The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Uses of Italic, by Frederick W. Hamilton

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

Title: The Uses of Italic
       A Primer of Information Regarding the Origin and Uses of Italic Letters

Author: Frederick W. Hamilton

Release Date: March 14, 2008 [EBook #24829]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


Produced by Barbara Tozier, Bill Tozier, Jana Srna and the
Online Distributed Proofreading Team at







Copyright, 1918
United Typothetae of America
Chicago, Ill.


Historical Introduction 1
Rules for the Use of Italic 5
Supplementary Reading 16
Review Questions 17





The first types were cut in imitation of the Gothic or black letter handwriting employed at that period in copying Bibles, missals, and the like. It was large and angular and the lines were very coarse and black. These peculiarities gave it the name. Its characteristics made it easy to read even in the dim light of a church or by the failing eyes of the aged. This form of type, however, was only suitable for large pages. When reduced in size it became very difficult to read, being an almost indistinguishable blur on the page.

Type of the Mazarin Bible (exact size).

The cost of materials and the unwieldiness of the great folio volumes soon caused a demand for smaller books. Gutenberg's 36-line Bible was almost immediately replaced [2] by the 42-line Bible. A reduction of one sixth in the number of pages of a book as large as the Bible would effect a very important saving in the cost of material and labor, especially when we remember that the early printing press was a very laborious and slow affair. Gutenberg's press was capable of printing only twenty sheets an hour, or one [3] sheet every three minutes. The invention of the movable bed, about the year 1500, increased the output of the press to two hundred sheets an hour. In 1786 the speed had risen only to two hundred and fifty sheets an hour. Cheap printing waited for the application of power to machinery.

The big book with the big type was well enough for churches and libraries. But the purpose of printing was soon seen to be the spread of intelligence through the popularizing of literature. Books were to be placed in the hands of the people, not simply of the priests, nobles, and professional men. That end could only be accomplished by making books cheap and portable, that is to say small. To this end the printers soon addressed themselves to the task of devising forms of type which should be smaller, so as to reduce the number and size of pages required for a book without sacrifice of legibility. A clear, clean cut type, with sharp lines and simple forms, capable of compression without loss of distinction, was the great need.

The first important departure was the cutting of Roman type. The capitals were imitated from the letter forms used in Roman inscriptions. In the earlier forms the lower-case letters were rough and uncouth, much resembling the Gothic forms. The inventor of this form is not known, but it was certainly employed by the German printers Sweynheim and Pannartz at Subiaco, near Rome, as early as 1467. Their example was followed by several imitators and improvers, but its form was not definitely settled until Nicholas Jenson cast his fonts in Venice in 1470 or 1471. It is doubtful if any more perfect Roman types than those of Jenson have ever been produced. The superiority of this type soon caused its general adoption except in Germany. England was slow in coming into line. Caxton never used anything but Gothic type. Roman type was not introduced into England at all until 1509, and then had to make its way against the older forms backed by English conservatism. Germany has never adopted the Roman letter for general use but makes some use of it in scientific works.

Roman type of Nicholas Jenson, 1472 (exact size).

The next step was the invention of Italic types by Aldus Manutius, of Venice, in 1501. He took for his model the [4] handwriting of the poet Petrarch and produced a type not essentially different from the modern Italic. Originally the Italic letters were lower-case only, Roman capitals being retained. The incongruousness of this combination was, however, so evident that Italic capitals were soon designed and then the new fonts were complete. The Aldine capitals used with Italic lower-case were small, the ancestors of the small capitals of today. Aldus used the Italic type as a text letter, and such use continued frequent for a century.

Type of the Aldine Virgil, 1501 (exact size).

At the present day, except in Germany, the three forms of type have their distinct uses. Gothic, variously known as Black Letter, Old English, Priory Text, Cloister, etc., is used only for special work, particularly in ecclesiastical printing. The modern type called "gothic" is not derived from it. Roman is the general text letter. Italic has ceased to be a text letter, but serves a useful purpose for certain special uses which are to be considered at length in the following pages.




Italic has, in general, four uses:

  1. for emphasis.
  2. to set off a title, word, or passage from the context.
  3. for running titles, sub-heads, the headings of tables, and other like places where something different from the text letter seems needed for variety.
  4. for display purposes in commercial work.

One very important principle should always be observed in the use of italic for emphasis. Emphasis should always be used sparingly. Make the words do their work. Do not try to supplement poverty of thought and weakness of expression by italics, capitals, and other marks of emphasis. Where there is too much emphasis attempted no emphasis is secured. This fault was much more common formerly than now.

The accompanying reproduction of a page from a book printed in 1690 (place not given, but probably London) illustrates several of the faulty uses of italics common at that time. An entire paragraph is italicized (quite unnecessarily) for emphasis. All proper names and adjectives derived from them are italicized where they occur in the regular text and printed in roman where they occur in italicized passages. Note the frequent capitalization for emphasis and especially the italic capital with roman lower-case in the first line of the second paragraph. This is a frequent usage in this particular book. In this book all quotations are printed in italic without quote marks. The paper, composition, and presswork of the book are very poor. It represents English printing in its worst period.

[6] Page from a book of 1690.
(The slurred appearance represents the printing of the original copy.)

Moderation in the use of italics is so important that in many cases the compositor is justified in ignoring markings for italic in his copy where they are too profuse. The author is often surprised and disappointed at the appearance[7] of his proof when it comes back heavily italicized. Moreover the occurrence of many italics increases the cost of composition because of the greater labor involved.

I. Italicize, subject to the caution just given, any words or phrases which it is desired to emphasize.

II. Foreign words and phrases incorporated into English sentences are sometimes italicized and sometimes not so distinguished. The deciding element in fixing the usage in these cases would seem to be the commonness and familiarity of the word or phrase. For example, the meaning of bona fide (Latin), menu (French), recto (Italian), or stein (German) are as well known as those of most English words. To all intents and purposes these words have been adopted into our language. On the other hand, jeu d'esprit (French) or inter alia (Latin) would probably not be immediately understood by the casual reader. Words of the first type should not be italicized. Words of the second type should be.

Following is a partial list of words of foreign origin which should not be italicized even when the original accents are retained. It is better to retain the accents. They are, however, often omitted. Familiarity plays its part here also. Dénouement is very often written without the accent; née is rarely so written. The absence of accented letters from typewriters, from ordinary fonts of type, and from the matrices ordinarily used in type-casting machines probably contributes largely to their omission.


Following is a short list of words or phrases of foreign origin which are used occasionally but are not familiar enough to be printed in the text type.

The following words, phrases, and abbreviations used in literary and legal references should be italicized.

Do not italicize:

[9] When an unfamiliar foreign word is used to convey precise description, put it in italic, but use roman for repetition of the word.

Italicize brief passages of foreign words which may be incorporated into an English passage but may not be long enough to be treated as regular quotations.

De gustibus non est disputandum, or as the French have it, Chacun a son gout.

Longer passages in foreign languages should be set in roman.

To set an entire paragraph of quoted matter in a foreign language in italic, or even to use italic too freely for phrases, practically nullifies the value of it as a display letter for the sub-headings or for any other part of the book in which distinction is really needed. Quotation marks, indention, smaller type, or any of the marks which distinguish quoted matter are sufficient.

III. At one time it was quite customary to set all quotations, whether in English or a foreign language, prose or verse, in italics, but that fashion is now happily obsolete. Some modern printers use italic for bits of verse between paragraphs in the text of roman, but it is a fancy and not likely to be permanent.

IV. Do not italicize foreign titles preceding names of foreign institutions or places, streets, etc., the meaning or position of which in English would call for roman type.

Pere Ladeau; Freiherr von Schwenau; the Place de la Concorde; the Museo delle Terme.

V. In text matter use roman for the name of any author, but italicize the title of the work. This applies to books, including plays, essays, cycles of poems, and single poems of considerable length, usually printed separately, and not from the context understood to form parts of a larger volume; pamphlets, treatises, tracts, documents, and periodicals (including regularly appearing proceedings and transactions). In the case of newspapers and periodicals the [10] name of the place of publication should be italicized when it forms an integral part of the name, but do not under ordinary circumstances italicize the article the.

In many offices the names of papers, magazines, and serials are not italicized. Roman is often used without quotation marks, the title being indicated by capitalization. When such names are used as credits at the end of citations or notes they should always be italicized.

This is largely a matter of individual taste and office style. Ample warrant can be found for either form in the writing of the best authorities and in the practice of the best offices.

VI. In citations which make a full paragraph, and in footnotes, the name of both author and book are commonly set in roman lower-case. At the end of a paragraph or footnote specification of author and book may be roman for author and italic for book. When only the book is given, use italics.

These rules are often modified in long bibliographical lists, tables, or other cases when following them would cause a great accumulation of italics and spoil the appearance of a page. Do not italicize the books of the Bible (canonical or apocryphal) or titles of ancient manuscripts, or symbols used to designate manuscripts.

D 16, M 6, P, J.

VII. Italicize see and see also, in indices and similar compilations when they are used for cross-reference, and when it is desirable to differentiate them from the context.

VIII. Italicize for and read in lists of errata to separate the incorrect from the correct.

Page 999 for Henry read Henri.

IX. The phrases prima facie and ex officio are sometimes used to qualify the nouns which follow, and sometimes used as adverbs. As qualifiers they are often printed in roman with the hyphen.

[11] Prima-facie evidence.
An ex-officio member of all committees.

When used as adverbs they may be printed in italics without the hyphen.

The evidence is, prima facie, convincing.
The speaker is, ex officio, the chairman.

X. Names of ships, especially when they are taken from places, as in the United States Navy, are often italicized.

U.S.S. Philadelphia, U.S.S. Alabama.

XI. Names of paintings, statues, musical compositions, and characters in plays are sometimes italicized. This is not ordinarily advisable. It violates the rule of never using italics or other emphasizing devices needlessly and is liable to mar the appearance of the page. It is sometimes necessary, however, to avoid ambiguity. For example, Julius Caesar is a historical personage, "Julius Caesar" is one of Shakespeare's plays, Julius Caesar is a character in the play.

XII. Italicize the symbols a), b), c), etc., used to indicate subdivisions when beginning a paragraph and a, b, c, etc., affixed to the number of verse, page, etc., to denote a fractional part.

See Chap. iii, sec. 2 a).
Luke 4 : 31 b.

XIII. Italicize letters used to designate quantities, lines, etc., in algebraic, geometrical, and similar matter, and in explanation of diagrams and illustrations.

(a+b)2=a2+2ab+b2; the line a c=the line a b; the nth power; at the point B.

XIV. Italicize particular letters of the alphabet when referred to as such.

We use a much more frequently than q.

[12] XV. Authorities in science differ in the use of italics and capitals. In strictly scientific matter it is better to follow copy if the copy is intelligently prepared; if not, follow some recognized text-book on the subject.

In general the following rules will be found serviceable.

  1. In botanical, zoological, geological, and paleontological matter, italicize scientific (Latin) names of genera and species when used together (the generic name being in the nominative singular), and of the genera only, when used alone. When genera and species are used together the genus always comes first, species second.

    Agaricus Campestris, Felis leo, Conodectes favosus, Phyteuma Halleri, Pinus, Basidiabolus, Alternaria, Erythrosuchus.

  2. In medical matter the general practice is to print names of diseases and remedies in roman. In the Encyclopedia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, however, the scientific names of diseases are printed in italics.

  3. In astronomical and astrophysical matter italicize:

    1. The lower-case letters designating certain Fraunhofer lines: a, b, g, h.

    2. The lower-case letters used by Baeyer to designate certain stars in constellations for which the Greek letters have been exhausted: f, Tauri; u, Hercules.

  4. Italic should not be used for:

    1. Greek, Latin, and Arabic names of planets, satellites, constellations, and individual stars: Neptune, Thetys, Orionis.

    2. Symbols for chemical elements: H. Ca. Ti.

    3. Capital letters given by Fraunhofer to the lines of the spectrum: A–H, K.

    4. [13] Letters designating the special types of stars: A 5, B 3, Mb.

    5. The capital letter H with different Greek subscript letters, used to designate symbols of hydrogen: Ha, Hb, etc.

    6. Designations of celestial objects in well-known catalogues; also the Flamstead numbers:

      M 13 (for No. 13 of Messier's Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters), Bond 619; N. G. C. 6165; B. D.-18° 4871; 85 Pegasi, Lalande 5761.

      But when initials are used to express the titles of catalogues, as such, and not to designate a particular celestial object, such initials are to be italicized, following the usual rule of references by titles.

      B. D.; N. G. C.

XVI. In resolutions italicize the word "Resolved," but not the word "Whereas."

XVII. Italicize the names of plaintiff and defendant in the citation of legal cases; also the titles of proceedings containing such prefixes as in re, ex parte, In the matter of, etc.

The Boston Elevated Railway Co. vs. The City of Cambridge. In re Johnson; ex parte Thomas; In the matter of the petition of John Smith for a change of venue.

XVIII. Italicize address lines in speeches, reports, etc., and primary address lines in letters. Set the address flush, in a separate line, with the nouns capitalized.

Mr. Toastmaster, Ladies and Gentlemen.
Mr. Henry P. Porter, 148 High St., Boston, Mass.

XIX. In signatures italicize the position or title added after the name. If this consists of only one word, it is usually run into the same line with the name.

Frederick W. Hamilton, Clerk.

[14] If the title consists of more than one word but is no longer than the name, center the first letter under the name line, and indent one em on the right.

John F. Fitzgerald,
Mayor of Boston.

If the title is longer than the name, center the name over the second line and set this flush:

Minton P. Warren,
Professor of Latin Language and Literature.

Sometimes a long title may be set in a smaller type, or, if this is not advisable, it may be put into two lines.

These rules are generally sound, but may have to be varied to suit special conditions.

Italicize the signatures of contributors to magazines, etc., when the names appear at the end of the article. If the name appears at the head of the article use small capitals, or, as is often done, the same type as the text.

XX. Italic may be used to distinguish the words or clauses which serve as verbal texts for an extended comment. In printed sermons, for example, the text is often set in italics.

XXI. Italic may be used with good effect for running titles, for table headings, and for sub-heads. It is not desirable for side notes. It has many kerned letters which are liable to break off at the ends of the lines in an exposed position.

XXII. In the English Bible italics are used to print words which are not expressed in the original Hebrew or Greek but are implied in the original and expressed in the translation.

Their quiver is an open sepulchre; they are all mighty men.

I find in him no fault at all.

These italics should never be mistaken for marks of emphasis.

[15] XXIII. Care should be taken that the italic type used should mate well with the roman. The fact that it often did not so mate, even in fonts supposed to go together, was one cause for the disfavor which came to attend its use. Typesetting machines constructed without proper provision for the composition of italic have been very influential in restricting its use. Italics are now practically abolished from newspaper work except in advertising matter, though they were used in newspapers to excess in the eighteenth century.

XXIV. Italics are indicated in manuscript by drawing a single line under the words to be so printed.




Correct Composition. By Theodore L. DeVinne. Oswald Publishing Co., New York.

The Writer's Desk Book. By William Dana Orcutt. Frederick A. Stokes Co., New York.

A Manual for Writers. By John Matthews Manly and John Arthur Powell. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.




  1. Describe the first types.
  2. What caused the demand for smaller books?
  3. What was done to meet this demand?
  4. What was the first step in the improvement of type?
  5. What was the next important step?
  6. What are the present uses of the three principal forms of letters?
  7. What are the general principles governing the use of italics?
  8. What important principle should be observed in the use of italic?
  9. Is a compositor ever justified in not following an author's marks calling for italics, and why?
  10. For what, in general, is italic used?
  11. What is the general usage regarding foreign words and phrases?
  12. What decides whether they are italicized or not?
  13. What about accents in foreign words?
  14. Give a list of common words, phrases, and abbreviations used in literary and legal references which should always be italicized.
  15. Give a short list of abbreviations of foreign origin which should not be italicized.
  16. How should quotations in foreign languages be treated?
  17. What is the use of italic in English quotations?
  18. How should you treat foreign titles preceding names of persons, streets, and the like?
  19. How are names of authors and of books, magazines, and the like, treated?
  20. How do we use italics in citations, in footnotes, in indices, and in errata?
  21. When are prima facie and ex officio italicized, and when not?
  22. [18]How are names of ships printed?
  23. How are names of paintings, statues, musical compositions, and characters in plays treated?
  24. What is the rule about letters used to indicate subdivisions, etc.?
  25. How do we print letters of the alphabet when referred to as such?
  26. What can you say of the use of italic in scientific matter generally?
  27. Give the particular rules for the use of italic in certain sciences.
  28. What is the rule for italic in resolutions?
  29. How are italics used in legal matter?
  30. How are italics used in signatures?
  31. Where are titles placed when following names in signatures?
  32. How may texts of sermons and the like be printed?
  33. What can you say of the use of italic in running titles, table heads, side notes, and the like?
  34. What should be looked out for in combining italic with roman?
  35. What has been the influence of machine composition in the use of italic, and why?
  36. How does the use of italic in newspapers at present compare with that of a hundred years ago, and why?
  37. How are italics indicated in manuscript?

As elsewhere in this section of the Typographic Technical Series, the learning of the rules must be supplemented by extended practice in their application. Constant drill should be given the apprentice in the setting of matter requiring the use of italics, or in writing out manuscripts with the italics properly indicated. There is no other way in which accuracy and practical proficiency can be acquired. Printed matter may be shown for criticism and discussion, and incorrectly italicized matter may be given out for correction.




The following list of publications, comprising the Typographic Technical Series for Apprentices, has been prepared under the supervision of the Committee on Education of the United Typothetae of America for use in trade classes, in course of printing instruction, and by individuals.

Each publication has been compiled by a competent author or group of authors, and carefully edited, the purpose being to provide the printers of the United States—employers, journeymen, and apprentices—with a comprehensive series of handy and inexpensive compendiums of reliable, up-to-date information upon the various branches and specialties of the printing craft, all arranged in orderly fashion for progressive study.

The publications of the series are of uniform size, 5 × 8 inches. Their general make-up, in typography, illustrations, etc., has been, as far as practicable, kept in harmony throughout. A brief synopsis of the particular contents and other chief features of each volume will be found under each title in the following list.

Each topic is treated in a concise manner, the aim being to embody in each publication as completely as possible all the rudimentary information and essential facts necessary to an understanding of the subject. Care has been taken to make all statements accurate and clear, with the purpose of bringing essential information within the understanding of beginners in the different fields of study. Wherever practicable, simple and well-defined drawings and illustrations have been used to assist in giving additional clearness to the text.

In order that the pamphlets may be of the greatest possible help for use in trade-school classes and for self-instruction, each title is accompanied by a list of Review Questions covering essential items of the subject matter. A short Glossary of technical terms belonging to the subject or department treated is also added to many of the books.

These are the Official Text-books of the United Typothetae of America.

Address all orders and inquiries to Committee on Education, United Typothetae of America, Chicago, Illinois, U. S. A.



PART I—Types, Tools, Machines, and Materials

1. Type: a Primer of Information By A. A. Stewart

Relating to the mechanical features of printing types; their sizes, font schemes, etc., with a brief description of their manufacture. 44 pp.; illustrated; 74 review questions; glossary.

2. Compositors' Tools and Materials By A. A. Stewart

A primer of information about composing sticks, galleys, leads, brass rules, cutting and mitering machines, etc. 47 pp.; illustrated; 50 review questions; glossary.

3. Type Cases, Composing Room Furniture By A. A. Stewart

A primer of information about type cases, work stands, cabinets, case racks, galley racks, standing galleys, etc. 43 pp.; illustrated; 33 review questions; glossary.

4. Imposing Tables and Lock-up Appliances By A. A. Stewart

Describing the tools and materials used in locking up forms for the press, including some modern utilities for special purposes. 59 pp.; illustrated; 70 review questions; glossary.

5. Proof Presses By A. A. Stewart

A primer of information about the customary methods and machines for taking printers' proofs. 40 pp.; illustrated; 41 review questions; glossary.

6. Platen Printing Presses By Daniel Baker

A primer of information regarding the history and mechanical construction of platen printing presses, from the original hand press to the modern job press, to which is added a chapter on automatic presses of small size. 51 pp.; illustrated; 49 review questions; glossary.

7. Cylinder Printing Presses By Herbert L. Baker

Being a study of the mechanism and operation of the principal types of cylinder printing machines. 64 pp.; illustrated; 47 review questions; glossary.

8. Mechanical Feeders and Folders By William E. Spurrier

The history and operation of modern feeding and folding machines; with hints on their care and adjustments. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

9. Power for Machinery in Printing Houses By Carl F. Scott

A treatise on the methods of applying power to printing presses and allied machinery with particular reference to electric drive. 53 pp.; illustrated; 69 review questions; glossary.

10. Paper Cutting Machines By Niel Gray, Jr.

A primer of information about paper and card trimmers, hand-lever cutters, power cutters, and other automatic machines for cutting paper, 70 pp.; illustrated; 115 review questions; glossary.

11. Printers' Rollers By A. A. Stewart

A primer of information about the composition, manufacture, and care of inking rollers. 46 pp.; illustrated; 61 review questions; glossary.

12. Printing Inks By Philip Ruxton

Their composition, properties and manufacture (reprinted by permission from Circular No. 53, United States Bureau of Standards); together with some helpful suggestions about the everyday use of printing inks by Philip Ruxton. 80 pp.; 100 review questions; glossary.


13. How Paper is Made By William Bond Wheelwright

A primer of information about the materials and processes of manufacturing paper for printing and writing. 68 pp.; illustrated; 62 review questions; glossary.

14. Relief Engravings By Joseph P. Donovan

Brief history and non-technical description of modern methods of engraving; woodcut, zinc plate, halftone; kind of copy for reproduction; things to remember when ordering engravings. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

15. Electrotyping and Stereotyping By Harris B. Hatch and A. A. Stewart

A primer of information about the processes of electrotyping and stereotyping. 94 pp.; illustrated; 129 review questions; glossaries.


PART II—Hand and Machine Composition

16. Typesetting By A. A. Stewart

A handbook for beginners, giving information about justifying, spacing, correcting, and other matters relating to typesetting. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

17. Printers' Proofs By A. A. Stewart

The methods by which they are made, marked, and corrected, with observations on proofreading. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

18. First Steps in Job Composition By Camille DeVéze

Suggestions for the apprentice compositor in setting his first jobs, especially about the important little things which go to make good display in typography. 63 pp.; examples; 55 review questions; glossary.

19. General Job Composition

How the job compositor handles business stationery, programs and miscellaneous work. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

20. Book Composition By J. W. Bothwell

Chapters from DeVinne's "Modern Methods of Book Composition," revised and arranged for this series of text-books by J. W. Bothwell of The DeVinne Press, New York. Part I: Composition of pages. Part II: Imposition of pages. 229 pp.; illustrated; 525 review questions; glossary.

21. Tabular Composition By Robert Seaver

A study of the elementary forms of table composition, with examples of more difficult composition. 36 pp.; examples; 45 review questions.

22. Applied Arithmetic By E. E. Sheldon

Elementary arithmetic applied to problems of the printing trade, calculation of materials, paper weights and sizes, with standard tables and rules for computation, each subject amplified with examples and exercises. 159 pp.

23. Typecasting and Composing Machines A. W. Finlay, Editor

Section I—The Linotype By L. A. Hornstein
Section II—The Monotype By Joseph Hays
Section III—The Intertype By Henry W. Cozzens
Section IV—Other Typecasting and Typesetting Machines By Frank H. Smith

A brief history of typesetting machines, with descriptions of their mechanical principles and operations. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.



PART III—Imposition and Stonework

24. Locking Forms for the Job Press By Frank S. Henry

Things the apprentice should know about locking up small forms, and about general work on the stone. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

25. Preparing Forms for the Cylinder Press By Frank S. Henry

Pamphlet and catalog imposition; margins; fold marks, etc. Methods of handling type forms and electrotype forms. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.


PART IV—Presswork

26. Making Ready on Platen Presses By T. G. McGrew

The essential parts of a press and their functions; distinctive features of commonly used machines. Preparing the tympan, regulating the impression, underlaying and overlaying, setting gauges, and other details explained. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

27. Cylinder Presswork By T. G. McGrew

Preparing the press; adjustment of bed and cylinder, form rollers, ink fountain, grippers and delivery systems. Underlaying and overlaying; modern overlay methods. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

28. Pressroom Hints and Helps By Charles L. Dunton

Describing some practical methods of pressroom work, with directions and useful information relating to a variety of printing-press problems. 87 pp.; 176 review questions.

29. Reproductive Processes of the Graphic Arts By A. W. Elson

A primer of information about the distinctive features of the relief, the intaglio, and the planographic processes of printing. 84 pp.; illustrated; 100 review questions; glossary.


PART V—Pamphlet and Book Binding

30. Pamphlet Binding By Bancroft L. Goodwin

A primer of information about the various operations employed in binding pamphlets and other work in the bindery. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.

31. Book Binding By John J. Pleger

Practical information about the usual operations in binding books; folding; gathering, collating, sewing, forwarding, finishing. Case making and cased-in books. Hand work and machine work. Job and blank-book binding. Illustrated; review questions; glossary.


PART VI—Correct Literary Composition

32. Word Study and English Grammar By F. W. Hamilton

A primer of information about words, their relations, and their uses. 68 pp.; 84 review questions; glossary.

33. Punctuation By F. W. Hamilton

A primer of information about the marks of punctuation and their use, both grammatically and typographically. 56 pp.; 59 review questions; glossary.


34. Capitals By F. W. Hamilton

A primer of information about capitalization, with some practical typographic hints as to the use of capitals. 48 pp.; 92 review questions; glossary.

35. Division of Words By F. W. Hamilton

Rules for the division of words at the ends of lines, with remarks on spelling, syllabication and pronunciation. 42 pp.; 70 review questions.

36. Compound Words By F. W. Hamilton

A study of the principles of compounding, the components of compounds, and the use of the hyphen. 34 pp.; 62 review questions.

37. Abbreviations and Signs By F. W. Hamilton

A primer of information about abbreviations and signs, with classified lists of those in most common use. 58 pp.; 32 review questions.

38. The Uses of Italic By F. W. Hamilton

A primer of information about the history and uses of italic letters. 31 pp.; 37 review questions.

39. Proofreading By Arnold Levitas

The technical phases of the proofreader's work; reading, marking, revising, etc.; methods of handling proofs and copy. Illustrated by examples. 59 pp.; 69 review questions; glossary.

40. Preparation of Printers' Copy By F. W. Hamilton

Suggestions for authors, editors, and all who are engaged in preparing copy for the composing room. 36 pp.; 67 review questions.

41. Printers' Manual of Style

A reference compilation of approved rules, usages, and suggestions relating to uniformity in punctuation, capitalization, abbreviations, numerals, and kindred features of composition.

42. The Printer's Dictionary By A. A. Stewart

A handbook of definitions and miscellaneous information about various processes of printing, alphabetically arranged. Technical terms explained. Illustrated.


PART VII—Design, Color, and Lettering

43. Applied Design for Printers By Harry L. Gage

A handbook of the principles of arrangement, with brief comment on the periods of design which have most influenced printing. Treats of harmony, balance, proportion, and rhythm; motion; symmetry and variety; ornament, esthetic and symbolic. 37 illustrations; 46 review questions; glossary; bibliography.

44. Elements of Typographic Design By Harry L. Gage

Applications of the principles of decorative design. Building material of typography paper, types, ink, decorations and illustrations. Handling of shapes. Design of complete book, treating each part. Design of commercial forms and single units. Illustrations; review questions; glossary; bibliography.


45. Rudiments of Color in Printing By Harry L. Gage

Use of color: for decoration of black and white, for broad poster effect, in combinations of two, three, or more printings with process engravings. Scientific nature of color, physical and chemical. Terms in which color may be discussed: hue, value, intensity. Diagrams in color, scales and combinations. Color theory of process engraving. Experiments with color. Illustrations in full color, and on various papers. Review questions; glossary; bibliography.

46. Lettering in Typography By Harry L. Gage

Printer's use of lettering: adaptability and decorative effect. Development of historic writing and lettering and its influence on type design. Classification of general forms in lettering. Application of design to lettering. Drawing for reproduction. Fully illustrated; review questions; glossary; bibliography.

47. Typographic Design in Advertising By Harry L. Gage

The printer's function in advertising. Precepts upon which advertising is based. Printer's analysis of his copy. Emphasis, legibility, attention, color. Method of studying advertising typography. Illustrations; review questions; glossary; bibliography.

48. Making Dummies and Layouts By Harry L. Gage

A layout: the architectural plan. A dummy: the imitation of a proposed final effect. Use of dummy in sales work. Use of layout. Function of layout man. Binding schemes for dummies. Dummy envelopes. Illustrations; review questions; glossary; bibliography.


PART VIII—History of Printing

49. Books Before Typography By F. W. Hamilton

A primer of information about the invention of the alphabet and the history of bookmaking up to the invention of movable types. 62 pp.; illustrated; 64 review questions.

50. The Invention of Typography By F. W. Hamilton

A brief sketch of the invention of printing and how it came about. 64 pp.; 62 review questions.

51. History of Printing—Part I By F. W. Hamilton

A primer of information about the beginnings of printing, the development of the book, the development of printers' materials, and the work of the great pioneers. 63 pp.; 55 review questions.

52. History of Printing—Part II By F. W. Hamilton

A brief sketch of the economic conditions of the printing industry from 1450 to 1789, including government regulations, censorship, internal conditions and industrial relations. 94 pp.; 128 review questions.

53. Printing in England By F. W. Hamilton

A short history of printing in England from Caxton to the present time. 89 pp.; 65 review questions.

54. Printing in America By F. W. Hamilton

A brief sketch of the development of the newspaper, and some notes on publishers who have especially contributed to printing. 98 pp.; 84 review questions.

55. Type and Presses in America By F. W. Hamilton

A brief historical sketch of the development of type casting and press building in the United States. 52 pp.; 61 review questions.



PART IX—Cost Finding and Accounting

56. Elements of Cost in Printing By Henry P. Porter

The Standard Cost-Finding Forms and their uses. What they should show. How to utilize the information they give. Review questions. Glossary.

57. Use of a Cost System By Henry P. Porter

The Standard Cost-Finding Forms and their uses. What they should show. How to utilize the information they give. Review questions. Glossary.

58. The Printer as a Merchant By Henry P. Porter

The selection and purchase of materials and supplies for printing. The relation of the cost of raw material and the selling price of the finished product. Review questions. Glossary.

59. Fundamental Principles of Estimating By Henry P. Porter

The estimator and his work; forms to use; general rules for estimating. Review questions. Glossary.

60. Estimating and Selling By Henry P. Porter

An insight into the methods used in making estimates, and their relation to selling. Review questions. Glossary.

61. Accounting for Printers By Henry P. Porter

A brief outline of an accounting system for printers; necessary books and accessory records. Review questions. Glossary.


PART X—Miscellaneous

62. Health, Sanitation, and Safety By Henry P. Porter

Hygiene in the printing trade; a study of conditions old and new; practical suggestions for improvement; protective appliances and rules for safety.

63. Topical Index By F. W. Hamilton

A book of reference covering the topics treated in the Typographic Technical Series, alphabetically arranged.

64. Courses of Study By F. W. Hamilton

A guidebook for teachers, with outlines and suggestions for classroom and shop work.




This series of Typographic Text-books is the result of the splendid co-operation of a large number of firms and individuals engaged in the printing business and its allied industries in the United States of America.

The Committee on Education of the United Typothetae of America, under whose auspices the books have been prepared and published, acknowledges its indebtedness for the generous assistance rendered by the many authors, printers, and others identified with this work.

While due acknowledgment is made on the title and copyright pages of those contributing to each book, the Committee nevertheless felt that a group list of co-operating firms would be of interest.

The following list is not complete, as it includes only those who have co-operated in the production of a portion of the volumes, constituting the first printing. As soon as the entire list of books comprising the Typographic Technical Series has been completed (which the Committee hopes will be at an early date), the full list will be printed in each volume.

The Committee also desires to acknowledge its indebtedness to the many subscribers to this Series who have patiently awaited its publication.

Committee on Education,
United Typothetae of America.

Henry P. Porter, Chairman,
E. Lawrence Fell,
A. M. Glossbrenner,
J. Clyde Oswald,
Toby Rubovits.

Frederick W. Hamilton, Education Director.




For Composition and Electrotypes

For Composition

For Electrotypes

For Engravings

For Book Paper

End of Project Gutenberg's The Uses of Italic, by Frederick W. Hamilton


***** This file should be named 24829-h.htm or *****
This and all associated files of various formats will be found in:

Produced by Barbara Tozier, Bill Tozier, Jana Srna and the
Online Distributed Proofreading Team at

Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions
will be renamed.

Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no
one owns a United States copyright in these works, so the Foundation
(and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without
permission and without paying copyright royalties.  Special rules,
set forth in the General Terms of Use part of this license, apply to
copying and distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works to
protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm concept and trademark.  Project
Gutenberg is a registered trademark, and may not be used if you
charge for the eBooks, unless you receive specific permission.  If you
do not charge anything for copies of this eBook, complying with the
rules is very easy.  You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose
such as creation of derivative works, reports, performances and
research.  They may be modified and printed and given away--you may do
practically ANYTHING with public domain eBooks.  Redistribution is
subject to the trademark license, especially commercial



To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free
distribution of electronic works, by using or distributing this work
(or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project
Gutenberg"), you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full Project
Gutenberg-tm License (available with this file or online at

Section 1.  General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works

1.A.  By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work, you indicate that you have read, understand, agree to
and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property
(trademark/copyright) agreement.  If you do not agree to abide by all
the terms of this agreement, you must cease using and return or destroy
all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your possession.
If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound by the
terms of this agreement, you may obtain a refund from the person or
entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph 1.E.8.

1.B.  "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark.  It may only be
used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who
agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement.  There are a few
things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
even without complying with the full terms of this agreement.  See
paragraph 1.C below.  There are a lot of things you can do with Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this agreement
and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works.  See paragraph 1.E below.

1.C.  The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the Foundation"
or PGLAF), owns a compilation copyright in the collection of Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works.  Nearly all the individual works in the
collection are in the public domain in the United States.  If an
individual work is in the public domain in the United States and you are
located in the United States, we do not claim a right to prevent you from
copying, distributing, performing, displaying or creating derivative
works based on the work as long as all references to Project Gutenberg
are removed.  Of course, we hope that you will support the Project
Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting free access to electronic works by
freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm works in compliance with the terms of
this agreement for keeping the Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with
the work.  You can easily comply with the terms of this agreement by
keeping this work in the same format with its attached full Project
Gutenberg-tm License when you share it without charge with others.

1.D.  The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern
what you can do with this work.  Copyright laws in most countries are in
a constant state of change.  If you are outside the United States, check
the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this agreement
before downloading, copying, displaying, performing, distributing or
creating derivative works based on this work or any other Project
Gutenberg-tm work.  The Foundation makes no representations concerning
the copyright status of any work in any country outside the United

1.E.  Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg:

1.E.1.  The following sentence, with active links to, or other immediate
access to, the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear prominently
whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work on which the
phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears, or with which the phrase "Project
Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed, displayed, performed, viewed,
copied or distributed:

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

1.E.2.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is derived
from the public domain (does not contain a notice indicating that it is
posted with permission of the copyright holder), the work can be copied
and distributed to anyone in the United States without paying any fees
or charges.  If you are redistributing or providing access to a work
with the phrase "Project Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the
work, you must comply either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E.1
through 1.E.7 or obtain permission for the use of the work and the
Project Gutenberg-tm trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.8 or

1.E.3.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted
with the permission of the copyright holder, your use and distribution
must comply with both paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 and any additional
terms imposed by the copyright holder.  Additional terms will be linked
to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works posted with the
permission of the copyright holder found at the beginning of this work.

1.E.4.  Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License terms from this work, or any files containing a part of this
work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm.

1.E.5.  Do not copy, display, perform, distribute or redistribute this
electronic work, or any part of this electronic work, without
prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 with
active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project
Gutenberg-tm License.

1.E.6.  You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary,
compressed, marked up, nonproprietary or proprietary form, including any
word processing or hypertext form.  However, if you provide access to or
distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format other than
"Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official version
posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site (,
you must, at no additional cost, fee or expense to the user, provide a
copy, a means of exporting a copy, or a means of obtaining a copy upon
request, of the work in its original "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other
form.  Any alternate format must include the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License as specified in paragraph 1.E.1.

1.E.7.  Do not charge a fee for access to, viewing, displaying,
performing, copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works
unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.

1.E.8.  You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing
access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works provided

- You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from
     the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method
     you already use to calculate your applicable taxes.  The fee is
     owed to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, but he
     has agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the
     Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.  Royalty payments
     must be paid within 60 days following each date on which you
     prepare (or are legally required to prepare) your periodic tax
     returns.  Royalty payments should be clearly marked as such and
     sent to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the
     address specified in Section 4, "Information about donations to
     the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation."

- You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies
     you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he
     does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm
     License.  You must require such a user to return or
     destroy all copies of the works possessed in a physical medium
     and discontinue all use of and all access to other copies of
     Project Gutenberg-tm works.

- You provide, in accordance with paragraph 1.F.3, a full refund of any
     money paid for a work or a replacement copy, if a defect in the
     electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days
     of receipt of the work.

- You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free
     distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works.

1.E.9.  If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work or group of works on different terms than are set
forth in this agreement, you must obtain permission in writing from
both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and Michael
Hart, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark.  Contact the
Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below.


1.F.1.  Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable
effort to identify, do copyright research on, transcribe and proofread
public domain works in creating the Project Gutenberg-tm
collection.  Despite these efforts, Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works, and the medium on which they may be stored, may contain
"Defects," such as, but not limited to, incomplete, inaccurate or
corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other intellectual
property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or other medium, a
computer virus, or computer codes that damage or cannot be read by
your equipment.

of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1.F.3, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the owner of the Project
Gutenberg-tm trademark, and any other party distributing a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement, disclaim all
liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal

defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it, you can
receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a
written explanation to the person you received the work from.  If you
received the work on a physical medium, you must return the medium with
your written explanation.  The person or entity that provided you with
the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in lieu of a
refund.  If you received the work electronically, the person or entity
providing it to you may choose to give you a second opportunity to
receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund.  If the second copy
is also defective, you may demand a refund in writing without further
opportunities to fix the problem.

1.F.4.  Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth
in paragraph 1.F.3, this work is provided to you 'AS-IS' WITH NO OTHER

1.F.5.  Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied
warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of damages.
If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement violates the
law of the state applicable to this agreement, the agreement shall be
interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or limitation permitted by
the applicable state law.  The invalidity or unenforceability of any
provision of this agreement shall not void the remaining provisions.

1.F.6.  INDEMNITY - You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation, the
trademark owner, any agent or employee of the Foundation, anyone
providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in accordance
with this agreement, and any volunteers associated with the production,
promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works,
harmless from all liability, costs and expenses, including legal fees,
that arise directly or indirectly from any of the following which you do
or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this or any Project Gutenberg-tm
work, (b) alteration, modification, or additions or deletions to any
Project Gutenberg-tm work, and (c) any Defect you cause.

Section  2.  Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm

Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of
electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of computers
including obsolete, old, middle-aged and new computers.  It exists
because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations from
people in all walks of life.

Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the
assistance they need, is critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's
goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will
remain freely available for generations to come.  In 2001, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure
and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future generations.
To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation
and how your efforts and donations can help, see Sections 3 and 4
and the Foundation web page at

Section 3.  Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive

The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit
501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the
state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal
Revenue Service.  The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification
number is 64-6221541.  Its 501(c)(3) letter is posted at  Contributions to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent
permitted by U.S. federal laws and your state's laws.

The Foundation's principal office is located at 4557 Melan Dr. S.
Fairbanks, AK, 99712., but its volunteers and employees are scattered
throughout numerous locations.  Its business office is located at
809 North 1500 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 596-1887, email  Email contact links and up to date contact
information can be found at the Foundation's web site and official
page at

For additional contact information:
     Dr. Gregory B. Newby
     Chief Executive and Director

Section 4.  Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation

Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide
spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of
increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be
freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest
array of equipment including outdated equipment.  Many small donations
($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt
status with the IRS.

The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating
charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United
States.  Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a
considerable effort, much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up
with these requirements.  We do not solicit donations in locations
where we have not received written confirmation of compliance.  To
SEND DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any
particular state visit

While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we
have not met the solicitation requirements, we know of no prohibition
against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who
approach us with offers to donate.

International donations are gratefully accepted, but we cannot make
any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from
outside the United States.  U.S. laws alone swamp our small staff.

Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation
methods and addresses.  Donations are accepted in a number of other
ways including checks, online payments and credit card donations.
To donate, please visit:

Section 5.  General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic

Professor Michael S. Hart is the originator of the Project Gutenberg-tm
concept of a library of electronic works that could be freely shared
with anyone.  For thirty years, he produced and distributed Project
Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of volunteer support.

Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed
editions, all of which are confirmed as Public Domain in the U.S.
unless a copyright notice is included.  Thus, we do not necessarily
keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper edition.

Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search facility:

This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm,
including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation, how to help produce our new eBooks, and how to
subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.