The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Handy Cyclopedia of Things Worth Knowing, by 
Joseph Triemens

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Title: The Handy Cyclopedia of Things Worth Knowing
       A Manual of Ready Reference

Author: Joseph Triemens

Release Date: December 26, 2006 [EBook #20190]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


Produced by Don Kostuch

[Transcriber's Notes]

This is one of the first books I remember reading as a child. Some of
the items are thoughtfully written, like how to write checks. Many
others are just rumors or careless opinions. Some are "racy" ads. Many
articles are lead-ins to the advertisements. Whatever their truth, they
are interesting reading, calculated to draw the attention of drug store
customers of 1910.

The text of the advertisements have been reproduced along with the
accompanying graphics. Correct grammar and punctuation has been sacrificed
to preserving the original format of the ads.

"Mother's Remedies, Over One Thousand Tried and Tested Remedies from Mothers
of the United States and Canada" (Gutenberg EText 17439) is a book for a
similar audience, but without advertisements.

Here are the definitions of some unfamiliar (to me) words.


  Assert formally as a fact.

  Peevish; irritable; cranky; extremely unpleasant or distasteful.

bill of attainder
  Legislative determination imposing punishment without trial.

  Small, sharply pointed instrument to make holes in fabric or leather.

  Pale to deep red or reddish-brown.

  Inflammation of a mucous membrane, especially of the respiratory
  tract, accompanied by excessive secretions.

cholera morbus
  Acute gastroenteritis occurring in summer and autumn; symptoms are
  severe cramps, diarrhea, and vomiting.

  General or comprehensive view; survey; digest; summary.

  Ferrous sulfate.

  Accumulation, heap, mass.

  Constitutional predisposition.

  Dispossess unlawfully or unjustly; oust.

emercement (amercement)
  Fine not fixed by law; inflicting an arbitrary penalty.

  Payment for an office or employment; compensation.

  Greek Mythology;  the dark region of the underworld through which the
  dead must pass before they reach Hades.

  Deviating from the usual conduct or opinion; eccentric; queer.

  One who does anatomical studies of the microscopic structure of animal
  and plant tissues.

  Having little or no money; penniless; poor.

  Hardened; obstinate; unfeeling.

  Inherent or innate.

  Title of various government officials or administrators.

  Town of western New York on Lake Ontario and Irondequoit Bay, near

  Sediment settling during fermentation, especially wine; dregs.

  Displacement or misalignment of a joint or organ.

Marque (letter of)
  Commission granted by a state to a private citizen to capture and
  confiscate the merchant ships of another nation.

  Fine, compact, usually white clay-like mineral of hydrous magnesium
  silicate, H4Mg2Si3O10, used for tobacco pipes, building stone and
  ornamental carvings. Also called sepiolite.

  Mathieu Orfila (1787-1853). Chemist, founder of toxicology.

  Potassium carbonate.

  Study of the metrical structure of verse.

Prussian blue
  Dark blue crystalline hydrated compound, Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3.xH2O; ferric

  Liable to decay or spoil or become putrid.

  Shrub or small tree of tropical America, Quassia amara. Prepared form
  of the heartwood, used as an insecticide and in medicine as a tonic to
  dispel intestinal worms

  Game; player throws rings of rope or flattened metal at an upright
  peg, attempting to encircle it or come as close to it as possible.

rotten stone
  Porous, lightweight, siliceous sedimentary rock; shells of diatoms or
  radiolarians or of finely weathered chert, used as an abrasive and a

  Potassium nitrate, KNO3.

  Pain extending from the hip down the back of the thigh and surrounding

  Shaped like a spatula; rounded like a spoon.


Tete d'armee
  Head of Army.


  Apt to learn; promising; docile; tractable; propitious; seasonable.

[End Transcriber's Notes]

Every Purchase
Save You Money

Save money on your Drug Store Merchandise by buying at the Central. We
carry everything in Drugs Toilet Article, Rubber Goods, Sundries,
Candies, Cigars, etc.

You will be surprised at our low prices and quick service and pleased
with our complete stocks.

We carry a complete line of Burke's Home Remedies. Burke's Home Remedies
are sold under the Money Back Guarantee.



Main Store 219 Woodward Ave.

Branch Stores
89 Woodward Ave.     153 Grand River Ave.
Detroit, MICH

The Handy Cyclopedia
Things Worth Knowing

A Manual of Ready Reference

Covering Especially Such Information
Of Everyday Use as is often
Hardest to Find When
Most Needed

"Inquire Within About Everything"

For alphabetical index see page 277

Copyright. 1911, by Joseph Trienens


This little book is presented to you to evidence our appreciation of
your patronage. We trust you will examine its contents closely, for you
will find within its covers many things that will prove entertaining,
instructive and useful.

It is new and up-to-date and has been expressly compiled for our
patrons. Only matter of real interest and value has been included in its

It is a general experience that answers to those questions which arise
most often in  every-day life are hardest to find. Information on
practical subjects is usually just beyond your reach when it is most
desired. You will use this little book every day when you "want to

It is equally valuable to all classes, men as well as women; to workers
generally as well as people of leisure. It is the book for the busy
housekeeper as well as the woman of fashion.

We shall feel amply repaid for the painstaking labor, care and expense
which we have bestowed upon this little volume if its constant utility
to you more firmly cements your good will to our establishment.

Just a few words about the advertisements. They are from concerns of
established reputation whose products we freely recommend with full
confidence that they are the best of their respective kinds. The index
to the advertising section is on pages 5 and 6.

Sincerely yours,


For index of general contents see page
Abilena Mineral Water
Albany Chemical Co
Aleta Hair Tonic
Alexander's Asthma Remedy
Allen's Cough Balsam
Ankle Supports
Arch Cushions
Australian Eucalyptus Globulus Oil
Bath Cabinets
Blair's Pills
Blood Berry Gum   Page facing inside back cover
"Bloom of Youth," Laird's
Blue Ribbon Gum
Blush of Roses
Bonheim's Shaving Cream
Borax, Pacific Coast
Borden's Malted Milk
Brown's Asthma Remedy
Brown's Liquid Dressing
Brown's Wonder Face Cream
Brown's Wonder Salve
Bryans' Asthma Remedy
Buffalo Lithia Springs Water
Buffers, Nail
Byrud's Corn Cure
Byrud's Instant Relief
Cabler's (W. P.) Root Juice
Calder's Dentine
Carmichael's Gray Hair Restorer
Carmichael's Hair Tonic
Chavett Diphtheria Preventive
Chavett Solace
Chocolates and Bon Bons
Coe's Cough Balsam
Consumers Company
Crane's Lotion
Crown Headache Powders
Daisy Fly Killer
"Dead Stuck" for Bugs
Dennos Food
Dissolvene Rubber Garments
Downs' Obesity Reducer
Duponts Hair Restorative
Dyspepsia Remedy, Graham's
Elastic Stockings
El Perfecto Veda Rose Rouge
Empress Hair Color Restorer
Empress Shampoo Soap
Femaform Cones
Golden Remedy for Epilepsy
Golden Rule Hair Restorative
Goodwin's Corn Salve
Goodwin's Foot Powder
Gowans Pneumonia Preparation
Graves' (Dr.) Tooth Powder
Gray's Ointment
Great Western Champagne
Grube's Corn Remover
Guild's Asthma Cure
Harvard Athletic Supports
Heel Cushions
Hegeman's Camphor Ice
Hill's Chloride of Gold Tablets
Hoag's (Dr.) Cell Tissue Tonic
Hollister's Rocky Mountain Tea
Hot Water Bottles
Hydrox Chemical Company
Hygeia Nursing Bottles
Irondequoit Port Wine
Jucket's (Dr.) Salve
Kellogg's Asthma Remedy
Knickerbocker Spraybrushes
Kondon's Catarrhal Jelly
Kumyss, Arend-Adamick
Lemke's (Dr.) Golden Electric Liniment
Lemke's (Dr.) Laxative Herb Tea
Lemke's (Dr.) St. Johannis Drops
Leslie Safety Razors
Louisenbad Reduction Salt
Lune de Miel Perfume
"Lustr-ite" Toilet Specialties
Luxtone Toilet Preparations
Mando, Depilatory
Manicure Goods
Mares Cough Balsam
Martel's (Dr.) Female Pills
Marvel Syringes
Mayr's Stomach Remedy
"Meehan's" Razor Stropper
Mey's Poultice
Mixer Medicine Company
Mt. Clemens Bitter Water
New Bachelor Cigars
Noblesse Toilet Preparations
Obesity Gaveck Tablets
Obesity Reducer, Downs'
Olive Oil
Orange Blossom
Ordway (Dr. D. P.) Plasters
Oriental Cream
Orthopedic Apparatus
Palmer's Perfumes
Peckham's Croup Remedy
Perry Davis Painkiller
Physiological Tonicum
Pinus Medicine Co.
Piso's Remedy
Planten's Capsules
Plexo Toilet Cream
Poland Water
Pozzoni's Complexion Powder
"Queen Bess" Perfume
Razor Stropper, "Meehan's"
Rex Bitters
Riker's Tooth Powder
Rossman's Pile Cure
Salted Peanuts
Samurai Perfumes
Sandholm's Skin Lotion
Sanford's Inks
"Sanitas," Disinfectant
Scheffler's Hair Colorine
Seguin et Cie
Sharp & Smith
Shoes for the Lame
Shoulder Braces
Simplex Vaporizers
Skidoo Soap
Soaps, Stiefel's Medicinal
Solo Rye
Sorority Girl Toilet Requisites
Stiefel's Medicinal Soaps
St. Jacob's Oil
Strong's Arnica Jelly
Strong's Arnica Tooth Soap
Sweet Babee Nursing Bottle
Tailoring for Men
Tanglefoot Fly Paper
Toilet Paper
Tooth Brushes
Tyrrell's Hygienic Institute
Villacabras Mineral Water
Virgin Oil of Pine
Whittemore's Polishes
Wright's Catarrhal Balm
Wright's Rheumatic Remedy
Young's Victoria Cream


Manners and Customs of Good Society


It is a growing custom in America not to announce an engagement until
the date of the marriage is approximately settled. Long engagements are
irksome to both man and woman, and a man is generally not supposed to
ask a girl to marry him until he is able to provide a home for her.
This, however, does not prevent long friendships between young couples
or a sentimental understanding growing up between them, and it is during
this period that they learn to know each other and find out if they are
suited for a life's partnership.

When a "young man goes a-courting" it generally means that he has some
particular girl in mind whom he has singled out as the object of his
devotion. A man a-courting is generally on his best behavior, and many a
happily married wife looks back on her courting days as the most
delightful of her life. At that time the woman is the object of a
devotion to which she has as yet conceded nothing. She is still at
liberty to weigh and choose, to compare her lover to other men, while
the knowledge that she is the ultimate girl that some man is trying to
win gives her a pretty sense of self-importance and a feeling that she
has come into the heritage of womanhood.

Whether it is one of the fictions about courtship or not, it is
generally assumed that a young woman is longer in making up her mind
than is the young man. When a man finds the right girl he is pretty apt
to know it, and it is his business then to start out and persuade her to
his point of view. "Neither willing nor reluctant" is the attitude of
the young girl.

Gifts and Attention.

Just what attention a man is privileged to show a young woman to whom he
is not engaged, and yet to whom he wishes to express his devotion, is a
point a little difficult to define.

If she is a bookish girl she will be pleased with gifts of books or the
suggestion that they may read the same books so they may talk them over
together. She will probably feel complimented if a man discusses with
her his business affairs and the problems that are interesting men in
their life work. When a man begins to call often and regularly on a girl
it is best to have some topic of conversation aside from personalities.

When a man is led to spend more money than he can afford in entertaining
a girl it is a bad preparation for matrimony. Courtship is a time when a
man desires to bring gifts, and it is quite right and fitting that he
should do so within reasonable limits. A girl of refined feelings does
not like to accept valuable presents from a man at this period of their
acquaintance. Flowers, books, music, if the girl plays or sings, and
boxes of candy are always permissible offerings which neither engage the
man who offers them nor the girl who receives them. This is the time
when a man invites a girl to the theater, to concerts and lectures, and
may offer to escort her to church. The pleasure of her society is
supposed to be a full return for the trouble and expense incurred in
showing these small attentions.

The Claims of Companionship.

A man cannot justly complain if a girl accepts similar favors from other
men, for until he has proposed and been accepted he has no claim on her
undivided companionship. An attitude of proprietorship on his part,
particularly if it is exercised in public, is as bad manners as it is
unwise, and a high-spirited girl, although she may find her feelings
becoming engaged, is prone to resent it. It should be remembered that a
man is free to cease his attentions, and until he has finally
surrendered his liberty he should not expect her to devote all her time
to him.

At this period it is a wise man who makes a friend of a girl's mother,
and if he does this he will generally be repaid in a twofold manner. No
matter how willful a girl may be, her mother's opinion of her friends
always has weight with her.

Moreover, what the mother is the girl will in all probability become,
and a man has no better opportunity of learning a girl's mental and
moral qualities than by knowing the woman who bore and reared her.

Engagement and Wedding Rings.

The form and material of "the mystic ring of marriage" change but
little, and innovations on the plain gold band are rarely successful.
The very broad, flat band is now out of date and replaced by a much
narrower ring, sufficiently thick, however, to stand the usage of a
lifetime. It is generally engraved on the concealed side with the
initials of the giver and the date of the marriage. The gold in the ring
should be as pure as possible, and the color, which depends on the alloy
used, should be unobtrusive, the pale gold being better liked now than
the red gold. Many women never remove their wedding ring after it has
been put on and believe it is bad luck to do so.

There is but one choice for an engagement ring, a solitaire diamond, and
clusters or colored stones are not considered in this connection. As
after the wedding the engagement ring is used as a guard to the wedding
ring, it should be as handsome as possible, and a small, pure stone is a
far better choice than a more showy one that may be a little off in
color or possess a flaw.

Correct Form in Jewelry.

On the wedding day the groom often makes the bride a wedding present of
some piece of jewelry, and if this is to be worn during the ceremony it
should consist of white stones in a thin gold or platinum setting, such
as a pendant, bracelet or pin of pearls and diamonds. If a colored stone
is preferred--and a turquoise, for instance, adds the touch of blue
which is supposed to bring a bride good luck--it should be concealed
inside the dress during the services.

As a memento of the event a groom often presents his ushers with a scarf
pin or watch or cigarette case ornamented with the initials of the bride
and groom, and the bride generally makes a similar present to her
bridesmaids of some dainty piece of jewelry. Whether this takes the form
of a pin, bracelet or one of the novelties that up-to-date jewelers are
always showing, it should be the best of its kind. Imitation stones or
"silver gilt" have no place as wedding gifts.

Wedding Customs.

There is no time in a woman's life when ceremonies seem so important as
when a wedding in the family is imminent. Whether the wedding is to be a
simple home ceremony or an elaborate church affair followed by a
reception, the formalities which etiquette prescribes for these
functions should be carefully studied and followed. Only by doing so can
there be the proper dignity, and above all the absence of confusion that
should mark the most important episode in the life of a man or woman.

Wedding customs have undergone some changes of late years, mostly in the
direction of simplicity. Meaningless display and ostentation should be
avoided, and, if a girl is marrying into a family much better endowed in
worldly goods than her own, she should have no false pride in insisting
on simple festivities and in preventing her family from incurring
expense that they cannot afford. The entire expenses of a wedding, with
the exception of the clergyman's fee and the carriage which takes the
bride and groom away for their honeymoon, are met by the bride's family,
and there is no worse impropriety than in allowing the groom to meet or
share any of these obligations. Rather than allow this a girl would show
more self-respect in choosing to do away with the social side of the
function and be content with the marriage ceremony read by her clergyman
under his own roof.

Invitations and Announcements.

In the case of a private wedding announcement cards should be mailed the
following day to all relatives and acquaintances of both the contracting

Evening weddings are no longer the custom, and the fashionable hour is
now high noon, although in many cases three o'clock in the afternoon is
the hour chosen. Whether the wedding is to be followed by a reception or
not, the invitations to it should be sent out not less than two weeks
before the event, and these should be promptly accepted or declined by
those receiving them. The acceptance of a wedding invitation by no means
implies that the recipient is obliged to give a present. These are only
expected of relatives and near friends of the bride and groom, and in
all cases the presents should be addressed and sent to the bride, who
should acknowledge them by a prettily worded note of thanks as soon as
the gifts are received or, at the latest, a few days after the marriage

Silver and Linen.

The usual rule followed in the engraving of silver or the marking of
linen is to use the initials of the bride's maiden name. The question of
duplicate gifts is as annoying to the sender as it is to the young
couple who are ultimately to enjoy the gifts. Theoretically, it is bad
form to exchange a gift after it has been received, but, in truth, this
is often done when a great deal of silver is given by close friends or
members of the family it is a comparatively easy matter to find out what
has already been sent and to learn the bride's wishes in this matter.

Prenuptial Functions.

After the wedding invitations are out it is not customary for a girl to
attend any social functions or to be much seen in public. This gives her
the necessary time to devote to the finishing of her trousseau and for
making any necessary arrangements for the new life she is to take up
after the honeymoon is over. Family dinners are quite proper at this
time, and it is expected of her to give a lunch to her bridesmaids. The
wedding presents may be shown at this occasion, but any more public and
general display of them is now rarely indulged in and is, in fact, not
considered in good taste.

The groom, as a prenuptial celebration, is supposed to give a supper to
his intimate bachelor friends and the men who are to act as ushers at
the marriage ceremony. The ushers are generally recruited from the
friends of the groom rather than those of the bride, but if she has a
grown brother he is always asked to act in this capacity. Ushers, like
bridesmaids, are chosen among the unmarried friends of the young couple,
although a matron of honor is often included in the bridal party.

The Bride's Trousseau.

The bride's trousseau should be finished well before the fortnight
preceding the wedding. Fashions change so quickly now that it is rarely
advisable for a bride to provide gowns for more than a season ahead. If
the check her father furnishes her for her trousseau is a generous one
it is a wise provision to put a part of it aside for later use, and in
so doing she has the equivalent of a wardrobe that will last her for a
year or more.

Custom has decreed that the bride's wedding dress shall be of pure
white, and, as the marriage ceremony is a religious one, whether it
takes place in a church or in a private house, that it shall be made
high in the neck and with long sleeves. Orange blossoms, the natural
flowers, form the trimming to the corsage and a coronet to fasten the
veil. A bride's ornaments include only one gift of white jewelry, pearls
or diamonds, from her future husband, and the bouquet he presents her.

So many awkward moments have been occasioned in wedding ceremonies by
removing the glove that brides are dispensing with wearing gloves at
this time. The bride's appearance is by no means affected by this
custom, and the slipping of the ring on the third finger of the left
hand is made simpler and thereby more graceful. The engagement ring,
which up to the time of the wedding ceremony has been worn on this
finger, afterwards serves as a guard for the wedding ring.

The Bridesmaids.

Millinery is a most important question in discussing a wedding, and we
cannot dismiss the question with the gown worn by the bride. A most
serious consideration is what the bridesmaids are to wear, and this is
generally only settled after long and serious consultation with the

It is generally agreed that all of these gowns shall be made by the same
dressmaker so that they may conform to the colors and styles decided on,
the gown of the maid or matron of honor differing slightly from the
general scheme. At a church wedding bridesmaids wear hats and carry
baskets or bouquets of flowers, but, if bouquets are carried, they
should be quite unlike the one borne by the bride. It is customary for
the bride to give her bridesmaids some souvenir of the occasion, and it
is expected that the groom provide the gloves and ties for the ushers.

Duties of the "Best Man."

The duties of the "best man" are arduous, and it is indeed wise, as it
is general, for a man to ask his best and most devoted friend to serve
in this capacity. The best man is supposed to relieve the groom of all
the details of the ceremony and to take on his shoulders all the worry
incident to its success as a social function. It is he who purchases the
gloves and ties for the other ushers and sees that they are coached in
their duties; he procures the marriage license, if that is necessary,
and has the ring ready for the groom at the critical moment. After the
ceremony he is supposed to hand the clergyman his fee, and at the same
time be in readiness to conduct the line of bridesmaids and ushers to
their carriages. He must be at the bride's home, in case there is a
wedding reception, before the principal actors in the ceremony are
there. It is he who sends the notices of the event to the newspapers,
and, if there is a formal breakfast with speech-making, it is the best
man who proposes the health of the newly-married pair and replies to the
toast in behalf of the bridesmaids. He is the one member of the wedding
party who sees the happy couple off at the station and bids them the
last farewell as they depart on their honeymoon. This is perhaps the
time and moment when his good sense and social tact is the most needed,
The foolish custom of decorating bridal baggage with white ribbon, and
of throwing a superabundance of old shoes and a rain of rice after the
departing pair, may be mitigated by a little care on his part.


There has been of late years a healthy revolt against the excessive use
of crepe or the wearing of mourning for an undue period. Mourning is
first of all a protection, for in these busy days and in a large city a
death affecting our acquaintances is not always known to us. If we meet
a friend wearing black we are instantly apprised that she has suffered
the loss of a near member of her family. It is easy to say under such
circumstances, "I am very sorry to see you in black," or "I am afraid I
have not heard of your loss."

For a father or mother full mourning, that is, black unrelieved by any
touch of white, is worn for a year, and at the end of that period half
mourning, consisting first of white with black, and then violet and
gray, is worn for the second year. For a brother or sister or
grandparent black is worn for six months, and then half mourning for the
six months preceding the wearing of ordinary colors. What is called
complimentary mourning, put on at the death of a relative by marriage,
consists of the wearing of black for a period of from six weeks to a
year, depending on the closeness of the personal relationship. For
instance, in the case of the death of a mother-in-law residing in a
distant city, it would only be necessary for a woman to wear black for a
few weeks following the funeral. If, on the other hand, she resides in
the same place and is a great deal in the company of her husband's
family, it would show more tact and affection on her part to refrain
from wearing colors for a longer period.

Crepe is no longer obligatory in even first mourning. Many widows only
wear the crepe-bordered veil hanging from the conventional bonnet for
the funeral services and for a few weeks afterward, when it is replaced
by an ordinary hat and veil of plain black net bordered with thin black
silk. Widows wear neck and cuff bands of unstarched white book muslin,
this being the only sort of white permitted during the first period of
mourning. Young widows, especially those who must lead an active life,
often lighten their mourning during the second year and discard it at
the end of the second year. Of course the conventional period of
mourning for a widow is three years, but, if there should be any
indication that a second marriage is contemplated, black should
gradually be put aside.

However, the discarding of mourning is no indication that a woman is
about to change her name, and the wearing of black is so much a matter
of personal feeling that a woman should not be criticised for curtailing
the conventional period.

In this country it is not the custom for young children to wear
mourning, and with men the wearing of a black band about the hat or on
the left arm is all that is deemed necessary.

A woman wearing full mourning refrains from attending the theater or any
large functions. She may properly be seen at concerts, club meetings or
lectures, and she may receive and visit her friends informally.


The prevailing shape for a woman's card is nearly square (about 2-1/2 by
3 inches), while the correct form for a man's card is slightly smaller.
The color should be pure white with a dull finish, while the engraving,
plain script or more elaborate text, is a matter of choice and fashion
varying from time to time. It is safe to trust the opinion of a
first-class stationer in this matter, for styles fluctuate, and he
should be constantly informed of what polite usage demands.

A woman's card should always bear the prefix "Miss" or "Mrs." There is
no exception to this rule save in the case of women who have regularly
graduated in medicine or theology and who are allowed therefore the use
of "Dr." or "Rev." before the name. "Miss" or "Mrs." should not be used
in addition to either of these titles.

The card of a married woman is engraved with her husband's full name,
such as Mrs. William Eaton Brown, but she has no right to any titles he
may bear. If he is a judge or colonel she is still Mrs. James Eaton
Brown and not Mrs. Judge or Mrs. Colonel Brown.

A widow may with propriety retain the same visiting card that she used
during the lifetime of her husband, especially if she has no grown son
who bears his father's name. In that case she generally has her cards
engraved with a part of her full maiden name before her husband's name,
such as Mrs. Mary Baker Brown. In this country a divorced woman, if she
has children, does not discard her husband's family name, neither does
she retain his given name. For social purposes she becomes Mrs. Mary
Baker Brown or, if she wishes, Mrs. Baker Brown.

The address is engraved in the lower right corner of the visiting-card,
and, if a woman has any particular day for receiving her friends, that
fact is announced in the lower left corner. As a rule even informal
notes should not be written on a visiting-card, although when a card
accompanies a gift it is quite proper to write "Best wishes" or
"Greetings" on it. This is even done when a card does not accompany a
gift, but it should be borne in mind that a card message should not take
the place of a note of thanks or be used when a more formal letter is

A man's visiting-card should bear his full name with the prefix "Mr."
unless he has a military title above the grade of lieutenant or is a
doctor or clergyman. In these cases the proper title should be used in
place of "Mr." Courtesy titles, although they may be common usage in
conversation and a man may be known by them, are best abandoned on the

During the first year of marriage cards are engraved thus:

   Mr. and Mrs. William Eaton Brown

and this card may be used in sending presents, returning wedding
civilities or making calls, even when the bride is not accompanied by
her husband. After the first year these cards are discarded, and husband
and wife have separate visiting-cards.

In some communities it is not the custom for a young girl to make formal
calls without her mother. To meet this requirement the girl's name with
the prefix "Miss" is engraved on her mother's card, below her mother's

It is no longer considered necessary to leave a number of cards at the
same house when calling in person or sending cards. If there are several
women members of the family one card suffices. If a woman wishes to
leave her husband's card she should leave two, one for the mistress and
one for the man of the house. A woman never leaves a card for a man
unless she has called on him on a matter of business and wishes him to
be reminded of the fact.

At a tea or large afternoon reception a card should be left in the hall
as a guest departs, so as to enable the hostess to preserve a record of
those who have called on her. If she is not able to attend she should
send her visiting-card so that it may arrive on the day of the function.
After a dinner or any formal function she should make a personal call or
leave her card in person.

When making an ordinary call it is not necessary to send one's
visiting-card to the hostess by the servant who opens the door.
Pronouncing the name distinctly is sufficient, but, if it is a first
call, and there is danger that the hostess may not be familiar with the
caller's address, it is best to leave a card on the hall table when
leaving, no matter if the hostess herself conducts her visitor to the

When one is invited but unable to attend a church wedding it is
necessary to send, on the day of the ceremony, cards to those who issue
the invitations. An invitation to a wedding reception or breakfast
demands a more formal acceptance sent immediately on receipt of the
invitation and couched in the same manner in which the invitation reads.

A newcomer in town or a young married woman may receive a card from an
older woman indicating her receiving days and hours. This is a polite
invitation to call, and if she is unable to make a call at the time
indicated she should send a card on that day.

Cards of condolence are left as soon as possible after learning of the
affliction. It is not necessary to write anything on the card; in fact,
it is better not to do so, for, if the acquaintance warrants a personal
message, it should take the form of a letter. On the other hand it is
quite proper in felicitating a friend on a happy event, such as the
announcement of an engagement in the family or the arrival of a new
baby, to send a visiting-card with "Congratulations" written on it.

There are times when it seems necessary to send cards to practically all
one's acquaintances, This is wise after a long absence or a change of
residence, and when one is leaving town for a long period it is proper
to send cards with the French expression, "Pour prendre conge."


"Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy" was old Polonius' advice to his
son, and he counseled suitability as well. It is this question of
suitability that is the hall mark of correct dressing. A safe rule to
follow, especially in the case of a young woman, is not to be
conspicuous in attire and to conform to the standards of dress as set
down by older women of recognized standing in the town in which she
lives and the community in which her social or business life is spent.

A young girl needs little adorning. Her school or college dresses should
be characterized by their neatness, freshness, correctness of cut and
utility rather than by elaborate trimmings or costly materials. Her
party gowns are simpler than those of a girl who has left school, and
she wears less jewelry. At the end of school life, if her parents are
able and willing to give her a coming-out party, she begins her social
career under the pleasantest auspices, and this is the opportunity for
her first elaborate gown.

The Debutante.

The character of this gown depends largely on the nature of the
entertainment given her.

It most commonly takes the form of an afternoon tea or reception to
which her mother invites all of her friends as well as the younger set.
The debutante receives with her mother and wears an elaborate frock of
light material and color, made high in the neck and with elbow sleeves.
Long white gloves are worn, and her hair is more elaborately arranged
than it was during her school-girl period. In fact, she is now a full-
fledged young lady and is dressed accordingly. Such a gown may serve
later as an informal evening gown, or, if it is made with a detachable
yoke, it may be worn as a dancing-frock or for any evening occasion for
which a full evening gown is expected.

The receiving party at an afternoon function generally includes near
relatives of the debutante, and a number of her intimate girl friends
are asked to assist in various ways. These receive with her and her
mother in the early part of the afternoon and later assist at the tea
table or mingle among the guests. The ladies assisting do not wear hats,
and the young girls in the party are gowned much like the debutante,
except that their gowns may be less elaborate if they choose, and they
do not carry flowers.

A popular girl or one with many family connections may count on a good
many floral offerings on the occasion of her coming-out party. These are
scattered about the room, either left in bunches or arranged in vases.
One large bunch she generally carries in her left hand, and it is a wise
girl who avoids singling out anyone of her men friends by carrying his
flowers. A gift from her father or brother or the flowers sent by some
friend of the family is the better choice. The success a girl makes
during her first year in society depends more on her general popularity
than on the devotion of any one man.

Afternoon Reception.

For an afternoon reception light refreshments, consisting of tea,
coffee, chocolate, perhaps a light claret cup, with cakes and delicate
sandwiches, are sufficient, and these are set out on a long table in a
room adjoining the reception parlors.

If a large number of guests are expected it is necessary to have a maid
or two in attendance to remove cups and saucers, keep the tea urn
replenished with hot water and to bring additional cakes and sandwiches
if the supply on the table is in danger of running short. Two women
friends are generally asked to preside at the refreshment table, one at
each end to pour tea and chocolate, and, as this task is an arduous one
and much of the success of the entertainment depends on its being well
done, it is advisable to relieve the ladies in charge during the
afternoon. This, however, like every other feature of the entertainment,
should be arranged beforehand. The charm of an afternoon reception lies
in its apparent informality, but every detail should be considered in
advance and all contingencies provided for. The debutante, and
especially her mother, should be relieved from all such responsibilities
before the guests begin to come.

The mother's duties consist in welcoming her guests and presenting her
daughter to them. If many people are arriving the guests are quickly
passed on to some one of the ladies assisting, whose duty it is to see
that they meet some of those who are already in the room and are
eventually asked to the tea table. A part of the receiving party, and
certainly the hostess and her daughter, should remain together in a
place where they may be easily found as the guests enter the room.

No more sympathetic act of friendship can be shown a debutante than to
contribute toward the success of her party. Girls who are asked to
assist should remember that their first duty is not to entertain their
own friends who may happen to be present, but to see that everyone is
welcome and that especially those who are not acquainted with many in
the room have an opportunity to become so. Anyone asked to assist at a
function of this sort is in a sense a hostess, and it is quite within
her province to enter into conversation with any unoccupied guest
whether she has been introduced or not.

The usual hours for an afternoon tea are from four to six, but in the
case of a coming-out reception the hour is often prolonged to seven so
as to allow more men to be present than would be the case if the time
were restricted to the early afternoon. In these busy days few men are
at liberty to make afternoon calls, and it is always a compliment to a
girl if her tea includes a sprinkling of black coats. Whatever hours are
decided on, they should be engraved on the cards sent out two weeks
before the tea. These are of the form and size of an ordinary
visiting-card and include the daughter's name below that of her
mother's. If she is the eldest unmarried daughter or the only girl in
the family the card reads as follows:

                             Mrs. Geo. Baker Blank
                             Miss Blank

  December 9, 1911
  4 to 7 o'clock

The daughter's given name is only used in case she has an older
unmarried sister.

Ball and Evening Reception.

A more elaborate form of coming-out party consists of a ball or of an
evening reception followed by dancing, and in this case the card
contains the word "Dancing" below the date of the entertainment and the
hours at which it is given. Few homes are large enough to provide for
even a small dance, and so a party of this sort is generally given at a
hotel. The guests as well as the receiving party wear evening gowns
without hats, and men are expected to come in full evening clothes,
which means the long-tailed coats and not the popular Tuxedo, white
gloves, and, although this is not obligatory, white waistcoats.

After a girl has been introduced into society she has her individual
visiting-cards, makes her own calls and is allowed to receive her own
friends. Social customs differ with locality, and the chaperon is less
customary in the West than in the East. In many cities girls are allowed
to go to the theater and to evening parties with a man friend without a
married woman being included in the party. A wise girl, however, is
careful that any man she meets shall be introduced as soon as possible
to some older member of her family and to introduce a young man calling
for the first time to either her mother or father. Also when she accepts
an invitation to an evening's entertainment she insists that her escort
shall call for her at her own home and bring her directly home at the
close of it. Dining or supping at a restaurant alone with a young man is
sure to expose a girl to criticism.

A Woman's Lunch.

There are many pleasant forms of entertainment offered to a young girl
entering society in which men are not included, and the most popular of
these is a woman's lunch. This is a favorite form of entertainment for a
young married woman to give in honor of some girl friend who has just
come out in society or whose engagement has just been announced. One
o'clock or half after is the usual hour, and the meal is served in
courses and is as elaborate as the household resources may allow. The
decorations of the table are important, and three courses are sufficient
if they are carefully arranged. Handsome street costumes are worn for a
function of this sort, and the guest of honor, if there is one, dresses
as the others do. Outer wraps are left in the hall or in a room put
aside for this purpose, and, as a rule, hats are retained and gloves
removed when the guests sit down at table.

The custom of wearing a hat during lunch is not an arbitrary one, and it
is not universal. In France, for example, where social customs are most
carefully observed, it is the custom to wear handsome afternoon gowns if
invited for the noon meal and to remove hats. The noon meal there is a
social function, and certain formalities are observed. In London, on the
contrary, no matter if a number of guests are expected, lunch is an
informal occasion, and women dress for lunch as they would for an
afternoon tea.

Hats are worn and women are prepared to rush off afterwards to meet
other engagements. The English custom prevails now in the large cities
in America, and, moreover, women seem disinclined to remove their hats
after they are once dressed for the round of the day's social

It is simpler and really quite conventional to leave the wearing of hats
to the individual. The hostess should ask her guest if she wishes to
take her hat off or retain it, and she can at the same time intimate to
her guest, if she is a stranger in the town, what the others will
probably do in this connection. True hospitality on the part of the
hostess is to make her guests at ease, and true politeness on the part
of the visitor is to conform to the rules governing the community that
she is visiting.


American gentlemen are no longer dependent on English tailors or on
English fashions as they were some years ago. The American type of
physique is a distinct one, and London tailors have never been able to
fit American men as well as they do their own clients. Moreover social
life is so different in the United States from what it is in England
that men really need different clothes.

Practically all American men are business men for the working hours of
the day, and few of them have any time or inclination for anything save
business clothes while daylight lasts. For dinner or for the evening
what are generally called evening clothes are permissible, and in fact
obligatory in large cities for anything beyond the most informal home

For the evening there is the informal and formal dress suit. The former
consists of the long-tailed coat worn with either a white or black
waistcoat. For a dancing party or formal dinner the white waistcoat is
generally preferred, and, if it is worn, it must be accompanied by a
white lawn tie. A made-up bow is considered incorrect. The
accompaniments to a suit of this sort are patent-leather shoes and white
kid gloves if dancing is a part of the evening programme.

The informal evening suit includes the shorter dinner jacket or Tuxedo,
as it was formerly called, and, strictly speaking, this is only
considered proper for the club or for parties where ladies are not
expected to be present. However, men who commonly dress for dinner in
the home circle generally prefer the dinner jacket to the long coat, and
well-dressed men are often seen wearing it at small dinner parties, at
the theater or at any informal evening event. This coat is always worn
with a black tie and waistcoat, and it is not a suitable apparel for a
dance or any large formal evening affair.

The correct dress for a daytime wedding is a black frock coat with light
trousers, light fancy waistcoat and gray gloves and gray Ascot or
four-in-hand tie, and the frock coat with black waistcoat proper for
church or when making afternoon calls. Many young men are adopting for
afternoon wear the English morning suit, which consists of a cutaway
coat with trousers and waistcoat to match and made of some other color
save black.


First Anniversary Cotton Wedding
Second Anniversary Paper Wedding
Third Anniversary Leather Wedding
Fifth Anniversary Wooden Wedding
Seventh Anniversary Woolen Wedding
Tenth Anniversary Tin Wedding
Twelfth Anniversary Silk and Fine Linen Wedding
Fifteenth Anniversary Crystal Wedding
Twentieth Anniversary China Wedding
Twenty-fifth Anniversary Silver Wedding
Thirtieth Anniversary Pearl Wedding
Fortieth Anniversary Ruby Wedding
Fiftieth Anniversary Golden Wedding
Seventy-fifth Anniversary Diamond Wedding


The Natural Laws of Tints, Tones, Shades and Hues.

Some combinations of color are pleasing to the eye, and some are
discordant. The reasons for this are based on natural laws and are
explained in a very simple manner in a learned article by Dr. W. K. Carr
which originally appeared in Shop Notes Quarterly. Impressions continue
upon the retina of the eye, says Dr. Carr, about one-sixth of a second
after the object has been moved. For this reason a point of light or
flame whirled swiftly around appears as a continuous ring. Or take a
piece or red ribbon, place it on white paper, look intently at it for
thirty seconds and suddenly remove the ribbon. The portion of the paper
which was covered by the ribbon will then appear green. The explanation
is that the color sensation in the eye is caused by the almost
unthinkably rapid whirling of electrons around their atoms, and that the
retina, becoming fatigued by the vibration of the red, is therefore less
sensitive to them. When the ribbon is suddenly removed, the eye sees,
not the blue, yellow and red which produce the white surface of the
paper, but, because of the fatigue of the eye to the red, it sees only
the blue and yellow constituents of the white light. But blue and yellow
produce green; hence the tendency at the eye to see the complementary of
a color. This may be referred to as the "successive contrast of colors."

Colors for Blondes and for Brunettes.

Now, for a practical application of this knowledge.

The hair of the blond is a mixture of red, yellow and brown. As a rule
the skin is lighter, that is, it contains not so much orange, and the
tinges of red are lighter. Nature, therefore, very properly made the
blond's eyes blue, since the blue is complementary to the orange of her

The brunette's skin, on the other hand, has more orange in it, and hence
a color favorable to one would not be becoming to the other.

What would be the effect of green upon a complexion deficient in red? It
would certainly heighten the rose tints in the cheeks, but the greatest
care should be exercised in the selection of the proper shade of green,
because the brunette's complexion contains a great deal of orange, and
the green, acting upon the red of the orange, could readily produce a
brick-dust appearance. Green, therefore, is a risky color for a
brunette, and so is violet, which would neutralize the yellow of the
orange and heighten the red. But if the orange complexion had more
yellow than red, then the association of violet would produce pallor.
Yellow, of course, is her color, since its complementary violet
neutralizes the yellow of the orange complexion and leaves the red.

But with the yellow-haired blond the conditions are very different. The
complementary of blue is orange, which improves the hair and freshens
the light flesh tints. A blond, therefore can wear blue, just as a
brunette can wear yellow.

In arranging flowers the same law holds. Complementary colors should be
placed side by side; blue with orange, yellow with violet, red and rose
with green leaves. And anyone who successfully selects his wall paper
and house furnishings is drawing unconsciously, perhaps, on an intuitive
knowledge of these fundamental facts. Dark papers are bad, especially in
rooms with a northern exposure, because they absorb too much light. The
complementaries of red and violet are exceedingly trying to most
complexions, and orange and orange-yellow are fatiguing to the eye. The
most pleasing effects are to be had with yellow, light blue and light
green, for the latter freshens the red in pale skins, and the blue
heightens blond complexions, and goes well with gilding and with
mahogany and cherry furniture.


The following tables will be found useful in selecting colors for dress,
decoration, or any other purpose in which the proper application of the
true laws of contrast and harmony in color is desirable:

Contrasts in Color.

Yellow contrasts with--
Purple, russet, and auburn.
Red contrasts with--
Green, olive, and drab.
Blue contrasts with--
Orange, citrine, and buff.

Harmonies in Color.

Yellow harmonizes with--
Orange, green, citrine, russet, buff, and drab.
Red harmonizes with--
Orange, purple, russet, citrine, auburn, and buff.
Blue harmonizes with--
Purple, green, olive, citrine, drab, and auburn.


Decay of the teeth, or caries, commences externally, appearing upon the
enamel or bony structure of the teeth. Usually it is the result of
chemical action produced by decomposition of food. Acids found in some
fruits will cause decay if allowed to remain in contact with the teeth.
Then there are the natural mouth acids, which, although not strong, are
none the less effective if allowed to remain long enough around the
teeth. Microscopical examinations have shown that the secretions of
almost every person's month contain more or less vegetable and animal
life that will withstand the application of acids and astringents and
will only succumb to alkalies. A dentifrice or mouth wash should be


Toothache is not always due to an exposed nerve, for in the majority of
teeth extracted because they are painful the nerve is dead. Inflammation
is often the cause of the trouble.

A toothache due to inflammation is a steady, aggravating pain,
overspreading the affected side of the face, sometimes even the neck and
shoulder. As there is no nerve to kill in a case of this kind, the tooth
should be treated until cured, or removed upon the first symptom of
trouble. Its extraction would be unattended by any danger and would
afford welcome relief.

Tartar, a creamy, calcareous deposit, supposed to be from the saliva,
will sometimes cause toothache. It accumulates around the necks of the
teeth and eventually becomes hard and dark-colored. It also causes foul
breath and loosens the gums from the teeth, causing them to present an
unsightly appearance.

The Teeth of Children.

Children have twenty temporary teeth, which begin making their
appearance about the sixth or seventh month. The time varies in
different children. This is the most dangerous and troublesome period of
the child's existence, and every parent will do well to consult a
reputable dentist. About the second or third year the temporary teeth
are fully developed. They require the same care to preserve them as is
exercised toward the permanent set.

About the sixth year, or soon after, four permanent molars, or double
teeth, make their appearance. Some parents mistakenly suppose these
belong to the first set. It is a serious error. They are permanent
teeth, and if lost will be lost forever. No teeth that come after the
sixth year are ever shed. Let every parent remember this.

At twelve years the second set is usually complete, with the exception
of the wisdom teeth, which appear anywhere from the eighteenth to the
twenty-fourth year. When the second set is coming in the beauty and
character of the child's countenance is completed or forever spoiled.
Everything depends upon proper care at this time to see that the teeth
come with regularity and are not crowded together. The teeth cannot have
too much room. When a little separated they are less liable to decay.

Dentifrices--Useful and Injurious.

The habit of caring for the teeth daily, and if possible after each
meal, should be established early in life.

Those who have neglected to do so should lose no time in consulting a
reputable dentist, and then persistently caring for their teeth day by
day. Children especially should be taught to use the tooth-brush and
some reliable dentifrice. The more pleasant the preparation the easier
it will be to teach them its daily use. A fragrant, refreshing liquid is
recommended, as it is a mouth wash as well as a tooth cleanser. The
habit thus formed, neglected for even a single day, will make the mouth
feel decidedly uncomfortable.

Cleansing the Teeth.

Preparations for cleansing the teeth and purifying the mouth should be
free from all acids, and should be saponaceous or soapy, containing as
one of the principal ingredients an alkali to neutralize the acids and
destroy the animal and vegetable parasites which, as the microscope
would show us, are in the secretions of almost every person's mouth.

A finely triturated powder having slight abrasive properties, but free
from dangerous grit, should be used as the complement of a liquid. One
way to use both is to pour on the wet brush or into the palm of the hand
a sufficient quantity of powder and moisten it with the liquid.
Occasionally the powder or the liquid alone could be employed. Be
careful to use a liquid and powder of established reputation.

  Beware of thy teeth.
  Take good care of thy teeth,
  And they will take good care of thee.


According to the Chicago Tribune, Miss Helen Loewe, a student at the
Chicago Art Institute, is credited by art critics with closely
approaching the standard of physical perfection set by statues of the
goddess Venus. Miss Loewe was posed as a model for a series of
photographs issued for the benefit of the playground fund of Oak Park.

Aside from the artistic nature of Miss Loewe, a comparison of
measurements with those of the typically perfect figure explains part of
the success of these photographic studies.

Miss Loewe.
Perfect figure.
5 ft. 7 in Height. 5 ft. 8 in.
138 Weight 140
13-1/2 Neck 13
32 Chest 33
36 Bust 37
22 Waist 23
36 Hips 39
22 Thigh 24
10 Upper arm 11
8-1/2 Forearm 9
14 Calf 15


Dr. Katherine Blackford, of Boston, speaking of men's complexions,
arrives at the following conclusions. There are, of course, exceptions
to all rules: "As a general rule, the blonds are inconstant. They change
their minds too often. They get angry one moment and forgive the next.
They are impulsive, and when they do commit crimes they are done on the
impulse of the moment. A blond radiates his personality about him. The
brunette, on the other hand as a rule, likes to concentrate on one
subject. He is a specialist. He prefers his home and family, and his
pleasures are more often lectures and kindred entertainments than those
of a lighter order. He learns slowly, but he retains what he knows far
better than does the blond."


In his book on "The Development of the Intellect," Mr. H. W. Brown
presents a conspectus of the observations of Prof. Preyer on the mind of
the child which shows chronologically the gradual development of the
senses, intellect and will of the growing child and presents in a
condensed form the result of a great number of careful observations.

It is recorded that sensibility to light, touch, temperature, smell and
taste are present on the first day of infant life. Hearing, therefore,
is the only special sense which is not active at this time. The child
hears by the third or fourth day. Taste and smell are senses at the
first most active, but they are differentiated. General organic
sensations of well being or discomfiture are felt from the first, but
pain and pleasure as mental states are not noted till at or near the
second month.

The first sign of speech in the shape of utterance of consonant sounds
is heard about the end of the second month, these consonants being
generally "m," "r," "g," or "t." All the movements of the eyes become
co-ordinate by the fourth month, and by this time the child begins to
have the "feeling of self," that is, he looks at his own hands and looks
at himself in the mirror. The study of the child's mind during the first
year shows conclusively that ideas develop and reasoning processes occur
before there is any knowledge of words or of language; though it may be
assumed that the child thinks in symbols, visual or auditory, which are
clumsy equivalents for words. By the end of the year the child begins to
express itself by sounds--that is, speech begins. The development of
this speech capacity is, according to Preyer, in accordance with the
development of the intellectual powers. By the end of the second year
the child's power of speech is practically acquired.


According to the novel computations of a renowned histologist, who has
been calculating the aggregate cell forces of the human brain, the
cerebral mass is composed of at least 300,000,000 of nerve cells, each
an independent body, organism, and microscopic brain so far as concerns
its vital functions, but subordinate to a higher purpose in relation to
the functions of the organ; each living a separate life individually,
though socially subject to a higher law of function.

The lifetime of a nerve cell he estimates to be about sixty days, so
that 5,000,000 die every day, about 200,000 every hour, and nearly 3,500
every minute, to be succeeded by an equal number of their progeny; while
once in every sixty days a man has a new brain.


Black is by no means the only color used by man to express grief or
mourning for the dead. In the South Sea Islands the natives express
sorrow and hope by stripes of black and white. Grayish brown, the color
of the earth to which the dead return, is used in Ethiopia. Pale brown,
the color of withered leaves, is the mourning of Persia. Sky-blue, to
express the assured hope that the deceased has gone to heaven, is the
mourning of Syria, Cappadocia, and Armenia. Deep blue in Bokhara. Purple
and violet, to express "kings and queens to God," was the color of
mourning for cardinals and kings of France. The color of mourning in
Turkey is violet. White (emblem of hope) is the color of mourning in
China. Henry VIII. wore white for Anne Boleyn. The ladies of ancient
Rome and Sparta wore white. It was the color of mourning in Spain till
1498. Yellow is the color of mourning in Egypt and in Burmah. Anne
Boleyn wore yellow mourning for Catharine of Aragon.


The hair of men is finer than that of women.

The average weight of a head of hair is from 5 to 12 ounces.

On an average head there are about 1,000 hairs to the square inch.

Hair will stretch about one-fourth of its length and retract nearly to
its original length.

Four hairs of good strength will hold suspended a one-pound weight. A
single head of hair, of average growth, would therefore hold suspended
an entire audience of 200 people.


Catgut is gut of sheep.

Baffin's Bay is no bay at all.

Arabic figures were invented by the Indians.

Turkish baths are not of Turkish origin.

Blacklead is a compound of carbon and iron.

Slave by derivation should mean noble, illustrious.

Turkeys do not come from Turkey, but North America.

Titmouse is not a mouse, but a little hedge sparrow.

Dutch clocks are of German (Deutsch), not Dutch manufacture.

Salt (that is table salt) is not a salt at all, but "chloride of

Galvanized iron is not galvanized--simply iron coated with zinc.

Ventriloquism is not voice from the stomach, but from the mouth.

Kid gloves are not kid at all, but are made of lambskin or sheepskin.

Pompey's Pillar, in Alexandria, was erected neither by nor to Pompey.

Tonquin beans come from Tonka, in Guinea, not Tonquin, in Asia.

Fire, air, earth, and water, called the four elements, are not elements
at all.

Rice paper is not made from rice, but from the pith of Tungtsau, or

Japan lacquer contains no lac at all, but is made from the resin of a
kind of nut tree.

Pen means a feather. (Latin. "penna," a wing.) A steel pen is therefore
an anomaly.

Jerusalem artichoke has no connection with Jerusalem, but with the
sunflower, "girasole."

Humble pie, for "umbil pie." The umbils of venison were served to
inferiors and servants.

Lunar caustic is simply nitrate of silver, and silver is the
astrological symbol of the moon.

Bridegroom has nothing to do with groom. It is the old English "guma," a
man, "bryd-guma."

Mother of pearl is the inner layer of several sorts of shell, and in
some cases the matrix of the pearl.

Sealing wax is not wax at all nor does it contain wax. It is made of
shellac, Venice turpentine and cinnabar.

Cleopatra's Needles were not erected by Cleopatra, nor in honor of that
queen, but by Thothmes III.

German silver is not silver at all, but a metallic mixture which has
been in use in China time out of mind.

Cuttle-bone is not bone, but a structure of pure chalk imbedded loosely
in the substance of a species of cuttlefish.

America was named after Amerigo Vespucci, a naval astronomer of
Florence, but he did not discover the New World.

Prussian blue does not come from Prussia. It is the precipitate of the
salt of protoxide of iron with red prussiate of potass.

Wormwood has nothing to do with worms or wood; it is the Anglo-Saxon
"wer mod," man-inspiriting, being a strong tonic.

Honeydew is neither honey nor dew, but an animal substance given off by
certain insects, especially when hunted by ants.

Gothic architecture is not that of the Goths, but the ecclesiastical
style employed in England and France before the Renaissance.

Sperm oil properly means "seed oil," from the notion that it was spawn
or milt of a whale. It is chiefly taken, however, from the head, not the
spawn of the "spermaceti" whale.

Whalebone is not bone, nor does it possess any properties of bone. It is
a substance attached to the upper jaw of the whale, and serves to strain
the water which the creature takes up.


To "strike a flag" is to lower the national colors in token of

Flags are used as the symbol of rank and command, the officers using
them being called flag officers. Such flags are square, to distinguish
them from other banners.

A "flag of truce" is a white flag displayed to an enemy to indicate a
desire to parley or for consultation.

The white flag is a sign of peace. After a battle parties from both
sides often go out to the field to rescue the wounded or bury dead under
the protection of a white flag.

The red flag is a sign of defiance, and is often used by revolutionists.
In the naval service it is a mark of danger, and shows a vessel to be
receiving or discharging her powder.

The black flag is a sign of piracy.

The yellow flag shows a vessel to be at quarantine or is the sign of a
contagious disease.

A flag at half-mast means mourning. Fishing and other vessels return
with a flag at half-mast to announce the loss or death of some of the

Dipping the flag is lowering it slightly and then hoisting it again to
salute a vessel or fort.

If the President of the United States goes afloat the American flag is
carried in the bows of his barge or hoisted at the main of the vessel on
board of which he is.


The following is said to be the sentence of death, word for word,
pronounced against Jesus Christ:

Sentence pronounced by Pontius Pilate, intendent of the lower province
of Galilee, that Jesus of Nazareth shall suffer death by the cross. In
the seventeenth year of the reign of Emperor Tiberius, and on the 24th
day of the month, in the most holy city of Jerusalem, during the
pontificate of Annas and Caiaphas.

Pontius Pilate, intendent of the Province of Lower Galilee, sitting to
judgment in the presidential seat of the Praetors, sentences Jesus of
Nazareth to death on a cross between robbers, as the numerous and
notorious testimonies of the people prove:

1. Jesus is a misleader.

2. He has excited the people to sedition.

3. He is an enemy to the laws.

4. He calls himself the son of God.

5. He calls himself, falsely, the King of Israel.

6. He went to the temple followed by a multitude carrying palms in their
hands. Orders from the first centurion Quirrillis Cornelius to bring him
to the place of execution. Forbids all persons, rich or poor, to prevent
the execution of Jesus.

The witnesses who have signed the execution of Jesus are:

1. Daniel Robani, Pharisee.

2. John Zorobabic.

3. Raphael Robani.

4. Capet.

Jesus is to be taken out of Jerusalem through the gate of Tournes.


To thee, my master, I offer my prayer: Feed, water and care for me; and
when the day's work is done, provide me with shelter and a clean, dry
bed. Always be kind to me. Pet me sometimes, that I may serve you the
more gladly and learn to love you. Do not jerk the reins, and do not
whip me when going up hill. Never strike, beat or kick me when I do not
understand what you want, but give me a chance to understand you. Watch
me, and if I fail to do your bidding, see if something is not wrong with
my harness or feet.

Do not overload me or hitch me where water will drip on me. Keep me well
shod. Examine my teeth when I do not eat; I may have an ulcerated tooth,
and that, you know, is painful. Do not tie or check my head in an
unnatural position or take away my best defence against flies and
mosquitoes by cutting off my mane or tail.

I cannot tell you when I am thirsty, so give me clean, cool water often.
I cannot tell you in words when I am sick, so watch me and by signs you
may know my condition. Give me all possible shelter from the hot sun,
and put a blanket on me not when I am working, but when I am standing in
the cold. Never put a frosty bit in my mouth; first warm it by holding
it in your hands.

I try to carry you and your burdens without a murmur, and wait patiently
for you long hours of the day or night. Without the power to choose my
shoes or path, I sometimes fall on the hard pavements, and I must be
ready at any moment to lose my life in your service.

And finally, O, my master, when my useful strength is gone, do not turn
me out to starve or freeze, nor sell me to some human brute to be slowly
tortured and starved to death, but do thou, my master, take my life in
the kindest way, and your God will reward you here and hereafter. Amen.


Every woman has some chance to marry. It may be one to fifty, or it may
be ten to one that she will. Representing her entire chance at one
hundred at certain points of her progress in time, it is found to be in
the following ratio:

Between the ages of 15 and 20 years 14-1/2 per cent
Between the ages of 20 and 25 years 52 per cent
Between the ages of 25 and 30 years 18 per cent
Between the ages of 30 and 35 years 15-1/2 per cent
Between the ages of 35 and 40 years 3-3/4 per cent
Between the ages of 40 and 45 years 2-1/2 per cent
Between the ages of 45 and 50 years 3/4 of 1 percent
Between the ages of 50 and 56 years 1/8 of 1 per cent

After sixty it is one-tenth of one per cent, or one chance in a thousand.

  Some hae meat and canna' eat,
  And some wad eat who want it;
  But we hae meat and we can eat,
  So let the Lord be thankit.


Learn to shave right.

Don't shave in a hurry.

Have the water hot enough so that it won't cool too quickly.

Wash the face with soap and hot water before lathering, especially if
the beard is hard.

Have the lather very soapy--thin enough to spread easily, yet thick
enough so it won't drop. Rub well into the face with the brush, then
with the fingers. The longer you lather and the more you rub, the easier
the shave.

The hair usually grows downward. Shave with the grain, not against it.
Use a sliding motion, as well as downward.

If you get a "nick," wash with cold water. Rubbing the cut with a piece
of lump alum will stop the bleeding at once and help to heal.

Hold the razor properly. Lay it as flat as possible--the back of razor
nearly touching the skin. Have it under easy control. Don't grab it--an
easy position means an easy shave.

A poor strop will spoil the best razor ever made.

To buy a good razor and a cheap strop is pour economy.

If you prefer a swing strop, pull it as tightly as you can. Better use a
stiff strop--cushion or solid--if in doubt.

A serious mistake made by a number of self-shavers is to hold the strop
loose. This bends the invisible teeth and rounds the edge.

Strop your razor before and after shaving. This keeps the edge free from

Dip your razor in hot water before stropping and shaving. This dissolves
the accumulation in the invisible teeth.

Press as hard as you like on the back of the blade, but very lightly on
the edge.

As you reach the end of the strop, turn the razor on the back of the
blade to strop the other side, pulling toward you.

Keep rust away from your strop, and remember that a cut in the strop
will ruin your razor. Don't use a strop that is cut.


Telephone invented. 1861.

There are 2,750 languages.

Sound moves 743 miles per hour.

Hawks can fly 150 miles an hour.

Chinese invented paper, 170 B. C.

A hand, horse measure, is 4 inches.

German Empire re-established, 1871.

Storm clouds move 36 miles an hour.

The first steel pen was made in 1830.

Phonographs invented by Edison, 1877.

Light moves 187,000 miles per second.

Watches were first constructed in 1476.

First steamer crossed the Atlantic, 1819.

Rome was founded by Romulus, 752 B. C.

First musical notes used, 1338; printed, 1502.

The first Atlantic cable was operated in 1858.

The first balloon ascended from Lyons, France, 1783.

Slow rivers flow at the rate of seven-tenths of a mile per hour.

Napoleon I. crowned Emperor, 1804; died at St. Helena, 1820.

Harvard, the oldest college in the United States, was founded, 1638.

The first steam engine on this continent was brought from England, 1753.

The most extensive park is Deer Park in Denmark. It contains 4,200

Measure 209 ft. on each side and you will have a square acre, to an

Albert Durer gave the world a prophecy of future wood engraving in 1527.

The first iron ore discovered in this country was found in Virginia in

"Bravest of the Brave" was the title given to Marshal Ney at Friedland,

The highest bridge in the world, 360  ft. from the surface of the water,
is over a gorge at Constantine in Algiers.

The first volunteer fire company in the United States was at
Philadelphia, 1736.

St. Augustine, oldest city in the United States, founded by the
Spaniards, 1565.

Jamestown, Va., founded, 1607; first permanent English settlement in

Books in their present form were invented by Attalus, kind of Pergamos,
198 B. C.

Robert Raikes established the first Sunday-school, at Gloucester,
England, 1781.

Oberlin College, Ohio, was the first in the United States that admitted
female students.

The first knives were used in England, and the first wheeled carriages
in France, in 1559.

The largest park in the United States is Fairmont, at Philadelphia, and
contains 2.740 acres.

The highest natural bridge in the world is at Rockbridge, Virginia,
being 200 feet high to the bottom of the arch.

The largest empire in the world is that of Great Britain, being
8,557,658 square miles, and more than a sixth part of the globe.

The first electrical signal ever transmitted between Europe and America
passed over the Field submarine cable on Aug. 5, 1858.

Paris was known as Lutetia until 1184, when the name of the great French
capital was changed to that which it has borne ever since.

The longest tunnel in the world is St. Gothard, on the line of the
railroad between Lucerne and Milan, being 9-1/2 miles in length.

Burnt brick were known to have been used in building the Tower of Babel.
They were introduced into England by the Romans.

The loftiest active volcano is Popocatapetl. It is 17,784 feet high, and
has a crater three miles in circumference and 1,000 feet deep.

The largest insurance company in the world is the Mutual Life of New
York City, having cash and real estate assets of over $350,000,000.

The Latin tongue became obsolete about 580.

The value of a ton of pure gold is $602,799.21.

First authentic use of organs, 755; in England, 951.

Ether was first used for surgical purposes in 1844.

Ignatius Loyola founded the order of Jesuits, 1541.

The first newspaper advertisement appeared in 1652.

Benjamin Franklin used the first lightning rods, 1752.

Glass windows (colored) were used in the 8th century.

The largest desert is Sahara, in Northern Africa. Its length is 3,000
miles and breadth 900 miles, having an area of 2,000,000 square miles.

The most remarkable echo known is that in the castle of Simonetta, two
miles from Milan. It repeats the echo of a pistol shot sixty times.

The first deaf and dumb asylum was founded in England, by Thomas
Braidwood, 1760; and the first in the United States was at Hartford,

The largest diamond in the world is the Braganza, being a part of the
Portugese jewels. It weighs 1,880 carats. It was found in Brazil in

The "Valley of Death," in the island of Java, is simply the crater of an
extinct volcano, filled with carbonic acid gas. It is half a mile in

The grade of titles in Great Britain stands in the following order from
the highest: A Prince, Duke, Marquis, Earl, Viscount, Baron, Baronet,

The city of Amsterdam, Holland, is built upon piles driven into the
ground. It is intersected by numerous canals, crossed by nearly three
hundred bridges.

Coal was used as fuel in England as early as 852, and in 1234 the first
charter to dig it was granted by Henry III. to the inhabitants of

The present national colors of the United States were not adopted by
Congress until 1777. The flag was first used by Washington at Cambridge,
January 1, 1776.

Tobacco was discovered in San Domingo in 1496; afterwards by the
Spaniards in Yucatan in 1520. It was Introduced into France in 1560, and
into England in 1583.

Kerosene was first used for illuminating in 1826.

Cork is the bark taken from a species of the oak tree.

National banks first established in the United States, 1816.

Introduction of homoeopathy into the United States, 1825.

Egyptian pottery is the oldest known; dates from 2,000 B. C.

Authentic history of China commenced 3.000 years B. C.

The largest free territorial government is the United States.

The Chaldeans were the first people who worked in metals.

Spectacles were invented by an Italian in the 13th century.

Soap was first manufactured in England in the 16th century.

Julius Caesar invaded Britain, 55 B. C.; assassinated, 44 B. C.

Medicine was introduced into Rome from Greece, 200 B. C.

First electric telegraph, Paddington to Brayton, England, 1835.

First photographs produced in England, 1802; perfected, 1841.

First life insurance, in London, 1772; in America, Philadelphia. 1812.

Slavery in the United States was begun at Jamestown, Va. in 1619.

The highest denomination of legal-tender notes in the United States is

Postage stamps first came into use in England in the year 1840; in the
United States, in 1847.

The highest range of mountains are the Himalayas, the mean elevation
being from 16,000 to 18,000 feet.

The term "Almighty Dollar" originated with Washington Irving, as a
satire on the American love for gain.

The largest inland sea is the Caspian, between Europe and Asia, being
700 miles long and 270 miles wide.

A span is ten and seven-eighths inches.

First watches made in Nuremberg, 1476.

Pianoforte invented in Italy about 1710.

The value of a ton of silver is $37,704.84.

French and Indian War in America, 1754.

A hurricane moves eighty miles per hour.

Coaches were first used in England in 1569.

The first horse railroad was built in 1826-7.

Electricity moves 288,000 miles per second.

Modern needles first came into use in 1545.

The average human life is thirty-three years.

French Revolution, 1789; Reign of Terror, 1793.

$1,000,000 gold coin weighs 3,685.8 lb. avoirdupois.

Mormons arrived at Salt Lake Valley, Utah, July 24, 1847.

The largest cavern in the world is the Mammoth Cave, Kentucky.

Experiments in electric lighting, by Thomas A. Edison, 1878-80.

Daguerre and Nieper invented the process of daguerreotype, 1839.

First American library founded at Harvard College, Cambridge, 1638.

First cotton raised in the United States was in Virginia, in 1621; first
exported, 1747.

First sugar-cane cultivated in the United States, near New Orleans,
1751; first sugar-mill, 1758.

First telegraph in operation in America was between Washington and
Baltimore, May 27, 1844.

The largest university is Oxford, in England. It consists of twenty-one
colleges and five halls.

The first illumination with gas was in Cornwall, Eng., 1792; in the
United States, at Boston, 1822.

Printing was known in China in the 6th century; introduced into England
about 1474; America, 1516.

The great wall of China, built 200 B. C. is 1,250 miles in length, 20
feet high, and 25 feet thick at the base.

Glass mirrors first made by Venetians in the 13th century. Polished
metal was used before that time.

Meerschaum means "froth of the sea." It is white and soft when dug from
the earth, but soon hardens.

In round numbers, the weight of $1,000,000 in standard gold coin is
1-3/4 tons; standard silver coin, 26-3/4 tons; subsidiary silver coin,
25 tons; minor coin, 5-cent nickel, 100 tons.

The highest monument in the world is the Washington monument, being 555
feet. The highest structure of any kind is the Eiffel Tower, Paris,
finished in 1889, and 989 feet high.

There has been no irregularity in the recurrence of leap year every four
years since 1800, except in 1900, which was a common year, although it
came fourth after the preceding leap year.

It is claimed that crows, eagles, ravens and swans live to be 100 years
old; herons, 59, parrots, 60; pelicans and geese, 50; skylarks, 30;
sparrow hawks, 40; peacocks, canaries and cranes, 24.

The greatest cataract in the world is Niagara, the height of the
American falls being 165 feet. The highest fall of water in the world is
that of the Yosemite in California, being 2,550 feet.

The most ancient catacombs are those of the Theban kings, begun 4,000
years ago. The catacombs of Rome contain the remains of about 6,000,000
human beings; those of Paris, 3,000,000.

The first English newspaper was the English Mercury, issued in the reign
of Queen Elizabeth, and was issued in the shape of a pamphlet. The
Gazette of Venice was the original model of the modern newspaper.

The Great Eastern, at one time the greatest steamer afloat, and twice as
long as any other vessel at the time of her launching, in 1858, was 692
feet in length and 118 feet in breadth. She was too large to be handled
profitably with the motive power then available, but proved
indispensable in the laying of the Atlantic cable. She was broken up and
sold as junk, although the Isherwood system, on which she was built, has
since been revived, and is now successfully employed in shipbuilding.

The seven sages flourished in Greece in the 6th century B. C. They were
renowned for their maxims of life, and as the authors of the mottoes
inscribed in the Delphian Temple. Their names are: Solon, Chilo,
Pittacus, Bias, Periander, Cleobolus, and Thales.

A "monkey wrench" is not so named because it is a handy thing to monkey
with, or for any kindred reason. "Monkey" is not its name at all, but
"Moncky." Charles Moncky, the inventor of it, sold his patent for
$2,000, and invested the money in a house in Williamsburgh, Kings
County, N. Y.

The "Seven Wonders of the World" are seven most remarkable objects of
the ancient world. They are: The Pyramids of Egypt, Pharos of
Alexandria, Walls and Hanging Gardens of Babylon, Temple of Diana at
Ephesus, the Statue of the Olympian Jupiter, Mausoleum of Artemisia, and
Colossus of Rhodes.

In 1775 there were only twenty-seven newspapers published in the United
States. Ten years later, in 1785, there were seven published in the
English language in Philadelphia alone, of which one was a daily. The
oldest newspaper published in Philadelphia at the time of the Federal
convention was the Pennsylvania Gazette, established by Samuel Keimer,
in 1728. The second newspaper in point of age was the Pennsylvania
Journal, established in 1742 by William Bradford, whose uncle, Andrew
Bradford, established the first newspaper in Pennsylvania, the American
Weekly Mercury, in 1719. Next in age, but the first in importance, was
the Pennsylvania Packet, established by John Dunlap, in 1771. In 1784 it
became a daily, being the first daily newspaper printed on this

"Liberty," Bartholdi's statue, presented to the United States by the
French people in 1885, is the largest statue ever built. Its conception
is due to the great French sculptor whose name it bears. It is said to
be a likeness of his mother. Eight years of time were consumed in the
construction of this gigantic brazen image. Its weight is 440,000
pounds, of which 146,000 pounds are copper, the remainder iron and
steel. The major part of the iron and steel was used in constructing the
skeleton frame work for the inside. The mammoth electric light held in
the hands of the giantess is 305 feet above tide-water. The height of
the figure is 152-1/2 feet; the pedestal 91 feet, and the foundation 52
feet and 10 inches. Forty persons can find standing-room within the
mighty head, which is 14-1/2 feet in diameter. A six-foot man standing
on the lower lip could hardly reach the eyes. The index finger is 8 feet
in length and the nose 3-3/4 feet. The Colossus of Rhodes was a pigmy
compared with this latter-day wonder.

The largest and grandest temple of worship in the world is St. Peter's
Cathedral at Rome. It stands on the site of Nero's circus, in the
northwest part of the city, and is built in form of a Latin cross. The
total length of the interior is 612-1/2 English feet; transept, 446-1/2
feet; height of nave, 152-1/2 feet; diameter of cupola, 193 feet; height
of dome from pavement to top of cross, 448 feet. The great bell alone,
without the hammer or clapper, weighs 18,600 pounds, or over 9-1/4 tons.
The foundation was laid in 1450 A. D. Forty-three Popes lived and died
during the time the work was in progress. It was dedicated in the year
1826, but not entirely finished until the year 1880. The cost, in round
numbers, is set down at $70,000,000.

The great pyramid of Cheops is the largest structure of any kind ever
erected by the hand of man. Its original dimensions at the base were 764
feet square, and its perpendicular height in the highest point 488 feet;
it covers four acres, one rood and twenty-two perches of ground and has
been estimated by an eminent English architect to have cost not less
than 30,000,000 pounds, which in United States currency would be about
$145,200,000. Internal evidence proves that the great pyramid was begun
about the year 2170 B. c., about the time of the birth of Abraham. It is
estimated that about 5,000,000 tons of hewn stone were used in its
construction, and the evidence points to the fact that these stones were
brought a distance of about 700 miles from quarries in Arabia.

The largest body of fresh water in the world is Lake Superior. It is 400
miles long and 180 miles wide; its circumference, including the winding
of its various bays, has been estimated at 1,800 miles. Its area in
square miles is 32,000, which is greater than the whole of New England,
leaving out Maine. The greatest depth of this inland sea is 200 fathoms,
or 1,200 feet. Its average depth is about 160 fathoms. It is 636 feet
above the sea level.

The corner stone of the Washington monument, the highest in the United
States, and until 1889 the highest structure in the world, was laid July
4, 1848. Robert E. Winthrop, then Speaker of the House, delivered the
oration. Work progressed steadily for about six years, until the funds
of the monumental society became exhausted. At that time the monument
was about 175 feet high. From 1854 until 1879 nothing to speak of was
done on the building. In the year last above named Congress voted an
appropriation of $200,000 to complete the work. From that time forward
work progressed at a rapid rate until December 6th, 1884, when the
aluminum apex was set at 555 feet 5-1/2 inches from the foundation and
the work declared finished. The foundation is 146-1/2 feet square;
number of stones used above the 130-foot level, 19,163; total weight
stone used in work, 81,120 tons.

The largest State in our grand republic is Texas, which contains 274,350
square miles, capable of sustaining 20,000,000 people, and then it would
not be more crowded than Scotland is at present. It has been estimated
that the entire population of the globe could be seated upon chairs
within the boundary of Texas and each have four feet of elbow room.

The Mississippi River, from the source of the Missouri to the Eads
jetties, is the longest river in the world. It is 4,300 miles in length
and drains an area of 1,726,000 square miles. The Amazon, which is
without doubt the widest river in the world, including the Beni, is
4,000 miles in length and drains 2,330,000 square miles of territory.


This idea was first formulated by Mr. Henry George in 1879, and has
grown steadily in favor. Single-tax men assert as a fundamental
principle that all men are equally entitled to the use of the earth;
therefore, no one should be allowed to hold valuable land without paying
to the community the value of the privilege. They hold that this is the
only rightful source of public revenue, and they would therefore abolish
all taxation--local, state and national--except a tax upon the rental
value of land exclusive of its improvements, the revenue thus raised to
be divided among local, state and general governments, as the revenue
from certain direct taxes is now divided between local and state

The single tax would not fall on all land, but only on valuable land,
and on that in proportion to its value. It would thus be a tax, not on
use or improvements, but on ownership of land, taking what would
otherwise go to the landlord as owner.

In accordance with the principle that all men are equally entitled to
the use of the earth, they would solve the transportation problem by
public ownership and control of all highways, including the roadbeds of
railroads, leaving their use equally free to all.

The single-tax system would, they claim, dispense with a horde of
tax-gatherers, simplify government, and greatly reduce its cost; give us
with all the world that absolute free trade which now exists between the
States of the Union: abolish all taxes on private issues of money; take
the weight of taxation from agricultural districts, where land has
little or no value apart from improvements, and put it upon valuable
land, such as city lots and mineral deposits. It would call upon men to
contribute for public expenses in proportion to the natural
opportunities they monopolize, and make it unprofitable for speculators
to hold land unused or only partly used, thus opening to labor unlimited
fields of employment, solving the labor problem and abolishing
involuntary poverty.


A Compend of the General Claims Made by Professional Hypnotists.

Animal magnetism is the nerve-force of all human and animal bodies, and
is common to every person in a greater or less degree. It may be
transmitted from one person to another. The transmitting force is the
concentrated effort of will-power, which sends the magnetic current
through the nerves of the operator to the different parts of the body of
his subject. It may be transmitted by and through the eyes, as well as
the finger tips, and the application of the whole open hands, to
different regions of the body of the subject, as well as to the mind.
The effect of this force upon the subject will depend very much upon the
health, mental capacity and general character of the operator. Its
action in general should be soothing and quieting upon the nervous
system; stimulating to the circulation of the blood, the brain and other
vital organs of the body of the subject. It is the use and application
of this power or force that constitutes hypnotism.

Magnetism is a quality that inheres in every human being, and it may be
cultivated like any other physical or mental force of which men and
women are constituted. From the intelligent operator using it to
overcome disease, a patient experiences a soothing influence that causes
a relaxation of the muscles, followed by a pleasant, drowsy feeling
which soon terminates in refreshing sleep. On waking, the patient feels
rested; all his troubles have vanished from consciousness and he is as
if he had a new lease of life.

In the true hypnotic condition, when a patient voluntarily submits to
the operator, any attempt to make suggestions against the interests of
the patient can invariably be frustrated by the patient.
Self-preservation is the first law of nature, and some of the best known
operators who have recorded their experiments assert that suggestions
not in accord with the best interest of the patient could not be carried
out. No one was ever induced to commit any crime under hypnosis, that
could not have been induced to do the same thing much easier without

The hypnotic state is a condition of mind that extends from a
comparatively wakeful state, with slight drowsiness, to complete
somnambulism, no two subjects, as a rule, ever presenting the same

The operator, to be successful, must have control of his own mind, be in
perfect health and have the ability to keep his mind concentrated upon
the object he desires to accomplish with his subject.

By William H. Damon

The most important thing in the preservation of a piano is to avoid
atmospheric changes and extremes and sudden changes of temperature.
Where the summer condition of the atmosphere is damp all precautions
possible should be taken to avoid an entirely dry condition in winter,
such as that given by steam or furnace heat. In all cases should the air
in the home contain moisture enough to permit a heavy frost on the
windows in zero weather. The absence of frost under such conditions is
positive proof of an entirely dry atmosphere, and this is a piano's most
dangerous enemy, causing the sounding board to crack, shrinking up the
bridges, and consequently putting the piano seriously out of tune, also
causing an undue dryness in all the action parts and often a loosening
of the glue joints, thus producing clicks and rattles. To obviate this
difficulty is by no means an easy task and will require considerable
attention. Permit all the fresh air possible during winter, being
careful to keep the piano out of cold drafts, as this will cause a
sudden contraction of the varnish and cause it to check or crack. Plants
in the room are desirable and vessels of water of any kind will be of
assistance. The most potent means of avoiding extreme dryness is to
place a single-loaf bread-pan half full of water in the lower part of
the piano, taking out the lower panel and placing it on either side of
the pedals inside. This should be refilled about once a month during
artificial heat, care being taken to remove the vessel as soon as the
heat is discontinued in the spring. In cases where stove heat is used
these precautions are not necessary.

The action of a piano, like any other delicate piece of machinery,
should be carefully examined, and, if necessary, adjusted each time it
is tuned. The hammers need occasional and careful attention to preserve
original tone quality and elasticity. Never allow the piano to be beaten
or played hard upon. This is ruinous to both the action and tuning. When
not in use the music rack and top should be closed to exclude dust. The
keyboard need never be closed, as the ivory needs both light and
ventilation and will eventually turn yellow unless left open.

The case demands careful treatment to preserve its beauty and polish,
Never use anything other than a soft piece of cotton cloth or cheese
cloth to dust it with. Never wipe it with a dry chamois skin or silk
cloth. Silk is not as soft as cotton and will scratch. A dry chamois
skin picks up the dust and grit and gradually scours off the fine
finish. In dusting never use a feather duster, nor rub the piano hard
with anything. The dust should be whipped off, and not rubbed into the
varnish. If the piano is dingy, smoky or dirty looking, it should be
washed carefully with lukewarm water with a little ammonia in it to
soften it. Never use soap. Use nothing but a small, soft sponge and a
chamois skin. Wipe over a small part at a time with the sponge,
following quickly with the wet chamois skin wrung out of the same water.
This will dry it immediately and leave it as beautiful and clean as new.
Never use patent polishes. If your piano needs polishing employ a
competent polisher to give it a hand-rubbing friction polish.

The highest mountain on the globe is not, as is generally supposed, Mt.
Everest, that honor belonging to a lofty peak named Mt. Hercules on the
Isle of Papua, New Guinea, discovered by Capt. Lawson in 1881, According
to Lawson, this monster is 32,763 feet in height, being 3,781 feet
higher than Mt. Everest, which is only 29,002 feet above the level of
the Indian Ocean.

[Transcriber's Note: The highest point in New Guinea is Puncak Jaya
(Mount Carstensz or the Carstensz Pyramid), at 16,023 feet.]


The real formula for making salt-rising bread, as set down by the
daughter of Governor Stubbs, of Kansas, and by him communicated to
Theodore Roosevelt, is as follows, according to the "Saturday Evening

"On the night before you contemplate this masterpiece of baking take
half a cupful of corn meal and a pinch each of salt and sugar. Scald
this with new milk heated to the boiling point and mix to the thickness
of mush. This can be made in a cup. Wrap in a clean cloth and put in a
warm place overnight.

"In the morning, when all is ready, take a one-gallon stone jar and into
this put one scant cupful of new milk. Add a level teaspoonful of salt
and one of sugar. Scald this with three cupfuls of water heated to the
boiling point. Reduce to a temperature of one hundred and eight degrees
with cold water, using a milk thermometer to enable you to get exactly
the right temperature. Then add flour and mix to a good batter; after
the batter is made, mix in your starter that was made the night before.
Cover the stone jar with a plate and put the jar in a large kettle of
water and keep this water at a temperature of one hundred and eight
degrees until the sponge rises. It should rise at least an inch and a
half. When it has raised mix to a stiff dough, make into loaves and put
into pans. Do not let the heat get out of the dough while working.
Grease the loaves well on top and set your bread where it will be warm
and rise. After the loaves rise bake in a medium oven for one hour and
ten minutes. When you take the loaves from the oven wrap them in a


Take twelve ounces of dislike, one pound of resolution, two grains of
common sense, two ounces of experience, a large sprig of time, and three
quarts of cooling water of consideration. Set them over a gentle fire of
love, sweeten it with sugar of forgetfulness, skim it with the spoon of
melancholy, put it in the bottom of your heart, cork it with the cork of
clean conscience. Let it remain and you will quickly find ease and be
restored to your senses again.

These things can be had of the apothecary at the house of Understanding
next door to Reason, on Prudent street.


In opening your account with a bank it is proper that you should first
be introduced to the cashier, or some other official. If you are engaged
in business, that officer will inquire as to your particular business or
calling, your address, etc., and unless he is already satisfied on this
point, he may make inquiries as to your business standing. This being
satisfactory, he will hand you a passbook, and some deposit tickets,
whereupon you make your first deposit, entering the amount on the
ticket. You will then be asked to write your signature in a book
provided for that purpose, or upon a card to be filed away for

The Signature.

This signature should be just as you intend to use it in all your
dealings with the bank. If, for instance, your name is John Henry Smith,
you may write it J. H. Smith, J. Henry Smith. John H. Smith or John
Henry Smith, but whatever form you adopt should be used all the time.
Once having adopted the form, it should be maintained in exactly that
way. The only excuse for variation from your usual signature is when
presenting checks or other paper made payable to you. In that case,
supposing you had adopted the form J. Henry Smith for your regular
signature, and the check is made payable to John H. Smith, you should
first write on the back of that check "John H. Smith," and immediately
under this you should place your regular signature.

Depositing Money.

When making a deposit, always use the deposit ticket provided by the
bank, filling it out yourself in ink. From this ticket, which is first
checked up by the receiving teller, the amount of your deposit is placed
to your credit. Do not ask the teller to fill our your deposit ticket.
No doubt he would be glad to accommodate you, but to do so would violate
a rule which protects both the bank and the depositor, Deposit tickets
are preserved by the bank, and often serve to correct mistakes.

How to Avoid Mistakes.

Consider for a moment the vast aggregate of bank transactions, and you
will see that perfect system on the part of the banks and bank officials
is required to insure accuracy and avoid mistakes. Sometimes the
requirements of the banks may seem arbitrary and troublesome, but
reflection will show that they safeguard the depositor as well as the
bank. The simple rules here laid down will enable anyone who has
business with a bank to do so with the least trouble and with absolute

How to Make Out a Check.

Checks are the most satisfactory and most convenient method of paying a
debt or making any ordinary remittance. The stub of your check book will
furnish a permanent memorandum, and when the check is canceled and
returned to you by the bank, it is an indisputable evidence that the
debt has been paid, or that the remittance has been made. The making of
a check is a simple matter, but even the best business men make mistakes
sometimes which are as difficult to remedy as they are easy to avoid.
The hints here given and the facsimiles of checks printed in
illustration will repay careful study.

A Check Properly Drawn. The name and amount are against
the left side of their fields.

The first facsimile shows a check properly made. It will be seen, in the
first place, that this check is written very plainly, and that there is
no room for the insertion of extra figures or words. The writing of the
amount commences as nearly as possible to the extreme left of the check.
The figures are written close together and there is no space between the
first figure and the dollar mark.

All erasures in checks should be avoided. If you have made a mistake,
tear a blank check from the back of your check book and use that in
place of the one spoiled.

Some business men allow their clerks to fill out checks on the
typewriter. This is ill-advised for two reasons: First, it is much
easier to alter a typewritten check than one filled in with a pen; in
the second place, a teller, in passing on the genuineness of a check,
takes into consideration the character of the handwriting in the body of
the check as well as in the signature. The typewritten characters offer
no clue to individuality.

Never mail a check drawn to "Bearer." Remember that if your check is
made payable to "Bearer" or to "John Smith or Bearer" it may be cashed
by anybody who happens to have it. Unless it is for a large amount the
paying teller of your bank will look only to see whether your signature
is correct, and, that being right, the bank cannot be held responsible
if the check should have come into the wrong hands.

A check drawn to order can be cashed only when the person to whose order
it has been drawn has indorsed it by writing his or her name on the back
and the bank will be responsible for the correctness of the indorsement.

If you make your check payable say, to William Armstrong or order,
nobody but William Armstrong, or some one to whom he indorses the check,
can collect the amount, and if through fraud or otherwise some one not
entitled to it gets the money which the check calls for, the
responsibility is not yours, but the bank's. It is for that reason that
bankers and business men use such great care in accepting checks.

A Check Carelessly Drawn. The text and numbers for the
amount is in the center of their fields, leaving of space for extra

The Same Check "Raised". The amount has been changed from
One Hundred/100.00 to Eighty-One Hundred/$8100.00.

For the same reason you should never accept a check from anybody whom
you do not know as responsible, and you should not be surprised or
angered if some one else should hesitate to take a check from you.

Checks or drafts received by you should be deposited as soon as
possible. Should you receive a check for a considerable amount and have
no convenient bank account, you should go to the bank on which the check
is drawn and have the cashier certify it by stamping "Accepted" or
"Certified" across the face over his signature. That formality makes the
paper as good as money so long as the bank accepting it is solvent.

It sometimes happens that a check drawn in good faith by a responsible
party is withheld so long by the person receiving it that there is no
money to the account when the check is finally presented.

Paying Notes and Acceptances.

Make your notes and accepted drafts payable at the bank where you do
business. Whether it or other banks hold them for collection, they will
be presented to your bank when due.

Pay your notes, etc., on the day they fall due, and early in the day if
convenient, or leave a check for the amount with your bank on the day
before your paper matures. Banks will not pay notes or drafts without

Keep a careful record of the days of maturity of all your paper. Banks
usually notify all payers a few days beforehand when their paper
matures, but this is only courtesy on their part and not an obligation.


"Exchange" means funds in other cities made available by bankers' drafts
on such places. These drafts afford the safest and cheapest means for
remitting money. Drafts on New York are worth their face value
practically all over the United States in settlement of accounts.


A draft is sometimes the most convenient form for collecting an account.
The prevalence of the custom is due to the fact that most men will wait
to be asked to pay a debt. If a draft is a time draft it is accepted by
the person on whom it is drawn by writing his name and date across the
face. This makes it practically a note, to be paid at maturity.

Notes or drafts that you desire to have collected for you by your bank
should be left at the bank several days before they are due, so as to
give ample time to notify the payers.


Banks are always willing to loan their funds to responsible persons
within reasonable limits. That is what they exist for. There is, of
course, a limit to the amount a bank may loan, even on the best known
security, but the customer of the bank is entitled to and will receive
the first consideration.

The customer should not hesitate, when occasion requires, to offer to
the bank for discount such paper as may come into his hands in the
course of business, if, in his opinion, the paper is good. At the same
time he should not be offended if his bank refuses to take it even
without giving reasons.

Indorsing Checks, Etc.

When depositing checks, drafts, etc., see that they are dated properly
and that the written amounts and figures correspond. The proper way to
indorse a check or draft--this also applies to notes and other
negotiable paper--is to write your name upon the back about one inch
from the top. The proper end may be determined in this way: As you read
the check, holding one end in each hand, draw the right hand toward you,
and turn the check over. The end which is then farthest from you is the
top. If, however, the check, draft or note has already been indorsed by
another person, you should write your name directly under the other
indorsement, even if that is on the wrong end. If your own name on the
face of the check, draft or note is misspelled, or has the wrong
initials, but if the paper is clearly intended for you, you should first
write your name as it appears on the face, and under it your regular
signature. You should indorse every check you deposit, even though it be
payable to bearer.

Mistakes in Banking.

Mr. Samuel Woods, a member of the American Institute of Bank Clerks,
recently contributed to Munsey's Magazine an interesting article on the
subject of "Mistakes in Banking." From this we are permitted by the
courtesy of the publishers of Munsey's to reproduce two of the
facsimiles shown.

One wrong word, or figure, or letter--the right thing in the wrong way
or the wrong place--the scratch of an eraser or the alteration of a
word--or any one of these things, in the making or cashing of a check,
is liable to become as expensive as a racing automobile.

The paying teller of a bank, says Mr. Woods, must keep his eyes open for
new dangers as well as old ones. The cleverest crooks in the country are
pitting their brains against his. After he has learned the proper guard
for all the well-known tricks and forgeries it is still possible that an
entirely new combination may leave him minus cash and plus experience.

But it is not the unique and novel swindle that is most dangerous,
either to a bank or an individual. It is the simple, ordinary mistake or
the time-worn trick that makes continuous trouble. Apparently, every new
generation contains a number of dishonest people who lay the same traps,
and a number of careless people who fall into these traps in the same
old way.

Check-Raising Made Easy.

One of the first lessons, for instance, that a depositor should learn
before he is qualified to own a check-book is to commence writing the
amount as near as possible to the extreme left of the check. Those who
forget this are often reminded of it in a costly way. Some one "raises"
their checks by writing another figure in front of the proper amount.
"Five hundred" might be "raised" to "twenty-five hundred" in this way,
even by an unskilled forger.

The highest court has recently decided that a bank cannot be held
responsible, when it pays a "raised" check, if the maker of the check
failed in the first place to write it out correctly. The treasurer of
the Bath Electric Company, of Bath, Maine, had written a check for one
hundred dollars, which was raised to eighty-one hundred dollars and
cashed. The court held that the company, and not the bank, should lose
the eight thousand dollars, because of the "gross carelessness" in
drawing up the check. Facsimiles showing the check as originally written
and as it looked when paid are here reproduced.

Altered Words and Figures.

The altered check is the bane of the paying teller's profession, and it
is the general practice in conservative banks to accept no checks or
other paper which shows signs of erasure or alteration in either words
or figures.


Alabama--Indian; meaning "Here we rest."

Arkansas"--Kansas," the Indian name for "smoky water," with the French
prefix "arc," bow or bend in the principal river.

California--Caliente Fornala, Spanish for "hot furnace," in allusion to
the climate.

Colorado--Spanish; meaning "colored," from the red color of the Colorado

Connecticut--Indian; meaning "long river."

Delaware--Named in honor of Lord De La Ware.

Florida--Named by Ponce de Leon, who discovered it in 1512, on Easter
Day, the Spanish Pascua de Flores, or "Feast of Flowers."

Georgia--In honor of George II. of England.

Illinois--From the Indian "illini," men, and the French suffix "ois,"
together signifying "tribe of men."

Indiana--Indian land. Iowa--Indian; meaning "beautiful land.'"

Kansas--Indian; meaning "smoky water."

Kentucky--Indian for "at the head of the river," or "the dark and bloody

Louisiana--In honor of Louis XIV. of France.

Maine--From the province of Maine, in France.

Maryland--In honor of Henrietta Maria, queen of Charles I. of England.

Massachusetts--The place of the great hills (the blue hills southwest of

Michigan--The Indian name for a fish weir. The lake was so called from
the fancied resemblance of the lake to a fish trap.

Minnesota--Indian; meaning "sky-tinted water."

Mississippi--Indian; meaning "great father of waters." Missouri--Indian;
meaning "muddy."

Nebraska--Indian; meaning "water valley."

Nevada--Spanish; meaning "snow-covered," alluding to the mountains.

New Hampshire--From Hampshire county, England.

New Jersey--In honor of Sir George Carteret, one of the original
grantees, who had previously been governor of Jersey Island.

New York--In honor of the Duke of York.

North and South Carolina--Originally called Carolina, in honor of
Charles IX. of France.

Ohio--Indian; meaning "beautiful river."

Oregon--From the Spanish "oregano," wild marjoram, which grows
abundantly on the coast.

Pennsylvania--Latin; meaning Penn's woody land.

Rhode Island--From a fancied resemblance to the island of Rhodes in the

Tennessee--Indian; meaning "river with the great bend."

Texas--Origin of this name is unknown.

Vermont--French; meaning "green mountain."

Virginia--In honor of Elizabeth, the "Virgin Queen."

Wisconsin--Indian; meaning "gathering of the waters," or "wild rushing


Arkansas--Regnant populi: The peoples rule.

California--Eureka: I have found it. Colorado--Nil sine numine: Nothing
without the Divinity.

Connecticut--Qui transtulit sustinet: He who has transferred, sustains.

Delaware--Liberty and Independence.

Florida--In God is Our trust.

Georgia--Wisdom, Justice, Moderation.

Illinois--State Sovereignty and National Union.

Iowa--Our liberties we prize, and our rights we will maintain.

Kansas--Ad astra per aspera: to the stars through rugged ways.

Kentucky--United we stand, divided we fall.

Louisiana--Union and Confidence.

Maine--Dirigo: I direct.

Maryland--Crescite et multiplicamini: Increase and multiply.

Massachusetts--Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietam: By her sword
she seeks under liberty a calm repose.

Michigan--Si quaeris peninsulam amoeanam  circumspice: If thou seekest a
beautiful peninsula, look around.

Minnesota--L'Etoile du Nord: The Star of the North.

Missouri--Salus populi suprema lex esto: Let the welfare of the people
be the supreme law.

Nebraska--Popular Sovereignty.

Nevada--Volens et potens: Willing and able.

New Jersey--Liberty and Independence.

New York--Excelsior: Higher.

Ohio--Imperium in imperio: An empire within an empire.

Oregon--Alis volat propriis: She flies with her own wings.

Pennsylvania--Virtue, Liberty, Independence.

Rhode Island--Hope.

South Carolina--Animis opibusque parati: Ready with our lives and

Tennessee--Agriculture, Commerce. Vermont--Freedom and Unity.

Virginia--Sic semper tyrannis: So be it ever to tyrants.

West Virginia--Montani semper liberi: The mountaineers are always free.


United States
  E pluribus unum: From many, one.

  Annuit captis: God has favored the undertaking;

  Vovus ordo seclorum: A new order of ages.

  The first named on one side of the great seal, the other two on the


States and Territories.

Alabama, Cotton State;

Arkansas, Toothpick and Bear State;

California, Eureka and Golden State;

Colorado, Centennial State;

Connecticut, Land of Steady Habits: Freestone State and Nutmeg State;

Dakota, Sioux State;

Delaware, Uncle Sam's Pocket Handkerchief and Blue Hen State;

Florida, Everglade and Flowery State;

Georgia, Empire State of the South;

Idaho, Gem of the Mountains;

Illinois, Prairie and Sucker State;

Indiana, Hoosier State;

Iowa, Hawkeye State;

Kansas, Jayhawker State;

Kentucky, Corn-cracker State;

Louisiana, Creole State;

Maine, Timber and Pine Tree State;

Maryland, Monumental State;

Massachusetts, Old Bay State;

Michigan, Wolverine and Peninsular State;

Minnesota, Gopher and North Star State;

Mississippi, Eagle State;

Missouri, Puke State;

Nebraska, Antelope State;

Nevada, Sage State;

New Hampshire, Old Granite State;

New Jersey, Blue State and New Spain;

New Mexico, Vermin State;

New York, Empire State;

North Carolina, Rip Van Winkle, Old North and Turpentine State;

Ohio, Buckeye State;

Oregon, Pacific State;

Pennsylvania, Keystone, Iron and Oil State;

Rhode Island, Plantation State and Little Rhody;

South Carolina, Palmetto State;

Tennessee, Lion's Den State;

Texas, Lone Star State;

Utah, Mormon State;

Vermont, Green Mountain State;

Virginia, Old Dominion;

Wisconsin, Badger and Copper State.

Natives of States and Territories.

Alabama, lizards;

Arkansas, toothpicks;

California, gold-hunters;

Colorado, rovers;

Connecticut, wooden nutmegs;

Dakota, squatters;

Delaware, muskrats;

Florida, fly-up-the-creeks;

Georgia, buzzards;

Idaho, fortune seekers;

Illinois, suckers;

Indiana, hoosiers;

Iowa, hawkeyes;

Kansas, jayhawkers;

Kentucky, corn-crackers;

Louisiana, creoles;

Maine, foxes;

Maryland, clam-humpers;

Massachusetts, Yankees;

Michigan, wolverines;

Minnesota, gophers;

Mississippi, tadpoles;

Missouri, pukes;

Nebraska, bugeaters;

Nevada, sagehens;

New Hampshire, granite boys;

New Jersey, blues or clam-catchers;

New Mexico, Spanish Indians;

New York, Knickerbockers;

North Carolina, tarheels;

Ohio, buckeyes;

Oregon, hard cases;

Pennsylvania, pennamites, or leather-heads;

Rhode Island, gun flints;

South Carolina, weazles;

Tennessee, whelps;

Texas, beef-heads;

Utah, polygamists;

Vermont, Green Mountain boys;

Virginia, beagles;

Wisconsin, badgers.

Nicknames of Cities.

Atlanta, Gate City of the South;

Baltimore, Monumental City;

Bangor, Lumber City;

Boston, Modern Athens, Literary Emporium, City of Notions and Hub of the

Brooklyn, City of Churches;

Buffalo, Queen of the Lakes;

Burlington (Iowa), Orchard City;

Charleston, Palmetto City;

Chicago, Prairie, or Garden City;

Cincinnati, Queen of the West and Porkopolis;

Cleveland, Forest City;

Denver, City of the Plains;

Detroit, City of the Straits;

Hartford, Insurance City;

Indianapolis, Railroad City;

Keokuk, Gate City;

Lafayette, Star City;

Leavenworth, Cottonwood City;

Louisville, Falls City;

Lowell, Spindle City;

McGregor, Pocket City;

Madison, Lake City;

Milwaukee, Cream City;

Nashville, Rock City;

New Haven, Elm City;

New Orleans, Crescent City;

New York, Empire City, Commercial Emporium, Gotham, and Metropolis of

Philadelphia, City of Brotherly Love, City of Penn, Quaker City, and
Centennial City;

Pittsburgh, Iron City and Smoky City;

Portland (Me.), Hill City;

Providence, Roger Williams' City, and Perry Davis' Pain Killer;

Raleigh, Oak City;

Richmond, (Va.), Cockade City;

Richmond (Ind.), Quaker City of the West;

Rochester, Aqueduct City;

Salt Lake City, Mormon City;

San Francisco, Golden Gate;

Savannah, Forest City of the South;

Sheboygan, Evergreen City;

St. Louis, Mound City;

St. Paul, North Star City;

Vicksburg, Key City;

Washington, City of Magnificent Distances, and Federal City.


Much is said nowadays about theosophy, which is really but another name
for mysticism. It is not a philosophy, for it will have nothing to do
with philosophical methods; it might be called a religion, though it has
never had a following large enough to make a very strong impression on
the world's religious history. The name is from the Greek word
theosophia--divine wisdom--and the object of theosophical study is
professedly to understand the nature of divine things. It differs,
however, from both philosophy and theology even when these have the same
object of investigation. For, in seeking to learn the divine nature and
attributes, philosophy employs the methods and principles of natural
reasoning; theology uses these, adding to them certain principles
derived from revelation. Theosophy, on the other hand, professes to
exclude all reasoning processes as imperfect, and to derive its
knowledge from direct communication with God himself. It does not,
therefore, accept the truths of recorded revelation as immutable, but as
subject to modification by later and personal revelations. The
theosophical idea has had followers from the earliest times. Since the
Christian era we may class among theosophists such sects as
Neo-Platonists, the Hesychasts of the Greek Church, the Mystics of
mediaeval times, and, in later times, the disciples of Paracelsus,
Thalhauser, Bohme, Swedenborg and others. Recently a small sect has
arisen, which has taken the name of Theosophists. Its leader was an
English gentleman who had become fascinated with the doctrine of
Buddhism. Taking a few of his followers to India, they have been
prosecuting their studies there, certain individuals attracting
considerable attention by a claim to miraculous powers. It need hardly
be said that the revelations they have claimed to receive have been,
thus far, without element of benefit to the human race.


The evolution or development theory declares the universe as it now
exists to be the result of a long series of changes which were so far
related to each other as to form a series of growths analogous to the
evolving of the parts of a growing organism. Herbert Spencer defines
evolution as a progress from the homogeneous to the heterogeneous, from
general to special, from the simple to the complex elements of life, and
it is believed that this process can be traced in the formation of
worlds in space, in the multiplication of types and species among
animals and plants, in the origin and changes of languages and
literature and the arts, and also in all the changes of human
institutions and society. Asserting the general fact of progress in
nature, the evolution theory shows that the method of this progress has
been (1) by the multiplication of organs and functions; (2) according to
a defined unity of plan, although with (3) intervention of transitional
forms, and (4) with modifications dependent upon surrounding conditions.
Ancient writers occasionally seemed to have a glimmering knowledge of
the fact of progress in nature, but as a theory "evolution" belongs to
the enlightenment of the nineteenth century. Leibnitz, in the latter
part of the seventeenth century first uttered the opinion that the earth
was once in a fluid condition and Kant about the middle of the
eighteenth century, definitely propounded the nebular hypothesis, which
was enlarged as a theory by the Herschels. The first writer to suggest
the transmutation of species among animals was Buffon, about 1750, and
other writers followed out the idea. The eccentric Lord Monboddo was the
first to suggest the possible descent of man from the ape, about 1774.
In 1813 Dr. W. C. Wells first proposed to apply the principle of natural
selection to the natural history of man, and in 1822 Professor Herbert
first asserted the probable transmutation of species of plants. In 1844
a book appeared called "Vestiges of Creation," which, though evidently
not written by a scientific student, yet attracted great attention by
its bold and ingenious theories. The authorship of this book was never
revealed until after the death of Robert Chambers, a few years since, it
became known that this publisher, whom no one would ever have suspected
of holding such heterodox theories, had actually written it. But the two
great apostles of the evolution theory were Charles Darwin and Herbert
Spencer. The latter began his great work, the "First Principles of
Philosophy," showing the application of evolution in the facts of life,
in 1852. In 1859 appeared Darwin's "Origin of Species." The hypothesis
of the latter was that different species originated in spontaneous
variation, and the survival of the fittest through natural selection and
the struggle for existence. This theory was further elaborated and
applied by Spencer, Darwin, Huxley, and other writers in Europe and
America, and though to-day by no means all the ideas upheld by these
early advocates of the theory are still accepted, evolution as a
principle is now acknowledged by nearly all scientists. It is taken to
be an established fact in nature, a valid induction from man's knowledge
of natural order.


The first English sparrow was brought to the United States in 1850, but
it was not until 1870 that the species can be said to have firmly
established itself. Since then it has taken possession of the country.
Its fecundity is amazing. In the latitude of New York and southward it
hatches, as a rule, five or six broods in a season, with from four to
six young in a brood. Assuming the average annual product of a pair to
be twenty-four young, of which half are females and half males, and
assuming further, for the sake of computation, that all live, together
with their offspring, it will be seen that in ten years the progeny of a
single pair would be 275,716,983,698.


It is often asked how stout a woman ought to be in proportion to her
height. A very young girl may becomingly be thinner than a matron, but
the following table gives a fair indication of proper proportions:

Height Pounds
Height Pounds
Five feet 100 Five feet 7 inches. 150
Five feet 1 inch 106 Five feet 8 inches. 155
Five feet 2 inches 113 Five feet 10 inches. 163
Five feet 3 inches 119 Five feet 10 inches. 169
Five feet 4 inches 130 Five feet 11 inches. 176
Five feet 5 inches 138 Six feet 180
Five feet 6 inches 144 Six feet 1 inch 186


The question sometimes arises whether it man is entitled to vote at an
election held on the day preceding the twenty-first anniversary of his
birth. Blackstone, in his Commentaries, book 1, page 463, says: "Full
age in male or female is 21 years, which age is completed on the day
preceding the anniversary of a person's birth, who, till that time, is
an infant, and so styled in law." The late Chief Justice Sharswood, in
his edition of Blackstone's Commentaries, quotes Christian's note on the
above as follows: "If he is born on the 16th day of February, 1608, he
is of age to do any legal act on the morning of the 15th of February,
1629, though he may not have lived twenty-one years by nearly
forty-eight hours. The reason assigned is that in law there is no
fraction of a day; and if the birth were on the last second of one day
and the act on the first second of the preceding day twenty-one years
after, then twenty-one years would be complete, and in the law it is the
same whether a thing is done upon one moment of the day or another."


The Bible speaks of dreams as being sometimes prophetic, or suggestive
of future events.

This belief has prevailed in all ages and countries, and there are
numerous modern examples, apparently authenticated, which would appear
to favor this hypothesis.

The interpretation of dreams was a part of the business of the
soothsayers at the royal courts of Egypt, Babylon and other ancient

Dreams and visions have attracted the attention of mankind of every age
and nation. It has been claimed by all nations, both enlightened and
heathen, that dreams are spiritual revelations to men; so much so, that
their modes of worship have been founded upon the interpretation of
dreams and visions. Why should we discard the interpretation of dreams
while our mode of worship, faith and knowledge of Deity are founded upon
the interpretation of the dreams and visions of the prophets and seers
of old.

Dreams vividly impressed upon the mind are sure to be followed by some

We read in the Holy Scripture the revelation of the Deity to His chosen
people, through the prophet Joel: "And it shall come to pass, afterward,
that I will pour out My Spirit on all flesh, and your sons and your
daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young
men shall see visions, and also upon the servants and the handmaids in
those days will I pour out My Spirit." (Joel ii, 28.)

Both sacred and profane history contain so many examples of the
fulfilment of dreams that he who has no faith in them must be very
skeptical indeed.

Hippocrates says that when the body is asleep the soul is awake, and
transports itself everywhere the body would be able to go; knows and
sees all that the body could see or know were it awake; that it touches
all that the body could touch. In a word, it performs all the actions
that the body of a sleeping man could do were he awake.

A dream, to have a significance, must occur to the sleeper while in
healthy and tranquil sleep. Those dreams of which we have not a vivid
conception, or clear remembrance, have no significance.

Those of which we have a clear remembrance must have formed in the mind
in the latter part of the night, for up to that time the faculties of
the body have been employed in digesting the events of the day.


(Note.--If you do not find the word you want, look for a word of
identical or closely similar meaning.)


Abundance--Deceitful security.

Accident--Unexpected meeting.

Acorn--Irreparable fault.

Account--(Of possessions) bankruptcy.

Adultery--(That you commit) scandal, misfortune and disgrace.

Air--(Clear and serene) reconciliation; (dark and gloomy) sadness and

Almonds--Peace, happiness; (tree) success in business.

Altar--Prosperity, speedy marriage.

Alms--(Giving) mediocrity; (receiving) privations.

Anchor--Safe enterprise.

Angry--(That you are) many powerful enemies.

Ape--Enemies, deceit.

Apples--Gain, profit; (to be eating) disappointment.

Apricots--Health, contentment.

Apple Tree--Good news; (if dead) ill news.

Artichokes--Embarrassment, pain.

Argument--Justice done.

Arm--(Right arm cut off) death of a female relative; (both arms cut off)
captivity and sickness; (broken or withered) sorrows, losses and
widowhood; (swollen) sudden fortune coming to a dear friend.


Asparagus--Success, profit.

Ass--Quarrel between friends; (one sleeping) security; (one braying)
dishonor; (ears of one) scandal; (one laden) profit.

Aunt--Wealth and friends.

Angel--Good news.

Ants--Time spent to no purpose.

Authority--(To have) easy times.


Babe--Happy marriage.


Balloon--Literary note.

Barley--Good fortune.



Ball--(For dancing) jealousy, rage, then harmony.

Bank--Never to be rich, except by saving.

Barber--A long story, discontent.

Barn--(Full) wealthy marriage.

Bath--Marriage; (too cold) grief; (too hot) separation; (in running
water) disappointment; (in stagnant water) misfortune.

Beggar--Help when not expected.

Bells--Alarm, misfortune.

Bear--Danger, misfortune.


Bed--Botheration, unrest.

Beer--Fatigue to no purpose.

Bees--Profit; (to catch) success; (stung by) to be over-worked.

Blind Person--False friends.

Blows--(To give) forgiveness; (to receive) advantage.

Boots--(New) success in love and business; (old) quarreling and failure.

Bonnet--(New) flirtation; (old or torn) rivalry.

Boat--(On clear water) happiness; (in muddy water) disgrace.

Bones--Large acquisition by small degrees.


Bow and Arrows--Love affairs.

Bottles--A feast; (broken) sickness; (empty) melancholy.

Bouquet--(To carry) marriage; (to destroy) separation; (to throw away)


Brook--(Clear) lasting friendship; (troubled) domestic quarrel.


Betrothal--Brief pleasures.

Birds--New pleasures; (singing) love, good fortune.

Bite--Mistrust, ingratitude.

Billiards--Hazards, dissipation.

Biscuit--Rejoicings, jolly feasting.

Blessing or Benediction--A forced marriage.

Blackbird--Scandal, deceit.

Bridge--(To pass one) success through industry; (to fall from) loss of
business and disappointment in love.

Bread--Profit; (white) lasting affection; (black) inconstancy.

Bugs--Enemies seeking to do injury.

Bull--(Peaceful) gain; (onset of) apprehension.

Butcher--Death of a friend.


Butter--Surprises; (to make) a legacy.


Cabbage--Health and long life.

Cage--(With bird) liberty; (without bird) imprisonment.

Cakes--Meeting with friends; (to make or eat) prosperity.

Calf--Assured success.


Candle--Favors, praise.

Candy--Ardent love.


Cards--Married life.

Carpenter--Arrangement of affairs.

Cart--Sickness and disgrace.

Cave--Quarrel, loss.

Carving--Business prosperity.

Cat--(To see) treason; (to kill) family quarrels.

Cellar--(Full) passing renown; (empty) health.

Cemetery--(To see) future prosperity; (to be in) news of a death.

Chain--Union; (broken) rupture.

Challenge--Rupture, illusion.

Cherries--Health; (to gather) deception by a woman; (to eat) love.

Chicken--(Cooking) good news.

Cheese--Vexation and after success.

Chestnuts--Home troubles.

Child--(Pretty) pleasure; (ugly) danger; (running) business difficulty.

Church--Heritage; (to pray in) deceit; (to speak aloud in) domestic

Chess--Affairs embarrassed,

Cider--Distant heritage, dispute.

Clams--Small possessions, stingily kept.

Clock--Marriage; (striking) a competency.


Cock--Pride, power, success; (one crowing) sudden trouble; (two
fighting) expensive follies.

Colic--Bickerings, estrangement

Corkscrew--Vexatious inquiries.

Corpse--Long life; news of the living; (one disinterred) infidelity.

Cow--Prosperity, abundance.

Cobbler--Long toil, ill paid.


Coffin--Speedy marriage.

Cooking--A wedding.

Corn--Riches; (to grind) abundance.

Crabs--Ill results of endeavor.

Cradle, or Crib--Increase in the family.

Cricket--Hospitality, home comfort.

Crocodile--A catastrophe.

Cross--(To see) disquiet; (to bear) tranquillity.

Crow--Disappointed expectations, humiliation; (to hear) disgrace.

Crowd--Many matters, much to hear.

Crutches--(To use) gambling losses; (to break or leave) recovery.

Cucumber--Serious illness.

Currants--(Red) friendship; (white) satisfaction; (black) infidelity.

Cypress--Despair, death of one cherished.


Dancing--(To engage in) successful endeavor; (to see) weariness.

Debts--(Denied) business safety; (admitted) distress.

Doctor--Robustness; (to be one) enjoyment.

Dog--Friendly services; (to play with) suffering through extravagance.

Desertion--Good news, permanence.


Diamonds--Brief, illusive happiness; (to find) loss; (to sell) peril.

Dice--Doubt, risks.

Dirt--Sickness, detraction.

Dispute--(Friendly) see Argument; (not friendly) see Quarrel.

Dishes--Possessions; (breaking) family quarrels.


Door--(Open) opportunities; (closed) unfruitful adventure; (to force)

Dove--Home happiness, a lover.

Draughts--(To play at) disappointment.

Drawing--A proposal for rejection.


Drum--Small difficulties, trifling loss.

Duck--Profit and pleasure; (to kill one) misfortune.

Duel--Rivalries; dissension.

Dumb--(One's self) quarrels; (another) peace.

Dwarf--Feeble foes.

Dyer--Embarrassed affairs.


Eagle--Worthy ambition; (kill one) gratified wishes.


Eclipse--(The sun) loss; (the moon) profit.

Eels--(Alive) vexation; (dead) vengeance satisfied.

Eggs--(A few) riches; (many) misadventure.

Elephant--Power; (feed one) gain of a service.

Embroidery--Love, ambition.


Eyes--Bad luck.


Face--(Smiling) joy; (pale) trouble.

Fairs--Sudden loss.

Falling--Dangerous elevation; (in a hole) calumny, disappointment.

Fan----Pride, rivalry.

Farmer--Full, good living.

Fatigue--Successful enterprise.


Feast--Trouble ahead.

Feathers--(White) great joy, friendship; (black) hindrances.

Fields--Joy, good health, domestic happiness.

Fingers--(Scalded) envy; (cut) grief; (to see more than five on one
hand) new relatives.

Figs--(Dried) festivity; (green) hope; (to eat) transient pleasures.

Flowers--Happiness; (to gather) benefit; (to cast away) quarrels.

Flute--News of a birth.

Fire--Anger, danger.

Firearms--(To see) anger; (blaze of) spite; (to hear) havoc.

Fish--Success, joy; (to catch) deceit of friends.

Flag--Contention; (to bear) fame, honor.

Flame--(Luminous) good news.

Fleas--Unhappiness; (to kill) triumph over enemies.

Flies--That some one is jealous of us.

Flood--Misfortunes, calumny.


Forest--Loss, shame.

Fountain--Abundance, health.

Fox--To be duped; (to kill) to triumph over enemies.

Frogs--Distrust; (hopping) vexation, annoyance.

Fruits--Joy, prosperity, gain; (to eat) be deceived by a woman;
(throwaway) trouble through others' envy.

Funeral--Inheritance, news of a birth or marriage.

Fur--(On the body) health and long life.


Gallows--Dignities and honors (proportionate to height).


Game--(Live) adventure.

Garden--Bright future days; (well kept) increase of fortune;
(disorderly) business losses and failure.

Garlic--Deceived by a woman.

Garments--Annoyance;  (white) innocence, comfort; (black) death of a
friend; (torn or soiled) sadness, misfortune.

Garter--Happy marriage.

Gauze--Affected modesty.

Ghost--(White) consolation; (black) temptation.

Gift--(From a man) danger; (from a woman) spite.

Gloves--Friendly advances.

Goat--(White) prosperity; (black) sickness.

Gold--Profit, fortune.

Goose--Same as Duck; (catch one) ensnarement.

Grandparents--Occasion for repentance.

Grapes--Enjoyment, rejoicing; (scant or poor) deprivations.

Grass--(Green) long life.

Grasshopper--Lost harvest or savings.

Grave--(Open) loss of a friend; (filled up) good fortune.

Guitar--Deception, ill-conduct.

Gypsy--Small troubles.


Hail--Trouble, sadness.

Hair--(Orderly) comfort, complacency; (tangled) perplexities; (falling
out) anxieties.


Harp--A handsome partner.

Harvest--Wealth in the country.


Heart--(Pain or troubles) sickness, danger.

Heaven--Some joyful event will happen.

Hell--You lead a bad life and should reform before it is too late.

Hen--Profit; (hear one) consolation; (one laying) joy.

Herbs--Prosperity; (to eat) grief.

Hermit--Treacherous friend.

Hill--(Up one) success; (down) misadventure.

Hole--Obstacles. See Falling.


Honey--Success in business.

Horse--(See white one) unexpected good fortune; (see black one) partial
success; (mount or ride) success in enterprise; (curry one) a speedy

Hotel--(See one) wandering; (be in) discomfort.

House--(New or strange) consolation; (many) bewilderment.

Hunger--Profitable employment.

Hunt--Snares, accusations.

Husband--If a wife dreams that her husband is married to another it
betokens separation.


Ice--Treachery, misadventure.

Imps--Occasion for caution.

Infants--Connubial felicity.

Ink--Reconciliation; (upset) separation.

Insanity--Bright ideas, wise thought.

Iron--Cruel experience.

Island--Solitude, loneliness.

Itch--Small foes.

Ivory--Profitable enterprise.

Intoxication--(One's self) pleasures; (another) scandal.

Ivy--Children many and handsome.


Jail--(To enter) safety; (leaving one) single blessedness.

Jaw--Riches in the family.


Joy--Bad news.


Jug--Loss through awkwardness or neglect.


Keys--Explanations, progress in knowledge; (to lose) perplexity.

Killing--(To see) security; (one's self) love quarrels; (another)


King--Satisfaction, progress in affairs.

Kiss--(In the light) true love; (in the dark) risks; (a stranger) a new
lover; (a rival) treason; (married woman kissed by a stranger) a new
baby and a jealous husband.


Kite--Vain glory.

Knife--Inconstancy, dissension.

Knitting--Mischievous talk, malice.

Knots--Embarrassments, difficulties.


Labor--Conjugal happiness, increase of fortune.

Ladder--(To go up) brief glory; (to go down) debasement.

Lady--Humiliation; (many) gossip.

Lambs--(To see) peace; (to have) profit; (to carry) success; (to buy)
great surprise; (to kill) secret grief.

Lame Person--Business misfortune.

Lamps--(Unlit) neglect; (lighted) love troubles.

Landscape--Unexpected gain.

Lantern--(Lighted) safe adventure; (unlit) blunder.

Larks--Riches, elevation.

Laughter--Troubled happiness, botheration.

Leg--(If sound and supple) successful enterprise, prosperous journey.

Letter--(To see) discovery; (to receive) good news from afar.


Lightning--A love quarrel.

Lily--(Faded) vain hopes; (fine) innocence, happiness.

Linen--Fortune, abundance.

Lion--Future dignity.

Liver--Losses, discomforts.

Lizard--Snares of dubious origin.

Laurel--Honor, gain.

Lawyer--Marriage of a friend.

Lead--Accusations, ingratitude.

Leaves--Transient indisposition.

Leech--Aid in trouble; (many of them) extortion, usury.




Lottery Tickets--(Number distinct) success in affairs; (number
indistinct) foolish expenditure.

Love--An all round good indication.

Lovers--Troubles and joys mixed.



Man--(Handsome) love; (ugly) wrangles.


Manure--Depravity, shame.

Maps--A journey.


Markets--(A busy one) joyous events; (empty) deprivations.

Marsh--Unfruitful endeavors.


Measles--Wealth coupled with disgrace.

Meat--(Roast) kind reception, (boiled) melancholy.

Melon--Hope, Success.


Milestone--Desires accomplished.

Milk--Love affairs.

Mills--Legacy from a relative

Mire--Mistakes, privations.

Mirror--(To look in) misunderstanding; (broken) misadventure.

Money--Losses in business; (to find) tardy discoveries.


Monkey--Harmless mischief.

Moon--Love; (bright) continual pleasure; (clouded) sickness, danger to
one beloved; (full) wealth; (new) awakening affection; (failing) deceit;
(red) renown.

Mourning--Impending happiness, invitation to a ball or wedding.

Mouth--(Closed so that cannot eat) sudden death; (wider than usual)



Music--Ease, pleasure.


Myrtle--Love declaration.


Nails--(Broken) misadventure; (very long) emoluments.

Nakedness--Threatened danger.

Navigating--Approaching journey.

Necklace--Jealousy, annoyance.

Needles--Disappointment in love.

Negro--Vexation, annoyance.

Nest--Good luck, profit.

Newspaper--Botheration, gossip.

Night--(Walking) uneasiness, melancholy.

Nightingale--Happy marriage.

Nose--(That yours is large) prosperity and acquaintance with rich

Nurse--Long life.

Nuts--Peace and satisfaction after trouble and difficulty.


Oak--(Green) health, strength; (dead or fallen) heavy losses.

Oars--Safe enterprise; (to break or lose) dependence.

Offer of Marriage--New lovers.

Office--(Turn out of) death or loss of property.

Oil--Good harvest.

Old Person--(Man) prudence, wisdom; (woman) scandal.

Olives--Honors and dignities.

Onions--Aggravation, dispute with inferiors.

Opera--Pleasure followed by pain.

Orange Blossom--A marriage.

Oranges--Amusement, pleasure; (sour) chagrin, injury.

Orchard--Much of nothing.

Ostrich--Misadventure through vanity.

Oven--Ease, riches; (hot) feasting.

Owl--Secrets revealed.



Pain--Trouble and recovery.

Painter--That everything will be lovely.

Palm-Tree--Honor, power, victory.

Paper--Tidings; (colored) deceit; (painted) brief happiness.

Parent--Good news.

Parrot--A bad neighbor, tale-bearing.

Pastry--(To eat) annoyance; (to make) good times.

Paths--(Straight) happiness; (crooked) ill to the willful.

Pawnbroker--Little result of big endeavor.

Peacock--Peril through pride, ambition or unwariness.

Peaches--Contentment, pleasure.

Pearls--Tears, distress.

Pears--Treachery; (to eat) tidings of death; (to gather) festivities.

Peas--Good fortune.


Peddler--You are mistaken in your estimate of a friend.

Pepper--Affliction, vexation.

Pheasant--Good fortune; (to kill one) peril; (to carry one) honor.


Pig--Pork--(Few) avarice; (many) profits.




Pine Tree--Danger.


Pirates--Fortunate adventure.

Pitch--Evil companions.



Plums--Pleasure, happiness.



Postman--News from the absent.

Poverty--Thrift, advantage.

Preserves--Loss of time and money.


Procession--Happy love.

Pump--(If water) marriage and fortune; (if dry) flirtation.

Purchase--(On credit) deprivations; (for cash) possessions.

Purse--(Empty) something to get; (full) pride, disquiet.

Puzzle--Favors, pleasure.


Quail--Family responsibilities.

Quarrel--Constancy, friendship.



Quill--Particular information.



Rabbit--(White) friendship; (black) trouble; (many) extensive pleasures.

Racing--Success in life.

Radishes--That you will discover secrets.

Raft--New views.

Rain--Legacy or gift.


Rat--Secret enemies; (white) triumph over enemies.

Raven--Misfortune; (hear one) grief.


Reaper--A picnic party.




Ride--(With men) it is a good sign; (with women) a bad sign.

Ring--Approaching marriage.

Riot--Scarcity through mischief.


River--Success in enterprise; (to fall in) attempts of enemies; (to
throw one's self in) confusion in affairs.


Rock--Annoyance; (to surmount) difficulties overcome.

Roof--Adventure abroad.

Roses--Always of happy omen; (full blown) health, joy, abundance;
(faded) success, with some drawbacks; (white) innocence; (red)
satisfaction; (yellow) jealousy.

Ruffles--Honors, profitable occupation.

Ruins--Pleasant surprises.

Rust--Idle times, decay, failure.


Sailor--Tidings from abroad.



Satin or Silk--Gain.

Sausage--Affliction, sickness.

Saw--Satisfactory conclusion in affairs.

Scissors--Enemies, hatred.

Scratches--Inconveniences, annoyances.

Screech-Owl--Death of near relative.


Sea--Long journey, large affairs.



Serenade--News of a marriage.

Sermon--Weariness, sleeplessness.

Servant--(Man) abuse of confidence; (maid) suspicion.


Shawl--(A fine one) honors; (thin or old) shame; (torn) detraction.

Sheep--Great gain.

Shell--(Filled) success; (empty) ill-omen.


Ship--Wishes fulfilled; (in danger) unexpected good fortune.

Shoes--Advantageous speculation; (much worn) a speedy journey.

Shop--(To be in) pleasure denied; (to conduct) dues withheld.



Skating--(To see) hindrances, crosses; (to do) success.


Sky--(Clear) happiness, peace; (clouded) misfortune.

Sleep--Illusive security.

Slippers--Comfort, satisfaction.

Smoke--Extravagant expectations.

Snail--Infidelity, dishonor.

Snakes--Treason, betrayal.

Sneezing--Long life.

Snow--(In season) good harvest; (unseasonable) discouragement.

Soap--Revelations, assistance.


Soup--Return of health or fortune.

Spectacles--Melancholy, obstacles.

Spider--(In the dark) gain; (in the light) contention; (kill one)

Sponge--Greed, avarice.

Sports--Pleasure and after regrets.

Spot--(On clothes) sadness; (on the sun) baseless fears.

Spy--(To be one) reprehension; (to see) rumors.

Stable--Hospitality, welcome.

Stag--Gain; (chase one) business failure.

Stammer--Decision, resolution.

Stars--Happiness; (pale) affliction; (shooting) death of relative.

Stocking--(To pull off) comfort; (to pull on) discomfort; (new) a visit;
(a hole in) deceitful fortune.

Stones--(Under foot) trouble, suffering; (thrown or falling) malice.

Storks--Loss, robbery.

Storm--Contest, vexation.


Stranger--Return of a lost friend.

Strange Bed--Contentment.

Strange Room--A mystery solved.

Strawberries--Unexpected good fortune.


Street--(To walk in) a favorable reception.

Sugar--Privation and want.

Sun--(Bright) discovery of secrets; (clouded) bad news; (rising)
success; (setting) losses.

Supper--News of a birth.

Swallow--Successful enterprise.

Swans--Private riches.


Sweeping--Confidence well placed.




Table--Joy; (to set) abundance.


Tea--Confusion, incumbrance.

Tears--Joy, comfort.

Teeth--(Handsome) health, goodness; (mean or drawn) vexation, loss.

Ten-Pins--Undesirable adventures.


Theater--Sadness, loss.

Thicket--Evasions, apprehensions.

Thief--(To be one) loss; (to lose by one) good speculations.

Thimble--Work hard to find.


Thistle--Disputes, folly.

Thorns--Disappointment, pain; (to be pricked by) loss of money.

Thread--Intrigue; (tangled) confusion of affairs; (to break) failure;
(to split) a secret betrayed.

Thunder--Danger; (to see thunderbolt fall) death of a friend.

Tiger--Fierce enmity.

Toads--Something to disgust.

Tomb--Family matters, nuptials, births.

Torches--Invitation to a wedding.

Trap-Door--(Open) a secret divulged; (shut) mystery.

Travel--(On foot) work; (on wheels) fortune.

Treasure--(That you find one) disappointment.

Trees--In general; (green) hope; (withered) grief; (leafless) deceit;
(cut down) robbery; (to climb) change of employment.

Trousers--Honors and responsibilities.

Turkey--If you dream of a turkey you will shortly see a fool.

Turnips--Disappointment, annoyance.

Twins--Honors, riches.


Umbrella--(To a lady) A new lover; (to a gentleman) a breach of promise

Uncle--Advantageous marriage.

Undress--(One's self) rebuke; (another) scandal.

Uniform--(To see) humbling; (to wear) flattery.


Vegetables--(In general) weary toil; (to gather) quarrels; (to eat)
business losses.

Veil--Marriage; (black) death or separation.


Vermin--Enough and to spare.

Villain--Danger of losing property.

Vine--Fruitfulness, abundance.

Vinegar--(To drink) wrangles; (spoiled) sickness.

Violets--Success of undertakings.

Violin--(In concert) sympathy, consolation; (alone) bereavement.


Virgin--Joy without regret; (pretended one) sorrow, evil.

Vulture--Bitter enmity; (kill one) triumph over foes; (one feeding)
returning fortune.


Wagon--(Loaded) emolument; (empty) ease, pleasure.

Wake--Poverty and misery.

Wall--Obstacles; (to be on) prosperity.

War--Misunderstandings and contention.


Wash-Day--New friends, good resolutions.

Wasps--Annoyance; (to be stung) affronts.

Watch--Time well employed.

Watchman--Trifling loss.

Water--See Bath, Drink; (to drink) a marriage or birth; (to fall into)

Water Carrier--Gain.

Wax--Desirable marriage.

Weasel--To be outwitted.

Wedding--Unexpected danger, troubled happiness.

Well--(Draw water from) good fortune; (fall into) peril.


Wheelbarrow, Wheel--Disability, infirmity.

Whirlwind--Danger, scandal.

Widowhood--Satisfaction, new belongings.

Wife--If a man dreams he sees his wife married to another, it betokens a

Wolf--Enmity; (to kill one) gain, success.

Woman--Deceit; (fair) love; (ugly) scandal.

Wood-Cutter--Labor without profit.

Woods--(To rich) loss; (to poor) profit.

Work--(Of right hand) prosperity; (of left hand) impecuniosity.

Worms--Secret enemies, ill-health.

Wreck--Catastrophes, peril.

Writing--Pleasant and profitable discovery.


Yeast--Increase, abundance.

Yoke--Responsibilities, particularly of marriage.

Youth--Good time, light responsibilities.


Flowers may be combined and arranged so as to express even the nicest
shades of sentiment.

If a flower is offered reversed, its direct significance is likewise
reversed, so that the flower now means its opposite.

A rosebud divested of its thorns, but retaining its leaves conveys the
sentiment. "I fear no longer; I hope." Stripped of leaves and thorns, it
signifies, "There is nothing to hope or fear."

A full-blown rose placed over two buds signifies "Secrecy."

"Yes" is implied by touching the flower given to the lips.

"No" by pinching off a petal and casting it away.

"I am," is expressed by a laurel leaf twined around the bouquet. "I
have," by an ivy leaf folded together. "I offer you," by a leaf of
Virginia creeper.

Combinations and Their Meaning.

Moss, Rosebud and Myrtle--"A confession of love."

Mignonette and Colored Daisy--"Your qualities surpass your charms of

Lily of the Valley and Ferns--"Your unconscious sweetness has fascinated

Yellow Rose, Broken Straw and Ivy--"Your jealousy has broken our

Scarlet Geranium, Passion Flower, Purple Hyacinth, and Arbor Vitae--"I
trust you will find consolation, through faith, in your sorrow; be
assured of my unchanging friendship."

Columbine, Day Lily, Broken Straw, Witch Hazel and Colored Daisy--"Your
folly and coquetry have broken the spell of your beauty."

White Pink, Canary Grass and Laurel--"Your talent and perseverance will
win you glory."

Golden-Rod and Monkshead, Sweet Pea and Forge-me-not--"Be cautious;
danger is near; I depart soon; forget me not."

Significance of Single Flowers.

Arbor Vitae--Unchanging friendship.

Camelia, White--Loveliness.


Carnation, Deep Red--Alas! for my poor heart.

Carnation, White--Disdain.


Clover, Four-Leaf--Be mine.

Clover, White--Think of me.

Clover, Red--Industry.


Columbine, Purple--Resolved to win.


Dead Leaves--Sadness.

Deadly Nightshade--Falsehood.


Forget-me-not--True love, Forget me not.

Fuschia, Scarlet--Taste.

Geranium, Rose--Preference.

Geranium, Scarlet--Consolation.

Golden-Rod--Be cautious.


Honey-Flower--Love, sweet and secret.

Hyacinth, White--Unobtrusive loveliness.


Lady's Slipper--Win me and wear me.

Lily, Day--Coquetry.

Lily, White-Sweetness.

Lily, Yellow--Gaiety.

Lily of the Valley--Return of happiness.

Mignonette--Your qualities surpass your charm.

Monkshead--Danger is near.


Oats--The witching soul of music.

Orange Blossoms--Chastity.


Passion Flower--Faith.

Peach Blossom--I am your captive.



Quaking Grass--Agitation.


Rose, Deep Red--Bashful shame.

Rose, Yellow--Jealousy.

Rose, White--I am worthy of you.

Rosebud, Moss--Confession of love.



Straw, Broken--Broken agreement.

Sweet Pea--Depart.

Tuberose--Dangerous pleasures.

Verbena--Pray for me.

Witch Hazel--A spell.


A word out of place spoils the most beautiful thought.--Voltaire.

Begin humbly. Labor faithfully. Be patient.--Elizabeth Stuart Phelps.

Cultivate accuracy in words and things; amass sound knowledge; avoid all
affectation; write all topics which interest you.--F. W. Newman.

Don't be afraid. Fight right along. Hope right along.--S.L. Clemens.

Every good writer has much idiom; it is the life and spirit of
Language.--W. S. Landor.

Follow this: If you write from the heart, you will write to the

Genius may begin great works, but only continued labor completes

Half the writer's art consists in learning what to leave in the

It is by suggestion, not cumulation, that profound impressions are made
on the imagination.--Lowell.

Joy in one's work is an asset beyond the valuing in mere dollars.--C. D.

Keep writing--and profit by criticism. Use for a motto Michael Angelo's
wise words: "Genius is infinite patience."--L. M. Alcott.

Lord, let me never tag a moral to a story, nor tell a story without a
meaning.--Van Dyke.

More failures come from vanity than carelessness.--Joseph Jefferson.

Never do a "pot-boiler." Let one of your best things go to boil the
pot.--"O. Henry."

Originality does not mean oddity, but freshness. It means vitality, not
novelty.--Norman Hapgood.

Pluck feathers from the wings of your imagination, and stick them in the
tail of your judgment.--Horace Greeley.

Quintessence approximates genius. Gather much though into few words.

Revise. Revise. Revise.--E. E. Hale.

Simplicity has been held a mark of truth: it is also it mark of

The first principle of composition of whatever sort is that it should be
natural and appear to have happened so.--Frederick Macmonnies.

Utilize your enthusiasms. Get the habit of happiness in

Very few voices but sound repellent under violent exertion.--Lessing.

Whatever in this world one has to say, there is a word, and just one
word, to express it. Seek that out and use it.--De Maupassant.

Yes, yes; believe me, you must draw your pen
Not once, nor twice, but o'er and o'er again
Through what you've written, if you would entice
The man who reads you once to read you twice.
                        -Horace (Conington, Tr.)

Zeal with scanty capacity often accomplishes more than capacity with no
zeal at all.--George Eliot.


The long, almond-shaped eye with thick eyelids covering nearly half of
the pupil, when taken in connection with the full brow, is indicative of
genius, and is often found in artists, literary and scientific men. It
is the eye of talent, or impressibility. The large, open, transparent
eye, of whatever color, is indicative of elegance, of taste, of
refinement, of wit, of intelligence. Weakly marked eyebrows indicate a
feeble constitution and a tendency to melancholia, Deep sunken eyes are
selfish, while eyes in which the whole iris shows indicate erraticism,
if not lunacy. Round eyes are indicative of innocence; strongly
protuberant eyes of weakness of both mind and body. Eyes small and close
together typify cunning, while those far apart and open indicate
frankness. The normal distance between the eyes is the width of one eye;
a distance greater or less than this intensifies the character supposed
to be symbolized. Sharp angles, turning down at the corners of the eyes,
are seen in persons of acute judgment and penetration. Well-opened
steady eyes belong to the sincere; wide staring eyes to the impertinent.


The following points, upon which the Science of Palmistry is based,
explain its mysteries, and will be found very interesting, amusing and

Form of the Hand.

Hands are classed into seven types, each of which is illustrated by the
cuts on the preceding page, and described as follows:

Plate I--The Elementary or Bilious Hand, indicating brutal instinct
instead of reason as the governing power of the character.

Plate II--The Square or Jupiter Hand, indicating a practical, stubborn,
methodical, and conventional character; one apt to be suspicious of
strangers and radical in views.

Plate III--The Spatulate or Nervous Hand, so named because of its
imagined resemblance to a spatula. It is broad at the base of the
fingers, and indicates great energy and push to discover; also, courage
and fearlessness.

Plate IV--The Philosophic or Venus Hand, has a long, thin, muscular
palm, with long, knotty fingers; indicates a student of nature and
searcher after truth.

Plate V--The Mercury or Artistic Hand, indicates quick temper,
impulsiveness; a character that is light-hearted, gay and charitable,
to-day; and to-morrow, sad, tearful and uncharitable.

Plate VI--The Lunar or Idealistic Hand, indicates an extremely sensitive

Plate VII--The Harmonic or Solar Hand, indicates a character of great
versatility, brilliant in conversation, and an adept in diplomacy.

The Fingers.

For fortune-telling the fingers from first to fourth are designated as
Jupiter, Saturn, Apollo and Mercury.

Note the cut on preceding page, representing the different types of
fingers, numbered from one to eleven.

1--Large fingers indicate a person of vulgar tastes and a cruel, selfish

2--Small, thin fingers indicate a keen, quick acting mind and a person
not very particular about personal appearance.

3--Long, lean fingers indicate an inquiring disposition; love of details
in narrative; short fingers imply simple tastes and selfishness.

4--Fat fingers, largely developed at base, indicate sensualness; if
small at base, the reverse.

5--Smooth fingers indicate artistic ability.

6--Knotty fingers indicate truthfulness and good order in business

7--Pointed fingers indicate a very magnetic and enthusiastic

8--Square fingers indicate a strong mind, regularity and love of good

9--Spatulate fingers indicate a character of positiveness in opinions
and lacking in gentleness.

10--Fingers of mixed shape indicate a harmonious disposition, with
ability to easily adapt oneself to all conditions.

11--Obtuse fingers indicate coarse and cruel sensibilities.

The Phalanges of the Fingers.

See plate VIII, 1, 2, 3--The Phalanges of the Thumb: 4, 5, 6--Repeated
on each finger, indicate the phalanges of the four fingers.

The Mounts of the Hands.

See plate IX--A, Mount Venus; B, Mount Jupiter; C, Mount Saturn; D,
Mount Apollo; E. Mount Mercury; F, Mount Luna; G, Mount Mars.

The Shape and Length of the Phalanges
represent certain qualities and features of character, as presented in
the following:

Jupiter, the first finger; if the first phalange is longer than the
second, it indicates ability to control others, direct and maintain
order; if the second phalange is long and well developed, it indicates
leadership; if short and thin, intellectual weakness; if the third
phalange is long, it indicates love of power in material things.

Saturn, second finger; if the first phalange is longer than the second,
it indicates ability for mastering scientific subjects; if the second
phalange is long, it indicates great interest in subjects requiring deep
study; if the third phalange is long, it indicates a love of metaphysics
and money.

Apollo, third finger; if the first phalange is longer than the second,
it indicates love of the arts; if the second phalange is long, it
indicates success and love of riches; if the third phalange is thick, it
indicates an inherited talent of the arts.

Mercury, fourth finger; if the first phalange is longer than the second,
it indicates a taste for and love of research; if the second phalange is
long and well developed, it indicates industrious habits; if the third
phalange is long and fat, it indicates a desire for the comforts of

The Mountains.

These are points or elevations on the palm.

Mount Venus, if prominent, indicates a person of strong passions, great
energy in business, and admiration of physical beauty in the opposite
sex; it also indicates love of children, home and wife, or husband. When
not well developed there is a lack of love for home, children, wife or
husband; and in a man, it indicates egotism and laziness,--in a woman,

Mount Jupiter, if prominent, indicates a person who is generous, loves
power, and is brilliant in conversation; if a woman, she desires to
shine and be a social leader. When not well developed, it indicates lack
of self-esteem, slovenliness and indifference to personal appearance.

Mount Saturn, if prominent, indicates a serious-minded person,
religiously inclined, slow to reach a conclusion, very prudent, free in
the expression of opinions, but inclined to be pessimistic.

Mount Apollo, if prominent, indicates ability as an artist, generosity,
courageousness, and a poetical nature, apt to be a spendthrift. When not
well developed, it indicates cautiousness and prudence.

Mount Mercury, if prominent, indicates keen perceptions, cleverness in
conversation, a talent for the sciences, industry, and deceitfulness. If
not well developed, it indicates a phlegmatic, stupid disposition.

Mount Luna, if prominent, indicates a dreamy, changeable, capricious,
enthusiastic, and inventive nature. When not well developed, it
indicates constancy, love of home, and ability to imitate others.

Mount Mars, if prominent, indicates self-respect, coolness, and control
of self under trying circumstances, courage, venturesomeness and
confidence in one's ability for anything undertaken. When not well
developed, it indicates the opposite of these characteristics.

Lines On the Hand.

If the lines of the hand are not well defined, this fact indicates poor

Deep red lines indicate good, robust health. Yellow lines indicate
excessive biliousness.

Dark-colored lines indicate a melancholy and reserved disposition.

The Life Line extends from the outer base of Mount Jupiter, entirely
around the base of Mount Venus. If chained under Jupiter, it indicates
bad health in early life. Hair lines extending from it imply weakness,
and if cut by small lines from Mount Venus, misplaced affections and
domestic broils. If arising from Mount Jupiter, an ambition to be
wealthy and learned. If it is joined by the Line of the Head at its
beginning, prudence and wisdom are indicated. If it joins Heart and Head
line's at its commencement, a great catastrophe will be experienced by
the person so marked. A square on it denotes success. All lines that
follow it give it strength. Lines that cut the Life Line extending
through the Heart Line denote interference in a love affair. If it is
crossed by small lines, illness is indicated. Short and badly drawn
lines, unequal in size, imply bad blood and a tendency to fevers.

The Heart Line, if it extends across the hand at the base of the finger
mounts, and is deep and well defined, indicates purity and devotion; if
well defined from Mount Jupiter only, a jealous and tyrannical
disposition is indicated; if it begins at Mount Saturn and is without
branches, it is a fatal sign; if short and well defined in the Harmonic
type of hand it indicates intense affection when it is reciprocated; if
short on the Mercury type of hand, it implies deep interest in
intellectual pursuits; it short and deep in the Elementary type of hand,
it implies the disposition to satisfy desire by brutal force, instead of
by love.

The Head Line is parallel to Heart Line and forms the second branch of
letter M, generally very plain in most hands; if long and deep it
indicates ability to care for one's self; if hair lines are attached to
it, mental worry; if it divides toward Mount Mercury love affairs will
be first, and business secondary; if well defined its whole length, it
implies a well-balanced brain; a line from it extending into a star on
Mount Jupiter, great versatility, pride and love for knowledge are
indicated; if it extend to Mount Luna interest in occult studies is
implied; separated from the Life Line, indicates aggressiveness; if it
is broken, death is indicated from an injury in the head.

The Rascettes are lines across the wrist where the palm joins it.

It is claimed they indicate length of life; if straight it is a good
sign. One Rascette indicates thirty years of life; two lines, sixty;
three lines, ninety.

The Fate Line commences at Rascettes, and if it extends straight to
Mount Saturn, uninterrupted, and alike in both hands, good luck and
success are realized without personal exertion. If not in one hand and
interrupted in the other, success will be experienced only by great
effort. If well defined at the wrist the early life is bright and
promising; if broken in the center, misery for middle life is indicated.
If this line touches Mounts Luna and Venus, it indicates a good
disposition and wealth; if inclined toward any mount, it implies success
in that line for which the mount stands. If it is made up of
disconnected links, it indicates serious physical and moral struggles.
Should it end at Heart Line, the life has been ruined by unrequited
love. If it runs through a square, the life has been in danger and
saved. Should it merge into the Heart Line and continue to Mount
Jupiter, it denotes distinction and power secured through love.

The Girdle of Venus is a curved line extending from Mount Jupiter to
Mercury, encircling Saturn and Apollo. It appears on few hands, but it
indicates superior intellect, a sensitive and capricious nature; if it
extends to base of Jupiter it denotes divorce; ending in Mercury,
implies great energy; should it be cut by parallel lines in a man, it
indicates a hard drinker and gambler.

Lines of Reputation, commencing in the middle of the hand, at the Head
Line, Mount Luna or Mount Mars, indicate financial success from
intellectual pursuits after years of struggling with adversity. If from
Heart Line, real love of occupation and success; if from Head Line,
success from selfishness. An island on this line denotes loss of
character, a start on it near Apollo implies that success will be
permanent, and a square, brilliant success. The absence of this line
implies a struggle for recognition of one's abilities.

Line of Intuition, beginning at base of Mount Mercury, extends around
Mars and Luna; it is frequently found in the Venus, Mercury and Lunar
types of hands; when deeply dented with a triangle on Mount Saturn it
denotes clairvoyant power; if it forms a triangle with Fate Line, or
Life Line, a voyage will be taken.

Health Line commences at center of the Rascettes, takes an oblique
course from Fate Line, ending toward Mount Mercury. If straight and well
defined, there is little liability to constitutional diseases; when it
does not extend to Head Line, steady mental labor cannot be performed;
when it is broad and deep on Mount Mercury, diminishing as it enters the
Life Line, death from heart disease is indicated; small lines cutting it
denote sickness from biliousness. When joined to Heart Line, health and
business are neglected for Love; if made up of short, fine lines, there
is suffering from stomach catarrh; if it is checked by islands there is
a constitutional tendency to lung disease.

Marriage Lines extend straight across Mount Mercury; if short, affairs
of the heart without marriage are denoted. When near Heart Line early
marriage is indicated; if it turns directly to Heart Line, marriage will
occur between the ages of 16 and 21; if close to the top of the mount,
marriage will not take place before the 35th year; if it curves upward
it indicates a single life; when pronged and running toward the center
or to Mount Mars, divorce will occur. If the end at this line droops the
subject will outlive wife or husband; if broken, divorce is implied; if
it ends in a cross, the wife or husband will die from an accident. A
branch from this line upward implies a high position attained by
marriage. A black spot on this line means widowhood.

Children's Lines are small and upright, extending from the end of
Marriage Lines. If broad and well defined, males; if fine and narrow,
females are indicated. A line of this order that is deep and well
defined denotes prominence for that child.

Small Lines have a signification depending upon their position and

A single line on Jupiter signifies success; on Saturn, happiness; on
Apollo, fame and talent.

Ascending small lines are favorable, while descending lines are
unfavorable signs.

Several small lines on Mars indicate warfare constantly.

Cross lines, failure.


Feet have they, but they walk not--stoves.

Eyes have they, but they see not--potatoes.

Noses have they, but they smell not--tea-pots.

Mouths have they, but they taste not--rivers.

Hands have they, but they handle not--clocks.

Ears have they, but they hear not--corn stalks.

Tongues have they, but they talk not--wagons.

What thing is that which is lengthened by being cut at both ends? A

Why do we all go to bed? Because the bed will not come to us.

Why Paris like the letter F? Because it is the capital of France.

In which month do ladies talk least? In February.

Why is a room full of married folks like an empty room? There is not a
single person in it.

Why is a peach-stone like a regiment? It has a kernel (Colonel).

Why is an island like the letter T? Because it is in the midst of

Why is a bee-hive like a spectator? Because it is a beeholder

What is that which a train cannot move without, and yet is not the least
use to it? A noise.

When is a man over head and ears in debt? When the hat he has on is not
paid for.

Why is a man led astray like one governed by a girl?  He is misled

Why is a Jew in a fever like a diamond? He is a Jew ill (jewel).

Why are fixed stars like pen, ink and paper? They are stationary

What is that which is always invisible and never out of sight? The
letter I.

Why is a cook like a barber? He dresses hare (hair).

Why is a waiter like a race horse? He often runs for a plate or a cup.

Why is a madman like two men? He is one beside himself.

Why is a good story like a church bell? It is often told (tolled).

What is the weight of the moon? Four quarters.

What sea would make the best bed-room? Adriatic (a-dry attic).

Why is Ireland likely to become rich? Because the capital is always
Dublin (doubling).

What two letters make a county in Massachusetts? S. X. (Essex).

Why is a good saloon like a bad one? Both inn convenient

Why do dentists make good politicians? Because they have a great pull.

Why is the Hudson River like a shoe? Because it is a great place for
tows (toes).

Why is a race at a circus like a big conflagration? Because the heat is
in tents (intense).

Which is the left side of a plum pudding? The part that is not eaten.

Why is a man who runs in debt like a clock? He goes on tick.

Why is the wick of a candle like Athens? It is in the midst of grease

Why are deep sighs like long stockings? Heigh-ho's (high hose).

What occupation is the sun? A tanner.

Why are your eyes like stage horses? They are always under lashes.

Why are your teeth like verbs? Regular, irregular and defective?

What word makes you sick if you leave out one of its letters? Music.

What word of ten letters can be spelled with five? Expediency (X P D N

Why should red-headed men be chosen for soldiers? They carry fire-locks.

Why is the letter D like a sailor? It follows the sea (C).

Why is a theological student like a merchant? Both study the Prophets

If the alphabet were invited out to dine what time would U, V, W, X, Y
and Z go? After tea (T).

How can you take one from nineteen and leave twenty?   XIX--XX


 "'Tis well."--George Washington.

"Tete d'armee."--Napoleon.

"I thank God that I have done my duty."--Admiral Nelson.

"I pray thee see me safe up, but for my coming down I can shift for
myself," were the last words of Sir Thomas More when ascending the

"God bless you."--Dr. Johnson.

"I have finished."--Hogarth.

"Dying, dying."--Thos. Hood.

"Drop the curtain, the farce is played out."--Rabelais.

"I am what I am. I am what I am."--Swift.

"I still live."--Daniel Webster.

"How grand these rays. They seem to beckon earth to heaven."--Humboldt.

"It is now time that we depart--I to die, you to live: but which is the
better destination is unknown."--Socrates.

"Adieu, my dear Morand, I am dying."--Voltaire.

"My beautiful flowers, my lovely flowers."--Richter.

"James, take good care of the horse."--Winfield Scott.

"Many things are becoming clearer to me."--Schiller.

"I feel the daisies growing over me."--John Keats.

"What, is there no bribing death?"--Cardinal Beaufort.

"Taking a leap in the dark. O, mystery."--Thomas Paine.

"There is not a drop of blood on my hands."'--Frederick V.

"I am taking a fearful leap in the dark."--Thomas Hobbes.

"Don't let that awkward squad fire over my grave."--Burns.

"Here, veteran, if you think it right, strike."--Cicero.

"My days are past as a shadow that returns not."--R. Hooker.

"I thought that dying had been more difficult,"--Louis XIV.

"O Lord, forgive me specially my sins of omission."--Usher.

"Let me die to the sounds of delicious music."--Mirabeau.

"It is small, very small," alluding to her neck.--Anna Boleyn.

"Let me hear those notes so long my solace and delight."--Mozart.

"We are as near heaven by sea as by land,"--Sir Humphrey Gilbert.

"I do not sleep. I wish to meet death awake."--Maria Theresa.

"I resign my soul to God; my daughter to my country."--Jefferson.


Merit to gain a heart, and sense to keep it.

Money to him that has spirit to use it.

More friends and less need of them.

May those who deceive us be always deceived.

May the sword of justice be swayed by the hand of mercy.

May the brow of the brave never want a wreath of laurel.

May we be slaves to nothing but our duty, and friends to nothing but
real merit.

May he that turns his back on his friend, fall into the hands of his

May honor be the commander when love takes the field.

May reason guide the helm when passion blows the gale.

May those who would enslave become slaves themselves.

May genius and merit never want a friend.

May the road of happiness be lighted by virtue.

May life last as long as it is worth wearing.

May we never murmur without a cause, and never have a cause to murmur.

May the eye that drops for the misfortunes of others never shed a tear
for its own.

May the lovers of the fair sex never want means to support and spirit to
defend them. May the tear of misery be dried by the hand of

May the voyage of life end in the haven of happiness.

Provision to the unprovided.

Peace and honest friendship with all nations; entangling alliances with

Riches to the generous, and power to the merciful.

Short shoes and long corns to the enemies of freedom.

Success to the lover, and joy to the beloved.

The life we love, with whom we love.

The friend we love, and the woman we dare trust.

The union of two fond hearts.

The lovers of honor, and honorable lovers.

The unity of hearts in the union of hands.

The liberty of the press without licentiousness.

The virtuous fair, and the fair virtuous.

The road to honor through the plains of virtue.

The hero of Saratoga--may his memory animate the breast of every

The American's triumvirate, love, honor and liberty.

The memory of Washington.

May the example of the new world regenerate the old.

Wit without virulence, wine without excess, and wisdom without

What charms, arms and disarms.

Home pleasant, and our friends at home.

Woman--She needs no eulogy, she speaks for herself.

Friendship--May its lamp ever be supplied by the oil of truth and

The American Navy--May it ever sail on the sea of glory.

May those who are discontented with their own country leave their
country for their country's good.

Discretion in speech is more than eloquence. May we always remember
these three things: The manner, the place and the time.

Here's a sigh to those who love me,
  And a smile to those who hate,
And whatever sky's above me,
  Here's a heart for every fate.
Were't the last drop in the well,
  As I gasped upon the brink,
Ere my fainting spirit fell,
  'Tis to thee that I would drink.

Caddy's Toast in "Erminie"--'Ere's to the 'ealth o' your Royal 'Ighness;
hand may the skin o' ha gooseberry be big enough for han humbrella to
cover hall your enemies."

Here's to the girl I love,
  And here's to the girl who loves me,
And here's to all that love her whom I love,
  And all those that love her who love me.

I will drink to the woman who wrought my woe,
  In the diamond morning of long ago;
To the splendor, caught from Orient skies,
  That thrilled in the dark of her hazel eyes,
Her large eyes filled with the fire of the south,
  And the dewy wine of her warm red mouth.

May those that are single get wives to their mind,
And those that are married true happiness find.

Here's a health to me and mine,
Not forgetting thee and thine;
And when thou and thine
Come to see me and mine,
May we and mine make thee and thine
As welcome as thou and thine
Have ever made me and mine.

Industry.--The right hand of fortune, the grave of care, and the cradle
of content.

Here's to the prettiest,
Here's to the wittiest,
Here's to the truest of all who are true.
Here's to the sweetest one,
Here's to them all in one--here's to you.

Our Country.--May she always be in the right--but, right or wrong, Our
Country.-- Stephen Decatur.

Here's to our sweethearts and our wives. May our sweethearts soon become
our wives and our wives ever remain our sweethearts.

Here's to the girls of the American shore;
  I love but one, I love no mare.
Since she's not here to drink her part,
  I drink her share with all my heart.

Here's to one and only one,
  And may that one be she
Who loves but one and only one,
  And may that one be me.

A glass is good and a lass is good,
  And a pipe to smoke in cold weather.
The world is good and the people are good,
  And we're all good fellows together.

Yesterday's yesterday while to-day's here,
To-day is to-day till to-morrow appear,
To-marrow's to-morrow until to-day's past,
And kisses are kisses as long as they last.

Our Country.--
  To her we drink, for her we pray,
    Our voices silent never;
  For her we'll fight, come what may;
    The Stars and Stripes forever.

Woman.--The fairest work of the great Author; the edition is large, and
no man should be without a copy.

Drink to me only with thine eyes,
  And I will pledge thee mine;
Or leave a kiss within the cup,
  And I'll not look for wine.
The thirst that from the soul doth rise
  Doth ask a drink divine;
But might I of Jove's nectar sip,
  I would not change from thine.
                               --Ben Jonson.

Drink to-day and drown all sorrow;
You shall perhaps not do't to-morrow;
Best while you have it, use your breath;
There is no drinking after death.
                        --Beaumont and Fletcher.

Home.--The father's kingdom; the child's paradise; the mother's world.

Here's to those I love;
Here's to those who love me;
Here's to those who love those I love,
And here's to those who love those who love those who love me.
                                 --Ouida's Favorite Toast.

A little health, a little wealth,
  A little house and freedom,
With some friends for certain ends,
  But little cause to need 'em.

Here's to the lasses we've loved, my lad,
  Here's to the lips we've pressed;
For of kisses and lasses,
Like liquor in glasses,
  The last is always the best.

Come in the evening, come in the morning,
Come when you're looked for, come without warning.

Here's to a long life and a merry one,
A quick death and an easy one,
A pretty girl and a true one,
A cold bottle and another one.

The Man We Love.--He who thinks the most and speaks the least ill of his

False Friends.--May we never have friends who, like shadows, keep close
to us in the sunshine only to desert us on a cloudy day or in the night.

Here's to those who'd love us if we only cared.
Here's to those we'd love if we only dared.

Here's to one another and one other, whoever he or she may be.

The world is filled with flowers,
  And flowers are filled with dew,
And dew is filled with love
  And you and you and you.

Here's to you as good as you are,
  And to me as bad as I am;
And as good as you are and as bad as I am,
  I'm as good as you are as bad as I am.

The Law.--The only thing certain about litigation is its uncertainty.

The Lawyer--Learned gentleman, who rescues your estate from your enemies
and keeps it for himself.

A Spreadeagle Toast.--The boundaries of our country: East, by the rising
sun; north, by the north pole; west by all creation; and south, by the
day of judgment.

When going up the bill of prosperity may you never meet a friend coming

May the hinges of friendship never grow rusty.

Come, come, good wine is a good familiar creature, if it be well

Shall I ask the brave soldier who fights by my side in the cause of
mankind whether our creeds agree?

May all single men be married, and all married men be happy.

Our Country's Emblem:--
  The lily of France may fade,
    The thistle and shamrock wither,
  The oak of England may decay,
    But the stars shine on forever.

The Good Things of the World.--Parsons are preaching for them, lawyers
are pleading for them, physicians are prescribing for them, authors are
writing for them, soldiers are fighting for them, but true philosophers
alone are enjoying them.

My life has been like sunny skies
  When they are fair to view;
But there never yet were lives or skies
  Clouds might not wander through.

The Three Great American Generals.--General Peace, General Prosperity
and General Satisfaction.

  Our hearts, our hopes are all with thee,
    Our hearts, our hopes, our prayers, our tears,
  Our faith triumphant o'er our fears,
    Are all with thee, are all with thee.

Our National Birds.--The American Eagle, the Thanksgiving Turkey: may
one give us peace in all our States--and the other a piece for all our


Master of human destinies am I.
Fame, Love and Fortune on my footsteps wait.
Cities and fields I walk; I penetrate
Deserts and seas remote, and, passing by
Hovel, and mart, and palace, soon or late
I knock unbidden once at every gate!
If sleeping, wake--if feasting, rise before
I turn away. It is the hour of fate,
And they who follow me reach every state
Mortals desire, and conquer every foe
Condemned to failure, penury, and woe.
Save death; but those who doubt or hesitate,
Seek me in vain and uselessly implore:
I answer not, and I return no more.
                               --John J. Ingalls.

A health to Our Dearest.--May their purses always be heavy and their
hearts always light.

An Irishman's Toast.--
  Here's to the land of the shamrock so green,
  Here's to each lad and his darling colleen,
  Here's to the ones we love dearest and most.
  And may God save old Ireland--that's an Irishman's toast.

Here's a health to the future,
  A sigh for the past.
We can love and remember,
  And hope to the last,
And for all the base lies
  That the almanacs hold.
While there's love in the heart,
  We can never grow old.

Some hae meat and canna' eat,
  And some wad eat who want it;
But we hae meat and we can eat,
  So let the Lord be thankit.

A little health, a little wealth,
  A little house and freedom,
With some few friends for certain ends,
  But little cause to need 'em.

If I were a raindrop and you a leaf,
  I would burst from the cloud above you,
And lie on your breast in a rapture of rest,
  And love you--love you--love you.

If I were a brown bee and you were a rose,
  I would fly to you, love, nor miss you;
I would sip and sip from your nectared lip,
  And kiss you--kiss you--kiss you.
                --Ella Wheeler Wilcox, in Three Women.

Strange--is it not?--that of the myriads who
Before us passed the door of darkness through,
  Not one returns to tell us of the road,
Which to discover, we must travel too?

Away with the flimsy idea that life with a past is attended.
There's now--only now--and no past. There's never a past; it has ended.
Away with the obsolete story and all of its yesterday sorrow!
There's only Today, almost gone, and in front of Today stands Tomorrow.
                                                  --Eugene Ware.

God made man
  Frail as a bubble;
God made Love,
  Love made trouble;
God made the vine;
  Was it a sin
That man made wine
  To drown trouble in?

"My character may be my own, but my reputation belongs to any old body
that enjoys gossiping more than telling the truth."

May your joy be as deep as the ocean,
Your trouble as light as its foam.

The man that has no music in himself,
Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds,
Is fit for treasons, stratagems and spoils;
The motions of his spirit are dull as night,
And his affections dark as Erebus.
Let no such man be trusted.
Mark the music.

See the mountains kiss high heaven,
  And the waves clasp one another;
No sister flower would be forgiven
  If it disdained its brother;
And the sunlight clasps the earth,
  And the moonbeams kiss the sea;
What are all these kissings worth,
  If thou kiss not me?
                        --Percy Bysshe Shelley.

Jest a-wearyin' for you,
All the time a-feelin' blue;
Wishin' for you, wonderin' when
You'll be comin' home again;
Restless--don't know what to do--
Jest a-wearyin' for you.
                       --Frank Stanton.

Here's to Love, the worker of miracles. He strengthens the weak and
weakens the strong; he turns wise men into fools and fools into wise
men; he feeds the passions and destroys reason, and plays havoc among
young and old!
                            --Marguerite de Valois.

"Good Bye, God Bless You."

I like the Anglo--Saxon speech
  With its direct revealings;
It takes a hold, and seems to reach
  Way down into our feelings
That Some folks deem it rude, I know,
  And therefore they abuse it;
But I have never found it so--
  Before all else I choose it.
I don't object that men should air
  The Gallic they have paid for,
With "Au revoir," "Adieu, ma chere,"
  For that's what French was made for.
But when a crony takes your hand
  At parting to address you,
He drops all foreign lingo and
  He says, "Good--bye, God bless you."
                         --Eugene Field.


The ancients attributed marvelous properties to many of the precious
stones. We give in tabular form the different months and the stones
sacred to them, as generally accepted, with their respective meanings.
It has been customary among lovers and friends to notice the
significance attached to the various stones in making birthday,
engagement and wedding presents.

January, Garnet.--Constancy and fidelity in every engagement.

February, Amethyst--Preventive against violent passions.

March, Bloodstone--Courage, wisdom and firmness in affection.

April, Sapphire--Free from enchantment; denotes repentance.

May, Emerald--Discovers false friends, and insures true love.

June, Agate--Insures long life, health and prosperity.

July, Ruby--Discovers poison; corrects evils resulting from mistaken

August, Sardonyx--Insures conjugal felicity.

September, Chrysolite--Free from all evil passions and sadness of the

October, Opal--Denotes hope, and sharpens the sight and faith of the

November, Topaz--Fidelity and friendship. Prevents bad dreams.

December, Turquoise--Prosperity in love.

Tiffany's list of birth stones is somewhat different from the above and
is given below:

Birth Stones.  (As given by Tiffany & Co.)


February--Amethyst, hyacinth, pearl.

March--Jasper, bloodstone.

April--Diamond, sapphire.

May--Emerald, agate.

June--Cat's-eye, turquoise, agate.

July--Turquoise, onyx.

August--Sardonyx, carnelian, moonstone, topaz.


October--Beryl, opal.

November--Topaz, pearl.

December--Ruby, bloodstone.


Five Hundred Common Errors Corrected

Concise Rules for the Proper Use of Words in Writing or Speaking.

The most objectionable errors in speaking or writing are those in which
words are employed that are unsuitable to convey the meaning intended.
Thus, a person wishing to express his intention of going to a given
place says, "I propose going," when, in fact, he purposes going. The
following affords an amusing illustration of this class of error: A
venerable matron was speaking of her son, who, she said, was quite
stage-struck: "In fact," remarked the old lady, "he is going to a
premature performance this evening!" Considering that most amateur
performances are premature, it cannot be said that this word was
altogether misapplied, though, evidently, the maternal intention was to
convey quite another meaning.

Other errors arise from the substitution of sounds similar to the words
which should be employed; that is, spurious words instead of genuine
ones. Thus, some people say "renumerative," when they mean
"remunerative." A nurse, recommending her mistress to have a
perambulator for her child, advised her to purchase a preamputator!

Other errors are occasioned by imperfect knowledge of English grammar;
thus, many people say, "Between you and I," instead of "Between you and
me." And there are numerous other departures from the rules of grammar,
which will be pointed out hereafter.

Misuse of the Adjective--"What beautiful butter!" "What a nice
landscape!" They should say, "What a beautiful landscape!" "What nice
butter!" Again, errors are frequently occasioned by the following

Mispronunciation of Words--Many persons say pronoun-ciation instead of
pronunciation; others say pro-nun-ce-a-shun, instead of

Misdivision of Words and Syllables--This defect makes the words an
ambassador sound like a nambassador, or an adder like a nadder.

Imperfect Enunciation--As when a person says hebben for heaven, ebber
for ever, jocholate for chocolate.

To correct these errors by a systematic course of study would involve a
closer application than most persons could afford, but the simple and
concise rules and hints here given, founded upon usage and the authority
of scholars, will be of great assistance to inquirers.


Who and whom are used in relation to persons, and which in relation to
things. But it was once common to say, "the man which." This should now
be avoided. It is now usual to say, "Our Father who art in heaven,"
instead of "which art in heaven."

Whose is, however, sometimes applied to things as well as to persons. We
may therefore say, "The country whose inhabitants are free."

Thou is employed in solemn discourse, and you in common language. Ye
(plural) is also used in serious addresses, and you in familiar

The uses of the word it are various, and very perplexing to the
uneducated. It is not only used to imply persons, but things, and even
ideas, and therefore in speaking or writing, its assistance is
constantly required. The perplexity respecting this word arises from the
fact that in using it in the construction of a long sentence, sufficient
care is not taken to insure that when it is employed it really points
out or refers to the object intended. For instance, "It was raining when
John set out in his cart to go to market, and he was delayed so long
that it was over before he arrived." Now what is to be understood by
this sentence: Was the rain over? or the market? Either or both might be
inferred from the construction of the sentence, which, therefore, should
be written thus: "It was raining when John set out in his cart to go to
market, and he was delayed so long that the market was over before he

Rule--After writing a sentence always look through it, and see that
wherever the word it is employed, it refers to or carries the mind back
to the object which it is intended to point out.

The general distinction between this and that may be thus defined: this
denotes an object present or near, in time or place; that something
which is absent.

These refers, in the same manner, to present objects, while those refers
to things that are remote.

Who changes, under certain conditions, into whose and whom; but that and
which always remain the same, with the exception of the possessive case,
as noted above.

That may be applied to nouns or subjects of all sorts; as, the girl that
went to school, the dog that bit me, the opinion that he entertains.

The misuse of these pronouns gives rise to more errors in speaking and
writing than any other cause.

When you wish to distinguish between two or more persons, say: "Which is
the happy man?" not who--"Which of those ladies to you admire?"

Instead of "Whom do you think him to be?" say, "Who do you think him to

Whom should I see.

To whom do you speak?

Who said so?

Who gave it to you?

Of whom did you procure them?

Who was he?

Who do men say that I am?

Self should never be added to his, their, mine or thine.

Each is used to denote every individual of a number.

Every denotes all the individuals of a number.

Either and or denote an alternative: "I will take either road, at your
pleasure;" "I will take this or that."

Neither means not either, and nor means not the other. Either is
sometimes used for each--"Two thieves were crucified, on either side

"Let each esteem others as good as themselves," should be, "Let each
esteem others as good as himself."

"There are bodies each of which are so small," should be, "each of which
is so small."

Do not use double superlatives, such as most straightest, most highest,
most finest.

The term worser has gone out of use; but lesser is stilt retained.

The use of such words as chiefest, extreamest, etc., has become
obsolete, because they do not give any superior force to the meanings of
the primary words, chief, extreme, etc.

Such expressions as more impossible, more indispensable, more universal,
more uncontrollable, more unlimited, etc., are objectionable, as they
really enfeeble the meaning which it is the object of the speaker or
writer to strengthen. For instance, impossible gains no strength by
rendering it more impossible. This class of error is common with persons
who say, "A great large house," "A great big animal," "A little small
foot," "A tiny little hand."

Here, there and where, originally denoting place, may now, by common
consent, be used to denote other meanings, such as, "There I agree with
you," "Where we differ," "We find pain where we expected pleasure,"
"Here you mistake me."

Hence, whence and thence, denoting departure, etc., may be used without
the word from. The idea of from is included in the word
whence--therefore it is unnecessary to say "From whence."

Hither, thither and whither, denoting to a place, have generally been
superseded by here, there and where. But there is no good reason why
they should not be employed. If, however, they are used, it is
unnecessary to add the word to, because that is implied--"Whither are
you going?" "Where are you going?" Each of these sentences is complete.
To say, "Where are you going to?" is redundant.

Two negatives destroy each other, and produce an affirmative. "Nor did
he not observe them," conveys the idea that he did observe them.

But negative assertions are allowable. "His manners are not impolite,"
which implies that his manners are in some degree marked by politeness.

Instead of "Let you and I." say "Let you and me."

Instead of "I am not so tall as him," say "I am not so tall as he."

When asked "Who is there?" do not answer "Me," but "I,"

Instead of "For you and I," say "For you and me."

Instead of "Says I," say "I said."

Instead of "You are taller than me," say "You are taller than I."

Instead of "I ain't," or "I arn't," say "I am not."

Instead of "Whether I be present or no," say "Whether I be present or

For "Not that I know on,"' say "Not that I know."

Instead of "Was I to do so," say "Were I to do so."

Instead of "I would do the same if I was him," say "I would do the same
if I were he."

Instead of "I had as lief go myself," say "I would as soon go myself,"
or "I would rather."

It is better to say "Six weeks ago" than "Six weeks back."

It is better to say "Since which time," than "Since when,"

It is better to say "I repeated it," than "I said so over again."

Instead of "He was too young to have suffered much," say "He was too
young to suffer much."

Instead of "Less friends," say "Fewer friends." Less refers to quantity.

Instead of  "A quantity of people," say "A number of people."

Instead of "He and they we know," say "Him and them."

Instead of "As far as I can see," say "So far as I can see."

Instead of "A new pair of gloves," say "A pair of new gloves."

Instead of "I hope you'll think nothing on it," say "I hope you'll think
nothing of it."

Instead of "Restore it back to me," say "Restore it to me."

Instead of "I suspect the veracity of his story," say "I doubt the truth
of his story."

Instead of "I seldom or ever see him," say "I seldom see him."

Instead of "I expected to have found him," say "1 expected to find him."

Instead of "Who learns you music?" say "Who teaches you music?"

Instead of "I never sing whenever I can help it," say "I never sing when
I can help it."

Instead of "Before I do that I must first ask leave," say "Before I do
that I must ask leave."

Instead of saying "The observation of the rule," say "The observance of
the rule,"

Instead of "A man of eighty years of age," say "A man eighty years old."

Instead of "Here lays his honored head," say "Here lies his honored

Instead of "He died from negligence," say "He died through neglect," or
"in consequence of neglect."

Instead of "Apples are plenty," say "Apples are plentiful."

Instead of "The latter end of the year," say "The end, or the close, of
the year."

Instead of "The then government," say "The government of that age, or
century, or year, or time."

Instead of "A couple of chairs," say "Two chairs."

Instead of "They are united together in the bonds of matrimony," say
"They are united in matrimony," or "They are married,"   '.

Instead of "We travel slow," say "We travel slowly."

Instead of "He plunged down into the river," say "He plunged into the

Instead of "He jumped from off the scaffolding," say "He jumped off the

Instead of "He came the last of all," say "He came the last."

Instead of "universal," with reference to things that have any limit,
say "general," "generally approved," instead of "universally approved,"
"generally beloved," instead of "universally beloved."

Instead of "They ruined one another," say "They ruined each other,"

Instead of "If in case I succeed," say "If I succeed."

Instead of "A large enough room," say "A room large enough."

Instead of "I am slight in comparison to you," say "I am slight in
comparison with you."

Instead of "I went for to see him," say "I went to see him."

Instead of "The cake is all eat up," say "The cake is all eaten."

Instead of "Handsome is as handsome does," say "Handsome is who handsome

Instead of "The book fell on the floor," say "The book fell to the

Instead of "His opinions are approved of by all," say "His opinions are
approved by all."

Instead of "I will add one more argument," say "I will add one argument
more," or "another argument."

Instead of "A sad curse is war," say "War is a sad curse."

Instead of "He stands six foot high," say "He measures six feet," or
"His height is six feet."

Instead of "I go every now and then," say "I go sometimes (or often)."

Instead of "Who finds him in clothes," say "Who provides him with

Say "The first two," and "the last two" instead of "the two first" "the
two last."

Instead of "His health was drank with enthusiasm," say "His health was
drunk enthusiastically."

Instead of "Except I am prevented," say "Unless I am prevented."

Instead of "In its primary sense," say "In its primitive sense."

Instead of "It grieves me to see you," say "I am grieved to see you."

Instead of "Give me them papers," say "Give me those papers."

Instead of "Those papers I hold in my hand," say "These papers I hold in
my hand."

Instead of "I could scarcely imagine but what," say "I could scarcely
imagine that."

Instead of "He was a man notorious for his benevolence," say "He was
noted for his benevolence."

Instead of "She was a woman celebrated for her crimes," say "She was
notorious on account of her crimes."

Instead of "What may your name be?" say "What is your name?"

Instead of "I lifted it up," say "I lifted it."

Instead of "It is equally of the same value," say "It is of the same
value," or "equal value."

Instead of "I knew it previous to your telling me," say "I knew it
previously to your telling me."

Instead of "You was out when I called," say "You were out when I

Instead of "I thought I should have won this game," say "I thought I
should win this game."

Instead of "This much is certain," say "Thus much is certain," or "So
much is certain."

Instead of "He went away as it may be yesterday week," say "He went away
yesterday week."

Instead of "He came the Saturday as it may be before the Monday,"
specify the Saturday on which he came.

Instead of "Put your watch in your pocket," say "Put your watch into
your pocket."

Instead of "He has got riches," say "He has riches."

Instead of "Will you set down?" say "Will you sit down?"

Instead of "No thankee," say "No, thank you."

Instead of "I cannot do it without farther means," say "I cannot do it
without further means."

Instead of "No sooner but," or "No other but," say "than."

Instead of "Nobody else but her," say "Nobody but her."

Instead of "He fell down from the balloon," say "He fell from the

Instead of "He rose up from the ground," say "He rose from the ground."

Instead of "These kind of oranges are not good," say "This kind of
oranges is not good."

Instead of "Somehow or another," say "Somehow or other."

Instead of "Will I give you some more tea?" say "Shall I give you some
more tea?"

Instead of "Oh, dear, what will I do?" say "Oh, dear, what shall I do?"

Instead of "I think indifferent of it," say "I think indifferently of

Instead of "I will send it conformable to your orders," say "I will send
it conformably to your orders."

Instead of "To be given away gratis," say "To be given away."

Instead of "Will you enter in?" say "Will you enter?"

Instead of "This three days or more," say "These three days or more."

Instead of "He is a bad grammarian," say "He is not a grammarian."

Instead of "We accuse him for." say "We accuse him of."

Instead of "We acquit him from," say "We acquit him of."

Instead of "I am averse from that," say "I am averse to that."

Instead of "I confide on you," say "I confide in you."

Instead of "As soon as ever." say "As soon as."

Instead of "The very best," or "The very worst," say "The best or the

Avoid such phrases as "No great shakes," "Nothing to boast of," "Down in
my boots," "Suffering from the blues." All such sentences indicate

Instead of "No one hasn't called," say "No one has called."

Instead of "You have a right to pay me," say "It is right that you
should pay me."

Instead of "I am going over the bridge," say "I am going across the

Instead of "I should just think I could," say "I think I can."

Instead of "There has been a good deal," say "There has been much."

Instead of "The effort you are making for meeting the bill," say "The
effort you are making to meet the bill."

To say "Do not give him no more of your money," is equivalent to saying
"Give him some of your money." Say "Do not give him any of your money."

Instead of saying "They are not what nature designed them," say "They
are not what nature designed them to be."

Instead of saying "I had not the pleasure of hearing his sentiments when
I wrote that letter," say "I had not the pleasure of having heard," etc.

Instead of "The quality of the apples were good," say "The quality of
the apples was good."

Instead of "The want of learning, courage and energy are more visible,"
say "is more visible."

Instead of "We die for want," say "We die of want."

Instead of "He died by fever," say "He died of fever."

Instead of "I enjoy bad health," say "My health is not good."

Instead of "Either of the three," say "Any one of the three."

Instead of "Better nor that," say "Better than that."

Instead of "We often think on you," say "We often think of you."

Instead of "Mine is so good as yours," say "Mine is as good as yours."

Instead of "This town is not as large as we thought," say "This town is
not so large as we thought."

Instead of "Because why?" say "Why?"

Instead of "That there boy," say "That boy."

Instead of "The subject-matter of debate," say "The subject of debate."

Instead of saying "When he was come back," say "When he had come back."

Instead of saying "His health has been shook," say "His health has been

Instead of saying "It was spoke in my presence," say "It was spoken in
my presence."

Instead of "Very right," or "Very wrong," say "Right" or "Wrong."

Instead of "The mortgagor paid him the money," say "The mortgagee paid
him the money." The mortgagee lends; the mortgagor borrows.

Instead of "I took you to be another person," say "I mistook you for
another person."

Instead of "On either side of the river," say "On each side of the

Instead of "There's fifty," say "There are fifty."

Instead of "The best of the two" say "The better of the two,"

Instead of "My clothes have become too small for me" say "I have grown
too stout for my clothes."

Instead of "Two spoonsful of physic," say "Two spoonfuls of physic."

Instead of "She said, says she," say "She said."

Avoid such phrases as "I said, says I," "Thinks I to myself," etc.

Instead of "I don't think so," say "I think not."

Instead of "He was in eminent danger," say "He was in imminent danger."

Instead of "The weather is hot," say "The weather is very warm."

Instead of "I sweat," say "I perspire."

Instead of "I only want two dollars," say "I want only two dollars."

Instead of "Whatsomever," say "Whatever," or "Whatsoever."

Avoid such exclamations as "God bless me!" "God deliver me!" "By God!"
"By Gosh!" "Holy Lord!" "Upon my soul!" etc., which are vulgar on the one
hand, and savor of impiety all the other, for--"Thou shalt not take the
name of the Lord thy God in vain."


Accent is a particular stress or force of the voice upon certain
syllables or words. This mark in printing denotes the syllable upon
which the stress or force of the voice should be placed.

A word may have more than one accent. Take as an instance aspiration. In
uttering the word we give a marked emphasis of the voice upon the first
and third syllables, and therefore those syllables are said to be
accented. The first of these accents is less distinguishable than the
second, upon which we dwell longer; therefore the second accent in point
of order is called the primary, or chief accent of the word.

When the full accent falls on a vowel, that vowel should have a long
sound, as in vo'cal; but when it falls on or after a consonant, the
preceding vowel has a short sound, as in hab'it.

To obtain a good knowledge of pronunciation it is advisable for the
reader to listen to the examples given by good speakers, and by educated
persons. We learn the pronunciation of words, to a great extent, by
imitation, just as birds acquire the notes of other birds which may be
near them.

But it will be very important to bear in mind that there are many words
having a double meaning or application, and that the difference of
meaning is indicated by the difference of the accent, Among these words,
nouns are distinguished from verbs by this means: nouns are mostly
accented on the first syllabic, and verbs on the last.

Noun signifies name; nouns are the names of persons and things, as well
as of things not material and palpable, but of which we have a
conception and knowledge, such as courage, firmness, goodness, strength;
and verbs express actions, movements, etc. If the word used signifies
has been done, or is being done, or is, or is to be done, then that word
is a verb.

Thus when we say that anything is "an in'sult," that word is a noun, and
is accented all the first syllable; but when we say he did it "to
insult' another person," that word insult' implies acting, and becomes a
verb, and should be accented on the last syllable.

Simple Rules of Pronunciation.

C before a, o and u, and in some other situations, is a close
articulation, like k. Before e, i and y, c is precisely equivalent to s
in same, this; as in cedar, civil, cypress, capacity.

E final indicates that the preceding vowel is long; as in hate, mete,
sire, robe, lyre, abate, recede, invite, remote, intrude.

E final indicates that c preceding has the sound of s; as in lace,
lance, and that g preceding has the sound of j, as in charge, page,

E final in proper English words never forms a syllable, and in the most
used words in the terminating unaccented syllables it is silent. Thus,
motive, genuine, examine, granite, are pronounced motiv, genuin, examin,

E final, in a few words of foreign origin, forms a syllable; as syncope,

E final is silent after l in the following terminations: ble, cle, dle,
fle, gle, kle, ple, tle, zle; as in able, manacle, cradle, ruffle,
mangle, wrinkle, supple, rattle, puzzle, which are pronounced a'bl,
mana'cl, cra'dl, ruf'fl, man'gl, wrin'kl, sup'pl, puz'zl.

E is usually silent in the termination en; as in taken, broken;
pronounced takn, brokn. OUS, in the termination of adjectives and their
derivatives, is pronounced us; as is gracious, pious, pompously.

CE, CI, TI, before a vowel, have the sound of sh; as in cetaceous,
gracious, motion, partial, ingratiate;  pronounced cetashus, grashus,
moshun, parshal, ingrashiate.

SI, after an accented vowel, is pronounced like zh; as in Ephesian,
coufusion; pronounced Ephezhan, confushon.

GH, both in the middle and at the end of words is silent; as in caught,
bought, fright, nigh, sigh; pronounced caut, baut, frite, ni, si. In the
following exceptions, however, gh is pronounced as f: cough, chough,
clough, enough, laugh, rough, slough, tough, trough.

When WH begins a word, the aspirate h precedes w in pronunciation: as in
what, whiff, whale; pronounced hwat, hwiff, hwale, w having precisely
the sound of oo, French ou. In the following words w is silent:---who,
whom, whose, whoop, whole.

H after r has no sound or use; as in rheum, rhyme; pronounced reum,

H should be sounded in the middle of words; as in forehead, abhor,
behold, exhaust, inhabit, unhorse.

H should always be sounded except in the following words:--heir, herb,
honest, honor, hour, humor, and humble, and all their derivatives,--such
as humorously, derived from humor.

K and G are silent before n; as know, gnaw; pronounced no, naw.

W before r is silent; as in wring, wreath; pronounced ring, reath.

B after m is silent; as in dumb, numb; pronounced dum, num.

L before k is silent; as in balk, walk, talk; pronounced bauk, wauk,

PH has the sound of f; as in philosophy; pronounced  filosofy.

NG has two sounds, one as in singer, the other as in fin-ger.

N after m, and closing a syllable, is silent; as in hymn, condemn.

P before s and t is mute; as in psalm, pseudo, ptarmigan; pronounced
salm, sudo, tarmigan.

R has two sounds, one strong and vibrating, as at the beginning of words
and syllables, such as robber, reckon, error; the other is at the
termination of the words, or when succeeded by a consonant, as farmer,

Common Errors in Pronunciation.

--ace, is not iss, as furnace, not furniss.

--age, not idge, as cabbage, courage, postage, village.

--ain, ane, not in, as certain, certane, not certin.

--ate, not it, as moderate, not moderit.

--ect, not ec, as aspect, not aspec; subject, not subjec.

--ed, not id, or ud, as wicked, not wickid or wickud.

--el, not l, model, not modl; novel, not novl.

--en, not n, as sudden, not suddn.--Burden, burthen, garden, lengthen,
seven, strengthen, often, and a few others, have the e silent.

--ence, not unce, as influence, not influ-unce.

--es, not is, as pleases, not pleasis.

--ile should be pronounced il, as fertil, not fertile, in all words
except chamomile (cam), exile, gentile, infantile, reconcile, and
senile, which should be pronounced ile.

--in, not n, as Latin, not Latn.

--nd, not n, as husband, not husban; thousand, not thousan.

--ness, not niss, as carefulness, not carefulniss.

--ng, not n, as singing, not singin; speaking, not speakin.

--ngth, not nth, as strength, not strenth.

--son, the o should be silent; as in treason, tre-zn, not tre-son.

--tal, not tle, as capital, not capitle; metal, not mettle; mortal, not
mortle; periodical, not periodicle.

--xt, not x, as next, not nex.


Words ending in e drop that letter on taking a suffix beginning with a
vowel. Exceptions--words ending in ge, ce, or oe.

Final e of a primitive word is retained on taking a suffix beginning
with a consonant. Exceptions--words ending in dge, and truly, duly, etc.

Final y of a primitive word, when preceded by a consonant, is generally
changed into i on the addition of a suffix. Exceptions--retained before
ing and ish, as pitying. Words ending in ie and dropping the e by Rule
1, change the i to y, as lying. Final y is sometimes changed to e, as

Nouns ending in y, preceded by a vowel, form their plural by adding s; o
as money, moneys. Y preceded by a consonant is changed to ies in the
plural; as bounty, bounties.

Final y of a primitive vowel, preceded by a vowel, should not be changed
into i before a suffix; as, joyless.

In words containing ei or ie, ei is used after the sound s, as ceiling,
seize, except in siege and in a few words ending in cier. Inveigle,
neither, leisure and weird also have ei. In other cases ie is used, as
in believe, achieve.

Words ending in ceous or cious, when relating to matter, end in ceous;
all others in cious.

Words of one syllable, ending in a consonant; with a single vowel before
it, double the consonant in derivatives; as, ship, shipping, etc. But if
ending in a consonant with a double vowel before it, they do not double
the consonant in derivatives; as troop, trooper, etc.

Words of more than one syllable, ending in a consonant preceded by a
single vowel, and accented on the last syllable, double that consonant
in derivatives; as commit, committed; but except chagrin, chagrined;
kidnap, kidnaped.

All words of one syllable ending in l, with a single vowel before it,
have ll at the close; as mill, sell.

All words of one syllable ending in l, with a double vowel before it,
have only one l at the close: as mail, sail.

The words foretell, distill, instill and fulfill retain the double ll of
their primitives. Derivatives of dull, skill, will and full also retain
the double ll when the accent falls on these words; as dullness,
skillful, willful, fullness.


A period (.) after every declarative and every imperative sentence; as,
It is true. Do right.

A period is also used after every abbreviation; as, Dr., Mr., Capt.

An interrogation point (?) after every question.

The exclamation point (!) after exclamations; as, Alas! Oh, how lovely!

Quotation marks (" ") inclose quoted expressions; as Socrates said: "I
believe the soul is immortal."

A colon (:) is used between parts of a sentence that are subdivided by

A colon is used before a quotation, enumeration, or observation, that is
introduced by as follows, the following, or any similar expression; as,
Send me the following: 10 doz. "Armstrong's Treasury," 25 Schulte's
Manual, etc.

A semicolon (;) between parts that are subdivided by commas.

The semicolon is used also between clauses or members that are
disconnected in sense; as, Man grows old; he passes away; all is
uncertain. When as, namely, that is, is used to introduce an example or
enumeration, a semicolon is put before it and a comma after it; as, The
night was cold; that is, for the time of year.

A comma is used to set off interposed words, phrases and subordinate
clauses not restrictive; as, Good deeds are never lost, though sometimes

A comma is used to set off transposed phrases and clauses, as, "When the
wicked entice thee, consent thou not."

A comma is used to set off interposed words, phrases and clauses; as,
Let us, if we can, make others happy.

A comma is used between similar or repeated words or phrases; as, The
sky, the water, the trees, were illumined with sunlight.

A comma is used to mark an ellipsis, or the omission of a verb or other
important word.

A comma is used to set off a short quotation informally introduced; as,
Who said, "The good die young"?

A comma is used whenever necessary to prevent ambiguity.

The marks of parenthesis ( ) are used to inclose an interpolation where
such interpolation is by the writer or speaker of the sentence in which
it occurs. Interpolations by an editor or by anyone other than the
author of the sentence should be inclosed in brackets--[ ].

Dashes (--) may be used to set off a parenthetical expression, also to
denote an interruption or a sudden change of thought or a significant


1. Every entire sentence should begin with a capital.

2. Proper names, and adjectives derived from these, should begin with a

3. All appellations of the Deity should begin with a capital.

4. Official and honorary titles begin with a capital.

5. Every line of poetry should begin with a capital.

6. Titles of books and the heads of their chapters and divisions are
printed in capitals.

7. The pronoun I, and the exclamation O, are always capitals.

8. The days of the week, and the months of the year, begin with

9. Every quotation should begin with a capital letter.

10. Names of religious denominations begin with capitals.

11. In preparing accounts, each item should begin with a capital.

12. Any word of special importance may begin with a capital.


Hebrew, Eleah, Jehovah;
Chaldaic, Eiliah;
Assyrian, Eleah;
Syrian and Turkish, Alah;
Malay, Alla;
Arabic, Allah;
Languages of the Magi, Orsi;
Old Egyptian, Teut;
Modern Egyptian, Teun;
Armenian, Teuti;
Greek, Theos;
Cretan, Thios;
Aedian and Dorian, Ilos;
Latin, Deus;
Low Latin, Diex;
Celtic Gaelic, Diu;
French, Dieu;
Spanish, Dios;
Portuguese, Deos;
Old German, Diet;
Provencal, Diou;
Low Breton, Done;
Italian, Dio;
Irish, Dia;
Olotu, Deu;
German and Swiss, Gott;
Flemish, God;
Dutch, God;
English, God;
Teutonic, Goth;
Danish and Swedish, Gud;
Norwegian, Gud;
Slav, Buch;
Polish, Bog;
Polacca, Bung;
Lapp, Jubinal;
Finnish, Jumala;
Runic, As;
Zembilian, As;
Pannanlian, Istu;
Tartar, Magatai;
Coromandel, Brama;
Persian, Sire;
Chinese, Prussa;
Japanese, Goezer;
Madagascar, Zannar;
Peruvian, Puchecammae.

By Albert Hart.

Sponges belong to the animal kingdom, and the principal varieties used
commercially are obtained off the coasts of Florida and the West Indies;
the higher grades are from the Mediterranean Sea, and are numerous in

A sponge in its natural state is a different-looking object from what we
see in commerce, resembling somewhat the appearance of the jelly fish,
or a mass of liver, the entire surface being covered with a thin, slimy
skin, usually of a dark color, and perforated to correspond with the
apertures of the canals commonly called "holes of the sponge." The
sponge of commerce is, in reality, only the skeleton of a sponge. The
composition of this skeleton varies in the different kinds of sponges,
but in the commercial grades it consists of interwoven horny fibers,
among and supporting which are epiculae of silicious matter in greater
or less numbers, and having a variety of forms. The fibers consist of a
network of fibriles, whose softness and elasticity determine the
commercial quality of a given sponge. The horny framework is perforated
externally by very minute pores, and by a less number of larger
openings. These are parts of an interesting double canal system, an
external and an internal, or a centripetal and a centrifugal. At the
smaller openings on the sponge's surface channels begin, which lead into
dilated spaces. In these, in turn, channels arise, which eventually
terminate in the large openings. Through these channels or canals
definite currents are constantly maintained, which are essential to the
life of the sponge. The currents enter through the small apertures and
emerge through the large ones.

The active part of the sponge, that is, the part concerned in nutrition
and growth, is a soft, fleshy mass, partly filling the meshes and lining
the canals. It consists largely of cells having different functions;
some utilized in the formation of the framework, some in digestion and
others in reproduction. Lining the dilated spaces into which different
canals lead are cells surmounted by whip-like processes. The motion of
these processes produces and maintains the water currents, which carry
the minute food products to the digestive cells in the same cavities.
Sponges multiply by the union of sexual product. Certain cells of the
fleshy pulp assume the character of ova, and others that of spermatozoa.
Fertilization takes place within the sponge. The fertilized eggs, which
are called larvae, pass out into the currents of the water, and, in the
course of twenty-four to forty-eight hours, they settle and become
attached to rocks and other hard substances, and in time develop into
mature sponges. The depth of the water in which sponges grow varies from
10 to 50 feet in Florida, but considerably more in the Mediterranean
Sea, the finer grades being found in the deepest water, having a
temperature of 50 to 57 degrees.


From time to time we are horrified by learning that some person has been
buried alive, after assurances have been given of death. Under these
circumstances the opinion of a rising French physician upon the subject
becomes of world-wide interest, for since the tests which have been in
use for years have been found unreliable no means should be left untried
to prove beyond a doubt that life is actually extinct before conveying
our loved ones to the grave.

Dr. Martinot, as reported in the New York Journal, asserts that an
unfailing test may be made by producing a blister on the hand or foot of
the body by holding the flame of a candle to the same for a few seconds,
or until the blister is formed which will always occur. If the blister
contains any fluid it is evidence of life, and the blister only that
produced by an ordinary burn. If, on the contrary, the blister contains
only steam, it may be asserted that life is extinct. The explanation is
as follows:

A corpse, says Dr. Martinot, is nothing more than inert matter, under
the immediate control of physical laws which cause all liquid heated to
a certain temperature to become steam; the epidermis is raised, the
blister produced; it breaks with a little noise, and the steam escapes.
But if, in spite of all appearances, there is any remnant of life, the
organic mechanism continues to be governed by physiological laws, and
the blister will contain serous matter, as in the case of any ordinary

The test is as simple as the proof is conclusive. Dry blister: death.
Liquid blister: life. Any one may try it; there is no error possible.


A fine dinner may be spoiled by not serving the proper wine at the
proper time and at the proper temperature.

A white wine (Sauterne, Riesling, Moselle, etc.) should be used from the
beginning of the meal to the time the roast or game comes on. With the
roast serve red wine, either claret or Burgundy.

Use sparkling wines after the roast.

With dessert, serve apricot cordial.

Never serve red wine with soup or fish, and never a white wine with

Storage, Temperature, Etc.

Store your wines in the cellar at 50 to 60 degrees.

All bottles should lie flat so that the cork is continually moist.

This rule should be specially observed with sparkling wines. Sparkling
wine should be served ice cold.

Put the wine on the ice--not ice in the wine.

Serve red wine at only about 5 degrees cooler than the dining-room.

White wine should be about 15 degrees cooler than the temperature of the



About seven hundred years ago there was organized a movement which
resulted in the great charter of English liberty--a movement which
foreshadowed the battle of our American forefathers for political
independence. On the 25th of August, 1213, the prelates and Barons,
tiring of the tyranny and vacillation of King John, formed a council and
passed measures to secure their rights. After two years of contest, with
many vicissitudes, the Barons entered London and the King fled into
Hampshire. By agreement both parties met at Runnymede on the 9th of
June, 1215, and after several days' debate, on June 15, Magna Charta
(the Great Charter), the glory of England, was signed and sealed by the
sovereign. The Magna Charta is a comprehensive bill of rights, and,
though crude in form, and with many clauses of merely local value, its
spirit still lives and will live. Clear and prominent we find the motto,
"No tax without representation." The original document is in Latin and
contains sixty-one articles, of which the 39th and 40th, embodying the
very marrow of our own State constitutions, are here given as translated
in the English statutes:

"39. No freeman shall be taken or imprisoned or be disseised of his
freehold, or liberties or free customs, or be otherwise destroped
[damaged], nor will be press upon him nor seize upon him [condemn him]
but by lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land.

"40. We will sell to no man, we will not deny or defer to any man,
either right or justice."

The Great Charter recognizes a popular tribunal as a check on the
official judges and may be looked upon as the foundation of the writ of
Habeas Corpus. It provides that no one is to be condemned on rumor or
suspicion, but only on the evidence of witnesses. It affords protection
against excessive emercements, illegal distresses and various processes
for debts and service due to the crown. Fines are in all cases to be
proportionate to the magnitude of the offense, and even the villein or
rustic is not to be deprived of his necessary chattels. There are
provisions regarding the forfeiture of land for felony. The testamentary
power of the subject is recognized over part of his personal estate, and
the rest to be divided between his widow and children. The independence
of the church is also provided for. These are the most important
features of the Great Charter, which, exacted by men with arms in their
hands from a resisting king, occupies so conspicuous a place in history,
which establishes the supremacy of the law of England over the will of
the monarch, and which still forms the basis of English liberties.


More than a year before the signing of the Declaration of Independence a
document was drawn up that was almost a model in phraseology and
sentiment of the great charter of American freedom. There are various
accounts of this matter, but the most trustworthy is this:

At a public meeting of the residents of Mecklenburg County, North
Carolina, held at Charlotte on the 20th of May, 1775, it was

"Resolved, That whenever directly or indirectly abetted, or in any way,
form or manner countenanced, the unchartered and dangerous invasion of
our rights, as claimed by Great Britain, is an enemy to our country--to
America--and to the inherent and inalienable rights of man.

"Resolved, That we, the citizens of Mecklenburg County, do hereby
dissolve the political bonds which have connected us to the mother
country, and hereby absolve ourselves from all allegiance to the British
crown, and abjure all political connection, contract or association with
that nation, which has wantonly trampled on our rights and liberties,
and inhumanly shed the blood of American patriots at Lexington.

"Resolved, That we do hereby declare ourselves a free and independent
people; are and of right ought to be a sovereign and self-governing
association, under the control of no power other than that of our God
and the general government of the Congress. To the maintenance of which
independence we solemnly pledge to each other our mutual cooperation,
our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor."

There are two other resolutions, concerning the militia and the
administration of the law, but these, having no present value, are here

In Congress, July 4, 1776.

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people
to dissolve the political bonds which have connected them with another,
and to assume, among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal
station to which the laws of Nature and Nature's God entitle them, a
decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should
declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal;
that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights;
that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That
to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving
their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any
form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of
the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute a new government,
laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in
such form as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and
happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long
established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and
accordingly all experience has shown that mankind are more disposed to
suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by
abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train
of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object, evinces
a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it
is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards
for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these
colonies, and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter
their former systems of government. The history of the present King of
Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all
having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over
these States. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his assent to laws the most wholesome and necessary for
the public good.

He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing
importance, unless suspended in their operation till his assent should
be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend
to them.

He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large
districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of
representation in the legislature--a right inestimable to them,
formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual,
uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public records,
for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his

He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing with
manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused, for a long time after such dissolutions, to cause others
to be elected; whereby the legislative powers, incapable of
annihilation, have returned to the people at large, for their exercise,
the state remaining, in the meantime, exposed to all the dangers of
invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States; for that
purpose obstructing the laws for naturalization of foreigners, refusing
to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising
conditions of new appropriation of lands. He has obstructed the
administration of justice, by refusing his assent to laws establishing
judiciary powers.

He has made judges dependent on his will alone for the tenure of their
offices and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of
officers, to harass our people, and to eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies, without the
consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the military independent of, and superior to,
the civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to
our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his assent to
their acts of pretended legislation:

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us. For protecting
them, by mock trial, from punishment for any murders which they should
commit on the inhabitants of these States.

For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world. For imposing
taxes on us without our consent.

For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury.

For transporting us beyond the seas to be tried for pretended offenses.

For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring
province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging
its boundaries, so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument
for introducing the same absolute rule into these colonies.

For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and
altering, fundamentally, the forms of our governments.

For suspending our own legislatures and declaring themselves invested
with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection,
and waging war against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and
destroyed the lives of our people.

He is, at this time, transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries,
to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun
with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the
most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilized

He has constrained our fellow-citizens, taken captive on the high seas,
to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their
friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands.

He has excited domestic insurrection among us, and has endeavored to
bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers the merciless Indian savages,
whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all
ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress in
the most humble terms; our repeated petitions have been answered only by
repeated injury. A prince whose character is thus marked by every act
which may define a tyrant is unfit to be ruler of a free people.

Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have
warned them, from time to time, of attempts by their legislature to
extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of
the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have
appealed to their native justice and magnanimity; and we have conjured
them, by the ties of our common kindred, to disavow these usurpations,
which would inevitably interrupt our connection and correspondence.
They, too, have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity.
We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our
separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in
war, in peace friends.

We, therefore, the representatives of the United States of America, in
general Congress assembled, appealing to the supreme Judge of the world
for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name and by the
authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and
declare that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free
and independent States; that they are absolved from all allegiance to
the British crown, and that all political connection between them and
the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved; and
that, as free and independent States, they have full power to levy war,
conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce and to do all
other acts and things which independent States may of right do. And for
the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection
of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our
fortunes and our sacred honor.

The foregoing declaration was, by order of the Congress, engrossed, and
signed by the following members:


New Hampshire--Josiah Bartlett, William Whipple, Matthew Thornton.

Massachusetts Bay--Samuel Adams, John Adams, Robert Treat Paine,
Elbridge Gerry.

Rhode Island--Stephen Hopkins, William Ellery.

Connecticut--Roger Sherman, Samuel Huntington, William Williams, Oliver

New York--William Floyd, Philip Livingston, Francis Lewis, Lewis Morris.

New Jersey--Richard Stockton. John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, John
Hart, Abraham Clark.

Pennsylvania--Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Franklin, John
Morton, George Clymer, James Smith, George Taylor, James Wilson, George

Delaware--Caesar Rodney, George Read, Thomas McKean.

Maryland--Samuel Chase, William Paco, Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll, of

Virginia--George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin
Harrison, Thomas Nelson, Jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter Braxton.

North Carolina--William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn.

South Carolina--Edward Rutledge, Thomas Heyward, Jr., Thomas Lynch, Jr.,
Arthur Middleton.

Georgia--Button Gwinett, Lyman Hall, George Walton.

The following clause formed part of the original Declaration of
Independence as signed, but was finally left out of the printed copies
"out of respect to South Carolina":

"He [King George III.] has waged cruel war against human nature itself,
violating its most sacred rights of life and liberty in the persons of a
distant people who never offended him, captivating and carrying them
into slavery in another hemisphere or to incur miserable death in their
transportation thither."


We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect
union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the
common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of
liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this
Constitution for the United States of America.

Article I.


1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress
of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of


1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen
every second year by the people of the several States; and the electors
in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of
the most numerous branch of the State legislature.

2. No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to
the age of twenty-five years, and have been seven years a citizen of the
United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that
State in which he shall be chosen.

3. Representative and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the
several States which may be included within this Union, according to
their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the
whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a
term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all
other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years
after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within
every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law
direct. The number of representatives shall not exceed one for every
thirty thousand, but each State shall have at least one representative;
and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire
shall be entitled to choose three; Massachusetts, eight; Rhode Island
and Providence Plantations, one; Connecticut, five; New York, six; New
Jersey, four; Pennsylvania, eight; Delaware, one; Maryland, six;
Virginia, ten; North Carolina, five; South Carolina, five, and Georgia,

4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, the
executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such

5. The House of Representatives shall choose their speaker and other
officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment.


1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two senators
from each State, chosen by the legislature thereof, for six years; and
each senator shall have one vote.

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first
election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes.
The seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the
expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of
the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth
year, so that one-third may be chosen every second year; and if
vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, during the recess of the
legislature of any State, the executive thereof may make temporary
appointments until the next meeting of the legislature, which shall then
fill such vacancies.

3. No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained to the age
of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and
who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for which he
shall be chosen.

4. The Vice-President of the United States shall be president of the
Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided.

5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a president
pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice-President, or when he shall
exercise the office of President of the United States.

6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When
sitting for that purpose they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the
President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall
preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of
two-thirds of the members present.

7. Judgment, in cases of impeachment, shall not extend further than to
removal from office, disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of
honor, trust or profit under the United States; but the party convicted
shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment
and punishment, according to law.


1. The times, places and manner of holding elections for senators and
representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the legislature
thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such
regulations, except as to the places of choosing senators.

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year; and such
meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by
law appoint a different day.


1. Each house shall be the judge of the election, returns and
qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall
constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn
from day to day and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent
members, in such manner and under such penalties as each house may

2. Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its
members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of
two-thirds, expel a member.

3. Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to
time publish the same, excepting such parts as in their judgment require
secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any
question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those present, be entered
on the journal.

4. Neither house, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the
consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other
place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting.


1. The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation for
their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury
of the United States. They shall, in all cases, except treason, felony,
and breach of peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance
at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning
from the same; and for any speech or debate in either house they shall
not be questioned in any other place.

2. No senator or representative shall, during the time for which he was
elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority of the
United States, which shall have been created, or the emoluments whereof
shall have been increased, during such time; and no person holding any
office under the United States shall be a member of either house during
his continuance in office.


1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of
Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as
on other bills.

2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and
the Senate, shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the
President of the United States; if he approve he shall sign it, but if
not he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in which it
shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their
journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If, after such reconsideration,
two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent,
together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall
likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two-thirds of that house,
it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both houses
shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons
voting for or against the bill be entered on the journal of each house
respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within
ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him,
the same shall be a law in like manner as if he had signed it, unless
the Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return, in which case it
shall not be a law.

3. Every order, resolution or vote to which the concurrence of the
Senate and the House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a
question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the
United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved
by him, or, being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two-thirds of
the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and
limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.


The Congress shall have power--

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises to pay the
debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the
United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform
throughout the United States;

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States;

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several
States, and with the Indian tribes;

4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on
the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States;

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and
fix the standard of weights and measures;

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and
current coin of the United States;

7. To establish post-offices and post-roads;

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for
limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their
respective writings and discoveries;

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;

10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high
seas, and offenses against the law of nations;

11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules
concerning captures on land and water;

12. To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that
use shall be for a longer term than two years;

13. To provide and maintain a navy;

14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and
naval forces;

15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the
Union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions;

16. To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and
for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the
United States, reserving to the States, respectively, the appointment of
the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the
discipline prescribed by Congress;

17. To exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases whatsoever, over
such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of
particular States, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of
the government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over
all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the State in
which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals,
dock-yards, and other needful buildings;

And to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying
into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by the
Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any
department or officer thereof.


1. The migration or importation of such persons as any of the States now
existing shall think proper to admit shall not be prohibited by the
Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a
tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten
dollars for each person.

2. The privilege of the writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended,
unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may
require it.

3. No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.

4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion
to the census or enumeration hereinbefore directed to be taken.

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State.

6. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue
to the ports of one State over those or another; nor shall vessels bound
to or from one State be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in

7. No money shall be drawn from the treasury but in consequence of
appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the
receipts and expenditures of all public moneys shall be published from
time to time.

8. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States; and no
person holding any office of profit or trust under them shall, without
the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office or
title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince or foreign state.


1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation;
grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit;
make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts;
pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the
obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.

2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any impost
or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary
for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of an duties and
imposts laid by any State on imports or exports shall be for the use of
the treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to
the revision and control of the Congress. No State shall, without the
consent of the Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships
of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with
another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless
actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.

Article II.


1. The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United
States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four
years; and, together with the Vice-President chosen for the same term,
be elected as follows:

2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof
may direct, a number of electors equal to the whole number of senators
and representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress;
but no senator or representative, or person holding an office of trust
or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.

3. The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by
ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant
of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the
persons voted for and of the number of votes for each; which list they
shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of government of
the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The
President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House
of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then
be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the
President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors
appointed; and if there be more than one who have such a majority, and
have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall
immediately choose, by ballot, one of them for President, and if no
person have a majority, then, from the five highest on the list, the
said House shall, in like manner, choose the President. But in choosing
the President the votes shall be taken by States, the representation
from each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist
of a member or members from two-thirds of all the States, and a majority
of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after
the choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of
votes of the electors shall be the Vice-President. But if there should
remain two or more who have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from
them, by ballot, the Vice-President.

4. The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the
day on which they shall give their votes, which day shall be the same
throughout the United States.

5. No person, except a natural-born citizen, or a citizen of the United
States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be
eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be
eligible to that office who shall not have attained the age of
thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United

6. In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death,
resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of said
office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President; and the Congress
may, by law, provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or
inability, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring what
officer shall then act as President; and such officer shall act
accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President shall be

7. The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a
compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the
period for which he shall have been elected; and he shall not receive
within that period any other emoluments from the United States, or any
of them.

8. Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the
following oath or affirmation:

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the
office of President of the United States; and will, to the best of my
ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United


1. The President shall be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the
United States, and of the militia of the several States, when called
into the actual service of the United States. He may require the
opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive
departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective
offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for
offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.

2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the
Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present
concur; and he shall nominate, and, by and with the advice and consent
of the Senate, shall appoint embassadors, other public ministers and
consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of the
United States whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for,
and which shall be established by law. But the Congress may, by law,
vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they think proper in
the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of

3. The President shall have power to fill all vacancies that may happen
during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall
expire at the end of their next session.


1. He shall, from time to time, give to the Congress information of the
state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration such measures
as he shall judge necessary and expedient. He may, on extraordinary
occasions, convene both houses, or either of them; and in case of
disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he
may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper. He shall receive
embassadors and other public ministers. He shall take care that the laws
be faithfully executed; and shall commission all officers of the United


1. The President, Vice-President and all civil officers of the United
States shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction
of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

Article III.


1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one
Supreme Court and in such inferior courts as Congress may from time to
time ordain and establish. The judges both of the Supreme and inferior
courts shall hold their offices during good behavior; and shall, at
stated times, receive for their services a compensation which shall not
be diminished during their continuance of office.


1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity
arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and
treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all
cases affecting embassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all
cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which
the United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more
States, between a State and citizens of another State, between citizens
of different States, between citizens of the same State claiming lands
under grants of different States, and between a State, or the citizens
thereof, and foreign states, citizens, or subjects.

2. In all cases affecting embassadors, other public ministers and
consuls, and those in which a State shall be a party, the Supreme Court
shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases mentioned, the
Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and
fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the Congress
shall make.

3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by
jury, and such trial shall be held in the State where the said crime
shall have been committed; but when not committed within any State, the
trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have


l. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war
against them or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and
comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony
of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

2. The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason;
but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or
forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted.

Article IV.


1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to the public
acts, records and judicial proceedings of every other State; and the
Congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts,
records and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.

SECTION II. 1. The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all
privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States.

2. A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other crime,
who shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, shall, on
demand of the executive authority of the State from which he fled, be
delivered up to be removed to the State having jurisdiction of the

3. No person held to service or labor in one State under the laws
thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any laws or
regulations therein, be discharged from such service or labor; but shall
be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may
be due.


1. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no
new State shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any
other State, nor any State be formed by the junction of two or more
States or parts of States, without the consent of the legislatures of
the States concerned, as well as of Congress.

2. The Congress shall have power to dispose of, and make all needful
rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property
belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall
be so construed as to prejudice any claim of the United States, or of
any particular State.


1. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a
republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against
invasion; and, on application of the legislature, or of the executive
(when the legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence.

Article V.

1. The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it
necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution; or, on the
application of the legislatures of two-thirds of the several States,
shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case,
shall be valid to all intents and purposes as part of this Constitution,
when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several
States, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the
other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided,
that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight
hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth
clauses in the ninth section of the fifth article; and that no State,
without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the

Article VI.

1. All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the adoption
of this Constitution shall be as valid against the United States under
this Constitution as under the Confederation.

2. This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be
made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be
made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law
of the land; and the judges of every State shall be bound thereby,
anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary

3. The senators and representatives before mentioned, and the members of
the several State legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers,
both of the United States and the several States, shall be bound by oath
or affirmation to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall
ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under
the United States.

Article VII.

1. The ratification of the convention of nine States shall be sufficient
for the establishment of this Constitution between the States so
ratifying the same. Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the
States present, the seventeenth day of December, in the year of our Lord
one thousand seven hundred and eighty-seven, and of the Independence of
the United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have
hereunto subscribed our names.

President, and Deputy from Virginia.


Article I.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or
prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of
speech or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to
assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievance.

Article II.

A well regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free
state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be

Article III.

No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house without
the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be
prescribed by law.

Article IV.

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers
and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be
violated; and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported
by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be
searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Article V.

No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise infamous
crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in
cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in
actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be
subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or
limb, nor shall be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness
against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without
due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use,
without just compensation.

Article VI.

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a
speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district
wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have
been previously ascertained by law; and to be informed of the nature and
cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against
him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor,
and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

Article VII.

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved; and no
fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise reexamined, in any court of the
United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Article VIII.

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor
cruel and unusual punishment inflicted.

Article IX.

The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not be
construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Article X.

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor
prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively,
or to the people. [The preceding ten amendatory articles were proposed
to the legislatures of the States by the first Congress, September 25,
1789, and notification of ratification received from all the States
except Connecticut, Georgia and Massachusetts.]

Article XI.

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend
to any suit in law or equity commenced or prosecuted against one of the
United States by citizens or subjects of any foreign state.

[Proposed by the Third Congress, and Congress notified of its adoption
January 8, 1798.]

Article XII.

1. The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by
ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall
not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. They shall name
in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct
ballots the person voted for as Vice-President; and they shall make
distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons
voted for as Vice-President; and of the number of votes for each; which
lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of
government of the United States, directed to the President of the
Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate
and House of Representatives, open the certificates, and the votes shall
then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes for
President shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the
whole number of electors appointed; and if no person have such majority,
then from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three,
on the list of those voted for as President, the House of
Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But,
in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by States, the
representation from each State having one vote; a quorum for this
purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the
States, and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice.
And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President
whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth
day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as
President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional
disability of the President.

2. The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President
shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole
number of electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then
from the two highest numbers on the list the Senate shall choose the
Vice-President. A quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of
the whole number of senators, and a majority of the whole number shall
be necessary to a choice.

3. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President
shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United Stales.

[Proposed by the Eighth Congress, and declared adopted September 23,
1804, by proclamation of the Secretary of State.]

Article XIII.

1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for
crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist
within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate

[Proposed by the Thirty-eighth Congress, and declared adopted December
18, 1865, by proclamation of the Secretary of State.]

Article XIV.


All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the
jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State
wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall
abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States,
nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property,
without due process or law, nor deny to any person within its
jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

SECTION II. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several
States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number
of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the
right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President
and Vice-President of the United States, representatives in Congress,
the executive and judicial officers of a State, or the members of the
legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such
State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United
States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or
other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the
proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the
whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

SECTION III. No person shall be a senator or representative in Congress,
or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or
military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having
previously taken an oath as a member of Congress, or as an officer of
the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an
executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution
of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion
against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof; but
Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each house, remove such

SECTION IV. The validity of the public debt of the United States,
authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and
bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall
not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall
assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or
rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or
emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims
shall be held illegal and void.

SECTION V. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate
legislation, the provisions of this article.

[Proposed by the Thirty-ninth Congress and declared adopted by concurrent
resolution of Congress, July 21, 1868.]

Article XV.


The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied
or abridged by the United States, or any State, on account of race,
color or previous condition of servitude.


The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate

[Proposed by the Fortieth Congress, and declared adopted by proclamation
of the Secretary of State, March 30, 1870.]


Who fought for King George in 1776? Working people.

What interest did they have in being ruled by him? None.

Why, then, did they risk their lives for him? Because he hired them.

Where did the king get the money to pay them? By taxing them.

Then they really paid themselves for fighting? Certainly.

In every war ever fought the working people paid the expenses.

"WHAT constitutes a state?
Men who their duties know,
But know their rights, and, knowing,
Dare maintain."


1. Legal equality of all human beings.

2. The people the only source of power.

3. No hereditary offices, nor order of "nobility," nor title.

4. No unnecessary taxation.

5. No national banks or bonds.

6. No costly splendor of administration.

7. Freedom of thought and discussion.

8. Civil authority superior to the military.

9. No favored classes; no special privileges; no monopolies.

10. Free and fair elections; universal suffrage.

11. No public money spent without warrant of law.

12. No mysteries in government hidden from the public eye.

13. Representatives bound by the instructions of their constituents.

14. The Constitution of the United States a special grant of powers
limited and definite.

15. Freedom, sovereignty and independence of the respective States.

16. Absolute severance of Church and State.

17. The Union a compact--not a consolidation nor a centralization.

18. Moderate salaries, economy and strict accountability.

19. Gold and silver currency--supplemented by treasury notes bearing no
interest and bottomed on taxes.

20. No State banks of issue.

21. No expensive navy or diplomatic establishment.

22. A progressive or graduated tax laid upon wealth.

23. No internal revenue system. A complete separation of public moneys
from bank funds.


Declaration of Independence   July 4th, 1776

General Washington, first President.   1789 and 1793

John Adams   1797

Thomas Jefferson   1801 and 1805

James Madison   1809 and 1813

James Monroe   1817 and 1821

John Quincy Adams   1825

General Andrew Jackson   1829 and 1833

Martin Van Buren   1837

General William Henry Harrison (died 4th April)  1841

John Tyler (elected as Vice-President).   1841

James Knox Polk   1845

General Zachary Taylor (died 9th July, 1850)   1849

Millard Fillmore (elected as Vice-President)  1850

General Franklin Pierce   1853

James Buchanan   1857

Abraham Lincoln (assassinated 14th April, 1865)   1861 and 1865

Andrew Johnson (elected as Vice-President)    1865

General Ulysses S. Grant  1869 and 1873

Rutherford B. Hayes   1877

General J. Abram Garfield (died 19th September, 1881)   1881

General Chester A. Arthur (elected as V. Pres.)   1881

Grover Cleveland   1885

Benjamin H. Harrison   1889

Grover Cleveland   1893

William McKinley (elected)   1897

(Re-elected)  1901

(Assassinated September 14, 1901)

Theodore Roosevelt (elected Vice-President)  1901

(Became President September 14)  1901

Theodore Roosevelt (elected)   1905

Wm. H. Taft   1909


Cast by Thomas Lester, Whitechapel, London.

Arrived in Philadelphia in August, 1752.

First used in statehouse, Philadelphia, Aug. 27, 1752.

Twice recast by Pass & Snow, Philadelphia, to repair crack, September,

Muffled and tolled Oct. 5, 1765, on arrival of ship Royal Charlotte with

Muffled and tolled Oct. 31, 1765, when stamp act was put in operation.

Summoned meeting to prevent landing of cargo of tea from the ship Polly
Dec. 27, 1774.

Summoned meeting of patriots April 25, 1775, after battle of Lexington.

Proclaimed declaration of independence and the birth of a new nation at
great ratification meeting July 8, 1776.

First journey from Philadelphia made in September, 1777, to Allentown,
Pa., to escape capture by the British; returned June 27, 1778.

Proclaimed treaty of peace April 16, 1783.

Tolled for the death of Washington Dec. 26, 1799.

Rung on the fiftieth anniversary of the declaration of independence July
4, 1826.

Last used in tolling for the death of John Marshall July 8, 1835,

Principal tours: To New Orleans in 1885; Chicago, 1893; Atlanta, 1895;
Boston, 1902; St Louis, 1904.


George Washington's death was the result of a severe cold contracted
while riding around his farm in a rain and sleet storm on Dec. 10, 1799.
The cold increased and was followed by a chill, which brought on acute
laryngitis. He died at the age of 68, on Dec. 14, 1799.

John Adams died from old age, having reached his ninety-first milestone.
Though active mentally, he was nearly blind and unable to hold a pen
steadily enough to write. He passed away without pain on July 4, 1826.

Thomas Jefferson died at the age of eighty-three, a few hours before
Adams, on July 4, 1826. His disease was chronic diarrhoea, superinduced
by old age, and his physician said the too free use of the waters of the
white sulphur springs.

James Madison also died of old age, and peacefully, on June 28, 1836.
His faculties were undimmed to the last. He was eighty-five.

James Monroe's demise, which occurred in the seventy-third year of his
age, on July 4, 1831, was assigned to enfeebled health.

John Quincy Adams was stricken with paralysis on Feb. 21, 1848, while
addressing the Speaker of the House of Representatives, being at the
time a member of Congress. He died in the rotunda of the Capitol. He was
eighty-one years of age.

Andrew Jackson died on June 8, 1845, seventy-eight years old. He
suffered from consumption and finally dropsy, which made its appearance
about six months before his death.

Martin Van Buren died on July 24, 1862, from a violent attack of asthma,
followed by catarrhal affections of the throat and lungs. He was eighty
years of age.

William Henry Harrison's death was caused by pleurisy, the result of a
cold, which he caught on the day of his inauguration. This was
accompanied with severe diarrhoea, which would not yield to medical
treatment. He died on April 4, 1841, a month after his inauguration. He
was sixty-eight years of age.

John Tyler died on Jan. 17, 1862, at the age of seventy-two. Cause of
death, bilious colic.

James K. Polk was stricken with a slight attack of cholera in the spring
of 1849, while on a boat going up the Mississippi River. Though
temporarily relieved, he had a relapse on his return home and died on
June 15, 1849, aged fifty-four years.

Zachary Taylor was the second President to die in office. He is said to
have partaken immoderately of ice water and iced milk, and then later of
a large quantity of cherries. The result was an attack of cholera
morbus. He was sixty-six years old.

Millard Fillmore died from a stroke of paralysis on March 8, 1874, in
his seventy-fourth year.

Franklin Pierce's death was due to abdominal dropsy, and occurred on
Oct. 8, l869, in the sixty-fifth year of his age.

James Buchanan's death occurred on June 1, 1868, and was caused by
rheumatic gout. He was seventy-seven years of age.

Abraham Lincoln was shot by J. Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater,
Washington, D. C., on April 14, 1865, and died the following day, aged

Andrew Johnson died from a stroke of paralysis July 31, 1875, aged

U. S. Grant died of cancer of the tongue, at Mt. McGregor, N. Y., July
3, 1885.

James A. Garfield was shot by Charles J. Guiteau on July 2. 1881. Died
Sept. 19, 1881.

Chester A. Arthur, who succeeded Garfield, died suddenly of apoplexy in
New York City, Nov. 18, 1886.

Rutherford B. Hayes died Jan. 17, 1803, the result of a severe cold
contracted in Cleveland, Ohio.

Benjamin Harrison died March 13, 1901. Cause of death, pneumonia.

William McKinley was assassinated Sept. 14, 1901.

Grover Cleveland died on June 24, 1908, of debility, aged 71.


The following literary curiosity found its way recently into the query
column of a Boston newspaper. Nobody seems to know who wrote it:

O I wish I was in eden
Where all the beastes is feedin,
the Pigs an cows an osses.
And the long tale Bull wot tosses
the Bulldog and the Rabbit,
acaus it is his habbit;
Where Lions, Tigurs, monkees,
And them long-ear'd things call'd Donkeys,
Meat all together daylee
With Crockedyles all Skaley,
Where sparros on the bushis
Sings to there mates, the thrushis,
an Hawks and Littel Rens
Wawks about like Cocks and Ens,
One looking at the tuther
for all the World like a Bruther.
Where no quarlin is or Phytin,
its tru wot ime aritin.
O for a wauk at even,
somewhere abowt 6 or 7,
When the Son be gwain to bed,
with his fase all fyree red.
O for the grapes and resins
Wot ripens at all seesins;
the appels and the Plumbs
As Big as my 2 thums;
the hayprecocks an peechis,
Wot all within our reech is,
An we mought pick an heat,
paying nothing for the treat.
O for the pooty flouers
A bloomin at all ours,
So that a large Bokay
Yew may gether any day
Of ev'ry flour that blose
from Colleflour to rose.


A Brief but Comprehensive Treatise Based on Loisette's Famous System of
Memory Culture.

So much has been said about Loisette's memory system, the art has been
so widely advertised, and so carefully guarded from all the profane who
do not send five or many dollars to the Professor, that a few pages,
showing how man may be his own Loisette, may be both interesting and

In the first place, the system is a good one, and well worth the labor
of mastering, and if the directions are implicitly followed there can be
no doubt that the memory will be greatly strengthened and improved, and
that the mnemonic feats otherwise impossible may be easily performed.
Loisette, however, is not an inventor, but an introducer. He stands in
the same relation to Dr. Pick that the retail dealer holds to the
manufacturer: the one produced the article, the other brings it to the
public. Even this statement is not quite fair to Loisette, for he has
brought much practical common sense to bear upon Pick's system, and, in
preparing the new art of mnemonics for the market, in many ways he has
made it his own.

If each man would reflect upon the method by which he himself remembers
things, he would find his hand upon the key of the whole mystery. For
instance, I was once trying to remember the word "Blythe." There
occurred to my mind the words "Bellman," "Belle," and the verse:

  "---- the peasant upward climbing
  Hears the bells of Buloss chiming."

"Barcarole," "Barrack," and so on, until finally the word "Blythe"
presented itself with a strange insistence, long after I had ceased
trying to recall it.

On another occasion, when trying to recall the name "Richardson," I got
the words "hay-rick," "Robertson," "Randallstown," and finally
"wealthy," from which, naturally, I got "rich" and "Richardson" almost
in a breath.

Still another example: Trying to recall the name of an old schoolmate,
"Grady," I got "Brady," "grave," "gaseous," "gastronome," "gracious,"
and I finally abandoned the attempt, simply saying to myself that it
began with a "G," and there was an "a" sound after it. The next morning
when thinking of something entirely different, this name "Grady" came up
in my mind with as much distinctness as though someone had whispered it
in my ear. This remembering was done without any conscious effort on my
part, and was evidently the result of the exertion made the day before
when the mnemonic processes were put to work. Every reader must have had
a similar experience which he can recall, and which will fall in line
with the examples given.

It follows, then, that when we endeavor, without the aid of any system,
to recall a forgotten fact or name, our memory presents to us words of
similar sound or meaning in its journey toward the goal to which we have
started it. This goes to show that our ideas are arranged in groups in
whatever secret cavity or recess of the brain they occupy, and that the
arrangement is not an alphabetical one exactly, and not entirely by
meaning, but after some fashion partaking of both.

If you are looking for the word "meadow" you may reach "middle" before
you come to it, or "Mexico," or many, words beginning with the "m"
sound, or containing the "dow", as window, or "dough," or you may get
"field" or "farm"--but you are on the right track, and if you do not
interfere with your intellectual process you will finally come to the
idea which you are seeking.

How often have you heard people say, "I forget his name, it is something
like Beadle or Beagle--at any rate it begins with a B." Each and all of
these were unconscious Loisettians, and they were practicing blindly,
and without proper method or direction, the excellent system which he
teaches. The thing, then, to do--and it is the final and simple truth
which Loisette teaches--is to travel over this ground in the other
direction--to cement the fact which you wish to remember to some other
fact or word which you know will be brought out by the implied
conditions--and thus you will always be able to travel from your given
starting-point to the thing which you wish to call to mind.

It seems as though a channel were cut in our mind-stuff along which the
memory flows. How to construct an easy channel for any event or series
of events or facts which one wishes to remember, along which the mind
will ever afterward travel, is the secret of mnemonics.

Loisette, in common with all the mnemonic teachers, uses the old device
of representing numbers by letters--and as this is the first and easiest
step in the art, this seems to be the most logical place to introduce
the accepted equivalents of the Arabic numerals:

0 is always represented by s, z or c soft.

1 is always represented by t, th or d.

2 is always represented by n.

3 is always represented by m.

4 is always represented by r.

5 is always represented by l.

6 is always represented by sh, j, ch soft or g soft.

7 is always represented by g hard, k, c hard, q or final ng.

8 is always represented by f or v.

9 is always represented by p or b.

All the other letters are used simply to fill up. Double letters in a
word count only as one. In fact, the system goes by sound, not by
spelling, For instance, "this" or "dizzy" would stand for ten; "catch"
or "gush" would stand for 76, and the only difficulty is to make some
word or phrase which will contain only the significant letters in the
proper order, filled out with non-significants into some guise of
meaning or intelligibility.

You can remember the equivalents given above by noting that z is the
first letter of "zero," and c of "cipher," t has but one stroke, n has
two, m three; the script f is very like 8; the script p like 9; r is the
last letter of "four;" l is the Roman numeral for 50, which suggests 5.
The others may be retained by memorizing these nonsense lines:

  Six shy Jewesses chase George.
  Seven great kings came quarreling.

Suppose you wished to get some phrase or word that would express the
number 3,685, you arrange the letters this way:

a m a sh a f a 1
e j e v e
i ch i
o g o

You can make out "image of law," "my shuffle," "matchville," etc., etc.,
as far as you like to work it out.

Now, suppose you wished to memorize the fact that $1,000,000 in gold
weighs 3,685 pounds, you go about it in this way, and here is the kernel
and crux of Loisette's system: "How much does $1,000,000 in gold weigh?"


"Scales--statue of justice."

"Statue of Justice--image of law."

The process is simplicity itself. The thing you wish to recall, and that
you fear to forget, is the weight; consequently you cement your chain of
suggestion to the idea which is most prominent in your mental question.
What do you weigh with? Scales. What does the mental picture of scales
suggest? The statue of Justice, blindfolded and weighing out award and
punishment to man. Finally, what is this statue of Justice but the image
of law? And the words "image of law," translated back from the
significant letters m, g soft, f and 1, give you 3--6--8--5, the number
of pounds in $1,000,000 in gold. You bind together in your mind each
separate step in the journey, the one suggests the other, and you will
find a year from now that the fact will be as fresh in your memory as it
is today. You cannot lose it. It is chained to you by an unbreakable
mnemonic tie. Mark that it is not claimed that "weight" will of itself
suggest "scales," and "scales" "statue of Justice," etc., but that,
having once passed your attention up and down that ladder of ideas, your
mental tendency will be to take the same route, and get to the same goal
again and again. Indeed, beginning with the weight of $1,000,000, "image
of law" will turn up in your mind without your consciousness of any
intermediate station on the way, after some iteration and reiteration of
the original chain.

Again, so as to fasten the process in the reader's mind even more
firmly, suppose that it were desired to fix the date of the battle of
Hastings (A. D. 1066) in the memory; 1066 may be represented by the
words "the wise judge" (th--1, s--0, j--6, dg--6; the others are
non-significants); a chain might be made thus:

Battle of Hastings--arbitrament of war.

Arbitrament of war--arbitration.


Judgment--the wise judge.

Make mental pictures, connect ideas, repeat words and sounds, go about
it any way you please, so that you will form a mental habit of
connecting the "battle of Hastings" with the idea of "arbitrament of
war," and so on for the other links in the chain, and the work is done.

Loisette makes the beginning of his system unnecessarily difficult, to
say nothing of his illogical arrangement in the grammar of the art of
memory, which he makes the first of his lessons. He analyzes suggestion

1. Inclusion.

2. Exclusion.

3. Concurrence.

All of which looks very scientific and orderly, but is really misleading
and badly named. The truth is that one idea will suggest another:

1. By likeness or opposition of meaning, as "house" suggests "room" or
"door," etc.; or, "white" suggests "black"; "cruel," "kind," etc.

2. By likeness of sound, as "harrow" and "barrow"; "Henry" and

3. By mental juxtaposition, a peculiarity different in each person, and
depending upon each one's own experiences. Thus, "St. Charles" suggests
"railway bridge" to me, because I was vividly impressed by the breaking
of the Wabash bridge at that point. "Stable" and "broken leg" come near
each other in my experience, as do "cow" and "shot-gun" and "licking."

Out of these three sorts of suggestion it is possible to get from anyone
fact to another in a chain certain and safe, along which the mind may be
depended upon afterwards always to follow.

The chain is, of course, by no means all. Its making and its binding
must be accompanied by a vivid, methodically directed attention, which
turns all the mental light gettable in a focus upon the subject passing
across the mind's screen. Before Loisette was thought of this was known.
In the old times in England, in order to impress upon the mind of the
rising generation the parish boundaries in the rural districts, the boys
were taken to each of the landmarks in succession, the position and
bearing of each pointed out carefully, and, in order to deepen the
impression, the young people were then and there vigorously thrashed--a
mechanical method of attracting the attention which was said never to
have failed. This system has had its supporters in many of the
old-fashioned schools, and there are men who will read these lines who
can recall, with an itching sense of vivid impression, the 144 lickings
which were said to go with the multiplication table.

In default of a thrashing, however, the student must cultivate as best
he can an intense fixity of perception upon every fact or word or date
that he wishes to make permanently his own. It is easy. It is a matter
of habit. If you will, you can photograph an idea upon your cerebral
gelatine so that neither years nor events will blot it out or overlay
it. You must be clearly and distinctly aware of the thing you are
putting into your mental treasure-house, and drastically certain of the
cord by which you have tied it to some other thing of which you are
sure. Unless it is worth your while to do this, you might as well
abandon any hope of mnemonic improvement, which will not come without
the hardest kind of hard work, although it is work that will grow
constantly easier with practice and reiteration. You need, then:

1. Methodic suggestion.

2. Methodic attention.

3. Methodic reiteration.

And this is all there is to Loisette, and a great deal it is. Two of
them will not do without the third. You do not know how many steps there
are from your hall door to your bedroom, though you have attended to and
often reiterated the journey. But if there are twenty of them, and you
have once bound the word "nice," or "nose," or "news" or "hyenas," to
the fact of the stairway, you can never forget it.

The Professor makes a point, and very wisely, of the importance of
working through some established chain, so that the whole may be carried
away in the mind--not alone for the value of the facts so bound
together, but for the mental discipline so afforded.

Here, then, is the "President Series," which contains the name and date
of inauguration of each President from Washington to Cleveland. The
manner in which it is to be mastered is this: Beginning at the top, try
to find in your mind some connection between each word and the one
following it. See how you can at some future time make one suggest the
next, either by suggestion of sound or sense, or by mental
juxtaposition. When you have found this dwell on it attentively for a
moment or two. Pass it backward and forward before you, and then go on
to the next step.

The chain runs thus, the names of the President being in capitals, the
date words or date phrases being inclosed in parentheses:

President  Chosen for the first word as the one most apt to occur to the
           mind of anyone wishing to repeat the names of the Presidents.

Dentist       President and dentist.

Draw          What does a dentist do?

(To give up)  When something is drawn from one it is given up.
              This is a date phrase meaning 1789.

WASHINGTON.   Associate the quality of self-sacrifice with
              Washington's character.

Morning wash   Washington and wash.

Dew            Early wetness and dew.

Flower beds    Dew and flowers.

(Took a bouquet)  Flowers and bouquet. Date phrase (1797),

Garden         Bouquet and garden.

Eden           The first garden.

Adam           Juxtaposition of thought.

ADAMS          Suggestion by sound.

Fall           Juxtaposition of thought.

Failure        Fall and failure.

(Deficit)      Upon failure there is usually a deficit
               Date word (1801).

Debt           The consequence of a deficit.

Confederate bonds   Suggestion by meaning.

Jefferson Davis    Juxtaposition of thought.


Now follow out the rest for yourself, taking about ten at a time, and
binding those you do last to those you have done before, each time,
before attacking the next bunch.

Judge Jeffreys
(bloody assize)
(too heavy a sob)
parental grief
mad son
first-rate wine
toe the line
Old Harry
the tempter
(the fraud)
painted clay
baked clay
Wat Tyler
poll tax
(free will)
free offering
burnt offering
end of dance
termination "ly"
part of speech
part of a man
fill us
more fuel
the flame
hurt (feeling)
official censure
(to officiate)
civil service
ward politician
(stop 'em)
stop procession
(tough boy)
Little Ben
tariff too
(the funnel)
fine fruit
(the fine boy)
sailor boy
jack tar
stone wall
(tough make)
oaken furniture
school premium
hay field
brightly lighted
prison fare
(half fed)
well fed
well read
round table
tea cup
(half full)
City of Cleveland
(the heavy shell)
unfamiliar word
bad son
(thievish bay)
dishonest boy
rough rider

It will be noted that some of the date words, as "free will," only give
three figures of the date, 845; but it is to be supposed that if the
student knows that many figures in the date of Polk's inauguration he
can guess the other one.

The curious thing about this system will now become apparent. If the
reader has learned the series so that he can say it down from President
to Taft, he can with no effort, and without any further preparation, say
it backwards from Taft up to the commencement! There could be no better
proof that this is the natural mnemonic system. It proves itself by its

The series should be repeated backward and forward every day for a
month, and should be supplemented by a series of the reader's own
making, and by this one, which gives the numbers from 0 to 100, and
which must be chained together before they can be learned:


[Transcriber's note: Items 21, 19, 20, 22 are shown as printed.]

By the use of this table, which should be committed as thoroughly as the
President series, so that it can be repeated backward and forward, any
date, figure or number can be at once constructed, and bound by the
usual chain to the fact which you wish it to accompany.

When the student wishes to go farther and attack larger problems than
the simple binding of two facts together, there is little in Loisette's
system that is new, although there is much that is good. If it is a book
that is to be learned as one would prepare for an examination, each
chapter is to be considered separately. Of each an epitome is to be
written in which the writer must exercise all of his ingenuity to reduce
the matter in hand to its final skeleton of fact. This he is to commit
to memory both by the use of the chain and the old system of
interrogation. Suppose after much labor through a wide space of language
one boils a chapter or an event down to the final irreducible sediment:
"Magna Charta was exacted by the barons from King John at Runnymede."

You must now turn this statement this way and that way; asking yourself
about it every possible and impossible question, gravely considering the
answers, and, if you find any part of it especially difficult to
remember, chaining it to the question which will bring it out. Thus,
"What was exacted by the barons from King John at Runnymede?" "Magna
Charta." "By whom was Magna Charta exacted from King John at Runnymede?"
"By the barons." "From whom was," etc., etc.? "King John." "From what
king," etc., etc.? "King John." "Where was Magna Charta," etc., etc.?
"At Runnymede."

And so on and so on, as long as your ingenuity can suggest questions to
ask, or points of view from which to consider the statement. Your mind
will be finally saturated with the information, and prepared to spill it
out at the first squeeze of the examiner. This, however, is not new. It
was taught in the schools hundreds of years before Loisette was born.
Old newspaper men will recall in connection with it Horace Greeley's
statement that the test of a news item was the clear and satisfactory
manner in which a report answered the interrogatories, "What?" "When?"
"Where?" "Who?" "Why?"

In the same way Loisette advises the learning of poetry, e. g.:

"The Assyrian came down like the wolf on the fold."

"Who came down?"

"How did the Assyian come down?"

"Like what animal did?" etc.

And so on and so on, until the verses are exhausted of every scrap of
information to be had out of them by the most assiduous

Whatever the reader may think of the availability or value of this part
of the system, there are so many easily applicable tests of the worth of
much that Loisette has done, that it may be taken with the rest.

Few people, to give an easy example, can remember the value of the ratio
between the circumference and the diameter of the circle beyond four
places of decimals, or at most six--3.141592. Here is the value to 108
decimal places:

4459230781.6406286208.9986280348.2534211706.7982148086 plus.

By a very simple application of the numerical letter values these 108
decimal places can be carried in the mind and recalled about as fast as
you can write them down. All that is to be done is to memorize these
nonsense lines:

Mother Day will buy any shawl.
My love pick up my new muff.
A Russian jeer may move a woman.
Cables enough for Utopia.
Get a cheap ham pie by my cooley.
The slave knows a bigger ape.
I rarely hop on my sick foot.
Cheer a sage in a fashion safe.
A baby fish now views my wharf.
Annually Mary Ann did kiss a jay,
A cabby found a rough savage.

Now translate each significant into its proper value and you have the
task accomplished. "Mother Day," m--3, th--l, r--4, d--l, and so on.
Learn the lines one at a time by the method of interrogatories. "Who
will buy any shawl?" "Which Mrs. Day will buy a shawl?" "Is Mother Day
particular about the sort of shawl she will buy?" "Has she bought a
shawl?" etc., etc. Then cement the end of each line to the beginning of
the next one, thus, "Shawl"--"warm garment"--"warmth"--"love"--"my
love," and go on as before. Stupid as the work may seem to you, you can
memorize the figures in fifteen minutes this way so that you will not
forget them in fifteen years. Similarly you can take Haydn's Dictionary
of Dates and turn fact after fact into nonsense lines like these which
you cannot lose.

And this ought to be enough to show anybody the whole art. If you look
back across the sands of time and find out that it is that ridiculous
old "Thirty days hath September" which comes to you when you are trying
to think of the length of October--if you can quote your old prosody,

  "O datur ambiguis," etc.,

with much more certainty than you can serve up your Horace; if, in fine,
jingles and alliterations, wise and otherwise, have stayed with you,
while solid and serviceable information has faded away, you may be
certain that here is the key to the enigma of memory.

You can apply it yourself in a hundred ways. If you wish to clinch in
your mind the fact that Mr. Love lives at 485 Dearborn Street, what is
more easy than to turn 485 into the word "rifle" and chain the ideas
together, say thus: "Love--happiness--good time--
picnic--forest--wood--rangers--range--rifle range--rifle fine
weapon--costly weapon--dearly bought--Dearborn."

Or if you wish to remember Mr. Bowman's name and you notice he has a
mole on his face which is apt to attract your attention when you next
see him, cement the ideas thus:

"Mole, mark, target, archer, Bowman."


The Months.

  Thirty days hath September,
  April, June and November;
  All the rest have thirty-one,
  But February, which has twenty-eight alone.
  Except in leap-year; then's the time
  When February's days are twenty-nine.


  Monday for health,
  Tuesday for wealth,
  Wednesday best of all,
  Thursday for crosses,
  Friday for losses,
  Saturday no luck at all.

The lines refer to the days of the week as birthdays. They are, in idea,
the same as the more familiar lines:

  Monday's child is fair of face,
  Tuesday's child is full of grace;
  Wednesday's child is merry and glad,
  Thursday's child is sorry and sad;
  Friday's child is loving and giving;
  Saturday's child must work for its living;
  While the child that is born on the Sabbath day
  Is blithe and bonny and good and gay.

Short Grammar.

  Three little words you often see
  Are Articles, a, an, and the.
  A Noun's the name of any thing,
  As school, or garden, hoop, or swing.
  Adjectives tell the kind of noun,
  As great, small, pretty, white, or brown.
  Instead of Nouns the Pronouns stand--
  His head, her face, your arm, my hand.
  Verbs tell something to be done--
  To read, count, laugh, sing, jump or run.
  How things are done the Adverbs tell--
  As slowly, quickly, ill or well.
  Conjunctions join the words together--
  As men and women, wind or weather.
  The Preposition stands before
  The noun, as in or through the door.
  The Interjection shows surprise--
  As Oh! how pretty, Ah! how wise.
  The whole are called nine parts of speech,
  Which reading, writing, speaking teach.

To Tell the Age of Horses.

  To tell the age of any horse,
  Inspect the lower jaw, of course;
  The six front teeth the tale will tell,
  And every doubt and fear dispel.

  Two middle "nippers" you behold
  Before the colt is two weeks old,
  Before eight weeks will two more come;
  Eight months the "corners" cut the gum.
  The outside grooves will disappear
  From middle two in just one year.
  In two years, from the second pair;
  In three, the corners, too, are bare.

  At two the middle "nippers" drop;
  At three, the second pair can't stop.
  When four years old the third pair goes;
  At five a full new set he shows.
  The deep black spots will pass from view
  At six years from the middle two.
  The second pair at seven years;
  At eight the spot each "corner" clears.
  From middle "nippers" upper jaw,
  At nine the black spots will withdraw.
  The second pair at ten are white;
  Eleven finds the "corners" light.
  As time goes on, the horsemen know,
  The oval teeth three-sided grow;
  They longer get, project before,
  Till twenty, when we know no more.


  A swarm of bees in May
  Is worth a load of hay;
  A swarm of bees in June
  Is worth a silver spoon;
  A swarm of bees in July
  Is not worth a fly.

The Cuckoo.

  May--sings all the day;
  June--changes his tune;
  July--prepares to fly;
  August--go he must.

Rules for Riding.

  Keep up your head and your heart,
  Your hands and your heels keep down,
  Press your knees close to your horse's side,
  And your elbows close to your own.


Wanting nothing and knowing it.

The mental sunshine of content.

A "will-o'-the-wisp" which eludes us even when we grasp it.

Excelsior! The ever-retreating summit on the hill of our ambition.

The prize at the top of a greasy pole which is continually slipping from
one's grasp.

The only thing a man continues to search for after he has found it.

The bull's-eye on the target at which all the human race are shooting.

The goal erected for the human race, which few reach, being too heavily

A wayside flower growing only by the path of duty.

A bright and beautiful butterfly, which many chase but few can take.

The interest we receive from capital invested in good works.

The birthright of contentment.

A treasure which we search for far and wide, though oft-times it is
lying at our feet.

The summer weather of the mind.

Distances that Stun the Mind and Baffle Comprehension.

"The stars," though appearing small to us because of their immense
distance, are in reality great and shining suns. If we were to escape
from the earth into space, the moon, Jupiter, Saturn, and eventually the
sun would become invisible. Mizar, the middle star in the tail of the
Great Bear, is forty times as heavy as the sun. To the naked eye there
are five or six thousand of these heavenly bodies visible.

Cygni is the nearest star to us in this part of the sky. Alpha Centauri,
in the constellation of Centaur, in the Southern Hemisphere, is the
nearest of all the stars. The sun is off 93,000,000 miles; multiply this
by 200,000, and the result is, roughly speaking, 20,000,000,000,000; and
this is the distance we are from Alpha Centauri. At the speed of an
electric current, 180,000 miles per second, a message to be sent from a
point on the earth's surface would go seven times around the earth in
one second. Let it be supposed that messages were sent off to the
different heavenly bodies. To reach the moon at this rate it would take
about one second. In eight minutes a message would get to the sun, and
allowing for a couple of minutes' delay, one could send a message to the
sun and get an answer all within twenty minutes. But to reach Alpha
Centauri it would take three years; and as this is the nearest of the
stars, what time must it take to get to the others? If, when Wellington
won the battle of Waterloo, in 1815, the news had been telegraphed off
immediately, there are some stars so remote that it would not yet have
reached them. To go a step further, if in 1066 the result of the Norman
Conquest had been wired to some of these stars, the message would still
be on its way.


"Gentlemen of the Jury: The best friend a man has in this world may turn
against him and become his enemy. His son and daughter that he has
reared with loving care may become ungrateful. Those who are nearest and
dearest to us, those whom we trust with our happiness and our good name,
may become traitors to their faith. The money that a man has he may
lose. It flies away from him when he may need it most. Man's reputation
may be sacrificed in a moment of ill-considered action. The people who
are prone to fall on their knees and do us honor when success is with us
may be the first to throw the stone of malice when failure settles its
cloud upon our head. The one absolutely unselfish friend a man may have
in this selfish world, the one that never deserts him, the one that
never proves ungrateful or treacherous, is the dog.

"Gentlemen of the jury, A man's dog stands by him in prosperity and
poverty, in health and in sickness. He will sleep on the cold ground,
when the wintry winds blow and the snow drives fiercely, if only he may
be near his master's side. He will kiss the hand that has no food to
offer, he will lick the wounds and sores that come in encounter with the
roughness of the world. He guards the sleep of his pauper master as if
he were a prince.

"When all other friends desert, he remains, when riches take wings and
reputation falls to pieces he is as constant in his love as the sun in
its journey through the heavens. If fortune drives the master forth an
outcast into the world, friendless and homeless, the faithful dog asks
no higher privilege than that of accompanying him, to guard him against
danger, to fight against his enemies, and when the last scene of all
comes and death takes his master in its embrace and his body is laid
away in the cold ground, no matter if all other friends pursue their
way, there by his graveside will the noble dog be found, his head
between his paws and his eyes sad, but open in alert watchfulness,
faithful and true even to death."



In womanly beauty the excellences expected and looked for are faultless
symmetry of form and feature and a complexion varying in hue as the mind
is affected by internal emotion, but with an expression of purity,
gentleness, sensibility, refinement and intelligence.

Moore, the poet, has given expression to his ideal of beauty in the
following lines:

  "This was not the beauty--Oh, nothing like this,
  That to young Nourmahal gave such magic bliss;
  But that loveliness, ever in motion, which plays
  Like the light upon autumn's shadowy days.

  "Now here and now there, giving warmth as it flies
  From the lips to the cheek, from the cheek to the eyes;
  Now melting in mist, and now breaking in gleams
  Like the glimpses a saint has of heavenly dreams."

Wordsworth expressed himself in the following lines:

  "He was among the prime in worth,
  An object beauteous to behold;
  Well born, well bred; I sent him forth
  Ingenuous, innocent, and bold."

Perhaps you ask how you can attain beauty if you do not possess it; or,
if you have some of its qualities, how you may get those you are
lacking. If you will practice the following rules you will grow more and
more beautiful in the eyes of others, even if age does bring gray hair
and a wrinkled skin:

First.--Cleanliness is next to godliness. Practice it in every feature
of your daily life.

Second.--Have some purpose to achieve and steadfastly work to attain it.

Third--Cultivate self-discipline; be master of your passions, under all

Fourth.--Study to know the laws of life that yield harmony and good
health and obey them. Look on the bright side of life always.

Fifth.--Avoid intemperance in all things.

Sixth.--Cultivate every mental and bodily quality that will make you
firm in goodness, strong and physically able to be useful to your kind,
generous and broad-minded, self-sacrificing, and you will daily and
hourly be lovely and grow into the beautiful.


Beautiful hair, beautiful skin and a beautiful form are the three graces
which are the birthright of every woman, but which, through lack of good
judgment and common sense, or through thoughtlessness on the part of
mothers of growing children, comparatively few possess.

Beautiful hair is one of nature's greatest gifts, and yet we never seem
to appreciate it until there is danger of losing it, or until it becomes
faded and lusterless because we have not used the right means for
preserving it.

The beauty and continuance of the hair depend upon its proper
nourishment, gained by the circulation of blood through the scalp, and
this must be maintained to keep the hair in good condition.

The structure of the hair is very beautiful, and each hair is contained
in a delicate sheath which fits into a slight depression in the skin
called the follicle, and around the base of the hair nature has provided
glands to secrete oily matter, the purpose of which is to keep the hair

In early maturity the hair reaches the state of greatest beauty, and at
this time the greatest care should be given it, feeding and nourishing
it as we would a plant--giving it plenty of air and sunlight, carefully
shampooing at least once in ten days. Massage the scalp to keep it loose
and flexible. Use electricity, a good tonic, and occasionally singe the
split ends.

If this process is commenced at the right time, the result will be fewer
cases of baldness in men and thin, poor hair in women.

The hair should also be worn loosely, forming a soft frame for the face,
which is always more becoming than tightly drawn hair. Many women drag
their hair out by the roots by tying back too firmly.


A beautiful skin is smooth, soft and clear; the color varies in
different individuals. In perfect health it is moist and with the
delicate shading of a flower--climate, hair and eyes, of course,
determining the color, and the continued beauty of it depending upon
pure blood, fresh air and sunlight, also perfect cleanliness and care.

The pores should always be kept free from obstruction and extremes of
heat and cold avoided as much as possible. In health, the care of the
skin is a simple matter, massage being a great factor, assisted always
by the use of pure creams. A good cleansing cream is a great necessity,
as it enters the pores and frees them from dirt, leaving the skin soft
and pliable, in which condition it is ready to absorb the skin food when
the finger massage is given, making it possible for the gentle electric
current to force the ointment into the deeper layers of the skin, thus
effecting the removal of moth patches, tan, freckles and other
discolorations and imperfections. The vibratory massage should follow,
the purpose of which is to stimulate the tissues, throwing off worn-out
particles and increasing the circulation of the blood by giving proper
exercise to the facial muscles, thereby restoring and preserving the
color and contour, making the skin beautiful, clear, eradicating and
preventing wrinkles.

The use of a pure face powder is absolutely necessary. Best results are
obtained by using a blended powder, as the skin tint is thus assured.


A beautiful bust is the desire and admiration of every woman. If nature
has not been kind in this respect, any woman can develop a beautiful
bust by exercise, bathing and gentle massage with a good bust ointment
or skin food.

Electric massage is very beneficial, and if properly given, brings quick
and sure results.

Swimming and deep breathing are great aids.


A study of the hand is very interesting, and if mothers understood more
of its beautiful construction many of the little accidents which result
in deformed finger nails could be avoided. Mothers should attend most
carefully to the early cultivation of their children's finger nails, as
the habit of biting them is so easily formed and is sure to permanently
destroy their beauty.

A perfect hand is rounded and plump, soft, white and dimpled, with
tapering finger tips and filbert-shaped nails, snowing the little

It is possible for any woman to have such a hand if she is willing to
take time once a week to have the nails treated and to give them a
little personal attention each day. Great care should be taken in
washing the hands. A mild soap should be used, and particular attention
paid to the thorough drying of them, after which a good cuticle cream
should be applied and well rubbed in. The same cream may be used to
loosen the cuticle at the base of the nail, when it can be gently pushed
back, thus keeping the half-moon exposed. An orange-wood stick should
always be used to clean the nails.

Massaging the hands at least once a month aids wonderfully in making
them symmetrical and keeping the joints flexible and the skin free from
dark spots and wrinkles.


It is of prime importance in feeding an infant to do this at regular
intervals, since during the first three months of its life the feeding
habits of the child should be established, and if care be used in this
regard the child will wake of its own accord at the proper time. The
last meal at night should be at 11 p. m., and if the child is healthy
and will sleep it need not be fed until 3 to 5 a. m. the following
morning. In both breast and artificial feeding the above applies, and
the same method should be employed; namely, the child should be held in
the arms during the meal, which should last from ten to fifteen minutes.

Both in breast and artificial feeding it is possible to overfeed the
child. Many infants are systematically overfed. The young mother should
understand how small an infant's stomach is. At birth it will hold a
little more than an ounce of fluid, or two tablespoonfuls, and at the
end of two months only three ounces. If, therefore, the mother persists
in trying to give the child four ounces of food, the child will suffer
from an excess. Many children during the first few mouths of life bring
up their food, and the mother fears that there is some inherited
tendency to weak digestion. It is wrong to feed a child simply because
it cries, as very frequently it is not a cry of hunger, but one caused
by indigestion from overfeeding.

If the child is being fed with the bottle it is important that the food
be given at a temperature of 100 deg. F., or as nearly that as possible;
never over; and if the child be fed out of doors in its carriage it is
well to have a flannel bag of some kind to slip over the bottle to keep
it at the same temperature until the meal is finished. Many cases of
colic are caused by inattention to this point.

It is a common mistake that when a child cries it needs additional food.
There are many cases where a little drink of water is the prime need of
the child, and great care should be taken that this is heated to the
proper temperature, and especially that no water be given to the child
except that which has been boiled. A few teaspoonfuls should be given to
the child, therefore, several times a day, but aside from that he should
have nothing but his regular food until he is at least a year old. For
the same reason, therefore, if a child be fed by the bottle, the water
used in preparing the food should have been previously boiled, and care
should be exercised not to expose the food to the air during or after
its preparation. It should be remembered that the food of a child must
be nutritious, and that in this food, especially when at the proper
temperature for the infant, bacteria from the air will flourish
wonderfully fast, and therefore the food should not be exposed to
possible contamination.

It is of very great importance that the feeding-bottles be always clean
and sweet. It is an advantage to have several bottles on hand, and also
two or three brushes for cleaning. Keep a special vessel, with water in
which there is a little bicarbonate of soda, so that the moment the
bottle is used it may be thoroughly washed and kept in the water. Do not
use a nipple with a rubber tube, but the short, black rubber nipples,
which fit over the mouth of the bottle. Do not enlarge the hole in the
nipple, so as to make it too easy for the baby to draw its food,
otherwise the food being taken so rapidly into the stomach will often
cause pain or vomiting. In washing the nipples turn them inside out and
see that they are as thoroughly cleaned as possible, and keep them for
use in a bottle filled with boiled water with a pinch of boric acid

The First Nursing.

It is very important that the child should be put to the breast
immediately after it is washed. This is very necessary, both for the
mother and the child, and prevents subsequent troubles. The fluid
contained in the breast is at this stage called colostrum, and is
intended by Nature to act upon the child as a laxative. This first
nursing stimulates the secretion of the milk and causes uterine
contraction, which is very much needed at this time. It is well to wash
the infant's mouth out with sterilized water every time it feeds. For
this purpose use clean water which has been boiled and allowed to cool,
or a solution of boric acid in boiled water--5 grains to the ounce of

Infants, as a rule, should be bathed once a day, but never immediately
after being nursed or fed. In very warm weather a child may be sponged
in the evening as well as in the morning. The water for the bath of a
young baby should be warm, and the temperature can be judged by testing
it with the elbow, which is more sensitive than the hand. Lay a small
blanket on the lap, cover the child with a flannel and sponge it under
the clothes. This prevents it from taking cold from exposure, The room
should not be cooler than 68 deg. F., and the door must be kept closed
to avoid drafts. Use only pure white soap, and a soft cloth is better
than a sponge. The body should be carefully dried and lightly powdered
to absorb any moisture that may remain.



January.--The Roman god Janus presided over the beginning of everything;
hence the first month of the year was called after him.

February.--The Roman festival Februs was held on the 15th day of this
month, in honor of Lupercus, the god of fertility.

March--Named from the Roman god of war, Mars.

April.--Latin, Aprilis, probably derived from aperire, to open; because
spring generally begins, and the buds open in this month.

May.--Lat. Maius, probably derived from Maia, a feminine divinity
worshiped at Rome on the first day of this month.

June.--Juno, a Roman divinity worshiped as the Queen of Heaven.

July (Julius)--Julius Caesar was born in this month.

August.--Named by the Emperor Augustus Caesar, B. C. 30, after himself,
as he regarded it as a fortunate month, being that in which he had
gained several victories.

September (septem, or 7).--September was the seventh month in the old
Roman calendar.

October (octo, or 8).--Eighth month of the old Roman year.

November (novem, or 9).-November was the ninth month in the old Roman

December (decem, or 10).--December was the tenth month of the early
Roman year. About the 21st of this month the sun enters the Tropic of
Capricorn, and forms the winter solstice.


Sunday, (Saxon) Sunnandaed, day of the sun,

Monday, (German) Montag, day or the moon.

Tuesday, (Anglo-Saxon) Tiwesdaeg, from Tiw, the god of war.

Wednesday, (Anglo-Saxon) Wodnesdaeg, from Odin, the god of storms.

Thursday, (Danish) Thor, the god of thunder.

Friday, (Saxon) Frigedaeg, day of Freya, goddess of marriage.

Saturday, the day of Saturn, the god of time.

The names of the seven days of the week originated with the Egyptian
astronomers. They gave them the names of the sun, moon, and five
planets, viz.: Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn.


That cold rain water and soap will remove machine grease from washable

That fish may be scaled much easier by first dipping them into boiling
water for a minute.

That fresh meat beginning to sour will sweeten if placed outdoors in the
cool air over night.

That milk which has changed may be sweetened or rendered fit for use
again by stirring in a little soda.

That a tablespoonful of turpentine boiled with your white clothes will
greatly aid the whitening process.

That kerosene will soften boots and shoes that have been hardened by
water and will render them as pliable as new.

That thoroughly wetting the hair once or twice with a solution of salt
and water will keep it from falling out.

That salt fish are quickest and best freshened by soaking in sour milk.

That salt will curdle new milk; hence, in preparing porridge, gravies,
etc., salt should not be added until the dish is prepared.

That one teaspoonful of ammonia to a teacup of water, applied with a
rag, will clean silver or gold jewelry perfectly.

That paint stains that are dry and old may be removed from cotton and
woolen goods with chloroform. It is a good plan to first cover the spot
with olive oil or butter.

That clear boiling water will remove tea stains. Pour the water through
the stain and thus prevent it spreading over the fabric.

That charcoal is recommended as an absorbent of gases in the milk-room
where foul gases are present. It should be freshly powdered and kept
there continually, especially in hot weather, when unwholesome odors are
most liable to infect the milk.

That applying kerosene with a rag, when you are about to put your stoves
away for the summer, will prevent them from rusting. Treat your farming
implements in the same way before you lay them aside for the fall.

That a teaspoonful of borax, put in the last water in which clothes are
rinsed, will whiten them surprisingly. Pound the borax so it will
dissolve easily. This is especially good to remove the yellow that time
gives to white garments that have been laid aside for two or three

That a good agency for keeping the air of the cellar sweet and wholesome
is whitewash made of good white lime and water only. The addition of
glue or size, or anything of that kind, only furnishes organic matter to
speedily putrefy. The use of lime in whitewash is not only to give a
white color, but it greatly promotes the complete oxidation of effluvia
in the cellar air. Any vapors that contain combined nitrogen in the
unoxidized form contribute powerfully to the development of disease


Thick lips indicate genius and conservatism. Large dilating nostrils are
a sign of poetic temperament and a sensitive nature. A long forehead
denotes liberality. Arched eyebrows, good ancestry and amiability. A
bold, projecting Roman nose indicates enterprise. Delicate nose, good
nature. A large nose, strength of will and character. An eye that looks
one cheerfully and frankly in the face shows honesty and faithfulness.
Lips slightly curved upward at the ends indicate a fine sense of humor.
Soft round cheeks denote gentleness and affection; dimples in the
cheeks, roguery; in the chin, one who falls easily in love. A broad chin
denotes firmness. Straight lips, firmly closed, resolution. Large ears
denote generosity.


Time on shipboard is divided into periods of four hours--from midnight
to midnight--and the lapse of every half hour is marked by one or more
strokes of the bell--from one stroke for the end of the first half hour
to eight strokes or, in nautical language, eight bells, for the end of
the fourth hour. Thus 12:30 a. m. is 1 bell; 1:00 a. m., 2 bells; 1:30
a. m., 3 bells; 2:00 a. m., 4 bells; 2:30 a. m., 5 bells; 3:00 a. m., 6
bells; 3:30 a. m., 7 bells; 4:00 a. m., 8 bells. Then 4:30 a. m. is
indicated by 1 bell; 5:00 a. m., 2 bells, etc.; 8 bells being sounded at
8:00 a. m., 12:00 m., 4:00 p. m., 8:00 p. m. and 12:00 p. m.

Four to 8:00 p. m. is divided into two "dog watches" called "first dog
watch" and "last dog watch," so as to change the watches daily;
otherwise starboard or port watch would be on deck the same hours day
after day.


The cocoanut is, in many respects, like the human skull, although it
closely resembles the skull of the monkey. A sponge may be so held as to
remind one of the unfleshed face of the skeleton, and the meat of an
English walnut is almost the exact representation of the brain. Plums
and black cherries resemble the human eyes; almonds, and some other
nuts, resemble the different varieties of the human nose, and an opened
oyster and its shell are a perfect image of the human ear. The shape of
almost any man's body may be found in the various kinds of mammoth
pumpkins. The open hand may be discerned in the form assumed by
scrub-willows and growing celery. The German turnip and the eggplant
resemble the human heart. There are other striking resemblances between
human organs and certain vegetable forms, The forms of many mechanical
contrivances in common use may be traced back to the patterns furnished
by nature. Thus, the hog suggested the plow; the butterfly, the ordinary
hinge; the toadstool, the umbrella; the duck, the ship; the fungous
growth on trees, the bracket. Anyone desirous of proving the oneness of
the earthly system will find the resemblances in nature a most amusing
study.--Scientific American.



Of two cats, one, thinking to be very fine, hunted only humming birds,
and the other hunted only mice. The first had to hunt much longer than
the other, because humming birds were scarce, so that it spent nearly
all its life in getting food, while the other had little trouble to get
all it wanted. "How unfortunate it is," said the first cat, "that I have
formed my liking for what is so hard to get and is so little when I have


A fastidious ox would not drink while standing in the water with his
head turned down stream lest he should soil the water with his feet. But
once when drinking with his head turned up stream he saw a whole drove
of hogs washing in the water above him.

Attracting Attention.

A flea, which saw many people trying to get the attention of a king and
waiting long for that purpose, said: "Though I am but a little thing, I
will get his attention." So he jumped up the throne until he got on the
king's head. Here he received recognition from the king by a slap, and
when he boasted to a dog of his success, the latter said: "Some get
attention by their merit, others by their demerit. In making yourself a
nuisance you get recognition before the lords of the realm, but only as
a flea."


A monkey playing with a steel trap got his tail cut off. He went back
the next day to get his tail, when he got his foot cut off. "Now," he
said, "I will go back and get both my foot and my tail." He went back,
and the third time he got his head cut off, which ended his monkeying
with the trap.


A mule on one side of a fence was discontented because he was not on the
other side. He finally jumped over, when he was equally discontented
because he was not back again. "Which side of the fence do you want to
be on?" asked a horse. "It does not matter," replied the mule, "provided
I am on the other side."

The Non-Partisan.

A dog, running about in an irregular way, was asked where he was going.
"I am not going anywhere," replied the dog, "but only running about to
learn where to go."


The swans, wishing to drive the peacocks from a park, procured a law
against big feet. The peacocks retaliated by getting a counter law
against big necks. Soon one side could see nothing but ugly feet, and
the other nothing but long necks. At last they came to think peacocks
were all feet and swans all neck.


To Amsterdam, 3,510;
Bermudas, 660;
Bombay, 11,574;
Boston, 310;
Buenos Ayres, 7,110;
Calcutta, 12,425;
Canton, 13,900;
Cape Horn, 8,115;
Cape of Good Hope, 6,830;
Charleston, 750;
Columbia River, 15,965;
Constantinople, 5,140;
Dublin, 3,225;
Gibraltar, 3,300;
Halifax, 612;
Hamburg, 3,775;
Havana, 1,420;
Havre, 3,210;
Kingston, 1,640;
Lima, 11,310;
Liverpool, 3,210;
London, 3,375;
Madras, 11,850;
Naples, 4,330;
New Orleans, 2,045;
Panama, 2,358;
Pekin, 15,325;
Philadelphia, 240;
Quebec, 1,400;
Rio Janeiro, 3,840;
Sandwich Islands, 15,300;
San Francisco, 15,858;
St. Petersburg, 4,420;
Valparaiso, 9,750;
Washington, 400;
around the Globe, 25,000.


It is a fraud to conceal a fraud.

Ignorance of the law excuses no one.

A contract made on a Sunday is void.

A contract made with a lunatic is void.

The act of one partner binds all the others.

An agreement without consideration is void.

The law compels no one to do impossibilities.

Agents are liable to their principals for errors.

Principals are liable for the acts of their agents.

A receipt for money paid is not legally conclusive.

Signatures made with a lead pencil are good in law.

The seal of a party to a written contract imports consideration.

A contract made with a minor cannot be enforced against him. A note made
by a minor is voidable.

Each individual in a partnership is liable for the whole amount of the
debts of the firm.

A note which does not state on its face that it bears interest, will
bear interest only after due.

A lease of land for a longer term than one year is void unless in

An indorser of a note is exempt from liability if notice of its dishonor
is not mailed or served within twenty-four hours of its non-payment.

In case of the death of the principal maker of a note, the holder is not
required to notify a surety that the note is not paid, before the
settlement of the maker's estate. Notes obtained by fraud, or made by an
intoxicated person, are not collectible.

If no time of payment is specified in a note it is payable on demand.

An indorser can avoid liability by writing "without recourse" beneath
his signature.

A check indorsed by the payee is evidence of payment in the drawer's

An outlawed debt is revived should the debtor make a partial payment.

If negotiable paper, pledged to a bank as security for the payment of a
loan or debt, falls due, and the bank fails to demand payment and have
it protested when dishonored, the bank is liable to the owner for the
full amount of the paper.

Want of consideration--a common defense interposed to the payment of
negotiable paper--is a good defense between the original parties to the
paper; but after it has been transferred before maturity to an innocent
holder for value it is not a defense.

Sometimes the holder of paper has the right to demand payment before
maturity; for instance, when a draft has been protested for
non-acceptance and the proper notices served, the holder may at once
proceed against the drawer and indorsers.

Negotiable paper, payable to bearer or indorser in blank, which has been
stolen or lost, cannot be collected by the thief or finder, but a holder
who receives it in good faith before maturity, for value, can hold it
against the owner's claims at the time it was lost.

If a note or draft is to be paid in the State where it is made, the
contract will be governed by the laws of that State. When negotiable
paper is payable in a State other than that in which it is made, the
laws of that State will govern it. Marriage contracts, if valid where
they are made, are valid everywhere. Contracts relating to personal
property are governed by the laws of the place where made, except those
relating to real estate, which are governed by the laws of the place
where the land is situated.


Dower is one-third of the husband's estate, and in general cannot be
destroyed by the mere act of the husband. Hence, in the sale of real
estate by the husband, his wife must, with the husband, sign the
conveyance to make the title complete to the purchaser. In the absence
of such signature, the widow can claim full dower rights after the
husband's death. Creditors, also, seize the property subject to such
dower rights.

The husband in his will sometimes gives his wife property in lieu of
dowry. In this case, she may, after his death, elect to take either such
property or her dower; but she cannot take both. While the husband lives
the wife's right of dower in only inchoate; it cannot be enforced.
Should he sell the land to a stranger, she has no right of action or
remedy until his death.

In all cases the law of the State in which the land is situated governs
it, and, as in the case of heirship, full information must be sought for
in statute which is applicable.


Marriage may be entered into by any two persons, with the following
exceptions: Idiots, lunatics, persons of unsound mind, persons related
by blood or affinity within certain degrees prohibited by law, infants
under the age of consent, which varies in the different States, and all
persons already married and not legally divorced.

The causes for which a divorce may be obtained vary greatly in the
different States. In South Carolina only fraud and force are recognized
as invalidating the marriage tie, this State having no divorce law. In
the District of Columbia and all the other States with the exception of
Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan and Virginia, cruelty is a statutory
cause, and desertion in all but New York. In most of the States neglect
is also recognized as a valid cause. Imprisonment for crime is a cause
in all except Florida, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey and New York.
Physical inability is a cause in all the States except California,
Connecticut, Idaho, North Dakota and Texas. Intemperance, in all but
Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina, North Dakotah, Rhode Island,
Vermont, Virginia and West Virginia. The time of residence required to
secure a divorce varies from 6 months in Idaho, Nebraska, Nevada and
Texas to 3 to 5 years in Massachusetts. In most States it is one year.
Remarriage is permitted in all the States having divorce laws except
Georgia, and alimony is also provided for in all these States.


Any and all property which a woman owns at her marriage, together with
rents, issues and profits thereof, and the property which comes to her
by descent, devise, bequest, gift or grant, or which she acquires by her
trade, business, labor, or services performed on her separate account,
shall, notwithstanding her marriage, remain her sole and separate
property, and may be used, collected and invested by her in her own
name, and shall not be subject to the interference or control of her
husband, or be liable for his debts, unless for such debts as may have
been contracted for the support of herself or children by her as his

A married woman may likewise bargain, sell, assign, transfer and convey
such property, and enter into contracts regarding the same on her
separate trade, labor or business with the like effect as if she were
unmarried. Her husband, however, is not liable for such contracts, and
they do not render him or his property in any way liable therefor. She
may also sue and be sued in all matters having relation to her sale and
separate property in the same manner as if she were sole.

In the following cases a married woman's contract may be enforced
against her and her separate estate: 1. When the contract is created in
or respecting the carrying on of the trade or business of the wife. 2.
When it relates to or is made for the sole benefit of her sole or
separate estate. 3. When the intention to charge the separate estate is
expressed in the contract creating the liability.

When a husband receives a principal sum of money belonging to his wife,
the law presumes he receives it for her use, and he must account for it,
or expend it on her account by her authority or direction, or that she
gave it to him as a gift. If he receives interest or income and spends
it with her knowledge and without objection, a gift will be presumed
from acquiescence.

Money received by a husband from his wife and expended by him, under her
direction, on his land, in improving the home of the family, is a gift,
and cannot be recovered by the wife, or reclaimed, or an account

An appropriation by a wife, herself, of her separate property to the use
and benefit of her husband, in the absence of all agreement to repay, or
any circumstances from which such an agreement can be inferred, will not
create the relation of debtor and creditor, nor render the husband
liable to account.

Though no words of gift be spoken, a gift by a wife to her husband may
be shown by the very nature of the transaction, or appear from the
attending circumstances.

A wife who causelessly deserts her husband is not entitled to the aid of
a court of equity in getting possession of such chattels as she has
contributed to the furnishing and adornment of her husband's house. Her
legal title remains, and she could convey her interest to a third party
by sale, and said party would have a good title, unless her husband
should prove a gift.

Wife's property is not liable to a lien of a sub-contractor for
materials furnished to the husband for the erection of a building
thereon, where it is not shown that the wife was notified of the
intention to furnish the materials, or a settlement made with the
contractor and given to the wife, her agent or trustee.

The common law of the United States has some curious provisions
regarding the rights of married women, though in all the States there
are statutory provisions essentially modifying this law. As it now
stands the husband is responsible for necessaries supplied to the wife
even should he not fail to supply them himself, and is held liable if he
turn her from his house, or otherwise separates himself from her without
good cause. He is not held liable if the wife deserts him, or if he
turns her away for good cause. If she leaves him through good cause,
then he is liable. If a man lives with a woman as his wife, and so
represents her, even though this representation is made to one who knows
she is not, he is liable the same way as if she were his wife.


The general rule is that the finder has a clear title against every one
but the owner. The proprietor of a hotel or a shop has no right to
demand property of others found on his premises. Such proprietors may
make regulations in regard to lost property which will bind their
employes, but they cannot bind the public. The finder has been held to
stand in the place of the owner, so that he was permitted to prevail in
all action against a person who found an article which the plaintiff had
originally found, but subsequently lost. The police have no special
rights in regard to articles lost, unless those rights are conferred by
statute. Receivers of articles found are trustees for the owner or
finder. They have no power in the absence of special statute to keep an
article against the finder, any more than the finder has to retain an
article against the owner.


The new copyright law, which went into effect July 1, 1909, differs in
many respects from the law previously in force. Its main provisions are
given below, but those desiring to avail themselves of its protection
should write to the Register of Copyrights, Library of Congress,
Washington, D. C., for full instructions and the necessary blanks. etc.
The new law provides that the application for registration of any work
"shall specify to which of the following classes the work in which
copyright is claimed belongs": (a) Books, including composite and
cyclopedic works, directories, gazetteers, and other compilations; (b)
periodicals, including newspapers; (c) lectures, sermons, addresses
prepared for oral delivery: (d) dramatic or dramatico-musical
compositions; (c) musical compositions; (f) maps; (g) works of art;
models or designs for works of art; (h) reproductions of a work of art;
(i) drawings or plastic works of a scientific or technical character:
(j) photographs; (k) prints and pictorial illustrations.

Necessary Steps to Secure Copyright.

For works reproduced in copies for sale: 1. Publish the work with the
copyright notice. The notice may be in the form "Copyright, 19 .....
(year date of publication) by (name of copyright proprietor)." 2.
Promptly after publication, send to the Copyright Office, Library of
Congress, Washington, D. C., two copies of the best edition of the work,
with an application for registration and a money order payable to the
Register of Copyrights for the statutory registration fee of $l.

In the case of books by American authors, or permanent residents of the
United States, the copies deposited must be accompanied by an affidavit,
under the official seal of an officer authorized to administer oaths,
stating that the typesetting, printing and binding of the book have been
performed within the United States. Affidavit and application forms will
be supplied on request.

Books of foreign origin in a language or languages other than English
are not required to be manufactured in the United States. In the case of
a book in the English language published abroad before publication in
this country, an ad interim copyright for 30 days may be secured under
certain conditions.

Copyright may also be had of certain classes of works (see a, b, c,
below) of which copies are not reproduced for sale, by filing an
application for registration, with the statutory fee of $1, sending
therewith: (a) in the case of lectures or other oral addresses or of
dramatic or musical compositions, one complete manuscript or typewritten
copy of the work. Registration, however, does not exempt the copyright
proprietor from the deposit of printed copies. (b) In the case of
photographs not intended for general circulation, one photographic
print. (c) In the case of works of art (paintings, drawings, sculpture),
or of drawings or plastic works of a scientific or technical character,
one photograph or other identifying reproduction of the work. In all
these cases, if the work is later reproduced in copies for sale, such
copies must be deposited.

Duration of Copyright.

The original term of copyright runs for twenty-eight years, and may be
renewed under certain conditions for a further term of twenty-eight
years, making fifty-six years in all.


Copyrights are assignable by any instrument of writing.

Every assignment of copyright must be recorded in the Copyright Office
within three months after its execution in the United States or within
six months after its execution without the limits of the United States.


Jan. 1, New Year's Day. All the States (including District of Columbia),
except Mass., Miss. and N. H.

Jan. 19, Lee's Birthday. In Ga., Fla., N. C, S. C., Va., Ala., Ark.

Feb. 12, Lincoln's Birthday. In Col., Conn., Del., Ill., Kans., Mass.,
Minn., Nev., N. J., N. Y., N. Dak., Penn., Wash. and Wyo.

Feb. 22. Washington's Birthday. In all the States and District of
Columbia; in Miss., observed in the schools.

April 14, 1911, Good Friday. In Ala., Dela., Fla., La., Md., Minn.,
N.J., Penn., Tenn.

April 19, Patriots' Day. In Me. and Mass.

April 26, Confederate Memorial Day. In Ala., Fla., Ga., and Miss.

May, second Sunday, Mothers' Day, recognized in sixteen States.

May 10, Confederate Memorial Day. In N. C and S. C.; in Tenn., second
Friday of May.

May, last Friday, Pioneer Day. In Mont.

May 30, Decoration Day. In all States and Territories, and the District
of Columbia. except Fla., Ga., Ida., La., Miss., N.C., S. C., Tenn.,
Tex. In Va., called Confederate Memorial Day.

June 3, Jefferson Davis' Birthday. In Fla. Ga., Ala., Miss., Tenn., Tex.
and S. C.  In La., called Confederate Memorial Day.

July 4, Independence Day. In all States, Territories and the District.

Sept. 4, 1911, Labor Day. In all States, Territories and the District.
except N. Dak.

Oct. 12, Columbus Day. In N. Y., Penn., Ill., Conn., N. J., Mich.,
Mont., Calif., O., Md., Ky., and R. I.

Nov. 1, All Saints' Day. In La.

November--General Election Day. In Ariz., Calif., Col., Del., Fla.,
Ida., Ill. (Chicago, Springfield and East St. Louis only), Ind., Ia.,
Kans., Ky., La., Md., Mich., Minn., Mo., Mont., Nev., N. H., N. J., N.
Mex., N. Y., N. C., N. Dak., O. (5:30 a. m. to 9 a. m. only). Okla.,
Ore. (Presidential only), Penn., R. I., S. C., S. Dak., Tenn., Tex., W.
Va., Wash., Wis., Wyo.

By act of March 3, 1875, elections of Representatives in Congress take
place on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in Nov., 1876, and
every second year thereafter.

Nov. 30, 1911, Thanksgiving Day, observed in all the States, Ariz., N.
Mex. and the Dist. of Col.

December 25, Christmas Day. In all the States, Territories and the

Arbor Day. In Ariz., Me., Md., N. Mex., Wis., Wyo., and Penn., by
appointment of the Governor. Tex., Feb. 22; Neb., Apr. 22; Utah., Apr.
15; R. I., second Friday in May; Mont., second Tuesday in May; Ga.,
first Friday in December; Col. (in the schools), third Friday in Apr.;
Okla., Friday after second Monday in March; Ark., first Saturday in

Half Holidays.

Every Saturday after 12 o'clock noon; in Calif., public offices; in
Ill., cities of 200,000 or more inhabitants; in Md., Mich., N. Y., N.
J., O., Penn., R. I., Va., Dist. of Col. (for banking); New Orleans,
Charleston, La. and Mo., cities of 100,000 or more inhabitants; in Tenn.
(State and county offices); in Col., for June, July, August; in Ind.,
from first Saturday in June to last Saturday in October, for public
offices in counties with a county seat of 100,000 or more population.


Congress must meet at least once a year.

One State cannot undo the acts of another.

Congress may admit as many new States as desired.

The Constitution guarantees every citizen a speedy trial by jury.

A State cannot exercise a power which is vested in Congress alone.

One State must respect the laws and legal decisions of another.

Congress cannot pass a law to punish a crime already committed.

U. S. Senators are chosen by the legislatures of the States by joint

Bills for revenue can originate only in the House of Representatives.

A person committing a felony in one State cannot find refuge in another.

The Constitution of the United States forbids excessive bail or cruel

Treaties with foreign countries are made by the President and ratified
by the Senate.

In the U. S. Senate Rhode Island or Nevada has an equal voice with New

When Congress passes a bankruptcy law it annuls all the State laws on
that subject.

Writing alone does not constitute treason against the United States.
There must be an overt act.

Congress cannot lay any disabilities on the children of a person
convicted of crime or misdemeanor.

The Territories each send a delegate to Congress, who has the right of
debate, but not the right to vote.

The Vice-President, who ex-officio presides over the Senate, has no vote
in that body except on a tie ballot.

An act of Congress cannot become a law over the President's veto except
on a two-thirds vote of both houses.

An officer of the Government cannot accept title of nobility, order or
honor without the permission of Congress.

Money lost in the mails cannot be recovered from the Government.
Registering a letter does not insure its contents.

It is the House of Representatives that may impeach the President for
any crime, and the Senate hears the accusation.

If the President holds a bill longer than ten days while Congress is
still in session, it becomes a law without his signature.

Silver coin of denominations less than $1 is not a legal tender for more
than $5.00. Copper and nickel coin is not legal tender.

The term of a Congressman is two years, but a Congressman may be
re-elected to as many successive terms as his constituents may wish.

Amendments to the Constitution requires two-thirds vote of each house of
Congress and must be ratified by at least three-fourths of the States.

When the militia is called out in the service of the General Government,
they pass out of the control of the various States under the command of
the President.

The President of the United States must be 35 years of age: a United
States Senator, 30; a Congressman, 25. The President must have been a
resident of the United States fourteen years.

A grand jury is a secret tribunal, and may hear only one side of a case.
It simply decides whether there is good reason to hold for trial. It
consists of twenty-four men, twelve of whom may indict.

A naturalized citizen cannot become President or Vice-President of the
United States. A male child born abroad of American parents has an equal
chance to become President with one born on American soil.


The animal from which the chamois skin derives its name inhabits the
high mountains from the Pyrenees to the Caucasus. Chamois are most
numerous in the Alps, where they dwell in small herds and feed on the
herbage of the mountain sides. They are about the size of a small goat,
dark chestnut-brown in color, with the exception of the forehead, the
sides of the lower jaws and the muzzle, which are white. Its horns,
rising above the eyes, are black, smooth and straight for two-thirds of
their length, when they suddenly curve backward.

The chamois hunter, provided with a gun, a bag of provisions, an
iron-shod staff to assist him in climbing and leaping, an ax to cut
steps in the ice and shoes studded with iron points, traverses the
mountains and follows his prey not only during the day, but also at

Nearly all the chamois skins now in the market are made from the skins
of the lamb or sheep. This industry has been largely developed in
England and France, and these countries have supplied the market of the
United States almost exclusively until recent years, when the
manufacture of these goods was commenced in the United States.



Aaron, Hebrew, a mountain, or lofty.

Abel, Hebrew, vanity.

Abraham, Hebrew, the father of many.

Absalom, Hebrew, the father of peace.

Adam, Hebrew, red earth.

Adolphus, Saxon, happiness and help.

Adrian, Latin, one who helps.

Alan, Celtic, harmony; or Slavonic, a hound.

Albert, Saxon, all bright.

Alexander, Greek, a helper of men.

Alfred, Saxon, all peace.

Alonzo, form of Alphonso, q. v.

Alphonso. German, ready or willing.

Ambrose, Greek, immortal.

Amos, Hebrew, a burden.

Andrew, Greek, courageous.

Anthony, Latin, flourishing.

Archibald, German, a bold observer.

Arnold, German, a maintainer of honor.

Arthur, British, a strong man.

Augustus, Latin, venerable, grand.


Baldwin, German, a bold winner.

Barnaby, Hebrew, a prophet's son.

Bartholomew, Hebrew, the son of him who made the waters to rise.

Beaumont, French, a pretty mount.

Benjamin, Hebrew, the son of a right hand.

Bennett, Latin, blessed.

Bertram, German, fair, illustrious.

Bertrand, German, bright, raven.

Boniface, Latin, a well-doer.

Brian, French, having a thundering voice.


Cadwallader, British, valiant in war.

Caesar, Latin, adorned with hair.

Caleb, Hebrew, a dog.

Cecil, Latin, dim-sighted.

Charles, German, noble-spirited.

Christopher, Greek, bearing Christ.

Clement, Latin, mild-tempered.

Conrad, German, able counsel.

Cornelius, Latin, meaning uncertain.

Crispin, Latin, having curled locks.

Cuthbert, Saxon, known famously.


Daniel, Hebrew, God is judge.

David, Hebrew, well-beloved.

Denis, Greek, belonging to the god of wine.

Douglas, Gaelic, dark gray.

Duncan, Saxon, brown chief.

Dunstan, Saxon, most high.


Edgar, Saxon, happy honor.

Edmund, Saxon, happy peace.

Edward, Saxon, happy keeper.

Edwin, Saxon, happy conqueror.

Egbert, Saxon, ever bright.

Elijah, Hebrew, God the Lord.

Elisha, Hebrew, the salvation of God.

Emmanuel, Hebrew, God with us.

Enoch, Hebrew, dedicated.

Ephraim, Hebrew, fruitful.

Erasmus, Greek, lovely, worthy to be loved.

Ernest, Greek, earnest, serious.

Esau, Hebrew, hairy.

Eugene, Greek, nobly descended.

Eustace, Greek, standing firm.

Evan, or Ivan, British, the same as John.

Evard, German, well reported.

Ezekiel, Hebrew, the strength of God.


Felix, Latin, happy.

Ferdinand, German, pure peace.

Fergus, Saxon, manly strength.

Francis, German, free.

Frederic, German, rich peace.


Gabriel, Hebrew, the strength of God.

Geoffrey, German, joyful.

George, Greek, a husbandman.

Gerald, Saxon, all towardliness.

Gideon, Hebrew, a breaker.

Gilbert, Saxon, bright as gold.

Giles, Greek, a little goat.

Godard, German, a godly disposition.

Godfrey, German, God's peace.

Godwin, German, victorious in Cod.

Griffith, British, having great faith.

Guy, French, a leader.


Hannibal, Punic, a gracious lord.

Harold, Saxon, a champion.

Hector, Greek, a stout defender.

Henry, German, a rich lord.

Herbert, German, a bright lord.

Hercules, Greek, the glory of Hera or Juno.

Horace, Latin, meaning uncertain.

Howel, British, sound or whole.

Hubert, German, a bright color.

Hugh, Dutch, high, lofty.

Humphrey, German, domestic peace.


Ignatius, Latin, fiery.

Ingram, German, of angelic purity.

Isaac, Hebrew, laughter.


Jabez, Hebrew, one who causes pain.

Jacob, Hebrew, a supplanter.

James, or Jaques, beguiling.

Job, Hebrew, sorrowing.

Joel, Hebrew, acquiescing.

John, Hebrew, the grace of the Lord.

Jonah, Hebrew, a dove.

Jonathan. Hebrew, the gift of the Lord.

Joseph, Hebrew, addition.

Joshua, Hebrew, a savior.

Josiah, or Josias, Hebrew, the fire of the Lord.

Julius, Latin, soft-haired.


Lambert, Saxon, a fair lamb.

Lancelot, Spanish, a little lance.

Laurence, Latin, crowned with laurels.

Lazarus, Hebrew, destitute of help.

Leonard, German, like a lion.

Leopold, German, defending the people.

Lewis or Louis, French, the defender of the people.

Lionel, Latin, a little lion.

Llewellin, British, like a lion.

Llewellyn, Celtic, lightning.

Lucius, Latin, shining.

Luke, Creek, a wood or grove.


Manfred, German, great peace.

Mark, Latin, a hammer.

Martin, Latin, martial.

Matthew, Hebrew, a gift or present.

Maurice, Latin, sprung of a Moor.

Meredith, British, the roaring of the sea.

Michael, Hebrew, who is like God.

Morgan, British, a mariner.

Moses, Hebrew, drawn out.


Nathaniel, Hebrew, the gift of God.

Neal, French, somewhat black.

Nicholas, Greek, victorious over the people.

Noel, French, belonging to one's nativity.

Norman, French, one born in Normandy.


Oliver, Latin, an olive.

Orlando, Italian, counsel for the land.

Orson, Latin, a bear.

Osmund, Saxon, house peace.

Oswald, Saxon, ruler of a house.

Owen, British, well descended.


Patrick, Latin, a nobleman.

Paul, Latin, small, little.

Percival, French, a place in France.

Percy, English, adaptation of "pierce eye."

Peter, Greek, a rock or stone.

Philip, Greek, a lover of horses.

Phineas, Hebrew, of bold countenance.


Ralph, contracted from Randolph, or Randal, or Rudolph,  Saxon, pure

Raymond, German, quiet peace.

Reuben, Hebrew, the son of vision.

Reynold, German, a lover of purity.

Richard, Saxon, powerful.

Robert, German, famous in counsel.

Roderick, German, rich in fame.

Rollo, form of Roland, q.v.

Rufus, Latin, reddish.

Roger, German, strong counsel.

Roland, German, counsel for the land.


Samson, Hebrew, a little son.

Samuel, Hebrew, heard by God.

Saul, Hebrew, desired.

Seth, Hebrew, appointed.

Silas, Latin, sylvan or living in the woods.

Simeon, Hebrew, hearing.

Simon, Hebrew, obedient.

Solomon, Hebrew, peaceable.

Stephen, Greek, a crown or garland.

Swithin, Saxon, very high.


Theobald, Saxon, bold over the people.

Theodore, Greek, the gift of God.

Thomas, Hebrew, a twin.

Timothy, Greek, a fearer of God.

Titus, Greek, meaning uncertain.

Toby, Hebrew, goodness of the Lord.


Valentine, Latin, powerful.

Victor, Latin, conqueror.

Vincent, Latin, conquering.

Vivian, Latin, living.


Walter, German, a conqueror.

Wilfred, Saxon, bold and peaceful.

William, German, defending many.


Zaccheus, Syriac, innocent.



Adela, German, same as Adeline, q. v.

Adelaide, German, same as Adeline, q. v.

Adeline, German, a princess.

Agatha, Greek, good.

Agnes, German, chaste.

Althea, Greek, hunting.

Alice, Alicia, German, noble.

Alma, Latin, benignant.

Amabel, Latin, lovable.

Amy, Amelia, French, beloved.

Angelina, Greek, lovely, angelic.

Anna, or Anne, Hebrew, gracious.

Arabella, Latin, a fair altar.

Aurora, Latin, morning brightness.


Barbara, Latin, foreign or strange.

Bella, Italian, beautiful.

Benedicta, Latin, blessed.

Bernice, Greek, bringing victory.

Bertha, Greek, bright or famous.

Bessie, short form of Elizabeth. q.v.

Blanche, French, fair.

Bona, Latin, good.

Bridget, Irish, shining bright.


Camilla, Latin, attendant at a sacrifice.

Carlotta. Italian, same as Charlotte, q. v.

Caroline, Latin, noble-spirited.

Cassandra, Greek, a reformer of men.

Catherine, Greek, pure or clean,

Charity, Greek, love, bounty.

Charlotte, French, all noble.

Chloe, Greek, a green herb.

Christina, Greek, belonging to Christ.

Clara, Latin, clear or bright.

Constance, Latin, constant.


Dagmar, German, joy of the Danes.

Deborah, Hebrew, a bee.

Diana, Greek, Jupiter's daughter.

Dorcas, Greek, a wild roe.

Dorothy, Greek, gift of God.


Edith, Saxon, happiness.

Eleanor, Saxon, all-fruitful.

Eliza, Elizabeth, Hebrew, the oath of God.

Emily, corrupted from Amelia.

Emma, German, a nurse.

Esther, Hester, Hebrew, secret.

Eudora, Greek, good gift.

Eugenia, French, well-born.

Eunice, Greek, fair victory.

Eva, or Eve, Hebrew, causing life.


Fanny, dim. of Frances, q.v.

Flora, Latin, flowers.

Florence, Latin, blooming, flourishing.

Frances, German, free.


Gertrude, German, all truth.

Grace, Latin, favor.


Hannah, Hebrew, gracious.

Harriet, German, head of the house.

Helen, or Helena, Greek, alluring.

Henrietta, fem. and dim. of  Henry, q. v.

Hilda, German, warrior maiden.

Honora, Latin, honorable.

Huldah, Hebrew, a weasel.


Irene, peaceful.

Isabella, Spanish, fair Eliza.


Jane, or Jeanne,  fem. of John, q.v.

Janet, Jeanette, little Jane.

Jemima, Hebrew, a dove.

Joan, Joanna. Hebrew, fem. of John, q. v.

Joyce, French, pleasant.

Judith, Hebrew, praising.

Julia, Juliana, fem. of Julius, q. v.


Katherine, form of Catherine, q. v.

Ketura, Hebrew, incense.


Laura, Latin, a laurel.

Lavinia, Latin, of Latium.

Letitia, Latin, joy or gladness.

Lilian, Lily, Latin, a lily.

Lois, Greek, better.

Louisa, German. fem. of Louis, q.v.

Lucretia, Latin, a chaste Roman lady.

Lucy, Latin, fem. of Lucius.

Lydia. Greek, descended from Lud.


Mabel, Latin, lovely or lovable.

Madeline, form of Magdalen, q. v.

Margaret, Greek, a pearl.

Martha, Hebrew, bitterness,

Mary, Hebrew, bitter.

Matilda, German, a lady of honor.

Maud, German, form of Malilda, q.. v.

May, Latin, month of May.

Mercy, English, compassion.

Mildred, Saxon, speaking mild.

Minnie, dim. of Margaret. q. v.


Naomi, Hebrew, alluring.


Olive, Olivia, Latin, an olive.

Ophelia, Greek, a serpent.


Patience, Latin, bearing patiently.

Penelope, Greek, a weaver.

Persis, Greek, destroying.

Philippa, Greek, fem. of Philip.

Phoebe, Greek, the light of life.

Phyllis, Greek, a green bough.

Polly, variation of Molly, dim. of Mary, q. v.

Priscilla, Latin, somewhat old.

Prudence, Latin, discretion.


Rachel, Hebrew, a lamb.

Rebecca, Hebrew, fat or plump.

Rhoda, Greek, a rose.

Rose or Rosa, Latin, a rose.

Rosalind, Latin, beautiful as a rose.

Roxana, Persian, dawn of day.

Rosamond, Saxon, rose of peace.

Ruth, Hebrew, trembling, or beauty.


Sabina, Latin, sprung from the Sabines.

Salome, Hebrew, a princess.

Selina, Greek, the moon.

Sibylla, Greek, the counsel of God.

Sophia, Greek, wisdom.

Susan, Susanna, Hebrew, a lily.


Tabitha, Syriac, a roe.

Theodosia, Creek, given by God.


Ursula, Latin, a she bear.


Victoria, Latin, victory.

Vida, Erse, fem. of David.


Walburga, Saxon, gracious.

Winifred, Saxon, winning peace.


Zenobia, Greek, the life of Jupiter.


With Population of over 100,000 in 1910.

(The population for 1900 is given in parentheses by way of comparison.)

New York, N. Y., 4,766,883 (3,437,202);
Chicago, Ill., 2,185,283 (l,698,572);
Philadelphia, Pa., 1,549,008 (1,293,697);
St. Louis, Mo., 687,029 (575,238);
Boston, Mass., 670,585 (560,892);
Cleveland, O., 560,663 (381,768);
Baltimore, Md., 558,485 (508,957);
Pittsburg, Pa., 533,905 (451,512);
Detroit. Mich., 465,766 (285,704);
Buffalo, N. Y., 423,715 (352,387);
San Francisco, Cal., 416,912 (342,782);
Milwaukee, Wis., 373,857 (285,315);
Cincinnati, O., 364,462 (325,902);
Newark. N. J., 347,469 (246,070);
New Orleans. La., 339,075 (287,104);
Washington. D. C., 331,069 (278,718);
Los Angeles, Cal., 319,198 (102,479);
Minneapolis, Minn., 301,408 (202,718);
Jersey City, N. J., 267,779 (206,433);
Kansas City, Mo., 248,331 (163,752);
Seattle, Wash., 237,194 (80,671);
Indianapolis, Ind., 233,650 (169,164);
Providence, R. I., 224,326 (175,597);
Louisville, Ky., 223,928 (204,731);
Rochester, N. Y., 218,149 (162,608);
St. Paul, Minn., 214,744 (163,065);
Denver, Col., 213,381 (133,859);
Portland, Ore., 207,214 (90,426);
Columbus, O., 181,548 (125,560);
Toledo, O., 168,497 (131,822);
Atlanta, Ga., 154,839 (89,672);
Oakland, Cal., 150,174 (66,960);
Worcester, Mass., 145,986 (118,421);
Syracuse, N. Y., 137,249 (108,374);
New Haven, Conn., 133,605 (108,027);
Birmingham, Ala., 132,683 (38,415);
Memphis, Tenn., 131,105 (102,320);
Scranton, Pa., 129,867 (102,026);
Richmond, Va., 127,628 (85,050);
Paterson, N. J., 125,600 (105,171);
Omaha, Neb., 124,096 (102,555);
Fall River, Mass., 119,295 (104,803);
Dayton, O., 116,577 (85,333);
Grand Rapids, Mich., 112,571 (87,565);
Nashville, Tenn., 110,364 (80,865);
Lowell, Mass., 106,294 (94,969);
Cambridge, Mass., 104,839 (91,886);
Spokane, Wash., 104,402 (36,848);
Bridgeport, Conn., 102,054 (70,996);
Albany, N. Y., 100,253 (94,151).


The following list includes all the "State flowers" Commonly accepted or
officially adopted:

Alabama, goldenrod;
Arizona, sequoia cactus;
Arkansas, apple blossom;
California, poppy;
Colorado, columbine;
Delaware, peach blossom;
Georgia, Cherokee rose;
Idaho, syringa;
Illinois, violet;
Iowa, wild rose;
Kansas, sunflower;
Louisiana, magnolia;
Maine, pine cone;
Michigan, apple blossom;
Minnesota, moccasin;
Mississippi, magnolia;
Montana, bitter root;
Missouri, goldenrod;
Nebraska, goldenrod;
New Jersey, sugar maple (tree);
New York, rose;
North Dakota, goldenrod;
Oklahoma, mistletoe;
Oregon, Oregon grape;
Rhode Island, violet;
Texas, blue bonnet;
Utah, Sego lily;
Vermont, red clover;
Washington, rhododendron.


Following is the height in feet of some noted monuments and structures:

Amiens cathedral, 383;
Bunker Hill monument, 221;
Capitol, Washington, 288;
City Hall, Philadelphia, 535;
Cologne cathedral, 512;
Eiffel tower, 984;
Florence cathedral, 387;
Fribourg cathedral, 386;
Masonic Temple, Chicago, 354;
Metropolitan building. N. Y., 700;
Milan cathedral, 360;
the Great Pyramid, 451;
Rouen cathedral, 464;
St. Paul's, London, 404;
St. Peter's, Rome, 433;
Singer building, N. Y., 612;
Strassburg cathedral, 465;
St. Stephen's, Vienna, 470;
Ward building, Chicago, 394;
Washington monument, 556.


Palm, 250 years;
elm, 355 years;
cypress, 388 years;
ivy, 448 years;
maple, 516 years;
larch, 576 years;
lemon, 640 years;
plane, 720 years;
cedar, 800 years;
chestnut, 860 years;
walnut, 900 years;
lime, 1,076 years;
spruce, 1,200 years;
oak, 1,600 years;
olive, 2,000 years;
yew, 2,880 years;
baobab, 5,100 years;
dragon, 5,900 years.

Eucalyptus, or Australian gum-tree, sometimes grows twenty-four feet in
three months: bamboo, two feet in twenty-four hours.


The new science of aeronautics has given rise to many new words, among
them some of awkward derivation, and even those properly formed and
worthy of preservation in the language are often erroneously used. The
following compact lexicon is therefore both interesting and instructive:

Aeroplane--A generic term applied in common use to all classes of
sustaining surfaces; strictly applicable only to flat surfaces.

Adjusting Surfaces--Commonly a comparatively small surface, usually at
the end of a wing tip, used to adjust lateral balance; preferably
restricted to surfaces capable of variable adjustment, but not of
movement by controlling devices. See "Stabilizer'" and "Wing tip" and
compare "Aileron."

Advancing Edge--The front edge of a sustaining or other surface.

Advancing Surface--A surface that precedes another through the air, as
in a double monoplane.

Aerocurve--A proposed substitute for aeroplane.

Aerodrome--A substitute proposed by Langley for aeroplane. Strictly
applicable to a course rather than to a vehicle.

Aileron (a'ler-on)--A small hinged or separated wing tip or surface
capable of independent manipulation for the purpose of maintaining
lateral balance.

Aviation (a-vi-a'shun)--Dynamic flight by means of heavier-than-air

Aviator (a'vi-a-ter)--The operator or pilot of a heavier-than-air

Aerofoil--Term used to indicate lifting surface,

Angle of Incidence--The angle which a line drawn from the leading to the
trailing edge of the plane makes with the horizontal trailing angle
between the tangent to the trailing edge of the plane and the chord or a
line drawn from the leading to the trailing edge.

Arc--Any portion of a circle or other curve.

Aspect--The top or plan view of an aeroplane surface.

Automatic Stability--Applied to lateral or longitudinal stability
maintained by the action of suitable elements on mechanisms independent
of any control exercised by the operator. There is a tendency to
restrict the term to such stability secured by automatic manipulation of
controlling devices, rather than to systems in which balance is
maintained by the use of dihedral arrangements.

Biplane (bi'plane)--An aeroplane with two superposed main surfaces.

Balance--To maintain equilibrium by hand or automatic movement of
balancing surfaces, as opposed to equilibrium maintained by stabilizing.
See "Stabilizer."

Body--The center part of an aeroplane or other aerial vehicle, in which
the motor, fuel tanks, passenger accommodation, etc., are placed.

Camber--The camber of the ribs is the amount of curvature which is
imparted to them in the same way that a motor car spring or a road has a
camber or curvature.

Chassis (shas-see)--That part of the main framework of a monoplane to
which the main planes and tail planes are fitted and which contains the
engine and aviators seat.

Center of Pressure--Really a line of pressure along the under side of a
wing or aeroplane surface, on either side of which the pressures are

Center of Gravity--The center of weight, about which the vehicle
balances in all directions.

Chord--A straight line drawn between the ends of the arc of a circle or
other curve.

Dirigible (dir'-igihle)--Steerable or navigable; applied to balloons.

Derrick--A tower in which a falling weight is dropped in starting an

Diagonal--A diagonal brace or stay in a framework.

Dihedral (di-he'dral)--Said of wing pairs inclined at an upward angle to
each other.

Elevator--A principal supplementary surface, usually of a miniature form
of the main planes. Used for purpose of altering the vertical direction
of machine.

Gap--The distance between two main planes in a biplane.

Gliding--Flying down a slant of air without power.

Gyroscopic Effect--The property of any rotating mass whereby it tends to
maintain its plane of rotation against disturbing forces.

Gauchissement (or warping)--Applied to the main planes and produces the
same ultimate effect as the use of ailerons.

Hangar (hang'ar)--A shed for housing balloons or aeroplanes, generally
the latter.

Horsepower--A rate of work equivalent to the lifting of 33,000 ft.-lb. a

Head Resistance--The resistance of a surface to movement through the
air; closely proportionate to its projected area.

Heavier-than-air--Applied to dynamic flying machines weighing more than
the air they displace.

Horizontal Rudder--A horizontally placed rudder for steering in vertical

Lift--The sustaining effect, expressed in units of weight of an
aeroplane or wing surface.

Monoplane--An aeroplane with one or more main surfaces in the same
horizontal plane.

Main Plane--Usually the largest or lowest supporting surface of a
multi-surfaced aeroplane.

Mast--A spar or strut used for the attachment of wire or other stays to
stiffen the wings or other parts of a structure.

Main Spars--Lateral spars upon which the main planes are built.

Main Landing Wheels--In an alighting gear, the wheels that take the
chief shock in landing.

Ornithopter--A dynamic flying machine of the heavier-than-air type, in
which sustension is provided by the effect of reciprocating wing

Pylon--A tower to mark the course in aerial racing contests.

Ribs--Supports for the fabric, made of ash or spruce and bent to the
correct curves.

Rudder--One or more steering planes are invariably fitted to practical
machines to control the direction of flight.

Superposed Planes--Arrangement of one plane over the other, as in the
Wright, Voisin and Farman machines.

Supplementary Planes (or surfaces)--Additional surfaces which are used
for stabilization.

Stabilizer--Any surface for automatically maintaining lateral or
longitudinal balance.

Struts--Fixtures used in biplane construction to maintain an equal
distance between two planes.

Skids--Long skates on which the machine can land in safety.

Span--The distance from tip to tip of the main planes in a transverse
direction to that of flight.

Soaring Flight--The flight of certain large birds without wing flapping.
Its solution and imitation constitute one of the problems of aerial

Sustaining Surface--Any surface placed in a horizontal or approximately
horizontal position, primarily for the purpose of affording sustension.

Triplane--An aeroplane with three main surfaces.

Webs--Small blocks of wood placed between the ribs which act as distance

Wing Warping--A system of maintaining lateral balance by differential
twisting of wing tips in such manner as to increase the sustension on
one side and decrease it on the other.

--New York Tribune.


Amherst--Purple and white.

Beloit--Old gold,


Brown--Brown and white.

Columbia--Light blue and white.

Cornell--Carnelian and white.



Indiana--Crimson and cream.

Iowa--Scarlet and black.

Iowa State--Cardinal and gold.

Johns Hopkins--Black and old gold.

Lake Forest--Red and black.

Leland Stanford--Cardinal.

Northwestern--Royal Purple.

Oberlin--Crimson and gold

Princeton--Orange and black.

Purdue--Old gold and black.

University of Chicago--Maroon.

University of Illinois--Orange and navy blue.

University of Michigan--Maize and blue.

University of Minnesota--Old gold and maroon.

University of Notre Dame--Gold and blue.

University of Pennsylvania--Red and blue.

University of Rochester--Dandelion yellow.

University of Wisconsin--Cardinal.

Vassar--Rose and gray.

Williams--Royal purple.



Strictly construing the claims of osteopathic doctors, it is an
anti-medicine system of practice for the cure of every disease to which
the human body is liable.

Dr. Andrew T. Still, who claims to have made the discoveries that led to
the establishment of the school of Osteopathy, asserts that all diseases
and lesions are the result of the luxation, dislocation, or breakage of
some bone or bones; this, however, is not now maintained to any great
extent by his followers. Osteopathists, though, do generally claim that
all diseases arise from some maladjustment of the bones of the human
body, and that treatment, therefore, must be to secure the normal
adjustment of the bones and ligaments that form the skeleton. They claim
that a dislocation is not always necessarily the result of external
violence; it may be caused by the ulceration of bones, the elongation of
ligaments, or excessive muscular action.

The constriction of an important artery or vein, which may be caused by
a very slightly displaced bone, an indurated muscle, or other organ, may
produce an excess of blood in one part of the body, thereby causing a
deficiency in some other part. A dislocated member will generally show
alteration in the form of the joint and axis of the limb; loss of power
and proper motion; increased length or shortening of the limb;
prominence at one point and depression at another; greatly impaired
circulation, and pain due to the obstruction of nerve force in the parts

The osteopathist claims that pain and disease arise mainly from some
mal-adjustment in some part of the body, and that a return to good
health involves treatment for the normal adjustment of the skeleton; he
asserts, though any luxation may be only partial, it may cause pressure
at some point upon a blood vessel, or a nerve of which the patient may
be unconscious, and thus be a barrier to the restoration of good health.

Osteopathy asserts that trying to heal the body of an ailment caused by
a dislocated member, be it a bone, ligament, or nerve, by which abnormal
pressure is maintained upon a blood vessel or a nerve, would be like
trying to operate a machine with an important cog out of gear. To cure
it involves the reduction of a dislocation; the breaking up of
adhesions, and the arousing of the enervated organ or organs partially
or wholly failing in the performance of function.


Any person, firm or corporation can obtain protection for any lawful
trademark by complying with the following:

1. By causing to be recorded in the Patent Office the name, residence
and place of business of persons desiring the trademark.

2. The class of merchandise and description of the same.

3. A description of the trademark itself with facsimiles.

4. The length of time that the said mark has already been used.

5. By payment of the required fee--$6 for labels and $25 for trademarks.

6. By complying with such regulations as may be prescribed by the
Commissioner of Patents.

7. A lawful trademark must consist of some arbitrary word (not the name
of a person or place), indicating or not the use or nature of the thing
to which it is applied; of some designating symbol, or of both said word
and symbol.


Patents are issued in the name of the United States, and under the seal
of the Patent Office. A patent is a grant by the Government to the
inventor, his heirs or assigns, for a limited period, of the exclusive
right to make, use or sell any new and useful art, machine, manufacture
or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof, or
any new, original and ornamental design for any article of manufacture.

Every patent contains a grant to the patentee, his heirs or assigns, for
the term of seventeen years, of the exclusive right to make, use and
vend the invention or discovery throughout the United States and the
Territories, referring to the specification for the particulars thereof.

If it appears that the inventor, at the time of making his application,
believed himself to be the first inventor or discoverer, a patent will
not be refused on account of the invention or discovery, or any part
thereof, having been known or used in any foreign country before his
invention or discovery thereof, if it had not been before patented or
described in any printed publication.

Joint inventors are entitled to a joint patent; neither can claim one
separately. Independent inventors of distinct and independent
improvements in the same machine cannot obtain a joint patent for their
separate inventions; nor does the fact that one furnishes the capital
and another makes the invention entitle them to make application as
joint inventors; but in such case they may become joint patentees.

Application for a patent must be made in writing to the Commissioner of
Patents, from whom blanks and printed instructions can be obtained by

REISSUES.--A reissue is granted to the original patentee, his legal
representatives, or the assignees of the entire interest, when, by
reason of a defective or insufficient specification, or by reason of the
patentee claiming as his invention or discovery more than he had a right
to claim as new, the original patent is inoperative or invalid, provided
the error has arisen from inadvertence, accident or mistake and without
any fraudulent or deceptive intention.

CAVEATS.--A caveat, under the patent law, is a notice given to the
office of the caveator's claim as inventor, in order to prevent the
grant of a patent to another for the same alleged invention upon an
application filed during the life of the caveat without notice to the

Any citizen of the United States who has made a new invention or
discovery, and desires further time to mature the same, may, on payment
of a fee of $10, file in the Patent Office a caveat setting forth the
object and the distinguishing characteristics of the invention, and
praying protection of his right until he shall have matured his
invention. Such caveat shall be filed in the confidential archives of
the office and preserved in secrecy, and shall be operative for the term
of one year from the filing thereof.

An alien has the same privilege, if he has resided in the United States
one year next preceding the filing of his caveat, and has made oath of
his intention to become a citizen.

The caveat must comprise a specification, oath, and, when the nature of
the case admits of it, a drawing, and, like the application, must be
limited to a single invention or improvement.

FEES.--Fees must be paid in advance, and are as follows. On filing each
original application for a patent, $15. On issuing each original patent,
$20. In design cases: For three years and six months, $10: for seven
years, $15; for fourteen years, $30. On filing each caveat, $10.

On every application for the reissue of a patent, $30. Added to these
are the usual charges of patent solicitors for preparing the application
and for drawings etc.


(Polonius' Advice to His Son Laertes.)

And these few precepts in thy memory
See thou character: Give thy thoughts no tongue.
Nor any unproportion'd thought his act.
Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar.
Those friends thou hast, and their adoption tried,
Grapple them to thy soul with hooks of steel;
But do not dull thy palm with entertainment
Of each new-hatch'd, unfledged comrade. Beware
Of entrance to a quarrel, but, being in,
Bear 't that the opposed may beware of thee.
Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice;
Take each man's censure, but reserve thy judgment.
Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy.
But not express'd in fancy; rich, not gaudy;
For the apparel oft proclaims the man.   * * *
Neither a borrower nor a lender be:
For loan oft loses both itself and friend,
And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry.
This above all: to thine own self be true,
And it must follow, as the night the day,
Thou canst not then be false to any man.
                                       --"Hamlet," 1 :3.

(Benjamin Franklin.)

Drive thy business! Let not thy business drive thee!

Diligence is the mother of good luck.

Now I have a sheep and a cow, everybody bids me good morrow.

If you would know the value of money, go and try to borrow some.

Great estates may venture more, but little boats should keep near shore.

What maintains one vice would bring up two children.

God helps them that help themselves.

Poverty often deprives a man of all spirit and virtue, 'Tis hard for an
empty bag to stand upright.

Beware of little expenses; a small leak will sink a great ship.

For age and want, save while you may. No morning sun lasts a whole day.


Always consider the amount of purchase as if that much money were
already counted out, then add to amount of purchase enough small change
to make an even dollar, counting out the even dollars last until full
amount is made up.

If the purchase amounts to 57 cents, and you are handed $2.00 in
payment, count out 43 cents first to make an even dollar. Then layout
the other dollar.

Should the purchase be $3.69, to be taken out of $20.00, begin with
$3.69 as the basis and make up even $4.00 by laying out 31 cents. This
31 cents with the amount of the purchase you will consider as $4.00, and
count out even dollars to make up the $20.00 which the customer has
handed in.


All merchants use private cipher marks to note cost or selling price of
goods. The cipher is usually made up from some short word or sentence of
nine or ten letters, as:

C O R N E L I U S, A
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

Five dollars, according to this key, would be eaa. But generally an
extra letter is used to prevent repeating the mark for 0. If the sign
for a second 0 in this case were y, we would have eay instead of eaa.


Per Ct Simple  Interest. Compound Interest
2 50 yrs. 35 yrs.
2-1/2 40 yrs. 28 yrs. 26 da.
3 33 yrs. 4 mos. 23 yrs. 164 da.
3-1/2 28 yrs, 208 da. 20 yrs. 54
4 25 yrs. 17 yrs. 246 da.
4-1/2 22 yrs. 81 da. 15 yrs. 273 da.
5 20 yrs. 14 yrs. 75 da.
6 16 yrs. 8 mos. 11 yrs. 327 da.
7 14 yrs. 104 da. 10 yrs. 89 da.
8 12-1/2 yrs. 9 yrs 2 da.
9 11 yrs. 40da. 8 yrs. 16 da.
10 10 yrs. 7 yrs. 100 da.


The way to accumulate money is to save small sums with regularity. A
small sum saved daily for fifty years will grow at the following rate:

Daily Savings. Result.
One cent $ 950
Ten cents 9,504
Twenty cents 19,006
Thirty cents 28,512
Forty cents 38,015
Fifty cents 47,520
Sixty cents 57,024
Seventy cents 66,528
Eighty cents 76,032
Ninety cents 85,537
One dollar 475,208

[Transcriber's note: The figures from 1 to 90 cents assume about 5.5%
interest. The one dollar amount ($475,208) assumes about 10% interest.]


To find the interest on a given sum for any number of days, at any rate
of interest, multiply the principal by the number of days and divide as

At 3 per cent by 120
At 4 per cent by 90
At 5 per cent by 72
At 6 per cent by 60
At 7 per cent by 52
At 8 per cent by 45
At 9 per cent by 40
At 10 per cent by 36
At 12 per cent by 30
At 15 per cent by 24
At 20 per cent by 18


Wholesale houses usually invoice their goods to retailers at "list"
prices. List prices were once upon a time supposed to be retail prices,
but of late a system of "long" list prices has come into vogue in many
lines of trade--that is, the list price is made exorbitantly high, so
that wholesalers can give enormous discounts. These discounts, whether
large or small, are called trade discounts, and are usually deducted at
a certain rate per cent from the face of invoice.

The amount of discount generally depends upon size of bill or terms of
settlement, or both. Sometimes two or more discounts are allowed. Thus
30% and 5% is expressed 30 and 5 meaning first a discount of 30% and
then 5% from the remainder.

30 and 5 is not 35% but 33-1/3%. 10, 5 and 3 off means three successive

A wholesale house allowing 10, 5 and 3 off gets more for its goods than
it would at 18 off.


In the space at disposal here, it is impossible of course to give a
complete illustrated counterfeit detector, but the following simple
rules, laid down by Bank Note Examiner Geo. R. Baker, will be found
extremely valuable:

Examine the form and features of all human figures: if graceful, and
features distinct, examine the drapery. Notice whether the folds lie
naturally, and observe whether the fine strands of the hair are plain
and distinct.

Examine the lettering. In a genuine bill is absolutely perfect. There
has never been a counterfeit put out but was more or less defective in
the lettering.

Counterfeiters rarely, if ever, get the imprint or engraver's name
perfect. The shading in the background of the vignette and over and
around the letters forming the name of the bank, on a good bill, is even
and perfect; on a counterfeit, it is uneven and imperfect.

The die work around the figures of the denomination should be of the
same character as the ornamental work surrounding it.

Never take a bill deficient in any of these points.

Big Trees.--Of ninety-two redwood trees in Calaveras Grove, Cal., ten
are over thirty feet in diameter, and eighty-two have a diameter of from
fifteen to thirty feet. Their ages are estimated at from 1,000 to 3,500
years. Their height ranges from 150 to 237 feet.


A hawk flies 150 miles per hour; an eider duck 90 miles; a pigeon, 40

A man's working life is divided into four decades: 20 to 30, bronze; 30
to 40, silver; 40 to 50, gold; 50 to 60, iron. Intellect and judgment
are strongest between 40 and 50.

Hair which is lightest in color is also lightest in weight. Light or
blond hair is generally the most luxuriant, and it has been calculated
that the average number of hairs of this color on an average person's
head is 140,000; while the number of brown hairs is 110,000, and black
only 103,000.

Goldsmith received $300 for "The Vicar of Wakefield;" Moore, $15,500 for
"Lalla Rookh;" Victor Hugo, $12,000 for "Hernani;" Chateaubriand,
$110,000 for his works; Lamartine, $16,000 for "Travels in Palestine;"
Disraeli, $50,000 for "Endymion;" Anthony Trollope, $315,000 for
forty-five novels; Lingard, $21,000 for his "History of England;" Mrs.
Grant received over $600,000 as royalty from the sale of "The Personal
Memoirs of U. S. Grant."

One woman in 20, one man in 30 is barren--about 4 per cent. It is found
that one marriage in 20 is barren--5 per cent. Among the nobility of
Great Britain, 21 per cent have no children, owing partly to
intermarriage of cousins, no less than 4-1/2 per cent being married to

The largest bells are the following, and their weight is given in tons:
Moscow, 216: Burmah, 117; Pekin, 53; Novgorod, 31; Notre Dame, 18;
Rouen, 18; Olmutz, 18; Vienna, 18; St. Paul's, 16; Westminster, 14;
Montreal, 12; Cologne, 11; Oxford, 8; St. Peter's, 8. Bell metal should
have 77 parts copper and 23 tin.

American life averages for professions (Boston): Storekeepers, 41.8
years; teamsters, 43.6 years; laborers. 44.6 years; seamen, 46.1 years;
mechanics, 47.3 years; merchants, 48.4 years; lawyers, 52.6 years;
farmers, 64.2 years.

A camel has twice the carrying power of an ox; with an ordinary load of
400 lb. he can travel 12 to 14 days without water, going 40 miles a day.
Camels are fit to work at 5 years old, but their strength begins to
decline at 25, although they live usually till 40.

The checks paid in New York in one year aggregate $77,020,672,494, which
is more than nine times the value of all the gold and silver coin in

Pounds of water evaporated by 1 lb. of fuel as follows: Straw. 1.9;
wood, 3.1; peat, 3.8; coke or charcoal. 6.4; coal, 7.9; petroleum, 14.6.

The average elevation of continents above sea level is: Europe, 670
feet; Asia, 1,140 feet; North America. 1,150 feet; South America, 1,100

A body weighing 140 lb. produces 3 lb. ashes; time for burning, 55

The seven largest diamonds in the world weigh, respectively, as follows;
Kohinoor, 103 carats; Star of Brazil, 126 carats; Regent of France, 136
carats; Austrian Kaiser, 139 carats; Russian Czar, 195 carats; Rajah of
Borneo, 367 carats; Braganza, 1,880 carats. The value of the above is
not regulated by size, nor easy to estimate, but none of them is worth
less than $500,000.

According to Orfila, the proportion of nicotine in Havana tobacco is 2
per cent; in French, 6 per cent; and Virginia tobacco, 7 per cent. That
in Brazilian is still higher.

One horsepower will raise 16-1/2 tons per minute a height of 12 inches,
working 8 hours a day. This is about 9,900 foot-tons daily, or 12 times
a man's work.

Good clear ice two inches thick will bear men to walk on; four inches
thick will bear horses and riders; six inches thick will bear horses and
teams with moderate loads.

One pair of rabbits can become multiplied in four years into 1,250,000.
Australia ships 6,000,000 rabbit skins yearly to England.

The largest of the Pyramids, that of Cheops, is composed of four million
tons of stone, and occupied 100,000 men during 20 years, equal to an
outlay of $200,000,000. It would now cost $20,000,000 at a contract
price of 36 cents per cubic foot.

One tug on the Mississippi can take, in six days, from St. Louis to New
Orleans, barges carrying 10,000 tons of grain, which would require 70
railway trains of fifteen cars each.

Comparative Scale of Strength.--Ordinary man, 100; Byron's Gladiator,
173; Farnese Hercules, 362; horse, 750.

A man will die for want of air in five minutes; for want of sleep, in
ten days; for want of water, in a week; for want of food, at varying
intervals, dependent on various circumstances.

The average of human life is 33 years. One child out of every four dies
before the age of 7 years, and only one-half of the world's population
reach the age of 17. One out of 10,000 reaches 100 years. The average
number of births per day is about 120,000, exceeding the deaths by about
15 per minute. There have been many alleged cases of longevity in all
ages, but only a few are authentic.

The various nations of Europe are represented in the list of Popes as
follows: English, 1; Dutch, 1; Swiss, 1; Portuguese, 1; African, 2;
Austrian, 2; Spanish, 5; German, 6; Syrian, 8; Greek, 14; French, 16;
Italian, 200. Eleven Popes reigned over 20 years; 69, from 10 to 20; 57,
from 5 to 10; and the reign of 116 was less than 5 years. The reign of
Piux IX was the longest of all, the only one exceeding 25 years.

A knot, in sailor phrase, is a nautical mile, 6,080 feet, or 800 feet
more than a land mile.

The Garden of the Gods is near Colorado Springs and consists of a tract
some 50 acres in area surrounded by mountains and ravines of red
sandstone. A number of large upright rocks, some as high as 350 feet,
have given the beautiful valley its name. It is entered by a very narrow
pass called the "Beautiful Gate."

The Trans-Siberian Railway is 6,003 miles long and was built at a cost
of $201,350,860.

The longest reigns in English history were; Victoria, 64 years; George
III., 60; Henry III, 56; Edward III, 50; Elizabeth, 45; Henry VIII., 38.

The highest mountain in North America is Mt. McKinley, at the headwaters
of the Suswhitna and Kuskokwim rivers, Alaska. Its height is 20,464

The largest viaduct in the world was designed and built by American
engineers for the English railway in Burma. It crosses the Gokteik
gorge, eighty miles from Mandalay. It is 2,260 feet long and 325 feet
high, and was constructed in 1900.

The degrees of alcohol in wines and liquors are: Beer, 4.0; porter, 4.5;
ale, 7.4; cider, 8.6; Moselle, 9.6; Tokay, 10.2; Rhine, 11.0; orange,
11.2; Bordeaux, 11.5; hock, 11.6; gooseberry, 11.8; Champagne, 12.2;
claret, 13.3; Burgundy, 13.6; Malaga, 17.3; Lisbon, 18.5; Canary, 18.8;
sherry, 19.0; vermouth, 19.0; Cape, 19.2; Malmsey, 19.7; Marsala, 20.2;
Madeira, 21.0; Port, 23.2; Curacoa, 27.0; aniseed, 33.0; Maraschino,
34.0; Chartreuse, 43.0; gin, 51.6; brandy, 53.4; rum, 53.7; Irish
whisky, 53.9; Scotch, 54.3. Spirits are said to be "proof" when they
contain 57 per cent. The maximum amount of alcohol, says Parkes, that a
man can take daily without injury to his health is that contained in 2
oz. Brandy, 1/4 pt. of sherry, 1/2 pt. of claret, or 1 pt. of beer.

The measurement of that part of the skull which holds the brain is
stated in cubic inches thus: Anglo-Saxon, 105; German, 105; negro, 96;
ancient Egyptian, 93; Hottentot, 58; Australian native, 58. In all races
the male brain is about ten per cent heavier than the female. The
highest class of apes has only 16 oz. of brain. A man's brain, it is
estimated, consists of 300,000,000 nerve cells, of which over 3,000 are
disintegrated and destroyed every minute. Everyone, therefore, has a new
brain once in sixty days. But excessive labor, or lack of sleep,
prevents the repair of the tissues, and the brain gradually wastes away.
Diversity of occupation, by calling upon different portions of the mind
or body successively, affords, in some measure, the requisite repose to
each. But in this age of overwork there is no safety except in that
perfect rest which is the only natural restorative of exhausted power.

The King James version of the Bible contains 3,566,480 letters, 773,746
words, 31,173 verses, 1,189 chapters, and 66 books. The word and occurs
46,277 times. The word Lord occurs 1,855 times. The word Reverend occurs
but once, which is in the 9th verse of the 111th Psalm. The middle verse
is the 8th verse of the 118th Psalm. The 21st verse of the 7th chapter
of Ezra contains all the letters of the alphabet except the letter J.
The 19th chapter of II Kings and the 37th chapter of Isaiah are alike.
The longest verse is the 9th verse of the 8th chapter of Esther. The
shortest verse is the 35th verse of the 11th chapter of St. John. There
are no words or names of more than six syllables.


The human body has 240 bones.

Man's heart beats 92,160 times in a day.

A salmon has been known to produce 10,000,000 eggs.  Some female spiders
produce 2,000 eggs. A queen bee produces 100,000 eggs in a season.

There are 9,000 cells in a square foot of honeycomb.

It requires 2,300 silkworms to produce one pound of silk.

It would take 27,600 spiders to produce one pound of web.


The "rule of the road" in the United States is "turn to the right"; in
England it is the reverse. The rule holds in this country in the case
where two vehicles going in opposite directions meet. When one vehicle
overtakes another the foremost gives way to the left and the other
passes by on the "off side"; and when a vehicle is crossing the
direction of another it keeps to the left and crosses in its rear. These
two rules are the same in this country as in England, and why the rule
concerning meeting vehicles should have been changed it is impossible to


How to Keep Them Healthy and in Good Song.

Place the cage so that no draught of air can strike the bird.

Give nothing to healthy birds but rape, hemp, canary seed, water,
cuttle-fish bone, and gravel, paper or sand on floor of cage.

A bath three times a week;

The room should not be overheated.

When moulting keep warm and avoid all draughts of air.

Give plenty of German summer rape seed. A little hard-boiled egg mixed
with cracker, grated fine, once or twice a week, is excellent.

Feed at a certain hour in the morning.

Diseases and Cures.

Husk or Asthma.--The curatives are aperients, such as endive, water
cresses, bread and milk, and red pepper.

Pip.--Mix red pepper, butter and garlic and swab out the throat.

Sweating.--Wash the hen in salt and water, and dry rapidly.

Costiveness.--Plenty of green food and fruit.

Obstruction of the Rump Gland--Pierce with a needle. Press the inflamed
matter out, and drop fine sugar over the wound.

Lice.--Keep a saucer of fresh water in the cage and the bird will free

Overgrown Claws or Beak.--Pare carefully with a sharp knife.

Moulting.--Give plenty of good food and keep warm. Saffron and a rusty
nail put in the drinking water is excellent.

Loss of Voice.--Feed with paste of bread, lettuce and rape seed with
yoke of egg. Whisky and sugar is an excellent remedy.


Toothache Cure.--Compound tinct. benzoin is said to be one of the most
certain and speedy cures for toothache; pour a few drops on cotton, and
press at once into the diseased cavity, when the pain will almost
instantly cease.

Toothache Tincture.--Mix tannin, 1 scruple; mastic, 3 grains; ether, 2
drams. Apply on cotton wool, to the tooth, previously dried.

Charcoal Tooth Paste.--Chlorate of potash, 1/2 dram; mint water, 1
ounce. Dissolve and add powdered charcoal, 2 ounces; honey, 1 ounce.

Excellent Mouth Wash.--Powdered white Castile soap, 2 drams; alcohol, 3
ounces; honey, 1 ounce; essence or extract jasmine, 2 drams. Dissolve
the soap in alcohol and add honey and extract.

Removing Tartar from the Teeth.--This preparation is used by dentists.
Pure muriatic acid, one ounce; water, one ounce; honey, two ounces; mix
thoroughly. Take a toothbrush, and wet it freely with this preparation,
and briskly rub the black teeth, and in a moment's time they will be
perfectly white; then immediately wash out the mouth well with water,
that the acid may not act on the enamel of the teeth. This should be
done only occasionally.

Test for Glue.--The following simple and easy test for glue is given: A
weighed piece of glue (say one-third of an ounce) is suspended in water
for twenty-four hours, the temperature of which is not above fifty
degrees Fahrenheit. The coloring material sinks, and the glue swells
from the absorption of the water. The glue is then taken out and
weighed; the greater the increase in weight the better the glue. If it
then be dried perfectly and weighed again, the weight of the coloring
matter can be learned from the difference between this and the original

Bad Breath.--Bad breath from catarrh, foul stomach or bad teeth may be
temporarily relieved by diluting a little bromo chloralum with eight or
ten parts of water, and using it as a gargle, and swallowing a few drops
before going out. A pint of bromo chloralum costs fifty cents, but a
small vial will last a long time.

Good Tooth Powder.--Procure, at a druggist's, half an ounce of powdered
orris root, half an ounce of prepared chalk finely pulverized, and two
or three small lumps of Dutch pink. Let them all be mixed in a mortar,
and pounded together. The Dutch pink is to impart a pale reddish color.
Keep it in a close box.

Another Tooth Powder.--Mix together, in a mortar, half an ounce of red
Peruvian bark, finely powdered, a quarter of an ounce of powdered myrrh,
and a quarter of an ounce of prepared chalk.

A Safe Depilatory.--Take a strong solution of sulphuret of barium, and
add enough finely powdered starch to make a paste. Apply to the roots of
the hair and allow it to remain on a few minutes, then scrape off with
the back edge of a knife blade, and rub with sweet oil.

Quick Depilatory for Removing Hair.--Best slaked lime, 6 ounces;
orpiment, fine powder, 1 ounce. Mix with a covered sieve and preserve in
a dry place in closely stoppered bottles. In using mix the powder with
enough water to form a paste, and apply to the hair to be removed. In
about five minutes, or as soon as its caustic action is felt on the
skin, remove, as in shaving, with an ivory or bone paper knife, wash
with cold water freely, and apply cold cream.

Tricopherus for the Hair.--Castor oil, alcohol, each 1 pint; tinct.
cantharides, 1 ounce; oil bergamot, 1/2 ounce; alkanet coloring, to
color as wished. Mix and let it stand forty-eight hours, with occasional
shaking, and then filter.

Liquid Shampoo.--Take bay rum. 2-1/2 pints; water, 1/2 pint; glycerine,
1 ounce; tinct. cantharides, 2 drams; carbonate of ammonia, 2 drams;
borax, 1/2 ounce; or take of New England rum, 1-1/2 pints; bay rum, 1
pint; water, 1/2 pint; glycerine, 1 ounce; tinct. cantharides, 2 drams,
ammon. carbonate, 2 drams; borax, 1/2 ounce; the salts to be dissolved
in water and the other ingredients to be added gradually.

Cleaning Hair Brushes.--Put a teaspoonful or dessertspoonful of aqua
ammonia into a basin half full of water, comb the loose hairs out of the
brush, then agitate the water briskly with the brush, and rinse it well
with clear water.

Hair Invigorator.--Bay rum, two pints; alcohol, one pint; castor oil,
one ounce; carb. ammonia, half an ounce; tincture of cantharides, one
ounce. Mix them well. This compound will promote the growth of the hair
and prevent it from falling out.

For Dandruff.--Take glycerine, four ounces; tincture of cantharides,
five ounces; bay rum, four ounces; water, two ounces. Mix and apply once
a day, and rub well into the scalp.

Mustache Grower.--Simple cerate, 1 ounce; oil bergamot, 10 minims;
saturated tinct. of cantharides, 15 minims. Rub them together
thoroughly, or melt the cerate and stir in the tincture while hot, and
the oil as soon as it is nearly cold, then run into molds or rolls. To
be applied as a pomade, rubbing in at the roots of the hair. Care must
be used not to inflame the skin by too frequent application.

Razor-strop Paste.--Wet the strop with a little sweet oil, and apply a
little flour of emery evenly over the surface.

Shaving Compound.--Half a pound of plain white soap, dissolved in a
small quantity of alcohol, as little as can be used; add a tablespoonful
of pulverized borax. Shave the soap and put it in a small tin basin or
cup; place it on the fire in a dish of boiling water; when melted, add
the alcohol, and remove from the fire; stir in oil of bergamot
sufficient to perfume it.

Cure for Prickly Heat.--Mix a large portion of wheat bran with either
cold or lukewarm water, and use it as a bath twice or thrice a day.
Children who are covered with prickly heat in warm weather will be thus
effectually relieved from that tormenting eruption. As soon as it begins
to appear on the neck, face or arms, commence using the bran water on
these parts repeatedly through the day, and it may probably spread no
farther. If it does, the bran water bath will certainly cure it, if
persisted in.

To Remove Corns from Between the Toes.--These corns are generally more
painful than any others, and are frequently situated as to be almost
inaccessible to the usual remedies. Wetting them several times a day
with hartshorn will in most cases cure them. Try it.

Superior Cologne Water.--Oil of lavender, two drams; oil of rosemary,
one dram and a half; orange, lemon and bergamot, one dram each of the
oil; also two drams of the essence of musk, attar of rose, ten drops,
and a pint of proof spirit. Shake all together thoroughly three times a
day for a week.

Inexhaustible Smelling Salts.--Sal tartar, three drams; muriate ammonia,
granulated, 6 drams; oil neroli. 5 minims; oil lavender flowers, 5
minims; oil rose, 3 minims; spirits ammonia, 15 minims. Put into the
pungent a small piece of sponge filling about one-fourth the space, and
pour on it a due proportion of the oils, then put in the mixed salts
until the bottle is three-fourths full, and pour on the spirits of
ammonia in proper proportion and close the bottle.

Volatile Salts for Pungents.--Liquor ammon., 1 pint; oil lavender
flowers, 1 dram; oil rosemary, fine, 1 dram; oil bergamot, 1/2 dram; oil
peppermint, 10 minims. Mix thoroughly and fill pungents or keep in well
stoppered bottle. Another formula is, sesqui-carbonate of ammonia,
small pieces, 10 ounces; concentrated liq. ammonia, 5 ounces. Put the
sesqui-carb. in a wide-mouthed jar with air-tight stopper, perfume the
liquor ammonia to suit and pour over the carbonate; close tightly the
lid and place in a cool place; stir with a stiff spatula every other day
for a week, and then keep it closed for two weeks, or until it becomes
hard, when it is ready for use.

Paste for Papering Boxes.--Boil water and stir in batter of wheat or rye
flour. Let it boil one minute, take off and strain through a colander.
Add, while boiling, a little glue or powdered alum. Do plenty of
stirring while the paste is cooking, and make of consistency that will
spread nicely.

Aromatic Spirit of Vinegar.--Acetic acid, No. 8. pure, 8 ounces;
camphor, 1/2 ounce. Dissolve and add oil lemon, oil lavender flowers,
each two drams; oil cassia, oil cloves, 1/2 dram each. Thoroughly mix
and keep in well stoppered bottle.

Rose-Water.--Preferable to the distilled for a perfume, or for ordinary
purposes. Attar of rose, twelve drops; rub it up with half an ounce of
white sugar and two drams carbonate magnesia, then add gradually one
quart of water and two ounces of proof spirit, and filter through paper.

Bay Rum.--French proof spirit, one gallon; extract bay, six ounces. Mix
and color with caramel; needs no filtering.

Fine Lavender Water.--Mix together, in a clean bottle, a pint of
inodorous spirit of wine, an ounce of oil of lavender, a teaspoonful of
oil of bergamot, and a tablespoonful of oil of ambergris.

The Virtues of Turpentine.--After a housekeeper fully realizes the worth
of turpentine in the household, she is never willing to be without a
supply of it. It gives quick relief to burns, it is an excellent
application for corns, it is good for rheumatism and sore throat, and it
is the quickest remedy for convulsions or fits. Then it is a sure
preventive against moths: by just dropping a trifle in the bottom of
drawers, chests and cupboards, it will render the garments secure from
injury during the summer. It will keep ants and bugs from closets and
store-rooms by putting a few drops in the corners and upon the shelves;
it is sure destruction to bedbugs, and will effectually drive them away
from their haunts if thoroughly applied to all the joints of the
bedstead in the spring cleaning time, and injures neither furniture nor
clothing. A spoonful of it added to a pail of warm water is excellent
for cleaning paint. A little in suds washing days lightens laundry

A Perpetual Paste is a paste that may be made by dissolving an ounce of
alum in a quart of warm water. When cold, add as much flour as will make
it the consistency of cream, then stir into it half a teaspoonful of
powdered resin, and two or three cloves. Boil it to a consistency of
mush, stirring all the time. It will keep for twelve months, and when
dry may be softened with warm water.

Paste for Scrap Books.--Take half a teaspoonful of starch, same of
flour, pour on a little boiling water, let it stand a minute, add more
water, stir and cook it until it is thick enough to starch a shirt
bosom. It spreads smooth, sticks well and will not mold or discolor
paper. Starch alone will make a very good paste.

A Strong Paste.--A paste that will neither decay nor become moldy. Mix
good clean flour with cold water into a thick paste well blended
together; then add boiling water, stirring well up until it is of a
consistency that can be easily and smoothly spread with a brush; add to
this a spoonful or two of brown sugar, a little corrosive sublimate and
about half a dozen drops of oil of lavender, and you will have a paste
that will hold with wonderful tenacity.

A Brilliant Paste.--A brilliant and adhesive paste, adapted to fancy
articles, may be made by dissolving caseine precipitated from milk by
acetic acid and washed with pure water in a saturated solution of borax.

A Sugar Paste.--In order to prevent the gum from cracking, to ten parts
by weight of gum arabic and three parts of sugar add water until the
desired consistency is obtained. If a very strong paste is required, add
a quantity of flour equal in weight to the gum, without boiling the
mixture. The paste improves in strength when it begins to ferment.

Tin Box Cement.--To fix labels to tin boxes either of the following will
answer: 1. Soften good glue in water, then boil it in strong vinegar,
and thicken the liquid while boiling with fine wheat flour, so that a
paste results. 2. Starch paste, with which a little Venice turpentine
has been incorporated while warm.

Paper and Leather Paste.--Cover four parts, by weight, of glue, with
fifteen parts of cold water, and allow it to soak for several hours,
then warm moderately till the solution is perfectly clear, and dilute
with sixty parts of boiling water, intimately stirred in. Next prepare a
solution of thirty parts of starch in two hundred parts of cold water,
so as to form a thin homogeneous liquid, free from lumps, and pour the
boiling glue solution into it with thorough stirring, and at the same
time keep the mass boiling.

Commercial Mucilage.--The best quality of mucilage in the market is made
by dissolving clear glue in equal volumes of water and strong vinegar,
and adding one-fourth of an equal volume of alcohol, and a small
quantity of a solution of alum in water. Some of the cheaper
preparations offered for sale are merely boiled starch or flour, mixed
with nitric acid to prevent their gelatinizing.

Acid-Proof Paste.--A paste formed by mixing powdered glass with a
concentrated solution of silicate of soda makes an excellent acid-proof

Paste to Fasten Cloth to Wood.--Take a plump pound of wheat flour, one
tablespoonful of powdered resin, one tablespoonful of finely powdered
alum, and rub the mixture in a suitable vessel, with water, to a
uniform, smooth paste; transfer this to a small kettle over a fire, and
stir until the paste is perfectly homogeneous without lumps. As soon as
the mass has become so stiff that the stirrer remains upright in it,
transfer it to another vessel and cover it up so that no skin may form
on its surface. This paste is applied in a very thin layer to the
surface of the table; the cloth, or leather, is then laid and pressed
upon it, and smoothed with a roller. The ends are cut off after drying.
If leather is to be fastened on, this must first be moistened with
water. The paste is then applied, and the leather rubbed smooth with a

Paste for Printing Office.--Take two gallons of cold water and one quart
wheat flour, rub out all the lumps, then add one-fourth pound of finely
pulverized alum and boil the mixture for ten minutes, or until a thick
consistency is reached. Now add one quart of hot water and, boil again,
until the paste becomes a pale brown color, and thick. The paste should
be well stirred during both processes of cooking. Paste thus made will
keep sweet for two weeks and prove very adhesive.

To Take Smoke Stains from Walls.--An easy and sure way to remove smoke
stains from common plain ceilings is to mix wood ashes with the
whitewash just before applying. A pint of ashes to a small pail of
whitewash is sufficient, but a little more or less will do no harm.

To Remove Stains from Broadcloth.--Take an ounce of pipe clay, which has
been ground fine, mix it with twelve drops of alcohol and the same
quantity of spirits of turpentine. Whenever you wish to remove any
stains from cloth, moisten a little of this mixture with alcohol and rub
it on the spots. Let it remain till dry, then rub it off with a woolen
cloth, and the spots will disappear.

To Remove Red Stains of Fruit from Linen.--Moisten the cloth and hold it
over a piece of burning sulphur; then wash thoroughly, or else the spots
may reappear.

To Remove Oil Stains.--Take three ounces of spirits of turpentine and
one ounce of essence of lemon, mix well, and apply it as you would any
other scouring drops. It will take out all the grease.

Iron Stains may be removed by the salt of lemons. Many stains may be
removed by dipping the linen in some buttermilk, and then drying it in a
hot sun; wash it in cold water; repeat this three or four times.

To Remove Oil Stains from Wood.--Mix together fuller's earth and soap
lees, and rub it into the boards. Let it dry and then scour it off with
some strong soft soap and sand, or use lees to scour it with. It should
be put on hot, which may easily be done by heating the lees.

To Remove Tea Stains.--Mix thoroughly soft soap and salt--say a
tablespoonful of salt to a teacupful of soap, rub on the spots, and
spread the cloth on the grass where the sun will shine on it. Let it lie
two or three days, then wash. If the spots are wet occasionally while
lying on the grass, it will hasten the bleaching.

To Remove Stains from Muslin.--If you have stained your muslin or
gingham dress, or similar articles, with berries, before wetting with
anything else, pour boiling water through the stains and they will
disappear. Before fruit juice dries it can often be removed by cold
water, using a sponge and towel if necessary.

To Remove Acid Stains.--Stains caused by acids may be removed by tying
some pearlash up in the stained part; scrape some soap in cold, soft
water, and boil the linen until the stain is gone.

To Disinfect Sinks and Drains.--Copperas dissolved in water, one-fourth
of a pound to a gallon, and poured into a sink and water drain
occasionally, will keep such places sweet and wholesome. A little
chloride of lime, say half a pound to a gallon of water, will have the
same effect, and either of these costs but a trifle.

A preparation may be made at home which will answer about as well as the
chloride of lime. Dissolve a bushel of salt in a barrel of water, and
with the salt water slake a barrel of lime, which should be made wet
enough to form a thin paste or wash.

To Disinfect a Cellar.--A damp, musty cellar may be sweetened by
sprinkling upon the floor pulverized copperas, chloride of lime, or even
common lime. The most effective means I have ever used to disinfect
decaying vegetable matter is chloride of lime in solution. One pound may
be dissolved in two gallons of water. Plaster of Paris has also been
found an excellent absorbent of noxious odors. If used one part with
three parts of charcoal, it will be found still better.

How to Thaw Out a Water Pipe.--Water pipes usually freeze up when
exposed, for inside the walls, where they cannot be reached, they are or
should be packed to prevent freezing. To thaw out a frozen pipe, bundle
a newspaper into a torch, light it, and pass it along the pipe slowly.
The ice will yield to this much quicker than to hot water or wrappings
or hot cloths, as is the common practice.

To Prevent Mold.--A small quantity of carbolic acid added to paste,
mucilage and ink, will prevent mold. An ounce of the acid to a gallon of
whitewash will keep cellars and dairies from the disagreeable odor which
often taints milk and meat kept in such places.

Thawing Frozen Gas Pipe.--Mr. F. H. Shelton says: "I took off from over
the pipe, some four or five inches, just a crust of earth, and then put
a couple of bushels of lime in the space, poured water over it, and
slaked it, and then put canvas over that, and rocks on the canvas, so as
to keep the wind from getting underneath. Next morning, on returning
there, I found that the frost had been drawn out from the ground for
nearly three feet. You can appreciate what an advantage that was, for
picking through frozen ground, with the thermometer below zero, is no
joke. Since then we have tried it several times. It is an excellent plan
if you have time enough to let the time work. In the daytime you cannot
afford to waste the time, but if you have a spare night in which to
work, it is worth while to try it."

How to Test a Thermometer.--The common thermometer in a japanned iron
case is usually inaccurate. To test the thermometer, bring water into
the condition of active boiling, warm the thermometer gradually in the
steam and then plunge it into the water. If it indicates a fixed
temperature of two hundred and twelve degrees, the instrument is a good

Indelible Ink.--An indelible ink that cannot be erased, even with acids,
can be obtained from the following recipe: To good gall ink add a strong
solution of Prussian blue dissolved in distilled water. This will form a
writing fluid which cannot be erased without destruction of the paper.
The ink will write greenish blue, but afterward will turn black.

To Get a Broken Cork Out of a Bottle.--If, in drawing a cork, it breaks,
and the lower part falls down into the liquid, tie a long loop in a bit
of twine, or small cord, and put it in, holding the bottle so as to
bring the piece of cork near to the lower part of the neck. Catch it in
the loop, so as to hold it stationary. You can then easily extract it
with a corkscrew.

A Wash for Cleaning Silver.--Mix together half an ounce of fine salt,
half an ounce of powdered alum, and half an ounce of cream of tartar.
Put them into a large white-ware pitcher, and pour on two ounces of
water, and stir them frequently, till entirely dissolved. Then transfer
the mixture to clean bottles and cork them closely. Before using it,
shake the bottles well. Pour some of the liquid into a bowl, and wash
the silver all over with it, using an old, soft, fine linen cloth. Let
it stand about ten minutes, and then rub it dry with a buckskin. It will
make the silver look like new.

To Remove the Odor from a Vial.--The odor of its last contents may be
removed from a vial by filling it with cold water, and letting it stand
in any airy place uncorked for three days, changing the water every day.

To Loosen a Glass Stopper.--The manner in which apothecaries loosen
glass stoppers when there is difficulty in getting them out is to press
the thumb of the right hand very hard against the lower part of the
stopper, and then give the stopper a twist the other way, with the thumb
and forefinger of the left hand, keeping the bottle stiff in a steady

To Soften Boots and Shoes.--Kerosene will soften boots and shoes which
have been hardened by water, and render them as pliable as new.

To Remove Stains, Spots, and Mildew from Furniture.--Take half a pint of
ninety-eight per cent alcohol, a quarter of an ounce each of pulverized
resin and gum shellac, add half a pint of linseed oil, shake well and
apply with a brush or sponge. Sweet oil will remove finger marks from
varnished furniture, and kerosene from oiled furniture.

To Freshen Gilt Frames.--Gilt frames may be revived by carefully dusting
them, and then washing with one ounce of soda beaten up with the whites
of three eggs. Scraped patches should be touched up with gold paint.
Castile soap and water, with proper care, may be used to clean oil
paintings. Other methods should not be employed without some skill.

To Fill Cracks in Plaster.--Use vinegar instead of water to mix your
plaster of Paris. The resultant mass will be like putty, and will not
"set" for twenty or thirty minutes, whereas if you use water the plaster
will become hard almost immediately, before you have time to use it.
Push it into the cracks and smooth it off nicely with a table knife.

To Toughen Lamp Chimneys and Glassware.--Immerse the article in a pot
filled with cold water, to which some common salt has been added. Boil
the water well, then cool slowly. Glass treated in this way will resist
any sudden change of temperature.

To Remove Paint from Window-Glass.--Rub it well with hot, sharp vinegar.

To Clean Stovepipe.--A piece of zinc put on the live coals in the stove
will clean out the stovepipe.

To Brighten Carpets.--Carpets after the dust has been beaten out may be
brightened by scattering upon them cornmeal mixed with salt and then
sweeping it off. Mix salt and meal in equal proportions. Carpets should
be thoroughly beaten on the wrong side first and then on the right side,
after which spots may be removed by the use of ox-gall or ammonia and

To Keep Flowers Fresh exclude them from the air. To do this wet them
thoroughly, put in a damp box, and cover with wet raw cotton or wet
newspaper, then place in a cool spot. To preserve bouquets, put a little
saltpetre in the water you use for your bouquets, and the flowers will
live for a fortnight.

To Preserve Brooms.--Dip them for a minute or two in a kettle of boiling
suds once a week and they will last much longer, making them tough and
pliable. A carpet wears much longer swept with a broom cared for in this

To Clean Brassware.--Mix one ounce of oxalic acid, six ounces of rotten
stone, all in powder, one ounce of sweet oil, and sufficient water to
make a paste. Apply a small proportion, and rub dry with a flannel or
leather. The liquid dip most generally used consists of nitric and
sulphuric acids, but this is more corrosive.

To Keep Out Mosquitoes.--If a bottle of the oil of pennyroyal is left
uncorked in a room at night, not a mosquito, nor any other blood-sucker,
will be found there in the morning.

To Kill Cockroaches.--A teacupful of well bruised plaster of Paris,
mixed with double the quantity of oatmeal, to which a little sugar may
be added, although this last named ingredient is not essential. Strew it
on the floor, or into the chinks where they frequent.

To Destroy Ants.--Drop some quicklime on the mouth of their nest, and
wash it with boiling water, or dissolve some camphor in spirits of wine,
then mix with water, and pour into their haunts; or tobacco water, which
has been found effectual. They are averse to strong scents. Camphor, or
a sponge saturated with creosote, will prevent their infesting a
cupboard. To prevent their climbing up trees, place a ring of tar about
the trunk, or a circle of rag moistened occasionally with creosote.

To Prevent Moths.--In the month of April or May, beat your fur garments
well with a small cane or elastic stick, then wrap them up in linen,
without pressing them too hard, and put betwixt the folds some camphor
in small lumps; then put your furs in this state in boxes well closed.
When the furs are wanted for use, beat them well as before, and expose
them for twenty-four hours to the air, which will take away the smell of
the camphor. If the fur has long hair, as bear or fox, add to the
camphor an equal quantity of black pepper in powder.

To Get Rid of Moths--
1. Procure shavings of cedar wood, and inclose in muslin bags, which can
be distributed freely among the clothes.

2. Procure shavings of camphor wood, and inclose in bags.

3. Sprinkle pimento (allspice) berries among the clothes.

4. Sprinkle the clothes with the seeds of the musk plant.

5. To destroy the eggs, when deposited in woolen cloths, etc., use a
solution of acetate of potash in spirits of rosemary, fifteen grains to
the pint.

Bed Bugs.--Spirits of naphtha rubbed with a small painter's brush into
every part of the bedstead is a certain way of getting rid of bugs. The
mattress and binding of the bed should be examined, and the same process
attended to, as they generally harbor more in these parts than in the
bedstead. Ten cents' worth of naphtha is sufficient for one bed.

Bug Poison.--Proof spirit, one pint; camphor, two ounces; oil of
turpentine, four ounces; corrosive sublimate, one ounce. Mix. A
correspondent says: "I have been for a long time troubled with bugs, and
never could get rid of them by any clean and expeditious method, until a
friend told me to suspend a small bag of camphor to the bed, just in the
center, overhead. I did so, and the enemy was most effectually repulsed,
and has not made his appearance since--not even for a reconnoissance!"
This is a simple method of getting rid of these pests, and is worth a
trial to see if it be effectual in other cases.

Mixture for Destroying Flies--Infusion of quassia, one pint; brown
sugar, four ounces; ground pepper, two ounces. To be well mixed
together, and put in small, shallow dishes when required.

To Destroy Flies in a room, take half a teaspoonful of black pepper in
powder, one teaspoonful of brown sugar, and one tablespoonful of cream,
mix them well together, and place them in the room on a plate, where the
flies are troublesome, and they will soon disappear.

To Drive Flies from the House.--A good way to rid the house of flies is
to saturate small cloths with oil of sassafras and lay them in windows
and doors. The flies will soon leave.

Aging Oak.--Strong ammonia fumes may be used for aging oak. Place the
piece to be fumed, with an evaporating dish containing concentrated
ammonia, in a box, and close it airtight. Leave for 12 hours and finish
with a wax polish, applying first a thin coat of paraffine oil and then
rubbing with a pomade of prepared wax made as follows: Two ounces each
of yellow and white beeswax heated over a slow fire in a clean vessel
(agate ware is good) until melted. Add 4 oz. turpentine and stir till
entirely cool. Keep the turpentine away from the fire. This will give
the oak a lustrous brown color, and nicking will not expose a different
surface, as the ammonia fumes penetrate to a considerable depth.


They do me wrong who say I come no more
  When once I've knocked and failed to find you in;
For every day I stand outside your door,
  And bid you wake and ride, to fight and win.

Wail not for precious chances passed away,
  Weep not for golden ages on the wane;
Each night I burn the records of the day;
  At sunrise every soul is born again.

Laugh like a boy at splendors that have sped;
  To vanished hopes be blind and deaf and dumb;
My judgments seal the dead past with its dead,
  But never bind a moment yet to come.

Though deep in mire, wring not your hands and weep:
  I lend my arm to all who say. "I can."
No shamefaced outcast ever sank so deep
  But yet might rise and be again a man!

Dost thou behold thy lost youth all aghast?
  Dost reel from righteous retribution's blow?
Then turn from blotted archives of the past.
  And find the future's pages white as snow.

Art thou a mourner? Rouse thee from thy spell!
  Art thou a sinner? Sins may be forgiven;
Each morning gives thee wings to flee from hell.
  Each night a star to guide to Heaven!
                                        --Walter Maloney.


Troy Weight.--24 grains make 1 pennyweight, 20 pennyweights make 1
ounce. By this weight, gold, silver and jewels only are weighed. The
ounce and pound in this are same as in Apothecaries' weight.

Apothecaries' Weight.--20 grains make one scruple. 3 scruples make 1
dram. 8 drams make 1 ounce, l2 ounces make 1 pound.

Avoirdupois Weight.--6 drams make 1 ounce, 16 ounces make 1 pound, 25
pounds make 1 quarter, 4 quarters make 1 hundredweight, 2,000 pounds
make 1 ton.

Dry Measure.--2 pints make 1 quart, 8 quarts make 1 peck, 4 pecks make 1
bushel, 36 bushels make 1 chaldron.

Liquid or Wine Measure.--4 gills make 1 pint, 2 pints make 1 quart, 4
quarts make 1 gallon. 31-1/2 gallons make 1 barrel, 2 barrels make 1

Time Measure.--60 seconds make 1 minute, 60 minutes make 1 hour, 24
hours make 1 day, 7 days make 1 week, 4 weeks make 1 lunar month, 28,
29, 30 or 31 days make 1 calendar month (30 days make 1 month in
computing interest). 52 weeks and 1 day, or 12 calendar months make a
year; 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 49 seconds make 1 solar year.

Circular Measure.--60 seconds make 1 minute, 60 minutes make 1 degree,
30 degrees make 1 sign, 90 degrees make 1 quadrant, 4 quadrants or 360
degrees make 1 circle.

Long Measure.--Distance--3 barleycorns  1 inch, 12 inches 1 foot. 3 feet
1 yard. 5-1/2 yards 1 rod, 40 rods 1 furlong, 8 furlongs 1 mile.

Cloth Measure.--2-1/2 inches 1 nail, 4 nails 1 quarter, 4 quarters 1

Miscellaneous.--3 inches 1 palm, 4 inches 1 hand, 9 inches  1 span, 18
inches 1 cubit, 21.8 inches 1 Bible cubit. 2-1/2 feet 1 military pace.

Square Measure.--144 square inches 1 square foot, 9 square feet 1 square
yard, 30-1/4 square yards 1 square rod, 40 square rods 1 rood, 4 roods 1

Surveyors' Measure.--7.92 inches 1 link, 25 links 1 rod, 4 rods 1 chain,
10 square chains or 160 square rods 1 acre, 640 acres 1 square mile.

Cubic Measure.--l,728 cubic inches 1 cubic foot. 27 cubic feet 1 cubic
yard, 128 cubic feet 1 cord (wood), 40 cubic feet 1 ton (shipping),
2,150.42 cubic inches 1 standard bushel, 268.8 cubic inches 1 standard
gallon, 1 cubic foot four-fifths of a bushel.

Metric Weights.--10 milligrams 1 centigram, 10 centigrams 1 decigram, 10
decigrams 1 gram, 10 grams 1 dekagram, 10 dekagrams 1 hektogram, 10
hektograms 1 kilogram.

Metric Measure.--(One milliliter--Cubic centimeter).--10 milliliters 1
centiliter, 10 centiliters 1 deciliter, 10 deciliters 1 liter, 10 liters
1 dekaliter, 10 dekaliters 1 hektoliter, 10 hektoliters 1 kiloliter.

Metric Lengths.--10 millimeters 1 centimeter, 10 centimeters 1
decimeter, 10 decimeters 1 meter, 10 meters 1 dekameter, 10 dekameters 1
hektometer, 10 hektometers 1 kilometer.

Relative Value of Apothecaries' and Imperial Measure.

Apothecaries'. Imperial.

pints ounces drams minims
1 gallon equals 6 13 2 23
1 pint equals
16 5 18
1 fluid ounce equals
1 0 20
1 fluid dram equals

1 2-1/2

Handy Metric Table.

The following table gives the equivalents of both the metric and common
systems, and will be found convenient for reference:

Approximate Accurate

Equivalent. Equivalent.
1 inch [length] 2-1/2 cubic centimeters 2.539
1 centimeter 0.4 inch 0.393
1 yard 1 meter 0.914
1 meter (39.37 inches) l yard 1.093
1 foot 30 centimeters 30.479
1 kilometer (1,000 meters) 5/8 mile 0.621
1 mile 1-1/2 kilometers 1.600
1 gramme [weight] 15-1/2 grains 15.432
1 grain 0.064 gramme 0.064
1 kilogramme (1,000 grammes) 2.2 pounds avoirdupois. 2.204
1 pound avoirdupois 1/2 kilogramme 0.453
1 ounce avoirdupois (437-1/2 grains) 28-1/3 grammes 28.349
1 ounce troy, or apothecary (480 grains) 31 grammes 31.103
1 cubic centimeter [bulk] 1.06 cubic inch. 0.060
1 cubic inch 16-1/3 cubic centimeters 16.386
1 liter (1,000 cubic centimeters). 1 United States standard quart 0.946
1 United States quart. 1 liter 1.057
1 fluid ounce 29-1/2 cubic centimeters 29.570
1 hectare (10,000 square meters) [surface] 2-1/2 acres 2.471
1 acre 0.4 hectare 0.40

[Transcriber's noted: 1 inch is about 2-1/2 centimeters, not cubic
centimeters. 1 cubic centimeter is about 0.06102 cubic inch (not 1.06).]


One quart of wheat flour is one pound. One quart of corn meal weighs
eighteen ounces. One quart of butter, soft, weighs 14 to 16 ounces. One
quart of brown sugar weighs from a pound to a pound and a quarter,
according to dampness. One quart of white sugar weighs 2 pounds. Ten
medium-sized eggs weigh one pound. A tablespoonful of salt is one ounce.
Eight tablespoonfuls make 1 gill. Two gills, or 16 tablespoonfuls, are
half a pint. Sixty drops are one teaspoonful. Four tablespoonfuls are
one wineglassful. Twelve tablespoonfuls are one teacupful. Sixteen
tablespoonfuls or half a pint, are one tumblerful.

The Meaning of Measures.--A square mile is equal to 640 acres. A square
acre is 208.71 feet on one side. An acre is 43,560 square feet. A
league, 3 miles. A span, 10-7/8 inches. A hand, 4 inches. A palm, 3
inches. A great cubit, 11 inches. A fathom, 6 feet. A mile, 5,280 feet.

Domestic and Drop Measures Approximated.--A teaspoonful, one fluid dram
4 grams; a dessertspoonful, two fluid drams 3 grams; a tablespoonful,
half fluid ounce 16 grams; a wineglassful, two fluid ounces 64 grams; a
tumblerful, half pint 256 grams.


Hand this table to a young lady, and request her to tell you in which
column or columns her age is contained, and add together the figures at
the top of the columns in which her age is found, and you have the
secret. Thus, suppose her age to be seventeen, you will find that number
in the first and fifth columns: add the first figures of these two

1 2 4 8 16 32
3 3 5 9 17 33
5 6 6 10 18 34
7 7 7 11 l9 35
9 10 12 12 20 36
11 11 13 13 21 37
13 14 14 14 22 38
15 15 15 15 23 39
17 18 20 24 24 40
19 19 21 25 25 41
21 22 22 26 26 41
23 23 23 27 27 43
25 26 28 28 28 44
27 27 29 29 29 45
29 30 30 30 30 46
31 31 31 31 31 47
33 34 36 40 48 48
35 35 37 41 49 49
37 38 38 42 50 50
39 39 39 43 51 51
41 42 44 44 52 52
43 43 45 45 53 53
45 46 46 46 54 54
47 47 47 47 55 55
49 50 52 56 56 56
51 51 53 57 57 57
53 54 54 58 58 58
55 55 55 59 59 59
57 58 60 60 60 60
59 59 61 61 61 61
61 62 62 62 62 62
63 63 63 63 63 63


The first claim put forth by the teachers and professional demonstrators
of phrenology makes it a system of mental philosophy, besides at the
same time presenting a much more popular aspect as a method whereby the
disposition, character and natural aptitude of the individual may be

These two features of the subject are quite distinct from each other,
for, while it can serve as a reliable guide for reading character only
on the assumption of its truth as a philosophic system, yet the
possibility of its practical application does not necessarily follow
from the establishment of the truth of its theoretical side.

Two of the earliest founders of the science of anatomy, Erasistratus and
Herophilus, who lived in the age of Ptolemy Soter, taught that the brain
was the seat of sensation and intellect, and that there was therein a
certain degree of localization of function. Galen later taught that the
brain is the seat of the soul and intellect. From these facts of history
the system of phrenology, though formulated by Dr. Gall, Dr. Spurzheim,
the Fowler Brothers and others, rests upon deductions derived from the
teachings of the demonstrators of anatomy and students of philosophy.

The formulated system of phrenology is very generally believed to be a
modern expansion of an old empirical philosophy, but, according to Dr.
Gall's account, it arose with him as the result of independent
observations. The popularity of phrenology has waned in the public mind,
and cultivation of the system is confined to a few enthusiasts, such as
pose as teachers of it as a vocation. These claim that phrenology is a
practical and important science and that it rests upon the following

First--That the human brain is the organ of the mind.

Second--That the mental powers of man can be analyzed into a definite
number of measurably independent faculties.

Third--That these faculties are innate, and each has its seat in a
definite region of the brain.

Fourth--That the size of each of these regions is the measure of the
power of manifesting the faculty associated with it.

The faculties and their localities, as originally constructed by Dr.
Gall, were for the most part identified on slender grounds. His
procedure was as follows: Having selected the place of a faculty, he
examined the heads of his friends and casts of persons with that
peculiarity in common, and in them sought for the distinctive feature of
their characteristic trait. Some of his earlier studies were among low
associates in jails and lunatic asylums, and some of the qualities
located by him were such as tend to perversion to crime. These he named
after their excessive manifestations, and thus mapped out organs of
theft, murder, etc. This, however, caused the system to be discredited.
Later his pupil, Dr. Spurzheim, claimed that the moral and religious
features belonging to it greatly modified these characteristics of Dr.
Gall's work. The chart of the human head as invented by Dr. Gall
represented 26 organs; the chart as improved by Dr. Spurzheim makes out
35 organs. This is the chart now generally used and which is shown on a
preceding page. The number specifies the location of each organ, which
is followed by its phrenological name, and classified as follows:

Propensities. (1) Amativeness. (2) Philoprogenitiveness. (3)
Concentrativeness. (4) Adhesiveness. (5) Combativeness. (6)
Destructiveness. (6a) Alimentiveness. (7) Secretiveness. (8)
Acquisitiveness. (9) Constructiveness.

Lower Sentiments. (10) Self-esteem. (11) Love of Approbation. (12)

Superior Sentiments. (13) Benevolence. (14) Veneration. (15)
Conscientiousness. (16) Firmness. (17) Hope. (18) Wonder. (19) Ideality.
(20) Wit. (21) Imitation.

Perceptive Faculties. (22) Individuality. (23) Form. (24) Size. (25)
Weight. (26) Color. (27) Locality. (28) Number. (29) Order. (30)
Eventuality. (31) Time. (32) Tune. (33) Language.

Reflective Faculties. (34) Comparison. (35) Causality. The judgment of
the phrenologist is determined by the size of the brain in general, and
by the size of the organs that have been formulated, and these are
estimated by certain arbitrary rules that render the boundaries of the
regions indefinite.

The controversy over phrenology has served undoubtedly the very useful
purpose of stimulating research into the anatomy of the brain.

It is generally conceded that any psychological theory which correlates
brain-action and mental phenomena requires a correspondence between the
size of the brain and mental power, and generally observation shows that
the brains of those whose capacities are above the average are larger
than those of the general run of their fellow men.

A study of the cuts and comparison of the sizes of different heads and
their shape will prove very entertaining with most any group of persons
intellectually inclined, and it will be found that persons who are
naturally good readers by instinct of human nature can, with its help,
make remarkable readings in the delineation of character.


List of Motions Arranged According to Their Purpose and Effect.

[Letters refer to the rules below.]

Modifying or amending.
  8. To amend or to substitute, or to divide the question     K

To refer to committee.
  7. To commit (or recommit)                                  D

Deferring action.
  6. To postpone to a fixed time.                             C
  4. To lay on the table                                  A E G

Suppressing or extending debate
  5.  For the previous question                           A E M
      To limit, or close debate                             A M
      To extend limits of debate.                             A

Suppressing the question.
      Objection to consideration of question            A H M N
  9. To postpone indefinitely.                              D E
  4. To lay upon the table.                               A E G

To bring up a question the second time.
  To reconsider--
     Debatable question                                 D E F I
     Undebatable question                               A E F I

Concerning orders, rules, etc.
  3. For the orders of the day.                         A E H N
     To make subject a special order                          M
     To amend the rules                                       M
     To suspend the rules                               A E F M
     To take up a question out of its proper order          A E
     To take from the table                               A E G
     Questions touching priority of business                  A

Questions of privilege.
     Asking leave to continue speaking after indecorum        A
     Appeal from chair's decision touching indecorum    A E H L
     Appeal from chair's decision generally.              E H L
     Question upon reading of papers.                       A E
     Withdrawal of a motion.                                A E

Closing a meeting.
  2. To adjourn (in committees, to rise),
     or to take a recess, without limitation              A E F
  1. To fix the time to which to adjourn                      B

Order of Precedence--The motions above numbered 1 to 9 take precedence
over all others in the order of the numbers, and anyone of them, except
to amend or substitute, is in order while a motion of a lower rank is

Rule A--Undebatable, but remarks may be tacitly allowed.

Rule B--Undebatable if another question is before the assembly.

Rule C--Limited debate allowed on propriety of postponement only.

Rule D--Opens the main question to debate. Motions not so marked do not
allow of reference to main question.

Rule E--Cannot be amended. Motion to adjourn can be amended when there
is no other business before the house.

Rule F--Cannot be reconsidered.

Rule G--An affirmative vote cannot be reconsidered,

Rule H--In order when another has the floor.

Rule I--A motion to reconsider may be moved and entered when another has
the floor, but the business then before the house may not be set aside.
This motion can only be entertained when made by one who voted
originally with the prevailing side. When called up it takes precedence
of all others which may come up, excepting only motions relating to

Rule K--A motion to amend an amendment cannot be amended.

Rule L--When an appeal from the chair's decision results in a tie vote,
the chair is sustained.

Rule M--Requires a two-thirds vote unless special rules have been

Rule N--Does not require to be seconded.

General Rules.

No motion is open for discussion until it has been stated by the chair.

The maker of a motion cannot modify it or withdraw it after it has been
stated by the chair except by general consent.

Only one reconsideration of a question is permitted.

A motion to adjourn, to lay on the table, or to take from the table,
cannot be renewed unless some other motion has been made in the

On motion to strike out the words, "Shall the words stand part of the
motion?" unless a majority sustains the words, they are struck out.

On motion for previous question, the form to be observed is, "Shall the
main question be now put?" This, if carried, ends debate.

On an appeal from the chair's decision, "Shall the decision be sustained
as the ruling of the house?" The chair is generally sustained.

On motion for orders of the day, "Will the house now proceed to the
orders of the day?" This, if carried, supersedes intervening motions.

When an objection is raised to considering questions, "Shall the
question be considered?" Objections may be made by any member before
debate has commenced, but not subsequently.


When King Stanislaus of Poland, then a young man, came back from a
journey, the whole Lescinskian House gathered together at Lissa to
receive him. The schoolmaster, Jablowsky, prepared a festival in
commemoration of the event, and had it end with a ballet performed by
thirteen students, dressed as cavaliers. Each had a shield, upon which
one of the letters of the words "Domus Lescinia" (The Lescinskian House)
was written in gold. After the first dance, they stood in such a manner
that their shields read "Domus Lescinia"; after the second dance, they
changed order, making it read, "Ades incolumnis" (Unharmed art thou
here); after the third. "Mane sidus loci" (Continue the star of this
place); after the fourth, "Sis coumna Dei" (Be a pillar of God); and
finally, "I! scade solium!" (Go! ascend the throne). Indeed, these two
words allow of 1,556,755,200 transpositions; yet that five of them
convey independent and appropriate meanings is certainly very curious.


You cannot lawfully condone an offence by receiving back stolen

The exemption of females from arrest applies only in civil, not in
criminal matters.

Every man is bound to obey the call of a sheriff for assistance in
making an arrest.

The rule "Every man's house is his castle" does not hold good when a man
is accused of crime.

Embezzlement can be charged only against a clerk or servant, or the
officer or agent of a corporation.

Bigamy cannot be proven in law if one party to a marriage has been
absent and not heard from for five years.

Grand larceny is when the value of property stolen exceeds $25.00--When
less than that, the offence is petit larceny.

Arson to be in the first degree must have been committed at night and
the buildings fired must have been inhabited.

Drunkenness is not a legal excuse for crime, but delirium tremens is
considered by the law as a species of insanity.

In a case of assault it is only necessary to prove an "offer or attempt
at assault."

Battery presumes physical violence.

Mayhem, although popularly supposed to refer to injury to the face, lip,
tongue, eye, or ear, applies to any injury done a limb.

A felony is a crime punishable by imprisonment in a State prison; an
"infamous" crime is one punishable with death or State prison.

A police officer is not authorized to make an arrest without a warrant
unless he has personal knowledge of the offense for which the arrest is

An accident is not a crime, unless criminal carelessness can be proven.
A man shooting at a burglar and killing a member of his family is not a

Burglary in the first degree can be committed only in the night time.
Twilight, if dark enough to prevent distinguishing a man's face, is the
same as "night" in law.

Murder to be in the first degree must be willful, premeditated and
malicious, or committed while the murderer is engaged in a felonious
act. The killing of a man in a duel is murder, and it is a misdemeanor
to accept or give a challenge.

False swearing is perjury in law only when willfully done, and when the
oath has been legally administered. Such qualifying expressions as "to
the best of my belief," "as I am informed," may save an averment from
being perjured. The law is that the false statement sworn to must be
absolute. Subornation of perjury is a felony.


The color, odor, taste and purity of water can be ascertained as
follows: Fill a large bottle made of colorless glass with water; look
through the water at some black object. Pour out some of the water and
leave the bottle half full; cork the bottle and place it for a few hours
in a warm place; shake up the water, remove the cork, and critically
smell the air contained in the bottle. If it has any smell, particularly
if the odor is repulsive, the water should not be used for domestic
purposes. By heating the water an odor is evolved that would not
otherwise appear. Water fresh from the well is usually tasteless, even
if it contains a large amount of putrescible organic matter. All water
for domestic purposes should be perfectly tasteless, and remain so even
after it has been warmed, since warming often develops a taste in water
which is tasteless when cold.


Take chloride of calcium, crude, 20 parts; common salt, 5 parts; and
water, 75 parts. Mix and put in thin bottles. In case of fire, a bottle
so thrown that it will break in or very near the fire will put it out.
This mixture is better and cheaper than many of the high-priced
grenades sold for the purpose of fire protection.


Get a piece of lead pipe and use it as a funnel to introduce about 1-1/2
ounces of sulphite of potassium into any outside holes tenanted by rats.
Not to be used in dwellings. To get rid of mice use tartar emetic
mingled with any favorite food; they will eat, sicken and take their


Tomato in Bright's Disease.

When Thomas Jefferson brought the tomato from France to America,
thinking that if it could be induced to grow bountifully it might make
good feed for hogs, he little dreamed of the benefit he was conferring
upon posterity. A constant diet of raw tomatoes and skim-milk is said to
be a certain cure for Bright's disease. Gen. Schenck, who, when Minister
to England, became a victim to that complaint, was restored to health by
two years of this regimen.

Relief for Asthma.

An old friend of the editor of this book writes: "I have been a sufferer
from asthma for twenty-five years, and for more than a dozen years have
used the following recipe with great benefit. It is not a cure, but in
my case gives almost instant relief. Take equal parts of powdered
stramonium leaves and powdered belladonna leaves and mix thoroughly; to
each ten ounces of the mixture add one ounce of powdered saltpeter
(nitrate of potash); mix all thoroughly. I always keep some of this in a
small tin box. When I wish to use it I pour a little of the powder into
the cover of the box, light it with a match, cover the whole with a
little paper cone with the point cut off. I place the point of the cone
in my mouth, and breathe the smoke into my lungs with the air. The first
trial is very hard; it almost strangles, but if persevered in will give
great relief. This is much better than stramonium alone. The saltpeter
makes it burn freely, and also helps to give relief. When my home was in
Northern Indiana, I used to buy the leaves in Chicago already powdered.
Now I send to New York. I find it cheaper to do this than to gather and
dry the leaves. It is also almost impossible to dry and pulverize the
leaves at home. By using a paper cone and breathing through it, little
or no smoke is wasted, and the box and paper can be carried in the
pocket and used as occasion requires."

For Swollen Feet.

Policemen, mail carriers, and others whose occupation keeps them on
their feet a great deal, often are troubled with chafed, sore and
blistered feet, especially in extremely hot weather, no matter how
comfortably their shoes may lit. A powder is used in the German army for
sifting into the shoes and stockings of the foot soldiers, called
"Fusstreupulver," and consists of 3 parts salicylic acid, 10 parts
starch and 87 parts pulverized soapstone.

Rules for Fat People and for Lean.

To increase the weight: Eat to the extent of satisfying; a natural
appetite, of fat meats, butter, cream, milk, cocoa, chocolate, bread,
potatoes, peas, parsnips, carrots, beets, farinaceous foods, as Indian
corn, rice, tapioca, sago, corn starch, pastry, custards, oatmeal,
sugar, sweet wines, and ale. Avoid acids. Exercise as little as
possible, and sleep all you can.

To reduce the weight: Eat to the extent of satisfying a natural
appetite, of lean meat, poultry, game, eggs, milk moderately, green
vegetables, turnips, succulent fruits, tea or coffee. Drink lime juice,
lemonade, and acid drinks. Avoid fat, butter, cream, sugar, pastry,
rice, sago, tapioca, corn starch, potatoes, carrots, beets, parsnips,
and sweet wines.

When Quinine Will Break Up a Cold.

It is surprising, says a family physician, how certainly a cold may be
broken up by a timely dose of quinine. When first symptoms make their
appearance, when a little languor, slight hoarseness and ominous
tightening of the nasal membranes follow exposure to draughts or sudden
chill by wet, five grains of this useful alkaloid are sufficient in many
cases to end the trouble. But it must be done promptly. If the golden
moment passes, nothing suffices to stop the weary sneezing,
handkerchief-using, red-nose and woe begone looking periods that
certainly follow.

A Mistaken Idea.

The old adage. "Feed a cold and starve a fever." is characterized by the
Journal of Health as very silly advice. If anything, the reverse would
be nearer right. When a person has a severe cold it is best for him to
eat very lightly, especially during the first few days of the attack.

Hints on Bathing.

There has been a great deal written about bathing. The surface of the
skin is punctured with millions of little holes called pores. The duty
of these pores is to carry the waste matter off. For instance,
perspiration. Now, if these pores are stopped up they are of no use, and
the body has to find some other way to get rid of its impurities. Then
the liver has more than it can do. Then we take a liver pill when we
ought to clean out the pores instead. The housewife is very particular
to keep her sieves in good order; after she has strained a substance
through them they are washed out carefully with water, because water is
the best thing known. That is the reason water is used to bathe in. But
the skin is a little different from a sieve, because it is willing to
help along the process itself. All it needs is a little encouragement
and it will accomplish wonders. What the skin wants is rubbing. If you
should quietly sit down in a tub of water and as quietly get up and dry
off without rubbing, your skin wouldn't be much benefited. The water
would make it a little soft, especially if it was warm. But rubbing is
the great thing. Stand where the sunlight strikes a part of your body,
then take a dry brush and rub it, and you will notice that countless
little flakes of cuticle fly off. Every time one of these flakes is
removed from the skin your body breathes a sigh of relief. An eminent
German authority contends that too much bathing is a bad thing. There is
much truth in this. Soap and water are good things to soften up the
skin, but rubbing is what the skin wants. Every morning or every
evening, or when it is most convenient, wash the body all over with
water and a little ammonia, or anything which tends to make the water
soft; then rub dry with a towel, and after that go over the body from
top to toe with a dry brush. Try this for two or three weeks, and your
skin will be like velvet.

Tea and Coffee.

Tea is a nerve stimulant, pure and simple, acting like alcohol in this
respect, without any value that the latter may possess as a retarder of
waste. It has a special influence upon those nerve centers that supply
will power, exalting their sensibility beyond normal activity, and may
even produce hysterical symptoms, if carried far enough. Its active
principle, theine, is an exceedingly powerful drug, chiefly employed by
nerve specialists as a pain destroyer, possessing the singular quality
of working toward the surface. That is to say, when a dose is
administered hypodermically for sciatica, for example, the narcotic
influence proceeds outward from the point of injection, instead of
inward toward the centers, as does that of morphia, atropia, etc. Tea is
totally devoid of nutritive value, and the habit of drinking it to
excess, which so many American women indulge in, particularly in the
country, is to be deplored as a cause of our American nervousness.
Coffee, on the contrary, is a nerve food. Like other concentrated foods
of its class, it operates as a stimulant also, but upon a different set
of nerves from tea. Taken strong in the morning, it often produces
dizziness and that peculiar visual symptom of overstimulus which is
called muscae volilantes--dancing flies. But this is an improper way to
take it, and rightly used it is perhaps the most valuable liquid
addition to the morning meal. Its active principle, caffeine, differs in
all physiological respects from theine, while it is chemically very
closely allied, and its limited consumption makes it impotent for harm.

To Straighten Round Shoulders.

A stooping figure and a halting gait, accompanied by the unavoidable
weakness of lungs incidental to a narrow chest, may be entirely cured by
the very simple and easily-performed exercise of raising one's self
upon the toes leisurely in a perpendicular position several times daily.
To take this exercise properly one must take a perfectly upright
position. With the heels together and the toes at an angle of forty-five
degrees. Then drop the arms lifelessly by the sides, animating and
raising the chest to its full capacity and muscularity, the chin well
drawn in, and the crown of the head feeling as if attached to a string
suspended from the ceiling above. Slowly rise upon the balls of both
feet to the greatest possible height, thereby exercising all the muscles
of the legs and body; come again into standing position without swaying
the body backward out of the perfect line. Repeat this same exercise,
first on one foot, then on the other. It is wonderful what a
straightening-out power this exercise has upon round shoulders and
crooked backs, and one will be surprised to note how soon the lungs
begin to show the effect of such expansive development.

Care of the Eyes.

In consequence of the increase of affections of the eye, a specialist
has recently formulated the following rules to be observed in the care
of the eyes for school work: A comfortable temperature, dry and warm
feet, good ventilation; clothing at the neck and on other parts of the
body loose; posture erect, and never read lying down or stooping. Little
study before breakfast or directly after a heavy meal; none at all at
twilight or late at night; use great caution about studying after
recovery from fevers; have light abundant, but not dazzling, not
allowing the sun to shine on desks or on objects in front of the
scholars, and letting the light come from the left hand or left and
rear; hold book at right angles to the line of sight or nearly so; give
eyes frequent rest by looking up. The distance of the book from the eye
should be about fifteen inches. The usual indication of strain is
redness of the rim of the eyelid, betokening a congested state of the
inner surface, which may be accompanied with some pain. When the eye
tires easily rest is not the proper remedy, but the use of glasses of
sufficient power to aid in accommodating the eye to vision.

How and When to Drink Water.

According to Doctor Leuf, when water is taken into the full or partly
full stomach, it does not mingle with the food, as we are taught, but
passes along quickly between the food and lesser curvature toward the
pylorus, through which it passes into the intestines. The secretion of
mucus by the lining membrane is constant, and during the night a
considerable amount accumulates in the stomach; some of its liquid
portion is absorbed, and that which remains is thick and tenacious. If
food is taken into the stomach when in this condition, it becomes coated
with this mucus, and the secretion of the gastric juice and its action
are delayed. These facts show the value of a goblet of water before
breakfast. This washes out the tenacious mucus, and stimulates the
gastric glands to secretion. In old and feeble persons water should not
be taken cold, but it may be with great advantage taken warm or hot.
This removal of the accumulated mucus from the stomach is probably one
of the reasons why taking soup at the beginning of a meal has been found
so beneficial.

What Causes Coughs.

Cold and coughs are prevalent throughout the country, but throat
affections are by far more common among business men. Every unfortunate
one mutters something about the abominable weather and curses the
piercing wind. Much of the trouble, however, is caused by overheated
rooms, and a little more attention to proper ventilation would remove
the cause of suffering. Doctor J. Ewing Mears, who was thus afflicted,
said to an inquirer: "The huskiness and loss of power of articulation so
common among us are largely due to the use of steam for heating. The
steam cannot be properly regulated, and the temperature becomes too
high. A person living in this atmosphere has all the cells of the lungs
open, and when he passes into the open air he is unduly exposed. The
affliction is quite common among the men who occupy offices in the new
buildings which are fitted up with all modern improvements. The
substitution of electric light for gas has wrought a change to which
people have not yet adapted themselves. The heat arising from a number
of gas jets will quickly raise the temperature of a room, and
unconsciously people rely upon that means of heating to some extent.
Very little warmth, however, is produced by the electric light, and when
a man reads by an incandescent light he at times finds himself becoming
chilly, and wonders why it is. Too hot during the day and too cold at
night are conditions which should be avoided."


The principal methods of developing the physique now prescribed by
trainers are exercise with dumbbells, the bar bell and the chest weight.
The rings and horizontal and parallel bars are also used, but not nearly
to the extent that they formerly were. The movement has been all in the
direction of the simplification of apparatus; in fact, one well-known
teacher of the Boston Gymnasium when asked his opinion said: "Four bare
walls and a floor, with a well-posted instructor, is all that is really
required for a gymnasium."

Probably the most important as well as the simplest appliance for
gymnasium work is the wooden dumbbell, which has displaced the ponderous
iron bell of former days. Its weight is from three-quarters of a pound
to a pound and a half, and with one in each hand a variety of motions
can be gone through, which are of immense benefit in building up or
toning down every muscle and all vital parts of the body.

The first object of an instructor in taking a beginner in hand is to
increase the circulation. This is done by exercising the extremities,
the first movement being one of the hands, after which come the wrists,
then the arms, and next the head and feet. As the circulation is
increased the necessity for a larger supply of oxygen, technically
called "oxygen-hunger," is created, which is only satisfied by breathing
exercises, which develop the lungs. After the circulation is in a
satisfactory condition, the dumbbell instructor turns his attention to
exercising the great muscles of the body, beginning with those of the
back, strengthening which holds the body erect, thus increasing the
chest capacity, invigorating the digestive organs, and, in fact, all the
vital functions. By the use of very light weights an equal and
symmetrical development of all parts of the body is obtained, and then
there are no sudden demands on the heart and lungs.

After the dumbbell comes exercise with the round, or bar bell. This is
like the dumbbell, with the exception that the bar connecting the balls
is four or five feet, instead of a few inches in length. Bar bells weigh
from one to two pounds each and are found most useful in building up the
respiratory and digestive systems, their especial province being the
strengthening of the erector muscles and increasing the flexibility of
the chest.

Of all fixed apparatus in use the pulley weight stands easily first in
importance. These weights are available for a greater variety of objects
than any other gymnastic appliance, and can be used either for general
exercise or for strengthening such muscles as most require it. With them
a greater localization is possible than with the dumbbell, and for this
reason they are recommended as a kind of supplement to the latter. As
chest developers and correctors of round shoulders they are most
effective. As the name implies, they are simply weights attached to
ropes, which pass over pulleys, and are provided with handles. The
common pulley is placed at about the height of the shoulder of an
average man, but recently those which can be adjusted to any desired
height have been very generally introduced.

When more special localization is desired than can be obtained by means
of the ordinary apparatus, what is known as the double-action chest
weight is used. This differs from the ordinary kind in being provided
with several pulleys, so that the strain may come at different angles.
Double-action weights may be divided into three classes--high, low, and
side pulleys--each with its particular use.

The highest of all, known as the giant pulleys, are made especially for
developing the muscles of the back and chest, and by stretching or
elongating movements to increase the interior capacity of the chest. If
the front of the chest is full and the back or side chest deficient, the
pupil is set to work on the giant pulley. To build up the side-walls he
stands with the back to the pulley-box and the left heel resting against
it; the handle is grasped in the right hand if the right side of the
chest is lacking in development, and then drawn straight down by the
side; a step forward with the right foot, as long as possible, is taken,
the line brought as far to the front and near the floor as can be done,
and then the arm, held stiff, allowed to be drawn solely up by the
weight. To exercise the left side the same process is gone through with,
the handle grasped in the left hand. Another kind of giant pulley is
that which allows the operator to stand directly under it, and is used
for increasing the lateral diameter of the chest. The handles are drawn
straight down by the sides, the arms are then spread and drawn back by
the weights. Generally speaking, high pulleys are most used for
correcting high, round shoulders; low pulleys for low, round shoulders;
side pulleys for individual high or low shoulders, and giant pulleys for
the development of the walls of the chest and to correct spinal

The traveling rings, a line of iron rings, covered with rubber and
attached to long ropes fastened to the ceiling some ten feet apart, are
also valuable in developing the muscles of the back, arms and sides. The
first ring is grasped in one hand and a spring taken from an elevated
platform. The momentum carries the gymnast to the next ring, which is
seized with the free hand, and so the entire length of the line is
traversed. The parallel bars, low and high, the flying rings, the
horizontal bar and the trapeze all have their uses, but of late years
they have been relegated to a position of distinct inferiority to that
now occupied by the dumbbells and pulley weights.


What To Do

If an artery is cut, red blood spurts. Compress it above the wound. If a
vein is cut, dark blood flows. Compress it below and above.

If choked, go upon all fours and cough.

For slight burns, dip the part in cold water; if the skin is destroyed,
cover with varnish or linseed oil.

For apoplexy, raise the head and body; for fainting, lay the person

Send for a physician when a serious accident of any kind occurs, but
treat as directed until he arrives.

Scalds and Burns--The following facts cannot be too firmly impressed on
the mind of the reader, that in either of these accidents the first,
best, and often the only remedies required, are sheets of wadding, fine
wool, or carded cotton, and, in the default of these, violet powder,
flour, magnesia, or chalk. The object for which these several articles
are employed is the same in each instance; namely, to exclude the air
from the injured part; for if the air can be effectually shut out from
the raw surface, and care is taken not to expose the tender part till
the new cuticle is formed, the cure may be safely left to nature. The
moment a person is called to a case of scald or burn, he should cover
the part with a sheet, or a portion of a sheet, of wadding, taking care
not to break any blister that may have formed, or stay to remove any
burnt clothes that may adhere to the surface, but as quickly as possible
envelop every part of the injury from all access of the air, laying one
or two more pieces of wadding on the first, so as effectually to guard
the burn or scald from the irritation of the atmosphere; and if the
article used is wool or cotton, the same precaution, of adding more
material where the surface is thinly covered, must be adopted; a light
bandage finally securing all in their places. Any of the popular
remedies recommended below may be employed when neither wool, cotton,
nor wadding are to be procured, it being always remembered that that
article which will best exclude the air from a burn or scald is the
best, quickest, and least painful mode of treatment. And in this respect
nothing has surpassed cotton loose or attached to paper as in wadding.

If the Skin is Much Injured in burns, spread some linen pretty thickly
with chalk ointment, and lay over the part, and give the patient some
brandy and water if much exhausted; then send for a medical man. If not
much injured, and very painful, use the same ointment, or apply carded
cotton dipped in lime water and linseed oil. If you please, you may lay
cloths dipped in ether over the parts, or cold lotions. Treat scalds in
same manner, or cover with scraped raw potato; but the chalk ointment is
the best. In the absence of all these, cover the injured part with
treacle, and dust over it plenty of flour.

BODY IN FLAMES--Lay the person down on the floor of the room, and throw
the table cloth, rug, or other large cloth over him, and roll him on the

DIRT IN THE EYE--Place your forefinger upon the cheek-bone, having the
patient before you; then slightly bend the finger, this will draw down
the lower lid of the eye, and you will probably be able to remove the
dirt; but if this will not enable you to get at it, repeat this
operation while you have a knitting-needle or bodkin placed over the
eyelid; this will turn it inside out, and enable you to remove the sand,
or eyelash, etc., with the corner of a fine silk handkerchief. As soon
as the substance is removed, bathe the eye with cold water, and exclude
the light for a day. If the inflammation is severe, let the patient use
a refrigerant lotion.

LIME IN THE EVE--Syringe it well with warm vinegar and water in the
proportion of one ounce of vinegar to eight ounces of water; exclude

IRON OR STEEL SPICULAE IN THE EYE--These occur while turning iron or
steel in a lathe, and are best remedied by doubling back the upper or
lower eyelid according to the situation of the substance, and with the
flat edge of a silver probe, taking up the metallic particle, using a
lotion made by dissolving six grains of sugar of lead and the same of
white vitriol, in six ounces of water, and bathing the eye three times a
day till the inflammation subsides. Another plan is--Drop a solution of
sulphate of copper (from one to three grains of salt to one ounce of
water) into the eye, or keep the eye open in a wineglassful of the
solution. Bathe with cold lotion, and exclude light to keep down

DISLOCATED THUMB--This is frequently produced by a fall. Make a clove
hitch, by passing two loops of cord over the thumb, placing a piece of
rag under the cord to prevent it cutting the thumb; then pull in the
same line as the thumb. Afterwards apply a cold lotion.

CUTS AND WOUNDS--Clean cut wounds whether deep or superficial, and
likely to heal by the first intention, should always be washed or
cleaned, and at once evenly and smoothly closed by bringing both edges
close together and securing them in that position by adhesive plaster.
Cut thin strips of sticking plaster, and bring the parts together; or,
if large and deep, cut two broad pieces, so as to look like the teeth of
a comb, and place one on each side of the wound, which must be cleaned
previously. These pieces must be arranged so that they shall interlace
one another; then, by laying hold of the pieces on the right side with
one hand, and those on the other side with the other hand and pulling
them from one another, the edges of the wounds are brought together
without any difficulty.

Ordinary Cuts are dressed by thin strips, applied by pressing down the
plaster on one side of the wound, and keeping it there, and pulling in
the opposite direction; then suddenly depressing the hand when the edges
of the wound are brought together.

CONTUSIONS are best healed by laying a piece of folded lint, well wetted
with extract of lead or boracic acid, on the part, and, if there is much
pain, placing a hot bran poultice over the dressing, repeating both if
necessary every, two hours. When the injuries are very severe lay a
cloth over the part, and suspend a basin over it filled with cold
lotion. Put a piece of cotton into the basin, so that it shall allow the
lotion to drop on the cloth, and thus keep it always wet.

HEMORRHAGE, when caused by an artery being divided or torn, may be known
by the blood issuing out of the wound in leaps or jerks, and being of a
bright scarlet color. If a vein is injured, the blood is darker and
flows continuously. To arrest the latter apply pressure by means of a
compress and bandage. To arrest arterial bleeding, get a piece of wood
(part of a broom handle will do), and tie a piece of tape to one end of
it. Then tie a piece of tape loosely over the arm, and pass the other
end of the wood under it; twist the stick around and around until the
tape compresses the arm sufficiently to arrest the bleeding, and then
confine the other end by tying the string around the arm. A compress
made by enfolding a penny piece in several folds of lint or linen
should, however, be first placed under the tape and over the artery, If
the bleeding is very obstinate, and it occurs in the arm, place a cork
underneath the string, on the inside of the fleshy part, where the
artery may be felt beating by any one; if in the leg, place a cork in
the direction of a line drawn from the inner part of the knee toward the
outer part of the groin. It is an excellent thing to accustom yourself
to find out the position of these arteries, or, indeed, any that are
superficial, and to explain to every person in your house where they
are, and how to stop bleeding. If a stick cannot be got, take a
handkerchief, make a cord bandage of it, and tie a knot in the middle;
the knot acts as a compress, and should be placed over the artery, while
the two ends are c around the thumb. Observe always to place
the ligature between the wound and the heart. Putting your finger into a
bleeding wound, and making pressure until a surgeon arrives, will
generally stop violent bleeding.

BLEEDING FROM THE NOSE, from whatever cause, may generally be stopped by
putting a plug of lint into the nostrils; if this does not do, apply a
cold lotion to the forehead; raise the head, and place over it both
arms, so that it will rest on the hands; dip the lint plug, slightly
moistened, into some powdered gum arabic, and plug the nostrils again;
or dip the plug into equal parts of powdered gum arabic and alum, and
plug the nose. Or the plug may be dipped in Friar's balsam, or tincture
of kino. Heat should be applied to the feet; and, in obstinate cases,
the sudden shock of a cold key, or cold water poured down the spine,
will often instantly stop the bleeding. If the bowels are confined, take
a purgative. Injections of alum solution from a small syringe into the
nose will often stop hemorrhage.

VIOLENT SHOCKS will sometimes stun a person, and he will remain
unconscious. Untie strings, collars, etc.; loosen anything that is tight
and interferes with the breathing; raise the head; see if there is
bleeding from any part; apply smelling-salts to the nose, and hot
bottles to the feet.

IN CONCUSSION, the surface of the body is cold and pale, and the pulse
weak and small, the breathing slow and gentle, and the pupil of the eye
generally contracted or small. You can get an answer by speaking loud,
so as to arouse the patient. Give a little brandy and water, keep the
place quiet, apply warmth, and do not raise the head too high. If you
tickle the feet, the patient feels it.

IN COMPRESSION OF THE BRAIN from any cause, such as apoplexy, or a piece
of fractured bone pressing on it, there is loss of sensation. If you
tickle the feet of the injured person he does not feel it. You cannot
arouse him so as to get an answer. The pulse is slow and labored; the
breathing deep, labored, and snorting; the pupil enlarged. Raise the
head, loosen strings or tight things, and send for a surgeon. If one
cannot be got at once, apply mustard poultices to the feet and thighs,
leeches to the temples, and hot water to the feet.

CHOKING--When a person has a fish bone in the throat, insert the
forefinger, press upon the root of the tongue, so as to induce vomiting;
if this does not do, let him swallow a large piece of potato or soft
bread; and if these fail, give a mustard emetic,

FAINTING, HYSTERICS, ETC.--Loosen the garments, bathe the temples with
water or eau-de-Cologne; open the window, admit plenty of fresh air,
dash cold water on the face, apply hot bricks to the feet, and avoid
bustle and excessive sympathy.

DROWNING.--Attend to the following essential rules: 1. Lose no time. 2.
Handle the body gently. 3. Carry the body face downward, with the head
gently raised, and never hold it up by the feet. 4. Send for medical
assistance immediately, and in the meantime act as follows: 5. Strip the
body; rub it dry, then wrap it in hot blankets, and place it in a warm
bed in a warm room. 6. Cleanse away the froth and mucus from the nose
and month. 7. Apply warm bricks, bottles, bags of sand, etc. to the
armpits, between the thighs, and to the soles of the feet. 8. Rub the
surface of the body with the hands inclosed in warm, dry worsted socks.
9. If possible, put the body into a warm bath. 10. To restore breathing,
put the pipe of a common bellows into one nostril, carefully closing the
other, and the mouth; at the same time drawing downward, and pushing
gently backward, the upper part of the windpipe to allow a more free
admission of air; blow the bellows gently, in order to inflate the
lungs, till the breast be raised a little; then set the month and
nostrils free, and press gently on the chest; repeat this until signs of
life appear. The body should be covered the moment it is placed on the
table, except the face, and all the rubbing carried on under the sheet
or blanket. When they can be obtained, a number of tiles or bricks
should be made tolerably hot in the fire, laid in a row on the table,
covered with a blanket, and the body placed in such a manner on them
that their heat may enter the spine. When the patient revives, apply
smelling-salts to the nose, give warm wine or brandy and water.
Cautions.--1. Never rub the body with salt or spirits. 2. Never roll the
body on casks. 3. Continue the remedies for twelve hours without

HANGING--Loosen the cord, or whatever it may be by which the person has
been suspended. Open the temporal artery or jugular vein, or bleed from
the arm; employ electricity, if at hand, and proceed as for drowning.

APPARENT DEATH FROM DRUNKENNESS--Raise the head; loosen the clothes,
maintain warmth of surface, and give a mustard emetic as soon as the
person can swallow.

APOPLEXY AND FITS GENERALLY--Raise the head; loosen all tight clothes,
strings, etc.; apply cold lotions to the head, and send for a surgeon.

SUFFOCATION FROM NOXIOUS GASES, ETC.--Remove to the fresh air; dash cold
vinegar and water in the face, neck, and breast; keep up the warmth of
the body; if necessary, apply mustard poultices to the soles of the feet
and to the spine, and try artificial respirations as in drowning, with

LIGHTNING AND SUNSTROKE--Treat the same as apoplexy.


General Rules

Always send immediately for a medical man. Save all fluids vomited, and
articles of food, cups, glasses, etc., used by the patient before taken
ill, and lock them up.

As a rule give emetics after poisons that cause sleepiness and raving;
chalk, milk, eggs, butter, and warm water, or oil, after poisons that
cause vomiting and pain in the stomach and bowels, with purging; and
when there is no inflammation about the throat, tickle it with a feather
to excite vomiting.

Vomiting may be caused by giving warm water, with a teaspoonful of
mustard to the tumblerful, well stirred up. Sulphate of zinc (white
vitriol) may be used in place of the mustard, or powdered alum. Powder
of ipecacuanha, a teaspoonful rubbed up with molasses, may be employed
for children. Tartar emetic should never be given, as it is excessively
depressing, and uncontrollable in its effects. The stomach pump can only
be used by skillful hands, and even then with caution.

Opium and other Narcotics--After vomiting has occurred, cold water
should be dashed over the face and head. The patient must be kept awake,
walked about between two strong persons, made to grasp the handles of a
galvanic battery, dosed with strong coffee, and vigorously slapped.
Belladonna is an antidote for opium and for morphia, etc.; its active
principles; and, on the other hand, the latter counteract the effects of
belladonna. But a knowledge of medicine is necessary for dealing with
these articles.

Strychnia--After emetics have been freely and successfully given, the
patient should be allowed to breathe the vapor of sulphuric ether,
poured on a handkerchief and held to the face, in such quantities as to
keep down the tendency to convulsions. Bromide of potassium, twenty
grains at a dose, dissolved in syrup, may be given every hour.

Alcoholic Poisoning should be combated by emetics, of which the sulphate
of zinc, given as above directed, is the best. After that, strong coffee
internally, and stimulation by heat externally, should be used.

Acids are sometimes swallowed by mistake. Alkalies, lime water,
magnesia, or common chalk mixed with water, may be freely given, and
afterward mucilaginous drinks, such as thick gum water or flaxseed tea.

Alkalies are less frequently taken in injurious strength or quantity,
but sometimes children swallow lye by mistake. Common vinegar may be
given freely, and then castor or sweet oil in full doses--a
tablespoonful at a time, repeated every half hour or two.

Nitrate of silver when swallowed is neutralized by common table salt
freely given in solution in water.

The salts of mercury or arsenic (often kept as bedbug poison), which are
powerful irritants, are apt to be very quickly fatal. Milk or the whites
of eggs may be freely given and afterward a very thin paste of flour and
water. In these cases an emetic is to be given after the poison is

Phosphorus paste, kept for roach poison or in parlor matches, is
sometimes eaten by children and has been willfully taken for the purpose
of suicide. It is a powerful irritant. The first thing to be done is to
give freely of magnesia and water; then to give mucilaginous drinks as
flaxseed tea, gum water or sassafras pith and water; and lastly to
administer finely powdered bone-charcoal, either in pill or in mixture
with water.

In no case of poisoning should there be any avoidable delay in obtaining
the advice of a physician, and, meanwhile, the friends or bystanders
should endeavor to find out exactly what has been taken, so that the
treatment adopted may be as prompt and effective as possible.


Keep still. When trouble is brewing, keep still. Even when slander is
getting on its legs, keep still. When your feelings are hurt, keep
still, till you recover from your excitement at any rate. Things look
differently through an unagitated eye. A doctor relates how once in a
commotion he wrote a letter, and sent it, and wished he had not. "I had
another commotion and wrote a long letter; but life had rubbed a little
sense into me. I kept that letter in my pocket against the day when I
could look it over without agitation and without tears. I was glad I
did. Less and less it seemed necessary to send it I was not sure it
would do any hurt, but in my doubt I leaned to reticence, and eventually
it was destroyed."


The greatest height at which visible clouds ever exist does not exceed
ten miles.

Air is about eight hundred and fifteen times lighter than water.

The pressure of the atmosphere upon every square foot of the earth
amounts to two thousand one hundred and sixty pounds.

The violence of the expansion of water when freezing is sufficient to
cleave a globe of copper of such thickness as to require a force of
27,000 pounds, to produce the same effect.

During the conversion of ice into water one hundred and forty degrees of
heat are absorbed.

Water, when converted into steam, increases in bulk eighteen hundred

In one second of time--in one beat of the pendulum of a clock--light
travels two hundred thousand miles. Were a cannon ball shot toward the
sun, and were it to maintain full speed, it would be twenty years in
reaching it, and yet light travels through this space in seven or eight

Strange as it may appear, a ball of a ton weight, and another of the
same material of an ounce weight, falling from any height will reach the
ground at the same time.

The heat does not increase as we rise above the earth nearer to the sun,
but decreases rapidly until, beyond the regions of the atmosphere, in
void, it is estimated that the cold is about seventy degrees below zero.
The line of perpetual frost at the equator is 15,000 feet altitude;
13,000 feet between the tropics; and 9,000 to 4,000 between the
latitudes of forty degrees and forty-nine degrees.

At a depth of forty-five feet under ground, the temperature of the earth
is uniform throughout the year.

The human ear is so extremely sensitive that it can hear a sound that
lasts only the twenty-four thousandth part of a second.

Sound travels at the rate of one thousand one hundred and forty-two feet
per second-about thirteen miles in a minute. So that if we hear a clap
of thunder half a minute after the flash, we may calculate that the
discharge of electricity is six and a half miles off.


Accent and Pronunciation
Accidents and Emergencies
Aeronautics, Dictionary of
Age, To Tell, of Any Person
Age, When One Becomes of
Alphabet of Advice to Writers
Amendments to the Constitution
Analogies in Nature, Queer
Appalling Depths of Space, The
Apparel for Men, Proper
Art of Not Forgetting, The
Asthma, Relief for

Baby's Mind, Development of the
Balls and Evening Receptions
Bank, Doing Business with a
Bathing, Hints on
Beauty and Health
Bees (Memory Rhyme)
Bell Time on Shipboard
"Best Man." Duties of the
Birthdays (Memory Rhyme)
Birth Stones
Blonds and Brunettes, Colors for
Brain, The Wonderful Human
Bread, Salt-Rising
Bride's Trousseau
Bright's Disease, Tomato in
Burial Alive, To Guard Against
Business Law in Brief
Bust, To Develop the

Canary Birds, Care of
Capital Letters. The Use of
Chamois Skins
Change, How to Make
Character as Seen in Faces
Check, How to Draw a
Check-Raising Made Easy
Cities, Nicknames of
Cities, Principal American
College Colors
Color Contrast and Harmony
Colors, How to Select
Colors for Blonds and Brunettes
Complexions, Men and
Constitutional Law, Principal Points of
Constitution of the United States, The
Copyright, The Law of
Cost and Price Marks
Coughs, What Cures
Counterfeit Money, How to Detect
Courtship and Marriage, Etiquette of
Criminal Law, Points of
Cuckoo, The (Memory Rhyme)
Cure for Love, A

Days of the Week
Death Sentence of the Savior
Debutantes, Etiquette for
Declaration of Independence, The
Declaration of Independence, Signers of the
Dentifrices, Useful and Injurious
Dictionary of Aeronautics
Dictionary of Dreams
Discount, Trade
Distances by Water from New York
Distances that Stun the Mind
Divorce and Marriage
Dog, Senator Vest's Eulogy on the
Doing Business with a Bank
Don't Be Buried Alive
Dower, The Right of
Dreams and Their Meaning
Dress and Etiquette, Formalities in

Engagement and Wedding Rings
English Grammar in a Nutshell
Etiquette of Courtship and Marriage
Etiquette of the Visiting-Card
Evolution Theory, The
Exercise, Physical
Eyes, Care of the
Eyes, Character Indicated by the
Fables, Modern
Facts about Sponges
Facts about the Liberty Bell
Facts of General Interest
Facts, Handy, to Settle Arguments
Fat People and Lean, Rules for
Female Figure, The Perfect
Feminine Height and Weight
Finding, The Law of
Fingers and Hands, Various Forms of
Flag, The Language of the
Flowers, The Language of
Formalities in Dress and Etiquette
Friendly Advice on Many Subjects

Geographical Nicknames
Girdle of Venus
Glue, Test for
God, The Name of, in Fifty Languages
"Good Bye, God Bless You"
Grammar, English, in a nutshell
Grammar, Short (Memory Rhyme)
Grammar, Spelling and Pronunciation

Hair, Curious Facts About
Hair and Scalp, Care of the
Hand Grenades
Hands and Fingers, Various Forms of
Hands, Care of the
Handy Metric Table
Happiness Defined
Health Line
Health and Beauty
Height and Weight
Height of Noted Structure
Holidays, Legal, in Various States
Horse's Prayer, The
Horses, To Tell the Age of
Housekeepers Should Remember, What
Hypnotism, The Mysteries of

Independence, The Declaration of
Indorsement of Checks, etc.
Infant Feeding and Management
Interest Rules, Short
Invitations and Announcements

Jefferson's Political Policy
Jewelry, Correct Form of

Keep Still

Lady's Chance of Marrying, A
Language of Flowers, The
Language of Precious Stones
Last Words of Famous Men and Women
Law, Business, in Brief
Law, Points of Criminal
Letter Combinations
Liberty Bell, Facts About the
Loisette's Memory System
Love, A Cure for

Magna Charta
Marriage and Courtship, Etiquette of
Marriage and Divorce
Measures and Weights
Mecklenburg Declaration, The
Memory Rhymes
Memory System, Loisette's
Merchants' Cost and Price Marks
Metric Table, Handy
Months, Derivation of the Names of the
Months, The (Memory Rhyme)
Mottoes of the States
Mourning Colors the World Over
Mourning Customs

Name of God in Fifty Languages
Names of Men, Meanings of Christian
Names of  Women, Christian
Name, What's in a
Nature's Wonders, Some of
Nicknames, Geographical
Nicknames of Cities
Notes and Acceptances
Nursing of Infants

"Oh, I Wish I Was in Eden"
Opportunity--Ingalls' Famous Sonnet
Osteopathy, The Claims of
Palmistry, The Mysteries of
Palm-Reading, Chart for
Parliamentary Law, Principles, of
Patent, How to Obtain a
Philosophical Facts
Phrenology, Dr. Spurzheim's
Physical Exercise
Piano, How to Care for a
Points of Criminal Law
Poisons and Their Antidotes
Population of Principal Cities
Poor Richard's Sayings
Presidents, Ages and Deaths of the
Presidents of the United States
Precious Stones, The Language of
Pronunciation and Accent
Pronunciation, Common Errors in
Pronunciation, Simple Rules of

Quinine to Break Up a Cold

"Raised" Checks
Rats, How to Get Rid of
Recipes, Trade Secrets, etc.
Reputation, Lines of
Riddles, Old and New
Riding, Rules for (Memory Rhyme)
Rights of Married Women
Road, Rule of the

Salt-Rising Bread
Scalp and Hair, Care of the
Science and Statistics, Facts of
Shakespeare's Counsel
Shaving, Hints on
Short Rules for Spelling
Shoulders, To Straighten Round
Single Tax, The
Skin, Care of the
Social Forms
Sparrow, The English
Spelling, Short Rules for
Sponges, Facts About
States, Mottoes of the
States, The Names of the
Steps in the Growth of American Liberty
Swollen Feet, Relief for

Tea and Coffee
Teeth of Children, The
Teeth, The Care of the
Things That Are Misnamed
Toasts and Sentiments
Time in Which Money Doubles
Trade Discounts
Trademarks, The Laws of
Trees, Big
Trees, Maximum Age of

United States, Constitution of

Visiting-Card, Etiquette of the

Water, How and When to Drink
Water, To Tell Pure
Wedding and Engagement Rings
Wedding Anniversaries
Wedding Customs
Weights and Measures
Weights and Measures, Handy
What Housekeepers Should Remember
What's in a Name?
Wine, How to Serve, etc.
Woman's Lunch, A
Workingmen Easily Gulled
Writers, Alphabet Of Advice to

[Transcriber's note: The rest of the book is advertisemnts.  Ads are
separated by a horizontal line.]

Things Worth Knowing about Dr. Graves' Tooth Powder
3,360,000 cans sold in 1910
5 girls can make 75 gross in one day
42,000 druggists in the U. S. A., carry GRAVES'
200 tons of Tooth Powder made in 1910
If so many people use GRAVES' why can't you?

Perfect Form Health Brace

Develop your chest from 3 to 6 inches.

Compels Deep Breathing and insures long life

Consumption claims thousands whose stooped shoulders and cramped lungs
prevent them from inhaling the health-giving, revitalizing air

SPECIAL PRICE, $1.50 for a $2.00 QUALITY


Products Worth Knowing.

"Now my mouth and teeth really DO FEEL CLEAN."

"Isn't it a Godsend we had it in the house when the youngster cut his

Remarks Frequently made by users of Hydrox PEROXIDE OF HYDROGEN.
The Always Reliable Antiseptic.
You cannot depend on cheap Peroxides in an emergency.
They're dear at any price.
For Ideal Cleanliness, Comfort and Hygiene use
Tooth Powder
Dental Paste
Face Powder
"The Aristocrats of Toilet Preparations"
All Drug Stores Sell Them.

This is a reproduction of the handsome New Style Package of
which has a world-wide reputation as
The Great Remedy For Pain
No other oil or liniment has ever received the cordial approval of the
medical and nursing professions the world over. ST. JACOBS OIL is the
safest, surest and best pain relieving agent.
Highest Prize Medals Awarded at International Expositions for being the
best pain cure.
Good for Rheumatism, Neuralgia, Sore Throat, Chest Colds, etc. Just rub
it on the affected parts. The pain may resist a dozen treatments--but it
can't resist St. Jacobs Oil.
Send for Illustrated Booklet Containing Free Music Offer.
Price 25c., 50c.
The 50c Bottle Contains 3 Times as Much as the 25c Size.
St. Jacobs Oil Ltd.
Baltimore, Md.


For more than a quarter of a century Stiefel's Medicinal Soaps, the
pioneer products in the field, have been the standby of physicians
everywhere, and many of the varieties have, originally through the
recommendation of the skin specialist or the family physician, become
household remedies and toilet accessories in the homes of the refined
and particular.
The ideal, logical and scientifically approved care of the scalp calls
for the use of
A most effective remover of Dandruff.
Cleanses the scalp and opens the pores.
Leaves the hair loose and fluffy, so that
"You CAN do a thing with it"
next day.
Price: 25 cents per cake.
Tear out the Coupon printed on page 381 and get a free sample
Sole Agents for the U. S.
Schering & Glatz
150-152 Maiden Lane
New York

Listen To These Men

THERE'S NO USE TALKING--your appearance has much to do with your
success, yes, any man's success in business. A small investment with us
will give you the right appearance, the appearance of real prosperity.

Many men are wearing clothes made by us because they're stylish,
reliable and may be had at very reasonable prices.

We import many of our own goods and always display a large line of
exclusive novelties at very attractive prices.

The proprietors of this publication are our customers. Our work pleases
them and they think it will please you. We know it will.

We would very much appreciate a call and if you will mention this
advertisement we will allow you an extra cash discount of 5%.

Our household accounts are subject to premiums, and make buying clothes
easy. Drop us a card and we will mail you pamphlet giving full
information, also samples.

Telephone, Main 3906     19 South Fifth Ave., Chicago


Orthopedic Apparatus

For all deformities including spinal curvature, hip joint disease, weak
legs, bow legs, knock knees, club feet, flat feet, etc.

Shoes for the Lame

All apparatus made in our own factory.

By skilled mechanics on short notice.

Estimates cheerfully given. Send for catalog "D."

Manufacturers of
Orthopedic Apparatus. Shoes for the Lame, Artificial Limbs. Trusses,
Crutches, Abdominal Supporters, Elastic Stockings.
103 N. Wabash Ave.,  Chicago
Two Doors North of Washington Street


DOWNS' Obesity Reducer

Will Reduce your Fat

Downs' Obesity Reducer is unlike other reducing remedies in that it does
not require other medicines to strengthen up the system after it has
performed its function of relieving the patient of superfluous fat. On
the contrary Downs' Obesity Reducer not only does away with obesity, but
it strengthens the entire system, discharges all impurities and tones up
the blood.

It is easy to take; being put up in pill and capsule form.

Downs' Obesity Reducer contains no injurious drugs; a child might take
it in any quantity without harmful effects. It is not one of the
so-called "new discoveries." It has been used successfully for over
thirty years and has never produced an evil effect. Scores of people
have been reduced by it from 20 to 80 pounds and never felt better than
while taking and after taking.

Guaranteed by the Downs' Chemical Company, Chicago, under the Pure Food
and Drugs' Act of June 30, 1906. Serial Number 17092.

Regular price for a full month's treatment is $2.50.

Finest Razors in the World.
Hand Forged
Largest Factory in the U. S.
Ask for the Geneva Standard Brand,
Made by
Geneva Cutlery Co., Geneva, N. Y., U. S. A.

Is a health building food. It builds firm solid flesh, aids digestion
and clears the complexion. Dress Your Food With
(pronounced Sheris)
Olive Oil
It is the first pressing of the choicest French Olives. Every package
put up and sealed at the factory, at Grasse, France.
Antoine Chiris Company, 18-20 Platt St., New York

Don't Be Cut Open!
Don't Suffer!
Promptly Use
For Pains, Wounds, Swellings, Burns, Bites, Stings, and all
Meys Poultice is in air-tight glass jars. 12 ozs. net; 20 ozs. net; 2
lbs. net; and 5 lbs. Meys Poultice is a safe, clean, soothing
dressing--is antiseptic and anesthetic; does not soil or stain. It
dissolves in water; lasts 24 hours as a dressing. Meys Poultice is
indorsed by physicians everywhere. It has no equal as a treatment in
Pneumonia, Pleurisy, Bronchitis, Croup, Rheumatic Joints, Carbuncles,
Old Ulcers, Infections, Pelvic Pains, Ovaritis, Erysipelas, Orchitis,
Tonsillitis, Enlarged Glands and Appendicitis.


Prevent Disease
Australian Eucalyptus Globulus Oil
"Kangaroo" Brand
Recommended by the highest medical authorities for sick-room and
household use as a general Antiseptic, Disinfectant and Deodorant. It is
non-poisonous and non-irritating. Used the world over. Take no
substitute but see that you get our "Kangaroo" Brand.

A fragrant but powerful Antiseptic and Inhalant. Invaluable to those
exposed to infection and contagion; to travelers; and for use in crowded
cars, theatres, etc. Mosquitoes and other insects shun it. Use it when
on the water or at summer resorts.

Either of the above sold by or obtained through any druggist in original
bottles only.

Australian Eucalyptus Chemical Co.
305 N. Michigan Ave.   Chicago, III.


Sample Free For Relief To Prove Why It Cures

PLEASE TRY Kondon's with our compliments, for catarrhal sore throat--or
colds or any catarrhal trouble. Pleasant, pure, quick to stop distress
and speedily cures. Don't delay. Sold by over 35,000 druggists--or write
us for free sample.

Kondon's (in sanitary tubes) gives Quick relief.  Snuff a bit of this
aromatic, soothing, healing Jelly well into the nasal passages. Take a
small portion internally, leaving in the throat as long as possible, rub
the throat well with the Jelly--you'll find almost instant relief. Get a
25c or 50c tube today of your druggist or send penny postal to us for
free sample.

Kondon Mfg. Co., Minneapolis. Minn.
25c or 50c Sanitary Tubes at all Druggists.
Sample FREE

Can boast of two things that are unsurpassed, if equalled, in the United

Poland Spring Hotel, which is the most delightful summer resort in the
State of Maine.

And the famous Poland Spring Water, known all over the civilized world
for its purity and sweetness and beneficial effects, has not its equal
for kidney trouble, diabetes, gall-stones, and various other ailments of
a similar nature.

The Spring House is the most magnificent of any spring house m the world
having cost more then $100,000.

"POLAND" WATER IS the purest, most efficacious and lightest of all
natural mineral waters.

South Poland, Maine
Western Agents


Brown's Wonder FACE CREAM
Wonder Face Cream is recognized by both users and dealers to be the best
face cream on the market, is the best looking package and the most goods
for the money.


Wonder Face Cream will prevent an oily skin, whether this is caused by
the use of a grease cream, or by oil extuding from the skin itself. No
other face cream is equal to Wonder Cream for this purpose.

As a cleanser it is superior to soap. It penetrates the skin and removes
the secretions which if allowed to remain will cause blackheads and

Wonder Face Cream contains no grease and will not grow hair. It will
remove tan and sunburn, give the user a fresh complexion, whiten the
skin, will gradually remove freckles and when used with massage will
remove wrinkles. One jar will convince you. If you do not think this
possible give it a trial.

Every person going out in the sun or wind, especially on automobile
rides, requires a face dressing, and only a non-grease cream can be
used. Wonder Face Cream is perfect for this purpose. An invisible
dressing of Wonder Cream will protect the face, preventing sunburn,
roughening of the skin, etc, No one will suffer from sunburn if they
will put on a dressing of Wonder Face Cream before going out.

Put up in 25c, 35c, 50c, 75c, $1.00 and $1.75 jars.


A household remedy.  Perfectly harmless. Can be used on both adults and

Wonder Salve cures sore throat and colds, inflammation of lungs or
chest, frost bite, neuralgia, chilblain, tired or aching feet,
rheumatism, burns, boils, sprains, bruises, croup, earache, warts,
appendicitis, eczema, sores at long standing, mumps, sore corns, cuts,
piles and fistulas, deafness after scarlet lever, is best cure for
pneumonia. Brown's Wonder Salve cures first by removing inflammation or
irritation of the parts; second by regulating the circulation when from
any cause it has become impaired. With the cause of the inflammation
removed and the circulation brought to its normal condition nature does
the healing. Put up in 25c, 50c and $1.00 sizes, and hospital size of

If not obtainable at your druggist, goods will be sent by mail on
receipt of price. Safe delivery guaranteed.

R. H. BROWN & CO. 2701 Menlo Avenue, Los Angeles, Cal.

Collis Famous Corset Ankle Supports
With Removable Bones
The only real support for weak or sprained ankles
Men's, Ladies' and Misses'. Price, per pair   $1.00
Children's. Price per pair  .50
Made in Tan or Black Leather.
When ordering state size shoe worn.

Dr. Bull's Elastic Ankle Supports
Merc. Silk

Men's, Ladies' and Misses'. Price per pair   $1.50

The feature of our Elastic Support is, they are made to fit and conform
perfectly with ankle, giving free instep movement recommended by leading

When ordering state size shoe worn.

The Harvard Athletic Supports
Price each  75 cents
Made in three sizes, small, medium and large.
These are used for all classes of Athletic Sports, such as Baseball,
Football, Basket Ball, and all other indoor games.
When ordering, enclose 5 cents extra for mailing goods.
H. J. COLLIS MFG. CO. :: Taunton, Mass.


Gillette, O.V.B. Durham, Duplex, Enders, Keen Kutter, Ward and Clark
Safety Razor Blades.

OLD BLADES better than new--when--you use "Meehan's" Razor Stropper. We
guarantee every one of them to be in perfect condition. If a fair trial
fails to convince you of its being the most economical stropping device
on the market, come and get your money back.


A Sharp Razor Blade is the most essential point for the "Home Shaver."
NO Safety Razor Set is complete without "Meehan's" Razor Stropper.

ONLY one insertion of blade in holder is necessary for sharpening both
sides of both edges at the same time.

NO complicated parts--simple construction--easy to operate.

NO possible chance of an accidental cut when inserting blade or
stropping--when--you use "Meehan's" Razor Stropper.

For Sale Where You Got This Book


Every woman can be beautiful if she uses Geo. W. Laird's "Bloom of


Kings, Emperors, Sultans, Millionaires, Statesmen and men of influence
all bow to women's beauty. Then it is not to be wondered at that women
do all in their power to attain that wonderful charm. A clear, smooth,
soft, white, beautiful skin is far more attractive than the most costly
costume. LAIRD'S "BLOOM OF YOUTH" will remove all imperfections of the
skin--tan, freckles and all other discolorations--leaving it clear and
beautiful. Laird's "Bloom of Youth" has been in use the past fifty years
and improved from time to time, until now it is simply a perfect toilet


Woman should use every legitimate means in her power to make herself
attractive if nature has not been generous to her and blessed her with a
clear, soft, beautiful skin. She should use some of the artificial means
of attaining the desired effect. We would recommend the use of LAIRD'S
"BLOOM OF YOUTH." It has been in use the past fifty years by millions of
society ladies, actresses and opera singers both in this country and in

Sold at all druggists and fancy goods stores. Price 75c a bottle.
Manufactured by
For sale where you got this book.

"I wish to state that we have been using your Baby Food for one year and
have met with nothing but the best of results.

It was only after trying, I think, all other kinds of foods, which only
seemed to make matters worse, that a trial was made of DENNOS FOOD,
which, we feel, is a life saver. The photo and the boy's condition will
best testify as to the merits of DENNOS FOOD.

Yours very truly,"
(Signed) Ralph Krows.
316 Union St., Seattle.

600,000 Babies Die every year--almost invariably from improper feeding!
Doctors agree that the only substitute for mother's milk is fresh cow's
milk, scientifically modified. That is why physicians and mothers alike
are giving much heartfelt welcome to


the wonderful new cereal preparation which adds to cow's milk all vital
nutritional elements--flakes the indigestible curd completely, and Saves
Babies' Lives.

I am using DENNOS FOOD in my practice and find it very satisfactory.
(Signed), W. C. Emery, M. D., Kenton, Ohio.

I had tried several foods with very little success until we put our baby
on DENNOS. DENNOS FOOD is a Godsend to mothers.
(Signed) Mrs. M. Lawrence. 1734 Sycamore St., Cincinnati, Ohio.

Ask your doctor about "Dennos"
Write to
911 Western Ave., Seattle
for Free Sample and Baby Book.

High Grade Chocolates
Packed in Packages containing either
The Chicago Chocolate Co.
3233 West Lake Street
Phones Kedzie 2261 and 5888


Dr. Lemke's Golden Electric Liniment
is a powerful pain expeller and a reliable house remedy. It alleviates
and heals external and internal pain and inflammation, both for man and
beast. It is an extraordinary and valuable liniment. Price, $1.00 and

Dr. Lemke's St. Johannis Drops
is a valuable medicine. In thousands of cases these drops have
alleviated pain and cured Sickness; yes, in a great many cases saved
lives in attacks of spasms, colic, cramps and cholera. In case of
excitement and anxious feelings in the head and nerves these drops.
bring quick relief. A very important medicine. Price, 50c and 25c.

Dr. Lemke's Laxative Herb Tea
has a salutary effect on the whole system in cases of colds,
biliousness, costiveness and intermittent fevers. It thoroughly cleanses
the blood, creates appetite, works on the liver, kidneys, bladder and
produces a regular stool. Price, 50c and 25c.

These remedies have been in use over 40 years and have enjoyed a gradual
increase in sales through their good work. They are for sale by
druggists and prepared by
Dr. H. C. Lemke Medicine Co.,
1538 Elburn Ave., Chicago

Special prices for serviceable machines as low as
$12, $15, and $20
I sell all makes Rebuilt and some nearly new.
Write me for special price on any make or model preferred.
Telephones: Franklin 1737 Automatic 32-326
106 N. La Salle St., Chicago, Ill.

The Perfect Removable Buffer with 3 Extra Chamois
The Metal Band being removable, the Chamois may be easily replaced,
making the polisher practically everlasting. In 4 sizes; 4-1/2, 5, 6 and
7 inches.
3 colors: Ebony, Cocobola and Olive wood.
Manufactured by
The Manicure Novelty Mfg. Co.
Inquire where you got this book

For Permanent Records
The Only Ink for a fountain Pen
A Necessity in Every Office and Home

You Must Have An Antiseptic Always on Hand
to protect yourself against disease-breeding Bacteria. Be absolutely
sure that it is (a) free from poison; (b) reliable; (c) easily applied;
(d) free from objectionable odor.

How can you be sure of finding these four properties in an antiseptic?
Read the official reports on SALUBRIN from eminent authorities,
professors of Medicine in the Royal university of Lund, Sweden. Buy from
your druggist a bottle of SALUBRIN, and read the circular, containing
such reports; or drop us a postal card, giving your address, and we will
mail you absolutely convincing proofs. There is no other antiseptic
remedy equal to SALUBRIN.

Grand Crossing   CHICAGO, ILL.

Made for 60 years
It cleans and polishes the teeth, making them white and beautiful. It
keeps the gums a natural red, the breath fragrant.
The material used in Calder's Dentine is made especially for it.

The New Perfume
A charming new perfume of exquisite odor.
Cut Glass bottle in satin lined case
Beautifully put up.

An unusually attractive package at a moderate price. Lune de Miel (the
French for Honeymoon) is probably the most delightful perfume on the
market. It's fragrance is not alone pleasing but lasting.

Lune de Miel perfume is now enjoying the same large demand in America as
it has in Europe.

Lune de Miel Toilette Water, Sachet. Face Powder and Soap.

Burnishine Did It!

Warranted not to contain anything injurious to the metal. Works quick
and easy.

For cleaning or polishing Copper, Brass, Zinc, Tin, Nickel, Silver and
all kinds of metals.

Put up in cans
4-oz., 1/2-pint, 1-pint, 1-quart, 2-quart. 1-gallon
For sale by all dealers

Nature's Great Laxative and Tonic
For Biliousness and Indigestion
Prepared from and containing all of the Remedial Merit of the famous
The Original
The Long Green Bottle
Born in Mt. Clemens 1886
The dose is small--It's not bad to take--100 per cent. satisfaction
Analysis and History for the asking
Mt. Clemens Mineral Springs Water Co.

Ask Your Druggist
The Canton SEAMLESS Hot Water Bottle, as the name implies, is
SEAMLESS--it cannot possibly leak. The highest grade materials are used
in its construction, making it the most DURABLE seamless water bottle
ever devised. Guaranteed two years. Made in all sizes.
Ask Your Druggist

"Dead Stuck" for Bugs
Big Bugs, Little Bugs--
All sorts of Bugs are exterminated by "DEAD STUCK"
Price 25 Cents per Can--All Druggists
Manufactured by
Philadelphia. Pa.

Powerful, Fragrant and Non-poisonous
"Sanitas" Disinfecting Fluid, 20-oz. bottle, 40 Cents
"Sanitas" Crude Disinfecting Liquid, 8-oz. bottle, 25 Cents
"Sanitas" Oil, 4-oz. bottle, 40 Cents
"Sanitas" Jelly (Salve), 4-oz. jar, 40 Cents
"Sanitas" Disinfecting Toilet Soap, per cake, 15 Cents
Remember an ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure.
Write for book, "How to Disinfect."
636 to 642 West 55th Street, New York

For 90 Years
Has stood the test for Burns, Boils, Carbuncles, Sores of All Kind,
Frost-Bite and all External Inflammations.
A box should be kept in every home. Immediate application to the wound
has saved thousands of cases of Blood-Poison.
25 cents from your Druggist or
W. F. GRAY & CO.
Nashville, Tenn.
Write for Booklet.

Dr. Lindley's Golden Remedy FOR EPILEPSY
15 Years of Successful Treatment
Golden Remedy has stood the test of time; it is no new thing, but a well
tried remedy which stands alone as the only medicine that will stop Fits
in 24 hours; of course to do away with them altogether it must be taken
from 1 to 3 years, although many cases have been cured in much less time
than this, depending upon the severity of the case. Golden Remedy is
also of great value in the treatment of the following troubles:
Nervous Headache.
Great Nervous Excitability.
Insomnia or Sleeplessness.
St. Vitus Dance.
Spasms and Convulsions of Men, Women and Children.

Those Who Seek the Best Get
Borden's Malted Milk
Those Who Accept Substitutes are Losers
Malted Milk Dept.

EVERY WOMAN is interested and should know about the wonderful
Marvel Whirling Spray Syringe

The Marvel by reason of its peculiar construction, dilates and flushes
the vaginal passage with a volume of whirling fluid, which smooths out
the folds and permits the injection to come in contact with its entire
surface, instantly dissolving and washing out all secretions and

Ask your druggist for it. If he cannot supply the MARVEL, accept no
other, but send stamp for illustrated book--sealed. It gives full
particulars and directions invaluable to ladies. Address
44 East 23d Street,
New York
For Sale where you got this book. $3.00

Rev. W. W. Brown's Asthma Remedy
A Preventive of Paroxysms or Choking Spells.
All we ask for this wonderful remedy is a fair trial.
Why not try it?
Address: W. W. BROWN, Sioux City, Iowa

Is the Children's safe-guard for Cough, Colds, Croup, Whooping Cough.
Mothers, get a bottle to-day, you may need it to-night.
Sold where you got this book. 35c

50 Cents
A pleasant fruity syrup, used by thousands of families to safeguard
children against Diphtheria, Scarlet Fever, Diseased Tonsils and all
throat infections. It should always be kept on hand for immediate use.
Its value is well worth knowing.

50 Cents
A standard household remedy for all distressed conditions, Neuralgic or
Rheumatic. A comforting insurance against loss of time due to pain,
headache or la grippe. One bottle proves its value.
CHAVETT LABORATORY, 200 W. 61st Street, Chicago

A brand on Manicure Goods which is recognized and stamped with the
approval of its thousands of users. Standing for purity and quality of
LUSTR-ITE Specialties are sold by
The Central Drug Company,
State and Washington St., Chicago.
The Floridine Manufacturing Co.

Shaving Comfort
Found only in a tube of
Bonheim's Shaving Cream

Physiological Tonicum

This is what may be described as a scientific iron tonic. In it the
Ferric and Ferrous Oxides are combined in exactly the same proportions
as they are found combined in the normal human blood; hence it is that
the Physiological Tonicum is a blood maker, or, if the term be
preferred, blood purifier--it corrects the blood. Thus it is that this
tonic (which may be used in connection with other medicine) is useful in
nearly all diseases, save such as are characterized by plethoric states,
or full-bloodedness.

In any instance where the physician wants to prescribe iron which will
cause no untoward effects, such as disturbing the stomach, affecting the
teeth, etc., this PHYSIOLOGICAL TONICUM is the best preparation of iron
he can find in the market.

Price 4-ounce bottle, 50 cents.
Price 12-ounce bottle. $1.25.
Prepared solely by Boericke & Tafel, Publishers of Hensel's Scientific
Works in the United States and Germany and sole authorized depositaries
for his Physiological preparations.
For Sale by the Store where you got this book.

Everybody Admires a Beautiful Complexion.
Oriental Cream or Magical Beautifier

An Indispensable and Delightful Toilet Requisite for Fashionable Women.
A daily necessity for the ladies' toilet whether at home or while
traveling. It protects the skin from injurious effects of the elements,
gives a wonderfully effective beauty to the complexion. It is a perfect
non-greasy Toilet Cream and positively will not cause or encourage the
growth of hair which all ladies should guard against when selecting a
toilet preparation. When dancing, bowling or other exertions heat the
skin, it prevents a greasy appearance.

Gouraud's Oriental Cream has been highly recommended by physicians,
actresses, singers and women of fashion for over half a century and
cannot be surpassed when preparing for daily or evening attire.

Gouraud's Oriental Cream cures Skin Diseases and relieves Sunburn.
Removes Tan, Pimples, Blackheads, Moth Patches, Rash, Freckles and
Vulgar Redness, Yellow and Muddy Skin, giving a delicately clear and
refined complexion which every woman desires.

No. 11.  For sale by Druggists and Fancy Goods Dealers.
Ferd. T. Hopkins, Prop.,
New York

[Illustration text]
Oriental Cream
Magical Beautifier
Trade Mark
For Tan, Pimples, Freckles, Morphew & All Blemishes of the Cuticle.
Prepared by
Ferd. T. Hopkins,
Successor to
T. Felix Gouraud
37 Great Jones St. - New York
Price $1.50 per bottle.
[End Illustration text]

Employed and prescribed by leading Physicians Everywhere.
Size 5x8 Nickel Plate
Complete Croup Kettles, Warm Vapor Inhalers and Nursery Vaporizer.
No. 1 with 8 oz.
  Boiler and restricted Alcohol Flame, Complete            Price $1.50

No. 2 with 8 oz.
  Boiler al Copper Boiler and Jacket, handsome instrument   Price 1.00

No. 3 with 16 oz.
  Boiler Hospital Size with restricted alcohol lamp         Price 2.00

No. 4 with 20 oz.
  Boiler with Retaining Chest works 1/2 hour with flame      Price .75

No. 6 with 16 oz.
  Boiler A kettle with improved vent tube, highly finished   Price .25

For Whooping Cough, Grip, Colds, Lost Voice Bronchitis, Singers',
Speakers' and Smokers' Throats. Delivered postpaid with Direction and

SIMPLEX LAMP MFG. CO.,   Brooklyn, N. Y.
Geo. H. Bells Patents
Sold at all leading drug stores.

A name to be remembered by every housekeeper, as it is the name of one
of the best household remedies on earth. It is divided into a series of
specifics. Each specific is intended to eliminate a certain group of
disorders as follows:

No. 1. Catarrh, cold in the head, grip, neuralgia, hay fever, asthma.

No. 2. Eczema, itching, salt-rheum, sunburn, mosquito bites, boils,
burns, bruises, chapped and cracked hands, and all forms of skin

No. 3. Sore throat, bronchitis, lung trouble, whooping cough, croup.

No. 4. For indigestion (catarrh of the stomach) cause sour stomach and
foul breath.

No. 5. For piles and chafing.

No. 6. For Chilblains, tender feet, callouses, bunions, and corns.

No. 7. For complexion, blackheads, pimples, skin eruptions.

No. 8. For toothache, headache, earache, deafness.

Sold by all leading druggists everywhere. Price 25 cents or sent direct
from this office on receipt of price. Trial box free.

Nardine Med. Co,    Schenectady, N. Y.

"Don't fail to give it a trial"

The Sweet Babee Nursing Bottle

Patented May 3, 1910

Has no neck, therefore is washed on the inside like a tumbler, and
filled without a funnel. Every mother is familiar with this style
nipple; we have simply added the large bottom to fit the opening of the
bottle. It is reversible and will not collapse. Endorsed by doctors and
nurses as the most sanitary nursing bottle made. For sale by all
druggists. Price complete 25c.

THE YANKEE CO., Mfrs., Utica, N. Y.





Below we mention some of our Special Brands:

"GILT EDGE" Oil Polish

Blacks and polishes ladies' and children's boots and shoes; SHINES
WITHOUT RUBBING; always READY for use. Price 25c.

"DANDY" Combination for cleansing and polishing ALL kinds of russet or
tan boots and shoes. Price 25c. "STAR" size, 10c. Also Oxblood and Brown
Combinations in same sizes and at same prices.

"ELITE" Combination for those who take pride in having their shoes look
A-1. Restores color and lustre to all black shoes. Polish with a brush
or cloth. Price 25c "BABY ELITE" size, 10c.

"FRENCH GLOSS." For blacking and polishing ladies' and children's boots
and shoes; SHINES WITHOUT RUBBING. (See cut.) Price 10c.

"QUICK WHITE" makes dirty CANVAS shoes clean and white. In liquid form
so it can be quickly and easily applied. No white dust. Will not rub
off. A sponge in every package, so always READY for use. Two sizes, 25c
and 10c.

"BULLY SHINE." A waterproof paste polish for all kinds of black shoes
and old rubbers. Blacks, polishes, softens and preserves. Contains oils
and waxes to polish and preserve the leather. Large tin boxes, Price
10c. Boxes open with a key.

Ask for Whittemore's Shoe Polishes if you want the BEST,

Leslie Safety Razors
The Shaving Outfit of the World

Contains Leslie Safety Razor and Spiral Stropper and 6 Leslie Blades.

Pronounced by its users to be far in advance of all other shaving and
stropping devices.

In handsome leather lined and covered case.
No.1. Special Leslie Finish   $5.00
No.2. Gold Plated   7.50

The Leslie Tourist Safety Razor with 12 Leslie blades, identical with
the $5.00 outfit with the exception of the Leslie stropper. The true
test of any razor is the blade, and without reservation or
qualification, we pronounce this the finest and most efficient "No Hone,
No Strop" Safety Razor ever produced. This outfit will out-shave and
out-last all other makes of safety razors and, in doing so, will afford
far greater comfort and satisfaction. In handsome leather lined and
covered case.
No.3. Special Leslie Finish   $3.50
No.4. Gold Plated.     5.00

The Vest Pocket Safety Razor
Realizing the enormous demand for a really first-class Safety Razor that
will far excel all others now in use, at the popular price of $1.00, we
have brought out the Leslie Junior Safety Razor which consists of the
unequaled Leslie Holder and six regulation Leslie blades. In handsome
leather lined and covered case.
No. 5. Special Leslie Finish   $1.00
No. 6. Gold Plated   2.00

Leslie Manufacturing Company, Boston, U. S. A.

Retain a "Bloom of Youth" By Using
Luxtone Beauty Secret

A dainty invisible CREAM POWDER and SKIN TONIC combined, which freshens
the complexion and tones down the HARD LINES as tho' by magic. It FEEDS
the tissue, REFINES the texture, INSTANTLY beautifies, and PERMANENTLY

ONLY under the Luxtone label will you find the REAL "Beauty Secret."
Accept NO other, for THEN YOU ARE SAFE, Price 75c, 50c, 25c.

LUXTONE RUBITINT. A delicate coloring for cheeks and lips; when combined
with the "Beauty Secret," produces an effect truly captivating. Price
50c, 25c.

LUXTONE ALMONDOLIVE CREAM. The cream for making flesh and banishing
wrinkles. Price $1.00.

LUXTONE COLD CREAM. The cream that cleanses clear through. Price 50c,

LUXTONE CUCUMBER CREAM. The only cream for sunburn. Price 50c.

Manufactured only by
314 W. 42nd Street   NEW YORK, N. Y.

Look for our Trade Mark

El Perfecto
Veda Rose Rouge

Sold in the highest class stores in many places all over the world. It
is famous for giving a perfectly natural tint to the cheeks.

This article of great merit has been manufactured by the El Perfecto
Veda Rose Co. for over fourteen years, is harmless and never fails to
give satisfaction. Any rouge bordering on the shade of El Perfecto Veda
Rose is an imitation. Use the original which is known to be the most
perfectly natural shade ever before manufactured.

El Perfecto Veda Rose CO.

SANDHOLM'S SKIN LOTION is a clear liquid used externally. Eradicates all
skin and scalp trouble by absorbing the germ--returns the skin to normal
condition. IT HAS NO EQUAL for

Salt rheum, Eczema, Rash, Tetter (Herps), Scald head, Milk scald, Plant
poisoning, Hives, Mosquito bites, Small burns or scratches, Barbers'
Itch, Parasitic diseases, Scaly or scabby eruptions of the skin, Itching
piles, Acne, Psoriasis, Pimples, Blackheads, Cracked hands and lips,
etc. A perfect antiseptic after shaving.

Pimples and hideous red marks by the free use of SANDHOLM'S LOTION. When
used as a massage, Sandholm's Lotion is the greatest skin beautifier
ever discovered, and produces that velvety softness of the skin which is
so much admired. One trial will convince you of its merits.

Manufactured by
Des Moines, Iowa

America's Truest and Purest Natural Laxative.
One of the most remarkable of all natural phenomena is the
from which flows a perfect laxative water.

Scientists of today, with the accumulated knowledge of 1,000 years to
guide them, have not been able to manufacture a harmless, non-irritating
laxative which relieves constipation and stimulates the liver as AbilenA
Water does.

You will never need laxative medicines of any kind--pills, tablets,
capsules, salts, artificial waters--if you occasionally drink a
wine-glass of AbilenA when conditions call for a laxative or cathartic.

AbilenA comes to you pure--just as it flows from the Famous Wells of
AbilenA--harmless as the water you drink--clear, sparkling, vitalizing.
It flushes and cleanses the system thoroughly, and in the gentlest way
possible. Instead of irritating the delicate membranes of the stomach
and bowels, as drugs and artificial waters are very apt to do, it
relieves congestions and soothes these membranes, and it stimulates
liver activities.

There is no magic in the name, AbilenA, nor no special virtue simply
because it happens to be America's only natural cathartic water, but its
splendid clinical value and effect is due solely to the fact that
AbilenA is almost wholly pure and true Sodium Sulphate--the world's
truest representative of this ideal laxative and reconstructive base,
All the other waters on the markets are largely solutions of Epsom
salts, consequently are nauseous, harsh and irritating. The same thing
is more or less true with pills, powders and the manufactured

AbilenA is a safe, sure, inexpensive laxative and cathartic, convenient
and pleasant to take, suited for old and young alike, a cure for
constipation and biliousness, and truly the ideal family remedy.

AbilenA is America's Only Bottled Natural Cathartic Water.

We will mail, free, upon application, "The Natural Method," an
interesting booklet on the importance of normal elimination and a study
of the comparative values of the better known cathartics.

Frank M. Gier, M. D., Pres.


Read the following and be convinced. There's hope for you.

Forty-five years ago my father, who was himself a doctor, had a vicious
cancer that was eating away his life. The best physicians in America
could do nothing for him. After nine long years of awful suffering, and
after the cancer had totally eaten away his nose and portions of his
face (as shown in his picture here given) his palate was entirely
destroyed together with portions of his throat. Father fortunately
discovered the great remedy that cured him. He lived over 40 years and
no return of the disease.

The same discovery has now thousands who were threatened with operation
and death. And to prove that this is the truth we will give their sworn
statement if you will write us. Doctors, Lawyers, Mechanics, Ministers,
Laboring Men, Bankers and all classes recommend this glorious
life-saving discovery, and we want the whole world to benefit by it.

HAVE YOU CANCER, Tumors, Ulcers, Abscesses, Fever Sores, Goitre, Catarrh,
Salt-Rheum, Rheumatism, Piles, Eczema, Scald Head, or Scrofula in any form?

Ask your Druggist for MIXER'S CANCER & SCROFULA SYRUP.

It will cost you nothing to learn the truth about this wonderful home
treatment without the knife or caustic. And if you know anyone who is
afflicted with any disease above mentioned, you can do them a Christian
act of kindness by telling them of our great treatment and how to get

Forty years' experience guarantees success. Ask your Druggist for
illustrated Booklet FREE, showing half tones of many people cured, with
their testimonials.

Manufactured by

as well as any part of your body, should be properly treated and taken
care of. If you are in need of a positive and GUARANTEED Remedy,
something entirely different from the every-day-SO-CALLED "CORN CURES,"
an article for removing CORNS and CALLOUSES, and for Relief of PAINFUL
BUNIONS--Buy a 25c tube of

Goodwin's Chiropody Corn Salve

For tired, aching, swollen, bad-smelling or burning feet there is
nothing to compare with
Goodwin's Foot powder.
These articles are for sale and recommended by your druggist.
Man'f'd by
Goodwin German Foot Remedy Co.
Chicago, Ill.

Arnica Tooth Soap
Cleanser and Mouth Wash In One

Polishes the teeth to dazzling whiteness, while its fragrant antiseptic
foam reaches every part of the mouth--neutralizing all tooth-destroying
acids, preventing discoloration and decay.

Strong's Arnica Tooth Soap
comes in a handy metal box--nothing to break or spill. A convenient cake
that insures beautiful teeth, healthy, gums and a sweet breath. At your
druggist, 25 cents.

Strong's Arnica Jelly
Keeps Your Skin Smooth
No need to endure the discomfort of sunburn or winter chapping. Apply
with finger tips, rub gently into pores. In collapsible metal tubes, 25

NOTE.--If your druggist does not have these goods, send price to us. We
will forward them prepaid.

Guaranteed under the Food and Drug Act, June 30, 1906. Serial No. 1612
C. H. STRONG & CO., Chicago, U. S. A.

Delays are dangerous
unexpected changes are apt to bring on Coughs and Colds.

will not allow a Cold or Cough to run to the dangerous point. It checks
the irritation and drives out the inflammation. If you have children you
ought to have a bottle of this medicine on the mantel. 25c a bottle at
all Drug Stores.

Mares Cathartic Capsules tone the stomach, help the liver and clean the

Dr. J. A. McGill's Famous Female Suppositories
Are a famous remedy for all female diseases.
The Orange Blossom is simple and harmless.
Every lady can treat herself.
Suffering women call and get a free sample and book telling how
At the store where you got this book. $1.00

Grube's Method
After 3 minutes, no pain!
For Complete Eradication of

Kills the Seed. Leaves Smooth Skin

One Drop Corn Remover

ADVISE no cutting with knife.

USE eraser to remove hard part. Rub well.

APPLY "One Drop," covering corn completely to kill seed of the trouble;
cover it with tissue paper; peel it off third day.

RESULT a normal smooth skin. Put cotton between toes when soft corns.


When Properly Applied, Gives Relief in 3 Minutes.

EXCELSIOR CHEMICAL COMPANY, 3100 State Street, Chicago.

For Sale at the Store where you got this book.

"Look Out for the Pennies, and the Dollars Will Take Care of Themselves"
                                                       --An Old Saying

Look Out For the Blood Cells and the Body Will Take Care of Itself

You can't expect to be well, or to ever accomplish much in the world if
the blood and nerve cells are lacking strength and vitality. As the
blood races through your body--head and brain, every little cell should
be brim full of life and power. Then you feel the vim and "go" that will
make you a power among your fellow men. No nervousness, no indecision,
no signs of the weakling if you use Dr. Hoag's


The great nerve and tissue builder. This goes straight to the cells of
the blood and enriches them and puts new strength into them so they can
combat and throw off disease.

This is undoubtedly the greatest and grandest REBUILDER AND STRENGTHENER
that modern medicine has produced.

Cell Tissue Tonic is particularly recommended for Paleness and Weakness,
Debilitation, Stomach and Bowel Trouble (of both infants and adults),
Hysteria, Fainting Spells, Insomnia (sleeplessness) and Poor
Assimilation of Food.

All druggists sell Dr. Hoag's Cell Tissue Tonic. Price $1.00 per bottle.
Or it is sent direct upon receipt of price. Address Dr. C. A. Hoag
Company, 25 West Kinzie St., Chicago, Ills.

Dr. Hoag's "Home Doctor Book" contains instructions on care of sick and
sick room as well as much other valuable information. Sent to anyone
FREE upon request.

DR. C. A. HOAG CO., Chicago, Ill.

Wright's Rheumatic Remedy
Wright's Catarrhal Balm
Two Great Medicines

These well known Canadian Medicines are of a high order of excellence
and of the greatest value. Prompt in action and relief.

Try a bottle of WRIGHT'S RHEUMATIC REMEDY for your rheumatism. It
dissolves Uric acid quickly, stops pain, takes out the grit in the
joint, establishes a good circulation, very soon puts the patient on the
road to ease and comfort. A truly wonderful medicine. One dose a day.
Usually one bottle sufficient. Just one Dollar.

All Singers, Speakers, Voice users, Children, in fact everybody should
use WRIGHT'S ANTISEPTIC CATARRH BALM. It clears out the head, stops the
ringing noises, heals the tender places, keeps the germ away, gives the
clear voice, clean throat, and free air passages. "Just a little on the
finger tip" inserted in the nostril during the day, and upon retiring
works wonders. Keep a box handy, it saves the doctor bill. 50 cents per

The Wright Medicine Co.
or from
The Central Drug Co.
Cor. State & Washington Sts., CHICAGO, ILL.

Dr. J. D. Kellogg's Asthma Remedy
DOES RELIEVE Asthma and Hay Fever
Free Sample on Request
NORTHROP & LYMAN CO., Inc.   Buffalo, N. Y.

One of the Best External Remedies Known

The Dr. D. P. Ordway Plasters

A broad statement, yet true. Better than filling the system up with drugs.

Rheumatism, Weak Lungs, Asthma, Backache, Lumbago, Strains, Bronchitis,
Female Weakness and all other transient aches and pains. A strengthening
support wherever applied.
25c each

We are headquarters for A. P. W. Brand Toilet Paper. A light, soft
tissue of the finest quality, made from absolutely clean, pure stock.

We will deliver anywhere in the city 10,000 sheets and a handsome
nickel-plated holder for the sum of  $1.00

Send us a trial order and be convinced that the A. P. W. Brand is not
only the best but also the most economical toilet paper on the market.

CENTRAL DRUG COMPANY, Chicago or Detroit

Destroys Rats, Mice and Roaches

(Do not die in house)

Most economical and effective remedy.

In self sealing boxes made with a view to convenience in handling,
15 and 25 cents.

Test It Yourself--FREE

A real Hair Restorative? Yes--that's just it--a real one at last--one
that invigorates the roots and promotes the restoration of the hair to
its original beauty, luxuriance and color.

Better than any argument is the Restorative itself--for you to try. We
are only too glad to throw ourselves wholly on the merits of Golden Rule
Hair Restorative, so we years ago set aside thousands of dollars to
spend on big free Sample bottles.

If we didn't know what our preparation would do this would be reckless
extravagance. But we do know and believe that the quickest way to help
you to find it out is to place a bottle of it in your bands.

We know the annoyance of having one's hair fall and turn gray, perhaps
while you are still young. It is the result perhaps of some unusual
worry or care, but that does not prevent friends and neighbors from the
knowing nod that says, "Growing old."

Not so, it is only a run down condition of the roots of the hair--just
as the body gets run down. But you should not permit this. It is not
necessary and this needless look of age impairs your usefulness and
popularity in society and business.

Golden Rule Hair Restorative simply invigorates the roots--waking them
up--toning them up--rejuvenating them until they are rendered lively and
vigorous as in youth, The obvious result is that the growth of the hair
is promoted. Hair can starve and wither like any plant that gets its
life from its roots. If the roots are vigorous and healthy, the hair is
bound to be natural.

We want you to accept a large sample bottle with our compliments.

We want you to know what a remarkable remedy this is. If you don't need
it yourself, get it for some friend. The truth is, however, that
everyone should use Golden Rule Hair Restorative as a dressing for the
Hair to keep it healthy, just as you use a dentrifice to keep the teeth
dainty and healthy.

Get this bottle and try it. Remember its continued use tends to stop
hair from falling by promoting a vigorous growth of healthy hair.
Remember that it restores color to the hair. It is harmless and a trial
will convince you that it is just what we claim for it. Send to us
today, enclosing 10c to pay postage and packing, and the bottle will
come by first mail--in a plain wrapper with full explanations.

The Citizens' Wholesale Supply Co.
Department C.   -   Columbus, Ohio

Have You Piles?

44-1/2 South St., Glens Falls, N. Y., June 3, 1909.
G. A. McKinstry, Hudson, N. Y.
Dear Sir:--By the advice of my druggist, Mr. Bert H. Bentley. I bought
and used your Pile Cure and have found it a wonder. I have been around
the world and have used all kinds of salves, but never found anything
equal to yours.

In the year 1900 I enlisted in the U. S. Regulars and went to the
Philippines. Was operated upon for hemorrhoids and was all right for
three months. When itching developed, went to the hospital, where I was
told I had itching piles.

I have been doctoring for nine years for same and found no relief until
I used a box of Rossman's Cure. I think it wonderful.

Wishing you further success, I remain,
Yours very truly,
Subscribed and sworn before me this 3rd day of June, 1909
J. E. POTTER, Notary Public.

Mailed on receipt of price, 50 cents.
Geo. A. McKinstry Successor to A. McKinstry & Son, Druggists
609 Warren Street,   HUDSON. N. Y.

Don't Wait

Until tomorrow before you investigate our method of treating Drug,
Liquor and Tobacco addictions with Hill's Chloride of Gold Tablets.

Do it Now

We remove desire of patients we accept for treatment, if directions are
followed, and do it without pain or suffering. Can be given Secretly
without the knowledge of the patient. Testimonials SENT FREE. Give it a
Trial. For sale by Druggists, or sent on receipt of $1.00.


There may be other Remedies nearly as good,
but there are none better than
Searles' Remedy for
Rheumatism and Neuralgia
Write us for Our Booklets
  for Stiff and Sore Joints

for Constipation

New Haven, Conn.

Scheffler's Instantaneous Hair Colorine
By the use SCHEFFLER'S HAIR COLORINE, the hair may be colored eight
natural shades.

No. 1. Black         No. 2. Dark Brown
No. 3. Light Brown   No. 3a. Medium Brown
No. 4. Dark Drab     No. 5. Light Drab
No. 6. Auburn        No. 7. Blonde

This colorine has been the recognized standard for 25 years and is easy
to apply. Directions come with each box. The shades obtained by the use
of Scheffler's Hair Colorine are natural looking also leaves the hair
soft and glossy.

737 Broadway, N. Y. City.
Sole Agents and Distributors
For Sale where you got this book. Price $1.00

Did you ever try them? If not, you ought to ask your Druggist,
Confectioner or Grocer for them at once and insist on having no other
kind but "Marple Bros. New Kind Salted Peanuts." If you buy them once
you will never again buy any of the other cheap kinds.

Our peanuts are prepared so different from the old way, making them very
nutritious and healthy. They are especially favored by the ladies to
serve at all social functions. Once you try them, you will always buy
them. Put up only by

MARPLE BROS., Toledo. O.   For Sale where you got this book.

For more than 25 years the standard of quality
All others are imitations


The Hygeia nursing bottle, with a wide mouth food-cell and a breast, is
the safest, cleanest, most natural, and simple nursing bottle for the
feeding of infants. Mothers will make no mistake if they buy the Hygeia.
It will save them much anxiety and trouble in feeding their babies.

It is widely and generally known, and stands at the head of all nursing
devices. Be sure you get the Hygeia. The name is on the breast-nipple;
also, on the food receptacle. Beware of imitations! Beware of

On sale by all druggists.
Manufactured by the HYGEIA NURSING BOTTLE CO.
1336 Main St. Buffalo, N. Y.

All of our stores sell
It's one of the best sellers

W. P. Cabler's

TONES, SOOTHES and HEALS the Mucous Linings of the Stomach, Bowels and
Bladder, INVIGORATES the Liver and Kidneys. UNSURPASSED for General
Debility, Nervous Weakness, Stomach troubles, Kidney affections and
General Break-Down. The quick, beneficial results obtained from the use
of ROOT JUICE is surprising thousands of people throughout the country.
The compound is certainly a remarkable TONIC STOMACHIC and seems to
benefit from the very start, all who take it.

Manufactured by W. P. Cabler ROOT JUICE MED. CO., Fort Wayne, Ind.

all varnished or waxed woodwork, floors, pianos, furniture, white
enamel, automobile bodies with ease and satisfaction.

A spoonful on a dampened cheese cloth wiped over the varnish and
polished with a dry cheese cloth will pick up all the dust, remove the
grease, smoked or blued spots, cover scratches and restore the original
lustre or finish.

I-DE-LITE does not contain alcohol, ether, turpentine, benzine, vinegar,
common paraffine or coal oil, anyone of which will in time ruin fine

Easy to apply, a pleasant and purifying odor.

Manufactured by

Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses

Manufactured by the Saliodin Chemical Co.
Dose, Grs. X to XXX
1 Oz.

Each Grs. xx of Saliodin contains approximately:
Salicylic Acid, (Aceto-Salicylate), Grs. xv
Iodine (Iodate) Equivalent to Iodide Potass, Grs. xv
Acetic Acid (Acetate) Equiv. to Acetate Potass, Grs. v
Aconite, Equiv. to Tr. Aconite R. Gtts. iv
Bryonia, Equiv. to Tr. Bryonia, Gtts. v
Colchicum, Equiv. to Vin Colchicum R. Gtts. xv
Capsicum, Equiv. to Tr. Capsicum Gtts ii
Oil Gaultheria, m iii

Saliodin is an "Iodated Aceto-Salicylate with Adjuvants" and the
specific treatment for every form of uric acid diathesis. "Saliodin" is
a solvent and eliminant of uric acid and is a happy combination of
Salicylic Acid, Iodine, Acetic Acid, Aconite, Bryonia, Colchicum,
Capsicum and Gaultheria and chemically appears in the form of a pink
greyish powder soluble in water 1 to 3--dose grs. X to grs. XXX for the
exclusive use of physicians--put up in one-ounce bottles; price, per
ounce, $1.50. Is manufactured only by the Saliodin Chemical Co.
"Saliodin" is specifically indicated in Rheumatism. Gout, Neuralgia,
Malaria and La Grippe; is analgesic, antipyrectic, an intestinal
antiseptic, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, deobstruent, sialagogue,
cholagogue, emmenagogue, gouocococidal, anti-syphilitic and alterative.
Doctor, you may prescribe Saliodin with confidence wherever iodine or
salicylate is indicated. Used both internally and externally.

No Iodism, no Salicylism. Not less than 15 grains at a dose to adults,
and in acute cases repeat every 2 or 3 hours or oftener. In gonorrhoea,
Saliodin is a specific.

Peter Van Schaack & Sons, 138 Lake St., Chicago, Ill.  Depositary and
Distributers for Chicago and tributary district.

London Agents: Messrs. Thomas Christy & Company.

Send for samples and literature to the Saliodin Chemical Co., Scranton,
Pa., U. S. A.

Guaranteed under the Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906. No. 383.


As a Mouthwash
As a Gargle
For the Teeth
For Cuts
For Burns
For Wounds
For Boils
Or Mosquitoes
For Insects
For Bee Stings
For the Complexion
Prevents Pimples and Blotches
For the Bath--Relieves Skin Eruptions
For the Toilet--Destroys Body Odors
After Shaving gives instant relief to tender Skins
In all cases of emergency meeting anticipation at all times in a hundred
different ways.



Don't Forget To Try "Queen Bess" Perfume

One drop of "Queen Bess" has in it the fragrance of a garden in
bloom--delicate--subtile, clinging, haunting, and elusive--it does not
force itself upon the senses--it just seems as though it should be.

If you are particularly critical in your choice of perfumes, let us
convince you in the most forceful way possible that "Queen Bess" is what
you have been looking for and could not find.

That you may be able to see this matter of "perfumes" from our
standpoint, we will give you a free sample upon your presenting coupon
in the back of this book, at the store where you got it.


But note what that adjective means--"Good." The good things of this life
are none too many in number, and unfortunately we are forced in nearly
every instance to prove at our own expense the superiority or
inferiority of each article, or commodity--whether it be an investment,
a friend or a household necessity.

A true toilet water is not a luxury--it is an absolute necessity to
those who appreciate the highest form of health and appearance.

A true toilet water invigorates and adds to the general health of the
skin tissues.

A true toilet water relieves skin irritations--unreliable imitations
aggravate them. It is the imitation that is the most costly sort of

The Toilet Water de luxe is Baldwin's Vivian Violet. It is made of only
the best material, and in its composition--it is the triumph of the art
of distillation,

The odor of Vivian Violet Toilet Water is delicate though lasting and
delightful to the most refined taste.

Baldwin's products have a reputation of 40 years behind them. When
buying your Face Powder, Perfumes and Toilet Water insist on Baldwin's.

Guaranteed under the Food and Drug Act. June 30, 1906. Serial No. 29077.
The Baldwin Perfumery Co., Chicago
Perfume, 50c per oz.
Toilet Water, 4 oz. bot. 50c.
Face Powder. 50c box


The snow white odorless powder does not check perspiration.

Easy to use and its effect lasts for hours.

Takes all the odor out of perspiration without injurying the skin or the
clothing--a pure antiseptic powder.

Is highly recommended by physicians as the best antiseptic and deodorant
powder for destroying offensive odors of the body.

Its wonderful soothing qualities makes it indispensable in the home.
Relieves chafing, scalding, sunburn, windburn and nothing can equal it
after shaving. For bad smelly feet it has no rival.

from excessive perspiration, not by overpowering with another odor, but
by its own process of elimination, effects an entire absence of any odor

and is a necessity, positively indispensable on the toilet table of
every lady.

Use Drosis freely after the bath. Write us for a sample
THE DROSIS COMPANY, 44 Lewis Block, Buffalo, N. Y.

Reduce Your Weight By Bathing
Use Louisenbad Reduction Salt
(for The Bath)

Removes superfluous fat and gives a slender firm, stylish figure. Merely
use a little twice a week in warm water when taking a bath. No need of
taking drugs or starving yourself; no need of devoting hours to tiresome
exercise, or of wearing uncomfortable reducing garments. Louisenbad
Reduction Salt enters the pores in a natural way, prevents formation of
superfluous fat and reduces it where it exists by transforming the fat
into strength giving blood and muscle. It brings to your own tub the
salts such as are found in the reducing bath springs of
Europe--patronized by royalty, famous for centuries. Endorsed by the
Medical Profession. Praised by those who have used it.

Wash Away Your Fat

Reduce it by a refreshing, toning bath. Give Louisenbad Reduction Salt a
fair trial. Price $1 per package or 6 packages for $5. For sale at all
first class Drug Stores or sent in plain sealed wrapper, express prepaid
on receipt of price by

Karl Landshut,
127 Dickey Building   Chicago


Guaranteed under the Food and Drug Act. June 30, 1906. Serial No. 495.

This unrivaled remedy is the result of many years study and experience
in the special treatment of diseases of the lungs and throat, by Dr. J,
H. Guild, graduate of  New York Medical College and New York Chemical
Laboratory, a practitioner in Bellevue and New York Charity Hospital,
and a physician of recognized ability and distinguished eminence. This
article has been the standard remedy for Asthma for a quarter of a
century. It has found its way on its own merits to every civilized
country on the globe. The growing demand, its great popularity and
general use stamp it as absolutely the most successful and satisfactory
remedy that has ever been placed on the market. No other preparation has
met with such great and uniform success as a permanent cure of Acute or
Chronic Asthma, especially Spasmodic Asthma. Hay Fever, etc. Absolutely
harmless; can be used by the most delicate with perfect safety, whether
young or old, and never falls to give immediate relief and perfect
satisfaction. Thousands of testimonials from all over the world are
reciting the most marvelous cures. The remedy is handled by all leading
wholesale drug houses. Ask your drug house for it.

LARGE SIZE, $1.00.
SMALL SIZE, $0.25.
DR. J. H. GUILD; Rupert, Vt.

Positively Restores Gray or Faded Hair to Its Natural Color

Is not a Dye, but a Restorative.

Clear as water, absolutely harmless, odorless and clean. Contains no
Sulphur, Lead, or nothing of a sticky or greasy nature. Besides
restoring it to its natural shade, it renders it soft and fluffy. No
matter how long your hair has been gray, faded or bleached, Carmichael's
Gray Hair Restorer will bring it back to its original color.

$1.00 Per Bottle or 6 Bottles for $5.00 Money Back Guarantee


Makes the hair soft and fluffy, prevents the formation of dandruff and
the falling out of the hair. Invigorates the scalp and stimulates the
growth of the hair.

This Tonic when used in conjunction with Carmichael's Gray Hair Restorer
simply works in a marvelous manner, "not only removing dandruff and
stopping the falling out of the hair," but in some way the combination
of the two, gives the hair a most beautiful, glossy tint, which
everybody so much desires.

Price 50c a Bottle


Our purpose is to supply only the best and highest grade "Toilet
Preparations" that can be made. These articles possess not only useful,
but healthful properties, free from all deleterious and dangerous
substances, therefore, we can positively guarantee them.

Sorority Girl Massage Cream             25 and 50 cts.
Sorority Girl Skin Tonic                25 and 50 cts.
Sorority Girl Vanishing Cream           50 cts.
Sorority Girl Hygienic Bath Oil         50 cts.
Sorority Girl Beauty Powder             50 cts.
Sorority Girl Rouge (Paste and Liquid)  25 cts.
Sorority Girl Eye-Brow Pencils          10 cts.
Sorority Girl Toilet Water              50 cts. and $1.00
Sorority Girl Non-Alcoholic Perfume     75 cts.
Sorority Girl Perfume, per oz           $1.00

Beware of imitations and so-called "just as good" preparations. Insist
on having the genuine "Sorority Girl" articles.

R. A. CARMICHAEL & CO., Detroit, Michigan

Without Cost,
We will prove to you

That Young's Victoria Cream is a better cream for your complexion than
you have ever used before. That there is simply nothing like it for
keeping the skin in perfect condition. Being made from the sweetest
absorbable oils it is a perfect skin food. It is antiseptic and will
remove pimples and eruptions. As a bleaching cream for freckles, tan and
brown patches there is nothing equal to it. All we ask of you is to try

Please use the FREE COUPON given in another part of this book.

Young's Victoria Cream, Powder and Soap give the same good results that
you get in a beauty parlor. Hundreds of parlors are using these goods in
their work. Young's Victoria Cream, 25 and 50 cents per box; Powder, 35
cents per box; Soap, 15 cents per cake. Do try this splendid Cream at
our expense.

Frederick H. Young & Co.

Corn and Wart Cure
Clean and Easy
Not a plaster to slide all over your foot and make it sore
Not a greasy salve.
No rags.
Byrud's Instant Relief
Stops Pain and Promptly Cures
Sprains         Bruises          Toothache
Neuralgia       Sciatica         Pleurisy
Pains in back   Pains in chest   Swellings
Frost bites     Bronchitis       Chilblains
Croup           Cramps           Lumbago
Stiff Joints    Rheumatism       Tonsilits
Hoarseness      Sore throat      Boils
All Inflammations         Ulcerated Teeth

Byrud's Instant Relief is the safest and most powerful external Remedy
made. Byrud's Instant Relief is absorbed so readily an quickly that it
penetrates to the seat of pain and gives immediate relief. Instant
Relief does not contain any cocaine, morphine or other opiates.

Price 25 cents at all Druggists


Cure Any Cough That is Curable

Get from the drugstore, and mix together in a large bottle, 2 ounces of
glycerine, 8 ounces of pure whisky and 1/2 ounce of virgin oil of pine.
Shake well and take a teaspoonful every four hours. It will quickly heal
any irritation of the mucous surface in throat and bronchial organs.

This formula was used and recommended for many years by the late Dr. W.
A. Leach, who claimed it would break up a cold in twenty-four hours and
cure any curable cough. The well-known healing properties of pine, in
its action on the respiratory organs, are present in the genuine virgin
oil of pine. This, combined with its absolute freedom from opiates and
narcotic drugs of any description, makes it an invaluable remedy for the
family medicine chest.

In the case of young children, a drop of the pine on a little sugar
provides a pleasant, as well as effective remedy for coughs and colds.
Oil of pine is also frequently used in this way by preachers and public
speakers, to relieve hoarseness and other affections of the vocal
organs. Its effect is almost instantaneous. The genuine virgin oil of
pine is put up in half-ounce vials for dispensing through druggists and
prepared only in the laboratories of the Leach Chemical Co., Cincinnati,
O., who guarantee its freshness and purity.

Is Your Stomach Wrong?
Suffer with Constipation, Sluggish Liver,
Dyspepsia, Feel Bad All Over?

It Neutralizes the stomach, cleanses the Mucus Membranes, assimilates
the food you eat, thus giving you all the good there is in your meals,
regulating the bowels perfectly. For Dyspepsia, sour and distressed
stomach, do not take large doses but prepare every morning one full dose
by pouring boiling water over a heaping teaspoonful of the Mixture and
let it draw out the strength take of the Tea so prepared one-fourth of
this amount after each meal and at bed time. TRY IT. YOU WILL BE
LIVER and BOWEL DERANGEMENTS. Write us care DEPT. C. for special advice
to meet the requirements of your case. If not sold by your dealer send
us 35c for a large package, double the size of any 25c package. One
package contains more health and life giving principles than $5.00 worth
of any other remedy. The Genuine by
Hollister Drug Co., Madison, Wis.

Stomach and Liver Trouble

Quickly Cured

Mayr's Wonderful Stomach Remedy is a positive remedy for all Stomach,
Liver and Intestinal Trouble, Gastritis, Indigestion, Dyspepsia,
Pressure of Gas around the Heart, Sour Stomach, Distress After Eating,
Nervousness, Dizziness, Fainting Spells, Constipation, Congested and
Torpid Liver, Yellow Jaundice, Sick Headache and Gall Stones.

The above ailments are caused by the clogging of the intestinal tract
with mucoid and catarrhal accretions, backing up poisonous fluids into
the stomach, and otherwise deranging the digestive system. I want every
sufferer of these diseases to test this wonderful treatment. You are not
asked to take this treatment for a week or two before you will feel its
great benefits--only one dose is usually required. I say, emphatically,
it a positive, permanent remedy and I will prove it to you if you will
allow me to.

The most eminent specialists declare that 75 per cent of the people who
suffer from Stomach Trouble are suffering from Gall Stones. I firmly
believe that this remedy is the only one in the world that will cure
this disease. Sufferers of Stomach and Liver troubles and Gall Stones
should not hesitate a moment, but purchase this remedy at once. I would
be pleased to send you the names of people who state they have been
cured of various aliments and speaking the highest praise of this
medicine. Don't suffer with agonizing pains--don't permit a dangerous
surgical operation, which gives only temporary relief, when this
medicine will permanently help you.

You are not asked to take this treatment for a week or two before you
feel its great benefits. One dose is all that is necessary to prove its
wonderful powers to benefit.

Absolutely harmless. Guaranteed by the Pure Food and Drug Act. Serial
No. 25793.

GEO. H. MAYR, Mfg. Chemist
Mayr Bldg, 154-156 Whiting Street
For Sale and Recommended by Central Drug Stores and Others,
Price $1.00 a Bottle.
Worth $100.00.

Crown Headache Powders

A Quick Relief and a Reliable Remedy for Sick Headache, Neuralgia and
Nervous Affections, Headache Caused by Over-eating, or Drinking, Sudden
Change, or Exposure, Overwork or Fatigue. An Excellent Remedy for a Bad
Cold or LaGrippe.

DIRECTIONS:--Place one powder dry on the tongue and swallow with a
draught of water, or, if convenient, with warm tea or any other warm
drink. Repeat in twenty minutes if necessary. For children in proportion
to age.

For a Cold or LaGrippe take one powder with three grains of quinine and
a warm drink at bed-time.

Trade Mark registered and guaranteed by The F. A. Weck Company under the
Food and Drugs Act, June 30, 1906. Serial No. 3101.

These powders contain no Morphine, Opium, Anti-pyrine or chloral.

Price 10 cents a package of 4 powders; or 25 cents a box of 12 powders.

If you are unable to obtain them from your druggist send us the price in
stamps and we will forward them to you by return mail.

Manufacturing Pharmacists
5210 Shattuck Ave.,   BERKELEY, CAL.

And no one need know that you were ever troubled with superfluous hair

You will find
not only a painless, inexpensive depilatory, but a harmless one as well.
Used successfully for 15 years.

Don't Experiment With Dangerous Depilatories

Any druggist will tell you that the market is now being flooded with
preparations loudly claiming to permanently remove superfluous hair

Such depilatories often do more harm than good, leaving behind tiny
scars or blemishes, or a tell-tale redness on the skin--ofttimes even
injuring the delicate texture.

Isn't it better and safer to buy a preparation like MANDO that has been
successfully used by thousands of women during the past 15 years. A
depilatory of established reputation among druggists and department

Simply go to any of the Central Drug Co.'s stores and ask for convincing
proof of Mando's power.

A generous sample will be given free.

Mando leaves no scars, blemishes or red marks on the most delicate skin.

If you would rather write us confidentially do so.

Josephine LeFevre Co., Phila.

Worth Its Weight In Gold
But It Only Costs a Quarter
is a boon and a blessing for all Cuts, Burns, Bruises, Sunburns and

It should always be on hand for emergencies. This wonderful curative
Salve is a specific for Kidney Disease, Pleurisy, Bronchitis, Piles,
Sore Back and Neuralgia.

Its effect is immediate and soothing. Comes in compact form, sealed in
foil, and always retains its strength.

Full directions in each package.
Price 25c---at your druggist

Noblesse Toilet Preparations
The Highest Possible Standard of Purity

Guaranteed by Noblesse Laboratories under the Pure Food and Drugs Act of
June 30, 1906 Serial No. 21811

Skin Food & Form Builder
Feeds the tissue, strengthens the muscles and obliterates wrinkles.
Price 50c

Natural Blush Rouge
Gives a natural tint to pale cheeks and Lips. Price 25c

Natural Blush Rouge Liquid
Gives natural tint to pale cheeks and lips. Price 25c

Noblesse Cleansing Cream
A substitute for soap and water, keeps the skin smooth, clear and
healthy. Price 50c

Noblesse Cream Bouquet
is the best Greaseless, Antiseptic, Liquid Face Cream obtainable; it is
excellent in cases of Sunburn Tan, Chafed and Chapped Skin. Also used by
Gentlemen of discretion after shaving. Price 25c

Noblesse Finger Nail Powder
Gives a brilliant and lasting polish and preserves the nail. Price 25c

Noblesse Tooth Powder
For cleansing and preserving the teeth, and purifying the breath.  Price

Noblesse Depilatory Powder
Removes superfluous hair without pain or injury. Price $1.00

Noblesse Delightful Face Powder
Is chemically pure and keeps the skin as smooth as satin. Three
shades--Naturelle, Brunette and White. Price 50c

Skin Whitener and Flush Worm Eradicator
Cleanses the pores of black-heads, pimples, freckles and moth patches
and bleaches the skin. Price 50c

For Sale and Recommended by
Central Drug Co., Detroit & Chicago
Congress Drug Co., Chicago
Ashland Drug Co., Chicago
Independent Drug Co., Chicago.
Auditorium Pharmacy Co., Chicago
Standard Drug Co., Cleveland

Crane's Celebrated Lotion
For the Hair and Head. Removes Dandruff and Scurf.

Prevents the Hair from falling out. Promotes its growth and Cures Scale
50c and 75c PER BOTTLE

It is not a dye, will not discolor the hair. Made in Newark for the last
61 years. Use no other. Send us 10c for sample free.

RAY S. G. MFG. CO.  Manufacturers
44 Wakeman Ave.  Newark, N. J.

Manufacturing Chemists
A full line of Medicinal, Photographic and Technical Chemicals.
Call for A. C. Co. Brand.

Bryans' Great Asthma Remedy

A faithful trial will convince anyone of the true merit and worth of
Bryans' Asthma Remedy, Professor P. J. De Lara, of Detroit, Mich., says:

"I cannot speak too highly of Bryans' Asthma Remedy; which has been so
beneficial to me. For over thirty years I have suffered with Asthma and
have spent thousands of dollars for medicines from the best specialists
in Europe and America without any relief, and up to three months ago I
lost hope in any kind of treatment; some reputable doctors told me I
never could be cured. I then heard of Bryans' Asthma Remedy and took on
myself to try it. The result astonished me. After using nine or ten
boxes the disease abated and by degrees left me, and I am glad to say
that I have no more of those severe spasmodic attacks and consider
myself permanently cured."

Bryans' Asthma Remedy, 10, 25 & 50 cent Metal Boxes. Made only by

Bryans' Drug House, Rochester, N. Y.

Established 1879
Distillers, Importers
Telephone Main 2892 and Automatic 8892
203-205 East Madison Street,   CHICAGO

Cleanses without wearing, Polishes without scratching.

And Keeps the Mouth always in Perfect Condition.

See coupon in the back part of this book, tear it out and get a free
sample. It will be worth the trouble. Also ask to see other Riker
Requisites for the Toilet. They will interest you.

Yokohama   New York
Importers and Manufacturers
Orange Blossom
Cherry Blossom
Flowery Kingdom
Ask your dealer for a sample of Samurai Greaseless Massage Cream and
Corylopsis Talcum, or write us. Dept. C.
Save Money by buying our 1 lb. size can Corylopsis Talcum.


By means of THE "J. B. L. CASCADE"

Have you read of the wonderful cures made by the Internal Bath? Do you
know that it goes to the root of all disease and eradicates the cause?
Do you know that many of the greatest physicians in the world endorse
and prescribe this treatment, and also that among its patrons are some
of the most distinguished people in all parts of the world, as well as
hosts of others from whom we have grateful letters, which we should be
pleased to furnish to those interested upon application?

Do you know that an occasional Internal Bath is a better preventive of
illness and preserver of health than any other single means? Do you know
that it makes beautiful complexions? Do you know it cures constipation
and prevents and cures appendicitis? The record of its benefits reads
like a revelation to those hitherto unacquainted with it.

It is used by means of the "J.B.L. Cascade"--the only scientific
appliance for this purpose--by hundreds of the best known people in all
parts of the world, by innumerable ministers, lawyers, and those persons
whose intelligence gives unequivocal weight to their testimony.

It is known that seven-tenths of all disease arises from the retention
of foreign matter in the human system, also that the greater part of
this waste is held in the colon, which is nature's sewer, hence the
flushing of this sewer removes the greatest cause of disease. While
immeasurably the best treatment for constipation, indigestion, etc.,
there is scarcely any known disease for which the "J.B.L. Cascade" may
not be confidently prescribed.

This hygienic, drugless treatment saves hundreds of dollars yearly in
doctors' and druggists' bills. We want to send to every reader of this
publication, sick or well, a simple statement setting forth this
treatment. It contains matter which must interest every thinking person.
Write for our pamphlet. "The What, The Why, The Way," which will we sent
free on application.

Dept. 160 B.,  134 W. 65th St., New York City,. U. S. A.

"The Old Reliable"
Planten's  (Trade Mark)
C&C or Black Capsules

Rheumatism & Gout
SAFE & EFFECTIVE,  50c & $1

New York
Since 1847
Best Perfumes Made
SOLON PALMER, Perfumer, New York
Central Drug Company; Detroit and Chicago
Independent Drug Company; Chicago
Auditorium Pharmacy Company; Chicago
Congress Drug Company; Chicago
Ashland Drug Company; Chicago
Standard Drug Company; Cleveland

Transparent Tooth Brushes
Exchanged If Bristles Come Out
As clear and lustrous as crystal glass--Each bunch of bristle, fastened
with an expanding anchor, cannot loosen. Made in a variety of patterns.
For Sale at All Toilet Counters
Sole Agents for the United States and Canada
29-31 East 22nd St.
Success Magazine Bldg.


Hundreds of rubber fingers massage impurities out. Water flowing through
washes impurities away.

Knickerbocker Spraybrush

"Purifies Pores"

Combines shower-shampoo-massage.

You won't bathe in water full of body impurities after using a
Knickerbocker Spraybrush

Slips over any faucet. Bathes you in fresh flowing water--any
temperature desired--without waiting for tub to fill.

Gives shower--needle spray--and frictional bath. Saves time, labor and
water. Absolutely sanitary and self-cleaning.

Ideal for scalp massage and shampoo for men and women. No home should be
without one. Absolutely guaranteed for one year.

Prices, $3.00 to $5.00 according to size and style.
Mail Orders promptly attended to.

The Housekeeper that wants to keep the pans and other kitchen articles
bright and clean, the bath room, tile floors, painted walls and
woodwork, and then take all the stains from the hands,

Skidoo Soap
A Creamy Paste, in sanitary cans for only 10c.
Sold everywhere.
Made only by
Columbus, Ohio

Dyspepsia Cured Free The Grover Graham Dyspepsia Remedy is sold under a
positive guarantee that it will cure dyspepsia, heartburn, gastritis or
any form of stomach disorder, no matter how chronic or severe. Let us
send you the names and addresses of thousands who have been cured by our
preparation, when all else had failed. The very first dose removes all
distress, tones the weak stomach, prevents fermentation and restores
digestion. When digestion ceases a slow form of starvation begins, and
the vital organs, deprived of their substance, become debilitated. Good
digestion is essential to health; proper assimilation of nourishment
means pure rich blood, strong nerves, sound sleep and makes life worth
living. The most chronic cases of Stomach Disorder are immediately
corrected by our remedy. The Grover Graham Dyspepsia Remedy is prepared
from the McDermott formula, the greatest European Specialist. It is sold
under a guarantee to cure. Instant relief insured. In evidence of good
faith we will send, absolutely free of charge to any dyspeptic who has
not already used our remedy, sufficient of our preparation to
demonstrate its truly wonderful and remarkable properties, Write Grover
Graham Co., Newburgh, N. Y., for full particulars, or purchase a trial
size bottle at the store where you procured "Things Worth Knowing."

We are headquarters for sponges of every variety. Our buyer makes sponge
buying a specialty and the selections are most carefully made so that
our reputation for carrying the finest and largest assortment in this
market is well known.

Try Our 40 and 60 B:

Genuine Mediterranean Bath Sponges--Bleached

These goods, though not perfect shapes, are as strong and durable and
just as fine quality as the most expensive grades.


Half the Cost of Imported

Absence of duty reduces its cost 50 per cent.

Of the six American Champagnes exhibited, Great Western was the only one
awarded the gold medal at Paris exposition, 1900.

Your grocer or dealer can supply you

Sold everywhere
Pleasant Valley Wine Co.
Rheims, N. Y.
Oldest and Largest Champagne House in America

If you are sick or run down, or feel the need of a stimulant, it will
pay you to exercise care when making your selection. You need something
that is both a food and a tonic. What could be better than a Pure Wine?

For seventy-eight years Irondequoit Port has been sought for this
purpose. It is pure, nourishing and distinctive in BODY and FLAVOR, due
to a special grape--the Oporto--of which it is made and of which we are
exclusive growers.

Irondequoit Wine Company
Rochester, N. Y.


Is a perfect food for Consumptives, Invalids and Convalescents, retained
by the most delicate stomach. Avoid all imitations.

G. H. ADAMICK, Manager
Phone, Main 3506   Fifth Ave. and Madison St., Chicago.
To Be Had Where You Got This Book

Pack Chemical Co. Inc.    Waukegan Ill.
A pleasant odored powder
Sold on its merits. You will be a booster if you try it.
YOUR Druggist has IT.
Pack Chemical Co., Inc.
Chicago and Waukegan, Illinois
Our Goods Guaranteed by Us Under the Food and Drugs Act of June 30,1906
Serial Number 27905.


If Mother Nature has failed to do her duty by you it's quite easy to
take matters into your own hands

Empress Instantaneous Hair Color Restorer.

Will change your faded or gray hair to any shade desired. No after
washing. Just one single application with the Empress, that's all. Fully
guaranteed under the Pure Food and Drug Act.

10 different shades.

Empress Shampoo Soap

A combination of best vegetable oils, cochin and coconut oil, makes best
shampoo imaginable. Is the most thorough scalp cleaner, relieves scalp
irritation and leaves hair bright, soft, fluffy and easy to make up.


Are simply what the name implies; "SOFT SPOTS" of light new air-pumping,
pneumatic rubber, attached to a shapely leather innersole scientifically
made to conform to all pressure of the foot.

The hermetically sealed globules are air chambers and act as pneumatic
cushions to the entire body, taking up the jar when walking, the weight
of the body when standing, giving infinite relief to the entire Nervous

Worn inside the shoe--leather side up.
Positively Prevent and Cure

If your dealer cannot supply you, we will on receipt of price and size
of shoe. Arch Cushions $1.00 Per Pair

Heel Cushions 25c Per Pair

20 Mule-Team Borax in Packages

Nature's Great Cleansing Agent--Destroys the Dirt and
by not attacking the fabric or its colors, and is therefore economical.
Not to be confounded with washing powders or so-called "Borax Powders"
most of which contain no Borax, but are heavily adulterated with soda, a
strong alkali which rots, ruins and shrinks the clothes.

Don't fail to ask your dealer for our valuable booklet

The Magic Crystal

You will appreciate the delightful flavors and high quality of
Blue Ribbon Gum
Licorice   Cinnamon
Pepsin     Spearmint
Mint       Blood Orange
Made By
903 Wrightwood Ave., CHICAGO


An ointment containing Mustard, Menthol and other curative remedies
which act quickly and powerfully,

FOR Coughs, Colds in Chest, Pneumonia, Asthma, Bronchitis, Croup,

FOR Rheumatism, Pleurisy, Headache, Neuralgia, Chilblains, Sore Muscles,
Stiff Joints, Lame Back.

Wherever there is inflammation, pain or congestion.

Better than a Mustard plaster. Will Not Blister.

25c and 50c a Jar at all Druggists
THE MUSTEROLE CO., Cleveland, Ohio

A Natural Remedy from Natures Healing Pine.

Heals all kinds of sores, wounds and cuts. Relieves Pain--Toothache,
Neuralgia, Rheumatism. A splendid remedy for colds, sore throat, and
Bronchial Affections.

Astyptodyne Healing Oil, Astyptodyne Cough Remedy, Astyptodyne "Tro-Ke,"

Astyptodyne Croup and Pneumonia Salve.
These and others, are prepared by
Astyptodyne Chemical Company WILMINGTON, N. C.

Booklet mailed on application

A Noted Physician of Much Learning Worked Twelve Years to Get the
Formula just right. To relieve pain, he knew he must reach the cause.

Orangeine does this, better than strong drugs.

Each dose is a five grain powder, combining seven well known remedies in
perfect balance, to relieve HEADACHE, NEURALGIA, COLDS, GRIP, FATIGUE. A
remedy for general household use. Full formula on every package. This
store has supplied Orangeine Powders for years, with excellent results.

The Two Creams Every Woman Needs

Greaseless Cream
A superb toilet cream of delicate fragrance made from the purest
ingredients. Imparts the velvety softness so much desired by the
well-groomed woman of today. Indispensable to motorists, golfers and
bathers. Protects against the sun and wind. Apply before going outdoors
and massage until it vanishes.

Cleansing Cream
will positively remove all impurities. Will impart a fresh complexion to
all women striving to retain a fair skin. Plexo Cleansing Cream is
absolutely pure and wholesome having no irritating qualities. Exposure
usually plays havoc with a delicate complexion, but the application of
Plexo Cleansing Cream will keep a most sensitive skin in excellent

Try these two creams. They are exactly what you need for keeping your
skin smooth, soft and clear.


the Best Cough and Cold Medicine.
46 Years on the Market.
A copy of Piso's Nursery Rhymes will be mailed free to any applicant.
Address. THE PISO COMPANY. Warren. Pa.

Has been the leading remedy for Whooping Cough, Croup, Coughs, Colds,
Asthma and all Throat and Lung Diseases.

It is the best and cheapest Cough Remedy in the world and will break up
a Cough quicker than anything else. Try it.

with Glycerine, for Chapped Hands and Face, Sore Lips, Cold Sores,
Sunburn, Chilblains, Etc.

Hegeman's Camphor Ice is the original and oldest preparation of the kind
in the world. All others are simply imitations.

New Haven, Connecticut.


THE Daisy Fly Killer is a tightly sealed ornamental metal box provided
with five holes, into which are secured felt wicks, and contains a fly
killing material. When filled with water and the cork replaced, and is
thoroughly shaken (keeping it level), the fly-killing material inside
mixes with the water and is absorbed through the wicks, which become
moist and sweet from the inside contents, the flies being attracted by
the moisture and sweetness in the wicks, get a taste of it and will soon
die, The fly-killing material inside is sufficient to last through the
season, for when the water evaporates there is enough of the fly-killing
material inside to stand many fillings with water and prove effectual as
a fly-killer. After several fillings, it is better to sweeten the water
with a teaspoonful of sugar before putting it in the Daisy.

Daisy Fly Killer placed anywhere attracts and kills all flies. Neat,
clean, ornamental, convenient, cheap. Lasts all season. Made of metal,
cannot spill or tip over, will not spoil or injure anything.

150 De Kalb Ave.
Brooklyn, New York

1/4 The Quantity Required by Others
Absolutely harmless as it contains almost exclusively Sulphate of Soda.
No Gripes
No Pains
Can be taken indefinitely as a laxative without ill effects.
Invaluable in long standing cases of stubborn constipation:
35 South William Street

Are You Sore?
Sore Head, Sore Nose, Sore Throat?
Sore Lips, Sore Face, Sore Chest?
Sore Muscles, Sore Back, Neuralgia?
Catarrh, Fever Blisters?
Sore Joints, Sore Feet?
Frost Bites, Soft Corns?
Burns, Cuts, Sprains, Bruises?
Swellings and Inflammations?
Use Paracamph
First Aid To The Injured
It Cools. It Soothes. It Cures.
Unequaled for use after Shaving.
Satisfaction guaranteed or money refunded.
25c, 50c, and $1.00 Bottles. All Druggists.

Hair on the Face
Arms or Neck
can be easily removed--quickly and without pain or irritating the skin.
does the work best of all hair removers. For sale at all Drug Stores.

Sold at Your Druggists
10c, 25c 50c and $1.00
For Headache, Neuralgia,
Sweetens the Stomach
Braces the Nerves
Clears the Brain
Pleasant as Cream Soda
Century Chemical Co.
Address Dept. T. W. K. 1911
"The proof of the pudding is in the eating."
And we want you to test CELERY-VESCE for yourself.
So when sending your own address, if you will send the addresses of a
dozen friends who suffer of HEADACHES or BAD STOMACHS we will send you
by mail a quarter package of CELERY-VESCE free of charge.


Cirage Francais
French Dressing
Ladies and Children's
Boots & Shoes
Trunks, Harness, Carriage Tops, &c.
Manufactured by
B. F. Brown
Boston, Mass.

For the Cure of

Many who have tried for five and ten years, and have spent hundreds of
dollars for a cure without effect, have had the most pleasing results in
a short time from the use of ALETA. Hard crusts and scales, as well as
the most simple cases of dandruff, yield to the applications of this
remedy. Itching scalps and eczematic troubles are effectually treated.
One of our most prominent physicians made this remark: "IT IS THE FIRST

ALETA is applied but once a week. It is as clean as water upon the head;
it contains no oils or other substance to gum the hair or to make it

Hair grows faster and looks better when the scalp is clean and healthy,
and there is no remedy which brings these good conditions so readily and
perfectly, as the ALETA


King of Externals

PRESCRIBED by ethical physicians and recommended by druggists as being
the best preparation on the market for all kinds of Inflammation and
Congestion. Pneumonia, Croup, Colds, Pleurisy and any and all ailments
where Inflammation appears GOWANS subdues and conquers it. Gowans is
absorbant and antiseptic--it acts quickly and with a bottle of Gowans
Preparation in the home you feel absolutely secure. In the Fall, in the
Winter, in the Spring, you know that Croup and Pneumonia come, they must
be combated at once and with a bottle of Gowans Preparation you are
master of the situation. Buy today!

Could Not Say Half Enough.
Anything we might say would not be half enough in behalf of the
wonderful results our patrons have derived from the use of Gowans
Preparation. The proof of its efficacy being in the greatly increased
sales, starting by buying a quarter of a dozen the demand has been so
great we now purchase the hundred dollar quantity several times a year.
July 16,1910.   Richmond, Va.

An Excellent Remedy
Claremont, N. C.
Durham. N. C.
Gentlemen:--l have used Gowans Preparation in pneumonia and find it an
excellent remedy--it acts promptly and surely. I recommend its use in
cases of inflammation of any kind.
D. M. MOSER, M. D.

All Druggists--$l, 50c., 25c.  Take no substitute; there is nothing just
as good. Beware of imitations. Buy Gowans.

GOWAN MEDICAL CO., Durham, N. C.  Chicago, ILL.


JETUM dyes straw hats, all kinds of wood, metal and leather goods.

cleans white straw hats.

JETUM in Black, Blue, Brown, Green, Red and Gray, will dye your old or
rusty hat, and make it look like new.

JETUM Black will dye tan and white kid shoes, pocket books, belts and
all leather goods. Also anything in wood or metal, such as picture
frames, furniture of all kinds, brass or iron fixtures; in fact anything
you want black USE JETUM.

A Child Can Do It.


You'll try It won't You?

Allen's Cough Balsam
for hoarseness, coughs and throat Irritations
Coughs and Colds

A trifling, seemingly insignificant cough, if neglected, works down the
throat to the bronchial tubes and finally to the lungs, and unless
checked, may result seriously. At the first sign of a cough take Allen's
Cough Balsam.

Barking, backing, rasping, and irritating the throat are the constant
accompaniments of this disease. Don't delay a minute when you have this
ailment. A few doses of Allen's Cough Balsam will usually bring relief
and frequently break it up.

Sore Throat, Quinsy, Tonsilitis
These troubles are confined to the throat and breathing tubes, and
should be cured at once, or more serious ailments develop, Allen's Cough
Balsam is prepared for just such cases and has been used for over 50

Its good effects can be noticed at once.

Contains no opium in any form. Perfectly harmless.

Painkiller is transported to all corners of the earth because nothing as
good can be found to relieve Cramps, Colic, Diarrhoea and similar bowel
complaints; also it quickly reduces the swelling caused by bruises and
promptly drives the pain away. Saves much suffering and many a doctor's

R. H, Moore, Franklin, Ky., writes:
I have been selling PERRY DAVIS PAINKILLER for 37 years and have often
wondered at the steady sale with so little advertising for same. This I
consider is strong evidence that the remedy has merit, and in fact I
feel assured that I sell but few remedies that would stand this test.

OF ALL DEALERS IN MEDICINE 25c, 35c, and 50c Bottles


Most widely known and endorsed by eminent Specialists--


  Guaranteed under the Food and Drug Act, June 30, 1906.   Serial No. l5055.

It is a natural spring water, bottled at the springs under directions of
a competent bacteriologist. Corrects all disorders of the Kidneys and
Bladder. Eliminates any excess of Uric Acid in the system. Especially
effective in the treatment of Bright's Disease, Albuminuria, Gout,
Rheumatism, Pyelitis, Cystitis, Gravel, etc.

Sold by leading druggists and mineral water dealers everywhere.

Buffalo Lithia Springs, Va.

Turn the Gray Hair Back
Bring the Lost Hair Back

the ideal hair preparation, restores gray hair to its natural color, by
giving health and activity to the glands which supply the coloring
pigment from the blood to the hair.

It brings back lost hair by giving life and vigor to the torpid or
paralyzed scalp nerves.

It is not a dye, does not stain the skin or scalp.
One bottle will prove its worth. Sold by all druggists.

Price, $1.00


Rex Bitters
for Constipation



Grease, Grime, Pitch, Tar, Paint
A Household Necessary
10c  25c  50c

Guaranteed by the Manufacturer under the
Food and Drugs Act. Serial No. 1177
Physicians Prescription
Womans Greatest Remedy

[Illustration text:
Femaform Cones
Germicide, Antiseptic, Astringent Cones
Non Irritating, Soothing, Healing Cones
Femaform Cones
Always Reliable
Trade Mark
Lauber and Lauber Co,
Chicago, Ill USA
Preventive Of Disease]

Non-irritating Germicide Antiseptic and Astringent Cones most useful
remedy for all forms of womb complaints. Sold only in boxes, $1.00 per
box at drug stores or direct from the manufacturers by mail.

Made by
Chicago, Ill., U. S. A.

Anyone Can Enjoy This Delightful Turkish Bath At Home--Cost 2 cents

Surface Bathing Is Insufficient---The Turkish Bath Is The Only Effective
Method Of Purifying The Pores---The "Robinson" Makes All Simple,
Delightful and Economical.

Here's the rejuvenation cabinet for every home. Here's the producer and
preserver of clear, clean skin, good spirits, great physical exuberance
that puts a sharper edge on the enjoyment of living. The "Robinson"
Thermal Bath Cabinet is wonderfully simple. A bath in it costs only 2
cents and takes only 15 minutes. How much better this is than having to
go to some hotel or public Turkish Baths and pay out a lot of money for
something not a whit better and not one-tenth as convenient. Have it in
your own home and use it every time you feel like it. It will keep you
from going "stale". It will make you bright and care free. The great
physical luxury it affords will be a constant delight to you. Read below
how you can get our great $2.00 book free. It tells everything.

Look Out For Substitutes--Make Sure You Get The "Robinson."--It's The
Original Thermal Bath Cabinet

It is made under the direction of Prof. Charles M. Robinson, the
originator of thermal bath cabinets. It is the one having the four
curtain top enabling you to heat up the cabinet before entering and to
use the cabinet as a cooling room before leaving by dropping the
curtains one at a time.

[Transcriber's note: The two remaining paragraphs are missing.]

You can depend on
because it is the best Malt Extract on the market, only the choicest
materials being used in its manufacture, making a highly concentrated
liquid food.

Physicians recommend Digesto because of its remedial value to the
convalescent, tired housewife, anaemic women and people in a general
rundown condition. Digesto builds wasted tissues, makes rich, red blood
and aids digestion. For the nursing mother it is nigh indispensable as
an aid to Nature in supplying food for two.

[Transcriber's note: The remaining text on this page is missing.]

Helen Marlowe's "Blush of Roses"

Helen Marlowe's "Blush of Roses" is a scientifically prepared liquid
rouge so perfectly natural in effect, that its use defies detection on
the closest scrutiny. It is easily applied; a delicate tint is obtained
by one light application; a deeper tint by more than one. Unlike the
majority of rouges now before the public it does not give that blotched
appearance to the face.

"Blush of Roses" is an absolutely water-proof rouge. Surf bathing will
not remove it. It remains a soft beautiful pink until it is washed off
with pure soap and water. "Blush of Roses" is not removed by
perspiration. "Blush of Roses" is guaranteed to be perfectly harmless.

"Blush of Roses" is used and highly recommended by the most refined
ladies in private and public life. Price 50 cents. Prepared only by

HELEN MARLOWE CO., Cincinnati, Ohio
Sold by the Central Drug Co.
Independent Drug Co.
Auditorium Pharmacy Co.,
Ashland Drug Co.,
Congress Drug Co., of Chicago, III.
All stores of Central Drug Co., Detroit, Mich.,
and Standard Drug Co., Cleveland, Ohio


A scientifically Prepared Remedy (For Disturbances of the Menstrual
Functions) Sold Only Through the Medical and Drug Profession; for
Medical Purposes Only.


Dr. Martel's Female Pills is a preparation of unequaled excellence,
which acts as a positive tonic on the female reproductive organs, and
imparts to them the proper functional action nature demands in normal,
healthy women, without untoward action. Dr. Martel's Female Pills
possess only virtues of the highest possible value. It re-establishes
the proper action of the generative organs by restoring their vitality,
and not by merely stimulating them excessively (and temporarily), as do
so many other agents of this class.

In the treatment of all disturbances of the menstrual functions arising
from debility, anemia or nervousness, Dr. Martel's Female Pills are of
unsurpassed value. This preparation is a uterine and ovarian sedative,
and is of special service in treating congestive and inflammatory
conditions of these organs which are accompanied with unusual pain.

Amenorrhea.--When the menstrual flow is scanty or suppressed, as a
result of sudden exposure to cold, worry, fright, grief or other violent
mental shocks.

Menorrhagia.--Profuse menstruation is at once relieved by Dr. Martel's
Pills. The preparation instantly restores vigor to the uterus which has
been lost through the excessive flow of blood. It is advisable to begin
the use of the preparation a few days in advance of the flow in those
cases which are disposed to menstruate profusely at each visitation.

Menopause.--The nervous and mental disturbances which frequently precede
and succeed the final cessation of ovulation and menstruation respond
readily to the anti-spasmodic and tranquilizing action of Dr. Martel's
Pills. Where hysteria, melancholia, moroseness and despondency are
conspicuous factors, the preparation can be used to great advantage. The
improvement in the mental state of the patient after the administration
of this product is always durable and pronounced.

Dysmenorrhea.--In the treatment of congestive, neuralgic, mechanical or
membranous types of dysmenorrhea, the action of Dr. Martel's Pills is
particularly gratifying.


It is a well known, and scientifically proven fact, that all women are
not constitutionally or temperamentally alike. Where some respond
readily to one mode of treatment others do not. For this reason we have
prepared a preparation designed for such instances. This remedy is Dr.
Martel's Special Female Pills. $5.00 Box.


Nervous? Suffer From Indigestion, Irregular Kidneys, Bowel Trouble,
Appendicitis, Gall Stones--Here Is Relief

When your head aches; when your breath is bad; when your bowels or
kidneys are irregular; when your appetite fails or the twinges of
indigestion make you regret each meal; when your nervous system has gone
to pieces--then is your stomach sending its wireless message for help.

The trouble may be in the stomach itself--indigestion--dyspepsia, and
their nightmare evils.

The intestinal tract may be deranged or the liver clogged, or it may be
gall stones. Your case may not have reached the gall stone stage. It may
be of a different nature--threatened appendicitis, for example. In any
case, whether it be bad stomach, torpid liver or weakened and inflamed
bowels--the answer to that wireless should be Fruitola and Traxo.

These are two remarkable preparations used in combination, which for the
past 20 years and more have released thousands from the pangs of
dyspepsia and have saved as many from operations for gall stones and

Fruitola cleanses, lubricates and soothes all the channels of the
digestive system, without the least pain, griping or resulting weakness.
It is nutritive in effect. It revives the appetite, clears the way for
perfect digestion and thorough assimilation, allows Nature to make pure
blood, firm flesh, strong muscles, healthy tissue and store up vital
energy. A whole bottle of Fruitola is to be taken at once; this to be
followed by small doses of Traxo to complete the strengthening and
toning effect on the stomach, to insure regular, natural action of
bowels and kidneys and to give permanence to all the benefits of the
treatment. The gentle action of Traxo on the kidneys removes waste and
by keeping the liver active it frees the general circulation of bile--it
clears the eye and complexion and brings the glow of health to the

Pinus, the great rheumatism remedy, has saved thousands of sufferers
after long years of agonizing attacks. Joints swollen and misshapen by
Inflammatory Rheumatism, nerves and muscles overpowered by the intense
misery of Chronic Rheumatism and Sciatica have been restored to health
and strength--pain and swelling banished by the marvelous properties of
Pinus, a product of California's wonderful soil and sun.

Fruitola, Traxo and Pinus are guaranteed under the Pure Food and Drugs
Act. They are entirely vegetable and there is not a single ingredient
that can harm the most sensitive system when taken as directed. They are
made from the natural products of California, the land of health and

Stop your suffering and suspense at once. Get the most wonderful
remedies from your druggist today. If he doesn't have them he can get
them for you promptly. Every wholesale druggist keeps them. Get our
booklet anyway and read the living testimony. If not at your druggist's,
write us.

PINUS MEDICINE CO.,  Los Angeles. Cal.

C-A-V-E-C-K   T-A-B-L-E-T-S

A Reducing Tonic
Successful, Harmless and Positive
When Directions are Followed.

The Way To Do.

There are just three ways of reducing fat: starvation, exercise and
medical treatment. Anyone can reduce by starvation methods. Let him eat
nothing for three weeks and the fat will drop from his bones, but the
after effects are bad. Debilitated looking wrinkles. Use Gaveck Tablets,
eat most anything.

by not taking on flesh. That makes one look old and flabby. Gaveck
Tablets are harmless, a reducing tonic to the system. Give them a fair
trial. Beware of imitations.

Gaveck Company   Chicago
4611 Kenmore Ave.
Price $1.00

Coupon for Free Samples
Present this coupon at any drug store named on the back hereof and receive
absolutely free a sample cake of
one of a great many varieties of Stiefel's Medicinal Soaps which have for more than a
quarter of a century been the stand-by of physicians everywhere.
City ______________________ State___________
Address ___________________________

Free Coupon
This Coupon is worth 25 cents.
When signed will entitle the holder to one trial box of Young's Victoria
Cream at any drug store named on the back.
The coupon and 25 cents in cash for one large box of Cream or the coupon
and 10 cents for a box of Victoria Powder.
Name ______________________________

[Transcriber's note: These addresses are on the back of the two coupons
on the previous page.]

The Central Drug Company,  32 North State Street, Chicago

Independent Drug Company, 203 State Street, Chicago

Auditorium Pharmacy Company, 320 Wabash Avenue, Chicago

Ashland Drug Company, Clark and Randolph Streets, Chicago

Congress Drug Company, Wabash Ave. and Van Buren St., Chicago

The Central Drug Company, 219 Woodward Avenue, Detroit

The Central Drug Company, 89 Woodward Avenue, Detroit

The Central Drug Company, 153 Grand River Avenue, Detroit

The Standard Drug Co., (10 Stores),  Cleveland

The Central Drug Company, 32 North State Street, Chicago

Independent Drug Company, 203 State Street, Chicago

Auditorium Pharmacy Company, 320 Wabash Avenue   Chicago

Ashland Drug Company, Clark and Randolph Streets, Chicago

Congress Drug Company, Wabash Ave. and Van Buren Street, Chicago

The Central Drug Company, 219 Woodward Avenue, Detroit

The Central Drug Company, 89 Woodward Avenue, Detroit

The Central Drug Company, 153 Grand River Avenue, Detroit

The Standard Drug Co., (10 Stores),  Cleveland


A luxurious toilet necessity--producing a smooth, velvety complexion.
Its impalpable fineness and softness makes Pozzoni's cooling, refreshing
and beautifying to the most delicate skin.

A. The only powder put up in a wooden box which retains all the delicate
perfume and medication until entirely used up.
B. Perfumed with genuine Tyroline Rose Geranium
C. On the market since 1874.
D. A powder whose flesh color is an exact imitation of the skin
E. The only powder which really clings and won't rub off.
F. Our "special pink." A powder that is not a rouge.

End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of The Handy Cyclopedia of Things Worth
Knowing, by Joseph Triemens


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