PLATE XXI. Instruments used in difficult labor.

Fig. 1. Embryotome, an instrument used when it is necessary to reduce the size of the fetus by cutting away certain parts before birth can be effected. This instrument may be long or short, straight or curved.

Fig. 2. Also an embryotome. The blade can be made to slide out of or into the handle. The instrument can thus be introduced into or withdrawn from the genital passage without risk of injury to the mother.

Fig. 3. Schaack's traction cord. This is merely a cord with a running noose at one end and a piece of wood at the other, to offer a better hold for the hand.

Figs. 4a and 4b. Reuff's head collar for securing the head of the fetus.

Fig. 5. Curved cord-carrier, used in difficult parturition to carry a cord into regions which can not be reached by the arm.

Fig. 6. Blunt hook, used in difficult parturition.

Fig. 7. Short hook forceps, used in difficult parturition.

Fig. 8. Blunt finger hook.