PLATE XVII. Abnormal positions of calf in utero. (Figs. 2 and 3 from Fleming; figs. 4, 5, and 6 from D'Arboval.)

Fig. 1. Anterior presentation, with hind feet engaged in pelvis. A very serious malpresentation, in which it is generally impossible to save the fetus if delivery is far advanced. The indications are to force back the hind feet.

Fig. 2. Thigh and croup presentation, showing the fetus corded. The cord has a ring or noose at one end. The two ends of the cord are passed between the thighs, brought out at the flanks, and the plain end passed through the noose at the top of the back and brought outside the vulva. The fetus must be pushed back and an attempt made to bring the limbs properly into the genital passage.

Fig. 3. Croup and hock presentation. The indications in this abnormal presentation are the same as described for Fig. 2.

Fig. 4. Posterior presentation; the fetus on its back. Turn the fetus so as to make a normal anterior presentation.

Fig. 5. Sterno-abdominal presentation. The fetus is on its side with limbs crossing and presenting. The limbs least eligible for extraction should be forced back into the uterus.

Fig. 6. Dorso-lumbar presentation; the back presenting. The fetus must be turned so that one or the other extremity can enter the passage.