Project Gutenberg's Notes and Queries, Number 228, March 11, 1854, by Various

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Title: Notes and Queries, Number 228, March 11, 1854
       A Medium of Inter-communication for Literary Men, Artists,
              Antiquaries, Genealogists, etc

Author: Various

Other: George Bell

Release Date: May 24, 2010 [EBook #32506]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


Produced by Charlene Taylor, Jonathan Ingram, Keith Edkins
and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at (This file was produced from images
generously made available by The Internet Archive/Canadian

Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected. They appear in the text like this, and the explanation will appear when the mouse pointer is moved over the marked passage.




"When found, make a note of."Captain Cuttle.

No. 228.

Saturday, March 11. 1854

Price Fourpence
Stamped Edition 5d.




Where are the Wills to be deposited?


"J. R. of Cork"


Marmortinto, or Sand-painting


The Soldier's Discipline, from a Broadside of the Year 1642


Leading Articles of Foreign Newspapers


Minor Notes:—Materials for a History of Druidism—Domestic Chapels—Ordinary—Thom's Irish Almanac and Official Directory for 1854—Antiquity of the Word "Snub"—Charles I. at Little Woolford—Coincidence between Sir Thomas Browne and Bishop Ken—The English School of Painting—"A Feather in your Cap"



Domestic Architecture: Licences to Crenellate, by J. H. Parker


Dixon of Beeston, by R. W. Dixon, J.P.


Minor Queries:—Atherstone Family—Classic Authors and the Jews—Bishop Hooper's Argument on the Vestment Controversy—The Title of "Dominus"—The De Rous Family—Where was the Fee of S. Sanxon?—Russian Emperors—Episcopal Insignia of the Eastern Church—Amontillado Sherry—Col. Michael Smith's Family—Pronunciation of Foreign Names—Artesian Wells—Norman Towers in London—Papyrus—Mathew, a Cornish Family


Minor Queries with Answers:—Bunyan's Descendants—Epigram on Dennis—Football played on Shrove Tuesday—Vossioner, its Meaning—The Game of Chess—A Juniper Letter





Milton's Widow, by T. Hughes


Three Fleurs-de-Lys


Books burned by the Common Hangman, by C. H. Cooper, &c.


Different Productions of different Carcases


Vandyke in America, by J. Balch


Photographic Correspondence:—Cyanide of Potassium—Mode of exciting Calotype Paper—The Double Iodide Solution: Purity of Photographic Chemicals—Hyposulphite of Soda Baths


Replies to Minor Queries:—Daughters taking their Mothers' Names—The Young Pretender—A Legend of the Hive—Hoby Family—Anticipatory Use of the Cross—Longevity—"Nugget"—The fifth Lord Byron—Wapple, or Whapple-way—The Ducking-stool—Double Christian Names—Pedigree to the Time of Alfred—Palace of Lucifer—Monaldeschi—Anna Lightfoot—Lode, &c.



Notes on Books, &c.


Books and Odd Volumes wanted


Notices to Correspondents


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Contents of Volume II.

Chap. 7. Spain and Italy: 1814-20.

8. Russia and Poland 1815-25.

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10. Domestic History of England: 1819-22.

11. England, France, and Spain, from the Accession of Villèle in 1819 to the Congress of Verona in 1822.

12. Congress of Verona—French Invasion of Spain—Death of Louis XVIII.

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Πολλαι μεν θνητοις Γλωτται, μια δ' Αθανατοισιν



The difficulties thrown in the way of all literary and historical inquiries, by the peculiar constitution of the Prerogative Office, Doctors' Commons, have long been a subject of just complaint. An attempt was made by The Camden Society, in 1848, to procure their removal, by a Memorial addressed to the Archbishop of Canterbury, which we now print, because it sets forth, plainly and distinctly, the nature and extent of those difficulties.

"To the Most Rev. and the Right Hon. The Lord Archbishop of Canterbury.

"The humble Memorial of the President and Council of the Camden Society, respectfully showeth,

"That the Camden Society was instituted in the year 1838, for the publication of early historical and literary remains.

"It has the honour to be patronised by H.R.H. the Prince Albert; and has supported, from its institution, by the countenance and subscription of your Grace's predecessor in the See of Canterbury.

"The Society has published forty volumes of works relating to English History, and continues to be actively engaged in researches connected with the same important branch of literature.

"In the course of its proceedings, the Society has had brought under its notice the manner in which the regulations of the Prerogative Office in Doctors' Commons interfere with the accuracy and completeness of works in the preparation of which the Council is now engaged, and with the pursuits and labours of all other historical inquirers; and they beg leave respectfully to submit to your Grace the results of certain investigations which they have made upon the subject.

"Besides the original wills deposited in the Office of the Prerogative Court, there is kept in the same repository a long series of register books, containing copies of wills entered chronologically from A.D. 1383 to the present time. These registers or books of entry fall practically into two different divisions or classes. The earlier and the latter books contain information suited to the wants of totally different kinds of persons, and applicable to entirely different purposes. Their custody is also of very different importance to the office. The class which is first both in number of books and in importance contains entries of modern wills. These are daily consulted by relatives of testators, by claimants and solicitors, principally for legal purposes, and yield a large revenue to the office in fees paid for searches, inspections, and copies. The second class, which comprises a comparatively small number of volumes, contains entries of ancient wills, dated before the period during which wills are now useful for legal purposes. These are never consulted by lawyers or claimants, nor do they yield any revenue to the office, save an occasional small receipt from the Camden Society, or from some similar body, or private literary inquirer.

"With respect to the original wills, and the entries of modern wills, your memorialists beg to express clearly that this application is not designed to have any reference to them. Your memorialists confine their remarks exclusively to the books of entries of those ancient wills which have long and unquestionably ceased to be useful for legal purposes.

"These entries of ancient wills are of the very highest importance to historical inquirers. They abound with illustrations of manners and customs; they exhibit in the most authentic way the state of religion, the condition of the various classes of the people, and of society in general; they are invaluable to the lexicographer, the genealogist, the topographer, the biographer,—to historical writers of every order and kind. They constitute the most important depository in existence of exact information relating to events and persons of the period to which they relate.

"But all this information is unavailable in consequence of the regulations of the office in which the wills are kept. All the books of entry, both of ancient and modern wills, are kept together, and can only be consulted in the same department of the same office, in the same manner and subject to precisely the same restrictions and the same payments. No distinction is made between the fees to be paid by a literary person who wishes to make a few notes from wills, perhaps three or four hundred years old, in order to rectify a fact, a name, a date, or to establish the proper place of a descent in a pedigree, or the exact meaning of a doubtful word, and the fees to be paid by the person who wants a copy of a will proved yesterday as evidence of a right to property perhaps to be established in a court of justice. No extract is allowed to be made, not even of a word or a date, except the names of the executors and the date of the will. Printed statements in historical books, which refer to wills, may not be compared with the wills as entered; even ancient copies of wills handed down for many generations in the families of the testators, may not be examined in the registered wills without paying the office for making new and entire copies.

"No such restrictions exclude literary inquirers from the British Museum, where there are papers equally valuable. The Public Record Offices are all open, either gratuitously or upon payment of easy fees. The Secretary of State for the Home Department grants permission of access to her Majesty's State Paper Office. Your Grace's predecessor gave the Camden Society free access to the registers of wills at Lambeth—documents exactly similar to those at Doctors' Commons. The Prerogative Office is, probably, the only public office in the kingdom which is shut against literary inquirers.

"The results of such regulations are obvious. The ancient wills at Doctors' Commons not being accessible to those to whom alone they are useful, yield scarcely any fees to the office; historical inquirers are discouraged; errors remain uncorrected; statements of facts in historical works are obliged to be left uncertain and incomplete; the researches of the Camden Society and other similar societies are thwarted; and all historical inquirers regard the condition of the Prerogative Office as a great literary grievance.


"The President and Council of the Camden Society respectfully submit these circumstances to your Grace with a full persuasion that nothing which relates to the welfare of English historical literature can be uninteresting either to your Grace personally, or to the Church over which you preside; and they humbly pray your Grace that such changes may be made in the regulations of the Prerogative Office as may assimilate its practice to that of the Public Record Office, so far as regards the inspection of the books of entry of ancient wills, or that such other remedy may be applied to the inconveniences now stated as to your Grace may seem fit.

"(Signed) Braybrooke, President.

Thomas Amyot, Director.

Henry Ellis.

J. Payne Collier, Treas.

Harry Verney.

H. H. Milman.

Joseph Hunter.

William J. Thoms, Sec.

Chs. Purton Cooper.

Thos. Stapleton.

Wm. Durrant Cooper.

Peter Levesque.

Thos. J. Pettigrew.

John Bruce.

Beriah Botfield.

Bolton Corney.

25. Parliament Street, Westminster,

13 April, 1848."

As the Archbishop stated his inability to afford any relief, The Camden Society availed themselves of the appointment of the Commission to inquire into the Law and Jurisdiction of the Ecclesiastical and other Courts in relation to Matters Testamentary, to address to those Commissioners, in the month of January, 1853, a Memorial, of which the following is a copy:

"To the Right Honourable and Honourable the Commissioners appointed by Her Majesty to inquire into the Law and Jurisdiction of the Ecclesiastical and other Courts in relation to Matters Testamentary.

"My Lords and Gentlemen,

"We, the undersigned, being the President and Council of the Camden Society, for the Publication of Early Historical and Literary Remains, beg to submit to your consideration a copy of a Memorial presented on the 13th April, 1848, by the President and then Council of this Society, to his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, praying that such changes might be made in the regulations of the Prerogative Office as might assimilate its practice to that of the Public Record Office, so far as regards the inspection of the books of entry of ancient Wills, or that such other remedy might be applied to the inconveniences stated in that Memorial as to his Grace might seem fit.

"In reply to that Memorial his Grace was pleased to inform the Memorialists that he had no control whatever over the fees taken in the Prerogative Office.

"The Memorialists had not adopted the course of applying to his Grace the Archbishop until they had in vain endeavoured to obtain from the authorities of the Prerogative Office, Messrs. Dyneley, Iggulden, and Gostling, some modification of their rules in favour of literary inquirers. The answer of his Grace the Archbishop left them, therefore without present remedy.

"The grievance complained of continues entirely unaltered up to the present time.

"In all other public repositories to which in the course of our inquiries we have had occasion to apply, we have found a general and predominant feeling of the national importance of the cultivation of literature, and especially of that branch of it which relates to the past history of our own country. Every one seems heartily willing to promote historical inquiries. The Public Record Offices are now opened to persons engaged in literary pursuits by arrangements of the most satisfactory and liberal character. His Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury gives permission to literary men to search such of the early registers of his See as are in his own possession at Lambeth. Access is given to the registers of the Bishop of London; and throughout the kingdom private persons having in their possession historical documents are almost without exception not only willing but anxious to assist our inquiries. The authorities of the Prerogative Office in Doctors' Commons, perhaps, stand alone in their total want of sympathy with literature, and in their exclusion of literary inquirers by stringent rules, harshly, and in some instances even offensively, enforced.

"We have the honour to be,

"My Lords and Gentlemen,

"Your most obedient and very humble servants,

(Signed) Braybrooke, President.

John Bruce, Director.

C. Purton Cooper.

J. Payne Collier, Treas.

W. R. Drake.

Edwd. Foss.

Peter Levesque.


W. H. Blaauw.

W. Durrant Cooper.

Bolton Corney.

Henry Ellis.

Lambert B. Larking.

Fredk. Ouvry.

Wm. J. Thoms, Sec.

25. Parliament Street, Westminster,

January, 1853."

A Report from that Commission has been laid before Parliament; and a Bill for carrying into effect the recommendations contained in such Report, and transferring the powers of the Prerogative Court to the Court of Chancery, has been introduced into the House of Lords. The Bill contains no specific enactments as to the custody of the Wills.

Now, therefore, is the time for all who are interested in Historical Truth to use their best endeavours to procure the insertion of such clauses as shall place the Wills under the same custody as the other Judicial Records of the country, namely, that of Her Majesty's Keeper of Records.

With Literature represented in the House of Lords by a Brougham and a Campbell, in the Commons by a Macaulay, a Bulwer, and a D'Israeli, let but the real state of the case be once made public, and we have no fear but that the interests of English Historical Literature will be cared for and maintained.



"J. R. OF CORK."

My gifted and lamented countryman "The Roscoe of Cork"[1] deserves more notice in these pages, which he has enriched by his contributions, than the handsome obituary of our Editor (Vol. vii., p. 394.); so a few words is with reference to him may be acceptable.

Mr. James Roche was born in Limerick some eighty-three years ago, of an ancient and wealthy family. At an early period of his life he was sent to France, and educated in the Catholic College of Saintes. After completing his studies, and paying a short visit to Ireland, he settled in Bordeaux, where he became acquainted with the most distinguished leaders of the Girondists.

Mr. Roche was in Paris during the horrors of the first Revolution, and in 1793 was arrested there as a British subject, but was released on the death of Robespierre. For some years after his liberation, he passed his time between Paris and Bordeaux. At the close of the last century, he returned to Ireland; and commenced business in Cork as a banker, in partnership with his brother. He resided in a handsome country seat near the river Lee, and there amassed a splendid library.

About the year 1816, a relative of mine, a wealthy banker in the same city, got into difficulties, and met with the kindest assistance from Mr. Roche. In 1819 his own troubles came on, and a monetary crisis ruined him as well as many others. All his property was sold, and his books were brought to the hammer, excepting a few with which his creditors presented him. I have often tried, but without success, to get a copy of the auction catalogue, which contained many curious lots,—amongst others, I am informed, Swift's own annotated copy of Gulliver's Travels, which Mr. Roche purchased in Cork for a few pence, but which produced pounds at the sale. Mr. Roche, after this, resided for some time in London as parliamentary agent. He also spent several years in Paris, and witnessed the revolution of 1830. Eventually he returned to Cork, where he performed the duties of a magistrate and director of the National Bank, until his death in the early part of 1853.

Mr. Roche was intimately acquainted with many of the great men and events of his time, especially with everything concerning modern French history and literature.

Mr. Roche was remarkable for accurate scholarship and extensive learning: the affability of his manners, and the earnestly-religious tone of his mind, enhanced his varied accomplishments.

For a number of years he contributed largely to various periodicals, such as the Gentleman's Magazine, the Dublin Review, and the Literary Gazette; and the signature of "J. R. of Cork" was welcome to all, while it puzzled many.

In 1851 he printed for private circulation, Essays Critical and Miscellaneous, by an Octogenarian, 2 vols.; printed by G. Nash, Cork. Some of these Essays are reprints, others are printed for the first time. The work was reviewed in the Dublin Review for October, 1851.

A "Sketch of J. R. of Cork" was published in July, 1848, in Duffy's Irish Catholic Magazine, which I have made use of in this Note. My object in the present Note is to suggest that Mr. Roche's Reminiscences and Essays should be given to the public, from whom I am well assured they would receive a hearty welcome.


Footnote 1:(return)

Mr. Roche is thus happily designated by the Rev. Francis Mahony in The Prout Papers.


There appeared in a late number of The Family Friend, an article on the above process. The writer attributes its invention to Benjamin Zobel of Bavaria; and states, that although some few persons have attempted its revival, in no instance has success attended such efforts. This is not correct. There was a German confectioner to King George III. whom I knew well. His name was Haas; and those acquainted with Bristol will recollect his well-frequented shop, nearly opposite the drawbridge on the way to College Green, where he resided forty years ago, after retiring from his employment at Court. There he was often engaged in decorating ceilings, lying on his back for weeks together on a scaffold for the purpose. He also ornamented the plateaus for the royal table; and he understood the art of sand-painting, and practised it in the highest perfection. Whether he preceded Zobel, or came after him, at Windsor Castle, I cannot tell; but I can testify that he was perfect master of the art in question. I have seen him at work upon his sand-pictures. He had the marble dust of every gradation of colour in a large box, divided into small compartments; and he applied it to the picture by dropping it from small cones of paper.

The article in The Family Friend describes the process of Zobel to have consisted of a previous coating of the panel for the picture with a glutinous solution, over which the marble dust was strewed from a piece of cord. Haas used small cones of paper; and my impression from seeing him at work was, that he sprinkled the sand on the dry panel, and fixed the whole finally at once by some process which he kept a secret. For I remember how careful he was to prevent the window or door from being opened, so as to cause a draught, before he had fixed his picture; and I {218}have heard him lament the misfortune of having had one or two pictures blown away in this manner.

The effect of his sand-pictures was extraordinary. They stood out in bold relief, and with a brilliancy far surpassing any oil painting. As may be supposed, this style of painting was particularly adapted for landscapes and rocky scenery; and it enabled the artist to finish foliage with a richness which nothing could surpass. Mr. Haas' collection of his sand-paintings was a rich treat to inspect. After his death, they were sold and dispersed; but many must be found in the collections of gentlemen in Bristol and its neighbourhood.

F. C. H.


"The Grounds of Military Discipline: or, Certain Brief Rules for the Exercising of a Company or Squadron.

Observed by all.

In march, in motion, troop or stand,

Observe both leader and right hand;

With silence note in what degree

You in the body placed be:

That so you may, without more trouble,

Know where to stand, and when to double.


True distance keep in files, in ranks

Open close to the front, reare, flanks,

Backward, forward, to the right, left, or either,

Backward and forward both together.

To the right, left, outward or in,

According to directions given.

To order, close, open, double,

Distance, distance, double, double:

For this alone prevents distraction,

And giveth lustre to the action.


Face to the right, or to the left, both wayes to the reare,

Inward, outward, and as you were:

To the front, reare, flanks, and peradventure

To every angle, and to the centre.


To bring more hands in the front to fight,

Double ranks unto the right,

Or left, or both, if need require,

Direct divisionall or intire:

By doubling files accordingly,

Your flanks will strengthened be thereby.

Halfe files and bringers-up likewise

To the front may double, none denies;

Nor would it very strange appear

For th' front half files or double the reare:

The one half ranks to double the other,

Thereby to strengthen one the other.


But lest I should seen troublesome,

To countermarches next I come.

Which, though they many seem to be,

Are all included in these three:

Maintaining, gaining, losing ground,

And severall wayes to each is found:

By which their proper motion's guided,

In files, in ranks, in both divided.


Wheel your batten ere you fight,

For better advantage to the right,

Or left, or round about

To either angle, or where you doubt

Your enemie will first oppose you;

And therefore unto their Foot close you.

Divisionall wheeling I have seen

In sundrie places practis'd been,

To alter either form or figure,

By wheeling severall wayes together.

And, had I time to stand upon 't,

I'de wheele my wings into the front.

By wheeling flanks into the reare,

They'll soon reduce them as they were.

Besides, it seems a pretty thing

To wheel, front, and reare to either wing:

Wheele both wings to the reare and front;

Face to the reare, and having done 't,

Close your divisions; even your ranks,

Wheel front and reare into both flanks:

And thus much know, cause, note I'll smother,

To one wheeling doth reduce the other.

Conversion and Inversion.

One thing more and I have done;

Let files rank by conversion:

To th' right, or th' left, to both, and then

Ranks by conversion fill again:

Troop for the colours, march, prepare for fight,

Behave yourselves like men, and so good night.

The summe of all that hath been spoken may be comprised thus:

Open, close, face, double, countermarch, wheel, charge, retire;

Invert, convert, reduce, trope, march, make readie, fire."



The foreign correspondence of the English press is an invaluable feature of that mighty engine of civilisation and progress, for which the world cannot be too thankful; but as the agents in it at Paris, Berlin, Vienna, &c., are more or less imbued with the insular views and prejudices which they carry with them from England, Scotland, or Ireland, it were well if the daily journals devoted more attention than they do to the leading articles of the Continental press, which is frequently distinguished by great ability and interest, and would {219}enable Englishmen, not versed in foreign languages, to judge, from another point of view, of Continental affairs—now becoming of surpassing interest and importance. Translations or abstracts of the leading articles of The Times, Morning Chronicle, Morning Post, &c., are constantly to be met with in the best foreign papers. Why should not our great London papers more frequently gratify their readers with articles from the pens of their Continental brotherhood? This would afford an opportunity also of correcting the false statements, or replying to the erroneous judgments put forth and circulated abroad by writers whose distinguished position enables them, unintentionally no doubt, to do the more mischief. A surprising change for the better, however, as respects Great Britain, is manifest in the tone and information of the foreign press of late years. Let us cherish this good feeling by a corresponding demeanour on our part.


Minor Notes.

Materials for a History of Druidism.—

"It would be a commendable, useful, and easy task to collect what the ancients have left us on the subject of Druidism. Such a collection would form a very small but interesting volume. It would supersede, in every library, the idle and tedious dreams and conjectures of the Stukeleys, the Borlases, the Rowlands, the Vallanceys, the Davies's, the Jones's, and the Whitakers. Toland's work on the Druids, though far from unexceptionable, has more solid intelligence than any other modern composition of its kind. It is a pity that he or some other person has not given as faithful translations of the Irish Christian MSS. which he mentions, as these have, no doubt, preserved much respecting Druidical manners and superstitions, of which many vestiges are still existing, though not of the kind usually referred to."

"The Roman history of Britain can only be collected from the Roman writers; and what they have left is very short indeed. It might be disposed of in the way recommended for the History of the Druids."—Douce's notes on Whitaker's History of Manchester, vol. i. p. 136. of Corrections in Book i., ibid. p. 148.


Domestic Chapels.—There is an interesting example of a domestic chapel, with an upper chamber over it for the chaplain's residence, and a ground floor underneath it for some undiscoverable purpose, to be seen contiguous to an ancient farm-house at Ilsam, in the parish of St. Mary Church, in the county of Devon.

The structure is quite ecclesiastical in its character, and appears to have been originally, as now, detached from the family house, or only connected with it by a short passage leading to the floor on which the chapel itself stood.

John James.

Ordinary.—The following is a new meaning for the word ordinary:—"Do ye come in and see my poor man, for he is piteous ordinary to-day." This speech was addressed to me by a poor woman who wished me to go and see her husband. He was ordinary enough, although she had adorned his head with a red night-cap; but her meaning was evidently that he was far from well; and Johnson's Dictionary does not give this signification to the word.

A cottage child once told me that the dog opened his mouth "a power wide."

Old English W. N.

Thom's Irish Almanac and Official Directory for 1854.—In the advertisement prefixed to this valuable compilation, which, according to the Quarterly Review, "contains more information about Ireland than has been collected in one volume in any country," we may find the following words:

"All parliamentary and official documents procurable, have been collected; and their contents, so far as they bore on the state of the country, carefully abstracted; and where any deficiencies have been observable, the want has been supplied by applications to private sources, which, in every instance, have been most satisfactorily answered. He [Mr. Thom] is also indebted to similar applications to the ruling authorities of the several religious persuasions for the undisputed accuracy of the ecclesiastical department of the Almanac."

I wish to call attention to the latter words; and in so doing, I assure you, I feel only a most anxious desire to see some farther improvements effected by Mr. Thom.

I cannot allow "the undisputed accuracy of the ecclesiastical department," inasmuch as I have detected, even on a cursory examination, very many inaccuracies which a little care would certainly have prevented. For example, in p. 451. (Ecclesiastical Directory, Established Church and Diocese of Dublin), there are at least five grave mistakes, and four in the following page. These pages I have taken at random. I could easily point out other pages equally inaccurate; but I have done enough I think to prove, that while I willingly accord to the enterprising publisher the full meed of praise he so well deserves, a little more attention should be paid in future to the preparation of the ecclesiastical department.


Antiquity of the Word "Snub."

"Beware we then euer of discontente, and snubbe it betimes, least it overthrowe us as it hath done manie."

"Such snubs as these be little cloudes."—Comfortable Notes on Genesis, by Gervase Babington, Bishop of Exeter, 1596.

J. R. P.

Charles I. at Little Woolford.—There is an ancient house at Little Woolford (in the {220}southeast corner of Warwickshire) connected with which is a tradition that Charles I., after the battle of Edge Hill, which is not far distant, secreted himself in an oven there. This oven is preserved for the inspection of the curious.

B. H. C.

Coincidences between Sir Thomas Browne and Bishop Ken.—Sir Thomas Browne wrote his Religio Medici in 1533-5; and in it suggested some familiar verses of the "Evening Hymn" of his brother Wykehamist Bishop Ken. The lines are as follows:

Sir Thomas Browne.

"Guard me 'gainst those watchful foes,

Whose eyes are open, while mine close;

Let no dreams my head infest,

But such as Jacob's temples blest:

Sleep is a death: oh, make me try,

By sleeping, what it is to die!

And as gently lay my head

On my grave, as now my bed.

Howe'er I rest, great God, let me

Awake again at last with Thee."

Bishop Ken.

"Let no ill dreams disturb my rest;

No powers of darkness me molest.

Teach me to live, that I may dread

The grave as little as my bed:

Teach me to die, that so I may

Rise glorious at the awful day.

Oh, may my soul on Thee repose,

And with sweet sleep mine eyelids close;

Sleep that may me more vigorous make,

To serve my God when I awake."

I have never seen this curious coincidence noticed by any of the good bishop's biographers, Hawkins, Bowles, or Mr. Anderdon.

Mackenzie Walcott, M.A.

The English School of Painting.—In a note to a volume of poems by Victor Hugo, published in 1836, occur these remarks:

"M. Louis Boulanger, à qui ces deux ballades sont dédiées, s'est placé bien jeune au premier rang de cette nouvelle génération de peintres, qui promet d'élever notre école au niveau des magnifiques écoles d'Italie, d'Espagne, de Flandre, et d'Angleterre."

Does this praise of the English school of painting show a correct appreciation of its claims to distinction? or am I in error in supposing, as I have done, that our school of painting is not entitled to the pompous epithet of "magnifique," nor to be named in the same category with the Italian, Spanish, and Flemish schools? I am aware of the hackneyed and somewhat hyperbolical employment, by French writers and speakers, of such terms as magnifique, superbe, grandiose; and that they do not convey to a French ear the same idea of superiority, as they do to our more sober English judgment; but making every allowance on this score, I confess I was not a little startled to find such a term as magnifique, even in its most moderate acceptation, applied to our efforts in that branch of art. Magnifique, in truth, must be our school, when the French can condescend to speak of it in such language!

Henry H. Breen.

St. Lucia.

"A Feather in your Cap."—My good friend Dr. Wolff mentioned in conversation a circumstance (also stated, I fancy, in his Journey to Bokhara) which seemed to afford a solution of the common expression, "That's a feather in your cap." I begged he would give it me in writing, and he has done so. "The Kaffr Seeyah Poosh (meaning the infidels in black clothing) living around Cabul upon the height of the mountains of the Himalaya, who worship a god called Dagon and Imra, are great enemies of the Muhamedans; and for each Muhamedan they kill, they wear a feather in their heads. The same is done among the Abyssinians and Turcomans."

Has the feather head-dress of the American Indian, and the eagle's feather in the bonnet of the Highlander, any connexion with keeping a score of the deaths of the enemies or game they have killed?

Alfred Gatty.



Previous to the publication of the second volume of the Domestic Architecture of the Middle Ages, you were kind enough to insert some Queries for me respecting existing remains of houses of the fourteenth century, which elicited some useful Notes, partly through your columns and partly from private friends who were thus reminded of my wants. I am now preparing for the press the third and concluding volume of that work, comprising the period from the reign of Richard II. to that of Henry VIII. inclusive. I shall be glad of information of any houses of that period remaining in a tolerably perfect state, in addition to those mentioned in the Glossary of Architecture. I have reason to believe that there are many; and one class, the halls of the different guilds, seem to have been generally overlooked.

With the kind assistance of Mr. Duffus Hardy, I have obtained a complete list of the licences to crenellate contained in the Patent Rolls, and some other records preserved in the Tower. Most of these have the name of the county annexed; but there are a few, of which I add a list, in which no county is mentioned, and local information is necessary in order to identify them. Perhaps some {221}of your numerous readers will be able to assist me.

Licences to Crenellate.

When granted. Name of Place. To whom granted.
22 Edward I. Melton. John de Cokefeld.
17 Edward II. Molun. Raymond de Grismak.
5 Edward III. Newton in Makerfeld. Robert de Langeton.
9 Edward III. Esselyngton. Robert de Esselyngton.
12 Edward III. Cublesdon. John Trussell.
          Ditto. La Beche. Nicholas de la Beche.
          Ditto. Beaumes.           Ditto.
15 Edward III. Pringham. Reginald de Cobham.
          Ditto. Orkesdene.           Ditto.
          Ditto. Stanstede. Robert Burghchier.
16 Edward III. Credonio. Bernard de Dalham.
          Ditto. Heyheved. William Lengleys.
18 Edward III. Chevelyngham. Thomas de Aeton.

J. H. Parker.


Will the Editor be kind enough to insert the accompanying letter, for if true it is worthy of a place in the heraldic portion of "N. & Q.," and if not true, its imposture should stand recorded? On receiving it I sent a copy to my brother, Mr. J. H. Dixon, an able antiquary, and late of the council of the Percy Society, who, somewhat too hastily I think, and without sufficient proof, rejected the information offered. That the family which my brother represents is a "good old" one, is sufficiently attested by the pedigree furnished by Thoresby in the Ducatus Leodiensis, and thence copied by Mr. Burke in his Landed Gentry; but of its earlier history there is no reliable account, unless that by Mr. Spence can be considered such.

I shall feel very much obliged if any of your correspondents learned in the genealogies of Yorkshire and Cheshire could either corroborate the genuineness of the information tendered by Mr. Spence, or prove the reverse; and it is only fair to that gentleman to add that he is entitled to credibility on the written testimony of the Rev. Mr. Knox, Incumbent of Birkenhead.

R. W. Dixon, J.P.

Seaton Carew, co. Durham.


Having been engaged by Miss Cotgreave, of Notherlegh House, near Chester, to inspect and arrange the title-deeds and other documents which belonged to her father, the late Sir John Cotgreave, I find a very ancient pedigree of the Cotgreaves de Hargrave in that county; which family became extinct in the direct male line in the year 1724, but which was represented through females by the above Sir J. C.

It is the work of the great Camden, anno 1598, from documents in the possession of the Cotgreave family, and contains the descents of five generations of the Dixons of Beeston, in the county of York, and Congleton, Cheshire, together with their marriages and armorial bearings, commencing with "Ralph Dixon, Esq., de Beeston and Congleton, living temp. Hen. VI., who was slain whilst fighting on the part of the Yorkists, at the battle of Wakefield, A.D. 1460."

Presuming that you are descended from this ancient family, I will (if you think proper) transmit to you extracts from the aforesaid pedigree, as far as relates to your distinguished progenitors, conditionally that you remunerate me for the information and definition of the armorial bearings, there being five shields, containing twelve quarterings connected with the family of Dixon.

Miss Cotgreave will allow me to make the extracts, and has kindly consented to attest the same.

The arms of Dixon, as depicted in the Cotgreave pedigree, are "Sable, a fleur-de-lis or, a chief ermine," quartering the ensigns of the noble houses of "Robert Fitz-Hugh, Baron of Malpas in the county of Chester, temp. William the Conqueror; Eustace Crewe de Montalt, Lord of Hawarden, Flintshire, during the said reign; Robert de Umfreville, Lord of Tours, and Vian, and Reddesdale, in Northumberland, who flourished in the same reign also; Pole, Talboys, Welles, Latimer," and others.

In the pedigree, Camden states that the aforesaid "Ralph Dixon quartered the ensigns of the above noble families in right of his mother Maude, daughter and co-heiress of Sir Ralph Fitz-Hugh de Congleton and Elton in the county palatine of Chester."

I have the honour to be, Sir,

Your very obedient humble servant,

William Sidney Spence.

Priory Place, Birkenhead,


Dec. 14. 1848.

Minor Queries.

Atherstone Family.—Can any of your readers oblige me with information concerning the Atherstone family? Is it an old name, or was it first given some three or four generations back to a foundling, picked up near the town of Atherston?

M. A. B.

Classic Authors and the Jews.—Where can I find a complete or full account of passages in Greek and Latin authors, which refer to Judea and the Jews? It has been said that these references are very few, and that in Cicero, for instance, there is not one. This last is wrong, I know. (See e.g. Cic. Pro L. Flacco, 28., and De Prov. Consul. 5.)

B. H. C.

Bishop Hooper's Argument on the Vestment Controversy.—Glocester Ridley, in his Life of Bishop Ridley, p. 315., London, 1763, states, in reference to Bishop Hooper's Book to the Council against the use of those Habits which were then used by the Church of England in her sacred Ministries, written October, 1550, "Part of Hooper's book I have by me in MS." Could any one state whether that MS. is now in existence, or where it is to be found? It is of much importance to obtain {222}an answer to this inquiry, as Bishop Ridley's MS. Reply to Bishop Hooper is, for the first time, about to be printed by the Parker Society, through the kind permission of its possessor, Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart., in the second volume of the Writings of Bradford which I am editing; and, to make Ridley's reply fully intelligible, access is needed to Bishop Hooper's Book to the Council.

A. Townsend.

Weston Lane, Bath,

February 23.

The Title of "Dominus."—How is it that at Cambridge the title of Dominus is applied to B.A.'s, while at Oxford it is confined to the doctorate?

W. Fraser.


The De Rous Family.—Hugh Rufus, or De Rous, was Bishop of Ossory, A.D. 1202. He had been previously an Augustinian Canon of Bodmin, in Cornwall. Query, Was he a cadet of the ancient family of De Rous; and if so, what was his descent?

James Graves.

Where was the Fee of S. Sanxon?—At the end of "Ordericus Vitalis," in the Gesta Normannorum, is a list called the "Feoda Normanniæ," wherein, under the title "Feoda Ebroic.," occurs the entry:

"S. Sanxon dim. f. in friche."

Francis Drake, in his Antiquities of York, London, 1736, p. 70., speaks of "Sampson, or Sanxo," the archbishop of that see; and elsewhere mentions the parish church of S. Sampson, "called by some Sanxo."

What I wish to ask is, Where was this half fee of S. Sanxon? Whether it had any connexion with Sanson sur Rille? And whether it was the place from which "Ralph de S. Sanson" or "Sanson Clericus" of the Domesday Book, who was afterwards Bishop of Worcester, derived his name?

*   *

Russian Emperors.—Is there any truth in a rumour that was current two or three years since respecting the limited period that was placed upon the reign of any Russian monarch? Twenty-five years was the time stated, at the termination of which the Emperor had to abdicate. As this period has elapsed, and no abdication has taken place by the present Autocrat, some one may perhaps be able to state how such a statement originated, and upon what grounds?

Thos. Crosfield.

Episcopal Insignia of the Eastern Church.—Having seen in a late number of the Illustrated London News (Feb. 11, 1854) a peculiarly shaped episcopal staff, with a cross rising from between two in-curved dragons' heads, which is represented in the hand of the metropolitan of Wallachia, I would be glad to know whether this form is peculiar to any branch of the Eastern Church. A reference to a work of authority on the subject will oblige a provincialist.

James Graves.

Amontillado Sherry.—What is the real meaning of this epithet? A friend, who had travelled in Spain, and visited some famous cellars at Xeres, told me that the peculiar flavour of the Amontillado Sherry was always an accidental result of mixing butts of wine brought to the merchant by a variety of growers. I mentioned this to another friend who had the wine on his table; and he ridiculed the account, saying that the Amontillado Sherry was from a grape peculiar to the district. What district, I could not ascertain.

Alfred Gatty.

Col. Michael Smith's Family.—Perhaps some of your readers may be enabled to give me some information of the family of Smith, to which Col. Michael Smith, Lieut.-Governor of Nevis about 1750, belongs.

A West Indian.

Pronunciation of Foreign Names.—How shall we pronounce Sinope, Citate, and many other words which are now becoming familiar to our eyes? I think the bookseller who should give us a vocabulary of proper names of foreign persons and places, with the correct pronunciation attached, would be encouraged by an extensive sale. So far as my knowledge extends, such a work is a desideratum.

Thinks I to Myself.

Artesian Wells.—One who is about to dig a well on his land would be glad to know:—1. Whether, in all cases, artesian wells are preferable? 2. If yes, why they are not universally adopted, and whether they are more expensive then the common sort? 3. If not preferable in all cases, in what cases they are preferable?


Norman Towers in London.—Can you inform me it there is any other church in the city of London with a Norman tower, besides Allhallows, Mark Lane? which, by the bye, has been colour-washed: I suppose, to preserve it!

J. W. Brown.

Papyrus.—Where, or of whom, can a specimen of Papyrus be obtained?

R. H.


Mathew, a Cornish Family.—I am anxious to know the connexion of a family of Mathew, late of Tresungar, co. Cornwall, with any stock in Wales; and I will gladly defray any necessary expense of search, if can attain this object. The descent of a family of the name, apparently the same from the arms, in an old recueil of Devonshire families, is headed "nuper de Walliâ;" and a visitation of that county ascribes their bearing {223}(a stork) to a marriage with an heir of Starkey, which I have been unable to verify. A Visitation of Cornwall, to which I have had access, gives a grant, or probably a confirmation of the arms by Cooke. If this celebrated Herald's grants are on record, some clew would probably be found; but I doubt not that many of your readers well versed in genealogical research can readily answer my Query, and I trust to their kindness to do so.



Minor Queries with Answers.

Bunyan's Descendants.—As a recent Query respecting John Bunyan may lead to some notices of his descendants, perhaps I may be informed in what edition of his works it is stated that a branch of his family settled in Nottingham? for I find in the burgess-roll of that borough that George Bunyan was entered freeman in 1752. William Bunyan, lieutenant in the navy, 1767; Thomas Bunyan, hosier, 1776. In event of the above story being verified, a pedigree may possibly be extracted hereafter from the parish registers of the town. As far as my own examination goes, the editions in the British Museum afford no corroboration to what I have heard.


Plumstead Common.

[We have been favoured with the following article on this subject from George Offor, Esq., of Hackney:

"Where are John Bunyan's Descendants?—It is natural to inquire after the ancestors and descendants of great men, although experience proves that intellectual greatness runs not in blood, for earth's great and most illustrious sons descended from and left descendants who merged among the masses of her little ones. Of his ancestors Bunyan boasted not, but pleaded with the readers of the first edition of his Sighs from Hell, 'Be not ashamed to own me because of my low and contemptible descent in the world.' From the life of the great dreamer, appended to my second edition of Bunyan's works (Blackie, Glasgow), it appears that he left three children: Thomas, a valuable member of his church; Joseph, who settled in Nottingham; and Sarah. Joseph is named by one of Bunyan's earliest biographers, who told his father that 'a worthy citizen of London would take him apprentice without money, which might be a great means to advance him; but he replied to me, God did not send him to advance his family, but to preach the Gospel.'

"The Rev. J. H. A. Rudd of Bedford and Elstow has most kindly searched the registers of Elstow and Goldington, and has discovered some interesting entries; and, as his numerous engagements will permit, he will search the registry of the parish churches in Bedford and its vicinity. Information would be most acceptable relative to Bunyan's father and mother, his two wives, and his children, John, Elizabeth, and Mary, who died in his life-time; and also as to Joseph. If your correspondent Furvus would search the registers at Nottingham, he might discover some valuable records of that branch of the family. Bunyan is said to have been baptized about 1653; and in the Elstow register it appears that his daughter Mary was registered as baptized July 20, 1650, while his next daughter, Elizabeth, is on the register as born April 14, 1654, showing the change in his principles, as to infant baptism, to have taken place between those periods. The family Bible given by John Bunyan to his son Joseph, now in my possession, confirms the statement verbally communicated to me by his descendant Mrs. Senegar, that her great-grandfather Joseph, having conformed to please his rich wife, was anxious to conceal his affinity to the illustrious tinker. The registers contained in it begin with Joseph's son Thomas and Susannah his wife, and it is continued to Robert Bunyan, born 1775, and who was lately living at Lincoln. I should be most happy to show the Bible and copies of registers in my possession to any one who will undertake to form a genealogy."

George Offor.]

Epigram on Dennis.

"Should Dennis publish you had stabb'd your brother,

Lampoon'd your monarch, or debauch'd your mother," &c.

is printed as by Savage in Johnson's Life of Savage. In the notes to The Dunciad, i. 106., it is said to be by Pope. Utri credemus?

S. Z. Z. S.

[From the fact, that this epigram was not only attributed to Pope, in the notes to the second edition of The Dunciad, published in 1729, but also in those of 1743, the joint edition of Pope and Warburton, and both published before the death of Pope, it seems extremely probable that he was the author of it; more especially as he had been exasperated by a twopenny tract, of which Dennis was suspected to be the writer, called A True Character of Mr. Pope and his Writings; printed for S. Popping, 1716. D'Israeli however, in his Calamities of Authors, art. "The Influence of a bad Temper in Criticism," quoting it from Dr. Johnson, conjectures it was written on the following occasion: "Thomson and Pope charitably supported the veteran Zoilus at a benefit play, and Savage, who had nothing but a verse to give, returned them very poetical thanks in the name of Dennis. He was then blind and old, but his critical ferocity had no old age; his surliness overcame every grateful sense, and he swore as usual, 'They could be no one's but that fool Savage's,' an evidence of his sagacity and brutality. This perhaps prompted 'the fool' to take this fair revenge and just chastisement." After all, Dr. Johnson, who was at that time narrating Savage's intimate acquaintance with Pope, may have attributed to the former what seems to have been the production of the latter.]

Football played on Shrove Tuesday.—The people of this and the neighbouring towns invariably play at football on Shrove Tuesday. What is the origin of the custom? and does it extend to other counties?

J. P. S.


["Shrove-tide," says Warton, "was formerly a season of extraordinary sport and feasting. There was {224}anciently a feast immediately preceding Lent, which lasted many days, called Carniscapium. In some cities of France an officer was annually chosen, called Le Prince d'Amoreux, who presided over the sports of the youth for six days before Ash Wednesday. Some traces of these festivities still remain in our Universities." In these degenerate days more is known, we suspect, of pancakes and fritters, than of a football match and a cock-fight:—the latter, we are happy to say, is now almost forgotten among us. As to the pancake custom, no doubt that is most religiously observed by the readers of "N. & Q.," in obedience to the rubric of the Oxford Sausage:

"Let glad Shrove Tuesday bring the pancake thin,

Or fritter rich, with apples stored within."

According to Fitz-Stephen, "After dinner, all the youths go into the fields to play at the ball. The scholars of every school have their ball and bastion in their hands. The ancient and wealthy men of the city come forth on horseback to see the sport of the young men, and to take part of the pleasure, in beholding their agility." And till within the last few years:

"... The humble play

Of trap or football on a holiday,

In Finsbury fields,"—

was sufficiently common in the neighbourhood of London and other places. See Brande's Popular Antiquities, vol. i. pp. 63-94. (Bohn's edition), and Hone's Every-Day Book, vol. i. pp. 244. 255-260.]

Vossioner; its Meaning.—In looking over a parcel of brass rubbings made some years since, I find the word vossioner used, and not knowing its signification, I should be glad to be enlightened on the subject; but, in order to enable your readers to judge more correctly, I think it better to copy the whole of the epitaph in which the word occurs. The plate is in Ufton Church, near Southam, county Warwick; it measures eighteen inches in width by sixteen deep.

"Here lyeth the boddyes of Richard Hoddomes, Parsson and Pattron and Vossioner of the Churche and Parishe of Oufton, in the Countie of Warrike, who died one Mydsomer Daye, 1587. And Margerye his Wiffe wth her seven Childryn, as namelye, Richard, John, and John, Anne, Jane, Elizabeth, Ayles, his iiii Daughters, whose soule restethe with God."

I give the epitaph verbatim, with its true orthography. There are some curious points in this epitaph. First, the date of the death of the clergyman only is given; second, the children are called hers, while the four daughters are his; and two of the sons bear the same Christian name, whilst only one soul is said to rest with God. The family is represented kneeling. Above the inscription, and between the clergyman and his lady, is a desk, on which is represented two books lying open before them.

J. B. Whitborne.

[Vossioner seems to be corruption of the Italian vossignor, your lord, or the lord, i.e. owner or proprietor. Many similar words were introduced by the Italian ecclesiastics inducted into Church livings during the sixteenth century. The inscription is given in Dugdale's Warwickshire, vol. i. p. 358.]

The Game of Chess.—At what period was the noble game of chess introduced into the British Isles; and to whom are we indebted for its introduction among us?

B. Ashton.

[The precise date of the introduction of this game into Britain is uncertain. What has been collected respecting it will be found in the Hon. Daines Barrington's paper in Archæologia, vol. ix. p. 28.; and in Hyde's treatise, Mandragorias, seu Historia Shahiludii. Oxoniæ, 1694.]

A Juniper Letter.—Fuller, in describing a letter written by Bishop Grosthead to Pope Innocent IV., makes use of a curious epithet, of which I should be glad to meet with another instance, if it be not simply a "Fullerism":

"Bishop Grouthead offended thereat, wrote Pope Innocent IV. such a juniper letter, taxing him with extortion and other vicious practices."—Church History, book III., A.D. 1254.

J. M. B.

["A juniper lecture," meaning a round scolding bout, is still in use among the canting gentry.]



(Vol. ix., p. 85.)

Clarence is beyond all doubt the district comprehending and lying around the town and castle of Clare in Suffolk, and not, as some have fancifully supposed, the town of Chiarenza in the Morea. Some of the crusaders did, indeed, acquire titles of honour derived from places in eastern lands, but certainly no such place ever gave its name to an honorary feud held of the crown of England, nor, indeed, has ever any English sovereign to this day bestowed a territorial title derived from a place beyond the limits of his own nominal dominions; the latest creations of the kind being the earldoms of Albemarle and Tankerville, respectively bestowed by William III. and George I., who were both nominally kings of Great Britain, France, and Ireland. In ancient times every English title (with the exception of Aumerle or Albemarle, which exception is only an apparent one) was either personal, or derived from some place in England. The ancient earls of Albemarle were not English peers by virtue of that earldom, but by virtue of the tenure of lands in England, though, being the holders of a Norman earldom, they were known in England by their higher designation, just as some of the {225}Barons De Umfravill were styled, even in writs of summons, by their superior Scottish title of Earl of Angos. If these earls had not held English fees, they would not have been peers of England any more than were the ancient Earls of Tankerville and Eu. In later times the strictness of the feudal law was so far relaxed, that in two or three instances English peers were created with territorial titles derived from places in the Duchy of Normandy.

As to the locality of Clarence, see Sandford's Genealogical History, 1707, p. 222. There is a paper on the subject in the Gentleman's Magazine for November, 1850. The king of arms called Clarenceux, or in Latin Clarentius, was, as it has been very reasonably conjectured, originally a herald retained by a Duke of Clarence. (Noble's History of the College of Arms, p. 61.) Hoping ere long to send you some notes respecting certain real or seeming anomalies amongst our English dignities, I reserve some particulars which may, perhaps, farther elucidate the present question.


Your correspondent Honoré de Mareville has wandered too far in going to the Morea to search for this title. Clare in Suffolk was one of the ninety-five manors in that county bestowed by the Conqueror upon Richard Fitzgilbert, who (as well as his successor Gilbert) resided at Tunbridge, and bore the surname of De Tonebruge. His grandson Richard, the first Earl of Hertford, fixed his principal seat at Clare, and thenceforth the family took the surname of De Clare; and in the Latin documents of the time the several members of it were styled Ricardus (or Gilbertus), Dominus Clarensis, Comes Hertfordiensis. The name of the lordship thus becoming the family surname, it is easy to see how in common usage the formal epithet Clarensis soon became Clarence, and why Lionel, the son of Edward III., upon his marriage with Elizabeth de Burgh, the grand-niece and heiress of the last Gilbertus Clarensis, should choose as the title for his dukedom the surname of the great family of which he had now become the representative.



(Vol. viii., pp. 12. 134. 200. 375. 452. 471. 544. 594.)

Garlichithe is again on the wrong scent. In his first communication on this subject, he allowed himself to go astray by mistaking Randle Minshull the grandfather for Randle Minshull the son; and now, with the like fatality, he fails to discriminate between Richard Minshull the uncle, and Richard Minshull the brother, of Elizabeth Milton. A second examination of my Reply in Vol. viii., p. 200., will suffice to show him that Richard Minshull, the party to the deed there quoted, was named by me as the brother, and not the uncle, of Milton's widow, and that therefore his argument, based on disparity of age, &c., falls to the ground. On the other hand, Richard Minshull of Chester, to whom the letter alluded to was addressed, was the brother of Randle Minshull of Wistaston, and by the same token, uncle of Elizabeth Milton, and of Richard Minshull, her brother and co-partner in the deed already referred to.

Garlichithe, and all others who have taken an interest in this discussion, will now, I trust, see clearly that there has been nothing adduced by either Mr. Marsh or myself inconsistent with ages or dates; but that, on the contrary, all our premises and conclusions are borne out by evidence clear, irreproachable, and incontestable.

All objections being now, as I conceive, fully combated and disposed of, the substance of our investigations may be summed up in a very few words. The statement of Pennant, adopted by all succeeding writers, to the effect that Elizabeth, the widow of John Milton, was a daughter of Sir Edward Minshull of Stoke, is clearly proved to be a fiction. It has been farther proved, from the parish registers, as well as from bonds and other documentary evidence, that she was, without doubt, the daughter of Randle Minshull of Wistaston, a village about three miles from Nantwich; that she was the cousin of Milton's familiar friend, Dr. Paget, and as such became entitled to a legacy under the learned Doctor's will, and that she is expressly named by Richard Minshull as his sister in the deed before quoted.

T. Hughes.



(Vol. ix., pp. 35. 113.)

Devoniensis is informed that an example of this occurs in the arms of King James's School, Almondbury, Yorkshire. The impression, as taken from the great seal of the school, in which however the colours are not distinguished, may be imperfectly described as follows: Three lions (two over one) passant gardant ——, on a chief ——, three fleurs-de-lys ——.

As it is not unlikely that some other of King James's foundations may have the same arms, it would be considered a favour if any reader of "N. & Q." possessing the information would communicate the proper colours in this case, or even the probable ones.


Devoniensis is quite right in supposing that the bearing of three fleurs-de-lys alone, horizontal, in the upper part of the shield,—in other words, {226}in chief, fess-ways,—is a very rare occurrence. I know of no instance of it in English blazon. Coupled with another and principal charge, as a fess, a chevron, a lion, &c.; or in a chief, it is common enough. Nor have I ever met with an example of it in French coat-armour. An English family, named Rothfeld, but apparently of German extraction, gives: Gules, two fleurs-de-lys, in chief, ermine. Du Guesclin bore nothing like a fleur-de-lys in any way. The armorial bearings of the famous Constable were: Argent, a double-headed eagle, displayed, sable, crowned, or, debruised of a bend, gules.

John o' the Ford.


P.S.—Since writing the above, I have read three replies (Vol. ix., p. 84.), which do not appear to me to exactly meet the Query of Devoniensis.

I understand the question to be, does any English family bear simply three fleurs-de-lys, in chief, fess-ways—without any additional charge? And in that sense my reply above is framed.

The first example given by Mr. Mackenzie Walcott would be most satisfactory and conclusive of the existence of such a bearing, could it be verified; but, unfortunately, in the Heraldic Dictionaries of Berry and Burke, the name even of Trilleck or Trelleck does not occur. And in Malta, I have no opportunity of consulting Edmondson or Robson.

Your correspondent A. B. (p. 113.) has mistaken the three white lilies for fleurs-de-lys in the arms of Magdalen College, Oxford. Waynflete, the founder, was also Provost of Eton, and adopted the device from the bearings of that illustrious school; by which they were borne in allusion to St. Mary, to whom that College is dedicated.

Mackenzie Walcott, M.A.


(Vol. viii., pp. 272. 346. 625.; Vol. ix., p. 78.)

The well-known law dictionary, entitled The Interpreter, by John Cowel, LL.D., was burned (1610) under a proclamation of James I. (D'Israeli's Calamities of Authors, ed. 1840, p. 133.)

In June, 1622, the Commentary of David Pare, or Paræus On the Epistle to the Romans, was burned at London, Oxford, and Cambridge, by order of the Privy Council. (Wood's Hist. and Antiq. of Univ. of Oxford, ed. Gutch, vol. ii. pp. 341-345.; Cooper's Annals of Cambridge, vol. iii. pp. 143, 144.)

On the 12th of February, 1634, Elenchus Religionis Papisticæ, by John Bastwicke, M.D., was ordered to be burned by the High Commission Court. (Prynne's New Discovery of the Prelates' Tyranny, p. 132.)

On the 10th of February, 1640-1 the House of Lords ordered that two books published by John Pocklington, D.D., entitled Altare Christianum, and Sunday no Sabbath, should be publicly burned in the city of London and the two Universities, by the hands of the common executioner; and on the 10th of March the House ordered the Sheriffs of London and the Vice-Chancellors of both the Universities, forthwith to take care and see the order of the House carried into execution. (Lords' Journals, vol. iv. pp. 161. 180.)

On the 13th of August, 1660, Charles II. issued a proclamation against Milton's Defensio pro Populo Anglicano, his Answer to the Portraiture of his Sacred Majesty in his Solitude and Sufferings, and a book by John Goodwin, late of Coleman Street, London, Clerk, entitled The Obstructors of Justice. All copies of these books were to be brought to the sheriffs of counties, who were to cause the same to be publicly burned by the hands of the common hangman at the next assizes. (Kennett's Register and Chronicle, p. 207.) This proclamation is also printed in Collet's Relics of Literature, with the inaccurate date 1672, and the absurd statement that no copy of the proclamation was discovered till 1797.

In January, 1692-3, a pamphlet by Charles Blount, Esq., entitled King William and Queen Mary, Conquerors, &c., was burned by the common hangman in Palace Yard, Westminster. (Bohun's Autobiography, ed. S. W. Rix, vol. xxiv. pp. 106, 109. 113.; Wilson's Life of De Foe, vol. i. p. 179 n.)

The same parliament consigned to the flames Bishop Burnet's Pastoral Letter, which had been published 1689. (Wilson's Life of De Foe, vol. i. p. 179.)

On the 31st of July, 1693, the second volume of Anthony à Wood's Athenæ Oxonienses was burned in the Theatre Yard at Oxford by the Apparitor of the University, in pursuance of the sentence of the University Court in a prosecution for a libel on the memory of Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon. (Life of Mr. Anthony à Wood, ed. 1772, p. 377.)

On the 25th of February, 1702-3, the House of Commons ordered De Foe's Shortest Way with the Dissenters to be burned by the hands of the common hangman on the morrow in New Palace Yard. (Wilson's Life of De Foe, vol. ii. p. 62.)

In or about 1709, John Humphrey, an aged non-conformist minister, having published a pamphlet against the Test, and circulated it amongst the members of parliament, was cited before a committee, and his work was ordered to be burned by the common hangman. (Wilson's Life of De Foe, vol. iii. p. 52.)

The North Briton, No. 45., was on the 3rd of December, 1763, burned by the common hangman at the Royal Exchange, by order of the House of {227}Commons. The following account is from Malcolm's Anecdotes of London, 4to., 1808, p. 282.:

"The 3rd of December was appointed for this silly ceremony, which took place before the Royal Exchange, amidst the hisses and execrations of the mob, not directed at the obnoxious paper, but at Alderman Harley, the sheriffs, and constables, the latter of whom were compelled to fight furiously through the whole business. The instant the hangman held the work to a lighted link it was beat to the ground, and the populace, seizing the faggots prepared to complete its destruction, fell upon the peace-officers and fairly threshed them from the field; nor did the alderman escape without a contusion on the head, inflicted by a bullet thrown through the glass of his coach; and several other persons had reason to repent the attempt to burn that publicly which the sovereign people determined to approve, who afterwards exhibited a large jack-boot at Temple Bar, and burnt it in triumph, unmolested, as a species of retaliation."

I am not aware that what Mr. Malcolm terms a "silly ceremony" has been repeated since 1763.

C. H. Cooper.


I know not whether you have noticed the following:

"Droit le Roy; or, A Digest of the Rights and Prerogatives of the Imperial Crown of Great Britain. By a Member of the Society of Lincoln's Inn. 'Dieu et Mon Droit.' [Royal Arms, with G. R.] London: printed and sold by W. Griffin, in Fetter Lane, MDCCLXIV."

Lord Mahon (History of England, vol. v. p. 175.) says:

"It was also observed, and condemned as a shallow artifice, that the House of Lords, to counterbalance their condemnation of Wilkes's violent democracy, took similar measures against a book of exactly opposite principles. This was a treatise or collection of precedents lately published under the title of Droit le Roy, to uphold the prerogative of the crown against the rights of the people. The Peers, on the motion of Lord Lyttleton, seconded by the Duke of Grafton, voted this book 'a false, malicious, and traitorous libel, inconsistent with the principles of the Revolution to which we owe the present happy establishment;' they ordered that it should be burned by the hands of the common hangman, and that the author should be taken into custody. The latter part of the sentence, however, no one took any pains to execute. The author was one Timothy Brecknock, a hack scribbler, who, twenty years afterwards, was hanged for being accessary to an atrocious murder in Ireland."

A copy of the book (an octavo of xii. and 95 pages) is in my possession. It was apparently a presentation copy, and formerly belonged to Dr. Disney; at whose sale it was purchased by the late Richard Heber, as his MS. note testifies. Against the political views which this book advocates, I say not one word; as a legal treatise it is simply despicable.

H. Gough.

Lincoln's Inn.

The following extract is at the service of Balliolensis:

"In the seventh year of King James I., Dr. Cowel's Interpreter was censured by the two Houses, as asserting several points to the overthrow and destruction of Parliaments and of the fundamental laws and government of the kingdom. And one of the articles charged upon him to this purpose by the Commons, in their complaint to the Lords, was, as Mr. Petyt says, out of the Journal, this that follows:

"'4thly. The Doctor draws his arguments from the imperial laws of the Roman Emperors, an argument which may be urged with as great reason, and with as great authority, for the reduction of the state and the clergy of England to the polity and laws in the time of those Emperors; as also to make the laws and customs of Rome and Constantinople to be binding and obligatory in the cities of London and York.'

"The issue of which complaint was, that the author, for these his outlandish politics, was taken into custody, and his book condemned to the flames: nor could the dedication of it to his then grace of Canterbury save it."—Atterbury's Rights, Powers, and Privileges of Convocation, p. 7. of Preface.

Wm. Fraser, B.C.L.


I possess a copy of The Case of Ireland being bound by Acts of Parliament in England stated, by William Molyneux of Dublin, Esq., which appears to have been literally "plucked as brand from the burning," as a considerable portion of it is consumed by fire. I have cut the following from a sale catalogue just sent to me from Dublin:

"Smith's (Matthew) Memoirs of Secret Service, Lond. 1696. Written by Charles, Earl of Peterborough, and is very scarce, being burnt by the hangman. MS. note."

James Graves.


A decree of the University of Oxford, made July 21, 1683, condemning George Buchanan's treatise De jure regni apud Scotos, and certain other books, the names of which I do not know, was on March 25, 1710, ordered by the House of Lords to be burned by the hangman. This was shortly after the trial of Dr. Sacheverel.

W. P. Storer.

Olney, Bucks.


(Vol. vi., p. 263.)

Up to a very recent period, it was held, even by philosophers, that each of the four elements, as well as every living plant and animal, both {228}brute and human, generated insects; but of all sources of this equivocal generation, none was considered more potent than the putrefaction or corruption of animal matter: as Du Bartas says:

"God, not contented to each kind to give,

And to infuse the virtue generative,

By His wise power, made many creatures breed,

Of lifeless bodies without Venus' deed."

Sixth Day.

Pliny, after giving Virgil's receipt for making bees, gives similar instances:

"Like as dead horses will breed waspes and hornets; and asses carrion, turne to be beetle-flies by a certaine metamorphosis which Nature maketh from one creature to another."—Lib. xi. c. xx.

And soon after he says of wasps:

"All the sorte of these live upon flesh, contrarie to the manner of bees, which will not touch a dead carcasse."

This brings Shakepeare's lines to mind:

" 'Tis seldom when the bee doth leave her comb

In the dead carrion."

Henry IV., Part II. Act IV. Sc. 4.

The Belfast News Letter of Friday, Aug. 10, 1832, gives one of these rare occurrences:

"A few days ago, when the sexton was digging a grave in Temple Cranney (a burying-place in Portaferry, co. Down), he came to a coffin which had been there two or three years: this he thought necessary to remove. In this operation, he was startled by a great quantity of wild bees issuing forth from the coffin; and upon lifting the lid, it was found that they had formed their combs in the dead man's skull and mouth, which were full. The nest was made of the hair of the head, together with shavings that had been put in the coffin with the corpse."

This quotation is given in an interesting work of Mr. Patterson's, Letters on the Natural History of the Insects mentioned in Shakspeare's Plays: London, 1838.

Your correspondent R. T. shows that serpents were supposed to be generated by human carcases. Pliny says:

"I have heard many a man say that the marrow of a man's backebone will breed to a snake."—Hist. Nat., x. 66.

The story of the "fair young German gentleman" reminds me of one of a gentle shepherd and his beloved Amarante, told in De Britaine's Human Prudence, 12th edit., Dublin, 1726, Part I. p. 171. The corpse of the "Cæsar," seen by St. Augustine and Monica, was most probably that of Maximus, Emperor of the West, slain by the soldiers of Theodosius, A.D. 388.

Sir Thos. Browne—"treating of the conceit that the mandrake grows under gallowses, and arises from the fat, or οὖρον, of the dead malefactor, and hence has the form of a man—says:

"This is so far from being verified of animals in their corruptive mutations into plants, that they maintain not this similitude in their nearer translation into animals. So when the ox corrupteth into bees, or the horse into hornets, they come not forth in the image of their originals. So the corrupt and excrementitious humours in man are animated into lice: and we may observe that hogs, sheep, goats, hawks, hens, and others, have one peculiar and proper kind of vermin."—Works, Bohn's edit., vol. i. p. 197.

The editor furnishes the following note:

"The immortal Harvey, in his De Generations, struck the first blow at the root of the irrational system called equivocal generation, when he laid down his brief but most pungent law, Omnia ex ovo. But the belief transmitted from antiquity, that living beings generated spontaneously from putrescent matter, long maintained its ground, and a certain modification of it is even still advocated by some naturalists of the greatest acuteness. The first few pages of the volume entitled Insect Transformations (in The Library of Entertaining Knowledge) are occupied by a very interesting investigation of this subject."—See also Sir T. Browne's Works, vol. i. p. 378., vol. ii. pp. 523, 524.; and Izaak Walton's Complete Angler, passim.

The equivocal generation of bees is copiously dwelt on in Bochart's Hierozoicon, London, 1663, fol., Part II. p. 502. Instances of their attaching themselves to dead bodies, in spite of their ordinary antipathy, are given at p. 506.



(Vol. viii., pp. 182. 228.)

To your correspondent C. I would say, that his observation—that the Query was as to an engraving, whilst my answer was as to a picture—is not true; as I am sure, from memory, that Mr. Westmacott used the word "portraits." But I plead in extenuation of my pretended grave offence, 1. That the Query was not propounded by C., but by a gentleman to whom the information given might be, as I supposed, of some interest; more particularly as I referred to the Travels of an Englishman, both of which, author and work, were accessible. 2. That, in common with the American readers of "N. & Q.," I regarded it as "a journal of inter-communication," through whose columns information might be asked for, the request to be treated with the same consideration and courtesy as though addressed to each individual subscriber. I may add that Lord Braybrooke and Mr. Wodderspoon (Vol. iv., p. 17.) have urged "the necessity for recording the existence of painted historical portraits, scattered, as we know they are," &c. {229}

Now, as to the expression "worthies, famous in English history." I presume I need do no more concerning its application to Lord Orrery, Sir Robert Walpole, &c., than say, it was used as signifying "men of mark," without intending to endorse their "worth" either morally, mentally, or politically; its application to Colonel Hill and Colonel Byrd, as meaning "men of worth," might, did your limits permit, be defended on high grounds.

Then as to the possibility of Vandyke's having painted the portraits. If C. will have the kindness to look at C. Campbell's History of Virginia, he will find,—

"1654. At a meeting of the Assembly, William Hatchin, having been convicted of having called Colonel Edward Hill 'an atheist and blasphemer,' was compelled to make acknowledgment of his offence upon his knees before Colonel Hill and the Assembly."

This Colonel Hill, generally known as Colonel Edward Hill the Elder, a gentleman of great wealth, built the mansion at Shirley, where his portrait, brought from England, hangs in the same place, in the same hall in which he had it put up. It represents a youth in pastoral costume, crook in hand, flocks in the background. By a comparison of dates, C. will find it possible for Vandyke to have painted it. (See Bryan's Engravers and Painters.) It has descended, along with the estate, to his lineal representative, the present owner. Its authenticity rests upon tradition coupled with the foregoing facts, as far as I know (though the family may have abundant documentary proof), and I doubt very much whether many "Vandykes in England" are better ascertained. I would add that several English gentlemen, among them, as I have heard, a distinguished ambassador recently in this country, recognised it as a Vandyke. This picture, amongst others, was injured by the balls fired from the vessels which ascended the James river, under command of General Arnold, then a British officer. On the younger Mr. Hill's tomb at Shirley is a coat of arms, a copy of which, had I one to send, would probably point out his family in England.[2]

As to Colonel Byrd's portrait. There were, I believe, three gentlemen of this name and title, more or less confounded in reputation, the second of whom, generally known as "Colonel Byrd the Elder," by reason of his son's history, was born in 1674. The picture is of his father, that is, of "old," or "the first Colonel Byrd," and is in the same style as that of Colonel Hill's, representing a shepherd lad. He was an English gentleman of great wealth, and certainly of some benevolence. In Campbell's Virginia, p. 104. (see also Oldmixon, vol. i. p. 427.), it is stated, 1690, a large body of Huguenots were sent to Virginia. "The refugees found in Colonel Byrd, of Westover, a generous benefactor. Each settler was allowed a strip of land running back from the river to the foot of the hill (Henrico County). Here they raised cattle," &c. He sent his son to England to be educated under the care of a friend, Sir Robert Southwell. The son became a Fellow of the Royal Society, "was the intimate and bosom friend of the learned and illustrious Charles Boyle, Earl of Orrery," was the author of the Westover MSS. (mentioned in Oldmixon's preface, 2nd ed.), portions of which, "Progress to the Mines," "History of the Dividing Line," &c., have been printed, others are in the library of the American Philosophical Society.[3] His portrait is "by Kneller, a fine old cavalier face," says Campbell. The letters received at Westover might prove not uninteresting even to C., seeing that there were so many titled people among the writers; and to a gentleman of education and intelligence, the Westover library would have been a treasure-house. In the Loganian Library in this city is a large MS. folio, whose title-page declares it to be "a catalogue of books in the library at Westover, belonging to William Byrd, Esq.," from which it appears that in Law there were the English reporters (beginning with Y. B.) and text-writers, laws of France, Scotland, Rome (various editions of Pandects, &c.); Canon Law, with numerous approved commentators on each. In Physic a great many works, which, as I am told, were, and some still are, of high repute: I note only one, Poor Planter's Physician interleaved. This, to every one who has been upon a great Virginia plantation, bespeaks the benevolence characteristic of the proprietors of Westover. In Divinity, besides pages of orthodox divines, Bibles in various languages (several in Hebrew, one in seven vols.), are Socinius, Bellarmine, &c. The works on Metallurgy, Natural History, Metaphysics, Military Science, Heraldry, Navigation, Music, &c., are very numerous; and either of the collections of history, or entertainment, or classics, or political science, would form no inconsiderable library of itself. {230}An impression of Colonel Byrd's book-plate, given by a friend, is enclosed. I must add that the pictures at Brandon are at that mansion, through the marriage of Mr. Harrison (a signer of the Declaration of Independence) with the daughter of the third Colonel Byrd.

I have occupied much more space than I intended, but I have said enough I hope to show, 1. That it is possible, from dates, from the character, wealth, and position of Mr. Byrd and Mr. Hill, together with the length of time the pictures have remained in the respective families, for Vandyke to have painted these portraits. 2. That as men who directed the energies, developed the resources, of our infant settlements, who brought hither the products of science, literature, and art, who exhibited the refinements of birth, the graces of good breeding, yet were always ready to serve their country in the field or in the council, Mr. Byrd and Mr. Hill are vastly more worthy of commemoration and reverence than all the Earls of Dredlington that ever sat at his majesty's Board of Green Cloth.

J. Balch.


Footnote 2:(return)

It is curious to observe how matters of history appear and disappear as it were. "The mighty Tottipottimoy," says Hudibras (part ii. cant. ii. l. 421.),—on which the Rev. Dr. Nash has this note: "I don't know whether this is a real name or only an imitation of North-American phraseology; the appellation of an individual, or a title of office:"—Tottipottimoy was king of the warlike and powerful Parnunkies, and was defeated and slain by the Virginians, commanded by Colonel Hill, in the action from which Bloody Run takes its name.

Footnote 3:(return)

There is a curious passage in the Westover MSS. concerning William Penn, of which Mr. Macaulay should have a copy, unless one has been already sent to him.


Cyanide of Potassium.—It may be interesting to our photographic friends to know that cyanide of potassium is capable of replacing hyposulphite of soda in all collodion processes. If used of the strength of five grains to one ounce of water, no danger need be apprehended from it. Its merits are cleanliness, quickness of operation, and the minute quantity of water required for washing the picture fixed therewith.

J. B. Hockin.

Mode of exciting Calotype Paper.—I forgot inserting this plan of exciting in my paper: it is very clean and convenient, simple and sure. Obtain a piece of plate glass, two or three inches larger than your paper, level it on a table with a few bits of wood, pour on it your exciting mixture (say aceto-nitrate and gallic acid, solution of each 20 minims, distilled water 1 ounce), and spread it evenly over with a scrap of blotting-paper. Float your paper two minutes, remove and blot off; this ensures perfect evenness, especially if the paper is large. You may thus excite half a dozen papers with little more trouble than one.

Thos. L. Mansell.

The Double Iodide Solution—Purity of Photographic Chemicals.—The observations of Mr. Leachman upon the solvent powers of iodide of potassium (Vol ix., p. 182.) are perfectly correct, but I believe our photographic chemicals are often much adulterated. The iodide of potassium is frequently mixed with the carbonate. Dr. Mansell writes me word, in a comment upon your note upon his communication, "What I used was very pure, having been prepared by Mr. Arnold with great care: it was some that had gone to the Great Exhibition as a sample of Guernsey make, and obtained a medal." I have this day used exactly seven ounces avoirdupois to make a pint of the iodizing solution, which, within a few grains, agrees with my former results. Nitrate of silver, I am informed upon a most respectable authority, has been adulterated thirty per cent., and without careful testing has eluded detection; but I am inclined to think our cheapest article has come in for its largest share of mixture. I have lately perfectly failed in the removal of the iodide of silver with a saturated solution of what I purchased as hyposulphite of soda, but which could have been little else than common Glauber's salts; for upon applying a similar solution of some which was made by M. Butka of Prague, and supplied me by Messrs. Simpson and Maule, the effect was almost immediate, demonstrating how much we are misled in our conclusions, from believing we are manipulating with the same substances, when in fact they are quite different.

Hugh W. Diamond.

Hyposulphite of Soda Baths.—Is there any objection to using the same bath (saturated solution of hyposulphite) for fixing both paper calotype negatives and positives printed on albumenized paper from glass collodion negatives?

C. E. F.

Replies to Minor Queries.

Daughters taking their Mothers' Names (Vol. viii., p.586.).—Buriensis asked for instances of temp. Edw. I., II., III., of a daughter adding to her own name that of her mother: as Alice, daughter of Ada, &c. Though I am not able to furnish an instance of a daughter doing so, I can refer him to a few of sons using that form of surname some years earlier, but the practice seems very limited. Thus in Liber de Antiquis Legibus, published by the Camden Society, we have, among the early sheriffs of London in 1193, Willielmus filius Ysabelis, or, as in the appendix 222, Ysabel; in 1200, Willielmus filius Alicie; in 1213, Martinus filius Alicie; and in 1233 and 1246, Simon filius Marie,—the same person that, as Simon Fitz-Mary, is known as the founder of the Hospital of St. Mary Bethlehem Without, Bishopsgate.

W. S. W.

Middle Temple.

The Young Pretender (Vol. ix., p. 177.).—Will Ceyrep, or any other correspondent, furnish me with particulars of the Young Pretender's marriage with a daughter of the House of Stolberg; her name, place of burial, &c.? She was descended maternally from the noble House of Bruce, through the marriage of Thomas, second Earl of Aylesbury and third Earl of Elgin, with Charlotte (his second wife) Countess of Sannu, or Sannau, of the House of Argenteau. They had a daughter, Charlotte Maria, I suppose an only child, who was married in the year 1722 to the Prince of Horn. These had issue Mary and Elizabeth, whom also I suppose {231}to have been only children. One of them married the Prince of Stolberg, and the other the Prince of Salm. One of the descendants of this family was an annuitant on the estate of the Marquis of Aylesbury, as recently as twelve or fourteen years ago. Information on any part of this descent would confer an obligation on


A Legend of the Hive (Vol. ix., p. 167.).—With every feeling of gratitude to Eirionnach, I cannot receive praise for false metre and erroneous grammar. In the fifth line of the first stanza of the quoted verse, the first of the above legend, "are" is redundant: and in the first line of the next stanza, "bore" should be "bare." I remember that in more cases than one the printer of my published rhymes has perpetrated this latter mistake.

Suffer me to reply to a question of the same courteous critic Eirionnach, in Vol. ix., p. 162., about a "Christ-cross-row." This name for the alphabet obtained in the good old Cornish dame-schools when I was a boy. In a book that I have seen, there is a vignette of a monk teaching a little boy to read, and beneath

"A Christ-Cross Rhyme.


"Christ his cross shall be my speed!

Teach me, Father John, to read:

That in church, on holy-day,

I may chant the psalm and pray.


"Let me learn, that I may know

What the shining windows show;

Where the lovely Lady stands,

With that bright Child in her hands.


"Teach me letters one, two, three,

Till that I shall able be

Signs to know and words to frame,

And to spell sweet Jesu's name!


"Then, dear master, will I look

Day and night in that fair book,

Where the tales of saints are told,

With their pictures all in gold.


"Teach me, Father John, to say

Vesper-verse and matin-lay;

So when I to God shall plead,

Christ his cross will be my speed!"

H. of Morwenstow.

Hoby Family (Vol. viii., p. 244.; Vol. ix., pp. 19. 58.).—Sir Philip Hoby, or Hobbie, who was born in 1505, and died in 1558, was not only Gentleman of the Privy Chamber to Henry VIII., but, while he held that office, was attached to the embassy of Sir Thomas Wyatt to the Emperor Charles V. in 1538. He was himself ambassador to the same Emperor in 1548, being sent by the Protector Somerset to replace the Bishop of Westminster. It may be interesting to state that two volumes of papers containing instructions and other letters transmitted to Sir Philip during these embassies, and copies of his replies, together with his correspondence with some eminent reformers, were in the possession of Wm. Hare, Esq., M.P. for the city of Cork in 1796. An account of them, drawn up by the Rev. T. D. Hincks, was read before the Royal Irish Academy on December 17 in that year, and printed in the sixth volume of its Transactions. It is probable that these papers had formerly belonged to Rev. Sir Philip Hoby, Bart., who was Dean of Ardfert and Chancellor of St. Patrick's; and died without an heir in 1766. He was descended from Sir Thomas Hoby, younger brother of Sir Philip; who was born in 1530, and died in 1566. The father of these two knights was William Hobbie of Leominster. I presume the two volumes of papers referred to are in the possession of the Earl of Listowel, great-grandson of the gentleman who possessed them in 1796.

E. H. D. D.

Anticipatory Use of the Cross (Vol. viii. passim).—

"It is strange, yet well authenticated, and has given rise to many theories, that the symbol of the Cross was already known to the Indians before the arrival of Cortez. In the island of Cozumel, near Yucatan, there were several; and in Yucatan itself there was a stone cross. And there an Indian, considered a prophet amongst his countrymen, had declared that a nation bearing the same as a symbol should arrive from a distant country! More extraordinary still was a temple, dedicated to the Holy Cross by the Toltec nation in the city of Cholula. Near Tulansingo there is also a cross engraved on a rock with various characters, which the Indians by tradition ascribe to the Apostle St. Thomas. In Oajaca, also, there existed a cross, which the Indians from time immemorial had been accustomed to consider as a divine symbol. By order of the Bishop Cervantes it was placed in a sumptuous chapel in the cathedral. Information concerning its discovery, together with a small cup, cut out of its wood, was sent to Rome to Paul V.; who received it on his knees, singing the hymn 'Vexilla regis,' &c."—Life in Mexico, by Madame Calderon de la Barca, Letter xxxvii.

E. H. A.

Longevity (Vols. vii., viii., passim).—

"Amongst the fresh antiquities of Cornwall, let not the old woman be forgotten who died about two years since; who was one hundred and sixty-four years old, of good memory, and healthful at that age; living in the parish of Gwithian by the charity of such as came purposely to see her, speaking to them (in default of English) by an interpreter, yet partly understanding it. She married a second husband after she was eighty, {232}and buried him after he was eighty years of age."—Scawens' Dissertation on the Cornish Tongue, written temp. Car. II.


As very many, if not all, the instances mentioned in "N. & Q." of those who have reached a very advanced age, were people of humble origin, may we not now refer to those of noble birth? To commence the list, I would name Sir Ralph de Vernon, "who is said to have lived to the age of one hundred and fifty, and thence generally was called the Old Liver." My authority is, Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, edit. 1848, p. 1009.

W. W.


"Nugget" (Vol. viii., pp. 375. 481.).—A note from Mundy's Our Antipodes:

"The word nugget, among farmers, signifies a small compact beast, a runt: among gold-miners a lump, in contradistinction to the scale or dust-gold."

Clericus Rusticus.

The fifth Lord Byron (Vol. ix., p. 18.).—I believe it to be an acknowledged fact, that an old man's memory is generally good of events of years past and gone: and as an octogenarian I am not afraid to state that, from the discussions on the subject, I feel myself perfectly correct as to the main point of my observations (Vol. viii., p. 2.), viz. the error committed in the limitation of the ultimate reversion of the estate; but as to the secondary point to which Mr. Warden alludes, I may perhaps be in error in placing it on the settlement of the son, inasmuch as the effect would be the same if it occurred in the settlement of the father; and Mr. Warden's observations leave an inference that the mistake may have there occurred; as, in such case, if the error had been discovered,—and by any altercation the son had refused to correct the mistake, which he could and ought to have consented to, after the failure of his own issue,—this alone, between two hasty tempers, would have been sufficient cause of quarrel, without reference to the question of marrying an own cousin, which is often very justly objectionable.

Wm. S. Hesleden.

Wapple, or Whapple-way (Vol. ix., p. 125.).—This name is common in the south, and means a bridle-way, or road in which carriages cannot pass. In Sussex these ways are usually short cuts through fields and woods, from one road or place to another. (See Halliwell's Dictionary, and Cooper's Sussex Glossary.) The derivation is not given by either writer.


In Manning's Surrey, I find not any mention of this term; but apprehend it to be a corruption of the Norman-French, vert plain, "a green road or alley:" which, as our Saxon ancestors pronounced the v as a w, easily slides into war plain or warple. (See Du Cange, Supp., in voce "Plain.")

C. H.

The Ducking-stool (Vol. viii., p.315.).—As late as the year 1824, a woman was convicted of being a common scold in the Court of Quarter Sessions of Philadelphia County, and sentenced "to be placed in a certain instrument of correction called a cucking or ducking-stool," and plunged three times into the water; but the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, upon the removal of the case by writ of error, decided that this punishment was obsolete, and contrary to the spirit of the age.

Our fathers held the ducking-stool in higher respect, as appears from the following presentments of the grand juries of Philadelphia, the originals of which have been lately discovered. In January, 1717, they say (through William Fishbourne, their foreman),—

"Whereas it has been frequently and often presented by several former grand juries for this city, the necessity of a ducking-stool and house of correction for the just punishment of scolding, drunken women, as well as divers other profligate and unruly persons in this place, who are become a public nuisance and disturbance to this town in general; therefore we, the present grand jury, do earnestly again present the same to this court of quarter sessions for the city, desiring their immediate care, that those publick conveniences may not be any longer delayed, but with all possible speed provided for the detection and quieting such disorderly persons."

Another, the date of which is not given, but which is signed by the same foreman, presents "Alsoe that a ducking-stoole be made for publick use, being very much wanting for scolding women," &c. And in 1720, another grand jury, of which Benjamin Duffield was foreman, say:

"The Grand Inquest, we taking in consideration the great disorders of the turbulent and ill-behaviour of many people in this city, we present the great necessity of a ducking-stool for such people according to their deserts."



Double Christian Names (Vol. ix., p. 45.).—It is surely not correct to say that the earliest instance of two Christian names is in the case of a person born in 1635. Surely Henry, Prince of Wales, the son of James I., is an earlier instance. Sir Thomas Strand Fairfax was certainly born before that date. Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey was probably an earlier instance; and Sir Robert Bruce Colton, the antiquary, certainly so. Writing at a distance from my books, I can only appeal to memory; but see Southey's Common-Place Book, vol. i. p. 510. Venables, in his Travels in Russia, {233}tells us that "a Russian has never more than one Christian name, which must be always that of a saint." To these a patronymic is often added of the father's name, with the addition vich, as in the case of the present Czar, Nicholas Paulovich, the son of Paul.

W. Denton.


Pedigree to the Time of Alfred (Vol. viii., p. 586.).—Some ten or twelve years since I was staying at the King's Head Inn, Egham, Surrey (now defunct), when a fresh-looking, respectable man was pointed out to one as Mr. Wapshot, who had held an estate in the neighbourhood from his ancestors prior to the Conquest. He was not represented as a blacksmith, but as farming his own estate. I am not connected with Egham or the neighbourhood, or I would make farther inquiry.

S. D.

Palace of Lucifer (Vol. v., p. 275.).—If R. T. has not observed it, I would refer him to the note in the Aldine edition of Milton, vol. iii. p. 263., where I find "Luciferi domus" is the palace of the sun (see Prolusiones, p. 120.); and not, as T. Warton conjectured, the abode of Satan.

I. R. R.

Monaldeschi (Vol. viii., p. 34.).—Relation du Meurte de Monaldeschi, poignardé par ordre de Christine, reine de Suède, by Father de Bel, is to be found in a collection of curious papers printed at Cologne, 1664, in 12mo. It is given at length in Cristina's Revenge, and other Poems, by J. M. Moffatt, London, printed for the author, 1821.

E. D.

Anna Lightfoot (Vol. vii., p. 595.).—T. H. H. is referred to an elegantly printed pamphlet called An Historical Fragment relative to her late Majesty Queen Caroline, printed for J. & N. L. Hunt, London, 1824, which, from p. 44. to p. 50., contains a very circumstantial account of this extraordinary occurrence.

E. D.

Lode (Vol. v., p. 345.).—It would not appear that this word means "an artificial watercourse," at least from its use at Tewkesbury, where there is still the Lower Lode, at which a ferry over the Severn still exists; and there was also the Upper Lode, until a bridge was erected over the river at that place. Will this help to show its proper meaning?

I. R. R.

"To try and get" (Vol. ix., p. 76.).—Uneda inquires the origin of this erroneous mode of expression? Doubtless euphony, to avoid the alliteration of so many T's: "to the theatre to try and get," &c. But evidently the word to is understood, though not supplied after the word and. Thus, "to try and (to) get," &c.


Abbott Families (Vol. ix. p. 105.).—In reply to Mr. Abbott's Query, I have a pedigree of Samuel Abbott, born in 1637 or 1638; second son of Wm. Abbott of Sudbury, who was born 1603, and who was son to Charles Abbott of Hawkden and Sudbury, an alderman, which Charles was son to Wm. Abbott of Hawkden. This Samuel married Margaret, daughter to Thomas Spicer. Should Mr. Abbott wish it, I would forward him a copy of the pedigree. I can trace no connexion between this family and that of Archbishop Abbott, whose father, Maurice Abbott of Guildford, was son of —— Abbott of Farnham, co. Surrey.

I wish especially to know what became of Thomas Abbott, only son of Robert, Bishop of Sarum; which Thomas dedicated his father's treatise against Bellarmine in 1619 to his uncle the Archbishop, calling himself in the preface, "imbellis homuncio." His sister was wife to Sir Nathaniel Brent, whose younger son Nathaniel left all his property to his cousin Maurice Abbott, of St. Andrew's, Holborn, Gent., in 1688; which Maurice was possibly son to Thomas.

G. E. Adams.

36. Lincoln's Inn Fields.

"Mairdil" (Vol. viii., p. 411.).—Is there any affinity between the word mairdil, which is used in Forfarshire, to be overcome with fatigue for any oppressive or intricate piece of work, and the word mardel or mardle, which signifies to gossip in Norfolk, as stated by Mr. J. L. Sisson? What will H. C. K. say to this subject? Jamieson confines mairdil to an adjective, signifying unwieldy; but I have often heard work-people in Forfarshire declare they were "perfectly mairdiled" with a piece of heavy work, using the word as a passive verb. Trachled has nearly the same meaning, but it is chiefly confined to describe fatigue arising from walking a long distance.

Henry Stephens.

Bell at Rouen (Vol. viii., p. 448.).—Your valuable correspondent W. Sparrow Simpson, B.A., has probably taken his account of the great bell in the cathedral at Rouen from a note made before the French Revolution of 1792-3, because the George d'Ambois, which was once considered the largest bell in Europe (it was thirteen feet high, and eleven feet in diameter), excepting that at Moscow, shared the destructive fate of many others at that eventful period, and was melted down for cannon. In 1814 the bulb of its clapper was outside the door of a blacksmith's shop, as you go out of the city towards Dieppe. It was pointed out to me by a friend with whom I was then travelling—a gentleman of the neighbourhood, who was at Rouen at the time it was brought there—and there, if I mistake not, but I cannot find my note, I saw it again within the last ten years.

H. T. Ellacombe.

Rectory, Clyst St. George.


Smiths and Robinsons (Vol. ix., p. 148.).—Arms of Smith of Curdley, co. Lancaster: Argent, a cheveron sable between three roses gules, barbed, vert seeded, or.

Robinson (of Yorkshire): Vert, a cheveron between three roebucks trippant or. Crest, a roebuck as in the arms. Motto, "Virtute non verbis."

Robinson of Yorkshire, as borne by Lord Rokeby: Vert, on a cheveron or, between three bucks trippant of the last, as many quatrefoils gules. Crest, a roebuck trippant or.


Churchill's Grave (Vol. ix., p. 123.).—If I am not mistaken, there is a tablet to the memory of Churchill, with a more lengthy inscription, within the church of St. Mary, Dover, towards the western end of the south aisle.

W. Sparrow Simpson.



Before proceeding to notice any of the books which we have received this week, we will call the attention of the publishing world to two important works which we know to be now wanting a publisher, namely, I. A Syriac-English Lexicon to the New Testament and Book of Psalms, arranged alphabetically, with the derivatives referred to their proper roots, and a companion of the principal words in the cognate languages; and II. A Syriac-English Grammar, translated and abridged from Hoffman's larger work.

Samuel Pepys is the dearest old gossip that ever lived; and every new edition of his incomparable Diary will serve but to increase his reputation as the especial chronicler of his age. Every page of it abounds not only in curious indications of the tone and feelings of the times, and the character of the writer, but also in most graphic illustrations of the social condition of the country. It is this that renders it a work which calls for much careful editing and illustrative annotation, and consequently gives to every succeeding edition new value. Well pleased are we, therefore, to receive from Lord Braybrooke a fourth edition, revised and corrected, of the Diary and Correspondence of Samuel Pepys. and well pleased to offer our testimony to the great care with which its noble editor has executed his duties. Thanks to his good judgment, and to the great assistance which he acknowledges to have received from Messrs. Holmes, Peter Cunningham, Yeowell, &c., his fourth edition is by far the best which has yet appeared, and is the one which must hereafter be referred to as the standard one. The Index, too, has been revised and enlarged, which adds no little to the value of the book.

Mr. Murray has broken fresh ground in his British Classics by the publication of the first volume of Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, with Notes and Preface by Dean Milman and M. Guizot, and edited, with Notes, by Dr. Smith. If the publisher showed good tact in selecting Mr. P. Cunningham for editor of Goldsmith, he has shown no less in entrusting the editing of his new Gibbon to Dr. Smith, whose various Dictionaries point him out as peculiarly fitted for such a task. In such well practised hands, therefore, there can be little doubt as to the mode in which the labour of editing will be conducted; and a very slight glance at the getting up of this first volume will serve to prove that, for a library edition of Gibbon, while this is the cheapest it will be also the handsomest ever offered to the public.

Books Received.—Macaulay's Critical and Historical Essays, People's Edition, Part I. The first issue of an edition of these admirable Essays, which will, when completed, cost only Seven Shillings! Can cheapness go much lower?—Adventures in the Wilds of North America, by Charles Lanman, edited by C. R. Wild, forming Parts LV. and LVI. of Longman's Traveller's Library. These adventures, partly piscatorial, are of sufficient interest to justify their publication even without the imprimatur, which they have received, of so good a critic as Washington Irving.—Darling's Cyclopædia Bibliographica, Part XVII., extends from Andrew Rivet to William Shepheard.


London Labour and London Poor. Nos. XLIV. and LXIV. to End of Work.

Mrs. Gore's Banker's Wife.

Tales by a Barrister.

Schiller's Wallenstein, translated by Coleridge. Smith's Classical Library.

Goethe's Faust (English). Smith's Classical Library.

The Circle of the Seasons. London, 1828. 12mo.

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to be sent to Mr. Bell, Publisher of "NOTES AND QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street.

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and addresses are given for that purpose:

A Memoir of the Life of James Stanley, Seventh Earl of Derby, by W. H. Whatton, Esq. Published by Fisher, Newgate Street.

History of the Westminster Election. London, 1794. 1 Vol. 4to.

Wanted by G. Cornewall Lewis, Kent House, Knightsbridge.

A Map, Plan, and Representations of Interesting and Remarkable places connected with Ancient London (large size).

A Copy of an early number of "The Times" Newspaper, or of the "Morning Chronicle," "Morning Post," or "Morning Herald." The nearer the commencement preferred.

Copies or Facsimiles of other Old Newspapers.

A Copy of The Breeches or other Old Bible.

Wanted by Mr. Joseph Simpson, Librarian, Literary and Scientific Institution, Islington, London.

Percy Society's Publications. Nos. XCIII. and XCIV.

Wanted by G. J. Hargreaves, Stretford, near Manchester.

Cambridge Installation Ode, 1835, by Chr. Wordsworth. 4to. Edition.

Kitchener's Economy of the Eyes. Part II.

Brown's Anecdotes of Dogs.

—— —— —— of Animals.

Wanted by Fred. Dinsdale, Esq., Leamington.


Enquiry after Happiness. The Third Part. By Richard Lucas, D.D. Sixth Edition. 1734.

Wanted by Rev. John James, Avington Rectory, Hungerford.

Notices to Correspondents.

M. "Scarborough Warning."—This expression has been fully explained in our First Volume, p. 138.

J. C. B., who writes respecting The Gregorian Tones, is referred to our Sixth Volume, pp. 99. 178., and our Seventh Volume, p. 136.

R. N. (Liverpool). There are many letters of Charles I. among the MSS. in the British Museum. We do not know where the Cabinet taken at Naseby is preserved.

Oxon. Entire, as applied to beer, signifies that it is drawn entirely from one butt. Formerly the favourite beer was a mixture of ale or beer and twopenny, until a brewer named Harwood produced a beer with the same flavour, which he called entire or entire butt.

G. W. T. Old Rowley was the name of a celebrated stallion belonging to Charles II.

C. H. N., who writes respecting Royal Arms in Churches, is referred to our Sixth Volume passim.

Tom Tell-tale is thanked. We are in possession of information respecting the drawings in question; but shall be glad to know of any other purchasers.

Caveat Emptor. We have lately seen a curious pseudo-letter of Cromwell, the history of which we may perhaps lay before our readers.

Francis Beaufort. The copy of the Biblia Sacra Latina to which our Correspondent refers, is now in the possession of Mr. Brown, bookseller, 130. Old Street.

J. O. We have forwarded the book you so kindly sent to the gentleman for whom you intended it.

Comus may have a copy of the Epitome of Locke on applying to Mr. Olive Lasbury, bookseller, Bristol.

Hugh Henderson (Glasgow). The fault must be in the quality of your pyrogallic. You need have no difficulty in obtaining it pure of some of the photographic chemists, and whose advertisements appear in our columns.

A. F. G. (March 1st.). All papers for photographic purposes improve by keeping. When you have thoroughly satisfied yourself of the goodness of a sample, secure all you can; it will repay you well by time. Consult our advertising columns for your market, which we prefer not to indicate.

Errata.—Vol. ix., p. 75., col. 1. 9th line, for "previous" read "precious"; p. 136., col. 1. line 3, for "carre" read "cane;" p. 200., col. 1. 12th line from bottom, for "Richard I." read "Henry I."

Our Eighth Volume is now bound and ready for delivery, price 10s. 6d., cloth, boards. A few sets of the whole Eight Volumes are being made up, price 4l. 4s.—For these early application is desirable.

"Notes and Queries" is published at noon on Friday, so that the Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday.

TO NERVOUS SUFFERERS.—A retired Clergyman having been restored to health in a few days, after many years of great nervous suffering, is anxious to make known to others the MEANS of a CURE; will therefore send free, on receiving a stamped envelope, properly addressed, a copy of the prescription used.

Direct the REV. E. DOUGLASS, 18. Holland Street, Brixton, London.

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PEOPLE'S EDITION of the ILLUSTRATED HISTORY OF ENGLAND, from the Invasion of Julius Cæsar to the Accession of Queen Victoria. By HUME, SMOLLETT, and HUGHES. With Copious Notes, the Author's last Corrections, Improvements, and Enlargement. Also Historical Illustrations, Autographs, and Portraits. To be published in crown 8vo., Weekly, in Seventy-two Parts, at One Shilling each: and in Monthly Volumes, price Four Shillings, bound in cloth.

The Publication will commence on the 3rd of April, and be continued regularly until the Work is completed.

In accordance with the universal desire of obtaining the best books at the cheapest possible price, the Historical Works of HUME, SMOLLETT, and HUGHES, are now submitted to the public: it being the object of the Publisher to place within the reach of all classes of readers, in a succession of weekly parts and monthly volumes, a more complete HISTORY OF ENGLAND than any extant.

The eventful period in the annals of Britain which has elapsed since the age of Smollett, whose volumes close with the reign of George the Second, demands a faithful and impartial record; and this portion of our National History, continued by the REV. T. S. HUGHES, late Christian Advocate at Cambridge, will be printed from the corrected text of the third octavo edition, which was almost entirely rewritten.

The additional volumes, containing a narrative of important events, commence with the accession of George the Third, and will be continued to the accession of Queen Victoria.

The Work will be completed in eighteen volumes, and embellished with numerous Engravings on Steel, entirely re-engraved for this Edition, comprising a selection of historical illustrations from Bowyer's History of England, and from paintings by the most eminent masters, with portraits of all the sovereigns from the Norman Conquest, according to the costume of the different ages, and authentic facsimiles of their autographs.

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Portraits obtained by the above, for delicacy of detail rival the choicest Daguerreotypes, specimens of which may be seen at their Establishment.

Also every description of Apparatus, Chemicals, &c. &c. used in this beautiful Art.—123. and 121. Newgate Street.

IMPROVEMENT IN COLLODION.—J. B. HOCKIN & CO., Chemists, 189. Strand, have, by an improved mode of Iodizing, succeeded in producing a Collodion equal, they may say superior, in sensitiveness and density of Negative, to any other hitherto published; without diminishing the keeping properties and appreciation of half-tint for which their manufacture has been esteemed.

Apparatus, pure Chemicals, and all the requirements for the practice of Photography. Instruction in the Art.


ALLEN'S ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE, containing Size, Price, and Description of upwards of 100 articles, consisting of PORTMANTEAUS, TRAVELLING-BAGS, Ladies' Portmanteaus, DESPATCH-BOXES, WRITING-DESKS, DRESSING-CASES, and other travelling requisites, Gratis on application, or sent free by Post on receipt of Two Stamps.

MESSRS. ALLEN'S registered Despatch-box and Writing-desk, their Travelling-bag with the opening as large as the bag, and the new Portmanteau containing four compartments, are undoubtedly the best articles of the kind ever produced.

J. W. & T. ALLEN, 15. & 22. West Strand.

CHUBB'S FIRE-PROOF SAFES AND LOCKS.—These safes are the most secure from force, fraud, and fire. Chubb's locks, with all the recent improvements, cash and deed boxes of all sizes. Complete lists, with prices, will be sent on application.

CHUBB & SON, 57. St. Paul's Churchyard, London; 28. Lord Street, Liverpool; 16. Market Street, Manchester; and Horseley Fields, Wolverhampton.


The SIXTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT of the SCOTTISH PROVIDENT INSTITUTION (the only Society in which the advantages of Mutual Assurance can be secured by Moderate Premiums) is now Published, and may be had free, on application.


1. Number of proposals accepted 716
2. Amount of new assurances exclusive of annuities £309,393   0   0
3. Amount of annual premiums on new assurances £8,038 12   5
4. Amount of single payments on ditto 10,729   2   8
———— New premiums received during the year £18,767 15   1
5. Amount of claims by death during the year £23,526   5  0
6. Addition to realised fund, arising entirely from accumulated
premiums during the year
£50,459   0   0


In Years. Number
of New
Amount of
Fund at End
of Period.
£ £
1844-45   658 281,082   69,009
1846-47   888 404,734   95,705
1848-49   907 410,933 131,406
1850-51 1378 535,137 207,803
1852-53 1269 587,118 305,134


THE SCOTTISH PROVIDENT INSTITUTION combines the advantage of Participation in the whole Profits with moderate Premiums.

The premiums are as low as those of the non-participating scale of the proprietary companies. They admit of being so not only with safety, but with ample reversion of profits to the policy-holders, being free from the burden of payment of dividend to shareholders.

At the first division of surplus in the present year, bonus additions were made to policies which had come within the participating class, varying from 20 to 54 per cent. on their amount.

In all points of practice—as in the provision for the indefeasibility of policies, facility of licence for travelling or residence abroad, and of obtaining advances on the value of the policies—the regulations of the Society, as well as the administration, are as liberal as is consistent with right principle.

Policies now issued free of stamp duty.

Copies of the last annual report, containing full explanations of the principles, may be had on application to the Head Office in Edinburgh; of the Society's Provincial Agent: or of the Resident Secretary, London Branch.


GEORGE GRANT, Resident Secretary.

London Branch, 12. Moorgate Street.

The London Branch will be removed on 25th March to the Society's New Premises, 66. Gracechurch Street, corner of Fenchurch Street, City.

W. H. HART, RECORD AGENT and LEGAL ANTIQUARIAN (who is in the possession of Indices to many of the early Public Records whereby his Inquiries are greatly facilitated) begs to inform Authors and Gentlemen engaged in Antiquarian or Literary Pursuits, that he is prepared to undertake searches among the Public Records, MSS. in the British Museum, Ancient Wills, or other Depositories of a similar Nature, in any Branch of Literature, History, Topography, Genealogy, or the like, and in which he has had considerable experience.


BENNETT'S MODEL WATCH, as shown at the GREAT EXHIBITION, No. 1. Class X., in Gold and Silver Cases, in five qualities, and adapted to all Climates, may now be had at the MANUFACTORY, 65. CHEAPSIDE. Superior Gold London-made Patent Levers, 17, 15, and 12 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 4 guineas. First-rate Geneva Levers, in Gold Cases, 12, 10, and 8 guineas. Ditto, in Silver Cases, 8, 6, and 5 guineas. Superior Lever, with Chronometer Balance, Gold. 27, 23, and 19 guineas. Bennett's Pocket Chronometer, Gold, 50 guineas; Silver, 40 guineas. Every Watch skilfully examined, timed, and its performance guaranteed. Barometers, 2l., 3l., and 4l. Thermometers from 1s. each.

BENNETT, Watch, Clock, and Instrument Maker to the Royal Observatory, the Board of Ordnance, the Admiralty, and the Queen,




Founded A.D. 1842.


H. E. Bicknell, Esq.
T. S. Cocks, Jun. Esq., M.P.
G. H. Drew, Esq.
W. Evans, Esq.
W. Freeman, Esq.
F. Fuller, Esq.
J. H. Goodhart, Esq.

T. Grissell, Esq.
  J. Hunt, Esq.
  J. A. Lethbridge, Esq.
  E. Lucas, Esq.
  J. Lys Seager, Esq.
  J. B. White, Esq.
  J. Carter Wood, Esq.

Trustees.—W. Whateley, Esq., Q.C.; George Drew, Esq., T. Grissell, Esq.
Physician.—William Rich. Basham, M.D.
Bankers.—Messrs. Cocks, Biddulph, and Co., Charing Cross.


POLICIES effected in this Office do not become void through temporary difficulty in paying a Premium, as permission is given upon application to suspend the payment at interest, according to the conditions detailed in the Prospectus.

Specimens of Rates of Premium for Assuring 100l., with a Share in three-fourths of the Profits:—

Age £ s. d. Age £ s. d.
  17 1 14 4   32 2 10 8
  22 1 18 8   37 2 18 6
  27 2 4 5   42 3 8 2


Now ready, price 10s. 6d., Second Edition, with material additions, INDUSTRIAL INVESTMENT and EMIGRATION: being a TREATISE ON BENEFIT BUILDING SOCIETIES, and on the General Principles of Land Investment, exemplified in the Cases of Freehold Land Societies, Building Companies, &c. With a Mathematical Appendix on Compound Interest and Life Assurance. By ARTHUR SCRATCHLEY, M.A., Actuary to the Western Life Assurance Society, 3. Parliament Street, London.

Printed by Thomas Clark Shaw, of No. 10. Stonefield Street, in the Parish of St. Mary, Islington, at No. 5. New Street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the City of London; and published by George Bell, of No. 186. Fleet Street, in the Parish of St. Dunstan in the West, in the City of London, Publisher, at No. 186. Fleet Street aforesaid.—Saturday, March 11, 1854.

End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of Notes and Queries, Number 228, March
11, 1854, by Various


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