The Project Gutenberg EBook of A booke called the Foundacion of Rhetorike, by 
Richard Rainolde

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

Title: A booke called the Foundacion of Rhetorike
       because all other partes of Rhetorike are grounded
              thereupon, euery parte sette forthe in an Oracion vpon
              questions, verie profitable to bee knowen and redde

Author: Richard Rainolde

Release Date: July 14, 2008 [EBook #26056]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


Produced by Greg Lindahl, Linda Cantoni, and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at

Transcriber’s Notes

About this book: A booke called the Foundacion of Rhetorike was published in 1563. Only five copies of the original are known to exist. This e-book was transcribed from microfiche scans of the original in the Bodleian Library at Oxford University. The scans can be viewed at the Bibliothèque nationale de France website at

Typography: The original line and paragraph breaks, hyphenation, spelling, capitalization, punctuation, inconsistent use of an acute accent over ee, the use of u for v and vice versa, and the use of i for j and vice versa, have been preserved. All apparent printer errors have also been preserved, and are listed at the end of this document.

The following alterations have been made:

1. Long-s (ſ) is regularized as s.

2. The paragraph symbol, resembling a C in the original, is rendered as ¶.

3. Missing punctuation, hyphens, and paragraph symbols have been added in brackets, e.g. [-].

4. Except for the dedication, which is in modern italics, the majority of the original book is in blackletter font, with some words in a modern non-italic font. All modern-font passages are rendered in italics.

5. Incorrect page numbers are corrected, but are included in the list of printer errors at the end of this e-book.

6. Abbreviations and contractions represented as special characters in the original have been expanded as noted in the table below. “Supralinear” means directly over a letter; “sublinear” means directly under a letter. The y referred to below is an Early Modern English form of the Anglo-Saxon thorn character, representing th, but identical in appearance to the letter y.

y with supralinear eye (i.e., the)
accented q with semicolonq[ue]
w with supralinear curvew[ith]
e with sublinear hook[ae]

A macron over a vowel represents m or n, and is rendered as it appears in the original, e.g., cōprehēded = comprehended.

Pagination: This book was paginated using folio numbers in a recto-verso scheme. The front of each folio is the recto page (the right-hand page); the back of each folio is the verso page (the left-hand page in a book). In the original, folio numbers (beginning after the table of contents) are printed only on the recto side of each leaf. For the reader’s convenience, all folio pages in this e-book, including the verso pages, have been numbered in brackets according to the original format, with the addition of r for recto and v for verso, e.g., Fol. x.r is Folio 10 recto, Fol. x.v is Folio 10 verso.

Sources consulted: The uneven quality of the microfiche scans, as well as the blackletter font and some ink bleed-through and blemishes in the original, made the scans difficult to read in some places. To ensure accuracy, the transcriber has consulted the facsimile reprint edited by Francis R. Johnson (Scholars’ Facsimiles and Reprints, New York, 1945). The 1945 reprint was prepared primarily from the Bodleian copy, with several pages reproduced from the copy in the Chapin Library at Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts, where the Bodleian copy was unclear.

title page

¶ A booke cal-
led the Foundacion of Rhetorike, be-
cause all other partes of Rhetorike
are grounded thereupon, euery parte sette
forthe in an Oracion vpon questions,
verie profitable to bee knowen
and redde: Made by Ri-
chard Rainolde
Maister of
the Uniuersitie of


Mens. Marcij. vj.

¶ Imprinted at London, by
Ihon Kingston.


To the right honorable and my singuler good Lorde,
my Lorde Robert Dudley, Maister of the
Queenes Maiesties horse, one of her highes pri-
uie Counsaile, and knight of the moste honou-
rable order of the Garter: Richard Rai-
nolde wisheth longe life, with
increase of honour.

A RISTOTLE the famous Phi-
losopher, writing a boke to king
Alexāder, the great and migh-
tie conquerour, began the Epi-
stle of his Booke in these woor-
des. Twoo thynges moued me
chieflie, O King, to betake to thy Maiesties handes,
this worke of my trauile and labour, thy nobilitie and
vertue, of the whiche thy nobilitie encouraged me, thy
greate and singuler vertue, indued with all humanitie,
forced and draue me thereto. The same twoo in your
good Lordshippe, Nobilitie and Vertue, as twoo migh-
tie Pillers staied me, in this bolde enterprise, to make
your good Lordshippe, beyng a Pere of honour, indued
with all nobilitie and vertue: a patrone and possessoure
of this my booke. In the whiche although copious and
aboundaunte eloquence wanteth, to adorne and beau-
tifie thesame, yet I doubte not for the profite, that is in
this my trauaile conteined, your honour indued with
all singuler humanitie, will vouchsaufe to accepte my
willyng harte, my profitable purpose herein. Many fa-
mous menne and greate learned, haue in the Greke
tongue and otherwise trauailed, to profite all tymes
their countrie and common wealthe. This also was my
ende and purpose, to plante a worke profitable to all ty-
mes, my countrie and common wealthe.

And because your Lordshippe studieth all singula-
ritie to vertue, and wholie is incensed thereto: I haue
compiled this woorke, and dedicated it to your Lorde-
shippe, as vnto whō moste noble and vertuous. Wher-
in are set forthe soche Oracions, as are right profitable
to bee redde, for knowledge also necessarie. The duetie
of a subiecte, the worthie state of nobilitie, the prehe-
minent dignitie and Maiestie of a Prince, the office of
counsailours, worthie chiefe veneracion, the office of a
Iudge or Magestrate are here set foorthe. In moste for-
tunate state is the kyngdome and Common wealthe,
where the Nobles and Peres, not onelie daiely doe stu-
die to vertue, for that is the wisedome, that all the
graue and wise Philophers searched to attaine to. For
the ende of all artes and sciences, and of all noble actes
and enterprises is vertue, but also to fauour and vphold
the studentes of learnyng, whiche also is a greate ver-
tue. Whoso is adorned with nobilitie and vertue, of
necessitie nobilitie and vertue, will moue and allure thē
to fauour and support vertue in any other, yea, as Tul-
lie the moste famous Oratour dooeth saie, euen to loue
those whō we neuer sawe, but by good fame and brute
beutified to vs. For the encrease of vertue, God
dooeth nobilitate with honour worthie
menne, to be aboue other in dignitie
and state, thereupon vertue
doeth encrease your
beyng a louer of vertue
and worthie no-

Your lordshippes humble ser-
uaunt Richard Rainolde.

To the Reader.

A PHTHONIVS a famous man, wrote
in Greke of soche declamacions, to en-
structe the studentes thereof, with all fa-
cilitée to grounde in them, a moste plenti-
ous and riche vein of eloquence. No man
is able to inuente a more profitable waie
and order, to instructe any one in the ex-
quisite and absolute perfeccion, of wisedome and eloquence,
then Aphthonius Quintilianus and Hermogenes. Tullie al-
so as a moste excellente Orator, in the like sorte trauailed,
whose Eloquence and vertue all tymes extolled, and the of-
spryng of all ages worthilie aduaunceth. And because as yet
the verie grounde of Rhetorike, is not heretofore intreated
of, as concernyng these exercises, though in fewe yeres past,
a learned woorke of Rhetorike is compiled and made in the
Englishe toungue, of one, who floweth in all excellencie of
arte, who in iudgement is profounde, in wisedome and elo-
quence moste famous. In these therefore my diligence is em-
ploied, to profite many, although not with like Eloquence,
beutified and adorned, as the matter requireth. I haue cho-
sen out in these Oracions soche questions, as are right ne-
cessarie to be knowen and redde of all those, whose cogitaciō
pondereth vertue and Godlines. I doubte not, but seyng my
trauaile toucheth vertuous preceptes, and vttereth to light,
many famous Histories, the order of arte obserued also, but
that herein the matter it self, shall defende my purpose aga-
inste the enuious, whiche seketh to depraue any good enter-
prise, begon of any one persone. The enuious manne
though learned, readeth to depraue that, which he
readeth, the ignoraunt is no worthie Iudge,
the learned and godlie pondereth vp-
rightly & sincerely, that which
he iudgeth, the order of
these Oracions
followeth afterward, and
the names of thē.

The contentes of
this Booke.

A N Oracion made, vpon the Fable of the Shepher-
des and the Wolues, the Wolues requestyng the
Bandogges: wherein is set forthe the state of eue-
ry subiecte, the dignitie of a Prince, the honoura-
ble office of counsailours.

An Oracion vpon the Fable of the Ante and the Gres-
hopper, teachyng prouidence.

An Oracion Historicall, howe Semiramis came to bee
Quéene of Babilon.

An Oracion Historicall, vpon Kyng Richard the thirde
sometyme Duke of Glocester.

An Oracion Historicall, of the commyng of Iulius Ce-
ser into Englande.

An Oracion Ciuill or Iudiciall, vpon Themistocles, of
the walle buildyng at Athenes.

An Oracion Poeticall vpon a redde Rose.

A profitable Oracion, shewyng the decaie of kingdomes
and nobilitie.

An Oracion vpon a Sentence, preferryng a Monarchie,
conteinyng all other states of common wealthe.

The confutacion of the battaile of Troie.

A confirmacion of the noble facte of Zopyrus.

An Oracion called a Common place against Theues.

The praise of Epaminundas Duke of Thebes, wherein
the grounde of nobilitée is placed.

The dispraise of Domicius Nero Emperour of Roome.

A comparison betwene Demosthenes and Tullie.

A lamentable Oracion of Hecuba Queene of Troie.

A descripcion vpon Xerxes kyng of Persia.

An Oracion called Thesis, as concerning the goodly state
of Mariage.

An Oracion confutyng a certaine lawe of Solon.

[Fol. j.r]

The foundacion of

N Ature hath indued euery man, with
a certain eloquence, and also subtili-
and Logike
giuen of na-
tée to reason and discusse, of any que-
stion or proposicion propounded, as
Aristotle the Philosopher, in his
Booke of Rhetorike dooeth shewe.
These giftes of nature, singuler doe
flowe and abounde in vs, accordyng
to the greate and ample indumente
and plentuousnes of witte and wisedome, lodged in vs, there-
fore Nature it self beyng well framed, and afterward by arte
Arte furthe-
reth nature.
and order of science, instructed and adorned, must be singular-
lie furthered, helped, and aided to all excellencie, to exquisite
Logike. inuencion, and profounde knowledge, bothe in Logike and
Rhetorike. Rhetorike. In the one, as a Oratour to pleate with all facili-
tee, and copiouslie to dilate any matter or sentence: in the other
to grounde profunde and subtill argument, to fortifie & make
stronge our assercion or sentence, to proue and defende, by the
Logike. force and power of arte, thinges passyng the compasse & reach
of our capacitée and witte. Nothyng can bee more excellently
Eloquence. giuen of nature then Eloquence, by the which the florishyng
state of commonweales doe consiste: kyngdomes vniuersally
are gouerned, the state of euery one priuatelie is maintained.
The commonwealth also should be maimed, and debilitated,
Zeno. except the other parte be associate to it. Zeno the Philosopher
comparing Rhetorike and Logike, doeth assimilate and liken
Logike. them to the hand of man. Logike is like faith he to the fiste, for
euen as the fiste closeth and shutteth into one, the iointes and
partes of the hande, & with mightie force and strength, wrap-
peth and closeth in thynges apprehended: So Logike for the
deepe and profounde knowlege, that is reposed and buried in
it, in soche sort of municion and strength fortified, in few wor-
des taketh soche force and might by argumente, that excepte
[Fol. j.v]like equalitée in like art and knowledge doe mate it, in vain
the disputacion shalbe, and the repulse of thaduersarie readie.
like to the
Rhetorike is like to the hand set at large, wherein euery part
and ioint is manifeste, and euery vaine as braunches of trées
Rhetorike. sette at scope and libertee. So of like sorte, Rhetorike in moste
ample and large maner, dilateth and setteth out small thyn-
ges or woordes, in soche sorte, with soche aboundaunce and
plentuousnes, bothe of woordes and wittie inuencion, with
soche goodlie disposicion, in soche a infinite sorte, with soche
pleasauntnes of Oracion, that the moste stonie and hard har-
tes, can not but bee incensed, inflamed, and moued thereto.
Logike and
absolute in
These twoo singuler giftes of nature, are absolute and perfect
in fewe: for many therebe, whiche are exquisite and profound
in argument, by art to reason and discusse, of any question or
proposicion propounded, who by nature are disabled, & smal-
lie adorned to speake eloquently, in whom neuertheles more
aboundaunt knowlege doeth somtymes remaine then in the
other, if the cause shalbe in controuersie ioined, and examined
to trie a manifeste truthe. But to whom nature hath giuen
soche abilitée, and absolute excellencie, as that thei can bothe
The vertue
of eloquence.
copiouslie dilate any matter or sentence, by pleasauntnes and
swetenes of their wittie and ingenious oracion, to drawe vn-
to theim the hartes of a multitude, to plucke doune and extir-
pate affecciōs and perturbacions of people, to moue pitee and
compassion, to speake before Princes and rulers, and to per-
swade theim in good causes and enterprises, to animate and
incense them, to godlie affaires and busines, to alter the coū-
saill of kynges, by their wisedome and eloquence, to a better
state, and also to be exquisite in thother, is a thing of all most
noble and excellent. The eloquence of Demosthenes, Isocra-
tes, Tisias, Gorgias, Eschines, were a great bulwarke and
staie to Athens and all Grece, Rome also by the like vertue
of Eloquence, in famous and wise orators vpholded: the wise
and eloquente Oracions of Tullie againste Catiline. The
graue and sentencious oracions of Cato in the Senate, haue
[Fol. ij.r] The Empe-
rors of Rome
famous in
been onelie the meane to vpholde the mightie state of Rome,
in his strength and auncient fame and glorie. Also the Chro-
nicles of auncient time doe shewe vnto vs, the state of Rome
could by no meanes haue growen so meruailous mightie,
but that God had indued the whole line of Cesars, with sin-
guler vertues, with aboundaunt knowlege & singuler Elo-
quence. Thusidides the famous Historiographer sheweth,
Thusidides. how moche Eloquence auailed the citees of Grece, fallyng to
Corcurians. dissenciō. How did the Corcurians saue them selues from the
inuasiō and might, of the Poloponesians, their cause pleated
before the Athenians, so moche their eloquence in a truthe
Corinthians[.] preuailed. The Ambassadours of Corinth, wanted not their
copious, wittie, and ingenious Oracions, but thei pleated
before mightie, wise, and graue Senators, whose cause, ac-
cordyng to iudgemēt, truthe, and integritée was ended. The
eloquēt Embassages of the Corinthiās, the Lacedemoniās,
& the Vituleneans, the Athenians, who so readeth, shall sone
sée that of necessitee, a common wealth or kyngdome must be
fortefied, with famous, graue, and wise counsailours. How
often did Demosthenes saue the cōmon wealthes of Athens,
how moche also did that large dominion prospere and florish
by Isocrates. Tullie also by his Eloquēt please, Cato, Cras-
sus, Antonius, Catulus Cesar, with many other, did support
and vphold the state of that mightie kyngdō. No doubte, but
that Demosthenes made a wittie, copious, and ingenious o-
, when the Athenians were minded to giue and be-
Philippe the
kyng of the
take to the handes of Philip kyng of the Macedonians, their
pestiferous enemie moste vile and subtell, the Orators of A-
thens. This Philip forseyng the discorde of Grece, as he by
subtill meanes compassed his enterprices, promised by the
faithe of a Prince, to be at league with the Athenians, if so be
thei would betake to his handes, the eloquente Oratours of
The saiyng
of Philippe.
Athens, for as long saith he, as your Oratours are with you
declaryng, so longe your heddes and counsaill are moued to
variaunce and dissencion, this voice ones seased emong you,
[Fol. ij.v] Demosthe-
in tranquilitée you shalbee gouerned. Demosthenes beyng
eloquente and wise, foresawe the daungers and the mischie-
uous intent of him, wherevpon he framed a goodly Oracion
vpon a Fable, whereby he altered their counsaile, and repul-
sed the enemie. This fable is afterward set forth in an Ora-
cion, after the order of these exercises, profitable to Rhetorike.

¶ A Fable.

The ground
of al learning[.]
F Irste it is good that the learner doe vnderstand
what is a fable, for in all matters of learnyng,
it is the firste grounde, as Tullie doeth saie, to
knowe what the thing is, that we may the bet-
What is a
ter perceiue whervpō we doe intreate. A fable
is a forged tale, cōtaining in it by the colour of a lie, a matter
Morall. of truthe. The moralle is called that, out of the whiche some
godlie precepte, or admonicion to vertue is giuen, to frame
and instruct our maners. Now that we knowe what a fable
is, it is good to learne also, how manifolde or diuers thei be,
Three sortes
of fables.
i. A fable of
I doe finde three maner of fables to be. The first of theim is,
wherein a man being a creature of God indued with reason,
is onely intreated of, as the Fable of the father and his chil-
dren, he willing thē to concorde, and this is called Rationalis
, whiche is asmoche to saie, as a Fable of men indued
ii. Morall. with reason, or women. The second is called a morall fable,
but I sée no cause whie it is so called, but rather as the other
is called a fable of reasonable creatures, so this is contrarilie
named a fable of beastes, or of other thinges wanting reason
or life, wanting reason as of the Ante and the Greshopper, or
of this the beame caste doun, and the Frogges chosyng their
iii. Mixt. king. The thirde is a mixt Fable so called, bicause in it bothe
man hauyng reason, and a beaste wantyng reason, or any o-
ther thing wanting life, is ioyned with it, as for the example,
of the fable of the woodes and the housebandman, of whom
Poetes in-
uentours of
vse fables.
he desired a helue for his hatchet. Aucthours doe write, that
Poetes firste inuented fables, the whiche Oratours also doe
[Fol. iij.r]vse in their perswasions, and not without greate cause, both
Poetes and Oratours doe applie theim to their vse. For, fa-
Good doctrin
in fables.
bles dooe conteine goodlie admonicion, vertuous preceptes
of life. Hesiodus the Poete, intreatyng of the iniurious dea-
lyng of Princes and gouernours, against their subiectes, ad-
monished them by the fable of the Goshauke, and the Nigh-
Ouide. tyngale in his clause. Ouid also the Poete intreated of di-
uers fables, wherein he giueth admonicion, and godly coun-
nes vsed fa-
saile. Demosthenes the famous Oratour of Athens, vsed
the fable of the Shepeherdes, and Wolues: how the Wol-
ues on a tyme, instauntlie required of the Shepeherdes their
bande dogges, and then thei would haue peace and concorde
with theim, the Shepeherdes gaue ouer their Dogges, their
Dogges deliuered and murdered, the shepe were immediat-
ly deuoured: So saieth he, if ye shall ones deliuer to Philip,
the king of the Macedonians your Oratours, by whose lear-
nyng, knowlege and wisedome, the whole bodie of your do-
minions is saued, for thei as Bandogges, doe repell all mis-
cheuous enterprises and chaunses, no doubte, but that raue-
nyng Wolfe Philip, will eate and consume your people, by
this Fable he made an Oracion, he altered their counsailes
and heddes of the Athenians, from so foolishe an enterprise.
Also thesame Demosthenes, seyng the people careles, sloth-
full, and lothsome to heare the Oratours, and all for the flo-
rishing state of the kingdome: he ascended to the place or pul-
pet, where the Oracions were made, and began with this fa-
The fable of
nes, of the
Asse and the
ble. Ye men of Athens, saied he, it happened on a tyme, that
a certaine man hired an Asse, and did take his iourney from
Athens to Megara, as we would saie, frō London to Yorke,
the owner also of the Asse, did associate hymself in his iour-
ney, to brynge backe the Asse againe, in the voyage the
weather was extreame burning hotte, and the waie tedious
the place also for barenes and sterilitée of trees, wanted sha-
dowe in this long broyle of heate: he that satte one the Asse,
lighted and tooke shadowe vnder the bellie of the Asse, and
[Fol. iij.v]because the shadowe would not suffice bothe, the Asse beyng
small, the owner saied, he muste haue the shadowe, because
the Asse was his, I deny that saieth the other, the shadowe is
myne, because I hired the Asse, thus thei were at greate con-
tencion, the fable beyng recited, Demosthenes descended frō
his place, the whole multitude were inquisitiue, to knowe
The conten-
cion vpon the
shadowe and
the Asse.
the ende about the shadowe, Demosthenes notyng their fol-
lie, ascended to his place, and saied, O ye foolishe Athenians,
whiles I and other, gaue to you counsaill and admoniciō, of
graue and profitable matters, your eares wer deafe, and your
mindes slombred, but now I tell of a small trifeling matter,
you throng to heare the reste of me. By this Fable he nipped
their follie, and trapped them manifestlie, in their owne dol-
tishenes. Herevpon I doe somwhat long, make copie of wor-
Fables well
applied bee
des, to shewe the singularitee of fables well applied. In the
tyme of Kyng Richard the thirde, Doctour Mourton, beyng
Bishop of Elie, and prisoner in the Duke of Buckynghams
house in Wales, was often tymes moued of the Duke, to
speake his minde frelie, if king Richard wer lawfully king,
and said to him of his fidelitée, to kepe close and secret his sen-
tence: but the Bishop beyng a godlie man, and no lesse wise,
waied the greate frendship, whiche was sometyme betwene
the Duke & King Richard, aunswered in effect nothyng, but
beyng daily troubled with his mocions & instigacions, spake
a fable of Esope: My lorde saied he, I will aunswere you, by
The fable of
the Bisshop
of Elie, to the
duke of Buc-
a Fable of Esope. The Lion on a tyme gaue a commaunde-
ment, that all horned beastes should flie from the woode, and
none to remain there but vnhorned beastes. The Hare hea-
ring of this commaundement, departed with the horned bea-
stes from the woodde: The wilie Foxe metyng the Hare, de-
maunded the cause of his haste, forthwith the Hare aunswe-
red, a commaundemente is come from the Lion, that all hor-
ned beastes should bee exiled, vpon paine of death, from the
woode: why saied the Foxe, this commaundement toucheth
not any sorte of beast as ye are, for thou haste no hornes but
[Fol. iiij.r]knubbes: yea, but said the Hare, what, if thei saie I haue hor-
nes, that is an other matter, my lorde I saie no more: what he
ment, is euident to all men.

In the time of king Hēry theight (a prince of famous me-
morie) at what time as the small houses of religiō, wer giuen
ouer to the kinges hand, by the Parliament house: the bishop
of Rochester, Doctour Fisher by name stepped forthe, beyng
greued with the graunt, recited before them, a fable of Esope
to shewe what discommoditee would followe in the Clergie.
The fable of
the Bisshop
of Rochester,
againste the
graunt of the
My lordes and maisters saieth he, Esope recited a fable: how
that on a tyme, a housebande manne desired of the woodes, a
small helue for his hatchet, all the woodes consented thereto
waiyng the graunt to be small, and the thyng lesse, therevpō
the woodes consented, in fine the housbande man cut doune
a small peece of woodde to make a helue, he framyng a helue
to the hatchette, without leaue and graunt, he cut doune the
mightie Okes and Cedars, and destroyed the whole woodd,
then the woodes repented them to late. So saith he, the gift of
these small houses, ar but a small graunt into the kinges hā-
des: but this small graunt, will bee a waie and meane to pull
doune the greate mightie fatte Abbees, & so it happened. But
there is repentaūce to late: & no profite ensued of the graunte.

¶ An Oracion made by a fable, to the first exer-
cise to declame by, the other, bee these,

 {A Fable, a Narracion. Chria,}
 {Sentence. Confutacion,}
An Oracion
made by a
{Confirmacion. Common place.}
{The praise. The dispraise.}
 {The Comparison, Ethopeia.}
 {A Discripcion. Thesis, Legislatio}

O F euery one of these, a goodlie Oraciō maie be made
these excercises are called of the Grekes Progimnas-
, of the Latines, profitable introduccions, or fore
exercises, to attain greater arte and knowlege in Rhetorike,
[Fol. iiij.v]and bicause, for the easie capacitée and facilitée of the learner,
to attain greater knowledge in Rhetorike, thei are right pro-
fitable and necessarie: Therefore I title this booke, to bee the
foundaciō of Rhetorike, the exercises being Progimnasmata.

I haue chosen out the fable of the Shepeherdes, and the
Wolues, vpon the whiche fable, Demosthenes made an elo-
quente, copious, and wittie Oracion before the Athenians,
whiche fable was so well applied, that the citée and common
wealth of Athens was saued.

The firste

¶ A fable.

These notes must be obserued, to make an Oracion by a

¶ Praise.

1.Firste, ye shall recite the fable, as the aucthour telleth it.

2.There in the seconde place, you shall praise the aucthoure
who made the fable, whiche praise maie sone bee gotte of any
studious scholer, if he reade the aucthours life and actes ther-
in, or the Godlie preceptes in his fables, shall giue abundant

3.Then thirdlie place the morall, whiche is the interpreta-
cion annexed to the Fable, for the fable was inuented for the
moralles sake.

4.Then orderlie in the fowerth place, declare the nature of
thynges, conteined in the Fable, either of man, fishe, foule,
beaste, plante, trées, stones, or whatsoeuer it be. There is no
man of witte so dulle, or of so grosse capacitée, but either by
his naturall witte, or by reading, or sences, he is hable to saie
somwhat in the nature of any thyng.

5.In the fifte place, sette forthe the thynges, reasonyng one
with an other, as the Ant with the Greshopper, or the Cocke
with the precious stone.

6.Thē in the vj. place, make a similitude of the like matter.

7.Then in the seuenth place, induce an exāple for thesame
matter to bée proued by.

8.Laste of all make the Epilogus, whiche is called the con-
clusion, and herein marke the notes folowyng, how to make
[Fol. v.r]an Oracion thereby.

¶ An Oracion made vpon the fable of the
Shepeherdes and the wolues.
¶ The fable.

T He Wolues on a tyme perswaded the Shepeher-
des, that thei would ioyne amitée, and make a
league of concord and vnitee: the demaunde plea-
sed the Shepeherdes, foorthwith the Wolues re-
quested to haue custodie of the bande Dogges, because els
thei would be as thei are alwaies, an occasion to breake their
league and peace, the Dogges beyng giuen ouer, thei were
one by one murthered, and then the Shepe were wearied.

¶ The praise of the aucthour.

T He posteritee of tymes and ages, muste needes praise
the wisedome and industrie, of all soche as haue lefte
in monumentes of writyng, thynges worthie fame,
of al excellent
artes and sci-
ences, com-
mended to the
what can bee more excellently set foorthe: or what deserueth
chiefer fame and glorie, then the knowledge of artes and sci-
ences, inuented by our learned, wise, and graue aūcestours:
and so moche the more thei deserue honour, and perpetuall
commendacions, because thei haue been the firste aucthours,
and beginners to soche excellencies. The posteritée praiseth
and setteth forth the wittie and ingenious workes of Apelles,
Parthesius, and Polucletus, and all soche as haue artificial-
ly set forth their excellent giftes of nature. But if their praise
for fame florishe perpetuallie, and increaseth for the wor-
thines of theim, yet these thynges though moste excellent, are
The ende of
all artes, is to
godlie life.
inferiour to vertue: for the ende of artes and sciences, is ver-
tue and godlines. Neither yet these thynges dissonaunt from
vertue, and not associate, are commendable onely for vertues
sake: and to the ende of vertue, the wittes of our auncestours
were incensed to inuent these thynges. But herein Polucle-
tus, Apelles, and Perthesius maie giue place, when greater
Esope wor-
thie moche
vertues come in place, then this my aucthour Esope, for his
godly preceptes, wise counsaill and admonicion, is chiefly to
[Fol. v.v]bée praised: For, our life maie learne all goodnes, all vertue,
Philophie in
of his preceptes. The Philosophers did neuer so liuely sette
forthe and teache in their scholes and audience, what vertue
maie learne
concorde out
of Esopes
and godlie life were, as Esope did in his Fables, Citees, and
common wealthes, maie learne out of his fables, godlie con-
corde and vnitee, by the whiche meanes, common wealthes
florisheth, and kingdoms are saued. Herein ample matter ri-
seth to Princes, and gouernours, to rule their subiectes in all
Preceptes to
Kynges and
Preceptes to
parentes and
godlie lawes, in faithfull obedience: the subiectes also to loue
and serue their prince, in al his affaires and busines. The fa-
ther maie learne to bring vp, and instructe his childe thereby.
The child also to loue and obeie his parentes. The huge and
monsterous vices, are by his vertuous doctrine defaced and
extirpated: his Fables in effect contain the mightie volumes
and bookes of all Philosophers, in morall preceptes, & the in-
The content
of al Lawes.
finite monumētes of lawes stablished. If I should not speake
of his commendacion, the fruictes of his vertue would shewe
his commendacions: but that praise surmounteth all fame of
A true praise
commēded by
fame it self.
glory, that commendeth by fame itself, the fruictes of fame
in this one Fable, riseth to my aucthour, whiche he wrote of
the Shepeherd, and the Wolues.

¶ The Morall.

W Herein Esope wittely admonisheth all menne to be-
ware and take heede, of cloked and fained frendship,
of the wicked and vngodlie, whiche vnder a pretence
and offer of frendship or of benefite, seeke the ruin, dammage,
miserie or destruccion of man, toune, citée, region, or countree.

¶ The nature of the thyng.

O F all beastes to the quantitée of his bodie, the
The Wolue
moste raue-
ning & cruell.
Wolue passeth in crueltee and desire of bloode,
alwaies vnsaciable of deuouryng, neuer conten-
ted with his pray. The Wolfe deuoureth and ea-
teth of his praie all in feare, and therefore oftentymes he ca-
steth his looke, to be safe from perill and daunger. And herein
[Fol. vj.r]his nature is straunge frō all beastes: the iyes of the Wolfe,
tourned from his praie immediatlie, the praie prostrate vnder
The Wolues
of all beastes,
moste obliui-
his foote is forgotten, and forthwith he seeketh a newe praie,
so greate obliuion and debilitée of memorie, is giuen to that
beaste, who chieflie seketh to deuoure his praie by night. The
The Wolue
inferiour to
the bandogge[.]
Wolues are moche inferior to the banddogges in strength, bi-
cause nature hath framed thē in the hinder parts, moche more
weaker, and as it were maimed, and therefore the bandogge
dooeth ouermatche theim, and ouercome them in fight. The
Wolues are not all so mightie of bodie as the Bandogges,
of diuers colours, of fight more sharpe, of lesse heddes: but in
The Dogge
passeth all
creatures in
smellyng, the nature of a Dogge passeth all beastes and
creatures, whiche the historie of Plinie dooe shewe, and Ari-
stotle in his booke of the historie of beastes, therein you shall
knowe their excellente nature. The housholde wanteth not
faithfull and trustie watche nor resistaunce, in the cause of the
Plinie. maister, the Bandogge not wantyng. Plinie sheweth out of
his historie, how Bandogges haue saued their Maister, by
their resistaunce. The Dogge of all beastes sheweth moste
loue, and neuer leaueth his maister: the worthines of the bā-
dogge is soche, that by the lawe in a certaine case, he is coun-
ted accessarie of Felonie, who stealeth a Bandogge from his
maister, a robberie immediatly folowing in thesame family.

The worthi-
nes of Shepe[.]
As concernyng the Shepe, for their profite and wealthe,
that riseth of theim, are for worthines, waiyng their smalle
quantitie of bodie, aboue all beastes. Their fleshe nourisheth
purely, beyng swete and pleasaunt: their skinne also serueth
The wolle of
Shepe, riche
and commo-
to diuers vses, their Wolles in so large and ample maner,
commmodious, seruyng all partes of common wealthes. No
state or degrée of persone is, but that thei maie goe cladde and
adorned with their wolles. So GOD in his creatures, hath
Man a chief
created and made man, beyng a chief creatour, and moste ex-
cellent of all other, all thinges to serue him: and therefore the
Stoike Phi-
Stoicke Philosophers doe herein shewe thexcellencie of man
to be greate, when all thinges vpon the yearth, and from the
[Fol. vj.v]yearth, doe serue the vse of man, yet emong men there is a di-
uersitee of states, and a difference of persones, in office and cō-
The office of
the shepeher-
des, are pro-
fitable and
dicion of life. As concernyng the Shepherde, he is in his state
and condicion of life, thoughe meane, he is a righte profi-
table and necessarie member, to serue all states in the commō
wealthe, not onely to his maister whom he serueth: for by his
diligence, and warie keping of thē, not onely from rauenyng
beastes, but otherwise he is a right profitable member, to all
Wealth, pro-
fit, and riches
riseth of the
Wolles of
partes of the common wealth. For, dailie wée féele the cōmo-
ditie, wealth and riches, that riseth of theim, but the losse wée
féele not, except flockes perishe. In the body of man God hath
created & made diuerse partes, to make vp a whole and abso-
lute man, whiche partes in office, qualitée and worthinesse,
are moche differing. The bodie of man it self, for the excellent
workemanship of God therein, & meruailous giftes of nature
Man called
of the Philo-
sophers, a lit-
tle worlde.
and vertues, lodged and bestowed in thesame bodie, is called
of the Philosophers Microcosmos, a little worlde. The body
of man in all partes at cōcord, euery part executing his func-
cion & office, florisheth, and in strength prospereth, otherwise
The bodie of
man without
concord of the
partes, peri-
The common
wealthe like
to the bodie
of manne.
thesame bodie in partes disseuered, is feeble and weake, and
thereby falleth to ruin, and perisheth. The singuler Fable of
Esope, of the belie and handes, manifestlie sheweth thesame
and herein a florishing kingdom or common wealth, is com-
pared to the body, euery part vsing his pure vertue, strēgth &
operacion. Menenius Agrippa, at what time as the Romai-
were at diuision against the Senate, he vsed the Fable of E-
sope, wherewith thei were perswaded to a concorde, and vni-
The baseste
parte of the
bodie moste
tée. The vilest parte of the bodie, and baseste is so necessarie,
that the whole bodie faileth and perisheth, thesame wantyng
although nature remoueth them from our sight, and shame
fastnes also hideth theim: take awaie the moste vilest parte of
the bodie, either in substaunce, in operacion or function, and
forthwith the principall faileth. So likewise in a kyngdome,
or common wealth, the moste meane and basest state of man
taken awaie, the more principall thereby ceaseth: So God to
[Fol. vij.r] The amiable
parte of the
body doe con-
siste, by the
baseste and
moste defor-
a mutuall concorde, frendship, and perpetuall societie of life,
hath framed his creatures, that the moste principall faileth,
it not vnited with partes more base and inferiour, so moche
the might and force of thynges excellente, doe consiste by the
moste inferiour, other partes of the bodie more amiable and
pleasaunt to sight, doe remain by the force, vse and integritée
of the simpliest. The Prince and chief peres doe decaie, and al
the whole multitude dooe perishe: the baseste kinde of menne
The Shepe-
herdes state
wantyng. Remoue the Shepeherdes state, what good follo-
weth, yea, what lacke and famine increaseth not: to all states
The state of
the husbande
manne, moste
the belie ill fedde, our backes worse clad. The toilyng house-
bandman is so necessarie, that his office ceasyng vniuersallie
the whole bodie perisheth, where eche laboureth to further
and aide one an other, this a common wealth, there is pro-
sperous state of life. The wisest Prince, the richest, the migh-
tiest and moste valianntes, had nede alwaies of the foolishe,
the weake, the base and simplest, to vpholde his kingdomes,
not onely in the affaires of his kyngdomes, but in his dome-
sticall thinges, for prouisiō of victuall, as bread, drinke, meat[,]
clothyng, and in all soche other thynges. Therefore, no office
or state of life, be it neuer so méete, seruyng in any part of the
No meane
state, to be
common wealthe, muste bée contemned, mocked, or skorned
at, for thei are so necessarie, that the whole frame of the com-
mon wealth faileth without theim: some are for their wicked
behauiour so detestable, that a common wealthe muste séeke
Rotten mem[-]
bers of the cō[-]
mon wealth.
meanes to deface and extirpate theim as wéedes, and rotten
members of the bodie. These are thefes, murtherers, and ad-
ulterers, and many other mischiuous persones. These godly
Lawes, vpright and sincere Magistrates, will extirpate and
cutte of, soche the commo wealth lacketh not, but rather ab-
horreth as an infectiue plague and Pestilence, who in thende
through their owne wickednesse, are brought to mischief.

Plato. Read Plato in his booke, intiteled of the common wealth
who sheweth the state of the Prince, and whole Realme, to
stande and consiste by the vnitee of partes, all states of the cō-
[Fol. vij.v] A common
wealth doe
consiste by
vnitie of all
mon wealth, in office diuers, for dignitée and worthines, bea-
ring not equalitée in one consociatée and knit, doe raise a per-
fite frame, and bodie of kingdome or common wealthe.

What is a cō-
mon wealth.
Aristotle the Philosopher doeth saie, that a cōmon welth
is a multitude gathered together in one Citée, or Region, in
state and condicion of life differing, poore and riche, high and
low, wise and foolishe, in inequalitee of minde and bodies dif-
feryng, for els it can not bée a common wealthe. There must
be nobles and peres, kyng and subiect: a multitude inferiour
and more populous, in office, maners, worthines alteryng.
A liuely exā-
ple of commō
Manne needeth no better example, or paterne of a common
wealthe, to frame hymself, to serue in his state and callyng,
then to ponder his owne bodie. There is but one hedde, and
many partes, handes, feete, fingers, toes, ioyntes, veines, si-
newes, belie, and so forthe: and so likewise in a cōmon welth
there muste be a diuersitee of states.

¶ The reasonyng of the thynges
conteined in this Fable.

T Hus might the Wolues reason with them sel-
ues, of their Embassage: The Wolues dailie
molested and wearied, with the fearce ragyng
Masties, and ouercome in fight, of their power
and might: one emong the reste, more politike
and wise then the other, called an assemble and counsaill of
The counsail
of Wolues.
Wolues, and thus he beganne his oracion. My felowes and
compaignions, sithe nature hath from the beginnyng, made
vs vnsaciable, cruell, liuyng alwaies by praies murthered,
and bloodie spoiles, yet enemies wée haue, that séeke to kepe
vnder, and tame our Woluishe natures, by greate mightie
Bandogges, and Shepeherdes Curres. But nature at the
firste, did so depely frame and set this his peruerse, cruell, and
bloodie moulde in vs, that will thei, nill thei, our nature wil
bruste out, and run to his owne course. I muse moche, wai-
yng the line of our firste progenitour, from whence we came
[Fol. viij.r]firste: for of a man wee came, yet men as a pestiferous poison
doe exile vs, and abandon vs, and by Dogges and other sub-
Lycaon. till meanes doe dailie destroie vs. Lycaon, as the Poetes doe
faine, excedyng in all crueltées and murthers horrible, by the
murther of straungers, that had accesse to his land: for he was
king and gouernor ouer the Molossians, and in this we maie
worthilie glorie of our firste blood and long auncientrée, that
The firste
progenie of
he was not onelie a man, but a kyng, a chief pere and gouer-
nour: by his chaunge and transubstanciacion of bodie, wée
loste by him the honour and dignitee due to him, but his ver-
tues wée kepe, and daily practise to followe them. The fame
The inuen-
cion of the
Poet Ouide
to compare a
wicked man,
to a Wolue.
of Lycaons horrible life, ascended before Iupiter, Iupiter the
mightie God, moued with so horrible a facte, left his heauen-
lie palace, came doune like an other mortall man, and passed
doune by the high mountaine Minalus, by twilighte, and
so to Licaons house, our firste auncestoure, to proue, if this
Lycaon. thing was true. Lycaon receiued this straunger, as it semed
doubtyng whether he were a God, or a manne, forthwith he
feasted him with mannes fleshe baked, Iupiter as he can doe
Lycaon chaū-
ged into a
what he will, brought a ruine on his house, and transubstan-
ciated hym, into this our shape & figure, wherein we are, and
so sens that time, Wolues were firste generated, and that of
manne, by the chaunge of Lycaon, although our shape is
chaunged from the figure of other men, and men knoweth
vs not well, yet thesame maners that made Wolues, remai-
neth vntill this daie, and perpetuallie in men: for thei robbe,
thei steale, and liue by iniurious catching, we also robbe, al-
so wée steale, and catche to our praie, what wee maie with
murther come to. Thei murther, and wee also murther, and
so in all poinctes like vnto wicked menne, doe we imitate the
like fashion of life, and rather thei in shape of men, are Wol-
ues, and wee in the shape of Wolues menne: Of all these
thynges hauyng consideracion, I haue inuented a pollicie,
whereby we maie woorke a slauter, and perpetuall ruine on
the Shepe, by the murther of the Bandogges. And so wée
[Fol. viij.v]shall haue free accesse to our bloodie praie, thus we will doe,
wee will sende a Embassage to the Shepeherdes for peace,
The counsail
of Wolues.
saiyng, that wee minde to ceasse of all bloodie spoile, so that
thei will giue ouer to vs, the custodie of the Bandogges, for
otherwise the Embassage sent, is in vaine: for their Dogges
being in our handes, and murthered one by one, the daunger
and enemie taken awaie, we maie the better obtain and en-
ioye our bloodie life. This counsaill pleased well the assem-
ble of the Wolues, and the pollicie moche liked theim, and
with one voice thei houled thus, thus. Immediatlie cōmuni-
cacion was had with the Shepeherdes of peace, and of the gi-
uyng ouer of their Bandogges, this offer pleased theim, thei
cōcluded the peace, and gaue ouer their Bandogges, as pled-
ges of thesame. The dogges one by one murthered, thei dis-
solued the peace, and wearied the Shepe, then the Shepeher-
des repented them of their rashe graunt, and foly committed:
The counsail
of wicked mē
to mischief.
So of like sorte it alwaies chaunceth, tyrauntes and bloodie
menne, dooe seke alwaies a meane, and practise pollicies to
destroye all soche as are godlie affected, and by wisedome and
godlie life, doe seke to subuerte and destroie, the mischeuous
The cogita-
cions of wic-
ked men, and
their kyngdō
enterprise of the wicked. For, by crueltie their Woluishe na-
tures are knowen, their glorie, strength, kyngdome and re-
nowne, cometh of blood, of murthers, and beastlie dealynges
and by might so violent, it continueth not: for by violence and
blooddie dealyng, their kyngdome at the last falleth by blood
and bloodilie perisheth. The noble, wise, graue, and goodlie
counsailes, are with all fidelitée, humblenes and sincere har-
The state of
worthie chief
honour and
tes to be obeied, in worthines of their state and wisedome, to
be embraced in chief honour and veneracion to bee taken, by
whose industrie, knowledge and experience, the whole bodie
of the common wealth and kyngdome, is supported and sa-
ued. The state of euery one vniuersallie would come to par-
dicion, if the inuasion of foraine Princes, by the wisedom and
pollicie of counsailers, were not repelled. The horrible actes
of wicked men would burste out, and a confusion ensue in al
[Fol. ix.r]states, if the wisedom of politike gouernors, if good lawes if
the power and sword of the magistrate, could uot take place.
The peres and nobles, with the chief gouernour, standeth as
Plato. Shepherds ouer the people: for so Plato alledgeth that name
well and properlie giuen, to Princes and Gouernours, the
Homere. which Homere the Poete attributeth, to Agamemnon king
of Grece: to Menelaus, Ulisses, Nestor, Achillas, Diomedes,
The Shepe-
herdes name
giuē to the of-
fice of kyngs.
Aiax, and al other. For, bothe the name and care of that state
of office, can be titeled by no better name in all pointes, for di-
ligent kepyng, for aide, succoryng, and with all equitie tem-
peryng the multitude: thei are as Shepeherdes els the selie
poore multitude, would by an oppression of pestiferous men.
The commonaltee or base multitude, liueth more quietlie
The state or
good counsai-
lers, trou-
then the state of soche as daily seke, to vpholde and maintaine
the common wealthe, by counsaill and politike deliberacion,
how troublous hath their state alwaies been: how vnquiete
from time to time, whose heddes in verie deede, doeth seke for
a publike wealth. Therefore, though their honor bée greater,
and state aboue the reste, yet what care, what pensiuenesse of
minde are thei driuen vnto, on whose heddes aucthoritée and
regiment, the sauegard of innumerable people doeth depend.
A comparison
from a lesse,
to a greater.
If in our domesticall businesse, of matters pertainyng to our
housholde, euery man by nature, for hym and his, is pensiue,
moche more in so vaste, and infinite a bodie of cōmon wealth,
greater must the care be, and more daungerous deliberacion.
We desire peace, we reioyce of a tranquilitée, and quietnesse
to ensue, we wishe, to consist in a hauen of securitée: our hou-
ses not to be spoiled, our wiues and children, not to bee mur-
The worthie
state of Prin-
ces and coun-
thered. This the Prince and counsailours, by wisedome fore-
sée, to kéepe of, all these calamitées, daungers, miseries, the
whole multitude, and bodie of the Common wealthe, is
without them maimed, weake and feable, a readie confusion
to the enemie. Therefore, the state of peeres and nobles, is
with all humilitée to be obaied, serued and honored, not with-
out greate cause, the Athenians were drawen backe, by the
[Fol. ix.v]wisedome of Demosthenes, when thei sawe thē selues a slau-
ter and praie, to the enemie.

¶ A comparson of thynges.

W Hat can bée more rashly and foolishly doen, then the
Shepeherdes, to giue ouer their Dogges, by whose
might and strength, the Shepe were saued: on the o-
ther side, what can be more subtlie doen and craftely, then the
Wolues, vnder a colour of frendship and amitee, to séeke the
The amitie
of wicked
blood of the shepe, as all pestiferous men, vnder a fained pro-
fer of amitée, profered to seeke their owne profite, commoditee
and wealthe, though it be with ruine, calamitie, miserie, de-
struccion of one, or many, toune, or citée, region and countree,
whiche sort of men, are moste detestable and execrable.

¶ The contrarie.

A S to moche simplicitie & lacke of discrecion, is a fur-
theraunce to perill and daunger: so oftētimes, he ta-
To beleue
lightly, afur-
theraunce to
steth of smarte and woe, who lightly beleueth: so con-
trariwise, disimulaciō in mischeuous practises begon w[ith] frēd-
ly wordes, in the conclusion doeth frame & ende pernisiouslie.

¶ The Epilogus.

T Herefore fained offers of frendship, are to bee taken
heede of, and the acte of euery man to bee examined,
proued, and tried, for true frendship is a rare thyng,
when as Tullie doth saie: in many ages there are fewe cou-
ples of friendes to be found, Aristotle also cōcludeth thesame.

¶ The Fable of the Ante, and Greshopper.
¶ The praise of the aucthour.

The praise of
E Sope who wrote these Fables, hath chief fame of all
learned aucthours, for his Philosophie, and giuyng
wisedome in preceptes: his Fables dooe shewe vnto
all states moste wholsome doctrine of vertuous life. He who-
ly extolleth vertue, and depresseth vice: he correcteth all states
and setteth out preceptes to amende them. Although he was
deformed and ill shaped, yet Nature wrought in hym soche
[Fol. x.r]vertue, that he was in minde moste beautifull: and seing that
the giftes of the body, are not equall in dignitie, with the ver-
tue of the mynde, then in that Esope chiefly excelled, ha-
uyng the moste excellente vertue of the minde. The wisedom
Cresus. and witte of Esope semed singuler: for at what tyme as Cre-
sus, the kyng of the Lidians, made warre against the Sami-
ans, he with his wisedome and pollicie, so pacified the minde
of Cresus, that all warre ceased, and the daunger of the coun-
Samians. tree was taken awaie, the Samiās deliuered of this destruc-
cion and warre, receiued Esope at his retourne with many
honours. After that Esope departyng from the Isle Samus,
wandered to straunge regions, at the laste his wisedome be-
Licerus. yng knowen: Licerus the kyng of that countrée, had hym in
soche reuerence and honor, that he caused an Image of gold
to be set vp in the honour of Esope. After that, he wanderyng
Delphos. ouer Grece, to the citée of Delphos, of whom he beyng mur-
thered, a greate plague and Pestilence fell vpon the citee, that
reuenged his death: As in all his Fables, he is moche to bee
commended, so in this Fable he is moche to be praised, which
he wrote of the Ante and the Greshopper.

¶ The Fable.

I N a hotte Sommer, the Grashoppers gaue them sel-
ues to pleasaunt melodie, whose Musicke and melo-
die, was harde from the pleasaunt Busshes: but the
Ante in all this pleasaunt tyme, laboured with pain and tra-
uaile, she scraped her liuyng, and with fore witte and wise-
Winter. dome, preuented the barande and scarce tyme of Winter: for
when Winter time aprocheth, the ground ceasseth frō fruict,
The Ante. then the Ante by his labour, doeth take the fruicte & enioyeth
it: but hunger and miserie fell vpon the Greshoppers, who in
the pleasaunt tyme of Sommer, when fruictes were aboun-
, ceassed by labour to put of necessitée, with the whiche
the long colde and stormie tyme, killed them vp, wantyng al

[Fol. x.v]

¶ The Morall.

H Ere in example, all menne maie take to frame their
owne life, and also to bryng vp in godlie educacion
their children: that while age is tender and young,
thei maie learne by example of the Ante, to prouide in their
grene and lustie youth, some meane of art and science, wher-
by thei maie staie their age and necessitée of life, al soche as do
flie labour, and paine in youth, and seeke no waie of Arte and
science, in age thei shall fall in extreme miserie and pouertée.

¶ The nature of the thyng.

N Ot without a cause, the Philosophers searchyng the
nature and qualitee of euery beaste, dooe moche com-
The Ante. mende the Ante, for prouidence and diligence, in that
not oneie by nature thei excell in forewisedome to thē selues,
Manne. but also thei be a example, and mirrour to all menne, in that
thei iustlie followe the instincte of Nature: and moche more,
where as men indued with reason, and all singulare vertues
and excellent qualitées of the minde and body. Yet thei doe so
moche leaue reason, vertue, & integritée of minde, as that thei
had been framed without reason, indued with no vertue, nor
adorned with any excellent qualitée. All creatures as nature
hath wrought in them, doe applie them selues to followe na-
ture their guide: the Ante is alwaies diligent in his busines,
and prouident, and also fore séeth in Sommer, the sharpe sea-
son of Winter: thei keepe order, and haue a kyng and a com-
mon wealthe as it were, as nature hath taught them. And so
haue all other creatures, as nature hath wrought in thē their
giftes, man onelie leaueth reason, and neclecteth the chief or-
namentes of the minde: and beyng as a God aboue all crea-
tures, dooeth leese the excellent giftes. A beaste will not take
excesse in feedyng, but man often tymes is without reason,
and hauyng a pure mynde and soule giuen of God, and a face
to beholde the heauens, yet he doeth abase hymself to yearth-
Greshopper. lie thynges, as concernyng the Greshopper: as the Philoso-
phers doe saie, is made altogether of dewe, and sone perisheth[.]
[Fol. xj.r]The Greshopper maie well resemble, slothfull and sluggishe
persones, who seke onely after a present pleasure, hauyng no
fore witte and wisedom, to foresée tymes and ceasons: for it is
A poincte of
the poinct of wisedō, to iudge thinges present, by thinges past
and to take a cōiecture of thinges to come, by thinges present.

¶ The reasonyng of the twoo thynges.

T Hus might the Ante reason with her self, althoughe
the seasons of the yere doe seme now very hotte, plea-
A wise cogi-
saunt and fruictfull: yet so I do not trust time, as that
like pleasure should alwaies remaine, or that fruictes should
alwaies of like sorte abounde. Nature moueth me to worke,
and wisedome herein sheweth me to prouide: for what hur-
teth plentie, or aboundaunce of store, though greate plentie
commeth thereon, for better it is to bee oppressed with plen-
tie, and aboundaunce, then to bee vexed with lacke. For, to
whom wealthe and plentie riseth, at their handes many bee
releued, and helped, all soche as bee oppressed with necessi-
tie and miserie, beyng caste from all helpe, reason and proui-
dence maimed in theim: All arte and Science, and meane of
life cutte of, to enlarge and maintain better state of life, their
Pouertie. miserie, necessitie, and pouertie, shall continuallie encrease,
who hopeth at other mennes handes, to craue relief, is decei-
ued. Pouertie is so odious a thing, in al places & states reiected
for where lacke is, there fanour, frendship, and acquaintance
Wisedome. decreaseth, as in all states it is wisedome: so with my self I
waie discritlie, to take tyme while tyme is, for this tyme as a
floure will sone fade awaie. The housebande manne, hath he
not times diuers, to encrease his wealth, and to fill his barne,
at one tyme and ceason: the housebande man doeth not bothe
plante, plowe, and gather the fruicte of his labour, but in one
tyme and season he ploweth, an other tyme serueth to sowe,
and the laste to gather the fruictes of his labour. So then, I
must forsee time and seasons, wherin I maie be able to beare
of necessitie: for foolishly he hopeth, who of no wealth and no
abundaunt store, trusteth to maintain his own state. For, no-
[Fol. xj.v] Frendship. thyng soner faileth, then frendship, and the soner it faileth, as
Homere. fortune is impouerished. Seyng that, as Homere doeth saie,
a slothfull man, giuen to no arte or science, to helpe hymself,
or an other, is an vnprofitable burdein to the yearth, and God
dooeth sore plague, punishe, and ouerthrowe Citees, kyng-
domes, and common wealthes, grounded in soche vices: that
the wisedome of man maie well iudge, hym to be vnworthie
of all helpe, and sustinaunce. He is worse then a beast, that is
not able to liue to hymself & other: no man is of witte so vn-
Nature. descrite, or of nature so dulle, but that in hym, nature alwa-
yes coueteth some enterprise, or worke to frame relife, or help
The cause of
our bearth.
to hymself, for all wée are not borne, onelie to our selues, but
many waies to be profitable, as to our owne countrie, and all
partes thereof. Especiallie to soche as by sickenes, or infirmi-
tie of bodie are oppressed, that arte and Science can not take
place to help thē. Soche as do folowe the life of the Greshop-
per, are worthie of their miserie, who haue no witte to foresée
seasons and tymes, but doe suffer tyme vndescretly to passe,
Ianus. whiche fadeth as a floure, thold Romaines do picture Ianus
with two faces, a face behind, & an other before, which resem-
ble a wiseman, who alwaies ought to knowe thinges paste,
thynges presente, and also to be experte, by the experience of
many ages and tymes, and knowledge of thynges to come.

¶ The comparison betwene
the twoo thynges.

W Hat can be more descritlie doen, then the Ante to be
so prouident and politike: as that all daunger of life,
& necessitie is excluded, the stormie times of Winter
ceaseth of might, & honger battereth not his walles, hauyng
Prouidence. soche plentie of foode, for vnlooked bitter stormes and seasons,
happeneth in life, whiche when thei happen, neither wisedō
nor pollicie, is not able to kepe backe. Wisedome therefore,
it is so to stande, that these thynges hurte not, the miserable
ende of the Greshopper sheweth vnto vs, whiche maie be an
example to all menne, of what degree, so euer thei bee, to flie
[Fol. xij.r]slothe and idelnesse, to be wise and discrite.

¶ Of contraries.

Diligence. A S diligence, prouidence, and discrete life is a singu-
lare gift, whiche increaseth all vertues, a pillar, staie
and a foundacion of all artes and science, of common
wealthes, and kyngdomes. So contrarily sloth and sluggish-
nesse, in all states and causes, defaseth, destroyeth, and pul-
leth doune all vertue, all science and godlines. For, by it, the
mightie kyngdome of the Lidiās, was destroied, as it semeth
Idelnes. no small vice, when the Lawes of Draco, dooe punishe with
death idelnesse.

¶ The ende.

The Ante. T Herefore, the diligence of the Ante in this Fable,
not onelie is moche to be commended, but also her
example is to bee followed in life. Therefore, the
wiseman doeth admonishe vs, to go vnto the Ant
and learne prouidence: and also by the Greshopper, lette vs
learne to auoide idelnes, leste the like miserie and calamitie
fall vpon vs.

¶ Narratio.

T His place followyng, is placed of Tullie, after the
exordium or beginnyng of Oracion, as the seconde
parte: whiche parte of Rhetorike, is as it were the
light of all the Oracion folowing: conteining the cause, mat-
ter, persone, tyme, with all breuitie, bothe of wordes, and in-
uencion of matter.

¶ A Narracion.

A Narracion is an exposicion, or declaracion of any
thyng dooen in deede, or els a settyng forthe, for-
ged of any thyng, but so declaimed and declared,
as though it were doen.

A narracion is of three sortes, either it is a narracion hi-
storicall, of any thyng contained, in any aunciente storie, or
true Chronicle.
[Fol. xij.v]

Or Poeticall, whiche is a exposicion fained, set forthe by
inuencion of Poetes, or other.

Or ciuill, otherwise called Iudiciall, whiche is a matter
of controuersie in iudgement, to be dooen, or not dooen well
or euill.

In euery Narracion, ye must obserue sixe notes.

1. Firste, the persone, or doer of the thing, whereof you intreate.
2. The facte doen.
3. The place wherein it was doen.
4. The tyme in the whiche it was doen.
5. The maner must be shewed, how it was doen.
6. The cause wherevpon it was doen.

There be in this Narracion, iiij. other properties belōging[.]

1. First, it must be plain and euident to the hearer, not obscure,
2. short and in as fewe wordes as it maie be, for soche amatter.
3. Probable, as not vnlike to be true.
4. In wordes fine and elegante.

¶ A narracion historicall, vpon Semiramis Queene of Babilon
how and after what sort she obtained the gouernment thereof.

A Fter the death of Ninus, somtime kyng of Ba-
bilon, his soonne Ninus also by name, was left
to succede hym, in all the Assirian Monarchie,
Semiramis wife to Ninus the firste, feared the
tender age of her sonne, wherupon she thought
The cause.
The facte.
that those mightie nacions and kyngdomes, would not obaie
so young and weake a Prince. Wherfore, she kept her sonne
from the gouernmente: and moste of all she feared, that thei
The waie
would not obaie a woman, forthwith she fained her self, to be
the soonne of Ninus, and bicause she would not be knowen
to bee a woman, this Quene inuented a newe kinde of tire,
the whiche all the Babilonians that were men, vsed by her
commaundement. By this straunge disguised tire and appa-
rell, she not knowen to bee a woman, ruled as a man, for the
The facte.
The place.
space of twoo and fourtie yeres: she did marueilous actes, for
she enlarged the mightie kyngdome of Babilon, and builded
[Fol. xiij.r]thesame citée. Many other regions subdued, and valiauntlie
ouerthrowen, she entered India, to the whiche neuer Prince
came, sauing Alexander the greate: she passed not onely men
in vertue, counsaill, and valiaunt stomacke, but also the fa-
mous counsailours of Assiria, might not contende with her
in Maiestie, pollicie, and roialnes. For, at what tyme as thei
knewe her a woman, thei enuied not her state, but maruei-
led at her wisedome, pollicie, and moderacion of life, at the
laste she desiryng the vnnaturall lust, and loue of her soonne
Ninus, was murthered of hym.

¶ A narracion historicall vpon kyng Ri-
chard the third, the cruell tiraunt[.]

The persone[.] R Ichard duke of Glocester, after the death of Ed-
ward the fowerth his brother king of England,
vsurped the croune, moste traiterouslie and wic-
kedlie: this kyng Richard was small of stature,
deformed, and ill shaped, his shoulders beared
not equalitee, a pulyng face, yet of countenaunce and looke
cruell, malicious, deceiptfull, bityng and chawing his nether
lippe: of minde vnquiet, pregnaunt of witte, quicke and liue-
ly, a worde and a blowe, wilie, deceiptfull, proude, arrogant
The tyme.
The place.
in life and cogitacion bloodie. The fowerth daie of Iulie, he
entered the tower of London, with Anne his wife, doughter
to Richard Erle of Warwick: and there in created Edward
his onely soonne, a child of ten yeres of age, Prince of Wa-
les. At thesame tyme, in thesame place, he created many no-
ble peres, to high prefermente of honour and estate, and im-
mediatly with feare and faint harte, bothe in himself, and his
The horrible
murther of
king Richard[.]
nobles and commons, was created king, alwaies a vnfortu-
nate and vnluckie creacion, the harts of the nobles and com-
mons thereto lackyng or faintyng, and no maruaile, he was
a cruell murtherer, a wretched caitiffe, a moste tragicall ty-
raunt, and blood succour, bothe of his nephewes, and brother
George Duke of Clarence, whom he caused to bee drouned
in a Butte of Malmsie, the staires sodainlie remoued, wher-
[Fol. xiij.v] The facte. on he stepped, the death of the lorde Riuers, with many other
nobles, compassed and wrought at the young Princes com-
myng out of Wales, the .xix. daie of Iuly, in the yere of our
lorde .1483. openly he toke vpon him to be king, who sekyng
hastely to clime, fell according to his desart, sodainly and in-
gloriously, whose Embassage for peace, Lewes the Frenche
king, for his mischeuous & bloodie slaughter, so moche abhor-
red, that he would neither sée the Embassador, nor heare the
Embassage: for he murthered his .ij. nephues, by the handes
The tyme.
The maner
of one Iames Tirrell, & .ij. vilaines more associate with him
the Lieutenaunt refusyng so horrible a fact. This was doen
he takyng his waie & progresse to Glocester, whereof he was
before tymes Duke: the murther perpetrated, he doubed the
good squire knight. Yet to kepe close this horrible murther,
he caused a fame and rumour to be spread abrode, in all par-
tes of the realme, that these twoo childrē died sodainly, there-
The cause. by thinkyng the hartes of all people, to bee quietlie setteled,
no heire male lefte a liue of kyng Edwardes children. His
mischief was soche, that God shortened his vsurped raigne:
he was al together in feare and dread, for he being feared and
dreaded of other, did also feare & dread, neuer quiete of minde
faint harted, his bloodie conscience by outward signes, condē-
pned hym: his iyes in euery place whirlyng and caste about,
The state of
a wicked mā.
his hand moche on his Dagger, the infernall furies tormen-
ted him by night, visions and horrible dreames, drawed him
from his bedde, his vnquiet life shewed the state of his consci-
ence, his close murther was vttered, frō the hartes of the sub-
iectes: thei called hym openlie, with horrible titles and na-
mes, a horrible murtherer, and excecrable tiraunt. The peo-
A dolefull
state of a
ple sorowed the death of these twoo babes, the Queene, kyng
Edwardes wife, beeyng in Sanctuarie, was bestraught of
witte and sences, sounyng and falling doune to the grounde
as dedde, the Quéene after reuiued, knéeled doune, and cal-
led on God, to take vengaunce on this murtherer. The con-
science of the people was so wounded, of the tolleracion of the
[Fol. xiiij.r] The wicked
facte of kyng
Richard, a
horror and
dread to the
facte, that when any blustryng winde, or perilous thonder, or
dreadfull tempest happened: with one voice thei cried out and
quaked, least God would take vengauce of them, for it is al-
waies séen the horrible life of wicked gouernors, bringeth to
ruin their kyngdom and people, & also wicked people, the like
daungers to the kyngdome and Prince: well he and his sup-
porters with the Duke of Buckyngham, died shamefullie.
God permit
meanes, to
pull doune
The knotte of mariage promised, betwene Henrie Erle of
Richemonde, and Elizabeth doughter to kyng Edward the
fowerth: caused diuerse nobles to aide and associate this erle,
fledde out of this lande with all power, to the attainmente of
the kyngdome by his wife. At Nottyngham newes came to
kyng Richard, that the Erle of Richmonde, with a small cō-
paignie of nobles and other, was arriued in Wales, forthe-
with exploratours and spies were sent, who shewed the Erle
to be encamped, at the toune of Litchfield, forthwith all pre-
paracion of warre, was set forthe to Leicester on euery side,
the Nobles and commons shranke from kyng Richarde, his
Bosworthe[.] power more and more weakened. By a village called Bos-
worthe, in a greate plaine, méete for twoo battailes: by Lei-
cester this field was pitched, wherin king Richard manfully
fightyng hande to hande, with the Erle of Richmonde, was
Kyng Ri-
chard killed
in Bosworth
slaine, his bodie caried shamefullie, to the toune of Leicester
naked, without honor, as he deserued, trussed on a horse, be-
hinde a Purseuaunte of Armes, like a hogge or a Calfe, his
hedde and his armes hangyng on the one side, and his legges
on the other side: caried through mire and durte, to the graie
Friers churche, to all men a spectacle, and oprobrie of tiran-
nie this was the cruell tirauntes ende.

¶ A narracion historicall, of the commyng
of Iulius Cesar into Britaine.

The tyme.
The persone.
W Hen Iulius Cesar had ended his mightie and huge
battailes, about the flood Rhene, he marched into the
regiō of Fraunce: at thesame time repairing with a
freshe multitude, his Legiōs, but the chief cause of his warre
[Fol. xiiij.v]in Fraunce was, that of long time, he was moued in minde,
The cause.
The fame
and glorie of
to see this noble Islande of Britain, whose fame for nobilitée
was knowen and bruted, not onelie in Rome, but also in the
vttermoste lādes. Iulius Cesar was wroth with thē, because
in his warre sturred in Fraunce, the fearce Britaines aided
the Fenche men, and did mightilie encounter battaill with
the Romaines: whose prowes and valiaunt fight, slaked the
proude and loftie stomackes of the Romaines, and droue thē
The prowes
of Iulius
to diuerse hasardes of battaill. But Cesar as a noble warrier
preferryng nobilitee, and worthinesse of fame, before money
or cowardly quietnes: ceased not to enter on ye fearce Britai-
nes, and thereto prepared his Shippes, the Winter tyme fo-
lowyng, that assone as oportunitee of the yere serued, to passe
The maner
Cesars com-
with the mar[-]
chauntes, as
the lande of
with all power against them. In the meane tyme, Cesar in-
quired of the Marchauntes, who with marchaundise had ac-
cesse to the Islande: as concernyng the quātitée and bignes of
it, the fashion and maner of the people, their lawes, their or-
der, and kinde of gouernmente. As these thynges were in all
poinctes, vnknowen to Cesar, so also the Marchaūtes knewe
The ware &
politike go-
uernement of
ye Britaines.
Aliaunce in
tyme traite-
no more thā the places bordring on the sea side. For, the Bri-
taines fearing the traiterous and dissembled hartes of aliaū-
ces, politikelie repelled them: for, no straunger was suffered
to enter from his Shippe, on the lande, but their marchaun-
dice were sold at the sea side. All nacions sought to this land,
the felicitee of it was so greate, whereupon the Grekes kno-
wyng and tastyng the commoditée of this Islande, called it by
Britain som-
tyme called of
the Grekes
Olbion, not
a Greke name Olbion, whiche signifieth a happie and fortu-
nate countrie, though of some called Albion, tyme chaunged
the firste letter, as at this daie, London is called for the toune
of kyng Lud. Cesar thereupon before he would marche with
Caius Uo-
lusenus, Em[-]
bassadour to
his armie, to the people of Britain, he sent Caius Uolusenus
a noble man of Rome, a valiaunte and hardie Capitaine, as
Embassadour to the Britaines, who as he thoughte by his
Embassage, should knowe the fashion of the Island, the ma-
ner of the people, their gouernemente. But as it seemeth, the
[Fol. xv.r]Embassadour was not welcome. For, he durste not enter frō
his Ship, to dooe his maisters Embassage, Cesar knewe no-
Comas A-
trebas, secōde
from Cesar.
thing by him. Yet Cesar was not so contented, but sent an o-
ther Embassadour, a man of more power, stomack, and more
hardie, Comas Atrebas by name, who would enter as an
Embassadour, to accomplish the will & expectacion of Cesar,
Comas Atrebas was so welcome, that the Britains cast him
in prison: Embassages was not common emong theim, nor
the curteous vsage of Embassadours knowen. Al these thin-
king of Lon-
don, at the a-
riue of Cesar[.]
a worthie
ges, made Cesar more wrothe, to assaie the vncourtous Bris[-]
. In those daies Cassibelan was kyng of London, this
Cassibelan was a prince of high wisedom, of manly stomacke
and valiaunt in fight: and for power and valiauntnesse, was
chosen of the Britaines, chief gouernour and kyng. Dissen-
cion and cruell warre was emong thē, through the diuersitie
of diuers kinges in the lande. The Troinouaūtes enuied the
Imanuēcius[.] state of Cassibelan, bicause Immanuencius, who was kyng
of London, before Cassibelan, was put to death, by the coun-
sail of Cassibelan. The sonne of Immanuencius, hearing of
the commyng of Cesar, did flie traiterouslie to Cesar: The
Troinouauntes fauoured Immanuēcius part, & thereupon
The Troy-
nouauntes by
treason let in
promised, as moste vile traitours to their countrie, an ente-
ryng to Cesar, seruice and homage, who through a self will,
and priuate fauour of one, sought the ruine of their countrie,
and in the ende, their own destruccion. But Cassibelan gaue
many ouerthrowes to Cesar, and so mightelie encountred
with hym, so inuincible was the parte of Cassibelane: but by
treason of the Troinouauntes, not by manhod of Cesars po-
wer, enteryng was giuen. What house can stande, where-
Treason a
confusion to
the mightiest
in discord broile? What small power, is not able to enter the
mightiest dominions or regions: to ouercome the strongeste
fortresse, treason open the gate, treason giuyng passage. Al-
though Cesar by treason entered, so Cesar writeth. Yet the
fame of Cesar was more commended, for his enterprise into
Britain, and victorie: then of all his Conquest, either against
[Fol. xv.v] A sentēce gra[-]
uen of Bri-
taine, in the
on of Cesar.
Pompey, or with any other nacion. For in a Piller at Rome
this sentence was engrauen: Of all the dominions, Citees,
and Regions, subdued by Cesar, his warre attēpted against
the fearce Britaines, passeth all other. After this sort Cesar
entred our Islande of Britaine by treason.

¶ A narracion iudiciall, out of Theusidides,
vpon the facte of Themistocles.

T He Athenians brought vnder the thraldome of
the Lacedemonians, soughte meanes to growe
mightie, and to pull them from the yoke, vnder
the Lacedemonians. Lacedemonia was a citee
enuironed with walles. Athenes at thesame
tyme without walles: whereby their state was more feeble,
and power weakened. Themistocles a noble Sage, and a
worthie pere of Athens: gaue the Atheniās counsaile to wall
their citée strōgly, and so forthwith to be lordes and rulers by
them selues, after their owne facion gouerning. In finishing
this enterprise, in all poinctes, policie, and wittie conuei-
aunce wanted not. The Lacedemonians harde of the pur-
pose of the Athenians, & sent Embassadours, to knowe their
doynges, and so to hinder them. Themistocles gaue counsaill
to the Athenians, to kepe in safe custodie, the Embassadours
of Lacedemonia, vntill soche tyme, as he from the Embas-
sage was retourned frō Lacedemonia. The Lacedemonians
hearyng of the commyng of Themistocles, thought little of
the walle buildyng at Athens. Themistocles was long loo-
ked for of thē, because Themistocles lingered in his Embas-
sage, that or the matter were throughly knowen: the walle
of Athens should be builded. The slowe commyng of The-
mistocles, was blamed of the Lacedemonians: but Themi-
stocles excused hymself, partly infirmitie of bodie, lettyng
his commyng, and the expectacion of other, accompaignied
with hym in this Embassage. The walle ended, necessitie
not artificiall workemanship finishing it, with al hast it was
ended: then Themistocles entered the Senate of Lacedemo-
[Fol. xvj.r]nia, and saied: the walle whom ye sought to let, is builded at
Athens, ye Lacedemonians, that wee maie be more strong.
Then the Lacedemonians could saie nothyng to it, though
thei enuied the Athenians state, the walle was builded, and
leste thei should shewe violence or crueltie on Themistocles,
their Embassabours were at Athens in custodie, whereby
Themistocles came safe from his Embassage, and the Athe-
nians made strong by their walle: this was politikely dooen
of Themistocles.

¶ A narracion Poeticall vpon a Rose.

W Ho so doeth maruaile at the beautée and good-
ly colour of the redde Rose, he must consider the
blood, that came out of Uenus the Goddes foot.
The Goddes Uenus, as foolishe Poetes dooe
feigne, beyng the aucthour of Loue: loued Ado-
nis the soonne of Cynara kyng of Cypres. But Mars called
the God of battaile, loued Uenus, beyng nothyng loued of
Uenus: but Mars loued Uenus as feruently, as Uenus lo-
ued Adonis. Mars beyng a God, loued Uenus a goddes, but
Uenus onely was inflamed with the loue of Adonis, a mor-
tall man. Their loue was feruent, and exremely set on fire
in bothe, but their kinde and nature were contrary, wherev-
pon Mars beyng in gelousie, sought meanes to destroie, faire
amiable, and beautifull Adonis, thinkyng by his death, the
loue of Uenus to be slaked: Adonis and Mars fell to fighting
Uenus as a louer, ranne to helpe Adonis her louer, and by
chaunce she fell into a Rose bushe, and pricked with it her
foote, the blood then ran out of her tender foote, did colour the
Rose redde: wherevpon the Rose beyng white before, is v-
pon that cause chaunged into redde.

[¶] Chria.

C Hria, this profitable exercise of Rhetorike, is for the
porfite of it so called: it is a rehersall in fewe wordes,
of any ones fact, or of the saiyng of any man, vpō the
[Fol. xvj.v]whiche an oracion maie be made. As for example, Isocrates
did say, that the roote of learnng was bitter, but the fruictes
pleasaunt: and vpon this one sentence, you maie dilate a am-
ple and great oracion, obseruyng these notes folowyng. The
saiyng dooeth containe so greate matter, and minister soche
plentie of argumente.

Aucthors intreatyng of this exercise, doe note three sortes
to bee of theim, one of theim a Chria verball, that is to saie, a
profitable exercise, vpon the saiyng of any man, onely con-
teinyng the wordes of the aucthour, as the sentence before.

The seconde is, conteinyng the facte or deede of the per-
sone: As Diogines beyng asked of Alexander the Greate, if
he lacked any thyng, that he was able to giue hym, thinkyng
his demaūde vnder his power, for Diogenes was at thesame
tyme warmyng hymself in the beames of the Sunne: Dio-
genes aunswered, ye take awaie that, that ye are not able to
giue, meanyng that Alexander by his bodie, shadowed hym,
and tooke awaie that, whiche was not in his power to giue,
Alexander tourned hymself to his men, and saied, if I were
not Alexander, I would be Diogenes.

The thirde is a Chria mixt, bothe verball and notyng the
facte, as Diogenes seyng a boie wanton & dissolute, did strike
his teacher with a staffe, vtteryng these woordes: why dooest
thou teache thy scholer so dissolutlie.

You shall learne to make this exercise, obseruyng these

Firste, you shall praise the aucthour, who wrote the sen-
tence, waighing his life, if his life be vnknowen, and not easie
to finde his sentence or sentences: for godlie preceptes will
minister matter of praise, as if these saiynges bee recited, thei
are sufficient of them selues, to praise the aucthour.

Then in the seconde place, expounde the meanyng of the
aucthour in that saiyng.

Then shewe the cause, why he spake this sentence.

Then compare the matter, by a contrary.[Fol. xvij.r]

Then frame a similitude of thesame.

Shewe the like example of some, that spake the like, or
did the like.

Then gather the testimonies of more writers of thesame[.]

Then knit the conclusion.

¶ An Oracion.

ISocrates did saie, that the roote of learnyng is was bit-
ter, but the fruictes were pleasaunt.

¶ The praise.

T His Oratour Isocrates, was an Athenian borne,
Lusimachus[.] who florished in the time of Lusimachus the chief
gouernor of Athens: this Isocrates was brought
vp in all excellēcie of learning, with the moste fa-
Gorgias Le-
mous and excellent Oratour Prodicus, Gorgias Leontinus
indued him with all singularitie of learnyng and eloquence.
The eloquēce of Isocrates was so famous, that Aristotle the
nes learned
eloquence of
chief Pholosopher, enuied his vertue & praise therin: Demo-
sthenes also, who emong the Grecians chieflie excelled, lear-
ned his eloquence, of the Oracions whiche Isocrates wrote,
to many mightie and puisaunt princes and kinges, do shewe
his wisedome, & copious eloquēce, as to Demonicus the king
to Nicocles, Euagoras, against Philip the king of the Mace-
doniās, by his wisedome and counsaill, the Senate and vni-
uersal state of Athens was ruled, & the commons and multi-
tude thereby in euery part florished: chieflie what counsaill,
what wisedome, what learnyng might bee required, in any
man of high fame and excellencie: that fame was aboundant[-]
ly in Isocrates, as in all his Oratiōs he is to be praised, so in
this sentence, his fame importeth like commendacion.

¶ The exposicion.

I N that he saieth, the roote of learnyng is bitter, and
the fruictes pleasaunt: he signifieth no excellent qua-
All excellen-
cie with labor
is attained.
litie or gift, vertue, arte or science can bee attained,
except paine, labour, diligence, doe plant and sette thesame:
[Fol. xvij.v]but when that noble gift, either learnyng, or any excellente
qualitee, is lodged and reposed in vs, then we gather by pain-
full labours, greate profite, comforte, delectable pleasures,
wealth, glorie, riches, whiche be the fruictes of it.

¶ The cause.

A ND seyng that of our owne nature, all men are en-
clined from their tender yeres and infancie, to the ex-
tirpacion of vertue, folowyng with all earnest studie
and gréedie, the free passage to vice, and specially children,
whose iudgementes and reason, are not of that strengthe, to
rule their weake mindes and bodies, therefore, in them chief-
lie, the roote of learning is bitter, because not onely many ye-
res thei runne their race, in studie of arte and science. With
care and paine also, with greuous chastisment and correcciō,
thei are compelled by their teachers and Maisters, to appre-
hende thesame: the parentes no lesse dreaded, in the educaciō
of their children, in chastisement and correction, so that by all
The roote of
learnyng bit-
meanes, the foundacion and roote of all learnyng, in what
sort so euer it is, is at the firste vnpleasaunte, sower, and vn-
sauerie. To folowe the times and seasons, appoincted for the
same, is moste painfull, and in these painfull yeres: other
greate pleasures, as the frailtie of youth, and the imbecilitie
of nature iudgeth, dooeth passe by, but in miserable state is
Who is a vn-
that childe, and vnfortunate, that passeth the flower of his
youth and tender yeres, instructed with no arte or Science,
whiche in tyme to come, shalbe the onelie staie, helpe, the pil-
ler to beare of the sore brent, necessitie, and calamities of life.
Good educa-
cion the foun-
dacion of the
Herein the noble Romaines, laied the sure foundacion of
their mightie dominion, in the descrite prouidente, and poli-
tike educacion of children: to whom the Grecians gaue, that
necessarie bulwarke and faundacion, to set vp all vertue, all
arte and science. In Grece no man was knowen, to liue in
that common wealth, but that his arte and science, gaue ma-
nifest probacion and testimonie, how and after what sorte he
liued. The Romaines in like sorte, the sworde and aucthori-
[Fol. xviij.r]tie of the Magistrate, executyng thesame, did put forthe, and
draw to the attainment of learnyng, art or science, all youth
hauyng maturitie and ripenesse to it, and why, because that
in a common wealth, where the parentes are vndescrete and
foolishe, as in all common wealthes, there are not a fewe,
but many, thei not ponderyng the state of the tyme to come,
bringing vp their children without all ciuilitie, vnframed to
vertue, ignoraunt of all arte and science: the children of their
owne nature, vnbrideled, vntaught, wilfull, and heddie, doe
run with free passage to all wickednes, thei fall into al kinde
of follie, oppressed with all kinde of calamitie, miserie, and
Euill educa-
cion bringeth
to ruine migh[-]
tie kingdoms[.]
vnfortunate chaunces, whiche happen in this life. Nothyng
doeth soner pulle doune a kyngdome, or common wealthe,
then the euill and leude educacion of youth, to whom neither
substaunce, wealth, riches, nor possessions doe descende, from
their auncestours and parentes, who also of them selues wāt
all art, science and meanes, to maintain them to liue, who of
them selues are not able to get relief, for onely by this mea-
nes, life is maintained, wealth and riches ar possessed to ma-
ny greate siegniories, landes, and ample possessions, left by
their parentes, and line of auncetours, haue by lacke of ver-
tuous educacion, been brought to naught, thei fell into ex-
treme miserie, pouertie, and wantyng learnyng, or wealth,
to maintaine their state and delicate life, thei haue robbed,
spoiled, murthered, to liue at their owne will. But then as
rotten, dedde, and putride members frō the common wealth
thei are cutte of by the sworde, and aucthoritie of the Magi-
strate. What kyngdome was more mightie and strong, then
Lydia. the kyngdome of Lidia, whiche by no other meanes was
brought to ruine and destruccion, but by idlenes: in that thei
were kepte from all vertuous exercise, from the studie of ar-
tes and sciences, so longe as thei meditated and liued in the
schoole of vertuous life: no nacion was hable to ouerthrowe
them, of them selues thei were prone and readie, to practise all
Cyrus. excellencie. But Cyrus the kyng of Persians, by no other
[Fol. xviij.v]meanes was able to bring them weaker. He toke from thē al
furtherance to artes, destroied all occupaciōs of vertue wher-
vpon by commaundemēt aud terrour, wer driuen to practise
The decay of
a kyngdome.
the vaine and pestiferous practise, of Cardes and Dice. Har-
lottes then schooled them, and all vnhoneste pastyme nurte-
red them, Tauernes an quaffyng houses, was their accusto-
med and moste frequented vse of occupacion: by this meanes
their nobilitie and strengthe was decaied, and kyngdome
made thrall. Ill educacion or idlenes, is no small vice or euill
when so mightie a prince, hauyng so large dominions, whō
all the Easte serued and obaied. Whose regimente and go-
uernemente was so infinite, that as Zenophon saieth, tyme
The mightie
dominions of
would rather want, then matter to speake of his mightie and
large gouernement, how many nacions, how diuerse people
and valiaunte nacions were in subieccion to hym. If this
mightie Prince, with all his power and populous nacions,
was not hable to giue the ouerthrowe, to the kyngdome of
Euill educa-
Lidia, but by ill educacion, not by marciall attēptes, sworde
or battaill: but by giuyng them scope and libertie, to dooe as
he would. No doubt but that Cyrus sawe, by the like exam-
ple of other kyngdomes, this onelie pollicie to bee a ruine
Pithagoras. of that kyngdome. Pythagoras the famous and godlie Phi-
losopher, saued the kyngdome and people of Crotona, thei
leauyng all studie of arte, vertue and science. This people of
Catona. Crotona, was ouercome of the people of Locrus, thei left all
exercise of vertue, neclectyng the feates of chiualrie, whervpō
Pythagoras hauyng the profitable and godlie lawes of Ly-
curgus, which he brought from Lacedemonia: and the lawes
of Minos kyng of Creta, came to the people of Crotona, and
by his godlie teachyng and Philosophie, reuoked & brought
backe the people, giuen ouer to the neglectyng of all vertue,
declaryng to them the nobilitie and excellencie thereof, he li-
uely set foorthe the beastlinesse of vice. Pithagoras recited to
them, the fall and ruine of many regions, and mightie king-
domes, whiche tooke after those vices. Idlenes beyng forsa-
[Fol. xix.r]ken, vertue embrased, and good occupacions practised, the
kyngdome and people grewe mightie.

Lycurgus. Emong the godlie lawes of Lycurgus, Lycurgus omit-
ted not to ordaine Lawes, for the educacion of youthe: in the
whiche he cutte of all pamperyng of them, because in tender
yeres, in whose bodies pleasure harboreth, their vertue, sci-
ence, cunnyng rooteth not: labour, diligence, and industrie
onelie rooteth vertue, and excellencie. Uices as vnprofitable
weedes, without labour, diligence and industrie growe vp,
and thereby infecteth the minde and bodie, poisoneth all the
mocions, incensed to vertue and singularitie. Who euer at-
tained cunnyng, in any excellent arte or science, where idle-
nes or pleasure helde the swaie. Philosophie sheweth, plea-
sure to bée vnmete for any man of singularitie, for pleasure,
idlenes, and ignoraunce, are so linked together, that the pos-
session of the one, induceth the other. So many godlie monu-
mētes of learning, had not remained to this posteritie of ours
and of all ages: if famous men in those ages and tymes, had
hūted after immoderate pleasure. Thindustrie of soche, who
left to the posteritie of all ages, the knowlege of Astronomie
is knowen: the monumentes of all learnyng of lawes, and
of all other woorkes of antiquitie, by vertue, noble, by indu-
strie, labour, and moderacion of life in studie, not by plea-
sure and wantones, was celebraied to all ages. The migh-
tie volumes of Philosophers, bothe in morall preceptes, and
in naturall causes, knewe not the delicate and dissolute life
of these our daies. Palingenius enueighyng against the pā-
pered, and lasciuious life of man, vttereth a singulare sentēce

Qui facere et qui nosce, cupit quam plurima et altum,
In terris virtute aliqua sibi querere nomen:
Hunc vigilare opus est, nam non preclara geruntur,
Stertendo, et molles detrectat gloria plumas.

Who so coueteth to purchase fame by actes, or whose
minde hunteth for aboundaunte knowledge, or by vertue in
this life, to purchause good fame. He had not nede to slugge
[Fol. xix.v]and slepe in his doynges: for good fame is not vpholded by
gaie Pecockes feathers. Of this, Demosthenes the famous
Oratour of Athens, vttereth a worthie saiyng to the Athe-
nians in his Epistle: if any will iudge Alexander the greate,
to be famous and happie, in that he had successe in all his do-
the great, cō-
mended for
ynges, let this be his cogitacion, that Alexander the greate,
alwaies did inure hymself to doe thynges, and manfullie to
assaie that he enterprised. The felicitie of his successe came
to hym not slepyng, or not cogitatyng thereof: Alexander the
greate now dedde, Fortune seketh with whom she maie ac-
companie, and associate her self.

Thusidides comparyng the Lacedemonians, and the A-
thenians together, shewed a rare moderacion, and tempera-
ture of life, to be in the Athenians: wherupon thei are moste
commended, and celebrated to the posteritie.

¶ The contrarie.

E Uen as idlenes and a sluggishe life, is moste pleasant
to all soche, as neglecte vertuous exercises, and god-
lie life. So paine, labour, and studie, bestowed and
emploied, in the sekyng out of vertue, arte, or science is moste
pleasaunt to well affected mindes: for no godlie thyng can be
attained to, without diligence and labour.

¶ The similitude.

E Uen as housbandmen, with labour and trauaile,
dooe labour in plantyng and tillyng the grounde,
before thei receiue any fruicte of thesame. Euen so
no vertue, arte, or science, or any other thyng of ex-
cellencie is attained, without diligence and labour bestowed

¶ The example.

L Et Demosthenes, the famous Oratour of Athenes,
bee an example of diligence to vs, who to auoide all
let from studie, vsed a meanes to kepe hymself ther-
to: preuentyng also the industrie of artificers. Thesame De-
[Fol. xx.r]mosthenes, wrote seuen tymes out the storie of Thusidides,
to learne thereby his eloquence and wisedome.

¶ The testimonie.

P Linie, Plato, and Aristotle, with many other mo, are
like examples for diligence to vs: who wrote vpon
vertue and learnyng like sentences.

¶ The conclusion.

T Herefore, Isocrates dooeth pronounce worthelie, the
roote of learning and vertue to be bitter, and the fru-
tes pleasaunte.

¶ A Sentence.

T He Oracion, whiche must be made by a sentēce
is in al partes like to Chria, the profitable exer-
cise, onelie that the Oracion made vpon a sen-
tence, as aucthours do saie: hath not alwaie the
name of the aucthour prefixed in the praise, a
small matter of difference, who so can make the one, is ex-
pert and exquisite in the other, aucthours doe define a sentēce
in this maner. A sentence is an Oracion, in fewe woordes,
shewyng a godlie precept of life, exhorting or diswadyng: the
Gnome. Grekes dooe call godly preceptes, by the name of Gnome, or
Gnomon, whiche is asmoche to saie, a rule or square, to direct
any thyng by, for by them, the life of manne is framed to all
singularitie. Thei are diuers sortes of sentences, one exhor-
teth, an other diswadeth, some onely sheweth: there is a sen-
tence simple, compounde, profitable, true, & soche like. Frame
your Oracion vpon a sentence, as in the Oracion before.

{ 1. The praise of the aucthour.
{ 2. The exposicion of the sentence.
{ 3. A confirmacion in the strength of the cause.
{ 4. A conference, of the contrarie.
{ 5. A similitude.
{ 6. The example.
{ 7. The testimonie of aucthors, shewing ye like.
{ 8. Then adde the conclusion.

[Fol. xx.v]

¶ An Oracion vpon a sentence.
¶ The sentence.

In a common wealthe or kyngdome, many kynges to
beare rule, is verie euill, let there be but one kyng.

¶ The praise of the aucthour.

H Omere, who of all the Poetes chiefly excelled, spake
this sentence in the persone of Ulisses, vpon the king
Agamemnon, kyng of Grece. This Homere intrea-
ting of all princely affaires, and greate enterprices of the
Grecians: and of the mightie warre againste the Troians,
emong whom soche discorde rose, that not onely the warre,
for lacke of vnitie and concorde, continued the space of tenne
yeres. But also moche blood shed, hauocke, and destruccion,
came vpon the Grecians, vttered this sentēce. This Homere
for his learnyng and wisedome remaineth, intteled in many
monumentes of learnyng: with greate fame and commen-
The praise of
dacion to all ages. What Region, Isle, or nacion is not, by
his inuencion set foorthe: who although he were blinde, his
minde sawe all wisedome, the states of all good kyngdomes
The content
of Homers
and common wealthes. The verie liuely Image of a Prince
or gouernour, the faithfull and humble obediēce of a subiect,
toward the prince, the state of a capitaine, the vertue and no-
ble qualities, that are requisite, in soche a personage, be there
set forthe. The perfite state of a wiseman, and politike, is in-
treated of by hym. The Iustice, and equitie of a Prince, the
strength of the bodie, all heroicall vertues: also are set forthe
his eloquence and verse, floweth in soche sorte, with soche
pleasauntnes: so copious, so aboundaunt, so graue and sen-
tencious, that his singularitie therein excelleth, and passeth.

Alexander. The mightie prince Alexander, in all his marciall enter-
prices, and great conquestes, did continually night by night,
The Ilias
of Homere,
mete for prin-
ces to looke
reade somewhat of the Ilias of the Poete Homere, before he
slepte, and askyng for the booke, saied: giue me my pillowe.
Alexander as it semeth, learned many heroical vertues, poli-
cie, wisedome, & counsaill thereof, els he occupied in so migh-
[Fol. xxj.r]tie and greate warres, would not emploied studie therein.

Iulius Cesar the Emperour, commendeth this Poete,
for his singularitie, his commendacion giueth, ample argu-
ment, in this singulare sentence, whiche preferreth a Monar-
chie aboue all states of common wealthes or kyngdome.

¶ The exposicion.

H Omere the Poete, signified by this one sentence, no
kyngdome or common wealthe can prospere, or flo-
rishe to continue, where many holde gouernement
as kynges. For, the mindes of many rulers and princes, doe
moste affecte a priuate wealthe, commoditie and glorie: and
where, many doe beare soche swaie and dominion, the com-
mon wealth can not be good. For, thei priuatly to theim sel-
ues, doe beare that regiment, and alwaie with the slaughter
of many, do seke to attain and clime, to the whole gouermēt[.]

¶ The cause.

The state of
many kinges
in one lande.
M Any occasions dooe rise, whereby many princes, and
gouernours in a common wealth, be diuerslie affec-
ted, so that the gouernmēt of many, can not prosper.
For, bothe in quiete state, their counsailes must bee diuerse,
and vncertaine: and where thei so differ, the kyngdome stan-
deth in great ieopardy and daunger. Isocrates intreatyng of
Athenes. a Monarchie, sheweth that the common wealth of Athenes,
whiche detested and refused, that forme and state, after the
ruine and fall of their citee: beyng vnder the thraldome of the
Lacedemoniās, bothe in their externall chiualrie and feates,
bothe by sea and by lande, and also in regimente otherwise,
their citee grewe mightie, and state stedfast.

Carthage in
a monarchie.
The Carthagineans also, gouerned by one, had their go-
uernment stedfaste, and kyngdome roiall: who in puisaunte
actes, might compare with the noble Romaines. As the obe-
dience to one ruler and chief gouernour, sekyng a common
wealth, is in the hartes of the subiectes: feruent and maruei-
lous with loue embraced, so the Maiestie of hym is dreade,
[Fol. xxj.v]with loue serued, and with sincere harte, and fidelitie obeied,
The state of
many kinges
in one lande.
his maners folowed, his lawes imitated. Many gouernours
bearyng regiment, as their maners be diuers, and fashion of
life: euen so the people bee like affected, to the diuersitie of di-
uers princes. And if we weigh the reuolucion of the heauens
and the marueiles of God therein, the maker of thesame, who
A monarchie
in heauen.
beyng one God, ruleth heauen and yearth, and all thynges
cōtained in thesame. The heauen also adorned with many a
One Sunne[.] starre, and cleare light, haue but one Sunne to gouerne thē:
who being of a singulare vertue aboue the rest, by his vertue
and power, giueth vertue to the reste. Also in small thynges
The Ante.
The Bee.
the Ante and the Bee, who for prouidence and wisedome, ar
moche commended: haue as it were a common wealth, and a
king to gouerne thē, so in all thinges as a confusion, the state
of many kings is abhorred in gouernmēt. After the death of
Constantinus the greate, Constancius his sonne was made
Emperour, and Licinius with him, partaker in felowship of
the Empire. But forthwith, what blood was shed in Italie,
with all crueltie, vntill Constancius had slaine Licinius,
partaker of the Empire, and Marabodius was slaine also,
whom Licinius did associate with hym in the gouernment.
So moche princes and chief gouernours, doe hate equalitie,
or felowship in kingdomes. After thesame sort, in this migh-
tie Monarchie of Rome, diuerse haue attempted at one and
sondrie tymes, to beare the scepter and regiment therein, but
that mightie Monarchie, could not suffer but one gouernor.
The kyngdome of Thebes, was in miserable state, the twoo
sonnes of Oedipus, Eteocles, and Polunices: striuing bothe
Assiria the
first monar-
to be Monarche, and onely kyng. The kyngdome of Assiria,
whiche was the golden kyngdome, and the first Monarchie:
hauyng .36. kynges by succession, continued .1239. yeres, this
kyngdome for all nobilitie and roialnes excelled, and all in
a Monarchie. The kyngdome of the Medes, in a Monarchie
florished in wealthe and glorie and all felicitie: who in domi-
nion had gouernmente .300. lackyng .8. yeres. After that, the
[Fol. xxij.r] The monar-
chie of the
The Persiā.
monarchie of the Medes ceased, the Persiā people rose migh-
tie, bothe in people and Princes, and continued in that state
236 and 7 monethes. Macedonia rose from a base and meane
people, to beare the whole regiment, and power ouer all king[-]
domes. So God disposeth the state and seate of princes, ouer-
throwyng often tymes mightier kyngdomes at his will: the
continuaunce of this Monarchie was .157. and eight mone-
thes, ten kynges linealie descendyng. Asia and Siria, was
gouerned by one succedyng in a sole gouernement. Nicanor
gouerned Siria .32. yeres. In the other Antigonus raigned,
Demetrius Poliorchetes one yere, Antiochus Soter also, the
scepter of gouernment, left to the succession of an other, then
Antiochus Soter, ruled all Asia and Siria, hauyng .16. kin-
Egipte in a
ges whiche in a monarchie, cōtinued 189 yeres. The Egipci-
ans, had famous, wise, and noble princes, whose kyngdome
and large dominion, in all felicitée prospered: whiche was in
the tyme of Ninus, the first king of the Assiriās, who hauing
10. princes, one by one succedyng, Cleopatra their Quéene,
gouerning, stoode in a monarchie .288. This one thyng she-
weth, that kinde of gouernmente to bee roiall, and moste fa-
mous, not onely for the felicitée and glory therof: but also for
the permanent and stedfast state thereof. Aristotle and Plato
setteth forthe, thother formes of gouernmēt. But in all those,
no long cōtinuaunce of felicitee, nor of happy state can appere
in them, as for the contrarie to a Monarchie, is tirannis, pe-
stiferous, and to be detested, where one man gouerneth to his
priuate gaine, pillyng and polyng his subiectes, murderyng
with all crueltie, neither Lawe nor reason, leadyng thereto:
but will bearyng regiment ouer lawe, Iustice and equitee,
whiche princes often tymes see not. How the wilfull rashe-
nes, or tirannicall minde doeth abase them, and make them,
though in vtter porte thesame princes, yet in verie déede, thei
What doeth
beautifie the
throne of a
bee thrall and slaue to beastlie affeccion. Nothyng dooeth so
moche adorne and beautifie, the seate and throne of a prince,
as not onely to beare dominion, ouer mightie people and re-
[Fol. xxij.v] Aristocratia. gions, then to be lorde ouer hymself. The state of a fewe pée-
res or nobles, to holde the chief and whole gouernment, who
bothe in vertue, learnyng, and experience dooe excelle, is a
goodlie state of common wealth. But the profe of that com-
mon wealthe and ende sheweth, and the maner of Princes:
who, although thei be, of life godlie, wise, graue, expert and
politike. For, these vertues or ornamentes, ought to be repo-
sed in soche noble personages, thei doe marueilously chaunge
and alter: So honour and preeminente state, puffeth theim
vp, and blindeth theim, that euery one in the ende, seeketh to
climbe ouer all, as hed and gouernour. Shewe me one kinde
of this state, and forme of gouernmente, whiche either longe
prospered, or without bloodshed, and destruccion of the rest of
the nobles and peres, haue not caught the whole regimente.
Seyng that in all common wealthes and kingdomes, equa-
litée or felowshippe, will not be suffred in gouernmente: for,
it can not bee, that this forme of common wealthe maie bée
The ende of
good, as Aristotle and Plato sheweth: The ende of this go-
uernemente, fell euer to one, with a ruine of the kingdome
Politcia. and people. The multitude to beare dominion, and though a
publike wealth bée sought for a tyme, moche lesse thei conti-
nue in any good state: for in the ende, their rule and gouerne-
ment, will be without rule, order, reason, modestie, and their
lawe must bee will. The other three states, are the refuse of
good common wealthes, not to bée tollerated in any region.
Tirannis. The one of them is a tyraunte, to bée gouernour onely to his
owne glorie, with crueltie tormented his subiectes, onelie to
Oligarthia. haue his will and lust, ouer all lawe, order, and reason. The
nobilitée rulyng to them selues, euery one for his owne time[.]
Democratia. The third, the base and rude multitude, euery one for hym-
self, and at his will. This troublous state, all Regions and
common wealthes, haue felte in open sedicions and tumul-
tes, raised by theim, it is a plagued and pestiferous kinde of
gouernemente. The example of a good Monarchie, is of
greate force, to confounde the state of al other common weal-
[Fol. xxiij.r]thes, and formes of Regimente.

A monarchie
preferred of
the Persians[.]
The nobilitée of Persia hauyng no kyng, linially des-
cendyng, to rule that mightie dominion of Persia, Cambises
beyng dedde, the vsurper murthered, thei tooke counsaill in
their assemble, what state of gouernment was beste, thei ha-
uyng the profe of a Monarchie: in their longe counsaill, thei
knewe the felicitie of that state, thei knewe as it seemed, the
perilous state of the other gouernmentes. If these noble and
peres had been ambicious, and that eche of them would haue
had felowshippe, or participacion in kyngdomes: thei would
not haue preferred a Monarchie aboue the reste. The anti-
quitie of that tyme sheweth, their personages, wisedome,
grauitie, and maiestie was soche, that eche one of theim was
mete for his vertues, to haue a whole kyngdome. If Aristo-
cratia would haue contented them, then was tyme and occa-
sion offered, no kyng remainyng to haue preferred that state.
The duetie of
al noble peres[.]
But thei as vpright nobles, sincere and faithfull, hauyng al-
together respecte to a publique wealthe: to a permanent state
and felicitie of kingdome, sought no participacion by priuate
wealthe, to dissolue this Monarchie. But thei beyng moste
godlie, eche were content to proue, whose chaunce might be,
to set vp againe that Monarchie. The kyngdome at the laste
Darius. came to the handes of Darius, who was after kyng of the
Persians. This is a goodly example, to shewe the worthines
of a Monarchie, the Persian kingdome after many yeres de-
clinyng, from his power and state, not for any faulte of go-
rise and fall.
uernment, but God as he seeth tyme, raiseth vp kyngdomes
and plucketh them doune. Afterward Darius the kyng, not
able to make his parte good with Alexander the Greate: of-
fered to hym the greatest parte of his kyngdome, euen to the
flood of Euphrates, and offred his daughter to wife: Alexan-
der was content to take the offer of Darius, so that he would
bee seconde to hym, and not equall with hym in kyngdome.
The answer
of Alexander
to Darius,
as cōcernyng
a monarchie.
For, Alexander saied, that as the worlde can not bee gouer-
ned with twoo Sunnes, neither the worlde can suffer twoo
[Fol. xxiij.v]mightie kingdomes: wherupon it is manifest, that no king-
dome will suffer equalitie or felowship, but that if the will &
minde of Princes might brust out, the state of all the worlde,
would bee in one mightie gouernours handes. For, alwaies
Alexāder the
great prefar-
red a Mo-
Princes dooe seke to a sole regimente. Alexander the greate
cōquerour also, preferring for worthines a Monarchie, at the
tyme of his death, demaunded whō he would haue to succede
him in his mightie dominiōs, he by one signifiyng a Monar-
chie, saiyng: Dignissimus, that is to saie, the worthiest. After
monarchie fel
by many kin-
the death of Alexander, Antipater caught the gouernmente
of Macedonia and Grece, and Crates was Treasurer. Me-
leagrus and Perdiccas caught other of his dominions, then
Ptolemeus possessed Egipte, Africa and a parte of Arabia,
Learcus, Cassander, Menāder, Leonatus, Lusimachus, Eu-
menes, Seleucus and manie other, who were for their wor-
thines in honor and estimacion with Alexander, caught in-
to their handes other partes of his dominions, euerie one se-
kyng for his time, his owne priuate glorie, dignitie, and ad-
uauncemente, but not a publike wealthe, and so in fine, am-
bicion broiled in their loftie stomackes, eche to attaine to o-
thers honor. Whereupon bloodshed, destruction of the peo-
ple and countries, the fall of these Princes ensued. So moche
kingdomes hate equalitie or felowship: let vs laie before our
iyes, the kyngdomes nere at hand. Fraunce, from the tymes
of Faramundus vntill this daie haue stoode, and did florishe
in a Monarchie. The state of Spaine, from the tyme of the
firste kyng, vntill this daie, hath florished continually in a
Monarchie. The great seigniories of Germanie, by one suc-
cedyng in gouernment, haue been permanent in that good-
lie state. Our noble Isle of Britain from Brutus, hath stoode
by a Monarchie: onely in those daies, the state of gouernmēt
chaunged, at the commyng of Iulius Cesar, Emperour of
Rome. The lande beyng at diuision, and discorde, through
the diuersitie of diuerse kynges: so moche the state of diuerse
kynges in one lande, is to be expelled, or the gouernment of
[Fol. xxiiij.r]the base multitude, to haue vniuersally power of dominion,
or the state of peres, to bee chief in regiment, no kyng lefte to
commaunde ouer the people, and nobles, or els there can not
be but discorde in thende, whiche pulleth doune moste migh-
tie Regions and dominions, so that the beste state, the moste
stedfaste and fortunate, is in all tymes, in all ages, in all la-
wes, and common wealthes, where one king sekyng the ad-
uauncement, wealthe, glorie, of hym and his people.

¶ The contrarie.

T Hat housholde or familie, can not be well gouerned,
where many and diuerse beareth gouernment, nec-
lectyng the state prosperous vniuersallie: for where
obedience is drawen to diuers and many, there can not bee
good gouernment, nor faithfull obedience. And so in a king-
dome where one chiefly gouerneth, and to a common wealth
there the hartes of the subiectes, be moste knitte to obaie.

¶ The similitude.

E Uen as thei, whiche serue one maister, shall soneste
with labour please, and with fidelitie, accomplishe
his will and pleasure. For, the maners of many mē
be diuerse, and variable, so in a Monarchie, the state of one is
sone obaied, the minde and lawe of one Prince sone folowed,
his Maiestie dreaded and loued.

¶ The example.

L ET the fower chief Monarchies of the Assirian, the
Persian, Grecian, and the Romaine, whiche haue
continued from the beginnyng mightie, moste hap-
pie, bee an example herein. If that state of gouernement, had
not been chiefe of all other, those mightie kyngdomes would
not haue preferred, that kinde of gouernment.

¶ The testimonie of auncient writers.

T Herefore, Aristotle, Plato, and all the chief Philoso-
phers, intreatyng of the administracion of a common
wealthe: doe preferre before all states of gouernment
[Fol. xxiiij.v]a Monarchie, bothe for the felicitie of it, and stedfaste state.

¶ The conclusion.

HOmere therefore deserueth greate commendacion,
for this one sentence, whiche preferreth a Monarchie
before all states.

¶ The destruccion.

T His exercise of Rhetotike, is called destruccion, or
subuersion, because it is in a oracion, a certain re-
prehension of any thyng declaimed, or dilated, in
the whiche by order of art, the declaimer shall pro-
cede to caste doune by force, and strengthe of reason, the con-
trarie induced.

In this exercise of Rhetorike, those proposicions are to be
subuerted, whiche are not manifeste true, neither it so repu-
gnaunt from reason, as that there can appere no holde, to in-
duce a probable reason to confounde thesame. But soche pro-
posicions are meete for this parte, as are probable in both si-
des, to induce probabilitie of argument, to reason therupon.

1.It shall behoue you firste, for the entryng of this matter,
to adde a reprehension there against those, whiche haue con-
firmed as a truthe, that, whiche you will confute.

2.In thesame place, adde the exposion, and meanyng of his

3.Thirdly, shew the matter to be obsure, that is vncertain[.]



6.Not agreyng to any likelihode of truthe.

7.Uncomlie to be talked of.


This exercise of Rhetorike doeth contain in it al strength
of arte, as who should saie, all partes of Rhetorike, maie co-
piouslie be handled in this parte, called confutacion, so am-
ple a matter Tullie doeth note this parte to be.

¶ The theme or proposicion of this Oracion.[Fol. xxv.r]

It is not like to be true, that is said of the battaill of Troie.

¶ The reprehension of the auc-
thor, and of all Poetes.

N Ot without a cause, the vanities of Poetes are
to bee reproued, and their forged inuencions to
bee reiected: in whose writynges, so manifestlie
are set forthe as a truthe, and Chronicled to the
posteritie of ages and times, soche forged mat-
The vanities
of Poetes.
ters of their Poeticall and vain wittes. Who hath not heard
of their monsterous lies against God, thei inuentyng a gene-
alogie of many Goddes procreated, where as there is but
one God. This vanitie also thei haue set forthe, in their mo-
numentes and woorkes. How a conspiracie was sometyme
emong the Goddes and Goddes, to binde the great God Iu-
piter. How impudentlie doe thei set forthe the Goddes, to bee
louers of women, and their adulterous luste: and how thei
haue transformed theim selues, into diuers shapes of beastes
and foules, to followe after beastly luste. The malice and en-
uie of the Goddes, one to an other: The feigne also the heauē
to haue one God, the sea an other, helle an other, whiche are
mere vanities, and false imaginaciōs of their Poeticall wit-
tes. The like forged inuencion haue thei wrote, of the migh-
The battaill
of Troie .x.
yeres for a
tie and terrible battaill bruted of Troie, for a beautifull har-
lot susteined ten yeres. In the whiche, not onely men and no-
ble péeres, gaue the combate of battaile, but the Goddes toke
partes against Goddes, and men wounded Goddes: as their
The vain in-
uention of
lies exceade all nomber, because thei bee infinite, so also thei
passe all truthe, reason, and iudgemente. These fewe exam-
ples of their vanities and lies, doe shewe the feigned ground
and aucthoritie of the reste. Accordyng to the folie and super-
sticiousnes of those tymes, thei inuented and forged folie vp-
pon folie, lye vpon lye, as in the battaill of Troie, thei aggra-
uate the dolour of the battaill, by pitifull and lamentable in-
Plato reie-
cteth Poetes
from the com[-]
mon wealth.
uencion. As for the Poetes them selues, Plato in his booke,
made vpon the administracion of a common wealth, maketh
[Fol. xxv.v]theim in the nomber of those, whiche are to bee banished out
of all common wealthes.

¶ The exposicion.

H Omere dooeth saie, and many other Poetes, that
the warres of the Grecians against the Troians,
was for beautifull Helena, and continued tenne
yeres. The Goddes and Goddis toke partes, and
all the people of Grece, aided Menelaus, and the kyng Aga-
memnon, to bryng home again Helena, neclecting their own
countrie, their wife and chidrē, for one womā. The Grekes
inuentyng a huge and mightie horse made of Firre trée, and
couered with brasse, as huge as a moūtain, out of the whiche
the Grecians by treason issuyng, brought Troie to ruine.

¶ The obscuritie of the matter.

I T semeth a matter of folie, that so many people, so
mightie nacions should bee bewitched, to raise so
mightie a armie, hassardyng their liues, leauyng
their countrie, their wiues, their children, for one
Helena. woman: Be it so, that Helena passed all creatures, and that
Nature with beautie had indued her with all vertue, and sin-
gularitie: yet the Grecians would not be so foolishe, that vni-
uersallie thei would seke to caste doune their owne wealthe,
and moche more the common wealthe of Grece, and kyng-
dome to stande in perill. Neither is it to be thought, the Gre-
cians, sekyng to aduaūce the beautie of Helena: would leaue
The cause of
the forged in-
their owne state. But it is like, the wittes of Poetes did im-
magine so forged a Chronicle, that the posteritie of ages fol-
lowyng, should rather wounder at their forged inuencion,
then to beleue any soche warre truly mencioned. There was
no soche cause, seyng that the kyngdome of Grece, fell by no
title of succession to Helena, for them to moue warre, for, the
bringyng backe of that beutifull harlotte Helena. Neither in
Helena was there vertue, or honestie of life, to moue and ex-
asperate the Grecians, to spende so greate treasures, to raise
[Fol. xxvj.r] No commen-
dacion in vp-
holdyng and
of harlottes.
so mightie an armie on euery side. What commēdacion had
the Troians to aduaunce Helena, and with all roialnesse to
entreate her, she beyng a harlotte: the folie of the Grecians
and the Troians, is so on euery side so greate, that it can not
be thought, soche a warre truely chronicled. If violence and
power, had taken Helena from her housebande, and not her
Helena follo-
wed Paris.
owne will and luste, caught with the adulterous loue of Pa-
ris, beyng a straunger. If her moderacion of life had been so
rare, as that the like facte for her chastitie, had not been in a-
ny age or common wealthe, her vertues would haue giuen
occasion: The Princes and nobles of Grece to stomacke the
matter. The example of the facte, would with all praise and
life, worthie
on in al ages.
the kyng ba-
nished for ra-
uishyng Lu-
crecia, and all
of his name
commendacion be mencioned, and celebrated to al ages. Lu-
cretia for her chastite, is perpetuallie to be aduanunced, wher-
vpon the Romaines banished Tarquinius their kyng, his
stocke and name from Rome. The rare chastite of Penelope,
is remainyng as a example herein: So many snares laied to
caste doune her vertuous loue towarde her housebande U-
lisses. But Ulisses made hauocke by murder, on these gaie
and gallante Ruffins, who in his absence sought to alienate
and withdrawe, the chaste harte of Penelope, consumyng
his substance. A greater example remaineth in no age, of the
like chastite. As for the battaile of Troie, raised for Helena,
could wise men, and the moste famous nobles of Grece: So
occupie their heddes, and in thesame, bothe to hasarde their
liues for a beautifull strumpet or harlot. The sage and wise
Nestor, whom Agamemnon for wisedome preferred, before
the moste of the péeres of Grece, neither it Ulisses wanted at
thesame tyme, hauyng a politike and subtill hedde, to with-
drawe theim from so leude and foolishe a enterprise. Grece
Grece the
lande of faire
wanted not beautifull creatures, Nature in other had besto-
wed amiable faces, personage, and comelie behauiour. For,
at those daies, Grece thei called Achaida calligunaica, that is,
Grece the lande of faire women. The dolorous lamentacion
of the Ladies and Matrons in Grece, would haue hindered
[Fol. xxvj.v]soche a foolishe enterprise, seyng their owne beautie neclec-
ted, their honestie of life caste vp to perilles, one harlot of in-
Uncomelie. numerable people followed and hunted after, in whom neither
honestie, vertue, nor chastite was harbored.

¶ Uncredible.

A Lthough the folie of men is greate, and the will of
princes and gouernours beastlie and rashe, yet by
no meanes it can be so many yeres, so greate folie
to take roote in their hartes, and that the wisedom
without ver-
tue, nothyng
of valour.
of the Greciās, should not rather caste of as naught, the beau-
tie of Helena: rather then the whole multitude, the state of
the Prince, the welfare of the subiecte, to stande in perill for
Beautie a
poison, in a
the beautie of one. What is beautie, when a beastlie and ad-
ulterous minde is possessed: Beautie without chastitie, har-
boreth a monsterous rabelmente of vices, a snare and baite,
Beautie sone
to poison other. Beautie in fewe yeres, is not onely blemi-
shed, but decaied, and wholie extinguished: it is vncredible,
that the Grecians would seeke to bryng home Helena, who
had loste the chaste loue toward her housband, beyng caught
Paris Hele-
nas louer.
with the adulterous loue of Paris, soonne to Priamus kyng
of Troie. The lande of Phrigia was a mightie Region, the
people noble, puissaunte in warre: the kyng for nobilitie of
actes famous. The Citee of Troie, wherein the kyng helde
his Scepter of gouernement, was riche, mightie, and popu-
lous: ruled and gouerned, by the wisedome and policie of fa-
mous counsailours, so that by all meanes it is vncredible,
Uncomelie. without any possibilitie. Thei neclectyng their owne state
and kyngdō, so to preferre the beautie of one, that the whole
multitude of Grece thereby to perishe. It is a matter vncre-
Grece the
fountain of al
dible in all Grece, whiche for the fame of wisedome, is moste
celebrated emong all nacions, not one wiseman at thesame
tyme to be therein: whose coūsaile and politike heddes, might
ponder a better purpose. Grece, whiche was the mother and
fountaine of all artes and sciences, all Eloquence, Philoso-
phie, wisedome flowyng from theim, and yet wisedome to
[Fol. xxvij.r]want in their breastes. Reason can not make any perswasion
that any probabilitie can rise, of any soche matter enterpri-
sed, what could the intent be of the Grecians, as concerning
housbande to
Menelaus. In Menelaus there was no wisedom, to seke and
hunte after Helena, or by any meanes to possesse her, she be-
yng a harlotte, her loue alienated, her hart possessed with the
loue of an other manne: foolishlie he hopeth to possesse loue,
loue dissem-
that seeketh to enioye the cloked, poisoned, and dissembled
harte of a harlotte, Grece was well ridde of a harlotte, Troie
Troians. harbouryng Helena. In the Troians it is not to be thought,
that either the kyng, or nobles, for a harlotte, would see the
the people murthered, their owne state, the king to be in dan-
Grecians. ger of ruine. In the Grecians there was neither wisedome,
neither commendacion, to pursue with a maine hoste, with a
greate Nauie of Shippes, to bryng backe againe a harlotte,
whose enterprise rather might better bee borne, to banishe &
exile soche a beastlie disposed persone. The Troians mighte
Absurditie. well scorne the Grecians, if that the possession of a beautifull
moste amiable, and minsyng harlotte, was of soche valour,
estimacion, and price with theim, not onely the beautie of all
other to bee reiected. But moste of all the vertuous life, and
chastitie of all their matrons and honourable Ladies, to bee
caste of as naught. Grece that had the name of all wisedome,
The defence
of Helena.
of all learnyng and singularitie, might rather worthelie bee
called, a harbouryng place of harlottes: a Stewe and vphol-
der of whoredome, and all vncleanes. Wherefore, these ab-
surdities ought to bee remoued, from the minde and cogita-
cion of all menne, that should worthelie ponder the state of
Troie a king[-]
dome of whor[-]
Grece. Troie of like sorte to bee a kyngdome and common
wealthe of all vice: whoredome in soche price with the kyng,
and people, that moste fortunate should the harlotte bee, and
the adulterour in soche a common wealthe, that for adulte-
rous loue, putteth rather all their state to hasarde and perill,
for the maintenaunce of beastlie loue, brutishe societie moste
in price with soche a nacion, chastitie, and moderaciou of life,
[Fol. xxvij.v]abandoned and caste of.

¶ Unpossible, and not agreyng.

Nature ab-
horreth the
warre of the
I F wee weigh naturall affeccion, it can not bee, that
the Grecians so moche abhorring frō nature, should
cast of the naturall loue of their wifes, their children
and countrie, to bryng home againe, by slaughter of infinite
people: soche an one as had left honestie, and chaste loue of
her housbande. For, what praise can redounde to the Greci-
Helena. ans by warre, to bryng home Helena, though she of all crea-
tures was moste beautifull, beyng a harlotte: followyng the
bridell and will of an other man. Maie shame or commenda-
cion rise to the Troians, can wisedome, counsaile, or grauitie,
Priamus. defende the adulterous luste of Priamus soonne, yea, could
Priamus so loue Helena, for Paris his sonnes sake, as that
he had rather venter the ruine and destruccion of his citée, and
the falle of his people, the murder and ruine of his children,
and wife for the beautie of one. For what is beautie, where
honestie and vertue lacketh, it is an vncomly matter, though
the Poetes so faigne it, not onely that in heauen, a contenciō
should fall emong the Goddises of their beautie, or that Iu-
piter of whom thei make an ignoraunt God, to chuse Paris
the kynges sonne of Troie, chief arbitratour & Iudge of that
matter, to whō he should giue the goldē Apell to her beautie,
as chief of al other, was ascribed these thynges, are vndecent
to thinke of the Goddeses, and moste of all, to thinke there is
more Goddes then one. And euen as these are vanities, and
forged imaginacions of the Goddes, so of the battaile.

¶ Uncomelie and vnprofitable.

T HE daunger of many people doeth shewe, that no
soche thyng should happen, either of the Grecians
or of the Troians: for, it is a matter dissonaunt frō
all truthe, that thei should so moche neclecte the
quiete state, and prosperous renoume of their kyngdome, in
all tymes and ages, since the firste constitucion of all Monar-
[Fol. xxviij.r]chies and kyngdomes. Who euer harde soche a forged mat-
ter to be Chronicled, and set forthe. Or who can giue credite
to soche warre, to be enterprised of so small a matter: to leaue
the state of waightier thynges for one woman. All the wo-
men of that countrie to stande in perill, the slaughter of their
deare housbandes, the violent murder of their children to in-
sue. Therefore, the wilfulnesse of people and princes, are the
cause of the falle and destruccion, of many mightie kyngdo-
mes, and Empires. The fall of Grece ensued, when the chief
Cesar fell by
citées, Athenes and Lacedemonie tooke partes, and did con-
federate diuers citees to them, to assiste theim, and aide theim
in battaile onely: ambicion and desire of glorie, moued bothe
Discorde. the Athenians and Lacedemonians, frō concorde and vnitie
by whiche meanes, the power, glory, and strēgth of all king-
Pompey. domes falleth. Ambicion was the cause that mightie Pom-
pey fell, and died violently. Cesar likewise caught with am-
bicion, not bearyng the equalitée, or superioritie of Pompei,
was tourned of violentlie frō Fortunes whéele. Many prin-
ces of like sorte and kingdomes. By ambicion onely, had the
cause of their ruine. The glorie of the Assirian Monarchie
grewe moste mightie, by the ambicion of Ninus kyng of
Babilon: the ofspring of Ninus, whiche were kynges line-
allie descendyng to the firste kyngdome of the Medes, bothe
inlarged their kyngdomes, and also had the decaie of theim
by ambicion. Let the Medes also associate them selues to thē,
from Arbactus the first kyng, vnto Astiages the laste: the be-
ginnyng and falle of the Persian Monarchie. The mightie
Romulus kil[-]
led Remus
by ambicion.
state of Grece, the seate Imperiall of Rome, by ambiciō first
extolled theim selues: and also by it, their glorie, scepter, and
kyngdome was translated, but the falle of Troie came not,
by ambicion, that the Grecians sought. But as the Poetes
doe faigne, the beautie of one woman so wounded their har-
tes, that the Grecians did hasarde, the perilles of their coun-
trie. The Troians so moche estemed, the beautie of Helena,
as that the state of all their kyngdome perished. It was no
[Fol. xxviij.v]glorie nor honour to the Grecians, to resiste by armour, and
to defende the violente takyng awaie of Helena, from her
housbande: nor it was no honour, the Grecians to pursue by
armour, the takynge awaie of Helena, beyng a harlotte. So
that by no meanes it can followe, these thynges to bee true,
of the battaile of Troie.

¶ Confirmacion.

The other part, contrary to destruccion or subuersion, is
called confirmacion.

Confirmacion, hath in it so greate force of argumente, to
stablishe and vpholde the cause or proposicion: as destruccion
hath in castyng doune the sentence or proposicion.

Confirmacion is a certain oracion, whiche with a certain
reprehension of the persone or facte, by order and waie of art,
casteth doune, the contrary propounded.

As in the other parte called destruccion, those proposici-
ons are to bee subuerted, whiche are not manyfestlie true,
with all other notes before specified: so in contrariwise, this
oracion by contrary notes is declaimed by, as for example.

1.It shall behoue you first, for the entring of the oracion, to
induce a reprehension againste those, whiche haue confuted
as a truthe, that whiche you will confirme.

2.In the seconde parte, place the exposicion and meanyng
of the aucthours sentence.

3.Shewe the matter to be manifest.



6.Agreyng to the truthe.

7.Shewe the facte comelie.


This exercise of Rhetotike, doeth contain in it all strēgth
of arte, as who should saie, all partes of Rhetorike maie co-
piouslie bee handled in this parte, called confirmacion. You
maie as matter riseth, ioigne twoo notes together, as the
reason of the argumente cometh in place, whiche Apthonius
[Fol. xxix.r]a Greke aucthour herein vseth. As manifest and credible, pos-
sible and agreyng to truthe, comelie and profitable, but in al
these, as in all the reste: the theme or proposicion by it self, is
to bee placed, the reprehension of the aucthour by it self, the
exposicion of the theme by it self.

¶ The theme or proposicion.

I T is true that is saied of Zopyrus, the noble Per-
sian, who vētered his life: & did cause the deformi-
tie of his bodie, for the sauegarde of this countrie.

¶ The praise.

Iustinus. I Ustinus the Historiographer, for worthinesse
of fame and wisedome, deserueth in the poste-
ritie of all tymes, immortall fame, by whom
the famous actes of Princes, and other noble
moste neces-
sary to be red.
men, doe remaine Chronicled. Giuyng exam-
ples of all valiauntnesse and vertue: for, bothe the actes and
worthie feactes of Princes, would passe as vnknowen in all
ages, excepte the worthinesse of them, were in monumentes
of writyng Chronicled. For, by the fame of their worthines,
and vertues, cōmon wealthes and kyngdomes, doe stablishe
and make Lawes, the hartes of people are incensed, and in-
flamed, to the like nobilitie of actes, and famous enter-
The worthi-
nesse of histo-
prices, Histories of auncient tymes, bee vnto vs witnesses of
all tymes and ages, of kyngdomes and common wealthes, a
liuely example. A light to all truthe and knowlege, a schole-
What is a hi-
maister: of maners a memorie of life, for, by it we se the wise-
dom of all ages, the forme of the beste and florishing common
wealthes. We learne by the vertues of Princes and gouer-
nours, to followe like steppe of vertue: to flie and auoide vi-
ces, and all soche thynges, as are to the destruccion and de-
An ignorant
life, a brutish
caie, of realme and countrie. How brutishe wer our life, if we
knewe no more then we se presently, in the state of our com-
mon wealthe and kyngdome. The kyngdomes of all Prin-
ces and common wealthes that now florisheth, doe stande by
[Fol. xxix.v]the longe experience, wisedome, pollicy, counsaile, and god-
lie lawes of Princes of auncient times, no smal praise and
The know-
lege of Histo-
ries maketh
vs as it were
liuyng in all
commendation can be attributed, to all suche as doe trauell
in the serching out the veritie of auncient Histories, for bi the
knoledge of them, we are as it were liuyng in all ages, the
fall of all kyngdomes is manifeste to vs, the death of Prin-
ces, the subuersions of kingdomes and common wealthes,
who knoweth not the first risyng & ende of the Assiriane mo-
narchie, the glorie of the Persians, and the ruynge of the
same, the mightie Empire of the Grekes, risyng & fallyng,
the Romane state after what sorte florishyng and decaiyng,
so that no state of common wealthe or kyngdome is vnkno-
wen to vs, therefore Iustine, and all suche as doe leue to the
posteritie, the state of al things chronicled, deserue immortal

¶ The exposicion.

The treason
of the Assy-
I N the time of Darius kyng of the Persians, the
Assyriās who ware subiects to him, sence the time
of Cirus the firste kynge of the Persians, rebel-
led, inuaded and toke the myghtie Citie of Babi-
lon, whiche beyng possessed, with much difficultie, and not
Darius. withoute greate daungers coulde bee attained. Darius the
kynge hearyng of the treason of the Assyrians and that the
Babilon ta-
ken of the As-
mightie Citie of Babilon was taken, was very wroth wai-
ynge with him selfe, that there by, the ruyne of the Persian
kyngdome mighte happen. Zopyrus one of the .vij. noble
Peres of Persia, seing the daunger of the countrie, the state
of the Prince, and the welfare of the subiectes to decaie, in the
safegarde of his countrie, leuyng all priuate commoditie, for
the behoufe and felicitie of the Persian kyngdome, did ven-
The fact of
ter his owne life, commaunded his seruauntes at home to
teare and rēte his bodie with whippes, to cut of his nose, his
lippes and his eares, these thinges being vnknowen to Da-
rius the kynge. As sone as Darius sawe Zopyrus so torne
[Fol. xxx.r] Zopyrus cau[-]
sed the defor-
mitie of his
bodie, for the
good state of
his countrie.
and deformed, bewailed his state being astonished, at so hor-
rible a faict: but Zopyrus shewed to the kynge his hole in-
tente and purpose that he mynded to go to Babylon, whiche
the Assyrians dyd traitorouslie possesse, & complained as that
these things had ben don by the tyrannie and crueltie of Da-
rius, he wēt to Babilon, and there complained of the cruel-
tie of his kyng, whereby purchasyng the fauor and loue of
the Assyrians, he shewed them how Darius came to be kyng
not by worthines, not by vertue, not by the common consent
of men, but by the neynge of a horse. Zopyrus therefore ad-
monished them, that they should trust more to their armour,
The pollicie
of Zopyrus.
then to their walles, he willed them to proclame opē warre,
forthwith they encountred with the Persians, and for a time
victorie fel on the Babilonians side, suche was the pollice of
Zopyrus. The Assyrians reioised of the successe and felicitie
of their warres, the king of the Babilonians gaue to Zopy-
rus, the chiefe power & office, to leede a mightie armie, of the
whiche beynge Lieutenaunt, he betraied the Babilonians
and their Citie.

¶ Manifeste.

Trogus Pō[-]
N Ot onlie Trogus Pompeius the famous Historio-
grapher, and Iustine which tooke the Story of him,
but also the Greke writers doe sette forthe, as matter
of truthe, the valiaunte enterprises of Zopyrus: so that the
straunge and mightie facte of him can not seme vncredible,
Zopyrus. hauyng testimonie of it in all ages. Zopyrus hauing not re-
spect to his owne life, to his owne priuate wealthe or glorie,
did thereby put of the daunger that insued to the Persiane
kyngdome: It maie seme a greate matter, to a mynde not
well affected towarde his countrie, to destroie or deforme his
The saiyng
of Tullie.
owne bodie, for the sauegarde of countrie or common welth.
But if we waie the State of oure bearth, oure countrie cha-
lengeth more at oure handes then frindes or parentes, so
muche price Plato the Philosopher, and Aristotle doe attri-
bute vnto our countrie, the volumes of all lawes and bokes
[Fol. xxx.v]doe prefare oure naturall countrie before the priuate state of
The state of
a publike
wealthe, is to
bee preferred
before a pri-
uate wealth.
owne manne, wealthe, glorie, honor, dignitie, and riches of
one or fewe, the Statutes of all Princes, sekyng the glorie
of their countrie, doe prefare a vniuersal welthe, before a pri-
uate and particulare commoditie. Pericles the noble Athe-
nian in his oration made to the Athenians, sheweth that the
glorie and welthe of one man or manie, cannot plante suche
glorie, and renowne to their countrie, as that in all partes
thereby to be beautified and decorated, but whē glorie a hap-
pie and florishyng state redoundeth to the kyngdome, the
subiectes, the nobelles and hye peres, the gouuernour stan-
deth happie and fortunate. Who so hopeth in sparing costes
and charges, monie or ornaments, to the behouf and imploi-
ment of his countrie and not by all meanes to his power and
strength aydeth and defendeth his naturall countrie, from
A good sub-
iecte is redie
to liue and
die for his
the daunger and inuasion of his enemie, what state inioyeth
he, or what wealth remaineth priuatlie, when the trone and
scepter of his kyng faileth, the enemie wasteth, spoileth and
destroieth all partes of his state, with the reste his life pe-
risheth, so that no daunger, coste, is to bee refused, to serue
the kingdom and prince, by whose scepter, iustice, lawes, and
equitie we are gouuerned, there is no subiect well affected,
but that he onlie liueth to proffite his countrie, to liue & dye

¶ Probabell.

I F only Zopyrus had enterprised this valiaunt act,
and that no memorie were remainyng in anie age
of the noble acts of other men, it may seme not true-
lie chronacled, but from time to time, in all ages &
cōmon wealthes, famous men for their acts & nobilitie haue
ben, whiche with like courrage and magnanimitie haue sa-
Horacius Co[-]
ued their countrie, by the losse of their owne liues. Horatius
Cocles is bothe a witnesse and a light to the same, by whose
aduenture the mightie and stronge Citie Rome was saued:
For at what time as the Hetruscians entred on the citie, and
[Fol. xxxj.r]were on the bridge, Horatius cocles defendid the ende of the
same, baryng of the brunte, and stroke of the enemie, vntill
the Romans, for the sauegarde of the cytie, had broken doun
the bridge, as sone as Horatius Cocles sawe the Cytie thus
deliuered, and the repulse of the enemie, he lepte with his ar-
mours into the flud Tibar, it semed he had not regard to his
life, that beyng burdened with the waighte and grauitie of
his armour, durst venter his life to so main and depe a water.
Marcus Attilius in the defence of his Prince, his right hand
being cut of, the which he laide on the ship of the Massilians,
forthwith he apprehended with the lefte hand, and ceased not
Cynegerus. vntill he hadde soouncke thesame ship. Cynegerus the Athe-
nian lineth by fame and like nobilitie of actes, vēteryng his
life for his countrie. The mightie cytie of Athenes, brought
vnder the dominions of the Lacedemonians. Thrasibulus,
Hismenias and Lisias bi their aduenture, and noble atchiue
reduced Athenes to his felicitie so moche loue, soo faithefull
hartes they hadde towardes theire countreie. Leonides the
King of the Lacedemonians, defendyng the narow straights
of the cytie Thermopolie with fower thousand men against
the mightie and huge armie of Xerxes, for Xerxes contemned
kyng of the
theire smalle number and armie: Leonides the kyng hearde
that the place and hill of the battell was preuētid of .xx. thou-
sande enemies, he exorted his souldiours parte of them to de-
parte vntill a better time might be locked for, and onlie with
the Lacedemonians he proued the conflicte and the combate,
although the campe of Xerxes was mightier & more in num-
ber: yet Leonides the kyng thought it good for the sauegarde
of his contrie, for saieth he, I must rather saue it, then to haue
respecte to my life, although the oracle of Delphos had fore-
shewed, that euen Leonides muste die in the fielde or battell
of the enemie, and therefore Leonides entred battail, & com-
fortid his men for their countrie sake, as to die therein, there-
fore he preuented the narrowe straightes of the countrie, and
the dangerous places, where the force of the enemie mought
[Fol. xxxj.v]bruste in, he lingered not, leste the enemie mighte compasse
him in, but in the quiet season of the nighte, he set vppon his
enemie vnloked for, and they beynge but sixe hundred men
Leonides. with the kyng Leonides, brust into the cāpe of their enemies
beyng sixe hundred thousand menne, their valiauntnes was
suche, and the ouerthowe of their enemies so great, and Xer-
xes the kyng hauyng two woundes, retired with shame and
loste the honor. Agesilaus and Conon valiaunte in actes,
and excellynge in all nobilitie, what great and mightie dan-
gers haue thei atchiued and venterid for their countrie sake,
howe moche haue thei neglectid their owne wealth, riches,
life and glorie, for the aduauncement and honor of their coū-
Lisander. trie. Lisander also the Lacedemonian, was indued with like
nobilitie with faithfull and syncéer harte towarde his coun-
try. Archidamus also lieth not in obliuiō, whose fame death
buried not the famous aduenture of Codrus kyng of the A-
thenians is maruelous and almoste incredible, but that the
Histores, truelie set forth, and declare a manifest truthe ther-
of, who is more famous then Epaminundas, bothe for vir-
tue, nobilitie and marciall feates among the Thebans, the
Grecians. mightie armie of the Grecians, at the longe sege of Troie,
what valiaunte Capitains hadde thei, whiche in the defence
Troians. of their countrie hasarde their life: the Troians also wanted
not for proues valiauntnes and al nobilitie, their péeres and
Romans. nobles: amonge the Romans, what a greate number was
of noble peres, whose studie alwaies was to liue and dye in
the glorie, aide and defence of their countrie, for he liueth not
by whose cowardlines fainted harte and courage, the contrie
Who liueth in
or kyngdome standeth in perrill, he liueth in shame, that re-
fuseth daunger, coste or charge, in the defence or procuryng,
better state to his countrie. The worthie saiyng of Epami-
nundas declareth, who liueth to his countrie, who diyng va-
liauntlie in the felde, beyng thrust thorow with the speare of
his enemie, asked those questions of these that stoede by him
at the poincte of deathe, is my speare manfullie broken, and
[Fol. xxxij.r]my enemies chassed awaie, the whiche things his cōpanions
a most no[-]
ble and vali-
aunt pere.
in warre affirmed, then saide he: nowe your Capitaine Epa-
minundas beginneth to liue in that he dieth valiauntlie for
his countrie, and in the proffite & aduauncement of the same,
a worthie man, noble and valiaunte, his sentence also was
worthie to be knowen, and followed of all suche as bee well
affected and Godlie mynded to their countrie. Marcus Mar-
cellus of like sorte, and Titus Manlius Torquatus, & Sci-
pio Aemilianus, Marcus Attilius shewed in what hye price
our naturall countrée ought to bee had, by their valiaunt at-
chifes, and enterprises: I might passe by in silēce Scipio Ca-
to, and Publius Scipio Nasica, but that thei by like fame,
honour and glorie liue immortall to their countrie, the same
also of Uibeus, Ualerius Flaccus, and Pedanius Centurio
giueth ampell and large matter to all menne, endued with
nobilitie and valiaunt proues, for the defence of their coun-
trie with Quintus Coccius, Marcus Sceua and Sceuola.

¶ Possibilitie.

T Here nedeth no doute to rise of possibilitie, seinge
that examples doe remain of famous men, of god-
lie and well affected persones, whiche haue with
like magnanimitie putte in daunger their life, to
The order of
saue their Prince, kyngdome, and countrie. Greate honour
was giuen of the Athenians, to soche noble and valiaunte
men, whiche ventered their liues for their common wealthe,
to maintaine the florishyng state thereof. The eloquente and
Thusidides. copious oracion of Thusidides, the true, faithfull, and elo-
quente Historiographer doeth shewe: what honour and im-
mortall fame was attributed, to all soche as did venter their
liues, in the florishyng state of their countrie, in supportyng,
mainteinyng, and defendyng thesame. Who, although thei
loste their liues, whiche by death should bee dissolued, their
fame neuer buried, liueth with the soule to immortalitie, the
losse of their Priuate wealthe, glorie, riches, substaunce, or
dignitie, hath purchased and obtained fame, that withereth
[Fol. xxxij.v]not, and glorie that faileth not.

¶ Agreyng and comelie.

B Othe the true Histories, doe leaue in commenda-
cion, the facte of Zopyrus, and the noble and wor-
thie enterprises of other: whiche haue giuen the
like assaie, and their fame is celebrated and titeled
with immortall commendacion and glorie, to the posteritie
The duetie
of all good
of all ages followyng. What harte can bee so stonie, or bru-
tishly affected, that wil not venter his life, goodes, landes, or
possessions: if with the daunger of one, that is of hymself, the
whole bodie and state of his countrie, is thereby supported,
and saued. What securitie and quietnesse remained, what
wealth, honour, or fame to Zopyrus: if not onely Zopyrus
had perished, but the kyng & people vniuersally had been de-
stroied. Therevpon Zopyrus weighing and cōsideryng, the
The cause of
our birthe.
state of his birthe, that his countrie chalenged his life, rather
then the dissolucion of the whole kyngdome, the decaie of the
Prince, the takyng awaie of the scepter, the slaughter of in-
finite people to ensue. He was borne to be a profitable mem-
ber to his countrie, a glorie and staie to thesame: and not spa-
ryng his life, or shunnyng the greate deformitie of his bo-
die, to bee a ruine of thesame. Was it not better that one pe-
rished, then by the securitie of one, a whole lande ouer run-
ned, as partes thereby spoiled: it was the duetie of Zopirus,
to take vpon hym that greate and famous enterprise. It was
also comelie, the kyngdome standyng in perill, a sage and
descrite persone to preuente and putte of, soche a daunger at
The facte of
hande: The faicte altogether sheweth all vertue and greate
singularitie, and a rare moderacion of minde, to cast of all re-
spectes and excuses, forsakyng presentlie honour, quietnesse
and obiecting himself to perill, he sawe if he onelie died, or by
ieopardie saued his countrie, many thereby liued, the kyng-
dome & people florished, where otherwise, he with his Prince
and kyngdome might haue perished.

¶ Proffitable.[Fol. xxxiij.r]

The fact of
A L the power of the Babilonians, was by his pol-
icie throwen doune, the Citee taken, the enemie
brought to confusion: on the other side, the Persi-
ans rose mightie, soche a mightie enemie put vn-
derfoote. The fame of Zopyrus and glorie of the facte, will
neuer be obliterated, or put out of memorie, if this were not
profitable to the kyngdome of Persia: if this were not a re-
Zopyrus de-
formed, a
beautie of his
noume to the prince and people, and immortall glory to Zo-
iudge ye. Zopyrus therfore, beautified his countrée, by
the deformitie of his bodie. Better it wer to haue many soche
deformed bodies, then the whole state of the realme destroied
or brought to naught: if we weigh the magnanimitie of that
man, and his enterprise, there is so moche honour in the fact,
that his fame shall neuer cease.

¶ A common place.

Why it is cal-
led a common
A Common place is a Oracion, dilatyng and ampli-
fiyng good or euill, whiche is incidente or lodged in
any man. This Oracion is called a common place,
because the matter conteined in it, doeth agree vniuersally to
all menne, whiche are partakers of it, and giltie of thesame[.]

A Oracion framed againste a certaine Thefe, Extorcio-
ner, Murderer, or Traitor, is for the matter conteined in it,
metelie and aptlie compiled, against all soche as are giltie of
theft, murder, treason, or spotted with any other wickednes.

This oracion of a common place, is like to the laste argu-
ment or Epilogus of any oracion, whiche the Grekes doe call
Deuterologian, whiche is as moche to saie, as a rehearsall of
that whiche is spoken of before.

Wherefore, a common place hath no exhordium, or be-
ginnyng, yet neuerthelesse, for the profite and exercise of the
learner, you maie place soche a proemium, or beginnyng of
the oracion, as maie be easie to induce the learner.

This parte of Rhetorike is large to intreate vpon, for the
aboundaunce of matter.

This part of Rhetorike is large to intreate vpon, for the
[Fol. xxxiij.v] aboundaunce of matter.

The common place, whiche Aphthonius intreateth of, is
to be aplied against any man, for the declaimor to inuade, ei-
ther against vices, or to extoll and amplifie his vertues.

This oracion of a common place, serueth bothe for the ac-
cuser and the defender.

For the accuser, to exasperate and moue the Iudges or
hearers, against the offender, or accused.

For the defendour to replie, and with all force & strength
of matter, to mollifie and appease the perturbacions of the
Iudges and hearers, to pulle doune and deface the contrarie

There is greate force in this oracion, on bothe the sides.

Properlie this kinde of Rhetorike, is called a common
place, though it semeth to be made againste this man, or that
man: because the matter of thesame shall properly pertain to
all, giltie of thesame matter.

Pristianus. Pristianus sheweth, that this parte of Rhetorike, is as it
were a certaine exaggeracion of reason, to induce a manifest
probacion of any thyng committed.

As for example, a Theife taken in a robberie, in whom
neither shamefastnesse, nor sparcle of grace appereth against
soche a one: this oracion maie be made, to exasperate the Iud-
ges from all fauour or affeccion of pitie, to be shewed.

¶ The order of the Oracion followeth
with these notes to be made by.
¶ The firste Proheme.

D Emosthenes the famous Orator of Athenes in
his oraciō made against Aristogitō doeth saie,
What are
that Lawes wherewith a common wealthe, ci-
tie or Region is gouerned, are the gifte of God,
a profitable Discipline among men, a restraint
to with holde and kepe backe, the wilfull, rashe, and beastilie
life of man, and therupō Aristotle and Plato doe shewe, that
through the wicked behauour of men, good lawes were first
[Fol. xxxiiij.r]ordained, for, of ill maners, saie thei, rose good lawes, where
Order. lawes doe cease, and good order faileth, there the life of man
will growe, rude, wild and beestlie: Man beyng a chiefe crea-
Man borne
by nature to
ture or God, indued with manie singuler vertues, is framed
of nature to a mutuall and Godlie societie of life, without
the whiche moste horrible wolde the life bee, for not onlie by
concorde and agremente, the life of man dothe consiste but al
things on the earth haue therin their being: the heauens and
lightes conteined in the same, haue a perpetuall harmonie
& concente in finishyng their appointed race. The elementes
All thinges
beyng on the
yearth, dooe
consiste by a
harmonie or
of the worlde, where with the nature and substaunce of all
thinges, doe consiste onlie by a harmonie and temperature of
eche parte, haue their abidyng increase & prosperous beyng,
otherwise their substaunce, perisheth and nature in all partes
decaieth: Kyngdomes and common wealthes doe consiste in
a harmonie, so long as vertue and all singularitie tempereth
their state and gouernemente, and eche member thereof obe-
ieth his function, office and callynge, and as partes of the-
same bodie, euerie one as nature hath ordained theim occu-
piyng, their roume and place, the vse of euerie parte, all to the
vse and preseruacion of the hole bodie, and as in the bodie so
in the common wealthe, the like concorde of life oughte to be
in euery part, the moste principall parte accordyng to his di-
gnitie of office, as moste principall to gouerne thother inferi-
or partes: and it thei as partes moste principal of thesame bo-
die with all moderacion and equabilitie tēperyng their state,
Order con-
serueth com-
mon wealth.
office and calling. The meanest parte accordyng to his lowe
state, appliyng hym selfe to obeie and serue the moste prin-
cipall: wherein the perfecte and absolute, frame of common
wealthe or kyngdome is erected. And seyng that as the Phi-
losophers doe saie, of ill maners came good lawes, that is to
saie, the wicked and beastlie life of man, their iniurius beha-
uiour, sekyng to frame themselues from men to beastes mo-
Euil maners
was the occa-
sion of good
ued the wise and Godlie, elders to ordaine certaine meanes,
to rote discipline, whereby the wickedlie disposed personne
[Fol. xxxiiij.v]should bee compelled to liue in order, to obeie Godlie lawes,
to the vpholdyng of societie. Therefore, all suche as dissolue
lawes, caste doune good order, and state of common wealth,
out as putride and vnprofitable weedes, to be extirpated and
plucked vp from Citie and Common wealthe, from societie,
who by mischeuous attemptes seke, to extinguishe societie,
amitie, and concord in life. Princes & gouernors with al other
magistrates ought in their gouernment to imitate the prac-
tise of the Phisician, the nature of man, wekedned and made
feble with to moche abundaunce of yll humors, or ouermoch
with ill bloode replenished, to purge and euacuate that, and
all to the preseruacion and healthe of the whole bodie: for so
was the meanyng of the Philosopher, intreatyng of the po-
litike, gouernment of kingdome and commonwealth, when
Theiues not
mete to be in
any societie.
thei compared a kingdome to the bodie of man: the thefe and
robber as a euill and vnprofitable member, and all other as
without all right, order, lawe, equitie and iustice, doe breake
societie of life, bothe against lawe and nature: possessing the
goodes of a other man, are to bee cutte of, as no partes, méete
to remaine in any societie.

¶ The seconde Proheme.

Why theiues
and wicked
men, are cut
of by lawe.
T He chifest cause that moued gouernours and ma-
gistrates, to cutte of the race of theues, and violēte
robbers, and of all other mischeuous persons, was
that by them a confusion would ensue in al states.
What Citee could stande in prosperous state, yea, or what
house priuatlie inhabited, where lawes and aucthoritee were
exiled: where violence, will, luste, and appetite of pestiferous
men, might without terrour bee practised. If the labour and
industrie of the godlie, should be alwaie a praie to ye wicked,
and eche mannes violence and iniurious dealyng, his owne
lawe, the beaste in his state, would bee lesse brutishe and in-
iurious. Who so seketh to caste doune this societée, he is not
méete to be of any societée, whiche he dissolueth. Who so rob-
beth or stealeth, to liue by the gooddes of an other manne, as[Fol. xxxv.r]
his possession, is by violence and againste Nature: so by vio-
A due rewar[-]
des for thie-
ues and mur-
lence and against nature, their pestiferous doinges do frame
their confusion: their execrable & destetable purpose, do make
theim a outcaste from all good people, and as no members
thereof, cut of from all societée, their euill life rooteth perpetu-
al ignomie and shame. And thus is the tragicall ende of their

¶ The contrarie.

Democratia. H Erein the lose and dissolute state of gouernmente
called of the Grekes Democratia, haue conten-
ted the wilfull heddes of pestiferous men: where-
in euery man must bee a ruler. Their owne will
is their Lawe: there luste setteth order, no Magistrate, but
euery one to hymself a Magistrate. All thynges in common,
as long as that state doeth remain emong the wicked, a most
happie state coumpted, a wished state to idell persones, but it
The thiefe.
The mur-
continueth not. Herein the murtherer, the thiefe were meete
to be placed. The greater thiefe, the better manne: the moste
execrable murtherer, a moste mete persone, for soche state of
gouernemente. There is no nacion vnder the Sunne, but
that one tyme or other, this troublous state hath molested
theim: and many haue sought to sette vp soche a monsterous
state of regiment, a plagued common wealthe, and to be de-
tested. Soche was the order of men, when thei liued without
lawes. When the whole multitude were scattered, no citee,
Toune, or house builded or inhabited, but through beastlie
maners, beastlie dispersed, liued wilde and beastlie. But
the wise, sage, and politike heddes reduced by wisedome, into
a societie of life, nature leadyng thereto: Houses and habita-
cions, were then for necessitie made, families multiplied, vil-
lages and Tounes populouslie increased, and Citees raised
emong so infinite people. Nature by God inuented and sta-
blished Lawe, and the sage and wise persones, pronounced
and gaue sentence vpon Lawes. Whereupon, by the obedi-
ence of lawes, and preeminente aucthoritie of Magistrates:[Fol. xxxv.v]
The state of mightie Kyngdomes and Common wealthes,
haue growen to soche a roialnesse and loftie state, many fa-
mous kingdomes haue been on the face of the yearth: many
noble Princes from tyme to tyme succedyng, whiche with-
Obedience of
Lawes did
stablishe the
mightie mo-
out a order of godlie lawes, could not haue continued. What
was the cause that the mightie Monarchies, continued many
hundred yeres: did the losse of dissolute life of subiectes and
Princes, cause thesame but good lawes, and obedience to or-
ders. Therefore, where Magistrates, bothe in life and office,
The life of
the Magi-
strate, a lawe[.]
liue in the obedience of Lawes: the multitude inferiour, by
example of the Magistrates singularitie, incensed dooe place
before them, their example of life, as a strong lawe.

The Epistle
of Theodosi-
ror of Rome[.]
Theodosius Emperor of Rome, writyng to Uolusianus
his chief Pretor, as concernyng his office, in these woordes,
saieth: Digna vox est maiestate regnantis legibus alligatum se
principem profiteri. Adeo de autoritate Iuris nostra pendet
autoritas et reuera maius imperio est submittere legibus prin[-]
cipatum & oraculo presentis edicti quod nobis licere non pa-
timur alijs indicamus.
It is a worthie saiyng, and meete for
the Maiestie of a Prince, to acknowledge hymself vnder his
lawe. For, our aucthoritie, power, and sworde, doeth depende
vpon the force, might, and aucthoritie of Lawes, and it pas-
seth all power and aucthoritie, his gouernemente and kyng-
dome to be tempered by lawe, as a moste inuiolable Oracle
and decrée, so to doe as we prouulgate to other. Whereupon
it is manifeste, what force godlie lawes gaue to the Prince,
what aucthoritie. Take lawes awaie, all order of states fai-
leth, the Prince by Lawe, is a terrour to the malefactour: his
Maiestie is with all humblenesse serued, feared, and obeied.
By lawes, his state maketh hym as a God, emong menne, at
whose handes the preseruacion of eche one, of house, citee and
countrie is sought. Seing bothe lawes and the Prince, hane
that honour and strength, that without them, a Chaos a con-
fusion would followe, in the bodie of all common wealthes
and kyngdomes. Let them by aucthoritie and lawe bee con-[Fol. xxxvj.r]
founded, that practise to subuerte aucthoritie, to neclecte the
Prince, and his godlie lawes.

¶ The exposicion.

Theiues and
all iniurious
T He theife, or any other iniurious persone, doeth seke
to bée aboue all lawes, exempted from all order, vn-
der no obedience, their pestiferous dealyng, dooe vt-
nes in Ari-
ter thesame: For, as Demosthenes the famous Orator of A-
thenes doeth saie. If that wicked men cease not their violēce
if that good men in all quietnes and securitie, can not enioye
their owne goddes, while lawe and aucthoritie of the magi-
strate, seuerelie and sharply vseth his aucthoritie and sword.
If dailie the heddes of wicked men, cease not to subuerte la-
wes, orders, and decrees godlie appoincted. Whiles that in
all Citees and common wealthes, the Princes and gouer-
The force of
nours, are by lawes a terror to them. Lawes then ceasyng,
the dreadfull sentēce of the Iudge and Magistrate wanting.
The sworde vndrawen, all order confounded, what a con-
fusion would followe: yea, what an open passage would bee
lefte open to all wickednesse. The terrour of Lawes, the
sworde and aucthoritie of the Magestrate, depresseth and put[-]
teth doune, the bloodie cogitacions of the wicked, and so hin-
dereth and cutteth of, many horrible and bloodie enterprises.
Els there would bee neither Prince, Lawe, nor subiecte, no
hedde or Magistrate: but euery manne his owne hedde, his
owne lawe and Magistrate, oppression and violence should
bee lawe, and reason, and wilfull luste would bee in place of
reason, might, force, and power, should ende the case. Where-
fore, soche as no lawe, no order, nor reason, will driue lo liue
as members in a common wealthe, to serue in their functiō.
Wicked men
burdeins of
the yearth.
Thei are as Homere calleth the:m, burdeins to the yearth,
for thei are of no societie linked with Nature, who through
wickednesse are disseuered, abhorryng concorde of life, socie-
tie and felowship. Whom sinister and bitter stormes of for-
tune, doe daiely vexe and moleste, who in the defence of their[Fol. xxxvj.v]
Maimed sol-
diours muste
be prouided
countrie are maimed, and thereby their arte and science, for,
imbecilitie not practised, all art otherwise wantyng, extreme
pouertee fallyng on them, reason muste moue, and induce all
hartes, to pitée chieflie their state: who in defence and main-
teinaunce of our Countrie, Prince, and to the vpholdyng of
our priuate wealthe at home, are become debilitated, defor-
med and maimed, els their miseries will driue them to soche
hedlesse aduentures, that it maie bee saied, as it was saied to
The saiyng
of a souldiour
to Alexander
the greate.
Alexander the Greate. Thy warres, O Prince, maketh ma-
ny theues, and peace will one daie hang them vp. Wherein
the Grecians, as Thusidides noteth, had a carefull proui-
dence, for all soche as in the defence of their Countrie were
maimed, yea, euen for their wiues, and children of all soche,
as died in warre, to be mainteined of the commō charge and
threasure of Grece. Reade his Oracion in the seconde booke,
made vpon the funerall of the dedde soldiours.

¶ A comparison of vices.

The drūkard[.]
The proude
The prodigal[.]
The couei-
The robber.
T He dronkarde in his state is beastlie, the proude
and arrogante persone odious, the riotous and
prodigall persone to be contempned, the couei-
tous and nigardlie manne to bee reiected. But
who so by violence, taketh awaie the goodes of
an other man, or by any subtill meanes, iniustlie possesseth
thesame, is detestable, with all seueritée to be punished. The
The adul-
The harlot.
adulterer and the harlotte, who by brutishe behauiour, leude
affection, not godlines leadyng thereto: who by their vnchast
behauior, and wanton life doe pollute, and cōtaminate their
bodie, in whom a pure minde ought to be reposed. Who tho-
rowe beastly affeccion, are by euill maners transformed to
beastes: and as moche as in theim lieth, multipliyng a bru-
The homi-
tishe societie. The homicide in his state more horrible, accor-
dyng to his outragious and bloodie life, is to bee tormented,
in like sort all other vices, accordyng to their mischiues, rea-
son, Lawe and Iustice, must temper and aggrauate due re-[Fol. xxxvij.r]
ward, and sentence to them.

¶ The sentence.

Thefte horri[-]
ble amōg the
N O vice was more greuous, and horrible emong
the Scithians then thefte, for this was their sai-
yng: Quid saluum esse poterit si licet furari, what
can be safe, if thefte bee lefull or tolerated. Herein
A sentence a-
genst thefte.
the vniuersalle societée of life is caste doune, hereby a confu-
sion groweth, and a subuersion in all states immediatlie fol-
loweth, equitee, iustice, and all sincere dealyng is abaundo-
ned, violence extirpateth vertue, and aucthoritie is cutte of.

¶ The digression.

T HE facte in other maie be with more facilitée to-
lerated, in that to theim selues, the facte and con-
uersacion of life is moste pernicious, and hurtfull,
but by soche kinde of menne, whole kyngdomes
and common wealthes would bee ouerthrowen. And for a
prosperous state and common wealthe, a common woe and
Horrible vi-
calamitée would fall on them, tumultes and vprores main-
tained, right and lawe exiled: neither in field quietnes, welth
or riches, houses spoiled, families extinguished, in all places
sedicion, warre for peace, violence for right, will and lust for
Userers. lawe, a hedlesse order in all states. And as concernyng Usu-
rers, though their gaines be neuer so ample, and plentifull,
to enriche them, whereby thei growe to be lordes, ouer many
thousandes of poundes: yet the wealthe gotten by it, is so in-
iurious, that thei are a greate plague, to all partes of the cō-
mon wealthe: so many daungers and mischiues, riseth of thē[.]
Cato the noble and wise Senator of Rome, being demaun-
ded diuers questions, what was firste to bee sought, in a fa-
milie or housholde, the aunsweres not likyng the demaun-
The sentence
of Cato a-
gainst vsu-
Usure is mur[-]
der: this question was asked, O Cato, what sentēce giue you
of Usurie, that is a goodlie matter to bee enriched by. Then
Cato aunswered in fewe woordes. Quid hominem occidere.
What saie you to be a murderer? Soche a thyng saieth he, is[Fol. xxxvij.v]
Usurie. A brief sentence againste Usurers, but wittely pro-
nounced from the mouth of a godlie, sage, noble, and descrite
persone, whiche sentence let the Usurer, ioigne to his Usury
retourned, and repeate at the retourne thereof, this sentence
The sentence
of Cato a dis-
comfort to v-
of Cato, I haue murthered. This one sentence will discou-
rage any Usurer, knowyng hymself a murtherer. Though
moche more maie be spoken against it, this shalbe sufficient.
The Hebrues calleth Usurie, by the name of Shecke, that is
a bityng gaine, of the whiche many haue been so bitten, that
whole families haue been deuoured, & beggerie haue been
their gaine. And as Palingenius noteth.

Debitor aufugiens portat cum fænore sortem.

The debtour often tymes saieth he, runneth awaie, and
carieth with hym, the debte and gaines of the Usurie. The
Grekes calleth Usurie Tokos, that is properlie the trauaile
of women of their childe: soche is their Usurie, a daungerous
gettyng. Demosthenes likeneth their state as thus, as if ter-
restriall thynges should be aboue the starres: and the heauēs
Usure a dan-
gerous gaue.
and celestialle bodies, gouerned by the base and lowe terre-
striall matters, whiche by no meanes, can conserue the ex-
cellencie of them, for, of them onely, is their matter, substaūce
and nature conserued.

¶ Exclusion of mercie.

W Herefore, to whom regimente and gouerne-
mente is committed, on whose administracion,
the frame of the cōmon wealth doe staie it self:
thei ought with al wisedome and moderacion,
to procede in soche causes, whose office in wor-
Princes and
be as Gods
on the earth.
thinesse of state, and dignitée, maketh thē as Goddes on the
yearth, at whose mouthes for wisedome, counsaill, and for-
tunate state, infinite people doe depende. It is no smal thing
in that their sword & aucthoritée, doeth sette or determine all
thinges, that tendereth a prosperous state, whereupon with
all integritée and equitée, thei ought to temper the affeccions
of their mynde: and accordyng to the horrible facte, and mis-[Fol. xxxviij.r]
chiues of the wicked, to exasperate & agrauate their terrible
iudgemente, and to extirpate from the yearth, soche as be of
The homicide.
The Theue.
The Adulte-
no societie in life. The bloodie homicide, the thief, the adul-
terer, for by these all vertue is rooted out, all godlie societie
extinguished, citees, realmes, and countrées, prostrate & pla-
gued for the toleracion of their factes, against soch frendship
in iudgemente muste cease, and accordyng to the state of the
cause, equitee to retaine frendship, money muste not blinde,
nor rewardes to force and temper Iudgementes: but accor-
dyng to the veritee of the cause, to adde a conclusion. Wor-
Whey the pi-
ctures of ma-
gistrates bee
picturid with-
oute handes.
thelie the pictures of Princes, Gouernours and Magistrates
in auncient tymes doe shewe this, where the antiquitée ma-
keth theim without handes, therein it sheweth their office,
and iudgemente to proceade with equitée, rewardes not to
blind, or suppresse the sinceritée of the cause. Magistrates not
to bee bounde to giftes, nor rewardes to rule their sentence.
Alciatus in his boke called Emblemata, in senatū sancti prin-

Princes and
graue & con-

Effigies manibus trunc[ae] ante altaria diuum
Hic resident, quarum lumine capta prior
Signa potestatis summ[ae], sanctiq[ue] senatus,
Thebanis fuerant ista reperta viris.
Cur resident? Quia mente graues decet esse quieta
Iuridicos, animo nec variare leui.
Cur sine sunt manibus? Capiant ne xenia, nec se
Pollicitis flecti muneribus ve sinant.
Cecus est princeps quod solis auribus, absq[ue]
Affectu constans iussa senatus agit.

Where vertue and integritée sheweth it self, in the persone
and cause, to vpholde and maintein thesame. Roote out hor-
rible vices from common wealthe, that the more surer and
stronge foundacion of vertue maie be laied: for, that onelie
cause, the scepter of kinges, the office of magistrates was left
to the posteritée of all ages.

¶ Lawfull and iuste.

[Fol. xxxviij.v]

¶ Lawfull and iust.

Lawes giue
equitie to all
S Eyng that lawes bee godlie, and vniuersally thei
temper equitée to all states, and giue according to
iustice, euery man his owne: he violateth vertue,
that dispossesseth an other manne of his own, and
What driueth
ye magistrate
to horrible
sentence a-
gainst wicked
wholie extinguisheth Iustice. And thereupon his beastly life
by merite forceth and driueth, lawe and Magistrate, to terri-
ble iudgement. For, who so against right, without order, or
lawe, violateth an other man, soche a one, lawes of iustice,
muste punishe violentlie, and extirpate from societée, beyng
a dissoluer of societee.

¶ Profitable.

I F soche wicked persones be restrained, and seuerelie
punished, horrible vices will be rooted out: all artes[,]
sciences, and godlie occupacions mainteined, vphol-
ded and kept. Then there must bée a securitée in all states, to
practise godlines, a mutuall concorde. The Magistrate with
equitée, the subiecte with faithful and humble obedience, ac-
complishyng his state, office, and callyng. Whereupon by
good Magistrates, and good subiectes, the common wealthe
and kyngdom is in happie state stablished. For, in these twoo
Plato. poinctes, as Plato doeth saie, there is vertuous rule, and like

¶ Easie and possible.

The begyn-
nyng of vice
is to be cut af.
A L this maie easely be doen, when wickednes is cutte
of, in his firste groweth, when the magistrate driueth
continually, by sworde and aucthoritée, all menne to
obedience, bothe of lawes and gouernuurs. Then in al good
common wealthes, vices are neuer tolerated to take roote: be-
cause the beginnyng and increase of vices, is sone pulled vp,
his monsterous kyngdome thereby ouerthrowen.

¶ The conclusion.

SO doyng, happie shall the kyng be, happie kyngdome,
and moste fortunate people.

[Fol. xxxix.r]

¶ The parte of Rhetorike, called praise.

His Oracion, which is titeled praise, is a declamaciō
of the vertuous or good qualitées, propertees belon-
gyng to any thyng, whiche doeth procede by certaine
notes of arte.

All thynges that maie be seen, with the iye of man, tou-
ched, or with any other sence apprehended: that maie be prai-
sed, or dispraised.

 {Mettals. }

Any vertue maie be praised, as wisedome, rightuousnes[,]
fortitude, magnanimitée, temperaunce, liberalitée, with all

These are to be celebrated with praise.

The persone, as Iulius Cesar, Octauius Augustus,
Hieremie, Tullie, Cato, Demosthenes.

Thynges, as rightuousnes, temperaunce.

Tymes, as the Spryng tyme of the yere, Sommer, Har-
uest, Winter.

Places, as Hauens, Orchardes, Gardeins, Toures,
Castles, Temples, Islandes.

Beastes wantyng reason, as Horse, Shepe, Oxen[,] Plā-
ntes, as Uines, Oliues.

In the praise of vertue, this maie be saied.

THe excellencies of it, the antiquitee and originalle be-
ginnyng thereof, the profite that riseth to any region
by it, as no kyngdome can consiste without vertue,[Fol. xxxix.v]
and to extoll the same, in makyng a comparison, with other
giftes of nature, or with other giftes of fortune, more infe-
riour or base.

Wherein the
praise of a ci-
tie consisteth[.]
Upon a citée, praise maie be recited, consideryng the good-
lie situacion of it, as of Paris, Uenice, London, Yorke: con-
sideryng the fertilitie of the lande, the wealthe and aboun-
daunce, the noble and famous goueruours, whiche haue go-
uerned thesame. The first aucthors and builders of thesame,
the politike lawes, and godlie statutes therein mainteined:
The felicitée of the people, their maners, their valeaunt pro-
wes and hardines. The buildyng and ornatures of thesame,
with Castles, Toures, Hauens, Floodes, Temples: as if a
manne would celebrate with praise. The olde, famous, and
The praise of
Brutus buil[-]
ded Londō in
the .x. yeare of
his raine.
aunciente Citée of London, shewyng the auncient buildyng
of thesame: the commyng of Brutus, who was the firste au-
cthor and erector of thesame. As Romulus was of the migh-
tie Citée Rome, what kyngs haue frō tyme to tyme, lineal-
ly descended, and succeded, bearing croune and scepter there-
in: the valiauntnes of the people, what terror thei haue been
to all forraine nacions. What victories thei haue in battaile
obteined, how diuers nacions haue sought their amitée and
Fraunce and
vpholded by
ye gouernors
of this lande.
league. The false Scottes, and Frenche menne truce brea-
kers: many and sonderie tymes, losyng their honour in the
field, and yet thei, through the puissaunt harte of the kynges
of this lande, vpholdyd and saued, from the mighte and force
of other enemies inuadyng theim. The twoo famous Uni-
uersitées of this lande, from the whiche, no small nomber of
greate learned men and famous, haue in the cōmon wealthe
sprong, with all other thynges to it.

The praise of a Kyng, Prince, Duke, Erle, Lorde, Ba-
ron, Squire, or of any other man be maie declaimed of obser[-]
uing the order of this parte of Rhetorike.

This parte of Rhetorike called praise, is either a particu-
ler praise of one, as of kyng Henry the fifte, Plato, Tullie,
Demosthenes, Cyrus, Darius, Alexander the greate.

[Fol. xl.r]

Or a generalle and vniuersalle praise, as the praise of all
the Britaines: or of all the citezeins of London.

¶ The order to make this Oracion, is thus declared.

Firste, for the enteryng of the matter, you shall place a
exordium, or beginnyng.

The seconde place, you shall bryng to his praise, Genus
, that is to saie: Of what kinde he came of, whiche dooeth
consiste in fower poinctes.

{ Of what nacion.}
{ Of what countrée.}
{ Of what auncetours.}
{ Of what parentes.}

After that you shall declare, his educacion: the educacion
is conteined in thrée poinctes.

 { Institucion.}
In{ Arte.}
 { Lawes.}

Then put there to that, whiche is the chief grounde of al
praise: his actes doen, whiche doe procede out of the giftes,
and excellencies of the minde, as the fortitude of the mynde,
wisedome, and magnanimitée.

Of the bodie, as a beautifull face, amiable countenaunce[,]
swiftnesse, the might and strength of thesame.

The excellencies of fortune, as his dignitée, power, au-
cthoritee, riches, substaunce, frendes.

In the fifte place vse a comparison, wherein that whiche
you praise, maie be aduaunced to the vttermoste.

Laste of all, vse the Epilogus, or conclusion.

¶ The example of the Oracion.
¶ The praise of Epaminundas.

I N whom nature hath powred singuler giftes,
in whom vertue, & singularitée, in famous en-
terprises aboundeth: whose glorie & renoume,
rooteth to the posteritée, immortall commen-
dacion. In the graue, their vertues and godlie[Fol. xl.v]
Obliuion. life, tasteth not of Obliuion, whiche at the length ouerthro-
weth all creatures, Citées, and regions. Thei liue onelie in
all ages, whose vertues spreadeth fame and noble enterpri-
Who liue in
all ages.
ses, by vertue rooteth immortalitée. Who so liueth, as that
his good fame after death ceaseth not, nor death with the bo-
die cutteth of their memorie of life: Soche not onely in life,
but also in death are moste fortunate. In death all honor, di-
Good fame
chieflie rou-
teth after
gnitée, glorie, wealthe, riches, are taken from vs: The fame
and glorie of singulare life is then, chieflie takyng his holde
and roote, wise men and godlie, in life, knowen famous, af-
ter death, remain moste worthie & glorious. Who knoweth
Iulius Ce-
not of Tullie, the famous Oratour of Rome. Doeth De-
mosthenes lieth hidden, that noble Oratour of Athenes. Is
not ye fame of Iulius Cesar, Octauius Augustus remainyng
of Uespasianus: of Theodosius, of Traianus, of Adrianus,
who by praise minded, be left to the ende of al ages. Soche a
one was this Epaminundas, the famous Duke of Thebe,
whose vertues gaue hym honour in life, and famous enter-
prises, immortalitée of fame after death. What can bee saied
more, in the praise and commendacion, of any peere of estate,
then was saied in the praise of Epaminundas, for his ver-
tues were so singulare, that it was doubted, he beyng so good
a manne, and so good a Magistrate, whether he were better
manne, or better Magistrate: whose vertues were so vnited,
that vertue alwaies tempered his enterprises, his loftie state
as fortune oftentymes blindeth, did not make hym vnmind-
full of his state. No doubt, but that in all common wealthes,
famous gouernours haue been, but in all those, the moste
parte haue not been soche, that all so good men, and so good
magistrates: that it is doubted, whether thei were better mē,
Good man,
good magi-
strate, boothe
a good man
and a good
or better magistrates. It is a rare thyng to be a good manne,
but a more difficult matter, to bee a good Magistrate: and
moste of all, to be bothe a good man, and a good Magistrate.
Honour and preeminent state, doeth sometyme induce obli-
uion, whereupon thei ought the more vigilantlie to wade:
[Fol. xlj.r]in all causes, and with all moderacion, to temper their pree-
The saiynge
of the Philo-
minent state. The Philosophers ponderyng the brickle and
slippere state of fortune, did pronounce this sentence: Diffici-
lius est res aduersas pati, quam fortunam eflantem ferre
, it is
more easie to beare sharpe and extreme pouertie, then to rule
and moderate fortune, because that the wisest menne of all
Obliuion. haue as Chronicles doe shewe, felte this obliuion, that their
maners haue been so chaunged, as that natures molde in thē
had ben altered or nuelie framed, in the life of Epaminūdas
moderacion and vertue, so gouerned his state, that he was a
honor and renowne to his state, nothing can be more ample
in his praise, then that which is lefte Chronicled of him.

[¶] Of his countrie.

E Paminundas was borne in Thebe a famous citie in
Beotia, the which Cadmus the sone of Agenor buil-
ded, whiche Amphion did close & enuiron with wal-
les, in the whiche the mightie and valiaunt Hercules was
borne, & manie noble Princes helde therin scepter, the which
Citie is tituled famous to the posterity by the noble gouern-
ment of Epaminundas.

¶ Of his auncetours.

E Paminundas came not of anie highe nobilitie or
blood, but his parentes were honeste and verteous
who as it semed were verie well affected to vertue,
instructyng their soonne in all singulare and good
qualities, for by good and vertuous life and famous enter-
prises from a meane state, manie haue bene extolled to beare
scepter, or to attaine greate honour, for as there is a begyn-
Nobility rose
by vertue.
nyng of nobilitie, so there is an ende, by vertue and famous
actes towarde the common wealthe, nobilite first rose. The
stock of Cesar and Cesars was exalted from a meaner state,
by vertue onelie to nobilitie. Scipios stocke was not alwais
noble, but his vertues graffed nobilitie to the posteritie of
his line and ofspryng followynge. And euen so as their fa-
[Fol. xlj.v]mous enterprices excelled, nobilite in theim also increased.
Catilina. Catilina wicked, was of a noble house, but he degenerated
from the nobilitie of his auncestours, the vertues that graf-
fed nobilitie in his auncestors, were first extinguished in Ca-
iline. Marcus Antonius was a noble Emperour, a Prince
indued with all wisedome and Godlie gouernmēt, who was
of a noble parētage, it what a wicked sonne succeded him, the
Commodus. father was not so godlie, wise, and vertuous, as Commo-
dus was wickedlie disposed and pestiferous. There was no
vertue or excellence, méete for suche a personage, but that
Marcus attained to. Who for wisedome was called Marcus
Philosophus, in his sonne what vice was thē that he practi-
sed not, belie chier, druncknes and harlottes, was his delite,
his crueltie and bluddie life was suche that he murthered all
the godlie and wise Senatours, had in price with Marcus
Seuerus. his father. Seuerus in like maner, was a noble and famous
Emperor, in the Senate moste graue, politike, and in his
warres moste fortunate, but in his sonne Marcus Antoni-
nus Caracalla, what wickednes wanted, whose beastlie life
is rather to be put in silence, then spoken of. In the assemble
of the Grecians, gathered to consulte vpon the contencion of
Achilles armour, Aiax gloriouslie aduaunceth hymself of his
auncestrie, from many kinges descended, whom Ulisses his
aduersarie aunswered: makyng a long and eloquente Ora-
cion, before the noble péeres of Grece, concernyng Aiax his
auncetours. These are his woordes.

Nam genus et proauos et que non fecimus ipsi,
Vix ea nostra voco, sed enim quia retulit Aiax,
esse Iouis pronepos.

As for our parentage, and line of auncetours, long before
vs, and noble actes of theirs: as we our selues haue not doen
the like, how can we call, and title their actes to be ours. Let
them therefore, whiche haue descended from noble blood, and
famous auncetours: bee like affected to all nobilitée of their
auncetours, what can thei glory in the nobilitée of their aun-
[Fol. xlij.r]cetours. Well, their auncetours haue laied the foundacion,
Nobilitee. and renoume of nobilitee to their ofspryng. What nobilitee
is founde in them, when thei builde nothyng, to their aunce-
tours woorke of nobilitée. Euen as their auncetours, noblie
endeuoured them selues, to purchase and obtain, by famous
actes their nobilitée) for, nobilitée and vertue, descendeth al-
waies to the like) so thei contrary retire and giue backe, frō
all the nobiliée of their auncestours, where as thei ought,
A beginnyng
of nobilitee.
with like nobilitée to imitate them. Many haue been, whiche
through their wisedome, and famous enterprises, in the af-
faires of their Prince, worthelie to honour haue been extol-
led and aduaunced: who also were the firste aucthours and
founders of nobiliée, to their name and ofspring. Whose of-
spring indued with like nobilitée of vertues, and noble actes
haue increased their auncestors glorie: the childrē or ofspring
lineally descendyng, hauyng no part of the auncestours glo-
rie, how can thei vaunte them selues of nobiliée, whiche thei
lacke, and dooe nothyng possesse thereof, Euen from lowe
Galerius a
sonne Empe-
ror of Rome.
Probus a
sonne, Em-
birthe and degrée. Galerius Armentarius was aduaunced,
euen from a Shepherdes sonne, to sit in the Imperiall seat of
Roome. Galerius Maximinus whom all the Easte obaied,
his vertues and noble acts huffed hym to beare scepter in the
Empire of Roome. Probus a Gardiners soonne, to the like
throne and glorie ascēded, so God disposeth the state of euery
man, placyng and bestowing dignitée, where it pleaseth him
as he setteth vp, so he pulleth doune, his prouidence & might
is bounde to no state, stocke, or kindred.

¶ Of his educacion.

E Paminūdas beyng borne of soche parentes, was
brought vp in all excellente learnyng, for, vnder
hym Philippe the kyng of the Macedonians, the
soonne of Amintas, was brought vp. This Epa-
minundas, the Histories note hym to be a chief Philosopher,
and a capitaine moste valiaunte. In Musike, in plaiyng, and
[Fol. xlij.v]singyng finelie to his Instrumente, notable and famous, no
kinde of learnyng, arte, or science, wanted in his breaste: So
greate and aboundante were his vertues, that aboue all go-
uernours, whiche haue been in Thebe, his name and fame
is chieflie aduaunced.

¶ The praise of his actes.

The dutie of
good gouer-
E Paminundas beyng moste valiaunte and no-
ble, leauing all priuate commoditée, glory, and
riches a side: sought the renoume of his coun-
tree, as all rulers and gouernours ought to do.
Howe a king[-]
dome riseth to
all felicitie.
For, a kyngdome or common wealth, can not
rise to any high nobilitée or Roialnesse, where gouernours,
rulers, and magistrates, neclecting the vniuersall, and whole
body of the common wealthe, doe cogitate and vigilantly en-
deuour them selues, to stablish to them and theirs, a priuate,
peculiar, and domesticall profite, glorie, or renoume. Couei-
teousnes, whiche is in all ambicious Magistrates the poison,
plague, destruccion, and ruine of the beste and florishing cō-
mon wealthes, of al wickednes and mischief the roote: a vice,
a great euill.
whereupon all vice is grounded, from whom all mischiefe
floweth, all execrable purposes issueth. That wanted in
Epaminundas, for in the ende of his life, his coffers were so
thin and poore, that euen to his Funerall, money wanted to
solempnise thesame. Priuate glorie nor excesse, was hunted
after of hym, yet his vertues were of soche excellencie, that
honour, dignitée, and preeminent state, was offered and gi-
uen to hym vnwillinglie. This Epaminundas was in go-
uernement so famous, and so vertuouslie and politikelie ru-
led thesame, that he was a glorie, renoume, honour, and fe-
licitée to his kingdome, by his state. Before the time of Epa-
minundas, the countree of Beotia was nothyng so famous
in their enterprises: neither the citee of Thebe so roiall, puis-
saunt or noble, the antiquitee of that tyme sheweth, that E-
paminundas wantyng the power of Thebes, their glorie,
strength, and felicitee fell and decaied. The learning of Epa-
[Fol. xliij.r]minundas and knowlege, was so aboundant and profounde
bothe in Philosophie, and in all other artes and sciences, that
it was wounderfull. In chiualrie and in feates of warre, no
péere was more couragious and bolde, or hardie, neither in
that, whiche he enterprised, any could be of greater counsaile
in hedde more pollitike, of minde more sage and wittie: his
gouernement so good, that beyng so good a Magistrate, it is
doubted, whether he be better man, or better Magistrate, E-
paminundas died in the defence of his countrée. The Athe-
nians were enemies to the Thebanes, and many greate bat-
tailes were assaied of theim and foughten: and often tymes
the Athenians felt many bitter stormes, and fortune loured
of them, he beyng so valiaunt a capitain. Epaminundas be-
yng dedde, the Athenians ceased to practise, any one parte of
chiualrie, their prowesse and dexteritée decaied: thei hauyng
no aliaunte, and forraine enemie to moleste theim, or whom
A valiant ca-
pitain, to his
countrie a pil[-]
lar[,] to his ene[-]
mie, a occasiō
to dexteritie.
thei feared. So that a famous, wise, pollitike, and valiaunte
capitaine, is not onely a staie, a pillar and strong bulwarke
to his countrée. But also forraine nacions, hauyng one, whō
for his valiauntnes thei dreade, doe practise and inure them
selues, to all dexteritee, counsaile, wisedome, and pollicie:
soche a one was Epaminundas, to his enemies and coūtrée.

¶ The comparison.

Numa Pom[-]
N Either Hector of Troie, nor Achilles of Grece, might
bee compared with Epaminundas, Numa Pompili-
us was not more godlie, Adriane the Emperour of
Roome, no better learned, nor Galba the Emperour more
valiaunte, Nerua no more temperate, nor Traianus more
noble, neither Cocles nor Decius, Scipio nor Marcus Regu[-]
lus, did more valianntly in the defence of their countrie, soche
a one was this Epaminundas.

¶ The conclusion.

O F many thynges, these fewe are recited, but if his
whole life and vertues, wer worthely handeled: fewe
would beleue, soche a rare gouernour, so vertuous a
[Fol. xliij.v]Prince, so hardie and valiaunte a capitaine, to haue remai-
ned in no age.

¶ The parte of Rhetorike, called dispraise.

THis parte of Rhetorike, which is called dispraise, is a in-
uectiue Oracion, made againste the life of any man.

This part of Rhetorike, is contrary to that, whiche is be-
fore set, called laus, that is to saie, praise: and by contrary no-
tes procedeth, for the Oratour or declaimer to entreate vpō.

This parte of Rhetorike, is called of the Grekes Psogos.

In praise, we extoll the persone: First by his countrée.

Then by his auncestours and parentes.

In the third place, by his educacion and institucion.

Then in the fowerth place, of his actes in life.

In the fifte place vse a comparison, comparyng the per-
sone with other, whiche are more inferiour.

Then the conclusion.

Now in dispraise, contrarily we doe procede.

Firste, in the dispraise of his countrée.

Of his auncetours and parentes.

His educacion is dispraised.

Then his actes and deedes of life.

Also in your comparison with other, dispraise hym.

Then in the laste place, adde the conclusion.

All thynges that maie be praised, maie be dispraised.

¶ The dispraise of Nero.

Uertue. A S vertue meriteth commendacion and immor-
tall renoume, for the nobilitée and excellencie
reposed in it: so ougle vices for the deformitée of
them, are in mynd to be abhorred and detested,
and with all diligence, counsaile, and wisedome
Uice. auoided. As pestiferous poison extinguisheth with his cor-
rupcion and nautinesse, the good and absolute nature of all
thinges: so vice for his pestiferous nature putteth out vertue
and rooteth out with his force all singularitée. For, vice and
[Fol. xliiij.r]vertue are so of nature contrary, as fire and water, the vio-
lence of the one expelleth the other: for, in the mansion of ver-
tue, vice at one tyme harboreth not, neither vertue with vice
What is ver-
can be consociate or vnited, for, vertue is a singuler meane,
or Mediocrite in any good enterprise or facte, with order and
reason finished. Whose acte in life, doeth repugne order and
reason, disseuered from all Mediocrite, soche do leaue iustice,
equitée, wisedome, temperaunce, fortitude, magnanimitée,
and al other vertues, bothe of minde and body: onely by ver-
tues life men shewe theim selues, as chief creatures of God,
with reason, as a moste principall gifte, beautified and deco-
rated: In other giftes, man is farre inferiour to beastes, both
in strength of bodie, in celeritée and swiftnesse of foote, in la-
bour, in industrie, in sense, nothyng to bee compared to bea-
stes, with beastes as a peculier and proper thyng, wee haue
our bodie of the yearth: but our minde, whiche for his diuini-
tée, passeth all thynges immortall, maketh vs as gods emōg
other creatures. The bodie therefore, as a aliaunt and forain
enemie, beyng made of a moste base, moste vile and corrup-
tible nature, repugneth the mynde. This is the cause, that
wickednesse taketh soche a hedde, and that the horrible facte
and enterprise of the wicked burste out, in that, reason exiled
and remoued from the minde, the ougle perturbacions of the
minde, haue their regiment, power, and dominiō: and where
soche state of gouernemente is in any one bodie, in priuate
and domesticalle causes, in forraine and publike affaires, in
kyngdome and cōmon wealthe. Uertue fadeth and decaieth,
and vice onely beareth the swaie. Lawe is ordered by luste,
and their order is will, soche was the tyme and gouernment
of this wicked Nero.

¶ Of his countree.

N Ero was a Romaine borne, though in gouerne-
ment he was wicked, yet his coūtrée was famous,
and noble: for, the Romaines wer lordes and hed-
des ouer all the worlde. The vttermoste Indians,
[Fol. xliiij.v]the Ethiopes, the Persians, feared the maiestie and auctho-
Rome. ritée of the Romaines. From Romulus, who was the firste
founder, and builder of that Citee: the Romaines bothe had
their name of hym, and grew afterward to marueilous pui-
saunt roialnes. There was no nacion vnder the Sunne, but
it dreaded their Maiestie, or felte their inuincible handes:
there hath been many mightie kyngdomes, on the face of the
yearth, but no kyngdome was able, with like successe and fe-
licitée in their enterprise, or for like famous gouernors, and
continuance of their state, to compare with them. This was,
and is, the laste mightée Monarchie in the worlde. Roome a
olde aunciente citée, inhabited firste of the Aborigines, which
Carthage. came from Troie. The prouidence of God, so disposeth the
tymes and ages of the world, the state of kyngdomes, by the
fall of mightier kyngdomes, meaner grewe to power and
glorie. The Carthagineans, contended by prowes, and ma-
gnanimitee, to be lordes ouer the Romaines. Carthage was
a greate, mightie, olde, auncient & famous citée, in the whiche
valiaunte, wise, and pollitike gouernours, helde therein re-
giment, long warres was susteined betwene the Romaines
and Carthagineans, emong whom infinite people, and ma-
ny noble péeres fell in the duste. Fortune and happie successe
fell to the Romaines: the people of Carthage vāquished, and
prostrate to the grounde. Scipio the noble Consull, beyng at
the destruccion of it, seeyng with his iye, Carthage by fire
brunte to ashes, saied: Talis exitus aliquando erit Rome: euē
of Rome to
ashes in time.
as of Carthage, like shall the destruccion of Rome bee, as for
continuaunce of the Romaine state, of their glorie, power,
and worthie successe, no nacion vnder the Sunne, can com-
pare with theim: soche was the state of Rome, wherein wic-
ked Nero raigned.

¶ Of his anncestours.

D Omitianus Nero, the sonne of Domitius Enobar-
bus, Agrippina was his mothers name: this Agrip-
pina, was Empresse of Rome, wife to Claudius Ti-
[Fol. xlv.r] Agrippina. berius, the daughter of his brother Germanicus. This A-
grippina, the Chronicle noteth her, to be indued with al mis-
chief and crueltée: For, Tiberius her housbande, hauyng by
his firste wife children, thei were murthered by her, because
she might, thei beyng murthered, with more facilitée, fur-
ther the Empire, to her soonnes handes, many treasons con-
spired against them oftentimes, Agrippina poisoned her hus-
bande, then Nero succeded.

¶ Of his educacion.

Seneca schol
maister to
S Eneca the famous Poete & Philosopher, was schole-
maister to Nero, who brought hym vp in all nobili-
tie of learnyng, mete for his state: though that Nero
was wickedlie of nature disposed, as his beastlie gouerne-
ment sheweth, yet wickednes in him, was by the seueritie of
Seneca, and his castigacion depressed: for Traianus Empe-
rour of Rome, would saie, as concernyng Nero, for the space
of fiue yeres, no Prince was like to hym, for good gouerne-
ment, after fiue yeres, losely and dissolutly he gouerned.

¶ Of his actes.

The dreame
of Agrippina
mother to
Nero, in his
T His Nero, at what tyme as his mother was con-
ceiued of him, she dreamed that she was conceiued
of a Uiper: for, the young Uiper alwaies killeth
his dame. He was not onely a Uiper to his mo-
ther whom he killed, but also to his kyngdome and common
wealthe a destroier, whiche afterward shalbe shewed, what
Nero a viper[.] a tyraunte and bloodie gouernour he was. This Nero made
in the Citee of Rome, the rounde seates and scaffoldes, to be-
holde spectacles and sightes, and also the bathes. He subdued
Pontus a greate countrée, whiche ioineth to the sea Pontus:
whiche countrée containeth these realmes, Colchis, Cappa-
docia, Armenia, and many other countrées, and made it as a
Prouince, by the suffraunce of Polemon Regulus, by whose
name it was called Pontus Polemoniacus. He ouer came
the Alpes, of the king Cotteius, Cottius the king being dedde[.]
[Fol. xlv.v] Nero vnwor[-]
thie to be chron[-]
The life followyng of Nero was so abhominable, that the
shame of his life, will make any man a fraied, to leaue any
memorie of hym. This Domitius Nero, caused his Schole-
maister Seneca to be put to death, Seneca chosing his owne
death, his veines beyng cutte in a hotte bathe died, bicause he
corrected wicked Nero, to traine hym to vertue. He was out-
ragious wicked, that he had cōsideracion, neither to his own
honestie, nor to other, but in continuaunce, he tired hymself
as virgines doe when thei marie, callyng a Senate, the dou-
rie assigned, and as the maner of that solemnitée is, many re-
sortyng and frequentyng, in maidens tire and apparell. He
The shamful
life of Nero.
went beyng a man, to be maried as a woman: beside this, at
other tymes he cladde hymself with the skin of a wilde beast,
and beastlie did handle that, whiche Nature remoueth from
the sight. He defiled hymself with his owne mother, whom
he killed immediatlie. He maried twoo wiues, Octauia, and
Sabina, otherwise called Poppea, firste murtheryng their
Caius Iu-
housbandes. In that tyme Galba vsurped the Empire, and
Caius Iulius: as sone as Nero heard that Galba came nere
towardes Rome, euen then the Senate of Rome had deter-
mined, that Nero should bee whipped to death with roddes,
accordyng to the old vsage of their auncestours, his necke yo-
ked with a forke. This wicked Nero, seyng himself forsaken
of all his friendes, at midnight he departed out of the Citée,
Ephaon, and Epaphroditus waityng on hym, Neophitus
and Sporus his Eunuche: whiche Sporus before tyme, had
The death of
Nero assaied to frame and fashion out of kinde. In the ende,
Nero thruste himself through, with the poinct of his sworde,
his wicked man Sporus, thrustyng foreward his trembling
hande: this wicked Nero before that, hauyng none to mur-
ther hym, he made a exclamacion, in these woordes. Is there
neither friende nor enemie to kill me, shamefullie haue I li-
ued, and with more shame shall I die, in the .xxxij. yere of his
age he died. The Persians so entirely loued hym, that after
his death thei sente Ambassadours, desiryng licence to erecte
[Fol. xlvj.r]to hym a monumente, all countrées and Prouinces, and the
whole Citée of Rome, did so moche reioyce of his death, that
thei all wearyng the Toppintant hattes, whiche bonde men
doe vse to ware, when thei bée sette at libertie, and so thei tri-
umphed of his death, deliuered from so cruell a tyraunte.

¶ A comparison.

A S for wicked gouernement, Nero doeth make Ca-
ligula like to Comodus, Domitianus, Antoninus
Caracalla, thei were all so wicked, that the Senate
of Rome thought it méete, to obliterate their name, from all
memorie and Chronicle, because of their wickednesse.

¶ The conclusion.

M Oche more the life and gouernement of wicked Ne-
ro, might be intreated of, but this shall be sufficient:
to shewe how tyrannically and beastly, he gouerned
vnmete of that throne.

¶ A comparison.

A Comparison, is a certain Oracion, shewyng by a
collacion the worthines, or excellēcie of any thing:
or the naughtines of thesame, compared with any
other thyng or thynges, either equalle, or more in-

In a comparison good thynges, are compared with good
as one vertue with an other: as wisedome & strength, whiche
of them moste auaileth in peace and warre.

Euill thynges maie bee compared with good, as Iustice,
with iniustice, wisedome with foolishnes.

Euill thynges maie be compared, with euill thynges, as
wicked Nero, compared to Domitianus, or Caligula to Cō-
modus, theft to homicide, drunkenes with adulterie.

Small thynges maie be compared with greate: the king
with his subiect, the Elephant or Camell to the Flie, a Cro-
codile to the Scarabe.

In a comparison, where argumente is supputated on
[Fol. xlvj.v]bothe the sides, worthelie to praise, or dispraise.

Where a comparison is made, betwene a thyng excel-
lente, and a thyng more inferiour: the comparison shall pro-
cede with like facilitee.

All thynges that maie bee celebrated with praise, or that
meriteth dispraise: al soche thynges maie be in a comparison.

The persone, as Cato being a wise man, maie be compa-
red with Nestor, the sage péere of Grece: Pompei with Ce-
sar, as Lucane compareth them, and so of all other men.

Thynges maie bee compared, as golde with siluer: one
mettall with an other.

Tymes maie be compared, as the Spryng with Som-
mer: Harueste with Winter.

Places maie be compared, as London with Yorke, Ox-
forde with Cambridge.

Beastes without reason, as the Bée with the Ante, the
Oxe with the Shepe.

Plantes, as the Uine, and the Oliue.

First, make a proemium or beginnyng to your cōparison[.]

Then compare them of their countrée.

Of their parentes.

Of their auncestours.

Of their educacion.

Of their actes.

Of their death.

Then adde the conclusion.

¶ A comparison betwene De-
mosthenes and Tullie.

T O speake moche in the praise of famous men,
no argument can wante, nor plentie of matter
to make of them, a copious and excellent Ora-
cion. Their actes in life through nobilitée,
will craue worthelie more, then the witte and
penne of the learned, can by Eloquence expresse. Who can
worthelie expresse and sette foorthe, the noble Philosopher
[Fol. xlvij.r] Plato.
Plato, or Aristotle, as matter worthelie forceth to commend,
when as of them, all learnyng, and singularitée of artes hath
flowen. All ages hath by their monuments of learning, par-
ticipated of their wisedome. Grece hath fostered many noble
wittes, from whom all light of knowlege, hath been deriued
by whose excellencie Rome in tyme florishyng, did seeke by
nobilitée of learnyng, to mate the noble Grecians. So moche
Italie was adorned, and beautified with the cunnyng of the
Grecians. Emong the Romaines many famous Oratours
and other noble men hath spronge vp, who for their worthi-
nesse, might haue contended with any nacion: either for their
Tullie. glorie of learnyng, or noble regiment. Emong whom Tul-
lie by learning, aboue the rest, rose to high fame, that he was
a renoume to his countree: to learnyng a light, of all singuler
Eloquence a fountaine. Whom Demosthenes the famous
Oratour of Athenes, as a worthie mate is compared with,
whom not onely the nobilitée, and renoume of their Coun-
trée shall decorate, but thē selues their owne worthines & no-
bilitée of fame. No age hath had twoo more famous for lear-
nyng, no common wealthe hath tasted, twoo more profitable
to their countrée, and common wealthe: for grauitée and coū-
saile, nor the posteritée of ages, twoo more worthie celebra-
Thusidides. cion. Thusidides speakyng, in the commendacion of famous
men sheweth: as concernyng the fame of noble men, whose
The enuious
vertue farre surmounteth thē, and passeth al other. Thenui-
ous man seketh to depraue, the worthinesse of fame in other,
The igno-
his bragging nature with fame of praise, not decorated. The
ignoraunte and simple nature, accordyng to his knowlege,
iudgeth all singularitée, and tempereth by his owne actes the
praise of other. But the fame of these twoo Oratours, nei-
ther the enuious nature can diminishe their praise, nor the
ignoraunt be of them a arbitrator or iudge, so worthely hath
all ages raised fame, and commendacion of their vertues.

¶ Of their countree.

[Fol. xlvij.v]

I N Grece Demosthenes, the famous Oratour of A-
thenes was borne, whose Countrée or Citee, lacketh
no cōmendacion: either for the nobilitée of the lande,
or glorie of the people. What nacion vnder the Sunne, hath
not heard of that mightie Monarchie of Grece: of their migh-
tie citees, and pollitike gouernaunce. What famous Poetes
how many noble Philosophers and Oratours, hath Grece
brede. What science and arte, hath not flowne from Grece,
so that for the worthinesse of it, it maie bee called the mother
of all learnyng. Roome also, in whom Tullie was brought
vp, maie contende in all nobilitée, whose power and puisant
glorie, by nobilitée of actes, rose to that mightie hed. In bothe
soche excellencie is founde, as that no nacion might better
contende, of their singularitée and honour of countrée, then
Grece and Rome: yet first from the Grekes, the light of Phi-
losophie, and the aboundant knowledge of all artes, sprange
to the Romaines, from the Grecians. The Godlie Lawes,
wherewith the Romaine Empire was decorated and gouer-
ned, was brought from the Grecians. If the citee maie bee a
honour and glorie, to these twoo Oratours, or their Citees a
singuler commendacion, there wanteth in bothe, neither ho-
nour, or nobilitée.

¶ Of their auncestours, and parentes.

B Othe Demosthenes and Tullie were borne, of ve-
rie meane parentes and auncestours: yet thei tho-
rowe their learnyng and vertues, became famous,
ascendyng to all nobilitée. Of their vertues and
learnyng, not of their auncestours, nobilitée rose to them.

¶ Of the educacion.

T HE singuler vertues of theim bothe, appered euen
in their tender youth: wherupon thei being brought
vp, in all godlie learnyng and noble Sciences, thei
became moste noble Oratours, and by their copious Elo-
quence, counsaile, and wisedom, aspired to nobilitée & honor.

¶ Of their scholyng.

[Fol. xlviij.r]

B Othe were taught of the mouthe of the best learned,
Demosthenes of Iseus, a man moste Eloquent: Ci-
cero of Philo and Milo, famous in wisedome and

¶ Of their exercise.

C Icero did exercise hymself verie moche, to declaime,
bothe in Greke and Latine, with Marcus Piso, and
with Quintus Pampeius. Demosthenes wanted
not industrie and labour, to attain to that singularitée, whi-
che he had, bothe in Eloquence, and pronounciacion.

¶ Of the giftes of their minde.

I N bothe, integritee, humanitee, magnanimitee,
and all vertue flowed: at what time as Demosthe-
nes was commaunded of the Athenians, to frame
a accusacion, againste a certaine man, Demosthe-
nes refused the acte. But when the people, and the whole
multitude, were wrothe with hym, and made a exclamacion
against hym, as their maner was. Then Demosthenes rose,
and saied: O ye men of Athenes, againste my will, you haue
me a counsailer, or pleater of causes before you: but as for a
accuser, & calumniator, no, not although ye would. Of this
sorte Tullie was affected, excepte it were onely in the saue-
gard of his conutrée: as against Catiline, bothe were of god-
lie, and of vpright conuersacion, altogether in Mediocrite,
and a newe leadyng their life.

¶ Of their actes.

D Emosthenes and Tullie bothe, gaue them selues
to trauail, in the causes and affaires of their com-
mon wealthe, to the preseruacion of it. How ve-
hemently did Demosthenes pleate, and ingeni-
ouslie handle the cause of all his countrée, against Philip, for
the defence of their libertee: whereupon he gatte fame, and
greate glory. Whereby not onely, he was coumpted a great
wise counsailour: but one of a valiaunte stomacke, at whose
[Fol. xlviij.v] Darius.
wisedome, all Grece stode in admiracion. The kyng of Per-
sia, laboured to enter fauour with him. Philip the king of the
Macedonians, would saie often tymes, he had to doe against
a famous man, notyng Demosthenes. Tullie also by his E-
loquence and wisedome, saued Roome and all partes of that
dominion, from greate daungers.

¶ Of their aucthoritee.

T Heir aucthoritee and dignitee was equalle, in the
common wealthe: For, at their twoo mouthes,
Roome and Athenes was vpholed. Demosthenes
was chief in fauour with Caretes, Diophetes, Le[-]
ostines, Cicero with Pompei: Iulius Cesar, ascending to the
chief seate and dignitée of the Consulship.

¶ Of a like fall that happened to
them, before their death.

Y Ou can not finde soche twoo Orators, who borne
of meane & poore parentes, that attained so greate
honour, who also did obiecte themselues to tyran-
tes a like, thei had losse of their children a like,
bothe were out of their countree banished men, their returne
was with honour, bothe also fliyng, happened into the han-
des of their enemies.

¶ Of their death.

B Othe a like, Demosthenes and Tully wer put to
death, Demosthenes died, Antipater gouernyng
by the handes of Archias. Cicero died by the com-
maundement of Marcus Antonius: by Herenius
his hedde was cutte of, and sette in Marcus Antonius halle.
His handes also were cutte of, with the whiche he wrote the
vehement Oracions against Marcus Antonius.

¶ The conclusion.

T O speake as moche as maie bee saied, in the praise of
theim: their praise would rise to a mightie volume,
but this is sufficiente.

[Fol. xlix.r]


Ethopœia is a certaine Oracion made by voice, and la-
mentable imitacion, vpon the state of any one.

This imitacion is in
iij. sortes, either it is.

That parte, whiche is called Ethopœia is that, whiche
hath the persone knowne: but onely it doeth faigne the ma-
ners of thesame, and imitate in a Oracion thesame.

Ethopœia is called of Priscianus, a certaine talkyng to
of any one, or a imitaciō of talke referred to the maners, apt-
ly of any certaine knowen persone.

Quintilianus saieth, that Ethopœia is a imitacion of o-
ther meane maners: whom the Grekes dooe calle, not onelie
Ethopœia, but mimesis, & this is in the maners, and the fact.

This parte is as it were, a liuely expression of the maner
and affeccion of any thyng, whereupon it hath his name.

The Ethopœia is in three sortes.

The firste, a imitacion passiue, whiche expresseth the af-
fection, to whom it parteineth: whiche altogether expresseth
the mocion of the mynde, as what patheticall and dolefull o-
racion, Hecuba the quene made, the citee of Troie destroied,
her housbande, her children slaine.

The second is called a morall imitaciō, the whiche doeth
set forthe onely, the maners of any one.

The thirde is a mixt, the whiche setteth forthe, bothe the
maners and the affection, as how, and after what sorte, A-
chilles spake vpon Patroclus, he beyng dedde, when for his
sake, he determined to fight: the determinacion of hym she-
weth the maner. The frende slaine, the affection.

In the makyng of Ethopœia, lette it be plaine, and with-
out any large circumstaunce.

[Fol. xlix.v]

In the makyng of it, ye shall diuide it thus, to make the
Oracion more plaine, into three tymes.

{A presente tyme.}
{A tyme paste.}
{A tyme to come.}

Eidolopœia is that part of this Oracion, whiche maketh
a persone knowne though dedde, and not able to speake.

Eidolopœia[.] Eidolopœia is called of Priscianus, a imitacion of talke
of any one, vpon a dedde manne, it is then called Eidolopœia,
when a dedde man talketh, or communicacion made vpon a
dedde manne.

Eidolopœia, when a dedde manne talketh, is set forthe of
Euripides, vpon the persone of Polidorus dedde, whose spi-
rite entereth at the Prologue of the tragedie.

Hector slain, speaketh to Eneas in Eidolopœia. O Eneas
thou goddes sonne, flie and saue thy self, from this ruine and
fire: the enemies hath taken the walles, and loftie Troie is
prostrate to the grounde. I would haue thought, I had died
valiantlie inough to my countrée, and my father Priamus,
if with this my right hande, Troie had bee defended.

Polidorus beyng dedde, in Eidolopœia talketh to Eneas
whiche Uirgil sheweth in his thirde booke of Eneados.

Iulia the wife of Pompei beyng dedde, spake to Pompe,
preparyng his arme against Cesar, Eidolopœia. Reade Lu-
cane, in the beginnyng of his thirde booke.

Tullie vseth Eidolopœia, when he maketh talke vpon
Hiero beyng dedde.

If that kyng Hiero were reduced frō his death, who was
a aduauncer of the Romaine Empire, with what counte-
naunce, either Siracusa or Rome, might be shewed to hym,
whom he maie beholde with his iyes. His countree brought
to ruin, & spoiled, if that kyng Hiero should but enter Rome,
euen in the firste entryng, he should beholde the spoile of his

Tullie also vseth the like Eidolopœia, as thus, vpon Lu-
[Fol. l.r]cius Brutus dedde.

If it so wer, that Lucius Brutus, that noble and famous
manne were on liue, and before your presence: would he not
vse this oracion: I Brutus, somtyme did banishe and cast out
for crueltee, the state and office of kinges, by the horrible fact
of Tarquinius, againste Lucretia, and all that name bani-
shed, but you haue brought in tyrauntes. I Brutus did re-
duce the Romain Empire, to a fredome and libertée: but you
foolishly can not vphold and maintein, thesame giuen to you.
I Brutus, with the daunger of my life, haue saued my coun[-]
tree of Roome, but you without all daunger, lose it.


A S cōcerning Prosopopœia, it is as Pristianus saith,
when to any one againste nature, speache is feigned
to bee giuen.

Tullie vseth for a like example this, when he maketh
Roome to talke againste Cateline.

Prosopopœia of Roome.

Catiline. N O mischief hath been perpetrated, this many yeres,
but by thee Catiline, no pestiferous acte enterprised,
without thee: thou a lone, for thy horrible murther
perpetrated vpon the citee of Rome, for the spoile and robbe-
ries of their gooddes art vnpunished. Thou onelie haste been
of that force and power, to caste doune all lawes and aucthori-
tee. Although these thinges were not to be borne, yet I haue
borne them: but now thy horrible factes are come to soche an
issue, that I feare thy mischiues. Wherfore leaue of Cateline
and deminishe this feare from me, that I maie be in securitée[.]

Lucane the Poete, intreating of mightie and fearce war-
res, againste Pompei and Cesar, maketh Roome to vse this
Prosopopœia againste Cesar.

Quo tenditis vltra quo fertis mea signa viri,
Si iure venitis si aues hucusq[ue] licet.

Prosopopœia is properlie, when all thinges are faigned
bothe the maners, the persone, as of Roome in this place.

[Fol. l.v]

¶ What lamentable Oracion Hecuba Quene of
Troie might make, Troie being destroied.

Kyngdomes. W Hat kyngdome can alwaies assure his state, or
glory? What strength can alwaies last? What
power maie alwaies stande? The mightie O-
kes are somtyme caste from roote, the Ceadars
high by tempestes falle, so bitter stormes dooe
force their strength. Soft waters pearseth Rockes, and ruste
the massie Iron doeth bryng to naught. So nothyng can by
strēgth so stande, but strength maie ones decaie: yea, mightie
kingdoms in time decaie haue felt. Kingdomes weake haue
rose to might, and mightie kyngdomes fallen, no counsaile
can preuaile, no power, no strength, or might in lande. God
disposeth Princes seates, their kyngdome there with stan-
des. I knewe before the brickell state, how kyngdomes ruine
caught, my iye the chaunge of fortune sawe, as Priamus did
aduaunce his throne, by fauour Fortune gat, on other For-
tune then did froune, whose kingdom did decaie. Well, now
hath no staie.
I knowe the brickle state, that fortune hath no staie, all rashe
her giftes, Fortune blind doeth kepe no state, her stone doth
roule, as floodes now flowe, floodes also ebbe. So glory doth
remaine, sometyme my state on high, was sette in Princelie
throne, my porte and traine ful roiall was, a kyng my father
also was, my housband scepter held. Troie and Phrigia ser-
ued his becke, many kynges his power did dreade, his wille
their power did serue. The fame of Troie and Brute, his
glorie and renoume, what landes knoweth not? But now
his falle, all toungues can speake, so greate as glorie was,
though kyngdomes stronge was sette, loftie Troie in duste
prostrate doeth lye, in blood their glorie, people, kyng are fal-
len, no Quene more dolefull cause hath felte. The sorowes
depe doe passe my ioyes, as Phebus light with stormes caste
Hector. doune. Hectors death did wounde my hart, by Hectors might
Troie stiffe did stande, my comforte Hector was, Priamus
ioye, of Troie all thē life, the strength, and power, his death
[Fol. lj.r]did wound me for to die, but alas my dolefull and cruell fate
to greater woe reserueth my life, loftie Troie before me
felle, sworde, and fire hath seate and throne doune caste. The
dedde on heapes doeth lye, the tender babes as Lions praies
Priamus. are caught in bloode, before my sight, Priamus deare mur-
dered was, my children also slain, who roiall were, and prin-
ces mates. No Queene more ioye hath tasted, yet woe my io-
yes hath quite defaced. My state alwaie in bondage thrall, to
serue my enemies wille, as enemie wille, I liue or dye. No
cruell force will ridde my life, onely in graue the yearth shal
close my woes, the wormes shall gnawe my dolefull hart in
graue. My hedde shall ponder nought, when death hath sence
doune caste, in life I sought no ioye, as death I craue, no
glorie was so wished as death I seeke, with death no sence.
In prison depe who dolefull lieth, whom Fetters sore dooeth
greue. Their dolefull state moste wisheth death, in dongion
deepe of care my harte moste pensiue is, vnhappie state that
wisheth death, with ioye long life, eche wight doeth craue, in
life who wanteth smart? Who doeth not féele, or beare som-
time, a bitter storme, to doleful tune, mirth full oft chaunged
is, the meaner state, more quiet rest, on high, who climes more
deper care, more dolefull harte doeth presse, moste tempestes
hie trees, hilles, & moutaines beare, valleis lowe rough stor-
mes doeth passe, the bendyng trees doeth giue place to might
by force of might, Okes mightie fall, and Ceders high ar rēt
from the roote. The state full meane in hauen hath Ancre
caste, in surgyng seas, full ofte in vaine to saue the maste, the
shippe Ancre casteth.

¶ The descripcion.

T His exercise profitable to Rhetorike, is an Ora-
ciō that collecteth and representeth to the iye, that
which he sheweth, so Priscianus defineth it: some
are of that opinion, that descripcion is not to bee
placed emōg these exercises, profitable to Rhetorike. Because
[Fol. lj.v]that bothe in euery Oracion, made vpon a Fable, all thyn-
ges therein conteined, are liuely described. And also in euery
Narracion, the cause, the place, the persone, the time, the fact,
the maner how, ar therin liuely described. But most famous
and Eloquente men, doe place descripcion, in the nomber of
these exercises. Descripciō serueth to these things, the person,
as the Poete Lucane describeth Pompei & Cesar: the person
is described, thynges or actes, tymes, places, brute beastes.

Nec coiere pares, alter vergentibus annis
In senium longo que toge, tranquilior vsu.
Dedidicit. &c.

Homer describeth the persone of Thersites, in the second
booke of his Ilias.

Homer setteth out Helena, describing the persone of Me-
nalaus and Ulisses, in the fowerth booke of Ilias.

Thynges are described, as the warres attempted by sea
and lande, of Xerxes.

Lucan describeth the war of the Massiliās against Cesar[.]

Thusidides setteth forthe in a descripcion, the warres on
the sea, betwene the Corcurians, and the Corinthians.

Tymes are described, as the Spryng tyme, Sommer,
Winter, Harueste, Daie, Night.

Places are described, as Citees, Mountaines, Regions,
Floodes, Hauens, Gardeines, Temples: whiche thynges
are sette out by their commoditees, for Thusidides often ty-
mes setteth forthe Hauens and Citees.

Lucane also describeth at large, the places, by the whiche
the armie of Cesar and Pompei passed. The descripcion of a-
ny man, in all partes is to bee described, in mynde and bodie,
what he was.

The acttes are to bee described, farre passed, by the pre-
sente state thereof, and also by the tyme to come.

As if the warre of Troie, should be set forthe in a descrip-
cion, it must bée described, what happened before the Greci-
ans arriued at Troie, and how, and after what sorte it was
[Fol. lij.r]ouerthrowne, & what thing chaunced, Troie being destroid.

So likewise of Carthage, destroied by the Romaines.
Of Hierusalem, destroied by Titus Uespasianus, what ad-
monicion thei had before: of what monsterous thynges hap-
pened also in that ceason: Of a Comete or blasyng Starre,
and after that what followed.

Lucane also setteth forthe the warres of Pompe and Ce-
sar, what straunge and marueilous thynges fell of it.

¶ A descripcion vpon Xerxes.

W Hen Darius was dedde, Xerxes his soonne did
succede hym, who also tooke vpon him to finishe
the warres, begō by his father Darius, against
Grece. For the whiche warres, preperacion
was made, for the space of fiue yeres, after that
The armie
of Xerxes.
Xerxes entered Grece, with seuen hundred thousande Persi-
ans, and thrée hundred thousande of forrain power aided him
that not without cause, Chronicles of aunciente tyme dooe
shewe, mightie floodes to be dried vp of his armie. The migh[-]
tie dominions of Grece, was not hable to receiue his houge,
and mightie power, bothe by sea and lande: he was no small
Prince, whom so many nacions, so mightie people followed
hym, his Nauie of Shippes was in nomber tenne hundred
Xerxes a
thousande, Xerxes had a mightie power, but Xerxes was a
cowarde, in harte a childe, all in feare the stroke of battaile
moued. In so mightie an armie it was marueile, the chiefe
Prince and Capitaine to be a cowarde, there wanted neither
men, nor treasure, if ye haue respecte to the kyng hymself, for
cowardlinesse ye will dispraise the kyng, but his threasures
beeyng so infinite, ye will maruaile at the plentie thereof,
whose armie and infinite hoste, though mightie floodes and
streames, were not able to suffice for drinke, yet his richesse
Xerxes laste
in battaile,
and first to
runne awaie.
semed not spente nor tasted of. Xerxes hymself would be laste
in battaile to fight, and the firste to retire, and runne awaie.
In daungers he was fearfull, and when daunger was paste,
[Fol. lij.v]he was stoute, mightie, glorious, and wonderfull crakyng,
The pride
of Xerxes.
before this hassarde of battaile attempted. He thought hym
self a God ouer nature, all landes and Seas to giue place to
hym, and puffed with pride, he forgatte hymself: his power
was terrible, his harte fainte, whereupon his enteryng into
Grece was not so dreaded, as his flight frō thence was sham[-]
full, mocked and scorned at, for all his power he was driuen
backe from the lande, by Leonides king of the Lacedemoni-
ans, he hauing but a small nomber of men, before his second
battaile fought on the Sea: he sente fower thousande armed
men, to spoile the riche and sumpteous temple of Apollo, at
Delphos, from the whiche place, not one man escaped. After
that Xerxes entered Thespia, Platea, and Athenes, in the
whiche not one man remained, those he burned, woorkyng
his anger vpon the houses: for these citees were admonished
to proue the maisterie in wodden walles, whiche was ment
to bee Shippes, the power of Grece, brought into one place
Themistocles, fauoryng their part, although Xerxes thought
otherwise of Themistocles, then Themistocles perswaded
Xerxes to assaie the Grecians. Artemisia the Quene of Hali-
carnasis aided Xerxes in his battaile: Artemisia fought man[-]
fullie, Xerxes cowardly shronke, so that vnnaturally there
was in the one a manlie stomacke, in the other a cowardlie
harte. The men of Ionia, that fought vnder Xerxes banner,
by the treason of Themistocles, shrāke from Xerxes, he was
not so greate a terrour or dreade, by his maine hoste, as now
smally regarded & least feared. What is power, men, or mo-
ney, when God chaungeth and pulleth doune, bothe the suc-
cesse, and kyngdome of a Prince. He was in all his glorie, a
vnmanlie, and a cowardly prince, yet for a time happie state
fell on his side, now his might and power is not feared. He
flieth awaie in a Fisher boate, whom all the worlde dreaded
and obaied, whom all Grece was not able to receiue, a small
boate lodgeth and harboureth. His owne people contemned
hym at home, his glorie fell, and life ingloriously ended, whō
[Fol. liij.r]whom God setteth vp, neither treason nor malice, power nor
money can pull doune. Worthelie it is to be pondered of all
Princes, the saiyng of Uespasianus Emperour of Rome, at
a certain time a treason wrought and conspired against him,
the conspiratours taken, Uespasianus satte doune betwene
The saiyng
of Uespasi-
theim, commaunded a sworde to be giuen to either of theim,
and saied to them: Nonne videtis fato potestatem dari. Dooe
you not see? Power, aucthoritée, and regimente, by the ordi-
A sentence
to al princes.
naunce of God, is lefte and giuen to princes: A singuler sen-
tence, to comforte all good Princes in their gouernemente,
not to feare the poisoned hartes of men, or the traiterous har-
tes of pestiferous men. No man can pull doune, where God
exalteth, neither power can set vp and extoll, where God dis-
plaseth or putteth doune: Soche is the state of Princes, and
their kyngdomes.


T Hesis, is a certain question in consultacion had, to bée
declaimed vpon vncertaine, notyng no certaine per-
sone or thyng.

As for example.

Whether are riches chieflie to be sought for, in this life,
as of all good thynges, the chief good.

Whether is vertue the moste excellente good thynge in
this life.

Whether dooe the giftes of the mynde, passe and excelle
the giftes and vertues of Fortune, and the bodie.

Whether doeth pollicie more auaile in war, then strēgth
of menne.

Who so will reason of any question of these, he hath nede
with reason, and wittie consultacion to discourse, and to de-
claime vpon thesame.

The Greke Oratours doe call this exercise Thesis, that
is to saie, a proposicion in question, a question vncertain, in-
cluded with no certaintée, to any perticuler thyng.

[Fol. liij.v]

The Latine men doeth call it a question infinite, or vni-
uersall: Tullie in his booke of places called Topickes, doeth
call Thesis, Propositum, that is to saie, a question, in deter-
minacion. Priscianus calleth it positionem, a proposicion in
question on ether parte to be disputed vpon.

As for example.

Whether is it best to marie a wife?

Whether is frendship aboue all thynges to be regarded.

Is warre to be moued vpon a iuste cause?

Is the Greke tongue mete, and necessarie to be learned?

There is an other kinde of question called hypothesis, hy[-]
is called questio finita, that is to saie, a question cer-
taine notyng a certaine persone, or thyng, a certaine place,
tyme, and so forthe.

As for example.

Is it mete for Cesar to moue warre against Pompei?

Is not there a certain persone?

Is the Greke tongue to be learned of a Diuine?

Is the Greke tongue meete for a Phisicion?

In this kinde of exercises, famous men of auncient time
did exercise youth, to attain bothe wisedome and Eloquence
therby, to make a discourse vpō any matter, by art of lerning[.]

Aristotle the famous Philosopher, did traine vp youthe,
to be perfite in the arte of eloquence, that thei might with all
copiousnes and ingenious inuencion handle any cause.

Nothing doeth so moche sharpe and acuate the witte and
capacitée of any one, as this kinde of exercise.

It is a goodly vertue in any one man, at a sodain, to vtter
wittely and ingeniouslie, the secrete and hid wisedome of his
mynde: it is a greate maime to a profounde learned man, to
wante abilitée, to vtter his exquisite and profounde knowe-
ledge of his mynde.


THis question Thesis, which is a question, noting no cer-
taine persone or thyng: is moche like to that Oracion,
[Fol. liiij.r]intreated of before, called a Common place.

¶ A Common place.

B Ut a Common place, is a certaine exaggeracion of
matter, induced against any persone, conuicted of a-
ny crime, or worthie defence.


Thesis is a reasonyng by question, vpon a matter vncer-

Thesis, that is to saie, a questiō generall is in two sortes.

A question{ 

Q Uestions Ciuill are those, that dooe pertaine to the
state of a common wealth: and are daily practised in
the common wealthe.

As for example.

Is it good to marie a wife.

Is Usurie lefull in a citee, or common wealthe.

Is a Monarchie the beste state of gouernement.

Is good educacion the grounde and roote, of a florishyng
common wealthe.

¶ A contemplatiue question.

T He other Thesis is a question contemplatiue, which
the Grekes dooe call Theoricas, because the matter
of them is comprehended in the minde, and in the in[-]
telligence of man.

The example.

Is the soule immortall?

Had the worlde a beginnyng?

Is the heauen greater then the yearth?

A question is either{Simple.

Is it good for a man to exercise hymself in wrastlyng, or

[Fol. liiij.v]

Is it profitable to declaime.

[¶] A compounde.

Is vertue of more value then gold, to the coueitous man[?]

Doeth wisedome more auaile, then strength in battaile?

Doe olde men or young men, better gouerne a common

Is Phisicke more honourable then the Lawe?

A Oracion made vpon Thesis, is after this sorte made.

Use a exordium, or beginnyng.

Unto the whiche you maie adde a Narracion, whiche is
a exposicion of the thyng doen.

Then shewe it lawfull.



And possible.

Then the conclucion.

To this in some parte of the Oracion, you maie putte in
certaine obieccions, as thus.

Upon this question: Is it good to marie a wife?

In Mariage is greate care, and pensiuenesse of minde, by
losse of children, or wife, whom thou loueste. There is also
trouble of dissolute seruauntes. There is also greate sorowe
if thy children proue wicked and dissolute.

The aunswere to this obiection, will minister matter to
declaime vpon.

¶ Is it good to Marie.

S Ince the tyme of all ages, and the creaciō of the
worlde, GOD hath so blessed his creacion, and
meruailous workemanship in manne: as in all
his other creatures, that not onelie his omnipo-
, is therby set forthe. But also from tyme
to tyme, the posteritee of men, in their ofspring and procrea-
continue by
mariage and
cōmon welth[.]
cion, doe aboundantlie commonstrate thesame. The state of
all kyngdomes and common wealthes: by procreacion deri-
ued, haue onelie continued on the face of the yearth, thereby
[Fol. lv.r]many hundred yeres. How sone would the whole worlde be
dissolued, and in perpetuall ruine, if that God from tymes
and ages, had not by godlie procreacion, blessed this infinite
The dignitee
of man, she-
weth the
worthines of
issue of mankinde. The dignitée of man in his creacion, she-
weth the worthie succession, maintained by procreation. In
vaine were the creacion of the worlde, if there were not as
manne so excellente a creature, to beholde the creatour, and
his meruailous creacion. To what vse were the Elementes
and Heauens, the Starres and Planettes, all Beastes and
Foules, Fisshe, Plantes, Herbes and trees, if men wer not,
for mannes vse and necessitée, all thinges in the yearth were
made and procreated. Wherein the Stoike Philosophers do
note the excellencie of man to be greate: for saie thei, Que in
terris gignuntur omnia ad vsum hominum creari
. To what
vse then were all thynges, if man were not, for whose cause,
vse, & necessitée these thynges were made. If a continuaunce
of Gods procreacion were not, immediatlie a ruine and ende
would ensue of thinges. What age remaineth aboue a hun-
dred yeres? If after a hūdred yeres, no issue wer to be, on the
Godlie pro-
face of the yearth, how sone wer kyngdoms dissolued, where
as procreacion rooteth, a newe generacion, issue and ofspring,
and as it were a newe soule and bodie. A continuaunce of la-
wes, a permanente state of common wealthe dooeth ensue.
Though the life of manne be fraile, and sone cutte of, yet by
Mariage, man by his ofspryng, is as it were newe framed,
his bodie by death dissolued, yet by issue reuiued. Euen as
Plantes, by the bitter season of Winter, from their flowers
fadyng and witheryng: yet the seede of them and roote, vegi-
table and liuyng, dooe roote yerelie a newe ofspryng or flo-
A similitude. wer in them. So Mariage by godlie procreacion blessed, doth
perpetually increase a newe bodie, and therby a vaste world,
and infinite nacions or people. Xerxes the mightie kyng of
Persia, vewing and beholding his maine and infinite hoste,
wéeped: who beyng demaunded, why he so did. Doleo inquit
post centum annos, neminem ex hijs superesse.
It is a pitée-
[Fol. lv.v]fulle and dolefull case, that after a hundred yeres, not one of
these noble capitaines, and valiant soldiers to be left.

¶ The obieccion.

But you will saie parauenture, mariage is a greate bon-
dage, alwaies to liue with one.

¶ The solucion.

To followe pleasure, and the beastlie mocions of the
mynde: what libertée call you that, to liue in a godly, meane,
The libertie
in mariage.
and Mediocritée of life, with thy spoused wife. There is no
greater ioye, libertée, or felicitée, who so practiseth a dissolute
life: whose loue and luste is kindeled, and sette on fire with a
A brutishe
societie with
harlotte, he followeth a brutishe societée. What difference is
there, betwene them and beastes? The beaste as nature lea-
deth, he obaieth nature. Reason wanteth in beastes, manne
then indued with reason, whiche is a guide to all excellencie
how is it that he is not ruled by reason. Whom GOD hath
clothed and beautified, with all vertue and all singularitée:
If a godly conuersacion of life, moueth thée to passe thy daies
without mariage, then must the mocions of thy minde, be ta-
in mariage.
med and kepte vnder. Other wise, execrable is thy purpose,
and determinaciō of the life. If thou hopest of loue of a harlot
though thou enioye her otherwise, thou art deceiued. Bac-
chis the harlot, whom Terence maketh mencion of, in the
persone of her self, sheweth the maners of all harlots to An-
tiphila, saiyng.

Quippe forma impulsi nostra nos amatores colunt:
Hec vbi immutata est, illi suum animum alio conferunt.
Nisi prospectū est interea aliquid nobis, deserte viuimus.

For saieth she, the louer anamoured with our loue, and
sette on fire therewith, it is for our beautie and fauour: but
when beautie is ones faded, he conuerteth his loue to an o-
ther, whom he better liketh. But that we prouide for our sel-
ues in the meane season, wée should in the ende liue vtterlie
forsaked. But your loue incensed with one, whose maners
and life contenteth you: so you bothe are linked together,
[Fol. lvj.r] The loue of a
that no calamitée can separate you: who so hopeth loue of a
harlotte, or profite, he maie hope as for the fructe of a withe-
red tree, gaine is all their loue, vice their ioye and delite. In
vertue is libertée, in vertue is felicitee, the state of mariage is
vertuous, there can be no greater bōdage, then to obaie ma-
ny beastly affections, to the whiche whoredome forceth hym
vnto, Loue is fained, cloked amitée, a harte dissembled, ma-
ny a mightie person and wise, hath been ouerthrowen by the
deceiptes of harlottes: many a Citee plagued, many a region
ouerthrowen for that mischief, to obaie many affections is a
greate bondage. Who so serueth the beastlie affections of his
mynde to that purpose, he must also as Hercules to Ompha-
la bee slaue, not onely to his owne will and affection: but to
the maners, will, and exspectacion of the harlotte. So serued
Thraso, and Phedria Thais, that Gorgious harlot, Antony
and Iulius Cesar, Cleopatra, this is a bondage, to liue slaue
from reason and all all integritee, to a monsterous rablemēt
The harlot-
tes lesson, to
her louers.
of vices, who so serueth a harlot, thei must learne this lesson.
Da mihi & affer, giue and bryng.

The women of Scithia, abhorryng the godly conuersa-
cion of mariage, with their housbandes, lefte theim, who in
tyme ware so mightie, that thei repelled theim by force: thei
called mariage not Matrimonie, but bondage. For, the chro-
nicles doe testifie, thei became conquerours ouer many kyn-
ges, all Asia obaied them: thei did builde many a great citee,
and for theire successe, thei might compare with many prin-
The life of
the Amazo-
ces. These women were called Amazones afterwarde, the
order of their life was this, ones in the yere thei would en-
ioye the compainie of a man: if it so were that thei had a man
childe, the father to haue it, if a daughter, then thei possessed
her, and foorthwith burned her right pappe: for thei were all
Archers, and wonderfully excelled therein, but in the ende,
Thalestris. thei came all to ruine. One of them, Thalestris their Quene
in the tyme of Alexander the Greate, came to Alexander,
thinkyng that he had been, some monstrous man of stature:
[Fol. lvj.v] The offer of
a woman to
whom, when she did beholde (for Alexander was of no migh-
tie stature) did contemne hym, and offered him hand to hande
The answer
of Alexander
to the offer.
to fight with hym. But Alexander like a wise Prince, saied
to his men, if I should ouercome her, that were no victorie,
nor manhoode againste a woman: and being ouercome, that
were greater shame, then commendacion in all my victories
and conquestes, but afterwarde, there was a greate familia-
ritée betwene them. The adulterer and the adulteris, neuer
prospereth, for many mischiues are reserued, to that wicked
and beastly loue. Sincere loue is not rooted, frendship colou-
red: the sober and demure countenaunce, is moche to be com-
mended in a chaste woman, whose breaste pondereth a chaste
The facte of
the matrones
of Rome.
life. The facte of the matrones of Rome, semeth straunge to
be tolde, of Papirius a Senators soonne, beyng taken to the
Senate house, of his father: the childe beyng indued with a
singuler wit, harde many causes in the assemble, talked and
consulted vpō, at his retourne home, his mother was inqui-
sitiue of their consultacion, to heare somewhat. The childe
was commaunded by his father, to vtter no secrete that he
heard, wherevpon of a long tyme, he refused his mothers de-
maunde: but at the laste subtelie, he satisfied his mothers re-
Papirius. quest. Truth it is, my father willed me, to vtter no secret, you
keping my counsaill, I will shewe you, it is concluded by the
Senate house, that euery man shall haue twoo wiues, that
is a straunge matter, saieth the mother: foorthwith she had
communicacion with all the matrones of Roome, that could
doe somewhat in this matter, thei also full willyngly assem-
bled themselues, to let this purpose, to the Senate house, thei
went to vtter, their swollen griues. The Senators were a-
mased at their commyng, but in this matter bolde thei were,
The Oraciō
of a matrone,
to the Sena-
to enterprise that, whiche thei wer greued at. A Dame more
eloquente then all the reste, and of stomacke more hardie, be-
gan in these woordes. Otherwise then right, we are iniuri-
ously handled, and that in this assemble, that now we should
be caste of and neclected: that whereas it is concluded in this
[Fol. lvij.r]counsaile, that euery manne should haue twoo wiues, more
meter it were, that one woman should haue twoo housban-
des. Straunge it was in the Senators eares soche a request,
whereupon a proofe made how that rumour rose, Papirius
was found the aucthor, who tolde before the Senate, his mo-
ther alwaies inquisitiue to knowe that, whiche he should not
tell, and thereupon he faigned that, whiche he might better
tell. It is to be supposed the Senators mused thereat, and the
matrones of Rome went home ashamed: but their secrete co-
gitacion of minde was manifest, what willingly in hart thei
wished. What greater felicitee can there bee, then in a vnitée
of life, the housebande to liue with his wife. The beastes in
their kinde, doe condemne mannes brutishe affections here-
in: there is no facte that sheweth a man or woman, more like
to beastes, then whoredome.

¶ The obieccion.

But you will saie, many calamitées happeneth in mariage?

¶ The solucion.

Fortunne herein is to bee blamed, and not mariage, if a-
ny misfortune happeneth to manne therein, the felicitée and
Eleccion in
quiet state that any man enioieth thereby. The discrete elec-
cion is therein approued, in the state it self, nothyng can bee
founde worthie reprehension, if a man will impute the bit-
ter stormes of life to mariage: whatseouer happeneth, our
owne reason maie iudge contrary. Place before thy iyes all
the affaires, and occupacions of this life, bee all tymes plea-
saunte to the housebande man, many a colde storme perceth
his bodie, and many a mightie tempeste, dooeth molest hym
and greue hym. Sommer is not the tyme, to caste his seede in
the grounde, or implowyng to occupie hymself: shall he ther-
fore leaue his housebandrie, or doeth he rather neclecte it, his
diligence therein is the more, and labour more industrious.
From whence commeth the tempeste, the stormes and bitter
seasons? From his house, from his wife, from his art and oc-
cupacion, all those thynges by violence are expelled from the
[Fol. lvij.v]aire. No state of life is able to giue riches, healthe, or securitée
Emperours. to his state. There hath been princes and Emperours, nedie,
full of infirmitées and sickenes, in daungerous state, oppres-
sed with many calamitées: was their dignitie and office, the
cause of their calamitées? No, God tempreth the state of eue-
ry one, how, and after what sorte to possesse thesame. Some
Mariage. are fulle fortunate in Mariage, if Mariage were of necessitée
the cause, then all should be onely fortunate, or onely vnfor-
tunate: then in mariage is not the cause, if in marige the ma-
ners doe disagrée, and loue is extinguished, blame thyn own
The Mari-
maners, thy choise, and thy eleccion. The Mariner that pas-
seth the daungerous Seas, and by dreadfull tempestes, and
huffyng waues is alwaies in perille, and many often tymes
The Mar-
drouned. The Marchaunt lesyng his marchaundise by ship-
wrack, shall thei impute the daunger and losse, to their wife
at home? Or doe the Mariners leaue for all these tempestes,
their arte of Nauigacion? Or the owner breake his shippe?
Or the Marchaunt proue no aduentures, because of his losse,
and many haue been of this sort drouned. No. But more ear-
Warre. nestlie thei dooe assaie theim selues thereto. Because warre
spoileth many a man of his life, doe Princes therefore, leaue
to moue armour againste the enemie, but because, who so in
the defence of his countrée, dieth manfullie, is worthelie ad-
uaunced, and in perpetuall memorie, no daunger is refused,
because euill thynges happeneth in life, is the state of good
thynges to be auoided and eschued. Were it not vnsemelie,
if housebande men, for no storme or tempeste, doe leaue their
state, their laborious and rough cōdicion of life, nor the ship-
man his arte of Nauigacion, because he seeth many drouned
venteryng thesame, and he hymself often tymes in daunger,
nor the soldiour or capitain, their perilous condicion of life,
doe leaue for daunger. Should Mariage bée lesse sette by, be-
cause alwaies riches and quietnes happeneth not.

¶ The obieccion.

The losse of a good wife and children, is a greate grefe to
[Fol. lviij.r]any man, and a cause to blame mariage.

¶ The aunswere.

The lawe of
You your self are borne to dye, thei also by death obaye
likewise Nature, this is the Lawe of Nature ones to dye,
whiche you séeme to blame. Then the death of thy wife and
childrē, is not the blame in Mariage. What is the cause that
you dye? Natures imbecillitée and weakenes, then in theim[.]
Mariage is not the cause: Nature in her firste molde hath so
framed all, wherefore doe you ascribe that to mariage, that
is founde faultée in Nature. Thei die that marie not, what
infirmitie, daunger or peril happeneth to any in mariage, as
sharpe and perilous, doe molest and torment the other. If any
manne by death, leaseth a right honeste wife, clothed with all
chastitée, demurenesse, sobrietée, and also with all singulari-
tée of vertue adorned: he hath loste a rare treasure, a iewell of
A chaste wo-
price, not in all to bee founde. Did you loue your wife, that
was so goodlie, so honeste and vertuous: there was greate
cause saie you, for her vertuous sake, God hath chosen her frō
a mortall creature, to immortalitée, with her it can not bée
better. There is no cause why you should blame mariage,
for the losse of her, or of thy children, or for the losse of thee,
she to blame mariage. If for thy owne sake, this sorowe bee,
Est seipsum amantis non amici, it is then of a self loue, to thy
self, not for her cause: for I muste aunswere as Lelius did to
Affricanus, Cum ea optime esseactū quis neget, quid est quod
nō assecuta est immortalitatem
. Who can deny saieth he, but
that with her it can not bee better? What is it that she hath
not attained. Immortalitée. She was vertuous, chaiste, so-
ber, descrete, of behauiour womanlie: for her vertues belo-
ued. Well, now she hath immortalitee and blesse, are you so-
rie thereat, that were enuious. Did you loue her liuyng, loue
her also departed, her vertuous shewed vnto vs, her immor-

¶ The obieccion.

There is a care for the wife and children, if the housband
[Fol. lviij.v]dye before theim.

¶ The aunswere.

A wretched
If thou leaue them riches, hope not that thy riches shalbe
a staie to theim, though thei bee innumerable: a wretched, a
miserable executour, wasteth and destroieth oftentymes, the
fruictes of thy trauaile, who reioyseth more of thy death, then
of thy life. Or thy childrens father in Lawe, shall spoile and
Gods pro-
spende with a merie harte, that whiche thou haste long tera-
for. Staie thy self and thyne vpon Gods prouidence,
for it hath been seen, many a riche widowe, with infinite
treasure lefte, to her children also like porcions descendyng:
afterwarde bothe wife and children, haue been brought to
miserie and beggerlie state. Otherwise, poore children com-
mitted to the prouidence of God, and vertuouslie brought vp,
and the wife in like state, yet thei haue so passed their daies,
that thei haue rose to a goodlie state. See that thy richesse bée
not iniuriouslie gotten by falshode, by liyng, by Usurie, if it
so be, then Male parta male dilabuntnr. That is this, gooddes
euill gotte, euill spente, soche riches neuer giue déepe roote
to their ofspryng. That is an euill care, by a iniurious care,
to purchase thynges and gooddes wickedlie.

Also mariage taketh awaie widowhed, and doeth repare
with a newe freshe mariage, the lacke and priuacion of the
other. She that was by death left a widowe, mariage again
hath coupled her to a newe housbande: and doeth restore that
whiche death tooke awaie. That that death dissolueth and
destroieth, mariage increaseth, augmēteth, and multiplieth.
Bee it so, but mariage is a painfull life, it forceth euery one
to trauaile, to vpholde and maintaine his state, I commende
not the idell life, neither a life occupied to no vertuous ende.
Nature moueth euery manne to loue hymself and his, so thy
care and paine be to a godlie purpose. It is commendable. It
is the duetie of euery man, as his power, witte, and industrie
is able, to emploie thereto his cogitacion. To laboure for thy
wife, whom thou loueste, and deare children, thy laboure is
[Fol. lix.r]pleasure, the ioye easeth thy labour. To behold thy self in thy
children, thei beyng vertuouslie broughte vp, it is a goodlie
The mariage
of a chaste
comfort, to liue with a chaste woman, sober and continente,
her vertues be a continuall pleasure, a passyng ioye. In ma-
riage ought to be greate deliberacion, whom thou chosest to
thy continuall compainie or felowshippe, her life paste well
knowen, her parentes and kindrede how honeste and vertu-
ous, her maners, her fame, how commendable, her counti-
The choise
of a wife.
naunce sober, a constaunt iye, and with shamefastnes beau-
tified, a mouthe vttering fewe woordes discretlie. She is not
to be liked, whō no vertuous qualitées in her educaciō, beu-
tifieth and adorneth, the goodlie qualitees sheweth, the well
framed and nurtured mynde. These thynges maie be suffi-
ciente, to shewe what excellencie is in mariage and how ne-
cessarie it is, to the procreacion and preseruaciō of mankind.

¶ A Oracion either in the defence of
a Lawe, or againste a Lawe.

M Any learned menne are in this opinion, that vpon
a Lawe alledged, a Oracion maie bee made in the
defence of it: or matter maie be suppeditated, to in-
uaigh by force of argument againste it.

Although the lawe alleged be in maner the whole cause,
bicause it doeth cōtain al the matter included in the oracion.

In this Oracion, the persone is induced to be spoken vp-
pon, vnknowne, vncertaine: wherefore it is to be placed, ra-
ther in the state and forme of consultacion, and to bée exami-
ned with iudgement.

The induccion of a Lawe, is in twoo sortes.

A confirmacion of any olde Lawe, or a confutacion.

As for example.

The Ciuill Lawe doeth well commende, bondmen to be
manumised, that is, to be made free.

The lawe is herein to be praised, that willeth the coūsail
of the parentes & frendes, to be knowne before the contracte.
[Fol. lix.v]Upon a Lawe alledged, worthelie matter maie rise, waigh-
yng the godlie ende, whereunto the Lawe was firste inuen-
ted, decreed and stablished, what profite thereof ensueth and
foloweth. What it is to vertue a mainteiner, otherwise if it
be not profitable? What moued any one to frame and ordain
soche a Lawe, as was to a common wealthe vnprofitable, to
vertue no aider, if it were a profitable Lawe and godlie, it is
as Demosthenes saieth, of God inuented, though by famous
Lawe. wise, and godlie menne, stablished and decréed. Good Lawes
tempereth to all states equitee and iustice, without fauour or
frendship, no more to the one then the other.

The order to make an Oracion by a lawe, is in this sort.
First, make a prohemiū or beginning to enter your matter.

In the seconde place, adde a contrary to that, whiche you
will entreate vpon.

Then shewe it lawful.




You maie as in Thesis, whiche was the Oracion before,
vse a contradiction or obiection: and to that make an answere
or solucion.

¶ A confutacion of that Lawe, whiche suffered
adultrie to bee punished with death, no
iudgement giuen thereupon.

The moste
rigorous and
moste cruell
lawe of Solō[.]
S Olon, who was a famous Philosopher, in the
time of Cresus king of Lidia, and a lawe giuer
to the Athenians: by whose Lawes and godlie
meanes, the Athenians were long and prospe-
rouslie gouerned. Emong many of his lawes,
this Solon set forthe againste adulterers. Fas esse deprehen-
denti mæchum in ipso adulterio interficere
: it shalbee lawfull
saieth he, who so taketh an adulterer in his beastlie facte, to
kill hym. Solon beyng a wise man, was more rigorous and
cruell, in this one Lawe, then he ought to be. A meruailous
[Fol. lx.r]matter, and almoste vncredible, so wise, so noble and worthy
a Lawe giuer, to bruste out with soche a cruell and bloodie
lawe, that without iudgement or sentence giuen, the matter
neither proued nor examined, adulterie to be death. Where-
fore, reason forceth euery manne, to Iudge and ponder with
Adulterie a
horrible vice.
hymself, that either adulterie is a moste horrible vice, moste
beastlie & pestiferous, and not mete to tary vpon the censure,
and sentence of a Iudge: or Solon was not so wise, discrete,
and a politike persone, but a rashe and fonde lawe giuer, that
in soche a terrible voice, he should burste out, as adulterie so
horrible, as not worthie to be pondered, examined and boul-
ted of in Iudgemente. The Athenians receiued that Lawe,
thei did also obaie his other lawes. Their dominions there-
by in felicitée was gouerned: there was no populous nom-
ber of adulterers, to let that Lawe, thei liued moste godlie, a
straunge worlde, a rare moderacion of that age and people.
Plato aga-
inste adultrie
made a lawe.
Plato the godlie Philosopher, who lefte in his woorkes, and
monumentes of learnyng, greate wisedome and also godlie
Lawes in his bookes: intiteled vpon Lawes, and gouerne-
ment of a common wealth, did not passe by in silence, to giue
and ordain a Lawe against adulterie. Who also as it semed
Iudged adulterie as moste horrible and detestable, in his .ix.
booke de Legibus. This is the Lawe. Adulteram deprehen-
sam impune occidi a viro posse.
The adultrous woman saith
he, taken in the crime, her housbande maie without daunger
of death, or feare of punishement slea her. A straunge matter
twoo so noble, so famous for wisedome, to make adulterie
present death, no Iudgement or sentence of Magistrate, pro-
cedyng to examine and iudge, vpon the state of the cause. A
man maie saie, O goodlie age, and tyme in vertue tempered,
eche state as seemeth brideled and kepte vnder, and farre frō
voluptuousnes remoued. There was no stewes or Baudes
houses, where soche Lawes and Lawmakers were. Sobrie-
tée was in maides, and chastitée harboured in matrones and
wedded wiues, a harte inuiolable to honeste conuersacion.
[Fol. lx.v]Where adulterie is cutte of, there many detestable vices,
Catos sen-
tence vpon
and execrable purposes are remoued. Cato the sage Peere of
Rome, indued with like seueritée, did fauour that lawe and
highlie extolled it. Although adulterie bee a detestable vice
horrible, yea, although it be worthie death, better it were by
iudgemente, and the sentence of the Magistrate, the faute to
Lawe. bee determined: then at the will of euery manne, as a Lawe
by death to bee ended, the common wealthe shalbee in more
quiet state, when the horrible factes of wicked menne, by the
The Iudge,
a liuely lawe.
Lawe made worthie of deathe: are neuerthelesse by a liuelie
Lawe, whiche is the Iudge, pronounced and condemned, ac-
cordyng to the Lawe. Els many mischiues might rise in all
kyngdomes and common wealthes, vnder a colour of lawe,
many a honeste persone murthered: and many a murtherer,
by cloke of a Lawe, from daunger saued. In Rome somtime
a Lawe there was ordained againste adulterie, whiche was
called Lex Iulia, this Lawe Octauius Augustus set foorthe.
The Lawe was thus, Gladio iussit animaduerti in adulteros[.]
The lawe commaunded adulterers to be hedded. The chro-
nicles of aunciente tymes herein doe shew, and the decrées of
auncient elders also, how horrible a thing adulterie is, when
thei punishe it with death. Who knoweth not emōg the Is-
raelites, and in the olde lawe thei wer stoned to death. Well
as Magistrates are in common wealthes remoued, or as ti-
mes chaunge, lawes also are chaunged and dissolued: and as
the Prouerbe is, Lex vt Regio, the Lawes are accordyng to
the Region. Afterwarde Ualerius Publicola, a man ascen-
dyng to high nobilitée of honour, and fame emong, the Ro-
maines gaue this Lawe. Qua neminem licebat indicta causa
By this lawe it was not lefull, any manne to be put
A godly law. to death, their cause not examined in Iudgemente, this was
a goodlie Lawe. Then afterwarde, Lawe giuers rose in the
common wealth, that with more facilitee tolerated that vice,
then wickednesse flowed, adulterie not punished by death.
And sence that, the Romaine Empire, wrapped and snared
[Fol. lxj.r]with soche mischiues hath decaied, in fame, nobilitée and ver-
tue. Many a parte of their dominion plagued, deuoured, and
The good
destroied. The good and godlie menne, nede not to feare any
Lawe godlie, their life beyng in vertue and godlines nurtu-
red. The terrible sentence of a lawe, forceth the good and god-
lie, to perseuere and continue in godlines. The terrible sen-
Lawe. tence of a Lawe, cutteth of the wicked enterprises of pestife-
rous menne. Uice where lawe is not to correcte, will inure it
Uice as a
lawe by cu-
self by custome as a Lawe, or borne and tolerated againste a
Lawe. Therefore as adulterie without Iudgemente, to bee
punished worthie of death is vngodlie: so it ought not to bee
passed ouer, or tolerated in any Region or common wealth,
as no lawe seuerely to punishe thesame.

¶ The contrarie.

A L other lawes doe differ, from that rigorous lawe
of Solon and Plato herein, yea, and though thei
be vices horrible, yet thei ar not determined, with
out the sentēce of the Magistrate and Iudge. But
this cruell Lawe of Solon, doeth repugne all lawes, stabli-
The lawe v-
niuersall and
equall to all
shed in all Citees and common wealthes. And sithe the lawe
is of hymself vniuersall, with equitée, giuing and tempering
to all states. Fonde muste that Lawe bee of Solon, whiche
rashely, without consideracion of iudgement doeth procede,
no man ought in his own cause, to be his own iudge or Ma-
gistrate. This is argument sufficient to confounde the lawe
of Solon. All Lawes are repugnaunte to that, because with
Iudgement thei procede against vices moste pestiferous. In
Thefte. common wealthes Theft is by lawe, pronounced worthie of
death, whereupon also the Magistrate and Iudge, determi-
neth the matter, and heareth of bothe the action of the case,
before he condempneth, so in all other mischiues.

But you maie saie, many mischiues riseth of adulterie.

Although it so be, the Iudge determineth vpon Murder,
whiche is in like sort horrible, soche also as dooe séeke to caste
into perill their countrée, and by treason to destroie thesame,
[Fol. lxj.v]Iudgemente proceadeth by determinacion of the Lawe and
Iudge. And so in all other wicked factes, and mischiuous en-
terprises, the Iudgement in euery cause procedeth, as Lawe
The Iudge
a liuely lawe.
and right willeth, from the mouthe of the Iudge, he beyng a
liuelie Lawe, to the Lawe written. The cruell Lawe of So-
lon, is like to the phantasie and wille of a tyraunte, who, as
phantasie and will leadeth, murdereth at his pleasure, whose
will is alwaies a sufficient Lawe to hymself, as who should
The will of a
tyraunte his
owne lawe.
saie, so I wille, so I commaunde, my wille shall stande for a
Lawe: but godlie lawes doe iustlie, accordyng to reason and
vertue, tempereth the cause of euery man. No godlie Lawe,
maketh the accuser his owne Iudge.

¶ Lawfull.

Lawes were
made for two
W Ho so by Lawe is iudged, and the offence proued,
there is no excuse in the malefactour, nor suspicion
seing that, accordyng to lawe, the fact is punished,
and as Demosthenes saieth, twoo thynges moued
the wise Elders to make Lawes, that the wicked should bee
hindered, and cutte of from their purpose, and that good men
seyng by a lawe, the actes of pestiferous men kepte vnder, by
the terrour of them, are afraied to commit the like facte. This
was euen accordyng to lawe. The terrible sentence of a law
executed, vpon moste wicked persones, doe kepe vnder many
a mischiuous enterprise, whiche through the dolefull and la-
mentable ende of the wicked, doe driue and force all other to
all godlines.

¶ Iuste.

T He accuser by Lawe and Iudge, is able to defende
hymself, whē his cause is ended accordyng to law.
Uertue thereby vpholded, when by order of lawe,
vice is condempned. The malifactour hath no ex-
cuse, all staie and colour remoued, the accuser by iuste Lawe
pleateth, when the law is thereby supported and saued. And
herein a greate parte of Iustice is placed, when the fauour of
the Iudge or frendship, is onely on the cause, the persone nec-
[Fol. lxij.r]lected, that is Iustice, to giue to euery one his owne.

¶ Profitable.

I T must be profitable to the whole bodie of the com-
mon wealthe, when by the Iustice of godlie lawes,
vertue is in high price aduaunced, vice by the open
sentence, and manifeste profe conuicted, the malefa-
ctour shall be knowen, the sincere and godlie deliuered, and
from tyme to tyme maintained. Lawes as thei be vniuersall
so thei openlie ought to giue sentence.

¶ Possible.

T Hen without lawe to procede, and iudgemente of
the Magistrate, as Solon did in this lawe, it were
not possible, any common wealthe to florishe ther-
by. Therefore in Iudgemente ought the cause of
euery one to be pleated and examined, that thereby all suspi-
cion, & greuous enormitées, maie be put of. Uice is not there-
fore tolerated, because for a tyme, Iudgemente ceaseth, but
hereupon vices are more depely rooted out, all people know-
yng the determinacion of the lawe, and the manifest sentēce
of the Iudge heard. A terrour ensueth to al malefactours and
pestiferous men, good men are incensed to all godlines, whē
vice by Lawe is condempned, cutte of, and destroied. Good
menne by Lawe and aucthoritée, vpholded and maintained.

The state of
good lawes.
This is the state of good lawes, by order to procede, the
cause in Iudgemente examined, the facte proued,
vertue in any persone vpholded, vice in all
caste doune and defaced, so there is
good Lawe, as Demosthenes
saieth, sincere Iudge,
and sentence

Printer Errors

Transcriber's Note: The following is a list of printer errors in the original.

Fol. j.rfaith hefaith be
Fol. ij.rPoloponesiansPeloponesians
Fol. ij.roracions, whenoracion, when
Fol. v.rPerthesiusParthesius
Fol. vj.vRomai-Romains [or Romaines]
Fol. vij.rvalianntesvaliauntes
Fol. vij.rcommo wealthcommō wealth
Fol. ix.ruotnot
Fol. ix.rstate orstate of
Fol. ix.vcomparsoncomparison
Fol. x.raboundauuteaboundaunte
Fol. x.voneieonelie
Fol. xj.rfanourfauour
Fol. xiiij.rvengaucevengaūce
Fol. xiiij.vFencheFrenche
Fol. xv.rBristainesBritaines
Fol. xvj.rporfiteprofite
Fol. xvj.vlearnnglearning [or learnyng]
Fol. xvij.ris waswas
Fol. xvij.rPholosopherPhilosopher
Fol. xvij.vfaundacionfoundacion
Fol. xviij.vaudand
Fol. xviij.vCatonaCrotona
Fol. xix.rcelebraiedcelebrated
Fol. xx.vintteledintiteled
Fol. xxj.rgouermētgouernmēt
Fol. xxij.vPolitciaPolitia
Fol. xxiiij.vRhetotikeRhetorike
Fol. xxiiij.vexposionexposicion
Fol. xxiiij.vIncrediblieIncredible
Fol. xxv.rThe feigneThei feigne
Fol. xxvij.rthe thethe
Fol. xxvij.rmoderacioumoderacion
Fol. xxviij.vProssiblePossible
Fol. xxviij.vRhetotikeRhetorike
Fol. xxix.rFol. xxxj.Fol. xxix.
Fol. xxix.vHistoriogriphersHistoriographers
Fol. xxxj.rFol. xxxiij.Fol. xxxj.
Fol. xxxj.rlinethliueth
Fol. xxxj.vouerthoweouerthrowe
Fol. xxxj.vEpamniundasEpaminundas
Fol. xxxij.rEpameunndasEpaminundas
Fol. xxxiij.rZopryusZopyrus
Fol. xxxiiij.ror Godof God
Fol. xxxiiij.rwekednedwekened
Fol. xxxv.rdestetabledetestable
Fol. xxxv.vTheodosiuusTheodosius
Fol. xxxv.vprouulgatepromulgate
Fol. xxxv.vhanehaue
Fol. xxxvj.rgoddesgoodes [or gooddes]
Fol. xxxvj.rlo liueto liue
Fol. xxxvj.rthe:mtheim
Fol. xxxvij.rFol. xxxix.Fol. xxxvij.
Fol. xxxvij.vdangerous gauedangerous game
Fol. xxxviij.vcut afcut of
Fol. xxxviij.vgouernuursgouernours
Fol. xxxix.rFol. xxxvij.Fol. xxxix.
Fol. xxxix.rHis OracionTHis Oracion
Fol. xxxix.vgoueruoursgouernours
Fol. xl.vTraiannsTraianus
Fol. xlij.rnobilitée) fornobilitée (for
Fol. xliij.rvalianntlyvaliauntly
Fol. xliiij.vanncestoursauncestours
Fol. xlviij.rconutréecountrée
Fol. liiij.vomnipoteucieomnipotencie
Fol. lvj.rall allall
Fol. lvij.rwhatseouerwhatsoeuer
Fol. lviij.vterauailedtrauailed
Fol. lviij.vdilabuntnrdilabuntur

The original contains the following additional printer errors:

Fol. j.rDecorative capital “N” reversed
Fol. xxxiij.rLast sentence repeated
Fol. xxxviij.vSection heading repeated
Fol. liij.rFirst word repeats last word on previous page
Fol. liiij.rRemainder of last sentence missing?

The following do not appear to be printer errors, as they are consistently used in the original: “thesame” for “the same”; “shalbe” for “shall be”; the use of “a” instead of “an” before a noun beginning with a vowel; the combination of “the” and a word beginning with “e” into a single word, as in “theight” for “the eight.”

End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of A booke called the Foundacion of
Rhetorike, by Richard Rainolde


***** This file should be named 26056-h.htm or *****
This and all associated files of various formats will be found in:

Produced by Greg Lindahl, Linda Cantoni, and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at

Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions
will be renamed.

Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no
one owns a United States copyright in these works, so the Foundation
(and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without
permission and without paying copyright royalties.  Special rules,
set forth in the General Terms of Use part of this license, apply to
copying and distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works to
protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm concept and trademark.  Project
Gutenberg is a registered trademark, and may not be used if you
charge for the eBooks, unless you receive specific permission.  If you
do not charge anything for copies of this eBook, complying with the
rules is very easy.  You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose
such as creation of derivative works, reports, performances and
research.  They may be modified and printed and given away--you may do
practically ANYTHING with public domain eBooks.  Redistribution is
subject to the trademark license, especially commercial



To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free
distribution of electronic works, by using or distributing this work
(or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project
Gutenberg"), you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full Project
Gutenberg-tm License (available with this file or online at

Section 1.  General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works

1.A.  By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work, you indicate that you have read, understand, agree to
and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property
(trademark/copyright) agreement.  If you do not agree to abide by all
the terms of this agreement, you must cease using and return or destroy
all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your possession.
If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound by the
terms of this agreement, you may obtain a refund from the person or
entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph 1.E.8.

1.B.  "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark.  It may only be
used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who
agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement.  There are a few
things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
even without complying with the full terms of this agreement.  See
paragraph 1.C below.  There are a lot of things you can do with Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this agreement
and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works.  See paragraph 1.E below.

1.C.  The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the Foundation"
or PGLAF), owns a compilation copyright in the collection of Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works.  Nearly all the individual works in the
collection are in the public domain in the United States.  If an
individual work is in the public domain in the United States and you are
located in the United States, we do not claim a right to prevent you from
copying, distributing, performing, displaying or creating derivative
works based on the work as long as all references to Project Gutenberg
are removed.  Of course, we hope that you will support the Project
Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting free access to electronic works by
freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm works in compliance with the terms of
this agreement for keeping the Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with
the work.  You can easily comply with the terms of this agreement by
keeping this work in the same format with its attached full Project
Gutenberg-tm License when you share it without charge with others.

1.D.  The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern
what you can do with this work.  Copyright laws in most countries are in
a constant state of change.  If you are outside the United States, check
the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this agreement
before downloading, copying, displaying, performing, distributing or
creating derivative works based on this work or any other Project
Gutenberg-tm work.  The Foundation makes no representations concerning
the copyright status of any work in any country outside the United

1.E.  Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg:

1.E.1.  The following sentence, with active links to, or other immediate
access to, the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear prominently
whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work on which the
phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears, or with which the phrase "Project
Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed, displayed, performed, viewed,
copied or distributed:

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

1.E.2.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is derived
from the public domain (does not contain a notice indicating that it is
posted with permission of the copyright holder), the work can be copied
and distributed to anyone in the United States without paying any fees
or charges.  If you are redistributing or providing access to a work
with the phrase "Project Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the
work, you must comply either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E.1
through 1.E.7 or obtain permission for the use of the work and the
Project Gutenberg-tm trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.8 or

1.E.3.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted
with the permission of the copyright holder, your use and distribution
must comply with both paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 and any additional
terms imposed by the copyright holder.  Additional terms will be linked
to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works posted with the
permission of the copyright holder found at the beginning of this work.

1.E.4.  Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License terms from this work, or any files containing a part of this
work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm.

1.E.5.  Do not copy, display, perform, distribute or redistribute this
electronic work, or any part of this electronic work, without
prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 with
active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project
Gutenberg-tm License.

1.E.6.  You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary,
compressed, marked up, nonproprietary or proprietary form, including any
word processing or hypertext form.  However, if you provide access to or
distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format other than
"Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official version
posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site (,
you must, at no additional cost, fee or expense to the user, provide a
copy, a means of exporting a copy, or a means of obtaining a copy upon
request, of the work in its original "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other
form.  Any alternate format must include the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License as specified in paragraph 1.E.1.

1.E.7.  Do not charge a fee for access to, viewing, displaying,
performing, copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works
unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.

1.E.8.  You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing
access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works provided

- You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from
     the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method
     you already use to calculate your applicable taxes.  The fee is
     owed to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, but he
     has agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the
     Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.  Royalty payments
     must be paid within 60 days following each date on which you
     prepare (or are legally required to prepare) your periodic tax
     returns.  Royalty payments should be clearly marked as such and
     sent to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the
     address specified in Section 4, "Information about donations to
     the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation."

- You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies
     you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he
     does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm
     License.  You must require such a user to return or
     destroy all copies of the works possessed in a physical medium
     and discontinue all use of and all access to other copies of
     Project Gutenberg-tm works.

- You provide, in accordance with paragraph 1.F.3, a full refund of any
     money paid for a work or a replacement copy, if a defect in the
     electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days
     of receipt of the work.

- You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free
     distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works.

1.E.9.  If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work or group of works on different terms than are set
forth in this agreement, you must obtain permission in writing from
both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and Michael
Hart, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark.  Contact the
Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below.


1.F.1.  Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable
effort to identify, do copyright research on, transcribe and proofread
public domain works in creating the Project Gutenberg-tm
collection.  Despite these efforts, Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works, and the medium on which they may be stored, may contain
"Defects," such as, but not limited to, incomplete, inaccurate or
corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other intellectual
property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or other medium, a
computer virus, or computer codes that damage or cannot be read by
your equipment.

of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1.F.3, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the owner of the Project
Gutenberg-tm trademark, and any other party distributing a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement, disclaim all
liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal

defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it, you can
receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a
written explanation to the person you received the work from.  If you
received the work on a physical medium, you must return the medium with
your written explanation.  The person or entity that provided you with
the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in lieu of a
refund.  If you received the work electronically, the person or entity
providing it to you may choose to give you a second opportunity to
receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund.  If the second copy
is also defective, you may demand a refund in writing without further
opportunities to fix the problem.

1.F.4.  Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth
in paragraph 1.F.3, this work is provided to you 'AS-IS' WITH NO OTHER

1.F.5.  Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied
warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of damages.
If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement violates the
law of the state applicable to this agreement, the agreement shall be
interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or limitation permitted by
the applicable state law.  The invalidity or unenforceability of any
provision of this agreement shall not void the remaining provisions.

1.F.6.  INDEMNITY - You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation, the
trademark owner, any agent or employee of the Foundation, anyone
providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in accordance
with this agreement, and any volunteers associated with the production,
promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works,
harmless from all liability, costs and expenses, including legal fees,
that arise directly or indirectly from any of the following which you do
or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this or any Project Gutenberg-tm
work, (b) alteration, modification, or additions or deletions to any
Project Gutenberg-tm work, and (c) any Defect you cause.

Section  2.  Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm

Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of
electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of computers
including obsolete, old, middle-aged and new computers.  It exists
because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations from
people in all walks of life.

Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the
assistance they need, is critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's
goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will
remain freely available for generations to come.  In 2001, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure
and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future generations.
To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation
and how your efforts and donations can help, see Sections 3 and 4
and the Foundation web page at

Section 3.  Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive

The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit
501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the
state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal
Revenue Service.  The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification
number is 64-6221541.  Its 501(c)(3) letter is posted at  Contributions to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent
permitted by U.S. federal laws and your state's laws.

The Foundation's principal office is located at 4557 Melan Dr. S.
Fairbanks, AK, 99712., but its volunteers and employees are scattered
throughout numerous locations.  Its business office is located at
809 North 1500 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 596-1887, email  Email contact links and up to date contact
information can be found at the Foundation's web site and official
page at

For additional contact information:
     Dr. Gregory B. Newby
     Chief Executive and Director

Section 4.  Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation

Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide
spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of
increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be
freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest
array of equipment including outdated equipment.  Many small donations
($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt
status with the IRS.

The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating
charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United
States.  Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a
considerable effort, much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up
with these requirements.  We do not solicit donations in locations
where we have not received written confirmation of compliance.  To
SEND DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any
particular state visit

While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we
have not met the solicitation requirements, we know of no prohibition
against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who
approach us with offers to donate.

International donations are gratefully accepted, but we cannot make
any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from
outside the United States.  U.S. laws alone swamp our small staff.

Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation
methods and addresses.  Donations are accepted in a number of other
ways including including checks, online payments and credit card
donations.  To donate, please visit:

Section 5.  General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic

Professor Michael S. Hart was the originator of the Project Gutenberg-tm
concept of a library of electronic works that could be freely shared
with anyone.  For thirty years, he produced and distributed Project
Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of volunteer support.

Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed
editions, all of which are confirmed as Public Domain in the U.S.
unless a copyright notice is included.  Thus, we do not necessarily
keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper edition.

Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search facility:

This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm,
including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation, how to help produce our new eBooks, and how to
subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.