This text includes characters that require UTF-8 (Unicode) file encoding:

Ē ā ē ī ō ū (vowel with macron or “long” mark)

Ă Ĕ Ĭ ă ĕ ĭ ŏ (vowel with breve or “short” mark)

Ś ś ć (s, c with “acute”: mainly in Recording Indian Languages article)

ⁿ (small raised n, representing nasalized vowel)

ɔ ʇ ʞ (inverted letters)

‖ (double vertical line

There are also a handful of Greek words; transliterations are given in mouse-hover popups. Some compromises were made to accommodate font availability:

The ordinary “cents” sign ¢ was used in place of the correct form ȼ, and bracketed [¢] represents the capital letter Ȼ.

Turned (rotated) c is represented by ɔ (technically an open o).

Bracketed [K] and [T] represent upside-down (turned, rotated) capital K and T.

Inverted V is represented by the Greek letter Λ.

If your computer has a more appropriate character, and you are comfortable editing html files, feel free to replace letters globally.

Syllable stress is represented by an acute accent either on the main vówel or after the syl´lable; inconsistencies are unchanged. Except for the special characters noted above, brackets are in the original. Note that in the Sign Language article, hand positions identified by letter (A, B ... W, Y) are descriptive; they do not represent a “finger alphabet”.

The First Annual Report includes ten “Accompanying Papers”, all available from Project Gutenberg as individual e-texts. Except for Yarrow’s “Mortuary Customs”, updated shortly before the present text, the separate articles were released between late 2005 and late 2007. For this combined e-text they have been re-formatted for consistency, and most illustrations have been replaced. Some articles have been further modified to include specialized characters shown above, and a few more typographical errors have been corrected.

For consistency with later Annual Reports, a full List of Illustrations has been added after the Table of Contents, and each article has been given its own Table of Contents. In the original, the Contents were printed only at the beginning of the volume, and Illustrations were listed only with their respective articles.

List of Illustrations
Introductory Material
Notes and Sources

book cover









publisher’s device


Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnology,

Washington, D.C., July, 1880.

Prof. Spencer F. Baird,

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution,

Washington, D.C.:

Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the first annual report of the operations of the Bureau of Ethnology.

By act of Congress, an appropriation was made to continue researches in North American anthropology, the general direction of which was confided to yourself. As chief executive officer of the Smithsonian Institution, you entrusted to me the immediate control of the affairs of the Bureau. This report, with its appended papers, is designed to exhibit the methods and results of my administration of this trust.

If any measure of success has been attained, it is largely due to general instructions received from yourself and the advice you have ever patiently given me on all matters of importance.

I am indebted to my assistants, whose labors are delineated in the report, for their industry; hearty co-operation, and enthusiastic love of the science. Only through their zeal have your plans been executed.

Much assistance has been rendered the Bureau by a large body of scientific men engaged in the study of anthropology, some of whose names have been mentioned in the report and accompanying papers, and others will be put on record when the subject-matter of their writings is fully published.

I am, with respect, your obedient servant,




Entries shown in italics were added by the transcriber. All Accompanying Papers are in separate files. The long, heavily illustrated articles on Mortuary Customs and Sign Language are each in a file of their own; the other seven articles are grouped together.

Introductory Page xi

Bibliography of North American philology, by J. C. Pilling


Linguistic and other anthropologic researches, by J. O. Dorsey

Linguistic researches, by S. R. Riggs xviii

Linguistic and general researches among the Klamath Indians, by A. S. Gatschet


Studies among the Iroquois, by Mrs. E. A. Smith

Work by Prof. Otis T. Mason xxii

The study of gesture speech, by Brevet Lieut. Col. Garrick Mallery


Studies on Central American picture writing, by Prof. E. S. Holden


The study of mortuary customs, by Dr. H. C. Yarrow


Investigations relating to cessions of lands by Indian tribes to the United States, by C. C. Royce

Explorations by Mr. James Stevenson xxx

Researches among the Wintuns, by Prof. J. W. Powell


The preparation of manuals for use in American research


Linguistic classification of the North American tribes

Process by combination Page 3
Process by vocalic mutation 5
Process by intonation 6
Process by placement 6
Differentiation of the parts of speech 8
The genesis of philosophy 19
Two grand stages of philosophy 21
Mythologic philosophy has four stages 29
Outgrowth from mythologic philosophy 33

The course of evolution in mythologic philosophy

Mythic tales 43

The Cĭn-aú-äv Brothers discuss matters of importance to the Utes

Origin of the echo 45
The So´-kûs Wai´-ûn-ats 47
Ta-vwots has a fight with the sun 52
The family Page 59
The gens 59
The phratry 60
Government 61
Civil government 61
Methods of choosing councillors 61
Functions of civil government 63
Marriage regulations 63
Name regulations 64
Regulations of personal adornment 64
Regulations of order in encampment 64
Property rights 65
Rights of persons 65
Community rights 65
Rights of religion 65
Crimes 66
Theft 66
Maiming 66
Murder 66
Treason 67
Witchcraft 67
Outlawry 67
Military government 68
Fellowhood 68
Archæology 73
Picture writing 75

History, customs, and ethnic characteristics

Origin of man 77
Language 78
Mythology 81
Sociology 83
Psychology 83
List of illustrations 89
Introductory 91
Classification of burial 92
Inhumation 93
Pit burial 93
Grave burial 101
Stone graves or cists 113
Burial in mounds 115

Burial beneath or in cabins, wigwams, or houses

Cave burial 126
Embalmment or mummification 130
Urn burial 137
Surface burial 138
Cairn burial 142
Cremation 143
Partial cremation 150
vii Aerial sepulture 152
Lodge burial 152
Box burial 155
Tree and scaffold burial 158
Partial scaffold burial and ossuaries 168
Superterrene and aerial burial in canoes 171
Aquatic burial 180
Living sepulchers 182
Mourning, sacrifice, feasts, etc. 183
Mourning 183
Sacrifice 187
Feasts 190
Superstition regarding burial feasts 191
Food 192
Dances 192
Songs 194
Games 195
Posts 197
Fires 198
Superstitions 199
List of illustrations 206
Introductory 207
Materials for the present investigation 210
System of nomenclature 211
In what order are the hieroglyphs read? 221
The card catalogue of hieroglyphs 223
Comparison of plates I and IV (Copan) 224

Are the hieroglyphs of Copan and Palenque identical?


Huitzilopochtli, Mexican god of war, etc.

Tlaloc, or his Maya representative 237
Cukulcan or Quetzalcoatl 239

Comparison of the signs of the Maya months

Character of the Indian title 249
Indian boundaries 253
Original and secondary cessions 256
List of Illustrations 265
Introductory 269
Divisions of gesture speech 270
The origin of sign language 273
Gestures of the lower animals 275
Gestures of young children 276
Gestures in mental disorder 276
Uninstructed deaf-mutes 277
Gestures of the blind 278
Loss of speech by isolation 278
Low tribes of man 279
Gestures as an occasional resource 279
Gestures of fluent talkers 279
viii Involuntary response to gestures 280
Natural pantomime 280
Some theories upon primitive language 282
Conclusions 284
History of gesture language 285
Modern use of gesture speech 293

Use by other peoples than North American Indians

Use by modern actors and orators 308

Our Indian conditions favorable to sign language


Theories entertained respecting Indian signs


Not correlated with meagerness of language

Its origin from one tribe or region 316

Is the Indian system special and peculiar?

To what extent prevalent as a system 323
Are signs conventional or instinctive? 340
Classes of diversities in signs 341

Results sought in the study of sign language

Practical application 346
Relations to philology 349
Sign language with reference to grammar 359
Gestures aiding archæologic research 368
Notable points for further researches 387
Invention of new signs 387
Danger of symbolic interpretation 388
Signs used by women and children 391
Positive signs rendered negative 391
Details of positions of fingers 392
Motions relative to parts of the body 393
Suggestions for collecting signs 394
Mode in which researches have been made 395
List of authorities and collaborators 401
Algonkian 403
Dakotan 404
Iroquoian 405
Kaiowan 406
Kutinean 406
Panian 406
Piman 406
Sahaptian 406
Shoshonian 406
Tinnean 407
Wichitan 407
Zuñian 407
Foreign correspondence 407
Extracts from dictionary 409
Tribal signs 458
Proper names 476
Phrases 479
Dialogues 486
Tendoy-Huerito Dialogue. 486
Omaha Colloquy. 490
Brulé Dakota Colloquy. 491
Dialogue between Alaskan Indians. 492
Ojibwa Dialogue. 499
Narratives 500
Nátci’s Narrative. 500
Patricio’s Narrative. 505
Na-wa-gi-jig’s Story. 508
Discourses 521
Address of Kin Chē-Ĕss. 521
Tso-di-a´-ko’s Report. 524
Lean Wolf’s Complaint. 526
Signals 529
Signals executed by bodily action 529

Signals in which objects are used in connection with personal action


Signals made when the person of the signalist is not visible

Smoke Signals Generally 536
Smoke Signals of the Apaches 538
Foreign Smoke Signals 539
Fire Arrows 540
Dust Signals 541
Notes on Cheyenne and Arapaho Signals 542
ix Scheme of illustration 544

Outlines for arm positions in sign language

Order of arrangement 546
Types of hand positions in sign language 547
Examples 550
Introductory 555
List of manuscripts 562

How the rabbit caught the sun in a trap, by J. O. Dorsey


Details of a conjurer’s practice, by A. S. Gatschet

The relapse, by A. S. Gatschet 585
Sweat-Lodges, by A. S. Gatschet 586
A dog’s revenge, by S. R. Riggs 587
Index to First Annual Report 591



This full list was added by the transcriber. For the e-text, illus­trations were placed as close as practical to their discussion in the text; the List of Illustrations shows their original location. The First Annual Report did not distinguish between Plates (full page, unpaginated) and Figures (inline).

Map of the State of Indiana (unnumbered) 248
Figure 1. Quiogozon or dead house Page 94
2. Pima burial 98
3. Towers of silence 105
4. Towers of silence 106
5. Alaskan mummies 135
6. Burial urns 138
7. Indian cemetery 139
8. Grave pen 141
9. Grave pen 141
10. Tolkotin cremation 145
11. Eskimo lodge burial 154
12. Burial houses 154
13. Innuit grave 156
14. Ingalik grave 157
15. Dakota scaffold burial 158

Offering food to the dead

17. Depositing the corpse 160
18. Tree-burial 161
19. Chippewa scaffold burial 162
20. Scarification at burial 164

Australian scaffold burial

22. Preparing the dead 167
23. Canoe-burial 171
24. Twana canoe-burial 172
25. Posts for burial canoes 173
26. Tent on scaffold 174
27. House burial 175
28. House burial 175
29. Canoe-burial 178
30. Mourning-cradle 181

Launching the burial cradle

32. Chippewa widow 185
33. Ghost gamble 195
34. Figured plum stones 196
35. Winning throw, No. 1 196
36. Winning throw, No. 2 196
37. Winning throw, No. 3 196
38. Winning throw, No. 4 196
39. Winning throw, No. 5 196
40. Winning throw, No. 6 196
41. Auxiliary throw, No. 1 196
42. Auxiliary throw, No. 2 196
43. Auxiliary throw, No. 3 196
44. Auxiliary throw, No. 4 196
45. Auxiliary throw, No. 5 196
46. Burial posts 197
47. Grave fire 198
48. The Palenquean Group of the Cross 221
49. Statue at Copan 224
50. Statue at Copan 225

Synonymous Hieroglyphs from Copan and Palenque

52. Yucatec Stone 229
53. Huitzilopochtli (front) 232
54. Huitzilopochtli (side) 232
55. Huitzilopochtli (back) 232
56. Miclantecutli 232
57. Adoratorio 233
58. The Maya War-God 234
59. The Maya Rain-God 234
60. Tablet at Palenque 234
61. Affirmation, approving. Old Roman 286
62. Approbation. Neapolitan 286
63. Affirmation, approbation. N.A. Indian 286
64. Group. Old Greek. Facing 289
65. Negation. Dakota 290
66. Love. Modern Neapolitan 290
67. Group. Old Greek. Facing 290
68. Hesitation. Neapolitan 291
69. Wait. N.A. Indian 291
70. Question, asking. Neapolitan 291
71. Tell me. N.A. Indian 291
72. Interrogation. Australian 291
73. Pulcinella 292
74. Thief. Neapolitan 292
75. Steal. N.A. Indian 293
76. Public writer. Neapolitan group. Facing 296
77. Money. Neapolitan 297
78. “Hot Corn.” Neapolitan Group. Facing 297
79. “Horn” sign. Neapolitan 298
80. Reproach. Old Roman 298
81. Marriage contract. Neapolitan group. Facing 298
82. Negation. Pai-Ute sign 299
83. Coming home of bride. Neapolitan group. Facing 299
84. Pretty. Neapolitan 300
85. “Mano in fica.” Neapolitan 300
86. Snapping the fingers. Neapolitan 300
87. Joy, acclamation 300
88. Invitation to drink wine 300
89. Woman’s quarrel. Neapolitan Group. Facing 301
90. Chestnut vender. Facing 301
91. Warning. Neapolitan 302
92. Justice. Neapolitan 302
93. Little. Neapolitan 302
94. Little. N.A. Indian 302
95. Little. N.A. Indian 302
96. Demonstration. Neapolitan 302
97. “Fool.” Neapolitan 303
98. “Fool.” Ib. 303
99. “Fool.” Ib. 303
100. Inquiry. Neapolitan 303
101. Crafty, deceitful. Neapolitan 303
102. Insult. Neapolitan 304
103. Insult. Neapolitan 304
104. Silence. Neapolitan 304
105. Child. Egyptian hieroglyph 304
106. Negation. Neapolitan 305
107. Hunger. Neapolitan 305
108. Mockery. Neapolitan 305
109. Fatigue. Neapolitan 305
110. Deceit. Neapolitan 305
111. Astuteness, readiness. Neapolitan 305
112. Tree. Dakota, Hidatsa 343
113. To grow. N.A. Indian 343
114. Rain. Shoshoni, Apache 344
115. Sun. N.A. Indian 344
116. Sun. Cheyenne 344
117. Soldier. Arikara 345
118. No, negation. Egyptian 355
119. Negation. Maya 356
120. Nothing. Chinese 356
121. Child. Egyptian figurative 356
122. Child. Egyptian linear 356
123. Child. Egyptian hieratic 356
124. Son. Ancient Chinese 356
125. Son. Modern Chinese 356
126. Birth. Chinese character 356
127. Birth. Dakota 356
128. Birth, generic. N.A. Indians 357
129. Man. Mexican 357
130. Man. Chinese character 357
131. Woman. Chinese character 357
132. Woman. Ute 357
133. Female, generic. Cheyenne 357
134. To give water. Chinese character 357
135. Water, to drink. N.A. Indian 357
136. Drink. Mexican 357
137. Water. Mexican 357
138. Water, giving. Egypt 358
139. Water. Egyptian 358
140. Water, abbreviated 358
141. Water. Chinese character 358
142. To weep. Ojibwa pictograph 358
143. Force, vigor. Egyptian 358
144. Night. Egyptian 358
145. Calling upon. Egyptian figurative 359
146. Calling upon. Egyptian linear 359
147. To collect, to unite. Egyptian 359
148. Locomotion. Egyptian figurative 359
149. Locomotion. Egyptian linear 359
150. Shuⁿ´-ka Lu´-ta. Dakota 365
151. “I am going to the east.” Abnaki 369
152. “Am not gone far.” Abnaki 369
153. “Gone far.” Abnaki 370
154. “Gone five days’ journey.” Abnaki 370
155. Sun. N.A. Indian 370
156. Sun. Egyptian 370
157. Sun. Egyptian 370
158. Sun with rays. Ib. 371
159. Sun with rays. Ib. 371
160. Sun with rays. Moqui pictograph 371
161. Sun with rays. Ib. 371
162. Sun with rays. Ib. 371
163. Sun with rays. Ib. 371
164. Star. Moqui pictograph 371
165. Star. Moqui pictograph 371
166. Star. Moqui pictograph 371
167. Star. Moqui pictograph 371
168. Star. Peruvian pictograph 371
169. Star. Ojibwa pictograph 371
170. Sunrise. Moqui do. 371
171. Sunrise. Ib. 371
172. Sunrise. Ib. 371
173. Moon, month. Californian pictograph 371
174. Pictograph, including sun. Coyotero Apache 372
175. Moon. N.A. Indian 372
176. Moon. Moqui pictograph 372
177. Moon. Ojibwa pictograph 372
178. Sky. Ib. 372
179. Sky. Egyptian character 372
180. Clouds. Moqui pictograph 372
181. Clouds. Ib. 372
182. Clouds. Ib. 372
183. Cloud. Ojibwa pictograph 372
184. Rain. New Mexican pictograph 373
185. Rain. Moqui pictograph 373
186. Lightning. Moqui pictograph 373
187. Lightning. Ib. 373
188. Lightning, harmless. Pictograph at Jemez, N.M. 373
189. Lightning, fatal. Do. 373
190. Voice. “The-Elk-that-hollows-walking” 373
191. Voice. Antelope. Cheyenne drawing 373
192. Voice, talking. Cheyenne drawing 374
193. Killing the buffalo. Cheyenne drawing 375
194. Talking. Mexican pictograph 376
195. Talking, singing. Maya character 376
196. Hearing ears. Ojibwa pictograph 376
197. “I hear, but your words are from a bad heart.” Ojibwa 376
198. Hearing serpent. Ojibwa pictograph 376
199. Royal edict. Maya 377
200. To kill. Dakota 377
201. “Killed Arm.” Dakota 377
202. Pictograph, including “kill.” Wyoming Ter. 378
203. Pictograph, including “kill.” Wyoming Ter. 378
204. Pictograph, including “kill.” Wyoming Ter. 379
205. Veneration. Egyptian character 379
206. Mercy. Supplication, favor. Egyptian 379
207. Supplication. Mexican pictograph 380
208. Smoke. Ib. 380
209. Fire. Ib. 381
210. “Making medicine.” Conjuration. Dakota 381
211. Meda. Ojibwa pictograph 381
212. The God Knuphis. Egyptian 381
213. The God Knuphis. Ib. 381
214. Power. Ojibwa pictograph 381
215. Meda’s Power. Ib. 381
216. Trade pictograph 382
217. Offering. Mexican pictograph 382
218. Stampede of horses. Dakota 382
219. Chapultepec. Mexican pictograph 383
220. Soil. Ib. 383
221. Cultivated soil. Ib. 383
222. Road, path. Ib. 383
223. Cross-roads and gesture sign. Mexican pictograph 383
224. Small-pox or measles. Dakota 383
225. “No thoroughfare.” Pictograph 383
226. Raising of war party. Dakota 384
227. “Led four war parties.” Dakota drawing 384
228. Sociality. Friendship. Ojibwa pictograph 384
229. Peace. Friendship. Dakota 384
230. Peace. Friendship with whites. Dakota 385
231. Friendship. Australian 385
232. Friend. Brulé Dakota 386
233. Lie, falsehood. Arikara 393
234. Antelope. Dakota 410
235. Running Antelope. Personal totem 410
236. Bad. Dakota 411
237. Bear. Cheyenne 412
238. Bear. Kaiowa, etc. 413
239. Bear. Ute 413
240. Bear. Moqui pictograph 413
241. Brave. N.A. Indian 414
242. Brave. Kaiowa, etc. 415
243. Brave. Kaiowa, etc. 415
244. Chief. Head of tribe. Absaroka 418
245. Chief. Head of tribe. Pai-Ute 418
246. Chief of a band. Absaroka and Arikara 419
247. Chief of a band. Pai-Ute 419
248. Warrior. Absaroka, etc. 420
249. Ojibwa gravestone, including “dead” 422
250. Dead. Shoshoni and Banak 422
251. Dying. Kaiowa, etc. 424
252. Nearly dying. Kaiowa 424
253. Log house. Hidatsa 428
254. Lodge. Dakota 430
255. Lodge. Kaiowa, etc. 431
256. Lodge. Sahaptin 431
257. Lodge. Pai-Ute 431
258. Lodge. Pai-Ute 431
259. Lodge. Kutchin 431
260. Horse. N.A. Indian 434
261. Horse. Dakota 434
262. Horse. Kaiowa, etc. 435
263. Horse. Caddo 435
264. Horse. Pima and Papago 435
265. Horse. Ute 435
266. Horse. Ute 435
267. Saddling a horse. Ute 437
268. Kill. N.A. Indian 438
269. Kill. Mandan and Hidatsa 439
270. Negation. No. Dakota 441
271. Negation. No. Pai-Ute 442
272. None. Dakota 443
273. None. Australian 444
274. Much, quantity. Apache 447
275. Question. Australian 449
276. Soldier. Dakota and Arikara 450
277. Trade. Dakota 452
278. Trade. Dakota 452
279. Buy. Ute 453
280. Yes, affirmation. Dakota 456
281. Absaroka tribal sign. Shoshoni 458
282. Apache tribal sign. Kaiowa, etc. 459
283. Apache tribal sign. Pima and Papago 459
284. Arikara tribal sign. Arapaho and Dakota 461
285. Arikara tribal sign. Absaroka 461
286. Blackfoot tribal sign. Dakota 463
287. Blackfoot tribal sign. Shoshoni 464
288. Caddo tribal sign. Arapaho and Kaiowa 464
289. Cheyenne tribal sign. Arapaho and Cheyenne 464
290. Dakota tribal sign. Dakota 467
291. Flathead tribal sign. Shoshoni 468
292. Kaiowa tribal sign. Comanche 470
293. Kutine tribal sign. Shoshoni 471
294. Lipan tribal sign. Apache 471
295. Pend d’Oreille tribal sign. Shoshoni 473
296. Sahaptin or Nez Percé tribal sign. Comanche 473
297. Shoshoni tribal sign. Shoshoni 474
298. Buffalo. Dakota 477
299. Eagle Tail. Arikara 477
300. Eagle Tail. Moqui pictograph 477
301. Give me. Absaroka 480
302. Counting. How many? Shoshoni and Banak 482
303. I am going home. Dakota 485
304. Question. Apache 486
305. Shoshoni tribal sign. Shoshoni 486
306. Chief. Shoshoni 487
307. Cold, winter, year. Apache 487
308. “Six.” Shoshoni 487
309. Good, very well. Apache 487
310. Many. Shoshoni 488
311. Hear, heard. Apache 488
312. Night. Shoshoni 489
313. Rain. Shoshoni 489
314. See each other. Shoshoni 490
315. White man, American. Dakota 491
316. Hear, heard. Dakota 492
317. Brother. Pai-Ute 502
318. No, negation. Pai-Ute 503
319. Scene of Na-wa-gi-jig’s story. Facing 508
320. We are friends. Wichita 521
321. Talk, talking. Wichita 521
322. I stay, or I stay right here. Wichita 521
323. A long time. Wichita 522
324. Done, finished. Do. 522
325. Sit down. Australian 523
326. Cut down. Wichita 524
327. Wagon. Wichita 525
328. Load upon. Wichita 525
329. White man; American. Hidatsa 526
330. With us. Hidatsa 526
331. Friend. Hidatsa 527
332. Four. Hidatsa 527
333. Lie, falsehood. Hidatsa 528
334. Done, finished. Hidatsa 528
335. Peace, friendship. Hualpais. Facing 530
336. Question, ans’d by tribal sign for Pani. Facing 531
337. Buffalo discovered. Dakota. Facing 532
338. Discovery. Dakota. Facing 533
339. Success of war party. Pima. Facing 538
340. Outline for arm positions, full face 545
341. Outline for arm positions, profile 545
342a. Types of hand positions, A to L 547
342b. Types of hand positions, M to Y 548
343. Example. To cut with an ax 550
344. Example. A lie 550
345. Example. To ride 551
346. Example. I am going home 551





By J. W. Powell, Director.


The exploration of the Colorado River of the West, begun in 1869 by authority of Congressional action, was by the same authority subsequently continued as the second division of the Geographical and Geological Survey of the Territories, and, finally, as the Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region.

By act of Congress of March 3, 1879, the various geological and geographical surveys existing at that time were discontinued and the United States Geological Survey was established.

In all the earlier surveys anthropologic researches among the North American Indians were carried on. In that branch of the work finally designated as the Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region, such research constituted an important part of the work. In the act creating the Geological Survey, provision was made to continue work in this field under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution, on the basis of the methods developed and materials collected by the Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region.

Under the authority of the act of Congress providing for the continuation of the work, the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution intrusted its management to the former director of xii the Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region, and a bureau of ethnology was thus practically organized.

In the Annual Report of the Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region for 1877, the following statement of the condition of the work at that time appears:


During the same office season the ethnographic work was more thoroughly organized, and the aid of a large number of volunteer assistants living throughout the country was secured. Mr. W. H. Dall, of the United States Coast Survey, prepared a paper on the tribes of Alaska, and edited other papers on certain tribes of Oregon and Washington Territory. He also superintended the construction of an ethnographic map to accompany his paper, including on it the latest geographic determination from all available sources. His long residence and extended scientific labors in that region peculiarly fitted him for the task, and he has made a valuable contribution both to ethnology and geography.

With the same volume was published a paper on the habits and customs of certain tribes of the State of Oregon and Washington Territory, prepared by the late Mr. George Gibbs while he was engaged in scientific work in that region for the government. The volume also contains a Niskwalli vocabulary with extended grammatic notes, the last great work of the lamented author.

In addition to the map above mentioned and prepared by Mr. Dall, a second has been made, embracing the western portion of Washington Territory and the northern part of Oregon. The map includes the results of the latest geographic information and is colored to show the distribution of Indian tribes, chiefly from notes and maps left by Mr. Gibbs.

The Survey is indebted to the following gentlemen for valuable contributions to this volume: Gov. J. Furujelm, Lieut. E. De Meulen, Dr. Wm. F. Tolmie, and Rev. Father Mengarini.

Mr. Stephen Powers, of Ohio, who has spent several years in the study of the Indians of California, had the year before been engaged to prepare a paper on that subject. In the mean time at my request he was employed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs to travel among these tribes for the purpose of making collections of Indian arts for the International Exhibition. This afforded him opportunity of more thoroughly accomplishing his work in the preparation of the above-mentioned paper. On his return the new material was incorporated with the old, and the whole has been printed.

At our earliest knowledge of the Indians of California they were divided into small tribes speaking diverse languages and belonging to radically different stocks, and the whole subject was one of great complexity and interest. Mr. Powers has successfully unraveled the difficult xiii problems relating to the classification and affinities of a very large number of tribes, and his account of their habits and customs is of much interest.

In the volume with his paper will be found a number of vocabularies collected by himself, Mr. George Gibbs, General George Crook, U.S.A., General W. B. Hazen, U.S.A., Lieut. Edward Ross, U.S.A., Assistant Surgeon Thomas F. Azpell, U.S.A., Mr. Ezra Williams, Mr. J. R. Bartlett, Gov. J. Furujelm, Prof. F. L. O. Roehrig, Dr. William A. Gabb, Mr. H. B. Brown, Mr. Israel S. Diehl, Dr. Oscar Loew, Mr. Albert S. Gatschet, Mr. Livingston Stone, Mr. Adam Johnson, Mr. Buckingham Smith, Padre Aroyo; Rev. Father Gregory Mengarini, Padre Juan Comelias, Hon. Horatio Hale, Mr. Alexander S. Taylor, Rev. Antonio Timmeno, and Father Bonaventure Sitjar.

The volume is accompanied by a map of the State of California, compiled from the latest official sources and colored to show the distribution of linguistic stocks.

The Rev. J. Owen Dorsey, of Maryland, has been engaged for more than a year in the preparation of a grammar and dictionary of the Ponka language. His residence among these Indians as a missionary has furnished him favorable opportunity for the necessary studies, and he has pushed forward the work with zeal and ability, his only hope of reward being a desire to make a contribution to science.

Prof. Otis T. Mason, of Columbian College, has for the past year rendered the office much assistance in the study of the history and statistics of Indian tribes.

On June 13, Brevet Lieut. Col. Garrick Mallery, U.S.A., at the request of the Secretary of the Interior, joined my corps under orders from the honorable Secretary of War, and since that time has been engaged in the study of the statistics and history of the Indians of the western portion of the United States.

In April last, Mr. A. S. Gatschet was employed as a philologist to assist in the ethnographic work of this Survey. He had previously been engaged in the study of the languages of various North American tribes. In June last at the request of this office he was employed by the Bureau of Indian Affairs to collect certain statistics relating to the Indians of Oregon and Washington Territory, and is now in the field. His scientific reports have since that time been forwarded through the honorable Commissioner of Indian Affairs to this office. His work will be included in a volume now in course of preparation.

Dr. H. O. Yarrow, U.S.A., now on duty at the Army Medical Museum, in Washington, has been engaged during the past year in the collection of material for a monograph on the customs and rites of sepulture. To aid him in this work circulars of inquiry have been widely circulated among ethnologists and other scholars throughout North America, and much material has been obtained which will greatly supplement his own extended observations and researches.


Many other gentlemen throughout the United States have rendered me valuable assistance in this department of investigation. Their labors will receive due acknowledgment at the proper time, but I must not fail to render my sincere thanks to these gentlemen, who have so cordially and efficiently co-operated with me in this work.

A small volume, entitled “Introduction to the Study of Indian Languages,” has been prepared and published. This book is intended for distribution among collectors. In its preparation I have been greatly assisted by Prof. W. D. Whitney, the distinguished philologist of Yale College. To him I am indebted for that part relating to the representation of the sounds of Indian languages; a work which could not be properly performed by any other than a profound scholar in this branch.

I complete the statement of the office-work of the past season by mentioning that a tentative classification of the linguistic families of the Indians of the United States has been prepared. This has been a work of great labor, to which I have devoted much of my own time, and in which I have received the assistance of several of the gentlemen above mentioned.

In pursuing these ethnographic investigations it has been the endeavor as far as possible to produce results that would be of practical value in the administration of Indian affairs, and for this purpose especial attention has been paid to vital statistics, to the discovery of linguistic affinities, the progress made by the Indians toward civilization, and the causes and remedies for the inevitable conflict that arises from the spread of civilization over a region previously inhabited by savages. I may be allowed to express the hope that our labors in this direction will not be void of such useful results.

In 1878 no report of the Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region was published, as before its completion the question of reorganizing all of the surveys had been raised, but the work was continued by the same methods as in previous years.

The operations of the Bureau of Ethnology during the past fiscal year will be briefly described.

In the plan of organization two methods of operation are embraced:

First. The prosecution of research by the direct employment of scholars and specialists; and

Second. By inciting and guiding research immediately conducted by collaborators at work throughout the country.

It has been the effort of the Bureau to prosecute work in the various branches of North American anthropology on a systematic plan, so that every important field should be cultivated, limited only by the amount appropriated by Congress.


With little exception all sound anthropologic investigation in the lower states of culture exhibited by tribes of men, as distinguished from nations, must have a firm foundation in language Customs, laws, governments, institutions, mythologies, religions, and even arts can not be properly understood without a fundamental knowledge of the languages which express the ideas and thoughts embodied therein. Actuated by these considerations prime attention has been given to language.

It is not probable that there are many languages in North America entirely unknown, and in fact it is possible there are none; but of many of the known languages only short vocabularies have appeared. Except for languages entirely unknown, the time for the publication of short vocabularies has passed; they are no longer of value. The Bureau proposes hereafter to publish short vocabularies only in the exceptional cases mentioned above.

The distribution of the Introduction to the Study of Indian Languages is resulting in the collection of a large series of chrestomathies, which it is believed will be worthy of publication. It is also proposed to publish grammars and dictionaries when those have been thoroughly and carefully prepared. In each case it is deemed desirable to connect with the grammar and dictionary a body of literature designed as texts for reference in explaining the facts and principles of the language. These texts will be accompanied by interlinear translations so arranged as greatly to facilitate the study of the chief grammatic characteristics.


There is being prepared in the office a bibliography of North American languages. It was originally intended as a card catalogue for office use, but has gradually assumed proportions which seem to justify its publication. It is designed as an author’s catalogue, arranged alphabetically, and is to include xvi titles of grammars, dictionaries, vocabularies, translations of the scriptures, hymnals, doctrinæ christianæ, tracts, school-books, etc., general discussions, and reviews when of sufficient importance; in short, a catalogue of authors who have written in or upon any of the languages of North America, with a list of their works.

It has been the aim in preparing this material to make not only full titles of all the works containing linguistics, but also to exhaust editions. Whether full titles of editions subsequent to the first will be printed will depend somewhat on the size of the volume it will make, there being at present about four thousand five hundred cards, probably about three thousand titles.

The bibliography is based on the library of the Director, but much time has been spent in various libraries, public and private, the more important being the Congressional, Boston Public, Boston Athenæum, Harvard College, Congregational of Boston, Massachusetts Historical Society, American Antiquarian Society of Worcester, the John Carter Brown at Providence, the Watkinson at Hartford, and the American Bible Society at New York. It is hoped that Mr. Pilling may find opportunity to visit the principal libraries of New York and Philadelphia, especially those of the historical societies, before the work is printed.

In addition to personal research, much correspondence has been carried on with the various missionaries and Indian agents throughout the United States and Canada, and with gentlemen who have written upon the subject, among whom are Dr. H. Rink, of Copenhagen, Dr. J. C. E. Buschman, of Berlin, and the well-known bibliographers, Mr. J. Sabin, of New York, Hon. J. R. Bartlett, of Providence, and Señor Don J. G. Icazbalceta, of the City of Mexico.

Mr. Pilling has not attempted to classify the material linguistically. That work has been left for a future publication, intended to embody the results of an attempt to classify the tribes of North America on the basis of language, and now in course of preparation by the Director.


For a number of years Mr. Dorsey has been engaged in investigations among a group of cognate Dakotan tribes embracing three languages: [¢]egiha, spoken by the Ponkas and Omahas, with a closely related dialect of the same, spoken by the Kansas, Osage, and Kwapa tribes; the [T]ɔiwere, spoken by the Iowa, Oto, and Missouri tribes; and the Hotcañgara, spoken by the Winnebago.

In July, 1878, he repaired to the Omaha reservation, in the neighborhood of which most of these languages are spoken, for the purpose of continuing his studies.

Mr. Dorsey commenced the study of the [¢]egiha in 1871, and has continued his researches in the group until the present time. He has collected a very large body of linguistic material, both in grammar and vocabulary, and when finally published a great contribution will be made to North American linguistics.

These languages are excessively complex because of the synthetic characteristics of the verb, incorporated particles being used in an elaborate and complex scheme.

In these languages six general classes of pronouns are found:

1st. The free personal.

2d. The incorporated personal.

3d. The demonstrative.

4th. The interrogative.

5th. The relative.

6th. The indefinite.

One of the most interesting features of the language is found in the genders or particle classifiers. The genders or classifiers are animate and inanimate, and these are again divided into the standing, sitting, reclining, and moving; but in the Winnebago the reclining and moving constitute but one class. They are suffixed to nouns, pronouns, and verbs. When nouns, adjectives, adverbs, and prepositions are used as predicants, i.e., xviii to perform the function of verbs, these classifiers are also suffixed. The classifiers point out with particularity the gender or class of the subject and object. When numerals are used as nouns the classifiers are attached.

In nouns and pronouns case functions are performed by an elaborate system of postpositions in conjunction with the classifiers.

The verbs are excessively complex by reason of the use of many incorporated particles to denote cause, manner, instrument, purpose, condition, time, etc. Voice, mode, and tense are not systematically differentiated in the morphology, but voices, modes, and tenses, and a great variety of adverbial qualifications enter into the complex scheme of incorporated particles.

Sixty-six sounds are found in the [¢]egiha; sixty-two in the [T]ɔiwere; sixty-two in the Hotcañgara; and the alphabet adopted by the Bureau is used successfully for their expression.

While Mr. Dorsey has been prosecuting his linguistic studies among these tribes he has had abundant opportunity to carry on other branches of anthropologic research, and he has collected extensive and valuable materials on sociology, mythology, religion, arts, customs, etc. His final publication of the [¢]egiha will embrace a volume of literature made up of mythic tales, historical narratives, letters, etc., in the Indian, with interlinear translations, a selection from which appears in the papers appended to this report. Another volume will be devoted to the grammar and a third to the dictionary.


In 1852 the Smithsonian Institution published a grammar and dictionary of the Dakota language prepared by Mr. Riggs. Since that time Mr. Riggs, assisted by his sons, A. L. and T. L. Riggs, and by Mr. Williamson, has been steadily engaged in revising and enlarging the grammar and dictionary; and at the request of the Bureau he is also preparing a volume of Dakota literature as texts for illustration to the grammar and xix dictionary. He is rapidly preparing this work for publication, and it will soon appear.

The work of Mr. Riggs and that of Mr. Dorsey, mentioned above, with the materials already published, will place the Dakotan languages on record more thoroughly than those of any other family in this country.

The following is a table of the languages of this family now recognized by the Bureau:


1. Dakóta (Sioux), in four dialects:

(a) Mdéwakaⁿtoⁿwaⁿ and Waqpékute.

(b) Waqpétoⁿwaⁿ (Warpeton) and Sisítoⁿwaⁿ (Sisseton).

   These two are about equivalent to the modern Isaⁿ´yati (Santee).

(c) Ihañk´toⁿwaⁿ (Yankton), including the Assiniboins.

(d) Títoⁿwaⁿ (Teton).

2. [¢]egiha, in two (?) dialects:

(a) Umaⁿ´haⁿ (Omaha), spoken by the Omahas and Ponkas.

(b) Ugáqpa (Kwapa), spoken by the Kwapas, Osages, and Kansas.

3. [T]ɔiwére, in two dialects:

(a) [T]ɔiwére, spoken by the Otos and Missouris.

(b) [T]ɔéʞiwere, spoken by the Iowas.

4. Hotcañ´gara, spoken by the Winnebagos.

5. Númañkaki (Mandan), in two dialects:

(a) Mitútahañkuc.

(b) Ruptári.

6. Hi¢átsa (Hidatsa), in two (?) dialects:

(a) Hidátsa or Minnetaree.

(b) Absároka or Crow.

7. Tútelo, in Canada.

8. Katâ´ba (Catawba), in South Carolina.


Of the Klamath language of Oregon there are two dialects—one spoken by the Indians of Klamath Lake and the other by the Modocs—constituting the Lutuami family of Hale and Gallatin.

Mr. Gatschet has spent much time among these Indians, at their reservation and elsewhere, and has at the present time xx in manuscript nearly ready for the printer a large body of Klamath literature, consisting of mythic, ethnic, and historic tales, a grammar and a dictionary. The stories were told by the Indians and recorded by himself, and constitute a valuable contribution to the subject. Some specimens will appear in the papers appended to this report.

The grammatic sketch treats of both dialects, which differ but slightly in grammar but more in vocabulary. The grammar is divided into three principal parts: Phonology, Morphology, and Syntax.

In Phonology fifty different sounds are recognized, including simple and compound consonants, the vowels in different quantities, and the diphthongs.

A characteristic feature of this language is described in explaining syllabic reduplication, which performs iterative and distributive functions. Reduplication for various purposes is found in most of the languages of North America. In the Nahuatl, Sahaptin, and Selish families it is most prominent. Mr. Gatschet’s researches will add materially to the knowledge of the functions of reduplication in tribal languages.

The verbal inflection is comparatively simple, for in it the subject and object pronouns are not incorporated. In the verb Mr. Gatschet recognizes ten general forms, a part of which he designates as verbals, as follows:

  1. Infinitive in -a.

  2. Durative in -ota.

  3. Causative in -oga.

  4. Indefinite in -ash.

  5. Indefinite in -uĭsh.

  6. Conditional in -asht.

  7. Desiderative in -ashtka.

  8. Intentional in -tki.

  9. Participle in -ank.

10. Past participle and verbal adjectives in -tko.

Tense and mode inflection is very rudimentary and is mostly accomplished by the use of particles. The study of the prefixes and suffixes of derivation is one of the chief difficulties of xxi the language, for they combine in clusters, and are not easily analyzed, and their functions are often obscure.

The inflection of nouns by case endings and postpositions is rich in forms; that of the adjective and numeral less elaborate.

Of the pronouns, only the demonstrative show a complexity of forms.

Another feature of this language is found in verbs appended to certain numerals, and thus serving as numerical classifiers. These verbs express methods of counting and relate to form; that is, in each case they present the Indian in the act of counting objects of a particular form and placing them in groups of tens.

The appended verbs used as classifiers signify to place, but in Indian languages we are not apt to find a word so highly differentiated as place, but in its stead a series of words with verbs and adverbs undifferentiated, each signifying to place, with a qualification, as I place upon, I lay alongside of, I stand up, by, etc. Thus we get classifiers attached to numerals in the Klamath, analogous to the classifiers attached to verbs, nouns, numerals, etc., in the Ponka, as mentioned above.

These classifiers in Klamath are further discriminated as to form; but these form discriminations are the homologues of attitude discriminations in the Ponka, for the form determines the attitude.

It is interesting to note how often in these lower languages attitude or form is woven into the grammatic structure. Perhaps this arises from a condition of expression imposed by the want of the verb to be, so that when existence in place is to be affirmed, the verbs of attitude, i.e., to stand, to sit, to lie, and sometimes to move, are used to predicate existence in place, and thus the mind comes habitually to consider all things as in the one or the other of these attitudes. The process of growth seems to be that verbs of attitude are primarily used to affirm existence in place until the habit of considering the attitude is established; thus participles of attitude are used with nouns, &c., and finally, worn down by the law of phonic change, for economy, they become classifying particles. This xxii view of the origin of classifying particles seems to be warranted by studies from a great variety of Indian sources.

The syntactic portion is divided into four parts:

1st. On the predicative relation;

2d. On the objective relation;

3d. On the attributive relation; and the

4th. Exhibits the formation of simple and compound sentences, followed by notes on the incorporative tendency of the language, its rhetoric, figures, and idioms.

The alphabet adopted by Mr. Gatschet differs slightly from that used by the Bureau, particularly in the modification of certain Roman characters and the introduction of one Greek character. This occurred from the fact that Mr. Gatschet’s material had been partly prepared prior to the adoption of the alphabet now in use.

Mr. Gatschet has collected much valuable material relating to governmental and social institutions, mythology, religion, music, poetry, oratory, and other interesting matters. The body of Klamath literature, or otherwise the text previously mentioned, constitutes the basis of these investigations.


Mrs. Smith, of Jersey City, has undertaken to prepare a series of chrestomathies of the Iroquois language, and has already made much progress. Three of them are ready for the printer, and that on the Tuscarora language has been increased much beyond the limits at first established. She has also collected interesting material relating to the mythology, habits, customs, &c., of these Indians, and her contributions will be interesting and important.


On the advent of the white man in America a great number of tribes were found. For a variety of reasons the nomenclature xxiii of these tribes became excessively complex. Names were greatly multiplied for each tribe and a single name was often inconsistently applied to different tribes. Several important reasons conspired to bring about this complex state of synonymy:

1st. A great number of languages were spoken, and ofttimes the first names obtained for tribes were not the names used by themselves, but the names by which they were known to some other tribes.

2d. The governmental organization of the Indians was not understood, and the names for gentes, tribes, and confederacies were confounded.

3d. The advancing occupancy of the country by white men changed the habitat of the Indians, and in their migrations from point to point their names were changed.

Under these circumstances the nomenclature of Indian tribes became ponderous and the synonymy complex. To unravel this synonymy is a task of great magnitude. Early in the fiscal year the materials already collected on this subject were turned over to Professor Mason and clerical assistance given him, and he has prepared a card catalogue of North American tribes, exhibiting the synonymy, for use in the office. This is being constantly revised and enlarged, and will eventually be published.

Professor Mason is also engaged in editing a grammar and dictionary of the Chata language, by the late Rev. Cyrus Byington, the manuscript of which was by Mrs. Byington turned over to the Bureau of Ethnology. The dictionary is Chata-English, and Professor Mason has prepared an English-Chata of about ten thousand words. He has also undertaken to enlarge the grammar by a further study of the language among the Indians themselves.


The growth of the languages of civilized peoples in their later stages may be learned from the study of recorded literature; xxiv and by comparative methods many interesting facts may be discovered pertaining to periods anterior to the development of writing.

In the study of peoples who have not passed beyond the tribal condition, laws of linguistic growth anterior to the written stage may be discovered. Thus, by the study of the languages of tribes and the languages of nations, the methods and laws of development are discovered from the low condition represented by the most savage tribe to the highest condition existing in the speech of civilized man. But there is a development of language anterior to this—a prehistoric condition—of profound interest to the scholar, because in it the beginnings of language—the first steps in the organization of articulate speech—are involved.

On this prehistoric stage, light is thrown from four sources:

1st. Infant speech, in which the development of the language of the race is epitomized.

2d. Gesture speech, which, among tribal peoples, never passes beyond the first stages of linguistic growth; and these stages are probably homologous to the earlier stages of oral speech.

3d. Picture writing, in which we again find some of the characteristics of prehistoric speech illustrated.

4th. It may be possible to learn something of the elements of which articulate speech is compounded by studying the inarticulate language of the lower animals.

The traits of gesture speech that seem to illustrate the condition of prehistoric oral language are found in the synthetic character of its signs. The parts of speech are not differentiated, and the sentence is not integrated; and this characteristic is more marked than in that of the lowest oral language yet studied. For this reason the facts of gesture speech constitute an important factor in the philosophy of language. Doubtless, care must be exercised in its use because of the advanced mental condition of the people who thus express their thought, but with due caution it may be advantageously used. In itself, independent of its relations to oral speech, the subject is of great interest.


In taking up this subject for original investigation, valuable published matter was found for comparison with that obtained by Colonel Mallery. His opportunities for collecting materials from the Indians themselves were abundant, as delegations of various tribes are visiting Washington from time to time, by which the information obtained during his travels was supplemented.

Again, the method of investigation by the assistance of a number of collaborators is well illustrated in this work, and contributions from various sources were made to the materials for study. The methods of obtaining these contributions will be more fully explained hereafter. One of the papers appended to this report was prepared by Colonel Mallery and relates to this subject.

During the continuance of the Survey of the Colorado River, and of the Rocky Mountain Region, the Director and his assistants made large collections of pictographs. When Colonel Mallery joined the corps these collections were turned over to him for more careful study. From various sources these pictographs are rapidly accumulating, and now the subject is assuming large proportions, and valuable results are expected.

An interesting relation between gesture speech and pictography consists in the discovery that to the delineation of natural objects is added the representation of gesture signs. Materials in America are very abundant, and the prehistoric materials may be studied in the light given by the practices now found among Indian tribes.


In Central America and Mexico, picture writing had progressed to a stage far in advance of anything discovered to the northward. Some of the most interesting of these are the rock inscriptions of Yucatan, Copan, Palenque, and other ruins of Central America.

Professor Holden has devoted much time to the study of xxvi these inscriptions, for the purpose of discovering the characteristics of the pictographic method and deciphering the records, and the discoveries made by him are of great interest.

The Bureau has given him clerical assistance and such other aid as has been found possible, and a paper by him on this subject appears with this volume.


The tribes of North America do not constitute a homogeneous people. In fact, more than seventy distinct linguistic stocks are discovered, and these are again divided by important distinctions of language. Among these tribes varying stages of culture have been reached, and these varying stages are exhibited in their habits and customs; and in a territory of such vast extent the physical environment affecting culture and customs is of great variety. Forest lands on the one hand, prairie lands on the other, unbroken plains and regions of rugged mountains, the cold, naked, desolate shores of sea and lake at the north and the dense chaparral of the torrid south, the valleys of quiet rivers and the cliffs and gorges of the cañon land—in all a great diversity of physical features are found, imposing diverse conditions for obtaining subsistence, in means and methods of house-building, creating diverse wants and furnishing diverse ways for their supply. Through diversities of languages and diversities of environment, diversity of traditions and diversity of institutions have been produced; so that in many important respects one tribe is never the counterpart of another.

These diversities have important limitations in the unity of the human race and the social, mental, and moral homogeneity that has everywhere controlled the progress of culture. The way of human progress is one road, though wide.

From the interesting field of research cultivated by Dr. Yarrow an abundant harvest will be gathered. The materials already accumulated are large, and are steadily increasing through his vigorous work. These materials constitute something xxvii more than a record of quaint customs and abhorrent rites in which morbid curiosity may revel. In them we find the evidences of traits of character and lines of thought that yet exist and profoundly influence civilization. Passions in the highest culture deemed most sacred—the love of husband and wife, parent and child, and kith and kin, tempering, beautifying, and purifying social life and culminating at death, have their origin far back in the early history of the race and leaven the society of savagery and civilization alike. At either end of the line bereavement by death tears the heart and mortuary customs are symbols of mourning. The mystery which broods over the abbey where lie the bones of king and bishop, gathers over the ossuary where lie the bones of chief and shamin; for the same longing to solve the mysteries of life and death, the same yearning for a future life, the same awe of powers more than human, exist alike in the mind of the savage and the sage.

By such investigations we learn the history of culture in these important branches, and in a paper appended to this report Dr. Yarrow presents some of the results of his studies.


When civilized man first came to America the continent was partially occupied by savage tribes, who obtained subsistence by hunting, by fishing, by gathering vegetal products, and by rude garden culture in cultivating small patches of ground. Semi-nomadic occupancy for such purposes was their tenure to the soil.

On the organization of the present government such theories of natural law were entertained that even this imperfect occupancy was held to be sufficient title. Publicists, jurists, and statesmen agreed that no portion of the waste of lands between the oceans could be acquired for the homes of the incoming civilized men but by purchase or conquest in just war. These theories were most potent in establishing practical relations, xxviii and controlling governmental dealings with Indian tribes. They were adjudged to be dependent domestic nations.

Under this theory a system of Indian affairs grew up, the history of which, notwithstanding mistakes and innumerable personal wrongs, yet demonstrates the justice inherent in the public sentiment of the nation from its organization to the present time.

The difficulties subsisting in the adjustment of rights between savage and civilized peoples are multiform and complex. Ofttimes the virtues of one condition are the crimes of the other; happiness is misery; justice, injustice. Thus, when the civilized man would do the best, he gave the most offense. Under such circumstances it was impossible for wisdom and justice combined to avert conflict.

One chapter in the history of Indian affairs in America is a doleful tale of petty but costly and cruel wars; but there are other chapters more pleasant to contemplate.

The attempts to educate the Indians and teach them the ways of civilization have been many; much labor has been given, much treasure expended. While to a large extent all of these efforts have disappointed their enthusiastic promoters, yet good has been done, but rather by the personal labors of missionaries, teachers, and frontiersmen associating with Indians in their own land than by institutions organized and supported by wealth and benevolence not immediately in contact with savagery.

The great boon to the savage tribes of this country, unrecognized by themselves, and, to a large extent, unrecognized by civilized men, has been the presence of civilization, which, under the laws of acculturation, has irresistibly improved their culture by substituting new and civilized for old and savage arts, new for old customs—in short, transforming savage into civilized life. These unpremeditated civilizing influences have had a marked effect. The great body of the Indians of North America have passed through stages of culture in the last hundred years achieved by our Anglo-Saxon ancestors only by the slow course of events through a thousand years.

The Indians of the continent have not greatly diminished xxix in numbers, and the tribes longest in contact with civilization are increasing. The whole body of Indians is making rapid progress toward a higher culture, notwithstanding the petty conflicts yet occurring where the relations of the Indian tribes to our civilization have not yet been adjusted by the adoption upon their part of the first conditions of a higher life.

The part which the General Government, representing public sentiment, has done in the extinguishment of the vague Indian title to lands in the granting to them of lands for civilized homes on reservations and in severalty, in the establishment and support of schools, in the endeavors to teach them agriculture and other industrial arts—in these and many other ways justice and beneficence have been shown. Thus the history of the tribes of America from savagery to civilization is a history of three:

First. The history of acculturation—the effect of the presence of civilization upon savagery.

Second. The history of Indian wars that have arisen in part from the crimes and in part from the ignorance of either party.

Third. The history of civil Indian affairs. This last is divided into a number of parts:

1st. The extinguishment of the Indian title.

2d. The gathering of Indians upon reservations.

3d. The instrumentalities used to teach the Indians civilized industries; and

4th. The establishment and operation of schools.

From the organization of the Government to the present time these branches of Indian affairs have been in operation; lands have been bought and bought again; Indian tribes have been moved and moved again; reservations have been established and broken up. The Government has sought to give lands in severalty to the Indians from time to time along the whole course of the history of Indian affairs. Every experiment to teach the Indians the industries of civilization that could be devised has been tried, and from all of these there has resulted a mixture of failure and success.

A review of the century’s history abundantly demonstrates that there is no short road to justice and peace; but a glance xxx at the present state of affairs exhibits the fact that these tribal communities will speedily be absorbed in the citizenship of the republic. No new method is to be adopted; the work is almost done; patient and persistent effort for a short future like that of the long past will accomplish all. It remains for us but to perfect the work wisely begun by the founders of the Government.

The industries and social institutions of the pristine Indians have largely been destroyed, and they are groping their way to civilized life. To the full accomplishment of this, three things are necessary:

1st. The organization of the civilized family, with its rules of inheritance in lineal descent.

2d. The civilized tenure of property in severalty must be substituted for communal property.

3d. The English language must be acquired, that the thoughts and ways of civilization may be understood.

To the history of Indian affairs much time has been given by the various members of the Bureau of Ethnology. One of the more important of these studies is that prosecuted by Mr. Royce in preparing a history of the cessions of lands by Indian tribes to the Government of the United States. A paper by him appended to this report illustrates the character of these investigations.


In the early exploration of the southwestern portion of the United States by Spanish travelers and conquerors, about sixty pueblos were discovered. These pueblos were communal villages, with architecture in untooled stone. In the conquest about half of the pueblos were destroyed. Thirty-one now remain, and two of these are across the line, on Mexican territory. The ruins of the pueblos yet remain, and some of them have been identified.

The Navajos, composed of a group of tribes of the Athabascan family, and the Coaninis, who live on the south side of xxxi the Grand Cañon of the Colorado, are now known to be the people, or part of them at least, who were driven from the pueblos.

In addition to the ruins that have been made in historic times, others are found scattered throughout New Mexico, Arizona, Southern California, Utah, and Colorado. Whether the ancient inhabitants of these older ruins are represented by any of the tribes who now occupy the territory is not known. These pueblo people were not homogeneous. Among the pueblos now known at least five linguistic families are represented, but in their study a somewhat homogeneous stage of culture is presented.

In a general way the earlier or older ruins represent very rude structures, and the progress of development from the earlier to the later exhibits two classes of interesting facts. The structures gradually increase in size and improve in architecture. As the sites for new villages were selected, more easily defensible positions were chosen. The cliff dwellings thus belong to the later stage.

From the organization of the exploration of the Colorado River to the present time, the pueblos yet inhabited, as well as those in ruins, have been a constant subject of study, and on the organization of the Bureau much valuable matter had already been collected. Early in the fiscal year a party was organized to continue explorations in this field, and placed under the direction of Mr. James Stevenson. The party left Washington on the first of August last.

Mr. Frank H. Cushing, of the Smithsonian Institution, and Mr. J. K. Hillers, photographer of the Bureau, with a number of general assistants, accompanied Mr. Stevenson. The party remained in the field until early winter, studying the ruins and making large and valuable collections of pottery, stone implements, etc., and Mr. Hillers succeeded in making an excellent suite of photographs.

When Mr. Stevenson returned with his party to Washington, Mr. Cushing remained at Zuñi to study the language, mythology, sociology, and art of that the most interesting pueblo. An illustrated catalogue of the collections made by Mr. Stevenson xxxii has been printed. It was intended to form an appendix to this report, but the volume has grown to such a size that it is thought best to issue it with the next report.


During the fall the Director made an expedition into Northern California for the purpose of studying the Wintuns. Much linguistic, sociologic, and technologic material was collected, and more thorough anthropologic researches initiated among a series of tribes heretofore neglected.


In the second plan of operations adopted by the Bureau, that of promoting the researches of collaborators, aid in publication and, to some extent, in preparation of scientific papers, has been given, and by various ways new investigations and lines of research have been initiated. For this latter purpose a series of manuals with elementary discussions and schedules of interrogatories have been prepared.

The first is entitled Introduction to the Study of Indian Languages, by J. W. Powell.

This has been widely distributed throughout North America, and the collection of a large body of linguistic material has resulted therefrom.

A second volume of this character is entitled Introduction to the Study of Mortuary Customs, by Dr. H. C. Yarrow.

This also has been widely circulated with abundant success.

A third hand-book of the same character is entitled Introduction to the Study of Sign Language, by Colonel Mallery.

This was circulated in like manner with like results.

A second edition of the Introduction to the Study of Indian Languages, enlarged to meet the advanced wants of the time, has been prepared.


The papers by Dr. Yarrow and Colonel Mallery, and the catalogue of manuscripts in the Bureau, prepared by Mr. Pilling, appended to this volume, will illustrate the value of these agencies.

It is proposed in the near future to prepare similar volumes, as follows:

Introduction to the Study of Medicine Practices of the North American Indians;

Introduction to the Study of the Tribal Governments of North America;

Introduction to the Study of North American Mythology.

These additional manuals are nearly ready. Still others are projected, and it is hoped that the field of North American anthropology will be entirely covered by them. The series will then be systematically combined in a Manual of Anthropology for use in North America.


There is in course of preparation by the Bureau a linguistic classification of North American tribes, with an atlas exhibiting their priscan homes, or the regions inhabited by them at the time they were discovered by white men.

The foregoing sketch of the Bureau, for the first fiscal year of its existence, is designed to set forth the plan on which it is organized and the methods of research adopted, and the papers appended thereto will exhibit the measure of success attained.

It is the purpose of the Bureau of Ethnology to organize anthropologic research in America
































From the Manuscripts of Messrs.



Except for the Introduction (pages in Roman numerals), all Index references lead to articles in the three external files: mortuary.html, sign.html and papers.html. Links lead only to the top of the page, not to the exact word or subject. References to consecutive pages are linked to the first page.

 A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M 
 N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   Y   Z 

Top Abbreviations in signs 338
Abiquiu, Ancient cemetery of 111
Abnaki, Intelligence communicated by 369
Absaroka, Tribal signs for 458
Abstract ideas expressed in signs 348
Acaxers and Yaquis, cairn burial 143

Actors, modern, Use of gestures by

Addison, Gestures of orators 294
Adjective, The, in Indian tongues 10
“Adjedatig” 197
Adultery, Wyandot law for 66
Adverbial particles 13
Adverbs in Indian tongues 10, 11, 13
Aerial burial in canoes, Chinooks 171
sepulture 152
Æschylus, Theatrical gestures 286
Affirmation, Sign for 286, 454
Agglutination in language 4
Alaric’s burial 181
Alarm, Signs for 529, 538
Alaska cave burial 129
Alaskan Indians, Dialogue between 492
mummies 134, 135
Alaskans, Sign language of the 313
Alden, E. H., Scaffold burial 161
Aleutian Islanders, embalmment 135, 136
Algonkian myth 27
Algonkins, Burial fires of the 198
Alibamans, Aquatic burial of suicides by 180
Alive, Sign for 421
All together, Sign for 523

Allen, Dr. Harrison 208, 225, 238, 245

, Miss A. J., Burial sacrifice 189

Ancient burial customs of barbaric tribes

cemetery of Abiquiu 111
nations, Tree burial of 165, 166
Ancientism defined 33, 39
Ancients, Curious mourning observances 165, 166
Anger, Sign for 301
, Signal for 529
Antelope, Signs for 410
Anthropologic archæology 73, 74
data, limitation of use of 73-86
ethnic characteristics 76, 77
history, customs 76, 77
language 78-81
mythology 81, 82
origin of man 77, 78
picture writing 75
psychology 83, 86
sociology 83
Antiquity of cremation 143
of gesture speech 285
Apache pictographs connected with signs 372
, Tribal signs for 459
Apaches, Smoke signals of the 538
Aphasia, Gestures in 276
Apingi burial 125, 126
Applause, Signs for 300
Application, Practical, of sign language 346
Approbation, Sign for 286
Aquatic burial, Alibamans, of suicides 180
, Cherokees 180
, Chinooks 180
, Gosh-Utes 181
, Hyperboreans 180
, Ichthyophagi 180
, Itzas 180
, Kavague 180
, Lotophagians 180
, Obongo 180
Arapaho, Tribal signs for 460
Arbitrary signs 340

Archæologic research connected with sign language


Archæology, Limitations to the Use of, in study of anthropology

73, 74
Argyle, Duke of, Gestures of Fuegans 293
Ankara, Tribal signs for 461

Arm positions, Outlines of, in sign language

Arrangement in descriptions of signs 546
Art, Modern Italian, exhibiting gestures 292
Article pronouns in Indian languages 9, 10
Articulate speech, preceded by gesture 274, 284
Artificial articulation 275, 307
Ascena or Timber Indians 103
Asking, Signs for 291, 297
Assinaboin, Tribal signs for 461
Astute, Sign for 305
Athenæus, Account of Telestes 286
, Classification of gestures 285
Atkins, Dr. Francis H., Signs of Apaches 325
Atlas showing cessions of land 252
Atsina, Tribal signs for 462
Attention, Signal for 539
Atwater, Caleb, Burial mounds 117
Austin, Rev. Gilbert, Chironomia 289
Australian scaffold burial 167
Australians, Gestures of 306
Authorities in sign language, List of 401
592 Ax, Sign for 380
Aztecs and Taracos, Burial sacrifice 190
Top Bad, Signs for 411

Baldwin, C. C., Pottawatomie surface burial

Balearic Islanders, Cairn burial 143
Banak, Tribal signs for 462
Bancroft, H. H., Burial sacrifice 190
, Canoe burial in ground 112
, Costa Rica hut burial 154
, Doracho cist burial 115
, Esquimaux burial boxes 155
, Huitzilopochtli, description of 231
, Maya hieroglyphics, mode of reading 223
, Mourning, Central Americans 185
, Pima burial 98
, Superstitions regarding dead 201
Band, G. H. 229

Barbaric tribes, Ancient burial customs of

Barber, E. A., Burial urns 138
, Partial cremation 151
Bari of Africa, burial 125
Bartram, John, Cabin burial 122
, Choctaw ossuary 120
, Partial scaffold burial 169
Battle, Sign for 419
Bear, Signs for 412
Bechuana burial 126
Beckwourth, James, Crow mourning 183

Bede, The venerable, Treatise on gestures

Beechey, Capt. F. W., Lodge burial 154

Bell, Prof. A. Graham, Vocal articulation of dogs

Beltrami, J. C., Burial feast 190
, Burial posts 197
Benson, H. C., Choctaw burial 186

Bessels, Dr. Emil, Esquimaux superstition

Beverly, Robert, Virginia mummies 131
Bibliography of North American Philology xv
Birgan, Meaning of word 93
Blackbird’s burial 139
Blackfeet burial lodges 154
cairn burial 143
tree burial 161
, Tribal signs for 462
Blind, Gestures of the 278
Bonaks, Cremation 144
Bone cleaning of the dead 168
Boner, J. H., Moravian mourning 166
Born, Signs for 356
Bossu, M., Burial denied to suicides 180
, Signs of the Atakapa 324

Boteler, Dr. W. C., Oto burial ceremonies

Boundaries, Indian 253
Box burial, Creek, Choctaw, and Cherokee 155
, Esquimaux 155, 156
, Indians of Talomeco River 155
, Innuits and Ingaliks 156, 158
, Kalosh 156
Braam, S. A. van 229

Bransford, Dr. J. C., U.S.N., Burial urns discovered by

Brasseur de Bourbourg, C. E. 208, 210, 243, 244
Brave, Signs for 352, 364, 414
Brebeuf, Pere de, Burial feast 191
Brice, W. A., Surface burial 141

Brinton, Dr. D. G., Burial of collected bones

Brother, Sign for 521
Bruhier, J. J., Corsican customs 147
, Persian burial 103
Brulé Dakota colloquy in signs 491
Sioux, tree and scaffold burial 158, 160
Buffalo, Sign for 488
, Signals for, discovered 532
Burchard, J. L., Pit burial 124
Bushmann, J. C. E, Signs of Accocessaws 324
Butler, Prof. James D., Italian signs 408
Butterfield, H., Shoshone cairn burial 143
Burial, Apingi 125, 126
, Aquatic 180
canoes and houses 177-179
, Bari of Africa 125
, Bechuanas 126
beneath or in cabins, wigwams, or houses 122
, Box 155
, Carolina tribes 93
, Caddos 103
, Cairn 142
, Cairn, Ute 142
case, Cheyenne 162, 163
, Cave 126
, Chieftain, of the 110, 111
, Classification of 92-93
, Damara 126
dance, Yo-kaí-a 192, 194
dances 193
feast, Description of, by Beltrami 190, 191
, Hurons, of the 191
feasts 190
, superstitions regarding 191
fires, Algonkins 198
, Yurok 198
, Esquimaux 198
food 192
games 195
, Grave 101
, Ground, in canoes 112
in logs 138, 139
in mounds 115
in standing posture 151, 152
, Indians of Virginia 125
, Iroquois 140
, Kaffir 126
, Klamath and Trinity Indians 106, 107
, Latookas 126
, Lodge 152
lodges, Blackfeet 154
, Cheyenne 154
, Shoshone 153, 154
, Muscogulges 122, 123
, Meaning and derivation of word 93
593 , Moquis 114
, Navajo 123
, Obongo 139, 140
of Alaric 181
of Blackbird 139
of De Soto 181
of Long Horse 153
of Ouray 128
, Parsee 105, 106
, Pit 93
, Pitt River Indians 151
posts, Sioux and Chippewa 197, 198
, Round Valley Indians 124
sacrifice, Aztecs and Tarascos 190
, Indians of Northwest 180
, Indians of Panama 180
, Natchez 187, 189
, Tsinūk 179
, Wascopums 189, 190
, Sacs and Foxes 94, 95
scaffolds 162
song, Schiller’s 110, 111
of Basques and others 195
superstitions, Chippewas 199, 200
, Indians of Washington Territory 201
, Karok 200
, Kelta 200
, Modocs 200, 201
, Mosquito Indians 201
, Tlascaltecs 201
, Tolowa 200
, Surface 138, 139
, Urn 137
and cover, Georgia 138
, New Mexico 138
Burton, Capt. R. F., Arapaho language 314
Top Cabéça de Vaca, Signs of Timucuas 324

Cabins, wigwams, or houses, Burial beneath or in

Cabot, John 250
, Sebastian 250
Caddo, Tribal sign for 464
Caddos, Burial 103
Cairn burial, Acaxers and Yaquis 143
, Balearic Islanders 143
, Blackfeet 143
, Esquimaux 143
, Kiowas and Comanches 142, 143
, Pi-Utes 143
, Reasons for 143
, Shoshonis 143
Calaveras Cave 128, 129
California steatite burial urn 138
Camp, Signals for 532, 539
Campbell, John, Burial songs 195
Canes sepulchrales 104
Canoe burial in ground 112
, Mosquito Indians 112, 113
, Santa Barbara 112
, Clallam 173, 174
, Twana 171, 173
Canoes and houses, Burial 177-179

Canoes, Superterrene and aerial burial in

Capture, Sign for 506
Caraibs, Verification of death 146
Card catalogue of hieroglyphs 223
Carolina tribes, Burial among 93
Catlin, George, Burial of Blackbird 139
, Golgotha of Mandans 170
, Mourning cradle 181
Cave burial 126
, Alaska 129
, Calaveras 128, 129
, Utes 127, 128
Cessions of land xxvii, 249
by the Indians, in Indiana 257
original and secondary 256
Chalchihuitlicue 237
Cherokee aquatic burial 180
Chesterfield, Lord, Gestures of orators 311
Cheyenne burial case 162, 163
lodges 154
, Tribal signs for 464
Chief, Signs for 353, 416
Chiefs, Wyandot, Election of 61, 62
Child, Signs for 304, 356
Children, Gestures of young 276
Chillicothe mound 117, 118
Chinese characters connected with signs 356, 357
, Expedient of the, in place of signs 306
Chinook aerial burial in canoes 171
aquatic burial 180
jargon 313
mourning cradle 181, 182
Chippewa burial superstitions 199, 200
mourning 184
scaffold burial 161, 162
widow 184, 185
Chironomia, by Rev. Gilbert Austin 289
Choctaw mound burial 120
scaffold burial 169
Choctaws funeral ceremonies 186
Cĭn-au´-äv brothers, a Shoshoni myth 44, 45
Cist burial, Doracho 115
graves, Kentucky 114, 115
, Indians of Illinois 114
Cistercian monks, Gestures of the 288, 364
Cists or stone graves 113
, Solutré 113
, Tennessee 113
Clallam canoe burial 173, 174
house burial 175

Clarke, Mr. Ben., Local source of sign language

Classic pantomimes 286
Classification of burial 92

Cleveland, Wm. J., Tree and scaffold burial

Codex Telleriano Remensis 243
Cold, Signs for 345, 486
Collaborators in sign language, List of 401
Collected bones, Interment of 170
Collecting signs, Suggestions for 394
Comanche inhumation 99, 100
, Tribal signs for 466
Combination in Indian tongues 7
language, Process of 3, 7
Come here, Signals for 529, 532
594 Comédie Française, Gestures of the 309
Comparison, Degrees of, in sign language 363
of English with Indian 15
Compounding in language 3
Congaree and Santee Indians, embalmment 132, 133
Conjunctions in sign language 367
Conjurers’ practice 583
Connotation of Indian nouns 8
Conventionality of signs 333, 336, 340
Copan, Statues of 207, 224, 227, 228, 229, 245

Corbusier, Dr. William H., local source of sign language

, Sign for strong 304
Corporeal gestures generally 270, 273

Correspondents, Foreign, on sign language

Corsican funeral custom 147
Cortez, H. 209
Council, Indian, at Huron village 251
Cox, Ross, Cremation 144
Coyotero Apaches, Inhumation 111, 112
Cradle, mourning, Illustration of 181
Crafty, Sign for 303
Cree, Tribal signs for 466
Crock, Choctaw, and Cherokee box burial 155
Creeks and Seminoles, Inhumation 95, 96
, “Hallelujah” of the 195
Cremation, Antiquity of 143
, Bonaks 144
furnace 149
, Indians of Clear Lake 147
, Indians of Southern Utah 149
mound, Florida 148, 149
, Nishinams 144
, Partial 150, 151
, Se-nél 147, 148
, Tolkotins 144-146
Cresollius, Precedence of gestures 282
, Value of gestures 280
Crimes, Wyandot laws for 66, 67
Crow lodge burial 153
mourning 183, 184
Cuculkan. (See Quetzalcoatl.)
Curious mourning observances of ancients 165, 166
Curtiss, E., Exploration by 115, 116
Cut with an ax, Sign for 550
Top Dakhnias 104
Dakota calendar 373, 377, 382, 384
, Tribal signs for 467
Dalgarno, George, Gestures real writing 355
, Works of 284, 287
Dall, W. H., Burial boxes 156
, Cave burial 129
, Mummies 134
Damara burial 126
Dance for the dead 192
Dances, Burial 192
Danger, Signals for 529, 532
Danish burial logs 139

Darwin, Charles, Analysis of emotional gestures

, Gestures of Fuegans 293
Day, Signs for 371
Dead, Dance for the 192
Deaf and dumb, American annals of the 293

Deaf-Mute College, National, Test of signs at the

Deaf-mutes, Methodical signs of 362
, Milan Convention on instruction of 307
, Signs of instructed 362, 397
, Signs of uninstructed 277
, Sounds uttered by uninstructed 277
Death, Signs for 353, 420, 497
Deceit, Signs for 303
Deciphering, Principles of 207
Defiance, Signals for 530
Delano, A., Tree burial 161

Denial of the existence of sign language, Mistaken

Derision, Sign for 301
Derivation, how accomplished 7
Desaix, le Capitaine 210
Description of burial feast 190, 191
De Soto’s burial 181
Devilism defined 32
Devouring the dead, Fans of Africa 182
, Indians of South America 182, 183
, Massageties, Padæns, and others 182

Dialects, Numerous, connected with gesture language

294, 306
Dialogues in sign language 486

Dictionary of sign language, Extracts from

Differentiation of parts of speech 8
Disappearing Mist, Account of 327

Discontinuance of sign language, Circumstances connected with the

Discourses in signs 521
Discovery, Signals for 533
Diversities in signs, Classes of 341
Diversity of language 28
Divisions of sign language 270

Dodge, Col. Richard I., Abbreviations of signs

, Identity of sign language 316, 335
Dog, Signs for 321, 387
Dog’s revenge, a Dakota fable 587
Dolmens in Japan 115
Done, finished, Sign for 513, 522, 528
Doracho cist burial 115

Dorsey, Rev. J. Owen, linguistic researches

, Mistaken denial of signs 326
Doubt, Sign for 512
Drew, Benjamin, Schiller’s burial song 110
Drink, Sign for 301, 344, 357
Dumas, Alexandra, Sicilian signs 295
Dumont, M. Butel de, House burial 124
Dupe, Sign for 305
Dust signals 541
Top Eat, Sign for 301, 480
Echo, Origin of; a Shoshoni myth 45-47
Ecstasism defined 36
Eells, Rev. M., Canoe burial 171
595 Egyptian characters connected with signs 304, 355, 357, 358, 359, 370, 379, 380
Embalmment, Aleutian Islanders 135, 136
, Congaree and Santee Indians 132, 133
or mummification 130
Emblems distinguished from signs 389
Encampment regulations (Wyandot) 64
Engelhardt, Prof. C. 139
Esquimaux box burial 155, 156
burial fires 198
cairn burial 143
lodge burial 154

Ethnic characteristics, Limitations to the use of, in study of anthropology 76

Ethnologic facts connected with signs 384
Etymology of words from gestures 352
European ossuaries 191
Evening, Signs for 353

Evolution, distinguished from invention of sign language

319, 388
of language 3

Excavation of Indian mound, North Carolina

Exchange, Signs for 454
Explorations in Southwest xxx
Top Facial expression generally 270, 273
play, giving detailed information 271
Falling Star (myth) 27
Family, The term, defined 59
Fans of Africa devour the dead 182
Fatigue, Sign for 305
Fay, Prof. E. A., contributions on signs 309, 408
Fear, Sign for 506
Feasts, Burial 190
Fellowhood, Wyandot institution of 68
Female, Signs for 300, 357

Ferdinand, King of Naples, speech in signs

Fetichism, The term, defined 32, 41

Fingers, Details of position of, in sign language


, Special significance in disposition of, by Italians

Fire arrows, Signals by 540
, Signs for 344, 380
Fires, Burial 198
Fiske, Moses, Cists 113
Flathead, Tribal signs for 468
Florida cremation mound 148, 149
mound burial 119, 120
Food, Burial 192
Fool, Signs for 297, 303, 345, 505, 506

Ford, Lieut. Geo. E., U.S.A., Cabin burial

Foreign correspondents on sign language 407
Foreman, Dr. E., Burial urns 138
, Cremation 149
Foster, J. W., Urn burial 137
, Cremation 150
Fox, Tribal sign for 468

Frémont, General J. C., Signs of Pai-Utes and Shoshonis

Friend, friendship, Signs for 384, 491, 527
Funeral ceremonies, Choctaws 186
, Twanas and Clallams 176
custom, Corsican 147
Furnace, Cremation 149
Top Gageby, Capt. J. H., U.S.A., Box burial 155

Gallaudet, President T. H., Facial expression

, President E. M., Test of Utes in signs 321, 323
Games, Burial 195

Gardner, Dr. W., U.S.A., Theory of scaffold burial


Gatschet, A. S., Linguistic and general researches among the Klamaths

Gender in Indian languages 9
in sign language 366
Genesis of philosophy 19
Gens, The term, defined 59

Gesture language and gesture speech. (See Sign language.)

Gesture speech, Study of xxxiii
Gestures as an occasional resource 279
as survival of a sign language 330
, blind, of the 278
, Etymology of words from 352
in mental disorder 276
, Involuntary response to 280
, fluent talkers, of 279

, Language not proportionate to development of

293, 314
low tribes of men, of 279
lower animals, of 275
modern actors, used by 308
modern orators, used by 311
young children, of 276
Ghost gamble 195-197
Gianque, Florian, Mound burial 120
Gibbs, George 106
, Burial canoes and houses 177
, Comparative vocabulary 555
Gilbert, G. K., Klamath burial 147
, Moquis burial 114
, Pueblo etchings 371, 372, 373
Gillman, Henry, Exploration of mound 148
Given, Dr. O. G., Cairn burial 142
Glad, Sign for 495
“Golgothas,” Mandans 170
Good, Signs for 424
Gosh-Utes, Aquatic burial amongst 181
Government, Wyandot civil 61
, Functions of 63
Grammar, Sign language with reference to 359
Grammatic processes, agglutination 4
, combination 3
, compounding 3
, inflection 4
, intonation 6
, juxtaposition 3
, placement 7, 8
, vocalic mutation 5
Grass, Sign for 343
Grave burial 101

Greek vases, Figures on, explained by modern Italian gestures

289, 290
Gregg, Dr. P., Surface burial 140

Grinnell, Dr. Fordyce, Comanche inhumation

, Wichita burial customs 102
596 Grossman, Capt. F. E., Pima burial 98

Gros Ventres and Mandans, Scaffold burial

Grow, Sign for 343
Top Habitation, Signs for 427

Haerne, Mgr. D. de, Works on sign language

Hale, Horatio, Mohawk signs 327
“Hallelujah” of the Creeks 195
Halt! Signals for 530, 535
Hammond, Dr. J. F., Burial lodges 154
Hand positions, Types of 547
Hand-shaking, connected with signs 385
Hardisty, W. L., Log burial in trees 166
Harpokrates, Erroneous character for 304
Hawkins Line (boundary) 253
Hear, Signs for 376
Hecastotheism, The term, defined 30, 32
Hénto (Gray Eyes), Wyandot signs 327
Heredity, Cases of, in speech 276, 277
Herrera 232
Hesitation, Signs for 291
Hidatsa superstitions 199
, Tribal signs for 469
Hieratic art 210
Hieroglyphs 210
are read in a certain order. 223
(See Egyptian characters.)
Hind, Henry Youle, Burial feast 191
History of sign language 285

and customs, Limitations to the use of, in study of anthropology

76, 77
Hoffman, Dr. W. J. 99
, Collaboration of, in sign language 399
, Drawing of Pima burial 111, 153
Holbrook, W. C., Burial mounds 118

Holden, Prof. E. S., Studies on Central American picture writing

Holmes, W. H., Artistic aid of 400
, Drawings by 106, 203
Home, Signs for 483, 485

Homomorphy of signs with diverse meanings

Horn sign, Italian 298, 299
Horse, Signs for 433

Hough, Franklin B., Canoe burial in the ground

House, Signs for 427
burial, Clallams 175
, Paskagoulas and Billoxis 124, 125
Huitzilopochtli 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 238, 239, 241
Humboldt, Signs of South Americans 307
Hunger, Signs for 304, 485
Hurons, Burial feast of 191
Hyperboreans, aquatic burial 180
Top Ichthyophagi, aquatic burial 180
Illinois mounds 118
, Purchase of land for Indians in 254

Illustration, Scheme of, in sign language


Illustrations, Examples of, for collaboration on sign language

Indian, generically, Signs for 469
languages, Discussion of 516
mound in North Carolina, Excavation of 120-122
title, Character of 249
tongues, Relative position of 15
Indiana, Cession of land by the Indians 257

Indians, Condition of the, favorable to sign language

of Bellingham Bay, lodge burial 154
of Clear Lake, cremation 147
of Costa Rica, lodge burial 154
of Illinois, cist burial 114
of Northwest, burial sacrifice 180
of Panama, burial sacrifice 180
of South America devour the dead 182, 183
of Southern Utah, cremation 149
of Talomeco River, box burial 155
of Taos, inhumation 101, 102
of Virginia, burial 125

of Washington Territory, burial superstition

, Theories respecting the signs of 313
Inflection in English language 14
in language 4
, Paradigmatic 7, 15
Inhumation 93
, Comanches 99, 100
, Coyotero Apaches 111, 112
, Creeks and Seminoles 95, 96
, Indians of Taos 101, 102
, Mohawks 93
, Otoe and Missouri Indians. 96, 97, 98
, Pimas 98, 99
, Wah-peton and Sisseton Sioux 107-110
, Wichitas 102, 103
, Yuki 99
Innuit and Ingalik box burial 156-158
Innuits, Sign language of 307
Inquiry, Signs for 291, 297, 303, 447, 480, 486, 494
, Signals for 531, 536
Insult, Sign of 304
Interjectional cries 283
Interment of collected bones 170
Interrogation, Mark of, in sign language 367
Intonation, Process of 6, 7
Invention of new signs in sign language 387
Involuntary response to gestures 280
Iroquois scaffold burial 169, 170
surface burial 140
, Studies among xxii
Isolation, Loss of speech by 278
Italians, Modern, Signs of 285, 305
Itzas, Aquatic burial 180

Jacker, Very Rev. Edward, Disuse of signs

Japan dolmens 115
Jenkes, Col. C. W., Partial cremation 150
Johnston, Adam, Cremation myth 144

Jones, Dr. Charles C., Stone graves of Tennessee

, Natchez burial 169

Jorio, The canon Andrea de, Works on sign language


Joseph, Judge Anthony, Inhumation of Taos Indians

Joy, Signs for 300
Justice, Sign for 302
Juxtaposition in language 3
Top Kaffir burial 126
Kaibabit myth 28
Kaiowa, Tribal signs for 470
Kalosh box burial 156
Karok burial superstition 200
Kavague aquatic burial 180
Kaw-a-wāh 142
Keating, William H., Burial scaffolds 162
, Burial superstitions 199

Keep, Rev. J. R., Syntax of Sign language

“Keeping the Ghost” 160
Kelta burial superstition 200
Kent, M. B., Sac and Fox burial 94
Kentucky cist graves 114, 115
mummies 133
Kickapoo, Tribal signs for 470
Kill, Signs for 377, 437
Kin chē-ĕss, Address of 521
Kingsborough, Lord 210
Kinship society 68, 69
Kiowa and Comanche cairn burial 142, 143
Kitty-ka-tats 102
Klamath and Trinity Indians, burial 106, 107
Indians, General researches among xix
Klingbeil, William, Partial cremation 151
Knife, Sign for 386
Kutine, Tribal signs for 470
Top Lafitau, J. F. 182
Land cessions 249
Language, Diversity of 28
, Evolution of 3-16

, Limitations to the use of, in study of anthropology

78, 81
, Primitive, theories upon 282
, Processes of 3-8
“Last cry” 186
Lately, Signs for 366
Latookas burial 126
Landa, Bishop 208, 243
Landa’s hieroglyphic alphabet 208
Lawson, John, Partial embalmment 132
, Pit burial 93
Lea, John M. 253
Lean Wolf’s Complaint, in signs 526
Leemans, Dr. 229
Leibnitz, Signs connected with philology 349
syntax 360
Leonardo da Vinci 292
Leon y Gama 232
Letter of transmittal iii
Lie, falsehood, Signs for 345, 393, 550
Lightning, Signs for 373
Linguistic researches xvii, xviii
among the Klamaths xix
Lipan, Tribal sign for 471
List of illustrations, Burial customs 87
, Sign language 265
Living sepulchers 182
Lockwood, Miss Mary 224
Lodge burial 152
, Crow 153
, Esquimaux 154
, Indians of Bellingham Bay 154
, Indians of Costa Rica 154
, Sioux 152, 153
Log burial 138, 139
, Danish 139
in trees, Loucheux 166
Long Horse, burial of 153
Loss of speech by isolation 278
Lotophagians, Aquatic burial 180
Loucheux, log burial in trees 166
Love, Signs for 345, 521
Low tribes of men, Gestures of 279
Lower animals, Gestures of 275
Lucian, de saltatione 287
Top McChesney, Dr. Charles E. 107-111
, “Ghost gamble” 195
McDonald, Dr. A. J., Rock fissure burial 127

McKenney, Thomas L., scaffold burial

, Chippewa widow 184
McKinley, William, Burial urns 13

Macrobrian Ethiopians, Preservation of the dead

136, 137
Mahan, I. L., Chippewa mourning 184
Maiming, Wyandot law for 66

Man, Origin of, in connection with the study of anthropology

77, 78
, Sign for 416
Mandan “Golgothas” 170
, Tribal sign for 471
Mano in fica, Neapolitan sign 300

Manuals, Preparation of, for use in original research

Manuscript Troano 234
Many, Signs for 445, 496, 524, 535
Marriage regulations (Wyandot) 63, 64
, Signs for 290
Mason, Prof. O. T., Work of xxii

Matthews, Dr. Washington, U.S.A., Hidatsa superstition

, Tree burial 161
Maya characters connected with signs 356, 376
Medicine, Signs for 386
Medicine-man, Signs for 380
Menard, Dr. John, Navajo burial 123
Mental disorder, Gestures in 276
Methodical signs of deaf-mutes 362
Mexican characters connected with signs 357, 375, 377, 380, 382
Miami Valley mound burial 120
Michaëlius, Algonkin signs 324

Michaux, R. V., Exploration of mound on farm of

Miclantecutli 229, 232
Midawan, a ceremony of initiation 122
Migration regulations (Wyandot) 64

Milan convention on instruction of deaf-mutes

Military government (Wyandot) 68
Miller, Dr. C. C., Assistance from 197
Missouri River, Sign for 477

Mitchell, Dr. Samuel L., Kentucky mummies

133, 134
Modal particles 13
Mode in Indian tongues 12
Modern use of sign language 293
Modification, how accomplished 7
Modoc burial superstition 200, 201
Mohawks, Inhumation 93
Money, Sign for 297
Monotheism defined 30, 32, 142
Months, their hieroglyphs 243
Moon, Indian explanation of 24
myth 25
Moose, Sign for 495
Moqui pictographs connected with signs 371, 373
Moquis burial 114
Moravian mourning 166
Morgan, Lewis H., Atsina signs 312
, Burial dance 192
, Partial scaffold burial 169
Morse, E. S., Dolmens in Japan 115
, Japanese signs 442

Mortuary customs of North American Indians

Parthians, Medes, etc. 104
Persians 103, 104
Mosquito Indians, Burial superstition of 201
, canoe burial in ground 112, 113
Mother, Sign for 479

Motions relative to parts of body in sign language

Mound burial 115
, Choctaws 120
, Florida 119, 120
, Miami Valley 120
, Ohio 117, 118
Mounds, Illinois 118, 119
of stone 118
Mourning ceremonies, Sioux 109, 110
, Chippewa 184
cradle, Chinook 181, 182
engraving of 181
, Crows 183, 184
customs of widows 185, 186
, Indians of Northwest 179
, Moravian 166
observances, Twana and Clallams 176
sacrifice, feasts, food, etc 183
MS. Troano 234
Much, Signs for 446
Müller, J. G., Mexican gods 232

Müller, Max, Theories relating to language

277, 281, 283
Mummies, Alaskan 134, 135
, Kentucky 133
, Northwest coast 135
, Virginia 131, 132
Mummification or embalmment 130
Mummification, Theories regarding 130
Murder, Wyandot law for 66
Muret, Pierre, Living sepulchres 182
, Persian mortuary customs 103
Muscogulge burial 122, 123
Mutation, Vocalic 5

Myth, Rain (Hindoo)

, Falling stars (Ute) 27
, Migration of birds (Algonkian) 27
, Moon (Ute) 25
, Norse 26
, Oraibi 25, 27
, Rain (Shoshoni) 26, 27
, Rainbow (Shoshoni) 27
, Sun (Ute) 24
Mythic tales 43-56
Cĭn-aú-äv brothers 44, 45
, Origin of 37
Origin of the echo 45-47
The so-pus wai-un-äts 47-51
Ta-wots has a fight with the sun 52, 56

Mythologic philosophy, Course of evolution of

, Devilism 32
, Fetichism 32, 41
, Four stages of 29, 33
, Hecastotheism 30, 32
, Monotheism 30, 32
, Outgrowth from 33, 38
, Physitheism 30, 32
, Psychotheism 30, 32
, Zootheism 30, 32
Mythology, Indian 19-56

, Limitations to the use of, in study of anthropology

81, 82
Myths, language, Hebrew 28
, Kaibabit 28
Top Name regulations of the Wyandot tribe 64
Naolin 230
Narratives in sign language 500
Natchez burial sacrifice 187-189
scaffold burial 169
Natci’s narrative in signs 500
National Deaf-Mute College 321, 408
Natural pantomime 280
signs 307, 340
Navajo burial 123
Na-wa-gi-jig’s story in signs 508
Neapolitan gestures and signs 289, 296-305
Negation of affirmative in sign language 391
, Signs for 290, 299, 300, 304, 355, 440, 494
Norm 142
New Mexico burial urn 138
Night, Signs for 358
Nishinams, Cremation among the 144
Nomenclature 211, 220
Norris, P. W., lodge burial 153
Norse rain myth 26

North Carolina Indians, Partial cremation

150, 151
Northwest coast mummies 135
, Indians of, mourning 179
Nothing, none, Signs for 322, 355, 356, 443
Nouns in Indian tongues 11
Now, Signs for 366
599 Top Obongo aquatic burial 180
surface burial 139, 140
Observers, Queries for, regarding burial 202, 203
Occasional resource, Gestures as an 279
Ohio mound burial 117
Oh-sah-ke-uck 94
Ojibwa and Cree surface burial 141
dialogue in signs 499
pictographs connected with signs 371, 372, 376, 380, 381
, Tribal sign for 472
Old man, Sign for 338
Omaha colloquy in signs 490
myth 581
Onomatopeia 283
Opposite, Signs for 353
Opposition in sign language 364
Oraibi myth 27
Oral language defined 273
, primitive 274
Orators, modern, Gestures used by 311

Origin of man, in connection with the study of anthropology

77, 78
sign language 273
Original and secondary cessions 256
Osage, Tribal signs for 472
Ossuaries, European 191
Otis, Dr. George A., U.S.A., Burial case 162
Oto and Missouri Indians, Inhumation 96-98
Ouray, Burial of 128
, head chief of Utes 315, 328
Outlawry, Wyandot institution of 67
Owsley, Dr. W. J., Cist graves 114
Top Palenque, Statues of 207, 224, 237-239, 245
Pani, Tribal signs for 472
Pantomime, Natural 280
Pantomimes, Classic 286
Paradigmatic inflection 7, 15
Partial cremation 150
, North Carolina Indians 150, 151
scaffold burial and ossuaries 168
Particles, Adverbial 13
, Modal 13
, Pronominal 13
, Tense 13
Parsee burial 105, 106
Partisan, Signs for 384, 418
Paskagoulas and Billoxis, House burial 124, 125
Patricio’s narrative in signs 505
Peace, Signals for 530, 534, 535
, Signs for 438
Pend d’Oreille, Tribal sign for 473
Period, Mark of, in sign language 368
Permanence of signs 329
Persians, Mortuary customs of the 103, 104
Personal adornment regulations (Wyandot) 64
Peruvian characters connected with signs 371
“Pet-chi-é-ri” 200
Philology, Relation of sign language to 349
Philosophy, Genesis of 19
, Mythologic, Ancientism 33
, Course of evolution of 38-43
, Ecstasism 36
, Mythic tales 37
, Monotheism 42
, Outgrowth from 33-38
, Physitheism 42
, Psychotheism 42
, Religion 37, 38
, Spiritism 35, 36
, Thaumaturgics 37
, Theistic society 35
, Tutelarism 41
, Zoötheism 38, 39, 40
of civilization 21
of savagery 21
, Stages of 21
Phrases in sign language 479
Phratry defined 60, 61
Physitheism defined 30, 32
Pictographs connected with sign language 368
Picture writing, Central American 25

, Limitations to the use of, in study of anthropology


Pilling, J. C., Bibliography of North American Philology

Pimas, Inhumation among 98, 99
Pinart, M. Alphonse, Pima burial 98
Pinkerton, John, Virginia mummies 131
Piros 101
Pit burial 93
Pitt River Indians, Burial and cremation 151
Pi-Ute cairn burial 143
Placement, Process of 6-8

Porter, Prof. Samuel, Thought without language

Possession, Right of 252
, Sign for 484, 524
Posts, Burial 197
Potherie, De la M., Surface burial 140
Powell, J. W., Indian orthography 484
, Inflexions in Indian languages 351
, Linguistic classification 403
, Stone graves or cists 113
Powers, Stephen, Burial dance 192
, Burial song 194
, Burial superstition 200
, Origin of cremation 144
, Se-nél cremation 147
, Yuki burial 99

Preparation of dead, Similarity of, between Comanches and African tribes

Prepositions in Indian tongues 11
sign language 367

Preservation of dead, Macrobrian Ethiopians

136, 137
, Werowance of Virginia 131, 132
Pretty, Signs for 300
Priest, Josiah, Box burial 155
Primitive language, Theories upon 282
oral language 274
Prisoner, Sign for 345
Processes of language 3-8
Pronominal particles 13
Pronouns in Indian languages 9-10
600 Proper names in sign language 364, 476

Psychology, Limitations to the use of, in the study of anthropology

83, 86
Psychotheism defined 30, 32
Pueblo pictographs connected with signs 373
, Tribal sign for 473
Punctuation in sign language 367

Purchases of land from Indians in Illinois

Putnam, F. W., Stone graves or cists 115, 116
Top Quantity, Signs for 291, 359, 445
Queries for observers regarding burial 202, 203
Question, Signs for 291, 297, 303, 447, 480, 486, 494
, Signals for 531, 536
Quetzalcoatl 230, 237, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243

Quintilian, Antiquity of gesture language

, Powers of gesture 280
, Questioning by gesture 449
, Rules for gesture 285
Quiogozon or ossuary 94
Top Rabbit, Sign for 321
Rabelais, Forced and mistaken signs 338
, Head shaking 441
, Primitive language 282
, Sign for marriage 290
, Signs addressed to women 310
, Universal language 287
Raffaelle, Attention to gestures 292
Railroad cars, Sign for 322
Rain myth, Hindoo 27
, Oraibi 26
, Shoshone 26, 27
, Signs for 344, 357, 372
Rainbow myth (Shoshoni) 27
Rapport necessary in gestures 310
Ran, Dr. 221
Reason for cairn burial 143
Rejection, Signs for 298, 299
Religion, Origin of 37, 38
Remarks, Final 203
Researches in sign language, how made 395
Results sought in study of sign language 346
Revenge, A dog’s; a Dakota fable 587
Review of Turner’s narrative 165
Ride, Sign for 551
Riggs, S. R., Linguistic researches xviii
Robertson, R. S., Surface burial 139
Roman, Bernard, Choctaw hone houses 168
, Funeral customs of Chickasaws 123
Round Valley Indians, burial among 124
Royce, C. C., Cessions of land xxvii
Ruxton 324
Top Sac, or Sanki, Tribal sign for 473
Sacrifice 187
Sacs and Foxes, burial among 94, 95
, surface burial 140, 141
Safety, Signals for 536
Sahaptin, Tribal sign, for 473
Same, similar, Sign for 385
Sauer, Martin, Aleutian mummies 135

Sauks, Foxes, and Pottawatomies, surface burial among


Sayce, Prof. A. H., Origin of language in gestures

283, 284
Scaffold burial, Australia 167
, Chippewas 161, 162
, Choctaw 169
, Gros-Ventres and Mandans 161
, Iroquois 169, 170
, Natchez 169
, Sioux 163, 164
, Tent burial on 174
Scaffolds, Theory regarding 167, 168
Schiller’s burial song 110
Schoolcraft, Henry R., Burial posts 197
, Comparative vocabulary 555
, Cremation myth 144
, Mohawk burial 93, 95
, Partial embalmment 132
Scocciare, Italian sign for 298
Seechaugas 158
Sellers, George Escoll, Cist burial 114
Se-nél, Cremation among the 147, 148
Sepulture, Aerial 152
Seraglio, mutes of the, Gestures of the 307
Shawnee, Tribal sign for 474
Sheepeater, Tribal signs for 474
Sheldon, William, Caraib burial customs 146
Shoshone burial lodges 153, 154
cairn burial 143
myth 26, 27
, Tribal signs for 474
Sibscota, Mutes of Seraglio 307
Sicard, Abbé, Deaf mute signs 277, 288, 362
Sicaugu 158
Sicily, Gesture language in 295

Sign language, Abstract ideas expressed in

, Alaskans, of the 513
, Antiquity of 285
, Apache pictographs connected with 372
, Archæologic research connected with 368
, Arrangement in description of signs in 546
, Australian 306
, Authorities in, list of 401
, Chinese characters connected with 356, 357
, Cistercian monks, of 283, 364
, collaborators in, List of 401
, comparison, Degrees of, in 363
, Conjunctions in 367
, Convention, not requiring 334
, Corporeal gestures in 270, 273
, correspondents, Foreign, on 407
, deaf-mutes, of uninstructed 277
, dialects, numerous, connected with 294
, Dialogues in 486
, Dictionary of, Extracts from 409
601 , Discontinuance of 312
, Discourses in 521
Egyptian characters connected with 304, 355, 357-359, 370, 379, 380
, Emotional gestures in 270
, Ethnologic facts connected with 384
evolved rather than invented 319
, Facial expression in 270, 273
, fingers, Details of position of, in 392, 547
, Gender in 366
, Grammar connected with 359
, hand positions, Types of, in 547
, History of 285
, illustration, Scheme of, in 544
, Indian and deaf-mute, compared 320
and foreign, compared 319
, Special and peculiar is the 319

Indians, North American, Once universal among

, Conditions favorable to 311
, Innuits, of the 307
, interrogation, Mark of, in 367
, Invention of new signs in 387
, Italians, modern, of 285, 305
, Languages, Indian, compared with 351
, Maya characters connected with 356, 376
, Mexican characters connected with 357, 375, 377, 380, 382
, Mistaken denial of existence of 326
, Modern use of 293

, Modern use of, by other than North American Indians

, Motions relative to parts of body in 393, 545
, Narratives in 500
, Negation or affirmative in 391
, Ojibwa pictographs connected with 371, 372, 380, 381
, Opposition in 364

, Oral language not proportioned to development of

293, 314
, Origin of 273
, Origin of, from a particular tribe 316
, Outlines of arm positions in 545
, period, Mark of, in 368
, Peruvian characters connected with 371
, Phrases in 479
, Pictographs connected with 368
, Practical application of 346
preceded articulate speech 274, 284
, Prepositions in 367
, Prevalence of Indian system of 323
, Proper names in 364, 476
, Pueblo pictographs connected with 373
, Punctuation, in 367
, Philology, relation of, to 349
, Researches, Mode in which made on 395
, Resemblance to Indian languages 351
, Results sought in the study of 346
, Seraglio, of the mutes of the 307
, Sicilian 295
, Sociologic conditions connected with 293, 294
, South American 307
, Survival of 306
, Syntax connected with 359
, Tense in 366
, Time in 366
, Tribal signs in 458
, writing, Origin of, connected with 354
Signals, Apache 534
bodily action, Executed by 529
, Cheyenne and Arapaho 542
, Dust 541
, Fire arrows used in 540
, Foreign 549
, Smoke 536
when person signaling is not seen 536

with objects in connection with personal action

Signs, Abbreviation in 338
, Arbitrary 340
, Conventional 333, 336, 340
, deaf-mutes, of uninstructed 277
, diversities in, Classes of 341
, Forced 336
, Homomorphy of, with diverse meanings 342
, Mistaken 336
, Natural 307, 340

, Oral language, not proportioned to development of

293, 314
, Permanence of 329
, Power of, compared with speech 347, 349
, Surviving in gesture 330
, Symmorphs in 343
, Synonyms in 341

, Systematic use of, distinguished from uniformity of

, Theories of Indians, respecting the 313
Silence, Sign for 304

Simpson, Capt. J. H., U.S.A., Aquatic burial

Sioux and Chippewa burial posts 197, 198
lodge burial 152, 153
mourning ceremonies 109, 110
602 scaffold burial of the 163, 164
tree burial of the 161
Small, Sign for 302
Smoke, Sign for 343, 380
signals 536
, Foreign 539
Smyth, R. Brough, Australian, signs 306, 408
Society, Kinship 68, 69

Sociologic conditions connected with use of gestures


Sociology, Limitations to the use of, in study of anthropology

So´-kus wai´-un-äts, a Shoshoni myth 47-51
Soldier, Signs for 344, 449, 505
Solutré cists 113
Songs, Burial 194
, of Basques and others 195
South Americans, Signs of 307
Southern Indians, Urn burial among 137
Spainhour, Dr. J. Mason, Curious burial 120
Speak, speech, Signs for 345, 373
Speech, Differentiation of parts of 8
Spencer, J. W., Partial surface burial 140
Spiritism defined 35, 36
Squirrel, Sign for 321
Standing posture, Burial in 151, 152

Stansbury, Capt. H., U.S.A., Lodge burial

Steamboat, Sign for 388
Steatite burial urn, California 138
Stephens, John L. 207-210

Sternberg, Dr. George M., U.S.A., Grave mounds

, Burial case discovered 162
Stevenson, James, Exploration by xxx
Stone graves or cists 113
mounds 118
, Signs for 386, 515
Stupidity, Signs for 303
Submission, Signals for 531
Suggestions for collecting signs 394
Sun, Indian explanation of 24
, moon, star myth (Oraibi) 25
myth (Ute) 24
, Signs for 344, 370
Sunrise, Sign for 371
Superstition, Hidatsa 199
regarding burial feasts 191
Superstitions, Burial 199
Superterrene and aerial burial in canoes 171
Surface burial 138, 139
, Ojibways and Crees 141
, Sacs and Foxes 140, 141
, Sauks, Foxes, and Pottawatomies 141
Surrender, Signals for 531, 536
Surrounded, Signal for 536
Suspicion, Sign for 306
Swan, James G., Canoe burial 171
, Klamath burial 106
, Superstitions 201
Sweat lodges 586
Swedenborg, Primitive language 288
Symbols, distinguished from signs 388
Symmorphs in signs 343
Synonyms in signs 341
Syntactic relation, how accomplished 7
Syntax, Sign language with reference to 359
Top Tāh-zee 142
Talkers, fluent, Gestures of 279

Ta-vwots´ fights the sun; a Shoshoni myth

52, 56
Tegg, William, Antiquity of cremation 143
, Towers of silence 104
Tendoy-Huerito dialogue in signs 486
Tennanah, Tribal sign for 475
Tennessee cists 113
Tense in Indian tongues 12
in sign language 336
particles 13
Tent burial on scaffold 174
Teoyaomiqui 229
Tetzcatlipoca 230
Thaumaturgics 37
Theft, Signs for 292, 345
, Wyandot law for 66
Theistic society defined 35

Theories regarding mummification or embalmment

regarding use of scaffolds 176, 168
Tiffany, A. S., Cremation furnace 149
Timberlake, H., Aquatic burial 180
Time, in sign language 386
, long, Sign for 522
, Signs for 350, 508
Title, Indian, Character of 249
inheres in discoverer 249
Tlaloc 229, 230, 231, 233-239, 241, 244
Tlascaltecs, burial superstition 201
To-day, Signs for 386
Tolkotin cremation 144, 146
Tolow burial superstition 200

Tompkins, Gen. Chas. H., U.S.A., Partial cremation

Torquemada 232
Touatihu 230
Towers of silence, Description of 104-106
Trade, Signs for 381, 450, 495
Treason, Wyandot law for 67
Treaties at Fort Harmar 251
Tree and scaffold burial 158
, Brulé Sioux 158, 160
burial, ancient nations 165, 166
, Blackfeet 101
, Sioux 101
, Signs for 343, 496, 524
Tribal government based on kinship 68, 69
signs 458
society, A study of (Wyandot) 59-69
Troano, Manuscript 234

Trumbull, Dr. J. Hammond, Composition of Indian words

Tsinūk burial sacrifice 179
Tso-di-á-ko’s Report, in signs 524
Turner, Dr. L. S., Scaffold burial 163
Turner’s narrative, Review of 165
Tutelarism defined 41
Twana and Clallam mourning observances 176
canoe burial 171-173
Twanas and Clallams, funeral ceremonies 176
603 Tylor, Dr. E. B, Sign language 293, 320, 323

Uniformity of signs distinguished from their systematic use

Urn burial by Southern Indians 137
Ute cairn burial 142
cave burial 127, 128
myth 23, 24, 22
, Tribal signs for 475
Top Valentini 243

Van Camper, Moses. Mode of burial of Indians inhabiting Pennsylvania


Van Vliet, Gen. Stewart, U.S.A., Tree and scaffold burial

Variank 208
Verbs in English language 14
Indian tongues 10, 11
Verification of death, Caraibs 146
Village, Signs for 386
Vinci, Leonardo da, use of gestures 292
Virginia mummies 131, 132
Vocalic mutation in language, Process of 7
Top Wagon, Sign for 322

Wah-peton and Sisseton Sioux, Inhumation among

Wait, Signs for 201, 299
Waldeck 210, 243
Want, Sign for 344
Warning, Sign for 301, 302
Wascopums, Burial sacrifice of 189, 190
Washington, City of, Sign for 470
Water, Signs for 357, 494
Wee-ka-nahs 101
Welch, H., Surface burial 141

Werowance of Virginia, preservation of the dead

131, 132
White man, Signs for 450, 469, 491, 500, 526
Whitney, J. D., alphabet, on the 557
burial cave, Description of a 128
, Prof. W. D., Primitive speech 283
Whymper, Frederic, Burial boxes 156
Wichita, Tribal signs for 476
Wichitas, Inhumation among the 102, 103
Widow, Chippewa 184, 185
Widows, Mourning customs of 185, 186
Wilcox, E., Partial cremation 150
Wilkins, Bishop, Philosophic language 288
Wilkins, Charles, Kentucky mummies 133
Williams, Mr. B. O. 326
, Monier, Parsee burial 104
Wind, Greek idea of 24
, Indian explanation of 23
, Norse idea of 24
Wiseman, Cardinal, Gesture of blind man 278
, Italian signs 408
Witchcraft, Wyandot law for 67
Woman, Sign for 497
Wood, Rev. J. G., African surface burial 139
, Bari burial 125
, Fans of Africa devour the dead 182
, Obongo aquatic burial 180
Worthlessness, Sign for 301

Wright, Dr. S. G., Superstitions regarding burial feasts


Writing, origin of, Gestures connected with the

Wyandot criminal laws 66, 67
for adultery 66
for maiming 66
murder 66
of outlawry 67
for theft 66
for treason 67
for witchcraft 67
government 59-69
military government 68
regulations 63, 64
of encampment 64
of migration 64
of name 64
of personal adornment 64
rights 65
of community 65
of person 65
of religion 65
, Tribal sign for 476
Top Yo-kaí-a burial dance 192-194
Young, John, Tree burial 161
Yuki inhumation 99
Yurok burial fires 198
Top Zoötheism defined 30-32

Transcriber’s Notes

Errors and Inconsistencies

Typographical errors are shown in the text with mouse-hover popups. In the Index, missing commas within or before entries were silently supplied. Differences in punctuation or hyphenization between the Table of Contents, Index, or List of Illustrations, and the item itself, are not noted. Irregularities that are specific to an individual article are noted at the beginning of the article.


For this e-text, Plates were rescaled to 25% by pixel count, while most Figures were rescaled to 33%. The original is strongly sepia-toned, so the distinction between color and grayscale reflects the transcriber’s judgement rather than a clear difference in the original.


The article on Sign Language includes a number of full- or half-length drawings of named or namable sources. On the principle of “Good informants make good anthropology”, a few of them are shown here.

see text The writer’s favorite source, illustrated as “Shoshoni and Banak I”. Identified in the article as Tendoy (The Climber), one of “a delegation of Shoshoni and Banak chiefs from Idaho, who visited Washington during the months of April and May, 1880”. Here shown in Figure 310, sign for many.
Huerito (Little Blonde), source “Apache I”, one of “a delegation of Apache chiefs from Tierra Amarilla, New Mexico, who were brought to Washington in the months of March and April, 1880”. Here shown in Figure 304, sign for who are you? see text
see text Tce-caq´-a-daq-a-qic (Lean Wolf), source “Hidatsa I”, identified as “chief of the Hidatsa ... at Washington with a delegation of Sioux Indians, in June, 1880”. Here shown in Figure 331, sign for friend.
Ta-taⁿ´ka Wa-kaⁿ (Medicine Bull), source “Dakota VIII”, one of “a delegation of Lower Brulé Dakotas, while at Washington during the winter of 1880-’81”. Here shown in Figure 316, sign for hear. see text
see text Na´tci, source “Pai-Ute I”. Identified in the text as “a Pai-Ute chief, who was one of a delegation of that tribe to Washington in January, 1880”, though these drawings were probably not made in Washington in January. Here shown in Figure 245, sign for chief.
The name of Na´tci’s father, mentioned in the introduction to Na´tci’s Narrative, is more often spelled Winnemucca.
see text The subject of this illustration could not be identified; he may simply be Na´tci (above) from a different angle. He is shown here in Figure 286, Blackfoot (tribal sign).