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Title: A Middle High German Primer
       Third Edition

Author: Joseph Wright

Release Date: September 16, 2007 [EBook #22636]

Language: English

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M.A., PH.D., D.C.L., LL.D., LITT.D.











The present book has been written in the hope that it will serve as an elementary introduction to the larger German works on the subject from which I have appropriated whatever seemed necessary for the purpose. In the grammar much aid has been derived from Paul’s Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik, second edition, Halle, 1884, and Weinhold’s Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik, second edition, Paderborn, 1883. The former work, besides containing by far the most complete syntax, is also the only Middle High German Grammar which is based on the present state of German Philology.... I believe that the day is not far distant when English students will take a much more lively interest in the study of their own and the other Germanic languages (especially German and Old Norse) than has hitherto been the case. And if this little book should contribute anything towards furthering the cause, it will have amply fulfilled its purpose.

London: January, 1888.

When I wrote the preface to the first edition of this primer in 1888, I ventured to predict that the interest of English students in the subject would grow and develop as time went on, but I hardly expected that it would grow so much that a second edition of the book would be required within iv so short a period. It has been revised throughout, and several changes have been made in the phonology, but I have not thought it advisable to alter the general plan and scope of the former edition. After many years of personal experience as a teacher and examiner in the older periods of the German language, I have become firmly convinced that the larger books on the subject contain too many details for beginners. I feel sure that the easiest and best way to acquire a thorough knowledge of Middle High German is to start with an elementary book like the present, and then to learn the details of the grammar, especially the phonology of the various dialects, from a more advanced work.

Oxford: December, 1898.



In the preparation of the new edition, I have steadily kept in view the class of students for whom the book was originally written. When the first edition appeared twenty-eight years ago, there were very few students in this country who took up the serious study of the older periods of the various Germanic languages at the Universities. In late years, however, the interest in the study of these languages has grown so much that Honour Courses and Examinations in them have been established at all our Universities. The result is that a book even intended for beginners can now reasonably be expected to be of a higher standard than the previous editions of this Primer. The grammatical introduction has accordingly been entirely rewritten and expanded to more than twice its original size. The texts have also been nearly doubled by the addition of eighteen poems from Walther von der Vogelweide, and selections from Reinmar, Ulrich von Lichtenstein, and Wolfram von Eschenbach.

The greater part of Middle High German literature is so excellent and interesting that most students, who have mastered the grammatical introduction and read the texts in the Primer, will doubtless desire to continue the subject. Such students should procure a copy of either the Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik by Hermann Paul, eighth edition, Halle, 1911, or the Mittelhochdeutsches Elementarbuch by Victor Michels, second edition, Heidelberg, 1912, where the vi Grammar, especially the phonology and syntax, can be studied in greater detail. They should also procure a copy of the Mittelhochdeutsches Taschenwörterbuch by Matthias Lexer, tenth edition, Leipzig, 1910, and also have access to the two standard Middle High German dictionaries— Mittelhochdeutsches Wörterbuch mit Benutzung des Nachlasses von Georg Friedrich Benecke, ausgearbeitet von Wilhelm Müller und Friedrich Zarncke, drei Bände, Leipzig, 1854-61, and Mittelhochdeutsches Wörterbuch, von Matthias Lexer, zugleich als Supplement und alphabetischer Index zum Mittelhochdeutschen Wörterbuch von Benecke-Müller-Zarncke, drei Bände, Leipzig, 1872-78. An excellent bibliography of the best editions of the Middle High German texts— classified according to the dialects in which they were written— will be found on pp. 20-35 of Michels’ Elementarbuch.

May the new edition of the Primer continue to further the study of the subject in the future to the same extent as it has done in the past!


October, 1916.




The classification of the MHG. dialects (§ 1).
The Vowels 2-22

The MHG. alphabet (§ 2). Pronunciation of the MHG. vowels (§ 3). Phonetic survey of the MHG. vowel-system (§ 4). The OHG. equivalents of the MHG. vowels (§ 5). The characteristic differences between OHG. and MHG. (§ 6). The weakening of unaccented vowels (§§ 7-8). The loss of unaccented vowels (§ 9). Umlaut (§ 10). The MHG. equivalents of the OHG. vowels (§ 11). Ablaut (§ 12). Other vowel changes (§§ 13-18).

The Consonants 22-35

Pronunciation of the consonants (§§ 19-20). Phonetic survey of the MHG. consonants (§ 21). Characteristic differences between High German and the other West Germanic languages (§ 22). The High German sound-shifting (§§ 23-7). The interchange between pf, b and f; k, g and h; ȥȥ, ȥ and ss, s (§ 28). The loss of the guttural nasal ŋ (§ 29). Verner’s Law (§ 30). The doubling of consonants (§ 31). The simplification of double consonants (§ 32). The interchange between the lenes and the fortes (§ 33). Interchange between medial h and final ch (§ 34). Initial and medial j (§ 35). Medial and final w (§ 36). The loss of intervocalic b, d, g (§ 37). The loss of intervocalic h (§ 38). The loss of final r (§ 39). The change of medial t to d after nasals and l (§ 40).

Declension of Nouns 36-46

Introductory remarks (§ 41).

A. The vocalic or strong declension:— Masculine nouns (§§ 42-5); Neuter nouns (§§ 46-7); Feminine nouns (§§ 48-9).

B. The weak declension (§§ 50-3).

C. Declension of proper names (§ 54).

Adjectives 46-52

A. The declension of adjectives (§§ 55-6).

B. The comparison of adjectives (§§ 57-9).

C. The formation of adverbs from adjectives (§§ 60-1).

D. Numerals (§§ 62-4).

Pronouns 53-57

Personal (§ 65). Reflexive (§ 66). Possessive (§ 67). Demonstrative (§ 68). Relative (§ 69). Interrogative (§ 70). Indefinite (§ 71).

Verbs 57-75

Classification of MHG. verbs (§ 72).

A. Strong verbs:— The conjugation of the model strong verb nëmen (§§ 73-4). Class I (§§ 76-7). Class II (§§ 78-80). Class III (§ 81). Class IV (§ 82). Class V (§§ 83-4). Class VI (§§ 85-6). Class VII (§ 87).

B. Weak Verbs:—Classification of MHG. weak verbs (§§ 88-9). Class I (§ 90). Class II (§ 92).

C. Minor groups.— Preterite-presents (§ 93). Anomalous verbs (§§ 94-8). Contracted verbs (§ 99).

Syntax 75-78

Cases (§§ 100-2). Adjectives (§ 103). Pronouns (§ 104). Verbs (§§ 105-7). Negation (§ 108).

I. Berthold von Regensburg 79-83
II. The Swabian Lantrehtbuoch 83-85
III. Hartman von Ouwe 86-116
IV. Walther von der Vogelweide 116-133
V. Reinmar 133-139
VI. Ulrich von Lichtenstein 140-148
VII. Das Nibelungen-Lied 149-158
VIII. Wolfram von Eschenbach 158-168
NOTES 169-171
GLOSSARY 172-213


Goth. = Gothic
Gr. = Greek
HG. = High German
Lat. = Latin
MHG. = Middle High German
NHG. = New High German
OE. = Old English
OHG. = Old High German
OS. = Old Saxon
P. Germ. = Primitive Germanic
UF. = Upper Franconian
UG. = Upper German

The asterisk * prefixed to a word denotes a theoretical form, as MHG. wärmen from *warmjan, to warm.

In representing prehistoric forms the following signs are used:— þ (= th in Engl. thin), ð (= th in Engl. then), ƀ (= a bilabial spirant, which may be pronounced like the v in Engl. vine), ʒ (= g often heard in German sagen), χ (= NHG. ch and the ch in Scotch loch), ŋ (= n in Engl. sunk).




§ 1.


Middle High German (MHG.) embraces the High German language from about the year 1100 to 1500. It is divided into three great dialect-groups: Upper German, Franconian, and East Middle German.

1. Upper German is divided into: (a) Alemanic, embracing High Alemanic (Switzerland), and Low Alemanic (South Baden, Swabia, and Alsace). (b) Bavarian, extending over Bavaria and those parts of Austria where German is spoken.

2. Franconian (West Middle German), which is subdivided into Upper Franconian and Middle Franconian. Upper Franconian consists of East Franconian (the old duchy of Francia Orientalis) and Rhenish Franconian (the old province of Francia Rhinensis), Middle Franconian extending over the district along the banks of the Moselle and of the Rhine from Coblence to Düsseldorf.

3. East Middle German, extending over: Thuringia, Upper Saxony, and Silesia.

Since it is impossible to deal with all these dialects in an elementary book like the present, we shall confine ourselves almost exclusively to Upper German, and shall only deal with that period of Middle High German which extends from about 1200 to 1300.





§ 2. MHG. had the following simple vowels and diphthongs:—

Short vowels a, ä, ë, e, i, o, u, ö, ü.
Long vowels ā, æ, ē, ī, ō, ū, œ, iu.
Diphthongs ei, ie, ou, uo, öu (eu), üe.

Note.ë represents primitive Germanic e (= Gr. ε, Lat. e, as in Gr. δέκα, Lat. decem, MHG. zëhen, ten) and is generally written ë in Old and Middle High German grammars, in order to distinguish it from the OHG. umlaut-e (§ 10). The former was an open sound like the e in English bed, whereas the latter was a close sound like the é in French été. ä was a very open sound nearly like the a in English hat, and arose in MHG. from the i-umlaut of a (§ 10). Good MHG. poets do not rhyme Germanic ë with the umlaut-e, and the distinction between the two sounds is still preserved in many NHG. dialects. In like manner the modern Bavarian and Austrian dialects still distinguish between ä and ë. In the MHG. period ä, ë, and e were kept apart in Bavarian, but in Alemanic and Middle German ä and ë seem to have fallen together in ë or possibly ä, as the two sounds frequently rhyme with each other in good poets. MHG. texts do not always preserve in writing the distinction between the old umlaut-e and the MHG. umlaut, both being often written e in the same text.

Pronunciation of the Vowels.

§ 3. The approximate pronunciation of the above vowels and diphthongs was as follows:—

a as in  NHG. mann man, man.
ā„„ Engl. father hāt, has.
ä„„ man mähte, powers.
æ„„ air lære, empty.
ë„„ men hëlfen, to help.
e„„ Fr. été geste, guests.
ē„„ NHG. reh , sea.
i„„ Engl. bit biten, to beg.
ī„„ ween wīn, wine.
o„„ pot golt, gold.
ō„„ NHG. tot tōt, dead.
u„„ Engl. put guldīn, golden.
ū„„ foo hūs, house.
ö„„ NHG. löcher löcher, holes.
œ„„ schön schœne, beautiful.
ü„„ füllen vüllen, to fill.
iu„„ müde hiuser, houses.
ei  = e + i stein, stone.
ie  = i + e knie, knee.
ou  = o + u ouge, eye.
öu (eu = ö or e + ü dröuwen, to threaten.
üe  = ü + e grüeȥen, to greet.
uo  = u + o bruoder, brother.

To the above list should be added the MHG. e in unaccented syllables, which mostly arose from the weakening of the OHG. full vowels, as OHG. zunga, tongue, hirti, shepherd, namo, name, fridu, peace = MHG. zunge, hirte, name, fride; OHG. habēn, to have, scōnī, beauty, salbōn, to anoint, zungūn, tongues = MHG. haben, schœne, salben, zungen. The e in this position was pronounced like the -e in NHG. zunge, name, friede, &c.

Phonetic Survey of the MHG. Vowel-system.

§ 4.


Short ä, ë, e, i, öü.

Long æ,    ē, ī, œ, iu (= ü).


Short a, ou.

Long ā, ōū.

The OHG. Equivalents of the MHG. Vowels.

§ 5. The following are the OHG. equivalents of the MHG. short vowels, long vowels and diphthongs of accented syllables:—

1. The short vowels a, ë, e, i, o, u = the corresponding OHG. short vowels, as tac, day, gast, guest, bant, he bound, gap, he gave = OHG. tag, gast, bantgab.

wëc, way, nëmen, to take, zëhen, ten = OHG. wëg, nëman, zëhan.

geste, guests, lember, lambs, vert, he goes = OHG. gesti, lembir, ferit.

wiȥȥen, to know, hilfe, I help, visch, fish = OHG. wiȥȥan, hilfu, fisk.

got, God, wol, well, geholfen, helped = OHG. got, wola, giholfan.

sun, son, wurm, worm, gebunden, bound = OHG. sunu, wurm, gibuntan.

ä is the umlaut of a before certain consonant combinations which prevented umlaut from taking place in OHG., as mähte, powers, hältet, he holds, wärmen, to warm = OHG. mahti, haltit, warmen from *warmjan (§ 10). It also occurs in derivatives ending in -līch and -līn, as mänlīch, manly, tägelīch, daily, väterlīn, dim. of vater, father; and in words which originally had an i in the third syllable, the vowel of the second syllable having become i by assimilation, as mägede, maids, zäher(e), tears = OHG. magadi, zahari.


ö is the umlaut of OHG. o, as löcher, holes, möhte, I might = OHG. lohhir, mohti; götinne, goddess, beside gotGod.

ü is the umlaut of OHG. u, as dünne, thin, süne, sons, züge, I might draw = OHG. dunni, suni, zugi.

2. The long vowels ā, ē, ī, ō, ū = the corresponding OHG. long vowels, as sāt, seed, slāfen, to sleep, nāmen, we took, dāhte, he thought = OHG. sāt, slāfan, nāmum, dāhta.

sēle, soul, mēre, more, lēren, to teach = OHG. sēla, mēro, lēren.

wīp, wife, sīn, his, bīȥen, to bite = OHG. wīb, sīn, bīȥan.

ōre, ear, tōt, death, kōs, I chose = OHG. ōra, tōdkōs.

hūs, house, tūsent, thousand, dūhte, it seemed = OHG. hūs, dūsunt, dūhta.

æ is the umlaut of OHG. ā, as lære, empty, næme, thou tookest = OHG. lāri, nāmi.

œ is the umlaut of OHG. ō, as schœne, beautiful, hœher, higher, hœren, to hear = OHG. scōni, hōhiro, hōren from *hōrjan older *hausjan.

iu = (1) OHG. iu (diphthong), as liute, people, kiuset, he chooses = OHG. liuti, kiusit.

= (2) the umlaut of OHG. ū, as hiuser, houses, briute, brides = OHG. hūsir, brūti.

3. The diphthongs ei, ou, uo = the corresponding OHG. diphthongs, as bein, bone, leiten, to lead, schreip, I wrote = OHG. bein, leiten, screib.

ouge, eye, houbet, head, bouc, I bent = OHG. ouga, houbit, boug.

bruoder, brother, stuont, I stood, vuor, I went = OHG. bruoder, stuont, fuor.

ie = (1) OHG. ie (diphthong) older ia, ea, ē (Germanic ē), as hier, here, miete, pay, reward, gienc, I went = OHG. hier, mieta, gieng.


= (2) OHG. io (Germanic eu), as bieten, to offer, liep, dear = OHG. biotan, liob.

= (3) the OHG. io which occurs in the preterite of the old reduplicated verbs whose presents have ou, ō, uo (§ 87), as inf. loufen, to run, stōȥen, to push, ruofen, to call, preterite lief, stieȥ, rief = OHG. liof, stioȥ, riof.

= (4) Upper German iu (OHG. io) before labials and gutturals, as liup, dear, tiuf, deep, siuch, sick, liugen, to tell a lie = liep, tief, siech, liegen.

öu (eu) is the umlaut of OHG. ou, as löuber, leaves, löufel, runner = OHG. loubir, loufil.

üe is the umlaut of OHG. uo, as grüene, green, güete, goodness, vüere, thou didst go = OHG. gruoni, guotī, fuori.

Unaccented Vowels and Umlaut.

§ 6. The two most characteristic differences between OHG. and MHG. are: (1) the spread of umlaut (§ 10); (2) the weakening and partial loss of vowels in unaccented syllables.

1. The Weakening of Unaccented Vowels.

§ 7. The short vowels a, i, o, u, and the long vowels ē, ī, ō, ū were weakened to e. This e was pronounced like the final -e in NHG. leute, see § 3. Examples are:—

gëba, gift, hërza, heart, zunga, tongue, taga, days = MHG. gëbe, hërze, zunge, tage; heilag, holy, neut. blindaȥ, blind, nëman, to take = MHG. heilec, blindeȥ, nëmen.

kunni, race, generation, gesti, guests = MHG. künne, geste; kuning, king, beȥȥisto, best, dat. pl. gestim, to 7 guests, gen. pl. lembiro, of lambs, nimit, he takes = MHG. künec, beȥȥest (beste), gesten, lember(e), nimet.

haso, hare, nom. acc. pl. fem. blinto, blind, gen. pl. tago, of days = MHG. hase, blinde, tage; acc. sing. hason, hare = MHG. hasen.

fridu, peace, dat. sing. gëbu, to a gift, nimu, I take = MHG. fride, gëbe, nime; dat. pl. tagum, to days, nāmum, we took = MHG. tagen, nāmen.

Nom. sing. masc. blintēr, blind, unsēr, our, habēn, to have, nëmēm, we may take = MHG. blinder, unser, haben, nëmen.

scōnī, beauty = MHG. schœne; sālīg, blessed, nāmīm, we might take = MHG. sælec, næmen.

salbōn, to anoint, suohtōs(t), thou soughtest, dat. pl. gëbōm, hërzōm = MHG. salben, suohtes(t), gëben, hërzen.

Gen. dat. acc. sing., nom. acc. pl. zungūn = MHG. zungen.

§ 8. The vowel in suffixal and derivative syllables was generally weakened to e just as in the inflexional syllables, but in some suffixal and derivative syllables which had a secondary accent the vowel was not weakened to e. This was especially the case with derivatives in -ære (denoting nomina agentis), -inne, -inc (-ing), linc (-ling), diminutives in -īn and -līn, abstract nouns in -nisse (-nusse, -nüsse), -unge. In others the vowel fluctuated between the full vowel and e, as in -isch beside -esch; -ic (= OHG. -ag, and -ī̆g) beside -ec; superlative of adjectives -ist (= OHG. -ist) beside -est (= OHG. -ōst); -sal beside -sel. Beside the full forms -līch, -rīch occurred the shortened forms -lich, -rich.

The OHG. endings of the present participle -anti, -enti, -ōnti, ēnti regularly became -ende, but -ant occurs in a few old participles which had become nouns, as heilant, Saviour, wīgant, warrior, vīant beside vīent (vīnt), fiend, 8 enemy. Examples are: gartenære, gardener, schepfære, creator, schrībære, scribe.

küneginne, queen, vriundinne, female friend, wirtinne, mistress.

edelinc, son of a nobleman, hendelinc, glove, vingerlinc, ring; müedinc, unhappy man.

magedīn, little girl, vingerīn, ring; kindelīn, little child, vogelīn, little bird.

hindernisse, hindrance, verdërbnisse, destruction, vinsternisse, darkness, vancnüsse, captivity.

beȥȥerunge, improvement, handelunge, action, mëldunge, announcement.

himelisch, heavenly, irdisch, earthly, kindisch, childish, beside -esch.

heilic (OHG. heilag), holy, honic (OHG. honag, honig), honey, künic (OHG. cuning, cunig), king, manic (OHG. manag), many a, sælic (OHG. sālīg), blessed, beside -ec.

oberist beside oberest, highest.

kumbersal, distress, trüebsal, gloom, wëhsal beside wëhsel, change.

bitterlīch, bitterly, sicherlīch, surely, wīslīch, wisely, beside -lich.

Dietrīch, Heinrīch, beside -rich.

The OHG. pronominal ending of the nom. sing. fem. and the nom. acc. pl. neuter remained unweakened, as OHG. blintiu = MHG. blindiu (§ 55).

2. The Loss of Unaccented Vowels.

§ 9. The weakened e regularly disappeared:—

1. After l and r in dissyllables with short stems, as ar, older are (OHG. aro), eagle, acc. gen. dat. arn, beside name, name, namen; wol, older wole (OHG. wola), well; gar (OHG. garo), ready, milch (OHG. milih), milk, zal (OHG. zala), number; kil, quill, gen. kil(e)s, dat. kil, 9 pl. nom. acc. kil, dat. kil(e)n, beside tac, day, gen. tages, dat. tage, pl. nom. acc. tage, dat. tagen; bërn, to bear, stëln, to steal, nern, to rescue, pres. sing. stil, stils(t), stilt; ner, ners(t), nert, beside hœren, to hear, pres. sing. hœre, hœres(t), hœret.

2. After liquids and nasals in trisyllabic and polysyllabic forms with long stems, as sælde (OHG. sālida), blessedness, hērsen, hërsen (OHG. hērisōn), to rule, zierde (OHG. ziarida), adornment, wandelte (OHG. wantalōta), I wandered, zwīfeln (OHG. zwīfalōn), to doubt, wundern (OHG. wuntarōn), to wonder, schœnste (OHG. scōnisto), most beautiful, diente, diende (OHG. dionōta), I served; dienest, service, gen. dienstes; engel, angel, gen. engel(e)s, dat. engel(e), pl. nom. acc. gen. engel(e), dat. engel(e)n, and similarly with words like acker, acre, lūter, clear, buosem, bosom, heiden, heathen; grœȥer (OHG. grōȥiro), greater, fem. dat. sing. grœȥer (OHG. grōȥiru); dat. sing. blindem(e), blind, guotem(e), good = OHG. blintemu, guotemu; gen. pl. blinder(e) = OHG. blintero. After the analogy of forms with long stems it was also dropped in forms with short stems, as pl. nagel, nails, vogel, birds, beside nagele, vogele; wider beside widere (OHG. widaro), wether, dat. sing. disem(e), this, vadem(e), thread, gen. vadem(e)s.

There was however a strong tendency in MHG. for the medial vowel to disappear in trisyllabic forms with long stems irrespectively as to whether they contained a liquid or a nasal, as market, market, gen. marktes; rīchsen (OHG. rīchisōn), to rule, ahte (OHG. ahtōta), he observed, wartte, warte (OHG. wartēta), he waited, vrāgte beside vrāgete (OHG. frāgēta), he asked, dancte beside dankete (OHG. dankōta), he thanked. See § 92.

3. In the medial syllable of trisyllabic forms with long stems having liquids or nasals in successive syllables, as dīme beside dīneme (OHG. dīnemu), dat. of dīn, thy; 10 eime beside ein(e)me (OHG. einemu), dat. of ein, one; hērre, hërre (OHG. hēriro), master; minre beside minner(e) (OHG. minniro), less; tiurre (OHG. tiuriro), dearer.

4. Finally after a nasal, and medially after a nasal before a following t, in forms with short stems, as han(e), cock, nam(e), name, sun (OHG. sun, sunu), son, won(e), I dwell; man(e)t, he admonishes, won(e)t, he dwells, scham(e)t, he shames, nim(e)t, he takes, nëm(e)t, ye take; pret. won(e)te, scham(e)te. In these and similar forms the e was often restored through the influence of forms which regularly preserved the e.

Note.— The e, when not preceded by a nasal, was sometimes dropped in verbal forms ending in t. This was especially the case in wirst, wirt older wirdes(t), wirdet; siht, he sees, sëht, ye see, older sihet, sëhet; and often in forms like gilt, vint, spricht, sticht beside giltet, vindet, sprichet, stichet.

5. The superlative of adjectives often has double forms, the one with the loss of the medial e, and the other with the loss of the final e, as beste, best, ērste, first, grœste, greatest, leste, last, min(ne)ste, least, wir(se)ste, worst, beside beȥȥest(e), ērest(e), grœȥest(e), leȥȥest(e), minnest(e), wirsest(e), OHG. beȥȥisto, ēristo, grōȥisto, leȥȥisto, minnisto, wirsisto.

6. In the unstressed forms of dissyllables, as adv. ane, abe, mite, obe beside the prepositions an, on, ab, of, mit, with, ob, over; dat. sing. dëme, wëme, ime, beside dëm, wëm, im; unde, and, wande, for, because, beside und (unt), wan(d); hërre, vrouwe, beside hër, vrou before proper names and titles.

7. The e in the unaccented verbal prefixes be-, ge- often disappeared before l, n, r, as blīben, to remain, glīch, like, glit, member, glouben, to believe, gnāde, favour, gnanne, namesake, gnuoge, many, grade, quick, grëch, straight, 11 beside belīben, gelīch, gelit, gelouben, genāde, genanne, genuoge, gerade, gerëch; it disappeared before vowels during the OHG. period, as bange, anxious: ange, anxiously, gëȥȥan p.p. of ëȥȥan, to eat, gunnan, MHG. gunnen, günnen, to grant.

3. Umlaut.

§ 10. By umlaut is meant the modification (palatalization) of an accented vowel through the influence of an ī̆ or j which originally stood in the following syllable. The only vowel which underwent this change in OHG. was a, which became close e (§ 2, note).

The change is first met with in OHG. monuments about the middle of the eighth century. In the ninth century the process was practically complete except when the a was followed by certain consonant combinations which prevented umlaut from taking place. These consonant combinations were:—

1. ht, hs, or consonant + w, as maht, power, pl. mahti; wahsit, he grows, inf. wahsan; bi-scatwen from *-scatwjan, to shade.

2. In Upper German before l + consonant, before hh, ch (= Germanic k), and often before r + consonant, and before h (= Germanic h), as Upper German haltit beside Upper Franconian heltit, he holds, inf. haltan; UG. altiro beside UF. eltiro, older; UG. sachit beside UF. sehhit, he quarrels, inf. sachan, Goth. sakan; UG. warmen beside wermen, Goth. warmjan, to warm; UG. slahit beside slehit, he strikes, inf. OHG. slahan, Goth. slahan.

3. In words ending in -nissi, -nissa, or -līh, as firstantnissi, understanding; infancnissa, assumption; kraftlīh, strong; tagalīh, daily.

Umlaut must have taken place earlier in the spoken language than it is expressed in late OHG. and early 12 MHG. manuscripts, because the ī̆ which caused the umlaut was weakened to e in MHG. (§ 7) and j had disappeared except between vowels. The vowels and diphthongs which underwent umlaut in MHG. are a, o, u, ā, ō, ū, ou, uo. The umlaut of all these sounds was completed by about the year 1200.

a > e: gast, guest, pl. geste (OHG. gesti); lamp, lamb, pl. lember (OHG. lembir); inf. graben, to dig, pres. second and third pers. sing. grebes(t), grebet (OHG. grebis, grebit); lanc, long, beside lenge (OHG. lengī), length; brennen, Goth. brannjan, to burn; bette (OHG. betti), bed.

a > ä: From the twelfth century onwards the umlaut of a also occurs—often beside forms without umlaut—in words containing the consonant combinations which prevented umlaut from taking place in OHG., as pl. mähte (OHG. mahti), powers; geslähte (OHG. gislahti), race, generation; wähset (OHG. wahsit), he grows; wärmen (OHG. warmen, older *warmjan), to warm; Upper German älter (OHG. altiro), older; kälte (OHG. kaltī), coldness; hältet (OHG. haltit), he holds; äher (OHG. ahir), ear of corn; slähet (OHG. slahit), he strikes. It also occurs in derivatives ending in -līch, -līn, as mänlīch, manly, schämelīch, shameful, tägelīch, daily, väterlīch, fatherly, väterlīn, dim. of vater, father. It is likewise met with in MHG. words which originally had an i in the third syllable, the vowel of the second syllable having become i by assimilation, as frävele (OHG. frafali), bold, pl. mägede (OHG. magadi), maids, pl. zäher(e) (OHG. zahari), tears. See § 2, Note.

o > ö: Although ö, the umlaut of o, is common in MHG. and still commoner in NHG., yet all words containing this umlaut are really new formations due to levelling or analogy, because primitive Germanic u (§ 15) did not become o in OHG. when followed by an ī̆ or j in 13 the next syllable. Examples are: boc, he-goat, beside dim. böcklīn (OHG. pochilī); dorf, village, beside pl. dörfer; got, God, beside götinne, goddess; hof, court, beside hövesch, courtly; loch (OHG. loh), hole, beside pl. löcher (OHG. lohhir); tohter, daughter, beside dim. töhterlīn; pret. subj. möhte (OHG. mohti), I might; törste (OHG. torsti), I might dare.

u > ü: dünne (OHG. dunni), thin; künne (OHG. kunni), race, generation; pl. süne (OHG. suni), sons; tür (OHG. turi), door; pret. subj. züge (OHG. zugi), inf. ziehen, to draw.

Note.— In Upper German certain consonant combinations often prevented umlaut from taking place where it might be expected. Of these the principal are:—

1. Before a liquid + consonant, as hulde (OHG. huldī), favour; schuldec (OHG. sculdīg), guilty; gedultec (OHG. gidultīg), indulgent; burge (OHG. burgi), dat. of burc, city; sturbe (OHG. sturbi), pret. subj. of stërben, to die; wurfe (OHG. wurfi), pret. subj. of wërfen, to throw, cp. 2 above.

2. u fluctuates with ü when followed by a nasal + consonant, as dunken, to seem, umbe, about, wunne, joy, beside dünken, ümbe (OHG. umbi), wünne. This fluctuation is especially common in the pret. subjunctive, as bunde, sunge, beside bünde, sünge, inf. binden, to bind, singen, to sing.

3. u fluctuates with ü when followed by gg, ck, pf, tz, ȥȥ, st, ch, and g, as brugge, brügge, brucke, brücke, bridge; mugge, mügge, mucke, mücke, midge; drucken, drücken, to press; hupfen, hüpfen, to hop; schupfen, schüpfen, to push; nutzen, nützen, to use; pret. subj. fluȥȥe, flüȥȥe; schuȥȥe, schüȥȥe, inf. flieȥen, to flow, schieȥen, to shoot; pl. bruste, brüste, breasts; kuchen, küchen, kitchen; pret. subj. fluge, flüge, inf. fliegen, to fly.

ā > æ: lære (OHG. lāri), empty; mære (OHG. māri), renowned; sæjen (OHG. sājan), to sow; pret. subj. næme (OHG. nāmi), pl. næmen (OHG. nāmīm), inf. nëmen, to take.


ō > œ: hœher (OHG. hōhiro), higher; hœhest (OHG. hōhisto), highest; hœren (OHG. hōren, from older *hōrjan), to hear; schœne (OHG. scōni), beautiful.

ū > iu: pl. briute (OHG. brūti), brides; hiuser (OHG. hūsir), houses.

Traces of the umlaut of ū, written iu (= ǖ), occur in late OHG. monuments of the tenth century. It is common in the writings of Notker († 1022), as hiute older hūti, skins; chriuter older chrūtir, herbs. In other writings of the tenth to the twelfth century the umlaut of ū is seldom found. Umlaut did not take place in Upper German before a following m, as rūmen from *rūmjan, to make room; sūmen from *sūmjan, to tarry.

ou > öu, often written eu, rarely oi, öi: löufel (OHG. loufil), runner; löuber (OHG. loubir), leaves.

Umlaut of ou did not take place in the combination ouw = OHG. ouw, auw, West Germanic aww, primitive Germanic awj, as frouwe (OHG. frouwa, prim. Germanic *frawjō-), woman; ouwe (OHG. ouwa, auwia, prim. Germanic *a(ʒ)wjō-), meadow; frouwen (OHG. frouwen, prim. Germanic *frawjan), to rejoice, and similarly douwen, to digest, drouwen, to threaten, strouwen, to strew. Forms like fröuwen, döuwen, dröuwen, ströuwen were analogical formations due to the influence of the pres. second and third pers. singular and the preterite which regularly had umlaut; see the Author’s Historical German Grammar, § 232.

Umlaut of ou did not take place in Upper German before labials and g, as erlouben, to allow, gelouben, to believe, houbet, head, koufen, to buy, troumen, to dream, toufen, to baptize, bougen, to bend, ougen, to show, beside Middle German erlöuben, gelöuben, höubet, köufen, tröumen, töufen, böugen, öugen.

uo > üe: grüene (OHG. gruoni), green; güete (OHG. guotī), goodness; vüeȥe (OHG. fuoȥi), feet; pret. pl. subj. 15 vüeren (OHG. fuorīm), we might go, inf. varn, to fare, go; buoch, book, dim. büechlīn; muoter, mother, dim. müeterlīn.

The MHG. Equivalents of the OHG. Vowels.

§ 11. OHG. had the following short vowels, long vowels, and diphthongs:—

Short Vowels a, e, ë, i, o, u.
Long Vowels ā, ē, ī, ō, ū.
Diphthongs ei, ie (ia, ea),
io (eo),
ou (au), uo.

The following are the MHG. equivalents of the above simple vowels and diphthongs in accented syllables:—

1. The short vowels: Apart from the changes caused by umlaut, viz. a to ä, o to ö, u to ü (§ 10), and of ë to e before certain consonants, the OHG. short vowels remained in MHG., as

a = (1) MHG. a, as OHG. fater, father, tag, day, faran, to go = MHG. vater, tac, varn.

= (2) MHG. ä, in words containing the consonant combinations which prevented umlaut from taking place in OHG., as OHG. mahti, powers, kaltī, coldness, ahir, ear of corn, warmen, to warm = MHG. mähte, kälte, äher, wärmen, see § 10.

e = MHG. e, as OHG. gesti, guests, lembir, lambs, brennen, to burn = MHG. geste, lember, brennen.

ë = (1) MHG. ë, as OHG. wëg, way, hëlfan, to help, stëlan, to steal = MHG. wëc, hëlfen, stëln.

= (2) MHG. e, before st, sch, and palatal g, as OHG. nëst, nest, swëster, sister = MHG. nest, 16 swester; and similarly, gestern, yesterday, deste, all the more, weste, I knew, dreschen, to thrash, leschen, to go out, degen, warrior; and also in a few words before a following l, as helm, helmet, vels, rock, welch, which, &c.

i = MHG. i, as OHG. fisk, fish, nimu, I take, wiȥȥan, to know = MHG. visch, nime, wiȥȥen.

o = (1) MHG. o, as OHG. got, God, p.p. giholfan, helped, tohter, daughter = MHG. got, geholfen, tohter.

= (2) MHG. ö, as OHG. lohhir, holes, mohti, I might = MHG. löcher, möhte.

u = (1) MHG. u, as OHG. sunu, sun, son, butum, we offered, buntum, we bound = MHG. sun, buten, bunden.

= (2) MHG. ü, as OHG. dunni, thin, suni, sons = MHG. dünne, süne.

2. The long vowels: Apart from the changes caused by umlaut, viz. ā to æ, ō to œ, and ū to iu (§ 10), the OHG. long vowels remained in MHG., as

ā = (1) MHG. ā, as OHG. sāt, seed, slāfan, to sleep, dāhta, I thought = MHG. sāt, slāfen, dāhte.

= (2) MHG. æ, as OHG lāri, empty, nāmi, I might take = MHG. lære, næme.

ē = MHG. ē, as OHG. ēra, honour, lēren, to teach, sēla, soul = MHG. ēre, lēren, sēle.

ī = MHG. ī, as OHG. sīn, his, wīb, woman, snīdan, to cut = MHG. sīn, wīp, snīden.

ō = (1) MHG. ō, as OHG. ōra, ear, tōd, death, kōs, I chose = MHG. ōre, tōtkōs.

= (2) MHG. œ, as OHG. hōhiro, higher, hōren, to hear, scōni, beautiful = MHG. hœher, hœren, schœne.

ū = (1) MHG. ū, as OHG. hūs, house, rūm, room, dūhta, it seemed = MHG. hūs, rūm, dūhte.


= (2) MHG. iu, as OHG. hūsir, houses, brūti, brides = MHG. hiuser, briute.

3. The diphthongs:

ei = MHG. ei, as OHG. bein, bone, leiten, to lead, sneid, I cut = MHG. bein, leiten, sneit.

ie (older ia, ea = Germanic ē) = MHG. ie, as OHG. hier, here, mieta, reward, hielt, I held, hieȥ, I called, slief, I slept = MHG. hier, miete, hielt, hieȥ, slief.

io (eo) = Germanic eu (§ 16), and the io (eo) in the preterites of the old reduplicated verbs whose presents have ou, ō, uo (§ 87).

= MHG. ie, as OHG. liob, dear, biotan, to offer = MHG. liep, bieten; OHG. liof, I ran, stioȥ, I pushed, riof, I called = MHG. lief, stieȥ, rief.

iu = MHG. ǖ written iu, as OHG. liuti, people, kiusit, he chooses = MHG. liute, kiuset.

ou (older au) = (1) MHG. ou, as OHG. ouga, eye, boug, I bent, loufan, to run = MHG. ouge, bouc, loufen.

= (2) MHG. öu (eu), as OHG. loubir, leaves, loufil, runner = MHG. löuber, löufel.

uo = (1) MHG. uo, as OHG. bruoder, brother, muoter, mother, stuont, I stood = MHG. bruoder, muoter, stuont.

= (2) MHG. üe, as OHG. gruoni, green, fuoȥi, feet, = MHG. grüene, vüeȥe.

Ablaut (Vowel Gradation).

§ 12. By ablaut is meant the gradation of vowels both in stem and suffix, which was chiefly caused by the primitive Indo-Germanic system of accentuation. See the Author’s Historical German Grammar, § 23.


The vowels vary within certain series of related vowels, called ablaut-series. In MHG. there are six such series, which appear most clearly in the stem-forms of strong verbs. Four stem-forms are to be distinguished in a MHG. strong verb which has vowel gradation as the characteristic mark of its different stems:—(1) the present stem, to which belong all the forms of the present, (2) the stem of the first or third person of the preterite singular, (3) the stem of the preterite plural, to which belong the second person of the preterite singular and the whole of the preterite subjunctive, (4) the stem of the past participle.

By arranging the vowels according to these four stems we arrive at the following system:—

i. ii. iii. iv.
I. ī ei, ē i i
II. ie ou, ō u o
III. i, ë a u u, o
IV. ë a ā o
V. ë a ā ë
VI. a uo uo a

Note.—1. On the difference between ei and ē, see § 17; ou and ō, § 18; and in Series III i and ë, § 14; u and o, § 15.

2. Strong verbs belonging to Series II have iu in the indicative pres. singular; and strong verbs belonging to Series III-V with ë in the infinitive have i in the indicative pres. singular (§§ 14, 16).

I. snīden, to cut snīde sneit sniten gesniten;

līhen, to lend

līhe lēch lihen gelihen.

biegen, to bend

biuge bouc bugen gebogen;

sieden, to seethe

siude sōt suten gesoten.

binden, to bind

binde bant bunden gebunden;

hëlfen, to help

hilfe half hulfen geholfen.
19 IV.

nëmen, to take

nime nam nāmen genomen.

gëben, to give

gibe gap gāben gegëben.

graben, to dig

grabe gruop gruoben gegraben.

For further examples see the various classes of strong verbs §§ 76-86. Class VII of strong verbs embracing the old reduplicated verbs (§ 87) has been omitted from the ablaut-series, because the exact relation in which the vowel of the present stands to that of the preterite has not yet been satisfactorily explained.

Other Vowel Changes.

§ 13. Most of the following vowel changes took place in prehistoric times; but as they play an important part in the verbs and word-formation, &c., we shall give them here.

§ 14. ë (= Indo-Germanic e) became i in the prehistoric period of all the Germanic languages:—

1. Before a nasal + consonant, as OE. wind, OHG. MHG. wint, Lat. ventus, wind; OHG. fimf, finf, Gr. πέντε, five. This explains why verbs like MHG. binden, to bind, rinnen, to run, singen, to sing, belong to the same ablaut-series as hëlfen, to help, wërden, to become.

2. Before other consonants when followed by an ī̆ or j in the next syllable, and further in OHG. when followed by an u in the next syllable, as OHG. MHG. ist, Gr. ἐστί, is; OHG. fihu, Lat. pecu, cattle; ërde (OHG. ërda), earth, but irdīn, earthen; ligen (OHG. liggen from *ligjan), to lie down, sitzen (OHG. sitzen from *sitjan), to sit, but p.p. gelëgen (OHG. gilëgan), gesëȥȥen (OHG. gisëȥȥan). This explains why strong verbs belonging to the fourth (§§ 12, 82) and fifth (§§ 12, 83) ablaut-series have i throughout the present singular, and similarly in verbs belonging to the third (§§ 12, 81) series with ë in the infinitive, as

OHG. nëman, to take, three persons sing. nimu, nimis(t), nimit.
MHG. nëmen, „„„ nime, nimes(t), nimet.
OHG. gëban, to give, „„„ gibu, gibis(t), gibit.
MHG. gëben, „„„ gibe, gibes(t), gibet.
OHG. hëlfan, to help, „„„ hilfu, hilfis(t), hilfit.
MHG. hëlfen, „„„ hilfe, hilfes(t), hilfet.

§ 15. u, followed originally by an ā̆, ō̆, or ē in the next syllable, became o when not protected by a nasal + consonant or an intervening ī̆ or j; hence the interchange between u and o in the preterite plural and past participle of verbs belonging to the second ablaut-series (§§ 12, 78), as bugen (OHG. bugum), we bent, p.p. gebogen (OHG. gibogan); in the p.p. of verbs belonging to the third ablaut-series (§§ 12, 81), as gebunden (OHG. gibuntan), but geholfen (OHG. giholfan); in weak verbs as fürhten (OHG. furhten from *furhtjan), to fear, beside pret. vorhte (OHG. forhta); hügen (OHG. huggen from *hugjan) beside hogen (OHG. hogēn), to think; in preterite presents like durfen (OHG. durfum), we dare, beside pret. dorfte (OHG. dorfta); in many nouns and adjectives, as wolle (OHG. wolla), wool, beside wüllīn, wullīn, woollen; wolf (stem *wulfo-), wolf, beside wülpinne, she-wolf; vol, full, beside vülle (OHG. fullī), fulness; golt, gold, beside guldīn, golden.

§ 16. From primitive Germanic eu were developed two different diphthongs in OHG., viz. eu became eo (cp. § 15), later io, when originally followed by an ā̆, ō̆, or ē in the next syllable, and this io was regularly developed to ie 21 in MHG.; whereas eu became iu in OHG. when originally followed by an ī̆, j or u in the next syllable, and this iu became ǖ (written iu) in MHG., even after the ī̆, j or u had been weakened to e. This law explains the difference between the diphthong ie in the infinitive and the simple vowel iu (= ǖ) in the three persons singular of the present indicative of verbs belonging to the second ablaut-series (§§ 12, 78), as

OHG. biogan, to bend, pres. sing. biugu, biugis(t), biugit;
MHG. biegen, „„ biuge, biuges(t), biuget.

Cp. further tief (OHG. tiof), deep, beside OHG. tiufī, depth; lieht (OHG. lioht), a light, beside liuhten (OHG. liuhten from *liuhtjan), to light.

Note.— The iu in the above and similar examples must not be confounded with the iu in the OHG. and MHG. combination iuw which arose from prim. Germanic eww (= euw), and ewj, as triuwe (OHG. triuwi, Goth. triggws), true; triuwen, trūwen, to trust, pret. triuete, triute, trūte; riuwe (OHG. riuwa), regret, bliuwen (OHG. bliuwan, Goth. bliggwan), to strike, and similarly, briuwen, to brew, kiuwen, to chew, riuwen, to regret; niuwe (OHG. niuwi, Goth. niujis, prim. Germanic stem-form *newja-), new. This iu before w never interchanged with MHG. ie from prim. Germanic eu, and explains why the strong verbs bliuwen, &c. have iu in all forms of the present.

§ 17. Accented primitive Germanic ai (= Goth. ái) became ē in OHG. before r, w, Germanic h (cp. § 23, 1), and finally; in MHG. it appears also as ē before the same consonants and finally, as mēre, mēr (OHG. mēro, Goth. máiza), more, lēren (OHG. lēren, Goth. láisjan), to teach; sēle (OHG. sēla, older sēula, Goth. sáiwala), soul; snē (OHG. snēo, Goth. snáiws), snow, gen. OHG. and MHG. snēwes; spīwen, to spit, pret. spē (OHG. spēo, Goth. spáiw); dīhen, to thrive, pret. dēch (OHG. dēh, Goth. dáih); (OHG. , Goth. wái), woe!; in all other cases ai became ei in both OHG. and MHG., as stein 22 (Goth. stáins), stone, heiȥen (OHG. heiȥan, Goth. háitan), to call; snīden, to cut, pret. sneit (OHG. sneid, Goth. snáiþ). This accounts for the difference between the ei and ē in the preterite singular of strong verbs belonging to the first ablaut-series (§§ 1276).

§ 18. Primitive Germanic au became ō in OHG. before the consonants d, t, ȥ, s, n, r, l, and Germanic h (cp. 23, 1). Before other consonants and finally au became ou in the ninth century. Hence the difference between ō and ou in the preterite singular of strong verbs belonging to the second ablaut-series (§§ 12, 78), as:—

Infinitive bieten, to offer, pret. sing. bōt
sieden, to seethe, „„ sōt
kiesen, to choose, „„ kōs
dieȥen, to roar, „„ dōȥ
vliehen, to flee, „„ vlōch (OHG. flōh);
but biegen, to bend, „„ bouc
klieben, to cleave „„ kloup.


1. Pronunciation of the Consonants.

§ 19. The MHG. consonant-system was represented by the following letters: b, c, ch, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, sch, t, v, w, (x), zȥ.

The letters k, l, m, n, p, t, w, (x) had nearly the same sound-values as in English. The remaining letters require special attention.

When the pronunciation of consonants merely differs in the intensity or force with which they are produced, 23 they are called fortes or lenes according as they are produced with more or less intensity or force. In MHG. the consonants b, d, g were not voiced explosives like English b, d, g, but were voiceless lenes, and only differed from the fortes p, t, k in being produced with less intensity or force, see § 33. A similar difference in pronunciation existed between antevocalic and intervocalic v, s and final f, s, see § 33.

c and k represented the same sound. The latter was generally used at the beginning, and the former at the end of a syllable, as kunst, art; trinken, to drink, senken, to sink (trans.), pret. tranc, sancte.

ch had the same sound as in NHG. nacht, noch, as sprechen, to speak, pret. sprach; hōch, high.

f had a twofold pronunciation in the oldest HG. It was a labiodental when it arose from Germanic f (cp. OHG. fater, English father), and bilabial when it arose from Germanic p (cp. inf. OHG. slāfan, English sleep), but during the OHG. period the bilabial f became labiodental. The two kinds of f did not however completely fall together in pronunciation. f = Germanic f became a lenis initially before and medially between vowels, and was often written v in the former and generally v in the latter position, but remained a fortis—written f—when final. In MHG. it was also often written f initially before l, r, u, as fliehen, to flee, fride, peace, fünf, five, beside vliehen, vride, vünf. On the other hand f = Germanic p (§ 23, 1), which only occurred medially and finally, was a fortis and was always written f (ff), as slāfen, to sleep, pret. slief; tief, deep, schif (gen. schiffes), ship, offen, open. The two f sounds thus fell together when final, but the distinction between the two sounds was still preserved in MHG. in the intervocalic position, as hof, court, schif, ship, but gen. hoves, schiffes.

h before and after consonants was pronounced like ch, 24 as fuhs, fox, naht, night, bevëlhen, to confide. In other cases it had the same sound as the h in English hat.

j had nearly the same sound as the y in English yet, as jār, year, junc, young; blüejen, to blossom.

q occurred only in combination with u as in English, as quëc, quick, alive, quëden, to say.

r was a trilled sound in all positions like Scotch r, as rōt, red, hart, hard, bërn, to bear, vater, father.

s was a lenis medially between vowels and probably also initially before vowels, but a fortis in other positions, as sun, son, wësen, to be, pret. was, bresten, to burst. It may be pronounced like the s in English sit.

sch was like the sh in English ship, as schif, ship, geschëhen, to happen, visch, fish.

v was a voiceless lenis, and may be pronounced like the v in NHG. voll. See f.

w was pronounced like the w in English wet, as wīn, wine, bliuwen, to strike.

z and ȥ were not distinguished in MHG. manuscripts, both being written z. Both z and ȥ (but ȥȥ medially between vowels when the first vowel was short) arose from Germanic t (see § 23). z had the sound-value of ts (= NHG. z): (a) always initially, as zīt, time; (b) medially and finally after consonants (l, m, n, r), as holz (gen. holzes), wood, hërze, heart, smërze, pain, ganz, whole; (c) finally after vowels (= Germanic tt) in those words which change final z to tz when it becomes medial, as schaz (gen. schatzes), OE. sceatt, money, treasure. MHG. intervocalic tz always arose from older tt, as setzen = OE. settan, to set. ȥ was a kind of lisped s and only occurred medially between and finally after vowels, as bīȥen, to bite, ëȥȥen, to eat, haȥ, hatred. It should be noted that good MHG. poets never rhymed pairs of words like was, was, and waȥ, what; missen, to miss, and wiȥȥen, to know.


ph and pf represent the same sound, viz. the pf in NHG. pfund, pound.

§ 20. MHG. has the following double consonants medially between vowels: bb, gg; pp, tt, ck; ff, ss, ȥȥ; mm, nn; ll, rr. They were always pronounced long as in Italian and Swedish, as bit-ter, bitter, ëȥ-ȥen, to eat, küs-sen, to kiss, müg-ge, midge, rin-nen, to run. In NHG. double consonants are never long, they merely indicate that the preceding vowel is short.

§ 21. Phonetic Survey of the MHG. Consonants.

Labial. Dental. Guttural.

Voiceless explosives

fortis p, pp
lenis b, bb
t, tt
k, ck
g, gg
Spirants fortis f, ff
lenis v
s, ss, sch, ȥ, ȥȥ
h, (ch)
Nasals m, mm n, nn n (= ŋ)
Liquids l, ll; r, rr
Semi-vowels w, j (palatal)

To the above must be added the aspirate h and the affricatae (i.e. an explosive + a homorganic spirant) z (i.e. ts) and pf (ph).

2. Consonant Changes.

§ 22. The most characteristic difference between High German and the other West Germanic languages is the shifting which the consonants p, t, k, þ; pp, tt, kk, þþ; b (ƀ), d, g (ʒ); bb, dd, gg underwent partly in the prehistoric and partly in the historic period of Old High German. In the following treatment of what is generally called the High German sound-shifting only such points are considered as are of importance for the purposes of this book. See Old High German Primer, §§ 82-6.


§ 23. The voiceless explosives p, t, k underwent a two-fold treatment according to their position in the word: (1) Medially or finally after vowels; (2) Initially, medially and finally after consonants (l, m, n, r), and when doubled.

Note.p, t, k remained unshifted in the combinations sp, st, sk as also t in the combinations tr, htft.

1. Single p, t, k were shifted to the voiceless double spirants ff, ȥȥ, hh (also written ch) = MHG. ff (f), ȥȥ (ȥ), ch.

p > ff. OE. open, OHG. offan, MHG. offen, open; OE. slǣpan, OHG. slāffan, MHG. slāfen, to sleep; OE. ūp, OHG. MHG. ūfup.

t > ȥȥ. OE. etan, OHG. ëȥȥan, MHG. ëȥȥen, to eat; OE. hātan, OHG. heiȥȥan, MHG. heiȥen, to call; OE. hwæt, OHG. hwaȥ, MHG. waȥ, what. In a few cases the ȥ, ȥȥ became s in MHG. before t or st, as pret. saste from saȥte: setzen, to set; beste, best, leste, last = OHG. beȥȥisto, leȥȥisto.

k > hh. OE. ic, OHG. ih, MHG. ich, I; OE. sprecan (specan), OHG. sprëhhan, MHG. sprëchen, to speak; OE. tācen, OHG. zeihhan, MHG. zeichen, token. This ch must not be confused with the MHG. h, ch which corresponded to Indo-Germanic k (= Germanic h), as ziehen, to draw, lead, pret. zōch, cp. Lat. dūcō, I lead, see § 34.

The double consonants were simplified in OHG. and MHG. according to § 32.

2. p, t initially, medially and finally after consonants (l, m, n, r), and when doubled, were shifted to the affricatae pf (also written ph), tz (generally written zz and z) = MHG. pf (ph), tz (z).

p > pf. OE. pund, OHG. MHG. pfunt, pound; OE. gelimpan, OHG. gilimpfan, MHG. gelimpfen, to be meet; 27 OE. scieppan, OHG. skepfen, MHG. schepfen, to create. The pf became f after l and r already in OHG., as hëlfan, MHG. hëlfen, OE. helpan, to help; wërfan, MHG. wërfen, OE. weorpan, to throw.

t > z. OE. tunge, OHG. zunga, MHG. zunge, tongue; OE. heorte, OHG. hërza, MHG. hërze, heart; OE. sealt, OHG. MHG. salz, salt; OE. sittan, OHG. sizzen, sitzen, MHG. sitzen, to sit; OE. sceatt, OHG. scaz (gen. scazzes, scatzes), MHG. schaz (gen. schatzes), money, treasure.

k, kk (written ck) remained unshifted (except in High Alemanic), as OE. corn, OHG. MHG. korn, corn; OE. cnēo, OHG. kneo, MHG. knie, knee; OE. sincan, OHG. sinkan, MHG. sinken, to sink, pret. sanc; OE. þeccan, OHG. MHG. decken, to cover.

§ 24. þ became d, and þþ became tt, as OE. þorn, OHG. MHG. dorn, thorn; OE. brōþor, OHG. MHG. bruoder, brother. OE. smiþþe, OHG. smitta, MHG. smitte, smithy; OE. moþþe, late MHG. motte, moth.

§ 25. The voiced explosives b, d, g, and the voiced spirants ƀ, ʒ did not undergo the same universal shifting as the voiceless explosives. ƀ, ʒ became b, g. b, g remained, and d became t, as OE. brōþor, OHG. MHG. bruoder, brother; OE. bēodan, OHG. biotan, MHG. bieten, to offer; Goth. giban (= giƀan), OHG. gëban, MHG. gëben, to give. OE. dohtor, OHG. MHG. tohter, daughter; OE. bēodan, OHG. biotan, MHG. bieten, to offer; OE. dēad, OHG. MHG. tōt, dead. OE. gōd, OHG. MHG. guot, good; OE. flēogan, OHG. fliogan, MHG. fliegen, to fly.

§ 26. The double consonants bb, dd, gg = OHG. pp (bb), tt, cc (gg), and MHG. pp (bb), tt, ck (gg), as OE. sibb, OHG. sippa (sibba), MHG. sippe (sibbe), relationship; OE. cribb, OHG. krippa (kribba), MHG. krippe (kribbe), crib. OE. biddan, OHG. bitten, MHG. bitten, 28 later biten, to request; OE. þridda, OHG. dritto, MHG. dritte, later drite, third. OE. brycg, OHG. brucca (brugga), MHG. brücke (brügge), bridge. The fluctuation in the writing of pp and bb, ck and gg is merely orthographical, and does not represent a difference in pronunciation. Both pairs were used to express the lenes medially between vowels. For other examples see § 31.

§ 27. The summary of the consonantal changes in §§ 23-6 may be expressed as follows:—

West Germanic. MHG.
p; t; k; þ = ff (f), pf; ȥȥ (ȥ), z; ch; d.
pp; tt; kk; þþ = pf;  tz (z); ck; tt.
b (ƀ); d; g (ʒ) = b; t; g.
bb; dd; gg = pp (bb); tt; ck (gg).

§ 28. The following sound-changes took place in primitive Germanic:—Every labial + t became ft; every guttural + t became ht; every dental + t became ss, which was simplified to s after long vowels. This explains the frequent interchange in MHG. between pf, b and f; between k, g and h; and between ȥȥ, ȥ and ss, s in forms which are etymologically related.

pf, b—f. schepfen, to create: geschaft, creature; gëben, to give: gift, gift; wëben, to weave: English weft.

k, g—h. würken, to work: pret. worhte; denken, to think: pret. dāhte; mugen (mügen), to be able: pret. mohte; bringen, to bring: pret. brāhte.

ȥȥ, ȥ—ss, s. gieȥen, to pour: güsse, inundation; wiȥȥen, to know: pret. wisse (wiste): wīs, wise; muoȥ, must: pret. muose (muoste); ëȥȥen, to eat: ās, carrion. Preterites like wiste, muoste were formed after the analogy of preterites like worhte, dāhte, where the t was regular.

§ 29. The guttural nasal ŋ (written n) only occurred in 29 the combinations nk (nc) and ng. It disappeared before h (= prim. Germanic χ) in primitive Germanic with lengthening of a preceding short vowel, as vāhen from prim. Germanic *faŋχanan, to seize, catch, beside p.p. gevangen; and similarly hāhen, to hang, p.p. gehangen; pret. brāhte, dāhte, dūhte, beside bringen, to bring, denken, to think, dunken, to seem.

The guttural nasal disappeared in an unstressed syllable when preceded by an n in a stressed syllable in the course of the OHG. and MHG. period, as OHG. honag, MHG. honec, beside OHG. honang, honey; OHG. kunig, MHG. künec, beside OHG. kuning, king; OHG. pfennig, MHG. pfennic, beside OHG. pfenning, MHG. pfenninc, penny. And similarly with dental n, as senede beside senende, longing, yearning.

§ 30. Strong verbs, which have a medial v (f), d, h, s in the present, have respectively b, t, g (ng), r in the second person sing. pret. indicative, the preterite plural indicative, the pret. subjunctive and the past participle. This interchange of consonants is called Verner’s Law, see OHG. Primer, §§ 72, 87:—

Inf. Pret. Pl. P.P.

heven, to raise

huoben gehaben.

mīden, to avoid

miten gemiten.

snīden, to cut

sniten gesniten.

dīhen, to thrive

digen gedigen.

ziehen, to draw

zugen gezogen.

slahen, to strike

sluogen geslagen.

h—ng (§ 29).

hāhen, to hang

hiengen gehangen.

vāhen, to catch

viengen gevangen.

rīsen, to fall

rirn gerirn.

kiesen, to choose

kurn gekorn.

This law has, however, many exceptions in MHG. owing to levelling having taken place with the infinitive, 30 present indicative and preterite singular, as risen, gerisen beside rirn, gerirn.

The same interchange of consonants exists between strong verbs and their corresponding causative weak verbs, as līden, to go: leiten, to lead; hāhen, to hang: hengen, to hang (trans.); ge-nësen, to be saved: nern, to save; and in nouns, &c., as hof (gen. hoves), court: hübesch, courtly; tōt (gen. tōdes), death: tōt (gen. tōtes), dead; swëher, father-in-law: swiger, mother-in-law; hase: English hare.

§ 31. The doubling of consonants took place under certain well-defined rules partly in prim. Germanic and partly in prim. West Germanic, see the Author’s Hist. Germ. Grammar, §§ 202, 213-14. Examples of words which had double consonants in prim. Germanic are: kopf, head; napf (OE. hnæp, gen. hnæppes), basin; boc (OE. bucca), buck, gen. bockes; rinnen, to run; swimmen, to swim; vol (gen. volles), full; vërre, far; gewisser, certain.

The chief cases in which double consonants arose in prim. West Germanic were:—

1. The assimilation of ƀn, ʒn, pn to bb, gg, pp = MHG. pp, ck (gg), pf, as knappe: knabe, boy; rappe: rabe, raven; rocke: rogge, rye; tropfe, drop: triefen, to drip.

2. p, t, k were doubled before a following r or l. The doubling regularly took place in the inflected forms, and was then extended to the uninflected forms by levelling, as apfel (OE. æppel), apple; kupfer (Lat. cuprum), copper; bitter (Goth. báitrs), bitter, see § 23 note; lützel (OS. luttil), little; acker (Goth. akrs), field; wacker (OE. wæccer), watchful. See § 23, 2.

3. All single consonants, except r, were doubled after a short vowel when there was originally a j in the next syllable. The bb, dd, gg; pp, tt, kk, which thus arose, became pp (bb), tt, ck (gg); pf, tz, ck in MHG. (§§ 23, 2, 31 26), as sippe (sibbe), Goth. sibja, relationship; bitten, later biten, Goth. bidjan, to request; tretten (wv.): trëten (sv.), to tread; brücke (brügge), bridge; ecke (egge), edge; mücke (mügge), midge; rücke (rügge), ridge, back. schepfen, Goth. skapjan, to create; hitze, heat: heiȥ, hot; netzen, to wet: naȥ, wet; setzen, Goth. satjan, to set; sitzen, to sit: pret. saȥ, p.p. gesëȥȥen; decken, to cover: dach, cover; lücke, gap: loch, hole. zellen, later zeln, to count: zal, number. vremmen, later vremen (OE. fremman), to perform. henne, hen: hane, cock.

In MHG. the double consonants in verbs were often simplified through the levelling out of forms which regularly had a single consonant, e.g. regular forms were: vremmen, to perform, sing. vremme, vremes(t), vremet, pl. vremmen, vremmet, vremment, pret. vremete, p.p. gevremet, then the stem-form with single m was levelled out into all the forms, and similarly with many other verbs, as denen, to stretch; seln, to hand over; weln, to choose; wenen, to accustom; legen beside lecken (leggen), to lay; and the strong verbs biten, to beg; ligen beside licken (liggen), to lie down.

§ 32. Double consonants were simplified:—

1. When they became final, as boc, buck, kus, kiss, man, man, schif, ship, stum, dumb, vël, hide, beside gen. bockes, kusses, mannes, schiffes, stummes, vëlles; pret. maȥ, ran, traf, beside mëȥȥen, to measure, rinnen, to run, trëffen, to hit.

2. Before other consonants, as pret. dacte (dahte), nante (nande), kuste, beside decken, to cover, nennen, to name, küssen, to kiss.

3. After consonants, as pret. sante (sande) from *santte, wante (wande) from *wantte, beside senden, to send, wenden, to turn.

4. After long vowels and diphthongs, as pret. sing. leite from *leitte, pret. pl. māȥen, trāfen, vielen, beside leiten, 32 to lead, mëȥȥen, to measure, trëffen, to hit, vallen, to fall. This simplification of double consonants took place during the OHG. period, as slāfan, to sleep, heiȥan, to call, loufan, to run, zeichan, token, beside older OHG. slāffan, heiȥȥan, louffan, zeihhan.

§ 33. In MHG. the lenes b, d, g became the fortes p, t, c (k) when they ended a syllable, that is when they came to stand finally, or medially before a voiceless consonant. Traces of this law existed already in OHG. The interchange between the lenes and fortes includes two independent processes, viz. the change of the medial lenes b, d, g to the final fortes p, t, k, and the change of the final f, s to the medial intervocalic lenes v and to what is written s (cp. also NHG. lesen, las). It must be noted that in MHG. the interchanging pairs of consonants were all voiceless and that the difference merely consisted in the intensity or force with which the sounds were produced. This is quite different from NHG. where the interchange is between voiced and voiceless sounds except in the case of f which is voiceless in all positions in native words. Examples are: gëben, to give, gelouben, to believe, wërben, to turn, beside pret. gap, geloupte, warp; gen. lībes, lambes, beside nom. līp, life, lamp, lamb. binden, to bind, wërden, to become, beside pret. bant, wart; gen. kindes, tōdes, beside nom. kint, child, tōt, death. biegen, to bend, singen, to sing, zeigen, to show, beside pret. bouc, sanc, zeicte; gen. tages, bërges, beside nom. tac, day, bërc, mountain. nëve, nephew, beside niftel, niece; gen. hoves, brieves, beside nom. hof, court, brief, letter. kiesen, to choose, lësen, to gather, lœsen, to loose, beside pret. kōs, las, lōste; pl. hiuser, beside sing. hūs, house.

§ 34. Final ch after vowels interchanged with medial h, as schuoch, shoe, gen. schuohes; hōch, high, gen. hōhes; nāch, near, adv. nāhe; pret. geschach, sach, beside geschëhen, to happen, sëhen, to see.


The medial combinations lh, rh were written lch, rch when they came to stand finally, as bevëlhen, to confide, pret. bevalch; gen. schëlhes, twërhes, beside nom. schëlch, twërch, askew, see § 19. h (= ch) and ch often disappeared in unstressed syllables and particles, as ē̆t, only, hīnte, hīnt, to-night, niet, not, dur, through, beside ëht, hīnaht, niht, nieht, durch.

§ 35. Initial j became or was written g before a following i, as gihet, he assures, beside inf. jëhen, pret. jach, and similarly jësen, to ferment, jëten, to weed. In the verba pura forms with and without the intervocalic glide j existed side by side in OHG. and MHG., as blüejen (OHG. bluojen) beside blüen (OHG. bluoen), to bloom; and similarly dræjen, to twist, müejen, to trouble, sæjen, to sow, beside dræn, müen, sæn. In a few words forms with and without intervocalic j (g) existed side by side, as gen. blīges beside nom. blī, lead; eijer, eiger beside eier, eggs; frījen, frīgen beside frīen, to free; meige, meie, May; nerigen, nerjen beside nern, to save, rescue; swerigen, swerjen beside swern, to swear; gen. zwīges, zwīes, nom. zwī, twig; gen. zweiger, zweier, of two.

§ 36. In OHG. w became vocalized to o when it came to stand at the end of a word or syllable, and then generally disappeared after long vowels, but the medial w regularly remained in OHG. and MHG. when it was at the beginning of a syllable, as blā (OHG. blāo, blā), blue, gen. blāwes; snē (OHG. snēo, snē), snow, gen. snēwes; strō (OHG. strao, strō by contraction), straw, gen. strōwes; knie (OHG. kneo), knee, gen. kniewes, OHG. knëwes; schate (OHG. scato), shadow, gen. schat(e)wes; pret. blou, hiu, kou, beside bliuwen, to strike, houwen, to hew, kiuwen, to chew; fal (OHG. falo), fallow, gen. falwes; gar (OHG. garo), ready, gen. garwes; mël (OHG. mëlo), meal, gen. mëlwes; smër (OHG. smëro), 34 fat; pret. smirte, ströute, beside smirwen, to smear, ströuwen, to strew. See § 9, r.

The w element sometimes disappeared in the initial combinations qua-, quā-, quë-, qui-, quī- partly with and partly without influencing the quality of the following vowel, as pret. sing. kam, kom beside quam, he came, pret. pl. kōmen, kāmen beside quāmen; kāle beside quāle, torture; këc beside quec, alive; korder, körder beside quërder, bait; komen, kömen, kumen beside quëmen, to come; pres. sing. kume, küm(e)s(t), kum(e)s(t), küm(e)t, kum(e)t = OHG. quimu, quimis, quimit; kücken beside quicken, to enliven; kīt beside quīt = quidet, he says.

§ 37. Medial -ibe-, -ide-, -ige- were sometimes contracted to ī; and medial -age-, -ege- to ei, as gīst, thou givest, gīt, he gives, beside gibes(t), gibet; quīst, thou sayest, quīt, he says, beside quides(t), quidet; līst, thou liest down, līt, he lies down, beside liges(t), liget. meit beside maget, maid; seist, thou sayest, seit, he says, beside sages(t), saget; leist, thou layest, leit, he lays, beside leges(t), leget; eislīch beside egeslīch, terrible; gein beside gegen, against.

§ 38. Intervocalic h often disappeared when the first vowel was long, and then the two vowels underwent contraction, as hān, to hang, vān, to catch, vlēn, to implore, (adv.), high, beside hāhen, vāhen, vlēhen, hōhe. Other contracted forms will be found in the Glossary.

§ 39. The final r disappeared after long vowels in monosyllables when the next word began with a consonant, but was often restored analogically, as (OHG. dār), there: dārinne, therein; (OHG. wār), where: wārinne, wherein; hie (OHG. hiar): hierunder, hereunder; adv. (OHG. mēr), more; ē (OHG. ēr), formerly; (OHG. sār), at once.


§ 40. Medial t (§ 25) became d after nasals in late OHG. and early MHG., as senden, to send, gen. blindes (nom. blint, blind), pret. nande, he named, rūmde, he left, beside early MHG. senten, blintes, nante, rūmte. It also occasionally became d after l, as halden beside halten, to hold, solde beside solte, pret. of suln, shall.





§ 41. MHG. nouns have two numbers: singular and plural; three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter, as in OHG. and NHG., from which the gender of nouns in MHG. does not materially differ; four cases: nominative, accusative, genitive, and dative. Traces of an old locative occur in what is called the uninflected dative singular of hūs, house, beside hūse, and in proper names like Engellant beside Engellande. The vocative is like the nominative.

In MHG., as in the older periods of the other Germanic languages, nouns are divided into two great classes, according as the stem originally ended in a vowel or a consonant, cp. the similar division of nouns in Latin and Greek. Nouns whose stems originally ended in a vowel belong to the vocalic or so-called strong declension. Those whose stems originally ended in -n belong to the so-called weak or n-declension. All other consonantal stems are generally put together under the general heading, ‘Minor Declensions’. In OHG. nouns whose stems originally ended in a vowel are subdivided into the a-declension including pure a-stems, ja-stems, and wa-stems; the ō-declension including pure ō-stems, jō-stems, and wō-stems; the ī̆-declension, and the u-declension. All the nouns belonging to the u-declension went over into other 37 declensions in MHG. (cp. §§ 43, 44, 49). But as all final vowels either disappeared (some of them already in OHG.) or were weakened to e in MHG. (see §§ 7, 8), it is no longer practicable to retain the OHG. subdivision fully without entering into the oldest and in many cases into the prehistoric period of the language, which would be quite out of place in a MHG. grammar. The old ‘Minor Declensions’ had begun to pass over into the vocalic, especially into the i- and a-, declensions in the oldest OHG. The remnants of the old inflexions preserved in MHG. will be noted in the following paragraphs. The neuter nouns whose stems originally ended in -os, -es (cp. § 47) are in this Primer included in the strong declension.

A. The Vocalic or Strong Declension.

1. Masculine Nouns.

§ 42. First declension.—To this declension belong all masculine nouns which form their plural in -e only. It includes: (a) the old masculine a-stems; (b) the old masculine wa-stems which lost their final -w after long vowels in OHG., as , sea, gen. sēwes, pl. sēwe, and similarly , dwelling, (also neuter), corpse, snē, snow, see § 36; and (c) the old masculine i-stems which could not have umlaut in the plural (§ 44).

Nom. Acc. tac, day kil, quill engel, angel
Gen. tages kil(e)s engel(e)s
Dat. tage kil(e) engel(e)
Nom. Acc. Gen. tage kil(e) engel(e)
Dat. tagen kil(e)n engel(e)n

On the interchange between fortis and lenis, as in tac, day, lop, praise, sant, sand, hof, court, gen. tages, lobes, sandes, hoves, see § 33.

Like tac are also declined the old consonantal stems vīent, enemy, and vriunt, friend, but pl. vriunde beside the old plural vriunt.

Like kil are declined all monosyllabic masculine nouns having a short stem-vowel and ending in -l or -r (§ 9, 1).

Like engel are declined masculine polysyllabic nouns ending in -el, -em, -en, -er, when their stem-syllable is long, as mantel, mantle, ātem, breath, morgen, morning, acker, field. Those in -em, -en generally retain the e in the dative plural. Polysyllabic nouns with short stem-syllables fluctuate between the retention or loss of the e, as gen. sing. vogeles or vogels, dat. sing, and nom. acc. pl. vogele or vogel, and similarly vadem, thread, rëgen, rain, sumer, summer, see § 9, 2.

§ 43. Second declension.—To this declension belong all masculine nouns whose nom. and acc. singular end in -e, which is the only difference between this and the first declension. It includes: (a) the old masculine ja-stems; (b) many old u-stems with short stem-syllable, as fride (OHG. fridu), peace, site (OHG. situ), custom, and similarly huge, thought, mëte, mead, sige beside sic, victory, wite, wood (see § 36); (c) the old short i-stem wine, friend; and (d) the old masculine wa-stem schate (gen. schat(e)wes beside schates), shadow.

Sing. Plur.
Nom. Acc. hirte, shepherd hirte
Gen. hirtes hirte
Dat. hirte hirten

§ 44. Third declension.—To this declension belong all masculine nouns which form their plural in -e and with 39 umlaut of the stem-vowel. It includes: (a) the old masculine i-stems; (b) the old masculine u-stem sun (OHG. sunu, sun), son; and (c) the two old consonant stems fuoȥ, foot, zant (gen. zandes), zan, tooth.

Sing. Plur.
Nom. Acc. gast gast, guest geste gesti
Gen. gastes gastes geste gesteo, -io
Dat. gaste gaste gesten gestim

The singular of nouns of this declension was inflected like the a-stems (§ 42) already in OHG. And owing to the weakening of the case-endings of the plural in passing from OHG. to MHG. (§ 7), the only difference in the two declensions is the presence or absence of umlaut in the plural. The old masculine i-stems which could not have umlaut in the plural accordingly came to be inflected entirely like the old masculine a-stems, as schrit, step, snit, cut, biȥ, bite, pl. schrite, snite, biȥȥe. A further consequence of the singular being inflected alike in both declensions is that the old a-stems began to have umlaut in the plural after the analogy of the i-stems, as gedenke, thoughts, nägele, nails, wägene, wagons, beside gedanke, nagele, wagene.

Nouns ending in the fortis p, t, c, or f (= Germanic f) regularly change the fortis to lenis in the inflected forms, as korp, basket, walt, wood, slac, blow, brief, letter, gen. korbes, waldes, stages, brieves.

§ 45. The old consonant stems vater, father, bruoder, brother, often remain uninflected in the singular, as gen. vater, bruoder beside vaters, bruoders (cp. § 9, 2). In the plural they take umlaut, as veter, brüeder. The old consonant stem man, man, is either declined like tac (§ 42) or remains uninflected throughout, as

Sing. Plur.
Nom. Acc. man manne, man
Gen. mannes, man manne, man
Dat. manne, man mannen, man

The nom. plural man, now written mann, is still preserved in counting, as hundert mann, a hundred men.

2. Neuter Nouns.

§ 46. First Declension.—To this declension belong all neuter nouns which have their nominative case singular and plural alike. It includes three different types of nouns: (a) The old neuter a-stems like wort, word, venster, window. (b) The old neuter ja-stems like künne, race, generation, bette, bed, netze, net. The characteristic of this type of noun is that it has umlaut in all forms of the singular and plural when the stem-vowel is capable of it (cp. § 31, 3). And (c) the old neuter wa-stems (cp. § 36) like knie, knee, gen. kniewes.

Nom. Acc. wort venster künne knie
Gen. wortes vensters künnes kniewes (knies)
Dat. worte venster künne kniewe (knie)
Nom. Acc. wort venster künne knie
Gen. worte venster künne kniewe (knie)
Dat. worten venstern künnen kniewen (knien)

(a) On the interchange between the fortes p, t, c and the lenes b, d, g, as in grap, grave, gëlt, money, dinc, thing, gen. grabes, gëldes, dinges, see § 33.

Like venster are declined the neuter polysyllabic nouns ending in -el, -em, -en, -er, as luoder, bait, wāfen, wāpen, weapon; schapel, garland, gadem, house, wëter, weather. On the endings, see §§ 942.

(b) Like künne is also declined the old neuter u-stem vihe (OHG. fihu), cattle.

(c) Like knie are declined mël, meal, (also masc.), corpse, smër, fat, strō, straw, tou, dew, , woe, gen. mëlwes, rēwes, smërwes, strōwes, touwes, wēwes, see § 36.

§ 47. Second declension.—To this declension belong all neuter nouns which form their plural in -er and by umlaut of the stem-vowel when it is capable of it. This class of nouns corresponds to the Latin neuters in -us, as genus, gen. generis, pl. genera. The -er (OHG. -ir) was originally a stem-forming suffix which came to be regarded as a plural ending. In the oldest period of the language only about half-a-dozen nouns belonged to this class, but during the MHG. period nearly twenty neuter a-stems passed into this declension, and in NHG. the number has increased to about a hundred.

Sing. Plur.
Nom. Acc. lamp lamb, lamb lember lembir
Gen. lambes lambes lember lembiro
Dat. lambe lambe lembern lembirum

On the loss of the e in the gen. and dat. plural, see § 92.

Other examples are: ei (pl. eiger, eijer, eier, § 35), 42 egg, huon, hen, kalp, calf, rat, wheel, rint, bullock, tal, dale.

3. Feminine Nouns.

§ 48. First declension.—To this declension belong all feminine nouns having their nominative case singular and plural alike. It includes: (a) the old feminine ō-stems, as gëbe, gift, sēle, soul, zal, number; (b) the old feminine jō-stems, as küneginne, künegin, künegīn, queen, and similarly vriundinne, friend, gütinne, goddess; (c) the old feminine wō-stems with and without w, as brāwe, brā, brow, pl. brā beside weak pl. brāwen; diuwe, diu, servant; (d) the old feminine abstract nouns in , as vinster (OHG. finstrī), darkness, schœne (OHG. scōnī), beauty; and (e) the old consonant stem, swester, swëster, sister.

Nom. Acc. gëbe zal vinster
Gen. gëbe zal vinster
Dat. gëbe zal vinster
Nom. Acc. gëbe zal vinster
Gen. gëben zaln vinstern
Dat. gëben zaln vinstern

On the endings in nouns declined like zal, number, dol, pain, wal, choice, nar, food, schar, flock, and vinster, see § 9, 1, 2.

The gen. plural had the ending of the weak declension already in the oldest period of the language. Through the nom. singular and the gen. and dat. plural having the same endings as the feminine weak declension (§ 53), ō-stems began in OHG. to be inflected after the analogy 43 of the weak declension, especially in the plural. This process spread considerably in MHG. with concrete nouns, but not often with abstract nouns.

§ 49. Second declension.—To this declension belong all feminine nouns which form their plural in -e and have umlaut in the stem-vowel. It includes: (a) the old feminine i-stems; (b) the old u-stem hant, hand; and (c) several old consonantal stems, see below.

Sing. Plur.
Nom. Acc. anst anst, favour enste ensti

enste or anst

ensti enste ensteo, -io

enste or anst

ensti ensten enstim

In jugent (OHG. jugund, pl. jugundi), youth, gen. dat. jugende beside jugent, pl. jugende, the original -i being in the third syllable did not cause umlaut in the stem-syllable; and similarly tugent, valour.

hant, hand, originally belonged to the u-declension, which explains forms like gen. sing, and plural hande beside hende, dat. pl. handen beside henden. The old gen. plural has been preserved in NHG. allerhand, and the dat. plural in abhanden, beihanden, vorhanden, zuhanden.

Several old consonant stems went over partly or entirely into this declension, viz. maget, meit (§ 37), maid, pl. mägede or meide; kuo, cow, pl. küeje or küewe (OHG. kuoi), , sow, pl. siuwe (OHG. sūi); both these nouns generally remained uninflected in the gen. and dat. singular. naht, night, has gen. and dat. singular naht beside nähte; pl. nom. acc. gen. naht beside nähte, dat. nahten beside nähten, cp. also NHG. weihnachten, MHG. zën wīhen nahten. The MHG. adverbial gen. nahts, dës nahtes 44 was formed after the analogy of dës tages. Like naht were also inflected brust, breast, and burc, citadel.

muoter, mother, and tohter, daughter, remain uninflected in the singular. In the plural they have umlaut: müeter, töhter.

B. The Weak Declension (N-Stems).

§ 50. The weak declension contains a large number of masculine and feminine nouns, but only four neuter nouns, viz. hërze, heart, ōre, ear, ouge, eye, and wange, cheek; these nouns, especially hërze, sometimes form their nom. acc. plural after the analogy of nouns like künne (§ 46). The original case endings of the weak declension had disappeared in the oldest period of the language except in the nom. singular (masc. -o, fem., and neut. -a), the gen. pl. (ōno) and dat. pl. (-ōm). Owing to the weakening of the -o, -a to -e in MHG. the nom. singular became alike in all genders. And similarly the endings -ōno, -ōm and the endings of the other oblique forms were all weakened to -en in MHG. (§ 7), so that the element which originally formed part of the stem came to be regarded as a case ending.

On the loss of the final and medial e in nouns like ar, eagle, bir (fem.), pear, gevangen(e), prisoner, beside the inflected forms arn, birn, gevangen from *gevangen-en through the intermediate stage *gevangenn, see § 9, 12.

§ 51.

1. Masculine Nouns.

Nom. bote boto, messenger
Acc. boten boton, -un
Gen. boten boten, -in
Dat. boten boten, -in
45 Plur.
Nom. Acc. boten boton, -un
Gen. boten botōno
Dat. boten botōm

§ 52.

2. Neuter Nouns.

Nom. Acc. hërze hërza, heart
Gen. hërzen hërzen, -in
Dat. hërzen hërzen, -in
Nom. Acc. hërzen hërzun, -on
Gen. hërzen hërzōno
Dat. hërzen hërzōm

§ 53.

3. Feminine Nouns.

Nom. zunge zunga, tongue
Acc. zungen zungūn
Gen. zungen zungūn
Dat. zungen zungūn
Nom. Acc. zungen zungūn
Gen. zungen zungōno
Dat. zunge zungōm
C. Declension of Proper Names.

§ 54. Names of persons ending in e in the nominative follow the weak declension. Masculine names of persons take -es in the genitive, -e in the dative, and -en in the accusative after the analogy of the strong adjectives. The accusative ending -en was sometimes extended to the 46 dative, and the dative ending -e to the accusative. And sometimes both these cases were without endings. Names of countries ending in -lant often have no ending in the dative, as Engellant beside Engellande, see § 41. Feminine names of persons ending in a consonant take -e in the genitive, dative and accusative, but occasionally remain uninflected throughout.

Nom. Sīfrit Hagene
Gen. Sīfrides Hagenen
Dat. Acc. Sīfrit, Sīfride(n) Hagenen
Nom. Kriemhilt Uote
Gen. Dat. Acc. Kriemhilde, Kriemhilt Uoten


A. The Declension of Adjectives.

1. The Strong Declension.

§ 55. The MHG. adjectives are declined as strong or weak. They have three genders, and the same cases as nouns. The endings of the strong declension are partly nominal and partly pronominal. The nominal endings are: the accusative feminine singular, as blinde like gëbe (§ 48); and the genitive singular masculine and neuter, as blindes like tages, wortes (§§ 43, 46). All the other endings are pronominal. The so-called uninflected form of adjectives in the nom. singular masculine and feminine 47 and the nom. acc. neuter is a remnant of the time when adjectives and nouns were declined alike, see the Author’s Hist. Germ. Grammar, §§ 399-400. The strong declension includes three different types of adjectives, all of which are declined alike: (a) The old a-stems, as blint, infl. form blinter, blind; bar, bare, guot, good, heilec, holy, hol, hollow, michel, great, vinster, dark, and similarly with a very large number of adjectives, including the past participles of strong and weak verbs. (b) The old ja-stems, as lære (OHG. lāri), infl. lærer, empty; dünne, thin, enge, narrow, grüene, green, niuwe, new, reine, pure, schœne, beautiful, senfte, soft, wilde, wild, and many others, including the present participles of strong and weak verbs. The ja-stems only differ from the a-stems in having -e in the uninflected form and umlaut in the stem-syllable when it is capable of it. (c) The old wa-stems, as blā (OHG. blāo, blā), infl. form blāwer, blue; gar (OHG. garo), infl. form garwer (see §§ 9, 1, 36), ready; grā, grey, val, fallow, gël, yellow, kal, bald, &c., all of which have w in the inflected forms.

The adjectival i- and u-stems had come to be declined like the ja-stems in the prehistoric period of the language, but a few remnants of such adjectives have survived in MHG. in forms without the final -e beside those with it, as bereit, bereite, ready, dic, dicke, thick, gāch, gæhe, quick, grīs, grīse, old, grey, hēr, hēre, high, noble, rasch, resche, quick, rīch, rīche, noble, swā, swære, heavy, was, wasse, sharp.

Masc. Neut. Fem.
Nom. blinder, blind blindeȥ blindiu
Acc. blinden blindeȥ blinde
Gen. blindes blindes blinder(e)
Dat. blindem(e) blindem(e) blinder(e)
48 Plur.
Nom. blinde blindiu blinde
Acc. blinde blindiu blinde
Gen. blinder(e) blinder(e) blinder(e)
Dat. blinden blinden blinden

On the loss of the -e in blindem(e), blinder(e), see § 9, 2. Umlaut caused by the -iu occurs in the nom. sing. feminine and nom. acc. pl. neuter of al, all, and ander, other, second, as älliu, ändriu. This rarely happens in other words.

Masc. Neut. Fem.
Nom. micheler, great michel(e)ȥ micheliu
Acc. michel(e)n michel(e)ȥ michel(e)
Gen. michel(e)s michel(e)s michelre, micheler
Dat. michelme, michel(e)m michelme, michel(e)m michelre, micheler
Nom. michel(e) micheliu michel(e)
Acc. michel(e) micheliu michel(e)
Gen. michelre, micheler michelre, micheler michelre, micheler
Dat. michel(e)n michel(e)n michel(e)n

Like michel are inflected monosyllabic adjectives ending in -l, -r with a short stem-vowel, and polysyllabic adjectives ending in -el, -en, -er, as bar, bare, hol, hollow; zwīvel, doubtful, eigen, own, tougen, secret, ander, other, second, bitter, bitter, vinster, dark; ëben, even, übel, evil, bad, &c. See § 9, 1, 2.


2. The Weak Declension.

§ 56. The weak declension of adjectives agrees exactly with that of the nouns.

Masc. Neut. Fem.
Nom. blinde, blind blinde blinde
Acc. blinden blinde blinden
Gen. blinden blinden blinden
Dat. blinden blinden blinden

Plural blinden for all cases and genders.

B. The Comparison Of Adjectives.

§ 57. The comparative was formed by means of the suffix -er(e) = OHG. -iro, -ōro, and the superlative by means of the suffix -est(e) = OHG. -isto, -ōsto. On the loss of the medial or final e in such forms as tiurre, dearer, tiurste; minner, minre, less, minnest, min(ne)ste, see § 9, 3. Most monosyllables have umlaut in the comparative and superlative either exclusively or have mutated beside unmutated forms. The cause of these double forms is in a great measure due to the two OHG. double suffixes: comp. -iro, -ōro and superl. -isto, -ōsto having fallen together in -er(e) and -est(e) in MHG., as elter, older, ermer, poorer, jünger, younger, grœȥer, greater, hœher, higher, beside alter, armer, junger, grōȥer, hōher; superl. eltest, ermest, jüngest, grœȥest, hœhest, beside altest, armest, jungest, grōȥest, hōhest. Adjectives which have umlaut in the positive regularly preserve it in the comparative and superlative.

The comparative is declined weak, but the superlative is declined strong and weak.


§ 58. The following adjectives form their comparative and superlative from a different root than the positive:—

guot, good,

beȥȥer, beȥȥest, beste (§ 23).

übel, bad,

wirser, wirsest, wir(se)ste.

lützel, little,

minner, minre (§ 9, 3), minnest, min(ne)ste.

michel, great,

mērer, mēr(r)e, meiste.

§ 59. The following adjectives are defective:—

ērer, ērre, ërre, former,

ērest, ērste, first.

hinder, hinder, hinderste, hindmost.
ober, upper, oberste, uppermost.

leȥȥeste, leste (§ 23), last.

vorder, former, vorderste, foremost.
C. Formation of Adverbs from Adjectives.

§ 60. 1. By adding -e (= OHG. -o) to the adjective when this does not already end in -e, as ëben, even, hōch, high, lanc, long: adv. ëbene, hōhe, lange; edele (OHG. edili), noble, übel (OHG. ubil), evil: adv. edele (OHG. edilo), übele (OHG. ubilo).

2. Dissyllabic adjectives ending in -e and containing a mutated stem-vowel change it to the corresponding unmutated vowel, when used as adverbs, as schœne (OHG. scōni), beautiful, herte, hard, senfte, soft, süeȥe, sweet, swære, heavy: adv. schōne, harte, sanfte, suoȥe, swāre.

3. By adding -līche or -līchen to the adjective, as ganz, whole, vlīȥec, diligent: adv. ganzlīche(n), vlīȥeclīche(n).

4. The comparative and superlative degrees of adverbs are the same as the corresponding uninflected forms of the adjectives without umlaut:—

Adjective lanc, long lenger lengest.
Adverb lange

(OHG. langōr)

(OHG. langōst).


§ 61. The following are irregular:—

wol, well baȥ, better best(e), best.
wirs, worse

wirsest, wirste, worst.

min, minner, minre, less

minnest, minste, least.

, mēr, mēre, more

meist, meiste, most.

ē, formerly

ēr(e)st, ērste, first.

§ 62.

D. Numerals.

Cardinal. Ordinal.
ein, -er, -eȥ, -iu, one ērste
zwei, two ander
drī, three dritte
vier, four vierde
fünf (finf), five fünfte, finfte
sëhs, six sëhste
siben, seven sibende, -te
ahte, eight ahtede, ahte
niun, nine niunde, -te
zëhen, ten zëhende, -te
einlif (eilif), eleven ei(n)lifte, eilfte
zwelf, twelve zwelfte
drīzëhen, thirteen drīzëhende
vierzëhen, fourteen vierzëhende
fünfzëhen, fifteen fünfzëhende
sëh(s)zëhen, sixteen së(h)szëhende
sibenzëhen, seventeen sibenzëhende
ah(t)zëhen, eighteen ah(t)zëhende
niunzëhen, nineteen niunzëhende
zweinzic (or -zec), twenty zweinzigeste
drīȥic thirty drīȥigeste
vierzic forty vierzigeste
fünfzic fifty fünfzigeste
52 sëhszic sixty sëhszigeste
sibenzic seventy sibenzigeste
ah(t)zic eighty ah(t)zigeste
niunzic ninety niunzigeste
or hundert
hundred zëhenzigeste
or hundertste
zwei hunt
or hundert
two hundred zweihundertste
tūsent thousand tūsenste
zwei tūsent two thousand zweitūsentste

§ 63. Ein follows the strong declension, when used as a numeral. The dat. einme is generally contracted to eime (§ 9, 3). When ein is used in the sense of alone, it follows the weak declension. On the inflexion of ander, second, see § 55. Zwei and drī are declined as follows:—

Masc. Neut. Fem.
Nom. Acc. zwēne zwei zwō, zwuo, zwā
Gen. zwei(g)er (§ 35) zwei(g)er zwei(g)er
Dat. zwein, zweien zwein, zweien zwein, zweien
Nom. Acc. drī, dr[i]e driu drī, drīe
Gen. drī(g)er (§ 35) drī(g)er drī(g)er
Dat. drī̆n, drīen drī̆n, drī̆en drī̆n, drīen

§ 64. The other cardinals up to twelve are sometimes inflected; when such is the case the endings are:—

Masc. and Fem. Neut.
Nom. Acc. -e -iu
Gen. -er -er
Dat. -en -en

hundert and tūsent are neuter nouns.




§ 65.

1. Personal.
Nom. ich, I du, , thou
Acc. mich dich
Gen. mīn dīn
Dat. mir dir
Nom. wir ir
Acc. unsich, uns iuch
Gen. unser iuwer
Dat. uns iu
Masc. Neut. Fem.
Nom. ër, he ëȥ, it, there

si, , siu, sie, she

Acc. in ëȥ

sie, si,

Gen. (ës) ës ir(e)
Dat. im(e) im(e) ir(e)
Nom. Acc. si, , sie (Neut. also siu), they
Gen. ir(e)
Dat. in

Note.—1. The gen. ir is often used as a possessive pronoun. For ëȥ the form sometimes appears.

2. For the acc. pl. unsich the dat. uns is mostly used. iu is often used for iuch, and vice versa. im, ir are more usual than imeire.

3. The unstressed forms of personal pronouns are often 54 attached to other words, as ichȥ, = ich ëȥ; ichne, ine, ichn = ich ne (not); tuostu = tuost du; dune, dun = du ne (not); tuoȥ = tuo ëȥ; eist, ēst = ëȥ ist; deiȥ = daȥ ëȥ; mohter = mohte ër; baten = bat in; wirȥ = wir ëȥ, &c.

§ 66.

2. Reflexive.
Sing. Plur.
Acc. sich sich

sīn (fem. ir)

Dat. im, ir in

§ 67.

3. Possessive.

mīn, my; dīn, thy; sīn, his; ir, her; unser, our; iuwer, your; ir, their.

They are declined like the strong adjective michel, great (§ 55). The dat. sing. forms dīnme, sīnme are generally contracted to dīme, sīme, see § 9, 3.

§ 68.

4. Demonstrative.
Masc. Neut. Fem.
Nom. dër, the daȥ diu
Acc. dën daȥ die
Gen. dës dës dër(e)
Dat. dëm(e) dëm(e) dër(e)
Instr. diu
Masc. Neut. Fem.
Nom. die diu die
Acc. die diu die
Gen. dër(e) dër(e) dër(e)
Dat. dën dën dën

Like dër is also declined jener, that, except that the Nom., Acc. sg. neut. ends in -eȥ. dër, &c., is used both as definite article and relative pronoun.

Note.—1. For the fem. nom. sing. and the neut. nom. acc. pl. diu, the form die was sometimes used; and conversely diu for die in the fem. acc. singular. diu and die were sometimes weakened to de, and to d’ before words beginning with a vowel. daȥ was sometimes weakened to deȥ, and still further to ȥ which was then attached to a preceding word, as lātȥ kind = lāt daȥ kint; anȥ, inȥ = an, in daȥ. dēst, deis, dēs = daȥ ist.

2. The various cases were often fused into one word with prepositions, as anme, ame, am = an dëme; zëme, zëm = ze dëme; ūfme = ūf dëme; zër = ze dër (fem.); übern = über dën; ūfën = ūf dën; zën = ze dën.

Masc. Neut. Fem.

dirre (diser, dise), this

ditze, diz, diȥ

Acc. disen

ditze, diz, diȥ

Gen. dises dises dirre
Dat. disem(e) disem(e) dirre
Nom. dise disiu dise
Acc. dise disiu dise
Gen. dirre dirre dirre
Dat. disen disen disen
5. Relative.

§ 69. A relative pronoun proper did not exist in the oldest periods of the Germanic languages, and accordingly the separate languages expressed it in various ways. In MHG. the following pronouns and adverbial particles were used to express it:—


1. dër, daȥ (also used as a conjunction), diu, also in combination with the particles dar der dā. 2. , alsō (alse, als), as; sam (alsam), as. 3. dā(r), where, dar, thither, whither, darinne, therein, dannen, wherefrom, darumbe, therefore, , when, as. 4. Indefinite relatives, as swër (from sō wër), whoever, swelch, each who, swëder, who of two; swā, swar, wherever, swannen, swanne (swenne), whenever, swie, however, howsoever. 5. The conjunction undeand.

6. Interrogative.

§ 70. The MHG. simple interrogative pronoun has no independent form for the feminine, and is declined in the singular only.

Masc. Fem. Neut.
Nom. wër, who waȥ
Acc. wën waȥ
Gen. wës wës
Dat. wëm(e) wëm(e)
Instr. wiu

In the same manner are declined the compounds:

swër (from sō wër), whoever, etewër, eteswër, anyone, neiȥwër (= ne weiȥ wër, I do not know who), anyone.

wëder, who of two, is declined like a strong adjective; welīch (welch), which, is also declined like a strong adjective, but the nom. singular remains uninflected.

7. Indefinite.

§ 71. ander, other; dechein, dehein, dekein, no, none; dewëder, neither; ein, one, some one: when ein is used with the meaning alone it follows the weak declension; etelīch, etlīch, eteslīch, etslīch, anyone, many a, pl. = some; etewër, eteswër, anyone; etewaȥ, anything; 57 iegelīch, ieslīch, iegeslīch, each; ieman, iemen, someone, somebody; iewëder, ietwëder, each; iewelīch, iewelich, each; iewiht, iht, anything; kein, no; man, one; manec, many a, declined maneger, manegeȥ, manegiu, &c.; nehein, no, none; niht, nothing; solch, such, declined like manec; sum, any one at all, pl. some; sumelīch, sumlīch, many a; swelch, each who; swër, whoever; wëder, which of two; welīch (welch), which, declined like manec.



§ 72. The MHG. verb has the following independent forms:—one voice (active), two numbers, three persons, two tenses (present and preterite), two complete moods (indicative and subjunctive, the latter originally the optative), besides an imperative which is only used in the present tense; two verbal nouns (the present infinitive, and the gerund, generally called the inflected infinitive), a present participle with active meaning, and one verbal adjective (the past participle).

The MHG. verbs are divided into two great classes:—Strong and Weak. The strong verbs form their preterite (originally the perfect) and past participle by means of ablaut (§ 12). The weak verbs form their preterite by the addition of the syllable -te, and their past participle by means of a t-suffix. The strong verbs were originally further sub-divided into reduplicated and non-reduplicated verbs. The reduplication had, however, entirely disappeared in the oldest period of the language. The non-reduplicated verbs are divided into six classes according to the six ablaut-series (§ 12). The originally reduplicated verbs are put together here and called Class VII. Besides 58 these two great classes of strong and weak verbs, there are a few others which will be treated under the general heading Minor Groups.

A. Strong Verbs.

§ 73. We are able to conjugate a MHG. strong verb when we know the four stems, as seen in (1) the infinitive or first pers. sing. of the present indicative, (2) the first or third pers. sing. of the preterite indicative, (3) the first pers. plural of the preterite indicative, (4) the past participle. The pret. subjunctive and the second pers. pret. indicative have the same stem-vowel as the pret. plural indicative.

§ 74. The conjugation of nëmen, OHG. nëman, to take, will serve as a model for all strong verbs.

Indic. Subj.
Sing. 1. nime nimu nëme nëme
2. nimes(t) nimis(t) nëmes(t) nëmēs(t)
3. nimet nimit nëme nëme
Plur. 1. nëmen nëmemēs, -ēm nëmen nëmēm
2. nëmet nëmet nëmet nëmēt
3. nëment nëmant nëmen nëmēn
Imper. Infin.
Sing. 2. nim nim nëmen nëman
Plur. 1. nëmen nëmemēs, -ēm
2. nëmet, (-ent) nëmet
Gen. nëmen(n)es nëmannes
Dat. nëmen(n)e nëmanne
Present Participle.
nëmende nëmanti
Indic. Subj.
Sing. 1. nam nam næme nāmi
2. næme nāmi næmes(t) nāmīst
3. nam nam næme nāmi
Plur. 1. nāmen nāmum næmen nāmīm
2. nāmet nāmut næmet nāmīt
3. nāmen nāmun næmen nāmīn
Past Participle.
genomen ginoman

Note.— The e in the endings is regularly lost according to the rule given in § 9, 1, as sing. stil, stilst, stilt, inf. stëln, to steal; sing. var, verst, vert, inf. varn, to go. It was also frequently lost in the third pers. sing. pres. indicative of other verbs, as vint = vindet, siht = sihet, see § 9, 4 note. The n in the first pers. plural was sometimes dropped when the pronoun came after the verb, as nëme wir = nëmen wir.

The imperative singular sometimes has -e after the analogy of weak verbs (§ 90).

The OHG. forms given above show in what forms umlaut regularly took place, viz. in the second and third pers. singular of the pres. indicative, when possible, in the second pers. singular of the pret. indicative, and in the pret. subjunctive. The second pers. singular of the pret. indicative always has the same stem-vowel as the pret. subjunctive. On the absence of umlaut in the pret. subjunctive of certain types of verbs, see § 10, note. Forms without and with umlaut are found in the second and third pers. singular of the present in verbs belonging to Class VII, as slāfes(t), slāfet beside slæfes(t), slæfet.

Concerning the changes between i, ë; u, o; iu, ie; ei, ē; ou, ō in the various classes of strong verbs, see §§ 14-17.

The Classification of the Strong Verbs.

§ 75. We shall only give in each class a few verbs to illustrate the gradation of vowels and consonant changes. All other verbs occurring in the texts will be found in the Glossary referred to their proper class.

Class I.

§ 76. The verbs of this class belong to the first ablaut-series (§ 12) and therefore have ī in all forms of the present; ei in the first and third pers. sing. of the preterite, but ē before ch (= Germanic h, § 23), and finally (§ 17); and i in the preterite plural and past participle, thus:—

bīten, to wait

beit biten gebiten

swīgen, to be silent

sweic swigen geswigen

trīben, to drive

treip triben getriben

And similarly belīben, to remain, bīȥen, to bite, rīben, to rub, rīten, to ride, schīnen, to shine, schrīben, to write, sīgen, to sink, strīten, to quarrel.

snīden, to cut

sneit sniten gesniten

dīhen, to thrive

dēch digen gedigen

rīsen, to fall

reis rirn (risen) gerirn (gerisen)

And similarly līden, to suffer, mīden, to avoid, nīden, to envy, līhen, to lend, zīhen, to accuse. See § 30.

§ 77. The following two verbs which are also used as weak verbs have mixed forms in the preterite and past participle:—

schrīen, to scream

schrē schriuwen geschriuwen
schrei schrūwen geschrūwen
schrirn geschrirn

spīwen, to vomit

spē spiwen gespiwen
spei spiuwen gespiuwen
spūwen gespūwen
spirn gespirn
Class II.

§ 78. The verbs of this class belong to the second ablaut-series (§ 12) and therefore have ie in the present, but iu in the present singular (§ 16); ou in the first and third pers. sing. of the preterite, but ō before t, ȥ, s and ch (= Germanic h), § 18; u in the pret. plural; and o in the past participle, thus:—

biegen, to bend

biuge bouc bugen gebogen

triefen, to drop

triufe trouf truffen getroffen

bieten, to offer

biute bōt buten geboten

schieȥen, to shoot

schiuȥe schōȥ schuȥȥen geschoȥȥen

And similarly klieben, to cleave, kriechen, to creep, liegen, to lie, riechen, to smell, schieben, to shove, vliegen, to fly; dieȥen, to roar, gieȥen, to pour, vlieȥen, to flow.

sieden, to seethe

siude sōt suten gesoten

ziehen, to draw

ziuhe zōch zugen gezogen

kiesen, to choose

kius kōs kurn gekorn

And similarly vliehen, to flee, niesen, to sneeze, verliesen, to lose, vriesen, to freeze. See § 30.

§ 79. On the stem-vowels in the following verbs, see § 16, note and § 36:—

bliuwen, to strike

bliuwe blou blūwen
bliuwen gebliuwen
blouwen geblouwen

And similarly briuwen, to brew, kiuwen, to chew, riuwen, to pain.

§ 80. To this class also belong the three aorist presents:—

lūchen, to shut

liuche (lūche)

louch luchen gelochen

sūfen, to gulp down

sūfe souf suffen gesoffen

sūgen, to suck

sūge souc sugen gesogen
Class III.

§ 81. The verbs of this class belong to the third ablaut-series (§ 12), and include the strong verbs having a medial nasal or a liquid + consonant. Those with nasal + consonant have i throughout the present tense and u in the past participle; the others have i in the present singular, ë in the plural, and o in the past participle (see §§ 14, 15), thus:—

binden, to bind

binde bant bunden gebunden

rinnen, to run

rinne ran runnen gerunnen

singen, to sing

singe sanc sungen gesungen

And similarly brinnen, to burn, dringen, to press, entrinnen, to escape, gelingen, to succeed, gewinnen, to gain, schrinden, to split, sinken, to sink, sinnen, to reflect, spinnen, to spin, swimmen, to swim, trinken, to drink, vinden (p.p. vunden), to find, winden, to wind. beginnen, to begin, pret. sing. began beside begunde, begonde, pl. begunden, p.p. begunnen.

bërgen, to hide

birge bare burgen geborgen

hëlfen, to help

hilfe half hulfen geholfen

stërben, to die

stirbe starp sturben gestorben

And similarly bevëlhen, to order, emphëlhen, enphëlhen, to recommend, gëlten, to pay, mëlken, to milk, schëlten, to revile, swëllen, to swell, verdërben, to destroy, wërfen, to throw, wërren, to confuse, wërden, to become, pret. pl. wurten, wurden, p.p. worten, (ge)worden, see § 30.

Class IV.

§ 82. The verbs of this class belong to the fourth ablaut-series (§ 12). They include those strong verbs which have a liquid or a nasal before or after the stem-vowel, and a few others, thus:—

ë i a ā o

nëmen, to take

nime nam nāmen genomen

bërn, to bear

bir (§ 9, 1) bar bāren geborn

stëln, to steal

stil (§ 9, 1) stal stālen gestoln

brëchen, to break

briche brach brāchen gebrochen

vëhten, to fight

vihte vaht vāhten gevohten

And similarly schërn, to shear, schrëcken, to frighten, sprëchen, to speak, vlëhten, to plait, zëmen (p.p. also gezëmen), to be befitting, stëchen, to prick, trëffen (p.p. troffen), to hit; dreschen, to thrash, leschen, to be extinguished, see § 11, 1. komen (OHG. quëman), to come, kume, quam, quāmen, komen; on other forms of this verb, see § 36.

Class V.

§ 83. The verbs of this class belong to the fifth ablaut-series (§ 12). They include the strong verbs containing a medial consonant other than a nasal or liquid, thus:—

ë i a ā ë

gëben, to give

gibe gap gāben gegëben

jëhen, to say

gihe (§ 35) jach jāhen gejëhen

sëhen, to see

sihe sach sāhen gesëhen

wëgen, to move

wige wac wāgen gewëgen

And similarly geschëhen, to happen, knëten, to knead, mëȥȥen, to measure, pflëgen, to be accustomed, trëten, to tread, vergëȥȥen, to forget, wëben, to weave.

wësen, to be

wise was wāren gewësen

And similarly genësen (pret. pl. also genāsen), to recover, jësen, to ferment, lësen (pret. pl. also lāsen), to gather, read. See § 30.

ëȥȥen, to eat iȥȥe āȥ() āȥen gëȥȥen (§ 9, 7)
vrëȥȥen, to devour vriȥȥe vrāȥ vrāȥen vrëȥȥen

These verbs had a long vowel in the pret. singular in the oldest period of all the Germanic languages, cp. also Lat. ēdī.

§ 84. To this class also belong the three verbs:—

bit(t)en, to beg

bite bat bāten gebëten

ligen, to lie down

lige lac lāgen gelëgen

sitzen, to sit

sitze saȥ sāȥen gesëȥȥen

bit(t)en, OHG. bitten from *bidjan; ligen, OHG. liggen from *ligjan; sitzen, OHG. sitzen from *sitjan, see §§ 14, 31, 3. The inf. ligen is sometimes contracted to līn, see § 37.

Class VI.

§ 85. The verbs of this class belong to the sixth ablaut-series (§ 12), and accordingly have a in the present; uo in the pret. singular and plural; and a in the past participle. They have umlaut in the second and third pers. singular, as grebes(t), grebet; verst, vert. See § 10.

graben, to dig

gruop gruoben gegraben

tragen, to carry

truoc truogen getragen

maln, to grind

muol muolen gemaln

varn, to go

vuor vuoren gevarn

And similarly laden, to load, nagen, to gnaw, schaffen, to create, spanen, to entice, waschen, to wash, wahsen, to grow, waten, to wade.

slahen, to strike

sluoc sluogen geslagen

twahen, to wash

twuoc twuogen getwagen

See § 30. The pret. sing. sluoc, twuoc for *sluoch, *twuoch were formed after the analogy of the pret. plural.

§ 86. To this class also belong:—


stān, stēn (§ 96), to stand

stuont stuonden gestanden

entseben (older entseven), to perceive

entsuop entsuoben entsaben

gewähenen, to mention

gewuoc gewuogen gewagen

heben (older heven), to raise

huop huoben gehaben

swern (see § 35), to swear

swuor swuoren geswarn

The pret. singular stuont, entsuop, gewuoc, huop for *stuot (cp. Engl. stood), *entsuof, *gewuoch, *huof were formed after the analogy of the pret. plural. On the b, g in the pret. plural, see § 30. The last four verbs in the list originally had a j in the present, which accounts for the umlaut, cp. OHG. heffen, Goth. hafjan, to raise. heben had its b from forms where it was regular.

Class VII.

§ 87. To this class belong the verbs which originally had reduplicated preterites. The present and past participle have the same stem-vowel; and the preterite singular and plural have ie. In OHG. the verbs which had a, ā or ei in the present had ia (older ea, ē) in the preterite; and those which had ou (ō), uo in the present had io (older eo) in the preterite. But in MHG. the ia and io regularly fell together in ie (§ 11, 3), so that all the preterites had ie.

bannen, to banish bien bienen gebannen
halten, to hold hielt hielten gehalten
slāfen, to sleep slief sliefen geslāfen
heiȥen, to call hieȥ hieȥen geheiȥn
loufen, to run lief liefen geloufen
ruofen, to call rief riefen geruofen

And similarly halsen, to embrace, salzen, to salt, spalten, to split, spannen, to span, vallen, to fall, valten, to fold, wallen, to bubble; bāgen, to quarrel, blāsen, to blow, brāten, to roast, lāȥen (see also § 99), to let, leave, rāten, to advise; meiȥen, to cut, scheiden, to separate, sweifen, to rove; bōȥen, to strike, stōȥen, to push, houwen (pret. hiu and hie, pl. hiuwen, hiewen), to hew, wuofen, to bewail.

gān, gēn, to go

gienc (gie) giengen (ge)gangen
hāhen (§ 29)
hān (§ 38)
, to hang hienc (hie) hiengen gehangen
vāhen (§ 29)
vān (§ 38)
, to catch vienc (vie) viengen gevangen

erren, ern, to plough

ier ieren gearn

On the interchange between h and ng, see § 30; erren, ern from older *arjan.

B. Weak Verbs.

§ 88. The OHG. weak verbs were divided into three great classes according as the infinitive ended in -en from older *-jan, -on, or -ēn.

Inflectional tables in this section have been reformatted for greater readability. A representative screen shot of the original format is shown at the end of the text.

The characteristic endings of the three OHG. classes were:—

Class I. Class II. Class III.
Indic. sing. -u -ōn -ēn
-is(t) -ōs(t) -ēs(t)
-it -ōt -ēt
plur. -ēn -ōn -ēn
-et -ōt -ēt
-ent -ōnt -ēnt
Subj. sing. -e -o -e
-ēs(t) -ōs(t) -ēs(t)
-e -o -e
plur. -ēn -ōn -ēn
-ēt -ōt -ēt
-ēn -ōn -ēn
Imper. sing. -i -o -e
plur. -ēn -ōn -ēn
-et -ōt -ēt
67 Preterite.
Class I. Class II. Class III.
Indic. sing. -ta, -ita -ōta -ēta
-tōs(t), -itōs(t) -ōtōs(t) -ētōs(t)
-ta, -ita -ōta -ēta
plur. -tun, -itun -ōtun -ētun
-tut, -itut -ōtut -ētut
-tun, -itun -ōtun -ētun
Subj. sing. -ti, -iti -ōti -ēti
-tīs(t), -itīs(t) -ōtīs(t) -ētīs(t)
-ti, -iti -ōti -ēti
plur. -tīn, -itīn -ōtīn -ētīn
-tīt, -itīt -ōtīt -ētīt
-tīn, -itīn -ōtīn -ētīn
Past Participle.
Uninfl. form -it -ōt -ēt
Infl. -tēr, -itēr -ōtēr -ētēr
-en -ōn -ēn

In OHG. the verbs of Class I were divided into two sub-divisions: (a) polysyllabic verbs and those containing an old long stem-syllable; (b) those which originally had a short stem-syllable (cp. § 31, 3). The former formed their preterite in -ta, and the latter in -ita; and similarly in the inflected form of the past participle. In MHG. all the unaccented vowels i, e, a, o, u, ī, ē, ō regularly fell together in e (§ 7), so that the old distinction between the endings of the three classes of verbs was to a great extent obliterated. The OHG. verbs with a short stem-syllable belonging to Classes II and III came in MHG. to be inflected entirely like sub-division (b) of Class I; and those with a long stem-syllable mostly came to be inflected like sub-division (a) of Class I, see §§ 9, 292.

Owing to all the OHG. unaccented vowels being weakened to e the MHG. endings are:—

Sing. Plur.
Pres. Indic.: -e -en
-es(t) -et
-et -ent
Subj.: -e -en
-es(t) -et
-e -en

Pret. Indic.
and Subj.:

-te, -ete -ten, -eten
-tes(t), -etes(t) -tet, -etet
-te, -ete -ten, -eten
Imper. -en
-e -et
P.P. Uninfl. form -et
Infl. -ter, -eter
Infin. -en.

Final -n in the first pers. sing. of the pres. indicative of the old Classes II and III remained in early MHG., but during the MHG. period the first person was remodelled after the analogy of Class I.

Note.— Old forms with ō̆ (u) for later e occasionally occur in verbs originally belonging to the OHG. Class II; and in like manner ī̆ for e in the pret. subjunctive.

§ 89. The MHG. weak verbs are divided into two classes, according as the preterite is formed in -te or -ete (see however § 40). The inflexion of the present is the same in both classes.

Class I.

§ 90. To this class belong (1) verbs which have old long stem-syllables. Those having a mutated vowel in the present have the corresponding unmutated vowel in the preterite. The i which would have caused umlaut in the preterite disappeared in the prehistoric period of the language. The past participle generally has two forms: one with a mutated vowel, and the other without it, properly from the old inflected form which did not have umlaut. (2) Verbs having a short stem-vowel followed by a single 69 consonant (l, r), and trisyllabic verbs containing an l, n, or r in the second syllable, as zeln, older zellen (§ 31, 3), to count, pret. zelte beside zalte, p.p. gezelt beside gezalt; nern, to rescue, pret. nerte (OHG. nerita), p.p. genert; and similarly doln (OHG. dolōn), to tolerate, seln, to hand over, spiln, to play, weln, to choose; wern, to defend; wandeln (OHG. wantalōn), to change, pret. wandelte; vordern (OHG. fordarōn), to further, pret. vorderte; sëgenen (OHG. sëganōn), to bless, pret. sëgente. See §§ 9, 1, 2, 92.

Indic. Subj. Imper.
Sing. 1. kenne kenne
2. kennes(t) kennes(t) kenne
3. kennet kenne
Plur. 1. kennen kennen kennen
2. kennet kennet kennet, (-ent)
3. kennent kennen
Sing. 1. kante kante
2. kantes(t) kantes(t)
3. kante kante
Plur. 1. kanten kanten
2. kantet kantet
3. kanten kanten

Infin. kennen, to know; Pres. Part. kennende; Past Part. gekennet, gekant.

And similarly with a large number of verbs, as blüemen, to bloom, brennen, to burn, füllen, to fill, grüeȥen, to greet, hœren, to hear, küssen, to kiss, lœsen, to loose, nennen, to name, rennen, to run, senden (pret. sante), to send, senken, to sink, setzen (pret. satte, sazte, p.p. gesat, gesazt, 70 gesetzt), to set, stellen, to place, süeȥen, to sweeten, vellen, to fell, wǣnen, to fancy, wünschen, to wish; gelouben, to believe, kēren, to turn, koufen, to buy, leiten (pret. leite), to lead, ougen, to show, suochen, to seek. The verba pura have double forms in the present and preterite, as dræjen, dræn (§ 35), to turn, pret. drāte beside the new formation dræjete, dræte, and similarly blüejen, to bloom, müejen, to trouble, rüejen, to row, sæjen, to sow, wæjen, to blow. Verbs with medial ck have double preterites, as decken, to cover, pret. dacte beside dahte, and similarly drücken, drucken, to press, smecken, to taste, wecken, to awake. See also § 92.

§ 91. The following are irregular:—

Infin. Pret. P.P.
denken, to think dāhte gedāht (§§ 28, 29)
dunken, dünken, to seem dūhte gedūh (§§ 28, 29)
furhten, fürhten, to fear vorhte gevorht
wurken, würken, to work worhte geworht
bringen, to bring brāhte gebrāht (§§ 28, 29)

Note.— The second pers. sing. of brāhte is bræhte or brāhtes(t), pret. subj. bræhte; and similarly with dāhte; the subj. of dūhte is dūhte or diuhte.

Class II.

§ 92. The verbs belonging to this class form their preterite in -ete and their past participle in -et. In other respects Class II has the same endings as Class I.

It includes: (a) The dissyllabic verbs, having a short stem-vowel followed by a single consonant other than l, r, which in OHG. belonged to Classes II and III, as loben (OHG. lobōn), to praise, pret. lobete, p.p. gelobet; lëben (OHG. lëbēn), to live, pret. lëbete, p.p. gelëbet (see § 88). (b) The dissyllabic verbs of OHG. Class I with a short 71 stem-vowel followed by double consonants other than ll (see § 31, 3), as legen, older leggen (OHG. leggen), to lay, pret. legete or leite (§ 37), p.p. geleget or geleit; denen, older dennen (OHG. dennen), to stretch, pret. denete, p.p. gedenet.

Other examples belonging to Class II are: bëten, to pray, dagen, to be silent, klagen, to complain, klëben, to stick, laden, to invite, namen, to name, sagen, to say, pret. sagete and seite (§ 37).

The verbs with a long stem-syllable, which belonged to OHG. Classes II and III, went over in MHG. either into Class I (1), see § 90, or had preterites in -te beside -ete, as danken, to thank, pret. dancte beside dankete, p.p. gedanct beside gedanket; vrāgen, to ask, pret. vrāgte beside vrāgete, p.p. gevrāgt beside gevrāget, and similarly ahten, to observe, minnen, to love, trahten, to strive, &c., see §§ 9, 2, 90; dienen, to serve, pret. diende (§ 40), &c.

C. Minor Groups.

1. Preterite-Presents.

§ 93. These have strong preterites with a present meaning, from which new weak preterites have been formed. The 2nd pers. sg. ends in -t, and has the same stem-vowel as the 1st and 3rd pers. sg. The following verbs belong to this class:—

weiȥ, I know, 2nd pers. sg. weist; pl. wiȥȥen; inf. wiȥȥen; pres. p. wiȥȥende; pret. wisse, wesse, wiste or weste; p.p. gewist or gewest.

touc, I am of use, inf. and pl. tugen or tügen; pret. tohte; subj. töhte.

gan, I grant, 2nd pers. sg. ganst; inf. and pl. gunnen or günnen; pret. gunde; subj. gunde or günde; p.p. gegunnen, gegunnet, or gegunst.


kan, I know, 2nd pers. sg. kanst; inf. and pl. kunnen or künnen; pret. kunde (konde); subj. kunde or künde.

darf, I need, 2nd pers. sg. darft; pl. durfen or dürfen; pret. dorfte; subj. dörfte; infin. and p.p. only in bedürfen, bedorft.

tar, I dare, venture, 2nd pers. sg. tarst; inf. and pl. turren or türren; pret. torste; subj. törste.

sol, I shall, 2nd pers. sg. solt; inf. and pl. suln or süln; pret. solde or solte.

mac, I can, 2nd pers. sg. maht; pl. magen, megen, mugen, or mügen; pret. mahte or mohte; subj. mehte (mahte) or möhte.

muoȥ, I must, 2nd pers. sg. muost; pl. müeȥen; pret. muoste or muose; subj. müeste or müese.

2. Anomalous Verbs.

§ 94.

(1) tuon, to do.

Indic. Subj.
Sing. tuon (tuo) tuo
tuos(t) tuos(t)
tuot tuo
Plur. tuon tuon
tuot (tuont) tuot
tuont tuon
Infin. tuon
Imper. tuo
Pres. P. tuonde
Sing. tëte (tët) tæte (tëte)
tæte tætes(t)
tëte (tët) tæte
Plur. tāten, (tæten, tëten) tæten
P.P. getān

§ 95.

(2) gān, to go.

Indic. Subj.
Sing. gān, gēn (, gange)
gās(t), gēs(t) gēs(t) (gās(t), ganges(t))
gāt, gēt (, gange)
Plur. gān, gēn gēn (gān, gangen)
Infin. gān, gēn
Imper. ganc, genc, ginc (, )
Pres. P. gānde, gēnde
Sing. gienc or gie
Plur. giengen
P.P. (ge)gangen or gegān

§ 96.

(3) stān, to stand.

Indic. Subj.
Sing. stān, stēn, stā, stē stā, stē (stande), &c.
stās(t), stēs(t)
stāt, stēt
Plur. stān, stēn
Infin. stān, stēn
Imper. stā, stē, stant
P.P. gestanden or gestān

§ 97.

(4) sīn, wësen, to be.

Indic. Subj.
Sing. bin (sīge, sīe)
bis(t) sīs(t) (sīges(t), sīes(t))
ist (sīge, sīe)
Plur. birn, sīn sīn (sīgen, sīen)
birt, sīt sīt (sīget, sīet)
sint sīn (sīgen, sīen)
Infin. sīn, wësen.
Indic. Pret. Sing. was; pl. wāren (§ 30)
Subj.„„ wære; pl. wæren
P.P. gewësen (gewëset)

§ 98.

(5) wellen, to will.

Indic. Subj.
Sing. 1. wil welle
2. wil, wilt welles(t)
3. wil welle
Plur. 1. wellen, weln wellen
2. wellet, welt wellet
3. wellen, weln wellen
Pret. wolte or wolde (§ 40) wolte or wölte
Infin. wellen.

3. Contracted Verbs.

§ 99.

(1) lān = lāȥen, to let, leave.

Sing. Plur.
Pres. lān lān
lās(t), læs(t) lāt
lāt (læt) lān
Pret. lie or lieȥ (§ 87).
Imper. lāt
Infin. lān.
P.P. (ge)lān

(2) hān = haben, to have.

Sing. Plur.
Pres. hān hān
hās(t) hāt
hāt hān
Pret. hāte (hëte, hēt(e), hiet(e), hæte)
Subj. pres. habe
pret. hæte, hete, hēte, hiete, hatte, &c.
Infin. hān.
P.P. gehabet, gehapt, gehāt.

The contracted form hān, &c., is mostly used as an auxiliary.



§ 100. Accusative. The accusative has much the same function as in NHG. It is sometimes used, however, where the dat. or a preposition would be required in NHG.:—ër vuor waȥȥer unde wëge, he went by water and land. The acc. is used after wol, well, when used as an interjection, as wol mich. A double accusative is required not only after lēren, to teach, but also after hëln, verhëln, to conceal, verdagen, verswīgen, to keep secret.

§ 101. Dative. ruofen, to call, and schirmen, to protect, take the dative. The dative is often used adverbially: allenthalben, on all sides, wīlen(t), formerly, &c.

§ 102. Genitive. The genitives hande, slahte, leie = manner are used adverbially: maneger hande, slahte, or leie, in many ways, manifoldly.

The gen. is used in combination with the comparative of adjectives, as dicker eines dūmes, thicker by the breadth of a thumb. Indefinite and interrogative pronouns, used 76 substantively, take the genitive: iemen armer liute, any poor people; niht schœneres, nothing more beautiful; dës enmac niht sīn, that cannot be; waȥ mannes ër wære, what kind of man he was. In the same manner the rel. swaȥ may take the genitive: swaȥ man vant dër armen, whatever poor people one found.

The genitive may be used predicatively:—sīt sī dës goteshūses sint, since they belong to the house of God; diu sorge ist mīn eines niht, I am not the only one who has sorrow.

Impersonal verbs often take the genitive: mich genüeget dës, that is enough for me; mich gezimt dës, that pleases me.

The genitives dës and wës may be used adverbially in the sense of therefore, wherefore; and likewise many nouns: tages, by day; dës sëlben tages, the same day; nahtes, by night.

Interjections usually take the genitive: owē mir mīnes leides! alas! for my grief. vil, much, many; mē(re), more; wēnic, lützel, little; minner, minre, less; and genuoc, enough, used as indeclinable substantives, are followed by the genitive. Cardinal numerals, used substantively, are also followed by the genitive: zweinzec starker man, twenty strong men.


§ 103. The weak and strong forms are used in the same manner as in Mod. HG. dirre, this, is followed by the weak or strong form; aller, all, usually by the strong. The strong or weak form can be used after pronouns, as ich armer or ich arme, I poor ... In the vocative the weak form without the article is used, as guoten liute, (ye) good people. When the same adjective refers to nouns of different gender, it is put in the neuter plural.

ein and the possessive pronouns are followed by the 77 strong form in the Nom. and Acc. singular; by the strong or weak form in the pl. and Gen. and Dative singular.

The possessive pronouns are declined strong.

The uninflected form of the adjective is used side by side with the inflected in the Nom. singular, all genders, and Acc. singular neuter, when the adjective comes before the noun: ein guot man, a good man. When the adjective stands after the noun the uninflected form may be used without reference to number, gender, or case, ein, dehein, and the possessive pronouns have the uninflected form in the Nom. for all genders, and Acc. neuter. The uninflected form of al, all, can be used before all forms of the definite article: in al dër wërlte, in all the world. See § 55.


§ 104. im, ir, pl. in, are used to express the dative of the reflexive pronoun. dër is sometimes used pleonastically, as dër brunne, dër was küele, the spring was cool. man used as an indefinite pronoun can take the definite article along with it.


§ 105. Number. The verb can be used in the singular after a compound subject, as Volkēr und Hagene sō sēre wüeten began, ... began to rage so furiously.

§ 106. Tenses. The fut. simple is expressed by sol, muoȥ, wil and the infin., or simply by the pres., as in OE.: ich sol gān, I shall go; bin ich gnislīch, sō genise ich, if I am curable, I shall recover. For the fut. pf. the pf. is used: daȥ ist schiere getān, that will soon have been done. The pf. is expressed either by the simple pret. or the p.p. and the verbs hān, sīn; in subordinate sentences the pret. often has the meaning of the pluperfect: dō du 78 von ir schiede, zehant sie starp, she died immediately after thou hadst taken leave of her.

The preterite acquires a pluperfect, and the present a future perfect meaning when the prefix ge is added to them: swenne iuwer sun gewahset, when your son (shall have) has grown up; dō ich in gesach, when I had seen him. The present participle with sīn is sometimes used as in English, see ‘Arme Heinrich,’ l. 24.

§ 107. Voice. The present and preterite passive are expressed by wërden and the p.p., and the corresponding perfect tenses by sīn and the p.p.

Pres. ich wirde gelobet.
Pret. ich wart
Perf. ich bin
Plupf. ich was
Inf. gelobet sīn.

§ 108. Negation. Negation in sentences is expressed by ne (en, n) before the verb, and niht after it: ër enist guot, he is not good. niht is frequently omitted, especially after the preterite presents, the verbs wellen, lān, sentences containing negative pronouns or adverbs, and in subordinate sentences.

en without niht is used with the subjunctive in subordinate sentences in the sense of unless, if not, except that, when that, that not, &c.: dën līp wil ich verliesen, si enwërde mīn wīp, I will die if she will not become my wife; ich wæne nieman in dër wërlte lëbe, ërn habe ein leit, I believe no one lives in the world who has not his trouble.

en is further also used in the sense of Latin ‘quin’: ich mac daȥ niht bevarn, mirn wërde mīn ritterschaft benomen, I cannot prevent my knighthood being taken away from me.



Line numbers have been removed from the prose passages. In the verse passages, some unstressed e’s, and a few i’s, were printed with an under-dot: ẹ ị. This usage is not explained. Some under-dots may be flyspecks, and a few umlauts were uncertain.


His name was properly Berthold Lech. He was the most celebrated preacher of the thirteenth century. He died in Regensburg in 1272. The following extract is from a sermon on Matt. v. 8.

‘Sælic sint die armen: wan daȥ himelrīch ist ir,’ etc. Mit disen aht tugenden sint alle die ze himelrīche komen, die dā sint, und mit den selben aht tugenden müeȥent noch alle die dar komen, die iemer mēr dar komen süln. Nū wil ich die siben under wegen lān und wil niuwen von ir einer sagen, wan alse vil guoter dinge an ir ieglīcher ist; und von ir ieglīcher wære gar vil und gar lanc sunderlīchen ze sagenne; und wie manigiu untugent uns an disen ahte tugenden irret, daȥ würde eht von ieglīcher gar lanc ze sagenne. Wan man eȥ alleȥ in einer predigen niht verenden mac, noch in vieren, noch in zehenen, sō wil ich iu hiute niuwen sagen von den, die ein reine herze habent, und von den man hiute dā liset in dem heiligen ewangelio ‘sælic sint, die reines herzen sint: die werdent got sehende.’A Die sint wol von rehte sælic, die dā got sehent. Ein übergülde ist eȥ aller der sælikeit, diu ie wart oder iemer mēr eht werden mac, swer got ansehende eht wirt, alsō süeȥe und alsō wünneclich ist diu gesiht, die man an got siht. Sō wart nie deheiner muoter ir kint nie sō liep, ān unser frouwen, und solte si eȥ drīe tage ane sehen ān underlāȥ, daȥ si anders niht enpflæge, wan eht si ir liebeȥ kint solte an sehen: si æȥe an dem vierden tage vil gerner ein stücke brōtes. Und wolte ich vil gerner, daȥ 80 ich alsō ein guot mensche wære, als daȥ wār ist, daȥ ich iezuo reden wil. Ob daȥ alsō wære, daȥ man zuo einem menschen spræche, der iezuo bī gote ist, ‘du hāst zehen kint ūf ertrīche, und du solt in koufen allen samt, daȥ sie ēre und guot haben unz an ir tōt, dā mit, daȥ du einigen ougenblic von gotes angesiht tuost, niuwen als lange als einȥ sīn hant möht umbe kēren, und sich danne wider zuo gote, und du solt dīn ougen niemer mēr von im kēren’: der mensche entæte sīn niht. Alse wār, herre, dīn wārheit ist, alse wār ist disiu rede, daȥ er disiu zehen kint unze an ir tōt ē nāch dem almuosen lieȥe gēn, ē danne er sich die kleine wīle von gote wolte wenden. In habent die engel wol sehzic hundert jār an gesehen, und sehent in hiute als gerne als des ērsten tages. Und sie sint ouch alle samt sam des ērsten tages, dō sie got an sehende wurden. Dō wart ir deheiner sīt nie eltlīcher danne des ērsten tages, und sint doch sider wol sehzic hundert jār alt. Swelher hundert jār alt würde under uns, der wære den liuten alse smæhe an ze sehenne von ungestaltheit und von dem gebresten, den daȥ alter an im hæte gemaht: sō mālet man die engele—dā sehet ir wol, swā man sie mālt, daȥ man sie eht anders niht enmālt wan als ein kint von fünf jāren, als junclich, oder von sehsen. Wan alle, die got sehent, die werdent niemer eltlīcher, die in in himelrīche sehent in sīnen freuden und in sīnen ēren. Ūf ertrīche sehen wir in alle tage in sīnem gewalte. Dehein irdenischer muot noch irdenisch līp möhte daȥ niht erlīden, daȥ in dehein irdenisch ouge iemer an gesehen möhte in sīnen freuden und in sīnen ēren, als er ze himelrīche ist. Wir sagen iu ettewenne ein glīchnisse, wie schœne got sī. Seht, alleȥ daȥ wir iemer gesagen künnen oder mügen, daȥ ist rehte dem glīche, als obe ein kint uns solte sagen, ob eȥ müglich wære, von aller der wirde und von aller der gezierde, die diu werlt hāt, von der liehten sunnen, von den liehten sternen, von edelre gesteine craft und von ir maniger slahte varwe, von der edelen würze craft und von dem edelen gesmacke, und von der rīchen gezierde, die man ūȥer sīden und ūȥer golde machet in dirre werlte, und von maniger hande 81 süeȥen stimme, die diu werlt hāt, von vögelīn sange und von seitenspil, und von maniger hande bluomen varwe, und von aller der gezierde, die disiu werlt hāt. Alse unmügelich unde alse unkuntlīchen eime kinde dā von ze redenne ist, als unkunt ist ouch uns dā von ze redenne, von der unsegelīchen wünne, diu dā ze himel ist, und von dem wünneclīchen antlütze des lebendigen gotes. Wan alliu diu freude, diu dā ze himele ist, der ist niht wan von dem schīne, der von unsers herren antlütze gēt. Und rehte als alle sternen ir lieht von der sunnen nement, alsō habent alle heiligen ir gezierde und ir schōnheit von gote, und engele und alleȥ himelische her. Reht als alle die sternen des himeles, der māne und die planēten, grōȥ und kleine, die habent alle samt ir lieht von der sunnen, diu uns dā liuhtet: und alsō hāt alleȥ himelischeȥ her, engel und heiligen, die hœhsten und die minnesten, die habent alle samt ir freude und ir wünne und ir gezierde und die ēre und die wirde und ouch die schœnde, daȥ habent sie alle samt von der angesihte gotes, daȥ sie got an sehent. Die engele, die dā unser hüetent, die sehent in ze aller zīt an, als ob sie bī im wæren. Wan alliu diu freude, diu in himelrīche ist, diu diuhte sie ze nihte, solten sie got niht an sehen. Und dā von ‘sælic sint, die reines herzen sint; wan sie werdent got sehende.’ Nu sehent, wie sælic die sint, die dā reineȥ herze tragent. Ir, junge werlt, die noch unbewollen sint mit sünden, behaltent iuwer herze vor allen tœtlīchen sünden, sō werdent ir got sehende in solīchen freuden und in sō grōȥen ēren, die ouge nie gesach oder ōre nie gehōrte, alse sant Paulus dā sprichet; und alse sant Johannes sprichet: ‘wær eȥ mügelich, daȥ man eȥ alleȥ samt geschrīben möhte, sō möhte diu werlt diu buoch in ir niht behalten, dā eȥ an gestüende, daȥ ich gesach. Und alleȥ, daȥ ich gesach, daȥ was niht wan got alleine.’ Und dar umbe möhten wir doch gerne ze dem himelrīche komen und drumbe arbeiten. Ob uns niht diu minne und diu liebe dar twünge, der wir gote schuldic sīn, seht, sō möhten wir dar umbe dar komen, durch daȥ wunder, daȥ dā ist. Eȥ ist maniger vor mir: der im von sō getāner freude seite, daȥ si jenhalp meres wære, er füere gar gerinclīchen 82 dar von hinnen über mer, niuwen daȥ erȥ gesæhe. Sō möhtent ir hundertstunt gerner dar umb arbeiten, daȥ irȥ iemer mēre ēwiclīchen nieȥen soltet. Die vil wünneclīchen angesiht des almehtigen gotes und der himelischen küniginne ze der zeswen sīner sīten in guldīner wæte, die möhtet ir gerne an sehen. Wan würde iu einiger anblic, sō wære in alliu diu freude und diu ēre und aller der wollust, den diu werlt ie gewan, daȥ wær iu hinne für als widerzæme und ouch alse unmære, reht als sant Paulus dā sprach. Nu hœret wie er sprach; er sprach: ‘alliu diu ēre und diu freude und daȥ gemach, diu disiu werlt ie gewan von keisern und von künigen, wider der freude, diu in himelrīch ist; als widerzæme einem wære ein diep an einem galgen, als kurz einem diu wīle dā mite wære, daȥ er einen erhangen man triuten solte, wider aller der freude, die diu werlt hāt: alse widerzæme ist mir diu freude aller der werlte wider der ēwigen freude.’ Ei wol iuch wart, daȥ iuch iuwer muoter ie getruoc, die sō getāne freude süln besitzen. Der ist, ob got wil, vil maniger vor mīnen ougen. Ouch ist maniger, der vil kleine freude dar für nimt hie ūf ertrīche, und daȥ dem guoten sante Paulen gar versmāhte, des wirt im der tūsentste teil niht. Und die habent übel kouft, die sō übergrōȥe freude gebent umb ein sō kurzeȥ freudelīn in dirre werlte. Die habent übel gevarn; wan sie habent weder hie noch dort niht. Als ich iezuo sprach, rehte in glīcher wīse, rehte alse alle sternen des himeles ir lieht von der sunnen habent, alsō hāt alleȥ himelisch her ir lieht von dem wāren sunnen, sīt danne unser herre der wāre sunne und daȥ wāre lieht ist, alse der guote sant Johannes dā sprichet. Der hei et in daȥ wāre lieht; als ouch daȥ vil wār ist: wan er ist daȥ wāre lieht, daȥ niemer mēr verlischet. Und alle, die von sīme gotvarwen liehte enzündet werdent, die erleschent ouch niemer mēre von der schōnheit, die sie von dem wāren sunnen hānt. Und als vil diu sunne liehter und gelpfer ist, danne wir dā sehen, rehte als vil diu liehtes und glastes über alle sterne hāt, die an dem himel stēnt: als vil hāt der wāre sunne in himelrīche schīnes und glastes mēr über alle engele und ist geschœnet 83 und gewirdet an allen ēren, alse billich ist. Und dā von sint sie sælic, die ein reineȥ herze habent; wan si werdent got sehende


This work was compiled by David von Augsburg, about 1280 A.D.

Hie hebet sich an daȥ Lantrehtbuoch.

Herre got, himelischer vater, durch dīne milte güete geschüefe du den menschen in drīvaltiger werdikeit. Diu ērste, daȥ er nāch dir gebildet ist. Daȥ ist ouch ein alsō hōhiu werdikeit, der dir alleȥ menschlich künne sunderlīchen immer danken sol. Wan des haben wir gar michel reht, vil lieber herre, himelischer vater, sīt du uns zuo dīner hōhen gotheit alsō werdiclīchen geedelt hāst. Diu ander werdikeit, dā du, herre got, almähtic schepfer, den menschen zuo geschaffen hāst, daȥ ist diu, daȥ du alle dise werelt, die sunnen unde den mānen, die sterne unde diu vier element, viur, waȥȥer, luft unde die erden, die vogel in den lüften, die vische in dem wāge, diu tier in dem walde, die würme in der erden, golt unde edel gesteine, der edeln würze süeȥen smac, der bluomen liehte varwe, der boume fruht unde ēt alle crēatūre: daȥ hāst du, herre, alleȥ dem menschen ze nutze unde ze dienste geschaffen durch die triuwe unde durch die minne, die du ze dem menschen hetest. Diu dritte werdikeit, dā du, herre, den menschen mit gewirdet unde geedelt hāst, daȥ ist diu, daȥ der mensche die wirde unde die ēre, die vreude unde die wünne immer mit dir ēwiclīchen nieȥen sol. Der werelde dienst unde nuz hāst du, herre, dem menschen umbe sust gegeben ze einer manunge unde ze einem vorbilde. Sīt des sō vil ist, des du, herre, dem menschen umbe sust gegeben hāst, dā bī sol der mensche nu trahten, sō mege des wol gar übermæȥiclīchen vil sīn, des du dem menschen umbe sīnen 84 dienst geben wilt. Unde dar umbe sol ein iegelīch mensche got dienen mit ganzen triuwen; wan der lōn ist alsō übermæȥiclīchen grōȥ, daȥ in herzen sin nie betrahten möhte noch menschen zunge nie gesprechen möhte, noch ougen sehen künde in nie beliuhten, noch ōre nie gehœren. Daȥ wir nu got der hōhen werdikeit gedanken unde den grōȥen lōn verdienen, des helfe uns der almähtige got. āmen.

Sīt uns got in sō hōher werdikeit geschaffen hāt, sō wil er ouch, daȥ wir werdeȥ leben haben, unde daȥ wir einander wirde unde ēre erbieten, triuwe unde wārheit, niht haȥ unde nīt einander tragen. Wir sullen mit fride unde mit suone under einander leben. Fridlich leben hāt unser herre got liep. Wan er kom von himelrīche ūf erderīche durch anders niht wan durch den rehten fride, daȥ er uns einen rehten fride schüefe vor der ēwigen marter, ob wir selben wellen. Unde dā von sungen die engel ob der krippen: ‘Gloria in excelsis deo et in terra pax hominibus bonae voluntatis’—‘Gots ēre in dem himel unde guot fride ūf der erden allen den, die guoten willen habent ūf erderīche!’ Dō unser herre got hie ūf erderīche gie, sō was daȥ ie sīn ellich wort: ‘Pax vobis!’ daȥ sprichet: ‘der fride sī mit iu!’ unde alsō sprach er alle zīt zuo sīnen jungern unde zuo andern liuten. Unde dā bī suln wir merken, wie rehte liep der almehtige got den rehten vride hāt. Wan dō er von erderīche wider ūf zuo himel fuor, dō sprach er aber zuo sīnen jungern: ‘der vride sī mit iu!’ unde enphalh dem guoten Sant Pēter, daȥ er phleger wære über den rehten fride, unde gap im den gewalt, daȥ er den himel ūf slüȥȥe allen den, die den fride hielten, unde swer den fride bræche, daȥ er dem den himel vor beslüȥȥe. Daȥ ist alsō gesprochen: ēt alle, die diu gebot unsers herren zebrechent, die habent ouch den rehten fride gebrochen. Daȥ ist ouch von gote reht, swer diu gebot unsers herren zebrichet, daȥ man dem den himel vor besliuȥet, sīt uns got nu geholfen hāt, daȥ wir mit rehtem leben unde mit fridlīchem leben daȥ himelrīch verdienen mügen. Wan daȥ was niht vor gotes geburt, swie wol der mensche tæt in aller der werelde, sō mohte er doch 85 ze dem himelrīch niht komen. Got geschuof des ērsten himel unde erden, dar nāch den menschen unde sazte in in daȥ paradys. Der zebrach die gehōrsam uns allen ze schaden; dar umbe gienge wir irre sam diu hirtelōsen schāf, daȥ wir in daȥ himelrīch niht mohten, unz an die zīt, daȥ uns got den wec dar wīste mit sīner marter, unde dar umbe solde wir got immer loben unde ēren von allem unserm herzen unde von aller unserre sēle unde von aller unserre maht, daȥ wir nu sō wol ze den ēwigen freuden kæmen, ob wir wolden; daȥ hie vor manigen heiligen patriarken unde prophēten tiure was. Diu genāde unde diu sælikeit ist uns kristen liuten nu widervaren, daȥ wir nu wol daȥ himelrīch mugen verdienen. Unde swer des niht entuot unde diu gebot unsers herren zebrichet, daȥ richet er billīchen an im.

Von vrīen liuten.

Wir zelen drīer hande vrīen. Der heiȥent eine sempervrīen: daȥ sint die vrīen herren, als fürsten unde die ander frīen ze man hānt. Sō heiȥent die andern miter vrīen: daȥ sint die, die der hōhen vrīen man sint. Die driten vrīen daȥ sint die vrīen lantsæȥen, die gebūren, die dā vrī sint. Der hāt ieglīcher sīn sunder reht, als wir her nāch wol bescheiden.

Von tiutscher liute ēren.

Die tiutschen kiesent den künic: daȥ erwarb in der künic Karl. Swenne er gewīhet wirt unt ūf den stuol ze Ache gesetzet wirt mit der willen, die in erwelt hānt, sō hāt er küniclīchen gewalt unde namen.—Den künic kiuset man ze rihter umbe eigen unde umbe lēhen unde über ieglīches menschen līp unde umbe alleȥ, daȥ vür in ze klagen kumet. Der keiser mac in allen landen niht gesīn, unde mac alleȥ ungerihte niht verrihten. Dā von līhet er den fürsten unde andern herren wereltlīch gerihte. An die vierten hant mac dehein gerihte nimmer komen mit rehte, dā man umbe menschenbluot rihten sol ode umbe alle vrevel.



He was born somewhere between 1160-1170, in the neighbourhood of Rottenburg in Swabia, and died about 1220.

The following extract is taken from Paul’s edition: Der Arme Heinrich, Halle, 1882.

Ein ritter sō gelēret was

daȥ er an den buochen las

swaȥ er dar an geschriben vant.

der was Hartman genant,


dienstman was er ze Ouwe.

er nam im mange schouwe

an mislīchen buochen:

dar an begunde er suochen

ob er iht des funde


dā mite er swære stunde

möhte senfter machen,

und von sō gewanten sachen

daȥ gotes ēren töhte

und dā mite er sich möhte


gelieben den liuten.

nu beginnet er in diuten

ein rede die er geschriben vant.

dar umbe hāt er sich genant,

daȥ er sīner arbeit


die er dar an hāt geleit

iht āne lōn belībe,

und swer nāch sīnem lībe

sī hœre sagen oder lese,

daȥ er im bittende wese


der sēle heiles hin ze gote.

man seit, er sī sīn selbes bote


unde erlœse sich dā mite,

swer über des andern schulde bite.

Er las ditze mære,


wie ein herre wære

ze Swāben geseȥȥen:

an dem enwas vergeȥȥen

deheiner der tugende

die ein ritter in sīner jugende


ze vollem lobe haben sol.

man sprach dō niemen alsō wol

in allen den landen.

er hete ze sīnen handen

geburt und dar zuo rīcheit:


ouch was sīn tugent vil breit.

swie ganz sīn habe wære,

sīn geburt unwandelbære

und wol den fürsten gelīch,

doch was er unnāch alsō rīch


der gebürte und des guotes

sō der ēren und des muotes.

Sīn name der was erkennelich,

und hieȥ der herre Heinrich,

und was von Ouwe geborn.


sīn herze hāte versworn

valsch und alle törperheit,

und behielt ouch vaste den eit

stæte unz an sīn ende.

ān alle missewende


stuont sī ēre und sīn leben.

im was der rehte wunsch gegeben

ze werltlīchen ēren:

die kunde er wol gemēren

mit aller hande reiner tugent.


er was ein bluome der jugent,

der werlte fröude ein spiegelglas.


stæter triuwe ein adamas,

ein ganziu krōne der zuht.

er was der nōthaften fluht,


ein schilt sīner māge,

der milte ein glīchiu wāge:

im enwart über noch gebrast.

er truoc den arbeitsamen last

der ēren über rücke.


er was des rātes brücke,

und sanc vil wol von minnen.

alsus kund er gewinnen

der werlte lop unde prīs.

er was hübesch und dar zuo wīs.


Dō der herre Heinrich

alsō geniete sich

ēren unde guotes

und frœlīches muotes

und werltlīcher wünne


(er was für al sīn künne

geprīset unde geēret),

sīn hōher muot wart verkēret

in ein leben gar geneiget.

an im wart erzeiget,


also ouch an Absolōne,

daȥ diu üppige krōne

werltlīcher süeȥe

vellet under füeȥe

ab ir besten werdekeit,


als uns diu schrift hāt geseit.

eȥ spricht an einer stete dā,

‘mēdiā vītā

in morte sumus’:

daȥ bediutet sich alsus,


daȥ wir in dem tōde sweben

sō wir aller beste wænen leben.


Dirre werlte veste,

ir stæte, unde ir beste

unde ir grœste magenkraft,


diu stāt āne meisterschaft.

des muge wir an der kerzen sehen

ein wāreȥ bilde geschehen,

daȥ sī zeiner aschen wirt

enmitten dō sī lieht birt.


wir sīn von brœden sachen.

sehent wie unser lachen

mit weinen erlischet.

unser süeȥe ist vermischet

mit bitterre gallen.


unser bluome der muoȥ vallen

so er allergrüenest wænet sīn.

an hern Heinrīche wart wol schīn,

der in dem hœhsten werde

lebet ūf dirre erde,


derst der versmæhete vor gote.

er viel von sīme gebote

ab sīner besten werdekeit

in ein versmæhelīcheȥ leit:

in ergreif diu miselsuht.


dō man die swæren gotes zuht

gesach an sīnem lībe,

manne unde wībe

wart er dō widerzæme.

nū sehent wie genæme


er ē der werlte wære,

und wart nū alse unmære

daȥ in niemen gerne an sach:

alse ouch Jōbe geschach,

dem edeln und dem rīchen,


der ouch vil jæmerlīchen

dem miste wart ze teile


mitten in sīme heile.

Und dō der arme Heinrich

alrēst verstuont sich


daȥ er der werlte widerstuont,

als alle sīne gelīchen tuont,

dō schiet in sīn bitter leit

von Jōbes gedultikeit.

wan eȥ leit Jōb der guote


mit gedultigem muote,

do eȥ ime ze līdenne geschach,

durch der sēle gemach.

den siechtuom und die smācheit

die er von der werlte leit,


des lobet er got und fröute sich.

dō tet der arme Heinrich

leider niender alsō:

wan er was trūrec unde unfrō.

sīn swebendeȥ herze daȥ verswanc,


sīn swimmendiu fröude ertranc,

sīn hōchvart muoste vallen,

sīn honic wart ze gallen,

ein swinde vinster donreslac

zerbrach im sīnen mitten tac,


ein trüebeȥ wolken unde dic

bedaht’ im sīner sunnen blic.

er sente sich vil sēre

daȥ er sō manege ēre

hinder im müeste lāȥen.


verfluochet und verwāȥen

wart vil ofte der tac

dā sīn geburt ane lac.

Ein wēnic fröuwet er sich doch

von eime trōste dannoch:


wan im wart dicke geseit

daȥ disiu selbe siecheit


wære vil mislich

und etelīchiu gnislich.

des wart vil maneger slahte


sīn gedinge und sīn ahte.

er gedāhte daȥ er wære

vil līhte genisbære,

und fuor alsō drāte

nāch der arzāte rāte


gegen Munpasiliere.

dā vant er vil schiere

niht wan den untrōst

daȥ er niemer würde erlōst.

Daȥ hōrte er vil ungerne,


und fuor gegen Sālerne

und suochte ouch dā durch genist

der wīsen arzāte list.

den besten meister er dā vant.

der seite ime zehant


ein seltsæne mære,

daȥ er genislich wære

und wære doch iemer ungenesen.

dō sprach er ‘wie mac daȥ wesen?

diu rede ist harte unmügelich.


bin ich gnislich, sō genise ich:

und swaȥ mir für wirt geleit

von guote oder von arbeit,

daȥ trūwe ich vollebringen.’

‘nū lāt daȥ gedingen’


sprach der meister aber dō:

‘iuwẹrre sühte ist alsō

(waȥ frumet daȥ ichȥ iu kunt tuo?):

dā hœret arzenīe zuo:

des wæret ir genislīch.


nu enist ab nieman sō rīch

noch von sō starken sinnen


der sī müge gewinnen.

des sint ir iemer ungenesen,

got enwellẹ der arzāt wesen.’


Dō sprach der arme Heinrich

‘war umbe untrœstent ir mich?

jā hān ich guotes wol die kraft:

ir enwellent iuwer meisterschaft

und iuwer reht ouch brechen


und dar zuo versprechen

beidiu mīn silber und mīn golt,

ich mache iuch mir alsō holt

daȥ ir mich harte gerne ernert.’

‘mir wærẹ der wille unrewert’


sprach der meister aber dō:

‘und wærẹ der arzenīe alsō

daȥ man sī veile funde

oder daȥ man sī kunde

mit deheinen dingẹn erwerben,


ich enlieȥe iuch niht verderben.

nu enmac des leider niht sīn:

dā von muoȥ iu diu helfe mīn

durch alle nōt sīn versaget.

ir müesent haben eine maget


diu vollen ērbære

und ouch des willen wære

daȥ sī den tōt durch iuch lite.

nu enist eȥ niht der liute site

daȥ eȥ iemen gerne tuo.


sō hœrt ouch anders niht dar zuo

niwan der megede herzen bluot:

daȥ wærẹ für iuwer suht guot.’

Nu erkantẹ der arme Heinrich

daȥ daȥ wære unmügelich


daȥ iemen den erwürbe

der gerne für in stürbe.


alsus was im der trōst benomen

ūf den er dar was komen,

und dar nāch für die selben frist


hāt er ze sīner genist

dehein gedinge mēre.

des wart sīn herzesēre

alsō kreftic unde grōȥ

daȥ in des aller meist verdrōȥ,


ob er langer solte leben.

nū fuor er heim und begunde geben

sīn erbe und ouch sīn varnde guot,

als in dō sīn selbes muot

und wīser rāt lērte,


da erȥ aller bestẹ bekērte.

er begundẹ bescheidenlīchen

sīn armen friunde rīchen

und trōste ouch frömde armen,

daȥ sich got erbarmen


geruochte über der sēle heil:

gotes hiusern viel daȥ ander teil.

alsus sō tet er sich abe

bescheidenlīchen sīner habe

unz an ein geriute:


dar flōch er die liute.

disiu jæmerlīchẹ geschiht

diu was sīn eines klage niht:

in klageten elliu diu lant

dā er inne was erkant,


und ouch von vrömden landen

die in nāch sage erkanden.

Der ē ditz geriute

und der eȥ dannoch biute,

daȥ was ein frīer būman


der vil selten ie gewan

dehein grōȥ ungemach,


daȥ andẹrn gebūren doch geschach,

die wirs geherret wāren,

und sī die niht verbāren


beidiu mit stiure und mit bete.

swaȥ dirrẹ gebūre gerne tete,

des dūhte sīnen herren gnuoc:

dar zuo er in übertruoc

daȥ er dehein arbeit


von frömdem gewalte leit.

des was deheiner sīn gelīch

in dem lande alsō rīch.

zuo deme zōch sich

sīn herrẹ, der arme Heinrich.


swaȥ er in het ē gespart,

wie wol daȥ nū gedienet wart

und wie schōne er sīn genōȥ!

wan in vil lützel des verdrōȥ

swaȥ im geschach durch in.


er hete die triuwe und ouch den sin

daȥ er vil willeclīche leit

den kumber und die arbeit

diu ime ze līdenne geschach.

er schuof ime rīch gemach.


Got hete dem meiger gegeben

nāch sīner ahte ein reineȥ leben.

er hete ein wol erbeiten līp

und ein wol werbendeȥ wīp,

dar zuo het er schœniu kint,


diu gar des mannes fröude sint,

unde hete, sō man saget,

undẹr den kinden eine maget,

ein kint von ahte jāren:

daȥ kunde wol gebāren


sō rehte güetlīchen:

sī wolte nie entwīchen


von ir herren einen fuoȥ:

umb sīne hulde und sīnen gruoȥ

sō diente si ime alle wege


mit ir güetlīchen pflege.

sī was ouch sō genæme

daȥ sī wol gezæme

ze kinde deme rīche

an ir wætlīche.


Die andern heten den sin

daȥ sī ze rehter māȥe in

wol gemīden kunden:

sō flōch sī zallen stunden

zuo ime und niender anders war.


sī was sīn kurzewīle gar.

sī hete gar ir gemüete

mit reiner kindes güete

an ir herren gewant,

daȥ man sī zallen zīten vant


undẹr ir herren fuoȥe.

mit süeȥer unmuoȥe

wonte sī ir herren bī.

dar zuo sō liebte er ouch sī

swā mite sō er mohte,


und daȥ der meide tohte

zuo ir kintlīchen spil,

des gab der herre ir vil.

ouch half in sēre daȥ diu kint

sō līhte ze gewenenne sint.


er gewan ir swaȥ er veile vant,

spiegel unde hārbant,

gürtel unde vingerlīn

und swaȥ kinden liep solte sīn.

mit dienste brāhte er s’ ūf die vart


daȥ sī im alsō heimlich wart

daȥ er sī sīn gemahele hieȥ.


diu guote maget in lieȥ

belīben selten eine:

er dūhte sī vil reine.


swie starke ir daȥ geriete

diu kindische miete,

iedoch geliebte irȥ aller meist

von gotes gebe ein süeȥer geist.

Ir dienst war sō güetlich.


dō dō der arme Heinrich

driu jār dā getwelte

unde im got gequelte

mit grōȥem jāmer den līp,

nū saȥ der meier und sīn wīp


unde ir tohter, diu maget

von der ich iu ē hān gesaget,

bī im in ir unmüeȥekeit

und begunden klagen ir herren leit.

diu klage tet in michel nōt:


wan sī vorhten daȥ sīn tot

sī sēre solte letzen

und vil gar entsetzen

ēren unde guotes

und daȥ herters muotes


würde ein ander herre.

si gedāhten alsō verre

unz dirre selbe būman

alsus frāgen began.

Er sprach ‘lieber herre mīn,


möht eȥ mit iuwern hulden sīn,

ich frāgte vil gerne,

sō vil ze Sālerne

von arzenīen meister ist,

wie kumet daȥ ir deheines list


ze iuwerme ungesunde

niht gerāten kunde?


herre, des wundert mich.’

dō holtẹ der arme Heinrich

tiefen sūft von herzen


mit bitterlīchem smerzen:

mit solher riuwe er dō sprach

daȥ ime der sūft daȥ wort zerbrach.

‘Ich hān disen schemelīchen spot

vil wol gedienet umbe got.


wan dū sæhe wol hie vor

daȥ hōh offen stuont mīn tor

nāch werltlīcher wünne

und daȥ niemen in sīnem künne

sīnen willen baȥ hete dan ich:


und was daȥ doch unmügelich,

wan ich enhete niht gar.

dō nam ich sīn vil kleine war

der mir daȥ selbe wunschleben

von sīnen gnāden hete gegeben.


daȥ herze mir dō alsō stuont

als alle werlttōren tuont,

den daȥ saget ir muot

daȥ sī ēre unde guot

āne got mügen hān.


sus troug ouch mich mīn tumber wān,

wan ich in lützel ane sach

von des genāden mir geschach

vil ēren unde guotes.

dō dō des hōhen muotes


den hōhen portenærẹ bedrōȥ,

die sælden porte er mir beslōȥ.

dane kum ich leider niemer in:

daȥ verworhte mir mīn tumber sin.

got hāt durch rāche an mich geleit


ein sus gewante siecheit

die niemen mag erlœsen,


nū versmæhent mich die bœsen,

die biderben ruochent mīn niht.

swie bœse er ist der mich gesiht,


des boeser muoȥ ich dannoch sīn.

sīn unwert tuot er mir schīn:

er wirfẹt diu ougen abe mir.

nū schīnet ērste an dir

dīn triuwe die dū hāst,


daȥ dū mich siechen bī dir lāst

und von mir niht enfliuhest.

swie dū mich niht enschiuhest,

swie ich niemen liep sī danne dir,

swie vil dīns heiles stē an mir,


du vertrüegest doch wol mīnen tōt.

nū wes unwert und wes nōt

wart ie zer werlte merre?

hie vor was ich dīn herre

und bin dīn dürftige nū.


mīn lieber friunt, nu koufest dū

und mīn gemahele und dīn wīp

an mir den ēwigen līp

daȥ dū mich siechen bī dir lāst.

des dū mich gefrāget hāst,


daȥ sage ich dir vil gerne.

ichn kunde ze Sālerne

einen meister niender vinden

der sich mīn underwinden

getörste oder wolte.


wan dā mite ich solte

mīner sühte genesen,

daȥ müeste ein solhiu sache wesen

die in der werlte nieman

mit nihte gewinnen kan.


mir wart niht anders dā gesaget

wan ich müeste haben eine maget


diu vollen manbære

und ouch des willen wære

daȥ sī den tōt durch mich lite


und man sī zuo dem herzen snite,

und mir wærẹ niht anders guot

wan von ir herzen daȥ bluot.

nū ist genuoc unmügelich

daȥ ir deheiniu durch mich


gerne līde den tōt.

des muoȥ, ich schemelīche nōt

tragen unz an mīn ende.

daȥ mirȥ got schiere sende!’

Daȥ er dem vater hete gesagt,


daȥ erhōrte ouch diu reine magt:

wan eȥ hete diu vil süeȥe

ir lieben herren füeȥe

stānde in ir schōȥen,

man möhte wol genōȥen


ir kintlīch gemüete

hin ze der engel güete.

sīner rede nam sī war

unde marhte sī ouch gar:

sī enkam von ir herzen nie


unz man des nahtes slāfen gie.

dō sī zir vater füeȥen lac

und ouch ir muoter, sō sī pflac,

und sī beide entsliefen,

manegen sūft tiefen


holte sī von herzen.

umbe ir herren smerzen

wart ir riuwe alsō grōȥ

daȥ ir ougen regen begōȥ

der slāfenden füeȥe,


sus erwahte sī diu süeȥe.

Dō sī der trehene enpfunden,


si erwachten und begunden

sī frāgen waȥ ir wære

und welher hande swære


sī alsō stille möhte klagen.

nu enwolte sī es in niht sagen,

wan daȥ ir vater aber tete

vil manege drō unde bete

daȥ sī eȥ ime wolte sagen.


sī sprach ‘ir möhtent mit mir klagen.

waȥ möhte uns mē gewerren

danne umb unsern herren,

daȥ wir den suln verliesen

und mit ime verkiesen


beide guot und ēre?

wir gewinnen niemer mēre

deheinen herren alsō guot

der uns tuo daȥ er uns tuot.’

Sī sprāchen ‘tohter, dū hāst wār.


nū frumet uns leider niht ein hār

unser riuwe und dīn klage:

liebeȥ kint, dā von gedage.

eȥ ist uns alsō leit sō dir.

leider nū enmuge wir


ime ze keinen staten komen.

got der hāt in uns benomen:

het eȥ iemen anders getān,

der müese unsern fluoch hān.’

Alsus gesweigẹten sī sī dō.


die naht beleip sī unfrō

und morne allen den tac.

swes iemen anders pflac,

diz enkam von ir herzen nie

unz man des andern nahtes gie


slāfen nāch gewonheit.

dō sī sich hete geleit


an ir alte bettestat,

sī bereite aber ein bat

mit weinenden ougen:


wan sī truoc tougen

nāhe in ir gemüete

die aller meisten güete

die ich von kinde ie vernam.

welch kint getete ouch ie alsam?


des einen sī sich gar verwac,

gelebetẹ sī morne den tac,

daȥ sī benamen ir leben

umbe ir herren wolte geben.

Von dem gedanke wart sī dō


vil ringes muotes unde frō,

und hete deheine sorge mē,

wan ein vorhtẹ diu tete ir wē,

sō sīȥ ir herren sagte,

daȥ er dar an verzagte,


und swenne sīȥ in allen drin

getæte kunt, daȥ sī an in

der gehenge niht enfunde

daȥ mans ir iht gunde.

Des wart sō grōȥ ir ungehabe


daȥ ir muoter dar abe

unde ir vater wart erwaht

als ouch an der vordern naht.

sī rihten sich ūf zuo ir

und sprāchen ‘sich, waȥ wirret dir?


dū bist vil alwære

daȥ du dich sō manege swære

von solher klage hāst an genomen

der niemen mac zeim ende komen.

war umbẹ lāstu uns niht slāfen?’


sus begunden sī sī strāfen.

waȥ ir diu klage töhte,


die niemen doch enmöhte

verenden noch gebüeȥen?

sus wānden sī die süeȥen


gesweigen an der selben stunt:

dō was ir wille in vil unkunt.

Sus antwurte in diu maget.

‘als uns mīn herre hāt gesaget,

sō mac man in vil wol ernern.


zewāre, ir welt mirȥ danne wern,

sō bin ich ze der arzenīe guot.

ich bin ein maget und hān den muot,

ē ich in sihe verderben,

ich wil ē für in sterben.’


Von dirre rede wurden dō

trūric unde unfrō

beide muoter unde vater.

sīne tohter die bat er

daȥ sī die rede lieȥe


und ir herren gehieȥe

daȥ sī geleisten möhte,

wand ir diz niht entöhte.

Er sprach ‘tohter, du bist ein kint

und dīne triuwe die sint


ze grōȥ an disen dingen.

du enmaht es niht für bringen

als dū uns hie hāst verjehen.

dū hāst des tōdes niht gesehen.

swenn eȥ dir kumet ūf die frist


daȥ des dehein rāt ist,

dū enmüeȥest sterben,

und möhtest dūȥ erwerben,

dū lebetest gerner dannoch:

wan dun kæme nie in leider loch.


dā von tuo zuo dīnen munt:

und wirstū für dise stunt


der rede iemer mēre lūt,

eȥ gāt dir ūf dīne hūt.’

Alsus sō wānde er sī dō


bēdiu mit bete und mit drō

gesweigen: dō enmohter.

sus antwurt ime sīn tohter.

‘Vater mīn, swie tump ich sī,

mir wonet iedoch diu witze bī


daȥ ich von sage wol die nōt

erkenne daȥ des lībes tōt

ist starc unde strenge.

swer ouch dannẹ die lenge

mit arbeiten leben sol,


dem ist iedoch niht ze wol.

wan swenne er hie geringet

und ūf sīn alter bringet

den līp mit michelre nōt,

sō muoȥ er līden doch den tōt.


ist ime diu sēle dannẹ verlorn,

sō wære er beȥȥer ungeborn.

eȥ ist mir komen ūf daȥ zil,

des ich got iemer loben wil,

daȥ ich den jungen līp mac geben


umbẹ daȥ ēwige leben.

nū sult ir mirȥ niht leiden.

ich wil mir unde iu beiden

vil harte wol mite varn.

ich mag iuch eine wol bewarn


vor schaden und vor leide,

als ich iu nū bescheide.

ir hānt ēre unde guot:

daȥ meinet mīnes herren muot;

wan er iu leit nie gesprach


und ouch daȥ guot nie abe gebrach.

die wīle daȥ er leben sol


sō stēt iuwer sache wol:

und lāȥe wir den sterben,

sō müeȥen wir verderben.


den wil ich uns fristen

mit alsō schœnen listen

dā mite wir alle sīn genesen.

nū gunnet mirs, wan eȥ muoȥ wesen.’

Diu muoter weinende sprach,


dō sī der tohter ernst ersach,

‘gedenke, tohter, liebeȥ kint,

wie grōȥ die arbeite sint

die ich durch dich erliten hān,

und lā mich beȥȥern lōn enpfān


dan ich dich hœre sprechen.

dū wilt mīn herze brechen.

senfte mir der rede ein teil.

jā wiltū alleȥ dīn heil

an uns verwürken wider got.


wan gedenkest dū an sīn gebot?

jā gebōt er unde bat er

daȥ man muoter unde vater

minne und ēre biete,

und geheiȥet daȥ ze miete


daȥ der sēle rāt werde

und lanclīp ūf der erde.

dū gihst, dū wellest dīn leben

umb unser beider fröude geben:

dū wilt uns beiden


daȥ leben vaste leiden.

daȥ dīn vater unde ich

gerne leben, daȥ ist durch dich.


waȥ solte uns līp unde guot,


waȥ solte uns werltlich muot,


swenne wir dīn enbæren?


dune. . . . . .


jā soltū, liebiu tohter mīn,

unser beider fröude sīn,


gar unsers lībes wünne,

ein bluome in dīme künne,

unsers alters ein stap.

und lāstū uns über dīn grap

gestēn von dīnen schulden,


dū muost von gotes hulden

iemer sīn gescheiden:

daȥ koufest an uns beiden.’


‘wiltu uns tohter wesen guot,


sō soltū rede und den muot


durch unsers herren hulde lān,


die ich von dir vernomen hān.’

Si sprach ‘muoter, ich getrūwe dir

und mīnem vater her ze mir


aller der genāden wol

der vater unde muoter sol

leisten ir kinde,

als ich eȥ wol bevinde

an iu allertegelich.


von iuwern gnāden hān ich

die sēle und einen schœnen līp.

mich lobet man unde wīp,

und alle die mich sehende sint,

ich sī daȥ schœneste kint


daȥ sī zir lebene haben gesehen.

wem soll ich der genāden jehen

niuwan iu zwein nāch gote?

des sol ich ze iuwerm gebote

iemer vil gerne stān:


wie michel reht ich des hān!

muoter, sæligeȥ wīp,

sīt ich nū sēle unde līp

von iuwern genāden hān,


sō lāntȥ an iuwern hulden stān


daȥ ich ouch die beide

von dem tiuvel scheide

und mich gote müeȥe geben.

jā ist dirre werlte leben

niuwan der sēle verlust.


ouch hāt mich werltlīch gelust

unz her noch niht berüeret,

der hin zer helle füeret.

nū wil ich gote genāde sagen

daȥ er in mīnen jungen tagen


mir die sinne hāt gegeben

daȥ ich ūf diz brœde leben

ahte harte kleine.

ich wil mich alsus reine

antwürtẹn in gotes gewalt.


ich fürhte, solt ich werden alt,

daȥ mich der werlte süeȥe

zuhte under füeȥe,

als sī vil manegen hāt gezogen

den ouch ir süeȥe hāt betrogen:


sō würde ich līhte gote entsaget.

gote müeȥe eȥ sīn geklaget

daȥ ich unz morne leben sol:

mir behaget diu werlt niht sō wol.

ir meiste liep ist herzeleit


(daȥ sī iu für wār geseit),

ir süeȥer lōn ein bitter nōt,

ir lancleben ein gæher tōt.

wir hān niht gewisses mē

wan hiute wol und morne wē


und ie ze jungest der tōt.

daȥ ist ein jæmerlīchiu nōt.

eȥ enschirmet geburt noch guot,

schœne, sterke, hōher muot,


eȥ enfrumt tugent noch ēre


für den tōt niht mēre

dann ungeburt und untugent.

unser leben und unser jugent

ist ein nebel unde ein stoup,

unser stæte bibent als ein loup.


er ist ein vil verschaffen gouch

der gerne in sich vaȥȥt den rouch,

eȥ sī wīp oder man,

der diz niht wol bedenken kan

und ouch der werlt nāch volgende ist.


wan uns ist über den fūlen mist

der pfeller hie gespreitet:

swen nū der blic verleitet,

der ist zuo der hellẹ geborn

unde enhāt niht mē verlorn


wan beidiu sēle unde līp.

nu gedenkent, sæligeȥ wīp,

müeterlīcher triuwe

und senftent iuwer riuwe

die ir dā habent umbe mich:


so bedenket ouch der vater sich.

ich weiȥ wol daȥ er mir heiles gan.

er ist ein alsō biderber man

daȥ er erkennet wol daȥ ir

unlange doch mit mir


iuwer fröude mügent hān,

ob ich joch lebende bestān.

belībe ich āne man bī iu

zwei jār oder driu,

sō ist mīn herre līhte tōt,


und kument in sō grōȥe nōt

vil līhte von armuot

daȥ ir mir alsolheȥ guot

zeinem man niht mugent geben,


ich enmüeȥe alse swache leben


daȥ ich iu lieber wære tōt.

nu verswīgẹ wir aber der nōt,

daȥ uns niht enwerre

und uns mīn lieber herre

were und alsō lange lebe


unz daȥ man mich zeim manne gebe

der rīche sī unde wert:

sō ist geschehen des ir dā gert

und wænent mir sī wol geschehen.

anders hāt mir mīn muot verjehen.


wirt er mir liep, daȥ ist ein nōt:

wirt er mir leit, daȥ ist der tōt.

wan sō hān ich iemer leit

und bin mit ganzer arbeit

gescheiden von gemache


mit maneger hande sache

diu den wīben wirret

und sī ze fröuden irret.

nū setzt mich in den vollen rāt

der dā niemer zergāt.


mīn gert ein frīer būman

dem ich wol mīnes lībes gan.

zwāre, dem sult ir mich geben,

sō ist geschaffet wol mīn leben.

im gēt sīn pfluoc harte wol,


sīn hof ist alles rātes vol,

da enstirbet ros noch daȥ rint,

da enmüent diu weinenden kint,

da enist ze heiȥ noch ze kalt,

dā wirt von jāren niemen alt,


der alte wirt junger,

da enist frost noch hunger,

da enist deheiner slahte leit,

da ist ganziu fröude ān arbeit.


ze dem wil ich mich ziehen


und solhen bū fliehen

den daȥ fiur und der hagel sleht

und der wāc abe tweht,

mit dem man ringet unde ie ranc.

swaȥ man daȥ jār alse lanc


dar ūf gearbeiten mac,

daȥ verliuset schiere ein halber tac.

den bū den wil ich lāȥen:

er sī von mir verwāȥen.

ir minnent mich: deist billich.


nū sihe ich gerne daȥ mich

iuwer minne iht unminne.

ob ir iuch rehter sinne

an mir verstān kunnent

und ob ir mir gunnent


beide guotes unde ēren,

sō lāȥet mich kēren

ze unserm herren Jēsū Krist,

des gnāde alsō stæte ist

daȥ sī niemer zergāt,


unde ouch zuo mir armen hāt

alsō grōȥe minne

als zeiner küniginne.

ich sol von mīnen schulden

ūȥ iuwern hulden


niemer komen, wil eȥ got.

eȥ ist gewisse sīn gebot

daȥ ich iu sī undertān,

wan ich den līp von iu hān:

daȥ leist ich āne riuwe.


ouch sol ich māne triuwe

an mir selber niht brechen.

ich hōrte ie daȥ sprechen,

swer den andern fröuwet sō


daȥ er selbe wirt unfrō,


und swer den andern krœnet

und sich selben hœnet,

der triuwen sī ze vil.

wie gerne ich iu des volgen wil

daȥ ich iu triuwe leiste,


mir selber doch die meiste.

welt ir mir wenden mīn heil,

sō lāȥ ich iuch ein teil

ē nāch mir geweinen,

ich enwelle mir erscheinen


wes ich mir selber schuldic bin.

ich wil iemer dā hin

da ich volle fröude vinde.

ir hānt doch mē kinde:

diu lānt iuwer fröude sīn


und getrœstent ir iuch mīn.

wan mir mac daȥ nieman erwern,

zwāre, ich enwelle ernern

mīnen herren unde mich.

muoter, jā hōrte ich dich


klagen unde sprechen ē,

eȥ tæte dīme herzen wē,

soltest dū ob mīme grabe stān.

des wirst du harte wol erlān:

dū stāst ob mīme grabe niht.


wan dā der tōt geschiht,

daȥ enlāt dich niemen sehen:

eȥ sol ze Sālerne geschehen.


dā sol uns viere der tōt


lœsẹen von aller slahte nōt.

des tōdes des genese wir,

und ich doch verre baȥ dan ir.’


Dō sī daȥ kint dō sāhen

ze dem tōde sō gāhen,


und eȥ sō wīslīchen sprach

unde menschlich reht zerbrach,

si begunden ahten under in


daȥ die wīsheit und den sin

niemer erzeigen kunde

dehein zunge in kindes munde.

sī jāhen daȥ der heiliggeist

der rede wære ir volleist,


der ouch sante Niklauses pflac

dō er in der wagen lac

und in die wīsheit lērte

daȥ er ze gote kērte

sīne kintlīche güete:


und bedāhtẹn sich in ir gemüete

daȥ sī niht enwolden

sī wenden noch ensolden

des sī sich hete an genomen:

der willẹ sī ir von gote komen.


von jāmẹr erkalte in der līp,

dō der meiger und sīn wīp

an dem bette sāȥen

und vil gar vergāȥen

durch des kindes minne


der zungen und der sinne

sā ze der selben stunde.

ir enwederȥ enkunde

einic wort gesprechen.

daȥ gegihtẹ begunde brechen


die muoter von leide.

sus gesāȥen sī beide

riuwic unde unfrō

unz sī sich bedāhten dō

waȥ in ir trūren töhte:


sō man ir doch niht enmöhte

benemen ir willen unde ir muot,


sō enwære in niht alsō guot

sō daȥ sī irs wol gunden,

wan sī doch niht enkunden


ir niemer werden āne baȥ;

enpfiengen sī der rede haȥ,

eȥ möhte in umbe ir herren

vil harte wol gewerren,

und verviengen anders niht dā mite.


mit vil willeclīchem site

sprāchen sī beide dō

daȥ sī der rede wæren frō.

Des fröute sich diu reine maget.

dō eȥ vil kūme was getaget


dō gie sī dā ir herre slief.

sīn trūtgemahele ime rief,

sī sprach ‘herre, slāfent ir?’

‘nein ich, gemahele, sage mir,

wie bistū hiute alsō fruo?’


‘herrẹ, dā twinget mich derzuo

der jāmer iuwerr siecheit.’

er sprach ‘gemahelẹ, daȥ ist dir leit:

daȥ erzeigest du an mir wol,

als eȥ dir got vergelten sol.


nune mag es dehein rāt sīn.’

‘entriuwen, lieber herre mīn,

iuwer wirt vil guot rāt.

sīt eȥ alsus umbe iuch stāt

daȥ man iu gehelfen mac,


ichn gesūme iuch niemer tac.

herre, ir hānt uns doch gesaget,

ob ir hetent eine maget

diu gernẹ den tōt durch iuch lite,

dā soltent ir genesen mite.


diu wil ich weiȥgot selbe sīn:

iuwer leben ist nützer dan daȥ mīn.’


Dō gnādẹte ir der herre

des willen harte verre.

und ervollẹten im diu ougen


von jāmer alsō tougen.

er sprach ‘gemahelẹ, ja ist der tōt

iedoch niht ein senftiu nōt,

als dū dir līhte hāst gedāht.

du hāst mich des wol innen brāht,


möhtestū, dū hülfest mir.

des genüegẹt mich wol von dir.

ich erkenne dīnen süeȥen muot:

dīn wille ist reine unde guot.

ichn sol ouch niht mē von dir gern.


dū maht mich des niht wol gewern

daȥ dū dā gesprochen hāst.

die triuwe die du an mir begāst,

die sol dir vergelten got.

ditz wærẹ der lantliute spot,


swaȥ ich mich für dise stunde

arzenīen underwunde,

und mich doch niht vervienge

wan als eȥ doch ergienge.

gemahele, dū tuost als diu kint


diu dā gæhes muotes sint:

swaȥ den kumet in den muot,

eȥ sī übel oder guot,

dar zuo ist in allen gāch,

und geriuwẹt sī sēre dar nāch.


gemahele, alsō tuost ouch dū.

der rede ist dir ze muote nū:

der d e von dir nemen wolte,

sō manȥ danne enden solte,

so geriuweȥ dich vil līhte doch.’


und daȥ sī sich ein teil noch

baȥ bedæhte des bat er.


er sprach ‘dīn muoter und dīn vater

die enmugen dīn niht wol enbern.

ich sol ouch niht ir leides gern


die mir ie gnāde tāten.

swaȥ sī dir beide rāten,

liebẹ gemahele, daȥ tuo.’

hie mite lachete er dar zuo,

wan er lützel sich versach


daȥ doch sider dō geschach.

Sus sprach er zuo der guoter.

der vater und diu muoter

sprāchen ‘lieber herre,

ir hānt uns vil verre


geliebet und geēret:

daȥ enwærẹ niht wol bekēret,

wir engültenȥ iu mit guote.

unser tohter ist ze muote

daȥ sī den tōt durch iuch dol:


des gunne wir ir harte wol.

eȥ ist hiutẹ der dritte tac

daȥ sī uns alleȥ ane lac

daȥ wir ir sīn gunden:

nū hāt sīȥ an uns funden.


nū lāȥe iuch got mit ir genesen:

wir wellen ir durch iuch entwesen.’

Do im sīn gemahele dō bōt

für sīnen siechtuom ir tōt

und man ir ernest ersach,


dō wart dō michel ungemach

und jæmerlīch gebærde.

manc mislīchiu beswærde

huop sich dō under in,

zwischẹn dem herren unde in drin.


ir vater unde ir muoter die

erhuoben michel weinen hie:


des weinens tet in michel nōt

umb ir vil lieben kindes tōt.

nū begunde ouch der herre


gedenken alsō verre

an des kindes triuwe,

und begreif in ein riuwe,

daȥ er sēre weinen began,

und zwīvelte vaste dran


weder eȥ beȥȥer getān

möhte sīn oder verlān.

von vorhten weinte ouch diu maget:

sī wānde er wære dran verzaget.

sus wārens alle unfrō.


sī gerten keines dankes dō.

Ze jungest dō bedāhte sich

ir herrẹ, der arme Heinrich,

und begunde sagen in

grōȥe gnāde allen drin


der triuwen und des guotes

(diu maget wart rīches muotes

daȥ ers gevolgẹte gerne),

und bereitẹ sich ze Sālerne

sō er schiereste mohte.


swaȥ ouch der megede tohte,

daȥ wart vil schiere bereit:

schœniu pfert und rīchiu kleit,

diu sī getruoc nie vor der zīt:

hermin unde samīt,


den besten zobel den man vant,

daȥ was der megede gewarit.

Nū wer möhte volgesagen

die herzeriuwe und daȥ klagen,

der muoter grimmigeȥ leit


und ouch des vater arbeit?

eȥ wærẹ wol undẹr in beiden


ein jæmerliīcheȥ scheiden,

dō sī ir liebeȥ kint von in

gefrumten sō gesundeȥ hin


niemer mē ze sehenne in den tōt,

wan daȥ in senftet ir nōt

diu reine gotes güete,

von der doch daȥ gemüete

ouch dem jungen kinde quam


daȥ eȥ den tōt gerne nam.

eȥ was āne ir rāt kōmen:

dā von wart von ir herzẹn genomen

alliu klage und swære,

wan eȥ anders wunder wære


daȥ in ir herze niht zerbrach.

ze liebe wart ir ungemach,

daȥ sī dar nāch deheine nōt

liten umbe ir kindes tōt.


The exact dates of his birth and death are unknown. His chief poems were written between the years 1187 and 1230.

The best edition of his works is: Walther von der Vogelweide, herausgegeben und erklärt von W. Wilmanns, Halle, 1883 (2nd edit.).


Ir sult sprechen: ‘willekomen!’

der iu mære bringet, daȥ bin ich.

Alleȥ daȥ ir habt vernomen,

daȥ ist gar ein wint: nū frāget mich.


Ich wil aber miete:

wirt mīn lōn iht guot,

sō sage ich iu vil līhte, daȥ in sanfte tuot.

seht, waȥ man mir ēren biete.


Ich wil tiuschen frouwen sagen


solhiu mære, daȥ si deste baȥ

Al der werlte suln behagen:

āne grōȥe miete tuon ich daȥ.

Waȥ wold’ ich ze lōne?

si sint mir ze hēr;


sō bin ich gefüege und bite si nihtes mēr

wan daȥ si mich grüeȥen schōne.

Ich hān lande vil gesehen

unde nam der besten gerne war:

Übel müeȥe mir geschehen,


künde ich ie mīn herze bringen dar,

Daȥ im wol gevallen

wolde fremeder site.

nū waȥ hülfe mich, ob ich unrehte strite?

tiuschiu zuht gāt vor in allen.


Von der Elbe unz an den Rīn

und her wider unz an Ungerlant

Mügen wol die besten sīn,

die ich in der werlte hān erkant.

Kan ich rehte schouwen


guot gelāȥ und līp,

sam mir got, sō swüere ich wol, daȥ hie diu wīp

beȥȥer sint danne ander frouwen.

Tiusche man sint wol gezogen,

rehte als engel sint diu wīp getān.


Swer si schiltet, derst betrogen:

ich enkan sīn anders niht verstān.

Tugent und reine minne,

swer die suochen wil,

der sol komen in unser lant: da ist wünne vil:


lange müeȥe ich leben dar inne!


Owē war sint verswunden     alliu mīniu jār!

ist mir mīn leben getroumet     oder ist eȥ wār?

daȥ ich ie wānde, daȥ     iht wære, was daȥ iht?

dar nāch hān ich geslāfen     und enweiȥ es niht.


Nū bin ich erwachet,     und ist mir unbekant,

daȥ mir hie vor was kündic     als mīn ander hant.

liut unde lant, dā ich     von kinde bin erzogen,

die sint mir fremde worden,     reht’ als eȥ sī gelogen:

Die mīne gespilen wāren,     die sint træge und alt;


bereitet ist daȥ velt,     verhouwen ist der walt:

wan daȥ daȥ waȥȥer fliuȥet,     als eȥ wīlent flōȥ,

für wār ich wāndẹ     mīn ungelücke würde grōȥ.

mich grüeȥet maneger trāge,     der mich bekande ē wol.

diu werlt ist allenthalben     ungenāden vol.


als ich gedenke an manegen     wünneclīchen tac,

die sint mir enpfallen gar     als in daȥ mer ein slac,

iemer mēre owē!

Owē wie jæmerlīche     junge liute tuont!

den vil unriuweclīche     ir gemüete stuont,


die kunnen niuwan sorgen:     owē wie tuont si sō?

swar ich zer werlte kēre,     dā ist nieman frō:

Tanzen unde singen     zergāt mit sorgen gar.

nie kristenman gesach     sō jæmerlīchiu jār.

nū merket, wie den frouwen     ir gebende stāt;


die stolzen ritter tragent     dörperlīche wāt.

Uns sint unsenfte brieve     her von Rōme komen,

uns ist erloubet trūren     und fröude gar benomen.

daȥ müet mich inneclīchen     (wir lebten ē vil wol),

daȥ ich nū für mīn lachen     weinen kiesen sol.


diu wilden vogellīn     betrüebet unser klage:

waȥ wunders ist, ob ich     dā von vil gar verzage?


waȥ spriche ich tumber man     durch mīnen bœsen zorn?

swer dirre wünne volget, der     hāt jene dort verlorn

iemer mēre, owē!


Owē wie uns mit süeȥen     dingen ist vergeben!

ich sihe die gallen mitten     in dem honege sweben.

diu werlt ist ūȥen schœne,     wīȥ, grüen’ unde rōt

und innen swarzer varwe,     vinster sam der tōt.

Swen si nū habe verleitet,     der schouwe sīnen trōst:


er wirt mit swacher buoȥe     grōȥer sünde erlōst.

dar an gedenket, ritter!     eȥ ist iuwer dinc;

ir traget die liehten helme     und manegen herten rinc,

Dar zuo die vesten schilte     und diu gewīhten swert.

wolte got, wær ich     der sigenünfte wert,


sō wolte ich nōtic man     verdienen rīchen solt.

joch meine ich niht die huoben     noch der hērren golt:

ich wolte selbe krōne     ēweclīchen tragen;

die möhte ein soldenære     mit sīme sper bejagen.

möht ich die lieben reise     gevaren über sē,


sō wolte ich denne singen ‘wol’     und niemer mēre ‘owē,’

niemer mēre ‘owē!’


Dō der sumer komen was

und die bluomen durch daȥ gras

wünneclīche ensprungen,


aldā die vogele sungen,

dār kom ich gegangen

an einen anger langen,

dā ein lūter brunne entspranc;

vor dem walde was sīn ganc,


dā diu nahtegale sanc.

Bī dem brunnen stuont ein boum,

dā gesach ich einen troum.

ich was zuo dem brunnen

gegangen von der sunnen,

120 105

daȥ diu linde mære

den küelen schaten bære.

bī dem brunnen ich gesaȥ:

mīner swære ich gar vergaȥ,

schiere entslief ich umbe daȥ.


Dō bedūhte mich zehant,

wie mir dienten elliu lant,

wie mīn sēle wære

ze himel āne swære

und der līp hie solte


gebāren swie er wolte.

dā enwas mir niht ze wē.

got der waldes, swie’ȥ ergē:

schœner troum enwart nie mē.

Gerne sliefe ich iemer dā,


wan ein unsæligiu krā,

diu begonde schrīen.

daȥ alle krā gedīen

alse ich in des günne!

si nam mir michel wunne.


von ir schrīenne ich erschrac:

wan daȥ dā niht steines lac,

sō wær’ eȥ ir suontac.

Wan ein wunderalteȥ wīp

diu getrōste mir den līp.


die begonde ich eiden.

nū hāt si mir bescheiden

waȥ der troum bediute.

daȥ merken wīse liute;

zwēne und einer daȥ sint drī;


dannoch seitẹ si mir dā bī,

daȥ mīn dūme ein vinger sī.


Ich saȥ ūf eime steine

und dahte bein mit beine;

dar ūf satzt ich den ellenbogen;


ich hete in mīne hant gesmogen

daȥ kinne und ein mīn wange:

dō dāhte ich mir vil ange,

wie man zer werlte solte leben.

deheinen rāt kond ich gegeben,


wie man driu dinc erwürbe,

der keineȥ niht verdürbe.

diu zwei sint ēre und varnde guot,

daȥ dicke einander schaden tuot;

daȥ dritte ist gotes hulde,


der zweier übergulde.

die wolte ich gerne in einen schrīn;

jā leider des enmac niht sīn,

daȥ guot und werltlīch ēre

und gotes hulde mēre


zesamene in ein herze komen.

stīg’ unde wege sint in benomen:

untriuwe is in der sāȥe,

gewalt vert ūf der strāȥe,

fride unde reht sint sēre wunt.


diu driu enhabent geleites niht,

diu zwei enwerden ē gesunt.


Ich hōrte ein waȥȥer dieȥen

und sach die vische flieȥen;

ich sach swaȥ in der werlte was,


velt unde walt, loup rōr und gras;

swaȥ kriuchet unde fliuget

und bein zer erden biuget,


daȥ sach ich unde sage iu daȥ:

der keineȥ lebet āne haȥ.


daȥ wilt und daȥ gewürme

die strītent starke stürme,

sam tuont die vogel under in;

wan daȥ sie habent einen sin:

sie diuhten sich ze nihte,


sie enschüefen starc gerihte:

sie kiesent künege unde reht,

sie setzent hērren unde kneht.

sō wē dir, tiuschiu zunge,

wie stēt dīn ordenunge,


daȥ nū diu mucke ir künic hāt

und daȥ dīn ēre alsō zergāt!

bekērā dich, bekēre!

die zirken sint ze hēre,

die armen künege dringent dich:

Philippe setze en weisen ūf und heiȥ sie treten hinder sich!


Ich sach mit mīnen ougen

man unde wībe tougen,

dā ich gehōrte und gesach

swaȥ iemen tet, swaȥ iemen sprach.


ze Rōme hōrte ich liegen

und zwēne künege triegen.

dā von huop sich der meiste strīt,

der ē was oder iemer sīt,

daȥ sich begonden zweien


die pfaffen unde leien.

daȥ was ein nōt vor aller nōt:

līp unde sēle lac dā tōt,

die pfaffen striten sēre:

doch wart der leien mēre.

123 200

diu swert sie legeten dernider

und griffen zuo der stōle wider:

sie bienen die sie wolten

und niuwet den sie solten.

dō stōrte man diu goteshūs.


ich hōrte verre in einer klūs

vil michel ungebære:

dā weinde ein klōsenære,

er klagete gote sīniu leit:

‘ōwē, der bābest ist ze junc: hilf, hērre, dīner Kristenheit!’


Diu krōne ist elter dan der künec Philippes sī:

dā muget ir alle schouwen wol ein wunder bī,

wie s’ ime der smit sō ebene habe gemachet.

sīn keiserlicheȥ houbet zimt ir alsō wol,

daȥ sie ze rehte nieman guoter scheiden sol.


ir dwedereȥ daȥ ander niht enswachet.

sie liuhtent beide ein ander an,

daȥ edele gesteine wider den jungen man:

die ougenweide sehent die fürsten gerne.

swer nū des rīches irre gē,


der schouwe, wem der weise ob sīme nacke stē:

der stein ist aller fürsten leitesterne.


Mir ist verspart der sælden tor:

dā stēn ich als ein weise vor,

mich hilfet niht swaȥ ich dar an geklopfe.


wie möhte ein wunder grœȥer sīn?

eȥ regent beidenthalben mīn,

daȥ mir des alles niht enwirt ein tropfe.

des fürsten milte ūȥ Ōsterrīche

freut dem süeȥen regen gelīche

124 230

beidiu liute und ouch daȥ lant.

er ist ein schœne wol gezieret heide,

dar abe man bluomen brichet wunder:

und bræche mir ein blat dar under

diu sīn vil milte rīchiu hant,


sō möhte ich loben die süeȥen ougenweide.

hie bī sī er an mich gemant.


Ich hān mīn lēhen, al die werlt! ich hān mīn lēhen!

nū enfürhte ich niht den hornunc an die zēhen

und wil alle bœse hērren deste minre vlēhen.


der edel künec, der milte künec hāt mich berāten,

daȥ ich den sumer luft und in dem winter hitze hān.

mīn’ nāhgebūren dunke ich verre baȥ getān:

sie sehent mich niht mēr an in butzen wīs, alsō sie tāten.

ich bin ze lange arm gewesen ān’ mīnen danc.


ich was sō volle scheltens, daȥ mīn ātem stanc.

daȥ hāt der künec gemachet reine und dar zuo mīnen sanc.


Ōwē hovelīcheȥ singen,

daȥ dich ungefüege dœne

solten ie ze hove verdringen!


daȥ sie schiere got gehœne!

ōwē, daȥ dīn wirde alsō geliget,

des sint alle dīne friunde unfrō.

daȥ muoȥ eht sō sīn, nū sī alsō:

frō Unfuoge, ir habt gesiget.


Der uns freude wider bræhte,

diu reht und gefüege wære,

hei wie wol man des gedæhte,

swā man von im seite mære!


eȥ wær’ ein vil hovelīcher muot,


des ich iemer gerne wünschen sol.

frouwen unde hērren zæme eȥ wol:

ōwē daȥ eȥ nieman tuot!

Die daȥ rehte singen stœrent,

der ist ungelīche mēre


danne die eȥ gerne hœrent.

des volg’ ich der alten lēre:

ich enwil niht werben ze der mül;

dā der stein sō riuschend’ umbe gāt

und daȥ rat sō manegẹ unwīse hāt,


merket wer dā harpfen sül!

Die sō frevellīchen schallent,

der muoȥ ich vor zorne lachen,

daȥ s’ in selben wol gevallent

mit als ungefüegen sachen.


die tuont sam die frösche in eime sē,

den ir schrīen alsō wol behaget,

daȥ diu nahtegal dā von verzaget,

sō si gerne sunge mē.

Der unfuoge swīgen hieȥe,


waȥ man noch von freuden sunge,

und sie abe den bürgen stieȥe,

daȥ si dā die frōn iht twunge!

wurden ir die grōȥen höve benomen,

daȥ wær’ alleȥ nāch dem willen mīn:


bien gebūren lieȥe ich sie wol sīn,

dannen ist s’ ouch here komen.


Der rīfe tet den kleinen vogelen wē,

daȥ sie niht ensungen.

nū hōrte ich s’aber wünneclīche als ē:


nū ist diu heide entsprungen.


dā sach ich bluomen strīten wider den klē,

weder ir lenger wære.

mīner frouwen seite ich disiu mære.

Uns hāt der winter kalt und ander nōt


vil getān ze leide.

ich wānde, daȥ ich iemer bluomen rōt

sæhe an grüener heide.

joch schāte eȥ guoten liuten, wære ich tōt,

die nāch freuden rungen


und ie gerne tanzten unde sprungen.

Versūmde ich disen wünneclīchen tac,

sō wær’ ich verwāȥen

und wære an freude ein angestlīcher slac:

dennoch müese ich lāȥen


al mīne freude, der ich wīlent pflac.

got gesegen’ iuch alle:

wünschet noch, daȥ mir ein heil gevalle.


Wīp muoȥ ēt iemer sīn der wībe hōhste name

und tiuret baȥ dan frouwe, als ich’ȥ erkenne.


swā nū deheiniu sī, diu sich ir wīpheit schame,

diu merke disen sanc und kiese denne.

under frouwen sint unwīp,

under wīben sint sie tiure:

wībes name und wībes līp


die sint beide vil gehiure.

swie’ȥ umb’ alle frouwen var,

wīp sint alle frouwen gar.

zwīvellop daȥ hœnet,

als under wīlen frouwe: wīp dēst ein name der s’alle krœnet.


Sō die bluomen ūȥ dem grase dringent,

same sie lachen gegen der spileden sunnen,

in einem meien an dem morgen fruo,

und diu kleinen vogellīn wol singent

in ir besten wīse die sie kunnen,


waȥ wünne mac sich dā genōȥen zuo?

eȥ ist wol halb ein himelrīche.

suln wir sprechen, waȥ sich deme gelīche,

sō sage ich, waȥ mir dicke baȥ

in mīnen ougen hāt getān,


und tæte ouch noch, gesæhe ich daȥ.

Swā ein edeliu schœne frouwe reine

wol gekleidet unde wol gebunden

durch kurzewīle zuo vil liuten gāt,

hovelīchen hōchgemuot, niht eine,


umbe sehendẹ ein wēnic under stunden:

alsam der sunne gegen den sternen stāt:

der meie bringe uns al sīn wunder,

waȥ ist dā sō wünneclīches under

als ir vil minneclīcher līp?


wir lāȥen alle bluomen stān,

und kapfen an daȥ werde wīp.

Nū wol dan, welt ir die wārheit schouwen,

gēn wir zuo des meien hōchgezīte!

der ist mit aller sīner krefte komen.


seht an in und seht an werde frouwen,

wedereȥ daȥ ander überstrīte,

daȥ beȥȥer spil ob ich daȥ habe genomen.

ōwē der mich dā welen hieȥe,

deich daȥ eine durch daȥ ander lieȥe,


wie rehte schiere ich danne küre!

hēr Meie, ir müeset merze sīn,

ē ich mīne frouwen dā verlüre.


Swie wol der heide ir manicvaltiu varwe stāt,

sō wil ich doch dem walde jehen,


daȥ er vil mēre wünneclīcher dinge hāt.

noch ist dem velde baȥ geschehen.

sō wol dir, sumer, sus getāner emȥekeit!

sumer, daȥ ich iemer lobe dīne tage,

mīn trōst, sō trœste ouch mīne klage:


ich sage dir, waȥ mir wirret:

diu mir ist liep, der bin ich leit.

Ich mac der guoten niht vergeȥȥen noch ensol,

diu mir sō vil gedanke nimet.

die wīle ich singe, wil ich vinden iemer wol


ein niuwe lop, daȥ ir gezimet.

nū habe ir diȥ für guot (sō lobe ich danne mē):

eȥ tuot in den ougen wol, daȥ man sie siht,

und daȥ man ir vil tugende giht,

daȥ tuot wol in den ōren.


sō wol ir des! sō wē mir, wē!


In einen zwīvellīchen wān

was ich geseȥȥen und gedāhte,

ich wolte von ir dienste gān,

wan daȥ ein trōst mich wider brāhte.


trōst mag eȥ rehte niht geheiȥen, ouwē des!

eȥ ist vil kūme ein kleineȥ trœstelīn,

sō kleine, swenne ich’ȥ iu gesage, ir spottet mīn;

doch fröwet sich lützel ieman, er enwiȥȥe wes.

Mich hāt ein halm gemachet frō:


er giht, ich süle genāde vinden.

ich maȥ daȥ selbe kleine strō,

als ich hie vore sach von kinden.


nū hœret unde merket, ob si’ȥ denne tuo:

‘si tuot, si entuot, si tuot, si entuot, si tuot.’


swie dicke ich’ȥ tete, sō was ie daȥ ende guot.

daȥ trœstet mich: dā hœret ouch geloube zuo.


Nieman kan beherten

kindes zuht mit gerten:

den man z’ēren bringen mac,


dem ist ein wort als ein slac.

dem ist ein wort als ein slac,

den man z’ēren bringen mac:

kindes zuht mit gerten

nieman kan beherten.


Hüetet iuwer zungen,

daȥ zimt wol den jungen;

stōȥ den rigel für die tür,

lā kein bœse wort dar für.

lā kein bœse wort dar für,


stōȥ den rigel für die tür:

daȥ zimt wol den jungen,

hüetet iuwer zungen.

Hüetet iuwer ougen

offenbāre und tougen:


lāt sie guote site spehen

und die bœsen übersehen;

und die bœsen übersehen

lāt sie, guote site spehen:

offenbāre und tougen


hüetet iuwer ougen.

Hüetet iuwer ōren,

oder ir sīt tōren:


lāt ir bœsiu wort dar in,

daȥ gunēret iu den sin.


daȥ gunēret in den sin,

lāt ir bœsiu wort dar in,

oder ir sīt tōren:

hüetet iuwer ōren.

Hüetet wol der drīer


leider alze frīer:

zungen ougen ōren sint

dicke schalchaft, z’ēren blint.

dicke schalchaft, z’ēren blint

zungen ougen ōren sint:


leider alze frīer

hüetet wol der drīer.


Junc man, in swelher aht dū bist,

ich wil dich lēren einen list:

dū lā dir niht ze wē sīn nāch dem guote:


lā dir’ȥ ouch niht z’unmære sīn.

und volges dū der lēre mīn,

sō wis gewis, eȥ frumt dir an dem muote.

die rede wil ich dir baȥ bescheiden.

lāst dū dir’ȥ ze sēre leiden,


zergāt eȥ so ist dīn freude tōt:

wilt aber dū daȥ guot ze sēre minnen,

dū maht verliesen sēle und ēre.

dā von sō volge mīner lēre:

leg’ ūf die wāge ein rehteȥ lōt


und wig ouch dar mit allen dīnen sinnen,

als eȥ diu māȥe eht ie gebōt.


Die väter hānt ir kint erzogen,

dar an sie beide sint betrogen:

sie brechent dicke Salomōnes lēre:


der sprichet, swer den besmen spar,

daȥ der den sun versūme gar:

des sint die ungebatten gar ān’ ēre.

hie vor dō was diu werlt sō schœne,

nū ịst sie worden alsō hœne.


des enwas niht wīlent ē:

die jungen hānt die alten sō verdrungen.

nū spottet alse dar der alten!

eȥ wirt iu selben noch behalten.

beitet unz iuwer jugent zergē:


swaȥ ir nū tuot, daȥ rechent iuwer jungen,

daȥ weiȥ ich wol und weiȥ noch mē.


Wer zieret nū der ēren sal?

der jungen ritter zuht ist smal,

sō pflegent die knehte gar unhövescher dinge


mit worten und mit werken ouch.

swer zühte hāt, der ist ir gouch.

nemt war, wie gar unfuoge für sich dringe!

hie vor dō berte man die jungen,

die dā pflāgen frecher zungen;


nū ist eȥ ir werdekeit:

sie schallent unde scheltent reine frouwen.

wē ir hiuten unde ir hāren,

die niht kunnen frō gebāren

sunder wībe herzeleit!


dā mac man sünde bī der schande schouwen,

die maneger ūf sich selben leit.


Swer āne vorhte, hērre got,

wil sprechen dīniu zehen gebot

und brichet diu, daȥ ist niht rehtiu minne.


dich heiȥet vater maneger vil:

swer mīn ze bruoder niht enwil,

der sprichet starkiu wort ūȥ krankem sinne.

wir wahsen ūȥ gelīchem dinge:

spīse frumet uns, diu wirt ringe,


sō si durch den munt gevert.

wer kan den hērren von dem knehte scheiden

swa ẹr ir gebeine blōȥeȥ fünde,

und hæte er ir joch lebender künde,

sō gewürme daȥ fleisch verzert?


im dienent kristen, juden unde heiden,

der elliu lebendiu wunder nert.


Ōwē daȥ wīsheit unde tugent,

des mannes schœne noch sīn jugent

niht erben sol, sō ie der līp erstirbet!


daȥ mac wol klagen ein wīser man,

der sich des schaden versinnen kan.

Reinmār, waȥ guoter kunst an dir verdirbet!

dū solt von schulden iemer des genieȥen,

daȥ dich des tages wolte nie verdrieȥen,


du’n spræches ie den frouwen wol und guoten wībes siten.

des suln sie iemer danken dīner zungen.

und hætest niht wan eine rede gesungen:

sō wol dir, wīp, wie reine ein nam!’, dū hætest an gestriten

ir lobe, daȥ elliu wīp dir iemer gnāden solten biten.


Dēswār, Reinmār, dū riuwes mich

michels harter denne ich dich,

obe dū lebtes unde ich wære erstorben

ich wil’ȥ bī mīnen triuwen sagen:

dich selben wil ich lützel klagen,


ich klage dīn edelen kunst, daȥ s’ist verdorben.

dū kundest al der werlte freude mēren,

sō du’ȥ ze guoten dingen woltest kēren.

mich riuwet dīn wol redender munt und dīn vil süeȥer sanc,

daȥ der verdorben ist bī mīnen zīten.


daȥ dū niht eine wīle mohtest bīten!

sō leiste ich dir geselleschaft: mīn singen ist niht lanc.

dīn sēle müeȥe wol gevarn und habe dīn zunge danc.


Reinmar, often called Reinmar der Alte, was by birth an Alsatian. He spent many years of his active life as Court poet at Vienna, where he was extremely popular. Next to his rival Walther von der Vogelweide he was the most prolific and important lyrical poet of his period, cp. ll. 487-512, pp. 132-3. He died some time during the first decade of the thirteenth century. See Burdach, Reinmar der Alte und Walther von der Vogelweide, Leipzig, 1880, and Bartsch, Deutsche Liederdichter des zwölften his vierzehnten Jahrhunderts, Stuttgart, 1879.


‘Sī koment underwīlen her

die baȥ dā heime möhten sīn.

Ein ritter des ich lange ger,

bedæhte er baȥ den willen mīn,


sō wære er z’allen zīten hie,

als ich in gerne sæhe.

owē des, waȥ suochent die

die nīdent daȥ ob iemen guot geschæhe?’


Mir ist geschehen daȥ ich niht bin


langer vrō wan unz ich lebe.

sī wundert wer mir schœnen sin

und daȥ hōhgemüete gebe

daȥ ich zer werlte niht getar

ze rehte alsō gebāren,


nie genam ich vrowen war,

ich wære in holt die mir ze māȥe wāren.


Ein rede der liute tuot mir wē:

da enkan ich niht gedulteclīchen zuo gebāren.

nu tuont si’ȥ alle deste mē:


sī frāgent mich ze vil von mīner frouwen jāren

und sprechent welher tage sī sī,

dur daȥ ich ir sō lange bin gewesen mit triuwen bī;

sī jehent daȥ es möhte mich verdrieȥen.

nu lā daȥ aller beste wīp


ir zühtelōser vrāge mich genieȥen.


Sī jehent, der sumer der sī hie,

diu wunne diu sī komen

und daȥ ich mich wol gehabe als ē.

nu rātet unde sprechet wie:


der tōt hāt mir benomen

daȥ ich niemer überwinde mē.

waȥ bedarf ich wunneclīcher zīt,

sīt aller vröuden hērre Liutpolt in der erde līt,

den ich nie tac getrūren sach?


eȥ hāt diu werlt an ime verlorn

daȥ ir an manne nie

sō jæmerlīcher schade geschach.


‘Mir armen wībe was ze wol,

dō ich gedāhte an in


wie mīn heil an sīnem lībe lac.

daȥ ich des nū niht haben sol,

des gāt mit sorgen hin

swaȥ ich iemer mē geleben mac.

mīner wunnen spiegel derst verlorn


den ich mir hete ze sumerlīcher ougen weide erkorn,

des muoȥ ich leider ænic sīn.

dō man mir seite er wære tōt,

zehant wiel mir daȥ bluot

von herzen ūf die sēle mīn.


Die fröide mir verboten hāt

mīns lieben hērren tōt

alsō deich ir mēr enberen sol.

sīt des nu niht mac werden rāt,

in ringe mit der nōt,


daȥ mīn klagedeȥ herze ist jāmers vol,

diu in iemer weinet, daȥ bin ich,

wan er vil sælic man, jā trōste er wol ze lebenne mich.

der ist nu hin: waȥ töhte ich hie?

wis ime genædic, hērre got,


wan tugenthafter gast

kam in dīn ingesinde nie.’


Ich welte ūf guoter liute sage

und ouch durch mīnes herzen rāt

ein wīp von der ich dicke trage


vil manige nōt diu nāhe gāt.

die swære ich z’allen zīten klage,

wand eȥ mir kumberlīche stāt.

ich tet ir schīn den dienst mīn:

wie möhte ein grœȥer wunder sīn,


daȥ sī mich des engelten lāt?


Ze rehter māȥe sol ein man

beidiu daȥ herze und al den sin

ze stæte wenden, ob er kan:

daȥ wirt im līhte ein guot gewin.


swem dā von ie kein leit bekan,

der weiȥ wol wie’ch gebunden bin.

ich gloube im wol, als er mir sol.

von schulden ich den kumber dol:

ich brāhte selbe mich dar in.


‘Er hāt ze lange mich gemiten

den ich mit triuwen nie gemeit.

von sīner schulde ich hān erliten

daȥ ich nie grœȥer nōt erleit.

sō lebt mīn līp nāch sīnem lībe.


ich bin ein wīp, daȥ im von wībe

nie liebes mē geschach, swie mir von im geschæhe.

mīn ouge in gerner nie gesach dann ich in hiute sæhe.’

Mir ist vil liebe nu geschehen,

daȥ mir sō liebe nie geschach.


sō gerne hān ich sī gesehen

daȥ ich sī gerner nie gesach.

ich scheide ir muot von schwachem muote:

sī ist sō guot, ich wil mit guote

ir lōnen, ob ich kan, als ich doch gerne kunde.


vil mēre fröiden ich ir gan dann ich mir selben gunde.


Wol mich lieber mære,

diu ich hān vernomen,

daȥ der winter swære

welle ze ende komen.

137 100

kūme ich des erbeiten mac,

want ich fröide niht enpflac

sīt der kalte rīfe lac.

Mich enhaȥȥet niemen,

ob ich bin gemeit.


Weiȥ got, tuot eȥ iemen,

deist unsælekeit,

wande ich schaden niht enkan.

swes ot sī mir wole gan,

waȥ wil des ein ander man?


Solte ich mīne liebe

bergen unde heln,

sō müest ich ze diebe

werden unde steln.

sinneclīch ich daȥ bewar.


mīn gewerbe ist anderswar,

ich gē dannen oder dar.

Sō sī mit dem balle

trībet kindes spot,

daȥ’s iht sēre valle,


daȥ verbiete got.

megde, lāt iur dringen sīn:

stōȥet ir mīn frouwelīn,

so’st der schade halber mīn.


Ich sach vil wunneclīche stān


die heide mit den bluomen rōt,

der vīol der ist wol getān:

des hāt diu nahtegal ir nōt

wol überwunden diu sī twanc.

zergangen ist der winter lanc.


ich hōrte ir sanc.


Dō ich daȥ grüene loup ersach,

dō lieȥ ich vil der swære mīn.

von einem wībe mir geschach

daȥ ich muoȥ iemer mēre sīn


vil wunneclīchen wol gemuot.

eȥ sol mich alleȥ dunken guot

swaȥ sī mir tuot.

Sī schiet von sorgen mīnen līp,

daȥ ich dekeine swære hān.


wan āne sī vier tūsent wīp

dien heten’s alle niht getān.

ir güete wendet mīniu leit.

ich hān sī mir ze friunt bereit,

swaȥ iemen seit.


Mir’n mac niht leides widerstān:

des wil ich gar ān angest sīn.

ergienge eȥ als ich willen hān,

sō læge’s an dem arme mīn.

daȥ mir der schœnen wurde ein teil,


daȥ diuhte mich ein michel heil,

und wære ouch geil.

Deich ir sō holdeȥ herze trage,

daȥ ist in sumelīchen leit.

dar umbe ich niemer sō verzage:


sī vliesent alle ir arebeit.

waȥ hilfet sī ir arger list?

si’n wiȥȥen wie’ȥ ergangen ist

in kurzer frist.


Mīn ougen wurden liebes alsō vol,


dō ich die minneclīchen ērst gesach,

daȥ eȥ mir hiute und iemer mē tuot wol.

ein minneclīcheȥ wunder dō geschach:


sī gie mir alse sanfte dur mīn ougen

daȥ sī sich in der enge niene stieȥ.


in mīnem herzen sī sich nider lieȥ:

dā trage ich noch die werden inne tougen.

Lā stān, lā stān! waȥ tuost du, sælic wīp,

daȥ du mich heimesuochest an der stat,

dar sō gewalteclīche wībes līp


mit starker heimesuoche nie getrat?

genāde, frowe! ich mac dir niht gestrīten.

mīn herze ist dir baȥ veile danne mir:

eȥ solde sīn bī mir, nu’st eȥ bī dir:

des muoȥ ich ūf genāde lōnes bīten.


Ze fröiden nāhet alle tage

der werlte ein wunneclīchiu zīt,

ze senfte maniges herzen klage

die nu der swære winter gīt.

von sorge ich dicke sō verzage,


swenn alsō jæmerlīche līt

diu heide breit. daȥ ist mir leit.

diu nahtegal uns schiere seit

daȥ sich gescheiden hāt der strīt.


Sō wol dir, wīp, wie reine ein nam!


wie sanfte er doch z’erkennen und ze nennen ist!

eȥ wart nie niht sō lobesam,

swā du’ȥ an rehte güete kērest, sō dū bist.

dīn lop mit rede nieman wol volenden kan.

swes dū mit triuwen pfligest wol, der ist ein sælic man


und mac vil gerne leben.

dū gīst al der werlte hohen muot:

maht dū ouch mir ein wēnic freude geben?



Ulrich von Lichtenstein came of a better-class Styrian family, and was born about the year 1200 and died in 1275 or 1276. He was one of the best representatives of the later Court lyrical poets. For editions of his works, see Lachmann, Ausgabe der Dichtungen Ulrichs von Lichtenstein, Berlin, 1841; Bechstein, Ulrichs von Lichtenstein Frauendienst, Leipzig, 1887. The following extracts are taken from Bartsch, Deutsche Liederdichter des zwölften bis vierzehnten Jahrhunderts, Stuttgart, 1889.

Ein tanzwīse, und ist diu vierde wīse.

In dem walde süeȥe dœne

singent kleiniu vogellīn.

an der heide bluomen schœne

blüejent gegen des meien schīn.


alsō blüet mīn hōher muot

mit gedanken gegen ir güete,

diu mir rīchet mīn gemüete

sam der troum den armen tuot.

Eȥ ist ein vil hōch gedinge


den ich gegen ir tugenden trage,

daȥ mir noch an ir gelinge,

daȥ ich sælde an ir bejage.

des gedingen bin ich vrō.

god geb’ daȥ ich’ȥ wol verende,


daȥ sie mir den wān iht wende

der mich freut sō rehte hō.

Sie vil süeȥe, valsches āne,

vrī vor allem wandel gar,

lāȥe mich in liebem wāne


die wīl eȥ niht baȥ envar;

daȥ diu vreude lange wer,

daȥ ich weinens iht erwache,

daȥ ich gegen dem trōste lache

des ich von ir hulden ger.

141 25

Wünschen unde wol gedenken

dēst diu meiste vreude mīn.

des sol mir ir trōst niht wenken,

sie enlāȥe mich ir sīn

mit den beiden nāhen bī,


sō daȥ sie mit willen gunne

mir von ir sō werder wunne

daȥ sie sælic immer sī.

Sælic meie, du aleine

trœstest al die welde gar.


du und al diu werlt gemeine

vreut mich min dann umb ein hār.

wie möht’ ir mir vreude geben

āne die vil lieben guoten?

von der sol ich trōstes muoten;


wan ir trōstes muoȥ ich leben.

Ein sincwīse, und ist diu sibende wīse.

Wē war umbe sul wir sorgen?

vreude ist guot.

von den wīben sol man borgen

hōhen muot.


wol im der in kan gewinnen

von in! der’st ein sælic man.

freude sol man durch sie minnen,

wan dā līt vil ēren an.

Wir suln tanzen singen lachen


durch diu wīp.

dā mit mac ein man gemachen

daȥ sīn līp


wirdet wert, ob er mit triuwen

dienet guoter wībe gruoȥ.


swen sīn dienest wil geriuwen,

dem wirt selten kumbers buoȥ.

Mit dem waȥȥer man daȥ, fiuwer

laschet gar:

vinster ist der sunnen tiuwer.


beidiu wār

sint diu mære: ir hœret mēre.

habet für wār ūf minen līp:

rehten man von herzen sēre

scheidet nieman wan diu wīp.


Owē owē, frowe Minne,

mir ist wē.

nu grīf her wie sēre ich brinne.

kalder snē

müeste von der hitze brinnen


diu mir an dem herzen līt.

kanstu, Minne, triuwe minnen,

sō hilfestu mir enzīt.

Daȥ ist ein ūȥreise.

Wil iemen nāch ēren die zīt wol vertrīben,

ze sælden sich kēren, bī freuden belīben,


der diene ze flīȥe mit triuwen vil schōne

nāch der minne lōne: der ist süeȥe, reine,

vil guot und aleine den guoten gemeine.

Swer volget dem schilde, der sol eȥ enblanden

dem lībe, dem guote, dem herzen, den handen.


des lōnet vil hōhe mit guotem gewinne

diu vil werde Minne: diu gīt freud’ und ēre.

wol ir süeȥen lēre! sie kan trœsten sēre.


Der schilt wil mit zühten vil baltlīcheȥ ellen:

er haȥȥet, er schiuhet Schand’ und ir gesellen.


got des niht enwelle daȥ man bī im vinde

sō swachlīch gesinde, er wil daȥ die sīnen

ūf ēre sich pīnen, in tugenden erschīnen.

Erg’ unde unfuoge und unfuore diu wilde

gezimt niht dem helme und touc niht dem schilde,


der schilt ist ein dach daȥ niht schande kan decken.

sīn blic tæt’ enblecken an ēren die weichen,

von vorhten erbleichen: diu varwe ist ir zeichen.

Hōchgemuote frouwen, ir sült wol gedenken:

getriuwen gesellen vil stæte āne wenken


den minnet, den meinet, mit herzen, mit muote,

daȥ in iwer huote behalte, behüete

mit liebe, mit güete, vrī vor ungemüete.

Sie ist āne schulde mir haȥlīch erbolgen

der ich ze dienste dem schilde wil volgen.


nu hān ich für zürnen noch für herzen sēre

niht ander schilt mēre wan den trōst aleine,

daȥ ich sie baȥ meine dann ie wīp deheine.

Gein ir langen kriege setz’ ich mīn gedulde:

sō stē gein ir haȥȥe ze wer mīn unschulde.


mīn wer gein den valschen daȥ sol sīn mīn triuwe

vil süeȥe āne riuwe: mīn kampflīch gewæte

für ir nīdetæte daȥ sol sīn mīn stæte.

Ditz ist der leich.

Got füege mir’ȥ ze guote:

ich bin noch in dem muote


daȥ ich wil guoten wīben

mit dienest āne valschen muot immer bī belīben.

dā von rāt’ ich einen rāt

der allen wol gemuoten mannen tugentlīchen stāt.


Ich rāt’ iu, ēre gerende man,


mit triuwen, als ich beste kan:

ob ir welt werende freude hān,

sō sīt den wīben undertān

mit triwen āne valschen muot.

ir güete ist alsō rehte guot,


swer in mit triwen dienest tuot,

den kunnen sie wol machen frō.

der werlde heil gar an in līt:

ir güete ist freuden hōchgezīt,

ir schœne sō vil freuden gīt,


dā von diu herze stīgent hō.


sunder leit

kunnen sie wol friunden geben.

swem sō sī


witze bī,

der sol nāch ir hulden streben

unde zinsen in sīn leben:

daȥ rāte ich ūf die triwe mīn.

swer ēren sælic welle sīn


und rīche an hōhem muote,

der sol mit triwen guotiu wīp

reht minnen als sīn selbes līp.

vil guot vor allem guote

ist der wībe güete, unde ir schœne schœne ob aller schœne.


ir schœne ir güete ir werdikeit ich immer gerne krœne.

an ir schœne und an ir güete stāt mīn heil und ouch mīn wunne.

wær’ guoter wībe schœne niht, wie selten ich gewunne

deheinen ēren gernden muot.

wol mich daȥ sie sint alsō guot,


daȥ man hāt von ir güete

sō hōhen trōst für senediu leit.


ir schœne, ir güete, ir werdikeit

gīt mir vil hōch gemüete.

Mīn muot von wīben hōhe stāt.


waȥ danne ob mir ir einiu hāt

erzeiget hōhe missetāt?

dēswār des mac wol werden rāt.

Waȥ sie gegen mir hāt getān,

daȥ wil ich gerne wiȥȥen lān


mit zühten, als ich beste kan,

ūf genāde guotiu wīp.

ich hān ir driu und zehen jār

gedienet sunder wenken gar,

bī mīnen triwen, daȥ ist wār,


daȥ in der zīt mīn seneder līp

nie gewan

sölhen wān,

des mīn stæte wurde kranc.

al mīn gir


was gein ir

sleht mit triwen āne wanc.

nu vert entwer ir habedanc

reht als ein rat daȥ umbe gāt

und als ein marder den man hāt


in eine lin gebunden.

kund’ ich als sie unstæte sīn,

sō hæt’ ich nāch dem willen mīn

ān sie ein frowen funden.

Ē daz ich mīn ritterlīche stæte bræch’ an guoten wīben


ich wold’ ē immer valscher wībe hulde vrī belīben.

ich muoȥ in der stæten wībe dienest sunder lōn verderben

oder ich muoȥ ir stæten herzen liebe alsus erwerben

daȥ ich gewenke nimmer wanc

von in. ir hōhen habedanc,

146 180

und mag ich den erringen,

sō hān ich alleȥ daȥ ich wil,

süeȥ’ ougen wunne, herzen spil,

vil wunne an allen dingen.

Nu waȥ bedarf mīn seneder līp


genāden mēr, ob ich ein wīp

ze frowen vinde alsō gemuot,

diu sich vor wandel hāt behuot

und niht wan daȥ beste tuot?

der sol mīn dienest sīn bereit


immer mē,

swie’ȥ ergē,

sunder valsch mit stætikeit.

dā von gewinne ich werdikeit

und alsō freuderīchen sin,


des ich getiuret immer bin

an aller hande dingen.

Vind’ ich sie, ich sol sō ritterlīchen nāch ir hulden ringen.

daȥ mir von ir stætikeit muoȥ hō an ir gelingen.

sie muoȥ abr ūf die triwe mīn


gar vrī vor allem wandel sīn,

diech mēr mich lāȥe twingen

und ouch in kumber bringen.

jā gehœret man mich nimmer mē

deheines valschen wībes lop gesprechen noch gesingen.


In dem lufte süeȥem meien,

sō der walt gekleidet stāt,

sō siht man sich schōne zweien

alleȥ daȥ iht liebes hāt,

unde ist mit ein ander vrō.


daȥ ist reht: diu zīt wil sō.


Swā sich liep ze liebe zweiet,

hōhen muot diu liebe gīt.

in der beider herzen meiet

eȥ mit vreuden alle zīt.


trūrens wil diu liebe niht,

swā man liep bī liebe siht.

Swā zwei liep ein ander meinent

herzenlīchen āne wanc

und sich beidiu sō vereinent


daȥ ir liebe ist āne kranc,

die hāt got zesamne geben

ūf ein wunneclīcheȥ leben.

Stætiu liebe heiȥet minne.

liebe, minne, ist al ein:


die kan ich in mīnem sinne

niht gemachen wol zuo zwein.

liebe muoȥ mir minne sīn

immer in dem herzen mīn.

Swā ein stæteȥ herze vindet


stæte liebe, stæten muot,

dā von al sīn trūren swindet.

stætiu liebe ist alsō guot

daȥ sie stæte freude gīt

stætem herzen alle zīt.


Möhte ich stæte liebe vinden,

der wold’ ich sō stæte sīn

daȥ ich dā mit überwinden

wolde gar die sorge mīn.

stæter liebe wil ich gern


unde unstæte gar verbern.


Disiu liet diu heiȥent vrowen tanz:

diu sol niemen singen, er’n sī vrō.

swer mit zühten treit der freuden kranz,

und dem sīn muot stāt von wīben hō,


dem erloube ich sie ze singen wol:

blīdeclīchen man sie tanzen sol.

Trūren ist ze wāre niemen guot

wan dem einen der sīn sünde klaget,

hōhen lop erwirbet hōher muot.


guoten wīben hōchmuot wol behaget:

dā von wil ich immer mēre sīn

hōchgemuot durch dich, guot vrowe mīn.

Vreude gibt mir dīn wol redender munt,

hōhen muot dīn reine senfte sit’:


vreuden tou mir ūȥ des herzen grunt

kumt von dir in elliu mīniu lit.

got hāt sīnen vlīȥ an dich geleit,

dā von dī lop ēren krōne treit.

Liehtiu ougen, dā bī brūne brā,


hāstu und zwei rōtiu wängelīn.

schœne bistu hie und schœne dā.

brūn rōt wīȥ, der drīer varwe schīn

treit dīn hōchgeborner schœner līp.

tugende hāstu vil, guot wīplīch wīp.


Daȥ du alsō manege tugende hāst,

dā von bin ich alles trūrens vrī.

sō du alsō schœniu vor mir gāst,

sō ist mir als ich in dem himel sī.

got sō schœnen engel nie gewan


den ich für dich wolde sehen an.



B. Text.

Wie Kriemhilt ir man klagte und wie er begraben wart.

The following extract is from Bartsch’s edition, Leipzig, 1879.

Dō erbiten si der nahte     und fuoren über Rīn.

von heleden kunde nimmer     wirs gejaget sīn.

ein tier daȥ si dā sluogen,     daȥ weinden edeliu kint.


jā muosen sīn engelten     vil guote wīgande sint.

Von grōȥer übermüete     muget ir hœren sagen,

und von eislīcher rāche.     dō hieȥ Hagene tragen

Sīfriden alsō tōten     von Nibelunge lant


für eine kemenāten     dā man Kriemhilde vant.

Er hieȥ in tougenlīchen     legen an die türe,

daȥ sin dā solde vinden     so si gienge derfüre

him zer mettīne     ē daȥ eȥ wurde tac,


der diu vrouwe Kriemhilt     vil selten keine verlac.

Man lūte dā zem münster     nāch gewoneheit.

vrou Kriemhilt diu schœne     wahte manige meit:

ein lieht bat si ir bringen     und ouch ir gewant.


dō kom ein kamerære     dā er Sīfriden vant.

Er sah in bluotes rōten:     sīn wāt was elliu naȥ.

daȥ eȥ sīn herre wære,     nine wesse er daȥ.

hin zer kemenāten     daȥ lieht truog an der hant


von dem vil leider mære     diu vrouwe Kriemhilt ervant.

Dō si mit ir vrouwen     zem münster wolde gān,

dō sprach der kamerære     ‘jā sult ir stille stān:

eȥ līt vor dem gademe     ein ritter tōt erslagen.’


dō begonde Kriemhilt     vil harte unmæȥlīche klagen.


Ē daȥ si rehte erfunde     daȥ iȥ wære ir man,

an die Hagenen vrāge     denken si began,

wie er in solde vristen:     dō wart ir ērste leit.


von ir was allen vreuden     mit sīme tōde widerseit.

Dō seic si zuo der erden,     daȥ si niht ensprach:

die schœnen vreudelōsen     ligen man dō sach.

Kriemhilde jāmer     wart unmāȥen grōȥ:


do ẹrschrē si nāch unkrefte     daȥ al diu kemenāte erdōȥ.

Dō sprach daȥ gesinde:     ‘waȥ ob eȥ ist ein gast?’

daȥ bluot ir ūȥ dem munde     von herzen jāmer brast.

dō sprach si ‘eȥ ist Sīfrit,     der mīn vil lieber man:


eȥ hāt gerāten Prünhilt,     daȥ eȥ hat Hagene getān.’

Diu vrouwe bat sich wīsen     dā si den helt vant.

si huop sīn schœne houbet     mit ir vil wīȥen hant.

swie rōt eȥ was von bluote,     si het in schiere erkant.


dō lac vil jæmerlīche     der helt von Nibelunge lant.

Dō rief vil trūreclīche     diu küneginne milt:

‘owē mir mīnes leides!     nu ist dir dīn schilt

mit swerten niht verhouwen:     du līst ermorderōt.


unt wesse ich wer iȥ het getān,     ich riete im immer sīnen tōt.’

Alleȥ ir gesinde     klagete und scrē

mit ir lieben vrouwen,     wand’ in was harte wē

umb’ ir vil edelen herren,     den si dā heten verlorn.


dō het gerochen Hagene     harte Prünhilde zorn.

Dō sprach diu jāmerhafte:     ‘ir sult hine gān

und wecket harte balde     die Sīfrides man.

ir sult ouch Sigemunde     mīnen jāmer sagen,


ob er mir helfen welle     den küenen Sīfriden klagen.’

Dō lief ein bote balde     da ẹr si ligen vant,

die Sīfrides helede     von Nibelunge lant.

mit den vil leiden mæren     ir vreude er in benam.


si wolden’ȥ niht gelouben     unz man daȥ weinen vernam.


Der bote kom ouch schiere     dā der künic lac.

Sigemunt der herre     des slāfes niht enpflac:

ich wæn’ sīn herze im sagete     daȥ im was geschehen,


ern möhte sīnen lieben sun     lebenden nimmer gesehen.

‘Wachet, herre Sigemunt.     mich bat nāch iu gān

Kriemhilt mīn vrouwe.     der ist ein leit getān

daȥ ir vor allen leiden     an ir herze gāt:


daȥ sult ir klagen helfen,     wand’ eȥ iuch sēre bestāt.’

Ūf rihte sich dō Sigemunt;     er sprach: ‘waȥ sint diu leit

der schœnen Kriemhilde,     diu du mir hāst geseit?’

der bote sprach mit weinen:     ‘ine kan iu niht verdagen:


jā ist von Niderlanden     der küene Sīfrit erslagen.’

Dō sprach der herre Sigemunt:     ‘lāt daȥ schimpfen sīn

und alsō bœsiu mære     durch den willen mīn,

daȥ ir daȥ saget iemen     daȥ er sī erslagen:


wand’ ine kunde in nimmer     unz an mīn ende verklagen.’

‘Welt ir mir niht gelouben     daȥ ir mich hœret sagen,

sō muget ir selbe hœren     Kriemhilde klagen

unt alleȥ ir gesinde     den Sīfrides tōt.’


vil sēre erscrac dō Sigemunt:     des gie im wærlīchen nōt.

Mit hundert sīnen mannen     er von den betten spranc.

si zuhten zuo den handen     diu scharpfen wāfen lanc,

si liefen zuo dem wuofe     vil jāmerliche dan.


dō kōmen tūsent recken     des küenen Sīfrides man.

Dō si sō jæmerlīche     die vrouwen hōrten klagen,

dō wānden sumelīche,     si solden kleider tragen.

janẹ mohten si der sinne     vor leide niht gehaben:


in wart vil michel swære     in ir herzen begraben.

Dō kom der künec Sigemunt     da ẹr Kriemhilde vant.

er sprach: ‘owē der reise     here in ditze lant.

wer hāt mich mīnes kindes     und iuch des iuwern man


bī alsō guoten friunden     sus mortlīch āne getān?’


‘Hey solde ich den bekennen,’     sprach daȥ vil edele wīp,

‘holt enwurde im nimmer     mīn herze unt ouch mīn līp:

ich geriete im alsō leide     daȥ die friunde sīn


von den mīnen schulden     müesen weinende sīn.’

Sigemunt der herre     den fürsten umbeslōȥ.

dō wart von sīnen vriunden     der jāmer alsō grōȥ

daȥ von dem starken wuofe     palas unde sal


und ouch diu stat ze Wormeȥ     von ir weinen erschal.

Donẹ kunde niemen trœsten     daȥ Sīfrides wīp.

man zōch ūȥ den kleidern     den sīnen schœnen līp.

man wuosch im sīne wunden     unt leit’ in ūf den rē.


dō was sīnen liuten     von grōȥem jāmere wē.

Dō sprāchen* sīne recken     von Nibelunge lant:

‘in sol immer rechen     mit willen unser hant.

er ist in dirre bürge,     der iȥ hāt getān.’


dō īlten nāch wāfen     alle Sīfrides man.

Die ūȥ erwelten degene     mit schilden kōmen dar,

einlef hundert recken:     die hete an sīner schar

Sigemunt der herre.     sīnes sunes tōt


den wolde er gerne rechen:     des gie im wærlīchen nōt.

Sinẹ wessen wen si solden     mit strīte dō bestān,

sīne tæten’ȥ Gunther     unde sīne man,

mit den der herre Sīfrit     an daȥ gejegede reit.


Kriemhilt sach si gewāfent:     daȥ was ir grœȥlīche leit.

Swie michel wær’ ir jāmer     und swie starc ir nōt,

dō vorhte si harte     der Nibelunge tōt

von ir bruoder mannen,     daȥ si eȥ understuont.


si warnt’ si güetlīche     sō vriunde liebe vriunde tuont.

Dō sprach diu jāmers rīche:     ‘mīn her Sigemunt,

wes welt ir beginnen?     iu ist niht rehte kunt.

jā hāt der künic Gunther     sō manigen küenen man:


ir welt iuch alle vliesen,     welt ir die recken bestān.’


Mit ūf erbürten schilden     in was ze strīte nōt.

diu edel küneginne     bat und ouch gebōt

daȥ siȥ mīden solden,     die recken vil gemeit.


dō siȥ niht lāȥen wolden,     daȥ was ir wærlīchen leit.

Si sprach: ‘herre Sigemunt,     ir sult iȥ lāȥen stān

unz eȥ sich baȥ gefüege:     sō wil ich mīnen man

immer mit iu rechen.     der mir in hāt benomen,


wirde ich des bewīset,     ich sol im schedelīche komen.

Eȥ ist der übermüeten     hie bī Rīne vil:

dā von ich iu des strītes     rāten niht enwil.

si habent wider einen     ie wol drīȥec man.


nu lāȥ’ in got gelingen     als si umb uns gedienet hān.

Ir sult hie belīben,     unt dolt mit mir diu leit;

als iȥ tagen beginne,     ir helde vil gemeit,

sō helfet mir besarken     den mīnen lieben man.’


dō sprāchen die degene:     ‘daȥ sol werden getān.’

Iu enkunde niemen     daȥ wunder volsagen

von rittern unt von vrouwen,     wie man die hōrte klagen,

sō daȥ man des wuofes     wart in der stat geware.


die edelen burgære     die kōmen gāhende dare.

Si klageten mit den gesten,     want in was harte leit.

die Sīfrides schulde     in niemen het geseit,

durch waȥ der edele recke     verlüre den sīnen līp.


dō weinden mit den vrouwen     der guoten burgære wīp.

Smide hieȥ man gāhen,     wurken einen sarc,

von silber und von golde,     vil michel unde starc.

man hieȥ in vaste spengen     mit stahel, der was guot.


dō was al den liuten     harte trūrec der muot.

Diu naht was zergangen:     man sagte eȥ wolde tagen.

dō hieȥ diu edele vrouwe     zuo den münster tragen

Sīfrit den herren,     ir vil lieben man.


swaȥ er dā vriunde hēte,     die sach man weinende gān.


Dō sị in zem munster brāhten,// vil der gloken klanc.

dō hōrt’ man allenthalben     vil maniges pfaffen sanc.

dō kom der künic Gunther     mit den sīnen man


und ouch der grimme Hagene     zuo dem wuofe gegān.

Er sprach: ‘vil liebiu swester,     owē der leide dīn,

daȥ wir niht mohten āne     des grōȥen schaden sīn.

wir müeȥen klagen immer     den Sīfrides līp.’


‘daȥ tuot ir āne schulde’,     sprach daȥ jāmerhafte wīp.

‘Wær’ iu dar umbe leide,     son wær’ es niht geschehen.

ir hetet mīn vergeȥȥen,     des mag ich wol jehen,

da ịch dā wart gescheiden     von mīme lieben man.


daȥ wolde got’, sprach Kriemhilt,     ‘wær’ iȥ mir selber getān.’

Si buten vaste ir lougen.     Kriemhilt begonde jehen

‘swelher sich unschuldige,     der lāȥe daȥ gesehen;

der sol zuo der bāre     vor den liuten gēn.


dā bī mac man die wārheit     harte schiere verstēn.’

Daȥ ist ein michel wunder:     vil dicke eȥ noch geschiht,

swā man den mortmeilen     bī dem tōten siht,

sō bluotent im die wunden:     als ouch dā gescach.


dā von man die sculde     dā ze Hagenen gesach.

Die wunden vluȥȥen sēre     alsam si tāten ē.

die ē dā sēre klageten,     des wart nu michel mē.

dō sprach der künic Gunther     ‘ich wil’ȥ iuch wiȥȥen lān.


in sluogen schāchære:     Hagene hāt es niht getān.’

‘Mir sint die schāchære’,     sprach si, ‘vil wol bekant.

nu lāȥe eȥ got errechen     noch sīner vriunde hant.

Gunther unde Hagene,     jā habet ir iȥ getān.’


die Sīfrides degene     heten dō ze strīte wān.

Dō sprach aber Kriemhilt:     ‘nu habt mit mir die nōt.’

dō kōmen dise beide     dā si in funden tōt,

Gērnōt ir bruoder     und Gīselher daȥ kint.


in triuwen si in klageten     mit den anderen sint.


Si weinden inneclīche     den Kriemhilde man.

man solde messe singen:     zuo dem münster dan

giengen allenthalben     man wīp unde kint.


die sīn doch līhte enbāren,     die weinden Sīfriden sint.

Gērnōt und Gīselher     sprāchen: ‘swester mīn,

nu trœste dich nāch tōde,     als iȥ doch muoȥ sīn.

wir wellen dich’s ergetzen     die wīle unt wir geleben.’


donẹ kunde ir trōst deheinen     zer werlde niemen gegeben.

Sīn sarc der was bereitet     wol umbe’n mitten tac.

man huop in von der bāre     dā er ūfe lac.

in wolde noch diu frouwe     lāȥen niht begraben.


des muosen al die liute     michel arebeite haben.

In einen rīchen pfellel     man den tōten want.

ich wæne man dā iemen     āne weinen vant.

dō klagete herzenlīche     Uote, ein edel wīp,


und alleȥ ir gesinde     den sīnen wætlīchen līp.

Dō man daȥ gehōrte,     daȥ man zem münster sanc,

unt in gesarket hēte,     dō huop sich grōȥ gedranc:

durch willen sīner sēle     waȥ opfers man dō truoc!


er hete bī den vīnden     doch guoter vriunde genuoc.

Kriemhilt diu arme     zir kameræren sprach:

‘si suln durch mīne liebe     līden ungemach,

die im iht guotes günnen     und mir wesen holt;


durch Sīfrides sēle     sol man teilen sīn golt.’

Dehein kint was sō kleine     daȥ witze mohte haben,

daȥ muose gēn zem opfer.     ē ẹr wurde begraben,

baȥ danne hundert messe     man dā des tages sanc.


von Sīfrides vriunden     wart dō grōȥer gedranc.

Dō man dā hete gesungen,     daȥ volc huop sich von dan.

dō sprach diu vrouwe Kriemhilt     ‘irn sult niht eine lān

hīnte mich bewachen     den ūȥ erwelten degen.


eȥ ist an sīme lībe     al mīn vreude gelegen.


Drī tage und drī nahte     wil ich in lāȥen stān,

unz ich mich geniete     mīns vil lieben man.

waȥ ob daȥ got gebiutet     daȥ mich ouch nimet der tōt?


sō wære wol verendet     mīn armer Kriemhilde nōt.’

Zen herbergen giengen     die liute von der stat.

pfaffen unde müniche     si belīben bat

und alleȥ sīn gesinde,     daȥ des heldes pflac.


si heten naht vil arge     unt vil müelīchen tac.

Ān eȥȥen und ān trinken     beleip dā manic man.

die eȥ nemen wolden,     den wart daȥ kunt getān,

daȥ man’s in den vollen gæbe:     daȥ schuof Sigemunt.


dō was den Nibelungen     vil michel arebeite kunt.

Die drīe tagezīte,     sō wir hœren sagen,

die dā kunden singen,     daȥ si muosen tragen

vil der arebeite.     waȥ man in opfers truoc!


die vil arme wāren,     die wurden rīche genuoc.

Swaȥ man vant der armen     die es niht mohten hān,

die hieȥ man doch zem opfer     mit dem golde gān

ūȥ sīn selbes kamere.     do ẹr niht solde leben,


umbe sīne sēle     wart manic tūsent marc gegeben.

Urbor ūf der erden     teilte s’in diu lant,

swā sō man diu klōster     und guote liute vant.

silber unde wæte     gap man den armen gnuoc.


si tet dem wol gelīche     daȥ sim holden willen truoc.

An dem dritten morgen     ze rehter messezīt

sō was bī dem münster     der kirchof alsō wīt

von den lantliuten     weinens alsō vol:


si dienden im nāch tōde     als man lieben vriunden sol.

In den tagen vieren,     man hāt gesaget daȥ,

ze drīȥec tūsent marken,     oder dannoch baȥ,

wart durch sīne sēle     den armen dā gegeben.


dō was gelegen ringe     sīn grōȥiu schœne und ouch sīn leben.


Dō gote dā wart gedienet     und daȥ man vol gesanc,

mit ungefüegem leide     vil des volkes ranc.

man hieȥ in ūȥ dem münster     zuo dem grabe tragen.


die sīn ungern enbāren,     die sah man weinen unde klagen.

Vil lūte scrīende     daȥ liut gie mit im dan:

vrō enwas dā niemen,     weder wīp noch man.

ē daȥ man in begrüebe,     man sanc unde las:


hey waȥ guoter pfaffen     ze sīner pīfilde was!

Ē daȥ zem grabe kœme     daȥ Sīfrides wīp,

dō ranc mit solhem jāmer     der ir getriuwer līp,

daȥ man si mit dem brunnen     vil dicke dā vergōȥ.


eȥ was ir ungemüete     vil harte unmæȥlīchen grōȥ.

Eȥ was ein michel wunder     daȥ si ie genas.

mit klage ir helfende     manic vrouwe was.

dō sprach diu küneginne:     ‘ir Sīfrides man,


ir sult durch iuwer triuwe     an mir genāde begān.

Lāt mir nāch mīme leide     daȥ kleine liep geschehen,

daȥ ich sīn schœne houbet     noch eines müeȥe sehen.’

dō bat si’s alsō lange     mit jāmers sinnen starc,


daȥ man zebrechen muose     den vil hērlīchen sarc.

Dō brāhte man die vrouwen     dā si in ligen vant.

si huop sīn schœne houbet     mit ir vil wīȥen hant;

dō kuste s’ alsō tōten     den edelen ritter guot.


ir vil liehten ougen     vor leide weineten bluot.

Ein jæmerlīcheȥ scheiden     wart dō dā getān.

dō truoc man si von dannen:     sine mohte niht gegān.

dō vant man sinnelōse     daȥ hērlīche wīp.


vor leide möht’ ersterben     der ir vil wünneclīcher līp.

Dō man den edelen herren     hete nu begraben,

leit āne māȥe     sah man die alle haben

die mit im komen wāren     von Nibelunge lant.


vil selten vrœlīchen     man dō Sigemunden vant.


Dō was der etelīcher     der drīer tage lanc

vor dem grōȥem leide     niht aȥ noch entranc.

doch mohten si dem lībe     sō gar geswīchen niht:


si nerten sich nāch sorgen,     sō noch genuogen geschiht.


Wolfram von Eschenbach was a native of Bavaria. Of his life little is known, not even the exact dates of his birth and death. He flourished in the latter part of the twelfth and early part of the thirteenth century, and was by far the best and most extensive representative of the Court epic poetry. He is best known by his Parzival, which contains 24,812 lines divided up into sixteen books. The following extract is taken from Book III. For editions of his works, see Lachmann, Wolfram von Eschenbach, Berlin, 1833, fifth edition, Berlin, 1891; Bartsch, Wolfram’s von Eschenbach Parzival und Titurel, Leipzig, 1875.

Sich zōch diu frouwe jāmers balt

ūȥ ir lande in einen walt,

zer waste in Soltāne;

niht durch bluomen ūf die plāne,


ir herzen jāmer was sō ganz,

sinẹ kērte sich an keinen kranz,

er wære rōt oder val.

sie brāhte dar durch flühtesal

des werden Gahmuretes kint.


liute, die bī ir dā sint,

müeȥen būwen unde riuten.

sie kunde wol getriuten

ir sun. ē daȥ sich der versan,

ir volc sie gar für sich gewan:


eȥ wære man oder wīp,

den gebōt sie allen an den līp,

daȥ se iemer rīters wurden lūt.

‘wan friesche daȥ mīns herzen trūt,


welch rīters leben wære,


daȥ wurde mir vil swære.

nu habet iuch an der witze kraft,

und helt in alle rīterschaft.’

Der site fuor angestlīche vart.

der knappe alsus verborgen wart


zer waste in Soltāne erzogen,

an küneclīcher fuore betrogen;

eȥ ẹnmöhte an eime site sīn:

bogen unde bölzelīn

die sneit er mit sīn selbes hant,


und schōȥ vil vogele die er vant.

swenne ab er den vogel erschōȥ,

des schal von sange ē was sō grōȥ,

sō weinde er unde roufte sich,

an sīn hār kērt’ er gerich.


sīn līp was klār unde fier:

ūf dem plān am rivier

twuog er sich alle morgen.

er’n kunde niht gesorgen,

eȥ ẹnwære ob im der vogelsanc,


die suoȥe in sīn herze dranc:

daȥ erstracte im sīniu prüstelīn.

al weinde er lief zer künegīn.

sō sprach sie ‘wer hāt dir getān?

du wær’ hin ūȥ ūf den plān.’


er’n kunde es ir gesagen niht,

als kinden līhte noch geschiht.

dem mære gienc sie lange nāch.

eins tages sie in kapfen sach

ūf die boume nāch der vogele schal.


sie wart wol innen daȥ zeswal

von der stimme ir kindes brust.

des twang in art und sīn gelust.


frou Herzeloyde kērte ir haȥ

an die vogele, sine wesse um waȥ:


sie wolte ir schal verkrenken.

ir būliutẹ und ir enken

die hieȥ sie vaste gāhen,

vogele würgen unde vāhen.

die vogele wāren baȥ geriten:


etslīches sterben wart vermiten:

der bleip dā lebendic ein teil,

die sīt mit sange wurden geil.

Der knappe sprach zer künegīn

‘waȥ wīȥet man den vogelīn?’


er gerte in frides sā zestunt.

sīn muoter kuste in an den munt:

diu sprach ‘wes wende ich sīn gebot,

der doch ist der hœhste got?

suln vogele durch mich fröude lān?’


der knappe sprach zer muoter sān

‘owē muoter, waȥ ist got?’

‘sun, ich sage dir’ȥ āne spot.

er ist noch liehter denn’ der tag,

der antlitzes sich bewac


nāch menschen antlitze.

sun, merke eine witze,

und flēhe in umbe dīne nōt:

sīn triwe der werlde ie helfe bōt.

sō heiȥet einẹr der helle wirt:


der ịst swarz, untriuwe in niht verbirt.

von dem kēr’ dīne gedanke,

und och von zwīvels wanke.’

sīn muoter underschiet im gar

daȥ vinster unt daȥ lieht gevar.


dar nāch sīn snelheit verre spranc.

er lerntẹ den gabylōtes swanc,


dā mite er manegen hirz erschōȥ:

des sīn muoter und ir volc genōȥ.

eȥ wære æber oder snē,


dem wilde tet’ sīn schieȥen wē.

nu hœret fremdiu mære.

swenne er’rschōȥ daȥ swære,

des wære ein mūl geladen genuoc,

als unzerworht hin heim er’ȥ truoc.


Eins tages gieng er den weideganc

an einer halden, diu was lanc:

er brach durch blates stimme ‘en zwīc.

dā nāhen bī im gienc ein stīc:

dā hōrt’ er schal von huofslegen.


sīn gabylōt begund’er wegen:

dō sprach er ‘waȥ hān ich vernomen?

wan wolte et nu der tiuvel komen

mit grimme zorneclīche!

den bestüende ich sicherlīche.


mīn muoter freisen von im saget:

ich wæne ir ellen sī verzaget.’

alsus stuont er in strītes ger.

nu seht, dort kom geschūftet her

drī rīter nāch wunsche var,


von fuoȥe ūf gewāpent gar.

der knappe wānde sunder spot,

daȥ ieslīcher wære ein got.

dō stuont ouch er niht langer hie,

in’ȥ phat viel er ūf sīniu knie.


lūte rief der knappe sān

‘hilf, got: du maht wol helfe hān.’

der vorder zornes sich bewac,

dō der knappe im phade lac:

‘dirre tœrsche Wāleise


unsich wendet gāher reise.’


ein prīs den wir Beier tragen,

muoȥ ich von Wāleisen sagen:

die sint tœrscher denne beiersch her,

und doch bī manlīcher wer.


swer in den zwein landen wirt,

gefuoge ein wunder an im birt.

Dō kom geleischieret

und wol gezimieret

ein rīter, dem was harte gāch.


er reit in strīteclīchen nāch,

die verre wāren von im komen:

zwēn’ rīter heten im genomen

ein’ frouwen in sīm’ lande,

den helt eȥ dūhte schande:


in müetẹ der juncfrouwen leit,

diu jæmerlīche vor in reit.

dise drī wāren sīne man.

er reit ein schœne kastelān:

sīns schildes was vil wēnic ganz.


er hieȥ Karnahkarnanz

leh cons Ulterlec.

er sprach ‘wer irret uns den wec?’

sus fuor er zuome knappen sān.

den dūhte er als ein got getān:


er’n het’ ē sō liehtes niht erkant.

ūfẹm towe der wāpenroc erwant.

mit guldīn schellen kleine

vor ietwederem beine

wārn die stegreife erklenget


unt ze rehter māȥe erlenget.

sīn zeswer arm von schellen klanc,

swar er’n bōt oder swanc.

der was durch swertslege sō hel:

der helt was gein prīse snel.

163 155

sus fuor der fürste rīche,

gezimiert wünneclīche.

Aller manne schœne ein bluomen kranz,

den vrāgte Karnahkarnanz

‘junchērre, sāht ir für iuch varen


zwēn’ rīter die sich niht bewaren

kunnen an rīterlīcher zunft?

sie ringent mit der nōtnunft

und sint an werdekeit verzaget:

sie füerent roubes eine maget.’


der knappe wānde, swaȥ er sprach,

eȥ wære got, als ime verjach

frou Herzeloyd’ diu künegīn,

do s’im underschiet den liehten schīn.

dō rief er lūte sunder spot


‘nu hilf mir, helfe rīcher got.’

vil dicke viel an sīn gebet

fil li roy Gahmuret.

der fürste sprach ‘ich pin niht got,

ich leiste ab gerne sīn gebot.


du maht his vier rīter sehen,

ob du ze rehte kundest spehen.’

der knappe frāgte fürbaȥ

‘du nennest rīter: waȥ ist daȥ?

hāstu niht gotelīcher kraft,


sō sage mir, wer gīt rīterschaft.’

‘daȥ tuot der künec Artūs.

junchērre, komet ir in des hūs,

der bringet iuch an rīters namen,

daȥ ir’s iuch niemer durfet schamen.


ir muget wol sīn von rīters art.’

von den helden er geschouwet wart:

dō lac diu gotes kunst an ime.

von der āventiurẹ ich daȥ nime,


diu mich mit wārheit des beschiet:


nie mannes varwe baȥ geriet

vor ime sīt Adāmes zīt.

des wart sīn lop von wīben wīt.

Aber sprach der knappe sān

dā von ein lachen wart getān.


‘ay rīter got, waȥ mahtu sīn?

du hāst sus manec vingerlīn

an dīnen līp gebunden,

dort oben unt hie unden.’

aldā begreif des knappen hant


swaȥ er īsers ame fürsten vant:

des harnasch begunder schouwen.

‘mīner muoter juncfrouwen

ir vingerīn an snüeren tragent,

diu niht sus an ein ander ragent.’


der knappe sprach durch sīnen muot

‘war zuo ist ditze guot,

daȥ dich sō wol kan schicken?

i’ne mages niht abe gezwicken.’

der fürste im zeigete sā sīn swert:


‘nu sich, swer an mich strītes gert,

des selben wer ich mich mit slegen:

für die sīne muoȥ ich an mich legen,

und für den schuȥ und für den stich

muoȥ ich alsus wāpen mich.’


aber sprach der knappe snel

‘ob die hirze trüegen sus ir vel,

son’ verwunt’ ir niht mīn gabylōt.

der vellet manger vor mir tōt.’

Die rīter zurnden daȥ er hielt


bi dem knappen der vil tumpheit wielt.

der fürste sprach ‘got hüete dīn.

ōwī wan wær’ dīn schœne mīn!


dir hete got den wunsch gegeben,

ob du mit witzen soldest leben.


diu gotes kraft dir virre leit.’

die sīne und och er selbe reit,

unde gāheten balde

z’einem velde in dem walde.

dā vant der gefüege


frōn Herzeloyden phlüege.

ir volke leider nie geschach;

die er balde eren sach:

si bẹgunden sæn, dar nāch egen,

ir gart ob starken ohsen wegen.


der fürste in guoten morgen bōt,

und frāgte sẹ, op sie sæhen nōt

eine juncfrouwen līden,

sine kunden niht vermiden,

swes er vrāgt’, daȥ wart gesaget.


‘zwēne rīter und ein maget

dā riten hiute morgen.

diu frouwe fuor mit sorgen:

mit sporen sie vaste ruorten,

die die juncfrouwen fuorten.’


eȥ was Meljahkanz.

den ergāhte Karnachkarnanz,

mit strīte er ime die frouwen nam:

diu was dā vor fröuden lam.

sie hieȥ Īmāne


von der Bēāfontāne.

Die būliute verzageten,

dō die helde für sie jageten.

sie sprāchen ‘wie’st uns sus geschehen?

hāt unser junchērre ersehen


ūf disen rītern helme schart,

sonẹ hān wir uns niht wol bewart.


wir sulen der küneginne haȥ

von schulden hœren umbe daȥ,

wand’ er mit uns dā her lief


hiute morgen dō sie dannoch slief.’

der knappe enruochte ouch wer dō schōȥ

die hirze kleine unde grōȥ:

er huop sich gein der muoter wider,

und sagete ir mær’. dō viel sie nider:


sīner worte sie sō sēre erschrac,

daȥ sị unversunnen vor im lac.

dō diu küneginne

wider kom z’ir sinne,

swie sie dā vor wær’ verzaget,


dō sprach sie ‘sun, wer hāt gesaget

dir von rīters orden?

wā bist du’s innen worden?’

‘muoter, ich sach vier man

noch liehter danne got getān:


die sageten mir von rīterschaft.

Artūses küneclīchiu kraft

sol mich nāch rīters ēren

an schildes ambet kēren.’

sich huop ein niuwer jāmer hie.


diu frouwe enwesse rehte, wie

daȥ sie ir den list erdæhte

unde in von dem willen bræhte.

Der knappe tump unde wert

iesch von der muoter dicke ein pfert.


daȥ begunde sẹ in ir herzen klagen.

sie dāhte ‘i’n wil im niht versagen:

eȥ muoȥ aber vil bœse sīn.’

dō gedāhte mēr diu künegīn

‘der liute vil bī spotte sint.


tōren kleider sol mīn kint


ob sīme liehten lībe tragen.

wirt er geroufet unt geslagen,

sō kumet er mir her wider wol.’

ōwē der jæmerlīchen dol!


diu frouwe nam ein sactuoch:

sie sneit im hemede unde bruoch,

daȥ doch an eime stücke erschein,

unz enmitten an sīn blankeȥ bein.

daȥ wart für tōren kleit erkant.


ein gugel man obene drūfe vant.

al frisch rūch kelberīn

von einer hūt zwei ribbalīn

nāch sīnen beinen wart gesniten.

dā wart grōȥ jāmer niht vermiten.


diu künegīn was alsō bedāht,

sie bat belīben in die naht.

‘dunẹ solt niht hinnen kēren,

ich wil dich list ē lēren.

an ungebanten strāȥen


soltu tunkel fürte lāȥen:

die sīhte unde lūter sīn,

dā solte al balde rīten īn.

du solt dich site nieten,

der werelde grüeȥen bieten.


ob dich ein grā wīse man

zuht wil lērn als er wol kan,

dem soltu gerne volgen,

und wis im niht erbolgen.

sun, lā dir bevolhen sīn,


swa du guotes wībes vingerlīn

mügest erwerben unt ir gruoȥ,

daȥ nim: eȥ tuot dir kumbers buoȥ.

du solt z’ir kusse gāhen

und ir līp vast’ umbevāhen:


daȥ gīt gelücke und hōhen muot,


op sie kiusche ist unde guot.

du solt och wiȥȥen, sun mīn,

der stolze küene Lähelīn

dīnen fürsten abe ervaht zwei lant,


diu sollen dienen dīner hant,

Wāleis und Norgāls.

ein dīn fürste Turkentals

den tōt von sīner hende enphienc:

dīn volc er sluoc unde vienc.’


‘diz riche ich, muoter, ruocht es got:

in verwundet noch mīn gabylōt.’

Des morgens dō der tag erschein,

der knappe balde wart enein,

im was gein Artūse gāch.


frou Herzeloyde in kuste und lief im nāch.

der werelde riuwe aldā geschach.

dō sie ir sun niht langer sach

(der reit enwec: wem’st deste baȥ?),

dō viel diu frouwe valsches laȥ


ūf die erde, aldā sie jāmer sneit

dō daȥ se ein sterben niht vermeit.

ir vil getriulīcher tōt

der frouwen wert’ die hellenōt.

ōwol sie daȥ se ie muoter wart!


sus fuor die lōnes bernden vart

ein wurzel der güete

und ein stam der diemüete.

ōwē daȥ wir nu niht enhān

ir sippe unz an den eilften spān!


des wirt gevelschet manec līp.

doch solten nu getriuwiu wīp

heiles wünschen disem knaben,

der sich hie von ir hāt erhaben.



[The references refer to the paragraphs in the Grammar.]

All notes are directly linked to the text referenced.


p. 79, l. 13. werdent sehende, will see.

p. 79, l. 19. daȥ si anders niht enpflæge, see §§ 102, 108.

p. 81, l. 34. von sō getāner freude, of joy of such a beautiful kind.


p. 83, l. 26. mege, pres. subj. of mac, see § 93.

p. 85, l. 15. sempervrīen, from sentbærevrīen, the highest class of freemen.

p. 85, l. 17. miter = mitter(e), aj. nom. pl., middle, see § 9, 2.


l. 6. im, is reflexive, see §§ 66, 104.

ll. 24-5. That this one (er) may pray to God for the salvation of Heinrich’s soul.

l. 31. ze Swāben = in the country of the Swabians, i.e. Swabia.

l. 38. ze handen haben, possess.

l. 50. versworn, pp. of verswern, § 86.

l. 101. des muge wir: des is dependent on ein wāreȥ bilde; for muge, see § 74, note.

l. 106. sehent = sehet, imperative.

l. 133-4. dō . . . alrēst, as soon as.

l. 164. eime = eineme, see § 9, 3.

l. 190. gnislich = genislich, cp. § 9, 7.

l. 239. für die selben frist, since then.

ll. 240-1. no longer any hopes of being healed.


l. 257. sich abe tuon, renounce, resign.

l. 351. getwelte, had dwelt, see § 106.

ll. 372-3. The construction is sō ze Salerne vil meister (gen.) von arzenīen ist, see § 102.

l. 376. kunde for kundet.

l. 486. es gen. is dependent on niht.

l. 547. sich ein dinc an nemen, to take a thing to heart.

l. 591. mohter = mohte er, see § 65, note 3.

l. 621. die wīle daȥ, so long as.

l. 640. wan = waȥ ne, why not.

l. 756. verswīge wir is the imperative, cp. also note to l. 101.

l. 846. dīme = dīneme, see § 9, 3.


l. 144. kond pret. of kan.

ll. 174-5. They would imagine themselves ruined if they did not exercise a stern rule. On the omission of the negative see § 108.

l. 178. tiuschiu zunge, German language, i.e. Germany.

l. 182. bekērā, see ā in the Glossary.

l. 185. Philippe is dative; en = den.

l. 187. man . . . wībe are the gen. plural.

l. 214. guoter is gen. plural.

l. 232. bluomen . . . wunder, a great multitude of flowers.

l. 250. daȥ sie schiere got gehœne! may God curse them soon.

l. 255. Der uns freude wider bræhte, if anyone would bring us joy again.

l. 285. bien = bī den.

l. 292. weder ir, which of the two.

l. 308. hōhste (weak form) name, the most beautiful or precious name.

l. 429. du lā dir niht ze wē sīn nāch dem guote, do not worry yourself too much about wealth.

ll. 475-6. Very many call thee father, who will not recognize me as their brother.

ll. 498-9. See Extracts from Reinmar, ll. 184-192.


l. 33. Liutpolt: Duke Leopold VI of Austria.

l. 75. bekan = bekam.


l. 28. sīme = sīneme, see § 9, 3; widerseit = widersaget, § 37.

l. 32. nāch unkrefte, after she had regained her consciousness.

l. 37. bat sich wīsen, asked them to lead her to.

l. 43. ermorderōt, older form of pp. of ermordern, see § 88, note.

l. 88. āne tuon, with gen. and acc., bereave, rob.

l. 92. weinende sīn = weinen, see § 106.

l. 213. huop sich von dan, betook themselves away.


l. 17. that they should never mention the word ‘knight’. On the omission of the negative see § 108.

l. 42. weinde = weinende, see § 29.

ll. 83-4. The mother explained to him fully the difference between darkness and light, i.e. between the Devil and God.

l. 141. leh cons = le (li) cons, the Count.

ll. 157-8. K. asked him, who was the perfection of human beauty.

l. 172. fil li roy, son of the king.

l. 243. Supply ros as object.



sm., sf., sn., = strong masculine, &c.
sv. = strong verb.
wm., wf., wn., = weak masculine, &c.
wv. = weak verb.
pret.-pres. = preterite-present.
pn. = proper name.

The remaining abbreviations need no explanation.

The Roman numeral after a verb indicates the class to which the verb belongs. The ordinary numerals after a word indicate the paragraph in the Grammar where the word either occurs or some peculiarity of it is explained.

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   Z


ā, interj. added to the imperative, nouns, and particles;

neinā, certainly not.

ab, abe, prep. c. dat. of, from;

av. away, away from, 9.6.

aber, abr, ab, av. and cj. again, once more, but;

aber sprëchen, answer, reply.

acker, sm. field, acre, 9.2, 31.242.

Adām, pn. Adam.

adamas, sm. diamond.

æber, sn. place where the snow has melted away.

ænic (with gen.), aj. bereft.

äher (OHG. ahir), sn. ear of corn.

aht(e), num. eight, 62.

aht(e), sf. attention, meditation; station, position.

ahtede, num. eighth, 62.

ahten, wv. observe, consider, deliberate.

ah(t)zëhen, num. eighteen, 62.

ah(t)zëhende, num. eighteenth, 62.

ah(t)zic (-ec), num. eighty, 62.

ah(t)zigeste, num. eightieth, 62.

al (infl. aller, alleȥ, alliu (älliu, elliu)), aj. all;

al dā, there, thereupon;

al dō, as soon as;

al ein, all one, the same;

aller hande, of all kinds;

alle wëge, everywhere, 55.

aleine, av. alone.

allenthalben, av. on all sides.

allertegelīch, av. daily.

alleȥ, av. always, already.

allmahtic (almähtic, almehtic), aj. all-powerful, almighty.

almuosen, sn. alms, charity.

alrēst = aller ērst, at first.

als, see alsō.

alsam, av. as, just as, 69.

alsō (alse, als), av. as, just as, so, likewise, 69;

alse dar, always, all the time.

alsolch = solch.

alsus (alsust), av. in this manner, so, thus.

alt, aj. old, former, 10, 57.

alter, sn. age.

alwære, aj. foolish.

alze, av. too, too much.


alzehant, av. on the spot, at once, immediately.

am = an dëm.

ambet, sn. service, office, calling.

anblic, sm. look.

ander, num. and pr. other, second, 55, 6271.

anders, av. otherwise, else;

niht anderswan, nothing but.

anderswar, av. elsewhere.

ane (an), prep. c. dat. or acc. on, by, in; of; along with; until, 9.6;

an dën līp, by (their) life, on the penalty of (their) life;

an dër stat, at once, on the spot.

āne (ān), av. alone, free, deprived of;

eines āne wërden, to lose;

cj. except;

prep. c. acc. or gen. without, except, next to.

ange, av. narrowly, exactly, carefully, anxiously, 9.7.

anger, sm. grass plot.

angesiht, sf. sight.

angest, smf. care, sorrow, anxiety.

anges(t)lich, aj. anxious, fearful, dangerous, terrible.

anme, amme, ame, am = an dëme, 68 note 2.

ansëhen, sv. V, look at, behold.

anst (pl. enste), sf. favour, 49.

antlütze, antlitze, sn. face, countenance.

antwürten (pret. antwurte), wv. answer.

apfel, sm. apple, 31.2.

ar, wm. eagle, 9.1, 50.

arbeit (arebeite), sf. work, trouble, grief.

arbeitsam, aj. painful, troublesome.

arc (-ges), aj. bad, mischievous, wicked.

arm, aj. poor, helpless, unhappy, 57.

arm, sm. arm.

armuot, sf. poverty, want.

art, smf. inborn manner, nature, quality; origin, descent.

Artūs, pn. Arthur, king of Britain.

arzāt, sm. physician.

arzenīe, sf. medicine, remedy.

ās, sn. carrion, 28.

ātem, sm. breath, 42.

āventiure, sf. wonderful event

ay, interj. ah! alas!


bābest, sm. pope.

bāgen, sv. VII, quarrel, 87.

bal (-lles), sm. ball.

balde, av. boldly, bravely, valiantly; quickly;

balde wërden enein, be quickly resolved.

balt, aj. courageous, full of courage, firm, unyielding.

baltlīch, aj. courageous.

bange, aj. anxious, 9.7.

bannen, sv. VII, banish, expel, put under the ban, 87.

bar, aj. bare, 55.

bāre, sf. bier.

bat (-des), sn. bath, flood of tears.

baȥ, av. better, more, 61;

baȥ geriten, quicker;

baȥ veile, of less value;

wëm’st deste baȥ?, who feels joy at this parting?

Bēāfontāne, pn.

bedāht, p.p. thoughtful, intent.

bēde = beide.

bedecken (pret. -dacte, -dahte), wv. cover, 90.

bedenken (pret. -dāhte, subj. pret. -dæhte), think over, consider;

sich dës willen bedenken, decide upon a thing.


bediuten, wv. expound;

refl. mark, denote.

bedrieȥen, sv. II, seem troublesome or irksome.

bedunken (pret. -dūhte), wv. seem, appear.

bedurfen, bedürfen (pr. sing. -darf), pret. pres., need, require;

see durfen.

begān, anom. v. to do a thing;

refl. live;

see gān.

begieȥen, sv. II, pour over, moisten.

beginnen, sv. III (pret. also weak begunde, begonde), begin, 81.

begraben, sv. VI, bury, inter.

begrīfen, sv. I, grasp, understand.

begunder = begunde ër.

behagen, wv. please, delight, suit.

behalten, sv. VII, hold, keep, preserve, reserve, store up.

beherten, wv. harden, enforce.

behüeten, wv. keep, preserve, protect.

behuot, p.p. of behüeten.

beide (bēde), num., neut. beidiu, both;

beide—und, both—and.

beidenthalben, av. on both sides.

Beier, pn. people of Bavaria, Bavarians.

beier(i)sch, aj. Bavarian.

bein, sn. bone, leg, 5, 11.

beiten, wv. wait;

sn. a waiting.

bejagen, wv. acquire, get.

bejëhen, sv. V, assure.

bekan = bekam.

bekennen (pret. -kante), wv. know, recognize, get to know.

bekēren, wv. employ, turn;

bekēren sich, turn round.

bekomen, sv. IV, get, obtain.

belīben (blīben), sv. I, remain, 9.776;

under wëgen belīben, be left undone, cease.

beliuhten, wv. illumine, explain, make manifest.

benamen = bī namen, in the true sense of the word.

benëmen, sv. IV, take, take away;

c. gen. exempt.

berāten, sv. VII, consider, arrange, provide for;

refl. consider, reflect.

bërc (-ges), sm. mountain.

bereit (bereite), aj. ready, willing;

av. readily, willingly, 55.

bereiten (pret. -reite), wv. plough, make arable, prepare, make ready.

bërgen, sv. III, hide, 81.

bërn, sv. IV, bear, carry, bring forth, 9.1, 1982.

bern (pret. berte), wv. beat, strike.

berouben, wv. bereave, rob.

berüeren, wv. touch, move.

besarken (beserken), wv. put into the coffin.

beschëhen, sv. V, happen.

bescheiden, sv. VII, make clear, explain.

bescheiden (bescheidenlīch), aj. sensible, prudent.

bescheidenheit, sf. understanding, sense, prudence.

bescheidenlīchen, av. definitely, clearly, sensibly.

beschern, wv. bestow upon, divide, let out.

bëseme, wm. besom; rod.

besitzen (pret. -saȥ), sv. V, take possession of.

beslieȥen, sv. II, close, shut.

besorgen, wv. provide, be conscious of; requite.

bestān, anom. v. remain; attack, assail;

einen bestān, concern, belong to.

beste, aj. and av. best, 9.5, 23.161.

besunder, av. apart.


beswærde, sf. affliction, grief, sadness.

beswæren, wv. afflict, grieve.

beswern (pret. -swuor, pp. -sworn), sv. VI, take an oath, swear to.

bëte, sf. request, command.

bëten, wv. pray, 92.

betrahten, wv. view, consider.

betriegen, sv. II, deceive.

betrüeben, wv. make gloomy or angry.

bette, sn. bed, 10, 46.

bettestat, sf. couch, place of rest.

bevëlhen, sv. III, order, recommend; bring home to a person, 19, 34, 81.

bevinden, sv. III, become sensible of, get to know.

bewachen, wv. watch, guard.

bewarn, wv. protect, guard against, preserve; avert, ward off, prevent.

bewëgen (sich with gen.), sv. V, resolve to or upon, take upon oneself; part with, cast off.

bewenden (pp. -want), wv. turn to, use.

bewīsen, wv. put right, inform, instruct.

beȥȥer (superl. beȥȥest, beste), aj. better, 58.

beȥȥern, wv. refl. get better, improve.

beȥȥerunge, sf. improvement, 8.

, prep. and av. near, near by, with, beside; thereby;

bī sīn with dat. of person: be near, have;

bī mīnen triuwen, in truth, upon my word!;

bī mīnen zīten, during my lifetime;

bī spotte sīn, like mockery;

bī wësen, remain.

bibenen (biben, pp. bibent), wv. quake, tremble.

biderbe, aj. noble, active, good.

biegen, sv. II, bow, bend, 5, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 3378.

bien = bī dën.

bieten, sv. II, offer, show, 5, 11, 18, 2578.

bilde, sn. example, comparison.

bilden, wv. form.

billich, aj. becoming, right.

billīchen, av. rightly, properly, befittingly.

bin, am, 97.

binden, sv. III, bind, fasten, 10 note 2, 11, 12, 15, 3381;

wol gebunden, with the hair neatly braided and decked out.

bir, swf. pear, 50.

bīten, sv. I, wait, put off, delay, 76.

bit(t)en (pret. bat), sv. V, ask, beg, request, command, 3, 26, 31.384.

bitter, aj. bitter, 20, 31.255.

bitterlīch, aj. bitter, 8.

bitterlīchen, av. bitterly.

biȥ, sm. bite, 44.

bīȥen, sv. I, bite, 5, 1976.

blā (-wes), aj. blue, 3655.

blanc, aj. white, shining, beautiful.

blāsen, sv. VII, blow, 87.

blat, sn. leaf.

blī (-ges), snm. lead, 35.

blīben = belīben.

blic (-ckes), sm. glance, look; splendour.

blīdeclīchen, av. blithely, joyfully.

blint (-des), aj. blind, 7, 9.2, 5556.

bliuwen, sv. II, strike, 16 note, 19, 3679.

blōȥ, aj. bare, naked; only.

blüejen, blüewen, blüen, wv. bloom, 19, 3590.

blüemen, wv. bloom, 90.

bluome, wmf. flower, blossom.


bluot, sn. blood.

bluoten, wv. bleed.

boc (-ckes), sm. he-goat, 10, 32.1.

böcklīn, sn. little he-goat, 10.

bœse, aj. bad, worthless, despicable.

boge, wm. bow.

bölzelīn, sn. little cross-bow, bolt or arrow.

borgen, wv. borrow.

bote, wm. messenger, 51.

bougen, böugen, wv. bend, 10.

boum, sm. tree.

bōȥen, sv. VII, beat, strike, 87.

brā (brāwe), swf., brow, eyebrow; eyelash, 48.

brāten, sv. VII, roast, 87.

brëchen, sv. IV, break, pluck, gather; neglect, 82.

breit, aj. wide, broad.

brennen, wv. burn, 10, 1190.

bresten, sv. IV, break, burst, be deficient, want, lack, 19.

brief (-ves), sm. letter, 3344.

bringen (pret. brāhte, pret. subj. bræhte), bring, 28, 2991;

sich bringen lāȥen, let oneself be brought;

vür bringen, carry out.

brinnen, sv. III, burn, 81.

briuwen, sv. II, brew, 16 note79.

brœde, aj. breakable, perishable.

brōt, sn. bread.

brugge, brügge (brucke, brücke), sf. bridge, 10 note 3, 26, 31.3.

brūn, aj. brown; dark-coloured.

brunne, wm. spring, well, brook.

bruoch, sf. covering for the upper part of the thigh.

bruoder, sm. brother, 3, 5, 11, 24, 2545.

brust (pl. bruste, brüste), sf. breast, bosom, 10 note 349.

brūt (pl. briute), bride, 5, 1011.

(-wes), smn. cultivated land; farmhouse; dwelling, abode, 42.

büechlīn, sn. little book, 10.

būman (pl. būliute), sm. peasant, farmer, farm labourer.

buoch, sn. book, 10.

buosem, sm. bosom, 9.2.

buoȥ, sm. remedy, compensation, reparation;

buoȥ tuon c gen., free from, liberate from.

būr, sm. peasant.

burc (-ge), sf. castle, town, 10 note 149.

burgære, sm. citizen, parishioner.

burt, sf. birth, of good family.

butze, wm. hobgoblin, bug-bear;

in butzen wīs, like a ghostly hobgoblin.

būwen, biuwen (pret. biute), wv. till, cultivate, plant.


For c see k.


, dār, av. there, where, 3969;

dā mite, therewith;

dā von, thereby;

dā vor, before it or that;

dā zuo, thereby, therewith, thereto.

dach, sn. covering, 31.3.

dagen, wv. be silent, 92.

dahte, see decken.

danc (-kes), sm.. thanks, wish;

sunder or an’ mīnen danc, against my wish.

danken, wv. thank, 9.2.

danne, denne (dan), av. then;

after the comparative, than as;

in conditional sentences with or without ne = unless.


dannen, av. from there, thence; wherefrom, 69.

dannoch (dennoch), av. however, even, still; besides, in addition to this; moreover.

dar, dare, av. thither, whither, 69;

dar an, thereon, in that, therein;

dar für, before it;

dar nāch, thereupon, after that;

dar umbe, therefore, 69;

dar under, amongst them, in between;

dar zuo, besides, in addition.

dārinne, darinne, av. therein.

daȥ cj. that.

dechein, pr. no, none, 71.

decken (pret. dacte, dahte), wv. cover, 23.2, 31.3, 32.290.

dëgen, sm. warrior, vassal, 11.

dehein, dekein, pr. any one; no, none, 71.

deich = daȥ ich.

deist = daȥ ist.

denen (dennen), wv. stretch, 92.

denken (pret. dāhte), think, 5, 11, 28, 2991.

denne = danne.

dennoch, see dannoch.

dër, daȥ, diu, def. art., dem. pr., and rel. pr., the, who; 9.6, 6869;

dës, av. with which, thereby, therefore, wherefore.

derfüre, av. out.

dernider, av. down.

dërst = dër ist.

dēst, deis, dēs = daȥ ist, 68 note 1.

deste, av. the more, all the more;

before comparatives, the, so much, 11.

dēswār (= daȥ ist wār), av. truly, in truth, indeed.

dewëder, dwëder, pr. one of two, neither of two, 71.

deȥ = daȥ.

dic (dicke), aj. thick, dark, 55;

av. dicke, often;

dicke baȥ, often still better.

die = Middle Germ. form of dër.

diech = daȥ ich.

diemüete, sf. humility.

dien = die en.

dienen, wv. serve, earn, deserve; requite, 9.2, 92.

dienest (dienst), sm. service, serviceableness; devotion, 9.2;

ze dienste, out of devotion.

dienstman, sm. servant, feoffee.

diep (-bes), sm. thief;

ze diebe wërden, become a thief.

dieȥen, sv. II, resound, roar, rush, 1878.

dīhen (pret. dēch, pp. gedigen), sv. I, thrive, 17, 3076.

dīn, pr. thy, 9.3, 67.

dinc (-ges), sn. thing, affair, 46.

dingen, wv. speak, make a contract.

dirre, diser, dise (neut. ditze, diz, diȥ; fem. disiu), pr. this, 68.

diuhen, wv. change, remove; press, shove.

diuten, wv. intimate, relate, display.

diuwe (diw), sf. servant, 48.

, do, av. and cj. then, when, as, 69.

doch, av. yet, however, nevertheless.

dol, sf. suffering, pain, distress, misery, 48.

doln, wv. endure, tolerate, suffer, 90.

dōn, tōn (pl. dœne), sm. sound, melody, song.

donreslac (-ges), sm. thunder-clap, lightning,

dorf (pl. dörfer), sn. village, hamlet, 10.

dorn, sm. thorn, 24.

dörperlīch, aj. peasant-like, rustic.

dort, av. there, yonder.


douwen, döuwen, wv. digest, 10.

dræjen (dræn), wv. turn, 3590.

drāte, av. quickly, immediately;

alsō drāte, directly, forthwith.

dreschen, sv. IV, thrash, 1182.

drī (neut. driu), num. three, 6263;

drīer hande, of three kinds.

dringen, sv. III, press, throng, shoot up, also sn.81;

für sich dringen, press forwards, spread.

drīstunt, av. thrice.

dritte, drite, num. third, 2662.

drīvaltic, aj. threefold.

drīȥic (-ec), num. thirty, 62.

drīzëhen, num. thirteen, 62.

drīzëhende, num. thirteenth, 62.

drīȥigeste, num. thirtieth, 62.

drouwe (drowe, drō), sf. threat, threatening.

drouwen, dröuwen, wv. threaten, 310.

drucken, drücken, wv. press, 10 note 390.

drūfe = dar ūfe.

drumb(e), av. to that end, therefore.

drunder = dar under.

, du, pr. thou;

gen. dīn; dat. dir; acc. dich;

pl. nom. ir; gen. iuwer; dat. iu; acc. iuch, 65.

dulden, wv. endure.

dūme, wm. thumb.

dunken, dünken (pret. dūhte, pret. subj. diuhte), seem, appear, 5, 10 note 2, 11, 2991;

sich ze nihte dunken, to imagine oneself undone.

dünne, aj. thin, 5, 10, 1155.

durch (dur), prep. through, on account of, for, for the sake of, 34;

dur daȥ, on this account, for that reason, therefore;

durch plates stimme, for drawing sounds or notes from the leaf; for making a whistling sound on the leaf;

durch sīnen muot, through his (childish) mind.

durfen, dürfen (pres. sing. darf, pret. dorfte, pret. subj. dörfte), pret. pres. need, 1693.

durftige, wm. beggar, one in want of help.

dūȥ = du ëȥ.


ē, ēr, av. formerly, rather, sooner, before, 39, 61.

ëben, aj. even, 55, 60.

ëbene, av. evenly, smoothly, well-fitting, 60.

ecke, swf., sn. corner, 31.3.

edel(e), aj. and av. noble, 60.

edelinc, sm. son of a nobleman, 8.

edeln, wv. ennoble.

egen, wv. harrow.

egeslīch (eislīch), aj. fearful, terrible, 37.

ëht (ē̆t, ō̆t), av. only; even, at any rate, 34.

ei (pl. eijer, eiger, eier), sn. egg, 35, 47.

ei, interj. ah.

eiden, wv. take an oath, pledge.

eigen, aj. own, 55.

eigen, sn. property;

ze eigen gëben, present.

eilfte, aj. eleventh, 62.

ein, num. and indef. art. one; a, an, 9.3, 62, 63;

indef, pr. one, some one, 71.

einander, pr. one another.

eine, av. alone.

eines, av. once.

einic (-ec), aj. only, single.

einlif, einlef (eilif), num. eleven, 62.

ei(n)lifte (eilfte), num. eleventh, 62.


eischen, sv. VII, ask, demand.

eislīch, see egeslīch.

eit (-des), sm. oath.

element, sn. element.

ēlīch, aj. legal, conjugal.

ellen, sn.courage, valour; manliness.

ellenboge, wm. elbow.

ellenden, wv. go abroad.

ellich, aj. universal, constant.

elter, aj. older.

eltlīch, aj. elderly, old.

emphëlhen, sv. III, recommend, 81.

emzekeit, sf. activity, diligence, industry.

en, neg. particle, generally used before the verb with or without niht after the verb, not.

en in subordinate sentences with the subjunctive, unless, if not, except that, when that, that not, &c.

en = in;

shortened form of dën.

enbërn, sv. IV, be without a thing, do without.

enbieten, sv. II, bid, announce, summon.

enblanden, sv. VII, let be painful or irksome to.

enblecken, wv. make visible, expose.

ende, sn. end.

endelīchen, av. throughout, entirely.

enden, wv. end, finish.

enein = in ein.

enge, aj. narrow, 55.

enge, sf. narrow place, strait, difficulty.

engel, sm. angel, 9.2, 42.

Engellant, pn. England, 54.

engëlten, sv. III, pay, requite.

enges(t)līch, aj. anxious, timid, dangerous.

enke, wm. man who tends the cattle.

enmitten, av. in the midst;

enmitten dō, during, whilst.

enpfāhen, enpfān, sv. VII, accept, receive.

enpfallen, sv. VII, pass away, perish.

enpfinden, sv. III, perceive, become conscious of.

enpflëgen, sv. V, care for, cherish.

enphëlhen, sv. III, order, recommend, 81.

entrinnen, sv. III, escape.

entsagen, wv. free, remove, withdraw.

entseben (-seven), sv. VI, perceive, 86.

entsetzen, wv. bereave, rob.

entslāfen, sv. VII, fall asleep.

en(t)springen, sv. III, spring up, shoot up, shoot forth.

entstān, sv. VI, understand.

entwër, entwërch, av. athwart; perversely.

entwësen, sv. V, be without, do without.

entwīchen, sv. I, yield, go away.

enwëc, av. away.

enzīt, av. by times, soon.

enzünden, wv. light, kindle.

enzwischen, prep. between.

ër, si (, siu, sie), ëȥ, pr. he, she, it;

gen. sīn (ës), ir, ës; dat. im(e), ir, im(e); acc. in, sie (si, ), ëȥ ();

pl. nom. acc. si, , sie, neut. also siu; gen. ir(e); dat. in, 65.

ērbære, aj. honourable, decent, modest.

erbarmen, wv. move to pity.

erbe, sn. inherited property, inheritance.

erbeit = arbeit.

erbeiten, wv. work, have trouble;

c. gen. wait for.

erbëlgen, sv. III, become angry, grow angry.


erben, wv. be hereditary, descend from generation to generation.

erbieten, sv. II, show, manifest.

erbīten, sv. I, wait.

erbleichen, wv. become pale.

erbolgen, pp. angered, angry with.

erbürn, wv. raise, lift up.

ërde, wf. earth, world, 14.2.

erdenken (pret. erdāhte, pret. subj. erdæhte), wv. think out, devise, contrive.

ërderīch = ërtrīch.

erdieȥen, sv. II, resound, re-echo.

erdringen, sv. III, gain by force.

erdröuwen, wv. compel by threats.

ēre, wf. honour, renown, 11.

ēren, wv. honour.

ērest, ērste, aj. first, 59.

ergāhen, wv. overtake, go to meet.

ergān, sv. VII, come out, happen.

erge, sf. wickedness.

ergëben, sv. V, submit, devote.

ergetzen, wv. cause to forget, compensate.

ergrīfen, sv. I, seize.

erhāhen, erhān, sv. VII, hang.

erheben, sv. VI, raise;

refl. rise.

erhœren, wv. hear.

erkalten, wv. become cold.

erkant, aj. known.

erkennelich, aj. well-known, renowned.

erkennen (pret. -kante, -kande), wv. recognize, perceive, understand; know.

erkiesen, sv. II, elect, select, choose.

erklengen, wv. make resonant or sonorous.

erlāȥen, erlān, sv. VII, release, forgive.

erlengen, wv. lengthen.

erleschen, sv. IV, extinguish.

erlīden, sv. I, suffer.

erlouben, erlöuben, wv. allow, permit, 10.

erlœsen (pp. erlōst), wv. remove, free, deliver.

ermordern, wv. murder.

ern, eren, erren (pret. ier, pp. gearn), sv. VII, till, plough, 87.

ërn = ër ne.

ernern, wv. rescue, heal, cure.

erniuwen, wv. renew.

ërnst, sm. fervour.

errëchen, sv. IV, avenge.

ērrer, ērre, ërre, aj. former, 59.

erringen, sv. III, gain, obtain, get.

erscheinen, wv. show, make to appear.

erschëllen, sv. III, resound.

erschieȥen, sv. II, shoot, shoot through, pierce to death.

erschīnen, sv. I, appear; dawn.

erschrëcken, sv. IV, frighten, become frightened;

refl. c. gen. become frightened at.

erschrīen (pret. -schrē), sv. I, shriek, cry out.

ersëhen, sv. V, see, perceive.

erslahen, erslān, sv. VI, slay, kill.

ēr(e)st, ērste, av. at first, so soon as, 61.

ērste, num. first, 9.5, 62.

erstërben, sv. III, die.

erstrecken (pret. erstracte), wv. expand, spread out.

ërtrīch (ërderīch), sn. earth, world.

ertrinken, sv. III, drown, perish.

ervëhten, sv. IV, gain by fighting;

with abe and dat.: win or gain from by fighting.

ervinden, sv. III, experience, get to know.


ervollen, wv. become full.

ervröuwen, wv. rejoice, make glad.

erwachen, wv. awake.

erwecken (pret. -wahte), wv. waken, awaken.

erweln, wv. elect, choose.

erwërben, sv. III, reach, attain, acquire, beget.

erwern, wv. prevent, hinder.

erwinden, sv. III, turn round; be thrown back, be reflected.

erzeigen, wv. show, prove.

erziehen, sv. II, bring up, educate.

esche, wf. ash.

ët, ēt = ëht.

etelīch, eteslīch (etlīch, etslīch), pr. many a one, any one;

pl. some, 71.

etewër, eteswër, pr. any or some one;

neut. etewaȥ, anything, something, 7071.

ettewanne (eteswenne, ettewenne), av. sometimes.

ēvangēlium, sn. gospel.

ēwic, aj. everlasting.

ēwiclīchen, av. ever, everlastingly.

ëȥ, pr. it, 65.

ëȥȥen (pp. gëȥȥen), sv. V, eat, 9.7, 19, 20, 23.1, 2883.


For f see v.


gābe, sf. gift.

gabylōt, gabilōt, sn. small javelin or dart.

gāch (-hes), aj. quick, rapid, 55;

gāch wësen (with dat. of pers.), be in a hurry;

mir ist gāch, I hasten;

gen. gāhes as av.

gadem, sn. room, bed-room; house, 46.

gæhe, aj. quick, hasty.

gāhelōs, aj. fickle, wanton.

gāhen, gæhen, wv. hasten, hurry.

Gahmuret, pn. the name of Parzival’s father.

galge, wm. gallows, scaffold.

galle, swf. gall, bitterness, grief.

gan, see gunnen.

gān, gēn, sv. VII, go, 8795;

umbe gān, go or turn round.

ganz, aj. whole, entire, complete, 19, 60.3.

ganzlīche(n), av. completely, 60.3.

gar (-wes), aj. ready, prepared, 9.1, 3655.

gar, av. fully, entirely, completely.

gart, sm. goad, whip.

gartenære, sm. gardener, 8.

gast (pl. geste), stranger, guest, 3, 5, 10, 1144.

gearbeiten, wv. work.

gebærde, sf. countenance.

gebāren, wv. behave, conduct oneself.

gëbe, sf. gift, 7, 48.

gebeine, sn. bones, remains.

gëben, sv. V, give, grant, 5, 12, 14.2, 25, 28, 3383.

gëben, pp. = gegëben.

gebende, sn. head-dress.

gebët, sn. prayer.

gebieten, sv. II, order, command.

gebot, sn. command, order, commandment.

gebrëchen = brëchen.

gebreste, wm. defect, waste.

gebresten = bresten.

gebüeȥen, wv. atone for, improve.

gebūre, wm. peasant, citizen.

geburt, sf. birth, noble birth.


gedagen, wv. keep silent.

gedanc, sm. thought, 44.

gedanken = danken.

gedenken (pret. -dāhte), wv. think, intend, strive; bear in mind, remember.

gedienen, wv. earn, deserve, obtain.

gedīhen (gedīen), sv. I, thrive, speed well, advance.

gedinge, wm. or sfn. hope, confidence; thought; contract.

gedingen, wv. negotiate.

gedranc (-ges), sm. thronging, crowd.

gedulde, gedult, sf. patience.

gedulteclīchen, av. patiently.

gedultic (-ec), aj. patient, indulgent, 10 note 1.

gedultikeit, sf. patience.

geenden, wv. end, finish.

gefüege, aj. befitting, suitable, seemly.

gefuoge, sf. fitness, good breeding.

gegān = gān.

gegëben = gëben.

gëgen (gein), prep. against, opposite to, towards, to; at, for, 37.

gegihte, sn. gout, cramp.

gegrüeȥen, wv. greet, salute.

gehaben (refl.), wv. be, fare, feel.

geheiȥen, sv. VII, promise; call, name.

gehëlfen = hëlfen.

gehenge, sf. permission.

gehiure, aj. lovely, charming, gracious.

gehœnen, wv. dishonour, abuse, revile, curse.

gehœren, wv. hear.

gehōrsam(e), sf. obedience.

geil, aj. joyous, joyful, gay.

geist, sm. spirit, mind, ghost.

gejegede, sn. hunt.

geklopfen, wv. knock.

gël (-wes), aj. yellow, 55.

gelāȥ, snm. formation, figure, shape.

gelëben, wv. live, live to see.

geleischiert, pp. with or having the reins of the horse slack;

see leischieren.

geleisten = leisten.

geleit = geleget.

geleite, sn. protection, retinue;

wm. attendant, companion.

gëlf (gëlph), aj. shining; merry, insolent.

gelīch (glīch), aj. like, same, straight, even, 9.7;

av. gelīche, equally, in like manner.

gelīchen, refl. wv. be like, be equal; resemble.

gelieben, wv. love, make dear, please.

geligen, sv. V, succumb, be ruined.

gelimpfen, wv. be meet, 23.2.

gelingen, sv. III, succeed, 81;

mir gelingt wol, I have good success.

gelit, glit (-des), sn. member, 9.7.

geloube, wm. faith.

gelouben, gelöuben, wv. believe, think, 10, 3390.

gëlt (-des), sn. money.

gëlten, sv. III, pay, requite; procure, 9.4 note, 81.

gelücke, sn. good fortune, happiness.

gelust, sm. wish, desire; joy, pleasure.

gemach, smn., rest, ease; bedroom.

gemachen, wv. make.

gemahele, wf. bride.

gemeine, aj. common, familiar.

gemeit, aj. happy, joyful.

gemēren, wv. increase.

gemīden, sv. I, avoid, keep at a distance.


gemīten, sv. I, shun, avoid.

gemüete, sn. disposition, desire, longing; heart.

gemuot, aj. minded, disposed, inclined.

genāde, gnāde, sf. grace, favour, kindness, 9.7;

in addressing a person: be gracious;

genāde sagen, thank;

ūf genāde, graciously.

genādelōs, aj. unhappy, without grace.

genāden, wv. to thank.

genædic, aj. gracious, merciful.

genæme, aj. beloved, dear, pleasant.

genanne, gnanne, wm. namesake, 9.7.

genësen, sv. V, recover, become well or free, 3083.

genieten, wv. refl. rejoice, be glad, become satisfied with.

genieȥen, sv. II c. gen., enjoy, have advantage of; make use of, use as food.

genisbære, aj. healable, curable.

genislīch, aj. healable, curable.

genist, sf. recovery.

genōȥ, sm. companion.

genōȥen (hin ze), wv. compare, compare with.

genüegen, wv. be sufficient, suffice;

mich genüeget dës, that is enough for me.

genuoc, gnuoc, aj. and av. enough, 9.7;

pl. many;

as indecl. sb. with gen. enough.

genüogen = genüegen.

gequeln, wv. plague, torment.

gër, gir, sf. longing, eager desire.

gerāde, grāde, aj. quick, 9.7.

gerāten (pret. -riet), sv. VII, advise; come at; prosper, thrive, succeed.

gerëch, grëch, aj. straight, 9.7.

gerich, sm. revenge, vengeance.

gerihte, sn. jurisdiction.

gerinclīchen, av. small, easily.

geringen, sv. III, struggle, strive.

geriute, sn. arable land.

geriuwen, wv. repent, lament.

gërn (with gen. and dat.), wv. long for, yearn for, desire, want, hanker after.

gërne, av. willingly, gladly.

gerte, swf. rod.

gerūmen, wv. leave, make room.

geruochen, wv. be pleased, hold good for.

gesagen, wv. say, tell.

geschaffen, sv. VI, provide, care for, create.

geschaft, sf. creature, 28.

geschëhen, sv. V, happen, fall to one’s lot or share, 19, 3483.

geschiht, sf. occurrence, event.

geschlähte, sn. race, generation, 10.

gesëgen, wv. bless.

gesëhen = sëhen.

geselle, wm. companion.

geselleschaft, sf. company.

gesīn = sīn.

gesinde, sn. retinue;

wm. retainer.

gesingen = singen.

gesitzen = sitzen.

gesmac, sm. taste, smell.

gesorgen, wv. trouble oneself; fear, dread.

gespile, wm. play-mate, comrade.

gesprëchen = sprëchen.

gestān, sv. VI, remain.

gesteine, sn. precious stones.

gestern, av. yesterday.

gestrīten, sv. I, quarrel, fight, strive.

gesūmen, wv. stay, delay, let one wait.


gesunde (gesunt), aj. healthy, alive.

gesunt, sm. health.

gesweigen, wv. bring to silence.

geswīchen, sv. I, weary, tire; leave in the lurch.

getar = tar, see turren.

getragen = tragen.

getriulīch, aj. through, owing to faithfulness.

getriuten, wv. love, like, be fond of.

getriuwe, aj. faithful, good.

getriuwen, getrūwen, wv. trust, confide in.

getrœsten, wv. refl. bear with patience, forget.

getrūren, wv. mourn, grieve, be downcast.

getrūwen, see getriuwen.

getuon = tuon.

geturren, pret. pres. dare, venture.

getweln, wv. dwell, stay.

gevallen, sv. VII, fall to one’s lot, please.

gevangen(e), wm. prisoner, 50.

gevar, aj. having colour.

gevarn, sv. VI, go, travel;

wol gevarn, make a successful journey.

gevolgen, wv. obey.

gevüege, gefüege, aj. courteous, well-bred.

gewæte, sn. clothing.

gewähenen, sv. VI, mention, 86.

gewalt, smf. power, might, command.

gewalteclīch, aj. violent, mighty;

av. gewalteclīche.

gewaltic, aj. powerful, mighty.

gewant, sn. clothing.

gewant (pp. of wenden), conditioned, circumstanced;

so gewante sache, of such a nature;

ëȥ ist alsō gewant, it is important;

ëȥ ist niht alsō gewant, the matter is not so.

gewar(e), aj. sensible, mindful.

geweinen, wv. weep, cry.

gewenen, wv. accustom.

gewenken, wv. waver, vacillate; bend, turn.

gewërbe, sn. activity.

gewërn, wv. perceive, perform.

gewërren, sv. III, be troublesome, hinder.

gewin (-nnes), sm. gain, advantage.

gewinnen, sv. III, get, gain, obtain, receive, 81;

für sich gewinnen, get for oneself.

gewis (-sses), aj. certain, sure, 31.

gewisse, av. surely, truly, certainly.

gewonheit, sf. custom.

gewürme, sn. worm, insect; reptile, creeping creature.

gezëmen, sv. IV, become, beseem;

mich gezimt dës, that pleases me.

gezierde, sf. adornment.

gezwicken, wv. pinch, pull, pluck.

gieȥen, sv. II, pour, 2878.

gift, sf. gift, 28.

giht, third pers. sing. of jëhen.

gir, see gër.

gīst = gibest, 37.

gīt = gibet, 37.

glast, sm. splendour.

glīchnisse, sn. parable.

glocke, sf. bell.

gnanne, see genanne.

golt, sn. gold, 3, 15.

got, sm. God, 5, 10, 11.

gotelīch, aj. divine.

goteshūs, sn. church, monastery.

gotheit, sf. godhead.


götinne, sf. goddess, 510.

gotvar (-wes), aj. godlike, divine.

gouch, sm. cuckoo; fool.

grā (-wes), aj. grey, 55.

graben, sv. VII, dig, 10, 1285.

gram, aj. hostile.

grap (-bes), sn. grave, 46.

gras, sn. grass.

grīfen, sv. I, seize, grasp, touch, feel.

grim (-mmes), sm. rage, fury.

grimme (grimmic), aj. fearful, angry; great.

grimmen, sv. III, rage.

grīs (grīse), aj. grey, old, 55.

grœȥlīch, aj. great.

grœȥlīchen, av. greatly, very.

grōȥ, aj. great, large, 9.257.

grüen(e), aj. green, 5, 1055.

grüeȥen, wv. greet, 39;

also sn.

grunt (-des), sm. bottom.

gruoȥ, sm. greeting, salutation.

güete, sf. goodness, kindness, 510.

güetlich, aj. friendly;

av. güetlīchen.

gugel, sf. cowl; cape, hood.

guldīn, aj. golden, 3, 15.

gunēren, wv.. dishonour, disgrace.

gunnen, günnen (pres. sing. gan; pret. gunde, pret. subj. gunde, günde), pret. pres. grant, bestow, not to grudge, 9.793.

guot, aj. good, 9.2, 25, 5558;

daȥ guot, wealth, property;

ze guote, to the good.

gürtel, sm. girdle, belt, sash.

güsse, sf. inundation, 28.

gütinne, sf. goddess, 48.


habe, sf. possession.

habedanc, sm. thanks with words.

haben (hān), wv. have, hold, 399;

haben sich an dër witze kraft, collect all one’s wits together.

hacken, sm. hook, fetter; footprint.

haft, sm. bond, fetter.

hagel, sm. hail; misfortune, destruction.

Hagene, pn., 54.

hāhen (hān), sv. VII, hang, 29, 30, 3887.

halde, wf. slope, declivity.

halm, sm. blade, stalk.

halp (-bes), aj. half.

halsen, sv. VII, embrace, 87.

halten (halden), sv. VII, hold, keep; stop, keep from, 5, 10, 11, 40, 87.

hān, see haben.

handeln, wv. do, perform.

handelunge, sf. action, 8.

han(e), wm. cock, 9.4, 31.3.

hant (pl. hende), hand, 49.

hār, sn. hair.

hārbant, sn. head-band.

harnasch, smn. harness.

harpfen, wv. play the harp.

hart, aj. hard, 19.

harte, av. very, very great, 60;

comp. harter, more; more seriously.

hase, wm. hare, 7, 30.

haȥ, sm. hate, hatred, enmity; indignation, anger, wrath, 19.

haȥlīch, aj. full of hate, hostile.

haȥȥen, wv. hate.

heben (heven), sv. VI, raise, 3086;

sich (an) heben, betake oneself, begin.

hei, interj. an exclamation of joy, grief, or wonder.


heide, sf., heath, uncultivated land; meadow.

heiden, sm. heathen, 9.2.

heil, sn. happiness, welfare, good fortune.

heilant, sm. Saviour, 8.

heilic (-ec), holy, 7, 8, 55.

heiliggeist, sm. holy ghost.

heim, smn. home;

heime, av. at home.

heimlīch (-lich), aj. homely, familiar.

heimsuochen, wv. visit; attack with evil intent.

heimsuochunge, sf. disturbance of domestic peace and security.

heimvart, sf. homeward journey.

heiȥ, aj. hot, 31.3.

heiȥen, sv. VII, call, be called, named; bid, 11, 17, 23.1, 87.

hël (-lles), aj. resounding.

hëlfe, sf. help.

hëlfen, sv. III, help, 3, 11, 12, 14.2, 15, 23.281.

helle, sf. hell.

hellemōr, sm. devil.

hellenōt, sf. necessity of hell.

helm, sm. helm, helmet, 11.

helme, wm. warrior.

hëln (with double acc.), sv. IV, hide, conceal.

helt (gen. heldes, heledes), sm. hero, protector, brave warrior.

hemede, hemde, sn. shirt.

hendelinc (-ges), sm. glove, 8.

hengen, wv. hang, 30.

henne, swf. hen, 31.3.

hēr, hēre, aj. and av. high, proud, haughty, agreeable, 55.

her, sn. army, host.

hër(e), av. hither, this way.

herbërge, sf. lodging.

hērlīch, aj. agreeable, distinguished;

av. hērlīchen.

hērre, hërre, hër, wm. master, lord, 9.3, 9.6.

hërren, wv. to make as master.

hērsen, hërsen, wv. rule, govern, 9.2.

herte (hart), aj. hard, difficult, 60;

av. harte (herte), 60.

hërze, wn. heart, 7, 19, 23.2, 5052.

hërzeleit, sn. heart-sore, grief.

hërzelīch, aj. dear, affectionate.

hërzeliep, sn. heart’s joy.

Hërzeloyde, pn. the name of Parzival’s mother.

hërzenlīch, aj. hearty, dear, affectionate;

av. hërzenlīchen.

hërzeriuwe, sf. great grief, sadness of heart, pain.

hërzesēre, sf. great sorrow, grief.

heven, see heben.

hey, interj., hey!

hie, hier, av. here, 5, 1139;

hie bī, herewith, hereby;

hie vor(e), formerly, in former times.

hierunder, av. hereunder, 39.

himel, sm. heaven, sky.

himelisch, aj. heavenly, 8.

himelkrōne, sf. heavenly crown.

himelrīch, sn. kingdom of heaven.

hin, hinnen, av. from here, hence, away;

hin für, without, out of doors;

hin heim, away home.

hinder, aj. hinder;

prep. behind, 59.

hindernisse, snf. hindrance, 8.

hinderste, aj. hindmost, 59.

hīnte, hīnt, hīnaht, av. to-night, 34.

hīrāt, sm. marrying, marriage.

hirte, sm. shepherd, 3, 43.

hirtelōs, aj. shepherdless.


hirȥ (OHG. hiruȥ) beside hirz (OHG. hirz), sm. stag.

hitze, sf. heat, warmth, 31.3.

hiute, av. to-day;

hiute morgen, this morning.

hōch (comp. hœher, superl. hœhst, hōhst), aj. high, 5, 10, 11, 19, 34, 5760.

hōchgeborn, aj. of gentle birth; noble.

hōchgemuot, aj. noble, high-minded; lofty, proud; joyful, in high spirits.

hōchgezīt, sfn. festival, feast, highest joy.

hōchmuot, sm. consciousness, pride, well-being.

hōchvart, sf. pride, haughtiness.

hœne, aj. haughty; contemptible.

hœnen, wv. dishonour, calumniate.

hœren, wv. hear; be requisite, be necessary, require; listen; belong to, 5, 10, 11, 90.

hof (-ves), sm. court, 19, 30, 3342.

hogen, wv. think, consider.

hōhe, , av. highly, 60.

hōhgemüete, sn. joyousness, joyfulness.

hol, aj. hollow, 55.

holn, wv. fetch;

tiefen siuft holn, sigh deeply.

holt (-des), aj. kind, affectionate, well-disposed.

holz, sn. wood, 19.

honic, honec (-ges), smn. honey, 29.

hornunc (-ges), sm. February; frost; chilblain.

houbet, sn. head, 5, 10.

houwen, sv. VII, hew, 36, 87.

hovelīch, aj. courtly, court-like.

hovelīchen, av. courtly, in the manner of the court.

hübesch, aj. noble, courtly, chivalrous, 30.

hüeten, wv. protect, shield, hold, keep, guard.

huge, sm. thought, 43.

hügen, wv. consider, 15.

hulde, sf. grace, favour, kindness, permission, 10 note 1.

hundertste, num. hundredth, 62.

hundertstunt, num. hundred times.

hunger, sm. hunger.

hunt, hundert, num. hundred, 6264.

huobe, sf. a piece (hide) of land.

huofslac (dat. pl. huofslegen), sm. horseshoe.

huon (pl. hüener), sn. hen, 47.

huote, sf. care, guardianship.

hupfen, hüpfen, wv. hop, 10 note 3.

hūs (pl. hiuser), sn. house, 3, 5, 10, 1133.

hūt (dat. pl. hiuten), sf. skin, hide.


ich, pr. I, 2365.

ie, av. ever.

iedoch, av. however.

iegelīch, iegeslīch (ieglīch, ieslīch), pr. each, 71.

ieman, iemen, pr. anyone, no one, someone, somebody, 71.

iemer, immer, av. ever, always, at any time, never.

ietwëder, pr. aj. each of two, 71.

iewëder, pr. each, 71.

iewelī̆ch, pr. each, 71.

iewiht, pr. anything, 71.

iezuo, av. now, directly.

iht, pr. anything;

av. not, 71.

īlen, wv. hasten.

Imāne, fpn.

in, prep. in, into.

in, pr. acc. him.


īn, in, av. in, into, from out here.

in, ine = ich ne, I not.

i’n = ich in.

ingesinde, sn. household, family; followers.

inme, imme = in dëme.

inneclīch, aj. inward;

av. inneclīchen, at heart.

innen, inne, av. within, inwardly;

inne bringen, observe, let understand, convince;

inne wërden, hear of, learn of.

ir, pr. her, their, ye, 71.

irdenisch, aj. earthly.

irdīn, aj. earthen, 14.2.

irdisch, aj. earthly, 8.

irre, aj. astray;

dës rīches irre, astray in regard to the kingdom.

irren, wv. put out, confound, hinder, interrupt, stop.

irs = ir ës.

īser, sn. iron, iron weapon, armour.

iuwer (iwer), pr. your, 67.

= ëȥ, 65 note 1.


, interj. forsooth.

jæmerlīch, aj. pitiable, sad, sorrowful;

av. jæmerlīche(n).

jagen, wv. pursue, follow, hunt.

jāmer, sm. grief, pain;

jāmers balt, courageous in grief.

jāmerhaft, aj. painful, sorrowful.

jār, sn. year; age, 19.

jëhen, sv. V, say, speak; assure, grant, concede, 35, 83.

jener, pr. that, 68.

jenhalp, av. on that side, the other side.

jësen, sv. V, ferment, 3583.

jëten, sv. V, weed, 35.

joch, av. and conj. also, even, yet.

jude, wm. Jew.

jugent, sf. youth, 49.

junc (-ges), aj. young, 1957.

juncfrouwe, wf. maiden.

junchērre, wm. young sir.

junger, sm. disciple.


kal (-wes), aj. bald, 55.

kāle, see quāle, 36.

kalp (pl. kälber), sn. calf, 47.

kalt, aj. cold.

kälte, sf. coldness, 11.

kamerære, sm. chamberlain, guard of the treasure, or bed-room.

kampflīch, aj. warlike.

kapfen, wv. stare, gape, look on with astonishment.

Karnahkarnanz, Karnachkarnanz, pn. Count of Unterlec.

kastelān, sn. Castilian horse.

këc, see quëc.

kein, pr. no, none, 71.

keiser, sm. emperor.

keiserlīch, aj. imperial.

kelberīn, aj. of a calf.

kemenāte, sf. room, bed-room.

kennen, wv. know, 90.

kēren, wv. turn, go, 90;

sich kēren, turn;

ze gote kēren, apply to God’s service.

kerze, kërze, wf. candle.

kiesen, sv. II, test, try, choose, elect, 5, 11, 18, 30, 3378.

kil, sm. quill, 9.1, 42.

kindelīn, sn. little child, 8.

kindisch, aj. childish, 8.

kinne, sn. chin.

kint (-des), sn. child, 33.

kintlīch, aj. childish.

kirchhof, sm. churchyard.

kīt = quīt, 36.


kiusch(e), aj. chaste, modest, pure, spotless; maidenly.

kiuwen, sv. II, chew, 16 note, 3679.

klage, sf. complaint, lamentation.

klagen, wv. complain, bewail, 92;

klagedeȥ hërze, mournful heart.

klār, aj. clear, bright, beautiful, pure.

klē (-wes), sm. clover, trefoil.

klëben, wv. stick, 92.

kleiden, wv. clothe, dress.

klein(e), aj. little, neat, insignificant;

av. kleine.

kleit (pl. kleit or kleider), sn. dress.

klieben, sv. II, cleave, 1878.

klingen, sv. III, ring, toll.

klōsenære, sm. hermit, recluse.

klōster, sn. cloister, monastery.

klūs, sf. cell, hermitage.

knabe, wm. boy, youth, 31.1.

knappe, wm. a youth who has not yet become a knight, 31.1.

knëht, sm. boy, candidate for knighthood, attendant; warrior.

knëten, sv. V, knead, 83.

knie (gen. kniewes), sn. knee, 3, 23.2, 3646.

komen, sv. IV (pres. kume, kum; pret. quam, kom; pret. subj. quæme, pp. komen), come, 3682.

kopf, sm. head.

kōr, sm. choir.

korder, körder, see quërder36.

korn, sn. corn, 23.2.

korp (-bes), sm. basket.

koufen, köufen, wv. buy, acquire; earn, 10, 90.

krā, krāwe, sf. crow.

kraft, sf. strength, might; multitude.

kranc, sm. weakness.

kranc, aj. impotent, weak; little; worthless.

kranz, sm. garland, wreath.

krēatiure, krēatūr(e), sf. creature.

kreftic, aj. strong, powerful.

kriec (-ges), sm. resistance, strife, quarrel.

kriechen, sv. II, creep, crawl, 78.

Kriemhilt, pn. 54.

krippe (kribbe), swf., manger (cradle), crib, 26.

Krist, sm. Christ.

kristen, aj. and sb. christian.

kristenheit, sf. christianity, christian faith.

kriuze, sn. cross.

krœnen, wv. crown, adorn.

krōne, swf. crown.

kuchen, küchen, sf. kitchen, 10 note 3.

küele, aj. cool.

küen(e), aj. bold, warlike.

kumber, sm. grief, trouble.

kumberlīche, av. with grief, with oppression.

kumbersal, sn. distress, 8.

kūme, av. scarcely, hardly.

künde, sf. acquaintance, knowledge;

kunde haben (with gen.), know.

kunde, see künnen.

künden, wv. announce, promise.

kündic, aj. known.

küneclīch, aj. kingly, royal.

künic (-ec), sm. king, 7, 829.

künne, race, generation; relationship, 7, 10, 46.

kün(n)egin(ne), künegīn, sf. queen, king’s daughter, 848.

künnen, kunnen (pret. kunde, konde), pret. pres. know, understand, can, 93.

kunst, sf. art, skill, 19.

kunt (-des), aj. known.


kuo (pl. küeje, küewe), sf. cow, 49.

kupfer, sn. copper, 31.2.

kurz, aj. short, small;

vor kurzer stunt, recently.

kurzewīle, sf. pastime, entertainment.

kus (-sses), smn. kiss, 32.1.

küssen, wv. kiss, 20, 32.290.


, imperative of lāȥen, q.v.

lachen, wv. laugh, laugh at;

also sn.

laden, sv. VI, load, 85.

laden, wv. invite, 92.

lære, aj. empty, 3, 5, 10, 1155.

Lähelīn, mpn.

lam, aj. lame, weak in the limbs.

lamp (pl. lember), lamb, 5, 10, 11, 3347.

lān, see lāȥen.

lanc, aj. long, 10, 60;

av. lange, 60.

lanclëben, sn. long life.

lanclīp, sm. long life.

lant (-des), sn. land, country.

lantliut, sn. country folk, vassalage;

pl. inhabitants.

lantrëhtbuoch, sn. book of common or land laws.

lantsæȥe, wm. freeholder.

last, sm. burden.

laster, sn. ignominy, disgrace.

laȥ (-ȥȥes), aj. feeble, languid, faint, exhausted; weary.

lāȥen, lān, sv. VII, let, leave, give up; stop, avoid, 87, 99;

lān niht ze wē sīn, not to worry too much;

lāȥen sīn, cease, stop;

lā stān, cease! stop!

lëben, wv. live, cause to live, 92.

lëben, sn. life.

lëbendic (-ec), aj. living, alive.

legen (leggen, lecken), wv. lay, place, put, 31.392;

arbeit dar an legen, expend much trouble on a thing.

leh (= le or li) cons, Count.

lēhen, sn. feudal tenure, loan, fee, feod.

leich, sm. song consisting of strophes of unequal length.

leide, av. painfully, sorrowfully;

comp. leider, greater pain, grief, trouble.

leiden, wv. be repugnant, odious, or offensive; render disagreeable, do harm;

mir leidet ëȥ, it is repugnant to me.

leider, av. and interj. unfortunately, alas!

leie, wm. layman.

leischieren, wv. give a horse its head.

leisten (pret. subj. leiste = leistete), wv. follow the trace of, follow, perceive;

leisten geselleschaft, accompany.

leit (-des), aj. sorrowful, bitter, painful, disagreeable; hateful, vexatious.

leit (-des), sn. grief, pain.

leit = leget, 37.

leiten (pret. leite), wv. to lead, 5, 11, 30, 32.490.

leitestërne, wm. loadstar.

lenge, sf. length, 10.

lēre, sf. teaching, instruction, precept, guidance, advice; saying.

lēren (lērn), wv. teach, 5, 1117.

lërnen, wv. learn.

leschen, sv. IV, be extinguished, go out, 1182.

leschen, wv. extinguish, put out.

lësen, sv. V, gather, read, 3383.

leste, aj. last, 9.5, 23.1.


lesterlīch, aj. disgraceful, ignominious.

letzen, wv. injure, prejudice; forsake.

leȥȥeste, leste, aj. last, 59.

līden, sv. I, suffer, endure, 3076.

liebe, sf. love, joy.

lieben, wv. give pleasure, gladden; present with.

liegen, sv. II, lie, tell a lie, 578.

lieht, sn. light, 16.

lieht, aj. bright;

av. liehte.

liep (-bes), aj. dear, pleasant, friendly, 511;

sn. what is lovable; dearest joy; lover.

liet (-des), sn. song, poem.

ligen (liggen, licken), sv. V, lie, lie down, 14.2, 31.384.

līhen, sv. I, lend, 12, 76.

līhte, aj. light, easy, worthless;

av. easily, perhaps;

līhte noch, still now-a-days.

lin, line, swf. window with balcony.

linde, wf. linden-tree.

līp (-bes), sm. life, body, person, 33.

list, sm. prudence, wisdom, advice; means, art; artfulness, cunning.

līst = liges(t), 37.

lit (-des), sn. limb, member.

līt = liget, 37.

liuhten, wv. light, shine, shed lustre, 16.

liut, sn. folk, people, army, 511.

liuten, wv. ring.

liuterlīch, av. expressly, quite, entirely.

Liutpolt, pn. Leopold of Austria.

lobelīch, aj. praiseworthy.

loben, wv. praise, 92.

lobesam, aj. praiseworthy, glorious.

loch (pl. löcher), sn. hole, 5, 10, 31.3.

lœsen, wv. loose, 33, 90.

lōn, sm. pay, reward.

lōnen, wv. reward.

lop (-bes), smn. praise, glorification; price.

lōsen, wv. be rid, released of;

hin ze einem lōsen, flatter.

lōt, sn. weight.

löufel, sm. runner, 5, 10.

loufen, sv. VII, run, 5, 1187.

lougen, sn. a denying, denial;

āne lougen, truly.

loup (pl. löuber), sn. foliage, leaf, 5, 1011.

lūchen, sv. II, shut, 80.

lücke, swf. gap, hole, 31.3.

luft, smf. air, firmament.

luoder, sn. bait, 46.

lūt, aj. loud;

lūt wërden (c. gen.), give to understand, mention, be heard.

lūte, av. aloud, loudly.

lūter, aj. clear, bright, 9.2;

av. lūterlīche.

lützel, aj. and av. little, small, 31.258;

lützel ieman, nobody, no one;

as indecl. sb. with gen., little.


mac, see mügen.

māc (-ges), sm. relation.

machen, wv. make.

mære, sn. story, tidings, report.

mære, aj. known, renowned, 10.

magedīn, sn. maid, maiden, 8.

magen, megen, see mugen.

maget (pl. mägede, megde), sf. girl, maiden, 5, 10, 3749.

maht (pl. mähte), sf. strength, power, might, 511.

mahtu = maht dū.

mālen, wv. paint, draw.

maln, sv. VI, grind, 85.


man, sm. man, 3, 32.1, 45;

pr. one, 71.

manbære, aj. marriageable.

māne, wm. moon.

manen, wv. urge on, remind, admonish.

manic, manec (manc), aj. many, much, 8;

pr. many a, 71;

maneger hande, slahte, or leie, in many ways, manifoldly;

maneger vil, very many.

manicvalt, aj. manifold, variegated.

manlīch, aj. manly, brave, 510.

mantel, sm. mantle, 42.

manunge, sf. exhortation, admonition.

marc, sf. half pound of gold or silver.

marder, sm. marten; skin of a marten.

market, sm. market, 9.2.

marter, sf. martyr; torture.

māȥe, sf. measure, manner; moderation, propriety, fitness;

ze einer māȥe, little, moderate;

ze māȥe, fairly, sufficiently;

ze rëhter māȥe, to the right length.

, mēre, aj. and av. more, further, 5, 17, 3961;

as indecl. sb. with gen. more.

meie, wm. May; spring of the year, 35.

meien, wv. become May; be joyful, make merry.

meier (meiger), sm. farmer.

meierin, sf. farmer’s wife.

meinen, wv. mean, mean well, have in view; cause.

meist, meiste, aj. and av. most, greatest, 5861.

meister, sm. master.

meisterschaft, sf. skill in an art, mastery, order.

meit = maget, 37.

meiȥen, sv. VII, cut, 87.

mël (-wes), sn. meal, 3646.

mëlden, wv. announce, make known; betray.

mëldunge, sf. announcement, 8.

Meljahkanz, pn.

mëlken, sv. III, milk.

mensch(e), wsmn. man (‘homo’).

menschenbluot, sn. human blood.

menschlich, aj. human.

mer, sn. sea.

mēre, see .

mēren, wv. increase.

mērer, mēr(r)e, aj. more, 58.

merken (pret. markte), wv. observe, perceive, understand.

merze, wm. March.

mësse, sf. mass;

mëssezīt, sf. time for mass.

mëte, sm. mead, 43.

mettīne, sf. matins, primes.

mëȥȥen, sv. V, measure, 32.1, 32.483.

mëȥȥer, sn. knife.

michel, aj. great;

michels, av. by far, 55, 58.

mīden, sv. I, avoid, shun, do without, 3076.

miete, sf. pay, reward, present, 511.

milch, sf. milk, 9.1.

milt (-des), aj. generous;

av. miltlīche, milteclīche.

milte, aj. generous, bounteous.

milte, sf. liberality, generosity; grace, favour.

min, av. less, 61.

mīn, pr. my, 67.

minne, sf. love; loving memory, remembrance.

minneclīch, aj. dear, lovely, loving, kind.

minnen, wv. love, value, 92.

minner, minre, min, aj. and 193 av. less, 9.3, 5758;

as indecl. sb. with gen. less.

minnest, min(ne)ste, aj. and av. least, 9.5, 57, 5861.

mirs = mir ës.

miselsuht, sf. leprosy.

mislīch, aj. sundry, uneven, different.

misselingen, sv. III, not to succeed.

missesagen, wv. deceive, lie.

missetāt, sf. misdeed, offence.

missewende, sf. mistake, fault, blot.

mist, sm. dung, dirt.

mit, mite, prep. and av. with, by, through, 9.6;

mit sorgen, sorrowfully;

mit triuwen, faithful, faithfully;

mit willen, gladly, willingly;

mit witze, reasonably, sensibly, cleverly, prudently, wisely;

mit zühten, politely.

mitte, aj. middle;

av. mitten.

morgen (morne), sm. morning, 42;

dës morgens, in the morning.

mortlīch, aj. murderous;

av. mortlīche.

mortmeile, aj. blood-stained, blood-guilty.

motte, swf. moth, 24.

müedinc, sm. unhappy man, 8.

müelīch, aj. and av. painful, troublesome.

müen (müejen, müewen), wv. torment, trouble, distress, grieve, 3590.

müeterlīch, aj. motherly.

müeterlīn, sn. little mother, 10.

müeȥen, pret.-pres. (pres. sing. muoȥ, pret. muoste, muose), must, 2893.

müeȥic, aj. idle, at leisure.

müg(e)lich, aj. possible.

mügen, mugen, magen, megen (pres. sing. mac, pret. mohte, pret. subj. möhte), pret.-pres. may, can, 10, 11, 2893.

mugge, mügge (mucke, mücke), wf. midge, fly, 10 note 320.

mül, sf. mill.

mūl, sn. mule.

münich, sm. monk.

münster, sn. minster.

munt (-des), sm. mouth.

muot, sm. sense, mind, spirits, mood, feeling, courage, disposition, sentiment;

rīches muotes wërden, be in good spirits.

muoten, wv. c. gen. desire, long for.

muoter, sf. mother, 10, 1149.


nac (-ckes), sm. back part of the head.

nāch, prep. after, according to, on account of, at, for, to, 34;

nach dëm guote, about wealth or money;

nāch ēren, honourably;

nāch sīnen beinen, made to fit his legs;

nāch wünsche, to perfection, all that one could wish for;

vil nāch, nearly.

nacket, aj. naked.

nagel, sm. nail, 9.2, 44.

nagen, sv. VI, gnaw, 85.

nāhe (nāch), av. near, nigh, 34;

nāhe tragen, take to heart;

nāhe gān, go closely, touch;

nāhen, near by.

nāhen, wv. draw near, come near, approach, be near.

nāhgebūre, wm. neighbour.

naht, sf. night, 19, 49;

av. nahtes, by night.

nahtigale, nahtegal(e), sf. nightingale.

nam(e), wm. name, position, 3, 9.1, 9.4.


namen, wv. name, 92.

napf, sm. basin, 31.

nar, sf. food, 48.

nāt, sf. seam.

naȥ (-ȥȥes), aj. wet, 31.3.

ne, n’, neg. particle, generally used before the verb with and without niht, not, 108.

nëbel, sm. fog, mist,

nehein, pr. no, none, 71.

neigen, wv. bow, bend down.

neiȥwër, pr. anyone, 70.

nëmen, sv. IV, take;

c. dat. pers. take away, rob, 5, 7, 10, 11, 12, 14.2, 7482.

nennen, wv. name, mention the name of, 32.2, 4090.

nern (nerigen, nerjen), wv. nourish, rescue, keep alive, refl. subsist on, 9.1, 30, 3590.

nest, nëst, sn. nest, 11.

netze, sn. net, 46.

netzen, wv. make wet, 31.3.

nëve, wm. nephew, 33.

nīden, sv. I, hate, envy, 76.

nider, av. down;

sich nider laȥen, settle, establish oneself.

nīdetāt, sf. spiteful action.

nie, av. never.

nieman, niemen, pr. nobody, no one, 71.

niemēr (niemer, nimer, nimmer), av. never.

niender, av. by no means.

niene, av. not, not at all.

niesen, sv. II, sneeze, 78.

nieten (refl. with gen.), wv. be eager or zealous for.

nieȥen = genieȥen.

niftel, sf. niece, 33.

niht, nieht, niet, av. not;

pr. nothing, 71;

indecl. sb. c. gen. nothing.

nine = niene, not at all.

nīt (-des), sm. hatred, anger, hostility.

niun, num. nine, 62.

niunte (-de), num. ninth, 62.

niunzëhen, num. nineteen, 62.

niunzëhende, num. nineteenth, 62.

niunzic (-ec), num. ninety, 62.

niunzigeste, ninetieth, 62.

niuwan (niwan, niuwen), av. nothing but, only;

cj. except, except that.

niuwe, aj. new, 16 note, 55.

niuwet, av. not.

noch, av. still;

noch en noch, neither—nor.

Norgāls, pn. the country belonging to Herzeloyde.

nōt, sf. need, danger, trouble, distress.

nōthaft, aj. needy, poor,

nōtic, aj. in distress, hasty.

nōtnunft, sf. abduction by violence.

(nu), av. now;

nu wol dan, well then be off there!

nutz (nuz), sm. use, advantage.

nütze, aj. useful.

nutzen, nützen, wv. to use, 10 note 3.


ob, obe, op, prep. and av. over, above;

conj. if, in case that, whether, 9.6.

oben (e), av. from above, above.

ober, aj. upper, 59.

oberste, oberist, oberest, aj. highest, uppermost, 859.

oder, ode, conj. or.

offen, aj. and av. open, 23.1.

offenbāre, av. openly.

ofte, av. often.

ohse, wm. ox.

opfer, sn. offering.

orden, sm. order, rule; rank;

rīters orden, knightly order.

ordenunge, sf. order, rule.

ōre, wn. ear, 5, 11, 50.

op = ob.

Ōsterrīch, pn. Austria.

ot, see ëht.


ouch, ō̆ch, av. also; henceforward.

ouge, wn. eye, 3, 5, 11, 50.

ougen, wv. show, 10, 90.

ougenweide, sf. delight of the eyes, sight, appearance.

ouwē, sf. water; meadow, 10.

owē, ouwē, ō̆wī, interj. woe! alas! ah!;

owē mir mīnes leides! alas! for my grief;

ōwī wan, used to express a wish: would that;

owē dës, alas for that!

ōwol, interj. well!


palas, sn. hall.

paradys, sn. paradise.

pfaffe, wm. priest.

pfeller, pfellel, sm. carpet, silk cloth.

pfennic, pfenninc (-ges), sm. penny, 29.

pfert (-des), sn. horse.

pflëge, sf. care, fostering.

pflëgen (phlëgen), sv. V, be accustomed, use, practise, care for, 83.

pfluoc, phluoc (-ges), sm. plough; ploughman.

pfunt, sn. pound, 23.2.

phat (-des), smn. path, footway.

phel (phelle) = pfeller.

Philip, Philippes (dat. Philippe), pn. Philip.

phlëger, sm. guardian, protector.

pin = bin.

pīnen (with sich and ūf), wv. exert oneself for.

plān, smf., plāne, sf. plain, open space, meadow.

planēte, wm. planet.

porte, sf. door, gate.

portenære, sm. porter, door-keeper.

prëdige, wf. sermon.

prīs, sm. praise, renown, reputation; price.

prīsen, wv. value, praise, extol.

prophēte, wm. prophet.

prüstelīn, sn. breast, chest.


quāle (kāle), sf. torture, 36.

quëc (këc), aj. quick, alive, 1936.

quëden, sv. V, say, 19, 36.

quërder (korder, körder), smn. bait, 36.

quicken (kücken), wv. enliven, 36.

quīst = quides(t), 37.


rabe, wm. raven, 31.1.

rāche, sf. revenge, punishment.

ragen, wv. strike, knock, hit.

rappe, wm. raven, 31.1.

rasch (rasche), aj. quick, 55.

rat (-des), sn. wheel, 47.

rāt, sm. (pl. ræte), advice, care, resolution;

rāt wërden, be helped.

rāten, sv. VII, advise, devise, 87.

(-wes), smn. corpse; bier, hearse, 42, 46.

rëchen, sv. IV, avenge, punish.

rëde, sf. speech, answer, story, saying.

rëgen, sm. rain, 42.

rëht, aj. and sn. right, proper, just; right, duty, law.

rëhte, av. rightly, properly; very.

reine, rein, aj. pure, spotless, perfect, 55.

reise, sf. journey, march.

reiȥen, wv. irritate; entice, allure.

rennen, wv. run, 90.

ribbalīn, sn. foot-covering, shoe.

rīben, sv. I, rub, 76.


rīch, rīche, aj. powerful, mighty, noble, great, fine, rich, free, 55.

rīche, sn. kingdom.

rīcheit, sf. wealth, power.

rīchen, wv. make rich, enrich, present with.

rīchsen, wv. rule, 9.2.

riechen, sv. II, smell, 78.

rīfe, wm. hoar-frost.

rigel, sm. bolt, bar.

rihten, wv. put right, confirm, judge;

refl. get up.

rinc (-ges), sm. ring.

ringe, aj. easy, light, small; consumed.

ringen, sv. III, strive, struggle; busy oneself, wrestle;

ringen nāch, strive for or after.

rinnen, sv. III, run, 20, 31, 32.181.

rint (pl. rinder), sn. cow, heifer.

rīsen, sv. I, fall, 30, 76.

rīten, sv. I, ride, 76.

rīter, ritter, sm. rider; knight, the name of knight.

rīterlīch, aj. knightly.

rīterschaft, sf. knighthood, customs and manners of knights.

ritterlīchen, av. in knightly manner.

riuschen, wv. rush, move noisily.

riuten, wv. root out, clear the land, bring the land into cultivation.

riuwe, sf. sadness, grief, pity, regret, 16 note.

riuwen, wv. grieve, grieve for, regret.

riuwen, sv. II, pain, grieve, regret, 16 note78.

riuwic, aj. sorrowful, repentant.

rivier, sm. brook, stream.

rocke, rogge, wm. rye, 31.1.

Rōme, pn. Rome.

rōr, sn. reed.

ros, sn. horse.

rōt, aj. red, 19.

rouben, wv. rob.

rouch, sm. smoke.

roufen, wv. pluck, pull up, pull at, lug;

refl. tear or pull out one’s hair.

roup (-bes), sm. robbery;

roubes, av. by robbery.

rūch, aj. raw; coarse.

rucke, rügge, swm. back.

ruejen, wv. row, 90.

rüemen, wv. praise, commend.

rueren (pret. ruorte), wv. drive, urge on;

with ros understood: run.

rūm, sm. room, 11.

rūmen, wv. make room, 10, 40.

ruochen, wv. trouble oneself about a thing, observe;

with gen. deign, will, wish.

ruofen, sv. VII, call, 5, 1187.


, sān, av. presently, at once, forthwith, immediately, quickly.

sache, sf. thing.

sactuoch, sn. sacking, sackcloth.

sæjen, sæwen, sæn, sow, 10, 3590.

sælde, sf. happiness, good fortune, excellence, blessedness, 9.2.

sælic, sælec (-ges), aj. blessed, happy, 78.

sælikeit, sf. blessedness.

sage, sf. saying, statement, report;

nāch sage, by hear-say.

sagen, wv. say, tell, 37, 92;

sagen mære, relate what has happened.

sal, sm. room, hall; house.


salben, wv. anoint.

Salomōn, sm. Solomon.

salz, sn. salt, 23.2.

salzen, sv. VII, salt, 87.

same, sam, av. so, as, like, just as, even as, 69.

samīt, sm. velvet.

samt, av. together.

sān, see .

sanc (-ges), sm. song, singing.

sanfte, av. softly, slowly, pleasantly, 60.

sant (-des), sm. sand, 42.

sant(e), aj. holy; holy one.

sarc, sm. coffin.

sarken, serken, wv. put into the coffin.

sāt, sf. seed, 5, 11.

satzt(e), pret. of setzen.

sāȥe, sf. ambush, trap, snare.

sazte, pret. of setzen.

schāchære, sm. robber.

schade, wm. injury, loss.

schaden (pret. schadete, schāte), wv. injure, harm.

schāf, sn. sheep.

schaffen, sv. VI, create, exercise, institute, 85.

schaffen, wv. do, perform, provide.

schal (-lles), sm. sound, noise, loud tone; singing.

schalchaft, aj. malicious, mischievous.

schallen, wv. be noisy; bluster; exult, boast, swagger.

schame, wf. shame.

schämelich, aj. shameful, 10.

schamen, wv. shame;

c. gen. be ashamed, 9.4.

schande, sf. disgrace, disgracefulness, shamefulness, shameful or disgraceful act.

schapel, sn. garland, 46.

schar, sf. crowd, flock, 48.

scharpf, aj. sharp.

schart, aj. jagged, hacked, hewn, battered.

schate (gen. schat(e)wes), sm. shade, shadow, 3643.

schaz (gen. schatzes), sm. treasure, 19, 23.2.

schedelīche, av. injuriously.

scheiden, sv. VII, sever, separate, deprive; go away, 87;

sich scheiden, come to an end, be decided.

schëlch (gen. schëlhes), aj. askew, 34.

schelle, wf. little bell.

schëlten, sv. III, abuse, revile, mock, 81;

also as sn.

schemelīch, aj. disgraceful.

schepfen (pret. schuof, pp. geschaffen), sv. VI, create, 23.2, 28, 31.3.

schepfære, schepfer, sm. creator, 8.

schërn, sv. IV, shear, 82.

schicken (with acc.), wv. become, suit, fit.

schieben, sv. II, shove, 78.

schiere, av. quickly, soon.

schieȥen, sv. II, shoot;

sn. shooting, 10 note 3, 78.

schif (-ffes), sn. ship, 19, 32.1.

schilt (-des), sm. shield, protection;

schildes ambet, knight-service, chivalry.

schimpfen, wv. make fun of, jest;

also as sn.

schīn, aj. visible, clear;

schīn tuon, make clear, show;

sm. splendour.

schīnen, sv. I, shine, become evident or manifest, 76.

schirmen, wv. c. dat. protect.

schiuhen, wv. fear, shun.

schœnde, sf. beauty.

schœne, aj. beautiful, fine, 3, 5, 9.2, 5560.

schœne, sf. beauty, 3, 48.

schœnen, wv. make beautiful.

schōne, av. beautifully, 60.

schouwen, wv. see, behold, look, inspect, survey.


schrëcken, sv. IV, frighten, 82.

schrībære, sm. scribe, 8.

schrīben, sv. I, write, 576.

schrīen (scrīen), sv. I, cry, cry out, scream; croak, 77;

also as sn.

schrift, sf. writing (Bible).

schrīn, sm. box.

schrinden, sv. III, split, 81.

schrit, sm. step, 44.

schrunde, wf. scratch, tear, slit.

schūften, wv. gallop, canter.

schulde, sf. reason, cause;

von welhen schulden, wherefore.

schuldic (-ec), aj. guilty, 10 note 1;

schuldic sīn, owe.

schuoch (gen. schuohes), sm. shoe, 34.

schupfen, schüpfen, wv. push, 10 note 3.

schuz (-tzes), sm. protection.

se = sie.

(-wes), sm. sea, lake, 342.

sëgenen, wv. bless, 90.

sëhen, sv. V, see, look, 9.4 note, 34, 74 note83.

sëhs, num. six, 62.

sëhste, num. sixth, 62.

sëh(s)zëhen, num. sixteen, 62.

sëh(s)zehënde, num. sixteenth, 62.

sëh(s)zic (-ec), num. sixty, 62.

sëh(s)zigeste, num. sixtieth, 62.

seist = sages(t), 37.

seit = saget, 37.

seite, wm. string.

seite = sagete.

seitenspil, sn. playing of stringed instrument.

sele, sf. soul, 5, 11, 1748.

seln, wv. hand over, 90.

sëlp (-bes), pr. self.

sëlten, av. seldom.

sëltsæne, aj. rare, strange.

senden (pret. sante), wv. send, 32.3, 4090.

senede, sende, pp. of senen, painfully longing, yearning, love-sick, 29.

senen, wv. refl. fret oneself, be sick at heart.

senfte, sf. softening.

senfte, aj. soft, gentle, tender, mild, easy; quiet, 55, 60.

senften, wv. appease, soften.

senken, wv. sink, 19, 90.

sēr, snm. pain; grief, trouble; sore.

sēre, av. sorely, violently; very.

setzen (pret. satzte), wv. put, set, place, appoint, 19, 23.1, 31.390.

si, , siu, sie, pr. she, 65.

siben, num. seven, 62.

sibende, num. seventh, 62.

sibenzëhen, num. seventeen, 62.

sibenzëhende, num. seventeenth, 62.

sibenzic (-ec), seventy, 62.

sibenzigste, seventieth, 62.

sich, refl. pr. himself, themselves, 66.

sicherheit, sf. assurance.

sicherlīch(e), av. certainly, surely, assuredly, 8.

sīde, sf. silk.

sider, av. since, afterwards.

siech, aj. sick, ill, 5.

siecheit, sf., siechtuom, sm. sickness.

sieden, sv. II, seethe, 12, 1878.

Sīfrit, pn., 54.

sige (sic), sm. victory, 43.

sīgen, sv. I, sink, 76.

sigenunft, sf. victory.

sīhte, aj. shallow.

silber, sn. silver.

sim = si im.

sin, sm. sense, mind, feeling; courage.

sīn, pr. his;

sīn sëlbes, of himself, 5, 11, 67.


sīn, anom. v. be, 97.

sin = si in.

sincwīse, sf. song.

singen, sv. III, sing;

also as sn. song, lay, 10 note 2, 3381.

sinken, sv. III, sink, 23.281.

sinne, sf. sense, mind;

ze sinne wider komen, recover consciousness, become conscious again.

sinneclīch, aj. sensible, reasonable.

sinnelōs, aj. unconscious.

sinnen, sv. III, reflect, 81.

sint = sīt.

sippe (sibbe), sf. consanguinity, relationship, 26, 31.3.

sīt (sīd, sint), av. and conj. afterwards, since, because.

site, sm. custom, habit; bearing, demeanour, behaviour, 43.

sīte, swf. side.

sitzen (pret. saȥ, pp. gesëȥȥen), sit, 14.2, 23.2, 31.384.

siȥ = sī ëȥ.

slac (-ges), sm. blow; misfortune, 44.

slāf, sm. sleep.

slāfen, sv. VII, sleep, 5, 11, 19, 23.1, 74 note87.

slahen, sv. VI, beat, strike, slay, 10, 3085.

slahte, sf. manner; race.

slëht, aj. straight; straight-forward, honest.

slieȥen, sv. II, close, shut.

smac (-ckes), sm. taste, smell.

smācheit, sf. shameful treatment.

smæhe, aj. little, despicable, disgusting.

smal, aj. small, little.

smecken, wv. taste, 90.

smër (-wes), smn. fat, 3647.

smërze, wm. pain, 19.

smiegen, sv. II, bend, incline; press close.

smielen, wv. smile.

smirwen, wv. smear, 36.

smit (-des), sm. smith, metal worker, goldsmith.

smitte, swf. smithy, 24.

snē (-wes), sm. snow, 17, 3642.

snël (-lles), aj. quick, eager, alert; blithe.

snëlheit, sf. haste, quickness.

snīden, sv. I, cut, injure, wound, 11, 12, 17, 3076.

snit, sm. cut, slice, 44.

snuor (pl. snüere), sf. string.

, so, av. and conj. as, so, if, whereas, on the other hand, thus, as it was, 69.

solch, sölch (solich), pr. such, of such a nature, 71.

soldenære, sm. hired soldier, mercenary.

solt (-des), sm. pay.

Soltāne, pn.

soltu = solt dū.

son = so ne.

sorge, swf. care, grief, sorrow.

sorgelōs, aj. free from cares.

sorgen, wv. be anxious, fear, dread.

spāhe, av. elegantly, neatly.

spalten, sv. VII, split, 87.

spān, sm. chip, shaving; notched stick, tally; degree of relationship.

spanen, sv. VI, entice, 85.

spange, swf. clasp, buckle.

spannen, sv. VII, span, 87.

sparn, wv. spare, forbear.

spëhen, wv. look at, observe.

spër, sn. spear, lance.

spiegel, sm. mirror, looking-glass; model, pattern.

spiegelglas, sn. lovely image, picture.

spil, sn. game, play; joke, fun; pleasure, delight.

spiln (pres. part. spilende, spilede), wv. play; glitter, glisten, 90.


spinnen, sv. III, spin, 81.

spīse, sf. food.

spīwen, sv. I, vomit, 17, 77.

spore, spor, wm. spur.

spot, sm. scoff, scorn, mockery; joke, fun;

āne spot, sincerely, candidly.

spotten, wv. (with gen.), mock, scoff at, scorn.

sprëchen, sv. IV, speak, say, talk, 9.4 note, 19, 23.182.

spreiten, wv. spread.

springen, sv. III, spring, leap.

stæte, sf. duration, continuance, constancy, steadfastness.

stæte, aj. constant, firm, steadfast;

av. stæteclīchen.

stætekeit, stætikeit, sf. firmness, constancy.

stahel, sm. steel.

stam (-mmes), sm. stem; prop, model.

stān, stēn, sv. VI, stand; befit, become, suit, 11, 86, 96.

stap (-bes), sm. stick, staff.

starc, aj. strong, heavy, hard, severe;

av. starke.

stat, sf. abode, place, spot; opportunity.

state, sf. suitable or comfortable place; opportunity;

ze staten komen, help.

stëchen, sv. IV, prick, 9.4 note82.

stëgreif, sm. stirrup.

stein, sm. stone, precious stone, grindstone, millstone, 317.

stëln, sv. IV, steal, 9.1, 11, 74 note82.

stellen, wv. place, 90.

stërben, sv. III, die, 10 note 181;

sn. dying, death.

sterke, sf. strength, bravery.

stërne, wm. star.

stīc (-ges), sm. path, way.

stich, sm. stab, thrust.

stīgen, sv. I, rise, mount,

stille, aj. still, quiet, secret.

stimme, sf. voice.

stinken (pret. stanc), sv. III, stink, exhale a disagreeable odour.

stiure, sf. gift, tax.

stœren, wv. hinder, overthrow, destroy.

stōle, sf. stole, surplice.

stolz, aj. stately.

stoup (-bes), sm. dust.

stōȥen, sv. VII, push, shove, thrust, 5, 1187.

strāfen, wv. blame, set right.

strāȥe, swf. way, road,

strëben, sv. V, exert oneself, strive.

strenge, aj. strict, unfriendly.

strīchen, sv. I, strike, stroke, rub.

strīt, sm. strife, quarrel, fight.

strīteclīchen, av. eagerly, zealously.

strīten, sv. I, quarrel, fight, strive, 76.

strō (-wes), sn. straw; blade, stalk, 36, 46.

strouwen, ströuwen, wv. strew, 1036.

stücke, sn. piece.

stum, aj. dumb, 32.1.

stunde, sf. hour, time.

stunt, indecl. fem. time.

stuol, sm. seat of a judge, papal power; throne.

sturm, sm. fight, battle.

, sf. sow, pig, 49.

süeȥe, aj. sweet, lovely, 60.

süeȥe, sf. loveliness, alluring enticement.

süeȥen, wv. sweeten, 90.

sūfen, sv. II, gulp down liquids, 80.

sūft, sm. sigh, groan.

sūgen, sv. II, suck, 80.

suln, süln, pret.-pres. (pres. sol, 201 pret. solte, should, ought), shall, 4093.

sum, pr. any one at all;

pl. some, 71.

sumelīch, pr. many a, whoever;

pl. some, 71.

sūmen, wv. tarry, 10.

sumer, sm. summer, 42.

sumerlīch, aj. summerlike.

sumerzīt, sf. summer time.

sun, sm. son, 5, 9.4, 10, 1944.

sünde, sf. sin.

sunder, prep. without, against;

sunder spot, seriously, in earnest;

av. sunderlīche(n), especially, separately.

sunne, wmf. sun.

suochen, wv. seek, 90.

suone, sf. atonement.

suon(e)tac (-ges), sm. day of judgement.

suoȥe, av. sweetly, 60.

sus (sust), av. so, thus, in such a way.

swā, swar, av. wherever, 69.

swach(e), aj. worthless, bad.

swacheit, sf. dishonour, disgrace.

swachen, wv. weaken.

swachlīch, aj. weak.

swǣre, aj. painful, sad, unpleasant, burdensome; weighty, heavy, 60;

daȥ swære, such a weight.

swære, sf. burden, trouble, grief, sadness.

swanc (-ges, -kes), sm. swinging movement, hurling, throwing.

swannen, swanne, av. and conj. whenever, 69.

swar, see swā.

swār (swære), aj. heavy, 55;

av. swāre, 60.

swarz, aj. black.

swëben, wv. hover, move to and fro.

swëder, pr. who of two, 69.

swëher, sm. father-in-law, 30.

sweifen, sv. VII, rove, 87.

swelch (swel), pr. each who, whoever, what sort, whatever, 6971.

swëllen, sv. III, swell, 81.

swenne (see swannen), conj. whenever, if, whilst, 69.

swër, pr. who, whoever, whosoever;

neut. swaȥ, 69, 70, 71.

swern (swerigen, swerjen), sv. VI, swear, 3586.

swërt, sn. sword.

swërtslac (pl. -slege), sm. sword-cut.

swester, swëster, sf. sister, 1148.

swie, av. and conj., as, how, however, howsoever; though, 69.

swīgen, sv. I, be silent, keep silent, 76.

swiger, sf. mother-in-law, 30.

swimmen, sv. III, swim, 3181.

swinde, aj. powerful, strong, angry;

av. quickly.

swinden, sv. III, vanish, disappear.

swingen, sv. III, swing.


tac (-ges), sm. day, 5, 11, 3342;

av. tages, by day.

tägelīch, aj. daily, 5, 10.

tagen, wv. become day, dawn.

tagezīt, sf. space of a day.

tal (pl. teler), sn. dale, 47.

tanz, sm. dance.

tanzen, wv. dance.

tanzwīse, sf. a song which is sung to the accompaniment of dancing.

teil, smn. portion;

ein teil, something, a little.

teilen, wv. divide, distribute.

tief, aj. deep, 15, 19.


tier, sn. animal.

tisch, sm. table.

tiure, tiuwer, aj. and av. dear, precious; noble, excellent, 9.3, 57.

tiuren, tiuwern, wv. esteem highly, honour, confer honour.

tiutsch, tiusch, aj. German;

tiuschiu zunge, German language, Germany.

tiuvel, sm. devil.

tœrisch, tœrsch, aj. foolish, silly.

tœtlīch, aj. deadly.

tohter, sf. daughter, 10, 2549.

töhterlīn, sn. little daughter, 10.

tor, sn. gate, door.

tōre, tōr, wm. fool.

törperheit, sf. impoliteness, vulgarity.

tōt, aj. dead, 3, 25, 30.

tōt (-des), sm. death, 5, 11, 3033;

in dëm tōde swëben, be on the peril of losing one’s life.

tou (-wes), sn. dew, 46.

toufen, wv. baptize, 10.

tougen, sfn. secret, wonder;

aj. dark, secret;

av. secretly, 55.

tougenlīch, aj. secret;

av. tougenlīche.

træge, aj. slow, weary, lazy;

av. trāge.

tragen, sv. VI, bear, carry; wear; have, 85.

trahen (pl. trehene), sm. drop, tear.

trahten, wv. think, strive, 92.

trëffen, sv. IV, hit, 32, 82.

treit = traget.

trëten, sv. V, tread, step, enter, 83;

trëten hinder sich, step back.

tretten, wv. tread, 31.3.

trīben, sv. I, drive; play, carry on, 76.

triefen, sv. II, drop, drip, 31.178.

triegen, sv. II, deceive, plot, intrigue.

trinken, sv. III, drink, 1981.

triuten, wv. caress, like, love; greet.

triuwe, aj. true, 16 note;

sf. fidelity, faithfulness;

mit triuwen (triwen), faithfully.

triuwen, trūwen, wv. believe, trust, hope, 16 note.

trœstelīn, sn. consolation, hope.

trœsten, wv. console, comfort; help.

tropfe, wm. drop, 31.3.

trōst, sm. consolation, hope.

troum, sm. dream.

troumen, wv. dream, 10.

trüebe, aj. gloomy.

trüebsal, sn. gloom, 8.

trūrec, aj. sad;

av. trūreclīche.

trūren, wv. mourn, be sad, downcast;

also sn.

trūt, aj. dear, beloved.

trūtgemahele, sf. bride.

tugen, tügen, pret.-pres. (pres. touc, pret. tohte), be fit for, good for, of use, 93.

tugenhaft, aj. fit, hearty, noble.

tugent, tugende, sf. virtue, good qualities, strength, power, valour, 49.

tugentlīchen, av. with noble demeanour.

tump (-bes), aj. inexperienced, silly, young.

tumpheit, sf. folly, foolish action; inexperience;

tumpheit walten, show or have great inexperience.

tunkel, aj. dark.

tuon, anom. v. do, make, form, shape; cause, 94;

tuon enblecken, 203 cause to become visible;

ze leide tuon, cause grief, pain, or injury to;

wër hāt dir getān? who has done anything to you?;

als ein got getān, like a god.

tür, sf. door.

Turkentāls, pn. one of Parzival’s princes.

turren, türren, pret.-pres. (pres. tar, pret. torste), dare, venture, 1093.

tūsenste, num. thousandth, 62.

tūsent, num. thousand, 5, 6264.

twahen (pret. twuoc), sv. VI, wash, 85.

twërch (gen. twërhes), askew, 34.

twingen, sv. III, compel, force, subdue, overcome;

sich twingen lāȥen, let oneself be compelled.


übel, aj. evil, bad, 55, 5860;

av. übele.

über, prep. over, because of, for.

übergrōȥ, aj. very great.

übergülde, sn. gilding, raising of value.

übergulde, sf. that which surpasses something else in value.

übermæȥlīchen, av. beyond measure.

übermüete, sf. insolence, haughtiness.

übermuot, sm. haughtiness, insolence.

übern = über dën, 68 note 2.

übersëhen, sv. V, overlook, not observe.

überstrīten, sv. I, gain the victory over, conquer.

übertragen, sv. VI, spare, discharge something.

überwinden, sv. III, overcome, get over.

ūf, ūfe, prep. and av. up, up to, on, to, upwards, 23.1;

ūf genāde, in firm confidence;

ūf die triwe mīn, upon my faith or troth;

ūf slieȥen, open.

ūfem, ūfme = ūf dëm, 68 note 2.

ūfen = ūf dën, 68 note 2.

Ulterlec, pn.

umbe, ümbe, umb, um, prep. and av. about, around, upon, for, 10 note 2;

dar umbe, therefore;

umbe sust, for nothing;

um waȥ, why, for what reason;

umbe daȥ, on account of that, for that, therefore;

umbe gān, turn or go round.

umbeslieȥen, sv. II, embrace, surround.

umbevāhen, sv. VII, embrace.

unbewollen, part. aj. unspotted.

und, unde, unt, cj. and av. and; again, on the other hand, 9.6, 69.

unden, av. below, beneath.

under (undr), prep. under, beneath, between, among;

under in, among themselves;

under wëgen lān, omit;

under stunden, at times, now and then, sometimes;

under wīlen, from time to time, at times, sometimes.

underlāȥ, sm. interruption.

underscheiden, sv. VII, relate; explain fully.

undersnīden, sv. I, interrupt, intermingle.

understān, sv. VI, step in between, hinder.

undertænic, aj. humble, subject, submissive.


undertān, part. aj. humble, submissive.

underwinden, sv. III, refl. undertake.

unfuoge (also used as a proper noun), sf. unseemliness, indecorum, misconduct; coarseness.

unfuore, wf. badness, roughness; wicked mode of life.

ungebære, sf. despairing lamentation.

ungebant, aj. unbeaten, untrodden.

ungebatten, aj. useless, worthless.

ungeborn, part. aj. unborn.

ungeburt, sf. low birth.

ungefüege, aj. very great, powerful; bad, unbecoming, coarse, uncouth, rude;

av. ungefuoge.

ungehabe, sf. sorrow, grief.

ungelīche, av. immeasurably, incomparably.

ungelōnet, aj. unrewarded.

ungelouplich, aj. incredible.

ungelücke, sn. misfortune.

ungemach, sn. misfortune, discomfort, sorrow.

ungemüete, snf. mourning, grief, sorrow.

ungenāde, sf. disfavour, hatred, harm.

ungenæme, aj. unpleasant.

ungenësen, aj. unhealed, uncured.

ungerihte, sn. fault, crime.

ungërne, av. unwillingly.

ungesammet, aj. not united, not unanimous.

ungeschriben, part. aj. that which cannot be written.

ungestaltheit, sf. deformity.

ungesunt, (-des), sm. sickness, illness.

unhövesch, aj. uncourtly, coarse, low, vulgar.

unkraft, sf. fainting fit, swoon.

unkunt (unkuntlīch), aj. unknown.

unlange, av. in a short time.

unmære, aj. not worth mentioning, little observed, worthless, disgusting; undervalued.

unmæȥlīch, aj. immoderate, excessive.

unmāȥen, av. immeasurably.

unminnen, wv. treat in an unloving manner.

unmueȥekeit, sf. work, trouble.

unmugelīch, aj. impossible.

unmuoȥe, sf. occupation, restlessness.

unnāch, av. by no means.

unnōt, sf. without danger or need.

unrewert = unerwert, part. aj. unprohibited.

unriuweclīche, av. without trouble or care.

unsælekeit, sf. unhappiness; misfortune.

unsælic (-ec), aj. unhappy, cursed.

unschulde, sf. innocence.

unschuldigen, wv. proclaim one’s innocence.

unsegelīch, aj. unspeakable.

unsenfte, aj. painful, hard.

unser, pr. our, 7, 67.

unstæte, aj. inconstant, fickle.

unstæte, sf. inconstancy, fickleness.

untriuwe, sf. faithlessness, deceit.

untrœsten, wv. dishearten, discourage.

untrōst, sm. despondency, discouragement.

untugent, sf. lack of good training.

unversunnen, pp. unconscious.

unvrō, unfrō, aj. unhappy, sad, mournful.


unwandelbære, aj. steadfast, unchangeable.

unwendic (-ec), aj. unchangeable.

unwërt, sm. unworthiness, contempt for, scorn.

unwīp, (-bes), sn. bad woman; unwomanly creature; unworthy the name of Weib.

unwīse, sf. false tone or sound; bad style.

unze, unz, prep. and conj. till, until, up to, down to, to;

unz her, hitherto;

unz enmitten an, right down to.

unzerworht, aj. undivided, undissected, not cut up.

Uote, pn. 54.

üppic, aj. unnecessary, superfluous; proud.

ūȥ, prep. and av. out, out of, of, from;

ūȥen, av.;

ūȥerwelt, select, chosen.

ūȥer, prep. out of, from.

ūȥreise, sf. marching, going out or off; departure; song sung by knights on the march.

V (F)

vadem, sm. thread, 9.242.

vāhen, fāhen (vān), sv. VII, catch, seize, take, 29, 30, 3887.

val (-wes), aj. yellow, 36.

vallen, sv. VII, fall, fall down, fall to one’s lot, 32.487.

valsch, aj. false, deceitful.

valsch, sm. fault, spot, impurity, deceit;

valsches laȥ, free from deceit or falseness.

valten, sv. VII, fold, 87.

vancnüsse, sf. captivity, 8.

var, vare (-wes), aj. coloured; formed, looking.

vāren, wv. place behind, watch, lie in wait.

varn, sv. VI, go, fare, betake oneself, 5, 10, 74 note85;

varndeȥ guot, movable property.

vart, sf. way, march, journey.

varwe, sf. colour, form, appearance.

vaste, av. fast, quickly, strongly, firmly; very.

vater, sm. (pl. veter, väter), father, 11, 1945.

väterlīch, aj. fatherly, 10.

väterlīn, dim. of vater, 510.

vaȥȥen, wv. seize, take, gather.

vëhten, sv. IV, fight, 82.

veile, aj. cheap, purchasable.

vël (-lles), sn. hide, skin, 32.1.

vellen, wv. fell, kill, 90.

vels, swm. rock, 11.

velschen, wv. falsify; make faithless.

vëlt (-des), sn. field.

venster, sn. window, 46.

verbërgen, sv. III, hide, conceal.

verbërn, sv. IV, spare, abstain from, forbear, avoid, keep from, give up.

verbieten, sv. II, forbid, hinder, prevent, obstruct; ward off.

verdagen, wv. keep secret, conceal.

verdërben, perish, spoil, destroy, 81.

verdërbnisse, sfn. destruction, 8.

verdienen, wv. deserve, earn.

verdrieȥen (impers. c. gen.), sv. III, grieve, fret, vex.

verdringen, sv. III, crowd out, suppress, displace, push on one side.

vereinen, wv. refl. unite.

verenden, wv. end.

vergëben, sv. V, poison, infect.


vergëlten, sv. III, repay, requite.

vergëȥȥen, sv. V, forget, 83.

vergieȥen, sv. II, pour over, sprinkle with water.

verhëln, sv. IV, conceal.

verhouwen (pret. -hiu and -hie, also weak -houte), sv. VII, hew in pieces, cut asunder.

verjëhen, sv. V, say, tell, relate; give to understand, assure.

verkēren, wv. change, turn round; destroy.

verkiesen, sv. II, give up, forgo, forget.

verklagen, wv. cease to mourn, bear with patience.

verkrenken, wv. destroy.

verlāȥen (verlān), sv. VII, leave off, forsake.

verleiten, wv. lead astray.

verleschen, sv. IV, become extinguished, extinguish.

verliesen (vliesen), sv. II, lose, 78.

verligen, sv. V, miss through sleeping too long, over-sleep.

verlust, sm. loss.

vermīden, (pp. vermiten), sv. I, avoid, omit, not to take place, keep aloof from.

vermischen, wv. mix, mingle.

vernëmen, sv. IV, perceive, observe, get to know.

vërre, aj. and av. far, far away, distant, 31.

verrihten, wv. settle, pass sentence upon.

versagen, wv. refuse, deny.

verschaffen, sv. VI, do or act in a bad manner, spoil, destroy.

verschulden, wv. pay back.

versëhen, sv. V, observe, recognize;

refl. hope, dread.

versinnen (sich), sv. III, arrive at years of discretion;

c. gen. become conscious of.

versmæhelīch, aj. disgraceful, ignominious.

versmæhen, wv. despise, mock.

versperren (pret. versparte), wv. shut, close.

versprëchen, sv. IV, decline, spurn.

verstān (-stēn), sv. VI, perceive, understand.

verstōȥen, sv. VII, drive away.

versūmen, wv. neglect, let slip, spoil.

versuochen, wv. try, test.

verswern, sv. VI, abjure, deny by an oath.

verswīgen, sv. I, forbear talking.

verswinden, sv. III, disappear, flee.

vertragen, sv. VI, endure, bear.

vertrīben, sv. I, drive away, make to pass.

vervāhen, verfāhen, sv. VII, reach, bring to pass;

mich vervæhet, it is of use or advantage to me.

vervluochen, -fluochen, wv. curse.

verwāȥen, sv. VII, ruin; imprecate, curse.

verwëgen, sv. V, resolve.

verweinen, wv. exhaust by weeping.

verwunden, wv. wound.

verwürken (pret. -worhte), wv. lose, forfeit, commit.

verzagen, wv. lose courage, withdraw, despair, despond.

verzern, wv. consume; destroy.

veste, sf. firmness, constancy.

vīant, vīent, vīnt, sm. enemy, fiend, 8, 42.


vier, num. four, 62.

vier, fier, aj. proud, stately, majestic, beautiful;

av. viere.

vierde, num. fourth, 62.

vierzëhen, num. fourteen, 62.

vierzëhende, num. fourteenth, 62.

vierzic (-ec), num. forty, 62.

vierzigeste, num. fortieth.

vihe, sn. cattle, 46.

vil, aj. much, many;

av. very;

indecl. sb. c. gen. much, many;

vil wēnic ganz c. gen. not at all complete or whole.

vinden, finden, sv. III, find, 9.4 note81.

vinger, sm. finger.

vingerlīn, vingerīn, sn. ring, 8.

vingerlinc, sm. ring.

vinster, sf. darkness, 48.

vinster, aj. dark, gloomy, 55.

vinsternisse, sfn. darkness, 8.

vint = vindet, 74 note.

vīnt, see vīant.

vīol, sm. violet.

virren, wv. keep away from.

visch, sm. fish, 11, 19.

viur, fiuwer, sn. fire; lightning.

vlēhen, flēhen (vlēn), wv. beseech, implore, 38.

vlëhten, sv. IV, plait, 82.

fleisch, sn. flesh.

vliegen, fliegen, sv. II, fly, 10 note 3, 2578.

vliehen, fliehen, sv. II, flee, 18, 1978.

vliesen = verliesen.

vlieȥen, flieȥen, sv. II, flow, swim; ruin, destroy, 10 note 3, 78.

vlīȥ, flīȥ, sm. assiduity, zeal, eagerness, care;

ze flīȥe, diligently, carefully.

vlīȥec, aj. diligent, 60.3.

vlīȥeclīche(n), av. diligently, 60.3.

vluht, sf. refuge.

flühtesal, sf. flight, escape; security.

vluoch (pl. vlüeche), sm. curse.

vogel, sm. bird, 9.2, 42.

vogelīn, vogel(l)īn, sn. little bird, 8.

vogelsanc, sm. song of birds.

vol (-lles), aj. full, 1531.

volc, sn. folk, people.

volenden, wv. bring to an end.

volgen, wv. follow, accompany.

volgesagen, wv. tell fully.

volle, wm. abundance, completeness.

vollebringen (pret. -brāhte), wv. perfect, carry out.

volleclīchen, av. fully, entirely.

volleist, sm. assistance, succour.

von, prep. from, away from, with, about, through, by;

von schulden, rightly, properly.

vonme, vomme = von dëme.

vor, prep. before, for.

vorbilde, sn. pattern, model.

vorder, aj. former, front, 59.

vordern, wv. further, 90.

vorderste, aj. foremost, 59.

vorht, sf. fear, dread.

vrāge, sf. question.

vrāgen, wv. ask, 9.2, 92.

frävele, aj. bold, 10.

frëch, aj. courageous, daring, bold, brave; saucy, impudent.

freischen, sv. VII, come to know, learn, be told.

vreise, freise, swf. horror, what is dreadful or horrible.

vremde, fremde (vrömde), aj. strange, wonderful; unknown.

vremen, wv. perform, 31.3.

vreude, vröude, fröide, freude, fröude, swf. joy, gladness;


fröuden (gen. pl.) lam, bereft of joys, pleasures.

vreudelōs, aj. joyless.

freuderīche, aj. rich in joy, very gratifying.

vreuwen, vrewen, vreun, freuwen, frewen, freun, wv. cause to rejoice, rejoice, gladden, give pleasure to, be glad.

See vröuwen.

vrevel, sf. audacity, insolence.

frevellīchen, av. insolently, boldly, with impudence.

vrëȥȥen, sv. V, devour, 83.

vrī, aj. free, unrestrained, unmarried.

vride, fride, sm. peace, truce; protection, safety, 3, 19, 43.

vrid(e)lich, aj. peaceful.

vrīe, sf. freedom.

vrīe, wm. freeman.

frīen, frījen, frīgen, wv. free, 35.

vriesen, sv. II, freeze, 78.

vrisch, frisch, aj. fresh, new.

vrist, sf. time.

vristen, wv. keep alive, protect, rescue.

vriundinne, sf. female friend, 848.

vriunt, friunt, sm. friend, 42.

vrō, frō, aj. and av. glad, joyful.

vrœlīch, aj. joyful;

av. vrœlīchen.

vrömde = vremde.

vrömede, sf. absence.

frosch, sm. frog.

vröuen, vröuwen, fröwen, wv. gladden, give pleasure to; be glad, 10.

See vreuwen.

vrouwe, frouwe, frowe (vrou, frou, frō, before proper names), wf. lady, madam, 9.610;

ze frowen, as wife.

vröuwelīn, frouwelīn, sn. little girl, maid, miss.

vruht, sf. fruit.

vrum, aj. brave, active, excellent, useful.

vrumen, frumen, wv. benefit, be of use or advantage.

vruo, av. early.

vüegen, füegen, wv. procure, bring to pass; grant.

vüeren, füeren (pret. fuorte), wv. lead, carry, remove.

fuhs, sm. fox, 19.

vūl, aj. bad, rotten.

vülle, sf. fulness, 15.

füllen, wv. fill, 90.

funden, pp. of finden.

vünf, fünf, finf, num. five, 1962.

fünfte, finfte, num. fifth, 62.

vuoge, sf. becomingness, decency.

fuore, sf. manner of life; way of acting.

vuoȥ, fuoȥ (pl. vüeȥe), sm. foot, 1044.

vür, für, prep. and av. for, before, over, against;

für guot haben, be content with, put up with;

für iuch, past you;

für sie, past them;

für tōren kleit, as fool’s clothing;

vür wār, in truth, truly.

vürbaȥ, fürbaȥ, av. further.

vürhten, fürhten (pret. vorhte), wv. fear, dread, 1590.

vürnames, av. in the full sense of the word.

vürste, fürste, wm. prince;

ein dīn fürste, one of thy princes.

vurt, furt (pl. fürte), sm. ford, bed of a river.


, av. where, whither, 39.

wāc (-ges), sn. moving water, flood.

wacker, aj. watchful, 31.2.

wæjen (wæn), wv. blow, 90.


wæenen (pret. wānde), wv. think, fancy, 90.

wærlīchen, av. in truth, truly.

wætlīch, aj. beautiful.

wætlīche, sf. beauty.

wāfen, sn. weapon, sword.

wāfenen, wāpenen, wv. arm, equip, array.

See wāpen.

wage, wf. cradle.

wāge, sf. balance, scale.

wagen, sm. wagon, 49.

wahsen, sv. VI, grow, 10, 85.

wal, sf. choice, 48.

walden, sv. VII, have power over.

See walten.

Wāleis, pn. Valois in France, inhabitant of Valois.

wallen (pret. wiel), sv. VII, boil, bubble, 87.

walt (-des), sm. wood, forest.

walten (with gen.), sv. VII, have power.

wan, aj. empty, bereft of.

wan, av. besides, but only;

niht wan, only, nothing but;

wan daȥ, only that, if—not;

wan unz, whilst, as long as;

wan dëm einen, except for the one.

wan (wande, want), conj. for, if, because, then, 9.6.

wān, sm. faith, hope, mood.

wanc (-kes), sm. inconstancy, disloyalty, unfaithfulness, changeableness.

wandel, smn. change, fickleness; fault, defect, failing.

wandeln, wv. wander, 9.2, 90.

wange, wn. cheek, 50.

wängelīn, sn. little cheek.

want, sf. wall.

wāpen (with sich), wv. arm oneself.

See wāfenen.

wāpen, sn. weapon, 46.

wāpenen, see wāfenen.

wāpenroc, sm. upper-garment drawn over the coat of mail.

war, av. where, whither;

war umbe, wherefore, why;

war zuo, for what purpose.

war, sf. attention, observation;

war nëmen, give attention.

wār, sn. truth; right;

wār haben, be right.

wār, aj. true, right, real.

wārheit, sf. truth.

wārinne, av. wherein, 39.

wärmen, wv. to warm, 5, 10.

warnen, wv. equip, prepare.

warten (pret. warte), wv. wait; look, view, 9.2.

was, wasse, aj. sharp, 55.

waschen (weschen), sv. VI, wash, 85.

waste, sf. desert.

wāt, sf. clothing, dress.

waten, sv. VI, wade, 85.

waȥ, pr. what, 19, 23.1, 70;

av. why, wherefore.

(gen. wēwes), sn. woe, pain;

wē tuon, hurt, 17, 46;

interj. wehe, , woe! alas!;

mir ist wē, I am sad.

wëben, sv. V, weave, 28, 83.

wëc (-ges), sm. way; homeward journey, 5, 11.

wecken (pret. wacte, wahte), wv. awake.

wëder, pr. who of two, which of two, 7071;

wëder—noch, neither—nor.

wegen, wv. move, swing.

wëgen, sv. V, weigh, poise; put in motion, 83.

wëhsal (-el), smn. change, 8.

weich, aj. weak.

weideganc (-ges), sm. hunting way or path.

weinen (pres. part. weinde for weinende), wv. weep, bewail;

also sn.

weise, wm. orphan; precious stone in the royal crown.

weiȥgot, interj. verily.


welīch, welch, pr. which, what kind of, 11, 7071.

wellen (pres. sing. wil, pret. wolte), anom. v. will, wish, 98;

got dës niht enwelle, may God forbid it.

weln, welen, wellen, wv. choose, 90.

wenden (pp. gewant), wv. with gen. turn, prevent, hinder, turn away, 32.3.

wēnic, aj. little, small;

indecl. sb. c. gen. little.

wenke, sf. turning, turn, change.

wenken, wv. totter, stagger, waver.

wer, sf. defence; protection; battle.

wër, neut. waȥ, pr. who, what;

wës, av. wherefore, 9.6, 70.

wërben, sv. III, turn, go to and fro, strive, work, be active, 33.

wërde, aj. worthy, noble.

wërdekeit, wërdikeit, sf. worthiness, respect, honour, excellence.

wërden, sv. III, become, be, be born, 9.4 note, 3881;

wërden wol innen, perceive clearly;

wërden buoȥ, with dat. of pers. and gen. of thing: dëm wirt kumbers buoȥ, he has compensation for his grief;

wërden rāt, c. gen. be a remedy.

wërdiclīchen, av. worthily.

wërfen, sv. III, throw, set in quick motion, 10 note, 23.281.

wërlt, wërelt, wëlt, sf. world, people;

dër wërelde riuwe, great sadness or grief, lit. sadness of the world.

wërltlīch, aj. worldly, earthly.

wërlttōre, wm. one befooled by the world.

wërltzage, wm. arrant coward.

wern (weren), wv. check, ward off from, restrain, hinder, 90;

c. gen. and sich, protect or defend oneself against.

wern, wv. last, hold out, continue.

wërren (with dat.), sv. III, perplex, confuse, trouble, disturb, be a hindrance, 81.

wërt (-des), aj. worthy, noble;

snm. respect, good fortune;

av. wërde.

wës (gen. of waȥ), av. why, wherefore.

wësen, sv. V, be, 19, 83;

wësen gāch, c. gen. of person: hasten, exert oneself, eagerly.

wëter, sn. weather, 46.

wetzen, wv. whet, sharpen.

wider (widere), sm. wether, 9.2.

wider, prep. against, to;

av. again, back.

widersagen, wv. renounce; proclaim war; contradict.

widerstān, sv. VI, resist, withstand, be opposed to.

widervarn, sv. VI, fall to the lot of.

widerzæme, aj. revolting, hateful, disgusting.

wie, av. and conj. how, as, that.

wīgant (-des), sm. warrior, 8.

wīhen, wv. consecrate, bless.

wilde, aj. untamed, wild, 55.

wīle, wīl, sf. time, while;

die wīle, meanwhile, in the meantime.

wīlen(t), av. formerly, once upon a time.

wille, wm. will, wish, desire.


willeclīch, aj. willing, wishing;

av. willeclīchen.

willekomen, aj. and av. welcome.

wilt (-des), sn. wild animals, game.

wīn, sm. wine, 3, 19.

winden, sv. III, wind, bind up, 81.

wine, sm. friend.

wint (-des), sm. wind, 14.1.

winter, sm. winter.

wīp (-bes), sn. woman, wife, 511.

wīpheit, sf. womanliness.

wīplīch, aj. womanly.

wirde, sf. worthiness, dignity, honour, honourableness.

wirden, wv. make valuable.

wirs, av. worse, 61.

wirser, aj. worse, 58.

wirsest, wir(se)ste, aj. and av. worst, 9.5, 58, 6061.

wirt, sm. head of a house, landlord;

dër helle wirt, devil.

wirtinne, sf. mistress, hostess, 8.

wīse, wīs, aj. wise, sensible, experienced, 28.

wīse, wīs, sf. manner, melody, song.

wīsen, wv. guide, direct.

wīsheit, sf. wisdom.

wīslīch, aj. wisely, 8;

av. wīslīchen.

wīt, aj. far, wide.

witze, sf. understanding, sense; reflection.

wīȥ, aj. white.

wīȥen (with dat.), sv. I, reproach, blame.

wiȥȥen, pret.-pres. (pres. weiȥ, pret. weste, wiste, wesse, wisse), know, 5, 11, 2892.

wol, wole, av. well, 5, 9.161;

wolgezogen, well-mannered;

wol getān, beautiful;

wol im, happy or lucky is he!;

wol dir, hail to thee;

wol mich, happy am I!;

wol tuon, c. dat. do good, please;

wol ir dës, good luck to her for that!

wolf, sm. wolf, 15.

wolken, sn. cloud.

wolle, wf. wool, 15.

wollust, smf. joy, bliss, happiness.

wonen, wv. dwell, live, 9.4;

mir wont bī, I possess.

wort, sn. word, speech, 46.

wüllīn, wullīn, aj. woollen, 15.

wülpinne, sf. she-wolf, 15.

wunde, wf. wound.

wunder, sn. wonder, marvel; a great amount or number, abundance;

bluomen wunder, a great quantity of flowers.

wunderalt, aj. very old.

wundern, wv. wonder, wonder at, admire, 9.2.

wünne, wunne, sf. joy, pleasure, 10 note 2.

wünneclīch, wunneclīch, aj. joyful, delightful, beautiful, pleasant;

av. wünneclīche(n).

wunsch, sm. wish, ideal, perfection, highest perfection.

wünschen (with gen.), wv. wish, desire, 90.

wunschleben, sn. such a life as one could wish for.

wunt (-des), aj. wounded.

wuof, sm. cry of woe.

wuofen, sv. VII, bewail, 87.

würgen, wv. take by the throat, choke, throttle.

würken, wurken (pret. worhte), wv. work, 2891.

wurm, sm. worm, snake, 5.

wurze, wf. root, plant.

wurzel, swf. root.



zageheit, sf. cowardice.

zaher, sm. tear, 5, 10.

zal, sf. number, 9.1, 31.348.

zant, zan (gen. zandes), sm. tooth, 43.

ze (zuo), prep. at, in, to, as much as, (undergoes contraction with the def. art.);

ze bruoder, as brother;

ze rëhte, rightly, properly;

ze handen haben, possess;

av. too: ze sēre, too much.

zebrëchen, zerbrëchen, sv. IV, break, break in pieces.

zehant, av. at once, on the spot.

zēhe, wf. toe.

zëhen, num. ten, 5, 62.

zëhente (-de), num. tenth, 62.

zëhenzic (-ec), hundred, 62.

zëhenzigeste, num. hundredth, 62.

zeichen, sn. sign, mark, token, 231.

zeigen, wv. show, 33.

zeim = ze einem(e).

zeln, wv. reckon, count, 31.390.

zëme, zëm = ze dëme, 68 note 2.

zëmen, sv. IV, suit, be becoming or fitting, 82.

zën = ze dën, 68 note 2.

zër = ze dër, 68 note 2.

zergān, -gēn, sv. VII, vanish, stop, perish.

zerren (pret. zarte), wv. pull, tug, tear.

zerwirken (pp. zerworht), wv. cut up, dissect.

zesamene, av. together.

zëse (-wes), aj. right.

zestunt, av. on the spot.

zeswëllen, sv. III, swell to the utmost.

zewāre, zwār, av. in truth, truly.

ziehen, sv. II, draw;

refl. withdraw, 10, 23.1, 30, 78.

zierde, sf. adornment, 9.2.

zieren, wv. adorn, decorate.

zīhen, sv. I, accuse, 76.

zil, sn. aim, object.

zimieren, wv. furnish with knightly accoutrements.

zinsen, wv. give as interest, give away.

zir = ze ir.

zirke, wm. garland, circle, prince’s crown.

zirkel, sm. prince’s crown.

zīt, sf. time, 19.

zobel, sm. robe furred with sable.

zorn, sm. anger.

zorneclīche, av. angrily, violently.

zücken (pret. zuhte), wv. pull quickly, tear.

zuht, sf. bringing up, education; good manners, politeness, demeanour; chastisement, punishment;

mit zühten, becomingly, gracefully, politely.

zühtelōs, aj. ill-bred, rude, insolent.

zunft, sf. propriety, dignity, good breeding.

zunge, wf. tongue, 3, 7, 23.2, 53

zuo, av. to, toward; to it;

zuo zwein, into two.

See ze.

zuome = zuo dëme.

zürnen, zurnen, wv. be angry.

zwei, num. two, 35, 62, 63.

zweien with sich, wv. fall out, quarrel; pair.

zweinzic (-ec), num. twenty, 62.


zweinzigeste, num. twentieth, 62.

zwelf, num. twelve, 62.

zwelfte, num. twelfth, 62.

zwene, zwei, zwō (gen. zweier, zweiger, dat. zwein), two, 3563.

zwī, zwic (gen. zwīges, zwīes), smn. twig, bough, 35.

zwīfeln, wv. doubt, 9.2.

zwischen, prep. between.

zwīvel, zwīfel, sm. doubt, uncertainty;

aj. doubtful, 55.

zwīvellīch, aj. doubtful, uncertain, dejected.

zwīvellop (-bes), doubtful or ambiguous praise.

Paragraph 88 Table

A few other inflectional tables were similarly reformatted.

page image

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