The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Plants of Michigan, by Henry Allan Gleason

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

Title: The Plants of Michigan
       Simple Keys for the Identification of the Native Seed
              Plants of the State

Author: Henry Allan Gleason

Release Date: April 19, 2010 [EBook #32050]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


Produced by Betsie Bush, Dave Morgan, Joseph R. Hauser and
the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at



Associate Professor of Botany and Director of the Botanical Gardens
and Arboretum in the University of Michigan


Copyright, 1918

Published by

The Ann Arbor Press


This book is not intended for the expert botanist. He should consult one of the regular Manuals which give full descriptions of each species of plant.

Neither is it intended for the merely curious. Only those who have sufficient interest in a plant to observe it can find its name by this book.

Furthermore, it is not a textbook. It does not attempt to convey botanical information, but offers merely an opportunity to learn the names of plants.

Its mission is fully accomplished if, through its use, students, vacationists, and plant-lovers in general are able to recognize by name the plants about them.

[Pg v]


One recognizes a plant by the presence of structural features peculiar to itself, and not found on any other kind of plant. In such a book as this, these characters are given one or a few at a time, and contrasted with the characters which other sorts of plants possess. Such a presentation is called a Key, and by its proper use the name may be learned of any plant considered in it. This process is called Identification.

Keys are constructed in several different ways, although the principle of all is the same. In this book, the user will begin with lines 1a and 1b on the page headed Key to the Groups. Each of these lines includes some descriptive matter, but only one of them can apply to the plant being identified. For example, if the plant to be identified is an Oak, line 1a will apply perfectly, and the same line will also apply to any other kind of tree or to any shrub. But if the plant is a Violet, a Buttercup, or any other herb, line 1b agrees and line 1a will not apply. At the end of each line is a reference to be consulted next. If the plant is a tree or shrub, one turns accordingly to Group 1, on page ix, and begins again at the first number given. If the plant is an herb, he follows the reference to line 2, just below, and again compares the plants with lines 2a and 2b.

Under every number at least two lines of description are given, designated a and b, and under a few numbers additional lines appear, designated c, d, etc. In every case, the user of the key will select from the different lines under the same number that particular line which agrees with the structure of the plant, and follow up the reference given at the end of that line. Eventually one finds at the end of a line, instead of a number, the name of a family of plants, to which this particular plant belongs, and then turns over to the page where this family is treated. Under each family is a similar key, to be followed in exactly the same way, until finally one finds instead of a number the common name and the scientific name of the plant in hand. The process of identification is now completed, and the student has found the name of the plant.

In some cases, a reference is made in the key to a particular portion of the family key. One then turns directly to this particular number in the family key, and continues his identification in the usual way.

As a definite example of the use of the key, suppose that one has in hand a branch of the White Oak, and that he does not know its name. To determine its name, he will trace it through the following steps in the key. Under the Key to the Groups, it agrees with line 1a, which refers to Group 1, Woody Plants. Under this group it agrees in structure with line 1a, which refers to 2; with line 2b, referring[Pg vi] to 21; with line 21b, referring to 22; with 22b, referring to 29; with 29b, referring to 32; with 32c, referring to 47; with 47b, referring to 48; with 48b, referring to 51; with 51b, referring to number 1b in the Beech Family. Turning to the proper number in this family, the plant is referred to line 3; it agrees with line 3c, referring to 10; with 10a, referring to 11; and with 11b, which gives the name of the plant. White Oak, Quercus alba.

As a second example, suppose one has a common yellow-flowered plant blooming on lawns and roadsides in spring. Under the Key to the Groups, it agrees with 1b, referring to 2; with 2b, referring to 3; and its net-veined leaves place it in 3b, referring to Group 4, Dicotyledones. Under this group, its basal leaves place it in 1b, referring to 2; its simple leaves in 2b, referring to 18; the absence of stem-leaves places it in 18b, referring to 23; its solitary flowers on each flower-stalk place it in 23b, referring to 24; its yellow flowers agree with 24a, referring to 25; and its milky juice refers the plant to number 16, in the Composite Family. In the key to this family, its lobed leaves agree with 16b, referring on to 17; its large flowers with 17b, giving one the common name Dandelion, and referring on to 18 to determine which kind of Dandelion the plant may be.

At some point in the key there will be found for each plant a statement in parentheses. This is general information concerning the height of the plant, the color of the flowers, or the season of bloom. It must be remembered that the height of plants is subject to great variation; that most plants have white-flowered varieties; and that the month of bloom depends largely on the latitude and the climate. Therefore this general information should not be used as means of distinguishing species.

The names of plants. Each plant bears a scientific name. This is composed of two parts and is usually of Latin or Greek derivation. In some cases these names are taken directly from the Latin language, as Quercus, the Oak, or Acer, the Maple. In other cases the name may indicate some characteristic feature of the plant, as Polygonum, many joints, for the Knotweed, or Ammophila, sand-loving, for the Beach Grass.

An English name is also given for almost every kind of plant. In a few cases there is no accepted English name, and none has been given. In many cases the same English name applies to several kinds of plants and has been repeated for each. When this is so, the common name is given in the key in parentheses before the scientific name is reached. Thus, if one is satisfied to know merely that his plant is a dandelion, he learns it in line 17b of the key to the Composite Family, but to discover which kind of a dandelion he has, he must follow through the key and use the scientific name.

There is in this book, therefore, no necessity of learning or using scientific names. The less critical may be satisfied with an English name, and others may use the scientific names as they see fit.

[Pg vii]Possible Errors. In using this book, care must be taken to compare all the lines under each number with the plant, and to use judgment in selecting the right one. While faulty observation or poor judgment may lead to error, a mistake is usually due to carelessness in not following correctly the reference at the end of the line chosen. If one reaches a number in which none of the lines of description agrees with the plant, it is very probable that he has made a mistake at an earlier stage of the identification, and he should then begin anew.

It has been the intention of the author to make the key as nearly as possible proof against errors of judgment. For example, the Indian Turnip may be sought under either Group 3 or Group 4; the Matrimony Vine may be identified either as a shrub or as an herb, and numerous other similar examples may be discovered.

Botanical Information Needed. It is presumed that those using the book will be familiar with the parts of the flower and with the commoner descriptive terms applied to leaves. Unusual terms have been avoided as far as possible, but those which do occur, as well as the simpler ones, are explained in the glossary.

In general, only those characters have been used in the keys which can be observed without a magnifying glass and without dissection of the flower.

In several groups of plants, reference is made to the fuller descriptions to be found in the Manuals. The standard manuals for Michigan are Gray's New Manual of Botany, 7th edition (American Book Company, $2.50), and Britton and Brown, Illustrated Flora of the Northern States and Canada (Chas. Scribner's Sons, $13.50). These books may be consulted in most school or public libraries.

All dimensions are expressed in the metric system. For convenience, it may be stated that 25 millimeters (mm.) are about equal to one inch; 1 centimeter (cm.) to two-fifths of an inch; 1 decimeter (dm.) to 4 inches; and 1 meter (m.) is a little more than 3 feet.

[Pg viii]


1a. Trees, shrubs, or woody climbers, with stems which last from year to year
1b. Herbaceous plants, with stems which live above ground only a single season — 2.
2a. Plants with unusual habits or structures, including leafless, colorless, submerged, floating, parasitic, or hollow-leaved plants
2b. Ordinary terrestrial or swamp plants, without unusual structural peculiarities — 3.
3a. Leaves parallel-veined (or net-veined in a few species); parts of the flower usually in threes or sixes, never in fives; wood-fibers scattered through the stem; seed with one cotyledon. All plants with definitely parallel-veined leaves may be identified through this division, unless the parts of the flower are distinctly in fives.
3b. Leaves net-veined (or parallel-veined in a few species); parts of the flower usually in fours or fives; wood-fibers arranged in a circle in the stem; seeds with two cotyledons. All plants with definitely net-veined leaves may be identified through this division.

Note:—In order to avoid possible chances of error, many plants have been treated under both of the above groups. The following hints may also be useful in distinguishing Groups 3 and 4:

All herbaceous plants with deeply lobed, dissected or compound leaves may be sought under the Dicotyledones.

All herbaceous plants with five stamens in each flower, or with seven or more stamens and one ovary in each flower, may be sought under Dicotyledones.

[Pg ix]


1a. Trees, with erect stem and central trunk, attaining a height of 6 m. (20 ft.) or more — 2.
1b. Shrubs or woody vines, without true tree habit, or attaining heights of less than 6 m. (20 ft.) — 52.
2a. Key for use in earliest spring, for trees which have flowers but no leaves — 3.
2b. Key for use with trees bearing leaves — 21.
3a. Flowers in catkins, without brightly colored or petal-like parts — 4.
3b. Flowers not in catkins, either with or without petals — 14.
4a. Leaf-scars and lateral buds 2-ranked, i. e., in two longitudinal rows with the third leaf above the first — 5.
4b. Leaf-scars and buds in three or more longitudinal rows — 9.
5a. From 1 to 3 bud-scales visible on each leaf-bud
5b. From 4 to 7 bud-scales visible on each leaf-bud — 6.
5c. From 8 to 20 bud-scales visible on each leaf-bud; buds long and slender; bark of the trunk smooth — 8.
6a. Bundle-scars 5 or more
6b. Bundle-scars 3 — 7.
7a. Twigs bearing numerous dwarf branches thickly covered with crowded leaf-scars (Birch)
7b. Twigs without dwarf branches (Ironwood)
8a. Trunk cylindrical or nearly so
8b. Trunk prominently fluted with longitudinal ridges
9a. Bundle-scars 3 in each leaf-scar — 10.
9b. Bundle scars more than 3 in each leaf-scar — 12.
10a. Pith divided into separate cavities by transverse partitions
10b. Pith not partitioned — 11.
11a. Buds small, with only one external bud-scale
11b. Buds with more than one outer bud-scale
12a. Buds clustered near the tips of the twigs
12b. Buds not clustered at the tips of the twigs — 13.
13a. Buds with about 3 visible bud-scales
13b. Terminal bud large, with 4 or more visible bud-scales
14a. Flowers conspicuous, brightly colored, at least 8 mm. wide. with both calyx and corolla — 15.
14b. Flowers inconspicuous, seldom brightly colored, and then less than 8 mm. wide — 17.
15a. Flowers irregular, pink or red
15b. Flowers regular, white — 16.
16a. Ovary one, superior, in the center of the flower
16b. Ovary inferior, appearing as a swelling below the calyx at the summit of the pedicel
17a. Leaf-scars and buds opposite — 18.
17b. Leaf-scars and buds alternate — 19.
18a. Bundle-scar one in each leaf-scar
18b. Bundle-scars 3 or more in each leaf-scar
19a. Bundle-scar 1 in each leaf-scar
19b. Bundle-scars 3 in each leaf-scar — 20.
19c. Bundle-scars 5 in each leaf-scar
20a. Branches thorny
20b. Branches not thorny
— 21—
21a. Leaves narrow, needle-like or scale-like; trees mostly evergreen
21b. Leaves broader, flat, never needle-like or scale-like, falling in winter — 22.
22a. Leaves compound — 23.
22b. Leaves simple — 29.
23a. Leaves opposite — 24.
23b. Leaves alternate — 26.
24a. Leaves palmately compound with 5-7 leaflets
24b. Leaves pinnately compound — 25.
25a. Leaflets 3-5
25b. Leaflets 7-11
26a. Stem or branches thorny
26b. Stem or branches not thorny — 27.
27a. Leaflets entire
27b. Leaflets entire except for a few large glandular teeth near their base
27c. Leaflets serrate their entire length — 28.
28a. Upper leaflets less than 25 mm. wide
28b. Upper leaflets more than 25 mm. wide
29a. Leaves opposite — 30.
29b. Leaves alternate — 32.
30a. Leaves entire
30b. Leaves toothed or lobed, not entire — 31.
31a. Leaves lobed
31b. Leaves merely toothed
32a. Leaves entire — 33.
32b. Leaves toothed — 36.
32c. Leaves lobed — 47.
33a. Leaves heart-shape
33b. Leaves not heart-shape — 34.
34a. Twigs and foliage spicy-aromatic
34b. Twigs and foliage not aromatic — 35.
35a. Pith 5-angled; fruit an acorn
35b. Pith not 5-angled; fruit a berry
36a. Leaves oblique at base, i. e., one side of the leaf larger than the other — 37.
36b. Leaves symmetrical, not oblique at base — 38.
37a. Leaves heart-shape, about as broad as long
37b. Leaves oval or ovate, much longer than wide
38a. Stems thorny
38b. Stems not thorny — 39.
39a. Leaves finely toothed, with 3-many teeth per centimeter of margin — 40.
39b. Leaves coarsely toothed, with 1-2 teeth per centimeter of margin — 46.
40a. Petioles laterally compressed
40b. Petioles not compressed — 41.
41a. Leaves, or many of them, crowded on short spur-like branches — 42.
41b. Leaves scattered, not on short spur-like branches — 43.
42a. Bark of the trunks separating in thin papery or leathery sheets
42b. Bark of the trunk not papery or leathery
43a. Lateral leaf-veins straight and parallel, and terminating in the teeth
43b. Lateral veins more or less curved, and not ending in the teeth — 44.
44a. Leaves palmately veined, about as broad as long; juice somewhat milky
44b. Leaves pinnately veined; juice not milky — 45.
45a. Willows, with slender leaves and brittle twigs
45b. Trees with lanceolate, ovate, or oblong leaves and tough twigs
45c. Cottonwoods, with broad, heart-shape or rounded leaves
46a. Petioles laterally compressed
46b. Petioles not compressed; lateral veins straight and parallel, running directly to the teeth
47a. Stem thorny
47b. Stem not thorny — 48.
48a. Leaves palmately veined — 49.
48b. Leaves pinnately veined — 51.
49a. Lobes of the leaf entire
49b. Lobes of the leaf serrate — 50.
50a.Juice somewhat milky; lateral buds visible
50b.Juice not milky; lateral buds covered by the base of the petiole
51a. Leaves with 4 large entire lobes; stem marked with a ring at each node
51b. Leaves with many lobes; stem not ringed
— 52—
52a.For specimens bearing leaves only — 53.
52b. For specimens bearing flowers only — 140.
52c.For specimens with both leaves and flowers — 155.
53a. Leaves narrow, needle-like or scale-like, mostly evergreen — 54.
53b. Leaves broader, flat or rolled, but not needle-like or scale-like — 56.
54a. Foliage densely gray-pubescent; low bushy shrubs with yellow flowers
54b.Foliage green — 55.
55a. Leaves opposite or whorled
55b. Leaves scattered on the stem
56a.Twining or climbing vines — 57.
56b. Not climbing or twining — 66.
57a. Thorny vines — 58.  [Pg xiii]
57b. Not thorny — 60.
58a.Climbing by tendrils at the base of the leaves
58b.Tendrils none — 59.
59a. Leaves simple
59b. Leaves compound
60a.Leaves compound — 61.
60b.Leaves simple — 63.
61a. Leaves with 5 leaflets
61b. Leaves with 3 leaflets — 62.
62a. Plant climbing by tendril-like leaf-stalks
62b. Plant climbing by hold-fast roots
63a. Leaves opposite
63b. Leaves alternate — 64.
64a. Plants climbing by tendrils
64b. Twining plants — 65.
65a. Leaves ovate-oblong, attached by the base
65b. Leaves almost round, peltate near the edge
66a. Leaves opposite — 67.
66b. Leaves alternate — 84.
67a. Leaves compound — 68.
67b. Leaves simple — 69.
68a. Leaflets 3
68b. Leaflets 7 or more
69a. Leaves palmately veined, or at least with a pair of prominent lateral veins from the base — 70.
69b. Leaves pinnately veined — 72.
70a. Leaves not lobed
70b. Leaves more or less lobed — 71.
71a. Leaves with stipules
71b. Leaves without stipules
72a. Leaves serrate — 73.
72b. Leaves entire — 77.
73a. Stem thorny
73b. Stem not thorny — 74.
74a. Bark of the ripe twigs green
74b. Bark of the ripe twigs brown, reddish, or gray — 75.
75a. Twigs with a prominent hairy ridge extending downward from the middle of the line connecting the petiole bases
75b. Twigs without any pubescent ridge — 76.
76a. Erect shrubs; leaves obviously toothed
76b. Spreading shrubs; most of the leaves entire, and only here and there some with serrate margins
77a. Leaves silvery beneath with a dense coating of scales
77b. Leaves green beneath, or somewhat hairy and light-colored — 78.
78a. Aquatic plant with lanceolate leaves, and stems bending over and into the water
78b. Not truly aquatic, although frequently in wet places — 79.
79a. Leaves evergreen, as shown by their presence on the older stems
79b. Leaves deciduous each year — 80.
80a. Leaves dotted with translucent dots, easily seen when the leaf is held to the light
80b. Leaves not dotted with translucent dots — 81.
81a. Lateral veins curved forward and running almost parallel to the leaf-margin
81b. Lateral veins spreading, and not paralleling the leaf-margin — 82.
82a. Leaves with stipules
82b. Leaves with a prominent ridge connecting them at the base — 83.
82c. Leaves with neither stipules nor connecting ridges
83a. Bundle-scar one in each leaf-scar
83b. Bundle-scars three in each leaf-scar (Honeysuckle)
84a. Leaves compound — 85.
84b. Leaves simple — 95.
85a. Stems prickly or thorny — 86.
85b. Stems without prickles or thorns — 88.
86a. Leaves twice-pinnate
86b. Leaves evenly pinnate
86c. Leaves odd-pinnate or trifoliate — 87.
87a. Leaflets entire 1a,
87b. Leaflets serrate 3b,
88a. Leaflets 3 — 89.
88b. Leaflets 5 to many — 91.
89a. Tall shrubs; leaflets entire or minutely toothed
89b. Shrubs 2 m. high or less; leaves conspicuously toothed — 90.
90a. Stipules present
90b. Stipules none
91a. Leaflets 6-25 mm. long — 92.
91b. Leaflets 30 mm. long, or more — 93.
92a. Leaflets mostly 5, rarely 3 or 7
92b. Leaflets mostly 9-19, 15 mm. long or more
92c. Leaflets mostly 25-45, less than 15 mm. long
93a. Leaflets entire
93b. Leaflets entire, except for 1-4 large glandular teeth near their base
93c. Leaflets toothed throughout — 94.
94a. Juice milky
94b. Juice not milky
95a. Leaves minute, scale-like, appressed
95b. Leaves 3-10 mm. long, spreading, completely rolled into a tube
95c. Leaves normal in shape, green in color — 96.
96a. Leaves evergreen, as shown by their presence on the older parts of the stem
96b. Leaves deciduous — 97.
97a. Stems or branches thorny — 98.
97b. Stems or branches without thorns or thorny leaves — 103.
98a. Leaves conspicuously palmately veined — 99.
98b. Leaves pinnately veined, or sometimes with smaller lateral veins arising from the end of the petiole — 100.
99a. Leaves 5 cm. wide or less
99b. Leaves 15 cm. wide or more
100a. Leaves entire
100b. Leaves toothed or somewhat lobed — 101.
101a. Leaves with bristly margins; some of the thorns three-pointed
101b. Leaves not bristly on the margin; thorns not branched — 102.
102a. Only lateral thorns present
102b. Only terminal thorns present
103a. Leaves palmately veined, or with one or more pairs of lateral veins from the base of the leaf — 104.
103b. Leaves pinnately veined — 111.
104a. Leaves entire — 105.
104b. Leaves toothed — 106.
104c. Leaves palmately lobed — 108.
105a. Foliage fragrant when crushed; leaves ovate
105b. Foliage not aromatic; leaves heart-shape
106a. Lateral veins straight and parallel, running to the teeth of the leaf
106b. Lateral veins curved or branched, and not running straight to the teeth — 107.
107a. Tall shrubs with somewhat milky juice and broadly ovate leaves
107b. Low shrubs less than 1 m. high with watery juice
108a. Leaves with 2 or 3 entire lobes, spicy-fragrant when crushed
108b. Leaves with milky juice
108c. Leaves neither spicy-fragrant nor with milky juice — 109.
109a. Stem covered with brown bristles
109b. Stem not bristly — 110.
110a. Sides of the petiole strongly decurrent on the stem; bundle-scars crowded or nearly in contact in the leaf-scars
110b. Sides of petiole little decurrent or not at all; bundle-scars distinctly separate
111a. Leaves aromatically fragrant when crushed — 112.
111b. Leaves not aromatically fragrant when crushed — 113.
112a. Leaves broadly obovate, entire; a common woodland shrub
112b. Leaves linear-lanceolate or oblanceolate, conspicuously toothed or entire
113a. Leaves entire — 114.
113b. Leaves toothed or lobed — 121.
114a. Base of the petiole covering the axillary buds; twigs marked with rings
114b. Base of petiole not covering the bud, and twigs not marked with rings — 115.
115a. Pith with prominent partitions; tall shrubs with fetid bark; leaves obovate, 10 cm. long or larger
115b. Pith not partitioned; leaves smaller — 116.
116a. Leaves waxy or resinous underneath
116b. Leaves not waxy or resinous — 117.
117a. Lateral veins curved forward and almost parallel to the margin of the leaf
117b. Lateral veins spreading — 118.
118a. Leaves lanceolate or linear, much longer than wide — 119.
118b. Leaves ovate or elliptical — 120.
119a. Stem weak, spreading or trailing
119b. Stems, or some of them, erect
120a. Leaves with purple petioles, which are at least one-fourth as long as the leaf-blade
120b. Leaves with short petioles or sessile
121a. Lateral veins straight and parallel, mostly ending in the teeth of the leaf — 122.
121b. Lateral veins not straight and parallel — 129.
122a. Leaves 2-ranked, i. e., in two longitudinal rows, with the third leaf directly above the first — 123.
122b. Leaves not 2-ranked — 127.
123a. Leaves unsymmetrical, oblique at the base, i. e., with one side of the leaf larger than the other
123b. Leaves symmetrical or nearly so at the base — 124.
124a. Lateral leaf-veins ending in the leaf-teeth — 125.
124b. Lateral veins not ending in the teeth
125a. Bark smooth and fluted on the large stems
125b. Bark rough or warty or glandular — 126.
126a. Leaves 4 cm. long or less
126b. Leaves 5 cm. long or more
127a. Pith 3-angled
127b. Pith 5-angled
127c. Pith cylindrical — 128.
128a. Leaves finely serrate
128b. Leaves coarsely or doubly serrate
129a. Leaves coarsely or doubly serrate — 130.
129b. Leaves simply serrate — 131.
130a. Leaves 2-ranked, i. e., in two longitudinal rows, with the third leaf directly over the first
130b. Leaves not 2-ranked
131a. Leaves with glands on the petiole or at the base of the leaf-blade — 132.  [Pg xviii]
131b. Leaves with small dark glands on the upper side of the mid-vein
131c. Leaves without glands — 133.
132a. Willows; with usually slender leaves, frequently conspicuous broad stipules, and lateral buds protected by a single external bud-scale
132b. Plums and cherries; with leaves lanceolate or broader, and stipules minute and falling early in the season; lateral buds with more than one bud-scale
133a. With stipules or with stipular scars indicating where stipules have been detached — 134.
133b. Without stipules or stipular scars — 138.
134a. With three bundle-scars in each leaf-scar — 135.
134b. With one bundle-scar in each leaf-scar — 136.
135a. Willows; usually with slender leaves and twigs and frequently with large conspicuous stipules; lateral buds covered by a single external bud-scale
135b. Juneberries; with oblong or ovate leaves and small stipules which fall early; lateral buds with more than one external scale
136a. Leaves mostly entire, only a few here and there with low teeth
136b. Leaves sharply toothed — 137.
137a. Axillary buds superposed, i. e., with a second one just above the first
137b. Axillary buds not superposed
138a. Leaves with purple petioles, which are at least one-fourth as long as the blade
138b. Leaves short-petioled or sessile — 139.
139a. Stems erect and straight, unbranched or with very few branches
139b. Stems more or less crooked and freely branched, making a spreading shrub
— 140—
140a. Flowers appearing in autumn, after the leaves have fallen
140b. Flowers appearing in spring, before the leaves have opened — 141.
141a. Flowers in catkins, without brightly colored or petal-like parts — 142.  [Pg xix]
141b. Flowers not in catkins, either with or without brightly colored or petal-like parts — 149.
142a. Leaves 2-ranked, as shown by the arrangement of buds and leaf-scars in two longitudinal rows, so that the third bud is directly over the first — 143.
142b. Leaves and leaf-scars not 2-ranked — 146.
143a. Bundle-scars three in each leaf-scar — 144.
143b. Bundle-scars several in each leaf-scar
144a. Leaf-buds with only 1-3 visible bud-scales
144b. Leaf-buds with more than 3 visible scales — 145.
145a. Bark of the branches smooth and dark gray, the larger stems fluted with projecting longitudinal ridges
145b. Branches without projecting ridges
146a. Pith 3-angled
146b. Pith 5-angled
146c. Pith cylindrical — 147.
147a. Visible outer bud-scales 2 or more — 148.
147b. Buds with a single visible outer scale
148a. Bundle-scars 3 in each leaf-scar
148b. Bundle-scars more than 3 in each leaf-scar
149a. Flowers dark red-purple, about 3 cm. wide
149b. Flowers bright pink, irregular, about 1 cm. wide
149c. Flowers white, with 5 conspicuous petals — 150.
149d. Flowers greenish or yellowish, small, inconspicuous — 152.
150a. Ovary 1, superior, i. e., in the center of the flower and not attached to surrounding parts
150b. Ovary inferior, appearing as a swelling below the calyx at the apex of the pedicel — 151.
151a. Flowers in racemes or solitary
151b. Flowers in flattened or rounded branching clusters
152a. Stems thorny
152b. Stems not thorny — 153.  [Pg xx]
153a. Bark pleasantly aromatic when crushed; perianth with 6 parts — 154.
153b. Bark not pleasantly aromatic; perianth with 4 short lobes
154a. Flowers in sessile lateral clusters
154b. Flowers in peduncled terminal clusters
— 155—
155a. Leaves narrow, needle-like or scale-like, mostly evergreen — 54.
155b. Leaves broader, flat or rolled, but not needle-like or scale-like — 156.
156a. Twining or climbing vines — 56.
156b. Not twining or climbing — 157.
157a. Leaves opposite — 158.
157b. Leaves alternate — 165.
158a. Leaves compound — 68.
158b. Leaves simple — 159.
159a. Leaves broad, palmately lobed — 160.
159b. Leaves not palmately lobed — 161.
160a. Flowers greenish-yellow, in racemes or panicles
160b. Flowers white, in rounded or flattened clusters
161a. Flowers in close clusters, subtended by four large white petal-like bracts
161b. Flowers small, white, in dense spherical heads
161c. Flowers not in dense heads, and not subtended by petal-like bracts — 162.
162a. Petals separate from each other — 163.
162b. Petals united with each other — 164.
163a. Flowers dark purple-red
163b. Flowers bright yellow
163c. Flowers pink-purple; aquatic shrubs
163d. Flowers white
163e. Flowers minute, greenish; twigs usually thorny
163f. Flowers small, yellowish; leaves silvery beneath
164a. Stamens 2
164b. Stamens 4 or 5
164c. Stamens 10
165a. Leaves once-compound — 166.  [Pg xxi]
165b. Leaves simple — 172.
165c. Leaves twice- or thrice-compound
166a. Flowers small, greenish or greenish-yellow — 167.
166b. Flowers conspicuous, white, or brightly colored — 170.
167a. Stems thorny
167b. Stems not thorny — 168.
168a. Leaflets 3, entire or minutely toothed
168b. Leaflets 3, conspicuously toothed
168c. Leaflets more than 3 — 169.
169a. Leaflets entire except for 1-4 large glandular teeth near their base
169b. Leaflets entire, or toothed for their entire length
170a. Flowers with a single bright-blue petal
170b. Flowers with several petals — 171.
171a. Flowers regular
171b. Flowers irregular, the upper petal the largest
172a. Leaves minute, scale-like, appressed
172b. Leaves 3-10 mm. long, spreading, completely rolled into a tube
172c. Leaves normal in shape, green in color — 173.
173a. Leaves evergreen, as shown by their presence on the older parts of the stem
173b. Leaves deciduous — 174.
174a. Flowers in catkins, without petal-like parts — 142.
174b. Flowers not in catkins, either with or without petal-like parts — 175.
175a. Flowers small, inconspicuous, yellowish or greenish in color — 176.
175b. Flowers white or colored, with conspicuous petals — 180.
176a. Leaves broad and palmately lobed; stem thorny
176b. Leaves entire, toothed, or with 2-3 entire lobes; stem not thorny — 177.
177a. Flowers in small axillary clusters; foliage not spicy-aromatic — 178.  [Pg xxii]
177b. Flowers in clusters terminating last year's twigs; foliage spicy-aromatic
178a. Petals none; sepals present
178b. Petals present but small — 179.
179a. A stamen in front of each petal
179b. A stamen between each two petals
180a. Petals united with each other; stamens 8-10
180b. Petals separate from each other — 181.
181a. Petals 4 — 182.
181b. Petals 5 — 183.
181c. Petal-like sepals 6; real petals none; foliage spicy-aromatic
181d. Petals 6; sepals also present — 187.
182a. Flowers in late spring or early summer
182b. Flowers in autumn
183a. Corolla irregular, the upper petal largest
183b. Corolla regular, all petals alike in size and shape — 184.
184a. Stamens 5 — 185.
184b. Stamens 10 or more
185a. Flowers in loose racemes or axillary clusters
185b. Flowers in branching clusters — 186.
186a. Leaves palmately lobed; stem thorny
186b. Leaves not lobed; stem not thorny
187a. Flowers dark red-purple
187b. Flowers yellow

[Pg xxiii]


1a. Small brown leafless plants, growing as parasites on the tamarack or black spruce
1b. Aquatic plants, with all or most of the leaves submerged, or leafless — 2.
1c. Aquatic plants, with the leaves or the whole plant floating on or near the surface — 20.
1d. Terrestrial or marsh plants, without floating or submerged leaves — 29.
2a. Submerged aquatics, without leaves — 3.
2b. Submerged aquatics, with the leaves linear or dissected — 4.
3a. Flowers showy, yellow or purple
3b. Flowers small and inconspicuous, sessile, purplish or greenish
4a. Leaves linear or lanceolate, not lobed or dissected — 5.
4b. Leaves more or less lobed or dissected — 13.
5a. Leaves all basal — 6.
5b. Stem-leaves present — 7.
6a. Flowers blue, 1 cm. long or more; leaves cylindrical, blunt, hollow, partitioned lengthwise
6b. Flowers yellow; leaves minute
6c. Flowers white, in clusters; leaves linear-lanceolate, acute, not hollow
6d. Flowers greenish, solitary at the end of elongated peduncles; leaves very long and ribbon-like, flat or trough-shape
6e. Flowers minute, whitish or lead-color, in heads
7a. Leaves alternate — 8.
7b. Leaves opposite — 10.
7c. Leaves whorled — 12.
8a. Leaves with thin sheathing stipules
8b. Leaves without stipules — 9.
9a. Flowers greenish, in a head
9b. Flowers pale yellow
10a. Leaves serrate
10b. Leaves entire — 11.
11a. Leaves 2 cm. long or less
11b. Leaves thread-like, 2-8 cm. long
11c. Leaves linear to elliptical, more than 2 cm. long
12a. Leaves in whorls of 3, abruptly widened at the base
12b. Leaves in whorls of 3, widest near the middle
12c. Stems straight and erect, at leaves the flowers emerged; leaves in whorls of 4 or more
13a. Leaves with numerous small bladders attached, each bladder 1-3 mm. long
13b. Leaves without bladders — 14.
14a. Leaves alternate — 15.
14b. Leaves opposite or whorled — 18.
15a. Delicate and rare plants growing attached to stones in running water
15b. Plants 2 dm. high or more, with roots in mud or sand — 16.
16a. Leaves once-pinnate — 17.
16b. Leaves 2-3 times pinnate
16c. Leaves palmately dissected
17a. Taste peppery or mustardy
17b. Taste not peppery or mustardy
18a. Leaves pinnately compound
18b. Leaves palmately compound — 19.
19a. Leaves opposite or in whorls of four
19b. Leaves in whorls of 5-12
20a. Plants small, flattened, rounded or ovate, without distinction of stem and leaf; the whole plant floating on or near the surface
20b. Plant attached to the soil, with differentiated stem and leaves — 21.
21a. Leaves on long slender stalks, which bear also a cluster of slender tubers near the leaf-base; leaves heart-shape
21b. Leaf-stalks without a cluster of tubers — 22.
22a. Leaves all basal — 23.
22b. Stem-leaves present — 24.
23a. Leaves parallel-veined
23b. Leaves net-veined
24a. Leaves opposite or whorled — 25.
24b. Leaves alternate — 26.
25a. Leaves less than 2 cm. long
25b. Leaves more than 2 cm. long
26a. Leaves attached by the center to the stalk
26b. Leaves attached by the margin — 27.
27a. Leaves parallel-veined — 28.
27b. Leaves net-veined, with a single mid-vein; lanceolate or elliptical in outline
28a. Leaves not over 2 dm. long
28b. Leaves very long and grass-like
29a. Brown, yellow, or white plants, without green color — 30.
29b. Plants with normal green color, at least in some parts — 33.
30a. Stemless and leafless plants, consisting of flowers only and partly underground
30b. Stems climbing on other plants
30c. Stem and flower-stalks erect, not climbing — 31.
31a. Corolla regular; stamens 6-12
31b. Corolla irregular — 32.
32a. Sepals and petals each 3; flowers in simple racemes
32b. Sepals 5; corolla of united petals
33a. Stem thick and fleshy, leafless, thorny
33b. Stem not thorny — 34.
34a. Leaves none — 35.
34b. Leaves reduced to small scales — 40.
34c. Leaves thick and fleshy — 44.
34d. Leaves hollow — 45.
34e. Leaves small, all basal, bearing large glandular hairs on the upper surface
35a. Stem none, the flowers appearing at or partially beneath the surface of the soil
35b. Stem present — 36.
36a. Stem freely branched
36b. Stem unbranched, except possibly in the flower-clusters — 37.
37a. Flowers greenish or brownish, without obvious colored petals — 38.  [Pg xxvi]
37b. Flowers with conspicuous white or colored petals — 39.
38a. Each flower with 6 small chaffy petals
38b. Petals none; each flower in the axil of a single chaffy bract
39a. Flowers regular
39b. Flowers irregular
40a. Stem erect, unbranched or with one or two branches only — 41.
40b. Stem freely branched — 42.
41a. Plants of moist soil, with opposite scales; corolla regular, with 4 petal-like lobes
41b. Swamp plants, with a few alternate scales; corolla irregular
42a. Leaves numerous and close, concealing the stem
42b. Leaves spreading, not concealing the stem — 43.
43a. Leaf-scales in small clusters; flowers greenish, with 6 petals
43b. Leaf-scales distinctly opposite; petals 5, yellow
44a. Sepals 2
44b. Sepals 4 or 5
45a. Leaves pitcher-shape, open at the top
45b. Leaves tubular, closed at the end

[Pg xxvii]


1a. Twining plants, with flowers in panicles or racemes
1b. Plants with milky juice
1c. Plants not twining (some climb by tendrils) and not with milky juice. — 2.
2a. Flowers in close spikes or heads, surrounded or subtended by a green or colored bract, the whole resembling a single flower; petals minute or wanting; leaves broad, not grass-like, linear, or sword-shape
2b. Plants with narrow, linear, grass-like, or sword-shape leaves (a few species of Carex have broader, lanceolate to ovate leaves); flowers greenish, yellowish, or brownish, never brightly colored, and frequently dry or chaffy in texture; perianth small or wanting; individual flowers inconspicuous in size, but sometimes grouped into conspicuous clusters — 3.
2c. Plants with leaves of various widths, but the flowers petaloid, i. e., with a white or colored, more or less conspicuous perianth, and never chaffy in texture. In a few cases the flowers are greenish, but the size and conspicuousness of the perianth identifies them in this class — 9.
3a. Flowers in the axils of dry, membranous or chaffy scales, which are regularly arranged into spikes or spikelets of uniform size and structure, which are variously grouped or clustered; fruit an achene; grasses and sedges, with joined stems and sheathing leaves, or leafless and the stems not jointed — 4.
3b. Flowers not subtended individually by dry, membranous, or chaffy scales, and otherwise not agreeing with 3a — 5.
4a. Leaf-sheaths split on the side opposite the leaf; leaves usually 2-ranked, i. e., in 2 longitudinal rows with the third leaf above the first; stems rounded or flat, never triangular, usually hollow
4b. Leaf-sheaths closed into a continuous tube; leaves usually 3-ranked; stems frequently triangular, usually solid
5a. Flowers in dense spikes — 6.
5b. Flowers in heads, racemes, or panicles — 7.
6a. Spike terminal, with pistillate flowers at the base and staminate ones at the apex
6b. Spike short, apparently lateral, near the apex of the stem
7a. Flowers in globose heads which are arranged in spikes, the lowest heads pistillate, the upper staminate; ovary 1-celled
7b. Flowers in globose woolly heads terminating leafless unbranched stalks
7c. Flowers in a spike-like raceme; ovaries 3-6, separate or nearly so
7d. Flowers in heads or panicles, all perfect, not woolly, with one ovary — 8.
8a. Leaves less than 1 cm. wide, or none; divisions of the perianth 6
8b. Leaves 2 cm. wide or more; petals 5
9a. Flowers regular, with all the petals of approximately the same size and shape — 10.
9b. Flowers irregular, with the petals of each flower not of the same size or shape — 22.
10a. Ovaries 3 or more, separate or barely united with each other at the base — 11.
10b. Ovary one in each flower — 12.
11a. Ovaries 3-6 in number; flowers in spikes or racemes; leaves linear
11b. Ovaries more than 6
12a. Flowers or flower-clusters lateral, axillary or apparently so — 13.
12b. Flowers or flower-clusters terminal or on leafless stalks — 14.
13a. Leaves minute and scale-like; flowers greenish-yellow
13b. Leaves linear, grass-like
13c. Leaves lanceolate or broader, not grass-like or scale-like
14a. Divisions of the perianth 5-12 cm. long — 15.
14b. Divisions of the perianth less than 5 cm. long — 16.
15a. Flowers blue, or blue marked with yellow
15b. Flowers not blue
16a. Flowers solitary — 17.
16b. Flowers 2 or more, in some kind of a cluster — 18.
17a. Leaves 2, broadly heart-shape, basal, on long stalks
17b. Leaves not heart-shape 20,
18a. Divisions of the perianth (4 to 6) all essentially alike — 19.
18b. Perianth differentiated into sepals and 2 or 3 colored petals — 21.
19a. Flowers in umbels — 20.  [Pg xxix]
19b. Flowers in dense round heads; petals 5
19c. Flowers in spikes, racemes, or panicles
20a. Ovary inferior, appearing below the perianth as a swelling at the apex of the stalk; flowers bright yellow; leaves linear
20b. Ovary inferior; flowers blue or white, terminating a flattened winged leafless flower-stalk
20c. Ovary superior, i. e., in the center of the flower and separate from the perianth
21a. Flowers in dense heads, yellow, 1 cm. wide or smaller
21b. Flowers in umbels, blue or white, 2 cm. wide or larger
22a. Flowers blue; ovary superior (defined under 20c); stamens distinct from the other parts of the flower — 23.
22b. Ovary inferior (defined under 20a); floral structure complex; stamens attached to other parts of the flower and not resembling ordinary stamens in form or structure
23a. Leaves triangular-heart-shape at base; marsh plants
23b. Leaves not heart-shape at base

[Pg xxx]


1a. Foliage leaves all or principally basal; flower-stalk either completely leafless, or bearing a single pair of opposite leaves only. Bracts and scale-leaves are not considered foliage leaves — 2.
1b. Stem-leaves present on the stem, either one or more in number, and not limited to a single opposite pair — 3.
2a. Leaves compound — 7.
2b. Leaves simple — 18.
3a. Stem-leaves all or chiefly opposite or whorled (the bracts of the flower clusters may be alternate) — 4.
3b. Stem-leaves all or chiefly alternate — 5.
4a. Flowers small and inconspicuous, the perianth none or greenish or chaffy, and never petal-like in appearance — 50.
4b. Flowers with a white or colored petal-like perianth — 66.
5a. Flowers small and inconspicuous, without any white or colored petal-like perianth — 118.
5b. Flowers large or small, but with a white or colored petal-like perianth — 6.
6a. Flowers small, not exceeding 3 mm. in length or breadth — 144.
6b. Flowers larger, more than 3 mm. in length or breadth — 166.
— 7—
7a. Leaves twice to three times compound or dissected — 8.
7b. Leaves once-compound — 11.
8a. Flowers in racemes
8b. Flowers in umbels — 9.
9a. Flowers about 3 mm. wide, white or greenish-white — 10.
9b. Flowers 10-20 mm. wide, conspicuous
10a. Leaflets 5-15 cm. long
10b. Leaflets not over 2 cm. long
11a. Leaflets 2
11b. Leaflets three or more — 12.
12a. Leaflets entire or very finely toothed — 13.
12b. Leaflets coarsely toothed or lobed — 15.
13a. Flowers irregular, in dense head-like umbels
13b. Flowers consisting of a greenish or purplish bract wholly or partly enclosing a fleshy spike
13c. Flowers regular, solitary or in loose clusters — 14.
14a. Leaflets reverse heart-shape, not over 2 cm. long
14b. Leaflets 4-10 cm. long
15a. Flowers with colored or white petals and green or colored sepals — 16.
15b. Flowers with one kind of perianth only (calyx), with broad and petal-like parts
15c. Flowers with white petal-like sepals and small inconspicuous petals
16a. Petals and sepals each 4
16b. Petals and sepals each 5 or more — 17.
17a. Leaves with stipules
17b. Leaves without stipules
— 18—
18a. Stem-leaves a single opposite pair (basal leaves may also be present) — 19.
18b. Stem-leaves none — 23.
19a. Leaves entire — 20.
19b. Leaves toothed or lobed — 21.
20a. Flowers solitary; leaves broadly kidney-shape
20b. Flowers in racemes; leaves linear or lanceolate
21a. Flowers in racemes; petals deeply toothed
21b. Flowers solitary or few in a cluster; petals entire or nearly so — 22.
22a. Petals 5
22b. Petals 6 or more
23a. Flowers or flower-clusters sessile, at or partly beneath the surface of the ground
23b. Flowers or flower-heads solitary at the ends of the flower-stalks — 24.
23b. Flowers or flower-heads numerous or several on each flower-stalk — 38.
24a. Flowers yellow — 25.
24b. Flowers not yellow — 29.
25a. Juice milky
25b. Juice not milky — 26.
26a. Aquatic or mud plants, with large entire leaves 1-4 dm. wide
26b. Land plants, with smaller or lobed leaves — 27.
27a. Flower-stalk scaly
27b. Flower-stalk bare or with 1 to 2 minute bracts — 28.
28a. Flowers regular
28b. Flowers irregular, with a spur
29a. Flowers obviously irregular, with a spur — 30.
29b. Flowers regular or nearly so, without a spur — 31.
30a. Leaves sessile or nearly so; stamens 2
30b. Leaves petioled; stamens 5
31a. Flowers 3 mm. wide or smaller; leaves thread-like
31b. Flowers 6 mm. wide or larger — 32.
32a. Ovary 1 — 33.
32b. Ovaries numerous — 37.
33a. Leaves lobed or cleft — 34.
33b. Leaves entire or toothed — 35.
34a. Leaves deeply 2-cleft; stamens 8
34b. Leaf 1, palmately lobed; stamens numerous
35a. Flowers dull red
35b. Flowers white or pinkish — 36.
36a. Leaves entire; stamens with good anthers 5
36b. Leaves minutely toothed; stamens 8-10
37a. Leaves lobed or divided
37b. Leaves crenate or toothed
— 38—
38a. Flowers of the composite type, with several or many small flowerets closely aggregated into a dense head surrounded by a calyx-like involucre of small bracts
38b. Flowers separate; variously clustered, but never crowded into involucred heads — 39.
39a. Flowers in dense close spikes — 40.  [Pg xxxiii]
39b. Flowers in open loose clusters — 42.
40a. Flower-stalk leafless below the spike
40b. Flower-stalk with several bracts — 41.
41a. Leaves entire
41b. Leaves toothed
42a. Flowers in umbels — 43.
42b. Flowers in racemes, panicles, flat-topped clusters, or merely 1 or 2 — 45.
43a. Leaves almost round, peltate, palmately veined
43b. Leaves at least twice as long as broad, with a single mid-vein — 44.
44a. Stamens 5
44b. Stamens 10
45a. Leaves cylindrical, hollow, obtuse.
45b. Leaves beset on the upper side with long glandular hairs; bog plant with flowers in racemes
45c. Leaves flat, pubescent or smooth, but not with long glandular hairs — 46.
46a. Sepals and petals each 4
46b. Sepals and petals each 5 — 47.
46c. Sepals 6; petals none; flowers minute, green; leaves frequently lobed at the base
47a. Petals united with each other in an irregular corolla
47b. Petals separate from each other — 48.
48a. Stamens 10; style 1
48b. Stamens 5 or 10; styles 2
48c. Stamens and pistils each very numerous — 49.
49a. Flowers white
49b. Flowers yellow
— 50—
50a. Leaves compound or deeply lobed — 51.
50b. Leaves entire or toothed — 54.
51a. Flowers in axillary racemes, spikes, or panicles
51b. Flowers terminal, or in terminal clusters — 52.
52a. Flowers in umbels; leaves palmately compound
52b. Flowers in racemes or spikes, or solitary — 53.
53a. Leaves deeply pinnatifid; swamp plants with flowers in spikes or solitary
53b. Leaves lobed, or irregularly pinnately cut or dissected; weedy plants with flowers in racemes
54a. Juice milky
54b. Juice not milky or colored — 55.
55a. Leaves whorled — 56.
55b. Leaves all opposite — 58.
56a. Aquatic or mud plants with erect stems
56b. Prostrate weedy terrestrial plants
56c. Erect or ascending terrestrial plants — 57.
57a. Leaves more than 2.5 cm. long
57b. Leaves 2 cm. long or less
58a. Flowers in terminal or axillary spikes, racemes, or other clusters — 59.
58b. Flowers solitary or few in the axils of the leaves — 61.
59a. Leaves less than 5 mm. long
59b. Leaves more than 2 cm. long — 60.
60a. Inflorescence chiefly terminal, panicled
60b. Inflorescence chiefly axillary
61a. Flowers on long pedicels
61b. Flowers on short pedicels or sessile — 62.
62a. Stem erect, repeatedly branched; leaves linear to oblong
62b. Stem decumbent or prostrate — 63.
63a. Leaves round, ovate, or kidney-shape, rounded at the base, crenate or lobed
63b. Leaves of a narrower shape, entire, tapering toward the base — 64.
64a. Principal leaves 2-3 cm. long
64b. Principal leaves 1 cm. long or less — 65.
65a. Petals present
65b. Petals none
— 66—
66a. Plants of the composite type, with several or many small flowerets closely aggregated into a dense head surrounded or subtended by a calyx-like involucre of small bracts — 67.
66b. Flowers solitary or variously clustered, but not in involucred heads — 70.
67a. Involucre of 4 conspicuous white bracts, much larger than the small flower-cluster
67b. Involucral bracts green or somewhat colored — 68.
68a. Stem more or less prickly
68b. Stem and leaves not prickly — 69.
69a. Stem square; foliage aromatic when crushed
69b. Stem not square; foliage not with the odor of mint
70a. The conspicuous portion of the perianth[1] composed of separate parts — 71.
70b. The conspicuous portion of the perianth[1] composed of united parts — 97.
71a. Stem-leaves compound, or cleft to the very base — 72.
71b. Stem-leaves simple — 78.
72a. Stamens more than 10 in each flower — 73.
72b. Stamens 5-10 in each flower — 75.
73a. Ovary 1 in each flower
73b. Ovaries several in each flower — 74.
74a. Leaves pinnately compound
74b. Leaves palmately compound
75a. Stamens 6
75b. Stamens 5 or 10 — 76.
76a. Leaflets reverse heart-shape; flowers yellow
76b. Leaflets not reverse heart-shape; flowers white, greenish, or pink — 77.
77a. Flowers greenish or white, about 2 mm. broad
77b. Flowers 5 mm. broad or larger
78a. Juice milky — 79.
78b. Juice not milky — 80.
79a. A 3-lobed ovary with 3 short styles visible in some of the flowers
79b. Ovaries 2 in the center of each flower (sometimes concealed by other organs); sepals and petals each 5 — 104.
80a. Perianth with one circle of parts only — 81.
80b. Each flower with both calyx and corolla — 82.
81a. Stem prostrate; flowers only 2 mm. broad
81b. Stem erect; flowers at least 20 mm. wide
82a. Petals 2 or 4 — 83.
82b. Petals 3
82c. Petals 5 or 6 — 84.
83a. Leaves with 3-5 principal veins
83b. Leaves with 1 principal mid-vein
84a. Leaves palmately lobed — 85.
84b. Leaves entire or toothed, or with 1-2 small lobes near the base only — 86.
85a. Petals entire or notched at the end
85b. Petals conspicuously fringed
86a. Ovary 1 — 87.
86b. Ovaries 2, surrounded and concealed by other organs
86c. Ovaries 4-5
87a. Leaves dotted with translucent dots (easily seen when the leaf is held to the light)
87b. Leaves not dotted with translucent dots — 88.
88a. Leaves only 1-3 mm. long, closely appressed and concealing the stem
88b. Leaves larger, not concealing the stem — 89.
89a. Style 1 or none — 90.
89b. Styles 2 to 7 — 94.
90a. Stamens 5 — 91.
90b. Stamens 10 — 92.
90c. Stamens neither 5 nor 10 — 93.
91a. Flowers blue, sessile in terminal spikes with leaf-like bracts
91b. Flowers not in terminal bracted spikes
92a. Leaves entire
92b. Leaves toothed or crenate
93a. Flowers irregular; petals 3
93b. Flowers regular; petals 5 or more
94a. Sepals 2, partly attached to the ovary
94b. Sepals 5, free from the ovary — 95.
95a. Stamens 5 — 96.
95b. Stamens not 5
96a. Flowers blue or yellow
96b. Flowers white or pinkish
— 97—[Pg xxxvii]
97a. Perianth with but one circle of floral leaves — 98.
97b. Perianth consisting of both calyx and corolla — 101.
98a. Flowers small, in dense heads subtended by conspicuous bracts — 99.
98b. Flowers 2-5, in a colored spreading 5-lobed involucre
98c. Flowers in various sorts of clusters or solitary, but never in heads with a conspicuous involucre — 100.
99a. Bracts 4, white and conspicuous; stem not thorny
99b. Bracts green; stem thorny
100a. Stamens 3
100b. Stamens 4 or 5
101a. Anthers more numerous than the lobes of the corolla — 102.
101b. Anthers just as many as the lobes of the corolla — 103.
101c. Anthers fewer than the lobes of the corolla — 110.
102a. Leaves simple
102b. Leaves compound with 3 leaflets
102c. Leaves finely dissected; stems climbing
103a. Ovaries 2 — 104.
103b. Ovary 1, but very deeply 4-lobed, with a single style
103c. Ovary 1, not deeply lobed — 105.
104a. Stamens united, surrounding and more or less concealing the ovaries, and not resembling ordinary stamens
104b. Stamens separate, of ordinary structure
105a. Ovary inferior, appearing as a swelling below the calyx at the apex of the pedicel — 106.
105b. Ovary superior, located in the center of the flower — 107.
106a. Corolla 3-4-lobed
106b. Corolla 5-lobed
107a. Leaves toothed or deeply cut
107b. Leaves entire — 108.
108a. A stamen in front of the middle of each petal
108b. Stamens located between the petals or lobes of the corolla, or else so far down in the tubular corolla that their position is not easily ascertained — 109.
109a. Corolla salver-form, with a very slender tube, and abruptly spreading lobes
109b. Corolla salver-form, with a wide tube and fringed blue petals
109c. Corolla rotate, funnel-form, or bell-shape
110a. Ovary deeply 4-lobed, appearing like 4 separate ovaries; style 1
110b. Ovary not 4-lobed — 111.
111a. Stamens 2 — 112.
111b. Stamens 3
111c. Stamens 4 — 113.
112a. Flowers in dense heads
112b. Flowers solitary or in loose clusters
113a. Corolla distinctly 2-lipped and irregular — 114.
113b. Corolla not distinctly 2-lipped, its 5 lobes all alike or nearly so — 115.
114a. Calyx 2-lipped; the upper lip with 3 awl-shape teeth, the lower with 2 short teeth; flowers in slender terminal spikes
114b. Calyx not obviously 2-lipped, its teeth equal or nearly so
115a. Flowers sessile or nearly so, in spikes — 116.
115b. Flowers in nodding pairs at the top of a slender stalk
115c. Flowers solitary or in clusters; not in spikes or nodding pairs — 117.
116a. Corolla not over 1 cm. long
116b. Corolla 1.5 cm. long or more
117a. Calyx-lobes 15-25 mm. long; flowers blue, 3-5 cm. long; calyx without an obvious tube
117b. Calyx-lobes united below into an obvious calyx-tube
— 118—
118a. Leaves deeply lobed, compound, or dissected — 119.
118b. Leaves simple and not deeply lobed — 129.
119a. Leaves once-pinnately compound or lobed — 120.
119b. Leaves once-palmately compound or lobed — 124.
119c. Leaves dissected or 2-3 times compound — 125.
120a. Leaves merely lobed — 121.
120b. Leaves actually compound — 123.
121a. Flowers axillary; marsh or swamp plants
121b. Flowers in terminal clusters — 122.
122a. Stamens 2-6; taste mustard-like
122b. Stamens 10 or more
123a. Leaflets entire
123b. Leaflets serrate
124a. Flowers solitary
124b. Flowers in dense terminal umbels or heads
124c. Flowers in terminal racemes
124d. Flowers in axillary spikes or panicles
125a. Leaves merely dissected, not truly compound with distinct leaflets — 126.
125b. Leaves truly compound, with distinct petiolate leaflets — 127.
126a. Flowers in axillary clusters
126b. Flowers in terminal clusters
127a. Stamens 5; flowers in umbels — 128.
127b. Stamens 6; flowers in small clusters
127c. Stamens many; flowers in racemes or panicles
128a. Styles 5
128b. Styles 2
129a. Flowers in dense cottony heads; plants more or less white-woolly
129b. Pistillate flowers in an ovoid spiny involucre, ripening into a bur
129c. Flowers minute, subtended by palmately cleft axillary bracts
129d. Plants without any of the preceding characters — 130.
130a. Plants with milky or colored juice
130b. Plants with tendrils, at least on the upper leaves
130c. Plants of nettle-like character, with stinging hairs
130d. Plants with sheathing stipules, surrounding the stem above the base of each leaf
130e. Plants with smooth, pale, juicy, almost translucent stems
130f. Plants without any of the preceding structures or habits — 131.
131a. Flowers axillary, solitary or in few-flowered clusters — 132.  [Pg xl]
131b. Flowers in terminal, or terminal and axillary clusters — 138.
132a. Leaves linear
132b. Leaves of a broader shape than linear — 133.
133a. Flower-clusters with bracts as long as or longer than the flowers — 134.
133b. Flowers without conspicuous bracts — 135.
134a. Leaves broadest below the middle
134b. Leaves broadest above the middle
135a. Principal leaves 3 cm. long or more — 136.
135b. Principal leaves 2.5 cm. long or less — 137.
136a. Flowers nodding in the axils of the leaves
136b. Flowers erect in the axils
137a. Leaves narrowly oblong
137b. Leaves roundish and somewhat heart-shape
138a. Flowers in racemes or simple spikes — 139.
138b. Flowers in panicles or other branched clusters — 141.
139a. Leaves toothed or lobed
139b. Leaves entire — 140.
140a. Flowers sessile; leaves heart-shape
140b. Flowers pedicelled; leaves obovate
141a. Individual flowers distinct from each other, on pedicels — 142.
141b. Individual flowers crowded in close clusters, or separate and sessile — 143.
142a. Leaves finely serrate
142b. Leaves entire
143a. Flower-clusters mingled with sharp-pointed bracts
143b. Flower-clusters without bracts, or (rarely) with bracts which are not sharp-pointed
— 144—
144a. Juice not milky — 145.
144b. Juice milky; apparent flowers consisting of a few white or colored petal-like bracts, inclosing a few inconspicuous flowers without petals. In some of them a 3-lobed ovary with 3 styles may be plainly seen
145a. Plants of the composite type, with several or many small flowerets closely aggregated into a dense head subtended by a calyx-like involucre of small bracts — 146.
145b. Flowers solitary or in clusters, but not in involucred heads — 147.
146a. Leaves compound with 3 leaflets; stipules present
146b. Stipules none
147a. Leaves compound or deeply lobed — 148.
147b. Leaves simple and not deeply lobed — 154.
148a. Flowers irregular
148b. Flowers regular — 149.
149a. Petals 3
149b. Petals 4 — 150.
149c. Petals 5 or more — 151.
150a. Stamens 4
150b. Stamens 6
150c. Stamens numerous
151a. Flowers in heads or umbels — 152.
151b. Flowers in slender spikes or racemes — 153.
152a. Styles 2
152b. Styles 5
153a. Leaves ternately compound
153b. Leaves once-pinnately compound
154a. Flowers irregular — 155.
154b. Flowers regular — 156.
155a. Stamens 2
155b. Stamens 5 or 10
155c. Stamens 6 or 8
156a. With sheathing stipules surrounding the stem at the base of each leaf
156b. Stipules not encircling the stem, or none — 157.
157a. Petals 3
157b. Petals 4 — 158.
157c. Petals 5 — 161.
158a. Stamens 2 — 159.
158b. Stamens 6
158c. Stamens 8 — 160.
159a. Corolla perfectly regular; flowers in terminal clusters without bracts, becoming racemes; taste peppery
159b. Corolla slightly irregular; flowers in bracted clusters, or axillary; taste not peppery
160a. Delicate trailing evergreen, with flowers solitary in the axils and nearly or quite hidden beneath the leaves
160b. Erect or nearly so; flowers in terminal clusters
161a. Leaves sword-shape, finely parallel-veined, with bristly margins
161b. Leaves not sword-shape — 162.
162a. Leaves toothed or lobed — 163.
162b. Leaves entire — 164.
163a. Stems creeping
163b. Stems erect or nearly so
164a. Flowers in open panicles; leaves principally basal
164b. Flowers in rounded or flattened clusters; leaves principally on the stem
164c. Flowers in racemes, which become elongated at maturity — 165.
165a. Foliage glabrous
165b. Foliage pubescent
— 166—
166a. Juice milky or colored — 167.
166b. Juice watery, not colored — 172.
167a. Apparent flowers consisting of a few petal-like bracts, inclosing a few inconspicuous flowers without petals. In some of them a 3-lobed ovary with 3 styles may be seen
167b. Plants of the composite type, with several or many small flowerets closely aggregated in dense heads subtended by a calyx-like involucre of small bracts
167c. Flowers never aggregated in involucred clusters resembling a single flower — 168.
168a. Corolla very irregular; stamens protruding
168b. Corolla regular — 169.
169a. Stamens with ordinary visible anthers; ovary 1 — 170.  [Pg xliii]
169b. Stamens so grown together and to the stigma as to be almost unrecognizable; ovaries 2
170a. Petals separate
170b. Petals united — 171.
171a. Stamens attached to the tube of the corolla
171b. Stamens attached at the very base of the corolla
172a. Plants of the composite type, with several or many small flowerets closely aggregated into dense heads subtended by a calyx-like involucre of small bracts — 173.
172b. Flowers solitary or clustered, but not in involucred heads — 174.
173a. True composites, without a normal calyx
173b. A normal calyx with each floweret; leaves compound with 3 leaflets
174a. Flowers irregular, i. e., the conspicuous lobes of the perianth unlike in size or shape — 175.
174b. Flowers regular — 185.
175a. Stamens 2 or 4
175b. Stamens 5 — 176.
175c. Stamens 6 — 181.
175d. Stamens 8; leaves simple
175e. Stamens 10; leaves usually compound
175f. Stamens more than 10 — 183.
176a. Petals separate — 177.
176b. Petals united — 179.
177a. Flowers greenish or purplish, in a panicle
177b. Flowers white or purplish, in compound umbels
177c. Flowers solitary, or in few-flowered clusters — 178.
178a. Flowers blue, yellow, or white, in spring
178b. Flowers red-orange or yellow, in summer
178c. Flowers small and greenish, in spring
179a. Anthers united; stamens protruding from the very irregular corolla
179b. Anthers separate; corolla almost regular — 180.
180a. Corolla rotate; some or all filaments hairy
180b. Corolla funnel-form, dull yellow and purple; filaments not hairy
180c. Corolla funnel-form, blue or violet; filaments not hairy
181a. Leaves compound or dissected
181b. Leaves simple — 182.
182a. Flowers solitary
182b. Flowers in spikes, heads, or racemes
183a. Leaves truly compound — 184.
183b. Leaves palmately cleft; flowers 15 mm. wide or larger
183c. Leaves irregularly cleft; flowers about 5 mm. wide
184a. Petals prolonged backward into hollow spurs
184b. Petals not prolonged into spurs
— 185—
185a. Perianth consisting of one circle of parts only (usually considered to be the calyx) — 186.
185b. Perianth consisting of both calyx and corolla — 192.
186a. Leaves with sheathing stipules encircling the stem above the base of every leaf
186b. Leaves without sheathing stipules — 187.
187a. Leaves entire — 188.
187b. Leaves toothed, lobed, or compound — 190.
188a. Stamens 5
188b. Stamens 6 — 189.
188c. Stamens 10
189a. Perianth-lobes 3; perianth-tube curved
189b. Perianth-lobes 6, spreading
190a. Stamens 5
190b. Stamens 6 — 191.
190c. Stamens more than 6
191a. Climbing plant with heart-shape perianth
191b. Erect plant, with spreading perianth
192a. Corolla composed of united petals — 193.
192b. Corolla composed of separate petals — 208.
193a. Stamens 2 or 4
193b. Stamens 3; climbing vines
193c. Stamens 5 — 194.
193d. Stamens 6
193e. Stamens 8
193f. Stamens 10 — 207.
193g. Stamens very numerous
194a. Ovaries 2; flowers orange-red, in umbels
194b. Ovary 1, deeply 4-lobed; flowers in racemes
194c. Ovary 1, not deeply lobed — 195.
195a. Climbing or scrambling vines — 196.
195b. Not climbing or scrambling — 198.
196a. Flowers about 1 cm. wide — 197.
196b. Flowers 2-8 cm. wide
197a. Leaves 1 cm. wide or less
197b. Leaves 2 cm. wide or more
198a. Flowers solitary, either terminal or axillary — 199.
198b. Flowers in terminal clusters — 201.
199a. Calyx concealed by 2 bracts
199b. Calyx not completely concealed by bracts — 200.
200a. Ovary inferior, appearing as a swelling below the calyx at the base of the flower, 3-celled; stigma 3-lobed
200b. Ovary superior, located in the center of the flower
201a. Some or all filaments hairy — 202.
201b. Filaments not hairy — 203.
202a. Leaves lobed or divided
202b. Leaves not lobed
203a. Anthers close together, longer than the filaments
203b. Anthers separate from each other — 204.
204a. Leaves compound or very deeply lobed — 205.
204b. Leaves simple or with shallow lobes only — 206.
205a. Leaf-segments linear or oblong, irregular
205b. Leaves truly compound with separate leaflets
206a. Flowers greenish-yellow
206b. Flowers blue, violet, white, or intermediate tints
207a. Leaves simple
207b. Leaves compound
— 208—
208a. Petals 4 — 209.
208b. Petals 5 — 212.
208c. Petals 6 or more — 227.
209a. Stamens 4 or 8 — 210.
209b. Stamens 6, 4 long and 2 short
209c. Stamens 9 or more
210a. Leaves compound
210b. Leaves simple — 211.
211a. Ovary 1, inferior, appearing as a swelling below the calyx
211b. Ovaries 4 or 5, in the center of the flower
212a. Stamens with good anthers 5 — 213.
212b. Stamens 6 to 10 — 217.
212c. Stamens more than 10 — 222.
213a. Flowers solitary, terminating the stem
213b. Flowers axillary, solitary or in small clusters — 214.
213c. Flowers several, in loose irregular terminal clusters; leaves simple
213d. Flowers in slender spike-like racemes; leaves compound
213e. Flowers in panicles
213f. Flowers in umbels — 216.
214a. Leaves compound
214b. Leaves simple — 215.
215a. Flowers blue or yellow, erect or spreading
215b. Flowers greenish, nodding
216a. Flowers pink or purple
216b. Flowers yellow or white
217a. Leaves compound with 3 leaflets — 218.  [Pg xlvii]
217b. Leaves pinnately compound — 219.
217c. Leaves deeply palmately lobed
217d. Leaves simple and not deeply lobed — 220.
218a. Leaflets reverse heart-shape; flowers yellow
218b. Leaflets taper-pointed; flowers white or pink
219a. Leaflets entire
219b. Leaflets toothed
220a. Prostrate plants, with thick, fleshy, entire leaves
220b. Bushy branched plants, with small gray leaves concealing the stem
220c. Erect or spreading plants — 221.
221a. Ovary 1, style 1
221b. Ovary with 2 distinct styles
221c. Ovaries 5; styles 5
222a. Stamens united by their filaments into a tube
222b. Stamens separate from each other — 223.
223a. Leaves with stipules; ovaries more than 1
223b. Leaves without stipules — 224.
224a. Leaves toothed, deeply lobed, or compound
224b. Leaves entire — 225.
225a. Ovaries numerous
225b. Ovary 1 — 226.
226a. Sepals 2
226b. Sepals 3 or 5
— 227—
227a. Leaves entire
227b. Leaves lobed, divided, dissected, or compound — 228.
228a. Flowers in slender racemes
228b. Flowers solitary or clustered, but not in slender racemes — 229.
229a. Stamens 6
229b. Stamens numerous

[Pg 1]


PINACEAE, the Pine Family

Trees or shrubs, usually evergreen, with needle-like or scale-like leaves; fruit a cone or berry.

1a. Leaves in clusters of 2-5 — 2.
1b. Leaves mostly in clusters of 10 or more, on short lateral wart-like branches, deciduous each autumn
1c. Leaves not in clusters — 4.
2a. Leaves in clusters of 5
2b. Leaves in clusters of 2 or 3 — 3.
3a. Leaves 8-15 cm. long
3b. Leaves 2-4 cm. long
4a. Leaves alternate or scattered — 5.
4b. Leaves opposite or whorled — 8.
5a. Leaves four-sided — 6.
5b. Leaves flattened — 7.
6a. Leaves 6-12 mm. long
6b. Leaves 15-25 mm. long
7a. Leaves short-stalked, 15 mm. long or less
7b. Leaves sessile, 15-30 mm. long
8a. Leafy twigs soft and flattened
8b. Leafy twigs not distinctly flattened — 9.
9a. Leaves opposite — 10.
9b. Leaves in whorls of three — 11.
10a. Erect shrub or tree
10b. Prostrate or spreading shrub
11a. Erect shrub or small tree
11b. Spreading or ascending shrub, growing in dense mats

[Pg 2]

TAXACEAE, the Yew Family

Shrubs, with needle-like evergreen leaves; fruit red and berry-like.

One species in Michigan; straggling shrub 1-3 m. high

TYPHACEAE, the Cat-tail Family

Erect plants 1-2 m. high, with linear leaves and terminal spikes of brown flowers, appearing in summer.

1a. Staminate and pistillate portions of the flower-spike contiguous, the latter 2.5 cm. in diameter
1b. Staminate and pistillate portions of the spike separated, the latter 2 cm. or less in diameter

SPARGANIACEAE, the Bur-reed Family

Marsh plants with linear leaves and spherical heads of inconspicuous greenish flowers, appearing in summer.

About 5 species occur in Michigan, of which the commonest is

NAJADACEAE, the Pondweed Family

Aquatic plants with submerged or floating leaves and inconspicuous flowers in summer.

1a. Leaves opposite or whorled — 2.
1b. Leaves alternate — 2c.
2a. Leaves thread-like, 3-8 cm. long
2b. Leaves linear, toothed, abruptly dilated at the base, 3 cm. long or less (Naiad) — 3.
2c. Leaves entire, not abruptly dilated at base
3a. Leaves about 2 mm. wide, sharply and coarsely toothed
3b. Leaves very narrowly linear, with numerous minute teeth

[Pg 3]

JUNCAGINACEAE, the Arrow Grass Family

Marsh plants, with linear cylindrical leaves and inconspicuous flowers in spikes or racemes, appearing in early summer.

1a. Leaves all basal; flowers numerous in a spike-like raceme (Arrow Grass) — 2.
1b. Stem-leaves present; flowers in a loose bracted raceme (1-3 dm. high).
2a. Fruit (usually to be seen at the base of the raceme) ovoid or oblong, rounded at the base
2b. Fruit linear, narrowed at the base (1-5 dm. high)

ALISMACEAE, the Water Plantain Family

Marsh plants, with scape-like stems; flowers with 3 green sepals, 3 white petals, 6 or more stamens, and several separate pistils.

1a. Ovaries in a ring; flowers in panicles (2-8 dm. high, summer)
1b. Ovaries in a head; flowers in racemes or umbels — 2.
2a. Flowers all perfect, in a single umbel of 2-8 flowers; stamens 9 (leaves lanceolate; 15 cm. high or less; summer)
2b. Flowers in a raceme of 3-flowered whorls, the lower pistillate, the upper staminate; stamens usually more than nine (1-10 dm. high, summer) (Arrow-head) — 3.
3a. Leaves ovate to linear, not sagittate at base — 4.
3b. Leaves broad or narrow, sagittate at base — 5.
4a. Pistillate (basal) flowers sessile or nearly so (2-8 dm. high, summer)
4b. Pistillate flowers with obvious pedicels
5a. Basal lobes of the leaf conspicuous, triangular, almost or quite as long as the terminal portion — 6.
5b. Basal lobes small, short, linear — 4b.
6a. Beak of the achene very short and erect; rare species
6b. Beak of the achene sharp, incurved at right angles to the body; common species

HYDROCHARITACEAE, the Frog's Bit Family

Submerged aquatics, with inconspicuous flowers in summer.

1a. Leaves all from the base, 2 dm. long or more
1b. Leaves on the stem, 2 cm. long or less

[Pg 4]

GRAMINEAE, the Grass Family

Grasses, with linear or narrow sheathing leaves, and very small flowers without perianth in the axils of chaffy bracts, appearing in late spring and summer.

Of the large number (over 150) of grasses in Michigan, only the commonest are included here, and the student is referred to the Manuals for a full treatment of them.

Their classification depends chiefly upon the structure and arrangement of the spikelets. These consist typically of a short axis, the rachilla, almost or quite concealed by several chaffy bracts. The two lower bracts are termed glumes, and have no flowers in their axils. Above the glumes are two or more other bracts, the lemmas. In the axil of each lemma, and usually concealed by it, is a smaller bract, the palea, and between the lemma and the palea is a single flower. The number of flowers in a spikelet is therefore normally equal to the number of lemmas. The spikelets are grouped in racemes, spikes, or panicles of various size.

1a. Spikelets one-flowered — 2.
1b. Spikelets with 2 or more flowers — 24.
2a. Spikelets grouped into dense solitary cylindrical spikes — 3.
2b. Spikelets arranged in panicles or in panicled spikes — 8.
3a. Spikelets without awns or bristles, or with short awns not more than 3 mm. long — 4.
3b. Spikelets with awns 2-5 cm. long, terminating the bracts
3c. Bracts of the spikelet without terminal awns, but the spikelets with one or more long bristles arising from their base — 6.
4a. Spike-like panicle thickened in the middle, more than 1 cm. thick
4b. Spike little or not at all thickened in the middle, less than 1 cm. thick — 5.
5a. Lower bracts awned; stem erect, unbranched
5b. Lower scales unawned; stem branched at the base
6a. Bristles 5 or more at the base of each spikelet
6b. Bristles 1-3 at the base of each spikelet — 7.
7a. Spikelets about 2 mm. long; bristles not much longer, green
7b. Spikelets about 3 mm. long; bristles much longer, usually purple
8a. Spikelets numerous, in long slender symmetrical spikes — 9.
8b. Spikelets in panicles, racemes, or loose spikes — 13.
9a. Spikelets without awns; plants 8 dm. high or less (Crab Grass) — 10.  [Pg 5]
9b. Spikelets with awns; plants 12 dm. high or more — 12.
10a. Leaf-sheaths all glabrous.
10b. Lower leaf-sheaths hairy — 11.
11a. Axis of the spike flat, with wing-like margins
11b. Axis of the spike slender, without winged margins
12a. Spikes numerous, appressed to the axis of the panicle; tall marsh grass
12b. Spikes 2-6, widely divergent; plant of dry ground
13a. Spikelets subtended by an ovoid thorny involucre 3-8 mm. wide
13b. Spikelets without a thorny involucre — 14.
14a. Lower branches of the panicle spreading, bearing staminate flowers, the upper branches erect, with pistillate flowers; aquatic or marsh grass 2-4 m. high
14b. Panicle uniform throughout — 15.
15a. Spikelets with awns 2 mm. or more long — 16.
15b. Spikelets not awned, or with short inconspicuous awns — 18.
16a. Spikelets in solitary raceme-like spikes; awn about 1 cm. long or more
16b. Spikelets in branching clusters; awn less than 1 cm. long — 17.
17a. Leaf-blade 4 mm. wide or narrower; panicle slender
17b. Leaf-blade 6 mm. wide or more; panicle stout and coarse
18a. Spikelet plump and compact, its bracts closely folded about each other — 19.
18b. Spikelet very flat, its two bracts closely folded together
18c. Spikelet loose and open, somewhat flattened, its 3 bracts ascending or spreading and not closely folded about each other — 20.
19a. Panicle about half as long as the entire plant; leaves copiously hairy
19b. Panicle of smaller size
20a. Panicle strongly contracted or spike-like; plants of sand-dunes — 4a.
20b. Panicle spreading or slightly contracted; axis of the spikelet beset with bristles; leaves 2 dm. long or more; marsh grass
20c. Panicle spreading or somewhat contracted, but not spike-like; axis of the spikelet without bristles — 21.
21a. Panicle-branches erect or ascending — 22.  [Pg 6]
21b. Panicle-branches strongly spreading — 23.
22a. The two outer scales of the spikelet one-fourth as long as the third scale, or sometimes one of them absent — 17a.
22b. The glumes at least half as long as the lemma
23a. The chief lateral branches of the panicle dividing and bearing flowers below their middle
23b. The chief branches of the panicle dividing only beyond the middle
24a. Spikelets arranged in two rows to form a definite spike — 25.
24b. Spikelets in panicles, never in definite rows — 29.
25a. Spikelets in a single row on one side of the axis, forming a one-sided spike
25b. Spikelets alternating on opposite sides of the axis, forming a two-rowed spike — 26.
26a. Spikelets in pairs at each joint, forming a dense spike (Wild Rye) — 27.
26b. Spikelets single at each joint, forming a loose, open or interrupted spike — 28.
27a. Glumes lanceolate
27b. Glumes narrowly subulate
28a. Spikelets with their edges toward the axis of the spike
28b. Spikelets with their sides toward the axis of the spike
29a. Glumes longer than the lemmas
29b. Glumes shorter than the lemmas — 30.
30a. Axis of the spikelet beset with conspicuous long hairs about equaling the lemmas; tall marsh grass 1-4 m. high
30b. Spikelets without conspicuous long hairs — 31.
31a. Spikelets sessile or nearly so, forming crowded or spike-like panicles — 32.
31b. Spikelets distinctly panicled — 33.
32a. Spikelets in dense one-sided clusters at the ends of the panicle branches
32b. Spikelets in an erect spike-like cluster
33a. Lemmas, exclusive of the awn when present, 8 mm. long or more — 34.
33b. Lemmas, exclusive of the awn when present, 6 mm. long or less — 35.
34a. Awns on the lemmas 12 mm. long or more
34b. Awns on the lemmas 8 mm. long or less, or none
35a. Lemmas with 7 sharp conspicuous veins from base to apex
35b. Lemmas with 3-5 inconspicuous veins — 36.
36a. Spikelets with 5 flowers or more — 37.
36b. Spikelets with 2-4 (rarely 5) flowers — 40.
37a. Stems tufted and decumbent at base (Love Grass) — 38.
37b. Stems erect (Fescue Grass) — 39.
38a. Spikelets 1.5 mm. wide
38b. Spikelets 3 mm. wide
39a. Lemmas with conspicuous awns
39b. Lemmas without awns
40a. Tufted annual grass
40b. Perennials, with erect flowering stems — 41.
41a. Stems round
41b. Stems strongly flattened

CYPERACEAE, the Sedge Family

Grass-like or rush-like plants, with linear leaves or leafless, and inconspicuous flowers in small chaffy spikes.

Over 200 species occur in Michigan, of which only the commonest are included here. For the remaining species the Manuals should be consulted.

1a. Spikes all alike — 2.
1b. The uppermost spike or spikes wholly staminate, the lower one or more pistillate; ovary and achene surrounded by a sac, the perigynium. Mature fruit is necessary for satisfactory identification (Sedge) — 12.
2a. Stems leafless, bearing one or more spikes at or near the top — 3.
2b. Stems leafy — 6.
3a. Spike one, terminal and erect (Spike Rush) — 4.
3b. Spikes usually more than one, lateral and spreading — 5.
4a. Annual, with fibrous roots
4b. Perennial, with a running rootstock
5a. Stem round
5b. Stem 3-cornered
6a. Spikes axillary along the side of the stem
6b. Spikes terminal — 7.
7a. Spikes subtended by long conspicuous leaves which greatly exceed the flower clusters — 8.  [Pg 8]
7b. Spikes not conspicuously exceeded by the bract-like leaves — 10.
8a. Spikes in a dense head-like cluster, white-woolly at maturity
8b. Spikes not in dense heads, nor white-woolly at maturity — 9.
9a. Perennial by a creeping rootstock
9b. Perennial by hard basal corms
10a. Bracts of the spike chestnut-brown
10b. Bracts of the spike green or straw-color (Sedge) — 11.
11a. Spikes 3-8, separate
11b. Spikes very numerous and densely crowded
12a. Achenes flattened
12b. Achenes 3-angled — 13.
13a. Perigynium tipped with a sharp straight 2-toothed beak — 14.
13b. Perigynium with a short soft beak — 17.
14a. Perigynium thin and papery, loosely enclosing the achene — 15.
14b. Perigynium firm, closely enclosing the achene — 16.
15a. Perigynium less than 1 cm. long
15b. Perigynium more than 1 cm. long
16a. Perigynium smooth
16b. Perigynium hairy
17a. Beak of the perigynium bent abruptly to one side
17b. Beak of the perigynium straight

ARACEAE, the Arum Family

Individual flowers small, but crowded on a fleshy spadix to form a conspicuous spike, usually surrounded by a green or colored spathe.

1a. Leaves compound — 2.
1b. Leaves simple — 3.
2a. Leaflets 3, spathe pale green or purple (3-6 dm. high; spring)
2b. Leaflets 7-11; spathe green; spadix long and slender (3-8 dm. high; late spring)
3a. Leaves linear, sword-shape; spathe none (5-15 dm. high; early summer)
3b. Leaves broader than linear; spathe present — 4.
4a. Flower clusters partly underground, appearing in earliest spring
4b. Flower clusters peduncled, in early summer — 5.
5a. Leaves broadly ovate-cordate; spathe white
5b. Leaves more or less sagittate; spathe green

LEMNACEAE, the Duckweed Family

Minute leafless plants floating on quiet water; flowers exceedingly small and seldom seen.

1a. Plant thick, ovoid, less than 2 mm. long; roots none. Two species are reported from Michigan
1b. Plant flattened, with short roots — 2.
2a. Roots several from each rounded plant
2b. Root single from each rounded plant
Three species are reported from Michigan, of which the commonest is Lemna minor.

ERIOCAULACEAE, the Pipewort Family

Bog or marsh herbs, with small flowers in heads terminating long slender scapes.

One species in Michigan; leaves linear and basal; flower-stalk 5-15 cm. high; flower-heads whitish or lead-color

XYRIDACEAE, the Yellow-eyed Grass Famil

Small herbs with basal leaves and erect flower-stalks bearing a head of perfect yellow flowers, in summer.

1a. Base of plant bulbous-thickened (3-6 dm. high)
1b. Base of plant not bulbous-thickened (1-3 dm. high)

COMMELINACEAE, the Spiderwort Family

Leafy-stemmed herbs; flowers with 3 sepals, 3 petals, and 6 stamens, lasting but a single day; petals blue.

1a. Stamens 6; petals all equal (Spiderwort) — 2.
1b. Perfect stamens 3, sterile stamens 3; two of the petals larger than the third (3-6 dm. high; summer)
2a. Sepals villous (3-10 dm. high; late spring)
2b. Sepals glabrous, or with a tuft of hairs at the apex (4-10 dm. high; late spring)

[Pg 10]

PONTEDERIACEAE, the Pickerel-weed Family

Aquatic herbs, with 6 rather conspicuous petals; flowers in summer.

1a. Flowers blue; leaves cordate-sagittate (3-10 dm. high)
1b. Flowers yellow; leaves linear (submerged)

JUNCACEAE, the Rush Family

Grass-like or rush-like plants, with inconspicuous greenish or brownish flowers, of 3 chaffy or scale-like sepals and as many similar petals.

1a. Leaf-sheaths closed; capsule 1-celled and 3-seeded; stem or leaves usually hairy at or near the base (1-4 dm. high). (Wood Rush) — 2.
1b. Leaf-sheaths open; capsule many-seeded; plants never hairy — 4.
2a. Flowers solitary at the ends of the branches of the umbel-like cluster (spring)
2b. Flowers in spikes or dense clusters — 3.
3a. Flower-cluster spike-like, nodding at the tip (summer)
3b. Flower-cluster umbel-like (spring)
4. The genus Juncus, or Rush, contains about 25 species in Michigan, blooming in summer or autumn. For their identification the Manuals should be consulted. One of the commonest species is Juncus effusus, growing in marshes, with erect leafless cylindrical stems, bearing a lateral cluster of flowers near the summit. Another common species is Juncus tenuis, with slender stems and linear leaves, growing in hard ground, especially in woodland paths.

LILIACEAE, the Lily Family

Herbs or twining shrubs, with generally conspicuous flowers; sepals and petals each 3, and usually colored alike, stamens 6, ovary 3-celled, superior. In one species the perianth is 4-parted and the stamens are 4.

1a. Flowers or flower-clusters lateral, axillary or apparently so — 2.
1b. Flowers or flower-clusters scapose or terminal — 12.
2a. Leaves minute and scale-like (7-15 dm. high; flowers greenish-yellow, June)
2b. Leaves broad and flat, not scale-like — 3.
3a. Flowers numerous in rounded umbels; perianth-segments nearly separate; leaves long-petioled — 4.  [Pg 11]
3b. Flowers in clusters of 1-8; leaves short-petioled, sessile, or clasping — 8.
4a. Stems herbaceous (flowers greenish-yellow, ill-scented) (Carrion-flower) — 5.
4b. Stems woody, thorny, climbing (flowers greenish-yellow, early summer) (Green Brier) — 7.
5a. Stems climbing by tendrils — 6.
5b. Stem not climbing; only the upper leaves, or none, with tendrils
6a. Leaves smooth beneath.
6b. Leaves minutely pubescent beneath when mature
7a. Leaves with 5 principal veins.
7b. Leaves with 7 principal veins.
8a. Perianth-segments united into a tube (flowers axillary, late spring) (Solomon's Seal) — 9.
8b. Perianth-segments separate (2-8 dm. high; spring) (Twisted-stalk) — 10.
9a. Leaves minutely pubescent beneath; filaments rough, inserted at three-fourths the length of the perianth (3-8 dm. high)
9b. Leaves smooth beneath; filaments smooth, inserted at the middle of the perianth tube (5-15 dm. high)
10a. Leaves distinctly clasping the stem; flowers greenish-white
10b. Leaves closely sessile; flowers reddish to purple — 11.
11a. Rootstock short and thick; berries spherical
11b. Rootstock long and slender; berries 3-angled
12a. Perianth-segments 5-12 cm. long — 13.
12b. Perianth-segments shorter than 5 cm. — 19.
13a. Leaves all or chiefly basal, stem-leaves bract-like or none — 14.
13b. Leaves chiefly or entirely on the stem — 15.
14a. Leaves numerous, linear or sword-shape (flowers orange, summer)
14b. Leaves a single pair, oblong or lanceolate — 21.
15a. Leaves a single whorl of 3 (Wake Robin, Trillium) — 22.
15b. Leaves numerous (6-12 dm. high; flowers yellow, orange, or red, in summer) (Lily) — 16.
16a. Flowers erect — 17.
16b. Flowers nodding — 18.
17a. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, 6-15 mm. wide, mostly whorled
17b. Leaves linear, 5 mm. wide or less, almost all alternate
18a. Perianth-segments strongly revolute
18b. Perianth-segments half-recurved
19a. Flower solitary — 20.
19b. Flowers in clusters, not solitary — 31.
20a. Stem with a single pair of basal leaves (Dog's-tooth Violet) — 21.
20b. Stem with a single whorl of 3 leaves (1-3 dm. high; spring) (Wake Robin, Trillium) — 22.
20c. Stem leafy (Bellwort) — 29.
21a. Perianth yellow
21b. Perianth white, bluish, or pinkish
22a. Flower sessile, red or brown  — 23.
22b. Flower peduncled, white or pink, rarely red — 24.
23a. Leaves sessile, sepals spreading
23b. Leaves short-petioled, sepals reflexed
24a. Ovary with 6 distinct wing-like angles — 25.
24b. Ovary obtusely 3-angled or lobed — 28.
25a. Stamens distinctly longer than the pistil — 26.
25b. Stamens equaling or shorter than the pistil — 27.
26a. Stigmas erect or nearly so, slender
26b. Stigmas strongly recurved or spreading
27a. Filaments about as long as the anthers
27b. Filaments half as long as the anthers or shorter
28a. Leaves obtuse; petals obtuse, white
28b. Leaves acuminate; petals acute, purple-striped at base
29a. Leaves sessile (3-6 dm. high; flowers yellow, spring)
29b. Leaves perfoliate (4-6 dm. high; flowers yellow, in spring) — 30.
30a. Leaves minutely pubescent beneath
30b. Leaves glabrous and all glaucous
31a. Stem bearing 2 whorls of 3-9 leaves (3-6 dm. high; flowers pale yellow, early summer)
31b. Stem-leaves not whorled, or all leaves basal — 32.
32a. Flowers in umbels — 33.
32b. Flowers in racemes or panicles — 38.
33a. Plant with the odor of onions or garlic (leaves all or chiefly basal; flower-stalks 2-8 dm. high, late spring or summer) — 34.
33b. Plant not with the odor of onions (leaves basal; flower-stalks 2-3 dm. high, with an umbel of 3-6 greenish-yellow flowers in late spring)
34a. Leaves oblong, 2-5 cm. wide, not present when the plants are in bloom (greenish-white flowers)
34b. Leaves linear, present with the flowers — 35.
35a. Umbel nodding or horizontal (petals rose-color)
35b. Umbel erect — 36.
36a. Pedicels longer than the flowers — 37.
36b. Pedicels equaling or shorter than the flowers (petals rose-purple)
37a. Leaves flattened; flowers pink to white
37b. Leaves cylindrical; flowers greenish to purple
38a. Leaves lanceolate to ovate, not more than 8 times as long as broad — 39.
38b. Leaves linear or grass-like, at least 12 times as long as broad — 45.
39a. Principal leaves all basal, stem-leaves none or bract-like — 40.
39b. Principal leaves on the stem — 41.
40a. Flowers in a spike-like raceme (4-10 dm. high; small white flowers in summer)
40b. Flowers in an umbel-like cluster — 34b.
41a. Perianth-segments 4 (1-2 dm. high; flowers white, early summer)
41b. Perianth-segments 6 — 42.
42a. Styles 3; flowers dioecious (3-10 dm. high; flowers white, early summer)
42b. Style 1; flowers perfect, white, in spring (False Solomon's Seal) — 43.
43a. Flowers panicled (3-6 dm. high)
43b. Flowers racemed — 44.
44a. Leaves 2-4, usually 3 (1-2 dm. high)
44b. Leaves 5-12 (2-5 dm. high)
45a. Flowers bright blue; perianth-segments united (2-3 dm. high, spring)
45b. Flowers blue, greenish, yellowish, or white; perianth-segments separate — 46.
46a. Flowers 1 cm. wide, or smaller (white or greenish, in racemes, late spring or summer) (False Asphodel) — 47.
46b. Flowers 1.5 cm. wide, or larger — 48.
47a. Stem glabrous (2 dm. high or less)
47b. Stem viscid-pubescent (1-5 dm. high)
48a. Perianth-segments with 2 glands near the base (3-8 dm. high; greenish-white panicled flowers in summer)
48b. Perianth-segments without glands — 49.
49a. Plant 3-5 dm. tall; flowers blue or nearly white, in long racemes (early summer)
49b. Plant 1-3 dm. tall; flowers greenish-white, in short corymb-like racemes (spring)


Twining herbs with net-veined leaves and greenish or white flowers in panicles or racemes.

One species in Michigan; leaves ovate-cordate; flowers in summer

AMARYLLIDACEAE, the Amaryllis Family

Plants with linear basal leaves, and perfect flowers, with 6-parted perianth, inferior ovary, and 6 stamens.

One species in Michigan; 1-2 dm. high; flowers yellow, 1 cm. wide, in spring

[Pg 15]

IRIDACEAE, the Iris Family

Herbs, with 6-parted perianth, inferior ovary, and 3 stamens.

1a. Flowers blue, 5 cm. wide or larger — 2.
1b. Flowers about 1 cm. wide (blue or white, from a spathe terminating a 2-edged stem 2-5 dm. high, spring and early summer) (Blue-eyed Grass) — 3.
2a. Flowering stems 4-8 dm. high (early summer)
2b. Flowering stems 2 dm. or less high (spring)
3a. Spathes terminal, sessile — 4.
3b. Spathes long-peduncled, axillary — 8.
4a. Spathe single — 5.
4b. Spathes 2 on each flowering stem — 7.
5a. Pedicels much longer than the inner (shorter) bract
5b. Pedicels equaling or barely exceeding the inner bract — 6.
6a. Capsule brown; common species
6b. Capsule green or yellowish; rare species
7a. Leaves folded lengthwise; stems narrowly winged
7b. Leaves flat; stem broadly winged, 2-3 mm. wide
8a. Capsules pale straw-color or whitish — 9.
8b. Capsules brown, or tinged with purple — 10.
9a. Plant with straight fibrous bristles at base; pedicels long-exserted
9b. Plants not bristly at base; pedicels barely exserted
10a. Pedicels scarcely exceeding the inner bract — 6a.
10b. Pedicels much exceeding the inner bract — 11.
11a. Stem 2-6 mm. wide; bracts 1.5-2 cm. long
11b. Stem 1-2 mm. wide; bracts 1-1.5 cm. long

ORCHIDACEAE, the Orchis Family

Herbs, with irregular flowers, one petal, the lip, differing from the others in size and shape, inferior ovary, and one or two stamens adherent to the style.

1a. Flowers in a spike-like obviously twisted raceme; small, yellowish or greenish-white, in late summer and autumn (except 4a) (Ladies' Tresses) — 2.  [Pg 16]
1b. Flowers solitary or in clusters, but never in a twisted raceme — 5.
2a. Flowers in 1 row
2b. Flowers in several rows — 3.
3a. Lip constricted near the apex
3b. Lip not constricted — 4.
4a. Lip yellow; flowers in spring and early summer
4b. Lip white
5a. Brown, purple, or yellow plants, without green color, with scale-like leaves (1-4 dm. high; summer) (Coral Root) — 6.
5b. Plants with normal green color — 9.
6a. Lip white, not spotted
6b. Lip white, spotted with red — 7.
7a. Lip distinctly 3-lobed
7b. Lip entire, or barely toothed — 8.
8a. Flower, exclusive of ovary, 4 mm. long
8b. Flower about 10 mm. long.
9a. Leaf 1 or none at flowering time — 10.
9b. Leaves a single pair, basal, or opposite on the stem; never alternate on the stem — 19.
9c. Leaves several, all basal, prominently net-veined, and frequently blotched with white (scape 1-4 dm. high; flowers whitish, pubescent, in summer) (Rattlesnake Plantain) — 26.
9d. Leaves 2 or more, on the stem — 28.
10a. Foliage leaf absent or undeveloped at flowering time, or merely persisting through the winter from the previous year — 11.
10b. Foliage leaf present at flowering time — 12.
11a. Flower rose-purple, 3-5 cm. long, solitary or two (1-3 dm. high, early summer)
11b. Flowers purplish-green, in racemes, with a spur 2 cm. long
11c. Flowers yellowish, purple tinged, in racemes; spur none (3-4 dm. high, early summer).
12a. Leaf linear or linear-lanceolate — 13.
12b. Leaf of a broader shape — 14.
13a. Flower solitary or two; leaf just below the flower — 11a.
13b. Flowers in a loose raceme, sometimes only 2; leaf basal
14a. Flowers greenish, yellowish, or white — 15.
14b. Flowers pink to purple, often variegated — 17.
15a. Flowers 6-10 mm. wide, with a spur about the same length (1-4 dm. high, summer) (Rein Orchis) — 35.  [Pg 17]
15b. Flowers 5 mm. wide or less; spur none (1-2 dm. high; summer) (Adder's Mouth) — 16.
16a. Pedicels less than 5 mm. long; lip broadest below the middle
16b. Pedicels more than 5 mm. long; lip broadest near the apex
17a. Flowers spicate; lip distinctly 3-lobed (1-2 dm. high; early summer) — 24.
17b. Flowers solitary or two — 18.
18a. Leaf on the stem, lanceolate to ovate — 34a.
18b. Leaf basal, round-ovate (2 dm. high or less; early summer)
19a. Leaves opposite and sessile near the middle of the stem (1-3 dm. high; flowers in summer) (Tway-blade) — 20.
19b. Leaves basal — 21.
20a. Lip deeply 2-cleft (flowers purplish)
20b. Lip wedge-shape, with 2 round shallow lobes (flowers greenish-yellow)
21a. Lip an inflated sac about 4 cm. long — 29d.
21b. Lip not sac-like — 22.
22a. Flower with a spur 15-50 mm. long — 23.
22b. Flower not spurred (1-2 dm. high; early summer) (Tway-blade) — 25.
23a. Flowers purple or magenta, or with white markings — 24.
23b. Flowers greenish, yellowish, or white (1-4 dm. high; summer) (Rein Orchis) — 36.
24a. Leaf 1 (1-2 dm. high; early summer)
24b. Leaves 2 (-20 cm. high; late spring)
25a. Lip about 10 mm. long, purple
25b. Lip about 5 mm. long, yellowish-green
26a. Perianth 8-10 mm. long; lip with elongated point
26b. Perianth 4-6 mm. long; lip sack-like — 27.
27a. Raceme loosely flowered, one-sided
27b. Raceme closely flowered, not one-sided
28a. Lip conspicuously sack-like, inflated (late spring and early summer) (Lady's Slipper) — 29.
28b. Lip not sack-like nor inflated — 32.
29a. Lip white (1-3 dm. high)
29b. Lip yellow (2-7 dm. high) — 30.
29c. Lip white, with crimson or purple markings — 31.
29d. Lip pink (1-4 dm. high, late spring)
30a. Lip 2-3 cm. long.
30b. Lip 3.5-5 cm. long
31a. Lip 2 cm. long or less; sepals separate (1.5-3 dm. high)
31b. Lip 3 cm. long or more; the 2 lower sepals united
32a. Flowers solitary in the axils, or solitary and terminal; not spurred — 33.
32b. Flowers in terminal racemes, spurred — 38.
33a. Leaves a whorl of 5 (2-3 dm. high; petals greenish; late summer)
33b. Leaves alternate — 34.
34a. Leaves lanceolate or narrowly ovate, 2-8 cm. long, narrowed at base; flower terminal (1-4 dm. high; flowers pink purple, early summer)
34b. Leaves ovate, 1-2 cm. long, clasping; flowers axillary (5-20 cm. high; flowers purple, summer)
35a. Leaf basal; spur nearly straight
35b. Leaf on the stem; spur strongly curved
36a. Flower-stalk without bracts below the raceme; flowers yellowish-green
36b. Flower-stalk bearing bracts below the raceme; flowers greenish-white — 37.
37a. Spur 15-25 mm. long
37b. Spur 30-50 mm. long
38a. Lip fringed (Fringed Orchis) — 43.
38b. Lip not fringed (Rein Orchis) — 39.
39a. Lip with 2-3 evident teeth at apex — 40.
39b. Lip without apical teeth — 41.
40a. Stem-leaves 3 or more
40b. Stem-leaves 2 — 35b.
41a. Flowers white
41b. Flowers greenish-yellow — 42.
42a. Lip lanceolate, tapering toward the apex
42b. Lip oblong, truncate at the apex
43a. Lip deeply 3-lobed, toothed or fringed — 44.  [Pg 19]
43b. Lip not 3-lobed, but deeply fringed — 46.
44a. Flowers purple
44b. Flowers white or nearly so — 45.
45a. Spur 3 cm. long or more
45b. Spur 1-1.5 cm. long
46a. Flowers yellow
46b. Flowers white

PIPERACEAE, the Pepper Family

Herbaceous plants with alternate leaves, and flowers without either calyx or corolla.

One species in Michigan, a marsh plant with heart-shape leaves and slender racemes of white flowers

SALICACEAE, the Willow Family

Trees or shrubs, with dioecious flowers in catkins.

1a. Leaves less than twice as long as broad, on petioles 3 cm. long or more — 2.
1b. Leaves more than twice as long as broad, on petioles 2.5 cm. long or less. (The genus Salix, or Willow, contains about 30 species in Michigan, of which only the commoner are mentioned here. For the others the Manuals should be consulted.) — 8.
2a. Petioles strongly flattened laterally — 3.
2b. Petioles not flattened laterally — 6.
3a. Leaves broadly ovate or nearly circular — 4.
3b. Leaves broadly triangular or deltoid in shape — 5.
4a. Leaves coarsely toothed
4b. Leaves finely crenulate or serrate
5a. Tree with narrow spire-shape crown
5b. Tree with spreading crown
6a. Lower side of leaf densely tomentose
6b. Lower side of leaf glabrous or nearly so — 7.
7a. Petioles glabrous
7b. Petioles ciliate
8a. Trees — 9.
8b. Shrubs — 13.
9a. Petioles without glands — 10.  [Pg 20]
9b. Petioles with glands — 11.
10a. Petiole short (about 5 mm.), broad and flat
10b. Petiole slender, about 10-20 mm. long
11a. Leaves green beneath
11b. Leaves pale beneath — 12.
12a. Branches and twigs conspicuously drooping
12b. Branches and twigs not conspicuously drooping, yellow
13a. Shrubs of bogs — 14.
13b. Plants of sand-dunes along the Great Lakes — 15.
13c. Plants of dry upland hills — 16.
13d. Plants of wet ground, river-banks, and swamps — 17.
14a. Leaves densely white-tomentose beneath
14b. Leaves pale beneath but not tomentose
14c. Leaves glabrous and green beneath
15a. Leaves linear
15b. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, tomentose beneath
15c. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, glabrous
16a. Leaves about 3 times as long as broad
16b. Leaves narrower, nearly sessile
16c. Leaves narrower, distinctly petioled
17a. Leaves linear or nearly so
17b. Leaves shining
17c. Leaves silky
17d. Leaves not as in the preceding 3 species — 18.
18a. Leaves rounded at base
18b. Leaves acute at base — 19.
19a. Leaves finely serrulate
19b. Leaves remotely serrate or nearly entire

MYRICACEAE, the Sweet Gale Family

Shrubs, with monoecious or dioecious flowers in catkins, and aromatic foliage.

1a. Leaves pinnately lobed
1b. Leaves merely serrate — 2.
2a. Shrub of sandy soil, shore of Lake Erie
2b. Shrub of bogs and shores, northern half of state

JUGLANDACEAE, the Walnut Family

Trees with alternate pinnately compound leaves and flowers in catkins.

1a. Leaflets 11-23; pith divided by partitions into chambers — 2.
1b. Leaflets 5-11; pith not partitioned (Hickory) — 3.
2a. Pith brown; bark with flat longitudinal ridges
2b. Pith cream-color; bark of trunk without flat ridges
3a. Bark of the trunk essentially smooth, not deeply furrowed or shaggy — 4.
3b. Bark of the trunk deeply furrowed or shaggy — 6.
4a. Leaflets glabrous beneath; buds greenish — 5.
4b. Leaflets somewhat pubescent beneath; buds bright yellow
5a. Twigs hairy
5b. Twigs smooth
6a. Twigs and leaves both pubescent — 7.
6b. Twigs nearly smooth; leaves smooth beneath
7a. Twigs brownish; buds densely hairy
7b. Twigs orange; buds very slightly hairy

BETULACEAE, the Birch Family

Trees or shrubs with alternate simple leaves and inconspicuous monoecious flowers, the staminate flowers in catkins, and the pistillate in catkins or small clusters.

1a. Trees, with white or yellowish bark exfoliating in thin papery plates or scales — 2.
1b. Tree or shrub, with smooth, dark gray bark; trunk fluted with prominent longitudinal ridges
1c. Trees or shrubs; the bark more or less roughened, but not exfoliating; trunk not fluted — 3.
2a. Bark white or chalky
2b. Bark yellowish
3a. Shrubs, with leaves 4 cm. long or less — 4.
3b. Shrubs or trees, with leaves 5 cm. long or more — 5.  [Pg 22]
4a. Twigs glandular-warty
4b. Twigs not glandular
5a. Twigs and bark with the odor of wintergreen
5b. Twigs and bark without odor of wintergreen — 6.
6a. Fruit clusters woody, persistent on the plant for a long time — 7.
6b. Fruit clusters herbaceous, dropping in late autumn — 9.
7a. Leaves rusty or whitish beneath, and pubescent at least on the veins
7b. Leaves green beneath, and either pubescent or smooth — 8.
8a. Leaves broadest at or below the middle
8b. Leaves broadest above the middle
9a. Tree; fruit a cluster of bladder-like sacs each containing a small achene
9b. Shrubs; fruit a nut within a close-fitting involucre — 10.
10a. Involucre of 2 broad bracts, almost separate and not much longer than the fruit
10b. Involucre of united bracts, prolonged into a bristly beak beyond the fruit

FAGACEAE, the Beech Family

Trees (or 1 species shrubby), with alternate simple leaves and monoecious flowers, the staminate flowers in catkins, and the pistillate solitary or in small clusters. Fruit a nut (or acorn) enclosed in a cup or bur.

1a. Leaves serrate with numerous sharp-pointed teeth — 2.
1b. Leaves serrate, lobed, or entire, but never serrate with sharp-pointed teeth; fruit an acorn; pith 5-angled in the young twigs (Oak) — 3.
2a. Bark gray, smooth; buds 3-4 times longer than wide; nut
2b. Bark rough; buds relatively thicker; nut rounded
3a. Leaves entire, except for a bristle at the tip
3b. Leaves toothed or lobed, the points bristle-tipped — 4.
3c. Leaves toothed or lobed, the points without bristles — 10.
4a. Leaves entire below the middle, with a few shallow lobes beyond
4b. Leaves deeply lobed throughout — 5.
5a. Cup of the acorn saucer-shape, covering less than one-third of the acorn — 6.  [Pg 23]
5b. Cup of the acorn hemispherical or top-shape, covering one-third or more of the acorn — 8.
6a. Length of the lateral leaf-lobes less than one-third the width of the leaf; acorn cup 2-2.5 cm. wide
6b. Length of the lateral leaf-lobes more than one-third the width of the leaf — 7.
7a. Acorn depressed-globose, about 1 cm. in diameter
7b. Acorn ovoid, 1.5-2 cm. thick
8a. Leaves pubescent beneath
8b. Leaves glabrous beneath — 9.
9a. Buds glabrous; inner bark of the trunk yellow
9b. Buds pubescent beyond the middle; inner bark of trunk red
10a. Leaves deeply pinnately lobed — 11.
10b. Leaves crenate, dentate, or sinuate, not lobed — 12.
11a. Leaf divided nearly to the middle by a pair of deep lateral lobes near the middle of the leaf; acorn more than half covered by the cup
11b. Leaf without a median pair of deeper lobes; acorn about one-fourth covered by the cup
12a. Leaves broadest at or near the middle, with numerous (8-13) sharp coarse teeth on each side
12b. Leaves broadest above the middle, with a few shallow, rounded or subacute teeth (7 or less on each side) — 13.
13a. Large tree; leaves densely white-tomentose beneath; acorn on a stalk 3-10 cm. long
13b. Shrub; leaves thinly white-tomentose beneath; acorn sessile or nearly so

URTICACEAE, the Nettle Family

Herbs or trees, with small inconspicuous apetalous flowers.

1a. Trees or tall shrubs — 2.
1b. Herbs — 7.
2a. Leaves oblong-ovate to lanceolate, serrate — 3.
2b. Leaves broadly ovate to rotund, some of them lobed (Mulberry) — 6.
3a. Leaves thick, coarsely and doubly serrate, broadest near the middle (Elm) — 4.  [Pg 24]
3b. Leaves thin, simply serrate, broadest distinctly below the middle
4a. Some of the branches with flat corky wings; leaves smooth above
4b. Branches without corky wings; leaves more or less rough above — 5.
5a. Petioles and axillary buds glabrous
5b. Petioles and axillary buds pubescent with rusty hairs
6a. Leaves rough above
6b. Leaves smooth above
7a. Leaves alternate — 8.
7b. Leaves opposite — 9.
8a. Leaves 2-5 cm. long, stems pubescent
8b. Leaves 8-20 cm. long; stem armed with stinging hairs
9a. Twining plant; leaves serrate or cleft
9b. Erect plant; leaves palmately compound
9c. Erect plants; leaves not lobed or compound — 10.
10a. Stems armed with stinging hairs — 11.
10b. Stems glabrous or rough, but not with stinging hairs — 12.
11a. Leaves ovate, with a heart-shape base
11b. Leaves lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, not heart-shape at base
12a. Stems glabrous, pellucid
12b. Stems rough, opaque

SANTALACEAE, the Sandalwood Family

Low herbs with alternate entire leaves and terminal clusters of small greenish-white bell-shape flowers without petals in spring and early summer.

1a. Inflorescence of several-flowered clusters terminating the stem and in the upper axils
1b. Inflorescence of axillary clusters of 1-5 flowers

[Pg 25]

LORANTHACEAE, the Mistletoe Family

Parasitic plants, attached to the branches of trees.

One species in Michigan, a dwarf brown plant 5-20 mm. long, with minute scale-like leaves, growing on the branches of Black Spruce

ARISTOLOCHIACEAE, the Birthwort Family

Flowers greenish-brown or reddish-brown, at or near the ground, with inferior 6-celled ovary.

1a. Leaves alternate, on the stem; flowers on a basal scaly branch (1-4 dm. high; summer)
1b. Leaves a single basal pair, bearing 1 short-stalked flower between them (spring)
(Wild Ginger) — 2.
2a. Lobes of the perianth ending in a tubular portion 5-8 mm. long
2b. Lobes of the perianth ending in a tubular portion over 1 cm. long
2c. Lobes of the perianth triangular, not tubular at the end

POLYGONACEAE, the Buckwheat Family

Herbs with alternate entire leaves, stipules surrounding the stem above the base of each leaf, and small green, white or pink flowers without petals.

1a. Erect or ascending or prostrate or floating plants — 2.
1b. Scrambling or climbing plants, clinging by sharp recurved prickles on the 4-angled stems (flowers greenish or pink, summer) (Tear-thumb) — 32.
1c. Twining vines (flowers white or greenish, summer) — 33.
2a. Sepals 6, the 3 inner ones enlarging in fruit and surrounding the achenes; flowers in panicles — 3.
2b. Sepals 4 or 5 (occasional flowers may be found with 6 sepals, but the flowers are not in panicles) (summer) — 13.
3a. Leaves arrow-shape or halberd-shape, with 2 basal lobes (Sorrel) — 4.
3b. Leaves without basal lobes (Dock) — 5.
4a. Leaves halberd-shape, the basal lobes directed sidewise
4b. Leaves arrow-shape, the basal lobes directed backward
5a. The projecting wings of the fruiting calyx (known as valves) with sharp slender teeth
5b. Valves entire or finely dentate, but without sharp slender teeth — 6.
6a. Pedicels straight, thickened toward the end, all regularly deflexed, 3-4 times longer than the fruiting calyx
6b. Pedicels slender, flexuous, spreading — 7.
7a. Leaves flat or nearly so — 8.
7b. Leaves with strongly crisped or wavy-curled margins; plants usually of cultivated grounds or waste places (5-10 dm., summer) — 12.
8a. With grain-like tubercles on all 3 valves of the fruit — 9.
8b. With grain-like tubercles on only one valve, or entirely lacking — 10.
9a. Valves broadly cordate, finely toothed
9b. Valves triangular-ovate, entire or nearly so
10a. Valves oblong
10b. Valves broadly heart-shape — 11.
11a. Grain-like tubercle less than half as long as the valve
11b. Grain-like tubercle more than half as long as the valve
12a. The grain-like tubercle on the valves of the fruit broadly ellipsoid, with rounded apex
12b. Tubercle ovoid with tapering apex
13a. Flowers inconspicuous, in small axillary clusters; leaves jointed at the base (Knotweed) — 14.
13b. Flowers more or less conspicuous, in obvious spikes or racemes which terminate the stems or branches, or arise from the axils of the upper leaves — 18.
14a. Leaves sharply folded lengthwise (1-4 dm. tall)
14b. Leaves flat or nearly so — 15.
15a. The small sepals pink or white at the margin (stems prostrate or ascending) — 16.
15b. Sepals greenish or yellowish throughout (stems erect or ascending) — 17.
16a. Leaves thin; common weed of dooryards and gardens
16b. Leaves thick and fleshy; a plant of sandy shores
17a. Leaves narrowly lanceolate or linear-oblong; rare species
17b. Leaves broadly oblong, oval, or elliptical; common weed of yards and gardens
18a. Leaves broadly triangular (3-7 dm. high; flowers white)
18b. Leaves from linear to ovate or oblong — 19.
19a. Sepals 4; flowers in very long and slender spike-like racemes (4-10 dm. high)
19b. Sepals 5; flowers in spikes or racemes — 20.
20a. Flowers on slender pedicels, forming a loose raceme; leaves linear, jointed at the base (1-3 dm. high; flowers pink or white; chiefly near the Great Lakes)
20b. Flowers sessile or nearly so, forming a spike or spike-like raceme — 21.
21a. Stipular sheaths at the base of the leaves ciliate at their upper margin — 22.
21b. Stipular sheaths not ciliate at the upper margin — 28.
22a. Sheaths with spreading borders — 23.
22b. Sheaths without a spreading border, appressed to the stem (Smartweed) — 24.
23a. Leaves ovate, acuminate; stem erect (1-2 m. high; flowers pink)
23b. Leaves oblong, obtuse or subacute; spreading or ascending plant of wet soil
24a. Peduncles with glandular hairs (5-15 dm. high)
24b. Peduncles not glandular (1-8 dm. high) (Smartweed) — 25.
25a. Sepals beset with minute black dots — 26.
25b. Sepals white, pink, or red, not black-dotted — 27.
26a. Racemes drooping or nodding at the tip; achene dull-colored
26b. Racemes erect; achene smooth and shining
27a. Sheaths smooth; leaves usually with a dark spot near the base
27b. Sheaths hairy; leaves not dark-spotted
28a. Leaves obtuse or somewhat acute at the apex — 29.
28b. Leaves acuminate at the apex (5-15 dm. high; flowers white to pink) (Smartweed) — 30.
29a. Stem unbranched, erect, bearing a single terminal raceme (5-30 cm. high; flowers pink)
29b. Stem branched, submerged in water or creeping on muddy shores (flowers pink)
30a. Raceme single or two; leaves broadly ovate-lanceolate, about 3 times as long as wide
30b. Racemes numerous; leaves lanceolate, 4-6 times as long as wide — 31.
31a. Racemes drooping or nodding at the tip
31b. Racemes erect
32a. Leaves arrow-shape, the basal lobes pointing backward
32b. Leaves halberd-shape, the basal lobes pointing sidewise
33a. The three outer sepals becoming conspicuously winged in fruit (False Buckwheat) — 34.
33b. The sepals all unchanged in fruit, except in size (Black Bindweed) — 35.
34a. Wings of the fruit with wavy-curled margins
34b. Wings of the fruit flat
35a. Leaf-sheaths with a ring of bristles at the base
35b. Leaf-sheaths without a ring of bristles

CHENOPODIACEAE, the Goosefoot Family

Herbs, with inconspicuous greenish or reddish flowers without petals, in summer.

1a. Leaves linear or nearly so, entire — 2.
1b. Leaves of a broader shape, usually toothed or lobed — 5.
2a. Leaves rather stiff, narrowly linear or thread-like, with spine-like tips
2b. Leaves soft, not spine-like — 3.
3a. Widely branched, rather diffuse, 1-5 dm. tall; plant of the shore of the Great Lakes
3b. Erect plants with ascending branches — 4.
4a. Leaves glabrous (3-6 dm. tall)
4b. Leaves minutely ciliate on the margin (bushy branched, 5-10 dm. tall)
5a. Principal leaves with a broad truncate, rounded, or hastate base — 6.  [Pg 29]
5b. Principal leaves narrowed to the base — 12.
6a. Leaves broadly ovate, with 1-4 large sharp projecting teeth on each side
6b. Leaves hastate or triangular-ovate, entire or with many teeth — 7.
7a. Leaves entire or merely undulate — 8.
7b. Leaves sharply or sinuately toothed — 9.
8a. Stem erect, simple or sparingly branched
8b. Stem diffuse or ascending, freely branched
9a. Flowers in small heads, in the axils or in terminal spikes; leaves sinuately toothed or nearly entire
9b. Flowers in terminal panicles; leaves sharply toothed (Goosefoot) — 10.
10a. Panicles short, not as long as the subtending leaves
10b. Panicles long, exceeding the subtending leaves — 11.
11a. Calyx green
11b. Calyx red
12a. Foliage glandular and strongly aromatic — 13.
12b. Foliage not glandular nor aromatic; sometimes ill-scented — 15.
13a. Flowers in large loose open spreading panicles; leaves deeply pinnatifid
13b. Flowers clustered in slender axillary or terminal spikes — 14.
14a. Spikes dense, leafy
14b. Spikes open, nearly leafless
15a. Stem erect, 5-20 dm. tall; leaves frequently white-mealy
15b. Stem prostrate or ascending, succulent; leaves glaucous-white beneath
15c. Stem widely and diffusely branched; leaves green, soon deciduous

[Pg 30]

AMARANTHACEAE, the Amaranth Family

Herbs, with alternate leaves, and inconspicuous greenish or reddish flowers without petals, which are axillary or in dense clusters, blooming in summer.

1a. Flower-clusters axillary — 2.
1b. Flower-clusters in terminal spikes or panicles, sometimes also axillary — 3.
2a. Plant prostrate or decumbent; seed about 1.5 mm. broad
2b. Plant erect or ascending, widely branched; seeds about 1 mm. broad (3-10 dm. high)
3a. Principal leaves with a pair of spines at their base
3b. Spines none at the base of the leaves — 4.
4a. Weedy plants of cultivated or waste ground; flowers monoecious or polygamous; pistillate flowers with a calyx (Pigweed) — 5.
4b. Plants of swamps or stream-banks; flowers dioecious; pistillate flowers without calyx (Water Hemp) — 7.
5a. Spikes short, 1-8 cm. long, crowded in dense ovoid panicles; the terminal spike not conspicuously elongated beyond the appressed or ascending lower ones
5b. Spikes slender, 1-12 cm. long; the terminal spike greatly exceeding the short inconspicuous divergent lower ones — 6.
6a. Bracts subulate, sharply awned
6b. Bracts merely acuminate
7a. Flowers in leafy spikes, or the lower in separate clusters
7b. Flowers in separate distinct clusters

PHYTOLACCACEAE, the Pokeweed Family

Herbs with alternate entire leaves, small flowers without petals, and a many-celled ovary.

One species in Michigan, 1-2 m. high, with numerous racemes of whitish flowers, in late summer, followed by dark-purple berries

[Pg 31]

NYCTAGINACEAE, the Four-o'Clock Family

Herbs, with opposite entire leaves and flowers in small clusters surrounded by a broad open calyx-like involucre; the true calyx colored like a corolla; petals none (4-8 dm. high; flowers purple, in summer).

1a. Leaves lanceolate or narrower, sessile
1b. Leaves ovate, petioled

ILLECEBRACEAE, the Knotwort Family

Herbs, with opposite entire leaves, and minute flowers without petals. (Prostrate spreading or freely branched plants, 3 dm. high or less; flowers in summer.)

1a. Stipules none; leaves slightly connate at base, subulate
1b. Stipules present, but small; leaves elliptical or oval (Forked Chickweed) — 2.
2a. Stems pubescent; internodes seldom more than 1 cm. long
2b. Stems smooth; internodes about 2 cm. long

AIZOACEAE, the Carpet-weed Family

Prostrate herbs, with whorled leaves and small whitish axillary flowers without petals, in summer.

One species in Michigan


Herbs, with opposite or whorled entire leaves, and stems frequently swollen at the nodes. Sepals 4 or 5; petals separate, as many as the sepals, or rarely none; stamens twice as many as the petals in plants with conspicuous flowers, sometimes fewer in those with small flowers; ovary 1-celled, with the ovules on a central axis, and with 2-5 styles.

1a. Calyx spreading, of separate sepals; flowers 15 mm. wide or less; petals sometimes none — 2.
1b. Calyx tubular, of united sepals; flowers in many species more than 15 mm. wide; petals always present — 22.
2a. Stipules present — 3.
2b. Stipules none — 4.
3a. Leaves opposite; flowers pink (about 1 dm. high; summer)
3b. Leaves whorled; flowers white (1-5 dm. high; leaves linear; summer)
4a. Leaves subulate or thread-like — 5.
4b. Leaves linear to ovate — 7.
5a. Leaves opposite (1 dm. high or less; flowers white, summer)
5b. Leaves fascicled in the axils — 6.
6a. Styles 4 or 5 (1 dm. high; terminal white flowers 5 mm. wide, in summer)
6b. Styles 3 (1-4 dm. high; flowers white, nearly 1 cm. wide, summer)
7a. Petals entire (3 dm. high or less; flowers white, in summer) (Stitchwort) — 8.
7b. Petals notched or 2-cleft at the end, or none — 11.
8a. Principal leaves 1 cm. long or less — 9.
8b. Principal leaves 1.5 cm. long or more — 10.
9a. Petals half as long as the sepals
9b. Petals almost as long as the sepals
10a. Leaves oblong-oval, obtuse.
10b. Leaves lanceolate, acute.
11a. Capsule splitting by valves at maturity; styles usually 3 (Chickweed) — 12.
11b. Capsule opening by terminal teeth at maturity; styles usually 5 (tufted or matted plants, 1-5 dm. high; flowers white, in spring and summer) (Mouse-ear Chickweed) — 18.
12a. Petals distinctly shorter than the sepals, or none — 13.
12b. Petals as long as the sepals, or longer — 15.
13a. Leaves ovate (1-3 dm. high; flowers white, all summer)
13b. Leaves lanceolate to oblong (in water or wet places, 1-4 dm. high; flowers white, in summer) — 14.
14a. Flowers in a leafy terminal branching cluster
14b. Flowers in a lateral cluster with minute bracts
15a. Flowers in clusters with leaf-like bracts, or axillary and solitary (in water or wet places; 1-3 dm. high; flowers white, summer)
15b. Flowers in clusters with scale-like bracts — 16.
16a. Leaves distinctly linear; cymes lateral; a common species in marshes (2-5 dm. high; flowers white, early summer)
16b. Leaves distinctly broadest near the base; flower-cluster terminal — 17.
17a. Pedicels erect; clusters usually few-flowered; in extreme northern part of the state only (1-3 dm. high; flowers white, summer)
17b. Pedicels spreading; clusters open, many-flowered (2-6 dm. high; flowers white, in summer)
18a. Petals distinctly longer than the sepals — 19.
18b. Petals as long as the sepals, or shorter than them — 21.
19a. Flowers much less than 1 cm. wide
19b. Flowers more than 1 cm. wide — 20.
20a. Stem-leaves linear or narrowly lanceolate
20b. Stem-leaves oblong
21a. Bracts green; pedicels short and inflorescence crowded
21b. Bracts with transparent white margins; pedicels longer than the calyx and inflorescence open
22a. Styles 5 — 23.
22b. Styles 3 (3-10 dm. high; flowers in summer) — 25.
22c. Styles 2 — 29.
23a. Calyx-teeth much longer than the calyx-tube (erect, 4-10 dm. high; flowers large, red, late summer)
23b. Calyx-teeth shorter than the calyx-tube (4-10 dm. high; flowers in summer) — 24.
24a. Flowers crimson
24b. Flowers white or pink
25a. Flowers night-blooming, always wilted during the day
25b. Flowers open during the day — 26.
26a. Flowers 6 mm. wide or less, white or pink
26b. Flowers 1-2 cm. wide, white to pink or purple — 27.
26c. Flowers 2 cm. wide or more, crimson
27a. Principal leaves in whorls of 4
27b. Leaves opposite — 28.
28a. Calyx globular, much inflated or bladder-like
28b. Calyx club-shape, not inflated
29a. Leaves linear or narrowly lanceolate, 5 mm. wide or less (flowers pink or white, in summer) — 30.
29b. Leaves lanceolate or ovate (flowers pink, white, or red, in summer) — 32.
30a. Flowers in terminal clusters; leaves hairy (2-4 dm. high)
30b. Flowers solitary at the ends of long pedicels — 31.
31a. Flowers 3-4 mm. wide (1-2 dm. high)
31b. Flowers 1 cm. wide or more (1-5 dm. high)
32a. Flowers less than 1 cm. broad — 33.
32b. Flowers more than 1 cm. broad — 34.
33a. Flowers white, in large panicles (4-7 dm. high)
33b. Flowers pale red, in loose clusters (4-10 dm. high)
34a. Leaves with 3-5 prominent veins (4-7 dm. high)
34b. Leaves with one mid-vein (3-6 dm. high)

PORTULACACEAE, the Purslane Family

Herbs with opposite or alternate leaves and regular flowers with 2 sepals, 5 petals, and a 1-celled ovary with 2 or 3 styles.

1a. Leaves a single pair on each stem (1-2 dm. high; flowers pink, in racemes in early spring) (Spring Beauty) — 2.
1b. Leaves numerous (prostrate or spreading; flowers in summer) — 3.
2a. Leaves lance-ovate to oblong, not more than six times as long as wide
2b. Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, more than six times as long as wide
3a. Flowers yellow, about 5 mm. wide
3b. Flowers 2-5 cm. wide

CERATOPHYLLACEAE, the Hornwort Family

Submerged aquatics, with whorled, finely dissected leaves and inconspicuous flowers with neither calyx nor corolla.

One species in Michigan

[Pg 35]

NYMPHAEACEAE, the Water Lily Family

Aquatic plants, with usually large and floating leaves which are round or elliptical and palmately veined.

1a. Floating and emersed leaves centrally peltate — 2.
1b. Leaves rounded but not peltate, with a deep sinus — 3.
2a. Leaves round, 3 dm. in diameter or more; flowers very large, pale yellow
2b. Leaves oval, 5-15 cm. long; flowers small, purple
3a. Flowers yellow (Pond Lily) — 4.
3b. Flowers white or tinged with pink (Water Lily) — 5.
4a. Leaves more than 1 dm. long
4b. Leaves less than 1 dm. long
5a. Flowers very fragrant; leaves purplish beneath
5b. Flowers not fragrant; leaves green beneath

RANUNCULACEAE, the Crowfoot Family

Herbs with alternate (rarely opposite) leaves, acrid watery juice, separate sepals and petals, numerous stamens, and several or many (rarely only 1) simple pistils. Petals present or absent, in the latter case the sepals are usually petal-like in appearance.

1a. Climbing plants with opposite leaves (flowers in late summer) (Virgin's Bower) — 2.
1b. Aquatic plants with dissected submerged leaves (flowers in late spring and summer) (Water Crowfoot) — 3.
1c. Terrestrial or mud plants, not agreeing with 1a or 1b — 6.
2a. Flowers white, 2-3 cm. wide
2b. Flowers pink-purple, 5-8 cm. wide
3a. Flowers white — 4.
3b. Flowers yellow — 5.
4a. Leaves rigid, not collapsing when removed from the water
4b. Leaves soft, collapsing when removed from the water
5a. Submerged leaves divided into hair-like segments
5b. Submerged leaves palmately divided into linear lobes
6a. Flowers blue, irregular, with one spur (4-8 dm. high, summer)
6b. The five petals each prolonged into a spur; flowers showy (4-8 dm. tall) (Columbine) — 7.
6c. Flowers regular, without spurs — 8.
7a. Spurs nearly straight; flowers scarlet and yellow (spring)
7b. Spurs strongly incurved; flowers blue or white (spring, early summer)
8a. Flowers yellow — 9.
8b. Flowers of various colors, but never yellow — 28.
9a. Petals none; sepals petal-like; leaves crenate or dentate (2-4 dm. high, flowers in early spring)
9b. Petals small; sepals petal-like; leaves deeply palmately lobed (4-6 dm. tall; flowers in late spring)
9c. Petals yellow; sepals green or yellowish — 10.
10a. Leaves linear to narrowly oblong, entire or with minute teeth (flowers 10-15 mm. wide, in summer) — 11.
10b. Leaves broader, some or all of them lobed or divided, or cordate-ovate and not lobed — 12.
11a. Stems ascending (4-8 dm. high), rooting at the lower joints; fruits pointed with a long slender beak
11b. Stems prostrate and trailing, rooting at the joints; fruits tipped with a minute short beak
12a. Basal leaves, or most of them, merely serrate or crenate, and not obviously lobed — 13.
12b. All the leaves lobed or divided — 16.
13a. Stem-leaves resembling the basal ones, and not lobed (1-2 dm. high; summer)
13b. Stem-leaves deeply divided into oblong or linear segments — 14.
14a. Flowers 1.5 cm. wide or more (1-3 dm. high; spring)
14b. Flowers 1 cm. wide or less (2-5 dm. high; spring) — 15.
15a. Foliage glabrous or minutely pubescent; basal leaves cordate
15b. Foliage villous; basal leaves barely cordate or not at all
16a. Stem erect or essentially so — 17.
16b. Stem prostrate, creeping, or ascending. Early in spring stems may be found which appear almost erect. Common spring-flowering buttercups are all classified here — 22.
17a. Flowers 2 cm. broad or larger (Buttercup) — 18.  [Pg 37]
17b. Flowers 1 cm. broad or smaller — 19.
18a. Terminal lobe of leaf stalked (2-5 dm. high, early summer)
18b. Terminal lobe of leaf sessile (5-10 dm. high; all summer)
19a. Plant glabrous, succulent; stem hollow (1-5 dm. high; spring and summer)
19b. Plant pubescent (Buttercup) — 20.
20a. Fruits tipped with a prominent recurved beak; plant of shady woods (2-6 dm. high; flowers in late spring)
20b. Fruits tipped with a straight or slightly curved beak; plants of marshes or wet soil (3-6 dm. high; flowers in summer) — 21.
21a. Fruits in a short-cylindric head on a conical receptacle
21b. Fruits in a globose or short-ovoid head, on an obovoid receptacle
22a. Leaves dissected into numerous linear or narrowly wedge-shape divisions; plants growing in water or very wet places (late spring and summer)
22b. Leaves palmately lobed, the terminal division not definitely stalked — 23.
22c. Leaves compound, some or all of the divisions on definite stalks (Buttercup) — 24.
23a. Stem-leaves numerous (1-2 dm. tall; late spring and summer)
23b. Stem-leaves one or none, the principal leaves all basal (about 1 dm. high; flowers in summer)
24a. Style short, obviously curved — 25.
24b. Style long and slender, straight or nearly so (common spring-flowering buttercups, 2-5 dm. high) — 26.
25a. Stems creeping; flowers 2 cm. wide or more (spring)
25b. Stems ascending; flowers 1.5 cm. wide or less (3-6 dm. high; summer)
26a. The two lateral divisions of the leaf sessile or nearly so
26b. The two lateral divisions of the leaf on long stalks — 27.
27a. Roots fibrous; plants of wet soil
27b. Roots thickened; plants of dry woods or thickets
28a. Leaves dissected into numerous narrowly linear acute divisions (4-7 dm. high; flowers large, bluish, in summer)
28b. Leaves lobed or divided, but the divisions not separated by definite stalks — 29.
28c. Leaves truly compound, all their divisions separated by distinct stalks — 39.
29a. Leaves all basal, their lobes (usually 3) entire (1-2 dm. high; flowers pink-purple, in earliest spring) (Hepatica) — 30.
29b. Lobes of the leaf serrate or incised — 31.
30a. Lobes of the leaf obtuse or rounded
30b. Lobes of the leaf acute
31a. Petals none; sepals 3, usually falling away as soon as the flower opens (2-4 dm. high; flowers greenish-white, in spring)
31b. Petals none; sepals petal-like, 4 or more (Anemone) — 32.
31c. Petals present, but much smaller than the 5 petal-like sepals — 38.
32a. Stem-leaves sessile or nearly so — 33.
32b. Stem-leaves on definite petioles — 35.
33a. Ovary tipped with a long slender hairy style; flowers bluish-purple (1-4 dm. high; early spring)
33b. Ovary with a short style, densely woolly; flowers red, greenish, or white (1-4 dm. high; late spring and summer) — 34.
33c. Ovary tipped with a short style, glabrous or nearly so; flowers white (4-7 dm. high; late spring and early summer)
34a. Stem 1-flowered, sepals white
34b. Stem 3-flowered; sepals usually red
35a. Achenes densely woolly; flowers appearing in summer — 36.
35b. Achenes merely pubescent; stems 1-flowered; woodland species blooming in early spring (1-2 dm. high; flowers white)
36a. Segments of the leaf broadly wedge-shape or ovate; flowers white (4-8 dm. high) — 37.  [Pg 39]
36b. Segments of the leaf linear-oblong; flower red, greenish, or white; plants growing on the shores of the Great Lakes
37a. Segments of the basal leaves wedge-lanceolate; head of fruit cylindric
37b. Segments of the basal leaves ovate-lanceolate; head of fruit ovoid or oblong
38a. Stem-leaves present — 9b.
38b. Leaves all basal (1-2 dm. high; leaves 3-divided; flowers white, in early summer)
39a. Flowers numerous, in branching panicles (Meadow Rue) — 40.
39b. Flowers numerous, in racemes — 43.
39c. Flowers solitary or few, in loose clusters; woodland plants blooming in early spring (1-3 dm. high; flowers white to purple) — 45.
40a. Blooming in spring; stem-leaves with obvious petioles (3-7 dm. high; flowers white or greenish)
40b. Blooming in late spring or summer, stem-leaves sessile or nearly so (8-15 dm. high; flowers white) — 41.
41a. Filaments club-shape, approximately as wide as the anther
41b. Filaments slender or thread-like — 42.
42a. Leaves minutely pubescent beneath, but not glandular
42b. Leaves minutely glandular beneath
43a. Racemes slender, 10-90 cm. long (8-15 dm. high; flowers white, in summer)
43b. Racemes short and stout, 3-8 cm. long (4-8 dm. high; flowers white, in late spring) (Baneberry) — 44.
44a. Berries white; pedicels strongly thickened at maturity
44b. Berries red; pedicels slender
45a. Flowers white; stem-leaves alternate
45b. Flowers white to pink or purplish; stem-leaves whorled

[Pg 40]

MAGNOLIACEAE, the Magnolia Family

Trees or shrubs, with alternate leaves, and large, frequently showy flowers.

One species in Michigan, with broad 4-lobed leaves and greenish-yellow flowers in late spring

ANONACEAE, the Custard Apple Family

Trees or shrubs, with alternate simple entire leaves, 3 sepals, and 6 petals.

One species in Michigan; tall shrub or small tree, with obovate leaves and large dull-purple flowers in spring

MENISPERMACEAE, the Moonseed Family

Woody climbers, with alternate leaves, 6-8 petals, and numerous stamens.

One species in Michigan, with 5-7-angled leaves which are peltate near the edge, and small white flowers in early summer

BERBERIDACEAE, the Barberry Family

Shrubs or herbs; petals 6 or more; stamens 6-18, frequently opening by two terminal lids; pistil 1.

1a. Leaves simple — 2.
1b. Leaves compound — 3.
2a. Stem shrubby (flowers yellow, in racemes, in spring)
2b. Stem herbaceous, with a single pair of palmately lobed leaves (4-6 dm. tall; flower white, solitary, terminal, in spring)
3a. Leaves all basal; leaflets 2 (2-4 dm. high; the flower-stalks bearing solitary white flowers in spring)
3b. The stem-leaf ternately compound, with numerous leaflets (4-8 dm. high; with yellowish-green clustered flowers in spring)

[Pg 41]

LAURACEAE, the Laurel Family

Trees or shrubs, with aromatic taste or odor, and alternate simple leaves; flowers small, imperfect, the anthers opening by lids.

1a. Freely branched shrub; leaves obovate-oblong, entire (flowers yellow, in early spring, before the leaves)
1b. Tree or tall shrub; some or all of the leaves 2-3-lobed (flowers greenish-yellow, appearing with the leaves)

PAPAVERACEAE, the Poppy Family

Herbs with milky or colored juice, regular flowers, 2 sepals, 4, 6, or 8 petals, numerous stamens, and a 1-celled ovary.

1a. Leaves palmately lobed; flower 2.5-5 cm. wide, with 8 petals or more (leaf basal; flower white, in early spring)
1b. Leaves pinnately toothed or lobed; flower 7-10 cm. wide, with 4-6 petals (4-8 cm. high; leaves clasping; summer)
1c. Leaves divided pinnately to the mid-rib into several toothed or lobed segments; flower 2.5 cm. broad or less (3-5 cm. high; flowers yellow) — 2.
2a. Flowers in clusters of 2-4, about 3 cm. wide (spring)
2b. Flowers in umbels of 3-8, about 1.5 cm. wide

FUMARIACEAE, the Fumitory Family

Herbs with watery juice, compound or dissected leaves, and irregular flowers; sepals 2, small; petals 4, in two pairs, and one or both of the outer pair spurred at the base; stamens 6.

1a. Both outer petals spurred or sack-like at the base — 2.
1b. One outer petal spurred or sack-like at the base — 4.
2a. A climbing vine with flowers in panicles (white or pinkish flowers in summer)
2b. Low herbs (2-4 cm.) with basal leaves and white or pinkish flowers in racemes (early spring) — 3.
3a. Spurs of the corolla triangular, divergent
3b. Spurs of the corolla short and rounded
4a. Flowers about 5 mm. long, pink-purple tipped with red (3-8 dm. high; summer)
4b. Flowers 10 mm. long or more, yellow, at least at the tip (2-6 dm. high) (Corydalis) — 5.
5a. Flowers yellow throughout (spring)
5b. Flowers pink, tipped with yellow (summer).

CRUCIFERAE, the Mustard Family

Herbs, with alternate, frequently lobed or dissected leaves, and regular flowers, usually in racemes; sepals and petals each 4, stamens 6, 4 long and 2 short (or rarely 2 only), ovary 1.

1a. Petals yellow or yellowish — 2.
1b. Petals white, pink, or purple, never yellow — 29.
2a. Leaves simple, entire or dentate, never lobed — 3.
2b. Leaves deeply lobed or compound (the bracteal leaves, at or near the flower-clusters, may be simple and unlobed) — 10.
3a. Leaves clasping the stem — 4.
3b. Leaves not clasping at base — 6.
4a. Clasping base and apex of leaf obtuse or rounded; pod very long and slender (3-8 dm. high; summer)
4b. Clasping base and apex of leaf acute; pod obovoid (3-7 dm. high; early summer) (False Flax) — 5.
5a. Stem and leaves glabrous
5b. Leaves and usually the stem pubescent
6a. Flowers about 2 mm. wide (1-3 dm. high; flowers in summer) — 7.
6b. Flowers 5 mm. wide or more (2-6 dm. high; flowers in summer) — 8.
7a. Leaves about twice as long as broad, widest near or below the middle
7b. Leaves 3-5 times as long as broad, widest above the middle
8a. Leaves lanceolate, gradually tapering to the base; flowers about 15 mm. wide
8b. Leaves ovate, acute at base; flowers about 15 mm. wide — 22a.
8c. Leaves entire or minutely toothed; flowers 5-10 mm. wide — 9.
9a. Pods 25 mm. long or less, on slender pedicels about 8 mm. long
9b. Pods 20 mm. long or more, on stout pedicels about 4 mm. long
10a. Leaves bipinnate or dissected into very numerous divisions (3-8 dm. high; flowers in summer) — 11.
10b. Leaves simply pinnate — 13.
11a. Flowers about 5 mm. broad; pods about 20 mm. long by 1 mm. broad
11b. Flowers about 3 mm. broad; pods about 8 mm. long by 2 mm. wide (Tansy Mustard) — 12.
12a. Stems gray with a close fine pubescence
12b. Stems green
13a. Pod short, not more than 3 times as long as wide (coarse plants, preferring wet or sandy ground; flowers in summer) (Yellow Cress) — 14.
13b. Pod elongated, more than 4 times as long as wide — 17.
14a. Stems creeping, with erect or ascending branches; flowers about 8 mm. wide
14b. Stems erect or ascending (3-10 dm. high); flowers about 4 mm. wide — 15.
15a. Pods about twice as long as the pedicels
15b. Pods about as long as the pedicels, or shorter than them — 16.
16a. Plant glabrous or minutely pubescent
16b. Plant hirsute
17a. Petals 7 mm. long or more; pod terminating in a conspicuous beak (coarse, weedy plants, 3-12 dm. high, blooming in summer) — 18.
17b. Petals of smaller size; pod not terminating in a conspicuous beak — 24.
18a. Upper stem-leaves clasping at the base
18b. Upper stem-leaves not clasping — 19.
19a. Pod tipped with a slender cylindrical beak whose base is much narrower than the pod — 20.
19b. Pod gradually narrowed at its tip into a stout, flattened or angled beak — 22.
20a. Leaves oblanceolate, rather regularly pinnatifid, the terminal segment about the same size as the lateral ones
20b. Leaves broad, irregularly pinnatifid especially below the middle, with a large terminal segment — 21.
21a. Beak of pod 3-4 mm. long
21b. Beak of pod 5 mm. long or more
22a. Leaves dentate or lobed
22b. Leaves deeply pinnatifid — 23.
23a. Pod dehiscent when ripe by two valves, tipped with a flat or angled beak
23b. Pod indehiscent, with spongy cross-partitions between the seeds, tipped with a conical beak
24a. Terminal segment of the principal leaves much larger than the lateral segments; flowers in spring and summer — 25.
24b. Terminal segment of the principal leaves equaling or smaller than the lateral ones (5-10 dm. high; pods very long and slender; flowers in summer)
25a. Flowers about 3 mm. wide; pods erect and closely appressed to the stem (3-9 dm. high; weed blooming in summer) (Hedge Mustard) — 26.
25b. Flowers about 7 mm. wide; pods spreading or ascending (3-6 dm. high; flowers in spring) (Winter Cress) — 27.
26a. Pods pubescent
26b. Pods glabrous
27a. Lateral leaf-segments 5-8 pairs on the principal leaves
27b. Lateral leaf-segments 1-4 pairs on the principal leaves — 28.
28a. Flowers bright yellow, in racemes; pods spreading or ascending
28b. Flowers pale yellow, in corymb-like clusters; pods erect and somewhat appressed
29a. Principal stem-leaves compound or deeply lobed (the uppermost or bracteal leaves may be simple) — 30.
29b. Principal stem-leaves entire, dentate, serrate, or sometimes shallowly lobed or none (the basal leaves, at the surface of the ground, may be deeply lobed or compound) — 42.
30a. Leaves ternately divided or compound (2-5 dm. high; flowers in spring) (Toothwort) — 31.
30b. Leaves pinnately divided or compound — 33.
31a. Leaf-segments lanceolate or narrowly oblong
31b. Leaf-segments ovate or ovate-oblong — 32.
32a. Stem-leaves 2, opposite or nearly opposite
32b. Stem-leaves 2-5, alternate
33a. Plants growing in water, or in mud near water (spring and summer) — 34.  [Pg 45]
33b. Plants of dry or moist soil — 35.
34a. Aerial leaves distinctly compound, with 3-11 leaflets
34b. Aerial leaves merely serrate to pinnatifid; the submerged leaves, if present, dissected
35a. Flowers 5 mm. broad, or less — 36.
35b. Flowers 6 mm. broad, or more — 39.
36a. Stem-leaves irregularly pinnatifid or lobed; pod about as broad as long (2-4 dm. high; flowers in summer)
36b. Stem-leaves distinctly pinnatifid, with 3-6 pairs of lateral segments (spring) (Bitter Cress) — 37.
37a. Leaves chiefly basal, pubescent on the upper side (1-3 dm. tall)
37b. Stem-leaves conspicuous, glabrous on the upper side — 38.
38a. Plant of dry soil; flowers about 3 mm. wide (1-4 dm. high)
38b. Plant of moist or wet soil; flowers about 5 mm. wide (2-8 dm. high)
39a. Leaves irregularly pinnatifid or lobed, not segmented into definitely paired divisions (coarse plants 4-8 dm. high; flowers in summer) — 40.
39b. Leaves deeply segmented into 3-10 pairs of divisions — 41.
40a. Flowers pink or white from the first
40b. Flowers yellow at first, turning white with age
41a. Flowers pink or white, appearing in spring (2-5 dm. high)
41b. Flowers yellowish or cream-color; a weed blooming in summer (5-10 dm. high)
42a. A fleshy, much-branched plant of the shores of the Great Lakes, with a pod transversely divided into two joints (2-3 dm. high; summer)
42b. Pod not transversely divided into two joints — 43.
43a. Pod short, its length not more than 3 times its diameter — 44.
43b. Pod long and slender, its length more than 3 times its diameter — 55.
44a. Pods not conspicuously flattened, thick and plump, about circular in cross-section (flowers in summer) — 45.
44b. Pods distinctly flat — 46.
45a. A plant escaped from cultivation in dry or moist soil, with very large basal leaves (5-10 dm. high)
45b. A plant of water or very wet soil, the largest leaves seldom more than 15 cm. long (1-5 dm. tall)
46a. Stem-leaves clasping the stem by an auricled base — 47.
46b. Stem-leaves sessile or petioled, not clasping, or none — 49.
47a. Stem and leaves glabrous or pubescent; pod very flat and circular, about 10 mm. wide (1-5 dm. tall; early summer)
47b. Stem and leaves glabrous or pubescent; pod not more than 5 mm. wide (1-6 dm. high; spring and early summer) — 48.
48a. Pods broadly ovate
48b. Pods triangular, or slightly indented at the apex
49a. Pods about circular, or a very little longer than broad — 50.
49b. Pods ovoid or oblong, broadest near the middle, and distinctly longer than wide (Whitlow Grass) — 53.
50a. Leaves entire (1-3 dm. high; flowers in summer)
50b. Leaves serrate (2-6 dm. high; flowers in summer) — 51.
51a. Stamens 6
51b. Stamens 2 (Pepper Grass) — 52.
52a. Petals present
52b. Petals none
53a. Petals deeply 2-cleft (about 1 dm. high; early spring)
53b. Petals entire or barely notched at the tip — 54.
54a. Leaves all or chiefly at or near the base (about 1 dm. high; spring)
54b. Stems leafy up to the flowers (1-5 dm. high; summer)
55a. Stem-leaves cordate or sagittate at the base and sessile, forming a more or less clasping leaf (3-10 dm. high) (Rock Cress) — 56.
55b. Stem-leaves sessile or somewhat petioled, but not clasping — 63.
56a. Seeds in 2 rows in each cavity of the pod (early summer) — 57.
56b. Seeds in 1 row in each cavity of the pod — 59.
57a. Calyx pubescent; the pods reflexed
57b. Calyx glabrous; the pods spreading or ascending — 58.
58a. Basal leaves densely pubescent
58b. Basal leaves smooth or nearly so
59a. Petals conspicuous, about twice as long as the calyx, or longer; straight, erect, mostly unbranched plants — 60.  [Pg 47]
59b. Petals inconspicuous, equaling or but little longer than the calyx — 61.
60a. Pods 3-4 cm. long, ascending (summer)
60b. Pods 8-10 cm. long, recurved (late spring)
61a. Pods widely spreading; stem usually sparingly branched near the base (spring)
61b. Pods erect or appressed; stem usually unbranched (summer) — 62.
62a. Stem-leaves and stem smooth and glaucous
62b. Stem-leaves and stem almost always pubescent, and never glaucous
63a. Principal stem-leaves 7-10 cm. long, or more — 64.
63b. Principal stem-leaves 2-5 cm. long — 65.
64a. Leaves lanceolate or oblong; flowers 10 mm. wide or less (3-7 dm. high; summer)
64b. Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate; flowers 15-20 mm. wide (5-8 dm. high; late spring and summer)
65a. Basal leaves ovate to orbicular or cordate, not more than twice as long as broad (1-3 dm. high; spring) (Bitter Cress) — 66.
65b. Basal leaves oblong, lanceolate, or oblanceolate, at least 3 times as long as broad (1-3 dm. high) — 67.
66a. Flowers purple or rose color
66b. Flowers white
67a. Basal leaves pinnatifid (spring and summer)
67b. Basal leaves entire or toothed — 68.
68a. Leaves narrowly oblanceolate; rare plant occurring from Mackinac northward (summer)
68b. Leaves obovate or oblong; an introduced weed (spring)

CAPPARIDACEAE, the Caper Family

Herbs, with alternate compound leaves, 4 petals, and 6 or more stamens, which are about equal in length; fruit a 1-celled pod.

One species in Michigan, stamens about 11; leaflets 3 (2-4 dm. high; flowers yellowish, in summer)

[Pg 48]

RESEDACEAE, the Mignonette Family

Herbs, with alternate leaves and terminal racemes of small yellowish flowers; sepals 6, petals 6, stamens numerous.

One species in Michigan, with divided leaves and irregularly cleft petals, blooming in summer

SARRACENIACEAE, the Pitcher Plant Family

Insectivorous plants, with hollow, pitcher-shaped leaves, and large purple flowers at the ends of naked stems.

One species in Michigan, growing in bogs and blooming in late spring

DROSERACEAE, the Sundew Family

Insectivorous herbs, with a rosette of basal leaves bearing gland-tipped bristles on their upper surface, and with slender racemes of small white flowers in summer; inhabitants of bogs and swamps (2 dm. high, or less).

1a. Leaf-blade about as long as wide
1b. Leaf-blade about 2-3 times as long as wide
1c. Leaf-blade about 5-8 times as long as wide
1d. Leaf-blade narrowly linear, about 10 times as long as wide

PODOSTEMACEAE, the River Weed Family

Small submerged aquatics, growing attached to stones in running water, with dissected leaves and minute flowers.

One species in Michigan

CRASSULACEAE, the Orpine Family

Herbs, with usually alternate leaves; the sepals, petals, and pistils each 4 or 5, or in one species the petals none, and the stamens as many or twice as many as the sepals.

1a. Leaves entire (Stonecrop) — 2.
1b. Leaves toothed — 3.
2a. Leaves 3-5 mm. long, very thick and fleshy (tufted plants about 1 dm. high, with yellow flowers in summer)
2b. Leaves 10-30 mm. long, flat (tufted plants 1-2 dm. high; flowers white, in spring)
3a. Petals present, purple (2-5 dm. high; summer)
3b. Petals none (3-6 dm. high; summer)

SAXIFRAGACEAE, the Saxifrage Family

Herbs or shrubs, with alternate or opposite leaves; petals and sepals each 5, or the petals none; stamens 5 or 10; styles or stigmas 2-4.

1a. Shrubs with lobed leaves (3-15 dm. high; flowers in late spring) — 2.
1b. Herbs — 12.
2a. Stems thorny — 3.
2b. Stems not thorny (Currant) — 8.
3a. Flowers and fruits in racemes
3b. Flowers and fruit in short clusters (Gooseberry) — 4.
4a. Ovary and fruit prickly and bristly
4b. Ovary and fruit smooth, or sometimes a little glandular — 5.
5a. Stamens equaling the ovate calyx-lobes in length, or a very little longer — 6.
5b. Stamens distinctly longer than the linear calyx-lobes — 7.
6a. Leaves glabrous beneath, or nearly so
6b. Leaves softly pubescent beneath
7a. Flowers, including the stamens, about 15 mm. long
7b. Flowers, including the stamens, about 8 mm. long
8a. Calyx prolonged above the ovary into a tube which is longer than the sepals — 9.
8b. Calyx-tube shorter than the ovary or none — 10.
9a. Flowers greenish-yellow, inconspicuous; calyx-tube narrowly bell-shape
9b. Flowers bright yellow, conspicuous; calyx-tube narrow, with spreading lobes
10a. Ovary and berry bristly with glandular hairs
10b. Ovary and fruit smooth, or with sessile glands — 11.
11a. Leaves dotted beneath with resinous glands
11b. Leaves glabrous or pubescent beneath, without resinous glands
12a. Flowers minute, yellowish, without petals, in the axils of the leaves (1-2 dm. high; flowers in spring)
12b. Flowers large, solitary, terminating erect stalks (leaves mostly basal; flowers white, in late summer; flower-stalks 1-5 dm. high) (Grass-of-Parnassus) — 13.
12c. Flowers in terminal racemes, panicles, or clusters — 15.
13a. Flowers less than 2 cm. wide; leaves narrowed to the base
13b. Flowers 2-3.5 cm. wide; leaves rounded or cordate at the base — 14.
14a. A 3-cleft scale at the base of each petal
14b. A many-cleft (9-15) scale at the base of each petal
15a. Leaves linear to oblanceolate, 3 times as long as broad, or more, and pinnately veined (Saxifrage) — 16.
15b. Leaves broadly ovate to nearly circular, frequently cordate at the base, and always palmately veined or lobed — 20.
16a. Leaves basal; the flower-stalk bearing no leaves except small ones at the base of its branches — 17.
16b. Flower-stalk leafy below (1-3 dm. high; flowers yellow, summer) — 18.
17a. Petals white; sepals erect; leaves conspicuously toothed, 3-10 cm. long (1-3 dm. high; spring)
17b. Petals greenish; sepals reflexed; leaves minutely toothed or entire, 10-30 cm. long (5-10 dm. high; spring)
18a. Leaves with 3 sharp teeth at the apex
18b. Leaves with numerous teeth or entire — 19.
19a. Leaves linear, chiefly on the stem
19b. Leaves spatulate, chiefly in a basal rosette
20a. Stamens 5 (leaves mostly basal; flowers greenish or purplish in late spring, on stalks 5-10 dm. high) (Alum Root) — 21.
20b. Stamens 10 (flowers white, in spring) — 23.
21a. Flowers regular
21b. Flowers irregular, the calyx oblique, longer on the upper side than on the lower — 22.
22a. Stamens projecting beyond the calyx
22b. Stamens not projecting beyond the calyx
23a. Stem-leaves alternate or none — 24.
23b. Stem with a pair of opposite leaves (2-4 dm. high)
24a. Petals deeply fringed (1-2 dm. high)
24b. Petals entire (1-3 dm. high)

HAMAMELIDACEAE, the Witch Hazel Family

Shrubs, with alternate simple leaves; sepals, petals, and stamens each 4; ovary 2-lobed.

One species in Michigan; tall shrub with obovate leaves and yellow flowers appearing late in autumn

PLATANACEAE, the Plane Tree Family

Trees, with broad, palmately veined and lobed leaves, and minute flowers in dense spherical heads.

One species in Michigan

ROSACEAE, the Rose Family

Trees, herbs, or shrubs, with alternate, frequently compound leaves; petals and sepals usually 5, stamens numerous, pistils 1 to many; receptacle expanded into a saucer-shape or cup-shape organ, bearing the sepals, petals, and stamens at its margin, the pistils at its center, and resembling a calyx-tube or flattened calyx.

1a. Shrubs or trees — 2.
1b. Herbaceous plants — 48.
2a. Leaves compound — 3.
2b. Leaves simple — 24.
3a. Flowers in large panicles or corymbs, each flower 5-10 mm. across; leaflets 7 or more — 4.
3b. Flowers solitary or in small clusters, each flower usually 20-80 mm. wide; leaflets frequently only 3 or 5 — 7.
4a. Flowers in a pyramidal or oblong panicle, the ovaries superior (1-2 m. high; flowers white, in summer) — 70b.
4b. Flowers in rounded or hemispheric clusters, the ovary inferior — 5.
5a. Leaves pubescent on the lower surface
5b. Leaves glabrous beneath when mature (small trees; flowers white, in early summer or late spring) (Mountain Ash) — 6.
6a. Leaves acuminate at the apex
6b. Leaves obtuse or acute at the apex
7a. Flowers yellow (5-10 dm. high; summer)
7b. Flowers pink or red, rarely white, 4-10 cm. across (shrubs, 5-15 dm. high, or climbing; stems usually thorny; flowers in early summer) (Rose) — 8.
7c. Flowers white, 1-3 cm. across (4-20 dm. high; flowers in late spring) — 16.
8a. Leaflets on most of the leaves 3; styles cohering in a column which protrudes from among the stamens
8b. Leaflets 5-11; styles not cohering in a protruding column — 9.
9a. Sepals persistent on the fruit after flowering — 10.
9b. Sepals soon deciduous from the young fruit after flowering — 14.
10a. A pair of spines below each leaf larger than the other spines — 11.
10b. Spines all alike in size or nearly so, or absent completely — 12.
11a. Sepals entire
11b. Sepals pinnatifid
12a. Stems with few thorns or none at all
12b. Stems prickly — 13.
13a. Fruit somewhat pear-shape, narrowed toward the base.
13b. Fruit globose, rounded at the base
14a. The pair of spines at the base of each leaf straight or nearly so
14b. The pair of spines at the base of each leaf distinctly recurved or hooked — 15.
15a. Leaves densely glandular-pubescent beneath
15b. Leaves glabrous or minutely pubescent
16a. Stems trailing or creeping — 17.
16b. Stems erect, ascending, or arched — 19.

[Pg 53]

17a. Stems distinctly shrubby and thorny (Dewberry) — 18.
17b. Stems almost herbaceous, without thorns
18a. Leaves thin, dull above; fruit black, large and juicy
18b. Leaves firm or thick, shining above; fruit reddish, small, consisting of a few sour drupelets
19a. Ripe fruit dropping away from the white receptacle or core; terminal leaflet of each leaf with a long stalk, while the lateral leaflets are sessile or nearly so (Raspberry) — 20.
19b. Ripe fruit and receptacle or core dropping together; all the leaflets on stalks which are approximately equal in length (Blackberry) — 22.
20a. Stem very glaucous with a whitish or bluish waxy deposit; fruit black
20b. Stem not glaucous; fruit red — 21.
21a. Calyx velvety-pubescent
21b. Calyx bristly-hispid
22a. Pedicels with gland-tipped hairs, but no prickles
22b. Pedicels with prickles
22c. Pedicels with neither prickles nor gland-tipped hairs — 23.
23a. Leaves downy beneath
23b. Leaves smooth beneath
24a. Ovaries 1 or more, superior (attached to the surface of the receptacle, but not concealed within it or united to it) — 25.
24b. Ovary 1, inferior (permanently enclosed within the receptacle, with only the styles protruding) — 38.
25a. Ovaries more than 1 — 26.
25b. Ovary 1 — 30.
26a. Leaves serrate — 27.
26b. Leaves lobed — 28.
27a. Leaves glabrous or very nearly so (8-20 dm. high; flowers white or pinkish, summer)
27b. Leaves closely pubescent beneath (5-15 dm. high; flowers pink, summer)
28a. Flowers showy, purple or white, 3-4 cm. broad — 29.
28b. Flowers white, about 1 cm. wide (1-3 m. high; flowers in early summer)
29a. Flowers purple
29b. Flowers white
30a. Flowers in racemes (trees or tall shrubs; flowers white, in late spring) — 31.
30b. Flowers in small umbels or corymbs (flowers white, in spring) — 32.
31a. Leaves oblong, the points of their teeth incurved
31b. Leaves obovate, the points of their teeth spreading
32a. Flowers about 1 cm. wide — 33.
32b. Flowers about 1.5-2.5 cm. wide — 36.
33a. Low shrubs, with the spatulate or oblong leaves widest above the middle — 34.
33b. Erect tall shrubs or small trees, with the leaves widest below the middle — 35.
34a. An erect shrub (5-10 dm. high)
34b. A prostrate or ascending shrub (3-15 dm. high)
35a. Leaves very broadly ovate, almost as wide as long (small tree)
35b. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, about 3 times as long as broad (shrub or small tree, 2-10 m. high)
36a. Sepals glandular-serrate (tall shrub or small tree)
36b. Sepals entire — 37.
37a. Leaves with sharp teeth, frequently bristle-tipped; a native species (tall shrub or small tree, frequently growing in thickets)
37b. Leaves with obtuse teeth; a species escaped from cultivation (widely branched tree)
38a. Trees, in cultivation or escaped from cultivation near roads or dwellings, with showy flowers 2.5-5 cm. across, edible fruits, and no thorns (spring) — 39.
38b. Native species, trees or shrubs, growing in woods, fields, or thickets; frequently with thorns (spring) — 40.
39a. Leaves finely serrulate or entire
39b. Leaves coarsely serrate or somewhat lobed
40a. Shrubs or small trees, without thorns — 42.
40b. Bushy trees or shrubs, with thorns or stiff thorn-like branches, and with flowers generally 1.5-2.5 cm. across — 41.
41a. Flowers pink, very fragrant
41b. Flowers white (Hawthorn, the genus Crataegus). Several species of this genus occur in the state, for the identification of which the Manual must be used.
42a. Mid-vein glandular above (shrubs 1-3 m. tall; flowers white or pink) (Chokeberry) — 43.  [Pg 55]
42b. Mid-vein not glandular (shrubs or trees, 1-10 m. tall; flowers white) (Juneberry) — 44.
43a. Leaves glabrous beneath
43b. Leaves tomentose beneath
44a. Petals 15-25 mm. long — 45.
44b. Petals 5-12 mm. long — 46.
45a. Mature leaves glabrous
45b. Mature leaves pubescent beneath
46a. Flowers in racemes — 47.
46b. Flowers solitary, or in small clusters of 2-4
47a. Leaves coarsely dentate, with about 1 tooth for each lateral vein
47b. Leaves finely serrate, with about 2-3 teeth for each lateral vein
48a. Flowers yellow — 49.
48b. Flowers white, pink, purple, or rose, never yellow — 63.
49a. Plant with basal trifoliate leaves, resembling strawberry (1-3 dm. high; late spring)
49b. Plants with leafy stems — 50.
50a. Flowers solitary in the axils of foliage leaves, on long peduncles (trailing or creeping plants; flowers in late spring and summer) — 51.
50b. Flowers in narrow terminal spike-like racemes (3-8 dm. high; summer) (Agrimony) — 52.
50c. Flowers in irregular or spreading clusters — 55.
51a. Leaflets 5
51b. Leaflets 7-25
52a. Principal leaflets more than 3 times (about 3-1/2) as long as wide
52b. Principal leaflets less than 3 times (about 2-1/2) as long as wide — 53.
53a. Leaves nearly glabrous beneath, or with scattered spreading hairs
53b. Leaves softly pubescent beneath — 54.
54a. Leaves distinctly glandular beneath
54b. Leaves not glandular beneath
55a. Principal leaves palmately compound with 5-7 leaflets (Cinquefoil) — 56.  [Pg 56]
55b. Principal stem-leaves with 3 leaflets, or pinnately compound with several leaflets — 58.
56a. Leaves silvery-white beneath, laciniately toothed (1-4 dm. high; late spring and summer)
56b. Leaves not silvery-white beneath (3-10 dm. high; summer) — 57.
57a. Terminal leaflet more than 3 times as long as wide
57b. Terminal leaflet less than 3 times as long as wide
58a. Flowers about 4 mm. wide (2-6 dm. high; spring)
58b. Flowers 6 mm. wide, or wider — 59.
59a. Principal leaves with lobed leaflets, of which the terminal is the largest; leaf-axis bearing also some small leaflets between those of usual size (4-12 dm. high; late spring and summer) (Avens) — 60.
59b. Principal leaves with toothed or pinnately cleft leaflets, the lateral ones about equaling the terminal one in size, and without any small scattered leaflets (3-8 dm. tall; summer) (Cinquefoil) — 61.
60a. Terminal leaflet cordate at base
60b. Terminal leaflet wedge-shape or acute at base
61a. Leaflets 3
61b. Leaflets 5-15 — 62.
62a. Leaflets crenate
62b. Leaflets deeply incised
63a. Leaves all basal, the flowers on leafless stalks — 64.
63b. Stem-leaves present — 66.
64a. Leaves simple (1-2 dm. high; summer)
64b. Leaves trifoliate (1-2 dm. high; spring) (Strawberry) — 65.
65a. Leaflets thick and firm, the petioles and pedicels pubescent with spreading or ascending hairs; fruit subglobose, the achenes embedded in pits on its surface
65b. Leaflets thin, the petioles and pedicels nearly glabrous or with appressed hairs; fruit conic, the achenes on its surface
66a. Leaves pinnate with numerous leaflets — 67.
66b. Stem-leaves with 3-5 leaflets — 72.
67a. Leaflets laciniate or deeply lobed (flowers pink or purple, early summer) — 68.  [Pg 57]
67b. Leaflets merely toothed — 69.
68a. Stem-leaves few, small and opposite (2-4 dm. tall)
68b. Stem-leaves large and alternate (5-20 dm. tall)
69a. Individual flowers small, not exceeding 6 mm. across, in large clusters or spikes — 70.
69b. Individual flowers more than 10 mm. wide, in few-flowered clusters (Cinquefoil) — 71.
70a. Flowers in dense spikes (5-15 dm. high; late summer)
70b. Flowers in panicles
71a. Flowers red or purple (3-6 dm. high; summer)
71b. Flowers white (5-10 dm. high; early summer)
72a. Pistils 5 (5-10 dm. high; flowers white or pink, early summer) — 73.
72b. Pistils 10, in a ring (flowers pink or purple) — 68b.
72c. Pistils numerous, in a head or close group — 74.
73a. Stipules linear or subulate, 5-8 mm. long
73b. Stipules leaf-like, 10-25 mm. long, serrate
74a. Flowers red or purple — 75.
74b. Flowers white — 76.
75a. Leaflets sharply and irregularly toothed or lobed; petals erect, narrowed at the base (3-9 dm. high; early summer)
75b. Leaflets finely and regularly toothed, oblong; petals spreading — 71a.
76a. Leaflets entire below, 3-toothed at the apex (1-3 dm. high; summer)
76b. Leaflets toothed all around the margin — 77.
77a. Leaves all trifoliate (2-5 dm. high; late spring) — 17b.
77b. Some of the upper leaves merely lobed or dentate (5-8 dm. high) (Avens) — 78.
78a. Stem bristly-hairy (early summer)
78b. Stem softly and finely pubescent (summer)

[Pg 58]

LEGUMINOSAE, the Pulse Family

Trees, shrubs, or herbs, with alternate compound (except 3 species with simple) leaves and stipules; flowers usually irregular (except in a few species), with a large upper petal and 4 smaller ones, the 2 lower enclosing the stamens and pistil; stamens almost always 10, and generally united by their filaments; pistil 1, simple, ripening into a pod.

1a. Shrubs or trees — 2.
1b. Herbs, twining, but without tendrils — 9.
1c. Herbs; the leaves, or some of them, tipped with tendrils — 12.
1d. Herbs, not climbing or twining; tendrils none — 21.
2a. Leaves simple — 3.
2b. Leaves compound — 4.
3a. Leaves broadly cordate (tall shrub or small tree; flowers pink, early spring)
3b. Leaves lanceolate or elliptical (3-6 dm. high; flowers yellow, summer)
4a. Twigs or branches thorny — 5.
4b. Thorns none — 7.
5a. Thorns branched, scattered on the stem (tall tree; flowers greenish, early summer)
5b. Thorns unbranched, a pair of them at the base of each leaf (late spring) — 6.
6a. Branches glabrous or nearly so (tree; flowers white)
6b. Branches glandular-pubescent (tall shrub; flowers pinkish)
6c. Branches bristly (shrub. 1-3 m. high; flowers pink)
7a. Trees; leaves 2-3-pinnate (flowers greenish-white, spring)
7b. Low shrubs; leaves once-pinnate (3-6 dm. high; summer) — 8.
8a. Flowers bright-blue, each with a single petal
8b. Flowers yellowish and pink-purple, petals 5 — 26a.
9a. Leaflets 5-7; flowers in racemes (purplish, late summer)
9b. Leaflets 3 (flowers greenish, purple, or white, late summer) — 10.
10a. Flowers in small capitate clusters; lower 2 petals strongly incurved
10b. Flowers in racemes (Hog Peanut) — 11.
11a. Stem pubescent or glabrate; leaflets seldom more than 5 cm. long
11b. Stem villous with retrorse hairs; leaflets usually longer than 5 cm.
12a. Style with a tuft of hairs at the apex; lateral petals of the corolla adherent to the lower ones as far as the middle; stipules less than 10 mm. long, and usually less than one-fourth the length of the lower leaflets (spring and summer) (Vetch) — 13.
12b. Style hairy along the inner side; lateral petals of the corolla free from the lower ones or adherent only at the very base; stipules more than 8 mm. long and usually one-third or more the length of the lower leaflets (late spring and summer) — 17.
13a. Flowers axillary, sessile or nearly so (flowers purple) — 14.
13b. Flowers in peduncled racemes — 15.
14a. Upper leaves oblong-obovate, truncate or notched, and mucronate at the apex
14b. Upper leaves lance-linear, sharply acute
15a. Flowers 15-20 mm. long, 4-8 in a cluster (flowers purple)
15b. Flowers 8-12 mm. long — 16.
16a. Racemes one-sided; flowers blue
16b. Racemes loosely flowered, not one-sided; flowers whitish, the lower petals tipped with blue
17a. Flowers yellowish-white
17b. Flowers purple — 18.
18a. Stipules nearly regularly halberd-shape, almost as large as the leaflets
18b. Stipules half-sagittate, apparently attached laterally near the middle — 19.
19a. Leaflets 4-8 pairs, ovate; racemes with 10 or more flowers
19b. Leaflets 2-4 pairs, linear to oblong or elliptical; racemes with 2-9 flowers (Marsh Pea) — 20.
20a. Stems with a membranous wing on the margins
20b. Stems angled, but not winged
21a. Leaves simple (2-3 dm. high; flowers yellow, summer)
21b. Leaves palmately compound; leaflets 7-11 (3-6 dm. high; flowers blue, late spring)
21c. Leaves pinnately compound; leaflets 5 to many — 22.
21d. Leaves compound; leaflets 3 — 28.
22a. Leaflets 5; flowers rose-purple in a spike-like head (5-8 dm. high, late summer)
22b. Leaflets more than 5 — 23.
23a. Flowers bright-blue, in a dense spike (3-6 dm. high; summer) — 8a.
23b. Flowers bright-yellow; stamens not united (summer) — 24.
23c. Flowers white, cream-color, or yellowish, or marked with purple — 26.
24a. Leaflets linear-oblong, 2 cm. long or less; stamens 5 or 10 (3-6 dm. high) (Partridge Pea) — 25.
24b. Leaflets lanceolate-oblong, 2-5 cm. long; 7 stamens with normal anthers and 3 with imperfect anthers (8-15 dm. high)
25a. Anthers 10; flowers 2-4 cm. wide
25b. Anthers 5; flowers 5-10 mm. wide
26a. Silky-hairy with whitish hairs; flowers marked with purple (3-5 dm. high; summer)
26b. Glabrous or nearly so (summer) (Milk Vetch) — 27.
27a. Flowers greenish cream-color (4-10 dm. high)
27b. Flowers white (3-5 dm. high)
28a. Flowers in heads, umbels, or short dense spikes — 29.
28b. Flowers in loose racemes or panicles — 42.
29a. Flowers bright-yellow; decumbent or ascending plants (spring and summer) — 30.
29b. Flowers white, cream, purple, or red; never yellow — 34.
30a. Whole flower only about 2 mm. long; pod coiled — 31.
30b. Flowers larger, each one 3-6 mm. long; pod straight (1-4 dm. high) (Hop Clover) — 32.
31a. Flowers numerous in each head
31b. Flowers in clusters of 2 — 20
32a. Stipules linear
32b. Stipules ovate — 33.
33a. Heads densely flowered; flowers 20 or more; upper petal striate when dry
33b. Heads loosely flowered; flowers usually 10 or fewer; upper petal scarcely striate or not at all
34a. Leaves palmately compound, the 3 leaflets all from the same point (late spring and summer) (Clover) — 35.
34b. Leaves pinnately compound, the terminal leaflet on a distinct stalk — 39.
35a. Individual flowers sessile, or on very short pedicels — 36.  [Pg 61]
35b. Individual flowers distinctly pedicelled — 37.
36a. Heads oblong, on distinct peduncles; calyx longer than the corolla (flowers nearly white; 1-4 dm. tall)
36b. Heads nearly globose, almost sessile, closely subtended by the leaves; corolla longer than the calyx (2-8 dm. high; flowers red-purple)
37a. Stems prostrate or creeping; heads long-peduncled, arising from the creeping branches (flower-stalks 1-2 dm. high; flowers white)
37b. Some or all of the stems erect; heads arising from the leafy stems (flowers white or pink) — 38.
38a. Plants with long basal runners; flowers 10-13 mm. long (2-3 dm. high)
38b. Basal runners none; flowers 6-8 mm. long (3-8 dm. high)
39a. Prostrate; leaflets broadly ovate; flowers 3-10 in a cluster — 10a.
39b. Erect; leaflets broadest near the middle; flowers numerous (5-12 dm. high; flowers yellowish-white, late summer) (Bush Clover) — 40.
40a. Leaflets less than twice as long as broad
40b. Leaflets more than twice as long as broad — 41.
41a. Leaflets linear, 5 mm. wide or less; heads with obvious peduncles
41b. Leaflets narrowly elliptical, the principal ones more than 5 mm. wide; heads sessile or nearly so
42a. Leaflets finely toothed — 43.
42b. Leaflets entire — 44.
43a. Flowers violet or blue (3-6 dm. high; summer)
43b. Flowers yellow (1-2 m. high; summer)
43c. Flowers white (1-3 m. high; summer)
44a. Flowers yellow (5-10 dm. high; summer)
44b. Flowers white, the leaflets all from the same point (5-10 dm. high; summer)
44c. Flowers blue, purple, or pink (rarely white, and then the terminal leaflet stalked) — 45.
45a. Racemes arising from the base of the plant, leafless (4-8 dm. high; summer)
45b. Racemes terminal or a few of them axillary; leaflets generally more than 3 cm. long; pod (usually to be seen at the base of the raceme) transversely segmented into 2 or more joints (summer) (Tick Trefoil; the genus Desmodium. Pods are usually necessary for satisfactory identification) — 46.
45c. Racemes short, loose, chiefly axillary; leaflets generally less than 3 cm. long; the short ovate or ovoid pod not transversely jointed (5-10 dm. high; flowers in summer) (Bush Clover; the genus Lespedeza. Reference to the Manual is recommended) — 58.
46a. Leaves clustered near the summit of the stem (4-12 dm. high)
46b. Leaves scattered on the stem — 47.
47a. Plants prostrate; racemes panicled; leaflets nearly circular
47b. Plants decumbent or ascending; racemes short, simple, few-flowered; stipules ovate (stems 4-8 dm. long)
47c. Plants erect or ascending; racemes panicled — 48.
48a. Leaflets of an oblong type, broadest at or near the middle, and about 4 times as long as broad (5-10 dm. tall) — 49.
48b. Leaflets of an ovate or lanceolate type, broadest below the middle, and not more than 3 times as long as wide — 50.
49a. Stem pubescent; leaves sessile or nearly so
49b. Stem glabrous or nearly so; leaves obviously petioled
50a. Stipules lanceolate to ovate, 1 cm. long or more (6-15 dm. high) — 51.
50b. Stipules narrowly lanceolate or subulate, less than 1 cm. long — 54.
51a. Stems glabrous or minutely pubescent; leaves acuminate — 52.
51b. Stems hispid or densely pubescent; leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, obtuse or barely acute — 53.
52a. Leaves glabrous on both sides
52b. Leaves rough above, hairy beneath
53a. Leaflets broadly ovate
53b. Leaflets ovate-lanceolate
54a. Flowers 10-12 mm. long (1-2 m. high)
54b. Flowers 5-8 mm. long (5-8 dm. tall) — 55.
54c. Flowers 3-4 mm. long (4-8 dm. tall) — 56.
55a. Leaflets broadly ovate
55b. Leaflets oblong-ovate
56a. Leaflets 3-5 cm. long, oblong-ovate, scabrous above
56b. Leaflets 1-2.5 cm. long, broadly ovate or oval, not scabrous above — 57.
57a. Stem and leaves glabrous or very nearly so
57b. Stem and leaves conspicuously pubescent
58a. Flower-clusters sessile, or on peduncles shorter than the subtending leaves — 59.
58b. Flower-clusters, or many of them, on peduncles longer than the leaves — 61.
59a. Leaves linear-oblong
59b. Leaves ovate or oval — 60.
60a. Leaves and stem velvety or downy
60b. Leaves and stem glabrous, or with close appressed pubescence
61a. Leaves ovate or broadly elliptical; corolla conspicuously exceeding the calyx — 62.
61b. Leaves linear-oblong; calyx about as long as the corolla
62a. Stem erect or ascending — 63.
62b. Stem trailing; peduncles much exceeding the leaves
63a. Villous-pubescent; inflorescence dense; some peduncles shorter than the leaves
63b. Slightly pubescent or glabrous; inflorescence loose, on peduncles much longer than the leaves

LINACEAE, the Flax Family

Herbs with simple leaves, and regular flowers, having 5 sepals, 5 yellow or blue petals, 5 stamens, and 5 styles.

1a. Flowers blue (3-6 dm. high; summer)
1b. Flowers yellow (3-8 dm. high; summer) (Wild Flax) — 2.
2a. Middle stem-leaves below the branches opposite
2b. Middle stem-leaves below the branches alternate — 3.
3a. Leaves narrowly lanceolate to linear, 1-4 mm. wide — 4.
3b. Leaves oblanceolate to oblong, 4-6 mm. wide
4a. Leaves entire
4b. Upper leaves glandular-ciliate

[Pg 64]

OXALIDACEAE, the Wood Sorrel Family

Herbs, with alternate or basal compound leaves with 3 reverse heart-shaped leaflets; sepals, petals, and styles each 5; stamens 10. (Wood Sorrel)

1a. Leaves all basal; flowers white to pink-purple (1-2 dm. high; late spring) — 2.
1b. Stem-leaves present; flowers yellow (1-5 dm. high; spring and summer) — 3.
2a. Flower-stalks bearing a single flower
2b. Flower-stalks bearing an umbel of several flowers
3a. Stem prostrate and creeping Wood Sorrel, Oxalis repens.
3b. Stem erect or ascending — 4.
4a. Pedicels with spreading pubescence
4b. Pedicels with appressed pubescence

GERANIACEAE, the Geranium Family

Herbs, with deeply lobed or divided leaves; flowers regular, with 5 sepals, 5 petals, 5 or 10 stamens, and a 5-celled ovary.

1a. Anthers 5 (spreading or ascending plants, 2-4 dm. high; flowers pink or purple, spring and summer) — 2.
1b. Anthers 10 — 3.
2a. Leaves pinnately dissected
2b. Leaves palmately divided into cuneate lobes
3a. Leaves ternately divided, the lobes pinnatifid (2-4 dm. high; flowers purple, late spring and summer)
3b. Leaves palmately 3-11-lobed — 4.
4a. Petals 12 mm. long or more (3-6 dm. high; flowers pale purple, spring)
4b. Petals less than 10 mm. long (Crane's-bill) — 5.
5a. Seed-bearing portion of the pistil smooth, glabrous or nearly so (low spreading plant; flowers purple, late spring and summer)
5b. Seed-bearing portion of the pistil transversely wrinkled (widely branching. 1-3 dm. tall; flowers purple, summer)
5c. Seed-bearing portion of the pistil pubescent (widely branching. 1-5 dm. tall) — 6.
6a. Leaves divided almost to the base (flowers pinkish or white, spring and summer) — 7.
6b. Leaves divided one-half to two-thirds the way to the base (flowers purple, summer)
7a. Petals white or pale pink; flowers in compact clusters
7b. Petals pink-purple; flowers in loose clusters

RUTACEAE, the Rue Family

Shrubs or low trees, with compound leaves frequently dotted with translucent glands; flowers small, greenish-white, with 3-5 sepals, petals, and stamens.

1a. Leaflets 5-9; stems thorny
1b. Leaflets 3; stems not thorny

SIMARUBACEAE, the Quassia Family

Trees, with pinnately compound leaves and small greenish-yellow flowers in large panicles in early summer, ripening into winged fruits.

One species in Michigan, escaped from cultivation chiefly in towns

POLYGALACEAE, the Milkwort Family

Small herbs, with alternate or whorled simple leaves, and small irregular flowers; sepals 5, petals 3, stamens 6 or 8, more or less united with each other and with the petals.

1a. All of the leaves alternate — 2.
1b. Some or all of the leaves in whorls (1-4 dm. high; flowers greenish, purple, or white; summer) (Milkwort) — 6.
2a. Flowers few, loosely clustered, 15-20 mm. long (1-3 dm. high; flowers purple; early summer)
2b. Flowers numerous, in a spike or raceme — 3.
3a. Stem-leaves minute, linear-subulate; stem slender, erect, 3-7 dm. high (flowers pink; summer)
3b. Stem-leaves narrowly oblong or broader; stem generally 1-4 dm. high — 4.
4a. Flowers in a short thick obtuse very dense spike (flowers greenish or purple; summer)
4b. Flowers in a slender tapering spike — 5.
4c. Flowers in a raceme; plants with subterranean flowers also (flowers purple; early summer)
5a. Leaves linear or nearly so (flowers purple; summer) — 7b.
5b. Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, 2-6 cm. long (flowers white; late spring)
5c. Leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate (flowers white; late spring)
6a. Spike oval, thick, obtuse
6b. Spike acute — 7.
7a. Spike densely flowered, 1-2 cm. long
7b. Spike loosely flowered, 2-5 cm. long

EUPHORBIACEAE, the Spurge Family

Herbs, with alternate, opposite, or whorled leaves and usually milky juice. Flowers small or minute and inconspicuous, without petals and frequently without calyx. In our commoner species, several staminate flowers, each consisting of a single stamen only, and one pistillate flower, consisting of a single pedicelled 3-lobed ovary only, are included within a 4-5-lobed involucre, which is sometimes colored and resembles a calyx or corolla.

1a. Stem-leaves alternate; inflorescence axillary; flowers with calyx and several stamens (3-8 dm. tall; flowers greenish or purplish; summer) (Three-seeded Mercury) — 2.
1b. Stem-leaves opposite, usually inequilateral at base; flowers as described for the family; apparent flowers in axillary clusters (summer and autumn) (Spurge) — 3.
1c. Stem-leaves alternate; inflorescence a terminal umbel-like cluster, with its branches subtended by opposite or whorled leaves; flowers as described for the family (Spurge) — 9.
2a. Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate; flower-clusters shorter than the subtending bract
2b. Leaves lanceolate to oblong; flower-clusters equaling or exceeding the subtending bract
3a. Stem and foliage glabrous — 4.  [Pg 67]
3b. Stem and foliage more or less pubescent (stems prostrate or ascending, 1-4 dm. long) — 7.
4a. Erect or ascending, usually without basal branches (2-4 dm. tall)
4b. Prostrate or spreading, branched from the base (stems 1-4 dm. long) — 5.
5a. Leaves entire; plants of the shores of the Great Lakes
5b. Leaves serrulate — 6.
6a. Leaves broadly oblong or obovate; seeds obscurely wrinkled
6b. Leaves narrowly oblong; seeds with prominent transverse ridges
7a. Seeds black
7b. Seeds red — 8.
8a. Leaves oblong
8b. Leaves elliptical to obovate; involucre split down one side
9a. Flowers subtended by conspicuous petal-like white appendages (part of the involucre) (4-10 dm. tall; summer)
9b. Flowers not subtended by petal-like appendages — 10.
10a. Stem-leaves below the inflorescence serrulate (2-5 dm. high; summer) — 11.
10b. Stem-leaves below the inflorescence entire — 13.
11a. Upper leaves acute
11b. Upper leaves obtuse, rounded, or notched at the apex — 12.
12a. Leaves of the involucre broadly triangular-ovate, widest near the base
12b. Leaves of the involucre broadly obovate to nearly circular, widest near or above the middle
13a. Stem-leaves narrowly linear, less than 3 mm. wide (2-4 dm. high; late spring and summer)
13b. Stem-leaves narrowly oblong-spatulate, more than 5 mm. wide, and more than 3 times as long as wide (2-6 dm. high; summer) — 14.
13c. Stem-leaves obovate to nearly circular, not more than twice as long as wide (1-4 dm. high) — 15.
14a. Leaves at base of umbel narrow, resembling those on the stem
14b. Leaves at base of umbel broad, resembling those of the inflorescence
15a. Upper stem-leaves distinctly narrowed at the base; introduced species of waste places (summer)
15b. Upper stem-leaves rounded at the sessile base; native species of woodlands (spring and early summer)

CALLITRICHACEAE, the Water Starwort Family

Small herbs growing in water or in mud, with opposite entire leaves and small inconspicuous axillary flowers, with neither calyx nor corolla. (Flowers in summer).

1a. Completely submerged; leaves all linear
1b. Submerged leaves linear, emersed and floating leaves obovate

EMPETRACEAE, the Crowberry Family

Low evergreen shrubs, with the linear leaves completely rolled into a tube, and inconspicuous flowers without petals, in the axils of the leaves.

One species in Michigan, 1-3 dm. high; leaves less than 1 cm. long; flowers in summer

LIMNANTHACEAE, the False Mermaid Family

Low herbs with alternate compound leaves and minute axillary flowers; sepals 3, petals 3, stamens 6.

One species in Michigan, with stems 1-3 dm. long, and flowers in late spring

ANACARDIACEAE, the Cashew Family

Shrubs or small trees, with milky or resinous juice, alternate compound leaves sometimes poisonous to the touch, and small clustered greenish or yellowish flowers.

1a. Leaflets 7 to many (1-5 m. high) (Sumach) — 2.
1b. Leaflets 3-5.
2a. Axis of the leaves wing-margined between the leaflets
2b. Axis of the leaves not margined — 3.
3a. Leaflets entire
3b. Leaflets serrate — 4.
4a. Bark of the older stems glabrous
4b. Bark of the older stems densely velvety-hairy
5a. Terminal leaflet narrowed to a sessile base (5-20 dm. high)
5b. Terminal leaflet on a definite stalk, round or acute at base (3-8 dm. high, or climbing by hold-fast roots)

AQUIFOLIACEAE, the Holly Family

Shrubs, with alternate simple leaves and small white or greenish axillary flowers in late spring and early summer; sepals, petals, and stamens each 4-6; fruit a berry.

1a. Leaves entire or nearly so, 1-3 cm. long (1-2 m. tall)
1b. Leaves sharply serrate, 5-8 cm. long (2-5 m. high) (Black Alder) — 2.
2a. Leaves downy on the veins beneath; fruit red
2b. Leaves nearly or quite glabrous; fruit orange

CELASTRACEAE, the Staff Tree Family

Shrubs with simple leaves and inconspicuous flowers; sepals and petals each 4 or 5, the stamens of the same number and attached to a disk which fills the center of the flower; fruit showy, orange and red.

1a. Leaves alternate (climbing vine; flowers in racemes; late spring)
1b. Leaves opposite (flowers in axillary clusters) — 2.
2a. Prostrate, with short erect branches; leaves broadest above the middle (spring)
2b. Tall shrub, with leaves broadest below or near the middle (early summer)

STAPHYLEACEAE, the Bladder Nut Family

Shrubs with opposite trifoliate leaves and small axillary clusters of white flowers in spring; sepals, petals, and stamens each 5; ovary 3-celled, ripening into a large inflated 3-celled pod.

One species in Michigan (2-5 m. high)

[Pg 70]

ACERACEAE, the Maple Family

Trees or shrubs, with opposite, lobed or compound leaves and inconspicuous flowers; sepals about 5; petals the same number, or none; stamens 4-12; ovary 2-lobed, ripening into a pair of winged fruits.

1a. Leaves compound (tree; flowers appearing before the leaves)
1b. Leaves simple (Maple) — 2.
2a. Shrubs or small trees; leaves 3-5-lobed; the lobes with regularly serrate margins (flowers greenish-yellow, appearing later than the leaves) — 3.
2b. Trees; leaves 3-7-lobed; margins of the lobes entire or incised, but never regularly serrate — 4.
3a. Leaves finely and sharply serrate; twigs smooth; bark conspicuously striped with white lines
3b. Leaves coarsely and bluntly serrate; young twigs pubescent; bark not striped
4a. Angles between the leaf-lobes rounded (flowers greenish-yellow, appearing with the leaves) — 5.
4b. Angles between the leaf-lobes acute or obtuse, but not rounded (flowers purple, red, or yellowish, appearing before the leaves) — 6.
5a. Leaves glabrous beneath, or minutely pubescent on the veins
5b. Leaves downy beneath
6a. Middle leaf-lobe usually more than half the length of the leaf, narrowed at its base; broken twigs with a strong odor
6b. Middle leaf-lobe usually less than half the length of the leaf, its sides parallel or broadened at the base; broken twigs without strong odor

SAPINDACEAE, the Soapberry Family

Trees, with opposite palmately compound leaves, and showy white or yellowish flowers in panicles in spring; sepals 5; petals 4 or 5; stamens about 7; fruit a smooth brown nut.

1a. Leaflets 7; buds viscid; corolla of 5 petals
1b. Leaflets 5; buds smooth; corolla of 4 petals

[Pg 71]

BALSAMINACEAE, the Touch-me-not Family

Smooth herbs, with alternate simple leaves and showy flowers; one petal-like sepal prolonged into a spur; fruit explosive when ripe (5-10 dm. high; summer).

1a. Flowers pale-yellow, with a few red-brown spots
1b. Flowers orange, thickly spotted with red-brown

RHAMNACEAE, the Buckthorn Family

Shrubs, with simple leaves and small flowers in axillary or terminal clusters in early summer; sepals, petals, and stamens each 4 to 5, or petals none.

1a. Leaves with a single mid-vein; flowers in axillary clusters, greenish (Buckthorn) — 2.
1b. Leaves with 3-5 principal veins; flowers in dense terminal clusters, white (Red-root) — 3.
2a. Lateral veins 3-4 pairs (stout shrub, frequently thorny, escaped from cultivation)
2b. Lateral veins 6-9 pairs (1 m. high or less; in swamps and bogs)
3a. Leaves ovate, rounded or cordate at the base, 2-5 cm. wide or more (4-8 dm. high)
3b. Leaves elliptical-lanceolate, 2 cm. wide or less (3-8 dm. high)

VITACEAE, the Grape Family

Shrubs, climbing by tendrils or hold-fast roots, with palmately lobed or palmately compound leaves and small greenish flowers in panicles or flattened clusters; petals and sepals each 4 or 5; fruit a berry.

1a. Leaves compound (summer) (Virginia Creeper) — 2.
1b. Leaves simple (late spring) (Grape) — 4.
2a. Branches of the tendrils chiefly ending in adhesive disks — 3.
2b. Branches of the tendrils twining, or rarely with a few disks
3a. Stem and foliage glabrous
3b. Stem and foliage pubescent, at least when young
4a. Leaves conspicuously pubescent beneath — 5.
4b. Leaves glabrous beneath when mature, or pubescent on the veins only — 6.
5a. A tendril or flower-cluster opposite each leaf
5b. No tendril opposite each third leaf
6a. Pith continuous through the joints of the stem
6b. Pith interrupted by the solid joints — 7.
7a. Leaf-lobes with rounded angles between them
7b. Leaf-lobes with sharp angles between them — 8.
8a. Leaves coarsely toothed, unlobed or slightly 3-lobed
8b. Leaves sharply toothed, prominently lobed

TILIACEAE, the Linden Family

Trees, with alternate, simple, palmately veined leaves, and clusters of fragrant white flowers in late spring arising from the middle of a leaf-like bract; sepals and petals each 5; stamens numerous, but united into 5 sets.

One species in Michigan

MALVACEAE, the Mallow Family

Herbs with alternate leaves; sepals and petals each 5; stamens numerous, united by their filaments to form a tube surrounding the styles; ovary many-celled.

1a. Flowers yellow (summer and autumn) — 2.
1b. Flowers pale-yellow, with a dark center (2-4 dm. high; late summer)
1c. Flowers white to red or blue, never yellow — 3.
2a. Leaves broadly heart-shape (10-15 dm. tall)
2b. Leaves ovate-lanceolate (2-5 dm. tall)
3a. Calyx subtended by 6 to many bractlets which are sometimes united at base (summer) — 4.
3b. Calyx subtended by 3 bractlets, or by none — 6.
4a. Flowers 2-4 cm. wide (5-10 dm. high; flowers pink)
4b. Flowers 7-15 cm. wide (8-15 dm. high; flowers pink to nearly white) (Rose Mallow) — 5.
5a. Leaves densely pubescent below
5b. Leaves glabrous
6a. Petals prominently notched at the end or reverse heart-shape (Mallow) — 7.  [Pg 73]
6b. Petals obtuse or truncate (summer) — 11.
7a. Flowers 1-1.5 cm. wide — 8.
7b. Flowers 2-5 cm. wide (3-8 dm. high; flowers in summer) — 9.
8a. Stems procumbent, prostrate, or spreading (spring, summer, and autumn)
8b. Stems erect (10-15 dm. high; summer)
9a. Leaves with prominent but shallow lobes; flowers axillary
9b. Leaves deeply lobed or cleft; flowers in the upper axils, producing a raceme-like cluster — 10.
10a. Lobes of the leaf dentate or incised
10b. Lobes of the leaf pinnately cleft into linear or narrowly oblong divisions
11a. Flowers white (1-2 m. high)
11b. Flowers purple or pink (3-5 dm. high, spreading)

HYPERICACEAE, the St. John's-wort Family

Herbs or shrubs, with opposite entire leaves dotted with translucent glands; flowers usually yellow (or pink); sepals and petals each 5; stamens 5 to many; ovary with 3-5 styles. (St. John's-wort.)

1a. Shrubs (4-8 dm. high; flowers yellow, summer) — 2.
1b. Herbs (flowers in summer) — 3.
2a. Styles 5
2b. Styles 3
3a. Flowers pinkish, 15 mm. broad (3-5 dm. high, in swamps)
3b. Flowers yellow — 4.
4a. Flowers about 4 cm. wide; principal leaves 5-10 cm. long (7-15 dm. tall)
4b. Flowers 8-25 mm. wide; stamens 15 or more — 5.
4c. Flowers 1-10 mm. wide; stamens 12 or fewer (1-6 dm. high) — 7.
5a. Petals dotted with black (4-8 dm. high) — 6.
5b. Petals without black dots (2-5 dm. high)
6a. Flowers 20-25 mm. wide; leaves of an oblong type, broadest near the middle
6b. Flowers 10-15 mm. wide; leaves of an ovate type, broadest below the middle
7a. Leaves minute, subulate, 1-3 mm. long
7b. Leaves linear, with 1-3 principal veins, broadest near or above the middle
7c. Leaves lanceolate, 4-6 times as long as broad, with 5-7 principal veins
7d. Leaves oblong, elliptic, or ovate, 1.5-3 times as long as broad — 8.
8a. Uppermost bracts linear
8b. Uppermost bracts resembling the leaves in shape, but smaller

ELATINACEAE, the Waterwort Family

Small marsh herbs, with opposite leaves without translucent dots, and inconspicuous axillary flowers. (Stems 2-5 cm. long; flowers in summer.)

One species in Michigan

CISTACEAE, the Rock-rose Family

Small herbs or shrubs, with opposite or alternate entire leaves; flowers regular, with 5 sepals, 3 or 5 petals, and 3 to many stamens.

1a. Flowers yellow (early summer) — 2.
1b. Flowers greenish or purplish, minute, in panicles (late summer) (Pinweed) — 4.
2a. Leaves crowded, closely appressed to the branches; flowers 7 mm. wide (2-4 dm. high)
2b. Leaves spreading; flowers 15-30 mm. wide (3-6 dm. high) (Frostweed) — 3.
3a. Petal-bearing flowers solitary
3b. Petal-bearing flowers few, racemose
4a. Stem-leaves linear, 4 or more times as long as wide — 5.
4b. Stem-leaves oblong or elliptical, about 3 times as long as wide (2-6 dm. tall) — 8.
5a. Plant pale with dense appressed pubescence (2-4 dm. high)
5b. Plant green, pubescence sparse or none — 6.
6a. Leaves thread-like, seldom exceeding 1 mm. in width (1-3 dm. tall)
6b. Leaves 1-5 mm. wide (2-6 dm. high) — 7.
7a. Leaves on the basal shoots narrowly lanceolate
7b. Leaves on the basal shoots oblong-elliptic, about twice as long as wide
8a. Pubescence of spreading hairs
8b. Pubescence of appressed hairs

VIOLACEAE, the Violet Family

Herbs with simple, alternate or basal leaves, and conspicuous irregular flowers with a spur (except in the first species); sepals, petals, and stamens each 5; ovary 1-celled.

1a. Flowers regular or nearly so, greenish-white, axillary; erect plant with leafy stem (3-5 dm. high; spring)
1b. Flowers irregular, blue, yellow, or white, conspicuous (Violet) — 2.
2a. Plant stemless, the flowers all on leafless stalks and the leaves all basal (spring or early summer) — 3.
2b. Stems leafy (spring and summer) — 17.
3a. Petals yellow
3b. Petals blue, violet, or white — 4.
4a. Principal leaves at time of flowering deeply lobed — 5.
4b. Leaves oblong, ovate, or triangular, not narrowed to the petiole, and frequently sharply toothed or incised near the base — 7.
4c. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, tapering to the base
4d. Leaves heart-shape or kidney-shape, not lobed — 8.
5a. Lateral petals bearded — 6.
5b. Lateral petals not bearded
6a. Leaves divided to the base into linear segments
6b. Leaves irregularly divided into broader segments
7a. Leaves ovate-oblong, pubescent
7b. Leaves triangular-lanceolate, usually somewhat dilated at base, nearly or quite glabrous
8a. Flowers violet or blue (rarely white-flowered plants are found with the typical blue-flowered ones) (Blue Violets) — 9.
8b. Flowers white, the 3 lower petals marked with purple (White Violets) — 14.
9a. Lateral petals bearded — 10.
9b. Lateral petals beardless
10a. Foliage glabrous — 11.
10b. Petioles and lower surface of leaves pubescent — 13.
11a. Beard of the lateral petals with a knob at the tip of each hair
11b. Beard of the lateral petals not knobbed — 12.
12a. Spurred petal hairy
12b. Spurred petal glabrous
13a. Spurred petal villous
13b. Spurred petal glabrous, or with a few scattered hairs
14a. Leaf-blade obviously pubescent — 15.
14b. Leaf-blade glabrous or very nearly so — 16.
15a. Lateral petals bearded
15b. Lateral petals not bearded
16a. Leaf-blades strictly glabrous
16b. Leaf-blades with some minute white hairs on the upper surface near the base
17a. Stipules large and leaf-like, deeply pinnatifid and nearly or quite as long as the petioles — 18.
17b. Stipules small, inconspicuous, entire or toothed, and much shorter than the petiole — 19.
18a. Leaves serrate; flowers 1.5-2.5 cm. wide (1-3 dm. high; flowers of various colors)
18b. Upper leaves entire or nearly so; flowers about 1 cm. wide (1-2 dm. high; flowers bluish-white)
19a. Petals yellow (1-4 dm. high) (Yellow Violet) — 20.
19b. Petals violet, blue, or white — 21.
20a. Foliage villous-pubescent
20b. Foliage nearly or quite glabrous
21a. Stipules entire (2-4 dm. high)
21b. Stipules toothed — 22.
22a. Lateral petals not bearded (1-2 dm. high)
22b. Lateral petals bearded — 23.
23a. Flowers white or nearly white (1-3 dm. high)
23b. Flowers blue (about 1 dm. high) — 24.
24a. Leaves smooth
24b. Leaves pubescent

[Pg 77]

CACTACEAE, the Cactus Family

Fleshy, jointed leafless plants, armed with numerous thorns; flowers large (5-10 cm. wide), yellow, with about 10 petals and numerous stamens.

One species in Michigan, on the shores of Lake Michigan; flowers in summer

THYMELAEACEAE, the Mezereum Family

Shrubs, with simple alternate entire leaves, and small yellowish flowers in clusters, opening before the leaves; petals none, the sepals somewhat petal-like.

One species in Michigan, 5-15 dm. tall, with very tough bark

ELAEAGNACEAE, the Oleaster Family

Shrubs, with opposite, silvery-pubescent, simple, entire leaves, and small clusters of inconspicuous yellow flowers in spring.

One species in Michigan, 1-2 m. high

LYTHRACEAE, the Loosestrife Family

Herbs or shrubs, with opposite or alternate entire leaves; receptacle cup-shape or tubular, bearing the 5-7 petals and sepals at its margin, and the 6-12 stamens on its inner surface; ovary superior.

1a. Stem shrubby (aquatic, stems 1-3 m. long; flowers pink, summer)
1b. Stem herbaceous (4-10 dm. high; flowers purple, summer) — 2.
2a. Flowers solitary in the axils; leaves mostly alternate
2b. Flowers in terminal panicles; leaves opposite or whorled

MELASTOMACEAE, the Melastoma Family

Herbs, with opposite leaves with 3-5 principal veins; receptacle urn-shape, bearing 4 sepals and 4 petals at its edge; stamens 8; ovary 4-celled, superior.

One species in Michigan, 3-4 dm. high, with purple flowers in late summer

[Pg 78]

ONAGRACEAE, the Evening Primrose Family

Herbs with opposite or alternate simple leaves and regular flowers; sepals and petals each 4 (or 2 in one genus), stamens 8 (or 2 in one genus), attached to the summit or inside of a tubular receptacle; ovary 2-4-celled, inferior.

1a. Aquatic plant of shallow water or muddy ground, with prostrate stem (flowers minute, axillary; petals small or none, summer)
1b. Land plants with erect or ascending stems — 2.
2a. Petals minute, greenish (3-8 dm. high; late summer)
2b. Petals yellow — 3.
2c. Petals white, pink, purple, or red — 9.
3a. Sepals borne at the summit of the ovary (5-10 dm. high; summer)
3b. Sepals borne at the summit of the slender tubular receptacle, which is prolonged beyond the ovary — 4.
4a. Stamens all equal in length (Evening Primrose) — 5.
4b. The alternate stamens longer (3-8 dm. high; summer) (Sundrops) — 8.
5a. Leaves deeply dentate or pinnatifid (2-5 dm. high; early summer)
5b. Leaves entire or undulate or finely toothed (5-12 dm. high; summer) — 6.
6a. Hairs on the stem with broad reddish bases
6b. Hairs on the stem none, or without swollen bases — 7.
7a. Stem and foliage glabrous, or with sparse spreading hairs
7b. Stem and foliage densely but closely appressed-pubescent
8a. Petals 5-10 mm. long
8b. Petals 14 mm. long or more
9a. Petals 2, reverse heart-shape, stamens 2 (flowers small, white, summer) (Enchanter's Nightshade) — 10.
9b. Petals 4; stamens 4 or 8 — 12.
10a. Leaves rounded at the base, denticulate (3-8 dm. high; fruit prickly)
10b. Leaves cordate at the base — 11.
11a. Fruit 2-celled, bristly (2-4 dm. high)
11b. Fruit 1-celled, with soft hairs (delicate plant 2 dm. high, or less)
12a. Petals entire (summer) — 13.
12b. Petals notched at the end (flowers white or pinkish, less than 1 cm. broad, in summer) (Willow Herb) — 15.
13a. Flowers 2-3 cm. wide, purple (7-20 dm. high)
13b. Flowers about 1 cm. wide — 14.
14a. Flowers red (2-5 dm. high)
14b. Flowers white, turning pink when old
15a. Leaves entire, the margins usually somewhat revolute — 16.
15b. Leaves toothed, flat (4-9 dm. high) — 18.
16a. Plant densely pubescent with spreading hairs (3-8 dm. high)
16b. Plant pubescent with appressed or incurved hairs — 17.
17a. Leaves linear, the margin revolute (3-5 dm. high)
17b. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, not revolute (2-4 dm. high)
18a. Seeds tipped with a tuft of reddish-brown hairs
18b. Seeds tipped with a tuft of white hairs

HALORAGIDACEAE, the Water Milfoil Family

Aquatic or marsh herbs, with alternate, opposite, or whorled leaves, and small, inconspicuous terminal or axillary flowers, frequently without petals (summer).

1a. Leaves none, or else very small and inconspicuous
1b. Leaves alternate (1-4 dm. high)
1c. Leaves opposite or whorled — 2.
2a. Leaves entire (2-4 dm. high)
2b. Leaves toothed or dissected (Water Milfoil) — 3.
3a. Flowers in the axils of foliage leaves — 4.
3b. Flowers in terminal spikes, subtended by bracts — 5.
4a. Flowers above water, subtended by toothed or entire leaves
4b. Flowers submerged, subtended by dissected leaves
5a. Flowers solitary or in pairs at each joint of the spike
5b. Flowers several at each joint of the spike — 6.
6a. Bracts deeply pinnatifid
6b. Bracts entire or toothed

[Pg 80]

ARALIACEAE, the Sarsaparilla Family

Herbs or thorny shrubs, with alternate or whorled leaves, and small flowers in umbels; sepals 5, minute; petals and stamens each 5; ovary inferior, with 2-5 styles, ripening into a berry.

1a. Leaves simple, palmately lobed (thorny shrub; flowers greenish-white, in panicles, in June)
1b. Leaves once compounded, whorled (umbel one, terminal) — 2.
1c. Leaves twice or thrice compounded (umbels several) — 3.
2a. Leaflets sessile; flowers white, in spring (1-2 dm. high)
2b. Leaflets stalked; flowers greenish, in summer (2-5 dm. high)
3a. Stem and petioles spiny or bristly (flowers white, summer) — 4.
3b. Stem and petioles smooth or a little pubescent (flowers greenish-white) — 5.
4a. Shrubby, with stout thorns (1-3 m. high)
4b. Herbaceous, with slender bristles (4-10 dm. high)
5a. Stem-leaves present; leaflets cordate at the base (8-15 dm. high; summer)
5b. Leaf and flower-stalk arising from the ground; leaflets acute at the base (2-4 dm. high; spring)

UMBELLIFERAE, the Parsley Family

Herbs, with alternate, usually compound leaves, the petioles dilated at the base; flowers small, in umbels or heads; sepals 5, minute or even wanting; petals and stamens each 5; ovary inferior, with 2 styles, ripening into a dry fruit.

1a. Leaves simple (flowers in summer) — 2.
1b. Leaves compound, or at least deeply cleft — 4.
2a. Leaves linear, sword-shape (4-10 dm. tall; flowers greenish-white)
2b. Leaves kidney-shape or almost circular (stems creeping, about 1 dm. high; flowers white) (Water Pennywort) — 3.
3a. Leaves peltate, attached by the center
3b. Leaves not peltate, attached by the margin
4a. Flowers yellow or purple — 5.
4b. Flowers white or greenish — 13.
5a. Leaf-segments entire (4-8 dm. high) — 6.
5b. Leaf-segments toothed or incised — 7.
6a. Leaf-segments filiform (summer)
6b. Leaf-segments ovate to lanceolate
7a. Leaves pinnately compound; some of the leaflets incised or pinnatifid — 8.
7b. Leaves ternately compound; the segments crenate or serrate — 9.
7c. Leaves deeply palmately cleft or divided; flowers in head-like umbels — 18a.
8a. Leaf-segments obtuse, rounded, or cordate at the base (6-15 dm. high; summer)
8b. Leaf-segments narrowed to the base (4-8 dm. high; spring)
9a. Terminal leaflets conspicuously stalked, their total length, including stalk, at least 50% greater than the length of the lateral leaflets (Meadow Parsnip) — 10.
9b. Terminal leaflets not conspicuously stalked, their total length, including stalk, about equaling the lateral leaflets (4-8 dm. high; late spring) (Golden Alexander) — 12.
10a. Flowers purple (4-8 dm. high; early summer)
10b. Flowers yellow — 11.
11a. Stem-leaves once-ternate; leaflets finely serrate (4-8 dm. high; early summer)
11b. Many stem-leaves 2-3-ternate; leaflets coarsely serrate or incised (6-12 dm. high; early summer)
12a. Basal and lower stem-leaves 2-3-ternate
12b. Basal leaves simple; stem-leaves once-ternate
13a. Leaves once-pinnate (or the submerged leaves decompound, if present) (summer) — 14.
13b. Leaves ternately, palmately, or 2-3-pinnately compound — 16.
14a. Leaflets mostly ovate or ovate-lanceolate, some of them coarsely incised (3-9 dm. high)
14b. Leaflets linear to oblong, serrate to nearly entire, not incised (6-15 dm. high) — 15.
15a. Leaflets entire, or with a few low remote teeth
15b. Leaflets finely but sharply serrate
16a. Leaves principally basal, decompound; flowers in early spring (1-2 dm. high)
16b. Leaves principally on the stem — 17.
17a. Leaves palmately or ternately once-compound — 18.  [Pg 82]
17b. Leaves 2-3 times compound or decompound — 24.
18a. Flowers short-pedicelled, crowded in head-like umbels, greenish; ovary bristly (4-9 dm. high; early summer) (Black Snakeroot) — 19.
18b. Flowers in open umbels, white — 22.
19a. Styles short, not projecting beyond the bristles of the mature fruit — 20.
19b. Styles long, projecting beyond the bristles of the fruit, and recurved — 21.
20a. Staminate flowers on pedicels 3-4 mm. long, equaling or barely exceeding the fruit
20b. Staminate flowers short-pedicelled, concealed among the fruits
21a. Fruit short-stalked, 4 mm. long or less
21b. Fruit sessile, 6-7 mm. long
22a. Umbel unsymmetrical, its branches irregular in length; plant slender (3-8 dm. tall; early summer)
22b. Umbel symmetrical with regular branches; plants tall and stout — 23.
23a. Stem and leaves very pubescent (10-25 dm. high; summer)
23b. Stem and leaves glabrous or nearly so (5-15 dm. high; early summer)
24a. Ovary and fruit bristly (4-10 dm. high) — 25.
24b. Ovary and fruit smooth or winged, never bristly — 27.
25a. Umbels loose, open, few-flowered; woodland plants blooming in spring (Sweet Cicely) — 26.
25b. Umbels densely flowered; weedy plants blooming from summer to fall
26a. Stem villous-pubescent
26b. Stem glabrous except at the joints
27a. Leaflets merely serrate (flowers in summer) — 28.
27b. Leaflets coarsely incised, so that the leaf appears dissected — 30.
28a. Umbel densely pubescent (8-15 dm. high)
28b. Umbel smooth — 29.
29a. Leaf-segments broadly ovate (8-15 dm. high)
29b. Leaf-segments lanceolate (8-15 dm. high)
29c. Leaf-segments linear (4-10 dm. high)
30a. Principal branches of the umbel 2-5; fruit linear-oblong; woodland plants blooming in spring (2-4 dm. high)
30b. Principal branches of the umbel 7 or more; fruit ovate to broadly elliptical (summer) — 31.
31a. Native plants, growing in swamps (5-15 dm. high)
31b. Introduced plants, in waste places and along roads — 32.
32a. Stems conspicuously spotted with purple (5-15 dm. high)
32b. Stems not spotted with purple (2-5 dm. high)

CORNACEAE, the Dogwood Family

Trees, shrubs, or herbs, with alternate leaves and small flowers in rather crowded rounded or flattened clusters; sepals 4, minute; petals and stamens each 4; ovary inferior, ripening into a berry. In one genus the flowers are minute and greenish, with 5 sepals and petals minute or none.

1a. Leaves alternate — 2.
1b. Leaves opposite — 3.
2a. Flowers white, conspicuous, in flattened clusters (shrubs 2-4 m. high; flowers in late spring)
2b. Flowers greenish, inconspicuous, in small axillary clusters (tree; flowers in spring)
3a. Flower clusters small and dense, surrounded by a showy involucre of 4 bracts, resembling a corolla of 4 petals — 4.
3b. Flowers in open flattened clusters, without petal-like involucre (shrubs 1-4 m. high; late spring) — 5.
4a. Herbaceous, 3 dm. high or less (flowers in late spring)
4b. Tall shrub or tree (flowers in late spring)
5a. Leaves distinctly pubescent beneath with woolly or spreading hairs — 6.
5b. Leaves smooth beneath, or pubescent with short appressed hairs — 9.
6a. Leaves rough above; fruit white
6b. Leaves smooth or finely soft-hairy above — 7.
7a. Leaves at least twice as long as wide; branches brownish or purplish — 8.  [Pg 84]
7b. Leaves less than twice as long as wide; branches greenish; fruit blue
8a. Branches purplish; fruit blue
8b. Branches brownish; fruit white
9a. Branches bright red or reddish-purple
9b. Branches grayish

ERICACEAE, the Heath Family

Herbs or shrubs, frequently with evergreen leaves; sepals 4-5; corolla regular, with 4-5 petals; stamens as many or twice as many; ovary 3-10-celled, with 1 style.

1a. Plants without green color; leafless or with scale leaves only — 2.
1b. Plants with green leaves — 4.
2a. Flowers solitary (1-2 dm. high; summer)
2b. Flowers in clusters — 3.
3a. Petals united into a bell-shape corolla (3-9 dm. high; summer)
3b. Petals all separate (1-3 dm. high; summer)
4a. Leaves all basal; herbaceous plants with terminal racemes (1-4 dm. high; summer) (Shin-leaf) — 5.
4b. Stem-leaves present — 12.
5a. Style straight — 6.
5b. Style bent near the apex — 8.
6a. Racemes one-sided, the flowers all turned in one direction (flowers white or greenish-white) — 7.
6b. Raceme regular, the flowers not all pointing in the same direction (flowers white or pink)
7a. Flowers numerous in each raceme
7b. Flowers only 3-7 in each raceme
8a. Flowers pink or purple — 9.
8b. Flowers white or greenish — 10.
9a. Leaves cordate at base
9b. Leaves rounded at base, not cordate
10a. Leaves shining on the upper side; sepals one-third as long as the petals
10b. Leaves dull on the upper side; sepals one-fourth as long as the petals, or a little shorter — 11.
11a. Leaf-blades mostly shorter than their petioles, thick and firm
11b. Leaf-blades thin, usually longer than their petioles
12a. Petals nearly or quite separate from each other — 13.
12b. Petals united into a gamopetalous corolla, the tube of which is as long as or longer than the lobes — 18.
13a. Leaves opposite or whorled; stems herbaceous or nearly so (summer) — 14.
13b. Leaves alternate; stems shrubby (early summer) — 16.
14a. Flowers solitary; leaves broadly ovate to nearly circular (1 dm. high; flower white)
14b. Flowers in clusters; leaves narrow (stems trailing, 1-3 dm. high; flowers white or pinkish) — 15.
15a. Leaves broadest above the middle, green
15b. Leaves broadest below the middle, spotted with white
16a. Leaves 2-5 cm. long, densely woolly beneath (5-10 dm. high; flowers white)
16b. Leaves 1-2 cm. long, pale beneath but not wholly (creeping; flowers pink) (Cranberry) — 17.
17a. Leaves acute
17b. Leaves obtuse
18a. Leaves opposite or whorled; corolla saucer-shape (shrubs 3-8 dm. high; flowers purple, summer) — 19.
18b. Leaves alternate; corolla bell-shape or salver-form — 20.
19a. Branches and twigs cylindrical, not angled
19b. Branches and twigs with 2 sharp angles
20a. Plants prostrate, or with a few ascending branches only (flowers white or pink) — 21.
20b. Plants erect or ascending — 23.
21a. Flowers 10-20 mm. long, very fragrant (early spring)
21b. Flowers 4-5 mm. long (late spring) — 22.
22a. Leaves spatulate, broadest beyond the middle
22b. Leaves oval, broadest at the middle
23a. Leaves linear, white beneath, their margins strongly revolute (shrub 3-8 dm. high; flowers white, late spring)
23b. Leaves oblong, scurfy beneath with rusty scales (bog shrub 4-10 dm. high; flowers white, in spring)
23c. Leaves smooth, pubescent, or resinous beneath, but not scurfy nor white — 24.
24a. Low shrubs 10-15 cm. high, erect from a creeping rootstock; leaves with the taste of wintergreen (flowers white or pink, summer)
24b. Bushy shrubs 3-8 dm. high; leaves dotted beneath with yellowish resinous dots; ovary 10-celled (flowers greenish-pink, spring)
24c. Shrubs 1 dm. to 3 m. high; leaves not resinous-dotted beneath; ovary 5-celled (flowers white or greenish-pink, spring or early summer) — 25.
25a. Corolla bell-shape, the stamens projecting beyond it (5-15 dm. high)
25b. Corolla cylindrical or urn-shape, the stamens not projecting — 26.
26a. Filaments hairy (Blueberry) — 27.
26b. Filaments glabrous (Bilberry) — 32.
27a. Low bushy shrubs, usually less than 5 dm. and never more than 1 m. high — 28.
27b. Tall erect shrubs, 1-4 m. high — 31.
28a. Foliage pubescent
28b. Foliage glabrous — 29.
29a. Leaves pale-green and glaucous, entire or nearly so
29b. Leaves bright-green, distinctly serrulate — 30.
30a. Fruit blue
30b. Fruit black
31a. Leaves downy beneath; fruit black
31b. Leaves smooth or minutely pubescent beneath; fruit blue
32a. Full-grown leaves less than 2.5 cm. long; low much-branched shrubs, mostly less than 5 dm. high — 33.
32b. Full-grown leaves more than 2.5 cm. long; shrubs usually a meter high or more — 34.
33a. Leaves entire; petals usually 4.
33b. Leaves finely serrulate; petals 5
34a. Leaves serrulate, green beneath, acute; corolla globular
34b. Leaves entire, pale beneath, obtuse; corolla ovoid

PRIMULACEAE, the Primrose Family

Herbs, with alternate or opposite simple leaves and regular flowers; petals more or less united; stamens attached one in front of each petal; ovary 1-celled with 1 style.

1a. Leaves all basal; flowers on leafless stalks — 2.
1b. Stem-leaves present — 5.
2a. Flowers nodding, the petals reflexed (3-6 dm. high; flowers showy, white or pink, in spring)
2b. Flowers erect or spreading; petals not reflexed — 3.
3a. Corolla not longer than the calyx; flowers small and inconspicuous (1 dm. high; flowers white or pink, spring)
3b. Corolla conspicuous, much longer than the calyx (flowers pink or purple, summer) (Primrose) — 4.
4a. Leaves white-mealy beneath (1-4 dm. high)
4b. Leaves green beneath (2 dm. high or less)
5a. All the stem-leaves in one whorl just below the flower-cluster — 6.
5b. Stem-leaves several or many, scattered over the stem — 7.
6a. Stem-leaves about 1 cm. long — 3a.
6b. Stem-leaves 5-10 cm. long
7a. Flowers red, blue, or white (summer) — 8.
7b. Flowers yellow (summer) — 9.
8a. Leaves opposite; flowers axillary (stems spreading, 1-4 dm. long; flowers blue or red)
8b. Leaves alternate; flowers racemose (1-4 dm. high; flowers minute, white)
9a. Stem creeping
9b. Stem erect (Loosestrife) — 10.
10a. Flowers in dense spike-like racemes (3-8 dm. high)
10b. Flowers axillary or racemose (3-9 dm. high) — 11.
11a. Corolla dotted or streaked with purple or brown; leaves punctate with dark spots — 12.
11b. Corolla plain yellow; leaves not dark-dotted — 14.
12a. Flowers in racemes — 13.
12b. Flowers all axillary
13a. Flowers all in racemes; leaves opposite or some of them alternate
13b. The lowest flowers axillary; leaves opposite or whorled
14a. Leaves ovate, on slender ciliate petioles
14b. Leaves lanceolate, sessile or short-petioled, pinnately veined
14c. Leaves linear, with one mid-vein

OLEACEAE, the Olive Family

Trees or shrubs, with opposite leaves and regular flowers; sepals 4, or calyx none; petals 4, united, or none; stamens usually 2; ovary 2-celled, superior.

1a. Leaves simple (shrub 2-5 m. high; flowers blue or white, in showy clusters in spring)
1b. Leaves compound (trees; flowers greenish, inconspicuous, in spring) (Ash) — 2.
2a. Lateral leaflets sessile
2b. Lateral leaflets stalked — 3.
3a. Twigs sharply 4-angled
3b. Twigs not distinctly angled — 4.
4a. Leaves pubescent beneath
4b. Leaves glabrous beneath — 5.
5a. Leaves pale-green beneath, obscurely serrulate
5b. Leaves bright-green beneath, sharply serrulate

GENTIANACEAE, the Gentian Family

Herbs, with opposite or basal, entire, usually simple leaves and regular flowers; sepals, petals, and stamens equal in number, 4-12; ovary superior, 1-celled.

1a. Leaves reduced to small scales (1-4 dm. high; flowers small, greenish-yellow, in summer)
1b. Leaves rounded, floating (flowers white, summer)
1c. Leaves compound (2-4 dm. high; flowers white or bluish, early summer)
1d. Leaves simple, whorled (1-2 m. high; flowers yellowish-white, summer)
1e. Leaves simple, opposite — 2.
2a. Corolla rotate, with spreading lobes, 2-4 cm. broad, pink (5-8 dm. high; summer)
2b. Corolla bell-shape, each petal with a spur at the base, purplish or white, and not over 1 cm. long (1-4 dm. high; summer)
2c. Corolla bell-shape, tubular, funnel-form, or salver-form, not spurred — 3.
3a. Corolla-lobes fringed (flowers bright-blue) (Fringed Gentian) — 4.
3b. Corolla-lobes entire — 5.
4a. Leaves lanceolate (2-8 dm. high; autumn)
4b. Leaves linear (1-4 dm. high; late summer)
5a. Corolla 2 cm. long or a little less — 6.
5b. Corolla 2.5-5 cm. long (late summer and autumn) (Gentian) — 7.
6a. Upper leaves linear or narrowly lanceolate (2-4 dm. high; flowers pink-purple, late summer)
6b. Upper leaves ovate, with several principal veins (1-5 dm. high; flowers blue, late summer and autumn)
7a. Calyx-lobes rough or ciliate at the margin (flowers blue, or rarely white) — 8.
7b. Calyx-lobes smooth (2-8 dm. high) — 10.
8a. Corolla-lobes spreading; leaves narrowly lanceolate, indistinctly veined (2-5 dm. high)
8b. Corolla-lobes erect or incurved; leaves ovate to ovate-lanceolate, with 3-7 principal veins (3-6 dm. high) — 9.
9a. Calyx-lobes equaling or exceeding the calyx-tube
9b. Calyx-lobes shorter than the calyx-tube
10a. Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, somewhat cordate at base (flowers greenish-white or yellowish-white)
10b. Leaves narrowly lanceolate or nearly linear, not cordate (flowers blue)

[Pg 90]

APOCYNACEAE, the Dogbane Family

Herbs, with opposite simple entire leaves and regular flowers; sepals, petals, and stamens each 5; petals united; stamens attached to the corolla; ovaries 2, with a single style or stigma.

1a. Plant creeping or trailing; flowers blue, axillary, 2-3 cm. broad (spring)
1b. Plant erect or essentially so; flowers 1 cm. broad or less (4-12 dm. high) — 2.
2a. Corolla pinkish, about 8 mm. long by 6-8 mm. broad (early summer)
2b. Corolla white or greenish, about 6 mm. long by 4 mm. broad (summer) — 3.
3a. Leaves petioled, acute at the base
3b. Leaves sessile, rounded or truncate at the base

ASCLEPIADACEAE, the Milkweed Family

Herbs, with simple entire leaves and regular flowers; juice usually milky; except in the first species, which is a twining vine. The flowers have an unusual structure: calyx of 5 sepals; petals 5, united with each other, and spreading or reflexed so that they conceal the calyx; stamens 5, united with each other and with the stigma to form a complex organ in the center of the flower; ovaries 2; on the back of each stamen is a colored projecting hood, which is frequently the most conspicuous part of the flower, and may be mistaken for the corolla.

1a. Twining vine, with dark purple flowers (summer)
1b. Stems not twining — 2.
2a. Leaves whorled (3-6 dm. high; summer) (Milkweed) — 3.
2b. Leaves opposite or alternate — 4.
3a. Leaves in whorls of 4, lanceolate (flowers pink)
3b. Leaves in whorls of 4-7, linear (flowers greenish-white)
4a. Umbel sessile (4-8 dm. high; flowers green, summer)
4b. Umbel peduncled — 5.
5a. Leaves linear or narrowly linear-lanceolate (4-8 dm. high; flowers greenish-white, summer)
5b. Leaves lanceolate or broader (flowers in summer) — 6.
6a. Leaves pubescent beneath — 7.
6b. Leaves glabrous or nearly so — 10.
7a. Flowers brilliant orange (3-6 dm. high)
7b. Flowers red or purple — 8.
8a. Reflexed lobes of corolla merely purple-tinged (1-2 m. high)
8b. Reflexed lobes of corolla bright-red or purple — 9.
9a. The erect hoods of each flower about 5 mm. long (7-12 dm. high)
9b. The erect hoods of each flower about 3 mm. long (6-10 dm. high)
10a. Leaves broadly rounded and almost sessile at base (flowers purplish) — 11.
10b. Leaves narrowed at the base, distinctly petioled (8-15 dm. high) — 12.
11a. Umbel solitary, terminal and erect on a long peduncle (4-8 dm. high)
11b. Umbels terminal or lateral, bent toward one side (7-12 dm. high)
12a. Corolla (not hoods) red (1-2 m. high)
12b. Corolla (not hoods) greenish (8-15 dm. high)

CONVOLVULACEAE, the Morning Glory Family

Twining or trailing herbs (except one species), with regular flowers; sepals 5; corolla 5-angled or 5-lobed; stamens 5, attached to the corolla; ovary superior, 2-3-celled.

1a. Plants with green foliage and conspicuous flowers (summer) — 2.
1b. Leafless brown or yellow plants, with very small flowers (Dodder) — 7.
2a. Style divided at the top into linear or oblong stigmas (flowers white or pink) (Bindweed) — 3.
2b. Style not divided at the top; stigmas sessile, capitate (Morning Glory) — 6.
3a. Stem erect; leaves rounded or somewhat cordate at base, not hastate or sagittate (1-3 dm. high)
3b. Stem trailing or twining; leaves sagittate or hastate — 4.
4a. Calyx almost concealed by two large heart-shape bracts — 5.
4b. Bracts at base of calyx none
5a. Leaves triangular-hastate, with sharp basal lobes
5b. Leaves oblong-ovate, the basal lobes obtuse
6a. Stem smooth or nearly so; ovary 2-celled (flowers white)
6b. Stem with reflexed hairs; ovary 3-celled (flowers of various colors)
7a. Introduced weed, growing as a parasite on clover
7b. Native species, on various shrubs and herbs — 8.
8a. Flowers sessile — 9.
8b. Flowers distinctly pedicelled — 12.
9a. Sepals united below into a gamosepalous calyx — 10.
9b. Sepals separate from each other — 11.
10a. Calyx-lobes obtuse
10b. Calyx-lobes acute
11a. Flowers in dense rope-like twists on various species of herbs
11b. Flowers in dense clusters on various species of shrubs
12a. Tips of the petals inflexed
12b. Tips of the petals erect or spreading — 13.
13a. Capsule depressed at the summit
13b. Capsule pointed at the summit

POLEMONIACEAE, the Polemonium Family

Herbs with alternate or opposite leaves and conspicuous regular flowers; sepals 5, united; petals 5, united and bearing the 5 stamens in the corolla-tube; ovary superior, 3-celled.

1a. Leaves pinnately compound and alternate (2-4 dm. high; flowers blue, in spring)
1b. Leaves fascicled, narrowly linear (about 1 dm. high; flowers pink-purple, in spring)
1c. Leaves simple, strictly opposite — 2.
2a. Corolla-lobes deeply 2-cleft to the middle (1-2 dm. high; flowers pink, in spring)
2b. Corolla-lobes entire and rounded, or somewhat notched at the apex — 3.
3a. Flowers in summer (8-15 dm. high; flowers purple)
3b. Flowers in spring (3-6 dm. high) — 4.
4a. Corolla blue-purple; stems ascending
4b. Corolla pink or red-purple; stems erect

[Pg 93]

HYDROPHYLLACEAE, the Water-leaf Family

Herbs with alternate lobed or divided leaves and regular flowers; sepals 5; petals 5, united; stamens 5, attached to the corolla-tube and projecting beyond it; ovary 1-celled.

1a. Leaves palmately veined and lobed (4-8 dm. high; flowers purple, early summer)
1b. Leaves pinnately veined and lobed (2-6 dm. high; flowers blue or purple, varying to white) — 2.
2a. Corolla-lobes much shorter than the corolla-tube (summer)
2b. Corolla-lobes much longer than the corolla-tube (late spring and summer) (Water-leaf) — 3.
3a. Calyx with a small reflexed appendage between each pair of sepals
3b. Calyx without appendages

BORAGINACEAE, the Borage Family

Herbs with alternate entire leaves; sepals 5; petals 5, united, corolla generally regular; stamens 5, attached to the corolla-tube; ovary deeply 4-lobed with a single style.

1a. Corolla reddish-purple, about 8 mm. wide (4-10 dm. high; spring)
1b. Corolla blue with a yellow center, 4-8 mm. wide (1-5 dm. high; spring and early summer) (Forget-me-not) — 13.
1c. Corolla deep orange, salver-form (2-6 dm. high; spring) (Puccoon) — 15.
1d. Corolla white or blue, or lightly tinged with yellow or red — 2.
2a. Corolla rotate, with a very short tube, bright-blue, about 20 mm. broad (3-8 dm. high; summer)
2b. Corolla tubular, funnel-form, or salver-form — 3.
3a. Corolla 10 mm. long or more; its tube distinctly longer than the calyx — 4.
3b. Corolla less than 10 mm. long; its tube equaling or shorter than the calyx — 8.
4a. Flowers yellowish-white, or somewhat tinged with pink or greenish — 5.
4b. Flowers blue or purple — 6.
5a. Corolla-lobes erect; leaves sessile (3-8 dm. high; early summer)
5b. Corolla-lobes spreading; leaves decurrent (6-10 dm. high; summer)
6a. Stem and leaves glabrous (3-6 dm. high; spring)
6b. Stem and leaves pubescent (4-8 dm. high) — 7.
7a. Corolla regular; leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate (summer)
7b. Corolla irregular; leaves linear-oblong (summer)
8a. Ovary and fruit covered with hooked prickles — 9.
8b. Ovary and fruit not prickly — 12.
9a. Principal leaves 2.5 cm. wide or more — 10.
9b. Principal leaves 2 cm. wide or less (3-8 dm. high; flowers blue or white, summer) (Stickseed) — 11.
10a. Leaves chiefly basal, the racemes on long leafless peduncles (4-8 dm. high; flowers pale blue, early summer)
10b. Stems leafy (8-12 dm. high; flowers white, summer)
11a. A bract at the base of each flower
11b. Racemes without bracts at the base of each flower
12a. Racemes bractless, or bracted only at the base (1-4 dm. high) — 14.
12b. Raceme with a bract at the base of each flower (flowers white or yellowish) — 17.
13a. Corolla 4 mm. wide
13b. Corolla 6-8 mm. wide
14a. Calyx-lobes all of equal length (summer)
14b. Calyx-lobes distinctly unequal in length (spring)
15a. Corolla-lobes denticulate
15b. Corolla-lobes entire — 16.
16a. Flowers sessile; stem softly pubescent
16b. Flowers on pedicels 2-5 mm. long; stem hispid or bristly
17a. Corolla white; fruit brown and wrinkled (weed 2-4 dm. high; spring and summer)
17b. Corolla yellowish-white; fruit white and smooth (5-10 dm. high) — 18.
18a. Corolla distinctly surpassing the calyx in length (spring and summer)
18b. Corolla equaling or shorter than the calyx (spring)

[Pg 95]

LABIATAE, the Mint Family

Herbs with opposite leaves, square stems, and usually aromatic odor; flowers irregular, with united petals, or almost regular; stamens 2 or 4, attached to the tube of the corolla; ovary deeply 4-lobed, with a single style.

1a. Stamens 2 — 2.
1b. Stamens 4 — 15.
2a. Corolla regular or nearly so; flowers white, in dense axillary clusters; plants usually of wet grounds (2-8 dm. high; summer and autumn) — 3.
2b. Corolla distinctly irregular and more or less 2-lipped — 7.
3a. Calyx-teeth short, triangular, acute or obtuse (Bugle Weed) — 4.
3b. Calyx-teeth narrow, acuminate or cuspidate (Water Hoarhound) — 5.
4a. Stems and stolons bearing tubers
4b. Stems and stolons not bearing tubers
5a. Leaves serrate; calyx-teeth sharp-pointed — 6.
5b. Leaves coarsely incised; calyx-teeth awn-tipped
6a. Corolla twice as long as the calyx; leaves narrowed at the base
6b. Corolla barely longer than the calyx; leaves sessile or nearly so
7a. Corolla blue, 3-4 mm. long; flowers in loose axillary clusters (1-4 dm. high; summer) (Pennyroyal) — 8.
7b. Corolla 8-40 mm. long — 9.
8a. Leaves serrate
8b. Leaves linear, entire
9a. Lower lobe of the corolla fringed, very much longer than the upper (5-15 dm. high; corolla pale-yellow; late summer)
9b. Lower lobe of the corolla nearly or quite as long as the upper and not fringed — 10.
10a. Calyx narrowly tubular; its teeth about equal in size (5-10 dm. high; flowers in dense terminal heads, in summer) — 11.
10b. Calyx campanulate, 2 of its teeth different in size from the other 3 (4-8 dm. high; flowers pink-purple, in terminal clusters in summer) — 14.
11a. Corolla scarlet
11b. Corolla bright crimson or rose-red
11c. Corolla white, pink, pale-purple, or yellowish — 12.
12a. Flower-clusters all terminal — 13.
12b. Flower-clusters both terminal and axillary
13a. Leaves and stem with soft spreading pubescence
13b. Leaves and stem grayish with fine appressed pubescence
14a. Upper calyx-teeth about 3 times as long as the lower
14b. Upper calyx-teeth but little longer than the lower
15a. Calyx with a distinct protuberance on the back of the upper side (Skullcap) — 16.
15b. Calyx without a distinct protuberance — 20.
16a. Corolla 5-8 mm. long; flowers in axillary racemes (3-8 dm. high; flowers blue, in summer)
16b. Corolla 6-10 mm. long; flowers axillary, solitary (1-3 dm. high; flowers violet, early summer)
16c. Corolla 12-30 mm. long; flowers axillary or in terminal racemes (4-8 dm. high; flowers blue, summer) — 17.
17a. Stem-leaves cordate
17b. Stem-leaves not distinctly cordate — 18.
18a. Stem-leaves sessile or nearly so; plant of swamps and river-banks
18b. Stem-leaves with petioles 1 cm. or more long; plants of dry or moist woods — 19.
19a. Stem glandular-pubescent toward the summit; corolla 16 mm. long or less
19b. Stem not glandular; corolla 20 mm. long
20a. Calyx-teeth 5, all equal or nearly so at the time of flowering — 28.
20b. Calyx-teeth 5, one of them different in size and shape from the other four (2-6 dm. high; flowers light blue, summer)
20c. Calyx-teeth 5, two of them different in size and shape from the other three — 21.
20d. Calyx-teeth 10, subulate (woolly plant 4-10 dm. high, with whitish flowers in axillary clusters in summer)
21a. Corolla deeply split on the upper side and the stamens protruding; upper lip of the calyx much shorter than the lower (5-10 dm. high; flowers pink-purple, in terminal spikes, summer) (Wood Sage) — 22.  [Pg 97]
21b. Corolla not deeply split on the upper side — 23.
22a. Calyx canescent
22b. Calyx villous
23a. Flowers in dense terminal head-like spikes, none axillary (1-5 dm. high; flowers pink-purple or blue, in summer)
23b. Some or all of the flowers in axillary clusters — 24.
24a. Leaves linear, entire (1-4 dm. high; flowers purple, summer) — 25.
24b. Leaves oblong to ovate (summer) — 26.
25a. Pedicels shorter than the calyx
25b. Pedicels much longer than the calyx
26a. Leaves 1 cm. long or less, entire (stems growing in mats, 1-3 dm. long; flowers purple, in summer)
26b. Leaves dentate (flowers purple, summer) — 27.
27a. Flowers subtended by bracts as long as the calyx (2-5 dm. high)
27b. Flowers with minute bracts or none (1-3 dm. high)
28a. Corolla 2-lipped or nearly regular, the upper lip flattened, not conspicuously arched over the stamens — 29.
28b. Corolla conspicuously 2-lipped, the stamens ascending under the concave upper lip — 42.
29a. Flowers in dense terminal spikes; corolla 2-lipped (8-15 dm. high; summer) — 30.
29b. Flowers peduncled, 1-4 in the axils of linear leaves — 25b.
29c. Flowers in many-flowered whorls, which are axillary or terminal, or aggregated into terminal spikes or racemes — 31.
30a. Corolla yellowish
30b. Corolla purplish
31a. Corolla distinctly irregular, the lower lip longer than the upper — 32.
31b. Corolla almost regular, the lobes nearly uniform in size — 35.
32a. Stem-leaves sessile or very nearly so (flowers blue) — 33.
32b. Stem-leaves long-petioled — 34.
33a. Leaves linear-oblong, acute at both ends (3-8 dm. high; summer)
33b. Leaves oblong to ovate, rounded at the ends (2-4 dm. high; late spring)
34a. Leaves ovate to oblong, acute; flowers pink, white, or pale purple (6-15 dm. high; summer)
34b. Leaves nearly circular or kidney-shape; flowers blue (creeping; flowers in spring and summer)
35a. Flowers in terminal spikes, or the lower axillary (3-8 dm. high; flowers pink-purple or white, summer) (Mint) — 36.
35b. Flowers all in axillary whorls (flowers pink-purple or white, summer) (Mint) — 38.
35c. Flowers in terminal capitate corymbed clusters (4-8 dm. high; flowers white or dotted with purple, summer) (Mountain Mint) — 41.
36a. Leaves sessile or with very short petiole
36b. Leaves with manifest petioles — 37.
37a. Principal leaves less than half as broad as long
37b. Principal leaves more than half as broad as long
38a. Stem glabrous; leaves ovate to obovate (4-8 dm. high)
38b. Stem pubescent, at least on the angles (1-6 dm. high) — 39.
39a. Principal leaves distinctly petioled and somewhat rounded at base
39b. Leaves tapering to the base — 40.
40a. Leaves and stem pubescent
40b. Leaves glabrous; stem pubescent on the angles only
41a. Leaves linear; calyx-teeth awl-shape
41b. Leaves narrowly lanceolate; calyx-teeth triangular-ovate
42a. Stems decumbent to diffuse; leaves cordate to nearly circular (stems 2-5 dm. long or high; flowers in spring and summer) (Dead Nettle) — 43.
42b. Stem erect; leaves palmately cleft; calyx-teeth spiny (6-15 dm. tall; flowers pink, in summer)
42c. Stems erect or ascending; leaves ovate-lanceolate to linear (summer) — 45.
43a. Upper leaves closely sessile (flowers red-purple)
43b. Leaves all petioled — 44.
44a. Flowers red or purple
44b. Flowers white
45a. Flowers 2-2.5 cm. long, in loose terminal spikes (5-10 dm. tall; flowers rose-color)
45b. Flowers 1-2 cm. long, in axillary and terminal spiked whorls — 46.
46a. Calyx-teeth spiny pointed (flowers pink or pale-purple) (Hemp Nettle) — 47.
46b. Calyx-teeth acute to awl-shape, but not spiny (3-10 dm. high; flowers pale-purple) (Hedge Nettle) — 48.
47a. Leaves ovate (3-8 dm. high)
47b. Leaves linear to lanceolate (1-4 dm. high)
48a. Leaves glabrous — 49.
48b. Leaves distinctly pubescent — 50.
49a. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, serrate
49b. Leaves linear-oblong, entire or nearly so
50a. Stem pubescent on the angles alone; leaves petioled
50b. Stem pubescent on both sides and angles; leaves nearly sessile — 51.
51a. Leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, more than 1 cm. wide
51b. Leaves linear-lanceolate, 1 cm. wide or less

VERBENACEAE, the Verbena Family

Herbs, with simple opposite leaves and slightly irregular flowers in spikes or heads; petals 5, united and bearing the 4 stamens in the corolla-tube; ovary 1, 2-celled or 4-celled, with 1 style.

1a. Plants prostrate or spreading — 2.
1b. Plants erect (flowers in summer) (Vervain) — 3.
2a. Leaves serrate; flowers in short dense spikes (flowers pale-blue, summer)
2b. Leaves pinnatifid; flowers in loose bracted spikes (flowers light-purple, summer)
3a. Spikes dense, continuous (flowers purple or blue, varying to white) — 4.  [Pg 100]
3b. Spikes slender, interrupted, the flowers scattered (corolla white or pale-blue) — 6.
4a. Leaves lanceolate, manifestly petioled (1-2 m. high)
4b. Leaves sessile, not lanceolate (5-8 dm. high) — 5.
5a. Leaves narrowly oblanceolate, tapering at the entire base
5b. Leaves oblong to obovate, not tapering at the base
6a. Leaves incised, tapering to a sessile base (5-10 dm. high)
6b. Leaves serrate, petioled (1-2 m. high)

SOLANACEAE, the Nightshade Family

Herbs or shrubs, with alternate leaves and regular or slightly irregular flowers; sepals 5, united; corolla of 5 united petals, bearing the 5 stamens attached; ovary 1, 2-5 (usually 2)-celled, with a slender style.

1a. Corolla rotate; anthers close together (flowers in summer) — 2.
1b. Corolla not rotate; anthers separate — 5.
2a. Stem and leaves prickly (3-8 dm. high) — 3.
2b. Stem and leaves not prickly — 4.
3a. Flowers white or bluish
3b. Flowers yellow
4a. Climbing vine; leaves frequently lobed (flowers blue)
4b. Not climbing; leaves toothed (flowers white)
5a. Climbing or trailing shrub, with purplish, white, or greenish flowers about 1 cm. wide (frequently thorny; flowers in summer)
5b. Herbaceous plants, not climbing — 6.
6a. Flowers white, red, or blue, 2.5 cm. or more wide (summer) — 7.
6b. Flowers yellow, yellowish-white, or greenish-yellow (summer) — 12.
7a. Corolla-tube 10 cm. long or more (5-12 dm. high) — 8.
7b. Corolla-tube 5 cm. long or less — 10.
8a. Stem finely pubescent; leaves entire or nearly so
8b. Stem glabrous; leaves coarsely toothed (Jimson Weed) — 9.
9a. Stem green; corolla white
9b. Stem purple; corolla light-blue or purple
10a. Corolla pale-blue (5-10 dm. high)
10b. Corolla, red or violet (2-4 dm. high)
10c. Corolla white — 11.
11a. Corolla all white (2-4 dm. high)
11b. Corolla with yellow center
12a. Corolla 30 mm. wide or more, somewhat irregular; stamens declined to one side (3-6 dm. high)
12b. Corolla smaller, strictly regular — 13.
13a. Flowers in terminal panicles; corolla tubular, with slightly spreading lobes (5-10 dm. high)
13b. Flowers solitary in the axils; corolla short, widely spreading (3-8 dm. high) (Ground Cherry) — 14.
14a. Annuals with branching slender roots — 15.
14b. Perennials with thickened roots and rootstocks — 16.
15a. Plants pubescent
15b. Plants smooth, or with a few scattered hairs
16a. Stem viscid-pubescent
16b. Stem glabrous or slightly pubescent, not viscid — 17.
17a. Leaves and stem distinctly pubescent
17b. Leaves and stem almost glabrous

SCROPHULARIACEAE, the Figwort Family

Herbs with opposite or alternate leaves and usually irregular flowers; corolla of united petals, bearing the 2 or 4 (or rarely 5) stamens attached; petals actually 5, but sometimes apparently only 2 or 4; a sterile fifth stamen sometimes present; ovary superior, 2-celled.

1a. Anther-bearing stamens 5 (6-15 dm. high; flowers in summer) (Mullein) — 2.
1b. Anther-bearing stamens 4; a sterile fifth stamen may or may not be present — 3.
1c. Anther-bearing stamens 2 — 37.
2a. Leaves densely white-woolly; flowers yellow, in dense spikes
2b. Leaves smooth or nearly so; flowers yellow or white, in loose racemes
3a. Flowers (not the bracts) greenish-yellow, yellow, or orange — 4.  [Pg 102]
3b. Flowers blue, purple, brown, red, pink, or white, never yellow — 16.
4a. Flowers in dense terminal leafy-bracted spikes — 5.
4b. Flowers in loose racemes or axillary — 9.
5a. Corolla 7 mm. long or less, or none — 6.
5b. Corolla 12 mm. long or more — 7.
6a. Leaves alternate (3-6 dm. high; early summer)
6b. Leaves opposite (1-2 dm. high; summer)
7a. Stem-leaves entire (2-6 dm. high; summer)
7b. Stem-leaves palmately lobed, bracteal leaves scarlet (3-6 dm. high; early summer)
7c. Stem-leaves pinnately lobed or incised (Lousewort) — 8.
8a. Flowers in spring (2-4 dm. high)
8b. Flowers in late summer (3-8 dm. high)
9a. Upper lip of the corolla very different in size and shape from the lower lip — 10.
9b. Upper lip of the corolla resembling the lower lip in shape, and not very different in size (5-12 dm. high; summer) (False Foxglove) — 13.
10a. Leaves alternate (2-5 dm. high; summer)
10b. Leaves opposite — 11.
11a. Stem erect; leaves narrowed at the base — 30b.
11b. Stem creeping or spreading (summer) — 12.
12a. Leaves pinnately veined, ovate
12b. Leaves palmately veined, circular or nearly so
13a. Stem glabrous — 14.
13b. Stem pubescent — 15.
14a. Principal stem-leaves pinnatifid
14b. Principal stem-leaves entire
15a. Corolla hairy on the outside
15b. Corolla smooth on the outside
16a. Leaves all basal; flowers on leafless stalks (1 dm. high or less; flowers pink or white, summer)
16b. Leaves opposite (those subtending the flowers may be alternate) — 20.
16c. Leaves alternate or irregularly scattered — 17.
17a. Leaves entire — 18.
17b. Leaves pinnately lobed or incised — 8a.
17c. Leaves palmately veined and lobed; stem trailing (flowers blue, summer)
18a. Corolla-tube less than 1 cm. long, spurred — 19.
18b. Corolla more than 2 cm. long, not spurred (3-8 dm. high; flowers red-purple, summer)
19a. Stem and foliage pubescent (1-3 dm. high; flowers blue, summer)
19b. Stem and foliage glabrous (2-6 dm. high; flowers blue, summer)
20a. Leaves with 1 or 2 lobes near the base (3-5 dm. high; flowers purple, summer)
20b. Leaves linear (2-6 dm. high; flowers rose-purple, summer and autumn) (Gerardia) — 21.
20c. Leaves lanceolate or broader, not lobed — 26.
21a. Pedicels equaling or but little longer than the calyx, and conspicuously shorter than the subtending leaf — 22.
21b. Pedicels much longer than the calyx, and generally equaling or exceeding the subtending leaf — 24.
22a. Plants of moist ground, bogs, and shores — 23.
22b. Plants of dry uplands
23a. Corolla about 25 mm. long
23b. Corolla less than 20 mm. long
24a. Stem rough on the angles — 25.
24b. Stem glabrous
25a. Leaves 2-5 mm. wide
25b. Leaves thread-like, 1 mm. wide or less
26a. Corolla 16 mm. long, or shorter — 27.
26b. Corolla 20 mm. long, or longer — 32.
27a. Corolla dull-purple, brown, or greenish; one sterile stamen present (1-2.5 m. high; flowers in summer) (Figwort) — 28.
27b. Corolla blue or white (1-4 dm. high) — 29.
28a. Sterile stamen purple
28b. Sterile stamen yellow
29a. Flowers nearly or quite sessile (summer) — 30.  [Pg 104]
29b. Flowers on pedicels 10 mm. long or more (spring) — 31.
30a. Foliage-leaves prominently toothed — 6b.
30b. Foliage-leaves entire, or with 1 or 2 small teeth at the base
31a. Corolla more than 10 mm. long, blue and white
31b. Corolla 5-8 mm. long, blue and white
32a. Flowers solitary in the axils of the upper foliage-leaves (4-8 dm. high; flowers blue, in summer) (Monkey Flower) — 33.
32b. Flowers in dense terminal or subterminal spikes (3-9 dm. high; summer) — 34.
32c. Flowers in loose terminal panicles (flowers white or pale-violet) (Beard-tongue) — 35.
33a. Leaves clasping at the base
33b. Leaves petioled, not clasping
34a. Stem and foliage glabrous (flowers white)
34b. Stem and foliage pubescent (flowers purple)
35a. Stem finely pubescent (3-6 dm. high; flowers pale-violet, late spring)
35b. Stem glabrous below the inflorescence (6-12 dm. high) — 36.
36a. Corolla-tube gradually enlarged from base to tip (flowers pale-violet, in early summer)
36b. Corolla-tube abruptly enlarged just beyond the calyx (flowers white, early summer)
37a. Corolla distinctly irregular, 2-lipped (1-4 dm. high; flowers yellowish or white, summer) — 38.
37b. Corolla regular or nearly so and 2-lobed, or none — 6a.
37c. Corolla regular or nearly so, 4-lobed — 40.
38a. Leaves narrowed at the base, with mid-vein
38b. Leaves rounded or somewhat clasping at the base, with 3-5 principal veins (False Pimpernel) — 39.
39a. Peduncles longer than the subtending leaves
39b. Peduncles shorter than the subtending leaves
40a. Leaves whorled (8-20 dm. high; flowers white or pale-blue, in spikes, summer)
40b. Leaves alternate or opposite (Speedwell) — 41.
41a. Flowers in racemes, which arise from the axils of the opposite leaves (flowers pale-blue to nearly white, late spring and summer) — 42.  [Pg 105]
41b. Flowers solitary in the axils of leaf-like bracts, or in terminal bracted racemes (1-4 dm. high; spring and summer) — 46.
42a. Stem and foliage glabrous; swamp plants 2-7 dm. high — 43.
42b. Stem and foliage pubescent; plants of dry ground, 1-3 dm. high — 45.
43a. Leaves linear or narrowly lanceolate
43b. Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate — 44.
44a. Stem-leaves sessile and somewhat clasping
44b. Stem-leaves on short petioles
45a. Leaves narrowed at base into a petiole
45b. Leaves rounded or heart-shape at the base
46a. Bracteal leaves entire; stem glabrous or minutely pubescent — 47.
46b. All leaves serrate; foliage pubescent (flowers blue) — 48.
47a. Flowers white, about 2 mm. wide
47b. Flowers pale-blue with darker stripes, 3-4 mm. wide
48a. Flowers nearly sessile, about 2 mm. wide
48b. Flowers on slender pedicels, 5-8 mm. wide

LENTIBULARIACEAE, the Bladderwort Family

Small herbs, growing on rocks, in mud, or in water; calyx and corolla both 2-lipped; stamens 2, attached to the corolla; ovary 1-celled.

1a. Corolla purple — 2.
1b. Corolla yellow (flowers in summer) (Bladderwort) — 4.
2a. Leaves oval to elliptical, entire (about 1 dm. high, on rocks; flowers in summer)
2b. Leaves dissected or none, submerged (flowers in summer) (Bladderwort) — 3.
3a. Flower-stalk with a single bract near the middle
3b. Flower-stalk without bracts, except at the base of the pedicels
4a. Stem and numerous dissected leaves floating in water
4b. Stem and minute leaves creeping on the bottom of ponds or in mud, while the flowers are borne on erect stalks, easily detached from the delicate stems — 5.
5a. Upper lip of corolla conspicuous, as long or nearly as long as the lower lip; lower lip with a prominent raised palate — 6.
5b. Upper lip of corolla half as long as the lower lip, or less — 7.
6a. Spur of corolla very short and blunt
6b. Spur of corolla very long and slender
7a. Spur of corolla very short and blunt, or almost none
7b. Spur of corolla long and slender

OROBANCHACEAE, the Broom-rape Family

Parasitic plants without green color and with scales in place of leaves; corolla 2-lipped, of united petals; stamens 4, attached to the corolla.

1a. Flowers in a widely branching panicle, numerous; growing under beech trees (1-5 dm. high; flowers white and purple, late summer)
1b. Flowers sessile in a dense bracted spike (1-2 dm. high; flowers pale-yellow, early summer)
1c. Flowers 1-15, each on a long erect naked peduncle (1-2 dm. high; flowers yellowish or pale-violet, spring and summer) (Cancer-root) — 2.
2a. Stem erect and scaly, 5-10 cm. high
2b. Stem very short, almost below the surface of the ground, with long erect peduncles

[Pg 107]

ACANTHACEAE, the Acanthus Family

Herbs with opposite simple leaves; corolla of united petals, 2-lipped or almost regular; stamens 2 or 4, attached to the corolla; ovary 2-celled.

1a. Corolla about 10 mm. long; flowers in dense heads (4-10 dm. high; flowers blue or white, summer)
1b. Corolla about 30 mm. long; flowers axillary (3-8 dm. high; flowers blue, in summer) (Ruellia) — 2.
2a. Foliage glabrous or slightly pubescent
2b. Foliage densely hirsute

PHRYMACEAE, the Lopseed Family

Herb with opposite leaves and irregular flowers in long slender spikes; petals united, corolla 2-lipped; stamens 4, attached to the corolla; ovary 1-celled.

One species only, 5-10 dm. high; flowers purple, in summer

PLANTAGINACEAE, the Plantain Family

Herbs with basal leaves and small white flowers in spikes; sepals 4; petals 4, united; stamens 4; ovary 2-celled.

1a. Leaves linear (1-4 dm. high; summer) — 2.
1b. Leaves broader, lanceolate to broadly ovate or cordate (summer) — 3.
2a. Spikes mixed with bracts several times longer than the flowers
2b. Bracts about as long as the flowers
3a. Leaves cordate, pinnately veined; plant of wet ground and marshes (4-8 dm. tall)
3b. Leaves with 3 to many longitudinal ribs or veins — 4.
4a. Leaves densely pubescent with grayish hairs — 5.
4b. Leaves smooth or slightly pubescent — 6.
5a. Flower-stalks 3-6 dm. high
5b. Flower-stalks less than 3 dm. high
6a. Flower-stalks 3-6 dm. high; spikes not over 10 cm. long
6b. Scapes 1-4 dm. high; spikes long and slender, usually equaling or longer than the peduncle; dooryard plantains — 7.
7a. Leaves green at the base
7b. Leaves reddish at the base

[Pg 108]

RUBIACEAE, the Madder family

Herbs or shrubs, with opposite or whorled leaves and regular flowers; sepals 4, or minute or almost wanting; petals 4, united; stamens 4; ovary inferior.

1a. Shrub (1-3 m. tall; flowers white, in spherical heads, summer)
1b. Herbaceous — 2.
2a. Leaves opposite — 3.
2b. Leaves whorled; flowers white, green, or purple (Bedstraw) — 6.
2c. Leaves whorled; flowers yellow
3a. Leaves about as long as wide (trailing; flowers paired, white, in spring)
3b. Leaves at least twice as long as wide — 4.
4a. Corolla salver-form, about 1 cm. wide; peduncles 1-flowered (about 1 dm. high; flowers blue or white, in spring)
4b. Corolla funnel-form, about 5 mm. wide; flowers in clusters (1-2 dm. high; flowers white or pale-purple, summer) (Houstonia) — 5.
5a. Basal leaves strongly ciliate
5b. Basal leaves smooth
6a. Leaves in whorls of 4-7.
6b. Leaves in whorls of 6-8 — 16.
7a. Ovary and fruit hispid with hooked bristles (3-7 dm. high; summer) — 8.
7b. Ovary and fruit not bristly (early summer) — 11.
8a. Leaves with 1 principal vein (flowers dull purple)
8b. Leaves with 3 principal veins — 9.
9a. Flowers bright-white
9b. Flowers greenish, yellowish, or purplish — 10.
10a. Leaves acuminate
10b. Leaves acute or obtuse
11a. Corolla-lobes 3 (2-6 dm. high; flowers white or greenish) — 12.
11b. Corolla-lobes 4 — 13.
12a. Flowers in clusters of 2 or 3
12b. Flowers solitary in the axils, on long hair-like pedicels
13a. Corolla brownish or purple (3-6 dm. high)
13b. Corolla white (1-4 dm. high) — 14.
14a. Flowers rather numerous in small cymes
14b. Flowers in clusters of 2 or 3, or solitary — 15.
15a. Principal leaves spreading or ascending
15b. Principal leaves recurved or reflexed
16a. Ovary and fruit bristly or hispid — 17.
16b. Ovary and fruit not bristly (summer) — 18.
17a. Leaves narrowly lanceolate to linear, mostly 6-8 in a whorl (stem 5-15 dm. long; flowers white; spring and summer)
17b. Leaves narrowly oval or elliptical, mostly in whorls of 6; flowers in clusters of 3 (1-5 dm. high; flowers greenish, summer)
18a. Leaves cuspidate or mucronate at the apex (flowers white) — 19.
18b. Leaves obtuse at the apex (flowers white or greenish; 2-6 dm. high) — 20.
19a. Flowers very numerous in terminal panicles (stem 3-8 dm. long)
19b. Flowers in axillary clusters (1-3 dm. high)
19c. Flowers few, in small loose terminal cymes — 20.
20a. Stem smooth or nearly so (2-4 dm. high)
20b. Stem hispid with reflexed bristles (5-15 dm. long)

CAPRIFOLIACEAE, the Honeysuckle Family

Shrubs or herbs, with opposite leaves; corolla regular or irregular, petals 4 or 5, united; stamens 4 or 5; ovary inferior, 1-5-celled.

1a. Leaves compound (shrubs 1-4 m. high; flowers white, in large clusters in early summer) (Elder) — 2.
1b. Leaves simple — 3.
2a. Pith of the twigs white; inflorescence flattened or convex
2b. Pith of the twigs brown; inflorescence pyramidal
3a. Plant trailing; flowers nodding, in pairs (1 dm. high; flowers pink, summer)
3b. Erect herbs (6-12 dm. high; flowers dull-red, axillary, early summer) (Feverwort) — 4.
3c. Shrubs, small trees, or woody vines — 5.
4a. Leaf-bases broadly connate and 2-5 cm. wide
4b. Leaf-bases narrowly connate, not over 1 cm. wide
5a. Climbing vines (spring and early summer) (Honeysuckle) — 6.  [Pg 110]
5b. Erect or spreading shrubs or small trees — 11.
6a. Flowers in 2-flowered axillary clusters (flowers white or pink)
6b. Flowers in terminal clusters — 7.
7a. Leaves distinctly pubescent beneath (flowers yellow) — 8.
7b. Leaves glabrous beneath, or very minutely puberulent — 9.
8a. Leaves pubescent above
8b. Leaves glabrous above
9a. Corolla purple on the outside, glabrous within
9b. Corolla yellow on the outside (or slightly tinged with purple), pubescent within — 10.
10a. Corolla-tube 6-8 mm. long
10b. Corolla-tube 11-14 mm. long
11a. Corolla tubular at base; style long and slender — 12.
11b. Corolla rotate or somewhat bell-shape, style very short (flowers white, late spring or early summer) — 22.
12a. Flowers yellow or yellowish (spring and early summer) — 13.
12b. Flowers white, pink, or red — 18.
13a. Leaves serrate (5-10 dm. tall)
13b. Leaves entire; flowers in pairs (Honeysuckle) — 14.
14a. Each pair of flowers subtended by 2 broad leaf-like bracts (1-3 m. high)
14b. Bracts at the base of each pair of flowers linear or narrowly lanceolate — 15.
15a. Native species of woods and bogs — 16.
15b. Introduced species, growing mostly near dwellings; leaves very pubescent beneath
16a. Peduncles 15 mm. long or more (1-4 m. high) — 17.
16b. Peduncles about 5 mm. long (1 m. high, or less)
17a. Leaves ciliate
17b. Leaves not ciliate
18a. Corolla irregular, over 1 cm. long (1-4 m. high; spring)
18b. Corolla regular, less than 1 cm. long (5-15 dm. high; flowers white or pink, in axillary clusters, early summer) — 19.
19a. Flowers in axillary spikes
19b. Flowers almost sessile in the axils — 20.
20a. Flowers numerous in each axil
20b. Flowers 1 or 2 in each axil (Snowberry) — 21.
21a. Leaves green beneath
21b. Leaves whitened beneath
22a. Leaves palmately lobed — 23.
22b. Leaves not lobed — 25.
23a. Outermost flowers of the cluster enlarged and imperfect (1-4 m. high)
23b. All flowers of the cluster alike — 24.
24a. Flower-clusters 4-10 cm. broad (1-2 m. high)
24b. Flower-clusters 2-3 cm. broad
25a. Outer flowers of the cluster enlarged and imperfect (1-3 m. high)
25b. All flowers of the cluster alike — 26.
26a. Leaves finely serrate; the veins not prominent — 27.
26b. Leaves coarsely serrate, all or most of the teeth terminating in a prominent vein — 29.
27a. Peduncle of the flower-cluster, below its branches, at least 2 cm. long (1-3 m. high)
27b. Peduncle of the cluster 1 cm. long, or even shorter (3-8 m. high) — 28.
28a. Leaves distinctly acuminate
28b. Leaves obtuse or barely acute
29a. Leaves densely pubescent beneath (6-15 dm. high)
29b. Leaves glabrous beneath, or with tufts of hairs in the forks of the veins (1-4 m. high)

VALERIANACEAE, the Valerian Family

Herbs with opposite leaves and small nearly or quite regular flowers; petals 5, united; stamens 3; sepals minute or wanting; ovary inferior.

1a. Stem-leaves pinnately cleft (3-10 dm. high; flowers white or pinkish, summer) — 2.
1b. Stem-leaves entire or dentate (2-6 dm. high; flowers white, summer) (Corn Salad) — 3.
2a. Leaf-segments parallel-veined Valerian, Valeriana edulis.
2b. Leaf-segments net-veined
3a. Upper stem-leaves entire
3b. Upper stem-leaves dentate

[Pg 112]

DIPSACACEAE, the Teasel Family

Herbs with opposite leaves, and small pale blue flowers aggregated in dense heads; calyx minute; petals 4, united; stamens 4, attached to the corolla; ovary inferior.

One species in Michigan, 1-2 m. high, with prickly leaves and stem, blooming in summer

CUCURBITACEAE, the Gourd Family

Herbs, climbing by tendrils, with alternate palmately lobed leaves and imperfect flowers; staminate flowers in showy clusters, with 5-6 petals and 3 stamens; pistillate flowers small.

1a. Leaves 5-angled or shallowy 5-lobed (flowers white, summer)
1b. Leaves 5-lobed to about the middle (commonly cultivated and frequently wild; flowers white, summer)

CAMPANULACEAE, the Bellflower Family

Herbs with alternate simple leaves and milky juice; sepals 5; petals 5, united; stamens 5, attached at the very base of the corolla; ovary inferior.

1a. Stem-leaves circular or nearly so, cordate-clasping at base (2-6 dm. high; flowers blue, axillary, in summer)
1b. Stem-leaves linear or nearly so, not over 1 cm. wide (summer) — 2.
1c. Stem-leaves ovate to lanceolate, 2 cm. wide or more (flowers blue, in a terminal spike or raceme, summer) (Bellflower) — 4.
2a. Stem and leaves glabrous (or rarely pubescent) (1-6 dm. high; flowers blue)
2b. Stem and leaves rough with reflexed bristles (marsh plants, with weak slender stems 3-10 dm. long; flowers white or pale-blue) (Marsh Bellflower) — 3.
3a. Corolla 5-8 mm. long
3b. Corolla 10-12 mm. long
4a. Corolla rotate; flowers in spikes (6-15 dm. high)
4b. Corolla bell-shape; flowers in one-sided racemes (4-10 dm. high)

[Pg 113]

LOBELIACEAE, the Lobelia Family

Herbs with alternate simple leaves and milky juice; flowers irregular; petals 5, united; corolla split down the upper side; stamens 5, united by their anthers into a ring or tube surrounding the style; ovary 2-celled, inferior. Flowers in summer and autumn.

1a. Leaves all basal, tubular; flowers on leafless stalks (aquatic, 1-4 dm. high; flowers blue)
1b. Leaves normal, on the stem — 2.
2a. Flowers more than 2 cm. long (5-10 dm. high) — 3.
2b. Flowers about 1 cm. long, or shorter (flowers light blue) — 4.
3a. Flowers scarlet
3b. Flowers blue
4a. Flowers in loose racemes, pedicelled — 5.
4b. Flowers in slender terminal spike-like racemes, nearly sessile (4-10 dm. high, usually unbranched)
5a. Foliage pubescent (3-8 dm. high)
5b. Foliage glabrous (1-4 dm. high)

COMPOSITAE, the Composite Family

Herbs, with various types of foliage, but with flowers of characteristic structure, resembling a sunflower, a thistle, or a dandelion. Each apparent flower is a head of numerous small flowers, attached side by side to the expanded end of the stem, and subtended and partly enclosed by a series of bracts, called the involucre, which resembles a calyx.

The calyx of the individual flower is minute or actually wanting, and is usually modified to aid in seed dispersal. It appears at the base of the corolla, at the summit of the inferior ovary, and is known as pappus. The structure of the pappus is best observed in the ripe fruit.

The corolla of the individual flowers consists of 5 (or rarely 4) united petals. In some flowers the petals are united to form a tubular or bell-shape corolla. In others they are united to form a flat or strap-shape corolla. The stamens are attached to the corolla, and are united by their anthers into a tube which surrounds the style, and above which the 2-lobed stigma protrudes.

The apparent flower of a Composite, composed of several or many individual flowers, is termed a head. It may be composed entirely of tubular flowers, as the thistle or bone-set; or entirely of strap-shape flowers, as the dandelion; or of both sorts together, as the aster or sunflower. In the latter case, the tubular flowers invariably occupy the center of the head, called the disk, and the larger strap-shape flowers are at the margin, where their projecting corollas, called rays, may be very conspicuous. Such heads are called radiate.

[Pg 114]In a few composites (see 1a below) the flowers have minute corollas without colored parts.

In identifying a composite, determine first whether the heads are composed of tubular flowers, of strap-shape flowers, or of both sorts together; and, secondly, observe the nature of the pappus, using preferably the ripe heads, or at least the oldest flower-heads available. No further difficulties will be encountered.

1a. Flowers without petal-like or brightly colored parts; staminate and pistillate flowers in separate heads (or rarely in the same heads); coarse weeds with inconspicuous flowers (summer and autumn) — 2.
1b. Flowers with some petal-like parts, usually brightly colored or white — 10.
2a. Leaves toothed or lobed — 3.
2b. Leaves deeply pinnatifid or dissected (4-15 dm. high; flowers in erect spikes) (Ragweed) — 7.
3a. Fruit or pistillate flowers thickly covered with sharp hooked spines (3-10 dm. high) (Cocklebur) — 4.
3b. Fruit not spiny — 8.
4a. With spines on the stem at the base of the leaves
4b. Without any spines on the stem — 5.
5a. Body of the bur smooth or slightly hairy
5b. Body of the bur and the spines densely pubescent — 6.
6a. Body of the bur more than twice as long as thick; a common weed
6b. Body of the bur less than twice as long as thick
7a. Leaves twice-pinnatifid
7b. Leaves once-pinnatifid
8a. Leaves deeply 3-lobed (1-5 m. high)
8b. Leaves serrate or obscurely lobed — 9.
9a. Stem simple or sparingly branched; pistillate heads in the axils of the upper leaves (1-3 m. high)
9b. Stem much branched; heads all alike, in panicles
10a. Flowers all strap-shape; juicy milky. (The central flowers must be examined carefully, since they are frequently much smaller than the marginal ones) — 11.
10b. Flowers all tubular, with regular. 4-5-lobed corollas — 45.
10c. Flowers both tubular and strap-shape; heads radiate (in a few species the rays are small and may be overlooked by mistake) — 108.
11a. Flowers blue (summer and autumn) — 12.  [Pg 115]
11b. Flowers orange, yellow, white, or purplish — 15.
12a. Heads 2.5 cm. wide, or larger — 13.
12b. Heads 1.5 cm. wide, or smaller — 14.
13a. Leaves linear; bracts longer than the flowers, heads 5-10 cm. wide (6-15 dm. high)
13b. Leaves broader, mostly serrate; bracts shorter than the flowers; heads 2.5-4 cm. wide
14a. Heads in a narrow crowded cluster (5-15 dm. high) — 30b.
14b. Heads in a spreading open panicle (Wild Lettuce) — 22.
15a. Heads solitary at the summit of leafless stalks — 16.
15b. Heads several, on leafy, naked, or scaly stalks — 19.
16a. Basal leaves strictly entire; heads about 2.5 cm. wide (summer and autumn) — 35a.
16b. Basal leaves toothed, lobed, or pinnatifid (spring and summer) — 17.
17a. Heads 8-14 mm. wide (1-4 dm. high)
17b. Heads 25-50 mm. wide (1-6 dm. high) (Dandelion) — 18.
18a. Outer involucral bracts reflexed
18b. Outer involucral bracts erect or spreading
19a. Pappus none; heads about 1 cm. wide (4-10 dm. high; summer)
19b. Pappus of an inner row of bristles and an outer row of short scales; heads about 3 cm. wide (3-8 dm. high; early summer)
19c. Pappus of feathery bristles (summer) — 20.
19d. Pappus of simple bristles — 25.
20a. Flower-stalk scaly, without foliage leaves (2-6 dm. high)
20b. Stem leafy (3-10 dm. high) — 21.
21a. Leaves entire, linear-lanceolate
21b. Leaves serrate, oblong-lanceolate
22a. Pappus tawny in color (1-3 m. high) — 23.
22b. Pappus white — 24.
23a. Leaves pinnatifid
23b. Leaves undivided, dentate
24a. Upper leaves entire; heads about 1.5 cm. wide (5-10 dm. high)
24b. Upper leaves dentate or lobed; heads about 1 cm. wide (1-3 m. high)
25a. Achene tipped with a slender beak, bearing the pappus at its summit (summer) (Wild Lettuce) — 26.  [Pg 116]
25b. Achene without a beak — 29.
26a. Leaves hirsute or hispid on the mid-veins beneath — 27.
26b. Leaves glabrous — 28.
27a. Leaves pubescent on both sides (1-2 m. high)
27b. Leaves glabrous, except on the mid-vein (5-15 dm. high)
28a. Leaves entire or sparsely toothed (1-2 m. high)
28b. Leaves chiefly sinuate-pinnatifid (1-3 m. high)
29a. Flowers white, cream-color, or purplish (summer and autumn) (Rattlesnake Root) — 30.
29b. Flowers bright-yellow or orange — 33.
30a. Heads nodding (6-20 dm. high) — 31.
30b. Heads pointing in various directions, in spike-like panicles; involucres pubescent (5-15 dm. high)
31a. Heads with 5-7 flowers in each
31b. Heads with 8-12 flowers — 32.
31c. Heads with 20 or more flowers
32a. Pappus dark reddish-brown
32b. Pappus pale-brown or nearly white
33a. Pappus tawny or brown in color (summer and autumn) (Hawkweed) — 34.
33b. Pappus white — 42.
34a. Heads 2.5 cm. in diameter, or larger — 35.
34b. Heads 1-2 cm. in diameter (4-10 dm. high) — 37.
35a. Leaves all basal (1-4 dm. high)
35b. Stem-leaves present (4-15 dm. high) — 36.
36a. Leaves rounded at the sessile base
36b. Leaves narrowed toward the base
37a. A rosette of basal leaves conspicuous at flowering time — 38.
37b. No rosette of basal leaves at time of flowering — 41.
38a. Leaves glabrous on the upper side — 39.
38b. Leaves hairy on the upper side — 40.
39a. Stem glabrous, leafless or with one or two leaves
39b. Stem with several leaves, hairy below
40a. Leaves with short scattered hairs above
40b. Leaves and stem densely covered with very long hairs
41a. Leaves glabrous
41b. Leaves very hairy
42a. Bracts of the involucre smooth (5-20 dm. tall; summer and autumn) (Sow Thistle) — 43.
42b. Bracts of the involucre hairy — 44.
43a. The clasping leaf-bases acute
43b. The clasping leaf-bases rounded
44a. Heads 2.5-5 cm. broad; involucre 2 cm. long (4-10 dm. high)
44b. Heads 1-2 cm. broad; involucre 6-10 mm. long (3-6 dm. high; summer)
45a. Leaves or involucre or both spiny (thistles, burdock, etc.) — 46.
45b. Neither leaves nor involucre spiny — 60.
46a. Leaves 1-4 dm. broad, not spiny (flowers purple or white; summer) (Burdock) — 47.
46b. Leaves narrower, not spiny — 48.
47a. Diameter of involucre at flowering time 3-5 cm. (1-3 m. high)
47b. Diameter of involucre at flowering time 1.5-3 cm. (5-15 dm. high)
48a. Each head 1-flowered; heads aggregated in a globular head-like cluster (1-2 m. high; flowers blue or white, summer)
48b. Each head many-flowered — 49.
49a. Principal involucral bracts with stout spreading spines 2-4 cm. long (5-15 dm. high; flowers purple, summer)
49b. Principal involucral bracts with slender spines or none — 50.
50a. Pappus feathery; receptacle bristly (summer and autumn) (Thistle) — 51.
50b. Pappus not feathery (flowers purple, summer) — 59.
51a. Heads subtended by a circle of large leafy bracts (5-15 dm. high; flowers pale-yellow)
51b. Heads not subtended by several leafy bracts — 52.
52a. Leaves conspicuously white-woolly on both sides (4-10 dm. high) — 53.
52b. Leaves conspicuously white-woolly or brown-woolly below, not above (flowers purple or pink) — 54.
52c. Leaves green on both sides (flowers pink or purple, rarely white) — 56.
53a. Leaves deeply pinnately parted with linear divisions; flowers almost white
53b. Leaves irregularly pinnatifid; flowers purple-pink
54a. Stem-leaves entire or shallowly lobed (1-3 m. high)
54b. Stem-leaves obviously pinnatifid (1-2 m. high) — 55.
55a. Leaves decurrent on the stem
55b. Leaves not decurrent
56a. Outer and middle involucral bracts appressed, pointless or with weak short prickles — 57.
56b. Outer and middle bracts erect, not appressed, acuminate into a long slender more or less prickly tip (4-10 dm. high) — 58.
57a. Heads numerous 2-2.5 cm. broad, in close clusters (5-12 dm. high)
57b. Heads few or solitary, 3-5 cm. broad (1-2 m. high)
58a. Principal bracts with a conspicuous viscid stripe down the middle; heads 6-19 cm. broad, solitary or few
58b. Principal bracts not viscid
59a. Receptacle not bristly; heads 3-5 cm. wide (1-3 m. high; flowers pale-purple, summer)
59b. Receptacle bristly; heads 2-2.5 cm. wide (5-12 dm. high; flowers purple to white, late summer)
60a. Leaves basal; stem-leaves none or reduced to scales (2-8 dm. high; flowers whitish, in spring) — 61.
60b. Stem-leaves present; basal leaves present or absent — 62.
61a. Leaves toothed or lobed; flower-stalk not scaly
61b. Leaves deeply cleft; flower-stalk scaly — 197a.
62a. Leaves compound or dissected (flowers in summer and autumn) — 63.
62b. Leaves merely lobed, never truly compound or dissected — 72.
62c. Leaves entire or serrate — 78.
63a. Some of the involucral bracts leaf-like, longer than the heads (3-20 dm. high; flowers yellow or greenish, summer and autumn) (Beggar Ticks) — 126.
63b. Bracts short and not leaf-like — 64.
64a. Heads 7-20 mm. wide, in a flat-topped or convex cluster (3-10 dm. high; flowers yellow, summer) (Tansy) — 65.
64b. Heads smaller, in spikes, racemes, or panicles (flowers yellow or greenish, late summer and autumn) (Wormwood) — 66.
65a. Heads 7-10 mm. wide, numerous in a dense cluster
65b. Heads 10-20 mm. wide, few, 2-10 in a loose open cluster
66a. Heads 2-3 mm. broad (4-15 dm. high) — 67.
66b. Heads 4-6 mm. broad (3-10 dm. high) — 69.
67a. Leaf-lobes narrowly linear, strictly entire
67b. Leaf-lobes serrate — 68.
68a. Heads in a loose spreading panicle
68b. Heads in axillary clusters, producing a leafy spike-like panicle
69a. Leaf-lobes narrowly linear — 70.
69b. Leaf-lobes oblong to obovate, not linear — 71.
70a. Shrubby; involucre pubescent
70b. Herbaceous; involucre glabrous or rarely pubescent
71a. Leaves finely gray-pubescent on both sides
71b. Leaves smooth or nearly so above, densely white-woolly beneath
72a. Heads 2-4 cm. broad, purple, blue, or rarely white (3-6 dm. high; summer) — 92.
72b. Heads 1 cm. wide or less — 73.
73a. Leaves densely white-woolly beneath (flowers yellowish, late summer) — 74.
73b. Leaves smooth or hairy, never white-woolly — 75.
74a. Heads 6-8 mm. wide (4-8 dm. high)
74b. Heads 3-4 mm. wide (5-10 dm. high)
75a. Principal bracts of the involucre 5, with frequently a few much smaller ones — 76.
75b. Principal bracts of the involucre numerous — 77.
76a. Heads few in small terminal clusters; foliage somewhat viscid-pubescent (6-15 dm. high; flowers yellow, summer) — 114a.
76b. Heads very numerous in flat-topped clusters; foliage never viscid-pubescent (1-2 m. high; flowers white, late summer) — 105c.
77a. Leaves broadly halberd-shape, 3-lobed (1-2 m. high; flowers white, late summer) — 105b.  [Pg 120]
77b. Leaves lobed only at the base (5-10 dm. high; flowers yellow, summer) — 93a.
77c. Leaves pinnatifid (2-8 dm. high; flowers yellow) — 172.
78a. Bracts of the involucre dry and chaffy, at least at the tip; plants always pubescent and usually white-woolly — 79.
78b. Bracts of the involucre green or colored, but never dry and chaffy — 90.
79a. Pappus none; heads 3-4 mm. wide, in ample panicled spikes (flowers yellowish, late summer) — 74b.
79b. Pappus a minute ring or crown; leaves crenate (5-10 dm. high; flowers yellow, summer) — 93a.
79c. Pappus of hairs; heads in flat-topped clusters or slender spikes — 80.
80a. Heads sessile or subsessile in small flat-topped clusters; flowering in spring or early summer; principal leaves basal (1-4 dm. high; flowers white or purplish) (Everlasting) — 81.
80b. Heads in terminal spikes (2-6 dm. high; flowers purplish, summer)
80c. Heads in small or large flat-topped clusters, flowering in summer or autumn; principal leaves on the stem — 88.
81a. Stolons from the basal rosette of leaves leafy throughout and ascending at the tip — 82.
81b. Stolons prostrate throughout, leafy only at the tip — 87.
82a. Basal leaves 2-5 cm. long, 1-nerved — 83.
82b. Basal leaves 5-12 cm. long, 3-nerved — 84.
83a. Basal leaves spatulate or oblanceolate, smooth above
83b. Basal leaves obovate, pubescent above
84a. Basal leaves smooth above
84b. Basal leaves dull green and pubescent above — 85.
85a. Heads 6-8 mm. high
85b. Heads 8-11 mm. high — 86.
86a. Leaf-blade ovate or obovate
86b. Leaf-blade spatulate, with rounded tip
87a. Styles crimson
87b. Styles pale yellow
88a. Erect; involucral bracts pearly white (4-9 dm. high)
88b. Erect; involucral bracts dull white or pale brown, somewhat pubescent (4-8 dm. high) (Cudweed) — 89.
88c. Diffusely branched; heads in dense clusters; bracts brown (1-2 dm. high)
89a. Leaves decurrent on the stem
89b. Leaves not decurrent on the stem
90a. Twining vine (flowers white, summer)
90b. Not twining or climbing — 91.
91a. Involucral bracts deeply fringed at the tip (flowers purple, blue, or rarely white, summer; 3-6 dm. high) — 92.
91b. Involucral bracts entire or nearly so — 93.
92a. Upper leaves linear or narrowly lanceolate
92b. Upper leaves oblong or oblong-lanceolate
93a. Pappus none or a short ring or crown (5-10 dm. high; flowers yellow, summer)
93b. Pappus of 2-4 stiff awns (2-15 dm. high; flowers yellow, late summer) (Bur Marigold) — 130.
93c. Pappus of hairs or bristles — 94.
94a. Leaves linear or narrowly lanceolate, entire; heads never in a large flat-topped cluster — 95.
94b. Leaves not linear — 99.
95a. Heads showy, purple, in a long spike or raceme (late summer) (Blazing Star) — 96.
95b. Heads not showy, in a loose panicle or raceme — 240b.
96a. Involucral bracts rounded at the tip, appressed (5-15 dm. high) — 97.
96b. Involucral bracts pointed (3-6 dm. high) — 98.
97a. Heads 8-12-flowered
97b. Heads with 25 flowers or more
98a. Involucral bracts long-acuminate, spreading
98b. Involucral bracts mucronate, appressed
99a. Flowers yellow (2-8 dm. high) — 172b.
99b. Flowers bright-red or purple, in flat-topped clusters (8-20 dm. high; late summer) (Ironweed) — 100.
99c. Flowers blue (3-8 dm. high; late summer)
99d. Flowers flesh-color, pink, cream-color, or white (flowers in summer) — 103.
100a. Leaves glabrous beneath or minutely pubescent; heads 15-30-flowered — 101.
100b. Leaves tomentose beneath; heads 30-50-flowered — 102.
101a. Inflorescence densely crowded; usually 1 m. or less high
101b. Inflorescence loose and open, 15-30 cm. wide; 1-2 m. high
102a. Pappus tawny in color
102b. Pappus purple
103a. Leaves alternate — 104.
103b. Leaves opposite — 106.
103c. Leaves whorled (1-3 m. high; flowers pink or purple, late summer) (Joe-Pye Weed) — 107.
104a. Heads 5-flowered (5-20 dm. high; flowers white or pinkish, late summer) (Indian Plantain) — 105.
104b. Heads 10 25-flowered (5-10 dm. high; flowers white, late summer)
104c. Heads with more than 50 flowers (3-20 dm. high; flowers white, summer)
105a. Leaves entire, with many veins from base to apex
105b. Leaves sharply serrate
105c. Leaves broadly triangular or kidney-shape, sinuate or entire
106a. Leaves united at the base (5-15 dm. high)
106b. Leaves sessile but not united at the base (5-15 dm. high)
106c. Leaves petioled (4-12 dm. high)
107a. Inflorescence ovoid or pyramidal
107b. Inflorescence depressed or flattened
108a. Rays yellow or brown — 109.
108b. Rays white to blue or red, never yellow or brown — 197.
109a. Principal leaves basal, the stem merely with bract-like scales — 110.
109b. Principal leaves on the stem, opposite or whorled — 111.
109c. Principal leaves on the stem, alternate, or with smaller ones clustered in their axils — 132.
110a. Flower-stalk 1-5 dm. high, 1-flowered (spring)
110b. Flower-stalk 1-3 m. high, several-flowered (summer)
111a. Ray-flowers pistillate (the 2-lobed style protrudes from their base) — 112.
111b. Ray-flowers with neither stamens nor pistil — 118.
112a. Principal leaves lobed (summer) (Leafcup) — 113.  [Pg 123]
112b. Principal leaves toothed or entire, not lobed — 115.
113a. Rays 10 or more (1-2 m. high)
113b. Rays 5 (5-15 dm. high) — 114.
114a. Rays shorter than the involucre or none
114b. Rays about 1 cm. long
115a. Stem 6 dm. high or less; pappus of slender hairs (spring)
115b. Stem usually 8-20 dm. high; pappus of short scales or none (summer) — 116.
116a. Leaves united at base into a cup surrounding the stem
116b. Leaves closely sessile with a rounded base
116c. Leaves tapering to a short petiole; principal leaves whorled
116d. Leaves abruptly rounded at the sessile base, all opposite (Ox-eye) — 117.
117a. Leaves smooth
117b. Leaves rough
118a. Principal stem-leaves lobed or divided — 119.
118b. Principal stem-leaves entire or serrate — 127.
119a. Submerged aquatic; leaf-segments filiform
119b. Terrestrial plants; leaves merely 3-lobed (3-8 dm. high; late spring and summer) (Tickseed) — 120.
119c. Terrestrial plants; leaves compound or dissected (summer and autumn) — 121.
120a. Leaf-lobes linear-oblong, all about equal
120b. Lateral leaf-lobes very much smaller than the terminal
121a. Leaf-segments entire (Tickseed) — 122.
121b. Leaf-segments serrate (5-15 dm. high) (Tickseed Sunflower) — 124.
122a. Leaf-segments numerous, linear or nearly so (4-10 dm. high) — 123.
122b. Leaf-segments 3-5, lanceolate (1-3 m. high)
123a. Rays yellow throughout
123b. Rays brown, at least at the base
124a. Achenes wedge-shape, the inner ones less than 2 mm. wide — 125.
124b. Achenes obovate, the inner ones more than 2 mm. wide
125a. Leaf-lobes lanceolate
125b. Leaf-lobes linear
126a. Outer leaf-like bracts 10-16; achenes brown
126b. Outer leaf-like bracts 5-8; achenes black
126c. Outer leaf-like bracts about 4
127a. Bracts of the involucre all essentially alike in form and texture (flowers in summer and autumn) (Sunflower) — 179.
127b. Bracts of the involucre in two distinct sets, differing in form or consistency or both — 128.
128a. Leaves entire (3-8 dm. high; late spring and summer) — 120b.
128b. Leaves serrate (late summer and autumn) (Bur Marigold) — 129.
129a. Rays large and conspicuous, 2-3 cm. long (3-10 dm. high)
129b. Rays 1 cm. long or less — 130.
130a. Outer bracts leaf-like, serrate, 3-8 cm. long (4-15 dm. high)
130b. Outer bracts 1-2.5 cm. long (2-15 dm. high) — 131.
131a. Heads nodding after flowering
131b. Heads permanently erect
132a. Heads small, seldom more than 1 cm. wide, including the rays, blooming in late summer and autumn; flowers numerous, crowded in spikes, racemes, corymbs, or panicles (Goldenrod) — 133.
132b. Heads medium size or large, more than 1 cm. and usually exceeding 2 cm. in width, including the rays — 165.
133a. Heads chiefly in clusters or short racemes in the axils of ordinary foliage leaves, or occasionally the upper compacted into a leafy cluster terminating the stem — 134.
133b. Heads crowded at or near the ends of the branches at about the same distance from the base of the panicle, forming a rounded or flat-topped inflorescence — 140.
133c. Heads more or less uniformly distributed along the length of the branches, forming a cylindrical or pyramidal inflorescence, never flat-topped — 146.  [Pg 125]
134a. Stem and both sides of the leaves more or less pubescent or rough (4-10 dm. high) — 135.
134b. Stem and both sides of the leaves essentially smooth or with very short hairs (3-10 dm. high) — 136.
135a. Rays white
135b. Rays yellow
136a. Basal leaves abruptly narrowed to winged petioles — 137.
136b. Basal leaves not abruptly narrowed to winged petioles — 138.
137a. Involucre 2-5 mm. long
137b. Involucre 8-12 mm. long
138a. Lower leaves broadly oval, obtuse, thickish, crenate; achenes glabrous
138b. Lower leaves lanceolate, acuminate, thin, sharply serrate; achenes hairy — 139.
139a. Stem usually simple; heads few in very small clusters
139b. Stem usually diffusely branched; heads numerous
140a. Lower leaves ovate, oblong, or oval, pinnately veined (5-15 dm. high) — 141.
140b. Lower leaves linear-lanceolate. 3-5-veined (3-12 dm. high) — 142.
141a. Stem and leaves rough-hairy
141b. Stem and leaves smooth
142a. Heads very few in a small cluster; leaves few and scattered
142b. Heads very many, in a large cluster; stem very leafy — 143.
143a. Leaves hairy
143b. Leaves smooth — 144.
144a. Leaves folded, 8-20 mm. wide
144b. Leaves flat, 1-8 mm. wide — 145.
145a. Leaves 4-8 mm. wide, distinctly 3-5-ribbed
145b. Leaves 1-4 mm. wide, usually with 1 mid-vein
146a. Only 2-5 stem-leaves below the inflorescence (1-3 dm. high)
146b. Stem-leaves numerous — 147.
147a. Basal leaves much larger than the greatly reduced or bract-like upper ones — 148.  [Pg 126]
147b. Leaves essentially uniform in size from base to summit of stem — 157.
148a. Racemes or branches of the panicle either short and arranged along a more or less elongated central axis, or elongated and ascending, scarcely recurved, forming a narrow, more or less elongated panicle — 149.
148b. Racemes or branches of the panicle usually elongated, spreading outwards, usually recurved, forming a widened panicle — 153.
149a. Leaves mostly entire, the upper ones with smaller leaves fascicled in the axils (5-20 dm. high)
149b. Leaves mostly serrate, at least the basal ones — 150.
150a. Heads on pedicels 5-15 mm. long; achenes pubescent; stems usually clustered (1-5 dm. high, or prostrate) — 151.
150b. Heads on pedicels not over 5 mm. long; achenes smooth or nearly so; stems usually single (6-12 dm. high) — 152.
151a. Basal leaves 7-12 cm. long
151b. Basal leaves 15-30 cm. long
152a. Leaves pinnately veined
152b. Leaves 3-5-ribbed
153a. Both sides of the leaf pubescent or rough — 154.
153b. Leaf not pubescent or rough on both sides — 155.
154a. Stem closely pubescent (2-8 dm. high)
154b. Stem glabrous (5-12 dm. high)
155a. Leaves rough above, smooth below (6-15 dm. high)
155b. Leaves smooth on both sides (5-12 dm. high) — 156.
156a. Branches of the panicle spreading or recurved
156b. Branches of the panicle upright
157a. Stem more or less pubescent or hairy throughout (5-20 dm. high) — 158.
157b. Stem smooth, at least below the inflorescence — 161.
158a. Involucre 2-2.7 mm. long
158b. Involucre 3-5 mm. long — 159.
159a. Leaves pinnately veined, scabrous above
159b. Leaves 3-5-ribbed, pubescent but not scabrous above — 160.
160a. Stem and lower side of leaves covered with short hairs; common species
160b. Stem and lower side of leaves with distinct, loose, soft hairs (shore of Lake Superior)
161a. Involucre 2-2.7 mm. long (5-20 dm. high) — 158a.
161b. Involucre 3-6 mm. long — 162.
162a. Racemes or branches of the panicle either short and arranged along a more or less elongated axis, or elongated and ascending, scarcely recurved, forming a narrow more or less elongated panicle (5-10 dm. high)
162b. Racemes or branches of the panicle usually elongated, spreading outward, usually recurved, forming a widened panicle; leaves distinctly serrate — 163.
163a. Leaves pinnately veined (5-12 dm. high)
163b. Leaves 3-5-ribbed (5-20 dm. high) — 164.
164a. Leaves glabrous on both sides
164b. Leaves slightly pubescent beneath
165a. Ray-flowers pistillate (the 2-lobed style protrudes from their base) — 166.
165b. Ray-flowers with neither stamens nor pistil — 174.
166a. Principal leaves more than 2 dm. long (1-3 m. high; summer) — 167.
166b. Principal leaves less than 1.5 dm. long — 168.
167a. Leaves deeply lobed
167b. Leaves toothed or serrate
168a. Leaves narrowly linear (3-6 dm. high; late summer)
168b. Leaves of a broader shape — 169.
169a. Heads 1-2 cm. wide; flowers in spring and early summer (2-8 dm. high) (Ragwort) — 170.
169b. Heads 2-5 cm. wide; flowers in late summer and autumn — 173.
170a. Basal leaves cordate at base
170b. Basal leaves narrowed to the base — 171.
171a. Basal leaves obovate
171b. Basal leaves oblong
172a. Introduced annual in waste places (1-4 dm. high; spring and summer)
172b. Native biennial in moist ground (3-8 dm. high; summer)
173a. Leaves 2-5 cm. long, sharply spinulose-serrate; involucre viscid (3-6 dm. high; summer)
173b. Leaves 5-12 cm. long, merely serrate; involucre gray-pubescent (5-15 dm. high; late summer)
174a. Disk hemispherical or oblong-cylindrical (Summer) — 175.
174b. Disk flat or somewhat convex (Sunflower) (summer and autumn) — 179.
175a. Disk yellow or greenish-yellow (1-3 dm. high) — 176.
175b. Disk gray-brown or purple (5-15 dm. high) — 177.
176a. Principal stem-leaves pinnately divided
176b. Principal stem-leaves merely serrate
177a. Rays drooping; leaves pinnately divided
177b. Rays spreading when in bloom — 178.
178a. Lower leaves deeply 3-lobed
178b. Stem-leaves sharply serrate
178c. Stem-leaves entire or sparingly serrate
179a. Disk-flowers brown or purple — 180.
179b. Disk-flowers yellow — 182.
180a. Stem-leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate; petioles prominent, not winged — 181.
180b. Stem-leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, contracted at the base into a winged petiole (6-15 dm. high)
180c. Stem-leaves oblong-lanceolate, very thick and rigid, gradually narrowed to a sessile or short-petioled base (5-20 dm. high)
181a. Disk less than 2 cm. wide (3-10 dm. high)
181b. Disk more than 2.5 cm. wide (1-3 m. high)
182a. Leaves all or chiefly at the base (5-10 dm. high)
182b. Leaves chiefly scattered on the stem — 183.
183a. Leaves mainly or all alternate, and not definitely 3-ribbed (1-4 m. high) — 184.
183b. Leaves mainly or all opposite, lanceolate to ovate, and 3-ribbed — 186.
184a. Stem glabrous
184b. Stem hairy or rough — 185.
185a. Leaves hairy beneath, rough above, lanceolate
185b. Leaves rough on both sides, elongated
186a. Leaves sessile (5-15 dm. high) — 187.
186b. Leaves petioled, or narrowed at the base into a petiole (5-30 dm. high) — 189.
187a. Leaves wedge-shape at the base
187b. Leaves rounded at the base — 188.
188a. Stem glabrous or nearly so
188b. Stem densely and softly hirsute
189a. Stems rough, pubescent, or hispid — 190.
189b. Stems glabrous or nearly so — 193.
190a. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, more than 5 times as long as wide
190b. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, not more than 4 times as long as wide — 191.
191a. Leaves rounded at base, above the petiole
191b. Leaves narrowed to the base — 192.
192a. Bracts of the involucre spreading
192b. Bracts all appressed
193a. Heads 3 cm. wide or less, including the rays
193b. Heads 4 cm. wide or more, including the rays — 194.
194a. Leaves narrowed at the base into a winged petiole — 195.
194b. Petiole slender, not winged
195a. Leaves green on both sides; bracts longer than the disk
195b. Leaves paler below than above; bracts not longer than the disk — 196.
196a. Leaves minutely pubescent beneath
196b. Leaves conspicuously downy beneath
197a. Leaves all basal, the flowers on scaly stalks (2-8 dm. high; flowers whitish, in spring)
197b. Stem-leaves present, opposite — 198.
197c. Stem-leaves present, alternate — 200.
198a. Leaves ovate, dentate, 2-6 cm. long (2-8 dm. high; summer) (Galinsoga) — 199.
198b. Leaves lobed, 10-25 cm. long — 113b.
199a. Pubescence sparse, appressed
199b. Pubescence abundant, spreading
200a. Leaves dissected or deeply lobed or pinnatifid; pappus never capillary; rays white to pink (3-10 dm. high; summer and autumn) — 201.
200b. Leaves entire or serrate — 206.
201a. Heads 4-8 mm. wide (Yarrow) — 202.
201b. Heads 12-50 mm. wide — 203.
202a. Flower-clusters flat-topped
202b. Flower-clusters very convex
203a. Principal leaves pinnatifid — 213a.
203b. Principal leaves 1-3 times pinnately parted or dissected — 204.
204a. Leaf-segments very narrowly linear; leaves 2-3-pinnate — 205.
204b. Leaf-segments linear or lanceolate; heads 2.5-5 cm. wide
204c. Leaf-segments ovate to ovate-oblong; heads 1-2 cm. wide
205a. Foliage strongly scented
205b. Foliage not ill-scented
206a. Heads 3-6 mm. broad, including the rays (summer and autum) — 207.
206b. Heads 7 mm. broad or larger, including the rays — 209.
207a. Rays purple (1-4 dm. high)
207b. Rays white — 208.
208a. Leaves obovate to oblong (3-10 dm. high) — 135a.  [Pg 131]
208b. Leaves linear or narrowly lanceolate (2-25 dm. high)
209a. Pappus none, or minute and not of hairs (summer and autumn) — 210.
209b. Pappus of hairs — 214.
210a. Disk-flowers purple or brown (4-12 dm. high; rays pink) (Purple Coneflower) — 211.
210b. Disk-flowers yellow or nearly white — 212.
211a. Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, most of them serrate
211b. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, gradually narrowed at the base, entire
212a. Rays broadly obovate; heads 1-2 cm. wide (3-6 dm. high)
212b. Rays oblong or narrowly elliptical — 213.
213a. Leaves serrate (3-10 dm. high)
213b. Leaves entire (8-25 dm. high)
214a. Involucral bracts all the same length or nearly so and narrow, or with a few short outer ones; plants blooming in spring and summer, or a few plants persisting in bloom until autumn (Fleabane) — 215.
214b. Involucral bracts unequal, the outer successively shorter (or rarely nearly equal), loosely or closely overlapping; plants 3-15 dm. high, blooming in late summer and autumn (Aster) — 221.
215a. Rays short and inconspicuous, barely longer than the pappus (1-5 dm. high; summer)
215b. Rays conspicuous, spreading, 3 mm. long or more — 216.
216a. Rare plants of the Northern Peninsula, with entire leaves and stems 1-5 dm. high, from a thick woody root (flowers white or purple, summer) — 217.
216b. Common species, with erect stems from fibrous roots; leaves toothed (except in one species) — 218.
217a. Heads 3-5 cm. wide; rays about 100
217b. Heads 1-2 cm. wide; rays 20-30
218a. Stem unbranched, except for the peduncles; leaves chiefly basal; heads 1-9 (2-5 dm. high; flowers pale-purple, spring)
218b. Stem branched; principal leaves on the stem; heads usually numerous (3-12 dm. high; spring and summer) — 219.
219a. Stem-leaves linear, entire
219b. Stem-leaves ovate-lanceolate, the principal ones toothed — 220.
220a. Rays 100 or more, light-purple or pink
220b. Rays much fewer, white
221a. Basal leaves petioled and heart-shape at the base — 222.
221b. Basal leaves not petioled; stem-leaves with heart-shape clasping bases — 231.
221c. Basal and stem-leaves sessile or petioled, but never heart-shape or clasping — 240.
222a. Rays white or violet — 223.
222b. Rays blue — 225.
223a. Plant glandular, especially on the pedicels and branches of the inflorescence
223b. Plant not glandular — 224.
224a. Leaves rough above
224b. Leaves smooth above
225a. Stem-leaves clasping the stem by a cordate base
225b. Stem-leaves not cordate-clasping — 226.
226a. Leaves entire — 227.
226b. Leaves serrate — 228.
227a. Leaves glabrous above
227b. Leaves rough above
228a. Involucre 4-6 mm. long — 229.
228b. Involucre 6-10 mm. long — 230.
229a. Leaves rough; petioles mostly winged
229b. Leaves smooth; petioles slender, not winged
230a. Heads few, seldom more than 10, in a loose spreading cluster
230b. Heads numerous, in a rather elongate crowded cluster
231a. Stem hirsute or rough-pubescent — 232.
231b. Stem smooth, or essentially so — 236.
232a. Leaves conspicuously serrate
232b. Leaves entire or nearly so — 233.
233a. Leaves narrowed toward the base and barely clasping, linear or oblong-linear — 234.
233b. Leaves ovate-oblong or lanceolate, with a broad conspicuously clasping base — 235.
234a. Involucre pubescent but not glandular
234b. Involucre glandular
235a. Involucre very glandular and viscid; rays very numerous, violet-purple; leaves lanceolate
235b. Involucre slightly glandular or not at all; rays 20-30, generally blue-purple; leaves ovate-oblong
236a. Leaves of a linear type — 237.
236b. Leaves broader than linear, at least 1 cm. wide — 238.
237a. Bracts narrow, approximately equal in length — 253a.
237b. Bracts of several lengths, the outer successively shorter — 256a.
238a. Leaves smooth above
238b. Leaves rough above — 239.
239a. Leaves contracted below the middle and then abruptly dilated to the clasping base
239b. Leaves gradually narrowed toward the base
240a. Rays conspicuous — 241.
240b. Rays minute or wanting
241a. Stems and leaves gray with a silky pubescence
241b. Stem and leaves green, not silky — 242.
242a. Bracts glandular-viscid; rays violet
242b. Bracts bristly-ciliate — 243.
242c. Bracts smooth or pubescent, not glandular or bristly-ciliate — 244.
243a. Leaves crowded, rigid; rays white
243b. Leaves not crowded and rigid; rays blue — 234a.
244a. Bracts narrowed at the tip into thickened firm green awl-shape points — 245.
244b. Bracts acute or obtuse at the flattened tip — 247.
245a. Involucre 4-5 mm. long — 246.
245b. Involucre 7-8 mm. high
246a. Stem smooth
246b. Stem hairy; leaves linear
246c. Stem densely white-woolly
247a. Leaves at most 4.5 cm. long — 248.
247b. Leaves larger, at least the principal ones — 249.
248a. Stems in clusters; leaves rigid, linear, with 1 vein; flowers blue
248b. Stem solitary; leaves not rigid; flowers rose-pink
249a. Heads solitary at the end of minutely leafy branchlets; leaves linear
249b. Heads in flat-topped clusters; leaves lanceolate or broader — 250.
249c. Heads in more or less one-sided racemes — 251.
249d. Heads in panicles or irregular clusters — 253.
250a. Leaves rigid, linear-lanceolate
250b. Leaves not rigid, lanceolate
251a. Leaves lanceolate, sharply serrate — 252.
251b. Leaves linear or narrowly linear-lanceolate, only the larger ones with a few teeth near the middle
252a. Stem glabrous or somewhat pubescent
252b. Stem woolly with long hairs
253a. Bracts narrow, approximately equal in length
253b. Bracts of several lengths, the outer successively shorter — 254.
254a. Heads 10-15 mm. wide, including the rays
254b. Heads 15-25 mm. wide, including the rays — 255.
255a. Bracts with conspicuous dilated or subrhombic tips
255b. Bracts without conspicuous green tips — 256.
256a. Rays purple or rose; bog plant with linear leaves
256b. Rays white, or slightly tinged with blue; leaves oblong to narrowly lanceolate

[Pg 135]


Achene. A small, dry, hard, seed-like fruit containing a single seed.
Acuminate. Taper-pointed.
Acute. Ending with an acute angle.
Alternate. Located singly on the stem, with other leaves above or below.
Annual. Living but a single season.
Anther. The (usually) enlarged end of a stamen, bearing the pollen.
Ascending. Rising or curving obliquely upward.
Auricle. An ear-shape appendage at the base of a leaf or other organ.
Auricled, auriculate. Furnished with auricles.
Awl-shape. Tapering to a slender stiff point.
Awn. An awl-shape or bristle-shape appendage.
Axil. The point on a stem just above the base of a leaf or branch.
Axillary. Arising from or produced in the axil.

Basal. Arising from or produced at the base.
Beak. Ending in a prominent slender point.
Bract. A small leaf near the base of a flower or flower-stalk, or in a flower-cluster.
Bracteal. An adjective derived from bract.
Bipinnate. A leaf with a pinnately branched axis, bearing leaflets on the sides of the branches.

Calyx. The outer portion of the flower, usually green in color. In some plants it is colored to resemble (or replace) the corolla, and in others may be minute or wanting.
Capitate. Shaped like a head; or arranged in a dense compact cluster.
Capsule. A dry fruit with usually several seeds, opening at maturity.
Catkin. A cylindrical or ovoid cluster of inconspicuous flowers, for example, the "pussy willow."
Cells of ovary. The cavity or cavities within an ovary, in which the seeds are produced.
Ciliate. Provided with hairs at the margin.
Clasping. With the base of a leaf or other organ wholly or partly surrounding the stem.
Cleft. Deeply divided toward the base or the mid-rib.
Closed sheath. A leaf-sheath in which the margins are united to form a tube.
Composite. A flower-cluster containing several or many small flowers, closely crowded together and provided with calyx-like bracts, so that the whole cluster resembles a single flower.
Compound. Composed of 2 or more similar parts united, as a compound ovary.
Compound leaf. A leaf with two or more separate leaflets on a single petiole.
[Pg 136] Connate. Grown together.
Cordate. Heart-shape. A whole leaf-blade may be cordate, or the term may be applied to the base of a leaf only.
Cordate-sagittate. Intermediate in shape between cordate and sagittate.
Corm. An enlarged stem-base, of solid structure and usually underground.
Corolla. The portion of a flower next to the calyx (in ordinary cases). It is generally the most conspicuous part of the flower, but may be completely absent, or inconspicuous, or replaced by the calyx.
Corymb. A flat-topped or convex-topped flower-cluster.
Creeping. With stems prostrate on the ground and rooting at intervals.
Crenate. With round-pointed teeth at the margin.
Crenulate. Finely or minutely crenate.
Cuspidate. Ending with a short sharp stiff point.

Deciduous. Not persistent for a long time; not evergreen.
Decompound. Repeatedly branched with numerous leaflets.
Decurrent. Extending with wing-like expansions down the stem.
Decumbent. A stem prostrate at the base, but with the tip more or less ascending.
Dehiscent. Breaking open at maturity to discharge the contents.
Deltoid. Broadly triangular.
Dioecious. Bearing staminate and pistillate flowers upon separate plants.
Dissected. Finely divided into numerous small or narrow segments.
Divided. With deep segments or lobes.

Elliptical. Having the shape of an ellipse.
Elliptical-lanceolate. Intermediate in shape between elliptical and lanceolate.
Entire. With an unbroken margin, without teeth or lobes.
Epiphyte. A plant growing attached to the bark of another plant, and without connection with the soil.
Erect. Growing in nearly or quite a vertical position.
Evenly pinnate. A compound leaf terminating in a pair of leaflets.

Filament. The (usually) slender basal portion of a stamen, supporting the anther at its tip.
Floweret. A small flower.

Gamopetalous. Composed of united petals.
Gamosepalous. Composed of united sepals.
Glabrous. Smooth; without hairs.
Glandular. Bearing glands.
Glaucous. Covered with a thin bluish or whitish deposit, easily rubbed off.
Glume. A bract at the base of a spikelet of a grass.

Half recurved. Curved half-way backward.
Hastate. Shaped like an arrow-head, but with the basal lobes pointing outwards instead of backward.
[Pg 137] Head. A dense cluster of flowers, about as broad as long.
Hirsute. With stiff coarse hairs.

Imperfect. Flowers which contain either pistil or stamens, not both.
Incised. With deep, sharp, irregular, divisions.
Indehiscent. Not breaking open at maturity to discharge the contents.
Inflorescence. A cluster of flowers.
Internode. A section of stem between two joints, or nodes.
Involucre. A collection of bracts at the base of a flower-cluster.
Irregular. Possessing similar parts of different size or form. An irregular flower is generally distinguished by petals of unequal size or shape.

Laciniate. Cut into narrow pointed lobes or divisions.
Lanceolate. Shaped like a lance-head, several times longer than wide,
and broadest below the middle.

Linear. Long and narrow, but with about uniform width.
Linear-lanceolate. Intermediate in shape between linear and lanceolate;
narrowly lanceolate.

Lip. The largest and most conspicuous petal in an irregular corolla,
usually applied to the lower petal of an orchid.

Lobe. A segment or division of any organ.
Leaflet. One portion of the blade of a compound leaf.
Lemma. One of the bracts in the spikelet of a grass, and described in the treatment of that family.

Membranous. Thin or membrane-like in texture.
Monoecious. Bearing stamens and pistils in separate flowers, but on the same plant.
Mucronate. Tipped with a short small abrupt tip.

Node. A joint of a stem, at which leaves are borne and branches appear.

Oblanceolate. Reversed lanceolate in shape.
Oblique. With unequal sides.
Oblong. Somewhat rectangular in shape, with parallel sides.
Oblong-lanceolate. Intermediate in shape between oblong and lanceolate.
Oblong-spatulate. Intermediate in shape between oblong and spatulate.
Obovate. Reversed ovate in shape.
Obtuse. Blunt-tipped; terminating in an obtuse angle.
Odd-pinnate. A compound leaf terminating in a single leaflet.
Once-compound. A compound leaf bearing leaflets at the end or along the sides of the main axis.
Once-pinnate. A compound leaf bearing leaflets along the sides of the axis.
Open sheath. A leaf-sheath with separate margins.
Opposite. Situated in pairs on opposite sides of the stem or axis.
Ovary. The basal, usually swollen portion of the pistil, within which the seeds are produced.
Ovate. Egg-shape in outline.
[Pg 138] Ovate-lanceolate. Intermediate in shape between ovate and lanceolate; broadly lanceolate or narrowly ovate.
Ovate-oblong. Intermediate in shape between ovate and oblong.
Ovoid. Egg-shape.

Palmate. With several organs or structures attached at or proceeding from the same point; applied chiefly to the arrangement of principal veins in a leaf and of leaflets in a compound leaf.
Panicle. A loose, more or less irregular, branching cluster of pedicelled flowers, usually much longer than thick.
Parallel-veined. With the principal veins of the leaf paralleling each other from the base to the apex, or (rarely) from the mid-rib to the margin.
Pedicel. The stalk of a single flower.
Parasite. A plant which grows attached to another and derives its nourishment from it.
Peduncle. The stalk of a flower-cluster, or of a solitary flower.
Peltate. Attached to the stalk by the lower surface, instead of the margin.
Perennial. Living through several seasons.
Perfect. Bearing stamens and pistils in the same flower.
Perfoliate. Clasping the stem so completely that the stem seems to pass through it.
Perianth. The calyx and corolla of a flower.
Perigynium. A sac-like structure surrounding the achene of a sedge.
Persistent. Remaining attached for a considerable time.
Petal. One member or segment of the corolla.
Petiole. The stalk of a leaf.
Pinnate. With several organs or structures attached at the sides of an axis or stalk; applied chiefly to the arrangement of the principal veins in a leaf and of leaflets in a compound leaf.
Pinnatifid. Deeply pinnately cut or divided.
Pistil. The central portion of a flower, consisting of ovary, style, and stigma; the seed-bearing part of the flower.
Pistillate. Bearing pistils.
Polygamous. Applied to plants in which some flowers are perfect and others either staminate or pistillate.
Pubescent. Hairy.

Raceme. A more or less elongated flower-cluster, bearing pedicelled flowers along a single axis.
Racemose. Arranged in racemes.
Receptacle. The end of a peduncle or pedicel upon which the organs of a flower, or the flowers of a head, are attached.
Recurved. Curved back.
Reflexed. Abruptly bent back or down.
Regular. Uniform in shape or structure. Flowers are generally considered regular when all the petals are of the same size and shape.
Retrorse. Directed backward or downward.
[Pg 139] Revolute. Rolled backward or under.
Rootstock. A horizontal subterranean stem, sending up leaves or stems.
Rotate. Wheel-shape; essentially flat and circular.

Sac-like. Inflated; sack-like.
Sagittate. Shaped like an arrow-head.
Salver-form. A corolla having a slender tube abruptly expanded at the summit into a flat or spreading portion.
Scape. A peduncle arising directly from the base of the plant, leafless or bearing bracts only.
Segment. One member or portion of an organ.
Sepal. One member or portion of the calyx.
Serrate. With sharp teeth at the margin.
Serrulate. Finely or minutely serrate.
Sessile. Without a stalk, petiole, or pedicel.
Sheathing. Inclosing.
Simple. In one piece; not compound; usually applied to leaves with a single blade.
Sinuate. Wavy-margined.
Sinus. The angle between two lobes or divisions.
Spadix. A short fleshy spike.
Spathe. A large bract or pair of bracts enclosing a flower-cluster.
Spatulate. Shaped like a spatula, with a narrow base and an enlarged, more or less rounded summit.
Spike. An elongated flower-cluster having sessile flowers upon an unbranched axis.
Spike-like. Resembling a spike.
Spinulose-serrate. Provided with teeth tipped with minute spines.
Spur. A hollow projection from the calyx or corolla, usually slender in shape, and generally directed backward.
Stamen. One of the organs of a flower, consisting of a filament and anther.
Staminate. Bearing stamens.
Stolon. A short stem arising from the base of a plant, prostrate or nearly so, and eventually taking root.
Striate. Marked with fine stripes or ridges.
Style. A portion of the pistil, usually slender, and connecting the ovary and stigma.
Superior. A superior ovary occupies the center of the flower and is not attached to any other floral organs.
Subtending. Situated at the base of an organ.
Subulate. Awl-shape.

Ternately. Divided by threes.
Tomentose. Densely hairy with matted or tangled hairs.
Trifoliate. With three leaflets.
Truncate. Cut straight across at the tip, or nearly so.
[Pg 140] Tube. The more or less cylindrical portion of a gamosepalous calyx or a gamopetalous corolla, distinguished from the expanded or lobed terminal portion.
Tubular. Shaped like a tube.
Twice-pinnate. Same as bipinnate.
Two-lipped. A calyx or corolla in which the upper half is decidedly different in size or shape from the lower.

Umbel. A flower-cluster with several or many pedicelled flowers all arising from the same point.
Undulate. With a wavy margin.

Viscid. Sticky.
Villous. With long soft hairs.

Whorl. An arrangement of 3 or more leaves or flowers in a circle around a node.
Whorled. In a whorl.
Wing. A thin flat expansion on the sides or edge of an organ.

[Pg 141]


Abies, 1

Abutilon, 72

Acalypha, 66

Acanthaceae, 107

Acanthus Family, 107

Acer, 70

Aceraceae, 70

Acerates, 90

Achillea, 130, 131

Acnida, 30

Acorus, 8

Actaea, 39

Actinomeris, 128

Adder's Mouth, 17

Adenocaulon, 118

Adlumia, 41

Aesculus, 70

Agastache, 97

Agrimonia, 55

Agrimony, 55

Agropyron, 6

Agrostemma, 33

Agrostis, 6

Ailanthus, 65

Aizoaceae, 31

Alder, 22

Alder, Black, 69

Aletris, 13

Alfalfa, 61

Alisma, 3

Alismaceae, 3

Allium, 13

Alnus, 22

Alopecurus, 4

Alsike Clover, 61

Althaea, 72

Alum Root, 50, 51

Alyssum, 42, 46

Alyssum, Yellow, 42, 46

Amaranth Family, 30

Amaranthaceae, 30

Amaranthus, 30

Amaryllidaceae, 14

Amaryllis Family, 14

Ambrosia, 114

Amelanchier, 55

American Columbo, 88

American Ipecac, 57

Ammophila, 4

Amorpha, 58

Amphicarpa, 59

Anacardiaceae, 68

Anagallis, 87

Anaphalis, 120

Andromeda, 86

Andropogon, 5

Androsace, 87

Anemone, 38, 39

Anemone, Rue, 39

Anemone, Wood, 38

Anemonella, 39

Angelica, 82

Anonaceae, 40

Antennaria, 120

Anthemis, 130

Antirrhinum, 103

Anychia, 31

Apios, 58

Aplectrum, 16

Apocynaceae, 90

Apocynum, 90

Appalachian Cherry, 54

Apple, 54

Apple of Peru, 101

Aquifoliaceae, 69

Aquilegia, 36

Arabis, 46, 47

Araceae, 8

Aralia, 80

Araliaceae, 80

Arbutus, Trailing, 85

Arceuthobium, 25

Arctium, 117

Arctostaphylos, 85

Arenaria, 32

Arethusa, 16

Arisaema, 8

Aristolochia, 25

Aristolochiaceae, 25

Arnica, 123

Arrow Arum, 9

Arrow Grass, 3

Arrow Grass Family, 3

Arrow-head, 3

Arrow Wood, 111

Artemisia, 119

[Pg 142] Artichoke, Jerusalem, 129

Arum Family, 8

Asarum, 25

Asclepias, 90, 91

Asclepiadaceae, 90

Ash, 88

Ash, Mountain, 52

Ash, Prickly, 65

Asimina, 40

Asparagus, 10

Aspen, 19

Aster, 132-134

Atriplex, 29

Avena, 6

Avens, 56, 57

Baby's Breath, 34

Balm of Gilead, 19

Balsam, 1

Balsam Poplar, 19

Balsaminaceae, 71

Baneberry, 39

Baptisia, 61

Barbarea, 44

Barberry, 40

Barberry Family, 40

Barnyard Grass, 5

Barren Strawberry, 55

Bartonia, 88

Basil, 97

Basil-thyme, 97

Basswood, 72

Bayberry, 21

Beach Grass, 4

Beach Pea, 59

Beaked Hazel, 22

Bearberry, 85

Beard Grass, 5

Beard-tongue, 104

Bedstraw, 108, 109

Beech, 22

Beech Drops, 84, 106

Beech Family, 22

Beggar Lice, 94

Beggar Ticks, 124

Bellflower, 112

Bellflower Family, 112

Bellwort, 12

Benzoin, 41

Berberidaceae, 40

Berberis, 40

Bergamot Mint, 98

Berula, 81

Betula, 21, 22

Betulaceae, 21

Bidens, 123, 124

Bilberry, 86, 87

Bindweed, 91, 92

Bindweed, Black, 28

Birch, 21, 22

Birch Family, 21

Bird-foot Violet, 75

Birthwort Family, 25

Bishop's Cap, 51

Bistort, 28

Bitter Cress, 45, 47

Bitter Dock, 26

Bitter Nut, 21

Bittersweet, 100

Bitter-sweet, 69

Black Alder, 69

Black Ash, 88

Blackberry, 53

Black Bindweed, 28

Black Cherry, 54

Black Currant, 49, 50

Black-eyed Susan, 128

Black Haw, 111

Black Jack Oak, 22

Black Locust, 58

Black Maple, 70

Black Medick, 60

Black Mustard, 44

Black Oak, 23

Black Raspberry, 53

Black Snakeroot, 82

Black Spruce, 1

Black Swallow-wort, 90

Black Walnut, 21

Black Willow, 20

Bladder Campion, 34

Bladder Nut, 69

Bladder Nut Family, 69

Bladderwort, 106

Bladderwort Family, 105

Blazing Star, 13, 121

Blephilia, 96

Blite, 29

Bloodroot, 41

Bloody Dock, 26

Blue Ash, 88

Bluebell, 93, 94

Blueberry, 86

Blue Cohosh, 40

[Pg 143] Blue-eyed Grass, 15

Blue-eyed Mary, 104

Blue Flag, 15

Blue Grass, 7

Blue Hearts, 104

Blue-joint, 5

Bluets, 108

Blue Violet, 76

Blueweed, 94

Boehmeria, 24

Bog Rosemary, 86

Boltonia, 131

Boneset, False, 122

Borage, 93

Borage Family, 93

Boraginaceae, 93

Borago, 93

Bowman's Root, 57

Box Elder, 70

Brasenia, 35

Brassica, 43, 44

Brauneria, 131

Braya, 47

Bristly Locust, 58

Bristly Sarsaparilla, 80

Brome-grass, 7

Bromus, 7

Broom-rape Family, 106

Buchnera, 104

Buckbean, 88

Buckeye, 70

Buckhorn, 107

Buckthorn, 71

Buckthorn Family, 71

Buckwheat, 27

Buckwheat, False, 28

Buckwheat Family, 25

Buffalo Berry, 77

Buffalo Bur, 100

Buffalo Clover, 61

Bugbane, 39

Bugle, 98

Bugle Weed, 95

Bug-seed, 28

Bulrush, 7

Bur Clover, 60

Bur Cucumber, 112

Burdock, 117

Bur Marigold, 124

Burnet, 57

Bur Oak, 23

Bur-reed, 2

Bur-reed Family, 2

Bush Clover, 61, 63

Bush Honeysuckle, 110

Butter-and-eggs, 102

Buttercup, 36, 37, 38

Butterfly Weed, 91

Butternut, 21

Butterwort, 105

Button Bush, 108

Cacalia, 122

Cactaceae, 77

Cactus Family, 77

Cakile, 45

Calamagrostis, 5

Calamint, 97

Calla, 9

Callirhoe, 73

Callitrichaceae, 68

Callitriche, 68

Calopogon, 16

Caltha, 36

Calypso, 17

Camassia, 14

Camelina, 42

Camomile, 130

Campanula, 112

Campanulaceae, 112

Campion, 33, 34

Canada Thistle, 118

Canada Violet, 76

Canadian Blue Grass, 7

Cancer-root, 106

Cannabis, 24

Caper Family, 47

Capparidaceae, 47

Caprifoliaceae, 109

Capsella, 46

Caraway, 83

Cardamine, 45, 47

Cardinal Flower, 113

Carduus, 118

Carex, 8

Carpet-weed, 31

Carpet-weed Family, 31

Carpinus, 21

Carrion-flower, 11

Carrot, Wild, 82

Carum, 83

Carya, 21

Caryophyllaceae, 31

Cashew Family, 68

[Pg 144] Cassia, 60

Castalia, 35

Castanea, 22

Castilleja, 102

Catchfly, 33, 34

Catnip, 98

Cat-tail, 2

Cat-tail Family, 2

Caulophyllum, 40

Ceanothus, 71

Cedar, 1

Celandine, 41

Celandine Poppy, 41

Celastraceae, 69

Celastrus, 69

Celtis, 24

Cenchrus, 5

Centaurea, 121

Centaurium, 89

Centaury, 89

Cephalanthus, 108

Cerastium, 33

Ceratophyllaceae, 34

Ceratophyllum, 34

Cercis, 58

Chaerophyllum, 83

Chamaedaphne, 86

Chamaelirium, 13

Charlock, 44

Cheat, 7

Chelidonium, 41

Chelone, 104

Chenopodiaceae, 28

Chenopodium, 28, 29

Cherry, 54

Cherry, Ground, 101

Chervil, 83

Chestnut, 22

Chickweed, 32, 33

Chickweed, Mouse-ear, 33

Chicory, 115

Chimaphila, 85

Chiogenes, 85

Chives, Wild, 13

Chokeberry, 55

Choke Cherry, 54

Chrysanthemum, 121, 130, 131

Chrysosplenium, 50

Cichorium, 115

Cicuta, 82

Cimicifuga, 39

Cinquefoil, 52, 56, 57

Circaea, 78

Cirsium, 117, 118

Cistaceae, 74

Cladium, 8

Clammy Locust, 58

Clammy-weed, 47

Claytonia, 34

Clearweed, 24

Cleft Phlox, 92

Clematis, 35

Climbing Fumitory, 41

Climbing Rose, 52

Clintonia, 13

Clover, 61

Clover, Bush, 61, 63

Clover, Hop, 60

Clover, Prairie, 60

Clover, Sweet, 61

Cocklebur, 114

Cockle, Corn, 33

Coffee-tree, 58

Cohosh, Blue, 40

Colic-root, 13

Collinsia, 104

Collinsonia, 95

Coltsfoot, 122, 130

Columbine, 36

Comandra, 24

Comfrey, 93, 94

Commelina, 9

Commelinaceae, 9

Common Blue Violet, 76

Common Cat-tail, 2

Common Vetch, 59

Compass Plant, 127

Compositae, 113

Composite Family, 113

Coneflower, Gray-headed, 128

Coneflower, Purple, 131

Conioselinum, 83

Conium, 83

Conopholis, 106

Conringia, 42

Convolvulaceae, 91

Convolvulus, 91, 92

Coptis, 39

Corallorhiza, 16

Coral Root, 16

Coreopsis, 123, 124

Corispermum, 28

Cork Elm, 24

Cornaceae, 83

[Pg 145] Corn Cockle, 33

Corn Flower, 121

Corn Gromwell, 94

Corn Salad, 111

Cornus, 83, 84

Corydalis, 42

Corylus, 22

Costmary, 121

Cotton Grass, 8

Cotton Thistle, 118

Cottonwood, 19

Cowbane, 81

Cowherb, 34

Cow Parsnip, 82

Cowslip, 36

Cow Wheat, 104

Crab, 54

Crab Grass, 5

Crack Willow, 20

Cranberry, 85

Cranberry Tree, 111

Crane-fly Orchis, 16

Crane's-bill, 64, 65

Crassulaceae, 48

Creeping Cedar, 1

Creeping Wahoo, 69

Crepis, 117

Cress, 43-47

Cress, Bitter, 45, 47

Cress, Field, 46

Cress, Garden, 45, 46

Cress, Lake, 45, 46

Cress, Mouse-ear, 47

Cress, Penny, 46

Cress, Rock, 46, 47

Cress, Water, 45

Cress, Winter, 44

Cress, Yellow, 43

Crotalaria, 59

Crowberry, 68

Crowberry Family, 68

Crowfoot, 35

Crowfoot, Cursed, 37

Crowfoot Family, 35

Crowfoot, Sea-side, 36

Crowfoot, Small-flowered, 36

Crowfoot, Water, 35, 37

Cruciferae, 42

Cryptotaenia, 82

Cuckoo Flower, 45

Cucurbitaceae, 112

Cudweed, 120, 121

Culver's Root, 104

Cup Plant, 123

Currant, 49, 50

Currant, Indian, 110

Cursed Crowfoot, 37

Cuscuta, 92

Custard Apple Family, 40

Cut-grass, 5

Cycloloma, 29

Cynanchum, 90

Cynoglossum, 93, 94

Cynthia, 115

Cyperaceae, 7

Cyperus, 8

Cypress Spurge, 67

Cypripedium, 18

Dactylis, 6

Daisy, Ox-eye, 131

Dalibarda, 56

Dame's Rocket, 47

Dandelion, 115

Dandelion, Dwarf, 115

Datura, 100

Daucus, 82

Day-flower, 9

Day Lily, 11

Dead Nettle, 99

Decodon, 77

Deerberry, 86

Dentaria, 44

Deptford Pink, 34

Desmodium, 62, 63

Devil's Club, 80

Dewberry, 53

Dianthera, 107

Dianthus, 34

Dicentra, 41

Diervilla, 110

Digitaria, 5

Dioscorea, 14

Dioscoreaceae, 14

Diplotaxis, 42, 43

Dipsacaceae, 112

Dipsacus, 112

Dirca, 77

Ditch Stonecrop, 49

Dock, 26

Dock, Prairie, 122

Dodder, 92

Dodecatheon, 87

Dogbane, 90

[Pg 146] Dogbane Family, 90

Dog Fennel, 130

Dog Rose, 52

Dog's-tooth Violet, 12

Dog Violet, 76

Dogwood, 83, 84

Dogwood Family, 83

Downy Mint, 78

Draba, 42, 46

Dracocephalum, 96

Dragon Head, 96

Dragon Head, False, 99

Dragon Root, 8

Drop-seed, 5

Drosera, 48

Droseraceae, 48

Duckweed, 9

Duckweed Family, 9

Dulichium, 7

Dutchman's Breeches, 41

Dwarf Birch, 22

Dwarf Dandelion, 115

Dwarf Dogwood, 83

Dwarf Ginseng, 80

Dwarf Iris, 15

Dwarf Mistletoe, 25

Dwarf Raspberry, 53

Dwarf Water Plantain, 3

Dwarf White Trillium, 12

Dyer's Greenweed, 58

Echinochloa, 5

Echinocystis, 112

Echinodorus, 3

Echinops, 117

Echium, 94

Eel Grass, 3

Elaeagnaceae, 77

Elatinaceae, 74

Elatine, 74

Elder, 109

Elder, Box, 70

Elder, Marsh, 114

Elecampane, 127

Eleocharis, 7

Eleusine, 6

Elm, 24

Elodea, 3

Elymus, 6

Empetraceae, 68

Empetrum, 68

Enchanter's Nightshade, 78

English Plantain, 107

Epifagus, 106

Epigaea, 85

Epilobium, 79

Epipactis, 17

Eragrostis, 7

Erechtites, 122

Ericaceae, 84

Erigenia, 81

Erigeron, 130-132

Eriocaulaceae, 9

Eriocaulon, 9

Eriophorum, 8

Erodium, 64

Eryngium, 80

Erysimum, 43

Erythronium, 12

Eupatorium, 121, 122

Euphorbia, 67, 68

Euphrasia, 102

Evening Primrose, 78

Evening Primrose Family, 78

Everlasting, 120

Everlasting, Pearly, 120

Evonymus, 69

Eyebright, 102

Fagaceae, 22

Fagopyrum, 27

Fagus, 22

Fall Dandelion, 115

False Asphodel, 14

False Boneset, 122

False Buckwheat, 28

False Dragon Head, 99

False Flax, 42

False Foxglove, 102

False Gromwell, 93

False Heather, 74

False Loosestrife, 78

False Mermaid, 68

False Mermaid Family, 68

False Mitrewort, 51

False Nettle, 24

False Pimpernel, 104

False Solomon's Seal, 14

Fatsia, 80

Fennel, 81

Fennel, Dog, 130

Fescue Grass, 7

Festuca, 7

Feverfew, 130

[Pg 147] Feverwort, 109

Field Cress, 46

Field Garlic, 13

Figwort, 103

Figwort Family, 101

Filipendula, 57

Fire Pink, 33

Fireweed, 79, 122

Five-finger, 55

Flax, 63

Flax, False, 42

Flax Family, 63

Fleabane, 131, 132

Floating Foxtail, 4

Floating Heart, 88

Floerkea, 68

Flowering Dogwood, 83

Flowering Raspberry, 54

Flowering Wintergreen, 65

Flower-of-an-hour, 72

Foeniculum, 81

Fog Fruit, 99

Forget-me-not, 94

Forked Chickweed, 31

Four-o'Clock Family, 31

Foxglove, False, 102

Fox Grape, 72

Foxtail, 4

Foxtail, Floating, 4

Fragaria, 56

Frasera, 88

Fraxinus, 88

Fringed Gentian, 89

Fringed Orchis, 19

Frog's Bit Family, 3

Frost Grape, 72

Frostweed, 74

Fumaria, 42

Fumariaceae, 41

Fumitory, 42

Fumitory, Climbing, 41

Fumitory Family, 41

Galeopsis, 99

Gale, Sweet, 21

Galinsoga, 130

Galium, 108, 109

Garden Cress, 45, 46

Garden Phlox, 92

Garlic, Field, 13

Gaultheria, 86

Gaura, 79

Gaylussacia, 86

Genista, 58

Gentian, 89

Gentiana, 89

Gentianaceae, 88

Gentian Family, 88

Gentian, Spurred, 89

Geraniaceae, 64

Geranium, 64, 65

Geranium Family, 64

Gerardia, 102, 103

Geum, 56, 57

Giant Hyssop, 97

Giant Ragweed, 114

Gillenia, 57

Ginseng, 80

Gleditsia, 58

Globe-flower, 36

Globe Thistle, 117

Glyceria, 7

Gnaphalium, 120, 121

Goat's Rue, 60

Golden Alexander, 81

Golden Currant, 49

Golden Glow, 128

Goldenrod, 125-127

Golden Saxifrage, 50

Golden Seal, 38

Gold-thread, 39

Good King Henry, 29

Gooseberry, 49

Goosefoot, 28, 29

Goosefoot Family, 28

Gourd Family, 112

Gramineae, 4

Grape, 72

Grape Family, 71

Grape Hyacinth, 14

Grass Family, 4

Grass of Parnassus, 50

Grass, Star, 14

Gratiola, 104

Gray-headed Coneflower, 128

Great Lobelia, 113

Great Solomon's Seal, 11

Great-spurred Violet, 75

Greek Valerian, 92

Green Ash, 88

Green Brier, 11

Green Foxtail, 4

Green Milkweed, 90

Green Sorrel, 25

[Pg 148] Green Violet, 75

Grindelia, 128

Ground Cherry, 101

Ground Hemlock, 2

Ground Ivy, 98

Groundsel, 128

Gum Plant, 128

Gymnocladus, 58

Gypsophila, 34

Gypsophyll, 34

Habenaria, 18, 19

Hackberry, 24

Hair Grass, 6

Halenia, 89

Haloragidaceae, 79

Hamamelidaceae, 51

Hamamelis, 51

Hand-leaf Violet, 75

Harbinger of Spring, 81

Hardhack, 53

Harebell, 112

Hare's Ear, 42

Hawksbeard, 117

Hawkweed, 116, 117

Hazel, 22

Heather, False, 74

Heath Family, 84

Hedeoma, 95

Hedge Hyssop, 104

Hedge Mustard, 44

Hedge Nettle, 99

Helenium, 127, 128

Helianthemum, 74

Helianthus, 128-130

Heliopsis, 123

Hemerocallis, 11

Hemlock, 1

Hemlock, Ground, 2

Hemlock Parsley, 83

Hemlock, Poison, 83

Hemlock, Water, 82

Hemp, 24

Hemp, Indian, 90

Hemp Nettle, 99

Hemp, Water, 30

Hemp Weed, 131

Henbane, 101

Hepatica, 38

Heracleum, 82

Herb Robert, 64

Herb Sophia, 43

Hercules' Club, 80

Hesperis, 47

Heteranthera, 10

Heuchera, 50, 51

Hibiscus, 72

Hickory, 21

Hieracium, 116, 117

Hill's Oak, 23

Hippuris, 79

Hoarhound, 96

Hoarhound, Water, 95

Hobble-bush, 111

Hog Peanut, 59

Holly Family, 69

Holly, Mountain, 69

Honewort, 82

Honey Locust, 58

Honeysuckle, 110

Honeysuckle, Bush, 110

Honeysuckle Family, 109

Hop, 24

Hop Clover, 60

Hop Tree, 65

Hordeum, 4

Hornbeam, 21

Horned Pondweed, 2

Hornwort, 34

Hornwort Family, 34

Horse Balm, 95

Horse Chestnut, 70

Horse Mint, 96

Horse Nettle, 100

Horse Radish, 46

Horse Weed, 130, 131

Hound's Tongue, 93

Houstonia, 108

Huckleberry, 86

Hudsonia, 74

Humulus, 24

Hyacinth, Wild, 14

Hybanthus, 75

Hydrocharitaceae, 3

Hydrocotyle, 80

Hydrophyllaceae, 93

Hydrophyllum, 93

Hyoscyamus, 101

Hypericaceae, 73

Hypericum, 73, 74

Hypoxis, 14

Hyssop, 98

Hyssop, Hedge, 104

Hyssopus, 98

[Pg 149] Ilex, 69

Illecebraceae, 31

Ilysanthes, 104

Impatiens, 71

Imperatoria, 82

Indian Cucumber-root, 13

Indian Currant, 110

Indian Hemp, 90

Indian Mustard, 44

Indian Pipe, 84

Indian Plantain, 122

Indian Tobacco, 113

Indian Turnip, 8

Indigo, Wild, 61

Inula, 127

Ipomoea, 92

Iridaceae, 15

Iris, 15

Iris Family, 15

Ironweed, 122

Ironweed, Yellow, 128

Ironwood, 22

Isopyrum, 39

Iva, 114

Jack Pine, 1

Jeffersonia, 40

Jerusalem Artichoke, 129

Jerusalem Oak, 29

Jimson Weed, 100

Joe-Pye Weed, 122

Jointweed, 27

Juglandaceae, 21

Juglans, 21

Juncaceae, 10

Juncaginaceae, 3

Juncus, 10

Juneberry, 55

Juniper, 1

Juniperus, 1

Kalmia, 85

Kenilworth Ivy, 103

Kentucky Coffee-tree, 58

King-nut Hickory, 21

Knapweed, 121

Knawel, 31

Knotweed, 26, 27

Knotwort Family, 31

Kochia, 28

Koeleria, 6

Krigia, 115

Kuhnia, 122

Labiatae, 95

Labrador Tea, 85

Lactuca, 115, 116

Ladies' Tresses, 16

Lady's Slipper, 18

Lake Cress, 45, 46

Lamb's Quarters, 29

Lamium, 99

Laportea, 24

Lappula, 94

Lapsana, 115

Large-toothed Aspen, 19

Larix, 1

Larkspur, 36

Lathyrus, 59

Lauraceae, 41

Laurel Family, 41

Lead Plant, 58

Leafcup, 123

Leatherleaf, 86

Leatherwood, 77

Lechea, 74, 75

Ledum, 85

Leek, Wild, 13

Leersia, 5

Leguminosae, 58

Lemna, 9

Lemnaceae, 9

Lentibulariaceae, 105

Leontodon, 115

Leonurus, 98

Lepachys, 128

Lepidium, 45, 46

Lespedeza, 61, 63

Lettuce, 115, 116

Lettuce, Wild, 115, 116

Liatris, 121

Lilac, 88

Liliaceae, 10

Lilium, 12

Lily, 12

Lily Family, 10

Lily of the Valley, Wild, 12

Lily, Pond, 35

Lily, Water, 35

Limnanthaceae, 68

Limosella, 103

Linaceae, 63

Linaria, 102, 103

[Pg 150] Linden Family, 72

Linnaea, 109

Linum, 63

Liparis, 17

Lippia, 99

Liriodendron, 40

Listera, 17

Lithospermum, 94

Live-for-ever, 49

Lizard's Tail, 19

Lobelia, 113

Lobeliaceae, 113

Lobelia Family, 113

Locust, 58

Locust, Honey, 58

Lombardy Poplar, 19

Long-spurred Violet, 76

Lonicera, 110

Loosestrife, 77, 87, 88

Loosestrife, False, 78

Loosestrife Family, 77

Lopseed, 107

Lopseed Family, 107

Loranthaceae, 25

Lotus, 35

Lousewort, 102

Love Grass, 7

Love-in-a-mist, 38

Low Juniper, 1

Ludvigia, 78

Lupine, 59

Lupinus, 59

Luzula, 10

Lychnis, 33

Lysimachia, 87, 88

Lycium, 100

Lycopus, 95

Lythraceae, 77

Lythrum, 77

Madder Family, 108

Mad-dog Skullcap, 96

Magnoliaceae, 40

Magnolia Family, 40

Maianthemum, 13

Mallow, 73

Mallow Family, 72

Mallow, Marsh, 72

Mallow, Poppy, 73

Mallow, Rose, 72

Mallow, Virginia, 73

Malva, 73

Malvaceae, 72

Manna Grass, 7

Maple, 70

Maple Family, 70

Mare's-tail, 79

Marigold, Bur, 124

Marigold, Water, 123

Marrubium, 96

Marsh Cinquefoil, 57

Marsh Elder, 114

Marsh Harebell, 112

Marsh Mallow, 72

Marsh Pea, 59

Marsh Speedwell, 105

Masterwort, 82

Matricaria, 130

Matrimony Vine, 100

May Apple, 40

Meadow Beauty, 77

Meadow Parsnip, 81

Meadow Pink, 34

Meadow Rue, 39

Meadow Salsify, 115

Meadow-sweet, 53

Medeola, 13

Medicago, 60, 61

Melampyrum, 104

Melastomaceae, 77

Melastoma Family, 77

Melilotus, 61

Menispermaceae, 40

Menispermum, 40

Mentha, 98

Menyanthes, 88

Mermaid Weed, 79

Mertensia, 93, 94

Mexican Tea, 29

Mezereum Family, 77

Microstylis, 17

Mignonette Family, 48

Mignonette, Yellow, 48

Mikania, 121

Milfoil, Water, 79

Milk Thistle, 117

Milk Vetch, 60

Milkweed, 90, 91

Milkweed Family, 90

Milkweed, Green, 90

Milkwort, 66

Milkwort Family, 65

Millet, 4

Mimulus, 102, 104

[Pg 151] Mint, 98

Mint Family, 95

Mist Flower, 121

Mistletoe, Dwarf, 25

Mistletoe Family, 25

Mitchella, 108

Mitella, 51

Mitrewort, False, 51

Mocker-nut Hickory, 21

Mollugo, 31

Monarda, 96

Moneses, 85

Moneywort, 87

Monkey Flower, 104

Monkey Flower, Yellow, 102

Monotropa, 84

Moonseed, 40

Moonseed Family, 40

Morning Glory, 92

Morning Glory Family, 91

Morus, 24

Moss Pink, 92

Motherwort, 98

Moth Mullein, 101

Mountain Alder, 22

Mountain Ash, 52

Mountain Holly, 69

Mountain Maple, 70

Mountain Mint, 98

Mouse-ear Chickweed, 33

Mouse-ear Cress, 47

Mud Plantain, 10

Mudwort, 103

Mugwort, 119

Muhlenbergia, 5, 6

Mulberry, 24

Mullein, 101

Mullein Pink, 33

Muscari, 14

Musk Flower, 102

Mustard, 43, 44

Mustard Family, 42

Myosotis, 94

Myrica, 20, 21

Myricaceae, 20

Myriophyllum, 79

Naiad, 2

Naias, 2

Najadaceae, 2

Narrow-leaved Cat-tail, 2

Nelumbo, 35

Nemopanthus, 69

Nepeta, 98

Nettle, 24

Nettle, Dead, 99

Nettle Family, 23

Nettle, Hedge, 99

Nettle, Hemp, 99

Nettle, Horse, 100

Nicandra, 101

Nicotiana, 101

Nigella, 38

Nightshade, 100

Nightshade, Enchanter's, 78

Nightshade Family, 100

Ninebark, 53

Nipplewort, 115

Nodding Pogonia, 18

Norway Pine, 1

Nut Grass, 8

Nyctaginaceae, 31

Nymphaea, 35

Nymphaeaceae, 35

Nymphoides, 88

Nyssa, 83

Oak, 22, 23

Oakesia, 12

Oats, 6

Oenothera, 78

Oleaceae, 88

Oleaster Family, 77

Olive Family, 88

Onagraceae, 78

One-flowered Wintergreen, 85

Onion, Wild, 13

Onosmodium, 93

Opuntia, 77

Orache, 29

Orchard Grass, 6

Orchidaceae, 15

Orchis, 17

Orchis, Crane-fly, 16

Orchis Family, 15

Orchis, Showy, 17

Ornithogalum, 14

Orobanchaceae, 106

Orobanche, 106

Orpine Family, 48

Osmorhiza, 82

Ostrya, 22

Oswego Tea, 96

Oxalidaceae, 64

[Pg 152] Oxalis, 64

Ox-eye, 123

Ox-eye Daisy, 131

Oxybaphus, 31

Oxypolis, 81

Painted Cup, 102

Painted Trillium, 12

Pale Violet, 76

Panax, 80

Panic-grass, 5

Panicum, 5

Pansy, 76

Papaveraceae, 41

Papaver, 41

Papaw, 40

Paper Birch, 21

Parietaria, 24

Parnassia, 50

Parsley Family, 80

Parsley, Hemlock, 83

Parsnip, Cow, 82

Parsnip, Meadow, 81

Parsnip, Prairie, 81

Parsnip, Water, 81

Parsnip, Wild, 81

Partridge Berry, 108

Partridge Pea, 60

Pasque Flower, 38

Pastinaca, 81

Patience Dock, 26

Pea, 59

Peach-leaved Willow, 20

Pear, 54

Pear, Prickly, 77

Pearlwort, 32

Pearly Everlasting, 120

Pedicularis, 102

Pellitory, 24

Peltandra, 9

Penny Cress, 46

Pennyroyal, 95

Pennywort, Water, 80

Penthorum, 49

Pentstemon, 104

Pepper Family, 19

Pepper Grass, 46

Peppermint, 98

Perfumed Cherry, 54

Periwinkle, 90

Petalostemum, 60

Petasites, 130

Petunia, 101

Phacelia, 93

Phleum, 4

Phlox, 92

Phragmites, 6

Phryma, 107

Phrymaceae, 107

Physalis, 101

Physocarpus, 53

Physostegia, 99

Phytolacca, 30

Phytolaccaceae, 30

Picea, 1

Pickerel-weed, 10

Pickerel-weed Family, 10

Picris, 115

Pignut Hickory, 21

Pigweed, 30

Pilea, 24

Pimpernel, 87

Pimpernel, False, 104

Pimpernel, Water, 87

Pinaceae, 1

Pin Cherry, 54

Pine, 1

Pine Drops, 84

Pine Family, 1

Pineweed, 74

Pinguicula, 105

Pink, Deptford, 34

Pink Family, 31

Pink, Fire, 33

Pink, Meadow, 34

Pink, Moss, 92

Pink, Mullein, 33

Pink, Rose, 89

Pin Oak, 23

Pinus, 1

Pinweed, 74, 75

Piperaceae, 19

Pipewort, 9

Pipewort Family, 9

Pitcher Plant, 48

Pitcher Plant Family, 48

Plane Tree Family, 51

Plantaginaceae, 107

Plantago, 107

Plantain, 107

Plantain Family, 107

Plantain, Indian, 122

Plantain, Mud, 10

Platanaceae, 51

[Pg 153] Platanus, 51

Plum, 54

Poa, 7

Podophyllum, 40

Podostemaceae, 48

Podostemum, 48

Pogonia, 18

Poison Hemlock, 83

Poison Ivy, 69

Poison Sumach, 68

Pokeweed, 30

Pokeweed Family, 30

Polanisia, 47

Polemoniaceae, 92

Polemonium, 92

Polemonium Family, 92

Polygala, 65, 66

Polygalaceae, 65

Polygonatum, 11

Polygonaceae, 25

Polygonum, 26-28

Polymnia, 123

Polytaenia, 81

Pond Lily, 35

Pondweed, 2

Pondweed Family, 2

Pontederia, 10

Pontederiaceae, 10

Poplar, 19

Poppy, 41

Poppy, Celandine, 41

Poppy Family, 41

Poppy Mallow, 73

Populus, 19

Portulaca, 34

Portulacaceae, 34

Potamogeton, 2

Potentilla, 52, 55-57

Prairie Clover, 60

Prairie Dock, 122

Prairie Fringed Orchis, 19

Prairie June-grass, 6

Prairie Parsnip, 81

Prenanthes, 116

Prickly Ash, 65

Prickly Pear, 77

Primrose, 87

Primrose Family, 87

Primula, 87

Primulaceae, 87

Prince's Feather, 27

Prince's Pine, 85

Proserpinaca, 79

Prunella, 97

Prunus, 54

Psedera, 71

Ptelea, 65

Pterospora, 84

Puccoon, 94

Pulse Family, 58

Purple Avens, 57

Purple Coneflower, 131

Purple Fringed Orchis, 19

Purslane, 34

Purslane Family, 34

Purslane, Water, 78

Putty Root, 16

Pyenanthemum, 98

Pyrola, 84, 85

Pyrus, 52, 54, 55

Quack Grass, 6

Quaking Aspen, 19

Quassia Family, 65

Queen of the Prairie, 57

Quercus, 22, 23

Radicula, 43, 45, 46

Radish, 45

Radish, Horse, 46

Radish, Wild, 44, 45

Ragged Fringed Orchis, 19

Ragweed, 114

Ragwort, 127, 128

Ram's Head Lady's Slipper, 18

Ranunculaceae, 35

Ranunculus, 35-38

Raphanus, 44, 45

Raspberry, 53, 54

Rattlebox, 59

Rattlesnake Master, 80

Rattlesnake Plantain, 17

Rattlesnake Root, 116

Red Ash, 88

Redbud, 58

Red Cedar, 1

Red Clover, 61

Red Currant, 50

Red Maple, 70

Red Mulberry, 24

Red Oak, 23

Red Raspberry, 53

Red-root, 71

Red Sorrel, 25

[Pg 154] Red-top, 6

Reed, 6

Reed Grass, 5

Rein Orchis, 18

Reseda, 48

Resedaceae, 48

Rhamnaceae, 71

Rhamnus, 71

Rhexia, 77

Rhus, 68, 69

Ribes, 49, 50

River Weed, 48

River Weed Family, 48

Robinia, 58

Rock Cress, 46, 47

Rocket, Sea, 45

Rock-rose Family, 74

Rosa, 52

Rosaceae, 51

Rose, 52

Rose Family, 51

Rose Mallow, 72

Rose Pink, 89

Rosin Weed, 123

Round-leaved Orchis, 17

Round-leaved Violet, 75

Rowan Tree, 52

Rubiaceae, 108

Rubus, 53, 54

Rudbeckia, 128

Rue Anemone, 39

Rue Family, 65

Ruellia, 107

Rumex, 25, 26

Rush, 10

Rush Family, 10

Rush, Twig, 8

Russian Thistle, 28

Rutabaga, 43

Rutaceae, 65

Sabbatia, 89

Sagina, 32

Sagittaria, 3

Salicaceae, 19

Salix, 20

Salmonberry, 54

Salsify, 115

Salsola, 28

Sambucus, 109

Samolus, 87

Sandalwood Family, 24

Sand Bur, 5

Sand Cherry, 54

Sand Rocket, 42, 43

Sand Spurrey, 32

Sand Violet, 76

Sanguinaria, 41

Sanguisorba, 57

Sanicula, 82

Santalaceae, 24

Sapindaceae, 70

Saponaria, 34

Sarracenia, 48

Sarraceniaceae, 48

Sarsaparilla, 80

Sarsaparilla Family, 80

Sassafras, 41

Satureja, 97

Saururus, 19

Saxifraga, 50

Saxifragaceae, 49

Saxifrage, 50

Saxifrage Family, 49

Saxifrage, Golden, 50

Scarlet Oak, 23

Scheuchzeria, 3

Schneck's Oak, 23

Scirpus, 7

Scleranthus, 31

Scorpion Grass, 94

Scrophularia, 103

Scrophulariaceae, 101

Scrub Oak, 23

Scutellaria, 96

Sea Rocket, 45

Sea-side Crowfoot, 36

Sedge, 8

Sedge Family, 7

Sedum, 48, 49

Self-heal, 97

Seneca Snakeroot, 66

Senecio, 127, 128

Senna, Wild, 60

Setaria, 4

Shag-bark Hickory, 21

Sheep-berry, 111

Sheep Laurel, 85

Shepherdia, 77

Shepherd's Purse, 46

Shingle Oak, 22

Shin-leaf, 84, 85

Shooting Star, 87

Showy Lady's Slipper, 18

[Pg 155] Showy Orchis, 17

Sicyos, 112

Sida, 72, 73

Silene, 33, 34

Silphium, 122, 123, 127

Silver Maple, 70

Silver Weed, 55

Silvery Cinquefoil, 66

Silybum, 117

Simarubaceae, 65

Sium, 81

Sisymbrium, 43-45, 47

Sisyrinchium, 15

Skullcap, 96

Skunk Cabbage, 8

Skunk Currant, 49

Slender Nettle, 24

Slippery Elm, 24

Slough Grass, 5

Small-flowered Crowfoot, 36

Small-fruited Hickory, 21

Small Snapdragon, 103

Small Solomon's Seal, 11

Smartweed, 27, 28

Smilacina, 14

Smilax, 11

Smooth Alder, 22

Snake Mouth, 18

Snakeroot, Black, 82

Snakeroot, Seneca, 66

Snakeroot, Virginia, 25

Snapdragon, 103

Sneezeweed, 127

Sneeze Weed, 128

Sneezewort, 131

Snowberry, 85, 111

Soapberry Family, 70

Soapwort, 34

Solanaceae, 100

Solanum, 100

Solidago, 125-127

Solomon's Seal, 11

Sorbaria, 57

Sorrel, Red, 25

Sorrel, Green, 25

Sorrel, Wood, 64

Sour Dock, 26

Sour Gum, 83

Southernwood, 119

Sparganiaceae, 2

Spartina, 5

Spear Grass, 7

Spearmint, 98

Spearwort, 36

Speckled Alder, 22

Specularia, 112

Speedwell, 105

Spergula, 32

Spergularia, 32

Spice Bush, 41

Spiderwort, 9

Spiderwort Family, 9

Spikenard, 80

Spike Rush, 7

Spiraea, 53

Spiranthes, 16

Spirodela, 9

Spotted Wintergreen, 85

Spurge, 67, 68

Spurge Family, 66

Spurred Gentian, 89

Spurrey, 32

Spring Avens, 56

Spring Beauty, 34

Spring Vetch, 59

Spruce, 1

Squashberry, 111

Squaw-root, 106

Squaw Weed, 128

Squirrel Corn, 41

Squirrel-tail, 4

Stachys, 99

Staff Tree Family, 69

Staphylea, 69

Staphyleaceae, 69

Star Flower, 87

Star Grass, 14

Star of Bethlehem, 14

Starry Campion, 33

Steironema, 88

Stellaria, 32, 33

Stemless Lady's Slipper, 18

Stickseed, 94

Stinging Nettle, 24

Stitchwort, 32

St. John's-wort, 73, 74

St. John's-wort Family, 73

Stone Clover, 61

Stonecrop, 48

Stonecrop, Ditch, 49

Stork's-bill, 64

Strawberry, 56

Strawberry, Barren, 55

Strawberry Blite, 29

[Pg 156] Streptopus, 11

Striped Maple, 70

Strophostyles, 58

Stylophorum, 41

Sugar Maple, 70

Sumach, 68, 69

Summer Grape, 72

Summer Savory, 97

Sundew, 48

Sundew Family, 48

Sundrops, 78

Sunflower, 128-130

Sunflower, Tickseed, 124

Swamp Birch, 22

Swamp Currant, 49

Swamp Dewberry, 53

Swamp Laurel, 85

Swamp Milkweed, 91

Swamp Rose, 52

Swamp Valerian, 111

Swamp White Oak, 23

Sweet Birch, 22

Sweetbrier, 52

Sweet Cicely, 82

Sweet Fern, 20

Sweet Flag, 8

Sweet Gale, 21

Sweet Gale Family, 20

Sweet White Violet, 76

Sweet William, 34, 92

Sweet William Catchfly, 34

Sycamore, 51

Symphoricarpos, 110, 111

Symphytum, 93

Symplocarpus, 8

Synthyris, 102

Syringa, 88

Taenidia, 81

Tall Dock, 26

Tamarack, 1

Tanacetum, 119

Tansy, 119

Tansy Mustard, 43

Taraxacum, 115

Taxaceae, 2

Taxus, 2

Tear-thumb, 28

Teasel, 112

Teasel Family, 112

Tephrosia, 60

Teucrium, 97

Thalictrum, 39

Thaspium, 81

Thistle, 117, 118

Thistle, Canada, 118

Thistle, Cotton, 118

Thistle, Globe, 117

Thistle, Milk, 117

Thistle, Russian, 28

Thistle, Sow, 117

Thlaspi, 46

Thorn-apple, 100

Thorny Amaranth, 30

Three-seeded Mercury, 66

Three-square, 7

Thuja, 1

Thymelaeaceae, 77

Thyme, Wild, 97

Thymus, 97

Tiarella, 51

Tickseed, 123, 124

Tickseed Sunflower, 124

Tick Trefoil, 62, 63

Tilia, 72

Tiliaceae, 72

Timothy, 4

Tipularia, 16

Toad-flax, 24, 103

Tobacco, Indian, 113

Tobacco, Wild, 101

Tofieldia, 14

Toothwort, 44

Touch-me-not, 71

Touch-me-not Family, 71

Tradescantia, 9

Tragopogon, 115

Trailing Arbutus, 85

Tree of Heaven, 65

Trientalis, 87

Trifolium, 60, 61

Triglochin, 3

Trillium, 12

Triosteum, 109

Trollius, 36

Tsuga, 1

Tulip Tree, 40

Tumble Weed, 30

Turk's-cap Lily, 12

Turtlehead, 104

Tussilago, 122

Tway-blade, 17

Twig Rush, 8

Twin-leaf, 40

[Pg 157] Twin Flower, 109

Twisted-stalk, 11

Typha, 2

Typhaceae, 2

Ulmus, 24

Umbelliferae, 80

Umbrella-wort, 31

Upland Boneset, 122

Urtica, 24

Urticaceae, 23

Utricularia, 106

Uvularia, 12

Vaccinium, 85-87

Valerian, 111

Valeriana, 111

Valerianaceae, 111

Valerianella, 111

Valerian Family, 111

Valerian, Greek, 92

Vallisneria, 3

Velvet Leaf, 72

Venus' Looking Glass, 112

Verbascum, 101

Verbena, 99-100

Verbenaceae, 99

Verbena Family, 99

Vernonia, 122

Veronica, 104, 105

Vervain, 99, 100

Vetch, 59

Vetchling, 59

Vetch, Milk, 60

Viburnum, 111

Vicia, 59

Vinca, 90

Viola, 75, 76

Violaceae, 75

Violet, 75, 76

Violet Family, 75

Violet, Green, 75

Virginia Creeper, 71

Virginia Mallow, 73

Virginia Snakeroot, 25

Virgin's Bower, 35

Vitaceae, 71

Vitis, 72

Wahoo, 69

Waldsteinia, 55

Walnut, Black, 21

Walnut Family, 21

Water Arum, 9

Water Cress, 45

Water Crowfoot, 37

Water Dock, 26

Water Hemlock, 82

Water Hemp, 30

Water Hoarhound, 95

Water-leaf, 93

Water-leaf Family, 93

Water Lily, 35

Water Lily Family, 35

Water Lobelia, 113

Water Loosestrife, 77

Water Marigold, 123

Water Milfoil, 79

Water Milfoil Family, 79

Water Parsnip, 81

Water Pennywort, 80

Water Pimpernel, 87

Water Plantain, 3

Water Plantain Family, 3

Water Purslane, 78

Water Shield, 35

Water Smartweed, 27, 28

Water Speedwell, 105

Water Starwort, 68

Water Starwort Family, 68

Water-weed, 3

Water Willow, 107

Waterwort, 74

Waterwort Family, 74

Weeping Willow, 20

White Ash, 88

White Campion, 33

White Cedar, 1

White Clover, 61

White Elm, 24

White Fringed Orchis, 19

White Ground Cherry, 101

White Lady's Slipper, 18

White Mulberry, 24

White Oak, 23

White Pine, 1

White Poplar, 19

White Snakeroot, 122

White Spruce, 1

White Sweet Clover, 61

Whitlow Grass, 42, 46

Whorled Pogonia, 18

Wild Bean, 58

Wild Bergamot, 96

[Pg 158] Wild Camomile, 130

Wild Carrot, 82

Wild Chives, 13

Wild Columbine, 36

Wild Comfrey, 94

Wild Crab, 54

Wild Cucumber, 112

Wild Flax, 63

Wild Geranium, 64

Wild Ginger, 25

Wild Gromwell, 94

Wild Indigo, 61

Wild Leek, 13

Wild Lettuce, 115, 116

Wild Lily of the Valley, 13

Wild Mint, 98

Wild Onion, 13

Wild Pansy, 76

Wild Parsnip, 81

Wild Pea, 59

Wild Plum, 54

Wild Potato Vine, 92

Wild Radish, 44, 45

Wild Rice, 5

Wild Rose, 52

Wild Rye, 6

Wild Sarsaparilla, 80

Wild Senna, 60

Wild Thyme, 97

Wild Tobacco, 101

Wild Yam, 14

Willow, 20

Willow Family, 19

Willow Herb, 79

Willow, Water, 107

Winter Cress, 44

Wintergreen, 86

Wintergreen, Flowering, 65

Wintergreen, One-flowered, 85

Wintergreen, Spotted, 85

Witch Grass, 5

Witch Hazel, 51

Witch Hazel Family, 51

Withe-rod, 111

Wolfberry, 110

Wolffia, 9

Wood Anemone, 38

Wood-grass, 6

Wood Lily, 12

Wood Nettle, 24

Wood Rush, 10

Wood Sage, 97

Wood Sorrel, 64

Wood Sorrel Family, 64

Wood Strawberry, 56

Wood Violet, 76

Wormseed, 29

Worm-seed Mustard, 43

Wormwood, 119

Xanthium, 114

Xyridaceae, 9

Xyris, 9

Yam Family, 14

Yam, Wild, 14

Yard Grass, 6

Yarrow, 130

Yellow Alyssum, 42, 46

Yellow Birch, 21

Yellow Cress, 43

Yellow-eyed Grass, 9

Yellow-eyed Grass Family, 9

Yellow Foxtail, 4

Yellow Fringed Orchis, 19

Yellow Ironweed, 128

Yellow Lady's Slipper, 18

Yellow Lily, 12

Yellow Mignonette, 48

Yellow Monkey Flower, 102

Yellow Oak, 23

Yellow Sweet Clover, 61

Yellow Violet, 76

Yellow Willow, 20

Yew Family, 2

Zannichellia, 2

Zanthoxylum, 65

Zizania, 5

Zizia, 81


[1] In most flowers the corolla is the conspicuous portion of the perianth, and is composed of united or separate petals, as the case may be. In some flowers the corolla is absent, and the calyx is the conspicuous portion.

[2] About 30 species of Potamogeton occur in Michigan, among which the most conspicuous is Potamogeton natans, with elliptical floating leaves. For the identification of the species the Manual must be used.

Transcriber's Notes:
Page xlv: Changed lobel to lobed
Page 10: Changed ocntains to contains
Page 39: Changed second 38a to 38b
Page 89: Changed second 4a to 4b
Page 94: Changed augustifolium to angustifolium
Page 108: Changed second 1a to 1b
Page 109: Changed --21. to --20.
Page 122: Changed (springi) to (spring)
Page 130: Changed autum to autumn
Page 146: Changed Eveyrlasting, Pearly to Everlasting, Pearly

End of Project Gutenberg's The Plants of Michigan, by Henry Allan Gleason


***** This file should be named 32050-h.htm or *****
This and all associated files of various formats will be found in:

Produced by Betsie Bush, Dave Morgan, Joseph R. Hauser and
the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at

Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions
will be renamed.

Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no
one owns a United States copyright in these works, so the Foundation
(and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without
permission and without paying copyright royalties.  Special rules,
set forth in the General Terms of Use part of this license, apply to
copying and distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works to
protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm concept and trademark.  Project
Gutenberg is a registered trademark, and may not be used if you
charge for the eBooks, unless you receive specific permission.  If you
do not charge anything for copies of this eBook, complying with the
rules is very easy.  You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose
such as creation of derivative works, reports, performances and
research.  They may be modified and printed and given away--you may do
practically ANYTHING with public domain eBooks.  Redistribution is
subject to the trademark license, especially commercial



To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free
distribution of electronic works, by using or distributing this work
(or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project
Gutenberg"), you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full Project
Gutenberg-tm License (available with this file or online at

Section 1.  General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works

1.A.  By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work, you indicate that you have read, understand, agree to
and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property
(trademark/copyright) agreement.  If you do not agree to abide by all
the terms of this agreement, you must cease using and return or destroy
all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your possession.
If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound by the
terms of this agreement, you may obtain a refund from the person or
entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph 1.E.8.

1.B.  "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark.  It may only be
used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who
agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement.  There are a few
things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
even without complying with the full terms of this agreement.  See
paragraph 1.C below.  There are a lot of things you can do with Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this agreement
and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works.  See paragraph 1.E below.

1.C.  The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the Foundation"
or PGLAF), owns a compilation copyright in the collection of Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works.  Nearly all the individual works in the
collection are in the public domain in the United States.  If an
individual work is in the public domain in the United States and you are
located in the United States, we do not claim a right to prevent you from
copying, distributing, performing, displaying or creating derivative
works based on the work as long as all references to Project Gutenberg
are removed.  Of course, we hope that you will support the Project
Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting free access to electronic works by
freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm works in compliance with the terms of
this agreement for keeping the Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with
the work.  You can easily comply with the terms of this agreement by
keeping this work in the same format with its attached full Project
Gutenberg-tm License when you share it without charge with others.

1.D.  The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern
what you can do with this work.  Copyright laws in most countries are in
a constant state of change.  If you are outside the United States, check
the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this agreement
before downloading, copying, displaying, performing, distributing or
creating derivative works based on this work or any other Project
Gutenberg-tm work.  The Foundation makes no representations concerning
the copyright status of any work in any country outside the United

1.E.  Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg:

1.E.1.  The following sentence, with active links to, or other immediate
access to, the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear prominently
whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work on which the
phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears, or with which the phrase "Project
Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed, displayed, performed, viewed,
copied or distributed:

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

1.E.2.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is derived
from the public domain (does not contain a notice indicating that it is
posted with permission of the copyright holder), the work can be copied
and distributed to anyone in the United States without paying any fees
or charges.  If you are redistributing or providing access to a work
with the phrase "Project Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the
work, you must comply either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E.1
through 1.E.7 or obtain permission for the use of the work and the
Project Gutenberg-tm trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.8 or

1.E.3.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted
with the permission of the copyright holder, your use and distribution
must comply with both paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 and any additional
terms imposed by the copyright holder.  Additional terms will be linked
to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works posted with the
permission of the copyright holder found at the beginning of this work.

1.E.4.  Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License terms from this work, or any files containing a part of this
work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm.

1.E.5.  Do not copy, display, perform, distribute or redistribute this
electronic work, or any part of this electronic work, without
prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 with
active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project
Gutenberg-tm License.

1.E.6.  You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary,
compressed, marked up, nonproprietary or proprietary form, including any
word processing or hypertext form.  However, if you provide access to or
distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format other than
"Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official version
posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site (,
you must, at no additional cost, fee or expense to the user, provide a
copy, a means of exporting a copy, or a means of obtaining a copy upon
request, of the work in its original "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other
form.  Any alternate format must include the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License as specified in paragraph 1.E.1.

1.E.7.  Do not charge a fee for access to, viewing, displaying,
performing, copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works
unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.

1.E.8.  You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing
access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works provided

- You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from
     the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method
     you already use to calculate your applicable taxes.  The fee is
     owed to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, but he
     has agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the
     Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.  Royalty payments
     must be paid within 60 days following each date on which you
     prepare (or are legally required to prepare) your periodic tax
     returns.  Royalty payments should be clearly marked as such and
     sent to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the
     address specified in Section 4, "Information about donations to
     the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation."

- You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies
     you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he
     does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm
     License.  You must require such a user to return or
     destroy all copies of the works possessed in a physical medium
     and discontinue all use of and all access to other copies of
     Project Gutenberg-tm works.

- You provide, in accordance with paragraph 1.F.3, a full refund of any
     money paid for a work or a replacement copy, if a defect in the
     electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days
     of receipt of the work.

- You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free
     distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works.

1.E.9.  If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work or group of works on different terms than are set
forth in this agreement, you must obtain permission in writing from
both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and Michael
Hart, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark.  Contact the
Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below.


1.F.1.  Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable
effort to identify, do copyright research on, transcribe and proofread
public domain works in creating the Project Gutenberg-tm
collection.  Despite these efforts, Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works, and the medium on which they may be stored, may contain
"Defects," such as, but not limited to, incomplete, inaccurate or
corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other intellectual
property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or other medium, a
computer virus, or computer codes that damage or cannot be read by
your equipment.

of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1.F.3, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the owner of the Project
Gutenberg-tm trademark, and any other party distributing a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement, disclaim all
liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal

defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it, you can
receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a
written explanation to the person you received the work from.  If you
received the work on a physical medium, you must return the medium with
your written explanation.  The person or entity that provided you with
the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in lieu of a
refund.  If you received the work electronically, the person or entity
providing it to you may choose to give you a second opportunity to
receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund.  If the second copy
is also defective, you may demand a refund in writing without further
opportunities to fix the problem.

1.F.4.  Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth
in paragraph 1.F.3, this work is provided to you 'AS-IS' WITH NO OTHER

1.F.5.  Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied
warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of damages.
If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement violates the
law of the state applicable to this agreement, the agreement shall be
interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or limitation permitted by
the applicable state law.  The invalidity or unenforceability of any
provision of this agreement shall not void the remaining provisions.

1.F.6.  INDEMNITY - You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation, the
trademark owner, any agent or employee of the Foundation, anyone
providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in accordance
with this agreement, and any volunteers associated with the production,
promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works,
harmless from all liability, costs and expenses, including legal fees,
that arise directly or indirectly from any of the following which you do
or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this or any Project Gutenberg-tm
work, (b) alteration, modification, or additions or deletions to any
Project Gutenberg-tm work, and (c) any Defect you cause.

Section  2.  Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm

Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of
electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of computers
including obsolete, old, middle-aged and new computers.  It exists
because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations from
people in all walks of life.

Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the
assistance they need are critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's
goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will
remain freely available for generations to come.  In 2001, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure
and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future generations.
To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation
and how your efforts and donations can help, see Sections 3 and 4
and the Foundation web page at

Section 3.  Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive

The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit
501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the
state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal
Revenue Service.  The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification
number is 64-6221541.  Its 501(c)(3) letter is posted at  Contributions to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent
permitted by U.S. federal laws and your state's laws.

The Foundation's principal office is located at 4557 Melan Dr. S.
Fairbanks, AK, 99712., but its volunteers and employees are scattered
throughout numerous locations.  Its business office is located at
809 North 1500 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 596-1887, email  Email contact links and up to date contact
information can be found at the Foundation's web site and official
page at

For additional contact information:
     Dr. Gregory B. Newby
     Chief Executive and Director

Section 4.  Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation

Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide
spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of
increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be
freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest
array of equipment including outdated equipment.  Many small donations
($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt
status with the IRS.

The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating
charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United
States.  Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a
considerable effort, much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up
with these requirements.  We do not solicit donations in locations
where we have not received written confirmation of compliance.  To
SEND DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any
particular state visit

While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we
have not met the solicitation requirements, we know of no prohibition
against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who
approach us with offers to donate.

International donations are gratefully accepted, but we cannot make
any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from
outside the United States.  U.S. laws alone swamp our small staff.

Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation
methods and addresses.  Donations are accepted in a number of other
ways including including checks, online payments and credit card
donations.  To donate, please visit:

Section 5.  General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic

Professor Michael S. Hart was the originator of the Project Gutenberg-tm
concept of a library of electronic works that could be freely shared
with anyone.  For thirty years, he produced and distributed Project
Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of volunteer support.

Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed
editions, all of which are confirmed as Public Domain in the U.S.
unless a copyright notice is included.  Thus, we do not necessarily
keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper edition.

Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search facility:

This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm,
including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation, how to help produce our new eBooks, and how to
subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.