit; Germānōs, quī trāns Rhēnum
incolunt, prīmus Rōmānōrum ponte fabricātō aggressus māximīs
adfēcit clādibus. Aggressus est Britannōs, īgnōtōs anteā,
superātīsque6 pecūniās et obsidēs imperāvit. Hīc7 cum8 multa
Rōmānōrum mīlitum īnsīgnia nārrantur, tum8 illud9 ēgregium ipsīus
75 Caesaris, quod, nūtante in fugam exercitū, raptō fugientis ē manū
scūtō in prīmam volitāns aciem proelium restituit. Īdem aliō
proeliō legiōnis aquiliferum ineundae fugae causā iam10 conversum
faucibus comprehēnsum11 in contrāriam partem dētrāxit dextramque
90 ad hostem tendēns “Quōrsum tū” inquit “abīs? Illīc sunt,
80 cum quibus dīmicāmus.” Quā adhortātiōne omnium legiōnum
trepidātiōnem corrēxit vincīque parātās vincere docuit.


Interfectō intereā apud Parthōs Crassō et dēfūnctā Iūliā,
Caesaris fīliā, quae, nūpta Pompēiō, generī socerīque concordiam
tenēbat,1 statim aemulātiō ērūpit. Iam prīdem Pompēiō
85 sūspectae2 Caesaris opēs et Caesarī Pompēiāna dīgnitās gravis,
nec hīc3 ferēbat parem, nec ille3 superiōrem. Itaque cum
Caesar in Galliā dētinērētur, et, nē imperfectō bellō discēderet,
pōstulāsset ut sibi licēret, quamvīs absentī,4 alterum cōnsulātum
petere, ā senātū, suādentibus Pompēiō ēiusque amīcīs, negātum eī
90 est. Hanc iniūriam acceptam vindicātūrus5 in Ītaliam rediit et
bellandum6 ratus cum exercitū Rubicōnem flūmen, quī7
prōvinciae ēius fīnis erat, trānsiit. Hōc ad flūmen paulum
cōnstitisse fertur ac reputāns quantum mōlīrētur, conversus ad
proximōs, “Etiamnunc” inquit “regredī possumus; quod sī ponticulum
95 trānsierimus, omnia armīs agenda erunt.” Postrēmō autem
“Iacta ālea estō!” exclāmāns exercitum trāicī iussit plūrimīsque
urbibus occupātīs Brundisium contendit, quō Pompēius cōnsulēsque

Quī cum inde in Ēpīrum trāiēcissent, Caesar, eōs secūtus ā
100 Brundisiō, Dyrrachium inter8 oppositās classēs gravissimā hieme
trānsmīsit; cōpiīsque9 quās subsequī iusserat diūtius cessantibus,
cum ad eās arcessendās frūstrā mīsisset, mīrae audāciae facinus
91 ēdidit. Morae enim impatiēns castrīs noctū ēgreditur, clam
nāviculam cōnscendit, obvolūtō capite, nē āgnōscerētur, et quamquam
105 mare saevā tempestāte intumēscēbat, in altum tamen prōtinus
dīrigī nāvigium iubet et, gubernātōre trepidante, “Quid timēs?”
inquit “Caesarem vehis!” neque prius1 gubernātōrem cēdere
adversae tempestātī passus est, quam1 paene obrutus esset1


110 Deinde Caesar in Ēpīrum profectus Pompēium Pharsālicō
proeliō fūdit, et fugientem persecūtus, ut occīsum cōgnōvit,
Ptolemaeō rēgī, Pompēiī interfectōrī, ā quō sibi quoque
īnsidiās tendī vidēret, bellum intulit; quō victō in Pontum
trānsiit Pharnacemque, Mithridātis fīlium, rebellantem et
115 multiplicī successū2 praeferōcem intrā3 quīntum ab adventū diem,
quattuor, quibus4 in cōnspectum vēnit, hōrīs4 ūnā prōflīgāvit
aciē, mōre fulminis, quod ūnō eōdemque mōmentō vēnit, percussit,
abscessit. Nec vāna dē sē praedicātiō est Caesaris ante
victum hostem esse quam vīsum.5 Ponticō6 posteā triumphō
120 trium verbōrum praetulit titulum: “Vēnī, vīdī, vīcī.” Deinde
Scīpiōnem7 et Iubam, Numidiae rēgem, reliquiās Pompēiānārum
partium in Āfricā refoventēs, dēvīcit.8

Victōrem Āfricānī bellī Gāium Caesarem gravius excēpit Hispāniēnse,
quod Cn. Pompēius, Māgnī9 fīlius, adulēscēns fortissimus,
125 ingēns ac terribile cōnflāverat, undique ad eum auxiliīs10
paternī nōminis māgnitūdinem sequentium11 ex tōtō orbe cōnfluentibus.
92 Sua1 Caesarem in Hispāniam comitāta fortūna est: sed
nūllum umquam atrōcius perīculōsiusque ab eō initum proelium,
adeō ut, plūs2 quam dubiō Mārte, dēscenderet equō cōnsistēnsque
130 ante recēdentem suōrum aciem increpāns fortūnam, quod sē in
eum servāsset exitum, dēnūntiāret mīlitibus vēstīgiō sē nōn
recessūrum; proinde vidērent,3 quem4 et quō locō imperātōrem
dēsertūrī essent. Verēcundiā magis quam virtūte aciēs restitūta est.
Cn. Pompēius victus et interēmptus est. Caesar, omnium victor,
135 regressus in urbem omnibus, quī contrā sē arma tulerant, īgnōvit
et quīnquiēs triumphāvit.

Bellīs cīvīlibus cōnfectīs, conversus iam ad ōrdinandum reī
pūblicae statum fāstōs5 corrēxit annumque ad cursum sōlis
accommodāvit, ut trecentōrum sexāgintā quīnque diērum esset
140 et, intercalāriō5 mēnse sublātō, ūnus diēs quārtō quōque6 annō
intercalārētur. Iūs labōriōsissimē ac sevērissimē dīxit.
Repetundārum7 convictōs etiam ōrdine senātōriō mōvit. Peregrīnārum
mercium portōria īnstituit: lēgem8 praecipuē sūmptuāriam exercuit.
Dē ōrnandā īnstruendāque urbe, item dē tuendō ampliandōque
145 imperiō plūra ac māiōra in diēs dēstinābat: imprīmīs iūs
cīvīle ad certum modum redigere9 atque ex immēnsā lēgum cōpiā
93 optima quaeque et necessāria in paucissimōs cōnferre librōs;
bibliothēcās Graecās et Latīnās, quās1 māximās posset, pūblicāre;
siccāre Pomptīnās palūdēs: viam munīre ā Marī Superō per Apennīnī
150 dorsum ad Tiberim ūsque: Dācōs, quī sē in Pontum effūderant,
coercēre: mox Parthīs bellum īnferre per Armeniam.

Haec et alia agentem et meditantem mors praevēnit. Dictātor
enim in perpetuum creātus agere īnsolentius coepit: senātum ad
sē venientem sedēns excēpit et quendam, ut adsurgeret monentem,
155 īrātō vultū respexit. Cum Antōnius,2 Caesaris in omnibus bellīs
comes et tunc cōnsulātūs conlēga, capitī ēius in sellā aureā sedentis
prō rōstrīs diadēma, īnsīgne rēgium, imposuisset, id ita ab eō
est repulsum, ut nōn offēnsus vidērētur. Quārē coniūrātum in
eum est ā3 sexāgintā amplius virīs, Cassiō et Brūtō ducibus
160 cōnspīrātiōnis, dēcrētumque eum Īdibus Mārtiīs in senātū cōnfodere.

Plūrima indicia futūrī perīculī obtulerant diī immortālēs. Uxor
Calpurnia, territa nocturnō vīsū, ut Īdibus Mārtiīs domī subsisteret
ōrābat et Spūrinna harūspex praedīxerat4 ut proximōs diēs
trīgintā quasi fātālēs cavēret, quōrum ultimus erat Īdūs Mārtiae.
165 Hōc igitur diē Caesar Spūrinnae “Ecquid scīs” inquit “Īdūs
Mārtiās iam vēnisse?” et is “Ecquid scīs illās nōndum praeterīsse?”
Atque cum Caesar eō diē in senātum vēnisset, adsīdentem
cōnspīrātī speciē5 officiī circumstetērunt īlicōque ūnus, quasi
aliquid rogātūrus, propius accessit renuentīque6 ab7 utrōque
170 umerō togam apprehendit. Deinde clāmantem “Ista quidem
vīs est!” Casca, ūnus ē coniūrātīs, adversum8 vulnerat paulum
94 īnfrā iugulum. Caesar Cascae bracchium adreptum graphiō trāiēcit
cōnātusque prōsilīre aliō vulnere tardātus est. Dein ut
March 15,
B.C. 44.
animadvertit undique sē strictīs pugiōnibus petī,1 togā caput
175 obvolvit et ita tribus et vīgintī plāgīs cōnfossus est. Cum
Mārcum Brūtum, quem fīliī locō habēbat in sē inruentem vīdisset,
dīxisse fertur: “Tū quoque, mī fīlī!”

see caption


Illud inter omnēs ferē cōnstitit tālem eī mortem paene ex
sententiā obtigisse.2 Nam et quondam cum apud Xenophōntem
180 lēgisset Cȳrum ultimā valētūdine mandāsse quaedam dē fūnere
suō, āspernātus tam lentum mortis genus subitam sibi celeremque
95 optāverat, et prīdiē quam occīderētur, in sermōne nātō super
cēnam quisnam esset fīnis vītae commodissimus, repentīnum
inopīnātumque praetulerat. Percussōrum autem neque trienniō
185 quisquam amplius supervīxit neque suā1 morte dēfūnctus est.
Damnātī omnēs alius aliō cāsū periērunt, pars naufragiō, pars
proeliō; nōnnūllī sēmet eōdem illō pugiōne, quō Caesarem violāverant,

Quō2 rārior in rēgibus et prīncipibus virīs moderātiō, hōc
190 laudanda magis est. C. Iūlius Caesar victōriā cīvīlī3
clēmentissimē ūsus est; cum enim scrīnia dēprehendisset epistulārum
ad Pompēium missārum ab iīs, quī4 vidēbantur aut in dīversīs
aut in neutrīs fuisse partibus, legere nōluit, sed combūssit, nē5
forte in multōs gravius cōnsulendī locum darent. Cicerō hanc
195 laudem eximiam Caesarī tribuit, quod nihil oblivīscī solēret nisi
iniūriās. Simultātēs omnēs, occāsiōne oblātā, libēns dēposuit.
Ultrō ac prior scrīpsit C. Calvō post fāmōsa ēius adversum sē
epigrammata. Valerium Catullum, cūius6 versiculīs fāmam suam
lacerātam nōn īgnōrābat, adhibuit cēnae. C. Memmiī suffrāgātor
200 in petītiōne cōnsulātūs fuit, etsī asperrimās fuisse ēius in sē
ōrātiōnēs sciēbat.

Fuisse trāditur excelsā statūrā,7 ōre7 paulō8 plēniōre, nigrīs
vegetīsque oculīs,7 capite7 calvō; quam calvitiī dēfōrmitātem,
quod saepe obtrēctātōrum iocīs obnoxia erat, aegrē ferēbat. Ideō
205 ex omnibus dēcrētīs sibi ā senātū populōque honōribus nōn alium
aut recēpit aut ūsūrpāvit libentius quam iūs laureae9 perpetuō
96 gestandae. Vīnī1 parcissimum eum fuisse nē inimīcī quidem
negāvērunt. Verbum Catōnis est ūnum ex omnibus Caesarem
ad ēvertendam rem pūblicam sōbrium accessisse. Armōrum et
210 equitandī perītissimus, labōris ultrā fidem patiēns; in āgmine
nōnnumquam equō, saepius pedibus anteībat, capite dētēctō, seu
sōl, seu imber erat. Longissimās viās incrēdibilī celeritāte
cōnficiēbat, ut2 persaepe nūntiōs dē sē praevenīret: neque eum
morābantur flūmina, quae vel nandō vel innīxus īnflātīs utribus
215 trāiciēbat.

Skip to next selection.

86.8 See Vocab., Iūlius.

86.9 ablative of source.

86.10 Cf. p. 73, n. 1.

86.11 i.e. Sulla.

86.12 neque potuit: ‘but he was not able.’

86.13 ēlābor.

87.1 quārtānae (sc. febris) . . . labōrābat: ‘he was suffering from intermittent fever.’ morbō is abl. of cause.

87.2 prope . . . noctēs: ‘almost every night.’

87.3 nē . . . ēvāsit: ‘he barely, by giving money, escaped being surrendered to Sulla.’ nē . . . perdūcerētur expresses the purpose of datā pecūniā.

87.4 Cf. p. xxiii, K 8.

87.5 = a rel. clause (cf. p. xxiv, L 1): ‘who pleaded (for Caesar)’; lit., ‘who sought to beg him off.’

87.6 For the subjunctive, see p. 63, n. 5. Sulla said: Vincite, dummodo sciātis, etc. Translate prōclāmāsse . . . scīrent thus: ‘cried out (bidding them) have their way, but at the same time to (lit. provided they) realize.’

87.7 See H 587 (513, I): M 920: A 314: G 573: B 310.

87.8 ‘oratory.’

87.9 prope abesse = ‘to be near by,’ is a common idiom.

88.1 See Vocab., Hispānia.

88.2 i.e. even in so insignificant a place.

88.3 = quod avidus erat.

88.4 aliīs rēbus: ‘under other circumstances,’ ‘otherwise.’ For the case, see p. 27, n. 3.

88.5 The subjunctive here = an imperative: see p. 31, n. 9. Note also that colās is an example of the indefinite or universal second person, since the command is addressed, not to any particular individual, but to any one and every one.

88.6 lūdōs ēdidit: ‘he celebrated games.’ On the magnificence of the games which the Aediles gave depended very largely their chance of promotion to the higher offices.

88.7 ‘whereby’; abl. of means.

88.8 sibi . . . sēstertium: with mīlliēs sc. centēna mīlia, and take sēstertium as gen. plural from sēstertius, and dependent on mīlia. Translate: ‘that he needed 100,000,000 sesterces,’ i.e. about $4,000,000. See Vocab., sēstertius.

88.9 societātem . . . iūnxit: this combination is called ‘The First Triumvirate.’

89.1 sī . . . sīgnārent: an instance of the iterative subjunctive (p. 45, n. 2) = ‘whenever they affixed their seals as witnesses.’

89.2 cōnsulibus . . . Bibulō: for this way of dating events, see XIV, 1.

89.3 Sc. esse.

89.4 fūnctus (fungor) = postquam fūnctus est.

89.5 Cf. p. xvii, C 2.

89.6 Sc. eīs, as dat. of indirect object with imperāvit. Caesar’s operations were confined to the southern portion of Great Britain.

89.7 = Hōc tempore, i.e. during this campaign. The language of this whole sentence is somewhat loose. The writer begins as if he were going to say: Hīc, cum . . . nārrantur, tum Caesarem ipsum ēgregium fēcisse nārrant, but changes the construction at tum.

89.8 cum . . . tum: cf. p. 67, n. 7.

89.9 illud is explained by the clause quod . . . restituit. The episode occurred in one of Caesar’s Gallic campaigns, not, as here stated, in Britain. It is related in the second book of Caesar’s Gallic War. Cf. also Longfellow’s Courtship of Miles Standish, II.

89.10 iam conversum = quī iam conversus erat.

89.11 comprehēnsum . . . dētrāxit = comprehendit et . . . dētrāxit.

90.1 ‘preserved.’

90.2 Sc. erant; also erat with gravis. Through the influence of iam prīdem both verbs have the force of Eng. pluperfects: H 535, 1 (469, 2): M 738: A 277, b: G 234: B 260, 4.

90.3 Point out the chiasmus (p. 21, n. 15) in Caesaris . . . superiōrem.

90.4 The law required a candidate to give notice of his candidacy in person at Rome within seventeen days of the election. Caesar desired to stand for the consulship in 49 B.C.

90.5 Cf. p. xviii, E 5.

90.6 bellandum (sc. esse): an impersonal passive: ‘that war was necessary.’

90.7 quī . . . erat: this river also formed the boundary between Italy proper and Cisalpine Gaul; hence by crossing it Caesar put himself in a position of open hostility to the government.

90.8 = per, ‘through the midst of.’

90.9 cōpiīs . . . cēssantibus: causal abl. abs.: ‘when, because his forces . . . tarried too long, he had sent,’ etc.

91.1 Cf. p. xx, G 4.

91.2 abl. both of cause and means. Join with praeferōcem.

91.3 intrā . . . vēnit: ‘within four days of his arrival (and) within four hours after he caught sight of him.’

91.4 See p. xvii, C 2.

91.5 Strictly, we ought to have ante victum esse quam vīsus esset, the subjunctive being due to the indirect discourse. Caesar said: ante victus est quam vīsus (est). The infinitive vīsum (esse) is due to attraction of the neighboring infinitive victum esse.

91.6 Ponticō . . . triumphō: i.e. the procession in which he celebrated his victory in Pontus. triumphō is dat. with praetulit.

91.7 Q. Metellus Pius Scipio, father-in-law of Pompey.

91.8 at Thapsus, 46 B.C.

91.9 Cf. XXVI, 49.

91.10 auxiliīs . . . cōnfluentibus: the abl. abs. denotes both cause and attendant circumstance.

91.11 = eōrum quī sequēbantur. Cf. volentibus, XIII, 97.

92.1 ‘His own,’ i.e. his usual.

92.2 plūs . . . Mārte: ‘since the battle was more than doubtful.’ The battle was fought at Munda, 45 B.C.

92.3 Cf. p. 63, n. 5.

92.4 = quālem. So quō = quālī.

92.5 fāstōs corrēxit: In III, 22, it is stated that Numa divided the year into twelve months according to the course of the moon. This year contained only 355 days. In order, therefore, to make the months coincide with the seasons to which they belong, Numa ordered that every two years an extra month, called a mēnsis intercalāris, should be added. These intercalary months were inserted after February 23d, and contained alternately 22 and 23 days. This arrangement made the average length of the year 366-1/4 days. A further cause of confusion was the fact that the Pontifices, who had charge of the calendar, often, for political reasons, omitted the intercalary month. In Caesar’s time the error amounted to about three months. The calendar arranged by him is almost identical with that in use to-day.

92.6 from quisque: ‘each,’ ‘every.’

92.7 Sc. rērum. rēs repetundae was a technical term for ‘extortion.’ For the gen., see p. 36, n. 8.

92.8 A lēx sumptuāria was a law regulating the sums of money which might be spent for various purposes. Caesar attempted especially to check extravagance in dress and at banquets.

92.9 The infinitives in lines 146-151 are used because the clauses in which they stand are in apposition to plūra ac māiōra, l. 144. See p. 86, n. 5.

93.1 quās . . . pūblicāre: ‘to throw open to the public as large libraries as possible.’

93.2 The celebrated Mark Antony.

93.3 ā . . . virīs: ‘by more than sixty men.’ For the case of virīs, see p. 10, n. 18.

93.4 ‘had warned him,’ not ‘had predicted’: hence it may be construed with a substantive clause of purpose (ut . . . cavēret) as its object.

93.5 speciē officiī: ‘under pretense of doing him honor.’ Cf. per speciem vēnandī, XIX, 60.

93.6 Sc. : dat. of interest.

93.7 ‘by’; cf. p. 11, n. 10.

93.8 adversum (sc. eum) vulnerat: ‘wounds him in front.’ The wound was in the shoulder. For adversum as = an adverbial phrase, cf. p. 4, n. 4.

94.1 ‘assailed.’

94.2 obtingō.

95.1 suā morte: ‘a natural death’; an ablative of manner.

95.2 Quō rārior . . . hōc laudanda magis: ‘The rarer . . . the more praiseworthy.’ Quō and hōc are ablative of the degree of difference (a variety of the ablative of means): cf. p. 39, n. 12.

95.3 i.e. over his fellow-citizens.

95.4 quī . . . partibus: ‘who had apparently belonged,’ etc. How literally? With dīversīs sc. Pompēiō.

95.5 nē . . . darent: ‘that they might not by any chance give occasion to vigorous measures,’ etc.

95.6 cūius . . . īgnōrābat: ‘by whose verses, as he very well knew, his own fair fame had been wounded.’

95.7 ablatives of characteristic.

95.8 paulō plēniōre: ‘somewhat full.’

95.9 Sc. corōnae, and cf. the frequent omission of manus with dextra and sinistra.

96.1 Vīnī parcissimum: cf. Cibī vīnīque temperāns, somnī parcus, XXVI, 21, and note.

96.2 ut . . . praevenīret expresses result, not purpose.

Text-only version XXVIII. Mārcus Tullius Cicerō

see caption

Mārcus Tullius Cicerō, equestrī genere, Arpīnī,
quod est Volscōrum oppidum, nātus est. Ex ēius
avīs3 ūnus verrūcam4 in extrēmō nāsō5 sitam
habuit, ciceris6 grānō similem; inde cōgnōmen
5 Cicerōnis gentī inditum. Suādentibus quibusdam
ut id nōmen mūtāret, “Dabō operam”
inquit “ut istud cōgnōmen nōbilissimōrum
nōminum splendōrem vincat.” Cum ā patre
Rōmam missus, ubi7 celeberrimōrum magistrōrum
10 scholīs interesset, eās artēs dīsceret, quibus aetās puerīlis ad
hūmānitātem8 solet īnfōrmārī, tantō successū tantāque cum
praeceptōrum tum cēterōrum dīscipulōrum admīrātiōne id fēcit, ut,
cum fāma dē Cicerōnis ingeniō et doctrīnā ad aliōs mānāsset,9
nōn paucī, quī ēius videndī et audiendī grātiā scholās adīrent,
15 repertī esse dīcantur.

Cum nūllā rē magis ad summōs in rē pūblicā honōrēs viam
mūnīrī posse intellegeret quam arte dīcendī et ēloquentiā, tōtō
97 animō in ēius studium incubuit,1 in quō quidem ita versātus2 est,
ut nōn sōlum eōs, quī in Forō et iūdiciīs3 causās perōrārent,4
20 studiōsē sectārētur,5 sed prīvātim quoque dīligentissimē sē
exercēret. Prīmum ēloquentiam et lībertātem6 adversus Sullānōs
ostendit. Nam cum Rōscium quendam, parricīdiī accūsātum, ob
Chrȳsogonī, Sullae lībērtī,7 quī in ēius adversāriīs erat, potentiam
nēmō dēfendere audēret, tantā ēloquentiae vī eum dēfendit Cicerō,
25 ut iam tum in arte dīcendī nūllus eī pār esse vidērētur. Ex quō
invidiam veritus8 Athēnās studiōrum grātiā petiit, ubi Antiochum
philosophum studiōsē audīvit. Inde ēloquentiae causā Rhodum
sē contulit, ubi Molōnem, Graecum rhētorem tum disertissimum,9
magistrum habuit. Quī cum Cicerōnem dīcentem audīvisset,
30 flēvisse dīcitur, quod per hunc Graecia ēloquentiae laude

Rōmam reversus quaestor Siciliam habuit. Nūllīus vērō quaestūra
aut grātior aut clārior fuit; cum māgna tum esset annōnae11
difficultās, initiō molestus erat Siculīs, quōs cōgeret frūmenta in
35 urbem mittere; posteā vērō, dīligentiam et iūstitiam et cōmitātem12
ēius expertī,13 māiōrēs quaestōrī suō honōrēs quam ūllī
umquam praetōrī dētulērunt. Ē Siciliā reversus Rōmam in causīs
dīcendīs ita flōruit, ut inter omnēs causārum patrōnōs14 et esset
et habērētur prīnceps.

40 Cōnsul deinde factus L. Sergiī Catilīnae coniūrātiōnem singulārī
virtūte, cōnstantiā, cūrā compressit.15 Catilīnae proavum,16
M. Sergium, incrēdibilī fortitūdine fuisse Plīnius refert. Stīpendia17
is fēcit secundō bellō Pūnicō. Secundō stīpendiō18 dextram
manum perdidit: stīpendiīs18 duōbus ter et vīciēs vulnerātus est:
45 ob id neutrā manū, neutrō pede satis ūtilis, plūrimīsque19 posteā
98 stīpendiīs dēbilis1 mīles erat. Bis ab Hannibale captus, bis2
vinculōrum ēius profugus, vīgintī mēnsibus nūllō3 nōn diē in
catēnīs4 aut compedibus5 cūstōdītus. Sinistrā manū sōlā quater
pūgnāvit, duōbus equīs, īnsidente eō, suffossīs.6 Dextram sibi
50 ferream fēcit eāque religātā7 proeliātus Cremōnam obsidiōne
exēmit, Placentiam tūtātus est, duodēna castra hostium in Galliā
cēpit. Cēterī profectō, Plīnius addit, victōrēs hominum fuēre,
Sergius vīcit etiam fortūnam.

Singulārem hūius virī glōriam foedē dehonestāvit pronepōtis8
55 scelus. Hīc enim reī familiāris, quam profūderat, inopiā
multōrumque scelerum cōnscientiā in furōrem āctus et dominandī
cupiditāte incēnsus indīgnātusque, quod in petītiōne cōnsulātūs
repulsam9 passus esset, coniūrātiōne factā senātum cōnfodere,
cōnsulēs trucīdāre,10 urbem incendere, dīripere aerārium cōnstituerat.
60 Āctum11 erat dē pulcherrimō imperiō, nisi illa coniūrātiō
in12 Cicerōnem et Antōnium cōnsulēs incidisset, quōrum alter13
indūstriā rem patefēcit, alter manū14 oppressit. Cum Cicerō,
habitō senātū, in praesentem reum15 perōrāsset, Catilīna, incendium
suum ruīnā16 sē restinctūrum esse minitāns, Rōmā profūgit
65 et ad exercitum, quem parāverat, proficīscitur, sīgna inlātūrus
urbī. Sed sociī ēius, quī in urbe remānserant, comprehēnsī in
carcere necātī sunt. A. Fulvius, vir senātōriī ōrdinis, fīlium,
iuvenem et ingeniō et fōrmā inter aequālēs nitentem,17 prāvō
cōnsiliō Catilīnae amīcitiam secūtum inque castra ēius ruentem,
70 ex mediō itinere retrāctum suppliciō mortis adfēcit, praefātus18
nōn sē Catilīnae illum adversus patriam, sed patriae adversus
Catilīnam genuisse.19


Neque eō magis ab inceptō Catilīna dēstitit, sed īnfēstīs sīgnīs
Rōmam petēns Antōniī exercitū opprimitur. Quam atrōciter
75 dīmicātum sit exitus docuit: nēmō hostium bellō superfuit;
quem quisque in pūgnandō cēperat locum, eum āmissā animā1
tegēbat. Catilīna longē ā suīs inter hostium cadāvera2 repertus
est: pulcherrimā morte,3 sī prō patriā sīc concidisset! Senātus
populusque Rōmānus Cicerōnem patrem patriae appellāvit. Cicerō
80 ipse in ōrātiōne prō Sullā palam praedicat cōnsilium patriae
servandae fuisse iniectum sibi ā diīs, cum Catilīna coniūrāsset
adversus eam. “Ō diī immortālēs,” inquit “vōs profectō
incendistis tum animum meum cupiditāte cōnservandae patriae. Vōs
āvocāstis mē ā cōgitātiōnibus omnibus cēterīs et convertistis ad
85 salūtem ūnam patriae. Vōs dēnique praetulistis mentī meae
clārissimum lūmen in tenebrīs tantīs errōris et īnscientiae.
Tribuam enim vōbīs, quae sunt vestra. Nec vērō possum tantum
dare ingeniō meō, ut4 dīspexerim sponte meā in tempestāte illā
turbulentissimā reī pūblicae, quid esset optimum factū.”

90 Paucīs post annīs Cicerōnī diem dīxit Clōdius tribūnus plēbis,
quod cīvēs Rōmānōs indictā5 causā necāvisset. Senātus maestus,6
tamquam in pūblicō lūctū, veste7 mūtātā prō eō dēprecābātur.
Cicerō, cum posset armīs salūtem suam dēfendere, māluit urbe
cēdere quam suā causā caedem fierī. Proficīscentem omnēs bonī
95 flentēs prōsecūtī sunt. Dein Clōdius ēdictum prōposuit ut Mārcō
Tulliō8 īgnī et aquā interdīcerētur: illīus domum et vīllās
incendit. Sed vīs illa nōn diuturna fuit, mox enim tōtus ferē populus
Rōmānus ingentī dēsīderiō Cicerōnis reditum flāgitāre coepit et
māximō omnium ōrdinum studiō Cicerō in patriam revocātus est.
100 100 Nihil per tōtam vītam Cicerōnī itinere, quō in patriam rediit,
accidit iūcundius. Obviam1 eī redeuntī ab ūniversīs itum est: domus
ēius pūblicā pecūniā restitūta est.

Gravissimae illā tempestāte inter Caesarem et Pompēium ortae
sunt inimīcitiae, ut rēs2 nisi bellō dīrimī nōn posse vidērētur.
105 Cicerō quidem summō studiō ēnītēbātur3 ut eōs inter sē reconciliāret
et ā bellī cīvīlis calamitātibus dēterrēret, sed cum neutrum
ad pācem ineundam permovēre posset, Pompēium secūtus est.
Sed victō Pompēiō, ā Caesare victōre veniam ultrō accēpit. Quō
interfectō Octāviānum, Caesaris hērēdem, fōvit,4 Antōnium
110 impūgnāvit effēcitque ut ā senātū hostis iūdicārētur.

Sed Antōnius, initā cum Octāviānō societāte,5 Cicerōnem iam
diū sibi inimīcum prōscrīpsit. Quā rē audītā, Cicerō trānsversīs6
itineribus in vīllam, quae ā marī proximē aberat, fūgit indeque
nāvem cōnscendit, in Macedoniam trānsitūrus. Unde aliquotiēns
115 in altum prōvectum cum modo7 ventī adversī rettulissent, modo
ipse iactātiōnem maris patī nōn posset, taedium8 tandem eum
et fugae et vītae cēpit regressusque ad vīllam “Moriar” inquit
“in patriā saepe servātā.” Satis cōnstat, adventantibus percussōribus,
servōs fortiter fidēliterque parātōs fuisse ad dīmicandum,
see caption
120 ipsum dēpōnī lectīcam9 et quiētōs patī, quod
sors inīqua cōgeret, iussisse. Prōminentī10
ex lectīcā et immōtam cervīcem11 praebentī10
caput praecīsum est. Manūs quoque abscissae;
caput relātum est ad Antōnium ēiusque
125 iussū cum dextrā manū in rōstrīs positum.

Quamdiū rēs pūblica Rōmāna per eōs gerēbātur, quibus sē ipsa
commīserat, in eam cūrās cōgitātiōnēsque ferē omnēs suās cōnferēbat
101 Cicerō et plūs1 operae pōnēbat in agendō quam in scrībendō.
Cum autem dominātū ūnīus C. Iūliī Caesaris omnia tenērentur,
130 nōn sē angōribus2 dēdidit nec indīgnīs homine doctō voluptātibus.
Fugiēns cōnspectum Forī urbisque rūra peragrābat abdēbatque
sē, quantum licēbat, et sōlus erat. Nihil agere autem cum
animus nōn posset, exīstimāvit honestissimē molestiās posse
dēpōnī, sī sē ad philosophiam rettulisset, cuī adulēscēns multum
135 temporis tribuerat, et omne studium cūramque convertit ad scrībendum:
atque ut cīvibus etiam ōtiōsus3 aliquid prōdesse4 posset,
ēlabōrāvit ut doctiōrēs fierent et sapientiōrēs, plūraque brevī
tempore, ēversā rē pūblicā, scrīpsit, quam multīs annīs eā stante
scrīpserat. Sīc fācundiae5 et Latīnārum litterārum parēns
140 ēvāsit6 pāruitque virōrum sapientium praeceptō, quī docent nōn
sōlum ex7 malīs ēligere minima oportēre, sed etiam excerpere8 ex
hīs ipsīs, sī quid īnsit bonī.

Multa exstant facētē9 ab eō dicta. Cum Lentulum, generum10
suum, exiguae statūrae hominem, vīdisset longō gladiō accinctum,
145 “Quis” inquit “generum meum ad gladium adligāvit?”—Mātrōna
quaedam iūniōrem sē, quam erat, simulāns dictitābat sē
trīgintā tantum annōs habēre; cuī Cicerō “Vērum est,” inquit
“nam hōc vīgintī annōs audiō.”—Caesar, alterō cōnsule mortuō
diē11 Decembris ūltimā, Canīnium cōnsulem hōrā septimā in
150 reliquam diēī partem renūntiāverat; quem cum plērīque īrent
salūtātum dē mōre, “Fēstīnēmus” inquit Cicerō “priusquam abeat
magistrātū.” Dē eōdem Canīniō scrīpsit Cicerō: “Fuit mīrificā12
vigilantiā Canīnius, quī tōtō suō cōnsulātū somnum nōn

Skip to next selection.

The following selections have been edited for rapid reading or reading at sight:

96.3 ‘ancestors.’

96.4 ‘wart.’

96.5 ‘nose’; cf. nasal.

96.6 ciceris grānō: ‘a tiny chickpea.’

96.7 = ut.

96.8 ‘culture.’

96.9 ‘had spread.’

97.1 ‘applied himself.’

97.2 ‘engaged.’

97.3 ‘courts.’

97.4 ‘pleaded.’

97.5 ‘followed,’ ‘courted’ (cf. sequor).

97.6 ‘independence.’

97.7 ‘freedman.’

97.8 ‘fearing.’

97.9 ‘most eloquent.’

97.10 ‘was being deprived.’

97.11 annōnae difficultās: ‘a lack of corn.’

97.12 ‘courtesy.’

97.13 ‘having had proof of.’

97.14 ‘lawyers.’

97.15 ‘crushed.’

97.16 ‘great-grandfather.’

97.17 Cf. XXVII, 19.

97.18 ‘campaign.’

97.19 que here = ‘but.’

98.1though disabled.’

98.2 bis . . . profugus = bis vincula ēius profūgit.

98.3 nūllō nōn: ‘every.’

98.4 ‘chains.’

98.5 ‘shackles.’

98.6 ‘slain’; lit., ‘stabbed from below.’

98.7 ‘fastened’ (to the stump of his arm).

98.8 ‘great-grandson.’

98.9 ‘defeat’; a technical term of Roman politics.

98.10 ‘butcher.’

98.11 Āctum erat dē: ‘it would have been all up with.’

98.12 in . . . incidisset: ‘happened in the days of.’

98.13 Cicero.

98.14 ‘prowess.’

98.15 ‘culprit.’

98.16 ‘by a general downfall.’

98.17 conspicuous’; lit., ‘shining.’

98.18 ‘having first said.’

98.19 from gīgnō, ‘to beget.’

99.1 ‘life.’

99.2 ‘corpses.’

99.3 Sc. concidisset.

99.4 ut . . . dīspexerim: ‘(as to say) that I should have of my own accord clearly perceived.’

99.5 indictā causā: ‘with their cause unpleaded,’ i.e. without giving them a trial.

99.6 ‘mourning.’

99.7 veste mūtātā: i.e. changing their ordinary attire, which was white, for darker robes of mourning.

99.8 Tulliō . . . interdīcerētur: lit., ‘that a ban should be laid on Tullius in respect of fire and water,’ i.e. that he should be outlawed, and every one forbidden to aid him, even with the necessaries of life.

100.1 Obviam . . . est: ‘all went to meet him.’

100.2 ‘trouble.’

100.3 ‘strove.’

100.4 ‘cherished,’ ‘supported.’

100.5 The reference is to the Second Triumvirate.

100.6 trānsversīs itineribus: i.e. by out of the way paths.

100.7 modo . . . modo: ‘now . . . now.’

100.8 ‘disgust.’

100.9 ‘litter,’ ‘sedan chair.’

100.10 ‘leaning out’; sc. , dat. of disadvantage with praecīsum est.

100.11 ‘neck.’

101.1 plūs . . . scrībendō: ‘he devoted more of his time to practical affairs than to literature.’

101.2 ‘sorrow.’

101.3 etiam ōtiōsus: ‘even though at ease,’ i.e. not burdened with official duties. ōtiōsus here, as often = prīvātus.

101.4 ‘benefit.’

101.5 ‘eloquence.’ Sc. Latīnae, to be derived from Latīnārum.

101.6 ‘became.’

101.7 ex . . . oportēre: we should say, ‘of two evils choose the less.’

101.8 ‘extract’; lit., ‘pluck.’

101.9 ‘wittily.’

101.10 ‘son-in-law.’

101.11 On this day the consuls went out of office.

101.12 ‘wondrous.’

101.13 causal subjunctive.


Text-only version XXIX. Mārcus Brūtus

see caption

M. Brūtus, ex illā gente, quae Rōmā Tarquiniōs
ēiēcerat, oriundus,1 Athēnīs philosophiam,
Rhodī ēloquentiam didicit. Ēius pater, quī Sullae
partibus adversābātur, iussū Pompēī interfectus
5 erat, unde Brūtus cum eō gravēs gesserat2
simultātēs. Bellō tamen cīvīlī Pompēī causam,
quod iūstior vidērētur, secūtus dolōrem suum reī
pūblicae ūtilitātī posthabuit. Victō Pompēiō
Brūtus ā Caesare servātus est et praetor etiam
10 factus. Posteā vērō, cum Caesar superbiā ēlātus senātum
contemnere et rēgnum adfectāre3 coepisset, populus, praesentī statū
haud laetus, vindicem4 lībērtātis requīrēbat. Subscrīpsēre quīdam
L. Brūtī5 statuae: “Utinam6 vīverēs!” Item ipsīus Caesaris
statuae: “Brūtus, quia rēgēs ēiēcit, prīmus cōnsul factus
15 est; hīc, quia cōnsulēs ēiēcit, postrēmō rēx factus est.” Īnscrīptum
quoque est M. Brūtī praetōris tribūnālī: “Dormīs,7 Brūte!”

Cōgnitā populī Rōmānī voluntāte, Brūtus adversus Caesarem
cōnspīrāvit. Prīdiē quam Caesar est occīsus, Porcia, Brūtī uxor,
Catōnis fīlia, cōnsiliī8 cōnscia, ēgressō cubiculum9 Brūtō,
20 cultellum10 tōnsōrium quasi unguium11 resecandōrum causā popōscit
eōque velut forte ēlāpsō sē vulnerāvit. Clāmōre deinde ancillārum12
in cubiculum revocātus obiūrgāre13 eam coepit, quod tōnsōris
praeripuisset officium. Cuī sēcrētō Porcia “Nōn est” inquit
“hōc temerārium14 factum meum, sed in tālī statū nostrō meī
25 ergā tē amōris certissimum indicium. Experīrī enim voluī, sī15
103 tibi prōpositum ex sententiā parum cessisset, quam aequō animō
mē ferrō essem interēmptūra.” Quibus verbīs audītīs Brūtus ad
caelum manūs et oculōs sustulisse dīcitur et exclāmāvisse: “Utinam
dīgnus tālī cōniuge marītus vidērī possem!”

30 Interfectō Caesare, cum Antōnius vestem ēius sanguinolentam1
ostentāns populum velutī furōre quōdam adversus coniūrātōs
īnflammāsset, Brūtus in Macedoniam concessit ibique apud urbem
Philippōs adversus Antōnium et Octāviānum dīmicāvit. Victus
aciē, cum in tumulum2 sē nocte recēpisset, audītā Cassiī morte,
35 nē in hostium manūs venīret, ūnī ex comitibus latus trānsfodiendum
praebuit. Antōnius Brūtī corpus lībertō suō sepeliendum3
trādidit, quōque4 honōrātius cremārētur, inicī eī suum
palūdāmentum5 iussit, iacentem6 nōn hostem, sed cīvem dēpositō
exīstimāns odiō. Cumque interceptum ā lībertō palūdāmentum
40 comperisset, īrā percitus7 prōtinus in eum animadvertit, praefātus:
“Quid? tū īgnōrāstī cūius tibi virī sepultūram commīsissem?”
Nōn eadem fuit Octāviānī ergā Brūtum moderātiō, is
enim āvulsum8 Brūtī caput Rōmam mīsit, ut Gāī Caesaris
statuae subicerētur. Porcia cum victum et interēmptum virum suum
45 cōgnōvisset, quia ferrum nōn dabātur, ārdentēs ōre carbōnes9
hausit, virīlem patris10 exitum mulier11 imitāta novō mortis

Skip to next selection.

102.1 = ortus, nātus.

102.2 simultātēs gerere = ‘to carry on a feud.’

102.3 ‘to aim at.’

102.4 ‘champion.’

102.5 The Brutus of selection IX.

102.6 Utinam vīverēs! ‘O that you were yet alive.’ The subjunctive here expresses a wish or prayer; cf. l. 29.

102.7 ‘you’re fast asleep.’

102.8 cōnsiliī cōnscia: ‘who was aware of,’ etc.

102.9 ‘sleeping-room.’

102.10 cultellum tōnsōrium: ‘a barber’s knife.’

102.11 ‘nails.’

102.12 ‘maids.’

102.13 ‘scold.’

102.14 ‘heedless,’ ‘random.’

102.15 sī . . . cessisset: ‘if your plan did not turn out according to your expectations.’ Join with what follows.

103.1 ‘bloody.’

103.2 ‘hill.’

103.3 sepelīre = ‘to dispose of a body,’ whether by burial or by cremation.

103.4 quōque = ‘and in order that.’

103.5 ‘cloak.’

103.6 ‘the dead man.’

103.7 ‘thoroughly aroused.’

103.8 ‘torn (from the body).’

103.9 ‘coals.’

103.10 See Vocab., Catō.

103.11 ‘woman though she was.’

Text-only version XXX. Octāviānus Caesar Augustus

Octāviānus, Iūliae, Gāī Caesaris sorōris, nepōs, quārtum annum
agēns patrem āmīsit. Ab avunculō adoptātus profectum eum in
Hispāniās12 adversus Gnaeī Pompēī līberōs secūtus est. Deinde
ab eō Apollōniam missus studiīs13 vacāvit. Utque prīmum occīsum
104 5 Caesarem hērēdemque sē comperit, in urbem regressus
hērēditātem adiit, nōmen Caesaris sūmpsit conlēctōque veterānōrum
see caption
exercitū opem Decimō1 Brūtō tulit, quī ab
Antōniō Mutinae obsidēbātur. Cum autem
urbis aditū prohibērētur, ut Brūtum dē omnibus
10 rēbus certiōrem faceret, prīmō lītterās
mīsit plumbeīs2 lāminīs īnscrīptās, quās ad
bracchium3 religātās ūrīnātōrēs4 Scultennam
amnem trānsnantēs5 ad Brūtum dēferēbant.
Quīn et avibus internūntiīs ūtēbātur. Columbīs6
15 enim, quās inclūsās ante famē7 adfēcerat,
epistulās ad collum religābat eāsque ā proximō moenibus locō
ēmittēbat. Illae, lūcis cibīque avidae, altissima aedificiōrum
petentēs excipiēbantur ā Decimō Brūtō, quī eō modō dē omnibus
rēbus certior fīēbat, utique8 postquam dispositō quibusdam locīs
20 cibō columbās illūc dēvolāre īnstituerat.

Bellum Mutinēnse Octāviānus duōbus proeliīs cōnfēcit, quōrum
in alterō nōn ducis modo, sed mīlitis etiam fūnctus est officiō
atque in mediā dīmicātiōne, aquiliferō legiōnis suae graviter
sauciō,9 aquilam umerīs subīsse diūque fertur portāsse. Posteā
25 reconciliātā cum Antōniō grātiā10iūnctīsque cum eō cōpiīs, ut
Gāī Caesaris necem ulcīscerētur, ad urbem hostīliter accessit
mīsitque quī nōmine exercitūs sibi cōnsulātum dēpōscerent.
Cunctante senātū centuriō, prīnceps lēgātiōnis, rēiectō sagulō,11
ostendēns gladiī capulum12 nōn dubitāvit13 in Cūriā dīcere: “Hīc
30 faciet, sī vōs nōn fēceritis.”

Ita cum Octāviānus vīcēsimō aetātis annō cōnsulātum invāsisset,
pācem fēcit cum Antōniō et Lepidō, ita ut triumvirī reī
105 pūblicae cōnstituendae per quīnquennium essent ipse et Lepidus
et Antōnius, et ut suōs quisque inimīcōs prōscrīberent. Quae
35 prōscrīptiō Sullānā longē crūdēlior fuit. Exstant autem ex eā
multa vel extrēmae impietātis vel mīrae fideī āc cōnstantiae
exempla. T. Tōranius, triumvirōrum partēs secūtus, prōscrīptī
patris suī, praetōriī et ōrnātī virī, latebrās, aetātem notāsque1
corporis, quibus āgnōscī posset, centuriōnibus ēdidit, quī eum
40 persecūtī sunt. Alius quīdam cum prōscrīptum sē cōgnōvisset,
ad clientem suum cōnfūgit; sed fīlius ēius per ipsa vēstīgia
patris mīlitibus ductīs occīdendum eum in cōnspectū suō obiēcit.

Cum C. Plōtius Plancus ā triumvirīs prōscrīptus in regiōne
Salernitānā2 latēret, servī ēius, comprehēnsī multumque āc diū
45 tortī,3 negābant sē scīre ubi dominus esset. Nōn sustinuit deinde
Plancus tam fidēlēs tamque bonī exemplī servōs ulterius cruciārī;
sed prōcessit in medium iugulumque gladiīs mīlitum obiēcit.
Senātōris cūiusdam servus cum ad dominum prōscrīptum occīdendum
mīlitēs advēnisse cōgnōsset, commūtātā cum eō veste,
50 permūtātō etiam ānulō, illum postīcō4 clam ēmīsit, sē autem in
cubiculum ad lectulum5 recēpit et ut dominum occīdī passus est.
“Quantī6 virī est” addit Seneca,7 “cum praemia prōditiōnis
ingentia ostendantur, praemium fideī mortem concupīscere!”

Octāviānus deinde M. Brūtum, interfectōrem Caesaris, bellō
55 persecūtus id bellum, quamquam invalidus atque aeger, duplicī
proeliō trānsēgit; quōrum priōre castrīs exūtus8 vix fugā ēvāsit.
Victor acerbissimē sē gessit: in nōbilissimum quemque captīvum
nōn sine verbōrum contumēliā saeviit. Ūnī suppliciter sepultūram
precantī respondisse dīcitur iam istam in volucrum fore
60 potestāte. Aliōs, patrem et fīlium, prō vītā rogantēs sortīrī
fertur iussisse ut alterutrī9 concēderētur, ac cum, patre quia
106 sē obtulerat occīsō, fīlius quoque voluntāriā occubuisset nece,
spectāsse utrumque morientem. Ōrāre veniam vel excūsāre sē
cōnantibus, ūnā vōce occurrēbat1 moriendum esse. Scrībunt
65 quīdam trecentōs ex dēditīciīs2 ēlēctōs ad āram dīvō3 Iūliō
exstrūctam Īdibus Mārtiīs hostiārum4 mōre mactātōs.5

Abaliēnātus posteā est ab Antōniō, quod is, repudiātā Octāviā
sorōre, Cleopatram, Aegyptī rēgīnam, dūxisset uxōrem: quae quidem
mulier cum Antōniō lūxū et dēliciīs6 certābat. Ūnā sē cēnā
70 centiēs7 sēstertium absūmptūram aliquandō dīxerat. Cupiēbat
dīscere Antōnius, sed fierī posse nōn arbitrābātur. Posterō igitur
diē māgnificam8 aliās cēnam, sed cottīdiānam Antōniō apposuit
inrīdentī, quod prōmissō stāre nōn potuisset. At illa īnferrī
mēnsam9 secundam iussit. Ex praeceptō ministrī ūnum tantum
75 vās ante eam posuēre acētī,10 cūius asperitās vīsque margarītās11
resolvit.12 Exspectante igitur Antōniō quidnam esset āctūra,
margarītam, quam auribus gerēbat, dētrāxit et acētō liquefactam
absorbuit. Victum Antōnium omnēs, quī aderant,

80 Octāviānus cum Antōniō apud Actium, quī locus est in Ēpīrō,
nāvālī proeliō dīmicāvit. Victum et fugientem persecūtus Aegyptum
petiit, et Alexandrēam, quō Antōnius cum Cleopatrā cōnfūgerat,
obsēdit. Antōnius in ultimā rērum dēspērātiōne, cum
habitū rēgis in soliō13 rēgālī sēdisset, mortem sibi ipse cōnscīvit.
85 Cleopatra, quam Octāviānus, Alexandrēā in potestātem redāctā,
māgnō opere cupiēbat vīvam comprehendī triumphōque servārī,
aspidem14 sibi adferendam cūrāvit ēiusque morsū periit. Cleopatrae
mortuae commūnem cum Antōniō sepultūram tribuit.


Tandem Octāviānus, hostibus victīs sōlus imperiō potītus,
90 clēmentem sē exhibuit.1 Omnia deinceps in eō plēna mānsuētūdinis2
et hūmānitātis. Multīs īgnōvit vel iīs quī saepe graviter
eum offenderant. Reversus in Ītaliam triumphāns Rōmam
ingressus est. Tum bellīs tōtō orbe compositīs Iānī geminī portās
suā manū clausit, quae bis tantum anteā clausae fuerant, prīmum
95 sub Numā rēge, iterum post prīmum Pūnicum bellum. Tunc
omnēs praeteritōrum malōrum oblīviō cēpit populusque Rōmānus
praesentis ōtiī laetitiā perfruēbātur. Octāviānō māximī honōrēs
ā senātū dēlātī sunt. Ipse Augustus cōgnōminātus et in honōrem
ēius mēnsis Sextīlis3 eōdem nōmine appellātus est, quod illō
100 mēnse bellīs cīvīlibus fīnis esset impositus. Patris patriae
cōgnōmen ūniversī māximō cōnsēnsū dētulērunt eī. Dēferentibus
lacrimāns respondit Augustus hīs verbīs: “Compos4 factus
vōtōrum meōrum, patrēs conscrīptī, quid habeō aliud, quod deōs
immortālēs precer, quam ut hunc cōnsēnsum vestrum ad ultimum
105 vītae fīnem mihi perferre liceat!”

Dictātūram māgnā vī offerente populō dēprecātus est. Dominī
appellātiōnem semper exhorruit eamque sibi tribuī ēdictō vetuit.
Immō5 dē restituendā rē pūblicā nōn semel cōgitāvit, sed
reputāns et sē prīvātum nōn sine perīculō fore, et rem pūblicam
110 plūrium arbitriō commissum6 īrī, summam retinuit potestātem,
id vērō studuit nē quem novī statūs paenitēret. Bene dē iīs
etiam, quōs adversāriōs expertus erat, et sentiēbat et loquēbātur.
Legentem aliquandō ūnum ē nepōtibus invēnit; cumque puer
territus volūmen Cicerōnis, quod manū tenēbat, veste tegeret,
115 Augustus librum cēpit eōque statim redditō, “Hīc vir,” inquit
“fīlī mī, doctus fuit et patriae amāns.”


Pedibus saepe per urbem incēdēbat summāque cōmitāte adeuntēs
excipiēbat. Convēnit1 aliquandō eum veterānus mīles, quī
vocātus in iūs perīclitābātur rogāvitque ut sibi adesset. Statim
120 Augustus ūnum ē comitātū2 suō ēlēgit advocātum, quī lītigātōrem
commendāret. Tum veterānus exclāmāvit: “At nōn ego,
tē perīclitante bellō Actiacō, vicārium3 quaesīvī, sed ipse prō tē
pūgnāvī,” simulque dētēxit cicātrīcēs.4 Ērubuit5 Augustus
atque ipse vēnit in advocātiōnem.

125 Cum post Actiacam victōriam Octāviānus Rōmam reverterētur,
occurrit eī inter grātulantēs opifex6 quīdam corvum7 tenēns,
quem īnstituerat haec dīcere: “Avē,8 Caesar, victor, imperātor!”
Mīrātus Caesar officiōsam avem vīgintī mīlibus nummōrum9 ēmit.
Socius opificis, ad quem nihil ex illā līberālitāte pervēnerat,
130 adfīrmāvit Caesarī habēre illum et alium corvum, quem ut adferre
cōgerētur rogāvit. Adlātus verba, quae didicerat, expressit:
“Avē, Antōnī, victor, imperātor!” Nihil exasperātus Caesar
satis dūxit iubēre illum dīvidere dōnātīvum10 cum contubernālī.
Salūtātus similiter ā psittacō11 emī eum iussit.

135 Exemplum sūtōrem12 pauperem sollicitāvit ut corvum īnstitueret
ad parem salūtātiōnem. Quī impendiō13 exhaustus saepe ad
avem nōn respondentem dīcere solēbat “Opera et impēnsa13
periit14!” Aliquandō tamen corvus coepit dīcere dictam
salūtātiōnem. Hāc audītā, dum trānsit, Augustus respondit: “Satis
140 domī tālium salūtātōrum habeō.” Superfuit corvō memoria, ut
et illa, quibus dominum querentem solēbat audīre, subtexeret15:
“Opera et impēnsa periit.” Ad quod Caesar rīsit emīque avem
iussit, quantī16 nūllam ante ēmerat.

Solēbat Graeculus quīdam dēscendentī ē palātiō Caesarī honōrificum
145 aliquod epigramma porrigere.17 Id cum frūstrā saepe fēcisset
109 et tamen rūrsus eum idem factūrum dūxisset Augustus, breve
suā manū in chartā1 exarāvit2 Graecum epigramma et Graeculō
advenientī obviam mīsit. Ille inter legendum laudāre3 mīrārīque3
tam4 vōce quam4 vultū gestūque. Deinde cum accessisset
150 ad sellam, quā Caesar vehēbātur, dēmissā in pauperem crumēnam5
manū paucōs dēnāriōs6 prōtulit, quōs prīncipī daret, dīxitque
sē plūs datūrum fuisse, sī plūs habuisset. Secūtō omnium
rīsū, dispēnsātōrem7 Caesar vocāvit et satis grandem pecūniae
summam numerārī Graeculō iussit.

155 Augustus ferē nūllī sē invītantī negābat. Exceptus igitur ā
quōdam cēnā satis parcā et paene cottīdiānā, hōc tantum
īnsusurrāvit8: “Nōn putābam mē tibi esse tam familiārem.” Cum
aliquandō apud Pōlliōnem quendam cēnāret frēgissetque ūnus ē
servīs vās crystallinum, rapī eum ad mortem Pōlliō iussit et
160 obicī mūraenīs9 quās ingēns piscīna10 continēbat. Ēvāsit ē manibus
puer et ad pedēs Caesaris cōnfūgit, nihil aliud petītūrus quam
ut aliter perīret nec ēsca11 piscium fieret. Mōtus est novō crūdēlitātis
genere Caesar et illum quidem mittī,12 crystallina autem
omnia cōram sē frangī iussit complērīque piscīnam.

165 Augustus in quādam vīllā aegrōtāns noctēs inquiētās agēbat,
rumpente somnum ēius crēbrō noctuae13 cantū. Quā molestiā cum
līberārī sē vehementer cupere sīgnificāsset, mīles quīdam, aucupiī
perītus, noctuam prehendendam cūrāvit, vīvamque Augustō attulit,
spē ingentis praemiī. Cuī cum Augustus mīlle nummōs14 darī
170 iussisset, ille minus dīgnum praemium exīstimāns dīcere ausus est:
“Mālō ut vīvat,” et avem dīmīsit. Imperātōrī nec ad īrāscendum
causa deerat nec ad ulcīscendum potestās: hanc tamen iniūriam
aequō animō tulit Augustus hominemque impūnītum abīre passus est.


Augustus amīcitiās neque facile admīsit et cōnstantissimē retinuit.
175 Imprīmīs familiārem habuit Maecēnātem, equitem Rōmānum;
quī eā, quā apud prīncipem valēbat, grātiā ita semper ūsus
est, ut prōdesset omnibus, quibus posset, nocēret nēminī. Iūs
aliquandō dīcēbat Augustus et multōs capite damnātūrus vidēbātur.
see caption
Aderat tum Maecēnās, quī per
180 circumstantium turbam perrumpere et
ad tribūnal propius accēdere cōnābātur.
Quod cum frūstrā tentāsset, haec verba
in tabellā scrīpsit: “Surge tandem,
carnifex1!” eamque tabellam ad Augustum
185 prōiēcit. Quā lēctā is statim surrēxit
neque quisquam est morte multātus.

Habitāvit Augustus in aedibus modicīs,
neque laxitāte2 neque cultū3 cōnspicuīs,
ac per annōs amplius quadrāgintā
190 in eōdem cubiculō hieme et aestāte
mānsit. Suppellex4 quoque ēius vix
prīvātae ēlegantiae erat. Rārō veste
aliā ūsus est quam cōnfectā ab uxōre,
sorōre, fīliā neptibusque.5 Item tamen
195 Rōmam, quam prō māiestāte imperiī nōn
satis ōrnātam invēnerat, adeō excoluit, ut iūre glōriārētur
marmoream sē relinquere, quam laterīciam6 accēpisset.

Fōrmā fuit Augustus eximiā et per omnēs aetātis gradūs
venustissimā. Erat tamen omnis lēnōciniī7 neglegēns et in capite
200 cōmendō tam incūriōsus, ut eō ipsō tempore, quō illud tōnsōribus
committeret, aut legeret aliquid aut etiam scrīberet.

Paucīs annīs antequam morerētur, gravissimam in Germāniā
accēpit clādem, tribus legiōnibus cum duce Vārō lēgātīsque et
111 auxiliīs omnibus caesīs. Hāc nūntiātā excubiās1 per urbem
205 indīxit, nē quis tumultus exsisteret, et māgnōs lūdōs Iovī optimō
māximō vōvit, sī rēs pūblica in meliōrem statum vertisset. Adeō
dēnique2 cōnsternātum ferunt, ut, per continuōs mēnsēs barbā
capillōque submissō,3 caput interdum foribus inlīderet, vōciferāns:
“Quīntilī Vāre, legiōnēs redde!” diemque clādis quotannīs
210 maestum habuerit ac lūgubrem.

Tandem adflīctā valētūdine in Campāniam concessit, ubi, remissō
ad ōtium animō, nūllō hilaritātis genere abstinuit. Suprēmō vītae
diē petītō speculō4 capillum sibi cōmī iussit et amīcōs circumstantēs
percontātus ecquid iīs vidērētur mīmum5 vītae commodē
215 trānsēgisse, adiēcit solitam clausulam6: “Ēdite strepitum vōsque
omnēs cum gaudiō applaudite.” Obiit Nōlae sextum et
septuāgēsimum annum agēns.

103.12 See Vocab., Hispānia.

103.13 studiīs vacābat: ‘had time for (i.e. devoted himself to) study.’

104.1 At Caesar’s death he was governor of Cisalpine Gaul. Antony carried a law allotting this province to himself, and then undertook to expel Brutus.

104.2 plumbeīs lāminīs: ‘leaden plates.’

104.3 ‘arm.’

104.4 ‘divers.’

104.5 ‘by swimming across.’

104.6 ‘doves.’

104.7 ‘hunger.’

104.8 ‘especially.’

104.9 ‘(being) wounded.’

104.10 = amīcitiā.

104.11 ‘cloak.’

104.12 ‘hilt.’

104.13 ‘hesitate.’

105.1 ‘marks.’

105.2 ‘of Salernum,’ a town in Campania; the modern Salerno.

105.3 ‘though tortured.’

105.4 ‘by a back door.’

105.5 ‘couch.’

105.6 Quantī . . . est: ‘What marvelous manhood it shows.’

105.7 A philosopher of the first century A.D.

105.8 ‘stripped of.’

105.9 ‘to one or the other,’ i.e. to one, but not to both.

106.1 ‘he met,’ i.e. he answered.

106.2 ‘prisoners of war.’ Cf. dēdere, ‘to surrender.’

106.3 Julius Caesar, like the later emperors, was deified after his death.

106.4 ‘sacrificial victims.’

106.5 ‘slaughtered.’

106.6 ‘pleasure.’

106.7 centiēs (sc. centēna mīlia) sēstertium = ‘ten million sesterces,’ or about four hundred thousand dollars. Cf. p. 88, n. 8.

106.8 māgnificam . . . Antōniō: ‘under other circumstances truly splendid, but to Antony quite commonplace.’

106.9 ‘course.’

106.10 ‘vinegar.’

106.11 ‘pearls.’

106.12 ‘melts,’ ‘dissolves.’

106.13 ‘throne.’

106.14 ‘asp.’

107.1 = ostendit.

107.2 ‘gentleness.’

107.3 ‘the sixth,’ counting from March, with which, it is said, the Roman year originally began.

107.4 Compos . . . meōrum: ‘Now that I have gained my heart’s desire,’ which had been to avenge his uncle’s death.

107.5 ‘Nay.’

107.6 commissum īrī is fut. infin. pass. of committō, and = ‘was sure to be (lit. was going to be) handed over,’ i.e. if he resigned.

108.1 ‘met.’

108.2 ‘retinue.’

108.3 ‘substitute.’

108.4 ‘wounds.’

108.5 ‘blushed.’

108.6 ‘artisan.’

108.7 ‘raven.’

108.8 ‘Hail!’

108.9 = sēstertiōrum.

108.10 = dōnum.

108.11 ‘parrot.’

108.12 ‘cobbler.’

108.13 ‘outlay.’

108.14 ‘have come to naught.’

108.15 ‘added’: lit., ‘wove in.’

108.16 quantī . . . ēmerat: ‘at a higher price than he had paid before.’

108.17 ‘offer.’

109.1 ‘paper.’

109.2 ‘scratched off,’ ‘wrote.’

109.3 Examples of the historical infinitive, so called because it is especially common in historical writing. It is to be translated by an imperfect or perfect indicative.

109.4 = et . . . et.

109.5 ‘purse.’

109.6 ‘francs.’

109.7 ‘steward.’

109.8 ‘whispered.’

109.9 ‘eels.’

109.10 ‘fish-pond.’

109.11 ‘food.’

109.12 ‘freed.’

109.13 ‘night-owl.’

109.14 = sēstertiōs.

110.1 ‘executioner,’ ‘butcher.’

110.2 ‘size.’

110.3 ‘style.’

110.4 ‘furniture.’

110.5 ‘granddaughters.’

110.6 ‘made of brick.’

110.7 ‘finery.’

111.1 excubiās . . . indīxit: ‘ordered watches to be set.’

111.2 Often used like our ‘to cut a long story short,’ ‘in short.’

111.3 barbā . . . submissō: ‘letting his beard grow.’

111.4 ‘mirror’ (of metal, generally bronze or silver).

111.5 ‘comedy.’

111.6 ‘conclusion.’ Latin plays regularly close with an appeal of the actors to the spectators to grant them ‘loud and prolonged applause.’

Roman Eagle: SPQR



Words in round brackets are not to be translated; those in square brackets indicate the Latin rendering. Note the ‘Caution’ on p. xxv. The section numbers refer to the selections.


1. Proca left his kingdom to his older son, Numitor. 2. Romulus and Remus were the sons of Rhea Silvia, a priestess of Vesta. 3. The boys were thrown into the river. 4. A shepherd of the king1 carried them to his hut. 5. Who was the grandfather of these boys? 6. Remus, when grown,2 was caught by (some) robbers.3 7. They thus accused him: “You have trespassed on the king’s lands.” 8. A dispute arose between the brothers. 9. Romulus said: “I shall give my name to the new city.” 10. Which of them leaped over the wall?

1 Use adj.

2 See p. 2, n. 19.

3 H. 468 (415, I); M. 614; A 246; G 401; B 216.

Agreement of adjectives, pronouns, and participles.

1. Robbers and shepherds took refuge in1 the city which Romulus had founded. 2. These were the fathers of the Romans. 3. The envoys that the king sent were nowhere kindly received. 113 4. The tribes to which he sent did not seek an alliance. 5. Many of those who gathered had not seen Rome. 6. The maidens whom they seized were the children of the Sabines, who now undertook war. 7. (While) advancing to battle, the Romans carried (their) shields on (their) left arms. 8. The Sabines killed Hostilius (while he was) fighting very bravely. 9. The Romans fell fighting bravely. 10. They founded a temple in honor2 of Romulus and worshiped him as a god.

1 ad with acc.

2 See p. 8, n. 1.

Expressions of place; extent of time.

1. Who succeeded Romulus? Numa Pompilius. 2. From what city did he come? From Cures, [from] a city of the Sabines. 3. What did he do at Rome? 4. He established many religious customs and had many useful laws passed. 5. A shield once slipped down from the sky. 6. (There) was a smith in Rome1 who made twelve shields of the same shape. 7. The Romans had peace (for) forty-three years. 8. No temple was erected in honor of Numa, but he was of more use to the state than Romulus.

1 Locative case.

Ablative absolute; locatives of common nouns.

1. At the death of Numa [Numa having died] the Romans elected a more warlike king. 2. War1 having broken1 out between the Romans and the Sabines, the dispute was settled by a contest between [of] the Curiatii and the Horatii. 3. The young men took up arms and [arms having been taken up]1 advanced to battle. 4. At a given2 signal,2 with drawn swords, they rushed 114 together. 5. As the two Romans fell [the two Romans falling], the Alban army shouted for joy. 6. The sister of Horatius began to weep when she saw her lover’s cloak. 7. He drew his sword and stabbed the girl who forgot [having forgotten] her brothers and her country. 8. When Tullus learned of the treachery of the Alban general, in anger3 he ordered him to be put to death. 9. Then war was declared against the Sabines.4 10. Very many young men were in military service, a few were at home. 11. Tullus5 Hostilius, who succeeded Numa, liked war [war pleased] rather than peace.

1 See p. 1, n. 4.

2 See p. 5, l. 12.

3 Use participle.

4 H. 429 (386); M. 534; A. 228; G. 347; B. 187, III.

5 H. 426, 1 (385, I); M. 531; A. 227; G. 346; B. 187, II.

Ablative of specification; dative with compounds.

1. Ancus Marcius, the fourth king, was like Numa1 in justice and piety, but was more warlike. 2. During2 his reign2 a raid was made on the Roman territory by the Latins. 3. When the king heard of this [which having been learned], he declared war against them. 4. Having defeated the Latins, he destroyed their towns and transferred the citizens to Rome. 5. Romulus had built a wall around the city, but this wall was larger. 6. Of these four kings of Rome, two were distinguished in war, two in peace.

1 H. 434 (391, I); M. 536; A. 234; G. 359; B. 192, 1.

2 Abl. abs.

Direct and indirect questions.

1. Tarquin came from Etruria, a city of the Etruscans. 2. When Ancus died,2 Tarquin was made guardian of his children. 3. Thus he obtained the throne. 4. (There) was at Rome a celebrated augur. 5. The king once asked him whether he could cut a whetstone with a razor. Can1 you cut a whetstone with a 115 razor? 7. You cannot2 cut a whetstone with a razor, can you? 8. The sons of Ancus asked the shepherds whether they could commit a crime. 9. Can you commit a crime? 10. The shepherds entered3 the palace and3 began to bawl out. 11. One of them killed the king with an axe. 12. Does not this seem to you an atrocious crime?

1 H. 378, 2 (351, 1, N. 1); M. 698; A. 210, a; G. 454; B. 162, c.

2 H. 378 (351, 1, N. 3); M. 701; A. 210, c; G. 456; B. 162, b.

3 See p. 2, n. 8.

Ablative of source; ablative of quality.

1. At the death of Tarquin, Servius Tullius succeeded to the throne. 2. He was born of a woman1 of rank, who, however, was a slave in Tarquin’s house. 3. On the advice of Tanaquil [Tanaquil advising] he was brought up just as the children of the king. 4. He was a young man of great bravery,1 and became the king’s son-in-law. 5. One of Tullius’s daughters was gentle, the other wild. 6. Tarquin’s sons were of like character. 7. The king was slain by order of his own son-in-law. 8. Tullia was a woman of base character and did not love her father. 9. The people asked Tullia what she had done.2

1 Abl. Why?

2 See p. 3, n. 2.

Temporal clauses with cum; ablative of price.

1. The city of Gabii could not be captured by Tarquin. 2. When Sextus had been chosen general, he sent a messenger to his father. 3. When he learned of the silence1 and act of his father, he killed the chief men of the state. 4. When each of the young men praised his own wife, it was decided to find out who was the best. 5. When Lucretia had summoned her husband1 and father,1 she killed herself with a knife. 6. An old woman once asked Tarquin whether he wished to buy some books at an enormous 116 price. 7. At first Tarquin ridiculed her, but, after she had burned six books, he bought the remaining three at the same price.

1 Abl. abs.

Causal clauses with cum; purpose clauses with ut.

1. Since his brother had been killed, Brutus feared the same fate, for he was a young man of great sagacity. 2. He set out for Delphi with Tarquin’s sons. 3. When they had consulted the oracle, they returned to Rome. 4. The Romans chose Brutus and Collatinus, the son of the sister of Tarquin the Elder, consuls. 5. As the sons of Brutus were traitors, they were put to death. 6. In order to regain1 his throne, Tarquin undertook war. 7. Brutus, who had gone ahead with the cavalry to2 reconnoitre,2 met the enemy. 8. Brutus and Aruns fell in the first charge. 9. Since one consul had been slain, the other returned to the city alone.

1 See p. 1, l. 3 and n. 5.

2 Express in two ways; cf. l. 30, and ageret, l. 26.

Causal clauses with quod.

1. Mucius received permission to go over [of going over] to the enemy, because (as he said) he wished to kill the king. 2. Because he did not know which was1 the king, he killed the clerk. 3. To punish the hand which had committed the crime, he placed it on a lighted altar. 4. After this he was called Scaevola.

1 See p. 3, n. 2.

Dative of possessor; construction with paenitet.

1. The Veientes harassed the Romans with repeated raids. 2. The Fabian gens proposed [had in mind] to carry on the war 117 at its own expense. 3. The senate thanked the consul because he had provided for this war. 4. When they arrived at the river Cremera, they established a fortified post and repeatedly routed the enemy. 5. The Veientes soon repented of the peace they had secured and renewed the war. 6. The Fabians roamed about in order to lay waste the enemy’s territory. 7. They were entrapped in an ambush and all slain.

Relative clauses of purpose.

1. I intend to write about the crime of Appius Claudius, the Decemvir. 2. He fell in love with a beautiful girl, and, when he found that he could not entice her with money, he claimed her as a slave [for slavery]. 3. He sent one of his clients to the market place to carry1 her off by force. 4. The girl’s friends sent a messenger to carry the news1 to her father Virginius, who was then away on military duty. 5. Virginius immediately returned to Rome and sought the aid of the people. 6. When he saw that there was no aid anywhere, he seized a knife and killed his daughter. 7. Appius then repented of his crime.

1 See p. 5, n. 3.

Complementary infinitive; genitive with oblivīscor;
hortatory subjunctive.

1. The tribune of the plebs appointed a day for (the trial of) Manlius, because with great severity he had banished his son to the country. 2. When his son Titus heard of this design of the tribune, he hastened to Rome and forced him to abandon the charge. 3. Such [this] filial devotion reflected great credit on the young man, and his father repented of his harshness. 4. Afterwards, when the Gauls were carrying on war with the 118 Romans, a Gaul of enormous size wanted to fight with the bravest Roman. 5. “Let him come on,” said Titus Manlius, who was now tribune of the soldiers, “that I may show him which of us is the braver.” 6. Between the two lines they joined1 in close1 combat,1 and with a stroke or two of his Spanish sword he thrust through his gigantic foe. 7. Having stripped a necklace from the Gaul, he was afterwards called Torquatus. 8. The son of this same Torquatus, without the consent of the consul, his father, met and conquered a Latin in a single combat. 9. When he returned to camp, his father ordered him to be put to death because he had disobeyed2 his commander. 10. The young man’s companions did not forget the father’s cruelty. 11. Cornelius Piso was also a man of great sternness. 12. He once ordered a soldier to be put to death on the charge of murdering a comrade. 13. The comrade had not been murdered and soon appeared in camp. 14. When they returned to Piso with great rejoicing, he angrily ordered both the comrades and the centurion who had been placed in charge of the execution to be put to death. 15. Another Manlius was guilty of [showed] like cruelty toward his son. 16. The Macedonians sent ambassadors to complain3 about his son Silanus. 17. Manlius wanted to try the case himself, and this was granted by the senate. 18. After he had heard both sides of the case, he forbade his son to return to his home. 19. The next day4 the young man committed5 suicide.5

1 See p. 11, l. 14.

2 The reason is that of the father, not the writer.

3 Cf. conquestum, l. 82, with quī dēpōsceret, XII, l. 7, and express in two ways.

4 H. 486 (429); M. 630; A. 256; G. 393; B. 230.

5 See XII, l. 30.

Construction of medius, summus, etc.

1. The consul sent Publius Decius to get possession of the summit of a hill. 2. When the consul had escaped, he led his army 119 in safety through the midst of [middle] enemies. 3. In the Latin war he sacrificed himself in order to save his army. 4. Let us never forget this brave man.

Indirect quotation of simple sentences; ablative with opus.

1. “The Samnites are our enemies,” said Curius; “let us set out against them.” 2. Immediately he set out, and, having1 conquered1 the Samnites,1 he took a large amount of land and many captives [men]. 3. He swore (that there) was2 none [nothing] of the booty in his house. 4. Cicero says (that) the Samnites brought [to have brought] a great weight of gold to Curius. 5. Curius scorned1 their gold1 (and) said that he could not be bribed. 6. He told the senate that he was contented with seven jugera of land. 7. He afterwards sold into slavery a young man who refused to serve in the army [military service]. 8. The young man saw that the tribunes could not help him [not to be able to be for an aid to him]. 9. After he had destroyed the army of Pyrrhus, he returned to Rome in triumph [triumphing]. 10. It is said that Pyrrhus was slain by a woman of Argos.3 11. So the Romans4 did not need the aid5 of Curius again.

1 Abl. abs.

2 See p. 7, n. 16.

3 Use adj.

4 Dat. of poss.

5 Cf. cīve, l. 22.

with verbs of fearing; ablative with ūtor.

1. It is said that Duilius was the first to conquer the Carthaginians in a naval battle. 2. He used grappling1 irons1 to seize and hold the enemy’s ships. 3. He saw that with this useful contrivance the Romans would have an easy victory [victory to 120 be about to be easy to the Romans]. 4. He now set2 out boldly into the midst3 of the enemy’s fleet, and captured many of their ships. 5. The Romans were pleased with this victory. 6. The Carthaginians feared that the Romans would now be supreme on land and sea. 7. Hannibal, the leader of the Carthaginians, by a shrewd trick escaped punishment for losing his fleet.

1 Cf. quō, p. 36, l. 4 and n. 10.

2 Use participle.

3 See Ex. XIV, sentence 2.

Gerundive with esse; ablative of separation; ablative with comparatives.

1. After the Carthaginians had been defeated by Regulus, Hanno came to negotiate1 [about] peace. 2. The Roman soldiers saw that2 he had come2 treacherously and was not in earnest in his negotiations [did not negotiate seriously]. 3. Hanno was afraid that3 he would be arrested and put in chains. 4. Regulus relieved him of his fear4 and told him that the Romans did not wish to retaliate. 5. In Africa, Regulus5 had6 to fight not only with men, but also with an enormous serpent. 6. As its scales could not be pierced by javelins, Regulus was compelled to use the artillery. 7. In this way the monster was crushed. 8. When Regulus learned that the senate had extended his command to the next year, he asked that his successor should be sent at once.7 9. He said that he had lost his slave and farming implements and that his wife and children had no means of support [he had nothing whence his wife and children should be supported]. 10. The senate relieved him of this anxiety. 11. After he had defeated the Carthaginians in many battles, Regulus himself was defeated and captured. 12. It is said that he was sent from Carthage 121 to Rome to negotiate an exchange of [about exchanging] prisoners. 13. When the senate ordered him to state his opinion, he said that the Carthaginian captives ought not to be returned. 14. He thought that they were better generals than the Romans.8 15. As9 he had given9 his oath,9 he returned to Carthage and was put to death with terrible torture.

1 Several forms of expressing purpose have been used in the text. Express this in as many ways as you can.

2 See p. 7, n. 16.

3 See p. 38, n. 12.

4 Abl. Why?

5 H. 431 (388); M. 544; A. 232; G. 355; B. 189, 1.

6 See p. 39, n. 11.

7 statim.

8 See Āfrīs, l. 10, and note.

9 Abl. abs.

Ablative of time.

1. Appius Claudius was no1 better than the preceding generals, who did not boast that they would sink the enemy’s fleet (on) the first day2 of the war. 2. The chicken-keeper informed him that the chickens would not [to be unwilling to] eat. 3. “Let3 them drink then,” said Appius, and ordered them to be plunged into the sea. 4. That very [self] day he was defeated, and many thousands of the Romans slain. 5. He afterwards committed suicide, for he knew that he would be put to death by the people. 6. Upon his sister, too, a heavy fine had4 to be imposed.

1 See XVII, l. 10, and note.

2 Cf. Ex. XIII, sent. 19.

3 Cf. Ex. XIII, sent. 5.

4 Cf. Ex. XVII, sent. 5.

Purpose clauses with quō; ablative with potior; unreal conditions;
quīn clauses; ablative with dīgnus.

1. It is said that Hannibal, when a boy of nine years, took an oath of undying hatred toward the Romans. 2. On the death of his father, he stirred up war by capturing Saguntum [Saguntum captured]. 3. Fabius said that he carried peace and war in his toga. 4. “Give which you please,” replied the Carthaginians. 5. “I give war,” said Fabius. [“War,” said Fabius, “I give.”] 122 6. After three Roman consuls had been defeated by Hannibal, Fabius was sent against him. 7. Changing1 the policy1 of the war, he held his soldiers in camp, and did not come to an engagement with the enemy. 8. When, on account of some trifling successes, his soldiers had begun to have more confidence in their valor and fortune, he blockaded Hannibal in a narrow pass. 9. Fabius thought that he could not escape. 10. But Hannibal knew how2 cautious Fabius was,3 and got out (of the trap) without any loss. 11. Minucius,4 the master of horse, did not like the policy of Fabius. 12. He made charges against the dictator in order to obtain greater authority5 himself. 13. When he had joined battle, he had to be rescued from his peril by Fabius. 14. Minucius now confessed that the policy of Fabius was better than his own. 15. They say that some young men of rank betrayed Tarentum to Hannibal. 16. In the middle of the night the gates were opened and the young men entered, followed by Hannibal [Hannibal following] with his army. 17. Fabius recaptured Tarentum the same6 year6 it was lost. 18. If he had not used cunning he would not have recaptured it. 19. When an old man, Fabius, at the command of a lictor, dismounted from a horse which he was riding out of respect for the rank of his son, then consul. 20. “If you were not consul,” said he, “I should not dismount.” 21. No one doubts that Fabius was worthy of the name Maximus. 22. At that time the Romans needed7 a cautious general.

1 Abl. abs.

2 quam.

3 See p. 3, n. 2.

4 Cf. l. 43.

5 Cf. Tarentō, l. 58, and note.

6 See l. 88, and Ex. XVIII, n. 4.

7 See Ex. XV, sent. 11.

Subjunctive of result; dative with special verbs; partitive genitive.

1. Varro was so rash that,1 although he was opposed by his colleague, he formed1 his army in line and gave1 the signal for 123 battle. 2. In the midst of the carnage a certain military tribune urged2 Paulus to take2 his horse and flee.2 3. But Paulus said that he preferred to perish with his soldiers. 4. When the Carthaginians heard of Hannibal’s victory, they sent messengers to congratulate him.3 5. Maharbal4 did not like4 the advice of the others. 6. He said that Hannibal knew (how) to conquer, but did not know (how) to make use of a victory. 7. Hannibal permitted his army to enjoy the luxuries of Campania. 8. The terror at Rome was so great that they did not delay an instant. 9. No one doubted that5 Hannibal would come5 with his victorious army. 10. If he had advanced at once to Rome, the city would have been captured. 11. Though Varro survived the battle,6 he thought that he was not worthy of office7 again. 12. As the soldiers did not have enough weapons,8 they took down from the temples the ancient spoils of the enemy. 13. One of the ambassadors,9 whom Hannibal had sent to Rome to offer an opportunity of ransoming the captives, did not return. 14. The senate decided that he must be led back to Hannibal in chains [bound]. 15. Rome has no need of citizens who can be captured when armed.

1 See p. 10, n. 9.

2 Cf. lines 26 and 27.

3 H. 426, 2 (385, II); M. 531; A. 227; G. 346; B. 187, II, a.

4 Cf. Ex. XIX, sent. 11.

5 See p. 39, n. 4.

6 See p. 2, n. 7.

7 See Ex. XIX, sent. 21.

8 H. 440, 5 (397); M. 564; A. 216; G. 367; B. 201.

9 Cf. with n. 7 ūnus ex ēius praefectīs, l. 27.

Concessive clauses with cum; genitive of characteristic; causal relative clauses;
gerundive with ad; accusative of extent.

1. Scipio would have been slain in the battle at the river Ticinus, if his son Publius had not rescued him. 2. When Publius Scipio was not yet twenty years old, he thought that he was old enough [had enough of years] to be a candidate for1 the aedileship. 3. After the battle of Cannae, some young men 124 of rank began to form plans for abandoning Italy. 4. Scipio hastened to their meeting-place, and, although2 he was alone, he forced them to give3 up their conspiracy.3 5. After the Romans had suffered two defeats in Spain, Scipio was chosen proconsul and sent thither. 6. Here he prosecuted the war with such wisdom and bravery that he earned the approval of all. 7. Do you not think that he was worthy of the honor? 8. He gained possession of a large amount of money and arms, but let the Spanish captives go without ransom. 9. He did not doubt that in this way he would secure for the Romans the favor of the Spanish [conciliate the Spanish to the Romans]. 10. Among the captive Africans he found a boy of remarkable beauty,4 who said that his grandfather was the king of Numidia, and that he had crossed over into Spain with his uncle Masinissa to carry on war with the Romans. 11. Scipio freed the boy, and thus won the favor of the Numidian king. 12. When the Spaniards wanted to call Scipio king, he asked them to refrain from that title. 13. After Hannibal had been driven from Spain, Scipio, who had5 long been planning to transfer the war to Africa, sent Laelius, whose6 friendship he did not mistrust, to win over some of the African chiefs. 14. Afterwards he crossed over to Africa himself, and it is said that he met Hannibal [to him a meeting with Hannibal to have been] at the court of Syphax. 15. It happened that many of those chiefs were eager to form an alliance with Scipio. 16. His plan, therefore, was easily carried out. 17. Although the young men of Sicily shrank from so great a war themselves, still they were willing to furnish horses and arms. 18. Although they were wealthy, they were not (men) of great bravery. 19. In Africa the Romans fought with such determination that in a short time the Carthaginians recalled 125 Hannibal from Italy to defend his country. 20. A battle was fought [it was fought] at Zama, a town five days’ march from Carthage. 21. The Carthaginians were defeated, and forced to send ambassadors to sue for peace. 22. As peace was now secured, Scipio returned to Italy. 23. On7 his arrival in Rome a vast multitude poured forth to meet him. 24. Scipio was not only the most illustrious general of his age, but he was also a man distinguished for [of distinguished] piety.8 25. The old writers say that he used to visit [resort to] the capitol every day, to consult with Jupiter about the public interests. 26. At Ephesus he9 afterwards had a conversation with Hannibal. 27. It is reported that Hannibal acknowledged that Scipio was the greatest of all commanders. 28. When the senate seemed on the point10 of transferring the conduct of the war against Antiochus from Lucius Scipio to Laelius, because (as was thought) the former11 had too little courage and too little wisdom for such a war, Africanus promised to be himself his brother’s lieutenant. 29. Scipio could endure no dishonor to his family. 30. After Antiochus had been defeated, when the senate demanded from Lucius Scipio an accounting of the spoils, Africanus prevented it. 31. He said that he had been of [for] so great aid to his country that his integrity ought not to be doubted. 32. It happened that Africanus himself was afterwards summoned for trial by the tribunes on the very day on which the battle of Zama had been fought.12 33. When ordered to plead his cause, he mounted the rostrum and said: “Let us offer thanks to Jupiter, by whose aid we obtained13 so great a victory.” 34. As the whole assembly followed him he was relieved from the insults of the tribunes. 35. Soon afterward Scipio retired to the country and never returned to Rome.

1 Use ad with gerundive or gerund.

2 H. 598 (515, III); M. 863; A. 326; G. 587; B. 309, 3.

3 Cf. inceptō dēsisterent, l. 14.

4 Cf. lines 51 and 64.

5 See p. 56, n. 6.

6 See p. 55, n. 8.

7 See XIII, l. 59.

8 religiō.

9 Use dat. of poss. with esse.

10 Use future participle.

11 ille.

12 See sent. 20, and p. 56, n. 4.

13 See p. 55, n. 8.

Future conditions.

1. Cornelia, the mother of the Gracchi, was the daughter of Scipio Africanus. 2. She had been educated with such care herself that she was able to train her sons wisely. 3. She told a Campanian woman, who was a guest at her house, that she1 too had some very beautiful jewels. 4. Everybody knows that Cornelia’s jewels were her sons. 5. She has justly been considered one of the wisest women of that age. 6. Though her sons were most worthy of their excellent mother, yet the nobles thought that they were disturbing the republic. 7. Both of the Gracchi thought more of [preferred] their country’s safety than [to] their own lives. 8. Tiberius tried to protect the common people, but the senate thought that he was preparing for himself a way to regal power. 9. So Nasica urged2 all loyal citizens to follow him. 10. When Gracchus saw that the senators were rushing upon him he fled, but was killed by a broken piece of a bench. 11. Caius had the same3 love for the common people as3 his brother. 12. All loyal citizens said that they opposed his plans because they wanted the republic to be safe. 13. “If the law about distributing grain to the common people is4 passed,” said Piso, “I shall come with the others to get the grain.” 14. Finally this was decreed by the senate: “Let the consul see that the republic receive no harm.” 15. Some say that Gracchus armed his household and took possession of the Aventine. 16. When he was put to flight he ordered his slave to kill him that he might not be arrested. 17. Such was the fate of the Gracchi, the jewels of Cornelia, the best sons of the Roman republic.

1 Use dat. of poss.

2 Cf. Ex. XX, sent. 2, and note.

3 Cf. īdem quī, l. 31.

4 See XVII, l. 10, and note.

Substantive clauses of purpose; latter supine.

1. When Marius was in Spain with Scipio, some one asked this (question) of Scipio. 2. If anything happens1 to you, what equally great commander will the republic have? 3. Scipio replied that Marius would be a great commander. 4. In the war against Jugurtha it is said that he made charges against Metellus so that he might be appointed commander himself. 5. If you make me consul, I will shortly bring Jugurtha under the power of the Romans. 6. Thus he persuaded the people to make2 him consul. 7. After Jugurtha had been conquered, he carried on war with the Cimbri and Teutones. 8. His soldiers entreated Marius to lead them against the enemy. 9. The battle was fought right at the foot of the Alps. 10. As the Romans3 had no water, Marius told his soldiers that, if they conquered4 the enemy, they would have abundance of water. 11. It is said that after the battle the soldiers drank no less blood than water, because the river was filled with the bodies of the slain. 12. The Cimbri, having now entered Italy, sent messengers to Marius to ask him to give them some land. 13. Marius threatened them5 with the same fate5 which had befallen their brothers. 14. On the next day a battle was fought, and slaughter terrible to witness6 followed. 15. When the women saw that they were defeated they strangled their babes and killed themselves. 16. Marius envied the new consul, Sulla, because the war against Mithridates had been assigned him. 17. When Sulla heard what Marius had done, he returned to Rome with his army and drove him into exile. 18. While Marius was hiding in a swamp, he was caught 128 and thrown into prison. 19. He asked the slave, who was sent to kill him, whether he dared kill the great consul. 20. After Sulla had set out for Asia, Marius, who was a few days’ journey from the city, returned and renewed the civil war. 21. When he had put to death the best men of the state, he gave over their homes to the rabble for plunder. 22. His death afforded the Romans7 more joy than his victory at Aquae Sextiae.

1 See p. 40, n. 1.

2 Cf. ut trāderet, l. 21.

3 Dat. Why?

4 Cf. sī fēcissent, etc., l. 11.

5 Observe carefully the construction in lines 57 and 58.

6 Cf. dictū, l. 124, and p. 19, n. 15.

7 Dative.

Relative clause of characteristic.

1. A woman told Sulla (when he was) a child that he would be a blessing to his country. 2. Was this the same woman who sold the Sibylline books to King Tarquin? 3. Marius was vexed because Sulla had been chosen quaestor. 4. Although Sulla had been dissolute, his military ability was soon displayed. 5. He conquered Mithridates, the king of Pontus, and would have completely subdued him had he not been recalled to Italy. 6. When he had returned, with the greatest cruelty he punished with death all who had supported Marius. 7. There was one young man who ventured to advise him to spare some of his fellow-citizens. 8. If he had killed all, there would have been none to govern [whom he should govern]. 9. He wanted to kill not only his enemies, but also all who had money. 10. When he at last laid down the dictatorship, the people were so crushed that they did not dare to complain. 11. Sulla was fond of literary men and was well versed in Greek literature. 12. He once gave a reward to a wretched poet who had dedicated a poem to him, on condition that he should write nothing thereafter.

Genitive with adjectives.

1. Lucullus was distinguished both in war and in peace. 2. It is stated by certain writers that he spent all of his early life in law practice and was untrained in the art1 of war. 3. But in the war with Mithridates he surpassed even2 experts in this art.1 4. All say that he was exceedingly fond of money. 5. And this is the more surprising for the reason that he had been educated in Greek philosophy. 6. He was not the only one of the Romans to3 squander his money in building villas. 7. He used to dine with the greatest luxury even when he was alone. 8. Though fond of banquets, he was no less fond of books, and had a great library, which was always open to the public.

1 H. 451, 1 (399, I, 2); M. 573; A. 218, a; G. 374; B. 204, 1.

2 Cf. mare ipsum, l. 25.

3 See p. 76, n. 11.

map of Mediterranean

larger view




abl. = ablative.
abs. = absolute.
acc. = accusative.
act. = active.
adj. = adjective.
adv. = adverb.
cf. = compare.
comp. = comparative.
conj. = conjunction.
dat. = dative.
def. = defective.
dem. = demonstrative.
desid. = desiderative.
dim. = diminutive.
disc. = discourse.
e.g. = for example.
encl. = enclitic.
esp. = especially.

= feminine,

freq. = frequentative.
gen. = genitive.
i.e. = that is.
imperf. = imperfect.
impers. = impersonal.
indef. = indefinite.
indir. = indirect.
insep. = inseparable.
interj. = interjection.
interr. = interrogative.
intrans. = intransitive.
l. = line.
m. = masculine.
n. = neuter, note.
nom. = nominative.
num. = numeral.
obj. = objective.
orig. = originally.
p. = page.

= participle,

pass. = passive.
perf. = perfect.
pers. = personal.
pl. = plural.
poss. = possessive.
prep. = preposition.
pres. = present.

= pronoun,

rel. = relative.
sc. = supply.
sup. = superlative.
trans. = transitive.

The star prefixed to certain verbs, e.g. flīgō and speciō, indicates that the verb was obsolete, i.e. not in ordinary use. Compound verbs are defined under the simple verbs from which they are derived. To this practice there are, however, two exceptions: (1) When neither the simple verb nor any other compound formed from it occurs in the text, and (2) in the case of certain verbs like sūmō and surgō, which, though themselves compounds, came to be regarded virtually as simple verbs and served as the base of further compounds.

The student will therefore save time and labor if he accustoms himself when reading to analyze compound verbs before consulting the Vocabulary. This analysis will often make plain the meaning of the compound, and render it unnecessary to seek the aid of the Vocabulary at all.




   A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   K   L   M 
 N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V 

A., abbreviation of the Roman praenomen Aulus.

ā, ab, abs, prep. with abl.; (1) of place, from, away from, out of; (2) of time, from, since, after; (3) of agency, by; (4) of separation, source, cause, from, through, because of; in composition, off, away.

abaliēnō, āre, āvī, ātus [ab + aliēnus], to remove, alienate, estrange.

abdicō, see dicō.

abditus [orig. part. of abdō], adj., hidden, concealed.

abdō, see .

abdūcō, see dūcō.

abeō, see (1) .

abiciō, see iaciō.

abluō, ere, ī, ūtus [ab + luō, to wash], to wash, cleanse, purify.

abnuō, see *nuō.

abripiō, see rapiō.

abrogō, see rogō.

abs, see ā.

abscēdō, see cēdō.

abscindō, see scindō.

absēns, entis [orig. part. of absum], adj., absent, away.

absistō, see sistō.

absolvō, see solvō.

absorbeō, ēre, uī, absorptus [ab + sorbeō, to swallow], to swallow.

abstinentia, ae [abstineō], f., abstinence, self-restraint, integrity.

abstineō, see teneō.

abstrahō, see trahō.

absum, see sum.

absūmō, see sūmō.

ac, see atque.

Acca, ae, f., praenomen of Acca Larentia, foster-mother of Romulus and Remus.

accēdō, see cēdō.

accendō, see candeō.

accidō, see cadō.

accingō, see cingō.

acciō, īre, īvī, ītus [ad + cieō, to set in motion], to summon, invite.

accipiō, see capiō.

acclāmō, see clāmō.

accommodō, āre, āvī, ātus [ad + commodus], to fit to, adjust, regulate.

accumbō, see *cumbō.

accurrō, see currō.

accūsātiō, ōnis [accūsō], f., accusation, prosecution.

accūsātor, ōris [accūsō], m., accuser, prosecutor.

accūsō, āre, āvī, ātus [ad + causa], to call to trial, accuse, blame.

ācer, ācris, ācre, comp. ācrior, sup. ācerrimus, adj., sharp, bitter, piercing; keen, eager, vigorous, fierce.

acerbē [acerbus, bitter], adv., bitterly, cruelly, severely.

acerbitās, ātis [acerbus, bitter], f., harshness, severity, unkindness.

acētum, ī [cf. ācer], n., vinegar.


aciēs, ēī [cf. ācer], f., a sharp point of a sword or dagger; a battle line (conceived of as a sword point); battle.

ācriter, comp. ācrius, sup. ācerrimē [ācer], adv., sharply, spiritedly, fiercely, grievously.

Actiacus, adj., of or at Actium.

Actium, ī, n., a promontory and town in Epirus, near which, in 31 B.C., Octavianus defeated Antony and Cleopatra in a naval battle.

ad, prep. with accus.; (1) of place, to, towards, to the house of, at, near; (2) of time, up to, towards, until, at; (3) of purpose, to, in order to, for, for the sake of; (4) of other relations, according to, at. In composition, it = to, towards, and also denotes addition and intensity.

adamō, āre, āvī, ātus [ad + amō, to love], to love earnestly.

addīcō, see dīcō.

addō, see .

addūcō, see dūcō.

(1) adeō, see (1) .

(2) adeō [ad + (2) ], adv., to this point, so very, so, to such a degree, actually; atque adeō, and in fact.

adequitō, see equitō.

adfectō, āre, āvī, ātus [ad + faciō], to strive after, aspire to.

adferō, see ferō.

adficiō, see faciō.

adfīnis, is [ad + fīnis], m., a relative (by marriage).

adfīrmō, see fīrmō.

adflātus, ūs [adflō], m., a blast, breath; effluvia, exhalation.

adflīctus [orig. part. of adflīgō], adj., shattered, weakened, wretched.

adflīgō, see *flīgō.

adflō, see flō.

adhibeō, see habeō.

adhortātiō, ōnis [adhortor, to encourage], f., encouragement, exhortation.


adiciō, see iaciō.

adigō, see agō.

adipīscor, ī, adeptus sum [ad + apīscor, to reach], to gain by effort, get, acquire.

aditus, ūs [(1) adeō], m., approach, access.

adiūmentum [orig. adiuvāmentum, from adiuvō], n., help, aid, service.

adiungō, see iungō.

adiuvō, āre, iūvī, iūtus [ad + iuvō, to help], to aid, help.

adliciō, see *laciō.

adligō, see ligō.

adloquor, see loquor.

administrō, āre, āvī, ātus [ad + ministrō, to manage], to manage, direct, govern, regulate.

admīrābilis, e [admīror], adj., admirable, wonderful.

admīrandus [admīror], adj., marvelous, wonderful, strange.

admīrātiō, ōnis [admīror], f., wonder, admiration; surprise.

admīrātor, ōris [admīror], m., admirer.

admīror, ārī, ātus sum [ad + mīror, to marvel at], to marvel at, admire.

admittō, see mittō.

admodum [ad + modus], adv., up to the full limit, very, exceedingly.

admoneō, see moneō.

admoveō, see moveō.

adnuō, see *nuō.

adolēscō, ere, olēvī, adultus [ad + olēscō, to grow], to grow up, become mature, reach manhood.

adoperiō, see pariō.

adoptō, see optō.

adōrnō, see ōrnō.

adōrō, see ōrō.

adquīrō, see quaerō.

adripiō, see rapiō.

adscrībō, see scrībō.

adsentātiō, ōnis [adsentor, to agree with, to flatter], f., flattery.


adsequor, see sequor.

adsideō, see sedeō.

adsīdō, see sīdō.

adsiduus [adsideō], adj., incessant, repeated, continued.

adsīgnō, see sīgnō.

adspiciō, see *speciō.

adsuēscō, see suēscō.

adsum, see sum.

adsūmō, see sūmō.

adsurgō, see surgō.

adulēscēns, entis [adolēscō], m. and f., a young man or woman (usually applied to persons between the ages of fifteen and thirty).

adulēscentia, ae [adulēscēns], f., youth.

adulēscentulus, ī [dim. of adulēscēns], m., a very young man, stripling.

adūlor, ārī, ātus sum, to flatter.

adultus [orig. part. of adolēscō], adj., grown up, mature, adult.

advehō, see vehō.

adveniō, see veniō.

adventō, āre, āvī, — [freq. of adveniō], to advance, approach.

adventus, ūs [adveniō], m., coming, approach, arrival.

adversārius, ī [adversor], m., opponent, enemy.

adversor, ārī, ātus sum [adversus], to oppose, withstand, resist.

adversus [ad + vertō], adj., turned towards, facing, in front; opposed, adverse, unfavorable. As noun, adversum, ī, n., misfortune, calamity.

adversus and adversum, prep. with acc., in opposition to, against, towards.

advocātiō, ōnis [advocō], f., advocacy, legal assistance; in advocātiōnem venīre, to come to one’s aid in court.

advocātus, ī [advocō], m., adviser, advocate.

advocō, see vocō.


aedēs, see aedis.

aedificium, ī [aedificō], n., a building.

aedificō, āre, āvī, ātus [aedis + faciō], to build.

aedīlis, is [aedis], m., aedile, commissioner of public works, the name of certain Roman magistrates, four in number, charged with the care of the streets and public buildings, the regulation of the markets, and the duty of distributing the corn which the state furnished to the poor. They took care, also, of the records of the senate and other documents, and superintended the performance of certain public games.

aedīlitās, ātis [aedīlis], f., aedileship.

aedis or aedēs, is, f., in sing., temple; in pl., house, dwelling.

aedituus, ī [aedis + tueor], m., keeper of a temple, sexton.

aeger, aegra, aegrum, adj., sick, ill, feeble.

aegrē [aeger], adv., painfully, with difficulty, scarcely; aegrē ferre, to be vexed at, take amiss.

aegritūdō, inis [aeger], f., sickness; grief, vexation, mortification.

aegrōtō, āre, āvī, — [aeger], to be ill or feeble, lie sick.

Aegyptus, ī, m., Egypt.

Aemilius, ī, m., the name of a Roman gens. See Paulus.

aemulātiō, ōnis [aemulor, to rival], f., rivalry, competition.

aequālis, e [aequus], adj., equal, like (esp. in age). As noun, m., comrade, companion.

aequē [aequus], adv., equally.

aequitās, ātis [aequus], f., evenness, fairness, justice.

aequō, āre, āvī, ātus [aequus], to make even, place on an equality.

aequus, adj., even, level; fair, just; aequō animō, patiently.


aerārium, ī [aes], n., state treasury; public money.

aes, aeris, n., copper, bronze; money (first coined of bronze); aes aliēnum, debt.

aestās, ātis, f., summer.

aestīvus [aestās], adj., of summer, summer.

aetās, ātis, f., time of life, life, age, youth, old age; period, time.

aeternum [acc. sing. neut. of aeternus, eternal], adv., eternally, forever.

Āfer, Āfrī, m., an African, esp. an inhabitant of Carthage.

Āfrica, ae, f., Africa, esp. that part of it which lay near Carthage.

Āfricānus, adj., African. As noun, Āfricānus, ī, m., the cognomen bestowed on Publius Cornelius Scipio, conqueror of Hannibal. See Scīpiō.

agedum, an interj., used with the imperative or hortatory subjunctive, come on! come! quick!

agellus, ī [dim. of ager], m., a little field, small estate.

ager, agrī, m., field, farm, estate; territory, land, district; the country.

agger, eris [ad + gerō], m., mass (esp. of earth and brushwood), mound, rampart.

aggredior, see gradior.

agitō, āre, āvī, ātus [freq. of agō], drive violently hither and thither; discuss, consider, meditate.

con—cōgitō, āre, āvī, ātus, to think, reflect, consider; plan.

ex + con—excōgitō, āre, āvī, ātus, to think out, devise.

āgmen, inis [agō], n., an army (on the march), marching column; troop, array.

āgnōscō, see nōscō.

agō, agere, ēgī, āctus, to set in motion, drive, lead; act, do, perform; treat, deal, arrange; spend, pass (of time); āctum est dē, it was all up with; 134b augurium agere, to perform the augural ceremonies; cōnsulem agere, to act the consul, dēlēctum agere, to hold a levy; grātiās agere, to feel thankful; triumphum agere, to celebrate a triumph.

ad—adigō, ere, ēgī, āctus, drive, urge, compel, constrain.

con—cōgō, ere, coēgī, coāctus, drive together, collect; compel, force.

dē—dēgō, ere, dēgī, ——, pass, spend (of time).

ex—exigō, ere, ēgī, āctus, to drive out; finish; pass, spend.

per—peragō, ere, ēgī, āctus, to finish, accomplish, play (a part); set forth, relate, describe.

re—redigō, ere, ēgī, āctus, to drive back, force, reduce, bring.

sub—subigō, ere, ēgī, āctus, to drive under, conquer, subdue.

trāns—trānsigō, ere, ēgī, āctus, to finish, settle, perform.

agrestis, e [ager], adj., of the fields; rustic; countrified, rude, uncouth.

āiō, ais, ait, āiunt [def. verb], to say.

alacer, cris, cre, adj., lively, nimble, quick; often = an adv., eagerly.

alacritās, ātis [alacer], f., liveliness, eagerness, spirit.

Alba or Alba Longa (sc. urbs), f., an ancient town of the Latins.

Albānus, adj., pertaining to Alba, Alban. As noun, Albānus, ī, m., an inhabitant of Alba.

ālea, ae, f., game of dice; die.

Alexander, drī, m., Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia from 336 to 323 B.C., and conqueror of Persia.

Alexandrēa, ae, f., Alexandria, a city in Egypt, at the mouth of the Nile, founded by Alexander the Great.

aliās [alius], adv., at another time, under other circumstances.

alibī [alius + ibi], adv., elsewhere, in other places.


aliēnus [alius], adj., belonging to another, another’s; aes aliēnum, debt.

alimentum, ī [alō], n., nourishment; in plur., food, provisions.

aliōquī, adv., in other respects, otherwise.

aliquamdiū [aliquis + diū], adv., for a while, for some time.

aliquandō [aliquis], adv., at some time or other, once, on a certain occasion; at length, at last.

aliquantus, adj., some, considerable. As noun, aliquantum, ī, n., a little, something.

aliquī, aliqua, aliquod [alius + quī], indef. pron. adj., some one or other, some, any.

aliquis, qua, quid [alius + quis], indef. pron., some one, something; any one, anything; some, any. As noun, aliquid, n., something, anything.

aliquot [alius + quot], indef. indecl. adj., some, several.

aliquotiēns [aliquot], adv., several times.

aliter [alius], adv., otherwise, differently.

alius, a, ud (gen. alīus, dat. aliī), pron. adj., another, other, different; alius . . . alius, one . . . one, one . . . another; aliī . . . aliī, some . . . others.

alō, ere, uī, tus, to feed, nourish, support, keep.

Alpēs, ium, f., the Alps.

altāria, ium, pl. n., an altar.

alter, altera, alterum (gen. alterīus, dat. alterī), pron. adj., one of two, the other, the second; alter . . . alter, the one . . . the other.

altercor, ārī, ātus sum [alter], to dispute, wrangle.

alteruter, utra, utrum (gen. alterutrīus, dat. alterutrī), pron. adj., one or the other of two, one (only) of two.

altus [alō], adj., high, lofty; deep. As 135b noun, altum, ī, n., the deep sea, the deep; sup. altissimum, ī, n., top.

alveus, ī, m., a basket, trough.

am, amb, ambi, insep. prefix (seen in amputō), around, on both sides.

amāns, antis [part. of amō, to love], adj., loving, fond; with gen., fond of, devoted to.

ambitiō, ōnis [ambiō, to go around], f., canvassing for public office, ambition.

ambō, ae, ō, adj., both.

ambulātiō, ōnis [ambulō], f., a walk, promenade.

ambulō, āre, āvī, —, to walk, stroll.

dē—deambulō, āre, —, —, to walk, stroll, promenade.

in—inambulō, āre, —, —, to walk up and down, stroll.

amīcitia, ae [amīcus], f., friendship.

amictus [orig. part. of amiciō, to wrap about], adj., clothed in, clad in.

amīcus [amō, to love], adj., friendly.

amīcus, ī [amō, to love], m., a friend.

āmittō, see mittō.

amnis, is, m., river, torrent, stream.

amor, ōris [amō, to love], m., love, passion.

āmoveō, see moveō.

amphora, ae, f., a two-handled jar. It held about six gallons.

amplector, ī, amplexus sum, to twine around, embrace.

ampliō, āre, āvī, ātus [amplus], to enlarge, widen, extend.

amplius [comp. of amplus], indecl. adj. and adv., further, more, besides.

amplus, adj., great, large; noble, distinguished.

amputō, see putō.

Amūlius, ī, m., Amūlius, son of Proca, a legendary king of Alba Longa.

anceps, ancipitis [ambi + caput], adj., two-headed; doubtful, hazardous.


ancīle, is, n., a small oval shield, shaped like the faces of a guitar.

ancilla, ae, f., a maid-servant, maid.

Ancus, ī, m., the praenomen of Ancus Marcius, the fourth king of Rome.

angō, ere, —, —, squeeze, choke; vex, annoy.

angor, ōris [angō], m., vexation, sorrow, anguish.

anguis, is [angō], m. and f., a snake.

angulus, ī [angō], m., corner, nook.

angustiae, ārum [angustus], f., narrowness, narrow place, narrow pass.

angustus [angō], adj., narrow.

anima, ae, f., air, breath, soul, life.

animadvertō, ere, vertī, versus [animus + advertō], to turn the mind to, perceive, notice; in aliquem animadvertere, to punish.

animal, ālis [anima], n., a living thing, an animal.

animus, ī, m., mind, soul, reason; courage, spirit; temper, disposition; in plur., affections, allegiance.

Aniō, Aniēnis, m., a tributary of the Tiber.

annālis, is [annus], adj., yearly, annual. As noun, Annālēs (sc. librī), year-books, records; strictly brief abstracts of contemporary events kept in early days by the Pontifex Maximus, and exposed to view on a white-washed plank set up at his official residence. Annālēs is a frequent title of Latin historical works.

annōna, ae [annus], f., the year’s crop, esp. of grain; corn supply.

annus, ī, m., a year.

ante (1) adv.; of space, before, in front of; of time, before, previously, ago; (2) prep. with acc., both of space and time, in front of, before.

anteā [ante], adv., before, formerly.

antecēdō, see cēdō.

anteeō, see (1) .


antequam or ante . . . quam, conj., before, until.

Antiochus, ī, m., Antiochus.

1. Antiochus the Great, king of Syria 223-187 B.C., conquered by Scipio Asiaticus in 190.

2. A philosopher, born at Ascalon in Palestine, whose lectures Cicero heard at Athens in 79 B.C.

antīquus, adj., ancient.

Antōnius, ī, m., a Roman gentile name.

1. M. Antōnius, a friend of Julius Caesar and a member of the second triumvirate. He was defeated by Octavianus off Actium in 31 B.C., and killed himself the following year.

2. C. Antōnius Hybrida, uncle of the triumvir, and consul with Cicero, B.C. 63.

ānulus, ī [dim. of ānus, a circle], m., a finger ring.

anus, ūs, f., an old woman.

anxius [angō], adj., anxious, troubled.

aper, aprī, m., a wild boar.

aperiō, see pariō.

apertē [apertus], adv., openly, plainly.

apertus [orig. part. of aperiō], adj., open, manifest.

Apollō, inis, m., Apollo, the Greek god (worshiped by the Romans also) of poetry and music, divination and medicine. His chief shrine was at Delphi, in Greece.

Apollōnia, ae, f., a city of Illyria, on the east coast of the Adriatic. Toward the close of the first century B.C. it was a famous seat of learning.

Apollōnius, ī, m., Apollōnius, surnamed Molō, under whom Cicero studied rhetoric at Rhodes.

apparātus, ūs, m., equipment, preparation; splendor, pomp.

appāreō, see pāreō.

appellātiō, ōnis [(2) appellō], f., name, title.


(1) appellō, see pellō.

(2) appellō, see pellō.

Appennīnus, ī, m., the Apennines, a range of mountains in Italy.

Appius, ī, m., a Roman praenomen, esp. common in the Claudian gens.

applaudō, ere, plausī, plausus [ad + plaudō, to clap the hands], to applaud.

appōnō, see pōnō.

apprehendō, see prehendō.

approbō, see probō.

appropinquō, āre, āvī, — [ad + propinquus], to draw near, approach.

aptē [aptus], adv., fitly, neatly.

aptus, adj., fitted, suited for, adapted to.

apud, prep. with acc.; of place, near; of persons, with, among, in the presence of, at the house of; with the name of an author, in the works of.

Āpūlia, ae, f., Apulia, a district in the southeastern part of Italy.

aqua, ae, f., water.

aquila, ae, f., an eagle; standard (a metal eagle, elevated upon a pole).

aquilifer, ferī [aquila + ferō], m., standard bearer.

āra, ae, f., an altar.

arbiter, trī, m., witness, judge, umpire.

arbitrium, ī [arbiter], n., judgment, decision; will, caprice.

arbitror, ārī, ātus sum [arbiter], to think, believe, consider.

arbor, oris, f., a tree.

arca, ae [arceō], f., chest, box.

arceō, ēre, uī, —, to shut up, inclose; hinder, prevent.

con—coerceō, ēre, uī, itus, to confine closely, shut in; restrain, check.

ex—exerceō, ēre, uī, itus, to exercise, drill, employ; lēgem exercēre, to enforce a law.

arcessō, ere, īvī, ītus, to cause to come, summon, send for.


Ardea, ae, f., Ardea, a town in Latium, about eighteen miles south of Rome.

ārdēns, entis [orig. part. of ārdeō, to burn, glow], adj., glowing, fiery, bright.

ārdor, ōris [ārdeō, to burn, glow], m., heat, glow; zeal, enthusiasm, fire.

argentum, ī, n., silver; money.

Argī, ōrum, m., Argos, a city in the northeastern part of the Peloponnesus.

Argīvus, adj., of Argos, Argive.

arguō, ere, ī, ūtus, to show, prove; charge, accuse, blame.

āridus [āreō, to be dry], adj., dry, arid.

arma, ōrum, n. pl., arms, weapons (esp. for defense); warfare.

armātus [orig. part. of armō], adj., armed, in full armor. As noun, armātī, ōrum, m. pl., armed men, soldiers.

Armenia, ae, f., Armenia, a country in Asia, southeast of the Black Sea.

armilla, ae [armus, shoulder, arm], f., a bracelet, armlet.

armō, āre, āvī, ātus [arma], to arm, equip.

Arpīnum, ī, n., Arpinum, a town of the Volsci, fifty miles southeast of Rome; the birthplace of Marius and Cicero.

ars, artis, f., skill, art, knowledge; accomplishment, esp. in pl.; device, stratagem.

artifex, icis [ars + faciō], m., workman, artist, builder.

artūs, uum, m. pl., joints, limbs.

Ārūns, untis, m., a son of Tarquinius Superbus.

arx, arcis [arceō], f., citadel, stronghold.

ās, assis, m., an as, the unit of Roman coinage, orig. a pound of copper, but finally reduced to half an ounce. It was then worth about a cent.


āscendō, see scandō.

Asia, ae, f., Asia, esp. Asia Minor.

Asiāticus, adj., Asiatic. As noun, Asiāticus, ī, m., (cognomen of Lucius Cornelius Scipio, conqueror of Antiochus.

asper, aspera, asperum, adj., rough, bitter, sharp; harsh, violent, severe.

asperitās, ātis [asper], f., roughness, harshness; acidity (of vinegar).

āspernor, see spernō.

aspis, idis, f., an asp, viper.

āstūtia, ae [āstūtus], f., shrewdness, smartness, cleverness.

āstūtus [āstū, cunning], adj., smart, clever, shrewd, cunning.

asȳlum, ī, n., place of refuge, asylum.

at, conj., but, but yet, nevertheless.

Athēnae, ārum, f. plur., Athens, the chief city of Greece, situated in Attica, in the southeastern part of central Greece.

Athesis, is, m., a river in Cisalpine Gaul, near which Marius defeated the Cimbri in 101 B.C.

Atīlius, ī, m., the name of a Roman gens. See Rēgulus.

atque, ac, conj., and, and also.

atquī, conj., and yet, but yet, yet.

atrōciter [atrōx], adv., fiercely, cruelly.

atrōx, ōcis, adj., savage, fierce, cruel, horrible.

attentus, adj., attentive.

attonitus [attonō, to thunder at], adj., thunder-struck, awe-struck, overwhelmed.

Attus, ī, m., Attus Nāvius, an augur who defied Tarquinius Priscus.

auctor, ōris [augeō], m., producer, originator, cause.

auctōritās, ātis [auctor], f., authority, power; influence, weight, dignity.

aucupium, ī [avis + capiō], n., bird-catching, fowling.


audācia, ae [audāx, bold], f., boldness, daring; rashness, presumption.

audeō, ēre, ausus sum, to venture, dare.

audiō, īre, īvī, ītus, to hear, listen to; dictō audiēns esse, to obey.

ex—exaudiō, īre, īvī, ītus, to hear clearly, distinguish.

auferō, see ferō.

aufugiō, see fugiō.

augeō, ēre, auxī, auctus, to increase, enlarge.

augur, uris [avis], m., an augur, soothsayer, a priest whose business it was to take the auspicia. See auspicium.

augurium, ī [augur], n., observance of omens, divination; augurium agere, to perform the augural ceremonies.

augustus [augeō], adj., majestic, venerable, imposing.

Augustus, ī [augustus], m., a title of honor given to Octavianus in B.C. 27, and after him to all the Roman emperors.

aureus [aurum], adj., golden.

auris, is, f., ear.

aurum, ī, n., gold.

auspicium, ī [avis + *speciō], n., divination by noting the flight or cries of birds. In taking the auspicia, auspices, the augur sought to learn whether the gods favored or disapproved a proposed course of conduct.

aut, conj., or; aut . . . aut, either . . . or.

autem, conj., always postpositive, but, however, moreover.

auxilium, ī [augeō], n., help, aid; plur., auxiliary troops (usually foreign and light-armed troops).

avāritia, ae [avārus], f., greed, avarice.

avārus, adj., greedy, grasping, covetous.

āvellō, ere, vellī, vulsus [ab + vellō, to pluck], to tear off or away, sever.


Aventīnus, ī, m. (sc. mōns), the Aventine, one of the seven hills of Rome.

Aventīnus, adj., of or on the Aventine.

aveō, ēre, —, —, to fare well, used only in the imperative avē! hail! welcome! greetings!

āversor, ārī, ātus sum [āvertō], to scorn, repulse.

āvertō, see vertō.

avidē [avidus], adv., eagerly, greedily.

avidus, adj., desirous, eager, greedy.

avis, is, f., bird; sign, omen.

avītus [avus], adj., ancestral.

āvocō, see vocō.

āvolō, see (2) volō.

avunculus [dim. of avus], m., uncle, mother’s brother.

avus, ī, m., grandfather, ancestor.


baculum, ī, n., a staff, stick.

Bagrada(s), ae, m., a river near Carthage.

ballista, ae, f., the ballista, a military engine for hurling stones.

balneum, ī, n., bath, bathing-place.

barba, ae, f., beard.

barbarus, adj., foreign, uncivilized, barbarous. As noun, barbarī, ōrum, pl. m., foreigners, barbarians.

bellātor, ōris [bellō], m., fighter, brawler; warrior, soldier.

bellicōsus [bellicus, warlike], adj., warlike.

bellō, āre, āvī, ātum [bellum], to wage war, fight.

re—rebellō, āre, āvī, ātum, to wage war again, rebel.

bellum, ī (orig. duellum, from duo), n., war, warfare.

bēlua, ae, f., a wild beast; of a person, beast, brute, monster.

bene [bonus], adv., well, successfully; comp. melius, sup. optimē.


beneficium, ī [bene + faciō], n., favor, kindness, service.

benevolentia, ae [bene + (1) volō], f., good will, kindly feeling; favor.

benīgnē [benīgnus], adv., kindly, courteously.

benīgnus, adj., kind, favorable.

bibliothēca, ae, f., library.

bibō, ere, ī, —, to drink.

Bibulus, ī, m., L. Calpurnius, consul with Julius Caesar in 59 B.C.

bīduum, ī [bis + diēs], n., a period of two days, two days’ time.

bis [orig. duis; cf. duo], num. adv., twice.

blanditia, ae, f., flattery; in pl., blandishments, allurements.

Blosius, ī, m., gentile name of C. Blosius Cūmānus, a friend of C. Gracchus.

Bocchus, ī, m., Bocchus, king of the Gaetuli, and ally of Jugurtha.

Boiorix, icis, m., Boiorix, chief of the Cimbri, defeated by Marius, 101 B.C.

bonus, comp. melior, sup. optimus, adj., good; as noun, bonī, ōrum, m. pl., good men, loyal citizens; bona, ōrum, n. pl., goods, possessions.

bōs, bovis, m. and f., ox, cow; pl., cattle.

bracchium, ī, n., forearm, arm.

brevī, see brevis.

brevis, e, adj., short; brevī (sc. tempore), adv., in a little while, soon.

Britannī, ōrum, m. pl., the inhabitants of England, the Britons.

Brundisium, ī, n., Brundisium, a seaport in southeastern Italy, the regular point of embarkation for Greece.

Brūtus, ī, m., a cognomen in the Junian gens.

1. L. Iūnius Brūtus, the Liberator, nephew of Tarquinius Superbus, and consul with Collatinus in 509 B.C.

2. M. Iūnius Brūtus, one of the murderers of Julius Caesar, 44 B.C.


3. D. Iūnius Brūtus, an officer of Julius Caesar in Gaul, but afterwards one of his murderers.

bulla, ae, f., an amulet or charm for the neck, commonly of gold, though often of leather. It was worn by children of free birth, but laid aside with the toga praetexta (see praetextus), and consecrated to the Larēs, or gods of the hearth.


C, orig. = English G, later = both C and G, finally = C alone; with proper names = Gāius, a Roman praenomen.

cadāver, eris [cadō], n., a corpse.

cadō, ere, cecidī, cāsūrus, to fall; fall dead, be killed, die; happen.

ad—accidō, ere, cidī, —, to happen, befall, come to pass.

con—concidō, ere, cidī,—, to fall, be slain, perish.

in—incidō, ere, cidī,—, fall, fall into or on, meet; happen, occur; incidere in aliquem, to happen in the time of anybody.

ob—occidō, ere, cidī, —, fall down, fall, perish; set (of the sun).

re—recidō, ere, cidī, —, to fall back, return; fall.

caedēs, is [caedō], f., slaughter, massacre.

caedō, ere, cecīdī, caesus, to cut, cut to pieces; kill, conquer, rout; virgīs caedere, to flog.

ob—occīdō, ere, cīdī, cīsus, to cut down, kill, slay.

prae—praecīdō, ere, cīdī, cīsus, to cut short, cut off.

caelestis, e [caelum], adj., from heaven, heavenly, celestial.

Caelius, ī, m. (sc. mōns), the Caelian hill, one of the seven hills of Rome.

caelum, ī, n., the sky, heavens.

caenōsus [caenum], adj., foul, filthy.


caenum, ī, n., mud, filth, mire.

Caesar, aris, m., Caesar, a family name in the Julian gens.

1. C. Iūlius Caesar, the famous dictator, born 100 B.C., quaestor in 68, aedile in 65, praetor in 62, consul in 59; conquered Gaul, 58-50; engaged in civil war with Pompey and his supporters, 49-46; created perpetual dictator in 46; murdered, March 15, 44.

2. The grandson of Caesar’s sister, C. Octāvius, was adopted by Caesar, and henceforth known as C. Iūlius Caesar Octāviānus. He was born 63 B.C., formed the second triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus in 44; with Antony’s help defeated Brutus and Cassius, the murderers of Caesar, in 42, at Philippi; defeated Antony at Actium, in 31, and became sole master of the Roman world, which he ruled till his death in 14 A.D. See also Augustus.

caesariēs, —, acc. em, f., hair (of the head), locks (only in sing.).

calamitās, ātis, f., calamity, disaster.

calcar, āris, n., a spur.

callidus, adj., shrewd, cunning, sly.

Calpurnia, ae, f., Calpurnia, daughter of L. Calpurnius Piso, and wife of Julius Caesar.

Calpurnius, ī, m., the name of a Roman gens. See Bibulus.

calvitium, ī [calvus], n., baldness.

calvus, adj., bald.

Calvus, ī [calvus], m., cognomen of C. Licinius Macer Calvus, poet and orator, 82-47 B.C.

Camers, ertis, m., an inhabitant of Camerinum, a town of Umbria, a district in Central Italy.

Campānia, ae, f., a district on the west coast of Italy, south of Latium.

Campānus, adj., Campanian.

campus, ī, m., a field, especially the 141a Campus Mārtius, a plain lying between the Capitoline Hill and the Tiber, and thus orig. outside the walls. It was used as a place of exercise, as a parade ground and place for reviews. Later, elections were held there.

candeō, ēre, uī, —, to shine, glow.

ad—accendō, ere, ī, cēnsus, to set fire to, kindle, burn; arouse, fire, anger.

in—incendō, ere, ī, cēnsus, to set on fire; arouse, excite.

candidus [candeō], adj., white.

Canīnius, ī, m., gentile name of C. Canīnius Rēbilus, consul for a few hours on December 31, 45 B.C.

canis, is, m. and f., a dog.

Cannae, ārum, f. pl., a small town in Apulia in southeastern Italy.

Cannēnsis, e, adj., of or at Cannae.

canō, ere, cecinī, —, to sing, chant, play; sound, give signal.

prae—praecinō, ere, uī, —, to play before (one).

cantus, ūs [canō], m., song; note, cry.

Canusium, ī, n., a town in Apulia near Cannae.

capesso, ere, īvī, ītus [desid. of capiō], to take eagerly, seize, resort to.

capillus, ī [caput], m., the hair.

capiō, ere, cēpī, captus, to take, seize, capture; cōnsilium capere, to form a plan.

ad—accipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptus, to take to one’s self, receive, adopt; meet with, welcome; understand, interpret.

con—concipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptus, to take in, imagine, conceive.

dē—dēcipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptus, to take in, catch, deceive, cheat.

ex—excipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptus, to take out, appropriate, overhear; receive, greet; await, confront.


in—incipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptus, to take up, begin, undertake.

inter—intercipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptus, to seize in passing, steal, usurp.

prae—praecipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptum, direct, bid, order.

re—recipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptus, to take back, recover; take, receive; sē recipere, to retreat, withdraw.

sub—suscipiō, ere, cēpī, ceptus, to take up, undertake, assume, succeed to.

Capitōlīnus, adj., pertaining to the Capitol.

Capitōlium, ī, n., the Capitol, the chief temple of Jupiter in Rome; often, also, the hill on which this temple stood, the Mōns Capitōlīnus, the citadel of Rome.

capra, ae, f., a she-goat; Caprae palūs, Goat Swamp, in the Campus Martius.

captīvus [capiō], adj., captive; as noun, captīvus, ī, m., a prisoner, captive.

captō, āre, āvī, ātus [freq. of capiō], to seize eagerly, strive to seize, strive for; take in, deceive, trap.

Capua, ae, f., a city in Campania noted for its luxury.

capulus, ī [capiō], m., hilt, handle.

caput, itis, n., the head, life; head or capital of a nation; capite damnāre, to condemn to death.

carbō, inis, m., a coal, charcoal.

Carbō, inis, m., C. Papīrius, an enemy of Sulla, defeated by Pompey.

carcer, eris, n., a prison, esp. the state prison at Rome, built by Ancus Marcius, and known since the middle ages as the ‘Mamertine Prison.’ It lay at the foot of the Capitoline Hill, on the side towards the Forum. The historian Sallust thus describes it: “In the prison there is a place called the Tulliānum, about twelve feet 142a below the surface of the ground. It is built with strong walls, and above it there is a room constructed with stone vaulting. It is a disgusting and horrible place on account of the filth, the darkness, and the stench.”

carnifex, ficis [carō, flesh + faciō], m., executioner, butcher.

carpentum, ī, n., a two-wheeled carriage.

carpō, ere, sī, tus, to pluck, tear.

dis—discerpō, ere, sī, tus, to pluck or tear in pieces.

ex—excerpō, ere, sī, tus, to pluck out, choose, select.

Carthāginiēnsis, e, adj., Carthaginian.

Carthāgō, inis, f., Carthage, a city on the northern coast of Africa, colonized by Phoenicians from Tyre.

Carthāgō Nova, f., New Carthage, a city on the east coast of Spain, founded by the Carthaginians.

cārus, adj., dear, beloved; costly.

casa, ae, f., a hut, cottage.

Casca, ae, m., C. Servīlius, one of the murderers of Julius Caesar.

Cassius, ī, m., gentile name of C. Cassius Longīnus, one of the foremost conspirators against Caesar in 44 B.C.

castellum, ī [dim. of castrum], n., a stronghold, castle, fort.

castīgō, āre, āvī, ātus [castus, pure + agō], to correct, punish, chastise.

castrum, ī, n., a fortified place; pl., castra, ōrum, a camp.

cāsus, ūs [cadō], m., that which befalls, accident, chance; misfortune, calamity.

catapulta, ae, f., an engine for hurling arrows, catapult.

catēna, ae, f., a chain, fetter.

Catilīna, ae, m., L. Sergius, who conspired against the state during Cicero’s consulship, 63 B.C.

catīllus, ī, m., a small dish, plate.

Catō, ōnis, m., M. Porcius, called Uticēnsis, 142b because he committed suicide at Utica in Africa, after the battle of Thapsus 46 B.C.

Catullus, ī, m., C. Valerius, the famous lyric poet, 87-54 B.C.

catulus, ī, m., a young animal, cub.

Catulus, ī, m., Q. Lutātius, who in 67 B.C. opposed the grant of extraordinary powers to Pompey for the war with the pirates.

cauda, ae, f., tail.

causa, ae, f., cause, reason, occasion; case at law; causā (with preceding gen.), for the sake of, a common expression of purpose; causam dīcere, to plead a case in court.

cautus [orig. part. of caveō], adj., careful, wary, cautious.

cavea, ae [cavus, hollow], f., a cage.

caveō, ēre, cāvī, cautus, to be on one’s guard, beware, guard against.

cēdō, ere, cessī, cessum, to go, move; to go from, retire; yield, submit; ex sententiā cēdere, to turn out to one’s satisfaction.

ab—abscēdō, ere, cessī, cessūrus, to go away, withdraw, depart.

ad—accēdō, ere, cessī, cessūrus, to go or come to, move towards, approach; be added.

ante—antecēdō, ere, cessī, —, to go before, precede.

con—concēdō, ere, cessī, cessus, to withdraw, retire, depart; yield, submit; allow, grant, concede.

dē—dēcēdō, ere, cessī, cessum, to go away, withdraw, depart; to die (sc. vītā).

dis—discēdō, ere, cessī, cessum, to go away, depart; come off.

in—incēdō, ere, cessī, cessūrus, to advance, approach; march; move slowly.

prae—praecēdō, ere, cessī, cessūrus, to go before.

prō—prōcēdō, ere, cessī, cessum, 143a to move forward, advance, make progress.

re—recēdō, ere, cessī, cessum, to move back, withdraw, retire, retreat.

sē—sēcēdō, ere, cessī, cessūrus, to retire, withdraw.

sub—succēdō, ere, cessī, cessum, to follow, succeed; be successful.

celeber, bris, bre, adj., famous.

celebrātus [part. of celebrō, to throng], adj., of a place, thronged, frequented; of persons, places, or things, famous, brilliant.

celer, eris, ere, adj., swift, quick, lively.

celeritās, ātis [celer], f., swiftness, speed, alertness.

celeriter [celer], adv., quickly, soon.

cella, ae, f., chamber, sanctuary, shrine.

cēlō, āre, āvī, ātus, to hide, conceal.

Celtibērī, ōrum, m. pl., the Celtiberi, a tribe in Spain.

cēna, ae, f., dinner, the principal meal of the Romans, taken about three o’clock.

cēnō, āre, āvī, ātus [cēna], to dine, eat.

cēnseō, ēre, uī, us, to rate, value; be of the opinion, think; determine, decide.

cēnsus, ūs [cēnseō], m., an enumeration and classification of the people according to wealth, a census.

centiēs [centum], adv., a hundred times.

centum, indecl. num. adj., a hundred.

centuria, ae [centum], f., a division of the army or the people, containing a hundred persons, a century.

centuriō, ōnis [centuria], m., a commander of a century, centurion, captain.

cernō, ere, crēvī, certus [crētus], to 143b separate; see, perceive; decide, determine.

dē—dēcernō, ere, crēvī, crētus, to decide, determine; decree, vote, entrust (by a decree); contend, fight.

sē—sēcernō, ere, crēvī, crētus, to separate, divide.

certāmen, inis [certō], n., match, trial of skill or strength; contest, battle.

certātim [certō], adv., in rivalry, zealously.

certē [certus], adv., certainly, surely.

certō, āre, āvī, ātum [certus], to vie with, contend.

certus [orig. part. of cernō], adj., determined, fixed; certain, definite, specified, assured; certiōrem facere, to inform; certior fierī, to be informed.

cervīx, īcis, f., neck, throat.

cessō, āre, āvī, ātum [freq. of cēdō], to be inactive, loiter, delay.

cēterum [cēterus], adv. and conj., for the rest, but, moreover, besides.

cēterī, ae, a, adj., the rest, the other, the others.

charta, ae, f., writing material, paper, sheet (of Egyptian papyrus).

Chrȳsogonus, ī, m., L. Cornēlius, a freedman of Sulla.

cibārius [cibus], adj., pertaining to food; rēs cibāria, provisions.

cibus, ī, m., food, victuals.

cicātrīx, īcis, f., a scar.

cicer, ciceris, n., a pea, chickpea.

Cicerō, ōnis [cicer], m., cognomen of M. Tullius Cicerō, the famous orator, born at Arpinum, 106 B.C.; quaestor in Sicily, 75; praetor, 66; consul, 63; killed by Antony’s order in 43.

Cimber, brī, m., a Cimbrian, one of the Cimbri, the Teutonic tribe which, together with the Teutones, invaded Italy, and was defeated by Marius in 101 B.C.

Cimbricus, adj., Cimbrian.


cingō, ere, cinxī, cinctus, to encircle, surround; gird, gird on, equip; obsidiōne cingere, to blockade, besiege.

ad—accingō, ere, cinxī, cinctus, to gird, gird on, equip, arm.

sub—succingō, ere, cinxī, cinctus, to gird, arm, equip.

cinis, eris, m., ashes.

Cinna, ae, m., L. Cornēlius, leader with Marius of the popular party.

circā, adv. and prep, with acc., around, round about, throughout.

circum, adv. and prep, with acc., around, about.

circumdō, see .

circumfundō, see fundō.

circumstō, see stō.

circumveniō, see veniō.

circus, ī, m., a circle, enclosure for athletic sports, esp. chariot-races; Circus Māximus: see p. 18, n. 6.

citerior, ōris, adj., on this side, hither, nearer.

citō, āre, āvī, ātus [freq. of cieō, to set in motion], to rouse, urge on; summon.

con—concitō, āre, āvī, ātus, to rouse, excite; move, instigate.

ex—excitō, āre, āvī, ātus, to call or bring forth; rouse, excite.

in—incitō, āre, āvī, ātus, urge on, arouse, incite.

cīvicus [cīvis], adj., of citizens, civic; cīvica corōna, the civic crown, given to a soldier who saved the life of a citizen in battle.

cīvīlis, e [cīvis], adj., of citizens, civil, civic; courteous, polite.

cīvis, is, m., citizen, fellow-citizen.

cīvitās, ātis [cīvis], f., citizenship; state, body of citizens.

clādēs, is, f., disaster, overthrow, defeat; clādem accipere, to sustain a defeat; clāde adficere, to defeat.

clam [cēlō], adv., secretly.


clāmitō, āre, āvī, ātus [freq. of clāmō], to cry aloud, shout loudly.

clāmō, āre, āvī, ātus, to shout.

ad—acclāmō, āre, āvī, ātum, to shout loudly, exclaim.

con—conclāmō, āre, āvī, ātum, cry out together, shout.

ex—exclāmō, āre, āvī, ātum, to cry out, shout aloud, exclaim.

in—inclāmō, āre, āvī, ātus, shout loudly; cry out to, call upon, appeal to.

prō—prōclāmō, āre, āvī, ātum, to call, cry out, proclaim.

sub—succlāmō, āre, āvī, ātus, to shout in answer, to answer loudly.

clāmor, ōris [clāmō], m., shout, cry, noise.

clandestīnus [clam], adj., secret.

clangor, ōris, m., noise, clash, clang.

clārus, adj., bright; famous, renowned; of sound, clear, loud.

classicum, ī [classis], n. (sc. sīgnum), battle signal on the trumpet.

classis, is, f., a class or division of citizens; a fleet.

Claudia, ae, f., a sister of Appius Claudius Pulcher.

Claudius, ī, m., the name of a famous Roman gens.

1. Appius Claudius, one of the Decemvirs of 451 B.C.

2. Appius Claudius Pulcher, consul in 249 B.C., and defeated in a naval battle off Drepanum in Sicily.

claudō, ere, clausī, clausus, to shut, close; shut in, imprison.

ex—exclūdō, ere, clūsī, clūsus, to shut out, exclude.

in—inclūdō, ere, clūsī, clūsus, to shut in, enclose; imprison.

clausula, ae [claudō], f., conclusion.

clāvus, ī, m., a nail.

clēmēns, entis, adj., gentle, kindly, merciful.


clēmenter [clēmēns], adv., quietly, mercifully, mildly.

clēmentia, ae [clēmēns], f., mercifulness, forbearance, kindness.

Cleopatra, ae, f., the famous queen of Egypt, renowned for her wit and beauty. She lived 69-30 B.C.

cliēns, entis [orig. cluēns, from clueō, to hear], m., a vassal, dependent, client. The clientēs attached themselves to some patrician, who aided them in business, esp. legal business, and was practically their father or guardian. The clients in turn were bound to respect and serve their patron, and to assist him financially, esp. in ransoming him, if captured, and in providing a marriage portion for his daughters.

clīvus, ī, m., ascent, slope, hill; Clīvus Capitōlīnus, a street running up from the Forum to the Capitol.

Clōdius, ī, m., plebeian form of Claudius, the gentile name of P. Clōdius Pulcher, Cicero’s enemy, who, as tribune of the people, brought about his banishment.

Clypea, ae, f., a fortified town in Africa, near Carthage.

Cn., abbreviation of the name Gnaeus.

coepī, coepisse, coeptus, to begin.

coerceō, see arceō.

cōgitātiō, ōnis [cōgitō], f., thought, consideration, plan.

cōgitō, see agitō.

cōgnātiō, ōnis [cōgnātus], f., blood relationship, ties of blood.

cōgnātus [con + (g)nāscor], adj., related by blood; as noun, a kinsman, blood relation.

cōgnitiō, ōnis [cōgnōscō], f., a legal investigation, judicial hearing; cōgnitiōnem īnstituere, to hold a hearing.

cōgnōmen, inis [con + (g)nōmen], n., a name added to the individual and 145b clan names of a person; a surname, either as a title of honor, as Āfricānus, Māgnus, Torquātus, or as a nickname, as Cicerō. Cōgnōmina served to distinguish different families of the same gens.

cōgnōminō, āre, āvī, ātus [cōgnōmen], to surname, call.

cōgnōscō, see nōscō.

cōgō, see agō.

cohors, ortis, f., cohort, company (the tenth part of a legion). See legiō.

Collātia, ae, f., a Sabine town near Rome.

Collātīnus, ī, m., L. Tarquinius, the husband of Lucretia, and one of the first two consuls, 509 B.C.

collis, is, m., a hill.

collum, ī, n., neck.

colō, ere, uī, cultus, to till, cultivate; dwell in; practice, cherish; clothe, adorn; honor, esteem.

ex—excolō, ere, uī, cultus, to cultivate, improve, adorn; refine.

in—incolō, ere, uī, —, to dwell, dwell in, live.

colōnia, ae [colō], f., a colony, settlement.

columba, ae, f., a dove, pigeon.

com, con, co, forms of the prep. cum, found only in compound words. See cum.

combūrō, see ūrō.

comes, itis [con + (1) ], m., companion, comrade; attendant, follower.

cōmitās, ātis [cōmis, courteous], f., courtesy, kindness.

comitātus, ūs [comitor], m., escort, train.

comitium, ī [con + (1) ], n., the Comitium, a place adjoining the Forum Romanum, where the voters assembled; comitia, ōrum, the comitia, an assembly of the people (esp. for elections); election; comitia indīcere, to set a date for an election.


comitor, ārī, ātus sum [comes], to accompany.

commeātus, ūs, m., a furlough.

commendō, see mandō.

commigrō, see migrō.

commīlitō, ōnis [con + mīles], m., fellow-soldier, comrade.

comminus [con + manus], adv., hand to hand, at close quarters.

committō, see mittō.

commodē [commodus], adv., properly, fittingly, rightly.

commodus [con + modus], adj., in due measure, suitable, fit, convenient.

commoveō, see moveō.

commūniō, see mūniō.

commūnis, e [con + mūnus], adj., common, joint, general.

commūniter [commūnis], adv., in common, together.

commūtō, see mūtō.

cōmō, see emō.

compār, paris [con + pār], adj., equal to, like; fitting, suitable.

comparō, see parō.

compellō, see pellō.

comperiō, see pariō.

compēs, edis [con + pēs], f., usually in the pl., shackles, fetters.

complector, ī, plexus sum, to embrace.

compleō, see *pleō.

complōrātiō, ōnis [complōrō, to bewail], f., lamentation, wailing.

complūrēs, a or ia [con + plūs], adj., several, many, very many.

compōnō, see pōnō.

compos, potis [con + potis, able], adj., master of; vōtī compos fierī, to gain one’s heart’s desire.

compositum, ī [compōnō], n., agreement.

comprehendō, see prehendō.

comprimō, see premō.

comprobō, see probō.

computō, see putō.


con, see com.

concēdō, see cēdō.

concidō, see cadō.

conciliō, āre, āvī, ātus [concilium], to bring together, conciliate; win over, secure.

re—reconciliō, āre, āvī, ātus, to reunite, reconcile.

concilium, ī [con + calō, to call], n., assembly, gathering.

concipiō, see capiō.

concitō, see citō.

conclāmō, see clāmō.

concordia, ae [con + cor, heart], f., union, harmony, concord.

concupīscō, ere, cupīvī, cupītus [con + cupiō], to desire greatly, crave.

concurrō, see currō.

concursus, ūs [concurrō], m., a concourse, throng; attack, charge, onset.

condemnō, see damnō.

condiciō, ōnis [condīcō, to agree], f., agreement, stipulation, terms.

condō, see .

condūcō, see dūcō.

cōnferō, see ferō.

cōnfertus [part. of cōnferciō, to stuff together], adj., crowded, dense.

cōnfessiō, ōnis [cōnfiteor], f., confession, acknowledgment.

cōnfēstim, adv., immediately, at once.

cōnficiō, see faciō.

cōnfīdentia, ae [cōnfīdō, to trust], f., boldness, assurance, confidence.

cōnfīrmātus [orig. part. of cōnfīrmō], adj., courageous, resolute.

cōnfīrmō, see fīrmō.

cōnfiteor, see fateor.

cōnflagrō, āre, āvī, — [con + flagrō, to burn], to burn, be destroyed (by fire).

cōnflīgō, see *flīgō.

cōnflō, see flō.

cōnfluō, see fluō.

cōnfodiō, see fodiō.


cōnfugiō, see fugiō.

congerō, see gerō.

congredior, see gradior.

congressus, ūs [congredior], m., meeting, interview, encounter, fight.

congruō, ere, ī, —, to agree, tally.

coniciō, see iaciō.

coniungō, see iungō.

coniunx or coniux [coniungō], m. and f., married person, husband, wife.

coniūrātiō, ōnis [coniūrō], f., a conspiracy, plot.

coniūrātī, ōrum [orig. part. of coniūrō], m. pl., conspirators.

coniūrō, see iūrō.

coniux, see coniunx.

conlaudō, see laudō.

conlēga, ae [con + legō], m., one chosen at the same time, a colleague.

conligō, see legō.

conlocō, see locō.

conloquium, ī [conloquor], n., an interview, conference.

conloquor, see loquor.

cōnor, ārī, ātus sum, to attempt, try.

conqueror, see queror.

conquīrō, see quaerō.

cōnsalūtō, see salūtō.

cōnscendō, see scandō.

cōnscientia, ae [con + sciō], f., consciousness, knowledge.

cōnscīscō, see scīscō.

cōnscius [con + sciō], adj., acquainted with, aware of.

cōnscrībō, see scrībō.

cōnscrīptus [orig. part. of cōnscrībō], adj., enrolled; patrēs cōnscrīptī, the official title of the senators. Roman writers took this phrase as = patrēs et cōnscrīptī, explaining patrēs as patricians, of whom orig. the senate was wholly composed, and cōnscrīptī as denoting the plebeians newly enrolled in the senate in 509 B.C., after the expulsion of the kings. It may, however, = enrolled patricians, to 147b distinguish the senators from the patricians who were not enrolled in the senate.

cōnsecrō, see sacrō.

cōnsēnsus, ūs [cōnsentiō], m., united opinion, consent, agreement.

cōnsentiō, see sentiō.

cōnsequor, see sequor.

cōnserō, see serō.

cōnservō, see servō.

cōnsīderō, āre, āvī, ātus, to look at closely, examine, reflect, consider.

cōnsīdō, see sīdō.

cōnsilium, ī [cf. cōnsulō], n., plan, scheme; judgment, wit, sense, shrewdness; cōnsilium capere or inīre, to plan.

cōnsistō, see sistō.

cōnsobrīnus, ī [con + soror], m., first-cousin, cousin.

cōnsōlor, ārī, ātus sum [con + sōlor, to comfort], to comfort, cheer.

cōnspectus, ūs [cōnspiciō], m., sight, view.

cōnspiciō, see *speciō.

cōnspicuus [cōnspiciō], adj., in plain sight, conspicuous, remarkable.

cōnspīrātiō, ōnis [cōnspīrō, to breathe together, plot], f., a plot.

cōnspīrātī, ōrum [cōnspīrō, to plot], m. pl., conspirators.

cōnstāns, antis [orig. part. of cōnstō], adj., of strong character, firm, resolute; steadfast, consistent.

cōnstanter [cōnstāns], adv., firmly, resolutely, steadfastly.

cōnstantia, ae [cōnstāns], f., a typical Roman virtue, strength of character, steadiness of purpose, firmness; courage, faithfulness.

cōnsternō, see sternō.

cōnstituō, see statuō.

cōnstō, see stō.

cōnsuēscō, see suēscō.

cōnsuētūdō, inis [cōnsuētus, part. of cōnsuēscō], f., habit, custom.


cōnsul, ulis, m., a consul, the title given to the two highest officials of the Roman republic. The office was created in 509 B.C. At first its powers were equal to those of the kings, except in religious matters. Later, certain of these powers were transferred to other magistrates. The consuls were elected annually; their joint names were used in giving dates. At the close of their official term, the consuls usually governed a province for a year as proconsuls.

cōnsulāris, e [cōnsul], adj., of consular rank; as noun, an ex-consul.

cōnsulātus, ūs [cōnsul], m., consulship.

cōnsulō, ere, uī, tus, to take counsel, deliberate; to take counsel with, to consult; graviter cōnsulere, to take vigorous measures.

cōnsultō, āre, āvī, ātus [freq. of cōnsulō], to take counsel, deliberate.

cōnsūmō, see sūmō.

contemnō, ere, tempsī, temptus, to despise, scorn.

contemptor, ōris [contemnō], m., one who despises, scorner.

contendō, see tendō.

contentiō, ōnis [contendō], f., straining, effort, energy; dispute, strife.

contentus [orig. part. of contineō], adj., content, satisfied with.

continentia, ae [contineō], f., self-restraint, moderation.

contineō, see teneō.

contingō, see tangō.

continuō [continuus], adv., forthwith, straightway.

continuus [contineō], adj., uninterrupted, continuous, successive, incessant.

cōntiō, ōnis [orig. co(n)ventiō, from conveniō], f., an assembly, meeting.

contrā, prep. with acc., against, contrary to.


contrahō, see trahō.

contrārius [contrā], adj., opposite, contrary.

contubernālis, is [con + taberna, a tent], m., tent-companion, comrade.

contumēlia, ae, f., insult, reproach, abuse.

contundō [con + tundō, to beat, strike], to crush, destroy.

contus, ī, m., a pole, pike.

cōnūbium, ī [con + nūbō], n., marriage, right of intermarriage.

convalēscō, ere, valuī, — [con + valeō], to begin to be well, recover.

conveniēns, entis [conveniō], adj., agreeing or consistent with, befitting.

conveniō, see veniō.

convertō, see vertō.

convincō, see vincō.

convīvium, ī [con + vīvō], n., a feast.

convocō, see vocō.

coorior, see orior.

cophinus, ī, m., a basket.

cōpia, ae [co(n) + ops], f., abundance, supply; opportunity; in pl., resources, forces, troops.

cōpiōsē [cōpiōsus], adv., abundantly; of speech, fluently, eloquently.

cōpiōsus [cōpia], adj., abounding in, well supplied.

coquus, ī, m., a cook.

cōram [co(n) + ōs], adv., before one’s eyes, in person; prep. with abl., before, in the presence of.

corium, ī, n., skin, hide.

Cornēlia, ae, f., Cornelia.

1. A daughter of P. Scipio Africanus Maior, and mother of the Gracchi.

2. A daughter of L. Cornelius Cinna, first wife of Julius Caesar.

Cornēlius, ī, m., the name of a very important Roman gens. See Cinna, Cossus, Lentulus, Scīpiō, and Sulla.

cornū, ūs, n., horn; wing (of an army).


corōna, ae, f., a crown, garland. See cīvicus.

corpus, oris, n., a body.

corrigō, see regō.

corripiō, see rapiō.

corrumpō, see rumpō.

corruō, see ruō.

corvus, ī, m., a raven. In XVI. 3 it may be translated grappling-iron, though the reference is rather to a wooden boarding bridge, which swung freely round a pole in the prow of the ship. In battle it was dropped upon the deck of a hostile vessel and held there by a sharp iron spike in its under side.

cōs, cōtis, f., flint stone, whetstone.

Cossus, ī, m., A. Cornēlius, consul in 343 B.C.

cottīdiānus [cottīdiē, daily], adj., daily; usual, customary; everyday, commonplace.

Crassus, ī, m., M. Licinius, called Dīves because of his enormous wealth; consul in 70 B.C., and triumvir with Caesar and Pompey in 60; defeated and killed by the Parthians 53 B.C.

crēber, bra, brum, adj., crowded, numerous, incessant.

crēdō, ere, crēdidī, crēditus, to lend, entrust to; believe in, trust; believe, think.

Cremera, ae, f., a river in Etruria, near Veii.

cremō, āre, āvī, ātus, to burn.

Cremōna, ae, f., a town on the river Po.

creō, āre, āvī, ātus, to make, create; to choose, elect.

re—recreō, āre, āvī, ātus, to renew, revive, encourage.

crēscō, ere, crēvī, crētus, to grow, increase.

in—incrēscō, ere, crēvī, —, to grow upon; grow, increase.

crīminor, ārī, ātus sum [crīmen, a 149b charge], to complain of, denounce; with infin., to charge.

crīnis, is, m., hair.

cruciātus, ūs [cruciō], m., torture, torment.

cruciō, āre, āvī, ātus [crux], to crucify, torture, torment.

crūdēlis, e, adj., cruel, unfeeling.

crūdēlitās, ātis [crūdēlis], f., cruelty.

cruentus [cf. cruor], adj., blood-stained.

crumēna, ae, f., a purse, money bag.

cruor, ōris, m., running blood, gore.

crūs, crūris, n., a leg.

crux, crucis, f., cross, gallows.

crystallinus [crystallum, crystal], adj., of crystal; as noun, crystallinum, ī (sc. vās), n., a vase of crystal.

cubiculum, ī [cubō], n., a bedchamber.

cubō, āre, uī, itum, to lie down, recline; to lie sick.

re—recubō, āre, —, —, to lie on one’s back, lie, recline.

cūiās, ātis, interr. pron., of what country? whence?

culpa, ae, ī., fault, guilt.

cultellus, ī [dim. of culter], m., a small knife.

culter, trī, m., knife, dagger.

cultus, ūs [colō], m., cultivation; refinement, luxury; mode of living, style.

cum, prep. with abl., with, together with, at the same time with. In composition the forms com, con, and co are used, and denote (1) accompaniment, (2) intensity.

cum, conj.; of time, when, while, whenever; of cause, since; of concession, although; cum . . . tum, both . . . and, not only . . . but also.

*cumbō, an old verb, same root as cubō.

ad—accumbō, ere, cubuī, cubitum, to lie or recline (esp. at table).


in—incumbō, ere, cubuī, cubitum, to lie or lean upon; devote one’s self.

ob—occumbō, ere, cubuī, cubitum, to fall (in death), die.

prō—prōcumbō, ere, cubuī, cubitum, to fall forward, fall prostrate.

cunctātiō, ōnis [cunctor], f., delay.

Cunctātor, ōris [cunctor], m., Delayer, a name given to Q. Fabius Maximus.

cunctor, ārī, ātus sum, to delay, linger.

cupidē [cupidus], adv., eagerly.

cupiditās, ātis [cupidus], f., craving, desire, eagerness.

cupīdō, inis [cf. cupidus], f., desire, craving, greed.

cupidus [cupiō], adj., desirous, fond; greedy, covetous.

cupiō, ere, īvī (iī), ītus, to crave, desire, covet.

cūr, adv., why? for what reason?

cūra, ae, f., care, anxiety.

Curēs, īum, f. pl., a Sabine town.

Cūria, ae, f., a curia, ward, one of the ten divisions into which each of the three orig. Roman tribes was divided; council chamber, esp. the Roman Senate-house, either the Cūria Hostīlia, adjoining the Forum on the north side, or the Cūria Pompēia, built by Pompey in the Campus Martius. In the latter Caesar was murdered.

Cūriātius, ī, m., name of the three Alban brothers who fought with the Horatii.

Curius, ī, m., gentile name of Mānius Curius Dentātus, a famous Roman hero, renowned for his frugality and simplicity of life. He died in 270 B.C.

cūrō, āre, āvī, ātus [cūra], to care for, attend to; with gerundive and infin., see to it that, take care that.

prō—prōcūrō, āre, āvī, ātus, to care for, attend to; of omens, to avert by sacrifices.


currō, ere, cucurrī, cursum, to run.

ad—accurrō, ere, (cu)currī, cursum, to run, to, hasten towards.

con—concurrō, ere, (cu)currī, cursum, to run together; to rush together (in battle), charge, fight.

dē—dēcurrō, ere, (cu)curri, cursum, to run down, hasten down.

dis—discurrō, ere, (cu)currī, cursum, to run in different directions; wander, roam.

ob—occurrō, ere, (cu)currī, cursum, to run to meet, meet; withstand, oppose.

sub—succurrō, ere, ī, —, to run to, help, aid.

currus, ūs [currō], m., a chariot.

cursus, ūs [currō], m., running; journey, passage, course; speed.

curūlis, e [currus], adj., of a chariot. Sella curūlis, see sella.

cūstōdia, ae [cūstōs], f., watching; guard-house, prison; pl., pickets, watchmen.

cūstōdiō, īre, īvī, ītus [cūstōs], to watch, guard, defend.

cūstōs, ōdis, m. and f., guardian, protector.

Cȳrus, ī, m., Cyrus the Great, 559-529 B.C., founder of the Persian empire.


D., abbreviation of the name Decimus.

Dācī, ōrum, m. pl., the Dacians, a people living on the north of the Danube.

damnātiō, ōnis [damnō], f., condemnation.

damnō, āre, āvī, ātus, to judge guilty, condemn; capite damnāre, to condemn to death.

con—condemnō, āre, āvī, ātus, to find guilty, condemn, sentence.

, prep, with abl.; of place, from, down from, out of; of time, after, during; 151a of cause, in consequence of, through; of relation, concerning, in respect to. In compounds it generally denotes thoroughness, but occasionally has negative force.

dea, ae, f., a goddess.

deambulō, see ambulō.

dēbeō, see habeō.

dēbilis [ + habilis], adj., weak, disabled, helpless.

dēcēdō, see cēdō.

decem, indecl. num. adj., ten.

december, bris, bre, adj., tenth; as noun, December (sc. mēnsis), m., December, the tenth month (counting from March, with which the Roman year originally began).

decemvir, ī [decem + vir], m., a member of a commission of ten men, a decemvir.

dēcernō, see cernō.

decet, ēre, uit, impers., it is fitting.

decimus [decem], num. adj., tenth.

Decimus, ī, m., a Roman praenomen.

dēcipiō, see capiō.

Decius, ī, m., the gentile name of P. Decius Mūs, consul B.C. 340.

dēclārō, āre, āvī, ātus [ + clārus], to make clear, disclose; show, declare.

decorō, āre, āvī, ātus [decus], to adorn, deck.

dēcurrō, see currō.

decus, oris, n., grace, glory, honor, splendor, ornament.

dēcutiō, see quatiō.

dēditīcius, ī [dēditus], m., a captive.

dēditiō, ōnis [dēdō], f., a surrender.

dēditus [orig. part. of dēdō], adj., surrendered; devoted to, addicted to. As noun, dēditus, ī, m., a captive.

dēdō, see .

dēdūcō, see dūcō.

dēfatīgātiō, ōnis, f., weariness.

dēfendō, see *fendō.

dēfēnsiō, ōnis [dēfendō], f., a defense.


dēfēnsor, ōris [dēfendō], m., a defender.

dēferō, see ferō.

dēfessus, adj., worn out, weary.

dēficiō, see faciō.

dēfīgō, see fīgō.

deflectō, see flectō.

dēfōrmitās, ātis [dēfōrmis, ugly], f., ugliness, disfigurement.

dēfungor, see fungor.

dēgō, see agō.

dēhonestō, āre, —, — [ + honestō (cf. honōs), to honor], to disgrace, dishonor.

dēiciō, see iaciō.

dein, see deinde.

deinceps, adv., one after the other, in succession; next; thereafter, in the future.

deinde or dein [ + inde], adv., subsequently; then, next; thereafter, from that time on.

dēlābor, see lābor.

dēlēctō, āre, āvi, ātus [ + laciō], to delight, please, entertain.

dēlēctus [orig. part. of (1) dēligō], adj., picked, choice.

dēlēctus, ūs [(1) dēligō], m., a picking out, a levy, draft; dēlēctum agere or habēre, to hold a levy.

dēleō, ēre, ēvī, ētus, to blot out, destroy.

dēlīberābundus [dēlīberō], adj., pondering, reflecting.

dēlīberō, āre, āvī, ātus [ + lībra, a balance], to weigh (consider) well, deliberate, ponder.

dēlicātē [dēlicātus], adv., luxuriously, effeminately.

dēlicātus [cf. dēliciae], adj., devoted to pleasure, luxurious, effeminate.

dēliciae, ārum, pl. f., delights, pleasure, luxury.

(1) dēligō, see legō.

(2) dēligō, āre, see ligō.

delīrō, āre, —, — [ + līra, a furrow], to be crazy.


dēlitēscō, ere, lituī, — [ + lateō, to hide], lie hid, be concealed.

Delphi, ōrum, pl. m., Delphi, a town of Phocis in Central Greece, renowned for its oracle of Apollo.

dēmissē [dēmissus, modest], adv., modestly, humbly, abjectly.

dēmittō, see mittō.

dēmoror, see moror.

dēmum, adv., at last, finally; tum dēmum, then at last, not till then.

dēnārius, ī, m., a silver coin, equivalent orig. to 10, afterwards to 16, asses. Its value varied from 16 to 20 cents.

dēnegō, see negō.

dēnique, adv., thereafter, thereupon; at last, finally; briefly, in short.

dēnūntiō, see nūntiō.

dēnuō [ + novō], adv., anew, again.

deōsculor, see ōsculor.

dēpellō, see pellō.

dēpereō, see pereō.

dēpōnō, see pōnō.

dēpōscō, see pōscō.

dēprecor, see precor.

dēprehendō, see prehendō.

dērīdeō, see rīdeō.

dēscendō, see scandō.

dēscīscō, see scīscō.

dēscrībō, see scrībō.

dēserō, see serō.

dēsīderium, ī [dēsīderō], n., longing, yearning; regret.

dēsīderō, āre, āvī, ātus, to long for; require, need.

dēsiliō, see saliō.

dēsipiēns, entis [orig. part. of dēsipiō], adj., foolish, silly. As noun, dēsipiēns, entis, m., a fool, madman.

dēsipiō, see sapiō.

dēsistō, see sistō.

dēspērātiō, ōnis [dēspērō], f., despair, desperation.

dēspērō, see spērō.

dēspiciō, see *speciō.


dēspondeō, see spondeō.

dēstinō, āre, āvī, ātus, to make fast, fix; resolve, design, plan.

dēstringō, see stringō.

dēsum, see sum.

dēsuper [ + super], adv., from above.

dētegō, see tegō.

dēterreō, see terreō.

dētineō, see teneō.

dētrahō, see trahō.

dētrēctō, āre, āvī, ātus [ neg. + trāctō, to handle, manage], to decline, shirk.

dētrīmentum, ī [dēterō, to rub away], n., loss, damage.

deūrō, see ūrō.

deus, ī, m., a god, divinity.

dēvincō, see vincō.

dēvolō, see (2) volō.

dēvoveō, see voveō.

dexter, era, erum, and tra, trum, adj., right. As noun, dextra (sc. manus), f., the right hand.

diadēma, atis, n., a royal crown, diadem.

Diāna, ae, f., an ancient Italian goddess, identified by the Romans with the Greek Artemis, goddess of the moon and the chase.

dīcō, ere, dīxī, dictus, to say, speak; call, name; appoint; causam dīcere, to plead a case; diem dīcere alicuī, to bring a complaint against some one; iūs dīcere, to administer justice, hold court; multam dīcere, to impose a fine.

ad—addīcō, ere, dīxī, dictus, to be propitious to, assent; with acc., to adjudge, award.

ē—ēdīcō, ere, dīxī, dictus, to make known, proclaim; order, command; diem ēdīcere, to set a day (by public proclamation).

in—indīcō, ere, dīxī, dictus, to proclaim, announce; appoint; impose, inflict.


inter—interdīcō, ere, dīxī, dictum, to forbid, prohibit, exclude.

prae—praedīcō, ere, dīxī, dictus, to foretell, prophesy; warn, admonish.

dicō, āre, āvī, ātus, to declare; dedicate, consecrate.

ab—abdicō, āre, āvī, ātus, to disown, reject; sē abdicāre, to resign.

in—indicō, āre, āvī, ātus, to make known, reveal.

prae—praedicō, āre, āvī, ātus, to say openly, assert, declare.

dictātor, ōris [dictō, to order], m., a dictator, a magistrate usually appointed only in times of extreme peril. He was named by one of the consuls, after the senate had declared the appointment of a dictator necessary. He held unlimited powers, but the term of his office was limited to six months.

dictātūra, ae [dictātor], f., dictatorship.

dictitō, āre, āvī, ātus [freq. of dīcō], to say often, assert, insist.

dictum, ī [dīcō], n., saying, word, remark; command.

dīdūcō, see dūcō.

diēs, ēī, m. and (sometimes in sing.) f., a day; in diēs, from day to day.

diffīdō, ere, fīsus sum [dis neg. + fīdō, to trust], to distrust, doubt.

diffluō, see fluō.

dīgnitās, ātis [dīgnus], f., worth, high character; eminence, rank, reputation.

dīgnus, adj., worthy, deserving of.

dīgredior, see gradior.

dīligenter [dīligō], adv., industriously, diligently.

dīligentia, ae [dīligō], f., carefulness, diligence, industry.

dīligō, see legō.

dīlūcēscō, ere, lūxī, — [cf. lūx], to grow light, dawn.


dīmicātiō, ōnis [dīmicō], f., a fight.

dīmicō, āre, āvī, ātum, to fight.

dīmittō, see mittō.

dīrigō, see regō.

dīrimō, see emō.

dīripiō, see rapiō.

dīruō, see ruō.

dīs, dītis, comp. dītior, sup. dītissimus, adj., rich, wealthy.

dis or , inseparable prefix, apart, asunder; sometimes negative, not.

discēdō, see cēdō.

discerpō, see carpō.

dīsciplīna, ae [dīscō], f., teaching, training, discipline.

dīscipulus, ī [dīscō], m., a pupil.

dīscō, ere, didicī, —, to learn.

dīscrībō, see scrībō.

discrīmen, inis [discernō, to divide], n., difference; turning-point, decision; peril, crisis.

discurrō, see currō.

disertus [disserō], adj., eloquent.

dispēnsātor, ōris [dispēnsō, to manage], m., manager, steward, treasurer.

dīspiciō, see *speciō.

displiceō, see placeō.

dispōnō, see pōnō.

disputō, see putō.

dissēnsiō, ōnis [dissentiō, to disagree], f., disagreement, strife.

disserō, see serō.

dissimilis, e [dis neg. + similis], adj., unlike.

dissimulō, see simulō.

dissipō, āre, āvī, ātus, to scatter, squander, dissipate.

dissuādeō, see suādeō.

distrahō, see trahō.

distribuō, see tribuō.

dītior, dītissimus, see dīs.

dītō, āre, āvī, ātus [dīs], to enrich.

diū, adv., for a long time, long.

diuturnus [diū], adj., prolonged, long.

dīversus [dīvertō], adj., turned different 154a ways, opposite, contrary; in dīversa, apart, asunder.

dīvertō, see vertō.

dīvidō, ere, vīsī, vīsus, to divide, separate, distribute.

dīvīnitus [dīvīnus], adv., by divine agency, providentially.

dīvīnus [dīvus], adj., godlike, divine.

dīvitiae, ārum [dives, rich], pl. f., wealth.

dīvus, adj., godlike, deified; often applied to the Roman emperors after death.

dō, dare, dedī, datus, to put, place; give, present, entrust; operam dare, to pay attention; poenās dare, to suffer punishment.

ab—abdō, dere, didī, ditus, to put away, hide, conceal.

ad—addō, dere, didī, ditus, to put or join to, add.

circumdō, dere, didī, ditus, to place around, surround, enclose.

con—condō, dere, didī, ditus, to put together, found, build; put away, hide; sheathe (a sword).

dē—dēdō, dere, didī, ditus, to give up, surrender.

ex—ēdō, dere, didī, ditus, to give out, give; give birth to, bear; publish, announce, reveal; perform; lūdōs ēdere, to celebrate games.

in—indō, dere, didī, ditus, to put in or on, give, confer.

per—perdō, dere, didī, ditus, to lose, destroy, ruin, waste.

prō—prōdō, dere, didī, ditus, to give or put forth, make known; hand down, record; betray.

re—reddō, dere, didī, ditus, to give back, restore, return; deliver (a letter); render.

sub—subdō, dere, didī, ditus, to put under, apply.

trāns—trādō, dere, didī, ditus, to give over, give up, surrender; hand 154b down, report, relate; hand over, entrust.

doceō, ēre, uī, tus, to teach, point out.

ē—ēdoceō, ēre, uī, tus, to teach thoroughly.

doctor, ōris [doceō], m., teacher.

doctrīna, ae [doceō], f., instruction; learning, training.

doctus [orig. part. of doceō], adj., educated, learned, skilled.

dolor, ōris [doleō, to feel pain], m., pain, grief, resentment.

dolōsē [dolus], adv., craftily.

dolus, ī, m., craft, trickery.

domicilium, ī [domus], n., dwelling.

dominātiō, ōnis [dominor], f., rule, supremacy, dominion.

dominātus, ūs [dominor, to rule], m., rule, sway, mastery, command.

dominus, ī, m., master (esp. of slaves), ruler, lord.

domō, āre, uī, itus, to tame, subdue.

domus, ūs, f., a house, home; loc. domī, at home; acc. domum, homewards, home.

dōnātīvum, ī [dōnō], n., a gift.

dōnec, conj., while, until, as long as.

dōnō, āre, āvī, ātus [dōnum], to give, present.

dōnum, ī [], n., a gift, present.

dormiō, īre, īvī, —, to sleep.

dorsum, ī, n., back (of an animal); range or ridge (of a mountain).

dōs, dōtis [], f., dowry.

dōtālis, e [dōs], adj., of a dowry; dōtālia dōna, wedding presents.

dubitō, āre, āvī, ātum [dubius], to doubt, waver, hesitate.

dubius, adj., doubtful, uncertain; in dubium vocāre, to call in question.

ducentī, ae, a [duo + centum], num. adj., two hundred.

dūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus, to lead; prolong; consider, reckon; fossam dūcere, to build a ditch; fūnus dūcere, 155a to celebrate a funeral; uxōrem dūcere, to marry.

ab—abdūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus, to lead off or away, drag off, remove.

ad—addūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus, to lead to, bring; induce, influence.

con—condūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus, to bring together; contribute to, serve.

dē—dēdūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus, to lead (away); attend, escort.

dis—dīdūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus, to lead or draw apart, separate, open.

ē—ēdūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus, to lead forth or out; bring up, rear.

in—indūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus, to lead or bring in, introduce; lead, induce, influence.

intrō—intrōdūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus, to lead or bring in, usher in, admit.

per—perdūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus, to lead, conduct, escort; pursue; spend, pass.

re—redūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus, to lead or escort back, accompany.

sē—sēdūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus, to lead apart or aside.

sub—subdūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus, to lead or draw away (secretly), withdraw, remove; hide.

trāns—trādūcō, ere, dūxī, ductus, to lead or carry across, transport; spend, pass (time).

dūdum, adv., a while ago. See iam.

Duīlius, ī, m., C., a Roman general who defeated the Carthaginians in a naval battle, 260 B.C.

(1) dum, adverbial particle found only in compounds, a while; with negatives, yet.

(2) dum, conj., while, until.

dummodo [dum + modo], conj., provided.

duo, ae, o, num. adj., two.


duodecim [duo + decem], num. adj., twelve.

duodēnī, ae, a, adj., twelve each, twelve.

duplex, icis [duo + plicō, to fold], adj., twofold, double.

duplicō, āre, āvī, ātus [duplex], to double, repeat.

dūrō, āre, āvī, ātus [dūrus], to harden; endure, hold out, last.

dūrus, adj., hard, rough; rude, uncultivated; unfeeling.

dux, ducis [dūcō], m., leader, guide; commander, general.

Dȳrrachium, ī, n., a town in Illyria, on the east coast of the Adriatic, nearly opposite Brundisium.


ē, see ex.

ecquid, interr. adv., used (1) to emphasize a direct question, at all? (2) in indir. question, whether.

ēdīcō, see dīcō.

ēdictum, ī [ēdīcō], n., proclamation, edict.

ēditus [orig. part. of ēdō], adj., high.

edō, ere (ēsse), ēsī, ēsus, to eat, consume.

ēdō, see .

ēdoceō, see doceō.

ēducātiō, ōnis [ēducō], f., training, education.

ēdūcō, see dūcō.

ēducō, āre, āvī, ātus [ēdūcō], to bring up, rear, train, educate.

effēminātus [orig. part. of effēminō, to make womanish], adj., womanish.

(1) efferō, see ferō.

(2) efferō, āre, āvī, ātus [ex + ferus], to render wild or savage; madden.

efficiō, see faciō.

efflāgitō, see flāgitō.

effugiō, see fugiō.

effundō, see fundō.

egeō, ēre, uī, —, to be lacking; to be poor or in need.


Egeria, ae, f., the nymph from whom King Numa received revelations.

ego, meī, pers. pron., I; pl., nōs, we.

ēgredior, see gradior.

ēgregiē [ēgregius], adv., excellently, exceedingly, strikingly.

ēgregius [ē + grex], adj., select, distinguished, excellent.

ēiciō, see iaciō.

ēlābor, see lābor.

ēlabōrō, see labōrō.

ēlanguēscō, ere, ēlanguī, —, to grow faint or feeble; slacken, abate.

ēlātus [orig. part. of (1) efferō], adj., high; elated, exalted, puffed up.

ēleganter [ēlegāns, choice], adv., with good judgment, judiciously.

ēlegantia, ae [ēlegāns, choice], f., taste, refinement, elegance, grace.

elephantus, ī, m., the elephant.

ēliciō, see *laciō.

ēlīdō, see laedō.

ēligō, see legō.

ēloquentia, ae [ēloquor, to speak], f., eloquence.

ēmineō, ēre, uī, —, to stand out, tower up.

ēmittō, see mittō.

emō, ere, ēmī, ēmptus, to take; buy, purchase; gain, acquire.

con—cōmō, ere, cōmpsī, cōmptus, to bring together, arrange, dress (the hair), comb.

dis—dīrimō, ere, ēmī, ēmptus, to take apart, separate; rēs dīrimere, to adjust matters.

ex—eximo, ere, ēmī, ēmptus, to take out, remove; free, release.

inter—interimō, ere, ēmī, ēmptus, to take from the midst (of men), kill.

re—redimō, ere, ēmī, ēmptus, to buy back, ransom; replace.

ēn, interj., lo! behold! see!

enim, conj., always postpositive, 156b namely, in fact, you know; for, because.

ēniteō, see niteō.

ēnītor, see nītor.

ēnsis, is, m., a sword.

(1) eō, īre, īvī (iī), itūrus, to go or come, walk, march.

ab—abeō, īre, īvī (iī), itūrus, to go away, depart; abīre in, pass into, change into.

ad—adeō, īre, īvī (iī), itus, to go or come to, approach, visit.

ante—anteeō, īre, īvī (iī), —, to go before.

+ per—dēpereō, īre, īvī (iī), itūrus, to die, perish.

ex—exeō, īre, īvī (iī), itūrus, to go or come forth; retire.

in—ineō, īre, īvī (iī), itus, to enter, begin; cōnsilium inīre, to form a plan.

inter—intereō, īre, īvī (iī), itūrus, to perish, die.

intrō—introeō, īre, īvī (iī), itūrus, to enter.

ob—obeō, īre, īvī (iī), itus, to go to meet; perform; perish, die.

per—pereō, īre, īvī (iī), itūrus, to perish, disappear, die.

praeter—praetereō, īre, īvī (iī), itus, to go or pass by; omit.

re—redeō, īre, īvī (iī), itūrus, to go or come back, return.

sub—subeō, īre, īvī (iī), itus, to come or go up to, go under, encounter, face (danger); venēnum subit, the poison spreads.

trāns—transeō, īre, īvī (iī), itus, to cross (over); pass by.

(2) [is], adv., for that reason, therefore; to that place, thither; to that degree, so far.

Ephesius, adj., Ephesian.

Ephesus, ī, f., a Greek city on the west coast of Asia Minor.

epigramma, atis, n., epigram, poem.


Ēpīrus, ī, f., a country on the Ionian Sea, northwest of Greece proper.

epistula, ae, f., a letter.

epulor, ārī, ātus sum [epulum], to feast.

epulum, ī, n. (pl., epulae, ārum, f.), a feast, banquet.

eques, itis [equus], m., a horseman, cavalryman; knight, or member of the equestrian order. The three centuries of knights established by Romulus formed the cavalry of the Roman army. Later, the number was increased to 1800, to each of whom a horse was furnished by the state, together with an allowance for its keep. Later, the term equitēs included not only those who actually served in the army, but also those who possessed a certain fortune, which in the time of Augustus was set at about $15,000.

equester, tris, tre [equus], adj., of the knights, knightly.

equitō, āre, āvī, — [equus], to ride.

ad—adequitō, āre, āvī, —, to ride to, ride up.

equus, ī, m., a horse.

ērēctus [orig. part. of ērigō], adj., upright, erect.

ergā, prep. with acc., towards, to, with respect to.

ergō, adv., expressing an inference, like now, well, then, therefore.

ērigō, see regō.

error, ōris [errō, to wander], m., wandering, error, mistake.

ērubēscō, ere, ērubuī, —, to grow red, blush; feel ashamed.

ērudiō, īre, īvī, ītus [ē + rudis], to polish, educate, train.

ērumpō, see rumpō.

ēruō, see ruō.

ēsca, ae [edō], f., food, bait.

ēscendō, see scandō.

Ēsquilīnus, ī, m. (sc. collis), the Esquiline 157b Hill, the largest of the seven hills of Rome.

et, (1) adv., also, too, even; (2) conj., and, and yet, but; et . . . et, both . . . and.

etiam [et + iam], adv. and conj., and also, also, even.

Etrūria, ae, f., the country of the Etruscans, northwest of Latium.

Etrūscī, ōrum, pl. m., the Etruscans, the people of Etruria.

etsī [et + ], conj., even if, although.

Eurīpidēs, is, m., a Greek tragic poet of the fifth century B.C.

Eurōpa, ae, f., Europe.

ēvādō, see vādō.

ēvehō, see vehō.

ēventus, ūs [ēveniō, to come out], m., outcome, result; occurrence, event.

ēvertō, see vertō.

ēvocō, see vocō.

ex, before consonants often ē, prep. with abl.; of place, out of (the midst of), from; of cause, in consequence of, because of; according to; in compounds, forth, out; thoroughly; not.

exāctor, ōris [exigō, to exact], m., exactor, enforcer.

exāminō, āre, āvī, ātus [exāmen, means of weighing], to weigh, examine, compare.

exanimō, āre, āvī, ātus [ex + anima], to put out of breath, kill.

exārdēscō, ere, ārsī, — [ex + ārdēscō, intens. of ārdeō, to burn, glow], to blaze forth.

exarō, āre, āvī, ātus [ex + arō, to plow], to scratch off, compose.

exasperō, āre, āvī, ātus [ex + asper], to roughen, irritate, provoke.

exaudiō, see audiō.

excelsus, adj., lofty, high; as noun, excelsum, ī, n., elevated station.

excerpō, see carpō.

excidium, ī, n., downfall, ruin.

excipiō, see capiō.


excitō, see citō.

exclāmō, see clāmō.

exclūdō, see claudō.

excōgitō, see agitō.

excolō, see colō.

excubiae, ārum [ex + cubō], pl. f., a lying out on guard; the watch, watchmen.

excūsātiō, ōnis [excūsō], f., excuse.

excūsō, āre, āvī, ātus [ex + causa], to free from trial, excuse.

excutiō, see quatiō.

exemplum, ī [eximō], n., specimen, example, precedent, warning.

exeō, see (1) .

exerceō, see arceō.

exercitus, ūs [exerceō], m., an army.

exhauriō, see hauriō.

exhibeō, see habeō.

exhorrēscō, ere, horruī, —, to shudder at, shrink from.

exigō, see agō.

exiguus [exigō, to weigh exactly], adj., scanty, short, brief.

eximius [eximō], adj., choice, distinguished, remarkable, excellent.

eximō, see emō.

exīstimō, āre, āvī, ātus [ex + aestimō, to value], to value; think, believe.

exitium, ī [exeō], n., destruction, ruin, death.

exitus, ūs [exeō], m., outcome, close; departure; end of life, death.

exorior, see orior.

expediō, īre, īvī (iī), ītus [ex + pēs], to set free, extricate; procure, obtain.

expellō, see pellō.

expendō, see pendō.

experīmentum, ī [experior], n., proof, test, trial.

experior, īrī, tus sum, to test, try; find out, learn, experience.

expetō, see petō.

expīlō, āre, āvī, ātus, to plunder, rob.

expiō, āre, āvī, ātus [ex + piō, to appease], 158b to make amends for, atone for.

expleō, see *pleō.

explōrō, āre, āvī, ātus, to reconnoiter.

expōnō, see pōnō.

expōscō, see pōscō.

expositiō, ōnis [expōnō], f., exposure.

exprimō, see premō.

expūgnātiō, ōnis [expūgnō], f., a taking by storm, storming, capture.

expūgnō, see pūgnō.

exquīsītus [exquīrō, to seek out], adj., carefully sought out, special.

exsecrō, see sacrō.

exsequiae, ārum [ex + sequor], pl. f., funeral procession, funeral.

exserō, see serō.

exsilium, ī, n., banishment, exile.

exsistō, see sistō.

exspectātiō, ōnis [exspectō], f., expectation, anticipation.

exspectō, see spectō.

exspīrō, see spīrō.

exstinguō, see stinguō.

exstō, see stō.

exstruō, see struō.

exsultō, see saltō.

extemplō [ex + dim. of tempus], adv., on the instant, at once, forthwith.

exter or exterus, tera, terum, adj., outer, foreign; comp. exterior; sup. extrēmus, outermost, extreme; last, furthermost; last part of.

extimēscō, ere, timuī, — [ex + *timēscō, inceptive of timeō], to fear or dread greatly.

extrā [exter], (1) adv., on the outside, without; (2) prep, with acc., outside of, beyond.

extrahō, see trahō.

extraōrdinārius [extrā + ōrdō], adj., out of the common run, uncommon.

extrēmus, see exter.

exuō, ere, ī, ūtus, to draw or pull off, lay aside; strip, despoil.

exūrō, see ūrō.



faber, fabrī, m., a workman (in hard materials), smith, carpenter.

Fabius, ī, m., the name of a famous Roman gens. See Māximus.

fabricō, āre, āvī, ātus [cf. faber], to make, build, construct.

fābula, ae [for, to speak], f., story, play.

facētē [facētus, witty], adv., wittily.

facile [facilis], adv., easily; readily, willingly.

facilis, e [faciō], adj., easy.

facinus, oris [faciō], n., a deed; crime.

faciō, facere, fēcī, factus, to make, do, perform; choose, appoint; stīpendia facere, to serve a campaign; sūmptum facere, to spend; verba facere, to speak; vim facere, to use violence; pass., fīō, fierī, factus sum, to be done, occur, take place, happen.

ad—adficiō, ere, fēcī, fectus, to do something to, affect; treat, visit with.

con—cōnficiō, ere, fēcī, fectus, to do thoroughly; complete, prepare; accomplish, make; exhaust, kill.

dē—dēficiō, ere, fēcī, fectum, withdraw, revolt; fail, disappear, give out.

ex—efficiō, ere, fēcī, fectus, to work out, bring to pass, accomplish; make, render, cause, effect.

in—īnficiō, ere, fēcī, fectus, to stain, dye; pollute, taint.

inter—interficiō, ere, fēcī, fectus, to kill; murder.

per—perficiō, ere, fēcī, fectus, to do thoroughly, execute, accomplish.

sub—sufficiō, ere, fēcī, fectus, to put under, or in place of, appoint as successor, substitute; intrans., suffice, be sufficient.

factiō, ōnis [faciō], f., party, faction.

factum, ī [faciō], n., a deed, act.


facultās, ātis [facilis], f., means, opportunity; ability, skill.

fācundia, ae [fācundus, eloquent], f., eloquence, oratory.

Falernus, adj., Falernian; ager Falernus, a famous wine-growing district in Campania.

fāma, ae [for, to speak], f., talk, report, rumor; tradition; fame, reputation.

famēs, is, f., hunger.

familia, ae [famulus, a slave], f., the slaves in a household; family, house, race.

familiāris, e [familia], adj., belonging to a household, private, intimate, friendly; well-known; rēs familiāris, private property. As noun, m., an intimate friend.

familiāritās, ātis [familiāris], f., friendship, intimacy.

fāmōsus [fāma], adj., famous; notorious; scurrilous, slanderous.

famula, ae, f., a slave-woman.

fānum, ī, n., a shrine, temple.

fascis, is, m., a bundle; pl., the fasces, a bundle of rods carried by the lictors before various magistrates. Outside of Rome an axe was bound with the rods. The rods and axe were typical of the magistrate’s power to punish, even to the extent of inflicting the death penalty. See līctor.

fāstī, ōrum [fāstus], pl. m., a register, esp. of business days, also of officers, triumphs, etc.; the calendar.

fāstus [fās, right], adj., not forbidden, legal; diēs fāstus, a day on which it was legal to hold court, a business day.

fātālis, e [fātum, fate], adj., fateful, fatal.

fateor, ērī, fassus sum, to confess.

con—cōnfiteor, ērī, fessus sum, to confess freely, acknowledge, avow.

prō—profiteor, ērī, fessus sum, to declare publicly, avow; nōmen profitērī, 160a to avow one’s self a candidate.

faucēs, ium, pl. f., throat.

Faustulus, ī, m., the shepherd who brought up Romulus and Remus.

Faustus, ī [faveō], m., the Lucky, a name given by Sulla to his son.

Fausta, ae [faveō], f., the Lucky, a name given by Sulla to his daughter.

faveō, ēre, fāvī, fautūrus, to favor, support.

favor, ōris [faveō], m., favor, good will.

fax, facis, f., torch, firebrand.

fēlīcitās, ātis [fēlīx], f., good fortune, luck, happiness.

fēlīx, īcis, adj., lucky, fortunate, happy. As noun, m., cognomen of Sulla.

fēmina, ae, f., a woman, female.

femur, femoris, n., the thigh.

*fendō, ere, to strike.

dē—dēfendō, ere, ī, fēnsus, to ward off, repel; defend, protect.

ob—offendō, ere, ī, fēnsus, to strike against, displease, vex.

ferē, adv., almost, about (esp. with numbers).

feriō, īre, percussī, percussus, to strike.

fermē [for ferimē, sup. of ferē], adv., almost, about (esp. with numbers).

ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus, to bear, carry, take; bear, endure, suffer; say, report, tell; pass., to be borne, rush; aegrē, indīgnē or molestē ferre, to take amiss; lēgem ferre, to propose a law.

ab—auferō, ferre, abstulī, ablātus, to take or carry away, remove; steal.

ad—adferō, ferre, attulī, adlātus, to bring to, offer, give; announce, report.

con—cōnferō, ferre, tulī, lātus, to bring together, collect; devote, 160b apply; bestow; sē cōnferre, betake one’s self, go.

dē—dēferō, ferre, tulī, lātus, to bring or carry down or to, carry off, remove; give, offer; report; rem dēferre ad populum, to submit a matter to the people.

ex—efferō, ferre, extulī, ēlātus, to carry out, take away; lift up, puff up, elate, exalt.

in—īnferō, ferre, tulī, lātus, to bring in, upon, or against; bellum īnferre, to wage (offensive) war; sīgna īnferre, to advance against; sē īnferre, to betake one’s self.

ob—offerō, ferre, obtulī, oblātus, to bring before, offer, present; expose.

per—perferō, ferre, tulī, lātus, to bear or carry through, carry; retain.

prae—praeferō, ferre, tulī, lātus, to carry or put before; set before, prefer, rate higher.

prō—prōferō, ferre, tulī, lātus, to carry or bring forth, produce; cite, quote; make known, mention.

re—referō, ferre, rettulī, relātus, to bear or bring back; give back, return, repay; lift, raise; count, reckon; sē referre, to betake one’s self.

trāns—trānsferō, ferre, tulī, lātus, to bear or take over or across, transport; transfer, shift.

ferōx, ōcis [ferus], adj., bold, confident; high-strung, warlike; fierce, cruel.

ferreus [ferrum], adj., of iron, iron.

ferrum, ī, n., iron; an iron tool, as a sword, axe, dagger.

ferus, adj., wild, barbarous, cruel.

fessus, adj., tired, weary; weak, feeble.

fēstīnō, āre, āvī, ātum, to hasten, hurry.

Fētiālis, is (sc. sacerdōs), m., an ambassador, treaty priest, who negotiated 161a treaties of peace, and made formal declarations of war.

Fētiālis, e, adj., pertaining to the Fetiales, Fetial (see preceding word).

fīdēliter [fīdēlis, faithful], adv., faithfully.

Fīdēnātēs, ium, pl. m., the people of Fidenae, an ancient town on the Tiber, five miles north of Rome.

fidēs, fideī, f., good faith, integrity; trust, belief, credence; pledge.

fīdūcia, ae [fīdus, faithful], f., trust, confidence, reliance; courage.

fīgō, ere, fīxī, fīxus, to fix, fasten.

dē—dēfīgō, ere, fīxī, fīxus, to fasten, esp. to fasten (to the ground) with amazement, astonish.

sub—suffīgō, ere, fīxī, fīxus, to fasten beneath or on; crucī suffīgere, to crucify.

trāns—trānsfīgō, ere, fīxī, fīxus, to pierce through, transfix, stab.

fīlia, ae, f., daughter.

fīlius, ī, m., son.

fingō, ere, finxī, fīctus, to form, invent; feign, pretend.

fīniō, īre, īvī, ītus [fīnis], to limit, bound; finish, end, settle.

fīnis, is, m., boundary, limit, end; pl. m., territory.

fīnitimus [fīnis], adj., neighboring; as noun, fīnitimī, ōrum, pl. m., neighbors.

fīō, fierī, factus sum, see faciō.

fīrmō, āre, āvī, ātus [fīrmus], to make firm, strengthen.

ad—adfīrmō, āre, āvī, ātus, to strengthen; assert, declare.

con—cōnfīrmō, āre, āvī, ātus, to strengthen, ratify, confirm; assert.

fīrmus, adj., strong, powerful; trusty.

flāgitō, āre, āvī, ātus, to demand.

ex—efflāgitō, āre, āvī, ātus, to demand vigorously or earnestly.

flāmen, inis, m., a Flamen, a priest devoted to the service of a particular 161b god, esp. Jupiter, Mars, and Quirinus. His office was to make sacrifices and to watch the sacred fire of the god.

flamma, ae, f., flame, fire.

flēbiliter [flēbilis, mournful], adv., mournfully, tearfully.

flectō, ere, flexī, flexus, to bend, turn.

dē—dēflectō, ere, flexī, flexus, to bend or turn aside or away, turn.

in—īnflectō, ere, flexī, flexus, to bend, curb, relax.

fleō, flēre, flēvī, flētus, to weep; bewail.

*flīgō, ere, to strike.

ad—adflīgō, ere, flīxī, flīctus, to dash against or down; afflict, ruin.

con—cōnflīgō, ere, flīxī, flīctus, to dash together, contend, fight.

prō—prōflīgō, āre, āvī, ātus, to dash down, overcome (in battle).

flō, flāre, flāvī, —, to blow.

ad—adflō, flāre, flāvī, —, to blow towards, blow.

con—cōnflō, āre, āvī, ātus, to blow up, kindle, cause; aes aliēnum cōnflāre, to contract debt.

in—īnflō, āre, āvī, ātus, to blow up, inflate.

flōrēns, entis [flōreō], adj., blooming, flourishing; flōrēns iuventa, youthful beauty.

flōreō, ēre, uī, — [flōs, a flower], to bloom, flourish, prosper.

fluctus, ūs [fluō], m., wave, billow, flood.

flūmen, inis [fluō], n., stream, river.

fluō, ere, fluxī, —, to flow.

con—cōnfluō, ere, fluxī, —, to flow or stream together, assemble.

dis—diffluō, ere, fluxī, —, to flow in different directions, melt away, disappear; ōtiō et lūxū diffluere, to abandon one’s self to ease and luxury.

fluvius, ī [fluō], m., a stream, river.

foculus, ī [dim. of focus], m., a fire-pan, brazier.

focus, ī, m., fireplace, hearth.


fodiō, ere, fōdī, fossus, to dig.

con—cōnfodiō, ere, fōdī, fossus, to stab, pierce.

sub—suffodiō, ere, fōdī, fossus, to dig beneath, undermine, tunnel; stab beneath.

trāns—trānsfodiō, ere, fōdī, fossus, to pierce, stab, slash.

foedē [foedus, foul], adv., foully, basely.

foederātus [foedus], adj., leagued or allied with.

foedus, eris, n., a treaty, alliance.

fōns, fontis, m., a spring, fountain.

forās [*fora, a door; cf. foris], adv., out of doors, forth, out.

fore, fut. infin. of sum.

forēnsis, e [forum], adj., of or in the forum, forensic.

foris, is, f., a door; usually in pl.

fōrma, ae, f., form, figure, beauty.

formīdolōsus [formīdō, dread], adj., dreadful, terrible.

fors, fortis (only nom. and abl. sing.), f., chance, accident, good fortune.

fortāsse [fors], adv., perhaps, possibly.

forte [abl. of fors], adv., by chance.

fortis, e, adj., strong, brave.

fortiter [fortis], adv., bravely.

fortitūdō, inis [fortis], f., bravery, resolution.

fortūna, ae [fors], f., luck, fortune (whether good or ill); personified, the goddess of fortune.

Forum, ī [cf. forīs, out of doors], n., an out-of-door place, market, Forum; esp. the Forum Rōmānum between the Capitoline and Palatine hills. It was the center of the political, religious, and business life of Rome.

fossa, ae [fodiō], f., a ditch.

foveō, ēre, fōvī, fōtus, to warm, cherish, favor.

re—refoveō, ēre, fōvī, fōtus, to restore, refresh, revive.


frāgmentum, ī [frangō], n., fragment, bit.

fragor, ōris [frangō], m., noise, esp. thunder peal.

frangō, ere, frēgī, frāctus, to break in pieces, break; subdue, overcome.

re—refringō, ere, frēgī, frāctus, to break up or open.

frāter, tris, m., brother.

frāternus [frāter], adj., brother’s, brotherly.

fraudō, āre, āvī, ātus [fraus], to cheat, rob.

fraus, fraudis, f., foul play, treachery.

frendō, ere, —, —, to gnash the teeth.

frēnum, ī, n., bridle, curb, rein.

frequēns, entis, adj., crowded, frequent; in great numbers.

frequenter [frequēns], adv., often.

frequentia, ae [frequēns], f., crowd, throng.

frīgidus [frīgeō, to be cold], adj., cold.

frūgālitās, ātis [frūgālis, thrifty], f., thrift, economy, frugality.

frūmentārius [frūmentum], adj., concerning corn; rēs frūmentāria, the corn supply.

frūmentum, ī [fruor], n., grain, corn.

fruor, fruī, frūctus sum, to use, enjoy.

per—perfruor, fruī, frūctus sum, to enjoy thoroughly.

frūstrā, adv., in vain, fruitlessly.

Fūfetius, ī, m., Mettius Fūfetius, leader of the Albans against Tullius Hostilius.

Fūfidius, ī, m., a follower of Sulla.

fuga, ae, f., flight.

fugiō, ere, fūgī, —, to flee, flee from.

ab—aufugiō, ere, fūgī, —, to flee from, run away, escape.

con—cōnfugiō, ere, fūgī, —, to flee for refuge; resort to.

ex—effugiō, ere, fūgī, —, to escape.

prō—profugiō, ere, fūgī, —, to flee, escape.


re—refugiō, ere, fūgī, —, to flee back, escape.

trāns—trānsfugiō, ere, fūgī, —, to flee to the other side, go over to the enemy, desert.

fugō, āre, āvī, ātus [fugiō], to put to flight, rout.

fulgeō, ēre, fulsī, —, to flash, gleam.

fulmen, inis [fulgeō], n., lightning flash, thunderbolt.

Fulvius, ī, m., A. Fulvius, who put his son to death because he joined Catiline’s conspiracy.

fūnāle, is [fūnis, a cord], n., a torch.

fundō, ere, fūdī, fūsus, to pour, pour out, shed; rout, scatter.

circum—circumfundo, ere, fūdī, fūsus, to pour about; pass., to surround.

ex—effundō, ere, fūdī, fūsus, to pour out; scatter, squander, lavish.

prō—profundō, ere, fūdī, fūsus, to pour forth or out, squander, waste.

fundus, ī, m., farm, estate.

fungor, ī, fūnctus sum, to perform, discharge, serve through (an office).

dē—dēfungor, ī, fūnctus sum, to perform, finish; to die (sc. vītā).

fūnus, eris, n., burial, funeral rites.

furēns, entis [orig. part, of furō, to rave], adj., furious, raging.

Fūrius, ī, m., P. Fūrius Philus, who revealed the plan of certain nobles to leave Italy after the battle of Cannae.

furor, ōris [furō, to rave], m., rage, madness, fury.

fūrtō [abl. of fūrtum, theft], adv., stealthily, secretly.

futūrus [orig. fut. part, of sum], adj., coming, future.


Gabiī, ōrum, pl. m., an ancient town in Latium, east of Rome.

Gabīnī, ōrum, pl. m., the inhabitants of Gabii.


Gadēs, ium, pl. f., a town on the southern coast of Spain (modern Cadiz).

Gaetulī, ōrum, pl. m., the Gaetuli, a tribe of northern Africa.

Gāius, ī, m., a Roman praenomen.

Gallia, ae, f., Gaul, which included modern France, Belgium and Holland, and the parts of Germany and Switzerland west of the Rhine.

Gallus, ī, m., a Gaul.

gaudium, ī, n., joy, gladness.

Gaurus, ī, m., a mountain of Campania.

gaza, ae, f., treasure, riches.

geminātus, adj., doubled, twofold; consecutive.

geminus, adj., twin, twofold. As noun, geminī, ōrum, pl. m., twins.

gemō, ere, uī, —, to sigh, groan.

gener, generī, m., a son-in-law.

genitus, see gīgnō.

gēns, gentis, f., a gens or clan, consisting of a number of families claiming a common lineage, and having certain religious rites in common; tribe, people, nation.

genū, ūs, n., knee.

genus, eris, n., race, family, stock, birth; kind, class, sort.

Germānī, ōrum, pl. m., the Germans.

Germānia, ae, f., Germany.

gerō, ere, gessī, gestus, to bear, carry; wear; carry on, wage, manage; perform, do; sē gerere, to conduct one’s self, behave; rem pūblicam gerere, to administer the state; rēs gestae, exploits, history.

con—congerō, ere, gessī, gestus, to bring or heap together, collect.

gestō, āre, āvī, ātus [freq. of gerō], to bear, carry, wear.

gestus, ūs [gerō], m., bearing; gesture.

gīgnō, ere, genuī, genitus, to produce, beget; genitus, born of.

gladius, ī, m., a sword.

glōria, ae, f., glory, fame, renown.


glōrior, ārī, ātus sum, to boast, brag, pride one’s self.

glōriōsē [glōria], adv., gloriously.

Gnaeus, ī, m., a Roman praenomen.

Gracchus, ī, m., a family name in the Sempronian gens.

1. Ti. Semprōnius Gracchus, tribune of the people in 133 B.C.

2. C. Semprōnius Gracchus, brother of (1), and tribune in 123 B.C.; killed in 121.

gradior, gradī, gressus sum, to walk, step.

ad—aggredior, ī, gressus sum, to approach, attack, assail.

con—congredior, ī, gressus sum, to meet; join battle, fight.

dis—dīgredior, ī, gressus sum, to go apart or away, depart.

ex—ēgredior, ī, gressus sum, to go or march out or away; disembark. (The verb is construed with the abl., the abl. with ex, or the acc.).

in—ingredior, ī, gressus sum, to enter, advance, proceed.

prō—prōgredior, ī, gressus sum, to go forth or on, advance.

re—regredior, ī, gressus sum, to go back, return, retreat.

trāns—trānsgredior, ī, gressus sum, to step over or across, cross.

gradus, ūs, m., a step; stage, period, degree; pl., steps, stairs.

Graecia, ae, f., Greece.

Graeculus, ī [dim. of Graecus], m., a poor or paltry Greek.

Graecus, adj., Greek, Grecian. As noun, Graecus, ī, m., a Greek.

grānum, ī, n., a grain, seed.

graphium, ī, n., stylus (of metal) for writing, pen.

grātia, ae [grātus], f., favor, regard, credit; influence; return, thanks, gratitude; grātiam habēre, to feel thankful; grātiās agere, to show 164b gratitude, thank; grātiam referre, to repay a favor; grātiā, with preceding gen., frequent in expressions of purpose, for the sake of.

grātulor, ārī, ātus sum [grātus], to show joy, congratulate.

grātus, adj., pleasing, dear, acceptable.

gravis, e, adj., heavy, severe, difficult; weighty, important.

gravitās, ātis [gravis], f., weight; dignity, influence, importance.

graviter [gravis], adv., weightily; vigorously, seriously, with dignity.

gravor, ārī, ātus sum [gravis], to be burdened; take amiss, grudge.

grex, gregis, f., herd, common herd; band, company.

gubernātor, ōris [gubernō, to steer], m., helmsman, pilot.


habeō, ēre, uī, itus, to have, hold, keep; consider, regard, treat, use; render (honor, etc.); ōrātiōnem habēre, to deliver a speech; lūdibriō habēre, to mock.

ad—adhibeō, ēre, uī, itus, to hold to or toward, apply, employ; employ as counsel, consult; summon, invite.

dē—dēbeō, ēre, uī, itus, to withhold, owe; dēbet, dēbuit + inf., ought, must, should.

ex—exhibeō, ēre, uī, itus, to hold forth, show, display, exhibit.

in—inhibeō, ēre, uī, itus, to hold or draw in, restrain.

post—posthabeō, ēre, uī, itus, to place after (i.e. lower than), rate lower, esteem less.

prae—praebeō, ēre, uī, itus, to hold forth, offer, grant, supply, furnish; aurēs praebēre, to listen.

prō—prohibeō, ēre, uī, itus, to check, keep off; hinder, prevent.


habilis, e [habeō], adj., handy, easily wielded.

habitātiō, ōnis [habitō], f., dwelling-place.

habitō, āre, āvī, ātum [freq. of habeō], to inhabit; dwell, live.

habitus, ūs [habeō], m., state, condition; habit, dress, attire.

hālitus, ūs, m., breath.

Hamilcar, aris, m., a famous Carthaginian general, father of Hannibal (2).

Hannibal, alis, m., a Carthaginian name.

1. A naval commander, defeated by C. Duilius, 260 B.C.

2. The son of Hamilcar, born B.C. 247. He invaded Italy in 218, but was defeated by Scipio at Zama in 202; he then fled to the East, and died in 183.

Hannō, ōnis, m., a Carthaginian general, defeated by Regulus.

haruspex, icis, m., a soothsayer.

Hasdrubal, alis, m., a Carthaginian name.

1. Son of Hamilcar, and brother of Hannibal (2); fought against Scipio Africanus in Spain; defeated and killed at the battle of the Metaurus in Italy, 207 B.C.

2. Son of Gisco; fought against Scipio Africanus in Spain and Africa.

hasta, ae, f., a spear.

haud, adv., by no means, not, not at all.

hauriō, īre, hausī, haustus, to drink, swallow.

ex—exhauriō, īre, hausī, haustus, to empty, exhaust; ruin, impoverish.

Herculēs, is, m., a Grecian hero, celebrated for his strength and marvelous deeds in many parts of the world.

hērēs, ēdis, m., an heir.

hīc, haec, hōc, dem. pron., this, the following, the latter; he, she, it.


hīc [hīc], adv., here, hereupon, at this point.

hiems, hiemis, f., winter, storm.

Hierosolyma, ōrum, pl. n., Jerusalem.

hilarē [hilarus, merry], adv., merrily, cheerfully, gaily.

hilaritās, ātis [hilaris, merry], f., merriment, gaiety.

hinc [hīc], adv., from this place or time, hence; hinc—hinc, on this side . . . on that, on the one side . . . on the other.

hirundō, inis, f., a swallow.

Hispānia, ae, f., Spain (including Portugal). It was divided into two provinces, Hispānia Citerior and Hispānia Ūlterior.

Hispāniēnsis, e, adj., Spanish, in Spain.

Hispānus, adj., Spanish. As noun, Hispānus, ī, m., a Spaniard.

hodiē [hō(c) + diē], adv., to-day.

homō, inis, m. and f., a human being, man; hominēs, mankind, the world.

honestē [honestus], adv., honorably.

honestus [honōs], adj., honored, respected; honorable, right, virtuous.

honōrātē [honōrātus, honored], adv., honorably, with respect.

honōrificus [honōs + faciō], adj., that does honor, complimentary.

honorō, āre, āvī, ātus [honōs], to honor, do honor to.

honōs or honor, ōris, m., honor, respect, esteem; public office; personified, Honor (a deity).

hōra, ae, f., hour, the twelfth part of the day (sunrise to sunset) or night.

Horātius, ī, m., the name of a Roman gens.

horreō, ēre, uī, —, to stand on end, bristle; shudder at, shrink from.

horror, ōris [horreō], m., dread, terror, horror.

hortātiō, ōnis [hortor], f., encouragement, exhortation.


hortor, ārī, ātus sum, to exhort, urge.

hortus, ī, m., a garden.

hospes, itis, m., entertainer, host; guest, friend; stranger.

hospita, ae [hospes], f., a stranger; guest.

hospitium, ī [hospes], n., entertainment, hospitality; lodgings, inn.

hostia, ae, f., an animal for sacrifice, victim.

hostīlis, e [hostis], adj., of or from the enemy, hostile.

hostīliter [hostīlis], adv., in hostile manner.

Hostīlius, ī, m., the name of a Roman gens.

1. Hostus Hostīlius, a general of the time of Romulus.

2. Tullus Hostīlius, third king of Rome.

hostis, is, m., an enemy.

hūc [hīc], adv., to this place, hither; hūc . . . illūc, hither . . . thither.

hūiuscemodī [hīc + modus], adv., of this (i.e. the following) kind.

hūmānitās, ātis [hūmānus], f., humanity, kindliness; refinement, culture.

hūmānus [homō], adj., human, of man; kind, refined, cultured.

humilis, e [humus, the ground], adj., low; lowly, humble, common.


iaceō, ēre, uī, —, to lie, lie prostrate or dead.

iaciō, iacere, iēcī, iactus, to throw, cast, hurl.

ab—abiciō, ere, iēcī, iectus, to throw down, away, or aside, lay aside.

ad—adiciō, icere, iēcī, iectus, to throw to, add or join to, add (in speech).

con—coniciō, icere, coniēcī, coniectus, 166b to throw together, unite; hurl, throw.

dē—dēiciō, icere, iēcī, iectus, to throw or hurl down, bring down; lay low, dislodge, destroy.

ex—ēiciō, icere, iēcī, iectus, to cast or drive out, expel.

in—iniciō, icere, iēcī, iectus, to throw in; put in or on, lay; inspire, suggest.

inter—intericiō, icere, iēcī, iectus, to throw or place between, interpose; intervene (in pass.).

ob—obiciō, icere, iēcī, iectus, to throw before, put in the way; put in the hands of, turn over.

prō—prōiciō, icere, iēcī, iectus, to throw forth, fling out, throw.

re—rēiciō, icere, iēcī, iectus, to throw back, repel.

sub—subiciō, icere, iēcī, iectus, to throw or place under; hand up; present, submit; subdue.

super—superiaciō, ere, iēcī, iectus, to throw across, let down.

trāns—trāiciō, icere, iēcī, iectus, to throw or carry across, transport; pierce, penetrate, transfix; go or pass over, cross.

iactātiō, ōnis [iactō], f., tossing, motion.

iactitō, āre, —, — [freq. of iactō], to boast, brag.

iactō, āre, āvī, ātus, to push or toss about; boast of, take pride in.

iam, adv., already, by this time, now; soon, presently; iam iam, already, at that very moment; iam dūdum or iam prīdem, long ago, long since.

iam dūdum, see iam.

Iāniculum, ī, n., a hill on the west bank of the Tiber.

iānua, ae, f., a door, entrance.

Iānus, ī, m., Janus, an old Latin divinity, who presided over all beginnings; 167a commonly represented with two faces.

Iarbās, ae, m., king of Numidia and Mauretania (the modern Morocco).

ibi, adv., there, on that side</