The Project Gutenberg EBook of Döderlein's Hand-book of Latin Synonymes, by 
Ludwig Döderlein

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

Title: Döderlein's Hand-book of Latin Synonymes

Author: Ludwig Döderlein

Commentator: S. H. Taylor

Translator: H. H. Arnold

Release Date: July 18, 2010 [EBook #33197]

Language: English

Character set encoding: UTF-8


Produced by Louise Hope, Irma Spehar and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at (This
file was produced from images generously made available
by The Internet Archive/American Libraries.)

This text includes characters that require UTF-8 (Unicode) file encoding, primarily individual Greek words:

ταράξαι, μέριμνα

There are also a number of œ (oe) ligatures.

If these characters do not display properly, or if the apostrophes and quotation marks in this paragraph appear as garbage, you may have an incompatible browser or unavailable fonts. First, make sure that the browser’s “character set” or “file encoding” is set to Unicode (UTF-8). You may also need to change your browser’s default font.

All brackets are in the original; this material seems to have been added by the translator. Outlined paragraphs were added by the transcriber.

Links to cross-references in the Handbook lead to the entry word. Links in the Index lead to the top of the page. In all links, non-trivial errors are underlined in red with popup explanation. Double redirects such as

Adamare, see Amare.
Amare, see Diligere.

are linked to the final destination word, again with popup explanation.

Handbook of Synonymes
Index of Greek Words
Errors and Inconsistencies










Publisher’s Device: Nolumus Vos Ignorare

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1867, by
In the Clerk’s Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.




(added by transcriber)

Note that the letterforms I and J are distinguished in print, but are alpha­betized together. U and V are treated as distinct letters.


Author’s Preface

Handbook of Synonymes:

 A   B   C   D   E 
 F   G   H   IJ   L 
 M   N   O   P   Q 
 R   S   T   U   V 

Index of Greek Words

Publisher’s Advertising



Dr. Ludwig Döderlein, the author of this work, was born in 1791, and became Professor in the University of Erlangen. He is an eminent philologist, and the author of several valuable philological works. The most important of these are: “The Formation of Latin Words;” “A Homeric Glossary;” “Handbook of Latin Etymology;” “Latin Synonymes and Etymologies,” in six volumes; on this he labored more than twelve years, the first volume appearing in 1826, the last in 1828. From this latter work, the volume here presented was prepared iv by the author, and first published in 1840. After a familiarity of several years with most of the best manuals on Latin Synonymes, we find this superior to any of them, and better adapted to the wants of the student. It shows an intimate and comprehensive acquaintance with the language, and a nice discrimination between the significations of words having a greater or less similarity of meaning. The distinctions are generally well founded, and clearly stated. While at times the distinction may seem to be too refined and subtle, careful observation and more extended study will usually correct such an impression. The difference between related words may proceed from a variety of sources. It may be that of genus and species; or it may be historical, one being used at one time and the other at a different one; or one is abstract, the other concrete; one is literal, the other figurative; one is the more common expression, the other v the more elegant; one is a prose word, the other poetical; one belongs to one kind of poetry, and the other to another. The difference also consists in the point of view which the writer takes. Quies is rest; requies also is rest; but the latter word shows that the writer has in mind a previous state of unrest. There are other differences also growing out of the essential nature of the words.

The advantages of the study of synonymes in a classical course, are too great to be neglected. A knowledge of them gives to the student a fulness and precision of his author’s meaning otherwise unattainable. The point of a sentence often turns upon a delicate shade of thought conveyed by a particular word, which another of similar signification would not give; if this delicate shade is not appreciated, the writer’s thought is either misapprehended, or but imperfectly understood.

Again, the habit of observing the proper use vi of words related to each other in meaning, as whether one is generic, and the other specific, one abstract, the other concrete, one literal, the other figurative, or whatever be the ground and nature of the difference, is one of the essential benefits of classical study. The whole process of such study, when rightly conducted, is that of “arbitrating between conflicting probabilities;” and the closest power of arbitration is often requisite in determining the particular idea conveyed by related words. Or, if the distinctions are drawn out, as they are in a treatise on synonymes, the mind of the student is trained to close and discriminating observation, in being required to note and fix these distinctions, and to give a definite form to them in his own mind, and to express them in his own language.

Besides the more direct advantages resulting from the study of synonymes, an increased interest will thereby be given to classical studies vii There is a natural fondness in the youthful mind for the process of comparison, for tracing resemblances and differences. This element should not be neglected when it can be turned to so good account. It will help to relieve the tedium and barrenness of classical study, as too often conducted, and to give some living features to languages which are too generally looked upon as “dead.”

The meaning of a particular word is often given more distinctly by stating its opposite. The relation, or shade of thought, which cannot be conveyed fully by a direct definition, nor perhaps, indeed, by words at all, is made clear and distinct by showing to what it is opposed. This valuable means of elucidation, the author has used with great success in this work.

While the author has “omitted all detail in the treatment of Greek synonymes” in this compend, he has very wisely sought out the viii nearest corresponding Greek expression, and placed it with the Latin word to be explained. Thus the Greek word, to the more advanced scholar, will often throw light upon the Latin, and the Latin in turn upon the Greek. In this way the work is indirectly valuable in elucidating Greek synonymes.

The present edition of this work is reprinted from the second London edition, which is essentially the same as the first, with a few corrections and improvements.

S. H. T.

Andover, January, 1858.



The wish has been expressed to me from different quarters, and particularly by several respectable schoolmasters, to see the essential results of my larger work on Latin Synonymes and Etymologies compressed into a Hand-book. Although within the twelve years since I began to work at the long-neglected study of Latin Synonymes, the market has been almost glutted with works of the same sort, in the form of hand-books, by Habicht, Ramshorn, Jentzen, and Schmalfeld, I have not, on that acount, the least hesitation in complying with the wish expressed to me, by publishing the present Abridgment; for, in asserting that my method and the arrangement of my materials are totally distinct from what have been adopted by those deserving authors, I trust that I am neither extolling myself, nor underrating them. The Abridgment which I here submit to the Public contains, I hope, all that is essential in my larger work;—to effect which object I have omitted certain things of less direct importance; namely,—


First,—All etymological deductions. Not wishing, however, entirely to renounce my principle of associating the etymology with the synonyme, I have inserted it between parentheses, whenever it was not either so obvious as to make the insertion unnecessary, or so far-fetched as to make the etymology doubtful. Many instances of this sort will and must, especially to him who is not conversant with etymological researches, appear singularly uncouth; but it would have led me too far to refer, in every instance, to the principles established in the Treatise on the Formation of Latin Words, which I have subjoined to my larger work as a Supplement. I must, therefore, entreat those readers and critics into whose hands my treatise has not fallen, to ignore (if I may use a law term) the words included between parentheses, or to suspend their verdict concerning them.

Secondly,—I have omitted all parallel passages, and such as have an affinity with each other, without possessing any stringent force as proofs. On the other hand, I have given at length those passages in the classics in which the ancients, in the course of speech, and not by means of grammatical reflections, have introduced synonymes in contrast with each other, and thus taught their differences; and where such passages were wanting, I have frequently brought into juxta-position several passages from one and the same author, in which he seems to have indicated some peculiar force in a particular expression.

Thirdly,—I have omitted all critical and exegetical discussions. The more scientific form of my larger xi work not only afforded me the opportunity, but imposed the obligation of entering upon such discussions; but in the present Abridgment I have thought it best, except in a very few cases, to omit them altogether.

Fourthly,—I have omitted all detail in the treatment of the Greek synonymes. Nevertheless, I have thought it of essential importance to search for the nearest corresponding expression, both in the Greek and German languages, and place them by the side of the Latin synonyme; and at the same time to ascertain, and make intuitive, as it were, the precise meaning and extent of the Latin expression, by the introduction of such words as are strictly in opposition to it.

Fifthly,—I have omitted the views of other writers on synonymes. In my larger work I introduced, often only as literary curiosities, distinctions derived from the Latin grammarians, Varro, Cicero, Agrætius, Pseudo-fronto, and Pseudo-palæmon; and I also quoted, whether agreeing with or differing from me, the modern writers on synonymes, Popma, Hill, Dumesnil, Smitson, Habicht, Ramshorn, Jentzen, and others. Instead of which I must here content myself with merely referring to such quotations as are contained in my larger work; and have therefore added, at the end of each article, the volume and page of that work in which these quotations are to be found.

Sixthly,—I have omitted such synonymes as are of very rare occurrence, and distinguished from each other by a very slight difference. In my larger work I have treated as synonymes many expressions, ἅπαξ εἰρημένα, that occur but once, and whose differences, on that very xii account, cannot be deduced from the general usage of the language, but can merely be guessed at from etymology and other sources. Such expressions are of no importance with reference to the object of this Hand-book. The same may be said of many synonymes which can be distinguished, as it were, only by a microscope. Such synonymes are found throughout my larger work in great numbers, and have drawn upon me the reproach of “hair-splitting.” The fact I must acknowledge, but cannot admit it to be a reproach; for surely it is the proper vocation of a scientific writer on synonymes, not so much to distinguish words that merely resemble each other in meaning, as those that are apparently equivalent. The greater their apparent equivalence, the more difficult it is to grasp their essential difference, and the more indispensable the aid of a guide to synonymes. If, therefore, it be admitted, that words identical in meaning do not exist, and that it is morally impossible, if I may use the expression, that they should exist, the only questions are, whether, in such cases, it is worth while to search out their differences, and whether it is possible to find them out. Science will answer the first question, without hesitation, in the affirmative; and with respect to the second, there can at least be no presumption in making the attempt. A distinction is soon obtained when several words are contrasted with the word under consideration; and if these contrasted words are also synonymous with each other, it must follow, that the affinity of the several words in meaning is so close, as to permit their interchange, as synonymes, under all circumstances. Their differences xiii are altogether unimportant with reference to speaking and writing, but highly important as far as the intimate and more refined knowledge of the language itself is concerned. It is on this account that hair-splitting is allowable. Can there be a doubt that a distinction will be slight in proportion as it has its origin in the individual feelings of those by whom a language is used? Such distinctions in synonymes are, consequently, most felt in one’s native language; it is only necessary that the feelings in which they have their origin should not be vague and unformed. In the introduction to the fourth part of my work I have evinced, I hope, sufficient liberality and tolerance with regard to the obligation of conforming to these hair-breadth distinctions, and selecting one’s expressions accordingly. So much in justification of those reprobated hair-splittings; those discoveries of atoms, or, as my deceased friend Bremi expressed it, keen discernment of atoms, which in my larger work, more devoted to science than to instruction, found their proper place; but in the present Hand-book, intended for the use of schools, especially in the art of writing Latin, my predilection for such nice distinctions would be sadly out of place. Distinctions of that sort I have, therefore, for the most part, omitted, but not with the intention of silently retracting them.

I here submit a few observations to the notice of schoolmasters. For the purposes of instruction, synonymes may be divided into three classes; the first embraces those which the scholar cannot too quickly learn to distinguish, because their affinity is merely xiv apparent, arising from their being translated by the same word in the mother-tongue; for instance, liberi and infantes; animal and bestia; hærere and pendere; sumere and adimere; hostis and inimicus. The interchange of such synonymes may be counted a blunder of the same sort as that which is called a solecism. To the second class belong those synonymes which may be distinguished from each other with ease and certainty, but which are, at the same time, so nearly related in meaning, that the ancients themselves use them, without hesitation, as interchangeable; for instance, lascivus and petulans; parere and obedire; ater and niger; incipere and inchoare; mederi and sanare; vacuus and inanis; spernere and contemnere; tranquillus and quietus. As long as the scholar has to contend with the elements of grammar, the teacher may leave him in the erroneous opinion, that these expressions have exactly the same meaning; but, when further advanced, he must be taught to distinguish them, partly in order to accustom him to that propriety of expression which is necessary in writing Latin; partly, without reference to composition, as a very useful mental exercise. In the third class I rank those words whose differences are not to be ascertained without trouble, and cannot be deduced with full evidence from the old authors, and which, probably, were but dimly discerned even by the ancients themselves; for instance, lira and sulcus; remus and tonsa; pæne and prope; etiam and quoque; recordari and reminisci; lævus and sinister; velox and pernix; vesanus and vecors; fatigatus and fessus; collis and clivus. Such distinctions are of little or no xv consequence in composition, except when it is necessary to use synonymous terms in express opposition to each other; for instance, mare and amnis, in opp. to lacus and fluvius; metus and spes, in opp. to timor and fiducia: when such occasions occur, the richness of a language in synonymes is available. A more scrupulous exactness in this respect would appear to me arrant pedantry, and necessarily obstruct the free movement of the mind in writing. As a teacher, I should wish that the synonymes of the first sort should be distinguished by boys in the elementary classes; those of the second, I would introduce into the higher classes, and teach the scholar, when about fourteen, to observe their differences in the choice of expressions in composition; I would also explain them in the interpretation of an author, but with moderation, as a spur to thinking, not as a clog in reading. Those of the third class I would never introduce, except in explaining such passages as render their introduction unavoidable; for instance, when an author combines flumina et amnes, I would explain their difference to defend him from the suspicion of tautology.

I have consulted convenience of reference in interweaving the alphabetical index with the context. By this means any one can find at once the word of which he is in search, which a separate index would render impossible.

These arrangements, combined with an almost studied precision of expression, have enabled me to reduce the six volumes of my larger work on Synonymes (which fills, including the Supplement, more than one hundred xvi and forty-three sheets) to this Abridgment, of about fifteen. The etymological part of my researches I reserve for a separate volume, of about the same size as the present, which will make its appearance as an Etymological Hand-book of the Latin language.

May the present publication, and that which I announce, meet with the same favorable and indulgent reception that has fallen to the share of my larger work with all its defects.

Erlangen, December, 1839.






Abdere, see Celare.

Abesse; Deesse; Deficere. 1. Abesse denotes absence as a local relation, ‘to be away’ from a place; but deesse denotes an absence by which a thing is rendered incomplete, and means ‘to fail,’ ‘to be wanting,’ in opp. to esse and superesse. Cic. Brut. 80. Calidio hoc unum, si nihil utilitatis habebat, abfuit, si opus erat, defuit. 2. Deesse denotes a completed (i.e. already existing), deficere a commencing state. Cic. Verr. i. 11. Vererer ne oratio deesset, ne vox viresque deficerent. (v. 339.)

Abnuere, see Negare.

Abolere (ἀπολέσαι) means ‘to annul,’ to ‘annihilate,’ and, as far as possible, to remove from the universe and cast into oblivion; but delere (διολέσαι, or δηλεῖν) ‘to destroy,’ to bring a thing to nought, and make it useless.

Abominari; Exsecrari; Detestari. Abominari means to recoil from, as of evil omen; and to avert a threatening evil by a ceremony, in opp. to omen accipere; exsecrari means to curse, when one 2 would exclude a guilty person from human society as devoted to the infernal gods, in opp. to blessing; lastly, detestari (θέσσασθαι) means to curse, when one wishes to deprecate evil by an appeal to the gods against a dreaded person or thing, in opp. to praying in behalf of.

Abscondere, see Celare.

Absolvere, see Finire.

Abstinentia, see Modus.

Abundare; Redundare. Abundare denotes plenteousness in a good sense, as the symbol of full measure and affluence, like περιεῖναι, redundare is used in a bad sense, as a symbol of over-abundance and luxury, like περισσεύειν: of that which is abundans there is an ample supply at hand; that which is redundans is superfluous and might be dispensed with.

Abunde, see Satis.

Ac, see Et.

Accendere; Incendere; Inflammare; Comburere; Cremare. Accendere, incendere, and inflammare, mean ‘to set on fire:’ accendere, from without, and at a single point, like ἀνάπτειν [hence to light a torch, etc.]; incendere, from within, like ἐνδαίειν [hence to set fire to houses, villages]; inflammare, ‘to set on fire,’ either from without or from within, but with bright flames, like ἀναφλογίζειν; comburere and cremare mean ‘to burn up, or consume by fire;’ comburere, with a glowing heat, as the causative of ardere, like κατακαίειν; cremare, with bright flames, as the causative of flagrare like πιμπράναι. Hence, mortui cremantur on a bright blazing funeral pile; vivi comburuntur, Cic. Fam. x. 32. Verr. i. 33 and 38, in order to make the torture of that mode of dying felt the more. (iv. 250.)

Acceptus, see Gratus.

Accersere, see Arcessere.

Accidere; Evenire; Contigere; Obvenire; Obtingere. Accidere and evenire denote both 3 favorable and unfavorable occurrences; but the accidentia, unexpected ones, overtaking us by surprise; the evenientia were expected, foreseen; contingere, obvenire, obtingere, are generally confined to fortunate occurrences. The accidentia are fortuitous, the evenientia result from foregoing acts or circumstances; the contingentia are the favors of Fortune; the obtingentia and obvenientia are the things that fall to one’s lot. Cic. Fam. vi. 21. Timebam, ne evenirent, quæ acciderunt: the word evenirent has a subjective reference to his foresight, the word acciderunt is entirely objective; the point of view taken by it being that of those who now manifest surprise. See also Tac. H. iv. 19, and Sen. Ep. 119. Scies plura mala contingere nobis quam accidere. (v. 339.)

Accipere, see Sumere.

Accire, see Arcessere.

Accusare, see Arguere.

Acer; Vehemens. Acer (ὠκύς) denotes eagerness in a good sense, as fire and energy, in opp. to frigidus, like ὀξύς: but vehemens (ἐχόμενος) in a bad sense, as heat and passion, in opp. to lenis; Cic. Or. ii. 49, 53, like σφοδρός. (iv. 450.)

Acerbus; Amarus. Acerbus (from κάρφω) means a biting bitterness, in opp. to mitis, like ὀξύς; amarus, a nauseous bitterness, in opp. to dulcis, like πικρός. Quintil. xi. 3. 169. Cic. Rep. iii. 8. Plin. H. N. xxvii. 9. Sen. Ir. i. 4. (vi. 4.)

Acervus; Congeries; Strues; Cumulus. 1. Acervus and congeries mean ‘heaps’ of homogeneous things collected and piled up in layers; acervus [from ἀγείρω], like σωρός, with arrangement, and mostly in a conical shape, but congeries, negligently, and altogether without regard to shape; strues denotes that something new is produced, and a determinate form given, serving a particular purpose; like θημών. Curt. viii. 7. 11. Passim acervos struesque accendebant; meaning by acervosheaps’ or ‘piles,’ 4 by struesstacks’ of wood. 2. Cumulus (from ἀκμή) means strictly, not the heap itself, but the top, by which the heap is completed as a whole, like the key-stone, by which any thing first reaches its proper and complete height, almost like κορυφή; and it has this meaning particularly in cumulare, which is like κορυφοῦν. Compare Liv. xxii. 59. Superstantes cumulis cæsorum corporum, with Cannenses campos acervi Romanorum corporum tegunt: and xxiii. 5. Molibus ex humanorum corporum strue faciendis. (ii. 118.)

Achivi; Achæi; Achaius; Achaicus; Troius; Troicus. 1. Achivi are the Homeric Greeks, or Ἀχαῖοι; Achæi are either the inhabitants of Achaia, or, in the poets, the Greeks at large, as contemporaries of the Romans. Cic. Divin. i. 16. Cum Achivi cœpissent inter se strepere. Compare this with Cæcil. 20. Quod cum sibi Achæi patronum adoptarant. 2. Achaius is the adj. of Achivus. Hor. Od. i. 15. 37. Virg. Æn. ii. 462; but Achaicus is the adj. of Achæus. Cic. Att. i. 13. 3. Troius is the more select term, as adj. of the old heroic and Homeric Troja; Troicus, the usual adj. of the country Troas, without reference to the Trojan war. (v. 306.)

Acies; Acumen; Cacumen; Mucro; Cuspis. 1. Acies is the sharpness of a line adapted for cutting; acumen, of a tip or point adapted for sticking. Figuratively, the acies mentis is shown in the keen sifting of what is confused, in clear perception; the acumen mentis is the fathoming of that which is deeply hidden, in subtle discovery. 2. Acumen and cacumen mean a natural head or top; acumen, of a cone, beak, and so forth; cacumen, particularly that of a mountain: mucro and cuspis mean an artificial head, for the purpose of piercing and wounding; mucro, that of a sword, dagger, and so forth; cuspis, that of a spear, arrow, etc., like αἰχμή. (vi. 5.)

Acies, see Pugna.

Acta, see Ripa.


Actor; Comœdus; Ludio; Histrio. The generic term actor, and the specific terms comœdus and tragœdus, denote the player, as a respectable artist; but ludio, ludius, the comedian, the player, who makes acting his trade, with the accessory notion of commonness; lastly, histrio, sometimes the actor, sometimes the comedian, but mostly with the accessory notion of buffoonery and boasting. Cic. Sext. 54. Ipse ille maxime ludius, non solum spectator, sed actor et acroama. Rosc. Com. 10. Nemo ex pessimo histrione bonum comœdum fieri posse existimaret. Ep. ad Qu. Fr. i. a. E. Hortor ut tanquam poetæ boni et actores industrii solent, in extrema parte diligentissimus sis. Suet. Aug. 74. (v. 334.)

Acumen, see Acies.

Adamare, see Amare.

Adesse; Interesse; Præsentem esse. 1. Adesse means to be near a person or thing; but interesse, to assist in a transaction, to take a part in it. Cic. Verr. i. 40. Crimina ea, quæ notiora sunt his qui adsunt, quam nobis . . . . De illo nihil dixit, in quo interfuit. 2. Adesse denotes generally the presence in a circle to which we belong; præsentem esse, absolute, audible and visible presence. When an expected guest is within our walls, adest; he who is in the same room with us, præsens est. (v. 337.)

Adhuc; Hactenus; Hucusque. Adhuc refers to time, up to this moment; hactenus and hucusque have a local reference, up to this place, or this point.

Adigere, see Cogere.

Adimere, see Demere.

Adipisci, see Invenire.

Adjuvare, see Auxilium.A

Admirari, see Vereri.

Admodum, see Perquam.

Adolere, see Accendere.

Adolescens, see Puer.

Adorare, see Vereri.

Adscendere, see Scandere.

Adsolere, see Solere.

Adspectus, Adspicere, see Videre.

Adulari, see Assentiri.

Aduncus, see Curvus.

Advena, see Externus.

Adventor, see Hospes.


Adversarius; Hostis; Inimicus. 1. Adversarius is the generic term for every opposer, in the field, in politics, in a court of judicature, like ἀντιστάτης. Hostis (from ἔχθω) is ‘the enemy’ in the field, and war, opp. to pacatus. Cic. Rep. ii. 3. Sen. Q. N. vi. 7. like πολέμιος; inimicus, ‘an enemy’ in heart, opp. to amicus, like ἐχθρός. Cic. Man. 10. Pompeius sæpius cum hoste conflixit, quam quisquam cum inimico concertavit. Phil. xi. 1. Verr. i. 15. Curt. vii. 10. Liv. xxii. 39. Nescio an infestior hic adversarius, quam ille hostis maneat. 2. Hostilis and inimicus denote states of hatred become habitual qualities; infestus and infensus only as temporary states; infestus (ἀνασπαστός?) applies to a quiescent state of aversion, like disaffected, unkind, and thus it is applied to inanimate things that threaten hostility; infensus (from πένθος) denotes a passionate state of mind, like enraged, and is therefore applicable to persons only. Tac. Ann. xv. 28. Non infensum, nedum hostili odio Corbulonis nomen habebatur. Cic. Verr. iii. 24. Sall. Cat. 19. Sen. N. Q. iii. pr. Animus luxuriæ non adversus tantum, sed et infestus. Liv. ii. 20. Tarquinium infesto spiculo petit; Tarquinius infenso cessit hosti. (iv. 393.)

Advocatus; Causidicus. Advocatus means in the writers of the silver age ‘a counsel’ in relation to his services and to his client, as his friend and assistant; causidicus, in relation to his station and profession, often with the contemptuous accessory notion of his being a hireling. (vi. 8.)

Ædes, see Templum.

Ædificium; Domus; Ædes; Familia. 1. Ædificium is the generic term for buildings of all sorts, like οἰκοδόμημα; domus, and ædes, ædium, mean ‘a dwelling-house;’ domus, as the residence and home of a family; ædes (αἴθω, αἴθουσα), as composed of several apartments, like δόμοι, δώματα. Virg. G. ii. 461. Ingentem foribus domus alta superbis 7 mane salutantum totis vomit ædibus undam. (vi. 8.) 2. Domus denotes ‘a family’ in the patriarchal sense, as a separate society, of which the individuals are mutually connected; familia, in a political sense, as part of a gens, civitas, or populus. (v. 301.)

Æger; Ægrotus; Morbidus; Morbus; Valetudo; Invaletudo. 1. Æger is the generic term for every sort of illness and uneasiness, whether mental or physical; ægrotus and morbidus indicate bodily illness: ægrotus is applied particularly to men; morbidus, to brutes: the æger feels himself ill; the ægrotus and morbidus actually are so. 2. Morbus and valetudo denote an actual illness; morbus, objectively, that which attacks men; valetudo, subjectively, the state of the sick, though this distinction was introduced by writers of the silver age; invaletudo means only an indisposition. (iv. 172.)

Ægre, see Vix.

Ægritudo, see Cura.

Ægrotus, see Æger.

Æmulatio, see Imitatio.

Æqualis, see Æquus.

Æquor, see Mare.

Æquus; Par; Æqualis; Parilis; Compar; Impar; Dispar. 1. Æquum (from εἴκελος) is that of which its own component parts are alike, in opp. to varius, Cic. Verr. v. 49; par (from πείρω) is that which is like to some other person or thing, and stands in the same rank (on the same level) with it or him, in opp. to superior and inferior. Cic. Brut. 59, 215. Orat. ii. 52, 209. 39, 166. In æquo marte the battle between two parties is considered as a whole; in pari marte the fortune of one party is set against that of the other, and declared to be equal to it. 2. Par denotes similarity with respect to greatness, power, and value, or equality and proportion with regard to number, like ἴσος; æqualis refers to interior qualities, like ὅμοιος. The par is considered as in a state of activity, or, at least, as determined and prepared to measure himself with his match in contest; the æqualis, in a state of rest, and claiming merely comparison and equality as to 8 rank. The paria are placed in opposition to each other, as rivals in the contest for pre-eminence; the æqualia are considered in a friendly relation to each other, in consequence of their common qualities and sympathies. Hence pariter means, in the same degree, ἴσα; æqualiter, in the same manner, ὁμοίως, ὁμῶς. Vell. Pat. ii. 124. 3. Par denotes quite like, parilis, nearly like, as a middle step between par and similis. 4. Par expresses equal to another, and hence may relate to only one side; compar, mutually equal, like finitimi and confines, ἐγγύς and σύνεγγυς. 5. Impar denotes inequality as to quantity, either arithmetical inequality with regard to number [= odd], or a relative inferiority as to strength; dispar refers to quality, without distinguishing on which side of the comparison the advantage lies. (iv. 77.)

Æquus; Planus; Campus. 1. Æquum (from εἴκελος) denotes that which is flat, a horizontal flatness, in opposition to that which rises or sinks, to superior, inferior, and acclivis. Cic. Fam. iii. 8. Orat. iii. 6. Tac. Agr. 35. Hist. iv. 23; planum (from πλάξ) denotes ‘evenness,’ in opp. to unevenness, to montosus, saxosus. Cic. Part. 10. Quintil. v. 10, 37. 21. Hence, figuratively, æquum denotes ‘justice,’ as injustice may be considered as beginning when one part is raised above another; in the same way planum denotes clearness and distinctness, where nothing rises to interrupt the view. 2. Æquor and planities denote a flat surface with regard to its form; campus, with regard to its position, as low-lands in opp. to high-lands. (iv. 71.)

Æquus animus, see Satis habere.

Aer, see Anima.

Ærarium; Fiscus. Ærarium is ‘the public treasury;’ fiscus (from πίθος, πιθάκνη), ‘the imperial treasury.’ Tac. Ann. vi. 2. Bona Sejani ablata ærario, ut in fiscum cogerentur; tanquam referret! (vi. 10.)


Ærumna, see Labor.

Æstimare, see Censere.

Æstuare, see Calere.

Æternus, see Continuus.

Affari, see Alloqui.

Affatim, see Satis.

Affinis, see Necessarius.

Affirmare, see Dicere.

Ager, see Rus and Villa.

Agere; Facere; Gerere; Opus; Factum; Age; I nunc; Degere. 1. Agere (ἄγειν) has an effect that exists in time only, like to do; facere, an effect that exists in space also, as to make. The acta are past as soon as the agens ceases, and remain invisible in the memory; the facta cannot properly be said to exist till the faciens ceases. Quintil. ii. 18. The agens is supposed to be in a state of activity of some kind; the faciens in a state of productive activity. 2. Agere means ‘to do’ something for one’s own interest; gerere (ἀγείρειν), for the interest of another, to execute a commission. Cic. Verr. i. 38. Quæ etiamsi voluntate Dolabellæ fiebant, per istum tamen omnia gerebantur. 3. Opus is the result of facere, as the work, ἔργον; factum is the result of agere, as the transaction; res gestæ are deeds [e.g. in war], πράξεις; acta are only political enactments. Cic. Att. xiv. 17. Multa de facto ac de re gesta; the former by the exertions of Amatius, the latter by his own wise and spirited animadversions through Dolabella. 4. Age, agedum, is an earnest exhortation, as ‘On, on!’ I nunc is an ironical exhortation, as ‘Go to!’ 5. Agere means to be active, and in the midst of business; degere, to live somewhere in a state of rest, in voluntary or involuntary inactivity. Tac. Ann. xv. 74. Deum honor principi non ante habetur, quam agere inter homines desierit, compared with iv. 54. Certus procul urbe degere. (v. 327.)

Agere ferre, see Vastare.

Agger; Vallum. Agger (from ἐσαγείρω) is a single line, like a dam; vallum or mound (ἀλκή) is a line which helps to enclose a space. Agger may serve in a warfare as the outwork of a redoubt [which 10 is protected by a single line in front]; vallum [rampart] always belongs to a fortress, camp, or entrenched place.

Agmen, see Caterva.

Agrestis, see Rus.

Aio, see Dicere.

Ala; Penna; Pluma; Pinna. 1. Ala (from ἔχω, vehere) denotes ‘the wing,’ as a joint, like πτέρυξ; penna (πέτεσθαι), with reference to its feathers, like πτερόν. Plaut. Pœn. iv. 2. 48. Meæ alæ pennas non habent. 2. Penna denotes the larger and harder feathers; pluma, the smaller and softer feathers, which serve as a clothing to the body of the bird, like πτίλον. Sen. Ep. 42. Meministi, cum quendam affirmares esse in tua potestate, dixisse me volaticum esse ac levem, et te non pedem ejus tenere, sed pennam. Mentitus sum; pluma tenebatur, quam remisit et fugit. Cic. N. D. ii. 47. 121. 3. Penna denotes the whole, consisting of quill and feathers; pinna, the feather only, in opposition to the quill. (v. 204.)

Alacer, see Gaudere.

Ala, see Armus.

Alapa; Colaphus. Alapa (Goth. lofa, ‘the flat hand,’) denotes a blow with the flat hand on the face, as a gentle punishment, like a slap on the cheek, or box on the ear; colaphus (κόλαφος), a blow on the head with the clenched fist, betokening anger and rage, like a cuff, a thump. (vi. 14.)

Albus; Candidus; Albidus. 1. Albus (ἀλφός) denotes ‘white,’ as far as it is in general a negation of all color, as that which is colorless; candidus (from ξανθός), as being itself a positive color, and, as such, the purest and brightest, near which all other colors have a shade of darkness and duskiness, as a fine brilliant white. Albus, opposed to ater, approaches, like λευκόν, to yellowish; candidus, opposed to niger, approaches, like ἀργόν, to bluish. Alba cutis is the skin of the sick and dropsical; candida, that of the fair girl. Figuratively, albor is the symbol of 11 good fortune and joy; candor, of purity of mind and innocence. 2. Albus denotes ‘white;’ albidus, only ‘whitish.’ (iii. 193.)

Alere; Nutrire; Nutricare. Alere (from ἄλθω) denotes nourishment, as conducive to development and growth; nutrire and nutricare, only as it prolongs and secures existence. Or, alimenta adjuvant, nutrimenta sustentant. Cic. N. D. ii. 63. Neque ali neque sustentari. Nutrire involves a general notion; nutricare is usually applied more particularly to brutes. (ii. 99.)

Algere, Algidus, see Frigere.

Alienigena, see Externus.

Alimenta; Penus; Cibus; Esca; Edulia; Cibare; Pascere. 1. Alimenta and penus are victuals in general, meat and drink; alimenta, mostly with reference to the wants of an individual; penus, to the wants of a whole family. Cibus and esca denote ‘food,’ in opposition to drink. Cic. Fin. i. 11, and ii. 28. Cibus (from γεύω, to chew), natural food, as a means of nourishment; esca (from ἔδω), ‘the food’ that is artificially prepared as a dish. Hence cibus denotes the food of brutes also; but esca, only a bait, prepared as it were like a dish, and set before them. Cic. N. D. ii. 47. Animalia cibum partim dentibus capessunt: compare this with ii. 23. Dii nec escis nec potionibus vescuntur. 2. Cibaria are the most general and usual sorts of food; edulia are savory and select sorts of food. Suet. Tib. 46. Comites nunquam salario, cibariis tantum sustentavit; compare with Cal. 40. Pro eduliis certum statumque exigebatur. 3. Cibare means to feed with one’s hand, as nurses, etc.; pascere (from πάσασθαι), only to give out food, as a feeder or master. Suet. Tib. 72. Draconem manu sua cibaturus; compare with Vesp. 18. Sineret se plebeculam pascere. (v. 192.)

Aliquando, see Nonnunquam.

Alites, see Volucres.


Alloqui; Appellare; Affari. Alloqui denotes accosting, as addressing the first word, a salutation, and so forth, to a person with whom one is not unacquainted; appellare (from an old Gothic substantive, spellan), when one wishes to draw a person into conversation, and direct to him serious, or, at any rate, not insignificant words; affari denotes addressing from the impulse of a feeling; through peculiar friendliness or with solemnity. Cic. Cluent. 61. Quum nemo recipere tecto, nemo audire, nemo alloqui, nemo respicere vellet: compare with Phil. xiii. 2. Salutabunt benigne, comiter appellabunt unumquemque nostrum; and Brut. 3. Salutatio libri, quo me hic affatus quasi jacentem excitavit. (v. 107.)

Alsus, see Frigere.

Altercatio, see Disceptatio.

Altus; Editus; Procerus; Arduus; Celsus; Excelsus; Sublimis. 1. Altus denotes, as a general expression, height or depth, as mathematical dimensions, in opp. to length and breadth, and, consequently, height, in opp. to humilis; Cic. Tusc. v. 13. 24. Orat 57. N. D. ii. 47, like ὑψηλός; editus denotes height, in opp. to planus, Tac. Ann. xv. 38: lastly, procerus denotes height or length in reference to growth. The altum has no measure and no limits; the editum has the bulk of a hill; the procerum has the bulk of a tree, the full stature of the human figure, and so forth. 2. Altus, editus, and procerus, denote height merely in relation to space; arduus means height, which is at the same time steep and inaccessible; thence, figuratively, ‘difficult, impossible;’ celsus, height, that thrusts itself out, and stretches upwards; thence, figuratively, ‘proud;’ excelsus and præcelsus, what overtops something that is itself high, hence ‘pre-eminent;’ sublimis, what is on high without touching the ground, soaring in the air, like μετέωρος; thence, figuratively, ‘grand,’ of an elevated nature. (ii. 99.)


Amans, Amator, see Amicus.

Amare, see Diligere.

Amarus, see Acerbus.

Ambiguus, see Dubius.

Ambire; Circumire. Circumire denotes motion in any circular form, but on the boundaries of a space, so as to go round it; ambire denotes going hither and thither in zigzag, or going about. Plin. Ep. ii. 9. Ambio domos, stationesque circumeo: and Cic. Att. xiv. 21. Antonium circumire veteranos, ut acta Cæsaris sancirent; that is, He made in his canvassing the round, from first to last;—stronger than ambire, which would only express his canvassing, and addressing the veterans in general.

Ambo, see Uterque.

Ambulare; Spatiari; Deambulare; Inambulare; Obambulare. 1. Ambulare (from ambire) denotes taking a walk as a leisurely motion, like going up and down, in opp. both to stare and cubare, and also to currere and salire; Plaut. Bacch. iv. 8. 56. Plin. Ep. ix. 36. Cic. Fat. 5. Fin. v. 17. Sen. Ep. 113. Gell. ii. 9. Sen. Ir. ii. 35. Plin. H. N. x. 38: spatiari denotes motion in open space, as to walk out, in opp. to the confinement which a room imposes. 2. Deambulare denotes going up and down till one is tired; inambulare, within a bounded space; obambulare, with reference to a fixed object, along which one walks, or to a person walking with us. (iii. 48.)

Amens; Demens; Insanus; Vesanus; Excors; Vecors; Furor; Delirium; Rabies; Cerritus; Lymphatus. 1. Amentia shows itself negatively and passively; dementia, positively and energetically. The amens is without reason, and either acts not at all, or acts without reason, like the idiot, ἄφρων; the demens, while he fancies that he is doing right, acts in direct opposition to reason, like the madman, παράφρων. Hence, amens metu, terrore; demens scelere, discordia, etc. 2. Insanus has a privative; vesanus, a depravative meaning. The insanus in his 14 passion oversteps the measure and bounds of right, and gives one the impression of a guilty person; the vesanus, in his delusion, wanders from the right path, follows a false object, and gives one the impression of an unfortunate person. 3. Excors means of weak understanding in general, without the ability of reflecting and examining, in opp. to cordatus; vecors means, of a perverted understanding, without the ability of reflecting calmly, from the mind being taken up with one fixed idea. 4. Furor (fervere) denotes mental irritation, ecstasy, as raging, μανικός; delirium (ληρεῖν), a physical and childish remission of the mental faculties; rabies (ῥαβάσσειν, ἄραβος), a half-moral condition of a passionate insanity, as frantic, λύσσα. The furibundus forgets the bounds of sense, the delirus babbles nonsense, the rabidus will bite and injure when he can. 5. Cerritus and lymphatus betoken frenzy, as a demoniacal state, as possessed, cerritus or ceritus, by Ceres, lymphatus, by the nymphs; they may also be considered as derived from κόρυζα, mucus narium, and from λέμφος, mucus, as symbols of stupidity. (v. 89.)

Amictus, Amiculum, see Vestis.

Amicus; Amans; Amator. Amicus involves the notion of reciprocity, but means only a sincere and calm affection, like φίλος; amans and amator denote a more glowing affection, but do not imply reciprocity; amans denotes this affection as a temporary state; amator as an habitual feeling, like ἐραστής. Cic. Verr. v. 63. Alba tunc antiquissimus non solum amicus, verum etiam amator. Tusc. iv. 12. Inter ebriositatem et ebrietatem interest, aliudque est amatorem esse, aliud amantem. (iv. 102.)

Amicus, see Socius.

Amittere; Perdere; Jactura. 1. Amittere means to lose something, so that it ceases to be in our possession, like ἀποβαλεῖν, opp. to retinere, Cic. Rep. v. i. Sext. 47. Suet. Tib. 15. Ter. Phorm. iii. 2, 15 22; perdere means, to lose something, so that it is destroyed, and rendered useless, like διολέσαι, opp. to servare. Plaut. Rud. iv. 4, 120. Ter. Ad. ii. 2, 32. Sen. Contr. iii. 21.—Tac. Ann. ii. 25. Perdita classe, amissis armis. 2. Amissio is an involuntary, jactura, a voluntary, loss, which a person undergoes, a sacrifice that is made to avoid a greater loss, as in the case of the master of a ship, who throws the freight overboard, to save his ship and his life. Plin. Ep. i. 12. Jacturam gravissimam feci, si jactura dicenda est tanti viri amissio. (iii. 289.)

Amittere, see Mittere.

Amnis, see Fluvius.

Amor, see Diligere.

Amplecti; Complecti. Amplecti denotes embracing, often with one arm only, as a sign of calm affection and protection; complecti, clasping and surrounding with both arms, as a sign of passionate love, or familiar confidence. Amplecti means, figuratively, to lay hold of something, in opp. to slighting and disdaining; complecti, to take fully in one’s grasp, in opp. to a half and superficial possession. (v. 281.)

Amplus, see Magnus.

Ancilla, see Servus.

Anceps, see Dubius.

Anguis, see Repere.

Angor, see Cura.

Angustus; Arctus; Densus; Spissus. 1. Angustus and arctus relate to space itself, and to the proximity of its enclosing limits; densus and spissus, to things existing in space, and to their proximity to one another. The angustum (ἐγγυστός) is bounded only by lines, and forms mostly an oblong, narrow, opp. to latus, Cic. Att. iv. 29, like στενός; the arctum (from arcere, εἴργω) is fenced in by lists, walls, or mounds, and forms mostly a square or circle, and so forth, close, in opp. to laxus, Cic. Orat. 25, like στενωπός. The clavus angustus can therefore never be arctus. Mel. iii. 2, 8. Rhenus ad dextram primo angustus, et sui similis, post ingens lacus Flevo dicitur . . . 16 fitque iterum arctior, iterumque fluvius emittitur, in which passage the banks of the Rhine are considered only as lines, or as walls, 3. Densus (from ἀδινός? or θαμά?) denotes objects only as pressed near to one another, and without any observable gaps, in opp. to rarus, like δασύς and θαμειός: spissus, as pressed close into one another, and without any intervals between, in opp. to solutus, loose, like πυκνός and συχνός. In densus the principal notion is, the rich abundance of objects, which have no need to keep far apart, if they are to fill a wide space; in spissus, the want of empty space, from all the spaces between objects being filled up, owing to their being crowded together. (iv. 431.)

Anima; Aer; Aura; Spiritus; Sublime. Anima and aër denote ‘air’ as an element, like ἀήρ, and anima (ἄνεμος), in opp. to terra, mare, ignis; but aër, a learned term (ἀήρ, from ἀείρω?) in opp. to æther; aura and spiritus denote ‘air’ when put in motion; aura (αὔρα, from ἀέσαι, or from ἀεῖραι), the gently waving and fanning air; spiritus, the streaming and breath-like air, like πνεῦμα; lastly, sublime (from sublevare?), the air that hovers over us, simply in a local relation, in opp. to humus, like μετάρσιον, μετέωρον. (v. 92.)

Anima; Animus; Mens. 1. Anima denotes ‘the soul,’ physiologically, as the principle of animal life, in men and brutes, that ceases with the breath, like ψυχή: animus (ἄνεμος), psychologically and ethically, as the principle of moral personality, that ceases with the will, like θυμός. The souls of the departed also are called, in a mythological point of view, animæ, as shades; but, in a metaphysical point of view, animi, as spirits. Anima is a part of bodily existence; animus, in direct opposition to the body. Sen. Ep. 4. Difficile est animum perducere ad contemtionem animæ: and 58. Juven. xv. 148. Principio indulsit communis conditor illis tantum animas, nobis animum quoque. 2. 17 Animus denotes also the human soul, as including all its faculties, and is distinguished from mens (μένος, μανθάνω, the thinking faculty, as a whole from one of its parts. Cic. Rep. ii. 40. Ea quæ latet in animis hominum, quæque pars animi mens vocatur. Lucr. iii. 615. iv. 758. Catull. 65, 3. Plaut. Cist. iii. 1, 6. As in practical life the energy of the soul is displayed in the faculty of volition, so animus itself stands for a part of the soul, namely, feeling and energy of will in co-ordinate relation to mens, the intellect or understanding. Tac. II. i. 84. Quem nobis animum, quas mentes imprecentur. Ter. Andr. i. 1. 137. Mala mens, malus animus. And, lastly, so far as thought precedes the will, and the will itself, or determination, stands as mediator between thought and action, in the same way as the body is the servant of the will, so mens is related to animus, as a whole to its part. Cic. Tusc. iii. 5. Mens, cui regnum totius animi a natura tributum est. Liv. xxxvii. 45. (v. 94.)

Animadvertere; Notare. Animadvertere means, to observe mentally, and take notice of; but notare, to make distinguishable by a mark. (vi. 20.)

Animal; Animans; Bellua; Bestia; Pecus; Fera. 1. Animal and animans are the animal as a living being, including man; animal, with reference to his nature, according to which he belongs to the class of living animals, in opp. to inanimus, like ζῶον; animans, with reference to his state, as still living and breathing,1 in opp. to exanimus; bellua, bestia, and pecus, as irrational beings, in opp. to man, and bellua and pecus, with intellectual reference, as devoid of reason, in peculiar opp. to homo, Cic. N. D. ii. 11; bestia and fera, with moral reference, as wild, and hostile to man. 2. Bellua (from βλάξ) denotes, particularly, a great unwieldy animal, as the elephant, whale, principally sea-monsters; pecus, a domestic 18 animal, particularly of the more stupid kinds, as a bullock, sheep, in opp. to the wild; bestia, a destructive animal, particularly those that are ravenous, as the tiger, wolf, etc., in opp. to birds, Justin, ii. 14, like θηρίον; fera (φῆρες), a wild animal of the wood, as the stag, wolf, tiger, in opp. to domestic animals. Curt. ix. 10. Indi maritimi ferarum pellibus tecti piscibus sole duratis, et majorum quoque belluarum, quos fluctus ejecit, carne vescuntur. And Tac. G. 17. (iv. 291.)

1. Hence animalium cadavera, not animantium.

Annales; Historiæ. Annales means a comprehensive historical work, principally and especially a history of former ages, composed from documents, like Livy and Tacitus; historiæ, particularly a work on the history of the times in which the author himself has lived, as Sallust and Tacitus.

Antiquus; Priscus; Vetus; Vetustus; Veternus; Pristinus. 1. Antiquum and priscum denote the age that formerly existed, and is now no more, in opp. to novum, like παλαιός; vetus and vetustum (from ἔτος), what has existed for a long time, and has no longer any share in the disadvantages or advantages of youth, in opp. to recens, like γέρων, γεραιός, γερούσιος. Hence antiquus homo is a man who existed in ancient times; vetus, an old man. Antiqui scriptores means the classics, inasmuch as the age in which they flourished has long been past; veteres, inasmuch as they have lived and influenced manhood for 2000 years. Cic. Verr. i. 21. Vereor ne hæc nimis antiqua et jam obsoleta videantur: compare with Orat. i. 37. Ut illi vetus atque usitata exceptio daretur. 2. Vetus refers only to length of time, and denotes age, sometimes as a subject of praise, sometimes as a reproach; vetustus refers to the superiority of age, inasmuch as that which is of long standing is at the same time stronger, more worthy of honor, more approved of, than that which is new, in opp. to novicius; lastly, veternus refers to the disadvantages of age, inasmuch as, after many 19 years’ use, a thing becomes worn out, or, through long existence, weak and spiritless. Moreover, veternus, in the writers of the golden age, is only admitted as a substantive, veternum, as lethargy; vetus regularly supplies its place, and denotes more frequently the weakness than the strength of age. Tac. Ann. xi. 14 and 15. Veterrimis Græcorum, and vetustissima Italiæ disciplina. 3. Antiquus denotes age only in relation to time, as a former age in opp. to the present; priscus (from πάρος), as a solemn word, with the qualifying accessory notion of a former age worthy of honor, and a sacred primitive age, like ἀρχαῖος, in opp. to the fashion of the day. 4. Antiquus and priscus denote a time long past; pristinus, generally, denotes only a time that is past, like πρότερος. (iv. 83.)

Antrum, see Specus.

Anus; Vetula. Anus (as the fem. to senex) denotes an old lady, with respect, and also as a term of reproach; an old woman, with reference to her weakness, credulity, loquacity, and so forth: vetula, an old woman, with reference to her ugliness and disagreeableness. (iv. 92.)

Aperire; Patefacere; Aperte; Palam; Manifesto; Propalam. 1. Aperire (from πεπαρεῖν) means ‘to open’ a space that is covered at top, and therefore in a horizontal direction, as, for instance, pits and springs, and thereby to make them visible; patefacere, ‘to open’ a space whose sides are closed; hence, to open in a perpendicular direction, as, for instance, gates, roads, and fields, and thereby to make them accessible. 2. Returare (from στέφω, German stopfen) means, to make accessible an opening that has been stopped up; recludere, an opening that has been shut up; reserare, an opening that has been barred up. 3. Aperte means ‘openly,’ and without concealment, so that everybody can perceive and know, in opp. to occulte, like φανερῶς; palam (from planus), ‘openly,’ and without hiding anything, 20 so that everybody can see and hear, in opp. to clam, like ἀναφανδόν; manifesto, palpably, so that one is spared all inquiry, all conjecture, all exertion of the senses and of the mind, like δῆλον. 4. Palam denotes that openness which does not shun observation; propalam, that which courts observation. Cic. Orat. i. 35. Neque proposito argento neque tabulis et signis propalam collocatis; that is, to everybody’s admiration: compare with Pis. 36. Mensis palam propositis; that is, without fear and constraint. (v. 291.)

Apparet; Eminet. Apparet means what is visible to him who observes; eminet, what forces itself upon observation, and attracts the eye. Sen. Ir. i. 1. Apparent alii affectus, hic (scil. iræ) eminet. (vi. 23.)

Apparet, see Constat.

Appellare, see Alloqui and Nominare.

Aptus, see Idoneus.

Aqua; Unda; Fluctus; Fluentum. 1. Aqua (from ὠκεανός) denotes water materially as an element, in opp. to terra; unda (from νέδη, wet), as a flowing, continually moving element, in opp., as it were, to solum; lympha (λέμφος) is merely a poetical synonyme of aqua, with the accessory notion of clearness and brightness, to which the similar sound of the adjective limpidus, though not derived from it, gave occasion. 2. Unda stands in the middle, between aqua and fluctus, as aura does between aër and ventus. For unda denotes, like wave, that which apparently moves itself, whereas fluctus and fluenta, like billows, the water moved by something external, as storms and so forth; fluctus, the billows more in connection with the whole, the billowy sea, whereas fluentum denotes a single billow. It is only the stormy sea, the boisterous stream, that urges on its billows, but every piece of water, that is not entirely stagnant, has its waves. Hence there is a great distinction between these two 21 images in Cicero, Mil. 2, 5. Tempestates et procellas in illis duntaxat fluctibus concionum semper putavi Miloni esse subeundas; that is, in the tumultuously agitated assemblies: and Planc. 6, 15. Si campus atque illæ undæ comitiorum, ut mare profundum et immensum, sic effervescunt quodam quasi æstu; that is, the lightly moving assemblies. Sen. N. Q. iii. 10. Quid si ullam undam superesse mireris, quæ superveniat tot fluctibus fractis. And iv. 2. Nec mergit cadens unda, sed planis aquis tradit. (ii. 10.)

Aquosus, see Udus.

Arbitrari, see Censere.

Arcana; Secreta; Mysteria. Arcana denotes secrets, in a good sense, such as are so of themselves, and from their own nature, and should be spoken of with awe; thus arcana, as a popular term, denotes secrets of all sorts; on the other hand, mysteria, as a learned term, denotes religious secrets, like the Eleusinian mysteries; lastly, secreta denotes secrets, in the most ordinary sense, such as are made so by men, and which seek concealment from some particular fear. Tac. Ann. i. 6. Sallustius Crispus particeps secretorum . . . monuit Liviam, ne arcana domus vulgarentur. (iv. 429.)

Arcere; Prohibere. Arcere (ἀρκεῖν, from ἐρύκειν) means to keep off and bar the entry, in opp. to admittere, Plin. H. N. xii. 1; on the other hand, prohibere means to keep at a distance, and prevent the approach, in opp. to adhibere. The arcens makes defensive opposition, like the resistens, and protects the threatened; but the prohibens acts on the offensive, like the propulsans, and retaliates hostility on the assailant. (iv. 430.)

Arcessere; Accire; Evocare; Accersere. 1. Arcessere and accersere denote, in the most general sense, merely, to send for; accire supposes a co-ordinate relation in those that are sent for, as, to invite; evocare, a subordinate relation, as, to summon. 22 The arcessens asks, the acciens entreats, the evocans commands, a person to make his appearance. Cic. Att. v. 1. Tu invita mulieres, ego accivero pueros: compare with Dejot. 5. Venit vel rogatus ut amicus, vel arcessitus ut socius, vel evocatus ut qui senatui parere didicisset. Or, Liv. x. 19. Collegæ auxilium, quod acciendum ultro fuerit, with xliv. 31. Evocati literis imperatoris. And xxix. 11. Æbutia accita ad Sulpiciam venit; and 12. Ut Hispalam libertinam arcesseret ad sese. 2. Arcessere (from cedere) means, originally, to order to approach; on the other hand, accersere (from σκαίρω), to come quickly, or, to make haste; but both words have been confounded with each other, from similarity of sound. (iii. 283.)

Arctus, see Angustus.

Ardere; Flagrare. Ardere (from ἐρεύθειν) means to be in a visible glowing heat, like αἴθειν; on the other hand, flagrare, to be in bright flames, like φλέγεσθαι. Hence, metaphorically, ardere is applied to a secret passion; flagrare, to a passion that bursts forth. Cic. Or. iii. 2, 8. Non vidit Crassus flagrantem bello Italiam, non ardentem invidia senatum. (iv. 21.)

Arduus; Difficilis. Arduus (from ὀρθός) means difficult to ascend, in opp. to pronus; on the other hand, difficilis means difficult to execute, in opp. to facilis. Arduus involves a stronger notion of difficulty, and denotes the difficult when it borders on the impossible. Plin. Ep. iv. 17. Est enim res difficilis ardua. Tac. Hist. ii. 76. Æstimare debent, an quod inchoatur, reipublicæ utile, ipsis gloriosum, aut promptum effectu, aut certe non arduum sit. Cic. Verr. i. 51. Cum sibi omnes ad illum allegationes difficiles, omnes aditos arduos, ac pæne interclusos, viderent. (ii. 105.)

Arduus, see Altus.

Arena, see Sabulo.

Arguere; Incusare; Culpare; Criminari; Insimulare; Deferre; Accusare. Arguere (from 23 ἀργός) is the most general expression for any imputation of supposed or actual guilt, whether in a court of justice or not, as to tax or charge with; incusare, and the less frequent term culpare, denote only a complaint made out of a court of justice; criminari, an accusation with hostile or evil intention, in a calumnious spirit; insimulare, in an undeserved or slanderous manner, through suspicion; deferre, to impeach before a judge; accusare, to impeach in a criminal court. Cic. Lig. 4, 10. Arguis fatentem. Non est satis. Accusas eum. (ii. 163.)

Aridus; Torridus; Siccus. Aridus and torridus denote an internal want of moisture; but things that are arida (from areo) have lost their moisture from a heat acting within, like αὖος, in opp. to humidus. Plin. Pan. 30, 4; on the other hand, torrida (from τέρσω), from a heat penetrating from without, in opp. to uvidus, like σκληρός;—siccus denotes dryness that is only external, confined to the surface, in opp. to madidus, like ξηρός. Plin. H. N. xii. 12. Ne sint fragilia et arida potius quam sicca folia. And xv. 29. Cato docuit vinum fieri ex nigra myrta siccata usque in ariditatem in umbra. Colum. vii. 4. (vi. 244.)

Arista, see Culmus.

Armentum, see Pecus.

Armus; Humerus; Ala; Axilla. Armus (ramus?) is the highest part of the upper arm in men; the fore-leg in beasts; the shoulder-blade, as part of the whole body, distinguished from scapula, as part of the skeleton, like ὦμος; humerus, the flat surface, which in the human body is over the upper arm, the shoulder, like ἐπωμίς; ala and axilla, the cavity which is under the upper arm, the arm-pit, like μασχάλη. Ovid, Met. xii. 396. Ex humeris medios coma dependebat in armos. And x. 599. xiv. 304. Plin. H. N. xi. 43. (iv. 27.)

Arrogantia, see Superbia.

Artes, see Literæ.

Artifex, see Faber.

Artus, see Membrum.


Arundo, see Culmus.

Arvum, see Villa.

Ascia; Securis. Ascia is the carpenter’s axe, to split wood; securis, the butcher’s cleaver, to cut meat.

Asper, see Horridus.

Aspernari, see Spernere.

Assentiri; Assentari; Blandiri; Adulari. 1. Assentiri means to assent from conviction, in opp. to dissentire; but assentari, to express assent, whether from conviction or from hypocrisy, in opp. to adversari. Vell. P. ii. 48. Cic. Rosc. Am. 16, 99. Plaut. Most. i. 3, 100. Amph. ii. 2, 70. 2. Assentari denotes the flattery which shuns contradicting a person, like θωπεύειν; blandiri (μέλδειν), that which says what is agreeable to another, like ἀρεσκεύειν; adulari (from δοῦλος), that which would please at the expense of self-degradation, like κολακεύειν. The assentans, as a flatterer, would, by surrendering his right to an independent opinion; the blandiens, by complaisance and visible signs of affection; the adulans, by self-degradation, and signs of an unworthy subserviency, gain the favor of another. Assentatio, or the art of the assenter, has its origin in cowardice or weakness; blanditiæ, or fair-speaking, in the endeavor to be amiable, and, at worst, in self-interest; adulatio, or flattery, and servility, κολακεία, in a degrading, slavish, spaniel-like spirit. Sen. Ir. iii. 8. Magis adhuc proderunt submissi et humani et dulces, non tamen usque in adulationem; nam iracundos nimia assentatio offendit. Erit certe amicus . . . . cui non magis tutum erat blandiri quam maledicere. And ii. 28. Sæpe adulatio, dum blanditur, offendit. (ii. 174.)

Asseverare, see Dicere.

Asses, see Axes.

Assiduitas, see Opera.

Assequi, see Invenire.

“Astrum” printed before “Assequi”.

Astrum, see Sidus.

Astutus; Callidus; Vafer; Versutus. Astutus or in old Latin astus (from ἀκή, acuere), and callidus, denote cunning, more in an intellectual sense, 25 as a mark of cleverness; astutus, indeed, acuteness in the invention and execution of a secret project, synonymous with solers; but callidus (from κάλλος), sharp-sightedness in judging of a complicated question of conduct, or worldly wisdom, as the consequence of a knowledge of mankind, and of intercourse with the world, synonymous with rerum peritus, as judicious, and, in its degenerate signification, crafty, like κερδαλέος; on the other hand, vafer and versutus denote cunning in a moral sense, as a mark of dishonesty, and, indeed, vafer (ὑφή), adroitness in introducing tricks, particularly in judicial affairs, as the tricks of a lawyer, like πανοῦργος; versutus (ἀρτυτός), versatility in dissimulation, and in the art of getting out of a scrape by some means or other; in opp. to simplex, Cic. Fin. iv. 25, like στροφαῖος. Plin. Ep. vii. 6. Juvenis ingeniosus, sed parum callidus. Cic. Brut. 48. Callidus, et in capiendo adversario versutus. (iii. 220.)

Ater; Niger; Pullus. 1. Ater (αἰθός) denotes black, as a negation of color, in opp. to albus; whereas niger (πνιγόεις) denotes black, as being itself a color, and indeed the darkest, in opp. to candidus. The atrum makes only a dismal and dark impression; but the nigrum, a positive, and imposing and beautiful impression, as Hor. Carm. i. 32, 11. Lycum nigris oculis, nigroque crine decorum. Tac. G. 43. Nigra scuta, tincta corpora; atras ad prœlia noctes legunt. (iii. 194.) 2. Ater and niger denote a deep dark black; whereas pullus only swarthy, with reference to the affinity of the dark color to dirt. (iii. 207.)

Atque, see Et.

Atrox; Trux; Truculentus; Dirus; Sævus; Torvus. 1. Atrox, trux, and truculentus, (from τρηχύς, ταράξαι), denote that which has an exterior exciting fear; that which makes an impression of terror on the fancy, and eye, and ear; atrox, indeed, as a property of things, but trux and truculentus 26 as properties of persons; whereas dirus and sævus mean that which is really an object of fear, and threatens danger; dirus, indeed (from δέος), according to its own nature, as a property of things, means dreadful, δεινός; but sævus (from αἶ, heu!) according to the character of the person, as a property of living beings, means blood-thirsty, cruel, αἰνός. Plin. Pan. 53. Atrocissima effigies sævissimi domini. Mela ii. 7. Ionium pelagus . . . atrox, sævum; that is, looking dangerous, and often enough also bringing misfortune. 2. Trux denotes dreadfulness of look, of the voice, and so forth, in the tragic or heroic sense, as a mark of a wild disposition or of a cruel purpose; but truculentus, in the ordinary and comic sense, as a mark of ill-humor or trivial passion; the slave in Plautus is truculentus; the wrathful Achilles is trux. Sometimes, however, truculentior and truculentissimus serve as the comparative and superlative of trux. 3. Trux and truculentus vultus is a terrific, angry look, like τραχύς; torvus, merely a stern, sharp, and wild look, as τορόν, or ταυρηδὸν βλέπειν. Plin. H. N. xi. 54. Contuitu quoque multiformes; truces, torvi, flagrantes. Quintil. vi. 1. 43. (i. 40.)

Attonitus; Stupens. Attonitus, thunderstruck, denotes a momentary, stupens (ταφεῖν) a petrified, a lasting condition. Curt. viii. 2, 3. Attoniti, et stupentibus similes. Flor. ii. 12. (vi. 31.)

Audere; Conari; Moliri. Audere denotes an enterprise with reference to its danger, and the courage of him who undertakes it, whereas conari (from incohare), with reference to the importance of the enterprise, and the energy of him who undertakes it; lastly, moliri, with reference to the difficulty of the enterprise, and the exertion required of him who undertakes it. (iii. 295.)

Audentia, Audacia, see Fides.

Audire; Auscultare. Audire (from ausis, auris, οὖας) means to hear, ἀκούειν, as a mere passive 27 sensation, like olfacere; on the other hand, auscultare (from auricula), to hearken, ἀκροᾶσθαι, that is, to wish to hear, and to hear attentively, whether secretly or openly, by an act of the will, like odorari. Ter. And. iv. 5, 45. Æsch. Pater, obsecro, ausculta. Mic. Æschine, audivi omnia. Cato ap. Gell. i. 15. Pacuv. ap. Cic. Div. i. 57. (iii. 293.)

Auferre, see Demere.

Auguria; Auspicia; Prodigia; Ostenta; Portenta; Monstra; Omina. Auguria and auspicia are appearances in the ordinary course of nature, which for the most part possess a meaning for those only who are skilful in the interpretation of signs; auguria (from augur, αὐγάζειν) for the members of the college of augurs, who are skilled in such things; auspicia, for the magistrates, who have the right to take auspices: whereas prodigia, ostenta, portenta, monstra, are appearances out of the ordinary course of nature, which strike the common people, and only receive a more exact interpretation from the soothsayer: lastly, omina (ὄθματα, ὄσσαι) are signs which any person, to whom they occur, can interpret for himself, without assistance. The primary notion in prodigium is, that the appearance is replete with meaning, and pregnant with consequences; in ostentum, that it excites wonder, and is great in its nature: in portentum, that it excites terror, and threatens danger; in monstrum, that it is unnatural and ugly. (v. 178.)

Aura, see Anima.

Auscultare, see Audire.

Auspicia, see Auguria.

Austerus; Severus; Difficilis; Morosus; Tetricus. 1. Austerus (αὐστηρός, from αὔω) denotes gravity as an intellectual, severus (αὐηρός) as a moral quality. The austerus in opp. to jucundus, Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 8. xxxv. 11, is an enemy to jocularity and frivolity, and seeks in science, learning, and 28 social intercourse, always that which is serious and real, at the risk of passing for dull; the severus, in opp. to luxuriosus, Quintil. xi. 3, 74, is rigid, hates all dissoluteness and laxity of principle, and exacts from himself and others self-control and energy of character, at the risk of passing for harsh. The stoic, as a philosopher, is austerus, as a man, severus. 2. Austerus and severus involve no blame; whereas difficilis, morosus, and tetricus, denote an excess or degeneracy of rigor. The difficilis understands not the art of easy and agreeable converse, from hypochondria and temperament; the morosus (from mos) is scrupulous, and wishes everything to be done according to rule, from scrupulosity and want of tolerance; the tetricus (redupl. of trux, τραχύς) is stiff and constrained, from pedantry and want of temper. (iii. 232.)

Autumare, see Censere.

Auxilium; Opem ferre; Opitulari; Juvare; Adjuvare. 1. Auxilium, opem ferre, and opitulari, suppose a person in a strait, whom one would rescue from necessity and danger, in opp. to deserere, destituere, and so forth; the auxilium ferens is to be considered as an ally, who makes himself subservient to the personal safety, or to the interest of him who is in a strait; the opem ferens, as a benefactor, who employs his power and strength for the benefit of the weak; whereas juvare and adjuvare (ἰᾶσθαι) suppose only a person striving to do something, which he may be enabled to do better and quicker by help, in opp. to impedire, Cic. Verr. i. 6. Ter. Heaut. v. 2, 39. Matres solent esse filiis in peccato adjutrices, auxilio in paterna injuria. When in Liv. ii. 6, Tarquin entreats the Veientes, ferrent opem, adjuvarent, he is first considered as exulans, then as regnum repetiturus. 2. Opem and auxilium ferre derive their emphasis from the noun, to bring help, and nothing else; whereas opitulari, and the poetical word, auxiliari, derive their emphasis from their verbal form, and mean to bring help, and not to refuse. (v. 70.)


Ave; Salve; Vale. Ave (from εὖ) is a salutation used at meeting and at parting, like χαῖρε; whereas salve is used at meeting only, vale at parting, like ἔῤῥωσο. Suet. Galb. 4. Ut liberti mane salvere, vespere valere sibi singuli dicerent. (i. 28.)

Aves, see Volucres.

Avidus, see Velle.

Axes; Plancæ; Tabulæ. Axes or asses, and plancæ, are unwrought boards, as they come from the saw, and asses as a usual term, plancæ as a technical term; whereas tabulæ are boards that have been made smooth by the plane, to serve the purposes of luxury. (vi. 34.)

Axilla, see Armus.


Balbus; Blæsus. Balbus (from balare) denotes stammering as an habitual quality, whereas Blæsus, as a temporary condition. (iii. 79.)

Baculus, see Fustis.

Bajulare, see Ferre.

Bardus, see Stupidus.

Basium, see Osculum.

Baubari, see Latrare.

Beatus, see Felix.

Bellua, see Animal.

Bene moratus, see Bonus.

Benevolentia, see Studium.

Benignus, see Largus.

Bestia, see Animal.

Bibere; Potare. Bibere (reduplic. of bua) means to drink like a human being, πίνειν; whereas potare (from ποτός) to drink like a beast, and, metaphorically, to tipple, σπᾶν. Sen. Ep. 122. Inter nudos bibunt, imo potant. Plaut. Curc. i. 1, 88. Agite, bibite, festivæ fores, potate, fite mihi volentes propitiæ. (1. 149.)

Bifariam, see Duplex.

Bilis, see Fel.

Blæsus, see Balbus.

Blandiri, see Assentiri.

Blatire, Blaterare, see Garrire.

Boni consulere, see Satis habere.


Bonus; Bene moratus; Probus; Frugi; Honestus; Sanctus. 1. Bonus, bene moratus, probus, and frugi, denote a low degree of morality, in which a man keeps himself free from blame and punishment, hatred and contempt:—bonus (anciently duonus, δύναμαι), in the popular sense, in which benevolence and goodness of heart constitute the principal part of morality, in opp. to malus, like ἀγαθός; bene moratus, in a more philosophical sense, as an acquired character, in which, before all things, self-control, conscientiousness, and freedom from common selfishness are cultivated, like εὔτροπος, probus πραΰς), so far as a man injures no one, nor does what is unjust, as a worthy, upright, just man; frugi, so far as a man, by discretion, conscientiousness, and diligence, qualifies himself to be useful in practical life, in opp. to nequam, like χρηστός. Quintil. vi. 4, 11. Non est altercandi ars . . . res animi jacentis et mollis supra modum frontis, fallitque plerumque quod probitas vocatur, quæ est imbecillitas. Dic. Dejot. 10. Frugi hominem dici non multum laudis habet in rege. Quintil. i. 6, 29. 2. Whereas honestus and sanctus denote a higher degree of morality, which, from higher motives, rises above the standard of ordinary men, and what is called social morality; honestus, as an honorable and chivalrous spirit and demeanor, derived from a principle of honor and distinction, in opp. to turpis; sanctus, as a saintly and holy spirit, derived from a principle of piety. (v. 347.)

Brachium, see Ulna.

Brevis; Curtus. Brevis (βραχύς) means short by nature; whereas curtus (καρτός, from κείρω), means shortened.

Brutus, see Stupidus.



Caballus, see Equus.

Cachinnari, see Ridere.

Cacumen, see Acies.

Cadaver; Corpus. Cadaver denotes the dead body as a mere material substance, like carcass: but corpus as the remains of personality, like corpse, and is always used when the dead body is spoken of with feeling. (vi. 45.)

Cadere, see Labi.

Cædere, see Verberare.

Cærimonia, see Consuetudo.

Cæsar, see Primus.

Cæsaries, see Crinis.

Cæteri; Reliqui. Cæteri (comparat. from ἐκεῖ) denotes others, as in direct opposition to those first mentioned, like οἱ ἄλλοι; whereas reliqui, the rest, as merely the remainder that complete the whole, like οἱ λοιποί. Cic. Brut. 2, 6. Si viveret Hortensius, cætera fortasse desideraret una cum reliquis bonis civibus; hunc aut præter cæteros, aut cum paucis sustineret dolorem. (i. 183.)

Calamitas, see Infortunium.

Calamus, see Culmus.

Calculus, see Saxum.

Calere; Fervere; Æstuare; Calefacere; Fovere. 1. Calere and fervere denote, objectively, warmth by itself, and, indeed, calidus (κηλέῳ πυρί), in opp. to frigidus, a moderate degree of warmth, but fervidus, in opp. to gelidus, a degree of warmth on the point of boiling, heat; whereas æstuare (from αἴθω), subjectively, the feeling of heat, in opp. to algere. (iii. 89.) 2. Calefacere means to make warm, in a purely physical sense, without any accessory notion; whereas fovere (from ἀφαύω), with reference to the genial sensation, or salutary effect of the warmth. (vi. 48.)

Caligo, see Obscurum.


Calix, see Poculum.

Callidus, see Astutus and Sapiens.

Callis, see Iter.

Campus, see Æquum and Villa.

Candela; Lucerna. Candela is a candle, which can be carried about like a torch, as λαμπάς, whereas lucerna can only be considered as a burning light on a table, like λύχνος. (vi. 50.)

Candidus, see Albus.

Canere; Cantare; Psallere; Canticum; Cantilena; Carmen; Poema; Poeta; Vates. 1. Canere (from καναχεῖν) means, in the most general sense, to make music, voce, tibiis, fidibus, like μέλπειν; cantare, with vocal music, like ἀείδειν; psallere, with instrumental music, and indeed with string-instruments, like ψάλλειν. 2. Cantica and cantilenæ are only songs adapted for singing, in which, as in popular ballads, the words and melodies are inseparable, and serve to excite mirth and pleasure, in opp. to speech, and that which is spoken; and, indeed, canticum means a favorite piece, still in vogue; cantilena, a piece which, being generally known, has lost the charm of novelty, and is classed with old songs; whereas carmina and poemata are poems which may be sung, but the words of which claim value as a work of art, and serve religion or music as an art, in opp. to prose and real truth; carmina, indeed, were originally religious hymns, ἐπῳδαί, and, in a wider sense, poems of another sort, mostly, however, minor poems, and of a lyrical sort, like ᾠδαι; but poemata are the products of cultivated art, and extensive poems, mostly of the epic or tragic sort, like ποιήματα. The carmen (κάρω, κράζω) is the fruit of natural, but the poema of calm and self-conscious inspiration. 3. Poeta is a technical expression, and denotes a poet only as an artist; vates (ἠχέτης) is an old Latin and religious expression, and denotes a poet as a sacred person. Tac. Dial. 9. (v. 99.)


Canna, see Culmus.

Cantare, see Canere.

Canterius, see Equus.

Canticum, Cantilena, see Canere.

Caper; Hircus; Hœdus. Caper (κάπρος) is the general name for a he-goat, and that which is used in natural history, τράγος; hircus (from χήρ) is an old full-grown he-goat, χίμαρος? whereas hædus, hœdus (χοῖρος), a kid, ἔριφος. (v. 336.)

Capere, see Sumere.

Capillus, see Crinis.

Carcer, see Custodia.

Carere; Egere; Indigere. 1. Carere (from κείρειν) relates to a desirable possession, in opp. to habere, Cic. Tusc. i. 36; whereas egere and indigere, to a necessary and indispensable possession, in opp. to abundare, Lucil. Fr. Sat. viii. Senec. Vit. B. 7. Voluptate virtus sæpe caret, nunquam indiget. Epist. 9. Sapiens eget nulla re; egere enim necessitatis est. Cic. Ep. ad. Qu. Fr. i. 3, 2. Nunc commisi, ut me vivo careres, vivo me aliis indigeres. 2. Egere (from χάω, χαίνω ἀχήν) denotes, objectively, the state of need, in opp. to uti, Cato ap. Gell. xiii. 23; indigere, subjectively, the galling sense of need, and eager longing to satisfy it. (iii. 113.)

Caritas, see Diligere.

Carmen, see Canere.

Caro; Pulpa; Viscera; Exta; Intestina; Ilia. 1. Caro means flesh in its general sense, as a material substance, in opp. to fat, nerves, muscles, and so forth; pulpa, especially, eatable and savory flesh, in opp. to bones; viscera, all flesh, and every fleshy substance between the skin and the bones. 2. Viscera, in a narrower sense, means generally, the inner parts of the body; whereas exta means the inner parts of the upper part of the body, as the heart, lungs, and so forth; intestina, interanea, and ilia, the inner parts of the lower part of the body, namely, the entrails; and indeed intestina, and, in the age after 34 Augustus, interanea, meant the guts as digestive organs; ilia, all that is contained in the lower part of the body, and particularly those parts that are serviceable. (v. 145.)

Cassis; Galea; Cudo. Cassis, cassida (from κόττα), is a helmet of metal; galea (γαλέη), a helmet of skin, and properly of the skin of a weasel; cudo (κεύθων), a helmet of an indefinite shape. Tac. G. 6. Paucis loricæ; vix uni alterive cassis aut galea.

Cassis, see Rete.

Castigatio, see Vindicta.

Castus; Pudicus; Pudens; Pudibundus. 1. Castus (from καθαρός) denotes chastity as a natural quality of the soul, as pure and innocent; whereas pudicus, as a moral sentiment, as bashful and modest. 2. Pudicus, pudicitia, denote natural shame, aversion to be exposed to the gaze of others, and its fruit, chaste sentiment, merely in its sexual relation, like bashfulness; whereas pudens, pudor, denote shame in a general sense, or an aversion to be exposed to the observation of others, and to their contempt, as a sense of honor. Cic. Catil. ii. 11, 25. Ex hac parte pudor pugnat, illinc petulantia; hinc pudicitia, illinc stuprum. 3. Pudicus and pudens denote shame as an habitual feeling; pudibundus as a temporary state of the sense of shame, when excited. (iii. 199.)

Casu; Forte; Fortuito; Fortasse; Forsitan; Haud scio an. Casu, forte, and fortuito, denote a casualty, and indeed, casu, in opp. to consulto, συμβεβηκότως; forte, without particular stress on the casualty, τυχόν; fortuito, fortuitu, emphatically, by mere chance, in opp. to causa, ἀπὸ τύχης; whereas fortasse, forsitan, and haud scio an, denote possibility, and indeed fortasse, fortassis, with an emphatic perception and affirmation of the possibility, as approaching to probability, and are in construction with the indicative, ἴσως; forsitan, forsan, with merely an occasional perception of the possibility, 35 and are in construction with a conjunctive, τάχ’ ἄν; haud scio an, with a modest denial of one’s own certainty; consequently, haud scio an is an euphemistic limitation of the assertion. Fortasse verum est, and forsitan verum sit, mean, perhaps it is true, perhaps not; but haud scio an verum sit means, I think it true, but I will not affirm it as certain. (v. 294.)

Casus; Fors; Fortuna; Fors Fortuna; Fatum. 1. Casus denotes chance as an inanimate natural agent, which is not the consequence of human calculation, or of known causes, like συμφορά; whereas fors denotes the same chance as a sort of mythological being, which, without aim or butt, to sport as it were with mortals, and baffle their calculations, influences human affairs, like τύχη. 2. Fors, as a mythological being, is this chance considered as blind fortune; whereas Fortuna is fortune, not considered as blind, and without aim, but as taking a part in the course of human affairs from personal favor or disaffection; lastly, fors fortuna means a lucky chance, ἀγαθὴ τύχη. 3. All these beings form an opposition against the Dii and Fatum, which do not bring about or prevent events from caprice or arbitrary will, but according to higher laws; and the gods, indeed, according to the intelligible laws of morality, according to merit and worth, right and equity; fatum, according to the mysterious laws by which the universe is eternally governed, like εἱμαρμένη, μοῖρα. Tac. Hist. iv. 26. Quod in pace fors seu natura, tunc fatum et ira deorum vocabatur. (295.)

Catenæ, see Vincula.

Caterva; Cohors; Agmen; Grex; Globus; Turba. Caterva, cohors, and agmen, denote an assembled multitude in regular order, and caterva, as a limited whole, according to a sort of military arrangement; cohors, as respecting and observing the leadership of a commanding officer; agmen, as a solemn procession; whereas turba, grex, and globus, 36 denote a multitude assembled in no regular order, grex, without form or order; turba, with positive disorder and confusion; globus, a thronging mass of people, which, from each person pressing towards the centre, assumes a circular form. (v. 361.)

Catus, see Sapiens.

Caupona, see Deversorium.

Causidicus, see Advocatus.

Cautes, see Saxum.

Caverna, see Specus.

Cavillator, see Lepidus.

Celare; Occulere; Occultare; Clam; Abdere; Condere; Abscondere; Recondere. 1. Celare has an abstract or intellectual reference to its object, like κεύθειν, in opp. to fateri, and so forth; synonymously with reticere, Liv. xxiv. 5. Curt. vi. 9; whereas occulere, occultare, have a concrete and material reference to their object, like κρύπτειν, in opp. to aperire, synonymously with obtegere; Cic. Acad. iv. 19. N. D. ii. 20. Fin. i. 9, 30. Att. v. 15: the celanda remain secret, unless they happen to be discovered; but the occultanda would be exposed to sight, unless particular circumspection and precaution were used. 2. In the same manner clam and clanculum denote secretly, in opp. to palam, Cic. Rosc. Am. 8; whereas occulte, in opp. to aperte, Cic. Rull. i. 1. 3. Occulere denotes any concealment; occultare, a careful or very anxious concealment, and on this account finds no place in negative propositions, or as seldom, for example, as redolere. 4. Occultare means to prevent anything being seen, by keeping it covered; whereas abdere, condere, and abscondere, by removing the thing itself; abdere (ἀποθεῖναι) by laying it aside, and putting it away, like ἀποκρύπτειν; condere (καταθεῖναι), by depositing it in a proper place of safety, like κατακρύπτειν; recondere, by hiding it carefully and thoroughly; abscondere, by putting it away, and preserving it. (iv. 45.)


Celeber; Inclytus; Clarus; Illustris; Nobilis. Celeber (from κλέος) and inclytus (from κλυτός) denote celebrity, as general expressions, chiefly as belonging to things, and seldom as belonging to persons, except in poetry; clarus, illustris, and nobilis, with an especial political reference; clarus (γαληρός) means renowned for eminent services to one’s country; illustris (from ἀναλεύσσω) renowned for rank and virtue; nobilis (from novisse) belonging to a family whose members have already been invested with the honors of the state.

Celebrare, see Sæpe.

Celer, see Citus.

Celer, see Navigium.

Celsus, see Altus.

Censere; Judicare; Arbitrari; Æstimare; Opinari; Putare; Reri; Autumare; Existimare; Credere. 1. Censere, judicare, arbitrari, æstimare, denote passing judgment with competent authority, derived from a call to the office of judge; censere, as possessing the authority of a censor, or of a senator giving his vote; judicare, as possessing that of a judge passing sentence; arbitrari, as possessing that of an arbitrator; æstimare (αἰσθέσθαι), as that of a taxer, making a valuation; whereas, opinari, putare, reri, and autumare, denote passing judgment under the form of a private opinion, with a purely subjective signification; opinari (ὀπίς) as a mere sentiment and conjecture, in opp. to a clear conviction and knowledge. Cic. Orat. i. 23. Mur. 30. Tusc. iv. 7. Rosc. Am. 10; putare, as one who casts up an account; reri as a poetical, and autumare as an antiquated term. 2. Æstimare denotes passing judgment under the form of the political function of an actual taxer, to estimate anything exactly, or according to its real value, or price in money; but existimare, as a moral function, to estimate anything according to its worth or truth; hence Cicero contrasts existimatio, not æstimatio, as a private opinion, with competent judgment, judicio; Cluent. 29. Verr. v. 68. 3. Censere 38 denotes judgment and belief, as grounded upon one’s own reflection and conviction; credere, as grounded on the credit which is given to the testimony of others. 4. Opinor, parenthetically, implies modesty, like οἶμαι; whereas credo implies irony, like ὡς ἔοικεν, sometimes in propositions that are self-evident, whereby the irony reaches the ears of those to whom the truth could not be plainly spoken or repeated, or who might be inclined to doubt it; sometimes, in absurd propositions which a man thinks fit to put in the mouth of another; sometimes, in propositions so evident as scarcely to admit of controversy. (v. 300.)

Cernere, see Videre.

Cerritus, see Amens.

Certare, see Imitatio.

Cessare, see Vacare and Cunctari.

Chorda; Fides. Chorda (χορδή is a single string; fides (σφιδή) in the sing. and plur. means a complete collection of strings, or a string-instrument.

Cibare, Cibus, see Alimenta.

Cicatrix, see Vulnus.

Cicur; Mansuetus. Cicur (redupl. of κορίζομαι) denotes tameness, merely in a physical sense, and as a term in natural history, in opp. to ferus; whereas mansuetus, in a moral sense also, as implying a mild disposition, in opp. to sævus. (iv. 257.)

Cincinnus, see Crinis.

Circulus, see Orbis.

Circumire, see Ambire.

Circumvenire, see Fallere.

Cirrus, see Crinis.

Citus; Celer; Velox; Pernix; Properus; Festinus. 1. Citus and celer denote swiftness, merely as quick motion, in opp. to tardus, Cic. Or. iii. 57. Sall. Cat. 15. Cic. Fin. v. 11. N. D. ii. 20. Rosc. Com. 11. Top. 44; velox and pernix, nimbleness, as bodily strength and activity, in opp. to lentus; properus and festinus, haste, as the will to reach a certain point in the shortest time, in opp. to segnis Gell. x. 11. 2. Citus denotes a swift and lively motion, approaching to vegetus; celer, an eager and 39 impetuous motion, approaching to rapidus. 3. Pernicitas is, in general, dexterity and activity in all bodily movements, in hopping, climbing, and vaulting; but velocitas, especially in running, flying, and swimming, and so forth. Plaut. Mil. iii. 1, 36. Clare oculis video, pernix sum manibus, pedibus mobilis. Virg. Æn. iv. 180. Curt. vii. 7, 53. Equorum velocitati par est hominum pernicitas. 4. Properus, properare, denote the haste which, from energy, sets out rapidly to reach a certain point, in opp. to cessare; whereas festinus, festinare, denote the haste which springs from impatience, and borders upon precipitation. (ii. 144.)

Civilitas, see Humanitas.

Civitas, see Gens.

Clam, see Celare.

Claritas, see Gloria.

Clarus, see Celeber.

Claustrum, see Sera.

Clementia, see Mansuetudo.

Clivus, see Collis.

Clangere; Clamare; Vociferari. Clangere is the cry of animals and the clang of instruments, like κλάγγειν; clamare and vociferari, the cry of men; clamare, an utterance of the will, but vociferari, of passion, in anger, pain, in intoxication. Rhet. ad. Her. iii. 12. Acuta exclamatio habet quiddam illiberale et ad muliebrem potius vociferationem, quam ad virilem dignitatem in dicendo accommodatum. Senec. Ep. 15. Virg. Æn. ii. 310. Exoritur clamorque virum clangorque tubarum. (v. 103.)

“Clypeus” and “Codicilli” printed before “Clangere”.

Clypeus, see Scutum.

Codicilli, see Literæ.

Cœnum, see Lutum.

Cœpisse, see Incipere.

Coercere; Compescere. Coercere denotes restriction, as an act of power and superior strength; whereas compescere (from pedica, πεδᾶν) as an act of sovereign authority and wisdom. (iv. 427.)

Cœtus, see Concilium.

Cogere; Adigere. Cogere (from co-igere) means by force and power to compel to something; 40 adigere, by reflection and the suggestion of motives to persuade to something. Tac. Ann. vi. 27. Se ea necessitate ad preces cogi, per quas consularium aliqui capessere provincias adigerentur. (vi. 70.)

Cogitare; Meditari; Commentari. 1. Cogitare (from the Goth. hugjan) denotes the usual activity of the mind, which cannot exist without thinking, or employing itself about something; meditari (from μέδεσθαι), the continued and intense activity of the mind, which aims at a definite result. Ter. Heaut. iii. 3, 46. Quid nunc facere cogitas? Compare this with Adelph. v. 6, 8. Meditor esse affabilis. Cic. Cat. i. 9, 22. In Tusc. iii. 6, cogitatio means little more than consciousness; whereas meditatio means speculative reflection. 2. Meditari has an intensive meaning, with earnestness, exertion, and vivacity; commentari (only in Cicero) means to reflect leisurely, quietly, and profoundly. (v. 198.)

Cognatus, see Necessarius.

Cognitio; Notitia; Scientia; Ignarus; Inscius; Nescius. 1. Cognitio is an act of the mind by which knowledge is acquired, whereas notitia and scientia denote a state of the mind; notitia, together with nosse, denotes a state of the merely receptive faculties of the mind, which brings an external appearance to consciousness, and retains it there; whereas scientia, together with scire, involves spontaneous activity, and a perception of truth; notitia may be the result of casual perception; scientia implies a thorough knowledge of its object, the result of mental activity. Cic. Sen. 4, 12. Quanta notitia antiquitatis! quanta scientia juris Romani! 2. The ignarus is without notitia, the inscius without scientia. Tac. H. i. 11. Ægyptum provinciam insciam legum, ignaram magistratuum; for legislation is a science, and must be studied; government an art, and may be learnt by practice. 3. Inscius denotes a person who has not learnt something, with blame; nescius, who has 41 accidentally not heard of, or experienced something, indifferently. Cic. Brut. 83. Inscium omnium rerum et rudem. Compare this with Plin. Ep. viii. 23, Absens et impendentis mali nescius. (v. 266.)

Cognoscere, see Intelligere.

Cohors, see Caterva.

Colaphus, see Alapa.

Colere, see Vereri.

Collis; Clivus; Tumulus; Grumus; Collis and clivus denote a greater hill or little mountain; collis (from celsus) like κολωνός, as an eminence, in opp. to the plain beneath, and therefore somewhat steep; clivus, like κλιτύς, as a sloping plain, in opp. to an horizontal plain, and therefore only gradually ascending; whereas tumulus and grumus mean only a hillock, or great mound; tumulus, like ὄχθος, means either a natural or artificial elevation; grumus, only an artificial elevation, like χῶμα. Colum. Arbor. a. f. Collem autem et clivum, modum jugeri continentem repastinabis operis sexaginta. Liv. xxi. 32. Erigentibus in primos agmen clivos, apparuerunt imminentes tumulos insidentes montani. Hirt. B. Hisp. 24. Ex grumo excelsum tumulum capiebat. (ii. 121.)

Colloquium, see Sermo.

Colonus, see Incolere.

Coluber, see Anguis.

Coma, see Crinis.

Comburere, see Accendere.

Comere; Decorare; Ornare. 1. Comere and decorare denote ornament, merely as an object of sense, as pleasing the eye; ornare, in a practical sense, as at the same time combining utility. 2. Comere (κοσμεῖν) denotes ornament as something little and effeminate, often with blame, like nitere, in opp. to nature, noble simplicity, or graceful negligence, like κομμοῦν, whereas decorare and ornare, always with praise, like splendere, as denoting affluence and riches; decorare (from δίκη) in opp. to that which is ordinary and unseemly, like κοσμεῖν; ornare (from ὀρίνω?) in opp. to that which is paltry and incomplete, like ἀσκεῖν. 3. Comere implies only a change in form, which by arranging and polishing gives to the 42 whole a smart appearance, as in combing and braiding the hair; but decorare and ornare effect a material change, inasmuch as by external addition new beauty is conferred, as by a diadem, and so forth. Quintil. xii. 10, 47. Comere caput in gradus et annulos; compare with Tibull. iii. 2, 6. Sertis decorare comas; and Virg. Ecl. vi. 69. Apio crines ornatus amaro. (iii. 261.)

Commissatio, see Epulæ.

Comitari; Deducere; Prosequi. Comitari means to accompany for one’s own interest, ἀκολουθεῖν; deducere, from friendship, with officiousness; prosequi, from esteem, with respect, προπέμπειν. (vi. 73.)

Comitas, see Humanitas.

Comitia, see Concilium.

Commentari, see Cogitare.

Committere, see Fidere.

Commodare; Mutuum Dare. Commodare means to lend without formality and stipulation, on the supposition of receiving the thing lent again when it is done with. Mutuum dare is to grant a loan on the supposition of receiving an equivalent when the time of the loan expires. Commodatio is an act of kindness; mutuum datio is a matter of business. (iv. 137.)

Communicare, see Impertire.

Comœdus, see Actor.

Compar, see Æquus.

Compedes, see Vincula.

Compendium, see Lucrum.

Compescere, see Coercere.

Complecti, see Amplecti.

Complementum; Supplementum. Complementum serves, like a keystone, to make anything complete, to crown the whole, whereas supplementum serves to fill up chasms, to supply omissions.

Conari, see Audere.

Concedere; Permittere; Connivere. Concedere and permittere mean, to grant something which a man has full right to dispose of; concedere, in consequence of a request or demand, in opp. to refusing, like συγχωρῆσαι; permittere, from confidence 43 in a person, and liberality, in opp. to forbidding, like ἐφεῖναι; whereas indulgere and connivere mean to grant something, which may properly be forbidden; indulgere (ἐνδελεχεῖν?), from evident forbearance; connivere (κατανεύειν), from seeming oversight.

Concessum est; Licet; Fas est. Concessum est means, what is generally allowed, like ἔξεστι, and has a kindred signification with licet, licitum est, which mean what is allowed by human laws, whether positive, or sanctioned by custom and usage, like θέμις ἐστί; fas est means what is allowed by divine laws, whether the precepts of religion, or the clear dictates of the moral sense, like ὅσιόν ἐστι. (v. 167.)

Concilium; Concio; Comitia; Cœtus; Conventus. 1. Concilium, concio, and comitia are meetings summoned for fixed purposes; concilium (ξυγκαλεῖν), an assembly of noblemen and persons of distinction, of a committee, of the senate, the individual members of which are summoned to deliberate, like συνέδριον; whereas concio and comitia mean a meeting of the community, appointed by public proclamation, for passing resolutions or hearing them proposed; concio (ciere, κιών) means any orderly meeting of the community, whether of the people or of the soldiery, in any state or camp, like σύλλογος; comitia (from coire) is an historical term, confined to a Roman meeting of the people, as ἐκκλησία to an Athenian, and ἁλία to a Spartan. 2. Cœtus and conventus are voluntary assemblies; cœtus (from coire) for any purpose, for merely social purposes, for a conspiracy, and so forth, like σύνοδος; whereas conventus, for a serious purpose, such as the celebration of a festival, the hearing of a discourse, and so forth, like ὁμήγυρις, πανήγυρις. (v. 108.)

Conclave, Cubiculum. Conclave is the most general term for any closed room, and especially a room of state; cubiculum is a particular expression for a dwelling-room. (vi. 75.)


Concordia, see Otium.

Concubina, see Pellex.

Condere, see Celare and Sepelire.

Conditio; Status. Conditio (ξύνθεσις, συνθεσία) is a state regulated by the will; status is a state arising from connection. Cic. Fam. xii. 23. Omnem conditionem imperii tui, statumque provinciæ demonstravit mihi Tratorius. (vi. 76.)

Confestim, see Repente.

Confidentia, see Fides.

Confidere, see Fidere.

Confinis, see Vicinus.

Confisus; Fretus. Confisus means, subjectively, like securus, depending on something, and making one’s self easy, πεποιθῶς; whereas fretus (φρακτός, ferox) means, objectively, like tutus, protected by something, ἐῤῥωμένος. (i. 20.)

Confiteri, see Fateri.

Confligere, see Pugnare.

Confutare, see Refutare.

Congeries, see Acervus.

Conjux, see Femina.

Connivere, see Concedere.

Consanguineus, see Necessarius.

Conscendere, see Scandere.

Consecrare, see Sacrare.

Consequi, see Invenire.

Conjugium; Matrimonium; Contubernium; Nuptiæ. Conjugium and matrimonium denote the lasting connection between man and wife, for the purpose of living together and bringing up their offspring; conjugium is a very general term for a mere natural regulation, which also takes place among animals; contubernium means the marriage connection between slaves; matrimonium, the legal marriage between freemen and citizens, as a respectable and a political regulation; whereas nuptiæ means only the commencement of matrimonium, the wedding, or marriage-festival.

Considerare; Contemplari. Considerare (from κατιδεῖν) denotes consideration as an act of the understanding, endeavoring to form a judgment; contemplari (from καταθαμβεῖν) an act of feeling, which is absorbed in its object, and surrenders itself 45 entirely to the pleasant or unpleasant feeling which its object excites. (v. 130.)

Consors, see Socius.

Conspectus, Conspicere, see Videre.

Constat; Apparet; Elucet; Liquet. Constat means a truth made out and fixed, in opp. to a wavering and unsteady fancy or rumor; whereas apparet, elucet, and liquet denote what is clear and evident; apparet, under the image of something stepping out of the back-ground into sight; elucet, under the image of a light shining out of darkness; liquet, under the image of frozen water melted. (vi. 78.)

Constituere, see Destinare.

Consuetudo; Mos; Ritus; Cærimonia. Consuetudo denotes the uniform observance of anything as a custom, arising from itself, and having its foundation in the inclination or convenience of an individual or people, ἔθος; whereas mos (modus) is the habitual observance of anything, as a product of reason, and of the self-conscious will, and has its foundation in moral views, or the clear dictates of right, virtue, and decorum, ἦθος; lastly, ritus denotes the hallowed observance of anything, either implanted by nature as an instinct, or introduced by the gods as a ceremony, or which, at any rate, cannot be traced to any human origin. Consuetudines are merely factitious, and have no moral worth; mores are morally sanctioned by silent consent, as jura and leges by formal decree; ritus (from ἀριθμός, ῥυθμός), are natural, and are hallowed by their primæval origin, and are peculiar to the animal. (v. 75.) 2. Ritus is a hallowed observance, as directed and taught by the gods or by nature; whereas cærimonia (κηδεμονία) is that which is employed in the worship of the gods.

Consuevisse, see Solere.

Consummare, see Finire.

Contagium, see Lues.

Contaminare; Inquinare; Polluere. Contaminare (from contingo, contagio) means defilement in 46 its pernicious effect, as the corruption of what is sound and useful; inquinare (from cunire, or from πίνος), in its loathsome effect, as marring what is beautiful, like μορύσσειν; polluere (from pullus, πελλός), in its moral effect, as the desecration of what is holy and pure, like μιαίνειν. Cic. Cæcil. 21, 70. Judiciis corruptis et contaminatis; compare with Cœl. 6. Libidinibus inquinari; and Rosc. Am. 26, 71. Noluerunt in mare deferri, ne ipsum pollueret, quo cætera quæ violata sunt, expiari putantur. (ii. 56.)

Contemnere, see Spernere.

Contemplari, see Considerare.

Contendere, see Dicere.

Contentio, see Disceptatio.

Contentum esse, see Satis habere.

Continentia, see Modus.

Contingere, see Accidere.

Continuo, see Repente.

Continuus; Perpetuus; Sempiternus; Æternus. 1. Continuum means that which hangs together without break or chasm; perpetuum, that which arrives at an end, without breaking off before. Suet Cæs. 76. Continuos consulatus, perpetuam dictaturam. 2. Perpetuus, sempiternus, and æternus, denote continued duration; but perpetuus, relatively, with reference to a definite end, that of life for example; sempiternus and æternus, absolutely, with reference to the end of time in general; sempiternus means, like ἀΐδιος, the everlasting, what lasts as long as time itself, and keeps pace with time; æternum (from ætas) like αἰώνιον, the eternal, that which outlasts all time, and will be measured by ages, for Tempus est pars quædam æternitatis. The sublime thought of that which is without beginning and end, lies only in æternus, not in sempiternus, for the latter word rather suggests the long duration between beginning and end, without noting that eternity has neither beginning nor end. Sempiternus involves the mathematical, æternus the metaphysical 47 notion of eternity. Cic. Orat. ii. 40, 169. Barbarorum est in diem vivere; nostra consilia sempiternum tempus spectare debent; compare with Fin. i. 6, 17. Motum atomorum nullo a principio, sed æterno tempore intelligi convenire. (i. 1.)

Contrarius, see Varius.

Controversia, see Disceptatio.

Contubernium, see Conjugium.

Contumacia, see Pervicacia.

Contumelia; Injuria; Offensio. 1. Contumelia (from contemnere) denotes a wrong done to the honor of another; injuria, a violation of another’s right. A blow is an injuria, so far as it is the infliction of bodily harm; and a contumelia, so far as it brings on the person who receives it, the imputation of a cowardly or servile spirit. Senec. Clem. i. 10. Contumelias, quæ acerbiores principibus solent esse quam injuriæ. Pacuv. Non. Patior facile injuriam, si vacua est contumelia. Phædr. Fab. v. 3, 5. Cic. Quint. 30, 96. Verr. iii. 44. 2. Contumelia and injuria are actions, whereas offensio denotes a state, namely, the mortified feeling of the offended person, resentment, in opp. to gratia. Plin. H. N. xix. 1. Quintil. iv. 2. Plin. Pan. 18. (iv. 194.)

Conventus, see Concilium.

Convertere, see Vertere.

Convivium, see Epulæ.

Convicium, see Maledictum.

Copia, see Occasio.

Copiæ, see Exercitus.

Copiosus, see Divitiæ.

Cordatus, see Sapiens.

Corpulentus, see Pinguis.

Corpus, see Cadaver.

Corrigere; Emendare. Corrigere means to amend, after the manner of a rigid schoolmaster or disciplinarian, who would make the crooked straight, and set the wrong right; whereas emendare, after the manner of an experienced teacher, and sympathizing friend, who would make what is defective complete. 48 Plin. Pan. 6, 2. Corrupta est disciplina castrorum, ut tu corrector emendatorque contingeres; the former by strictness, the latter by wisdom. Cic. Mur. 29. Verissime dixerim, nulla in re te (Catonem) esse hujusmodi ut corrigendus potius quam leviter inflectendus viderere; comp. with Plin. Ep. i. 10. Non castigat errantes, sed emendat. (v. 319.)

Corrumpere, see Depravare.

Coruscare, see Lucere.

Coxa; Latus; Femur. Coxa and coxendix (κοχώνη) mean the hip; latus, the part between the hip and shoulder; femur and femen, the part under the hip, the thigh. (vi. 84.)

Crapula, see Ebrietas.

Crater, see Poculum.

Creare; Gignere; Parere; Generare. 1. Creare (from κύρω) means, by one’s own will and creative power to call something out of nothing; gignere (γίγνεσθαι, γενέσθαι) by procreation or parturition; gignere is allied to generare only by procreation, and to parere (πεπαρεῖν, πείρειν, only by parturition. 2. Gignere is a usual expression, which represents procreation as a physical and purely animal act, and supposes copulation, conception, and parturition; whereas generare is a select expression, which represents procreation as a sublime godlike act, and supposes only creative power; hence, for the most part, homines et belluæ gignunt, natura et dii generant. And, Corpora gignuntur, poemata generantur. Cic. N. D. iii. 16. Herculem Jupiter genuit, is a mythological notice; but Legg. i. 9. Deus hominem generavit, is a metaphysical axiom. (v. 201.)

Crebro, see Sæpe.

Credere, see Censere and Fidere.

Cremare, see Accendere.

Crepitus, see Fragor.

Crepusculum, see Mane.

Criminari, see Arguere.

Crinis; Capillus; Coma; Cæsaries; Pilus; Cirrus; Cincinnus. 1. Crinis and capillus denote the natural hair merely in a physical sense, like 49 θρίξ; crinis (from κάρηνον), any growth of hair, in opposition to the parts on which hair does not grow; capillus (from caput), only the hair of the head, in opp. to the beard, etc. Liv. vi. 16. Suet. Aug. 23. Cels. vi. 2. Cic. Tusc. v. 20. Rull. ii. 5; whereas in coma and cæsaries the accessory notion of beauty, as an object of sense, is involved, inasmuch as hair is a natural ornament of the body, or itself the object of ornament; coma (κόμη) is especially applicable to the hair of females; cæsaries, to that of males, like ἔθειρα. Hence crinitus means nothing more than covered with hair; capillatus is used in opp. to bald-headed, Petron. 26, and the Galli are styled comati, as wearing long hair, like καρηκομόωντες. 2. Crinis, capillus, coma, cæsaries, denote the hair in a collective sense, the whole growth of hair; whereas pilus means a single hair, and especially the short and bristly hair of animals. Hence pilosus is in opp. to the beautiful smoothness of the skin, as Cic. Pis. I; whereas crinitus and capillatus are in opp. to ugly nakedness and baldness. (iii. 14.) 3. Cirrus and cincinnus denote curled hair; cirrus (κόῤῥη) is a natural, cincinnus (κίκιννος) an artificial curl. (iii. 23.)

Cruciatus; Tormentum. Cruciatus, crucimenta (κρόκα, κρέκω), denote in general any pangs, natural and artificial; tormenta (from torquere), especially pangs caused by an instrument of torture, like the rack. Cic. Phil. xi. 4. Nec vero graviora sunt carnificum tormenta quam interdum cruciamenta morborum. (vi. 87.)

Crudelitas, see Sævitia.

Cruentus, Cruor, see Sanguis.

Cubare; Jacere; Situm esse. Cubare (from κείω) denotes the lying down of living beings; situm esse (ἑτόν, εἶσαι) of lifeless things; jacere, of both. Cubare and jacere are neuter; situm esse, always passive. Further, cubare gives the 50 image of one who is tired, who wishes to recruit his strength, in opp. to standing, as requiring exertion, whereas jacere gives the image of one who is weak, without any accessory notion, in opp. to standing, as a sign of strength. (i. 138.)

Cubiculum, see Conclave.

Cubile; Lectus. Cubile is a natural couch for men and animals, a place of rest, like κοίτη, εὐνή; lectus, an artificial couch, merely for men, a bed, like λέκτρον. (v. 279.)

Cubitus, see Ulna.

Cudere, see Verberare.

Cudo, see Cassis.

Culcita; Pulvinus; Pulvinar. Culcita (from calcare?) is a hard-stuffed pillow; pulvinus and pulvinar, a soft elastic pillow; pulvinus, such as is used on ordinary civil occasions; pulvinar, such as is used on solemn religious occasions. (vi. 89.)

Culmen; Fastigium. Culmen means the top, the uppermost line of the roof; fastigium, the summit, the highest point of this top, where the spars of the roof by sloping and meeting form an angle; therefore fastigium is a part of culmen. Virg. Æn. ii. 458. Evado ad summi fastigia culminis. Liv. xl. 2. Vitruv. iv. 2. Arnob. ii. 12. And figuratively culmen denotes the top only, with a local reference, as the uppermost and highest point, something like κολοφών; but fastigium with reference to rank, as the principal and most imposing point of position, something like κορυφή; therefore culmen tecti is only that which closes the building, but fastigium that which crowns it; and fastigium also denotes a throne, whence culmina montium is a much more usual term than fastigia. (ii. 111.)

Culmus; Calamus; Stipula; Spica; Arista; Arundo; Canna. 1. Culmus means the stalk, with reference to its slender height, especially of corn; calamus (κάλαμος) with reference to its hollowness, especially of reeds. 2. Culmus means the stalk of corn, as bearing 51 the ear, as the body the head, as an integral part of the whole; stipula, as being compared with the ear, a worthless and useless part of the whole, as stubble. 3. Spica is the full ear, the fruit of the corn-stalk, without respect to its shape, arista, the prickly ear, the tip or uppermost part of the stalk, without respect to its substance, sometimes merely the prickles. Quintil. i. 3, 5. Imitatæ spicas herbulæ inanibus aristis ante messem flavescunt. 4. Calamus, as a reed, is the general term; arundo (from ῥοδανός) is a longer and stronger reed; canna (from κανών?) a smaller and thinner reed. Colum. iv. 32. Ea est arundineti senectus, cum ita densatum est, ut gracilis et cannæ similis arundo prodeat. (v. 219.)

Culpa; Noxia; Noxius; Nocens; Sons. 1. Culpa (κολάψαι) denotes guilt as the state of one who has to answer for an injury, peccatum, delictum, maleficium, scelus, flagitium, or nefas; hence a responsibility, and, consequently, a rational being is supposed, in opp. to casus, Cic. Att. xi. 9. Vell. P. ii. 118, or to necessitas, Suet. Cl. 15; whereas noxia, as the state of one who has caused an injury, and can therefore be applied to any that is capable of producing an effect, in opp. to innocentia. Liv. iii. 42, 2. Illa modo in ducibus culpa, quod ut odio essent civibus fecerant; alia omnis penes milites noxia erat. Cic. Marc. 13. Etsi aliqua culpa tenemur erroris humani, a scelere certe liberati sumus; and Ovid, Trist. iv. 1, 23. Et culpam in facto, non scelus esse meo, coll. 4, 37; hence culpa is used as a general expression for every kind of fault, and especially for a fault of the lighter sort, as delictum. 2. Culpa and noxia suppose an injurious action; but vitium (from αὐάτη, ἄτη) merely an action or quality deserving censure, and also an undeserved natural defect. 3. Nocens, innocens, denote guilt, or absence of guilt, in a specified case, with regard to a single action; but noxius, innoxius, together with the poetical words nocuus, innocuus, relate 52 to the nature and character in general. Plaut. Capt. iii. 5, 7. Decet innocentem servum atque innoxium confidentem esse; that is, a servant who knows himself guiltless of some particular action, and who, in general, does nothing wrong. 4. Noxius denotes a guilty person only physically, as the author and cause of an injury, like βλαβερός; but sons (ὀνοτός) morally and juridically, as one condemned, or worthy of condemnation, like θῶος. (ii. 152.)

Culpare, see Arguere.

Cultus, see Vestis.

Cumulus, see Acervus.

Cunæ; Cunabula. Cunæ (κοῖται) is the cradle itself; incunabula, the bed, etc., that are in the cradle. Plaut. Truc. v. 13. Fasciis opus est, pulvinis, cunis, incunabulis. (vi. 69.)

Cunctari; Hæsitare; Cessare. Cunctari (from ξυνέκειν, or κατέχειν), means to delay from consideration, like μέλλειν; hæsitare, from want of resolution; cessare (καθίζειν?) from want of strength and energy, like ὀκνεῖν. The cunctans delays to begin an action; the cessans, to go on with an action already begun. (iii. 300.)

Cuncti, see Quisque.

Cupere, see Velle.

Cupido; Cupiditas; Libido; Voluptas. 1. Cupido is the desire after something, considered actively, and as in action, in opp. to aversion; whereas cupiditas is the passion of desire, considered neutrally, as a state of mind, in opp. to tranquillity of mind. Cupido must necessarily, cupiditas may be, in construction with a genitive, expressed or understood; in this case, cupido relates especially to possession and money, cupiditas, to goods of every kind. Vell. P. ii. 33. Pecuniæ cupidine: and further on, Interminatam imperii cupiditatem. 2. Cupido and cupiditas stand in opp. to temperate wishes; libido (from λίψ) the intemperate desire and capricious longing after something, in opp. to rational will, ratio, Suet. Aug. 69, or voluntas, Cic. Fam. ix. 16. Libidines are lusts, 53 with reference to the want of self-government; voluptates, pleasures, in opp. to serious employments, or to pains. Tac. H. ii. 31. Minus Vitellii ignavæ voluptates quam Othonis flagrantissimæ libidines timebantur. (v. 60.)

Cur; Quare. Cur (from quare? or κῶς;) serves both for actual questions, and for interrogative forms of speech; whereas quare serves for those questions only, to which we expect an answer. (vi. 93.)

Cura; Sollicitudo; Angor; Dolor; Ægritudo. Cura, sollicitudo, and angor, mean the disturbance of the mind with reference to a future evil and danger; cura (from the antiquated word coera, from κοίρανος) as thoughtfulness, uneasiness, apprehension, in opp. to incuria, like φροντίς; sollicitudo, as sensitiveness, discomposure, anxiety, in opp. to securitas, Tac. H. iv. 58, like μέριμνα; angor (from ἄγχω) as a passion, anguish, fear, in opp. to solutus animus; whereas dolor and ægritudo relate to a present evil; dolor (from θλᾶν?) as a hardship or pain, in opp. to gaudium, ἄλγος; ægritudo, as a sickness of the soul, like ἀνία, in opp. to alacritas. Cic. Tusc. v. 16. Cic. Fin. i. 22. Nec præterea res ulla est, quæ sua natura aut sollicitare possit aut angere. Accius apud Non. Ubi cura est, ibi anxitudo. Plin. Ep. ii. 11. Cæsar mihi tantum studium, tantam etiam curam—nimium est enim dicere sollicitudinem—præstitit, ut, etc. Quintil. viii. pr. 20. Curam ego verborum, rerum volo esse sollicitudinem. (iv. 419.)

Curtus, see Brevis.

“Curtus” printed as continuation of previous entry.

Curvus; Uncus; Pandus; Incurvus; Recurvus; Reduncus; Repandus; Aduncus. 1. Curvus, or in prose mostly curvatus, denotes, as a general expression, all crookedness, from a slight degree of crookedness to a complete circle; uncus supposes a great degree of crookedness, approaching to a semi-circle, like the form of a hook; pandus, a slight crookedness, deviating but a little from a straight line, like that which slopes. 2. The curva form a continued crooked 54 line; the incurva suppose a straight line ending in a curve, like ἐπικαμπής, the augur’s staff, for example, or the form of a man who stoops, etc. 3. Recurvus, reduncus, and repandus, denote that which is bent outwards; aduncus, that which is bent inwards. Plin. H. N. xi. 37. Cornua aliis adunca, aliis redunca. (v. 184.)

Cuspis, see Acies.

Custodia; Carcer; Ergastulum. Custodia (from κεύθω) is the place where prisoners are confined, or the prison; carcer (κάρκαρον, redupl. of καρίς, circus), that part of the prison that is meant for citizens; ergastulum (from ἐργάζομαι, or εἴργω), the house of correction for slaves.

Cutis, see Tergus.

Cyathus, see Poculum.

Cymba, see Navigium.


Damnum; Detrimentum; Jactura. Damnum (δαπάνη) is a loss incurred by one’s self, in opp. to lucrum. Plaut. Cist. i. 1, 52. Capt. ii. 2, 77. Ter. Heaut. iv. 4, 25. Cic. Fin. v. 30. Sen. Ben. iv. 1. Tranq. 15; whereas detrimentum (from detrivisse) means a loss endured, in opp. to emolumentum. Cic. Fin. i. 16. iii. 29; lastly, jactura is a voluntary loss, by means of which one hopes to escape a greater loss or evil, a sacrifice. Hence damnum is used for a fine; and in the form, Videant Coss., ne quid resp. detrimenti capiat, the word damnum could never be substituted for detrimentum. (v. 251.)

Dapes, see Epulæ.

Deamare, see Diligere.

Deambulare, see Ambulare.

Debere, see Necesse est.

Decernere, see Destinare.

Decipere, see Fallere.

Declarare, see Ostendere.

Decorare, see Comere.

Dedecus, see Ignominia.

Dedicare, see Sacrare.

Deducere, see Comitari.

Deesse, see Abesse.

Defendere, see Tueri.

Deferre, see Arguere.


Deficere, see Abesse and Turbæ.

Deflere, see Lacrimare.

Deformis, see Tæter.

Degere, see Agere.

De integro, see Iterum.

Delectatio, see Oblectatio.

Delere, see Abolere.

Delibutus; Unctus; Oblitus. Delibutus (from λείβειν, λιβάζειν), besmeared with something greasy, is the general expression; unctus (from ὑγρός? or νήχειν?) means anointed with a pleasant ointment; and oblitus (from oblino), besmeared with something impure. (vi. 98.)

Delictum; Peccatum; Malefactum; Maleficium; Facinus; Flagitium; Scelus; Nefas; Impietas. 1. Delictum and peccatum denote the lighter sort of offences; delictum, more the transgression of positive laws, from levity; peccatum (from παχύς), rather of the laws of nature and reason, from indiscretion. 2. A synonyme and as it were a circumlocution of the above words is malefactum; whereas maleficium and facinus involve a direct moral reference; maleficium is any misdeed which, as springing from evil intention, deserves punishment; but facinus, a crime which, in addition to the evil intention, excites astonishment and alarm from the extraordinary degree of daring requisite thereto. 3. There are as many sorts of evil deeds, as there are of duties, against oneself, against others, against the gods; flagitium (from βλαγίς) is an offence against oneself, against one’s own honor, by gluttony, licentiousness, cowardice; in short, by actions which are not the consequence of unbridled strength, but of moral weakness, as evincing ignavia, and incurring shame; whereas scelus (σκληρόν) is an offence against others, against the right of individuals, or the peace of society, by robbery, murder, and particularly by sedition, by the display, in short, of malice; nefas (ἄφατον) is an offence against the gods, or against nature, by blasphemy, sacrilege, murder of kindred, betrayal of one’s country; in short, 56 by the display of impietas, an impious outrage. Tac. G. 12. (ii. 139.)

Deligere; Eligere. Deligere means to choose, in the sense of not remaining undecided in one’s choice; eligere, to choose, in the sense of not taking the first thing that comes. (v. 98.)

Delirium, see Amens.

Delubrum, see Templum.

Demens, see Amens.

Demere; Adimere; Eximere; Auferre; Eripere; Surripere; Furari. 1. Demere, adimere, and eximere, denote a taking away without force or fraud; demere (from de-imere) means to take away a part from a whole, which thereby becomes less, in opp. to addere, or adjicere. Cic. Orat. ii. 25. Fam. i. 7. Acad. iv. 16. Cels. i. 3. Liv. ii. 60; adimere, to take away a possession from its possessor, who thereby becomes poorer, in opp. to dare and reddere. Cic. Verr. i. 52. Fam. viii. 10. Phil. xi. 8. Suet. Aug. 48. Tac. Ann. xiii. 56; eximere, to remove an evil from a person oppressed by it, whereby he feels himself lightened. 2. Auferre, eripere, surripere, and furari, involve the notion of an illegal and unjust taking away; auferre, as a general expression for taking away anything; eripere, by force to snatch away; surripere and furari, secretly and by cunning; but surripere may be used for taking away privily, even when just and prudent self-defence may be pleaded as the motive; whereas furari (φωρᾶν, φέρω) is only applicable to the mean handicraft of the thief. Sen. Prov. 5. Quid opus fuit auferre? accipere potuistis; sed ne nunc quidem auferetis, quia nihil eripitu nisi retinenti. Cic. Verr. i. 4, 60. Si quis clam surripiat aut eripiat palam atque auferat: and ii. 1, 3. Non furem sed ereptorem. (iv. 123.)

Demoliri, see Destruere.

Demori, see Mors.

Denegare, see Negare.

Densus, see Angustus.

Denuo, see Iterum.

Deplorare, see Lacrimare.


Depravare; Corrumpere. Depravare denotes to make anything relatively worse, provided it is still susceptible of amendment, as being merely perverted from its proper use; whereas corrumpere denotes to make anything absolutely bad and useless, so that it is not susceptible of amendment, as being completely spoilt. (v. 321.)

Deridere, see Ridere.

Desciscere, see Turbæ.

Deserere, see Relinquere.

Desertum, see Solitudo.

Desiderare, see Requirere.

Desidia, see Ignavia.

Desinere; Desistere. Desinere denotes only a condition in reference to persons, things, and actions, as, to cease; whereas desistere, an act of the will, of which persons only are capable, as to desist. (iii. 101.)

Desolatus, see Relinquere.

Desperans, see Exspes.

Despicere, see Spernere.

Destinare; Obstinare; Decernere; Statuere; Constituere. 1. Destinare and obstinare denote forming a resolution as a psychological, whereas decernere and statuere as a political, act. 2. Destinare means to form a decided resolution, by which a thing is set at rest; obstinare, to form an unalterable resolution, whereby a man perseveres with obstinacy and doggedness. 3. Decernere denotes the final result of a formal consultation, or, at least, of a deliberation approaching the nature and seriousness of a collegial discussion; statuere, to settle the termination of an uncertain state, and constituere is the word employed, if the subject or object of the transaction is a multitude. Cic. Fr. Tull. Hoc judicium sic expectatur, ut non unæ rei statui, sed omnibus constitui putetur. (iv. 178.)

Destinatio, see Pervicacia.

Destituere, see Relinquere.

Destruere; Demoliri. Destruere means to pull down an artificially constructed, demoliri, a solid, building. (vi. 2.)


Deterior; Pejor. Deterior (a double comparative from de) means, like χείρων, that which has degenerated from a good state, that which has become less worthy; whereas pejor (from πεζός), like κακίων, that which has fallen from bad to worse, that which is more evil than it was. Hence Sallust. Or. Phil. 3. Æmilius omnium flagitiorum postremus, qui pejor an ignavior sit deliberari non potest:—in this passage deterior would form no antithesis to ignavior. The deterrimi are the objects of contempt, the pessimi of abhorrence; Catullus employs the expression pessimas puellas, ‘the worst of girls,’ in a jocular sense, in a passage where this expression has a peculiar force; whereas deterrimus could, under no circumstances, be employed as a jocular expression, any more than the words wretched, depraved. (i. 53.)

Detestari, see Abominari.

Detinere, see Manere.

Detrectatio, see Invidia.

Detrimentum, see Damnum.

Deus, see Numen.

Deversorium; Hospitium; Caupona; Taberna; Popina; Ganeum. Deversorium is any house of reception on a journey, whether one’s own property, or that of one’s friends, or of inn-keepers; hospitium, an inn for the reception of strangers; caupona (from καρποῦσθαι?) a tavern kept by a publican. These establishments afford lodging as well as food; whereas tabernæ, popinæ, ganea, only food, like restaurateurs; tabernæ (from trabes?), for the common people, as eating-houses; popinæ (from popa, πέψαι), for gentlefolks and gourmands, like ordinaries; ganea (from ἀγανός?), for voluptuaries. (vi. 101.)

Devincire, see Ligare.

Dicare, see Sacrare.

Dicere; Aio; Inquam; Asseverare; Affirmare; Contendere; Fari; Fabulari. 1. Dicere denotes to say, as conveying information, in reference to the hearer, in opp. to tacere, like the neutral word loqui. Cic. Rull. ii. 1. Ver. ii. 1, 71, 86. Plin. Ep. iv. 20. 59 vii. 6, like λέγειν; but aio expresses an affirmation, with reference to the speaker, in opp. to nego. Cic. Off. iii. 23. Plaut. Rud. ii. 4, 14. Terent. Eun. ii. 2, 21, like φάναι. 2. Ait is in construction with an indirect form of speech, and therefore generally governs an infinitive; whereas inquit is in construction with a direct form of speech, and therefore admits an indicative, imperative, or conjunctive. 3. Aio denotes the simple affirmation of a proposition by merely expressing it, whereas asseverare, affirmare, contendere, denote an emphatic affirmation; asseverare is to affirm in earnest, in opp. to a jocular, or even light affirmation, jocari. Cic. Brut. 85; affirmare, to affirm as certain, in opp. to doubts and rumors, dubitare, Divin. ii. 3, 8; contendere, to affirm against contradiction, and to maintain one’s opinion, in opp. to yielding it up, or renouncing it. 4. Dicere (δεῖξαι) denotes to say, without any accessory notion, whereas loqui (λακεῖν), as a transitive verb, with the contemptuous accessory notion that that which is said is mere idle talk. Cic. Att. xiv. 4. Horribile est quæ loquantur, quæ minitentur. 5. Loqui denotes speaking in general; fabulari, a good-humored, or, at least, pleasant mode of speaking, to pass away the time, in which no heed is taken of the substance and import of what is said, like λαλεῖν; lastly, dicere, as a neuter verb, denotes a speech prepared according to the rules of art, a studied speech, particularly from the rostrum, like λέγειν. Liv. xlv. 39. Tu, centurio, miles, quid de imperatore Paulo senatus decreverit potius quam quid Sergio Galba fabuletur audi, et hoc dicere me potius quam illum audi; ille nihil præterquam loqui, et id ipsum maledice et maligne didicit. Cic. Brut. 58. Scipio sane mihi bene et loqui videtur et dicere. Orat. iii. 10. Neque enim conamur docere eum dicere qui loqui nesciat. Orat. 32. Muren. 34, 71. Suet. Cl. 4. Qui tam ἀσαφῶς loquatur, qui possit quum declamat σαφῶς dicere quæ dicenda sunt non video. 60 6. Fari (φάναι) denotes speaking, as the mechanical use of the organs of speech to articulate sounds and words, nearly in opp. to infantem esse; whereas loqui (λακεῖν), as the means of giving utterance to one’s thoughts, in opp. to tacere. And as fari may be sometimes limited to the utterance of single words, it easily combines with the image of an unusual, imposing, oracular brevity, as in the decrees of fate, fati; whereas loqui, as a usual mode of speaking, is applicable to excess in speaking, loquacitas. (iv. 1.)

Dicterium, see Verbum.

Dicto audientem esse, see Parere.

Dies; Tempus; Tempestas; Die; Interdiu. 1. Dies (from ἔνδιος) denotes time in its pure abstract nature, as mere extension and progression; whereas tempus and tempestas, with a qualifying and physical reference, as the weather and different states of time; tempus denotes rather a mere point of time, an instant, an epoch; tempestas, an entire space of time, a period. Hence dies docebit refers to a long space of time, after the lapse of which information will come, like χρόνος; whereas tempus docebit refers to a particular point of time which shall bring information, like καιρός. (iv. 267.) 2. Die means by the day, in opp. to by the hour or the year; whereas interdiu and diu, by day, in opp. to noctu; but interdiu stands in any connection; diu only in direct connection with noctu. (iv. 288.)

Dies festi, see Solemnia.

In singulos dies, see Quotidie.

Differre; Proferre; Procrastinare; Prorogare. 1. Differre denotes delay in a negative sense, whereby a thing is not done at present, but laid aside; whereas proferre and procrastinare, delay in a positive sense, as that which is to take place at a future time; proferre refers to some other time in general; procrastinare, to the very next opportunity. 2. Differre denotes an action, the beginning of which is put off; prorogare, a condition 61 or state, the ending of which is put off, as to protract. (vi. 102.)

Difficilis, see Arduus and Austerus.

Digladiari, see Pugnare.

Dignum esse, see Merere.

Diligentia, see Opera.

Diligere; Amare; Deamare; Adamare; Caritas; Amor; Pietas. 1. Diligere (from ἀλέγειν) is love arising from esteem, and, as such, a result of reflection on the worth of the beloved object, like φιλεῖν; whereas amare is love arising from inclination, which has its ground in feeling, and is involuntary, or quite irresistible, like ἐρᾶν, ἔρασθαι; diligere denotes a purer love, which, free from sensuality and selfishness, is also more calm; amare, a warmer love, which, whether sensual or platonic, is allied to passion. Cic. Att. xiv. 17. Tantum accessit ut mihi nunc denique amare videar, ante dilexisse. Fam. xiii. 47. Brut. i. 1. Plin. Ep. iii. 9. 2. Amare means to love in general; deamare, as an intensive, to love desperately, like amore deperire; and adamare, as an inchoative, to fall in love. 3. Caritas, in an objective sense, means to be dear to some one; amor, to hold some one dear: hence the phrases, Caritas apud aliquem; amor erga aliquem. 4. Caritas, in a subjective sense, denotes any tender affection, especially that of parents towards their children, without any mixture of sensuality, and refers merely to persons, like ἀγάπη or στοργή; whereas amor denotes ardent passionate love to persons or things, like ἔρως; lastly, pietas (from ψήχω, ψίης, the instinctive love to persons and things, which we are bound to love by the holy ties of nature, the gods, those related to us by blood, one’s native country, and benefactors. Caritas rejoices in the beloved object and its possession, and shows itself in friendship and voluntary sacrifices; amor wishes evermore to get the beloved object in its power, and loves with a restless unsatisfied feeling; pietas follows a natural impulse and religious feeling. (iv. 97.)


Diluculum, see Mane.

Dimetari, Dimetiri, see Metiri.

Dimicare, see Pugnare.

Dimittere, see Mittere.

Dirimere, see Dividere.

Diripere, see Vastare.

Dirus, see Atrox.

Disceptatio; Litigatio; Controversia; Contentio; Altercatio; Jurgium; Rixa. 1. Disceptatio, litigatio, and controversia, are dissensions, the settling of which is attempted quietly, and in an orderly way; contentio, altercatio, and jurgium, such as are conducted with passion and vehemence, but which are still confined to words; rixæ (ὀρέκτης) such as, like frays and broils come to blows, or at least threaten to come to blows, and are mid-way between jurgium and pugna. Liv. xxxv. 17. Ex disceptatione altercationem fecerunt. Tac. Hist. i. 64. Jurgia primum, mox rixa inter Batavos et legionarios. Dial. 26. Cassius Severus non pugnat, sed rixatur. 2. Controversia takes place between two parties the moment they place themselves in array on opposite sides; disceptatio, when they commence disputing with each other, in order to arrive at the path of truth, or to discover what is right, but without a hostile feeling; litigatio, when a hostile feeling and a personal interest are at the bottom of the dispute. 3. Contentio would maintain the right against all opponents, and effect its purpose, whatever it may be, by the strenuous exertion of all its faculties; altercatio would not be in debt to its opponent a single word, but have the last word itself; jurgium (from ὀργή) will, without hearkening to another, give vent to its ill-humor by harsh words. Contentio presents the serious image of strenuous exertion; altercatio, the comic image of excessive heat, as in women’s quarrels; jurgium, the hateful image of rude anger. (v. 274.)

Discernere; Distinguere. Discernere (διακρίνειν) means to distinguish by discrimination and judgment; distinguere (διαστίξαι, or διατέγγειν), by signs and marks. (vi. 103.)


Disciplinæ, see Literæ.

Discrimen, see Tentare.

Disertus; Facundus; Eloquens. Disertus and facundus denote a natural gift or talent for speaking, whereas eloquens, an acquired and cultivated art. Disertus is he who speaks with clearness and precision; facundus, he who speaks with elegance and beauty; eloquens, he who combines clearness and precision with elegance and beauty. The disertus makes a good teacher, who may nevertheless be confined to a one-sided formation of intellect; the facundus is a good companion, whose excellence may nevertheless be confined to a superficial adroitness in speaking, without acuteness or depth, whereas the eloquens, whether he speaks as a statesman or as an author, must, by talent and discipline in all that relates to his art, possess a complete mastery over language, and the resources of eloquence. Cic. Orat. 5, 19. Antonius . . . . disertos ait se vidisse multos, eloquentem omnino neminem. Quintil. viii. pr. 13. Diserto satis dicere quæ oporteat; ornate autem dicere proprium est eloquentissimi. Suet. Cat. 53. Eloquentiæ quam plurimum adtendit, quantumvis facundus et promptus. (iv. 14.)

Dispar, see Æquus.

Dispertire, see Dividere.

Disputare, see Disserere.

Disserere; Disputare. Disserere (διερεῖν) means to express an opinion in a didactic form, and at the same time to explain the grounds of that opinion; but disputare (διαπυθέσθαι) in a polemical form, and to take into consideration the arguments against it, and with one’s opponent, whether an imaginary person or actually present, to weigh argument against argument, and ascertain on which side the balance of truth lies. The disserens takes only a subjective view of the question; but the disputans would come at a result of objective validity. Disserere, moreover, denotes a freer, disputare a more methodical discussion of the subject. Cic. Rep. iii. 16 i. 24. Fin. i. 9, 31. Orat. ii. 3, 13. (iv. 19.)


Distinguere, see Discernere.

Distribuere, see Dividere.

Diu, Diutius, Diutinus, see Pridem.

Divellere, see Frangere.

Diversus, see Varius.

Dividere; Partiri; Dirimere; Dispertire; Distribuere. 1. Dividere and dirimere mean to divide something, merely in order to break the unity of the whole, and separate it into parts, whereas partiri means to divide, in order to get the parts of the whole, and to be able to dispose of them. Hence the phrases divide et impera, and dividere sententias, but partiri prædam. 2. Divisio denotes, theoretically, the separation of a genus into its species, whereas partitio, the separation of the whole into its parts. Quintil. v. 10, 63. Cic. Top. 5. 3. Dividere refers to a whole, of which the parts are merely locally and mechanically joined, and therefore severs only an exterior connection; but dirimere refers to a whole, of which the parts organically cohere, and destroys an interior connection. Liv. xxii. 15. Casilinum urbs . . . Volturno flumine dirempta Falernum ac Campanum agrum dividit: for the separation of a city into two halves by a river, is an interior separation, whereas the separation of two neighboring districts by a city, is an exterior separation. 4. Dividere means also to separate into parts, without any accessory notion, whereas dispertire, with reference to future possessors, and distribuere, with reference to the right owners, or to proper and suitable places. (iv. 156.)

Divinare; Præsagire; Præsentire; Prævidere; Vaticinari; Prædicere. 1. Divinare denotes foreseeing by divine inspiration and supernatural aid, like μαντεύεσθαι; præsagire (præ and ἡγεῖσθαι), in a natural way, by means of a peculiar organization of mind bordering on the supernatural; præsentire and prævidere, by an unusual measure of natural talent; præsentire, by immediate presentiment; prævidere, by foresight, by an acute 65 and happy combination. 2. Divinare, etc., are merely acts of perception, whereas vaticinatio and prædictio, the open expression of what is foreseen; vaticinatio, that of the divinans and præsagiens, like προφητεία, prophecy; but prædictio, that of the præsentiens and prævidens, prediction. (vi. 105.)

Divitiæ; Opes; Gazæ; Locuples; Opulentus; Copiosus. 1. Divitiæ and gazæ denote riches quite generally, as possessions and the means of satisfying one’s wishes of any sort, whereas opes, as the means of attaining higher ends, of aggrandizing one’s self, and of acquiring and maintaining influence. Divitiæ (from δεύειν) denotes the riches of a private person, like πλοῦτος; opes (opulentus, πολύς), the instrument of the statesman, or of the ambitious in political life; gazæ, the treasure of a king or prince, like θησαυροί. 2. Dives means rich in opp. to poor, Quintil. v. 10, 26, like πλούσιος; locuples (loculos πλήθων), well-off, in opp. to egens, egenus, Cic. Planc. 35. Ros. Com. 8, like ἀφνειός; opulentus and copiosus, opulent, in opp. to inops, Cic. Parad. 6. Tac. H. iii. 6, like εὔπορος. (v. 81.)

Divortium, see Repudium.

Divus, see Numen.

Doctor; Præceptor; Magister. Doctor means the teacher, as far as he imparts theory, with reference to the student, in opp. to the mere hearer; præceptor, as far as he leads to practice, in reference to the pupil, in opp. to the mere scholar; magister, in a general sense, with reference to his superiority and ascendency in knowledge, in opp. to the laity. Cic. Orat. iii. 15. Vetus illa doctrina eadem videtur et recte faciendi et bene dicendi magistra, neque disjuncti doctores, sed iidem erant vivendi præceptores atque dicendi. And. Mur. 31. (vi. 105).

Doctrina; Eruditio. Doctrina denotes learning as a particular species of intellectual cultivation, whereas eruditio the learned result, as the crown of intellectual cultivation. Doctrina evinces a 66 superiority in particular branches of knowledge, and stands as a co-ordinate notion with exercitatio, which is distinguished from it by involving a superiority in the ready use of learning, and can therefore, even as a mere theory, be of more evident service in practice than that which is indirectly important; eruditio stands in still closer relation to practice, and involves the co-operation of the different branches of knowledge and different studies to the ennobling of the human race; it denotes genuine zeal for the welfare of mankind in an intellectual, as humanitas does in a moral, point of view. (v. 268.)

Doctrinæ, see Literæ.

Dolor; Tristitia; Mœstitia; Luctus. 1. Dolor (from θλᾶν, ἄθλιος?) denotes an inward feeling of grief, opp. to gaudium, Cic. Phil. xiii. 20. Suet. Cæs. 22, like ἄλγος; whereas tristitia, mœror, luctus, denote an utterance or external manifestation of this inward feeling. Tristitia and mœstitia are the natural and involuntary manifestation of it in the gestures of the body and in the countenance; luctus (ἀλυκτός), its artificial manifestation, designedly, and through the conventional signs of mourning, as cutting off the hair, mourning clothes, etc., at an appointed time, like πένθος. Mœror also serves for a heightened expression of dolor, and luctus of mœror and tristitia, as far as the manifestation is added to distinguish the feeling from it. Cic. Att. xii. 28. Mærorem minui; dolorem nec potui, nec si possem vellem. Phil. xi. 1. Magno in dolore sum, vel in mœrore potius, quem ex miserabili morte C. Trebonii accepimus. Plin. Ep. v. 9. Illud non triste solum, verum etiam luctuosum, quod Julius avitus decessit. Tac. Agr. 43. Finis vitæ ejus nobis luctuosus, amicis tristis; for relations only put on mourning. Tac. Ann. ii. 82. Quanquam nec insignibus lugentium abstinebant, altius animis mœrebant. Cic. Sext. 29, 39. Luctum nos hausimus majorem dolorem ille animi non 67 minorem. 2. Tristitia (from ταρακτός?) denotes the expression of grief in a bad sense, as gloom, fretfulness, and ill-humor, opp. to hilaratus, Cic. Att. xii. 40. Fin. v. 30. Cæcil. ap. Gell. xv. 9. Quintil. xi. 3, 67, 72, 79, 151; whereas mœstitia (from μύρω) denotes grief, as deserving of commiseration, as affliction, when a most just grief gives a tone of sadness, in opp. to lætus, Sall. Cat. f. Tac. Ann. i. 28. Tristitia is more an affair of reflection; mœstitia, of feeling. The tristis, like the truculentus, is known by his forbidding look, his wrinkled forehead, the contraction of his eyebrows; the mœstus, like the afflictus, by his lack-lustre eyes and dejected look. Tac. Hist. i. 82. Rarus per vias populus mœsta plebs; dejecti in terram militum vultus, ac plus tristitæ quam pœnitentiæ. Cic. Mur. 24, 49. Tristem ipsum, mœstos amicos: and Orat. 22, 74. (iii. 234.)

Dolor, see Cura.

Domus, see Ædificium.

Donum; Munus; Largitio; Donarium; Donativum; Liberalitas. 1. Donum (δωτίνη) means a present, as a gratuitous gift, by which the giver wishes to confer pleasure, like δῶρον; whereas munus, as a reward for services, whereby the giver shows his love or favor, like γέρας; lastly, largitio, as a gift from self-interested motives, which under the show of beneficence would win over and bribe, generally for political ends. Suet. Cæs. 28. Aliis captivorum millia dono afferens; that is, not merely as a loan: compare with Ner. 46. Auspicanti Sporus annulum muneri obtulit; that is, as a handsome return. Tac. H. ii. 30. Id comitatem bonitatemque faventes vocabant, quod sine modo (Vitellius) donaret sua largiretur aliena. 2. Donarium denotes particularly a gift to a temple; donativum, a military gift, or earnest-money, which the new emperor at his accession to the throne distributes among the soldiers; liberalitas, a gift which the emperor bestowed, generally on a poor nobleman, for his support. (iv. 142.)

Dorsum; Tergum. Dorsum (from δέρας) denotes 68 the back, in an horizontal direction, consequently the back of an animal, in opp. to the belly, like νῶτον; tergum (from τράχηλος), the back, in a perpendicular direction, consequently the part between the shoulders in a man, in opp. to the breast, like μετάφρενον. Hence dorsum montis denotes the uppermost surface; tergum montis, the hinder part of a mountain. (v. 15.)

Dubius; Ambiguus; Anceps. Dubius (δοιός) and ambiguus (ἀμφὶς ἔχων) denote doubt, with reference to success or failure, fortune or misfortune; anceps, with reference to existence itself, to the being or not being. Vell. Pat. ii. 79. Ea patrando bello mora fuit, quod postea dubia et interdum ancipiti fortuna gestum est. Tac. Ann. iv. 73. (v. 282.)

Dudum, see Pridem.

Dulcis, see Suavis.

Dumi; Sentes; Vepres. Dumi denotes bushes growing thickly together, which present the appearance of a wilderness; sentes, prickly and wounding bushes, thorn-bushes; vepres combines both meanings; thorn-bushes which make the ground a wilderness. (vi. 108.)

Duplex; Duplum; Geminus; Dupliciter; Bifariam. 1. Duplex (δίπλαξ) denotes double, as distinct magnitudes to be counted: duplum (διπλοῦν) as continuous magnitudes to be weighed or measured. Duplex is used as an adjective, duplum as a substantive. Quintil. viii. 6, 42. In quo et numerus est duplex et duplum virium. 2. In duplex (as in διπλοῦς), doubleness is the primary, similarity and equality the secondary notion; in geminus (as in δίδυμος), the notion of similarity and equality is the primary, that of doubleness the secondary one. In Cic. Part. 6. Verba geminata et duplicata vel etiam sæpius iterata; the word geminata refers to the repetition of the same notion by synonymes; duplicata to the repetition of the same word. 3. Dupliciter is always modal; in two different manners, with double purpose; bifariam is local, in two places, or two parts. Cic. 69 Fam. ix. 20. Dupliciter delectatus sum literis tuis; compare with Tusc. iii. 11. Bifariam quatuor perturbationes æqualiter distributæ sunt. (v. 281.)


Ebrius; Vinolentus; Tremulentus; Crapula; Ebriosus. 1. Ebrietas places the consequences of the immoderate use of wine in its most favorable point of view, as the exaltation and elevation of the animal spirits, and in its connection with inspiration, like μέθη; whereas vinolentia, and the old word temulentia, in its disgusting point of view, as brutal excess, and in its connection with the loss of recollection, like οἴνωσις; lastly, crapula, the objective cause of this condition, like κραιπάλη. 2. Ebrius, and the word of rare occurrence, madusa, denote a person who is drunk, with reference to the condition; ebriosus, a drunkard, with reference to the habit. (v. 330.)

Ecce, see En.

Editus, see Altus.

Edulia, see Alimenta.

Egere, see Carere.

Egestas, see Paupertas.

Ejulare, see Lacrimare.

Elaborare, see Labor.

Elementum, see Litera.

Eligere, see Deligere.

E longinquo, see Procul.

Eloquens, see Disertus.

Eloqui; Enunciare; Proloqui; Pronunciare; Recitare. 1. Eloqui and enunciare denote an act of the intellect, in conformity to which one utters a thought that was resting in the mind; but the eloquens regards therein both substance and form, and would express his thought in the most perfect language; whereas the enuncians regards merely the substance, and would only make his thought publici juris, or communicate it; hence elocutio belongs to rhetoric, enuntiatio to logic. 2. On the other hand, proloqui denotes a moral act, in conformity to which one resolves to give utterance to a secret thought, in opp. to reticere, like profiteri; lastly, pronuntiare, a physical act, by which one 70 utters any thing, whether thought of, or written mechanically by the organs of speech, and makes it heard, like recitare. Pronuntiare, however, is a simple act of the organs of speech, and aims merely at being fully heard; recitare is an act of refined art, and aims by just modulation, according to the laws of declamation, to make a pleasing impression. Pronuntiatio relates only to single letters, syllables, and words, as the elements and body of speech, whereas recitatio relates both to the words and to their import, as the spirit of speech. (iv. 4.)

Elucet, see Constat.

Emendare, see Corrigere.

Emere; Mercari; Redimere. 1. Emere means to buy, where furnishing one’s self with the article is the main point, the price the next point, like πρίασθαι; whereas mercari (from ἀμέργειν) means to buy, as a more formal transaction, generally as the mercantile conclusion of a bargain, like ἐμπολᾶν. 2. Emere refers to the proper objects of trade; redimere to things which, according to the laws of justice and morality, do not constitute articles of trade, and which the buyer might either claim as his due, or ought to receive freely and gratuitously, such as peace, justice, love, and so forth. Cic. Sext. 30, 36. Quis autem rex qui illo anno non aut emendum sibi quod non habebat, aut redimendum quod habebat, arbitrabatur? (iv. 116.)

Eminens; Excellens; Præclarus; Præstans; Insignis; Singularis; Unicus. 1. Eminens, excellens, præclarus, and præstans, involve a quiet acknowledgment of superiority; whereas egregius, with an expression of enthusiasm, like glorious; eximius, with an expression of admiration, like excellent. 2. Eximius, &c. relate altogether to good qualities, like superior, and can be connected with vices and faults only in irony; whereas insignis, singularis, and unicus, are indifferent, and serve as well to heighten blame as praise, like distinguished, matchless. (vi. 111.)


Eminet, see Apparet.

Eminus, see Procul.

Emissarius, see Explorator.

Emolumentum, see Lucrum.

Emori, see Mors.

En; Ecce. En (ἠνί) means, see here what was before hidden from thee! like ἤν, ἠνί, ἠνίδε; whereas ecce (ἔχε? or the reduplication of the imperative of Eco, to see, oculus?) means, see there what thou hast not before observed! like ἰδού. (vi. 112.)

Ensis, see Gladius.

Enunciare, see Eloqui.

Epistola, see Literæ.

Epulæ; Convivium; Dapes; Epulum; Comissatio. Epulæ is the general expression, the meal, whether frugal or sumptuous, whether en famille or with guests, at home or in public; convivium is a social meal, a convivial meal; dapes (from δάψαι, δεῖπνον), a religious meal, a meal of offerings; epulum, a solemn meal, mostly political, a meal in honor of something, a festival; comissatio (from κομάζειν), a gormandizing meal, a feast. (v. 195.)

Equus; Caballus; Mannus; Canterius. Equus (from the antiquated word, ehu) denotes a horse, as a general expression, a term in natural history; caballus (from καφάζω), a horse for ordinary services; mannus, a smaller kind of horse, like palfrey, for luxury; canterius, a castrated horse, a gelding. Sen. Ep. 85. Cato censorius canterio vehebatur et hippoperis quidem impositis. Oh quantum decus sæculi! Catonem uno caballo esse contentum, et ne toto quidem! Ita non omnibus obesis mannis et asturconibus et tolutariis præferres unum illum equum ab ipso Catone defrictum. (iv. 287.)

Ergastulum, see Custodia.

Eripere, see Demere.

Errare; Vagari; Palari. Errare (ἔῤῥειν) is to go astray, πλανᾶσθαι, an involuntary wandering about, when one knows not the right way; vagari and palari, on the other hand, mean a voluntary wandering; vagari, like ἀλᾶσθαι, when one disdains a settled residence, or straight path, and wanders about 72 unsteadily; palari (from pandere?) when one separates from one’s company, and wanders about alone. Erramus ignari, vagamur soluti, palamur dispersi. Tac. H. i. 68. Undique populatio et cædes; ipsi in medio vagi; abjectis armis magna pars, saucii aut palantes in montem Vocetiam perfugiunt. (i. 89.)

Erudire; Formare; Instituere. Erudire and formare denote education as an ideal good, and as a part of human improvement; erudire, generally, and as far as it frees from ignorance; formare, specially, and as far as it prepares one in a particular sphere, and for a particular purpose, and gives the mind a bent thereto; whereas instituere denotes education as a real good, in order to qualify for a particular employment. (vi. 113.)

Eruditio, see Literæ.

Printed as shown, but correct cross-reference is Doctrina (singular).

Esca, see Alimenta.

Escendere, see Scandere.

Esuries, see Fames.

Et; Que; Ac; Atque. Et (ἔτι) is the most general copulative particle; que and et—et connect opposites; que (καί), simply because they are opposites, as terra marique; but et—et, in order to point them out emphatically as opposites [and closely connected notions of the same kind], as et terra et mari; whereas ac and atque connect synonymes, atque before vowels and gutturals; ac before the other consonants; as, for example, vir fortis ac strenuus. (vi. 114.)

Evenire, see Accidere.

Evertere, see Perdere.

Evestigio, see Repente.

Evocare, see Arcessere.

Excellens, see Eminens.

Excelsus, see Altus.

Excipere, see Sumere.

Excors, see Amens.

Excubiæ; Stationes; Vigiliæ. Excubiæ are the sentinels before the palace, as guards of honor and safeguards; stationes, guards stationed at the gate as an outpost; vigiliæ, guards in the streets during the night as a patrol.

Excusatio, see Purgatio.

Exemplum; Exemplar. Exemplum means an example out of many, chosen on account of its relative 73 aptness for a certain end; whereas exemplar means an example before others, chosen on account of its absolute aptness to represent the idea of a whole species, a model. Cic. Mur. 31. Vell. P. ii. 100. Antonius singulare exemplum clementiæ Cæsaris; compare with Tac. Ann. xii. 37. Si incolumem servaveris, æternum exemplar clementiæ ero; not merely tuæ clementiæ, but of clemency in general. (v. 359.)

Exercitus; Copiæ. Exercitus is an army that consists of several legions; but copiæ mean troops, which consist of several cohorts.

Exhibere, see Præbere.

Exigere, see Petere.

Exiguus, see Parvus.

Exilis; Macer; Gracilis; Tenuis. Exilis and macer denote leanness, with reference to the interior substance and with absolute blame, as a consequence of want of sap, and of shrivelling; exilis (from egere, exiguus,) generally as applicable to any material body, and as poverty and weakness, in opp. to uber, Cic. Or. i. 12; macer (μακρός, meagre,) especially to animal bodies, as dryness, in opp. to pinguis, Virg. Ecl. iii. 100; whereas gracilis and tenuis, with reference to the exterior form, indifferently or with praise; tenuis (τανύς, thin), as approaching to the notion of delicate, and as a general term, applicable to all bodies, in opp. to crassus, Cic. Fat. 4. Vitruv. iv. 4; but gracilis as approaching to the notion of tall, procerus, and especially as applicable to animal bodies, like slender, in opp. to opimus, Cic. Brut. 91; obesus, Cels. i. 3, 30. ii. 1. Suet. Dom. 18. (v. 25.)

Eximere, see Demere.

Existimare, see Censere.

Exitium, Exitus, see Lues.

Experiri, see Tentare.

Expetere, see Velle.

Expilare, see Vastare.

Explorator; Speculator; Emissarius. Exploratores are scouts, publicly ordered to explore the state of the country or the enemy; speculatores, spies, secretly sent out to observe the condition and 74 plans of the enemy; emissarii, secret agents, commissioned with reference to eventual measures and negotiations. (vi. 117.)

Exprobrare, see Objicere.

Exsecrari, see Abominari.

Exsequiæ, see Funus.

Exsomnis, see Vigil.

Exspectare, see Manere.

Exspes; Desperans. Exspes denotes hopelessness, as a state; but desperans, despondency, as the painful feeling of hopelessness.

Exstructus, see Præditus.

Exsul, see Perfuga.

Exsultare, see Gaudere.

Exta, see Caro.

Extemplo, see Repente.

Exterus; Externus; Peregrinus; Alienigena; Extrarius; Extraneus; Advena; Hospes. 1. Exterus and externus denote a foreigner, as one dwelling in a foreign country; whereas peregrinus, alienigena, advena, and hospes, as one who sojourns for a time in a country not his own. 2. Externus denotes a merely local relation, and is applicable to things as well as to persons; but exterus, an intrinsic relation, and is an epithet for persons only. Externæ nationes is a merely geographical expression for nations that are situated without; exteræ nationes, a political expression for foreign nations. 3. Extraneus means, that which is without us, in opp. to relatives, family, native country; whereas extrarius, in opp. to one’s self. Cic. ap. Colum. xii. Comparata est opera mulieris ad domesticam diligentiam; viri autem ad exercitationem forensem et extraneam: comp. with Juv. ii. 56. Utilitas aut in corpore posita est aut in extrariis rebus: or Quintil. vii. 2, 9, with vii. 4, 9. 4. Peregrinus is one who does not possess the right of citizenship, in opp. to civis, Sen. Helv. 6; alienigena, one born in another country, in opp. to patrius and indigena; advena, the emigrant, in opp. to indigena, Liv. xxi. 30; hospes, the foreigner, in opp. to popularis. 5. Peregrinus is the political name of a 75 foreigner, as far as he is without the rights of a citizen and native inhabitant, with disrespect; hospes, the name given to him from a feeling of kindness, as possessing the rights of hospitality. Cic. Rull. ii. 34. Nos autem hinc Romæ, qui veneramus, jam non hospites sed peregrini atque advenæ nominabamur. (iv. 386.)

Extorris, see Perfuga.

Extraneus, Extrarius, see Exterus.

Extremus; Ultimus; Postremus; Novissimus. Extremus and ultimus denote the last in a continuous magnitude, in a space; extremus, the outermost part of a space, or of a surface, in opp. to intimus and medius, Cic. N. D. ii. 27, 54. Cluent. 65, like ἔσχατος; ultimus (superl. from ollus), the outermost point of a line, in opp. to citimus and proximus. Cic. Somn. 3. Prov. cons. 18. Liv. v. 38, 41, like λοῖσθος. Whereas postremus and novissimus denote the last in a discrete quantity, or magnitude consisting of separate parts, in a row of progressive numbers; postremus, the last in a row that is completed, in which it occupies the last place, in opp. to those that precede it, primus, princeps, tertius, like ὕστατος; whereas novissimus denotes the last in a row that is not complete, in which, as the last comer, it occupies the last place, in opp. to that which has none to follow it, but is last of all, like νέατος.

Exuviæ, see Præda.


Faber; Opifex; Artifex. Fabri (from favere, fovere,) are such workmen as labor with exertion of bodily strength, carpenters and smiths, χειρώνακτες; opifices such as need mechanical skill and industry, βάναυσοι; artifices such as employ mind and invention in their mechanical functions, τεχνῖται. (v. 329.)

Fabulari, see Loqui, Garrire, and Dicere.


Facere, see Agere.

Facetiæ, see Lepidus.

Facies; Os; Vultus; Oculi. Facies (from species) and oculi (from ὄκκος) denote the face and eyes only in a physical point of view, as the natural physiognomy and the organs of sight; but os and vultus with a moral reference, as making known the temporary, and even the habitual state of the mind by the looks and eyes; os (from ὄθομαι), by the glance of the eye, and the corresponding expression of the mouth; vultus (from ἑλικτός), by the motion of the eye, and the simultaneous expression of the parts nearest to it, the serene and the darkened brow. Tac. Agr. 44. Nihil metus in vultu; gratia oris supererat. (iv. 318.)

Facilitas, see Humanitas.

Facinus, see Delictum.

Facultas, see Occasio.

Factum, see Agere.

Facundus, see Disertus.

Factio, see Partes.

Fallaciter, see Perperam.

Fallere; Frustrari; Decipere; Circumvenire; Fraudare; Imponere. Fallere, frustrari, and imponere, mean to deceive, and effect an exchange of truth for falsehood, σφάλλειν; the fallens (σφάλλων) deceives by erroneous views; the frustrans (from ψύθος), by false hopes; the imponens, by practising on the credulity of another. Decipere and circumvenire mean to outwit, and obtain an unfair advantage, ἀπατᾶν; the decipiens, by a suddenly executed; the circumveniens, by an artfully laid plot. Fraudare (ψεύδειν) means to cheat, or injure and rob anybody by an abuse of his confidence. (v. 357.)

False, Falso, see Perperam.

Fama, see Rumor.

Fames; Esuries; Inedia. Fames is hunger from want of food, like λιμός, in opp. to satietas; whereas esuries is hunger from an empty and craving stomach, in opp. to sitis; lastly, inedia is not eating, in a general sense, without reference to the cause, though for the most part from a voluntary resolution, like ἀσιτία. Hence fame and esurie perire mean to 77 die of hunger, whereas inedia perire means to starve one’s self to death. (iii. 119.)

Familia, see Ædificium.

Familiaris, see Socius.

Famulus, see Servus.

Fanum, see Templum.

Fari, see Dicere.

“Fari” printed “Fanum” but alphabetized immediately before “Fateri”.

Fas est, see Concessum est.

Fastidium, see Spernere.

Fastigium, see Culmen.

Fastus, see Superbia.

Fateri; Profiteri; Confiteri. Fateri means to disclose, without any accessory notion, in opp. to celare, Liv. xxiv. 5. Curt. vi. 9; profiteri means to avow, freely and openly, without fear and reserve, whether questioned or not; confiteri, to confess in consequence of questions, menaces, compulsion. The professio has its origin in a noble consciousness, when a man disdains concealment, and is not ashamed of that which he has kept secret; the confessio, in an ignoble consciousness, when a man gives up his secret out of weakness, and is ashamed of that which he confesses. Cic. Cæc. 9, 24. Ita libenter confitetur, ut non solum fateri, sed etiam profiteri videatur. Planc. 25, 62. Rabir. perd. 5. (iv. 30.)

Fatigatus; Fessus; Lassus. Fatigatus and fessus express the condition in which a man after exertion longs for rest, from subjective weariness; whereas lassus and lassatus, the condition in which a man after active employment has need of rest, from objective weakness. Cels. i. 2, 15. Exercitationis finis esse debet sudor aut certe lassitudo, quæ citra fatigationem sit. Sall. Jug. 57. Opere castrorum et prœliorum fessi lassique erant. (i. 105.)

Fatum, see Casus.

Fatuus, see Stupidus.

Faustus, see Felix.

Faux; Glutus; Ingluvies; Guttur; Gurgulio; Gula. Faux, glutus, and ingluvies, denote the space within the throat; glutus (γλῶττα), in men; ingluvies, in animals; faux (φάρυγξ), the upper part, the entrance into the throat; whereas guttur, gurgulio, and gula, denote that part of the body 78 which encloses the space within the throat; gurgulio (redupl. of gula), in animals; gula, in men; guttur, in either. (v. 149.)

Fax; Tæda; Funale. Fax is the general expression for any sort of torch; tæda is a natural pine torch; funale, an artificial wax-torch.

Fel; Bilis. Fel (from φλέγω, φλέγμα) is the gall of animals, and, figuratively, the symbol of bitterness to the taste; whereas bilis is the gall of human beings, and, figuratively, the symbol of exasperation of mind. (v. 120.)

Felix; Prosper; Faustus; Fortunatus; Beatus. Felix, fœlix, (φῦλον ἔχων) is the most general expression for happiness, and has a transitive and intransitive meaning, making happy and being happy; prosper and faustus have only a transitive sense, making happy, or announcing happiness; prosperum (πρόσφορος) as far as men’s hopes and wishes are fulfilled; faustum (from ἀφαύω, φαυστήριος) as an effect of divine favor, conferring blessings; whereas fortunatus and beatus have only an intransitive or passive meaning, being happy; fortunatus, as a favorite of fortune, like εὐτυχής; beatus (ψίης) as conscious of happiness, and contented, resembling the θεοὶ ῥεῖα ζάωντες, like μακάριος. (vi. 125.)

Femina; Mulier; Uxor; Conjux; Marita. 1. Femina (φυομένη) denotes woman with regard to her physical nature and sex, as bringing forth, in opp. to mas; whereas mulier (from mollis), woman, in a physical point of view, as the weaker and more tender sex, in opp. to vir; whence femina only can be used for the female of an animal. 2. Mulier denotes also the married woman, in opp. to virgo, Cic. Verr. ii. 1; whereas uxor and conjux, the wife, in opp. to the husband; uxor, merely in relation to the man who has married her, in opp. to maritus, Tac. G. 18; conjux (from conjungere), in mutual relation to the husband, as half of a pair, and in opp. to liberi, Cic. Att. viii. 2. 79 Catil. iii. 1. Liv. v. 39, 40. Tac. Ann. iv. 62. H. iii. 18. 67. Suet. Cal. 17. Accordingly, uxor belongs to the man; conjux is on a par with the man; uxor refers to an every-day marriage, like wife; conjux, to a marriage between people of rank, like consort. Vell. Pat. ii. 100. Claudius, Gracchus, Scipio, quasi cujuslibet uxore violata pœnas perpendere, quum Cæsaris filiam et Nerones violassent conjugem. 3. Uxor is the ordinary, marita a poetical, expression for a wife. (iv. 327.)

Femur, see Coxa.

Fera, see Animal.

Ferax, see Fœcundus.

Fere, see Pæne.

Feriæ, see Solemnia.

Feriari, see Vacare.

Ferire, see Verberare.

Ferme, see Pæne.

Ferocia; Ferocitas; Virtus; Fortitudo. Ferocia and ferocitas (from φράξαι) denote natural and wild courage, of which even the barbarian and wild beast are capable; ferocia, as a feeling, ferocitas, as it shows itself in action; whereas virtus and fortitudo denote a moral courage, of which men only of a higher mould are capable; virtus, that which shows itself in energetic action, and acts on the offensive; fortitudo (from the old word forctitudo, from farcire,) that which shows itself in energetic resistance, and acts on the defensive, like constantia. Pacuv. Nisi insita ferocitate atque ferocia. Tac. Ann. xi. 19. Nos virtutem auximus, barbari ferociam infregere: and ii. 25. (i. 44.)

Ferre; Portare; Bajulare; Gerere. 1. Ferre means, like φέρειν, to carry any thing portable from one place to another; portare and bajulare, like βαστάζειν, to carry a load; portare (from πορίζειν), for one’s self, or for others; bajulare, as a porter. In Cæs. B. G. i. 16. Ædui frumentum . . . . conferri, comportari, adesse dicere; conferre refers to the delivery and the contribution from several subjects to the authorities of the place; comportare, the delivery of these contributions by the authorities of the place to 80 Cæsar. 2. Ferre, portare, and bajulare, express only an exterior relation, that of the carrier to his load, whereas gerere (ἀγείρειν) gestare, like φόρειν, an interior relation, that of the possessor to his property. As, then, bellum ferre means only either inferre bellum or tolerare, so bellum gerere has a synonymous meaning with habere, and is applicable only to the whole people, or to their sovereign, who resolved upon the war, and is in a state of war; but not to the army fighting, nor to the commander who is commissioned to conduct the war. Bellum geret populus Romanus, administrat consul, capessit miles. (i. 150.)

Ferre; Tolerare; Perferre; Perpeti; Sustinere; Sinere; Sustentare. 1. Ferre (φέρειν) represents the bearing, only with reference to the burden which is borne, altogether objectively, like φέρειν; whereas tolerare, perferre, and pati, perpeti, with subjective reference to the state of mind of the person bearing; the tolerans and perferens bear their burden without sinking under it, with strength and self-control, synonymously with sustinens, sustaining, like τολμῶν; the patiens and perpetiens (παθεῖν) without striving to get rid of it, with willingness or resignation, enduring it, synonymously with sinens. Ferre and tolerare have only a noun for their object, but pati also an infinitive. 2. Perferre is of higher import than tolerare, as perpeti is of higher import than pati, to endure heroically and patiently. Poet. ap. Cic. Tusc. iv. 29. Nec est malum, quod non natura humana patiendo ferat: compare with Tac. Ann. i. 74. Sen. Thyest. 307. Leve est miserias ferre; perferre est grave. Plin. H. N. xxvi. 21. Qui perpeti medicinam non toleraverant. Tac. Ann. iii. 3. Magnitudinem mali perferre visu non toleravit. 3. Tolerare (from τλῆναι) means to keep up under a burden, and not sink down; but sustinere means to keep up the burden, and not let it sink. 4. Pati denotes an intellectual permission, no opposition being made, like to let 81 happen; whereas sinere (ἀνεῖναι) denotes a material permission, not to hold any thing fast nor otherwise hinder, to leave free. Pati has, in construction, the action itself for its object, and governs an infinitive; sinere, the person acting, and is in construction with ut. (iv. 259.) 5. Sustinere means to hold up, in a general sense, whereas sustentare, to hold up with trouble and difficulty. Curt. viii. 4, 15. Forte Macedo gregarius miles seque et arma sustentans tandem in castra venit; compare with v. 1, 11. Tandem Laconum acies languescere, lubrica arma sudore vix sustinens. Also, Liv. xxiii. 45. Senec. Prov. 4. a. f. (iii. 293.)

Fertilis, see Fœcundus.

Ferula, see Fustis.

Fervere, see Calere.

Fessus, see Fatigatus.

Festa, see Solemnia.

Festinus, see Citus.

Festivus, see Lepidus.

Fidelis, see Fidus.

Fidelitas, see Fides.

Fidere; Confidere; Fidem habere; Credere; Committere; Permittere. 1. Fidere (πείθειν) means to trust; confidere, to trust firmly, both with reference to strength and assistance; whereas fidem habere, to give credit, and credere, to place belief, namely, with reference to the good intentions of another. Liv. ii. 45. Consules magis non confidere quam non credere suis militibus; the former with reference to their valor, the latter with reference to their fidelity. 2. Fidere, etc., denote trust as a feeling; committere, permittere, as an action; the committens acts in good trust in the power and will of another, whereby he imposes upon him a moral responsibility; to intrust; the permittens acts to get rid of the business himself, whereby he imposes at most only a political or legal responsibility, as to leave (or, give up) to. Cic. Font. 14. Ita ut commissus sit fidei, permissus potestati. Verr. i. 32. v. 14. (v. 259.)

Fides; Fidelitas; Fiducia; Confidentia; 82 Audacia; Audentia. 1. Fides and fidelitas mean the fidelity which a man himself observes towards others; fides, in a more general sense, like πίστις, the keeping of one’s word and assurance from conscientiousness, together with the reliance of others upon us as springing from this quality, the credit we possess; fidelitas denotes, in a more special sense, like πιστότης, the faithful adherence to persons to whom we have once devoted ourselves; whereas fiducia and confidentia denote the trust we place in others; fiducia, the laudable trust in things, in which we actually can trust, which is allied to the courage of trusting in ourselves, in opp. to timor; Cic. Div. ii. 31. Plin. Ep. v. 17, like θάρσος; but confidentia denotes a blamable blind trust, particularly in one’s own strength, in opp. to foresight and discretion, and which converts spirit into presumption, like θράσος. 5. Fiducia and confidentia have their foundation in trusting to the prosperous issue of anything; audacia and audentia, in the contempt of danger; audacia sometimes means a laudable boldness, as a word of higher import than fiducia; sometimes a blamable boldness, as a civil term for temeritas, like τόλμα; but audentia is always a laudable spirit of enterprise. Juven. xiii. 108. Quum magna malæ superest audacia causæ, creditur a multis fiducia. Sen. Ep. 87. Quæ bona sunt, fiduciam faciunt, divitiæ audaciam. (v. 256.)

Fides, see Religio.

Fides, see Chorda.

Fiducia, see Fides.

Fidus; Fidelis; Infidus; Infidelis; Perfidus; Perfidiosus. 1. Fidus denotes a natural quality, like trustworthy, with relative praise; whereas fidelis denotes a moral characteristic, as faithful, with absolute praise. Liv. xxii. 22. Eo vinculo Hispaniam vir unus solerti magis quam fideli consilio exsolvit. Abellex erat Sagunti, nobilis Hispanus, fidus ante Pœnis. 2. Infidus means unworthy of trust; infidelis, unfaithful; perfidus, treacherous, in particular 83 actions; perfidiosus, full of treachery, with reference to the whole character. (v. 255.)

Figura; Forma; Species. Figura (from fingere, φέγγειν,) denotes shape altogether indifferently, in its mathematical relation, as far as it possesses a definite outline, like σχῆμα; whereas forma (φόριμος, φόρημα,) denotes it in an æsthetical relation, as far as it is a visible stamp and copy of an interior substance, to which it corresponds, like μορφή; lastly, species, in its physical relation, as far as it stands opposed to the inner invisible substance, which it covers as a mere outside, like εἶδος. Hence figurare means to shape, that is, to give a definite outline to a formless mass; whereas formare means to form, that is, to give the right shape to an unwrought mass; and lastly, speciem addere means to bedeck any thing, in the old sense of the word, that is, to give to a mass already formed an exterior that shall attract the eye. According to this explanation figura refers exclusively to the outline or lineaments, whilst forma, or at least species, involves color, size, and the like. (iii. 25.)

Fimus, see Lutum.

Findere; Scindere. Findere means to separate a body according to its natural joints, consequently to divide it, as it were, into its component parts, to cleave; but scindere (σκεδάσαι) to divide it by force, without regard to its joints, and so separate it into fragments, to chop or tear to pieces. Hence findere lignum means to cleave a log of wood, with the assistance of nature herself, lengthways; scindere, to chop it by mere force breadthways. The findens æquor nave considers the sea as a conflux of its component waters; the scindens, merely as a whole. (iv. 154.)

Finire; Terminare; Consummare; Absolvere; Perficere. Finire and terminare denote the mere ending of anything, without regard to how far the object of the undertaking is advanced; finire (φθίνειν?) to end, in opp. to incipere, Cic. Orat. iii. 84 59; but terminare, to make an end, in opp. to continuare; whereas consummare, absolvere, and perficere denote the completion of a work; consummare, as the most general term in opp. to doing a thing by halves; absolvere refers to a duty fulfilled, and a difficult work which is now done, and leaves the workman free, in opp. to inchoare; perficere refers to an end attained, and a self-chosen task, which is now done, and may be called complete, in opp. to conari. Cic. Orat. 29, 30. Verr. i. 27. Absolutus also has an extensive signification, and refers to the completeness of the work, like ἐντελής; perfectus, an intensive signification, and refers to the excellence of the work, like τέλεῖος. (iv. 366.)

Finis; Terminus; Limes. Finis (from φθίνω) denotes a boundary, as a mathematical line, like τέλος; terminus and limes, a mark, as the material sign of a boundary; terminus (τειρόμενος, τέρμα,) a stone set up, as the sign of a bounding point, like τέρμα; limes, a ridge, as the sign of a bounding line, like ὅρος. Cic. Læl. 16. Constituendi sunt qui sint in amicitia fines et quasi termini diligendi. Hor. Carm. ii. 18, 24. Revellis agri terminos et ultra limites clientium salis avarus. (iv. 359.)

Finitimus, see Vicinus.

Firmus, see Validus.

Fiscus, see Ærarium.

Flagitare, see Petere.

Flagitium, see Delictum.

Flagrare, see Ardere.

Flavus, see Luteus.

Flere, see Lacrimare.

Fluctus, see Aqua.

Fluentum, see Aqua.

Fluere; Manare; Liquere. Fluere (φλύω) denotes flowing, with reference to the motion of the fluid; manare (from μανός, or madere,) with reference to the imparting of the fluid; and liquere, with reference to the nature of the fluid. The cause of the fluendi is, that the fluid has no dam, and according to the law of gravity flows on; whereas the cause of the manandi is the over-fulness of the spring; lastly, liquere, to be fluid, is the negative state of fluere and 85 manare. Hence fluere, with its synonyme labi, is more opposed to hærere and stare; and moreover labari, with its synonyme effundi, more opposed to contineri, claudi; lastly, liquere, with its synonyme dissolvi, more opposed to concrevisse, rigere. Gell. xvii. 11. Plato potum dixit defluere ad pulmonem, eoque satis humectato, demanare per eum, quia sit rimosior, et confluere inde in vesicam. (ii. 1.)

Fluvius; Flumen; Amnis. Fluvius, flumen, (from φλύω) denote, like ῥόος, ῥεῦμα, an ordinary stream, in opp. to a pond and lake; whereas amnis (ἀμένας, manare,) like ποταμός, a great and mighty river, in opp. to the sea. Cic. Div. i. 50. and Divin. i. 35, 78. Ut flumina in contrarias partes fluxerint, atque in amnes mare influxerit. Tac. Ann. xv. 58. Senec. N. Q. iii. 19. Habet ergo non tantum venas aquarum terra, ex quibus corrivatis flumina effici possunt, sed et amnes magnitudinis vastæ. Then: Hanc magnis amnibus æternam esse materiam, cujus non tangantur extrema sicut fluminum et fontium. Tac. Hist. v. 23. Quo Mosæ fluminis os amnem Rhenum oceano affundit. Curt. ix. 4, 5. (ii. 7.)

Fœcundus; Fertilis; Ferax; Uber; Frugifer; Fructuosus. 1. Fœcundus (from φύω, fœtus,) denotes the fruitfulness of a living and breeding being, in opp. to effatus, like εὔτόκος; whereas fertilis and ferax (from (φέρω) the fruitfulness of inanimate and productive nature, and of the elements, opposed to sterilis, like εὔφορος. Tac. Ann. xii. 63. Byzantium fertili solo fœcundoque mari, quia vis piscium hos ad portus adfertur. Germ. 5. Terra satis ferax, frugiferarum arborum impatiens, pecorum fœcunda, sed plerumque improcera. Mela. i. 9, 1. Terra mire fertilis et animalium perfœcunda genetrix. And ii. 7. 2. Fertilis denotes the actual fruitfulness which has been produced by cultivation; ferax, the mere capability which arises from the nature of the soil. Cicero uses fertilis in a proper, ferax, in a figurative sense. 86 3. Fertilis and ferax denote fruitfulness under the image of creative and productive power, as of the father and mother; uber, under the image of fostering and sustaining, as of the nurse, like εὐθηνής; frugifer, under the image of a corn-field; fructuosus, under that of a tree rich in fruit, like ἔγκαρπος. (iv. 831.)

Fœdus; Societas. Fœdus (πεποιθός) is an engagement for mutual security, on the ground of a sacred contract; whereas societas, an engagement to some undertaking in common on the ground of a mere agreement. Liv. xxiv. 6. Hieronymus legatos Carthaginem mittit ad fœdus ex societate faciendum. Sall. Jug. 14. Cic. Phil. ii. 35. Neque ullam societatem . . . . fœdere ullo confirmari posse credidi. (vi. 132.)

Fœdus, see Tæter.

Fœmina, see Femina.

Fœnus; Usura. Fœnus (from φύω, fœtus,) denotes interest as the produce of capital, like τόκος; usura denotes what is paid by the debtor for the use of capital, like δάνος. (vi. 133.)

Fœtus; Fœdus, see Prægnans.

Fores, see Ostium.

Forma, see Figura.

Formare, see Erudire.

Formido, see Vereri.

Formosus; Pulcher; Venustus. 1. Formosus means beauty, as far as it excites pleasure and delight by fineness of form; pulchrum, as far as it excites admiration, is imposing, and satisfies the taste by its perfectness; venustum, as far as by its charms it excites desire, and captivates. Formositas works on the natural sense of beauty; pulchritudo, on the cultivated taste; venustas, on the more refined sensuality. Suet. Ner. 51. Fuit vultu pulchro magis quam venusto; that is, it had perfect and regular beauty rather than pleasing features, and possessed a cold, heartless sort of beauty, by which no one felt attracted. Comp. Catull. lxxxvi. Hor. A. P. 99. Cic. Off. i. 36. 2. Venustas, loveliness, is 87 of higher import than gratia, grace; the former transports, the latter only attracts. (iii. 29.)

Fors, see Casus.

Forte, Fortuito, Fortasse, Forsitan, see Casu.

Fortitudo, see Ferocia.

Fortuna, see Casus.

Fortunatus, see Felix.

Fovea, see Specus.

Fovere, see Calere.

Fragor; Strepitus; Crepitus; Sonitus. Fragor (σφάραγος) is a hollow, discordant sound, as crashing, like δοῦπος; strepitus (θρέω, θορυβή?) a loud noisy sound, as roaring, bawling, shrieking, like κτύπος; crepitus (from κρέμβαλον?) a single sound, or the frequent repeating of the same sound, as clapping, like κροῦσις, κρότος; sonitus (ἔνοσις, Ἐνυώ) a sound consisting of the vibrations of elastic bodies, as ringing, clinking, like ἠχή. Cic. Top. 12. Quæruntur pedum crepitus, strepitus hominum. (v. 117.)

Fragrare, see Olere.

Frangere; Rumpere; Divellere. 1. Frangere (ῥῆξαι? or σφαράξαι) denotes to break to pieces what is hard; rumpere (from ῥέπω, ῥόπαλον,) to rend to pieces what is flexible. Cato ap. Prisc. Si quis membrum rupit, aut os fregit: for by breaking a limb, not the invisible bones, but the visible flesh, is rent asunder. When, however, rumpere is applied to any thing hard, it involves the notion of exertion employed, and of danger; the frangens breaks to pieces what is entire; the rumpens rends to pieces what is obstructive. 2. Disrumpere and diffringere mean to rend to pieces, and break to pieces, what was originally entire; whereas divellere (διέλκειν) to tear asunder what was at first joined together. (v. 321.)

Fraudare, see Fallere.

Frenum; Habena; Oreæ. 1. Frenum (from φράξαι?) is the bridle with which the rider breaks the wild horse, like χαλινός; whereas habena (from 88 hebes, χαβός, κάμψαι,) the rein with which he turns the obedient horse, like ἡνίον. Hor. Ep. i. 15, 13. Læva stomachosus habena dicet eques; sed equi frenato est auris in ore; that is, he minds not the reins, and must feel the bit. Cic. Orat. i. 53. Senatum servire populo, cui populus ipse moderandi et regendi sui potestatem quasi quasdam habenas tradidisset: comp. with Tac. Dial. 38. Pompeius adstrinxit, imposuitque quasi frenos eloquentiæ. 2. Oreæ, aureæ, now only to be found in auriga, were, perhaps, the generic term of frenum and habena, like harness. (v. 137.)

Frequenter, see Sæpe.

Fretus, see Confisus.

Fricare, see Lævis.

Frigere; Algere; Algidus; Alsus; Gelidus; Frigus; Gelu; Glacies. Frigere (φρίξαι) means to be cold, in opp. to calere, Cic. Fam. viii. 8. Auct. Her. iv. 15. Sen. Ir. ii. 18; whereas algere (ἀλγεῖν) means to feel cold, in opp. to æstuare. Cic. Tusc. ii. 14, 34. Sen. Ir. iii. 12. Plin. H. N. xvii. 26. 2. Algidus denotes cold, as an unpleasant chill; alsus, as a refreshing coolness. 3. Frigidus denotes a moderate degree of coldness, in opp. to calidus; whereas gelidus means on the point of freezing, in opp. to fervidus. 4. Frigus denotes, objectively, cold in itself, which attacks a man, and leaves him; whereas frigedo denotes cold, subjectively, as the state of a man attacked by cold, which begins and ends; it is an antiquated word which has become obsolete by the general use of frigus. 5. Gelu, gelus, gelum, (γλοία) denote, like κρύος, cold that produces ice; gelicidium, like κρυμός, a single attack of frost, a frosty night; and glacies, like κρύσταλλος, its effect, ice. (iii. 89.)

Fructuosus, see Fœcundus.

Frugi, see Bonus.

Frugifer, see Fœcundus.

Frui, Frunisci, see Uti.

Frustra; Nequidquam; Incassum; Irritus. 1. Frustra (from ψύθος) means in vain, with reference 89 to the subject, whose expectation and calculations have been disappointed; whereas nequidquam (that is, in nequidquam, in nihil), to no purpose, refers to the nullity in which the thing has ended. 2. Hence frustra, used adjectively, refers to the person; whereas irritus, the actual adjective, refers to the thing. 3. Frustra and nequidquam denote merely a failure, without imputing a fault, like μάτην; whereas incassum involves the accessory notion of a want of consideration, by which the failure might have been calculated upon, and foreseen, as in attempting any thing manifestly or proverbially impossible, εἴς κενόν. (iii. 100.)

Frustrari, see Fallere.

Fruticetum, see Rami.

Fugitivus, see Perfuga.

Fulciri; Niti. Fulciri, fultus (φυλάξαι) means to prop one’s self up in order to be secure against falling, generally by leaning against a pillar, etc.; whereas niti, nixus, in order to climb a height, or to get forward, generally by standing on a basis. (ii. 127.)

Fulgur; Fulguratio; Fulmen. Fulgur, fulgetrum, and fulguratio, denote the shining of the lightning in the horizon, like ἀστραπή; fulgur, as momentary and single flashes; fulguratio, as continued and repeated; whereas fulmen means the lightning that strikes the earth, like κεραυνός. Liv. xl. 59. Fulguribus præstringentibus aciem oculorum, sed fulmina etiam sic undique micabant, ut petit viderentur corpora. Curt. viii. 4, 3. Ovid, Met. iii. 300. Cic. Divin. ii. 19. Plin. H. N. ii. 43. Si in nube erumpat ardens, fulmina; si longiore tractu nitatur fulgetra; his findi nubem, illis perrumpi. Sen. Q. N. i. 1. (iii. 318.)

Funale, see Fax.

Fundamentum, Fundus, see Solum.

Fundus, see Villa.

Funis, see Laqueus.

Funus; Exsequiæ; Pompa. Funus (from 90 φοινός, πεφνεῖν,) denotes the mere carrying out of the corpse, like ἐκφορά; whereas exsequiæ and pompa (πομπή) denote the solemn procession; exsequiæ, of the living, as relations and friends; pompa, of the inanimate, as the images of ancestors, and other pageants. Cic. Quint. 15. Funus, quo amici conveniunt ad exsequias cohonestandas. And Plin. H. N. x. 43. Flor. iii. 20. Nep. Att. 22. Elatus est in lecticula, sine ulla funeris pompa, comitantibus omnibus bonis, maxima vulgi frequentia. And Cic. Mil. 13. Tac. Ann. iii. 5. (iv. 408.)

Furari, see Demere.

Furor, see Amens.

Fustis; Ferula; Sudes; Trudes; Rudis; Scipio; Baculus. 1. Fustis and ferula denote sticks for striking; sudes, trudes, and rudis, for thrusting; scipio and baculus, for walking. 2. Fustus (πτορθός?) is a cudgel or club, large enough to strike a man dead; but ferula, a little stick, or rod for the chastisement of school-boys; sudes (ὄζος) and trudes (στορθή, the root of Trüssel, a weapon called the Morning-star) [a sort of truncheon with a spiked head], are used in battle; rudis (ὀρσός) only as a foil in the fencing-school; scipio (σκηπίων, σκῆψαι), serves especially for ornament and state, as a symbol of superior power, or of the honor due to age; baculus, bacillum (βάκτρον), serve more for use and convenience to lean upon, and at the same time, when necessary, as a weapon. (iii. 265.)


Galea, see Cassis.

Ganeum, see Deversorium.

Gannire, see Latrare.

Garrire; Fabulari; Blatire; Blaterare; Loquax; Verbosus. 1. Garrire (γηρύω) denotes talking, with reference to excessive fondness for speaking; fabulari, to the nullity; blatire, and the 91 intensive blaterare, to the foolishness of what is said. 2. The garrulus is tiresome from the quality, the loquax from the quantity, of what he says. For garrulitas expresses childish or idle talkativeness, from the mere pleasure of talking and hearing one’s self talk, without regard to the value and substance of what is said, and has its origin in a degeneracy of youthful vivacity, and even in the abuse of superior talents, like λαλία; whereas loquacitas (λακάζειν) expresses a quaint talkativeness, from inability to stop short, which has its origin in the diminished energy of old age, like ἀδολεσχία. The garrulus, in his efforts to please and entertain by light conversation, is silly and imbecile; the loquax, in his efforts to instruct, and make himself clearly understood, is often tedious. 3. Garrulus and loquax denote qualities of persons, speakers; verbosus, of things, speeches, and writings. (iii. 81.)

Gaudere; Lætari; Hilaris; Alacer; Gestire; Exsultare. 1. Gaudere (from γαῦρος) denotes joy as an inward state of mind, in opp. to dolor, like ἥδεσθαι; whereas lætari and hilarem esse, the utterance of joy. Tac. Hist. ii. 29. Ut valens processit, gaudium, miseratio, favor; versi in lætitiam . . . . laudantes gratantesque. 2. The lætus (from λιλαίομοι) shows his joy in a calm cheerfulness, which attests perfect satisfaction with the present, in opp. to mœstus, Tac. Ann. xv. 23; the hilaris (ἱλαρός) in awakened mirth, disposing to jest and laughter, in opp. to tristis; the alacer (ἀλκή) in energetic vivacity, evincing spirit and activity, in opp. to territus. Cic. Cœl. 28. The gaudens, the lætus, the hilaris, derive joy from a piece of good fortune; the alacer at the same time from employment and action. Cic. Divin. i. 33, 73. Equum alacrem lætus adspexit. Lætitia shows itself chiefly in an unwrinkled forehead, and a mouth curled for smiling; hilaritas, in eyes quickly moving, shining, and radiant with joy; alacritas, 92 in eyes that roll, sparkle, and announce spirit. Sen. Ep. 116. Quantam serenitatem lætitia dat. Tac. Agr. 39. Fronte lætus, pectore anxius. Cic. Pis. 5. Te hilarioribus oculis quam solitus es intuente. 3. Gaudere and lætari denote a moderate; exsultare and gestire, and perhaps the antiquated word vitulari, a passionate, uncontrolled joy, as to exult and triumph; the gestiens (γηθεῖν) discovers this by an involuntary elevation of the whole being, sparkling eyes, inability to keep quiet, etc.; the exsultans, by a voluntary, full resignation of himself to joy, which displays itself, if not by skipping and jumping, at least by an indiscreet outbreak of joy, bordering on extravagance. 4. Jucundus denotes, like juvat me, a momentary excitement of joy; lætus, a more lasting state of joy; hence lætus is used as the stronger expression, in Plin. Ep. v. 12. Quam mihi a quocunque excoli jucundum, a te vero lætissimum est. (iii. 242.)

Gazæ, see Divitiæ.

Gelicidium, Gelidus, Gelu, see Frigere.

Gemere, see Suspirare.

Geminus, see Duplex.

Gena, see Mala.

Generare, see Creare.

Gens; Natio; Populus; Civitas. 1. Gens and natio denote a people, in a physical sense, in the description of nations, as a society originating in common descent and relationship, without any apparent reference to civilization; whereas populus and civitas denote a people in a political sense, as a society formed by civilization and compact. Sall. Cat. 10, 1. Nationes feræ et populi ingentes subacti. Cic. Rep. i. 25. 2. Gens (γενετή) includes all people of the same descent, like φῦλον; natio (from γνήσιος) a single colony of the same, like ἔθνος. Vell. P. ii. 98. Omnibus ejus gentis nationibus in arma accensis. Tac. G. 2, 38. But as gens, in this physical sense, as the complex term for several colonies, has a more comprehensive meaning than natio, so has it, at the same time, in its political accessory meaning, as a clan, γένος, or as the 93 complex term for several families, a narrower meaning than populus; hence sometimes populus forms, as a civilized natio, a part of the natural gens. Liv. iv. 49. Bolanis suæ gentis populo, and Virg. A. x. 202; sometimes gens, as a political society, forms a part of populus: Justin. vii. 1. Adunatis gentibus variorum populorum. 3. Civitas (from κείω) denotes the citizens of a town collectively, πόλις, merely with regard to their interior connection, as including the inhabitants who are in the enjoyment of the full rights of citizenship, and the lawful possessors of the land; populus (redupl. of πόλις) means the people, δῆμος, more commonly in reference to their social relations, interior and exterior, and with the included notion of belonging to the state. A people can determine upon war as a civitas; but can carry it on only as a populus. A civitas is necessarily stationary; but a populus may consist of Nomades, or wanderers from one pasture to another.

Gens, Genus, see Stirps.

Gerere, see Ferre and Agere.

Gestire, see Velle and Gaudere.

Gignere, see Creare.

Gilvus, see Luteus.

Glaber, see Lævis.

Glacies, see Frigere.

Gladius; Ensis; Pugio; Sica. 1. Gladius (from κλάδος) is the usual, ensis (from ansa?) the select and poetical name for a sword. Quintil. x. 1, 11. (v. 188.) 2. Pugio (from pungere) is a dagger, as a fair and openly used soldier’s weapon, on a level with the sword; whereas sica (from secare) is the unfair and secret weapon of the bandit, on a level with poison. (vi. 291.)

Globus; Sphæra. Globus is the popular term for any body that is round like a ball; whereas sphæra is the scientific term, derived from the Greek for a mathematical globe. (vi. 147.)

Globus, see Caterva.

Gloria; Claritas. Gloria (from γέλως) denotes renown, under the image of something said, like 94 κλέος; claritas (from γαληρός) under that of some thing bright, and that is seen, like δόξα. (v. 235.)

Gloriatio, see Jactatio.

Glutus, see Faux.

Gnavitas, see Opera.

Gracilis, see Exilis.

Gradatim, see Paulatim.

Gradiri, see Ire.

Gradus; Gressus; Passus. 1. Gressus denotes a step subjectively, whereas gradus objectively. Gressus is a step that is being taken; gradus that is taken. 2. Gressus is a product of going, but passus, of standing also, if the feet are at the same distance from each other as in walking. Gressus denotes any separation of the feet, whether longer or shorter, quicker or slower, whether deserving the name of step or not; whereas passus means a regular measured step, which at the same time serves as a measure of length. Virg. Æn. i. 414. Tendere gressus ad mœnia: comp. with ii. 723. Iulus sequitur patrem non passibus æquis. (iv. 58.)

Græci; Graii; Græculi; Græcanicus. 1. Græci denotes the Greeks merely as a term in the description of different nations, and a historical name, without any accessory moral reference; whereas Graii, with praise, as the classical name for a nation of heroes in days of yore: Græculi, with blame, as the degenerate people, false and unworthy of trust, that existed in the times of the Roman writers. 2. Græcum means what is really Grecian, whether in or out of Greece; but Græcanicus, what is made after the Grecian manner, what is merely à la Grecque. (v. 304.)

Grandævus, see Vetus.

Grandis, see Magnus.

Gratia, see Studium.

Gratias agere, habere, referre; Grates; Gratari; Gratulari. 1. Gratiam or gratias habere means to feel thankful, like χάριν εἰδέναι; whereas gratias agere, to return thanks in words, like εὐχαριστεῖν; lastly, gratiam referre, to show one’s self thankful by deeds, like χάριν φέρειν, ἀντιχαρίζεσθαι. Cic. Marc. ii. 33. Maximas tibi 95 omnes gratias agimus; majores etiam habemus. Off. ii. 20. Inops etiamsi referre gratiam non potest, habere tamen potest. And Fam. v. 11. x. 11. Planc. 28. Balb. 1. Phil. iii. 2. 2. Gratias agere is the usual; grates agere, a select and solemn form of speech. Cic. Somn. Grates tibi ago, summe Sol, vobisque reliqui cœlites. 3. In the same manner gratulari denotes an occasional expression of thanks without oblation, and a congratulation without formality, whereas gratari, a solemn thanksgiving, or congratulation. Liv. vii. 3. Jovis templum gratantes ovantesque adire: comp. with Ter. Heaut. v. 1, 6. Desine deos gratulando obtundere. (ii. 213.)

Gratus; Jucundus; Acceptus; Gratiosus. 1. Gratum (from κεχαρῆσθαι) means that which is acceptable only in reference to its value with us, as precious, interesting, and worthy of thanks; but jucundum (from juvare) in reference to the joy which it brings us, as delightful. Cic. Att. iii. 24. Ista veritas etiam si jucunda non est, mihi tamen grata est. Fam. v. 18. Cujus officia jucundiora scilicet sæpe mihi fuerunt, nunquam gratiora. And v. 15. xiii. 18. 2. Gratus refers to the feeling, as wished for; acceptus, to its expression, as welcome. 3. The gratus alicui meets with no antipathy, but is liked; the gratiosus apud aliquem is the object of distinguished favor, and enthusiastic attachment, as the favorite or darling. (iii. 254.)

Gravidus, see Prægnans.

Gravitas, see Moles and Severitas.

Gremium; Sinus. Gremium is the lap, or surface formed by the knees in a sitting posture, and figuratively the symbol of the fostering care of a mother; whereas sinus, the bosom, between the two breasts, especially in the female sex, and figuratively the symbol of protection and refuge. Cic. Pis. 37. Ætolia procul a barbaris disjuncta gentibus in sinu pacis posita medio fere Græciæ gremio continetur. (vi. 150.)


Gressus, see Gradus.

Grex, see Caterva and Pecus.

Grumus, see Collis.

Gula, see Faux.

Gurges, see Vorago.

Gurgulio, see Faux.

Gustus, Gustare, see Sapor.

Gutta; Stilla; Stiria. Gutta is a natural, stilla (στίλη, σταλάξαι), an artificial measured drop. Further, the principal notion in gutta is that of smallness, hence guttatim means drop by drop; whereas in stilla the principal notion is that of humidity, hence stillatim means trickling or dripping. Stilla means a liquid; stiria (στερεά) a frozen drop. (iii. 4.)

Guttur, see Faux.

Gyrus, see Orbis.


Habena, see Frenum.

Habere, see Tenere.

Habitare, see Incolere.

Habitus, see Vestis.

Hactenus, see Adhuc.

Hædus, see Caper.

Hærere; Pendere. Hærere (χειρόω?) means to stick, and not to be loose, or able to get forwards; pendere (πέτεσθαι), to be suspended, and prevented from falling to the ground. Cic. Acad. ii. 39. Ut videamus terra penitusne defixa sit et radicibus suis hæreat, an media pendeat. (vi. 154.)

Hæsitare, see Cunctari.

Harena, see Sabulo.

Hariolari; Vaticinari. Hariolari (from χρᾶν) means to foretell, with the accessory notion of charlatanism, like χρησμολογεῖν; whereas vaticinari (from vates, ἠχέτης,) to foretell, with the accessory notion of inspiration, like μαντεύεσθαι. In Cic. Divin. i. 2, Hariolorum et vatum furibundæ prædictiones, it is only the harioli, who from their position and in public estimation already pass for charlatans; whereas the vates are charlatans only, as Cicero himself views them from his philosophical elevation. (iii. 76.)

Hasta, see Missile.

Haud scio an, see Casu.


Helluo, see Prodigus.

Helvus, see Luteus.

Heros, see Numen.

Hilaris, see Gaudere.

Hircus, see Caper.

Hirsutus, Hirtus, Hispidus, see Horridus.

Historiæ, see Annales.

Histrio, see Actor.

Hœdus, see Caper.

Homicida; Interfector; Peremtor; Interemtor; Percussor; Sicarius. Homicida denotes the manslayer in a general sense, as far as manslaughter is a crime, like ἀνδροφόνος; whereas interfector, peremtor, and interemtor, only the slayer of a particular person, whether the deed be a crime or not, like φονεύς; percussor and sicarius denote the instruments of another’s will, and mere mechanical executioners of another’s decree; but the percussor executes a public sentence of condemnation, as the headsman, while the sicarius lends and hires out his hand to a secret assassination, like the bandit. Cic. Rosc. Am. 33, 93. Erat tum multitudo sicariorum . . et homines impune occidebantur. . . Si eos putas . . . quos qui leviore nomine appellant, percussores vocant, quæro in cujus fide sint et tutela. (iii. 191.)

Homo; Mas; Vir; Homunculus; Homuncio; Homullus. 1. Homo (Goth. guma, from humus, χθών, ἐπιχθόνιος), means a human being, man or woman, in opp. to deus and bellua, like ἄνθρωπος; mas and vir mean only the man; mas in a physical sense, in opp. to femina, like ἄρσην; vir (Goth. wair, from ἰρῆνες), in a physical sense, in opp. to mulier, like ἀνήρ. Sen. Polyb. 36. Non sentire mala sua non est hominis, at non ferre non est viri. Ep. 103. Cic. Tusc. ii. 22. Fam. v. 17. Justin, xi. 13. 2. Homunculus denotes the weak and powerless being called man, with reference to the whole race, in opp. to the Deity, to nature in general, to the universe, etc.; homuncio and homullus denote the weak and insignificant man, as an individual, in opp. to other men; homuncio, 98 with a feeling of pity; homullus, with a feeling of scorn. (v. 133.)

Honestas, see Virtus.

Honestus, see Bonus.

Honorare; Honestare. Honorare means to honor any body, by paying him singular respect, and yielding him honor; but honestare means to dignify, or confer a permanent mark of honor upon any body.

Hornus; Hornotinus. Hornus (χθεσινός) that which is of this year, as a poetical, hornotinus, as a prosaic word.

Horridus; Hirtus; Hirsutus; Hispidus; Asper. Horridus (from χέρσος, χορταῖος), is the most general expression for whatever is rough and rugged, from want of formation; hirtus and hirsutus refer particularly to what is covered with rough hair, in opp. to what is soft and smooth; hispidus and asper, to rough elevations, in opp. to what is level; hispidus, to the roughness that offends the eye; asper, to the roughness that causes pain. Vell. P. ii. 4. describes Marius as hirtus et horridus; hirtus referring to his neglected exterior, horridus, to his rough nature. (vi. 161.)

Horror, see Vereri.

Hortari; Monere. The hortatio (ὄρθωσις, ἐρέθω), addresses itself immediately to the will and resolution; whereas the monitio, almost entirely to the consciousness and judgment. The hortatio has always an action for its object; the monitio, only a representation, and by the medium of that representation, an action for its object. Sall. Jug. 60. Monere alii, alii hortari. Cat. 60. Nequidquam hortere . . . Sed ego vos quo pauca monerem, convocavi. Sen. Ep. 13. Nimium diu te cohortor, cum tibi admonitione magis quam exhortatione opus sit. Cic. Fam. x. 40. Si aut aliter sentirem, certe admonitio tua me reprimere, aut si dubitarem, hortatio impellere posset. (i. 164.)


Hospes; Adventor. Hospes is the guest who visits his friend; adventor, the person who puts up at his host’s. Sen. Benef. i. 14. Nemo se stabularii aut cauponis hospitem judicat. (iv. 392.)

Hospes, see Externus.

Hospitium, see Deversorium.

Hostis, see Adversarius.

Hucusque, see Adhuc.

Humanitas; Comitas; Facilitas; Civilitas. Humanitas is a virtue of universal extent, which, like the mental cultivation, proceeding from intelligence, ennobles the whole man in mind and heart, and gives to his nature mildness and philanthropy, as a principle; in opp. to feritas; comitas (from κόσμος) is a moral virtue, which, like affability, without respect to higher rank in society, treats every man as a man; facilitas, a social virtue, which, like complaisance, by forbearance and meeting the views of others, facilitates mutual intercourse in life, and makes it pleasant; civilitas, a political virtue, which, like the republican feeling of a prince, makes the specific difference between a ruler and his people unfelt, and treats his subjects as fellow-citizens. Nep. Milt. 8. In Miltiade erat quum summa humanitas, tum mira comitas, ut nemo tam humilis esset cui non ad eum aditus pateret. (v. 6.)

Humanitus; Humane; Humaniter. Humanitus means in a human manner, in objective reference to the exterior condition of man, namely, that of weakness and mortality, like ἀνθρωπείως, ἀνθρωπίνως; whereas humane and humaniter, in subjective reference to man’s capacity for and propensity towards cultivation; humane facere is the result of moral cultivation, like φιλανθρώπως; humaniter facere is the result of social cultivation, like ἐπιεικῶς. (v. 8.)

Humare, see Sepelire.

Humerus, see Armus.

Humidus, see Udus.

Humus, see Tellus.


I & J.

Jacere, see Cubare.

Jactatio; Gloriatio; Ostentatio; Venditatio. Jactatio and gloriatio have their foundation in vanity and self-complacency; jactatio is making much ado of one’s excellencies and merits, and shows itself in words and actions, with the accessory notion of folly; gloriatio is talking big, proclaiming one’s excellencies and merits, with the accessory notion of insolence; whereas ostentatio and venditatio have their foundation in a crafty calculation of the effect to be produced, and a disregard to truth; ostentatio would conceal real emptiness under a false show; venditatio would, by exaggerating one’s excellencies, pass them off for greater than they are.

Jactura, see Amittere and Damnum.

Jaculum, see Missile.

Janua, see Ostium.

Icere, see Verberare.

Idoneus; Aptus. Idoneus denotes a passive, aptus an active fitness for any thing. F. A. Wolf. Or, the idoneus is fitted by his qualifications, and, through outward circumstances, for any particular destination, like the ἐπιτήδειος; the aptus (from potis, potens), by his worth and adequacy, like ἱκανός. The idoneus is in himself inactive, and suffers himself to be employed for a particular purpose, for which he is qualified; the aptus himself engages in the business, because he is adequate to it. (iii. 276.)

Ignarus, see Cognitio.

Ignavia; Inertia; Segnitia; Desidia; Socordia; Pigritia. 1. Ignavia denotes the love of idleness, in an ideal sense, inasmuch as the impulse to action distinguishes the more noble from the ordinary man, and gives him an absolute value; in opp. to industria, Tac. Ann. xii. 12. xvi. 18; whereas inertia denotes the love of idleness in a real tangible 101 sense, inasmuch as activity makes a man a useful member of society, and gives him a relative value. Ignavia is inherent in the temperament, and has no inclination for action; inertia lies in the character and habits, and has no desire to work. A lazy slave is called inors; a person of rank, that passes his time in doing nothing, is ignavus. 2. Segnitia, desidia, socordia, and pigritia, are the faults of a too easy temperament. Segnitia (from sequi, ὄκνος,) wants rousing, or compulsion, and must be conquered, before it resigns its ease, in opp. to promptus. Tac. Agr. 21. Desidia (from sedere) lays its hands on its lap, and expects that things will happen of themselves; socordia is susceptible of no lively interest, and neglects its duties from want of thought, like phlegm; pigritia has an antipathy to all motion, and always feels best in a state of absolute bodily rest, like slothfulness. (iv. 212.)

Ignavia, see Vereri.

Ignominia; Infamia; Dedecus; Probrum; Opprobrium. 1. Ignominia deprives one of political honor, which is independent of the reports circulated concerning a man, and is the consequence of an official denunciation, the justice of which is supposed; that of the censor, for example, like ἀτιμία; whereas infamia deprives one of moral honor, of one’s good name, has a reference to public scorn, and is the consequence of shameless and dishonorable conduct, like δυσφημία. 2. Ignominia and infamia are abstract, and denote subjective states; dedecus and probrum are concrete, and denote, objectively, disgrace itself; dedecus is a deviation from the conduct that becomes a man of honor, from whom noble actions are expected; probrum is a stain on the morality of a man, from whom, at least, irreproachable conduct is expected. Dedecus is incurred generally in our public relations, by abjectness of spirit, etc.; probrum, in our private relations, by licentiousness, etc. 3. 102 Probrum (from προφέρω is reproach, as far as it can justly be made; opprobrium, reproach, as far as it actually is made. In probrum the disgrace itself is more considered; in opprobrium, the open proclamation of it.

Ignoscere; Veniam dare. Ignoscere (ἀναγιγνώσκειν) is a moral act; as, to forgive from one’s heart; to forgive and forget, in opp. to retaining anger, συγγιγνώσκειν; whereas veniam dare (ἀνίαν or ἄνεσιν δοῦναι) is a political act, to allow clemency to take place of justice, in opp. to punishment, like μεθιέναι. The friend ignoscit a person of his own rank; one who is of higher rank and greater power veniam dat. Cic. Man. 3. Illis imperatoribus laus est tribuenda quod egerunt; venia danda quod reliquerunt; comp. with Att. xvi. 16. Ignosce mihi quod eadem de re sæpius scribam. (v. 170.)

Ilia, see Caro.

Illico, see Repente.

Illustris, see Celeber and Luculentus.

Imago; Simulacrum; Statua; Signum. 1. Imago and simulacrum denote, as the most general terms, any representation, whether a work of statuary or of painting; imago (μηχανή) is allied to the original, as to a pattern, by a striking likeness of form, like εἰκών; simulacrum is opposed to the original, as a real being, by a deceptive imitation of its form, like εἴδωλον; whereas statua, signum, and effigies, are merely plastic works; tabula and pictura, merely pictures. 2. Simulacrum and statua denote the copying of the whole figure, consequently, in the plastic art, standing figures; effigies and imago, principally the copying of the characteristic parts, namely, the features; effigies, in statuary, as busts; imago, in painting, as half-length portraits. Tac. Ann. i. 74. Alia in statua amputato capite Augusti effigiem Tiberii inditam. Hist. ii. 3. Simulacrum deæ effigie humana. Cic. Tusc. iii. 2, 3. Optimus quisque consectatur nullam eminentem 103 effigiem (virtutis) sed adumbratam imaginem gloriæ. Signum (from sequo, to proclaim,) means any plastic work, in opp. to tabulæ and picturæ. Sal. Cat. 11. Cic. Orat. i. 35. Man. 14. Suet. Cæs. 47. Quintil. ix. 2. Cic. Verr. iv. 1; simulacrum means the sacred statue of a god, like ἄγαλμα; statua, the profane statue of a man, like ἀνδριάς. Cic. Cat. iii. 8. Simulacra deorum immortalium depulsa sunt et statuæ veterum hominum dejectæ. Tac. Ann. i. 73. Suet. Tib. 26. Cic. Verr. i. 22. Legati deorum simulacra venerabantur, itemque cætera signa et ornamenta lacrimantes intuebantur. (v. 237.)

Imber, see Pluvia.

Imitatio; Æmulatio; Certatio; Rivalitas; Simulatio. 1. Imitari means merely the effort to produce something like some other thing, without any accessory moral notion; æmulari (from αἴσιμος) means, at the same time, to do something which shall gain equal or superior consideration, honor, and approbation, when compared with the thing imitated. Imitatio has in view only the thing itself, and is generally moderate and laudable; æmulatio has in view chiefly the person, who is already in possession of the quality worthy of imitation, and always seems more or less a passion, which deserves praise or blame, according as it has its foundation in the lover of honor, or in immoderate ambition. Plin. Ep. vii. 30. Demosthenis orationem habui in manibus, non ut æmularer (improbum enim ac pæne furiosum) at tamen imitarer ac sequerer tantum. Comp. i. 2, 2. viii. 5, 13. Quintil. i. 2, 26. Cic. Tusc. iv. 8, 17. 2. The æmulus is at first behind his opponent, and strives for a time only to come up to him, and be like him; whereas the certator and concertator are already on a par with their opponent, and strive to outdo him, and conquer him. 3. Æmulatio contends for superiority in any art; rivalitas, only for preference in estimation. Cic. Tusc. iv. 26, 56. Illa vitiosa æmulatione, quæ rivalitati 104 similis est, quid habet utilitatis? 4. Imitatio is an effort to become something which a man at present is not, but fain would be, and really can become; whereas simulatio, an effort to pass for something which a man properly and naturally is not, nor ever can be. Imitatio is the means of attaining to an actual or presumptive ideal; whereas simulatio remains for ever a mere counterfeit. (iii. 64.)

Impar, see Æquus.

Impensæ, see Sumptus.

Imperare, see Jubere.

Impertire; Tribuere; Participare; Communicare. Impertire and tribuere denote giving a portion, without reference to any share, which the giver is to retain for himself; impertire means giving, as an act of free will and of goodness; tribuere, as an act of justice, or of judiciousness; whereas participare and communicare, the giving a share of something of which one also retains a share one’s self; participare has generally the receiver for its object, who is to share a possession; but communicare, generally the thing shared, in the use of which the receiver is to have a share. (iv. 158.)

Impietas, see Delictum.

Impius, see Scelestus.

Imponere, see Fallere.

Imus; Infimus. Imum (superl. from in) denotes the lowest part of a whole; infimum (superl. from inferus) either the lowest part of all the parts, that is, the basis, or the lowest in a discrete magnitude, that is, a magnitude consisting of distinct parts. The imum is the lowest extremity of a part; then the infimum, the lowest part, with reference to the other parts. Cic. Rosc. Com. 7. Ab imis unguibus usque ad summum verticem: compare with Divin. i. 33. Ut ab infima ara subito anguis emergeret; and with N. D. ii. 20. Luna infima est quinque errantium. Further, imus denotes the lowest in a purely local relation; infimus, with the accessory notion of the lowest rank. (iv. 377.)

Inambulare, see Ambulare.


Inanis; Vacuus. Inanis (from ἰνάω) means the emptiness of that which has been full, but is now without its contents, in opp. to plenus, Cic. Orat. i. 9, 37. Parad. 6, 1. Brut. 8, 34; whereas vacuus denotes the emptiness of that which may be filled, but is at present vacant, in opp. to occupatus, Tac. Hist. iv. 17; or to obsessus, Cic. N. T. i. 24. Tac. Ann. vi. 34. Jason post avectam Medeam genitosque ex ea liberos inanem mox regiam Æetæ vacuosque Colchos repetivit; that is, the palace deserted and desolate, and the people without a governor. Figuratively, inane means a nullity; vacuum, a vacancy. (i. 100.)

Incassum, see Frustra.

Incastus, see Inficetus.

Incedere, see Ire.

Incendere, see Accendere.

Incestus, see Inficetus.

Inchoare, see Incipere.

Inciens, see Prægnans.

Incipere; Ordiri; Inchoare; Cœpisse. 1. Incipere denotes the beginning, in opp. to the state of rest, which precedes and follows, consequently it is in opp. to cessare and desinere, desistere, finire; whereas ordiri (from ἔρδειν, radix,) in opp. to an advancement; consequently in opp. to continuare, and its intransitive pergere; lastly, inchoare (from conari) in opp. to ending and accomplishing, consequently in opp. to perficere, consummare, peragere, absolvere, etc. Cic. Off. i. 37. Ut incipiendi ratio fuerit, ita sit desinendi modus. Tusc. i. 49. Sen. Ep. 116. Plin. H. N. xi. 51. Plin. Pan. 54, 6. 57, 2. Ep. ix. 4. Quintil. xi. 3, 34. Tac. Agr. 32. Varro R. R. iii. 16. Apes cum evolaturæ sunt, aut etiam inciperunt, consonant vehementer. Cic. Fin. iv. 6. Hoc inchoati cujusdam officii est, non perfecti. Brut. 33. Liv. xl. 9. Plin. Ep. iii. 8, 7. Plin. H. N. x. 63. Tac. Dial. 33. Suet. Claud. 3. Cic. Fr. ap. Non. Perge, quæso, nec enim imperite exorsus es. 2. Cœpi has nearly the same words in opp. to it as incipere has; Sen. Cons. Polyb. 20. Quicquid cœpit, et desinit. Cic. Rab. Post. 2. Ovid, Ep. ix. 23; cœpi refers more to the action which is begun; 106 incepi, more to the beginning which has been made. Cœpi is a sort of auxiliary verb; incepi is emphatic; hence cœpi has an infinitive, incipere a substantive, for its object. Cic. Verr. v. 10. Quum ver esse cœperat (sed cum rosam viderat, tum ver incipere arbitrabatur), dabat se labori. (iii. 157.)

Incitare; Instigare; Irritare; Instinctus. 1. Incitare (from ciere) denotes to urge an inactive person by merely bidding, speaking to, and calling upon him, to an action, generally of a laudable kind, synonymously with hortari; instigare (from στίξαι) to spur on a reluctant person by more vehement exhortations, promises, threatenings, to an adventurous act, synonymously with stimulare; irritare (ἀνερεθίζω) to incite a quiet person by rousing his passions, ambition, revenge, to a violent action, synonymously with exarcerbare. Ter. And. iv. 2, 9. Age, si hic non insanit satis sua sponte, instiga. Lucr. iv. 1075. Et stimuli subsunt qui instigant lædere id upsum. 2. Instigatus means spurred on by an exterior and profane power, by words, commands, etc.; instinctus means impelled by an interior and higher power, by inspiration, love, the voice of the gods. (iii. 314.)

Inclytus, see Celeber.

Incolere; Habitare; Incola; Inquilinus; Colonus. 1. Incolere is transitive, as to inhabit; habitare, intransitive, as to dwell. At the same time incolere has reference to the country, to which a man, as a citizen or inhabitant, belongs; whereas habitare has reference to the house, in which a man, as owner or tenant, has his stationary residence. 2. Incola is the inhabitant, in opp. to the citizen, Cic. Off. i. 34, like μέτοικος; inquilinus, the tenant, in opp. to the owner of the house, dominus, Cic. Phil. ii. 41, like σύνοικος; colonus, the farmer, in opp. to the landowner, Cic. Cæc. 32; something like θής.

Incolumis, see Salvus.

Incunabula, see Cunæ.

Incuriosus, see Tutus.


Incurvus, see Curvus.

Incusare, see Arguere.

Indagare, see Quærere.

Indigere, see Carere.

Indignari, see Succensere.

Indoles, see Ingenium.

Indulgere, see Concedere.

Industria, see Opera.

Inedia, see Fames.

Inertia, see Ignavia.

Infamia, see Ignominia.

Infans, see Puer.

Infensus, Infestus, see Adversarius.

Inficetus; Infacetus; Incestus; Incastus. 1. Inficetus involves positive blame, a tasteless and heavy fellow; whereas infacetus only negative, a man not remarkable for wit. 2. In the same manner incestus denotes an incestuous person; whereas incastus only an unchaste person. Sen. Contr. ii. 13. (ii. 83.)

Infidelis, Infidus, see Fidus.

Infimus, see Imus.

Infitiari, Infitias ire, see Negare.

Inflammare, see Accendere.

Infortunium; Calamitas; Infelicitas; Miseria. Infortunium and calamitas denote a single misfortune; infortunium, more as a vexatious accident, like malheur, for example, the loss of a purse, receiving blows, etc.; calamitas (from κολούω) a tragic accident, as the loss of a beloved person, of power, etc.; whereas infelicitas and miseria denote an unfortunate state of considerable duration; infelicitas, merely as the absence of success; miseria (from μυσαρός?) as an actual, pressing state of affliction.

Ingenium; Natura; Indoles. Ingenium and natura denote the disposition, as far as it constitutes the immovable ground of human individuality, and is susceptible of no change; ingenium, more with reference to the faculties of the mind, natura to the feelings of the heart; whereas indoles denotes the disposition, as far as it constitutes only the beginning of individuality, and is susceptible of improvement. (vi. 172.)

Ingluvies, see Faux.

Ingredi, see Inire and Ire.


Ingruere, see Irruere.

Inimicitia, see Odium.

Inimicus, see Adversarius.

Inire; Intrare; Introire; Ingredi. 1. Inire denotes almost always only a figurative entering, as to engage in any thing, for example, inire pugnam, numerum, etc.; whereas intrare, introire, ingredi, a literal entering; intrare is usually transitive, as to enter, and has an emphasis on the verbal part of the word; whereas introire is intransitive, as to step in, and has an emphasis on the adverbial part of the word. In the phrase intrare curiam one thinks more of the mere threshold, which is to be stepped over; in the phrase introire one thinks more of the four walls by which one is to be enclosed. 2. Intrare and introire suppose a space distinctly limited by walls, boundaries, marks; whereas ingredi supposes, generally, any limited space, for example, viam, pontem, etc. (iv. 521.)

Initium; Principium; Primordium. 1. Initium denotes the beginning in an abstract sense, as the mere point from which a thing begins, in opp. to exitus. Cic. Rosc. Com. 13, 39. Tusc. i. 38. Brut. 34. Sen. Ep. 9. N. Q. iii. 29; whereas principium denotes the beginning as a concrete notion, as that part of the whole which stands before the other parts in things, and goes before them in actions, in opp. to extremum. Cic. Cleunt. 4. Orat. 61, 204. Cæc. 15, 44. In initium the beginning is made only with reference to time; in principium the foundation also is laid with reference to space. The initium is pushed out of the way by that which follows; the principium serves as a basis for that which follows. The initia philosophiæ are the rudiments over which the scholar goes, and which are superseded by further studies; the principia are the fundamental principles, to which he must always recur. Initio usually means “at the beginning, but differently (or, not at all) afterwards;” whereas principio means from the very beginning, and so onwards. 2. Primordium 109 is a more solemn and comprehensive term than principium, and supposes a whole of great extent, the beginning of which is so far removed that one can distinguish a merely apparent beginning from the actual and primeval source and origin. (iii. 163.)

Injuria, see Contumelia.

Innocentia, see Virtus.

Innumerus; Innumerabilis. Innumerus is a poetical and choice expression, like numberless, ἀνήριθμος; innumerabilis, a prosaic and usual expression, like innumerable, ἀναρίθμητος. (vi. 173.)

Inopia, see Paupertas.

Inquam, see Dicere.

Inquilinus, see Incolere.

Inquinare, s. Contaminare.

Insanus, see Amens.

Inscendere, see Scandere.

Inscius, see Cognitio.

Insignis, see Eminens.

Insimulare, see Arguere.

Insolentia, see Superbia.

Insomnis, see Vigil.

Insomnium, see Somnus.

Instigare, see Incitare.

Instituere; Instaurare; Restituere; Restaurare. Instituere means to establish a profane, instaurare, a sacred, or honorable, or generally important institution, such as sacrifices, sacred games, wars and battles. Hence is instituere itself a usual, instaurare, a solemn, select expression. In the same manner restituere is distinguished from restaurare. (iv. 300.)

Instituere, see Erudire.

Instructus, see Præditus.

Insuper, see Præterea.

Integer, see Salvus.

Integrare, see Iterum.

Intelligere; Sentire; Cognoscere. Intelligere denotes a rational discernment, by means of reflection and combination; sentire, a natural discernment, by means of the feelings, immediate images, or perceptions, whether of the senses or of the mind; lastly, cognoscere denotes an historical discernment, by means of the senses and of tradition. Sen. Ir. iii. 13. Quidni gauderet, quod iram suam multi intelligerent, 110 nemo sentiret? Cic. N. D. iii. 24. Quare autem in his vis deorum insit, tum intelligam quum cognovero. (vi. 175.)

Intercapedo; Interruptio; Interpellatio; Interlocutio. Intercapedo and interruptio are any interruption of another person’s business; intercapedo, a quiet, often even a benevolent interruption; interruptio, a violent and turbulent interruption; whereas interpellatio and interlocutio are only the interruption of a speech by speaking between; the interpellator will nearly prevent the speaker from going on; the interlocutor will make himself also heard in the midst of another’s speech. (vi. 176.)

Interdicere, see Vetare.

Interdiu, see Dies.

Interdum, see Nonnunquam.

Interea; Interim. Interea refers to a business of some duration, which takes place in a space of time, as in the mean time; interim, to a momentary business, as in the midst of this. They have the same relation to each other, as a point of time to a space of time. Cic. Quint. 6. Hæc dum Romæ geruntur . . . Quintius interea de agro detruditur; that is, gradually; comp. with Fam. x. 12. Interim ad me venit Manutius noster. Tac. Ann. xi. 32. Non rumor interea, sed undique nuntii incedunt . . . Atque interim Ostiensem viam intrat. (iv. 271.)

Interemtor, see Homicida.

Interesse, see Adesse.

Interfector, see Homicida.

Interficere; Perimere; Interimere; Necare; Occidere; Jugulare; Obtruncare; Trucidare; Percutere. Interficere and perimere are the most general expressions for putting to death, in whatever manner, and from whatever motive, fame, veneno, suspendio, ferro, suppliciis, dolo, like κτείνειν; but interficere as a usual, perimere as an old, forcible, poetical expression. Interimere involves the accessory notion of privacy, as to remove out 111 of the way; ἀναιρεῖν; necare, that of injustice, or, at least, cruelty, to murder, φονεύειν. Cic. Tusc. v. 20. Dionysius alterum jussit interfici, quia viam demonstravisset interimendi sui. Curt. ix. 7, 8. Boxum protinus placuit interfici; Biconem etiam per cruciatus necari. 2. Occidere, jugulare, trucidare, obtruncare, percutere, denote a sanguinary death-blow; occidere means by cutting down, especially the business of the soldier in honorable open battle; jugulare, by cutting the throat or neck, or rather by a skilfully-directed thrust into the collar-bone, especially the business of the bandit, after the pattern of the gladiator, like σφᾶξαι; obtruncare means to butcher, massacre, and cut to pieces, after the manner of the awkward murderer; trucidare, to slaughter as one would a steer, after the manner of the blood-thirsty miscreant, who, without meeting with resistance, plays the hero on the defenceless; percutere, to execute, as a mere mechanical act, after the manner of the headsman, or other executioner of a sentence of condemnation, or, at least, of a death-warrant. Senec. Contr. iii. 21. Nec dominum occidit, nec domino venenum dedit. Hor. Ep. i. 2. Ut jugulent hominem, surgunt de nocte latrones. Sallust. Fr. Cæteri vice pecorum obtruncantur; so that you may see a mangled mass of limbs, as in the heap of slain in a battle. Tac. Hist. . . . Juberet interfici; offerre se corpora iræ; trucidaret. Cic. Cat. iv. 6. and Rosc. Am. 34. Cujus consilio occisus sit invenio; cujus manu percussus sit non invenio. (iii. 181.)

Interim, see Interea.

Interitus, see Lues and Mors.

Interlocutio, see Intercapedo.

Intermittere; Omittere. Intermittere means merely to leave off for a time,—in tempus mittere cum spe consilioque resumendi; whereas omittere, to leave out altogether. Varro Fr. Studia tantum intermittantur, ne omittantur. (i. 3.)

Intermori, see Mors.


Interpellatio, see Intercapedo.

Interrogare, see Rogare.

Interruptio, see Intercapedo.

Intestina, see Caro.

Intrare, Introire, see Inire.

Intueri, see Videre.

I nunc, see Agere.

Invadere, see Irruere.

Invaletudo, see Æger.

Invenire; Reperire; Deprehendere; Nancisci; Adipisci; Consequi; Assequi. Invenire denotes, as a general term, to find; reperire and deprehendere suppose a previous concealment of the thing found, and an intention, and pains employed on the part of the finder; but the reperiens (from πεπαρεῖν) merely discovers what was concealed, and now lies before his eyes, like ἀνευρεῖν; the deprehendens, what desired to hide itself, or to escape, and now is in his power. Tac. Ann. i. 74. Perniciem aliis ac postremo sibi invenere: comp. with xiv. 3. Cædes quonam modo occultaretur nemo reperit. 2. Invenire, reperire, deprehendere, imply a concealed object, which is discovered; whereas nancisci, adipisci, assequi, and consequi, only a distant object, which is reached; the nanciscens (from ἐνεγκέσθαι) arrives at his object with or without trouble, sometimes even against his wish, as to light upon; the adipiscens (from potiri) only by exertion, as to achieve; the consequens arrives at the object of his wish with or without assistance; the assequens, at the object of his endeavors, by means of exertion. Suet. Tib. 10. Titus ad primam statim mansionem febrim nactus: comp. with Dom. 15. Nero in adipiscenda morte manu Epaphroditi adjutus est. Cic. Att. x. 12. Nactus Curionem omnia me consecutum putavi. Rosc. Com. 4. Ut neque nihil neque tantum quantum postulavimus consequamur. In Cic. Mil. 11. Nihil dico quid resp. consecuta sit, nihil quod vos, nihil quod omnes boni; namely, by the death of Clodius, to which certainly nobody but Milo had contributed; assecuta sit could not be substituted; and, on the other 113 hand, in Sen. Brev. 17. Operose assequuntur quæ volunt, anxii tenent quæ assecuti sunt; the word consequuntur would be too weak. Cic. Fam. i. 7, 10. Omnia quæ ne per populum quidem sine seditione assequi arbitrabantur, per senatum consecuti sunt. (iii. 142.)

Invertere, see Vertere.

Investigare, s. Quærere.

Invicem, see Vicissim.

Invidia; Livor; Invidentia; Malignitas; Obtrectatio; Detrectatio. Invidia denotes looking askance, as a sign that a man grudges something to another, from moral or immoral motives, not necessarily, though especially, from self-love, like ὑποψία; whereas livor (from χλεύη, or χλοιά), denotes the self-tormenting envy, which poisons the whole soul, and deprives the body itself of its fresh healthy color. 2. Invidia is the usual term for envy, whether active, as that which a man harbors, or passive, as a state in which a man stands; whereas invidentia is a new term of Cicero’s for the envy which a man harbors. 3. Invidia and livor denote envy as a temporary state, whereas malignitas as an habitual quality and disposition, in opp. to goodness of heart. The invidus and lividus grudge particular persons particular advantages, in particular cases; but the malignus wishes well to nobody but himself. 4. Invidia, livor, malignitas, denote a feeling and state of mind, whereas obtrectatio denotes an action, or manner of acting, proceeding from this feeling, inasmuch as it seeks to injure the envied person by dishonorable means, namely, detraction. Obtrectatio can scarcely be conceived as existing without invidia, but invidia may without obtrectatio, if the envious person is too cowardly to enter into conflict with the envied. 5. Obtrectatio supposes a rival, and has its origin in jealousy; whereas detrectatio only an enemy in general, and proceeds principally from antipathy. (iii. 65.)

Invidia, see Odium.


Jocus, see Ludus.

Irasci, see Succensere.

Ire; Meare; Gradiri; Ingredi; Incedere; Vadere. 1. Ire and meare denote to go, in the most general sense, as motion from one place to another; ire especially applies to persons, in consequence of an act of the will, like ἰέναι; but meare (from ἀμεύω) especially to beasts, ships, rivers, stars, as mere mechanical motion, in which reason has no share, like φοιτᾶν; whereas gradiri and ingredi, incedere and vadere, with particular accessory notions in regard to the manner of going; gradiri and ingredi, in a quiet manner, and with a regular measured step, in opp. to serpere, currere, stare; Cic. N. D. ii. 47. Att. ii. 23, like βαδίζειν; incedere, in a proud manner, and with a graceful measured step, as in a procession and march, in opp. to ambulare; Sen. N. Q. vii. 31, like ἐμβαίνειν; and vadere (ἐλθεῖν?) with alacrity and a quick step, as in travelling, and in attacking the enemy, in opp. to repere? like χωρεῖν; Thuc. v. 70. 2. Ingressus means going in general; incessus a manner of going peculiar to the individual, and by which he is known as well as by his physiognomy. Ingressus is purely physical; incessus is moral and characteristic. (iv. 53.)

Irridere, see Ridere.

Irritare, see Incitare and Lacessere.

Irritus, see Frustra.

Irruere; Irrumpere; Ingruere; Invadere. Irruere (εἰσρεῦσαι) means to rush on hastily and inconsiderately; irrumpere, to force one’s way with violence; ingruere (ingravare) to press on with threats and importunity; invadere, to fall upon with boldness, and without regard to consequences. (vi. 180.)

Iter; Via; Trames; Semita; Callis. 1. Iter and meatus denote the progress which a person makes, the going, the journey, in an abstract sense; 115 iter, that which a rational being makes; meatus, that which a being void of reason and of will makes; via, the path on which a person goes, in a concrete sense. Hor. Od. iii. 2, 22. Virtus negata tentat iter via. Cic. Att. v. 14. Iter conficiebamus æstuosa et pulverulenta via. 2. Iter in a concrete sense, denotes a way which leads directly to a particular point, whether beaten and trodden, or not, like κέλευθος; whereas via (from the old word veha, way), a way, which, if not beaten, is the ordinary and usual way, like ὁδός. Cæs. B. G. vi. 27, means by viarum atque itinerum duces, the guides, who partly point out the frequented roads and paths, partly give information as to where they lead out. 3. Via and iter may be narrow or wide; whereas, trames, callis, and semita, denote only a narrow way or path; trames (τρῆμα) a by-road in a plain and town, by which one may arrive, partly in a shorter time, partly without being so much observed as in the open road, to a given point; semita (from secare, segmen), a foot-path, which often runs by the side of the high-road, like οἶμος; callis (from κέλευθος) a path over a mountain or through a wood, which is scarcely passable except for cattle, like ἀτραπός. Plaut. Cas. iii. 5, 42. De via in semitam degredi; and Liv. xliv. 43. Cic. Phil. xiii. 9, 19. Egressus est non viis, sed tramitibus paludatus; and Rull. ii. 35. Virg. Æn. ix. 383. Rara per occultos lucebat semita calles; and Curt. vii. 11, 2. (iv. 64.)

Iter facere, see Proficisci.

Iterum; Rursus; Denuo; De integro; Repetere; Integrare. 1. Iterum (ἕτερον) means, like δεύτερον, a second time; rursum or rursus, (revorsus) like αὖθις and πάλιν, again, once more; denuo (de novo) like νέοθεν, anew; de integro, like αὖθις ἐξ ὑπαρχῆς, quite afresh. Justin. xxi. 4, 6. Hoc consilio præventus iterum servitia concitat, statutaque rursus cædium die, quum denuo se proditum videret. 2. In 116 the same manner pugnam iterare, Liv. vi. 32, means to join battle a second time; pugnam repetere, x. 36, to repeat the battle; pugnam renovare, Cæs. B. G. iii. 20, to renew the battle; and pugnam integrare, Liv. vii. 7, to begin the battle again quite from the beginning. Aut. Herenn. ii. 3, 47. Enumeratio est per quam colligimus et commonemus quibus de rebus verba fecerimus, breviter, ut renovetur, non redintegretur oratio. (i. 184.)

Jubere; Imperare; Præcipere; Mandare. Jubere (from ἰότης) means to bid, merely in consequence of one’s own wish and will, in opp. to vetare, like κελεύειν; imperare, to command, by virtue of a military supreme authority, like ἄρχειν; præcipere to enjoin, by virtue of an authority as a teacher, etc., something like ἐντέλλεσθαι; mandare (from μήδομαι) to charge, in consequence of thorough confidence in a person, like ἐφίεσθαι.

Jucundus, see Gratus.

Judicare, see Censere.

“Judicare” printed immediately before “Jusjurandum”.

Jugulare, see Interficere.

Jugum, see Mons.

Jumentum, see Pecus.

Jurgium, see Disceptatio.

Jusjurandum; Juramentum; Sacramentum. Jusjurandum, and the later word juramentum, denote a civil oath, by which a man confirms or promises something; sacramentum denotes a military oath, by which the soldier solemnly pledges and binds himself not to forsake his standard. Liv. xxii. 38. Milites tunc quod nunquam antea factum erat, jurejurando a tribunis militum adacti jussu consulum conventuros neque injussu abituros; nam ad eam diem nihil præter sacramentum fuerat. And xxxv. 19. (vi. 183.)

Juvare, see Auxilium.

Juvenis, see Puer.

Juventa; Juventus; Juventas; Juvenalis; Juvenilis. 1. Juventa (from ζέω, ζόη), is the season of youth; juventus, a collection of young men; Juventas, the goddess of youth. 2. Juvenalis denotes youthful, either indifferently, as that which 117 belongs to young people, or with praise, in opp. to the weakness of old age; whereas juvenilis denotes youthful, with the accessory moral notion of what is in conformity with the character of young people, mostly with blame, in opp. to the maturity of age. (v. 46.)


Labare; Titubare; Vacillare; Nutare. Labare (the ancient Gothic word, slipan, from λωφᾶν), denotes tottering, with reference to the whole body, which rests on no firm basis; titubare (from ταφεῖν, τυφλός), with reference to the feet, which refuse their service, and stagger; vacillare (ἧκα) with reference to the upper part of the body, which wants its upright, steady, secure position; lastly, nutare (from νεύειν) with reference to the head, which seems ready to fall off. The titubans threatens to sink to the ground; the vacillans, to fall over. Titubatio betrays bodily weakness; vacillatio, want of external dignity, and a steady carriage. (iii. 62.)

Labes, see Vitium.

Labi; Cadere. Labi (from λείβω) means to fall, with reference to the point from which, and to the space through which, any one glides or sinks down, like ὀλισθεῖν; whereas cadere means to fall, with reference to the point which a man reaches by his fall, as to come to the ground, like πεσεῖν. Virg. Æn. vi. 310. Lapsa cadunt folia. Cic. Brut. 49. Quibus vitiis labatur aut cadat orator. (i. 128.)

Labor; Molestia; Ærumna. 1. Labor is the toil which requires strength and causes weariness, like πόνος; molestia (from μόλις, μαλερός) the trouble which, by its greatness or unseasonableness, dispirits, like χαλεπότης; ærumna (αἰρομένη) the hardship that almost exceeds human strength, and bows down even the hero, like ταλαιπωρία; an antiquated, half-poetical 118 expression, in Cic. Fin. ii. 35, and Quintil. viii. 3, 26. Cic. Fin. v. 32. Ut ubi virtus sit resque magnæ et summe laudabiles virtute res gestæ, ibi esse miseria et ærumna non possit, tamen labor possit, possit molestia. (iv. 422.) 2. Laborare denotes, as an intransitive verb, to be in a state of trouble and toil; but elaborare, as a transitive verb, to produce something by trouble and toil. (i. 116.)

Labor, see Opera.

Lacerare; Laniare. Lacerare (from λακίς) denotes to tear by mere force, which may be done by the hands, claws, teeth; whereas laniare denotes the effect of a cutting instrument, under which teeth and claws may be included. Appul. Met. iv. p. 84. Morsibus laceratus, ferroque laniatus. Liv. xxii. 51. (v. 176.)

Lacertus, see Ulna.

Lacessere; Irritare; Sollicitare. 1. Lacessere (λακίζειν) means to excite the reason and will of another to resistance; irritare (ἀνερεθίζω) to provoke his feelings or passions to anger. Cic. Mil. 31. Ut vi irritare ferroque lacessere fortissimum virum auderet. 2. Lacessere means to excite, when a man in a coarse manner disturbs the peace of another; sollicitare, when a man disturbs the quiet of another in a refined manner. (v. 176.)

Lacrimare; Plorare; Flere; Lamentari; Ejulare; Deflere; Deplorare. 1. Lacrimare (from δάκρυ) denotes the physical consequence of a certain emotion of the mind, whether joyful or sorrowful, like δακρύειν, to shed tears; whereas plorare (from pluere) denotes a passionate expression of grief, like θρηνεῖν, to wail and cry. Between the two stands flere (φλέω) in opp. to ridere, partaking of the passionless feeling denoted by lacrimare, and of the feeling of grief denoted by plorare, like κλαίειν, to weep. Sen. Ep. 63. Nec sicci sint oculi amisso amico, nec fluant; lacrimandum est, non plorandum. 2. Lamentari and 119 ejulare denote a higher degree of ploratus; but lamentatio (from κλαῦμα?) is, like κωκύειν, a longer continued wailing; ejulare (from εἶα) a wailing interrupted by cries and sobs, like ὀλολύζειν. 3. Plorare and flere are intransitive verbs, as to weep; deplorare and deflere transitive, as to deplore.

Lacuna; Lacus; Stagnum; Palus; Uligo; Lama; Lustrum. Lacuna denotes, in poetical language, any standing water, from a sea to a pool; lacus and stagnum are collections of standing water kept sound and fresh by their own springs, or by ebbing and flowing; lacus (liquere) is large enough to bring to mind the image of the open sea, in opp. to the main sea, like λίμνη; stagnum, like a pond, not so large as to resemble a lake, in opp. to a stream, like τέναγος; whereas palus and uligo are collections of standing water corrupted and grown foul; palus (πλυδᾶν) is, like a marsh, a district covered with a surface of foul water, like ἕλος; uligo (from ὀλός) like a moor, a district soaked through with foul water. The palus appears as a mass of water made thick by mud and bog-earth, in which a person may be drowned; uligo only as ground thoroughly soaked with water, in which a man may sink down. Lastly, lamæ and lustra denote standing waters of small extent; lama, a mere dirty and filthy puddle on a high road; lustra, an ill-smelling and noisome quagmire in woods, etc. (v. 30.)

Lædere; Violare; Offendere. Lædere denotes a physical injury, as to hurt; violare, an injury to a person’s rights, as to offer violence; offendere (from πένθος) an injury to a person’s feelings, as to affront. Lædere refers to whatever object is capable of receiving injury; violare, to one that has a just claim to protection; offendere, to a rational and feeling being. Cic. Off. i. 28, 99. Justitiæ partes sunt non violare homines, verecundiæ non offendere. 120 Fin. iii. 11. Sen. Ir. iii. 18. Pleraque eorum propter quæ irascimur offendunt nos magis quam lædunt. Const. 4. Contumelia tantum delicatis gravis est, qua non læduntur, sed offenduntur. Ovid, Am. iii. 3, 31. Formosa superi metuunt offendere læsi. (iii. 138.)

Lætari, see Gaudere.

Lævis; Glaber; Fricare; Terere. 1. Lævis, levis, (λεῖος) means smooth, in opp. to rough and rugged, and gives a pleasant impression of elegance; whereas glaber (γλαφυρός) in opp. to rough, covered with hair, and grown up, and gives an unpleasant impression of deficiency. 2. Fricare means to rub, and thereby make smooth, like ψήχειν; whereas terere (τείρειν) means to rub, and thereby make less, like τρίβειν.

Lævus, see Sinister.

Lama, see Lacuna.

Lambere; Lingere. Lambere means to lick, inasmuch as one uses the tongue, like the hand, as an instrument to take hold of, or to touch anything, whether eatable, and possessing a taste, or not; lingere (λείχειν) when one uses the tongue as the organ of the sense of taste, in order to ascertain the flavor of any thing. Plin. H. N. xxxv. 7. Canem ex ære vulnus suum lambentem; compare with xxxi. 4. Pecoribus saldatur lingendus. (v. 152.)

Lamentari, see Lacrimare.

Lancea, see Missile.

Laniare, see Lacerare.

Laniena; Macellum. Laniena is the butcher’s stall, where the lanius sells slaughtered and ready-jointed meat; macellum, the market in which the macellarius sells all sorts of meat, including poultry and fish.

Lapis, see Saxum.

Laqueus; Funis; Restis. 1. Laqueus (from ἑλίξαι) is the noose at the end of a rope; whereas funis and restis mean the rope itself; funis, a thicker 121 rope, which is meant more for drawing and pulling, and on that account must have a proper length, like σχοῖνος; restis, a thinner rope, which serves more for fastening and hanging up, and therefore may be short, like σπάρτη. The trace by which the equus funalis is attached; the rope on which the funambulus balances himself; the tow which draws the boat to the ship, are never rendered in prose by restis: whereas the rope with which the self-murderer hangs himself, or the slave is whipped, or the garment girded, is seldom rendered by funis, unless the poet gives the preference to the last word as a more elevated term. (v. 36.) 2. Rudentes are the sail ropes; retinacula, and oræ, the cables or anchor-ropes; retinacula, as a more general and popular term; oræ, oras, solvere, as more technical expressions in nautical language.

Largitio, see Donum.

Largus; Benignus; Liberalis; Munificus. Largus means any one who makes a rich present, to whomever he makes it, and from whatever motive, in opp. to parcus. Ter. Heaut. iii. 1, 31; whereas benignus, liberalis, and munificus, denote virtuous qualities in the giver. The benignus follows a pure impulse of humanity, love towards his fellow men; the liberalis, a noble pride, or feeling of self-respect; the munificus, a princely feeling, or, at any rate, a feeling of laudable ambition. Benignitas gives richly, because it has no wish to possess and enjoy alone, like goodness; liberalitas gives as much as, and not less than, a man of noble sentiment believes suitable to his own rank and to another’s merits, without scrupulous mercantile calculation, like a gentlemanly spirit; munificentia gives rather too much than too little, from the pleasure of making people happy, and causing an agreeable surprise, like generosity. (iv. 146.)

Larva; Persona. Larva (from lar?) is a caricatured, frightful mask; persona (παρισῶν) an ingeniously formed, characteristic mask.


Lascivus, see Petulans.

Lassus, see Fatigatus.

Latebra; Latibulum. Latebra is a retired or obscure place, where a man can conveniently remain concealed; latibulum, a lurking-hole, into which a man must creep like a beast. (vi. 189.)

Latrare; Gannire; Baubari. Latrare means the hostile bark of a great dog, and, figuratively, to wrangle, like ὑλακτεῖν; whereas gannire, the harmless bark of a little dog, and, figuratively, to chatter, like κνυζᾶσθαι; lastly, baubari, the whining and howling of a dog, like βαΰεζειν. Lucret. v. 1064-1070.

Latro, see Præda.

Latus, see Coxa.

Lectus, see Cubile.

Legare, see Mittere.

Lembus, see Navigium.

Lemures, see Spectrum.

Lenis, see Mitis.

Lentus, see Tardus.

Lepidus; Facetus; Festivus; Salsus; Dicax; Cavillator. Lepos, facetiæ, and festivitas, denote the harmless wit, which, like humor, is only opposed to seriousness, and is the attribute of a benevolent mind; lepos (from λέπω, λεπτός,) the lightest wit, in opp. to dull gravity; festivitas (from σπαθᾶν) the more cheerful sort of wit, in opp. to gloomy seriousness; facetiæ, the jocund wit, in opp. to sober seriousness; whereas sales, dicacitas, and cavillatio, denote the more pungent wit, which is a sign of an acute intellect; sales (ἅλες) the piquant wit, in opp. to what is flat and trivial, which aims at a point, whether others may be pleasantly or painfully affected by it; dicacitas (from δακεῖν) the satirical wit, which is exercised at the cost of others, yet so that the jest is still the principal aim,—the pain inflicted, only an accidental adjunct; cavillatio, the scoffing wit, in which the mortification of others is the principal aim, the jest only a means and unimportant form. Cic. Orat. 30. Demosthenes non tam dicax fuit, quam facetus. Est autem illud acrioris ingenii, hoc majoris artis. (v. 21).


Letum, see Mors.

Levis, see Lævis.

Libare, see Sapor.

Libenter, see Sponte.

Liberalis, see Largus.

Liberalitas, see Donum.

Libertus; Libertinus. Libertus means the freed-man, with reference to his master, in opp. to servus; Cic. Mil. 33. Sext. 35. Tac. G. 25. Suet. Cæs. 75; libertinus, with reference to his rank, in opp. to civis and ingenuus. Liv. x. 21. xli. 8. Suet. Cl. 54. Senec. Contr. iii. 21. Quærendus mihi gener erat aliquis libertinus; quid ergo? alieno potius liberto? Cic. Verr. i. 47. Trebonius fecit heredem libertum suum . . . Equiti Romano libertinus homo fit heres. Suet. Cl. 25. Tac. H. iii. 58. (vi. 194.)

Libido, see Cupido.

Libra; Pondo. Libra pondo is the full expression, literally a balance in weight, that is, a scale, filled so as to balance a pound; libra (λεῖος) is a less definite expression, inasmuch as leaving out the pondo, makes it doubtful whether the balance itself be not understood; pondo is an elliptical expression, in which the principal notion, weight, is expressed, and the accessory notion left out; the scale that is filled must balance the definite weight. In a similar manner operæ pretium est, is distinguished from operæ est, and from pretium est. (vi. 195.)

Librare; Vibrare. Librare hastam (from λεῖος) means to raise the spear in a horizontal direction, in order to hurl it with greater force, and with a surer aim; vibrare (ὑφή) to brandish it backwards and forwards, or up and down, that is, either in a horizontal or perpendicular direction, in order to testify an eager desire for the combat. (v. 196.)

Liburna, see Navigium.

Licet, see Concessum est.

Ligare; Viere; Vincire; Nectere; Obligare; Obstringere; Devincire. 1. Ligare and viere denote to bind, in order to prevent things falling asunder, synonymously with copulare, like δέειν; whereas vincire and nectere mean to fetter, in order to 124 hinder free movement, synonymously with coercere, like δεσμεύειν. 2. Ligare is the general, viere (ὀχεῖν) the technical expression for binding fast, etc. 3. Obligare means to oblige by acts of kindness; obstringere, to oblige by benefits; devincire, to rivet to one’s self by a lasting intimate connection. The obligatus feels himself bound by the conventional duties of social life; the obstrictus, by the duties of morality or religion; the devinctus, by the duties of piety. (iv. 282.)

Lima; Scobina. Lima is a tool for filing smooth; scobina, for filing off. (vi. 197.)

Limes, see Finis.

Limus, see Lutum.

Lingere, see Lambere.

Lingua; Sermo. Lingua denotes the speech of any, even the most uncultivated people, gens or natio, in as far as they possess proper words to express their notions; whereas sermo, only the speech of a cultivated people, populus, in as far as it is adapted for the expression of connected thoughts. Lingua is, like the tongue, born with us, and refers more to the mere gift of speech; sermo requires voluntary activity, and involves the rules of grammar and of style. Cic. Fin. i. 3, 10. Sæpe disserui Latinam linguam non modo non inopem, sed locupletiorem etiam esse quam Græcam: comp. with Off. i. 31. Sermone debemus uti eo, qui notus est nobis. (iv. 22.)

Linter, see Navigium.

Liquere, see Fluere and Constat.

Lira, see Porca.

Litera; Elementum. Litera is a letter, as the most indivisible part of writing, like γράμμα; elementum (ἄλημα) as the most indivisible part of language or of knowledge in general, like στοιχεῖον. (iii. 210.)

Literæ; Epistola; Codicilli. Literæ is the most general expression for a letter; epistola is one directed to a distant friend, and sent by a messenger; 125 codicilli, an address to one within the same walls, as a note. Sen. Ep. 55. Adeo tecum sum ut dubitem an incipiam non epistolas sed codicillos tibi scribere. Cic. Fam. vi. 18. Simul accepi a Seleuco tuo literas; statim quæsivi e Balbo per codicillos quid esset in lege. (vi. 198.)

Literæ; Artes; Doctrinæ; Disciplinæ. Literæ and artes denote the sciences as the general objects of scientific education; literæ, in a narrower sense, only as literature, or the sciences so far as they are laid down in books, and, together with other branches of knowledge, enrich the mind, and are the means of sharpening the understanding and forming the taste, artes (ἀρεταί?) in the widest sense, so far as the knowledge of them immediately attests intellectual cultivation, and readiness in the practical application of the sciences; whereas doctrinæ and disciplinæ denote particular parts of the general objects of knowledge formed into systems; doctrinæ, more the speculative and abstract parts of philosophical and learned education; disciplinæ, more the practical parts, that are conducive to the purposes of life. (v. 269.)

Litigatio, see Disceptatio.

Litus, see Ripa.

Livor, see Invidia.

Locuples, see Divitiæ.

Locus; Tractus; Regio; Plaga. Locus (λόχος) denotes a space, as a single point, like τόπος; tractus (from trahere) as a line, with the notion of extension to a distance, as a tract of country, something like κλίμα; regio (from ῥῆχος, ὄρχος,) as a circle, with the included notion of the environs, like the surrounding country, χῶρος; plaga (πλάξ) principally as a surface or plain.

Longævus, see Vetus.

Longe, see Procul.

Loquax, see Garrire.

Loqui, see Fari, Dicere.

Lucere; Fulgere; Splendere; Nitere; Renidere; Coruscare; Micare; Radiare. 1. Lucere, fulgere, splendere, nitere, denote a steady and continued brightness; fulgere (φλογεῖν) through 126 a glaring light, or a dazzling fiery color, like φλέγω, lucere (from λευκός) through a beneficial light, and a soft fiery color, like φαίνω, φέγγω; splendere (from φάλανθος) as the consequence of a clear and pure light, in opp. to sordere; Cic. Sext. 28. Sen. Ep. 5. Martial, Ep. ii. 36. Tac. A. i. 84. Suet. Aug. 35; like λάμπω; nitere (from νίζω) as the consequence of humidity, oiling or washing, to glisten, in opp. to squalere. Cic. Fin. iv. 3. Orat. 32. Sen. Q. N. i. 17. Quintil. ii. 5, 23; like στίλβω. 2. Whereas coruscare, micare, radiare, mean an unsteady, tremulous light; coruscare (from κορύσσω) to shine like forked lightning; micare, to sparkle, like metal placed in the sun; radiare, to beam, like the shooting rays of the sun. Cic. Cat. ii. 3. qui nitent unguentis, qui fulgent purpura. Auct. ad Herenn. iv. 33. Tantus erat in armis splendor, ut solis fulgor obscurior videretur. Plin. H. N. xxxvii. 2. Splendor murrhinis sine viribus: nitorque verius quam splendor; for splendor denotes brightness, with regard to its intensity; nitor, with regard to its beauty. Auct. ad Herenn. iv. 50. Gemmæ nitore et auri splendore: hence, figuratively, splendor denotes pomp; nitor, only neatness. (ii. 76.)

Lucerna, see Candela.

Lucrum; Emolumentum; Quæstus; Compendium. Lucrum and emolumentum denote gain, in any condition of life; lucrum (from lucar, locare,) gain deserved and earned by one’s self, in opp. to damnum; Cic. Fin. v. 30, etc.; like κέρδος; emolumentum (from molere) gain falling to one’s share without any exertion of one’s own, in opp. to detrimentum; Cic. Fin. i. 16, like ὠφέλημα; whereas quæstus and compendium denote gain in the course of trade; quæstus, rather the steadily continued gains of a regular occupation, earnings, in opp. to sumptus; Cic. Parad. vi. 3. Hor. Sat. i. 2. 19, like χρηματισμός; compendium, more a single gain of considerable amount, in opp. to dispendium. (v. 257.)


Luctus, see Dolor.

Luculentus; Illustris. Luculentus means, what may be seen, and need not shun the light, synonymously with probabilis; whereas illustris (from λεύσσω) what makes itself seen, attracts the eye, and spreads its rays, synonymously with excellens. Hence luculentus never implies emphatic praise. Cic. Off. iii. 14, 60. Hoc quidem satis luculente, that is, it is probable enough. And Fin. ii. 5, 15. Cum Græce ut videor luculenter sciam, without presumption; just like, sic satis. (ii. 84.)

Lucus, see Silva.

Ludio, see Actor.

Ludus; Schola. Ludus is a lower school for boys, who are compelled to learn; schola, a higher school for youths and men, who wish to learn. Ludus supposes discipulos, ludi-magistrum, and school-discipline; schola supposes auditores, doctorem, and academical regulations. (vi. 203.)

Ludus; Lusus; Ludicrum; Jocus. 1. Ludus (from λοίδορος) denotes play in an objective sense, inasmuch as it is at hand for a man’s entertainment; whereas lusus, in a subjective sense, inasmuch as a man carries it on and produces it himself; further, ludus denotes play, as a means of recreation, in opp. to exertion; lusus, as a childish, useless pastime, in opp. to real business. Plin. Ep. ix. 33. 3. Pueri quos otium ludusque sollicitat: comp. with ix. 25. Lusus et ineptias nostras legis. Or, Cic. Flacc. 5, 12. Græci quibus jusjurandum jocus est, testimonium ludus; that is, to whom it is a mere trifle to bear false witness; compare with Sen. Contr. i. 2. Piratas . . . quibus omne fas nefasque lusus est; that is, to whom the distinction between right and wrong is a mere sporting with words. 2. The plur. ludi assumes the special meaning of public spectacles, and in this sense has a singular peculiar to itself in the word ludicrum. 3. Ludus and lusus have more a negative character, as mere pastimes and amusements, as a guard against ennui; whereas jocus more a positive 128 character, as an utterance of humor and wit. The ludens wishes merely to be free from exertion, to do nothing serious, and to amuse himself; the jocans will be as active at the command of mirth, as others at the command of seriousness. (ii. 33.)

Lues; Contagium; Pestilentia; Pestis; Pernicies; Exitium; Interitus; Exitus. 1. Lues (from λοιμός) denotes epidemic disease, as proceeding from an impure morbid matter; contagium (from contingere? or κατατήκειν?) as contagious; pestilentia, as a disease reigning in the land, and especially as a pestilence. Sall. Cat. 10. Post ubi contagia quasi pestilentia invasit. Plin. H. N. xxiii. 28. Laurus folia pestilentiæ contagia prohibent. Lucan. vi. 86. Fluidæ contagia pestis. 2. Pestis is used for pestilence itself only by the poets; otherwise it denotes, like exitium and pernicies (from necare), that which destroys in general, without reference to disease; but pestis is, according to rule, used as a concrete, exitium and pernicies as abstract terms. Sen. N. Q. iii. pr. Philippi aut Alexandri . . . . qui exitio gentium clari non minores fuere pestes mortalium quam inundatio. 3. Pernicies has an active meaning, and denotes the destruction of a living being by murder; whereas exitium has a passive meaning, and denotes the destruction even of lifeless objects by annihilation; lastly, interitus has, like exitus, a neutral meaning, the destruction of living or lifeless objects by decay. Tac. Ann. xiv. 65. Poppæa non nisi in perniciem uxoris nupta; postremo crimen omni exitio gravius: and ii. 68. Cic. Cat. iv. 3. Cum de pernicie populi Romani, exitio hujus urbis cogitarit. Rull. ii. 4, 10. Extremi exitiorum exitus. 4. Exitium is a violent, exitus a natural end. Cic. Rull. ii. 4, 10. Qui civitatum afflictarum perditis jam rebus extremi exitiorum solent esse exitus, is, as it were, the last breath of a state that is being destroyed; like Verr. v. 6, 12 Exitus exitiales. (ii. 62. iii. 176.)

Lumen; Lux. Lumen (λευσσόμενον) is a luminous 129 body, like φέγγος; lux (λευκή) a streaming mass of light, like φάος. Cic. Fin. iii. 14, 45. Ut obscuratur et offunditur luce solis lumen lucernæ. Curt. viii. 2, 21. Sed aditus specus accipit lucem; interiora nisi allato lumine obscura sunt. Cic. Acad. iv. 8, 28. Si ista vera sunt, ratio omnis tollitur quasi quædam lux lumenque vitæ; that is, reason alone is in itself bright and light, and at the same time spreads brightness and light over life. Also, in a figurative sense, lumen denotes distinction, lux only clearness. Cicero (Man. 5.) calls Corinth, Græciæ totius lumen, but Rome (Catil. iv. 6.) Lucem orbis terrarum; Corinth is compared to a glimmering point of light; Rome is distinguished as that city in comparison with which all other cities lie in darkness. (ii. 66.)

Luridus, see Luteus.

Lustrum, see Lacuna.

Lusus, see Ludus.

Luteus; Gilvus; Helvus; Flavus; Luridus. Luteus (from λωτός) denotes a decided yellow, as the yolk of an egg; gilvus, (ἀγλαός) and helvus, a fainter reddish yellow, like that of honey; flavus and luridus, a lighter whitish yellow; flavus (from φλεύω) a glossy beautiful yellow, like that of light auburn hair; luridus (from χλωρός) a wan unpleasant yellowishness, like that of pale death.

Lutum; Limus; Cœnum; Sordes; Squalor; Pædor; Situs; Stercus; Fimus; Oletum; Merda. 1. Lutum, limus, cœnum, all denote impurity, as a substance, and as of a wet sort; lutum (from λύθρον) is the dirt of the streets or roads, like πηλός; limus (λειβόμενος) the mud of a river, like ἰλύς; cœnum (from cunire) the mire of a moor or morass, like βόρβορος. Tac. Ann. i. 63. Cætera limosa, tenacia gravi cœno aut rivis incerta erant; whereas sordes, squalor, pœdor, situs, denote impurities as a form, and of a dry sort; sodes (from ἄρδα) in opp. to splendor, through indigence, or niggardliness and vulgarity, for 130 example, clothes dirty from long wear, like ῥύπος; squalor (from σκέλλω) in opp. to nitor, through want of civilized habits, and of delicacy in the senses, for example uncombed hair, like αὐχμός; pædor (from ψοῖθος) in opp. to munditiæ, through neglect of the person, for example, through pædiculos, vermin, itch, etc., like πίνος; situs (ἄσις) in opp. to usus, in consequence of long disuse, for example, through mould, rust, etc., like ἄζη. Hence the different forms of the adjectives lutosus, limosus, cœnosus, that is, full of lutum, etc.; and of sordidus, squalidus, pædidus, that is, resembling sordes, etc., and in circumlocution, oblitus luto, limo, cœno, but obsitus, sordibus, squalore, pædore. 2. Stercus (from τάργανον) denotes in dung its disgusting sense, as filth, like κόπρος; whereas fimus (opimus?) in its useful sense, as manure. 3. For offensive excrements cœnum is the most general; oletum denotes human; merda (μίνθος) animal excrements.

Lux, see Lumen.

Luxus; Luxuria. Luxus denotes luxury as an act or as a condition, and sometimes even objectively, as an object of luxury; whereas luxuria, always subjectively, as a propensity and disposition, as the desiderative of luxus. Sen. Ir. i. 11. Animis delicias, luxus, opes ignorantibus: and further on; Opinionem luxuriæ segnitiæque. Sall. Cat. 13. Romani famem aut sitim . . . . luxu antecapere; that is, by the arts of luxury: compare with Jug. 90. Luxuria atque ignavia pessimæ artes: that is, as proceeding from voluptuousness. (ii. 23.)

Lymphatus, see Amens.


Macellum, see Laniena.

Macer, see Exilis.

Maceria, see Murus.

Macula, see Vitium.


Madidus, see Udus.

Magister, see Doctor.

Magnopere, see Perquam.

Magnus; Grandis; Amplus; Ingens; Immanis; Vastus. 1. Magnus, grandis, and amplus, denote a becoming greatness; ingens, immanis, and vastus, an overwhelming greatness. Sen. Ir. i. 16. Nec enim magnitudo ista est, sed immanitas. Cic. Læl. 26. 2. Magnus (from μέγα, mactus,) denotes greatness without any accessory notion, in opp. to parvus, like μέγας; whereas grandis, with the accessory notion of intrinsic strength and grandeur, in opp. to exilis, Sen. Ep. 100; subtilis, Quintil. xii. 10, 58; tumidus, in the same book, § 80; minutus, Cels. ii. 18; exiguus, Quintil. xi. 3, 15; lastly, amplus (adj. from ambi) with the accessory notion of comeliness, and of an imposing impression. 3. Ingens (ἄγονος) denotes excessive greatness merely as extraordinary, like ἄπλετος; immanis (ἀμήχανος) as exciting fear, like πελώριος; vastus (from vagus?) as wanting regularity of form like ἀχανής. (iii. 228.)

Mala; Maxilla; Gena. 1. Mala (from μέμαχα, or from Mandere) denotes the upper, maxilla, the under jaw. Cels. Med. viii. 1. 2. Mala denotes the cheek as a usual expression, and in a merely physiological sense; gena (from γένυς) as a more ancient and select expression, and with an æsthetic reference. (vi. 208.)

Maledictum; Probrum; Convicium. Maledictum is any utterance of what is injurious to another, whether to bring him ill-luck by cursing, or disgrace by verbal injuries, like κακηγορία; probrum (from προφέρω) an invective, like ὄνειδος, consisting of attacks and assertions wounding the honor of another; convicium (καταικία) the abusive word, like λοιδορία, consisting of single words and appellations wounding the honor of another. For example, fur! is a convicium, fur es, a probrum; each of them a maledictum. (iv. 198.)


Malefactum, Maleficium, see Delictum.

Malitia; Malignitas; Malevolentia; Malus; Nequam; Pravus. 1. Malitia denotes the baseness which shows itself in the love of lying and deceiving, from want of conscience; malignitas, the ill-will which grudges good to another, and wishes it only to itself, from pure selfishness; malevolentia, the ill-will which wishes evil to another rather than good, from personal aversion. Malitia is a way of thinking and acting deserving of punishment as endangering the security of society; malignitas is a despicable disposition, which implies the want of philanthropy; lastly, malevolentia, a detestable quality, as connected with deriving pleasure from the misfortunes of others. 2. Malus homo is a morally bad man, but nequam a good-for-nothing man, whose faultiness shows itself in aversion to useful labor, and a propensity to roguish tricks, in opp. to frugi. Plaut. Pseud, i. 5. 53. Cic. Font. 13. Or. ii. 61. Fin. ii. 8. Sen. Contr. iii. 21; pravus (πέραῖος) a man whose character has taken a vicious direction, in a physical, or intellectual, or moral point of view in opp. to rectus. Plaut. Bacch. iii. 3, 8. Cic. Fin. ii. 8. Acad. i. 10. Quintil. viii. 3, 48. Nec parricidam nequam dixeris hominem, nec meretrici forte deditum nefarium; quod alterum parum, alterum nimium est. Afric. ap. Gell. vii. 11. (i. 62.)

Malignitas, see Invidia.

Mamma; Mamilla; Uber; Papilla. 1. Mamma and uber denote the breast in the female body; mamma (μάμμη) denotes the visible breast as a fleshy part of the body, particularly of a female body; whereas uber (οὐαρόν) the nourishing breast as filled with milk, which is only found in the female body, like οὖθαρ. 2. Papilla and mamilla denote the nipples of the breast, common to the male and female; papilla (redupl. of πάλλα) with reference to their spherical shape, without distinction of the sexes, like μαζός; 133 mamilla (redupl. from ἀμέλγω) with reference to their adaptation for suckling, and therefore belonging only to the female sex, like τίτθη, and teats. (iv. 133.)

Manare, see Fluere.

Mancipare, see Vendere.

Mancipium, see Servus.

Mandare, see Jubere.

Mane; Crepusculo; Diluculo. Mane (from μηνύειν) denotes in the morning, in the early course of the bright day, in opp. to the night, and the forenoon hours, like ὄρθρῳ; crepusculo (from creperus, κρύψαι) in the twilight, in opp. to the bright day; diluculo, in the twilight, in opp. to the dark night, like λυκόφως.

Manere; Morari; Tardare; Detinere. 1. Manere (from μένειν) denotes remaining, in opp. to going away; whereas morari (from βραδύς) denotes tarrying, as an interruption of motion, in opp. to going forwards. Cic. Sen. 23. Commorandi natura deversorium nobis, non habitandi dedit. Hence in Tac. H. ii. 48. Irent propere neu remanendo iram victoris asperarent,—the reading remorando deserves the preference. 2. Morari aliquem means, to prevail upon any one to stay of his own free will by proposing conditions, like διατρίβειν; tardare, to prevent a person’s hastening on his way by opposing difficulties, like βραδύνειν; detinere, to hinder him from going forwards by force, like κατέχειν. Tardare has generally an action for its object2; detinere, a person; morari, either. (iii. 298.)

2. [But: nos Etesiæ valde tardarunt.]

Manere; Exspectare; Præstolari; Opperiri. 1. Manere (from μένειν) denotes a mere physical act to remain in a place, till something has happened; whereas exspectare, præstolari, and opperiri, denote a mental act, to wait for, to wait in conscious expectation of some event, or of some person. 2. Exspectare denotes waiting for, almost as a mere mental act, as a feeling, without practical reference or 134 accessory meaning; whereas præstolari and opperiri, with the accessory notion that the person waiting intends, after the arrival of the object waited for, to do something. 3. The præstolans (from παραστέλλεσθαι) waits for a person in order to perform services for him; the opperiens, for an occurrence, in order not to be taken by surprise. The præstolans stands in subordinate relation to the person waited for; the opperiens, in co-ordinate, whether as friend or foe. Lastly, præstolari is a prose expression; opperiri, a poetical, or at least, a select expression. For the German distinction between warten and harren, the former denoting calm, passionless waiting for, the latter, eager, impatient longing for, the Latins have no correspondent synonymes. (iii. 57.)

Manes, see Spectrum.

Manicæ, see Vincula.

Manifesto, see Aperire.

Mannus, see Equus.

Mansuetudo; Clementia. Mansuetudo (from manui suetus) is the mildness and magnanimity of a private individual, who does not take vengeance for a mortification suffered, in opp. to iracundia; whereas clementia (from ἀκαλός, κηλεῖν, and mens,) the mercifulness and humanity of the ruler, or the judge, who does not inflict upon the malefactor the punishment which he deserves, in opp. to crudelitas. Sen. Clem. 2. Cic. Lig. 3. Att. viii. 9. Plin. Pan. 3. (v. 11.)

Mansuetus, see Cicur.

Manubiæ, see Præda.

Mare; Æquor; Pontus; Pelagus. 1. Mare (from μύρω) denotes the sea, as a mass of water, in opp. to terra and aër, like ἅλς, θάλασσα; æquor, pelagus, and pontus, with reference to its dimensions; æquor and pelagus, with reference to its horizontal dimension, the surface of the sea, like πέλαγος, whence πελαγίζειν, to float on the sea; pontus (from πεσεῖν, πίτνειν,) with reference to its perpendicular dimension, the depth of the sea, like πόντος, whence ποντίζειν, to sink into the sea. Colum. viii. 17. Ut 135 in solo piscinæ posita libella septem pedibus sublimius esset maris æquor. Ovid, Met. ii. 872. Mediique per æquora ponti fert prædam. 2. Æquor (from æquus) denotes the surface of the sea in a merely physical sense; whereas pelagus (from πλάξ) with the accessory notion of its great extent and immensity. (iv. 72.)

Margo; Ora. Margo (ἀμέργων) denotes the brink, the natural boundary of a surface, considered almost as a mere mathematical line, and only improperly as including an exterior portion of the surface; whereas ora (ὤα, οὖρος, ὅρος) denotes the brim, or border, the artificial edging of a surface, generally for the sake of ornament, and therefore necessarily including a certain portion of the surface. Hence we say, ora togæ, but not margo; and, on the other hand, margo fluminis and ripæ, if the mere line of shore is meant, without any portion of the bank. (iii. 212.)

Marita, see Femina.

Mas, see Homo.

Matrimonium, see Conjugium.

Maxilla, see Mala.

Meare, see Ire.

Mederi; Medicari; Sanare; Medicamen; Medicina; Remedium. 1. Mederi and the poetical word medicari (μέδειν) denote healing, as the act of the physician, who heals with humane sympathy, judgment, and art, synonymously with curare, like ἰᾶσθαι; sanare, as the effect of the physic, which in a mechanical way makes the sick well again, synonymously with restituere, like ἀκεῖσθαι. 2. Medicamentum means a remedy, with reference to its material substance, as it is prepared by the apothecary, like φάρμακον; medicina, with reference to its healing virtues, as ordered by the physician; each with reference to an illness; whereas remedium denotes a remedy for any of the evils to which we are subject, like ἄκος. Cic. N. D. ii. 53. Medicamentorum salutarium plenissimæ terræ: comp. with Divin. ii. 51. Quam a medico petere medicinam. (v. 198.)


Meditari, see Cogitare.

Medius; Modicus; Mediocris. Medius μέσος is purely local, in the middle, in opp. to the extremes; modicus denotes quantity, with reference to number and magnitude, as moderate, in opp. to over-measure; mediocris denotes quality, with reference to worth, as middling, in opp. to distinction; hence modicæ facultates and mediocre ingenium are identical. Cic. Rep. ii. 31. Haud mediocris vir fuit, qui modica libertate populo data facilius tenuit auctoritatem principum. (v. 202.)

Medius dies, see Meridies.

Membrum; Artus. Membrum (redupl. of μέρος) denotes a limb of the body itself, like μέλος and κῶλον; whereas artus (ῥέθος, ἄρθρον,) properly only a joint of a limb, like ἄρθρον and ἅψος. Senec. Contr. ii. 13. Differebatur distortis articulis; nondum in sua membra artus redierant. Virg. Æn. v. 422. Magnos artus membrorum. Quintil. Decl. ult. Ut per singulos artus membra laxaret. Further, membra denotes the limbs collectively, including the head and trunk, as parts of the body; whereas artus only the extremities, which per commissuras with the body, properly so called, namely, the head and trunk, hang together. Gell. N. A. i. 14. (iv. 150.)

Meminisse; Reminisci; Recordari. Meminisse denotes remembrance as a state of mind, like μεμνῆσθαι, in as far as one has retained something in memory, without ever having forgotten it, like memorem esse; whereas reminisci and recordari denote remembrance as an act of the mind, in as far as one again brings to one’s mind what had already been driven out of one’s thoughts, like ἀναμιμνήσκεσθαι. But reminisci denotes this act of the mind as momentary, like in memoriam revocare; whereas recordari denotes it as of some duration, like revocata in memoriam contemplari. Cic. Lig. 12, 35. Equidem, cum tuis omnibus negotiis interessem, memoria teneo, qualis 137 T. Ligarius, quæstor urbanus, fuerit erga te et dignitatem tuam; sed parum est, me hoc meminisse; spero etiam te, qui oblivisci nihil soles, nisi injurias, quoniam hoc est animi, quoniam etiam ingenii tui, te aliquid de hujus illo quæstorio officio cogitantem, etiam de aliis quibusdam quæstoribus reminiscentem recordari. This passage shows, that memoria tenere is only a circumlocution for meminisse: there is another passage where recordari is employed as the consequence of reminisci, but there is no instance of the converse; for reminisci and recordari have the same relation to each other as intueri and conspicere. Cic. Sen. 21. Pueri . . . . ita celeriter res innumerabiles arripiunt, ut eas non tum primum accipere videantur, sed reminisci et recordari: he might have added, Quæ non satis meminerint, sed in aliquantum temporis obliti sint. Tusc. i. 24, 58. Animus, quum se collegit atque recreavit, tum agnoscit illa reminiscendo; ita nihil aliud est discere, quam recordari. Senec. Ep. 100. Magis reminiscor quam teneo. (i. 166.)

Menda, Mendum, see Vitium.

Mendicitas, see Paupertas.

Mens, see Anima.

Meracus, see Purus.

Mercari, see Emere.

Mercenarii; Operarii; Operæ. Mercenarii mean laborers as far as they work, not for their own interest, but for pay, in opp. to the proprietor, who hires their services; whereas operarii and operæ, as far as they undertake to perform for others, a mere mechanical work, in opp. to the principal or director, who gives out the plan. Mercenarii refer to the motive; operarii, to the art employed being of an inferior sort. (vi. 217.)

Merces, see Præmium.

Mercimonium, see Merx.

Merda, see Lutum.

Merere; Dignum esse; Mereri. 1. Merere and Mereri (μείρεσθαι) suppose an activity, as to deserve; whereas dignum esse (from decet, δίκη,) only a quality, as to be worthy. 2. Merere is usually 138 a transitive verb, as to deserve, and is in construction with an accusative, or with a sentence, as its complement; whereas mereri, an intransitive verb, as to be deserving, and is in construction with an adverb. Cic. Rosc. Com. 15. Fructum, quem meruerunt, retribuam: comp. with Catil. ii. 2, 4. Si illum, ut erat meritus, morte mulctassem. Cæs. B. G. vi. 5, with B. Civ. iii. 53. Suet. Cal. 40, with Aug. 56. 3. Merere as an intransitive, or without an object, denotes to serve as a warrior, by the ellipsis of stipendia; whereas mereri as a transitive, or with an object, means to earn something for one’s self, without any stress being laid upon the worthiness. (v. 213.) 

Meretrix, see Pellex.

Meridies; Medius dies. Meridies denotes noon, as a point of time, which separates the forenoon from the afternoon; medius dies, the middle of the day, as a space of time which lies between the morning and the evening.

Merus, see Purus.

Merx; Mercimonium. Merx means wares, in as far as they are already wrought up, as an article of trade; mercimonium, in as far as they can become so, like the materials of wares. Tac. A. xi. 5. Nec quidquam publicæ mercis tam venale fuit: comp. with xv. 38. Mercimonium quo flamma alitur.

Metiri; Metari; Dimetiri; Dimetari. 1. Metiri means to measure a space in order to know its magnitude; whereas metari, to mark the boundaries of the space that has been measured, that they may be known to others. 2. By dimetiri and dimetari, the measuring and marking out of sub-divisions is especially meant; wherefore metari castra refers merely to the whole circumference of the entrenchments; when, therefore, Liv. viii. 38. uses the phrase locum castris dimetari, it is evident of itself that he expressly means, to mark the boundaries of the principia and of the prætorium, etc., that are within the camp. (ii. 169.)


Metuere, see Vereri.

Micare, see Lucere.

Minime, see Neutiquam.

Minister, see Servus.

Minutus, see Parvus.

[Mirari is indifferent: admirari usually involves praise, demirari blame.]

Misereri; Miserari; Miseret me. Misereri means to feel pity in the heart, to compassionate, like ἐλεεῖν; whereas miserari, to express pity in words, to commiserate, like οἰκτείρειν. For the German word erbarmen, to show pity by actions, the Latins have no separate word. 2. By misereor tui, pity is represented as an act of the free-will, and thereby the noble nature of the compassionate is depicted; whereas by miseret me tui, pity is represented as a suffering, which cannot be resisted, whereby all moral merit is taken away, and the greatness of another’s misfortune more strongly expressed. Miserere is a causative, like οἰκτίζειν. (ii. 171.)

Miseria, see Infortunium.

Missile; Hasta; Lancea; Jaculum; Verutum; Tragulum; Pilum. Missile is the most general name for a weapon used in fighting at a distance, from the spear to the arrow; hasta and lancea serve both for thrusting and hurling; hasta (from σχαστήριον, σχάζω,) as a genuine Roman weapon, δορύ; lancea, as a foreign weapon, supposed to have come originally from the Suevi, λόγχη; pilum, jaculum, verutum, are more for hurling; jaculum, as the most general expression, including the hunting spear, βέλος; verutum (from ὀρυχή) and tragulum (τρώγλη) military weapons for hurling, ἄκων; pilum (from πῆλαι) in the singular, as the peculiar weapon for hurling used by the Roman legion. Liv. ix. 19. Romano pilum haud paulo quam hasta vehementius ictu missuque telum.

Mitis; Lenis; Placidus. Mitis means mild, in opp. to acerbus, like μείλιχος; lenis (from lana? or from the Goth, latjan, lassus?) gentle, in opp. to 140 vehemens, like πρᾶος; placidus, composed, in opp. to turbidus, like ἤπιος.

Mittere; Legare; Amittere; Dimittere; Omittere. 1. Mittere μεθεῖναι is the general expression, to send; legare (from λέγω) has a special political meaning, to delegate. The missus makes his appearance as a servant or messenger; the legatus, as a representative. 2. Amittere and dimittere mean to let go any thing already in one’s possession; amittere, against one’s will, as to lose; dimittere, after having used it, as to dismiss; whereas omittere means to let anything pass by, without taking possession of it; to speak with precision, Amittimus inviti et casu, omittimus volentes et sponte. Hence amittere occasionem means, to let slip an opportunity, so as not to be able to take advantage of it, from negligence; whereas omittere occasionem means, to renounce an opportunity, so as not to wish to take advantage of it, from attaching little value to it. Vitam amittere means, to lose one’s life; vitam omittere, to sacrifice it. (iii. 285.)

Moderatus, Modestia, see Modus.

Modicus, see Medius.

Modo-modo; Nunc-nunc. Modo-modo is properly applicable only to transactions of the past and of the future; nunc-nunc only to those of the present. This distinction is neglected, yet nunc-nunc gives a livelier color to description, and belongs to poetry, or to the more elevated style of prose; modo-modo, like ‘just now,’ is the proper prose expression, which Cicero always uses. (iv. 276.)

Modo, see Nuper.

Modus; Modestia; Moderatio; Temperatio; Continentia; Abstinentia. 1. Modus, in a moral sense, denotes the μέτριον, or the included notion of the μηδὲν ἄγαν in objective relation; modestia and moderatio, in subjective relation; Modestia is the feeling of preference for this modus; moderatio, the habit of acting in conformity to this feeling. 2. 141 Moderatio is moderation, as springing from the understanding, from calculation and reflection, akin to prudentia; temperatio and temperantia are qualities pervading the whole man, and ennobling his whole being, akin to sapientia. Moderatio supposes, like self-government, a conflict between the passions and reason, in which reason comes off conqueror; in temperatio, as in tranquillity of mind, the reason is already in possession of superiority, whether through nature or moral worth. 3. Temperatus, temperatio, denote merely a laudable property, which may belong even to things; whereas temperans, temperantia, a virtue of which reasonable beings alone are capable. 4. Moderatio denotes moderation in action, in opp. to cupiditas; whereas continentia, moderation in enjoyment, in opp. to libido, Cic. Cat. ii. 11, 25. Verr. iv. 52. 5. Continentia denotes command over sensual desires, continence; abstinentia, over the desire for that which belongs to another, firm integrity; the translation of abstinentia by ‘disinterestedness,’ is not precise enough, for this virtue is required by morality only, abstinentia, by law also. Quintil. v. 10, 89. Cic. Sext. 16. 6. Modestia shuns overstepping the right measure, out of regard to the morals which the modus prescribes; whereas verecundia and reverentia out of regard to persons, whom the verecundus is afraid of displeasing, and whom the reverens thinks worthy of respect; lastly, pudor, out of self-respect, that one may not bring one’s self into contempt. Varro, ap. Non. Non te tui saltem pudet, si nihil mei revereare. Terent. Phorm. i. 5, 3. or ii. 1, 3. Non simultatem meam revereri? Saltem pudere? (ii. 203.)

Mœnia, see Murus.

Mœstitia, see Dolor.

Moles; Onus; Pondus; Gravitas. Moles and onus denote the heaviness of an object in its disadvantageous sense; moles (from μῶλος or μόχλος) absolutely, 142 as unwieldiness, so far as through its greatness it is inconvenient to move, like ὄγκος; onus, relatively to its pressure, so far as it is irksome to the person carrying it, as a burden, φόρτος; whereas pondus (from pendere) in an advantageous sense, as force and strength, like weight, ἄχθος; lastly, gravitas (from γεραός) unites both senses, and sometimes denotes the irksome heaviness, sometimes the effective weightiness, like βάρος. (iv. 223.)

Molestia, see Labor.

Moliri, see Audere.

Monere, see Hortari.

Moneta, see Pecunia.

Mons; Jugum. Mons (from minari, eminere,) denotes the mountain with reference to its dimension of height; whereas jugum, with reference to its breadth and length, sometimes as the uppermost ridge, which, according as it is flat or pointed, is with yet greater precision called either dorsum or cacumen, in opp. to radices montis; sometimes as a range of mountains, particularly in an ascending direction, by which several mountains become joined, so as to form a chain, or pile of mountains, in opp. to the mountain itself. Liv. xxii. 18. Sub jugo montis prœlium fuit: comp. with xli. 18. Petilius adversus Balistæ et Leti jugum, quod eos montes perpetuo dorso conjungit, castra habuit. Or, Tac. G. 10, with 43, and Agr. 10. Or, Virg. Ecl. v. 76, with Ovid, Met. iv. 657. (v. 225.)

Monstra, see Auguria.

Monstrare, see Ostendere.

Morari, see Tardare.

Morbidus, Morbus, see Æger.

Morigerari, see Parere.

Morosus, see Austerus.

Mors; Letum; Nex; Obitus; Interitus; Perire; Oppetere; Demori; Intermori; Emori. 1. Mors and letum denote a natural death; mors (μόρος) the usual expression in a merely physical sense, as the way to corruption, like θάνατος; letum (from λαχεῖν, λάχεσις,) the select and solemn expression, as the lot of death, like οἶτος; whereas nex (from νεκρός) a violent death, as the passive of cædes. 2. Mors, 143 letum, nex, are proper, whereas obitus and interitus only softer, expressions. Obitus, decease, denotes, like exitus, a natural death; whereas interitus, together with perire, usually denotes, like exitium, a violent death. Plin. Ep. iii. 7. Silius ultimus ex Neronianis consularibus obiit, quo consule Nero periit. Plaut. Epid. iii. 4, 56. Malo cruciatu pereas, atque obeas cito. 3. Perire represents death as destruction and corruption; interire as a vanishing, so that the former applies more to the body, the latter to the soul. Plaut. Capt. iii. 5, 32. Qui per virtutem periit, at non interit; that is, he who dies a noble death, though his body perishes, still lives in name and posthumous renown. Further, perire denotes a sudden and violent death, particularly by self-murder; interire, a gradual and painful, but, it may be, also a peaceful, death. Tac. Ann. xv. 44. Et pereuntibus Christianis addita ludibria, ut ferarum tergis contecti laniatu canum interirent. Serv. ap. Cic. Fam. iv. 5. Si quis nostrum interiit, aut occisus est. 4. Obire mortem denotes to die, as a physical event, by which one ends all suffering; whereas oppetere mortem denotes to die, as a moral act, in as far as a man, if he does not seek death, at any rate awaits it with firmness and contempt of it. 5. Demori denotes to die off, as one belonging to a society, and thereby to occasion a vacancy; intermori, to be apparently dying, to be sick of a lingering disease, like ἐκθανεῖν; emori, to die entirely, in opp. to a mere semblance of life in misfortune, slavery, and disgrace, like πανδίκως θανεῖν. Cic. Pis. 7. Ut emori potius quam servire præstaret. (iii. 182.)

Mos, see Consuetudo.

Mostellum, see Spectrum.

Mucro, see Acies.

Mulcare, see Verberare.

Mulcere; Palpare. Mulcere (μύλλειν, μαλακός) means to stroke any thing in itself rough, as the hair, for instance, in order to make it smooth; thence, figuratively, to pacify an enraged person, like καταψῆν; 144 whereas palpare (ψηλαφᾶν, ἁπαλός,) to stroke any thing already smooth, in order to excite a pleasant sensation; thence, figuratively, to caress and coax, like ψηλαφᾶν. (v. 109.)

Mulcta, see Vindicta.

Mulier, see Femina.

Mundus, see Purus.

Munificus, see Largus.

Munimenta, see Murus.

Munus, see Donum and Officium.

Murus; Paries; Mœnia; Maceria; Parietinæ; Munimenta. 1. Murus (μοῖρα, μείρω,) denotes any sort of wall, merely with reference to its form, without reference to its use, like τεῖχος; paries (πείρω) especially a wall, as the side of a building, or as a partition to separate the rooms, like τοῖχος; mœnia (ἀμύνω) the walls of a city, as a defence against the enemy, like περίβολος? maceria, the wall of an enclosure, to mark the boundaries and to exclude thieves, the garden or vineyard wall, like θριγκός. Virg. Æn. vi. 549. Mœnia lata videt triplici circumdata muro. And Flor. i. 4. Vitruv. viii. 4. Tac. Ann. xv. 43. Nero instituit, ut urbis domus non communione parietum, sed propriis quæque muris ambirentur. 2. Muri, mœnia, etc., are walls in a good condition; parietinæ, walls that are falling into ruins. 3. Mœnia denote walls as a defence of a city against a first assault; munimenta, the proper fortifications of fortresses and camps, which are of themselves a bulwark against being taken by storm. (v. 350.)

Mutilare; Truncare. Mutilare denotes smaller mutilations, such as the breaking off of horns, the cutting off of a finger, the nose, etc.; truncare denotes greater mutilations, such as the chopping off of arms, feet, hands. The mutilata membra may be compared to twigs and shoots broken off; the truncata membra, to principal branches chopped off. (iv. 325.)

Mutuo, see Vicissim.


Mutuum dare, see Commodare.

Mysteria, see Arcana.


Nancisci, see Invenire.

Nares, see Nasus.

Nasus; Nares. Nasus is the exterior of the nose, as a prominent part of the face, like ῥίν; nares (ναρός) the interior of the nose, as the organ of smell, like μυκτῆρες. (vi. 231.).

Natio, see Gens.

Navigium; Navis; Celox; Lembus; Liburna; Scapha; Cymba; Linter. Navigium is the most general expression, like vessel; navis (ναῦς) an ordinary ship for distant voyages; celox, lembus, and liburna, are boats which may be manned and armed for service in war; scapha, cymba, and linter, are only skiffs and wherries, intended merely for short distances and for crossing over; scapha and cymba, of the broader sort, in the form of small barges; linter, long and narrow, like a canoe. (vi. 232.)

Necessarius; Propinquus; Cognatus; Consanguineus; Affinis. 1. Necessarius means any one to whom one is bound by a permanent connection, whether of an official kind, as collega, patronus, cliens, or of a private nature, as familiaris, amicus, like προσήκοντες; propinquus, any one to whom one is bound by a family connection, a relation, like ἀγχιστεῖς and ἔται, as a species of cognatus and consanguineus, related by blood; affinis, a relation by marriage, or in law, like κηδεστής. 2. Cognatio is the relationship by blood existing among members of the same family, like σύναιμος; consanguinitas, the relationship of nations by derivation from a common origin, like συγγενής. Cæs. B. G. vii. 32. Hominem summæ potentiæ et magnæ cognationis: comp. with i. 11. Ambarri 146 necessarii et consanguinei Æquorum. Liv. vii. 9. Suet. Cl. 25. Justin, xviii. 5. (v. 179.)

Necesse est; Oportet; Opus est; Debere. 1. Necesse est (ἀναγκάζω) denotes an obligation of nature and necessity, like ἀνάγκη ἐστίν; oportet, an obligation of morality and of honor, like χρή; opus est (πόθος, optare?) an obligation of prudence, like δεῖ. Cic. Orat. ii. 25. Jure omnia defenduntur quæ sunt ejus generis, ut aut oportuerit aut licuerit aut necesse fuerit. Att. iv. 6. Si loquor de republica quod oportet, insanus; si, quod opus est, servus existimor. And xiii. 25. Cat. ap. Sen. Ep. 94. Emo non quod opus est, sed quod necesse est; quod non opus est, asse carum est. And Cic. Or. ii. 43. 2. Oportet denotes objectively, the moral claim which is made upon any man; debere (δεύεσθαι, δεῖν? or, dehibere?) subjectively, the moral obligation which any man is under, like ὀφείλειν. Tac. Hist. iv. 7. Accusatores etiamsi puniri non oporteat, ostentari non debere. (v. 323.)

Nectere, see Ligare.

Nefandus, Nefarius, see Scelestus.

Nefastus, see Delictum.

Negare; Infitiari; Infitias ire; Denegare; Pernegare; Recusare; Abnuere; Renuere; Repudiare. 1. Negare means to deny, from objective motives, when a man has, or professes to have, the truth in view, like ἀποφάναι, οὐ φάναι; whereas infiteri, infitiari, and infitias ire, mean to disown from subjective motives, when personal interest is in some way implicated, like ἀρνεῖσθαι. 2. Infiteri is an obsolete expression; infitiari (ἀνα-φατίζειν,) the usual and general expression; infitias (ἀμφασίας) ire is only connected with a negation, and answers to the phrase, not to assent to. 3. Negatio is a denial, merely conveying information to the hearer; pernegatio, or negitatio, to convince him, when he is incredulous; denegatio, to get rid of his importunity, when his request is useless. Martial, Ep. iv. 147 82. Negare jussi, pernegare non jussi. Cic. Phil. xi. 8, 19. In quo maximum nobis onus imposuit, assensero; ambitionem induxero in curiam; negaro; videbor suffragio meo tanquam comitiis honorem amicissimo denegasse. 4. Negare supposes a question only, whether actual or possible, which is denied; whereas recusare, a request which is refused; hence negare is a more general and mild expression than recusare; for the negans merely denies the possibility of granting what he is asked or requested; whereas the recusans also calls in question the justice of the request, which he protests against as a threat, or as an encroachment. Hence negare, denegare, are more used in private transactions; recusare, in public affairs. 5. Negare and recusare take place by means of words and speeches; abnuere and renuere, mostly by signs and gestures; abnuere, by waving a person from one with the hand, like ἀπονεύω; renuere, by drawing back the head, like ἀνανεύω. 6. Abnuere is a more friendly, renuere a haughtier manner of denying. 7. Recusare refers to an object which is considered as a burden, and claims resignation, in opp. to suscipere, Suet. Ner. 3; whereas repudiare (from repedare?) refers to an object which is considered as a good, and promises profit or pleasure, in opp. to assumere. Cic. Orat. 62. Cic. Fin. i. 10, 33. Sæpe eveniet ut et voluptates repudiandæ sint, et molestia non recusanda. (iv. 40.)

Negligere, see Spernere.

Nemus, see Silva.

Nepos, see Prodigus.

Nequaquam, s. Neutiquam.

Nequidquam, see Frustra.

Nequitia, see Malitia.

Nescius, see Cognitio.

Neutiquam; Nequaquam; Minime. Neutiquam means, in no case, in opp. to utique; nequaquam, by no means; minime, not in the least.

Nex, see Mors.

Niger, see Teter and Ater.

Nihil agere, see Vacare.


Nihil est; Nihili est; Nullus est. Nihil est denotes the entire want of virtue and efficacy; as, he is good for nothing; whereas nihili est, the entire want of value and usefulness, as he is of no use; lastly, nullus est, the negation of existence in general, as it is all over with him. (i. 56.)

Nitere, see Lucere.

Niti, see Fulciri.

Nobilis, see Celeber.

Nocens, see Culpa.

Nominare; Nuncupare; Vocare; Appellare. Nominare and nuncupare mean, to call anybody by his name; nominare, to call him by the name which he already possesses; nuncupare, to give a name to an object that has hitherto been without a name; whereas appellare and vocare mean to designate a person by any name, title, or appellation belonging to him. (v. 105.)

Nonnunquam; Interdum; Aliquando. Nonnunquam, sometimes in opp. to nunquam and semper, approximates to the meaning of sæpius, like ἔσθ’ ὅτε; interdum, at times, is in opp. to crebro, and approximates to the meaning of rarius, like ἐνίοτε; lastly, aliquando, now and then, is in opp. to semel, and approximates to the meaning of prope nunquam, like ποτέ. The interdum facta denotes actions repeated at considerable intervals of time; the nonnunquam facta, actions repeated at shorter intervals; the aliquando facta, actions repeated at very distant intervals of time. Cic. Sext. 54. Comitiorum et concionum significationes interdum veræ sunt, nonnunquam vitiatæ et corruptæ. And Acad. i. 7. Off. ii. 18. Brut. 67. Mur. 30. (iv. 273.)

Notare, see Animadvertere.

Notitia, see Cognitio.

Novissimus, see Extremus.

Novus; Recens; Novicius. 1. Novus means new, as that which did not exist in former times, in opp. to antiquus, like νέος; whereas recens (from candere) new, as one that has not long been in existence, 149 in opp. to vetus. Cic. Verr. ii. 2. Mur. 7. 16. Tusc. iv. 17. Tac. Ann. ii. 88. iv. 12. Colum. vi. 12; like καινός. 2. Novus denotes new, indifferently; novicius (from νέαξ) with the accessory notion of being a novice, who must accustom himself, or be instructed by others, before he is qualified for something, in opp. to vetustus? (iv. 95.)

Noxia, Noxius, see Culpa.

Nullus sum, see Nihil sum.

Numen; Deus; Divus; Semo; Heros. Numen (πνεῦμα) in a wider sense is any divine being, like δαίμων; in a narrower sense it is used as a species of Deus, or ancient Divus, θεός; and for semideus, a half-god; or semo, a half-man; for which last, besides the foreign word heros, numen also is used. Plin. Pan. 2, 3. Nusquam ut deo, nusquam ut numini blandimur. (vi. 239.)

Nummus, see Pecunia.

Nunc-nunc, see Modo-modo.

Nuncupare, see Nominare.

Nuper; Modo. Nuper (νέον, πέρι) means several days, months, also, years since, lately, like νεωστί; whereas modo, a few moments since, just now, like ἄρτι. Cic. Verr. iv. 3, 6. Nuper homines nobiles ejusmodi; sed quid dico nuper? imo vero modo ac plane paulo ante vidimus. Tusc. i. 24. Quanta memoria fuit nuper Charmadas! quanta qui modo fuit Scepsius Metrodorus!

Nuptiæ, see Conjugium.

Nutare, see Labare.

Nutrire, Nutricare, see Alere.


Obambulare, see Ambulare.

Obedire, see Parere.

Obesus, see Pinguis.

Obex, see Sera.

Objicere; Exprobrare. Objicere means to 150 charge a person with something, from which he must vindicate himself as against an accusation; whereas exprobrare means to upbraid a person with something, which he must let remain as it is. The objiciens will call a person to account; the exprobrans only put him to the blush. (iv. 198.)

Obitus, see Mors.

Oblectatio; Delectatio. Oblectatio (from ἀλέγειν?) is a pleasant occupation, conversation, amusement, which disperses ennui, and confers a relative pleasure; whereas delectatio is a real delight, which procures positive enjoyment, and confers absolute pleasure. Cic. Orat. i. 26. In iis artibus, in quibus non utilitas quæritur necessaria, sed animi libera quædam oblectatio. And Ep. Q. Fr. ii. 14. Satis commode me oblectabam: comp. with Fam. ix. 24. Magna te delectatione et voluptate privavisti. Or, Suet. Dom. 21. with Aug. 29. Plin. Ep. iv. 14. with iv. 8. (v. 10.)

Obligare, see Ligare.

Obliquus, see Transversus.

Oblitus, see Delibutus.

Obscurum; Tenebræ; Caligo; Tenebricosus; Opacus; Umbrosus. 1. Obscurum (σκοτερόν) denotes darkness as an obstruction of light, like σκότος in opp. to illustre. Auct. ad Her. iii. 19, 32. Plin. Pan. 69; whereas tenebræ (δνοφεραί) as the absence of light,) like ζόφος, κνέφας,) in opp. to lux. Cic. Ep. ad Q. Fr. i. 2; lastly, caligo (from celare) as the positive opposite to light and brightness, like ἀχλύς. Caligo denotes a greater degree of darkness than tenebræ; tenebræ than obscuritas; obscuritas than opacum and umbrosum. Cic. Acad. iv. 23, 72. Sensus quidem non obscuros facit sed tenebricosos. Plin. Ep. vii. 21. Cubicula obductis velis opaca, nec tamen obscura facio. Tac. H. ii. 32. Senatum et populum nunquam obscurari nomina, etsi aliquando obumbrentur. Hence, figuratively, obscurus 151 denotes only an insignificant person, of whom nobody takes notice; whereas tenebricosus something positively bad, which seeks darkness that it may remain unobserved. 2. Opacus denotes shady, with reference to a pleasant and beneficial coolness, in opp. to apertus and apricus, like εὔσκιος; whereas umbrosus (umbra, ἀμαυρός,) implies a depth of shade approaching to darkness, like σκιόεις. (iii. 168.)

Obsecrare, see Rogare.

Obsecundare and Obsequi, see Parere.

Observare, see Vereri.

Obstinare, s. Destinare.

Obstinatio, s. Pervicacia.

Obstringere, s. Ligare.

Obtemperare, see Parere.

Obtestari, see Rogare.

Obtingere, see Accidere.

Obtrectatio, s. Invidia.

Obtruncare, s. Interficere.

Obtutus, see Invidia.

Obvenire, see Accidere.

Occasio; Opportunitas; Potestas; Copia; Facultas. Occasio and opportunitas are the opportunities which fortune and chance offer; occasio, the opportunity to undertake something in a general sense, like καιρός; opportunitas, the opportunity to undertake something with facility and the probability of success, like εὐκαιρία; whereas potestas and copia are opportunities offered by men, and through their complaisance; potestas denotes the possibility of doing something with legal authority; copia the possibility of doing something with convenience; lastly, facultas, as the most general expression, the possibility to do something in a general sense.

Occidere, see Interficere.

Occulere, Occultare and Occulte, see Celare.

Oculi, see Facies.

Odium; Invidia; Inimicitia; Simultas. 1. Odium and invidia denote the feeling of aversion; inimicitia and simultas, the exterior state arising from this feeling. 2. Invidia has a negative character, like disaffection, like δύσνοια, and is a temporary feeling, in opp. to gratia or favor; whereas odium 152 (from ὀδύσασθαι) has a character thoroughly positive, like hatred, μῖσος, and is a deep-rooted feeling, in opp. to amor. Plin. Pan. 68, 7. Hence, invidia is the beginning of odium. Invidia has merely persons; odium, persons and things for its objects. Tac. Ann. ii. 56. Armenii . . . sæpius discordes sunt, adversus Romanos odio, et in Parthum invidia. xiii. 15. Nero intellecta invidia odium intendit. Plin. Pan. 84, 2. Exardescit invidia, cujus finis est odium. 3. Inimicitia denotes any enmity which has its foundation in antipathy or disagreement, like δυσμένεια, ἔχθρα; whereas simultas (ὁμαλότης) denotes a political enmity, which has its foundation in rivalship, like φιλονεικία. Suet. Vesp. 6. Simultas quam ex æmulatione non obscuræ gerebant. (iii. 73.)

Odorari, Odorus, see Olere.

Offendere, see Lædere.

Offensio, see Contumelia.

Officium; Munus. Officium means an employment, as imposing a moral obligation, undertaken from conscientious feelings; munus, as imposing a political obligation, undertaken merely as a charge or office. Cic. Mur. 35. Hæc sunt officia necessariorum, commoda tenuiorum, munia candidatorum. (v. 352.)

Olere; Olfacere; Fragrare; Odorari; Olidus; Odorus; Redolere; Perolere. 1. Odor and olere (ὄδωδα) denote, objectively, the smell which a thing has in itself, in opp. to sapor, etc., like ὀσμή; whereas olfactus and olfacere denote, subjectively, the sensation caused by this smell, or the sense of smell, in opp. to gustus, etc., like ὄσφρησις. 2. Olere means to smell, in opp. to being without smell, and especially denotes a rank and bad smell; whereas fragrare (from βρέχειν) denotes a good smell. Redolere and perolere are used as frequentatives; redolere denotes a strong smell in an indifferent sense; perolere, a penetrating smell, in a bad sense. 3. Olfactus is a smell, as far as it is an 153 involuntary effect of the sense of smell; odoratus, as far as it is an intentional exertion of that sense. 4. Olfacere, to smell, is of a passive nature, like audire, the smell mounting up to the nose of itself; odorari, to smell at, to sniff, ῥίνηλατεῖν, is of an active nature, like auscultare, the man drawing up the smell into his nose of himself. Olfaciens sentit odorem, odorans captat. 5. Olidus denotes smelling, and particularly with a bad smell; odorus, with a good smell. Hence, bene olidus denotes merely the negative of a stench; odorus, a positive good smell; and the antiquated word olor denoted a stench, like oletum; but odor denotes only a smell. (iii. 131.)

Oletum, see Lutum.

Olfacere, Olidus, see Olere.

Omina, see Auguria.

Omittere, see Intermittere, Mittere, and Relinquere.

Omnes, see Quisque.

Omnino, see Plane.

Onus, see Moles.

Opacus, see Obscurum.

Opem ferre, see Auxilium.

Opera; Labor; Industria; Gnavitas; Assiduitas; Diligentia. 1. Opera (from περᾶν, πράσσειν,) denotes activity without intense exertion, as merely doing, or turning one’s hand to, something, in opp. to momentary inactivity; and also in opp. to thinking, speaking, advising, like ἐργασία; whereas labor denotes strenuous exertion, which is followed by fatigue, labor, in opp. to pleasure, like πόνος. Plaut. Aul. iii. 3. 7. Opera huc est conducta vestra, non oratio: comp. with Bacch. iii. 6, 11. Cic. Rep. i. 9. Otiosiorem opera quam animo. Liv. xxii. 22. Ut opera quoque impensa consilium adjuvem meum. And Liv. v. 4. Labor voluptasque dissimillima natura, societate quadam naturali inter se sunt conjuncta: comp. with Cic. Mur. 35. Plin. Ep. ix. 10. Senec. Tranq. 2. 2. Industria, gnavitas, and sedulitas, denote activity as an habitual quality, in opp. to the love of idleness; industria, of an elevated sort, the impulse to activity 154 that animates the hero or the statesman, in opp. to ignavia, gnavitas (γενναιότης) of a useful sort, the diligence of ordinary men, and of the industrious citizen; sedulitas (sine dolore) an activity that shows itself in small matters, often even of a comic sort, the indefatigable bustling of the busy housewife, of the good-natured nurse, of any one who pays officious court to another. Colum. xii. præf. 8. Ut cum forensibus negotiis matronalis sedulitas industriæ rationem parem faceret. 3. Assiduitas and diligentia denote industry; assiduitas (from sedere) like συνέχεια, more in an extensive sense with continued and uninterrupted efforts; diligentia, (ἀλέγειν) more in an intensive sense, with careful and close application, in order to attain the end of one’s industry. 4. Studium denotes inclination and love towards the object of one’s industry, and an inward impulse. (i. 111.)

Operæ, see Mercenarii.

Opes, see Divitiæ.

Opifex, see Faber.

Opimus, see Pinguis.

Opinari, see Censere.

Opinio, see Sententia.

Opitulari, see Auxilium.

Oportet, see Necesse est.

Opperiri, see Manere.

Oppetere, see Mors.

Opportunitas, s. Occasio.

Opprimere, s. Vincere.

Opprobrium, s. Ignominia.

Optare, see Velle.

Optimates, see Primores.

Opulentia, see Divitiæ.

Opus est, see Necesse est.

Opus, see Agere.

Ora, see Margo and Ripa.

Orare, see Rogare.

Oratio, see Sermo.

Orbis; Circulus; Gyrus. Orbis (from ῥαιβός) denotes a circular motion, and the periphery described by it; whereas circulus denotes a circular level; lastly, gyrus (from γυρός) a curved, and especially a serpentine line. The phrase in orbem consistere could not be changed into in circulum, and a limited social circle, circulus, could not be expressed by orbis. Tac. G. 6. Equi nec variare gyros nostrum in modum docentur; in rectum aut uno flexu dextros agunt, ita conjuncto orbe ut nemo posterior sit. (v. 182.)


Ordiri, see Incipere.

Ordo, see Series.

Oreæ, see Frenum.

Ornare, see Comere.

Ornatus, see Præditus.

Os, see Facies.

Osculum; Suavium; Basium. Osculum is a friendly; suavium, a tender; basium, an ardent kiss. (vi. 251.)

Ostendere; Monstrare; Declarare. Ostendere means to show, as far as one makes something observable, lets it be seen, and does not keep it secret, like φῆναι, ἐμφανίσαι; monstrare (intensive from μανθάνειν) means to show, as far as one imparts information thereby; lastly, declarare, to make evident, as far as one makes a thing clear, and dispels doubt, like δηλῶσαι.

Ostenta, see Auguria.

Ostentatio, see Jactatio.

Ostium; Janua; Fores; Valvæ. Ostium and janua denote the door, as the opening through which one goes in and out; ostium, as the most general expression for any door, like θύρα; janua, as a particular expression only for a house-door; whereas fores and valvæ denote the leaves of a door, which serve to close the opening; fores, of ordinary doors, like θυρίδες; valvæ, of stately buildings and temples, as double or folding doors. Tac. Ann. xiv. 8. Anicetus refracta janua obvios servorum adripit, donec ad fores cubiculi veniret. (v. 214.)

Otiari, see Vacare.

Otium; Pax; Concordia. Otium (αὔσιος, αὔτως,) denotes quiet times in general, as a species of pax (πῆξαι), with reference to foreign relations; concordia, with reference to internal relations. (v. 246.)


Pædor, see Lutum.

Pæne; Prope; Fere; Ferme. Pæne and prope serve to soften an expression that is much too strong, 156 and as a salvo to an hyperbole; pæne, in opp. to plane, is translated ‘almost;’ prope, ‘nearly;’ whereas fere and ferme serve only as a salvo to the accuracy of an expression, like ‘about.’

Pæstus, see Strabo.

Palam, see Aperire.

Palari, see Errare.

Palpari, see Mulcere.

Palus, see Lacuna.

Palus, see Stipes.

Pandus, see Curvus.

Par, see Æquus.

Paratus, see Instructus.

Parere, see Creare.

Parere; Obedire; Dicto audientem esse; Obsequi; Obsecundare; Morigerari; Obtemperare. Parere, obedire and dicto audientem esse, denote obedience as an obligation, and a state of duty and subjection; parere, in a lower relation, as that of a servant to his master, a subject to his sovereign, in opp. to imperare, Cic. Fam. ix. 25; obedire, obœdire, in a freer relation, as that of an inferior to his superior, of a citizen to the law and magistrate; dicto audientem esse, in a relation of the greatest subordination, as that of a soldier to his general, as to obey orders; whereas obsequi, obsecundare, obtemperare, and morigerari, as an act of free will. The obsequens and obsecundans obey from love and complaisance, showing their readiness to obey; the morigerans and obtemperans, from persuasion, esteem, or fear, evincing their conformity to another’s will. Hirt. B. Afr. 51. Jubæ barbaro potius obedientem fuisse quam nuntio Scipionis obtemperasse. Cic. Cæc. 18. Man. 16. Tac. H. ii. 14. Parata non arma modo sed obsequium et parendi amor; that is, readiness to obey, from respect and love to the general, and from taking a pleasure in obedience, from a feeling that without order and subordination their cause could not be upheld. Cic. Orat. 71. Dum tibi roganti voluerim obsequi; comp. with Fam. ix. 25. Obtemperare cogito præceptis tuis. (v. 271.)

Paries, Parietinæ, see Murus.

Parilis, see Æquus.


Parma, see Scutum.

Pars; Portio. Pars (from πείρω) denotes a part, with reference to a whole; whereas portio, a part or share with reference to a possessor. Plin. H. N. xi. 15. Æstiva mellatione decimam partem apibus relinqui placet, si plenæ fuerint alvi; si minus, pro rata portione. (iv. 148.)

Partes; Factio. Partes denote the party, which is formed of itself by difference of principles and interests; whereas factio (from σφηκόω) the clique of partisans, formed by narrow differences of the members of a party with each other, and who act together with a blind party-spirit, in order necessarily and by force to give the upper hand to their own cause. Sall. Jug. 31. Inter bonos amicitia, inter malos factio est.

Particeps, see Socius.

Participare, see Impertire.

Partiri, see Dividere.

Parumper; Paulisper. Parumper means in a short time; paulisper, during a short time. Hence acts of the mind are particularly in construction with parumper; acts of the body, with paulisper; for with the former is necessarily connected the glance at the future, which lies in parumper; in paulisper, duration of time only is considered; for example, we use the expression paulisper morari, but parumper dubitare. (i. 145.)

Parvus; Minutus; Exiguus; Pusillus. Parvus and minutus denote littleness, quite indifferently, and in a purely mathematical sense, without any accessory notion; parvus (παῦρος) a natural and intrinsic littleness, in opp. to magnus, like μικρός; minutus (μινύθω) an artificial and fabricated littleness; whereas exiguus and pusillus with a contemptuous accessory notion; exiguus from (egere) in a pitiable sense, as paltry and insignificant, in opp. to amplus. Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. x. 24; or in opp. to grandis, Quintil. xi. 3, 15; but pusillus (ψιλός?) in a ludicrous 158 sense, as petty, nearly in opp. to ingens, like τυτθός. (v. 28.)

Pascere, see Alimenta.

Passi; Prolixi; Sparsi. Passi capilli denotes loose hair, in opp. to cohibiti nodo; whereas prolixi capilli denotes hair suffered to hang down, in opp. to religati in verticem; lastly, sparsi capilli denotes dishevelled hair, in opp. to pexi. (vi. 258.)

Passus, see Gradus.

Patefacere, see Aperire.

Paternus; Patrius. Paternus denotes, like πατρῷος, what belongs to a father, and is derived from him, like paternal; whereas patrius, what belongs to and is derived from one’s ancestors or native country, like πάτριος.

Paulatim; Sensim; Gradatim; Pedetentim. Paulatim and sensim represent gradual motion under the image of an imperceptible progress; paulatim, by little and little, in opp. to semel, at once, Sen. Q. N. ii. 8. Cœl. Aurel. Acut. ii. 37; sensim, (ἀνεσίμως) imperceptibly in opp. to repente; Cic. Off. i. 33. Suet. Tib. 11;—whereas gradatim and pedetentim, under the image of a self-conscious progress; gradatim, step by step, like βάδην, in opp. to cursim, saltuatim, etc.; whereas pedetentim denotes at a foot’s pace, in opp. to curru, equo, volatu, velis. (iii. 97.)

Paulisper, see Parumper.

Paupertas; Inopia; Egestas; Mendicitas. Paupertas (redupl. of parum) denotes poverty only as narrowness of means, in consequence of which one must economize, in opp. to dives, Cic. Parad. 6. Quintil. v. 10, 26, like πενία; whereas inopia and egestas denote galling poverty, in consequence of which one suffers want, and has recourse to shifts; inopia, like ἀπορία, objectively, as utterly without means, so that one cannot help one’s self, in opp. to copia or opulentia; Cic. Parad. 6. Sen. Vit. B. 15. Tac. Hist. iii. 6; 159 egestas, like ἔνδεια, subjectively, as penury, when a man feels want, in opp. to abundantia; lastly, mendicitas (from μαδίζειν,) as absolute poverty, in consequence of which one must beg, like πτωχεία. The pauper possesses little enough; the inops and egenus, too little; the mendicus, nothing at all. In the kingdom of Plutus, according to the order of rank, the pauperes would occupy the middle station, who must live the life of citizens, and economize; the inopes and egeni, if not in a state of overwhelming necessity, would occupy the station of the poor, who live from hand to mouth, and must occasionally starve; the mendici, the station of the beggars, who, without property of any sort, or the means of earning it, live on alms. Cic. Parad. 6. Istam paupertatem vel potius egestatem et mendicitatem tuam nunquam obscure tulisti. Sen. Ep. 17. 50. Ovid, Rem. 748. Suet. Gr. 11. Vixit in summa pauperie, et pæne inopia. Plin. Ep. iv. 18. Inopia vel potius, ut Lucretius ait, egestas patrii sermonis. Cic. Inv. i. 47. Propter inopiam in egestate esse. (iii. 111.)

Pavire, see Verberare.

Pax, see Otium.

Peccatum, see Delictum.

Peculari, see Vastare.

Peculiaris, see Privus.

Pecunia; Nummus; Moneta. Pecunia (from παχύνω) is money, as a collective expression; nummus (νόμιμος) a piece of money, in reference to its value and currency; moneta, a coin in reference to its coinage and appearance. (vi. 240.)

Pecus; Jumentum; Armentum; Grex. 1. Pecus, pecoris, is the most general expression for domestic beasts; jumenta and armenta denote the larger sort, bullocks, asses, horses; pecus, pecudis (from the Goth. faihu) the smaller sort, swine, goats, and especially sheep. 2. Jumenta denotes beasts used in drawing carriages, bullocks, asses, horses; armenta (ἀρόματα) beasts used in ploughing, oxen and horses, with the exclusion of cows, pack-asses, riding-horses, 160 etc., which are neither fit for drawing carriages, nor for the plough. 3. As a singular and collective noun, armentum denotes a herd or drove of the larger cattle, like ἀγέλη; grex (from ἀγείρω) a herd or flock of the smaller animals, like ποίμνη, πῶϋ. Plin. Ep. ii. 16. Multi greges ovium, multa ibi equorum boumque armenta (iv. 298.)

Pecus, see Animal.

Pedetentim, see Paulatim.

Pedica, see Vincula.

Pejerare, see Perlucidus.

Pejor, see Deterior.

Pelagus, see Mare.

Pellegere, Pellicere, see Perlucidus.

Pellex; Concubina; Meretrix; Scortum. 1. Pellex and the foreign word pallaca (παλλακή, παραλέγεσθαι,) mean the bed-fellow of a married man with reference to his wife, and in opp. to her, as her rival; whereas concubina means any bed-fellow, without further limitation than that she does not live in a state of lawful wedlock. Suet. Cæs. 49. Pellicem reginæ Dolabella Cæsarem dixit: comp. with Ner. 44. Concubinas, quas secum educeret. 2. Pellex and concubina are bound to one man; meretrix, scortum, lupa, prostibulum, are common prostitutes. 3. The meretrices and scorta are not so low as lupæ, prostibula. They exercise some choice and selection, and support themselves by the work of their own hands, from which meretrices derive their name (from mereri); meretrices are considered with ref. to the class they belong to; scorta (κόρη, κοράσιον), with ref. to their moral character, as enticing men to sin, like ἑταῖραι, filles de joie. The meretrices are common; the scorta, lascivious and dissolute. (v. 241.)

Pellis, see Tergus.

Pellucidus, see Perlucidus.

Pendere, see Hærere.

Penitus, see Plane.

Penna, see Ala.

Penus, see Alimenta.

Percontari, s. Rogare.

Percussor, see Homicida.

Percutere, see Interficere.

Perdere; Pessundare; Pervertere; Evertere. 161 Perdere and pessundare denote complete destruction; perdere, by breaking to pieces, or by any other mode of destroying; pessundare (πεζὸν θεῖναι) by sinking, or any other mode of getting rid of; whereas evertere, pervertere, and subvertere merely denote throwing down; evertere, by digging up and tearing up what is fastened in the ground, in opp. to fundare, Plin. Pan. 34. Cic. Acad. iv. 10. Fin. ii. 25. Verr. iii. 18. Pis. 35; pervertere, by pushing down what stands fast; subvertere, by secretly digging under, and withdrawing the basis. Cic. Pis. 24. Provincia tibi ista manupretium fuerit non eversæ per te sed perditæ civitatis. Ad. Att. v. 16.

Perdere, see Amittere.

Peregrinari, s. Proficisci.

Peregrinus, s. Externus.

Peremtor, see Homicida.

Perferre, see Ferre.

Perficere, see Finire.

Perfidiosus, Perfidus, see Fidus.

Perfuga; Transfuga; Profugus; Fugitivus; Extorris; Exul; Perfugium; Suffugium; Refugium. 1. Perfuga and transfuga denote the deserter who flees from one party to another, like αὐτομόλος; but the perfuga goes over as a delinquent, who betrays his party; the transfuga, as a waverer, who changes and forsakes his party; whereas profugus and fugitivus denote the fugitive, who forsakes his abode, but profugus is the unfortunate man, who is obliged to forsake his home, and, like a banished man, wanders in the wide world, like φυγάς; fugitivus, the guilty person, who flees from his duty, his post, his prison, his master, like δραπέτης. The perfuga and transfuga are generally thought of as soldiers; the profugus, as a citizen; the fugitivus, as a slave. Liv. xxx. 43. De perfugis gravius quam de fugitivis consultum. 2. Perfugium is an open secure place of shelter in serious dangers; suffugium, if not a secret, is at least an occasional and temporary place of shelter from inconveniences; refugium is a place of shelter prepared, 162 or at least thought of beforehand in case of a retreat. 3. Profugus denotes a merely physical state, something like fugitive; extorris, a political state, like homeless, or without a country; exul, a juridical state, like banished. The extorris suffers a misfortune, as not being able to remain in his native land; the exul, a punishment, as not being allowed. Appul. Met. v. p. 101. Extorres et . . . velut exulantes. (iv. 239.)

Periclitari, Periculum, see Tentare.

Perimere, see Interficere.

Perire, see Mors.

Perlucidus; Pellucidus; Perlegere; Pellegere; Perlicere; Pellicere; Perjurare; Pejerare. 1. Perlucidus means very bright, whereas pellucidus, transparent. Cic. Civ. i. 57. 2. Perlegere means to read through, that is, from beginning to end; whereas pellegere, to read over, that is, not to leave unread. Plaut. Pseud. i. 1. 3. Perlicere means completely to inveigle, Liv. iv. 15. Tac. Ann. xiii. 48; whereas pellicere, to lead astray. 4. Perjurare means to swear falsely; pejerare, to violate an oath. (ii. 82.)

Permittere, see Concedere and Fidere.

Pernegare, see Negare.

Pernicies, see Lues.

Pernix, see Citus.

Perperam; Falso; False; Fallaciter. 1. Perperam (redupl. of παρά) denotes that which is not true, objectively, with reference to the object, as incorrect; whereas falso, subjectively, in reference to the person, as mistaken. 2. Falso agere has its foundation in error and self-deceit; whereas false and fallaciter happens against better knowledge and conscience; false, through fear and weakness of character; fallaciter, like deceitfully, with the wicked intention of deceiving and betraying. Comp. Tac. Ann. i. 1. Tiberii res . . . ob metum false compositæ sunt, according to Wolf’s reading; comp. with Germ. 36. Inter impotentes et validos falso quiescas. 3. The 163 adjective falsus combines the notions of falso and of the participle falsus, and is distinguished only from fallax. Cic. Phil. xii. 2. Spes falsa et fallax. Tac. Ann. xvi. 33. Specie bonarum falsos et amicitiæ fallaces. (i. 66.)

Perpeti, see Ferre.

Perpetuus, see Continuus.

Perquam; Valde; Admodum; Magnopere. Perquam means, in an extraordinary degree, with an indication of astonishment on the part of the speaker; whereas valde, very, admodum, tolerably, and multum, are a simple and quiet enhancing of the attributive, or of the verb; magnopere, only of the verb. (v. 262.)

Perseverantia, see Pervicacia.

Persona, see Larva.

Pertinacia, see Pervicacia.

Pervertere, see Vertere and Perdere.

Pervicacia; Perseverantia; Pertinacia; Contumacia; Destinatio; Obstinatio. 1. Pervicacia and perseverantia denote adherence to what is once resolved upon as a virtue; pervicacia (from vincere? vigere?) has its foundation in natural energy of disposition; perseverantia, in earnestness of character, formed by cultivation; whereas pertinacia and contumacia as a fault; pertinacia has its foundation in a stiff-necked adherence to what is once resolved upon, like obstinacy and stubbornness, in opp. to condescension; contumacia (from temere, contemnere) in a haughty maintenance of one’s free-will, even against proper and legitimate superiority,3 like insolence and refractoriness, in opp. to complaisance, obsequium. Tac. Ann. iv. 20. Hist. iv. 74. Accius apud Non. Tu pertinacem esse, Antiloche, hanc prædicas, ego pervicaciam esse aio et a me uti volo, etc. Cic. inv. ii. 54. Unicuique virtuti finitimum vitium reperietur, ut pertinacia, quæ finitima perseverantiæ 164 est: comp. with Balb. 27. Marc. 10. 2. Pervicacia, etc. denote persisting in a resolution once made; destinatio and obstinatio are more immediately connected with the making of the resolution; destinatio, the making of an unalterable resolution, decidedness; obstinatio, adhering to it in spite of insurmountable obstacles and reasonable remonstrances, obstinacy. (iv. 176.)

3. [But, adhibere liberam contumaciam. Cic. Tus. 1, 29.]

Pessulus, see Sera.

Pessumdare, see Perdere.

Pestilentia, Pestis, see Lues.

Petere; Rogare; Postulare; Exigere; Poscere; Flagitare. 1. Petere and rogare are the most general expressions for asking any thing, whether as a request or as a demand, and stand therefore in the middle between poscere and orare, yet somewhat nearer to a request; petere (from ποθεῖν) generally refers to the object which is wished for; whereas rogare to the person who is applied to; hence we say, petere aliquid ab aliquo, but rogare aliquem aliquid. Cic. Verr. * * Iste petit a rege, et cum pluribus verbis rogat, uti ad se mittat. Planc. 10, 25. Phil. ii. 30. Fam. ix. 8. and ii. 6. Ne id quod petat, exigere magis quam rogare videatur. Pseudoquintil. Decl. 286. Curt. iv. 1, 8. 2. Postulare and exigere denote simply a demand, without any enhancing accessory notion, as a quiet utterance of the will; postulare (diminutive of πόθος) more as a wish and will; exigere, more as a just claim; whereas poscere and flagitare, as an energetic demand; poscere (from πόθος) with decision, with a feeling of right or power; flagitare, with importunity, in consequence of a passionate and impatient eagerness. Tac. Hist. ii. 39. Othone per literas flagitante ut maturarent, militibus ut imperator pugnæ adesset poscentibus; plerique copias trans Padum agentes acciri postulabant. Cic. Verr. iii. 34. Incipiunt postulare, poscere, minari. Planc. 19. Poscere atque etiam flagitare crimen. Legg. i. 5. Postulatur a te jamdiu vel flagitatur potius historia. (v. 230.)


Petra, see Saxum.

Petulans; Procax; Protervus; Lascivus. The petulans (σπαταλῶν) sins against modestia through wantonness, raillery, and needless attack; the procax, through importunity and boisterous forwardness; the protervus (from proterere? or ταράξαι?) from impetuosity and haughty recklessness; the lascivus, through unrestrained frolicksomeness and inclination for play. Hence petulantia has its foundation in aversion to rest and quietness, or in the love of mischief; procacitas, in assurance or complete impudence; protervitas, in a feeling of strength, or in insolence; lascivia, in high spirits, or the want of seriousness. (iii. 40.)

Pietas, see Diligere.

Piget; Tædet; Pœnitet. Piget (from παχύς) means, what one can neither do nor suffer, in general terms; tædet (from tardus?) what one can no longer do or suffer; pœnitet, what one would fain never have done or suffered. (vi. 269.)

Pigritia, see Ignavia.

Pilum, see Missile.

Pilus, see Crinis.

Pinguis; Opimus; Obesus; Corpulentus. 1. Pinguis (παχύς, πάγχυ,) denotes fat, indifferently, or, on its dark side, as that component part of the body that is most without sensation and strength; thence, figuratively, sluggish: whereas opimus (from πιμελής) on its bright side, as a sign of plenty and good living; thence, figuratively, opulent. 2. Obesus denotes fatness, on its dark side, with reference to the unwieldiness connected with it, in opp. to gracilis, Cels. i. 3. ii. 1. Suet. Dom. 18; whereas corpulentus, on its bright side, with reference to the portliness connected with it. (v. 222.)

Pinna, see Ala.

Pirata, see Præda.

Placidus, see Mitis.

Plaga, see Locus, Rete, and Vulnus.

Plancæ, see Axis.


Plane; Omnino; Prorsus; Penitus; Utique. Plane means completely, in opp. to pæne, Cic. Brut. 97, 33; or vix, Att. xi. 9; omnino, altogether and generally, in opp. to partly, in some instances, with some exceptions; in opp. also to magna ex parte, Cic. Tusc. i. 1. Fam. ix. 15, or separatim, Plin. Ep. viii. 7, ὁλῶς; prorsus, exactly, in opp. to in some measure, or almost; penitus, thoroughly, deeply, in opp. to in a certain degree, or superficially, πάντως; utique [related to utcunque, as quisque to quicunque: opp. neutiquam], at any rate, in opp. to at all events, or perhaps ὁπωσδήποτε. (v. 260.)

Planus, see Æquus.

Plerique; Plurimi. Plerique means a great many, in an absolute sense; plurimi, most, in a superlative sense. Tac. Ann. xiii. 27. Plurimis equitum, plerisque senatorum non aliunde originem trahi. (vi. 273.)

Plorare, see Lacrimare.

Pluma, see Ala.

Plurimi, see Plerique.

Pluvia; Imber; Nimbus. Pluvia (from πλεῦσαι) denotes rain as a beneficial natural phenomenon, which, as it falls on the land, the thirsty ground absorbs, like ὑετός; imber and nimbus involve the notion of an unfriendly phenomenon, which, falling in a particular district, disperses the fine weather; imber (ὄμβρος, from μύρω) so far as the rain is attended by cold and stormy weather; nimbus (from nivere, νίφα, νίπτω) so far as it is attended with cloudy weather. (ii. 88.)

Poculum; Calix; Scyphus; Simpuvium; Cyathus; Crater. 1. Poculum and calix denote, as old Latin words, any sort of drinking vessel, merely with reference to its use; poculum, a usual cup for meals; calix, a rarer chalice, or goblet, for feasts; whereas scyphus, cantharus, cymbium, culigna, are foreign words, of Greek origin, denoting particular sorts of cups, with reference to their form. 2. 167 Poculum, etc. all serve as drinking cups; whereas the old Roman word simpuvium, and the modern cyathus, are ladles to fill the pocula from the crater, as with the punch-ladle we fill the punch-glasses from the punch-bowl. (v. 318.)

Poema, see Canere.

Pœna, see Vindicta.

Pœnitet, see Piget.

Poeta, see Canere.

Pollere, see Posse.

Polliceri; Promittere; Spondere; Recipere. Polliceri (from pro and loqui, λακεῖν) means to promise, generally from a free impulse, and as an act of obliging courtesy, like ἐπαγγέλλεσθαι; promittere, to promise, generally, at the request of another, as an act of agreement, and in reference to the fulfilment of the promise, like ὑπισχνεῖσθαι; spondere and despondere (μετὰ σπονδῶν) to promise in a solemn manner, as the consequence of a stipulation with judicially binding strength, as to pledge one’s self, ἐγγυᾶν; recipere, to take upon one’s self, and pass one’s word of honor, as an act of generosity, inasmuch as one sets at ease the mind of a person in trouble, like ἀναδέχεσθαι. The pollicens makes agreeable offers, the promittens opens secure prospects; the spondens gives legal security; the recipiens removes anxiety from another. Cic. Att. xiii. 1. Quoniam de æstate polliceris vel potius recipis; for the pollicens only engages his good-will, the recipiens undertakes to answer for consequences. Sen. Ep. 19; Jam non promittunt de te, sed spondent. Cic. Fam. vii. 5. Neque minus ei prolixe de tua voluntate promisi, quam eram solitus de mea polliceri; for with regard to Trebatius, Cicero could only express his hope, with regard to himself he could actually promise. (iv. 109.)

Polluere, s. Contaminare.

Pompa, see Funus.

Pondo, see Libra.

Pondus, see Moles.

Pontus, see Mare.

Popina, s. Deversorium.

Populari, see Vastare.

Populus, see Gens.

Porca; Sulcus; Lira. Porca (from σπαράξαι) 168 is the ridge between two furrows, the soil thrown up; sulcus (ὁλκός) the furrow itself, the trench made by the plough; lira (λέχριος?) sometimes one, sometimes the other. (vi. 277.)

Porcus, see Sus.

Portare, see Ferre.

Portenta, see Auguria.

Portio, see Pars.

Poscere, see Petere.

Posse; Quire; Valere; Pollere. 1. Posse and quire were originally transitive; posse (from πότνιος) denotes being able, as a consequence of power and strength, like δύνασθαι; quire (κοεῖν) as the consequence of complete qualification, like οἷόν τ’ εἶναι. Cic. Tusc. ii. 27. Barbari ferro decertare acerrime possunt, viriliter ægrotare non queunt; whereas valere and pollere are intransitive. Hence we say, possum or queo vincere, but valeo or polleo ad vincendum. 2. Valere (from ἑλεῖν) means to possess the right measure of strength, and thereby to match another, in opp. to insufficient strength, like σθένειν; whereas pollere (πολλός) means to have very considerable strength and means, and thereby to distinguish one’s self from others, in opp. to an ordinary degree of strength, like ἰσχύειν. iv. (160.)

Possidere, see Tenere.

Posteritas, see Stirps.

Postremus, see Extremus.

Postulare, see Petere.

Potare, see Bibere.

Potentia; Potentatus; Potestas; Vis; Robur.

Potentia, potentatus, and potestas (πότνιος) denote an exterior power, which acts by means of men, and upon men; whereas vis and robur denote an interior power and strength, independent of the co-operation and good-will of others. Potentia denotes a merely factitious power, which can be exerted at will, like δύναμις; potentatus, the exterior rank of the ruler, which is acknowledged by those who are subject to him, like δυναστεία; potestas, a just and lawful power, with which a person is entrusted, like ἐξουσία. Tac. Ann. xiii. 19. Nihil tam fluxum est 169 quam fama potentiæ non sua vi nixæ. Vis (ἴς) is the strength which shows itself in moving and attacking, as an ability to constrain others, like κράτος; robur (from ἐῤῥῶσθαι) the strength which shows itself in remaining quiet, as an ability to resist attack, and remain firm, like ῥώμη. (v. 83.)

Potestas, see Occasio.

Præbere; Exhibere; Præstare; Representare. Præbere and exhibere denote a voluntary act of the giver, by which a want or wish of the receiver is satisfied; the præbens (præhibens) is considered in relation to the receiver, to whom he gives up what he himself before possessed; the exhibens, in relation to the world at large, and generally gives to him who has the best claim, what he himself before possessed; whereas præstare and repræsentare denote an involuntary act of the giver, who only fulfils a duty, as to perform or discharge; the præstans releases himself from an obligation by discharging it, in opp. to being longer in a state of liability; the repræsentans fulfils a promise, in opp. to longer putting off. (iv. 132.)

Præceptor, see Doctor.

Præcipere, see Jubere.

Præclarus, see Eminens.

Præda; Manubiæ; Spolia; Exuviæ; Rapina. 1. Prædia and manubiæ denote booty only as a possession and gain that has been made by conquest; whereas spolia and exuviæ, at the same time, as signs of victory and of honor. 2. Præda denotes any sort of booty; whereas manubiæ only the honorable booty of the soldier, taken in war; and rapina, the dishonorable booty of the prædo, who violates the peace of the country, robbery. (iv. 337.) 3. Prædo is the robber in general, in as far as he commits the robbery with his own hands, like λῃστής, as a species of latro (from ὀλετήρ) the highwayman, who lays wait for travellers, like σίνις, and pirata (πειρατής) the sea-robber; whereas raptor means the 170 robber of some particular person or thing, like ἁρπακτήρ.

Prædicere, see Divinare.

Præditus; Instructus; Exstructus; Ornatus. 1. Præditus (præ-θετός) refers to a distinction which sheds lustre; instructus and exstructus to a qualification which attests usefulness; ornatus refers to both, for ornamentum is not, on the one side, that which is merely of use, like instrumentum, nor, on the other, that which is merely for show, like decus, but that which is of such eminent utility as to be prized even as an ornament. Instructus paints the qualification, etc., as a perfection which protects and secures; ornatus, as an accomplishment of an imposing nature. It is only in a higher point of view, and with reference to ideal claims, that ornatus is considered as a want; but, according to ordinary pretensions, it passes for a distinction of life. Cic. Phil. x. 4. Græcia copiis non instructa solum, sed etiam ornata. Sen. Tranq. 9. Sicut plerisque libri non studiorum instrumenta, sed cœnationum ornamenta sunt. 2. Instructus refers to persons and things, which act either offensively or defensively; exstructus to things which are for the most part only destined to be acted upon; for example, we say, instructæ naves but exstructæ mensæ. The exstructa are absolutely ready; the instructa are only relatively so, only fully prepared to be employed according to their destination. (iii. 260.) 3. Instructus refers to the possession of the means; paratus to the readiness of the possessor to employ them. (vi. 175.)

Prædium, see Villa.

Prægnans; Gravidus; Fœtus; Fordus; Inciens. Prægnans (from γενέσθαι, gnasci) denotes pregnancy quite in a general sense; gravidus, that of human beings; fœtus, fordus, inciens, that of animals, as with young; fœtus (from φύω) that of all animals; fordus or hordus (φοράς) that of cows; inciens (ἔγκυος) that of small animals, and 171 particularly of swine. Varro, R. R. ii. 5. Quæ sterilis est vacca, taura appellatur; Quæ prægnans, horda. Gravida mulier is the physical and medical expression, like ἔγκυος; prægnans, the more select and decorous expression, something like ‘in a family way.’ (v. 226.)

Præmium; Pretium; Merces. Præmium is a prize of honor, that confers distinction on the receiver, as a reward, in opp. to pœna; Tac. Ann. i. 26. Cic. Rep. iii. 16. Rabir perd. 11. Liv. xxxvi. 40, like ἆθλον, γέρας; whereas pretium and merces are only a price, for the discharge of a debt, as a payment; pretium, as a price for an article of merchandise, in opp. to gratia, Cic. Verr. ii. 36. Suet. Galb. 15. Appul. Apol. p. 296, like ὦνος; merces denotes wages for personal services of some duration, or hire for something hired, like μισθός. (iv. 139.)

Præs, see Sponsor.

Præsagire, see Divinare.

Præsentem esse, see Adesse.

Præsentire, see Divinare.

Præstans, s. Eminens.

Præstolari, see Manere.

Præterea; Insuper; Ultro. Præterea intimates something that completes what is gone before, as πρὸς τούτοις; insuper, something in addition to what is gone before, like πρόσετι; lastly, ultro, something that exceeds what has gone before, so striking as to cast it into the back-ground. (iii. 108.)

Prævidere, see Divinare.

Pravitas, see Malitia.

Precari, see Rogare.

Prehendere, s. Sumere.

Pretum, see Præmium.

Pridem; Diu; Dudum; Diuturnus; Diutinus. 1. Pridem (πρὶν δή) denotes a point of time, as long before; diu and dudum, a space of time as long since; diu denotes many days, months, years ago; dudum (δαρόν?) several minutes or hours since. Jam pridem mortuus est means, he died long ago, as an aorist; jam diu mortuus est, he has already long been in his grave as a perfect. Cic. Cat. i. 1. Ad mortem te duci jam pridem oportebat; in te conferri pestem 172 illam quam tu in nos omnes jamdiu machinaris. Tac. Ann. xv. 64. Seneca Annæum diu sibi amicitiæ fide et arte medicinæ probatum orat, proviram pridem venenum promeret. 2. Diutunus denotes long duration indifferently, as something long in a general sense, or with praise, as something lasting and possessing durability, in opp. to that which quickly passes away, like χρόνιος; whereas diutinus, with blame, something protracted and wearisome, like αἰανός. Cic. Senect. 19. Nihil mihi diuturnum videtur, in quo est aliquid extremum: comp. with Fam. xi. 8: Libertatis desiderio et odio diutinæ servitutis.

Primordium, see Initium.

Primores; Principes; Proceres; Optimates. Primores and principes denote the most eminent persons in a state, as a class of the most influential and respectable citizens, in opp. to insignificant persons; primores, so far as they are so by their connections, birth, power, and credit; principes, so far as they have raised themselves by their intellect, commanding talent, and activity to take the lead in debates, to be at the head of parties, to be the first men even among the primores, and in the whole state; whereas proceres, as far as they are so from their natural position, as the nobility, in opp. to the commonalty; optimates, as a political class, as the aristocracy, in opp. to the democracy. Accius apud Non. Primores procerum provocaret nomine. (v. 346.)

Primus; Princeps; Imperator; Cæsar. 1. Primus is the first, so far as, in space of time, he makes his appearance first, and others follow him; princeps, so far as he acts first, and others follow his example. (v. 344.) 2. Princeps means the Roman emperor, as holder of the highest civil power, which gradually devolved to him as princeps senatus; whereas imperator, as holder of the highest military power, inasmuch as, except him and the members of his family, no one had any longer a claim to the title of imperator; 173 lastly, Cæsar means the Roman emperor, as a member, and from the time of Galba, as a mere successor, of the imperial family and dynasty.

Principium, see Initium.

Priscus, Pristinus, see Antiquus.

Privus; Proprius; Peculiaris. Privus means one’s own, in opp. to alienus, that which belongs to another, like οἰκεῖος; proprius, that which is exclusively one’s own, in opp. to communis, that which is common, like ἴδιος; lastly, peculiaris, that which is especially one’s own, in opp. to universalis, that to which all are entitled. (iv. 344.)

Probrum, see Ignominia and Maledictum.

Probus, see Bonus.

Procax, see Petulans.

Procella, see Ventus.

Proceres, see Primores.

Procerus, see Altus.

Proclivis, see Pronus.

Procrastinare, see Differre.

Procul; Longe; Eminus; E longinquo. 1. Procul means at a considerable distance, but yet generally within sight, in opp. to juxta, Tac. H. ii. 74, like ἄποθεν; whereas longe, at a great distance, generally out of sight, in opp. to prope, Plin. Ep. vii. 27, like τῆλε. 2. Eminus means at such a distance as to be in reach only of missile weapons, in opp. to cominus, like πόῤῥωθεν; whereas e longinquo, from afar, means from a great distance, in opp. to e propinquo, like τηλόθεν.

Prodigia, see Auguria.

Prodigus; Profusus; Helluo; Nepos. Prodigus and profusus denote prodigality, as a single feature in a man’s character; prodigus (from δέχω?) inasmuch as he regards not the value of money, and neither can nor will carefully put it out to interest, from a genial disposition, as the squanderer; profusus, inasmuch as he thinks nothing too dear, that can minister to his pleasures, from levity of character, as the spendthrift; whereas helluo and nepos denote prodigality as pervading the whole character, which shows 174 itself fully in the quality of prodigality; helluo (from χλιδή) the habitual gourmand and glutton; nepos (ἀναπότης) a young and harebrained prodigal, who runs through his own property and that of his parents. (vi. 286.)

Prœlium, see Pugna.

proferre, see Differre.

Proficisci; Iter facere; Peregrinari. 1. Proficisci (from facere, facessere,) denotes only the starting-point of a journey, as to set out, πορεύεσθαι; whereas iter facere and peregrinari, the duration, as to travel, ὁδοιπορεῖν. 2. Iter facere applies to an inland journey, as well as to travelling abroad; but peregrinari, ἐκδημεῖν, supposes that one travels beyond the bounds of one’s own country; in which case the peregrinatio lasts, even when the point of destination is arrived at, and the iter ended. (ii. 133. iv. 69.)

Profiteri, see Fateri.

Profugus, see Perfuga.

Profusus, see Prodigus.

Progenies, see Stirps.

Prohibere, see Arcere.

Proles, see Stirps.

Prolixi, see Passi.

Proloqui, see Eloqui.

Promittere, s. Polliceri.

Pronuntiare, s. Eloqui.

Pronus; Proclivis; Propensus. Pronus (from πρών, πρηνής,) in its moral meaning denotes inclination in general; proclivis, oftener the inclination to something good; propensus, to something bad. (vi. 287.)

Propalam, see Aperire.

Prope, see Pæne.

Propensus, see Pronus.

Properus, see Citus.

Propinquus, s. Necessarius.

Proprius, s. Privus.

Prorogare, see Differre.

Prorsus, see Plane.

Prosapia, see Stirps.

Prosequi, s. Comitari.

Prosper, see Felix.

Protervus, s. Petulans.

Protinus, see Repente.

Prudens, see Sapiens.

Psallere, see Canere.

Pudens; Pudibundus; Pudicus, see Castus.

Puella, see Virgo.


Puer; Infans; Adolescens; Juvenis; Vir; Vetus; Senex. Puer (from parere, πάϊς,) in a wider sense, is the man in his dependent years, so long as he neither can be, nor is, the father of a family, as a young person, in three periods, as infans, νήπιος, παιδίον, from his first years till he is seven; as puer, in a narrower sense, παῖς, from his seventh year till he is sixteen; as commencing adolescens (from ἄλθειν) a youngster, μειράκιον, νεανίας, from his sixteenth year. Juvenis, in a wider sense, is as long as he remains in his years of greatest strength, from about the time of his being of age to the first appearances of advanced age, as the young man νέος, which also may be divided into three periods;—as ceasing to be adolescens, from his eighteenth year; as juvenis (from ζέω) in a narrower sense, νεανίας, from his four-and-twentieth year; as beginning to be vir, ἀνήρ, from his thirtieth year. Maturus is the man in his ripest years, when the wild fire of youth has evaporated, and may be divided into three periods;—as ceasing to be vir, ἀνήρ, from his fortieth year; as vetus, γέρων, from his fiftieth year; as senex, (ἄναξ) πρεσβύτης, from his sixtieth year. (v. 45.)

Pugio, see Gladius.

Pugna; Acies; Prœlium. Pugna (πυκνή, πύξ,) denotes in a general sense, any conflict, from a single combat to the bloodiest pitched battle, like μάχη; acies, the conflict of two contending armies drawn up in battle array with tactical skill, the pitched battle; prœlium (from πρύλεες) the occasional rencounter of separate divisions of the armies, as an engagement, action, skirmish, like συμβολή. (v. 189.) [No: prœlium is frequently used of general engagements: e.g. illustrissimum est prœlium apud Platæas. Nep.]

Pugnare; Confligere; Dimicare; Digladiari. 1. Pugnare and confligere mean, to decide a quarrel by force, generally in a mass, in a battle; dimicare and digladiari, to decide a quarrel by 176 arms, and generally in a single combat. 2. Pugnare denotes a battle, more with reference to its form, and on its brightest side, as requiring skill and courage; confligere, as a mere engagement, in consequence of an occasional collision, on its rough side as aiming at slaughter and carnage. Cic. Balb. 9. Qui cum hoste nostro cominus sæpe in acie pugnavit: comp. with Off. i. 23. Tenere in acie versari et manu cum hoste confligere, immane quiddam et belluarum simile est. Or, Nep. Eum. 4. and 8. 3. Dimicare denotes a fight with weapons agreed upon by the parties, such as swords, spears, lances, clubs, and gives the harmless image of a man who fights in his own defence; whereas digladiari denotes a fight with sword or poniard, and gives the hateful image of a practised gladiator, whose calling and art consist in nothing but fighting and assassinating. Cic. Tusc. iv. 19. Convenit dimicare pro legibus, pro libertate, pro patria: comp. with Leg. iii. 9. Iis sicis, quas ipse se projecisse dicit in forum, quibus inter se digladientur cives. (v. 187.)

Pulcher, see Formosus.

Pullus, see Ater.

Pulpa, see Caro.

Pulsare, see Verberare.

Pulvinar, Pulvinus, see Culcita.

Pungere; Stimulare. Pungere means to thrust at with any pointed instrument, in order to inflict a wound or occasion pain; whereas stimulare, with a sharp-pointed or penetrating instrument, in order, by inflicting pain, to rouse to watchfulness and activity. (vi. 292.)

Punire, see Vindicta.

Purgatio; Excusatio; Satisfactio. Purgatio consists, like justification, in clearing one’s self of a suspicion or accusation by proving it groundless; excusatio, like making an excuse, is acknowledging something wrong, but with the assertion of, or reference to, subjective innocence; satisfactio, like atonement, is the satisfaction made to the suffering, or injured party, in case of innocence, by purgatio or 177 excusatio,—in case of guilt, by veniæ petitio or by pœna (vi. 293.)

Purus; Mundus; Merus; Putus; Meracus. 1. Purus (ψωρός) denotes purity, as a synonyme of integer, and in opp. to contaminatus, like καθαρός, Suet. Vesp. 9; whereas mundus, as a synonyme of nitidus, and in opp. to spurcus or sordidus, like κομψός; Senec. Ep. 70. Sall. Jug. 85. Hor. Sat. ii. 1, 65; lastly, merus (from μείρω) as a synonyme of simplex, and in opp. to mixtus, like ἀκήρατος, ἀκέραιος. Colum. iii. 21. 2. Purus is the general and popular, putus, or usually purus putus, purus ac putus, the technical expression for the purity of gold and silver, that are solid and without alloy. 3. Merus denotes anything unmixed, indifferently, or with praise, as a mixture may be an adulteration; whereas meracus refers especially to unmixed wine, and, figuratively, it is transferred to other objects, and means unmixed in a bad sense, as that which is without its proper ingredients, like the old German word, eitel, thin and poor in quality, in opp. to temperatus. Cic. Rep. i. 43. (iii. 204.)

Pus, see Sanies.

Pusillus, see Parvus.

Putare, see Censere.

Putus, see Purus.


Quærere; Scrutari; Rimari; Investigare; Indagare. 1. Quærere denotes seeking, in a general sense, as the wish and want to get at something; whereas scrutari, rimari, investigare, and indagare, involve the accessory notion of taking pains. 2. Scrutari and rimari mean to search for something hidden; scrutari (from γρύτη) by rummaging, with evident interest and eagerness; rimari, by digging for, with evident exertion and skill on the part of the searcher; whereas investigare and indagare 178 mean to search after something at a distance; investigare, like the huntsman, who cautiously follows the visible track of the wild animal; indagare (from δέχεσθαι, δήειν) like the hound who, guided by instinct, follows the scent. Curt. ix. 10. 11. Famem sentire cœperunt, radices palmarum ubique rimantes: comp. with ix. 9. 5. Scrutati omnia tuguria tandem latentes reperere. Or, Tac. Ann. vi. 3. Rimans secreta omnium; that is, what were intentionally kept secret; with xii. 52. Quasi finem principis per Chaldæos scrutaretur; which was done without opposition. (v. 121.)

Quæstus, see Lucrum.

Quare, see Cur.

Que, see Et.

Questus; Quiritatio; Querimonia; Querela. Questus and Quiritatio are expressions of pain; questus, in single, quiritatio in continued tones of lamentation; whereas querimonia and querela are expressions of indignation; querimonia in the just feeling of the injured person, who will not brook an act of injustice; querela in, for the most part, the blamable feeling of the discontented person, who will brook no hardship. The Querimonia is an act of the understanding, and aims at redress or satisfaction; the querela is an act of feeling, and aims, for the most part, only at easing the heart. Cic. Cæcil. 3. In populi Romani quotidiana querimonia: comp. with Fam. v. 14. Tu non intelliges te querelis quotidianis nihil proficere. (v. 310.)

Quies; Tranquillitas; Requies. 1. Quies (from κεῖσθαι?) denotes absolute rest, in opp. to activity in general, like ἡσυχία; tranquillitas, quietness in acting, in opp. to hasty or passionate activity, like ἑκηλία. Sen. Ep. 3. Et quiescenti agendum et agenti quiescendum est; comp. with Cic. Top. 3. Ut aut perturbentur animi aut tranquillentur. Hence is quietus allied in sense with otiosus, segnis, languidus; whereas tranquillus with lenis, placidus, moderatus. 2. Quies is rest in itself; requies, 179 rest after activity and exertion. Curt. ix. 6. § 2. Ne quies corpori invalido adhuc necessaria pulsu remorum impediretur: comp. with § 3. Placuit hic locus ad suam et militum requiem. (i. 80.)

Quire, see Posse.

Quiritatio, see Questus.

Quisque; Quivis; Quilibet; Unusquisque; Omnes; Universi; Cuncti; Totus. 1. Quisque, quivis, and quilibet, denote a totality, which is cut up into several individualities; whereas omnes, universi, and cuncti, denote a combined totality. 2. Quisque means each individual; quivis, any individual you choose, without exception, and with emphasis; quilibet, any individual whatever, without selection, and with indifference, like ὁστισοῦν, synonymously with primus quisque, ὁ τυχών. Propert. ii. 6, 26. Templa pudicitiæ quid opus statuisse puellis, si cuivis nuptæ cuilibet esse licet? apud Lachmann. Cic. Fam. viii. 10. Quidvis quamlibet tenue munusculum. 3. Quisque is an enclitic, that is, throws back the accent on the preceding word, and in prose never stands at the beginning of a sentence, like ἕκαστος; whereas unusquisque is accented and emphatic, like εἷς ἕκαστος. 4. Unusquisque denotes each individual, in opp. to some individuals; whereas singuli, individuals, in opp. to the undivided totality, like ἕκαστοι. 5. Omnes (ἅπαντες) denotes all without exception, merely as a totality, in opp. to nemo, unus, aliquot. Cic. Sext. 12, 27. Off. iii. 6, like πάντες; whereas universi, all taken collectively, in opp. to singuli and unusquisque. Cic. N. D. ii. 17. 65, 66. Off. iii. 6, like σύμπαντες; lastly, cuncti (ξυνεκτοί) all in their combined reality, in opp. to dispersi, like ἅπαντες. Liv. vii. 35. Admonitione paventibus cunctis quum omnium in se vertisset oculos Decius. Nep. Dat. 5. Qui illum unum pluris quam se omnes fieri videbant. Quo facto cuncti ad eum opprimendum consenserunt. 6. Totus, solidus, and integer denote 180 that which is originally a whole, but which is liable to fall to pieces by accident, like ὅλος; whereas omnis, universus, and cunctus, denote original individualities, which form a whole by their association, like πᾶς, σύμπας, ἅπας. (iv. 352.)

Quotidie; In singulos dies. Quotidie applies to things that are daily repeated; whereas in singulos dies, to things that, from day to day, are making an advance. Cic. Att. v. 7. Quotidie vel potius in singulos dies breviores literas ad te mitto. Fam. vi. 4. Catil. i. 2.


Rabies, see Amens.

Radiare, see Lucere.

Rami; Ramalia; Virga; Termes; Turio; Surculus; Talea; Sarmentum; Stolo; Virgultum; Fruticetum. 1. Rami and ramalia are the boughs of a tree; rami (from ῥάκος) the living, green boughs, θαλλοί; ramalia, the withered dry boughs. Whereas virga, termes, turio, surculus, talea, sarmentum, and stolo, are only twigs; virga, and the words of rare occurrence, termes olivæ, and turio lauri, without any accessory reference, like κλάδος, κλών, κλῆμα; surculus and talea as members and offspring of the tree, which as scions and shoots should be subservient to the parent-stock, like ὀρσός; sarmentum and stolo, as mere off-shoots of the tree, are set aside, and cast away; sarmentum (from sarpere, ἅρπη,) as a completely useless twig; stolo, as at the same time an injurious sucker. 2. Virgultum is a place grown over with bushes, and not bare; fruticetum (from frutices) a place grown over with shrubs, and not passable. (v. 283.)

Rapina, Raptor, see Præda.

Rationem habere, see Respectum habere.

Recens, see Novus.


Recipere, see Polliceri and Sumere.

Recitari, see Eloqui.

Recludere, see Aperire.

Recondere, see Celare.

Recordari, s. Meminisse.

Recuperare, s. Sumere.

Recurvus, see Curvus.

Recusare, see Negare and Spernere.

Redimere, see Emere.

Redire, see Reverti.

Redolere, see Olere.

Reduncus, see Curvus.

Redundare, s. Abundare.

Refellere, see Refutare.

Refugium, see Perfuga.

Refutare; Confutare; Refellere. 1. Refutare and confutare (from sputare? or φοιτᾶν?) denote a refutation, in whatever manner; refellere (from fallere) on good grounds, and by convincing arguments. 2. The refutans acts on the defensive in refuting the arguments that are opposed to him; the confutans, on the offensive, in exposing their nullity, and cutting them up. Cic. Font. 1. Plus laboris consumo in poscendis testibus quam defensores in refutandis; comp. with N. D. ii. 17. Cujus opinionis levitas confutata a Cotta non desiderat orationem meam. (iv. 43.)

Regalis, see Regius.

Regio, see Locus.

Regius; Regalis. Regius means, what belongs to a king, and descends from kings; regalis, what is suitable to a king, and worthy of him. (iv. 93 v. 48.)

Religio; Fides. Religio (from ἀλέγειν) is conscientiousness, on the ground of an inward obligation, through the conscience; fides (from πιθεῖν) on the ground of an outward obligation, through a promise. (vi. 268.)

Relinquere; Deserere; Omittere; Destituere; Desolatus. 1. Relinquere, to leave behind, has reference to an object, to which one stands in a mere outward and local relation of proximity; whereas deserere and omittere, to an object to which one stands in an inward and moral relation as an owner or friend; desertio, like leaving in the lurch, has its 182 ground in cowardice, or other forgetfulness of duty, in opp. to defensio, tutatio; omissio, like giving up, has its ground in a conviction of being able to dispense with, in opp. to obtinere. Tac. Dial. 16. Partes quas intellexerimus te non tam omisisse quam nobis reliquisse. And 9. Relinquenda conversatio amicorum et jucunditas urbis, deserenda cætera officia. Cic. Verr. i. 4. 11. Desertum exercitum, relictam provinciam. 2. Deserere means to forsake, and expose to a possible and remote danger; destituere to an actual and impending danger. Curt. iv. 2, 32. Desertus, destitutus, hostibus deditus. Liv. vi. 2. Quod defensores suos in ipso discrimine periculi destituat. 3. Desertus and destitutus denote, especially, forgetfulness of duty; whereas desolatus, the unmercifulness of the action. Suet. Cal. 12. Deserta, desolataque reliquis subsidiis aula. (iii. 290.)

Reliqui, see Cæteri.

Remedium, see Mederi.

Reminisci, see Meminisse.

Renidere, see Ridere.

Renuere, see Negare.

Repagulum, see Sera.

Repandus, see Curvus.

Repente; Subito; Extemplo; E vestigio; Illico; Statim; Protinus; Confestim; Continuo. Repente and subito denote suddenly; repens means sudden, in opp. to exspectatus, expected, Cic. Tusc. iii. 22; to sensim, Cic. Off. i. 33. Suet. Tib. 11, like ἐξαπίνης; but subitus, in opp. to foreseen, ante provisus, Cic. Tusc. iii. 22; meditatus, Plin. Ep. i. 16; paratus, Cic. Or. i. 33, like παραχρῆμα. Extemplo and e vestigio, in opp. to delay; extemplo (ex tempore) in a moment, with reference to time; e vestigio, on the spot, sur-le-champ, with reference to place. Illico and ilicet, in opp. to slowness; illico (in loco) is used in prose, like παραυτίκα; ilicet, by writers of comedy and poets. Statim and protinus, in opp. to, at a future time; statim, immediately, in opp. to deinde, Tac. Ann. vi. 3; postea, Suet. Cl. 39. A. 51. N. 34, like εὐθύς; protinus, 183 forthwith, like πρόκα. Confestim and continuo, in opp. to ex intervallo, Cic. Inv. ii. 12. (v. 157.)

Repere; Serpere; Serpens; Anguis; Coluber. 1. Repere means, with small feet and short steps, to move slowly along, to creep; whereas serpere, without feet, by merely twisting the whole body, and without noise to move forward, to creep on the belly. 2. Serpens (ἕρπων) is the general name for whatever creeps like a snake, like ἑρπετόν; anguis (ἔγχος, ἔγχελυς?) is a great formidable snake, ὄφις; coluber (ἀσκάλαφος) a small, spiteful snake, ἔχις, ἔχιδνα. (v. 341.)

Reperire, see Invenire.

Repetere, see Iterum.

Reprehendere; Vituperare. Reprehendere has in view the amendment of a fault, and warning for the future, like showing the right path, and μέμψις; vituperare (from vitii πεπαρεῖν) has in view the acknowledgment of a fault, better judgment, shame and repentance, like a rebuke, and ψόγος. Reprehensio is in opp. to probatio; for examples, see Cic. Or. 48, 159. Mur. 20, 142. Senec. Vit. B. 1; whereas vituperatio is in opp. to laudatio; for examples, see Cic. Fat. 5. Off. iii. 82. Quintil. iii. 7, 1. (ii. 259, iii. 323.)

Repudiare, see Negare.

Repudium; Divortium. Repudium is a one-sided putting away of a betrothed bride, or of a married woman; divortium, a mutual agreement, acquiescing in the dissolution of a marriage, or a formal divorce, by which each party was released. The formula of the repudium was: Conditione tua non utor:—that of the divortium: Res tuas tibi habeto. We say: Repudium mittere, remittere, renunciare, dicere alicui; whereas divortium facere cum aliqua.

Requies, see Quietus.

Requirere; Desiderare. Requirere denotes requisition as an act of the understanding, which has 184 in view the usefulness of the object; desiderare, as an act of feeling, which surrounds the object with love and sympathy. The requirens claims a right, and expects the fulfilment of his claim from others; the desiderans harbors a wish, and expects its fulfilment from the course of things, from fortune. Cic. Fam. vii. 26. Magis tuum officium desiderari, quam abs te requiri putavi meum. (v. 128.)

Reri, see Censere.

Reserare, see Aperire.

Respectum habere; Rationem habere. Respectum habere means, to have regard in thoughts and intentions; rationem habere, in acts and measures. (vi. 304.)

Restare; Superesse. Restare means to remain, in opp. to præteriisse, interiisse; whereas superesse, in opp. to deesse. (vi. 304.)

Restaurare, see Instituere.

Restis, see Laqueus.

Restituere, see Instituere.

Rete; Cassis; Plaga. Retia (from ῥῆχος, ἀράχνη,) is the most general expression for fishing and hunting nets; casses and plagæ are implements used in hunting only; casses (from κοττάνη), nets for catching the smaller wild animals; plagæ (from πλέξαι), nets of a stronger texture to get larger animals into one’s power by entangling them. Hor. Ep. 2, 32. Aut trudit acres apros in obstantes plagas, aut amite levi rara tendit retia. (vi. 304.)

Reticere, see Silere.

Returare, see Aperire.

Revereri, see Vereri.

Reverti; Revenire; Redire. Reverti and revenire denote properly only momentary actions; reverti, in opp. to proficisci, the turning back; revenire, in opp. to advenire, the return; whereas redire denotes a more lasting action, which lies between turning back and the return, in opp. to porro ire, the journey home. Cic. Att. xvi. 7. p. m. Quam valde ille reditu vel potius reversione mea lætatus effudit. (iv. 63.)


Ridere; Cachinnari; Renidere; Subridere; Irridere; Deridere. 1. Ridere and cachinnari denote an audible laugh; ridere, a joyous and temperate laugh, like γελᾶν; cachinnari (from hinnire) an unrestrained and resounding fit of laughter, like καγχάζειν; whereas subridere, and renidere only a visible smile; subridere, as the expression of a waggish or satirical humor; renidere (from nidor, ὄνειδος,) as the expression of a friendly, and also of a dissembling humor, like μειδιᾶν. Cic. Tusc. iv. 31. Si ridere concessum sit, vituperatur tamen cachinnatio. Verr. iii. 25. Herenn. iii. 14, 25. Ovid, Art. iii. 287. 2. Deridere denotes laughing at, as an act of loftiness and contempt, inasmuch as others are laughed down, like καταγελᾶν; irridere, as an act of insolence and malignant pleasure, inasmuch as others are laughed at before their faces, like ἐγγελᾶν. Cic. Orat. iii. 14. Istos omnes deridete atque contemnite; and Verr. v. 92: comp. with N. D. ii. 3. Claudius etiam per jocum deos irridens; and Suet. Aug. 36. (iii. 251.)

Rimari, see Quærere.

Ripa; Litus; Ora; Acta. 1. Ripa (ῥιπή, ἐρείπω,) is the bank of a river, like ὄχθη; whereas litus, ora, acta, the shores of the sea. Mela. lii. 9. Oras ad Eurum sequentibus nihil memorabile occurrit; vasta omnia vastis præcisa montibus ripæ potius sunt quam litora: and iii. 3, 4. i. 2, 2. Vitruv. ii. 9, 14. Circa ripam fluminis Padi et litora maris Adriatici. Colum. i. 5. Ovid, Met. i. 42. 2. Litus denotes the shore only as the line which separates the land from the sea, as the strand, like ἠϊών and ῥηγμίν; whereas ora and acta, as the space and tract of land that borders on the sea, as the coast, like ἀκτή and αἰγιαλός; ora (ὤα, οὖρος,) only in geographical reference to the adjacent land, in opp. to the inland country; but acta (ἀκτή) with the accessory notion of being distinguishable by the senses, inasmuch as the coast affords striking views and a pleasant residence. Liv. xxiv. 8. Classem paravimus 186 ut Africæ oram popularemur, ut tuta nobis Italiæ litora essent. Plin. Ep. v. 6, 2. Gravis et pestilens ora Tuscorum, quæ per litus extenditur. Hence litoris ora, that is, ora per litus extensa, Virg. G. ii. 44. Tac. Ann. ii. 78. Appul. Met. iv. p. 92. Avian. Fab. xx. 10.—And Prudent. adv. Symm. iv. 136. Invenit expositum secreti in litoris acta. Cic. Fam. ix. 6. Ea tractes quorum et usus et delectatio est omnibus illis actis et voluptatibus anteponenda. Acta is a foreign word of Greek extraction, which Tacitus (Hist. iii. 76.) expresses by the circumlocution amœna litorum. (iii. 207.)

Ritus, see Consuetudo.

Rivalitas, see Imitatio.

Rixa, see Disceptatio.

Robur, see Potentia.

Robustus, see Validus.

Rogare; Orare; Obsecrare; Obtestari; Precari; Supplicare. 1. Rogare and orare denote simply a request as the quiet utterance of a wish; but the rogans (ὀργᾶν, ὀρέγεσθαι) feels himself al pari, on a par with the person whom he asks, and asks only a courtesy, like αἰτεῖν; the orans acknowledges the superiority of the other, and asks a benefit, like δεῖσθαι; whereas obsecrare and obtestari denote a passionate asking, as to conjure; but the obsecrans asks urgently, like λιπαρεῖν; the obtestans (from θέσσασθαι) in a suppliant manner. Cic. Att. xvi. 10. Igitur, mi Plance, rogo te atque etiam oro. Pseudocic. p. Red. 16. Pro mea vos salute non rogavit solum, verum etiam obsecravit. 2. Precari denotes the calm act of prayer, in which one raises one’s hand to heaven, like εύχεσθαι; but supplicare denotes the passionate act of supplication, in which one throws one’s self on one’s knees, or on the ground, and wrings one’s hands, like ἱκετεύειν. By hyperbole, however, precor denotes any urgent request; supplicare, any humble request, addressed to a human being. Cic. Parad. v. 3. Noctu venire domum ad eum, precari, denique supplicare. (v. 232.)

Rogare; Interrogare; Percontari; Sciscitari. Rogare, interrogare, and quærere, denote 187 a simple questioning; rogare (ὀργᾶν, ὀρέγεσθαι), as willing to know; interrogare, as wishing to know; whereas percontari and sciscitari denote urgently asking; percontari (from γνῶναι) always from a desire of knowledge, with seriousness and calmness; sciscitari (redupl. of scitari) often from curiosity, with inquisitiveness, eagerness, or also with cunning, like pumping or ferreting out. (v. 125.)

Rogare, see Petere.

Rudis, see Fustis.

Ruina; Strages. Ruina (from ῥεῦσαι is the falling down of things raised one upon another, in consequence of the basis giving way; whereas strages is the throwing down of bodies standing upright, in consequence of a push from without. Liv. iv. 33. Strages ruinæ similis. (vi. 309.)

Rumor; Fama. Rumor (from ῥεῦμα), like report, is the uncertain, dark, often clandestine propagation of intelligence, in opp. to authentic assurance; fama (φήμη), like information, is the open and public propagation of intelligence, in opp. to ocular demonstration. The rumor interests only by its novelty, is an object of curiosity, and passes away with the generation in which it sprung up; the fama interests through its importance, is an object of research, and as a permanent property descends to posterity. (v. 233.)

Rumpere, see Frangere.

Rupes, see Saxum.

Rursus, see Iterum.

Rus, see Villa.

Rus; Ager; Rusticus; Agrestis; Rusticanus. 1. Rus (ἄροτον) denotes the country, in opp. to the town or city, the village with what belongs to it; whereas ager (ἀγρός) the country, in opp. to the district in general, the open country or fields. Cels. Med. 1. Sanum oportet . . . modo ruri esse, modo in urbe, sæpiusque in agro. 2. Rusticus denotes, like ἀγροῖκος, merely residing in the country; agrestis, like ἄγριος, growing wild in the fields, like ferus, but as a milder expression, for ferus (φῆρες) denotes wildness 188 as an inward nature; agrestis, merely as a mark of the place of residence, or of extraction. 3. In a spiritual sense, rusticus denotes more an intellectual, agrestis more a moral roughness; rusticus, like countrified, has a reference to bashfulness and uncouthness; in its best sense, it is allied to innocence; in its worst, to awkwardness; whereas agrestis, like boorish, has a reference to shamelessness and vulgarity, is never used in a good sense, but borders on feritas, and answers to the German word Flegelei, ‘churlishness.’ The rusticus, in opp. to urbanus, violates only the conventional laws of decorum; the agrestis, in opp. to humanus, the natural laws of decorum also. 4. When Cicero wishes to give to rusticus a still milder sense, and secure it from ambiguity, he adopts the word rusticanus; so that, according to him, rusticus is one who actually lives in a country-village, rusticanus, one who resembles those who live in country-villages; hence among the rusticani the municipes may be reckoned, as rusticorum similes.


Sabulo; Harena; Sabura. Sabulo (from ψαφαρός, ψῆφος,) and in Pliny sabulum, denote sand, as a sort of light soil; harena, arena (from χεράς), as a dry stony soil, as small or pounded pebbles, in opp. to a fruitful soil; sabura, saburra, with especial reference to its use, as shipsand, ballast. (vi. 311.)

Sacellum, see Templum.

Sacer; Sanctus. Sacer (ἄγος) denotes that which is sacred, inasmuch as it belongs to the gods, in opp. to profanus, like ἱερός; whereas sanctus (from ἁγνός) inasmuch as it is under the protection of the gods, and, being guarded from profanation, is, in consequence, pure and spotless, in opp. to pollutus, like ὅσιος. Hence sanctus homo is a pure, pious man; 189 sacer, one accursed, devoted to the gods as an expiatory sacrifice. In the same manner sancire means to place under the immediate protection of the gods, as laws and compacts, for example; whereas sacrare means to dedicate to the gods, as temples and altars, for example. (iii. 198.)

Sacramentum, see Jusjurandum.

Sacrare; Consecrare; Dicare; Dedicare. Sacrare, consecrare, mean to hallow, with reference to men, with regard to whom the profane use of a thing is withdrawn and forbidden; dicare, dedicare (from δέχεσθαι) mean to dedicate with reference to the gods, to whom the thing is set apart as their property. Hence consecrare may be used in an absolute sense, but dedicare has always a reference to the new proprietors.

Sæpe; Crebro; Frequenter; Frequentare; Celebrare. 1. Sæpe denotes often, in opp. to semel, Suet. Ner. 33; nonnunquam, Cic. Or. 66; semper, like πολλάκις; whereas crebro and frequenter, in opp. to raro, Rhet. ad Her. iv. 23. Cic. Or. 66; crebro, often, and in quick succession, and rather too often than too seldom, like θαμά; but frequenter (partic. from farcire) often, and not too seldom; for in general creber denotes a multifarious assembly, inasmuch as it is dense and crowded; whereas frequens, inasmuch as it is numerously attended. Consequently, frequens rather implies praise, like largus; creber, blame, like spissus. And frequentes senatores denote the senate, when represented as complete; crebri senatores, as wanting room on account of their number, and forced to sit close. 2. Frequentare means to visit a place often, and not neglect it: whereas celebrare, to visit it often, and thereby to enliven it, and to fill it with festive sounds. (i. 17.)

Sævitia; Crudelitas. Sævitia (from αἶ, αἰνός) denotes the blood-thirsty cruelty of the tyrant, who acts like a ravenous beast, that kills and tears its prey, in 190 opp. to mansuetudo; whereas crudelitas (from κρύος, crudus) denotes the reckless cruelty of the judge, who enforces the utmost rigor of the law, in opp. to clementia. Sen. Clem. 2. Cic. Lig. 3. Att. viii. 9. Plin. Pan. 3.

Sævus, see Atrox.

Salsus, see Lepidus.

Saltus, see Silva.

Saluber, see Salus.

Salus; Sanitas; Valens; Saluber; Sanus; Salutaris. 1. Salus denotes existence in general, in opp. to interitus; whereas sanitas, the health of the person existing, in opp. to ægritudo; first of the body, then, in a higher degree, of the soul. 2. Sanus and valens denote health as a temporary state, and are allied in sense with integer; whereas saluber and validus denote habitual qualities, and are allied in sense with robustus. Hence salubris oratio means a speech sound in matter, possessing original strength; sana, a temperate and discreet speech. Cic. Brut. 13. 51. Tac. Dial. 25. Plin. Ep. ix. 26. 3. Sanus and saluber represent health, merely as finding one’s self well; valens and validus, as possessing strength to act. 4. Saluber in a transitive sense means, what brings sanitas, in opp. to pestilens, like ὑγιεινός; whereas salutaris, what brings salus, in opp. to pestiferus, like σωτήριος. Cato, apud Plin. H. N. xviii. 6. Nihil salutare est nisi quod toto anno salubre. (i. 31.)

Salus, see Vita.

Salutaris, see Salus.

Salve, see Ave.

Salvus; Sospes; Incolumis; Integer. Salvus and sospes denote, like σῶς, being safe and sound, in opp. to being killed; salvus is the customary, sospes a select expression; whereas incolumis and integer, like ἀσκηθής, denote being unhurt and untouched; incolumis (from calvere, calamitas, κολούω), in opp. to being wounded, etc.; integer (from tangere) in opp. to being attacked. Tac. Hist. i. 84. Mea cum vestra salus incolumitate senatus firmatur; 191 that is, our safety is assured by the senate not having had a hair touched. And, i. 66. Verba Fabii salutem incolumitatemque Viennensium commendantis; salus refers to being killed, incolumitas to being plundered: comp. with Cic. Orat. iii. 45, 178. Dejot. 15. Sunt tuæ clementiæ monumenta . . . eorum incolumitates quibus salutem dedisti. (iii. 306.)

Sanare, see Mederi.

Sanctus, see Sacer and Bonus.

Sanguis; Cruor; Sanguineus; Sanguinolentus; Cruentus. 1. Sanguis denotes the blood circulating in the body, living and supporting life, like αἷμα; cruor (κρύος) the blood gushing from the body, like βρότος. Cic. N. D. ii. 55. Sanguis per venas in omne corpus diffunditur: comp. with Rosc. Am. 7, 19. Ut cruorem inimici quam recentissimum ostenderet. Tac. Ann. xii. 46. Mox ubi sanguis artus extremos suffuderit, levi ictu cruorem eliciunt atque invicem lambunt. Sanguis is the condition of physical life; cruor, the symbol of death by slaughter. 2. Sanguineus means, consisting of blood, sanguinolentus, smelling after blood, or blood-thirsty; cruentus, red with blood. (iv. 258.) 

Sanies; Pus. Sanies (from σίσανον) denotes running, consequently, offensive matter; pus (from πύθω), corroding, consequently, pernicious matter. Cels. v. 26, 20. (vi. 316.)

Sanitas, Sanus, see Salus.

Sapiens; Prudens; Callidus; Scitus; Solers; Cordatus; Catus. 1. Sapiens (from σήπω) is the person who chooses right objects, from ennobling views, and pursues them with quietness of mind; prudens and callidus denote the person who chooses right means, and regulates them with circumspection; prudentia is a natural judiciousness, pervading a man’s whole nature: calliditas, an acquired knowledge of the world and of men, gained by experience and practice. Cic. Fr. Scaur. 5. Hominis prudentis 192 natura, callidi usu, doctrina eruditi. 2. Prudens is the person who has accurate practical views, in opp. to stultus; scitus, who has tact, mother-wit, and the faculty of combination; solers, who possesses practical genius and inventive power; cordatus, who has his head in the right place, in opp. to excors; catus, who discovers and knows secret means and ways. (v. 114.)

Sapor; Gustus; Gustare; Libare. 1. Sapor denotes objectively the flavor which a thing has, or gives out, in opp. to odor, etc.; gustus or gustatus (γεῦσαι) denotes, subjectively, the sensation occasioned by this flavor, or the sense of taste, in opp. to olfactus, etc. Sen. Ep. 109. Debet esse optatus ad hujus modi gustum, ut ille tali sapore capiatur. 2. The libans puts only a small portion of any thing to, or into, his mouth; whereas the gustans has the sense of the effect of what he tastes, and is conscious of its flavor. Ovid, Amor. i. 4, 34. Si tibi forte dabit, quæ prægustaverit ipse, rejice libatos illius ore dapes. (iii. 125.)

Sarmentum, see Rami.

Satelles; Stipator. Satelles (from στέλλω) denotes an attendant, as a hired servant; stipator (from στῖφος) as a guard. Cic. Rull. ii. 13. Ex equestri loco ducentos in singulos annos stipatores corporis constituit, eosdem ministros et satellites potestatis. (vi. 318.)

Satis; Affatim; Abunde. 1. Satis (from ἄση) denotes, like ἱκανῶς, a sufficient measure, without any accessory reference; whereas affatim and abunde with the accessory notion of rather too much than too little; abunde, like ἅλις, with an objective and absolute reference; whereas affatim, like ἀφθόνως, in a subjective and relative sense. A person may have worked affatim, according to his own opinion, and yet not satis. Cic. Att. ii. 16. Puto enim me Dicæarcho affatim satis fecisse. And, xvi. 1. Satis est et affatim 193 prorsus. Liv. iv. 22. Frumentum non necessitati satis, sed copiæ quoque abunde ex ante confecto sufficiebat. 2. Satiare denotes satisfying, as the appeasing of a want generally, of hunger, of a longing, etc.; whereas saturare, as the appeasing of an unnatural craving, of an over-eager longing, or a voracious hunger, of hatred, of the thirst for blood. (i. 109.)

Satis habere; Contentum esse; Boni consulere; Contentus; Æquus animus. 1. Satis habere, that is, to consider as enough, expresses a judgment, and is only a sign of an unimpassioned judgment of the right measure; whereas contentum esse, to be satisfied, expresses a feeling and is a sign of moderation and self-government; lastly, boni consulere, to take in good part, an act of the will, by which a person resigns the realizing of his wish, and acquiesces as becomes a man, in what is inevitable. Satis habere is in construction with an infinitive; contentum esse, generally with an ablative, or with quod. Cic. Orat. iii. 19; comp. with Fr. Clod. 6. 2. Contentus animus denotes a relative contentedness, which puts up with and does not murmur at the want of complete success; æquus animus, an absolute contentedness, which feels quite satisfied, and does not wish for a more prosperous state. (v. 343.)

Satisfactio, see Purgatio.

Saturare, see Satis.

Saucius, see Vulnus.

Saxum; Rupes; Cautes; Petra; Scopuli; Lapis; Calculus; Scrupulus. 1. Saxum, rupes, and cautes, are greater; lapis, calx, and scrupus, smaller masses of stone. Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 22. Silex viridis ubi invenitur, lapis, non saxum est. 2. Saxa (from ψεκάς, ψήχω) are greater masses of stone, in whatever form, like πέτραι; rupes and petræ (πέτραι, from πεσεῖν) are steep and high, like rocks, and therefore difficult to climb; cautes and scopuli are rough and pointed, like crags, and therefore 194 threaten danger; the cautes are smaller, and also not visible in the water, and therefore deceitful; the scopuli (from κόψαι) jutting upwards, threaten and announce danger, like σκόπελοι. 3. Lapis (ἄλιψ) is the most general expression, and denotes the stone only as a material substance, without regard to its form, like λίθος; calculus, is a smooth, generally round pebble; scrupulus, a rough, generally angular pebble; but for this meaning of scrupulus, the dimin. of scrupus, we have only the authority of grammarians; in authors it has only the figurative meaning of scruple. (v. 191.)

Scandere; Adscendere; Escendere; Conscendere; Inscendere. Scandere means to mount a steep height, which is connected with exertion, and generally brings both hands and feet into requisition, as to climb; whereas adscendere, escendere, conscendere, and inscendere, mean to mount a height, in a general sense; adscendere, without any accessory notion, merely in opp. to descendere; whereas escendere means to mount a height which is fortified, like ramparts, walls, or which confers distinction, as the rostrum; conscendere, to mount something in company with others, a ship for instance; inscendere, to mount an enclosed space, a carriage for instance. (iv. 60.)

Scapha, see Navigium.

Scelestus; Sceleratus; Nefarius; Nefandus; Impius. Scelestus (from scelus, σκληρός) has reference to the mind, like ad scelera pronus and promptus; whereas sceleratus, to actions, like sceleribus pollutus atque opertus. Hence the epithet sceleratus is applied to things, to porta, campus, vicus; and, in general, things can be called scelesta only by personification. In the like manner nefarius and impius as applied to the impiety of the person who acts, only with this distinction, that the impius is impious only in mind, the nefarius in his actions 195 also; whereas nefandus refers to the horrible enormity of an action. (ii. 149.)

Scelus, see Delictum.

Schola, see Ludus.

Scientia, see Cognitio.

Scindere, see Findere.

Scipio, see Fustis.

Sciscitari, see Rogare.

Scitus, see Sapiens.

Scobina, see Lima.

Scopuli, see Saxum.

Scortum, see Pellex.

Scrobs, see Specus.

Scropha, see Sus.

Scrupulus, see Saxum.

Scrutari, see Quærere.

Scutum; Clypeus; Parma. Scutum (σκύτος) is a larger shield, covering the whole body, σάκος; clypeus and parma smaller shields of a round form, ἀσπίς; clypeus (κλοπιός, καλύψαι) for foot-soldiers; parma (πάλμη) for horse-soldiers also; lastly, pelta (πέλτη) a small shield in the form of a half-moon; cetra, a small leathern shield. Liv. ix. 19. Macedonibus clupeus . . . Romano scutum, majus corpori tegumentum. Liv. xxxi. 36. Cetratos, quos peltastas vocant, in insidiis abdiderat.

Scyphus, see Poculum.

Secessio, see Turbæ.

Secreta, see Arcana.

Securis, see Ascia.

Securus, see Tutus.

Sedes; Sedile; Sella. Sedes is simply a place for sitting, like ἕδος; whereas sedile and sella are artificially prepared seats; sedile, in any form chosen, as a stool or bench, whether movable or immovable, like ἕδρα; sella, of a particular form, as a chair or throne, like θρόνος.

Seditio, see Turbæ.

Segnitia, see Ignavia.

Sella, see Sedes.

Semita, see Iter.

Semo, see Numen.

Semper; Usque. Semper (ἀμπερές) means ‘always’ and ‘ever,’ absolutely, without reference to any definite limit; whereas usque only relatively ‘always,’ within a definite limit, in usque dum, etc.; but by the poets it is used without any additional clause, as in Horace, for example, Sat. i. 9. Usque sequar te (i. 14.)

Sempiternus, see Continuus.


Senecta, Senectus, Senium, see Vetus.

Senex, see Puer and Vetus.

Sensim, see Paulatim.

Sententia; Opinio; Suffragium. 1. Sententia is the view of a subject, resting upon clear perception and acquired conviction, like γνώμη; opinio, an opinion resting upon mere feeling, like δόξα. 2. Sententia is the vote of a senator upon any motion, etc., like γνώμη; whereas suffragium, the simple voting, pronouncing yes or no, or a name, like ψῆφος.

Sentes, see Dumi.

Sentire, see Intelligere.

Seorsum; Separatim. Seorsum means set apart, in order to prevent a thing being common, with the accessory notion of secrecy; whereas separatim means separated, in order to prevent confusion, with the accessory notion of arrangement.

Sepelire; Condere; Humare. Sepelire and condere denote complete burial, the more or less solemn interment of the remains of a dead person, with or without previous burning; sepelire (Goth. filhan, ἀσπάλαξ) as a proper and technical expression; condere (καταθεῖναι) as a general and softer expression; whereas humare means depositing in the earth, as the last part of burial, in opp. to cremare.

Sera; Claustrum; Pessulus; Repagulum; Obex. Seræ and claustra are bolts; sera (seruisse, εἴρειν) a movable bolt, that is put on the door; claustrum, a bolt that is fastened to the door; whereas pessuli, repagula, and obices, are merely bars, which supply the place of bolts; pessulus (πάσσαλος) a smaller bar for the fores, Plaut. Aul. i. 2, 25. Ter. Heaut. ii. 3, 47; whereas repagulum (from πῆξαι), pangere, a greater bar for the valvæ, Cic. Verr. iv. 43. Plin. H. N. xvi. 42, and obex (from objicere) for the portæ, Tac. H. iii. 30. Ann. xiii. 39. (v. 292.)

Series; Ordo. Series (from serere, εἴρειν) means a 197 row, as an outward, mechanical, accidental association of things, which, according to their nature, are of the like sort; whereas ordo (from ἀριθμός, ῥυθμός) an inward, ideal, necessary association of things, which, according to their destination, belong to one another. Series is a mathematical; ordo, a moral notion. (vi. 330.)

Serius; Severus. Severus (αὐηρός) means, actively, one who cuts no jokes; serius, in a neutral sense, what is no subject for joking; and severe means earnestly; serio, in earnest; whence severus is an epithet for persons, serius for things; Hor. A. P. 105. Decent vultum severum seria dictu. Senec. Tranq. 15. Nihil magnum, nihil severum nec serium quidem ex tanto apparatu putat. Severus is in opp. to hilaris, Cic. Brut. 93, remissus, Orat. ii. 17, luxuriosus, Quintil. xi. 3, 74; whereas serius is in opp. to jucundus, jocosus; and serio to joco, per jocum. Yet severus also supplies the place of serius; particularly in severior, severissimus, and severitas, because serius does not possess these forms. (i. 75.)

Sermo; Colloquium; Oratio. 1. Sermo (εἰρόμενος) denotes a conversation accidentally arising, or at least carried on without any fixed and serious purpose; whereas colloquium, generally a conversation agreed upon for a particular purpose, like a conference. 2. Sermo is a natural mode of speaking; oratio, a speech premeditated and prepared according to the rules of art. The sermo arises when, in ordinary life, an individual speaks longer than usual, and continues speaking, and is accidentally not interrupted; the oratio has a definite extent with an observable beginning, middle, and end, and in it the speaker calculates upon not being interrupted. In the sermo, the language of ordinary life predominates, whether in prose or verse, as in the comic poets, and in the Sermones of Horace; whereas in the oratio the language is select, and in conformity to the rules of rhetoric. Cic. 198 Orat. 16. Mollis est oratio philosophorum et umbratilis . . . Itaque sermo potius quam oratio dicitur. Tac. Hist. i. 19. Apud senatum non comptior Galbæ, non longior . . . sermo; Pisonis comis oratio. (iv. 23.)

Sermo, see Lingua.

Serpens, Serpere, see Repere.

Servus; Famulus; Mancipium; Minister; Ancilla; Servitus; Servitium. 1. Servus, ancilla, famulus, and mancipium, denote a servant who is not free, a slave; minister, one who is free, or only in subordination. Plin. Ep. x. 97. Ancillæ, quæ ministræ dicebantur; that is, in Christian assemblies. 2. Servus (from εἴρερος) means a slave, in a political and juridical sense, as in a state of subjugation, in opp. to dominus, Cic. Verr. iv. 50, like δοῦλος and δμώς; famulus (χαμαλός?) in a patriarchal sense, as belonging to and part of the family, in opp. to herus, Cic. Off. ii. 7, like οἰκέτης; mancipium, in an economical sense, as a possession and marketable commodity, like ἀνδράποδον. 3. Serva means a female slave, with especial reference to her legal condition; ancilla, in ordinary life, as the feminine of servus. Servitus denotes slavery, quite indifferently, as a regular, natural, legal state; whereas servitium, either with contempt or compassion, as an irregular, compulsory, ignominious state. Most prose writers, however, use servitus merely as the abstract; servitium, and especially servitia, as the concrete term for servi. (v. 136.)

Severitas; Gravitas; Strenuitas. Severitas (αὐηρότης) means earnestness, so far as it is seated in the mind; gravitas (from γεραιός) so far as it makes an impression on others; strenuitas (from στρηνής, δραίνω) so far as it shows itself in action. (ii. 129.)

Severus, see Austerus and Serius.

Sica, see Gladius.

Sicarius, see Homicida.

Siccus, see Aridus.

Sidus, see Stella.


Signum, see Imago.

Silere; Tacere; Reticere; Obticere. 1. Silere (from ἑλλός) means to be still, σιωπᾶν, in opp. to strepere, Suet. Aug. 94; whereas tacere (from tegere?) means to be silent, σιγᾶν, in opp. to loqui, dicere. And the compound word reticere, if a man has something to say, and keeps it to himself, in opp. to eloqui, proloqui; but obticere, if a man does not speak to one who asks or expects an explanation, in opp. to respondere. Cic. Harusp. 28. Sed tamen facile tacentibus cæteris reticuissem. 2. Tacens and tacitus denote being silent merely as a temporary state; tacens means any one who does not speak; tacitus, one who, when an opportunity for speaking offers, purposely refrains, and observes a significant silence; whereas taciturnus denotes silence as an habitual quality, like close and reserved. (i. 85.)

Silva; Saltus; Nemus; Lucus. Silva (ὕλη) denotes a wood, in a general sense, merely with reference to the timber, like ὕλη; whereas saltus (ἄλσος) as a wild place, or wood in the midst of mountains, like νάπη; nemus (νέμος) as a pleasant place, as a grove; lucus (λόχμη) as a sacred place, as a grove consecrated to the gods, like ἄλσος, ἆλτις. (ii. 93.)

Simpuvium, see Poculum.

Simul, see Una.

Simulacrum, see Imago.

Simulatio, see Imitatio.

Simultas, see Odium.

Sinere, see Ferre.

Singularis, s. Eminens.

Sinister; Lævus. Sinister (old Germ. winistra) denotes the left, as a usual and prosaic expression, like ἀριστερός; lævus (λαιός) as a select and poetical expression, like σκαιός. In a figurative sense sinister is the symbol of unpropitiousness and of disaster; lævus, of perverseness and of awkwardness. (vi. 336.)

Sinus, see Gremium.

Sistere; Inhibere; Statuere. Sistere and inhibere mean, to make any thing stand still; sistere (ἱστάναι) with reference to a living and running object; inhibere, to a lifeless object, that has merely 200 been put in motion; whereas statuere means to make any thing stand fast. (iv. 299.)

Situm esse, see Cubare.

Situs, see Lutum.

Societas, see Fœdus.

Socius; Sodalis; Amicus; Familiaris; Particeps; Consors. 1. Socii (from sequi) are bound by common interests to act together, as partners, companions, etc.; sodales and socienni, like ἑταῖροι, are bound only by being pleased with each to the common enjoyment of life, as comrades and good friends; but sodalis (from ἔθος, ἠθεῖος) is the more elevated, sociennus, a more comic expression. Socius is generally in construction with an objective genitive, which names the purpose of the sociatio; whereas sodalis only with a subjective genitive, which names the other sodalis; socius periculi, culpæ, but sodalis meus. 2. Sodalis is a good friend, with whom one stands in a sociable, that is to say, a calm state of intercourse; amicus, a friend, with whom one exchanges the sacred feeling of love and respect; familiaris, a confidant, to whom one is bound, as one heart and soul, in mirth and sorrow. 3. The socius rei is considered in the state of a fellow-laborer or fellow-sufferer; the particeps and consors as sharers in an enjoyment or in a possession; the particeps, because he voluntarily takes a part in a thing, in opp. to expers, like μέτοχος; the consors, because, without co-operating, he is entitled to a share, in opp. to exsors. Cic. Balb. 28. Fuit hic multorum illi laborum socius aliquando; est fortasse nunc nonnullorum particeps commodorum. Liv. xxi. 41, and Suet. Aug. 25. The co-regent is socius imperii, so far as he shares in the business of government; consors, so far as the office is merely honorary. (iv. 208.)

Socordia, see Ignavia.

Sodalis, see Socius.

Solemnia; Feriæ; Dies festi; Festa. Solemnia 201 means festivals, so far as they are solemn or regularly returning institutions; feriæ, so far as they are days of rest and recreation; festa, or, in prose, dies festi, so far as they are days of rejoicing. (vi. 339.)

Solere; Consuevisse; Adsolere. 1. Solere (from ἑλεῖν) is used of events and of actions, like φιλεῖν, to be used; whereas consuevisse only of an action, with reference to a person, like εἰωθέναι, to be wont. In Liv. xxxviii. 17, Hæc quibus insolita atque insueta sunt Græci timeant!—the word insolitus refers to the frequency of their appearance; insuetus, to the connection of their appearance with the individuality of the subject acting or suffering. 2. Solet is used indifferently; assolet involves praise, and may be resolved into recte or rite solet. (v. 73.)

Solers, see Sapiens.

Solicitare, see Lacessere.

Solicitudo, see Cura.

Solitudo; Vasta; Deserta; Tesca. Solitudo denotes the solitude of a place, indifferently or with praise; whereas vasta, deserta, tesca loca, with blame; vasta loca, as uncultivated wastes, in opp. to sulta; whereas deserta, as uninhabited deserts, in opp. to habitata; and tesca, or tesqua, (from tacere,) as lonely places, where an awful stillness reigns, in opp. to celebria. (iii. 226.)

Solum; Fundus; Vadum; Fundamentum. Solum, fundus, vadum, denote the natural ground and bottom of a thing; solum, that of the earth, on which one can place a firm foot, in opp. to the movable elements air and water; fundus (from fodere, βυθός,) that of a vessel, in opp. to the remaining space in the vessel; vadum (ἕδος) that of a river, ocean, or sea, in opp. to the water, which flows into it, or to standing water; whereas fundamentum denotes a foundation artificially laid, on which a building, etc. rests, and which, in addition to the solum, it particularly needs. Hence the proverbial phrase, Omnis res jam in vado est; like a swimmer who has reached the bottom 202 of the water: and Largitio fundum non habet, like the vessel of the Danaides. Cic. Brut. 74. Solum et quasi fundamentum oratoris vides. (v. 35.)

Solum, see Tellus.

Somnus; Sopor; Somnium; Insomnium. 1. Somnus (ὕπνος) denotes sleep, as a usual prosaic expression; sopor (ὕπαρ) as a select poetical expression. In prose sopor has only a causative meaning, a means of producing sleep, but not a deep sleep. 2. Somnium denotes a dream, in prose, like ὄναρ; insomnium, in poetry, like ἐνύπνιον. (v. 278.)

Sonitus, see Fragor.

Sons, see Culpa.

Sopor, see Somnus.

Sordes, see Lutum.

Sospes, see Salvus.

Sparsi, see Passi.

Spatiari, see Ambulare.

Species, see Figura.

Spectare, see Videre.

Spectrum; Mostellum; Manes; Lemures. Spectrum denotes the apparition of a departed spirit, as a supernatural appearance; mostellum (dimin. from monstrum) as a horrible apparition; manes (from ἀμενηνὰ κάρηνα) as the apparition of a good spirit; lemures, as that of a hobgoblin. (vi. 344.)

Speculator, see Explorator.

Specus; Caverna; Antrum; Spelunca; Spelæum; Fovea; Scrobs. 1. Specus and caverna are cavities, whether under-ground, or on a level with the ground,—consequently, a species of antrum; spelunca and spelæum, cavities with a perpendicular opening, leading up into a mountain; scrobs, fovea, and favissa, pits with an horizontal opening, leading down into the earth. 2. Specus (σπέος) is a gap, with a longish opening; caverna (from κύαρ) a hole, with a round opening. 3. Spelunca (σπήλυγξ) is a cavity, in a merely physical relation, with reference to its darkness and dreadfulness; antrum (ἄντρον) a grotto, as a beautiful object, with reference to its romantic appearance and cooling temperature; lastly, spelæum (σπήλαιον) is used only by the 203 poets, as the abode and lurking-hole of wild beasts. 4. Fovea (from φύειν) is a pit meant to remain open, or only covered in order to keep in or to catch a wild beast; scrobs, a pit meant to be filled up again, and only dug, in order to bury something, the root of a tree, for instance, or a corpse. (v. 140.)

Sperare, see Vereri.

Spernere; Contemnere; Despicere; Aspernari; Recusare; Fastidire; Negligere. 1. Spernimus rejicienda, fugienda ut libidines. Contemnimus magna, metuenda ut pericula, mortem. Despicimus infra nos posita, ut vulgi opiniones; according to Lambinus. Or, spernere, spernari, aspernari (ἐκπέραίνειν) mean, not to care for a thing, in opp. to appetere, concupisse, Cic. Fin. ii. 10, 51. Plaut. Mil. iv. 2, 59, something like ἀποβάλλειν; whereas contemnere, poetically temnere (from temere), not to fear a thing, in opp. to timere, metuere, Cic. Fam. vii. 32. Att. ii. 24. Sen. Prov. 6. Tac. H. ii. 92, like καταφρονεῖν; lastly, despicere, despectare, not to value a thing, in opp. to suspicere, revereri, admirari. Cic. Off. ii. 11, 38. Tac. Ann. ii. 43, like ὀλιγωρεῖν. 2. Spernere denotes despising, as an inward feeling, synonymously with parvi putare, negligere; spernari, and the more usual word, aspernari, as an utterance of that feeling, synonymously with recusare, abnuere, rejicere, like waving from one. In spernere, the notion of holding cheap predominates; in aspernari, that of aversion or rejection. Spernere refers to an object which is at one’s command; aspernari, to something offered to us, or obtruded upon us. 3. Aspernari is confined to the simple avowal of aversion; whereas recusare includes the decided declaration of unwillingness. Curt. vi. 6, 7. Principes aspernantes quidem, sed recusare non ausos Persicis ornaverat vestibus. 4. The spernens follows a moral and rational aversion, and acts more or less with a consciousness of his grounds for despising anything; whereas the 204 fastidiens follows a physical and instinctive aversion, whether it be an innate or temporary antipathy, which arises either from an actual loathing, or from what appears like it; lastly, the negligens follows the suggestion neither of reason, nor yet of instinct and feeling, but acts without thought or purpose. (ii. 178.)

Sphæra, see Globus.

Spica, see Culmus.

Spiritus, see Anima.

Spissus, see Angustus.

Splendere, see Lucere.

Spolia, see Præda.

Spoliare, see Vastare.

Spondere, see Polliceri.

Sponsor; Vas; Præs. Sponsor is a surety in a general sense, who guarantees any thing whatever; whereas vas and præs are sureties in a court of justice; vas (from ἄεθλος) one who gives security for the appearance of one or other party in court; præs, who gives security for a claim of government. (iv. 113.)

Sponte; Ultro; Sua sponte; Voluntate; Libenter. 1. Sponte (πόθος) means voluntarily; whereas ultro, in an over-ready manner; so that sponte refers to the mind of the agent, ultro to the thing itself. Liv. x. 19. Orare ne collegæ auxilium, quod acciendum ultro fuerit, sua sponte oblatum sperneretur; and Tac. Hist. iv. 79. Suet. Cæs. 6. Sponte accusare means to accuse of one’s own accord; whereas ultro accusare means to obtrude one’s self into the office of an accuser, when one should be satisfied with not being one’s self accused; according to which, ultro accusavit may be resolved into the complete phrase: Haud contentus non accusari ab altero, ultro etiam progressus est, ut ipse accusaret alterum, or, ultro progressus accusavit alterum. 2. Sponte, from choice, is in opp. to casu, or necessitate, Colum. ii. 1, 13. Plin. Ep. v. 14. Tac. Ann. vi. 23; whereas sua sponte, quite of one’s own accord, like αὐτομάτως, in opp. to rogatus, provocatus, or invitatus. Cæs. B. G. i. 44. Cic. Fam. i. 7. iv. 3. vii. 5. (iii. 103.) 3. Sponte and spontaneus, like ἑκών and ἑκούσιος, paint the voluntary action as an act of the understanding; 205 voluntate and voluntarius, like ἐθελοντής, as an act of the will, in opp. to invite; libenter and libens, like ἄσμενος, as an act of feeling, in opp. to tædio. (iv. 277.)

Squalor, see Lutum.

Stagnum, see Lacuna.

Statim, see Repente.

Stationes, see Excubiæ.

Statua, see Imago.

Statuere, see Destinare and Sistere.

Status, see Conditio.

Stella; Astrum; Sidus. Stella (dimin. of ἀστήρ) means any one of the innumerable individual stars, like ἀστήρ; astrum (ἄστρον), any one of the greater bright heavenly bodies, the sun, moon, and principal stars, with their peculiar names, like ἄστρον; sidus (εἶδος), a complication of stars, a constellation, and, by affinity of the notion with number and magnitude, a great star, like τέρας, τείρεα. Astrum and stella denote the stars more in a mere physical relation, as bright heavenly bodies; sidus, more in an astronomical and astrological relation, as portentous and influencing human affairs. Sen. Helv. 9. Dum ortus siderum, occasus intervallaque, et causas investigare velocius meandi vel tardius spectare tot per noctem stellas micantes liceat. (iv. 409.)

Stercus, see Lutum.

Stilla, see Gutta.

Stimulare, see Pungere.

Stipator, see Satelles.

Stipes; Vallus; Palus; Sudes. Stipes and vallus mean a larger sort of pale or stake, like a pole or the stem of a tree, which must be driven into the earth with a rammer; stipes serves for various uses, in war and upon other occasions; vallus (the dimin. of σύαρος?) is chiefly used as a palisade; whereas palus and sudes mean a smaller sort of stake, which may be driven into the earth in the ordinary way; palus (from pangere) serves for various uses, as a hedge-stake, etc., and especially for fastening any thing to it; sudes (from ὄζος?) is also used, on account of its spike, for a palisade, a lance, a javelin. (iv. 324.)

Stipula, see Culmus.


Stiria, see Gutta.

Stirps; Genus; Gens; Prosapia; Posteritas; Progenies; Proles; Suboles. 1. Stirps, genus, and gens, denote the race usually in an ascending line, as abstract and collective terms, for majores; whereas prosapia, progenies, propago, proles, suboles, in a descending line, as abstract and collective terms for posteri. 2. Prosapia is an antiquated solemn expression, and only to be used of ancient noble families, Cic. Univ. 11. Quintil. i. 6, 40; posteritas, the usual prosaic, progenies, a select, elevated expression, Cic. Rep. ii. 22; proles and suboles, poetical expressions, Cic. Or. iii. 38; proles denotes children, as fruits destined, as a younger race, to exist with their parents; suboles, as an after-growth, destined to supply the place of the generation that is dying off. 3. Gens (γενετή) is a political, genus (γένος), a natural race. Gens consists of families, whom the founder of states has united into a community or complex family; genus consists of species and individuals, that by their common properties belong to one and the same class of beings. (v. 307).

Stirps; Truncus. Stirps (στέριφος) denotes the stock as the animating and supporting principal part of a tree, in opp. to the branches and leaves, as growing from it and dependent upon it; truncus, the naked, dry part of the tree, in opp. to the branches and leaves, and even to the top itself, as its ornament; in short, so far as it answers to the trunk of the human body. (iv. 322.)

Stolidus, see Stupidus.

Stolo, see Rami.

Stomachari, see Succensere.

Strabo; Pætus. Strabo (στραβός) means, one who squints from nature, or sickness, or bad habit; whereas pætus, one who squints designedly and waggishly. (vi. 350.)


Strages, see Ruina.

Strenuitas, see Severitas.

Strepidus, see Fragor.

Strues, see Acervus.

Studium; Benevolentia; Favor; Gratia. 1. Studium is usually the attachment and dependent feeling of the lower towards the higher, of the soldier towards the general, of the subject towards the ruler, of the scholar towards the teacher, of the individual towards his party; whereas favor is the love and favor of the higher towards the lower, of the public towards the player, of the people towards the candidate, of the judge towards one of the parties, etc.; lastly, benevolentia is love and good-will towards one of equal rank. In Cic. Rosc. Com. 10. Quod studium et quem favorem secum in scenam attulit Panurgus? the public is first considered as an auditor, then as a judge of the player. Orat. i. 21. Ego qui incensus essem studio utriusque vestrûm, Crassi vero etiam amore. 2. Studium, favor, and benevolentia, denote a temporary affection, occasioned by and contracted from external circumstances,—consequently, of a quieter, or entirely latent sort; whereas amor is love deeply rooted in the soul, bordering on passion. Cic. Fam. i. 9. Nihil est quod studio et benevolentia vel potius amore effici non possit. Att. v. 10. Amores hominum in te, et in nos quædam benevolentia. 3. Favor is, subjectively, the favor which a person entertains towards another, in opp. almost to invidentia; whereas gratia is, objectively, the favor in which a person stands with another, in opp. to invidia. (iv. 106.)

Stupens, see Attonitus.

Stupidus; Brutus; Bardus; Stultus; Fatuus; Stolidus. Stupidus, brutus, and bardus, denote a merely negative quality, want of intellect; stupidus (from τύφω, ταφεῖν), that of a human being who comprehends with difficulty, as dull-witted, like ἀναίσθητος; brutus (μαυρωτός), that of beasts, and of men whose organization is like that of beasts, who comprehend nothing, as without reason, like βλάξ; bardus, who comprehends slowly, as without talent, like 208 βραδύς; whereas stultus, fatuus, and stolidus, denote a positive quality of the mind, which has false notions and a perverse judgment; stultus (from τέλλω, ἀτάλλω, ἀταλόφρων), a want of practical wisdom, as folly, like μωρός, in opp. to prudens; fatuus, a want of æsthetical judgment, as silliness; stolidus, a want of reasonable moderation, as brutality. Liv. xxv. 19. Id non promissum magis stolide quam stulte creditum. (iv. 229.)

Suavis; Dulcis. Suavis (ἠΰς) denotes, like ἡδύς, a pleasant odor, and, figuratively that which gives a calm pleasure; dulcis, like γλυκύς, a pleasant flavor, and, figuratively, that which gives a lively pleasure; hence dulcis is a stronger expression than suavis, in Plin. Ep. v. 8, 10. Hæc vel maxima vi, amaritudine, instantia; illa tractu et suavitate, atque etiam dulcedine placet. Plin. H. N. xv. 27. Dulce, et pingue, et suave. (iii. 256.)

Suavium, see Osculum.

Subito, see Repente.

Sublimis, see Altus.

Suboles, see Stirps.

Succensere; Irasci; Indignari; Stomachari. Succensere and ægre, graviter, moleste, difficiliter ferre, to take any thing ill, denote a silent, irasci, indignari, and stomachari, a loud displeasure; ira, anger, has the character of a passion, inasmuch as it thirsts after vengeance; indignatio, indignation, that of an awakened or excited moral feeling, inasmuch as it expresses with energy its disapprobation or contempt; stomachatio, a fit of passion, that of a choleric temperament, inasmuch as it suffers the bile to overflow, and gives vent to its irritability by blustering and brawling. The iratus makes his appearance as an enemy, and excites fear; the indignabundus, as a judge, and inspires awe; the stomachans, as a hypochondriac, and is a subject for comedy. (v. 119.)

Sudes, see Fustis and Stipes.

Suffragium, see Sententia.


Suffugium, see Perfuga.

Sulcus, see Porca.

Sumere; Capere; Prehendere; Accipere; Excipere; Recipere; Suscipere; Recuperare. 1. Sumere (sub-imere) means to take up any thing, in order to use it, like αἱρεῖν; capere (from κάπτειν) to lay hold on any thing, in order to possess it, like λαβεῖν; lastly prehendere, præhendere (from χανδάνειν) to lay hold on any thing, in order, in a mere physical sense, to have it in one’s hand. Cic. Phil. xii. 7. Saga sumpsimus, arma cepimus. 2. Accipere means to take any thing offered, with willingness, δέχεσθαι; excipere, to intercept, or catch any thing that is escaping, ὑποδέχεσθαι; recipere, to take any thing that wants protection, with a generous feeling; suscipere, to undertake, or take upon one’s self any thing burdensome, with self-denial. The accipiens usually takes in his hand; the excipiens, in his arms; the recipiens, in his bosom; the suscipiens, on his arm or back. 3. Recipere means to receive again, without taking pains; whereas recuperare, to regain by one’s own exertion. Liv. xiii. 53, urbem recipit, by merely taking possession; comp. with xxvi. 39, urbe recuperata, by conquest. (iv. 131.)

Summus; Supremus. Summus (superl. of sub) denotes the uppermost, indifferently, and with mere local reference, like ἄκρος, in opp. to imus. Rhet. ad Her. iii. 18. Cic. Rosc. Com. 7. Vell. P. ii. 2. Tac. H. iv. 47; whereas supremus is a poetical and solemn expression, with the accessory notion of elevation, like ὕπατος, almost in opp. to infimus. (iv. 357.)

Sumptus; Impensæ. Sumptus means expense, so far as it diminishes wealth and capital, allied to prodigality; impensæ, so far as it serves to the attainment of an object, allied to sacrifice. (vi. 357.)

Superare, see Vincere.

Superbia; Arrogantia; Fastus; Insolentia. Superbia, from self-sufficiency, thinks others 210 beneath itself, and considers them only as to the inferiority of their endowments; pride, in opp. to humility, arrogantia would make others, who owe it no homage, sensible of its endowments or privileges, in opp. to modesty; fastus (from σπαθᾶν?) pushes men from itself, as unworthy to stand in connection with it, as a presumptuous, in opp. to a sober, unassuming disposition; insolentia (from salire, insilire,) misemploys its superiority, in a rude manner, to the humiliation of the weaker, as insolence, in opp. to humanity and magnanimity. The superbus would outshine others, the arrogans would encroach upon them; the fastosus despises them; the insolens insults them. (iv. 187.)

Superesse, see Restare.

Supplementum, see Complementum.

Supplicare, see Rogare.

Supremus, see Summus.

Surculus, see Rami.

Surripere, see Demere.

Sus; Verres; Scrofa; Porcus. Sus (ὗς, σῦς,) is the most general name for swine, and that which is used by natural historians, like ὗς; verres, scrofa, porcus, are economical names; verres (from ἔρσης), a boar-pig; scrofa (γρομφάς), a sow kept for breeding; porcus (πόρκος), a young pig, like χοῖρος. With sus is associated the accessory notion of filthiness; with porcus, that of fatness. (v. 335.)

Suscipere, see Sumere.

Suspicere, see Vereri.

Suspirare; Gemere. Suspirare, to sigh, is a deep drawing of the breath and then forcible emission of it, as the immediate consequence of an afflicted heart; whereas gemere (γέμειν), to groan, is more of a voluntary act, in order to give vent to the afflicted heart; hence suspirium is more an expression of uneasiness and distress, gemitus of actual pain. Cic. Att. ii. 21. Cum diu occulte suspirassent; postea jam gemere, ad extremum vero loqui omnes et clamare cœperunt. (v. 244.)

Sustinere, Sustentare, see Ferre.



Taberna, see Deversorium.

Tabulæ, see Axes.

Tacere, Taciturnus, see Silere.

Tæda, see Fax.

Tædet, see Piget.

Tæter, see Teter.

Talea, see Rami.

Talio, see Vindicta.

Tardare, see Manere.

Tardus; Lentus. Tardus denotes slowness, with reference to the great length of time spent, in opp. to citus, Sall. Cat. 5; whereas lentus, with reference to quietness of motion, in opp. to acer, etc. Quintil. ix. 4. (iv. 218.)

Tellus; Terra; Solum; Humus. Tellus denotes the earth as a whole, as the centre of the universe, as a goddess, in opp. to other bodies in the universe, or other divinities, like Γαῖα, Γῆ; whereas terra (τέρσω, torreo,) as matter and one of the elements in opp. to the other elements, like γαῖα, γῆ); solum (ὅλον) as a solid element, in opp. especially to water, like πέδον; lastly, humus (χθών, χαμαί), as the lowest part of the visible world, in opp. to the sky, like χθών. Hence the derivative terrenus is in opp. to igneus; solidus is in opp. to fluidus; lastly, humilis, in opp. to sublimis. (i. 173.)

Temetum, see Vinum.

Temperatio, see Modus.

Tempestas, see Ventus.

Templum; Fanum; Delubrum; Ædes; Sacellum. 1. Templum, fanum, and delubrum, denote properly the temple, together with the consecrated environs, like ἱερόν; whereas ædes, the building only, like ναός; lastly, sacellum, a consecrated place without the building, with merely an altar. 2. In a narrower sense, templum denotes a great temple of one of the principal gods; whereas fanum and delubrum, a smaller temple of an inferior god, or of a hero, etc.


Tempus, see Dies.

Temulentus, see Ebrietas.

Tenebræ, see Obscurum.

Tenere; Habere; Possidere. Tenere (from τείνειν) means, to have anything fast in one’s hand, and in physical possession; habere (from σχέω) to have in one’s power, and in effective possession; possidere (from ποτί and sedere) to have, as one’s own property, and in legal possession, Plin. Ep. i. 16. Tenet, habet, possidet. (vi. 366.)

Tentare; Experiri; Periclitari; Periculum; Discrimen. 1. Tentare means, to make an experiment, in order to form a judgment of something, from a desire of knowledge, and with activity; periclitari, with courage and contempt of the danger associated with the experiment; experiri, merely to learn something by actual experiment. 2. Periculum denotes danger, as occupying duration, of time; discrimen, as a point of time, as the critical moment and the culminating point of periculum. Liv. vi. 17. In ipso discrimine periculi destituat. (v. 263.)

Tenuis, see Exilis.

Terere, see Lævis.

Tergum, see Dorsum.

Tergus; Cutis; Pellis; Vellus. Tergus and cutis denote the outermost covering of the flesh, as merely bare skin; tergus (from στορχάζειν, to enclose), the coarse skin of an animal, which covers the soft and eatable flesh, like δέρμα; cutis (κύτος), the finer skin of human beings, which protects the sensitive flesh like χρώς; whereas pellis and vellus denote the flesh together with a covering; pellis (from palla) more bristly, consisting of pili, like δορά; vellus (from εἶλαρ? or villus?), more woolly, consisting of villi, like μαλλός. Men have cutis; elephants, snakes, etc. tergora; lions, goats, dogs, etc., pelles; sheep, vellera. Juven. x. 192. Deformem pro cute pellem. (v. 17.)

Termes, see Rami.

Terminare, Terminus, see Finire, Finis.

Teter; Fœdus; Turpis; Deformis. Teter, tæter 213 (ἀταρτηρός) is the ugliness which disturbs the feeling of security, and excites fear or shuddering, like hideous, shocking, βλοσυρός; fœdus (ψοῖθος), that which offends natural feelings, and excites loathing and aversion, like μιαρός; turpis (from torpere) that which offends the moral feeling, or sense of decency, and excites disapprobation or contempt, in opp. to honestus, gloriosus, like αἰσχρός; deformis, that which offends the finer sensations, and excites dislike, in opp. to formosus, like δυσειδής. Cic. Off. i. 34. Luxuria cum omni ætate turpis, tum senectuti fœdissima est. Rep. ii. 26. Tyrannus quo neque tetrius neque fœdius . . . animal ullum cogitari potest. Vatin. 3. Quanquam sis omni diritate teterrimus. Vell. Pat. ii. 69. In Vatinio deformitas corporis cum turpitudine certabat ingenii. (v. 111.)

Tesca, see Solitudo.

Tetricus, see Austerus.

Tignum, see Trabes.

Timere, Timor, see Vereri.

Titubare, see Labare.

Tolerare, see Ferre.

Tormentum, s. Cruciatus.

Torquere, see Vertere.

Torridus, see Aridus.

Torvus, see Atrox.

Totus, see Quisque.

Toxicum; Venenum; Virus. Toxicum (from taxus) denotes poison, as a mere term in natural history, without accessory reference; venenum, as an artificial poison, of a sweet and tempting flavor; virus (εἶαρ, ἰός), as a noxious and distasteful juice or drink. Liv. ii. 52. Tribuni plebem agitare suo veneno, agraria lege; comp. with Cic. Læl. 23. Evomat virus acerbitatis suæ. (v. 355.)

Trabes; Tignum. Trabes, trabs (τράφηξ) denotes a longer and narrower beam, like a pole; tignum, a shorter and thicker beam, like a block. A raft consists of trabes, not of tigna; whereas the wood-work of a building, which, as a pillar, is destined to support something, is composed of tigna, not of trabes, by which the cross-beams only are denoted. Cæs. B. Civ. 214 ii. 9. Supra eum locum duo tigna transversa injecerunt, quibus suspenderent eam contignationem supraque ea tigna directo transversas trabes injecerunt easque axibus religaverunt. (v. 290.)

Tractus, see Locus.

Tragulum, see Missile.

Trames, see Iter.

Tranquillus, see Quietus.

Trans; Uls; Ultra. Trans and uls, like περᾶν, in opp. to cis, denote, on the other side, with the character of unaccented prepositions, as a mere geometrical designation of place, like super; trans (τρανές) is the usual, uls the antiquated and obsolete expression; whereas ultra (comparative from ollus, ille), like πέρα, in opp. to citra, with emphasis and distinction of the relative distance of that which lies on the other side, like supra. The separation denoted by ultra is merely that of a boundary; the separation denoted by trans, that of an obstruction. Tac. Germ. 29. Protulit magnitudo populi Romani ultra Rhenum ultraque veteres terminos imperil reverentiam . . . Non numeraverim inter Germaniæ populos, quanquam trans Rhenum Danubiumque considerint, eos, qui decumates agros exercent. Eutrop. vii. 9. Liv. xxii. 43. Tac. Ann. xvi. 17. (iii. 109.)

Transfuga, see Perfuga.

Transversus; Obliquus. Transversum means, that which crosses a straight line at right angles, like across; obliquum, that which is not perpendicular to a straight line, but forms with it unequal angles, the one acute, the other obtuse, like awry or slanting. (vi. 375.)

Tribuere, see Impertire.

Tristitia, see Dolor.

Troicus, Troius, see Achivi.

Trucidare, s. Interficere.

Truculentus, s. Atrox.

Trudis, see Fustis.

Truncare, see Mutilare.

Truncus, see Stirps.

Trux, see Atrox.

Tueri; Defendere. Tueri (from στοχάζεσθαι) supposes only possible danger, as to protect, in opp. to negligere, Cic. Fin. iv. 14; defendere, an actual 215 attack, as to defend, in opp. to deserere. Hence those that are under age have tutores; those that are accused, defensores. The tuens shows more of carefulness and love, as seeking to prevent danger; the defendens, more of spirit and strength, as resisting danger. (iv. 307.)

Tumere, see Turgere.

Tumulus, see Collis.

Turba, see Caterva.

Turbæ; Tumultus; Seditio; Secessio; Deficere; Desciscere. Turbæ and tumultus denote the civil broils of public life; turbæ (τύρβη) interruptions of public order; tumultus (from tumere) of the public peace; whereas seditio and secessio are political commotions, in consequence of decided, evident differences of opinion, and of conflicting principles; seditio (from se and ire) when concord is first disturbed, and the parties as yet contend with words only; secessio, when the prospect of reconciliation is already given up, and the parties either stand opposite each other, ready to come to blows, or, at least, have broken off all connection with each other. 2. The seditiosi and secedentes are citizens and members of a free community, and only suspend public concord; whereas the deficientes and desciscentes break a compact, because, either as subjected states they rebel, or as allies fall off; deficere, as the most general expression, represents the falling off, in a moral point of view, as a treacherous, fickle, cowardly desertion; desciscere (from scindere) in a political point of view, as an alteration in the constitution and political system. (v. 363.)

Turbo, see Ventus.

Turgere; Tumere. Turgere (τραγᾷν) denotes being swoln, with reference to actual corpulency and fulness, like σπαργᾶν, σφριγᾶν; whereas tumere (from στόμφος) with reference to concealed nothingness and emptiness, like οἰδᾶν. Hence sails are called turgida, 216 inasmuch as the wind, which swells them out, is something, and actually fills them; and tumida, inasmuch as it is merely air, consequently nothing, and only seems to fill them. (iv. 191.)

Turio, see Rami.

Turpis, see Teter.

Tutus; Securus; Incuriosus. 1. Tutus denotes safety objectively, he who actually is safe, like ἀσφαλής; securus (sine cura) subjectively, he who thinks himself safe; hence tutus is used for provident, with reference to foresight; securus is used as a softer expression, for improvident, with reference to the want of foresight. Sen. Ep. 97. Tuta scelera esse possunt, secura non possunt: and 105. The substantive securitas, however, must be used to supply the want of a similar substantive from tutus. 2. Securus, securitas, denote freedom from care and anxiety merely as a state of mind, like ἀμέριμνος, in opp. to sollicitus, Tac. Hist. iv. 58; whereas incuriosus, incuria, denote the want of carefulness and attention, with a practical reference, like heedless, ὀλίγωρος, in opp. to cura. Sen. Ep. 100. Fabianus non erat negligens in oratione, sed securus. (iii. 120.)


Uber, see Fœcundus and Mamma.

Udus; Uvidus; Humidus; Aquosus; Madidus. 1. Uvidum and udum (ὑάς, vadum, from ὕω, uveo) denote, like ὑγρόν, the wetness which consists entirely of water or other fluid particles, whether actually, apparently, or only by hyperbole, humore constans; whereas humidum and humectum (from χυμός) is the wetness which is caused by water soaking through, humore mixtum. Senec. N. Q. ii. 25. Dicis nubes attritas edere ignem cum sint humidæ, imo udæ. Hence is udus (in opp. to sudus and solidus) used by Tertullian as 217 synonymous with aquanus; whereas humidus (in opp. to aridus) is synonymous with aquosus, only that by aquosus is meant a separation and juxta-position of wet and dry; by humidus, a mixture and association of wet and dry; hence pratum aquosum means a meadow with ponds and puddles; pratum humidum, a meadow soaked with water. 2. Udus is only a contracted form of uvidus; humectus is distinguished from humidus only as a sort of participle. Pacuv. ap. Varr. Terra exhalabat auroram humidam, humectam. 3. Humidus, humens, refer, like moist, to the inward quality of a body; whereas madidus, madens, like μυδαλέος and dripping, only to the exterior and surface of a body, in opp. to siccus. Cic. Phil. xiv. 3. Imbuti sanguine gladii legionum exercituumque nostrorum, vel madefacti potius duobus consulum, tertio Cæsaris prœlio; for imbuere, as the causative of imbibere, refers to a humectatio, a moisture of the inner part; madefieri, to a redundatio, the cause of which lies in this, that the inner part is so over-full, that nothing further can be forced into it. (ii. 12.)

Ulcus, see Vulnus.

Uligo, see Lacuna.

Ulna; Lacertus; Brachium; Cubitus. Ulna (ὠλένη) is the whole arm, from the shoulder to the hand, which serves as a measure, an ell; lacertus (ἀλκή) the upper arm; brachium (βράγχιον, βραχίων), the under-arm; cubitus, the bending between the two, the elbow. (vi. 383.)

Uls, Ultra, see Trans.

Ultimus, see Extremus.

Ultio, s. Vindicta.

Ultro, s. Præterea and Sponte.

Umbrosus, see Obscurus.

Una; Simul. Una means together, at the same place, like ὁμοῦ; whereas simul (ὁμαλῶς) at once, at the same time or moment, like ἅμα.

Unctus, see Delibutus.

Uncus, see Curvus.

Unda, see Aqua.

Unicus, see Eminens.

Universus, Unusquisque, see Quisque.

Usque, see Semper.

Usura, see Fænus.


Usurpare, see Uti.

Uterque; Ambo; Utervis; Uterlibet. 1. Uterque denotes ‘both,’ as two unities, like ἑκάτερος; ambo, as the halves of a pair, like ἄμφω. Cic. Fin. ii. 7. Hic, qui utramque probat, ambobus debuit uti. Orat. 6, 21. Terent. Ad. i. 2, 50. Curemus æquam uterque partem; tu alterum, ego alterum; nam ambos curare propemodum reposcere illum est quem dedisti. Plin. Pan. 90, 4. Vell. P. ii. 66. This difference is palpable from Cic. Mur. 18, 37. Duæ res vehementer in prætura desideratæ sunt, quæ ambæ in consulatu Murenæ profuerunt . . . . Horum utrumque ei fortuna ad consulatus petitionem reservavit. And Orat. iii. 26. A quibus utrisque submittitur aliquid. 2. Uterque and ambo are copulative, and may be resolved into unus et alter, and have their predicate actually in common; whereas utervis and uterlibet are disjunctive, and may be resolved into unus vel alter, and have their predicate in common only by possibility. Ter. Andr. prol. 10. Qui utramvis recte norit, ambos noverit. (iv. 349.)

Uti; Usurpare; Frui; Frunisci. Uti and usurpare denote the mere act of using, by which a person turns a thing to his advantage; but uti (from οἴω) a permanent use; usurpare (usui rapere) a single act of using; whereas frui and the antiquated word frunisci (from φρονεῖν), the pleasant feeling of this use, as to enjoy; frui is the primitive, frunisci the inchoative of the verb. Sen. Vit. B. 10. Tu voluptate frueris, ego utor. Flor. ii. 6. Hannibal cum victoria posset uti, frui maluit. Cic. Rosc. Am. 45, 131. Commoda, quibus utimur, lucem, qua fruimur, spiritumque, quem ducimus, a Deo nobis dari. Cic. Cat. iii. 2, 5. Quorum opera . . . assidue utor; comp. with Fin. ii. 35, 118. In ea, quam sæpe usurpabas, tranquillitate degere omnem vitam. Cic. Orat. 51, 169. Post inventa conclusio est, qua credo usuros veteres illos fuisse, si jam nota et usurpata res esset. (iii. 134.)


Utique, see Plane.

Uvidus, see Udus.

Uxor, see Fœmina.


Vacare; Otiari; Feriari; Cessare; Nihil agere. Vacare (from ἧκα?) means to have one’s time free, in opp. to occupatio, which compels one to work; otiari (from αὔσιος, αὔτως), to be at leisure, in opp. to negotia, which oblige one to work; feriari, to enjoy a holiday, in opp. to working all day; cessare (from cedere? or from καθίζειν?), to make a half-holiday, and enjoy a short cessation, in opp. to previous activity; nihil agere, to do nothing, in opp. to activity in general. (vi. 388.)

Vacillare, see Labare.

Vacuus, see Inanis.

Vadere, see Ire.

Vadum, see Solum.

Vafer, see Astutus.

Vagari, see Errare.

Valde, see Perquam.

Vale, see Ave.

Valens, see Salus.

Valere, see Posse.

Valetudo, see Æger.

Validus; Firmus; Robustus. 1. Validus (from ὅλος, οὖλος), means strong, in an active sense, as able to perform something, in opp. to imbecillis, Cic. Fam. vii. 1. Plin. H. N. xiv. 21, like σθεναρός; whereas firmus and robustus, in a passive sense, as able to endure; firmum (from φράξαι, φάργνυμι), strong from an immovable position, and, consequently, stedfast, in opp. to labans, vacillans, and, for want of a corresponding adjective, to imbecillus, Cic. Fam. ix. 16. Sall. Jug. 10. Quintil. v. 10, 49, like βέβαιος; robustum (from ἐῤῥῶσθαι) through its compact nature, and its impenetrable and, consequently, durable materials, nearly in opp. to tenerum, like ῥωμαλέος and ἰσχυρός. 2. Imbecillitas denotes generally a mental, infirmitas, a bodily weakness, according to Cic. Fin. v. 45. In infirma ætate, imbecillaque mente: 220 both are sometimes used in a mental sense, in which case imbecillitas denotes a natural weakness of the head or heart, a want of talent or of spirit; whereas infirmitas, a moral weakness of character, fickleness and uncertainty, for example: Cæs. B. G. vii. 77. Nolite stultitia ac temeritate vestra aut imbecillitate animi omnem Galliam prosternere; comp. with iv. 5. Cæsar infirmitatem Gallorum veritus, quod sunt in consiliis capiendis mobiles et rebus plerumque novis student. Or, Cic. Divin. ii. 60, with Fam. xv. 1. Or, Tac. Ann. iv. 8, with Hist. i. 9. (iv. 164.)

Vallum, see Agger.

Vallus, see Stipes.

Valvæ, see Ostium.

Varius; Diversus; Contrarius; Versicolor; Variegare. 1. Varium (from αἰόλος) means, possessing differences in its own texture, varied; whereas diversum, differing from something else, distinct. Catull. 47, 10. Quos longe simul a domo profectos diverse variæ viæ reportant; that is, whom various ways, in an entirely different direction, bring home. Tac. Hist. i. 25. Otho postquam vario sermone callidos et audaces cognovit pretio et promissis onerat . . . Suspensos cæterorum animos diversis artibus (namely, spe et metu) stimulant. 2. The diversa will have nothing in common, and go different or even opposite ways from each other; whereas the contraria confront and stand directly opposite to each other. Hence the following climax in Cic. Divin. ii. 26, 55. Diversas aut etiam contrarias. Vell. Pat. ii. 75. Diversa præsentibus et contraria exspectatis sperare. Quintil. v. 10, 26. 3. Varium denotes variegated, as exhibiting different colors at the same time, like ποικίλον; whereas versicolor, that which changes its color, according to the light in which it is held, like αἰόλον. Propert. iii. 13, 32. Aut variam plumæ versicoloris avem. Pliny is describing two different properties, xxxvii. 10, when he describes the stone Mithrax, as at the same time multicolor and contra solem varie refulgens. 221 4. Variare means to give a varied appearance in general; variegare, to give a varied appearance, especially by different colors. (iii. 269.)

Vas, see Sponsor.

Vasta, see Solitudo.

Vastare; Populari; Diripere; Agere ferre; Expilare; Spoliare; Peculari. 1. Vastare (from ustus?) means to lay waste, from rage or from policy to destroy the property of an enemy, like πέρθειν, πορθεῖν; whereas populari, diripere, and agere ferre, to plunder for one’s own use; populari, on a great scale, for example, to lay waste all the crops, and drive off the herds; diripere, on a small scale, to break into the houses, and break open the closets; agere ferre includes both meanings, like ἄγειν καὶ φέρειν. 2. Spoliare and populari mean to plunder, in a state of open warfare; whereas expilare and peculari, depeculari, in a state of peace; expilare (ψιλόω) by open force; peculari (dimin. of πέκω) by fraud, and by secretly purloining the property of the state. Cic. Parad. vi. 1. Si socios spolias, ærarium expilas. (iv. 339.)

Vates, see Canere.

Vaticinari, see Divinare and Hariolari.

Vecors, see Amens.

Vegetus, see Vigens.

Vehemens, see Acer.

Velle; Optare; Expetere; Cupere; Avere; Gestire. 1. Velle, optare, and expetere, are acts of calm reason and self-determination; whereas cupere, avere, and gestire, acts of excited feeling and of passion. Senec. Ep. 116. Cum tibi cupere interdixero, velle permittam. 2. Velle (ἑλεῖν) means to wish, and co-operate towards the realization of one’s wish, like θέλειν and βούλεσθαι; optare (from ποθεῖν) to wish, and leave the realization of one’s wish to others, or to fate, like ποθεῖν; expetere, to wish, and apply to others for the realization of one’s wish, like ὀρέγεσθαι. Sen. Ep. 95. Sæpe 222 aliud volumus, aliud optamus. Cic. Off. i. 20. Nihil nisi quod honestum sit homines aut admirari aut optare aut expetere oportet. 3. Cupere (κάπτειν) denotes a vehement, passionate desire; gestire (γηθεῖν), a lively desire, showing itself by gestures; avere (from χαίνειν, χάος), an impatient, hasty desire. Cupidus means, being eagerly desirous of something, like ἐπιθυμῶν; gestiens, rejoicing in anticipation of something, like χρῄζων; avidus, being greedy after something. Cic. Sen. 8. Græcas literas sic avide arripui, quasi diuturnam sitim explere cupiens; comp. with Att. ii. 18. Intellexi quam suspenso animo et sollicito scire averes, quid esset novi. And, iv. 11. Perge reliqua; gestio scire ista omnia. (v. 57.)

Vellus, see Tergus.

Velox, see Citus.

Vendere; Venundare; Mancipare. Vendere and venundare denote the selling of any thing as a mercantile act; but in vendere (ἀναδοῦναι) the disposing of the thing is the principal notion, the price merely secondary, in opp. to emere, like ἀποδόσθαι; in venundare, the previous having for sale, or offering for sale, is the principal notion, as in πιπράσκειν, πωλεῖν, ἀπεμπολᾶν; whereas mancipare denotes a juridical act, in consequence of which a thing is alienated, and, with all that belongs to it, transferred to another, in a legal form, as his property. (iv. 118.)

Venditatio, s. Jactatio.

Venenum, see Toxicum.

Venerari, see Vereri.

Veniam dare, s. Ignoscere.

Ventus; Procella; Tempestas; Vortex; Turbo. Ventus (ἀείς, or ἄντη, Hesiod) is the generic term for wind; procella and tempestas denote a violent wind; procella (κέλαδος), a mere squall or gust of wind; tempestas, a complete storm, or stress of weather, generally accompanied by thunder and lightning, rain or hail; whereas vortex and turbo denote a whirlwind; vortex (vertere), a weaker sort, that merely raises the dust; turbo (στρέφω, στροφάλιγξ), 223 a strong whirlwind that causes destruction. (v. 287.)

Venudare, see Vendere.

Venustus, see Formosus.

Vepres, see Dumi.

Verberare; Icere; Ferire; Cædere; Pulsare; Mulcare; Pavire; Cudere. 1. Verberare, ferire, and icere, mean, in a general sense, to strike, whether by throwing, hitting, or pushing; but the verberans makes his blow rebound; the iciens and feriens penetrate and wound, or break to pieces; the iciens (resembling in form jaciens) chiefly by throwing, for instance, fulmine ictus; the feriens, by pushing, for instance, murum ariete; whereas cædere, pulsare, and mulcare, denote especially striking, generally with a weapon; cædere, with a weapon that cuts and wounds, a hatchet, sword, whip, rod, strap; pulsare and mulcare, with a hard weapon, stick or fist. Pulsare has any object whatever, man, a door, the ground; mulcare, like to cudgel, only an object that can feel pain, especially man. 2. Verberare, in a narrower sense, denotes a quiet chastisement by the blows of a stick, which is generally appointed, as a formal punishment, by the competent authorities; whereas pulsare and mulcare, a misusage by blows or thrusts, which is administered as mere vengeance by unauthorized persons; pulsare (from pellere) as a slighter misusage with hand or stick, which principally hurts the honor and dignity of the person misused; mulcare (μαλάξαι, malaxare), a rougher misusage, with fists or clubs, which aims principally at physical pain, like a sound drubbing. 3. Pavire (παίειν) means to beat, in order to make a soft mass solid; cudere, in order to widen or extend a solid mass. Fulgere, battuere, and cajare are antiquated or vulgar expressions for beating. (v. 67.)

Verbosus, see Garrire.

Verbum; Vocabulum; Vox; Dictum; Dicterium. 1. Verbum (ἄραβος) is a word, as a part of speech; 224 whereas vocabulum, as a part of language. The verba are verbs, the vocabula words in general. 2. Verba denote words in general, with reference to their meaning; voces, with reference to their form and their sound. 3. As a grammatical term, vox comprehends all the eight parts of speech; vocabulum, all legitimate words, consequently with the exclusion of interjections or natural sounds; nomen, only the nouns, adjectives, substantives, and pronouns; and verbum, only the verbs. 4. Verbum, in a collective sense, denotes a general notion, that which is said; whereas vox, dictum, and dicterium, are particular expressions; vox (ἠχή), an expression of feeling or passion, like an exclamation; dictum, an expression of wit or intellect, like a bon mot. Tac. Hist. iii. 39. Audita est sævissima Vitellii vox, qua se pavisse oculos spectata inimici morte jactavit; comp. with Ann. vi. 20. Scitum Passieni dictum percrebuit, neque meliorem unquam servum neque deteriorem dominum fuisse. 5. Dictum is the general and popular expression for any pointed saying; dicterium, a select term of later times for a particularly smart dictum, which is not merely the product of natural wit, but also of cultivation refined by literature and intercourse with polished society. (iv. 29.)

Vereri; Timere; Metuere; Spes; Fiducia; Timor; Timiditas; Ignavia; Formido; Horror. 1. Vereri (ὁρᾶν?) like αἰδεῖσθαι, has its foundation in what is strikingly venerable; metuere and timere, like δεῖσαι; and φοβεῖσθαι, in the threatening danger of an object. The timens and metuens fear the danger; the verens, the disgrace and shame. Cic. Phil. xii. 12. Quid? veteranos non veremur? nam timeri ne ipsi quidem volunt. Sen. 11, 37. Metuebant eum servi, verebantur liberi, carum omnes habebant. Liv. xxxix. 37. Veremur quidem vos Romani et si ita vultis etiam timemus. Afran. ap. Gell. xv. 13. Ubi malunt metui, quam vereri se ab suis. Senec. Ir. iii. 32. Quibusdam timeamus irasci, quibusdam vereamur. 2. Metus (ματᾶν) 225 is fear, only as the anticipation of an impending evil, and reflection upon it, the apprehension that proceeds from foresight and prudence, like δέος, synonymously with cautio; whereas timor (from τρέμω), the fear that proceeds from cowardice and weakness. Or, metus is an intellectual notion; fear, as from reflection, in opp. to spes; for instances, see Cic. Verr. ii. 54. Off. ii. 6. Liv. xxx. 9. Suet. Aug. 25. Tac. H. i. 18. Ann. ii. 12, 38. Sen. Ep. 5. Suet. Aug. 5. Cels. ii. 6. Curt. viii. 6:—whereas timor is a moral notion, fear as a feeling, in opp. to fiducia, animus. Cic. Divin. ii. 31. Att. v. 20. Rull. i. 8. Sallust. Jug. ii. 3. Tac. Hist. ii. 80. Plin. Ep. v. 17. 3. In the like manner are spes, hope, and fiducia, confidence, distinguished. Sen. Ep. 16. Jam de te spem habeo, nondum fiduciam. Tac. Agr. 2. Nec spem modo ac votum securitas publica, sed ipsius voti fiduciam ac robur assumpserit. Suet. Cl. 10. Aliquanto minore spe quam fiducia. Liv. x. 25. Curt. ix. 4, 25. 4. Timor denotes fear, as a temporary state; timiditas, fearfulness, as an habitual quality, which is connected with ignavia, as a more precise expression for the more general feeling. Lactant. iii. 17. Epicurus . . . ignavum prohibet accedere ad rem publicam, pigrum exercere, timidum militare. Ignavia is inaptitude for any noble action, and particularly for deeds of valor; timiditas is, under certain circumstances, excusable; ignavia is absolutely blamable. 5. Metus and timor have their foundation in reflection, whereby a person is made clearly aware of the object and ground of his apprehension; whereas horror and formido is an immediate feeling, which overpowers the understanding by the dreadful image of the nearness of some horrid object, and can give no account of the ground of its fear; formido (fremere) expresses this state immediately as a state of mind, like ὀῤῥωδία; whereas horror (χέρσος) as the bodily expression of this state, by the hair standing on end, the eyes wildly staring, etc., like 226 φρίκη. Tac. H. iv. 45. Metus per omnes ac præcipua Germanici militis formido. (ii. 190.)

Vereri; Revereri; Venerari; Colere; Observare; Adorare; Admirari; Suspicere. 1. Vereri and revereri mean, to feel reverence; whereas venerari, to show reverence. Tac. Ann. xiv. 13; comp. venerationem sui with matris reverentia. 2. Vereri (ὁρᾶν?) denotes respect bordering on fear and bashfulness; whereas revereri, fear and bashfulness arising from respect. In vereri, fear, in revereri, respect is the principal notion: hence verecundia is the dread of exposing one’s self before the person respected; whereas reverentia, the calm consciousness that some one is worthy of this reverential feeling. 3. Venerari (ἄντεσθαι?) is used (at least in Cicero) only for demonstrations of reverence towards the gods and sacred things; observare, only for such demonstrations towards men; colere, towards either. Cic. Rep. i. 12. Ut . . . Africanum ut deum coleret Lælius, domi vicissim Lælium observaret in parentis loco Scipio. And, N. D. i. 42. ii. 28. The venerans seeks only to express due reverence, and by self-humiliation to avert the anger of the gods; the colens (from κόλαξ) seeks by acts of courtesy, of service, and of respect, to win the affection of some one, and the fruits of it, as from a cultivated field. Veneratio shows itself more in prayer; cultus, more in sacrifice: veneratio is more a single, transient act; cultus more a permanent expression of respect. Tac. H. i. 10. Vespasianus . . . Titum filium ad venerationem cultumque (ejus) miserat; that is, that he might do homage to the new emperor, and then also remain in his circle of courtiers. 4. Observare (from ἐρύεσθαι) involves a mere negative notion, and denotes having regard for, in opp. to slighting; yet is not, on this account, colere a stronger, observare a weaker term. Colere, indeed, involves more palpable activity, operam; whereas observare, more tender regard, pietatem; hence sometimes 227 the one, sometimes the other, is the stronger expression. 5. Adorare is the most general expression for any sort of worship; whereas veneratio consists more in gestures, precatio in words. 6. Reveremur validas auctoritates; admiramur raras virtutes; suspicimus excellentia dignitate. At the same time it appears to me, that the reverens is in a state of silent awe; the admirans with the expression of loud, or at least visible enthusiasm; the suspiciens, under the image of one looking up to another with an humble feeling of his own inferiority. Revereri refers especially to moral; admirari, to intellectual and moral; suspicere, to any, even adventitious, pre-eminences. (ii. 185.)

Verres, see Sus.

Versicolor, see Varius.

Versutus, see Astutus.

Vertere; Torquere; Convertere; Invertere; Pervertere. Vertere means to turn, that is, to move anything in order to give it another position or situation, like τρέπειν; torquere (from τρέκω), ἀτρεκής), to twist, that is, in order to move a fixed point, like στρέφειν. 2. Convertere means, either to turn in a body, with reference to those acting, as, for instance, Ut pæne terga convertant; or, with reference to the action, to turn completely; whereas invertere means, to turn only half round, so that the reverse side of the thing turned is exposed; lastly, pervertere means to turn upside down, so that the thing turned becomes useless, or falls to the ground. (v. 289.)

Verutum, see Missile.

Vesanus, see Amens.

Vestis; Vestitus; Vestimentum; Amictus; Amiculum; Cultus; Habitus. 1. Vestis (from vas, Goth. wastjan) is the most general expression, and denotes sometimes the whole clothes; vestitus, sometimes only a single article of dress, vestimentum. Vestem mutare denotes, to go into mourning; vestimenta 228 mutare, to shift one’s clothes. 2. Vestis and vestimentum denote the clothes which cover the body, as necessary or decent; amictus and amiculum (from ambi and jacere) the cloak or mantle which covers the under-clothing, for the sake of warmth or of ornament; amictus, the whole of the over-clothing; amiculum, a single article, as a mantle. Tac. G. 17. Feminæ sæpius lineis amictibus velantur, partemque vestitus superioris in manicas non extendunt. Curt. v. 1, 38. Sil. It. vii. 447. 3. Cultus and habitus have a wider meaning than vestis; cultus (occulere) whatever belongs to dress, girdle, hat, ornaments, arms, etc.; habitus, whatever belongs to the exterior in general, cleanliness, mode of dressing the hair, carriage of the body, etc. Suet. Cæs. 44. Dicam ea, quæ ad formam et habitum et cultum et mores pertinebant. Cal. 52. Vestitu calceatuque cæteroque habitu. (v. 209.)

Vetare; Interdicere. Vetare means to forbid by virtue of the law, in opp. to jubere; whereas interdicere, to forbid, by virtue of official authority, in opp. to addicere, permittere.

Veternus, see Antiquus.

Vetula, see Anus.

Vetus; Senex; Grandævus; Longævus; Senecta; Senectus; Senium. 1. Vetus homo (ἔτος) denotes an old man, from the fiftieth year of his life, in opp. to juvenis, a young man, like γέρων; whereas senex (ἄναξ? or ἕνους ἔχων?), an old man from his sixtieth year, with the accessory notion of his being worthy of respect, like πρεσβύτης; lastly, grandævus and longævus denote a very aged man, who has already exceeded the usual duration of life, and who is, consequently, somewhere about eighty or upwards. 2. Senecta denotes old age indifferently, merely as a period of life; senectus, as a venerable and experienced age, that commands respect and indulgence; senium, the infirm and burdensome age, which is to be looked upon as a disease. (iv. 89.)


Vetus, Vetustus, see Antiquus and Puer.

Via, see Iter.

Vibrare, see Librare.

Vicinus; Finitimus; Confinis. Vicini (οἰκεῖοι) are neighbors, in reference to house and yard; whereas finitimi and confines, with reference to the boundaries of the land; finitimi, in a one-sided relationship, as the neighbors of others, who dwell near their boundaries, in a mere geographical sense; confines, in a mutual relationship, as opposite neighbors, who have boundaries in common, with the moral accessory notion of friendship associated with neighborhood. The finitimi are finibus diremti; whereas the confines are confinio conjuncti. (v. 181.)

Vicissim; Invicem; Mutuo. Vicissim (from εἰκάζω) denotes, like on the other hand, and in hand, and in turn, a successive; invicem and mutuo, like reciprocally and in return, a mutual acting and suffering between two persons or things; invicem, more with reference to reciprocal actions; mutuo, to reciprocal or mutual states. (vi. 402.)

Victus, see Vita.

Videre; Cernere; Spectare; Intueri; Conspicere; Adspicere; Adspectus; Conspectus; Obtutus. 1. Videre and cernere denote seeing, as perceiving by the organ of sight; videre (ἰδεῖν) as perception in general, in opp. to an obstruction of the view, like ὁρᾶν; cernere (κρίνειν) especially as a clear perception, in opp. to a transient or dim view; whereas spectare, intueri, tueri, and contueri, denote looking, as the dwelling of the eyes upon an object; spectare means, quietly to fix the eye upon an object that interests the understanding, and dwell upon it as upon a theatrical representation, like θεᾶσθαι; whereas intueri (from στοχάζομαι), to fix the eye upon something that strikes the fancy or soul, as to contemplate, θεωρεῖν. Cic. Fam. vii. 1. Neque nos qui hæc spectavimus, quidquam novi vidimus. 2. Intueri denotes merely to contemplate attentively; 230 contueri, to gaze upon fixedly, keenly, and with eyes widely opened. 3. Conspicere means to descry, that is, to get sight of an object of one’s self, and generally of an unexpected object; whereas adspicere means to look at, that is, to cast one’s eye upon an object, whether consciously or not. 4. Adspectus has an active meaning, as the looking at; conspectus, a passive meaning, as the sight of, that is, the appearance, often also the field of view, sight [as in to be or come in sight]; obtutus has a neutral sense, as the look. Suet. Tib. 43. Ut adspectu deficientes libidines excitaret; comp. with Cal. 9. Tumultuantes conspectu suo flexit; and with Cic. Orat. iii. 5. Qui vultum ejus cum ei dicendum esset, obtutumque oculorum in cogitando probe nosset. (iv. 305.)

Viere, see Ligare.

Vigens; Vegetus; Vividus; Vivus; Animans; Vitalis; Vivax. 1. Vigens (ἀΐξαι) denotes a man, both in body and mind, fresh and in full strength; vegetus, one, in a mental sense, on the alert and animated; vividus (from ἠΰς? or from vis?), one, in a moral sense, full of life and energy. Liv. vi. 22. Exactæ jam ætatis Camillus erat . . . sed vegetum ingenium in vivido pectore vigebat, virebatque integris sensibus. 2. Vivus (Goth. quiws) means living, in opp. to dead; animans, possessing life, in opp. to inanimate. 3. Vitalis means long-lived; vivax, tenacious of life. (iv. 445.)

Vigil; Insomnis; Exsomnis. Vigil denotes the state of being awake as positive, and involves consciousness and will, and the application of vital energy, like ἄγρυπνος; whereas insomnis and exsomnis, only negatively, as sleepless, ἄϋπνος; but the insomnis cannot sleep; the exsomnis will not sleep. Tac. Ann. i. 65. Cum oberrarent tentoriis insomnes magis quam pervigiles. Vell. P. ii. 88. Mæcenas ubi rem vigiliam exigeret, sane exsomnis. Hor. Od. iii. 7, 6. Frigidas noctes non sine multis insomnis lacrimis 231 agit; comp. with 25, 7. Non secus in jugis exsomnis stupet Evias; or Virg. Æn. ix. 167, with vi. 556. (iv. 444.) 

Vigiliæ, see Excubiæ.

Villa; Fundus; Prædium; Ager; Campus; Rus; Arvum. 1. Villa (dimin. of ἕδος) denotes a country-house, usually with a real estate; fundus, a real estate, usually with a country-house; prædium, sometimes a country-house, sometimes a real estate, like landed property. At the same time villa is an architectural term; fundus, an economical term; prædium, a juridical term. Cato, R. R. 3. Ita ædifices, ne villa fundum quærat, neve fundus villam. 2. Villa, fundus, and prædium, suppose a proprietor, like portio; whereas ager, arvum, rus, and campus, are thought of without reference to a proprietor, like pars. 3. Ager and campus denote the field, whether cultivated or not; ager (ἀγρός), the open field, in opp. to ground that is built upon, or planted with trees, consequently in opp. to urbs, oppidum, vicus, hortus, silva, like ἀγρός; whereas campus (κῆπος) denotes the low-lands and plains, like πεδίον, consequently in opp. to the high-lands, mons and collis; Cic. Div. i. 42. N. D. ii. 60. Colum. i. 2. Herenn. iv. 18. 25. Curt. viii. 1, 4. 4. Rus and arvum denote the corn-field; rus (ἄροτος) in opp. to the village or the town, like ἄρουρα; arvum, in opp. to pasture-lands and plantations, consequently in opp. to pabulum, pascuum, pratum, olivetum, Sall. Jug. 95. Cic. N. D. i. 45. Plaut. Truc. i. 2, 47. Hor. Ep. i. 16, 2. like ἄροτος. Cic. Fr. ap. Quintil. iv. 2. Fundum habet in agro Tiburino Tullius paternum. Orat. iii. 33. De fundo emendo, de agro colendo. Tac. G. 26. Arva per annos mutant, et superest ager. (iii. 5.)

Vincere; Superare; Opprimere. 1. Vincere (εἴκειν? or ἀγκὰς ἀναγκάζειν?) means, to drive an adversary from his place, like νικᾶν; superare to win a place from an adversary, like ὑπερβάλλεσθαι. The vincens has more to do with living objects, with enemies; 232 the superans with inanimate objects, with difficulties. Tac. Ann. i. 25. Invictos et nullis casibus superabiles Romanos. 2. Evincere denotes especially the exertion and duration of the conflict; devincere, its consequence, and the completeness of the victory. 3. Vincere means to conquer by fighting; opprimere, without fighting, by merely appearing, in consequence of a surprisal, or of a decided superiority of forces. Cic. Mil. 11. Vi victa vis, vel potius oppressa virtute audacia est: and to the same purport, Muren. 15. Mithridatem L. Murena repressum magna ex parte, non oppressum reliquit. (iv. 278.)

Vincire, see Ligare.

Vincula; Catenæ; Compedes; Pedicæ; Manicæ. Vincula (ἀγκάλη, from nectere) are bands of any sort, as a generic term for catenæ, etc., like δεσμοί; catenæ are chains, whether for fettering or for other uses, like ἁλύσεις; compedes (from πέδη), for fettering in general, the hands or the feet; pedicæ, irons for fettering the feet; manicæ, irons for fettering the hands. Tac. Ann. vi. 14. Celsus in vinculis laxatam catenam, et circumdatam in diversum tendens suam ipse cervicem perfregit. (iv. 284.)

Vindicta; Ultio; Talio; Pœna; Mulcta; Castigatio; Puniri. 1. Vindicta (ἀναδέκτης) is an act of justice, like avenging: ultio (ἀλαλκεῖν, ἀλέξειν), an act of anger, like revenge; talio (τλῆναι), an act of retaliation. 2. Ultio, vindicatio, and talio, take place in consequence of the supreme authority of an individual; punitio, mulctatio, and castigatio, in consequence of the demand of others; pœna (ποινή, πεῖνα, πένομαι), as a punishment which the violated and offended law demands, by any mode of suffering; mulcta (μαλάξαι) as an amercement, which justice and equity demand, as a compensation for injuries done, especially a fine; castigatio, as a chastisement, which may serve to improve the individual, especially a rebuke. Pœna is for the general 233 good; mulcta, for the good of the injured party; castigatio, for that of the guilty party. (v. 249.) 3. Pœnire means to punish, according to the principles of justice; whereas puniri, in Cicero, to take vengeance into one’s own hands.

Vinolentus, see Ebrietas.

Vinum; Temetum. Vinum (οἶνος) is the general and usual; temetum (from taminia), the antiquated and poetical name for wine.

Violare, see Lædere.

Vir, see Homo and Puer.

Virga, Virgultum, see Rami.

Virgo; Puella; Virago. Virgo is an unmarried woman, whether young or old, in opp. to mulier, like παρθένος; whereas puella, a young woman, whether married or not; for instance, Nero’s wife, Octavia, twenty years old, in Tac. Ann. xiv. 64, like κόρη; virago, a masculine, strong, heroic, young woman; for instance, the Amazones, ἀντιάνειραι.

Virtus; Innocentia; Honestas. Virtus (ἀρτυτή) means virtue, as far as it shows itself in becoming and meritorious actions; innocentia, as far as it shows itself in blameless, especially disinterested conduct; honestas (χνοαστός) as far it shows itself in virtuous and noble sentiments. (vi. 406.)

Virtus, see Ferocia.

Vis, see Potentia.

Viscera, see Caro.

Vita; Salus; Victus. 1. Vita (οἶτος) denotes the duration of life, in opp. to mors; whereas salus (from ὅλος?), the safety of life, in opp. to interitus, exitium. 2. Vita denotes the public; victus the private life of a man. Nep. Alc. 1. Splendidus non minus in vita quam in victu. (iv. 448.)

Vitalis, see Vigens.

Vitium; Menda; Mendum; Labes; Macula. Vitium (from αὐάτη, ἄτη), denotes any fault; menda (μάτη), a natural fault, especially of the body, a blemish, like βλάβη; mendum, a fault committed, especially in writing, a blunder or mistake, like ἁμάρτημα; 234 labes (λώβη), a degrading fault, a stain of ignominy, like λύμη; macula (dimin. from μῶκος), a disfiguring fault, a blot, like κηλίς. (v. 319.)

Vituperare, see Reprehendere.

Vivax, Vividus, see Vigens.

Virus, see Toxicum.

Vivus, see Vigens.

Vix; Ægre. Vix (ἧκα) means scarcely, and refers, like σχολῇ, only to a thing that was near not taking place, in opp. to omnino non, Cic. Att. iii. 23; whereas ægre means with much ado, like μόλις and λόγις, and refers to the agent, who is in a state of anxiety as to whether he shall succeed or fail, in opp. to facile, Cic. Sen. 20. (iii. 94.)

Vocabulum, see Verbum.

Vocare, see Nominare.

Vociferari, see Clangere.

Volucres; Aves; Alites. Volucres (from ἑλίξαι) means whatever flies, including winged insects, like πτηνός; whereas aves and alites mean only birds; avis (ἀετός) as a general term in natural history for any bird, like ὄρνις; ales (from ala) as a select expression only for a larger bird, like οἰωνός, especially the eagle, and alites is used in the language of the augurs as a technical term for those birds whose flight must be observed and interpreted, in opp. to oscines, or those birds whose song and cry must be interpreted. Ovid, Art. Am. iii. 410. Jovis in multis devolat ales aves. Hor. Od. iv. 2, 2. 4. Virg. Æn. xii. 247. Cic. N. D. ii. 64. (v. 207.)

Voluntate, see Sponte.

Voluptas, see Cupido.

Vorago; Vortex; Gurges. Vorago (ὄρηχος) and the poetical word, of foreign origin, barathrum, denote an abyss in water, which may be either in a pool, pond, or sea; whereas vortex and gurges suppose water in motion; vortex moves in a horizontal direction, so that its water turns in a circle, and hinders whatever swims therein from escaping; gurges (from γοργός? or γύργαθος?), in a perpendicular direction, so that it drags down whatever comes into its 235 eddy, into the depth below. Liv. xxviii. 30. Navis retro vortice intorta; compare with xxii. 6. Deficientibus animis hauriebantur gurgitibus. (v. 155.)

Vox, see Verbum.

Vulnus; Plaga; Ulcus; Cicatrix; Saucius. 1. Vulnus and plaga denote a wound from without; vulnus (from lanius?) by means of a weapon, or other cutting instrument; plaga, by means of any instrument carried with intention to injure; whereas ulcus (ἄλοξ, ὦλξ) means any open or sore place in the body, that has begun to fester, etc.; cicatrix, the scar that is left when a wound is healed. Suet. Vit. 10. Verbera et plagas, sæpe vulnera, nonnunquam necem repræsentantes adversantibus. Plin. H. N. xvi. 12. Cels. viii. 4. 2. Vulneratus means wounded in general; saucius, so wounded as to be unfit for fighting, and is the proper expression for those that are wounded in battle. Cic. Verr. i. 27. Servi nonnulli vulnerantur; ipse Rubrius sauciatur. (iv. 255.)

Vultus, see Facies.



This Index embraces all the Greek words contained in the Latin Synonyms, and will afford valuable aid in elucidating many Greek synonyms.

The figures refer to the pages of the book.

 Α  ( αγ-αλ   αμ-απ   αρ-αψ )  Β   Γ   Δ 
 Ε  ( εγ-εν   εξ-εχ )  Ζ   Η   Θ   Ι 
 Κ  ( κα-κη   κι-κω )  Λ   Μ   Ν   Ξ 
 Ο   Π  ( πα-πη   πι-πω )  Ρ 
 Σ   Τ   Υ   Φ   Χ   Ψ   Ω 


ἀγαθὴ τύχη, 35

ἀγαθός, 30

ἄγαλμα, 103

ἀγανός, 58

ἀγάπη, 61

ἄγειν, 9

ἄγειν καὶ φέρειν, 221

ἀγείρειν, 9, 80

ἀγείρω, 3, 160

ἀγέλη, 160

ἀγκάλη, 232

ἀγκὰς ἀναγκάζειν, 231

ἀγλαός, 129

ἁγνός, 188

ἄγονος, 131

ἄγος, 188

ἄγριος, 187

ἀγροῖκος, 187

ἀγρός, 231 bis

ἄγρυπνος, 230

ἀγχιστεῖς, 145

ἄγχω, 53

ἀδινός, 16

ἀδολεσχία, 91

ἄεθλος, 204

ἀείδειν, 32

ἀεῖραι, 16

ἀείρω, 16

ἀείς, 222

ἀέσαι, 16

ἀετός, 234

ἄζη, 130

ἀήρ, 16 bis

ἄθλιος, 66

ἆθλον, 171

αἶ, 26, 189

αἰανός, 172

αἰγιαλός, 185

αἰδεῖσθαι, 224

ἀΐδιος, 46

αἴθειν, 22

αἰθός, 25

αἴθουσα, 6

αἴθω, 6, 31

αἷμα, 191

αἰνός, 26, 189

ἀΐξαι, 230

αἰόλον, 220

αἰόλος, 220

αἱρεῖν, 209

αἰρομένη, 117

αἰσθέσθαι, 37

αἴσιμος, 103

αἰσχρός, 213

αἰτειν, 186

αἰχμη, 4

αἰώνιον, 46

ἀκαλός, 134

ἀκεῖσθαι, 135

ἀκέραιος, 177

ἀκή, 24

ἀκήρατος, 177

ἀκμή, 4

ἀκολουθεῖν, 42

ἄκος, 135

ἀκούειν, 26


ἀκροᾶσθαι, 27

ἄκρος, 209

ἀκτή, 185 bis

ἄκων, 139

ἀλαλκεῖν, 232

ἀλᾶσθαι, 71

ἀλγεῖν, 88

ἄλγος, 53, 66

ἀλέγειν, 61, 150, 154, 181

ἀλέξειν, 232

ἅλες, 122

ἄλημα, 124

ἄλθειν, 175

ἄλθω, 11

ἁλία, 43

ἅλις, 192

ἄλιψ, 194

ἀλκή, 9, 91, 217

ἄλλοι, 31

ἄλοξ, 235

ἅλς, 134

ἄλσος, 199 bis

ἆλτις, 199

ἀλυκτός, 66

ἁλύσεις, 232

ἀλφός, 10


ἅμα, 217

ἁμάρτημα, 233

ἀμαυρός, 151

ἀμέλγω, 133

ἀμένας, 85

ἀμενηνὰ κάρηνα, 202

ἀμέργειν, 70

ἀμέργων, 135

ἀμέριμνος, 216

ἀμεύω, 114

ἀμήχανος, 131

ἀμπερές, 195

ἀμύνω, 144

ἀμφασίας, 146

ἀμφὶς ἔχων, 68

ἄμφω, 218

ἀναγιγνώσκειν, 102

ἀναγκάζω, 146

ἀνάγκη ἐστίν, 146

ἀναδέκτης, 232

ἀναδέχεσθαι, 167

ἀναδοῦναι, 222

ἀναιρεῖν, 111

ἀναίσθητος, 207

ἀναλεύσσω, 37

ἀναμιμνήσκεσθαι, 136

ἀνανεύω, 147

ἄναξ, 175, 228

ἀνάπτειν, 2

ἀναπότης, 174

ἀναρίθμητος, 109

ἀνασπαστός, 6

ἀναφανδόν, 20

ἀνα-φατίζειν, 146

ἀναφλογίζειν, 2

ἀνδράποδον, 198

ἀνδριάς, 103

ἀνδροφόνος, 97

ἀνεῖναι, 81

ἄνεμος, 16 bis

ἀνερεθίζω, 106, 118

ἀνεσίμως, 158

ἄνεσιν δοῦναι, 102

ἀνευρεῖν, 112

ἀνήρ, 97, 175 bis

ἀνήριθμος, 109

ἀνθροπινῶς, 99

ἀνθρωπείως, 99

ἄνθρωπος, 97

ἀνία, 53

ἀνίαν, 102

ἄντεσθαι, 226

ἄντη, 222

ἀντιάνειραι, 233

ἀντιστάτης, 6

ἀντιχαρίζεσθαι, 94

ἄντρον, 202

ἁπαλός, 144

ἅπαντες, 179 bis

ἅπας, 180

ἀπατᾶν, 76

ἀπεμπολᾶν, 222

ἄπλετος, 131

ἀποβαλεῖν, 14

ἀποβάλλειν, 203

ἀποδόσθαι, 222

ἀποθεῖναι, 36

ἄποθεν, 173

ἀποκρύπτειν, 36

ἀπολέσαι, 1

ἀπονεύω, 147

ἀπορία, 158


ἀπὸ τύχης, 34

ἀποφάναι, 146


ἄραβος, 14, 223

ἄροτον, 187

ἀράχνη, 184

ἀργόν, 10

ἀργός, 23, 187

ἄρδα, 129

ἀρεσκεύειν, 24

ἀρεταί, 125

ἄρθρον, 136 bis

ἀριθμός, 45, 197

ἀριστερός, 199

ἀρκεῖν, 21

ἀρνεῖσθαι, 146

ἀρόματα, 159

ἄροτος, 231 bis

ἄρουρα, 231

ἁρπακτήρ, 170

ἅρπη, 180

ἄρσην, 97

ἄρτι, 149

ἀρτυτή, 233

ἀρτυτός, 25

ἀρχαῖος, 19

ἄρχειν, 116

ἀσαφῶς, 59

ἄση, 192

ἄσις, 130

ἀσιτία, 76

ἀσκάλαφος, 183

ἀσκεῖν, 41

ἀσκηθής, 190

ἄσμενος, 205

ἀσπάλαξ, 196

ἀσπίς, 195

ἀστήρ, 205 bis

ἀστραπή, 89

ἄστρον, 205, bis

ἀσφαλής, 216

ἀτάλλω, 208

ἀταλόφρων, 208

ἀταρτηρός, 213

ἄτη, 51, 233

ἀτιμία, 101

ἀτραπός, 115

ἀτρεκής, 227

αὐάτη, 51, 233

αὐγάζειν, 27

αὐηρός, 27, 197

αὐηρότης, 198

αὖθις ἐξ ὑπαρχῆς, 115

αὐος, 23

ἄϋπνος, 230

αὔρα, 16

αὔσιος, 155, 219

αὐστηρός, 27

αὐτομάτως, 204

αὐτομόλος, 161

αὔτως, 155, 219

αὐχμός, 130

αὔω, 27

ἄφατον, 55

ἀφαύω, 31, 78

ἀφθόνως, 192

ἀφνειός, 65

ἄφρων, 13

Ἀχαιοι, 4

ἀχανής, 131

ἀχήν, 33

ἄχθος, 142

ἀχλύς, 150

ἅψος, 136


βάδην, 158

βαδίζειν, 114

βάκτρον, 90

βάναυσοι, 75

βάρος, 142

βαστάζειν, 79

βαΰεζειν, 122

βέβαιος, 219

βέλος, 139

βλαβερός, 52

βλάβη, 233

βλαγίς, 55

βλάξ, 17, 207

βλέπειν, 26

βλοσυρός, 213

βόρβορος, 129

βούλεσθαι, 221

βράγχιον, 217

βραδύνειν, 133

βραδύς, 133, 208

βραχίων, 217

βραχύς, 30

βρέχειν, 152

βρότος, 191

βυθός, 201

Γ 240

Γαῖα, 211 bis

γαλέη, 34

γαληρός, 37, 94

γαῦρος, 91

γελᾶν, 185

γέλως, 93

γέμειν, 210

γενέσθαι, 48, 170

γενετή, 92, 206

γενναιότης, 154

γένος, 92, 206

γένυς, 131

γεραιός, 18, 198

γεραός, 142

γέρας, 67, 171

γερούσιος, 18

γέρων, 18, 175, 228

γεῦσαι, 192

γεύω, 11

Γῆ, 211 bis

γηθεῖν, 92, 222

γηρύω, 90

γίγνεσθαι, 48

γλαφυρός, 120

γλοία, 88

γλυκύς, 208

γλῶττα, 77

γνήσιος, 92

γνώμη, 196 bis

γνῶναι, 187

γοργός, 234

γράμμα, 124

γρομφάς, 210

γρύτη, 177

γύργαθος, 234

γυρός, 154


δαίμων, 149

δακεῖν, 122

δάκρυ, 118

δακρύειν, 118

δάνος, 86

δαπάνη, 54

δαρόν, 171

δασύς, 16

δάψαι, 71

δέειν, 123

δεῖ, 146

δεῖν, 146

δεινός, 26

δεῖξαι, 59

δεῖπνον, 71

δεῖσαι, 224

δεῖσθαι, 186

δέος, 26, 225

δέρας, 67

δέρμα, 212

δεσμεύειν, 124

δεσμοί, 232

δεύειν, 65

δεύεσθαι, 146

δεύτερον, 115

δέχεσθαι, 178, 189, 209

δέχω, 173

δήειν, 178

δηλεῖν, 1

δῆλον, 20

δηλῶσαι, 155

δῆμος, 93

διακρίνειν, 62

διαπυθέσθαι, 63

διαστίξαι, 62

διατέγγειν, 62

διατρίβειν, 133

δίδυμος, 68

διέλκειν, 87

διερεῖν, 63

δίκη, 41, 137

διολέσαι, 1, 15

δίπλαξ, 68

διπλοῦν, 68

διπλοῦς, 68

δμώς, 198

δνοφεραί, 150

δοιός, 68

δόμοι, 6

δόξα, 94, 196

δορά, 212

δορύ, 139

δοῦλος, 24, 198

δραίνω, 198

δραπέτης, 161

δύναμαι, 30

δύναμις, 168

δύνασθαι, 168

δυναστεία, 168

δυσειδής, 213

δυσμένεια, 152


δύσνοια, 151

δυσφημία, 101

δώματα, 6

δῶρον, 67

δωτίνη, 67


ἐγγελᾶν, 185

ἐγγυᾶν, 167

ἐγγύς, 8

ἐγγυστός, 15

ἔγκαρπος, 86

ἔγκυος, 170, 171

ἔγχελυς, 183

ἔγχος, 183

ἕδος, 195, 201, 231

ἕδρα, 195

ἔδω, 11

ἔθειρα, 49

ἐθελοντής, 205

ἔθνος, 92

ἔθος, 45, 200

εἶα, 119

εἶαρ, 213

εἶδος, 83, 205

εἴδωλον, 102

εἰκάζω, 229

εἴκειν, 231

εἴκελος, 5, 8

εἰκών, 102

εἶλαρ, 212

εἱμαρμένη, 35

εἴργω, 54

εἴργων, 15

εἴρειν, 196, bis

εἴρερος, 198

εἰρόμενος, 197

εἶσαι, 49

εἷς ἕκαστος, 179

εἴς κενόν, 89

εἰσρεῦσαι, 114

εἰωθέναι, 201

ἑκάτερος, 218

ἕκαστοι, 179

ἕκαστος, 179

ἐκδημεῖν, 174

ἐκεῖ, 31

ἑκηλία, 178

ἐκθανεῖν, 143

ἐκκλησία, 43

ἑκούσιος, 204

ἐκπέραίνειν, 203

ἐκφορά, 90

ἑκών, 204

ἐλέειν, 139

ἑλεῖν, 168, 201, 221

ἐλθεῖν, 114

ἑλικτός, 76

ἑλίξαι, 120

ἑλίξαι, 234

ἑλλός, 199

ἕλος, 119

ἐμβαίνειν, 114

ἐμπολᾶν, 70

ἐμφανίσαι, 155

ἐνδαίειν, 2

ἔνδεια, 159

ἐνδελεχεῖν, 43

ἔνδιος, 60

ἐνεγκέσθαι, 112

ἐνίοτε, 148

ἔνοσις Ἐνυώ, 87

ἕνους, 228

ἐντελής, 84

ἐντέλλεσθαι, 116

ἐνύπνιον, 202


ἐξαπίνης, 182

ἔξεστι, 43

ἐξουσία, 168

ἐπαγγέλλεσθαι, 167

ἐπιεικῶς, 99

ἐπιθυμῶν, 222

ἐπικαμπής, 54

ἐπιτήδειος, 100

ἐπιχθόνιος, 97

ἐπῳδαί, 32

ἐπωμίς, 23

ἐρᾶν, 61

ἔρασθαι, 61

ἐραστής, 14

ἐργάζομαι, 54

ἐργασία, 153

ἔργον, 9

ἔρδειν, 105

ἐρέθω, 98

ἐρείπω, 185

ἐρεύθειν, 22

ἔριφος, 33

ἑρπετόν, 183

ἕρπων, 183


ἔῤῥειν, 71

ἐῤῥωμένος, 44

ἐῤῥῶσθαι, 169, 219

ἔῤῥωσο, 29

ἔρσης, 210

ἐρύεσθαι, 226

ἐρύκειν, 21

ἔρως, 61

ἐσαγείρω, 9

ἔσθ’ ὅτε, 148

ἔσχατος, 75

ἔται, 145

ἑταῖραι, 160

ἑταῖρος, 200

ἕτερον, 115

ἔτι, 72

ἑτόν, 49

ἔτος, 18, 228

εὖ, 29

εὐθηνής, 86

εὐθύς, 182

εὐκαιρία, 151

εὐνή, 50

εὔπορος, 65

εὔσκιος, 151

εὔτόκος, 85

εὔτροπος, 30

εὐτυχής, 78

εὔφορος, 85

εὐχαριστεῖν, 94

εύχεσθαι, 186

ἐφεῖναι, 43

ἐφίεσθαι, 116

ἔχε, 71

ἔχθρα, 152

ἐχθρός, 6

ἔχθω, 6

ἔχιδνα, 183

ἔχις, 183

ἐχόμενος, 3

ἔχω, 10

ἔχων, 228


ζέω, 116, 175

ζόη, 116

ζόφος, 150

ζῶον, 17

ἡγεῖσθαι, 64

ἥδεσθαι, 91

ἡδύς, 208

ἠθεῖος, 200

ἦθος, 45

ἠϊών, 185

ἧκα, 117, 219, 234

ἤν, 71

ἠνί, 71 bis

ἠνίδε, 71

ἡνίον, 88

ἤπιος, 140

ἡσυχία, 178

ἠΰς, 208, 230

ἠχέτης, 32, 96

ἠχή, 87, 224


θάλασσα, 134

θαλλοί, 180

θαμά, 16, 189

θαμειός, 16

θάνατος, 142

θάρσος, 82

θεᾶσθαι, 229

θελεῖν, 221

θέμις ἐστί, 43

θεοὶ ῥεῖα ζάωντες, 78

θεός, 149

θέσσασθαι, 2, 186

θετός, 170

θεωρεῖν, 229

θημών, 3

θηρίον, 18

θής, 106

θησαυροί, 65

θλᾶν, 53, 66

θορυβή, 87

θράσος, 82

θρέω, 87

θρηνεῖν, 118

θριγκός, 144

θρίξ, 49

θρόνος, 195

θυμός, 16

θύρα, 155

θυρίδες, 155

θῶος, 52

θωπεύειν, 24


ἰᾶσθαι, 28, 135

ἰδεῖν, 229


ἴδιος, 173

ἰδού, 71

ἰέναι, 114

ἱερόν, 211

ἱερός, 188

ἱκανός, 100

ἱκανῶς, 192

ἱκετεύειν, 186

ἱλαρός, 91

ἰλύς, 129

ἰνάω, 105

ἰός, 213

ἰότης, 116

ἰρῆνες, 97

ἴς, 169

ἴσα, 8

ἴσος, 5

ἱστάναι, 199

ἰσχύειν, 168

ἰσχυρός, 219

ἴσως, 34


καγχάζειν, 185

καθαρός, 177

καθίζειν, 52, 219

καί, 72

καινός, 149

καιρός, 60, 151

κακηγορία, 131

κακίων, 58

κάλαμος, 50

κάλλος, 25

καλύψαι, 195

κάμψαι, 88

καναχεῖν, 32

κανών, 51

κάπρος, 33

κάπτειν, 209, 222

καρηκομόωντες, 49

κάρηνον, 49

καρίς, 54

κάρκαρον, 54

καρποῦσθαι, 58

καρτός, 30

κάρφω, 3

κάρω, 32

καταγελᾶν, 185

καταθαμβεῖν, 44

καταθεῖναι, 36, 196

καταικία, 131

κατακαίειν, 2

κατακρύπτειν, 36

κατανεύειν, 43

κατατήκειν, 128

καταφρονεῖν, 203

καταψῆν, 143

κατείδειν, 44

κατέχειν, 52, 133

καφάζω, 71

κείρειν, 33

κείρω, 30

κεῖσθαι, 178

κείω, 49, 93

κέλαδος, 222

κελεύειν, 116

κέλευθος, 115 bis

κεραυνός, 89

κερδαλέος, 25

κέρδος, 126

κεύθειν, 36

κεύθω, 54

κεύθων, 34

κεχαρῆσθαι, 95

κηδεμονία, 45

κηδεστής, 145

κηλεῖν, 134

κηλέῳ πυρί, 31

κηλίς, 234

κῆπος, 231


κίκιννος, 49

κιών, 43

κλάγγειν, 39

κλάδος, 93, 180

κλαίειν, 118

κλαῦμα, 119

κλέος, 37, 94

κλῆμα, 180

κλίμα, 125

κλιτύς, 41

κλοπιός, 195

κλυτός, 37

κλών, 180

κνέφας, 150

κνυζᾶσθαι, 122

κοεῖν, 168

κοίρανος, 53

κοῖται, 52

κοίτη, 50

κολακεία, 24


κολακεύειν, 24

κόλαξ, 226

κόλαφος, 10

κολάψαι, 51

κολούω, 107, 190

κολοφών, 50

κολωνός, 41

κομάζειν, 71

κόμη, 49

κομμοῦν, 41

κομψός, 177

κόπρος, 130

κοράσιον, 160

κόρη, 160, 233

κορίζομαι, 38

κόῤῥη, 49

κόρυζα, 14

κορύσσω, 126

κορυφή, 4, 50

κορυφοῦν, 4

κοσμεῖν, 41 bis

κόσμος, 99

κόττα, 34

κοττάνη, 184

κοχώνη, 48

κόψαι, 194

κράζω, 32

κραιπάλη, 69

κράτος, 169

κρέκω, 49

κρέμβαλον, 87

κρίνειν, 229

κρόκα, 49

κρότος, 87

κροῦσις, 87

κρυμός, 88

κρύος, 88, 190, 191

κρύπτειν, 36

κρύσταλλος, 88

κρύψαι, 133

κτείνειν, 110

κτύπος, 87

κύαρ, 202

κύρω, 48

κύτος, 212

κωκύειν, 119

κῶλον, 136

κῶς, 53


λαβεῖν, 209

λαιός, 199

λακάζειν, 91

λακεῖν, 59, 60, 167

λακίζειν, 118

λακίς, 118

λαλεῖν, 59, 60

λαλία, 91

λαμπάς, 32

λάμπω, 126

λαχεῖν, 142

λάχεσις, 142

λέγειν, 59

λέγω, 140

λείβειν, 55

λειβόμενος, 129

λείβω, 117

λεῖος, 120, 123 bis

λείχειν, 120

λέκτρον, 50

λέμφος, 14, 20

λεπτός, 122

λέπω, 122

λευκή, 129

λευκόν, 10

λευκός, 126

λευσσόμενον, 128

λεύσσω, 127

λέχριος, 168

ληρεῖν, 14

λῃστής, 169

λιβάζειν, 55

λίθος, 194

λιλαίομοι, 91

λίμνη, 119

λιμός, 76

λιπαρεῖν, 186

λίψ, 52

λόγις, 234

λόγχη, 139

λοιδορία, 131

λοίδορος, 127

λοιμός, 128

λοῖσθος, 75

λόχμη, 199

λόχος, 125

λύθρον, 129

λυκόφως, 133

λύμη, 234

λύσσα, 14


λύχνος, 32

λώβη, 234

λωτός, 129

λωφᾶν, 117


μαδίζειν, 159

μαζός, 132

μακάριος, 78

μακρός, 73

μαλάξαι, 223, 232

μαλακός, 143

μαλερός, 117

μαλλός, 212

μάμμη, 132

μανθάνειν, 155

μανθάνω, 17

μανικός, 14

μανός, 84

μαντεύεσθαι, 64, 96

μασχάλη, 23

ματᾶν, 224

μάτη, 233

μάτην, 89

μαυρωτός, 207

μάχη, 175

μέγα, 131

μέγας, 131

μέδειν, 145

μέδεσθαι, 40

μεθεῖναι, 140

μέθη, 69

μεθιέναι, 102

μειδιᾶν, 185

μείλιχος, 139

μειράκιον, 175

μείρεσθαι, 137

μείρω, 144, 177

μέλδειν, 24

μέλλειν, 52

μέλος, 136

μέλπειν, 32

μέμαχα, 131

μεμνῆσθαι, 136

μέμψις, 183

μένειν, 133 bis

μένος, 17

μέριμνα, 53

μέρος, 136

μέσος, 136

μετὰ σπονδῶν, 167

μετάρσιον, 16

μετάφρενον, 68

μετέωρον, 16

μετέωρος, 12

μέτοικος, 106

μέτοχος, 200

μέτριον, 140

μηδὲν ἄγαν, 140

μήδομαι, 116

μηνύειν, 133

μηχανή, 102

μιαίνειν, 46

μιαρός, 213

μικρός, 157

μίνθος, 130

μινύθω, 157

μισθός, 171

μῖσος, 152

μοῖρα, 35, 144

μόλις, 117, 234

μόρος, 142

μορύσσειν, 46

μορφή, 83

μόχλος, 141

μυδαλέος, 217

μυκτῆρες, 145

μύλλειν, 143

μύρω, 67, 134, 166

μυσαρός, 107

μῶκος, 234

μῶλος, 141

μωρός, 208


ναός, 211

νάπη, 199

ναρός, 145

ναῦς, 145

νεανίας, 175 bis

νέαξ, 149

νέατος, 75

νέδη, 20

νεκρός, 142

νέμος, 199

νέοθεν, 115

νέον, 149

νέος, 148, 175

νεύειν, 117

νεωστί, 149

νήπιος, 175

νήχειν, 55


νίζω, 126

νικᾶν, 231

νίπτω, 166

νίφα, 166

νόμιμος, 159

νῶτον, 68

ξανθός, 10

ξηρός, 23

ξυγκαλεῖν, 43

ξυνέκειν, 52

ξυνεκτοί, 179

ξύνθεσις, 44


ὄγκος, 142

ὁδοιπορεῖν, 174

ὁδός, 115

ὀδύσασθαι, 152

ὄδωδα, 152

ὄζος, 90, 205

ὄθματα, 27

ὄθομαι, 76

οἱ ἄλλοι, 31

οἰδᾶν, 215

οἰκετοι, 229

οἰκεῖος, 173

οἰκέτης, 198

οἰκοδόμημα, 4

οἰκτείρειν, 139

οἰκτίζειν, 139

οἱ λοιποί, 31

οἰμαι, 38

οἶμος, 115

οἶνος, 233

οἴνωσις, 69

οἷόν τ’ εἶναι, 168

οἶτος, 142, 233

οἴω, 218

οἰωνός, 234

ὄκκος, 76

ὀκνεῖν, 52

ὄκνος, 101

ὀλετήρ, 169

ὀλιγωρεῖν, 203

ὀλίγωρος, 216

ὀλισθεῖν, 117

ὁλκός, 168

ὀλολύζειν, 119

ὅλον, 211

ὀλός, 119

ὅλος, 180, 219, 233

ὁλῶς, 166

ὁμαλότης, 152

ὁμαλῶς, 217

ὄμβρος, 166

ὁμήγυρις, 43

ὅμοιος, 5

ὁμοίως, 8

ὁμοῦ, 217

ὁμῶς, 8

ὄναρ, 202

ὄνειδος, 185

ὀντός, 52

ὀξύς, 3 bis

ὀπίς, 37

ὁπωσδήποτε, 166

ὁρᾶν, 224, 226, 229

ὀργᾶν, 186, 187

ὀργή, 62

ὀρέγεσθαι, 186, 187, 221

ὀρέκτης, 62

ὄρηχος, 234

ὀρθός, 22

ὄρθρῳ, 133

ὄρθωσις, 98

ὀρίνω, 41

ὄρνις, 234

ὅρος, 84, 135

ὀῤῥωδία, 225

ὀρσός, 90, 180

ὀρυχή, 139

ὄρχος, 125

ὅσιόν ἐστι, 43

ὅσιος, 188

ὀσμή, 152

ὄσσαι, 27

ὁστισοῦν, 179

ὄσφρησις, 152

ὁ τυχών, 179

οὐαρόν, 132

οὖας, 26

οὖθαρ, 132

οὖλος, 219

οὖρος, 135, 185

οὐ φάναι, 146

ὀφείλειν, 146

ὄφις, 183

ὀχεῖν, 124


ὄχθη, 185

ὄχθος, 41


παθεῖν, 80

παιδίον, 175

παίειν, 223

πάϊς, 175

παῖς, 175

παλαιός, 18

πάλιν, 115

πάλλα, 132

παλλακή, 160

πάλμη, 195

πανδίκως θανεῖν, 143

πανήγυρις, 43

πανοῦργος, 25

πάντες, 179

πάντως, 166

πάγχυ, 165

παρά, 162

παραλέγεσθαι, 160

παραστέλλεσθαι, 134

παραυτίκα, 182

παράφρων, 13

παραχρῆμα, 182

παρθένος, 233

παρισῶν, 121

πάρος, 19

πᾶς, 180

πάσασθαι, 11

πάσσαλος, 196

πάτριος, 158

πατρῷος, 158

παῦρος, 157

παχύνω, 159

παχύς, 55, 165

πεδᾶν, 39

πέδη, 232

πεδίον, 231

πέδον, 211

πεζὸν θεῖναι, 161

πεζός, 58

πείθειν, 81

πεῖνα, 232

πειρατής, 169

πείρειν, 48

πείρω, 5, 144, 157

πέκω, 221

πελαγίζειν, 134

πέλαγος, 134

πελλός, 46

πέλτη, 195

πελώριος, 131

πένθος, 4, 66, 119

πενία, 158

πένομαι, 232

πεπαρεῖν, 19, 48, 112, 183

πεποιθός, 86

πεποιθῶς, 44

πέρα, 214

πέραῖος, 132

πέραν, 214

περᾶν, 153

πέρθειν, 221

πέρι, 149

περίβολος, 144

περιεῖναι, 2

περισσεύειν, 2

πεσεῖν, 117, 134, 193

πέτεσθαι, 10, 96

πέτραι, 193 bis

πεφνεῖν, 90

πέψαι, 58

πῆλαι, 139

πηλός, 129

πῆξαι, 155, 196


πιθάκνη, 8

πιθεῖν, 181

πίθος, 8

πικρός, 3

πιμελής, 165

πιμπράναι, 2

πίνειν, 29

πίνος, 46, 130

πιπράσκειν, 222

πίστις, 82

πιστότης, 82

πίτνειν, 134

πλανᾶσθαι, 71

πλάξ, 8, 125, 135

πλέξαι, 184

πλεῦσαι, 166

πλήθων, 65

πλούσιος, 65

πλοῦτος, 65

πλυδᾶν, 119

πνεῦμα, 16, 149

πνιγόεις, 25


ποθεῖν, 164, 221 bis

πόθος, 146, 164 bis, 204

ποιήματα, 32

ποικίλον, 220

ποίμνη, 160

ποινή, 232

πολέμιος, 6

πόλις, 93 bis

πολλάκις, 189

πολλός, 168

πολύς, 65

πομπή, 90

πόνος, 117, 153

ποντίζειν, 134

πόντος, 134

πορεύεσθαι, 174

πορθεῖν, 221 bis

πορίζειν, 79

πόρκος, 210

πόῤῥωθεν, 173

ποταμός, 85

ποτέ, 148

ποτί, 212

πότνιος, 168

ποτός, 29

πράξεις, 9

πρᾶος, 140

πράσσειν, 153

πραΰς, 30

πρεσβύτης, 175, 228

πρηνής, 174

πρίασθαι, 70

πρὶν δή, 171

πρόκα, 183

πρόσετι, 171

προσήκοντες, 145

πρὸς τούτοις, 171

πρόσφορος, 78

πρότερος, 19

προπέμπειν, 42

προφέρω, 102, 131

προφητεία, 65

πρύλεες, 175

πρών, 174

πτερόν, 10

πτέρυξ, 10

πτηνός, 234

πτίλον, 10

πτορθός, 90

πτωχεία, 159

πύθω, 191

πυκνή, 175

πυκνός, 16

πύξ, 175

πωλεῖν, 222

πῶϋ, 160


ῥαβάσσειν, 14

ῥαιβός, 154

ῥαχος, 180

ῥέθος, 136

ῥέπω, 87

ῥεῦμα, 85, 187

ῥεῦσαι, 187

ῥηγμίν, 185

ῥῆξαι, 87

ῥῆχος, 125, 184

ῥίν, 145

ῥίνηλατεῖν, 153

ῥιπή, 185

ῥοδανός, 51

ῥόος, 85

ῥόπαλον, 87

ῥυθμός, 45, 197

ῥύπος, 130

ῥωμαλέος, 219

ῥώμη, 169


σάκος, 195

σαφῶς, 59

σήπω, 191

σθεναρός, 219

σθένειν, 168

σιγᾶν, 199

σίσανον, 191

σιωπᾶν, 199

σκαιός, 199

σκαίρω, 22

σκεδάσαι, 83

σκέλλω, 130

σκηπίων, 90

σκῆψαι, 90

σκιόεις, 151

σκληρόν, 55

σκληρός, 23, 194

σκόπελοι, 194

σκοτερόν, 150

σκότος, 150


σκύτος, 195

σπαθᾶν, 122, 210

σπᾶν, 29

σπαράξαι, 167

σπαργᾶν, 215

σπάρτη, 121

σπαταλῶν, 165

σπέος, 202

σπήλαιον, 202

σπήλυγξ, 202

σταλάξαι, 96

στέλλω, 192

στενός, 15

στενωπός, 15

στερεά, 96

στέριφος, 206

στέφω, 19

στίλβω, 126

στίλη, 96

στίξαι, 106

στῖφος, 192

στοιχεῖον, 124

στόμφος, 215

στοργή, 61

στορθή, 90

στορχάζειν, 212

στοχάζεσθαι, 214

στοχάζομαι, 229

στραβός, 206

στρέφειν, 227

στρέφω, 19, 222

στρηνής, 198

στροφαῖος, 25

στροφάλιγξ, 222

σύαρος, 205

συγγενής, 145

συγγιγνώσκειν, 102

συγχωρῆσαι, 42

σύλλογος, 43

συμβεβηκότως, 34

συμβολή, 175

σύμπαντες, 179

σύμπας, 180

συμφορά, 35

σύναιμος, 145

σύνεγγυς, 8

συνέδριον, 43

συνέχεια, 154

συνθεσία, 44

σύνοδος, 43

σύνοικος, 106

σῦς, 210

συχνός, 16

σφάλλειν, 76

σφάλλων, 76

σφᾶξαι, 111

σφάραγος, 87

σφαράξαι, 87

σφηκόω, 157

σφιδή, 38

σφοδρός, 3

σφριγᾶν, 215

σχάζω, 139

σχαστήριον, 139

σχέω, 212

σχῆμα, 83

σχοῖνος, 121

σχολῇ, 234

σωρός, 3

σῶς, 190

σωτήριος, 190


ταλαιπωρία, 117

τανύς, 73

ταρακτός, 67

ταράξαι, 25, 165

Printed and alphabetized as two entries: ταράξαι 165, τράξαι 25.

τάργανον, 130

ταυρηδὸν βλέπειν, 26

ταφεῖν, 26, 117, 207

τάχ’ ἄν, 35

τείνειν, 212

τείρεα, 205

τείρειν, 120

τειρόμενος, 84

τεῖχος, 144

τέλεῖος, 84

τέλλω, 208

τέλος, 84

τέναγος, 119

τέρας, 205

τέρμα, 84 bis

τέρσω, 23, 211

τεχνῖται, 75

τῆλε, 173

τηλόθεν, 173

τίτθη, 133

τλῆναι, 80, 232

τοῖχος, 144

τόκος, 86


τόλμα, 82

τολμῶν, 80

τόπος, 125

τορόν, 26

τραγᾷν, 215

τράγος, 33

τρανές, 214

τράφηξ, 213

τράχηλος, 68

τραχύς, 26, 28

τρέκω, 227

τρέμω, 225

τρέπειν, 227

τρῆμα, 115

τρηχύς, 25

τρίβειν, 120

τρώγλη, 139

τύρβη, 215

τυτθός, 158

τυφλός, 117

τύφω, 207

τύχη, 35

τυχόν, 34


ὑάς, 216

ὑγιεινός, 190

ὑγρόν, 216

ὑγρός, 55

ὑετός, 166

ὑλάκτειν, 122

ὕλη, 199 bis

ὕπαρ, 202

ὕπατος, 209

ὑπερβάλλεσθαι, 231

ὑπισχνεῖσθαι, 167

ὕπνος, 202

ὑποδέχεσθαι, 209

ὑποψία, 113

ὗς, 210 bis

ὕστατος, 75

ὑφή, 25, 123

ὑψηλός, 12

ὕω, 216


φαίνω, 126

φάλανθος, 126

φάναι, 59, 60

φανερῶς, 19

φάος, 129

φάργνυμι, 219

φάρμακον, 135

φάρυγξ, 77

φαυστήριος, 78

φέγγειν, 83

φέγγος, 129

φέγγω, 126

φέρειν, 76, 80 bis

φέρω, 56, 85

φήμη, 187

φῆναι, 155

φῆρες, 18, 187

φθίνειν, 83

φθίνω, 84

φιλανθρώπως, 99

φιλεῖν, 61, 201

φιλονεικία, 152

φίλος, 14

φλέγεσθαι, 22

φλέγμα, 78

φλέγω, 78, 126

φλεύω, 129

φλέω, 118

φλογεῖν, 125

φλύω, 84, 85

φοβεῖσθαι, 224

φοινός, 90

φοιτᾶν, 114, 181

φονεύειν, 111

φονεύς, 97

φοράς, 170

φόρειν, 80

φόρημα, 83

φόριμος, 83

φόρτος, 142

φρακτός, 44

φράξαι, 79, 87, 219

φρίξαι, 88

φρίκη, 226

φρονεῖν, 218

φροντίς, 53

φυγάς, 161

φύειν, 203

φυλάξαι, 89

φῦλον, 92

φῦλον ἔχων, 78

φυομένη, 78

φύω, 85, 86, 170

φωρᾶν, 56

Χ 251

χαβός, 88

χαίνειν, 222

χαίνω, 33

χαῖρε, 29

χαλεπότης, 117

χαλινός, 87

χαμαί, 211

χαμαλός, 198

χανδάνειν, 209

χάος, 222

χάριν εἰδέναι, 94

χάριν φέρειν, 94

χάω, 33

χειρόω, 96

χείρων, 58

χειρώνακτες, 75

χεράς, 188

χέρσος, 98, 225

χήρ, 33

χθεσινός, 98

χθών, 97, 211, bis

χίμαρος, 33

χλεύη, 113

χλιδή, 174

χλοιά, 113

χλωρός, 129

χνοαστός, 233

χοῖρος, 33, 210

χορδή, 38

χορταῖος, 98

χρᾶν, 96

χρή, 146

χρῄζων, 222

χρηματισμός, 126

χρεσμολογεῖν, 96

χρηστός, 30

χρόνιος, 172

χρόνος, 60

χρώς, 212

χυμός, 216

χῶμα, 41

χωρεῖν, 114

χῶρος, 125


ψάλλειν, 32

ψαφαρός, 188

ψεκάς, 193

ψεύδειν, 76

ψηλαφᾶν, 144 bis

ψῆφος, 188

ψήχειν, 120

ψήχω, 61, 193

ψίης, 61, 78

ψιλός, 157

ψιλόω, 221

ψόγος, 183

ψοῖθος, 130, 213

ψύθος, 76, 88

ψυχή, 16

ψωρός, 177

ὤα, 135, 185

ᾠδαι, 32

ὠκεανός, 20

ὠκύς, 3

ὠλένη, 217

ὦλξ, 235

ὦμος, 23

ὦνος, 171

ὡς ἔοικεν, 38

ὠφέλημα, 126

Page numbers in the advertising section are shown as printed. There is no page 5-74.



Publishes and offers for Sale the following Works, which will be sent, post-paid, on receipt of the sums affixed.

GARDINER’S GREEK HARMONY. A Harmony of the Four Gospels in Greek, according to the Text of Tischendorf, with a Collation of the Textus Receptus, and of the Texts of Griesbach, Lachmann, and Tregelles. By Frederic Gardiner, D.D., Professor in the Berkeley Divinity School. 8vo. $2.50.

“A very important matter in the preparation of the Harmony is, of course, the choice of a text. The one chosen by Professor Gardiner is that of Tischendorf’s eighth edition of the New Testament. This text was chosen because ‘it embodied the latest results of criticism, having had the advantage throughout of the Codex Sinaiticus and of a more close collation of the Codex Vaticanus.’ Professor Gardiner would, indeed, have published his Harmony more than a year ago, but waited till opportunity could be given for consulting this last edition of Tischendorf. It is an obvious merit in this Harmony, that the student can see at a glance whether or not the text of Tischendorf agrees or conflicts with that of Griesbach, Lachmann, and Tregelles in places where there is a difference of opinion. It is another excellence of the work that the Greek text is so accurate, evincing the most scrupulous care and thorough scholarship on the part of the editor.”—Bibliotheca Sacra.

“The notes of the author are marked by scholarship and good sense. The student will find it a convenient manual for the study of the Gospels, because he sees upon one and the same page the readings of the principal editions and manuscripts, together with the quotations made by the evangelists from the Old Testament.”—Princeton Review.

“Dr. Gardiner’s work has been well done, and he has given us a Harmony of great value.”—Quarterly Review Evang. Luth. Church.

“By this scholarly work Dr. Gardiner has rendered all diligent students of the Gospel narrative an invaluable service. In a single volume, and by the most satisfactory arrangement of the several and inspired accounts of the life and doings of our Lord, the book furnishes the best results of the ablest and most laborious investigation of all known sources of knowledge regarding the original sacred text.”—Reformed Church Monthly.

“It is a superior work of its kind.”—National Baptist.

“This book, the result of great research and utmost painstaking, is well worthy the consideration of all Bible scholars.”—Watchman and Reflector.

GARDINER’S ENGLISH HARMONY. A Harmony of the Four Gospels in English, according to the Authorized Version; corrected by the best Critical Editions of the Original. By Frederic Gardiner, D.D., Professor in the Berkeley Divinity School. 8vo. Cloth, $2.00.

“The Harmony in English, the title of which is given above, is a reproduction of the Harmony in Greek; no other changes being made than such as were required to fit the work for the use of the English reader who desires to learn some of the improvements which modern criticism has made in the authorized English text.”—Bibliotheca Sacra.

“We gladly commend this Harmony to every intelligent reader of the Scriptures. The need of such a guide is felt by every thoughtful Churchman at least once a year—in Holy Week—when he desires to read the events of each day in the order in which they happened so many years ago. We do not think that our laymen know how much they will be helped to the understanding of the Gospels by a simple Harmony, perhaps read as we suggested above, in connection with some standard Life of our Lord.”—The Churchman.

LIFE OF CHRIST. The Life of our Lord in the Words of the Gospels. By Frederic Gardiner, D.D., Professor in the Berkeley Divinity School. 16mo. pp. 256. $1.00

“It is well adapted to the convenience of pastors, to the needs of teachers in the Bible-class and Sabbath-school, to the religious instruction of families. It bids fair to introduce improvements into the style of teaching the Bible to the young.”—Bibliotheca Sacra.

“This little volume will not only answer as a Harmony of the Gospels for the use of those who only care to have results, but it will be an excellent book to read at family prayers, or to study with a Bible-class.”—Christian Union.


ELLICOTT’S COMMENTARY, CRITICAL AND GRAMMATICAL, on St. Paul’s Epistle to the Galatians. With an Introductory Notice by C. E. Stowe, Professor in Andover Theological Seminary. 8vo. pp. 183. $1.50.

The Commentaries of Prof. Ellicott supply an urgent want in their sphere of criticism. Prof. Stowe says of them, in his Notice: “It is the crowning excellence of these Commentaries that they are exactly what they profess to be, critical and grammatical, and therefore, in the best sense of the term, exegetical. . . . . . His results are worthy of all confidence. He is more careful than Tischendorf, slower and more steadily deliberate than Alford, and more patiently laborious than any other living New Testament critic, with the exception, perhaps, of Tregelles.”

“They [Ellicott’s Commentaries] have set the first example, in this country, [England] of a thorough and fearless examination of the grammatical and philological requirements of every word of the sacred text. I do not know of anything superior to them, in their own particular line, in Germany; and they add, what, alas! is so seldom found in that country, profound reverence for the matter and subjects on which the author is laboring; nor is their value lessened by Mr. Ellicott’s having confined himself for the most part to one department of a commentator’s work—the grammatical and philological.”—Dean Alford.

“The critical part is devoted to the settling of the text, and this is admirably done, with a labor, skill, and conscientiousness unsurpassed.”—Bib. Sacra.

“We have never met with a learned commentary on any book of the New Testament so nearly perfect in every respect as the ‘Commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians,’ by Prof. Ellicott, of King’s College, London,—learned, devout, and orthodox.”—Independent.

“We would recommend all scholars of the original Scriptures who seek directness, luminous brevity, the absence of everything irrelevant to strict grammatical inquiry, with a concise and yet very complete view of the opinions of others, to possess themselves of Ellicott’s Commentaries.”—American Presbyterian.

COMMENTARY ON EPHESIANS. 8vo. pp. 190. $1.50.




THE SET in five vols., on fine paper, extra cloth, bevelled, gilt tops. $10.00.

THE SET in two vols., black cloth $8.00.

HENDERSON ON THE MINOR PROPHETS. THE BOOK OF THE TWELVE MINOR PROPHETS. Translated from the Original Hebrew. With a Commentary, Critical, Philological, and Exegetical. By E. Henderson, D.D. With a Biographical Sketch of the Author, by E. P. Barrows, Hitchcock Professor in Andover Theological Seminary. 8vo. pp. 490. $3.50.

“This Commentary on the Minor Prophets, like that on the Prophecy of Isaiah, has been highly and deservedly esteemed by professional scholars, and has been of great service to the working ministry. We are happy to welcome it in an American edition, very neatly printed.”—Bib. Sacra.

“Clergymen and other students of the Bible will be glad to see this handsome American edition of a work which has a standard reputation in its department, and which fills a place that is filled, so far as we know, by no other single volume in the English language. Dr. Henderson was a good Hebrew and Biblical scholar, and in his Commentaries he is intelligent, brief, and to the point.”—Boston Recorder.

“The American publisher issues this valuable work with the consent and approbation of the author, obtained from himself before his death. It is published in substantial and elegant style, clear white paper and beautiful type. The work is invaluable for its philological research and critical acumen. The notes are learned, reliable, and practical, and the volume deserves a place in every theological student’s library.”—American Presbyterian, etc.

“Of all his Commentaries none are more popular than his Book of the Minor Prophets.”—Christian Observer.

“This is probably the best Commentary extant on the Minor Prophets. The work is worthy of a place in the library of every scholar and every diligent and earnest reader of the Bible.”—Christian Chronicle.


COMMENTARY ON THE EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS. By Moses Stuart, late Professor of Sacred Literature in the Theological Seminary at Andover. Third Edition. Edited and revised by Prof. R. D. C. Robbins. 12mo. pp. 544. $2.25.

“His Commentary on the Romans is the most elaborate of all his works. It has elicited more discussion than any of his other exegetical volumes. It is the result of long continued, patient thought. It expresses, in clear style, his maturest conclusions. It has the animating influence of an original treatise, written on a novel plan, and under a sense of personal responsibility. Regarding it in all its relations, its antecedents and consequents, we pronounce it the most important Commentary which has appeared in this country on this Epistle.”—Bib. Sacra.

“We heartily commend this work to all students of the Bible. The production of one of the first Biblical scholars of our age, on the most important of all the doctrinal books of the New Testament, it deserves the careful study, not only of those who agree with Prof. Stuart in his theological and exegetical principles, but of those who earnestly dissent from some of his views in both respects.”—Watchman and Reflector.

“This contribution by Prof. Stuart has justly taken a high place among the Commentaries on the Epistle to the Romans, and, with his other works, will always be held in high estimation by the student of the Sacred Scriptures.”—New York Observer.

COMMENTARY ON THE EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS. By Prof. M. Stuart. Third Edition. Edited and revised by Prof. R. D. C. Robbins. 12mo. pp. 575. $2.25.

“It is a rich treasure for the student of the original. As a commentator, Prof. Stuart was especially arduous and faithful in following up the thought and displaying the connection of a passage, and his work as a scholar will bear comparison with any that have since appeared on either side of the Atlantic.”—American Presbyterian.

“This Commentary is classical, both as to its literary and its theological merits. The edition before us is very skilfully edited, by Professor Robbins, and gives in full Dr. Stuart’s text, with additions bringing it down to the present day.”—Episcopal Recorder.

“We have always regarded this excellent Commentary as the happiest effort of the late Andover Professor. It seems to us well-nigh to exhaust the subjects which the author comprehended in his plan.”—Boston Recorder.

“It is from the mind and heart of an eminent Biblical scholar, whose labors in the cause of sacred learning will not soon be forgotten.”—Christian Observer.

COMMENTARY ON THE BOOK OF PROVERBS. By Prof. M. Stuart. 12mo. pp. 432. $1.75.

“This is the last work from the pen of Prof. Stuart. Both this Commentary and the one preceding it, on Ecclesiastes, exhibit a mellowness of spirit which savors of the good man ripening for heaven; and the style is more condensed, and, in that respect, more agreeable, than in some of the works which were written in the unabated freshness and exuberant vigor of his mind. In learning and critical acumen they are equal to his former works. No English reader, we venture to say, can elsewhere find so complete a philological exposition of these two important books of the Old Testament.”—Bib. Sacra.

COMMENTARY ON ECCLESIASTES. By Moses Stuart, late Professor of Sacred Literature in the Theological Seminary at Andover. Second Edition. Edited and revised by R. D. C. Robbins, Professor in Middlebury College. 12mo. $1.50

The Introduction discusses the general nature of the book; its special design and method, diction, authority, credit, and general history; ancient and modern versions, and commentaries. The Commentary is strictly and minutely exegetical.

STUART’S MISCELLANIES. pp. 369. 12mo. $1.00.

Contents.—I. Letters to Dr. Channing on the Trinity.—II. Two Sermons on the Atonement.—III. Sacramental Sermon on the Lamb of God.—IV. Dedication Sermon.—Real Christianity.—V. Letter to Dr. Channing on Religious Liberty.—VI. Supplementary Notes and Postscripts.

COMMENTARY ON THE APOCALYPSE. 2 vols. 8vo. pp. 564, 504. $5.00.



Books Published by W. F. Draper

Angel over the Right Shoulder, The; or the Beginning of a New Year. By the Author of “Sunnyside.”  40 cents.

“It is as provokingly short as it is exquisitely beautiful.”—Boston Recorder.

“What a blessed thing is a sunny spirit, ever cheerful and happy, and ever diffusing joy over all around it. Such a spirit is the Author of “Sunny Side.” She comes to us again as a living angel—in good omen over the right shoulder. We commend it to all mothers, and especially to all Mrs. Jellabys.”—Independent.

Carlyle, Thomas. Latter-Day Pamphlets. 12mo. $1.00

Contents.—The Present Time.—Model Prisons.—Downing Street.—The New Downing Street.—Stump Orator.—Parliaments.—Hudson’s Statue.—Jesuitism.

A Collection of the Proverbs of all Nations. Compared, Explained, and Illustrated. By Walter B. Kelly. 12mo. $1.25

“This is one of those books, like Roget’s Thesaurus, Haydn’s Dictionary of Dates, and Lippincott’s Pronouncing Gazetteer, which contains a vast amount of information in a very small space—books that a writer cannot afford to be without, for they contain information that by days of research in libraries one would hardly be able to obtain. This collection contains all the proverbs which are familiar in all nations. They are classified under various heads, such as Women, Love, Marriage, Home, Self-conceit, Ingratitude, and so on. There is also a full index, which enables one at once to find any particular proverb. Another excellent feature is, that when a proverb is taken from another language, not only the English, but the original is given. The book is replete with good things. It supplies a want that many a one has felt—a want that no dictionary, gazetteer, or book of quotations now supplies.”—College Courant.

“It is not possible, perhaps, to collect the proverbial wisdom of the world in any more attractive form than this of Mr. Kelly’s. . . . . . As a book for the library, an armory where a writer or a speaker may be armed and equipped in a single line; as a book for the centre-table, something that you can read a page or twenty pages of, have your reading cut short anywhere, and still be complete and intensely interesting besides,—as a book for either of these purposes, the “Proverbs of all Nations” will be found very acceptable. Certain it is, at least, that “you may go farther and fare worse.””Christian Freeman.

Value of the Study of Church History in Ministerial Education. A Lecture delivered to the Senior Class of Andover Theological Seminary. By Egbert C. Smyth. 8vo. Paper, 25 cents.

God’s Ownership of the Sea. By Leonard Swain, D.D. Reprinted from the Bibliotheca Sacra. Paper, 25 cents.

A remarkably interesting Essay on the office and uses of the sea.


Political Economy. Designed as a Text-Book for Colleges. By John Bascom, A. M., Professor in Williams College. 12mo. pp. 366. $1.50

“It goes over the whole ground in a logical order. The matter is perspicuously arranged under distinct chapters and sections; it is a compendious exhibition of the principles of the science without prolonged disquisitions on particular points.”—Princeton Review.

“This is a valuable work upon a subject of much interest. Professor Bascom writes well, and his book makes an excellent manual.”—Boston Recorder.

“The book is worthy a careful study, both for the views it contains and as a mental training.”—Evening Express.

Questions on Kühner’s Elementary Greek Grammar. By Charles W. Bateman, LL.D.; with Modifications and Notes by Samuel H. Taylor, LL.D., Principal of Phillips Academy. 12mo. pp. 57. Paper covers. 40 cts.

These “Questions” are a valuable aid to the pupil in making his knowledge of the principles of the Grammar more definite, and in fixing them more permanently in his mind. They will also greatly aid the teacher to systematize his work, and lighten the labor of teaching. These “Questions,” though prepared with special reference to Kühner’s Grammar, are equally applicable to any elementary Greek Grammar. They are a valuable aid.

Döderlein’s Hand-Book of Latin Synonymes. Translated by Rev. H. H. Arnold, B.A., with an Introduction by S. H. Taylor, LL.D. New Edition, with an Index of Greek words. 16mo. pp. 267. $1.25

“The present hand-book of Döderlein is remarkable for the brevity, distinctness, perspicuity, and appositeness of its definitions. It will richly reward not merely the classical, but the general student for the labor he may devote to it. It is difficult to open the volume, even at random, without discovering some hint which may be useful to a theologian. . . . . . From the preceding extracts it will be seen that this hand-book is useful in elucidating many Greek, as well as Latin synonymes.”—Bib. Sacra.

“The little volume mentioned above, introduced to the American public by an eminent scholar and teacher, Samuel H. Taylor, LL.D., is one of the best helps to the thorough appreciation of the nice shades of meaning in Latin words that have met my eye. It deserves the attention of teachers and learners, and will amply reward patient study.”—Prof. E. D. Sanborn.

“We have been acquainted for some years with the merits of this work, and cordially commend it as one of the best manuals on Latin synonymes, and admirably adapted to the wants of the student.”—Evangelical Review.

“It is well adapted to school purposes, and embraces all that is necessary on this subject. He has often introduced also the nearest corresponding expression both in the Greek and German languages, and placed them side by side with the Latin synonyme.”—Evening Express.

“We have no hesitation in saying that this is the best work on Latin synonymes that has yet been published.”—Universalist Quarterly.


Classical Study: Its Usefulness illustrated by Selections from the Writings of Eminent Scholars. Edited, with an Introduction, by Samuel H. Taylor, LL.D., Principal of Phillips Academy. 12mo. $2.00

Professor J. R. Boise, of the University of Chicago, thus writes in the March number of the Illinois Teacher: “The selection of essays made by Dr. Taylor is eminently judicious, and presents the views of many leading writers, both in Europe and in this country. The Introduction, containing about thirty pages, gives, first, a concise and clear sketch of the history of the controversy on the value of classical studies; and then, several reasons why the highest benefits of classical study are seldom reached in this country. On this latter point, we know of no one better qualified by education and long experience as a teacher to speak wisely . . . . . To all who desire the best collection of essays in our language on classical study, the work of Dr. Taylor will be very welcome. It should have a conspicuous place in every school-library, and in the private library of every educator in our land . . . . . Not the least valuable part of the volume is the Introduction, in which Dr. Taylor so ably, clearly, and fairly balances the arguments on the two sides.”

“We commend the book as a valuable collection of essays on the higher methods of mental training.”—American Presbyterian.

The Theology of the Greek Poets. By W. S. Tyler, Williston Professor of Greek in Amherst College. 12mo. Cloth. $1.75

“Professor Tyler has here produced a work which is an honor to American literature. It is well fitted to be a classic in our Colleges and Theological Seminaries. It furnishes admirable illustrations of the truth of both natural and revealed theology, and suggests original methods for the defence of these truths.”—Bibliotheca Sacra.

“The book is an important contribution to natural theology. It traces the relation of the theology of the Greek poets to that of Christ. Prof. Tyler does his work with the mind of a master.”—Zion’s Herald.

The Kingdom of Christ on Earth: Twelve Lectures delivered before the Students of the Theological Seminary, Andover. By Samuel Harris, Dwight Professor of Systematic Theology in Yale College. 8vo. $1.75

“These lectures are characterized by a firm grasp of the subject, by profound and thorough comprehension of the facts and principles which it involves, by a lucid and connected method, and a perspicuous and popular style. The subject is of the very essence of the Christian system. The specific views presented are judicious and sound. The student in theology will find that a careful study of these lectures, pursued so far as to bring the whole presentation into living and shaping relation to his religious thought, will be of inestimable advantage to him in clearing away mists and difficulties, in harmonizing and systematizing his religious knowledge, in opening views into remoter fields of truth, in guiding and quickening his mind generally in its contemplation of religious truth.”—The College Courant.

Works of William G. T. Shedd, recently Professor of Ecclesiastical History in Andover Theol. Sem.

Discourses and Essays. 12mo. pp. 324. $1.50

“These elaborate articles are written in a lucid and racy style, and invest with a rare interest the themes of which they treat.” Bibliotheca Sacra.

“These Discourses are all marked by profound thought and perspicuity of sentiment.”—Princeton Review.

“These Essays are, every one of them, a rich treat for the thinkers, the lovers of deep thought; of thought clothed in a strong, terse, stern, clear expression.”—Methodist Quarterly Review.

“Papers like these are worthy the deepest study and the warmest admiration of the best minds; the entire volume is a storehouse from which thoughts rich and truthful may be drawn.”—Presbyterian Quarterly.

Lectures upon the Philosophy of History. 12mo. 75 cts.

“This volume consists of four Lectures, of which the following are the titles: The Abstract Idea of History; The Nature and Definition of Secular History; The Nature and Definition of Church History; The Verifying Test in Church History. It is written in a lucid style, and will interest the students of theology and of history.Bibliotheca Sacra.

“The style of these Lectures has striking merits. The author chooses his words with rare skill and taste, from an ample vocabulary; and writes with strength and refreshing simplicity.”—New Englander.

Outlines of a Systematic Rhetoric. From the German of Dr. Francis Theremin, by W. G. T. Shedd. $1.00

“The Introductory Essay which Professor Shedd has prefixed to this valuable Treatise, is elaborate, vigorous, impressive. It excites the mind not only to thought, but also to the expression of thought—to inward and outward activity. The whole volume is characterized by freshness and originality of remark, a purity and earnestness of moral feeling.”—Bibliotheca Sacra.

“The subject is ably unfolded in this compact yet thorough treatise. What, however, is exhibited by Theremin in a dry light, in the form of naked philosophic statement, is displayed by Professor Shedd in his Introductory Essay, with that glow of life, beauty, and force which distinguishes his writings.”—Princeton Review.

Guericke’s Church History (Ancient Church; including the First Six Centuries). 8vo. $3.00

“Characterized by research, devoutness, firm grasp of evangelical truth, and careful exhibition of the practical as well as the intellectual aspects of Christianity.”—North British Review.

“We regard Professor Shedd’s version as a happy specimen of the transfusion, rather than a translation, which many of the German treatises should receive. The style of his version is far superior to that of the original.”—Bibliotheca Sacra.

Guericke’s Church History—Mediæval Church. $1.50

“This portion of Guericke’s Church History continues the account down to A.D. 1073, when Hildebrand ascended the Papal chair as Gregory VII. With the previous volume, this addition comprises the History of the Church during the first ten centuries.


Remarks on the Internal Evidence for the Truth of Revealed Religion. By Thomas Erskine, Esq., Advocate. Third American, from Fifth Edinburgh Ed. 16mo. 75 cts.

“The entire treatise cannot fail to commend the positions which it advocates to intelligent and considerate minds. It is one of the best, perhaps the best, of all the discussions of this momentous subject.”—Congregationalist.

“This argument of Erskine for the Internal Evidence of the Truth of Revealed Religion, is the most compact, natural, and convincing we have ever read from any author.”—Christian Chronicle.

“No man ought to consider himself as having studied theology unless he has read and pondered and read again ‘Erskine on the Internal Evidence.’”—Independent.

Writings of Archbishop Whately. Published under the sanction of the author, from the latest revised editions; viz.

Essays on some of the Difficulties in the Writings of St. Paul. 12mo. Cloth extra, gilt tops. $1.50

“Dr. Whately’s writings are characterized by sound thought and solid judgment. Clear and solid sense is his peculiar characteristic. He is often ingenious, generally candid, almost always plain and transparent.”—Bibliotheca Sacra.

“An excellent work.”—New York Evangelist.

“The Archbishop’s writings are a part of the sterling theological letters of the age, and ought to be possessed by all the studious and thoughtful.”—Journal and Messenger.

“This book had passed through at least eight editions in England before its publication in this country. Dr. Whately is always entitled to a hearing. Never profound, he is always clear; never very original, he is always instructive; never disgustingly dogmatic, he always seems to feel a serene assurance that he has exhausted the whole subject, and that his verdict is final; always positive and didactic, he is yet never extreme, but always takes the middle and moderate view.”—Watchman and Reflector.

Essays on some of the Pecularities of the Christian Religion, and Historic Doubts concerning Napoleon. 12mo. pp. 264 and 48. Bound in 1 vol. Cloth extra, gilt tops. $1.50

Historic Doubts concerning Napoleon. 12mo. Paper covers, 25 cents; cloth, 50 cents.

About the year 1821 Whately published this Essay anonymously. It was designed as an answer to Hume’s objections to the credibility of the Christian miracles. Following Hume’s method, Whately gravely argued the improbability of the existence of the first Napoleon, and demonstrated that, on Hume’s principles, the testimony in relation thereto could not be credited.

Errors and Inconsistencies

In English, the spelling “Synonymes” is used consistently except in the paragraph introducing the Greek word list. In Latin, variation between æ (ae) and œ (oe) is unchanged except in cases of unambiguous error such as plural endings. Missing punctuation at line-end—that is, adjacent to the right margin—has been silently supplied. Unless otherwise noted, the number and spacing of ellipses . . . is as in the original. Some short entries—generally cross-references—were printed two to a line; they have been separated for this e-text.

Typographical errors are shown in the text with mouse-hover popups. Trans­literations of Greek words are shown similarly.


The entry for “Adjuvare” was added at the bottom of the page, next to the signature:

partial page image

End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of Döderlein's Hand-book of Lati
 Synonymes, by Ludwig Döderlein


***** This file should be named 33197-h.htm or *****
This and all associated files of various formats will be found in:

Produced by Louise Hope, Irma Spehar and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at (This
file was produced from images generously made available
by The Internet Archive/American Libraries.)

Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions
will be renamed.

Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no
one owns a United States copyright in these works, so the Foundation
(and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without
permission and without paying copyright royalties.  Special rules,
set forth in the General Terms of Use part of this license, apply to
copying and distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works to
protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm concept and trademark.  Project
Gutenberg is a registered trademark, and may not be used if you
charge for the eBooks, unless you receive specific permission.  If you
do not charge anything for copies of this eBook, complying with the
rules is very easy.  You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose
such as creation of derivative works, reports, performances and
research.  They may be modified and printed and given away--you may do
practically ANYTHING with public domain eBooks.  Redistribution is
subject to the trademark license, especially commercial



To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free
distribution of electronic works, by using or distributing this work
(or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project
Gutenberg"), you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full Project
Gutenberg-tm License (available with this file or online at

Section 1.  General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works

1.A.  By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work, you indicate that you have read, understand, agree to
and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property
(trademark/copyright) agreement.  If you do not agree to abide by all
the terms of this agreement, you must cease using and return or destroy
all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your possession.
If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound by the
terms of this agreement, you may obtain a refund from the person or
entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph 1.E.8.

1.B.  "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark.  It may only be
used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who
agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement.  There are a few
things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
even without complying with the full terms of this agreement.  See
paragraph 1.C below.  There are a lot of things you can do with Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this agreement
and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works.  See paragraph 1.E below.

1.C.  The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the Foundation"
or PGLAF), owns a compilation copyright in the collection of Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works.  Nearly all the individual works in the
collection are in the public domain in the United States.  If an
individual work is in the public domain in the United States and you are
located in the United States, we do not claim a right to prevent you from
copying, distributing, performing, displaying or creating derivative
works based on the work as long as all references to Project Gutenberg
are removed.  Of course, we hope that you will support the Project
Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting free access to electronic works by
freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm works in compliance with the terms of
this agreement for keeping the Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with
the work.  You can easily comply with the terms of this agreement by
keeping this work in the same format with its attached full Project
Gutenberg-tm License when you share it without charge with others.

1.D.  The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern
what you can do with this work.  Copyright laws in most countries are in
a constant state of change.  If you are outside the United States, check
the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this agreement
before downloading, copying, displaying, performing, distributing or
creating derivative works based on this work or any other Project
Gutenberg-tm work.  The Foundation makes no representations concerning
the copyright status of any work in any country outside the United

1.E.  Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg:

1.E.1.  The following sentence, with active links to, or other immediate
access to, the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear prominently
whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work on which the
phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears, or with which the phrase "Project
Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed, displayed, performed, viewed,
copied or distributed:

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

1.E.2.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is derived
from the public domain (does not contain a notice indicating that it is
posted with permission of the copyright holder), the work can be copied
and distributed to anyone in the United States without paying any fees
or charges.  If you are redistributing or providing access to a work
with the phrase "Project Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the
work, you must comply either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E.1
through 1.E.7 or obtain permission for the use of the work and the
Project Gutenberg-tm trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.8 or

1.E.3.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted
with the permission of the copyright holder, your use and distribution
must comply with both paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 and any additional
terms imposed by the copyright holder.  Additional terms will be linked
to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works posted with the
permission of the copyright holder found at the beginning of this work.

1.E.4.  Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License terms from this work, or any files containing a part of this
work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm.

1.E.5.  Do not copy, display, perform, distribute or redistribute this
electronic work, or any part of this electronic work, without
prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 with
active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project
Gutenberg-tm License.

1.E.6.  You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary,
compressed, marked up, nonproprietary or proprietary form, including any
word processing or hypertext form.  However, if you provide access to or
distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format other than
"Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official version
posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site (,
you must, at no additional cost, fee or expense to the user, provide a
copy, a means of exporting a copy, or a means of obtaining a copy upon
request, of the work in its original "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other
form.  Any alternate format must include the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License as specified in paragraph 1.E.1.

1.E.7.  Do not charge a fee for access to, viewing, displaying,
performing, copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works
unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.

1.E.8.  You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing
access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works provided

- You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from
     the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method
     you already use to calculate your applicable taxes.  The fee is
     owed to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, but he
     has agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the
     Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.  Royalty payments
     must be paid within 60 days following each date on which you
     prepare (or are legally required to prepare) your periodic tax
     returns.  Royalty payments should be clearly marked as such and
     sent to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the
     address specified in Section 4, "Information about donations to
     the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation."

- You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies
     you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he
     does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm
     License.  You must require such a user to return or
     destroy all copies of the works possessed in a physical medium
     and discontinue all use of and all access to other copies of
     Project Gutenberg-tm works.

- You provide, in accordance with paragraph 1.F.3, a full refund of any
     money paid for a work or a replacement copy, if a defect in the
     electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days
     of receipt of the work.

- You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free
     distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works.

1.E.9.  If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work or group of works on different terms than are set
forth in this agreement, you must obtain permission in writing from
both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and Michael
Hart, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark.  Contact the
Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below.


1.F.1.  Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable
effort to identify, do copyright research on, transcribe and proofread
public domain works in creating the Project Gutenberg-tm
collection.  Despite these efforts, Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works, and the medium on which they may be stored, may contain
"Defects," such as, but not limited to, incomplete, inaccurate or
corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other intellectual
property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or other medium, a
computer virus, or computer codes that damage or cannot be read by
your equipment.

of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1.F.3, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the owner of the Project
Gutenberg-tm trademark, and any other party distributing a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement, disclaim all
liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal

defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it, you can
receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a
written explanation to the person you received the work from.  If you
received the work on a physical medium, you must return the medium with
your written explanation.  The person or entity that provided you with
the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in lieu of a
refund.  If you received the work electronically, the person or entity
providing it to you may choose to give you a second opportunity to
receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund.  If the second copy
is also defective, you may demand a refund in writing without further
opportunities to fix the problem.

1.F.4.  Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth
in paragraph 1.F.3, this work is provided to you 'AS-IS' WITH NO OTHER

1.F.5.  Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied
warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of damages.
If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement violates the
law of the state applicable to this agreement, the agreement shall be
interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or limitation permitted by
the applicable state law.  The invalidity or unenforceability of any
provision of this agreement shall not void the remaining provisions.

1.F.6.  INDEMNITY - You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation, the
trademark owner, any agent or employee of the Foundation, anyone
providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in accordance
with this agreement, and any volunteers associated with the production,
promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works,
harmless from all liability, costs and expenses, including legal fees,
that arise directly or indirectly from any of the following which you do
or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this or any Project Gutenberg-tm
work, (b) alteration, modification, or additions or deletions to any
Project Gutenberg-tm work, and (c) any Defect you cause.

Section  2.  Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm

Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of
electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of computers
including obsolete, old, middle-aged and new computers.  It exists
because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations from
people in all walks of life.

Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the
assistance they need are critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's
goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will
remain freely available for generations to come.  In 2001, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure
and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future generations.
To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation
and how your efforts and donations can help, see Sections 3 and 4
and the Foundation web page at

Section 3.  Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive

The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit
501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the
state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal
Revenue Service.  The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification
number is 64-6221541.  Its 501(c)(3) letter is posted at  Contributions to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent
permitted by U.S. federal laws and your state's laws.

The Foundation's principal office is located at 4557 Melan Dr. S.
Fairbanks, AK, 99712., but its volunteers and employees are scattered
throughout numerous locations.  Its business office is located at
809 North 1500 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 596-1887, email  Email contact links and up to date contact
information can be found at the Foundation's web site and official
page at

For additional contact information:
     Dr. Gregory B. Newby
     Chief Executive and Director

Section 4.  Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation

Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide
spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of
increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be
freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest
array of equipment including outdated equipment.  Many small donations
($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt
status with the IRS.

The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating
charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United
States.  Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a
considerable effort, much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up
with these requirements.  We do not solicit donations in locations
where we have not received written confirmation of compliance.  To
SEND DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any
particular state visit

While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we
have not met the solicitation requirements, we know of no prohibition
against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who
approach us with offers to donate.

International donations are gratefully accepted, but we cannot make
any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from
outside the United States.  U.S. laws alone swamp our small staff.

Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation
methods and addresses.  Donations are accepted in a number of other
ways including including checks, online payments and credit card
donations.  To donate, please visit:

Section 5.  General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic

Professor Michael S. Hart was the originator of the Project Gutenberg-tm
concept of a library of electronic works that could be freely shared
with anyone.  For thirty years, he produced and distributed Project
Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of volunteer support.

Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed
editions, all of which are confirmed as Public Domain in the U.S.
unless a copyright notice is included.  Thus, we do not necessarily
keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper edition.

Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search facility:

This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm,
including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation, how to help produce our new eBooks, and how to
subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.