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Title: The Botanical Magazine, Vol. 6
       Or, Flower-Garden Displayed

Author: William Curtis

Release Date: June 15, 2007 [EBook #21843]

Language: English

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Botanical Magazine;


Flower-Garden Displayed:


The most Ornamental Foreign Plants, cultivated in the Open Ground, the Green-House, and the Stove, are accurately represented in their natural Colours.


Their Names, Class, Order, Generic and Specific Characters, according to the celebrated Linnæus; their Places of Growth, and Times of Flowering:




Intended for the Use of such Ladies, Gentlemen, and Gardeners, as wish to become scientifically acquainted with the Plants they cultivate.


Author of the Flora Londinensis.


———————"nor thou disdain
To check the lawless riot of the trees,
To plant the grove, or turn the barren mould
Oh happy he, whom, when his years decline,
(His fortune and his fame by worthy means
Attain'd, and equal to his mod'rate mind;
His life approv'd by all the wise and good,
Even envy'd by the vain) the peaceful groves
Of Epicurus, from this stormy world
Hereine in rest; of all ungrateful cares
Absolv'd, and sacred from the selfish crowd.
Happiest of men I if the same soil invites
A chosen few, companions of his youth,
Once fellow-rakes perhaps now rural friends;
With whom in easy commerce to pursue
Nature's free charms, and vie for Sylvan fame
A fair ambition; void of strife, or guile,
Or jealousy, or pain to be outdone.
Who plans th'enchanted garden, who directs
The visto best, and best conducts the stream;
Whose groves the fastest thicken, and ascend;
Whom first the welcome spring salutes; who shews
The earliest bloom, the sweetest proudest charms
Of Flora; who best gives Pomona's juice
To match the sprightly genius of Champain."


Printed by Couchman and Fry, Throgmorton-Street. For W. CURTIS, No 3, St. George's-Crescent, Black-Friars-Road; And Sold by the principal Booksellers in Great-Britain and Ireland.



[181]—Colutea Frutescens.
[182]—Salvia Aurea.
[183]—Syringa Vulgaris.
[184]—Ixia Crocata.
[185]—Coronilla Valentina.
[186]—Selago Ovata.
[187]—Iris Sambucina.
[188]—Convolvulus Nil.
[189]—Erica Grandiflora.
[190]—Ornithogalum Aureum.
[191]—Primula Marginata.
[192]—Cypripedium Acaule.
[193]—Narcissus Angustifolius.
[194]—Fritillaria Imperialis.
[195]—Cheiranthus Mutabilis.
[196]—Saxifraga Crassifolia.
[197]—Narcissus Biflorus.
[198]—Indigofera Candicans.
[199]—Aster Alpinus.
[200]—Antirrhinum Sparteum.
[201]—Pelargonium Bicolor.
[202]—Lupinus Perennis.
[203]—Geranium Angulatum.
[204]—Ranunculus Aconitifolius.
[205]—Antirrhinum Alpinum.
[206]—Geranium Anemonefolium.
[207]—Dianthus Barbatus.
[208]—Melissa Grandiflora.
[209]—Hibiscus Trionum.
[210]—Celsia Linearis.
[211]—Sedum Populifolium.
[212]—Tanacetum Flabelliforme.
[213]—Polygonum Orientale.
[214]—Dracocephalum Denticulatum.
[215]—Ranunculus Acris Flore Pleno.
[216]—Cypripedium Album.
INDEX.—Latin Names
INDEX.—English Names


Colutea Frutescens. Scarlet Bladder Senna.

Class and Order.

Diadelphia Decandria.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-fidus. Legumen inflatum, basi superiore dehiscens.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

COLUTEA frutescens fruticosa, foliolis ovato-oblongis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr, p. 668. Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 3. p. 56. Mill. Icon. 99.

COLUTEA æthiopica, flore purpureo. Breyn. Cent. 70. t. 29.

No 181.

Of the several species of Colutea cultivated in our garden the one here figured, is distinguished by the brilliancy of its' flowers, the largeness of its pods, and the downy appearance of the under side of its leaves.

It appears from the Hortus Kewensis to have been cultivated by Mr. James Sutherland as long since as the year 1683 it was not however generally introduced to our gardens till the time of Miller, who figured it in his Icones, it was then understood to be an Æthiopian plant; Mr. Aiton since describes it as a native of the Cape also; of course, we find it more tender than most of its kindred, and hence it is usually regarded as a greenhouse plant; yet, as it is not destroyed by a small degree of frost, it will frequently, like the myrtle survive a mild winter in the open border, especially if trained to a wall: it is rarely of more than two or three years duration.

It is readily raised from seeds sown in the open ground, plants from which flower the August following, and, in favourable seasons, ripen their seeds; in order, however, that they may ripen them with more certainty, Miller, recommends the sowing them early on a gentle hot-bed.

A dry soil suits this species best.


Salvia Aurea. Golden Sage.

Class And Order.

Decandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Cor. inæqualis. Filamenta transverse pedicello affixa.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

SALVIA aurea foliis subrotundis integerrimis, basi truncatis dentatis. Linn. Syst. Veget. ed. 14. Murr. p. 71. Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 1. p. 45.

SALVIA Africana frutescens folio subrotundo glauco, flore magno aureo. Comm. Hort. 2. 183. t. 92.

No 182.

Such as are delighted with the singular rather than the beautiful appearances of plants, cannot fail of ranking the present species of sage among their favourites.

It been called aurea, from the colour of its flowers, ferruginea would perhaps have been more expressive of them; when they first open indeed they are of a yellow colour, but they quickly and constantly become of the colour of rusty iron.

The leaves are nearly round, and have a pleasing silvery hue: a few of them only, and those chiefly at the extremities of the young shoots, are of the form described by Linnæus in his specific character of the plant, and hence Commelin's description (vid. Syn.) is to be preferred, as leading us with more certainty to a knowledge of the plant; the colour of the leaves, the colour and unusual magnitude of the blossoms, are indisputably the most striking features of the species, and therefore to be resorted to: for my own part, as a friend to the advancement of the science, rather than as the follower of that great man, I see no good reason why colour should not in many instances, especially where expressive characters are wanting, form a part of the specific character in plants, as well as in animals: we are told indeed of its inconstancy. I would ask—who ever saw the colour of the leaves or blossoms of the present plant to vary? and, on the contrary, who ever saw its leaves constant in their form?

The Salvia aurea is a native of the Cape, and was cultivated by Mr. Miller in 1731, it is a hardy greenhouse plant, is readily propagated by cuttings, and flowers from May to November.

If suffered to grow, it will become a shrub of the height of six or seven feet.


Syringa Vulgaris. Common Lilac.

Class and Order.

Diandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Cor. 4-fida. Capsula bilocularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

SYRINGA vulgaris foliis ovato-cordatis integris. Linn. Syst. Veget. ed. 14. Murr. p. 57. Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 1. p. 15.

SYRINGA cærulea, Bauh. Pin. 398.

LILAC sive Syringa cærulea. The blew Pipe tree. Park. Parad. p. 407.

No 183.

Few shrubs are better known in this country than the Lilac few more universally cultivated; there is scarcely a cottage it does not enliven, or a shrubbery it does not beautify.

It has long had a place in our gardens; both Gerard and Parkinson describe two sorts, the blue and the white; to these another sort is added by more modern writers, superior in beauty to the original, as producing larger bunches of flowers, of a brighter hue, having more of the purple tint and hence called by some the purple Lilac, Miller considers the three as different species.

The flowers of the Lilac possess a considerable degree of fragrance, but not of the most agreeable kind; our readers perhaps, will not be displeased to hear the opinion of old Gerard on this point, delivered in his own words:—"They have a pleasant sweete smell, but in my judgement they are too sweete, troubling and molesting the head in very strange manner: I once gathered the flowers, and laid them in my chamber window, which smelled more strongly after they had lien together a few howers, with such a ponticke and unacquainted savor, that they awaked me from sleepe, so that I could not take any rest until I had cast them out of my chamber."[1]

Though a native of Persia, it bears our severest winters without injury, has a pleasing appearance when in bud, flowers in May, and is readily propagated by suckers; but finer plants, in the opinion of Miller, are raised from seeds.

It will grow in almost any soil or situation, even in London, but, to flower well, it must have a pure air.


Ixia Crocata. Saffron-colour'd Ixia.

Class and Order.

Triandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Cor. 6-partita, campanulata, regularis. Stigmata 3.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

IXIA crocata foliis ensiformibus, floribus secundis corolia basi hyalino-fenestratis. Thunb. Diss. de Ixia. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 85.

IXIA crocata foliis ensiformibus, floribus alternis, tubo longitudine bractearum, corollæ laminis ovatis integerrimis basi hyalinis. Ait. Hort. Kew. p. 60. V. 1.

IXIA planifolia, caule multifloro spatha brevissima. Mill. Ic. 160. t. 239. f. 2.

No 184.

To the Cape of Good Hope, that never-failing source of rare and beautiful plants, we are indebted for most of our Ixias, and among others for the present species, which though not of that value, nor possessing the delicacy or fragrance of the blossoms of some others, is a very desirable plant, not only as an object of curiosity, from the transparency of the base of the corolla, but as it adds much to the brilliancy of a collection, is easily obtained, and as easily propagated.

It flowers in May and June, but its flowering may be prolonged by putting its bulbs into pots at different periods, or accelerated by artificial heat.

It produces offsets more plentifully than many of the genus.

Mr. Aiton informs us that it was cultivated by Mr. Miller in 1758, who figures it in his Icones.


Coronilla Valentina. Rue-leaved Coronilla.

Class and Order.

Diadelphia Decandria.

Generic Character.

Cal. 2-labiatus: 2/3: dentibus superioribus connatis. Vexillum vix alis longius. Legumen isthmis interceptum.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CORONILLA valentina fruticosa, foliolis subnovenis, stipulis suborbiculatis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 669. Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 3. p. 58.

POLYGALA valentina. Clus. hist. pl. rar. p. 98. fig. inf.

No 185.

The Coronilla valentina comes very near to the glauca already figured in this work, but may be distinguished by a little attention; the valentina has smaller leaves, which are more numerous, and more truly glaucous; the stipulæ, which in the glauca are small, narrow, and pointed, in the valentina are large, and almost round, and in the young plant are strikingly conspicuous; as the plant comes into flower, they drop off; the valentina is not so much disposed to flower the year through as the glauca, but produces its blossoms chiefly in May, June, and July; the flowers of the glauca are observed to smell more strongly in the day-time, those of the valentina at all times diffuse a very powerful odour, so as even to scent a small greenhouse; we have often been amused with hearing the different opinions entertained of this smell, some speaking of it in terms of rapture, others ready to faint when they approach it: the flowers of the valentina are more disposed to produce seed-vessels than those of the glauca, the seeds of which usually ripen well, and afford the means of increasing the plant most readily. To have a succession of small handsome bushy plants for the greenhouse, the old ones must either be frequently cut down, or young ones raised from seed, or cuttings, the stems as they grow up becoming naked at bottom.

It is a hardy greenhouse plant, and may be kept well enough through the winter in a common hot-bed frame, or planted against a south wall, and matted as myrtles usually are in such situations; we have known the glauca, treated in prove a charming ornament.

It is a native of Spain, growing, as Clusius informs us, by road-sides, in sandy places, and on the declivities of hills.

Cultivated here in 1656, by J. Tradescant, jun. H. K.


Selago Ovata. Oval-headed Selago.

Class and Order.

Didynamia Angiospermia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-fidus. Cor. tubus capillaris; limbus subæqualis, Sem. 1.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

SELAGO ovata spicis strobilinis ovatis terminalibus, foliis sparsis linearibus, caule fruticoso. L'Herit. Stirp. nov. tom. 2. t. 33. Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 2. p. 355.

LIPPIA ovata capitulis ovatis, foliis linearibus integerrimis. Linn. Mant. p. 89.

No 186.

Linnæus in his Mantissa has somewhat largely described this plant under the name of Lippia ovata, evidently from a dried specimen, which may account for the flowers being described of a dark violet colour; he recommends it to such as might have an opportunity of seeing the living plant, to observe if it was not referable to some other genus; accordingly Mons. L'Heritier, who, when lately in England, saw it in the royal garden at Kew, joined it to the genus Selago, retaining the trivial name of ovata, bractæata would perhaps have been a better name; for though its ovate inflorescence may be peculiar to the species, its bracteæ or floral leaves are so very singular that they constitute the most prominent feature of the plant.

Mr. Aiton informs us, that it was introduced to the royal garden at Kew, from the Cape, by Mr. Masson, in 1774.

It recommends itself not so much on account of its beauty, curious structure of its flowering spikes, and the fragrance of its blossoms.

It is a greenhouse plant, and flowers during most of the summer; its blossoms are white with a yellow spot on the two uppermost, and sometimes on all the segments of the corolla, and an orange spot at the mouth of the tube.

Is propagated by cuttings.


Iris Sambucina. Elder-scented Iris.

Class and Order.

Triandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Cor. 6-petala, inæqualis, petalis alternis geniculato-patentibus. Stigmata petaliformia cucullato-bilabiata. Thunb. Diss. de Iride.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

IRIS sambucina barbata, foliis ensiformibus glabris erectis brevioribus scapo multifloro, petalis deflexis planis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab, ed. 14. Murr. Thunb. loc. cit. n. 10. Ait. Hort. Kew. v. 1. p. 69.

IRIS latifolia germanica, sambuci odore. Bauh. Pin. 31.

IRIS Camerarii sive purpurea versicolor major. The greater variable coloured purple Flower-de-Luce. Park. Par. p. 181.

No 187.

This species of Iris, said to be a native of the South of Europe, derives its name from the smell of its flowers, which very much resembles that of elder in bloom.

It is one of the tallest and handsomest of the genus, in a rich moist soil acquiring the height of three feet or more; it is therefore more proper for the shrubbery than the flower-garden.

It flowers about the latter end of May, and is readily increased by parting its roots in autumn.

The Iris of Parkinson, referred to in the synonyms, accords so exactly with our plant, in every circumstance but smell, which is not mentioned, that we have no doubt but it was cultivated in our gardens in his time.


Convolvulus Nil. Azure Convolvulus.

Class and Order.

Pentandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Cor. Campanulata, plicata. Stigmata 2. Caps. 2-locularis: loculis dispermis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CONVOLVULUS Nil foliis cordatis trilobis, corollis semiquinquefidis, pedunculis petiolo brevioribus. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 209. Ait. Hort. Kew. v. 1. p. 209.

CONVOLVULUS cæruleus hederaceo anguloso folio. Bauh. Pin. p. 295.

NIL Arab. Gef. hor. Eyst.

CONVOLVULUS Cæruleus. Blew Bindweed. Ger. Herb. p. 715. cum ic.

CONVOLVULUS trifolius five hederaceus purpureus. The greater purple Bindeweede or Bell-Flower with cornered leaves. Park. Parad. Pl. 361. fig. 2.

No 188.

All our writers on exotic botany treat of this plant, Gerard, one of the first, gives us the following account: "This beautiful Bindweed, which we call Convolvulus Cæruleus, is called of the Arabians Nil: of Serapio, Hab al nil, about Alepo and Tripolis in Syria, the inhabitants call it Hasmisen, the Italians Campana azurea, of the beautifull azured flowers and also Fior de notte, bicause his beautie appeereth most in the night:" he informs us, that it grew in his garden, but perished before it ripened its seeds. Parkinson says, it thrives remarkably well in our country, if the year be any thing kindly: Miller informs us, that it is a native of Africa and America, extols it as one of the most beautiful of the genus, observes, that it is a very distinct species from the purpurea, of which it has been considered by some as a variety; that it will grow to the height of eight or ten feet, that in favourable seasons the seeds will ripen in the open air, and that it requires the same treatment as other annuals usually raised on a hot-bed. Mr. Aiton considers it as a stove plant, as indeed most of our tender annuals properly are.

It flowers from July to September.

Though apparently common in our gardens formerly, it is now very rarely met with.


Erica Grandiflora. Great-flowered Heath.

Class and Order.

Octandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 4-phyllus. Cor. 4-fida. Filamenta receptaculo inferta. Antheræ bifidæ. Caps. 4-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ERICA grandiflora antheris muticis exfertis, corollis cylindraceis subincurvis glabris, stylo elongato, floribus axillaribus pedunculatis, foliis subsenis acerosis glabris. Ait. Hort. Kew. vol. 2. p. 25.

ERICA grandiflora foliis quaternis, stylo exserto, corolla cylindrica, calyce simplici, floribus lateralibus subcurvatis. Linn. Suppl. Pl. p. 223.

No 189.

The Erica here figured, is one of the many new and beautiful species, which within these few years have been sent from the Cape by Mr. Masson, and which have contributed so greatly to enrich the royal garden at Kew.

The description given of the grandiflora in the Suppl. Plant. accords so ill with our plant, that we should be led to consider it as another species, did not the respectable authority of the Hortus Kewensis silence all doubts on that head.

The blossoms of this species, whether we regard their magnitude, their colour, their smooth and glossy surface, or the regular position of the filaments, projecting beyond the corolla, and closing together by the antheræ, excite our notice, and claim our admiration.

Like every other heath, the hardy ones excepted, it is a greenhouse plant, and flowers from May to July.

Our drawing was made from a plant finely blown, in the collection of James Vere, Esq. Kensington-Gore.


Ornithogalum Aureum. Golden Ornithogalum.

Class and Order.

Hexandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Cor. 6-petala, erecta, persistens, supra medium patens, Filamenta alterna basi dilatata.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ORNITHOGALUM aureum foliis ovato-lanceolatis, albomargmatis, floribus racemosis confertis, filamentis nectario emarginato infidentibus.

No 190.

We have bestowed on this plant the name of aureum, from the colour of its blossoms, which are usually of a bright orange or gold colour; in some specimens we have observed them of a paler hue, and consequently less beautiful.

This highly ornamental species is of modern introduction, having been received by Mess. Lee and Kennedy, a few years since from the Cape, of which it is a native.

The root is a whitish bulb, resembling in size and shape that of the Lachenalia tricolor, figured on plate 82 of this work, from whence spring three or four smooth, somewhat fleshy, upright, dark-green leaves, about half an inch wide, and three or four inches long, edged with white, and, if magnified, appearing fringed with very fine hairs or villi; the stalk is naked, from eight to twelve inches high, supporting many flowers, which spring from the alæ of large, hollow, pointed bracteæ, and which opening one after another, keep the plant a considerable time in flower; according to Linnæus's generic character, every other filament should be dilated at the base, in the present species each filament is so, or rather sits as it were on a white glandular nectary, emarginated on the inside, and highly deserving of notice.

In the greenhouse, where this plant has hitherto been kept, its blossoms come forth as early as January and February, and continue for several months; they will long display their beauty, if the stem be cut off and put in a phial of water.

It is propagated by offsets from its bulbs, and has the appearance of being a plant of kindly growth and easy management.


Primula Marginata. Silver-Edged Primula.

Class and Order.

Pentandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

PRIMULA marginata foliis obovatis serrato-dentatis albo marginatis, scapo multifloro, involucri foliolis pedunculis brevioribus.

No 191.

There is no difficulty in determining the British plants of this genus, but much in ascertaining many of the foreign ones: Professor Jacquin has taken great pains to elucidate them in his Miscel. Austr. where fifteen are specifically described, none of which accord exactly with the plant here figured, which has every appearance of being a distinct species: in the Hortus Kewensis it is described as the glutinosa of the Flora Austriaca, with which it agrees in many respects, but specimens sent from Vienna shew it to be a different plant; in its farinaceous tendency it accords with the Primula Auricula, but is very unlike that plant as it is figured in its wild state by Prof. Jacquin, in the Fl. Austr. the leaves being much narrower, the flowers larger, and of a different colour; it differs from glutinosa in the shortness of its involucrum, from villosa (already figured) in having leaves much narrower, perfectly smooth in respect to villi, and in the colour of its blossoms, which approach that of the Lilac, but more especially in its disposition to become mealy, particularly on the edges of its leaves, between the serratures, where it is so strong as to make the leaf appear with a white or silvery edge; as this character is constant to it, and not to any other species of Primula that we are acquainted with, we have given to it the name of marginata.

Mr. Lee received it from the Alps in the year 1781, and it has continued in our gardens ever since unaltered by culture.|

It is a very delicate pretty plant, with a pleasing musky smell, and flowers in March and April. To succeed in its cultivation, it should be placed in a pot of stiffish loam, mixed with one-third rotten leaves, bog earth, or dung, and plunged in a north border, taking care that it does not suffer for want of water in dry seasons; thus treated, it increases by its roots nearly as readily as the Auricula, and may be propagated by parting its' roots early in April or September. |


Cypripedium Acaule. Two-Leaved Lady's Slipper.

Class and Order.

Gynandria Diandria.

Generic Character.

Nectarium ventricosum, inflatum, cavum.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CYPRIPEDIUM acaule radicibus fibrosis, foliis oblongis radicalibus. Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 3. p. 303.

HELLEBORINE Calceolus dicta, mariana, foliis binis e radice ex adverso prodeuntibus, flore purpureo Pluk. Mant. 101; t. 418. f. 1.

CYPRIPEDIUM humile—Corolla labio superiore rhomboideo acuminato lateribus deflexo subtus carina angustissima obtusa, inferiore petalis longiore antice fisso. Transact. Linn. Soc. V. 1. p. 76. t. 3. f. 4.

No 192.

We have not figured the present species of Cypripedium so much on account of its beauty as of its rarity, for it is far less handsome than any of the other species that we are acquainted with.

It is a native of different parts of North-America, and flowers with us in May.

There is little difficulty in distinguishing it from the other foreign species, it has rarely more than two radical leaves, a very short flowering stem compared with the others, a large nectary in proportion to its size, which in the specimens we have seen has been divided on its upper part, through its whole length, so as in fact to destroy in a great degree that shoe or slipper-like form, from which this genus has taken its name.

Like the rest of the family, it requires a little extraordinary care in its culture; its roots should be placed in a pot filled with loam and bog-earth, or rotten leaves, well mixed, and plunged in a north border, where in severe seasons it will be proper to shelter it; if the whole border be formed of the same soil or compost the pot will be less necessary.

Our drawing was made from a plant growing with Messrs. Grimwood and Co. Kensington.


Narcissus Angustifolius. Narrow-Leaved Narcissus.

Class and Order.

Hexandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Petala 6 æqualia. Nectario infundibuliformi, 1-phyllo. Stamina intra nectarium.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

NARCISSUS poeticus spatha uniflora, nectario rotato brevissimo scarioso crenulato. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 317. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 414.

NARCISSUS uniflorus, foliis ensiformibus, scypho brevissimo. Hall. Hist. n. 1250.

NARCISSUS albus circulo purpureo. Bauh. Pin. p. 48. Magnol. Bot. Monsp. p. 181.

NARCISSUS poeticus medio purpureus. Lob.

NARCISSUS medio purpureus. Dod. Pempt. p. 223. f. 1.

NARCISSUS medio purpureus præcox. Timely purple ringed Daffodil. Ger. Herb. p. 108. f. 2. also præcocior, fig. 3. and præcocissimus, fig. 4.

NARCISSUS medio purpureus præcox. The early purple ringed Daffodil. Park. Parad. p. 76. t. 75. f. 3.

NARCISSUS latifol. classis altera, lin. 7. alterum vero, &c. Clus. Hist. Pl. rar. lib. 2. p. 156.

No 193.

Under the name of poeticus three different species of Narcissus appearing perfectly distinct (though similar in many respects) and regarded as such by the old Botanists, have been confounded by the moderns, viz.

Narcissus albus circulo purpureo, v et vi.
Narcissus albus magno odoro flore circulo pallido,
Narcissus pallidus circulo luteo.
C. Bauh.
Narcissus medio purpureus præcox,
Narcissus medio purpureus serotinus,
Narcissus medio luteus vulgaris.
Park Parad.

The first of these, the one here figured is evidently the poeticus of Linnæus, judging by the authors to whom he refers in the third edition of his Spec. Pl. which are indeed few in number, and confined chiefly to Bauh. Pin. Dodonæus; of the second, and third, he takes no notice.

The two former ones of these have the greatest affinity, inasmuch as they both produce for the most part only one flower, of a white colour, having a very short nectary, edged with orange; to both of these Linnæus's specific description is equally applicable, as well as the trivial name of poeticus, given them indiscriminately by several of the old Botanists, some regarding the first, some the second as the plant mentioned by Theocritus[2], Virgil[3], and Ovid[4]; unfortunately both of them are found to grow in the same meadows, and have the same obvious appearances, it is therefore utterly impossible to say which of the two was the Narcissus of the poets; if we have the greatest difficulty in ascertaining what the plants were of the Botanists of those times, how are we to discover what the Poets meant, who with very few exceptions have been unpardonably inattentive to the appearances of nature. Since then the term poeticus is equally suitable to both, and as there cannot be two with the same name, we have thought it best to get rid of it altogether, and substitute others which tend in a certain degree to discriminate the several species, denominating the

1st. angustifolius.
2d. majalis.
3d. biflorus.

The angustifolius here figured is a native of the South of Europe, and said by Magnol and Clusius to grow spontaneously in the meadows about Narbonne and Montpelier.

It flowers in our gardens early in April, about a month before the biflorus, and full six weeks sooner than the majalis, increases readily by offsets, and succeeds best in a soil that is moderately moist. In what respects it differs from the two others, will be mentioned when they come to be figured.


Fritillaria Imperialis. Crown Imperial.

Class and Order.

Hexandria Monogynia.

Generic Character.

Cor. 6-petala, campanulata, supra ungues cavitate nectarifera. Stam. longitudine corollæ.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

FRITILLARIA imperialis racemo comoso inferne nudo, foliis integerrimis. Linn, Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 324. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 432.

LILIUM sive Corona Imperialis. Bauh. Pin. p. 79.

TUSAI sive Lilium Persicum. Clust. Hist. 1. p. 127.

CORONA IMPERIALIS. The Crowne Imperiall. Park. Par. p. 27. tab. 29. f. 1.

No 194.

The Crown Imperial, a native of the East, most probably of Persia, was introduced according to Dodonæus, into the gardens of the emperor and some of the nobility at Vienna in 1576; it appears to have been cultivated here as early as 1596: both Gerard and Parkinson describe it minutely, the latter on account of its "stately beautifulness, gives it the first place in his garden of delight."

It flowers usually in the beginning of April; the whole plant sends forth a strong unpleasant smell, compared by most writers to that of a fox, perceptible when you approach it; to this effluvia Parkinson endeavours to reconcile us by saying that it is not unwholesome; it is so disagreeable however, that few choose to have many of these plants, or those in the most frequented parts of their gardens, yet it ought not to be proscribed, for independent of its beauty, there is much in it to admire, and especially its singular Nectaria, which in the form of a white glandular excavation decorate the base of each petal; in these usually stands a drop of clear nectareous juice; the peduncle or flower-stalk which bends downwards when the plant is in flower, becomes upright as the seed ripens.

Of this plant, as of all others which have long been objects of culture, there are many varieties; those most generally cultivated in our gardens are the common orange-flowered single and double, yellow single and double, gold-striped leaved, and silver-striped leaved; the Dutch in their catalogues enumerate thirteen varieties.

Luxuriant plants will sometimes produce a second and even a third whorl or crown of flowers, and the flat-stalked ones which are monsters, have been known to produce seventy-two blossoms, but none of these are found to be constant.

The Crown Imperial, though a native of a much warmer climate than ours, is a hardy bulb, and not very nice in regard to soil, succeeds best in such as is stiffish, enriched with manure, and placed in a sheltered situation.

Is propagated by offsets, which are produced in tolerable abundance.


Cheiranthus Mutabilis. Changeable Wall-Flower.

Class and Order.

Tetradynamia Siliquosa.

Generic Character.

Germen utrinque denticulo glandulato. Cal. clausus foliolis duobus basi gibbis. Sem. plana.

Specific Character.

CHEIRANTHUS mutabilis foliis lanceolatis acuminatis argute serratis, caule frutescente, siliquis pedunculatis. Ait. Hort. Kew. v. 2. p. 395.

No 195.

The present species of Cheiranthus, unknown both to Miller and Linnæus, was first described in the Hortus Kewensis of Mr. Aiton, who informs us that it was introduced to the Royal Garden in 1777, and found wild in the Island of Madeira by Mr. Masson.

Its chief merit as an ornamental plant consists in its early flowering; its blossoms which are shewy contribute to enliven the green-house in March and April; on their first expanding, they are white, in some plants (for they are subject to great variation) inclined to yellow, in a few days they become purple; to this change of colour observable also in the Cheiranthus maritimus already figured, it owes its name of mutabilis.

In sheltered gardens at the foot of a wall, we have known this species survive a mild winter; it seems indeed to be almost as hardy as the common stock; it is most commonly however kept in the green-house.

The usual way of propagating this species, which is of ready and quick growth, is by cuttings, which should be put into the ground as soon as the plant has done flowering; these if properly treated will become handsome plants to place in the green-house at the approach of Winter, and to decorate it the ensuing Spring; in like manner may the green-house be annually recruited with many similar plants to great advantage.


Saxifraga Crassifolia. Oval-Leaved Saxifrage.

Class and Order.

Decandria Digynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-partitus. Cor. 5-petala. Caps. 2-rostris, 1-locularis, polysperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

SAXIFRAGA crassifolia, foliis ovalibus retusis obsolete serratis petiolatis, caule nudo, panicula conglomerata. Linn. Sp. Pl ed. 3. p. 573. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 412.

SAXIFRAGA foliis ovalibus crenulatis, caulibus nudis. Gmel. Sib. 4. p. 166. t. 66.

No 196.

The term grandifolia would have been more applicable to this species of Saxifrage than crassifolia, for it is not so much distinguished for the thickness as the largeness of its leaves; these are almost equal in size to those of our broad-leaved Dock, red on the under and of a fine shining green on their upper surface; they may be ranked indeed among the more handsome kinds of foliage; the flowering stems, according to the richness and moisture of the soil in which they are planted, rise from one to two or even three feet high; at top supporting a large bunch of purple pendulous flowers, which blossom in April and May, and, if the season prove favourable, make a fine appearance. Should cold winds prevail at the time of their flowering, which they are very apt to do, the plants should be covered with a hand-glass; or, if in a pot, it may be removed into the green-house, which they will not disgrace.

Is found spontaneously on the Alps of Siberia, and, according to Mr. Aiton, was introduced in 1765 by Dr. Solander. No plant is more readily increased by parting its roots, which may be done either in spring or autumn.

There is another Saxifrage in our gardens exceedingly like this in appearance, but differing, in producing larger bunches of flowers, and in having larger, rounder, and more heart-shaped leaves; Mr. Aiton regards this as a variety of the crassifolia, we are inclined to consider it as a species under the name of cordifolia. The parts of fructification in the crassifolia are apt to be preternaturally increased.


Narcissus Biflorus. Two-Flower'd Narcissus.

NARCISSUS biflorus spatha biflor, nectario brevissimo scarioso.

NARCISSUS pallidus circulo luteo. Bauh. Pin. p. 50.

NARCISSUS medio luteus. Dod. Pempt. p. 223. f. 2.

NARCISSUS medio luteus. Primrose Peerles, or the common white Daffodil. Ger. Herb. p. 110. f. 6.

NARCISSUS medio luteus vulgaris. The common white Daffodill, called Primrose Peerlesse. Park. Par. P. 74. t. 75. f. 1.

NARCISSUS latifol classis altera, lin. 1. Nascuntur, &c. ad intellexisse. Clus. Hist. Pl. rar. lib. 2. p. 156.

No 197.

Both Gerard and Parkinson describe and figure this plant, informing us that it was very common in the gardens in their time; the former indeed mentions it as growing wild in fields and sides of woods in the West of England; the latter says he could never hear of its natural place of growth. Clusius reports that he had been credibly informed of its growing wild in England; it probably may, but of this it remains for us to be more clearly ascertained; it undoubtedly is the plant mentioned by Ray in his Synopsis.

As it grows readily, increases in a greater degree than most others and is both ornamental and odoriferous, it is no wonder that we meet with it in almost every garden, and that in abundance, flowering towards the end of April, about three weeks later than the angustifolia. It usually produces two flowers, hence we have called it biflorus; it frequently occurs with one, more rarely with three, in a high state of culture it probably may be found with more; when it has only one flower it may easily be mistaken for the majalis, but may be thus distinguished from it; its petals are of a more yellow hue, the nectary is wholly yellow, wanting the orange rim, it flowers at least three weeks earlier; but the character, which by observation we have found most to be depended on, exists in the flowering stem, the top of which in the biflorus, very soon after it emerges from the ground, bends down and becomes elbowed, as our figure represents; in the majalis, it continues upright till within a short time of the flowers expanding.


Indigofera Candicans. White-Leaved Indigo.

Class and Order.

Diadelphia Decandria.

Generic Character.

Cal. patens. Cor. carina utrinque calcari subulato patulo. Legumen lineare.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

INDIGOFERA candicans foliis ternatis lanceolato-linearibus subtus sericeis, spicis pedunculatis paucifloris, leguminibus cylindraceis rectis. Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 3, p. 67.

No 198.

Of the genus Indigofera, twenty-three species are enumerated in Prof. Murray's edition of the Syst. Vegetab. of Linnæus; ten in the Hortus Kewensis of Mr. Aiton; in which last work only, the present plant, distinguished by the whiteness of its stalks and of the underside of its leaves, is described, and in which we are informed, that it is a native of the Cape, from whence it was introduced by Mr. Masson in 1774.

Its principal period of flowering is from about the beginning of May to the middle of June, at which time it is highly ornamental in the green-house: strong healthy plants produce from five to eight blossoms in a spike: on a plant growing with Mr. Colvill, Nurseryman, King's-Road, Chelsea, we once counted nine: a few of these usually produce seed-vessels containing perfect seeds, by which the plant is mostly propagated; it may also be raised by cuttings, but not very readily.


Aster Alpinus. Alpine Aster.

Class and Order.

Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua.

Generic Character.

Recept. nudum. Pappus simplex. Cor. radii plures 10. Cal. imbricati squamæ inferiores patulæ.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ASTER alpinus foliis subspathulatis hirtis integerrimis, caulibus simplicibus unifloris. Ait. Hort. Kew. p. 198.

ASTER alpinus foliis spatulatis hirtis: radicalibus obtusis, caule simplicissimo unifloro. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. p. 761. Jacq. Fl. Austr. V. 1. t. 88.

ASTER montanus cæruleus, magno flore, foliis oblongis. Bauh. Pin. p. 267.

No 199.

Clusius and Jacquin, by both of whom this species of Aster is figured and described, inform us, that it grows spontaneously on the Austrian Alps: of the many hardy herbaceous species cultivated in our garden, this is by far the most humble in is growth; in its wild state acquiring the height of about four inches, and when cultivated, rarely exceeding eight or nine: its blossoms for its size are large and shewy, making their appearance much earlier than any of the others, viz. about the end of May and beginning of June, and continuing in blossom three weeks or a month.

It is readily propagated by parting its roots in the autumn, may be kept in pots, or planted in the open border, prefers a moist stiffish soil; if carefully watered in dry weather, will grow among rock-work, for which, from its size, it is well adapted.


Antirrhinum Sparteum. Branching Toad-Flax.

Class and Order.

Didynamia Angiospermia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-phyllus. Cor. basis deorsum prominens nectarifera. Caps. 2-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ANTIRRHINUM sparteum foliis subulatis canaliculatis carnosis: inferioribus ternis, caule paniculato corollisque glaberrimis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 555. Ait. Hort. Kew. 2. p. 333.

No 200.

The drawing here exhibited gives but a faint idea of the elegant and lively appearance which this plant assumes when it grows in a tuft, and a number of its branches are in blossom at the same time.

It is a hardy annual, of small stature, a native of Spain, and flowers during most of the summer.

Was introduced into this country, according to Mr. Aiton, in 1772, by Mons. Richard, and deserves to be much more generally cultivated.

Some regard it as a biennial, but as seeds of it sown in the spring flower the ensuing summer, and as the plant dies when it has ripened its seeds, there appears more propriety in considering it as an annual.

It is to be sown in the same manner as other hardy annuals; will flower earlier if the seeds have been raised in autumn.

The upper part of the stalk, as well as the leaves of the calyx, are beset with viscous hairs, in which respect it does not perfectly accord with Linnæus's description. Vid. Sp. Pl. ed. 3. p. 854.


Pelargonium Bicolor. Two-Coloured Crane's-Bill.

Class and Order.

Monadelphia Heptandria.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-partitus: lacinia suprema desinente in tubulum capillarem, nectariferum, secus pedunculum decurrentem. Cor. 5-petala, irregularis. Filam. 10, inæqualia: quorum 3 (raro 5) castrata. Fructus 5-coccus, rostratus: rostra spiralia, introrsum barbata.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

PELARGONIUM bicolor umbellis multifloris, foliis ternatifidis lobatis dentatis undulatis villosis. L'Herit. n. 64. Ait. Hort. Kew. v. 2. p. 425.

GERANIUM bicolor. Jacq. Hort. 3. p. 23. t. 39. Cavan. diss. 4. p. 248. t. 111. f. 1.

No 201.

In every numerous tribe of plants, many of the species approach so near to each other, that there is much difficulty in distinguishing them; this objection cannot be urged against the present plant, which obviously differs from all the others of the same genus in the particular shape of its leaves and the colour of its blossoms, the latter are usually of a rich and very dark purple edged with white, from whence we apprehend it takes its name of bicolor; the colours however are scarcely distinct enough to justify such a name.

Mr. Aiton informs us in his Hort. Kew. that this very ornamental species was introduced in the year 1778, by John, the late Earl of Bute, but of what country it is a native, does not appear to be ascertained.

Our drawing was made from a plant in the collection of Messrs. Grimwood and Co. Kensington, with whom it flowers from June to August.

It is not disposed to ripen its seeds, nor is it very readily increased by cuttings.


Lupinus Perennis. Perennial Lupine.

Class and Order.

Diadelphia Decandria.

Generic Character.

Cal. 2-labiatus. Antheræ 5, oblongæ 5, subrotundæ. Legumen coriaceum.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

LUPINUS perennis calycibus alternis inappendiculatis: labio superiore emarginato; inferiore integro. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 655. Ait. Kew. v. 3. p. 28.

LUPINUS calycibus alternis, radice perenni repente. Fl. Virg. 172.

LUPINUS cæruleus minor perennis virginianus repens. Moris. hist. 2. p. 87. s. 2. t. 7. f. 6.

LUPINUS floribus cæruleis inodoris, in spicas longas digestis, radice reptatrice. Clayt. n. 779.

No 202.

Every species of Lupine described in the Species Plantarum of Linnæus, and in the Hortus Kewensis of Mr. Aiton, except the one here figured, are annuals; till another perennial one therefore shall be discovered, the term perennis will be strictly applicable to the present plant.

Its root is not only of the kind just mentioned, but creeping also; Mr. Miller informs us, that he traced some of them belonging to plants of a year old, to the depth of three feet, they also spread out far and wide; hence the roots even of young plants are with difficulty taken up entire, and as they do not succeed well by transplanting, if the root be cut or broken, our excellent author prefers raising this elegant plant from seed, which, though not very plentifully produced, ripen in July and August; care must be taken to gather them as soon as ripe.

It is a native of Virginia, and appears to have been cultivated in the Botanic Garden at Oxford, as long since as 1658.

Flowers from May to July.

Is a hardy perennial, succeeding best in a dry situation, with a loam moderately stiff.


Geranium Angulatum. Angular-Stalked Crane's-Bill.

Class and Order.

Monadelphia Decandria.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-phyllus. Cor. 5-petala, regularis. Nect. glandulæ 5, melliferæ, basi longiorum filamentorum adnatæ. Fructus 5-coccus, rostratus: rostra simplicia, nuda, (nec spiralia nec barbata).

Specific Character and Synonyms.

GERANIUM angulatum foliis radicalibus subpartitis incisis hirsutis, caule erecto subangulato, petalis venosis.

No 203.

Having cultivated the Geranium here figured for a series of years, we are perfectly satisfied of its being a species altogether distinct from any of the hardy and more ornamental plants of that genus usually cultivated in our gardens.

It is obviously distinguished by two characters, the angular appearance of its stalk (whence our name of angulatum) and its flesh-coloured blossoms, marked with veins of a deeper red.

In size it stands between pratense and aconitifolium, in its blossoms it has some affinity to striatum and lancastriense, but veins are not so strongly marked as in the former, and it differs from the latter in having an upright stalk.

It usually flowers in May, and frequently again in autumn; is a hardy perennial, and easily increased either by seeds or parting its roots.

Of what country it is a native, or when it was first introduced, we have yet to learn; we first observed it in a nursery near town, where it is regarded as a very different species.


Ranunculus Aconitifolius. Mountain Crowfoot, or Fair Maids of France.

Class and Order.

Polyandria Polygynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-phyllus. Petala 5-intra ungues poro mellifero. Sem. nuda.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

RANUNCULUS aconitifolius foliis omnibus quinatis lanceolatis inciso-serratis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 516. Ait. Kew. v. 1. p. 267.

RANUNCULUS folio aconiti, flore albo multiplici. Bauh. Pin. 179.

RANUNCULUS montanus albus flore pleno. The double white mountain Crowfoot. Park. Parad. p. 219. f. 9.

Double white Bachelors Buttons. Ger. Herb. p. 812. f. 1.

No 204.

This is one of those plants which derives its beauty from the multiplication of its petals; in its single state no one would think it deserving of culture as an ornamental plant: when double, few plants come in for a greater share of admiration.

It is a native of the Alps of Europe, and flowers in May and June.

Was very generally cultivated in our gardens in the times of Gerard and Parkinson.

Like most alpine plants, it requires a pure air, and succeeds best in a situation moderately moist and shady; is a hardy perennial, and may be increased by parting its roots in autumn.

In all seasons, with us, its foliage, as well as that of most other Crowfoots, is liable to be disfigured, and sometimes nearly destroyed, by a very small maggot which feeds betwixt, the coats of the leaf, and which ultimately produces a small fly, called by us Musca Ranunculi.


Antirrhinum Alpinum. Alpine Toad-Flax.

Class and Order.

Didynamia Angiospermia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-phyllus. Cor. basis deorsum prominens, nectarifera. Caps. 2-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

ANTIRRHINUM alpinum foliis quaternis lineari-lanceolatis glaucis, caule diffuso, floribus racemosis, calcari recto. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 556. Ait. Hort. Kew. v. 2. p 335. Jacq. Fl. Austr. v. 1. t. 58.

ANTIRRHINUM caule procumbente breviter spicato, foliis verticillatis. Hall. Hist. p. 338.

LINARIA quadrifolia supina. Bauh. Pin. p. 213.

LINARIA tertia styriaca. Clus. Hist. 1. p. 322.

No 205.

Professor Jacquin, in describing the flowers of this plant, calls them elegantissimi; and to one of its varieties Haller applies the epithet pulcherrima: such testimonies in its favour will, we presume, be sufficient to recommend it to our readers.

It is a native of various mountainous parts of Europe, affecting moist, stony situations,[5] and flowers during most of the summer: is a hardy perennial[6], according to the celebrated author of the Fl. Austriaca; Mr. Aiton, in his Hort. Kew. marks it as a biennial. It is nevertheless apt to be lost, like other small alpine plants, for want of proper treatment and care.

Mr. Aiton informs us on the authority of Lobel, that it was cultivated here by Mr. Hugh Morgan, in 1570.

May be propagated by cuttings, as well as by seeds, which however are not very plentifully produced with us.

Succeeds best when kept in a pot, or on rock-work, which it is well suited to decorate.


Geranium Anemonefolium. Anemone-Leav'd Geranium.

Class and Order.

Monadelphia Decandria.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-phyllus. Cor. 5-petala, regularis. Nect. glandulæ 5 melliferæ basi longiorum filamentorum adnatæ. Fructus 5-coccus, rostratus; rostra simplicia nec spiralia nec barbata. L. Herit. Geran.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

GERANIUM anemonefolium foliis palmatis; foliolis pinnatifidis, caule fruticoso. L. Herit. n. 6. t. 36.

GERANIUM palmatum. Cavan. Diss. 4. p. 216. t. 84. f. 2.

No 206.

Before the appearance of the Hortus Kewensis, lævigatum was the term usually applied to this species of Geranium, by Botanists here, and that on account of the smooth and glossy appearance of its leaves; in that work Mr. Aiton adopts the word anemonefolium, by which Mons. L. Heritier had distinguished this species, from an idea that their shape afforded a more expressive character than their smoothness. We regret that the small size of our plate will not admit of our giving representation of those leaves, and of their mode of growth, which so strikingly characterizes the plant and adds so considerably to its beauty.

Mr. Aiton informs us that this species is a native of Madeira, from whence it was introduced here by Mr. Francis Masson in 1778.

It flowers from May to September, is usually and readily raised from seeds, nor is it so tender as many other green-house plants.


Dianthus Barbatus. Bearded Pink Or Sweet William.

Class and Order.

Decandria Digynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. cylindricus 1-phyllus: basi squamis 4. Petala 5 unguiculata. Capsula cylindrica, 1-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

DIANTHUS barbatus floribus aggregatis fasciculatis: squamis calycinis ovato-subulatis tubum æquantibus, foliis lanceolatis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 17. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 88.

CARYOPHYLLUS hortensis barbatus latifolius. Bauh. Pin. 208.

ARMERIUS latifolius simplex. Single Sweete Williams. Park. Parad. p. 321.

No 207.

Linnæus, in his Spec. Pl. appears not to have known of what country the Sweet William was a native, and even in the Hortus Kewensis, this circumstance is left undecided; yet Dodonæus, in his Pemptades[7], mentions its being found wild in Germany, and Prof. Hoffman confirms this in his Germanys Flora[8].

At the time Dodonæus wrote (1552) this plant was cultivated in the Netherlands, from whence it was probably introduced to this country, where it certainly is one of the oldest inhabitants of our gardens.

Beautiful as are the numerous varieties of this species of Dianthus, Florists have not deemed it worthy of that peculiar attention which they have bestowed on its more favoured relatives the Pink and Carnation, and hence it probably has not arrived at that degree of improvement of which it is capable; our figure is intended to represent one of the most esteemed of its kind, viz. the Painted Lady variety, which has a deep rich purple eye, surrounded with a pure white, having the edge of the petals slightly indented; but our colours fall far short of the beauties of the original.

Besides single flowers producing an infinite variety of colours, there are several double varieties of the Sweet William, some of which are observed to have more scent than others.

To possess these plants in perfection, we must renew them yearly; for though the root be perennial, it is apt to decay, especially if the soil in which it grows be either very moist, or very dry; or if the air be not pure, the single sorts must be raised from seeds, which should be saved from the choicest flowers; the double sorts may be increased by cuttings, pipings, or layers, in the same manner, and at the same time as Pinks and Carnations; the seed should be sown early in April, the seedlings transplanted into a bed in June, taking advantage of a wet day and placed about six inches asunder each way; in September they will be fit to transplant into the flower border, where they will blossom the ensuing summer, during the months of June and July, and ripen their seed in August.


Melissa Grandiflora. Great-Flower'd Balm.

Class and Order.

Didynamia Gymnospermia.

Generic Character.

Cal. aridus, supra planiusculus; labio superiore subfastigiato. Corollæ lab. super. subfornicatum, 2-fidum; labium inf. lobo medio cordato.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

MELISSA grandiflora pedunculis axillaribus dichotomis longitudine florum. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 542. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 315.

CALAMINTHA magno flore. Bauh. Pin. 229.

CALAMINTHA montana præstantior. The more excellent Calamint. Ger. Herb. p. 556. as to the name. Ger. emac. 687. as to the figure.

No 208.

The Melissa grandiflora, a beautiful and hardy perennial, grows spontaneously on the hilly and mountainous parts of France, Italy, and Germany; Gerard mentions it as found wild in this country, which stands in need of further confirmation; there is little doubt, however, but he had cultivated the plant; as he says, "brought into the garden, it prospereth marvellous well and very easily soweth itself."

It is the more valuable, as it flowers during most of the summer.

There is a variety of it with white, and another with red flowers, both much inferior in size to those of the plant here figured, and therefore not worth cultivating; we have a variety also with variegated leaves which we obtained from seeds.

This plant is readily propagated by parting its roots in autumn, and may also be raised from seeds, which are plentifully produced: as it rarely exceeds a foot in height, it becomes a suitable plant for the small flower border, or for the decoration of rock-work.

The leaves when bruised have the smell of garden balm.


Hibiscus Trionum. Bladder Hibiscus.

Class and Order.

Monadelphia Polyandria.

Generic Character.

Cal. duplex: exterior polyphyllus. Caps. 5-locularis, polysperma.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

HIBISCUS Trionum foliis tripartitis incisis, calycibus inflatis. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 631. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 458.

TRIONUM Linn. Hort. cliff. 349.

ALCEA vesicaria. Bauh. Pin. 317.

ALCEA peregrina five vesicaria. Venice Mallow, or Good night at noone. Park. Parad. p. 368. 307. f. 2.

No 209.

Seeds of the plant here figured are sold in the seed-shops under the name of Venice Mallow, a name by which it was known in the time of Gerard and Parkinson: Mr. Aiton has changed this for the more scientific one of Bladder Hibiscus. Authors have also distinguished this plant by terms expressive of the short-lived expansion of its flowers, which Gerard says open at eight o'clock in the morning and close about nine, from whence he observes, that it might with propriety be called Malva horaria: Miller lengthens the duration of its blowing to a few hours: we have frequently observed its blossoms continue sufficiently open to shew their beauty the greatest part of the day, more especially towards the close of summer.

Few annuals are more admired than this, the inside of the flower is of delicate cream colour, having the centre embellished with a rich purple velvet, on which its golden antheræ are proudly conspicuous.

It is said to be a native of Italy; a Cape variety, differing in hairiness and a few other particulars is mentioned by Miller, and considered by him as a species.

The least possible trouble attends the raising of this beautiful annual, as it readily ripens its seeds, which falling on the ground produce plants in abundance the ensuing spring; to have it flower as long as may be, it will be proper to sow it at two or three different periods.


Celsia Linearis. Linear-Leav'd Celsia.

Class and Order.

Didynamia Angiospermia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-partitus. Cor. rotata. Filamenta barbata, Caps. 2-locularis.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CELSIA linearis. Jacq. Collect. v. 2. n. 210. Icon. v. 2. t. 13.

CELSIA linearis foliis ternis linearibus denticulatis.

No 210.

We here present our readers with the figure of a plant newly introduced from France by Mr. Williams, Nurseryman of Paris, collected originally in Peru by Mr. Dombey, whose flowers, if they do not equal those of the Fuchsia already figured in elegance of form and growth, surpass them somewhat in brilliancy of colour, whence it becomes a most desirable plant for the purpose of ornament.

Professor Jacquin, who first gave a figure and description of this plant, informs us in his Collectanea, that he received seeds of it from Professor Ortega of Madrid, under the name of Celsia linearis, which name he has adopted; and we, from respect to such authority, have continued; at the same time we must observe, that it ill accords with that genus: the blossoms while in bud fold up somewhat in the same manner as those of the Celsia, but on expansion they appear widely different; their shape indeed then becomes truly singular, resembling a half-formed imperfect corolla, its filaments are short and want the hairs which in part characterise the Celsia; its seed-vessels also are far from being round: its antheræ are large and close together, somewhat like those of the Solanum, and there is so little of inequality in them, that few students would be induced to refer its flowers to the class Didynamia.

Being a native of a warm climate, it comes to the greatest perfection here when placed in a stove in which the heat is moderate; but it will succeed very well if treated as a tender green-house plant: it does not appear to be quite so hardy as the Fuchsia, nor to flower like that plant at all seasons, but usually produces its blossoms in the latter summer months, those are succeeded by seed-vessels producing perfect seeds, by which, as well as by cuttings, the plant is propagated.

Its leaves, which are not deciduous, are linear, and more or less toothed, growing three together; this character however is somewhat obscured by others growing from their bosoms.


Sedum Populifolium. Poplar-Leav'd Stonecrop.

Class and Order.

Decandria Pentagynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-fidus. Cor. 5-petala. Squamæ nectariferæ 5 ad basin germinis. Caps. 5.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

SEDUM populifolium foliis planis cordatis dentatis petiolatis, corymbis terminalibus. Ait. Kew. v. 2. p. 109.

SEDUM populifolium foliis petiolatis cordatis dentatis, floribus paniculatis. Linn. fil. suppl. p. 242.

SEDUM populifolium. Pallas, it. 3. p. 730. t. O. fig. 2.

No 211.

Professor Pallas, the celebrated Russian naturalist, discovered this species of Sedum in Siberia, and in the year 1780, introduced it to the royal garden at Kew; the younger Linnæus describes it minutely in his Suppl. Plantarum, and observes, that in its general form it much resembles the Saxifraga rotundifolia.

Its leaves are flat as in many of the other species, and when the plant grows in an open situation, exposed to the sun, they become as well as the stalks of a bright red colour, which adds much to its beauty.

It is the only hardy Sedum cultivated; in our gardens with a shrubby stalk, its leaves however are deciduous, so that in the winter it loses its verdure, it flowers in July and August, and is readily increased by cuttings.

As most of this tribe grow readily, and many of them naturally on rocks and walls, they may be in general regarded as proper rock plants, some of them however are apt by the quickness of their growth to extend over and destroy plants of more value; this fault, if such it may be deemed, is not imputable to the populifolius.

Some not knowing its native place of growth, keep it in the green-house.


Tanacetum Flabelliforme. Fan-Leaved Tansy.

Class and Order.

Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua.

Generic Character.

Recept. nudum. Pappus submarginatus. Cal. imbricatus, hemisphæricus. Cor. radii obsoletæ, trifidæ. Linn. (interdum nullæ omnesque flosculi hermaphroditi.) Murr.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

TANACETUM flabelliforme corymbis simplicibus, foliis deltoidibus apice serratis. L'Herit. Sert. Angl. t. 27. Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 3. p. 169.

No 212.

There is a neatness in the appearance of this plant, which joined to the singular form of its foliage, varying also from the general hue, entitles it to a place in the green-house.

Mr. Masson discovered it at the Cape, and introduced it here in 1774. Ait. Kew.

It flowers from May to August, grows freely, and is usually propagated by cuttings.


Polygonum Orientale. Tall Persicaria.

Class and Order.

Octandria Trigynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 0. Cor. 5-partita, calycina. Sem. 1. angulatum.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

POLYGONUM orientale floribus heptandris digynis, foliis ovatis, caule erecto, stipulis hirtis hypocrateriformibus. Linn. Syst. Vegetab. ed. 14. Murr. p. 377. Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 2. p. 32.

PERSICARIA orientalis nicotianæ folio calyce florum purpureo. Tournef. cor. 38. Schovanna-modelamuccu. Rheed. Mal. 12. p. 147. t. 76.

No 213.

Of the genus Polygonum, the present well-known native of the East, as well as of India, is the principal one cultivated in our gardens for ornament, and is distinguished not less for its superior stature than the brilliancy of its flowers; it will frequently grow to the height of eight or ten feet, and become a formidable rival to the gigantic sun-flower.

There is a dwarf variety of it, and another with white flowers; it has been observed to vary also in point of hairiness.

It flowers from July to October, and produces abundance of seed, which, falling on the borders, generally comes up spontaneously in the spring; but it is most commonly sown in the spring with other annuals: when the seedlings appear, they should be thinned so as to stand a foot apart. This plant requires very little care, and will bear the smoke of London better than many others.

Was cultivated by the Dutchess of Beaufort, in 1707. Ait. Kew.

The Stipulæ on the stalk are deserving of notice, being unusual in their form, and making it look as if beruffled.


Dracocephalum Denticulatum. Toothed Dragon's-Head.

Class and Order.

Didynamia Angiospermia.

Generic Character.

Corollæ faux inflata: labium superius concavum.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

DRACOCEPHALUM denticulatum floribus spicatis remotis, foliis obovato-lanceolatis superne denticulatis. Ait. Kew. V. 2. p. 317.

No 214.

About the year 1786, we received from Philadelphia, seeds of a plant collected at a considerable distance from that city, announced to us as new and rare, and which produced the present species of Dracocephalum: Mr. Watson, Nurseryman at Islington, obtained the same plant from Carolina, about the same period.

It is a hardy perennial, multiplying considerably by its roots, which creep somewhat; it must be planted in a moist soil, and shady situation, for such it affects, and in such only will it thrive.

It flowers in August and September.

It bears a considerable affinity to the Dracocephalum virginianum, to which, though a much rarer plant, it is inferior in point of beauty; it spreads more on the ground, its flowering stems are not altogether so upright, nor so tall, the leaves are broader, and the flowers in the spikes less numerous.


Ranunculus Acris Flore Pleno. Double Upright Crowfoot.

Class and Order.

Polyandria Polygynia.

Generic Character.

Cal. 5-phyllus. Petala 5, intra ungues poro mellisero. Sem. nuda.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

RANUNCULUS acris calycibus patulis, pedunculis teretibus, foliis tripartito multifidis: summis linearibus. Linn. Syst. Veg. ed. 14. Murr. p. 517.

RANUNCULUS hortensis erectus flore pleno. Bauh. Pin. p. 178. ?.

RANUNCULUS pratensis flore multiplici. Park. Parad. p. 218.

The double yellow field Crowfoot.

No 215.

In giving a representation of this species of Ranunculus, we have made a slight deviation from the strict letter of our plan, as expressed in the title page, which confines us to the figuring of foreign plants only; we have thought, however, that it would not be inconsistent with the spirit of the Flower-Garden Displayed, were we occasionally to introduce such English plants as have double flowers, and which, on that account, are thought worthy of a place in every garden; they are but few in number, and we flatter ourselves that this trifling alteration will be approved by our numerous readers.

The Ranunculus acris is the first that we offer of these; a plant, in its wild and single state, common in all our rich meadows, and in its improved, or to speak more botanically, in its monstrous state (all double flowers being monsters, for the most part formed from the preternatural multiplication of their petals) it has long been cultivated in gardens abroad, as well as here.

There are certain ornamental plants of the perennial kind, which, if once introduced, will succeed with the least possible trouble, and therefore suit such as have little time to bestow on their flower-gardens; the present plant is one of those: if the soil in which we plant it be moist, it will grow most readily, and flower during the months of June and July; and it is easily increased, by parting its roots in autumn.


Cypripedium Album. White-Petal'd Ladies Slipper.

Class and Order.

Gynandria Diandria.

Generic Character.

Nectarium ventricosum inflatum cavum.

Specific Character and Synonyms.

CYPRIPEDIUM album radicibus fibrosis foliis ovato-lanceolatis caulinis, petalis obtusis. Ait. Hort. Kew. V. 3. p. 303.

HELLEBORINE Calceolus dicta mariana flore gemello candido, venis purpureis, striato. Pluk. Mant. 101. t. 418. f. 3.

CYPRIPEDIUM hirsutum foliis oblongo ovatis venosis hirsutis flore maximo. Mill. Dict. ed. 6. 4to.

CYPRIPEDIUM spectabile. Corolla labio superiore ovali basi retuso concavo subtus carina obtusa, inferiore petalis longiore grosso. Salisb. Trans. Linn. Soc. V. 1. p. 78.

No 216.

Of the genus Cypripedium, Great-Britain produces only one, America several species; of these the album here figured, (whose name is derived from the whiteness of its petals, and with which the nectary must not be confounded) is by far the most magnificent; indeed there are few flowers which to such singularity of structure add such elegance and beauty: it grows spontaneously in various parts of North-America, and chiefly in the woods; was introduced to the royal garden at Kew, by Mr. William Young about the year 1770, but was known to Mr. Miller, and cultivated by him at Chelsea long before that period; this intelligent and truly practical author informs us, that all the sorts of Cypripedium are with difficulty preserved and propagated in gardens; he recommends them to be planted in a loamy soil, and in a situation where they may have the morning sun only; they must, he observes, for the above reasons, be procured from the places where they naturally grow; the roots should be seldom removed, for transplanting them prevents their flowering, which usually takes place in June.

A greater proof of the difficulty of increasing these plants need not be adduced than their present scarcity, though vast numbers have been imported, how few can boast of possessing them, or of preserving them for any length of time; careful management in their cultivation will doubtless go far, but peculiarity of soil and situation would appear to be of greater importance: it is well known that certain plants thrive in certain districts only, the double yellow rose, for instance, barely exists near London, yet this plant I have seen growing most luxuriantly, and producing a profusion of bloom, in the late Mr. Mason's garden, Cheshunt, Herts, and in which various Orchis's also acquired nearly twice their usual size,—enviable spot!


In which the Latin Names of the Plants contained in the Sixth Volume are alphabetically arranged.

200Antirrhinum sparteum.
205Antirrhinum alpinum.
199Aster alpinus.
210Celsia linearis.
195Cheiranthus mutabilis.
181Colutea frutescens.
188Convolvulus Nil.
185Coronilla valentina.
192Cypripedium acaule.
216Cypripedium album.
207Dianthus barbatus.
214Dracocephalum denticulatum.
189Erica grandiflora.
194Fritillaria imperialis.
203Geranium angulatum.
206Geranium anemonefolium.
209Hibiscus Trionum.
198Indigofera candicans.
187Iris sambucina.
184Ixia crocata.
202Lupinus perennis.
208Melissa grandiflora.
193Narcissus angustifolius.
197Narcissus biflorus.
190Ornithogalum aureum.
201Pelargonium bicolor.
213Polygonum orientale.
191Primula marginata.
204Ranunculus aconitifolius.
215Ranunculus acris flore pleno.
182Salvia aurea.
196Saxifraga crassifolia.
211Sedum populifolium.
186Selago ovata.
183Syringa vulgaris.
212Tanacetum flabelliforme.


In which the English Names of the Plants contained in the Sixth Volume are alphabetically arranged.

199Aster alpine.
208Balm great-flower'd.
181Bladder-senna scarlet.
210Celsia linear-leav'd.
188Convolvulus azure.
185Coronilla rue-leav'd.
201Crane's-bill two-colour'd.
203Crane's-bill angular-stalk'd.
204Crowfoot mountain.
215Crowfoot upright-double.
214Dragon's-head toothed.
206Geranium anemone-leav'd.
189Heath great-flower'd.
209Hibiscus bladder.
194Imperial crown.
198Indigo white-leav'd.
187Iris elder-scented.
184Ixia saffron-colour'd.
192Ladies-slipper two-leav'd.
216Ladies-slipper white-petal'd.
183Lilac common.
202Lupine perennial.
197Narcissus narrow-leav'd.
197Narcissus two-flower'd.
190Ornithogalum golden.
213Persicaria tall.
191Primula silver-edg'd.
182Sage golden.
196Saxifrage oval-leav'd.
186Selago oval-headed.
211Stonecrop poplar-leav'd.
212Tansey fan-leav'd.
200Toad-flax branching.
205Toad-flax alpine.
195Wall-flower changeable.
207William sweet.


[1] The name, indeed, of one of our colours is taken from its blossoms.

This Quotation from Gerard referring to its Smell belongs to the Philadelphus coronarius or Mock-orange which both by him and Parkinson is called Syringa, & which led to the Mistake.


Florida sed postquam venêre in prata puellæ,
His illa, hæc aliis se floribus oblectabant;
Narcisso illa quidem bene olente, atq; illa Hyacintho.


Pro molli Viola, pro purpureo Narcisso,
Carduus et spinis surgit Paliurus acutis.


Nusquam corpus erat, croceum pro corpore florem
Inveniunt, foliis medium cingentibus albis.

[5] In saxosis udis alpium. Jacq.

[6] Radix perennis. Jacq.

[7] In petrosis collibus et asperis, fabulosis apricisque locis, apud Germanos nascitur. Pempt. p. 177.

[8] Sponte in sylvaticis, montosis (Carn. Siles. Tubing) Germanys Fl. 1791. p. 147.

End of Project Gutenberg's The Botanical Magazine, Vol. 6, by William Curtis


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