Project Gutenberg's A Week of Instruction and Amusement,, by Mrs. Harley

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Title: A Week of Instruction and Amusement,
       or, Mrs. Harley's birthday present to her daughter :
              interspersed with short stories, outlines of sacred and
              prophane history, geography &c.

Author: Mrs. Harley

Release Date: May 31, 2008 [EBook #25659]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


Produced by Tamise Totterdell and the Online Distributed
Proofreading Team at (This file was
produced from images generously made available by The
Internet Archive/American Libraries.)







H. Bryer, Printer, Bridge-Street, Blackfriars, London.


The following pages were written with the design of communicating, in a manner agreeable to children, some knowledge of those subjects which they so often find tedious and uninteresting.—Should the stories related inspire a love of virtue, and the lessons awaken a desire for the further acquisition of useful knowledge, the attempt, notwithstanding its defect, cannot, it is hoped, be deemed wholly useless.


[Pg 1]


At a pleasant village a few miles from London, resided a widow-lady of the name of Harley; she had but one child, and to forming her manners [Pg 2]and instructing her mind she devoted her whole time. Anne (for so was this little girl named) was an amiable child; she rewarded her mother's care and affection, by paying great attention to her instructions; like all other children, she was fond of play, but seldom murmured when called to attend the hours set apart for working, reading, or learning her lessons: all these she performed extremely well for her age, and had already gone through many of the first books that are put into the hands of children.

As a reward for her application, her mamma had promised to write a few stories on purpose for her, and one Thursday in the month of August, the day on which little Anne completed her eighth year, Mrs. Harley [Pg 3]presented her the book which contained them, saying, "I shall only permit you to read in this book, my dear Anne, when I have reason to be satisfied with your conduct, for as it is now given to a good little girl, I would never upon any account, allow a naughty one to make use of it. We will begin our mornings with reading one of these stories, and afterwards I will give you a lesson upon different subjects, many of which you are now quite unacquainted with. By pursuing this method you will be daily adding to your stock of knowledge, and will I hope in time become a good and sensible girl: this, my dear, is the first wish of my heart, and you must do every thing in your power to promote it. Be [Pg 4]industrious and docile, and you may be sure of succeeding in all I require you to undertake. But come, the morning is so fine that we will go into the garden, where upon yonder seat you shall begin your new study."

Little Anne after thanking her mamma for her kind present, followed her to the bench, when they were seated, she opened the book, and the first story that presented itself was

The pleasure of giving, much greater than that of receiving.

Edward and James were the sons of a respectable farmer, who spared no pains in giving them an education suited to their situation in life. Having been pleased with their good conduct in some circumstances [Pg 5]that had lately occurred, he promised them a holiday the first time the weather should be fine enough for them to visit their aunt, who lived a few miles distant from the village where they resided. The wished for morning at length arrived, the farmer gave each of his sons a shilling, and a basket filled with provisions. Thus equipped, they began their journey, and amused themselves on the road, by talking of the pleasure they should have in seeing their good aunt. The best way of spending their shillings was a subject of great importance, "I will have a handsome kite," said Edward, "and the string shall be long enough to allow it to fly as high as the clouds." [Pg 6]"Yes," answered James, "but however long your string may be, I believe it must depend upon the wind for flying. Now, I will have a bag of marbles, with these I can always play on the stones in the church-yard after school." "Excepting when it rains brother James; however, as the money is our own, we have each you know a right to please ourselves."

Just as Edward finished speaking, a poor little ragged boy came up to the brothers, and asked for a [Pg 7]halfpenny to buy a bit of bread, saying he was so very hungry he knew not what to do. "What, have you had no breakfast! my little man?" asked James. "No, sir, nor supper last night, do pray give me a halfpenny, I am so very faint for want of food."

Edward immediately took a piece of cake from his basket and gave it to the boy, enquiring at the same time, where his father and mother was.

"Alas, my good young gentleman, they are both dead. I lost father about a month ago, and I fear I shall soon follow him, for indeed I am very ill, and not able to work, therefore I must be starved." "O no," said James, "not if I can prevent it, you do indeed look very ill, but take courage, I hope you will soon recover, and surely the parish must provide for you—where do you live?"

"Since father died I have had no regular home, and this is not my parish. [Pg 8]Sometimes I sleep in a barn. I do what I can to assist an old man, who was my mother's uncle, but he is ill now, and not able to keep me, so I shall be quite deserted."—"Well," said Edward, "I will provide you with a dinner to day, and give you money to procure a lodging at night; here is a shilling, my father gave it me to buy toys with, but I can do better without them, than you can without food." The little boy took the shilling, and with tears in his eyes thanked his kind friend. James would not suffer him to depart without accepting his shilling also, and desiring him to call the next morning at their father's, where they would try to be of [Pg 9]further use to him, they bade him adieu, and pursued their journey.

"I am sure," said Edward, "I feel more pleasure in making that child happy, than in flying the finest kite in the world." "And I," added James, "was a hundred times happier in giving him a shilling, than I was when I received it this morning. Only think how rejoiced the poor boy must be, to have so much money; I dare say he never before, possessed so large a sum, but Edward, we shall have no new kite nor marbles now!—Never mind, brother, we have done a good action, and that, you know, our father says is the surest way to secure happiness"—

Thus conversing, these good lads [Pg 10]arrived at their aunt's, where they spent a very pleasant day, and in the evening returned home, to delight their father's heart, with an account of their morning's adventure.—The poor boy came the next morning to the farmer's, who having made the necessary enquiries into his former conduct, took him into his service. The brothers had soon the satisfaction of seeing him restored to health, and in time he became a useful, faithful, and grateful servant to his benevolent master.

"Well, my dear Anne," said Mrs. Harley, "how do you like my first story?"

Anne. O very much mamma, what good children Edward and James were, to give their money to a poor [Pg 11]little hungry boy; indeed, if ever I should meet one I will do the same.

Mrs. Harley. Then you will do well, and I shall love you dearly. Remember, that the use of reading examples of virtue is to inspire you with the desire to imitate them. But do you, my dear, know of what the story you have just read is composed?

Anne. O yes, mamma, of words, is it not?

Mrs. Harley. You are right: letters make syllables, one or more syllables make a word, words form a sentence, and a number of sentences compose not only the little story of Edward and James, but all the great books in the library. Now can you tell me how letters are divided?

[Pg 12]

Anne. Not properly mamma, pray explain it to me.

Mrs. Harley. I will my dear, and so we begin our


Mrs. Harley. Letters of which there are twenty six in our language, are divided into vowels and consonants. There are five proper vowels, a, e, i, o, and u. Y is generally a consonant at the beginning of words, and a vowel at the end of them. Repeat the vowels.

Anne. a, e, i, o, u. Y, is sometimes a vowel, and sometimes a consonant. The other letters are all consonants, they are, [Pg 13]b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z.

Mrs. Harley. Very well, now you understand the letters, I will explain the other little marks you see in this book. They are called stops: there are six different ones, the comma, which is the shortest; the semicolon;—the colon:—the period.—the note of admiration!—which denotes wonder or surprise—and the note of interrogation? which shews that a question is asked. Repeat them to me.

Anne. , ; : . ! ?

Mrs. Harley. Quite right, you may now put away your book, and go to play.



[Pg 14]

Mrs. Harley. Here is another story for you Anne.

Anne. Thank you, dear mamma, let me begin it directly.

The Naughty Girl Reformed.

There was once a little girl who had been so much indulged in her infancy, that by the time she arrived at her sixth year, every one disliked her. She was proud and [Pg 15]ill-tempered, she wanted whatever she saw, and when any thing was refused her, she immediately began crying and teazing her mamma for it, who being at last quite tired of her importunity, generally gave up the point, and Fanny obtained what she wished for. Now, though the mamma certainly intended to be very kind to her child, yet I think she did wrong in this respect, because children should never have what they cry for.

Fanny's ill-temper increased with her years, she quarrelled with all the children who used to play with her, till at length she was quite shunned, and none of her little friends took any notice of her.

A lady had given her sister Julia [Pg 16]a pretty wax-doll, and she had taken great pleasure in dressing it: almost all her leisure was occupied in making its cloaths, and when they were completed she was quite delighted. It so happened that Fanny was from home when her sister received this present, but no sooner was she returned, and the doll produced, than she began, as usual, to cry for it, and so loud, too, that she disturbed the whole house. For this time, however, her tears were in vain, Julia would not give up her favourite, though she endeavoured to sooth her sister, by promising to lend it her as soon as she should be a little more careful. Fanny was at length pacified, but she watched the first opportunity [Pg 17]to get possession of the doll. She soon succeeded, and for some time played with it very carefully, but having acquired a negligent habit of using her toys, she soon forgot its brittle texture, and when tired of nursing it, threw it down on the ground. The face was immediately broken to pieces, and while she was picking up the scattered remains of the once beautiful features, Julia entered the room. On seeing her favourite thus destroyed, she could not help shedding tears, and she reproached Fanny for having taken the doll without permission, especially as she had been so repeatedly desired never to touch it. Fanny felt quite ashamed for her fault, and was really sorry for the [Pg 18]mischief she had occasioned: she begged her sister's pardon and promised never again to be so naughty. The good tempered Julia readily forgave her, and for a few days after this misfortune Fanny behaved much better than usual. However, as ill habits are very difficult to be overcome, she soon relapsed into her former fretful and passionate ways; indeed, she made the family so uncomfortable that her mother determined to send her from home, and for that purpose wrote to a relation, entreating her to take the care of Fanny for some time, and try if a different mode of treatment might have some good effect in correcting her faults.

Mrs. Benson was eminently distinguished [Pg 19]for good sense and pleasing manners. She had frequently regretted the improper indulgences that were granted to this little girl, and accepted with alacrity the charge consigned to her care. She made but a short visit to her sister, and when she returned to her own residence, took back her little niece. It had been a very difficult task to persuade Fanny to accompany Mrs. Benson, but at length the engaging manners of this lady quite overcame her reluctance, and after parting very affectionately with her mother and sister, she got into the carriage that was to convey her above a hundred miles from the place where she had hitherto resided.

[Pg 20]

It was night when Mrs. Benson with her young charge arrived at the end of her journey. The motion of the carriage had lulled Fanny to sleep, and she was undressed and put to bed without being conscious of what was passing around her. The next morning on opening her eyes, she was quite surprised to find herself in an apartment with which she was wholly unacquainted, but the sight of her aunt soon brought to her recollection the change that had taken place. Mrs. Benson desired her to rise, but when told to put on her stockings she began to cry, and said that her maid always did it at home. "But here, my dear," replied Mrs. Benson, "you must do it [Pg 21]yourself, for I make it an invariable rule never to assist a little girl in any thing she can so easily accomplish by herself. And I must now tell you Fanny, that you never can have what you cry for in my house, so be a good girl and do as you are desired."

Fanny then continued to cry very violently, and would not obey; her naughty behaviour had no effect upon her aunt, who continued dressing herself, and when she had finished, went out of the room without noticing it. Fanny being left alone, and finding that no one attended to her tears, at length began to dress, and after she had remained quiet for some time, a servant was sent up to assist her. She then [Pg 22]went down stairs, and when she entered the parlour, her aunt said to her, "I am sorry you have been so long dressing, because I have breakfasted; the things are removed, and I cannot suffer them to be brought up again this morning. I am going out, and if you like to accompany me, I will shew you the village, and we will visit some of the cottagers who are employed in making lace, their work, I assure you, is very beautiful."

Fanny was greatly disappointed at being deprived of her breakfast, but she fetched her bonnet and followed her aunt. She was quite delighted with her walk, and on her return to the house was very glad to see a plate of bread and [Pg 23]fruit on the table. After she had eaten as much as she chose, Mrs. Benson shewed her some pictures, and she remained a tolerably good girl during the rest of the day.

The following morning, when Mrs. Benson desired Fanny to read, she was very naughty, and would not say a letter. "Well," said her aunt, "if you will not read you shall neither play nor walk, so when I go out I shall leave you at home." Fanny persisted in her ill-humour, and was therefore obliged to spend the morning alone, instead of enjoying a pleasant ramble in the fields. When Mrs. Benson returned, she asked her niece if she would then try to read, "because," added she "till you have [Pg 24]done so, you may be assured I will grant you no amusement." Fanny perceiving that her aunt was quite determined to keep her word, at length took up the book and read as well as she could. Mrs. Benson, pleased with her compliance, made no allusion to her former obstinacy, but gave her a pretty sattin pincushion, telling her that if she would try to be a good child she should love her dearly.

From this time Fanny began to amend; at first she found it very difficult to restrain her temper, but the more she tried, the easier she found the task: and though during the first few months of her residence at Mrs. Benson's she frequently forgot the good resolutions [Pg 25]she had formed, yet she was always sincerely sorry for her faults, and endeavoured to make amends by doing whatever she thought would restore her to her aunt's favour.

Thus Mrs. Benson had the satisfaction of seeing a child whom she had formerly known so undutiful and ill-tempered, become by degrees quite amiable and obliging: the alteration in her was so great, that when at the end of a year Mrs. Benson carried her to pay a visit to her family, they could hardly trace any resemblance between Fanny such as she now was, and the naughty little girl who had given them so much trouble. She staid in London three weeks, during which time the cloud of ill-humour [Pg 26]scarcely once ruffled her brow. At the end of that time Mrs. Benson wished to return home, and Fanny begged to accompany her, fearing that if deprived of her aunt's counsel before her good habits were entirely fixed, she might relapse into her former errors.

Several years are now past since these events happened. Fanny has been constantly improving, she is now the delight of her family, and the favourite of all who know her.

Let the history of Fanny teach all little girls that to be good is to be happy!

"What an interesting story," said Anne, as she shut the book: [Pg 27]"now I find what a silly thing it is to be naughty, I will always try to be good."

Mrs. Harley. Do my dear child, and you will be sure of success. It gives me pleasure to see you so attentive to the instructions contained in the stories you read.


Mrs. Harley. We talked about letters yesterday: to-day I will explain figures or numbers to you, the following is a list of them: those letters which stand for numbers are called numeral letters.

1 I One
2 II Two
3 III Three
4 IV Four
5 V Five [Pg 28]
6 VI Six
7 VII Seven
8 VIII Eight
9 IX Nine
10 X Ten
11 XI Eleven
12 XII Twelve
13 XIII Thirteen
14 XIV Fourteen
15 XV Fifteen
16 XVI Sixteen
17 XVII Seventeen
18 XVIII Eighteen
19 XIX Nineteen
20 XX Twenty
21 XXI Twenty-one
22 XXII Twenty-two
23 XXIII Twenty-three
24 XXIV Twenty-four
25 XXV Twenty-five
30 XXX Thirty
36 XXXVI Thirty-six
40 XL Forty
47 XLVII Forty-seven [Pg 29]
50 L Fifty
60 LX Sixty
70 LXX Seventy
80 LXXX Eighty
90 XC Ninety
100 C One hundred
200 CC Two hundred
300 CCC Three hundred
400 CCCC Four hundred
500 D Five hundred
600 DC Six hundred
700 DCC Seven hundred
800 DCCC Eight hundred
900 DCD Nine hundred
1000 M One thousand
1100 MC One thousand one hundred
1500 MD One thousand five hundred
1812 MDCCCXII One thousand eight hundred and twelve

[Pg 30]

In the above list you perceive the numeral letters are I, V, X, L, C, D, and M; the letter that stands for a smaller sum put before one that denotes a greater takes so many from it, and that after it adds so many to it.

The numbers you learned long ago; but I don't think you know the numeration table, it will teach you to read any number of figures not exceeding nine: the last figure on the right hand denotes units, or single figures, the one before that tens, then hundreds, thousands, tens of thousands, hundreds of thousands, tens of hundreds of thousands, millions, tens of millions, hundreds of millions, now my dear read the following number, 123,456,789.

[Pg 31]

Anne. One hundred and twenty three millions, four hundred and fifty six thousand, seven hundred and eighty nine.

Mrs. Harley. Right; it is absolutely necessary to be able to read figures perfectly, before you can learn arithmetic.

Anne. What is arithmetic, mamma?

Mrs. Harley. The act of numbering, or computing by numbers, my dear. The four principal rules of arithmetic are addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

Anne. I wish you would explain them to me.

Mrs. Harley. Addition teaches to collect several numbers together in order to know their total value. [Pg 32]The answer to a question in addition is therefore called the sum, total, or amount; subtraction teaches to take a less number from a greater, in order to know the remainder. The answer in subtraction is called the remainder, or difference.

Multiplication teaches to find the amount of any given number repeated a certain number of times. The answer in multiplication is called the product. The three terms made use of in multiplication are, the multiplicand, or number to be multiplied; the multiplier, or number that multiplies; and the product or answer, which is the amount of the multiplicand and multiplier.

[Pg 33]

Division teaches to find how often one number is contained in another. The answer in division is called the quotient. The four terms made use of in division are, the dividend or number to be divided, the divisor, or number that divides, the quotient or answer which is the number of times one number is contained in another, and the remainder or what is left after dividing.

This explanation of arithmetic must serve you for the present, you shall learn the multiplication table, and do some sums every day, and when you are thoroughly acquainted with these rules, we will proceed to the others.



[Pg 34]

Mrs. Harley. Come hither my dear Anne. Your smiling countenance tells me I may give you a story, so take the book and let us hear the

History of an Orphan.

One fine autumnal morning in the year 1789, John and Cicely Wortham, with their little son Robert, began a long journey into the [Pg 35]North of England. They had hitherto resided at a small village near Abergavenny in South Wales, and there they would most probably have ended their days, had not John been informed of the death of a distant relation at Durham, to whose property he knew himself to be the rightful heir, though to secure it, he found it necessary to repair thither. Having, therefore, disposed of his Welsh hut, and converted all his furniture into money, he removed to London, and after spending a few days there, secured places on the outside of a stage-coach, which was to convey him with his family about half way on their journey.

Their conversation chiefly turned [Pg 36]on the friends they had left, and the hopes of finding as kind ones in the country whither they were going. Robert was too young to be interested in either the hopes or fears of his parents; at the age of six months he slept as comfortably on his mother's red cloak as if he had been placed on a bed of down.

Towards the close of their second day's journey the sky began to darken, and a violent storm of hail and rain completely penetrated the cloaths of our poor travellers. However, as they had been always accustomed to the inclemency of the weather they did not much mind it, and Cicely, who was an excellent mother, took care to prevent her boy from feeling any inconvenience. [Pg 37]In this manner they proceeded for several miles, till at length a large stone in the winding of the road overturned the carriage and dashed all the outside passengers with violence to the ground. Poor Cicely was killed on the spot; John had his leg and three of his ribs broken, but little Robert escaped unhurt. This unfortunate family were carried to a neighbouring farm-house, a surgeon was sent for who set John's leg, but all attempts to recover Cicely were fruitless, a stronger and more powerful hand than that of the surgeon had for ever closed her eyes! The melancholy intelligence was for some hours concealed from her husband, but at length he enquired for his [Pg 38]wife, and soon discovered in the mournful countenances of those around him that she was no more. This fatal news, together with the pain of his leg and side, so agitated his mind, that his fever increased to a very alarming degree; and the third day from that on which the accident happened, poor John Wortham lay a lifeless corpse by the side of his beloved Cicely.

The humane farmer into whose house they had been carried when the coach overset, ordered them to be decently buried. Little Robert attended at their funeral, but was quite unconscious of his loss, though he sadly cried for that nourishment he would never more receive from the breast of a mother.

[Pg 39]

When the undertaker's bill and other expences were paid, farmer Hodson found that no more than six guineas remained for the young orphan. The trunks and pockets of his parents were carefully searched, but no paper appeared that gave the least information either of the name or residence of the unfortunate pair. Hodson made every enquiry that seemed most likely to lead to a discovery of little Robert's remaining relations: he advertised the circumstance in several papers, but in vain, and he at length gave up the fruitless search. Though by no means in flourishing circumstances himself, yet he had not the heart to send the poor orphan to the parish, and as he had no children of his own, it was [Pg 40]agreed, with his wife's consent, to bring him up as their adopted son. Dame Hodson took the greatest care of her little nursling, and she had the satisfaction of seeing his daily improvement in health and good humour.

As Robert grew in years, he discovered to his kind friends a heart framed for the reception of every noble and virtuous sentiment: by the time he attained his twelfth year he was their chief delight, and the affectionate supporter of their declining years. Time passed on, Hodson could not labour as he had done, and two bad years, joined to his infirmities, reduced the family to much distress. Now was the time for the farmer to reap the reward of [Pg 41]his generous compassion to a forlorn infant. Robert, ever industrious, earned enough with his own hands to maintain his benefactors. Were they sick, Robert was their nurse—were they sad, Robert was their comforter—he read to them, cheered their drooping spirits, and smoothed the pillow of declining years.

It happened about this time, that a gentleman of the name of Goldworthy, bought a large estate in the county where farmer Hodson resided; he heard the story of young Robert, and felt greatly interested for the whole family. He visited them, and found the accounts that had been given him were strictly true, and from that time he resolved [Pg 42]to be their friend. Mr. Goldworthy, though master of a large fortune, and consequently placed above the reach of many misfortunes to which the more indigent are exposed, yet possessed a heart always alive to the distresses of others.—He determined with Hodson's consent, to take charge of young Robert, and fit him for some respectable employment, where he might have a larger scope for the exercise of his virtues and more abundant means for gratifying his generous disposition. Hodson with gratitude accepted Mr. Goldworthy's proposal; but no temptation, however alluring to his youthful mind, could induce our hero to quit his old and earliest friends, till Mr. Goldworthy promised to remove [Pg 43]them to a cottage adjoining his own house, where they should be furnished with every thing necessary to their support. Here they spent many happy years, and had the heartfelt satisfaction of seeing their beloved boy grow up a respectable and worthy member of society, a useful assistant to his benefactor, and a friend to the poor.

"Dear mamma," said Anne, "I am quite delighted with farmer Hodson and his wife: they deserved Mr. Goldworthy's kindness to them, and what a sweet little boy Robert must have been!"

Mrs. Harley. Yes, my dear, he was an excellent youth, and his good conduct met its reward in the [Pg 44]affection of his friends. I wish you, my dear child, to be convinced, from this story, that there is no situation in life, however humble, which does not afford opportunities for exercising those duties recommended to us by our Saviour.—To feed the hungry, to clothe the naked, and to comfort the afflicted, is, to a certain degree, in the power of us all. You may be in a situation that will enable you to dispense comfort to many; but in relieving strangers, never forget the duties you owe to your own family; be mild and submissive when they correct you, obedient to their wishes, attentive to their instructions, and endeavour by the affectionate gratitude of your conduct, to repay the many hours of [Pg 45]anxious solicitude they must spend on your account.

Lift up your heart with gratitude to the great God who made you, and, when you reflect on the many blessings you enjoy, never, if you do meet with little disappointments, give way to discontent and murmurings. Remember, it is easy to be good humoured when every thing happens agreeably to our wishes: it is only by cheerfully submitting to the opposition of them that a really good temper is proved. We must now hasten to our other business, or we shall not have time to finish it before dinner.

Anne. I am quite ready to attend to you, dear mamma; Grammar, I think, is to be the subject of our [Pg 46]lesson. What is the meaning of the word Grammar?


Mrs. Harley. The shortest definition I can give you of Grammar, is I believe, my dear, by saying, that it is the art of speaking and writing a language correctly. By parts of speech are meant the different kinds of words of which a language is composed: ours is the English language, and it contains nine parts of speech, which are,

The Article,
The Noun or Substantive,
The Pronoun,
The Adjective,
The Verb,
The Adverb,
The Preposition, [Pg 47]
The Conjunction,
The Interjection.

Do you think you can remember their names, Anne.

Anne. I will try do so, mamma.

Mrs. Harley. I will now give you a short explanation of them. An article is placed before a substantive to limit or determine its meaning; the articles are a, an, and the; a or an is called the indefinite article, because it does not point out any particular object: the is called the definite article because it determines what particular object is meant. Do you understand this explanation, my dear?

Anne. Perfectly mamma; a man, an orange, mean any man, or any [Pg 48]orange; but the man, the orange, refer to some particular man or orange.

Mrs. Harley. Quite right, a you perceive is used before a consonant and an before a vowel.

A noun is the name of a person, place, or thing. Nouns are divided into proper and common; proper nouns are the names of particular persons, places, or things, common nouns are the names that belong to all persons, places or things of the same kind. Give me some examples.

Anne. Anne, Clapham, Limetree, are proper nouns; girl, village, tree, are common nouns.

Mrs. Harley. Gender is the distinction of sex; there are three genders, [Pg 49]the masculine which denotes the male kind as, a man: the feminine which denotes the female kind as, a woman: and the neuter which denotes things without animated life as, a cabbage.

Number is the distinction of one from many: there are two numbers, the singular which speaks of one; and the plural which speaks of more than one. Tell me some nouns with their genders and numbers.

Anne. I know that mamma is a noun of the feminine gender and singular number; men is a noun masculine and plural; table is neuter and singular.

Mrs. Harley. Very well. A Pronoun is used to avoid repeating the noun as, Frederic was good, and [Pg 50]he went out. There are four kinds of pronouns. Personal pronouns, as, I, me; thou, thee; he, him; she, her; it: we, us; you; they, them. Possessive pronouns which denote property, as, my, mine; thy, thine; his; her, hers; its: our, ours; your, yours; their, theirs; whose, ones, and anothers. Relative pronouns which refer to a noun going before or coming after them; they are, who, whom, which, what, and whether. Demonstrative pronouns point out some particular object; they are, this, these; that, and those.

Anne. I don't think I can remember all these words without reading them over a great many times, but I quite understand the use of the pronoun, for it would be [Pg 51]very awkward to say, Mary played, Mary laughed, and Mary danced; I ought to say, Mary played, she laughed, and she danced.

Mrs. Harley. I am pleased with your attention. The adjective explains the quality, colour, form, size, or any other property of the noun, as, good, blue, square, large. The signification of adjectives may be increased or diminished, and this is called comparison; there are two degrees of comparison, the comparative, which increases or diminishes the quality, is formed by adding er to the adjective in its positive state; the superlative increases or diminishes the comparative to its last degree, and is formed by adding est to the adjective in its positive or [Pg 52]original state, as long, longer, longest; short, shorter, shortest. When the adjective consists of more than two syllables, the comparative and superlative are formed by prefixing the words more and most to the adjective; as, beautiful, more beautiful, most beautiful. Some adjectives differ entirely from these rules in forming their comparison, as, good, better, best; bad, worse, worst. Now, some examples.

Anne. Fine is an adjective because it is a quality, black because it is a colour, coarse is an adjective in its positive state, brighter is the comparative degree, and youngest is the superlative.

Mrs. Harley. A verb is a word which signifies to be, to do, or to [Pg 53]suffer. Verbs are divided into neuter, active, and passive. Neuter verbs merely signify being, or that kind of action which has no effect upon any thing beyond the performer, as, I am, I sit, I walk. (You may distinguish those neuter verbs that seem to imply action from active verbs by their making a complete sense by themselves, whereas active verbs always require a noun or pronoun after them to finish the sense.)

Active verbs, denote action as, I eat, I love, I work. Passive verbs, denote suffering, they are only the participle passive of an active verb with a tense of the neuter verb to be before it; as, I am loved, you are dressed.

[Pg 54]

Any word is a verb before which you can place a noun, a pronoun, or the word to, as Mary talks, he works, to be. The different times when actions are performed are called tenses, there are properly only three, the present, as I am, the past as I was, and the future as I shall be; but these are subdivided into others; and there are a great many other things relating to verbs, which you shall learn when you are a little older.

Anne. Thank you, mamma, I believe I understand all that you have told me about verbs, except the meaning of participle passive.

Mrs. Harley. A participle passive, my dear, is that part of a verb which follows a tense of either of the [Pg 55]verbs to have, or to be. Some people consider it a distinct part of speech.

Adverbs denote time, place, manner, and quantity; therefore you may always know them by recollecting their meaning: to-day, there, prettily, much, are adverbs.

Prepositions serve to connect words with one another and to shew the relation between them. They require some word after them to complete the sense; as, come to me, up, down, to, from, for, are prepositions.

Conjunctions join words and sentences together, as you and I are going, but she stays at home.

Interjections express some emotion of the mind as, Alas! Oh! Ah!

[Pg 56]

I am afraid, my dear, you are quite tired of this long lesson, but I don't expect you to remember all I have told you; we will talk over a very small portion of it every day, and then in time you will be able to tell me what part of speech any word is that I may ask you.—I will give you a little example to shew you what I mean and then you shall run away.

The rose in your nosegay was very beautiful a little while ago; but alas! it is now quite dead!

The, an article definite—rose, a substantive, neuter gender, singular number—in, a preposition—your, a possessive pronoun—nosegay, a substantive—was, a verb neuter past tense—very, an adverb—beautiful, an adjective—a, an article indefinite—little, [Pg 57]an adjective—while, a substantive—ago, an adverb—but, a conjunction—alas!, an interjection—it, a personal pronoun neuter gender—is, a verb—now, an adverb—quite, an adverb,—dead, a verb, participle passive.

Children might soon understand that a case in grammar signifies the different terminations of nouns and pronouns. A noun has two cases, the nominative which simply names the object: it generally precedes the verb, and answers to the questions who? which? what? The genitive denotes possession and is formed by adding an apostrophe, and the letter s to the nominative; it answers to the question whose? [Pg 58]When the plural nominative ends in s the apostrophe only is added: ex. Anne plays. Who? Anne.—Mary's gown. Whose? Mary's.Birds' feathers. Whose? Birds'.

A personal pronoun has two cases the nominative and the objective. The nominative precedes the verb, and requires it to be of the same person and number as itself; it answers to the questions, who? which? what? The objective follows the verb, and answers to the question whom? ex. I dance, who? I.—We love her, whom? her.

[Pg 59]

Singular. Plural.
Nom. Objec. Nom. Objec.
I Me We Us
Thou Thee You You
He Him They Them
She Her
It It

The accusative case of the relative pronoun who is whom.



[Pg 60]

Mrs. Harley. Come hither, my love: you know that to-day is called Sunday, and is set apart for the observance of religious duties.

You have read in the Bible that God created the heavens, the earth, the sea, and all that therein is, in the space of six days, that he rested on the seventh, and called that day holy, ordering his people so to observe it, and to abstain from every kind of labour throughout its duration. [Pg 61]Therefore, the Jews, to whom this commandment was originally given, keep their sabbath on Saturday, the last day in the week; but Christians, who have been taught the blessed religion of Jesus, begin the week with praising God. No command for changing the day of worship seems ever to have been given, either by our Saviour or the apostles; but we know that it was the custom of the earliest Christians, even during our Lord's time, to meet together on the first day of the week for the purpose of holding religious assemblies; and all nations which have embraced the religion of the New Testament have adhered to this practice.

Anne. Thank you, mamma. Will [Pg 62]you now perform your promise of giving me a new morning and evening prayer?

Mrs. Harley. In the evening I will, my dear; but at present, I wish to give you a short account of the contents of the books contained in the sacred volumes. As yet you have only read detached parts of them, and before you proceed to a more general perusal, it may be useful to have some distinct idea of the whole. The account I shall give you I have chiefly extracted from Dr. Prettyman's Elements of Christian Theology.

All the books of the Bible were originally written in Hebrew, excepting a few passages towards the conclusion of the volume, which [Pg 63]appear in the Chaldee tongue. The English translation used in all our churches was begun and completed in the reign of James the first.

The five first books of the Bible are, Genesis, which begins with an account of the creation of the world, and ends with the death of Joseph.

Exodus, which relates the departure of the Israelites out of Egypt; their bondage in that country, deliverance by Moses, and the promulgation of the law.

Leviticus, which describes the offices and duties of the Levites and priests.

Numbers, which contains an account of the numbering of the people in the wilderness when a very [Pg 64]miraculous increase was found to have taken place since the arrival of Jacob and his family in Egypt.

Deuteronomy, which contains a repetition of the civil and moral law, and ends with the death of Moses. These five books are called the Pentateuch, and were written by Moses. They contain the history of 2552 years and a half.

Joshua, contains an account of the conquest and division of Canaan among the twelve tribes, and ends with the death of Joshua. This book is supposed to have been written by himself, excepting the last few verses, which were added by one of his successors.

Judges gives an account of the Jewish history from the death of [Pg 65]Moses to that of Sampson. It was most probably written by Samuel.

Ruth contains the history of the person of that name, a native of Moab: she married Boaz an Israelite, and was the great grandmother of David. This book is generally ascribed to Samuel. The first book of Samuel completes the government of the Judges, and relates the appointment of Saul to be king of Israel, the rejection of his family, and the anointing of David.

The second book of Samuel continues the history of David after the death of Saul. Most probably, Samuel wrote the first 24 chapters of the first book, and the prophets Gad and Nathan the remainder of it, and all the second.

[Pg 66]

The first book of Kings commences with an account of the death of David, and continues to that of Jehosaphat.

The second book of Kings continues the history of the kings of Judah and Israel to the destruction of the city and temple of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar. These books were probably compiled by Ezra, from the records which were kept both at Jerusalem and Samaria of all public transactions.

The two books of Chronicles contain a great many genealogical tables, and various circumstances omitted in the other historical books of Scripture.

Ezra, continues the Jewish history from the edict of Cyrus (which [Pg 67]permitted the Jews to return to their own land, and rebuild their temple,) to the reform effected among them, by Ezra and Nehemiah. Ezra wrote part of this book in Chaldee.

Nehemiah gives an account of his own appointment to the government of Judea, and his administration to the year of the world 3595, at which period the scripture history closes.

Esther, contains the history of a Jewish captive of that name, who by her good qualities gained the affections of Ahasuerus, and was by him raised to the throne of Persia. It is supposed that by Ahasuerus is meant Artaxerxes Longimanus. There is great diversity of opinion concerning the author of this book; it has been ascribed to Ezra, to Mordecai, [Pg 68]and to the joint labours of the great synagogue.

Job, contains the history of a man remarkable for his piety and patience, under severe afflictions. The author of this book is very uncertain. Some ascribe it to Moses, others to Job himself.

The Psalms, are a collection of hymns in praise of God, written by different persons, but as the greater part of them was composed by David, they are generally called the Psalms of David.

The Proverbs, are a collection of short sentences, written by Solomon, in which much excellent advice is contained.

Ecclesiastes, is supposed to have been written by Solomon, after he [Pg 69]repented of the idolatry and sin into which he fell, towards the close of his life, and with the design to point out the vanity of worldly pursuits, in order to induce men to prepare for that state, where there will be no vanity nor vexation of spirit.

The Song of Solomon, is a pastoral dialogue, supposed to have been written by him, upon his marriage with the daughter of Pharoah.

It is universally allowed that the 16 Prophetical Books, and the Lamentations of Jeremiah, which describe the desolation of Judah, during the Babylonian captivity, and prophecy the still greater misfortunes to be suffered at a future time, were written by the persons whose names they bear.

[Pg 70]

The four great prophets were, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel.—The twelve minor prophets were, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habbakuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.

The books of the New Testament were all originally written in Greek; except St. Matthew's Gospel, and St. Paul's Epistle to the Hebrews, which many commentators suppose to have been originally composed in Hebrew, and then immediately translated into Greek; but opinions in this respect are much divided.

The Four Gospels, written by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, give an account of the life, ministry, [Pg 71]death, and resurrection of our Saviour.

The Acts of the Apostles written by Luke, gives an historical account of the progress of Christianity after our Saviour's ascension. The latter part of the book is confined to the history of Saint Paul, of whom St. Luke was the constant companion for many years.

Of the fourteen Epistles ascribed to St. Paul, viz. Romans, 1 and 2 to the Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 and 2 to the Thessalonians, 1 and 2 to Timothy, Titus, Philemon, and Hebrews, the first thirteen have, in all ages of the Church, been universally acknowledged to be written by him. Many doubts have been entertained [Pg 72]concerning the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews. St. Paul was born at Tarsus the principal city of Cilicia in Asia Minor, and was by birth both a Jew and a citizen of Rome. St. Paul is not mentioned in the Gospels, nor is it known whether he ever heard our Saviour preach. His name is first noticed in the account of St. Stephen's Martyrdom, which was followed by a severe persecution of the Church at Jerusalem, in which St. Paul, (who was then called Saul) distinguished himself among its enemies, by his activity and violence. He was going to Damascus, to bring back bound any Christians whom he might find there, when his miraculous conversion took place: after which, he became one of the most [Pg 73]zealous preachers of the Gospel; and as he devoted much of his time to the instruction of the Gentiles, he is called the Apostle of the Gentiles. Gentiles, was the appellation by which all nations were distinguished, that were not Jews, and consequently the Gentiles were Pagans. St. Paul performed many voyages and journies in the service of the Christian religion, and the New Testament history closes A. D. 63, with his release from a two years imprisonment at Rome; no ancient author has left any particulars of the remaining part of this Apostle's life.

The Epistle of St. James was written by that Apostle, who is called James the Less, the son of Alphæus or Cleophat, which are supposed [Pg 74]to be the same name, differently written. It contains much excellent instruction.

The two Epistles of St. Peter, were written by that Apostle, who enjoyed the favour of his divine master, in a peculiar degree. St. Peter seems to have been almost the constant companion of our Lord, and was extremely zealous in propagating his religion, though he was occasionally led into great errors, particularly the denial of his master, but his bitter remorse and repentance, prove that his sorrow for this crime was sincere. He admitted Cornelius, the first Gentile convert, into the Christian faith, but as the chief of his instructions were [Pg 75]confined to the Jews, he is called the apostle of the Jews.

The three Epistles of St. John, were written by the apostle who was favoured with the greatest share of our Saviour's affection. He leaned on his bosom at the last supper, and was one of the first who were made acquainted with his resurrection.

The Epistle of St. Jude was written by the apostle, who was also called Lebbæus and Thaddæus, he was the brother of James the Less, and excepting in the catalogue of the apostles, is only once mentioned in the Gospels. (John chap. 14, verse 22).

The Revelation of John the divine, was written by the same Evangelist and Apostle who wrote the [Pg 76]Gospels and Epistles bearing that name. The Revelation is a prophetical book, and was written by St. John, during his banishment to the isle of Patmos, in the time of Domitian. St. John is supposed to have been the youngest of the Apostles, and to have survived all the rest. He died at Ephesus in Asia Minor, in the third year of the emperor Trajan's reign, A. D. 100.—The Apostles were twelve good men, whom Jesus chose to be the ministers of his gospel. They were entrusted with the power of working miracles: and their names were, Simon Peter, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, Andrew, Philip, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, James the son of [Pg 77]Alphæus (called also James the Less,) Thaddeus whose sirname was Jude, Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot.—After the death of Judas Iscariot who betrayed our Saviour, Matthias was chosen in his stead.

The Disciples of Christ, were those who learned of him as their master.

Thus, my dear, I have given you a short account of all the books contained in the sacred volumes. I will now mention to you, a few of the principal Jewish sects, and then proceed to some description of the history of that people.

There does not appear to have been any difference of religious opinions among the Jews, till after the [Pg 78]cessation of prophecy: most of them sprang up, subsequent to the return from the Babylonian captivity.

The Scribes are not usually considered as a religious sect: they were writers of the law, and often perverted the meaning of the text, instead of explaining it. "Scribes," "doctors of the law," and "lawyers," were only different names for the same class of men.

The Pharisees believed in the immortality of the soul, the resurrection of the dead, and in a future state of rewards and punishments. "Trusting in themselves that they were righteous," they despised the rest of mankind, were entirely destitute of humility towards God, and paid more attention to outward [Pg 79]ceremonies than to the duties of moral virtue.

The Sadducees denied the resurrection of the dead, and the immortality of the soul; therefore, confining all their hopes to this present world, they devoted themselves to its pleasures, and only punished the crimes which disturbed the public tranquillity.

The Nazarites, of whom we read in the Old and New Testament, were persons either devoted to God by their parents, or who devoted themselves for life, or for a limited time. The only three instances of Nazarites devoted to God by their parents before their birth, are Sampson, Samuel, and John the Baptist.

[Pg 80]

The Herodians were partizans of Herod the Great.

The Galileans, so called from their leader Judas of Galilee, were a very turbulent and seditious sect, and by degrees united to themselves almost all the other sects.

The Publicans were not of any sect, civil or religious, but merely tax-gatherers, and collectors of customs due to the Romans. The Publicans were generally Jews, and by their employment were rendered odious to their brethren.

Proselytes were those persons, who being Gentiles by birth, came over to the Jewish religion, but retained that name, till they were admitted into the congregation of the Lord, as adopted children.

[Pg 81]

The land of Canaan, so named from Canaan the son of Ham, whose posterity possessed this land, as well as Egypt or Mizraim, lies in the western part of Asia. Its boundaries were to the north, Cœlo Syria; to the west, the Mediterranean Sea; to the east, Arabia Deserta; and to the south and south west, Arabia Petrea and Egypt. Its extent was about 200 miles from north to south, and its breadth 100.—It was divided into two parts, by the river Jordan; the capital was Jerusalem, (supposed to have been the Salem of Melchisedek.) The whole country was also called Palestine from the Philistines, who inhabiting the western coast, were first known to the Romans, and being by them [Pg 82]corruptly called Palestines, gave that name to the country; but it was more commonly called Judea, as the land of the Jews. Since our Saviour's advent it has been called the Holy land, but in modern writers, all distinction is frequently lost in the name of Syria, which is given to the whole country east of the Mediterranean, between the sea and the desert.

The government of the Jews partook of the patriarchal form, as much as was consistent with the condition and circumstances of a nation.

The leaders or princes of the 12 tribes, possessed a peculiar and supreme authority over each tribe, as [Pg 83]their chief magistrate and leader in time of war.

The elders or rulers of cities, only exercised authority in their own respective cities, and as well as the princes were subject to the great council.

The Sanhedrim or great national council of the Jews was established by Moses: it consisted of 70 persons, besides the president, who after the time of Moses was usually the High Priest.

The Septuagint is a Greek translation of the Bible, made at Alexandria, when Ptolemy Philadelphus was king of Egypt. It is often signified in books by "the LXX."

[Pg 84]

The Vulgate was a very ancient version of the Bible in Latin.

The Bible commences with an account of the creation of the world, 4004 B. C., the history of our first parents, their deviation from virtue, and the evil consequences that ensued. To Adam and Eve were born sons and daughters. The only three mentioned by name, are Cain, Abel and Seth, and the sacred historian has chiefly confined himself to the posterity of Seth, from whom Noah descended: in his time mankind became very wicked, and to punish them, God sent a violent rain upon the earth which caused a general deluge, and all the inhabitants of the world were drowned, except [Pg 85]Noah, his wife, their three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japhet, and their wives, and a few animals of every kind. The descendants of Noah and his sons multiplied greatly, and "they were all of one language," after a time the whole race of men moved from their original habitations in Armenia, and settled in the plains of Shinar near the Euphrates. Here they determined to establish themselves, and build a tower whose top might reach the heavens. God was displeased with this work, which seems to have been undertaken in defiance of his power, and he confounded the language of those who were engaged in it. This obliged them to discontinue their labour; they soon after dispersed, and the different [Pg 86]parts of the world became inhabited.

Terah the father of Abraham was a descendant of Shem; he settled with his family in Haran in Mesopotamia, where he died: God soon after commanded Abraham to remove with his wife Sarah into the land of Canaan, and here when they were far advanced in age, their son Isaac was born. God made many remarkable promises to Abraham, and one of them was, "that in him all the families of the earth should be blessed." This was a declaration that the Messiah should be a descendant of Abraham. To make trial of his obedience, God ordered him to offer up Isaac, as a burnt offering on Mount Moriah, but just as he [Pg 87]was going to slay him, an angel of the Lord appeared, and told him not to touch the lad, but to take a ram and offer it up in his stead. It was upon this mountain that Solomon's temple was afterwards built and here our Saviour was crucified, the mountain being then called Calvary.

Isaac married Rebekah, and had two sons, Esau and Jacob. Jacob though the younger obtained the rights of primogeniture; he also procured his father's blessing by very unjustifiable means; and then repaired to Padan-aram to take a wife out of his own family. He married Leah and Rachel, and had twelve sons, who were called the twelve Patriarchs or fathers of the 12 tribes [Pg 88]of Israel, their names were, Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, Naphthali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zabulon, Joseph and Benjamin. They were all born in Padan-aram; but Jacob returned to Canaan before his father's death. Joseph was the favourite son of Jacob; on which account his brethren hated him, and at length sold him to some Ishmaelites, who were merchants, and the descendants of Ishmael a son of Abraham; these Ishmaelites carried Joseph into Egypt, where he became a slave to Potiphar, the chief officer under the king. His good conduct soon gained the esteem and confidence of his master, but the wickedness of Potiphar's wife caused him to be thrown into prison. He [Pg 89]was released from this confinement, in order to interpret two dreams of Pharoah's. God enabled him to discover that they predicted seven years of plenty which would be followed by seven years of famine; and the wise advice Joseph gave the king on this subject, induced the monarch to raise him to a very high office in his kingdom, and entrust to him the whole care of collecting and managing the corn. This famine was severely felt in Canaan, and Jacob sent his sons into Egypt to purchase corn. Joseph recognised his brethren, and after putting them to several trials, for the purpose of making them properly sensible of their former cruel conduct, he discovered himself to them in a very affectionate [Pg 90]manner; he enquired concerning his father, and when he found the old man was still alive, he desired his brothers to fetch him, and their families out of Canaan. Jacob who had bitterly wept the loss of his favourite son, whom he believed from the accounts of his other children to have been devoured by a wild beast, rejoiced when he heard of his safety, and desired to go to Egypt to see him before he died. Pharoah gave Joseph's family the land of Goshen for their residence; and during his reign, the Hebrews were held in great estimation. The descendants of Jacob multiplied to so great a degree, that about sixty years after the death of Joseph, the king who then reigned over Egypt became [Pg 91]jealous of their numbers, and endeavoured to check their increase by slaying the infants, and reducing the parents to a state of slavery. They suffered many hardships during several years, but at length God was pleased to deliver them in a miraculous manner by the hand of Moses, who would soon have conducted them into the promised land, had not their disobedience and perverseness brought upon them the punishment of a forty years' wandering in the wilderness. During this time, God commanded Moses to deliver his laws to the people of Israel. Aaron the brother of Moses was made High Priest, and to him was committed the superintendance of religious ceremonies.

[Pg 92]

Neither Moses nor Aaron were permitted to enter the promised land on account of their disobedience to a command of God; and they both died in the wilderness during the last year of their wandering. Joshua was appointed to succeed Moses in the important office of leader of the people, God promised him his support, and when all things were prepared, he led the Israelites to the banks of the river Jordan: as soon as their feet touched the water, the current was stopped, the river became dry ground, and the people entered the country opposite to the city of Jericho, which was taken in a miraculous manner.

Some time after Joshua's death, Judges were appointed to govern [Pg 93]Israel: they were 12 in number and their government lasted rather more than 300 years. Othniel was the first of the Judges, and Samuel the last. In his time the people desired to have a king like other nations, and God commanded him to anoint Saul of the tribe of Benjamin 1095 years B. C., to be the first king of Israel. Johim succeeded David of the tribe of Judah, and at his death the throne devolved to his son Solomon, who built a temple to the name of the "Lord his God;" in it were deposited the ark—the holy Scriptures, and other sacred things.—Solomon was succeeded by his son Rehoboam, the folly and wickedness of whose conduct induced ten of the tribes to revolt, and they chose Jeroboam [Pg 94]one of his officers for their king. The two tribes that remained faithful to Rehoboam were Judah and Benjamin. Rehoboam's kingdom was called Judah, and the capital of it was Jerusalem. Jeroboam's kingdom was named Israel and its chief city was Samaria.

Jeroboam was succeeded by his son Nadab; and after he had reigned two years, he was killed by Baasha, who usurped the crown and destroyed the whole race of Jeroboam, a man remarkable for his impiety.—All the succeeding kings of Judah were descendants of Rehoboam, which fulfilled the promise made by God to David, that he would "establish his house and the throne of his kingdom for ever:" [Pg 95]this was a declaration that the Messiah was to be a descendant of David.

There were frequent wars between the kings of Judah and Israel, and between them and the neighbouring kings,—the kings and people both of Judah and Israel, soon fell into the greatest depravity; and at length God suffered Shalmaneser king of Assyria, by the capture of Samaria in the reign of Hoshea, to put an end to the kingdom of Israel 721 years B. C. and about 250 years after its first establishment into a separate kingdom. And 606 years B. C. and about 115 years after the destruction of the kingdom of Israel, God permitted Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, to invade Judea [Pg 96]in the reign of Jehoiakim, and to besiege and take Jerusalem. Jehoiakim was carried prisoner to Babylon, though afterwards restored to his kingdom, and succeeded by two other kings, yet, from this period may be dated the commencement of the Babylonian captivity, which according to the prediction of Jeremiah was to last 70 years. When this time was completed, Cyrus, under whom were united the kingdoms of Persia, Media, and Babylon, permitted the Jews to return to their own land, and rebuild their temple at Jerusalem.

They were conducted by Zerubbabel the grandson of Jeconias, and Joshua the son of Josedec the high priest. The second temple was finished [Pg 97]in the reign of king Darius of Persia.

The settlement of the people "after their old estate," together with the arrangement of all civil and ecclesiastical matters, were completed by Ezra and Nehemiah.

At the period, about 430 years B. C. the Scripture history closes, and for the remaining particulars of the Jewish history recourse must be had to uninspired writers, particularly to the books of the Maccabees and to Josephus.

Judea continued subject to Persia until Alexander conquered that country; it then fell under his dominion and he treated the Jews with great lenity. After the conqueror's death, Judea became subject to his [Pg 98]successors, till Mattathias, a priest eminent for his piety and resolution, encouraged the people to shake off the Syrian yoke. Mattathias died before this was effected, but his son Judas Maccabeus completed the deliverance of his country, and the government of Judea remained in his family till the time of Herod the great, who put an end to the administration of the Maccabees or Armenians, and prevailed upon the Roman senate to appoint him king of Judea.

It was in the thirty sixth year of the reign of Herod, and while Augustus was Emperor of Rome that our Saviour Jesus Christ was born, four years before the common æra.

Herod was a cruel tyrant to his [Pg 99]people, and even to his own children: but to keep the Jews in subjection, and to erect a lasting monument to his own name, he repaired the temple at Jerusalem, and considerably enlarged the kingdom of Judea.

At his death, the countries over which he had reigned were divided among his three sons, but they were not allowed to take the title of kings; they were called ethnarchs or tetrarchs. Archelaus one of Herod's sons, acting with great cruelty and injustice, was, by order of Augustus, banished to Vienne in Gaul, where he died. His dominions were then reduced to a Roman province, and from this time the Jews possessed but little civil authority. [Pg 100]Justice was administered in the name and by the laws of Rome, and taxes were paid immediately to the emperor. Several of the Roman governors severely oppressed and persecuted the Jews, and at length, in the reign of Nero they openly revolted from the Romans. Then began the Jewish war, which was terminated after an obstinate defence and unparalleled suffering, on the part of the Jews, by the total destruction of the city and temple of Jerusalem, by Titus son of Vespasian the Roman emperor. Since that time the Jews have no where subsisted as a nation.

Though I have endeavoured, my dear, to give you as brief an account as possible of the Jewish history, [Pg 101]yet the subject is so interesting, that I perceive it has already occupied a much longer time than I at first intended. The history of our Saviour's ministry and the Acts of the Apostles we must therefore defer to a future opportunity: though I hardly know if these subjects require any elucidation; the facts in the New Testament being recorded in so clear a manner by the Evangelists themselves, that I think they must be intelligible even to your apprehension.

I hope you will perceive that I have mentioned but very slightly some of the most interesting and important events, purposely to induce you to seek a more detailed account of them in the sacred volume [Pg 102]itself. This inestimable treasure will I am sure furnish the most agreeable topic of many of our future conversations. You, my dear, have never been taught to consider religion as a dry and difficult study, but rather as a means of adding to the cheerful enjoyment of the many blessings bestowed upon you by the almighty giver of all good, and I trust the gratitude and piety of your future life will prove you worthy of being called a disciple of the benevolent Jesus.

Anne. Indeed, mamma, I feel the truth of what you say, and I will endeavour to act as you wish me.—I am sure I shall have much more pleasure in reading those parts of the Bible you think proper for me, now [Pg 103]I have some connected idea of the whole.

Mrs. Harley. I believe you will. But good bye, my love, for the present: when you go to bed you will find the prayers you asked for on my table; there are besides two hymns which I have selected from an admirable collection.

Anne. Thank you, mamma, I will learn to repeat them.

A Morning Prayer for a Child.

O Almighty God, the Father and Preserver of all mankind! I desire to offer thee my sincerest thanks that I am arisen this morning in health and safety. May I spend [Pg 104]the day on which I am now entered in endeavouring to do thy will: let me carefully avoid all that I know to be displeasing in thy sight, and diligently apply myself to perform all the good in my power. May I keep a strict watch over my lips and temper, and try to live in peace with those around me. Grant thy protection and blessing to my relations and friends; if it should please thee to preserve us through this day, may the close of it find us more worthy of again addressing thee through Jesus Christ,

Our Father, &c.

[Pg 105]

An Evening Prayer.

Almighty and Merciful God! at the close of another day which thou hast graciously permitted me to spend in the enjoyment of many blessings, I would return thee humble thanksgivings from a grateful heart. Conscious of the many errors I am continually committing, I would earnestly implore thy pardon for whatsoever has been amiss in my conduct this day. Forgive me, O Lord, every foolish and angry word I have spoken, every perverse thought I have indulged, all I have done that I ought not to have done, and all I have left undone that I ought to have done. O may I [Pg 106]truly repent of these my past faults, and strive to amend my future life. Bless my relations and friends; pardon all their past transgressions, and if it please thee to preserve us through the night, may we arise in the morning to do thy will. Above all the other blessings thou hast granted me, I would value that of having become early acquainted with the religion of Jesus. May his example be my guide, and, with a thankful remembrance of all he did and suffered for our sakes, I sum up my petitions for the whole human race in the prayer himself taught us, saying,

Our Father, &c.

[Pg 107]


Lord of my life! O may thy praise
Employ my noblest powers.
Whose goodness lengthens out my days,
And fills the circling hours!

Preserved by thine almighty arm,
I pass the shades of night,
Serene, and safe from every harm,
And see returning light.

While many spent the night in sighs,
And restless pains and woes;
In gentle sleep I clos'd my eyes,
And undisturb'd repose.

When sleep, death's semblance o'er me spread,
And I unconscious lay,
Thy watchful care was round my bed,
To guard my feeble clay.

[Pg 108]

O let the same almighty care
My waking hours attend;
From every danger, every snare,
My heedless steps defend.

Smile on my minutes as they roll,
And guide my future days;
And let thy goodness fill my soul
With gratitude and praise.


Great God! to thee my ev'ning song,
With humble gratitude, I raise;
O let thy mercy tune my tongue,
And fill my heart with lively praise?

My days unclouded, as they pass,
And ev'ry gently rolling hour,
Are monuments of wond'rous grace,
And witness to thy love and power.

[Pg 109]

Thy love and power, celestial guard,
Preserve me from surrounding harms:
Can danger reach me, while the Lord
Extends his kind protecting arms?

Let cheering hope my eyelids close,
With sleep refresh my feeble frame,
Safe in thy care may I repose,
And wake with praises to thy name.



[Pg 110]

Mrs. Harley. The story you are to read this morning, my dear, is founded upon facts which come within my own observation. I dare say you have frequently heard the French Revolution spoken of: it was this event which gave rise to the incidents contained in

The History of the Melcour Family.

Mr. de Melcour was the son of a [Pg 111]younger branch of a good family; his father died when he was quite a child, and left him but a small patrimony. He early entered the army, where for many years he served his country with honour and fidelity: he was present in several engagements, and by his bravery and exemplary conduct, acquired the esteem of all his fellow officers. During the peace which followed the American war he married an amiable lady, whose fortune united to his own, enabled him to quit the noisy scenes of a military life, and settle on a beautiful little estate he purchased in the province of Gascony. Here he enjoyed all the happiness which a good conscience, a good temper, and a feeling heart [Pg 112]can bestow, joined to the blessings of domestic peace. Madame de Melcour spent her time in the bosom of her family; she had little taste for the dissipation of the capital, and possessing only a limited income, had she indulged herself in expensive pleasures, she must have foregone the higher satisfaction of contributing to the comfort of those in less fortunate circumstances. She had profited by the excellent education her parents had been careful to give her, and this enabled her to bring up her own children with little assistance from others. Frederic and Elizabeth were the happiest little boy and girl in the neighbourhood: they tenderly loved their parents, and feeling the necessity [Pg 113]of doing their duty, it became quite habitual to them. The little faults natural to childhood they were conscious would not be punished with severity, and their good actions they knew would never pass unrewarded. Frederic employed much of his time in working in a little garden that his father had given him: Elizabeth assisted in the management of the flowers, and their highest ambition was to present their mamma with a nosegay of roses, before any were blown in the great garden.

Thus happily passed many years at Melcour; when the troubles attendant on the revolution came to disturb the tranquillity of their domestic enjoyment. M. de Melcour [Pg 114]was called upon to resume a military command; and though he disapproved of many of the measures that had been pursued by the government, yet, when he saw his sovereign in distress, he would not withhold his aid. He was particularly active in endeavouring to put a stop to the devastation caused by a misguided populace; and in a fray between some peasants and soldiers, he fell a victim to his benevolent exertions in the cause of humanity.

The sad news was brought to Madame de Melcour just as she was recovering from the bed of sickness; her constitution already much weakened, was unable to support the fatal shock, and she soon [Pg 115]after closed her eyes for ever in the arms of her beloved children.

At this period, Frederic was just fifteen, his sister two years younger; they were left without any protector but an aged grandmother, who had constantly resided with her daughter since the marriage of the latter with M. de Melcour. Already suffering from the infirmities of age, Madame de Joinville felt herself unable to resist the persecutions of ill-disposed persons, and in the course of a few months found it necessary to leave the chateau. It was her intention to retire with her grandchildren into England, the country where she had spent much of the early part of her life, and where she still hoped to discover [Pg 116]some of her former friends. Accordingly, having settled her affairs as well as the distracted state of the nation would permit, and, accompanied by Frederic and Elizabeth, she proceeded to the nearest seaport. They encountered many difficulties on the road, but at length, through Frederic's activity, succeeded in securing their passage in a vessel that was on the point of sailing for England.

Madame de Joinville suffered extremely from the fatigues and anxieties she had lately undergone, and on their arrival at —— it was found necessary to remain there a few days in order to recruit her exhausted strength.

As soon as Madame de Joinville [Pg 117]was sufficiently recovered, they hastened to London, where, by the assistance of some friends, a small house was hired for their reception. The expences of a long journey had much diminished the sum Madame de Joinville had collected before her departure from France, and the most rigid economy was necessary to prevent them from becoming burthensome to others. In these circumstances, Frederic could not bear the idea of leading an idle life; he greatly wished to follow the profession of his father, but the anxious fears of his grandmother and sister long opposed his inclinations: however, he at length prevailed, and entered a regiment that was ordered on foreign service. [Pg 118]The parting between Elizabeth and Frederic was a melancholy scene: she was long inconsolable for his loss, but religion, which she had always been taught to consider as the best comforter of the afflicted, came to her aid, and feeling the necessity of submission, she determined by active exertions to divert her mind from past calamities.

It was now that Elizabeth felt the inestimable advantages of a good education; she perfectly understood the English language; her industry and punctuality procured her many friends, who, young as she was, entrusted her with the translation of papers of consequence, and the reward she received for her labour, greatly contributed [Pg 119]to the support of the family. Every instant she could spare from her employment and the care of their domestic affairs, was devoted to her grandmother. She nursed her when sick, read aloud for her amusement, and by every kind attention endeavoured to lessen her regret for the blessings she had lost. Madame de Joinville has often been heard to declare, that without the filial affection of her granddaughter she could hardly have supported her afflictions. The infirmities of age must sometimes render those advanced in years petulant and capricious: Elizabeth never murmured when her endeavours to please failed of success; much less did she irritate her grandmother [Pg 120]by contradiction; she patiently submitted to these trials of her temper, and when evening came, and Madame de Joinville retired to rest, Elizabeth thought herself amply repaid for any little disappointments she had encountered during the day, by receiving her blessing and the assurance of her tenderest love.

Frederic remained two years abroad; whatever he could spare from his own actual wants he constantly remitted to his sister; but without her industry they would often have been greatly distressed. At length Elizabeth's noble and pious conduct was made known to a lady who had formerly been an intimate acquaintance of Madame [Pg 121]de Joinville's family. Her visits to the old lady gave her constant opportunities of witnessing the amiable disposition of her granddaughter; and anxious to reward her virtues, she interested herself so warmly in their concerns, that at length, through the intercession of some powerful friends, a restitution of part of M. de Melcour's property was procured for his children. Elizabeth when in happier circumstances preserved the same humility of mind, and her never failing attention to her grandmother was rewarded by the pleasure of seeing the comforts of her last days make amends for the sorrows that had embittered so many of her former ones.

[Pg 122]

Frederic arrived in England soon after this happy change in their circumstances; he would have wished his sister to return to their native country, but the inconvenience of removing her grandmother, and the still unquiet state of the continent, induced her to prefer a residence in that land where she was secured from the horrors she had once witnessed. Frederic yielded to her reasons; and when their affairs obliged him to leave her, a constant correspondence maintained the affection that had always subsisted from their earliest years.

"Dear mamma," said Anne, "I think I like Elizabeth better than any of the young people I have yet [Pg 123]read about, but do you really believe there ever was so good a character?"

Mrs. Harley. Certainly, my dear; and I have no doubt but many such are to be found. They must be depraved indeed, who can be wanting in affection to their parents. But I fear we must not comment a great deal on this story at present, or there will not be time to give you some account of Geography, which I intend for your study this morning.

Anne. I will then, mamma, after dinner, ask you to explain to me a few of the words I did not quite understand.

Mrs. Harley. Do, my dear, I [Pg 124]shall be happy to give you all the information you desire.


Mrs. Harley. You know, my dear, what is meant by Geography?

Anne. O yes, mamma, Geography is a description of the earth we inhabit.

Mrs. Harley. And the earth (which the globe before us represents,) is divided into four parts, viz. Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. The three first are contained in the eastern hemisphere, and are called the old world. America is situated in the western hemisphere, and is called the new world, because discovered in modern times.

[Pg 125]

Anne. Pray, mamma, is not a continent one of the divisions of the land?

Mrs. Harley. Yes, my dear; for after we have divided the whole globe into land and water, we again subdivide the land into Continents, Islands, Peninsulas, Isthmusses, and Promontories,—the water into Oceans, Seas, Straits, Gulfs, Bays, Lakes, Rivers, and Creeks.

A Continent is a large tract of land containing several countries which are not separated by seas; as Europe, Asia, Africa, and America.

An Island, is a tract of land entirely surrounded by water, as Britain, Ireland, Sicily, &c.

[Pg 126]

A Peninsula, is a tract of land almost surrounded by water, and is joined to the main land by an isthmus, as the Morea.

An Isthmus, is a narrow neck of land that joins a peninsula to the continent, as the Isthmus of Corinth.

A Cape or Promontory, is that high part of land which shoots into the sea, and appears to terminate in a point, as the Cape of Good Hope in Africa, Cape Finistere in Spain, &c.

A Shore or Coast, is that land which borders upon the sea.

The Ocean, is that general collection of water which surrounds the whole earth. It is distinguished by the names of the four cardinal points [Pg 127]of the world; viz. the northern or icy ocean, which environs the north pole; the western or Atlantic Ocean, which lies between Europe and America, extending to the Equator; the southern or Ethiopic Ocean, which extends from the Equator between Africa and America; and the Eastern or Indian Ocean, which washes the eastern coast of Africa, and the southern coast of Asia. To these have been added by later discoveries the Pacific Ocean, commonly called the Great South Sea, between America and Asia; and the Antarctic Icy Ocean which surrounds the South Pole.

A Sea, is a part of the Ocean, into which we must enter by some strait, and it is almost surrounded [Pg 128]by land, as the Mediterranean and Baltic Seas.

A Strait, is a narrow passage opening a way into some sea, as the Straits of Gibraltar, the Hellespont.

A Gulf is a part of an ocean or sea, which runs up considerably into the land, as the Gulf of Venice, the Gulf of Mexico, &c.

A Bay is a smaller kind of gulf, (and is frequently much smaller at the entrance than in the middle) as the Bay of Naples.

A Lake is a collection of water entirely surrounded by land, as the Lake of Geneva, and the Lake of Constance: when no stream flows in or out of it, it is called a pool.

A River is a current or stream, which rises in some elevated land, [Pg 129]and flows into the sea, another river, or lake, as the River Thames, the Medway, and the River St. Lawrence.

A Creek, is a small part of the sea or of a river which runs but a little way into the land.

That part of the sea which flows between the shores of an Island and a Continent, is called a Channel, as the English Channel.

This description of the divisions of land and water, I wish you to commit to memory; and I will shew you all the names I have mentioned on the globe, which will give you a more perfect idea of them, than you can acquire by reading only.

Anne. Thank you, mamma; but [Pg 130]I hope you will tell me a little more of the earth.

Mrs. Harley. Willingly, my dear. You have read that after the flood, the world was peopled by Noah's children: Shem and his descendants spread over Asia, Ham over Africa, and Japhet over Europe. It is uncertain who were the original inhabitants of America. Europe, though the smallest of the four parts of the world, is much the most populous; and here the arts and sciences are brought to the greatest perfection: it is divided into different countries, of which the following are the principal, though many of them, have undergone great changes during the last few years.

[Pg 131]


Countries. Capitals.
1 Norway Bergen
2 Sweden Stockholm
3 Denmark Copenhagen
4 Russia St. Petersburgh


British Dominions 1 {England London
{Scotland Edinburgh
{Ireland Dublin
2 France Paris
3 Swisserland Bern
4 Netherlands Brussels
5 United Provinces Amsterdam
6 Germany Vienna
7 Bohemia Prague
8 Hungary Presburgh
9 Poland Cracow
10 Prussia Koningsburgh

[Pg 132]

Note. Berlin, in Germany, was the capital of the king of Prussia's Dominions.


1 Spain Madrid
2 Portugal Lisbon
3 Italy Rome
4 Turkey Constantinople

The most considerable Islands of Europe are

Great Britain and Ireland in the Atlantic Ocean,

Iceland in the Northern Ocean,

Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Majorca, Minorca, Candia, all in the Mediterranean sea, and the Islands in the Archipelago.

[Pg 133]

It is now so late my dear, that I must finish my account of Europe to-morrow; good bye, and try to remember what I have already told you.



[Pg 134]

Anne. You see me earlier than usual this morning, dear mamma; but as I know all the geography you desired me to learn quite perfectly, I hope you will give me leave to read another story.

Mrs. Harley. Certainly, my dear: but remember to read very distinctly; make proper pauses; fall your voice at a period, and begin the next sentence in rather a higher tone; aspirate the H, excepting in such words as hour, honour, heiress, [Pg 135]and a few others where it is silent: and above all, avoid a monotonous manner of reading, for nothing can be more unpleasant to those who are listening to you, than to hear a tale, however interesting in itself, read on in one continued tone: instead of affording any amusement, it only induces the persons you are reading to, to wish for a cessation of the unpleasant murmuring noise which offends their ears.

Anne. I will attend to what you say, mamma, while I am reading the following story, which is called

The Advantages of Truth.

George Elliot the son of a respectable gentleman, had been paying [Pg 136]a visit to his uncle, and on his return home, was accompanied by one of his cousins, who was to spend a few months with him at Hartley, Mr. Elliot's country residence.

George was a boy of a frank and generous disposition, and good abilities; these being cultivated by a careful education, made him at the age of eleven years, a well-informed and agreeable boy. Charles Morden his cousin, was much his inferior in every respect. Accustomed to excessive indulgence, he became fretful and idle, and often entered into mischief, for the sake of having something to do; his parents so plentifully supplied him with play-things, that he was consequently tired of every thing he possessed, and only [Pg 137]desirous of what was in expectation; nay, worse, for to obtain any particular gratification, he would not scruple making use of falshood. Such was the boy, now unfortunately the constant companion of George Elliot.

Mr. Elliot indulged his son in every innocent amusement proper for his age, but loved him too well to suffer his faults to pass unnoticed. George had been long anxious for a poney, and as soon as a proper one could be purchased, his father presented it to him, and often allowed him to ride out, either accompanied by himself or a servant, but particularly forbade him from ever mounting any other horse in the stables, telling him at the same time, [Pg 138]the many fatal accidents that had occurred, owing to boys attempting to ride horses they were unable to manage. George promised obedience, and had strictly adhered to his word.

It was settled that Charles was to share the studies, as well as the amusements of his cousin, and the gentleman to whose care George's education was confided, paid equal attention to both, though he soon perceived that Charles had little delight in useful occupations: and he was always glad of some excuse that might save him the trouble of attending Mr. Darford, and laughed at George for being always fagging as he called it.

About two months after his son's [Pg 139]return, Mr. Elliot was obliged by some business of importance, to take a journey that he thought might detain him about a fortnight from home. He embraced the children at parting, desired them to behave well, and at his return they should be rewarded.

For the first week after Mr. Elliot's departure, the boys were so good, and their tutor so well pleased with their conduct, that one fine day he gave them a holiday, telling them, that provided they avoided all mischievous amusements they were at liberty to spend the day in any manner most agreeable to themselves.—During several hours, they were employed in catching their balls, flying their kites, working in the garden, [Pg 140]&c. At length, Charles seeing a little boy going by on horseback, said he should like nothing so well as a nice ride before dinner. "Nor I neither," answered George, "but you know it is impossible, my father having expressly forbidden us to ride out alone during his absence. Mr. Darford is not at home, and I know that all the men are busy." "What does that signify?" returned Charles, "we are surely old enough to take care of ourselves, and as to my uncle, he will never know any thing of the matter."

George was at first quite shocked at the idea of disobeying his father, but he at last suffered himself to be persuaded by the artful entreaties of his cousin, to do what he knew [Pg 141]to be wrong. They went to the stables, where George took out his own little poney, and Charles one of his uncle's large horses, assuring his cousin that he could manage it very well. At their first setting out, they agreed not to go far from home, only just to ride round the paddock; the pleasantness of the weather, however, soon tempted them to alter their resolution, and they ventured into the high road. They went on very well for some time, and were just thinking of returning, when Charles's horse took fright at some object on the side of the road, and by a sudden start threw his rider; he was not much hurt by the fall, but the horse galloped away, and they soon lost all trace of the way [Pg 142]he took: after wasting some time in fruitless endeavours to follow him, they were obliged to return home.

George was very uneasy, and bitterly repented the fault he had committed. "O Charles," cried he, "why did you ask me to disobey my father! Alas! I fear he will never forgive me."

"Don't cry so, pray," answered his cousin, "come, follow my advice, and this affair will never be discovered."—"How can that be? you surely forget the horse is lost, and besides, I would not upon any account tell an untruth." "You are very foolish then, let me tell you; for as nobody saw us go out, if we deny knowing any thing about the horse, we shall never be suspected."

[Pg 143]

"No, Charles, that I will never do; I had rather suffer the severest punishment that could be inflicted upon me, than tell a lie. Nothing shall induce me to add to the fault I have already committed. When my father comes home, I will confess what I have done, and rely upon his indulgence for pardoning a disobedience I so sincerely repent."

"Well then," said Charles, "if you will not follow my advice, at least you have no occasion to say it was I who persuaded you to take out the horses."—"I shall not even mention your name: but come, let us waste no more time, in regretting an action that cannot be recalled, we had better try by our future conduct, to make some reparation for [Pg 144]the past."—So saying, he took his cousin by the arm, and they were together leaving the room, when Mr. Elliot entered. The young lads drew back in dismay; Mr. Elliot ran to embrace his son. "You see me here, my dear boy, sooner than you expected; but fortunately the business that called me hence, was concluded much earlier than I could have imagined." Some few minutes had elapsed, before George could gain courage to answer his father, at length he said, "you are convinced, my dear sir, that your company has always given me pleasure, but to day it causes me pain, for I have just been guilty of a fault that will I fear deprive me of your confidence." George here related to [Pg 145]his father, all that had passed, except carefully concealing the part his cousin had acted; when he had finished, Mr. Elliot thus addressed him, "I am charmed with your noble conduct, my dear boy, and most willingly forgive the error you have committed, because I believe your repentance to be sincere, and am convinced you have told me the exact truth. Listen, now, to the consequences that would have ensued, had you concealed it: I was in the adjoining apartment, and heard the whole conversation that passed between yourself and Charles; so, had you, as he wickedly advised, had recourse to a falsehood, it would not have deceived me, but only have proved that you were unworthy my care and affection: [Pg 146]whereas, I now rejoice in the virtuous resolution of a son thus rendered dearer to me than ever. Always speak the truth, and be assured it is the easiest and surest way of extricating yourself from every difficulty.—As for you, Sir," continued Mr. Elliot turning to Charles, "I shall not take the trouble of punishing the meanness and depravity of your conduct, because I fear that any punishment I could inflict, would have little effect on a liar: I shall immediately send you back to your parents, with an account of this day's transactions, at the same time advising them to find some place far distant from all who belong to you, and where, under a severe discipline, you may be made to [Pg 147]repent of your wickedness, and I hope in time recalled to that virtuous conduct from which you have now so miserably erred."

Mr. Elliot then taking his son by the hand led him out of the parlour, and left Charles at leisure to reflect on the sad consequences of a habit of lying.

This story being finished, Mrs. Harley said, it is not necessary my dear Anne, that I should comment on the subject of which you have been reading; the advantages arising from a strict adherence to truth are too obvious not to be immediately perceived, and I trust, from the principles I have always endeavoured to instil into your young mind, that [Pg 148]you will ever prefer the fair and open path she points out, to the intricate labyrinths of despicable falshood.

Anne. Indeed, mamma, if ever I should be tempted to tell an untruth, I will think of this story, and then, I am sure I shall reject it, even though I were certain it would remain undiscovered.

Mrs. Harley. Do not imagine that would ever be the case, as it is impossible for children, however artful, long to dissemble their actions or even thoughts from persons interested about them.

I will now conclude my account of Europe.

[Pg 149]


Mrs. Harley. I ended yesterday, I think, with the European islands.—I will now tell you the principal seas which surround Europe—the sea of Asoph, the Euxine or Black Sea, the Archipelago or Grecian Sea, are between Europe and Asia—the Mediterranean between Europe and Africa—the Atlantic Ocean between Europe and America—the German Ocean or North Sea between Britain and Germany—the Icy Ocean on the North, and the White Sea in Russia.

The principal straits are, the Straits of Caffa between the Sea of Asoph and the Black Sea—the Bosphorus, or Straits of Constantinople [Pg 150]between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmora—the Hellespont between the Sea of Marmora and the Archipelago—the Faro of Messina between Italy and Sicily—the Straits of Bonifacio between Corsica and Sardinia—the Straits of Gibraltar between Barbary and Spain—the Straits of Dover between England and France—the Sound in the Baltic between Denmark and Sweden.

The principal gulfs and bays are, the Gulf of Bothnia in Sweden—the Gulf of Finland between Sweden and Russia—the Bay of Biscay between France and Spain—the Gulf of Venice between Italy and Turkey.

The principal rivers are, the Wolga—the Don or Tanais—and the [Pg 151]Boristhenes or Dnieper in Russia—the Thames and the Severn in England—the Danube, the Rhine, and the Elbe in Germany—the Vistula or Wesil in Poland—the Loire, the Seine, the Rhine, and the Garonne in France—the Ebro, the Tagus, and the Douro in Spain—the Po in Italy.

The chief lakes are Ladoga and Onega in Russia—Windermere in England, Lough Neagh in Ireland, and Loch Lomond in Scotland—Lake of Geneva between Swisserland and Italy—Lake of Constance between Swisserland and Germany—Lakes of Como and Maggiore in Italy.

The chief mountains are, the Dofre-field between Norway and Sweden—the [Pg 152]Cheviot Hills in Scotland—Plinlimmon in Wales—the Peak in Derbyshire in England—the Carpathian mountains between Poland and Hungary—the Pyrenean mountains between France and Spain—the Alps which divide France and Germany from Italy—the Apennines which run through Italy from North to South.

Besides these, there are several volcanos in Europe, Vesuvius in Naples—Stromboli one of the Lipari isles—Etna in Sicily, and Hecla in Iceland.

Anne. Thank you, mamma, I will look for all of them in the map; but pray before you leave Europe tell me something more of our own country.

Mrs. Harley. England, my dear, [Pg 153]is bounded on the north by Scotland, on the east by the German Ocean, on the south by the British Channel, and on the west by the Irish sea, and St. George's Channel. It is divided into 52 counties, 40 in England and 12 in Wales. The 40 English counties are


Counties. Chief Towns.
Northumberland Newcastle.
Cumberland Carlisle
Durham Durham
Westmoreland Kendal
Yorkshire York
Lancashire Lancaster.


Norfolk Norwich
Suffolk Ipswich
Essex Chelmsford [Pg 154]
Middlesex London
Hertfordshire Hertford
Cambridgeshire Cambridge.


Kent Canterbury
Sussex Chichester
Surry Guildford
Hampshire Winchester
Berkshire Reading
Wiltshire Salisbury.


Dorsetshire Dorchester
Somersetshire Bristol
Devonshire Exeter
Cornwall Launceston.

[Pg 155]


Gloucestershire Gloucester
Monmouthshire Monmouth
Herefordshire Hereford
Shropshire Shrewsbury
Cheshire Chester
Derbyshire Derby
Nottinghamshire Nottingham
Lincolnshire Lincoln
Huntingdonshire Huntingdon
Bedfordshire Bedford
Buckinghamshire Buckingham
Oxfordshire Oxford
Worcestershire Worcester
Staffordshire Stafford
Leicestershire Leicester
Rutlandshire Oakham
Northamptonshire Northampton
Warwickshire Warwick.

[Pg 156]

The 12 Welsh counties are,


Counties. Chief Towns.
Anglesea Beaumaris
Caernarvonshire Caernarvon
Denbighshire Denbigh
Flintshire St. Asaph
Merionethshire Harlech
Montgomeryshire Montgomery


Cardiganshire Cardigan
Radnorshire Radnor
Pembrokeshire Pembroke
Caermarthenshire Caermarthen
Brecknockshire Brecknock
Glamorganshire Cardiff.

You will learn these counties, my [Pg 157]dear, and trace them on the map at your first leisure opportunity. We have been so long in Europe, that I fear I must give you a very short description of the other parts of the world.

Asia is rendered famous on account of its having been the residence of our first parents, and the scene of almost every transaction mentioned in the scriptures: here our Saviour was born, lived and died; and from hence the gospel was first promulgated to mankind. Its inhabitants, though formerly celebrated for their refinement, are now, in general, a lazy, ignorant people. China is celebrated for its productions of silk and tea, which is a plant almost peculiar to this [Pg 158]country, and the beautiful manufacture of porcelain called China. In the southern part of Asia the East Indies are situated, and in the West Arabia. The chief rivers are the Euphrates, Tigris, Indus and Ganges. The principal mountains are, Azarat, Horeb, Sinai and Lebanon. The most remarkable Islands are, the Japan isles, the Maiana or Ladrone Islands, Formoso, Philippines, Moluccas, Banda islands, Celebes or Macassar, the Sunda islands, Ceylon, Maldives and Jesso isles.

Anne. Thank you, mamma, now for Africa.

Mrs. Harley. Africa, my dear, though once so highly renowned for the learning and politeness of its natives is now nearly barbarous. In [Pg 159]Africa, near the northern coast, was situated the once famous city of Carthage, founded by Queen Dido, and the native country of a famous general named Hannibal, whose history you will hereafter read. Egypt so famous for the Nile (an immense river) lies in this part of the world, and here the arts and sciences were formerly highly cultivated. The chief rivers are, the Nile, Niger, Gambia, and Senegal. The mountains are, Mount Atlas in the north, and the Peak of Teneriffe one of the Canary isles. The principal African Islands are, the Azores, the Madeiras, Canaries, Cape Verde isles, and St. Helena in the Atlantic Ocean; Madagascar, Mauritius, Bourbon, Comora [Pg 160]isles, and Socotora in the Indian Ocean.

America, the largest division of the globe, was discovered in the year 1492 by Christopher Columbus, a native of Genoa in Italy; though it derives its name (not quite justly I think) from Americus Vesputius, who extended the discoveries of Columbus. America is divided into north and south, and these two peninsulas are joined by the Isthmus of Darien. The mountains here are much higher and the rivers much larger than those in the other parts of the world. The Andes, a ridge of mountains in South America, are considered the highest in the world; their tops are covered with perpetual snow, notwithstanding the excessive [Pg 161]heat of the climate in which they are situated. In North America are the Appalachian or Allegany mountains. The principal rivers are, in the southern peninsula, the river Amazon, the Oronoko, the Rio de la Plata, and the river Janeiro: in the north, St. Lawrence, Delaware, and Susquehana.

Great part of North America formerly belonged to Great Britain, but some disputes arising between the mother country (England) and the colonies, a war ensued, which was, at length, terminated in favour of the Americans, and in 1783 they were declared a free, sovereign, and independent nation. This part of America is now distinguished by the appellation of "the United States." [Pg 162]General Washington, of whom you have frequently heard me speak, was an American.

I must now finish my lecture on geography, which, though very imperfect, has yet exceeded the usual limits of our lessons; many interesting circumstances relating to the various countries I have mentioned, have been entirely omitted, as I was fearful that by telling you too much on the subject I should prevent you from remembering any of the particulars so necessary for you to retain.

Anne. Oh, dear mamma! how much I thank you for what you have told me about geography, I think it very entertaining, and I like looking over maps; but now I should very [Pg 163]much like to know the history of all these countries.

Mrs. Harley. To-morrow, my dear, I will give you some account of them, but to know all the particulars of each nation would require you to read more volumes than as yet you have patience for. Farewell.



[Pg 164]

Mrs. Harley. We will this morning, my dear, contrary to the usual custom, begin our instructions with the Lesson instead of the Story; and as the two last days have given you some idea of geography, I think I cannot better employ the present than by devoting it to History.

Anne. You know, mamma, I am always happy to learn what you are so good as to teach me. Pray, if I was to ask you the meaning of the [Pg 165]word History, how would you answer me?

Mrs. Harley. I should say, my dear, that History is a relation of the past actions of men and women. It is divided into sacred and profane. By sacred history is meant all the relations that are contained in the Old and New Testaments.

Anne. And of which you have already given me some account, mamma.

Mrs. Harley. From your earliest childhood, my dear, it has been my constant endeavour to store your mind with as much knowledge of sacred subjects as I thought it capable of receiving.

By profane history is meant the account of all transactions not included [Pg 166]in the sacred volumes. Ancient history relates the events that happened from the creation of the world to the birth of Jesus Christ: Modern history, those from the birth of Jesus Christ to the present time. Ancient history is divided into the four periods or æras of the four successive monarchies called universal.

Anne. Why were they called universal monarchies, mamma?

Mrs. Harley. Because they extended over the greatest part of the then known world. The first was the Assyrian monarchy, founded by Nimrod, the grandson of Ham, who, you know, was the son of Noah. Nimrod was a very courageous man, and a famous hunter of wild beasts, [Pg 167]which impressed his friends with so high an idea of his abilities, that they agreed to elect him their king; he taught his subjects the arts of hunting and building cities, besides several other useful things: he founded the Assyrian monarchy about 1800 years after the creation. Nimrod was succeeded by his son Ninus, and at his death the crown devolved to his Queen Semiramis, remarkable for her extraordinary valour; she was slain in battle by the Indians, who, in those days, made use of elephants in their armies. This monarchy ended under Sardanapalus, who was a very weak prince. The capitals of the Assyrian empire were Babylon upon the river Euphrates, and Nineveh on the Tigris. [Pg 168]It was divided, after the death of Sardanapalus, into three kingdoms, called, the Median, Babylonian, and the second Assyrian. Belshazzar, the last king of Babylon, was a very wicked man, and treated the Jews (who had been brought captive to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, a former king) with great cruelty. At a splendid entertainment which he one night gave to the lords of his court, he ordered the vessels that had been taken from Solomon's temple to be brought to him, and, with his guests, insulted the Jewish religion by drinking out of them; his impiety was, however, speedily punished, for that very night Cyrus entered Babylon with a powerful army, made himself master of [Pg 169]the kingdom, and Belshazzar was slain.

Cyrus becoming, soon after this event, by the death of his father and uncle, king of Persia, Media, and Babylon, established the second universal monarchy called the Persian. He was a very good prince, and permitted the Jews to return to their own land and rebuild their city.

Anne. Which was called Jerusalem, was it not, mamma?

Mrs. Harley. Yes, my dear, I am glad to find you recollect what you read. Cyrus lived to be very old, and was succeeded by his son Cambyses, who, far from following the virtuous example of his father, committed numberless crimes, among which was the murder of his own [Pg 170]brother. After him reigned Smerdis the impostor, who pretended to be the true Smerdis that had been killed by Cambyses: next to him Darius, who was chosen because his horse neighed before any of those belonging to the other competitors for the crown: then Xerxes, a very vain-glorious prince, who attempted to conquer Greece, but was himself beaten, and obliged to make his escape from thence in a little fishing boat: he was succeeded by his son Artaxerxes, and at length, after several other kings, Darius ascended the throne, who, had he not been proud of his riches, might have been a wise and good sovereign. During his reign, the Greeks (who inhabited that country which is now the southern [Pg 171]part of Turkey in Europe) determined, under the command of the famous Alexander, to make the Persians submit to their power: accordingly, an immense army invaded the Persian dominions, and after several battles, they were completely conquered, and Darius was killed by one of his own nobles. Thus Alexander putting an end to the Persian monarchy, established the third Universal Empire about 330 years before Christ.

The capital of Persia was Susa.

Anne. I suppose then, that Alexander was a native of Greece, pray tell me a little about that country?

Mrs. Harley. Long before the time of Alexander, Greece had been [Pg 172]highly celebrated. It was divided into several small states, the principal of which were, Sparta and Athens. Sparta was governed by kings; Lycurgus was their famous legislator; he framed many wise laws, which greatly added to the prosperity of the kingdom. Athens was a commonwealth, and even more renowned for wisdom than Sparta. Solon was their lawgiver, and his laws tended much more to the refinement of the people, than those of Lycurgus, some of which were very cruel. Macedon was a state of little consequence till the time of Philip, who greatly increased its importance: he procured himself to be appointed commander-in-chief of all the armies destined for [Pg 173]the invasion of Persia, but he was killed before he set out on this expedition. He was succeeded by his son Alexander, both as king of Macedon and generalissimo of Greece, who, after settling the affairs of his native country, marched into Persia; not contented with conquering this vast country, he turned his arms against the Indian princes, many of whom were obliged to submit to his authority; one of them was named Porus, a man of extraordinary stature, who afterwards became the sincere friend of the conqueror.

Thus Alexander having subdued so many nations, was at last obliged to yield to the instances of his soldiers, and to think of returning back to Macedon. He entered Babylon in [Pg 174]triumph, and spent much of his time, while there, in feasting and drinking. The excesses he committed, at times deranged his mind, and in one fit of intoxication he killed a faithful old friend named Clitus: many more of his actions were totally unworthy of a prince who assumed the name of Great, this appellation was certainly bestowed upon him rather for his extensive conquests, than for any benefits his subjects derived from his reign, nor could Good with any propriety have been added to the title of Great.

He at length, fell a victim to his intemperance in the thirty-third year of his age, about 323 years before Christ. Leaving no proper [Pg 175]person to succeed him; four of his generals, after many disputes and battles divided his extensive dominions among themselves. To relate the particular histories of these kingdoms would engross too much of our time; I shall therefore proceed to the Roman Empire which was the fourth universal monarchy; and was founded by Romulus about 752 years before Christ. Perhaps a short account of its origin will be entertaining to you.

Romulus and Remus were the twin sons of a lady named Rhea Sylvia. As soon as they were born they were condemned by their cruel uncle Amulius king of Alba (in Italy) to be thrown into the Tiber, this was executed, but they were [Pg 176]found and preserved by a herdsman named Faustulus, who brought them up as his own sons till they arrived at years of discretion; when becoming acquainted with the history of their birth, they determined to dethrone their wicked uncle Amulius, and restore their grandfather Numitor to the crown his brother had unjustly deprived him of. They succeeded, and then formed a plan for building themselves a city, among those hills on which they had spent their earliest years. They could not, however, agree concerning the best situation for it, but the opinion of Romulus at length prevailing, Remus, to vex his brother, leaped contemptuously over the city wall: this so irritated Romulus that a violent [Pg 177]quarrel ensued, they fought, and either by accident or design Romulus killed his brother, and then the whole government of the new state devolved upon himself: it was called Rome after its founder. Inhabitants flocked from every part of the surrounding country into the new city, and it soon became a very considerable kingdom. After the death of Romulus six other kings succeeded to the throne all of whom, excepting the last, were great and good men, their names were,

Romulus the Founder,
Numa Pompilius,
Tullus Hostilius,
Ancus Martius,
Tarquinius Priscus,
Servius Tullius, and
Tarquinius Superbus.

[Pg 178]

Under whom ended the regal state. A Commonwealth ensued. Many great men flourished during this period: but at length the government changed once more, and Rome became an empire. The first twelve emperors were distinguished by the appellation of the twelve Cæsars, their names were

Julius Cæsar, the first Roman emperor.

Augustus, in whose reign our Saviour Jesus Christ came into the world.

Sergius Galba,
Otho, [Pg 179]
Titus, and

Many emperors succeeded these, until Constantine the Great, the 41st emperor, removed the seat of empire from Rome to Constantinople, which, before his time, was called Byzantium. Constantine was a very good man, and was the first Roman emperor who embraced the Christian religion, but he pursued a system of politics that hastened the destruction of the empire. After his death the sovereignty was divided between his sons, and soon after Rome, which had once given laws to the world, became a prey to [Pg 180]merciless barbarians, and sunk into comparative insignificance.

Anne. O! thank you, mamma, for this entertaining account of Rome, I shall be very glad when I am old enough to read the Roman History.

Mrs. Harley. Age, my dear, is not the only thing necessary for the accomplishment of your wish. Let me see you attentive to your present employments, and I shall have much pleasure in reading with you a history that I am sure will engage your attention. I will now tell you a very little about our own country.

Britain was little known to the rest of the world, till about 52 [Pg 181]years before the common æra; when Julius Cæsar invaded the country with a powerful army: the natives, assisted by their Druids or priests, opposed his landing, but they were unable long to resist so warlike a people as the Romans, who soon after making themselves masters of the island, maintained possession of the most fertile parts of it near 500 years. Their own affairs then requiring their attention at home, they abandoned it, and the Saxons made their appearance. These people came from a province in Germany, and when they had subdued Britain, they divided it into seven kingdoms called the Saxon Heptarchy.

Kent, which included the isles of Thanet and Sheppey.

[Pg 182]

Northumberland, contained Northumberland, Durham, Lancashire, and Yorkshire.

East Anglia, contained Cambridgeshire, Suffolk, and Norfolk.

Mercia, contained all the middle countries from the Severn between East Anglia and Wessex.

Essex, or East Saxony, contained Essex, Middlesex, and part of Hertfordshire.

Sussex, or South Saxony, contained Surry, Sussex, and the New Forest.

Wessex, or West Saxony, included Hampshire, Dorsetshire, Wiltshire, Berkshire, and the Isle of Wight.

Egbert, king of Wessex, at length subduing the other princes of the Heptarchy, united the whole country [Pg 183]under one monarchy, and became himself the first king of England, in the year 827 after Christ.

I will give you a chronological list of the kings of England, not that I wish you to learn it at present, but because it will be useful to refer to when you are reading the history. Some knowledge of dates is desirable, as it enables you to ascertain the periods when any particular events occurred, and under whose reign. The Danes made frequent incursions into England during the time of the Saxons, and caused great devastation in the country. Alfred, the most excellent prince mentioned in history, was obliged, owing to these barbarians, to abandon his throne and retire to an obscure [Pg 184]cottage, where, however, he occupied his time in forming the best plans for his own re-establishment, and the restoration of tranquility to his distracted country: his wise measures were successful and for some time the Danes were entirely quelled, but they soon renewed their usual predatory warfare, and Canute became king of England.


800 Egbert
838 Ethelwolf
857 Ethelbald
860 Ethelbert
866 Ethelred
871 Alfred the Great
901 Edward the Elder
925 Athelston [Pg 185]
941 Edmund
946 Edred
955 Edwy
959 Edgar
975 Edward the Martyr
978 Ethelred II
1016 Edmund II, or Ironside.


1017 Canute
1035 Harold
1039 Hardicanute
1041 Edward the Confessor
1065 Harold II.

William the first (commonly called the Conqueror,) Duke of Normandy, invaded England with a powerful army, and slew Harold at [Pg 186]the battle of Hastings. This victory is called the Conquest; it was gained on the 14th of October, 1066.


Kings names. Began to reign. Reigned years.
William I 1066 20 Duke of Normandy
William II 1087 12 Son to the Conqueror
Henry I 1100 35 Brother to William II
Stephen 1135 18 Grandson to the Conqueror by his daughter Adela, who married the Earl of Blois.


Henry II 1154 34 Grandson to Henry I by his daughter Matilda, who married the Earl of Anjou
Richard I 1189 9 Son to Henry I
John [Pg 187] 1199 17 Brother to Richard I
Henry III 1216 56 Son to John
Edward I 1272 34 Son to Henry III
Edward II 1307 19 Son to Edward I
Edward III 1327 50 Son to Edward II.
Richard II 1377 22 Grandson to Edward III by his eldest son, the Black Prince.


Henry IV 1399 13 Son to John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, fourth son of Edward III
Henry V 1413 9 Son to Henry IV
Henry VI 1422 38 Son to Henry V.


Edward IV 1461 22 Son to Richard Duke of York, a descendant by the mother's side from Lionel, the third son of Edward III
Edward V [Pg 188] 1483 2ms. Son of Edward IV
Richard III 1483 2 Uncle to Edward V.


In which were united the Houses of York and Lancaster, by the marriage of Henry VII, son of the Countess of Richmond, of the House of Lancaster, to Elizabeth daughter of Edward IV.

Henry VII 1485 23 Earl of Richmond
Henry VIII 1509 37 Son to Henry VII
Edward VI 1547 6 Son to Henry VIII
Mary 1553 5 Sister to Edward VI
Elizabeth 1558 44 Sister to Mary.


James I 1603 22 Son to Mary queen of Scots, who was descended from Henry VII
Charles I 1625 23 Son to James I. (Charles was beheaded in 1649.)

[Pg 189]


Charles II 1660 24 Son to Charles I
James II 1685 4 Brother to Charles II. (James II abdicated the throne in 1689.)


{William III 1689 13 Nephew and Son-in-law to James II
{& Mary II Stuart Daughter to James II
Anne 1702 12 Daughter to James II.


George I 1714 12 Son to the Princess Sophia, Electress of Hanover, and grandaughter of James I
George II 1728 33 Son to George I
George III 1760 Grandson to George II.

[Pg 190]

I will not, my dear, enter into the history of any of these sovereigns, as there are many English histories extant, which will give you better information upon this subject, than you could receive from any description of mine: indeed, the little I have now been telling you of history in general, is only intended to awaken in your mind a desire for the attainment of this useful knowledge. Modern History we shall defer for several years, but I will to-morrow give you Rollin's Ancient History, a work, I think, particularly well calculated for young people; when you have read this, you shall proceed to the Roman History, after which you may be able to enter into the accounts of more modern [Pg 191]times. In the mean while, let me beg you to continue attentive to the instructions you receive, and new lessons and more stories shall then be prepared for your next



H. Bryer, Printer, Bridge-Street, Blackfriars, London.

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Mrs. Harley


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