The Project Gutenberg eBook of Latin for Beginners, by Benjamin Leonard D’Ooge
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and most other parts of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org. If you are not located in the United States, you will have to check the laws of the country where you are located before using this eBook.
Title: Latin for Beginners
Author: Benjamin Leonard D’Ooge
Release Date: April 25, 2006 [eBook #18251]
[Most recently updated: June 12, 2022]
Language: English
Character set encoding: UTF-8
Produced by: Louise Hope, Dave Maddock and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team
*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK LATIN FOR BEGINNERS ***

LATIN FOR BEGINNERS

BY

BENJAMIN L. D’OOGE, Ph.D.

PROFESSOR IN THE MICHIGAN STATE NORMAL COLLEGE
GINN AND COMPANY
BOSTON · NEW YORK · CHICAGO · LONDON

COPYRIGHT, 1909, 1911 BY BENJAMIN L. D’OOGE
ENTERED AT STATIONERS’ HALL
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
013.4
The Athenæum Press
GINN AND COMPANY · PROPRIETORS ·
BOSTON · U.S.A.

CONTENTS

LESSON PAGE
To the Student—By way of Introduction 1-4
PART I. THE PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN

Alphabet, Sounds of the Letters, Syllables, Quantity, Accent, How to Read Latin

5-11
PART II. WORDS AND FORMS
I-VI.

First PrinciplesSubject and Predicate, Inflection, Number, Nominative Subject, Possessive Genitive, Agreement of Verb, Direct Object, Indirect Object, etc.Dialogue

12-24
VII-VIII.

First or Ā-DeclensionGender, Agreement of Adjectives, Word Order

25-30
IX-X.

Second or O-Declension—General Rules for DeclensionPredicate Noun, AppositionDialogue

31-35
XI.

Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions

36-37
XII.

Nouns in -ius and -iumGermānia

38-39
XIII.

Second Declension (Continued)—Nouns in -er and -irItaliaDialogue

39-41
XIV.

Possessive Adjective Pronouns

42-43
XV.

Ablative Denoting WithCause, Means, Accompaniment, MannerThe Romans Prepare for War

44-46
XVI.

The Nine Irregular Adjectives

46-47
XVII.

The Demonstrative is, ea, idDialogue

48-50
XVIII.

Conjugation—Present, Imperfect, and Future of sumDialogue

51-53
XIX.

Present Active Indicative of amō and moneō

54-56
XX.

Imperfect Active Indicative of amō and moneōMeaning of the ImperfectNiobe and her Children

56-57
XXI.

Future Active Indicative of amō and moneōNiobe and her Children (Concluded)

58-59
XXII.

Review of VerbsThe Dative with AdjectivesCornelia and her Jewels

59-61
XXIII.

Present Active Indicative of regō and audiōCornelia and her Jewels (Concluded)

61-63
XXIV.

Imperfect Active Indicative of regō and audiōThe Dative with Special Intransitive Verbs

63-65
XXV.

Future Active Indicative of regō and audiō

65-66
XXVI.

Verbs in -iō—Present, Imperfect, and Future Active Indicative of capiōThe Imperative

66-68
XXVII.

Passive Voice—Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative of amō and moneōPerseus and Andromeda

68-71
XXVIII.

Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative Passive of regō and audiōPerseus and Andromeda (Continued)

72-73
XXIX.

Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative Passive of -iō Verbs—Present Passive Infinitive and Imperative

73-75
XXX.

Synopses in the Four Conjugations—The Ablative Denoting FromPlace from Which, Separation, Personal Agent

75-78
XXXI.

Perfect, Pluperfect and Future Perfect of sumDialogue

79-81
XXXII.

Perfect Active Indicative of the Four Regular ConjugationsMeanings of the PerfectPerseus and Andromeda (Continued)

81-83
XXXIII.

Pluperfect and Future Perfect Active Indicative—Perfect Active Infinitive

84-85
XXXIV.

Review of the Active Voice—Perseus and Andromeda (Concluded)

86-87
XXXV.

Passive Perfects of the Indicative—Perfect Passive and Future Active Infinitive

88-90
XXXVI.

Review of Principal PartsPrepositions, Yes-or-No Questions

90-93
XXXVII.

Conjugation of possumThe Infinitive used as in EnglishAccusative Subject of an InfinitiveThe Faithless Tarpeia

93-96
XXXVIII.

The Relative Pronoun and the Interrogative PronounAgreement of the RelativeThe Faithless Tarpeia (Concluded)

97-101
XXXIX-XLI.

The Third Declension—Consonant Stems

101-106
XLII.

Review Lesson—Terror Cimbricus

107
XLIII.

Third DeclensionI-Stems

108-110
XLIV.

Irregular Nouns of the Third Declension—Gender in the Third Declension—The First Bridge over the Rhine

111-112
XLV.

Adjectives of the Third Declension—The Romans Invade the Enemy’s Country

113-115
XLVI.

The Fourth or U-Declension

116-117
XLVII.

Expressions of PlacePlace to Which, Place from Which, Place at or in Which, the Locative—Declension of domusDædalus and Icarus

117-121
XLVIII.

The Fifth or Ē-DeclensionAblative of TimeDædalus and Icarus (Continued)

121-123
XLIX.

Pronouns—Personal and Reflexive Pronouns—Dædalus and Icarus (Concluded)

123-126
L.

The Intensive Pronoun ipse and the Demonstrative īdemHow Horatius Held the Bridge

126-127
LI.

The Demonstratives hic, iste, illeA German Chieftain Addresses his Followers—How Horatius Held the Bridge (Continued)

128-130
LII.

The Indefinite Pronouns—How Horatius Held the Bridge (Concluded)

130-132
LIII.

Regular Comparison of Adjectives

133-135
LIV.

Irregular Comparison of AdjectivesAblative with Comparatives

135-136
LV.

Irregular Comparison of Adjectives (Continued)—Declension of plūs

137-138
LVI.

Irregular Comparison of Adjectives (Concluded)—Ablative of the Measure of Difference

138-139
LVII.

Formation and Comparison of Adverbs

140-142
LVIII.

NumeralsPartitive Genitive

142-144
LIX.

Numerals (Continued)—Accusative of ExtentCæsar in Gaul

144-146
LX.

Deponent VerbsPrepositions with the Accusative

146-147
PART III. CONSTRUCTIONS
LXI.

The Subjunctive Mood—Inflection of the Present—Indicative and Subjunctive Compared

148-152
LXII.

The Subjunctive of Purpose

152-153
LXIII.

Inflection of the Imperfect SubjunctiveSequence of Tenses

153-155
LXIV.

Inflection of the Perfect and Pluperfect SubjunctiveSubstantive Clauses of Purpose

156-159
LXV.

Subjunctive of possumVerbs of Fearing

160-161
LXVI.

The Participles—Tenses and Declension

161-164
LXVII.

The Irregular Verbs volō, nōlō, mālōAblative Absolute

164-166
LXVIII.

The Irregular Verb fīōSubjunctive of Result

167-168
LXIX.

Subjunctive of CharacteristicPredicate Accusative

169-171
LXX.

Constructions with cumAblative of Specification

171-173
LXXI.

Vocabulary ReviewGerund and GerundivePredicate Genitive

173-177
LXXII.

The Irregular Verb Indirect Statements

177-180
LXXIII.

Vocabulary Review—The Irregular Verb ferōDative with Compounds

181-183
LXXIV.

Vocabulary ReviewSubjunctive in Indirect Questions

183-185
LXXV.

Vocabulary ReviewDative of Purpose or End for Which

185-186
LXXVI.

Vocabulary ReviewGenitive and Ablative of Quality or Description

186-188
LXXVII.

Review of AgreementReview of the Genitive, Dative, and Accusative

189-190
LXXVIII.

Review of the Ablative

191-192
LXXIX.

Review of the Syntax of Verbs

192-193
READING MATTER

Introductory Suggestions

194-195

The Labors of Hercules

196-203

P. Cornelius Lentulus: The Story of a Roman Boy

204-215
APPENDIXES AND VOCABULARIES

Appendix I. Tables of Declensions, Conjugations, Numerals, etc.

226-260
Appendix II. Rules of Syntax 261-264
Appendix III. Reviews 265-282
Special Vocabularies 283-298
Latin-English Vocabulary 299-331
English-Latin Vocabulary 332-343

INDEX 344-348

PREFACE

To make the course preparatory to Cæsar at the same time systematic, thorough, clear, and interesting is the purpose of this series of lessons.

The first pages are devoted to a brief discussion of the Latin language, its history, and its educational value. The body of the book, consisting of seventy-nine lessons, is divided into three parts.

Part I is devoted to pronunciation, quantity, accent, and kindred introductory essentials.

Part II carries the work through the first sixty lessons, and is devoted to the study of forms and vocabulary, together with some elementary constructions, a knowledge of which is necessary for the translation of the exercises and reading matter. The first few lessons have been made unusually simple, to meet the wants of pupils not well grounded in English grammar.

Part III contains nineteen lessons, and is concerned primarily with the study of syntax and of subjunctive and irregular verb forms. The last three of these lessons constitute a review of all the constructions presented in the book. There is abundant easy reading matter; and, in order to secure proper concentration of effort upon syntax and translation, no new vocabularies are introduced, but the vocabularies in Part II are reviewed.

It is hoped that the following features will commend themselves to teachers:

The forms are presented in their natural sequence, and are given, for the most part, in the body of the book as well as in a grammatical appendix. The work on the verb is intensive in character, work in other directions being reduced to a minimum while this is going on. The forms of the subjunctive are studied in correlation with the subjunctive constructions.

The vocabulary has been selected with the greatest care, using Lodge’s “Dictionary of Secondary Latin” and Browne’s “Latin Word List” as a basis. There are about six hundred words, exclusive of proper names, in the special vocabularies, and these are among the simplest and commonest words in the language. More than ninety-five per cent of those chosen are Cæsarian, and of these more than ninety per cent are used in Cæsar five or more times. The few words not Cæsarian are of such frequent occurrence in Cicero, Vergil, and other authors as to justify their appearance here. But teachers desiring to confine word study to Cæsar can easily do so, as the Cæsarian words are printed in the vocabularies in distinctive type. Concrete nouns have been preferred to abstract, root words to compounds and derivatives, even when the latter were of more frequent occurrence in Cæsar. To assist the memory, related English words are added in each special vocabulary. To insure more careful preparation, the special vocabularies have been removed from their respective lessons and placed by themselves. The general vocabulary contains about twelve hundred words, and of these above eighty-five per cent are found in Cæsar.

The syntax has been limited to those essentials which recent investigations, such as those of Dr. Lee Byrne and his collaborators, have shown to belong properly to the work of the first year. The constructions are presented, as far as possible, from the standpoint of English, the English usage being given first and the Latin compared or contrasted with it. Special attention has been given to the constructions of participles, the gerund and gerundive, and the infinitive in indirect statements. Constructions having a logical connection are not separated but are treated together.

Exercises for translation occur throughout, those for translation into Latin being, as a rule, only half as long as those for translation into English. In Part III a few of the commoner idioms in Cæsar are introduced and the sentences are drawn mainly from that author. From first to last a consistent effort is made to instill a proper regard for Latin word order, the first principles of which are laid down early in the course.

Selections for reading are unusually abundant and are introduced from the earliest possible moment. These increase in number and length as the book progresses, and, for the most part, are made an integral part of the lessons instead of being massed at the end of the book. This arrangement insures a more constant and thorough drill in forms and vocabulary, promotes reading power, and affords a breathing spell between succeeding subjects. The material is drawn from historical and mythological sources, and the vocabulary employed includes but few words not already learned. The book closes with a continued story which recounts the chief incidents in the life of a Roman boy. The last chapters record his experiences in Cæsar’s army, and contain much information that will facilitate the interpretation of the Commentaries. The early emphasis placed on word order and sentence structure, the simplicity of the syntax, and the familiarity of the vocabulary, make the reading selections especially useful for work in sight translation.

Reviews are called for at frequent intervals, and to facilitate this branch of the work an Appendix of Reviews has been prepared, covering both the vocabulary and the grammar.

The illustrations are numerous, and will, it is hoped, do much to stimulate interest in the ancient world and to create true and lasting impressions of Roman life and times.

A consistent effort has been made to use simple language and clear explanation throughout.

As an aid to teachers using this book a “Teacher’s Manual” has been prepared, which contains, in addition to general suggestions, notes on each lesson.

The author wishes to express his gratitude to the numerous teachers who tested the advance pages in their classes, and, as a result of their experience, have given much valuable aid by criticism and suggestion. Particular acknowledgments are due to Miss A. Susan Jones of the Central High School, Grand Rapids, Michigan; to Miss Clara Allison of the High School at Hastings, Michigan; and to Miss Helen B. Muir and Mr. Orland O. Norris, teachers of Latin in this institution.

BENJAMIN L. D’OOGE

Michigan State Normal College

LATIN FOR BEGINNERS

TO THE STUDENT—BY WAY OF INTRODUCTION

What is Latin? If you will look at the map of Italy on the opposite page, you will find near the middle of the peninsula and facing the west coast a district called Latium,1 and Rome its capital. The Latin language, meaning the language of Latium, was spoken by the ancient Romans and other inhabitants of Latium, and Latin was the name applied to it after the armies of Rome had carried the knowledge of her language far beyond its original boundaries. As the English of to-day is not quite the same as that spoken two or three hundred years ago, so Latin was not always the same at all times, but changed more or less in the course of centuries. The sort of Latin you are going to learn was in use about two thousand years ago. And that period has been selected because the language was then at its best and the greatest works of Roman literature were being produced. This period, because of its supreme excellence, is called the Golden Age of Roman letters.

1. Pronounce Lā´shĭ-ŭm.

The Spread of Latin. For some centuries after Rome was founded, the Romans were a feeble and insignificant people, their territory was limited to Latium, and their existence constantly threatened by warlike neighbors. But after the third century before Christ, Rome’s power grew rapidly. She conquered all Italy, then reached out for the lands across the sea and beyond the Alps, and finally ruled over the whole ancient world. The empire thus established lasted for more than four hundred years. The importance of Latin increased with the growth of Roman power, and what had been a dialect spoken by a single tribe became the universal language. Gradually the language changed somewhat, developing differently in different countries. In Italy it has become Italian, in Spain Spanish, and in France French. All these nations, therefore, are speaking a modernized form of Latin.

The Romans and the Greeks. In their career of conquest the Romans came into conflict with the Greeks. The Greeks were inferior to the Romans in military power, but far superior to them in culture. They excelled in art, literature, music, science, and philosophy. Of all these pursuits the Romans were ignorant until contact with Greece revealed to them the value of education and filled them with the thirst for knowledge. And so it came about that while Rome conquered Greece by force of arms, Greece conquered Rome by force of her intellectual superiority and became her schoolmaster. It was soon the established custom for young Romans to go to Athens and to other centers of Greek learning to finish their training, and the knowledge of the Greek language among the educated classes became universal. At the same time many cultured Greeks—poets, artists, orators, and philosophers—flocked to Rome, opened schools, and taught their arts. Indeed, the preëminence of Greek culture became so great that Rome almost lost her ambition to be original, and her writers vied with each other in their efforts to reproduce in Latin what was choicest in Greek literature. As a consequence of all this, the civilization and national life of Rome became largely Grecian, and to Greece she owed her literature and her art.

Rome and the Modern World. After conquering the world, Rome impressed her language, laws, customs of living, and modes of thinking upon the subject nations, and they became Roman; and the world has remained largely Roman ever since. Latin continued to live, and the knowledge of Latin was the only light of learning that burned steadily through the dark ages that followed the downfall of the Roman Empire. Latin was the common language of scholars and remained so even down to the days of Shakespeare. Even yet it is more nearly than any other tongue the universal language of the learned. The life of to-day is much nearer the life of ancient Rome than the lapse of centuries would lead one to suppose. You and I are Romans still in many ways, and if Cæsar and Cicero should appear among us, we should not find them, except for dress and language, much unlike men of to-day.

Latin and English. Do you know that more than half of the words in the English dictionary are Latin, and that you are speaking more or less Latin every day? How has this come about? In the year 1066 William the Conqueror invaded England with an army of Normans. The Normans spoke French—which, you remember, is descended from Latin—and spread their language to a considerable extent over England, and so Norman-French played an important part in the formation of English and forms a large proportion of our vocabulary. Furthermore, great numbers of almost pure Latin words have been brought into English through the writings of scholars, and every new scientific discovery is marked by the addition of new terms of Latin derivation. Hence, while the simpler and commoner words of our mother tongue are Anglo-Saxon, and Anglo-Saxon forms the staple of our colloquial language, yet in the realms of literature, and especially in poetry, words of Latin derivation are very abundant. Also in the learned professions, as in law, medicine, and engineering, a knowledge of Latin is necessary for the successful interpretation of technical and scientific terms.

Why study Latin? The foregoing paragraphs make it clear why Latin forms so important a part of modern education. We have seen that our civilization rests upon that of Greece and Rome, and that we must look to the past if we would understand the present. It is obvious, too, that the knowledge of Latin not only leads to a more exact and effective use of our own language, but that it is of vital importance and of great practical value to any one preparing for a literary or professional career. To this it may be added that the study of Latin throws a flood of light upon the structure of language in general and lays an excellent foundation for all grammatical study. Finally, it has been abundantly proved that there is no more effective means of strengthening the mind than by the earnest pursuit of this branch of learning.

Review Questions. Whence does Latin get its name? Where is Latium? Where is Rome? Was Latin always the same? What sort of Latin are we to study? Describe the growth of Rome’s power and the spread of Latin. What can you say of the origin of Italian, French, and Spanish? How did the ancient Greeks and Romans compare? How did Greece influence Rome? How did Rome influence the world? In what sense are we Romans still? What did Latin have to do with the formation of English? What proportion of English words are of Latin origin, and what kind of words are they? Why should we study Latin?


PART I

THE PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN

THE ALPHABET

1. The Latin alphabet contains the same letters as the English except that it has no w and no j.

2. The vowels, as in English, are a, e, i, o, u, y. The other letters are consonants.

3. I is used both as a vowel and as a consonant. Before a vowel in the same syllable it has the value of a consonant and is called I consonant.

Thus in Iū-li-us the first i is a consonant, the second a vowel.

SOUNDS OF THE LETTERS1
1. N.B. The sounds of the letters are best learned by hearing them correctly pronounced. The matter in this section is, therefore, intended for reference rather than for assignment as a lesson. As a first step it is suggested that the teacher pronounce the examples in class, the pupils following.

4. Latin was not pronounced like English. The Romans at the beginning of the Christian era pronounced their language substantially as described below.

5. The vowels have the following sounds:

Vowels2 Latin Examples
ā as in father

ă like the first a in aha´, never as in hat

hāc, stās
ă´-măt, că-nās
ē as in they
ĕ as in met
tē´-lă, mē´-tă
tĕ´-nĕt, mĕr´-cēs
ī as in machine
ĭ as in bit
sĕr´-tī, prā´-tī
sĭ´-tĭs, bĭ´-bī
ō as in holy
ŏ as in wholly, never as in hot
Rō´-mă, ō´-rĭs
mŏ´-dŏ, bŏ´-nōs

ū as in rude, or as oo in boot

ŭ as in full, or as oo in foot

ū´-mŏr, tū´-bĕr
ŭt, tū´-tŭs
2. Long vowels are marked ¯, short ones ˘.

Note. It is to be observed that there is a decided difference in sound, except in the case of a, between the long and the short vowels. It is not merely a matter of quantity but also of quality.

6. In diphthongs (two-vowel sounds) both vowels are heard in a single syllable.

Diphthongs Latin Examples
ae as ai in aisle
au as ou in out
tae´-dae
gau´-dĕt
ei as ei in eight

eu as ĕ´o͝o (a short e followed by a short u in one syllable)

dein´-dĕ
seu
oe like oi in toil

ui like o͝o´ĭ (a short u followed by a short i in one syllable. Cf. English we)

foe´-dŭs
cui, huic

Note. Give all the vowels and diphthongs their proper sounds and do not slur over them in unaccented syllables, as is done in English.

7. Consonants are pronounced as in English, except that

Consonants Latin Examples

c is always like c in cat, never as in cent

g is always like g in get, never as in gem

i consonant is always like y in yes

n before c, qu, or g is like ng in sing (compare the sound of n in anchor)

că´-dō, cĭ´-bŭs, cē´-nă
gĕ´-mō, gĭg´-nō
iăm, iŏ´-cŭs
ăn´-cŏ-ră (ang´-ko-ra)

qu, gu, and sometimes su before a vowel have the sound of qw, gw, and sw. Here u has the value of consonant v and is not counted a vowel

ĭn´-quĭt, quī, lĭn´-guă, săn´-guĭs, suā´-dĕ-ō

s is like s in sea, never as in ease

t is always like t in native, never as in nation

rŏ´-să, ĭs
ră´-tĭ-ō, nā´-tĭ-ō

v is like w in wine, never as in vine

x has the value of two consonants (cs or gs) and is like x in extract, not as in exact

vī´-nŭm, vĭr
ĕx´-trā, ĕx-āc´-tŭs

bs is like ps and bt like pt

ch, ph, and th are like c, p, t

ŭrbs, ŏb-tĭ´-nĕ-ō

pŭl´-chĕr, Phoe´-bē, thĕ-ā´-trŭm

a. In combinations of consonants give each its distinct sound. Doubled consonants should be pronounced with a slight pause between the two sounds. Thus pronounce tt as in rat-trap, not as in rattle; pp as in hop-pole, not as in upper. Examples, mĭt´-tō, Ăp´pĭ-ŭs, bĕl´-lŭm.

SYLLABLES

8. A Latin word has as many syllables as it has vowels and diphthongs. Thus aes-tā´-tĕ has three syllables, au-dĭ-ĕn´-dŭs has four.

a. Two vowels with a consonant between them never make one syllable, as is so often the case in English. Compare English inside with Latin īn-sī´-dĕ.

9. Words are divided into syllables as follows:

1. A single consonant between two vowels goes with the second. Thus ă-mā´-bĭ-lĭs, mĕ-mŏ´-rĭ-ă, ĭn-tĕ´-rĕ-ā, ă´-bĕst, pĕ-rē´-gĭt.3

3. In writing and printing it is customary to divide the parts of a compound, as inter-eā, ab-est, sub-āctus, per-ēgit, contrary to the correct phonetic rule.

2. Combinations of two or more consonants:

a. A consonant followed by l or r goes with the l or r. Thus pū´-blĭ-cŭs, ă´-grī.

Exception. Prepositional compounds of this nature, as also ll and rr, follow rule b. Thus ăb´-lŭ-ō, ăb-rŭm´-pō, ĭl´-lĕ, fĕr´-rŭm.

b. In all other combinations of consonants the first consonant goes with the preceding vowel.4 Thus măg´-nŭs, ĕ-gĕs´-tās, vĭc-tō´-rĭ-ă, hŏs´-pĕs, ăn´-nŭs, sŭ-bāc´-tŭs.

4. The combination nct is divided nc-t, as fūnc-tŭs, sānc-tŭs.

3. The last syllable of a word is called the ul´-ti-ma; the one next to the last, the pe-nult´; the one before the penult, the an´-te-pe-nult´.

10. EXERCISE

Divide the words in the following passage into syllables and pronounce them, placing the accent as indicated:

Vā́dĕ ăd fŏrmī́căm, Ō pĭ́gĕr, ĕt cōnsī́dĕrā vĭ́ās ĕ́iŭs ĕt dĭ́scĕ săpĭĕ́ntĭăm: quae cŭm nōn hắbĕăt dŭ́cĕm nĕc praecĕptṓrĕm nĕc prī́ncĭpĕm, pắrăt ĭn aestā́tĕ cĭ́bŭm sĭ́bĭ ĕt cŏ́ngrĕgăt ĭn mĕ́ssĕ quŏd cŏ́mĕdăt.

[Go to the ant, thou sluggard; consider her ways, and be wise: which, having no guide, overseer, or ruler, provideth her meat in the summer and gathereth her food in the harvest.]

QUANTITY

11. The quantity of a vowel or a syllable is the time it takes to pronounce it. Correct pronunciation and accent depend upon the proper observance of quantity.

12. Quantity of Vowels. Vowels are either long (¯) or short (˘). In this book the long vowels are marked. Unmarked vowels are to be considered short.

1. A vowel is short before another vowel or h; as pŏ-ē´-ta, tră´-hō.

2. A vowel is short before nt and nd, before final m or t, and, except in words of one syllable, before final l or r. Thus a´-mănt, a-măn´-dus, a-mā´-băm, a-mā´-băt, a´-ni-măl, a´-mŏr.

3. A vowel is long before nf, ns, nx, and nct. Thus īn´-fe-rō, re´-gēns, sān´-xī, sānc´-tus.

4. Diphthongs are always long, and are not marked.

13. Quantity of Syllables. Syllables are either long or short, and their quantity must be carefully distinguished from that of vowels.

1. A syllable is short,

a. If it ends in a short vowel; as ă´-mō, pĭ´-grĭ.

Note. In final syllables the short vowel may be followed by a final consonant. Thus the word mĕ-mŏ´-rĭ-ăm contains four short syllables. In the first three a short vowel ends the syllable, in the last the short vowel is followed by a final consonant.

2. A syllable is long,

a. If it contains a long vowel or a diphthong, as cū´-rō, poe´-nae, aes-tā´-te.

b. If it ends in a consonant which is followed by another consonant, as cor´-pus, mag´-nus.

Note. The vowel in a long syllable may be either long or short, and should be pronounced accordingly. Thus in ter´-ra, in´-ter, the first syllable is long, but the vowel in each case is short and should be given the short sound. In words like saxum the first syllable is long because x has the value of two consonants (cs or gs).

3. In determining quantity h is not counted a consonant.

Note. Give about twice as much time to the long syllables as to the short ones. It takes about as long to pronounce a short vowel plus a consonant as it does to pronounce a long vowel or a diphthong, and so these quantities are considered equally long. For example, it takes about as long to say cŭr´-rō as it does cū´-rō, and so each of these first syllables is long. Compare mŏl´-lis and mō´-lis, ā-mĭs´-sī and ā-mi´-sī.

ACCENT

14. Words of two syllables are accented on the first, as mēn´-sa, Cae´-sar.

15. Words of more than two syllables are accented on the penult if the penult is long. If the penult is short, accent the antepenult. Thus mo-nē´-mus, re´-gi-tur, a-gri´-co-la, a-man´-dus.

Note. Observe that the position of the accent is determined by the length of the syllable and not by the length of the vowel in the syllable. (Cf. § 13. 2, Note.)

16. Certain little words called enclit´ics5 which have no separate existence, are added to and pronounced with a preceding word. The most common are -que, and; -ve, or; and -ne, the question sign. The syllable before an enclitic takes the accent, regardless of its quantity. Thus populus´que, dea´que, rēgna´ve, audit´ne.

5. Enclitic means leaning back, and that is, as you see, just what these little words do. They cannot stand alone and so they lean back for support upon the preceding word.
HOW TO READ LATIN

17. To read Latin well is not so difficult, if you begin right. Correct habits of reading should be formed now. Notice the quantities carefully, especially the quantity of the penult, to insure your getting the accent on the right syllable. (Cf. § 15.) Give every vowel its proper sound and every syllable its proper length. Then bear in mind that we should read Latin as we read English, in phrases rather than in separate words. Group together words that are closely connected in thought. No good reader halts at the end of each word.

18. Read the stanzas of the following poem by Longfellow, one at a time, first the English and then the Latin version. The syllables inclosed in parentheses are to be slurred or omitted to secure smoothness of meter.

EXCELSIOR [HIGHER]! 6
The shades of night were falling fast,
As through an Alpine village passed
A youth, who bore, ’mid snow and ice,
A banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!
Cadēbant noctis umbrae, dum
Ibat per vīcum Alpicum
Gelū nivequ(e) adolēscēns,
Vēxillum cum signō ferēns,
Excelsior!
His brow was sad; his eye beneath,
Flashed like a falchion from its sheath,
And like a silver clarion rung
The accents of that unknown tongue,
Excelsior!
Frōns trīstis, micat oculus
Velut ē vāgīnā gladius;
Sonantque similēs tubae
Accentūs lingu(ae) incognitae,
Excelsior!
In happy homes he saw the light
Of household fires gleam warm and bright;
Above, the spectral glaciers shone,
And from his lips escaped a groan,
Excelsior!
In domibus videt clārās
Focōrum lūcēs calidās;
Relucet glaciēs ācris,
Et rumpit gemitūs labrīs,
Excelsior!
“Try not the Pass!” the old man said;
“Dark lowers the tempest overhead,
The roaring torrent is deep and wide!”
And loud that clarion voice replied,
Excelsior!
Dīcit senex, “Nē trānseās!
Suprā nigrēscit tempestās;
Lātus et altus est torrēns.”
Clāra vēnit vōx respondēns,
Excelsior!
At break of day, as heavenward
The pious monks of Saint Bernard
Uttered the oft-repeated prayer,
A voice cried through the startled air,
Excelsior!
Iam lūcēscēbat, et frātrēs
Sānctī Bernardī vigilēs
Ōrābant precēs solitās,
Cum vōx clāmāvit per aurās,
Excelsior!
A traveler, by the faithful hound,
Half-buried in the snow was found,
Still grasping in his hand of ice
That banner with the strange device,
Excelsior!
Sēmi-sepultus viātor
Can(e) ā fīdō reperītur,
Comprēndēns pugnō gelidō
Illud vēxillum cum signō,
Excelsior!
There in the twilight cold and gray,
Lifeless, but beautiful, he lay,
And from the sky, serene and far,
A voice fell, like a falling star,
Excelsior!
Iacet corpus exanimum
Sed lūce frīgidā pulchrum;
Et caelō procul exiēns
Cadit vōx, ut Stella cadēns,
Excelsior!
6. Translation by C. W. Goodchild in Praeco Latinus, October, 1898.

PART II

WORDS AND FORMS

LESSON I
FIRST PRINCIPLES

19. Subject and Predicate. 1. Latin, like English, expresses thoughts by means of sentences. A sentence is a combination of words that expresses a thought, and in its simplest form is the statement of a single fact. Thus,

Galba is a farmer
Galba est agricola
The sailor fights
Nauta pugnat

In each of these sentences there are two parts:

Subject Galba
Galba

The sailor
Nauta
Predicate is a farmer
est agricola

fights
pugnat

2. The subject is that person, place, or thing about which something is said, and is therefore a noun or some word which can serve the same purpose.

a. Pronouns, as their name implies (pro, “instead of,” and noun), often take the place of nouns, usually to save repeating the same noun, as, Galba is a farmer; he is a sturdy fellow.

3. The predicate is that which is said about the subject, and consists of a verb with or without modifiers.

a. A verb is a word which asserts something (usually an act) concerning a person, place, or thing.

20. The Object. In the two sentences, The boy hit the ball and The ball hit the boy, the same words are used, but the meaning is different, and depends upon the order of the words. The doer of the act, that about which something is said, is, as we have seen above, the subject. That to which something is done is the direct object of the verb. The boy hit the ball is therefore analyzed as follows:

Subject Predicate
The boy hit the ball
(verb) (direct object)

a. A verb whose action passes over to the object directly, as in the sentence above, is called a transitive verb. A verb which does not admit of a direct object is called intransitive, as, I walk, he comes.

21. The Copula. The verb to be in its different forms—are, is, was, etc.—does not tell us anything about the subject; neither does it govern an object. It simply connects the subject with the word or words in the predicate that possess a distinct meaning. Hence it is called the copula, that is, the joiner or link.

22. In the following sentences pronounce the Latin and name the nouns, verbs, subjects, objects, predicates, copulas:

1. America est patria mea
America is fatherland my
2. Agricola fīliam amat
(The) farmer (his) daughter loves
3. Fīlia est Iūlia
(His) daughter is Julia
4. Iūlia et agricola sunt in īnsulā
Julia and (the) farmer are on (the) island
5. Iūlia aquam portat
Julia water carries
6. Rosam in comīs habet
(A) rose in (her) hair (she) has
7. Iūlia est puella pulchra
Julia is (a) girl pretty
8. Domina fīliam pulchram habet
(The) lady (a) daughter beautiful has

a. The sentences above show that Latin does not express some words which are necessary in English. First of all, Latin has no article the or a; thus agricola may mean the farmer, a farmer, or simply farmer. Then, too, the personal pronouns, I, you, he, she, etc., and the possessive pronouns, my, your, his, her, etc., are not expressed if the meaning of the sentence is clear without them.

LESSON II
FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)

23. Inflection. Words may change their forms to indicate some change in sense or use, as, is, are; was, were; who, whose, whom; farmer, farmer’s; woman, women. This is called inflection. The inflection of a noun, adjective, or pronoun is called its declension, that of a verb its conjugation.

24. Number. Latin, like English, has two numbers, singular and plural. In English we usually form the plural by adding -s or -es to the singular. So Latin changes the singular to the plural by changing the ending of the word. Compare

Naut-a pugnat
The sailor fights
Naut-ae pugnant
The sailors fight

25. Rule. Nouns that end in -a in the singular end in -ae in the plural.

26. Learn the following nouns so that you can give the English for the Latin or the Latin for the English. Write the plural of each.

  • agri´cola, farmer (agriculture)1
  • aqua, water (aquarium)
  • causa, cause, reason
  • do´mina, lady of the house, mistress (dominate)
  • filia, daughter (filial)
  • fortū´na, fortune
  • fuga, flight (fugitive)
  • iniū´ria, wrong, injury
  • lūna, moon (lunar)
  • nauta, sailor (nautical)
  • puel´la, girl
  • silva, forest (silvan)
  • terra, land (terrace)
1. The words in parentheses are English words related to the Latin. When the words are practically identical, as causa, cause, no comparison is needed.

27. Compare again the sentences

Nauta pugna-t
The sailor fights
Nautae pugna-nt
The sailors fight

In the first sentence the verb pugna-t is in the third person singular, in the second sentence pugna-nt is in the third person plural.

28. Rule. Agreement of Verb. A finite verb must always be in the same person and number as its subject.

29. Rule. In the conjugation of the Latin verb the third person singular active ends in -t, the third person plural in -nt. The endings which show the person and number of the verb are called personal endings.

30. Learn the following verbs and write the plural of each. The personal pronouns he, she, it, etc., which are necessary in the inflection of the English verb, are not needed in the Latin, because the personal endings take their place. Of course, if the verb’s subject is expressed we do not translate the personal ending by a pronoun; thus nauta pugnat is translated the sailor fights, not the sailor he fights.

ama-t he (she, it) loves, is loving, does love (amity, amiable)
labō´ra-t “   “   “ labors, is laboring, does labor
nūntia-t2 “   “   “ announces, is announcing, does announce
porta-t “   “   “ carries, is carrying, does carry (porter)
pugna-t “   “   “ fights, is fighting, does fight (pugnacious)
2. The u in nūntiō is long by exception. (Cf. § 12. 2.)

31. EXERCISES

I. 1. The daughter loves, the daughters love. 2. The sailor is carrying, the sailors carry. 3. The farmer does labor, the farmers labor. 4. The girl is announcing, the girls do announce. 5. The ladies are carrying, the lady carries.

II. 1. Nauta pugnat, nautae pugnant. 2. Puella amat, puellae amant. 3. Agricola portat, agricolae portant. 4. Fīlia labōrat, fīliae labōrant. 5. Nauta nūntiat, nautae nūntiant. 6. Dominae amant, domina amat.

seated lady
DOMINA

LESSON III
FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)

32. Declension of Nouns. We learned above (§§ 19, 20) the difference between the subject and object, and that in English they may be distinguished by the order of the words. Sometimes, however, the order is such that we are left in doubt. For example, the sentence The lady her daughter loves might mean either that the lady loves her daughter, or that the daughter loves the lady.

1. If the sentence were in Latin, no doubt could arise, because the subject and the object are distinguished, not by the order of the words, but by the endings of the words themselves. Compare the following sentences:

Domina fīliam amat
Fīliam domina amat
Amat fīliam domina
Domina amat fīliam
The lady loves her daughter
Fīlia dominam amat
Dominam fīlia amat
Amat dominam fīlia
Fīlia amat dominam
The daughter loves the lady

a. Observe that in each case the subject of the sentence ends in -a and the object in -am. The form of the noun shows how it is used in the sentence, and the order of the words has no effect on the essential meaning.

2. As stated above (§ 23), this change of ending is called declension, and each different ending produces what is called a case. When we decline a noun, we give all its different cases, or changes of endings. In English we have three cases,—nominative, possessive, and objective; but, in nouns, the nominative and objective have the same form, and only the possessive case shows a change of ending, by adding ’s or the apostrophe. The interrogative pronoun, however, has the fuller declension, who? whose? whom?

33. The following table shows a comparison between English and Latin declension forms, and should be thoroughly memorized:

English Cases Latin Cases
Declension of who? Name of case and use Declension of domina and translation Name of case and use
S
i
n
g
u
l
a
r
Who?

Nominative—
case of the subject

do´min-a
the lady

Nominative—
case of the subject

Whose?

Possessive—
case of the possessor

domin-ae
the lady’s

Genitive—
case of the possessor

Whom?

Objective—
case of the object

domin-am
the lady

Accusative—
case of the direct object

P
l
u
r
a
l
Who?

Nominative—
case of the subject

domin-ae
the ladies

Nominative—
case of the subject

Whose?

Possessive—
case of the possessor

domin-ā´rum
the ladies’
of the ladies

Genitive—
case of the possessor

Whom?

Objective—
case of the object

domin-ās
the ladies

Accusative—
case of the direct object

When the nominative singular of a noun ends in -a, observe that

a. The nominative plural ends in -ae.

b. The genitive singular ends in -ae and the genitive plural in -ārum.

c. The accusative singular ends in -am and the accusative plural in -ās.

d. The genitive singular and the nominative plural have the same ending.

34. EXERCISE

Pronounce the following words and give their general meaning. Then give the number and case, and the use of each form. Where the same form stands for more than one case, give all the possible cases and uses.

1. Silva, silvās, silvam. 2. Fugam, fugae, fuga. 3. Terrārum, terrae, terrās. 4. Aquās, causam, lūnās. 5. Fīliae, fortūnae, lūnae. 6. Iniūriās, agricolārum, aquārum. 7. Iniūriārum, agricolae, puellās. 8. Nautam, agricolās, nautās. 9. Agricolam, puellam, silvārum.

LESSON IV
FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)

35. We learned from the table (§ 33) that the Latin nominative, genitive, and accusative correspond, in general, to the nominative, possessive, and objective in English, and that they are used in the same way. This will be made even clearer by the following sentence:

Fīlia agricolae nautam amat,
the farmer’s daughter (or the daughter of the farmer) loves the sailor

What is the subject? the direct object? What case is used for the subject? for the direct object? What word denotes the possessor? In what case is it?

36. Rule. Nominative Subject. The subject of a finite verb is in the Nominative and answers the question Who? or What?

37. Rule. Accusative Object. The direct object of a transitive verb is in the Accusative and answers the question Whom? or What?

38. Rule. Genitive of the Possessor. The word denoting the owner or possessor of something is in the Genitive and answers the question Whose?

Diana shoots an arrow at a bear
DIANA SAGITTAS PORTAT ET FERAS NECAT

39. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 283.

I. 1. Diāna est dea. 2. Lātōna est dea. 3. Diāna et Lātōna sunt deae. 4. Diāna est dea lūnae. 5. Diāna est fīlia Lātōnae. 6. Lātōna Diānam amat. 7. Diāna est dea silvārum. 8. Diāna silvam amat. 9. Diāna sagittās portat. 10. Diāna ferās silvae necat. 11. Ferae terrārum pugnant.

For the order of words imitate the Latin above.

II. 1. The daughter of Latona does love the forests. 2. Latona’s daughter carries arrows. 3. The farmers’ daughters do labor. 4. The farmer’s daughter loves the waters of the forest. 5. The sailor is announcing the girls’ flight. 6. The girls announce the sailors’ wrongs. 7. The farmer’s daughter labors. 8. Diana’s arrows are killing the wild beasts of the land.

40. CONVERSATION

Translate the questions and answer them in Latin. The answers may be found in the exercises preceding.

1. Quis est Diāna?
2. Cuius fīlia est Diāna?
3. Quis Diānam amat?
4. Quis silvam amat?
5. Quis sagittās portat?
6. Cuius fīliae labōrant?

LESSON V
FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)

41. The Dative Case. In addition to the relationships between words expressed by the nominative, genitive (possessive), and accusative (objective) cases, there are other relationships, to express which in English we use such words as from, with, by, to, for, in, at.1

1. Words like to, for, by, from, in, etc., which define the relationship between words, are called prepositions.

Latin, too, makes frequent use of such prepositions; but often it expresses these relations without them by means of case forms which English does not possess. One of the cases found in the Latin declension and lacking in English is called the dative.

42. When the nominative singular ends in -a, the dative singular ends in -ae and the dative plural in -īs.

Note. Observe that the genitive singular, the dative singular, and the nominative plural all have the same ending, -ae; but the uses of the three cases are entirely different. The general meaning of the sentence usually makes clear which case is intended.

a. Form the dative singular and plural of the following nouns: fuga, causa, fortūna, terra, aqua, puella, agricola, nauta, domina.

43. The Dative Relation. The dative case is used to express the relations conveyed in English by the prepositions to, towards, for.

These prepositions are often used in English in expressions of motion, such as She went to town, He ran towards the horse, Columbus sailed for America. In such cases the dative is not used in Latin, as motion through space is foreign to the dative relation. But the dative is used to denote that to or towards which a benefit, injury, purpose, feeling, or quality is directed, or that for which something serves or exists.

a. What dative relations do you discover in the following?

The teacher gave a prize to John because he replied so promptly to all her questions—a good example for the rest of us. It is a pleasure to us to hear him recite. Latin is easy for him, but it is very hard for me. Some are fitted for one thing and others for another.

44. The Indirect Object. Examine the sentence

Nauta fugam nūntiat, the sailor announces the flight

Here the verb, nūntiat, governs the direct object, fugam, in the accusative case. If, however, we wish to mention the persons to whom the sailor announces the flight, as, The sailor announces the flight to the farmers, the verb will have two objects:

1. Its direct object, flight (fugam)

2. Its indirect object, farmers

According to the preceding section, to the farmers is a relation covered by the dative case, and we are prepared for the following rule:

45. Rule. Dative Indirect Object. The indirect object of a verb is in the Dative.

a. The indirect object usually stands before the direct object.

46. We may now complete the translation of the sentence The sailor announces the flight to the farmers, and we have

Nauta agricolīs fugam nūntiat

47. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 283.

Point out the direct and indirect objects and the genitive of the possessor.

I. 1. Quis nautīs pecūniam dat? 2. Fīliae agricolae nautīs pecūniam dant. 3. Quis fortūnam pugnae nūntiat? 4. Galba agricolīs fortunam pugnae nūntiat. 5. Cui domina fābulam nārrat? 6. Fīliae agricolae domina fābulam nārrat. 7. Quis Diānae corōnam dat? 8. Puella Diānae corōnam dat quia Diānam amat. 9. Dea lūnae sagittās portat et ferās silvārum necat. 10. Cuius victōriam Galba nūntiat? 11. Nautae victōriam Galba nūntiat.

Imitate the word order of the preceding exercise.

II. 1. To whom do the girls give a wreath? 2. The girls give a wreath to Julia, because Julia loves wreaths. 3. The sailors tell the ladies2 a story, because the ladies love stories. 4. The farmer gives his (§ 22. a) daughter water. 5. Galba announces the cause of the battle to the sailor. 6. The goddess of the moon loves the waters of the forest. 7. Whose wreath is Latona carrying? Diana’s.

2. Observe that in English the indirect object often stands without a preposition to to mark it, especially when it precedes the direct object.
LESSON VI
FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)

48. The Ablative Case. Another case, lacking in English but found in the fuller Latin declension, is the ab´la-tive.

49. When the nominative singular ends in -a, the ablative singular ends in and the ablative plural in -īs.

a. Observe that the final -ă of the nominative is short, while the final -ā of the ablative is long, as,

Nom. fīliă Abl. fīliā

b. Observe that the ablative plural is like the dative plural.

c. Form the ablative singular and plural of the following nouns: fuga, causa, fortūna, terra, aqua, puella, agricola, nauta, domina.

50. The Ablative Relation. The ablative case is used to express the relations conveyed in English by the prepositions from, with, by, at, in. It denotes

1. That from which something is separated, from which it starts, or of which it is deprived—generally translated by from.

2. That with which something is associated or by means of which it is done—translated by with or by.

3. The place where or the time when something happens—translated by in or at.

a. What ablative relations do you discover in the following?

In our class there are twenty boys and girls. Daily at eight o’clock they come from home with their books, and while they are at school they study Latin with great zeal. In a short time they will be able to read with ease the books written by the Romans. By patience and perseverance all things in this world can be overcome.

51. Prepositions. While, as stated above (§ 41), many relations expressed in English by prepositions are in Latin expressed by case forms, still prepositions are of frequent occurrence, but only with the accusative or ablative.

52. Rule. Object of a Preposition. A noun governed by a preposition must be in the Accusative or Ablative case.

53. Prepositions denoting the ablative relations from, with, in, on, are naturally followed by the ablative case. Among these are

ā1 or ab, from, away from

, from, down from

ē1 or ex, from, out from, out of

cum, with

in, in, on

1. ā and ē are used only before words beginning with a consonant; ab and ex are used before either vowels or consonants.

1. Translate into Latin, using prepositions. In the water, on the land, down from the forest, with the fortune, out of the forests, from the victory, out of the waters, with the sailors, down from the moon.

54. Adjectives. Examine the sentence

Puella parva bonam deam amat, the little girl loves the good goddess

In this sentence parva (little) and bonam (good) are not nouns, but are descriptive words expressing quality. Such words are called adjectives,2 and they are said to belong to the noun which they describe.

2. Pick out the adjectives in the following: “When I was a little boy, I remember that one cold winter’s morning I was accosted by a smiling man with an ax on his shoulder. ‘My pretty boy,’ said he, ‘has your father a grindstone?’ ‘Yes, sir,’ said I. ‘You are a fine little fellow,’ said he. ‘Will you let me grind my ax on it?’”

You can tell by its ending to which noun an adjective belongs. The ending of parva shows that it belongs to puella, and the ending of bonam that it belongs to deam. Words that belong together are said to agree, and the belonging-together is called agreement. Observe that the adjective and its noun agree in number and case.

55. Examine the sentences

Puella est parva, the girl is little

Puella parva bonam deam amat, the little girl loves the good goddess

In the first sentence the adjective parva is separated from its noun by the verb and stands in the predicate. It is therefore called a predicate adjective. In the second sentence the adjectives parva and bonam are closely attached to the nouns puella and deam respectively, and are called attributive adjectives.

a. Pick out the attributive and the predicate adjectives in the following:

Do you think Latin is hard? Hard studies make strong brains. Lazy students dislike hard studies. We are not lazy.

56. DIALOGUE

Julia and Galba

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 283.

I. Quis, Galba, est Diāna?
G. Diāna, Iūlia, est pulchra dea lūnae et silvārum.
I. Cuius fīlia, Galba, est Diāna?
G. Lātōnae fīlia, Iūlia, est Diāna.
I. Quid Diāna portat?
G. Sagittās Diāna portat.
I. Cūr Diāna sagittās portat?
G. Diāna sagittās portat, Iūlia, quod malās ferās silvae magnae necat.
I. Amatne Lātōna fīliam?
G. Amat, et fīlia Lātōnam amat.
I. Quid fīlia tua parva portat?
G. Corōnās pulchrās fīlia mea parva portat.
I. Cui fīlia tua corōnās pulchrās dat?
G. Diānae corōnās dat.
I. Quis est cum fīliā tuā? Estne sōla?
G. Sōla nōn est; fīlia mea parva est cum ancillā meā.

a. When a person is called or addressed, the case used is called the voc´ative (Latin vocāre, “to call”). In form the vocative is regularly like the nominative. In English the name of the person addressed usually stands first in the sentence. The Latin vocative rarely stands first. Point out five examples of the vocative in this dialogue.

b. Observe that questions answered by yes or no in English are answered in Latin by repeating the verb. Thus, if you wished to answer in Latin the question Is the sailor fighting? Pugnatne nauta? you would say Pugnat, he is fighting, or Nōn pugnat, he is not fighting.

LESSON VII
THE FIRST OR Ā-DECLENSION

57. In the preceding lessons we have now gone over all the cases, singular and plural, of nouns whose nominative singular ends in -a. All Latin nouns whose nominative singular ends in -a belong to the First Declension. It is also called the Ā-Declension because of the prominent part which the vowel a plays in the formation of the cases. We have also learned what relations are expressed by each case. These results are summarized in the following table:

Case Noun Translation Use and General Meaning of Each Case
Singular
Nom. do´min-a the lady The subject
Gen. domin-ae

of the lady, or the lady’s

The possessor of something

Dat. domin-ae

to or for the lady

Expressing the relation to or for, especially the indirect object

Acc. domin-am the lady The direct object
Abl. domin

from, with, by, in, the lady

Separation (from), association or means (with, by), place where or time when (in, at)

Plural
Nom. domin-ae the ladies The same as the singular
Gen. domin-ā´rum

of the ladies, or the ladies’

Dat. domin-īs

to or for the ladies

Acc. domin-ās the ladies
Abl. domin-īs

from, with, by, in, the ladies

58. The Base. That part of a word which remains unchanged in inflection and to which the terminations are added is called the base.

Thus, in the declension above, domin- is the base and -a is the termination of the nominative singular.

59. Write the declension of the following nouns, separating the base from the termination by a hyphen. Also give them orally.

pugna, terra, lūna, ancil´la, corō´na, īn´sula, silva

60. Gender. In English, names of living beings are either masculine or feminine, and names of things without life are neuter. This is called natural gender. Yet in English there are some names of things to which we refer as if they were feminine; as, “Have you seen my yacht? She is a beauty.” And there are some names of living beings to which we refer as if they were neuter; as, “Is the baby here? No, the nurse has taken it home.” Some words, then, have a gender quite apart from sex or real gender, and this is called grammatical gender.

Latin, like English, has three genders. Names of males are usually masculine and of females feminine, but names of things have grammatical gender and may be either masculine, feminine, or neuter. Thus we have in Latin the three words, lapis, a stone; rūpēs, a cliff; and saxum, a rock. Lapis is masculine, rūpēs feminine, and saxum neuter. The gender can usually be determined by the ending of the word, and must always be learned, for without knowing the gender it is impossible to write correct Latin.

61. Gender of First-Declension Nouns. Nouns of the first declension are feminine unless they denote males. Thus silva is feminine, but nauta, sailor, and agricola, farmer, are masculine.

62. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 284.

I. 1. Agricola cum fīliā in casā habitat. 2. Bona fīlia agricolae cēnam parat. 3. Cēna est grāta agricolae1 et agricola bonam fīliam laudat. 4. Deinde fīlia agricolae gallīnās ad cēnam vocat. 5. Gallīnae fīliam agricolae amant. 6. Malae fīliae bonās cēnās nōn parant. 7. Fīlia agricolae est grāta dominae. 8. Domina in īnsulā magnā habitat. 9. Domina bonae puellae parvae pecūniam dat.

II. 1. Where does the farmer live? 2. The farmer lives in the small cottage. 3. Who lives with the farmer? 4. (His) little daughter lives with the farmer. 5. (His) daughter is getting (parat) a good dinner for the farmer. 6. The farmer praises the good dinner. 7. The daughter’s good dinner is pleasing to the farmer.

1. Note that the relation expressed by the dative case covers that to which a feeling is directed. (Cf. § 43.)

In front of a farmhouse: daughter feeding chickens, father
holding a bowl, mother standing

What Latin words are suggested by this picture?

63. CONVERSATION

Answer the questions in Latin.

1. Quis cum agricolā in casā habitat?
2. Quid bona fīlia agricolae parat?
3. Quem agricola laudat?
4. Vocatne fīlia agricolae gallīnās ad cēnam?
5. Cuius fīlia est grāta dominae?
6. Cui domina pecūniam dat?

LESSON VIII
FIRST DECLENSION (Continued)

64. We have for some time now been using adjectives and nouns together and you have noticed an agreement between them in case and in number (§ 54). They agree also in gender. In the phrase silva magna, we have a feminine adjective in -a agreeing with a feminine noun in -a.

65. Rule. Agreement of Adjectives. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case.

66. Feminine adjectives in -a are declined like feminine nouns in -a, and you should learn to decline them together as follows:

Noun Adjective
domina (base domin-), f., lady bona (base bon-), good
Singular TERMINATIONS
Nom. do´mina bona -a
Gen. dominae bonae -ae
Dat. dominae bonae -ae
Acc. dominam bonam -am
Abl. dominā bonā
Plural TERMINATIONS
Nom. dominae bonae -ae
Gen. dominā´rum bonā´rum -ārum
Dat. dominīs bonīs -īs
Acc. dominās bonās -ās
Abl. dominīs bonīs -īs

a. In the same way decline together puella mala, the bad girl; ancil´la parva, the little maid; fortū´na magna, great fortune.

67. The words dea, goddess, and fīlia, daughter, take the ending -ābus instead of -īs in the dative and ablative plural. Note the dative and ablative plural in the following declension:

dea bona (bases de- bon-)
Singular Plural
Nom. dea bona deae bonae
Gen. deae bonae deā´rum bonā´rum
Dat. deae bonae deā´bus bonīs
Acc. deam bonam deās bonās
Abl. deā bonā dea´bus bonīs

a. In the same way decline together fīlīa parva.

68. Latin Word Order. The order of words in English and in Latin sentences is not the same.

In English we arrange words in a fairly fixed order. Thus, in the sentence My daughter is getting dinner for the farmers, we cannot alter the order of the words without spoiling the sentence. We can, however, throw emphasis on different words by speaking them with more force. Try the effect of reading the sentence by putting special force on my, daughter, dinner, farmers.

In Latin, where the office of the word in the sentence is shown by its ending (cf. § 32. 1), and not by its position, the order of words is more free, and position is used to secure the same effect that in English is secured by emphasis of voice. To a limited extent we can alter the order of words in English, too, for the same purpose. Compare the sentences

I saw a game of football at Chicago last November (normal order)

Last November I saw a game of football at Chicago

At Chicago, last November, I saw a game of football

1. In a Latin sentence the most emphatic place is the first; next in importance is the last; the weakest point is the middle. Generally the subject is the most important word, and is placed first; usually the verb is the next in importance, and is placed last. The other words of the sentence stand between these two in the order of their importance. Hence the normal order of words—that is, where no unusual emphasis is expressed—is as follows:

subjectmodifiers of the subjectindirect objectdirect objectadverbverb

Changes from the normal order are frequent, and are due to the desire for throwing emphasis upon some word or phrase. Notice the order of the Latin words when you are translating, and imitate it when you are turning English into Latin.

2. Possessive pronouns and modifying genitives normally stand after their nouns. When placed before their nouns they are emphatic, as fīlia mea, my daughter; mea fīlia, my daughter; casa Galbae, Galba’s cottage; Galbae casa, Galba’s cottage.

Notice the variety of emphasis produced by writing the following sentence in different ways:

Fīlia mea agricolīs cēnam parat (normal order)

Mea fīlia agricolīs parat cēnam (mea and cēnam emphatic)

Agricolīs fīlia mea cēnam parat (agricolīs emphatic)

3. An adjective placed before its noun is more emphatic than when it follows. When great emphasis is desired, the adjective is separated from its noun by other words.

Fīlia mea casam parvam nōn amat (parvam not emphatic)

Fīlia mea parvam casam nōn amat (parvam more emphatic)

Parvam fīlia mea casam nōn amat (parvam very emphatic)

4. Interrogative words usually stand first, the same as in English.

5. The copula (as est, sunt) is of so little importance that it frequently does not stand last, but may be placed wherever it sounds well.

69. EXERCISE

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 284.

Note the order of the words in these sentences and pick out those that are emphatic.

1. Longae nōn sunt tuae viae. 2. Suntne tubae novae in meā casā? Nōn sunt. 3. Quis lātā in silvā habitat? Diāna, lūnae clārae pulchra dea, lātā in silvā habitat. 4. Nautae altās et lātās amant aquās. 5. Quid ancilla tua portat? Ancilla mea tubam novam portat. 6. Ubi sunt Lesbia et Iūlia? In tuā casa est Lesbia et Iūlia est in meā. 7. Estne Italia lāta terra? Longa est Italia, nōn lāta. 8. Cui Galba agricola fābulam novam nārrat? Fīliābus dominae clārae fābulam novam nārrat. 9. Clāra est īnsula Sicilia. 10. Quem laudat Lātōna? Lātōna laudat fīliam.


First Review of Vocabulary and Grammar, §§ 502-505

LESSON IX
THE SECOND OR O-DECLENSION

70. Latin nouns are divided into five declensions.

The declension to which a noun belongs is shown by the ending of the genitive singular. This should always be learned along with the nominative and the gender.

71. The nominative singular of nouns of the Second or O-Declension ends in -us, -er, -ir, or -um. The genitive singular ends in .

72. Gender. Nouns in -um are neuter. The others are regularly masculine.

73. Declension of nouns in -us and -um. Masculines in -us and neuters in -um are declined as follows:

dominus (base domin-), m., master pīlum (base pīl-), n., spear
Singular
TERMINATIONS TERMINATIONS
Nom. do´minus1 -us pīlum -um
Gen. dominī pīlī
Dat. dominō pīlō
Acc. dominum -um pīlum -um
Abl. dominō pīlō
Voc. domine -e pīlum -um
Plural
Nom. dominī pīla -a
Gen. dominō´rum -ōrum pīlō´rum -ōrum
Dat. dominīs -īs pīlīs -īs
Acc. dominōs -ōs pīla -a
Abl. dominīs -īs pīlīs -īs
1. Compare the declension of domina and of dominus.

a. Observe that the masculines and the neuters have the same terminations excepting in the nominative singular and the nominative and accusative plural.

b. The vocative singular of words of the second declension in -us ends in , as domine, O master; serve, O slave. This is the most important exception to the rule in § 56. a.

74. Write side by side the declension of domina, dominus, and pīlum. A comparison of the forms will lead to the following rules, which are of great importance because they apply to all five declensions:

a. The vocative, with a single exception (see § 73. b), is like the nominative. That is, the vocative singular is like the nominative singular, and the vocative plural is like the nominative plural.

b. The nominative, accusative, and vocative of neuter nouns are alike, and in the plural end in -a.

c. The accusative singular of masculines and feminines ends in -m and the accusative plural in -s.

d. The dative and ablative plural are always alike.

e. Final -i and -o are always long; final -a is short, except in the ablative singular of the first declension.

75. Observe the sentences

Lesbia est bona, Lesbia is good

Lesbia est ancilla, Lesbia is a maidservant

We have learned (§ 55) that bona, when used, as here, in the predicate to describe the subject, is called a predicate adjective. Similarly a noun, as ancilla, used in the predicate to define the subject is called a predicate noun.

76. Rule. Predicate Noun. A predicate noun agrees in case with the subject of the verb.

spears
PILA

77. DIALOGUE

officer with spear and trumpet

officer with spear and trumpet
LEGATUS CUM PILO ET TUBA

Galba and Marcus

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.

G. Quis, Mārce, est lēgātus cum pīlō et tubā?
M. Lēgātus, Galba, est Sextus.
G. Ubi Sextus habitat?2
M. In oppidō Sextus cum fīliābus habitat.
G. Amantne oppidānī Sextum?
M. Amant oppidānī Sextum et laudant, quod magnā cum cōnstantiā pugnat.
G. Ubi, Mārce, est ancilla tua? Cūr nōn cēnam parat?
M. Ancilla mea, Galba, equō lēgātī aquam et frūmentum dat.
G. Cūr nōn servus Sextī equum dominī cūrat?
M. Sextus et servus ad mūrum oppidī properant. Oppidānī bellum parant.3

2. habitat is here translated does live. Note the three possible translations of the Latin present tense:

habitat
he lives
he is living
he does live
Always choose the translation which makes the best sense.
3. Observe that the verb parō means not only to prepare but also to prepare for, and governs the accusative case.

78. CONVERSATION

Translate the questions and answer them in Latin.

1. Ubi fīliae Sextī habitant?
2. Quem oppidānī amant et laudant?
3. Quid ancilla equō lēgātī dat?
4. Cuius equum ancilla cūrat?
5. Quis ad mūrum cum Sextō properat?
6. Quid oppidānī parant?

LESSON X
SECOND DECLENSION (Continued)

79. We have been freely using feminine adjectives, like bona, in agreement with feminine nouns of the first declension and declined like them. Masculine adjectives of this class are declined like dominus, and neuters like pīlum. The adjective and noun, masculine and neuter, are therefore declined as follows:

Masculine Noun and Adjective Neuter Noun and Adjective
dominus bonus, the good master pīlum bonum, the good spear
Bases domin- bon- Bases pīl- bon-
Singular
TERMINATIONS TERMINATIONS
Nom. do´minus bonus -us pīlum bonum -um
Gen. dominī bonī pīlī bonī
Dat. dominō bonō pīlō bonō
Acc. dominum bonum -um pīlum bonum -um
Abl. dominō bonō pīlō bonō
Voc. domine bone -e pīlum bonum -um
Plural
Nom. dominī bonī pīla bona -a
Gen. dominō´rum bonō´rum -ōrum pīlō´rum bonō´rum -ōrum
Dat. dominīs bonīs -is pīlīs bonīs -īs
Acc. dominōs bonōs -ōs pīla bona -a
Abl. dominīs bonīs -īs pīlīs bonīs -īs

Decline together bellum longum, equus parvus, servus malus, mūrus altus, frūmentum novum.

80. Observe the sentences

Lesbia ancilla est bona, Lesbia, the maidservant, is good

Fīlia Lesbiae ancillae est bona, the daughter of Lesbia, the maidservant, is good

Servus Lesbiam ancillam amat, the slave loves Lesbia, the maidservant

In these sentences ancilla, ancillae, and ancillam denote the class of persons to which Lesbia belongs and explain who she is. Nouns so related that the second is only another name for the first and explains it are said to be in apposition, and are always in the same case.

81. Rule. Apposition. An appositive agrees in case with the noun which it explains.

82. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.

I. 1. Patria servī bonī, vīcus servōrum bonōrum, bone popule. 2. Populus oppidī magnī, in oppidō magnō, in oppidīs magnīs. 3. Cum pīlīs longīs, ad pīla longa, ad mūrōs lātōs. 4. Lēgāte male, amīcī legātī malī, cēna grāta dominō bonō. 5. Frūmentum equōrum parvōrum, domine bone, ad lēgātōs clārōs. 6. Rhēnus est in Germāniā, patriā meā. 7. Sextus lēgātus pīlum longum portat. 8. Oppidānī bonī Sextō lēgātō clārā pecūniam dant. 9. Malī servī equum bonum Mārcī dominī necant. 10. Galba agricola et Iūlia fīlia bona labōrant. 11. Mārcus nauta in īnsulā Siciliā habitat.

II. 1. Wicked slave, who is your friend? Why does he not praise Galba, your master? 2. My friend is from (ex) a village of Germany, my fatherland. 3. My friend does not love the people of Italy. 4. Who is caring for1 the good horse of Galba, the farmer? 5. Mark, where is Lesbia, the maidservant? 6. She is hastening1 to the little cottage2 of Julia, the farmer’s daughter.

1. See footnote 1, p. 33. Remember that cūrat is transitive and governs a direct object.
2. Not the dative. (Cf. § 43.)
LESSON XI
ADJECTIVES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS

83. Adjectives of the first and second declensions are declined in the three genders as follows:

Singular
MASCULINE FEMININE NEUTER
Nom. bonus bona bonum
Gen. bonī bonae bonī
Dat. bonō bonae bonō
Acc. bonum bonam bonum
Abl. bonō bonā bonō
Voc. bone bona bonum
Plural
Nom. bonī bonae bona
Gen. bonōrum bonārum bonōrum
Dat. bonīs bonīs bonīs
Acc. bonōs bonās bona
Abl. bonīs bonīs bonīs

a. Write the declension and give it orally across the page, thus giving the three genders for each case.

b. Decline grātus, -a, -um; malus, -a, -um; altus, -a, -um; parvus, -a, -um.

84. Thus far the adjectives have had the same terminations as the nouns. However, the agreement between the adjective and its noun does not mean that they must have the same termination. If the adjective and the noun belong to different declensions, the terminations will, in many cases, not be the same. For example, nauta, sailor, is masculine and belongs to the first declension. The masculine form of the adjective bonus is of the second declension. Consequently, a good sailor is nauta bonus. So, the wicked farmer is agricola malus. Learn the following declensions:

85. nauta bonus (bases naut- bon-), m., the good sailor

Singular Plural
Nom. nauta bonus nautae bonī
Gen. nautae bonī nautārum bonōrum
Dat. nautae bonō nautīs bonīs
Acc. nautam bonum nautās bonōs
Abl. nautā bonō nautīs bonīs
Voc. nauta bone nautae bonī

86. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.

I. 1. Est1 in vīcō nauta bonus. 2. Sextus est amīcus nautae bonī. 3. Sextus nautae bonō galeam dat. 4. Populus Rōmānus nautam bonum laudat. 5. Sextus cum nautā bonō praedam portat. 6. Ubi, nauta bone, sunt arma et tēla lēgātī Rōmānī? 7. Nautae bonī ad bellum properant. 8. Fāma nautārum bonōrum est clāra. 9. Pugnae sunt grātae nautīs bonīs. 10. Oppidānī nautās bonōs cūrant. 11. Cūr, nautae bonī, malī agricolae ad Rhēnum properant? 12. Malī agricolae cum bonīs nautīs pugnant.

II. 1. The wicked farmer is hastening to the village with (his) booty. 2. The reputation of the wicked farmer is not good. 3. Why does Galba’s daughter give arms and weapons to the wicked farmer? 4. Lesbia invites the good sailor to dinner. 5. Why is Lesbia with the good sailor hastening from the cottage? 6. Sextus, where is my helmet? 7. The good sailors are hastening to the toilsome battle. 8. The horses of the wicked farmers are small. 9. The Roman people give money to the good sailors. 10. Friends care for the good sailors. 11. Whose friends are fighting with the wicked farmers?

1. Est, beginning a declarative sentence, there is.

helmets
GALEAE

LESSON XII
NOUNS IN -IUS AND -IUM

87. Nouns of the second declension in -ius and -ium end in in the genitive singular, not in -iī, and the accent rests on the penult; as, fīlī from fīlius (son), praesi´dī from praesi´dium (garrison).

88. Proper names of persons in -ius, and fīlius, end in in the vocative singular, not in , and the accent rests on the penult; as, Vergi´lī, O Vergil; fīlī, O son.

a. Observe that in these words the vocative and the genitive are alike.

89. praesidium (base praesidi-), n., garrison fīlius (base fīli-), m., son

Singular
Nom. praesidium fīlius
Gen. praesi´dī fīlī
Dat. praesidiō fīliō
Acc. praesidium fīlium
Abl. praesidiō fīliō
Voc. praesidium fīlī

The plural is regular. Note that the -i- of the base is lost only in the genitive singular, and in the vocative of words like fīlius.

Decline together praesidium parvum; fīlius bonus; fluvius longus, the long river; proelium clārum, the famous battle.

90. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.

I. 1. Frūmentum bonae terrae, gladī malī, bellī longī. 2. Cōnstantia magna, praesidia magna, clāre Vergi´lī. 3. Male serve, Ō clārum oppidum, male fīlī, fīliī malī, fīlī malī. 4. Fluvī longī, fluviī longī, fluviōrum longōrum, fāma praesi´dī magnī. 5. Cum gladiīs parvīs, cum deābus clārīs, ad nautās clārōs. 6. Multōrum proeliōrum, praedae magnae, ad proelia dūra.

Germānia

II. Germānia, patria Germānōrum, est clāra terra. In Germāniā sunt fluviī multī. Rhēnus magnus et lātus fluvius Germāniae est. In silvīs lātīs Germāniae sunt ferae multae. Multi Germāni in oppidīs magnis et in vīcīs parvīs habitant et multī sunt agricolae bonī. Bella Germānōrum sunt magna et clāra. Populus Germāniae bellum et proelia amat et saepe cum finitimīs pugnat. Fluvius Rhēnus est fīnitimus oppidīs1 multīs et clārīs.

1. Dative with fīnitimus. (See § 43.)
LESSON XIII
SECOND DECLENSION (Continued)

91. Declension of Nouns in -er and -ir. In early Latin all the masculine nouns of the second declension ended in -os. This -os later became -us in words like servus, and was dropped entirely in words with bases ending in -r, like puer, boy; ager, field; and vir, man. These words are therefore declined as follows:

92. puer, m., boy ager, m., field vir, m., man

Base puer- Base agr- Base vir-
Singular TERMINATIONS
Nom. puer ager vir ——
Gen. puerī agrī virī
Dat. puerō agrō virō
Acc. puerum agrum virum -um
Abl. puerō agrō virō
Plural
Nom. puerī agrī virī
Gen. puerōrum agrōrum virōrum -ōrum
Dat. puerīs agrīs virīs -īs
Acc. puerōs agrōs virōs -ōs
Abl. puerīs agrīs virīs -īs

a. The vocative case of these words is like the nominative, following the general rule (§ 74. a).

b. The declension differs from that of servus only in the nominative and vocative singular.

c. Note that in puer the e remains all the way through, while in ager it is present only in the nominative. In puer the e belongs to the base, but in ager (base agr-) it does not, and was inserted in the nominative to make it easier to pronounce. Most words in -er are declined like ager. The genitive shows whether you are to follow puer or ager.

93. Masculine adjectives in -er of the second declension are declined like nouns in -er. A few of them are declined like puer, but most of them like ager. The feminine and neuter nominatives show which form to follow, thus,

Masc. Fem. Neut.
līber lībera līberum (free) is like puer
pulcher pulchra pulchrum (pretty) is like ager

For the full declension in the three genders, see § 469. b. c.

94. Decline together the words vir līber, terra lībera, frūmentum līberum, puer pulcher, puella pulchra, oppidum pulchrum

95. Italia1

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 286.

Magna est Italiae fāma, patriae Rōmānōrum, et clāra est Rōma, domina orbis terrārum.2 Tiberim,3 fluvium Rōmānum, quis nōn laudat et pulchrōs fluviō fīnitimōs agrōs? Altōs mūrōs, longa et dūra bella, clārās victōriās quis nōn laudat? Pulchra est terra Italia. Agrī bonī agricolīs praemia dant magna, et equī agricolārum cōpiam frūmentī ad oppida et vīcōs portant. In agrīs populī Rōmānī labōrant multī servī. Viae Italiae sunt longae et lātae. Fīnitima Italiae est īnsula Sicilia.

1. In this selection note especially the emphasis as shown by the order of the words.
2. orbis terrārum, of the world.
3. Tiberim, the Tiber, accusative case.

96. DIALOGUE

Marcus and Cornelius

legionary
LEGIONARIUS

C. Ubi est, Mārce, fīlius tuus? Estne in pulchrā terrā Italiā?
M. Nōn est, Cornēlī, in Italiā. Ad fluvium Rhēnum properat cum cōpiīs Rōmānīs quia est4 fāma Novī bellī cum Germānīs. Līber Germāniae populus Rōmānōs Nōn amat.
C. Estne fīlius tuus copiārum Rōmānārum lēgātus?
M. Lēgātus nōn est, sed est apud legiōnāriōs.
C. Quae5 arma portat6?
M. Scūtum magnum et lōrīcam dūram et galeam pulchram portat.
C. Quae tēla portat?
M. Gladium et pīlum longum portat.
C. Amatne lēgātus fīlium tuum?
M. Amat, et saepe fīliō meō praemia pulchra et praedam multam dat.
C. Ubi est terra Germānōrum?
M. Terra Germānōrum, Cornēlī est fīnitima Rhēnō, fluviō magnō et altō.

4. est, before its subject, there is; so sunt, there are.
5. Quae, what kind of, an interrogative adjective pronoun.
6. What are the three possible translations of the present tense?
LESSON XIV
THE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS

97. Observe the sentences

This is my shield

This shield is mine

In the first sentence my is a possessive adjective; in the second mine is a possessive pronoun, for it takes the place of a noun, this shield is mine being equivalent to this shield is my shield. Similarly, in Latin the possessives are sometimes adjectives and sometimes pronouns.

98. The possessives my, mine, your, yours, etc. are declined like adjectives of the first and second declensions.

Singular
1st Pers. meus, mea, meum my, mine
2d Pers. tuus, tua, tuum your, yours
3d Pers. suus, sua, suum his (own), her (own), its (own)
Plural
1st Pers. noster, nostra, nostrum our, ours
2d Pers. vester, vestra, vestrum your, yours
3d Pers. suus, sua, suum their (own), theirs

Note. Meus has the irregular vocative singular masculine , as mī fīlī, O my son.

a. The possessives agree with the name of the thing possessed in gender, number, and case. Compare the English and Latin in

Sextus is calling his boy

Julia is calling her boy

Sextus

Iūlia

suum puerum vocat

Observe that suum agrees with puerum, and is unaffected by the gender of Sextus or Julia.

b. When your, yours, refers to one person, use tuus; when to more than one, vester; as,

Lesbia, your wreaths are pretty
Girls, your wreaths are pretty
Corōnae tuae, Lesbia, sunt pulchrae
Corōnae vestrae, puellae, sunt pulchrae

c. Suus is a reflexive possessive, that is, it usually stands in the predicate and regularly refers back to the subject. Thus, Vir suōs servōs vocat means The man calls his (own) slaves. Here his (suōs) refers to man (vir), and could not refer to any one else.

d. Possessives are used much less frequently than in English, being omitted whenever the meaning is clear without them. (Cf. § 22. a.) This is especially true of suus, -a, -um, which, when inserted, is more or less emphatic, like our his own, her own, etc.

99. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 286.

I. 1. Mārcus amīcō Sextō cōnsilium suum nūntiat 2. Est cōpia frūmentī in agrīs nostrīs. 3. Amīcī meī bonam cēnam ancillae vestrae laudant 4. Tua lōrīca, mī fīlī, est dūra. 5. Scūta nostra et tēla, mī amīce, in castrls Rōmānīs sunt. 6. Suntne virī patriae tuae līberī? Sunt. 7. Ubi, Cornēlī, est tua galea pulchra? 8. Mea galea, Sexte, est in casā meā. 9. Pīlum longum est tuum, sed gladius est meus. 10. Iūlia gallīnās suās pulchrās amat et gallīnae dominam suam amant. 11. Nostra castra sunt vestra. 12. Est cōpia praedae in castrīs vestrīs. 13. Amīcī tuī miserīs et aegrīs cibum et pecūniam saepe dant.

II. 1. Our teacher praises Mark’s industry. 2. My son Sextus is carrying his booty to the Roman camp.1 3. Your good girls are giving aid to the sick and wretched.2 4. There are 3 frequent battles in our villages. 5. My son, where is the lieutenant’s food? 6. The camp is mine, but the weapons are yours.

1. Not the dative. Why?
2. Here the adjectives sick and wretched are used like nouns.
3. Where should sunt stand? Cf. I. 2 above.

a farmer plowing with oxen
AGRICOLA ARAT

LESSON XV
THE ABLATIVE DENOTING WITH

100. Of the various relations denoted by the ablative case (§ 50) there is none more important than that expressed in English by the preposition with. This little word is not so simple as it looks. It does not always convey the same meaning, nor is it always to be translated by cum. This will become clear from the following sentences:

a. Mark is feeble with (for or because of) want of food

b. Diana kills the beasts with (or by) her arrows

c. Julia is with Sextus

d. The men fight with great steadiness

a. In sentence a, with want (of food) gives the cause of Mark’s feebleness. This idea is expressed in Latin by the ablative without a preposition, and the construction is called the ablative of cause:

Mārcus est īnfīrmus inopiā cibī

b. In sentence b, with (or by) her arrows tells by means of what Diana kills the beasts. This idea is expressed in Latin by the ablative without a preposition, and the construction is called the ablative of means:

Diāna sagittīs suīs ferās necat

c. In sentence c we are told that Julia is not alone, but in company with Sextus. This idea is expressed in Latin by the ablative with the preposition cum, and the construction is called the ablative of accompaniment:

Iūlia est cum Sextō

d. In sentence d we are told how the men fight. The idea is one of manner. This is expressed in Latin by the ablative with cum, unless there is a modifying adjective present, in which case cum may be omitted. This construction is called the ablative of manner:

Virī (cum) cōnstantiā magnā pugnant

101. You are now able to form four important rules for the ablative denoting with:

102. Rule. Ablative of Cause. Cause is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers the question Because of what?

103. Rule. Ablative of Means. Means is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers the question By means of what? With what?

N.B. Cum must never be used with the ablative expressing cause or means.

104. Rule. Ablative of Accompaniment. Accompaniment is denoted by the ablative with cum. This answers the question With whom?

105. Rule. Ablative of Manner. The ablative with cum is used to denote the manner of an action. Cum may be omitted, if an adjective is used with the ablative. This answers the question How? In what manner?

106. What uses of the ablative do you discover in the following passage, and what question does each answer?

The soldiers marched to the fort with great speed and broke down the gate with blows of their muskets. The inhabitants, terrified by the din, attempted to cross the river with their wives and children, but the stream was swollen with (or by) the rain. Because of this many were swept away by the waters and only a few, almost overcome with fatigue, with great difficulty succeeded in gaining the farther shore.

107. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 286.

I. The Romans prepare for War. Rōmānī, clārus Italiae populus, bellum parant. Ex agrīs suīs, vicīs, oppidīsque magnō studiō virī validī ad arma properant. Iam lēgatī cum legiōnariīs ex Italiā ad Rhēnum, fluvium Germāniae altum et lātum, properant, et servī equīs et carrīs cibum frūmentumque ad castra Rōmāna portant. Inopiā bonōrum tēlōrum īnfirmī sunt Germānī, sed Rōmānī armāti galeīs, lōrīcīs, scūtīs, gladiīs, pīlīsque sunt validī.

II. 1. The sturdy farmers of Italy labor in the fields with great diligence. 2. Sextus, the lieutenant, and (his) son Mark are fighting with the Germans. 3. The Roman legionaries are armed with long spears. 4. Where is Lesbia, your maid, Sextus? Lesbia is with my friends in Galba’s cottage. 5. Many are sick because of bad water and for lack of food. 6. The Germans, with (their) sons and daughters, are hastening with horses and wagons.

LESSON XVI
THE NINE IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

108. There are nine irregular adjectives of the first and second declensions which have a peculiar termination in the genitive and dative singular of all genders:

Masc. Fem. Neut.
Gen. -īus -īus -īus
Dat.

Otherwise they are declined like bonus, -a, -um. Learn the list and the meaning of each:

alius, alia, aliud, other, another (of several)

alter, altera, alterum, the one, the other (of two)

ūnus, -a, -um, one, alone; (in the plural) only

ūllus, -a, -um, any

nūllus, -a, -um, none, no

sōlus, -a, -um, alone

tōtus, -a, -um, all, whole, entire

uter, utra, utrum, which? (of two)

neuter, neutra, neutrum, neither (of two)

109. PARADIGMS

Singular
MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. nūllus nūlla nūllum alius alia aliud
Gen. nūllī´us nūllī´us nūllī´us alī´us alī´us alī´us
Dat. nūllī nūllī nūllī aliī aliī aliī
Acc. nūllum nūllam nūllum alium aliam aliud
Abl. nūllō nūllā nūllō aliō aliā aliō
The Plural is Regular

a. Note the peculiar neuter singular ending in -d of alius. The genitive alīus is rare. Instead of it use alterīus, the genitive of alter.

b. These peculiar case endings are found also in the declension of pronouns (see § 114). For this reason these adjectives are sometimes called the pronominal adjectives.

110. Learn the following idioms:

alter, -era, -erum ... alter, -era, -erum, the one ... the other (of two)

alius, -a, -ud ... alius, -a, -ud, one ... another (of any number)

aliī, -ae, -a ... aliī, -ae, -a, some ... others

EXAMPLES

1. Alterum oppidum est magnum, alterum parvum, the one town is large, the other small (of two towns).

2. Aliud oppidum est validum, aliud īnfīrmum, one town is strong, another weak (of towns in general).

3. Aliī gladiōs, aliī scūta portant, some carry swords, others shields.

111. EXERCISES

I. 1. In utrā casā est Iūlia? Iūlia est in neutrā casā. 2. Nūllī malō puerō praemium dat magister. 3. Alter puer est nauta, alter agricola. 4. Aliī virī aquam, aliī terram amant. 5. Galba ūnus (or sōlus) cum studiō labōrat. 6. Estne ūllus carrus in agrō meō? 7. Lesbia est ancilla alterīus dominī, Tullia alterīus. 8. Lesbia sōla cēnam parat. 9. Cēna nūllīus alterīus ancillae est bona. 10. Lesbia nūllī aliī virō cēnam dat.

Note. The pronominal adjectives, as you observe, regularly stand before and not after their nouns.

II. 1. The men of all Germany are preparing for war. 2. Some towns are great and others are small. 3. One boy likes chickens, another horses. 4. Already the booty of one town is in our fort. 5. Our whole village is suffering for (i.e. weak because of) lack of food. 6. The people are already hastening to the other town. 7. Among the Romans (there) is no lack of grain.

LESSON XVII
THE DEMONSTRATIVE IS, EA, ID

112. A demonstrative is a word that points out an object definitely, as this, that, these, those. Sometimes these words are pronouns, as, Do you hear these? and sometimes adjectives, as, Do you hear these men? In the former case they are called demonstrative pronouns, in the latter demonstrative adjectives.

113. Demonstratives are similarly used in Latin both as pronouns and as adjectives. The one used most is

is, masculine; ea, feminine; id, neuter

Singular this
that
Plural these
those

114. Is is declined as follows. Compare its declension with that of alius, § 109.

Base e-
Singular Plural
MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. is ea id eī (or iī) eae ea
Gen. eius eius eius eōrum eārum eōrum
Dat. eīs (or iīs) eīs (or iīs) eīs (or iīs)
Acc. eum eam id eōs eās ea
Abl. eīs (or iīs) eīs (or iīs) eīs (or iīs)

Note that the base e- changes to i- in a few cases. The genitive singular eius is pronounced eh´yus. In the plural the forms with two i’s are preferred and the two i’s are pronounced as one. Hence, pronounce as ī and iīs as īs.

115. Besides being used as demonstrative pronouns and adjectives the Latin demonstratives are regularly used for the personal pronoun he, she, it. As a personal pronoun, then, is would have the following meanings:

Sing. Nom.

is, he; ea, she; id, it

Gen.

eius, of him or his; eius, of her, her, or hers; eius, of it or its

Dat.

, to or for him; , to or for her; , to or for it

Acc.

eum, him; eam, her; id, it

Abl.

, with, from, etc., him; , with, from, etc., her; , with, from, etc., it

Plur. Nom.

or , eae, ea, they

Gen.

eōrum, eārum, eōrum, of them, their

Dat.

eīs or iīs, eīs or iīs, eīs or iīs, to or for them

Acc.

eōs, eās, ea, them

Abl.

eīs or iīs, eīs or iīs, eīs or iīs, with, from, etc., them

116. Comparison between suus and is. We learned above (§ 98. c) that suus is a reflexive possessive. When his, her (poss.), its, their, do not refer to the subject of the sentence, we express his, her, its by eius, the genitive singular of is, ea, id; and their by the genitive plural, using eōrum to refer to a masculine or neuter antecedent noun and eārum to refer to a feminine one.

EXAMPLES

Galba calls his (own) son, Galba suum fīlium vocat

Galba calls his son (not his own, but another’s), Galba eius fīlium vocat

Julia calls her (own) children, Iūlia suōs līberōs vocat

Julia calls her children (not her own, but another’s), Iūlia eius līberōs vocat

The men praise their (own) boys, virī suōs puerōs laudant

The men praise their boys (not their own, but others’), virī eōrum puerōs laudant

117. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 287.

1. He praises her, him, it, them. 2. This cart, that report, these teachers, those women, that abode, these abodes. 3. That strong garrison, among those weak and sick women, that want of firmness, those frequent plans.

4. The other woman is calling her chickens (her own). 5. Another woman is calling her chickens (not her own). 6. The Gaul praises his arms (his own). 7. The Gaul praises his arms (not his own). 8. This farmer often plows their fields. 9. Those wretched slaves long for their master (their own). 10. Those wretched slaves long for their master (not their own). 11. Free men love their own fatherland. 12. They love its villages and towns.

118. DIALOGUE1

Cornelius and Marcus

M. Quis est vir, Cornēlī, cum puerō parvō? Estne Rōmānus et līber?
C. Rōmānus nōn est, Mārce. Is vir est servus et eius domicilium est in silvīs Galliae.
M. Estne puer fīlius eius servī an alterīus?
C. Neutrīus fīlius est puer. Is est fīlius lēgātī Sextī.
M. Quō puer cum eō servō properat?
C. Is cum servō properat ad lātōs Sextī agrōs.2 Tōtum frūmentum est iam mātūrum et magnus servōrum numerus in Italiae3 agrīs labōrat.
M. Agricolaene sunt Gallī et patriae suae agrōs arant?
C. Nōn agricolae sunt. Bellum amant Gallī, nōn agrī cultūram. Apud eōs virī pugnant et fēminae auxiliō līberōrum agrōs arant parantque cibum.
M. Magister noster puerīs puellīsque grātās Gallōrum fābulās saepe nārrat et laudat eōs saepe.
C. Mala est fortūna eōrum et saepe miserī servī multīs cum lacrimīs patriam suam dēsīderant.

1. There are a number of departures from the normal order in this dialogue. Find them, and give the reason.
2. When a noun is modified by both a genitive and an adjective, a favorite order of words is adjective, genitive, noun.
3. A modifying genitive often stands between a preposition and its object.

Second Review, Lessons IX-XVII, §§ 506-509

LESSON XVIII
CONJUGATION
THE PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE TENSES OF SUM

119. The inflection of a verb is called its conjugation (cf. § 23). In English the verb has but few changes in form, the different meanings being expressed by the use of personal pronouns and auxiliaries, as, I am carried, we have carried, they shall have carried, etc. In Latin, on the other hand, instead of using personal pronouns and auxiliary verbs, the form changes with the meaning. In this way the Romans expressed differences in tense, mood, voice, person, and number.

120. The Tenses. The different forms of a verb referring to different times are called its tenses. The chief distinctions of time are present, past, and future:

1. The present, that is, what is happening now, or what usually happens, is expressed by

the Present Tense

2. The past, that is, what was happening, used to happen, happened, has happened, or had happened, is expressed by

the Imperfect, Perfect, and Pluperfect Tenses

3. The future, that is, what is going to happen, is expressed by

the Future and Future Perfect Tenses

121. The Moods. Verbs have inflection of mood to indicate the manner in which they express action. The moods of the Latin verb are the indicative, subjunctive, imperative, and infinitive.

a. A verb is in the indicative mood when it makes a statement or asks a question about something assumed as a fact. All the verbs we have used thus far are in the present indicative.

122. The Persons. There are three persons, as in English. The first person is the person speaking (I sing); the second person the person spoken to (you sing); the third person the person spoken of (he sings). Instead of using personal pronouns for the different persons in the two numbers, singular and plural, the Latin verb uses the personal endings (cf. § 22 a; 29). We have already learned that -t is the ending of the third person singular in the active voice and -nt of the third person plural. The complete list of personal endings of the active voice is as follows:

Singular Plural
1st Pers. I -m or we -mus
2d Pers. thou or you -s you -tis
3d Pers. he, she, it -t they -nt

123. Most verbs form their moods and tenses after a regular plan and are called regular verbs. Verbs that depart from this plan are called irregular. The verb to be is irregular in Latin as in English. The present, imperfect, and future tenses of the indicative are inflected as follows:

Present Indicative
SINGULAR PLURAL
1st Pers. su-m, I am su-mus, we are
2d Pers. e-s, you1 are es-tis, you1 are
3d Pers. es-t, he, she, or it is su-nt, they are
Imperfect Indicative
1st Pers. er-a-m, I was er-ā´-mus, we were
2d Pers. er-ā-s, you were er-ā´-tis, you were
3d Pers. er-a-t, he, she, or it was er-a-nt, they were
Future Indicative
1st Pers. er-ō, I shall be er´-i-mus, we shall be
2d Pers. er-i-s, you will be er´-i-tis, you will be
3d Pers. er-i-t, he will be er-u-nt, they will be

a. Be careful about vowel quantity and accent in these forms, and consult §§ 12.2; 14; 15.

1. Observe that in English you are, you were, etc. may be either singular or plural. In Latin the singular and plural forms are never the same.

124. DIALOGUE

The Boys Sextus and Marcus

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 287.

S. Ubi es, Mārce? Ubi est Quīntus? Ubi estis, amīcī?
M. Cum Quīntō, Sexte, in silvā sum. Nōn sōlī sumus; sunt in silvā multī aliī puerī.
S. Nunc laetus es, sed nūper nōn laetus erās. Cūr miser erās?
M. Miser eram quia amīcī meī erant in aliō vicō et eram sōlus. Nunc sum apud sociōs meōs. Nunc laetī sumus et erimus.
S. Erātisne in lūdo hodiē?
M. Hodiē nōn erāmus in lūdō, quod magister erat aeger.
S. Eritisne mox in lūdō?
M. Amīcī meī ibi erunt, sed ego (I) nōn erō.
S. Cūr nōn ibi eris? Magister, saepe irātus, inopiam tuam studī dīligentiaeque nōn laudat.
M. Nūper aeger eram et nunc īnfīrmus sum.

125. EXERCISE

1. You are, you were, you will be, (sing. and plur.). 2. I am, I was, I shall be. 3. He is, he was, he will be. 4. We are, we were, we shall be. 5. They are, they were, they will be.

6. Why were you not in school to-day? I was sick. 7. Lately he was a sailor, now he is a farmer, soon he will be a teacher. 8. To-day I am happy, but lately I was wretched. 9. The teachers were happy because of the boys’ industry.

Roman boys in school
PUERI ROMANI IN LUDO

LESSON XIX
THE FOUR REGULAR CONJUGATIONS · PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF AMŌ AND MONEŌ

126. There are four conjugations of the regular verbs. These conjugations are distinguished from each other by the final vowel of the present conjugation-stem.1 This vowel is called the distinguishing vowel, and is best seen in the present infinitive.

1. The stem is the body of a word to which the terminations are attached. It is often identical with the base (cf. § 58). If, however, the stem ends in a vowel, the latter does not appear in the base, but is variously combined with the inflectional terminations. This point is further explained in § 230.

Below is given the present infinitive of a verb of each conjugation, the present stem, and the distinguishing vowel.

Conjugation Pres. Infin. Pres. Stem DISTINGUISHING
VOWEL
I. amā´re, to love amā- ā
II. monē´re, to advise monē- ē
III. re´gĕre, to rule regĕ- ĕ
IV. audī´re, to hear audi- ī

a. Note that the present stem of each conjugation is found by dropping -re, the ending of the present infinitive.

Note. The present infinitive of sum is esse, and es- is the present stem.

127. From the present stem are formed the present, imperfect, and future tenses.

128. The inflection of the Present Active Indicative of the first and of the second conjugation is as follows:

a´mō, amā´re (love) mo´neō, monē´re (advise)
Pres. Stem amā- Pres. Stem monē- PERSONAL
ENDINGS
Sing. 1. a´mō, I love mo´neō, I advise
2. a´mās, you love mo´nēs, you advise -s
3. a´mat, he (she, it) loves mo´net, he (she, it) advises -t
Plur. 1. amā´mus, we love monē´mus, we advise -mus
2. amā´tis, you love monē´tis, you advise -tis
3. a´mant, they love mo´nent, they advise -nt

1. The present tense is inflected by adding the personal endings to the present stem, and its first person uses -o and not -m. The form amō is for amā-ō, the two vowels ā-ō contracting to ō. In moneō there is no contraction. Nearly all regular verbs ending in -eo belong to the second conjugation.

2. Note that the long final vowel of the stem is shortened before another vowel (monē-ō = mo´nĕō), and before final -t (amăt, monĕt) and -nt (amănt, monĕnt). Compare § 12. 2.

129. Like amō and moneō inflect the present active indicative of the following verbs2:

2. The only new verbs in this list are the five of the second conjugation which are starred. Learn their meanings.
Indicative Present Infinitive Present
a´rō, I plow arā´re, to plow
cū´rō, I care for cūrā´re, to care for
*dē´leō, I destroy dēlē´re, to destroy
dēsī´derō, I long for dēsīderā´re, to long for
,3 I give da´re, to give
*ha´beō, I have habē´re, to have
ha´bitō, I live, I dwell habitā´re, to live, to dwell
*iu´beō, I order iubē´re, to order
labō´rō, I labor labōrā´re, to labor
lau´dō, I praise laudā´re, to praise
mātū´rō, I hasten mātūrā´re, to hasten
*mo´veō, I move movē´re, to move
nār´rō, I tell nārrā´re, to tell
ne´cō, I kill necā´re, to kill
nūn´tiō, I announce nūntiā´re, to announce
pa´rō, I prepare parā´re, to prepare
por´tō, I carry portā´re, to carry
pro´perō, I hasten properā´re, to hasten
pug´nō, I fight pugnā´re, to fight
*vi´deō, I see vidē´re, to see
vo´cō, I call vocā´re, to call
3. Observe that in dō, dăre, the a is short, and that the present stem is dă- and not dā-. The only forms of that have a long are dās (pres. indic.), (pres. imv.), and dāns (pres. part.).

130. The Translation of the Present. In English there are three ways of expressing present action. We may say, for example, I live, I am living, or I do live. In Latin the one expression habitō covers all three of these expressions.

131. EXERCISES

Give the voice, mood, tense, person, and number of each form.

I. 1. Vocāmus, properātis, iubent. 2. Movētis, laudās, vidēs. 3. Dēlētis, habētis, dant. 4. Mātūrās, dēsīderat, vidēmus. 5. Iubet, movent, necat. 6. Nārrāmus, movēs, vident. 7. Labōrātis, properant, portās, parant. 8. Dēlet, habētis, iubēmus, dās.

N.B. Observe that the personal ending is of prime importance in translating a Latin verb form. Give that your first attention.

II. 1. We plow, we are plowing, we do plow. 2. They care for, they are caring for, they do care for. 3. You give, you are having, you do have (sing.). 4. We destroy, I do long for, they are living. 5. He calls, they see, we are telling. 6. We do fight, we order, he is moving, he prepares. 7. They are laboring, we kill, you announce.

LESSON XX
IMPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF AMŌ AND MONEŌ

132. Tense Signs. Instead of using auxiliary verbs to express differences in tense, like was, shall, will, etc., Latin adds to the verb stem certain elements that have the force of auxiliary verbs. These are called tense signs.

133. Formation and Inflection of the Imperfect. The tense sign of the imperfect is -bā-, which is added to the present stem. The imperfect consists, therefore, of three parts:

Present Stem Tense Sign PERSONAL
ENDING
amā- ba- m
loving was I

The inflection is as follows:

Conjugation I Conjugation II
SINGULAR PERSONAL
ENDINGS
1. amā´bam, I was loving monē´bam, I was advising -m
2. amā´bās, you were loving monē´bās, you were advising -s
3. amā´bat, he was loving monē´bat, he was advising -t
PLURAL
1. amābā´mus, we were loving monēbā´mus, we were advising -mus
2. amābā´tis, you were loving monēbā´tis, you were advising -tis
3. amā´bant, they were loving monē´bant, they were advising -nt

a. Note that the ā of the tense sign -bā- is shortened before -nt, and before m and t when final. (Cf. § 12. 2.)

In a similar manner inflect the verbs given in § 129.

134. Meaning of the Imperfect. The Latin imperfect describes an act as going on or progressing in past time, like the English past-progressive tense (as, I was walking). It is the regular tense used to describe a past situation or condition of affairs.

135. EXERCISES

I. 1. Vidēbāmus, dēsīderābat, mātūrābās. 2. Dabant, vocābātis, dēlēbāmus. 3. Pugnant, laudābās, movēbātis. 4. Iubēbant, properābātis, portābāmus. 5. Dabās, nārrābant, labōrābātis. 6. Vidēbant, movēbās, nūntiābāmus. 7. Necābat, movēbam, habēbat, parābātis.

II. 1. You were having (sing. and plur.), we were killing, they were laboring. 2. He was moving, we were ordering, we were fighting. 3. We were telling, they were seeing, he was calling. 4. They were living, I was longing for, we were destroying. 5. You were giving, you were moving, you were announcing, (sing. and plur.). 6. They were caring for, he was plowing, we were praising.

136. Ni´obe and her Children

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 287.

Niobē, rēgina Thēbānōrum, erat pulchra fēmina sed superba. Erat superba nōn sōlum fōrmā1 suā marītīque potentiā1 sed etiam magnō līberōrum numerō.1 Nam habēbat2 septem fīliōs et septem fīliās. Sed ea superbia erat rēgīnae3 causa magnae trīstitiae et līberīs3 causa dūrae poenae.

Note. The words Niobē, Thēbānōrum, and marītī will be found in the general vocabulary. Translate the selection without looking up any other words.

1. Ablative of cause.
2. Translate had; it denotes a past situation. (See § 134.)
3. Dative, cf. § 43.
LESSON XXI
FUTURE ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF AMŌ AND MONEŌ

137. The tense sign of the Future Indicative in the first and second conjugations is -bi-. This is joined to the present stem of the verb and followed by the personal ending, as follows:

Present Stem Tense Sign PERSONAL
ENDING
amā- bi- s
love will you

138. The Future Active Indicative is inflected as follows.

Conjugation I Conjugation II
SINGULAR
1. amā´, I shall love monē´, I shall advise
2. amā´bis, you will love monē´bis, you will advise
3. amā´bit, he will love monē´bit, he will advise
PLURAL
1. amā´bimus, we shall love monē´bimus, we shall advise
2. amā´bitis will love monē´bitis, you will advise
3. amā´bunt, they will love monē´bunt, they will advise

a. The personal endings are as in the present. The ending -bō in the first person singular is contracted from -bi-ō. The -bi- appears as -bu- in the third person plural. Note that the inflection is like that of erō, the future of sum. Pay especial attention to the accent.

In a similar manner inflect the verbs given in § 129.

139. EXERCISES

I. 1. Movēbitis, laudābis, arābō. 2. Dēlēbitis, vocābitis, dabunt. 3. Mātūrābis, dēsīderābit, vidēbimus. 4. Habēbit, movēbunt, necābit. 5. Nārrābimus, monēbis, vidēbunt. 6. Labōrābitis, cūrābunt, dabis. 7. Habitābimus, properābitis, iubēbunt, parābit. 8. Nūntiābō, portābimus, iubēbō.

II. 1. We shall announce, we shall see, I shall hasten. 2. I shall carry, he will plow, they will care for. 3. You will announce, you will move, you will give, (sing. and plur.). 4. We shall fight, we shall destroy, I shall long for. 5. He will call, they will see, you will tell (plur.). 6. They will dwell, we shall order, he will praise. 7. They will labor, we shall kill, you will have (sing. and plur.), he will destroy.

140. Niobe and her Children (Concluded)

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288.

Apollō et Diāna erant līberī Lātōnae. Iīs Thēbānī sacra crēbra parābant.1 Oppidānī amābant Lātōnam et līberōs eius. Id superbae rēgīnae erat molestum. “Cūr,” inquit, “Lātōnae et līberīs sacra parātis? Duōs līberōs habet Lātōna; quattuordecim habeō ego. Ubi sunt mea sacra?” Lātōna iīs verbīs2 īrāta līberōs suōs vocat. Ad eam volant Apollō Diānaque et sagittīs3 suīs miserōs līberōs rēgīnae superbae dēlent. Niobē, nūper laeta, nunc misera, sedet apud līberōs interfectōs et cum perpetuīs lacrimīs4 eōs dēsīderat.

Note. Consult the general vocabulary for Apollō, inquit, duōs, and quattuordecim. Try to remember the meaning of all the other words.

1. Observe the force of the imperfect here, used to prepare, were in the habit of preparing; so amābant denotes a past situation of affairs. (See § 134.)
2. Ablative of cause.
3. Ablative of means.
4. This may be either manner or accompaniment. It is often impossible to draw a sharp line between means, manner, and accompaniment. The Romans themselves drew no sharp distinction. It was enough for them if the general idea demanded the ablative case.
LESSON XXII
REVIEW OF VERBS · THE DATIVE WITH ADJECTIVES

141. Review the present, imperfect, and future active indicative, both orally and in writing, of sum and the verbs in § 129.

142. We learned in § 43 for what sort of expressions we may expect the dative, and in § 44 that one of its commonest uses is with verbs to express the indirect object. It is also very common with adjectives to express the object toward which the quality denoted by the adjective is directed. We have already had a number of cases where grātus, agreeable to, was so followed by a dative; and in the last lesson we had molestus, annoying to, followed by that case. The usage may be more explicitly stated by the following rule:

143. Rule. Dative with Adjectives. The dative is used with adjectives to denote the object toward which the given quality is directed. Such are, especially, those meaning near, also fit, friendly, pleasing, like, and their opposites.

144. Among such adjectives memorize the following:

idōneus, -a, -um, fit, suitable (for)

amīcus, -a, -um, friendly (to)

inimīcus, -a, -um, hostile (to)

grātus, -a, -um, pleasing (to), agreeable (to)

molestus, -a, -um, annoying (to), troublesome (to)

fīnitimus, -a, -um, neighboring (to)

proximus, -a, -um, nearest, next (to)

145. EXERCISES

I. 1. Rōmānī terram idōneam agrī cultūrae habent. 2. Gallī cōpiīs Rōmānīs inimīcī erant. 3. Cui dea Lātōna amīca non erat? 4. Dea Lātōna superbae rēgīnae amīca nōn erat. 5. Cibus noster, Mārce, erit armātīs virīs grātus. 6. Quid erat molestum populīs Italiae? 7. Bella longa cum Gallīs erant molesta populīs Italiae. 8. Agrī Germānōrum fluviō Rhēnō fīnitimī erant. 9. Rōmānī ad silvam oppidō proximam castra movēbant. 10. Nōn sōlum fōrma sed etiam superbia rēgīnae erat magna. 11. Mox rēgīna pulchra erit aegra trīstitiā. 12. Cūr erat Niobē, rēgīna Thēbānōrum, laeta? Laeta erat Niobē multīs fīliīs et fīliābus.

II. 1. The sacrifices of the people will be annoying to the haughty queen. 2. The sacrifices were pleasing not only to Latona but also to Diana. 3. Diana will destroy those hostile to Latona. 4. The punishment of the haughty queen was pleasing to the goddess Diana. 5. The Romans will move their forces to a large field1 suitable for a camp. 6. Some of the allies were friendly to the Romans, others to the Gauls.

1. Why not the dative?

146. Cornelia and her Jewels

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288.

Apud antīquās dominās, Cornēlia, Āfricānī fīlia, erat2 maximē clāra. Fīliī eius erant Tiberius Gracchus et Gāius Gracchus. Iī puerī cum Cornēliā in oppidō Rōmā, clārō Italiae oppidō, habitābant. Ibi eōs cūrābat Cornēlia et ibi magnō cum studiō eōs docēbat. Bona fēmina erat Cornēlia et bonam disciplīnam maximē amābat.

Note. Can you translate the paragraph above? There are no new words.

2. Observe that all the imperfects denote continued or progressive action, or describe a state of affairs. (Cf. § 134.)
LESSON XXIII
PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF REGŌ AND AUDIŌ

147. As we learned in § 126, the present stem of the third conjugation ends in , and of the fourth in . The inflection of the Present Indicative is as follows:

Conjugation III Conjugation IV
re´gō, re´gere (rule) au´diō, audī´re (hear)
Pres. Stem regĕ- Pres. Stem audī-
SINGULAR
1. re´gō, I rule au´diō, I hear
2. re´gis, you rule au´dīs, you hear
3. re´git, he (she, it) rules au´dit, he (she, it) hears
PLURAL
1. re´gimus, we rule audī´mus, we hear
2. re´gitis, you rule audī´tis, you hear
3. re´gunt, they rule au´diunt, they hear

1. The personal endings are the same as before.

2. The final short -e- of the stem regĕ- combines with the in the first person, becomes -u- in the third person plural, and becomes -ĭ- elsewhere. The inflection is like that of erō, the future of sum.

3. In audiō the personal endings are added regularly to the stem audī-. In the third person plural -u- is inserted between the stem and the personal ending, as audi-u-nt. Note that the long vowel of the stem is shortened before final -t just as in amō and moneō. (Cf. § 12. 2.)

Note that -i- is always short in the third conjugation and long in the fourth, excepting where long vowels are regularly shortened. (Cf. § 12. 1, 2.)

148. Like regō and audiō inflect the present active indicative of the following verbs:

Indicative Present Infinitive Present
agō, I drive agere, to drive
dīcō, I say dīcere, to say
dūcō, I lead dūcere, to lead
mittō, I send mittere, to send
mūniō, I fortify mūnīre, to fortify
reperiō, I find reperīre, to find
veniō, I come venīre, to come

149. EXERCISES

I. 1. Quis agit? Cūr venit? Quem mittit? Quem dūcis? 2. Quid mittunt? Ad quem veniunt? Cuius castra mūniunt? 3. Quem agunt? Venīmus. Quid puer reperit? 4. Quem mittimus? Cuius equum dūcitis? Quid dīcunt? 5. Mūnīmus, venītis, dīcit. 6. Agimus, reperītis, mūnīs. 7. Reperis, ducitis, dīcis. 8. Agitis, audimus, regimus.

II. 1. What do they find? Whom do they hear? Why does he come? 2. Whose camp are we fortifying? To whom does he say? What are we saying? 3. I am driving, you are leading, they are hearing. 4. You send, he says, you fortify (sing. and plur.). 5. I am coming, we find, they send. 6. They lead, you drive, he does fortify. 7. You lead, you find, you rule, (all plur.).

150. Cornelia and her Jewels (Concluded)

Proximum domicīliō Cornēliae erat pulchrae Campānae domicilium. Campāna erat superba nōn sōlum fōrmā suā sed maximē ōrnāmentīs suīs. Ea1 laudābat semper. “Habēsne tū ūlla ornāmenta, Cornēlia?” inquit. “Ubi sunt tua ōrnāmenta?” Deinde Cornēlia fīliōs suōs Tiberium et Gāium vocat. “Puerī meī,” inquit, “sunt mea ōrnāmenta. Nam bonī līberī sunt semper bonae fēminae ōrnāmenta maximē clāra.”

Note. The only new words here are Campāna, semper, and .

1. Ea, accusative plural neuter.

Cornelia with her sons
“PUERI MEI SUNT MEA ORNAMENTA”

LESSON XXIV
IMPERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF REGŌ AND AUDIŌ · THE DATIVE WITH SPECIAL INTRANSITIVE VERBS

151. PARADIGMS

Conjugation III Conjugation IV
SINGULAR
1. regē´bam, I was ruling audiē´bam, I was hearing
2. regē´bās, you were riding audiē´bās, you were hearing
3. regē´bat, he was ruling audiē´bat, he was hearing
PLURAL
1. regēbā´mus, we were ruling audiēbā´mus, we were hearing
2. regēbā´tis, you were ruling audiēbā´tis, you were hearing
3. regē´bant, they were ruling audiē´bant, they were hearing

1. The tense sign is -bā-, as in the first two conjugations.

2. Observe that the final -ĕ- of the stem is lengthened before the tense sign -bā-. This makes the imperfect of the third conjugation just like the imperfect of the second (cf. monēbam and regēbam).

3. In the fourth conjugation -ē- is inserted between the stem and the tense sign -bā- (audi-ē-ba-m).

4. In a similar manner inflect the verbs given in § 148.

152. EXERCISES

I. 1. Agēbat, veniēbat, mittēbat, dūcēbant. 2. Agēbant, mittēbant, dūcēbas, mūniēbant. 3. Mittēbāmus, dūcēbātis, dīcēbant. 4. Mūniēbāmus, veniēbātis, dīcēbās. 5. Mittēbās, veniēbāmus, reperiēbat. 6. Reperiēbās, veniēbās, audiēbātis. 7. Agēbāmus, reperiēbātis, mūniēbat. 8. Agēbātis, dīcēbam, mūniēbam.

II. 1. They were leading, you were driving (sing. and plur.), he was fortifying. 2. They were sending, we were finding, I was coming. 3. You were sending, you were fortifying, (sing. and plur.), he was saying. 4. They were hearing, you were leading (sing. and plur.), I was driving. 5. We were saying, he was sending, I was fortifying. 6. They were coming, he was hearing, I was finding. 7. You were ruling (sing. and plur.), we were coming, they were ruling.

153. The Dative with Special Intransitive Verbs. We learned above (§ 20. a) that a verb which does not admit of a direct object is called an intransitive verb. Many such verbs, however, are of such meaning that they can govern an indirect object, which will, of course, be in the dative case (§ 45). Learn the following list of intransitive verbs with their meanings. In each case the dative indirect object is the person or thing to which a benefit, injury, or feeling is directed. (Cf. § 43.)

crēdō, crēdere, believe (give belief to)

faveō, favēre, favor (show favor to)

noceō, nocēre, injure (do harm to)

pāreō, pārēre, obey (give obedience to)

persuādeō, persuādēre, persuade (offer persuasion to)

resistō, resistere, resist (offer resistance to)

studeō, studēre, be eager for (give attention to)

154. Rule. Dative with Intransitive Verbs. The dative of the indirect object is used with the intransitive verbs crēdō, faveō, noceō, pāreō, persuādeō, resistō, studeō, and others of like meaning.

155. EXERCISE

1. Crēdisne verbīs sociōrum? Multī verbīs eōrum nōn crēdunt. 2. Meī fīnitimī cōnsiliō tuō nōn favēbunt, quod bellō student. 3. Tiberius et Gāius disciplīnae dūrae nōn resistēbant et Cornēliae pārēbant. 4. Dea erat inimīca septem fīliābus rēgīnae. 5. Dūra poena et perpetua trīstitia rēgīnae nōn persuādēbunt. 6. Nūper ea resistēbat et nunc resistit potentiae Lātōnae. 7. Mox sagittae volābunt et līberīs miserīs nocēbunt.

LESSON XXV
FUTURE ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF REGŌ AND AUDIŌ

156. In the future tense of the third and fourth conjugations we meet with a new tense sign. Instead of using -bi-, as in the first and second conjugations, we use -ā-1 in the first person singular and -ē- in the rest of the tense. In the third conjugation the final -ĕ- of the stem is dropped before this tense sign; in the fourth conjugation the final -ī- of the stem is retained.2

1. The -ā- is shortened before -m final, and -ē- before -t final and before -nt. (Cf. § 12. 2.)
2. The -ī- is, of course, shortened, being before another vowel. (Cf. § 12. 1.)

157. PARADIGMS

Conjugation III Conjugation IV
SINGULAR
1. re´gam, I shall rule au´diam, I shall hear
2. re´gēs, you will rule au´diēs, you will hear
3. re´get, he will rule au´diet, he will hear
PLURAL
1. regē´mus, we shall rule audiē´mus, we shall hear
2. regē´tis, you will rule audiē´tis, you will hear
3. re´gent, they will rule au´dient, they will hear

1. Observe that the future of the third conjugation is like the present of the second, excepting in the first person singular.

2. In the same manner inflect the verbs given in § 148.

158. EXERCISES

I. 1. Dīcet, dūcētis, mūniēmus. 2. Dīcent, dīcētis, mittēmus. 3. Mūnient, venient, mittent, agent. 4. Dūcet, mittēs, veniet, aget. 5. Mūniet, reperiētis, agēmus. 6. Mittam, veniēmus, regent. 7. Audiētis, veniēs, reperiēs. 8. Reperiet, agam, dūcēmus, mittet. 9. Vidēbitis, sedēbō, vocābimus.

II. 1. I shall find, he will hear, they will come. 2. I shall fortify, he will send, we shall say. 3. I shall drive, you will lead, they will hear. 4. You will send, you will fortify, (sing. and plur.), he will say. 5. I shall come, we shall find, they will send.

6. Who3 will believe the story? I4 shall believe the story. 7. Whose friends do you favor? We favor our friends. 8. Who will resist our weapons? Sextus will resist your weapons. 9. Who will persuade him? They will persuade him. 10. Why were you injuring my horse? I was not injuring your horse. 11. Whom does a good slave obey? A good slave obeys his master. 12. Our men were eager for another battle.

3. Remember that quis, who, is singular in number.
4. Express by ego, because it is emphatic.
LESSON XXVI
VERBS IN -IŌ OF THE THIRD CONJUGATION · THE IMPERATIVE MOOD

159. There are a few common verbs ending in -iō which do not belong to the fourth conjugation, as you might infer, but to the third. The fact that they belong to the third conjugation is shown by the ending of the infinitive. (Cf. § 126.) Compare

audiō, audī´re (hear), fourth conjugation

capiō, ca´pere (take), third conjugation

160. The present, imperfect, and future active indicative of capiō are inflected as follows:

capiō, capere, take
Pres. Stem cape-
Present Imperfect Future
SINGULAR
1. ca´piō capiē´bam ca´piam
2. ca´pis capiē´bās ca´piēs
3. ca´pit capiē´bat ca´piet
PLURAL
1. ca´pimus capiēbā´mus capiē´mus
2. ca´pitis capiēbā´tis capiē´tis
3. ca´piunt capiē´bant ca´pient

1. Observe that capiō and the other -iō verbs follow the fourth conjugation wherever in the fourth conjugation two vowels occur in succession. (Cf. capiō, audiō; capiunt, audiunt; and all the imperfect and future.) All other forms are like the third conjugation. (Cf. capis, regis; capit, regit; etc.)

2. Like capiō, inflect

faciō, facere, make, do

fugiō, fugere, flee

iaciō, iacere, hurl

rapiō, rapere, seize

161. The Imperative Mood. The imperative mood expresses a command; as, come! send! The present tense of the imperative is used only in the second person, singular and plural. The singular in the active voice is regularly the same in form as the present stem. The plural is formed by adding -te to the singular.

Conjugation Singular Plural
I. amā, love thou amā´te, love ye
II. monē, advise thou monē´te, advise ye
III. (a) rege, rule thou re´gite, rule ye
(b) cape, take thou ca´pite, take ye
IV. audī, hear thou audī´te, hear ye
sum (irregular) es, be thou este, be ye

1. In the third conjugation the final -ĕ- of the stem becomes -ĭ- in the plural.

2. The verbs dīcō, say; dūcō, lead; and faciō, make, have the irregular forms dīc, dūc, and fac in the singular.

3. Give the present active imperative, singular and plural, of veniō, dūcō, vocō, doceō, laudō, dīcō, sedeō, agō, faciō, mūniō, mittō, rapiō.

162. EXERCISES

I. 1. Fugient, faciunt, iaciēbat. 2. Dēlē, nūntiāte, fugiunt. 3. Venīte, dīc, faciētis. 4. Dūcite, iaciam, fugiēbant. 5. Fac, iaciēbāmus, fugimus, rapite. 6. Sedēte, reperī, docēte. 7. Fugiēmus, iacient, rapiēs. 8. Reperient, rapiēbātis, nocent. 9. Favēte, resistē, pārēbitis.

10. Volā ad multās terrās et dā auxilium. 11. Ego tēla mea capiam et multās ferās dēlēbō. 12. Quis fābulae tuae crēdet? 13. Este bonī, puerī, et audīte verba grāta magistrī.

II. 1. The goddess will seize her arms and will hurl her weapons. 2. With her weapons she will destroy many beasts. 3. She will give aid to the weak.1 4. She will fly to many lands and the beasts will flee. 5. Romans, tell2 the famous story to your children.

1. Plural. An adjective used as a noun. (Cf. § 99. II. 3.)
2. Imperative. The imperative generally stands first, as in English.

Third Review, Lessons XVIII-XXVI, §§ 510-512

LESSON XXVII
THE PASSIVE VOICE · PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE OF AMŌ AND MONEŌ

163. The Voices. Thus far the verb forms have been in the active voice; that is, they have represented the subject as performing an action; as,

The lion——> killed——> the hunter

A verb is said to be in the passive voice when it represents its subject as receiving an action; as,

The lion <—— was killed <—— by the hunter

Note the direction of the arrows.

164. Passive Personal Endings. In the passive voice we use a different set of personal endings. They are as follows:

Sing. 1. -r, I Plur. 1. -mur, we
2. -ris, -re, you 2. -minī, you
3. -tur, he, she, it 3. -ntur, they

a. Observe that the letter -r appears somewhere in all but one of the endings. This is sometimes called the passive sign.

165. PARADIGMS

amō, amāre monēo, monēre
Pres. Stem amā- Pres. Stem monē-
Present Indicative PERSONAL
ENDINGS
Sing.

a´mor, I am loved

mo´neor, I am advised

-or1

amā´ris or amā´re, you are loved

monē´ris or monē´re, you are advised

-ris or -re

amā´tur, he is loved

monē´tur, he is advised

-tur
Plur.

amā´mur, we are loved

monē´mur, we are advised

-mur

amā´minī, you are loved

monē´minī, you are advised

-mini

aman´tur, they are loved

monen´tur, they are advised

-ntur
 
Imperfect Indicative (Tense Sign -bā-)
Sing.

amā´bar, I was being loved

monē´bar, I was being advised

-r

amābā´ris or amābā´re, you were being loved

monēbā´ris or monēbā´re, you were being advised

-ris or -re

amābā´tur, he was being loved

monēbā´tur, he was being advised

-tur
Plur.

amābā´mur, we were being loved

monēbā´mur, we were being advised

-mur

amābā´minī, you were being loved

monēbā´minī, you were being advised

-minī

amāban´tur, they were being loved

monēban´tur, they were being advised

-ntur
 
Future (Tense Sign -bi-)
Sing.

amā´bor, I shall be loved

monē´bor, I shall be advised

-r

amā´beris or amā´bere, you will be loved

monē´beris or monē´bere, you will be advised

-ris or -re

amā´bitur, he will be loved

monē´bitur, he will be advised

-tur
Plur.

amā´bimur, we shall be loved

monē´bimur, we shall be advised

-mur

amābi´minī, you will be loved

monēbi´minī, you will be advised

-minī

amābun´tur, they will be loved

monēbun´tur, they will be advised

-ntur
1. In the present the personal ending of the first person singular is -or.

1. The tense sign and the personal endings are added as in the active.

2. In the future the tense sign -bi- appears as -bo- in the first person, -be- in the second, singular number, and as -bu- in the third person plural.

3. Inflect laudō, necō, portō, moveō, dēleō, iubeō, in the present, imperfect, and future indicative, active and passive.

166. Intransitive verbs, such as mātūrō, I hasten; habitō, I dwell, do not have a passive voice with a personal subject.

167. EXERCISES

I. 1. Laudāris or laudāre, laudās, datur, dat. 2. Dabitur, dabit, vidēminī, vidētis. 3. Vocābat, vocābātur, dēlēbitis, dēlēbiminī. 4. Parābātur, parābat, cūrās, cūrāris or cūrāre. 5. Portābantur, portābant, vidēbimur, vidēbimus. 6. Iubēris or iubēre, iubēs, laudābāris or laudābāre, laudābās. 7. Movēberis or movēbere, movēbis, dabantur, dabant. 8. Dēlentur, dēlent, parābāmur, parābāmus.

II. 1. We prepare, we are prepared, I shall be called, I shall call, you were carrying, you were being carried. 2. I see, I am seen, it was being announced, he was announcing, they will order, they will be ordered. 3. You will be killed, you will kill, you move, you are moved, we are praising, we are being praised. 4. I am called, I call, you will have, you are cared for. 5. They are seen, they see, we were teaching, we were being taught, they will move, they will be moved.

Perseus saves Andromeda
PERSEUS ANDROMEDAM SERVAT

168. Per´seus and Androm´eda

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288.

Perseus fīlius erat Iovis,2 maximī3 deōrum. Dē eō multās fabulās nārrant poētae. Eī favent deī, eī magica arma et ālās dant. Eīs tēlīs armātus et ālīs frētus ad multās terrās volābat et mōnstra saeva dēlēbat et miserīs īnfīrmīsque auxilium dabat. Aethiopia est terra Āfricae. Eam terram Cēpheus5 regēbat. Eī6 Neptūnus, maximus aquārum deus, erat īrātus et mittit7 mōnstrum saevum ad Aethiopiam. Ibi mōnstrum nōn sōlum lātīs pulchrīsque Aethiopiae agrīs nocēbat sed etiam domicilia agricolārum dēlēbat, et multōs virōs, fēminās, līberōsque necābat. Populus ex agrīs fugiēbat et oppida mūrīs validīs mūniēbat. Tum Cēpheus magnā trīstitiā commōtus ad Iovis ōrāculum properat et ita dīcit: “Amīcī meī necantur; agrī meī vāstantur. Audī verba mea, Iuppiter. Dā miserīs auxilium. Age mōnstrum saevum ex patriā.”

2. Iovis, the genitive of Iuppiter.
3. Used substantively, the greatest. So below, l. 4, miserīs and īnfīrmīs are used substantively.
4. Pronounce in two syllables, Ce´pheus.
5. , at him, dative with īrātus.
6. The present is often used, as in English, in speaking of a past action, in order to make the story more vivid and exciting.
LESSON XXVIII
PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE PASSIVE OF REGŌ AND AUDIŌ

169. Review the present, imperfect, and future indicative active of regō and audiō, and learn the passive of the same tenses (§§ 490, 491).

a. Observe that the tense signs of the imperfect and future are the same as in the active voice, and that the passive personal endings (§ 164) are added instead of the active ones.

b. Note the slight irregularity in the second person singular present of the third conjugation. There the final -e- of the stem is not changed to -i-, as it is in the active. We therefore have re´geris or re´gere, not re´giris, re´gire.

c. Inflect agō, dīcō, dūcō, mūniō, reperiō, in the present, imperfect, and future indicative, active and passive.

170. EXERCISES

I. 1. Agēbat, agēbātur, mittēbat, mittēbātur, dūcēbat. 2. Agunt, aguntur, mittuntur, mittunt, mūniunt. 3. Mittor, mittar, mittam, dūcēre, dūcere. 4. Dīcēmur, dīcimus, dīcēmus, dīcimur, mūniēbaminī. 5. Dūcitur, dūciminī, reperīmur, reperiar, agitur. 6. Agēbāmus, agēbāmur, reperīris, reperiēminī. 7. Mūnīminī, veniēbam, dūcēbar, dīcētur. 8. Mittiminī, mittitis, mittēris, mitteris, agēbāminī. 9. Dīcitur, dīcit, mūniuntur, reperient, audientur.

II. 1. I was being driven, I was driving, we were leading, we were being led, he says, it is said. 2. I shall send, I shall be sent, you will find, you will be found, they lead, they are led. 3. I am found, we are led, they are driven, you were being led (sing. and plur.). 4. We shall drive, we shall be driven, he leads, he is being led, they will come, they will be fortified. 5. They were ruling, they were being ruled, you will send, you will be sent, you are sent, (sing. and plur.). 6. He was being led, he will come, you are said (sing. and plur.).

171. Perseus and Andromeda (Continued)

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 288.

Tum ōrāculum ita respondet: “Mala est fortūna tua. Neptūnus, magnus aquārum deus, terrae Aethiopiae inimīcus, eās poenās mittit. Sed parā īrātō deō sacrum idōneum et mōnstrum saevum ex patriā tuā agētur. Andromeda fīlia tua est mōnstrō grāta. Dā eam mōnstrō. Servā cāram patriam et vītam populī tuī.” Andromeda autem erat puella pulchra. Eam amābat Cēpheus maximē.

LESSON XXIX
PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE PASSIVE OF -IŌ VERBS · PRESENT PASSIVE INFINITIVE AND IMPERATIVE

172. Review the active voice of capiō, present, imperfect, and future, and learn the passive of the same tenses (§ 492).

a. The present forms capior and capiuntur are like audior, audiuntur, and the rest of the tense is like regor.

b. In like manner inflect the passive of iaciō and rapiō.

173. The Infinitive. The infinitive mood gives the general meaning of the verb without person or number; as, amāre, to love. Infinitive means unlimited. The forms of the other moods, being limited by person and number, are called the finite, or limited, verb forms.

174. The forms of the Present Infinitive, active and passive, are as follows:

Conj. Pres. Stem Pres. Infinitive Active Pres. Infinitive Passive
I. amā- amā´re, to love amā´, to be loved
II. monē- monē´re, to advise monē´, to be advised
III. rege- re´gere, to rule re´gī, to be ruled
cape- ca´pere, to take ca´pī, to be taken
IV. audī- audī´re, to hear audī, to be heard

1. Observe that to form the present active infinitive we add -re to the present stem.

a. The present infinitive of sum is esse. There is no passive.

2. Observe that the present passive infinitive is formed from the active by changing final -e to , except in the third conjugation, which changes final -ere to .

3. Give the active and passive present infinitives of doceō, sedeō, volō, cūrō, mittō, dūcō, mūniō, reperiō, iaciō, rapiō.

175. The forms of the Present Imperative, active and passive, are as follows:

Active1 Passive
CONJ. SING. PLUR. SING. PLUR.
I. a´mā amā´te amā´re, be thou loved amā´minī, be ye loved
II. mo´nē monē´te monē´re, be thou advised monē´minī, be ye advised
III. re´ge re´gite re´gere, be thou ruled regi´minī, be ye ruled
ca´pe ca´pite ca´pere, be thou taken capi´minī, be ye taken
IV. au´dī audī´te audī´re, be thou heard audī´minī, be ye heard

1. Observe that the second person singular of the present passive imperative is like the present active infinitive, and that both singular and plural are like the second person singular2 and plural, respectively, of the present passive indicative.

2. Give the present imperative, both active and passive, of the verbs in § 174. 3.

1. For the sake of comparison the active is repeated from § 161.
2. That is, using the personal ending -re. A form like amāre may be either indicative, infinitive, or imperative.

176. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 289.

I. 1. Tum Perseus ālīs ad terrās multās volabit. 2. Mōnstrum saevum per aquās properat et mox agrōs nostrōs vāstābit. 3. Sī autem Cēpheus ad ōrāculum properābit, ōrāculum ita respondēbit. 4. Quis tēlīs Perseī superābitur? Multa mōnstra tēlīs eius superābuntur. 5. Cum cūrīs magnīs et lacrimīs multīs agricolae ex domiciliīs cārīs aguntur. 6. Multa loca vāstābantur et multa oppida dēlēbantur. 7. Mōnstrum est validum, tamen superābitur. 8. Crēdēsne semper verbīs ōrāculī? Ego iīs non semper crēdam. 9. Pārēbitne Cēpheus ōrāculō? Verba ōrāculī eī persuādēbunt. 10. Si nōn fugiēmus, oppidum capiētur et oppidānī necābuntur. 11. Vocāte puerōs et nārrāte fābulam clāram dē mōnstrō saevō.

II. 1. Fly thou, to be cared for, be ye sent, lead thou. 2. To lead, to be led, be ye seized, fortify thou. 3. To be hurled, to fly, send thou, to be found. 4. To be sent, be ye led, to hurl, to be taken. 5. Find thou, hear ye, be ye ruled, to be fortified.

LESSON XXX
SYNOPSES IN THE FOUR CONJUGATIONS · THE ABLATIVE DENOTING FROM

177. You should learn to give rapidly synopses of the verbs you have had, as follows:1

Conjugation I Conjugation II
Indicative
ACTIVE PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE
Pres. a´mō a´mor mo´neō mo´neor
Imperf. amā´bam amā´bar monē´bam monē´bar
Fut. amā´bo amā´bor monē´bo monē´bor
Imperative
Pres. a´mā amā´re mo´nē monē´re
Infinitive
Pres. amā´re amā´ monē´re monē´
 
Conjugation III Conjugation III
(-iō verbs)
Indicative
ACTIVE PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE
Pres. re´gō re´gor ca´piō ca´pior
Imperf. regē´bam regē´bar capiē´bam capiē´bar
Fut. re´gam re´gar ca´piam ca´piar
Imperative
Pres. re´ge re´gere ca´pe ca´pere
Infinitive
Pres. re´gere re´gī ca´pere ca´pī
 
Conjugation IV
Indicative
ACTIVE PASSIVE
Pres. au´d au´dior
Imperf. audiē´bam audiē´bar
Fut. au´diam au´diar
Imperative
Pres. au´dī audī´re
Infinitive
Pres. audī´re audī´rī
1. Synopses should be given not only in the first person, but in other persons as well, particularly in the third singular and plural.

1. Give the synopsis of rapiō, mūniō, reperiō, doceō, videō, dīcō, agō, laudō, portō, and vary the person and number.

178. We learned in § 50 that one of the three relations covered by the ablative case is expressed in English by the preposition from. This is sometimes called the separative ablative, and it has a number of special uses. You have already grown familiar with the first mentioned below.

179. Rule. Ablative of the Place From. The place from which is expressed by the ablative with the prepositions ā or ab, , ē or ex.

Agricolae ex agrīs veniunt, the farmers come from the fields

a. ā or ab denotes from near a place; ē or ex, out from it; and , down from it. This may be represented graphically as follows:

(see end of file for text diagram)

180. Rule. Ablative of Separation. Words expressing separation or deprivation require an ablative to complete their meaning.

a. If the separation is actual and literal of one material thing from another, the preposition ā or ab, ē or ex, or is generally used. If no actual motion takes place of one thing from another, no preposition is necessary.

(a)

Perseus terram ā mōnstrīs līberat

Perseus frees the land from monsters (literal separation— actual motion is expressed)

(b)

Perseus terram trīstitiā līberat

Perseus frees the land from sorrow (figurative separation— no actual motion is expressed)

181. Rule. Ablative of the Personal Agent. The word expressing the person from whom an action starts, when not the subject, is put in the ablative with the preposition ā or ab.

a. In this construction the English translation of ā, ab is by rather than from. This ablative is regularly used with passive verbs to indicate the person by whom the act was performed.

Mōnstrum ā Perseō necātur, the monster is being slain by (lit. from) Perseus

b. Note that the active form of the above sentence would be Perseus monstrum necat, Perseus is slaying the monster. In the passive the object of the active verb becomes the subject, and the subject of the active verb becomes the ablative of the personal agent, with ā or ab.

c. Distinguish carefully between the ablative of means and the ablative of the personal agent. Both are often translated into English by the preposition by. (Cf. § 100. b.) Means is a thing; the agent or actor is a person. The ablative of means has no preposition. The ablative of the personal agent has ā or ab. Compare

Fera sagittā necātur, the wild beast is killed by an arrow

Fera ā Diānā necātur, the wild beast is killed by Diana

Sagittā, in the first sentence, is the ablative of means; ā Diānā, in the second, is the ablative of the personal agent.

182. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 289.

I. 1. Viri inopiā cibī dēfessī ab eō locō discēdent. 2. Germānī castrīs Rōmānīs adpropinquābant, tamen lēgātus cōpiās ā proeliō continēbat. 3. Multa Gallōrum oppida ab Rōmanīs capientur. 4. Tum Rōmānī tōtum populum eōrum oppidōrum gladiīs pīlīsque interficient. 5. Oppidānī Rōmānīs resistent, sed defessī longō proelīo fugient. 6. Multī ex Galliā fugiēbant et in Germānōrum vicīs habitābant. 7. Miserī nautae vulnerantur ab inimīcīs2 saevīs et cibō egent. 8. Discēdite et date virīs frūmentum et cōpiam vīnī. 9. Cōpiae nostrae ā proeliō continēbantur ab Sextō lēgatō. 10. Id oppidum ab prōvinciā Rōmānā longē aberat.

II. 1. The weary sailors were approaching a place dear to the goddess Diana. 2. They were without food and without wine. 3. Then Galba and seven other men are sent to the ancient island by Sextus. 4. Already they are not far away from the land, and they see armed men on a high place. 5. They are kept from the land by the men with spears and arrows. 6. The men kept hurling their weapons down from the high place with great eagerness.

2. inimīcīs, here used as a noun. See vocabulary.
LESSON XXXI
PERFECT, PLUPERFECT, AND FUTURE PERFECT OF SUM

183. Principal Parts. There are certain parts of the verb that are of so much consequence in tense formation that we call them the principal parts.

The principal parts of the Latin verb are the present, the past, and the past participle; as go, went, gone; see, saw, seen, etc.

The principal parts of the Latin verb are the first person singular of the present indicative, the present infinitive, the first person singular of the perfect indicative, and the perfect passive participle.

184. Conjugation Stems. From the principal parts we get three conjugation stems, from which are formed the entire conjugation. We have already learned about the present stem, which is found from the present infinitive (cf. § 126. a). The other two stems are the perfect stem and the participial stem.

185. The Perfect Stem. The perfect stem of the verb is formed in various ways, but may always be found by dropping from the first person singular of the perfect, the third of the principal parts. From the perfect stem are formed the following tenses:

The Perfect Active Indicative
The Pluperfect Active Indicative (English Past Perfect)
The Future Perfect Active Indicative

All these tenses express completed action in present, past, or future time respectively.

186. The Endings of the Perfect. The perfect active indicative is inflected by adding the endings of the perfect to the perfect stem. These endings are different from those found in any other tense, and are as follows:

Sing. 1. , I Plur. 1. -imus, we
2. -istī, you 2. -istis, you
3. -it, he, she, it 3. -ērunt or -ēre, they

187. Inflection of sum in the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indicative:

Pres. Indic. Pres. Infin. Perf. Indic.
Prin. Parts sum esse fuī
Perfect Stem fu-
Perfect
SINGULAR PLURAL
fu´ī, I have been, I was fu´imus, we have been, we were
fuis´, you have been, you were fuis´tis, you have been, you were
fu´it, he has been, he was fuē´runt or fuē´re, they have been, they were
Pluperfect (Tense Sign -erā-)
fu´eram, I had been fuerā´mus, we had been
fu´erās, you had been fuerā´tis, you had been
fu´erat, he had been fu´erant, they had been
Future Perfect (Tense Sign -erā-)
fu´erō, I shall have been fue´rimus, we shall have been
fu´eris, you will have been fue´ritis, you will have been
fu´erit, he will have been fu´erint, they will have been

1. Note carefully the changing accent in the perfect.

2. Observe that the pluperfect may be formed by adding eram, the imperfect of sum, to the perfect stem. The tense sign is -erā-.

3. Observe that the future perfect may be formed by adding erō, the future of sum, to the perfect stem. But the third person plural ends in -erint, not in -erunt. The tense sign is -eri-.

4. All active perfects, pluperfects, and future perfects are formed on the perfect stem and inflected in the same way.

188. DIALOGUE

The Boys Titus, Marcus, and Quintus

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 289.

M. Ubi fuistis, Tite et Quīnte?
T. Ego in meō lūdō fuī et Quīntus in suō lūdō fuit. Bonī puerī fuimus. Fuitne Sextus in vīcō hodiē?
M. Fuit. Nūper per agrōs proximōs fluviō properābat. Ibi is et Cornēlius habent nāvigium.
T. Nāvigium dīcis? Aliī1 nārrā eam fābulam!
M. Vērō (Yes, truly), pulchrum et novum nāvigium!
Q. Cuius pecūniā2 Sextus et Cornēlius id nāvigium parant? Quis iīs pecūniam dat?
M. Amīcī Cornēlī multum habent aurum et puer pecūniā nōn eget.
T. Quō puerī nāvigābunt? Nāvigābuntne longē ā terrā?
M. Dubia sunt cōnsilia eōrum. Sed hodiē, crēdō, sī ventus erit idōneus, ad maximam īnsulam nāvigābunt. Iam anteā ibi fuērunt. Tum autem ventus erat perfidus et puerī magnō in perīculō erant.
Q. Aqua ventō commōta est inimīca nautīs semper, et saepe perfidus ventus nāvigia rapit, agit, dēletque. Iī puerī, sī nōn fuerint maximē attentī, īrātā aquā et validō ventō superābuntur et ita interficientur.

1. Dative case. (Cf. § 109.)
2. Ablative of means.

189. EXERCISE

1. Where had the boys been before? They had been in school. 2. Where had Sextus been? He had been in a field next to the river. 3. Who has been with Sextus to-day? Cornelius has been with him. 4. Who says so? Marcus. 5. If the wind has been suitable, the boys have been in the boat. 6. Soon we shall sail with the boys. 7. There3 will be no danger, if we are (shall have been) careful.4

3. The expletive there is not expressed, but the verb will precede the subject, as in English.
4. This predicate adjective must be nominative plural to agree with we.
LESSON XXXII
THE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF THE FOUR REGULAR CONJUGATIONS

190. Meanings of the Perfect. The perfect tense has two distinct meanings. The first of these is equivalent to the English present perfect, or perfect with have, and denotes that the action of the verb is complete at the time of speaking; as, I have finished my work. As this denotes completed action at a definite time, it is called the perfect definite.

The perfect is also used to denote an action that happened sometime in the past; as, I finished my work. As no definite time is specified, this is called the perfect indefinite. It corresponds to the ordinary use of the English past tense.

a. Note carefully the difference between the following tenses:

I was finishing
used to finish
my work (imperfect, § 134)
I finished my work (perfect indefinite)
I have finished my work (perfect definite)

When telling a story the Latin uses the perfect indefinite to mark the different forward steps of the narrative, and the imperfect to describe situations and circumstances that attend these steps. If the following sentences were Latin, what tenses would be used?

“Last week I went to Boston. I was trying to find an old friend of mine, but he was out of the city. Yesterday I returned home.”

191. Inflection of the Perfect. We learned in § 186 that any perfect is inflected by adding the endings of the perfect to the perfect stem. The inflection in the four regular conjugations is then as follows:

Conj. I Conj. II Conj. III Conj. IV
amāvī monuī rēxī cēpī audīvī

I have loved
I loved
or did love

I have advised
I advised
or did advise

I have ruled
I ruled
or did rule

I have taken
I took
or did take

I have heard
I heard
or did hear

Perfect Stems
amāv- monu- rēx- cēp- audīv-
Singular
1. amā´vī mo´nuī rē´xī cē´pī audī´vī
2. amāvis´ monuis´ rēxis´ cēpis´ audīvis´
3. amā´vit mo´nuit rē´xit cē´pit audī´vit
Plural
1. amā´vimus monu´imus rē´ximus cē´pimus audī´vimus
2. amāvis´tis monuis´tis rēxis´tis cēpis´tis audīvis´tis

3. amāvē´runt or amāvē´re

monuē´runt or monuē´re

rēxē´runt or rēxē´re

cēpē´runt or cēpē´re

audīvē´runt or audīvē´re

1. The first person of the perfect is always given as the third of the principal parts. From this we get the perfect stem. This shows the absolute necessity of learning the principal parts thoroughly.

2. Nearly all perfects of the first conjugation are formed by adding -vī to the present stem. Like amāvī inflect parāvī, vocāvī, cūrāvī, laudāvī.

3. Note carefully the changing accent in the perfect. Drill on it.

192. Learn the principal parts and inflect the perfects:

Pres. Indic. Pres. Infin. Perf. Indic.
dăre dedī give
dēleō dēlēre dēlēvī destroy
habeō habēre habuī have
moveō movēre mōvī move
pāreō pārēre pāruī obey
prohibeō prohibēre prohibuī restrain, keep from
videō vidēre vīdī see
dīcō dīcere dīxī say
discēdō discēdere discessī depart
dūcō dūcere dūxī lead
faciō facere fēcī make, do
mittō mittere mīsī send
mūniō mūnīre mūnīvī fortify
veniō venīre vēnī come

193. Perseus and Andromeda (Continued)

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 290.

Cēpheus, adversā fortūnā maximē commōtus, discessit et multīs cum lacrimīs populō Aethiopiae verba ōrāculī nārrāvit. Fāta Andromedae, puellae pulchrae, ā tōtō populō dēplōrābantur, tamen nūllum erat auxilium. Deinde Cēpheus cum plēnō trīstitiae animō cāram suam fīliam ex oppidī portā ad aquam dūxit et bracchia eius ad saxa dūra revīnxit. Tum amīcī puellae miserae longē discessērunt et diū mōnstrum saevum exspectāvērunt.

Tum forte Perseus, ālīs frētus, super Aethiopiam volābat. Vīdit populum, Andromedam, lacrimās, et, magnopere attonitus, ad terram dēscendit. Tum Cēpheus eī tōtās cūrās nārrāvit et ita dīxit: “Pārēbō verbīs ōrāculī, et prō patriā fīliam meam dabō; sed sī id mōnstrum interficiēs et Andromedam servābis, tibi (to you) eam dabō.”

LESSON XXXIII
PLUPERFECT AND FUTURE PERFECT ACTIVE INDICATIVE · PERFECT ACTIVE INFINITIVE

194.

Conj. I Conj. II Conj. III Conj. IV
amō moneō regō capiō audiō
Perfect Stems amāv- monu- rēx- cēp- audīv-
Pluperfect Indicative Active
Tense Sign -erā-
SINGULAR
I had loved I had advised I had ruled I had taken I had heard
1. amā´veram monu´eram rē´xeram cē´peram audī´veram
2. amā´verās monu´erās rē´xerās cē´perās audī´verās
3. amā´verat monu´erat rē´xerat cē´perat audī´verat
PLURAL
1. amāverā´mus monuerā´mus rēxerā´mus cēperā´mus audīverā´mus
2. amāverā´tis monuerā´tis rēxerā´tis cēperā´tis audīverā´tis
3. amā´verant monu´erant rē´xerant cē´perant audī´verant
 
Future Perfect Indicative Active
Tense Sign -eri-
SINGULAR

I shall have loved

I shall have advised

I shall have ruled

I shall have taken

I shall have heard

1. amā´verō monu´erō rē´xerō cē´perō audī´verō
2. amā´veris monu´eris rē´xeris cē´peris audī´veris
3. amā´verit monu´erit rē´xerit cē´perit audī´verit
PLURAL
1. amāve´rimus monue´rimus rēxe´rimus cēpe´rimus audīve´rimus
2. amāve´ritis monue´ritis rēxe´ritis cēpe´ritis audīve´ritis
3. amā´verint monu´erint rē´xerint cē´perint audī´verint

1. Observe that these are all inflected alike and the rules for formation given in § 187. 2-4 hold good here.

2. In like manner inflect the pluperfect and future perfect indicative active of , portō, dēleō, moveō, habeō, dīcō, discēdō, faciō, veniō, mūniō.

195. The Perfect Active Infinitive. The perfect active infinitive is formed by adding -isse to the perfect stem.

Conj. Perfect Stem Perfect Infinitive
I. amāv- amāvis´se, to have loved
II. monu- monuis´se, to have advised
III. (a) rēx- rēxis´se, to have ruled
(b) cēp- cēpis´se, to have taken
IV. audīv- audīvis´se, to have heard
sum fu- fuis´se, to have been

1. In like manner give the perfect infinitive active of , portō, dēleō, moveō, habeō, dīcō, discēdō, faciō, veniō, mūniō.

196. EXERCISES

I. 1. Habuistī, mōvērunt, miserant. 2. Vīdit, dīxeris, dūxisse. 3. Mīsistis, pāruērunt, discesserāmus. 4. Mūnīvit, dederam, mīserō. 5. Habuerimus, dēlēvī, pāruit, fuisse. 6. Dederās, mūnīveritis, vēnerātis, mīsisse. 7. Vēnerās, fēcisse, dederātis, portāveris.

8. Quem verba ōrāculī mōverant? Populum verba ōrāculī mōverant. 9. Cui Cēpheus verba ōrāculī nārrāverit? Perseō Cēpheus verba ōrāculī nārrāverit. 10. Amīcī ab Andromedā discesserint. 11. Mōnstrum saevum domicilia multa dēlēverat. 12. Ubi mōnstrum vīdistis? Id in aquā vīdimus. 13. Quid mōnstrum faciet? Mōnstrum Andromedam interficiet.

II. 1. They have obeyed, we have destroyed, I shall have had. 2. We shall have sent, I had come, they have fortified. 3. I had departed, he has obeyed, you have sent (sing. and plur.). 4. To have destroyed, to have seen, he will have given, they have carried. 5. He had destroyed, he has moved, you have had (sing. and plur.). 6. I have given, you had moved (sing. and plur.), we had said. 7. You will have made (sing. and plur.), they will have led, to have given.

8. Who had seen the monster? Andromeda had seen it. 9. Why had the men departed from1 the towns? They had departed because the monster had come. 10. Did Cepheus obey2 the oracle3? He did.

1. ex. What would ab mean?
2. Did ... obey, perfect tense.
3. What case?
LESSON XXXIV
REVIEW OF THE ACTIVE VOICE

197. A review of the tenses of the indicative active shows the following formation:

TENSES OF THE INDICATIVE Present = First of the principal parts
Imperfect = Present stem + -ba-m
Future = Present stem + -bō, Conj. I and II
-a-m, Conj. III and IV
Perfect = Third of the principal parts
Pluperfect = Perfect stem + -era-m
Future Perfect = Perfect stem + -erō

198. The synopsis of the active voice of amō, as far as we have learned the conjugation, is as follows:

Principal Parts amō, amāre, amāvī

Pres. Stem amā- Perf. Stem amāv-
Indic. Pres. amō Indic. Perf. amāvī
Imperf. amābam Pluperf. amāveram
Fut. amā Fut. perf. amāverō
Pres. Imv. amā
Pres. Infin. amāre Perf. Infin. amāvisse

1. Learn to write in the same form and to give rapidly the principal parts and synopsis of parō, , laudō, dēleō, habeō, moveō, pāreō, videō, dīcō, discēdō, dūcō, mittō, capiō, muniō, veniō.1

1. Learn to give synopses rapidly, and not only in the first person singular but in any person of either number.

199. Learn the following principal parts:2

Pres. Indic. Pres. Infin. Perf. Indic.
Irregular
Verbs

sum
ab´sum

esse
abes´se
dare

fuī
ā´fuī
dedī

be
be away
give

Conjugation
II

contineō
doceō
egeō
faveō
iubeō
noceō
persuādeō
respondeō
sedeō
studeō

continēre
docēre
egēre
favēre
iubēre
nocēre
persuādēre
respondēre
sedēre
studēre

continuī
docuī
eguī
fāvī
iussī
nocuī
persuāsī
respondī
sēdī
studuī

hold in, keep
teach
need
favor
order
injure
persuade
reply
sit
be eager

Conjugation
III

agō
crēdō
fugiō
iaciō
interficiō
rapiō
resis´tō

agere
crēdere
fugere
iacere
interficere
rapere
resis´tere

ēgī
crēdidī
fūgī
iēcī
interfēcī
rapuī
re´stitī

drive
believe
flee
hurl
kill
seize
resist

Conjugation
IV
repe´riō reperī´re rep´perī find
2. These are all verbs that you have had before, and the perfect is the only new form to be learned.

200. Perseus and Andromeda (Concluded)

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 290. Read the whole story.

Perseus semper proeliō studēbat3 et respondit,3 “Verba tua sunt maximē grāta,” et laetus arma sua magica parāvit.3 Subitō mōnstrum vidētur; celeriter per aquam properat et Andromedae adpropinquat. Eius amīcī longē absunt et misera puella est sōla. Perseus autem sine morā super aquam volāvit.3 Subitō dēscendit3 et dūrō gladiō saevum mōnstrum graviter vulnerāvit.3 Diū pugnātur,4 diū proelium est dubium. Dēnique autem Perseus mōnstrum interfēcit3 et victōriam reportāvit.3 Tum ad saxum vēnit3 et Andromedam līberāvit3 et eam ad Cēpheum dūxit.3 Is, nūper miser, nunc laetus, ita dīxit3: “Tuō auxiliō, mī amīce, cāra fīlia mea est lībera; tua est Andromeda.” Diū Perseus cum Andromedā ibi habitābat3 et magnopere ā tōtō populō amābātur.3

3. See if you can explain the use of the perfects and imperfects in this passage.
4. The verb pugnātur means, literally, it is fought; translate freely, the battle is fought, or the contest rages. The verb pugnō in Latin is intransitive, and so does not have a personal subject in the passive. A verb with an indeterminate subject, designated in English by it, is called impersonal.
LESSON XXXV
THE PASSIVE PERFECTS OF THE INDICATIVE · THE PERFECT PASSIVE AND FUTURE ACTIVE INFINITIVE

201. The fourth and last of the principal parts (§ 183) is the perfect passive participle. From it we get the participial stem on which are formed the future active infinitive and all the passive perfects.

1. Learn the following principal parts, which are for the first time given in full:

Conj. Pres. Indic. Pres. Infin. Perf. Indic. Perf. Pass. Part
I. amō amā´-re amā´v-ī amā´t-us
This is the model for all regular verbs of the first conjugation.
II. mo´neō monē´-re mo´nu-ī mo´nit-us
III. regō re´ge-re rēx-ī rēct-us
ca´piō ca´pe-re cēp-ī capt-us
IV. au´diō audī´-re audī´v-ī audī´t-us

2. The base of the participial stem is found by dropping -us from the perfect passive participle.

202. In English the perfect, past perfect, and future perfect tenses of the indicative passive are made up of forms of the auxiliary verb to be and the past participle; as, I have been loved, I had been loved, I shall have been loved.

Very similarly, in Latin, the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect passive tenses use respectively the present, imperfect, and future of sum as an auxiliary verb with the perfect passive participle, as

Perfect passive, amā´tus sum, I have been or was loved

Pluperfect passive, amā´tus eram, I had been loved

Future perfect passive, amā´tus erō, I shall have been loved

1. In the same way give the synopsis of the corresponding tenses of moneō, regō, capiō, and audiō, and give the English meanings.

203. Nature of the Participle. A participle is partly verb and partly adjective. As a verb it possesses tense and voice. As an adjective it is declined and agrees with the word it modifies in gender, number, and case.

204. The perfect passive participle is declined like bonus, bona, bonum, and in the compound tenses (§ 202) it agrees as a predicate adjective with the subject of the verb.

Examples in
Singular

Vir laudātus est, the man was praised, or has been praised

Puella laudāta est, the girl was praised, or has been praised

Cōnsilium laudātum est, the plan was praised, or has been praised

Examples in
Plural

Virī laudātī sunt, the men were praised, or have been praised

Puellae laudātae sunt, the girls were praised, or have been praised

Cōnsilia laudāta sunt, the plans were praised, or have been praised

1. Inflect the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indicative passive of amō, moneō, regō, capiō, and audiō (§§ 488-492).

205. The perfect passive infinitive is formed by adding esse, the present infinitive of sum, to the perfect passive participle; as, amā´t-us (-a, -um) esse, to have been loved; mo´nit-us (-a, -um) esse, to have been advised.

1. Form the perfect passive infinitive of regō, capiō, audiō, and give the English meanings.

206. The future active infinitive is formed by adding esse, the present infinitive of sum, to the future active participle. This participle is made by adding -ūrus, -a, -um to the base of the participial stem. Thus the future active infinitive of amō is amat-ū´rus (-a, -um) esse, to be about to love.

a. Note that in forming the three tenses of the active infinitive we use all three conjugation stems:

Present, amāre (present stem), to love

Perfect, amāvisse (perfect stem), to have loved

Future, amātūrus esse (participial stem), to be about to love

1. Give the three tenses of the active infinitive of laudō, moneō, regō, capiō, audiō, with the English meanings.

207. EXERCISES

I. 1. Fābula Andromedae nārrāta est. 2. Multae fābulae ā magistrō nārrātae sunt. 3. Ager ab agricolā validō arātus erat. 4. Agrī ab agricolīs validīs arātī erant. 5. Aurum ā servō perfidō ad domicilium suum portātum erit. 6. Nostra arma ā lēgātō laudāta sunt. Quis vestra arma laudāvit? 7. Ab ancillā tuā ad cēnam vocātae sumus. 8. Andromeda mōnstrō nōn data est, quia mōnstrum ā Perseō necātum erat.

II. 1. The provinces were laid waste, the field had been laid waste, the towns will have been laid waste. 2. The oracles were heard, the oracle was heard, the oracles had been heard. 3. The oracle will have been heard, the province had been captured, the boats have been captured. 4. The fields were laid waste, the man was advised, the girls will have been advised. 5. The towns had been ruled, we shall have been captured, you will have been heard.

LESSON XXXVI
REVIEW OF PRINCIPAL PARTS · PREPOSITIONS YES-OR-NO QUESTIONS

208. The following list shows the principal parts of all the verbs you have had excepting those used in the paradigms. The parts you have had before are given for review, and the perfect participle is the only new form for you to learn. Sometimes one or more of the principal parts are lacking, which means that the verb has no forms based on that stem. A few verbs lack the perfect passive participle but have the future active participle in -ūrus, which appears in the principal parts instead.

Irregular Verbs

sum
absum
1

esse
abesse
dare

fuī
āfuī
dedī

futūrus
āfutūrus
datus

be
be away
give

1. is best classed with the irregular verbs because of the short a in the present and participial stems.

Conjugation I
portō portāre portāvī portātus carry
So for all verbs of this conjugation thus far used.
Conjugation II

contineō
dēleō
doceō
egeō
faveō
iubeō
moveō
noceō
pāreō
persuādeō
prohibeō
respondeō
sedeō
studeō
videō

continēre
dēlēre
docēre
egēre
favēre
iubēre
movēre
nocēre
pārēre
persuādēre
prohibēre
respondēre
sedēre
studēre
vidēre

continuī
dēlēvī
docuī
eguī
fāvī
iussī
mōvī
nocuī
pāruī
persuāsī
prohibuī
respondī
sēdī
studuī
vīdī

contentus
dēlētus
doctus
——
fautūrus
iussus
mōtus
nocitūrus
——
persuāsus
prohibitus
respōnsus
-sessus
——
vīsus

hold in, keep
destroy
teach
lack
favor
order
move
injure
obey
persuade (from)
restrain, keep
reply
sit
be eager
see

Conjugation III

agō
crēdō
dīcō
discēdō
dūcō
faciō2
fugiō
iaciō
interficiō
mittō
rapiō
resistō

agere
crēdere
dīcere
discēdere
dūcere
facere
fugere
iacere
interficere
mittere
rapere
resistere

ēgī
crēdidī
dīxī
discessī
dūxī
fēcī
fūgī
iēcī
interfēcī
mīsī
rapuī
restitī

āctus
crēditus
dictus
discessus
ductus
factus
fugitūrus
iactus
interfectus
missus
raptus
——

drive
believe
say
depart
lead
make
flee
hurl
kill
send
seize
resist

Conjugation IV

mūniō
reperiō
veniō

mūnīre
reperīre
venīre

mūnīvī
rep´perī
vēnī

mūnītus
repertus
ventus

fortify
find
come

2. faciō has an irregular passive which will be presented later.

209. Prepositions. 1. We learned in §§ 52, 53 that only the accusative and the ablative are used with prepositions, and that prepositions expressing ablative relations govern the ablative case. Those we have had are here summarized. The table following should be learned.

ā or ab, from, by

cum, with

, down from, concerning

ē or ex, out from, out of

prō, before, in front of; for, in behalf of

sine, without

2. Prepositions not expressing ablative relations must govern the accusative (§ 52). Of these we have had the following:

ad, to

apud, among

per, through

There are many others which you will meet as we proceed.

3. The preposition in when meaning in or on governs the ablative; when meaning to, into, against (relations foreign to the ablative) in governs the accusative.

210. Yes-or-No Questions. Questions not introduced by some interrogative word like who, why, when, etc., but expecting the answer yes or no, may take one of three forms:

1. Is he coming? (Asking for information. Implying nothing as to the answer expected.)

2. Is he not coming? (Expecting the answer yes.)

3. He isn´t coming, is he? (Expecting the answer no.)

These three forms are rendered in Latin as follows:

1. Venitne? is he coming?

2. Nōnne venit? is he not coming?

3. Num venit? he isn´t coming, is he?

a. -ne, the question sign, is usually added to the verb, which then stands first.

b. We learned in § 56. b that yes-or-no questions are usually answered by repeating the verb, with or without a negative. Instead of this, ita, vērō, certē, etc. (so, truly, certainly, etc.) may be used for yes, and nōn, minimē, etc. for no if the denial is emphatic, as, by no means, not at all.

211. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 290.

I. 1. Nōnne habēbat Cornēlia ōrnāmenta aurī? Habēbat. 2. Num Sextus lēgātus scūtum in dextrō bracchiō gerēbat? Nōn in dextrō, sed sinistrō in bracchiō Sextus scūtum gerēbat. 3. Frūstrā bella multa ab Gallīs gesta erant. 4. Ubi oppidum ā perfidō Sextō occupātum est, oppidānī miserī gladiō interfectī sunt. 5. Id oppidum erat plēnum frūmentī. 6. Nōnne Sextus ab oppidānīs frūmentum postulāvit? Vērō, sed iī recūsāvērunt frūmentum dare. 7. Cūr oppidum ab Sextō dēlētum est? Quia frūmentum recūsātum est. 8. Ea victōria nōn dubia erat. 9. Oppidānī erant dēfessī et armīs egēbant. 10. Num fugam temptāvērunt? Minimē.

II. 1. Where was Julia standing? She was standing where you had ordered. 2. Was Julia wearing any ornaments? She had many ornaments of gold. 3. Did she not attempt flight when she saw the danger? She did. 4. Who captured her? Galba captured her without delay and held her by the left arm. 5. She didn´t have the lady’s gold, did she? No, the gold had been taken by a faithless maid and has been brought back.


Fourth Review, Lessons XXVII-XXXVI, §§ 513-516

LESSON XXXVII
CONJUGATION OF POSSUM · THE INFINITIVE USED AS IN ENGLISH

212. Learn the principal parts of possum, I am able, I can, and its inflection in the indicative and infinitive. (Cf. § 495.)

a. Possum, I can, is a compound of potis, able, and sum, I am.

213. The Infinitive with Subject Accusative. The infinitive (cf. § 173) is a verbal noun. Used as a noun, it has the constructions of a noun. As a verb it can govern a case and be modified by an adverb. The uses of the infinitive are much the same in Latin as in English.

1. In English certain verbs of wishing, commanding, forbidding, and the like are used with an object clause consisting of a substantive in the objective case and an infinitive, as, he commanded the men to flee. Such object clauses are called infinitive clauses, and the substantive is said to be the subject of the infinitive.

Similarly in Latin, some verbs of wishing, commanding, forbidding, and the like are used with an object clause consisting of an infinitive with a subject in the accusative case, as, Is virōs fugere iussit, he commanded the men to flee.

214. Rule. Subject of the Infinitive. The subject of the infinitive is in the accusative.

215. The Complementary Infinitive. In English a verb is often followed by an infinitive to complete its meaning, as, the Romans are able to conquer the Gauls. This is called the complementary infinitive, as the predicate is not complete without the added infinitive.

Similarly in Latin, verbs of incomplete predication are completed by the infinitive. Among such verbs are possum, I am able, I can; properō, mātūrō, I hasten; temptō, I attempt; as

Rōmānī Gallōs superāre possunt, the Romans are able to (or can) conquer the Gauls

Bellum gerere mātūrant, they hasten to wage war

a. A predicate adjective completing a complementary infinitive agrees in gender, number, and case with the subject of the main verb.

Malī puerī esse bonī nōn possunt, bad boys are not able to (or cannot) be good.

Observe that bonī agrees with puerī.

216. The Infinitive used as a Noun. In English the infinitive is often used as a pure noun, as the subject of a sentence, or as a predicate nominative. For example, To conquer (= conquering) is pleasing; To see (= seeing) is to believe (= believing). The same use of the infinitive is found in Latin, especially with est, as

Superāre est grātum, to conquer is pleasing

Vidēre est crēdere, to see is to believe

a. In the construction above, the infinitive often has a subject, which must then be in the accusative case, as

Galbam superāre inimīcōs est grātum multīs,
for Galba to conquer his enemies is pleasing to many

b. An infinitive used as a noun is neuter singular. Thus, in the sentence superāre est grātum, the predicate adjective grātum is in the neuter nominative singular to agree with superāre the subject.

217. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 291.

I. 1. Magister lūdī līberōs cum dīligentiā labōrāre iussit. 2. Egēre cibō et vinō est virīs molestum. 3. Virī armātī vetuērunt Gallōs castra ibi pōnere. 4. Estne lēgātus in castellō an in mūrō? Is est prō portā. 5. Ubi nostrī1 fugere incēpērunt, lēgātus ab vestrīs1 captus est. 6. Gallī castellum ibi oppugnāverant ubi praesidium erat īnfīrmum. 7. Aliī pugnāre temptābant, aliī portās petēbant. 8. Fēminae prō domiciliīs sedēbant neque resistere validīs Gallīs poterant. 9. Bellum est saevum, nec īnfīrmīs nec miserīs favet. 10. Sed virī arma postulābant et studēbant Gallōs dē mūrīs agere. 11. Id castellum ab Gallīs occupārī Rōmānīs nōn grātum erit. 12. Gallī ubi ā Rōmānīs victī sunt, esse līberī2 cessāvērunt. 13. Diū sine aquā vīvere nōn potestis.

1. Supply men. nostri, vestrī, and suī are often used as nouns in this way.
2. Not children. The Romans used līberī either as an adjective, meaning free, or as a noun, meaning the free, thereby signifying their free-born children. The word was never applied to children of slaves.

II. 1. The girl began daily to carry water from the river to the gates. 2. The Gauls had pitched their camp in a place suitable for a battle. 3. For a long time they tried in vain to seize the redoubt. 4. Neither did they cease to hurl weapons against3 the walls. 5. But they were not able to (could not) take the town.

3. in with the accusative.

218. The Faithless Tarpe´ia

Sabīnī ōlim cum Rōmānīs bellum gerēbant et multās victōriās reportāverant. Iam agrōs proximōs mūrīs vāstābant, iam oppidō adpropinquābant. Rōmānī autem in Capitōlium fūgerant et longē perīculō aberant. Mūrīs validīs et saxīs altīs crēdēbant. Frūstrā Sabīnī tēla iaciēbant, frūstrā portās dūrās petēbant; castellum occupāre nōn poterant. Deinde novum cōnsilium cēpērunt.4

Tarpēia erat puella Rōmāna pulchra et superba. Cotīdiē aquam cōpiīs Rōmānīs in Capitōlium portābat. Eī5 nōn nocēbant Sabīnī, quod ea sine armīs erat neque Sabīnī bellum cum fēminīs līberīsque gerēbant. Tarpēia autem maximē amābat ōrnāmenta aurī. Cotīdiē Sabīnōrum ōrnāmenta vidēbat et mox ea dēsīderāre incipiēbat. Eī ūnus ex6 Sabīnīs dīxit, “Dūc cōpiās Sabīnās intrā portās, Tarpēia, et maxima erunt praemia tua.”

4. cōnsilium capere, to make a plan. Why is the perfect tense used here and the imperfect in the preceding sentences? Explain the use of tenses in the next paragraph.
5. Dative with nocēbant. (Cf. § 154.)
6. ex, out of, i.e. from the nuumber of; best translated of.

Tarpeia opens the gate for the soldiers
TARPEIA PUELLA PERFIDA

LESSON XXXVIII
THE RELATIVE PRONOUN AND THE INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN

219. Sentences are simple, compound, or complex.

a. A simple sentence is a sentence containing but one statement, that is, one subject and one predicate: The Romans approached the town.

b. A compound sentence is a sentence containing two or more independent statements: The Romans approached the town | and | the enemy fled.

Note. An independent statement is one that can stand alone; it does not depend upon another statement.

c. A complex sentence is a sentence containing one independent statement and one or more dependent statements: When the Romans approached the town | the enemy fled.

Note. A dependent or subordinate statement is one that depends on or qualifies another statement; thus the enemy fled is independent, and when the Romans approached the town is dependent or subordinate.

d. The separate statements in a compound or complex sentence are called clauses. In a complex sentence the independent statement is called the main clause and the dependent statement the subordinate clause.

220. Examine the complex sentence

The Romans killed the men who were taken

Here are two clauses:

a. The main clause, The Romans killed the men

b. The subordinate clause, who were taken

The word who is a pronoun, for it takes the place of the noun men. It also connects the subordinate clause who were taken with the noun men. Hence the clause is an adjective clause. A pronoun that connects an adjective clause with a substantive is called a relative pronoun, and the substantive for which the relative pronoun stands is called its antecedent. The relative pronouns in English are who, whose, whom, which, what, that.

221. The relative pronoun in Latin is quī, quae, quod, and it is declined as follows:

Singular Plural
MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. quī quae quod quī quae quae
Gen. cuius cuius cuius quōrum quārum quōrum
Dat. cui cui cui quibus quibus quibus
Acc. quem quam quod quōs quās quae
Abl. quō quā quō quibus quibus quibus

1. Review the declension of is, § 114, and note the similarity in the endings. The forms quī, quae, and quibus are the only forms showing new endings.

Note. The genitive cuius and the dative cui are pronounced co͝oi´yo͝os (two syllables) and co͝oi (one syllable).

222. The Relative Pronoun is translated as follows:1

Masc. and Fem. Neut.
Nom. who, that which, what, that
Gen. of whom, whose of which, of what, whose
Dat. to or for whom to or for which, to or for what
Acc. whom, that which, what, that
Abl. from, etc., whom from, etc., which or what
1. This table of meanings need not be memorized. It is inserted for reference when translating.

a. We see from the table above that quī, when it refers to a person, is translated by some form of who or by that; and that when it refers to anything else it is translated by which, what, or that.

223. Note the following sentences:

The Romans killed the men who were taken

The Romans killed the woman who was taken

Rōmānī interfēcērunt virōs quī captī sunt

Rōmānī interfēcērunt fēminam quae capta est

In the first sentence who (quī) refers to the antecedent men (virōs), and is masculine plural. In the second, who (quae) refers to woman (fēminam), and feminine singular. From this we learn that the relative must agree with its antecedent in gender and number. In neither of the sentences are the antecedents and relatives in the same case. Virōs and fēminam are accusatives, and quī and quae are nominatives, being the subjects of the subordinate clauses. Hence

224. Rule. Agreement of the Relative. A relative pronoun must agree with its antecedent in gender and number; but its case is determined by the way it is used in its own clause.

225. Interrogative Pronouns. An interrogative pronoun is a pronoun that asks a question. In English the interrogatives are who? which? what? In Latin they are quis? quid? (pronoun) and quī? quae? quod? (adjective).

226. Examine the sentences

a. Who is the man? Quis est vir?

b. What man is leading them? Quī vir eōs dūcit?

In a, who is an interrogative pronoun. In b, what is an interrogative adjective. Observe that in Latin quis, quid is the pronoun and quī, quae, quod is the adjective.

227. 1. The interrogative adjective quī, quae, quod is declined just like the relative pronoun. (See § 221.)

2. The interrogative pronoun quis, quid is declined like quī, quae, quod in the plural. In the singular it is declined as follows:

Masc. and Fem. Neut.
Nom. quis, who? quid, what? which?
Gen. cuius, whose? cuius, whose?
Dat. cui, to or for whom? cui, to or for what or which?
Acc. quem, whom? quid, what? which?
Abl. quō, from, etc., whom? quō, from, etc., which or what?

Note. Observe that the masculine and feminine are alike and that all the forms are like the corresponding forms of the relative, excepting quis and quid.

228. EXERCISES

I. 1. Quis est aeger? Servus quem amō est aeger. 2. Cuius scūtum habēs? Scūtum habeō quod lēgātus ad castellum mīsit. 3. Cui lēgātus suum scūtum dabit? Fīliō meō scūtum dabit. 4. Ubi Germānī antīquī vīvēbant? In terrā quae est proxima Rhēnō Germānī vīvēbant. 5. Quibuscum2 Germānī bellum gerēbant? Cum Rōmānīs, qui eōs superāre studēbant, Germānī bellum gerēbant. 6. Quī virī castra pōnunt? Iī sunt virī quōrum armīs Germānī victī sunt. 7. Quibus tēlīs cōpiae nostrae eguērunt? Gladiīs et telīs nostrae cōpiae eguērunt. 8. Ā quibus porta sinistra tenēbātur? Ā sociīs porta sinistra tenēbātur. 9. Quae prōvinciae ā Rōmānīs occupātae sunt? Multae prōvinciae ā Rōmānīs occupātae sunt. 10. Quibus virīs deī favēbunt? Bonīs virīs deī favēbunt.

2. cum is added to the ablative of relative, interrogative, and personal pronouns instead of being placed before them.

warriors coming home to Gaul
GERMANI ANTIQUI

II. 1. What victory will you announce? 2. I will announce to the people the victory which the sailors have won. 3. The men who were pitching camp were eager for battle. 4. Nevertheless they were soon conquered by the troops which Sextus had sent. 5. They could not resist our forces, but fled from that place without delay.

229. The Faithless Tarpeia (Concluded)3

Tarpēia, commōta ōrnamentīs Sabīnōrum pulchrīs, diū resistere nōn potuit et respondit: “Date mihi4 ōrnāmenta quae in sinistrīs bracchīs geritis, et celeriter cōpiās vestrās in Capitōlium dūcam.” Nec Sabīnī recūsāvērunt, sed per dūrās magnāsque castellī portās properāvērunt quō5 Tarpēia dūxit et mox intrā validōs et altōs mūrōs stābant. Tum sine morā in6 Tarpēiam scūta graviter iēcērunt; nam scūta quoque in sinistrīs bracchiīs gerēbant. Ita perfida puella Tarpēia interfecta est; ita Sabīnī Capitōlium occupāvērunt.

3. Explain the use of the tenses in this selection.
4. to me.
5. quō = whither, to the place where. Here quo is the relative adverb. We have had it used before as the interrogative adverb, whither? to what place?
6. upon.
LESSON XXXIX
THE THIRD DECLENSION · CONSONANT STEMS

230. Bases and Stems. In learning the first and second declensions we saw that the different cases were formed by adding the case terminations to the part of the word that did not change, which we called the base. If to the base we add in the first declension, and -o in the second, we get what is called the stem. Thus porta has the base port- and the stem portā-; servus has the base serv- and the stem servo-.

These stem vowels, -ā- and -o-, play so important a part in the formation of the case terminations that these declensions are named from them respectively the Ā- and O-Declensions.

231. Nouns of the Third Declension. The third declension is called the Consonant or I-Declension, and its nouns are classified according to the way the stem ends. If the last letter of the stem is a consonant, the word is said to have a consonant stem; if the stem ends in -i-, the word is said to have an i-stem. In consonant stems the stem is the same as the base. In i-stems the stem is formed by adding -i- to the base. The presence of the i makes a difference in certain of the cases, so the distinction is a very important one.

232. Consonant stems are divided into two classes:

I. Stems that add -s to the base to form the nominative singular.

II. Stems that add no termination in the nominative singular.

CLASS I

233. Stems that add -s to the base in the nominative singular are either masculine or feminine and are declined as follows:

prīnceps, m., chief mīles, m., soldier lapis, m., stone
Bases or
Stems
prīncip- mīlit- lapid-
Singular TERMINATIONS
M. AND F.
Nom. prīnceps mīles lapis -s
Gen. prīn´cipis mīlitis lapidis -is
Dat. prīn´cipī mīlitī lapidī
Acc. prīn´cipem mīlitem lapidem -em
Abl. prīn´cipe mīlite lapide -e
Plural
Nom. prīn´cipēs mīlitēs lapidēs -ēs
Gen. prīn´cipum mīlitum lapidum -um
Dat. prīnci´pibus mīlitibus lapidibus -ibus
Acc. prīn´cipēs mīlitēs lapidēs -ēs
Abl. prīnci´pibus mīlitibus lapidibus -ibus
 
rēx, m., king iūdex, m., judge virtūs, f., manliness
Bases or
Stems
rēg- iūdic- virtūt-
Nom. rēx iūdex virtūs -s
Gen. rēgis iūdicis virtū´tis -is
Dat. rēgī iūdicī virtū´tī
Acc. rēgem iūdicem virtū´tem -em
Abl. rēge iūdice virtū´te -e
Plural
Nom. rēgēs iūdicēs virtū´tēs -ēs
Gen. rēgum iūdicum virtū´tum -um
Dat. rēgibus iūdicibus virtū´tibus -ibus
Acc. rēgēs iūdicēs virtū´tēs -ēs
Abl. rēgibus iūdicibus virtū´tibus -ibus

1. The base or stem is found by dropping -is in the genitive singular.

2. Most nouns of two syllables, like prīnceps (prīncip-), mīles (mīlit-), iūdex (iūdic-), have i in the base, but e in the nominative.

a. lapis is an exception to this rule.

3. Observe the consonant changes of the base or stem in the nominative:

a. A final -t or -d is dropped before -s; thus mīles for mīlets, lapis for lapids, virtūs for virtūts.

b. A final -c or -g unites with -s and forms -x; thus iūdec + s = iūdex, rēg + s = rēx.

4. Review § 74 and apply the rules to this declension.

In like manner decline dux, ducis, m., leader; eques, equitis, m., horseman; pedes, peditis, m., foot soldier; pēs, pedis, m.,foot.

234. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 291.

I. 1. Neque peditēs neque equitēs occupāre castellum Rōmānum poterant. 2. Summā virtūte mūrōs altōs cotīdiē oppugnābant. 3. Pedes mīlitum lapidibus quī dē mūrō iaciēbantur saepe vulnerābantur. 4. Quod novum cōnsilium dux cēpit? 5. Is perfidam puellam pulchrīs ōrnāmentīs temptāvit. 6. Quid puella fēcit? 7. Puella commōta aurō mīlitēs per portās dūxit. 8. Tamen praemia quae summō studiō petīverat nōn reportāvit. 9. Apud Rōmānōs antīquōs Tarpēia nōn est laudāta.

II. 1. What ship is that which I see? That (illud) ship is the Victory. It is sailing now with a favorable wind and will soon approach Italy. 2. The judges commanded the savages to be seized and to be killed. 3. The chiefs of the savages suddenly began to flee, but were quickly captured by the horsemen. 4. The king led the foot soldiers to the wall from which the townsmen were hurling stones with the greatest zeal.

ship with oars
NAVIGIUM

LESSON XL
THE THIRD DECLENSION · CONSONANT STEMS (Continued)
CLASS II

235. Consonant stems that add no termination in the nominative are declined in the other cases exactly like those that add -s. They may be masculine, feminine, or neuter.

236. PARADIGMS

Masculines and Feminines
cōnsul, m., consul legiō, f., legion ōrdō, m., row pater, m., father
Bases or
Stems
cōnsul- legiōn- ōrdin- patr-
Singular TERMINATIONS
M. AND F.
Nom. cōnsul legiō ōrdō pater
Gen. cōnsulis legiōnis ōrdinis patris -is
Dat. cōnsulī legiōnī ōrdinī patrī
Acc. cōnsulem legiōnem ōrdinem patrem -em
Abl. cōnsule legiōne ōrdine patre -e
Plural
Nom. cōnsulēs legiōnēs ōrdinēs patrēs -ēs
Gen. cōnsulum legiōnum ōrdinum patrum -um
Dat. cōnsulibus legiōnibus ōrdinibus patribus -ibus
Acc. cōnsulēs legiōnēs ōrdinēs patrēs -ēs
Abl. cōnsulibus legiōnibus ōrdinibus patribus -ibus

1. With the exception of the nominative, the terminations are exactly the same as in Class I, and the base or stem is found in the same way.

2. Masculines and feminines with bases or stems in -in- and -ōn- drop -n- and end in in the nominative, as legiō (base or stem legiōn-), ōrdō (base or stem ōrdin-).

3. Bases or stems in -tr- have -ter in the nominative, as pater (base or stem patr-).

4. Note how the genitive singular gives the clue to the whole declension. Always learn this with the nominative.

237. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 291.

I. 1. Audīsne tubās, Mārce? Nōn sōlum tubās audiō sed etiam ōrdinēs militum et carrōs impedīmentōrum plēnōs vidēre possum. 2. Quās legiōnēs vidēmus? Eae legiōnēs nūper ex Galliā vēnērunt. 3. Quid ibi fēcērunt? Studēbantne pugnāre an sine virtūte erant? 4. Multa proelia fēcērunt1 et magnās victōriās et multōs captīvōs reportāvērunt. 5. Quis est imperātor eārum legiōnum? Caesar, summus Rōmānōrum imperātor. 6. Quis est eques quī pulchram corōnam gerit? Is eques est frāter meus. Eī corōna ā cōnsule data est quia summā virtūte pugnāverat et ā barbarīs patriam servāverat.

II. 1. Who has seen my father to-day? 2. I saw him just now (nūper). He was hastening to your dwelling with your mother and sister. 3. When men are far from the fatherland and lack food, they cannot be restrained2 from wrong3. 4. The safety of the soldiers is dear to Cæsar, the general. 5. The chiefs were eager to storm a town full of grain which was held by the consul. 6. The king forbade the baggage of the captives to be destroyed.

1. proelium facere = to fight a battle.
2. contineō. Cf. § 180.
3. Abl. iniūriā.
LESSON XLI
THE THIRD DECLENSION · CONSONANT STEMS (Concluded)

238. Neuter consonant stems add no termination in the nominative and are declined as follows:

flūmen, n., river tempus, n., time opus, n., work caput, n., head
Bases or
Stems
flūmin- tempor- oper- capit-
Singular TERMINATIONS
Nom. flūmen tempus opus caput
Gen. flūminis temporis operis capitis -is -is
Dat. flūminī temporī operī capitī
Acc. flūmen tempus opus caput
Abl. flūmine tempore opere capite -e
Plural
Nom. flūmina tempora opera capita -a
Gen. flūminum temporum operum capitum -um
Dat. flūminibus temporibus operibus capitibus -ibus
Acc. flūmina tempora opera capita -a
Abl. flūminibus temporibus operibus capitibus -ibus

1. Review § 74 and apply the rules to this declension.

2. Bases or stems in -in- have -e- instead of -i- in the nominative, as flūmen, base or stem flūmin-.

3. Most bases or stems in -er- and -or- have -us in the nominative, as opus, base or stem oper-; tempus, base or stem tempor-.

239. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 292.

I. 1. Barbarī ubi Rōmam cēpērunt, maxima rēgum opera dēlēvērunt. 2. Rōmānī multās calamitātēs ā barbarīs accēpērunt. 3. Ubi erat summus terror apud oppidānōs, animī dubiī eōrum ab ōrātōre clarō cōnfīrmāti sunt. 4. Rōma est in rīpīs fiūminis magnī. 5. Ubi Caesar imperātor mīlitēs suōs arma capere iussit, iī ā proeliō continērī nōn potuērunt. 6. Ubi proelium factum est, imperātor reperīrī nōn potuit. 7. Imperātor sagittā in capite vulnerātus erat et stāre nōn poterat. 8. Eum magnō labōre pedes ex proeliō portāvit. 9. Is bracchiīs suīs imperātōrem tenuit et eum ex perīculīs summīs servāvit. 10. Virtūte suā bonus mīles ab imperātōre corōnam accēpit.

II. 1. The consul placed a crown on the head of the victor. 2. Before the gates he was received by the townsmen. 3. A famous orator praised him and said, “By your labors you have saved the fatherland from disaster.” 4. The words of the orator were pleasing to the victor. 5. To save the fatherland was a great task.

garland with text “civis observatos”
CORONA

LESSON XLII
REVIEW LESSON

240. Review the paradigms in §§ 233, 236, 238; and decline all nouns of the third declension in this selection.

Terror Cimbricus1

Ōlim Cimbrī et Teutonēs, populī Germāniae, cum fēminīs līberīsque Italiae adpropinquāverant et cōpiās Rōmānās maximō proeliō vīcerant. Ubi fuga legiōnum nūntiāta est, summus erat terror tōtīus Rōmae, et Rōmānī, graviter commōtī, sacra crēbra deīs faciēbant et salūtem petēbant.

Tum Mānlius ōrātor animōs populī ita cōnfīrmāvit:—“Magnam calamitātem accēpimus. Oppida nostra ā Cimbrīs Teutonibusque capiuntur, agricolae interficiuntur, agrī vāstantur, cōpiae barbarōrum Rōmae adpropinquant. Itaque, nisi novīs animīs proelium novum faciēmus et Germānōs ex patriā nostrā sine morā agēmus, erit nūlla salūs fēminīs nostrīs līberīsque. Servāte līberōs! Servāte patriam! Anteā superātī sumus quia imperātōrēs nostrī fuērunt īnfīrmī. Nunc Marius, clārus imperātor, quī iam multās aliās victōriās reportāvit, legiōnēs dūcet et animōs nostrōs terrōre Cimbricō līberāre mātūrābit.”

Marius tum in Āfricā bellum gerēbat. Sine morā ex Āfricā in Italiam vocātus est. Cōpiās novās nōn sōlum tōtī Italiae sed etiam prōvinciīs sociōrum imperāvit.2 Disciplīnā autem dūrā labōribusque perpetuīs mīlitēs exercuit. Tum cum peditibus equitibusque, quī iam proeliō studēbant, ad Germānōrum castra celeriter properāvit. Diū et ācriter pugnātum est.3 Dēnique barbarī fūgērunt et multī in fugā ab equitibus sunt interfectī. Marius pater patriae vocātus est.

1. About the year 100 B.C. the Romans were greatly alarmed by an invasion of barbarians from the north known as Cimbri and Teutons. They were traveling with wives and children, and had an army of 300,000 fighting men. Several Roman armies met defeat, and the city was in a panic. Then the Senate called upon Marius, their greatest general, to save the country. First he defeated the Teutons in Gaul. Next, returning to Italy, he met the Cimbri. A terrible battle ensued, in which the Cimbri were utterly destroyed; but the terror Cimbricus continued to haunt the Romans for many a year thereafter.
2. He made a levy (of troops) upon, imperāvit with the acc. and the dat.
3. Cf. § 200. II. 2.
LESSON XLIII
THE THIRD DECLENSION · I-STEMS

241. To decline a noun of the third declension correctly we must know whether or not it is an i-stem. Nouns with i-stems are

1. Masculines and feminines:

a. Nouns in -ēs and -īs with the same number of syllables in the genitive as in the nominative. Thus caedēs, caedis, is an i-stem, but mīles, mīlitis, is a consonant stem.

b. Nouns in -ns and -rs.

c. Nouns of one syllable in -s or -x preceded by a consonant.

2. Neuters in -e, -al, and -ar.

242. The declension of i-stems is nearly the same as that of consonant stems. Note the following differences:

a. Masculines and feminities have -ium in the genitive plural and -īs or -ēs in the accusative plural.

b. Neuters have in the ablative singular, and an -i- in every form of the plural.

243. Masculine and Feminine I-Stems. Masculine and feminine i-stems are declined as follows:

caedēs, f., slaughter hostis, m., enemy urbs, f., city cliēns, m., retainer
Stems caedi- hosti- urbi- clienti-
Bases caed- host- urb- client-
Singular TERMINATIONS
M. AND F.
Nom. caedēs hostis urbs cliēns1 -s, -is, or -ēs
Gen. caedis hostis urbis clientis -is
Dat. caedī hostī urbī clientī
Acc. caedem hostem urbem clientem -em (-im)
Abl. caede hoste urbe cliente -e ()
Plural
Nom. caedēs hostēs urbēs clientēs -ēs
Gen. caedium hostium urbium clientium -ium
Dat. caedibus hostibus urbibus clientibus -ibus
Acc. caedīs, -ēs hostīs, -ēs urbīs, -ēs clientīs, -ēs -īs, -ēs
Abl. caedibus hostibus urbibus clientibus -ibus
1. Observe that the vowel before -ns is long, but that it is shortened before -nt. Cf. § 12. 2, 3.

1. avis, cīvis, fīnis, ignis, nāvis have the ablative singular in or -e.

2. turris has accusative turrim and ablative turrī or turre.

244. Neuter I-Stems. Neuter i-stems are declined as follows:

īnsigne, n., decoration animal, n., animal calcar, n., spur
Stems īnsigni- animāli- calcāri-
Bases īnsign- animāl- calcār-
Singular TERMINATIONS
Nom. īnsigne animal calcar -e or
Gen. īnsignis animālis calcāris -is
Dat. īnsignī animālī calcārī
Acc. īnsigne animal calcar -e or
Abl. īnsignī animālī calcārī
Plural
Nom. īnsignia animālia calcāria -ia
Gen. īnsignium animālium calcārium -ium
Dat. īnsignibus animālibus calcāribus -ibus
Acc. īnsignia animālia calcāria -ia
Abl. īnsignibus animālibus calcāribus -ibus

1. Review § 74 and see how it applies to this declension.

2. The final -i- of the stem is usually dropped in the nominative. If not dropped, it is changed to -e.

3. A long vowel is shortened before final -l or -r. (Cf. § 12. 2.)

245. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 292.

I. 1. Quam urbem vidēmus? Urbs quam vidētis est Rōma. 2. Cīvēs Rōmānī urbem suam turribus altīs et mūrīs longīs mūnīverant. 3. Ventī nāvīs longās prohibēbant fīnibus hostium adpropinquāre. 4. Imperātor a clientibus suīs calcāria aurī et alia īnsignia accēpit. 5. Mīlitēs Rōmānī cum hostibus bella saeva gessērunt et eōs caede magnā superāvērunt. 6. Alia animālia terram, alia mare amant. 7. Nāvēs longae quae auxilium ad imperātōrem portābant ignī ab hostibus dēlētae sunt. 8. In eō marī avis multās vīdimus quae longē ā terrā volāverant. 9. Nōnne vīdistis nāvīs longās hostium et ignīs quibus urbs nostra vāstābātur? Certē, sed nec caedem cīvium nec fugam clientium vīdimus. 10. Avēs et alia animālia, ubi ignem vīdērunt, salūtem fugā petere celeriter incēpērunt. 11. Num. iūdex in peditum ōrdinibus stābat? Minimē, iūdex erat apud equitēs et equus eius īnsigne pulchrum gerēbat.

longboats with oars and sails
NAVES LONGAE

II. 1. Because of the lack of grain the animals of the village were not able to live. 2. When the general2 heard the rumor, he quickly sent a horseman to the village. 3. The horseman had a beautiful horse and wore spurs of gold. 4. He said to the citizens, “Send your retainers with horses and wagons to our camp, and you will receive an abundance of grain.” 5. With happy hearts they hastened to obey his words.3

2. Place first.
3. Not the accusative. Why?
LESSON XLIV
IRREGULAR NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION · GENDER IN THE THIRD DECLENSION

246. PARADIGMS

The “Stems” are missing in the printed book. They have been supplied from the inflectional table in the Appendix.
vīs, f., force iter, n., march
Stems vī- and vīri- iter- and itiner-
Bases v- and vīr- iter- and itiner-
Singular
Nom. s iter
Gen. vīs (rare) itineris
Dat. vī (rare) itinerī
Acc. vim iter
Abl. itinere
Plural
Nom. vīrēs itinera
Gen. vīrium itinerum
Dat. vīribus itineribus
Acc. vīrīs, or -ēs itinera
Abl. vīribus itineribus

247. There are no rules for gender in the third declension that do not present numerous exceptions.1 The following rules, however, are of great service, and should be thoroughly mastered:

1. Masculine are nouns in -or, -ōs, -er, -ĕs (gen. -itis).

a. arbor, tree, is feminine; and iter, march, is neuter.

2. Feminine are nouns in , -is, -x, and in -s preceded by a consonant or by any long vowel but ō.

a. Masculine are collis (hill), lapis, mēnsis (month), ōrdō, pēs, and nouns in -nis and -guis—as ignis, sanguis (blood)—and the four monosyllables

dēns, a tooth
mōns, a mountain
pōns, a bridge
fōns, a fountain

3. Neuters are nouns in -e, -al, -ar, -n, -ur, -ŭs, and caput.

1. Review § 60. Words denoting males are, of course, masculine, and those denoting females, feminine.

248. Give the gender of the following nouns and the rule by which it is determined:

animal calamitās flūmen lapis nāvis
avis caput ignis legiō opus
caedēs eques īnsigne mare salūs
calcar fīnis labor mīles urbs

249. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 292.

I. The First Bridge over the Rhine. Salūs sociōrum erat semper cāra Rōmānīs. Ōlim Gallī, amīcī Rōmānōrum, multās iniūriās ab Germānīs quī trāns flūmen Rhēnum vivēbant accēperant. Ubi lēgātī ab iīs ad Caesarem imperātōrem Rōmānum vēnērunt et auxilium postulāvērunt, Rōmānī magnīs itineribus ad hostium fīnīs properāvērunt. Mox ad rīpās magnī flūminis vēnērunt. Imperātor studēbat cōpiās suās trāns fluvium dūcere, sed nūllā viā2 poterat. Nūllās nāvīs habēbat. Alta erat aqua. Imperātor autem, vir clārus, numquam adversā fortūnā commōtus, novum cōnsilium cēpit. Iussit suōs3 in4 lātō flūmine facere pontem. Numquam anteā pōns in Rhēnō vīsus erat. Hostēs ubi pontem quem Rōmānī fēcerant vīdērunt, summō terrōre commōtī, sine morā fugam parāre incēpērunt.

II. 1. The enemy had taken (possession of) the top of the mountain. 2. There were many trees on the opposite hills. 3. We pitched our camp near (ad) a beautiful spring. 4. A march through the enemies’ country is never without danger. 5. The time of the month was suitable for the march. 6. The teeth of the monster were long. 7. When the foot soldiers4 saw the blood of the captives, they began to assail the fortifications with the greatest violence.5

2. Abl. of manner.
3. suōs, used as a noun, his men.
4. We say build a bridge over; the Romans, make a bridge on.
5. Place first.

Fifth Review, Lessons XXXVII-XLIV, §§ 517-520

LESSON XLV
ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION · I-STEMS

250. Adjectives are either of the first and second declensions (like bonus, aeger, or līber), or they are of the third declension.

251. Nearly all adjectives of the third declension have i-stems, and they are declined almost like nouns with i-stems.

252. Adjectives learned thus far have had a different form in the nominative for each gender, as, bonus, m.; bona, f.; bonum, n. Such an adjective is called an adjective of three endings. Adjectives of the third declension are of the following classes:

I.

Adjectives of three endings—
a different form in the nominative for each gender.

II.

Adjectives of two endings—
masculine and feminine nominative alike, the neuter different.

III.

Adjectives of one ending—
masculine, feminine, and neuter nominative all alike.

253. Adjectives of the third declension in -er have three endings; those in -is have two endings; the others have one ending.

CLASS I

254. Adjectives of Three Endings are declined as follows:

ācer, ācris, ācre, keen, eager
Stem ācri- Base ācr-
Singular Plural
MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. ācer ācris ācre ācrēs ācrēs ācria
Gen. ācris ācris ācris ācrium ācrium ācrium
Dat. ācrī ācrī ācrī ācribus ācribus ācribus
Acc. ācrem ācrem ācre ācrīs, -ēs ācrīs, -ēs ācria
Abl. ācrī ācrī ācrī ācribus ācribus ācribus
CLASS II

255. Adjectives of Two Endings are declined as follows:

omnis, omne, every, all1
Stem omni- Base omn-
Singular Plural
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT.
Nom. omnis omne omnēs omnia
Gen. omnis omnis omnium omnium
Dat. omnī omnī omnibus omnibus
Acc. omnem omne omnīs, ēs omnia
Abl. omnī omnī omnibus omnibus
1. omnis is usually translated every in the singular and all in the plural.
CLASS III

256. Adjectives of One Ending are declined as follows:

pār, equal
Stem pari- Base par-
Singular Plural
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT.
Nom. pār pār parēs paria
Gen. paris paris parium parium
Dat. parī parī paribus paribus
Acc. parem pār parīs, ēs paria
Abl. parī parī paribus paribus

1. All i-stem adjectives have in the ablative singular.

2. Observe that the several cases of adjectives of one ending have the same form for all genders excepting in the accusative singular and in the nominative and accusative plural.

3. Decline vir ācer, legiō ācris, animal ācre, ager omnis, scūtum omne, proelium pār.

257. There are a few adjectives of one ending that have consonant stems. They are declined exactly like nouns with consonant stems.

258. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 293.

I. The Romans invade the Enemy’s Country. Ōlim peditēs Rōmānī cum equitibus vēlōcibus in hostium urbem iter faciēbant. Ubi nōn longē āfuērunt, rapuērunt agricolam, quī eīs viam brevem et facilem dēmōnstrāvit. Iam Rōmānī moenia alta, turrīs validās aliaque opera urbis vidēre poterant. In moenibus stābant multī prīncipēs. Prīncipēs ubi vīdērunt Rōmānōs, iussērunt cīvīs lapidēs aliaque tēla dē mūrīs iacere. Tum mīlitēs fortēs continērī ā proeliō nōn poterant et ācer imperātor signum tubā darī iussit. Summā vī omnēs mātūrāvērunt. Imperātor Sextō lēgātō impedīmenta omnia mandāvit. Sextus impedīmenta in summō colle conlocāvit. Grave et ācre erat proelium, sed hostēs nōn parēs Rōmānīs erant. Aliī interfectī, aliī captī sunt. Apud captīvōs erant māter sororque rēgis. Paucī Rōmānōrum ab hostibus vulnerātī sunt. Secundum proelium Rōmānīs erat grātum. Fortūna fortibus semper favet.

II. 1. Some months are short, others are long. 2. To seize the top of the mountain was difficult. 3. Among the hills of Italy are many beautiful springs. 4. The soldiers were sitting where the baggage had been placed because their feet were weary. 5. The city which the soldiers were eager to storm had been fortified by strong walls and high towers. 6. Did not the king intrust a heavy crown of gold and all his money to a faithless slave? Yes, but the slave had never before been faithless.

legionary eagle, SPQR
AQUILA LEGIONIS

LESSON XLVI
THE FOURTH OR U-DECLENSION

259. Nouns of the fourth declension are either masculine or neuter.

260. Masculine nouns end in -us, neuters in . The genitive ends in -ūs.

a. Feminine by exception are domus, house; manus, hand; and a few others.

PARADIGMS
The “Stems” are missing in the printed book. They have been supplied from the inflectional table in the Appendix.
adventus, m., arrival cornū, n., horn
Stems adventu- cornu-
Bases advent- corn-
Singular TERMINATIONS
MASC. NEUT.
Nom. adventus cornū -us
Gen. adventūs cornūs -ūs -ūs
Dat. advent (ū) cornū -uī (ū)
Acc. adventum cornū -um
Abl. adventū cornū
Plural
Nom. adventūs cornua -ūs -ua
Gen. adventuum cornuum -uum -uum
Dat. adventibus cornibus -ibus -ibus
Acc. adventūs cornua -ūs -ua
Abl. adventibus cornibus -ibus -ibus

1. Observe that the base is found, as in other declensions, by dropping the ending of the genitive singular.

2. lacus, lake, has the ending -ubus in the dative and ablative plural; portus, harbor, has either -ubus or -ibus.

3. cornū is the only neuter that is in common use.

261. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 293.

I. 1. Ante adventum Caesaris vēlōcēs hostium equitēs ācrem impetum in castra fēcērunt. 2. Continēre exercitum ā proeliō nōn facile erat. 3. Post adventum suum Caesar iussit legiōnēs ex castrīs dūcī. 4. Prō castrīs cum hostium equitātū pugnātum est. 5. Post tempus breve equitātus trāns flūmen fūgit ubi castra hostium posita erant. 6. Tum victor imperātor agrōs vāstāvit et vīcōs hostium cremāvit. 7. Castra autem nōn oppugnāvit quia mīlitēs erant dēfessī et locus difficilis. 8. Hostēs nōn cessāvērunt iacere tēla, quae paucīs nocuērunt. 9. Post adversum proelium principēs Gallōrum lēgātōs ad Caesarem mittere studēbant, sed populō persuādēre nōn poterant.

II. 1. Did you see the man-of-war on the lake? 2. I did not see it (fem.) on the lake, but I saw it in the harbor. 3. Because of the strong wind the sailor forbade his brother to sail. 4. Cæsar didn´t make an attack on the cavalry on the right wing, did he? 5. No, he made an attack on the left wing. 6. Who taught your swift horse to obey? 7. I trained my horse with my (own) hands, nor was the task difficult. 8. He is a beautiful animal and has great strength.

LESSON XLVII
EXPRESSIONS OF PLACE · THE DECLENSION OF DOMUS

262. We have become thoroughly familiar with expressions like the following:

Galba ad (or in) oppidum properat

Galba ab ( or ex) oppidō properat

Galba in oppidō habitat

From these expressions we may deduce the following rules:

263. Rule. Accusative of the Place to. The place to which is expressed by ad or in with the accusative. This answers the question Whither?

264. Rule. Ablative of the Place from. The place from which is expressed by ā or ab, , ē or ex, with the separative ablative. This answers the question Whence? (Cf. Rule, § 179.)

265. Rule. Ablative of the Place at or in. The place at or in which is expressed by the ablative with in. This answers the question Where?

a. The ablative denoting the place where is called the locative ablative (cf. locus, place).

266. Exceptions. Names of towns, small islands,1 domus, home, rūs, country, and a few other words in common use omit the prepositions in expressions of place, as,

Galba Athēnās properat, Galba hastens to Athens

Galba Athēnīs properat, Galba hastens from Athens

Galba Athēnīs habitat, Galba lives at (or in) Athens

Galba domum properat, Galba hastens home

Galba rūs properat, Galba hastens to the country

Galba domō properat, Galba hastens from home

Galba rūre properat, Galba hastens from the country

Galba rūrī (less commonly rūre) habitat, Galba lives in the country

a. Names of countries, like Germānia, Italia, etc., do not come under these exceptions. With them prepositions must not be omitted.

1. Small islands are classed with towns because they generally have but one town, and the name of the town is the same as the name of the island.

267. The Locative Case. We saw above that the place-relation expressed by at or in is regularly covered by the locative ablative. However, Latin originally expressed this relation by a separate form known as the locative case. This case has been everywhere merged in the ablative excepting in the singular number of the first and second declensions. The form of the locative in these declensions is like the genitive singular, and its use is limited to names of towns and small islands, domī, at home, and a few other words.

268. Rule. Locative and Locative Ablative. To express the place in which with names of towns and small islands, if they are singular and of the first or second declension, use the locative; otherwise use the locative ablative without a preposition; as,

Galba Rōmae habitat, Galba lives at Rome

Galba Corinthī habitat, Galba lives at Corinth

Galba domī habitat, Galba lives at home

Here Rōmae, Corinthī, and domī are locatives, being singular and of the first and second declensions respectively. But in

Galba Athēnīs habitat, Galba lives at Athens,

Galba Pompēiīs habitat, Galba lives at Pompeii

Athēnīs and Pompēiīs are locative ablatives. These words can have no locative case, as the nominatives Athēnae and Pompēiī are plural and there is no plural locative case form.

269. The word domus, home, house, has forms of both the second and the fourth declension. Learn its declension (§ 468).

270. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 293.

I. 1. Corinthī omnia īnsignia aurī ā ducibus victōribus rapta erant. 2. Caesar Genāvam exercitum magnīs itineribus dūxit. 3. Quem pontem hostēs cremāverant? Pontem in Rhēnō hostēs cremāverant. 4. Pompēiīs multās Rōmānōrum domōs vidēre poteritis. 5. Rōmā cōnsul equō vēlōcī rūs properāvit. 6. Domī cōnsulis hominēs multī sedēbant. 7. Imperātor iusserat lēgātum Athēnās cum multīs nāvibus longīs nāvigāre. 8. Ante moenia urbis sunt ōrdinēs arborum altārum. 9. Propter arborēs altās nec lacum nec portum reperīre potuimus. 10. Proeliīs crēbrīs Caesar legiōnēs suās quae erant in Galliā exercēbat. 11. Cotīdiē in locō idoneō castra pōnēbat et mūniēbat.

II. 1. Cæsar, the famous general, when he had departed from Rome, hastened to the Roman province on a swift horse.2 2. He had heard a rumor concerning the allies at Geneva. 3. After his arrival Cæsar called the soldiers together and commanded them to join battle. 4. The enemy hastened to retreat, some because3 they were afraid, others because3 of wounds. 5. Recently I was at Athens and saw the place where the judges used to sit.4 6. Marcus and Sextus are my brothers; the one lives at Rome, the other in the country.

2. Latin says “by a swift horse.” What construction?
3. Distinguish between the English conjunction because (quia or quod) and the preposition because of (propter).
4. used to sit, express by the imperfect.

Daedalus and Icarus
DAEDALUS ET ICARUS

271. Daed´alus and Ic´arus

Crēta est īnsula antīqua quae aquā altā magnī maris pulsātur. Ibi ōlim Mīnōs erat rēx. Ad eum vēnit Daedalus quī ex Graeciā patriā fugiēbat. Eum Mīnōs rēx benignīs verbīs accēpit et eī domicilium in Crētā dedit. 5Quō in locō Daedalus sine cūrā vīvebat et rēgī multa et clāra opera faciēbat. Post tempus longum autem Daedalus patriam cāram dēsīderāre incēpit. Domum properāre studēbat, sed rēgī persuādēre nōn potuit et mare saevum fugam vetābat.

5. And in this place; quō does not here introduce a subordinate relative clause, but establishes the connection with the preceding sentence. Such a relative is called a connecting relative, and is translated by and and a demonstrative or personal pronoun.
LESSON XLVIII
THE FIFTH OR Ē-DECLENSION · THE ABLATIVE OF TIME

272. Gender. Nouns of the fifth declension are feminine except diēs, day, and merīdiēs, midday, which are usually masculine.

273. PARADIGMS

The “Stems” are missing in the printed book. They have been supplied from the inflectional table in the Appendix.
diēs, m., day rēs, f. thing
Stems diē- rē-
Bases di- r-
Singular TERMINATIONS
Nom. diēs rēs -ēs
Gen. diēī reī -ē̆ī
Dat. diēī reī -ē̆ī
Acc. diem rem -em
Abl. diē rē
Plural
Nom. diēs rēs -ēs
Gen. diērum rērum -ērum
Dat. diēbus rēbus -ēbus
Acc. diēs rēs -ēs
Abl. diēbus rēbus -ēbus

1. The vowel e which appears in every form is regularly long. It is shortened in the ending -eī after a consonant, as in r-ĕī; and before -m in the accusative singular, as in di-em. (Cf. § 12. 2.)

2. Only diēs and rēs are complete in the plural. Most other nouns of this declension lack the plural. Aciēs, line of battle, and spēs, hope, have the nominative and accusative plural.

274. The ablative relation (§ 50) which is expressed by the prepositions at, in, or on may refer not only to place, but also to time, as at noon, in summer, on the first day. The ablative which is used to express this relation is called the ablative of time.

275. Rule. The Ablative of Time. The time when or within which anything happens is expressed by the ablative without a preposition.

a. Occasionally the preposition in is found. Compare the English Next day we started and On the next day we started.

276. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 294.

I. Galba the Farmer. Galba agricola rūrī vīvit. Cotīdiē prīmā lūce labōrāre incipit, nec ante noctem in studiō suō cessat. Merīdiē Iūlia fīlia eum ad cēnam vocat. Nocte pedēs dēfessōs domum vertit. Aestāte fīliī agricolae auxilium patrī dant. Hieme agricola eōs in lūdum mittit. Ibi magister pueris multās fābulās dē rēbus gestīs Caesaris nārrat. Aestāte fīliī agricolae perpetuīs labōribus exercentur nec grave agrī opus est iīs molestum. Galba sine ūllā cūrā vivit nec rēs adversās timet.

II. 1. In that month there were many battles in Gaul. 2. The cavalry of the enemy made an attack upon Cæsar’s line of battle. 3. In the first hour of the night the ship was overcome by the billows. 4. On the second day the savages were eager to come under Cæsar’s protection. 5. The king had joined battle, moved by the hope of victory. 6. That year a fire destroyed many birds and other animals. 7. We saw blood on the wild beast’s teeth.

277. Daed´alus and Ic´arus (Continued)

Tum Daedalus gravibus cūrīs commōtus fīliō suō Īcarō ita dixit: “Animus meus, Īcare, est plēnus trīstitiae nec oculī lacrimīs egent. Discēdere ex Crētā, Athēnās properāre, maximē studeō; sed rēx recūsat audīre verba mea et omnem reditūs spem ēripit. Sed numquam rēbus adversīs vincar. Terra et mare sunt inimīca, sed aliam fugae viam reperiam.” Tum in artīs ignōtās animum dīmittit et mīrum capit cōnsilium. Nam pennās in ōrdine pōnit et vērās ālās facit.

LESSON XLIX
PRONOUNS CLASSIFIED · PERSONAL AND REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

278. We have the same kinds of pronouns in Latin as in English. They are divided into the following eight classes:

1. Personal pronouns, which show the person speaking, spoken to, or spoken of; as, ego, I; , you; is, he. (Cf. § 279. etc.)

2. Possessive pronouns, which denote possession; as, meus, tuus, suus, etc. (Cf. § 98.)

3. Reflexive pronouns, used in the predicate to refer back to the subject; as, he saw himself. (Cf. § 281.)

4. Intensive pronouns, used to emphasize a noun or pronoun; as, I myself saw it. (Cf. § 285.)

5. Demonstrative pronouns, which point out persons or things; as, is, this, that. (Cf. § 112.)

6. Relative pronouns, which connect a subordinate adjective clause with an antecedent; as, quī, who. (Cf. § 220.)

7. Interrogative pronouns, which ask a question; as, quis, who? (Cf. § 225.)

8. Indefinite pronouns, which point out indefinitely; as, some one, any one, some, certain ones, etc. (Cf. § 296.)

279. The demonstrative pronoun is, ea, id, as we learned in § 115, is regularly used as the personal pronoun of the third person (he, she, it, they, etc.).

280. The personal pronouns of the first person are ego, I; nōs, we; of the second person, , thou or you; vōs, ye or you. They are declined as follows:

Singular
FIRST PERSON SECOND PERSON
Nom. ego, I , you
Gen. meī, of me tuī, of you
Dat. mihi, to or for me tibi, to or for you
Acc. , me , you
Abl. , with, from, etc., me , with, from, etc., you
Plural
Nom. nōs, we vōs, you
Gen. nostrum or nostrī, of us vestrum or vestrī, of you
Dat. nōbīs, to or for us vōbīs, to or for you
Acc. nōs, us vōs, you
Abl. nōbīs, with, from, etc., us vōbīs, with, from, etc., you

1. The personal pronouns are not used in the nominative excepting for emphasis or contrast.

281. The Reflexive Pronouns. 1. The personal pronouns ego and may be used in the predicate as reflexives; as,

videō mē, I see myself vidēmus nōs, we see ourselves
vidēs tē, you see yourself vidētis vōs, you see yourselves

2. The reflexive pronoun of the third person (himself, herself, itself, themselves) has a special form, used only in these senses, and declined alike in the singular and plural.

Singular and Plural
Gen. suī Acc.
Dat. sibi Abl.
Examples

Puer sē videt, the boy sees himself

Puella sē videt, the girl sees herself

Animal sē videt, the animal sees itself

Iī sē vident, they see themselves

a. The form is sometimes doubled, sēsē, for emphasis.

3. Give the Latin for

I teach myself We teach ourselves
You teach yourself You teach yourselves
He teaches himself They teach themselves

282. The preposition cum, when used with the ablative of ego, , or suī, is appended to the form, as, mēcum, with me; tēcum, with you; nōbīscum, with us; etc.

283. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 294.

I. 1. Mea māter est cāra mihi et tua māter est cāra tibi. 2. Vestrae litterae erant grātae nōbis et nostrae litterae erant grātae vōbīs. 3. Nūntius rēgis quī nōbīscum est nihil respondēbit. 4. Nūntiī pācem amīcitiamque sibi et suīs sociīs postulāvērunt. 5. Sī tū arma sūmēs, ego rēgnum occupābō. 6. Uter vestrum est cīvis Rōmānus? Neuter nostrum. 7. Eō tempore multī supplicium dedērunt quia rēgnum petierant. 8. Sūme supplicium, Caesar, dē hostibus patriae ācribus. 9. Prīmā lūce aliī metū commōtī sēsē fugae mandāvērunt; aliī autem magnā virtūte impetum exercitūs nostrī sustinuērunt. 10. Soror rēgis, ubi dē adversō proeliō audīvit, sēsē Pompēiīs interfēcit.

II. 1. Whom do you teach? I teach myself. 2. The soldier wounded himself with his sword. 3. The master praises us, but you he does not praise. 4. Therefore he will inflict punishment on you, but we shall not suffer punishment. 5. Who will march (i.e. make a march) with me to Rome? 6. I will march with you to the gates of the city. 7. Who will show us1 the way? The gods will show you1 the way.

1. Not accusative.
Daed´alus and Ic´arus (Concluded)

284. Puer Īcarus ūnā2 stābat et mīrum patris opus vidēbat. Postquam manus ultima3 ālīs imposita est, Daedalus eās temptāvit et similis avī in aurās volāvit. Tum ālās umerīs fīlī adligāvit et docuit eum volāre et dīxit, “Tē vetō, mī fīlī, adpropinquāre aut sōlī aut marī. Sī fluctibus adpropinquāveris,4 aqua ālīs tuīs nocēbit, et sī sōlī adpropinquāveris,4 ignis eās cremābit.” Tum pater et filius iter difficile incipiunt. Ālās movent et aurae sēsē committunt. Sed stultus puer verbīs patris nōn pāret. Sōlī adpropinquat. Ālae cremantur et Īcarus in mare dēcidit et vitam āmittit. Daedalus autem sine ūllō perīculō trāns fluctūs ad īnsulam Siciliam volāvit.

2. Adverb, see vocabulary.
3. manus ultima, the finishing touch. What literally?
4. Future perfect. Translate by the present.
LESSON L
THE INTENSIVE PRONOUN IPSE AND THE DEMONSTRATIVE ĪDEM

285. Ipse means -self (him-self, her-self, etc.) or is translated by even or very. It is used to emphasize a noun or pronoun, expressed or understood, with which it agrees like an adjective.

a. Ipse must be carefully distinguished from the reflexive suī. The latter is always used as a pronoun, while ipse is regularly adjective. Compare

Homō sē videt, the man sees himself (reflexive)

Homō ipse perīculum videt, the man himself (intensive) sees the danger

Homō ipsum perīculum videt, the man sees the danger itself (intensive)

286. Except for the one form ipse, the intensive pronoun is declined exactly like the nine irregular adjectives (cf. §§ 108, 109). Learn the declension (§ 481).

287. The demonstrative īdem, meaning the same, is a compound of is. It is declined as follows:

Singular Plural
MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. īdem e´adem idem iī´dem
eī´dem
eae´dem e´adem
Gen. eius´dem eius´dem eius´dem eōrun´dem eārun´dem eōrun´dem
Dat. eī´dem eī´dem eī´dem iīs´dem
eīs´dem
iīs´dem
eīs´dem
iīs´dem
eīs´dem
Acc. eun´dem ean´dem idem eōs´dem eās´dem e´adem
Dat. eī´dem eī´dem eī´dem iīs´dem
eīs´dem
iīs´dem
eīs´dem
iīs´dem
eīs´dem

a. From forms like eundem (eum + -dem), eōrundem (eōrum + -dem), we learn the rule that m before d is changed to n.

b. The forms iīdem, iīsdem are often spelled and pronounced with one ī.

288. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 295.

I. 1. Ego et tū1 in eādem urbe vīvimus. 2. Iter ipsum nōn timēmus sed ferās saevās quae in silvā dēnsā esse dīcuntur. 3. Ōlim nōs ipsī idem iter fēcimus. 4. Eō tempore multās ferās vīdimus. 5. Sed nōbīs nōn nocuērunt. 6. Caesar ipse scūtum dē manibus mīlitis ēripuit et in ipsam aciem properāvit. 7. Itaque mīlitēs summā virtūte tēla in hostium corpora iēcērunt. 8. Rōmānī quoque gravia vulnera accēpērunt. 9. Dēnique hostēs terga vertērunt et ommīs in partīs2 fūgērunt. 10. Eādem hōrā litterae Rōmam ab imperātōre ipsō missae sunt. 11. Eōdem mēnse captīvī quoque in Italiam missī sunt. 12. Sed multī propter vulnera iter difficile trāns montīs facere recūsābant et Genāvae esse dīcēbantur.

1. Observe that in Latin we say I and you, not you and I.
2. Not parts, but directions.

II. 1. At Pompeii there is a wonderful mountain. 2. When I was in that place, I myself saw that mountain. 3. On the same day many cities were destroyed by fire and stones from that very mountain. 4. You have not heard the true story of that calamity, have you?3 5. On that day the very sun could not give light to men. 6. You yourself ought to tell (to) us that story.

3. Cf. § 210.

289. How Horatius held the Bridge4

Tarquinius Superbus, septimus et ultimus rēx Rōmānōrum, ubi in exsilium ab īrātīs Rōmānīs ēiectus est, ā Porsenā, rēge Etrūscōrum, auxilium petiit. Mox Porsena magnīs cum cōpiīs Rōmam vēnit, et ipsa urbs summō in perīculō erat. Omnibus in partibus exercitus Rōmānus victus erat. Iam rēx montem Iāniculum5 occupāverat. Numquam anteā Rōmānī tantō metū tenēbantur. Ex agrīs in urbem properābant et summō studiō urbem ipsam mūniēbant.

4. The story of Horatius has been made familiar by Macaulay’s well-known poem “Horatius” in his Lays of Ancient Rome. Read the poem in connection with this selection.
5. The Janiculum is a high hill across the Tiber from Rome.
LESSON LI
THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS HIC, ISTE, ILLE

290. We have already learned the declension of the demonstrative pronoun is and its use. (Cf. Lesson XVII.) That pronoun refers to persons or things either far or near, and makes no definite reference to place or time. If we wish to point out an object definitely in place or time, we must use hic, iste, or ille. These demonstratives, like is, are used both as pronouns and as adjectives, and their relation to the speaker may be represented graphically thus:

(see end of file for text diagram)

a. In dialogue hic refers to a person or thing near the speaker; iste, to a person or thing near the person addressed; ille, to a person or thing remote from both. These distinctions are illustrated in the model sentences, § 293, which should be carefully studied and imitated.

291. Hic is declined as follows:

Singular Plural
MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. hic haec hoc hae haec
Gen. huius huius huius hōrum hārum hōrum
Dat. huic huic huic hīs hīs hīs
Acc. hunc hanc hoc hōs hās haec
Abl. hōc hāc hōc hīs hīs hīs

a. Huius is pronounced ho͝o´yo͝os, and huic is pronounced ho͝oic (one syllable).

292. The demonstrative pronouns iste, ista, istud, and ille, illa, illud, except for the nominative and accusative singular neuter forms istud and illud, are declined exactly like ipse, ipsa, ipsum. (See § 481.)

293. MODEL SENTENCES

Is this horse (of mine) strong?

Estne hic equus validus?

That horse (of yours) is strong, but that one (yonder) is weak

Iste equus est validus, sed ille est īnfīrmus

Are these (men by me) your friends?

Suntne hī amīcī tuī?

Those (men by you) are my friends, but those (men yonder) are enemies

Istī sunt amīcī meī, sed illī sunt inimīcī

294. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 295.

I. A German Chieftain addresses his Followers. Ille fortis Germānōrum dux suōs convocāvit et hōc modō animōs eōrum cōnfirmāvit. “Vōs, quī in hīs fīnibus vīvitis, in hunc locum convocāvī1 quia mēcum dēbētis istōs agrōs et istās domōs ab iniūriīs Rōmānōrum liberāre. Hoc nōbīs nōn difficile erit, quod illī hostēs hās silvās dēnsās, ferās saevās quārum vestīgia vident, montēs altōs timent. Sī fortēs erimus, deī ipsī nōbīs viam salūtis dēmonstrābunt. Ille sōl, istī oculī calamītātēs nostrās vīdērunt.1 Itaque nōmen illīus reī pūblicae Rōmānae nōn sōlum nōbis, sed etiam omnibus hominibus quī lībertātem amant, est invīsum. Ad arma vōs vocō. Exercēte istam prīstinam virtūtem et vincētis.”

II. 1. Does that bird (of yours)2 sing? 2. This bird (of mine)2 sings both3 in summer and in winter and has a beautiful voice. 3. Those birds (yonder)2 in the country don´t sing in winter. 4. Snatch a spear from the hands of that soldier (near you)2 and come home with me. 5. With those very eyes (of yours)2 you will see the tracks of the hateful enemy who burned my dwelling and made an attack on my brother. 6. For (propter) these deeds (rēs) we ought to inflict punishment on him without delay. 7. The enemies of the republic do not always suffer punishment.

1. The perfect definite. (Cf. § 190.)
2. English words in parentheses are not to be translated. They are inserted to show what demonstratives should be used. (Cf. § 290.)
3. both ... and, et ... et.

Horatius at the bridge
HORATIUS PONTEM DEFENDIT

295. How Horatius held the Bridge (Continued)

Altera urbis pars mūrīs, altera flūmine satis mūnīrī vidēbātur. Sed erat pōns in flūmine quī hostibus iter paene dedit. Tum Horātius Cocles, fortis vir, magnā vōce dīxit, “Rescindite pontem, Rōmānī! Brevī tempore Porsena in urbem cōpiās suās trādūcet.” Iam hostēs in ponte erant, sed Horātius cum duōbus (cf. § 479) comitibus ad extrēmam pontis partem properāvit, et hi sōli aciem hostium sustinuērunt. Tum vērō cīvēs Rōmānī pontem ā tergō rescindere incipiunt, et hostēs frūstrā Horātium superāre temptant.

LESSON LII
THE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

296. The indefinite pronouns are used to refer to some person or some thing, without indicating which particular one is meant. The pronouns quis and quī, which we have learned in their interrogative and relative uses, may also be indefinite; and nearly all the other indefinite pronouns are compounds of quis or quī and declined almost like them. Review the declension of these words, §§ 221, 227.

297. Learn the declension and meaning of the following indefinites:

Masc. Fem. Neut.
quis

quid, some one, any one (substantive)

quī qua or quae

quod, some, any (adjective), § 483

aliquis

aliquid, some one, any one (substantive), § 487

aliquī aliqua

aliquod, some, any (adjective), § 487

quīdam quaedam

quoddam, quiddam, a certain, a certain one, § 485

quisquam

quicquam or quidquam (no plural), any one (at all) (substantive), § 486

quisque

quidque, each one, every one (substantive), § 484

quisque quaeque

quodque, each, every (adjective), § 484

Transcriber’s Note:
In the original text, the combined forms (masculine/feminine) were printed in the “masculine” column.

Note. The meanings of the neuters, something, etc., are easily inferred from the masculine and feminine.

a. In the masculine and neuter singular of the indefinites, quis-forms and quid-forms are mostly used as substantives, quī-forms and quod-forms as adjectives.

b. The indefinites quis and quī never stand first in a clause, and are rare excepting after , nisi, , num (as, sī quis, if any one; sī quid, if anything; nisi quis, unless some one). Generally aliquis and aliquī are used instead.

c. The forms qua and aliqua are both feminine nominative singular and neuter nominative plural of the indefinite adjectives quī and aliquī respectively. How do these differ from the corresponding forms of the relative quī?

d. Observe that quīdam (quī + -dam) is declined like quī, except that in the accusative singular and genitive plural m of quī becomes n (cf. § 287. a): quendam, quandam, quōrundam, quārundam; also that the neuter has quiddam (substantive) and quoddam (adjective) in the nominative and accusative singular. Quīdam is the least indefinite of the indefinite pronouns, and implies that you could name the person or thing referred to if you cared to do so.

e. Quisquam and quisque (substantive) are declined like quis.

f. Quisquam, any one (quicquam or quidquam, anything), is always used substantively and chiefly in negative sentences. The corresponding adjective any is ūllus, -a, -um (§ 108).

298. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 295.

I. 1. Aliquis dē ponte in flūmen dēcidit sed sine ūllō perīculō servātus est. 2. Est vērō in vītā cuiusque hominis aliqua bona fortūna. 3. Nē mīlitum quidem1 quisquam in castrīs mānsit. 4. Sī quem meae domī vidēs, iubē eum discēdere. 5. Sī quis pontem tenet, nē tantus quidem exercitus capere urbem potest. 6. Urbs nōn satis mūnīta erat et merīdiē rēx quīdam paene cōpiās suās trāns pontem trādūxerat. 7. Dēnique mīles quīdam armātus in fluctūs dēsiluit et incolumis ad alteram rīpam oculōs vertit. 8. Quisque illī fortī mīlitī aliquid dare dēbet. 9. Tanta vērō virtūs Rōmānīs semper placuit. 10. Ōlim Corinthus erat urbs satis magna et paene par Rōmae ipsī; nunc vērō moenia dēcidērunt et pauca vestīgia urbis illīus reperīrī possunt. 11. Quisque lībertātem amat, et aliquibus vērō nōmen rēgis est invīsum.

II. 1. If you see a certain Cornelius at Corinth, send him to me. 2. Almost all the soldiers who fell down into the waves were unharmed. 3. Not even at Pompeii did I see so great a fire. 4. I myself was eager to tell something to some one. 5. Each one was praising his own work. 6. Did you see some one in the country? I did not see any one. 7. Unless some one will remain on the bridge with Horatius, the commonwealth will be in the greatest danger.

1. Observe that quīdam and quidem are different words.

299. How Horatius held the Bridge (Concluded)

Mox, ubi parva pars pontis mānsit, Horātius iussit comitēs discēdere et sōlus mīrā cōnstantiā impetum illius tōtius exercitūs sustinēbat. Dēnique magnō fragōre pōns in flūmen dēcīdit. Tum vērō Horātius tergum vertit et armātus in aquās dēsiluit. In eum hostēs multa tēla iēcērunt; incolumis autem per fluctūs ad alteram rīpam trānāvit. Eī propter tantās rēs gestās populus Rōmānus nōn sōlum alia magna praemia dedit sed etiam statuam Horāti in locō pūblicō posuit.


Sixth Review, Lessons XLV-LII, §§ 521-523

LESSON LIII
REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

300. The quality denoted by an adjective may exist in either a higher or a lower degree, and this is expressed by a form of inflection called comparison. The mere presence of the quality is expressed by the positive degree, its presence in a higher or lower degree by the comparative, and in the highest or lowest of all by the superlative. In English the usual way of comparing an adjective is by using the suffix -er for the comparative and -est for the superlative; as, positive high, comparative higher, superlative highest. Less frequently we use the adverbs more and most; as, positive beautiful, comparative more beautiful, superlative most beautiful.

In Latin, as in English, adjectives are compared by adding suffixes or by using adverbs.

301. Adjectives are compared by using suffixes as follows:

Positive Comparative Superlative

clārus, -a, -um (bright)
(Base clār-)

clārior, clārīus (brighter)

clārissimus, -a, -um (brightest)

brevis, breve (short)
(Base brev-)

brevior, brevius (shorter)

brevissimus, -a, -um (shortest)

vēlōx (swift)
(Base veloc-)

vēlōcior, vēlōcius (swifter)

vēlōcissimus, -a, -um (swiftest)

a. The comparative is formed from the base of the positive by adding -ior masc. and fem., and -ius neut.; the superlative by adding -issimus, -issima, -issimum.

302. Less frequently adjectives are compared by using the adverbs magis, more; maximē, most; as, idōneus, suitable; magis idōneus, more suitable; maximē idōneus, most suitable.

303. Declension of the Comparative. Adjectives of the comparative degree are declined as follows:

Singular Plural
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT.
Nom. clārior clārīus clāriōrēs clāriōra
Gen. clāriōris clāriōris clāriōrum clāriōrum
Dat. clāriōrī clāriōrī clāriōribus clāriōribus
Acc. clāriōrem clārius clāriōrēs clāriōra
Abl. clāriōre clāriōre clāriōribus clāriōribus

a. Observe that the endings are those of the consonant stems of the third declension.

b. Compare longus, long; fortis, brave; recēns (base, recent-), recent; and decline the comparative of each.

304. Adjectives in -er form the comparative regularly, but the superlative is formed by adding -rimus, -a, -um to the nominative masculine of the positive; as,

Positive Comparative Superlative

ācer, ācris, ācre
(Base acr-)

ācrior, ācrius ācerrimus, -a, -um

pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum
(Base pulchr-)

pulchrior, pulchrius pulcherrimus, -a, -um

līber, lībera, līberum
(Base līber-)

līberior, līberius līberrimus, -a, -um

a. In a similar manner compare miser, aeger, crēber.

305. The comparative is often translated by quite, too, or somewhat, and the superlative by very; as, altior, quite (too, somewhat) high; altissimus, very high.

306. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 296.

I. 1. Quid explōrātōrēs quaerēbant? Explōrātōrēs tempus opportūnissimum itinerī quaerēbant. 2. Mediā in silvā ignīs quam crēberrimōs fēcimus, quod ferās tam audācis numquam anteā vīderāmus. 3. Antīquīs temporibus Germānī erant fortiōrēs quam Gallī. 4. Caesar erat clārior quam inimīcī1 quī eum necāvērunt. 5. Quisque scūtum ingēns et pīlum longius gerēbat. 6. Apud barbarōs Germānī erant audācissimī et fortissimī. 7. Mēns hominum est celerior quam corpus. 8. Virī aliquārum terrārum sunt miserrimī. 9. Corpora Germānōrum erant ingentiōra quam Rōmānōrum. 10. Ācerrimī Gallōrum prīncipēs sine ūllā morā trāns flūmen quoddam equōs vēlōcissimōs trādūxērunt. 11. Aestāte diēs sunt longiōrēs quam hieme. 12. Imperātor quīdam ab explōrātōribus dē recentī adventū nāvium longārum quaesīvit.

II. 1. Of all birds the eagle is the swiftest. 2. Certain animals are swifter than the swiftest horse. 3. The Roman name was most hateful to the enemies of the commonwealth. 4. The Romans always inflicted the severest2 punishment on faithless allies. 5. I was quite ill, and so I hastened from the city to the country. 6. Marcus had some friends dearer than Cæsar.3 7. Did you not seek a more recent report concerning the battle? 8. Not even after a victory so opportune did he seek the general’s friendship.

1. Why is this word used instead of hostēs?
2. Use the superlative of gravis.
3. Accusative. In a comparison the noun after quam is in the same case as the one before it.

N.B. Beginning at this point, the selections for reading will be found near the end of the volume. (See p. 197.)

LESSON LIV
IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES · THE ABLATIVE WITH COMPARATIVES WITHOUT QUAM

307. The following six adjectives in -lis form the comparative regularly; but the superlative is formed by adding -limus to the base of the positive. Learn the meanings and comparison.

Positive Comparative Superlative
facilis, -e, easy facilior, -ius facillimus, -a, -um
difficilis, -e, hard difficilior, -ius difficillimus, -a, -um
similis, -e, like similior, -ius simillimus, -a, -um
dissimilis, -e, unlike dissimilior, -ius dissimillimus, -a, -um
gracilis, -e, slender gracilior, -ius gracillimus, -a, -um
humilis, -e, low humilior, -ius humillimus, -a, -um

308. From the knowledge gained in the preceding lesson we should translate the sentence Nothing is brighter than the sun

Nihil est clārius quam sōl

But the Romans, especially in negative sentences, often expressed the comparison in this way,

Nihil est clārius sōle

which, literally translated, is Nothing is brighter away from the sun; that is, starting from the sun as a standard, nothing is brighter. This relation is expressed by the separative ablative sōle. Hence the rule

309. Rule. Ablative with Comparatives. The comparative degree, if quam is omitted, is followed by the separative ablative.

310. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 296.

I. 1. Nēmō mīlitēs alacriōrēs Rōmānīs vīdit. 2. Statim imperātor iussit nūntiōs quam celerrimōs litterās Rōmam portāre. 3. Multa flūmina sunt lēniōra Rhēnō. 4. Apud Rōmanōs quis erat clārior Caesare? 5. Nihil pulchrius urbe Rōmā vīdī. 6. Subitō multitūdo audacissima magnō clamōre proelium ācrius commīsit. 7. Num est equus tuus tardus? Nōn vērō tardus, sed celerior aquilā. 8. Ubi Romae fuī, nēmō erat mihi amicior Sextō. 9. Quaedam mulierēs cibum mīlitibus dare cupīvērunt. 10. Rēx vetuit cīvis ex urbe noctū discēdere. 11. Ille puer est gracilior hāc muliere. 12. Explōrātor duās (two) viās, alteram facilem, alteram difficiliōrem, dēmōnstrāvit.

II. 1. What city have you seen more beautiful than Rome? 2. The Gauls were not more eager than the Germans. 3. The eagle is not slower than the horse. 4. The spirited woman did not fear to make the journey by night. 5. The mind of the multitude was quite gentle and friendly. 6. But the king’s mind was very different. 7. The king was not like (similar to) his noble father. 8. These hills are lower than the huge mountains of our territory.

Reading Selection

Roman weapons and armor
ARMA ROMANA

LESSON LV
IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (Continued)

311. Some adjectives in English have irregular comparison, as good, better, best; many, more, most. So Latin comparison presents some irregularities. Among the adjectives that are compared irregularly are

Positive Comparative Superlative
bonus, -a, -um, good melior, melius optimus, -a, -um
magnus, -a, -um, great maior, maius maximus, -a, -um
malus, -a, -um, bad peior, peius pessimus, -a, -um
multus, -a, -um, much ——, plūs plūrimus, -a, -um
multī, -ae, -a, many plūrēs, plūra plūrimī, -ae, -a
parvus, -a, -um, small minor, minus minimus, -a, -um

312. The following four adjectives have two superlatives. Unusual forms are placed in parentheses.

exterus, -a, -um, outward

(exterior, -ius, outer)

extrēmus, -a, -um
(extimus, -a, -um)

outermost, last

īnferus, -a, -um, low

īnferior, -ius, lower

īnfimus, -a, -um
īmus, -a, -um
lowest

posterus, -a, -um, next

(posterior, -ius, later)

postrēmus, -a, -um
(postumus, -a, -um)
last

superus, -a, -um, above

superior, -ius, higher

suprēmus, -a, -um
summus, -a, -um
highest

313. Plūs, more (plural more, many, several), is declined as follows:

Singular Plural
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT.
Nom. —— plūs plūrēs plūra
Gen. —— plūris plūrium plūrium
Dat. —— —— plūribus plūribus
Acc. —— plūs plūrīs, -ēs plūra
Abl. —— plūre plūribus plūribus

a. In the singular plūs is used only as a neuter substantive.

314. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 296.

I. 1. Reliquī hostēs, quī ā dextrō cornū proelium commīserant, dē superiōre locō fūgērunt et sēsē in silvam maximam recēpērunt. 2. In extrēmā parte silvae castra hostium posita erant. 3. Plūrimī captīvī ab equitibus ad Caesarem ductī sunt. 4. Caesar vērō iussit eōs in servitūtem trādī. 5. Posterō diē magna multitūdō mulierum ab Rōmānīs in valle īmā reperta est. 6. Hae mulierēs maximē perterritae adventū Caesaris sēsē occīdere studēbant. 7. Eae quoque plūrīs fābulās dē exercitūs Rōmānī sceleribus audīverant. 8. Fāma illōrum mīlitum optima nōn erat. 9. In barbarōrum aedificiīs maior cōpia frūmentī reperta est. 10. Nēmō crēbrīs proeliīs contendere sine aliquō perīculō potest.

II. 1. The remaining women fled from their dwellings and hid themselves. 2. They were terrified and did not wish to be captured and given over into slavery. 3. Nothing can be worse than slavery. 4. Slavery is worse than death. 5. In the Roman empire a great many were killed because they refused to be slaves. 6. To surrender the fatherland is the worst crime.

Reading Selection
LESSON LVI
IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (Concluded) · ­ABLATIVE OF THE MEASURE OF DIFFERENCE

315. The following adjectives are irregular in the formation of the superlative and have no positive. Forms rarely used are in parentheses.

Comparative Superlative
citerior, hither (citimus, hithermost)
interior, inner (intimus, inmost)
prior, former prīmus, first
propior, nearer proximus, next, nearest
ulterior, further ultimus, furthest

316. In the sentence Galba is a head taller than Sextus, the phrase a head taller expresses the measure of difference in height between Galba and Sextus. The Latin form of expression would be Galba is taller than Sextus by a head. This is clearly an ablative relation, and the construction is called the ablative of the measure of difference.

Examples

Galba est altior capite quam Sextus

Galba is a head taller (taller by a head) than Sextus.

Illud iter ad Italiam est multō brevius

That route to Italy is much shorter (shorter by much)

317. Rule. Ablative of the Measure of Difference. With comparatives and words implying comparison the ablative is used to denote the measure of difference.

a. Especially common in this construction are the neuter ablatives

, by this, by that
hōc, by this
multō, by much
nihilō,1 by nothing
paulō, by a little
1. nihil was originally nihilum and declined like pīlum. There is no plural.

318. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 297.

I. 1. Barbarī proelium committere statuērunt eō magis quod Rōmānī īnfīrmī esse vidēbantur. 2. Meum cōnsilium est multō melius quam tuum quia multō facilius est. 3. Haec via est multō lātior quam illa. 4. Barbarī erant nihilō tardiōrēs quam Rōmānī. 5. Tuus equus est paulō celerior quam meus. 6. Iī quī paulō fortiōrēs erant prohibuērunt reliquōs aditum relinquere. 7. Inter illās cīvitātēs Germānia mīlitēs habet optimōs. 8. Propior via quae per hanc vallem dūcit est inter portum et lacum. 9. Servī, quī agrōs citeriōrēs incolēbant, priōrēs dominōs relinquere nōn cupīvērunt, quod eōs amābant. 10. Ultimae Germāniae partēs numquam in fidem Rōmānōrum vēnērunt. 11. Nam trāns Rhēnum aditus erat multō difficilior exercituī Rōmānō.

II. 1. Another way much more difficult (more difficult by much) was left through hither Gaul. 2. In ancient times no state was stronger than the Roman empire. 3. The states of further Gaul did not wish to give hostages to Cæsar. 4. Slavery is no better (better by nothing) than death. 5. The best citizens are not loved by the worst. 6. The active enemy immediately withdrew into the nearest forest, for they were terrified by Cæsar’s recent victories.

Reading Selection
LESSON LVII
FORMATION AND COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

319. Adverbs are generally derived from adjectives, as in English (e.g. adj. sweet, adv. sweetly). Like adjectives, they can be compared; but they have no declension.

320. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the first and second declensions are formed and compared as follows:

Positive Comparative Superlative
Adj.
Adv.
cārus, dear
cārē, dearly
cārior
cārius
cārissimus
cārissimē
Adj.
Adv.
pulcher, beautiful
pulchrē, beautifully
pulchrior
pulchrius
pulcherrimus
pulcherrimē
Adj.
Adv.
līber, free
līberē, freely
līberior
līberius
līberrimus
līberrimē

a. The positive of the adverb is formed by adding to the base of the positive of the adjective. The superlative of the adverb is formed from the superlative of the adjective in the same way.

b. The comparative of any adverb is the neuter accusative singular of the comparative of the adjective.

321. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the third declension are formed like those described above in the comparative and superlative. The positive is usually formed by adding -iter to the base of adjectives of three endings or of two endings, and -ter to the base of those of one ending;1 as,

Positive Comparative Superlative
Adj.
Adv.
fortis, brave
fortiter, bravely
fortior
fortius
fortissimus
fortissimē
Adj.
Adv.
audāx, bold
audācter, boldly
audācior
audācius
audācissimus
audācissimē
1. This is a good working rule, though there are some exceptions to it.

322. Case Forms as Adverbs. As we learned above, the neuter accusative of comparatives is used adverbially. So in the positive or superlative some adjectives, instead of following the usual formation, use the accusative or the ablative singular neuter adverbially; as,

Adj.
Adv.
facilis, easy
facile (acc.), easily
prīmus, first
prīmum (acc.), first
prīmō (abl.), at first
Adj.
Adv.
multus, many
multum (acc.), much
multō (abl.), by much
plūrimus, most
plūrimum (acc.), most

323. Learn the following irregular comparisons:

bene, well melius, better optimē, best
diū, long (time) diūtius, longer diūtissimē, longest
magnopere, greatly magis, more maximē, most
parum, little minus, less minimē, least
prope, nearly, near propius, nearer proximē, nearest
saepe, often saepius, oftener saepissimē, oftenest

324. Form adverbs from the following adjectives, using the regular rules, and compare them: laetus, superbus, molestus, amīcus, ācer, brevis, gravis, recēns.

325. Rule. Adverbs. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.

326. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 297.

I. 1. Nūlla rēs melius gesta est quam proelium illud2 ubi Marius multō minōre exercitū multō maiōrēs cōpiās Germānōrum in fugam dedit. 2. Audācter in Rōmānōrum cohortīs hostēs impetūs fēcērunt 3. Marius autem omnēs hōs fortissimē sustinuit. 4. Barbarī nihilō fortiōrēs erant quam Rōmānī. 5. Prīmō barbarī esse superiōrēs vidēbantur, tum Rōmānī ācrius contendērunt. 6. Dēnique, ubi iam diūtissimē paene aequō proeliō pugnātum est, barbarī fugam petiērunt. 7. Quaedam Germānōrum gentēs, simul atque rūmōrem illīus calamitātis audīvērunt, sēsē in ultimīs regiōnibus fīnium suōrum abdidērunt. 8. Rōmānī saepius quam hostēs vīcērunt, quod meliōra arma habēbant. 9. Inter omnīs gentīs Rōmānī plūrimum valēbant. 10. Hae cohortēs simul atque in aequiōrem regiōnem sē recēpērunt, castra sine ūllā difficultāte posuērunt.

II. 1. Some nations are easily overcome by their enemies. 2. Germany is much larger than Gaul. 3. Were not the Romans the most powerful among the tribes of Italy? 4. On account of (his) wounds the soldier dragged his body from the ditch with the greatest difficulty. 5. He was able neither to run nor to fight. 6. Who saved him? A certain horseman boldly undertook the matter. 7. The rumors concerning the soldier’s death were not true.

2. ille standing after its noun means that well-known, that famous.
Reading Selection
LESSON LVIII
NUMERALS · THE PARTITIVE GENITIVE

327. The Latin numeral adjectives may be classified as follows:

1. Cardinal Numerals, answering the question how many? as, ūnus, one; duo, two; etc.

2. Ordinal Numerals, derived in most cases from the cardinals and answering the question in what order? as, prīmus, first; secundus, second; etc.

3. Distributive Numerals, answering the question how many at a time? as, singulī, one at a time.

328. The Cardinal Numerals. The first twenty of the cardinals are as follows:

1, ūnus 6, sex 11, ūndecim 16, sēdecim
2, duo 7, septem 12, duodecim 17, septendecim
3, trēs 8, octō 13, tredecim 18, duodēvīgintī
4, quattuor 9, novem 14, quattuordecim 19, ūndēvīgintī
5, quīnque 10, decem 15, quīndecim 20, vīgintī

a. Learn also centum = 100, ducentī = 200, mīlle = 1000.

329. Declension of the Cardinals. Of the cardinals only ūnus, duo, trēs, the hundreds above one hundred, and mīlle used as a noun, are declinable.

a. ūnus is one of the nine irregular adjectives, and is declined like nūllus (cf. §§ 109, 470). The plural of ūnus is used to agree with a plural noun of a singular meaning, as, ūna castra, one camp; and with other nouns in the sense of only, as, Gallī ūnī, only the Gauls.

b. Learn the declension of duo, two; trēs, three; and mīlle, a thousand. (§ 479.)

c. The hundreds above one hundred are declined like the plural of bonus; as,

ducentī, -ae, -a
ducentōrum, -ārum, -ōrum
etc.   etc.   etc.

330. We have already become familiar with sentences like the following:

Omnium avium aquila est vēlōcissima

Of all birds the eagle is the swiftest

Hoc ōrāculum erat omnium clārissimum

This oracle was the most famous of all

In such sentences the genitive denotes the whole, and the word it modifies denotes a part of that whole. Such a genitive, denoting the whole of which a part is taken, is called a partitive genitive.

331. Rule. Partitive Genitive. Words denoting a part are often used with the genitive of the whole, known as the partitive genitive.

a. Words denoting a part are especially pronouns, numerals, and other adjectives. But cardinal numbers excepting mīlle regularly take the ablative with ex or instead of the partitive genitive.

b. Mīlle, a thousand, in the singular is usually an indeclinable adjective (as, mīlle mīlitēs, a thousand soldiers), but in the plural it is a declinable noun and takes the partitive genitive (as, decem mīlia mīlitum, ten thousand soldiers).

Examples:

Fortissimī hōrum sunt Germānī

The bravest of these are the Germans

Decem mīlia hostium interfecta sunt

Ten thousand (lit. thousands) of the enemy were slain

Ūna ex captīvīs erat soror rēgis

One of the captives was the king’s sister

332. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 297.

I. 1. Caesar maximam partem aedificiōrum incendit. 2. Magna pars mūnītiōnis aquā flūminis dēlēta est. 3. Gallī huius regiōnis quīnque mīlia hominum coēgerant. 4. Duo ex meīs frātribus eundem rūmōrem audīvērunt. 5. Quis Rōmānōrum erat clarior Caesare? 6. Quīnque cohortēs ex illā legiōne castra quam fortissimē dēfendēbant. 7. Hic locus aberat aequō spatiō1 ab castrīs Caesaris et castrīs Germānōrum. 8. Caesar simul atque pervēnit, plūs commeātūs ab sociīs postulāvit. 9. Nōnne mercātōrēs magnitūdinem īnsulae cognōverant? Longitūdinem sed nōn lātitūdinem cognōverant. 10. Paucī hostium obtinēbant collem quem explōrātōrēs nostrī vīdērunt.

II. 1. I have two brothers, and one of them lives at Rome. 2. Cæsar stormed that very town with three legions. 3. In one hour he destroyed a great part of the fortification. 4. When the enemy could no longer2 defend the gates, they retreated to a hill which was not far distant.3 5. There three thousand of them bravely resisted the Romans.4

1. Ablative of the measure of difference.
2. Not longius. Why?
3. Latin, was distant by a small space.
4. Not the accusative.
Reading Selection
LESSON LIX
NUMERALS (Continued) · THE ACCUSATIVE OF EXTENT

333. Learn the first twenty of the ordinal numerals (§ 478). The ordinals are all declined like bonus.

334. The distributive numerals are declined like the plural of bonus. The first three are

singulī, -ae, -a, one each, one by one

bīnī, -ae, -a, two each, two by two

ternī, -ae, -a, three each, three by three

335. We have learned that, besides its use as object, the accusative is used to express space relations not covered by the ablative. We have had such expressions as per plūrimōs annōs, for a great many years; per tōtum diem, for a whole day. Here the space relation is one of extent of time. We could also say per decem pedēs, for ten feet, where the space relation is one of extent of space. While this is correct Latin, the usual form is to use the accusative with no preposition, as,

Vir tōtum diem cucurrit, the man ran for a whole day

Caesar mūrum decem pedēs mōvit, Cæsar moved the wall ten feet

336. Rule. Accusative of Extent. Duration of time and extent of space are expressed by the accusative.

a. This accusative answers the questions how long? how far?

b. Distinguish carefully between the accusative of time how long and the ablative of time when, or within which.

Select the accusatives of time and space and the ablatives of time in the following:

When did the general arrive? He arrived at two o’clock. How long had he been marching? For four days. How far did he march? He marched sixty-five miles. Where has he pitched his camp? Three miles from the river, and he will remain there several days. The wall around the camp is ten feet high. When did the war begin? In the first year after the king’s death.

337. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 298.

I. Cæsar in Gaul. Caesar bellum in Gallia septem annōs gessit. Prīmō annō Helvētiōs vīcit, et eōdem annō multae Germanōrum gentēs eī sēsē dēdidērunt. Multōs iam annōs Germānī Gallōs vexabant1 et ducēs Germānī cōpiās suās trāns Rhēnum saepe trādūcēbant.1 Nōn singulī veniēbant, sed multa milia hominum in Galliam contendēbant. Quā dē causā prīncipēs Galliae concilium convocāvērunt atque statuērunt legates ad Caesarem mittere. Caesar, simul atque hunc rūmōrem audīvit, cōpiās suās sine morā coēgit. Primā lūce fortiter cum Germanīs proelium commīsit. Tōtum diem ācriter pugnātum est. Caesar ipse ā dextrō cornū acicm dūxit. Magna pars exercitūs Germānī cecidit. Post magnam caedem paucī multa milia passuum ad flūmen fūgērunt.

II. 1. Cæsar pitched camp two miles from the river. 2. He fortified the camp with a ditch fifteen feet wide and a rampart nine feet high. 3. The camp of the enemy was a great way off (was distant by a great space). 4. On the next day he hastened ten miles in three hours. 5. Suddenly the enemy with all their forces made an attack upon (in with acc.) the rear. 6. For two hours the Romans were hard pressed by the barbarians. 7. In three hours the barbarians were fleeing.

1. Translate as if pluperfect.
Reading Selection
LESSON LX
DEPONENT VERBS

338. A number of verbs are passive in form but active in meaning; as, hortor, I encourage; vereor, I fear. Such verbs are called deponent because they have laid aside (dē-pōnere, to lay aside) the active forms.

a. Besides having all the forms of the passive, deponent verbs have also the future active infinitive and a few other active forms which will be noted later. (Sec§§ 375, 403.b.)

339. The principal parts of deponents are of course passive in form, as,

Conj. I hortor, hortārī, hortātus sum, encourage
Conj. II vereor, verērī, veritus sum, fear
Conj. III (a) sequor, sequī, secūtus sum, follow
(b) patior, patī, passus sum, suffer, allow
Conj. IV partior, partīrī, partītus sum, share, divide

Learn the synopses of these verbs. (See § 493.) Patior is conjugated like the passive of capiō (§ 492).

340. PREPOSITIONS WITH THE ACCUSATIVE

The prepositions with the accusative that occur most frequently are

ante, before

apud, among

circum, around

contrā, against, contrary to

extrā, outside of

in, into, in, against, upon

inter, between, among

intrā, within

ob, on account of (quam ob rem, wherefore, therefore)

per, through, by means of

post, after, behind

propter, on account of, because of

trāns, across, over

a. Most of these you have had before. Review the old ones and learn the new ones. Review the list of prepositions governing the ablative, § 209.

341. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 298.

I. 1. Trēs ex lēgātīs, contrā Caesaris opīniōnem, iter facere per hostium fīnīs verēbantur. 2. Quis eōs hortātus est? Imperātor eōs hortātus est et iīs persuādēre cōnātus est, sed nōn potuit. 3. Quid lēgātōs perterruit? Aut timor hostium, quī undique premēbant, aut longitūdō viae eōs perterruit. 4. Tamen omnēs ferē Caesarem multō magis quam hostīs veritī sunt. 5. Fortissimae gentēs Galliae ex Germānīs oriēbantur. 6. Quam ob rem tam fortēs erant? Quia nec vīnum nec alia quae virtūtem dēlent ad sē portārī patiēbantur. 7. Caesar ex mercātōribus dē īnsulā Britanniā quaesīvit, sed nihil cognōscere potuit. 8. Itaque ipse statuit hanc terram petere, et mediā ferē aestāte cum multīs nāvibus longīs profectus est. 9. Magnā celeritāte iter confēcit et in opportūnissimō locō ēgressus est. 10. Barbarī summīs vīribus eum ab īnsulā prohibēre cōnātī sunt. 11. Ille autem barbarōs multa mīlia passuum īnsecūtus est; tamen sine equitātū eōs cōnsequī nōn potuit.

II. 1. Contrary to our expectation, the enemy fled and the cavalry followed close after them. 2. From all parts of the multitude the shouts arose of those who were being wounded. 3. Cæsar did not allow the cavalry to pursue too far.1 4. The cavalry set out at the first hour and was returning2 to camp at the fourth hour. 5. Around the Roman camp was a rampart twelve feet high. 6. Cæsar will delay three days because of the grain supply. 7. Nearly all the lieutenants feared the enemy and attempted to delay the march.

1. Comparative of longē.
2. Will this be a deponent or an active form?

Seventh Review, Lessons LIII-LX, §§ 524-526

man reading scrolls

PART III

CONSTRUCTIONS

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

The preceding part of this book has been concerned chiefly with forms and vocabulary. There remain still to be learned the forms of the Subjunctive Mood, the Participles, and the Gerund of the regular verb, and the conjugation of the commoner irregular verbs. These will be taken up in connection with the study of constructions, which will be the chief subject of our future work. The special vocabularies of the preceding lessons contain, exclusive of proper names, about six hundred words. As these are among the commonest words in the language, they must be mastered. They properly form the basis of the study of words, and will be reviewed and used with but few additions in the remaining lessons.

For practice in reading and to illustrate the constructions presented, a continued story has been prepared and may be begun at this point (see p. 204). It has been divided into chapters of convenient length to accompany progress through the lessons, but may be read with equal profit after the lessons are finished. The story gives an account of the life and adventures of Publius Cornelius Lentulus, a Roman boy, who fought in Cæsar’s campaigns and shared in his triumph. The colored plates illustrating the story are faithful representations of ancient life and are deserving of careful study.

Reading Selection
LESSON LXI
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD

342. In addition to the indicative, imperative, and infinitive moods, which you have learned, Latin has a fourth mood called the subjunctive. The tenses of the subjunctive are

Present
Imperfect
Perfect
Pluperfect
Active and Passive

343. The tenses of the subjunctive have the same time values as the corresponding tenses of the indicative, and, in addition, each of them may refer to future time. No meanings of the tenses will be given in the paradigms, as the translation varies with the construction used.

344. The present subjunctive is inflected as follows:

Conj. I Conj. II Conj. III Conj. IV
Active Voice
SINGULAR
1. a´mem mo´neam re´gam ca´piam au´diam
2. a´mēs mo´neās re´gās ca´piās au´diās
3. a´met mo´neat re´gat ca´piat au´diat
PLURAL
1. amē´mus moneā´mus regā´mus capiā´mus audiā´mus
2. amē´tis moneā´tis regā´tis capiā´tis audiā´tis
3. a´ment mo´neant re´gant ca´piant au´diant
 
Passive Voice
SINGULAR
1. a´mer mo´near re´gar ca´piar au´diar
2. amē´ris (-re) moneā´ris (-re) regā´ris (-re) capiā´ris (-re) audiā´ris (-re)
3. amē´tur moneā´tur regā´tur capiā´tur audiā´tur
PLURAL
1. amē´mur moneā´mur regā´mur capiā´mur audiā´mur
2. amē´minī moneā´minī regā´minī capiā´minī audiā´minī
3. amen´tur monean´tur regan´tur capian´tur audian´tur

a. The present subjunctive is formed from the present stem.

b. The mood sign of the present subjunctive is -ē- in the first conjugation and -ā- in the others. It is shortened in the usual places (cf. § 12), and takes the place of the final vowel of the stem in the first and third conjugations, but not in the second and fourth.

c. The personal endings are the same as in the indicative.

d. In a similar way inflect the present subjunctive of cūrō, iubeō, sūmō, iaciō, mūniō.

345. The present subjunctive of the irregular verb sum is inflected as follows:

Sing. 1. sim
2. sīs
3. sit
Plur. 1. sīmus
2. sītis
3. sint

346. The Indicative and Subjunctive Compared. 1. The two most important of the finite moods are the indicative and the subjunctive. The indicative deals with facts either real or assumed. If, then, we wish to assert something as a fact or to inquire after a fact, we use the indicative.

2. On the other hand, if we wish to express a desire or wish, a purpose, a possibility, an expectation, or some such notion, we must use the subjunctive. The following sentences illustrate the difference between the indicative and the subjunctive ideas.

Indicative Ideas Subjunctive Ideas
1.

He is brave

Fortis est

1.

May he be brave

Fortis sit (idea of wishing)

2.

We set out at once

Statim proficīscimur

2.

Let us set out at once

Statim proficīscāmur (idea of willing)

3.

You hear him every day

Cotīdiē eum audīs

3.

You can hear him every day

Cotīdiē eum audiās (idea of possibility)

4.

He remained until the ship arrived

Mānsit dum nāvis pervēnit

4.

He waited until the ship should arrive

Exspectāvit dum nāvis pervenīret1 (idea of expectation)

5.

Cæsar sends men who find the bridge

Caesar mittit hominēs quī pontem reperiunt

5.

Cæsar sends men who are to find (or to find) the bridge

Caesar hominēs mittit quī pontem reperiant (idea of purpose)

1. pervenīret, imperfect subjunctive.

Note. From the sentences above we observe that the subjunctive may be used in either independent or dependent clauses; but it is far more common in the latter than in the former.

347. EXERCISE

Which verbs in the following paragraph would be in the indicative and which in the subjunctive in a Latin translation?

There have been times in the history of our country when you might be proud of being an American citizen. Do you remember the day when Dewey sailed into Manila Bay to capture or destroy the enemy’s fleet? You might have seen the admiral standing on the bridge calmly giving his orders. He did not even wait until the mines should be removed from the harbor’s mouth, but sailed in at once. Let us not despair of our country while such valor exists, and may the future add new glories to the past.

Reading Selection
LESSON LXII
THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF PURPOSE

348. Observe the sentence

Caesar hominēs mittit quī pontem reperiant,
Cæsar sends men to find the bridge

The verb reperiant in the dependent clause is in the subjunctive because it tells us what Cæsar wants the men to do; in other words, it expresses his will and the purpose in his mind. Such a use of the subjunctive is called the subjunctive of purpose.

349. Rule. Subjunctive of Purpose. The subjunctive is used in a dependent clause to express the purpose of the action in the principal clause.

350. A clause of purpose is introduced as follows:

I. If something is wanted, by

quī, the relative pronoun (as above)

ut, conj., in order that, that

quō (abl. of quī, by which), in order that, that, used when the purpose clause contains a comparative. The ablative quō expresses the measure of difference. (Cf. § 317.)

II. If something is not wanted, by

, conj., in order that not, that not, lest

351. EXAMPLES

1.

Caesar cōpiās cōgit quibus hostīs īnsequātur

Cæsar collects troops with which to pursue the foe

2.

Pācem petunt ut domum revertantur

They ask for peace in order that they may return home

3.

Pontem faciunt quō facilius oppidum capiant

They build a bridge that they may take the town more easily (lit. by which the more easily)

4.

Fugiunt nē vulnerentur

They flee that they may not (or lest they) be wounded

352. Expression of Purpose in English. In English, purpose clauses are sometimes introduced by that or in order that, but much more frequently purpose is expressed in English by the infinitive, as We eat to live, She stoops to conquer. In Latin prose, on the other hand, purpose is never expressed by the infinitive. Be on your guard and do not let the English idiom betray you into this error.

353. EXERCISES

I.

1. Veniunt ut

dūcant, mittant, videant, audiant, dūcantur, mittantur, videantur, audiantur.

2. Fugimus nē

capiāmur, trādāmur, videāmus, necēmur, rapiāmur, resistāmus.

3. Mittit nūntiōs quī

dicant, audiant, veniant, nārrent, audiantur, in conciliō sedeant.

4. Castra mūniunt quō facilius

sēsē dēfendant, impetum sustineant, hostīs vincant, salūtem petant.

II. 1. The Helvetii send ambassadors to seek1 peace. 2. They are setting out at daybreak in order that they may make a longer march before night. 3. They will hide the women in the forest (acc. with in) that they may not be captured. 4. The Gauls wage many wars to free1 their fatherland from slavery. 5. They will resist the Romans2 bravely lest they be destroyed.

1. Not infinitive.
2. Not accusative.
Reading Selection
LESSON LXIII
INFLECTION OF THE IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE THE SEQUENCE OF TENSES

354. The imperfect subjunctive may be formed by adding the personal endings to the present active infinitive.

Conj. I Conj. II Conj. III Conj. IV
ACTIVE
1. amā´rem monē´rem re´gerem ca´perem audī´rem
2. amā´rēs monē´rēs re´gerēs ca´perēs audī´rēs
3. amā´ret monē´ret re´geret ca´peret audī´ret
1. amārē´mus monērē´mus regerē´mus caperē´mus audīrē´mus
2. amārē´tis monērē´tis regerē´tis caperē´tis audīrē´tis
3. amā´rent monē´rent re´gerent ca´perent audī´rent
 
PASSIVE
1. amā´rer monē´rer re´gerer ca´perer audī´rer
2. amārē´ris(-re) monērē´ris(-re) regerē´ris(-re) caperē´ris(-re) audīrē´ris(-re)
3. amārē´tur monērē´tur regerē´tur caperē´tur audīrē´tur
1. amārē´mur monērē´mur regerē´mur caperē´mur audīrē´mur
2. amārē´minī monērē´minī regerē´minī caperē´minī audīrē´minī
3. amāren´tur monēren´tur regeren´tur caperen´tur audīren´tur

a. In a similar way inflect the imperfect subjunctive, active and passive, of cūrō, iubeō, sūmō, iaciō, mūniō.

355. The imperfect subjunctive of the irregular verb sum is inflected as follows:

Sing. 1. es´sem Plur. 1. essē´mus
2. es´sēs 2. essē´tis
3. es´set 3. es´sent

356. The three great distinctions of time are present, past, and future. All tenses referring to present or future time are called primary tenses, and those referring to past time are called secondary tenses. Now it is a very common law of language that in a complex sentence the tense in the dependent clause should be of the same kind as the tense in the principal clause. In the sentence He says that he is coming, the principal verb, says, is present, that is, is in a primary tense; and is coming, in the dependent clause, is naturally also primary. If I change he says to he said,—in other words, if I make the principal verb secondary in character,—I feel it natural to change the verb in the dependent clause also, and I say, He said that he was coming. This following of a tense by another of the same kind is called tense sequence, from sequī, “to follow.”

In Latin the law of tense sequence is obeyed with considerable regularity, especially when an indicative in the principal clause is followed by a subjunctive in the dependent clause. Then a primary tense of the indicative is followed by a primary tense of the subjunctive, and a secondary tense of the indicative is followed by a secondary tense of the subjunctive. Learn the following table:

357. Table for Sequence of Tenses

Principal Verb in the
Indicative
Dependent Verbs in the Subjunctive
Incomplete or
Continuing Action
Completed Action
P
r
i
m
a
r
y
Present
Future
Future perfect
Present Perfect
S
e
c
o
n
d
a
r
y
Imperfect
Perfect
Pluperfect
Imperfect Pluperfect

358. Rule. Sequence of Tenses. Primary tenses are followed by primary tenses and secondary by secondary.

359. EXAMPLES

I. Primary tenses in principal and dependent clauses:

Mittit
Mittet
Mīserit
hominēs ut agrōs vāstent
He sends
will send
will have sent
men that they may
in order to
to
lay waste the fields

II. Secondary tenses in principal and dependent clauses:

Mittēbat
Mīsit
Mīserat
hominēs ut agrōs vāstārent
He was sending
sent or has sent
had sent
men that they might
in order to
to
lay waste the fields

360. EXERCISES

I.

1. Vēnerant ut

dūcerent, mitterent, vidērent, audīrent, dūcerentur, mitterentur, vidērentur, audirentur

2. Fugiēbat nē

caperētur, trāderētur, vidērētur, necārētur, raperētur, resiteret.

3. Misit nūntiōs quī

dīcerent, audīrent, venīrent, nārrārent, audīrentur, in conciliō sedērent.

4. Castra mūnīvērunt quō facilius

sēsē dēfenderent, impetum sustinērent, hostīs vincerent, salūtem peterent.

II. 1. Cæsar encouraged the soldiers in order that they might fight more bravely. 2. The Helvetii left their homes to wage war. 3. The scouts set out at once lest they should be captured by the Germans. 4. Cæsar inflicted punishment on them in order that the others might be more terrified. 5. He sent messengers to Rome to announce the victory.

Reading Selection
LESSON LXIV
THE PERFECT AND PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES OF PURPOSE

361. The perfect and the pluperfect subjunctive active are inflected as follows:

Conj. I Conj. II Conj. III Conj. IV
Perfect Subjunctive Active
SINGULAR
1. amā´verim monu´erim rē´xerim cē´perim audī´verim
2. amā´veris monu´eris rē´xeris cē´peris audī´veris
3. amā´verit monu´erit rē´xerit cē´perit audī´verit
PLURAL
1. amāve´rimus monue´rimus rēxe´rimus cēpe´rimus audīve´rimus
2. amāve´ritis monue´ritis rēxe´ritis cēpe´ritis audīve´ritis
3. amā´verint monu´erint rē´xerint cē´perint audī´verint
 
Pluperfect Subjunctive Active
SINGULAR
1. amāvis´sem monuis´sem rēxis´sem cēpis´sem audīvis´sem
2. amāvis´sēs monuis´sēs rēxis´sēs cēpis´sēs audīvis´sēs
3. amāvis´set monuis´set rēxis´set cēpis´set audīvis´set
PLURAL
1. amāvissē´mus monuissē´mus rēxissē´mus cēpissē´mus audīvissē´mus
2. amāvissē´tis monuissē´tis rēxissē´tis cēpissē´tis audīvissē´tis
3. amāvis´sent monuis´sent rēxis´sent cēpis´sent audīvis´sent

a. Observe that these two tenses, like the corresponding ones in the indicative, are formed from the perfect stem.

b. Observe that the perfect subjunctive active is like the future perfect indicative active, excepting that the first person singular ends in -m and not in .

c. Observe that the pluperfect subjunctive active may be formed by adding -issem, -issēs, etc. to the perfect stem.

d. In a similar way inflect the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive active of cūrō, iubeō, sūmō, iaciō, mūniō.

362. The passive of the perfect subjunctive is formed by combining the perfect passive participle with sim, the present subjunctive of sum.

Conj. I Conj. II Conj. III Conj. IV
Perfect Subjunctive Passive
SINGULAR
1. amā´tus sim mo´nitus sim rēc´tus sim cap´tus sim audī´tus sim
2. amā´tus sīs mo´nitus sīs rēc´tus sīs cap´tus sīs audī´tus sīs
3. amā´tus sit mo´nitus sit rēc´tus sit cap´tus sit audī´tus sit
PLURAL
1. amā´tī sīmus mo´nitī sīmus rēc´tī sīmus cap´tī sīmus audī´tī sīmus
2. amā´tī sītis mo´nitī sītis rēc´tī sītis cap´tī sītis audī´tī sītis
3. amā´tī sint mo´nitī sint rēc´tī sint cap´tī sint audī´tī sint

363. The passive of the pluperfect subjunctive is formed by combining the perfect passive participle with essem, the imperfect subjunctive of sum.

Conj. I Conj. II Conj. III Conj. IV
Pluperfect Subjunctive Passive
SINGULAR
1. amātus essem monitus essem rēctus essem captus essem audītus essem
2. amātus essēs monitus essēs rēctus essēs captus essēs audītus essēs
3. amātus esset monitus esset rēctus esset captus esset audītus esset
PLURAL
1. amātī essēmus monitī essēmus rēctī essēmus captī essēmus audītī essēmus
2. amātī essētis monitī essētis rēctī essētis captī essētis audītī essētis
3. amātī essent monitī essent rēctī essent captī essent audītī essent

a. In a similar way inflect the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive passive of cūrō, iubeō, sūmō, iaciō, mūniō.

364. The perfect and pluperfect subjunctive of the irregular verb sum are inflected as follows:

Perfect Pluperfect
fu´erim fue´rimus fuis´sem fuissē´mus
fu´eris fue´ritis fuis´sēs fuissē´tis
fu´erit fu´erint fuis´set fuis´sent

365. A substantive clause is a clause used like a noun, as,

That the men are afraid is clear enough (clause as subject)

He ordered them to call on him (clause as object)

We have already had many instances of infinitive clauses used in this way (cf. § 213), and have noted the similarity between Latin and English usage in this respect. But the Latin often uses the subjunctive in substantive clauses, and this marks an important difference between the two languages.

366. Rule. Substantive Clauses of Purpose. A substantive clause of purpose with the subjunctive is used as the object of verbs of commanding, urging, asking, persuading, or advising, where in English we should usually have the infinitive.

EXAMPLES
1.

The general ordered the soldiers to run

Imperātor mīlitibus imperāvit ut currerent

2.

He urged them to resist bravely

Hortātus est ut fortiter resisterent

3.

He asked them to give the children food

Petīvit ut līberīs cibum darent

4.

He will persuade us not to set out

Nōbīs persuādēbit nē proficīscāmur

5.

He advises us to remain at home

Monet ut domī maneāmus

a. The object clauses following these verbs all express the purpose or will of the principal subject that something be done or not done. (Cf. § 348.)

367. The following verbs are used with object clauses of purpose. Learn the list and the principal parts of the new ones.

hortor, urge

imperō, order (with the dative of the person ordered and a subjunctive clause of the thing ordered done)

moneō, advise

petō, quaerō, rogō, ask, seek

persuādeō, persuade (with the same construction as imperō)

postulō, demand, require

suādeō, advise (cf. persuādeō)

N.B. Remember that iubeō, order, takes the infinitive as in English. (Cf. § 213. 1.) Compare the sentences

Iubeō eum venīre, I order him to come

Imperō eī ut veniat, I give orders to him that he is to come

We ordinarily translate both of these sentences like the first, but the difference in meaning between iubeō and imperō in the Latin requires the infinitive in the one case and the subjunctive in the other.

368. EXERCISES

I. 1. Petit atque hortātur ut ipse dīcat. 2. Caesar Helvētiīs imperāvit nē per prōvinciam iter facerent. 3. Caesar nōn iussit Helvētiōs per prōvinciam iter facere. 4. Ille cīvibus persuāsit ut dē fīnibus suīs discēderent. 5. Caesar prīncipēs monēbit nē proelium committant. 6. Postulāvit nē cum Helvētiīs aut cum eōrum sociīs bellum gererent. 7. Ab iīs quaesīvī nē proficīscerentur. 8. Iīs persuādēre nōn potuī ut domī manērent.

II. 1. Who ordered Cæsar to make the march? (Write this sentence both with imperō and with iubeō.) 2. The faithless scouts persuaded him to set out at daybreak. 3. They will ask him not to inflict punishment. 4. He demanded that they come to the camp. 5. He advised them to tell everything (omnia).

Note. Do not forget that the English infinitive expressing purpose must be rendered by a Latin subjunctive. Review § 352.

Reading Selection

legion on the march
LEGIO ITER FACIT

LESSON LXV
THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF POSSUM · VERBS OF FEARING

369. Learn the subjunctive of possum (§ 495), and note especially the position of the accent.

370. Subjunctive after Verbs of Fearing. We have learned that what we want done or not done is expressed in Latin by a subjunctive clause of purpose. In this class belong also clauses after verbs of fearing, for we fear either that something will happen or that it will not, and we either want it to happen or we do not. If we want a thing to happen and fear that it will not, the purpose clause is introduced by ut. If we do not want it to happen and fear that it will, is used. Owing to a difference between the English and Latin idiom we translate ut after a verb of fearing by that not, and by that or lest.

371. EXAMPLES

timeō
timēbō
timuerō
ut veniat
 
vēnerit

I fear, shall fear, shall have feared, that he will not come, has not come

timēbam
timuī
timueram
ut venīret
 
vēnisset

I was fearing, feared, had feared, that he would not come, had not come

The same examples with instead of ut would be translated I fear that or lest he will come, has come, etc.

372. Rule. Subjunctive after Verbs of Fearing. Verbs of fearing are followed by a substantive clause of purpose introduced by ut (that not) or (that or lest).

373. EXERCISES

I. 1. Caesar verēbātur ut supplicium captīvōrum Gallīs placēret. 2. Rōmānī ipsī magnopere verēbantur nē Helvētiī iter per prōvinciam facerent. 3. Timēbant ut satis reī frūmentāriae mittī posset. 4. Vereor ut hostium impetum sustinēre possim. 5. Timuit nē impedīmenta ab hostibus capta essent. 6. Caesar numquam timuit nē legiōnēs vincerentur. 7. Legiōnēs pugnāre nōn timuērunt.1

1. Distinguish between what one is afraid to do (complementary infinitive as here) and what one is afraid will take place or has taken place (substantive clause with the subjunctive).

II. 1. We fear that they are not coming. 2. We fear lest they are coming. 3. We feared that they had come. 4. We feared that they had not come. 5. They feared greatly that the camp could not be defended. 6. Almost all feared1 to leave the camp.

Reading Selection
LESSON LXVI
THE PARTICIPLES

374. The Latin verb has the following Participles:1

Conj. I Conj. II Conj. III Conj. IV
ACTIVE
Present amāns
loving
monēns
advising
regēns
ruling
capiēns
taking
audiēns
hearing
Future amātūrus
about to love
monitūrus
about to advise
rēctūrus
about to rule
captūrus
about to take
audītūrus
about to hear
PASSIVE
Perfect amātus
loved, having been loved
monitus
advised, having been advised
rēctus
ruled, having been ruled
captus
taken, having been taken
audītus
heard, having been heard
Future2 amandus
to be loved
monendus
to be advised
regendus
to be ruled
capiendus
to be taken
audiendus
to be heard
1. Review § 203.
2. The future passive participle is often called the gerundive.

a. The present active and future passive participles are formed from the present stem, and the future active and perfect passive participles are formed from the participial stem.

b. The present active participle is formed by adding -ns to the present stem. In -iō verbs of the third conjugation, and in the fourth conjugation, the stem is modified by the addition of -ē-, as capi-ē-ns, audi-ē-ns. It is declined like an adjective of one ending of the third declension. (Cf. § 256.)

amāns, loving
Base amant- Stem amanti-
Singular Plural
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT.
Nom. amāns amāns amantēs amantia
Gen. amantis amantis amantium amantium
Dat. amantī amantī amantibus amantibus
Acc. amantem amāns amantīs or -ēs amantia
Abl. amantī or -e amantī or -e amantibus amantibus

(1) When used as an adjective the ablative singular ends in ; when used as a participle or as a substantive, in -e.

(2) In a similar way decline monēns, regēns, capiēns, audiēns.

c. The future active participle is formed by adding -ūrus to the base of the participial stem. We have already met this form combined with esse to produce the future active infinitive. (Cf. § 206.)

d. For the perfect passive participle see § 201. The future passive participle or gerundive is formed by adding -ndus to the present stem.

e. All participles in -us are declined like bonus.

f. Participles agree with nouns or pronouns like adjectives.

g. Give all the participles of the following verbs: cūrō, iubeō, sūmō, iaciō, mūniō.

375. Participles of Deponent Verbs. Deponent verbs have the participles of the active voice as well as of the passive; consequently every deponent verb has four participles, as,

Pres. Act. hortāns, urging
Fut. Act. hortātūrus, about to urge
Perf. Pass. (in form) hortātus, having urged
Fut. Pass. (Gerundive) hortandus, to be urged

a. Observe that the perfect participle of deponent verbs is passive in form but active in meaning. No other verbs have a perfect active participle. On the other hand, the future passive participle of deponent verbs is passive in meaning as in other verbs.

b. Give the participles of cōnor, vereor, sequor, patior, partior.

376. Tenses of the Participle. The tenses express time as follows:

1. The present active participle corresponds to the English present active participle in -ing, but can be used only of an action occurring at the same time as the action of the main verb; as, mīlitēs īnsequentēs cēpērunt multōs, the soldiers, while pursuing, captured many. Here the pursuing and the capturing are going on together.

2. The perfect participle (excepting of deponents) is regularly passive and corresponds to the English past participle with or without the auxiliary having been; as, audītus, heard or having been heard.

3. The future active participle, translated about to, etc., denotes time after the action of the main verb.

377. Review §§ 203, 204, and, note the following model sentences:

1. Mīlitēs currentēs erant dēfessī, the soldiers who were running (lit. running) were weary.

2. Caesar profectūrus Rōmam nōn exspectāvit, Cæsar, when about to set out (lit. about to set out) for Rome, did not wait.

3. Oppidum captum vīdimus, we saw the town which had been captured (lit. captured town).

4. Imperātor trīduum morātus profectus est, the general, since (when, or after) he had delayed (lit. the general, having delayed) three days, set out.

5. Mīlitēs vīctī terga nōn vertērunt, the soldiers, though they were conquered (lit. the soldiers conquered), did not retreat.

In each of these sentences the literal translation of the participle is given in parentheses. We note, however, that its proper translation usually requires a clause beginning with some conjunction (when, since, after, though, etc.), or a relative clause. Consider, in each case, what translation will best bring out the thought, and do not, as a rule, translate the participle literally.

378. EXERCISES

I. 1. Puer timēns nē capiātur fugit. 2. Aquila īrā commōta avīs reliquās interficere cōnāta erat. 3. Mīlitēs ab hostibus pressī tēla iacere nōn potuērunt. 4. Caesar decimam legiōnem laudātūrus ad prīmum agmen prōgressus est. 5. Imperātor hortātus equitēs ut fortiter pugnārent signum proeliō dedit. 6. Mīlitēs hostīs octō milia passuum īnsecūtī multīs cum captīvīs ad castra revertērunt. 7. Sōl oriēns multōs interfectōs vīdit. 8. Rōmānī cōnsilium audāx suspicātī barbaris sēsē nōn commīsērunt. 9. Nāvis ē portū ēgressa nūllō in perīculō erat.

II.3 1. The army was in very great danger while marching through the enemy’s country. 2. Frightened by the length of the way, they longed for home. 3. When the scouts were about to set out, they heard the shouts of victory. 4. When we had delayed many days, we set fire to the buildings and departed. 5. While living at Rome I heard orators much better than these. 6. The soldiers who are fighting across the river are no braver than we.

3. In this exercise use participles for the subordinate clauses.
Reading Selection
LESSON LXVII
THE IRREGULAR VERBS VOLŌ, NŌLŌ, MĀLŌ · THE ABLATIVE WITH A PARTICIPLE, OR ABLATIVE ABSOLUTE

379. Learn the principal parts and conjugation of volō, wish; nōlō (ne + volō), be unwilling; mālō (magis + volō), be more willing, prefer (§ 497). Note the irregularities in the present indicative, subjunctive, and infinitive, and in the imperfect subjunctive. (Cf. § 354.)

a. These verbs are usually followed by the infinitive with or without a subject accusative; as, volunt venīre, they wish to come; volunt amīcōs venīre, they wish their friends to come. The English usage is the same.1

1. Sometimes the subjunctive of purpose is used after these verbs. (See § 366.)

380. Observe the following sentences:

1. Magistrō laudante omnēs puerī dīligenter labōrant, with the teacher praising, or since the teacher praises, or the teacher praising, all the boys labor diligently.

2. Caesare dūcente nēmō prōgredī timet, with Cæsar leading, or when Cæsar leads, or if Cæsar leads, or Cæsar leading, no one fears to advance.

3. Hīs rēbus cognitīs mīlitēs fūgērunt, when this was known, or since this was known, or these things having been learned, the soldiers fled.

4. Proeliō commissō multī vulnerātī sunt, after the battle had begun, or when the battle had begun, or the battle having been joined, many were wounded.

a. One of the fundamental ablative relations is expressed in English by the preposition with (cf. § 50). In each of the sentences above we have a noun and a participle in agreement in the ablative, and the translation shows that in each instance the ablative expresses attendant circumstance. For example, in the first sentence the circumstance attending or accompanying the diligent labor of the boys is the praise of the teacher. This is clearly a with relation, and the ablative is the case to use.

b. We observe, further, that the ablative and its participle are absolutely independent grammatically of the rest of the sentence. If we were to express the thought in English in a similar way, we should use the nominative independent or absolute. In Latin the construction is called the Ablative Absolute, or the Ablative with a Participle. This form of expression is exceedingly common in Latin, but rather rare in English, so we must not, as a rule, employ the English absolute construction to translate the ablative abolute. The attendant circumstance may be one of time (when or after), or one of cause (since), or one of concession (though), or one of condition (if). In each case try to discover the precise relation, and translate the ablative and its participle by a clause which will best express the thought.

381. Rule. Ablative Absolute. The ablative of a noun or pronoun with a present or perfect participle in agreement is used to express attendant circumstance.

Note 1. The verb sum has no present participle. In consequence we often find two nouns or a noun and an adjective in the ablative absolute with no participle expressed; as, tē duce, you (being) leader, with you as leader; patre īnfirmō, my father (being) weak.

Note 2. Be very careful not to put in the ablative absolute a noun and participle that form the subject or object of a sentence. Compare

a. The Gauls, having been conquered by Cæsar, returned home

b. The Gauls having been conquered by Cæsar, the army returned home

In a the subject is The Gauls having been conquered by Cæsar, and we translate,

Gallī ā Caesare victi domum revertērunt

In b the subject is the army. The Gauls having been conquered by Cæsar is nominative absolute in English, which requires the ablative absolute in Latin, and we translate,

Gallīs ā Caesare victīs exercitus domum revertit

Note 3. The fact that only deponent verbs have a perfect active participle (cf. § 375. a) often compels a change of voice when translating from one language to the other. For example, we can translate Cæsar having encouraged the legions just as it stands, because hortor is a deponent verb. But if we wish to say Cæsar having conquered the Gauls, we have to change the voice of the participle to the passive because vincō is not deponent, and say, the Gauls having been conquered by Cæsar (see translation above).

382. EXERCISES

I. 1. Māvīs, nōn vīs, vultis, nōlumus. 2. Ut nōlit, ut vellēmus, ut mālit. 3. Nōlī, velle, nōluisse, mālle. 4. Vult, māvultis, ut nōllet, nōlīte. 5. Sōle oriente, avēs cantāre incēpērunt. 6. Clāmōribus audītīs, barbarī prōgredī recūsābant. 7. Caesare legiōnēs hortātō, mīlitēs paulō fortius pugnāvērunt. 8. Hīs rēbus cognitīs, Helvētiī fīnitimīs persuāsērunt ut sēcum iter facerent. 9. Labōribus cōnfectīs, mīlitēs ā Caesare quaerēbant ut sibi praemia daret. 10. Conciliō convocātō, prīncipēs ita respondērunt. 11. Dux plūrīs diēs in Helvētiōrum fīnibus morāns multōs vīcōs incendit. 12. Magnitūdine Germānōrum cognitā, quīdam ex Rōmānis timēbant. 13. Mercātōribus rogātīs, Caesar nihilō plūs reperīre potuit.

II. 1. He was unwilling, lest they prefer, they have wished. 2. You prefer, that they might be unwilling, they wish. 3. We wish, they had preferred, that he may prefer. 4. Cæsar, when he heard the rumor (the rumor having been heard), commanded (imperāre) the legions to advance more quickly. 5. Since Cæsar was leader, the men were willing to make the journey. 6. A few, terrified2 by the reports which they had heard, preferred to remain at home. 7. After these had been left behind, the rest hastened as quickly as possible. 8. After Cæsar had undertaken the business (Cæsar, the business having been undertaken), he was unwilling to delay longer.3

2. Would the ablative absolute be correct here?
3. Not longius. Why?
Reading Selection
LESSON LXVIII
THE IRREGULAR VERB FĪŌ · THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF RESULT

383. The verb fīō, be made, happen, serves as the passive of faciō, make, in the present system. The rest of the verb is formed regularly from faciō. Learn the principal parts and conjugation (§ 500). Observe that the i is long except before -er and in fit.

a. The compounds of facio with prepositions usually form the passive regularly, as,

Active cōnficiō, cōnficere, cōnfēcī, cōnfectus
Passive cōnficior, cōnficī, cōnfectus sum

384. Observe the following sentences:

1. Terror erat tantus ut omnēs fugerent, the terror was so great that all fled.

2. Terror erat tantus ut nōn facile mīlitēs sēsē reciperent, the terror was so great that the soldiers did not easily recover themselves.

3. Terror fēcit ut omnēs fugerent, terror caused all to flee (lit. made that all fled).

a. Each of these sentences is complex, containing a principal clause and a subordinate clause.

b. The principal clause names a cause and the subordinate clause states the consequence or result of this cause.

c. The subordinate clause has its verb in the subjunctive, though it is translated like an indicative. The construction is called the subjunctive of consequence or result, and the clause is called a consecutive or result clause.

d. In the last example the clause of result is the object of the verb fēcit.

e. The conjunction introducing the consecutive or result clause is ut = so that; negative, ut nōn = so that not.

385. Rule. Subjunctive of Result. Consecutive clauses of result are introduced by ut or ut nōn and have the verb in the subjunctive.

386. Rule. Object clauses of result with ut or ut nōn are found after verbs of effecting or bringing about.

387. Purpose and Result Clauses Compared. There is great similarity in the expression of purpose and of result in Latin. If the sentence is affirmative, both purpose and result clauses may be introduced by ut; but if the sentence is negative, the purpose clause has and the result clause ut nōn. Result clauses are often preceded in the main clause by such words as tam, ita, sic (so), and these serve to point them out. Compare

a.

Tam graviter vulnerātus est ut caperētur

He was so severely wounded that he was captured

b.

Graviter vulnerātus est ut caperētur

He was severely wounded in order that he might be captured

Which sentence contains a result clause, and how is it pointed out?

388. EXERCISES

I. 1. Fit, fīet, ut fīat, fīēbāmus. 2. Fīō, fīēs, ut fierent, fierī, fīunt. 3. Fīētis, ut fīāmus, fīs, fīemus. 4. Mīlitēs erant tam tardī ut ante noctem in castra nōn pervenīrent. 5. Sōl facit ut omnia sint pulchra. 6. Eius modī perīcula erant ut nēmō proficīscī vellet. 7. Equitēs hostium cum equitātū nostrō in itinere contendērunt, ita tamen1 ut nostrī omnibus in partibus superiōrēs essent. 8. Virtūs mīlitum nostrōrum fēcit ut hostēs nē ūnum quidem2 impetum sustinērent. 9. Hominēs erant tam audācēs ut nūllō modō continērī possent. 10. Spatium erat tam parvum ut mīlitēs tēla iacere nōn facile possent. 11. Hōc proeliō factō barbarī ita perterritī sunt ut ab ultimīs gentibus lēgātī ad Caesarem mitterentur. 12. Hoc proelium factum est nē lēgātī ad Caesarem mitterentur.

1. ita tamen, with such a result however.
2. nē ... quidem, not even. The emphatic word is placed between.

II. 1. It will happen, they were being made, that it may happen. 2. It happens, he will be made, to happen. 3. They are made, we were being made, lest it happen. 4. The soldiers are so brave that they conquer. 5. The soldiers are brave in order that they may conquer. 6. The fortification was made so strong that it could not be taken. 7. The fortification was made strong in order that it might not be taken. 8. After the town was taken,3 the townsmen feared that they would be made slaves. 9. What state is so weak that it is unwilling to defend itself?

3. Ablative absolute.
Reading Selection
LESSON LXIX
THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF CHARACTERISTIC OR DESCRIPTION · THE PREDICATE ACCUSATIVE

389. Akin to the subjunctive of consequence or result is the use of the subjunctive in clauses of characteristic or description.

This construction is illustrated in the following sentences:

1. Quis est quī suam domum nōn amet? who is there who does not love his own home?

2. Erant quī hoc facere nōllent, there were (some) who were unwilling to do this.

3. Tū nōn is es quī amīcōs trādās, you are not such a one as to, or you are not the man to, betray your friends.

4. Nihil videō quod timeam, I see nothing to fear (nothing of such as character as to fear it).

a. Each of these examples contains a descriptive relative clause which tells what kind of a person or thing the antecedent is. To express this thought the subjunctive is used. A relative clause that merely states a fact and does not describe the antecedent uses the indicative. Compare the sentences

Cæsar is the man who is leading us, Caesar est is quī nōs dūcit
(mere statement of fact, no description, with the indicative)

Cæsar is the man to lead us, Caesar est is quī nōs dūcat
(descriptive relative clause with the subjunctive)

b. Observe that in this construction a demonstrative pronoun and a relative, as is quī, are translated such a one as to, the man to.

c. In which of the following sentences would you use the indicative and in which the subjunctive?

These are not the men who did this

These are not the men to do this

390. Rule. Subjunctive of Characteristic. A relative clause with the subjunctive is often used to describe an antecedent. This is called the subjunctive of characteristic or description.

391. Observe the sentences

1. Rōmānī Caesarem cōnsulem fēcērunt, the Romans made Cæsar consul.

2. Caesar cōnsul ā Rōmānīs factus est, Cæsar was made consul by the Romans.

a. Observe in 1 that the transitive verb fēcērunt, made, has two objects: (1) the direct object, Caesarem; (2) a second object, cōnsulem, referring to the same person as the direct object and completing the predicate. The second accusative is called a Predicate Accusative.

b. Observe in 2 that when the verb is changed to the passive both of the accusatives become nominatives, the direct object becoming the subject and the predicate accusative the predicate nominative.

392. Rule. Two Accusatives. Verbs of making, choosing, calling, showing, and the like, may take a predicate accusative along with the direct object. With the passive voice the two accusatives become nominatives.

393. The verbs commonly found with two accusatives are

creo, creāre, creāvī, creātus, choose

appellō, appellāre, appellāvī, appellātus

nōminō, nōmināre, nōmināvī, nōminātus

vocō, vocāre, vocāvī, vocātus

call

faciō, facere, fēcī, factus, make

394. EXERCISES

I. 1. In Germāniae silvis sunt1 multa genera ferārum quae reliquīs in locīs nōn vīsa sint. 2. Erant1 itinera duo quibus Helvētiī domō discēdere possent. 3. Erat1 manus nūlla, nūllum oppidum, nūllum praesidium quod sē armīs dēfenderet. 4. Tōtō frūmentō raptō, domī nihil erat quō mortem prohibēre possent. 5. Rōmānī Galbam ducem creāvērunt et summā celeritāte profectī sunt. 6. Neque erat1 tantae multitūdinis quisquam quī morārī vellet. 7. Germānī nōn iī sunt quī adventum Caesaris vereantur. 8. Cōnsulibus occīsīs erant quī2 vellent cum rēgem creāre. 9. Pāce factā erat nēmō quī arma trādere nōllet. 10. Inter Helvētiōs quis erat quī nōbilior illō esset?

II. 1. The Romans called the city Rome. 2. The city was called Rome by the Romans. 3. The better citizens wished to choose him king. 4. The brave soldier was not the man to run. 5. There was no one 3to call me friend. 6. These are not the men to4 betray their friends. 7. There were (some) who called him the bravest of all.

1. Remember that when the verb sum precedes its subject it is translated there is, there are, there were, etc.
2. erant quī, there were (some) who. A wholly indefinite antecedent of quī does not need to be expressed.
3. A relative clause of characteristic or description.
4. See § 389.b.
Reading Selection

Eighth Review, Lessons LXI-LXIX, §§ 527-528

LESSON LXX
THE CONSTRUCTIONS WITH THE CONJUNCTION CUM · THE ABLATIVE OF SPECIFICATION

395. The conjunction cum has the following meanings and constructions:

cum temporal = when, followed by the indicative or the subjunctive

cum causal = since, followed by the subjunctive

cum concessive = although, followed by the subjunctive

As you observe, the mood after cum is sometimes indicative and sometimes subjunctive. The reason for this will be made clear by a study of the following sentences:

1. Caesarem vīdī tum cum in Galliā eram, I saw Cæsar at the time when I was in Gaul.

2. Caesar in eōs impetum fēcit cum pācem peterent, Cæsar made an attack upon them when they were seeking peace.

3. Hoc erat difficile cum paucī sine vulneribus essent, this was difficult, since only a few were without wounds.

4. Cum prīmī ōrdinēs fūgissent, tamen reliquī fortiter cōnsistēbant, though the front ranks had fled, yet the rest bravely stood their ground.

a. The underlying principle is one already familiar to you (cf. § 389.a). When the cum clause states a fact and simply fixes the time at which the main action took place, the indicative mood is used. So, in the first example, cum in Galliā eram fixes the time when I saw Cæsar.

b. On the other hand, when the cum clause describes the circumstances under which the main act took place, the subjunctive mood is used. So, in the second example, the principal clause states that Cæsar made an attack, and the cum clause describes the circumstances under which this act occurred. The idea of time is also present, but it is subordinate to the idea of description. Sometimes the descriptive clause is one of cause and we translate cum by since; sometimes it denotes concession and cum is translated although.

396. Rule. Constructions with Cum. The conjunction cum means when, since, or although. It is followed by the subjunctive unless it means when and its clause fixes the time at which the main action took place.

Note. Cum in clauses of description with the subjunctive is much more common than its use with the indicative.

397. Note the following sentences:

1. Oppidum erat parvum magnitūdine sed magnum multitūdine hominum, the town was small in size but great in population.

2. Homō erat corpore īnfīrmus sed validus animō, the man was weak in body but strong in courage.

a. Observe that magnitūdine, multitūdine, corpore, and animō tell in what respect something is true. The relation is one covered by the ablative case, and the construction is called the ablative of specification.

398. Rule. Ablative of Specification. The ablative is used to denote in what respect something is true.

399. IDIOMS

aliquem certiōrem facere, to inform some one (lit. to make some one more certain)

certior fierī, to be informed (lit. to be made more certain)

iter dare, to give a right of way, allow to pass

obsidēs inter sē dare, to give hostages to each other

400. EXERCISES

I. 1. Helvētiī cum patrum nostrōrum tempore domō prefectī essent, cōnsulis exercitum in fugam dederant. 2. Cum Caesar in Galliam vēnit, Helvētiī aliōs agrōs petēbant. 3. Caesar cum in citeriōre Gallia esset, tamen dē Helvētiōrum cōnsiliīs certior fīēbat. 4. Cum Helvētiī bellō clārissimī essent, Caesar iter per prōvinciam dare recūsāvit. 5. Lēgātus cum haec audīvisset, Caesarem certiōrem fecit. 6. Cum principēs inter sē obsidēs darent, Rōmānī bellum parāvērunt. 7. Caesar, cum id nūntiātum esset, mātūrat ab urbe proficīscī. 8. Nē virtūte quidem Gallī erant parēs Germānis. 9. Caesar neque corpore neque animō īnfīrmus erat. 10. Illud bellum tum incēpit cum Caesar fuit cōnsul.

Observe in each case what mood follows cum, and try to give the reasons for its use. In the third sentence the cum clause is concessive, in the fourth and sixth causal.

II. 1. That battle was fought at the time when (tum cum) I was at Rome. 2. Though the horsemen were few in number, nevertheless they did not retreat. 3. When the camp had been sufficiently fortified, the enemy returned home. 4. Since the tribes are giving hostages to each other, we shall inform Cæsar. 5. The Gauls and the Germans are very unlike in language and laws.

Reading Selection
LESSON LXXI
VOCABULARY REVIEW · THE GERUND AND GERUNDIVE · THE PREDICATE GENITIVE

401. Review the word lists in §§ 510, 511.

402. The Gerund. Suppose we had to translate the sentence

By overcoming the Gauls Cæsar won great glory

We can see that overcoming here is a verbal noun corresponding to the English infinitive in -ing, and that the thought calls for the ablative of means. To translate this by the Latin infinitive would be impossible, because the infinitive is indeclinable and therefore has no ablative case form. Latin, however, has another verbal noun of corresponding meaning, called the gerund, declined as a neuter of the second declension in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative singular, and thus supplying the cases that the infinitive lacks.1 Hence, to decline in Latin the verbal noun overcoming, we should use the infinitive for the nominative and the gerund for the other cases, as follows:

Nom. superāre overcoming
to overcome
Infinitive

Gen.

Dat.

Acc.

Abl.

superandī, of overcoming

superandō, for overcoming

superandum, overcoming

superandō, by overcoming

Gerund

Like the infinitive, the gerund governs the same case as the verb from which it is derived. So the sentence given above becomes in Latin

Superandō Gallōs Caesar magnam glōriam reportāvit

1. Sometimes, however, the infinitive is used as an accusative.

403. The gerund2 is formed by adding -ndī, -ndō, -ndum, -ndō, to the present stem, which is shortened or otherwise changed, as shown below:

Paradigm of the Gerund
CONJ. I CONJ. II CONJ. III CONJ. IV
Gen. amandī monendī regendī capiendī audiendī
Dat. amandō monendō regendō capiendō audiendō
Acc. amandum monendum regendum capiendum audiendum
Abl. amandō monendō regendō capiendō audiendō

a. Give the gerund of cūrō, dēleō, sūmō, iaciō, veniō.

b. Deponent verbs have the gerund of the active voice (see § 493). Give the gerund of cōnor, vereor, sequor, patior, partior.

2. The gerund is the neuter singular of the future passive participle used as a noun, and has the same formation. (Cf. § 374. d.)

404. The Gerundive. The gerundive is the name given to the future passive participle (§ 374. d) when the participle approaches the meaning of a verbal noun and is translated like a gerund. It is the adjective corresponding to the gerund. For example, to translate the plan of waging war, we may use the gerund with its direct object and say cōnsilium gerendī bellum; or we may use the gerundive and say cōnsilium bellī gerendī, which means, literally, the plan of the war to be waged, but which came to have the same force as the gerund with its object, and was even preferred to it.

405. Compare the following parallel uses of the gerund and gerundive:

Gerund Gerundive
Gen.

Spēs faciendī pācem

The hope of making peace

Spēs faciendae pācis

The hope of making peace

Dat.

Locus idōneus pugnandō

A place suitable for fighting

Locus idōneus castrīs pōnendīs

A place suitable for pitching camp

Acc.

Mīsit equitēs ad īnsequendum

He sent horsemen to pursue

Mīsit equitēs ad īnsequendōs hostīs

He sent horsemen to pursue the enemy

Abl.

Nārrandō fābulās magister puerīs placuit

The teacher pleased the boys by telling stories

Nārrandīs fābulīs magister puerīs placuit

The teacher pleased the boys by telling stories

a. We observe

(1) That the gerund is a noun and the gerundive an adjective.

(2) That the gerund, being a noun, may stand alone or with an object.

(3) That the gerundive, being an adjective, is used only in agreement with a noun.

406. Rule. Gerund and Gerundive. 1. The Gerund is a verbal noun and is used only in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative singular. The constructions of these cases are in general the same as those of other nouns.

2. The Gerundive is a verbal adjective and must be used instead of gerund + object excepting in the genitive and in the ablative without a preposition. Even in these instances the gerundive construction is more usual.

407. Rule. Gerund or Gerundive of Purpose. The accusative of the gerund or gerundive with ad, or the genitive with causā3 (= for the sake of), is used to express purpose.

Gerund Gerundive

Ad audiendum vēnērunt or

Audiendī causā vēnērunt

They came to hear

Ad urbem videndam vēnērunt or

Urbis videndae causā vēnērunt

They came to see the city

3. causā always follows the genitive.

Note. These sentences might, of course, be written with the subjunctive of purpose,—vēnērunt ut audīrent; vēnērunt ut urbem vidērent. In short expressions, however, the gerund and gerundive of purpose are rather more common.

408. We have learned that the word denoting the owner or possessor of something is in the genitive, as, equus Galbae, Galba’s horse. If, now, we wish to express the idea the horse is Galba’s, Galba remains the possessor, and hence in the genitive as before, but now stands in the predicate, as, equus est Galbae. Hence this is called the predicate genitive.

409. Rule. Predicate Genitive. The possessive genitive often stands in the predicate, especially after the forms of sum, and is then called the predicate genitive.

410. IDIOMS

alīcui negōtium dare, to employ someone (lit. to give business to some one)

novīs rēbus studēre, to be eager for a revolution (lit. to be eager for new things)

reī mīlitāris perītissimus, very skillful in the art of war

sē suaque omnia, themselves and all their possessions

411. EXERCISES

I. 1. Caesar cum in Galliā bellum gereret, militibus decimae legiōnis maximē fāvit quia reī mīlitāris perītissimī erant. 2. Sociīs negōtium dedit reī frumentāriae cūrandae. 3. Lēgāti nōn sōlum audiendī causā sed etiam dicendī causā vēnērunt. 4. Imperātor iussit explōrātōres locum idōneum mūnindō reperīre. 5. Nuper hae gentēs novīs rēbus studēbant; mox iīs persuādēbō ut Caesarī sē suaque omnia dēdant. 6. Iubēre est regīnae1 et pārēre est multitūdinis.4 7. Hōc proeliō factō quīdam ex hostibus ad pācem petendam venērunt. 8. Erant quī arma trādere nōllent. 9. Hostēs tam celeriter prōgressī sunt ut spatium pīla in hostīs iaciendī non darētur. 10. Spatium neque arma capiendī5 neque auxilī petendī2 datum est.

II. 1. These ornaments 6belong to Cornelia. 2. Men very skillful in the art of war were sent 7to capture the town. 3. The scouts found a hill suitable for fortifying very near to the river. 4. Soon the cavalry will come 8to seek supplies. 5. The mind of the Gauls is eager for revolution and for undertaking wars. 6. To lead the line of battle 8belongs to the general. 7. 10Whom shall we employ to look after the grain supply?

4. Predicate genitive.
5. Which of these expressions is gerund and which gerundive?
6. belong to = are of.
7. Use the gerundive with ad.
8. Use the genitive with causā. Where should causā stand?
9. Compare the first sentence.
10. Compare the second sentence in the Latin above.
Reading Selection
LESSON LXXII
THE IRREGULAR VERB · INDIRECT STATEMENTS

412. Learn the principal parts and the conjugation of , go (§ 499).

a. Notice that ī-, the root of , is changed to e- before a vowel, excepting in iēns, the nominative of the present participle. In the perfect system -v- is regularly dropped.

413. Learn the meaning and principal parts of the following compounds of with prepositions:

ad´eō, adī´re, ad´iī, ad´itus, go to, visit, with the accusative

ex´eō, exī´re, ex´iī, ex´itus, go forth, with ex or and the ablative of the place from which

in´eō, inī´re, in´iī, in´itus, begin, enter upon, with the accusative

red´eō, redī´re, red´iī, red´itus, return, with ad or in and the accusative of the place to which

trāns´eō, trānsī´re, trāns´iī, trāns´itus, cross, with the accusative

414. Indirect Statements in English. Direct statements are those which the speaker or writer makes himself or which are quoted in his exact language. Indirect statements are those reported in a different form of words from that used by the speaker or writer. Compare the following direct and indirect statements:

Direct statements

1. The Gauls are brave

2. The Gauls were brave

3. The Gauls will be brave

Indirect statements after a verb in the present tense

1. He says that the Gauls are brave

2. He says that the Gauls were brave

3. He says that the Gauls will be brave

Indirect statements after a verb in a past tense

1. He said that the Gauls were brave

2. He said that the Gauls had been brave

3. He said that the Gauls would be brave

We see that in English

a. The indirect statement forms a clause introduced by the conjunction that.

b. The verb is finite (cf. § 173) and its subject is in the nominative.

c. The tenses of the verbs originally used are changed after the past tense, He said.

415. Indirect Statements in Latin. In Latin the direct and indirect statements above would be as follows:

Direct
Statements

1. Gallī sunt fortēs

2. Gallī erant fortēs

3. Gallī erunt fortēs

Indirect
Statements

1. Dīcit or Dīxit Gallōs esse fortīs (He says or He said the Gauls to be brave)1

2. Dīcit or Dīxit Gallōs fuisse fortīs (He says or He said the Gauls to have been brave)1

3. Dīcit or Dīxit Gallōs futūrōs esse fortīs (He says or He said the Gauls to be about to be brave)1

1. These parenthetical renderings are not inserted as translations, but merely to show the literal meaning of the Latin.

Comparing these Latin indirect statements with the English in the preceding section, we observe three marked differences:

a. There is no conjunction corresponding to that.

b. The verb is in the infinitive and its subject is in the accusative.

c. The tenses of the infinitive are not changed after a past tense of the principal verb.

416. Rule. Indirect Statements. When a direct statement becomes indirect, the principal verb is changed to the infinitive and its subject nominative becomes subject accusative of the infinitive.

417. Tenses of the Infinitive. When the sentences in § 415 were changed from the direct to the indirect form of statement, sunt became esse, erant became fuisse, and erunt became futūrōs esse.

418. Rule. Infinitive Tenses in Indirect Statements. A present indicative of a direct statement becomes present infinitive of the indirect, a past indicative becomes perfect infinitive, and a future indicative becomes future infinitive.

Note. When translating into Latin an English indirect statement, first decide what tense of the indicative would have been used in the direct form. That will show you what tense of the infinitive to use in the indirect.

419. Rule. Verbs followed by Indirect Statements. The accusative-with-infinitive construction in indirect statements is found after verbs of saying, telling, knowing, thinking, and perceiving.

420. Verbs regularly followed by indirect statements are:

a.

Verbs of saying and telling:

dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictus, say

negō, negāre, negāvī, negātus, deny, say not

nūntiō, nūntiāre, nūntiāvī, nūntiātus, announce

respondeō, respondēre, respondī, respōnsus, reply

b.

Verbs of knowing:

cognōscō, cognōscere, cognōvī, cognitus, learn, (in the perf.) know

sciō, scīre, scīvī, scītus, know

c.

Verbs of thinking:

arbitror, arbitrārī, arbitrātus sum, think, consider

exīstimō, exīstimāre, exīstimāvī, exīstimātus, think, believe

iūdicō, iūdicāre, iūdicāvi, iūdicātus, judge, decide

putō, putāre, putāvī, putātus, reckon, think

spērō, spērāre, spērāvi, spērātus, hope

d.

Verbs of perceiving:

audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus, hear

sentiō, sentīre, sēnsī, sēnsus, feel, perceive

videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsus, see

intellegō, intellegere, intellēxī, intellēctus, understand, perceive

Learn such of these verbs as are new to you.

421. IDIOMS

postrīdiē eius diēī, on the next day (lit. on the next day of that day)

initā aestāte, at the beginning of summer

memoriā tenēre, to remember (lit. to hold by memory)

per explōrātōrēs cognōscere, to learn through scouts

422. EXERCISES

I. 1. It, īmus, īte, īre. 2. Euntī, iisse or īsse, ībunt, eunt. 3. Eundi, ut eant, ībitis, īs. 4. Nē īrent, ī, ībant, ierat. 5. Caesar per explorātores cognōvit Gallōs flūmen trānsīsse. 6. Rōmānī audīvērunt Helvētiōs initā aestāte dē fīnibus suīs exitūrōs esse. 7. Legātī respondērunt nēminem ante Caesarem illam īnsulam adīsse. 8. Prīncipēs Gallōrum dīcunt sē nūllum cōnsilium contrā Caesaris imperium initūrōs esse. 9. Arbitrāmur potentiam rēgīnae esse maiōrem quam cīvium. 10. Rōmānī negant se lībertātem Gallīs ēreptūrōs esse. 11. Hīs rēbus cognitīs sēnsimus lēgātōs non vēnisse ad pācem petendam. 12. Helvētii sciunt Rōmānōs priōrēs victōriās memoriā tenēre. 13. Sociī cum intellegerent multōs vulnerārī, statuērunt in suōs fīnīs redīre. 14. Aliquis nūntiāvit Mārcum cōnsulem creātum esse.

II. 1. The boy is slow. He says that the boy is, was, (and) will be slow. 2. The horse is, has been, (and) will be strong. He judged that the horse was, had been, (and) would be strong. 3. We think that the army will go forth from the camp at the beginning of summer. 4. The next day we learned through scouts that the enemy’s town was ten miles off.2 5. The king replied that the ornaments belonged to3 the queen.

2. to be off, to be distant, abesse.
3. Latin, were of (§ 409).
Reading Selection

trumpet
TUBA

LESSON LXXIII
VOCABULARY REVIEW · THE IRREGULAR VERB FERŌ · THE DATIVE WITH COMPOUNDS

423. Review the word lists in §§ 513, 514.

424. Learn the principal parts and conjugation of the verb ferō, bear (§ 498).

1. Learn the principal parts and meanings of the following compounds of ferō, bear:

ad´ferō, adfer´re, at´tulī, adlā´tus, bring to; report

cōn´ferō, cōnfer´re, con´tulī, conlā´tus, bring together, collect

dē´ferō, dēfer´re, dē´tulī, dēlā´tus, bring to; report; grant, confer

īn´ferō, īnfer´re, in´tulī, inlā´tus, bring in, bring against

re´ferō, refer´re, ret´tulī, relā´tus, bear back, report

425. The dative is the case of the indirect object. Many intransitive verbs take an indirect object and are therefore used with the dative (cf. § 153). Transitive verbs take a direct object in the accusative; but sometimes they have an indirect object or dative as well. The whole question, then, as to whether or not a verb takes the dative, depends upon its capacity for governing an indirect object. A number of verbs, some transitive and some intransitive, which in their simple form would not take an indirect object, when compounded with certain prepositions, have a meaning which calls for an indirect object. Observe the following sentences:

1. Haec rēs exercituī magnam calamitātem attulit, this circumstance brought great disaster to the army.

2. Germānī Gallīs bellum īnferunt, the Germans make war upon the Gauls.

3. Hae cōpiae proeliō nōn intererant, these troops did not take part in the battle.

4. Equitēs fugientibus hostibus occurrunt, the horsemen meet the fleeing enemy.

5. Galba cōpiīs fīlium praefēcit, Galba put his son in command of the troops.

In each sentence there is a dative, and in each a verb combined with a preposition. In no case would the simple verb take the dative.

426. Rule. Dative with Compounds. Some verbs compounded with ad, ante, con, , in, inter, ob, post, prae, prō, sub, super, admit the dative of the indirect object. Transitive compounds may take both an accusative and a dative.

Note 1. Among such verbs are1

ad´ferō, adfer´re, at´tulī, adlā´tus, bring to; report

ad´sum, ades´se, ad´fuī, adfutū´rus, assist; be present

dē´ferō, dēfer´re, dē´tulī, dēlātus, report; grant, confer

dē´sum, dees´se, dē´fuī, ——, be wanting, be lacking

īn´ferō, īnfer´re, in´tulī, inlā´tus, bring against, bring upon

inter´sum, interes´se, inter´fuī, interfutū´rus, take part in

occur´rō, occur´rere, occur´rī, occur´sus, run against, meet

praefi´ciō, praefi´cere, praefē´cī, praefec´tus, appoint over, place in command of

prae´sum, praees´se, prae´fuī, ——, be over, be in command

1. But the accusative with ad or in is used with some of these, when the idea of motion to or against is strong.

427. IDIOMS

graviter or molestē ferre, to be annoyed at, to be indignant at, followed by the accusative and infinitive

sē cōnferre ad or in, with the accusative, to betake one’s self to

alicui bellum īnferre, to make war upon some one

pedem referre, to retreat (lit. to bear back the foot)

428. EXERCISES

I. 1. Fer, ferent, ut ferant, ferunt. 2. Ferte, ut ferrent, tulisse, tulerant. 3. Tulimus, ferēns, lātus esse, ferre. 4. Cum nāvigia insulae adpropinquārent, barbarī terrōre commōtī pedem referre cōnātī sunt. 5. Gallī molestē ferēbant Rōmānōs agrōs vastāre. 6. Caesar sociīs imperāvit nē fīnitimis suīs bellum īnferrent. 7. Explorātōrēs, qui Caesarī occurrērunt, dīxērunt exercitum hostium vulneribus dēfessum sēsē in alium locum contulisse. 8. Hostes sciēbant Rōmānōs frūmentō egēre et hanc rem Caesarī summum perīculum adlātūram esse. 9. Impedīmentīs in ūnum locum conlātis, aliquī mīlitum flūmen quod nōn longē aberat trānsiērunt. 10. Hōs rēx hortātus est ut ōrāculum adīrent et rēs audītās ad sē referrent. 11. Quem imperātor illī legiōnī praefēcit? Pūblius illī legiōnī pracerat. 12. Cum esset Caesar in citeriōre Galliā, crēbrī ad eum2 rūmōrēs adferēbantur litterīsque quoque certior fīēbat Gallōs obsidēs inter sē dare.

II. 1. The Gauls will make war upon Cæsar’s allies. 2. We heard that the Gauls would make war upon Cæsar’s allies. 3. Publius did not take part in that battle. 4. We have been informed that Publius did not take part in that battle. 5. The man who was in command of the cavalry was wounded and began to retreat. 6. Cæsar did not place you in command of the cohort to bring3 disaster upon the army.

2. Observe that when adferō denotes motion to, it is not followed by the dative; cf. footnote, p. 182.
3. Not the infinitive. (Cf. § 352.)
Reading Selection
LESSON LXXIV
VOCABULARY REVIEW · THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN INDIRECT QUESTIONS

429. Review the word lists in §§ 517, 518.

430. When we report a statement instead of giving it directly, we have an indirect statement. (Cf. § 414.) So, if we report a question instead of asking it directly, we have an indirect question.

Direct Question Indirect Question
Who conquered the Gauls? He asked who conquered the Gauls

a. An indirect question depends, usually as object, upon a verb of asking (as petō, postulō, quaerō, rogō) or upon some verb or expression of saying or mental action. (Cf. § 420.)

431. Compare the following direct and indirect questions:

Direct Indirect
Quis Gallōs vincit?
Who is conquering the Gauls?
a.

Rogat quis Gallōs vincat

He asks who is conquering the Gauls

b.

Rogavit quis Gallōs vinceret

He asked who was conquering the Gauls

Ubī est Rōma?
Where is Rome?
a.

Rogat ubi sit Rōma

He asks where Rome is

b.

Rogāvit ubi esset Rōma

He asked where Rome was

Caesarne Gallōs vīcit?
Did Cæsar conquer the Gauls?
a.

Rogat num Caesar Gallōs vīcerit

He asks whether Cæsar conquered the Gauls

b.

Rogāvit num Caesar Gallōs vīcisset

He asked whether Cæsar had conquered the Gauls

a. The verb in a direct question is in the indicative mood, but the mood is subjunctive in an indirect question.

b. The tense of the subjunctive follows the rules for tense sequence.

c. Indirect questions are introduced by the same interrogative words as introduce direct questions, excepting thatyes-or-no direct questions (cf. § 210) on becoming indirect are usually introduced by num, whether.

432. Rule. Indirect Questions. In an indirect question the verb is in the subjunctive and its tense is determined by the law for tense sequence.

433. IDIOMS

dē tertiā vigiliā, about the third watch

iniūriās alicui īnferre, to inflict injuries upon some one

facere verba prō, with the ablative, to speak in behalf of

in reliquum tempus, for the future

434. EXERCISES

I. 1. Rēx rogāvit quid lēgātī postulārent et cūr ad sē vēnissent. 2. Quaesīvit quoque num nec recentīs iniūriās nec dubiam Rōmānōrum amīcitiam memoriā tenērent. 3. Vidētisne quae oppida hostēs oppugnāverint? 4. Nōnne scītis cūr Gallī sub montem sēse contulerint? 5. Audīvimus quās iniūrias tibi Germānī intulissent. 6. Dē tertiā vigiliā imperātor mīsit hominēs quī cognōscerent quae esset nātūra montis. 7. Prō hīs ōrātor verba fēcit et rogāvit cūr cōnsulēs nāvīs ad plēnem summī perīculī locum mittere vellent. 8. Lēgātīs convocātīs dēmōnstrāvit quid fierī vellet. 9. Nūntius referēbat quid in Gallōrum conciliō dē armīs trādendīs dictum esset. 10. Moneō nē in reliquum tempus peditēs et equitēs trāns flūmen dūcās.

II. 1. What hill did they seize? I see what hill they seized. 2. Who has inflicted these injuries upon our dependents? 3. They asked who had inflicted those injuries upon their dependents. 4. Whither did you go about the third watch? You know whither I went. 5. At what time did the boys return home? I will ask at what time the boys returned home.

Reading Selection
LESSON LXXV
VOCABULARY REVIEW · THE DATIVE OF PURPOSE, OR END FOR WHICH

435. Review the word lists in §§ 521, 522.

436. Observe the following sentences:

1. Explōrātōrēs locum castrīs dēlēgērunt, the scouts chose a place for a camp.

2. Hoc erat magnō impedīmentō Gallīs, this was (for) a great hindrance to the Gauls.

3. Duās legiōnēs praesidiō castrīs relīquit, he left two legions as (lit. for) a guard to the camp.

In each of these sentences we find a dative expressing the purpose or end for which something is intended or for which it serves. These datives are castrīs, impedīmentō, and praesidiō. In the second and third sentences we find a second dative expressing the person or thing affected (Gallīs and castrīs). As you notice, these are true datives, covering the relations of for which and to which. (Cf. § 43.)

437. Rule. Dative of Purpose or End. The dative is used to denote the purpose or end for which, often with another dative denoting the person or thing affected.

438. IDIOMS

cōnsilium omittere, to give up a plan

locum castrīs dēligere, to choose a place for a camp

alicui magnō ūsuī esse, to be of great advantage to some one (lit. for great advantage to some one)

439. EXERCISES

I. 1. Rogāvit cūr illae cōpiae relictae essent. Respondērunt illās cōpiās esse praesidiō castrīs. 2. Caesar mīsit explōrātōrēs ad locum dēligendum castrīs. 3. Quisque exīstimāvit ipsum nōmen Caesaris magnō terrōrī barbarīs futūrum esse. 4. Prīmā lūce īdem exercitus proelium ācre commīsit, sed gravia suōrum vulnera magnae cūrae imperātōrī erant. 5. Rēx respondit amīcitiam populī Rōmānī sibi ōrnāmentō et praesidiō dēbēre esse. 6. Quis praeerat equitātuī quem auxiliō Caesarī sociī mīserant? 7. Aliquibus rēs secundae sunt summae calamitātī et rēs adversae sunt mīrō ūsuī. 8. Gallīs magnō ad pugnam erat impedīmentō quod equitātus ā dextrō cornū premēbat. 9. Memoria prīstinae virtūtis nōn minus quam metus hostium erat nostrīs magnō ūsuī. 10. Tam dēnsa erat silva ut prōgredī nōn possent.

II. 1. I advise you 1to give up the plan 2of making war upon the brave Gauls. 2. Do you know 3where the cavalry has chosen a place for a camp? 3. The fear of the enemy will be of great advantage to you. 4. Cæsar left three cohorts as (for) a guard to the baggage. 5. In winter the waves of the lake are so great 4that they are (for) a great hindrance to ships. 6. Cæsar inflicted severe5 punishment on those who burned the public buildings.

1. Subjunctive of purpose. (Cf. § 366.)
2. Express by the genitive of the gerundive.
3. Indirect question.
4. A clause of result.
5. gravis, -e.
Reading Selection
LESSON LXXVI
VOCABULARY REVIEW · THE GENITIVE AND ABLATIVE OF QUALITY OR DESCRIPTION

440. Review the word lists in §§ 524, 525.

441. Observe the English sentences

(1) A man of great courage, or (2) A man with great courage

(3) A forest of tall trees, or (4) A forest with tall trees

Each of these sentences contains a phrase of quality or description. In the first two a man is described; in the last two a forest. The descriptive phrases are introduced by the prepositions of and with.

In Latin the expression of quality or description is very similar.

The prepositions of and with suggest the genitive and the ablative respectively, and we translate the sentences above

(1) Vir magnae virtūtis, or (2) Vir magnā virtūte

(3) Silva altārum arborum, or (4) Silva altīs arboribus

There is, however, one important difference between the Latin and the English. In English we may say, for example, a man of courage, using the descriptive phrase without an adjective modifier. In Latin, however, an adjective modifier must always be used, as above.

a. Latin makes a distinction between the use of the two cases in that numerical descriptions of measure are in the genitive and descriptions of physical characteristics are in the ablative. Other descriptive phrases may be in either case.

442. EXAMPLES

1. Fossa duodecim pedum, a ditch of twelve feet.

2. Homō magnīs pedibus et parvō capite, a man with big feet and a small head.

3. Rēx erat vir summā audāciā or rēx erat vir summae audāciae, the king was a man of the greatest boldness.

443. Rule. Genitive of Description. Numerical descriptions of measure are expressed by the genitive with a modifying adjective.

444. Rule. Ablative of Description. Descriptions of physical characteristics are expressed by the ablative with a modifying adjective.

445. Rule. Genitive or Ablative of Description. Descriptions involving neither numerical statements nor physical characteristics may be expressed by either the genitive or the ablative with a modifying adjective.

446. IDIOMS

Helvētiīs in animō est, the Helvetii intend, (lit. it is in mind to the Helvetians)

in mātrimōnium dare, to give in marriage

nihil posse, to have no power

fossam perdūcere, to construct a ditch (lit. to lead a ditch through)

447. EXERCISES

I. 1. Mīlitēs fossam decem pedum per eōrum fīnīs perdūxērunt. 2. Prīnceps Helvētiōrum, vir summae audāciae, prīncipibus gentium fīnitimārum sorōrēs in mātrimōnium dedit. 3. Eōrum amīcitiam cōnfīrmāre voluit quō facilius Rōmānīs bellum īnferret. 4. Germanī et Gallī nōn erant eiusdem gentis. 5. Omnēs ferē Germānī erant magnīs corporum vīribus.1 6. Gallī qui oppidum fortiter dēfendēbant saxa ingentis magnitūdinis dē mūrō iaciēbant. 7. Cum Caesar ab explōrātōribus quaereret quī illud oppidum incolerent, explōrātōrēs respondērunt eōs esse homines summā virtūte et magnō cōnsiliō. 8. Moenia vīgintī pedum ā sinistrā parte, et ā dextrā parte flūmen magnae altitūdinis oppidum dēfendēbant. 9. Cum Caesar in Galliam pervēnisset, erat rūmor Helvētiīs in animō esse iter per prōvinciam Rōmānam facere. 10. Caesar, ut eōs ab fīnibus Rōmānis prohibēret, mūnītiōnem 2multa mīlia passuum longam fēcit.

II. 1. Cæsar was a general of much wisdom and great boldness, and very skillful in the art of war. 2. The Germans were of great size, and thought that the Romans had no power. 3. Men of the highest courage were left in the camp as (for) a guard to the baggage. 4. The king’s daughter, who was given in marriage to the chief of a neighboring state, was a woman of very beautiful appearance. 5. The soldiers will construct a ditch of nine feet around the camp. 6. A river of great width was between us and the enemy.

1. From vīs. (Cf. § 468.)
2. Genitives and ablatives of description are adjective phrases. When we use an adverbial phrase to tell how long or how high or how deep anything is, we must use the accusative of extent. (Cf. § 336.) For example, in the sentence above multa mīlia passuum is an adverbial phrase (accusative of extent) modifying longam. If we should omit longam and say a fortification of many miles, the genitive of description (an adjective phrase) modifying mūnītiōnem would be used, as mūnītiōnem multōrum mīlium passuum.
Reading Selection

swords
GLADII

LESSON LXXVII
REVIEW OF AGREEMENT, AND OF THE GENITIVE, DATIVE, AND ACCUSATIVE

448. There are four agreements:

1. That of the predicate noun or of the appositive with the noun to which it belongs (§§ 76, 81).

2. That of the adjective, adjective pronoun, or participle with its noun (§ 65).

3. That of a verb with its subject (§ 28).

4. That of a relative pronoun with its antecedent (§ 224).

449. The relation expressed by the genitive is, in general, denoted in English by the preposition of. It is used to express

1. Possession

a. As attributive (§ 38).

b. In the predicate (§ 409).

2. The whole of which a part is taken (partitive genitive) (§ 331).

3. Quality or description (§§ 443, 445).

450. The relation expressed by the dative is, in general, denoted in English by the prepositions to or for when they do not imply motion through space. It is used to express

1. The indirect object

a. With intransitive verbs and with transitive verbs in connection with a direct object in the accusative (§ 45).

b. With special intransitive verbs (§ 154).

c. With verbs compounded with ad, ante, con, , in, inter, ob, post, prae, prō, sub, super (§ 426).

2. The object to which the quality of an adjective is directed (§ 143).

3. The purpose, or end for which, often with a second dative denoting the person or thing affected (§ 437).

451. The accusative case corresponds, in general, to the English objective. It is used to express

1. The direct object of a transitive verb (§ 37).

2. The predicate accusative together with the direct object after verbs of making, choosing, falling, showing, and the like (§ 392).

3. The subject of the infinitive (§ 214).

4. The object of prepositions that do not govern the ablative (§ 340).

5. The duration of time and the extent of space (§ 336).

6. The place to which (§§ 263, 266).

452. EXERCISES

I. 1. Mīlitēs quōs vīdimus dīxērunt imperium bellī esse Caesaris imperātōris. 2. Helvētiī statuērunt quam1 maximum numerum equōrum et carrōrum cōgere. 3. Tōtīus Galliae Helvētiī plūrimum valuērunt. 4. Multās hōrās ācriter pugnātum est neque quisquam poterat vidēre hostem fugientem. 5. Virī summae virtūtis hostīs decem mīlia passuum īnsecūtī sunt. 6. Caesar populō Rōmānō persuāsit ut sē cōnsulem creāret. 7. Victōria exercitūs erat semper imperātōrī grātissima. 8. Trīduum iter fēcērunt et Genāvam, in oppidum2 hostium, pervēnērunt. 9. Caesar audīvit Germānōs bellum Gallīs intulisse. 10. Magnō ūsuī mīlitibus Caesaris erat quod priōribus proeliīs sēsē exercuerant.

II. 1. One3 of the king’s sons and many of his men were captured. 2. There was no one who wished4 to appoint her queen. 3. The grain supply was always a care (for a care) to Cæsar, the general. 4. I think that the camp is ten miles distant. 5. We marched for three hours through a very dense forest. 6. The plan 5of making war upon the allies was not pleasing to the king. 7. When he came to the hill he fortified it 6by a twelve-foot wall.

1. What is the force of quam with superlatives?
2. urbs or oppidum, appositive to a name of a town, takes a preposition.
3. What construction is used with numerals in preference to the partitive genitive?
4. What mood? (Cf. § 390.)
5. Use the gerund or gerundive.
6. Latin, by a wall of twelve feet.
LESSON LXXVIII
REVIEW OF THE ABLATIVE

453. The relations of the ablative are, in general, expressed in English by the prepositions with (or by), from (or by), and in (or at). The constructions growing out of these meanings are

I. Ablative rendered with (or by):
 

1. Cause (§ 102)

2. Means (§ 103)

3. Accompaniment (§ 104)

4. Manner (§ 105)

5. Measure of difference (§ 317)

6. With a participle (ablative absolute) (§ 381)

7. Description or quality (§§ 444, 445)

8. Specification (§ 398)

II. Ablative rendered from (or by):
 

1. Place from which (§§ 179, 264)

2. Ablative of separation (§ 180)

3. Personal agent with a passive verb (§ 181)

4. Comparison without quam (§ 309)

III. Ablative rendered in (or at):
 

1. Place at or in which (§§ 265, 266)

2. Time when or within which (§ 275)

454. EXERCISES

I. 1. Gallī locīs superiōribus occupātīs itinere exercitum prohibēre cōnantur. 2. Omnēs oppidānī ex oppidō ēgressī salūtem fugā petere incēpērunt. 3. Caesar docet sē mīlitum vītam suā salūte habēre multō cāriōrem. 4. Cum celerius omnium opīniōne pervēnisset, hostēs ad eum obsidēs mīsērunt 5. Vīcus in valle positus montibus altissimīs undique continētur. 6. Plūrimum inter Gallōs haec gēns et virtūte et hominum numerō valēbat. 7. Secundā vigiliā nūllō certō ōrdine neque imperiō ē castrīs ēgressī sunt. 8. Duābus legiōnibus Genāvae relictīs, proximō diē cum reliquīs domum profectus est. 9. Erant itinera duo quibus itineribus Helvētiī domō exīre possent. 10. Rēx erat summā audāciā et magnā apud populum potentiā. 11. Gallī timōre servitūtis commōtī bellum parābant. 12. Caesar monet lēgātōs ut contineant militēs, nē studiō pugnandī aut spē praedae longius1 prōgrediantur. 13. Bellum ācerrimum ā Caesare in Gallōs gestum est.

II. 1. The lieutenant after having seized the mountain restrained his (men) from battle. 2. All the Gauls differ from each other in laws. 3. This tribe is much braver than the rest. 4. This road is 2ten miles shorter than that. 5. In summer Cæsar carried on war in Gaul, in winter he returned to Italy. 6. At midnight the general set out from the camp with three legions. 7. I fear that you cannot protect3 yourself from these enemies. 8. 4After this battle was finished peace was made by all the Gauls.

1. longius, too far. (Cf. § 305.)
2. Latin, by ten thousands of paces.
3. dēfendere.
4. Ablative absolute.
LESSON LXXIX
REVIEW OF THE GERUND AND GERUNDIVE, THE INFINITIVE, AND THE SUBJUNCTIVE

455. The gerund is a verbal noun and is used only in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative singular. The constructions of these cases are in general the same as those of other nouns (§§ 402; 406.1).

456. The gerundive is a verbal adjective and must be used instead of gerund + object, excepting in the genitive and in the ablative without a preposition. Even in these instances the gerundive construction is more usual (§ 406.2).

457. The infinitive is used:

I. As in English.

a. As subject or predicate nominative (§ 216).

b. To complete the predicate with verbs of incomplete predication (complementary infinitive) (§ 215).

c. As object with subject accusative after verbs of wishing, commanding, forbidding, and the like (§ 213).

II. In the principal sentence of an indirect statement after verbs of saying and mental action. The subject is in the accusative (§§ 416, 418, 419).

458. The subjunctive is used:

1. To denote purpose (§§ 349, 366, 372).

2. To denote consequence or result (§§ 385, 386).

3. In relative clauses of characteristic or description (§ 390).

4. In cum clauses of time, cause, and concession (§ 396).

5. In indirect questions (§ 432).

459. EXERCISES

I. 1. Caesar, cum pervēnisset, militēs hortābātur nē cōnsilium oppidī capiendi omitterent. 2. Rēx, castrīs prope oppidum positīs, mīsit explōrātōrēs quī cognōscerent ubi exercitus Rōmanus esset. 3. Nēmo relinquēbātur quī arma ferre posset. 4. Nūntiī vīdērunt ingentem armōrum multitudinem dē mūrō in fossani iactam esse. 5. Dux suōs trānsīre flūmen iussit. Trānsīre autem hoc flūmen erat difficillimum. 6. Rōmānī cum hanc calamitātem molestē ferrant, tamen terga vertere recūsāvērunt. 7. Hōc rūmōre audītō, tantus terror omnium animōs occupāvit ut nē fortissimī quidem proelium committere vellent. 8. Erant quī putārent tempus annī idōneum nōn esse itinerī faciendō. 9. Tam ācriter ab utraque parte pugnābātur ut multa mīlia hominum occīderentur. 10. Quid timēs? Timeō nē Rōmānīs in animō sit tōtam Galliam superāre et nōbīs iniūriās inferre.

II. 1. Do you not see who is standing on the wall? 2. We hear that the plan of taking the town has been given up. 3. Since the Germans thought that the Romans could not cross the Rhine, Cæsar ordered a bridge to be made. 4. When the bridge was finished, the savages were so terrified that they hid themselves. 5. They feared that Cæsar would pursue them. 6. Cæsar 1asked the traders what the size of the island was. 7. The traders advised him not 2to cross the sea. 8. He sent scouts 3to choose a place for a camp.

1. quaerere ab.
2. Not infinitive.
3. Use the gerundive with ad.

READING MATTER

INTRODUCTORY SUGGESTIONS

How to Translate. You have already had considerable practice in translating simple Latin, and have learned that the guide to the meaning lies in the endings of the words. If these are neglected, no skill can make sense of the Latin. If they are carefully noted and accurately translated, not many difficulties remain. Observe the following suggestions:

1. Read the Latin sentence through to the end, noting endings of nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc.

2. Read it again and see if any of the words you know are nominatives or accusatives. This will often give you what may be called the backbone of the sentence; that is, subject, verb, and object.

3. Look up the words you do not know, and determine their use in the sentence from their endings.

4. If you cannot yet translate the sentence, put down the English meanings of all the words in the same order as the Latin words. You will then generally see through the meaning of the sentence.

5. Be careful to

a. Translate adjectives with the nouns to which they belong.

b. Translate together prepositions and the nouns which they govern.

c. Translate adverbs with the words that they modify.

d. Make sense. If you do not make sense, you have made a mistake. One mistake will spoil a whole sentence.

6. When the sentence is correctly translated, read the Latin over again, and try to understand it as Latin, without thinking of the English translation.

The Parts of a Sentence. You will now meet somewhat longer sentences than you have had before. To assist in translating them, remember, first of all, that every sentence conveys a meaning and either tells us something, asks a question, or gives a command. Every sentence must have a subject and a verb, and the verb may always have an adverb, and, if transitive, will have a direct object.

However long a sentence is, you will usually be able to recognize its subject, verb, and object or predicate complement without any difficulty. These will give you the leading thought, and they must never be lost sight of while making out the rest of the sentence. The chief difficulty in translating arises from the fact that instead of a single adjective, adverb, or noun, we often have a phrase or a clause taking the place of one of these; for Latin, like English, has adjective, adverbial, and substantive clauses and phrases. For example, in the sentence The idle boy does not study, the word idle is an adjective. In The boy wasting his time does not study, the words wasting his time form an adjective phrase modifying boy. In the sentence The boy who wastes his time does not study, the words who wastes his time form an adjective clause modifying boy, and the sentence is complex. These sentences would show the same structure in Latin.

In translating, it is important to keep the parts of a phrase and the parts of a clause together and not let them become confused with the principal sentence. To distinguish between the subordinate clauses and the principal sentence is of the first importance, and is not difficult if you remember that a clause regularly contains a word that marks it as a clause and that this word usually stands first. These words join clauses to the words they depend on, and are called subordinate conjunctions. They are not very numerous, and you will soon learn to recognize them. In Latin they are the equivalents for such words as when, while, since, because, if, before, after, though, in order that, that, etc. Form the habit of memorizing the Latin subordinate conjunctions as you meet them, and of noting carefully the mood of the verb in the clauses which they introduce.

statue of Hercules
HERCULES


THE LABORS OF HERCULES

Hercules, a Greek hero celebrated for his great strength, was pursued throughout his life by the hatred of Juno. While yet an infant he strangled some serpents sent by the goddess to destroy him. During his boyhood and youth he performed various marvelous feats of strength, and on reaching manhood he succeeded in delivering the Thebans from the oppression of the Minyæ. In a fit of madness, sent upon him by Juno, he slew his own children; and, on consulting the Delphic oracle as to how he should cleanse himself from this crime, he was ordered to submit himself for twelve years to Eurystheus, king of Tiryns, and to perform whatever tasks were appointed him. Hercules obeyed the oracle, and during the twelve years of his servitude accomplished twelve extraordinary feats known as the Labors of Hercules. His death was caused, unintentionally, by his wife Deiani´ra. Hercules had shot with his poisoned arrows a centaur named Nessus, who had insulted Deianira. Nessus, before he died, gave some of his blood to Deianira, and told her it would act as a charm to secure her husband’s love. Some time after, Deianira, wishing to try the charm, soaked one of her husband’s garments in the blood, not knowing that it was poisoned. Hercules put on the robe, and, after suffering terrible torments, died, or was carried off by his father Jupiter.

LIII.1 THE INFANT HERCULES AND THE SERPENTS

infant Hercules fighting two serpents
HERCULES ET SERPENTES

2 grave supplicium sūmmit de malīs, sed iī quī lēgibus3 deōrum pārent, etiam post mortem cūrantur. Illa vīta dīs2 erat grātissima quae hominibus miserīs ūtilissima fuerat. Omnium autem praemiōrum summum erat immortālitās. Illud praemium Herculī datum est.

Herculis pater fuit Iuppiter, māter Alcmēna, et omnium hominum validissimus fuisse dīcitur. Sed Iūnō, rēgīna deōrum, eum, adhūc īnfantem, interficere studēbat; nam eī4 et5 Herculēs et Alcmēna erant invīsī. Itaque mīsit duās serpentīs, utramque saevissimam, quae mediā nocte domum6 Alcmēnae vēnērunt. Ibi Herculēs, cum frātre suō, nōn in lectulō sed in scūtō ingentī dormiēbat. Iam audācēs serpentēs adpropinquāverant, iam scūtum movēbant. Tum frāter, terrōre commōtus, magnā vōce mātrem vocāvit, sed Herculēs ipse, fortior quam frāter, statim ingentīs serpentīs manibus suīs rapuit et interfēcit.

1. This number refers to the lesson after which the selection may be read.
2. and dīs are from deus. Cf. § 468.
3. lēgibus, § 501. 14.
4. , to her, referring to Juno.
5. et ... et, both ... and.
6. domum, § 501. 20.
LIV. HERCULES CONQUERS THE MINYÆ

Herculēs ā puerō1 corpus suum gravissimīs et difficillimīs labōribus exercēbat et hōc modō vīrēs2 suās cōnfirmāvit. Iam adulēscēns Thēbīs3 habitābat. Ibi Creōn quīdam erat rēx. Minyae, gēns validissima, erant fīnitimī Thēbānīs, et, quia ōlim Thēbānōs vīcerant, quotannīs lēgātōs mittēbant et vectīgal postulābant. Herculēs autem cōnstituit cīvīs suōs hōc vectīgālī līberāre et dixit rēgī, “Dā mihi exercitum tuum et ego hōs superbōs hostīs superābō.” Hanc condiciōnem rēx nōn recūsāvit, et Herculēs nūntiōs in omnīs partis dīmīsit et cōpiās coēgit.4 Tum tempore opportūnissimō proelium cum Minyīs commīsit. Diū pugnātum est, sed dēnique illī impetum Thēbānōrum sustinēre nōn potuērunt et terga vertērunt fugamque cēpērunt.

1. ā puerō, from boyhood.
2. virēs, from vīs. Cf. § 468.
3. Thēbīs, § 501. 36. 1.
4. coēgit, from cōgō.
HE COMMITS A CRIME AND GOES TO THE DELPHIAN ORACLE TO SEEK EXPIATION

Post hoc proelium Creōn rēx, tantā victōriā laetus, fīliam suam Herculī in mātrimōnium dedit. Thēbīs Herculēs cum uxōre suā diū vīvēbat et ab omnibus magnopere amābātur; sed post multōs annōs subitō 1in furōrem incidit et ipse suā manū līberōs suōs interfēcit. Post breve tempus 2ad sānitātem reductus tantum scelus expiāre cupiēbat et cōnstituit ad ōrāculum Delphicum iter facere. Hoc autem ōrāculum erat omnium clārissimum. Ibi sedēbat fēmina quaedam quae Pȳthia appellābātur. Ea cōnsilium dabat iīs quī ad ōrāculum veniēbant.

1. in furōrem incidit, went mad.
2. ad sānitātem reductus, lit. led back to sanity. What in good English?

Hercules fights the Nemean lion
HERCULES LEONEM SUPERAT

LV. HERCULES BECOMES SUBJECT TO EURYSTHEUS1 · HE STRANGLES THE NEME´AN LION

Itaque Herculēs Pȳthiae tōtam rem dēmonstrāvit nec scelus suum abdidit. Ubi iam Herculēs fīnem fēcit, Pȳthia iussit eum ad urbem Tīryntha2 discēdere et ibi rēgī Eurystheō sēsē committere. Quae3 ubi audīvit, Herculēs ad illam urbem statim contendit et Eurystheō sē in servitūtem trādidit et dīxit, “Quid prīmum, Ō rēx, mē facere iubēs?” Eurystheus, quī perterrēbātur vī et corpore ingentī Herculis et eum occidī4 studēbat, ita respondit: “Audī, Herculēs! Multa mira5 nārrantur dē leōne saevissimō quī hōc tempore in valle Nemaeā omnia vāstat. Iubeō tē, virōrum omnium fortissimum, illō mōnstrō hominēs līberāre.” Haec verba Herculī maximē placuērunt. “Properābo,” inquit, “et parēbō imperiō6 tuō.” Tum in silvās in quibus leō habitābat statim iter fēcit. Mox feram vīdit et plūrīs impetūs fēcit; frūstrā tamen, quod neque sagittīs neque ūllō aliō tēlō mōnstrum vulnerāre potuit. Dēnique Herculēs saevum leōnem suīs ingentibus bracchiīs rapuit et faucīs eius omnibus vīribus compressit. Hōc modō brevī tempore eum interfēcit. Tum corpus leōnis ad oppidum in umerīs reportāvit et pellem posteā prō7 veste gerēbat. Omnēs autem quō eam regiōnem incolēbant, ubi fāmam dē morte leōnis ingentis accēpērunt, erant laetissimī et Herculem laudābant verbīs amplissimīs.

1. Eu-rys´theus (pronounced U-ris´thūs) was king of Tī´ryns, a Grecian city, whose foundation goes back to prehistoric times.
2. Tīryntha, the acc. case of Tīryns, a Greek noun.
3. Quae, obj. of audīvit. It is placed first to make a close connection with the preceding sentence. This is called a connecting relative.
4. occīdī, pres. pass. infin.
5. mīra, marvelous things, the adj. being used as a noun. Cf. omnia, in the next line.
6. imperiō, § 501. 14.
7. prō, for, instead of.
LVI. SLAYING THE LERNE´AN HYDRA

Deinde Herculēs ab Eurystheō iussus est Hydram occīdere. Itaque cum amīcō Iolāō1 contendit ad palūdem Lernaeam ubi Hydra incolēbat. Hoc autem mōnstrum erat serpēns ingēns quae novem capita habēbat. Mox is mōnstrum repperit et summō2 cum perīculō collum eius sinistrā manū rapuit et tenuit. Tum dextrā manū capita novem abscīdere incēpit, sed frūstrā labōrābat, quod quotiēns hoc fēcerat totiēns alia nova capita vidēbat. Quod3 ubi vīdit, statuit capita ignī cremāre. Hōc modō octō capita dēlēvit, sed extrēmum caput vulnerārī nōn potuit, quod erat immortāle. Itaque illud sub ingentī saxō Herculēs posuit et ita victōriam reportāvit.

1. Iolāō, abl. of I-o-lā´us, the hero’s best friend.
2. Note the emphatic position of this adjective.
3. Quod ubi, when he saw this, another instance of the connecting relative. Cf. p. 199, l. 3.
LVII. THE ARCADIAN STAG AND THE ERYMANTHIAN BOAR

Postquam Eurystheō mors Hydrae nuntiata est, summus terror animum eius occupavit. Itaque iussit Herculem capere et ad sē reportāre cervum quendam; nam minimē cupīvit tantum virum in rēgnō suō tenēre. Hie autem cervus dīcēbātur aurea cornua et pedēs multō1 celeriōrēs ventō2 habēre. Prīmum Herculēs vestīgia animālis petīvit, deinde, ubi cervum ipsum vīdit, omnibus vīribus currere incēpit. Per plūrimōs diēs contendit nec noctū cessāvit. Dēnique postquam per tōtum annum cucurrerat—ita dīcitur—cervum iam dēfessum cēpit et ad Eurystheum portāvit.

Tum vērō iussus est Herculēs aprum quendam capere quī illō tempore agrōs Erymanthiōs vāstābat et hominēs illīus locī magnopere perterrēbat. Herculēs laetē negōtium suscēpit et in Arcadiam celeriter sē recēpit. Ibi mox aprum repperit. Ille autem; simul atque Herculem vīdit, statim quam3 celerrimē fūgit et metū perterritus in fossam altam sēsē abdidit. Herculēs tamen summā cum difficultāte eum extrāxit, nec aper ūllō modō sēsē līberāre potuit, et vīvus ad Eurystheum portātus est.

1. multō, § 501. 27.
2. ventō, § 501. 34.
3. quam. What is the force of quam with a superlative?
LVIII. HERCULES CLEANS THE AUGE´AN STABLES AND KILLS THE STYMPHALIAN BIRDS

Deinde Eurystheus Herculī hunc labōrem multō graviōrem imperāvit. Augēās1 quīdam, quī illō tempore rēgnum Ēlidis2 obtinēbat, tria mīlia boum3 habēbat. Hī4 ingentī stabulō continēbantur. Hoc stabulum, quod per trīgintā annōs nōn pūrgātum erat, Herculēs intrā spatium ūnīus diēī pūrgāre iussus est. llle negōtium alacriter suscēpit, et prīmum labōre gravissimō maximam fossam fōdit per quam flūminis aquam dē montibus ad mūrum stabulī dūxit. Tum partem parvam mūrī dēlēvit et aquam in stabulum immīsit. Hōc modō fīnm operis fēcit ūnō diē facillimē.

Post paucōs diēs Herculēs ad oppidum Stymphālum iter fēcit; nam Eurystheus iusserat eum avis Stymphālidēs occīdere. Hae avēs rōstra ferrea habēbant et hominēs miserōs dēvorābant. Ille, postquam ad locum pervēnit, lacum vīdit in quō avēs incolēbant. Nūllō tamen modō Herculēs avibus adpropinquāre potuit; lacus enim nōn ex aquā sed ē līmō cōnstitit.5 Dēnique autem avēs 6dē aliquā causā perterritae in aurās volāvērunt et magna pars eārum sagittīs Herculis occīsa est.

1. Augēās, pronounced in English Aw-jē´as.
2. Ēlidis, gen. case of Ēlis, a district of Greece.
3. boum, gen. plur. of bōs. For construction see § 501. 11.
4. ingentī stabulō, abl. of means, but in our idiom we should say in a huge stable.
5. cōnstitit, from consto.
6. dē aliquā causā perterritae, frightened for some reason.

Hercules and the Cretan bull
HERCULES ET TAURUS

LIX. HERCULES CAPTURES THE CRETAN BULL AND CARRIES HIM LIVING TO EURYSTHEUS

Tum Eurystheus iussit Herculem portāre vīvum ex īnsulā Crētā taurum quendam saevissimum. Ille igitur nāvem cōnscendit—nam ventus erat idōneus—atque statim solvit. Postquam trīduum nāvigavit, incolumis īnsulae adpropinquāvit. Deinde, postquam omnia parāta sunt, contendit ad eam regiōnem quam taurus vexābat. Mox taurum vīdit ac sine ūllō metū cornua eius corripuit. Tum ingentī labōre mōnstrum ad nāvem trāxit atque cum hāc praedā ex īnsulā discessit.

THE FLESH-EATING HORSES OF DIOME´DES

Postquam ex īnsulā Crētā domum pervēnit, Hercules ab Eurystheō in Thrāciam missus est. Ibi Diomēdēs quīdam, vir saevissimus, rēgnum obtinēbat et omnīs ā fīnibus suīs prohibēbat. Herculēs iussus erat equōs Diomedis rapere et ad Eurystheum dūcere. Hī autem equī hominēs miserrimōs dēvorābant dē quibus rēx supplicium sūmere cupiēbat. Herculēs ubi pervēnit, prīmum equōs ā rēge postulāvit, sed rēx eōs dēdere recūsāvit. Deinde ille īrā commōtus rēgem occīdit et corpus eius equīs trādidit. Itaque is quī anteā multōs necāverat, ipse eōdem suppliciō necātus est. Et equī, nūper saevissima animālia, postquam dominī suī corpus dēvorāvērunt, mānsuētī erant.

LX. THE BELT OF HIPPOL´YTE, QUEEN OF THE AMAZONS

Gēns Amāzonum1 dīcitur2 omnīnō ex mulieribus fuisse. Hae cum virīs proelium committere nōn verēbantur. Hippolytē, Amāzonum rēgīna, balteum habuit pulcherrimum. Hunc balteum possidēre fīlia Eurystheī vehementer cupiēbat. Itaque Eurystheus iussit Herculem impetum in Amāzonēs facere. Ille multīs cum cōpiīs nāvem cōnscendīt et paucis diēbus in Amāzonum fīnīs pervēnit, ac balteum postulāvit. Eum trādere ipsa Hipporytē quidem cupīvit; reliquīs tamen Amazonibus3 persuādēre nōn potuit. Postrīdiē Herculēs proelium commīsit. Multās hōrās utrimque quam fortissimē pugnātum est Dēnique tamen mulieres terga vertērunt et fugā salūtem petiērunt. Multae autem captae sunt, in quō numerō erat ipsa Hippolytē. Herculēs postquam balteum accēpit, omnibus captīvīs lībertātem dedit.

1. A fabled tribe of warlike women living in Asia Minor.
2. omnīnō, etc., to have consisted entirely of women.
3. Amāzonibus, § 501. 14.
THE DESCENT TO HADES AND THE DOG CER´BERUS

Hercules and Cerberus
HERCULES ET CERBERUS

Iamque ūnus modo ē duodecim labōribus relinquēbātur sed inter omnīs hic erat difficillimus. Iussus est enim canem Cerberum4 ex Orcō in lūcem trahere. Ex Orcō autem nēmō anteā reverterat. Praetereā Cerberus erat mōnstrum maximē horribile et tria capita habēbat. Herculēs postquam imperia Eurystheī accēpit, statim profectus est et in Orcum dēscendit. Ibi vērō nōn sine summō periculō Cerberum manibus rapuit et ingentī cum labōre ex Orcō in lūcem et adurbem Eurystheī trāxit.

Sic duodecim laborēs illī5 intrā duodecim annōs cōnfectī sunt. Dēmum post longam vītam Herculēs ā deīs receptus est et Iuppiter fīliō suō dedit immortālitātem.

4. The dog Cerberus guarded the gate of Orcus, the abode of the dead.
5. illī, those famous.

P. CORNELIUS LENTULUS: THE STORY OF A ROMAN BOY1
LXI. PUBLIUS IS BORN NEAR POMPE´II

P. Cornēlius Lentulus,2 adulēscēns Rōmānus, amplissimā familiā3 nātus est; nam pater eius, Mārcus, erat dux perītissimus, cuius virtūte4 et cōnsiliō multae victōriae reportātae erant; atque mater eius, lūlia, ā clārissimīs maiōribus orta est. Nōn vērō in urbe sed rūrī5 Pūblius nātus est, et cum mātre habitābat in vīllā quae in maris lītore et sub radīcibus magnī montis sita erat. Mōns autem erat Vesuvius et parva urbs Pompēiī octō mīlia6 passuum7 aberat. In Italiā antīquā erant plūrimae quidem villae et pulchrae, sed inter hās omnīs nūlla erat pulchrior quam villa Mārcī Iūliaeque. Frōns vīllae mūrō a maris fluctibus mūniēbātur. Hinc mare et lītora et īnsulae longē lātēque cōnspicī8 ac saepe nāvēs longae et onerāriae poterant. Ā tergō et ab utrōque latere agrī ferācissimī patēbant. Undique erat magna variōrum flōrum cōpia et multa ingentium arborum genera quae aestāte9 umbram dēfessīs agricolīs grātissimam adferēbant. Praetereā erant1 in agrīs stabulīsque multa animālium genera, nōn sōlum equī et bovēs sed etiam rārae avēs. Etiam erat10 magna piscīna plēna piscium; nam Rōmānī piscīs dīligenter colēbant.

Roman boys
PUERI ROMANI

1. This story is fiction with certain historical facts in Cæsar’s career as a setting. However, the events chronicled might have happened, and no doubt did happen to many a Roman youth.
2. A Roman had three names, as, Pūblius (given name), Cornēlius (name of the gēns or clan), Lentulus (family name).
3. Abl. of source, which is akin to the abl. of separation (§ 501. 32).
4. virtūte, § 501. 24.
5. rūrī, § 501. 36. 1.
6. mīlia, § 501. 21.
7. passuum, § 501. 11.
8. cōnspicī, infin. with poterant, § 215. Consult the map of Italy for the approximate location of the villa.
9. aestāte, § 501. 35.
10. How are the forms of sum translated when they precede the subject?
LXII. HIS LIFE ON THE FARM

Huius vīllae Dāvus, servus Mārcī, est vīlicus1 et cum Lesbiā uxōre omnia cūrat. Vīlicus et uxor in casā humilī, mediīs in agrīs sitā, habitant. Ā prīmā lūce ūsque ad vesperum sē2 gravibus labōribus exercent ut omnī rēs bene gerant.3 Plūrima enim sunt officia Dāvī et Lesbiae. Vīlicus servōs regit nē tardī sint4; mittit aliōs quī agrōs arent,4 aliōs quī hortōs inrigent,4 et opera in5 tōtum diem impōnit. Lesbia autem omnibus vestīmenta parat, cibum coquit, pānem facit.

Roman cottage
CASA ROMANA

Nōn longē ab hōrum casā et in summō colle situm surgēbat domicilium ipsīus dominī dominaeque amplissimum. Ibi plūrīs annōs6 Pūblius cum mātre vītam fēlīcem agēbat; nam pater eius, Mārcus, in terrīs longinquīs gravia reī pūblicae bella gerēbat nec domum7 revertī poterat. Neque puerō quidem molestum est rūrī8 vīvere. Eum multae rēs dēlectant. Magnopere amat silvās, agrōs, equōs, bovēs, gallīnās, avīs, reliquaque animālia. Saepe plūrīs hōrās9 ad mare sedet quō9 melius fluctūs et nāvīs spectet. Nec omnīnō sine comitibus erat, quod Lȳdia, Dāvī fīlia, quae erat eiusdem aetātis, cum eō adhūc infante lūdēbat, inter quōs cum annīs amīcitia crēscēbat. Lȳdia nūllum alium ducem dēligēbat et Pūblius ab puellae latere rārō discēdēbat. Itaque sub clārō Italiae sōle Pūblius et Lȳdia, amīcī fidēlissimī, per campōs collīsque cotīdiē vagābantur. Modo in silvā fīnitimā lūdebant ubi Pūblius sagittīs10 celeribus avis dēiciēbat et Lȳdia corōnīs variōrum flōrum comās suās ōrnābat; modo aquam et cibum portābant ad Dāvum servōsque dēfessōs quī agrōs colēbant: modo in casā parvā aut hōrās lactās in lūdō cōnsūmēbant aut auxilium dabant Lesbiae, quae cibum virō et servīs parābat vel aliās rēs domesticās agēbat.

1. The vīlicus was a slave who acted as overseer of a farm. He directed the farming operations and the sale of the produce.
2. se, reflexive pron., object of exercent.
3. For the construction, see § 501. 40.
4. in, for.
5. annōs, § 501. 21.
6. domum, § 501. 20.
7. rūrī, § 501. 36. 1.
8. hōrās, cf. annōs, line 17.
9. quō ... spectet, §§ 349, 350.
10. sagittis, § 501. 24.
LXIII. MARCUS LENTULUS, THE FATHER OF PUBLIUS, IS SHIPWRECKED · JULIA RECEIVES A LETTER FROM HIM

Iam Pūblius1 decem annōs habēbat cum M. Cornēlius Lentulus, pater eius, quī quīnque annōs2 grave bellum in Asiā gerēbat, non sine glōriā domum3 revertēbātur. Namque multa secunda proelia fēcerat, maximās hostium cōpiās dēlēverat, multās urbīs populo4 Rōmānō inimīcās cēperat. Primum nūntius pervēnit quī ā Lentulō5 missus erat6 ut profectiōnem suam nūntiāret. Deinde plūrīs diēs7 reditum virī optimī māter fīliusque exspectābant et animīs8 sollicitis deōs immortālīs frūstrā colēbant. Tum dēmum hās litterās summo cum gaudiō accēpērunt:

9“Mārcus Iūliae suac salūtem dīcit. Sī valēs, bene est; ego valeō. Ex Graeciā, quō10 praeter spem et opīniōnem hodiē pervēnī, hās litterās ad tē scribō. Namque nāvis nostra frācta est; nōs autem—11dīs est gratia—incolumes sumus. Ex Asiae12 portū nāvem lēnī ventō solvimus. Postquam13 altum mare tenuimus 14nec iam ūllae terrae appāruērunt, caelum undique et undique fluctūs, subitō magna tempestās coorta est et nāvem vehementissimē adflīxit. Ventīs fluctibusque adflīctātī15 nec sōlem discernere nec cursum tenēre poterāmus et omnia praesentem mortem intentābant. Trīs diēs16 et trīs noctīs16 sine rēmīs vēlīsque agimur. Quārtō diē17 prīmum terra vīsa est et violenter in saxa, quae nōn longē ā lītore aberant, dēiectī sumus. Tum vērō maiōra perīcula timēbāmus; sed nauta quīdam, vir fortissimus, ex nāve in fluctūs īrātōs dēsiluit 18ut fūnem ad lītus portāret; quam rem summō labōre vix effēcit. Ita omnēs servātī sumus. Grātiās igitur et honōrem Neptūnō dēbēmus, quī deus nōs ē perīculō ēripuit. Nunc Athēnīs19 sum, quō cōnfūgī ut mihi paucās hōrās ad quiētem darem.20 Quam prīmum autem aliam nāvem condūcam ut iter ad Italiam reliquum cōnficiam et domum21 ad meōs cārōs revertar. Salūtā nostrum Pūblium amīcissimē et valētūdinem tuam cūrā dīligenter. 22Kalendīs Mārtiīs.”

1. was ten years old.
2. annōs, § 501. 21.
3. domum, § 501. 20.
4. populō, dat. with inimīcās, cf. § 501. 16.
5. Lentulō, § 501. 33.
6. ut ... nūntiāret, § 501. 40.
7. diēs, cf. annōs, 1. 9.
8. animīs, abl. of manner. Do you see one in line 15?
9. This is the usual form for the beginning of a Latin letter. First we have the greeting, and then the expression Sī valēs, etc. The date of the letter is usually given at the end, and also the place of writing, if not previously mentioned in the letter.
10. quō, where.
11. dīs est grātia, thank God, in our idiom.
12. Asia refers to the Roman province of that name in Asia Minor.
13. altum mare tenuimus, we were well out to sea.
14. nec iam, and no longer.
16. adflīctātī, perf. passive part. tossed about.
16. What construction?
17. diē, § 501. 35.
18. ut ... portāret, § 501. 40.
19. Athēnīs, § 501. 36. 1.
20. darem, cf. portāret, l. 6.
21. Why not ad domum?
22. Kalendīs Mārtiīs, the Calends or first of March; abl. of time, giving the date of the letter.
LXIV. LENTULUS REACHES HOME · PUBLIUS VISITS POMPEII WITH HIS FATHER

Post paucōs diēs nāvis M. Cornēlī Lentulī portum Mīsēnī1 petiit, quī portus nōn longē ā Pompēiīs situs est; quō in portū classis Rōmānā pōnēbātur et ad pugnās nāvālīs ōrnābātur. Ibi nāvēs omnium generum cōnspicī poterant. Iamque incrēdibilī celeritāte nāvis longa quā Lentulus vehēbātur lītorī adpropinquāvit; nam nōn sōlum ventō sed etiam rēmīs impellēbātur. In altā puppe stābat gubernātor et nōn procul aliquī mīlitēs Rōmānī cum armīs splendidīs, inter quōs clārissimus erat Lentulus. Deinde servī rēmīs contendere cessāvērunt2; nautae vēlum contrāxērunt et ancorās iēcērunt. Lentulus statim ē nāvī ēgressus est et3 ad villam suam properāvit. Eum Iūlia, Pūblius, tōtaque familia excēpērunt. 4Quī complexūs, quanta gaudia fuērunt!

Postrīdiē eius diēī Lentulus fīliō suō dīxit, “Venī, mī Pūblī, mēcum. Pompēiōs iter hodiē faciam. Māter tua suādet5 ut frūctūs et cibāria emam. Namque plūrīs amīcōs ad cēnam vocāvimus et multīs rēbus6 egēmus. Ea hortātur ut quam prīmum proficīscāmur.” “Libenter, mī pater,” inquit Pūblius. “Tēcum esse mihi semper est grātum; nec Pompēiōs umquam vīdī. Sine morā proficīscī parātus sum.” Tum celeriter currum cōnscendērunt et ad urbis mūrōs vectī sunt. Stabiānā portā7 urbem ingressī sunt. Pūblius strātās viās mīrātur et saxa altiōra quae in mediō disposita erant et altās orbitās quās rotae inter haec saxa fēcerant. Etiam strepitum mīrātur, multitūdinem, carrōs, fontīs, domōs, tabernās, forum8 cum statuīs, templīs, reliquīsque aedificiīs pūblicīs.

1. Misenum had an excellent harbor, and under the emperor Augustus became the chief naval station of the Roman fleet. See map of Italy.
2. Why is the infinitive used with cessāvērunt?
3. See Plate I, Frontispiece.
4. Observe that these words are exclamatory.
5. What construction follows suādeō? § 501. 41.
6. rēbus, § 501. 32.
7. This is the abl. of the way by which motion takes place, sometimes called the abl. of route. The construction comes under the general head of the abl. of means. For the scene here described, see Plate II, p. 53, and notice especially the stepping-stones for crossing the street (saxa quae in mediō disposita erant).
8. The forum of Pompeii was surrounded by temples, public halls, and markets of various sorts. Locate Pompeii on the map.
LXV. A DAY AT POMPEII

Apud forum ē currū dēscendērunt et Lentulus dīxit, “Hīc sunt multa tabernārum genera, mī Pūblī. Ecce, trāns viam est popīna! 1Hoc genus tabernārum cibāria vēndit. Frūctūs quoque ante iānuam stant. Ibi cibāria mea emam.” “Optimē,” respondit Pūblius. “At ubi, mī pater, crūstula emere possumus? Namque māter nōbīs imperāvit 2ut haec quoque parārēmus. Timeō ut3 ista popīna vēndat crūstula.” “Bene dīcis,” inquit Lentulus. “At nōnne vidēs illum fontem ā dextrā ubi aqua per leōnis caput fluit? In illō ipsō locō est taberna pīstōris quī sine dubiō vēndit crūstula.”

Brevī tempore4 omnia erant parāta, iamque 5quīnta hōra erat. Deinde Lentulus et fīlius ad caupōnam properāvērunt, quod famē6 et sitī7 urgēbantur. Ibi sub arboris umbrā sēdērunt et puerō imperāvērunt ut sibi8 cibum et vīnum daret. Huic imperiō9 puer celeriter pāruit. Tum laetī sē10 ex labōre refēcērunt.

Post prandium prefectī sunt ut alia urbis spectācula vidērent. Illō tempore fuērunt Pompēiīs11 multa templa, duo theātra, thermae magnumque amphitheātrum, quae omnia post paucōs annōs flammīs atque incendiīs Vesuvī et terrae mōtū dēlēta sunt. Ante hanc calamitātem autem hominēs 1nihil dē monte veritī sunt. In amphitheātrō quidem Pūblius morārī cupīvit ut spectācula gladiātōria vidēret, quae in13 illum ipsum diem prōscrīpta erant et iam 15rē vērā incēperant. Sed Lentulus dīxit, “Morārī, Pūblī, 16vereor ut possīmus. Iam decima hōra est et via est longa. Tempus suādet ut quam prīmum domum revertāmur.” Itaque servō imperāvit ut equōs iungeret, et sōlis occāsū16 ad vīllam pervēnērunt.

1. We say, this kind of shop; Latin, this kind of shops.
2. ut ... parārēmus, § 501. 41.
3. How is ut translated after a verb of fearing? How ? Cf. § 501. 42.
4. tempore, § 501. 35.
5. quīnta hōra. The Romans numbered the hours of the day consecutively from sunrise to sunset, dividing the day, whether long or short, into twelve equal parts.
6. famē shows a slight irregularity in that the abl. ending -e is long.
7. sitis, thirst, has -im in the acc. sing., in the abl. sing., and no plural.
8. Observe that the reflexive pronoun sibi does not here refer to the subject of the subordinate clause in which it stands, but to the subject of the main clause. This so-called indirect use of the reflexive is often found in object clauses of purpose.
9. What case? Cf. § 501. 14.
10. , cf. p. 205, l. 7, and note.
11. Pompēiīs, § 501. 36. 1.
12. nihil ... veritī sunt, had no fears of the mountain.
13. in, for.
14. rē vērā, in fact.
15. vereor ut, § 501. 42.
16. occāsū, § 501. 35.
LXVI. LENTULUS ENGAGES A TUTOR FOR HIS SON

Ā prīmīs annīs quidem Iūlia ipsa fīlium suum docuerat, et Pūblius nōn sōlum 1pūrē et Latīnē loquī poterat sed etiam commodē legēbat et scrībēbat. Iam Ennium2 aliōsque poētās lēgerat. Nunc vērō Pūblius 3duodecim annōs habēbat; itaque eī pater bonum magistrum, 4virum omnī doctrīnā et virtūte ōrnātissimum, parāvit, 5quī Graeca, mūsicam, aliāsque artīs docēret. 6Namque illīs temporibus omnēs ferē gentēs Graecē loquēbantur. Cum Pūbliō aliī puerī, Lentulī amīcōrum fīliī,7 discēbant. Nam saepe apud Rōmānōs mōs erat 8nōn in lūdum fīliōs mittere sed domī per magistrum docēre. Cotīdiē discipulī cum magistrō in peristȳlō9 Mārcī domūs sedēbant. Omnēs puerī bullam auream, orīginis honestae signum, in collō gerēbant, et omnēs togā praetextā amictī erant, 10quod nōndum sēdecim annōs11 nātī sunt.

1. pūrē ... poterat, freely, could speak Latin well. What is the literal translation?
2. Ennium, the father of Latin poetry.
3. duodecim ... habēbat, cf. p. 206, l. 8, and note.
4. virum, etc., a very well-educated and worthy man. Observe the Latin equivalent.
5. quī ... docēret, a relative clause of purpose. Cf. §§ 349, 350.
6. In Cæsar’s time Greek was spoken more widely in the Roman world than any other language.
7. fīliī, in apposition with puerī.
8. nōn ... mittere. This infinitive clause is the subject of erat. Cf. § 216. The same construction is repeated in the next clause, domī ... docēre. The object of docēre is fīliōs understood.
9. The peristyle was an open court surrounded by a colonnade.
10. At the age of sixteen a boy laid aside the bulla and the toga praetexta and assumed toga virīlis or manly gown.
11. annōs, § 501. 21. The expression nōndum sēdecim annōs nātī sunt means literally, they were born not yet sixteen years. This is the usual expression for age. What is the English equivalent?
SCENE IN SCHOOL · AN EXERCISE IN COMPOSITION

woman with tablet and stylus
TABULA ET STILUS

Discipulī. Salvē, magister.

Magister. Vōs quoque omnēs, salvēte. 1Tabulāsne portāvistis et stilōs?

D. Portāvimus.

M. Iam fābulam Aesōpī2 discēmus. Ego legam, vōs in tabulīs scrībite. Et tū, Pūblī, dā mihi ē capsā3 Aesōpī volūmen.4 Iam audīte omnēs: Vulpēs et Ūva.

Vulpēs ōlim famē coācta ūvam dēpendentem vīdit. Ad ūvam saliēbat, sūmere cōnāns. Frūstrā diū cōnāta, tandem īrāta erat et salīre cessāns dīxit: “Illa ūva est acerba; acerbam ūvam 5nihil moror.”

Omnia´ne scrīpsistis, puerī?

D. Omnia, magister.

1. Tablets were thin boards of wood smeared with wax. The writing was done with a stylus, a pointed instrument like a pencil, made of bone or metal, with a knob at the other end. The knob was used to smooth over the wax in making erasures and corrections.
2. Aesōpī, the famous Greek to whom are ascribed most of the fables current in the ancient world.
3. A cylindrical box for holding books and papers, shaped like a hatbox.
4. Ancient books were written on rolls made of papy´rus.
5. nihil moror, I care nothing for.
LXVII. PUBLIUS GOES TO ROME TO FINISH HIS EDUCATION

Iamque Pūblius, 1quīndecim annōs nātus, 2prīmīs litterārum elementīs cōnfectīs, Rōmam petere voluit ut scholās grammaticōrum et philosophōrum frequentāret. Et facillimē patrī3 suō, qui ipse philosophiae studiō tenēbātur, persuāsit. Itaque 4omnibus rēbus ad profectiōnem comparātīs, pater fīliusque equīs animōsīs vectī5 ad magnam urbem profectī sunt. Eōs proficīscentīs Iūlia tōtaque familia vōtīs precibusque prōsecūtae sunt. Tum per loca6 plāna et collis silvīs vestītōs viam ingressī sunt ad Nōlam, quod oppidum eōs hospitiō modicō excēpit. Nōlae7 duās hōrās morātī sunt, quod sōl merīdiānus ārdēbat. Tum rēctā viā8 circiter vīgintī mīlia9 passuum9 Capuam,9 ad īnsignem Campāniae urbem, contendērunt. Eō10 multā nocte dēfessī pervēnērunt. 11Postrīdiē eius diēī, somnō et cibō recreātī, Capuā discessērunt et 13viam Appiam ingressī, quae Capuam tangit et ūsque ad urbem Rōmam dūcit, ante merīdiem Sinuessam pervēnērunt, quod oppidum tangit mare. Inde prīmā lūce proficīscentēs Formiās13 properāvērunt, ubi Cicerō, ōrātor clarissimus, quī forte apud vīllam suam erat, eōs benignē excēpit. Hinc 14itinere vīgintī quīnque mīlium passuum factō, Tarracīnam, oppidum in saxīs altissimīs situm, vīdērunt. Iamque nōn longē aberant palūdēs magnae, quae multa mīlia passuum undique patent. Per eās pedestris via est gravis et in nāve viātōrēs vehuntur. Itaque 15equīs relictīs Lentulus et Pūblius nāvem cōnscendērunt, et, ūnā nocte in trānsitū cōnsūmptā, Forum Appī vēnērunt. Tum brevī tempore Arīcia eōs excēpit. Hoc oppidum, in colle situm, ab urbe Romā sēdecim mīlia passuum abest. Inde dēclivis via ūsque ad latum campum dūcit ubi Rōma stat. Quem ad locum ubi Pūblius vēnit et Rōmam adhūc remōtam, maximam tōtīus orbis terrārum urbem, cōnspēxit, summā admīrātiōne et gaudiō adfectus est. Sine morā dēscendērunt, et, mediō intervāllō quam celerrimē superātō, urbem portā Capēnā ingressī sunt.

1. quīndecim, etc., cf. p. 210, l. 5, and note.
2. prīmīs ... cōnfectīs, abl. abs. Cf. § 501. 28.
3. patrī, dat. with persuāsit.
4. omnibus ... comparātīs, cf. note 2.
5. vectī, perf. pass. part. of vehō.
6. What is there peculiar about the gender of this word?
7. Nōlae, locative case, § 501. 36.2.
8. viā, cf. portā, p. 208, l. 7, and note.
9. What construction?
10. , adv. there.
11. Postrīdiē eius diēī, on the next day.
12. viam Appiam, the most famous of all Roman roads, the great highway from Rome to Tarentum and Brundisium, with numerous branches. Locate on the map the various towns that are mentioned in the lines that follow.
13. Formiās, Formiæ, one of the most beautiful spots on this coast, and a favorite site for the villas of rich Romans.
14. itinere ... factō, abl. abs. The gen. mīlium modifies itinere.
15. equīs relictīs. What construction? Point out a similar one in the next line.
LXVIII. PUBLIUS PUTS ON THE TOGA VIRILIS

Bulla
BULLA

Pūblius iam tōtum annum Rōmae morābātur1 multaque urbis spectācula vīderat et multōs sibi2 amīcōs parāverat. Eī3 omnēs favēbant; 4dē eō omnēs bene spērāre poterant. Cotīdiē Pūblius scholas philosophōrum et grammaticōrum tantō studiō frequentābat 5ut aliīs clārum exemplum praebēret. Saepe erat cum patre in cūriā6; quae rēs effēcit 7ut summōs reī pūblicae virōs et audīret et vidēret. Ubi 8sēdecim annōs natus est, bullam9 auream et togam praetextam mōre Rōmānō dēposuit atque virīlem togam sūmpsit. Virīlis autem toga erat omnīnō alba, sed praetexta clāvum purpureum in margine habēbat. 10Dēpōnere togam praetextam et sūmere togam virīlem erat rēs grātissima puerō Rōmānō, quod posteā vir et cīvis Rōmānus habēbātur.

11Hīs rēbus gestīs Lentulus ad uxōrem suam hās litterās scrīpsit:

12“Mārcus Iūliae suae salūtem dīcit. Sī valēs, bene est; ego valeō. Accēpī tuās litterās. Hās nunc Rōmā per servum fidēlissimum mittō ut dē Pūbliō nostrō quam celerrimē sciās. Nam hodiē eī togam virīlem dedī. Ante lucem surrēxī13 et prīmum bullam auream dē collō eius remōvī. Hāc Laribus14 cōnsecrātā et sacrīs factīs, eum togā virīlī vestīvī. Interim plūrēs amīcī cum multitūdine optimōrum cīvium et honestōrum clientium pervēnerant 15quī Pūblium domō in forum dēdūcerent. Ibi in cīvitātem receptus est et nōmen, Pūblius Cornēlius Lentulus, apud cīvīs Rōmānōs ascrīptum est. Omnēs eī amīcissimī fuērunt et magna16 de eō praedīcunt. Sapientior enim aequālibus17 est et magnum ingenium habet. 18Cūrā ut valeās.”

1. morābātur, translate as if pluperfect.
2. sibi, for himself.
3. , why dat.?
4. dē ... poterant, in English, all regarded him as a very promising youth; but what does the Latin say?
5. ut ... praebēret, § 501. 43.
6. cūriā, a famous building near the Roman Forum.
7. ut ... audīret et vidēret, § 501. 44.
8. sēdecim, etc., cf. p. 210, l. 5, and note.
9. bullam, cf. p. 210, l. 3, and note 4.
10. These infinitive clauses are the subject of erat. Cf. § 216.
11. Hīs rēbus gestīs, i.e. the assumption of the toga virilis and attendant ceremonies.
12. Compare the beginning of this letter with the one on page 206.
13. surrēxī, from surgō.
14. The Lares were the spirits of the ancestors, and were worshiped as household gods. All that the house contained was confided to their care, and sacrifices were made to them daily.
15. quī ... dēdūcerent, § 350.
16. magna, great things, a neuter adj. used as a noun.
17. aequālibus, § 501. 34.
18. Cūrā ut valeās, take good care of your health. How does the Latin express this idea?
LXIX. PUBLIUS JOINS CÆSAR’S ARMY IN GAUL

Pūblius iam adulēscēns postquam togam virīlem sūmpsit, aliīs rēbus studēre incēpit et praesertim ūsū1 armōrum sē2 dīligenter exercuit. Magis magisque amāvit illās artīs quae mīlitārem animum dēlectant. Iamque erant 3quī eī cursum mīlitārem praedīcerent. Nec sine causā, quod certē patris īsigne exemplum 4ita multum trahēbat. 5Paucīs ante annīs C. Iūlius Caesar, ducum Rōmānōrum maximus, cōnsul creātus erat et hōc tempore in Galliā bellum grave gerēbat. Atque in exercitū eius plūrēs adulēscentēs mīlitābant, apud quōs erat amīcus quīdam Pūblī. Ille Pūblium crēbrīs litterīs vehementer hortābātur 6ut iter in Galliam faceret. Neque Pūblius recūsāvit, et, multīs amīcīs ad portam urbis prōsequentibus, ad Caesaris castra profectus est. Quārtō diē postquam iter ingressus est, ad Alpīs, montīs altissimōs, pervēnit. Hīs summā difficultāte superātīs, tandem Gallōrum in fīnibus erat. Prīmō autem veritus est ut7 castrīs Rōmānīs adpropinquāre posset, quod Gallī, maximīs cōpiīs coāctīs, Rōmānōs obsidēbant et viās omnīs iam clauserant. Hīs rēbus commōtus Pūblius vestem Gallicam induit nē ā Gallīs caperētur, et ita per hostium cōpiās incolumis ad castra pervenīre potuit. Intrā mūnītiōnes acceptus, ā Caesare benignē exceptus est. Imperātor fortem adulēscentem amplissimīs verbīs laudāvit et eum 8tribūnum mīlītum creāvit.

1. Abl. of means.
2. , reflexive object of exercuit.
3. quī ... praedīcerent, § 501. 45.
4. ita multum trahēbat, had a great influence in that direction.
5. Paucīs ante annīs, a few years before; in Latin, before by a few years, ante being an adverb and annīs abl. of degree of difference.
6. ut ... faceret, § 501. 41.
7. ut, how translated here? See § 501. 42.
8. The military tribune was a commissioned officer nearly corresponding to our rank of colonel. The tribunes were often inexperienced men, so Cæsar did not allow them much responsibility.

military baggage
IMPEDIMENTA

HOW THE ROMANS MARCHED AND CAMPED

Exercitus quī in hostium fīnibus bellum genit multīs perīcuīs circumdatus est. 1Quae perīcula ut vītāret, Rōmāni summam cūram adhībēre solēbant. Adpropinquanteēs cōpiīs hostium agmen ita dispōnēbant 2ut imperātor ipse cum plāribus legiōnibus expedītīs3 prīmum agmen dūceret. Post eās cōpiās impedīmenta4 tōtīus exercitūs conlocābant. 5Tum legiōnēs quae proximē cōnscrīptae erant tōtum agmen claudēbant. Equitēs quoque in omnīs partīs dīmittēbantur quī loca explōrārent; et centuriōnēs praemittēbantur ut locum castrīs idōneum dēligerent. Locus habēbatur idōneus castrīs 6quī facile dēfendī posset et prope aquam esset. Quā dē causā castra7 in colle ab utrāque parte arduō, ā fronte lēniter dēclīvī saepe pōnēbantur; vel locus palūdibus cīnctus vel in flūminis rīpīs situs dēligēbātur. Ad locum postquam exercitus pervēnit, aliī mīlitum 8in armīs erant, aliī castra mūnīre incipiēbant. Nam 9quō tūtiōrēs ab hostibus mīlitēs essent, nēve incautī et imparātī opprimerentur, castra fossā lātā et vāllō altō mūniēbant. In castrīs portae quattuor erant ut ēruptiō mīlitum omnīs in partīs fierī posset. In angulīs castrōrum erant turrēs dē quibus tēla in hostīs coniciēbantur. 10Tālibus in castrīs quālia dēscrīpsimus Pūblius ā Caesare exceptus est.

1. Quae perīcula, object of vītārent. It is placed first to make a proper connection with the preceding sentence.
2. ut ... dūceret, § 501. 43.
3. expedītīs, i.e. without baggage and ready for action.
4. impedīmenta. Much of the baggage was carried in carts and on beasts of burden, as is shown above; but, besides this, each soldier (unless expedītus) carried a heavy pack. See also picture, p. 159.
5. The newest legions were placed in the rear, because they were the least reliable.
6. quī ... posset ... esset, § 501. 45.
7. castra, subject of pōnēbantur.
8. in armīs erant, stood under arms.
9. quō ... essent. When is quō used to introduce a purpose clause? See § 350. I.
10. Tālibus in castrīs quālia, in such a camp as. It is important to remember the correlatives tālis ... quālis, such ... as.
LXX. THE RIVAL CENTURIONS

centurion
CENTURIO

Illīs in castrīs erant duo centuriōnēs,1 fortissimī virī, T. Pullō et L. Vorēnus, quōrum neuter alterī virtūte2 cēdere volēbat. Inter eōs iam multōs annōs īnfēnsum certāmen gerēbātur. Tum dēmum fīnis contrōversiae hōc modō3 factus est. Diē tertiō postquam Pūblius pervēnit, hostēs, maiōribus cōpiīs coāctīs, ācerrimum impetum in castra fēcērunt. Tum Pullō, 4cum Rōmānī tardiōrēs5 vidērentur, “Cūr dubitās,” inquit, “Vorēne? Quam commodiōrem occāsiōnem exspectās? Hic diēs dē virtūte nostrā iūdicābit.” Haec6 cum dīxisset, extrā mūnītiōnēs prōcessit et in eam hostium partem quae cōfertissima 7vidēbātur inrūpit. Neque Vorēnus quidem tum vāllō8 sēsē continet, sed Pullōnem subsequitur. Tum Pullō pīlum in hostīs immittit atque ūnum ex multitūdine prōcurrentem trāicit. Hunc percussum et exanimātum hostēs scūtīs prōtegunt et in Pullōnem omnēs tēla coniciunt. Eius scūtum trānsfīgitur et tēlum in balteō dēfīgitur. Hic cāsus vāgīnam āvertit et dextram manum eius gladium ēdūcere cōnantis9 morātur. Eum ita impedītum hostēs circumsistunt.

Tum vēro 10eī labōrantī Vorēnus, cum sit inimīcus, tamen auxilium dat. Ad hunc cōnfestim 11ā Pullōne omnis multitūdō sē convertit. Gladiō comminus pugnat Vorēnus, atque, ūnō interfectō, reliquōs paulum prōpellit. Sed īnstāns cupidius12 īnfēlīx, 13pede sē fallente, concidit.

Huic rūrsus circumventō auxilium dat Pullō, atque ambō incolumēs, plūribus interfectīs, summā cum laude intrā mūnītiōnēs sē recipiunt. Sic inimīcōrum alter alterī auxilium dedit nec de eōrum virtūte quisquam iūdicāre potuit.

1. A centurion commanded a company of about sixty men. He was a common soldier who had been promoted from the ranks for his courage and fighting qualities. The centurions were the real leaders of the men in battle. There were sixty of them in a legion. The centurion in the picture (p. 216) has in his hand a staff with a crook at one end, the symbol of his authority.
2. virtūte, § 501. 30.
3. Abl. of manner.
4. cum ... vidērentur, § 501. 46.
5. tardiōrēs, too slow, a not infrequent translation of the comparative degree.
6. Haec, obj. of dīxisset. It is placed before cum to make a close connection with the preceding sentence. What is the construction of dīxisset?
7. vidēbatur, inrūpit. Why is the imperfect used in one case and the perfect in the other? Cf. § 190.
8. vāllō, abl. of means, but in English we should say within the rampart. Cf. ingentī stabulō, p. 201, l. 13, and note.
9. cōnantis, pres. part. agreeing with eius.
10. eī labōrantī, indir. obj. of dat.
11. ā Pullōne, from Pullo, abl. of separation.
12. cupidius, too eagerly.
13. pede sē fallente, lit. the foot deceiving itself; in our idiom, his foot slipping.
LXXI. THE ENEMY BESIEGING THE CAMP ARE REPULSED

Cum iam sex hōrās pugnatum esset1 ac nōn sōlum vīrēs sed etiam tēla Rōmānōs dēficerent1, atque hostēs ācrius instārent,1 et vāllum scindere fossamque complēre incēpissent,1 Caesar, vir reī mīlitāris perītissimus, suīs imperāvit ut proelium paulisper intermitterent,2 et, signō datō, ex castrīs ērumperent.2 3Quod iussī sunt faciunt, et subitō ex omnibus portīs ērumpunt. Atque tam celeriter mīlitēs concurrērunt et tam propinquī erant hostēs4 ut spatium pīla coniciendī5 nōn darētur. Itaque reiectīs pīlīs 6comminus gladiīs pugnātum est. Diū et audācter hostēs restitērunt et in extrēmā spē salūtis tantam virtūtem praestitērunt ut ā dextrō cornū vehementer 7multitūdine suōrum aciem Rōmanam premerent. 8Id imperātor cum animadvertisset, Pūblium adulēscentem cum equitātū mīsit quī labōrantibus9 auxilium daret. Eius impetum sustinēre nōn potuērunt hostēs10 et omnēs terga vertērunt. Eōs in fugam datōs Pūblius subsecūtus est ūsque ad flūmen Rhēnum, quod ab eō locō quīnque mīlia passuum aberat. Ibi paucī salūtem sibi repperērunt. Omnibus reliquīs interfectīs, Pūblius et equitēs in castra sēsē recēpērunt. Dē hāc calamitāte fīnitimae gentēs cum certiōrēs factae essent, ad Caesarem lēgātōs mīsērunt et sē suaque omnia dēdidērunt.

1. pugnātum esset, dēficerent, īnstārent, incēpissent. These are all subjunctives with cum. Cf. § 501. 46.
2. intermitterent, ērumperent. What use of the subjunctive?
3. Quod, etc., they do as ordered. The antecedent of quod is id understood, which would be the object of faciunt.
4. ut ... darētur. Is this a clause of purpose or of result?
5. coniciendī, § 402.
6. comminus gladiīs pugnātum est, a hand-to-hand conflict was waged with swords.
7. multitūdine suōrum, by their numbers. suōrum is used as a noun. What is the literal translation of this expression?
8. Id imperātor. Id is the obj. and imperātor the subj. of animadvertisset.
9. labōrantibus. This participle agrees with iīs understood, the indir. obj. of daret; qui ... daret is a purpose clause, § 501. 40.
10. hostēs, subj. of potuērunt.
LXXII. PUBLIUS GOES TO GERMANY · ITS GREAT FORESTS AND STRANGE ANIMALS

Initā aestāte Caesar litterīs certior fīēbat et per explōrātōrēs cognōscēbat plūrīs cīvitātēs Galliae novīs rēbus studēre,1 et contrā populum Rōmānum coniūrāre1 obsidēsque 2inter sē dare,1 atque cum hīs Germānōs quōsdam quoque sēsē coniūnctūrōs esse.1 Hīs litterīs nūntiīsque commōtus Caesar cōnstituit quam celerrimē in Gallōs proficīscī,3 ut eōs inopīnantīs opprimeret, et Labiēnum lēgātum cum duābus legiōnibus peditum et duōbus mīlibus equitum in Germānōs mittere.3 4Itaque rē frūmentāriā comparātā castra mōvit. Ab utrōque5 rēs bene gesta est; nam Caesar tam celeriter in hostium fīnīs pervēnit ut spatium 6cōpiās cōgendī nōn darētur7; et Labiēnus dē Germānīs tam grave supplicium sūmpsit ut nēmō ex eā gente in reliquum tempus Gallīs auxilium dare audēret.7

Hoc iter in Germāniam Pūblius quoque fēcit et, 8cum ibi morārētur, multa mīrābilia vīdit. Praesertim vērō ingentem silvam mīrābātur, quae tantae magnitūdinis esse dīcēbātur 9ut nēmō eam trānsīre posset, nec quisquam scīret aut initium aut fīnem. Quā dē rē plūra cognōverat ā mīlite quōdam quī ōlim captus ā Germānīs multōs annōs ibi incoluit. Ille10 dē silvā dīcēns, “Īnfīnītae magnitūdinis est haec silva,” inquit; “nee quisquam est 11huius Germāniae 12quī initium eius sciat aut ad fīnem adierit. Nāscuntur illīc multa tālia animālium genera quālia reliquīs in locīs nōn inveniuntur. Sunt bovēs quī ūnum13 cornū habent; sunt etiam animālia quae appellantur alcēs. Hae nūllōs crūrum14 articulōs habent. Itaque, sī forte concidērunt, sēsē ērigere nūllō modō possunt. Arborēs habent prō15 cubīlibus; ad eās sē applicant atque ita reclīnātae quiētem capiunt. Tertium est genus eōrum quī ūrī appellantur. Hī sunt paulō minōrēs elephantīs.16 Magna vis eōrum est et magna vēlōcitās. Neque hominī neque ferae parcunt.17

1. Observe that all these infinitives are in indirect statements after certior fīēbat, he was informed, and cognōscēbat, he learned. Cf. § 501.48, 49.
2. inter sē, to each other.
3. proficīscī, mittere. These infinitives depend upon cōnstituit.
4. Before beginning a campaign, food had to be provided. Every fifteen days grain was distributed. Each soldier received about two pecks. This he carried in his pack, and this constituted his food, varied occasionally by what he could find by foraging.
5. Abl. of personal agent, § 501. 33.
6. cōpiās cōgendī, § 501. 37. 1.
7. darētur, audēret, § 501. 43. audēret is not from audiō.
8. cum ... morārētur, § 501. 46.
9. ut ... posset, ... scīret, § 501. 43.
10. Ille, subj. of inquit.
11. huius Germāniae, of this part of Germany.
12. quī ... scīat ... adierit, § 501. 45.
13. ūnum, only one.
14. crūrum, from crūs.
15. prō, for, in place of.
16. elephantīs, § 501. 34.
17. parcunt. What case is used with this verb?
LXXIII. THE STORMING OF A CITY

Pūblius plūrīs diēs in Germāniā morātus1 in Galliam rediit, et ad Caesaris castra sē contulit. Ille quia molestē ferēbat Gallōs2 eius regiōnis obsidēs dare recūsāvisse et exercituī frūmentum praebēre nōluisse, cōnstituit eīs3 bellum īnferre. Agrīs vāstātīs, vīcīs incēnsīs, pervēnit ad oppidum validissimum quod et nātūrā et arte mūnītum erat. Cingēbātur mūrō vīgintī quīnque pedēs4 altō. Ā lateribus duōsitum, praeruptō fastīgiō ad plānitiem vergēgat; ā quārtō tantum5 latere aditus erat facilis. Hoc oppidum oppugnāre, 6cum opus esset difficillimum, tamen cōnstituit Caesar. Et castrīs mūnītīs Pūbliō negōtium dedit ut rēs 7ad oppugnandum necessāriās parāret.

siege shed
VINEA

Rōmānōrum autem oppugnātiō est haec.8 Prīmum turrēs aedificantur quibus mīlitēs in summum mūrum ēvādere possint9; vīneae10 fīunt quibus tēctī mīlitēs ad mūrum succēdant; pluteī11 parantur post quōs mīlitēs tormenta12 administrent; sunt quoque arietēs quī mūrum et portās discutiant. Hīs omnibus rēbus comparātīs, deinde 13agger ab eā parte ubi aditus est facillimus exstruitur et cum vīneīs ad ipsum oppidum agitur. Tum turris in aggere prōmovētur; arietibus quī sub vīneīs conlocātī erant mūrus et portae discutiuntur; ballistīs, catapultīs, reliquīsque tormentīs lapidēs et tēla in oppidum coniciuntur. Postrēmō cum iam turris et agger altitūdinem mūrī adaequant et arietēs moenia perfrēgērunt,14 signō datō mīlitēs inruunt et oppidum expugnant.

1. morātus. Is this part. active or passive in meaning?
2. Gallōs, subj. acc. of the infins. recūsāvisse and nōluisse. The indirect statement depends upon molestē ferēbat.
3. eīs, § 501. 15.
4. pedēs, § 501. 21.
5. tantum, adv. only.
6. cum ... esset, a clause of concession, § 501. 46.
7. ad oppugnandum, a gerund expressing purpose.
8. haec, as follows.
9. possint, subjv. of purpose. Three similar constructions follow.
10. vīneae. These vīneae were wooden sheds, open in front and rear, used to protect men who were working to take a fortification. They were about eight feet high, of like width, and double that length, covered with raw hides to protect them from being set on fire, and moved on wheels or rollers.
11. pluteī, large screens or shields with small wheels attached to them. These were used to protect besiegers while moving up to a city or while serving the engines of war.
12. tormenta. The engines of war were chiefly the catapult for shooting great arrows, and the ballista, for hurling large stones. They had a range of about two thousand feet and were very effective.
13. The agger, or mound, was of chief importance in a siege. It was begun just out of reach of the missiles of the enemy, and then gradually extended towards the point to be attacked. At the same time its height gradually increased until on a level with the top of the wall, or even higher. It was made of earth and timber, and had covered galleries running through it for the use of the besiegers. Over or beside the agger a tower was moved up to the wall, often with a battering-ram (aries) in the lowest story. (See picture, p. 221.)
14. perfrēgērunt, from perfringō.
LXXIV. THE CITY IS TAKEN · THE CAPTIVES ARE QUESTIONED

ballista
BALLISTA

Omnibus rēbus necessāriīs ad oppugnandum ā Pūbliō comparātīs, dēlīberātur in conciliō quod cōnsilium 1oppidī expugnandī ineant.2 Tum ūnus3 ex centuriōnibus, vir reī mīlitāris perītissimus, “Ego suādeō,” inquit, “ut ab eā parte, ubi aditus sit4 facillimus, aggerem exstruāmus5 et turrim prōmoveāmus5 atque ariete admōtō simul mūrum discutere cōnēmur.56Hoc cōnsilium cum omnibus placēret, Caesar concilium dīmīsit. Deinde mīlitēs hortātus ut priōrēs victōriās memoriā7 tenērent, iussit aggerem exstruī, turrim et arietem admovērī. Neque oppidānīs8 cōnsilium dēfuit. Aliī ignem et omne genus tēlōrum dē mūrō in turrim coniēcērunt, aliī ingentia saxa in vīneās et arietem dēvolvērunt. Diū utrimque ācerrimē pugnātum est. Nē vulnerātī quidem pedem rettulērunt. Tandem, 9dē tertiā vigiliā, Pūblius, quem Caesar illī operī10 praefēcerat, nūntiāvit partem11 mūrī ictibus arietis labefactam concidisse. Quā rē audītā Caesar signum dat; mīlitēs inruunt et magnā cum caede hostium oppidum capiunt.

1. oppidī expugnandī. Is this a gerund or a gerundive construction? Cf. § 501. 37.
2. ineant. § 501. 50.
3. ūnus. subj. of inquit.
4. sit. This is a so-called subjunctive by attraction, which means that the clause beginning with ubi stands in such close connection with the subjv. clause beginning with ut, that its verb is attracted into the same mood.
5. All these verbs are in the same construction.
6. Hoc cōnsilium, subj. of placēret. For the order cf. Haec cum, etc., p. 215, l. 22, and note; Id imperātor cum, p. 217, l. 8.
7. memoriā, abl. of means.
8. oppidānīs, § 501. 15.
9. Between twelve and three o’clock in the morning. The night was divided into four watches.
10. operī, § 501. 15.
11. partem, subj. acc. of concidisse.

siege towers, battering rams, siege shed
TURRES, ARIETES, VINEA

Postrīdiē eius diēī, hōc oppidō expugnātō, 12captīvōrum quī nōbilissimī sunt ad imperātōrem ante praetōrium13 addūcuntur. Ipse, lōrīcā aurātā et paludāmentō purpureō īnsignis, captīvōs per interpretem in hunc modum interrogat:14 Vōs quī estis15?

Interpres. Rogat imperātor quī sītis.

Captīvī. Fīliī rēgis sumus.

Interpres. Dīcunt sē fīliōs esse rēgis.

Imperātor. Cūr mihi tantās iniūriās intulistis?

Interpres. Rogat cūr sibi tantās iniūriās intuleritis.

Captīvī. Iniūriās eī nōn intulimus sed prō patriā bellum gessimus. Semper voluimus Rōmānīs esse amīcī, sed Rōmānī sine causā nōs domō patriāque expellere cōnātī sunt.

Interpres. 16Negant sē iniūriās tibi intulisse, sed prō patriā bellum gessisse. 17Semper sē voluisse amīcōs Rōmānīs esse, sed Rōmānōs sine causā sē domō patriāque expellere cōnātōs esse.

Imperātor. 18Manēbitisne in reliquum tempus in fidē, hāc rebelliōne condōnātā?

Tum vērō captīvī multīs cum lacrimīs iūrāvērunt sē in fidē mānsūrōs esse, et Caesar eōs incolumīs domum dīmīsit.

12. captīvōrum ... sunt, the noblest of the captives.
13. The general’s headquarters.
14. Study carefully these direct questions, indirect questions, and indirect statements.
15. See Plate III, p. 148.
16. Negant, etc., they say that they have not, etc. Negant is equivalent to dīcunt nōn, and the negative modifies intulisse, but not the remainder of the indirect statement.
17. Semper, etc., that they have always, etc.
18. Manēbitisne in fidē, will you remain loyal?
LXXV. CIVIL WAR BREAKS OUT BETWEEN CÆSAR AND POMPEY · THE BATTLE OF PHARSALIA

Nē cōnfectō1 quidem bellō Gallicō, 2bellum cīvīle inter Caesarem et Pompēium exortum est. Nam Pompēius, quī summum imperium petēbat, senātuī persuāserat ut Caesarem reī pūblicae hostem3 iūdicāret et exercitum eius dīmittī iubēret. Quibus cognitīs rēbus Caesar exercitum suum dīmittere recūsāvit, atque, hortātus mīlitēs ut ducem totiēns victōrem ab inimīcōrum iniūriīs dēfenderent, imperāvit ut sē Rōmam sequerentur. Summā cum alacritāte mīlitēs pāruērunt, et trānsitō Rubicōne4 initium bellī cīvīlis factum est.

Italiae urbēs quidem omnēs ferē 5rēbus Caesaris favēbant et eum benignē excēpērunt. Quā rē commōtus Pompēius ante Caesaris adventum Rōmā excessit et Brundisium6 pervēnit, inde 7paucīs post diēbus cum omnibus cōpiīs ad Ēpīrum mare trānsiit. Eum Caesar cum septem legiōnibus et quīngentīs equitibus secūtus est, et īnsignis inter Caesaris comitātum erat Pūblius.

Plūribus leviōribus proeliīs factīs, tandem cōpiae adversae ad Pharsālum8 in Thessaliā sitam castra posuērunt. Cum Pompeī exercitus esset bis tantus quantus Caesaris, tamen erant multī quī veterānās legiōnēs quae Gallōs et Germānōs superāverant vehementer timēbant. Quōs9 10ante proelium commissum Labiēnus11 lēgātus, quī ab Caesare nūper dēfēcerat, ita adlocūtus est: “12Nōlīte exīstimāre hunc esse exercitum veterānōrum mīlitum. Omnibus interfuī proeliīs13 neque temerē incognitam rem prōnūntiō. Perexigua pars illīus exercitūs quī Gallōs superāvit adhūc superest. Magna pars occīsa est, multī domum discessērunt, multī sunt relictī in Italiā. Hae cōpiae quās vidētis in 14citeriōre Galliā nūper cōnscrīptae sunt.” Haec15 cum dīxisset, iūrāvit sē nisi victōrem in castra nōn reversūrum esse. 16Hoc idem Pompēius et omnēs reliquī iūrāvērunt, et magnā spē et laetitiā, sīcut certam ad victōriam, cōpiae ē castrīs exiērunt.

Item Caesar, animō17 ad dīmicandum parātus, exercitum suum ēdūxit et septem cohortibus 18praesidiō castrīs relictīs cōpiās triplicī aciē īnstrūxit. Tum, mīlitibus studiō pugnae ārdentibus, tubā signum dedit. Mīlitēs prōcurrērunt et pīlīs missīs gladiōs strīnxērunt. Neque vērō virtūs hostibus dēfuit. Nam et tēla missa sustinuērunt et impetum gladiōrum excēpērunt et ōrdinēs cōnservāvērunt. Utrimque diū et ācriter pugnātum est nec quisquam pedem rettulit. Tum equitēs Pompēī aciem Caesaris circumīre cōnātī sunt. Quod19 ubi Caesar animadvertit, tertiam aciem,20 quae ad id tempus quiēta fuerat, prōcurrere iussit. Tum vērō integrōrum impetum21 dēfessī hostēs sustinēre nōn potuērunt et omnēs terga vertērunt. Sed Pompēius dē fortūnīs suīs dēspērāns sē in castra equō contulit, inde mox cum paucīs equitibus effūgit.

1. With nē ... quidem the emphatic word stands between the two.
2. The Civil War was caused by the jealousy and rivalry between Cæsar and Pompey. It resulted in the defeat and subsequent death of Pompey and the elevation of Cæsar to the lordship of the Roman world.
3. hostem, predicate accusative, § 501. 22.
4. The Rubicon was a small stream in northern Italy that marked the boundary of Cæsar’s province. By crossing it with an armed force Cæsar declared war upon Pompey and the existing government. Cæsar crossed the Rubicon early in the year 49 B.C.
5. rēbus Caesaris favēbant, favored Cæsar’s side. In what case is rēbus?
6. Brundisium, a famous port in southern Italy whence ships sailed for Greece and the East. See map.
7. paucīs post diēbus, a few days later; literally, afterguards by a few days. Cf. paucīs ante annīs, p. 213, l. 12, and note.
7. The battle of Pharsalia was fought on August 9, 48 B.C. In importance it ranks as one of the great battles of the world.
8. Quōs, obj. of adlocūtus est.
10. ante proelium commissum, before the beginning of the battle.
11. Labiēnus, Cæsar’s most faithful and skillful lieutenant in the Gallic War. On the outbreak of the Civil War, in 49 B.C., he deserted Cæsar and joined Pompey. His defection caused the greatest joy among the Pompeian party; but he disappointed the expectations of his new friends, and never accomplished anything of importance. He fought against his old commander in several battles and was slain at the battle of Munda in Spain, 45 B.C.
12. Nōlīte exīstimāre, don´t think.
13. proeliīs, § 501. 15.
14. citeriōre Galliā. This name is applied to Cisalpine Gaul, or Gaul south of the Alps.
15. Haec, obj. of dīxisset.
16. Hoc idem, obj. of iūrāvērunt.
17. animō, § 501. 30.
18. praesidiō castrīs, § 501. 17.
19. Quod, obj. of animadvertit.
20. aciem, subj. of prōcurrere.
21. impetum, obj. of sustinēre.
LXXVI. THE TRIUMPH OF CAESAR

standard-bearer
SIGNIFER

Pompēiō amīcīsque eius superātīs atque omnibus hostibus ubīque victīs, Caesar imperātor Rōmam rediit et 1extrā moenia urbis in campō Mārtiō castra posuit. Tum vērō amplissimīs honōribus adfectus est. Dictātor creātus est, et eī triumphus ā senātū est dēcrētus. 2Quō diē de Gallīs triumphum ēgit, tanta multitūdō hominum in urbem undique cōnflūxit 3ut omnia loca essent cōnferta. Templa patēbant, ārae fūmābant, columnae sertīs ōrnātae erant. 4Cum vērō pompa urbem intrāret, quantus hominum fremitus ortus est! Prīmum per portam ingressī sunt senātus et magistrātūs. Secūtī sunt tībīcinēs, signiferī, peditēs laureā corōnātī canentēs: “Ecce Caesar nunc triumphat, quī subēgit Galliam,” et “Mīlle, mīlle, mīlle, mīlle Gallōs trucīdāvimus.” Multī praedam captārum urbium portābant, arma, omnia bellī īnstrūmenta. Secūtī sunt equitēs, animōsīs atque splendidissimē ōrnātīs equīs vectī, inter quōs Pūblius adulēscēns fortissimus habēbātur. Addūcēbantur taurī, arietēs, 5quī dīs immortālibus immolārentur. Ita longō agmine prōgrediēns exercitus 6sacrā viā per forum in Capitōlium perrēxit.

lictors with fasces
LICTORES CUM FASCIBUS

Imperātor ipse cum urbem intrāret, undique laetō clāmōre multitūdinis salūtātus est. Stābat in currū aureō quem quattuor albī equī vehēbant. Indūtus 7togā pictā, alterā manū habēnās et lauream tenēbat, alterā eburneum scēptrum. Post eum servus in currū stāns auream corōnam super caput eius tenēbat. Ante currum miserrimī captīvī, rēgēs prīncipēsque superātārum gentium, catēnīs vīnctī, prōgrediēbantur; et vīgintī quattuor līctōrēs8 laureatās fascīs ferentēs et signiferī currum Caesaris comitābantur. Conclūdit agmen multitūdō captīvōrum, quī, in servitūtem redāctī,9 dēmissō vultū, vīnctīs10 bracchiīs, sequuntur; quibuscum veniunt longissimō ōrdine mīlitēs, etiam hī praedam vel insignia mīlitāria ferentēs.

Caesar cum Capitōlium ascendisset, in templō Iovī Capitōlīnō sacra fēcit. Simul11 captivōrum quī nōbilissimī erant, abductī in carcerem,12 interfectī sunt. Sacrīs factīs Caesar dē Capitōliō dēscendit et in forō mīitibus suīs honōrēs mīlitārīs dedit eīsque pecūniam ex bellī praedā distribuit.

Hīs omnibus rēbus cōnfectīs, Pūblius Caesarem valēre13 iussit et quam celerrimē ad vīllam contendit ut patrem mātremque salūtāret.

15Dē rēbus gestīs P. Cornēlī Lentulī hāctenus.

1. A victorious general with his army was not allowed to enter the city until the day of his triumph. A triumph was the greatest of all military honors.
2. Quō diē, on the day that, abl. of time.
3. ut ... essent, § 501. 43.
4. Cum ... intrāret, § 501. 46.
5. quī ... immolārentur, § 501. 40.
6. The Sacred Way was a noted street running along one side of the Forum to the base of the Capitoline Hill, on whose summit stood the magnificent temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. This route was always followed by triumphal processions.
7. The toga picta worn by a general in his triumph was a splendid robe of Tyrian purple covered with golden stars. See Plate IV, p. 213.
8. The lictors were a guard of honor that attended the higher magistrates and made a way for them through the streets. On their shoulders they carried the fasces, a bundle of rods with an ax in the middle, symbolizing the power of the law.
9. dēmissō vultū, with downcast countenance.
10. vīnctīs, from vinciō.
12. Simul, etc., At the same time those of the captives who were the noblest.
12. The prison was a gloomy dungeon on the lower slopes of the Capitoline Hill.
13. valēre iussit, bade farewell to.
14. This sentence marks the end of the story.

APPENDIX I

DECLENSIONS, CONJUGATIONS, NUMERALS, ETC.

NOUNS

460. Nouns are inflected in five declensions, distinguished by the final letter of the stem and by the termination of the genitive singular.

First Declension—Ā-stems, Gen. Sing. -ae

Second Declension—O-stems, Gen. Sing.

Third Declension—Consonant stems and I-stems, Gen. Sing. -is

Fourth Declension—U-stems, Gen. Sing. -ūs

Fifth Declension—Ē-stems, Gen. Sing. -ē̆ī

461. FIRST DECLENSION. Ā-STEMS

domina, lady   Stem dominā-   Base domin-
Singular Plural
TERMINATIONS TERMINATIONS
Nom. domina -a dominae -ae
Gen. dominae -ae dominārum -ārum
Dat. dominae -ae dominīs -īs
Acc. dominam -am dominās -ās
Abl. dominā dominīs -īs

a. Dea and fīlia have the termination -ābus in the dative and ablative plural.

462. SECOND DECLENSION. O-STEMS

a. Masculines in -us

dominus, master   Stem domino-   Base domin-
Singular Plural
TERMINATIONS TERMINATIONS
Nom. dominus -us dominī
Gen. dominī dominōrum -ōrum
Dat. dominō dominīs -īs
Acc. dominum -um dominōs -ōs
Abl. dominō dominīs -īs

1. Nouns in -us of the second declension have the termination -e´ in the vocative singular, as domine.

2. Proper names in -ius, and filius, end in in the vocative singular, and the accent rests on the penult, as Vergi´lī, fīlī.

b. Neuters in -um

pīlum, spear   Stem   pīlo- Base pīl-
Singular Plural
TERMINATIONS TERMINATIONS
Nom. pīlum -um pīla -a
Gen. pīlī pīlōrum -ōrum
Dat. pīlō pīlīs -īs
Acc. pīlum -um pīla -a
Abl. pīlō pīlīs -īs

1. Masculines in -ius and neuters in -ium end in in the genitive singular, not in -iī, and the accent rests on the penult.

c. Masculines in -er AND -ir

puer, boy ager, field vir, man
Stems puero- agro- viro-
Bases puer- agr- vir-
Singular TERMINATIONS
Nom. puer ager vir
Gen. puerī agrī virī
Dat. puerō agrō virō
Acc. puerum agrum virum -um
Abl. puerō agrō virō
Plural
Nom. puerī agrī virī
Gen. puerōrum agrōrum virōrum rum
Dat. puerīs agrīs virīs s
Acc. puerōs agrōs virōs s
Abl. puerīs agrīs virīs s

463. THIRD DECLENSION.

CLASSIFICATION I. Consonant Stems

1. Stems that add -s to the base to form the nominative singular: masculines and feminines only.

2. Stems that add no termination in the nominitive singular: a. masculines and feminines; b. neuters.

II. I-Stems. Masculines, feminines, and neuters.

464. I. CONSONANT STEMS

1. Nouns that add -s to the base to form the nominative singular: masculines and feminines only

prīnceps, m., chief mīles, m., soldier lapis, m., stone
Bases or
Stems
prīncip- mīlit- lapid-
Singular TERMINATIONS
Nom. prīnceps mīles lapis -s
Gen. prīn´cipis mīlitis lapidis -is
Dat. prīn´cipī mīlitī lapidī
Acc. prīn´cipem mīlitem lapidem -em
Abl. prīn´cipe mīlite lapide -e
Plural
Nom. prīn´cipēs mīlitēs lapidēs -ēs
Gen. prīn´cipum mīlitum lapidum -um
Dat. prīnci´pibus mīlitibus lapidibus -ibus
Acc. prīn´cipēs mīlitēs lapidēs -ēs
Abl. prīnci´pibus mīlitibus lapidibus -ibus
 
rēx, m., king iūdex, m., judge virtūs, f., manliness
Bases or
Stems
rēg- iūdic- virtūt-
Nom. rēx iūdex virtūs -s
Gen. rēgis iūdicis virtū´tis -is
Dat. rēgī iūdicī virtū´tī
Acc. rēgem iūdicem virtū´tem -em
Abl. rēge iūdice virtū´te -e
Plural
Nom. rēgēs iūdicēs virtū´tēs -ēs
Gen. rēgum iūdicum virtū´tum -um
Dat. rēgibus iūdicibus virtū´tibus -ibus
Acc. rēgēs iūdicēs virtū´tēs -ēs
Abl. rēgibus iūdicibus virtū´tibus -ibus

Note. For consonant changes in the nominative singular, cf. § 233. 3.

2. Nouns that have no termination in the nominative singular

a. Masculines and Feminines

cōnsul, m., consul legiō, f., legion ōrdō, m., row pater, m., father
Bases or
Stems
cōnsul- legiōn- ōrdin- patr-
Singular TERMINATIONS
Nom. cōnsul legiō ōrdō pater
Gen. cōnsulis legiōnis ōrdinis patris -is
Dat. cōnsulī legiōnī ōrdinī patrī
Acc. cōnsulem legiōnem ōrdinem patrem -em
Abl. cōnsule legiōne ōrdine patre -e
Plural
Nom. cōnsulēs legiōnēs ōrdinēs patrēs -ēs
Gen. cōnsulum legiōnum ōrdinum patrum -um
Dat. cōnsulibus legiōnibus ōrdinibus patribus -ibus
Acc. cōnsulēs legiōnēs ōrdinēs patrēs -ēs
Abl. cōnsulibus legiōnibus ōrdinibus patribus -ibus

Note. For vowel and consonant changes in the nominative singular, cf. § 236. 1-3.

b. Neuters

flūmen, n., river tempus, n., time opus, n., work caput, n., head
Bases or
Stems
flūmin- tempor- oper- capit-
Singular TERMINATIONS
Nom. flūmen tempus opus caput
Gen. flūminis temporis operis capitis -is -is
Dat. flūminī temporī operī capitī
Acc. flūmen tempus opus caput
Abl. flūmine tempore opere capite -e
Plural
Nom. flūmina tempora opera capita -a
Gen. flūminum temporum operum capitum -um
Dat. flūminibus temporibus operibus capitibus -ibus
Acc. flūmina tempora opera capita -a
Abl. flūminibus temporibus operibus capitibus -ibus

Note. For vowel and consonant changes in the nominative singular, cf. § 238. 2, 3.

465. II. I-STEMS

a. Masculines and Feminines

caedēs, f., slaughter hostis, m., enemy urbs, f., city cliēns, m., retainer
Stems caedi- hosti- urbi- clienti-
Bases caed- host- urb- client-
Singular TERMINATIONS
Nom. caedēs hostis urbs cliēns -s, -is, or -ēs
Gen. caedis hostis urbis clientis -is
Dat. caedī hostī urbī clientī
Acc. caedem hostem urbem clientem -em (-im)
Abl. caede hoste urbe cliente -e ()
Plural
Nom. caedēs hostēs urbēs clientēs -ēs
Gen. caedium hostium urbium clientium -ium
Dat. caedibus hostibus urbibus clientibus -ibus
Acc. caedīs, -ēs hostīs, -ēs urbīs, -ēs clientīs, -ēs -īs, -ēs
Abl. caedibus hostibus urbibus clientibus -ibus

1. Avis, cīvis, fīnis, ignis, nāvis, have the abl. sing. in or -e.

2. Turris has accusative turrim and ablative turrī or turre.

b. Neuters

īnsigne, n., decoration animal, n., animal calcar, n., spur
Stems īnsigni- animāli- calcāri-
Bases īnsign- animāl- calcār-
Singular TERMINATIONS
Nom. īnsigne animal calcar -e or
Gen. īnsignis animālis calcāris -is
Dat. īnsignī animālī calcārī
Acc. īnsigne animal calcar -e or
Abl. īnsignī animālī calcārī
Plural
Nom. īnsignia animālia calcāria -ia
Gen. īnsignium animālium calcārium -ium
Dat. īnsignibus animālibus calcāribus -ibus
Acc. īnsignia animālia calcāria -ia
Abl. īnsignibus animālibus calcāribus -ibus

466. THE FOURTH DECLENSION. U-STEMS

adventus, m., arrival cornū, n., horn
Stems adventu- cornu-
Bases advent- corn-
Singular TERMINATIONS
MASC. NEUT.
Nom. adventus cornū -us
Gen. adventūs cornūs -ūs -ūs
Dat. advent (ū) cornū -uī (ū)
Acc. adventum cornū -um
Abl. adventū cornū
Plural
Nom. adventūs cornua -ūs -ua
Gen. adventuum cornuum -uum -uum
Dat. adventibus cornibus -ibus -ibus
Acc. adventūs cornua -ūs -ua
Abl. adventibus cornibus -ibus -ibus

467. THE FIFTH DECLENSION. Ē-STEMS

diēs, m., day rēs, f. thing
Stems diē- rē-
Bases di- r-
Singular TERMINATIONS
Nom. diēs rēs -ēs
Gen. diēī r -ē̆ī
Dat. diēī r -ē̆ī
Acc. diem rem -em
Abl. diē rē
Plural
Nom. diēs rēs -ēs
Gen. diērum rērum -ērum
Dat. diēbus rēbus -ēbus
Acc. diēs rēs -ēs
Abl. diēbus rēbus -ēbus

468. SPECIAL PARADIGMS

deus, m., god domus, f., house vīs, f., strength iter, n., way
Stems deo- domu- vī- and vīri- iter- and itiner-
Bases de- dom- v- and vīr- iter- and itiner-
Singular
Nom. deus domus vīs iter
Gen. deī domūs vīs (rare) itineris
Dat. deō domuī, -ō vī (rare) itinerī
Acc. deum domum vim iter
Abl. deō domō, -ū vī itinere
Plural
Nom. deī, dī domūs vīrēs itinera
Gen. deōrum, deum domuum, -ōrum vīrium itinerum
Dat. deīs, dīs domibus vīribus itineribus
Acc. deōs domōs, -ūs vīrīs, -ēs itinera
Abl. deīs, dīs domibus vīribus itineribus

a. The vocative singular of deus is like the nominative.

b. The locative of domus is domī.

ADJECTIVES

469. FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS. O- AND Ā-STEMS

a. Adjectives in -us

bonus, good   Stems bono- m. and n., bona- f.   Base bon-
Singular
MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. bonus bona bonum
Gen. bonī bonae bonī
Dat. bonō bonae bonō
Acc. bonum bonam bonum
Abl. bonō bonā bonō
Plural
Nom. bonī bonae bona
Gen. bonōrum bonārum bonōrum
Dat. bonīs bonīs bonīs
Acc. bonōs bonās bona
Abl. bonīs bonīs bonīs

b. Adjectives in -er

līber, free   Stems lībero- m. and n., līberā- f.   Base līber-
Singular
MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. līber lībera līberum
Gen. līberī līberae līberī
Dat. līberō līberae līberō
Acc. līberum līberam līberum
Abl. līberō līberā līberō
Plural
Nom. līberī līberae lībera
Gen. līberōrum līberārum līberōrum
Dat. līberīs līberīs līberīs
Acc. līberōs līberās lībera
Abl. līberīs līberīs līberīs

pulcher, pretty   Stems pulchro- m. and n., pulchrā- f.   Base pulchr-
Singular
MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. pulcher pulchra pulchrum
Gen. pulchrī pulchrae pulchrī
Dat. pulchrō pulchrae pulchrō
Acc. pulchrum pulchram pulchrum
Abl. pulchrō pulchrā pulchrō
Plural
Nom. pulchrī pulchrae pulchra
Gen. pulchrōrum pulchrārum pulchrōrum
Dat. pulchrīs pulchrīs pulchrīs
Acc. pulchrōs pulchrās pulchra
Abl. pulchrīs pulchrīs pulchrīs

470. THE NINE IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES

alius, another   Stems alio- m. and n., aliā- f.   Base ali-
Singular Plural
MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. alius alia aliud aliī aliae alia
Gen. alīus alīus alīus aliōrum aliārum aliōrum
Dat. aliī aliī aliī aliīs aliīs aliīs
Acc. alium aliam aliud aliōs aliās alia
Abl. aliō aliā aliō aliīs aliīs aliīs
 
ūnus, one, only   Stems ūno- m. and n., ūnā- f.   Base ūn-
MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. ūnus ūna ūnum ūnī ūnae ūna
Gen. ūnīus ūnīus ūnīus ūnōrum ūnārum ūnōrum
Dat. ūnī ūnī ūnī ūnīs ūnīs ūnīs
Acc. ūnum ūnam ūnum ūnōs ūnās ūna
Abl. ūnō ūnā ūnō ūnīs ūnīs ūnīs

a. For the complete list see § 108.

471. ADJECTIVES OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. I-STEMS

I. THREE ENDINGS
ācer, ācris, ācre, keen, eager Stem ācri-   Base ācr-
Singular Plural
MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. ācer ācris ācre ācrēs ācrēs ācria
Gen. ācris ācris ācris ācrium ācrium ācrium
Dat. ācrī ācrī ācrī ācribus ācribus ācribus
Acc. ācrem ācrem ācre ācrīs, -ēs ācrīs, -ēs ācria
Abl. ācrī ācrī ācrī ācribus ācribus ācribus
II. TWO ENDINGS
omnis, omne, every, all Stem omni-   Base omn-
Singular Plural
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT.
Nom. omnis omne omnēs omnia
Gen. omnis omnis omnium omnium
Dat. omnī omnī omnibus omnibus
Acc. omnem omne omnīs, -ēs omnia
Abl. omnī omnī omnibus omnibus
III. ONE ENDING
pār, equal   Stem pari-   Base par-
Singular Plural
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT.
Nom. pār pār parēs paria
Gen. paris paris parium parium
Dat. parī parī paribus paribus
Acc. parem pār parīs, -ēs paria
Abl. parī parī paribus paribus

1. Observe that all i-stem adjectives have in the ablative singular.

This sentence appears to be a footnote, but there is no footnote tag on the page.

472. PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLES

amāns, loving   Stem amanti-   Base amant-
Singular Plural
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT.
Nom. amāns amāns amantēs amantia
Gen. amantis amantis amantium amantium
Dat. amantī amantī amantibus amantibus
Acc. amantem amāns amantīs, -ēs amantia
Abl. amante, -ī amante, -ī amantibus amantibus
 
iēns, going   Stem ienti-, eunti-   Base ient-, eunt-
Nom. iēns iēns euntēs euntia
Gen. euntis euntis euntium euntium
Dat. euntī euntī euntibus euntibus
Acc. euntem iēns euntīs, -ēs euntia
Abl. eunte, -ī eunte, -ī euntibus euntibus

473. REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

Positive Comparative Superlative
MASC. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
altus (alto-) altior altius altissimus -a -um
līber (lībero-) līberior līberius līberrimus -a -um
pulcher (pulchro-) pulchrior pulchrius pulcherrimus -a -um
audāx (audāci-) audācior audācius audācissimus -a -um
brevis (brevi-) brevior brevius brevissimus -a -um
ācer (ācri-) ācrior ācrius ācerrimus -a -um

474. DECLENSION OF COMPARATIVES

altior, higher
Singular Plural
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. AND FEM. NEUT.
Nom. altior altius altiōrēs altiōra
Gen. altiōris altiōris altiōrum altiōrum
Dat. altiōrī altiōrī altiōribus altiōribus
Acc. altiōrem altius altiōrēs altiōra
Abl. altiōre altiōre altiōribus altiōribus
plūs, more
Nom. —— plūs plūrēs plūra
Gen. —— plūris plūrium plūrium
Dat. —— —— plūribus plūribus
Acc. —— plūs plūrīs (-ēs) plūra
Abl. —— plūre plūribus plūribus

475. IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

Positive Comparative Superlative
bonus, -a, -um, good melior, melius, better optimus, -a, -um, best
malus, -a, -um, bad peior, peius, worse pessimus, -a, -um, worst
magnus, -a, -um, great maior, maius, greater maximus, -a, -um, greatest
multus, -a, -um, much ——, plūs, more plūrimus, -a, -um, most
parvus, -a, -um, small minor, minus, smaller minimus, -a, -um, smallest
senex, senis, old senior maximus nātū
iuvenis, -e, young iūnior minimus nātū
vetus, veteris, old vetustior, -ius veterrimus, -a, -um
facilis, -e, easy facilior, -ius facillimus, -a, -um
difficilis, -e, difficult difficilior, -ius difficillimus, -a, -um
similis, -e, similar similior, -ius simillimus, -a, -um
dissimilis, -e, dissimilar dissimilior, -ius dissimillimus, -a, -um
humilis, -e, low humilior, -ius humillimus, -a, -um
gracilis, -e, slender gracilior, -ius gracillimus, -a, -um
exterus, outward exterior, outer, exterior extrēmus
extimus
outermost, last
īnferus, below īnferior, lower īnfimus
īmus
lowest
posterus, following posterior, later postrēmus
postumus
last
superus, above superior, higher suprēmus
summus
highest
[cis, citrā, on this side] citerior, hither citimus, hithermost
[in, intrā, in, within] interior, inner intimus, inmost
[prae, prō, before] prior, former prīmus, first
[prope, near] propior, nearer proximus, next
[ultrā, beyond] ulterior, further ultimus, furthest

476. REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

Positive Comparative Superlative
cārē (cārus), dearly cārius cārissimē
miserē (miser), wretchedly miserius miserrimē
ācriter (ācer), sharply ācrius ācerrimē
facile (facilis), easily facilius facillimē

477. IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADVERBS

Positive Comparative Superlative
diū, long, a long time diūtius diūtissimē
bene (bonus), well melius, better optimē, best
male (malus), ill peius, worse pessimē, worst
magnopere, greatly magis, more maximē, most
multum (multus), much plūs, more plūrimum, most
parum, little minus, less minimē, least
saepe, often saepīus saepissimē

478. NUMERALS

The cardinal numerals are indeclinable excepting ūnus, duo, trēs, the hundreds above one hundred, and mīlle used as a noun. The ordinals are declined like bonus, -a, -um.

Cardinals Ordinals
(How many) (In what order)
1, ūnus, -a, -um, one prīmus, -a, -um first
2, duo, duae, duo two secundus (or alter) second
3, trēs, tria three, tertius third,
4, quattuor etc. quārtus etc.
5, quīnque quīntus
6, sex sextus
7, septem septimus
8, octō octāvus
9, novem nōnus
10, decem decimus
11, ūndecim ūndecimus
12, duodecim duodecimus
13, tredecim (decem (et) trēs) tertius decimus
14, quattuordecim quārtus decimus
15, quīndecim quīntus decimus
16, sēdecim sextus decimus
17, septendecim septimus decimus
18, duodēvīgintī (octōdecim) duodēvīcēnsimus
19, ūndēvīgintī (novendecim) ūndēvīcēnsimus
20, vīgintī vīcēnsimus
21, vīgintī ūnus or
ūnus et vīgintī, etc.
vīcēnsimus prīmus or
ūnus et vīcēnsimus, etc.
30, trīgintā trīcēnsimus
40, quadrāgintā quadrāgēnsimus
50, quīnquāgintā quīnquāgēnsimus
60, sexāgintā sexāgēnsimus
70, septuāgintā septuāgēnsimus
80, octōgintā octōgēnsimus
90, nōnāgintā nōnāgēnsimus
100, centum centum
101, centum (et) ūnus, etc. centum (et) ūnus, etc.
120, centum (et) vīgintī centum (et) vīgintī
121, centum (et) vīgintī ūnus, etc. centum (et) vīgintī ūnus, etc.
200, ducentī, -ae, -a ducentī, -ae, -a
300, trecentī trecentī
400, quadringentī quadringentī
500, quīngentī quīngentī
600, sescentī sescentī
700, septingentī septingentī
800, octingentī octingentī
900, nōngentī nōngentī
1000, mīlle mīlle

479. Declension of duo, two, trēs, three, and mīlle, a thousand.

Masc. Fem. Neut. M. and F. Neut. Sing. Plur.
N. duo duae duo trēs trīa mīlle mīlia
G. duōrum duārum duōrum trium trium mīlle mīlium
D. duōbus duābus duōbus tribus tribus mīlle mīlibus
A. duōs or duo duās duo trīs or trēs tria mīlle mīlia
A. duōbus duābus duōbus tribus tribus mīlle mīlibus

Note. Mīlle is used in the plural as a noun with a modifying genitive, and is occasionally so used in the nominative and accusative singular. For the declension of ūnus cf. § 470.

PRONOUNS

480. PERSONAL

ego, I , you suī, of himself, etc.
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur.
Nom. ego nōs vōs —— ——
Gen. meī nostrum, -trī tuī vestrum, -trī suī suī
Dat. mihi nōbīs tibi vōbīs sibi sibi
Acc. nōs vōs sē, sēsē sē, sēsē
Abl. nōbīs vōbīs sē, sēsē sē, sēsē

Note that suī is always reflexive.

481. DEMONSTRATIVE

Demonstratives belong to the first and second declensions, but have the pronominal endings -ī̆us and in the gen. and dat. sing.

ipse, self
Singular Plural
MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. ipse ipsa ipsum ipsī ipsae ipsa
Gen. ipsī´us ipsī´us ipsī´us ipsōrum ipsārum ipsōrum
Dat. ipsī ipsī ipsī ipsīs ipsīs ipsīs
Acc. ipsum ipsam ipsum ipsōs ipsās ipsa
Abl. ipsō ipsā ipsō ipsīs ipsīs ipsīs
 
hic, this (here), he
Nom. hic haec hoc hae haec
Gen. huius huius huius hōrum hārum hōrum
Dat. huic huic huic hīs hīs hīs
Acc. hunc hanc hoc hōs hās haec
Abl. hōc hāc hōc hīs hīs hīs
 
iste, this, that (of yours), he
Nom. iste ista istud istī istae ista
Gen. istī´us istī´us istī´us istōrum istārum istōrum
Dat. istī istī istī istīs istīs istīs
Acc. istum istam istud istōs istās ista
Abl. istō istā istō istīs istīs istīs
ille, that (yonder), he
Nom. ille illa illud illī illae illa
Gen. illī´us illī´us illī´us illōrum illārum illōrum
Dat. illī illī illī illīs illīs illīs
Acc. illum illam illud illōs illās illa
Abl. illō illā illō illīs illīs illīs
 
is, this, that, he
Nom. is ea id iī, eī eae ea
Gen. eius eius eius eōrum eārum eōrum
Dat. iīs, eīs iīs, eīs iīs, eīs
Acc. eum eam id eōs eās ea
Abl. iīs, eīs iīs, eīs iīs, eīs
 
īdem, the same
Nom. īdem e´adem idem iī´dem
eī´dem
eae´dem e´adem
Gen. eius´dem eius´dem eius´dem eōrun´dem eārun´dem eōrun´dem
Dat. eī´dem eī´dem eī´dem iīs´dem
eīs´dem
iīs´dem
eīs´dem
iīs´dem
eīs´dem
Acc. eun´dem ean´dem idem eōs´dem eās´dem e´adem
Abl. eō´dem eā´dem eō´dem iīs´dem
eīs´dem
iīs´dem
eīs´dem
iīs´dem
eīs´dem

Note. In the plural of is and īdem the forms with two i’s are preferred, the two i’s being pronounced as one.

482. RELATIVE

quī, who, which, that
Singular Plural
MASC. FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. quī quae quod quī quae quae
Gen. cuius cuius cuius quōrum quārum quōrum
Dat. cui cui cui quibus quibus quibus
Acc. quem quam quod quōs quās quae
Abl. quō quā quō quibus quibus quibus

483. INTERROGATIVE

quis, substantive, who, what
Singular Plural
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. quis quid qui quae quae
Gen. cuius cuius quōrum quārum quōrum
Dat. cui cui quibus quibus quibus
Acc. quem quid quōs quās quae
Abl. quō quō quibus quibus quibus

The interrogative adjective quī, quae, quod, is declined like the relative.

484. INDEFINITES

quis and quī, as declined above,1 are used also as indefinites (some, any). The other indefinites are compounds of quis and quī.

quisque, each
Substantive Adjective
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. quisque quidque quisque quaeque quodque
Gen. cuius´que cuius´que cuius´que cuius´que cuius´que
Dat. cuique cuique cuique cuique cuique
Acc. quemque quidque quemque quamque quodque
Abl. quōque quōque quōque quāque quōque
1. qua is generally used instead of quae in the feminine nominative singular and in the neuter nominative and accusative plural.

485. quīdam, a certain one, a certain

Observe that in the neuter singular the adjective has quoddam and the substantive quiddam.

Singular
MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. quīdam quaedam quoddam
quiddam (subst.)
Gen. cuius´dam cuius´dam cuius´dam
Dat. cuidam cuidam cuidam
Acc. quendam quandam quoddam
quiddam (subst.)
Abl. quōdam quādam quōdam
Plural
Nom. quīdam quaedam quaedam
Gen. quōrun´dam quārun´dam quōrun´dam
Dat. quibus´dam quibus´dam quibus´dam
Acc. quōsdam quāsdam quaedam
Abl. quibus´dam quibus´dam quibus´dam

486. quisquam, substantive, any one (at all)

MASC. AND FEM. NEUT.
Nom. quisquam quicquam (quidquam)
Gen. cuius´quam cuius´quam
Dat. cuiquam cuiquam
Acc. quemquam quicquam (quidquam)
Abl. quōquam quōquam

487. aliquis, substantive, some one.   aliquī, adjective, some

Singular
Substantive Adjective
MASC. AND FEM. NEUT. MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. aliquis aliquid aliquī aliqua aliquod
Gen. alicu´ius alicu´ius alicu´ius alicu´ius alicu´ius
Dat. alicui alicui alicui alicui alicui
Acc. aliquem aliquid aliquem aliquam aliquod
Abl. aliquō aliquō aliquō aliquā aliquō
Plural for both Substantive and Adjective
MASC. FEM. NEUT.
Nom. aliquī aliquae aliqua
Gen. aliquō´rum aliquā´rum aliquō´rum
Dat. ali´quibus ali´quibus ali´quibus
Acc. aliquōs aliquās aliqua
Abl. ali´quibus ali´quibus ali´quibus

a. quis (quī), any one, any, is the least definite (§ 297. b). aliquis (aliquī), some one, some, is more definite than quis. quisquam, any one (at all), and its adjective ūllus, any, occur mostly with a negative, expressed or implied, and in clauses of comparison.

REGULAR VERBS

488. FIRST CONJUGATION. Ā-VERBS. AMŌ

Principal Parts amō, amāre, amāvī, amātus
Pres. Stem amā-   Perf. Stem amāv-   Part. Stem amāt-  
ACTIVE PASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT
I love, am loving, do love, etc. I am loved, etc.
amō amāmus amor amāmur
amās amātis amāris, -re amāminī
amat amant amātur amantur
IMPERFECT
I loved, was loving, did love, etc. I was loved, etc.
amābam amābāmus amābar amābāmur
amābās amābātis amābāris, -re amābāminī
amābat amābant amābātur amābantur
FUTURE
I shall love, etc. I shall be loved, etc.
amā amābimus amābor amābimur
amābis amābitis amāberis, -re amābiminī
amābit amābunt amābitur amābuntur
PERFECT
I have loved, loved, did love, etc. I have been (was) loved, etc.
amāvi amāvimus amātus, -a, -um sum amātī, -ae, -a sumus
amāvistī amāvistis es estis
amāvit amāvērunt, -re est sunt
PLUPERFECT
I had loved, etc. I had been loved, etc.
amāveram amāverāmus amātus, -a, -um eram amātī, -ae, -a erāmus
amāverās amāverātis erās erātis
amāverat amāverant erat erant
FUTURE PERFECT
I shall have loved, etc. I shall have been loved, etc.
amāverō amāverimus amātus, -a, -um erō amātī, -ae, -a erimus
amāveris amāveritis eris eritis
amāverit amāverint erit erunt
SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
amem amēmus amer amēmur
amēs amētis amēris, -re amēminī
amet ament amētur amentur
IMPERFECT
amārem amāremus amārer amārēmur
amārēs amārētis amārēris, -re amārēminī
amāret amārent amārētur amārentur
PERFECT
amāverim amāverimus amātus, -a, -um sim amātī, -ae, -a sīmus
amāveris amāveritis sīs sītis
amāverit amāverint sit sint
PLUPERFECT
amāvissem amāvissēmus amātus, -a, -um essem amātī, -ae, -a essēmus
amāvissēs amāvissētis essēs essētis
amāvisset amāvissent esset essent
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT
amā, love thou amāre, be thou loved
amāte, love ye amāminī, be ye loved
FUTURE
amā, thou shalt love amātor, thou shalt be loved
amā, he shall love amātor, he shall be loved
amātōte, you shall love ——
amantō, they shall love amantor, they shall be loved
INFINITIVE
Pres. amāre, to love amā, to be loved
Perf. amāvisse, to have loved amātus, -a, -um esse, to have been loved
Fut. amātūrus, -a, -um esse, to be about to love [amātum īrī], to be about to be loved
PARTICIPLES
Pres. amāns, -antis, loving Pres. ——
Fut. amātūrus, -a, -um, about to love Gerundive1 amandus, -a, -um, to be loved
Perf. —— Perf. amātus, -a, -um, having been loved, loved
GERUND
Nom. —— SUPINE (Active Voice)
Gen. amandī, of loving Acc. [amātum], to love
Dat. amandō, for loving Abl. [amā], to love, in the loving
Acc. amandum, loving
Abl. amandō, by loving
1. Sometimes called the future passive participle.

489. SECOND CONJUGATION. Ē-VERBS. MONEŌ

Principal Parts moneō, monēre, monuī, monitus
Pres. Stem monē-   Perf. Stem monu-   Part. Stem monit-  
ACTIVE PASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT
I advise, etc., I am advised, etc.
moneō monēmus moneor monēmur
monēs monētis monēris, -re monēminī
monet monent monētur monentur
IMPERFECT
I was advising, etc., I was advised, etc.
monēbam monēbāmus monēbar monēbāmur
monēbās monēbātis monēbāris, -re monēbāminī
monēbat monēbant monēbātur monēbāntur
FUTURE
I shall advise, etc., I shall be advised, etc.
monē monēbimus monēbor monēbimur
monēbis monēbitis monēberis, -re monēbiminī
monēbit monēbunt monēbitur monēbuntur
PERFECT
I have advised, I advised, etc. I have been (was) advised, etc.
monuī monuimus monitus, -a, -um sum monitī, -ae, -a sumus
monuistī monuistis es estis
monuit monuērunt, -re est sunt
PLUPERFECT
I had advised, etc., I had been advised, etc.
monueram monuerāmus monitus, -a, -um eram monitī, -ae, -a erāmus
monuerās monuerātis eras eratis
monuerat monuerant erat erant
FUTURE PERFECT
I shall have advised, etc. I shall have been advised, etc.
monuerō monuerimus monitus, -a, -um erō monitī, -ae, -a erimus
monueris monuerītis eris eritis
monuerit monuerīnt erit erunt
SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
moneam moneāmus monear moneāmur
moneās moneātis moneāris, -re moneāminī
moneat moneant moneātur moneantur
IMPERFECT
monērem monērēmus monērer monērēmur
monērēs monērētis monērēris, -re monērēminī
monēret monērent monērētur monērentur
PERFECT
monuerim monuerimus monitus, -a, -um sim monitī, -ae, -a sīmus
monueris monueritis sīs sītis
monuerit monuerint sit sint
PLUPERFECT
monuissem monuissēmus monitus, -a, -um essem monitī, -ae, -a essēmus
monuissēs monuissētis essēs essētis
monuisset monuissent esset essent
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT
monē, advise thou monēre, be thou advised
monēte, advise ye monēminī, be ye advised
FUTURE
monē, thou shall advise monētor, thou shalt be advised
monē, he shall advise monētor, he shall be advised
monētōte, you shall advise ——
monentō, they shall advise monentor, they shall be advised
INFINITIVE
Pres. monēre, to advise monē, to be advised
Perf. monuisse, to have advised monitus, -a, -um esse, to have been advised
Fut. monitūrus, -a, -um esse, to be about to advise [monitum īrī], to be about to be advised
PARTICIPLES
Pres. monēns, -entis, advising Pres. ——
Fut. monitūrus, -a, -um, about to advise Ger. monendus, -a, -um, to be advised
Perf. —— Perf. monitus, -a, -um, having been advised, advised
GERUND
Nom. —— SUPINE (Active Voice)
Gen. monendī, of advising Acc. [monitum], to advise
Dat. monendō, for advising Abl. [monitū], to advise, in the advising
Acc. monendum, advising
Abl. monendō, by advising

490. THIRD CONJUGATION. Ĕ-VERBS. REGŌ

Principal Parts regō, regere, rexī, rēctus
Pres. Stem rege-   Perf. Stem rēx-   Part. Stem rēct-  
ACTIVE PASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT
I rule, etc. I am ruled, etc.
regō regimus re´gor re´gimur
regis regitis re´geris, -re regi´minī
regit regunt re´gitur regun´tur
IMPERFECT
I was ruling, etc. I was ruled, etc.
regēbam regēbāmus regē´bar regēbā´mur
regēbās regēbātis regēbā´ris, -re regēbā´minī
regēbat regēbant regēbā´tur regēban´tur
FUTURE
I shall rule, etc. I shall be ruled, etc.
regam regēmus re´gar regē´mur
regēs regētis regē´ris, -re regē´minī
reget regent regē´tur regen´tur
PERFECT
I have ruled, etc. I have been ruled, etc.
rēxī rēximus rēctus, -a, -um sum rēctī, -ae, -a sumus
rēxistī rēxistis es estis
rēxit rēxērunt, -re est sunt
PLUPERFECT
I had ruled, etc. I had been ruled, etc.
rēxeram rēxerāmus rēctus, -a, -um eram rēctī, -ae, -a erāmus
rēxerās rēxerātis erās erātis
rēxerat rēxerant erat erant
FUTURE PERFECT
I shall have ruled, etc. I shall have been ruled, etc.
rēxerō rēxerimus rēctus, -a, -um erō rēctī, -ae, -a erimus
rēxeris rēxeritis eris eritis
rēxerit rēxerint erit erunt
SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
regam regāmus regar regāmur
regās regātis regāris, -re regāminī
regat regant regātur regantur
IMPERFECT
regerem regerēmus regerer regerēmur
regerēs regerētis regerēris, -re regerēminī
regeret regerent regerētur regerentur
PERFECT
rēxerim rēxerimus rēctus, -a, -um sim rēctī, -ae, -a sīmus
rēxeris rēxeritis sīs sītis
rēxerit rēxerint sit sint
PLUPERFECT
rēxissem rēxissēmus rēctus, -a, -um essem rēctī, -ae, -a essēmus
rēxissēs rēxissētis essēs essētis
rēxisset rēxissent esset essent
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT
rege, rule thou regere, be thou ruled
regite, rule ye regiminī, be ye ruled
FUTURE
regitō, thou shalt rule regitor, thou shalt be ruled
regitō he shall rule regitor, he shall be ruled
regitōte, ye shall rule ——
reguntō, they shall rule reguntor, they shall be ruled
INFINITIVE
Pres. regere, to rule regī, to be ruled
Perf. rēxisse, to have ruled rēctus, -a, -um esse, to have been ruled
Fut.rēctūrus, -a, -um esse, to be about to rule [rēctum īrī], to be about to be ruled
PARTICIPLES
Pres. regēns, -entis, ruling Pres. ——
Fut. rēctūrus, -a, -um, about to rule Ger. regendus, -a, -um, to be ruled
Perf. —— Perf. rēctus, -a, -um, having been ruled, ruled
GERUND
Nom. —— SUPINE (Active Voice)
Gen. regendī, of ruling Acc [rēctum], to rule
Dat. regendō, for ruling Abl. [rēctū], to rule, in the ruling
Acc. regendum, ruling
Abl. regendō, by ruling

491. FOURTH CONJUGATION. Ī-VERBS. AUDIŌ

Principal Parts audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus
Pres. Stem audī-   Perf. Stem audīv-   Part. Stem audīt-  
ACTIVE PASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT
I hear, etc. I am heard, etc.
audiō audīmus au´dior audī´mur
audīs audītis audī´ris, -re audī´minī
audit audiunt audī´tur audiun´tur
IMPERFECT
I was hearing, etc. I was heard, etc.
audiēbam audiēbāmus audiē´bar audiēbā´mur
audiēbās audiēbātis audiēbā´ris, -re audiēbā´minī
audiēbat audiēbant audiēbā´tur audiēban´tur
FUTURE
I shall hear, etc. I shall be heard, etc.
audiam audiēmus au´diar audiē´mur
audiēs audiētis audiē´ris, -re audiē´minī
audiet audient audiē´tur audien´tur
PERFECT
I have heard, etc. I have been heard, etc.
audīvī audīvimus audītus, -a, -um sum audītī, -ae, -a sumus
audīvistī audīvistis es estis
audīvit audīvērunt, -re est sunt
PLUPERFECT
I had heard, etc. I had been heard, etc.
audīveram audīverāmus audītus, -a, -um eram audītī, -ae, -a erāmus
audīverās audīverātis erās erātis
audīverat audīverant erat erant
FUTURE PERFECT
I shall have heard, etc. I shall have been heard, etc.
audīverō audīverimus audītus, -a, -um erō audītī, -ae, -a erimus
audīveris audīveritis eris eritis
audīverit audīverint erit erunt
SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
audiam audiāmus audiar audiāmur
audiās audiātis audiāris, -re audiāminī
audiat audiant audiātur audiantur
IMPERFECT
audīrem audīrēmus audīrer audīrēmur
audīrēs audīrētis audīrēris, -re audīrēminī
audīret audīrent audīrētur audīrentur
PERFECT
audīverim audiverimus audītus, -a, -um sim audītī, -ae, -a sīmus
audīveris audiveritis sīs sītis
audīverit audīverint sit sint
PLUPERFECT
audīvissem audīvissēmus audītus, -a, -um essem audītī, -ae, -a essēmus
audīvissēs audīvissētis essēs essētis
audīvisset audīvissent esset essent
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT
audī, hear thou audīre, be thou heard
audīte, hear ye audīminī, be ye heard
FUTURE
audī, thou shalt hear audītor, thou shalt be heard
audī, he shall hear audītor, he shall be heard
audītōte, ye shall hear ——
audiuntō, they shall hear audiuntor, they shall be heard
INFINITIVE
Pres. audīre, to hear audī, to be heard
audīvisse, to have heard audītus, -a, -um esse, to have been heard
audītūrus, -a, -um esse, to be about to hear [audītum īrī, to be about to be heard
PARTICIPLES
Pres. audiēns, -entis, hearing Pres. ——
Fut. audītūrus, -a, -um, about to hear Ger. audiendus, -a, -um to be heard
Perf. —— Perf. audītus, -a, -um, having been heard, heard
GERUND
Nom. —— SUPINE (Active Voice)
Gen. audiendī, of hearing Acc. [audītum], to hear
Dat. audiendō, for hearing Abl. [audītu], to hear, in the hearing
Acc. audiendum, hearing
Abl. audiendō, by hearing

492. THIRD CONJUGATION. VERBS IN -IŌ. CAPIŌ

Principal Parts capiō, capere, cēpī, captus
Pres. Stem cape-   Perf. Stem cēp-   Part. Stem capt-  
ACTIVE PASSIVE
INDICATIVE
PRESENT
capiō capimus ca´pior ca´pimur
capis capitis ca´peris, -re capi´minī
capit capiunt ca´pitur capiun´tur
IMPERFECT
capiēbam capiebamus capiē´bar capiēbā´mur
capiēbas capiēbātis capiēba´ris, -re capiēbā´minī
capiēbat capiēbant capiēbā´tur capieban´tur
FUTURE
capiam capiēmus ca´piar capiē´mur
capiēs capiētis capiē´ris, -re capiē´minī
capiet capient capiē´tur capien´tur
PERFECT
cēpī, cēpistī, cēpit, etc. captus, -a, -um   sum, es, est, etc.
PLUPERFECT
cēperam, cēperās, cēperat, etc. captus, -a, -um   eram, erās, erat, etc.
FUTURE PERFECT
cēperō, cēperis, cēperit, etc. captus, -a, -um   erō, eris, erit, etc.
SUBJUNCTIVE
PRESENT
capiam, capiās, capiat, etc. capiar, -iāris, -re, -iātur, etc.
IMPERFECT
caperem, caperēs, caperet, etc. caperer, -erēris, -re, -erētur, etc.
PERFECT
cēperim, cēperis, cēperit, etc. captus, -a, -um   sim, sīs, sit, etc.
PLUPERFECT
cēpissem, cēpissēs, cēpisset, etc. captus,-a, -um   essem, essēs, esset, etc.
IMPERATIVE
PRESENT
2d Pers. cape capite capere capiminī
FUTURE
2d Pers. capi capitōte capitor ——
3rd Pers. capi capiuntō capitor capiuntor
INFINITIVE
Pres. capere capī
Perf. cēpisse captus, -a, -um esse
Fut. captūrus, -a, -um esse [captum īrī]
PARTICIPLES
Pres. capiēns, -ientis Pres. ——
Fut. captūrus, -a, -um Ger. capiendus, -a, -um
Perf. —— Perf. captus, -a, -um
GERUND SUPINE (Active Voice)
Gen. capiendī Acc. [captum]
etc. Abl. [captū]

493. DEPONENT VERBS

Principal Parts I. hortor, hortārī, hortātus sum, urge
II. vereor, verērī, veritus sum, fear
III. sequor, sequī, secūtus sum, follow
IV. partior, partīrī, partītus sum, share, divide

Note. In addition to the passive conjugation, deponent verbs use certain forms from the active. These are marked with a star. Deponent -iō verbs of the third conjugation are inflected like the passive of capiō.

Indicative
Pres. hortor vereor sequor partior
hortāris, -re verēris, -re sequeris, -re partīris, -re
hortātur verētur sequitur partītur
hortāmur verēmur sequimur partīmur
hortāminī verēminī sequiminī partīminī
hortantur verentur sequuntur partiuntur
Impf. hortābar verēbar sequēbar partiēbar
Fut. hortābor verēbor sequar partiar
Perf. hortātus sum veritus sum secūtus sum partītus sum
Plup. hortātus eram veritus eram secūtus eram partītus eram
F. P. hortātus erō veritus erō secūtus erō partītus erō
Subjunctive
Pres. horter verear sequar partiar
Impf. hortārer verērer sequerer partīrer
Perf. hortātus sim veritus sim secūtus sim partītus sim
Plup. hortātus essem veritus essem secūtus essem partītus essem
Imperative
Pres. hortāre verēre sequere partīre
Fut. hortātor verētor sequitor partītor
Infinitive
Pres. hortārī verērī sequī partīrī
Perf. hortātus esse veritus esse secūtus esse partītus esse
Fut. *hortātūrus esse *veritūrus esse *secūtūrus esse *partītūrus esse
Participles
Pres. *hortāns *verēns *sequēns *partiēns
Fut. *hortāturus *veritūrus *secūtūrus *partītūrus
Perf. hortātus veritus secūtus partītus
Ger. hortandus verendus sequendus partiendus
Gerund
*hortandī, etc. *verendī, etc. *sequendī, etc. *partiendī, etc.
Supine
*[hortātus, -tū] *[veritum, -tū] *[secūtum, -tū] *[partītum, -tū]
IRREGULAR VERBS

494. sum, am, be

Principal Parts sum, esse, fuī, futūrus
Pres. Stem es-   Perf. Stem fu-   Part. Stem fut-  
Indicative
Present
SINGULAR PLURAL
sum, I am sumus, we are
es, thou art estis, you are
est, he (she, it) is sunt, they are
Imperfect
eram, I was erāmus, we were
erās, thou wast erātis, you were
erat, he was erant, they were
Future
erō, I shall be erimus, we shall be
eris, thou wilt be eritis, you will be
erit, he will be erunt, they will be
Perfect
fuī, I have been, was fuimus, we have been, were
fuistī, thou hast been, wast fuistis, you have been, were
fuit, he has been, was fuērunt, fuēre, they have been, were
Pluperfect
fueram, I had been fuerāmus, we had been
fuerās, thou hadst been fuerātis, you had been
fuerat, he had been fuerant, they had been
Future Perfect
fuerō, I shall have been fuerimus, we shall have been
fueris, thou wilt have been fueritis, you will have been
fuerit, he will have been fuerint, they will have been
Subjunctive
Present Imperfect
SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL
sim sīmus essem essēmus
sīs sītis essēs essētis
sit sint esset essent
Perfect Pluperfect
fuerim fuerimus fuissem fuissēmus
fueris fueritis fuissēs fuissētis
fuerit fuerint fuisset fuissent
Imperative
PRESENT FUTURE
2d Pers. Sing. es, be thou 2d Pers. Sing. es, thou shalt be
2d Pers. Plur. este, be ye 3d Pers. Sing. es, he shall be

2d Pers. Plur. estōte, ye shall be

3d Pers. Plur. suntō, they shall be

Infinitive Participle
Pres. esse, to be
Perf. fuisse, to have been

Fut. futūrus, -a, -um esse or fore,
to be about to be

futūrus, -a, -um, about to be

495. possum, be able, can

Principal Parts possum, posse, potuī, ——
Indicative Subjunctive
SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL
Pres. possum pos´sumus possim possī´mus
potes potes´tis possīs possī´tis
potest possunt possit possint
Impf. poteram poterāmus possem possē´mus
Fut. poterō poterimus —— ——
Perf. potuī potuimus potuerim potuerimus
Plup. potueram potuerāmus potuissem potuissēmus
F. P. potuerō potuerimus —— ——
Infinitive
Pres. posse Perf. potuisse
Participle
Pres. potens, gen. -entis, (adjective) powerful

496. prōsum, benefit

Principal Parts prōsum, prōdesse, prōfuī, prōfutūrus
Pres. Stem prōdes-   Perf. Stem prōfu-   Part. Stem prōfut-  
Indicative Subjunctive
SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL
Pres. prōsum prō´sumus prōsim prōsī´mus
prōdes prōdes´tis prōsīs prōsī´tis
prōdest prōsunt prōsit prōsint
Impf. prōderam prōderāmus prōdessem prodessē´mus
Fut. prōderō prōderimus —— ——
Perf. prōfuī prōfuimus prōfuerim prōfuerimus
Plup. prōfueram prōfuerāmus prōfuissem prōfuissēmus
F. P. prōfuerō prōfuerimus —— ——
Imperative
Pres. 2d Pers. prōdes, prōdeste Fut. 2d Pers. prōdestō, prōdestōte
Infinitive
Pres. prōdesse Perf. prōfuisse Fut. prōfutūrus, -a, -um esse
Future Participle prōfutūrus, -a, -um

497.

Principal
Parts

volō, velle, voluī, ——, be willing, will, wish

nōlō, nōlle, nōluī, ——, be unwilling, will not

mālō, mālle, māluī, ——, be more willing, prefer

Nōlō and mālō are compounds of volō. Nōlō is for ne (not) + volō, and mālō for (from magis, more) + volō. The second person vīs is from a different root.

Indicative
SINGULAR
Pres. volō nōlō mālō
vīs nōn vis māvīs
vult nōn vult māvult
PLURAL
volumus nōlumus mālumus
vultis nōn vultis māvul´tis
volunt nōlunt mālunt
Impf. volēbam nōlēbam mālēbam
Fut. volam, volēs, etc. nōlam, nōlēs, etc. mālam, mālēs, etc.
Perf. voluī nōluī māluī
Plup. volueram nōlueram mālueram
F. P. voluerō nōluerō māluerō
Subjunctive
SINGULAR
Pres. velim nōlim mālim
velīs nōlīs mālīs
velit nōlit mālit
PLURAL
velī´mus nōlī´mus mālī´mus
velī´tis nōlī´tis mālī´tis
velint nōlint mālint
Impf. vellem nōllem māllem
Perf. voluerim nōluerim māluerim
Plup. voluissem nōluissem māluissem
Imperative
Pres. —— nōlī
nōlīte
——
Fut. —— nōlītō, etc. ——
Infinitive
Pres. velle nōlle mālle
Perf. voluisse nōluisse māluisse
Participle
Pres. volēns, -entis nōlēns, -entis ——

498. ferō, bear, carry, endure

Principal Parts ferō, ferre, tulī, lātus
Pres. Stem fer-   Perf. Stem tul-   Part. Stem lāt-  
Indicative
ACTIVE PASSIVE
Pres. ferō ferimus feror ferimur
fers fertīs ferris, -re ferimimī
fert ferunt fertur feruntur
Impf. ferēbam ferēbar
Fut. feram, ferēs, etc. ferar, ferēris, etc.
Perf. tulī lātus, -a, -um sum
Plup. tuleram lātus, -a, -um eram
F. P. tulerō lātus, -a, -um erō
Subjunctive
Pres. feram, ferās, etc. ferar, ferāris, etc.
Impf. ferrem ferrer
Perf. tulerim lātus, -a, -um sim
Plup. tulissem lātus, -a, -um essem
Imperative
Pres. 2d Pers. fer ferte ferre feriminī
Fut. 2d Pers. fertō fertōte fertor
3d Pers. fertō ferunto fertor feruntor
Infinitive
Pres. ferre ferrī
Perf. tulisse lātus, -a, -um esse
Fut. lātūrus, -a, -um esse ——
Participles
Pres. ferēns, -entis Pres. ——
Fut. lātūrus, -a, -um Ger. ferendus, -a, -um
Perf. —— Perf. lātus, -a, -um
Gerund Supine (Active Voice)
Gen. ferendī Acc. ferendum Acc. [lātum]
Dat. ferendō Abl. ferendō Abl. [lātū]

499. , go

Principal Parts eō, īre, iī (īvī), ĭtum (n. perf. part.)
Pres. Stem ī-   Perf. Stem ī- or īv-   Part. Stem it-
Indicative Subjunctive Imperative
SING. PLUR.
Pres.
īs
it
īmus
ītis
eunt
eam 2d Pers. ī īte
Impf. ībam īrem
Fut. ībō —— 2d Pers. ītō
3d Pers. ītō
ītōte
euntō
Perf. iī (īvī) ierim (īverim)
Plup. ieram (īveram) īssem (īvissem)
F. P. ierō (īverō)
Infinitive Participles
Pres. īre Pres. iēns, gen. euntis (§ 472)
Perf. īsse (īvisse) Fut. itūrus, -a, -um
Fut. itūrus, -a, -um esse Ger. eundum
Gerund Supine
Gen. eundī Acc. [itum]
Dat. eundō Abl. [itū]
Acc. eundum
Abl. eundō

a. The verb is used impersonally in the third person singular of the passive, as ītur, itum est, etc.

b. In the perfect system the forms with v are very rare.

500. fīō, passive of faciō; be made, become, happen

Principal Parts fīō, fierī, factus sum
Indicative Subjunctive Imperative
Pres. fīō
fīs
fit
——
——
fīunt
fīam 2d Pers. fīte
Impf. fīēbam fierem
Fut. fīam ——
Perf. factus, -a, -um sum factus, -a, -um sim
Plup. factus, -a, -um eram factus, -a, -um essem
F. P. factus, -a, -um erō
Infinitive Participles
Pres. fierī Perf. factus, -a, -um
Perf. factus, -a, -um esse Ger. faciendus, -a, -um
Fut. [factum īrī]

Fortification protected by a wall and a ditch
CASTRA MURO FOSSAQUE MUNIUNTUR

APPENDIX II

501. RULES OF SYNTAX

Note. The rules of syntax are here classified and numbered consecutively. The number of the text section in which the rule appears is given at the end of each.

Nominative Case

1. The subject of a finite verb is in the nominative and answers the question Who? or What? § 36.

Agreement

2. A finite verb must always be in the same person and number as its subject. § 28.

3. A predicate noun agrees in case with the subject of the verb. § 76.

4. An appositive agrees in case with the noun which it explains. § 81.

5. Adjectives agree with their nouns in gender, number, and case. § 65.

6. A predicate adjective completing a complementary infinitive agrees in gender, number, and case with the subject of the main verb. § 215. a.

7. A relative pronoun must agree with its antecedent in gender and number; but its case is determined by the way it is used in its own clause. § 224.

Prepositions

8. A noun governed by a preposition must be in the accusative or ablative case. § 52.

Genitive Case

9. The word denoting the owner or possessor of something is in the genitive and answers the question Whose? § 38.

10. The possessive genitive often stands in the predicate, especially after the forms of sum, and is then called the predicate genitive. § 409.

11. Words denoting a part are often used with the genitive of the whole, known as the partitive genitive. § 331.

12. Numerical descriptions of measure are expressed by the genitive with a modifying adjective. § 443.

Dative Case

13. The indirect object of a verb is in the dative. § 45.

14. The dative of the indirect object is used with the intransitive verbs crēdō, faveō, noceō, pāreō, persuādeō, resistō, studeō, and others of like meaning. § 154.

15. Some verbs compounded with ad, ante, con, , in, inter, ob, post, prae, prō, sub, super, admit the dative of the indirect object. Transitive compounds may take both an accusative and a dative. § 426.

16. The dative is used with adjectives to denote the object toward which the given quality is directed. Such are, especially, those meaning near, also fit, friendly, pleasing, like, and their opposites. § 143.

17. The dative is used to denote the purpose or end for which; often with another dative denoting the person or thing affected. § 437.

Accusative Case

18. The direct object of a transitive verb is in the accusative and answers the question Whom? or What? § 37.

19. The subject of the infinitive is in the accusative. § 214.

20. The place to which is expressed by ad or in with the accusative. Before names of towns, small islands, domus, and rūs the preposition is omitted. §§ 263, 266.

21. Duration of time and extent of space are expressed by the accusative. § 336.

22. Verbs of making, choosing, calling, showing, and the like, may take a predicate accusative along with the direct object. With the passive voice the two accusatives become nominatives. § 392.

Ablative Case

23. Cause is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers the question Because of what? § 102.

24. Means is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers the question By means of what? or With what? § 103.

25. Accompaniment is denoted by the ablative with cum. This answers the question With whom? § 104.

26. The ablative with cum is used to denote the manner of an action. Cum may be omitted, if an adjective is used with the ablative. This answers the question How? or In what manner? § 105.

27. With comparatives and words implying comparison the ablative is used to denote the measure of difference. § 317.

28. The ablative of a noun or pronoun with a present or perfect participle in agreement is used to express attendant circumstance. This is called the ablative absolute. § 381.

29. 1. Descriptions of physical characteristics are expressed by the ablative with a modifying adjective. § 444.

2. Descriptions involving neither numerical statements nor physical characteristics may be expressed by either the genitive or the ablative with a modifying adjective. § 445.

30. The ablative is used to denote in what respect something is true. § 398.

31. The place from which is expressed by ā or ab, , ē or ex with the separative ablative. This answers the question Whence? Before names of towns, small islands, domus, and rūs the preposition is omitted. §§ 264, 266.

32. Words expressing separation or deprivation require an ablative to complete their meaning. This is called the ablative of separation. § 180.

33. The word expressing the person from whom an action starts, when not the subject, is put in the ablative with the preposition ā or ab. This is called the ablative of the personal agent. § 181.

34. The comparative degree, if quam is omitted, is followed by the separative ablative. § 309.

35. The time when or within which anything happens is expressed by the ablative without a preposition. § 275.

36. 1. The place at or in which is expressed by the ablative with in. This answers the question Where? Before names of towns, small islands, and rūs the preposition is omitted. §§ 265, 266.

2. Names of towns and small islands, if singular and of the first or second declension, and the word domus express the place in which by the locative. § 268.

Gerund and Gerundive

37. 1. The gerund is a verbal noun and is used only in the genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative singular. The constructions of these cases are in general the same as those of other nouns. § 406. 1.

2. The gerundive is a verbal adjective and must be used instead of gerund + object, excepting in the genitive and in the ablative without a preposition. Even in these instances the gerundive construction is more usual. § 406. 2.

38. The accusative of the gerund or gerundive with ad, or the genitive with causā, is used to express purpose. § 407.

Moods and Tenses of Verbs

39. Primary tenses are followed by primary tenses, and secondary by secondary. § 358.

40. The subjunctive is used in a dependent clause to express the purpose of the action in the principal clause. § 349.

41. A substantive clause of purpose with the subjunctive is used as object with verbs of commanding, urging, asking, persuading, or advising, where in English we should usually have the infinitive. § 366.

42. Verbs of fearing are followed by a substantive clause of purpose introduced by ut (that not) or (that or lest). § 372.

43. Consecutive clauses of result are introduced by ut or ut nōn, and have the verb in the subjunctive. § 385.

44. Object clauses of result with ut or ut nōn are found after verbs of effecting or bringing about. § 386.

45. A relative clause with the subjunctive is often used to describe an antecedent. This is called the subjunctive of characteristic or description. § 390.

46. The conjunction cum means when, since, or although. It is followed by the subjunctive unless it means when and its clause fixes the time at which the main action took place. § 396.

47. When a direct statement becomes indirect, the principal verb is changed to the infinitive, and its subject nominative becomes subject accusative of the infinitive. § 416.

48. The accusative-with-infinitive construction in indirect statements is found after verbs of saying, telling, knowing, thinking, and perceiving. § 419.

49. A present indicative of a direct statement becomes present infinitive of the indirect, a past indicative becomes perfect infinitive, and a future indicative becomes future infinitive. § 418.

50. In an indirect question the verb is in the subjunctive and its tense is determined by the law for tense sequence. § 432.

seated lady
DOMINA

APPENDIX III

REVIEWS1

1. It is suggested that each of these reviews be assigned for a written test.
I. REVIEW OF VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR THROUGH LESSON VIII

502. Give the English of the following words:1

Nouns

agricola
ancilla
aqua
casa
causa
cēna
corōna

dea
domina
fābula
fera
fīlia
fortūna
fuga

gallīna
iniūria
īnsula
lūna
nauta
pecūnia
puella

pugna
sagitta
silva
terra
tuba
via
victōria

Adjectives

alta
bona

clāra
grāta

lāta
longa

magna
mala

nova
parva

pulchra
sōla

Verbs

amat
dat

est
habitat

labōrat
laudat

nārrat
necat

nūntiat
parat

portat
pugnat

sunt
vocat

Prepositions Pronouns Adverbs Conjunctions Interrogative
Particle

ā or ab
ad
cum

ē or ex
in

mea
tua
quis
cuius
cui
quem
quid

cūr
deinde
nōn
ubi

et
quia
quod

-ne

1. Proper nouns and proper adjectives are not repeated in the reviews. Words used in Cassar’s “Gallic War” are in heavy type.

503. Give the Latin of the following words:1

Underline the words you do not remember. Do not look up a single word till you have gone through the entire list. Then drill on the words you have underlined.

flight
story
new
lives (verb)
away from
who
why
forest
wreath
deep, high
dinner
famous
cottage

battle (noun)

trumpet
lady, mistress
whom
island

wide
tells
money
calls
with
your

then, in the
next place

daughter
to whom
fortune
out from

labors (verb)

gives
small
in
and
sailor
farmer

goddess
wild beast

praises (verb)

alone
pleasing
prepares
are
to
because
arrow
my
kills
girl

fights (verb)

carries
chicken
victory
land

what
way
bad
loves
pretty
water
great
is
announces

injury, wrong

where
not
good
maid
down from
long
cause
whose

1. The translations of words used in Cæsar are in italics.

504. Review Questions. How many syllables has a Latin word? How are words divided into syllables? What is the ultima? the penult? the antepenult? When is a syllable short? When is a syllable long? What is the law of Latin accent? Define the subject of a sentence; the predicate; the object; the copula. What is inflection? declension? conjugation? What is the ending of the verb in the third person singular, and what in the plural? What does the form of a noun show? Name the Latin cases. What case is used for the subject? the direct object? the possessor? What relation is expressed by the dative case? Give the rule for the indirect object. How are questions answered in Latin? What is a predicate adjective? an attributive adjective? What is meant by agreement? Give the rule for the agreement of the adjective. What are the three relations expressed by the ablative? What can you say of the position of the possessive pronoun? the modifying genitive? the adjective? What is the base? What is grammatical gender? What is the rule for gender in the first declension? What are the general principles of Latin word order?

505. Fill out the following summary of the first declension:

The First or Ā-Declension 1. Ending in the nominative singular
2. Rule for gender
3. Case terminations a. Singular
b. Plural
4. Irregular nouns
Go on to Lesson IX
II. REVIEW OF LESSONS IX-XVII

506. Give the English of the following words:

Nouns of the First Declension

agrī cultūra
cōnstantia

cōpia
dīligentia

fāma
fēmina

galea
inopia

lacrima
lōrīca

patria
praeda

Nouns of the Second Declension

ager
amīcus
arma (plural)
auxilium
bellum
carrus
castrum

cibus
cōnsilium
domicilium
dominus
equus
fīlius
fluvius

frūmentum
gladius
lēgātus
līberī
magister
mūrus
numerus

oppidānus
oppidum
pīlum
populus
praemium
proelium
puer

scūtum
servus
studium
tēlum
vīcus
vir

Adjectives of the First and Second Declensons

aeger, aegra, aegrum
alius, alia, aliud
alter, altera, alterum
armātus, -a, -um
crēber, crēbra, crēbrum
dūrus, -a, -um
fīnitimus, -a, -um
īnfīrmus, -a, -um
legiōnārius, -a, -um
līber, lībera, līberum
mātūrus, -a, -um
meus, -a, -um
miser, misera, miserum
multus, -a, -um

neuter, neutra, neutrum
noster, nostra, nostrum
alter, altera, alterum
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum
sōlus, -a, -um
suus, -a, -um
fīnitimus, -a, -um
tuus, -a, -um
ūllus, -a, -um
ūnus, -a, -um
uter, utra, utrum
validus, -a, -um
vester, vestra, vestrum

Verbs Demonstrative
Pronoun
Adverbs

arat
cūrat
dēsīderat
mātūrat
properat

is, ea, id

Conjunctions

an
-que
sed

iam
quō
saepe

Preposition

apud

507. Give the Latin of the following words:

sword
corselet
man

your (plural)

hasten
but
among
tear (noun)
village
strong
long for
and (enclitic)
often
want (noun)
which (of two)
care for

or (in a question)

whither
wagon
townsman
wretched
ripe

war
number
my
free (adj.)
children
wall
grain
weapon
one
plow (verb)
this or that
already
helmet
river
zeal
any
he
son
slave

your (singular)

she
woman
horse

shield (noun)
whole
it
aid (noun)
legionary
weak
arms

master
(of school)

friend
neighboring
sick
lieutenant
field
report, rumor
abode
boy
his own
alone
prize (noun)

master (owner)

carefulness
plenty
troops

plan (noun)
people
beautiful
no (adj.)
our
battle
spear
food
steadiness
fatherland
town
fort
camp

neither (of two)

much
agriculture
other

the other (of two)

hard
booty
frequent
armed

508. Review Questions. How many declensions are there? What three things must be known about a noun before it can be declined? What three cases of neuter nouns are always alike, and in what do they end in the plural? What two plural cases are always alike? When is the vocative singular not like the nominative? What is a predicate noun? With what does it agree? What is an appositive? Give the rule for the agreement of an appositive. How can we tell whether a noun in -er is declined like puer or like ager? Decline bonus, līber, pulcher. How can we tell whether an adjective in -er is declined like līber or like pulcher? Why must we say nauta bonus and not nauta bona? Name the Latin possessive pronouns. How are they declined? With what does the possessive pronoun agree? When do we use tuus and when vester? Why is suus called a reflexive possessive? What is the non-reflexive possessive of the third person? When are possessives omitted? What four uses of the ablative case are covered by the relations expressed in English by with? Give an illustration in Latin of the ablative of manner; of the ablative of cause; of the ablative of means; of the ablative of accompaniment. What ablative regularly has cum? What ablative sometimes has cum? What uses of the ablative never have cum? Name the nine pronominal adjectives, with their meanings. Decline alius, nūllus. Decline is. What does is mean as a demonstrative adjective or pronoun? What other important use has it?

509. Fill out the following summary of the second declension:

The Second or
O-Declension
1. Endings in the nominative
2. Rule for gender
3. Case terminations of nouns in -us a. Singular
b. Plural
a. The vocative singular of nouns in -us
4. Case terminations of nouns in -um a. Singular
b. Plural
5. Peculiarities of nouns in -er and -ir
6. Peculiarities of nouns in -ius and -ium
Go on to Lesson XVIII
III. REVIEW OF LESSONS XVIII-XXVI

510. Give the English of the following words:

Nouns of the First Declension

disciplīna
fōrma

poena
potentia

rēgīna
superbia

trīstitia
Nouns of the Second Declension
lūdus ōrnāmentum sacrum socius verbum
Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions

amīcus
antīquus
fīnitimus

grātus
idōneus
inimīcus

interfectus
īrātus
laetus

molestus
perpetuus
proximus

septem
superbus

Adverbs Conjunctions Personal Pronoun

hodiē
ibi
maximē

mox
nunc
nūper

etiam
nōn sōlum ... sed etiam

ego

Verbs
CONJ. I CONJ. II CONJ. III CONJ. IV

volō, -āre



IRREGULAR VERB
sum, esse

dēleō, -ēre
doceō, -ēre
faveō, -ēre
habeō, -ēre
iubeō, -ēre
moneō, -ēre
moveō, -ēre
noceō, -ēre
pāreō, -ēre
persuādeō, -ēre
sedeō, -ēre
studeō, -ēre
videō, -ēre

agō, -ere
capiō, -ere
crēdō, -ere
dīcō, -ere
dūcō, -ere
faciō, -ere
fugiō, -ere
iaciō, -ere
mittō, -ere
rapiō, -ere
regō, -ere
resistō, -ere

audiō, -īre
mūniō, -īre
reperiō, -īre
veniō, -īre

511. Give the Latin of the following words. In the case of verbs always give the first form and the present infinitive.

ancient
come
resist
see
be
fly
I
proud
word
sadness
find
rule (verb)
be eager for

not only ...
but also

seven
ally, companion
pride
fortify
send
sit
also
school
hear
hurl
persuade
only

nearest
sacred rite
queen
flee
obey
lately
constant
ornament
power
make, do
injure
now
annoying
lead

move
soon
glad
punishment
believe
advise

especially,
most of all

angry
beauty
say
command (verb)
there
slain

training
take
have
to-day
unfriendly
drive
favor (verb)
suitable
pleasing
teach
neighboring
destroy
friendly
seize

512. Review Questions. What is conjugation? Name two important differences between conjugation in Latin and in English. What is tense? What is mood? What are the Latin moods? When do we use the indicative mood? Name the six tenses of the indicative. What are personal endings? Name those you have had. Inflect sum in the three tenses you have learned. How many regular conjugations are there? How are they distinguished? How is the present stem found? What tenses are formed from the present stem? What is the tense sign of the imperfect? What is the meaning of the imperfect? What is the tense sign of the future in the first two conjugations? in the last two? Before what letters is a final long vowel of the stem shortened? What are the three possible translations of a present, as of pugnō? Inflect arō, sedeō, mittō, faciō, and veniō, in the present, imperfect, and future active. What forms of -iō verbs of the third conjugation are like audiō? what like regō? Give the rule for the dative with adjectives. Name the special intransitive verbs that govern the dative. What does the imperative mood express? How is the present active imperative formed in the singular? in the plural? What three verbs have a shortened present active imperative? Give the present active imperative of portō, dēleō, agō, faciō, mūniō.

Go on to Lesson XXVII
IV. REVIEW OF LESSONS XXVII-XXXVI

513. Give the English of the following words:

Nouns of the First Declension
āla cūra mora porta prōvincia vīta
Nouns of the Second Declension

animus
aurum

bracchium
deus

locus
mōnstrum

nāvigium
ōrāculum

perīculum
ventus

vīnum

Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions

adversus
attentus
cārus

commōtus
dēfessus
dexter

dubius
maximus
perfidus

plēnus
saevus
sinister

Adverbs

anteā
celeriter
dēnique

diū
frūstrā
graviter

ita
longē
semper

subitō
tamen
tum

Conjunctions
autem ubi
Prepositions
per prō sine
Verbs
CONJ. I CONJ. II

adpropinquō
nāvigō
occupō
postulō

recūsō
reportō
servō
stō

superō
temptō
vāstō
vulnerō

contineō
egeō
prohibeō
respondeō
teneō

CONJ. III IRREGULAR VERB
discēdō gerō interficiō absum

514. Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs.

be away
wind
through
if
savage
wound (verb)
wine
delay
faithless
right
seize
quickly

before, in behalf of

battle

down from or concerning

moreover
greatest
oracle
danger
lay waste
gate
doubtful

opposite, adverse

demand
finally
attentive

then, at that time

weary

overcome,
conquer

boat, ship
sail (verb)
life
save
full
refuse
heavily
monster
approach
nevertheless
place

be without,
lack

moved
gold

restrain, keep from

without
hold
suddenly
dear
always
god

hold in, keep

afar

thus, so,
as follows

arm (noun)
when
in vain
stand

bring back, win

before,
previously

depart,
go away

province
care, trouble
kill

reply (verb)

wing
mind, heart
left (adj.)
bear, carry on
try

for a long time

515. Give the principal parts and meaning of the following verbs:

sum

teneō
iubeō
agō
mittō
mūniō

moveō
crēdō
rapiō
reperiō
dēleō
resistō
audiō

moneō
capiō
doceō
regō
faveō
noceō
dīcō

pāreō
dūcō
faciō
persuādeō
sedeō
studeō
fugiō

veniō
iaciō
videō
absum
egeō
gerō
stō

516. Review Questions. What are the personal endings in the passive voice? What is the letter -r sometimes called? What are the distinguishing vowels of the four conjugations? What forms constitute the principal parts? What are the three different conjugation stems? How may they be found? What are the tenses of the indicative? of the infinitive? What tense of the imperative have you learned? What forms are built on the present stem? on the perfect stem? on the participial stem? What are the endings of the perfect active indicative? What is the tense sign of the pluperfect active? of the future perfect active? How is the present active infinitive formed? the present passive infinitive? How is the present active imperative formed? the present passive imperative? How is the perfect active infinitive formed? the perfect passive infinitive? How is the future active infinitive formed? What is a participle? How are participles in -us declined? Give the rule for the agreement of the participle. How are the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect passive indicative formed? Conjugate the verb sum in all moods and tenses as far as you have learned it (§ 494). What is meant by the separative ablative? How is the place from which expressed in Latin? Give the rule for the ablative of separation; for the ablative of the personal agent. How can we distinguish between the ablative of means and the ablative of the personal agent? What is the perfect definite? the perfect indefinite? What is the difference in meaning between the perfect indefinite and the imperfect? What two cases in Latin may be governed by a preposition? Name the prepositions that govern the ablative. What does the preposition in mean when it governs the ablative? the accusative? What are the three interrogatives used to introduce yes-and-no questions? Explain the force of each. What words are sometimes used for yes and no? What are the different meanings and uses of ubi?

Go on to Lesson XXXVII
V. REVIEW OF LESSONS XXXVII-XLIV

517. Give the English of the following words:

Nouns
FIRST DECLENSION SECOND DECLENSION
rīpa

barbarī
captīvus

castellum
impedīmentum

THIRD DECLENSION

animal
arbor
avis
caedēs
calamitās
calcar
caput
cīvis
cliēns

collis
cōnsul
dēns
dux
eques
fīnis
flūmen
fōns
frāter

homō
hostīs
ignis
imperātor
īnsigne
iter
iūdex
labor
lapis

legiō
mare
māter
mēnsis
mīles
mōns
nāvis
opus
ōrātor

ōrdō
pater
pedes
pēs
pōns
prīnceps
rēx
salūs
sanguis

soror
tempus
terror
turris
urbs
victor
virtūs
vīs

Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions
barbarus dexter sinister summus
Prepositions Adverbs Conjunctions

in with the abl.
in with the acc.
trāns

cotīdiē
numquam

nec, neque

nec ... nec, or neque ... neque

Verbs
CONJ. I CONJ. III

cessō
confirmō

oppugnō
vetō

accipiō
incipiō

petō
ponō

vincō
vivō

518. Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs:

forbid
rank, row
brother
force
across
savages
horseman
never
mountain

manliness,
courage

leader
put, place
time

savage,
barbarous

sister
seek
captive

hindrance,
baggage

man-of-war
judge

defeat, disaster

fire
tree
foot soldier
receive
general
highest
fountain
orator

neither ... nor

and not
left
tooth
soldier
month
city
victor
daily
live (verb)

conquer
consul
mother
retainer
citizen
head
safety

assail, storm

begin
march
decoration
bridge
bird
cease
man
river

work (noun)

and
ship
bank

redoubt, fort
sea
tower

drill (verb)

legion
terror

into, to

right (adj.)
in
stone
blood

labor (noun)

king
spur
chief
slaughter
strengthen
foot
enemy
animal
father

519. Review Questions. Give the conjugation of possum. What is an infinitive? What three uses has the Latin infinitive that are like the English? What is the case of the subject of the infinitive? What is meant by a complementary infinitive? In the sentence The bad boy cannot be happy, what is the case of happy? Give the rule. Decline quī. Give the rule for the agreement of the relative. What are the two uses of the interrogative? Decline quis. What is the base of a noun? How is the stem formed from the base? Are the stem and the base ever the same? How many declensions of nouns are there? Name them. What are the two chief divisions of the third declension? How are the consonant stems classified? Explain the formation of lapis from the stem lapid-, mīles from mīlit-, rēx from rēg-. What nouns have i-stems? What peculiarities of form do i-stems have,—masc., fem., and neut.? Name the five nouns that have and -e in the abl. Decline turris. Give the rules for gender in the third declension. Decline mīles, lapis, rēx, virtūs, cōnsul, legiō, homō, pater, flūmen, opus, tempus, caput, caedēs, urbs, hostis, mare, animal, vīs, iter.

520. Fill out the following scheme:

The Third Declension Gender Endings Masculine
Feminine
Neuter
Case Terminations I. Consonant Stems a. Masc. and fem.
b. Neuters
II. I-Stems a. Masc. and fem.
b. Neuters
Irregular Nouns
Go on to Lesson XLV
VI. REVIEW OF LESSONS XLV-LII

521. Give the English of the following words:

Nouns
FIRST DECLENSION SECOND DECLENSION

amīcitia
hōra
littera

annus
modus
nūntius
oculus

rēgnum
signum

supplicium,
supplicium dare
supplicium sūmere dē

tergum,
tergum vertere

vestīgium

THIRD DECLENSION FOURTH DECLENSION

aestās
corpus
hiems
lībertās

lūx,
prīma lūx

nōmen

nox
pars
pāx
rūs
sōl
vōx
vulnus

adventus
cornū
domus
equitātus
exercitus
fluctus

impetus
lacus
manus
metus
portus

FIFTH DECLENSION INDECLINABLE NOUN

aciēs
diēs

fidēs,
in fidem venīre

rēs,
rēs gestae
rēs adversae
rēs pūblica
rēs secundae

spēs nihil
Adjectives
FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS THIRD DECLENSION

dēnsus
invīsus
mīrus
paucī
prīmus

prīstinus
pūblicus
secundus
tantus
vērus

ācer, ācris, ācre
brevis, breve
difficilis, difficile
facīlis, facile
fortis, forte

gravis, grave
incolumis, incolume
omnis, omne
pār, pār
vēlōx, vēlōx

Pronouns
PERSONAL DEMONSTRATIVE INTENSIVE INDEFINITE

ego
nōs
suī

vōs

hic
īdem
ille
iste

ipse

aliquis, aliquī
quīdam
quis, quī
quisquam
quisque

Adverbs Conjunctions Prepositions

nē ... quidem
ōlim

paene
quoque

satis
vērō

itaque
nisi

ante
post
propter

Verbs
CONJ. I CONJ. II CONJ. III CONJ. IV

conlocō
convocō
cremō
dēmōnstrō
mandō

dēbeō
exerceō
maneō
placeō
sustineō

committō,
committere proelium

dēcidō
ēripiō

sūmō,
sūmere supplicium dē

trādūcō
vertō

dēsiliō

522. Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs.

if not, unless

on account of

unharmed
public
commonwealth

leap down, dismount

lead across
remain

call together

friendship

footprint, trace

each

fear (noun)

hope
therefore

behind, after

so great
equal

in truth, indeed

that (yonder)

a certain
fall down
owe, ought

measure, mode

eye
name
wave, billow

thing, matter

exploits
republic
prosperity

adversity

former, old-time

all, every

any one (at all)

this (of mine)

heavy, serious

hateful, detested

true
burn
snatch from
letter
punishment

inflict
punishment on

suffer punishment
liberty
sun
sustain

take up, assume

hour
reign, realm
messenger

part, direction

body
harbor

faith, protection

of himself
also, too
sufficiently

burn

that (of yours)

before
you (plur.)
light
daybreak
winter
attack

line of battle

army
drill, train
join battle
house, home
midday
wonderful
brave
almost
the same
some, any

if any one

self, very
not even
easy
dense

point out, explain

difficult
first

arrange, station

please
year

peace
back

turn the back, retreat

night

hand, force

lake
day

commit, intrust

a few only

sharp, eager

we
turn
you (sing.)
I
signal
summer
cavalry
wound
horn, wing
country

second, favorable

short
voice

formerly, once

arrival

come under the
protection of

swift
nothing

523. Review Questions. By what declensions are Latin adjectives declined? What can you say about the stem of adjectives of the third declension? Into what classes are these adjectives divided? How can you tell to which of the classes an adjective belongs? Decline ācer, omnis, pār. What are the nominative endings and genders of nouns of the fourth or u-declension? What nouns are feminine by exception? Decline adventus, lacus, cornū, domus. Give the rules for the ordinary expression of the place to which, the place from which, the place in which. What special rules apply to names of towns, small islands, and rūs? What is the locative case? What words have a locative case? What is the form of the locative case? Translate Galba lives at home, Galba lives at Rome, Galba lives at Pompeii. What is the rule for gender in the fifth or ē-declension? Decline diēs, rēs. When is the long ē shortened? What can you say about the plural of the fifth declension? Decline tuba, servus, pīlum, ager, puer, mīles, cōnsul, flūmen, caedēs, animal. How is the time when expressed? Name the classes of pronouns and define each class. Decline ego, tū, is. What are the reflexives of the first and second persons? What is the reflexive of the third person? Decline it. Translate I see myself, he sees himself, he sees him. Decline ipse. How is ipse used? Decline īdem. Decline hic, iste, ille. Explain the use of these words. Name and translate the commoner indefinite pronouns. Decline aliquis, quisquam, quīdam, quisque.

Go on to Lesson LIII
VII. REVIEW OF LESSONS LIII-LX

524. Give the English of the following words:

Nouns
FIRST DECLENSION SECOND DECLENSION

aquila
fossa

aedificium
captīvus
concilium

imperium
negōtium

spatium
vāllum

THIRD DECLENSION

agmen
celeritās
cīvitās
clāmor
cohors
difficultās
explōrātor

gēns
lātitūdō
longitūdō
magnitūdō
mēns
mercātor
mīlle

mors
mulier
multitūdō
mūnītiō
nēmō
obses
opīniō

regiō
rūmor
scelus
servitūs
timor
vallēs

FOURTH DECLENSION FIFTH DECLENSION

aditus
commeātus

passus rēs frūmentāria
Adjectives
FIRST AND SECOND DECLENSIONS

aequus
bīnī
ducentī
duo
exterus
īnferus

maximus
medius
minimus
opportūnus
optimus
pessimus

plūrimus
posterus
prīmus
reliquus
secundus

singulī
superus
tardus
ternī
ūnus

THIRD DECLENSION

alacer, alacris, alacre
audāx, audāx
celer, celeris, celere
citerior, citerius
difficilis, difficile
dissimilis, dissimile
facilis, facile
gracilis, gracile

humilis, humile
ingēns, ingēns
interior, interius
lēnis, lēne
maior, maius
melior, melius
minor, minus
nōbilis, nōbile

peior, peius
——, plūs
prior, prius
recēns, recēns
similis, simile
trēs, tria
ulterior, ulterius

Adverbs

ācriter
audācter
bene
facile
ferē
fortiter

magis
magnopere
maximē
melius
minimē
multum

optimē
parum
paulō
plūrimum
prope
propius

proximē
quam
statim
tam
undique

Conjunctions Prepositions

atque, ac
aut
aut ... aut
et ... et
nam

quā dē causā
quam ob rem

simul atque or
simul ac

circum
contrā
inter
ob
trāns

Verbs
CONJ. I CONJ. II

cōnor
hortor

moror
vexō

obtineō
perterreō

valeō
vereor

CONJ. III

abdō
cadō
cognōscō
cōnsequor
contendō
cupiō
currō

dēdō
dēfendō
ēgredior
incendō
incolō
īnsequor
occīdō

patior
premō
proficīscor
prōgredior
quaerō
recipiō
relinquō

revertor
sequor
statuō
subsequor
suscipiō
trādō
trahō

CONJ. III
orior perveniō

525. Translate the following words. Give the genitive and the gender of the nouns and the principal parts of the verbs:

on account of
nearly

keenly, sharply

thousand
two
opportune
remaining
above (adj.)
next

grain supply

pace
shout (noun)

from all sides

against
around
three
further

line of march

manor
region
fortification
eagle
almost
boldly
bravely
across

between, among

hither (adj.)
so
less
more
most
worst
difficulty
hostage
death

command, power

captive
or
and
arrive

attempt, try

length

width
scout
cohort

tribe, nation

business

by a little

somewhat
crime
difficult
equal

move forward,
advance

multitude
woman
desire (verb)

give over,
surrender

kill
overtake

hasten, strive

hide
one
first

second, favorable

two hundred
former
inner
middle
low
outward

three by three

provisions
speed
ditch

wherefore or
therefore

for this reason
fear (noun)
return
inquire
set out

move out, disembark

fear (verb)
worse

greater, larger

two by two

least (adv.)

opinion,
expectation

approach, entrance

trader

magnitude, size

council, assembly

space, room

either ... or

rise, arise

suffer, allow

press hard

fall
surrender

set fire to

defend

possess, hold

delay (verb)

nearest (adv.)

nearer (adv.)

better (adj.)

well known, noble

mild, gentle

swift
eager
low (adj.)
slender

one by one

no one

least (adv.)

little (adv.)

learn, know

drag
undertake
run
fix, decide

leave
abandon
be strong

receive, recover

terrify, frighten

dwell

state, citizenship

valley
slavery
greatly

best of all (adv.)

better (adv.)
well (adv.)
very much
much
unlike
like (adj.)
slow

very greatly,
exceedingly

building
mind (noun)
easily
easy
recent
huge, great
bold
immediately
as soon as
for
than
best (adj.)
greatest
follow close
encourage

annoy, ravage

hide
follow
pursue

both ... and

rampart

526. Review Questions. What is meant by comparison? In what two ways may adjectives be compared? Compare clārus, brevis, vēlōx, and explain the formation of the comparative and the superlative. What are the adverbs used in comparison? Compare brevis by adverbs. Decline the comparative of vēlōx. How are adjectives in -er compared? Compare ācer, pulcher, liber. What are possible translations for the comparative and superlative? Name the six adjectives that form the superlative in -limus. Translate in two ways Nothing is brighter than the sun. Give the rule for the ablative with comparatives. Compare bonus, magnus, malus, multus, parvus, exterus, īnferus, posterus, superus. Decline plūs. Compare citerior, interior, propior, ulterior. Translate That route to Italy is much shorter. Give the rule for the expression of measure of difference. Name five words that are especially common in this construction. How are adverbs usually formed from adjectives of the first and second declensions? from adjectives of the third declension? Compare the adverbs cārē, līberē, fortiter, audācter. What cases of adjectives are sometimes used as adverbs? What are the adverbs from facilis? multus? prīmus? plūrimus? bonus? magnus? parvus? Compare prope, saepe, magnopere. How are numerals classified? Give the first twenty cardinals. Decline ūnus, duo, trēs, mīlle. How are the hundreds declined? What is meant by the partitive genitive? Give the rule for the partitive genitive. What sort of words are commonly used with this construction? What construction is used with quīdam and cardinal numbers excepting mīlle? Give the first twenty ordinals. How are they declined? How are the distributives declined? Give the rule for the expression of duration of time and extent of space. What is the difference between the ablative of time and the accusative of time? What is a deponent verb? Give the synopsis of one. What form always has a passive meaning? Conjugate amō, moneō, regō, capiō, audiō, in the active and passive.

Go on to Lesson LXI
VIII. REVIEW OF LESSONS LXI-LXIX

527. Review the vocabularies of the first seventeen lessons. See §§ 502, 503, 506, 507.

528. Review Questions. Name the tenses of the subjunctive. What time is denoted by these tenses? What are the mood signs of the present subjunctive? How may the imperfect subjunctive be formed? How do the perfect subjunctive and the future perfect indicative active differ in form? How is the pluperfect subjunctive active formed? Inflect the subjunctive active and passive of cūrō, dēleō, vincō, rapiō, mūniō. Inflect the subjunctive tenses of sum; of possum. What are the tenses of the participles in the active? What in the passive? Give the active and passive participles of amō, moneō, regō, capiō, audiō. Decline regēns. What participles do deponent verbs have? What is the difference in meaning between the perfect participle of a deponent verb and of one not deponent? Give the participles of vereor. How should participles usually be translated? Conjugate volō, nolō, mālō, fīō.

What is the difference between the indicative and subjunctive in their fundamental ideas? How is purpose usually expressed in English? How is it expressed in Latin? By what words is a Latin purpose clause introduced? When should quō be used? What is meant by sequence of tenses? Name the primary tenses of the indicative and of the subjunctive; the secondary tenses. What Latin verbs are regularly followed by substantive clauses of purpose? What construction follows iubeō? What construction follows verbs of fearing? How is consequence or result expressed in Latin? How is a result clause introduced? What words are often found in the principal clause foreshadowing the coming of a result clause? How may negative purpose be distinguished from negative result? What is meant by the subjunctive of characteristic or description? How are such clauses introduced? Explain the ablative absolute. Why is the ablative absolute of such frequent occurrence in Latin? Explain the predicate accusative. After what verbs are two accusatives commonly found? What do these accusatives become when the verb is passive?

Go on to Lesson LXX

coin showing general commanding soldiers
IMPERATOR MILITES HORTATUR

SPECIAL VOCABULARIES

The words in heavy type are used in Cæsar’s “Gallic War.”
LESSON IV, § 39
Nouns
dea, goddess (deity)
Diā´na, Diana
fera, a wild beast (fierce)
Lātō´na, Latona
sagit´ta, arrow
Verbs
est, he (she, it) is; sunt, they are
necat, he (she, it) kills, is killing, does kill
Conjunction1
et, and
Pronouns
quis, interrog. pronoun, nom. sing., who?
cuius (pronounced co͝oi´yo͝os, two syllables), interrog. pronoun, gen. sing., whose?
1. A conjunction is a word which connects words, parts of sentences, or sentences.
LESSON V, § 47
Nouns
corō´na, wreath, garland, crown
fā´bula, story (fable)
pecū´nia, money (pecuniary)
pugna, battle (pugnacious)
victō´ria, victory
Verbs
dat, he (she, it) gives
nārrat, he (she, it) tells (narrate)
Conjunction1
quia or quod, because
Pronoun
cui (pronounced co͝oi, one syllable), interrog. pronoun, dat. sing., to whom? for whom?
1. A conjunction is a word which connects words, parts of sentences, or sentences.
LESSON VI, § 56
Adjectives
bona, good
grāta, pleasing
magna, large, great
mala, bad, wicked
parva, small, little
pulchra, beautiful, pretty
sōla, alone
Nouns
ancil´la, maidservant
Iūlia, Julia
Adverbs1
cūr, why
nōn, not
Pronouns
mea, my; tua, thy, your (possesives)
quid, interrog. pronoun, nom. and acc. sing., what?
-ne, the question sign, an enclitic (§ 16) added to the first word, which, in a question, is usually the verb, as amat, he loves, but amat´ne? does he love? est, he is; estne? is he? Of course -ne is not used when the sentence contains quis, cūr, or some other interrogative word.
1. An adverb is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb; as, She sings sweetly; she is very talented; she began to sing very early.
LESSON VII, § 62
Nouns
casa, -ae, f., cottage
cēna, -ae, f., dinner
gallī´na, -ae, f., hen, chicken
īn´sula, ae, f., island (pen-insula)
Adverbs
de-in´de, then, in the next place
ubi, where
Preposition
ad, to, with acc. to express motion toward
Verbs
ha´bitat, he (she, it) lives, is living, does live (inhabit)
laudat, he (she, it) praises, is praising, does praise (laud)
parat, he (she, it) prepares, is preparing, does prepare
vocat, he (she, it) calls, is calling, does call; invites, is inviting, does invite (vocation)
Pronoun
quem, interrog. pronoun, acc. sing., whom?
LESSON VIII, § 69
Nouns
Italia, -ae, f., Italy
Sicilia, -ae, f., Sicily
tuba, -ae, f., trumpet (tube)
via, -ae, f., way, road, street (viaduct)
Adjectives
alta, high, deep (altitude)
clāra, clear, bright; famous
lāta, wide (latitude)
longa, long (longitude)
nova, new (novelty)
LESSON IX, § 77
Nouns
bellum, -ī, n., war (re-bel)
cōnstantia, -ae, f., firmness, constancy, steadiness
dominus, -ī, m., master, lord (dominate)
equus, -ī, m., horse (equine)
frūmentum, -ī, n., grain
lēgātus, -ī, m., lieutenant, ambassador (legate)
Mārcus, -ī, m., Marcus, Mark
mūrus, -ī, m., wall (mural)
oppidānus, -ī, m., townsman
oppidum, -ī, n., town
pīlum, -ī, n., spear (pile driver)
servus, -ī, m., slave, servant
Sextus, -ī, m., Sextus
Verbs
cūrat, he (she, it) cares for, with acc.
properat, he (she, it) hastens
LESSON X, § 82
Nouns
amīcus, -ī, m., friend (amicable)
Germānia, -ae, f., Germany
patria, -ae, f., fatherland
populus, -ī, m., people
Rhēnus, -ī, m., the Rhine
vīcus, -ī, m., village
LESSON XI, § 86
Nouns
arma, armōrum, n., plur., arms, especially defensive weapons
fāma, -ae, f., rumor; reputation, fame
galea, -ae, f., helmet
praeda, -ae, f., booty, spoils (predatory)
tēlum, -ī, n., weapon of offense, spear
Adjectives
dūrus, -a, -um, hard, rough; unfeeling, cruel; severe, toilsome (durable)
Rōmānus, -a, -um, Roman. As a noun, Rōmānus, -ī, m., a Roman
LESSON XII, § 90
Nouns
fīlius, fīlī, m., son (filial)
fluvius, fluvī, m., river (fluent)
gladius, gladī, m., sword (gladiator)
praesidium, praesi´dī, n., garrison, guard, protection
proelium, proelī, n., battle
Adjectives
fīnitimus, -a, -um, bordering upon, neighboring, near to. As a noun, fīnitimī, -ōrum, m., plur., neighbors
Germānus, -a, -um, German. As a noun, Germānus, -ī, m., a German
multus, -a, -um, much; plur., many
Adverb
saepe, often
LESSON XIII, § 95
Nouns
ager, agrī, m., field (acre)
cōpia, -ae, f., plenty, abundance (copious); plur., troops, forces
Cornēlius, Cornē´lī, m., Cornelius
lōrī´ca, -ae, f., coat of mail, corselet
praemium, praemī, n., reward, prize (premium)
puer, puerī, m., boy (puerile)
Rōma, -ae, f., Rome
scūtum, -ī, n., shield (escutcheon)
vir, virī, m., man, hero (virile)
Adjectives
legiōnārius, -a, -um,1 legionary, belonging to the legion. As a noun, legiōnāriī, -ōrum, m., plur., legionary soldiers
līber, lībera, līberum, free (liberty) As a noun. līberī, -ōrum, m., plur., children (lit. the freeborn)
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum, pretty, beautiful
Preposition
apud, among, with acc.
Conjunction
sed, but
1. The genitive singular masculine of adjectives in -ius ends in -iī and the vocative in -ie; not in , as in nouns.
LESSON XIV, § 99
Nouns
auxilium, auxi´lī, n., help, aid (auxiliary)
castrum, -ī, n., fort (castle); plur., camp (lit. forts)
cibus, -ī, m., food
cōnsilium, cōnsi´lī, n., plan (counsel)
dīligentia, -ae, f., diligence, industry
magister, magistrī, m., master, teacher1
Adjectives
aeger, aegra, aegrum, sick
crēber, crēbra, crēbrum, frequent
miser, misera, miserum, wretched, unfortunate (miser)
1. Observe that dominus, as distinguished from magister, means master in the sense of owner.
LESSON XV, § 107
Nouns
carrus, -ī, m., cart, wagon
inopia, -ae, f., want, lack; the opposite of cōpia
studium, studī, n., zeal, eagerness (study)
Verb
mātūrat, he (she, it) hastens. Cf. properat
Adjectives
armātus, -a, -um, armed
īnfīrmus, -a, -um, week, feeble (infirm)
vali´dus, -a, -um, strong, sturdy
Adverb
iam, already, now
-que, conjunction, and; an enclitic (cf. § 16) and always added to the second of two words to be connected, as arma tēla´que, arms and weapons.
LESSON XVII, § 117
Nouns
agrī cultūra, -ae, f., agriculture
domicilīum, domīci´lī, n., dwelling place (domicile) abode
fēmina, -ae, f., woman (female)
Gallia, -ae, f., Gaul
Gallus, -i, m., a Gaul
lacrima, -ae, f., tear
numerus, -ī, m., number (numeral)
Adjective
mātūrus, -a, -um, ripe, mature
Verbs
arat, he (she, it) plows (arable)
dēsīderat, he (she, it) misses, longs for (desire), with acc.
Adverb
quō, whither
Conjunction
an, or, introducing the second half of a double question, as Is he a Roman or a Gaul, Estne Romanus an Gallus?
LESSON XVIII, § 124
Nouns
lūdus, -ī, m.,school
socius, socī, m., companion, ally (social)
Adjectives
īrātus, -a, -um, angry, furious (irate)
laetus, -a, -um, happy, glad (social)
Adverbs
hodiē, to-day
ibi, there, in that place
mox, presently, soon, of the immediate future
nunc, now, the present moment
nūper, lately, recently, of the immediate past
LESSON XX, § 136
Nouns
fōrma, -ae, f., form, beauty
poena, -ae, f., punishment, penalty
potentia, -ae, f., power (potent)
regīna, -ae, f., queen (regal)
superbia, -ae, f., pride, haughtiness
trīstītīa, -ae, f., sadness, sorrow
Adjectives
septem, indeclinable, seven
superbus, -a, -um, proud, haughty (superb)
Conjunctions
nōn sōlum ... sed etiam, not only ... but also
LESSON XXI, § 140
Nouns
sacrum, -ī, n., sacrifice, offering, rite
verbum, -ī, n., word (verb)
Verbs
sedeō, -ēre, sit (sediment)
volō, -āre, fly (volatile)
Adjectives
interfectus, -a, -um, slain
molestus, -a, -um, troublesome, annoying (molest)
perpetuus, -a, -um, perpetual, continuous
ego, personal pronoun, I (egotism). Always emphatic in the nominative.
LESSON XXII, § 146
Nouns
disciplīna, -ae, f., training, culture, discipline
ōrnāmentum, -ī, n., ornament, jewel
Gāius, Gāī, m., Caius, a Roman first name
Tiberius, Tibe´rī, m., Tiberius, a Roman first name
Verb
doceō, -ēre, teach (doctrine)
Adverb
maximē, most of all, especially
Adjective
antīquus, -qua, -quum, old, ancient (antique)
LESSON XXVII, § 168
Nouns
āla, -ae, f., wing
deus, -ī, m., god (deity)1
monstrum, -ī, n., omen, prodigy; monster
ōrāculum, -ī, n., oracle
Verb
vāstō, -āre, lay waste, devastate
Adjectives
commōtus, -a, -um, moved, excited
maximus, -a, -um, greatest (maximum)
saevus, -a, -um, fierce, savage
Adverbs
ita, thus, in this way, as follows
tum, then, at that time
1. For the declension of deus, see § 468
LESSON XXVIII, § 171
Verbs
respondeō, -ēre, respond, reply
servō, -āre, save, preserve
Adjective
cārus, -a, -um, dear (cherish)
Conjunction
autem, but, moreover, now. Usually
stands second, never first
Noun
vīta, -ae, f., life (vital)
LESSON XXIX, § 176
Verb
superō, -āre, conquer, overcome (insuperable)
Nouns
cūra, -ae, f., care, trouble
locus, -ī, m., place, spot (location). Locus is neuter in the plural and is declined loca, -ōrum, etc.
perīculum, -ī, n., danger, peril
Adverbs
semper, always
tamen, yet, nevertheless
Prepositions
, with abl., down from; concerning
per, with acc., through
Conjunction
si, if
LESSON XXX, § 182
Verbs
absum, abesse, irreg., be away, be absent, be distant, with separative abl.
adpropinquō, -āre, draw near, approach (propinquity), with dative1
contineō, -ēre, hold together, hem in, keep (contain)
discēdō, -ere, depart, go away, leave, with separative abl.
egeō, -ēre, lack, need, be without, with separative abl.
interficiō, -ere, kill
prohibeō, -ēre, restrain, keep from (prohibit)
vulnerō, -āre, wound (vulnerable)
Nouns
prōvincia, -ae, f., province
vīnum, -ī, n., wine
Adjective
dēfessus, -a, -um, weary, worn out
Adverb
longē, far, by far, far away
1. This verb governs the dative because the idea of nearness to is stronger than that of motion to. If the latter idea were the stronger, the word would be used with ad and the accusative.
LESSON XXXI, § 188
Nouns
aurum, -ī, n., gold (oriole)
mora, -ae, f., delay
nāvigium, nāvi´gī, n., boat, ship
ventus, -ī, m., wind (ventilate)
Verb
nāvigō, -āre, sail (navigate)
Adjectives
attentus, -a, -um, attentive, careful
dubius, -a, -um, doubtful (dubious)
perfidus, -a, -um, faithless, treacherous (perfidy)
Adverb
anteā, before, previously
Preposition
sine, with abl., without
LESSON XXXII, § 193
Nouns
animus, -ī, m., mind, heart; spirit, feeling (animate)
bracchium, bracchī, n., forearm, arm
porta, -ae, f., gate (portal)
Adjectives
adversus, -a, -um, opposite; adverse, contrary
plēnus, -a, -um, full (plenty)
Preposition
prō, with abl., before; in behalf of; instead of
Adverb
diū, for a long time, long
LESSON XXXIV, § 200
Adverbs
celeriter, quickly (celerity)
dēnique, finally
graviter, heavily, severely (gravity)
subitō, suddenly
Verb
reportō, -āre, -āvī, bring back, restore; win, gain (report)
LESSON XXXVI, § 211
dexter, dextra, dextrum, right (dextrous)
sinister, sinistra, sinistrum, left
frūstrā, adv., in vain (frustrate)
gerō, gerere, gessī, gestus, bear, carry on; wear; bellum gerere, to wage war
occupō, occupāre, occupāvī, occupātus, seize, take possession of (occupy)
postulō, postulāre, postulāvī, postulātus, demand (ex-postulate)
recūsō, recūsāre, recūsāvī, recūsātus, refuse
stō, stāre, stetī, status, stand
temptō, temptāre, temptāvī, temptātus, try, tempt, test; attempt
teneō, tenēre, tenuī, ——, keep, hold (tenacious)

The word ubi, which we have used so much in the sense of where in asking a question, has two other uses equally important:
1. ubi = when, as a relative conjunction denoting time; as,
Ubi mōnstrum audīvērunt, fūgērunt, when they heard the monster, they fled
2. ubi = where, as a relative conjunction denoting place; as,
Videō oppidum ubi Galba habitat, I see the town where Galba lives
Ubi is called a relative conjunction because it is equivalent to a relative pronoun. When in the first sentence is equivalent to at the time at which; and in the second, where is equivalent to the place in which.
LESSON XXXVII, § 217
neque or nec, conj., neither, nor, and ... not; neque ... neque, neither ... nor
castellum, -ī, n., redoubt, fort (castle)
cotīdiē, adv., daily
cessō, cessāre, cessāvī, cessātus, cease, with the infin.
incipiō, incipere, incēpī, inceptus, begin (incipient), with the infin.
oppugnō, oppugnāre, oppugnāvī, oppugnātus, storm, assail
petō, petere, petivi or petiī, petītus, aim at, assail, storm, attack; seek, ask (petition)
pōnō, pōnere, posuī, positus, place, put (position); castra pōnere, to pitch camp
possum, posse, potuī, ——, be able, can (potent), with the infin.
vetō, vetāre, vetuī, vetitus, forbid (veto), vith the infin.; opposite of iubeō, command
vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus, conquer (in-vincible)
vīvō, vīvere, vīxī, ——, live, be alive (re-vive)
LESSON XXXIX, § 234
barbarus, -a, -um, strange, foreign, barbarous. As a noun, barbarī, -ōrum, m., plur., savages, barbarians
dux, ducis, m., leader (duke). Cf. the verb dūcō
eques, equitis, m., horseman, cavalryman (equestrian)
iūdex, iūdicis, m., judge
lapis, lapidis, m., stone (lapidary)
mīles, mīlitis, m., soldier (militia)
pedes, peditis, m., foot soldier (pedestrian)
pēs, pedis,1 m., foot (pedal)
prīnceps, prīncipis, m., chief (principal)
rēx, rēgis, m., king (regal)
summus, -a, -um, highest, greatest (summit)
virtūs, virtūtis, f., manliness, courage (virtue)
1. Observe that e is long in the nom. sing, and short in the other cases.
LESSON XL, § 237
Caesar, -aris, m., Cæsar
captīvus, -ī, m., captive, prisoner
cōnsul, -is, m., consul
frāter, frātris, m., brother (fraternity)
homō, hominis, m., man, human being
impedīmentum, -ī, n., hindrance (impediment); plur. impedīmenta, -ōrum, baggage
imperātor, imperātōris, m., commander in chief, general (emperor)
legiō, legiōnis, f., legion
māter, mātris, f., mother (maternal)
ōrdō, ōrdinis, m., row, rank (order)
pater, patris, m., father (paternal)
salūs, salūtis, f., safety (salutary)
soror, sorōris, f., sister (sorority)
LESSON XLI, § 239
calamitās, calamitātis, f., loss, disaster, defeat (calamity)
caput, capitis, n., head (capital)
flūmen, flūminis, n., river (flume)
labor, labōris, m., labor, toil
opus, operis, n., work, task
ōrātor, ōrātōris, m., orator
rīpa, -ae, f., bank (of a stream)
tempus, temporis, n., time (temporal)
terror, terrōris, m., terror, fear
victor, victōris, m., victor
accipiō, accipere, accēpī, acceptus, receive, accept
cōnfirmō, cōnfīrmāre, cōnfīrmāvī, cōnfīrmātus, strengthen, establish, encourage (confirm)
LESSON XLIII, § 245
animal, animālis (-ium1), n., animal
avis, avis (-ium), f., bird (aviation)
caedēs, caedīs (-ium), f., slaughter
calcar, calcāris (-ium), n., spur
cīvis, cīvis (-ium), m. and f., citizen (civic)
cliēns, clientis (-ium), m., retainer, dependent (client)
fīnis, fīnis (-ium), m., end, limit (final); plur., country, territory
hostis, hostis (-ium), m. and f., enemy in war (hostile). Distinguish from inimīcus, which means a personal enemy
ignis, ignis (-ium), m., fire (ignite)
īnsigne, īnsignis (-ium), n. decoration, badge (ensign)
mare, maris (-ium2), n., sea (marine)
nāvis, nāvis (-ium), f., ship (naval);
nāvis longa, man-of-war
turris, turris (-ium), f., tower (turret)
urbs, urbis (-ium), f., city (suburb). An urbs is larger than an oppidum.
1. The genitive plural ending -ium is written to mark the i-stems.
2. The genitive plural of mare is not in use.
LESSON XLIV, § 249
arbor, arboris, f., tree (arbor)
collis, collis (-ium), m., hill
dēns, dentis (-ium), m., tooth (dentist)
fōns, fontis (-ium), m.. fountain, spring; source
iter, itineris, n., march, journey, route (itinerary)
mēnsis, mēnsis (-ium), m., month
moenia, -ium, n., plur., walls, fortifications. Cf. mūrus
mōns, montis (-ium), m., mountain;
summus mōns, top of the mountain
numquam, adv., never
pōns, pontis, m., bridge (pontoon)
sanguis, sanguinis, m., blood (sanguinary)
summus, -a, -um, highest, greatest (summit)
trāns, prep, with acc., across (transatlantic)
vīs (vīs), gen. plur. virium, f. strength, force, violence (vim)
LESSON XLV, § 258
ācer, ācris, ācre, sharp, keen, eager (acrid)
brevis, breve, short, brief
difficilis, difficile, difficult
facilis, facile, facile, easy
fortis, forte, brave (fortitude)
gravis, grave, heavy, severe, serious (grave)
omnis, omne, every, all (omnibus)
pār, gen. paris, equal (par)
paucī, -ae, -a, few, only a few (paucity)
secundus, -a, -um, second; favorable, opposite of adversus
signum, -ī, n., signal, sign, standard
vēlōx, gen. vēlōcis, swift (velocity)
conlocō, conlocāre, conlocāvī, conlocātus, arrange, station, place (collocation)
dēmōnstrō, dēmōnstrāre, dēmōnstrāvī, dēmōnstrātus, point out, explain (demonstrate)
mandō, mandāre, mandāvī, mandātus, commit, intrust (mandate)
LESSON XLVI, § 261
adventus, -ūs, m., approach, arrival (advent)
ante, prep, with acc., before (ante-date)
cornū, -ūs, n., horn, wing of an army (cornucopia);
ā dextrō cornū, on the right wing;
ā sinistrō cornū, on the left wing
equitātus, -ūs, m., cavalry
exercitus, -ūs, m., army
impetus, -ūs, m., attack (impetus); impetum facere in, with acc., to make an attack on
lacus, -ūs, dat. and abl. plur. lacubus, m., lake
manus, -ūs, f., hand; band, force (manual)
portus, -ūs, m., harbor (port)
post, prep, with acc., behind, after (post-mortem)
cremō, cremāre, cremāvī, cremātus, burn (cremate)
exerceō, exercēre, exercuī, exercitus, practice, drill, train (exercise)
LESSON XLVII, § 270
Athēnae, -ārum, f., plur., Athens
Corinthus, -ī, f., Corinth
domus, -ūs, locative domī, f., house, home (dome). Cf. domicilium
Genāva, -ae, f., Geneva
Pompēii, -ōrum, m., plur., Pompeii, a city in Campania. See map
propter, prep. with acc., on account of, because of
rūs, rūris, in the plur. only nom. and acc. rūra, n., country (rustic)
tergum, tergī, n., back; ā tergō, behind, in the rear
vulnus, vulneris, n., wound (vulnerable)
committō, committere, commīsī, commissus, intrust, commit; proelium committere, join battle
convocō, convocāre, convocāvī, convocātus, call together, summon (convoke)
timeō, timēre, timuī, ——, fear; be afraid (timid)
vertō, vertere, vertī, versus, turn, change (convert); terga vertere, to turn the backs, hence to retreat
LESSON XLVIII, § 276
aciēs, -ēī, f., line of battle
aestās, aestātis, f., summer
annus, -ī, m., year (annual)
diēs, diēī, m., day (diary)
fidēs, fideī, no plur., f., faith, trust; promise, word; protection; in fidem venīre, to come under the protection
fluctus, -ūs, m. wave, billow (fluctuate)
hiems, hiemis, f., winter
hōra, -ae, f., hour
lūx, lūcis, f., light (lucid); prīma lux, daybreak
merīdiēs, acc. -em, abl. , no plur., m., midday (meridian)
nox, noctis (-ium), f., night (nocturnal)
prīmus, -a, -um, first (prime)
rēs, reī, f., thing, matter (real);
rēs gestae, deeds, exploits (lit. things performed); rēs adversae, adversity; rēs secundae, prosperity
spēs, speī, f., hope
LESSON XLIX, § 283
amīcitia, -ae, f., friendship (amicable)
itaque, conj., and so, therefore, accordingly
littera, -ae, f., a letter of the alphabet;
plur., a letter, an epistle
metus, metūs, m., fear
nihil, indeclinable, n., nothing (nihilist)
nūntius, nūntī, m., messenger. Cf. nūntiō
pāx, pācis, f., peace (pacify)
rēgnum, -ī, n., reign, sovereignty, kingdom
supplicum, suppli´cī, n., punishment;
supplicum sūmere dē, with abl., inflict punishment on;
supplicum dare, suffer punishment. Cf. poena
placeō, placēre, placuī, placitus, be pleasing to, please, with dative. Cf. § 154
sūmō, sūmere, sūmpsī, sūmptus, take up, assume
sustineō, sustinēre, sustinuī, sustentus, sustain
LESSON L, § 288
corpus, corporis, n., body (corporal)
dēnsus, -a, -um, dense
īdem, e´adem, idem, demonstrative pronoun, the same (identity)
ipse, ipsa, ipsum, intensive pronoun, self; even, very
mīrus, -a, -um, wonderful, marvelous (miracle)
ōlim, adv., formerly, once upon a time
pars, partis (-ium), f., part, region, direction
quoque, adv., also. Stands after the word which it emphasizes
sōl, sōlis, m., sun (solar)
vērus, -a, -um, true, real (verity)
dēbeō, dēbēre, dēbuī, dēbitus, owe, ought (debt)
ēripiō, ēripere, ēripuī, ēreptus, snatch from
LESSON LI, § 294
hic, haec, hoc, demonstrative pronoun, this (of mine); he, she, it
ille, illa, illud, demonstrative pronoun that (yonder); he, she, it
invīsus, -a, -um, hateful, detested, with dative Cf. § 143
iste, ista, istud, demonstrative pronoun, that (of yours); he, she, it
lībertās, -ātis, f., liberty
modus, -ī, m., measure; manner, way, mode
nōmen, nōminis, n., name (nominate)
oculus, -ī, m., eye (oculist)
prīstinus, -a, -um, former, old-time (pristine)
pūblicus, -a, -um, public, belonging to the state; rēs pūblica, reī pūblicae, f., the commonwealth, the state, the republic
vestīgium, vestī´gī, n., footprint, track; trace, vestige
vōx, vōcis, f., voice
LESSON LII, § 298
incolumis, -e, unharmed
nē ... quidem, adv., not even. The emphatic word stands between and quidem
nisi, conj., unless, if ... not
paene, adv., almost (pen-insula)
satis, adv., enough, sufficiently (satisfaction)
tantus, -a, -um, so great
vērō, adv., truly, indeed, in fact. As a conj. but, however, usually stands second, never first.
dēcidō, dēcidere, dēcidī, ——, fall down (deciduous)
dēsiliō, dēsilīre, dēsiluī, dēsultus, leap down, dismount
maneō, manēre, mānsī, mānsūrus, remain
trādūcō, trādūcere, trādūxī, trāductus, lead across
LESSON LIII, § 306
aquila, -ae, f., eagle (aquiline)
audāx, gen. audācis, adj., bold, audacious
celer, celeris, celere, swift, quick (celerity). Cf. vēlōx
explōratōr, -ōris, m., scout, spy (explorer)
ingēns, gen. ingentis, adj., huge, vast
medius, -a, -um, middle, middle part of (medium)
mēns, mentis (-ium), f., mind (mental). Cf. animus
opportūnus, -a, -um, opportune
quam, adv., than. With the superlative quam gives the force of as possible, as quam audācissimī virī, men as bold as possible
recens, gen. recentis, adj., recent
tam, adv., so. Always with an adjective or adverb, while ita is generally used with a verb
quaerō, quaerere, quaesīvī, quaesītus, ask, inquire, seek (question). Cf. petō
LESSON LIV, § 310
alacer, alacris, alacre, eager, spirited, excited (alacrity)
celeritās, -ātis, f., speed (celerity)
clāmor, clāmōris, m., shout, clamor
lēnis, lēne, mild, gentle (lenient)
mulier, muli´eris, f., woman
multitūdō, multitūdinis, f., multitude
nēmŏ, dat. nēminī, acc. nēminem (gen. nūllīus, abl. nūllō, from nūllus), no plur., m. and f., no one
nōbilis, nōbile, well known, noble
noctū, adv. (an old abl.), by night (nocturnal)
statim, adv., immediately, at once
subitō, adv., suddenly
tardus, -a, -um, slow (tardy)
cupiō, cupere, cupīvī, cupītus, desire, wish (cupidity)
LESSON LV, § 314
aedificium, aedifi´cī, n., building, dwelling (edifice)
imperium, impe´rī, n., command, chief power; empire
mors, mortis (-ium), f., death (mortal)
reliquus, -a, -um, remaining, rest of. As a noun, m. and n. plur., the rest (relic)
scelus, sceleris, n., crime
servitūs, -ūtis, f., slavery (servitude)
vallēs, vallis (-ium), f., valley
abdō, abdere, abdidī, abditus, hide
contendō, contendere, contendī, contentus, strain, struggle; hasten (contend)
occīdō, occīdere, occīdī, occīsus, cut down, kill. Cf. necō, interficiō
perterreō, perterrēre, perterruī, perterritus, terrify, frighten
recipiō, recipere, recēpī, receptus, receive, recover; sē recipere, betake one’s self, withdraw, retreat
trādō, trādere, trādidī, trāditus, give over, surrender, deliver (traitor)
LESSON LVI, § 318
aditus, -ūs, m., approach, access; entrance
cīvitās, cīvitātis, f., citizenship; body of citizens, state (city)
inter, prep, with acc., between, among (interstate commerce)
nam, conj., for
obses, obsidis, m. and f., hostage
paulō, adv. (abl. n. of paulus), by a little, somewhat
incolō, incolere, incoluī, ——, transitive, inhabit; intransitive, dwell. Cf.
habitō, vīvō
relinquō, relinquere, relīquī, relictus, leave, abandon (relinquish)
statuō, statuere, statuī, statūtus, fix, decide (statute), usually with infin.
LESSON LVII, § 326
aequus, -a, -um, even, level; equal
cohors, cohortis (-ium), f., cohort, a tenth part of a legion, about 360 men
currō, currere, cucurrī, cursus, run (course)
difficultās, -ātis, f., difficulty
fossa, -ae, f., ditch (fosse)
gēns, gentis (-ium), f., race, tribe, nation (Gentile)
negōtium, negōtī, n., business, affair, matter (negotiate)
regiō, -ōnis, f., region, district
rūmor, rūmōris, m., rumor, report. Cf. fāma
simul atque, conj., as soon as
suscipiō, suscipere, suscēpī, susceptus, undertake
trahō, trahere, trāxī, trāctus, drag, draw (ex-tract)
valeō, valēre, valuī, valitūrus, be strong; plūrimum valēre, to be most powerful, have great influence (value). Cf. validus
LESSON LVIII, § 332
commeātus, -ūs, m.. provisions
lātitūdō, -inis, f., width (latitude)
longitūdō, -inis, f., length (longitude)
magnitūdō, -inis, f., size, magnitude
mercātor, mercātōris, m., trader, merchant
mūnītiō, -ōnis, f., fortification (munition)
spatium, spatī, n., room, space, distance; time
cognōscō, cognōscere, cognōvī, cognitus, learn; in the perfect tenses, know (re-cognize)
cōgō, cōgere, coēgī, coāctus, collect; compel (cogent)
dēfendō, dēfendere, dēfendī, dēfēnsus, defend
incendō, incendere, incendī, incēnsus, set fire to, burn (incendiary). Cf. cremō
obtineō, obtinēre, obtinuī, obtentus, possess, occupy, hold (obtain)
perveniō, pervenīre, pervēnī, perventus, come through, arrive
LESSON LIX, § 337
agmen, agminis, n., line of march, column; prīmum agmen, the van; novissimum agmen, the rear
atque, ac, conj., and; atque is used before vowels and consonants, ac before consonants only. Cf. et and -que
concilium, conci´lī, n., council, assembly
Helvētiī, -ōrum, m., the Helvetii, a Gallic tribe
passus, passūs, m., a pace, five Roman feet; mīlle passuum, a thousand (of) paces, a Roman mile
quā dē causā, for this reason, for what reason
vāllum, -ī, n., earth-works, rampart
cadō, cadere, cecidī, cāsūrus, fall (decadence)
dēdō, dēdere, dēdidī, dēditus, surrender, give up; with a reflexive pronoun, surrender one’s self, submit, with the dative of the indirect object
premō, premere, pressī, pressus, press hard, harass
vexō, vexāre, vexāvī, vexātus, annoy, ravage (vex)
LESSON LX, § 341
aut, conj., or; aut ... aut, either ... or
causā, abl. of causa, for the sake of, because of. Always stands after the gen. which modifies it
ferē, adv., nearly, almost
opīniō, -ōnis, f., opinion, supposition, expectation
rēs frūmentāria, reī frūmentāriae, f. (lit. the grain affair), grain supply
timor, -ōris, m., fear. Cf. timeō
undique, adv., from all sides
cōnor, cōnārī, cōnātus sum, attempt, try
ēgredior, ēgredī, ēgressus sum, move out, disembark; prōgredior, move forward, advance (egress, progress)
moror, morārī, morātus sum, delay
orior, orirī, ortus sum, arise, spring; begin; be born (from) (origin)
proficīscor, proficīscī, profectus sum, set out
revertor, revertī, reversus sum, return (revert). The forms of this verb are usually active, and not deponent, in the perfect system. Perf. act., revertī
sequor, sequī, secūtus sum, follow (sequence). Note the following compounds of sequor and the force of the different prefixes: cōnsequor (follow with), overtake; īnsequor (follow against), pursue; subsequor (follow under), follow close after

LATIN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY

Translations inclosed within parentheses are not to be used as such; they are inserted to show etymological meanings.

The “parentheses” are shown in square brackets [ ], as in the original.
A
ā or ab, prep. with abl. from, by, off. Translated on in ā dextrō cornū, on the right wing; ā fronte, on the front or in front; ā dextrā, on the right; ā latere, on the side; etc.
ab-dō, -ere, -didī, -ditus, hide, conceal
ab-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus, lead off, lead away
abs-cīdō, -ere, -cīdī,-cīsus [ab(s), off, + caedō, cut], cut off
ab-sum, -esse, āfuī, āfutūrus, be away, be absent, be distant, be off; with ā or ab and abl., § 501.32
ac, conj., see atque
ac-cipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptus [ad, to, + capiō, take], receive, accept
ācer, ācris, ācre, adj. sharp; figuratively, keen, active, eager (§ 471)
acerbus, -a, -um, adj. bitter, sour
aciēs, -ēī, f. [ācer, sharp], edge; line of battle
ācriter, adv. [ācer, sharp], compared ācrius, ācerrimē, sharply, fiercely
ad, prep. with acc. to, towards, near. With the gerund or gerundive, to, for
ad-aequō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, make equal, make level with
ad-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus, lead to; move, induce
ad-eō, -īre, -iī, -itus, go to, approach, draw near, visit, with acc. (§ 413)
ad-ferō, ad-ferre, at-tulī, ad-lātus, bring, convey; report, announce; render, give (§ 426)
ad-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus [ad, to, + faciō, do], affect, visit
adflīctātus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of adflīctō, shatter], shattered
ad-flīgō, -ere, -flīxī, -flīctus, dash upon, strike upon; harass, distress
ad-hibeō, -ēre, -uī, -itus [ad, to, + habeō, hold], apply, employ, use
ad-hūc, adv. hitherto, as yet, thus far
aditus, -ūs, m. [adeō, approach], approach, access; entrance. Cf. adventus
ad-ligō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, bind to, fasten
ad-loquor, -loquī, -locūtus sum, dep. verb [ad, to, + loquor, speak], speak to, address, with acc.
ad-ministrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, manage, direct
admīrātiō, -ōnis, f. [admīror, wonder at], admiration, astonishment
ad-moveō, -ēre, -mōvī, -mōtus, move to; apply, employ
ad-propinquō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, come near, approach, with dat.
ad-sum, -esse, -fuī, -futūres, be present; assist; with dat., § 426
adulēscēns, -entis, m. and f. [part. of adolēscō, grow], a youth, young man, young person
adventus, -ūs, m. [ad, to, + veniō, come], approach, arrival (§ 466)
adversus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of advertō, turn to], turned towards, facing; contrary, adverse.
rēs adversae, adversity
aedificium, aedifi´cī, n. [aedificō, build], building, edifice
aedificō, -āre, -āvi, -ātus [aedēs, house, + faciō, make], build
aeger, aegra, aegrum, adj. sick, feeble
aequālis, -e, adj. equal, like. As a noun, aequālis, -is, m. or f. one of the same age
aequus, -a, -um, adj. even, level; equal
Aesōpus, -ī, m. Æsop, a writer of fables
aestās, -ātis, f. summer, initā aestāte, at the beginning of summer
aetās, -ātis, f. age
Aethiopia, -ae, f. Ethiopia, a country in Africa
Āfrica, -ae, f. Africa
Āfricānus, -a, -um, adj. of Africa. A name given to Scipio for his victories in Africa
ager, agrī, m. field, farm, land (§ 462. c)
agger, -eris, m. mound
agmen, -inis, n. [agō, drive], an army on the march, column.
prīmum agmen, the van
agō, -ere, ēgī, āctus, drive, lead; do, perform.
vītam agere, pass life
agricola, -ae, m. [ager, field, + colō, cultivate], farmer
agrī cultūra, -ae, f. agriculture
āla, -ae, f. wing
alacer, -cris, -cre, adj. active, eager. Cf. ācer
alacritās, -ātis, f. [alacer, active], eagerness, alacrity
alacriter, adv. [alacer, active], comp alacrius, alacerrimē, actively, eagerly
albus, -a, -um, adj., white
alcēs, -is, f. elk
Alcmēna, -ae, f. Alcme´na, the mother of Hercules
aliquis (-quī), -qua, -quid (-quod), indef. pron. some one, some (§ 487)
alius, -a, -ud (gen. -īus, dat. ), adj. another, other.
alius ... alius, one ... another.
aliī ... aliī, some ... others (§ 110)
Alpēs, -ium, f. plur. the Alps
alter, -era, -erum (gen. -īus, dat. ), adj. the one, the other (of two).
alter ... alter, the one ... the other (§ 110)
altitūdō, -inis, f. [altus, high], height
altus, -a, -um, adj. high, tall, deep
Amāzonēs, -um, f. plur. Amazons, a fabled tribe of warlike women
ambō, -ae, -ō, adj. (decl. like duo), both
amīcē, adv. [amīcus, friendly], superl. amīcissimē, in a friendly manner
amiciō, -īre, ——, -ictus [am-, about, + iaciō, throw], throw around, wrap about, clothe
amīcitia, -ae, f. [amīcus, friend], friendship
amīcus, -a, -um, adj. [amō, love], friendly. As a noun, amīcus, -ī, m. friend
ā-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus, send away; lose
amō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, love, like, be fond of (§ 488)
amphitheātrum, -ī, n. amphitheater
amplus, -a, -um, adj. large, ample; honorable, noble
an, conj. or, introducing the second part of a double question
ancilla, -ae, f. maidservant
ancora, -ae, f. anchor
Andromeda, -ae, f. Androm´eda, daughter of Cepheus and wife of Perseus
angulus, -ī, m. angle, corner
anim-advertō, -ere, -tī, -sus [animus, mind, + advertō, turn to], turn the mind to, notice
animal, -ālis, n. [anima, breath], animal (§ 465. b)
animōsus, -a, -um, adj. spirited
animus, -ī, m. [anima, breath], mind, heart; spirit, courage, feeling; in this sense often plural
annus, -i, m. year
ante, prep, with acc. before
anteā, adv. [ante], before, formerly
antīquus, -a, -um, adj. [ante, before], former, ancient, old
aper, aprī, m. wild boar
Apollō, -inis, m. Apollo, son of Jupiter and Latona, brother of Diana
ap-pāreō, -ēre, -uī, —— [ad + pāreō, appear], appear
ap-pellō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, call by name, name. Cf. nōminō, vocō
Appius, -a, -um, adj. Appian
ap-plicō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, apply, direct, turn
apud, prep, with acc. among; at, at the house of
aqua, -ae, f. water
aquila, -ae, f. eagle
āra, -ae, f. altar
arbitror, -ārī, -ātus sum, think, suppose (§ 420. c). Cf. exīstimō, putō
arbor, -oris, f. tree (§ 247. 1. a)
Arcadia, -ae, f. Arcadia, a district in southern Greece
ārdeō, -ēre, ārsī, ārsūrus, be on fire, blaze, burn
arduus, -a, -um, adj. steep
Arīcia, -ae, f. Aricia, a town on the Appian Way, near Rome
ariēs, -etis, m. battering-ram (p. 221)
arma, -ōrum, n. plur. arms, weapons. Cf. tēlum
armātus, -a, -um, adj. [armō, arm], armed, equipped
arō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, plow, till
ars, artis, f. art, skill
articulus, -ī, m. joint
ascrībō, -ere, -scrīpsī, -scrīptus [ad, in addition, + scrībō, write], enroll, enlist
Āsia, -ae, f. Asia, i.e. Asia Minor
at, conj. but. Cf. autem, sed
Athēnae, -ārum, f. plur. Athens
Atlās, -antis, m. Atlas, a Titan who was said to hold up the sky
at-que, ac, conj. and, and also, and what is more. atque may be used before either vowels or consonants, ac before consonants only
attentus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of attendō, direct (the mind) toward], attentive, intent on, careful
at-tonitus, -a, -um, adj. thunderstruck, astounded
audācia, -ae, f. [audāx, bold], boldness, audacity
audācter, adv. [audāx, bold], compared audācius, audācissimē, boldly
audāx, -ācis, adj. bold, daring
audeō, -ēre, ausus sum, dare
audiō, -īre, -īvī or -īī, -ītus, hear, listen to (§§ 420.d; 491)
Augēās, -ae, m. Auge´as, a king whose stables Hercules cleaned
aura, -ae, f. air, breeze
aurātus, -a, -um, adj. [aurum, gold], adorned with gold
aureus, -a, -um, adj. [aurum, gold], golden
aurum, -ī, n. gold
aut, conj. or.
aut ... aut, either ... or
autem, conj., usually second, never first, in the clause, but, moreover, however, now. Cf. at, sed
auxilium, auxi´lī, n. help, aid, assistance; plur. auxiliaries
ā-vertō, -ere, -tī, -sus, turn away, turn aside
avis, -is, f. bird (§ 243. 1)
B
ballista, -ae, f. ballista, an engine for hurling missiles (p. 220)
balteus, -ī, m. belt, sword belt
barbarus, -ī, m. barbarian, savage
bellum, -ī, n. war.
bellum īnferre, with dat. make war upon
bene, adv. [for bonē, from bonus], compared melius, optimē, well
benignē, adv. [benignus, kind], compared benignius, benignissimē, kindly
benignus, -a, -um, adj. good-natured, kind, often used with dat.
bīnī, -ae, -a, distributive numeral adj. two each, two at a time (§ 334)
bis, adv. twice
bonus, -a, -um, adj. compared melior, optimus, good, kind (§ 469. a)
bōs, bovis (gen. plur. boum or bovum, dat. and abl. plur. bōbus or būbus), m. and f. ox, cow
bracchium, bracchī, n. arm
brevis, -e, adj. short
Brundisium, -ī, n. Brundisium, a seaport in southern Italy. See map
bulla, -ae, f. bulla, a locket made of small concave plates of gold fastened by a spring (p. 212)
C
C. abbreviation for Gāius, Eng. Caius
cadō, -ere, ce´cidī, cāsūrus, fall
caedēs, -is, f. [caedō, cut], (a cutting down), slaughter, carnage (§ 465. a)
caelum, -ī, n. sky, heavens
Caesar, -aris, m. Cæsar, the famous general, statesman, and writer
calamitās, -ātis, f. loss, calamity, defeat, disaster
calcar, -āris, n. spur (§ 465. b)
Campānia, -ae, f. Campania., a district of central Italy. See map
Campānus, -a, -um, adj. of Campania
campus, -ī, m. plain, field, esp. the Campus Martius, along the Tiber just outside the walls of Rome
canis, -is, m. and f. dog
canō, -ere, ce´cinī, ——, sing
cantō, -āre, -āvi, -ātus [canō, sing], sing
Capēnus, -a, -um, adj. of Capena, esp. the Porta Cape´na, the gate at Rome leading to the Appian Way
capiō, -ere, cēpī, captus, take, seize, capture (§ 492)
Capitōlīnus, -a, -um, adj. belonging to the Capitol, Capitoline
Capitōlium, Capitō´lī, n. [caput, head], the Capitol, the hill at Rome on which stood the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus and the citadel
capsa, -ae, f. box for books
captīvus, -ī, m. [capiō, take], captive
Capua, -ae, f. Capua, a large city of Campania. See map
caput, -itis, n. head (§ 464. 2. b)
carcer, -eris, m. prison, jail
carrus, -ī, m. cart, wagon
cārus, -a, -um, adj. dear; precious
casa, -ae, f. hut, cottage
castellum, -ī, n. [dim. of castrum, fort], redoubt, fort
castrum, -ī, n. fort. Usually in the plural, castra, -ōrum, a military camp.
castra pōnere, to pitch camp
cāsus, -us, m. [cadō, fall], chance; misfortune, loss
catapulta, -ae, f. catapult, an engine for hurling stones
catēna, -ae, f. chain
caupōna, -ae, f. inn
causa, -ae, f. cause, reason, quā dē causā, for this reason
cēdō, -ere, cessī, cessūrus, give way, retire
celer, -eris, -ere, adj. swift, fleet
celeritās, -ātis, f. [celer, swift], swiftness, speed
celeriter, adv. [celer, swift], compared celerius, celerrimē, swiftly
cēna, -ae, f. dinner
centum, indecl. numeral adj. hundred
centuriō, -ōnis, m. centurion, captain
Cēpheus (dissyl.), -eī (acc. Cēphea), m. Cepheus, a king of Ethiopia and father of Andromeda
Cerberus, -ī, m. Cerberus, the fabled three-headed dog that guarded the entrance to Hades
certāmen, -inis, n. [certō, struggle], struggle, contest, rivalry
certē, adv. [certus, sure], compared certius, certissimē, surely, certainly
certus, -a, -um, adj. fixed, certain, sure.
aliquem certiōrem facere (to make some one more certain), to inform some one
cervus, -ī, m. stag, deer
cessō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, delay, cease
cibāria, -ōrum, n. plur. food, provisions
cibus, -ī, m. food, victuals
Cimbrī, -ōrum, m. plur. the Cimbri
Cimbricus, -a, -um, adj. Cimbrian
cīnctus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of cingō, surround], girt, surrounded
cingō, -ere, cīnxī, cīnctus, gird, surround
circiter, adv. about
circum, prep, with acc. around
circum´-dō, -dare, -dedī, -datus, place around, surround, inclose
circum´-eō, -īre, -iī, -itus, go around
circum-sistō, -ere, circum´stetī, ——, stand around, surround
circum-veniō, -īre, -vēnī, -ventus (come around), surround
citerior, -ius, adj. in comp., superl. citimus, hither, nearer (§ 475)
cīvīlis, -e, adj. [cīvis], civil
cīvis, -is, m. and f. citizen (§ 243. 1)
cīvitās, -ātis, f. [cīvis, citizen], (body of citizens), state; citizenship
clāmor, -ōris, m. shout, cry
clārus, -a, -um, adj. clear; famous, renowned; bright, shining
classis, -is, f. fleet
claudō, -ere, -sī, -sus, shut, close
clavus, -ī, m. stripe
cliēns, -entis, m. dependent, retainer, client (§ 465. a)
Cocles, -itis, m. (blind in one eye), Cocles, the surname of Horatius
co-gnōscō, -ere, -gnōvī, -gnītus, learn, know, understand. Cf. sciō (§ 420. b)
cōgō, -ere, coēgī, coāctus [co(m)-, together, + agō, drive], (drive together), collect; compel, drive
cohors, cohortis, f. cohort, the tenth part of a legion, about 360 men
collis, -is, m. hill, in summō colle, on top of the hill (§ 247. 2. a)
collum, -ī, n. neck
colō, -ere, coluī, cultus, cultivate, till; honor, worship; devote one’s self to
columna, -ae, f. column, pillar
com- (col-, con-, cor-, co-), a prefix, together, with, or intensifying the meaning of the root word
coma, -ae, f. hair
comes, -itis, m. and f. [com-, together, + , go], companion, comrade
comitātus, -ūs, m. [comitor, accompany], escort, company
comitor, -ārī, -ātus sum, dep. verb [comes, companion], accompany
com-meātus, -ūs, m. supplies
com-minus, adv. [com-, together, + manus, hand], hand to hand
com-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus, join together; commit, intrust.
proelium committere, join battle.
sē committere with dat, trust one’s self to
commodē, adv. [commodus, fit], compared commodius, commodissimē, conveniently, fitly
commodus, -a, -um, adj. suitable, fit
com-mōtus, -a, -um, adj. [part. of commoveō, move], aroused, moved
com-parō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [com-, intensive, + parō, prepare], prepare; provide, get
com-pleō, -ēre, -plēvī, -plētus [com-, intensive, + pleō, fill], fill up
complexus, -ūs, m. embrace
com-primō, -ere, -pressī, -pressus [com-, together, + premō, press], press together, grasp, seize
con-cidō, -ere, -cidī, —— [com-, intensive, + cadō, fall], fall down
concilium, conci´lī, n. meeting, council
con-clūdō, -ere, -clūsī, -clūsus [com-, intensive, + claudō, close], shut up, close; end, finish
con-currō, -ere, -currī, -cursus [com-, together, + currō, run], run together; rally, gather
condiciō, -ōnis, f. [com-, together, + dicō, talk], agreement, condition, terms
con-dōnō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, pardon
con-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus, hire
cōn-ferō, -ferre, -tulī, -lātus, bring together.
sē cōnferre, betake one’s self
cōn-fertus, -a, -um, adj. crowded, thick
cōnfestim, adv. immediately
cōn-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus [com-, completely, + faciō, do], make, complete, accomplish, finish
cōn-fīrmō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, make firm, establish, strengthen, affirm, assert
cōn-fluō, -ere, -flūxī, ——, flow together
cōn-fugiō, -ere, -fūgī, -fugitūrus, flee for refuge, flee
con-iciō, -ere, -iēcī, -iectus [com-, intensive, + iaciō, throw], hurl
con-iungō, -ere, -iūnxī, -iūnctus [com-, together, + iungō, join], join together, unite
con-iūrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [com-, together, + iūrō, swear], unite by oath, conspire
con-locō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [com-, together, + locō, place], arrange, place, station
conloquium, conlo´quī, n. [com-, together, + loquor, speak], conversation, conference
cōnor, -ārī, -ātus sum, dep. verb, endeavor, attempt, try
cōn-scendō, -ere, -scendī, -scēnsus [com-, intensive, + scandō, climb], climb up, ascend.
nāvem cōnscendere, embark, go on board
cōn-scrībō, -ere, -scrīpsī, -scrīptus [com-, together, + scrībō, write], (write together), enroll, enlist
cōn-secrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [com-, intensive, + sacrō, consecrate], consecrate, devote
cōn-sequor, -sequī, -secūtus sum, dep. verb [com-, intensive, + sequor, follow], pursue; overtake; win
cōn-servō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [com-, intensive, + servō, save], preserve, save
cōnsilium, cōnsi´lī, n. plan, purpose, design; wisdom
cōn-sistō, -ere, -stitī, -stitus [com-, intensive, + sistō, cause to stand], stand firmly, halt, take one’s stand
cōn-spiciō, -ere, -spēxī, -spectus [com-, intensive, + spiciō, spy], look at attentively, perceive, see
cōnstantia, -ae, f. firmness, steadiness, perseverance
cōn-stituō, -ere, -uī, -ūtus [com-, intensive, + statuō, set], establish, determine, resolve
cōn-stō, -āre, -stitī, -stātūrus [com-, together, + stō, stand], agree; be certain ; consist of
cōnsul, -ulis, m. consul (§ 464. 2. a)
cōn-sūmō, -ere, -sūmpsī, -sūmptus [com-, intensive, + sumō, take], consume, use up
con-tendō, -ere, -dī, -tus, strain; hasten; fight, contend, struggle
con-tineō, -ēre, -uī, -tentus [com-, together, + teneō, hold], hold together, hem in, contain; restrain
contrā, prep, with acc. against, contrary to
con-trahō, -ere, -trāxī, -trāctus [com-, together, + trahō, draw], draw together; of sails, shorten, furl
contrōversia, -ae, f. dispute, quarrel
con-veniō, -īre, -vēnī, -ventus [com-, together, + veniō, come], come together, meet, assemble
con-vertō, -ere, -vertī, -versus [com-, intensive, + vertō, turn], turn
con-vocō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [com-, together, + vocō, call], call together
co-orior, -īrī, -ortus sum, dep. verb [com-, intensive, + orior, rise], rise, break forth
cōpia, -ae, f. [com-, intensive, + ops, wealth], abundance, wealth, plenty. Plur. cōpiae, -ārum, troops
coquō, -ere, coxī, coctus, cook
Corinthus, -ī, f. Corinth, the famous city on the Isthmus of Corinth
Cornēlia, -ae, f. Cornelia, daughter of Scipio and mother of the Gracchi
Cornēlius, Cornē´lī, m. Cornelius, a Roman name
cornū, -ūs, n. horn; wing of an army, ā dextrō cornū, on the right wing (§ 466)
corōna, -ae, f. garland, wreath; crown
corōnātus, -a, -um, adj. crowned
corpus, -oris, n. body
cor-ripiō, -ere, -uī, -reptus [com-, intensive, + rapiō, seize], seize, grasp
cotīdiānus, -a, -um, adj. daily
cotīdiē, adv. daily
crēber, -bra, -brum, adj. thick, crowded, numerous, frequent
crēdō, -ere, -dīdī, -ditus, trust, believe, with dat. (§ 501.14)
cremō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, burn
creō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, make; elect, appoint
Creōn, -ontis, m. Creon, a king of Corinth
crēscō, -ere, crēvī, crētus, rise, grow, increase
Crēta, -ae, f. Crete, a large island in the Mediterranean
Crētaeus, -a, -um, adj. Cretan
crūs, crūris, n. leg
crūstulum, -ī, n. pastry, cake
cubīle, -is, n. bed
cultūra, -ae, f. culture, cultivation
cum, conj. with the indic. or subjv. when; since; although (§ 501.46)
cum, prep, with abl. with (§ 209)
cupidē, adv. [cupidus, desirous], compared cupidius, cupidissimē, eagerly
cupiditās, -ātis, f. [cupidus, desirous], desire, longing
cupiō, -ere, -īvī or -iī, -ītus, desire, wish. Cf. volō
cūr, adv. why, wherefore
cūra, -ae, f. care, pains; anxiety
cūria, -ae, f. senate house
cūrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [cūra, care], care for, attend to, look after
currō, -ere, cucurrī, cursus, run
currus, -ūs, m. chariot
cursus, -ūs, m. course
custōdiō, -īre, -īvī, -ītus [custōs, guard], guard, watch
D
Daedalus, -ī, m. Dæd´alus, the supposed inventor of the first flying machine
Dāvus, -ī, m. Davus, name of a slave
, prep, with abl. down from, from; concerning, about, for (§ 209).
quā dē causā, for this reason, wherefore
dea, -ae, f. goddess (§ 461. a)
dēbeō, -ēre, -uī, -itus [, from, + habeō, hold], owe, ought, should
decem, indecl. numeral adj. ten
dē-cernō, -ere, -crēvī, -crētus [, from, + cernō, separate], decide, decree
dē-cidō, -ere, -cidī, —— [, down, + cadō, fall], fall down
decimus, -a, -um, numeral adj. tenth
dēclīvis, -e, adj. sloping downward
dē-dō, -ere, -didī, -ditus, give up, surrender, sē dēdere, surrender one’s self
dē-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus [, down, + dūcō, lead], lead down, escort
dē-fendō, -ere, -dī, -fēnsus, ward off, repel, defend
dē-ferō, -ferre, -tulī, -lātus [, down, + ferō, bring], bring down; report, announce (§ 426)
dē-fessus, -a, -um, adj. tired out, weary
dē-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus [, from, + faciō, make], fail, be wanting; revolt from
dē-fīgō, -ere, -fīxī, -fīxus [, down, + fīgō, fasten], fasten, fix
dē-iciō, -ere, -iēcī, -iectus [, down, + iaciō, hurl], hurl down; bring down, kill
de-inde, adv. (from thence), then, in the next place
dēlectō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, delight
dēleō, -ēre, -ēvī, -ētus, blot out, destroy
dēlīberō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, weigh, deliberate, ponder
dē-ligō, -ere, -lēgī, -lēctus [, from, + legō, gather], choose, select
Delphicus, -a, -um, adj. Delphic
dēmissus, -a, -um [part. of dēmittō, send down], downcast, humble
dē-mōnstrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [, out, + mōnstrō, point], point out, show
dēmum, adv. at last, not till then.
tum dēmum, then at last
dēnique, adv. at last, finally. Cf. postrēmō
dēns, dentis, m. tooth (§ 247. 2. a)
dēnsus, -a, -um, adj. dense, thick
dē-pendeō, -ēre, ——, —— [, down, + pendeō, hang], hang from, hang down
dē-plōrō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [, intensive, + plōrō, wail], bewail, deplore
dē-pōnō, -ere, -posuī, -positus [, down, + pōnō, put], put down
dē-scendō, -ere, -dī, -scēnsus [, down, + scandō, climb], climb down, descend
dē-scrībō, -ere, -scrīpsī, -scrīptus [, down, + scrībō, write], write down
dēsīderō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, long for
dē-siliō, -īre, -uī, -sultus [, down, + saliō, leap], leap down
dē-spērō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [, away from, + spērō, hope], despair
dē-spiciō, -ere, -spēxi, -spectus [, down], look down upon, despise
dē-sum, -esse, -fuī, -futūrus [, away from, + sum, be], be wanting, lack, with dat. (§ 426)
deus, -ī, m. god (§ 468)
dē-volvō, -ere, -volvī, -volūtus [, down, + volvō, roll], roll down
dē-vorō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [, down, + vorō, swallow], devour
dexter, -tra, -trum (-tera, -terum), adj. to the right, right.
ā dextrō cornū, on the right wing
Diāna, -ae, f. Diana, goddess of the moon and twin sister of Apollo
dīcō, -ere, dīxī, dictus (imv. dīc), say, speak, tell. Usually introduces indirect discourse (§ 420. a)
dictātor, -ōris, m. [dictō, dictate], dictator, a chief magistrate with unlimited power
diēs, -ēi or diē, m., sometimes f. in sing., day (§ 467)
dif-ferō, -ferre, distulī, dīlātus [dis-, apart, + ferō, carry], carry apart; differ.
differre inter sē, differ from each other
dif-ficilis, -e, adj. [dis-, not, + facilis, easy], hard, difficult (§ 307)
difficultās, -ātis, f. [difficilis, hard], difficulty
dīligenter, adv. [dīligēns, careful], compared dīligentius, dīligentissimē, industriously, diligently
dīligentia, -ae, f. [dīligēns, careful], industry, diligence
dī-micō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, fight, struggle
dī-mittō, -ere, -mīsī, -missus [dī-, off, + mittō, send], send away, dismiss, disband.
dīmittere animum in, direct one’s mind to, apply one’s self to
Diomēdēs, -is, m. Dī-o-mē´dēs, a name
dis-, dī-, a prefix expressing separation, off, apart, in different directions. Often negatives the meaning
dis-cēdō, -ere, -cessī, -cessus [dis-, apart, + cēdō, go], depart from, leave, withdraw, go away
dis-cernō, -ere, -crēvī, -crētus [dis-, apart, + cernō, sift], separate; distinguish
disciplīna, -ae, f. instruction, training, discipline
discipulus, -ī, m. [discō, learn], pupil, disciple
discō, -ere, didicī, ——, learn
dis-cutiō, -ere, -cussī, -cussus [dis-, apart, + quatiō, shake], shatter, dash to pieces
dis-pōnō, -ere, -posuī, -positus [dis-, apart, + pōnō, put], put here and there, arrange, station
dis-similis, -e, adj. [dis-, apart, + similis, like], unlike, dissimilar (§ 307)
dis-tribuō, -ere, -uī, -ūtus, divide, distribute
diū, adv., compared diūtius, diūtissimē, for a long time, long (§ 477)
dō, dare, dedī, datus, give.
in fugam dare, put to flight.
alicui negōtium dare, employ some one
doceō, -ēre, -uī, -tus, teach, show
doctrīna, -ae, f. [doctor, teacher], teaching, learning, wisdom
dolor, -ōris, m. pain, sorrow
domesticus, -a, -um, adj. [domus, house], of the house, domestic
domicilium, domici´lī, n. dwelling; house, abode. Cf. domus
domina, -ae, f. mistress (of the house), lady (§ 461)
dominus, -ī, m. master (of the house), owner, ruler (§ 462)
domus, -ūs, f. house, home.
domī, locative, at home (§ 468)
dormiō, -īre, -īvī, -ītus, sleep
dracō, -ōnis, m. serpent, dragon
dubitō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus, hesitate
dubius, -a, -um, adj. [duo, two], (moving two ways), doubtful, dubious
du-centī, -ae, -a, numeral adj. two hundred
dūcō, -ere, dūxī, ductus (imv. dūc), lead, conduct
dum, conj. while, as long as
duo, duae, duo, numeral adj. two (§ 479)
duo-decim, indecl. numeral adj. twelve
dūrus, -a, -um, adj. hard, tough; harsh, pitiless, bitter
dux, ducis, m. and f. [cf. dūcō, lead], leader, commander
E
ē or ex, prep, with abl. out of, from, off, of (§ 209)
eburneus, -a, -um, adj. of ivory
ecce, adv. see! behold! there! here!
ē-dūcō, -ere, -dūxī, -ductus [ē, out, + dūcō, lead], lead out, draw out
ef-ficiō, -ere, -fēcī, -fectus [ex, thoroughly, + faciō, do], work out; make, cause
ef-fugiō, -ere, -fūgī, -fugitūrus [ex, from, + fugiō, flee], escape
egeō, -ēre, -uī, ——, be in need of, lack, with abl. (§ 501.32)
ego, pers. pron. I; plur. nōs, we (§ 480)
ē-gredior, -ī, ēgressus sum, dep. verb [ē, out of, + gradior, go], go out, go forth.
ē nāvī ēgredī, disembark
ē-iciō, -ere, -iēcī, -iectus [ē, forth, + iaciō, hurl], hurl forth, expel
elementum, -ī, n., in plur. first principles, rudiments
elephantus, -ī, m. elephant
Ēlis, Ēlidis, f. E´lis, a district of southern Greece
emō, -ere, ēmī, ēmptus, buy, purchase
enim, conj., never standing first, for, in fact, indeed. Cf. nam
Ennius, Ennī, m. Ennius, the father of Roman poetry, born 239 B.C.
eō, īre, iī (īvī), itūrus, go (§ 499)
, adv. to that place, thither
Ēpīrus, -ī, f. Epi´rus, a district in the north of Greece
eques, -itis, m. [equus, horse], horseman, cavalryman
equitātus, -ūs, m. [equitō, ride], cavalry
equus, -ī, m. horse
ē-rigō, -ere, -rēxī, -rēctus [ē, out, + regō, make straight], raise up
ē-ripiō, -ere, -uī, -reptus [ē, out of, + rapiō, seize], seize, rescue
ē-rumpō, -ere, -rūpī, -ruptus [ē, forth, + rumpō, break], burst forth
ēruptiō, -ōnis, f. sally
Erymanthius, -a, -um, adj. Erymanthian, of Erymanthus, a district in southern Greece
et, conj. and, also.
et ... et, both ... and. Cf. atque, ac, -que
etiam, adv. (rarely conj.) [et, also, + iam, now], yet, still; also, besides. Cf. quoque.
nōn sōlum ... sed etiam, not only ... but also
Etrūscī, -ōrum, m. the Etruscans, the people of Etruria. See map of Italy
Eurōpa, -ae, f. Europe
Eurystheus, -ī, m. Eurys´theus, a king of Tiryns, a city in southern Greece
ē-vādō, -ere, -vāsī, -vāsus [ē, out, + vādō, go], go forth, escape
ex, see ē
exanimātus, -a, -um [part. of exanimō, put out of breath (anima)], adj. out of breath, tired; lifeless
ex-cipiō, -ere, -cēpī, -ceptus [ex, out, + capiō, take], welcome, receive
exemplum, -ī, n. example, model
ex-eō,-īre,-iī,-itūrus [ex, out, + , go], go out, go forth (§ 413)
ex-erceō, -ēre, -uī, -itus [ex, out, + arceō, shut], (shut out), employ, train, exercise, use
exercitus, -us, m. [exerceō, train], army
ex-īstimō, -āre, -āvī, -ātus [ex, out, + aestimō, reckon], estimate; think, judge (§ 420. c<