The Project Gutenberg EBook of Shepp's Photographs of the World, by 
James W. Shepp and Daniel B. Shepp

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Title: Shepp's Photographs of the World

Author: James W. Shepp
        Daniel B. Shepp

Release Date: July 12, 2008 [EBook #26037]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


Produced by Robert J. Hall

Shepp's Photographs of the World.


Panoramic Views of Cities—Street Scenes—Public Buildings—Cathedrals—Mosques—Churches— Temples—Observatories—Castles—Palaces—Homes of Noted People—Private Apartments of Presidents, Queens, Kings, Emperors, Monarchs and Rulers—Harems—Universities— Colleges—Active Volcanoes—Mountain Scenery—Lake Scenery—Lochs—Fjords—Falls—River Scenery— Cañons—Geysers—Bridges—Parks— Fountains—Theatres—Obelisks—Towers— Memorials—Tombs—Caves—Cemeteries—Pyramids— Ruins of Castles—Ruins of Temples—Ruins of Ancient Cities—Tropical Scenery—Towns— Villages—Huts,

Together with a large array of instantaneous photographs, showing the every-day life of the people in the various countries of the world.


Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, North America, South America and the Pacific Islands,


The World as it Exists To-Day.

Also, direct copies of all the original famous paintings and statuary, by the world's old masters and modern artists, taken from the leading galleries, including the


Forming the largest and most valuable collection of works of art in the world.

Carefully Arranged and Appropriately Explained by




No. 705 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Penna.


In all ages, men have been eager to tell and to hear new things; and before books were printed, travellers wandered abroad, bringing home wonderful stories of unknown lands.

In the construction of this publication, the object is not to tell stories or relate experiences, but to exhibit, by carefully taken photographs, the great sights of the world as they exist to-day.

The art of teaching with pictures is very old. The ancient Egyptians used emblems and designs to record the various incidents of their history, traces of which are still found on obelisks and ruined temples.

Wood illustrations were also introduced many years ago; and as time rolled on, marked improvements were made in the art of wood-engraving. Notwithstanding the fact that they have not the power of truly representing the original objects they intend to portray, they are still largely used for illustrating printed books and papers.

Over a century ago, the art of photography was made known to the world by Scheele, a Swedish chemist; since then, many improvements have been made in this art, until now, by the photo-electro process, an exact photograph can be transferred on a copper plate, without losing a single line or shade, and from this plate, photographs can be printed, such as appear in this book.

Owing to the increasing popularity of the graphic and pictorial methods of imparting information, the photographic camera was employed to secure photographs of the greatest things of the world as seen to-day, both for instruction and entertainment.

We forget knowledge acquired by common conversation, and descriptions of places and things; but when we observe them, and their forms are conveyed to our minds through the medium of our eyes, they are indelibly impressed upon the memory.

Page 4 The object, then, of this Publication is to present photographs of all the great sights of the world, from every corner of the globe, carefully reproducing them by the photo-electro process, and adding a few lines of explanation to every picture, so that any one can comprehend each subject.

To make this collection, every country was carefully ransacked, starting in Ireland, with the famous Blarney Castle and Lakes of Killarney in the south, and extending to the Giant's Causeway in the north, said by an old legend to have been built by giants to form a road across the channel to Scotland.

Passing through Scotland, we photographed its hills, castles, lochs, bridges and cities. Throughout Wales and England, we represent their busy seaport and manufacturing towns; the home of Shakespeare, the Bard of Avon; Windsor Castle, far-famed for its beauty and battlements; Greenwich Observatory, from which the longitude of the world is computed; Hampton Court, a relic of royalty; and London, the metropolis of the world, with over six million people, its crowded streets, imperial buildings, historic abbeys, famous towers and monuments.

The Netherlands and Denmark are represented by the dykes and windmills, Copenhagen, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Antwerp, Brussels, the battlefield of Waterloo; Russia, the land of the Czar, by Moscow, The Kremlin; St. Petersburg, the Winter Palace. Thence our photographers travelled across the steppes to Lapland, Finland, Poland, and over the tundras to sterile Siberia, inflicting its cruel tortures on unhappy exiled prisoners.

Germany, that romantic country of northern Europe, affords Berlin; Potsdam, its Royal Palaces; Dresden and its Picture Galleries; Frankfort-on-the-Main, the former home of Luther, the reformer, and Rothschild, the financial king of the world; the picturesque Rhine, lined with its historic castles.

France furnishes for our collection Paris, the proudest city of the whole world, ever gay, its pretty boulevards, monuments, towers, bridges, historic buildings, the Louvre and Luxembourg Galleries, and their treasures of painting and sculptures; Versailles, its royal palaces, the largest in the world; the palace at Fontainbleau, buried in the midst of that imperial forest, the home where Napoleon ruled and abdicated; the cities of the interior and those of the ever-delightful Riveria, from Marseilles to Monte Carlo, the latter both lovely, hideous, serene, sensational, beautiful and damnable.

Page 5 Through Spain and Portugal, every object of interest was photographed, from the wild and thrilling scenery of the Pyrenees in the north to that bold headland rock of Gibraltar in the south, and from the calm Mediterranean in the east to the turbulent waters of the Atlantic on the west.

Of Switzerland, we exhibit its snow-capped peaks of perpetual ice and snow; Mont Blanc, Matterhorn and Jungfrau; its placid lakes; mountain passes, like shelves cut in rock; its bridges of ice and variety of wild scenery that is seen nowhere but in Switzerland.

Through sunny Italy we gathered photographs from lakes Lugano, Maggiore and Como with perpetual spring, in the north, to the fiery crater of Mount Vesuvius in the south; Venice, the "Queen of the Adriatic;" Genoa, the home of Columbus; Pisa, its leaning tower; Florence, the "flower of cities," with its galleries of statues and paintings that the wealth of nations could not purchase; and Rome, that mighty city by the Tiber, that once ruled the world, and is still the abode of the Pope; St. Peters and its ruins; yet now calm, peaceful and powerless.

Austria, where the Catholic bows his head to every shrine, favored us with its sublime mountain scenery; the picturesque Tyrol; the blue Danube, famous in history and song; and Vienna, the home of the Emperor and the former abode of Maria Theresa, strangely fascinating and unlike any other city in the whole world. Turkey, the land of the Sultan and the followers of Mahomet, with its strange people and curious habits, is represented by Constantinople, with its mosques and minarets, from the top of which the Mussulman sings out his daily calls for prayer, Ali! Ali!—there is but one God, and Mahomet is his prophet; its streets, gates and squares; the Bosphorus and Golden Horn.

Classic Greece, once the centre of art and learning, adorns our collection with Athens, the Acropolis and Parthenon, the latter almost completely and shamefully bereft of those famous marbles, chiseled by Phidias nearly five hundred years before Christ.

In ancient Egypt we photographed the Suez Canal; Alexandria, the former city of Cleopatra; Cairo, the home of the Khedive and his harems; the Sphynx and Pyramids, the latter the tombs of the selected Ptolemies; the river Nile, fed by the melting snows from the mountains of the Moon, and pouring its waters over this ancient valley with a regularity as though the ruined temples on its banks give it command.

Page 6 Palestine, the Holy Land, made famous in the history of the Christian Church, added Jeruselem, the City of David; Bethlehem, the cradle of Christ; Jordan, where He was baptized; the Sea of Galilee, on whose shores He preached to the multitude; Nazareth, from which He was called a Nazarene; Gethsemane, where He suffered; Calvary, where He was crucified.

Asia furnished Mecca, that eternal city to which Mahomet's disciples make their weary pilgrimages; Hindoostan, from Bombay to Calcutta; the grottos of Illora; the caverns of Salcette; the Hindoo priests, chanting the verses of the Vedas; the ruins of the city of the great Bali, the domes of the pagodas; glacier views, snow bridges, rattan bridges in the Himalayas; the sacred caves of Amurnath, to which pilgrimages are made by the Hindoos; Srinugurr and its floating gardens; curious bridges; bazaars for the sale of the world-renowned Cashmere shawls, the winding river Jheulm, with its many curves, suggesting the pattern or design for these famous wraps; Darjeeling and Mussorie, celebrated hill sanitariums, in the heart of the Himalayas, much frequented by tourists during summer; Melapore, where St. Thomas was martyred and where Christ, perhaps, lived during His absence from Judea, drawing from the books of the Brahmins, the most perfect precepts of His divine teachings; the subterranean caverns of Candy; the splendor of the Valley of Rubies; Adam's Peak; the footmark of Buddha; the fairy-like view of the Straits of Sunda.

Our photographers also traversed the Celestial Empire, South America, Central America, Mexico, Greenland, Iceland, Alaska, Canada and the United States, from the Golden Gate in the west to the Rocky Coast of New England in the east, and from the Lake Cities in the north to the Cotton States in the south. Through every country and every clime, north, south, east and west, wherever was located a point of interest, an historic castle, a famous monument, a grand cathedral, a world's wonder, a great city, a crowded avenue, an imperial building, a pretty picture, an exquisite statue, a picturesque river, an inspiring grandeur of nature, a curious cavern, a lofty peak, a deep valley, a strange people, the same was reflected through the camera and added to this book.

The result of this collection entailed therefore the expenditure of a vast amount of money and labor, as may be supposed; and the only wish of the publishers is, that it may afford pleasure and instruction to those that view the result of their labors.



Blarney Castle
Lakes of Killarney
Dublin (Instantaneous)
Giant's Causeway


Municipal Buildings, Glasgow
Loch Lomond
Forth Bridge
Balmoral Castle
Clamshell Cave, Island of Staffa
Edinburgh (Instantaneous)


Liverpool (Instantaneous)
Lime Street, Liverpool (Instantaneous)
Manchester (Instantaneous)
Warwick Castle, Warwick
Shakespeare's House, Stratford-on-Avon
Osborne House, Isle of Wight
Hampton Court Palace, Hampton Court
Greenwich Observatory, Greenwich

Windsor Castle.

Windsor Castle
Green Drawing Room


Midland Grand Hotel and St. Pancras Station
The Strand (Instantaneous)
Cheapside (Instantaneous)
St. Paul's Cathedral
The Bank of England (Instantaneous)
Tower of London
London Bridge (Instantaneous)
Westminster Abbey
Houses of Parliament
Trafalgar Square
Buckingham Palace
Rotten Row (Instantaneous)
Albert Memorial




Panoramic View of Brussels
Palace of the King
Bourse (Instantaneous)
City Hall
Cathedral of Ste. Gudule
The Forbidden Book. Painting, Ooms


Amsterdam (Instantaneous)


Naerdfjord, Gudvnagen
North Cape


Winter Palace, St. Petersburg


The Cathedral, Cologne
Martin Luther's House, Frankfort-on-the-Main
Ariadne on the Panther, Statuary, Dannecker
University Building, Leipsic


Royal Palace
Berlin, Unter den Linden
Statue of Frederick the Great
The Brandenburg Gate
Monument of Victory


The Historic Windmill

Dresden Gallery.

Madonna di San Sisto, Painting, Raphael
Magdalene, Painting, Battoni



Bird's-eye View of Paris
Place de la Concorde (Instantaneous)
Madeleine (Instantaneous)
Opera House (Instantaneous)
Great Boulevards
July Column
Statue of the Republic
Vendome Column
Royal Palace
Hotel de Ville
Cathedral of Notre Dame
Palace of Justice
Arc of Triumph
Dome des Invalides
Tomb of Napoleon
Eiffel Tower
Louvre Buildings

Louvre Gallery.

Venus de Milo, Statuary, Unknown
Tomb of Phillippe Pot, Statuary, Renaissance
Peacemaker of the Village, Painting, Greuze

Luxembourg Gallery.

The Last Veil, Statuary, Bouret
Arrest in the Village, Painting, Salmson
A Mother, Statuary, Lenoir
Joan of Arc, Statuary, Chapu
Paying the Reapers, Painting, Lhermitte
Ignorance, Painting, Paton


Royal Palace
Royal Carriage

Versailles Gallery.

Last Victims of the Reign of Terror, Painting, Muller
Napoleon at Austerlitz, Painting, Vernet
Napoleon, Painting, Gosse


Royal Palace
Throne Room
Apartment of Tapestries
Apartment of Mme. de Maintenon


Page 9 Monte Carlo
Gaming Hall, Monte Carlo


Bull Fight, Seville (Instantaneous)




Kirchenfeld Bridge, Berne
Clock Tower, Berne
Peasant Woman
Interlaken and the Jungfrau
A Thousand Foot Chasm
Brunig Pass
Simplon's Pass
Zermatt and the Matterhorn
Chamounix and Mont Blanc
St. Gotthard Railway



Panorama of Vienna
Hotel Metropole
Church of St. Stephen
Theseus, Statuary, Canova



Galata Bridge (Instantaneous)
Mosque of St. Sophia
Interior of the Mosque of St. Sophia
Street Scene (Instantaneous)
Mosque of Ahmed
Turkish Lady
Street Merchants
Sultan's Harem


Acropolis, Athens
Parthenon, Athens



Grand Cathedral and Square
Corso Venezia


Exposition Buildings
Duke Ferdinand of Genoa


General View of Genoa
Statue of Columbus


Leaning Tower


Palace of the Doges
Grand Canal
Cathedral of St. Mark
Street Scene in Venice
The Rialto (Instantaneous)

Page 10 Florence.

The Cathedral
Vecchio Bridge
Loggia dei Lanzi
Uffizi Buildings

Loggia Dei Lanzi.

Rape of Polyxena, Statuary, Fedi

Uffizi Gallery.

Wild Boar, Bronze
The Grinder, Statuary, 16th Century


Appian Way and Tomb of Cecilia Metella
Pyramid of Cestius and St. Paul Gate
Roman Forum
Forum of Trajan
Baths of Caracalla
Interior of Colosseum
Bridge of St. Angelo and Tomb of Hadrian
St. Peter's and Vatican
Interior of St. Peter's
Romulus and Remus

Vatican Gallery.

Transfiguration, Painting, Raphael
La Ballerina, Statuary, Canova
Laocoonte, Statuary


Toledo Street (Instantaneous)

Mount Vesuvius.



Street of Tombs
Civil Forum

Island of Capri.

General View and Landing

Island of Ischia.




Place of Mehemet Ali


Mosque of Mohammed 'Ali
Street Scene
Palace of Gezireh

On Camel-Back
Pyramids of Gizeh
Corner View of the Great Pyramid
The Sphynx
In Central Africa

Suez Canal.

Landing on Suez Canal (Instantaneous)
Post Office, Suez


Yaffa or Jaffa


General View of Jerusalem
Wailing Place of the Jews
Street Scene

Garden of Gethsemane
Dead Sea
Jacob's Well


Page 11 Great Mosque, Damascus


Kalbadevie Road, Bombay
Tropical Scenery
Heathen Temple
Royal Observatory


Wong Tai Ken


Typical Scene


Totem Poles


Parliament Buildings


San Francisco.

Golden Gate
Market Street, San Francisco

Yosemite Valley.

General View
Glacier Point
Mirror Lake
Big Tree

Salt Lake City.

Great Mormon Temple

Yellowstone National Park.

Pulpit Terrace
Obsidian Cliff
Mammoth Paint Pots
Old Faithful Geyser
Yellowstone Lake and Hot Springs
Yellowstone Falls
Grand Cañon of the Yellowstone


Animas Cañon
Grand Cañon of the Arkansas River
Mountain of the Holy Cross
Manitou and Pike's Peak
Summit of Pike's Peak
Gateway to the Garden of the Gods
Cathedral Spires

Life in Oklahoma
Indian Wigwam, Indian Territory
State Street, Chicago, Ill.
Niagara Falls, N. Y.
Bunker Hill Monument, Boston, Mass.

New York.

Park Row
Brooklyn Bridge
Elevated Railroad
Statue of Liberty


Chestnut Street
Market Street

St. Augustine, Fla.

Fort San Marco
Ponce de Leon

Washington, D. C.

The Capitol
White House

Fig. 1
BLARNEY CASTLE, Ireland.—Here are observed the ruins of a famous old fortress, visited by thousands of tourists every year, on account of a tradition which has been attached for centuries to one of the stones used in building the castle. Its walls are 120 feet high and 18 feet thick; but it is principally noted for the "Blarney Stone," which is said to be endowed with the property of communicating to those who kiss its polished surface, the gift of gentle, insinuating speech. The triangular stone is 20 feet from the top, and contains this inscription: Cormack MacCarthy, "Fortis me fieri fecit A. D. 1446."
Fig. 2
LAKES OF KILLARNEY, Ireland.—These are three connected lakes, near the centre of County Kerry. The largest contains thirty islands, and covers an area of fifteen square miles. The beautiful scenery along the lakes consists in the gracefulness of the mountain outlines and the rich and varied colorings of the wooded shores. Here the beholder falters, and his spirit is overawed as in a dream, while he contemplates the power and grandeur of the Creator. The lakes are visited by thousands of tourists annually. The above photograph gives a general view of them.
Fig. 3
DUBLIN, Ireland.—Dublin, the capital and chief city of Ireland, is the centre of the political, ecclesiastical, educational, commercial, military and railroad enterprises of the kingdom. It is the residence of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and it claims a high antiquity, having been in existence since the time of Ptolemy. In the ninth century it was taken by the Danes, who held sway for over two hundred years. In 1169 it was taken back by the English, and seven years later, its history began to be identified with that of Ireland. The city is divided into two parts by the Liffey, which is spanned by nine bridges. This photograph represents Sackville street, one of its principal thoroughfares.
Fig. 4
GIANT'S CAUSEWAY, Ireland.—The Giant's Causeway derives its name from a mythical legend, representing it to be the commencement of a road to be constructed by giants across the channel from Ireland to Scotland. It is a sort of pier or promontory of columnar basalt, projecting from the north coast of Antrim, Ireland, into the North Sea. It is divided by whin-dykes into the Little Causeway, the Middle or "Honeycomb Causeway" here represented, and the Grand Causeway. The pillars vary in diameter from 15 to 20 inches, and in height, from 10 to 20 feet. It is a most curious formation.
Fig. 5
MUNICIPAL BUILDINGS, Glasgow, Scotland.—Glasgow is one of the best governed cities in Great Britain, and has a broad, bold and enlightened policy that conduces to the health, comfort and advancement of its citizens. This photograph represents its municipal buildings and a statue of Sir Walter Scott. The building is large and imposing, and of a mixed style of architecture. It was erected in 1860, at a cost of nearly half a million dollars, and has a tower 210 feet high. The Post Office, Bank of Scotland, Town Hall, Exchange and Revenue Buildings are close by.
Fig. 6
LOCH LOMOND, Scotland.—Here is presented the largest and, in many respects, the most beautiful of the Scottish Lakes; it is nearly twenty-five miles long, and from one to five miles wide. Its beauty is enhanced by the numerous wooded islands, among which the steamer threads its way. Some of the islands are of considerable size, and, by their craggy and wooded features, add greatly to the scenic beauty of the lake. Loch Lomond is unquestionably the pride of Scottish Lakes. It exceeds all others in extent and variety of scenery.
Fig. 7
FORTH BRIDGE, Scotland.—This bridge, crossing the Firth of Forth, is pronounced the largest structure in the world, and is the most striking feat yet achieved in bridge-building. It is 8296 feet long, 354 feet high, and cost $12,500,000. It was begun in 1883, and completed in 1890. It is built on the cantilever and central girder system, the principle of which is that of "stable equilibrium," its own weight helping to balance it more firmly in position. Each of the main spans is 1700 feet long, and the deepest foundations are 88 feet. The weight of the metal in the bridge is 50,000 tons.
Fig. 8
BALMORAL CASTLE, Scotland.—The above-named castle, the summer residence of Queen Victoria, is most beautifully and romantically situated in the Highlands of Scotland. The Queen has two other residences, one on the Isle of Wight, and the other at Windsor; but the Highland home is the most pleasant and attractive. The surrounding country is rich in deer, grouse and every other kind of game. The place is always guarded by soldiers, and no one is allowed to come near the castle, unless by special permission. The cairns which crown most of the hills, are memorials of friends of Her Majesty. The property covers forty thousand acres, three-fourths of which is a deer forest.
Fig. 9
CLAMSHELL CAVE, Island of Staffa, Scotland.—The above cave is located on the Island of Staffa, in the Atlantic Ocean, not far from the mainland. It is one of those remarkable islands whose wonders have been known to the world for but little over a hundred years. The name of the island signifies columns or staves. At one time the coast was visited by violent volcanic actions, the effects of which may still be traced. Staffa is a little over a third of a mile in circumference, and presents a most interesting field of study for geologists.
Fig. 10
EDINBURGH, Scotland.—Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, and one of the most romantically beautiful cities in Europe, is finely situated near the Firth of Forth. It is the seat of the administrative and judicial authorities of Scotland, and is renowned for its excellent university and schools. Its authentic history begins in 617, when King Edwin established a fortress on the Castle Rock. It consists of the picturesque Old Town, familiar to all readers of Walter Scott, and of the New Town, started in 1768. This photograph represents Princess Street, the principal thoroughfare of the New Town, Scott's Monument, and Castle Rock, the ancient seat of Scottish Kings.
Fig. 11
LIVERPOOL, England.—Liverpool, the second city and principal seaport of England, is situated on the right bank of the Mersey, three miles from the sea, and one hundred and eighty-five miles from London. The town was founded by King John in 1207, and its growth for several centuries was very slow. In 1840 regular steamboat communications were opened between it and New York, which, no doubt, established the modern pre-eminence of Liverpool. The importation of raw cotton from the United States forms the great staple of its commerce. The docks which flank the Mersey for a distance of seven miles, and give employment to thousands of workmen, are its most characteristic and interesting sights.
Fig. 12
LIME STREET, Liverpool, England.—Situated on the north-east side of the River Mersey, near its mouth, stands the above city, extending for miles along its banks. Liverpool is noted for the magnificence of its docks, which are constructed on the most stupendous scale, and said to cover, including the dry docks, over two hundred acres, and fifteen miles of quays. Its principal avenue is Lime Street, represented by the above picture. The large building in the centre is the Terminal Hotel, of the London and Northwestern Railway, which starts from the rear of the building.
Fig. 13
MANCHESTER, England.—Manchester is the chief industrial town of England, and the great metropolis of the manufacturers of cotton, silk, worsted, chemicals and machinery. Most of the streets of the older parts of the city are narrow, but those in the new parts are wide and attractive. The above picture represents Piccadilly Street, which is one of the principal thoroughfares. This avenue is bordered by magnificent shops, and always crowded with pedestrians, omnibuses and other vehicles. The statue in the centre is that of the Duke of Wellington. Piccadilly has a very animated appearance.
Fig. 14
WARWICK CASTLE, Warwick, England.—Warwick, a quaint old town with 12,000 inhabitants, is situated on a hill rising from the River Avon, and is a place of great antiquity, having been originally a British settlement, and afterward occupied by the Romans. Legend goes back for its foundation to King Cymbeline, and the year one. On a commanding position, overlooking the Avon, stands Warwick Castle, the ancient and stately home of the Earl of Warwick. The Castle, which is one of the finest and most picturesque feudal residences in England, dates from Saxon times.
Fig. 15
SHAKESPEARE'S HOUSE, Stratford-on-Avon, England.—Of all the ancient castles and monuments throughout England, the house of William Shakespeare at Stratford-on-Avon is perhaps the most interesting and popular. The chief literary glory of the world was born here, April 23, 1564, which gives his home an ancient and noted history. The house has undergone various vicissitudes since his time, but the framework remains substantially unaltered. The rooms to the right on the ground floor contain interesting collections of portraits, early editions of his productions, his school-desk and signet-ring. The garden back of the house contains a selection of the trees and flowers mentioned in his plays.
Fig. 16
BRIGHTON, England.—This town, situated on the English Channel, forty-seven miles from London, extends three miles along the coast, and is fronted by a sea wall sixty feet in height, which forms a magnificent promenade. The town has elegant streets, squares and terraces, built in a style equal to the best in the metropolis. Its fisheries furnish large quantities of fish to the London market. In the time of George III., it was a mere fishing-village; but since his day, it has become the most fashionable watering-place in England.
Fig. 17
OSBORNE HOUSE, Isle of Wight, England.—This is the residence of the Queen of England; it was completed in 1845, and is located near Cowes. The latter town is on the north coast of the Isle of Wight, directly opposite to the mouth of Southampton Water. The port between them is the chief one of the island, and the headquarters of the Royal Yacht Squadron. Behind the harbor the houses rise picturesquely on gentle wooded slopes, and numerous villas adorn the vicinity. Magnificent residences and castles are located near by, of which the above picture is a fair representation.
Fig. 18
HAMPTON COURT PALACE, Hampton Court, England.—This palace was built by Cardinal Wolsey, the favorite of Henry VIII., and was afterwards presented to the King. It was subsequently occupied by Cromwell, the Stewarts, William III., and the first two monarchs of the House of Hanover. Since the time of George II., Hampton Court has ceased to be a royal residence, and is now inhabited by various pensioners of the Crown. The various rooms that were formerly occupied by the royalty, are now devoted to the use of an extensive picture-gallery.
Fig. 19
GREENWICH OBSERVATORY, Greenwich, England.—Greenwich Observatory is situated six miles from London Bridge, on a hill one hundred and eighty feet high, in the centre of Greenwich Park. It marks the meridian from which English astronomers make their calculations. The correct time for the whole of England is settled here every day at one o'clock P. M.; a large colored ball descends many feet, when the time is telegraphed to the most important towns throughout the country. A standard clock, with the hours numbered from one to twenty-four, and various standard measures of length are placed outside the entrance, pro bono publico.
Fig. 20
WINDSOR CASTLE, England.—This favorite seat of the sovereigns of Great Britain, twenty miles from London, at the town of Windsor, was frequently extended under succeeding monarchs, until finally, in the reign of Queen Victoria, when it was completed at a total cost of $4,500,000, it became one of the largest and most magnificent royal residences in the world. The Saxon kings resided on this spot long before the castle was founded by William the Conqueror. In its vaults are buried the sovereigns of England, including Henry VIII. and Charles I. The interior of the castle is richly and profusely decorated, and filled with pictures, statuary, bronze monuments and other works of art.
Fig. 21
GREEN DRAWING-ROOM, Windsor Castle, England.—Windsor Castle, the residence of the Queen, is one of the largest and most magnificent royal residences in the world. The interior of the drawing-room, which is fitted up at an expense of many hundred thousand dollars, gives a person a fair conception of the elaborate and artistic display to be witnessed in numerous other apartments. The interior, beautified with colored marble, mosaics, sculpture, stained-glass, precious stones, and gilding in extraordinary profusion and richness, places it among the finest castles in all Europe.
Fig. 22
MIDLAND GRAND HOTEL AND ST. PANCRAS STATION, London, England.—The roof of this station is said to be the most extensive in the world, being seven hundred feet long, two hundred and forty feet span, and one hundred and fifty feet high. The hotel is the terminus of the railway by the same name, and is one of the largest in London. Travelers arriving at the metropolis of the world, by almost any of the large railway lines, can secure hotel accommodations at the end of their journey in the Railway Hotel.
Fig. 23
THE STRAND, London, England.—This street has been so named from its skirting the bank of the river, which is concealed here by the buildings. It is very broad, contains many handsome shops, and is the great artery of traffic between the city and the West End, and one of the busiest and most important thoroughfares in London. It was unpaved down to 1532. At that period many of the mansions of the nobility and hierarchy stood here, with gardens stretching down to the Thames. The buildings on the left are the new Law Courts.
Fig. 24
CHEAPSIDE, London, England.—This street is in the very heart of the "city" and is especially noted for its so-called "cheap shops," where is offered for sale every variety of articles, from a locomotive to a toothpick. The street is constantly so crowded with vehicles, that pedestrians are often delayed from fifteen to twenty minutes in crossing from one side to the other. It affords much pleasure to stroll along Cheapside and watch the crowds of pedestrians and vehicles pass up and down the avenue. The buildings lining Cheapside have an imposing appearance, and are of uniform architecture.
Fig. 25
ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL, London, England.—Conspicuous, on a slight eminence in the very heart of London, stands the above-named cathedral, the most prominent building of the city. It is claimed that in Pagan times a temple of Diana occupied the site of St. Paul's. The present church was begun in 1675, opened for divine service in 1697, and completed in 1710. The bulk of its cost, amounting to nearly $4,000,000, was defrayed by a tax on coal. The church resembles St. Peter's at Rome, and is in the form of a Latin cross, five hundred feet long and one hundred and eighteen feet wide.
Fig. 26
THE BANK OF ENGLAND, London, England.—This irregular, isolated, one-story building, covering an area of four acres, and located in the central part of London, is the largest and most powerful institution in the world. It is the only bank in London which has the power to issue paper money; its average daily business is over $10,000,000. It employs 900 people, and usually carries in its vaults from $75,000,000 to $100,000,000, while there are from 100 to 125,000,000 dollars of the bank's notes in circulation. On the right is the Stock Exchange, giving 1000 stock brokers daily employment.
Fig. 27
TOWER OF LONDON, London, England.—This celebrated fortress is located on the Thames in the eastern portion of London. Some of the most interesting events in the history of the Old World are clustered around these ancient relics. Some say the tower was commenced by Julius Cæsar, while most writers affirm that William the Conqueror commenced it in 1078. The tower-walls enclose about twelve acres, on the outside of which is a deep ditch or moat, formerly filled with water. The tower was for a time a residence for the Monarchs of England; afterwards a prison for State criminals.
Fig. 28
LONDON BRIDGE, London, England.—Centuries ago the Saxons and Romans erected various wooden bridges over the Thames, on the site of the present London Bridge; but they were all carried away by floods, or destroyed by fire. This bridge was begun in 1825 and completed in 1831 at a cost of $10,000,000. The bridge, 928 feet long and 54 feet wide, is borne by five granite arches, that in the centre having a span of 152 feet. The lamp-posts on the bridge are cast of the metal of French cannons captured in the Peninsular War. About 15,000 vehicles and 100,000 pedestrians cross the bridge daily.
Fig. 29
WESTMINSTER ABBEY, London, England.—The Abbey, built in the form of cross, four hundred feet long and two hundred feet wide, is of Gothic design, and was founded in 610 A. D.
"That antique pile,
 Where royal heads receive the sacred gold;
 It give them crowns, and does their ashes keep;
 There made like gods, like mortals there they sleep,
 Making the circle of their reign complete.
 These sons of Empire, where they rise, they set."
Fig. 30
HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT, London, England.—These edifices form a single pile of buildings of the richest Gothic style. They cover over eight acres, contain one hundred stair-cases, eleven hundred apartments, and cost $15,000,000. They are perhaps the most costly national structure in the world. The Queen enters on the opening and prorogation of Parliament through the Victoria Tower, which is three hundred and forty feet high. The imposing river-front of the edifice is nine hundred and forty feet long, and adorned with statues of English monarchs, from William the Conqueror to Queen Victoria.
Fig. 31
TRAFALGAR SQUARE, London, England.—Here is one of the finest open places in London. This great square, which is a centre of attraction, was dedicated to Lord Nelson, and commemorates his glorious death in the battle of Trafalgar, October 22, 1805, gained by the English fleet over the combined armaments of France and Spain. In the centre of the Square, rises to the memory of the great hero, a massive granite column, one hundred and fifty-four feet high, and crowned with a statue of Nelson. At the foot of the pedestal is inscribed his last command, "England expects every man will do his duty."
Fig. 32
BUCKINGHAM PALACE, London, England.—The above palace, being now the Queen's residence and occupying the site of Buckingham House, was erected in 1703 by the Duke of Buckingham, and purchased by George III. His successor remodeled it in 1825, but it remained vacant until 1837, when it was occupied by Queen Victoria, whose residence it has since continued to be. The palace now forms a quadrangle, and is three hundred and sixty feet long. It contains a sculpture-gallery, a library, green drawing-room, throne-room, grand saloon, state ball-room, picture-gallery and private apartments.
Fig. 33
ROTTEN ROW, London, England.—Rotten Row is the finest portion of Hyde Park, irrespectively of the magnificent groups of trees and expanses of grass for which English parks stand pre-eminent. The Park is surrounded by a handsome and lofty iron railing, and provided with nine carriage entrances. In the spring and summer the fashionable world rides, drives or walks through the Row; and in the drives are seen unbroken files of elegant equipages and high-bred horses in handsome trappings moving continually, presided over by sleek coachmen and powdered lackeys, and occupied by some of the most beautiful and exquisitely dressed women in the world.
Fig. 34
ALBERT MEMORIAL, London, England.—This magnificent monument to Albert, the late Prince Consort, was erected by the English nation at a cost of $600,000. On a spacious platform, to which granite steps ascend on each side, rises a basement adorned with reliefs in marble, representing artists of every period, poets. musicians, painters and sculptors. In the centre of the basement sits the colossal bronze-gilt figure of Prince Albert. The canopy terminates at the top in a Gothic spire, rising in three stages and surmounted by a cross. The monument is one hundred and seventy-five feet high, and gorgeously embellished with bronze and marble statues, gildings, colored stones and mosaic.
Fig. 35
ANTWERP, Belgium.—Antwerp, the capital of a province of its own name, stands on the right bank of the Scheldt. It is strongly fortified; its walls and other defenses completely encompass the city on the land sides, having more than twelve miles of massive ramparts. The appearance of Antwerp is exceedingly picturesque, an effect produced by its numerous churches, convents, magnificent public buildings, its elaborate and extensive fortifications, the profusion of beautiful trees, and by the stately antique-looking houses which line its older thoroughfares. Of the docks, dock-yards and basins, constructed by Bonaparte at an expense of $10,000,000, the last only remains. Its harbor is one of the finest in the world.
Fig. 36
PANORAMIC VIEW OF BRUSSELS, Belgium.—Brussels, the capitol of Belgium and the residence of the royal family, is situated nearly in the centre of the Kingdom. The above picture presents a general view of the city, the tile roofs of the houses, with the Palace of Justice looming up in the background. This stately edifice, completed in 1883, was erected at an expense of over $10,000,000. This high tower of marble forcibly suggests the mighty structures of ancient Egypt or Assyria, and the vast amount of energy spent in their erection.
Fig. 37
PALACE OF THE KING, Brussels, Belgium.—The above edifice originally consisted of two buildings, which were erected during the last century. These were connected by an intervening structure, and adorned in 1827 with a Corinthian colonnade. It is one of the principal and notable buildings of the City of Brussels. The interior contains a number of apartments handsomely fitted up, and a great variety of ancient and modern pictures. A flag hoisted on the palace announces the presence of the King.
Fig. 38
BOURSE, Brussels, Belgium.—In the central portion of the City of Brussels on the Boulevard Anspach, rises the Bourse or New Exchange, an imposing pile in Louis XIV. style. Its vast proportions and almost excessive richness of ornamentation combine to make the building worthy of being the commercial centre of an important metropolis; but it has been sadly disfigured by the application of a coat of paint, necessitated by the foible nature of the stone. The principal façade is embellished with a Corinthian colonnade, to which there is an ascent of twenty steps.
Fig. 39
CITY HALL, Brussels, Belgium.—This is by far the most interesting edifice in the city, and one of the noblest and most beautiful buildings of the kind in Belgium. It is of irregular, quadrangular form, one hundred and ninety-eight feet in length, and one hundred and sixty-five feet in depth, and encloses a court. The principal façade is of Gothic style, and the graceful tower, which, however, for some unexplained reason does not rise from the centre of the structure, is three hundred and seventy feet in height. The entire building dates back to the fourteenth century, and is still occupied by municipal offices.
Fig. 40
CATHEDRAL OF STE. GUDULE.—In the central part of the City of Brussels, overlooking its lower section, is the above edifice, one of the most imposing and most ancient Gothic churches in Belgium. It consists of a nave and aisle, having a retro-choir, and deep bays, resembling chapels. It was built in 1220, and has been in constant use for 670 years. While the elements of time are crumbling its outside surface, leaving an abundance of disintegrated matter at the base of its walls, its interior is adorned with fine paintings and kept in apparently good order.
Fig. 41
THE FORBIDDEN BOOK (By Ooms), Academy of Fine Arts, Brussels, Belgium—This striking painting by that celebrated artist, is a pleasing commingling of many colors, which, of course, are lost in the photograph. The picture represents a private library, the father and daughter eagerly devouring the contents of the Bible. Unexpected foot-steps are heard; hence the frightened look of both, for, in those days, reading the Bible was punished by death. The painting is a subject study for the earnest Bible-reader.
Fig. 42
SCHEVENINGEN, Holland.—This famous and popular summer resort is annually visited by thousands of people. The sand is firm and smooth, and the place possesses a great advantage over other watering-places on the North Sea, having The Hague and woods in close proximity, the latter affording pleasant and shady walks. What appear like wooden posts driven in the sand in the above picture, are wicker-basket chairs, with roofs to keep off the sun. Scores of canvas tents line the shore, and thousands of people lie on the beach from early morning until late at night.
Fig. 43
AMSTERDAM, Holland.—This is the largest and most important city in Holland, and constitutionally its capital. It stands on a soft, wet ground, under which, at a depth of fifty feet, is a bed of sand. Into this sand piles are driven, on which buildings are reared, a fact which gave rise to the jest of Erasmus of Rotterdam, that he knew a city whose inhabitants dwelt on tops of trees like rooks. The city is surrounded by grassy meadows. Amsterdam ranks much higher as a trading than as a manufacturing town. The photograph represents St. Antoine Street.
Fig. 44
WIND-MILL, Holland.—Millions wonder that a country so situated as Holland can exist; and the stranger is almost unable to decide whether land or water predominates. Those broken and compressed coasts, those deep bays and great rivers, the lakes and canals crossing each other, all combine to give the idea of a country that may at any time disintegrate and disappear. In the thirteenth century the sea broke the dykes in northern Holland and formed the Zuyder Zee, destroying many villages and causing the death of eighty thousand people. To drain the lakes, and save the country from destructive inundations, the Hollanders press the air into their service, which is represented by the above wind-mill.
Fig. 45
CHRISTIANSAND, Norway.—Christiansand is the largest town on the south coast of the Scandinavian peninsula, and the residence of one of the five Norwegian Bishops. It is beautifully situated at the mouth of the Otteraa, on the Christiansand Fjord. The town is named after Christian IV., by whom it was founded in 1641, and is regularly laid out with streets intersecting at right angles. It possesses an excellent harbor, at which all the coasting steamers of that country, and those from England, Germany and Denmark, arrive regularly.
Fig. 46
BERGEN, Norway.—Bergen is one of the oldest and most picturesque cities in Norway. The general aspect of the town is modern, though traces of its antiquity are not wanting. The older part adjoins the spacious harbor called Vaagen, and spreads over the rocky heights at the base of the Florfjeld and over the peninsula of Mordanes. Fish has always been the staple commodity of the city, and it is still the greatest fish market in Norway. The above picture represents the harbor, with vegetable-peddlers and their portable stalls in the foreground.
Fig. 47
NIERDFJORD, GUDVNAGEN, Norway.—One of the grandest and most picturesque of the many Fjords on the broken coast of Norway, is represented here. Enormous waterfalls, formed by the melting snows and ice, are seen along the steep precipices of the high mountains on every side. The mountains on both sides of this inland sea, rise to the height of several thousand feet. The steamer in the foreground is one of the many that make weekly trips between Christiansand and Hammerfest, the latter being the most northern town in the world. During the summer season, these steamers are crowded with tourists to their utmost capacity. This fact evinces the grandeur of the place, and the interest it must afford to travellers.
Fig. 48
NORTH CAPE, Norway.—This cape (71° 10' N. Lat.), consisting of a dark gray slate-rock, furrowed with deep clefts, rising abruptly from the sea, is usually considered the most northern point of Europe; its height is about nine hundred and seventy feet. The northern sun, creeping at midnight (the time this photograph was taken) along the horizon, and the immeasurable ocean in apparent contact with the skies, form the grandest outlines and the most sublime pictures to the astonished beholder. Here, as in a dream, the many cares and anxieties of restless mortals seem to culminate.
Fig. 49
MOSCOW, Russia.—Moscow, which was at one time the capital of all Russia and home of the Czar, was founded nearly seven hundred and fifty years ago. The principal event in its history is the burning of it in 1812, for the purpose of dislodging the French from their winter quarters during the French and Russian war. The city is built with strange irregularities, having streets and numerous paltry lanes opening all at once into magnificent squares. It has a great number of churches and monasteries, and a university with 1000 students. This photograph represents the principal portion of the city and the river Moskva, on whose bank it is situated, with the Kremlin in the distance, piercing the air with its lofty spires.
Fig. 50
WINTER PALACE, St. Petersburg, Russia.—This magnificent palace is fronted with a large number of Corinthian columns, which give it a formidable yet beautiful appearance. On the top, along the front and sides, it is adorned by a number of statues representing various emblems and figures in Russian history. The most beautiful apartment of the edifice is the Salle Blanche, or white saloon, where the court fêtes are held. The room contains the crown jewels of Russia, and is decorated in pure white and gold. The effect is most dazzling.
Fig. 51
THE CATHEDRAL, Cologne, Germany.—This building justly excites the admiration of every beholder, and is probably the most magnificent Gothic edifice in the world. It stands on a slight eminence, sixty feet above the Rhine. As early as the ninth century, an Episcopal church occupied the site, but the inhabitants regarded it to be unworthy, as compared with the prosperity of the city, and consequently started a new one. The foundation-stone of the present structure was laid on August 14, 1248. On the 15th of October, 1880, the completion of the Cathedral was celebrated in the presence of William I.
Fig. 52
BINGEN, Germany.—Bingen, a Hessian town of Prussia, with a population of 7100, is situated at the confluence of the Nahe and Rhine rivers. The Romans erected a castle here in 70, when a battle was fought between them and the Gauls. Bingen carries on a large trade in wine, starch and leather. The town is in a beautiful and highly picturesque country, and is visited by thousands of tourists during the summer season. On an island in the Rhine is the Mansethum, or "Rat Tower," a structure erected in the thirteenth century. Bingen is celebrated in song, poetry, story and history.
Fig. 53
EHRENBREITSTEIN, Germany.—This small town, with five thousand three hundred inhabitants, prettily situated in a valley, is crowned with the fortresses of Ehrenbreitstein and Asterstein, which are connected with Coblenz by a bridge of boats, about four hundred yards in length. The majestic fortress of Ehrenbreitstein rises opposite the influx of the Moselle, and is situated on a precipitous rock, three hundred and eighty-five feet above the Rhine, inaccessible on three sides, and connected with the neighboring heights on the north side only. The view from the top is one of the finest on the Rhine. It embraces the fertile Rhine Valley from Stolzenfels to Andernach.
Fig. 54
FRANKFORT-ON-THE-MAIN, Germany.—The above city, formerly one of the few independent towns of Germany, now belongs to Prussia. Old watch-towers in the vicinity indicate its ancient extent. The city lies on a spacious plain bounded by mountains, on the right bank of the navigable river Main. On the left bank lies Sachenhausen, a suburb connected with Frankfort by four stone bridges and one suspension bridge. In a commercial, and particularly a financial, point of view, Frankfort is one of the most important cities of Germany.
Fig. 55
MARTIN LUTHER'S HOUSE, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany.—Here is a historic relic which justly excites the admiration of the beholder. This is where Martin Luther lived for a time after he had nailed to a church-door in Wittenberg the theses in which he contested the doctrine at the root of the detestable traffic carried on for the Pope by Tetzel and his accomplices. This brought to the front a man who had certainly many faults, but who amply made up for them by his force of intellect and the loftiness of his aims.
Fig. 56
ARIADNE ON THE PANTHER, Bethmann's Museum, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany.—This exquisite piece of sculpture is the masterpiece of Dannecker, a sculptor of Stuttgart, who is likewise famous for his bust of Schiller. Of the many subjects sculptured by Dannecker, Ariadne, especially, has a peculiar charm of novelty, which has made it a European favorite in a reduced size. It is perhaps the contrast between the delicacy of the female human form and the subdued rude force of the panther she rides, that attracts the admiration.
Fig. 57
UNIVERSITY BUILDING, Leipsic, Germany.—Leipsic is one of the great commercial cities of Germany, the centre of the German book-trade, the seat of the supreme law-courts of the German Empire, and contains one of the most ancient and important universities in Europe. The interior of the city consists of lofty and closely built houses, dating chiefly from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and is surrounded by five handsome suburbs, beyond which is a series of villages, almost adjacent to the town. The above picture represents one of the University buildings.
Fig. 58
ROYAL PALACE, Berlin, Germany.—This palace, six hundred and fifty feet long, three hundred and eighty feet wide, and rectangular in form, rises in four stories to the height of one hundred feet, while the dome on the right is two hundred and thirty feet high. In the time of Frederick the Great, it served as a residence for all the members of the royal family, contained all the royal collections, and was the seat of several government officials. Now it is used for reception rooms, and a dwelling for royal officials. The exterior of the palace is massive and imposing; the interior is beautifully embellished.
Fig. 59
BERLIN, Germany.—Berlin, the capital of Prussia and the home of the emperor, with its large and beautiful buildings and its regularity of streets, ranks among the finest cities in Europe. The most noted street is that called "Unter den Linden," the city's pride, a broad and imposing thoroughfare, resembling the boulevards of Paris. It contains four rows of trees, ornamented at one end by the Brandenburg Gate, and at the other by the equestrian statue of Frederick the Great, well represented by this photograph. The palace of the king, different gardens, the aquarial museum and many other noted buildings border on "Unter den Linden," which is nearly a mile long, and thronged all day with pedestrians.
Fig. 60
STATUE OF FREDERICK THE GREAT, Berlin, Germany.—This impressive and masterly work was erected in 1851 at one end of the "Linden," and is probably the grandest monument of its kind in Europe. The great King is represented on horse-back, with his coronation-robes and walking-stick. The pedestal is divided into four sections. The upper one contains allegorical figures and scenes in Frederick's life, with the figures Moderation, Justice, Wisdom and Strength at the corners; the second section contains figures of the King's officers, and the lower section, the names of other distinguished men.
Fig. 61
THE BRANDENBURG GATE, Berlin, Germany.—The Brandenburg Gate, forming the entrance to Berlin, from the Thiergarten, was erected in 1793 in imitation of the Propylæa at Athens. It is 85 feet high and 205 feet wide, and has five different passages, separated by massive Doric columns. It is at the one end of "Unter den Linden," and its middle passage is reserved for royal carriages only. The material is sandstone, and it is surmounted by a Quadriga of Victory from copper, taken to Paris by Napoleon in 1807, but restored in 1814. On the side are two wings resembling Grecian Temples, one of which is a pneumatic post-office and the other a guard-house. Both combine in their construction, strength, elegance and beauty.
Fig. 62
MONUMENT OF VICTORY, Berlin, Germany.—This monument, rising to a height of two hundred feet, stands on a circular terrace, approached by eight granite steps in the Thiergarten. It was dedicated on September 2, 1873, to commemorate the great victories of 1870 and 1871. The massive square pedestal is adorned with reliefs in bronze. Above, in the flutings of the column, which consists of yellow, grayish sandstone, are placed three rows of Danish, Austrian and French cannon, captured in the different battles fought with those nations.
Fig. 63
THE HISTORIC WINDMILL, Potsdam, Germany.—Potsdam is almost entirely surrounded by a fringe of royal palaces, parks and pleasure-grounds. Here is located the palace of Sanssouci. Adjacent to the palace is the famous windmill, now royal property, which its owner refused to sell to the King, meeting threatened violence by an appeal to the judges of its supreme court.
Fig. 64
MADONNA DI SAN SISTO (by Raphael), Dresden Gallery, Dresden, Germany.—This masterpiece of Raphael, was photographed direct from the original painting, worth $400,000. It is an altar-piece, representing the Virgin and Child in clouds, with St. Sixtus on the right, St. Barbara on the left, and the cherubs beneath. A curtain has just been drawn back, and the Virgin issues, as it were, from the depth of Heaven, her large serene eyes seeming to embrace the whole world in their gaze. The most striking feature of the painting is the expression of naive innocence depicted on the faces of the cherubs.
Fig. 65
MAGDALENE (by Battoni),
  Dresden Gallery,
    Dresden, Germany.
Fig. 66
BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF PARIS, France.—Paris, the largest city in the French Republic, and its capital, covers an area of thirty square miles, with a population of about 2,000,000. The river Seine, which flows through the centre of the city, is spanned by twenty-eight bridges, of which the seven principal are shown on this photograph. The city is noted for its fine parks, magnificent churches, colossal buildings, and wide boulevards, of which the Champs Elysees is the most famous. Paris is the centre of the political, artistic, scientific, commercial and industrial life of the nation.
Fig. 67
PLACE DE LA CONCORDE, Paris, France.—Place de la Concorde, one of the most beautiful and extensive public parks in Paris, being considered, by the best authorities, the finest in the world, is bounded by the Seine, Champs Elysees, Tuileries and Rue de Rivoli. Numerous historical associations are connected with the place. The guillotine did much bloody work here during 1793-4-5; upwards of 2800 people perished by it. Foreign troops frequently bivouacked on the square when Paris was in their power. The Obelisk of Luxor, a Monolith or single block of reddish granite 76 feet high, was presented to Louis Phillipi by Mohamed Ali and erected in the centre of the Place. It adds very much to the interest of the park.
Fig. 68
MADELEINE, PARIS, France.—The foundation of this church was laid by Louis XV. in 1764. The Revolution found the edifice unfinished, and Napoleon I. ordered the building to be completed as a "Temple of Glory." Louis XVIII., however, returned to the original intention of making it a church. The edifice was finally completed in 1842, and the amount of money expended was upwards of $2,500,000. It stands on a basement, surrounded by massive Corinthian columns. The building, which is destitute of windows, is constructed exclusively of stone, light being admitted through sky-lights in the roof.
Fig. 69
OPERA HOUSE, Paris, France.—This is a most sumptuous edifice, completed in 1874, and covering an area of nearly three acres. Nothing can surpass the magnificence of the materials with which it is decorated, and for which almost all Europe has made contributions. Sweden and Scotland yielded a supply of green and red granite; from Italy were brought the yellow and white marbles; from Finland, red porphyry; from Spain, "brocatello;" and from France, other marbles of various colors. The cost of the site was over $2,000,000, and that of the building nearly $8,000,000.
Fig. 70
GREAT BOULEVARDS, Paris, France.—The splendid line of streets, known as the Great Boulevards, which extend on the north side of the Seine, from the Madeleine at one end, to the Bastile at the other, was originally the line of fortifications or bulwarks of the City of Paris. In 1670, the city having extended northward far beyond the fortifications, the moats were filled up, the walls destroyed and the above Boulevards formed. This photograph represents the Grand Hotel at the corner of the Place de l'Opera.
Fig. 71
JULY COLUMN, Paris, France.—The above monument was erected after the Revolution of July, 1830, in honor of the heroes who fell on that occasion, and solemnly dedicated in 1840. The total height of the monument is one hundred and fifty-four feet, resting on a massive round sub-struction of white marble, originally intended for Napoleon's Elephant, which he had planned to erect in bronze on this spot; but his plans were never consummated. On the sub-struction rises a square basement, on each side of which are four bronze medallions, symbolical of Justice, the Constitution, Strength and Freedom.
Fig. 72
STATUE OF THE REPUBLIC, Paris, France.—This national statue is made of bronze, and was erected in 1883. The stone pedestal, fifty feet in height, is surrounded with seated bronze figures of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity. The statue, thirty-two feet high to the top of the olive branch, makes a striking and imposing appearance. In front is a brazen lion, with the urn of universal suffrage. On the stone pedestal are hewn the words, "To the Glory of the Republic of France, to the City of Paris, 1883." This statue was the model for the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor.
Fig. 73
VENDOME COLUMN, Paris, France.—Here is an imitation of Trajan's column at Rome. It is one hundred and forty-two feet high, and thirteen feet in diameter, and was erected by the order of Napoleon I., from 1806 to 1810, to commemorate his victories in 1805, over the Russians and Austrians. The figures on the spiral column represent memorable scenes, from the breaking up of the camp at Boulogne, to the battle of Austerlitz. The metal of these figures was obtained by melting 1200 Russian and Austrian cannons. The top is a statue of Napoleon.
Fig. 74
ROYAL PALACE, Paris, France.—The above palace, erected by Cardinal Richelieu in 1634, was occupied after his death by Anne of Austria, the widow of Louis XIII., with her sons Louis XIV., and Philip of Orleans, then in their minority. In 1815 the Orleans family regained possession of the Palais Royal; and it was occupied by Louis Philippe to 1830. Shortly before the outbreak of the revolution of July, he gave a sumptuous ball here in honor of Neapolitan notabilities then visiting Paris. In 1871, the Communists set the Palais Royal on fire, but it has since been carefully restored.
Fig. 75
HOTEL DE VILLE, Paris, France.—The above edifice, in many respects one of the finest buildings in Paris, may be regarded as an enlarged reproduction of the original building, with richer ornamentation and more convenient arrangements. It has played a conspicuous part in the different revolutions, having been the usual rallying place of the Democratic party. Here was also celebrated the union of the July Monarchy with the Bourgeoisie, when Louis Philippe presented himself at one of the windows in August, 1830, and, in view of the populace, embraced Lafayette.
Fig. 76
CATHEDRAL OF NOTRE DAME, Paris, France.—Founded in 1163, but not completed until the thirteenth century. Since then the building has been frequently altered. During the Revolution the Cathedral was sadly desecrated. The side chapels were devoted to orgies of various kinds. In 1802 it was again re-opened by Napoleon as a place of divine worship. During 1871 Notre Dame was desecrated by the Communists. The treasury was rifled, and the building used as a military depot. When the insurgents were compelled to retreat, they set fire to the church, but fortunately little damage was done.
Fig. 77
PALACE OF JUSTICE, Paris, France.—This palace, occupying the site of the ancient palace of the kings of France, was presented by Charles VIII., in 1431, to the Parliament or Supreme Court of Justice. The palace was so much injured by fire in 1618 and in 1776, that nothing of it now remains except the two round domes which are seen on the right of the picture. The bridge seen in connection with the avenue in the foreground, spans the Seine, having been built by Napoleon, while the avenue itself leads to the Exchange.
Fig. 78
ARC OF TRIUMPH, Paris, France.—This is the finest triumphal arch in existence. It is situated at one end of the Champs Elysees, on an eminence, and can be seen from nearly every part of the city. Twelve magnificent avenues radiate from it, nearly all of them sloping upward to the arch. It was commenced by Napoleon I. in 1806, and completed by Louis Philippe in 1836, at a cost of $2,000,000.
Fig. 79
DOME DES INVALIDES, Paris, France.—The beautiful gilded dome, three hundred and forty feet high, which surmounts the church of the Invalides, and which can be seen at a great distance, is built on the north side of the Seine, and forms a part of the Hotel des Invalides. The Hotel des Invalides, founded in 1670 by Louis XIV., for aged veterans, covers an area of thirty-one acres. Immediately under the gilded dome, is a crypt below the floor, containing the tomb of Napoleon.
Fig. 80
TOMB OF NAPOLEON, Paris, France.—This tomb is situated beneath the Dome des Invalides, in an open circular crypt, twenty feet in depth and thirty-six feet in diameter. The walls are of polished granite, adorned with ten marble reliefs. On the mosaic pavement rises the Sarcophagus, thirteen feet long, six and one-half feet wide, and fourteen and one-half feet high, a huge block of reddish-brown granite weighing sixty-seven tons, and costing $30,000. At the further end of the crypt appears Napoleon's last request: "I wish that my ashes rest on the banks of the Seine, in the midst of the French people, whom I loved so well." To these words, as well as to the tomb of the great leader, every Frenchman reverts with pride.
Fig. 81
EIFFEL TOWER, Paris, France.—This enormous monument surpasses anything of the kind hitherto erected. From all parts of the city its graceful head may be seen, completely dwarfing into insignificance every public building and spire that Paris contains. It has three platforms. The first, of vast extent and comfortably arranged for many hundred visitors at a time, contains cafés and restaurants. The second is 376 feet from the ground, and the third, 863 feet. The total height of the Tower is 985 feet, being the loftiest monument in the world.
Fig. 82
PANTHEON, Paris, France.—This structure standing on the highest ground in the City of Paris, occupies the site of the tomb of Ste. Genevieve, the patron saint of Paris. The present edifice was completed in 1790. The new church was dedicated to Ste. Genevieve, but in 1791 the Convention resolved to convert it into a kind of memorial temple, which they named the "Pantheon." In 1885 it was secularized for the obsequies of Victor Hugo. The edifice is of most imposing dimensions, in the form of a Greek cross. The building resembles the Pantheon in Rome.
Fig. 83
LOUVRE BUILDINGS, Paris, France.—Here are presented the most important public buildings in Paris, both architecturally and on account of the treasures of art they contain. The oldest part of the Louvre has been the scene of many historical events. It is divided into two different sections, the ground floor being devoted to an Egyptian museum. The other apartments contain the Asiatic museum, collections of ancient sculpture, collections of Renaissance sculpture, collections of modern sculpture, a picture gallery, a saloon of the ancient bronzes, and a collection of Greek and other antiquities.
Fig. 84
VENUS DE MILO, Louvre Gallery, Paris.—This statue of Aphrodite, which was found on the Island of Melos, now Milo, at the entrance to the Greek Archipelago, was sold to the French Government for 6000 francs, and is now not for sale for its weight in gold. It is exhibited in the Louvre and represents one of the most celebrated treasures of the Gallery. Aphrodite is here represented, not only as a beautiful woman, but as a goddess, as is seen by her powerful and majestic form and the noble expression of the head, indicating her independence of human needs and the placid self-competence of her divine character. It is one of the masterpieces which constitute the great marvel of antiquity.
Fig. 85
  Louvre Gallery,
    Paris, France
Fig. 86
PEACEMAKER OF THE VILLAGE (by Greuze), Louvre Gallery, Paris, France.—This painting was executed by the renowned French artist when nearly at the zenith of his powers, and is only one of the many giant masterpieces by this celebrated painter. Greuze, when quite young, showed considerable talent, which was encouraged by a Lyonese artist. At the advice of the latter, he drifted to Paris and produced several Biblical subjects, followed by others of the same class. He left France for Italy, but returned soon after and produced the above painting in 1759-61, followed by others, with increasing success.
Fig. 87
THE LAST VEIL (by Bouret),
  Luxembourg Gallery,
    Paris, France
Fig. 88
  Luxembourg Gallery,
    Paris, France.
Fig. 89
A MOTHER (By Lenoir),
  Luxembourg Gallery,
    Paris, France.
Fig. 90
JOAN OF ARC (By Chapu), Luxembourg Gallery, Paris, France.—Known in France as Jeanne d'Arc, the maid of Orleans was born about 1411. In 1428, when Orleans, the key to the south of France, was infested by the English, she rode at the head of an army, clothed in a coat of mail, armed with an ancient sword, and carrying a white standard of her own design, embroidered with lilies, and having on the one side the image of God holding the world in His hand, on the other a representation of the annunciation. The siege of the town was broken, but she was often accused of being a heretic and sorcerer, and was burned at the stake May 30, 1431.
Fig. 91
PAYING THE REAPERS (by Lhermitte), Luxembourg Gallery, Paris, France.—This famous painting, from which the photograph is a direct copy, represents a farm scene. The laborers have just finished their day's work. The man with the scythe, rolled-up sleeves and open shirt, is a genuine representation of an honest and industrious laborer. The expression on his face shows a tired look, but a spirit of contentment gently steals over his face, which nearly all true and honest country people possess after a day's hard labor.
Fig. 92
IGNORANCE (by J. Comerre Paton), Luxembourg Gallery, Paris, France.—This is one of the most celebrated paintings by this popular artist. The outlines of the girl are perfect. The graceful curves of the arms, the sweet expression of the face and the tender look of the eyes are all charmingly beautiful. The tiny cap, the loose garment, the uncovered feet, the bare arms, and the comfortable position of the girl, all add to her beauty. In the photograph the blended colors of the original painting are lost, yet the subject can be well studied from this copy.
Fig. 93
ROYAL PALACE, Versailles, France.—This palace presents a most imposing appearance; the principal façade is no less than one-fourth of a mile long. The building dates back, for the erection of its various parts, to several different periods, and was the royal residence of the various rulers of France. It has remained uninhabited since it was sacked by a Parisian mob, which included many thousand women. The various halls and rooms are now devoted to the use of most interesting picture galleries.
Fig. 94
ROYAL CARRIAGE, Versailles, France.—In the Museum of Carriages at Versailles is a collection of royal vehicles from the time of the first Emperor to the baptism of the Prince Imperial in 1856, besides sledges of the time of Louis XIV., and sedan chairs. The royal carriage in the picture is that of Charles X., afterwards used by Napoleon on various occasions, the letter "N" being still seen on the drapery adorning the seat. The carriage is valued at $200,000, and considered one of the finest vehicles of its kind in the world.
Fig. 95
LAST VICTIMS OF THE REIGN OF TERROR (By Muller) Versailles Gallery, Versailles, France.—The French Revolution, more commonly termed the "Reign of Terror," is perhaps unparalleled in the history of civilized countries. Hundreds of citizens were guillotined, and when that process proved too slow, they were shot down by platoon-fire. The picture represents a prison scene crowded with "suspects." The officer to the right, with a list of condemned criminals, calls out the names of those to be put to death, each one fearing that his or her name will be next called to join the procession to the guillotine on the Place de la Concorde. The photograph presents a view of the last victims of that terrible war.
Fig. 96
NAPOLEON AT AUSTERLITZ (By Vernet), Versailles Gallery, Versailles, France.—The conqueror here views the progress of the battle between the French troops, numbering 90,000 men, and the allied forces of fully 80,000. Napoleon, on his white horse, receives reports from his generals in the field, while with his field-glass he watches the advancing columns of both sides. This decisive battle was witnessed by three Emperors, those of France, Russia and Austria, and resulted in a glorious victory for Napoleon and the French. A treaty of peace followed between France and Austria; but it was of short duration, for the dangerous ambition of Napoleon could not fail to force all European nations into alliance.
Fig. 97
NAPOLEON (by Gosse), Versailles Gallery, Versailles, France.—The above represents the "Little Corporal" on July 7, 1807, at Tilsit, a commercial town of Eastern Prussia, ratifying the treaty with Russia and Prussia. Russia needed rest, and Napoleon was not sorry to pause. It was the highest point of the Emperor's renown. His hand was felt throughout all Europe; it seemed as if England alone were beyond his power.
Fig. 98
ROYAL PALACE, Fontainebleau, France.—This palace, situated on the south-west side of the town, is said to occupy the site of a former fortified chateau, founded in 1162. It was Francis I., however, who converted the mediæval fortress into a palace of almost unparalleled extent and magnificence. The exterior is less imposing than that of some other contemporaneous edifices, as the building, with the exception of several pavilions, is only two stories in height. It was a favorite residence of Napoleon.
Fig. 99
THRONE ROOM, Fontaineleau Palace, France.—This magnificent hall, with a ceiling in relief, containing a chandelier in rock-crystal, and wainscoated in the reign of Louis XIV., is perhaps the most sumptuous apartment of the palace. From here Napoleon almost ruled the world. The canopy of the throne rises by graceful folds to the rim of the high crown. The bees and the letter "N" on the chair, and on either side of the throne, are symbolic of Napoleon. It was in this same room where the Emperor declared his divorce from Josephine.
Fig. 100
APARTMENT OF TAPESTRIES, Fontainebleau Palace, France.—This room is embellished with tapestry from Flanders, woven into the myth of Psyche. The ceiling is in relief, the old-fashioned mantel-piece dating back to the sixteenth century, while the vases and clock are the finest Sevres ware. The table in the centre is the same one on which Napoleon signed his abdication before taking his parting leave from his old Guard on the 20th of April, 1814, to go into exile at Elba. The floor of inlaid polished wood has been much worn by the feet of travelers passing through the palace daily.
Fig. 101
APARTMENT OF MME. DE MAINTENON, Fontainebleau Palace, France.—Madame de Maintenon was the second wife of Louis XIV., although no written proof of such a marriage is extant; but, that it took place, is nevertheless certain. As a wife, she was wholly admirable; she had to entertain a man that would not be amused, and was obliged to submit to a terribly strict court etiquette of absolute obedience to the King's inclinations. This she always did cheerfully, and never complained of weariness or illness. Her apartments still appear as they did when occupied by her.
Fig. 102
NICE, France.—Superbly situated on the shores of the Mediterranean is the City of Nice. In winter it is the rendezvous of invalids and others from all parts of Europe, who seek refuge here from the bleak and vigorous atmosphere of the North. The season begins with the races early in January, and closes with a great regatta at the beginning of April; but visitors abound from October until May. In summer the place is deserted.
Fig. 103
MONACO.—This principality of Europe, French in language, but Italian in tradition, is located in the southern part of France, on the Mediterranean Sea. Its area is six square miles, and consists principally of the town of Monaco and its suburbs, which stand on a high promontory. Monaco has a fine palace, a new cathedral, a college, a noted casino, where gambling is licensed to pay with its profits the state expenses; it has also manufactories of spirits, fine pottery, bricks, perfumery, and objects of myth. The principality is now virtually under French control.
Fig. 104
MONTE CARLO, France.—This place is a health-resort in winter and a sea-bathing place in summer; but the chief attraction to many is the "tapis vert" at the Casino. Monte Carlo belongs politically to the diminutive principality of Monaco; the former, as seen in the picture, is picturesquely situated on a small level at the foot of a high range of mountains, skirting the Mediterranean. The building to the left with turrets is the Casino. The population of the place is almost entirely transient.
Fig. 105
GAMING HALL, Monte Carlo, France.—Every portion of the interior of the Casino, of which the gaming-rooms are a part, is luxuriously fitted up. The ceilings are elaborately frescoed, while the walls and niches are adorned with works of art. Admission to the above room is obtained free upon presentation of a visiting card at the office. The games in progress from 11 A. M. until 11 P. M., are generally roulette, and patronized by men and women of all ages and from all countries. For the student of human nature, the gambling halls present an excellent opportunity to study mankind.
Fig. 106
MADRID, Spain.-General view. This city is finely situated on a wide plain of the Guadalquivir. It contains an abundance of wealth and power, and is famous for its oranges and women. The city is very old, its history dating back as far as 600. It is noted for being the birthplace of many distinguished Spaniards. Magellan, the famous navigator, sailed from here in 1519, to discover Magellan Strait. The winter season is very mild and pleasant, and there is not a day in the whole year in which the sun does not shine.
Fig. 107
SEVILLE, Spain.—On the left bank of the Guadalquiver, in a level country as productive as a garden, stands the city of Seville. It is highly picturesque in its combination of buildings and with a river navigable to its very limits; it is astir with life and commerce. From the earliest time, this city has been the chief outlet for the wealth of Spain. In the poorer portions of the town, the open places are converted into market-stands, as seen above. Across the river, spanned by a bridge, is a Gypsy quarter of Triana.
Fig. 108
BULL FIGHT, Seville, Spain.—This photograph represents the great bull-ring of the city, with a capacity for eighteen thousand people and crowded with spectators to witness the great national amusement. A general holiday prevails on such occasions. Every one, rich and poor, possessing a grain of taste for bloody scenes and striking spectacles, can be found in the Amphitheatre on such occasions. The show generally lasts for several hours, during which several bulls, more horses, and not unfrequently, men are killed in the combat.
Fig. 109
TOLEDO, Spain.—This city is situated on a rocky height, forty-one miles south-west of Madrid; its climate is very cold in winter and hot in summer. The Cathedral of Toledo, the metropolitan church of Spain, founded in 587, is four hundred feet in length, and two hundred and four feet in width, with a lofty tower and spire. Toledo has long been famous for its manufactories of sword-blades, and great skill is still shown in tempering the m. It was taken by the Goths in 467, and by the Moors in 714; it was retained by the latter until 1085, when it was permanently annexed to the crown of Castile.
Fig. 110
GIBRALTAR, Spain.—This remarkable fortress, which is a strongly fortified rock at the southern extremity of Spain, and forms the key to the Mediterranean, is connected with the continent by a low sandy isthmus, one and one-half miles long, and three-fourths of a mile wide. The highest point of the rock is about one thousand four hundred feet above the sea level. Vast sums of money and immense labor have been spent in fortifying this stronghold. The water for the supply of the town and garrison is collected during the rainy season, the roofs of the houses gathering all the falling rain.
Fig. 111
LISBON, Portugal.—This interesting city is situated on the Tagus, near the Atlantic Ocean. The length of the city is four miles, and its breadth about two miles. Lisbon is nobly situated for commerce, and has the finest harbor in the world. The earthquake of 1755, traces of which are still visible, destroyed a considerable portion of it, and killed about sixty thousand of its inhabitants. This photograph is a correct representation of the better portion of the city and harbor.
Fig. 112
KIRCHENFELD BRIDGE, Berne, Switzerland.—The above structure is a huge iron bridge, seven hundred and fifty-one feet long, built in 1882-1883, across the river Aare, from the town proper to Helvetia Platz, where a new quarter of the town is being built by an English company. In the foreground are the terrace-like hot-houses and gardens of the peasants, who earn their livelihood by supplying the inhabitants of Berne with vegetables from their little farms. From the top of the bridge, in clear weather, the Bernese Alps can be seen better than from any other point in the Oberland.
Fig. 113
CLOCK TOWER, Berne, Switzerland.
Fig. 114
PEASANT WOMAN, Switzerland.—Here is a photograph of a Swiss girl on her way to church. She presents a true type of her sex, being well-developed, refined and accomplished. These peasants are fond of georgeous apparel, and on holidays and Sundays present a very pleasing spectacle. Their head-dress is particularly striking, consisting of a cap adorned with fine stiff lace, so arranged as to form a sort of fan at the back of the head. They all dress in similar costumes, which are both comfortable and attractive.
Fig. 115
INTERLAKEN AND THE JUNGFRAU, Switzerland.—The low land between lakes Thun and Brienz, is called "Brodeli." These lakes once probably formed a single sheet of water, but were gradually separated by deposit carried from the mountain-sides. On this piece of land, "between the lakes," lies Interlaken. The town is a favorite summer resort and is noted for its mild and equal temperature. The above picture gives a general idea of the place, with the Jungfrau nine miles in the distance.
Fig. 116
GRINDELWALD, Switzerland.—Grindelwald is a large village of widely-scattered houses, in the heart of the Alps and near the snow-fields. It is an excellent starting-point for mountain excursions, and also a favorite summer resort, the situation being sheltered and healthful. The place owes its reputation chiefly to its glaciers close by. Three gigantic mountains bound the valley. In years when ice is scarce, these glaciers serve as ice-quarries.
Fig. 117
A THOUSAND FOOT CHASM, Grindelwald, Switzerland.—The above picture represents a chasm over a thousand feet in depth, with an almost perpendicular wall of rock rising on both sides. It has been cut down to its present level by the waters of the melting snows and ice on the mountain above, and strongly impresses the beholder with the power of the wheel of time. The stream in the foreground is only one of the many that rise into the dashing torrents within a hundred yards from their source in the Alpine country.
Fig. 118
BRUNIG PASS, Switzerland.—There is, perhaps, no other country in the world that can boast of such expensive and magnificent public roads as Switzerland. This picture represents the over-hanging rock of the Brunig Pass, on the way from Lucerne to Interlaken. High up, along the mountain-side, the road winds its way, affording to the beholder a magnificent panorama of the distant snow-fields above, and the green valleys and placid lakes below.
Fig. 119
LUCERNE, Switzerland.—The above is the capital of the canton of Lucerne, and one of the three seats of the Swiss Diet on the Rense, located twenty-five miles from Zurich by rail. It is highly picturesque, enclosed by a wall and watch-towers. The principal edifices are a cathedral and other fine churches, several convents, a town hall, an arsenal with ancient armor, two hospitals, an orphan asylum, jail, theatre, and covered bridges adorned with ancient paintings. It is a very attractive summer resort, the above picture showing its principal promenade.
Fig. 120
RIGI, Switzerland.—The Rigi is a group of mountains about twenty-five miles in circumference, lying between lakes Lucerne, Zug and Lowerz. The north side is precipitous, but the south side consists of broad terraces and gentle slopes, covered with fresh, green pastures, which support upwards of four thousand head of cattle; it is planted toward the base with fig, chestnut and almond trees. The photograph represents the Rigi inclined railway.
Fig. 121
RIGI-KULM, Switzerland.—The summit of the Rigi, owing to its isolated position, commands an extensive view, three hundred miles in circumference, that is unsurpassed for beauty in Switzerland. In 1816 a very modest hotel was erected on the Kulm by private subscriptions, and in 1848 it was superseded by the oldest of the three houses on the Kulm. Since then the number of inns has been steadily increasing, and the Rigi is now one of the most popular Swiss resorts, and is visited by thousands of tourists yearly.
Fig. 122
PILATUS, Switzerland.—This lofty mountain rises boldly in a rugged and imposing mass, almost isolated from the surrounding heights. Pilatus was formerly one of the best known Swiss mountains, but in later years it was supplanted by the Rigi. An inclined railway extends from the base to the summit, and is said to be one of the boldest undertakings of its kind ever carried through. Many legends are connected with Pilatus. One of the oldest is, that when Pontius Pilate was banished from Galilee he fled hither, and, in the bitterness of his remorse, drowned himself in the lake.
Fig. 123
SIMPLON'S PASS, Switzerland.—This is the first Alpine route after Brenner, constructed by order of Napoleon I. A good walker may easily outstrip the "diligence" in ascending from either side, especially if he takes short cuts. At the highest point of the Simplon is a large building, with a lofty flight of stairs, founded by Napoleon, for the reception of travelers, and subject to the same rules as that of the Great St. Bernard. This famous mountain-road is seen in the foreground passing through the town of Simplon, a little village in the very heart of the Alps.
Fig. 124
ZERMATT AND THE MATTERHORN, Switzerland.—The former lies in a green valley, with pine-clad slopes, while to the left rises the huge rock-pyramid of the Matterhorn. In no other locality is the traveler so completely admitted into the heart of the Alpine world as here. The Matterhorn was ascended for the first time on the 14th of July, 1865, but the ascent is now frequently made. The rock has been blasted at the most difficult points, and a rope attached to it, so that the most formidable difficulties have been removed; but even now the ascent is seldom made by any but proficient climbers.
Fig. 125
CHAMOUNIX AND MONT BLANC.—This Alpine valley is much frequented in summer, owing to its immediate proximity to Mont Blanc. It is inferior in picturesqueness to some other portions of Switzerland, but superior in grandeur of its glaciers, in which respect it has no rival but Zermatt. The picture shows the little village of Chamounix, with its few hotels and peasant homes in the valley below, and the perpetual ice and snow in the background, seemingly but a few minutes' walk away, yet requiring a good two hours' journey on mule-back. Apparent Alpine distances are very deceptive.
Fig. 126
ENGLEBERG, Switzerland.—Engleberg is loftily and prettily situated in the great mountain region of the Alps, with a population of about two thousand inhabitants. The church which appears nearest the mountain, is quite ancient, but contains famous modern pictures. The snow-covered mountains, five miles in the distance, change the climate in summer, so that the tourist can wear an overcoat with comfort. The winters are very severe, and on account of the deep snows, the inhabitants are sometimes compelled to remain indoors for eight weeks. The houses and barns are generally under one roof.
Fig. 127
ST. GOTTHARD RAILWAY, Switzerland.—The railway here passes through beautiful landscapes, richly wooded with walnut and chestnut trees, on the left bank of the Ticino. Numerous Campaniles in the Italian style, crowning the hills, have a very picturesque effect. The peaks above are covered with snow. From the cliffs on every side, fall cascades. Huge masses of rock lie scattered about. Three tunnels of the railway are seen in the picture, the latter making a descent of three hundred feet by means of two loop-tunnels, one below the other, in cork-screw fashion.
Fig. 128
AXENSTRASSE, Switzerland.—This famous road extends nine miles along the Lake of Uri, from Brunnen to Fluelen, and is noted for the remarkable boldness displayed in its construction. It is to a great extent hewn out of solid rock, cut like a shelf into the side of the mountain, with occasional pillars to hold the thousands of tons of rock above, and a strong balustrade to guard travelers from tumbling over the abrupt precipice into the lake many feet below. It is the great highway leading from Switzerland to Italy, and is regarded as one of the most picturesque roads in the world.
Fig. 129
PANORAMA OF VIENNA, Austria—The capital of the Empire of Austria and residence of the Emperor, is situated in a plain surrounded by distant mountains, the Danube Canal flowing through a portion of the city. It was originally a Celtic settlement, dating back to 14 A. D. The streets of the present city are narrow, generally well-paved and enclosed by very lofty houses. A great number of old passages through the courts of houses, by means of which pedestrians may often make a short cut, are still seen. In the last quarter of a century, Vienna has acquired an importance as a seat of art.
Fig. 130
HOTEL METROPOLE, Vienna, Austria.—On a branch of the Danube, flowing through the heart of the City of Vienna, stands the Hotel Metropole, an enormous building, admirably adapted for travelers. The picture shows a prominent feature in the street architecture of Vienna; and the Metropole is only one of the many private and public buildings of colossal dimensions which have sprung up within the last few years. The interiors of all these structures are generally decorated throughout with painting and sculpture, which shows the perfection attained by the Vienese in the fine arts.
Fig. 131
CHURCH OF ST. STEPHEN, Vienna, Austria.—This is the most important edifice in the Austrian capital, dating back in its construction to the thirteenth century. It is constructed of solid limestone, and built in the form of a Latin cross. Below the church are extensive catacombs, consisting of three vaults, filled with bones and skulls. Centuries ago, the sovereigns of Austria were buried in these vaults. The Tower, built between 1860 and 1864, affords an extensive view, embracing the river Danube and the battle-fields of Loban, Wagram and Essling.
Fig. 132
THESEUS (By Canoya), Volksgarten, Vienna, Austria.—In the centre of this pleasure ground stands the Temple of Theseus, containing Canova's fine marble group of the victory of Theseus over Centaur, originally destined by Napoleon I. for Milan. The figures are of heroic size. The victorious Theseus is represented as seated on the lifeless body of the monster, and the exhaustion that visibly pervades his whole frame, proves the terrible nature of the conflict in which he has been engaged.
Fig. 133
SCHONBRUNN, Austria.—This sumptuous edifice, the summer palace of the Austrian Emperor, was completed by Maria Theresa in 1775. The building has a most imposing appearance. The gardens in the rear are open to the public. To the left of the principal avenue are the Roman ruins, the Obelisk and the "Schöne Brunnen" (beautiful fountain), from which the palace derives its name. Statues, vases and other objects of taste of the period are scattered about the ground. Extensive parks are attached to the palace.
Fig. 134
GALATA BRIDGE, Constantinople, Turkey.—Along the north shore of the Golden Horn spreads the quarter known as Galata, rising up to the crest of the hill, and including the massive tower that crowns it. Beyond and above Galata, Pera stretches forward along the ridge that runs parallel with the shore. These places are connected with Constantinople by two bridges crossing the Golden Horn. One of these bridges is represented in the above picture. Unlike those of most other countries, people do not keep on the sidewalks, but wander along in any portion of the street. The scene on the Bridge of Galata affords an interesting subject for study.
Fig. 135
MOSQUE OF ST. SOPHIA, Constantinople, Turkey.—This is the finest and most important ecclesiastical building of the city. The first stone of the building was laid in 532. No fewer than ten thousand workmen are said to have been engaged under the direction of one hundred master builders, and when the work was completed, it had cost the imperial treasury $5,000,000. The dome rises to the height of one hundred and eighty feet, and is one hundred and seven feet in diameter. To render it as light as possible, it was constructed of pumice stone and Rhodian bricks. Not long after its completion, the dome was shaken by an earthquake, but was immediately restored.
Fig. 136
INTERIOR OF THE MOSQUE OF ST. SOPHIA, Constantinople, Turkey.—The whole interior of this noted structure is lined with costly marble. To add to its splendor, the temples of the ancient gods at Heliopolis and Ephesus, at Delos and Baalbec, at Athens and Cyzicus, were plundered of their columns. To secure the building from ravages of fire, no wood was employed in its construction except for the doors. The visitor cannot fail to be impressed by the bold span of the arches and the still bolder sweep of the dome, while his eye is at once bewildered and charmed by the rich, if not altogether harmonious, variety of decorations, from the many colored pillars down to the mosaics and inscriptions on the walls.
Fig. 137
STREET SCENE, Constantinople, Turkey.—The American traveler upon entering this city is almost bewildered at the many novelties that confront him before he reaches his hotel. Nothing strikes him more forcibly than the awful silence that pervades so large a place. The only sound heard is an occasional cry of some vender, with a large wooden tray on his head, selling sweetmeats, sherbet, fruit or bread. Dogs at intervals disturb the pedestrian. Hundreds of them lie in the middle of the street, and only move when aroused by blows. At ten o'clock at night, the city is as silent as death.
Fig. 138
MOSQUE OF SULTAN AHMED, Constantinople, Turkey.—Of all the mosques in the Ottoman Empire, this is the principal one. It is not as richly decorated as St. Sophia, but it is the only one that possesses six minarets. It is located on a square called the Hippodrome, named after the spot that was in former years used for circus purposes. The exterior view gives it a magnificent appearance. The place is one of the chief objects of interest in the city. The crumbling monument in the foreground is a relic of antiquity.
Fig. 139
TURKISH LADY, Constantinople, Turkey.
Fig. 140
STREET MERCHANTS, Constantinople, Turkey.
Fig. 141
SULTAN'S HAREM, Constantinople, Turkey.—This photograph represents an odalisque, one of the beautiful inmates of the harem of the Sultan of Turkey. The photographer who took this picture found her most courteous and obliging, and able to converse fluently in English, French and German. Abdul Mezed, who ruled Turkey during the Crimean War, had 1200 wives and odalisques in his harem. When a Turkish Sultan wishes to show especial honor to a subject, he makes him a present of one of the cast-off wives. To refuse the gift would be to invite death. The harem is continually recruited by the gifts of those who wish to carry favor with the Sultan, and these comprise slaves of every nationality.
Fig. 142
ACROPOLIS, Athens.—The natural centre of all the settlements in the Attic plain within the historical period was the Acropolis, a rocky plateau of crystalline limestone, rising precipitously to a height of two hundred feet. The semi-mythical Pelasgi, of whom but a few isolated traces have been found in Attica, are said to have leveled the top, increased the natural steepness of the rock on three sides, and fortified the only accessible part by nine gates. It was the earliest seat of the Athenian kings, who here sat in judgment and assembled their councils, as well as of the chief sanctuaries of the State.
Fig. 143
PARTHENON, Athens, Greece.—This structure is the most perfect monument of ancient art, and even in ruins presents an imposing and soul-stirring appearance, occupying the culminating point of the Acropolis. It was erected by Pericles and opened for public worship in 433 B.C. The crowning glory of the Parthenon was its magnificent sculpture, ascribed to Phidias, registering the highest level ever attained in plastic art. The Parthenon was used as a Christian Church in the fifth century. In 1460 it became the Turkish Mosque, and in 1670 the stately edifice was blown into ruins.
Fig. 144
GRAND CATHEDRAL AND SQUARE, Milan, Italy.—This is the focus of the commercial and public life of the city, and is now enclosed by imposing edifices on every side. The celebrated Cathedral, the eighth wonder of the world, is next to St. Peter's in Rome, the largest church in Europe. It covers an area of fourteen thousand square yards, and holds about forty thousand people. The building is in cruciform shape, with double aisles and transept. The interior is supported by fifty-two pillars, each twelve feet in diameter. The floor consists of mosaic, in marble of different colors.
Fig. 145
CORSO VENEZIA, Milan, Italy.—The principal shopping street of the city, and the favorite promenade of the Milanese is here represented. The buildings have a modern aspect, with little balconies at almost every window, which are often adorned with plants, flowers and creeping vines. The street, which is well paved, is wide, extending almost from house to house. The pavements are very narrow, consisting of only four smooth slabs of stone, laid side by side. The shop-windows are decorated in the most tempting style with the wares of the various merchants. The picture was secured in the early morning, giving the street a deserted look, which at all other times is crowded with people.
Fig. 146
EXPOSITION BUILDINGS, Turin, Italy.—The city of Turin was the capital of the county of Piedmont in the Middle Ages, and in 1418 it became subject to the Dukes of Savoy, who frequently resided here. From 1859 to 1865 it was the capital of Italy, and the residence of the King. It lies on an extensive plain on the banks of the River Po. Turin was the chief centre of those national struggles which led to a unification of Italy. The removal of the seat of government to Florence seriously impaired the prosperity of the city for a time, but it long since recovered, and celebrated its commercial success in 1884 by the exhibition.
Fig. 147
DUKE FERDINAND OF GENOA, Turin, Italy.—In the centre of the piazza Solferino stands the equestrian statue of Duke Ferdinand of Genoa, commanding-general at the battle of Novara. The statue was executed by Balzico, and is remarkable for the life-like expression of the wounded horse, with extended nostrils and gasping breath, sinking under the burden of his gallant rider. This piazza is one of the prettiest spots of Turin. Private residences face it on every side, with sloping lawns relieved by beds of flowers.
Fig. 148
GENOA, Italy.—Genoa, with a population of about 200,000, is located in the northern portion of the Peninsula, and is the principal seaport of Italy. The city is in the form of a crescent, and its gradual ascent from the shore, renders its appearance beautiful and attractive. It is enclosed by a double line of fortifications, which places it among the leading fortified cities in Europe. A beautiful light-house on the west side, 300 feet in height, stands like a sentinel on the edge of the bay. In the older portions of the city, the streets are only ten feet wide and are lined with high buildings on both sides.
Fig. 149
STATUE OF COLUMBUS, Genoa, Italy.—In the front of the principal railway station, rises the statue of Columbus, who was born at Genoa in 1435. The statue is in the centre of the spacious Piazza Acquaverde, embosomed in palm-trees. The pedestal is adorned with ships' prows. At the feet of the statue, which leans on an anchor, kneels the figure of America. The surrounding allegorical figures represent Religion, Science, Geography, Strength and Wisdom. Between these, are reliefs from the history of Columbus, with the inscription, "A Christoforo Colombo la Patria."
Fig. 150
LEANING TOWER, Pisa, Italy.—Pisa is principally noted for its famous "Leaning Tower," begun in 1174, and built of white marble; it is 178 feet high, and fronted with 207 columns. It is 50 feet in diameter, and leans 13 feet from the perpendicular. The foundation being made insufficiently solid, it began to incline before it was one-third completed. The Cathedral on the right was begun in 1604, and consecrated in 1618 by Pope Gelasius; it contains the famous chandelier which Galileo saw swinging, and which led to his invention of the pendulum of the clock. The Baptistry, close by, is noted for its marvelous echo.
Fig. 151
PALACE OF THE DOGES, Venice, Italy.—This magnificent edifice, founded in 800, and destroyed five times, has as often been re-erected in grander style. The palace is flanked with colonnades, forming two pointed arcades on the south and west. The upper portion of the building is constructed of red and white marble. The interior presents a noble specimen of Venetian art. Many famous masters are here represented, the subjects either portraying the glory of Venice, or being of a religious order. The Bridge of Sighs connects the palace with the prison adjoining, which contains a series of gloomy dungeons, a torture chamber and a place of execution for political criminals.
Fig. 152
GRAND CANAL, Venice, Italy.—This canal, the main artery of the traffic of Venice, nearly two miles in length, and thirty-three to sixty-six yards in width, intersects the city from north-west to south-east, dividing it into two unequal parts. Steam-launches, hundreds of gondolas and other vessels are seen gliding in every direction. Handsome houses and magnificent palaces rise on the banks, for this is the street of the Nobili, the ancient aristocracy of Venice. A barge, with a military band, navigates the canal every Sunday evening. A trip on the canal is extremely interesting; the posts are painted with the heraldic colors of their proprietors.
Fig. 153
CATHEDRAL OF ST. MARK, Venice, Italy.—Facing the piazza of St. Mark, which is in the heart of Venice and the grand focus of attraction, rises the magnificent Cathedral of St. Mark, decorated with almost oriental splendor. The building dates back to the tenth and eleventh centuries, and portions of the materials used in its construction have been brought from almost every country in Europe. The ceiling of the interior is richly adorned with mosaics in the form of various noted paintings. Behind the High Altar repose the remains of St. Mark, while further back stand four spiral columns said to have belonged to the Temple of Solomon. The building to the right is the Ducal Palace.
Fig. 154
VENICE, Italy.—The capital of the Province of Venice, is situated on the lagoons, a long breast of lowlands in the Adriatic. For a time it was the first maritime and commercial power of the world, and one of the finest cities in Europe, but now it is nothing but a vast museum. The eighty islands on which Venice is built, are divided by wide and narrow canals, while small foot-paths wind throughout the city, occasionally crossing a canal, as is seen by the bridge in the above picture. Venice is popularly known as the "Queen of the Adriatic."
Fig. 155
THE RIALTO, Venice, Italy.—This famous bridge, one hundred and fifty-eight feet long and forty-six feet wide, rests on twelve hundred posts. It was erected from 1588 to 1591. Its sides are lined with little shops, extending from a fish-market at one end, past jewelry-shops in the centre of the structure, down to a fruit-market at the other side. It always presents a busy appearance, and is considered a marvel of engineering skill, and one of the finest bridges in the world. The picture represents the annual parade on the Grand Canal, with the Rialto in the background, which is always the rallying centre on such occasions.
Fig. 156
THE CATHEDRAL, Florence, Italy.—This stately edifice, erected from 1294 to 1462, on the site of the earlier church of St. Reparata, is a striking example of Italian architecture. The church was finally consecrated in 1436, but the lantern on the top of the dome was not completed until 1462. The building is one hundred and eighty-five and one-half yards long, and one hundred and fourteen yards wide; the dome is three hundred feet high. The bell-tower, a square structure adjoining the cathedral, two hundred and ninety-two feet in height, is regarded as one of the finest existing works of its kind. It consists of four stories of richly decorated and colored marbles.
Fig. 157
VECCHIO BRIDGE, Florence, Italy.—Florence is situated on both banks of the Arno, but by far the greatest part of the city lies on the right bank. The bridge in the picture dates back to the fourteenth century, and is flanked on both sides with shops which have belonged to gold-smiths ever since their erection. It forms one of the principal bridgeways between the city proper and that portion of Florence which stands on the south bank of the Arno, and has always been considered one of the greatest sights of the town.
Fig. 158
MONK, Italy.—Monasticism primarily meant the state of dwelling alone; and then, by an easy and natural transition, it came to denote a life of poverty, celibacy and divine obedience under fixed rules of discipline. The radical idea of the term, in all its varieties of age, creed and country, is the same, namely, retirement from society in search of some ideal life, which society cannot supply, but which is thought attainable by self-denial and withdrawal from the world. The picture represents an Italian monk in funeral attire.
Fig. 159
LOGGIA DEI LANZI, Florence, Italy.—This magnificent open-vaulted hall is one of the kind with which it was usual to provide both public and private patrons of Florence, in order that the inmate might enjoy the open air or participate in public demonstrations, without being obliged to descend to the street. The style of architecture shows a falling off from the Gothic, while the works of sculpture, representing Faith, Hope and Charity, Temperance and Fortitude, exhibit an incipient leaning toward Renaissance forms. Every afternoon the Loggia is crowded with the poorer people of Florence, who seek a cool spot in the open air.
Fig. 160
UFFIZI BUILDINGS, Florence, Italy.—This gallery originated with the Medici collections and was afterwards so improved with the numerous additions by the Lorraine Family, that it is now one of the best in the world, both for value and extent. The Portico of the Uffizi Gallery, seen on both sides of the open court, contains niches, which are adorned with marble statues of celebrated Tuscans. At the farthest end of the court, rises the Vecchio Palace, a castle-like building, with huge projecting battlements, being originally the seat of the Signora, and subsequently used as a casino.
Fig. 161
RAPE OF POLYXENA (By Fedi), Loggia dei Lanzi, Florence, Italy.—Polyxena, according to Greek legend, was the daughter of Priam, King of Troy. Having by her grace and beauty captivated Achilles, the Grecian hero, she was betrothed to him. But Achilles was slain by Paris, son of Priam; and after his death and the destruction of Troy, his manes appeared to the returning Greeks, and demanded of them the sacrifice of Polyxena. The Greeks consented, and Neoptolemus, the son of Achilles, sacrificed her on his father's grave. This work of art is of modern execution. It was placed in the Loggia in 1866.
Fig. 162
  Uffizi Gallery,
    Florence, Italy
Fig. 163
THE GRINDER, Uffizi Gallery, Florence, Italy.—This magnificent statue was found in Rome in the sixteenth century. It has never been exactly ascertained what it represents, but it is supposed to be a Scythian whetting his knife to flay Marsyas.
Fig. 164
APPIAN WAY and TOMB OF CÆCILIA METELLA, Italy.—This military road, paved with stone blocks, and extending from Brindisi to Rome, was constructed by Appius Claudius Cæcus, 312 B.C. Even at the present time its proud ancient title is that of the "Queen of Roads," and it is remembered as being the way on which St. Paul came to Rome. The tomb of Cæcilia Metella, which forms an interesting and conspicuous object, is a circular structure sixty-five feet in diameter, erected in honor of the daughter of Metellus Creticus, wife of the younger Crassus, son of the triumvir.
Fig. 165
PYRAMID OF CESTIUS AND ST. PAUL GATE, Rome, Italy.—The pyramid enclosed by Aurelian within the city and wall is the tomb of Caius Cestius, who died in the year 12 B. C. The Egyptian pyramidical form was not unfrequently adopted by the Romans in their tombs. That of Cestius is built of brick and covered with marble blocks. Immediately to the right of the pyramid is the gate of St. Paul, leading on to the church of St. Paul beyond. Midway between the gate and church, legend says, St. Peter and St. Paul took leave of each other on their last journey.
Fig. 166
ROMAN FORUM, Rome, Italy.—After the Sabine tribes were amalgamated into a single state, they chose the Forum as its centre; and it was there that some of the most noted events in the history of the Roman Empire transpired. After the Samnite War, which resulted in the extension of Rome's supremacy over all Italy, the Forum became too small for its multifarious business; and therefore underwent many changes. After its destruction, during the Dark Ages, its remains were gradually buried beneath the rubbish and debris of some former centuries, but have recently been excavated.
Fig. 167
FORUM OF TRAJAN, Rome, Italy.—This forum, which adjoined that of Augustus, contained a collection of magnificent edifices, and is said to have been designed by Apollodorus of Damascus. Trajan's forum must have measured two hundred and twenty yards in width, and was probably of still greater length; it was considered the most magnificent in Rome. On the north side of the Basilica rises Trajan's Column, one hundred and forty-seven feet high, constructed entirely of marble. Around the column runs a spiral band, covered with admirable reliefs from Trajan's War with the Dacians. Beneath this monument Trajan was interred; on the summit stood his statue, now replaced by St Peter's.
Fig. 168
BATHS OF CARACALLA, Rome, Italy.—These ancient baths were begun in 212 by Caracalla, and completed by Alex. Severus, and they could accommodate 1600 bathers at one time. The magnificence of these baths was unparalleled; numerous statues, including the Farnese Bull, Hercules and Flora at Naples, have been found here; and the uncovered walls still bear testimony to the technical perfection of the structure. The establishment was quadrangular in form, and surrounded by a wall.
Fig. 169
COLOSSEUM, Rome, Italy.—The Colosseum, originally called the Amphitheatrum Flavium and completed by Titus in 80 A.D., was the largest theatre and one of the most imposing structures in the world. It was inaugurated by 100 days' gladiatorial combats, in which 5000 wild animals were killed. It contained seats for 87,000 spectators. Only one-third of the gigantic structure now remains, yet the ruins are still stupendously impressive. The Colosseum has ever been a symbol of the greatness of Rome, and gave rise in the eighth century to a prophetic saying of the pilgrims: "While stands the Colosseum, Rome shall stand; when falls the Colosseum, Rome shall fall; and when Rome falls, with it shall fall the world!"
Fig. 170
INTERIOR OF COLOSSEUM, Rome, Italy.—The arches of the first tier are marked by Roman numbers, as they formed so many entrances, through which, by means of internal stairways, the upper balconies were reached. The Arena had two openings enclosed by railings of bronze, through which the gladiators and wild beasts entered. Above was the Podium, a place intended for the Emperors and their families, for the magistrates, the senators, the priests and the vestals. Thousands of Christians in this place suffered martyrdom, by becoming the prey of wild beasts. The picture presents the imposing spectacle of the interior of this monument at the present day.
Fig. 171
PANTHEON, Rome, Italy.—This is the only ancient edifice at Rome which is still in perfect preservation, as regards the walls and vaulting. The original statues and architectural decorations have long since been replaced by modern and inferior works, but the huge circular structure with its vast colonnade still presents a strikingly imposing appearance. The walls are twenty feet in thickness and were originally covered with marble and stucco. The height and diameter of the dome are each one hundred and forty feet. The opening of the dome at the top is thirty feet in diameter, and through this aperture the ancients supposed the gods to descend. The building is supposed to have been constructed in the first century B. C.
Fig. 172
BRIDGE OF ST. ANGELO AND TOMB OF HADRIAN, Rome, Italy.—This bridge is of most ancient construction. It was built by Hadrian in 136 A. D., to connect his tomb with the city. Ten colossal angels, formerly much admired, and executed in 1688, testify to the low ebb of plastic art at that period. The tomb was built by Emperor Hadrian for himself and his successors. The massive circular tower stands on a square basement on the banks of the Tiber. The bronze statue of St. Michael, the Archangel, which is seen on the summit, gives the tower its present name, Castello S. Angelo.
Fig. 173
ST. PETER'S AND VATICAN, Rome, Italy.—St. Peter's is fronted by an elliptical piazza, enclosed by imposing colonnades, and is the largest and most beautiful Catholic Cathedral in the world; it was founded by Constantine and erected where St. Peter is said to have suffered martyrdom. Its erection and improvements cost over $50,000,000. The great Obelisk in the centre of the piazza, having no hieroglyphics, was brought from Heliopolis. The Vatican on the right is the Pope's residence, and is elegantly fitted up, being adorned with paintings and statues by the world's greatest masters.
Fig. 174
INTERIOR OF ST. PETER'S, Rome, Italy.—This most marvellous church in the world was built on the place where stood the temple of Jupiter Vaticanus. The first church here is said to have been built A. D., 90. It was a memorial chapel to St. Peter, and was, according to tradition, erected on the spot where the saint was buried. Constantine built a Basilica on the site. The present structure, the glory of Michael Angelo, was begun about 1503. The picture shows the high altar with the statue of St. Peter to the very right.
Fig. 175
ROMULUS AND REMUS SUCKING THE WOLF, Capitol Museum, Rome, Italy.—Thus wrote Virgil ("AEN." VIII-630):
    "By the wolf were laid the martial twins,
      Intrepid on her swelling dugs they hung;
      The foster dam lolled out her fawning tongue;
      She sucked secure; while bending back her head,
She licked their tender limbs, and formed them as they fed."
Fig. 176
TRANSFIGURATION (By Raphael), Vatican Gallery, Rome, Italy.—The last great work and masterpiece of this celebrated artist, unfinished at his death and completed by Clement VIII., was preserved in St. Peter's until 1797. The upper part is by Raphael's own hand; Christ hovers between Moses and Elias; Peter, James and John are prostrate on the ground, and dazzled by the light. The figures to the left, in an attitude of adoration, are St. Lawrence and St. Stephen. The lower half, where the other disciples are requested to heal the possessed boy, was partly executed by Raphael's pupils.
Fig. 177
LA BALLERINA (By Canova), Rome, Italy.—Here is another of the masterpieces of this famous master-sculptor. It is hewn out of a solid block of marble, and comes under the head of "grace and elegance," one of the divisions of Canova's works. This subject is a most striking one. Like all his other subjects of grace, it is in all its details, an expression of attitude, delicacy of finish and elegance. The profile is charming, the twist of the hair natural, and the lines and curves of the arms perfect, while the drapery is next to real.
Fig. 178
LAOCOONTE, Vatican Gallery, Rome, Italy.—This famous group represents Laocoon and his two sons, who were strangled by serpents at the command of Apollo. According to Pliny, it was executed by three Rhodians, and placed in the Palace of Titus. It was discovered under Julius II., in 1506, near Sette Sale, and was termed by Michael Angelo a "marvel of art." The work is admirably preserved, with the exception of the three uplifted arms, which have been incorrectly restored. The dramatic suspense of the moment, and the profoundly expressive attitude of the heads, denote the perfection of the Rhodian school of art.
Fig. 179
TOLEDO STREET, Naples, Italy.—This famous city is beautifully situated on the Bay of Naples, with Mount Vesuvius in the distance. Its charming position has given rise to the phrase "See Naples and die." It was founded by the Greeks, and here Virgil spent his time in study, his tomb being one of the points of interest for travelers. The city is still surrounded by a wall. It has often suffered from earthquakes and eruptions. The manufactures are numerous, of which macaroni and vermicelli are of first importance. The photograph represents Toledo Street, which intersects the city from south to north, and with its immense amount of well-conducted business, presents a very interesting sight.
Fig. 180
CRATER OF MOUNT VESUVIUS, Italy.—This volcano, with a crater of nearly a quarter of a mile in circumference, rises in lonely majesty from the Bay of Naples, and varies in height from 3900 to 4900 feet, according to the varied eruptions. Vesuvius in the time of Nero manifested itself by a fearful earthquake, damaging Herculaneum and Pompeii. An eruption occurred in 79 A.D. by which the two cities named, were lost to the world for seventeen centuries. Another most terrific eruption occurred in 1631, by which a stone weighing twenty-five tons was thrown a distance of fifteen miles, and streams of lava poured from the summit, destroying over three thousand people.
Fig. 181
STREET OF TOMBS, Pompeii, Italy.—This photograph exhibits a suburb of Pompeii named Pagus Augustus Felix, in honor of Augustus; it lay outside the city walls. It consisted chiefly of one main street, which has been partly excavated. This is the so-called Street of Tombs. The ancient custom of burying the dead by the side of a high road is well known. It has been ascertained that rows of graves, similar to those discovered here, exist beyond other gates of Pompeii. The Street of Tombs is, in point of situation, the most beautiful part of the town.
Fig. 182
CIVIL FORUM, Pompeii, Italy.—The ancient market-place in the central part of Pompeii was destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 A. D. The Forum has been excavated during the present century, and found to be five hundred and fifteen feet long and one hundred and seven feet wide; it is surrounded by granite columns of the Doric order. From the discoveries made, it is supposed that the Forum was far from complete when the eruption occurred. The smoking mountain is still seen in the distance, while the ruins of the ancient market stand prominent in the foreground of this photograph. The Forum is a most interesting spot, and is familiar to all readers of "The Last Days of Pompeii."
Fig. 183
ISLAND OF CAPRI, Italy.—This is a small mountainous island of oblong form; its picturesque outline forms one of the most charming points in the view of the Bay of Naples. The highest point is the Monte Solarno, nineteen hundred and twenty feet above the level of the sea. The island, which contains five thousand inhabitants and the two small towns of Capri and Anacapri, yields fruit, oil and excellent red and white wines in abundance. The inhabitants receive their support mainly from strangers who visit the island yearly to the number of thirty thousand. The above picture shows the principal landing-place of Capri.
Fig. 184
CASTELLO, Island of Ischia, Italy.—The climate of these charming islands is genial, the sky rarely overcast, the winters mild, the inhabitants bounteously supplied with the necessaries of life, and the sick with healing springs. Trees, shrubs and all kinds of plants thrive luxuriantly in this volcanic soil. Here and there are observed groves of young oaks and chestnuts. The inhabitants are distinguished by a peculiar costume, dialect and figure. Fashion is unknown; not one of the islands can boast of a horse or carriage. Castello, in the foreground, is a most curious volcanic formation.
Fig. 185
HARBOR, Alexandria, Egypt.—The perfectly flat coast of Egypt, and even Alexandria itself, are not visible to the steam-boat passenger until very shortly before the vessel enters the harbor. The latter consists of an outer breakwater, forming an obtuse angle nearly two miles in length. A second pier, nearly a mile in length, protects an inner harbor covering nearly five hundred acres of water, twenty-seven feet deep. No fewer than thirty thousand artificial blocks, weighing twenty tons each, and two million tons of natural blocks of stone were used in the construction of these magnificent harbor works.
Fig. 186
PLACE OF MEHEMET ALI, Alexandria, Egypt.—The site of this open square is embellished with trees and fountains. It became a scene of destruction during 1882. In the centre rises the equestrian statue of Mohammed' Ali, the founder of the reigning dynasty of Egypt. The Mohammedan religion forbids the pictorial or plastic representations of the human form. The erection of this monument was long opposed by the Ulama, or chief professor of divine and legal learning. The buildings on both sides are shops. That at the further end is the English church.
Fig. 187
CITADEL, Cairo, Egypt.—This citadel affords a magnificent view of the city and surrounding country. It was erected in 1166, and built by stones taken from the small pyramids at Gizeh, the site having been selected, according to Arabian history, owing to the fact that meat could be kept here fresh twice as long as in any other part of Cairo. The fortress commands the city, yet its site is unfavorable, as a commanding height close by compelled its surrender during the wars of 1805.
Fig. 188
MOSQUE OF MOHAMMED' ALI, Cairo, Egypt.—The "Alabaster Mosque," whose lofty and graceful minarets are so conspicuous from the distance, form one of the landmarks of Cairo. In plan, it represents the Turkish mosques, built on the model of Hagia Sofla, at Constantinople. The execution of the design displays but little artistic taste, and the treatment of the material is somewhat unsatisfactory. The alabaster used for the incrustation of the masonry consists partly of blocks and partly of slabs. The beautiful yellow-tint stone soon fades when exposed to the sun.
Fig. 189
STREET SCENE, Cairo, Egypt.—Most of the streets in the old part of the town are unpaved, inaccessible to carriages, and often excessively dirty. They present an inexhaustible field of amusement and delight, admirably illustrating the whole world of oriental fiction. The lanes separating the rows of houses in the Arabian quarter are so narrow that the projecting balconies of harems, with their gratings, often nearly meet. Rickety, tumbling houses of every variety of oriental architecture strike the beholder at every turn, as is illustrated above.
Fig. 190
PALACE OF GEZIREH, Cairo, Egypt.—This palace is located on the Nile, at one end of a park by the same name. Its external appearance is simple. All the distinguished guests who were invited to attend the ceremony of the opening of the Suez Canal were entertained here. The building is State property and rarely occupied. The interior is furnished in the most sumptuous and elaborate manner. The onyx mantel-pieces, with mirrors, cost each $15,000. Portions of the palace are fitted up in suites of apartments for visitors, each consisting of bed-room, dressing-room and sitting-room.
Fig. 191
ON CAMEL-BACK, Egypt.—To people accustomed to all the comforts and luxuries of the world, who have never experienced desert tent-life, nor traveled through countries where there are no people to consult, it is hard to convey an idea of oriental camel-back traveling. The "ship of the desert" is a most faithful animal, and loved by his master as much as a child; but his back affords a very uncomfortable seat. The long backward and forward motion recalls to the rider the swells of the sea. The above picture is a perfect specimen of hundreds of such caravans during the traveling season.
Fig. 192
PYRAMIDS OF GIZEH, Egypt.—Here are represented the great Pyramids of Gizeh, occupying a plateau gradually ascending from east to west, parts of which are very precipitous at places. The three pyramids are so situated on this plateau as to face the four points of the compass, although the magnet shows a deviation toward the west. The Sphinx is situated close by. Numerous tombs, almost all in ruins, surround these pyramids, and extend over the plateau to the east. They are sometimes hewn in the form of grottoes in the external rocky slope.
Fig. 193
"Since what unnumbered year, "No faithless slumber snatching,
 Hast thou kept watch and ward,  Still couched in silence brave,
 And o'er the buried Land of Fear,  Like some fierce hound long watching,
 So grimly held thy guard?"  Above her master's grave."
Fig. 194
LANDING ON SUEZ CANAL, Egypt.—The Suez Canal, which connects the Red Sea with the Mediterranean, was completed in 1863. During the time of construction, which lasted five years, 25,000 men were employed, and 1600 camels to supply them with water. The cost of constructing the canal was $95,000,000, part of which was raised by shareholders, and the balance by the Khedive. This picture represents a landing stage and one of the English trading vessels sailing between England and India. A number of camels and Arabs are seen on a ferry-boat, ready to be taken across the Canal, the latter furnishing the great highway for all European vessels sailing to or from the Orient.
Fig. 195
POST-OFFICE, Suez, Egypt.—The site of this town is naturally an absolute desert, and, until the water of the Nile was introduced by the fresh water canal in 1863, the water-supply of Suez was brought across the head of the gulf from the "wells of Moses," on the Arabian coast, or else carried on camels, after an hour's journey, from the fortified brackish of Bir Suweis. In spite of its favorable position for commerce, the place was quite small prior to the time of the canal, and even to-day the canal carries traffic past Suez rather than to it. The picture shows the post-office square.
Fig. 196
IN CENTRAL AFRICA.—No country in the world creates more interest among the civilized nations than does Africa. In the far interior, where African explorers have failed to find traces of the outer world, every variety of savage humanity exists. These uncivilized people, who know nothing of the progress of nations, live in tribes, preying upon each other's settlements, whenever opportunity presents itself. The above picture represents the typical natives of the Dark Continent.
Fig. 197
YAFFA OR JAFFA, Palestine.—Jaffa is a small town lying on the coast of the Mediterranean, at the foot of a rock one hundred and sixteen feet in height. This town is very ancient, and a road runs directly from it to Jerusalem. The houses are built of tuff-stone, and the streets are generally very narrow and dirty, and, after the slightest rain, exceedingly muddy. The town walls are falling to decay, and the interior of the town is uninteresting. Tradition points out the place as the one in which Napoleon is said to have caused plague-patients to be poisoned, and in which St. Peter once fished; but the authenticity of it seems to proceed from a confusion of ideas.
Fig. 198
JERUSALEM, Palestine.—Here is a place of overwhelming interest, but at first sight sadly disappointing. Little is seen of the ancient City of Zion and Moriah, the far-famed capital of the Jewish Empire, in the narrow, crooked and ill-paved streets of the modern town. The combination of wild superstitions, with the merest formalism which is everywhere observed, and the fanaticism and jealous exclusiveness of the numerous religious communities of Jerusalem, form the chief modern characteristics of that memorable city which was once the fountain-head from which the knowledge of the true God was wont to be vouchsafed to mankind, and which has exercised the greatest influence on religious thought throughout the world.
Fig. 199
WAILING-PLACE OF THE JEWS, Jerusalem, Palestine.—Outside of the enclosure of Mosque El Aksa, at Jerusalem, is the noted wailing-place of the Jews. A large number of them, including old and young, male and female, gather here on Friday, kiss the stones and water them with their tears. They bewail the downfall of Jerusalem, and read from their well-worn Hebrew Bibles and prayer-books the Lamentations of Jeremiah. The following few words are an exact copy from their litany: "For the Palace that lies desolate, we sit in solitude and mourn." They present a curious spectacle.
Fig. 200
STREET SCENE, Jerusalem, Palestine.—The above photograph represents one of the fourteen stations of the "street of pain," over which Christ is said to have carried the cross on His way to Golgotha. The place where Christ was laid upon the cross, the house of Dives, the rich man, where Simon of Cyrene took the cross from Christ, the house against which Christ is said to have leaned, or near which He fell a second time, and the place where Christ is said to have addressed the women that accompanied Him, are all seen along this avenue.
Fig. 201
GARDEN OF GETHSEMANE, Palestine.—This holy place is situated at the foot of Mount Olivet across the Kedron, and noted as the scene of our Lord's agony. Jesus frequently came here, as did also His disciples. It is a small irregular spot surrounded by a high wall. This wall was built in 1847 by Franciscan monks, who claimed it necessary to keep from the garden, pilgrims who injured the olive trees. There are seven of these trees remaining in the Garden, whose trunks, nineteen feet in circumference, are cracked open with age, and claimed to date back to the time of our Saviour.
Fig. 202
BETHLEHEM, Palestine.—"But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall He come forth unto Me that is to be ruler in Israel." In Hebrew the word signifies the "place of bread," or, more generally, "the place of food," and is possibly derived from the fact that the region about Bethlehem has from very remote antiquity presented a marked contrast to the surrounding "wilderness." We learn from the Bible that the inhabitants of Bethlehem possessed cornfields, vineyards and flocks of goats, and that they made cheese. The natural products of to-day in every respect confirm this record.
Fig. 203
DEAD SEA, Palestine.—This sea, situated sixteen miles from Jerusalem and visible from the Mount of Olives, occupies that deep depression thirteen hundred feet below the Mediterranean, which extends from the mountains of Lebanon to the Gulf of Akabah, and is forty-six miles long and about ten miles wide. The River Jordan and smaller streams empty their waters into it, and it has no visible outlet. The water of the Dead Sea contains a large quantity of mineral substances, consisting of chlorides of sodium, calcium and magnesium, which give it a bitter taste, and render it smooth and oily.
Fig. 204
NAZARETH, Palestine.—This village, situated in Galilee about sixty-five miles from Jerusalem, is the place where Jesus grew up from infancy. From its highest elevation the most beautiful views of the Holy Land can be taken. The place must have been very small in the time of Christ, as the village is not named in the Old Testament. The population in those times was mainly Jewish, but it now has Greek, Latin and Moslem quarters and a Protestant mission. During the Middle Ages many Christians visited Nazareth, but when the Turks seized Palestine in 1517, they were again driven out.
Fig. 205
JACOB'S WELL, Palestine.—Jews, Christians and Muslims agree that this is the "Well of Jacob" of Scripture. (Gen. XXXIII., 19.) It is situated on the high road from Jerusalem to Galilee, according perfectly with the narrative of St. John IV., 5-30. In summer, it is often dry. It is seven and one-half feet in diameter and lined with masonry. If, as is probable, this well was the scene of Christ's conversation with the Samaritan woman, the tradition had already attached to it, that this was Jacob's Well, and around it was the field which he purchased, and where Joseph was afterwards buried. (Joshua XXIV., 32.)
Fig. 206
BEYROUTH, Syria.—The above city, located on the Mediterranean, is one of great antiquity. The city proper is an irregular square, open towards the sea, and surrounded on the land side by a substantial tower-flanked wall. The streets are wider than is usual in Syrian towns, and are paved with large stones. The houses, for the most part, are lofty and spacious. During the hot season the wealthier inhabitants move inland. The surrounding hills consist of reddish sand, interspersed with rock, and are covered with a light soil.
Fig. 207
GREAT MOSQUE, Damascus, Syria.—It is possible that during the first century of the Christian era, a heathen temple stood on the site of the present mosque. The building was converted into a Christian church, and contained a casket in which the head of John the Baptist was shown. The Christian church was destroyed, and the present mosque erected. Antique columns were collected in towns of Syria, and used in the decoration. The pavement and lower walls are covered with rarest marbles. The ceiling, from which hang six hundred golden lamps, is of wood, inlaid with gold. The urn above the altar is said to still contain the remains of the head of John the Baptist.
Fig. 208
BAALBEC, Syria.—These magnificent ruins have excited the wonder and admiration of every beholder. In view of the fact that the Jewish style of architecture is mingled with that of the Doric and the Corinthian order, this building is supposed to have been the house that Solomon built for his Egyptian wife. It may be surpassed in classical taste by the Temple of Athens, and, in some respects, Rome may rival it. Even in magnitude the Nile exceeds it, but there is something about Baalbec that causes it to stand alone, and makes it peer of all. Its origin is not known, yet it passed through the Greek, Arab and Roman hands, and suffered assaults by the Crusades.
Fig. 209
MECCA, Syria.—The pilgrimage to Mecca, which every Muslim is bound to undertake once in his life, is a most curious religious custom. In the neighborhood of Mecca the pilgrims undress, laying aside even their head-gear, and put on aprons and a piece of cloth over the left shoulder. They then perform the circuit of the Ka'ba, kiss the black stone, hear the sermon on Mount Arafat, near Mecca, pelt Satan with stones in the Valley of Mina, and conclude their pilgrimage with a great sacrificial feast. The picture shows the famous cemetery of Mecca, the bodies all buried above the ground.
Fig. 210
KALBADEVIE ROAD, Bombay, India.—The city of Bombay, under English rule, with a population of nearly a million inhabitants, is one or the most flourishing cities in India, on account of its nearness to the Suez Canal. The approach from the sea discloses one of the finest panoramas in the world, the only European analogy being the Bay of Naples. The town itself consists of well-built and usually handsome native bazaars, and of spacious streets devoted to European commerce, of which the above is one of the principal avenues.
Fig. 211
BENARES, India.—The city here represented is the religious centre of Hindooism, and one of the oldest cities on the globe. The bank of the Ganges is entirely lined with stone, and there are many very fine landing-places, built by pious devotees, and highly ornamented. The internal streets are so narrow and winding, that there is not room for a carriage to pass; and it is difficult to penetrate them even on horseback. The houses are built of Chanar stone, and are lofty, none being less than two, and many five and six, stories high.
Fig. 212
Fig. 213
Fig. 214
Fig. 215
WONG TAI KEN, China.—The people of China are a thoroughly settled class of agriculturists and traders. They are partially Buddhist, and have a peculiar monosyllabic, uninflected language, with writing consisting of symbols, which represent words, not letters. The photograph represents one of the better class, dressed in a richly made costume after the fashion of her country. Her feet, like all of her race, are extremely small and encased in velvet sandals, with thick wooden shoes, which are peculiar to these people.
Fig. 216
TYPICAL SCENE, Sandwich Islands.—The ravines and mountain-slopes on the windward side of the larger islands contain much forest growth, while the leeward uplands and plains are comparatively bare. Among the most remarkable forms of vegetation is a screw-pine and candle-nut tree, so named from the fact that the natives string together the kernels, which are very oily, and make candles. The natives derive their sustenance chiefly from pork and fish, both fresh and dried, and from the banana, sweet potato, yam, bread, fruit and cocoanut.
Fig. 217
SITKA, Alaska.—Sitka, the capital of Alaska, is situated on the west coast of the Baranoff Island, which is one of the principal of the Alexander Islands. It is the second town in size, and has a custom house, a Greco-Russian church, a hospital, a half dozen stores, schools and several saw mills. Its principal business is fishing, and a number of steamers ply between this place and Portland, Oregon. The island is about seventy miles long and fifteen miles wide, and is densely timbered.
Fig. 218
TOTEM POLES, Alaska.—A totem is a class of material objects which a savage regards with superstitious respect, believing that there exists between him and every member of the class an intimate and special relation. These poles, which rise to the height of 70 feet, are elaborately carved from top to bottom with a succession of figures, representing the wolf, frog, bear, eagle, whale and a variety of other animals. They are planted near Indian villages, but it is hoped church steeples will soon tower in their places and work a change in these strange people.
Fig. 219
PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS, Ottawa, Canada.—The capital of the Dominion of Canada is situated on the Ottawa River, four hundred and fifty miles from New York, and one hundred and twenty-six miles from Montreal. It is one of the most flourishing cities in Ontario, on account of the great lumber products in the surrounding districts. The city was founded sixty-three years ago, its chief attraction being the Government Buildings, which stand on Barrack Hill, and are built mainly of light-colored sandstone. The style of architecture is that of Italian Gothic. The main building is five hundred feet long, covering nearly four acres, and involving a cost of $4,000,000 in its construction.
Fig. 220
GOLDEN GATE, California.—This forms the entrance to San Francisco Bay, which is about seventy miles long and from ten to fifteen wide, and is narrowed into a channel only about one mile wide; here the waters escape in a current as the tide ebbs and flows to and from the ocean. As one approaches from the ocean towards the bay, the south side of the Golden Gate exhibits a shelving point of land which terminates in a long fortification called Fort Point. The portion of the strait between the light house on the north and the fort on the south, is termed "The Golden Gate," or "Chrysopylæ."
Fig. 221
SAN FRANCISCO, California.—The city is the commercial metropolis of California, and is situated nearly six miles from the ocean on the west side of the magnificent bay from which it derives its name. It stands on a plain which inclines towards the bay, and has numerous hills behind it. The city is regularly laid out, the streets crossing each other at right angles. Market Street, which has four street-car tracks, two of which are cable lines, is the principal business street; it runs south-west from the bay, and divides the older from the newer portion of the city. The city was originally called Yerba Buena ("good herbs"), and was settled by the Spaniards about 1777, but was changed to San Francisco in 1847.
Fig. 222
YOSEMITE VALLEY, California.—The Yosemite Valley is situated one hundred and fifty miles distant, in a direct line, a little to the southeast of San Francisco. It is six miles in length and from half a mile to a mile in width, and sunk from two thousand to three thousand feet in perpendicular depth below the general level of the surrounding country. The waterfalls in and about this valley are of great beauty and variety. The Nevada and Vernal Falls of the Merced River, which flows through the whole length of the valley, are wonderfully grand.
Fig. 223
MIRROR LAKE, Yosemite Valley, California.—Up the canyon of the Tenaya is situated this beautiful little lake, called "Mirror Lake," which is an expansion of the Tenaya Fork. It is generally visited early in the morning, for the purpose of seeing the reflection of the overhanging rock, which is known as Mount Watkins. Mirror Lake is one of the principal points of interest of this marvelous depression of nature.
Fig. 224
GLAZIER POINT, Yosemite Valley, California.—Glazier Point, one of the most remarkable and striking features of nature in the world, is composed of solid rock, thirty-two hundred feet in perpendicular height. It is reached by a trail from the floor of the valley, and the time generally consumed is from four to six hours. From this great point of interest, a general view of the whole valley can be obtained, and nothing is more soul-stirring to the beholder than to look at the great and marvelous wonders of nature abounding in the Yosemite Valley.
Fig. 225
BIG TREE, California.—The big trees of California are known the world over and are specifically termed the sequoia gigantea, and abound only in California. They occur in groves or patches, which are scattered over limited areas. They grow to a great height, ranging from two hundred to three hundred feet, and attain a circumference from seventy-five to one hundred feet. The above is a photograph of one of the trees, showing the trunk, through which a four-horse stage coach passes. This tree measures twenty-five feet in diameter, and it stands in the Mariposa Grove.
Fig. 226
GREAT MORMON TEMPLE, Salt Lake City, Utah.—The Mormon religion was founded by Joseph Smith, at Manchester, New York, in 1830, and the same year was published "The Book of Mormon," in which Joseph Smith was declared to be God's "Prophet." He soon removed, with his followers, to Kirtland, Ohio, which was to be the seat of the New Jerusalem. Several years later the Mormon band emigrated to Missouri, and later to Salt Lake City, Utah. After the death of Smith, Brigham Young succeeded, until 1877, when he died and left a fortune of $2,000,000 to seventeen wives and fifty-six children. Here they prospered and started to build the great temple, which is not yet quite finished.
Fig. 227
PULPIT TERRACE, Yellowstone National Park.-The Yellowstone Park has in the vicinity of the Mammoth Hot Springs many remarkable terrace-building springs, which are situated one thousand feet above the Gardiner River, into which they discharge their waters. The water finds its way to the surface through deep-lying cretaceous strata, and contains a great deposit of calcareous material. As the water flows out at the various elevations on the terraces through many vents, it forms corrugated layers of carbonate of lime, which is generally hard while wet, but becomes soft when dry. While these springs are active, vegetation dies in their vicinity; but when dry, grass and trees again grow on the crumbling calcareous deposit.
Fig. 228
OBSIDIAN CLIFF, Yellowstone National Park.—This noted and volcanic glass mountain, situated in the Yellowstone Park, glistens like jet, is opaque and rises like basalt in almost vertical columns, from the shore of Beaver Lake. It is unequalled in the world, and is about two hundred feet high and one thousand feet in length, being variegated with streaks of red and yellow. When the carriage road was constructed over the side of the mountain along the lake, great fires were built upon the masses of Obsidian; and after they had been sufficiently expanded by the heat, cold water was thrown on them, which fractured the blocks into fragments that could be handled. Thus a glass carriage way was made one-quarter of a mile in length, which is without doubt the only piece of glass road in the world.
Fig. 229
MAMMOTH PAINT POTS, Yellowstone National Park.—Among all the geysers and hot springs in Yellowstone Park, there is nothing more striking to behold than the Mammoth Paint Pots, which measure forty by sixty feet, with a mud rim on three sides from three to four feet in height. The whitish substance in this basin, which looks like paint, is in constant agitation, and resembles a vast bed of mortar with numerous points of ebullition. There is a constant bubbling up of this peculiar formation, which produces a sound similar to a hoarse whisper. Its contents have been reduced by the constant action to a mixed silicious clay, which in former years consisted of different colors, but is now active only in the white portion of its formation.
Fig. 230
OLD FAITHFUL GEYSER, Yellowstone National Park.—Of all the geysers in the Yellowstone Park, this is one of the most interesting and noted on account of the great regularity of its eruptions, affording splendid opportunities for observation. It is located in the Upper Geyser Basin, and is situated on a mound of geyserite built by its own water. The eruptions begin with preliminary splashes, and continue for several minutes, becoming more powerful as they follow in rapid succession, when all at once the steam and water are thrown to a height of one hundred and fifty feet; this action occurs at intervals of every sixty-five minutes and lasts from four to five minutes.
Fig. 231
YELLOWSTONE LAKE AND HOT SPRINGS, Yellowstone National Park.—This large and beautiful sheet of water is nearly one-half mile higher than the summit of Mount Washington, N. H., and is surrounded by snow-capped mountains. It covers an area of one hundred and fifty square miles, and has a great depth. Trout are so plentiful that there is little pleasure afforded in capturing them. The lake is fed by numerous large tributaries and a score of smaller streams. A number of boiling springs, charged with sulphur, alum and alkali, dot its shores; and the fishermen can cook their trout by dropping them into the boiling springs without walking from the spot where they are caught.
Fig. 232
YELLOWSTONE FALLS, Yellowstone National Park.—After the water of the Yellowstone releases itself from the deep, symmetrical pool at the foot of the Upper Falls, the river turns to the left and flows through high bluffs for a short distance, until its sea-green water leaps from the top of the Great Falls, three hundred and sixty feet deep, into the profound, abysmal solitude of the Grand Canyon. This great mass of water breaks into fleecy columns and sheets of glistening foam as it descends; but it strikes the pool below with such a great concussion that it is forced upwards in fountains of spray and clouds of mist.
Fig. 233
GRAND CAÑON OF THE YELLOWSTONE, Wyoming.—This wonderful gorge, whose scenic beauty is not equaled anywhere, has a scene of enchantment surpassing all expectations. From the Lower Falls it reveals the most varied groups of crags and rock ever beheld. It passes through a volcanic plateau, forming broken walls of barbaric richness of coloring that almost defies description. Red, purple and yellow predominate, and with the white foam of the rushing river through the bottom, and the dark green of the forest upon the plateau, form one of the grandest natural sights in earth.
Fig. 234
ANIMAS CANYON, Colorado.—This canyon is between Durango and Silverton, and the scenery through it is of surpassing grandeur and beauty. The railroad follows the course of the Animas River (to which the Spaniard gave the musical but melancholy title of "Rio de las Animas Perdidas," or River of Lost Souls) until the picturesque mining town of Silverton is reached. To the right is the silvery Animas River, which frets in its narrowing bed, and breaks into foam against the opposing boulders, beyond which rise the hills; to the left are mountains, increasing in rugged contour as the advance is made, and in the shadow of the rocks all is solitary, weird and awful; the startled traveler loses all apprehension in the wondrous beauty and grandeur of the scene.
Fig. 235
GRAND CANYON Of THE ARKANSAS RIVER, Colorado.—There are no words which can properly describe this great and magnificent canyon, the crowning attraction, the wonder of wonders, the marvel of marvels, in Colorado's scenery. This canyon is seven miles in length, and presents the grandest scenery in the world. This photograph represents the Royal Gorge, where the canyon is three hundred feet deep. As it is not sufficiently wide for railroad and river to pass through, the road is carried above the river, on a hanging bridge, which is shown in the picture.
Fig. 236
MOUNTAIN OF THE HOLY CROSS, Colorado.—This mountain is without doubt the most remarkable and the most noted of the Rockies, on account of the cross from which it received its name. Near the top is seen the cross, formed by deep crevices in its side, which are filled with perpetual snow and ice. The sight of wildwood, of tree-crowned slope, of rocky heights, of silvery cascades whose white threads of water are occasionally seen wearing away rifts in the rocks, renders the mountain one of the most enchanting of the many mountains in Colorado.
Fig. 237
MANITOU AND PIKE'S PEAK, Colorado.—Manitou was known to white men long before Major Pike discovered the peak, and is noted for its famous soda springs, whose health-giving properties were familiar to the Indians from time immemorial. To this favored spot they made their pilgrimages, and in grateful recognition of the beneficent characteristics of the waters, they named the place in honor of the Great Spirit, and bestowed upon it the musical and significant title, Manitou. It is visited by thousands of tourists every season, and many make the ascent from here to the top of Pike's Peak, which is seen in the background.
Fig. 238
SUMMIT OF PIKE'S PEAK, Colorado.—In 1806 Major Zebulon Pike first described this wonderful snow-capped peak, which now bears his name, and which he called the "Great Snow Mountain." When the mountain first dawned on his view, he was one hundred miles east on the plains. This noted peak towers to the height of 14,147 feet, and its top is covered with perpetual snow. This photograph represents the U. S. Signal Station on its summit. The top is now reached by an incline railway from Manitou, and from it the traveler may behold one of the grandest sights in Colorado.
Fig. 239
GATEWAY TO THE GARDEN OF THE GODS, Colorado.—Why this wonderful valley, which has not the appearance of a garden, was named the Garden of the Gods, no one knows; but, no doubt, by reason of its apt alliterations, the name has become so popular that it would be foolish to change it. There are many remains which show that Titanic forces have been at work here. It does not require a lively imagination to discover in the garden an endless variety of beings, such as the lion, the seal, the elephant, birds and reptiles of imitative forms. The most noted object is the Great Gateway.
Fig. 240
CATHEDRAL SPIRES, Colorado.—The stranger passing through Manitou should not fail to visit the Garden of the Gods, in which are located the Cathedral Spires, wonderful rock formations, standing upright, with pinnacles several hundred feet high. The wonderful region in which these spires are, in point of attraction, ranks with the sunny slopes of Italy, and the rugged grandeur of the Bernese Oberland. The scenery in this locality is so varied, so grand, and so impressive, that contemplative pauses must be made in order that the eye may grasp all the charming details of the view.
Fig. 241
LIFE IN OKLAHOMA, Oklahoma Territory.—Oklahoma Territory is a beautiful stretch of country, abounding in vast and fertile plains. In the eastern part, the soil is particularly rich and well irrigated, making it almost as productive as a garden. The territory was formerly the special domain for all the Indian tribes, but this original race seems to be gradually becoming extinct. The above photograph represents a scene in Oklahoma County. This county is nearly in the centre of the territory, on the line of it railroad which has recently been opened. Owing to its admirable adaptability for agriculture, it is fast becoming populated. The picture suggests the most primitive rural simplicity.
Fig. 242
INDIAN WIGWAM, Indian Territory.—The red man, the original inhabitant of American soil, is represented here at his hut, with his gun and the reins of his horse in his hands. He has a universal belief in a Supreme Being, though his religious attributes are associated with various manifestations of natural phenomena. He believes in the immortality of the soul, but his conceptions of the future system of reward and punishment are confused. The American Indians are slowly diminishing in number on account of the progress of the white man. Their present population is about 255,000, and the greatest number are gathered upon their reservations in Indian Territory.
Fig. 243
CHICAGO, Illinois.—This city, which is now the most important centre of commerce in the Northwestern States, is situated at the mouth of the Chicago River, on Lake Michigan. The first inhabitants known to have been in the locality were the Pollawatomie Indians, and the earliest Europeans were French fur traders, who visited the site in 1654. Fort Dearborn was built in 1804, when the first attempt was made to settle here; but the Indians destroyed and massacred most of the garrison in 1812. In 1816 the place was rebuilt and to-day stands as one of the leading cities of America. The above represents State Street, one of the principal thoroughfares, and the Palmer House, one of its leading hotels.
Fig. 244
NIAGARA FALLS, New York.—The above falls constitute perhaps the most striking natural wonder in the world. Above the falls, the river is divided by Goat Island, forming the Horseshoe Falls, with a perpendicular descent of one hundred and fifty-eight feet. The height of the American Falls is one hundred and sixty-seven feet. Below the cataract, the river is very deep and narrow, varying from one hundred to three hundred yards, and flows between perpendicular rocks, two hundred and fifty feet high, into a gorge, which is crossed by several suspension bridges. These falls are world-famed, and are visited by thousands of tourists from different parts of the world.
Fig. 245
BUNKER HILL MONUMENT, Boston, Massachusetts.—On an elevation of one hundred and ten feet, in the town of Charlestown, one mile from Boston, towers the above-named monument to commemorate one of the most celebrated battles of the American Revolution, fought here on the 17th of June, 1775. The British remained master of the field after a long and bloody contest, but their victory was dearly bought. The monument, two hundred and twenty-one feet in height, stands in the centre of the ground, included within the redoubts on Breed's Hill.
Fig. 246
NEW YORK, N. Y.—The metropolis of the United States, is considered the headquarters of the stock and money market. It is here where the greater number of foreign vessels land and depart, and where the majority of immigrants first step upon our shores. The city is built on Manhattan Island, which is 13 miles long, and from 2 to 4 miles wide. This picture represents Park Row, and the New York Times' Building in the front, and the general Post-Office on the right, which is a large granite structure, and an ornament to the city. New York has a population of nearly two million people, composed of all nationalities. This city gives to the student of human nature an excellent opportunity to observe the life and habits of the different nations.
Fig. 247
BROOKLYN BRIDGE, New York.—This bridge, connecting New York with Brooklyn, is by far the largest suspension bridge yet constructed. The work commenced in 1870, and opened for traffic on May 24, 1883. The central span, from tower to tower, measures fifteen hundred and ninety-five and one-half feet. In the centre is a foot-way, fifteen and one-half feet wide, and raised twelve feet above the other passages, affording an open view on both sides. There are tracks on each side for cable cars, worked by a stationary engine on the Brooklyn side, and on the outside are wagon-ways. The entire cost was $15,500,000.
Fig. 248
ELEVATED RAILROAD, New York, N. Y.—The steam cars, the street railway and the electric road are the three modern modes of transportation. The motive power of the elevated railroads of New York City is steam, and the quick facilities afforded exceed that of any other country. These elevated railroads are sufficiently high so as not to interfere with street traffic, stations are located every four or five blocks apart, there is little delay, and a passenger can ride from one end of the city to the other in a very short time. It is said that one million people ride daily on the elevated railroads of New York giving the company an income of $50,000 per day. The above photograph represents the railroad at Chatham Square, where it branches off into different directions.
Fig. 249
STATUE OF LIBERTY, New York Harbor, N. Y.—This magnificent monument, the work of Bartholdi, was presented by the French Government to the people of the United States as a token of sisterly love and respect, and as a means of still further cementing the good feelings of the two greatest republics on the globe. The statue stands on Bedloe's Island, in New York harbor. The torch of liberty, held in the right hand, is illuminated at night by a huge electric light. The pedestal on which the statue stands was built by voluntary contributions, solicited by the New York World.
Fig. 250
CHESTNUT STREET, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.—Philadelphia, the third city of the United States and the metropolis of Pennsylvania, often called the City of Brotherly Love, was founded in 1682 by William Penn. This picture represents Chestnut Street, the principal retail business street and the avenue on which the leading banking institutions are located. The building on the right is Independence Hall, in which was declared the independence of the United States. The liberty bell is still preserved and found at the entrance of the building. The structure in the background is a banking house.
Fig. 251
MARKET STREET, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.—Perhaps no street in the world furnishes an avenue for so much business as does Market Street. The street from this point, which terminates at the Delaware River, making a total of fourteen squares, is full of wholesale houses. There are times during the day when it is packed with teams and pedestrians, presenting an interesting sight for a stranger. The building on the right-hand side is considered the largest store of its kind in the world. The cars on Market Street are run by cable, a system introduced a few years ago.
Fig. 252
FORT SAN MARCO, St. Augustine, Florida, U. S. A.—St. Augustine, having the distinction of being the oldest city in the United States, was founded by Europeans and has recently become a popular winter watering-place. It is thirty-six miles from Jacksonville, and stands on a sandy peninsula. Along the sea-front, for nearly a mile, extends a granite-coped sea-wall; and, at its northern end, stands the Fort of San Marco, a well-preserved specimen of Spanish military architecture, built in 1756. The fort has a moat and outworks, and its walls are twenty-one feet high. It is in the form of a trapezium, and covers four acres.
Fig. 253
    St. Augustine,
Fig. 254
    Washington, D. C.
Fig. 255
WHITE HOUSE, Washington, D. C.—The official residence of the President of the United States, is beautifully situated at the western extremity of Pennsylvania Avenue, about a mile and a half west of the Capitol. It is constructed of Freestone, painted white. Its dimensions are 170 feet front and 86 feet deep. The garden-front is very beautiful and admirably kept, the lawn sloping down to the Potomac River. In the square in front of the Mansion, stands the celebrated equestrian statue of General Jackson. Very close to the White House are located the State Treasury, and Navy and War departments.

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