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Title: The Economist
       Volume 1, No. 3

Author: Various

Editor: James Wilson

Release Date: December 29, 2008 [EBook #27647]
[This file last updated January 30, 2011]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


Produced by Colin Bell, Jonathan Ah Kit, Greg Bergquist
and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at

Transcriber’s Note

The punctuation and spelling from the original text have been faithfully preserved. Only obvious typographical errors have been corrected.

The Economist:


"If we make ourselves too little for the sphere of our duty; if, on the contrary, we do not stretch and expand our minds to the compass of their object; be well assured that everything about us will dwindle by degrees, until at length our concerns are shrunk to the dimensions of our minds. It is not a predilection to mean, sordid, home-bred cares that will avert the consequences of a false estimation of our interest, or prevent the shameful dilapidation into which a great empire must fall by mean reparation upon mighty ruins."—Burke.

No. 3. SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 16, 1843. Price 6d.

[Pg 33]


Our Brazilian Trade and the Anti-Slavery Party 33
The Fallacy of Protection 34
Agriculture (No. 2.) 35
Court and Aristocracy 36
Music and Musicales 36
The Metropolis 37
The Provinces 37
Ireland 37
Scotland 38
Wales 38
France 38
Spain 38
Austria and Italy 38
Turkey 38
Egypt 39
United States 39
Canada 39
Colonies and Emigration:
Emigration during the last Seventeen Years 39
New South Wales 39
Australia 39
Cape of Good Hope 39
New Zealand 39
Political 39
Correspondence and Answers to Inquiries 40
Postscript 41
Free Trade Movements:
Messrs Cobden and Bright at Oxford 42
Public Dinner to R. Walker, Esq. 42
Dr Bowring's Visit to his Constituents 42
Anti-Corn-law Meeting at Hampstead 43
Mr Ewart and his Constituents 43
Miscellanies of Trade 43
Police 43
Accidents, Offences, and Occurrences 43
Sporting Intelligence 43
Agricultural Varieties:
The best Home Markets 44
Curious Agricultural Experiment 44
Cultivation of Waste Lands 44
Our Library Table 44
Miscellanea 45
Commerce and Commercial Markets 46
Prices Current 46
Corn Markets 46
Smithfield Markets 46
Borough Hop Market 47
Liverpool Cotton Market 47
The Gazette 47
Births, Marriages, and Deaths 47
Advertisements 47

"If a writer be conscious that to gain a reception for his favourite doctrine he must combat with certain elements of opposition, in the taste, or the pride, or the indolence of those whom he is addressing, this will only serve to make him the more importunate. There is a difference between such truths as are merely of a speculative nature and such as are allied with practice and moral feeling. With the former all repetition may be often superfluous; with the latter it may just be by earnest repetition, that their influence comes to be thoroughly established over the mind of an inquirer."—Chalmers.


Since the publication of our article on the Brazilian Treaty, we have received several letters from individuals who, agreeing with us entirely in the free-trade view of the question, nevertheless are at variance with us as to the commercial policy which we should pursue towards that country, in order to coerce them into our views regarding slavery. We are glad to feel called upon to express our views on this subject, to which we think full justice has not yet been done.

We must, however, in doing so, make a great distinction between the two classes of persons who are now found to be joined in an alliance against this application of free-trade principles; two classes who have always hitherto been so much opposed to each other, that it would have been very difficult ten years since to have conceived any possible combinations of circumstances that could have brought them to act in concert: we mean the West India interest, who so violently opposed every step of amelioration to the slave from first to last; and that body of truly great philanthropists who have been unceasing in their efforts to abolish slavery wherever and in whatever form it was to be found. To the latter alone we shall address our remarks.

As far as it can be collected, the argument relied upon by this party appears to be, that having once abolished slavery in our own dominions we ought to interdict the importation of articles produced by slave labour in other countries, in order to coerce them, for the sake of their trade with us, to follow our example.

We trust we shall be among the last who will ever be found advocating the continuance of slavery, or opposing any legitimate means for its extinction; but we feel well assured that those who have adopted the opinion quoted above, have little considered either the consequences or the tendencies of the policy they support.

The first consideration is, that if this policy is to be acted upon, on principle, it must extend to the exclusion of all articles produced in whatever country by slaves. It must apply with equal force to the gold, silver, and copper of Brazil, as it does to the sugar and coffee produced in that country;—it must apply with equal force to the cotton, the rice, the indigo, the cochineal, and the tobacco of the Southern States of America, and Mexico, as it does to the sugar and coffee of Cuba. To be in any way consistent in carrying out this principle, we must exclude the great material on which the millions of Lancashire, the West of Yorkshire, and Lanarkshire depend for their daily subsistence; we must equally exclude tobacco, which gives revenue to the extent of 3,500,000l. annually; we must refuse any use of the precious metals, whether for coin, ornament, or other purposes. But even these form only one class of the obligations which the affirming of this principle would impose upon us. If we would coerce the Brazilians by not buying from them, it necessarily involves the duty of not selling to them; for if we sell, we supply them with all the means of conducting their slave labour; we supply the implements of labour, or the materials from which they are made; we supply clothing for themselves and their slaves; we supply part of their foods and most of their luxuries; the wines and the spirits in which the slave-owner indulges; and we even supply the very materials of which the implements of slave punishment or coercion are made;—and thus participate much more directly in the profits of slavery than by admitting their produce into this country. But if we supply them with all these articles, which we do to the extent of nearly 3,000,000l. a year, and are not to receive some of their slave-tainted produce, it must follow that we are to give them without an equivalent, than which no greater encouragement could be given for a perseverance in slave-holding. But the truth is—whatever pretensions we make on this subject—we do, in exchange for our goods, buy their polluted produce; we employ our ships to convey it from their shores, and ourselves find a market for it among other countries already well supplied with cheap sugar, where it is not required, and where it only tends the more to depress the price in markets already abundantly supplied. Nay, we do more; we admit it into our ports, we land it on our shores, we place it in our bonded warehouses, and our busy merchants and brokers deal as freely on our exchanges in this slave produce as in any other, only with this difference—that this cheap sugar is not permitted to be consumed by our own starving population, but can only be sold to be refined in bond for the consumption of the free labourers in our West India colonies and others, or to be re-exported, as it is, for the use of "our less scrupulous but more consistent" neighbours on the continent.

Consistency, therefore, requires equally the abandonment of all export trade to slave-producing countries, as it does of the import of their produce; and the effect will carry us even further. We know it is a favourite feeling with Mr Joseph Sturge and others of that truly benevolent class, that in eschewing any connexion with slave-producing countries, we have the better reason to urge free-trading intercourse with such countries as use only free labour,—with the Northern States of America, with Java, and other countries similarly circumstanced. Now of what does our trade to these countries, in common with others, chiefly consist? Of the 51,400,000l. of British manufactures and produce which we exported in 1840, upwards of 24,500,000l. consisted of cotton goods, nearly the whole of which were manufactured from slave-grown cotton, and partly dyed and printed with the cochineal and indigo of Guatamala and Mexico. Consistency would therefore further require that we abandon at least one-half of our present foreign trade even with free-labour countries, instead of opening any opportunity for its increase.

When men are prepared and conceive it a duty to urge the accomplishment of all these results, they may then consistently oppose the introduction of Brazilian sugar and coffee, and support the present West India monopoly; but not till then.

But now, what effect must this argument have upon slave-producing states, in inducing them to abandon slavery? Has it not long been one of the chief arguments of the anti-slavery party everywhere, that free labour is actually cheaper than slave labour? Now, will the Brazilians give credit to this proposition, so strongly insisted upon, when they see that the anti-slavery party conceive it needful to give support to a system which affirms the necessity of protecting free labour against slave labour, by imposing a prohibitory duty of upwards of 100 per cent. on the produce of the latter? Will their opinion of the relative cheapness of the two kinds of labour not rather be determined by our actions than our professions?

We firmly believe that free labour, properly exercised, is cheaper than slave labour; but there is no pretence to say that it is so at this moment in our West India colonies; and we undertake to show, in an early number, in connexion with this fact, that the existence of the high protecting duties on our West India produce has done more than anything else to endanger the whole experiment of emancipation.

But, moreover, our West India monopoly,—the existence of the high prohibitory differential duty on sugar, is the greatest, strongest, and least answerable argument at present used by slave-holding countries against emancipation. The following was put strongly to ourselves in Amsterdam a short time since by a large slave owner in Dutch Guiana:—"We should be glad," said he, "to follow your example, and emancipate our slaves, if it were possible; but as long as your[Pg 34] differential duties on sugar are maintained, it will be impossible. Here is an account sale of sugar produced in our colony, netting a return of 11l. per hogshead to the planter in Surinam; and here is an account sale of similar sugar sold in London, netting a return of 33l. to the planter in Demerara: the difference ascribable only to your differential duty. The fields of these two classes of planters are separated only by a few ditches. Now such is the effort made by the planter in Demerara to extend his cultivation to secure the high price of 33l., that he is importing free labourers from the hills of Hindostan, and from the coast of Africa, at great cost, and is willing to pay higher wages than labour will command even in Europe. Let us, then, emancipate our slaves, which, if it had any effect, would confer the privilege of a choice of employer, and Dutch Guiana would be depopulated in a day,—an easy means of increasing the supply of labour to the planters of Demerara, at the cost of entire annihilation of the cultivation of the estates in Surinam. But abandon your differential duties, give us the same price for our produce, and thus enable us to pay the same rate of wages, and I, for one, will not object to liberate my slaves to-morrow."

Whatever amount of credence people may be disposed to place in this willingness to abandon slavery, nothing can be more clear than that the higher rate of wages paid in our colonies, attributable solely to the high and extravagant price which, by our differential duties, their produce commands, must ever form a strong and conclusive reason with these slave-holding countries against their entertaining the question of emancipation.

We believe most sincerely that an equalization of these duties—that an entire free trade would do more than any other act to encourage an adoption of our example everywhere: while the maintenance of monopoly and high prices as an essential to the carrying out of the experiment of free labour successfully—must be the strongest reason against its adoption with all those countries who have no means of commanding this accompanying confessed essential.

But now were it otherwise:—have the professors of these opinions ever considered the huge responsibility which they arrogate to themselves by such a course? Let these men remember that, by seeking to coerce the slave-labour producer in distant countries, they inflict a severe punishment on the millions of hard-working, ill-fed consumers among their fellow countrymen; but they seem always to overlook the fact, that there is a consumer to consider as well as a producer;—and that this consumer is their own countryman, their own neighbour, whose condition it is their first duty to consult and watch;—duty as well as charity ought to be first exercised at home. That is a very doubtful humanity which exercises itself on the uncertain result of influence indirectly produced upon governments in the other hemisphere of the globe, and neglects, nay sacrifices, the interests of the poor and helpless around our own doors,—not only by placing the necessaries of life beyond their reach, but at the same time destroying the demand for their labour by which alone they can obtain them.

If individuals entertain conscientious scruples against the use of slave produce—let them, if they please, act upon them themselves, but do not let them seek to inflict certain punishment, and the whole train of vice and misery consequent on starvation and want of employment, upon their poorer neighbours, for the purpose of conferring some speculative advantage on the slaves of the Brazils or elsewhere: no man can be called upon as a duty to do so great a present evil, in order to accomplish some distant good, however great—or however certain.


All laws made for the purpose of protecting the interests of individuals or classes must mean, if they mean anything, to render the articles which such classes deal in or produce dearer than they would otherwise be if the public was left at liberty to supply itself with such commodities in the manner which their own interests and choice would dictate. In order to make them dearer it is absolutely necessary to make them scarcer; for quantity being large or small in proportion to demand, alone can regulate the price;—protection, therefore, to any commodity simply means that the quantity supplied to the community shall be less than circumstances would naturally provide, but that for the smaller quantity supplied under the restriction of law the same sum shall be paid as the larger quantity would command without such restriction.

Time was when the Sovereigns of England relied chiefly on the granting of patents to individuals for the exclusive exercise of certain trades or occupations in particular places, as the means of rewarding the services of some, and as a provision for others of their adherents, followers, and favourites, who either held the exclusive supply in their own hands on their own terms, or who again granted to others under them that privilege, receiving from them a portion of the gains. In the course of time, however, the public began to discover that these monopolies acted upon them directly as a tax of a most odious description; that the privileged person found it needful always to keep the supply short to obtain his high price (for as soon as he admitted plenty he had no command of price)—that, in short, the sovereign, in conferring a mark of regard on a favourite, gave not that which he himself possessed, but only invested him with the power of imposing a contribution on the public.

The public once awake to the true operation of such privileges, and severely suffering under the injuries which they inflicted, perseveringly struggled against these odious monopolies, until the system was entirely abandoned, and the crown was deprived of the power of granting patents of this class. But though the public saw clearly enough that these privileges granted by the sovereign to individuals operated thus prejudicially on the community, they did not see with equal clearness that the same power transferred to, and exercised by, Parliament, to confer similar privileges on classes; to do for a number of men what the sovereign had before done for single men, would, to the remaining portion of the community, be just as prejudicial as the abuses against which they had struggled. That like the sovereign, the Parliament, in protecting or giving privileges to a class, gave nothing which they possessed themselves, but granted only the power to such classes of raising a contribution from the remaining portion of the community, by levying a higher price for their commodity than it would otherwise command. As with individuals, it was equally necessary to make scarcity to secure price, and that could only be done by restricting the sources of supply by prohibiting, or by imposing high duties on, foreign importations. Many circumstances, however, combined to render the use of this power by Parliament less obvious than it had been when exercised by the sovereign, but chiefly the fact that protection was usually granted by imposing high duties, often in their effect quite prohibitory, under the plea of providing revenue for the state. Many other more modern excuses have been urged, such as those of encouraging native industry, and countervailing peculiar burthens, in order to reconcile public opinion to the exactions arising out of the system, all of which we shall, on future occasions, carefully consider separately. But, above all, the great reason why these evils have been so long endured has been, that the public have believed that all classes and interests, though perhaps not exactly to the same extent, have shared in protection. We propose at present to confine our consideration to the effects of protection,—first, on the community generally; and secondly, on the individual classes protected.

As it is admitted that protection ought, if granted at all, to be given to all alike, it would follow that the whole produce of the country would be raised to an artificial price; and if this were the case, as far as regarded the exchange or transactions among members of the same community, the effect would be merely nominal, of no advantage to any one, and of little disadvantage beyond the enormous public expense needed to prevent people cheating each other by smuggling and bringing in the cheaper foreign article;—but such a community must forego all notion or idea of a foreign trade;—they must have no desires to be gratified beyond themselves, and they must have within themselves the independent means of supplying every want. For even if the law be strong enough to maintain an artificial high price at home, it has no power of making other countries pay that price; and if everything we possessed commanded a higher price at home than other countries could supply the same for, we should have nothing which we could exchange for the produce of other countries, and thus no more foreign trade could exist, than in a poor country which had no surplus produce. It is therefore essential that every country should bear in mind, in adopting a system of protection to manufactures or other produce, that they thereby effectually debar themselves from all foreign trade to neutral countries in such articles; for if they require high duties at home to protect them from the produce of other countries, which could only come at considerable expense to compete with them at home, how can they withstand that competition when they meet on the same terms in every respect in a neutral market? How effectually has France stayed her export linen trade by raising the duties and the price of linen yarn, and by that act, intended as a blow to English trade, given the linen manufacturers of this country a greater advantage over France in the markets of the world than ever. How idle are the efforts of the Belgian government to establish depôts and factories for the sale of their manufactures in St Thomas add other places, while the manufacturers in Ghent are only able to maintain their home trade, by high protective duties, against English, French, and German goods, and still cry out for greater protection!

It is, however, abundantly plain, that the state of a country above described could not long exist, when industry and intelligence were in the course of producing wealth; for if there be one law in nature more distinct than another, it is, that while the productions of every country are less or more limited to particular things, the wants of man extend to every possible variety of products over the whole world, as soon as his means can command them. As a country advances in wealth, it will have more and more surplus produce, which under wise laws would always consist of such things as it could produce with greatest facility and profit, whether from the loom or the soil. This surplus produce would be exchanged for the productions of other climates, but it must be quite clear, as soon as we arrive at this stage, that the power of the law to protect price altogether ceases. The surplus exported must sell in the markets[Pg 35] of the world, in competition with the same article produced under the cheapest circumstances, and that article in the home market can command only the same price.

Thus the whole attempt to protect all interests equally would immediately fail; every article produced in excess, and exported, would command only the lowest prices of open markets, and the fancied protection of the law would be void; while everything produced in deficiency, and of which we required to import a portion to make up the needful supply, would continue to be protected above the natural price of the world to any extent of import duty that the law imposed upon the quantity required to make up the deficiency.

Thus, for example, we export a large portion of the woollen, and the largest portion of the cotton goods which we manufacture, to all parts of the world, which we must sell at least as cheap as they can be bought in any other country. The same articles can only command the same price in the home market, and though the law imposed an import duty, by way of pretended protection, to any extent, upon similar foreign goods, it would not have the effect of raising the price one fraction. On the other hand, we do not produce as much wool or food as we consume, and have every year to import large quantities of each to make up the deficiency. Whatever duty, therefore, is put on the import of the quantity thus required, will enable the producers at home to maintain their price so much above the natural level of the world. By this state of things the country at large is injured in two distinct and prominent ways:—first,—those articles which we can make in excess, and export, must ever be the chief means of absorbing the increasing capital and labour of the country; and the impediment thrown in our way, of importing those things which we have in deficiency, must necessarily check our power of extending the demand for the produce of such increasing labour and capital; and, secondly,—the price of such articles as we produce in deficiency, will always be maintained much above the level of the world, to the great disadvantage of the other great class of producers, the price of whose labour, and whose profits, will be regulated by competition with those who have food, &c., at the lowest price.

So much as to the effect on the community at large. We will now shortly consider the effect on individual interests, which are thought to enjoy protection, and we believe we can show that there never was a condition so fraught with mischief and disappointment, with such unmitigated delusion, deception, and exposure to ruin, than is to be found in every case where protection operates. We think it can be clearly shown that such occupations can never be more profitable; that they must usually be less profitable; and that they are always more exposed to vicissitudes than any other class.

They never can be more profitable, because capital and enterprise will always be attracted to any occupation which offers a larger profit than the usual rate, till it is reduced to a level with others; they will usually be less profitable, indeed always in a community of increasing numbers, because the price being maintained by restriction above the price of the world, prevents an extension of such trades in the same proportion as those who naturally belong to them, and look to them for occupation, increase in numbers: they will be exposed to greater vicissitudes, because, being confined to the supply of only one market, any accidental circumstance, which either increases the usual supply, or diminishes the usual demand, will cause an infinitely greater depression than if they were in a condition to avail themselves of the markets of the whole world, over which they could spread an accidental and unusual surplus.

Thus, previous to 1824, the silk manufacturers of this country were protected to a greater extent than any other trade, and the price of silk goods was maintained much above the rate of other countries; our silk trade was therefore necessarily confined almost exclusively to the home market and our colonies, and though they had a monopoly of those markets, it was at the cost of exclusion (on account of higher price) from all other markets.

Notwithstanding this monopoly, the silk manufacturers could never command at any time larger profits than other trades; for had they done so, competition would have increased until the rate was reduced to the common level of the country: on the contrary, the tendency was for profits and rates of wages to be smaller than in other great manufacturing branches, requiring equal capital and skill; because, with the increasing numbers who belonged to the silk trade,—the sons of manufacturers and of weavers, who naturally, in the first instance, look to the trade of their parents for their occupation,—the trade did not proportionably increase, from the fact of our being unable to extend our exports; and, lastly, it was exposed to much greater vicissitudes than other trades; for when, either from a temporary change of fashion or taste, or from a temporary stagnation of trade in this country, the accustomed demand was lessened, the silk manufacturers were unable to obtain any relief by extending their trade in the great neutral markets of the world, being excluded by price, and the whole surplus quantity remained a dead weight on this market only; whereas other branches of manufactures, practically enjoying no protection, in the case of depressed trade at home, had an opportunity of immediate relief, by spreading the surplus thereby created, at a very trifling sacrifice, over the wide markets which they supplied.

In this way the extent and duration of the vicissitudes and depressions in the silk trade were without parallel in any other; but since 1824, since this trade has been placed in a natural position by the removal of monopoly, the whole aspect of it has changed, and these peculiar evils have all disappeared.

Then again with regard to the products of land, which the law attempts to protect more highly than any other. Here again, though the price to the community is maintained much above the prices of other countries, no one person connected with raising the produce can command a higher rate of profit, or higher wages for labour, than other trades having no protection whatever; for if they did, competition would soon reduce them to the same level; but, on the contrary, the wages, of agricultural labourers, and the profits of farmers, are always rather below than above the common rate, and simply from this fact, that the children of farm labourers, and of farmers, who first naturally look to the pursuits of their parents for a trade or occupation, increase in numbers without any corresponding extension of the means of employment, and the competition among them is therefore always greater than in other trades which have the power of extension; and the vicissitudes to which the farmer is exposed are notoriously greater than any other trade. His rent and expenses throughout are fixed by an artificial price of produce, which price can only be maintained as long as a certain scarcity exists; but the moment the markets are plentifully supplied, either from a want of demand owing to a depression of trade, or from the result of a good harvest, he finds that plenty takes out of his hand all control of price, which quickly sinks to the natural rate.

With a free trade the farmer would never be exposed to such reverses. In that state, if the demand and price increased, it would be checked by an increase of imports from other countries; if the demand and price diminished, that would also be checked by a reduction or cessation of the usual imports, and, if necessary, by an export of any surplus which pressed upon the market;—and, if our space allowed, it would not be difficult to show that, with prices at the natural rate, all parties connected with land would not only be in a safer but a much better condition.

No cautious man who well understands the subject will ever hazard his capital in any trade exposed to so many evils and to so much uncertainty as restriction and protection infallibly introduce into it:—but the great error which misleads all men in cherishing such trades is, that they mistake high prices for high profits, which usually, instead of being synonymous terms, are quite the reverse.

No. II.



(Continued from No. 2.)

These three signs, viz., colour, consistence, and vegetation, are named by the Royal Agricultural Society as being pre-eminently indications of the value of lands; yet there are others of equal if not of greater consequence. For example:—

A knowledge of the geology of the land is of the first importance; that is, not only a knowledge of the range and extent of each formation and its subdivisions, which may be called geographical geology, but also how far and to what extent the various lands do depend upon the substratum for their soil, and the local variations in the chemical or mineralogical character of the substrata themselves, and which may be called the differential geology of soils. For not only do the qualities of land vary from one formation to another, but upon the same formation there is frequently considerable difference in the quality of land depending upon chemical difference in the substratum, or upon an intermixture of foreign debris derived from other strata.

A chemical investigation of the soil and subsoil will frequently afford most useful indications respecting the value of land. It may be laid down as an axiom that a soil to be fertile must contain all the chemical ingredients which a plant can only obtain from the soil, and chemistry ought to be able to inform us in unproductive soils what ingredients are wanting. It also is able to inform us if any poisonous substance exists in the soil, and how it may be neutralized; when lime, marl, and chalk are to be used, &c.[1]

[Pg 36]

The Royal Agricultural Society say that chemistry is unable to explain the productiveness of soils. But why is it unable? One reason is, that supposing everything required by the plant to be present in the soil, yet if the soil be either too wet, or too dry, too cohesive, or loose, the plant will not flourish; and chemical analysis does not declare this, for it affords no information respecting the mechanical division in which substances exist in the soil. Again, the chemical analysis of soils, to be worth anything, must be conducted with more rigid accuracy than those published by English writers. To detect one cwt. of gypsum in an acre there would be only one quarter of a grain in a pound of soil, or in 100 grains only three and a half thousandth of a grain (3510000 or,00035 grs.), or to discover if sufficient alumina existed in a field for the production of red clover there must be ascertained if it contained (one hundred thousandth),00001 per cent. The analyses even by Sprengel do not afford us the quantity of nitrogen in each soil, or the capacity of the soil for this substance; while it is well known that most manures, as well as the different kinds of food, are valuable in proportion to the quantity contained by them, and it is highly probable, ceteris paribus, that the quantity of nitrogen found existing in soil, and the soil's capacity for containing that substance, would afford an easy indication of its immediate fertility, and also of its requiring great or small quantities of nitrogenous manures in its future cultivation.[2]

Chemistry, however, outsteps her province when it is attempted to explain how vegetable productions are formed in the plants by chemical forces; for the recent discoveries of Schwann, Henle, and Schleiden, prove that all the functions of the plant are performed by the means of simple vesicles and cells—that absorption, assimilation, fixation of carbon from the atmosphere, respiration, exhalation, secretion, and reproduction are all effected by single cells, of which the lower plants almost entirely consist—that the cell absorbs alimentary matters through the spongioles of the root, and that the fluid received thus undergoes the first steps of the organizing process—that the inorganic elements are changed into the simplest proximate principles by cells—so also are the further changes into the regular secretions of the plant, the result of cell-life—that gum and sugar are converted into the organizable portion of the nutritious sap by the cells of the leaves. The starchy fluid in the grains of corn is rendered capable of nutrition to the embryo by the development of successive generations of cells, which exert upon it their peculiar vitalizing influence. Albumen is converted into fibrine by the vital agency of cell life—i.e., cells are produced which do not form an integral part of any permanent structure in the plant, but which, after attaining a certain maturity, reproduce themselves and disappear; hence it may be stated that all the vegetable productions which are formed in the plant are effected by a series of vital actions through the agency of cells.

From the different transformations which these undergo all the different tissues in vegetables are formed; for instance, the spiral and dotted ducts, woody fibre, and so on. Schwann showed that the formation of tissues in animals went through exactly the same progress, a fact which has been confirmed by the microscopic observations of Valentin and Barry. Thus vessels, glands, the brain, nerves, muscles, and even bones and teeth are all formed from metamorphosed cells. Dr Bennett says—"If this be true, and there can be little doubt, it obliges us to modify our notions of organization and life. It compels us to confess that vegetables and animals are not simple beings, but composed of a greater or less number of individuals, of which thousands may exist in a mass not larger than a grain of sand, each having a vital centre and separate life, independent of those around it. Each of these individuals, or organized cells, should be regarded as a living being, which has its particular vital centre of absorption, assimilation, and growth, and which continues to vegetate, to increase, and undergo transformations as if it were an isolated individual. At all events, a knowledge of the existence of the cell-life of plants will explain several phenomena respecting the vegetation, growth, and ripening of corn, and may hereafter lead to some valuable practical results."

The climate, elevation, and exposure are not to be neglected. Upon the higher portions of the Wolds crops suffer, much from elevation and exposure, while in the western portion of Yorkshire, upon the moor edges, the harvest is usually a month later than in the central parts of the island.

A moderate depth of soil in general is a favourable sign, although some of shallow soils on the new red sandstone and on the Wolds are very good; to these signs are to be added locality, as respects markets, facilities of obtaining a supply of lime, or other tillage, the rates and outpayments peculiar to the district, &c. &c., all of which are to be taken into account when considering the value of any particular farm.

I shall now briefly apply these indications of fertility over the different geological formations of Yorkshire, and it will be found that each lends aid to the other, and that a person will be able to ascertain the value of land in proportion as he is able to appreciate the collective evidence afforded by them.

(To be continued.)

[1] Mr Brakenridge, of Bretton Lodge, who has extensive practice in land valuing, informs me that a mechanical analysis of the soil affords him much assistance; and he has found that in soils, whenever free from stagnant water, that in a mechanical analysis the larger the proportion which remains suspended in the water, the greater its powers of production will be found, and the less manure it will require. That the best soils are those which, when diffused and well stirred in water and allowed to stand for three minutes, from 20 to 30, say 25, per cent. is carried off with the water of decantation. When 30 per cent. and upwards is decanted off, the soil becomes retentive of water and consequently wet. When less than 20 per cent., say only 16 per cent. and under, is carried off, it becomes too porous; water passes through it too rapidly; its soluble matter is washed off into the substratum, and it has a strong tendency to become thin and sterile.

[2] The celebrated black earth of Russia contains 2,45 per cent. of nitrogen.


The Queen and Prince Albert, on their return on Thursday week from the Chateau d'Eu, were accompanied by the Prince de Joinville, who remained to dine with the Royal party, and then returned in the evening on board his yacht, for the coast of France. After a few days' repose, her Majesty and the Prince started on another marine excursion. They sailed from Brighton on Tuesday morning, passed Dover, and arrived off Deal about three o'clock, where the Royal yacht anchored, in order to receive the Duke of Wellington, who came from Walmer Castle, and dined with her Majesty on board, a large number of vessels, gaily decked with flags, as well as crowds on shore, giving animation to the scene. The Duke remained with her Majesty and Prince Albert upwards of two hours, and during the time he was on board, the wind, which throughout the day had been blowing rather fresh from the northward and eastward, had considerably increased, and her Majesty, upon the Duke's taking his leave, evinced very great anxiety respecting the safe landing of his Grace. Everybody who knows this coast is aware that when the wind is blowing at all from the eastward that there is a very heavy surf on the beach, and consequently great difficulty in landing. His Grace, however, on thanking her Majesty for the concern she evinced on his account, made light of the matter, and returned on board the Ariel, which brought him as near the shore as possible; here he got into the barge and rowed towards the beach. The swell was too great to admit of his landing at the pier, from which he had started, and the boat was pulled towards the naval yard, where the surf was not so great as at any other part of the shore. Here the Duke landed, but not without a thorough drenching, for no sooner had the bows of the boat touched the shore than a heavy sea broke right over her stern, and completely saturated his Grace's apparel. The Duke, upon landing, all wet as he was, immediately mounted his horse, and rode off to Walmer Castle. A numerous assemblage of persons had congregated on the beach when the Duke came on shore, and loudly and enthusiastically cheered him.

At an early hour on Wednesday morning the squadron got their steam up, and made preparations for taking their departure. The weather had moderated, and the day was fine. About seven o'clock the Royal yacht got under way, and stood out to sea, and was followed by the other steamers, and also by the Penelope, which had been ordered to form one of the Royal squadron.

About two o'clock on Wednesday the Royal yacht entered the port of Ostend, taking the authorities somewhat by surprise, who did not expect it quite so soon. The King and Queen of Belgium, and the official personages of Ostend, were, however, on the pier to await the landing; and the populace displayed the most lively enthusiasm. In the evening there was a grand banquet at the Hotel de Ville, and Ostend was brilliantly illuminated, in a style far surpassing ordinary occasions.

The King of Hanover.—A correspondent writes that his Majesty, while in conversation with a noble friend, expressed the determination, should Divine Providence spare him health, to visit this country again next summer, and he purposed then to come earlier in the season.

Visit of the Regent of Spain to Greenwich Hospital.—On Wednesday, about twelve o'clock, General Espartero paid a visit to the Royal Hospital at Greenwich.

Sir Robert Peel arrived in town by the London and Birmingham Railway on Saturday afternoon, from his seat, Drayton Manor, Staffordshire, and immediately proceeded from the Euston-square terminus to the residence of the Earl of Aberdeen, in Argyll street, to pay a visit to his lordship. Soon, after the arrival of the Right Hon. Baronet, Sir James Graham arrived in Argyll street from the Home office, and had an interview with Sir Robert Peel.

Sir R. Peel left his colleagues at a quarter-past four o'clock for the terminus at London bridge, and travelled by the London and Brighton Railway to Brighton, to dine with her Majesty and Prince Albert, remaining at the Pavilion, on a visit to her Majesty.


Manchester Musical Festival.—This great festival—one of the greatest and finest musical events that ever occurred in Manchester—was held in the magnificent hall of the Anti-Corn-law League, the length of which is 135 feet, the breadth 102 feet, inclosing an area of about 14,000 square feet. The services of all our principal vocal artists were secured. The soprani were Miss Clara Novello and Miss Rainforth; the alto or mezzo soprano, Mrs Alfred Shaw; the tenori, Mr Braham and Mr James Bennett; and the basso, Mr Henry Phillips. The choir was the most complete and efficient one ever collected in Manchester, and consisted of nearly the whole of the vocal members of the Manchester Choral Society and the Hargreaves Choral Society, with some valuable additions from the choirs of Bury and other neighbouring towns, and from gentlemen amateurs, conversant with Handel. The Messiah was the performance of Monday night; and, on the whole, was executed in a style worthy of that great work of art, the conductor being Sir Henry Bishop, who wore his robes as a musical bachelor of the University of Oxford. On Tuesday there was a grand miscellaneous concert, the hall being even more numerously attended than on the preceding evening, there not being fewer than 3,500 persons present. This went off with very great satisfaction to the very numerous auditory; and the Manchester Guardian says, "As to the general impression produced by this festival, we believe we do not err in saying that there is but one opinion,—that it has been throughout an eminently successful experiment. Sir Henry Bishop, we understand, said that he never heard choruses sung with better effect in his life; and that he considered the festival, as a musical performance, most creditable to every one connected with it. As to the capabilities of the hall for singing, we are informed that Miss Clara Novello has declared that she never sang with more ease in any place in her life; and we think the ease with which she did sing was obvious to all who could see her countenance. We have asked many persons who sat in different parts of the hall, especially in distant corners, and all concur in saying that they heard most distinctly Miss Novello's softest and faintest notes."

Musical Intelligence.—Rubini is about to establish an opera at St Petersburg, and has engaged his old colleague, Tamburini, to assist him in the enterprize. He has also engaged Signor Pisani, a young tenor of great promise. Lablache will not appear at the opening of the Italian Opera in Paris. He has gone to Naples, where he will remain for two months, and where he is to be joined by his son-in-law, Thalberg. A grand musical festival, which was to have taken place in Paris on Thursday next, has been postponed till the beginning of October. It is said that this festival will rival those of Germany in splendour.

The Hereford Musical Festival, which was held on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, in All Saints Church, in consequence of the repairs going[Pg 37] on at the cathedral, was on a much smaller scale than of late years has been usual with the three choirs, and the attendances at the various performances were by no means so numerous as had been generally expected; still, as the expenses had been studiously kept down, it is to be hoped the receipts may cover them, or nearly so. The collections after the three services amounted to 865l., being 200l. less than in 1840, but 50l. more than in 1837.—Cheltenham Looker-on.

Rossini has just left Paris without its having been possible to procure a note from him. Every effort has been fruitless. Unwilling to hear one word said of music, Rossini has not even been to the Opera. He is returning to Bologna, cured of a painful disease by Doctor Civiale, who, with reason, seemed to him a far more important personage than Duprez. It is said that Rossini replied to the great tenor, who asked him for a part, "I have come too early, and you too late."—French print.


The Aldermanic Gown of Bread-street Ward.—It is supposed that there will be a hard contest for the Aldermanic Gown of Bread street, vacant by the resignation of Alderman Lainson, who on Thursday last addressed a letter to the Lord Mayor, announcing his determination to retire, in consequence of ill health.

Metropolitan Improvements.—The works are now about to commence in good earnest for forming Victoria Park. Great progress is being made by the Commissioners of the Metropolis Improvements in the formation of the new street at the West-end. The new street leading from Oxford street to Holborn has been marked out by the erection of poles along the line. Last week several houses were disposed of by auction, for the purpose of being taken down. Some delay has arisen in respect to the purchase of the houses which have formed the locality known as Little Ireland. Among the buildings to be removed is the chapel situated at the top of Plumtree street. In this street the whole of the houses on the west side will be shortly removed, for the new street which will lead from Waterloo bridge. In Belton street, in the line for this intended street, the inmates of several houses received notice to quit yesterday. The occupiers of the several houses forming the clump at the end of Monmouth street, in Holborn, have also received similar notices. Similar progress has been made with the new street communicating between Coventry street and Long acre. The line has been cleared from Castle street to Long Acre on the east. On the west side the inmates of the houses, it is expected, will in a few days have notice to quit. Improvements will also be made between Long acre and St Giles's; and in Upper St Martin's lane the whole of the houses on the west side will be removed, the greater part of which are already taken down.

Report on the Model Prison.—The commissioners appointed to superintend the management of the Pentonville Prison have just presented their report for the approval of the Secretary of State. The report states, that it is the intention of the Secretary of State to appropriate the prison to the reception of convicts between eighteen and thirty-five years, under sentence of transportation not exceeding fifteen years; and that the convicts so selected shall undergo a term of probationary discipline for eighteen months in the prison, when they will be removed to Van Diemen's land under their original sentences.

Returns of the Royal Mint.—The Master of the Mint has issued his annual return of the work done in the refinery of the Mint, and of the assays made during the past year on other accounts than those of Government, and of public and private bodies, in conformity with an order of the house on a motion made by Mr Hume. The return estimates the amount of bullion refined in the year 1842, under this head, at 940 lbs 0 oz. 19 dwts. of gold, and 24,376 lbs. 11 oz. of silver, the amount received by the refiner being about 600l. The number of assays made in the same period is put down at 2,158, at a rate of charge of 2s. for each assay.

Post-office Law.—It may be interesting at this season, when so many persons who are out of town have their letters forwarded to them in the country, to see the answer to an inquiry whether a letter forwarded after delivery at one address to another in the country is liable to second postage:—"General Post office, Sept. 7, 1843.—Sir,—I am commanded by the Postmaster-General to inform you, in reply to your communication of the 29th ultimo, that a letter re-directed from one place to another is legally liable to additional postage for the further service. I am, Sir, &c. &c."

Singular Employment of the Police.—Under an order recently issued by the commissioners of the metropolitan police, a number of the officers of each division have been actively engaged in collecting information and making out a return of all new houses completed since the year 1830, in which year the police force was established; all new houses commenced but not finished; all new churches, new chapels, new schools, and other public buildings; all new streets and squares formed since that period, with their names and the name of the neighbourhood.


Sanitary State of Liverpool.—A Mr Henry Laxton has published a very thin pamphlet, in the shape of a letter to Dr Lyon Playfair, who has been appointed, under the commission of inquiry, to examine and report upon the unhealthy state of Liverpool. But though Mr Laxton's pamphlet is very small, it exposes evils too complicated and large to be remedied without vigorous, continuous, steadily-applied exertion. Groups of houses packed together, with scarcely room for the inhabitants to stir; open cesspools continually sending up their poisonous exhalations, and in hot or wet weather so infesting the air as to render it almost insupportable; smoke from the factories and steam-vessels, which, when the wind is westerly, covers the town, blackening the buildings, soiling goods, and, mixing with the other gases already generated, forming one general conglomeration of deleterious vapours; the state of the inhabited cellars; the neighbourhood of which exhibits scenes of barbarism disgraceful for any civilised state to allow; an inefficient supply of that great necessity of life—water; inefficient drainage, which is only adapted to carry off the surface water;—these are but a sample of the general state of Liverpool, and at the same time very distinct and efficient causes of its excessive mortality.

Sheffield.—It is now understood that there will be no immediate vacancy for Sheffield, and that both Mr Ward and Mr Parker will retain their seats.

Henry Damar, Esq.—The Dorset Chronicle publishes a long account of the festivities which took place at Milton Abbey, in Dorsetshire, on the 5th instant, on the occasion of the coming of age of the proprietor, Henry Damar, Esq.

Proposed Public Meeting in Birmingham.—On Monday a deputation waited on the Mayor of Birmingham, with the requisition requesting him to call a public meeting to petition the Queen to dismiss her present ministers. The requisition was signed by nearly one thousand merchants, manufacturers, and shopkeepers of the town. There was not the name of a working man attached to it. The mayor, however, declined calling the meeting, observing, that although he might not act in accordance with the wishes of many most respectable individuals in the town, he had made up his mind not to call the meeting.

Attendance of the Lancashire Members of the House of Commons in the Session of 1843.—The total number of divisions in the House of Commons, during the session of 1843, was 220, in which there voted—

1. Joseph Brotherton Salford 191
2. Dr Bowring Bolton 153
3. Lord Stanley N. Lancashire 129
4. William Sharman Crawford Rochdale 120
5. Thomas Greene Lancaster 102
6. Charles Hindley Ashton 92
7. Sir Howard Douglas Liverpool 88
8. John Wilson Patten N. Lancashire 82
9. John Ireland Blackburne Warrington 75
10. Viscount Sandon Liverpool 69
11. John Fielden Oldham 61
12. John Hornby Blackburn 61
13. Peter Greenal Wigan 60
14. Thomas Milner Gibson Manchester 56
15. Sir George Strickland Preston 53
16. Hon. Richard Bootle Wilbraham S. Lancashire 50
17. Edward Cardwell Clitheroe 47
18. William Fielden Blackburn 47
19. Peter Ainsworth Bolton 34
20. General Johnson Oldham 32
21. George Marton Lancaster 31
22. Mark Philips Manchester 26
23. Sir Peter Hesketh Fleetwood Preston 19
24. Richard Walker Bury 16
25. Lord Francis Egerton S. Lancashire 9
26. Charles Standish Wigan 9

Destructive Fire at Halifax.—We regret to learn that a fire broke out early on Saturday morning, in the warehouse of Messrs James Acroyd and Son, worsted manufacturers, Bowling Dyke, near Halifax, when the building, together with a large quantity of goods, was entirely destroyed. We understand that Messrs Acroyd were insured to the extent of six or seven thousand pounds, but that the loss considerably exceeds that amount.

Chester Cheese Fair.—At this fair on Wednesday last, the first of the season for this year's make, about 200 tons of new cheese were piled for sale. Early in the morning several dairies went off briskly, but as the day advanced sales became heavy. Prices ranged from 40s. to 50s. per cwt., according to quality. We hear that the make this season has been above an average one.

New College, near Oxford.—A correspondent states that it is intended to establish at Littlemore, near Oxford, a college, in which young men holding Tractarian views may be trained for missionary labour in connexion with the established church. The Right Rev. Dr Coleridge, formerly Bishop of Barbadoes, will be the principal of the institution.

Chatham.—A general Court-martial was held on Wednesday, the 6th inst., in the General Court-martial-room, Chatham Barracks, for the purpose of trying Lieutenant J. Piper, of the 26th Cameronian Regiment. The trial lasted four days, terminating on Saturday, the 9th inst. The charges alleged ungentlemanly and improper conduct. The prisoner's defence being closed, the Court broke up. The sentence of the Court will not be known until the evidence has been laid before the Commander-in-Chief at the Horse Guards. The prisoner is about 26 years of age. The trial excited the greatest interest throughout the garrison.

It is said that there are at present upwards of 2,000 visitors congregated at Harrogate; and all the other watering places in the north of England, Scarborough, Seaton, Carew, Redcar, Tynemouth, Shotley bridge, Gilsland, as well as the lakes, are teeming with gay and respectable company.


Repeal Association.—On Monday the usual weekly meeting of the Repeal Association was held at the Corn Exchange, Dublin. The week's "rent" amounted to 735l., of which 1l. was from Mr Baldwin, a paper manufacturer of Birmingham, who is of opinion that Ireland would be of greater benefit to England with a domestic legislature than she was at present.

Repeal Meetings.—A repeal meeting was held on Sunday last at Loughrea, a town in the county of Galway, about ninety miles from Dublin. It was attended by Mr O'Connell, who as it was raining in torrents, addressed the people from under the shelter of an umbrella. Amongst other things in his speech, he said,—"Believe me, my friends, that if you follow my advice, the day is not far distant when you shall have your Parliament restored in Ireland. I am working the plan out. I have it in detail. I will have this protective society of 300 sitting before Christmas, and I hope to be able to give you, as a new year's gift, a Parliament in College green. (Cheers.) People of Ireland, you deserve it. Brave, noble-minded people of Ireland, you deserve it. Faithful, religious, moral, temperate people of Ireland, you deserve to be a nation, and you shall be a nation. (Much cheering.) The Saxon stranger shall not rule you. Ireland shall belong to the Irish, and the Irish shall have Ireland." (Hurrah.) There was a dinner in the evening, at which about 400 persons were present.

Branding of Arms in Ireland.—Government has entered into a contract with Mr Grubb, the scientific and very able mechanist of the Bank of Ireland, for the construction of the machine intended to be used in marking the arms under the new law—they are not to be subjected to the operation of punching, still less, as some strangely supposed, to the notion of fire. The letters, or figures, will be marked by cutting; and, so simple and ingenious is the method employed, that the most unskilful workman, even an ordinary person unpractised in any trade, can effect the process with the most perfect ease. Four figures and two letters are expected to suffice for designating the county or riding of a county, and the number of the piece; the time occupied in the engraving will be one minute. The expense will be extremely moderate; the cost of each machine being, we understand, only twenty-five guineas, one-half of which, by law, will be defrayed out of the consolidated fund, the other half by the county.—Evening Mail.

Scene at the Phœnix Park.—An extraordinary scene took place on Saturday, at the Viceregal Lodge, between the military on duty and a person named Thomas Campbell, who is, it would appear, insane. Thomas Campbell, it appears, is a very powerful young man, about thirty years of age, and a native of the North road, Drogheda. At the lodge, in the Phœnix Park, he asked to see the Lord Lieutenant; but, being armed with a pitchfork and a hammer, he was not considered an eligible visitor, and after a desperate struggle with the guard, whom he kept at bay, he was knocked down and secured by a police constable.

[Pg 38]

The meeting of Tuesday of the Repeal Association, adjourned over from Monday, was enlivened by the presence of Mr O'Connell, without whom all its proceedings would be "stale, flat, and unprofitable." It again adjourned till Wednesday; and, on that day, Mr O'Connell read an address to the people of Great Britain, setting forth the grievances of the people of Ireland. After the reading of this document, which is long, and certainly ably drawn up, the association adjourned till Monday.

Military Defences.—Before the winter sets in every barrack in Ireland will be in a state of defence, fit to hold out against an insurgent assault. In fact, everything will be prepared, excepting the insurrectionary force; and certainly there does not at present appear to be much chance that the strength of the fortifications will be tested.

Repeal Demonstration in Liverpool.—Some days ago public announcements were made that two days' "demonstration" would be made in this town, in favour of the repeal of the union, and that Mr Daniel O'Connell, jun., youngest son of the Liberator, and one or two others of inferior note would attend. The meeting took place on Tuesday night last, in the Amphitheatre, which was crowded, by not less than between 3,000 and 4,000 persons. Shortly after the doors were opened it appeared evident that a considerable body of Orangemen were dispersed in different parts, from partial sounds of the "Kentish fire," and other circumstances. Mr O'Connell, and the gentlemen accompanying him, arrived about half-past seven, and the chair was taken by Mr James Lennon, who was described as an "Inspector of Repeal Wardens in Liverpool." He delivered a short speech in favour of repeal, during which he was repeatedly interrupted by the Orangemen, and some confusion followed.—Mr Fitzgerald moved the first resolution, which was supported by Mr Daniel O'Connell, jun. His retirement was the signal for the commencement of an uproar which almost defies description. There appeared an evident determination that the proceedings should be stopped; for fights commenced in different parts, many of the benches were torn up, and a sort of attack was made upon the stage by a few Orangemen who were in the pit. The police were very active in endeavouring to secure the assailants, several of whom were seriously hurt; and a few of them having been removed from the building, order was eventually restored, and, with a few trifling exceptions, it was preserved to the end of the proceedings.


The working of the measure of the past session, denominated the Church of Scotland Benefices Act, will soon be tested, and is now undergoing the ordeal of proof, in consequence of objections lodged by the parishioners of Banff, with the presbytery of Fordyce, against the presentation, induction, and translation of the Rev. George Henderson, now incumbent of the church and parish of Cullen, to the cure and pastoral charge of the church and parish of Banff.

The Rev. Mr Grant, formerly parochial minister of Banff, ceased to hold his status in the Established Church of Scotland, having signed the famous deed of secession, and voluntarily resigned his living with his brethren of the non-intrusion clergy. A large portion of his congregation left the establishment along with him, and a free church is now in course of being built for their accommodation. The patronage of the vacant benefice is in the gift of the Earl of Seafield. The Rev. Mr Henderson, of Cullen, has accepted the presentation to the parish church of Banff.

On the day appointed for "moderating on the call," very few names were given in, in favour of the presentee, and the presbytery having fixed a day for receiving objections, a series of reasons and objections was lodged in the hands of that reverend body, and published at length in the Aberdeen Herald, against proceeding with the collation of Mr Henderson. The objections are set forth under no less than fourteen different heads. "The approaches and manners" of the reverend gentleman are not considered such "as to attach and endear his congregation to him." He is reported to be subject "to an occasional exuberance of animal spirits, and at times to display a liveliness of manner and conversation which would be repugnant to the feelings of a large portion of the congregation of Banff." Others of the objections assert, that his illustrations in the pulpit do not bear upon his text—that his subjects are incoherent and ill deduced; and the reverend gentleman is also charged with being subject to a natural defect of utterance—a defect which it is said increases as he "extends his voice," which is of a "very harsh and grating description," and renders it difficult to hear or follow what he says in the church of Banff, which we are informed "is very large, and peculiarly constructed, with an unusually high pulpit, to suit the high galleries;" and moreover, "the said Rev. George Henderson is considered to be destitute of a musical ear, which prevents the correct modulation of his voice!"

Argyllshire Election.—- The election of a member of Parliament for the county of Argyll, in the room of Alexander Campbell, Esq., of Monzie, who has accepted the Chiltern Hundreds, took place at Inverary on Friday week. The Lord Advocate (Mr Duncan M'Neill), the only candidate in the field, was accompanied to the hustings by a great number of the county gentlemen; and no other candidate having been brought forward, a show of hands was consequently taken, which being perfectly unanimous, he was, of course, declared duly elected.—Glasgow Saturday Post.

The Speaker of the House of Commons, Mr Shaw Lefevre, has been on a visit at Glenquoich, the shooting quarters of Edward Ellice, Esq., M.P., in this county. The Right Hon. Edward Ellice, M.P. for Coventry, the Baron James de Rothschild, and other members of the Rothschild family, were also at Glenquoich.—Inverness Courrier.


The disturbances in Wales still continue, though the apprehension of some of the rioters who destroyed the Pontardulais gate has had some effect. The following distressing scene is reported in the Times:—

"Outrage in South Wales.—On the road from Llanelly to Pontardulais, and within five hundred yards of the latter place, is a turnpike-gate called Hendy gate. This gate was kept by an old woman upwards of seventy years of age, who has received frequent notices that if she did not leave the gate, her house should be burnt down. About three o'clock on Sunday morning, a party of ruffians set fire to the thatch of the toll-house. The old woman, on being awakened, ran into the road and to a neighbouring cottage within twenty yards of the toll-house, shouting to the people who lived in it, 'For God's sake to come out and help her to put out the fire; there was not much.' The occupier of this cottage, a stout able man, was afraid to go out, and begged the old woman to come into his cottage, which she refused, and went back to try and save some of her furniture. It appears her exclamation had been overheard, for the villains returned and set fire to the thatch again. The old woman then ran across the road, and shouted out, 'She knew them;' when the brutes fired at her, and shot her dead."

An inquest was held on the body of the unfortunate woman, and the jury returned the following astounding verdict:—"That the deceased died from the effusion of blood into the chest, which occasioned suffocation, but from what cause is to this jury unknown."

Meetings of the magistrates, in relation to the turnpike trusts, have been held, and measures taken to mitigate the heaviest tolls.



Louis Philippe has had a remarkable history; but it has been distinguished to an extraordinary degree by its vicissitudes, amongst which we must not forget his involuntary exile, and his residence in this country, where he lived for many years as Duke of Orleans. A worse man than his father it would be difficult to imagine. He was a vain, ambitious, and cowardly voluptuary, who gratified his personal passions at the expense of his sovereign and his country; but his son was reared in a different school, and to that accident, conjoined with a better nature, he probably owes the high position which he now occupies as a European monarch. Misfortune is a stern teacher, and its effects on Louis Philippe may be exemplified by a little story that was told of him and Lord Brougham some years ago:—"I am the most independent crowned head in Europe," said he, "and the best fitted for my office of all my brethren." The praise might be deserved, but it seemed strange to the ex-Chancellor that it should come from his own mouth—he, therefore, bowed assent, and muttered some complimentary phrases about his Majesty's judgment, firmness, and the like. "Pooh, pooh, my lord," he observed, laughing heartily, "I do not mean that—I do not mean that, but that I can—brush my own boots!" This was practical philosophy, and indicated a clear perception of the constitution of modern society, particularly on the part of one who is known to be by no means indifferent to the fortunes of his race. We believe, also, that Louis Philippe has been happy beyond most men of regal rank in the possession of an admirable woman for a wife, the present Queen of the French being, in all respects, a lady of superior intelligence and virtue; properties which are luckily confined to no condition of life, and to no country or creed. She has shared in all her husband's troubles during the last eventful forty years, and now adorns that throne which the exigencies of the times demanded that he should fill if the French monarchy was to be preserved. Her attention to her children has been unremitting, and the result is, that high though their position be, a more united household nowhere exists.


The Ministry has been on the point of dissolution. General Serrano, angered at the contempt shown to his denunciations and lists of conspirators, by the Home Minister, Caballero, gave in his resignation. General Serrano demanded the dismissal from Madrid of more suspected persons. Senors Olozaga and Cortina intervened, however, and made up the quarrel, ordering the Gazette to declare that the most perfect harmony reigned in the Cabinet. This the Gazette did. Mr Aston has demanded his audience of leave, and quits Madrid on the 15th.

Grenada has blotted the name of Martinez de la Rosa from its lists of candidates, though he had formerly been elected for that place. M. Toreno is expected at Madrid. Senor Olozaga sets out for Paris, to try and persuade Christina to be patient, for that her presence previous to the elections would rather militate against her party.

At Madrid the anniversary of the revolution of 1840, which drove Queen Christina from the Regency, was celebrated by a Te Deum, chanted in the church of San Isidro, on the 1st, and at which assisted the Ayuntamiento and provincial deputation.

Barcelona has been in open insurrection, and a sanguinary conflict commenced on the evening of the 3rd, which continued with intermissions till the 6th. Later intelligence stated that the town still held out. On the 8th the state of things at Barcelona was nearly the same.

One of the great accusations of MM. Prim, Olozaga, and the French party, against the Regent was, that instead of carrying Barcelona and other towns by storm, he fired upon them with muskets and with cannon. Generals Arbuthnot and Prim have pursued precisely the same course, and we see Montjuich again throwing bullets upon Barcelona, and with all this making no progress in its reduction.

Accounts from Barcelona of the 8th, mention that several mansions were damaged. Three cannon shots had traversed the apartments of the British Consul. Prim's own Volunteers of Reus had taken part against him, and many of the towns had declared for the Central Junta. A rural Junta of Prim's had been surprised at Sarria, and several of its members slain.

A Central Junta had been formed at Girona.

Madrid letters of the 5th state that Government were about to dismiss a great many superior officers and functionaries opposed to them. The partisans of Don Francisco have decidedly joined the Esparterists.


The Siècle says that Austria was much alarmed at the state of Italy. "The necessity which Austria finds to defend her Italian possessions by arms is highly favourable to the projects of Russia against the Danubian Provinces of the Ottoman empire."

The National German Gazette of the 8th instant states, that the fortifications of Verona are being considerably strengthened. The heights surrounding the town are to be crowned with towers à la Montalembert, so that the city will become one of the strongest fortresses in Italy. The Hungarian infantry, of which the greater part are cantoned in Upper Italy, are actively employed in the construction of the fortifications.


Constantinople, August 23.—Petroniewitch and Wulchitch have at length consented to leave Servia, and are probably at this time in Widin, on their way, it is said, to Constantinople. The province has been confided to the care of Baron Lieven and M. Vashenko, who are the actual governors. But the most important feature in the question is a note which the ex-Prince Michael has addressed to the Porte. He declares that the election of Alexander Kara Georgewitch was brought about by violence and intimidation, and that he and his ministers are the only faithful servants of the Porte, and, consequently, the only persons fit to govern Servia. It is generally believed that the Russians have been privy to this step, and that it is their intention to put forward Michael a second time in opposition to Alexander.

A daughter was born to the Sultan on the 17th. She has been named Jamileh, or the Beautiful. The event has been celebrated by the usual illuminations and rejoicings. The Sultan has been the father of nine children, seven of whom, two sons and five daughters, are now living.

[Pg 39]


It is said that a misunderstanding exists between Mehemet Pacha and his son Ibrahim, relative to the succession to the throne of Egypt; Mehemet proposing that Abbas Pacha, his grandson, should succeed after the death of Ibrahim, whilst the latter would wish his own son to succeed him.


Arrival of the "Hibernia" at Liverpool, on Wednesday.—Great interest has been excited here for some days past respecting the voyage of the Great Western and the Hibernia, the former leaving New York on the 31st ult., and the latter, Boston on the 1st. The betting has been in favour of the Hibernia, and she has again beaten her great rival. On Tuesday, at midnight, her lights were seen off the port, and at one o'clock she entered the river, after another rapid passage of nine days from Halifax, and eleven from Boston. The news by this arrival is from New York to the 31st, Boston to the 1st, and Halifax to the 3rd; sixteen days later than previously received by the New York packet ship, Liverpool.

The New York American, in its summary for the packet, says:—Our commercial and money markets continue without sensible change, both abounding in supply without any corresponding demand. The trade of the interior is prosecuted cautiously, and for money in hand.

Political affairs are exceedingly dull and uninteresting; even the Irish repeal speakers are quiet.

The progress of the pacification between Mexico and Texas, and Mexico and Yucatan, is slow and somewhat uncertain. The president of Texas, General Houston, has dismissed Commodore Moore and Captain Sothorp from the naval service for disobedience of orders. Indeed, the Texan navy may be said to have been disbanded. The people of Galveston thereupon gave Moore a public dinner, and burnt their president in effigy! The Mexican government has formally complained to the United States minister at Mexico, of the inroads of certain citizens of Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas, into the Mexican territory. Advices from Buenos Ayres to the end of June, describe Monte Video as still holding out; and it was reported in Buenos Ayres that the British commodore would at length allow Commodore Brown, the Buenos Ayrean commander, to prosecute the siege of Monte Video by sea, in conjunction with Oribe by land.

A new constitution has been agreed upon by the republic of Ecuador, establishing the Roman Catholic religion as the state religion, "to the exclusion of all other worship," and the Bishop of Quito, in an address to which the people responded favourably, proposed that "ecclesiastics should be henceforth made sole judges in all questions of faith; and be invested with all the powers of the extinct tribunal of the Inquisition!" The bishop then published a "Pastoral Lecter," to "make known the glad tidings." And yet the people of Ecuador, without religious freedom, call their country a free republic!

Philadelphia.—The President has returned from his country seat to Washington, and although some alterations in the cabinet are spoken of, still the results of the August elections, showing that a majority in the United States Senate will be Whig, have produced a pause in the contemplated changes. Indeed, people are beginning to complain, and not without reason, of such frequent changes in important offices. For example, within three years there have been three Secretaries of State, three of War, three of the Treasury, three of the Navy, three Attorneys-General, and three Postmasters-General. Some of them have really not had time to learn their duties, and they have been succeeded by others who knew still less of the duties and responsibilities of office.


Sir C. Metcalfe has returned to the seat of his government at Montreal. The emigrants from Great Britain arrived this season at Quebec, up to the 19th ult., were 18,131; same time last year, 38,159. A few days ago, a party of Irish labourers, who had received, as they supposed, some offence from a few Canadians, at Beauharnois, attacked and nearly killed two respectable old inhabitants, who had nothing to do with the affair. Another great fire at Toronto has burnt about twenty houses; and the Methodist meeting at Waterloo has been burnt down by some incendiary. The crops in both the Canadas are abundant. American coarse cottons are sold there in great quantities, at a lower price than European goods of the same class.

Arrival of the Emperor of Russia at Berlin.—The Emperor of Russia arrived on the 6th instant at Berlin.

The Disturbances at Bologna.—A letter from Bologna, September 2, in the Debats, says:—"Notwithstanding the nomination of a military commission, and the display of numerous forces, some armed bands have again appeared, as is reported, in our province. One was commanded by a priest at Castel-Bolognese (district of Ravenna). This state of things does injury to trade and business of every description. The greatest number of depositors have withdrawn their funds from the savings' banks. A circular has been sent round to all the mayors of the province, giving a description of eight persons, for the arrest of each of whom a sum of 300 crowns (1,700f.) is offered."


Emigration during the last Seventeen Years.—From a return furnished by the Emigration Board, it appears that the number of emigrants from England and Wales, in the seven years from 1825 to 1831, were 103,218, or an average of 14,745 yearly; in the ten years from 1832 to 1841, 429,775, or 42,977 per annum. Total number in the last seventeen years, 532,993; or an average for that period of 31,352. But the rate of emigration has greatly increased of late years, as is shown by the fact, that while the emigration of the seven years ending 1831 averaged only 14,745 per annum, that of the last ten years (ending 1841) averaged nearly 43,000 per annum.

New South Wales.—The monetary and commercial disasters which have afflicted this important colony are most serious, and they are thus alluded to by the colonial press:—"Our next mail to England will carry home the tidings of fresh disasters to this once flourishing colony. The fast growing embarrassments of 1841, and the 600 insolvencies of 1842, have been crowned in the first third of the year 1843, by the explosion of the Bank of Australia, then by the minor explosion of the Sydney Bank, and, last of all, by the run on the Savings Bank. These three latter calamities have come in such rapid succession, that before men's minds recovered from the stunning effect of one shock, they were astounded by the sudden burst of another; and we are convinced that at the present moment there is a deeper despondency and a more harrowing anticipation of ruin to the colony than ever existed before since the landing of Governor Philip, in 1788."—The run upon the Savings Bank at Sydney originated, it is said, from malice against Mr George Miller, the accountant, whose exertions had been very useful in exposing the mismanagement of the Bank of Australasia. Reports were circulated that the Governor had gone suddenly down to the Savings Bank and demanded a sight of all the bills under discount and mortgages, and that his Excellency declared that he would not give three straws for all the securities put together; but this statement regarding his Excellency is flatly contradicted. Many of the largest holders of land and stock in the colony are said to be so irretrievably embarrassed, by reason chiefly of the high prices at which their investments were made, that their property must go to the hammer without reserve. The present time is, therefore, held out as a favourable opportunity for emigrants, with moderate capital, to make their purchases. It is broadly declared that 500l. would go as far now in New South Wales, in the purchase of land and live stock, as would 5,000l. four or five years ago.

Australia has been, in some respects, unlucky in its colonization. New South Wales has hitherto flourished from its abundant supply of convict labour, at the expense of those higher interests which constitute the true strength and security of a state. Western Australia was planted with a sound of trumpets and drums, as if another El Dorado were expected. But the sudden disaster and discredit into which it fell, linked the name of Swan River with associations as obnoxious as those which were once inspired by the South Sea or Missisippi. South Australia, again, planned on principles which are universally recognised as containing the elements of sound and successful colonization, has also proved a failure. One of the newest and most enterprising of our Australian settlements, that of Port Philip has been sharing with Sydney in the recent commercial distress and calamity; and though it is already getting over its troubles, it must undergo a painful process before it can lay an unquestioned claim to its title—Australia Felix. Land jobbing; banking facilities at one time freely afforded, and at another suddenly withdrawn; ventures beyond the means of those engaged in them; imprudent speculations, in which useful capital was either rashly risked or hopelessly sunk—these unquestionably have been amongst the causes which have brought on the commercial disasters of New South Wales. It is seldom advantageous for an emigrant, newly arrived, to become a proprietor of land in any part of Australia, unless his capital be considerable; but the eager desire to become possessed of the soil overcame all prudential considerations; land at Port Philip was eagerly bought, at prices varying from 12s. to 500l. In 1840 the influx of moneyed immigrants from England and Van Diemen's Land, to a newly-discovered and extensive territory, produced a land fund exceeding the sum of 300,000l., and engagements were entered into by the colonial Government, on the faith that the land fund would produce annually a large amount, but in 1841 it fell down to 81,000l.; and though in 1842 as much as 343l. 10s. per acre was given for building ground in the town of Brisbane, district of Moreton Bay, it was impossible for this to continue; and even for valuable lands in the neighbourhood of Sydney, in the very same year, wholly inadequate prices were obtained. The colonial Government became embarrassed by the expenditure exceeding the revenue; and in 1842, Sir George Gipps, in an official despatch, says, "Pecuniary distress, I regret to state, still exists to a very great, and even perhaps an increased, degree in the colony, though it at present shows itself more among the settlers (agriculturists or graziers) than the merchants of Sydney. When, however, I consider the vast extent to which persons of the former class are paying interest, at the rate of from 10 to 15 per cent., on borrowed money, I can neither wonder at their embarrassments, nor hope to see an end to them, except by the transfer of a large portion of the property in the colony from the present nominal holders of it to other hands, that is to say, into the hands of their mortgagees or creditors, who, in great part, are resident in England." This official prophecy is now in the act of fulfilment; and when the storm has spent itself, the colony may be prosperous again.

Cape of Good Hope.—The want of Government protection which is felt by the British resident at the Cape of Good Hope is well illustrated by the following extract from a letter addressed by the writer to his family at home:—"I am sure I shall be able to get on well in this country if the Caffres are only prevented from doing mischief, but if they go on in the present way, I shall not be able to keep a horse or an ox, both of which are indispensable to a farmer. Now I can never assure myself that when I let my horses go I shall see them again. It is a disgrace to our Government that we are not protected. As it is, all our profits may be swept away in one night by the marauders."

New Zealand.—We understand a box of specie was placed on board the Thomas Sparkes, in charge of the captain, for Mr Chetham. On the owner opening the box, he discovered to his great surprise that, by some unaccountable process on the voyage, the money—gold, had been turned into one of the baser metals—iron. It is stated that the steward left at Plymouth, and the first and second mates whilst the vessel was detained at the Cape, but whether they had any agency in the transmogrification of gold into iron remains to be proved.—New Zealand Gazette, Feb. 4, 1843.


The Abortive Commercial Negotiations with Spain.—Senor Sanchez Silva, known for his speeches in the Cortes, as deputy for Cadiz, has published, in an address to his constituents, an account of the negotiations between the Spanish and British Governments relative to a treaty of commerce. The effect of this publication will be to undeceive the minds of Spaniards from the idea that the Regent's Government was about to sacrifice the interests of Spain, or even of Catalonia, to England. The terms proposed by the Spanish commissioner were, indeed, those rather of hard bargainers than of men eager and anxious for a commercial arrangement. Senor Silva says that England, in its first proposals, demanded that its cottons should be admitted into Spain on paying a duty of 20 per cent., England offering in return to diminish its duties on Spanish wines, brandies, and dried fruits. But England, which offered in 1838 to reduce by one-third its duty on French wines, did not make such advantageous offers to Spain; and the Spanish negotiators demanded that 20 per cent. ad valorem should be the limit of the import duty of Spanish wines and brandies into England, as it was to be the limit of the duty on English cottons into Spain. This demand nearly broke off the negotiation, when Spain made new proposals; these were to admit English cottons at from 20 to 25 per cent. ad valorem duty, if England would admit Spanish brandies at 50 per cent. ad valorem duty, sherry wines at 40 per cent., and other wines at 30 per cent., exclusive of the excise. Moreover, that tobacco should be prohibited from coming to Gibraltar, except what was necessary for the wants of the garrison. The English Government, in a note dated last month, declared the Spanish proposals inadmissible. If the Spanish Government did not admit the other articles of English produce, the duty on Spanish wines could not be reduced. English cottons were an object of necessity for the Spanish people, and came in by contraband; whereas Spanish wines were but an article of luxury for the English. Senor Sanchez Silva concludes, that it is quite useless to renew the negotiations, the English note being couched in the terms of an ultimatum.

[Pg 40]


London, September 13, 1843.

Sir,—I have read your preliminary number and prospectus, and the first number of your new periodical, the Economist, and it gives me pleasure to see the appearance of so able an advocate of free trade, the carrying out the principles of which is so necessary for the future welfare and prosperity of the country, and the relief of the distress which is more or less felt in all the different departments of industry.

I belong to the class who have their sole dependence in the land, and have no direct interest in trade or manufactures; and feel as strong a wish for the prosperity of agriculture as the Duke of Buckingham, or any other of the farmer's friends; but I consider the interests of all classes of the community so intimately connected, and so mutually dependent on one another, that no one can rise or prosper upon the ruins of the others. Like your Northumberland correspondent I am fully convinced of the impolicy and inefficiency of "restrictive corn laws," and of the benefit of "the free-trade system" for the relief of the agricultural, as well as of the manufacturing, the shipping, or any other interest in the country; and I should also be glad if I could in any way assist "in dispelling the errors respecting the corn trade that have done so much harm for the last twenty (eight) years."

The intention of the corn law of 1815 was to prevent the price of wheat from falling below 80s. per quarter; and it was the opinion of farmers who were examined on the subject, that less than 80s. or 90s. would not remunerate the grower, and that if the price fell under these rates, the wheat soils would be thrown out of cultivation. Prices, however, fell, and though they have fallen to one half, land has not been thrown out of cultivation. Various modifications have since been made in the scale of duties, but always with a view to arrest the falling prices in their downward course; but all these legislative attempts have been in vain; and so far as the farmer trusted to them, they have only misled him by holding out expectations that have not been realized.

But though the corn laws failed in keeping up the price of corn as high as their framers and supporters wished, they succeeded so far as to enhance the price of this first necessary of life, and make it perhaps 20 or 30 per cent. dearer than it otherwise would have been to all the consumers, even the poorest tradesman or labourer in the country.

If the difference which the agriculturists were enabled, by this monopoly, to obtain at the expense of the other classes, had all been pure gain, without any drawback, they must have been in a comparatively flourishing condition; but we find this is not the case, and what is the reason? Let us hear Sir Robert Peel's answer to the question. In his speech in parliament on Mr Villiers's motion, when replying to the accusations that had been made by Mr Blackstone and other members on his own side of the house, that he had deceived the agriculturists, as the Government measures, instead of affording them the protection that was promised, had brought down prices and rendered their situation worse than before, Sir Robert says, it was not the Government measures that had brought down prices and occasioned the agricultural distress, but that this arose from the condition of the manufacturing districts, and the general distress from bad trade and want of employment, which rendered the people unable to consume.

If this, then, is the true cause of the agricultural distress,—if the corn, sugar, and other monopolies are so injurious to the manufacturing and commercial classes, who are the agriculturists' best, and, indeed, their only customers, as to render them unable to consume, it is not to class legislation that we can look for relief. In order to relieve the agricultural distress there is no other way than to relieve the distress of those on whom they depend for a market for their productions.

Were the farmer (or rather the landed proprietor) to gain all that the consumer loses by the corn monopoly,—if it were only taking from one, and giving to another—without any national loss; though this of itself would be bad enough,—it is perhaps the smallest part of the loss which the manufacturer sustains; for the same law which hinders him from going to the best and cheapest market to purchase his food, at the same time necessarily excludes him from a market for the produce of his industry; and by diminishing the demand for his labour, lowers his wages or throws him out of employment.

But one abuse leads to another. Those who are interested in the corn monopoly, or think themselves so, cannot well oppose the sugar monopoly while they require the aid of the West India planters to enable them to obtain this advantage at their country's expense; and so it is with all the other monopolists, they naturally unite together, and it requires their mutual aid and all their combined power and influence to preserve a system which they know stands upon rather an insecure foundation, and if once broken in upon would soon fall to pieces; and thus it is that we are subjected to the sugar monopoly, and though it is manifestly our interest to buy this important necessary of life (as well as every other) in any quarter of the globe where we can find it best and cheapest, we are restricted to a small portion of the earth's surface, and have to pay a third part more than we might obtain the article for without any loss to the revenue. By this narrow-minded system of buying, we deprive ourselves of valuable markets for our manufactures, as you have shown is likely to be the case with the Brazils on the expiry of the commercial treaty with that country if the matter is left in the hands of Ministers, "and no effort made to avert so great an evil." The agriculturists have to pay directly for this monopoly in common with all the other classes in the addition to the price of the sugar they consume; but the manufacturers suffer the still greater disadvantage of having the market for the produce of their labour narrowed, and thus the agriculturist will also suffer indirectly by their customers being thereby still farther disabled to consume.

But these and all other monopolies and restrictions in trade not only lessen the demand for our manufactures abroad, but they diminish the consumption at home, to an extent greater perhaps than we are aware of; for there can be no doubt that the more the consumer has to pay for his bread, sugar, and other articles of food, the less he will have to spare for cottons, woollens, and other manufactured commodities. The demand for his labour is thus lessened both at home and abroad. The weaver of cloth may be unable to obtain a coat even of his own manufacture, however necessary it may be for his health and comfort; he must have food, in the first place, being more indispensibly necessary to his existence,—no doubt he may have to content himself with a less quantity than he could have wished, and have to substitute oatmeal and potatoes, or some other inferior food for wheaten bread and butchers meat; still, it is less in his power to curtail the consumption of agricultural produce than of manufactures, so that the manufacturing classes suffer from the general distress which renders the people unable to consume in a greater degree than the agriculturist.



Darlaston, September 8, 1843.

Sir,—Twelve months ago the editor of the Morning Chronicle allowed a letter of mine, referring to the distress then prevailing in this town, to appear in that journal; in it I stated that for our annual wake only twenty-four cows had been killed, when but a few years previously ninety-four had been slaughtered on a similar occasion. Perhaps you will permit me to state in your columns that this year the festival, in this particular, has afforded as melancholy and unquestionable proof of distress as the last, while it bore other evidence, which though trivial in itself, is not unworthy of notice. Last year two theatrical shows visited us, displaying their "Red Barn" tragedies, and illuminated ghosts, at threepence per head, at which they did well; as also did a tremendous giantess, a monstrously fat boy, and several other "wonderful works of nature:" this year only one show of any description attended, and that, with kings and queens, and clowns, as well dressed and efficient, and ghosts, as white and awe-inspiring as ever paraded before an audience, has reaped but an indifferent harvest at the "low charge of one penny each;" while the swing boats and wood horses, patronized with such glee by the miniature men and women attending and enjoying wakes and fairs, only worked half time. The physical-force majority in the House, and their aiders and abettors, were they to see this, would perhaps laugh at the petty details, but their doing so would not in the least detract from their truth, or render questionable for a moment the deductions I make from them,—that poverty is so wide spread and bitter that the poor are compelled to make a stern sacrifice of innocent amusements; that the parent cannot exercise the holiest affections of his nature, by adding to the pleasures of his lisping little ones; that the landowners' corn law, by its paralyzing influence, is rapidly withering the great mass of the industry of the country into idle, dispiriting pauperism.

From inquiries I have made I learn that through the country generally the wakes, and fairs, and races, have presented similar features to those I have described above, so far as money goes. And in face of the distress, of which these things bear glaring witness, the Prime Minister says "that the distress has been produced by over-production." Can Sir Robert be serious when he talks of "over-production?" If he be, and will condescend to honour me with a visit during his stay at Drayton Manor, which is only a short drive of sixteen miles from here, I will show him that the opinion is fallacious. He shall dispense with his carriage for a short time, and I will walk him through all the streets of Darlaston, Wednesbury, Willenhall, Bilstow, &c., and, forsaking the thoroughfares frequented by the gay and well-to-do, he shall visit the back streets—in which carriage passengers never deign to go—of Birmingham, Wolverhampton, and Walsall, and what he will witness in the course of the short ramble will "change the spirit of his dream." In Darlaston, as a sample of what he would see, there are hundreds of men and women whose clothes, made of the coarsest materials, are patched, and threadbare, and valueless; hundreds of houses without anything in them deserving the name of furniture; hundreds of beds without clothing, and hundreds of children whose excuses for clothes are barely sufficient, with every contrivance decent poverty can suggest, to cover the body as civilized society demands. In the towns I have enumerated, in fact, if the least reliance may be placed in newspaper reports, in every town and village in the country the same want prevails to a much greater extent than can be conceived by such as Sir Robert, "who fare sumptuously every day,"—aye, even to a much greater extent than is generally supposed by the above-want dwellers in large towns whom business may frequently bring in contact with those who toil. With the millions, then, who in this country must be next to naked, without furniture in their houses, without clothes to cover their straw beds, is it not the nonsense of nonsense to talk of "over-production." Enable these men to satisfy the wants of themselves and families, enable them to make their homes comfortable, and that alone would find employment for a goodly number, while those so employed would also be enabled to purchase the articles others are engaged in manufacturing. To produce so desirable a result, nothing is wanted but FREE TRADE repeal the corn and provision laws, and the shadow of "over production" could not exist: in three months there is not a man in the kingdom who would not have full work. And when we had supplied the physical wants of our population (a greater task than it appears at the first view), we should have introduced from every corner of the world the luxuries which refine civilization; the artisan building himself a house would then make it more comfortable and healthy, with wood floors, carpets, better furniture, &c.; and the master manufacturer erecting a house would have marble stairs and floor in his entrance hall, doors, &c. of mahogany, furniture, of rarer woods, and ornaments of marble, paintings, plate glass, &c.; and when all these things were procured, "over-production" would be still as far behind us as during their acquisition, as we would then work but three days a week instead of six, as with so much labour we should be able to procure the necessaries and luxuries of life.

And all nations would be compelled to minister to our real and created wants, for England is the only nation in the world incapable of internally supplying its inhabitants with food, and therefore, under Free Trade, has the command of the markets of the whole world. Then the English merchant going to, say America, to dispose of manufactures need not fear the merchant of France, Belgium, Germany, &c., he may meet there with similar goods; for the American asking each what he requires for the articles offered, is told by the former, "I will take your surplus corn in exchange, we want every year from six to ten millions of quarters;" and this latter answers, "We have more corn at home of our own growth than we can consume, I must have cash;" the American, preferring barter, will turn on his heel and trade with the Englishman; the unsuccessful applicant takes back his goods, or visits the market no more, and confines his future operations to the home supply of his own country, which in a short time, from competition and want of a foreign outlet, fail to realise a remunerating profit; trade is gradually relinquished; the people turn again to the more extensive cultivation of the land, and England obtains another customer. This is no "castle building," if there be the least affinity between the results of great things and small ones. If a grocer want a coat he will have it from the tailor who will take sugar and tea in payment, in preference to patronising one who requires pounds shillings and pence, and the owners of land in all countries will take right good care that they derive some sort of revenue from their possessions. I say, I think my premises are no "castle buildings;" neither do I think I am indulging in aerial erections when I predict that, under Free Trade, England, with her capital, and energy, and enterprise, would shortly become the world's granary, profitably supplying from her accumulated stores the deficiencies resulting from bad harvests, or other casualties of her continental neighbours.

Your obedient Servant,

We are much obliged to J. Livesay, of Preston, for his suggestion, which, however, if he compare the Economist with other weekly papers he will perceive to be unnecessary. We presume we are indebted to Mr Livesay for copies forwarded of his excellent little paper the Struggle.

R.B., Bristol.—From the great press of room last week we were obliged to omit everything that did not appear of very pressing haste. In the Preliminary Number we have used no statistics but such as we have derived from official sources, and we shall always be glad to give the authority on which any statistical statement is made. The statement of the quantity of sugar exported from Java and Madeira, page 10 of the Preliminary Number, will be found in Part VIII, 1838, page 408, of the Tables of Population, Revenue, Commerce, &c., presented by the Board of Trade to both Houses of Parliament, from 1826 to 1837;—and the quantities, from 1837 to 1841, are derived from the Dutch official accounts.

H.H., S—— court, London.—The returns showing the quantity of flax imported up to the 5th of August, viz., 774,659 cwts., are official, but do not[Pg 41] distinguish the ports from which it was shipped. The latest year for which such distinction has been made to this time is for the year 1841; for which, or any preceding year back to 1832, we shall be glad to furnish the particulars: for example, in 1840 the imports of flax and tow were—from

Russia 870,401
Denmark 1,094
Prussia 135,590
Germany 8,105
Holland 113,108
Belgium 80,748
France 43,295
Gibraltar 19
Italy and the Italian Islands 746
The Morea 3
Turkey 107
Egypt 12
United States 1
Guernsey, &c. 11
Total - 1,253,240

C.D.F.——, near Rochdale.—The question connected with the New Customs Amendment Bill has engaged our best attention, but its investigation has raised two or three very nice points of international law, on which we are now taking the best opinion which can be obtained, and before our next number we shall be able to give a reply as satisfactory as can possibly be obtained from any quarter on this important but very nice question. We have now before us the whole of the particulars of the treaties in question, but we wish to make our reply valuable by giving the best legal construction on some disputable points. This, however, is only another of those daily evidences which we have of the absurdity and inconvenience of a great commercial country like this attempting to regulate its laws and transactions by treaties, which, however convenient they may be when made, may, by the ordinary course of events, be rapidly changed.


LONDON, Saturday Morning, September 16, 1843.

Stock Exchange, Half-past Eleven o'Clock.

There is little or no variation in English Stock: Mexican, which left off yesterday at 3558 to 78, is now 3334 to 34. Brazilian, which left at 73 to 75, is now 74 to 76. In other Foreign Stocks there is no alteration worth notice.

Liverpool, Friday Evening, September 15, 1843.

An active demand has been constantly kept up all the week, and a large business has been done daily. So far, however, it has been freely met by the holders; and the speculators and spinners have had an abundant choice of all qualities.

In American descriptions there is but little change in prices; the tendency, has been and still is in favour of holders; and it has been thought necessary to raise the quotations of "fair" Uplands and Mobile to 4-78d.; but there is so little actual change, that for the most part, the quotations remain as before. Brazils, Egyptian, and long stapled generally, have been more in demand, and may be considered 18d. higher. Sea Islands also within the fortnight are 12d. higher, making an advance in the ordinary to fair qualities from the very lowest point of 112d. to 2d. per lb.

A considerable part of the speculative business of this week has been prompted by the accounts from the United States, brought by the Hibernia and Great Western, the tenor of which is to confirm the previous impression as to short crops.

19,800 American, 100 Egyptian, and 300 Surat have been taken on speculation; and 1,000 American, 300 Pernam, and 200 Surat for export.

The following is the Statistical Review of our Cotton Market:—

Taken for Consumption:
from 1st Jan. to 15th Sept.
for Export: whole Import:
1842. 1843. 1842. 1843. 1842. 1843.
794,500 bales. 946,500 bls. 66,500 bls. 65,900 bls. 1,024,141 bls. 1,401,278 bls.
Computed Stock.
15th Sept.
Average weekly consumption.
1st Jan. to 15th Sept.
1842. 1843. 1842. 1843.
593,000 bls. 834,000 bls. 21,556 bls. 25,689 bls.

For Sugar there is rather more inquiry, at steady prices.—Coffee; the sales of plantation trivial without change of price.—Indigo, price firm at the advance of 3d. to 4d., established at public sale yesterday.—Tea; the market remains rather firm, and a moderate business has been done at previous rates. In other articles of produce a fair amount of business has been done, without any particular features to remark.

Grain.—There has been rather more demand for old Wheat, and prices for this and all other articles in the trade are supported. Duty has been paid on nearly the whole of the bonded stock, and the rate is now on the advance.

The papers of this morning do not contain any intelligence of the slightest novelty or interest. Her Majesty and Prince Albert are enjoying themselves at Ostend in the society of their august relatives, the King and Queen of the Belgians. To-day (Saturday) the Royal party go to Bruges; on Monday to Brussels; on Tuesday to Antwerp; and on Wednesday return to England.

Barcelona is still in a state of insurrection; and though Madrid is tranquil, the state of Spain, as the Times remarks, is one of "simple confusion."

The Malta correspondent of the Morning Chronicle says that a report had been current at Bombay that it was the intention to order the next steamer for the overland mail to keep her direct course, in spite of the monsoon. The monsoon had, no doubt, driven her back.

Wales continues in a distracted state, and acts of incendiarism are common. The extraordinary verdict given by the inquest jury on the body of the unfortunate old woman who was shot, is the subject of general remark, as strikingly evincing the terrorism which prevails. There is even talk of the necessity of putting the country under martial law!

The very remarkable meeting held by Messrs Cobden and Bright, at Oxford, on Wednesday last, is the theme of general conversation in society. It is, indeed, a very striking evidence of the progress of free-trade principles amongst the agriculturists.

The Leeds Mercury of this morning, and other provincial organs of public opinion, in the great seats of our commerce and manufactures, all speak in cheerful terms of the decidly-improving prospects of trade.

FREE TRADE—Aug. 24th.

The Corn-Law Controversy.—A friend has placed in our hands numbers of the tracts which the corn-law reformers of England circulate among the people. They are about the size and length of the religious tracts of this country, and are put up in an envelope, which is stamped with neat and appropriate devices. These little publications comprise essays on all the topics involved in the corn-law controversy, sometimes in the form of dialogues, sometimes of tales, and sometimes of extracts from famous books and speeches. The arguments are arranged so as to be easily comprehended by the meanest capacities.

The friend to whom we are indebted for these is well informed on the subject, and says that a more advanced state of opinion prevails among the people of England, in relation to the operation of tariffs, than in this nation generally so much more enlightened. It is a singular spectacle which is thus presented to the eyes of the civilized world. While the tendency of opinion, under an aristocratic monarchy, is towards the loosening of the restraints under which the labour of the people has long suffered, a large and powerful party in a nation, whose theory of government is nearly a century in advance of the world, is clamouring for their continuance and confirmation. Monarchical England is struggling to break the chains that an unwise legislation has forged for the limbs of its trade; but democratic America is urged to put on the fetters which older but less liberal nations are throwing off. The nations of Europe are seeking to extend their commercial relations, to expand the sphere of their mutual intercourse, to rivet the market for the various products of their soil and skill, while the "model republic" of the new world is urged to stick to the silly and odious policy of a semi-barbarous age.

We look upon the attempt which is making in Great Britain to procure a revision of the tariff laws, as one of the most important political movements of the age. It is a reform that contemplates benefits, whose effects would not be confined to any single nation, or any period of time. Should it be successful, it would be the beginning of a grand and universal scheme of commercial emancipation. Let England—that nation so extensive in her relations, and so powerful in her influences—let England adopt a more liberal policy, and it would remove the only obstacles now in the way of a complete freedom of industry throughout the globe. It is the apparent unwillingness of nations to reciprocate the advantages of mutual trade, that has kept back this desirable reform so long. The standing argument of the friends of exclusiveness—their defence under all assaults, their shelter in every emergency—has been that one nation cannot pursue a free system until all others do, or, in other words, that restriction is to be met by restriction. It is a flimsy pretence, but such as it is, has answered the purposes of those who have used it, for many centuries.

The practice of confining trade by the invisible, but potent chains of law, has been a curse wherever it has prevailed. In England, more dependent than other nations on the extent of its commercial intercourse, it may be said to have operated as a scourge. The most terrible inflictions of natural evil, storms, famine, and pestilence, have not produced an equal amount of suffering. Indeed, it has combined the characteristics of the worst of those evils. It has devastated, like the storm, the busy hives of industry; it has exhausted, like famine, the life and vital principle of trade; and, like the pestilence, it has "walked in the darkness and wasted at noon-day." When we read of thousands of miserable wretches, in all the cities and towns of a great nation, huddled together like so many swine in a pen; in rags, squalor, and want; without work, bread, or hope; dragging out from day to day, by begging, or the petty artifices of theft, an existence which is worthless and a burden; and when, at the same time, we see a system of laws, that has carefully drawn a band of iron around every mode of human exertion; which with lynx-eyed and omniscient vigilance, has dragged every product of industry from its retreat to become the subject of a tax, can we fail in ascribing the effect to its cause, or suppress the utterance of our indignation at a policy so heartless and destructive?

Yet, this is the very policy that a certain class of politicians in this country would have us imitate. Misled by the selfish and paltry arguments of British statesmen, but unawed by the terrible experience of the British people, they would fasten upon us a system whose only recommendation, in its best form, is that it enriches a few, at the cost of the lives and happiness of many. They would assist a constrictor in wrapping his folds around us, until our industry shall be completely crushed.

St Olave's Church.—The rebuilding of this church in the early part of the last century cost the parishioners a less sum than the organ. The old church having fallen down, the new one (that recently destroyed by fire) was erected by raising an annuity of 700l., and the granter died after receiving the first half year's payment of 350l. The organ was the most ancient instrument in the metropolis.

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As we stated last week, announcing the intention, Mr Cobden and Mr Bright visited Oxford on Wednesday, for the purpose of addressing the freeholders and farmers of the county on the subject of the corn laws.

Very considerable excitement had prevailed in the city and the surrounding districts in consequence of the proposed visit of Mr Cobden, but it does not appear that the landowners on the present occasion, through the medium of the farmers' clubs and agricultural associations, thought fit to get up an organised opposition, similar to that at Colchester, or interfere to prevent their tenants from attending, as at Reading. The consequence was a very large number of farmers were present at the meeting, although it is well known that the harvest is not in such a state of forwardness as to allow them to absent themselves from their ordinary occupations without considerable inconvenience.

It is a circumstance worthy of notice, and strongly indicative of the present state of public feeling upon the subject, that in a purely agricultural district, at a county meeting regularly convened by the High Sheriff, the whole of the county members being present, two of whom spoke in favour of protection, supported by many influential men of their own party, no person ventured to propose a resolution in favour of the present corn law, and that even the resolution for a low fixed duty made by two of the most popular men and largest landed proprietors in Oxfordshire, Lord Camoys and Mr Langston, was supported by only three or four individuals out of a meeting of nearly 3,000 persons.

Early in the morning, a protectionist champion presented himself, not in the guise either of a freeholder or farmer of the county, but in the person of a good-humoured, though somewhat eccentric printer, named Sparkhall, who had come from the celebrated locale of John Gilpin—Cheapside, and who having armed himself with a large blue bag fitted with elaborate treatises upon the corn laws, and among other pamphlets a recent number of Punch, forthwith travelled to Oxford, and by the kind permission of the meeting was permitted to essay a speech, about what nobody could divine, and in a manner truly original. It is, however, due to the monopolists of Oxfordshire to state that they did not accredit their volunteer champion, and even went so far as to request that he would "bottle up" his eloquence for some future opportunity.

At two o'clock, the hour appointed for the proceedings to commence, the County hall, which is capable of containing 1,800 persons, was nearly filled.

Mr Cobden and Mr Bright, who had been dining at the farmers' ordinary, held at the Roebuck hotel, arrived shortly after two, and were accompanied to the place of meeting by a large number of influential farmers and leading agriculturists, who had met the honourable members at the market table. They at once proceeded to the gallery, where, among others at this time, were Lord Camoys, of Stonor hall, Oxon; the three members for the county, Lord Norreys, Mr Harcourt, and Mr Henley; Mr Langston, M.P. for the city of Oxford; Mr Thomas Robinson, banker; Mr Charles Cottrell Dormer, Mr J.S. Browning, Mr W. Dry, Mr W. Parker, Captain Matcham, Rev. Dr Godwin, Rev. W. Slatter, Mr Richard Goddard, Mr H. Venables, Messrs Grubb, Sadler, Towle, Weaving, Harvey, &c.

On the motion of Lord Cambys, seconded by Mr Langston, M.P., Mr Samuel Cooper, of Henley-on-Thames, under-sheriff for the county, was, in the absence of the high sheriff, called to the chair.

The Chairman said he regretted very much that the high sheriff was prevented from attending the meeting, which had been convened in consequence of a requisition presented to the sheriff by several freeholders of the county. Having read the requisition, he introduced

Mr Cobden, who proceeded for some time to address the meeting on the fallacy of the present corn law as a protection to the farmer, amid frequent cries for adjournment, in consequence of the crowded state of the hall, and

Mr Sadler having intimated that several hundred persons were waiting at the Castle green, at which place it had been generally expected the meeting would ultimately be held, moved its adjournment to that spot, which was immediately agreed to.

Several waggons had been brought to the green, for the purpose of forming a temporary platform, and the meeting being again formed,

Mr Cobden resumed, and, in his usual powerful manner, explained the influence of the corn law upon the tenant, farmer, and farm-labourer, urging the necessity of free trade as the only remedy for agricultural as well as manufacturing distress. The honourable member was loudly cheered during the delivery of his address, which evidently made a deep impression on the large proportion of his auditory.

Mr Sparkhall then came forward. Mr Cobden having kindly interceded to obtain him a hearing, and having duly arranged his books and papers, he at once commanded the serious attention of the meeting, by stating broadly as the proposition he was about to prove—that the repeal of the corn laws would plunge the nation into such a state of depression as must ultimately terminate in a national bankruptcy. After quoting from the Honourable and Reverend Baptist Noel, Mr Gregg, and other passages, the relevancy of which to his proposition no one could discover, he bewildered himself in a calculation, and gladly availed himself of a slight interruption to make his bow and retire.

Lord Camoys next addressed the meeting. He said Mr Cobden came among them either as a friend or an enemy. If he came as a friend, it was the duty of all to receive him as such; but if as an enemy, then it behoved the farmers of Oxfordshire to meet him boldly, and expose the fallacy of his arguments. For himself he (Lord Camoys) believed Mr Cobden came as a friend. He was not one of those who were afraid of the Anti-Corn-law League; but he was afraid of that class who designated themselves the farmers' friends. He thought if they were to give the Anti-Corn-law League 50,000l. a year for fifty years, it would never do half the mischief to agriculture that the farmers' friends themselves had done. (Hear, hear.) It was this impression that had induced him to sign the requisition that had been laid before him, for he was anxious that the farmers of Oxfordshire should have the benefit of any information that could be given to them on the subject. There were three courses open for discussion. The first was the sliding scale (cries of "no, no"); the second a low fixed duty; and the third, a total and immediate repeal of the corn law. (Hear, hear.) He believed the sliding scale was already on its last legs; indeed, it was only defended by a few country gentlemen and fortunate speculators, who had by a lucky chance contrived to realise large fortunes. He was himself for a low fixed duty, and Mr Cobden advocated free trade. There was not so much difference, after all, between them; but he considered that to apply the principles of free trade to England, would be to apply the principles of common sense to a deranged country, suffering under the pressure of an enormous debt. He thought the English farmer should be placed on a level with the continental corn-grower; but he did not think the mere expense of transit would have the effect of securing this as argued by Mr. Cobden. With this view he should propose to the meeting the following resolution:—"That the agricultural interest being the paramount interest in this country, to depress that interest would be injurious to the entire community; that suddenly to adopt free trade in corn must produce that effect, and that, therefore, it is the opinion of this meeting that a moderate fixed duty upon the importation of foreign grain is the one best adapted to the present position of the agricultural interest and the welfare of the country."

This resolution was seconded by Mr Langston, M.P., but this gentleman gave way for

Mr Bright, who, upon presenting himself, was received with load cheering. In an eloquent address he clearly demonstrated that the only way in which the corn laws could benefit the farmer was by making food dearer, which could only be done by making it more scarce. That the advantage of such high prices invariably went to the landlord in the shape of rent, in consequence of the immense competition for farms, arising from the increase in the agricultural population, and the difficulty of providing for them in commerce and manufactures, owing to the depressed condition to which they had been reduced by the operation of the corn laws. High prices could only be obtained by the farmer from the prosperity of his customers. In reply to the resolution of Lord Camoys, the honourable gentleman stated, that with regard to agriculture being the paramount interest of the country, there could be no doubt in every country there must be land for the people to live on, and so far it was the paramount interest; but he denied that anything like half the population of England were engaged in agricultural pursuits. The agricultural interest would not be depressed, nor would the community be injured by free trade. He would put it to the meeting whether they would have a low duty or no duty at all. (Loud cries of "no duty.") A fixed duty of 6s. would raise the price that amount, and the whole would go into the pockets of the landlord. The honourable gentleman concluded his address amid loud cheers.

Lord Norreys next spoke in favour of the existing corn laws, attributing the distress under which all classes at present laboured to the over-production of the manufacturers.

Mr Langston, M.P., having replied to his lordship,

Mr Henley, M.P., addressed the meeting at some length, in favour of the present restrictive duties on the importation corn. The honourable member concluded by observing that he had attended the meeting because it had been convened by the high sheriff; and he thanked them for the patience with which they had listened to his observations, though neither he nor his colleagues considered it to be properly designated as a farmers' meeting, the majority present being composed of other classes.

Mr Cobden briefly replied; and

Mr Towle (a tenant farmer) moved the following amendment, "That in the opinion of this meeting the principles of free trade are in accordance with the laws of nature and conducive to the welfare of mankind, and that all laws which interfere with the free intercourse of nations, under the pretence of protection to the agricultural, colonial, or manufacturing interests, ought to be forthwith abolished."

The motion having been seconded, was put, and declared to be carried, with only three dissentients.

Mr Henley then proposed, and Mr Cobden seconded, a vote of thanks to the chairman, who briefly acknowledged the compliment, and three cheers having been given for free trade the meeting separated, having lasted nearly five hours.

Public Dinner to R. Walker, Esq., M.P., Bury.—On Wednesday week a public dinner was given, in the Free-Trade Pavilion, Paradise street, Bury, by the electors of Bury, to the above-named gentleman, for his constant advocacy of Liberal principles in the House of Commons. The meeting, though called to do honour to the worthy representative of Bury, was emphatically a gathering of the friends of free trade, Mr Bright, Dr Bowring, Mr Brotherton, &c., being present.

Dr Bowring's Visit to his Constituents.—Dr Bowring arrived in Bolton, on his annual visit, on Thursday week. In the course of the afternoon he called upon several of the leading reformers and free-traders of the borough; and in the evening, according to public announcement, he attended at the Temperance hall, Little Bolton, to address the inhabitants generally. The doors of the hall were opened at seven o'clock, and hundreds immediately flocked in. At half-past seven, the hall was crowded to excess in every part. On Dr Bowring's entrance, he was greeted with loud cheers. The chief portion of the proceedings consisted in the speech of the learned and honourable member, who, as might be expected, dwelt with great power on the question of questions—free trade. We have only room for the following eloquent passage: "The more I see of England, the prouder I am to recognise her superiority—not alone in arms—about that I care little, but in manufacturing arts, the peaceful arts, which really reflect glory on her people. (Cheers.) Give us fair play and no favour, and we need not fear the strength of the whole world. (Hear.) Let us start in an honest rivalry—let us get rid of the drawbacks and impediments which are in the way of our progress, and sure I am that the virtues, the energies, the industry, the adventurous spirit of the manufacturers and merchants of England, which have planted their language in every climate and in every region, would make them known as benefactors through the wide world. They are recognised by the black man as giving him many sources of enjoyment which he had not before; by the red man as having reached his fields and forests, and brought to him in his daily life enjoyments of which his ancestors had no notion; by all tribes and tongues throughout the wide expanse of the earth, as the allies of improvement, and the promoters of happiness. Sure I am that England—emancipated England—the labourers—the artisans of England, may do more for the honour and reputation of our country than was ever done by all the Nelsons and Wellingtons of the day. (Loud cheers.) I was struck very much, the other day, by the remark of one of the wisest and best men of our times, from the other side of the Atlantic, who said, 'I am not dazzled by the great names which I see recorded in high places; I am not attracted by the statues which are raised to the men whom you call illustrious, but what does strike me, what does delight me, what does fascinate me, is to trace the working man of England to his home; to see him there labouring at his loom unnoticed and unknown, toiling before the sun rises, nor ceasing to toil when the sun has descended beneath the mountain. It is that man, the missionary of peace, who forms the true link of alliance between nation and nation, making all men of one kindred and of one blood,—that man upon whose brow the sweat is falling,—that man whose hands are hardened by labour,—that is the man of whom England has a right to be proud—(hear)—that is the man whom the world ought to recognise as its benefactor.' (Cheers.) And, gentlemen, in such sentiments I cordially agree, and the time will come when the names of men who are called illustrious, at whose feet we have been rolling out torrents of wealth, whom we have been crowning with dazzling[Pg 43] honours—those men will pass away into the realms of forgetfulness, while the poor and industrious labourer, who has been through the world a herald and apostle of good, will be respected and honoured, and upon him future times will look as the real patriot, the real philanthropist, the real honour of his country and of his countrymen." The proceedings were closed by the unanimous thanks of the meeting being given to Dr Bowring.

Free Trade.—We are glad to learn, from a correspondence in the Liverpool Albion, that W. Brown, Esq., the head of the eminent house of Brown, Shipley, and Co., of Liverpool, has declared his adherence to the cause of perfect freedom of trade, contributing, at the same time, 50l. to the funds of the Liverpool Anti-Monopoly Association.

Corn Trade of France.—The Moniteur publishes the return of the corn trade in France during the month of July, from which it appears that the imports were—wheat, 45,896 metrical quintels; other grain, 23,389; and flour, 613. The exports—wheat, 14,318; other grain, 11,506; and flour, 2,435. The quantities lying in the government bonding stores on the first of August were—wheat, 28,405 metrical quintals; other grain, 9,378; and flour, 11,051.

Anti-Corn-Law Meeting at Hampstead.—The opponents of the corn laws resident at Hampstead assembled on Tuesday night, in crowded meeting, at the Temperance hall of that locality, to hear Mr Sidney Smith deliver an address on the evils of the corn laws. The meeting was the first of the kind since the formation of the new association, and there were several of the respectable inhabitants of the neighbourhood present. Mr Smith entered at length into the whole question of the monopolies from which the people of this country suffer. He showed, conclusively, and by a reference to facts and comparisons with other countries, that "protective" duties were injurious to the best interests of the community, as they were productive of abridgment of the people's comfort, and of taxation on everything that they could see or touch. He illustrated the advantages that would arise from free trade, by a reference to the great increase of consumption of the article of coffee since the reduction of the duty of half a crown on the pound weight to ninepence; the consumption at that period (1824) having been but eight millions of pounds weight, while at present, it was twenty-eight millions. The learned gentleman, who spoke for upwards of two hours, concluded amid loud cheers. Three cheers which were proposed for the Charter proved a decided failure; while, on the other hand, three were proposed for a repeal of the corn laws, which were responded to by nearly the whole of the crowded meeting.

Mr Ewart and his Constituents.—William Ewart, Esq., the indefatigable member for the Dumfries District of Burghs, is at present paying his respects to his constituents, after the recess of what has been to him a laborious session of parliament, however little may have been effected during its course by the government and the legislature. On Thursday evening he addressed a large meeting in this town. On Friday he visited Lochmaben, and on Saturday Sanquhar, and addressed the inhabitants of both these burghs.—Dumfries Courier.


State of Trade.—Owing to the continued absence of the Overland Mail, the demand for manufactured goods, and especially for shirtings, has been limited; but, as stocks are low, prices remain tolerably steady. For yarn the demand continues good, and prices very firm, but the spinners are so generally engaged, that no great amount of business has been done.—Manchester Guardian of Wednesday.

Commercial Intercourse between England and the United States.—The circumstances of America are such as to require, for the furtherance of its own interests, a large and extended commercial relationship with England. There is nothing wanting but a movement on our part for the speedy establishment of an unbounded trade. Both countries are so situated that they need never become rivals, provided they consent to co-operate with each other. It is because they have not been permitted hitherto so to do that we now hear of an embryo manufacturing system in America. We have already built Lowell in New England, and Pittsburg in Western Pennsylvania; and will yet, unless we change our system, drive the enterprising republican to efforts which may be more generally and more permanently successful.—Morning Chronicle.

Travelling Between England and France.—The number of persons who passed from England to France, by Boulogne, in the week from 1st to 7th September inclusive, was 2,409, and by Calais, 838. It appears that the opening of the Southern and Eastern Railway as far as Folkestone has increased the number of travellers between England and France by nearly one-half. The number in August, 1842, was 7,436, while during the past month it has been no less than 10,579, showing an increase of 3,143.

Steam v. Water.—Owing to the Birmingham and Gloucester Railway Company having reduced their charge for all kinds of goods to 6s. per ton between Gloucester and Cheltenham; most of the carriers in this city will be compelled to avail themselves of this mode of conveyance, it being impossible for them to compete with the Railway Company. The consequence will be that some thirty or forty boats will speedily be "laid up in ordinary," to the sorrow of three or four times the number of boatmen, who will of course be thrown out of employ.—Worcester Chronicle.

The New Tariff.—"The imports of foreign beasts since Monday last (one week) have been confined to twenty-five into London by the Batavier steamer from Rotterdam." (London Markets Report, September 11.) Can any clever master of fractions calculate the effect of this importation on the Smithfield market, and the benefit thence accruing to the citizens of London as a set-off to the payment of their income-tax?

Improvement of Trade—Rochdale.—The piece market has been uncommonly brisk to-day, and all the goods on hand have been cleared off. At present all the workmen are in full employment, though at very low wages; but a few markets of this kind will have a tendency to get up wages. The ready sale of goods has given a buoyancy to the wool market, and the dealers in the raw material have not been so eager to sell at former prices.

State of Trade—Paisley.—So far as ample employment to all engaged in the staple manufactures of the town is concerned, trade still continues favourable for the workman, but the manufacturers generally complain that, for the season, sales are late of commencing, and many of them are already rather slackening their operations to keep their stocks down. The unexpected procrastination in the commencement of the fall trade is reasonably accounted for by the fineness of the weather.

"A Merchant of twenty-five years' standing, and an Old Subscriber," calls attention to the unusual state of things now so long existing in the Money Market, by the fall in the rate of interest to 134 and 2 per cent. upon the first class commercial bills. He states that a friend of his has lately lent 100,000l. at 112 to 2 per cent., being the highest rate he could obtain. This condition of the Money Market he attributes to the large amount of paper money in circulation, compared with the demands of commerce. Our correspondent favours us with some figures, illustrative of his views, from November, 1841, to the present month, taken from the Gazette returns, and observing that there has been a serious fall in the value of merchandise equal to one-fifth or one-sixth, with some exceptions during the last year and a half, he accounts by the juxtaposition of his figures, denoting the amount of paper in circulation, and this assumed fall in the price of merchandise for the present anomalous condition of the Money Market, and for the apparent worthlessness of capital. We cannot agree, however, with our correspondent to the full extent, because the very low prices of commodities, with a minimum rate of interest for money, proves that there is no fictitious or inflated excess of paper money. The anomalous state of the Money Market proceeds, we believe, from a redundancy, not of mere paper, but of capital which cannot find investment, superinduced by stagnation of trade, and the want of commercial enterprise, occasioned by the restrictive nature of our duties on imports.—Morning Chronicle.

The accounts from the United States mention that the greatest activity prevails among the manufacturers in their purchases of the raw material for the year's consumption.


Extraordinary Charge.—Captain, William Tune, the Commander of a steam packet called the City of Boulogne, the property of the New Commercial Steam-Packet Company, on Monday appeared at the Mansion House to answer the complaint of the directors of that company, by whom he was charged with being privy to the abstraction of four packages, each containing gold, checks on bankers, bank-notes, and bills of exchange, which had been previously booked at the company's office in Boulogne, and paid for according to the rates agreed upon by the company, and which, with others, had been entrusted to his care. After evidence had been adduced, Mr Wire requested that Captain Tune should be remanded for a week, and stated that the directors being anxious that he should receive as much accommodation as might be consistent with the respectability of his character and the nature of the difficulty in which he was at present involved, were desirous that bail should be taken for his appearance on the next day of investigation.—Alderman Gibbs: I shall require two respectable securities for 500l. each, and Captain Tune to be bound himself in the sum of 1,000l.—The captain was then remanded for a week. A curious fact came out on the inquiry as to the value of each package. They were all, it appeared, entered and paid for as containing a sum of money much inferior to what each package really contained.

Matrimonial Advertisements.—An unlucky man, who, in order to get a family by a deceased wife taken care of, had been induced to marry a worthless drunken woman, through the medium of a matrimonial advertisement, applied at Union Hall for advice, but, of course, nothing could be done for him.

Awkward Predicament.—A man advanced in years, named David Simms, who was claimed by two wives, and nearly torn in pieces by them, was committed from Union Hall, on a charge of bigamy.

Singular Detection of an Extensive Swindler.—A man named William Cairnes, alias Thomas Sissons, with a host of other aliases, was placed before the magistrates at the Borough Court, Manchester, charged with one of the most singular attempts at fraud we ever remember to have heard. The prisoner, who was a respectable-looking old man, gave his name William Carnes. Under the pretence of giving employment to a labouring man, on getting specimens of his handwriting, he got him to write his name across two blank bills, in the form of acceptance. He has been remanded for further inquiry.

Embezzlement.Theodore Grumbrecht, a confidential clerk in the extensive India house of Messrs Huth and Co., was arrested on board the Bucephalus, bound for New Zealand, whither he was going. The charge against him is extensive embezzlement.


Singular Accident.—An accident occurred at Outwell on the 29th ult. A child, three years old, went to play in a donkey cart, in which a rope coiled and knotted had been placed to dry. The rope was doubled the greater part of the way; and, being knotted, was full of steps or meshes; in one of these the child got his head and unfortunately falling at the same time from the cart, which was propped up as if the donkey were between the shafts, the rope caught on the hook in front of the cart, and held the child suspended a short distance from the ground. He was found quite dead. An inquest was held on the body of the child, and the jury returned a verdict of accidental death.—Bury Post.

Affray with Soldiers.—On Tuesday the greatest excitement prevailed throughout Westminster in consequence of repeated outbreaks between the military and the lower, or perhaps we might with propriety say the lowest order of inhabitants of this populous district. The tumult having continued during the whole of the day it was anticipated, and justly, that when night came on, it would increase rather than diminish, although during the whole of the afternoon various parties of the military were seen searching for and escorting to the barracks, the delinquent and disorderly soldiers engaged in the affray.

Fires in the Metropolis.—On Saturday night the greater portion of the extensive premises of Messrs Cleaseley, floor-cloth manufacturers, Grove street, Walworth common, were destroyed by fire.—On Monday morning the shop of Mr Crawcour, a tobacconist, Surrey place, Old Kent road, was burnt to the ground.—On Tuesday morning, about a quarter to four o'clock, a city police constable discovered fire in the lower part of the extensive premises, nearly rebuilt, of the Religious Tract Society, Paternoster row, through some unslacked lime having been left by the workmen among some timber the previous night. To the vigilance of the officer may justly be attributed the saving of much valuable property from destruction.

Fire at Bristol.—The old Castle Tavern, Bristol, was burned on Thursday, the 7th inst., and the landlord, who was an invalid, perished in the flames. The fire was caused by the carelessness of a niece, in attendance on the invalid, who set fire to the bed furniture accidentally with a candle. The little girl Lydia Groves, who so courageously attempted to extinguish the bed curtains, has sunk under the shock she then experienced.


Doncaster Meeting.—This much-talked-of meeting commenced on Monday, Sept. 11, at two o'clock precisely. The regulations, in every minor detail, answered the purposes for which they were respectively intended; particularly the one affecting those persons who have proved themselves "defaulters," as such were refused admission to the stands, the ring, the betting-rooms, and every other place under the jurisdiction of[Pg 44] of the stewards. Many improvements and alterations have been made, and no expense spared towards securing the comfort of all. The different stands have undergone a complete renovation, and present a very striking and handsome appearance, very unlike their neglected condition in former years. On Sunday evening a tremendous storm came on, accompanied with hail and extraordinarily vivid lightning; in fact, it was truly awful to witness—the rain literally pouring down in torrents, and the flashes of lightning following each other in rapid succession. Happily the storm was not of very long continuance, commencing about half-past six, and terminating about seven o'clock; but, during that short period, it was sufficient nearly to drown the "unfortunates," who were travelling outside per coach from Sheffield, York, Leeds, &c., and who, on alighting, presented a most wretched appearance. The morning of Monday was dark and lowering, but towards eleven or twelve o'clock the weather cleared up and remained very fine. The course, notwithstanding the rain, was in the very best possible order, the attendance large, beyond any former example on the first day, punctuality as to the time of starting was very strictly observed, and the sport was first rate. The great event of these races is the St Leger stakes, which on this occasion were run for in three minutes and twenty seconds. Mr Bowes's "Cotherstone," the winner of the Derby, was the favourite, and was confidently expected to gain the St Leger. But it only came in second, being beaten by Mr Wrather's Nutwith, and only gained by a neck on Lord Chesterfield's Prizefighter, which was third.

Woolwich Garrison Races.—The officers of the garrison at Woolwich having resolved on testing the value and quality of their horses by races, the first day's sport came off on Wednesday; and owing to the great number of spectators, of whom there were upwards of 10,000, on the ground, and the fineness of the weather, the scene was more animated than on any former occasion. A spacious booth was erected on the ground and was well filled throughout the day. Upwards of 100 carriages, containing families, were drawn up along both sides of the course, and hundreds of gentlemen on horseback occupied various parts of the Common where the races took place; presenting altogether an enlivening and interesting spectacle. The band of the Royal Artillery attended in front of the booth, and played, with very little intermission, some of the finest airs from one o'clock to seven o'clock, p.m.

On Thursday, the second day, a slight shower of rain, about one o'clock, p.m. prevented the races from being so well attended by spectators as they were yesterdy, yet the attendance was numerous in the afternoon, and great interest existed amongst the officers of the garrison, and many sporting gentlemen, to witness the result.


The Best Home Market.—The Norwich Mercury of last Saturday contains no less than seventy advertisements relating to the sale of farming stock; and a majority of these are cases in which the tenant of the farm on which a sale is announced is described as one "quitting the occupation," or "retiring from business." We should like to know how many of those parties have managed to amass a fortune, or even to acquire a moderate competency, under that protective system which, as they have always been taught to believe, was devised for their especial benefit. From the ominous newspaper paragraphs, announcing the liberality of landlords to their tenants, which have lately become so numerous, we rather suspect that most of those farmers who are retiring from business do so to avoid greater evils. It is worthy of remark, however, that, amidst all this agricultural depression, which has now lasted some twelve months at least, the "home trade"—which the advocates of the corn law always describe as entirely dependent on the farmers obtaining high prices for their grain—is in a healthier state than it has been for several years past. The Standard lately stated, on the authority of a Mr Spackman, that the United Kingdom contained 20,500,000 individuals dependent on agriculture, and only 6,500,000 individuals dependent on manufactures; and, as we have frequently seen the same absurd statement brought forward at farmers' clubs as "agricultural statistics," it is possible enough that many persons may have been led to believe it. Those who do so, however, would find it rather difficult to explain, under such a division of the population, the fact, that during four or five years of high prices, which the Duke of Buckingham designated "agricultural prosperity," the 20,500,000 souls should have been unable to create a brisk demand for manufactures; while a single year of cheap provisions has done so much to improve trade, and relieve the pressure from the shoulders of the labouring classes. Who that looks at these two facts can have the slightest doubt in his mind as to what it is that makes the best home market?—Manchester Guardian.

Curious Agricultural Experiment.—The following novel and interesting experiment has lately been successfully made by Mr A. Palmer, of Cheam, Surrey:—In July, 1842, he put one grain of wheat in a common garden-pot. In August the same was divided into four plants, which in three weeks were again divided into twelve plants. In September these twelve plants were divided into thirty-two, which in November were divided into fifty plants, and then placed in open ground. In July, 1843, twelve of the plants failed, but the remaining thirty-eight were healthy. On the 19th August they were cut down, and counted 1,972 stems, with an average of fifty grains to a stem, giving an increase of 98,600. Now, if this be a practicable measure of planting wheat, it follows that most of the grain now used for seed may be saved, and will infinitely more than cover the extra expense of sowing, as the wheat plants can be raised by the labourer in his garden, his wife and children being employed in dividing and transplanting them. One of the stems was rather more than six feet long, and stout in proportion.

Cultivation of Waste Lands.—Employment of Labourers.—A paper was recently laid before the Council of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, by Lord Portman, which we think deserves a much greater degree of attention than we believe it has yet received, in that it shows to what a considerable extent waste lands may, without any very heavy expenditure of money, be brought into profitable cultivation, and at the same time, under a well-regulated system of spade husbandry, yield abundant employment to agricultural labourers and their families. The following is the substance of the document referred to:—His lordship, who has large estates in Dorsetshire, found that a tract of land, called Shepherd's Corner, about 200 acres in extent, was wholly unproductive, yielding a nominal rent of 2s. 6d. per acre. About fifteen years ago his lordship resolved to make an experiment with this land. He accordingly gave directions to his steward that it should be laid out in six divisions, representing so many small farms, in the cultivation of which such of the labourers as could not obtain full work from the neighbouring farmers were occasionally employed. For the three first years there were no returns, the ground having been merely broken up with the spade, and the surface soil exposed. In subsequent years this land was sown chiefly with turnips, fed off by sheep, until it was found in sufficient heart for the reception of grass and corn seeds, the crops from which were at first scanty and indifferent, but sufficient, however, to pay for cultivation. At the expiration of fifteen years the expenditure upon the whole, inclusive of allowance for rent, at the original rate of 2s. 6d. per acre, together with all charges on account of tithes and taxes, amounted to a little more than 10,000l.; the returns by crops sold and sheep fed exceeding that sum by 88l., independent of the crops now in the ground, which will come to the landlord in September. This may appear to be an inadequate return for the fifteen years' experiment; but, as Lord Portman justly observes, "as a farmer he has lost nothing, whilst as landlord he is a considerable gainer, the land being now fully equal to any of the neighbouring farms." Two objects, both of great importance, have thus been obtained. These 200 acres have been fertilized, which would otherwise have been of no present or prospective value; and in the process of cultivation employment has, during that long period, been provided for several hundreds of labourers who, but for that resource, must, at some seasons at least, have become a burden to the parish.



The Budget; a Series of Letters, published at intervals, addressed to Lord John Russell, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Stanley, and Lord Eliot, on Import Duties, Commercial Reform, Colonization, and the Condition of England. By R. Torrens, Esq., F.R.S.

The Edinburgh Review. No. CLVII. Article, Free Trade and Retaliation.

The Westminster Review. No. LXXVIII. Article, Colonel Torrens on Free Trade.

Our readers are not, in general, unacquainted with the public character and literary reputation of Colonel Torrens. He is, we believe, a self-taught political economist; and, like Colonel Thompson, early achieved distinction in a branch of moral science not considered particularly akin to military pursuits. But in his recent labours, he has very seriously damaged his reputation, by attempting to bolster up a policy whose influence on the welfare of the nation has been of the most deadly and pernicious kind; and we therefore advert to the letters called the Budget, more with the view of showing that they have been analysed, and their mischievous principles thoroughly refuted, than with any intention of entering at large into the discussion.

It was, we believe, in the autumn of 1841, immediately following the accession of the present Government to office, that Colonel Torrens commenced the publication of his letters called the Budget. The two first were addressed to Lord John Russell, and professed to show that the commercial propositions of the late Whig Government would, if adopted, have altered the value of money, increased the pressure of taxation, and aggravated the distress of the people. The third letter was on commercial reform, addressed to Sir Robert Peel. The remainder of the series were on colonization and taxation, on the expediency of adopting differential duties, &c.; concluding with one on the condition of England, and on the means of removing the causes of distress; which was afterwards followed by a Postscript, in which the author, addressing Sir Robert Peel, said—

"I would beg to submit to your consideration what appears to me to amount to a mathematical demonstration, that a reduction of the duties upon foreign production, unaccompanied by a corresponding mitigation of the duties imposed by foreign countries upon British goods, would cause a further decline of prices, of profits, and of wages, and would render it doubtful whether the taxes could be collected, and faith with the public credit or maintained."

Opinions like these, coming from a man considered to be of some little authority in economical science, were certainly important. The time was serious—the crisis really alarming. A new Government had come into power, and it was thought and expected were about to effect great changes. Even the Quarterly Review, alarmed by the aspect of affairs, came round, in the winter of 1841, to advocate commercial reform. At this critical period Colonel Torrens stepped forward. What his motives were we do not know; though we know that men neither harsh nor uncharitable, and with some opportunities of judging, considered that Colonel Torrens, soured by political disappointments and personal feeling, had permitted himself to be biassed by hopes of patronage from the new Government. The pamphlets composing the Budget only appeared at intervals: but so far as they were then published, did attract considerable attention; the mere supporters of pure monopoly did not, of course, understand them: but that body who may be appropriately enough termed middle men, were not unaware of the value of such support as that afforded by Colonel Torrens, in staring off changes which seemed inevitable. Sir Robert Peel, too, was then in the very midst of his lesson-taking; and as he deeply studied Mr Hume's Import Duties Report, before he brought out his new Tariff, we need not consider it to be very discreditable to him, that he read the pamphlets of Colonel Torrens before he tried his diplomatic commercial policy.

At all events, one of the chief arguments with which Sir Robert Peel and Mr Gladstone justified the great omissions of the new Tariff, was the fact that the Government was engaged in negotiations with other countries in order to obtain treaties of reciprocity. The utter failure of these efforts Sir Robert Peel has repeatedly confessed, accompanied with a sigh over the inutility of the attempt; and the last time that he adverted, in the House of Commons, to the authority of Colonel[Pg 45] Torrens (he was citing the Postscript to the Letter addressed to himself) it was with the kind of manner which indicated want of confidence in the guide who had misled him. Whether or no, however, he had relied on that authority in his negotiations with other countries during his futile attempts to obtain commercial treaties, this much is certain enough, that Colonel Torrens did what he could to strengthen the old notion, that it was of no use for us to enlarge our markets unless other countries did so also at the same time and in the same way; and in condemning all reduction of import duties that was not based on "reciprocity," he certainly added all the weight of his authority to prop up a system whose injurious influence has affected the very vitality of our social state, and whose overthrow will yet require no small amount of moral force to effect.

We are far indeed, from undervaluing treaties of reciprocity; but to make them a sine qua non in the policy of a country whose condition is that of an overflowing population, a deficient supply of the first necessaries of life, and a contracted market for its artificial productions, is an error of the first magnitude. Therefore, though not attaching primary importance to the Budget of Colonel Torrens, or believing that it could ultimately have any great effect in retarding the effectual settlement of the great question, it was not without some feeling of satisfaction that we perused the able article in the last Edinburgh Review, in which his delusions are completely set at rest. We quite agree with the writer (Mr Senior, it is said) that "if the Budget were to remain unanswered, it would be proclaimed in all the strongholds of monopoly to which British literature penetrates—in Parliament, in Congress, in the Algemeine Zeitung, and in the councils of the Zollverein—that Adam Smith and the modern economists had been refuted by Colonel Torrens; that free trade is good only where reciprocity is perfect; that a nation can augment its wealth by restraining a trade that was previously free; can protect itself against such conduct on the part of its neighbours only by retaliation: and if it neglect this retaliatory policy, that it will be punished for its liberality by a progressive decrease of prices, of wages, and of profits, and an increase of taxation."

The identity of Colonel Torrens's propositions with the exploded "Mercantile Theory" is very satisfactorily established by the Edinburgh reviewer; and it is certainly humbling to see a man of his ability coming forward to revive doctrines which had well nigh gone down to oblivion. On the subject where Colonel Torrens conceives himself strongest, the distribution of the precious metals, the reviewer has given a very able reply, though some points are left for future amplification and discussion; and, as a whole, if there be any young political economist whose head the Budget has puzzled, the article in the Edinburgh Review will be found a very sufficient antidote. With this, and another able article on the same subject in the last Westminster Review (in fact, two articles of the Westminster relate to the subject—one is on Colonel Torrens, the other on Free Trade and Colonization), we may very safely leave the Budget to the oblivion into which it has sunk; and, meantime, the novice will not go far astray who adheres to the "golden rule" of political economy, propounded by the London merchants in 1820, and re-echoed by Sir Robert Peel in 1842: "The maxim of buying in the cheapest market, and selling in the dearest, which regulates every merchant in his individual dealings, is strictly applicable as the best rule for every nation. As a matter of mere diplomacy, it may sometimes answer to hold out the removal of particular prohibitions or high duties as depending on corresponding concessions; but it does not follow that we should maintain our restrictions where the desired concessions cannot be obtained; for our restrictions would not be the less prejudicial to our capital and industry, because other governments persisted in preserving impolitic regulations."



All the newspapers have quoted an account from the Literary Gazette of the Antarctic Expedition, under the command of Captain James Ross. It was composed of two vessels, the Erebus, Captain Ross, and the Terror, Captain Crozier, and left England on the 29th of September, 1839. During the outward voyage to Australia, scientific observation was daily and sedulously attended to; experiments were made on the temperature and specific gravity of the sea; geological and geographical investigations were made at all available points, especially at Kerguelen's Land; and both here, as well as during the expedition, magnetic observation and experiment formed a specific subject of attention. This was a main object during 1840, the expedition remaining at the Auckland Islands for this purpose; and it was not till the 1st of January, 1841, that it entered the antarctic circle. Their subsequent adventures, deeply interesting as they are from the perils which they encountered, and the spirit and perseverance with which they were met, come hardly within our sphere to report. After an absence of four years, the expedition, as mentioned in last week's Economist, has returned to England, and the acquisitions to natural history, geology, geography, but above all towards the elucidation of the grand mystery of terrestrial magnetism, raise this voyage to a pre-eminent rank among the greatest achievements of British courage, intelligence, and enterprise.

Religious Worship.—Church Property.—The following Parliamentary Return has just been printed, entitled, "A Return of the amount applied by Parliament during each year since 1800, in aid of the religious worship of the Church of England, of the Church of Scotland, of the Church of Rome, and of the Protestant Dissenters in England, Scotland, and Ireland, respectively, whether by way of augmentation of the income of the ministers of each religious persuasion, or for the erection and endowment of churches and chapels, or for any other purposes connected with the religious instruction of each such section of the population of the United Kingdom, with a summary of the whole amount applied during the above period in aid of the religions worship of each of the above classes." The abstract of sums paid to the Established Church shows that the total was 5,207,546l. which is divided in the following manner:—Church of England, 2,935,646l.; Church of Scotland, 522,082l.; Church of Ireland, 1,749,818l. Church of Rome.—The total sum paid to the Church of Rome is set forth at 365,607l. 1s. 2d. comprised in the following two items;—Augmentation of incomes (including Maynooth College), 362,893l. 8s. 1d.; erection and repairs of chapels, 2,113l. 13s. 1d. Protestant Dissenters.—The total sum is 1,019,647l. 13s. 11d. in England and Ireland. The recapitulation shows the following three sums:—Established Church, 5,207,546l.; Church of Rome, 365,607l.; and Protestant Dissenters, 1,019,647l. The sums were advanced from 1800 to 1842.

Imperishable Bread.—On Wednesday, in the mayor's private room, at the Town hall, Liverpool, a box of bread was opened which was packed at Rio Janeiro nearly two years ago, and proved as sound, sweet, and in all respects as good, as on the day when it was enclosed. This bread is manufactured of a mixture in certain proportions of rice, meal, and wheat flour.

St George's Chapel, Windsor.—The extensive alterations and embellishments which have been in progress since the early part of May last (from which period the chapel has been closed), at an outlay of several thousands of pounds, throughout the interior of this sacred edifice, having been brought to a close, it was reopened for Divine service on Thursday.

Father Mathew.—Father Mathew, after finishing his labours in the metropolis, went to Norwich, where he met the Bishop, who, in an earnest and eloquent speech, in St Andrew's hall, on Thursday week, introduced the reverend gentleman to that locality, and very warmly eulogized his conduct. Mr Gurney, the well-known Norwich banker, occupied the chair on this occasion, and seconded the Bishop in his patronage and approbation of the great temperance movement. After remaining at Norwich two or three days, Father Mathew started for Ireland, taking Birmingham and Liverpool in his way.

Importation of Fruit from Antwerp.—On Thursday, the steam-packet Antwerpen, Captain Jackson, arrived at the St Katherine's Steam Packet Wharf, after an expeditious passage, from Antwerp. The continental orchards continue to supply our fruit markets with large supplies, the Antwerpen having brought 4,000 packages, or nearly 2,800 bushels of pears, apples, plums, and filberts. Advices were received by the Antwerpen that another extensive importation of fruit from Antwerp may be expected at the St Katherine's Steam Packet Wharf this day (Saturday), by the steam-packet Princess Victoria, Capt. Pierce.

Lieut. Holman, the Blind Traveller.—This celebrated tourist and writer took his departure from Malta, on the 3rd of September, for Naples. He will afterwards proceed to the Roman States, and then to Trieste. During the few days of his residence in this island the greatest hospitality has been shown him. The veteran traveller had the honour of dining with his excellency the Governor, and with Admiral Sir E. Owen. Amidst all the vicissitudes of his perilous life and increasing age, he still maintains the same unabated thirst for travel, and his mental and bodily faculties appear to grow in activity and strength in the inverse ratio of his declining life and honoured grey hairs.

Railway from Worcester to Cardiff.—It is proposed, by means of this new line, to connect the population of the north of England and the midland counties with the districts of South Wales and the south of Ireland. It will commence at the Taff Vale Railway, pass through Wales, cross the Severn, and unite with the Birmingham and Gloucester Railway at Worcester. The cost will be 1,500,000l.

French Opinions on Spanish Events.—The French journals are loud in condemning the poor Barcelonese for the very same acts which drew down the applause of these same journals a week ago. The following remarks from the National render any of our own useless:—"It must be admitted that the French journals appreciate in a strange way the deplorable events in Spain. Some soldiers revolt at Madrid, without going any length of insurrection, or at all endangering the Government. General Narvaez comes, and without consulting Government or any one else, shoots eight non-commissioned officers. Straight our Ministerial journals exclaim, What an act of vigour! Vigour if you will; but where is the humanity, the wisdom, the justice? Then behold Barcelona, of which the people some weeks ago rose against the established and constitutional Government. What heroes! exclaimed the French Ministerial papers. Now they do the same thing, rising against a provisional and extra-constitutional Government. What brigands! exclaim the Ministerial writers. A few weeks back a Spanish Government defended itself with violence against those who attacked it. Regiments fired rounds of musketry, and the cannons of forts bombarded the rebellious towns. The French Ministerialists forthwith pronounced the Spanish Regent as a malefactor, and devoted him to the execration of the civilized world. Now, another Government, without the same right, follows precisely the same course as the one overthrown. It defends itself, fires, bombards, and pours forth grape from behind walls upon insurgent bands in the street. This same conduct is glorified as firm, as legitimate, as what not. The system of political morality changes, it seems, with men and with seasons. What was infamy in Espartero and Zurbano, is heroism and glory in Narvaez and Prim. What is more infamous than all this is the press, that thus displays itself in the light of a moral weathercock, shifting round to every wind."

Statistics of the Metropolitan Police.—By a return just issued in compliance with an order of the House of Commons relative to the City and Metropolitan Police Force, it appears that there are 20 superintendents in the metropolitan division, receiving from 200l. to 600l. per annum; 110 inspectors, whose salaries vary from 80l. to 200l. per annum; 465 sergeants, with incomes ranging from 60l. to 80l. per annum; and 3,790 constables, receiving from 44l. to 81l. per annum, including clothing and 40 pounds of coal weekly throughout the year. The amount paid on this account during the past year, including 3,620l. for superannuation and retiring allowances to officers and constables late of Bow-street horse patrol, and Thames police, amounted to 295,754l. In this is likewise included a sum of 9,721l. received from theatres, fairs, and races. The number of district surgeons is 60, and the amount paid for books, &c., is 757l. The total rate received during the past year from the various wards in the City of London and its liberties, for the maintenance of the City Police Force, is put down at 41,714l., and the expenditure at 41,315l., the gross pay, irrespective of other charges to the force, amounting to 29,800l.

[Pg 46]

Loss of the United States Steam Frigate "Missouri," at Gibraltar, by Fire.—The superb American steam frigate Missouri, which was conveying the Hon. Caleb Cushing, American minister at China, to Alexandra, whilst at anchor in Gibraltar bay, on the 26th ult., was entirely consumed by fire. The fire broke out in the night, and raged with such determined fury as to baffle all the efforts of the crew, as well as that of the assistance sent from her Majesty's ship Malabar, and from the garrison. The magazines were flooded soon after the commencement of the fire; and, although a great many shells burst, yet, very fortunately, no accident happened to any of the crew. This splendid steamer was 2,600 tons and 600 horse power, and is said to have cost 600,000 dollars.

The Alleged Arrest of the Murderer of Mr Dadd.—The following are the remarks of Galignani's Messenger on the report in the English papers that Dadd was arrested at Fontainbleau:—"The above statement has been partially rumoured in town for the last two days, but not in a shape to warrant our publishing it in the Messenger. The police have been everywhere active in their researches for the fugitive; and we perceive, by the Courrier de Lyons, that, on Thursday night, all the hotels in that city were visited by their agents, in pursuit of two Englishmen, one of them supposed to be the unfortunate lunatic. These individuals had, however, quitted the town on their way to Geneva, previously to the visit of the police."

The Cartoons.—We understand that several of the prize cartoons, and a selection of some of the most interesting of the works of the unsuccessful competitors, have been removed from Westminster hall to the gallery of the Pantechnicon, Belgrave square, for further exhibition.

Mackerel.—The Halifax papers state that the coast of Nova Scotia is now visited by mackerel and herrings in larger quantities than ever were known at this season. In the straits of Canso the people are taking them with seines, a circumstance without a parralel for the last 30 years.

The Journal des Chemins de Fer says:—"An inventor announces that he has found a composition which will reduce to a mere trifle the price of rails for railroads. He replaces the iron by a combination of Kaolin clay (that used for making pottery and china) with a certain metallic substance, which gives a body so hard as to wear out iron, without being injured by it in turn."



Friday Night.—We are still without the arrival of the Indian Mail, nor has any explanation of its detention transpired, except that which we mentioned last week. No serious apprehension exists for its safety, as similar detentions, of even much greater duration, have been experienced in the arrival of the September Mail in former years, as a consequence of the monsoon.

In Manchester, during the week, the market has been somewhat flatter in goods suited for the Eastern markets, in consequence of merchants being anxious to receive their advices by the Indian Mail before extending their transactions materially at present prices. In the Yorkshire woollen markets a fair trade continues to be done; and in Bradford a very active demand has arisen for the goods peculiar to that neighbourhood. In the Scotch seats of manufactures, both woollen and cotton, the trade has considerably improved, especially in the demand for tartans of all kinds, in which there is a very active and brisk trade. In the iron districts, the trade continues without change since our last: most of the works are full of orders, at low prices. In the coal districts, in Northumberland and Durham, trade is without any improvement whatever, and this trade, as well as their shipping, is in the most depressed condition.

INDIGO.—The transactions in this article have not been on a more extensive scale in our market than last week, but a good demand continues for the home trade, and occasionally a small advance upon the last July rates is paid on such sorts suitable for that branch, but there is almost no demand for export, the consumption of the article in foreign countries being this year unusually slack. The shipments to Russia, since the opening of the season, amount to only 2,209 chests, against 3,439 chests during the same time last year. A public sale was held yesterday, in Liverpool, of about 400 chests of East India, and 120 serons of Caracas. Of the former about 100 chests were withdrawn by the poprietors, but the remainder, together with the serons, sold briskly for the home trade, at prices about 3d. to 4d. per lb. higher than the previous nominal value, and rather above that of the London market. There are now 6,070 chests declared for the quarterly sale on the 10th of October; a great portion of it consists of good shipping sorts. It is supposed that several thousand chests more will be declared upon arrival of the Indian Mail, now due.

COCHINEAL.—Only two small public sales were held this week, together of 97 serons. The first consisted of 30 serons Mexican, mostly silver, which sold at prices from 2d. to 3d. per lb. higher than those of last week. The lowest price for ordinary foxy silver was 4s. 4d. per lb. The second sale was held at higher prices still, in consequence of which the whole quantity was bought in.

COTTON.—The purchases at Liverpool, for this week, will again reach the large quantity of about 40,000 bales, of which a considerable proportion is on speculation. Prices have been extremely firm, without any decided advance, however, there not being much importance attached, or faith given, to the statements that the American crop has suffered, which have been received by the Halifax and New York steamers, up to 1st inst. from the latter place.

In this market, business by private contract is again trifling. At public sales there have been offered 714 bales American, and 3,796 bales Surat; the former were held considerably above the value, and only 30 bales good fair were sold at 434d. in bond. Of the Surat about 2,300 bales found buyers, from 278d. to 318d. for middling, to 338d. to 312d. for fair; a few lots superior went at 358d. for good fair, and 4d. per lb. for good. The prices paid show an advance of 18d. to 14d. a lb. upon the last public sales of 24th August, and sustain the previous market rates, though the highest advance was conceded reluctantly, and not in many instances; there are buyers for low-priced cotton of every description, but there is little of it offering.

SUGAR.—The purchases for home consumption have been upon a limited scale, and prices barely maintained. The same remark applies to foreign sugar. Only one cargo of Porto Rico sugar has been sold afloat, for a near port, at 18s., with conditions favourable to the buyer. At public sale 630 chests Bahia, and 120 chests, and 240 barrels Pernambuco, were almost entirely bought in at extreme rates: since when only about 170 chests of the brown Bahia have been placed at an average of 17s. 6d., and with 50 chests of the lowest white at 21s. to 21s. 6d.; by private contract 300 chests old yellow Havannah, of good quality, sold at 20s.

COFFEE.—The home demand remains good; good and fine Jamaica fetched previous rates; a parcel of Ceylon, of somewhat better quality than the common run, sold at 51s. to 52s., which is rather dearer: very good Singapore Java sold at 36s. to 40s. In foreign Coffee a cargo of St Domingo has been sold afloat for Flanders at 26s. 6d. Two others being held above that price without finding a buyer, they have been sent on unsold. On the spot the transactions in coffee for export by private contract are quite insignificant, and of 650 bags old St Domingo via Cape, only a small proportion sold at 28s. to 30s. for pale bold good ordinary.

RICE.—About 4,000 bags of Bengal offered at public sale sold from 10s. to 11s. per cwt., establishing a decline of 3d. per cwt.

SALTPETRE.—The market is sparingly supplied, and importers do not sell except upon extreme rates, which have been paid for about 3,000 bags, viz. from 23s. 6d. for very ordinary, to 25s. 6d. for good middling.

CASSIA LIGNEA.—For small parcels offering in public sale full prices have been paid; fine by private contract as high as 70s.

PIMENTO.—Fair quality has been sold 212d. to 258d., which is rather dearer.

TALLOW.—The demand on the spot is not improved and the price unaltered, 41s. 9d. to 42s.; for forward delivery there is rather more disposition to purchase.

RUM.—The demand is very limited, except for the finest qualities of Jamaica, and common are rather cheaper.


The accounts received from the United States up to the first of this month by the Hibernia and Great Western are favourable as regards commerce. The manufactories in the Union are reported to be in a state of considerable prosperity, notwithstanding which the demand for imports was increasing. The reports about the cotton crops were various; it was admitted that the weather had latterly been favourable. Large arrivals of wheat and flour were expected in the ports from the West.

The commercial reports received this week from the continent of Europe do not show any great activity in foreign markets, though the prices of Colonial produce are well maintained. Sugar was somewhat more in demand both at Antwerp and Hamburg. In Coffee there was rather less doing at both places.

PRICES CURRENT, Sept. 16, 1843.

this day.
this day.
India Stock 266 Belgium Bonds 105
3 per Cent. Red Shut Brazilian Bonds 7412
3 per Cent. Consols Money 9434 Chilian Bonds, 6 per Cent.
312 per Cent. Annuity, 1818 Columbian Bonds, 6 per Cent. 1824 2533
312 per Cent. Red. Shut Dutch, 5 per Cent.
New 312 per Cent. Annuity 102 Ditto, 212 per Cent. Exchange 12 Guil. 5218
Long Annuities Shut Mexican Bonds, 1837, 5 per Cent. 34
Annuities, terminable July, 1859 Peruvian Bonds, 6 per Cent.
India Bonds 3 per Cent. 69s pm Portuguese 5 per Cent. Converted 4414
Exchequer Bills 134d. 69s pm Ditto 3 per Cent. Ditto
3 per Cent. Consols for Account 9118 Russian Bonds, 1822, 5 per Cent. 11412
Bank Stock for Account Shut Spanish Bonds, 5 per Cent. 1821, 1822 1818
    Ditto, Deferred 11
    Ditto, Passive 418


(From Messrs Gillies and Horne's Circular.)

Corn Exchange, Monday, Sept. 11.—The weather continued most beautiful here until yesterday, when we had some heavy thunder showers, and to-day is gloomy, damp and close. The wind, what little there is of it, is north. The arrivals during last week were moderate except of Foreign Wheat and Barley, of which of course there is yet some quantity to arrive. The new English Wheat coming soft in hand, is slow sale at 1s. to 2s. reduction—free Foreign finds buyers for mixing at last week's currency. Barley is dull sale at last week's rates. Oats are 6d. to 1s. lower. Some new Irish have appeared of fine quality. There is no change in Beans and Peas. Flour is the same as last week.

Wheat, Essex, Kent, Suffolk, white 59s to 61s Wheat, White, Spanish, Tuscan 52s to 59s
—— Lothian, Fife, Angus, do. 52s to 57s —— High mixed Danzig 58s to 61s
—— Inverness, Murray, &c. 52s to 57s —— Mixed do. 52s to 58s
—— Essex, Kent, Suffolk, red 54s to 57s —— Rostock, new 57s to 60s
—— Cambridge, Lincoln, red 54s to 57s —— Red Hamburg 52s to 55s
Barley, English Malting, and Chevalier —  — —— Polish Odessa 48s to 52s
—— Distiller's, English & Scotch —  — —— Hard —  —
—— Coarse, for grinding, &c. 28s to 30s —— Egyptian 32s to 37s
Oats, Northumberland & Berwick 21s to 23s Barley, Malting, &c. —  —
—— Lothian, Fife, Angus 21s to 23s —— Distiller's, &c. 28s  —
—— Murray, Ross 21s to 23s —— Grinding, &c. 28s to 29s
—— Aberdeen and Banff 21s to 23s Oats, Brew, &c. 21s to —
—— Caithness 21s to 23s —— Polands, &c. 22s to —
—— Cambridge, Lincoln, &c. 20s to 23s —— Feed, &c. 18s to —
—— Irish 17s to 19s —— Do, dried, Riga, &c. —  21s
—— English, black 18s to 21s Rye, Dried —  —
—— Irish " 17s to 21s —— Undried —  —
—— Potato, Scotch 23s to 26s Beans, Horse 30s to 34s
—— " Irish 19s to 22s —— Mediterranean 26s to 29s
—— Poland, Lincoln, &c. 21s to 24s Peas, White 34s to —
Beans, Ticks 30s to 31s —— Yellow —  35s
—— Harrow 31s to 34s Flour, French, per 280 lbs. nett weight —  —
—— Small 32s to 34s —— American, per Bar. 196 lbs. nett weight —  —
Peas, White 36s to 38s —— Danzig, &c. do. do. —  —
—— Boilers —  — —— Canada, do. do. 29s to 29s
Flour, Town made Households 50s to 53s —— Sour, do. do. —  —
—— Norfolk and Suffolk 40s to 42s    

Corn Exchange, Friday, Sept. 15.—The weather threatened to be stormy yesterday, the barometer fell, and we had some heavy drops of rain, but it has since cleared up, and to-day is 10 degrees warmer and beautifully clear, with the wind south east. In Ireland and Scotland there was a good deal of rain on Sunday and Monday, which (we understand) stopped the harvest work for the time, but we hope by this time they have it fine again. The new English Wheat comes to hand softer and lighter than at first; as usual after being stacked, the yield is much complained of, besides that many of the stacks got so soaked by the heavy rains of the 21st and 23rd of August, that the condition of the Wheat is sadly spoiled. The arrivals are moderate this week, except of Irish Oats, several small parcels of which are of the new crop; there is also a small parcel of new Scotch Barley in fine condition, and new Scotch Oats, also good. Almost all the Wheat has been entered at the 14s. duty; we believe it is over 300,000 qrs. New English Wheat is dull sale: Foreign, on the other hand, is more inquired for, and not to be purchased in any quantity except at 1s. advance. Barley is saleable in retail at Monday's prices. Oats are again 6d. cheaper than on Monday, except for very fine samples. The averages lead us to suppose that on the 21st instant the duty on Foreign Wheat will rise to 16s. per qr.; on Barley it will remain 6s.; on Oats 6s.; on Rye it will rise to 9s. 6d.; on Beans it will remain 10s. 6d.; and on Peas, 9s. 6d.

For the week ending September 12.
Wheat. Barley. Oats. Rye. Beans. Peas.
4.113 qrs. 345 qrs. 25,600 qrs. 50 qrs. 147 qrs. 132 qrs.
51s. 6d. 32s. 2d. 18s. 9d. 30s. 2d. 30s. 2d. 42s. 1d.
  Wheat. Barley. Oats. Rye. Beans. Peas.
Weeks ending s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d. s. d.
Aug. 10th 60 9 32 4 21 5 37 1 31 9 31 4
— 17th 61 2 32 11 21 9 38 7 32 1 33 7
— 24th 59 9 33 11 21 5 37 1 32 6 34 9
— 31st 56 8 32 11 20 7 31 8 31 10 33 9
Sept. 7th 54 2 31 11 20 5 31 1 32 4 32 1
— 14th 53 0 31 11 19 7 31 3 31 9 33 8
Aggregate of six weeks 57 7 32 8 20 10 34 6 32 0 33 8
Duties till Sept. 20th inclu.
On Grain from B. Possession
15 0 6 0 6 0 8 6 10 6 9 6
out of Europe 2 0 0 6 2 0 0 6 1 6 1 0
Flour—Foreign, 9s. 0d. per 196lbs.—British possession, 1s. 2d. ditto.


The average price of brown or Muscovado sugar for the week ending September 12, 1843, is 34s. 134d. per cwt., exclusive of the duties of Customs paid or payable thereon on the importation thereof into Great Britain.


Monday.—There was a considerable and beneficial improvement in trade to-day for everything, but not, however, permanent; at least, the causes which produced the change this morning would not authorise a different conclusion, and the salesmen of the market, although looking forward to a very fair state of things next Monday, do not anticipate that the improvement will last the next succeeding Monday. It appears that London is clear of meat, the which, with small supplies of everything to-day, is the sole immediate cause of the improvement, for, notwithstanding that the market was well attended by both town and country butchers and stock-takers, they, nevertheless, at the opening of the market, appeared disposed to purchase briskly, on the supposition, according to the returns of over-night, that the supplies were large, but when this statement was discovered to be erroneous they then bought freely, and higher prices were more readily given.

Friday.—In consequence of the supply of beasts on sale being large for the time of year, we have to report a very heavy demand for beef, and in some instances the quotations declined 2d. per 8 lbs. From Scotland nearly 200 lots were received fresh up. Prime old downs maintained their previous value; but that of all other kinds of sheep had a downward tendency. In lambs very little was doing, at barely Monday's quotations.[Pg 47] Calves moved off heavily, at a reduction of 2d. per 8 lbs. The pork trade was unusually dull, at previous currencies. Milch cows sold slowly at from 16l. to 20l. each.

Prices per Stone. At Market.
  Monday.   Friday.   Monday. Friday.
Beef 3s 0d to 4s 2d ... 2s 8d to 4s 0d Beasts 2,840 800
Mutton 3s 2d to 4s 4d ... 2s 10d to 4s 4d Calves 149 373
Veal 3s 6d to 4s 8d ... 3s 6d to 4s 6d Sheep and Lambs 32,840 9,210
Pork 3s 6d to 4s 8d ... 3s 0d to 3s 10d Pigs 410 326
Lamb 4s 0d to 5s 0d ... 3s 4d to 4s 8d      
Prices of Hay and Straw, per load of 36 trusses.
Hay, 3l. 5s. 0d. to 4l. 8s. 0d. Clover, 4l. 4s. 0d. to 5l. 8s. 0d. Straw, 1l. 18s. 0d. to 2l. 4s. 0d.


Monday.—There was no business whatever transacted during last week, and even the duty remains without fluctuation. In this state of inactivity the effects of the Metropolitan Total Abstinence movement was a topic of interest to the trade. As it appears that nearly 70,000 persons took the pledge, the consumption of malt liquor must seriously diminished, and the demand for Hops will consequently be very considerably decreased. It is fortunate, therefore, for the planters that this year's growth is not large, otherwise the prices would have been seriously low, and although that crop is not only about an average, yet from this diminished consumption, which is likely to progress, the value of the new will not be more than last year, and possibly even less. There have been a few small lots of 1843's at market, which go off very slowly.

Friday.—About ten pockets of new hops have been disposed of this week at from 7l. to 8l. per cwt. We are now almost daily expecting large supplied from Kent and Sussex, as picking is now going on rapidly. In old hops scarcely any business is doing, while the duty is called 150,000l.


Sept. 14.—A large amount of business has been transacted in cotton at this day's market. The sales, inclusive of 5,000 American bought on speculation, have consisted of 10,000 bales.

Sept. 15.—We have a fair inquiry for Cotton this morning, and there is no change whatever in the general temper of the market.


Buddle's West Hartley, 15s.; Davison's West Hartley, 15s. 6d.; Fenham, 13s. 6d.; Hastings Hartley, 15s.; Holywell Main, 15s. 6d.; New Tanfield, 14s.; Ord's Redheugh, 12s. 6d.; Pontop Windsor, 12s. 6d.; Tanfield Moor, 16s. 6d.; West Pelton, 12s. 9d,; West Hartley, 15s. 6d.; West Wylam, 14s. 6d.; Wylam, 14s. 6d. Wall's End:—Clennell, 14s. 6d.; Clarke and Co, 14s.; Hilda, 15s. 6d.; Riddell's, 16s. 9d.; Braddyll's Hetton, l8s. 9d.; Haswell, 19s.; Hetton, 18s. 6d.; Lambton, 18s. 3d.; Morrison, 16s.; Russell's Hetton, 18s,; Stewart's, 18s. 6d.; Whitwell, 17s.; Cassop, 18s.; Hartlepool, 16s. 6d.; Heselden, 16s, 6d.; Quarrington, 17s.; Trimdon, 17s. 6d.; Adelaide, 18s.; Barrett, 16s. 9d.; Bowburn, 15s. 6d.; South Durham, 17s.; Tees, 17s. 9d.; Cowpen Hartley, 15s. 6d.; Lewis's Merthyr, 19s. 6d.; Killingworth, 16s. Fifty-nine ships arrived since last day.


Tuesday, September 12.


J. Halls, Wilkes street, Spitalfields, braid manufacturer.—J. Brooke, Liverpool, cupper.—J. Thorburn, Hillhouse, Yorkshire, warehouseman.—J. Allwright, Basingstoke, Hampshire, boot maker.—J. Bland, Leeds, eatinghouse keeper.—W.S. Lawrence, Essex place, Grange-road, Dalston, out of business.—T. Leete, Finedon, Northamptonshire, butcher.—W, Simpson, Elland Upper Edge, Yorkshire, woollen spinner.—D. M'George, Huddersfield, tea dealer.—W. Hall, Cockhill, Wiltshire, out of business.—T. Mercer, Wansdon house, Fulham, out of business.—W. Elliott, Berners street, Oxford street, waiter at an hotel.—C.T. Jones, Charles street, Berkeley square, out of business.—T. Price, Cardiff road, Monmouthshire, coal dealer.—W. Williams, Newport, Monmouthshire, out of business.—W.G. Still, High street, Poplar, hair dresser.—T. Cook, Giltspur street, City, tailor.—J. Mayson, Marlborough road, Old Kent road, commission agent.—D. Taylor, Meltham, Yorkshire, licensed tea dealer.—W.W. Greaves, Newark-upon-Trent, Nottinghamshire, corn dealer.—C.H. Balls, Beccles, Suffolk, chemist.—J. Chapman (commonly known as J. Fitzjames), Bridges street, Covent garden, comedian.


JONES, T., Liverpool, coal dealer.


SHARP, R., jun., Faversham, Kent, draper. [Reed and Shaw, Friday street, Cheapside.

PEARSALL, C., Anderton, Cheshire, boiler maker. [Sharp and Co., Bedford row.

JOHNSON, T., late of Great Bridge, Staffordshire, draper. [Messrs Nicolls and Pardoe, Bewdley.

HOLT, W.J.; Grantham, Lincolnshire, tea dealer. [Messrs Hill and Matthews, St Mary Axe.


J.O. Palmer, Liverpool, music seller—first dividend of 6s. in the pound, any Wednesday after December 1, payable at 31 Basinghall street, City.—D. Ellis, Haverhill, Suffolk, draper—first dividend of 5s. 10d. in the pound, any Wednesday after December 1, payable at 31 Basinghall street.—P.J. Papillon, Leeds, wine merchant—first dividend of 2s. in the pound, on any Monday or Wednesday after October 4, payable at 15 Benson's buildings, Basinghall street, Leeds.—E. Cragg, Kendal, Westmoreland, innkeeper—first dividend of 2s. in the pound, on October 7, or on any succeeding Saturday, payable at 57 Grey street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.


October 5, T. and J. Parker, J. Rawlinson, W. Abbott, J. Hanson, J. Bell, T. Chadwick, A. Emsley, R. Kershaw, J. Musgrave, J. Wooller, T. Pullan, J. Shaw, G. Eastburn, and D. Dixon, Leeds, dyers.—October 10, T. Bell, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, tea dealer.—October 10, J.G. Pallister and J.M.B. Newrick, Sunderland, Durham, grocers.—October 4, J. Fletcher, Maryport, Cumberland, boiler manufacturer.—October 11, J. Todd. Hylton ferry, Durham, ship builder.—October 3, J. Parke, Liverpool, druggist.—October 4, S. Boult and T. Addison, Liverpool, stock brokers.—October 7, T. Bourne, Liverpool, cotton broker.—October 14, H. Merridew, Coventry, ribbon manufacturer.


October 5, F. Robert, New Bond street, and Gower street North, coal merchant.—October 5, J. Bowie, Shoe lane, City, grocer.—October 14, J. Barnes, 14 Commercial place. Commercial road, engineer.—October 4, J. Davies, Westminster road, Lambeth, linendraper.—October 11, M. Jackson, East Thickley Steam mill, Durham, miller.—October 10, J. Todd, Hylton ferry, Durham, ship builder.—October 3, J. Gallop, jun., Bedminster, Bristol, painter.—October 12, G.B. Worboys, Bristol, perfumer.—October 4, R. Crosbie, Sutton, Cheshire, tea dealer.—October 7, C. Holebrook, Uttoxeter, Staffordshire, plumber.—October 17, J. Hedderly, Nottingham, druggist.—October 5, J. Oates, Glossop, Derbyshire, innkeeper.


W. Pugh, Gloucester, auctioneer.—J. Lockwood, Wakefield, Yorkshire, and St. John's, New Brunswick, linendraper.—H. Francis, Feoek, Cornwall, agent.—G. Chapman, Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, grocer.—E. Wheeler, Birmingham, corn dealer.—J. A. Boden, Sheffield, razor manufacturer.—W. Woodward, Birmingham, tailor.—S. J. Manning, 28 Camomile street, City, and Halleford, near Shepperton, manufacturer of bitters.


Elizabeth O'Connor and Mary Rossiter, Brighton, Sussex, milliners.—C. Weatherley and H. O'Neil, Wilkes street, Spitalfields, and Ferdinand street, Camden town, fancy trimming manufacturers.—H.I. Isaacs and D. Israel, Duke street, Aldgate, City, poulterers.—J. Davis and A. Mottram, Warrington, Lancashire, timber merchants,—M. Fortier and Emile and Anna Levilly, Bruton street, Berkeley square, milliners.—T. and G. Stevenson, Dudley, Worcestershire, tailors.—D. Israel and J. Lyons, St Mary-axe, City, trunk makers.—W. Fairbairn, J. Hetherington, and J. Lee, Manchester, machine makers.—E. Archer, H. Ewbank, jun., and A.P.W. Philip, Gravel lane, Southwark, Surrey.—J.M. Pott and J. Midworth, Newark-upon-Trent, auctioneers.—T.P. Holden, T. Parker, and W. Burrow, Liverpool, upholsterers (as regards W. Burrow).—W.L. Springett, T. Beale, and E. Kine, Southwark, Surrey, hop merchants (as regards W.L. Springett).


A. Dunn, Keithock Mills, near Coupar-Angus, farmer.—D. M'Intyre, jun., Fort William, merchant.

Friday, September 15.

GREENSLADE, W., Gray's inn lane, builder. [Oldershaw, King's Arms yard.

BONE, G.B., Camberwell, builder. [Meymott and Sons, Blackfriars road.

LEWIS, R.W., Shenfield, Essex, farmer. [Watson and Co., Falcon square.

PHILLIPS, S., Brook street, Hanover square, carpet warehousman. [Reed and Shaw, Friday street, Cheapside.

PINO, T.P., Liverpool, ship chandler. [Chester and Toulmin, Staple inn.

HOOLE, W., Sheffield, leather dresser. [Branson, Sheffield.

CAMBRIDGE, R.J., Cheltenham, wine merchant. [Packwood, Cheltenham.

METCALF, E., Middlesbrough, Yorkshire, currier. [Blackburn, Leeds.

DUFFIELD, C., Bath, grocer [Jay, Serjeants' inn.

POPPLETON, C., York, linen manufacturer. [Blackburn, Leeds.

LISTER, J.C., Wolverhampton, wine merchant. [Phillips and Bolton, Wolverhampton.


J. Brooke, Liverpool, cupper.—J. Thorburn, Hillhouse, Yorkshire, warehouseman.—J. Bland, Leeds, eating house keeper.—W.S. Lawrence, Essex place, Hackney, bank clerk.—T. Leete, Finedon, Northamptonshire, butcher.—W. Simpson, Elland Upper Edge, Yorkshire, woollen-spinner.—W. Hall, Cockhill, Wiltshire.—D. M'George, Huddersfield, tea dealer.—T. Mercer, Wansdown house, Fulham—W. Elliott, Berner's street, Oxford street, waiter.—C.T. Jones, Charles street, Berkeley square.—T. Price, Cardiffmouth, coal dealer.—W. Williams, George street, Newport.—W. G. Still, High street, Poplar, tobacconist.—T. Cook, Giltspur street, City, tailor,—J. Mayson, Marlborough road, Old Kent road, commission agent.—D. Taylor, Aldmondbury, Yorkshire, tea dealer.—W.W. Greaves, Newark-upon-Trent, corn dealer.—C. H. Balls, Ringsfield, Suffolk, chemist.—J. Chapman, Bridges street, Covent garden, comedian.—J. Robinson, Edmonton, butcher.—G. Dickinson, Chenies mews, Bedford square, coach painter.—J. Murphy, Gloucestershire, coachman.—J. Burnham, Harrold, Bedfordshire, chemist.—W.L. Phillips, Kennington green, omnibus proprietor.—J.D. Lockhart, Poplar, tobacconist.—J. Wilkinson, Cheltenham, licensed victualler.—J.D. Hubbarde, Wakefield, printer.—J. Ames, Holywell, Flintshire, licensed victualler.—S. Bone, Greenwich, cabinet maker.—J. Davis, Great Bolton, Lancashire, sawyer.—J. Pollard, Batley, Yorkshire, blanket manufacturer.—S. M'Millan, Llangollen, Denbighshire, tea dealer.—S. Brook, Birstal, Yorkshire, grocer.—F. Wormald, Birstal, Yorkshire, blacksmith.—W. Barnes, Knightsbridge, shopkeeper.—H. Manley, Belvidere buildings, St George the Martyr, Surrey, coach builder.—W. Jeffery, Queen street, Brompton, horse dealer.—R.W. Webb, Saville row, Walworth road, attorney.


On the 10th inst., in Milman street, Bedford row, the wife of S.S. Teulon, Esq. of a son.

On the 13th inst., at Nottingham place, the wife of Thomas A.H. Dickson, Esq., of a son.


At St George's Church, Hanover square, Miss Louisa Georgina Augusta Anne Murray, only daughter of General the Right Honourable Sir George Murray, G.C.B., Master-General of the Ordnance, to Henry George Boyce, Esq., of the 2nd Life Guards, eldest son of Mr and the late Lady Amelia Boyce.

On the 13th inst., at Kintbury, Berks, Lieutenant-Colonel J.A. Butler, to Martha, daughter of the late William Bruce Smith, Esq., of Starborough Castle, Surrey.

On the 13th inst., at Rickmansworth Church, John, second son of Thomas Weall, Esq., of Woodcote Lodge, Beddington, to Susanna, eldest daughter of W. White, Esq., of Chorleywood.


On the 7th inst., aged 69 years, the Rev. William Porter, who was for 44 years minister of the Presbyterian congregation of Newtownlimavady; for fourteen years clerk to the General Synod of Ulster; the first moderator of the Remonstrant Synod, and clerk to the same reverend body since its formation.

At Bath, General W. Brooke. The deceased general, who had served with distinction throughout the Peninsular war, had been upwards of fifty years in the army.

On Sunday, the 10th instant, after a lengthened illness, at the family residence in Great George street, Mr John Crocker Bulteel. He married, May 13, 1826, Lady Elizabeth Grey, second daughter of Earl Grey, by whom he leaves a youthful family. Lady Elizabeth Bulteel, who is inconsolable at her bereavement, has gone to Viscount Howick's residence, near Datchet.



King William-street, London. Empowered by Act of Parliament.

George Frederick Young, Esq., Chairman.
Mathew Forster, Esq. M.P. Deputy Chairman.

The superiority of the system of Assurance adopted by this Company, will be found in the fact that the premium required by a bonus office to assure 1,000l. on the life of a person in the 20th year of his age would in this office insure 1,291l. 7s. 6d.

Assurances at other ages are effected on equally favourable terms, and thus the assured has an immediate bonus instead of a chance dependent upon longevity and the profits of an office. In cases of assurance for a limited number of years, the advantage offered by this Company is still greater, no part of the profits of a bonus office being ever allotted to such assurances.

Prospectuses, containing tables framed to meet the circumstances of all who desire to provide for themselves or those who may survive them by assurance, either of fixed sums or annuities, may be had at the office as above, or of the agents.


H. WALKER'S NEEDLES (by authority the "Queen's own"), in the illustrated Chinese boxes, are now in course of delivery to the trade. The needles have large eyes, easily threaded (even by blind persons), and improved points, temper, and finish. Each paper is labelled with a likeness of her Majesty or his Royal Highness Prince Albert, in relief on coloured grounds. Every quality of needles, fish hooks, hooks and eyes, steel pens, &c. for shipping. These needles or pens for the home trade are sent, free by post, by any respectable dealer, on receipt of 13 penny stamps for every shilling value.—H. Walker, manufacturer to the Queen, 20 Maiden lane, Wood street, London.


THE WESTMINSTER MARBLE COMPANY have now completed their Machinery, which will enable them in future to supply every variety of Marble Work at a considerable reduction in price.

A neat Box Belgium Marble Chimney-piece, with Moulded Caps, 3 feet high, can be supplied from 1l. to 2l.

A Best Vein Marble Chimney-piece, from 2l. to 3l.

A liberal commission for all orders will be allowed to the Trade; and those persons wishing to act as Agents, can have a Book of Designs forwarded by enclosing Twenty Postage Stamps.

Direct, "The Westminster Marble Company, Earl street, Horseferry road."

CARRIAGES.—The attention of Gentlemen about purchasing, or having carriages to dispose of, is invited to MARKS and Co.'s London Carriage Repository, Langham place. An immense stock, new and second hand, by eminent builders, is always on sale, and a candid opinion of each carriage will be given as to its quality and condition. Invalid carriages for any journey. Carriages to be let on yearly job.

WONDERFUL CURE!—Read the following interesting facts, communicated by Mr Brown, bookseller, Gainsborough:—

"To Messrs T. Roberts and Co. Crane court, Fleet street, London, Proprietors of Parr's Life Pills.


"West Stockwith, Aug. 11, 1843.

"I, James Jackson Easton, do hereby testify, that, by taking your excellent Parr's Life Pills, I have derived greater benefit than in using all the other medicines I have tried since 1841; about which time I was attacked with severe illness, accompanied with excruciating pain and trembling, with large rupture. For the last six months I have had no return of this illness, nor the least appearance of the last-mentioned symptom. Through the mercy of God, I do at present feel perfectly recovered from it. I still continue the occasional use of your excellent Pills.—I am gentlemen, respectfully yours,


Sold by all respectable medicine venders, in boxes at 1s. 112d. 2s. 9d. and 11s.—See the words "Parr's Life Pills," in white letters on a red ground, engraved on the Government stamp.

[Pg 48]

EUROPEAN LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY, No. 10 Chatham place, Blackfriars, London.

Established, January, 1819.
Sir James Rivett Carnac, Bart.
George Forbes, Esq. No. 9 Fitzroy square.
With Twelve Directors.

Facilities are offered by this long-established Society to suit the views and the means of every class of insurers. Premiums are received yearly, half-yearly, or quarterly, or upon an increasing or decreasing scale. An insurance of 100l. may be effected on the ascending scale by an annual premium for the first five years of 1l. 9s. at the age of 25; 1l. 12s. 6d. at 30; 1l. 17s. at 35; 2l. 2s 5d. at 40; and 2l. 9s. 6d. at 45; or, one-half only of the usual rate, with interest on the remainder, will be received for five or seven years, the other half to be paid at the convenience of the assured.

The insured for life participate septennially; in the profits realised.

A liberal commission is allowed to Solicitors and Agents.

DAVID FOGGO, Secretary.

N.B. Agents are wanted in towns where none have yet been appointed.

BRITANNIA LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY, 1 Princes street, Bank, London.

Empowered by Special Act of Parliament, IV Vict. cap. IX.

William Bardgett, Esq.
Samuel Bevington, Esq.
Wm. Fechney Black, Esq.
John Brightman, Esq.
George Cohen, Esq.
Millis Coventry, Esq.
John Drewett, Esq.
Robert Eglinton, Esq.
Erasmus Rt. Foster, Esq.
Alex. Robert Irvine, Esq.
Peter Morison, Esq.
Henry Lewis Smale, Esq.
Thomas Teed, Esq.

J.B. Bevington, Esq.; F.P. Cockerill, Esq.; J.D. Dow, Esq.

John Clendinning, M.D. F.R.S. 16 Wimpolestreet, Cavendish square.

The Hon. John Ashley, New square, Lincoln's inn.
Mr Serjeant Murphy, M.P. Temple.

William Bevan, Esq. Old Jewry.

Messrs Drewett and Fowler, Princes street, Bank.

This Institution is empowered by a special Act of Parliament, and is so constituted as to afford the benefits of Life Assurance in their fullest extent to Policy-holders, and to present greater facilities and accommodation than are usually offered by other Companies.

Assurances may either be effected by Parties on their own Lives, or by Parties interested therein on the Lives of Others.

The effect of an Assurance on a person's own life is to create at once a Property in Reversion, which can by no other means be realized. Take, for instance, the case of a person at the age of Thirty, who, by the payment of 5l. 3s. 4d. to the Britannia Life Assurance Company, can become at once possessed of a bequeathable property, amounting to 1,000l., subject only to the condition of his continuing the same payment quarterly during the remainder of his life—a condition which may be fulfilled by the mere saving of Eight Shillings weekly in his expenditure. Thus, by the exertion of a very slight degree of economy—such indeed, as can scarcely be felt as an inconvenience, he may at once realise a capital of 1,000l., which he can bequeath or dispose of in any way he may think proper.

A Table of Decreasing Rates of Premium on a novel and remarkable plan; the Policy-holder having the option of discontinuing the payment of all further Premiums after Twenty, Fifteen, Ten, and even Five years; and the Policy still remaining in force—in the first case, for the full amount originally assured; and in either of the three other cases, for a portion of the same according to a fixed and equitable scale endorsed upon the Policy.

Increasing Rates of Premium on a new and remarkable plan for securing Loans or Debts; a less immediate payment being required on a Policy for the whole term of Life than in any other Office.

Age of the Assured in every case admitted in the Policy.

All claims payable within one Month after proof of death.

Medical Attendants remunerated in all cases for their reports.

Extract from Increasing Rates of Premium, for an Assurance of 100l. for Whole Term of Life.

Age Annual Premiums payable during
1st Five
2nd Five
3rd Five
4th Five
of Life.
  £. s. d. £. s. d. £. s. d. £. s. d. £. s. d.
20 1 1 4 1 5 10 1 10 11 1 16 9 2 3 8
30 1 6 4 1 12 2 1 19 1 2 7 4 2 17 6
40 1 16 1 2 4 4 2 14 6 3 7 3 4 3 4
50 2 16 7 3 9 4 4 5 5 5 6 3 6 13 7

Detailed Prospectuses, and every requisite information as to the mode of effecting Assurances, may be obtained at the Office.

PETER MORRISON, Resident Director.

A Board of Directors attend daily at Two o'clock, for the despatch of Business.

PANCLIBANON IRON WORKS, BAZAAR, No. 58 BAKER STREET, PORTMAN SQUARE. LONDON.—Gentlemen about to furnish, or going abroad, will find it worth their attention to look into the above Establishment, where they will find the largest assortment of General Furnishing Ironmongery ever offered to the Public, consisting of tin, copper, and iron cooking utensils, table cutlery, best Shffield plate, German silver wares, papier machee tea trays, tea and coffee urns, stove grates, kitchen ranges, fenders and fire-irons, baths of all kinds, shower, hot, cold, vapour, plunging, &c. Ornamental iron and wire works for conservatories, lawns, &c. and garden engines. All articles are selected of the very best description, and offered at exceedingly low prices, for cash only; the price of each article being made in plain figures.

LIMBIRD'S MAGNUM BONUM PENS.—One dozen highly-finished Steel Pens, with Holder, in a box, for 6d.; name-plate engraved for 2s. 6d.; 100 cards printed for 2s. 6d,; crest and name engraved on visiting card for 6s.; arms and crests for book plates on the most reasonable terms; travelling writing-desks at 9s. 6d. 10s. 6d. 12s. 6d. and 14s 6d. each; dressing-cases from 6s. 6d. each; blotting-books in great variety, from 9d.; with locks, 2s. each; royal writing-papers—diamond, five quires for 1s. 2d.; the Queen's and Prince Albert's size, five quires for 1s. 6d.; envelopes, 6d. 9d. and 1s. the 100; and every article in stationery, of the best quality and lowest prices, at Limbird's, 143 Strand, facing Catherine street.

PIANOFORTES.—Messrs MOORE and CO. Makers of the Improved Pianofortes, are now selling their delightful Instruments as follows:—A Mahogany Piccolo, the best that can be made, in a plain but fashionable case, only 28l.; a 612 Octave ditto, only 32l.; a Cottage ditto, only 32l.; a 612 Octave Cottage ditto, only 38l. Cabinets of all descriptions. All warranted of the very best quality, packed free of expense, and forwarded to any part of the world. Some returned from hire at reduced prices.

Moore and Co. 138 Bishopsgate street Without, near Sun steet.

Just Published, Two thick Volumes, 8vo. illustrated with Six large important Maps, 4l. cloth,

A DICTIONARY, GEOGRAPHICAL, STATISTICAL, and HISTORICAL, of the various Countries, Places and principal Natural Objects in the WORLD. By J.R. M'Culloch, Esq.

"The extent of information this Dictionary affords on the subjects referred to in its title is truly surprising. It cannot fail to prove a vade-mecum to the student, whose inquiries will be guided by its light, and satisfied by its clear and frequently elaborated communications. Every public room in which commerce, politics, or literature, forms the subject of discussion, ought to be furnished with these volumes."—Globe.

London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans.

Just published in 8vo. price 2s. 6d.

RAILWAY REFORM—Its Expediency, Practicability, and Importance Considered, with a copious Appendix, containing an account of all the Railways in Great Britain and Ireland, Parliamentary Returns, &c.

"An excellent pamphlet."—Morning Herald.

"The subject is very fully, earnestly, and ably investigated."—Morning Advertiser.

"Remarkable for originality of design, boldness of execution, and minuteness in statistical detail."—Sun.

"We would recommend all who have an interest in Railways to purchase this work."—Sentinel.

Pelham Richardson, Cornhill.


Just published, Seventh Edition, price 2s. 6d. or free by post for 3s. 6d.

SELF-PRESERVATION; a popular Essay on the Concealed Causes of Nervous Debility, Local and General Weakness, Indigestion, Lowness of Spirits, Mental Irritability, and Insanity; with Practical Observations on their Treatment and Cure. By Samuel La'Mert, Consulting Surgeon, 9 Bedford street, Bedford square, London; Matriculated Member of the University of Edinburgh; Honorary Member of the London Hospital Medical Society; Licentiate of Apothecaries' Hall, London, &c.

Published by the Author; and sold in London by S. Gilbert, 51 and 52 Paternoster row; Field, 65 Quadrant; Gordon, 146 Leadenhall street; Noble, 109 Chancery lane; and by all Booksellers.

"The design of this work will be tolerably obvious from its title, and we cordially recommend the author and his book to all who are suffering from nervous debility and general weakness. Mr La'Mert has treated the subject in a very scientific and intelligible manner."—Wakefield Journal.

At home every day till Three, and from Five till Eight.


Just Published, in a Sealed Envelope, Price 3s.; and sent free, on receiving a Post office Order for 3s. 6d.

MANHOOD; the CAUSES of its PREMATURE DECLINE, with Plain Directions for its PERFECT RESTORATION; followed by Observations on Marriage, and the Treatment of Mental and Nervous Debility, Incapacity, Warm Climate, and Cure of the Class of Diseases resulting therefrom. Illustrated with Cases, &c. By J.L. Curtis and Co. Consulting Surgeons, London. Fourteenth Edition.

Published by the Authors; and Sold by Burgess, Medical Bookseller, 28 Coventry street, Haymarket; Mann, 39 Cornhill; Strange, 21 Paternoster row, London; Guest, 51 Bull street, Birmingham; Hickling, Coventry; Robinson, Leamington; Journal office, Leicester; Cook, Chronicle office, Oxford; Sowler, 4 St Anne's square, Manchester; Philip, South Castle street, Liverpool; and sold, in a Sealed Envelope, by all Booksellers.


"This work, a Tenth Edition of which is now presented to the public—ten thousand copies have been exhausted since its first appearance—has been very much improved and enlarged by the addition of a more extended and clear detail of general principles, as also by the insertion of several new and highly interesting cases. The numberless instances daily occurring, wherein affections of the lungs, putting on all the outer appearances of consumption, which, however, when traced to their source, are found to result from certain baneful habits, fully proves that the principle of the division of labour is nowhere more applicable than in medical practice. We feel no hesitation in saying, that there is no member of society by whom the book will not be found useful, whether such person holds the relation of a parent, a preceptor, or a clergyman."—Sun, Evening Paper.

"Messrs Curtis's work, called 'Manhood,' is one of the few books now coming before the public on such a subject which can lay claim to the character of being strictly professional, at the same time that it is fully intelligible to all who read it. The moral and medical precepts given in it render it invaluable."—Magnet.

Messrs Curtis and Co. are to be consulted daily at their residence, 7 Frith street, Soho square, London.

Country Patients are requested to be as minute as possible in the details of their cases. The communication must be accompanied by the usual Consultation Fee of 1l.; and in all cases the most inviolable secrecy may be relied on.


P.L. SIMMONDS, Advertising Agent, receives regularly files of all the NEWSPAPERS published in the British Colonies and possessions beyond the seas, which are preserved for the facility of reference and inspection, and sent when requested to parties for perusal.

Also various German, French, Italian, American, and other Foreign Journals.

Orders and Advertisements received for every Foreign and European Publication.

PHOTOGRAPHY.—Great Improvements having been recently effected in this interesting and extraordinary science by Mr BEARD, the patentee, in the process of TAKING and COLOURING LIKENESSES, the public are particularly invited to an inspection of varieties, at the establishment, 85 King William street, City; Royal Polytechnic Institution; and 34 Parliament street, where exchanges for new in lieu of old portraits may be had, on payment of 5s. Colouring small busts, 5s.


Capital, £100,000.
Charge Hugge Price, Esq.
James Francis Maubert, Esq.
Thomas Fowler, Esq.
Major-General Parlby, C.B.

TO Officers of her Majesty's service (both civil and military), secretaries, clerks, and all others holding, or about to hold, confidential and responsible situations, this Society presents immediate facilities for obtaining surety, or integrity, upon payment of a small annual premium, and by which relatives and friends are relieved from the various pecuniary responsibilities attendant on private suretiships.

The surety of this Society is accepted by the War Office (for payment of regiments and of pensioners), the Ordnance, East India Company, the Customs, the Bank of England, and numerous banking, mercantile, and commercial firms, both in London and in the country.

Forms of application and every information may be obtained at the Offices, 28 Poultry, London.


NATURAL MINERAL WATERS.—E. H. DUHAMEL and Co. 7 Duke street, Grosvenor square, have constantly on sale the undernamed Natural Mineral Waters, which they can supply fresh and genuine at a very reasonable price.

Barèges Cheltenham Malvern Schwalbach
Bath Ems Marienbad Sedlitz
Bonnes Fachingen Pullna Selters
Bristol Harrogate Pyrmont Spa
Cauterets Kissengen Saidschutz Vichy, &c.

Genuine Eau de Cologne, digestive Pastilles de Vichy, and various foreign articles of Pharmacy. E.H.D. and Co. are the only agents for the Copahine-Mège, and for J. Jourdain, Mège and Co.'s Dragées Minérales and Dragées Carboniques for effervescing lemonade, and also for their Pilules Carboniques, preventive of sea sickness and vomitings of every description.

The Dragées Minérales, with which a tumbler of mineral water can be instantaneously produced, are considered as the best substitute to the genuine waters, when these cannot be procured and have the advantage of being much cheaper.


WOOD PAVING.—The Letters Patent granted to me, DAVID STEAD, for paving with Wooden Blocks being the first Patent obtained on the subject, and rendering all subsequent Patents for the same object void, have, after a long investigation at Liverpool, been declared valid, notwithstanding the most resolute opposition against me by the real defendants in the case—the Metropolitan Wood Paving Company.

I therefore warn all Public Authorities and persons using, or assisting in using Wooden Blocks for Paving, that such infringement upon my Patent will be suppressed; but I am prepared (as is my Licencee, Mr Blackie), to execute any extent of Wood Paving of any description upon contract, and also to grant licenses for the adoption and promotion of the great advantage and benefits of Wood Paving in London, and all parts of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

For terms, parties may apply to me, or to my solicitor, Mr John Duncan, 72 Lombard street, London, or to Mr A.B. Blackie, No. 250 Strand.


250 Strand, London, Sept. 4, 1843.

(Abridged from the Liverpool Albion.)

This was an action for an infringement of a patent for the paving of roads, streets, &c. with timber or wooden blocks. Mr Martin and Mr Webster were for the plaintiff; Mr Warren and Mr Hoggins for the defendants; Mr John Duncan, of 72 Lombard street, was the solicitor for the plaintiff.

The plaintiff is Mr David Stead, formerly a merchant of the City of London; the defendants are, nominally, Mr Lewis Williams, and several others, who are the surveyors of streets and paving at Manchester; but the action was really against the Metropolitan Wood Paving Company.

About the year 1836 or 1837 Mr Nystrom, a Russian merchant, with whom Mr Stead had had transactions in business came to England, having whilst in Russia devoted his attention to the mode of pavement in that country, which was done in a great measure by wood. He communicated with Mr Stead, who paid a great deal of attention to the matter, and materially improved the scheme; and it was the intention of Mr Nystrom and Mr Stead, in 1835 or 1837, to take out a patent, but Mr Nystrom found it necessary to return to Russia, and thus frustrated that intention.

On the 19th of May, 1838, the plaintiff, however, took out a patent, and this was the one to which attention was directed. Four months were allowed for inrolment, but as six months was the usual period, the plaintiff imagined that that would be the period allowed to him, and inadvertently allowed the four months to elapse before he discovered his mistake.

On the 21st of June, 1841, however, an Act of Parliament was passed, confirming the patent to Mr Stead, as though it had been regularly filed within the prescribed period. A second patent was afterwards obtained, but that related more particularly to the form of blocks. The first patent, which had been infringed, was for an invention consisting of a mode of paving with blocks of similar sizes and dimensions, of either a sexagonal, triangular, or square form, so as to make a level road or surface.

The defendants pleaded, amongst other things, that the patent was not an original invention; that it was not useful; and that it was in use prior to the granting of the patent.

The Jury retired to consult at a quarter past four, and returned at twenty minutes to six o'clock with a verdict for the plaintiff.

PARSONS'S ALEPPO OFFICE WRITING INK.—This very superior Ink, being made with pure Aleppo Galls, is equally adapted for Quills and Steel Pens, and combines the requisite qualities of Incorrodibility and Permanency of Colour with an easy flow from the Pen. It is therefore strongly recommended to Merchants, Bankers, Solicitors, Accountants, and others.

Warranted not to be affected either by time or climate.

Sold in Quart, Pint, Half-pint, and Sixpenny Bottles, by John Parsons, Manufacturer of Printing and Writing Inks, 35 Orange street, Gravel lane, Southwark; and 9 Ave Maria lane, London.




ROWLAND'S MACASSAR OIL, For the Growth, and for Preserving and Beautifying the Human Hair.

To ensure the real article, see that the words Rowland's Macassar Oil are engraven on the back of the label nearly 1,500 times, containing 29,028 letters. Without this None are Genuine.

For Improving and Beautifying the Skin and Complexion.

Renders the Teeth beautifully white, and preserves the Gums.


Numerous pernicious Compounds are universally offered for sale as the real "Macassar Oil" and "Kalydor," (some under the implied sanction of Royalty), the labels and bills of the original articles are copied, and either a Fictitious Name or the word "Genuine" is used in the place of "Rowland's."

It is therefore necessary on purchasing either Article to see that the word "ROWLAND'S" is on the Envelope. For the protection of the Public from fraud and imposition, the Honourable Commissioners of Her Majesty's Stamps have authorized the Proprietors to have their Names engraven on the Government Stamp, which is affixed to the KALYDOR and ODONTO, thus—

All others are Spurious Imitations.

Printed by Charles Reynell, 16 Little Pulteney street, in the Parish of St James, Westminster; and Published by him at the Office of the Journal, No. 6 Wellington street, Strand,—September 16, 1843.

End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of The Economist, by Various


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