The Project Gutenberg EBook of Ontario Teachers' Manuals: History
by Ontario Ministry of Education

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Title: Ontario Teachers' Manuals: History

Author: Ontario Ministry of Education

Release Date: December 9, 2005 [EBook #17268]

Language: English

Character set encoding: ISO-8859-1


Produced by Suzanne Lybarger and the Online Distributed
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produced from images generously made available by The
Internet Archive/Canadian Libraries)





Copyright, Canada, 1915, by The Minister of Education for Ontario

[Pg iii]


Public and Separate School Course of Study1
Chapter I
The Aims and Stages of Study13
Chapter II
General Methods in the Teaching of History21
Chapter III
Correlation of Subjects40
Chapter IV
Special Topics49
Current Events49
Local Material51
The Teacher of History57
Chapter V
Illustrative Lessons60
Forms I and II60
Form II62
Form III66
Form III and IV75
Form IV78
For Teachers' Reference119

[Pg 1]




The course in literature and composition includes the telling by the teacher of suitable stories from the Bible, stories of primitive peoples, of child life in other lands, of famous persons and peoples; and the oral reproduction of these stories by the pupils. In this way history, literature, and composition are combined.

For Method in telling stories, consult How to Tell Stories to Children, by Sara Cone Bryant, Houghton, Mifflin Company, Boston, $1.00.


Bible Stories:

Moses in the Bulrushes, his Childhood, the Burning Bush, the Crossing of the Red Sea, the Tables of Stone; Joseph's Boyhood Dreams, Joseph sold into Egypt, the Famine, the Visits of his Brethren; David and Goliath; Samson.

Stories of Child Life:

The Eskimo Girl, the Andean Girl, the Arabian Girl, the Little Syrian Girl, the Swiss Girl, the Chinese Girl, the African Girl, the German Girl, the Canadian Girl; the Little Red Child, the Little White Child,[Pg 2] the Little Black Child, the Little Yellow Child, the Little Brown Child.

Consult The Seven Little Sisters, by Jane Andrews, Ginn & Co., Boston, 50c.; The Little Cousin Series, by Mary Hazelton Wade, The Page Co., Boston, 60c. each; Five Little Strangers, Julia Augusta Schwarz, American Book Co., New York; Each and All, Jane Andrews (sequel to The Seven Little Sisters), 50 cents.

Special Days:

Christmas: The Birth of Christ, the First Christmas Tree (see Appendix); Arbor Day; Constructive work suggested by St. Valentine's Day and Thanksgiving Day; Stories of these Days.

Note: Advantage should be taken of every opportunity to teach obedience to authority and respect for the property and rights of others.


Bible Stories:

Abraham and Lot, Joshua, David and Jonathan, David and Saul, Ruth and Naomi, Daniel, Miriam and Moses, Abraham and Isaac, Boyhood of Christ, the Shipwreck of St. Paul.

Stories of Child Life:

The Aryan Boy, the Persian Boy, the Greek Boy, the Roman Boy, the Saxon Boy, the Page Boy, the English Boy, the Puritan Boy, the Canadian Boy of To-day, Child Life in Canada (a) in the early days, (b) to-day on the farm and in the city or town; occupations, games, and plays, etc.

Consult Ten Little Boys Who Lived on the Road from Long Ago till Now, by Jane Andrews, Ginn & Co., 50c.

Stories of Famous People:

Boadicea, Alfred, Harold, First Prince of Wales, Sir Francis Drake, Sir Walter Raleigh, Columbus, Cabot,[Pg 3] Cartier, Champlain, Madeleine de Verchères, Pontiac, Brock, Laura Secord, Florence Nightingale.

Consult The Story of the British People, Thomas Nelson & Sons, Toronto, 35c. (For Florence Nightingale, see Appendix.)

Pioneer Life:

In Ancient Britain: See Second Reader, p. 109; Ontario Public School History of England, p. 10.

In Roman Britain: See The Story of The British People, pp. 18-24.

Old English Life: See Third Reader, p. 325; Ontario High School History of England, pp. 33-40.

At the Close of the French Period in Canada: See Fourth Reader, p. 65.

In Upper Canada in the "Thirties": See Fourth Reader, p. 122.

Our Forefathers: Where they lived before coming here, how they got here, hardships in travel, condition of the country at that time, how they cleared the land, their homes, their difficulties, danger from wild animals, the natives of the country, modes of travel, implements and tools, etc.

Consult Pen Pictures of Early Pioneer Life in Upper Canada, Briggs, $2.00; Ontario High School History of Canada.


Watt, Stephenson, Fulton, Bell, Edison, Marconi.


Elementary lessons in local government:

(a) In cities, towns, and incorporated villages—the postmaster, (see Illustrative Lesson, p. 65), the postman and policeman; city or town hall, post-office, mail boxes, school-houses.

[Pg 4]

(b) For rural districts—postmaster, trustees, roads and bridges, rural mail delivery.

Special Days:

Empire Day, Victoria Day, Dominion Day; local occasions such as Fair Day, Election Day; review of those Days taken in Form I.



Below are the topics and sub-topics of the Course in History for Forms III and IV.

In dealing with the subject in both Forms, the teacher should keep constantly in mind the chief aims suited to this stage of the pupil's development. (See pp. 16, 17.) The most vital of these is "to create and foster a liking for historical study." The teacher should make use of simple map drawing to illustrate the subject. This is especially necessary in dealing with the history of Canada. There should be much illustration by means of maps and pictures. See Educational Pamphlet No. 4, Visual Aids in the Teaching of History.

The chapter numbers in the Course for Form III are those of the chapters in The Story of the British People prescribed for the Form. These chapters should be carefully read and, in Form IV, the authorized text-books should be followed for the main account. Having regard to the time available for the Course, only the most important details should be taken up.

[Pg 5]


Junior Grade


Columbus—The Discovery of America (Chap. XX)
John Cabot and the New World (Chap. XXI)
Jacques Cartier (Chap. XXIII)
Raleigh and Gilbert (Chap. XXVI)
The Beginnings of Acadia (Chap. XXVII)
Champlain, the Father of New France (Chap. XXVIII)
The Pilgrim Fathers (Chap. XXIX)
The Jesuits in Canada (Chap. XXXI)
The Settlement of French Canada (Chap. XXXI)
La Salle (Chap. XXXIV)
Henry Hudson—New York and Hudson Bay (Chap. XXXV)
Frontenac (Chaps. XXXIV, XXXVII)
The Conquest of Canada—Wolfe and Montcalm, Pontiac (Chap. XLI)
The Coming of the Loyalists (Chap. XLII)
How Canada Fought for the Empire (Chap. XLIV)
William Lyon Mackenzie (Chap. XLVI)
The Great North-West—Selkirk, Mackenzie, Strathcona, Riel (Chap. XLVII)
Canada and the Empire—Royal Visitors (Chap. L)


Senior Grade


The First Britons (Chap. I)
The Coming of the Romans (Chap. II)
A Day in Roman Britain (Chap. III)[Pg 6] The Coming of the English (Chap. IV)
The Coming of Christianity (Chap. V)
The Vikings (Chap. VI)
Alfred the Great (Chap. VII)
Rivals for a Throne (Chap. VIII)
The Coming of the Normans (Chap. IX)
A Norman Castle (Chap. X)
A Glance at Scotland (Chap. XI)
Henry the Second and Ireland (Chap. XII)
Richard the Lion Heart (Chap. XIII)
King John and the Great Charter (Chap. XIV)
The First Prince of Wales (Chap. XV)
Wallace and Bruce (Chaps. XVI, XVII)
The Black Prince (Chap. XVIII)
The Father of the British Navy (Chap. XXII)
The New Worship (Chap. XXIV)
Francis Drake, Sea-dog (Chap. XXV)
King Charles the First (Chap. XXX)
The Rule of Cromwell (Chap. XXXII)
The King Enjoys his Own again (Chap. XXXIII)
The Revolution and After (Chap. XXXVI)
The Greatest Soldier of his Time (Chap. XXXVIII)
Bonnie Prince Charlie (Chap. XXXIX)
Robert Clive, the Daring in War (Chap. XL)
The Terror of Europe (Chap. XLIII)
Waterloo (Chap. XLV)
Victoria the Good (Chaps. XLVI, XLVIII, XLIX)


Review of the work in Form II; election of town or township council; taxes—the money people pay to keep up schools and roads, etc.; how local taxes are levied for[Pg 7] the support of the school; election of members of County Council, of members of Provincial Legislature; duties of citizenship.


Junior Grade


Before the British Conquest—an introductory account:

The French settlements: Extent, life of the seignior, habitant, and coureur de bois; system of trade; government at Quebec—governor, bishop, intendant; territorial claims (Chaps. VII, VIII, IX, XI)

The English settlements—Hudson's Bay Company, English colonies in New York, New England, Acadia, and Newfoundland; population, life, trade, government, territorial claims (Chaps. VIII, X, XI)

British Conquest of New France—fall of Quebec (Chap. XI)

Conspiracy of Pontiac (Chap. XII)

Quebec Act (Chap. XII)

Canada and the American Revolution; U.E. Loyalists (Chaps. XIII, XV)

Constitutional Act—Representative Government (Chap. XIV)

Social Conditions, 1763-1812 (Chap. XV)

Hudson's Bay Company (Chaps. VIII, XVI, XXI)

North-West Company (Chap. XVI)

Exploration in North-West—Hearne, Mackenzie, Fraser, Thompson (Chap. XVI)

War of 1812-14 (Chap. XVII)

Family Compact (Chap. XVII)

Clergy Reserves (Chap. XVII)

William Lyon Mackenzie (Chap. XVII)

[Pg 8]

Lord Durham, Act of Union, 1840—Responsible Government (Chap. XVIII)

Social Progress, 1812-1841 (Chap. XIX)

Settlement of the North-West—Selkirk (Chaps. XVI, XX)

Confederation of the Provinces, 1867 (Chap. XXII)

Intercolonial Railway (Chap. XXIV)

Expansion of the Dominion by addition of new provinces (Chap. XXII)

Social Progress, 1841-1867 (Chap. XXIII)

Canadian Pacific Railway (Chap. XXIV)

Riel Rebellion (Chap. XXIV)

Disputes between Canada and the United States since 1814 settled by treaty or arbitration. The Hundred Years of Peace

Canada, at the opening of the twentieth century; transportation, industry, means of defence, education (Chap. XXV)

Ontario since Confederation: John Sandfield Macdonald, Sir Oliver Mowat, Arthur Sturgis Hardy, Sir George W. Ross, Sir James P. Whitney (Chap. XXVI)

An account of how Canada is governed, simple and concrete and as far as possible related to the experience of the pupils; Municipal Government, Provincial Government, Federal Government (Chap. XXVII)

[Pg 9]


Senior Grade



A Course of about Two Months

The Early Inhabitants—The Britons

The Coming of the Romans

The Coming of the Saxons

The Coming of Christianity

Alfred the Great

The Coming of the Normans—The Feudal System

Richard I and the Crusaders

John and Magna Charta

The Scottish War of Independence

The Hundred Years' War—Crecy, Agincourt, Joan of Arc.

The Wars of the Roses (no lists of battles or details of fighting)

Caxton and Printing

Separation between the English Church and Rome


A Course of about Eight Months

Brief account of the British Isles, territorial, political, and religious, as an introduction to the reign of Elizabeth.

Elizabeth and Mary Queen of Scots; the Spanish Armada; Drake, Hawkins, Gilbert, Raleigh, Shakespeare.

The Stuarts: "Divine Right of Kings" supported by majority of gentry and landowners (cavaliers), opposed by[Pg 10] the commercial and trading classes and yeomen (roundheads). The Kings strove for absolute power, the Parliament for constitutional government.

James I: Union of the English and Scottish Crowns.

Charles I: Struggle between King and Parliament; Petition of Right, Ship Money, rebellion, execution of Charles.

Commonwealth: nominally a republic, really a dictatorship under Cromwell. He gave Britain a strong government at home, and made her respected abroad, and laid the foundations of Britain's foreign trade and colonial empire.

Charles II: The Restoration: Reaction in state, church, and society; King striving for absolute power; Nonconformists persecuted; society profligate in its revolt against the strictness of Puritanism; Habeas Corpus Act; Test Act; Plague and Great Fire.

James II: Revolution of 1688, the death-knell of "divine right"; Parliament supreme; Declaration of Rights.

William and Mary: Party government—Whigs and Tories; King to act by advice of his ministers; each parliament limited to three years; Bill of Rights; Act of Settlement.

Anne: Marlborough; Union between England and Scotland, 1707; the Jacobites, 1715 and 1745.

George II: Walpole, the great peace minister—home and colonial trade fostered and material wealth of the nation greatly increased; Pitt, the great war minister; territorial expansion in Canada and India—Wolfe, Clive; the Methodist Movement, Wesley.

George III: The American Revolution, 1776-83: loss of the American Colonies; Pitt; Washington; acquisition[Pg 11] of Australia by Great Britain, 1788; legislative union of Ireland with Great Britain, 1801; Napoleonic wars; Nelson, Wellington, Aboukir, Trafalgar, and Waterloo; industrial revolution—the change from an agricultural to an industrial country.

William IV: Reform Act of 1832, a great forward movement in democratic government; abolition of slavery, 1833; railways and steamships.

Victoria: First British settlement in New Zealand, 1839; Repeal of the Corn Laws, 1846—free trade, the commercial policy of England; Elementary Education Act, 1870, education compulsory; parliamentary franchise extended—vote by ballot; Crimean war; Indian Mutiny; Egypt and the Suez Canal; Boer War—Orange Free State and South African Republic annexed; social progress.

Edward VII: Irish Land Act of 1903; pensions for aged labourers; King Edward, "the Peace-maker."


Taxation—direct and indirect; how the revenue of the Dominion, provinces, and municipalities, respectively, is collected.

Federal Government—Governor-general, Senate, House of Commons, Premier, Cabinet.

Imperial Government—King, House of Lords, House of Commons, Premier, Cabinet.

[Pg 12]

[Pg 13]





History may be made, in several ways, an important factor in forming intelligent, patriotic citizens:

(a) It must be remembered that society, with all its institutions, is a growth, not a sudden creation. It follows that, if we wish to understand the present and to use that knowledge as a guide to future action, we must know the story of how our present institutions and conditions have come to be what they are; we must know the ideals of our forefathers, the means they took to realize them, and to what extent they succeeded. It is only in this way that we become capable of passing judgment, as citizens, on what is proposed by political and social reformers, and thus justify and guarantee our existence as a democracy.

(b) Patriotism, which depends largely on the associations formed in childhood, is intensified by learning how our forefathers fought and laboured and suffered to obtain all that we now value most in our homes and social life. The courage with which the early settlers of Upper Canada faced their tremendous labours and hardships should make us appreciate our inheritance in the Ontario of to-day, and determine, as they did, to leave our country better than we found it.

To-morrow yet would reap to-day,
As we bear blossom of the dead.

[Pg 14]

(c) "History teaches that right and wrong are real distinctions." The study of history, especially in the sphere of biography, has a moral value, and much may be done, even in the primary classes, to inspire children to admire the heroic and the self-sacrificing, and to despise the treacherous and the self-seeking. The constant struggle to right what is wrong in the world may be emphasized in the senior classes to show that nothing is ever settled until it is settled right.

(d) History affords specially good exercise for the judgment we use in everyday life in weighing evidence and balancing probabilities. Such a question as "Did Champlain do right in taking the side of the Hurons against the Iroquois, or even in taking sides at all?" may be suggested to the older pupils for consideration.

(e) History, when taught by a broad-minded, well-informed teacher, may do much to correct the prejudices—social, political, religious—of individuals and communities.

(f) The imagination is exercised in the effort to recall or reconstruct the scenes of the past and in discovering relations of cause and effect.

(g) The memory is aided and stimulated by the increase in the number of the centres of interest round which facts, both new and old, may be grouped.

(h) A knowledge of the facts and inferences of history is invaluable for general reading and culture.

To sum up: It is important that the good citizen should know his physical environment; it is just as important for him "to know his social and political environment, to have some appreciation of the nature of the state and society, some sense of the duties and responsibilities of citizenship, some capacity in dealing with political and[Pg 15] governmental questions, something of the broad and tolerant spirit which is bred by the study of past times and conditions."


The ideal course in history would include (1) a general view of the history of the world, giving the pupil knowledge enough to provide the proper setting for the history of his own country; (2) a more detailed knowledge of the whole history of his own country; (3) and a special knowledge of certain outstanding periods or tendencies in that history. In our schools, we should give most attention to the study of Canadian and British history as a whole, to enough of the history of France and other countries to make clear certain parts of our own history, and to certain important periods, such as the settlement of Upper Canada by the United Empire Loyalists, etc. (See Detailed Course of Study, p. 5.) We may also study our history along special lines of development—political, military, social, educational, religious, industrial, and commercial—but these phases are subjects of study rather for secondary schools and colleges.


There are three stages in the study of history which, though they overlap each other, yet indicate different methods of treatment for pupils at different ages. They are the Story stage, the Information stage, and the Reflective stage. These stages are not exclusive, nor do they coincide with the first three Forms in the schools.


This stage is suitable for children in the primary grades and is chiefly preparatory to the real study of history in the higher grades. The need for this stage lies in the fact[Pg 16] that the child's "ideas are of the pictorial rather than of the abstract order"; yet his spontaneous interest in these things must be made to serve "as a stepping-stone to the acquired interests of civilized life." The definite objects at this stage are:

(a) To create and foster a liking for historical study. It is impossible, in the public school life of a child, which is usually ended at the age of twelve to fourteen years, to accomplish all that has been indicated above concerning the aims of history teaching. The most that can be done is to lay the foundation and give the pupil a desire to continue his reading after his school days are over. Serious blame rests on the teacher whose methods of teaching history, instead of attracting the child to the subject, give him a distaste for it. If history is made real and living to children, it is usually not difficult to have them like it. (For suggestions, see p. 34.)

(b) To acquaint the pupils with some of the important historical persons. We wish to take advantage of the fact that "the primitive form of attention which is captured at once by objects that strike the senses is giving place in some degree to appreciative attention, which is yielded to things that connect themselves with what we already know, and which implies ability to adopt the reflective attitude towards a proposed problem."[A] Now children are more interested in people than in institutions or events; and, if we can give them a knowledge of some of the striking incidents in the lives of important characters in history, we may expect them to be more interested in the study of history at a later period, because they will frequently meet with these familiar names. The emphasis at this stage is therefore on biography.

[Pg 17]

(c) To help the development of the "historical sense." The "historical sense" includes the notion of time, the notion of a social unit and, according to some, the notion of cause and effect. The notion of time implies the power "to represent the past as if it were present"—that is, the power to enter into the thoughts and feelings of people of the past as if we were living amongst them. This notion of time comes at different ages; to some early, to others very late. It came to Professor Shaler at the age of about eight or nine years, as the direct result of vivid story-telling:

Of all the folk who were about me, the survivors of the Indian wars were the most interesting. There were several of these old clapper-clawed fellows still living, with their more or less apocryphal tales of adventures they had heard of or shared. There was current a tradition—I have seen it in print—that there had been a fight between the Indians and whites where the government barracks stood, and that two wounded whites had been left upon the ground, where they were not found by the savages. One of these had both arms broken, the other was similarly disabled as to his legs. It was told that they managed to subsist by combining their limited resources. The man with sound legs drove game up within range of the other cripple's gun, and as the turkeys or rabbits fell, he kicked them within reach of his hands, and in like manner provided him with sticks for their fire. This legend, much elaborated in the telling, gave me, I believe at about my eighth year, my first sense of a historic past, and it led to much in the way of fanciful invention of like tales. (N.F. Shaler: Autobiography, Chap. I.)

The best means at the teacher's command to assist its coming is to tell good stories from history with all the skill he has; the stories need not be told in chronological order. The notion of time implies also in the older pupils the power to place events in chronological order.

The notion of a social unit is also of slow growth and must spring from the child's conception of the social units he belongs to—the home, the school, the community.

[Pg 18]

The notion of cause and effect does not belong so wholly to the study of history as the notions of time and of the social unit; it is surprising, however, how soon it makes its appearance in the child's conceptions of history, in his desire to know the "why" of things. (See Barnes' Studies in Historical Method.)


There are several questions that children soon come to ask: "When?" and "Where?" "What?" and "Who?" This stage may be said to begin in earnest with the Second Form, and it continues through the whole course. One of the essential elements in history study is to have a knowledge of the important facts of history, without which there can be no inferences of value for present use. The all-important point in this teaching of facts is to keep the lessons interesting and not allow them to become mere lifeless memorizing of isolated happenings; for a fact is of value only when related to other facts. (See pp. 36, 38.)


This stage naturally follows the Information stage, as one must acquire facts before reflecting on them in order to draw inferences. But reflection of a simple kind may begin as soon as any facts are given that will show the relations of cause and effect. The question for the pupil here is "Why?" just as in the preceding stage the questions were "When?" and "Where?" "What?" and "Who?" Information and reflection may therefore be combined—with due regard to the pupil's capacity.


We may speak of two difficulties. The first concerns the enormous amount of historical material that exists.[Pg 19] It is increased still more by the intermingling of legend with history and by the partial narratives of prejudiced writers. The legendary part may be taken up in the Story stage; and the evils of one-sided accounts are often balanced by the greater vigour and interest of the narrative, as in Macaulay's writings. The difficulty connected with the great amount of material can be solved by the selection (already largely made by the text-books) of the more important parts, that is, those facts of history that have the greatest influence on after times—"the points of vital growth and large connection" without which subsequent history cannot be properly understood.

The second difficulty has to do with deciding where to begin the teaching of history. There are two principles of teaching that will help to solve this difficulty: (1) The child learns by relating everything new to his present fund of experiences; (2) A child's notions grow more complex as his knowledge increases. To apply these, we must know the child's experiences and his present notions. We cannot assume that the present conditions of social life are known to the child through his experiences. Our social life is also too complex to be understood by him yet; he can understand an individual hero better than he can the complex idea of a nation. How many children would be able to begin a study of history by having, as one writer suggests, "a short series of lessons ... to make some simple and fundamental historical ideas intelligible—a state, a nation, a dynasty, a monarch, a parliament, legislation, the administration of justice, taxes, civil and foreign war!" These are ideas far beyond the comprehension of the beginner. We must be guided, not by "what happens to be near the child in time and place, but by what lies near his interests." As Professor Bourne says:[Pg 20] "it may be that mediæval man, because his characteristics belong to a simple type, is closer to the experience of a child than many a later hero." With older children it is more likely to be true that the life of history lies "in its personal connections with what is here and now and still alive with us"; with historic places and relics, etc., which make their appeal first through the senses; with institutions, such as trial by jury; with anniversaries and celebrations of great events which may be used to arouse interest in the history which they suggest and recall.

However, as McMurry points out, we are in a peculiarly favourable position in Canada, because we have in our own history, in the comparatively short time of 400 years, the development of a free and prosperous country from a state of wildness and savagery. The early stages of our history present those elements of life that appeal strongly to children—namely, Indians with all their ways of living and fighting, and the early settlers with their simpler problems and difficulties. The development of this simpler life to the more complex life of the present can be more readily understood by children as they follow up the changes that have taken place. (See McMurry, Special Method in History, pp. 26-30.) Of course, at every step appeal must be made to the experiences of children, as the teacher knows them. In Civics, however, the beginning must be made with conditions that exist to-day—schools, taxes, the policeman, the postmaster, etc. The beginning of the real teaching of history may then be made at the beginning of Canadian History, as this will enable the child to go gradually from the simple, or individual, to the complex, and will also allow the teacher to make use of whatever historical remains may be within reach.

[A] Raymont: Principles of Education

[Pg 21]



There are many methods used in the teaching of history. A brief description of the principal ones is given for reference merely, since their best features are incorporated in a combination of methods, which is strongly recommended to teachers, and is described fully in succeeding pages.

1. Methods based on the arrangement and selection of the matter:
Chronological, Topical


The matter is chosen according to the "time" order, beginning at the first of the history, and the events are taught in the order of occurrence without any marked emphasis on their importance, or without considering whether a knowledge of the event is useful or interesting to the class at this stage. Such an arrangement of matter is more suitable when the formal study of history is begun.


In studying a certain period of history the events are arranged under topics or heads; for example, the period of discovery in Canadian History may be arranged thus—Discoveries, Explorations, Early Settlements, Indian Wars—and the study of each of these pursued to completion, contemporary events belonging to other topics being neglected for a time.

[Pg 22]

Events having the same underlying purpose, though occurring in different periods, may be arranged under one topic for review; for example, all the voyages of discovery to America may be grouped under the topic, "The Road to Cathay." (See p. 92.) In this way a comprehensive knowledge is gained. This method gives a full treatment of each topic and may be used to best advantage in connection with reviews in junior classes and occasionally as a text-book or library exercise in senior classes.

2. Methods based on the treatment of historical facts:
Comparative, Regressive, Concentric


By this method a comparison is made between two events, two biographies, two reigns, etc., a very useful device when applied in connection with other methods.


In this method the pupil is expected to begin with the present and work backward; that is, to begin with institutions as they are to-day and to work back through the various steps in their progress to their present state. This method may be followed most profitably in advanced classes. In junior classes it is sufficient to refer to things as they exist to-day in order to arouse curiosity regarding the facts of history that are to be taught; for example, by the use of local material; by a visit to some place of historical interest to prepare for the story of what has occurred there in the past. (See p. 112.)


This method, which is much used, deals in ever widening circles with the same topic or event; for example, a[Pg 23] simple story of Champlain's life and voyages to Canada is told to Form II; the same story is considered again in Form III, but this time the different voyages are noted, the results of each investigated, and the whole summarized and memorized; again, in Form IV, but this time by the topical and comparative methods, where comparison is made of the purposes and achievements of the explorer with those of other explorers—Jacques Cartier, La Salle, etc. In this third discussion a full knowledge of Champlain's work is given.

The excellence of this work lies in its review and repetition. The old or former knowledge is recalled and used in each succeeding discussion of the topic. The pupils grow gradually into fuller knowledge.

3. Methods based on class procedure:
Oral, Text-book


This usually takes the form of an oral presentation of the story or description of the event by the teacher, while the pupils listen and afterwards reproduce what they have heard. The narration of the story is accompanied by pictures, sketches, maps, etc., illustrative of persons, places, and facts mentioned. It may also take the "development" form, in which a combination of narrative and questioning is employed. (See pp. 66, 92.)

The Lecture method of Colleges and Universities is an advanced oral method. In this the teacher narrates and describes events, propounds questions, and discusses and answers them himself, while the pupils listen and during the lecture, or afterwards, make notes of what has been heard.

[Pg 24]


By this method the teacher assigns a lesson in the book and, after the pupils have an opportunity to study it, he asks questions concerning the facts learned. The exclusive use of this method results ordinarily in dull, lifeless teaching, and with junior pupils will prevent their enjoying, or receiving much benefit from, the study of history. There are two reasons for the too general use of it—first, it is an easy method for the teacher, and secondly, it is easy for the pupils to memorize facts for the sole purpose of passing examinations. While this criticism is true when an exclusive use is made of the text-book, the same cannot be said when the text-book is used as an auxiliary to the teacher. Following the oral presentation of the story, reference may be made to the book for another version or for a fuller account and, in Form IV, topics may be assigned and the pupils directed to consult the text-book for the necessary information. (See pp. 26, 28.)

The text-book should be one that does not show an abrupt change from the story told by the teacher. It should not be merely a short outline of the important facts in history, written separately and then pieced together in chronological order, but should be written in a readable form by one who is able to distinguish the important and necessary from the unimportant and burdensome. It should have short summaries at the ends of chapters or stories of events, so that a grasp of what has been read may be easily obtained. It should also have many pictures, illustrations, and maps, to take the place of the teacher's explanations in the earlier stage. (On the use of the text-book, see p. 29.)

[Pg 25]


General Description.—As each of the above methods has its strong and its weak points, we should attempt to combine the strong points into one method, varied to keep pace with the mental development of the pupil, and thus secure the best results. The general outline of such a combination may be given as follows: The "oral story" is to be used in the junior classes, with "development" problems presented where helpful; in Form III the pupils should be introduced to the text-book (The History Reader for Form III), besides being taught by the oral method; in Form IV, the oral method is still to be the chief means used by the teacher, who will now, however, pay more attention to the arrangement of the matter (for example, in topical outlines), to accustom the pupils to grasp more thoroughly the relations of cause and effect in history. The topics of history will also be taken up more exhaustively than in the junior classes, and the pupils must have more practice in acquiring knowledge from the text-books.



In Forms I and II, the pupils are accustomed to the oral reproduction of stories told by the teacher. In these should be included a good many historical stories, such as those suggested in the Course of Study in History for these Forms; they will serve the usual purposes of oral reproduction work for composition and literature, and will be, besides, a good foundation for the study of history in the higher forms. (For objects of the Story stage, see p. 16.)

The oral presentation of a story or description of an event requires a certain degree of skill on the part of a teacher—skill in story-telling, in grasping the important[Pg 26] parts of the story or description, in knowing what details to omit as well as what to narrate, in explaining the story in a way that will make it real to the pupils, in preparing pictures and sketches to illustrate the different parts, and in questioning so that the minds of the pupils will be active as well as receptive. The care and time necessary to secure this skill will be well repaid by the interest aroused in history, by the appreciation of the thoughts thus presented, and by the lasting impressions conveyed. Simple, clear language should be employed, not necessarily small words, but words whose meaning is made clear by the context or illustration. (For material for these Forms, see Bibliography, C, p. 132.)

When the whole story is told, revision may be made by having the pupils reproduce it after suitable questioning, either immediately or at some future time. Exercises in reproduction may also be given, for either seat work or class work, in constructive or art work; for example, after the story of the North American Indians, the pupils may be asked to construct a wigwam, a canoe, a bow and arrow, or to make pictures of Indians, of their houses, of their dress, etc.

Further exercise in composition may also be given by having the pupils write the story. To each pupil may be assigned a special part; for example, the story of Moses may be divided thus: (1) As a babe; (2) His adoption by the Princess; (3) His life at the palace; (4) His flight to Midian; (5) The Burning Bush, etc. The whole story is then reproduced by having these parts read aloud in a reading lesson.


The value of the oral work done in Forms I and II will be realized by the teacher when the real study of history[Pg 27] is begun in Forms III and IV. The pupils have a liking for the stories of history and have a knowledge of some of the leading actors and of the chief events in history that calls for more complete satisfaction.

There are several methods of using the History Reader which is the basis of the work in Form III. Perhaps the best method is to continue to make oral teaching the chief feature, and to add to that the use by the pupils, in various ways, of the History Reader.

For example, the teacher will tell the story of Jacques Cartier, following in the main the narrative as given in the History Reader. It is well, however, not to follow it too closely in order that, when the pupils come to read the story in the book for themselves, they will find it an interesting combination of the familiar and the new. For that reason, it will be necessary for the teacher to have prepared the story from a somewhat different narrative in some other book at her command. In the telling of the story, problems may be asked, if thought advisable (see p. 33); a few headings may be placed on the black-board for subsequent reproduction, oral or written, by the pupils; all difficulties of pronunciation, especially of proper names, should be attended to, orally and on the black-board; the places mentioned should be found on the map; pictures and sketches should be used; and in fact, every possible means taken to make the narrative more real to the class. (See p. 34.)

When the oral teaching is finished, the pupils may have the books to read at their desks, and they often ask permission to take them home. They may sometimes be required to read aloud from the History Reader for supplementary practice in oral reading. Reproduction by the pupils, either immediately or in a subsequent lesson, should follow. Teachers, however, are advised not to insist on too[Pg 28] much written reproduction, as that might very easily arouse a dislike for both history and written composition. Procedure as outlined above has had most gratifying results in the way of creating a liking for, and an intelligent interest in, the study of history.

Other methods have also had good results. The teacher may, instead of telling the story, read aloud from the Reader to pave the way for the reading of the story by the pupils themselves. Difficulties, either in language or in meaning, may be taken up as in a literature lesson. The pupils will at first find the reading somewhat difficult, but the interest generated by the teacher's reading or oral narrative will carry them through that stage till they acquire a love for reading history, and have enlarged their vocabulary till reading is no longer a burdensome task.

A taste of the more serious study of history may be given by asking the pupils a few not very difficult questions that they can answer only by combining facts contained in several stories. For example, in the chapters selected for Form III, Junior Grade, the answer can be found to a question about the explorers of Canada, the order of their visits, and a comparison of their work; to another question about the expansion of Canada from the little part of Quebec first visited to the whole of British North America.

It is unnecessary, perhaps, to add that the emphasis in Form III history should be still very largely on biography, so as to influence the forming of moral ideals by concrete examples.


Although the pupils have now had some experience in the use of the History Reader, yet that is no reason why oral teaching should be discarded in Form IV history, any[Pg 29] more than in arithmetic or geography. It is scarcely a high estimate to have of history, to think that pupils of this age can grasp even the simpler lines of development in history without guidance from the teacher. Hence it is necessary for the attainment of good results, that many of the lessons should be taught orally before the pupils are asked to study their books. The aim of the teaching should be not merely the acquisition of facts, but the welding of them together in a sequence of cause and effect, and the pupils at this stage can scarcely be expected to do that for themselves.

In preparing for a lesson in Form IV history, the teacher should analyse the incidents of the period to be studied, should see how certain causes have led to certain results, and should be sure enough of the facts to have little recourse to the text-book while teaching. It does not look like fair play to expect a class to answer questions that the teacher cannot answer without consulting the text. On the other hand, it is refreshing to see the interest aroused in a class by a teacher who thinks enough of the subject to be able to teach it without constant reference to the text-book. Therefore, let the oral method be here again the chief dependence of the teacher. In such a lesson, for example, as that on the Intercolonial Railway (see p. 82) no book is needed—only the map and the black-board.


However, as the pupils must learn, for their own profit in after years, how to read history without a guiding hand, they need training in the use of the text-book. The chief line on which such training may proceed is to have the pupils search out the answers to definite questions. Any one who has searched for material on a certain topic[Pg 30] will appreciate the good results that have come in the way of added knowledge and increased interest. The topics at first should be quite simple, gradually increasing in breadth. A few suggestions for such work are given below; they may be called examination questions to be answered with the help of the text-book:

1. Name, and tell something about, four of the explorers of Canada before 1759.

2. Name several other explorers of the New World.

3. Which explorer did the most for Canada, Champlain or La Salle?

4. In what wars did the French fight against the Iroquois? With what result?

5. What explorers of North America were trying to find a way to China and India? (This investigation by the class may precede the lesson on the "Road to Cathay." See p. 92.)

6. On what did English kings base their claim to be the overlords of Scotland? Trace the dispute down to the Union of the Crowns in 1603.

7. Find out how the slave trade was treated by the English.

8. Make a list of the early newspapers in Canada. Did they have much influence on public opinion?

9. Compare the struggles for the control of taxation in Canada and in the Thirteen Colonies of America. Explain why these were settled differently in the two cases.

With questions such as these for investigation, no pupil will be likely to secure the full facts; each may state in the next lesson what he has found, and the work of each will be supplemented by that of the others. With succeeding investigations it may be expected that the pupils will be more eager to get at all the facts in the text-book. At any rate they are learning how to gather material from books—a very valuable training, no matter how simple the topic is.

When, in the ordinary course of work, lessons from the text-book are assigned, the teacher should indicate the important points, should suggest certain matters for discussion, and should note certain questions to be answered, indicating precisely where the information may be obtained. In the recitation period following, the topic[Pg 31] should be fully discussed, the pupils giving the information they have secured from the text-book, and the teacher supplementing this from his knowledge gained through wider reading. During the discussion an outline should be made on the board, largely by the suggestions of the pupils, and kept in their note-books for reference and review. (See p. 100, Lesson on the Feudal System.)


As has been already stated (p. 15), the Story stage is useful chiefly for the purpose of arousing interest and developing the historical sense; no drill or review is necessary other than the oral, and, in Form II, sometimes the written, reproduction of the stories. The oral reproduction can be obtained in Form I by using the stories as topics in language lessons.

In the Information stage, where we are concerned more with the acquiring of facts, and in the Reflective stage, where we wish to relate facts to each other according to cause and effect, drills and reviews are necessary. During the lesson, a summary is placed on the black-board by the teacher or pupil, as indicated above. It is used as a guide in oral reproduction and may also be copied in special note-books and used for reference when preparing for review lessons. The teacher may look over these note-books occasionally.

There is great difference of opinion on the value of note-taking by pupils, but it may be said of such notes as those mentioned above that they have the advantage of being largely the pupil's own work, especially when the pupils are asked to suggest the headings; they are a record of what has been decided in the class to be important points; they are arranged in the order in which the subject has been treated in the lesson, and are in every way[Pg 32] superior to the small note-books in history that are sometimes used as aids or helps. For the proper teaching of history, the latter are hindrances rather than helps, because they rob the pupil of the profit gained by doing the work for himself. Notes obtained from books or dictated by the teacher are harmful to the right spirit of study, and create a distaste for the subject.

Special review lessons should be taken when a series of lessons on one topic, or on a series of connected topics, has been finished. At the close of each lesson, the facts learned are fixed more firmly in the mind by the usual drill; but there must be further organization of the several lessons by a proper review, so that history will not be a number of unconnected events, but will be seen as an orderly development. This may be accomplished: (1) by questioning the class from a point of view different from that taken in the first lessons, (2) by oral or written expansion of a topical outline, (3) by illustrations with maps or drawings, (4) by tracing the sequence of events backwards, (5) by submitting some new situation that will recall the old knowledge in a different way. It must be remembered that it is not a mere repetition that we seek, but a re-view of the facts, a new view that will prove the power of the pupils to use the knowledge they have gained. Thus the lesson on the St. Lawrence River (p. 112) is a good review of the facts of history suggested by the places mentioned; the lesson on the Road to Cathay (p. 92) may be considered a review of the chief explorers of North America. Such a review aims at seeing new relations, at connecting new knowledge and old, at "giving freshness and vividness to knowledge that may be somewhat faded, at throwing a number of discrete facts into a bird's-eye view."

[Pg 33]


The development, or problem, method is intended to get the pupils to do some independent thinking, instead of merely absorbing knowledge from the teacher. The plan is simply to set clearly before the pupils the conditions existing at a certain moment in the story so that they may see for themselves the difficulties that the people in the story had to overcome. The question for the class is: "What would you do in the circumstances?"

Let us take an example from the life of Ulysses. Ulysses had heard of the Sirens, who sang so beautifully that any one in a passing ship who heard them was impelled to throw himself overboard, with a frantic desire to swim to their island. Naturally the swimmers were all drowned in the attempt. Ulysses desired to hear for himself the wonderful singing, and to experience, perhaps, its terrible effect; but he certainly did not want to run any risk of drowning. Now, how did he accomplish his desire, without paying the penalty?

Again, in the story of Madeleine de Verchères, the narrative may proceed to the point where Madeleine has succeeded in securing the gates. She finds herself in a weak fort with few to help her, and outside a numerous band of Indians, who are kept at bay for a whole week, without even attempting their usual night attacks. How did she do it?

In the case of the U.E. Loyalists, the teacher may narrate the story to the point where the Loyalists, after the treaty was signed, saw that they must remove to Canada. The class must know where the Loyalist centres in the New England States were. Now, what routes would they be likely to take in going to Canada? With the map before them, the class can usually tell the next part of the story themselves.

[Pg 34]

Even if the pupil is not able to give the correct answer to the problem submitted, he is nevertheless having an opportunity to exercise his judgment, he can see wherein his judgment differs from that of the persons concerned, his interest in their actions is increased, and the whole story will be more deeply impressed on his memory.


The chief difficulty in teaching history is to give a meaning to the language of history. Much of the language is merely empty words. The Magna Charta and the Clergy Reserves mean just about as much to pupils as x does in algebra, and even when they give a definition or description of these terms, it usually amounts to saying that x equals y; the definition is just as vague as the original terms. The problem is to give the language more meaning, to ensure that the words give mental pictures and ideas; in short, to turn the abstract into concrete facts.

Children can make their own only such knowledge as their experience helps them to interpret. Their interests are in the present, and the past appeals to them just so far as they can see in it their own activities, thoughts, and feelings. The great aim of the teacher, then, should be to help pupils to translate the facts of history into terms of their own experiences; unless that is done, they are really not learning anything. Some of the ways in which this may be attempted are outlined below.

1. In the junior classes where the children are intensely interested in stories, the stress should be put on giving them interesting personal details about the famous people in history, details that they can understand with their limited experiences of life, and that will appeal to their emotions. These stories should be told to the pupils[Pg 35] with such vividness and animation that they will struggle with Columbus against a mutinous crew, will help the early explorers to blaze their way through the dense forests, will toil with the pioneers in making homes for themselves in Canada, and will suffer with the missionaries in their hardships and perils.

For these pupils the oral method is the only one to use, for there is nothing that appeals to children more quickly and with more reality than what they hear from the teacher. The oral method should find a large place in the teaching of history in all the Forms. It may be added that the teachers who use this method will find history become a more real and interesting study to themselves.

2. What the pupils hear should be reinforced by giving them something to see. Whatever pictures are obtainable (see pp. 45, 127) should be used freely at all stages, for the visual images of children are a powerful aid to their understanding; it is for this reason that books for children are now so fully illustrated, and the same principle should be applied to the teaching of history.

As soon as the children are ready for it, reference should be made to maps to illustrate historical facts. (See p. 127.) They should see on the map the course that Columbus took across the unknown sea; Champlain's explorations become real when they are traced on the map and the children have a concrete picture to carry away with them. In fact the subjects of geography, art, and constructive work, treated under the head of correlated subjects, are used in history with the aim of making it real through the eye. (See pp. 40, 44, 45.)

3. A greater difficulty presents itself when we have to deal, in the higher Forms, with topics like the Magna Charta and the Clergy Reserves, and it is a difficulty that[Pg 36] will test to the full the resourcefulness of the teacher. How can the preceding conditions and the terms of the Magna Charta be brought home to a class? How can children be brought to appreciate the difficulties connected with the question of Clergy Reserves? A few words about the latter may suggest a means.

Two aspects of the Clergy Reserves question stand out prominently, the religious and the economic. The religious aspect will be the most difficult for Ontario children, for they have no immediate knowledge of what a State Church is—the point on which the religious dispute turned; nor do they know enough about the government of the religious bodies to which they belong to make the matter clear to them. A full understanding must come later. The best point of approach seems to be to give the class some idea of the number of settlers belonging to the churches of England and of Scotland, which claimed the right to the lands reserved, and compare with this the number of all other Protestant bodies that claimed to share in them; for this difference in numbers was one of the chief causes of bitterness. An arithmetical appeal is concrete. There was also the economic aspect. The Clergy Reserves were one seventh of the land in each township. Another seventh was withheld from free settlement as Crown Lands. Now in some townships there were about 50,000 acres. Let the class find out how many acres were thus kept from settlement. Tell them that this land was not all in one block, but distributed through the township. They can now be asked to consider how this would interfere with close settlement and therefore with the establishment of schools, churches, post-offices, mills, and stores. A diagram of a township would be of great help. These two points will help them to see why an early and fair settlement of the[Pg 37] vexed question was desired. Wherever possible, present problems for them to solve by their own experiences.

4. The reading to the class of accounts of events written by people living at the time will give an atmosphere of reality and human interest to the events. For example, a story of early pioneer days told by a pioneer gives a personal element (see Pioneer Days, Kennedy); a letter by Mary Queen of Scots, to Elizabeth (see p. 143), will make both of these queens real living people, not mere names in history. (See Studies in the Teaching of History, Keatinge, p. 97, also selections from The Sources of English History, Colby, p. 163.) Not much of this may be possible, but more use might easily be made of such materials, especially with the early history of Ontario.

5. The use of local history and of current events will be treated elsewhere. (See pp. 49, 51.)

6. When possible, let the pupils form their idea of an historical person from his actions and words just as we form our estimate of each other, instead of having them memorize mere summaries of his character before they know his actions.

7. Genealogical and chronological tables, written on the black-board and discussed with the class, will be of service in understanding certain periods, such as the Wars of the Roses, and in helping to form the time-sense of pupils. (See Chronological Chart, p. 128.)

8. Chief dependence must be placed, however, on increasing the pupil's knowledge of present-day conditions in agriculture, commerce, transportation, manufactures, in fact, in all social, economic, and political conditions, in order to enable him by comparison to realize earlier methods and ways of living. The pupil who understands[Pg 38] best how we do things to-day can understand best the state of affairs when people had to depend on primitive methods, and can realize how they would strive to make things better.


History is usually called a "memory" subject, and is accordingly often taught as a mere memorizing of facts, names, and dates. The following statement of the chief principles of memorizing will, it is hoped, put mere verbal repetition in its proper place. Interest is the chief condition for teaching history in the public schools, in order that the pupils may acquire a liking for the subject that will tempt them to pursue their reading in after years; without that interest, the small amount of historical fact they can accumulate in their school-days will be of little real value to them when they become full-fledged citizens. In fact, through this emphasis on interest instead of verbal repetition, the pupils are likely to obtain a better knowledge of history and, at the same time, will have a chance to develop, in no slight degree, their powers of judgment.

1. Memory depends on attention; we must observe attentively what we wish to remember. In history, attention may be secured by making the lessons interesting through the skill of the teacher in presenting the matter vividly to the pupils; also by using means to make history real instead of having it a mere mass of meaningless words. (See p. 34.)

2. Facts that we wish to remember should be grouped, or studied in relation to other facts with which they are vitally connected. The facts of history should be presented to the class in their relation of cause and effect, or associated with some larger centre of interest; in other[Pg 39] words, pupils must understand, in some degree, what they are asked to remember. (See pp. 92, 97.)

3. If we increase the number of connections for facts, we are more likely to remember them. It is largely for this reason that history should be taught with correlated subjects, such as geography, literature, science (inventions), etc. For example, the story of the Spanish Armada is remembered better if we have read Westward Ho! and the story of the Renaissance is made clearer and is therefore remembered better, if we connect with it the inventions of printing, gunpowder, and the mariner's compass. (See p. 121.)

4. Repetition is necessary to memory. Facts or groups of facts must be repeated to be remembered. This is the purpose of the drills which are necessary to good teaching, but are only a part of it. Reviews are not to be considered merely as repetitions, but should be treated more as aids to better understanding. (See p. 31.)

[Pg 40]




These subjects are very intimately related, and each should be used in teaching the other. Geography, which is often called one of the "eyes of history," may be used in the teaching of this subject in two ways. In the first place, an account of an historical event lacks, to a certain degree, reality in the minds of the pupils if they do not know something of the place where it occurred. Accordingly, in studying or teaching history, reference should be constantly made to the map to give a local setting to the story. The voyage of Columbus, the operations of Wolfe, the coming of the Loyalists, are made more real if they are traced out on the map, and are therefore better understood and remembered by the pupils. For this purpose, it is better, in most cases, to use an outline map, which may be sketched on the black-board by the teacher or the pupils, because on the ordinary wall maps there are so many names and so much detail that the attention may be distracted. Many of the details on the map are, moreover, more modern than the events that are to be illustrated, so that wrong impressions may be given.

In the second place, it must be kept constantly in mind that many events in history have been influenced by the physical features of a country. For example: the lack of a natural boundary between France and Germany has led to many disputes between these countries; the fact of Great Britain being an island accounts for many things in her history (see p. 108); the physical features of Quebec[Pg 41] and Gibraltar explain the importance of these places; and the waterways of Canada account for the progress of early settlement. The climate and soil of a country affect its history; treaties are often based on physical conditions, and trade routes determined by them; a nation's commerce and wealth depend largely on the character of its natural resources.

Some easy problems may be given to the senior classes to be answered by reference to physical conditions:

Why are London, New York, Chicago, Montreal, and Halifax, such important centres? Why are certain places fitted for certain manufactures? Will Winnipeg become a more important city than Montreal? Will Vancouver outstrip San Francisco? What is a possible future for the Western Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan? What might have been the state of North America to-day, if the Rocky Mountains had run along the East coast, instead of along the West?

On the other hand, history contributes a human interest to geography; the places of greatest interest are often those associated with great events in history—Athens, Mount Sinai, Waterloo, Queenston Heights.


Literature gives life and human interest to both history and geography. By means of literature we are able to get a better notion of the ideals and motives of a people than the mere recital of the facts of their history can give. In this connection we naturally think of Homer's Iliad and its influence on the Greeks. It was their storehouse of history, morals, religion, æsthetics, and rules for the practical guidance of life, as well as their literary masterpiece.

It is often easy to interest pupils in a period of history by reading or quoting to them some ballad, poem, or prose[Pg 42] narrative that colours the historical facts with the element of human feeling. Macaulay's Horatius gives a deeper impression of Roman patriotism than almost anything in pure history can; the various aspects of the Crusades are vividly shown by W. Stearns Davis in God Wills It, a story of the first Crusade. In fact, if stirring events can be linked in the child's mind with stirring verse, if the struggles and progress of nations can be presented in a vigorous narrative that echoes the thoughts, feelings, and interests of the time, we make an appeal to the interest of the pupil that is almost irresistible. The objection is sometimes urged against the reading of standard historical tales and novels, that these are somewhat exaggerated in sentiment and inaccurate in facts. Even if this be so, it may be said that they give in outline a fair picture of the period described, that the interest in history aroused by such tales begets a liking for history itself, and that such exaggerations and inaccuracies are soon corrected when the pupil begins to read history.

The course of history has been modified by songs, ballads, and stories. The influence on the national spirit and ideals of songs such as Rule Britannia and The Marseillaise, of stories such as Uncle Tom's Cabin, of novels such as those of Dickens and of Charles Reade is incalculable.

A few poems and prose compositions are given here as suggestions; a fuller list may be found in Allen's Reader's Guide to English History, Ginn & Co., 30c.

Poems: Boadicea, Cowper; Recessional, Kipling; Edinburgh After Flodden, Aytoun; Hands All Round, Tennyson; Columbus, Joaquin Miller; Waterloo, Byron; The Armada, Macaulay; The Revenge, Tennyson; The Charge of the Light Brigade, Tennyson.

[Pg 43]

Prose: "United Empire Loyalists," Roberts' History of Canada, Chap. XV; "Departure and Death of Nelson," Southey; Montcalm and Wolfe, Parkman; "The Crusader and the Saracen," in Scott's The Talisman; "The Heroine of Castle Dangerous," in Stories of New France, Machar and Marquis; "Adam Daulac," in Martyrs of New France, Herrington.


The connection between history and science is very close, because it was only after the invention of writing that history, the record of human progress, became possible. Further, the remarkable way in which the chief stages in the development of civilization coincide with certain inventions and discoveries makes the study of history very incomplete without a knowledge of the inventions and discoveries, inasmuch as these opened a road for human development. (See p. 119.)

To make this evident, it is enough merely to mention a few comparatively recent inventions, such as the mariner's compass, the printing-press, gunpowder, the steam-engine, the power-loom, the cotton-gin, and the telegraph.

To the introduction of the mariner's compass in the fourteenth century, by which sailors were made independent of landmarks and the stars, and could therefore go more boldly into the open sea, we owe the explorations of the fifteenth century that culminated in the discovery of America, and the way to India by the Cape of Good Hope. The introduction of gunpowder in the fourteenth century gave the lower and middle classes a weapon that made them equal in power with the nobles and brought about the downfall of the feudal system and the rise of modern democracies. The printing-press gave to the world the[Pg 44] learning of the past and revolutionized social conditions. The invention of high explosives has made possible many of the great engineering works of to-day. The inventions that have made transportation and communication so easy and rapid have already done a great deal to bring nations to a better understanding of each other and thus to promote the peace of the world. Discoveries in medicine alone have had an incalculable influence on the health and prosperity of society. In fact, the study of history and an understanding of modern social and industrial conditions are impossible without a knowledge of scientific inventions and discoveries. (See pp. 87, 92.)

Children naturally take an interest in what individuals have done, and it is easy to interest them in the work of men such as Watt, Stephenson, Whitney, Fulton, Morse, Edison, Marconi, and their fellows. The biographies of famous inventors should therefore be given, both as a record of what they did and as an inspiration to like achievements.


Constructive work may be used to advantage in history and civics. It gives concrete expression to some facts of history through the construction by the pupils of objects mentioned therein. In studying Indian life, the class may make in paper, wood, etc., wigwams, bows and arrows, stockades, etc.; in connection with pioneer life, they may make some of the buildings and implements used by the pioneers,—log houses, spinning-wheels, hominy blocks, Red River carts, etc.; in studying campaigns, they may make models in plasticine or clay, or on the sand table, of forts, battle-fields, etc., for example—the Plains of Abraham, Queenston Heights, Chateauguay, Plymouth Harbour; the[Pg 45] Union Jack may be cut out and coloured. (See p. 68.) In this way the activities of the child may be made of practical use.

On the industrial and social side of history, which is being more and more emphasized, it is of great value to the child to become acquainted, even though on a small scale and through the simplest implements and machines, with the construction of machinery and modes of manufacture. For a lesson on the Industrial Revolution in England, for example, it will give pupils a better understanding of the changes, if they know something, through their own activities, of the way of making cloth.

For suggestions on constructive work, see the Manual on Manual Training:

P. 22: Suggestions for the various seasons and days.
P. 26: On the use of the sand table.
P. 55: On collecting and preserving pictures.
P. 58: On relief maps and geographical formations.


Art assists history in two ways. First, pictures may be used to illustrate events in history and make them real. It is often difficult for children to form a definite mental image of historical scenes merely from the words of the teacher or of the text-book, because their experiences are limited and the power to combine these properly is lacking. This is recognized now in the many text-books which are freely illustrated. Pictures of persons famous in history are also of value, in that they make these persons more real to the pupils. Materials for class use may be collected by the teacher and pupils,—engravings, prints, cuts from newspapers and magazines of famous people, buildings, cities, monuments, events; for example, the Landing of[Pg 46] Columbus, the Coming of the Loyalists, the Fathers of Confederation, the Landing of the Pilgrim Fathers, an Old-Time Trading Post, the Death of Brock. A good idea is to have a class scrap-book, to be filled with suitable contributions from the class. The teacher will find a private scrap-book exceedingly useful. Many fine pictures are given in The Highroads of History, and The Story of the British People for Form III. It may be added that these pictures should be supplemented freely by descriptions and narratives given by the teacher. (See Visual Aids in the Teaching of History.)

Second, the pupils may be asked to illustrate, by drawings and sketch maps, historic places, routes of armies and of explorers, the journeys of settlers, etc.


History, no less than other subjects of study, needs to be expressed by the pupils, if it is to make them more efficient. Some of the usual modes of expression are given above in connection with constructive work and art. The chief mode of expression, however, for history is through composition, both oral and written.

In the Junior Forms the stories should be reproduced orally (see Details of Method for Forms I and II, p. 25), either by pure narration or by dramatization; the pupils relate in their own language what they have learned, or are allowed to dramatize the story. In the dramatization, the pupils should be given a good deal of freedom in constructing the conversation, once they get to know what is wanted, the only restriction being that no pupil shall be allowed to take part who does not know the story thoroughly. Incidents such as Harold taking the oath to help William of Normandy gain the crown of England, Joseph being sold[Pg 47] into Egypt, the Greeks using the wooden horse to capture Troy, are very easily dramatized.

In the Senior Forms the black-board outline may be used as the basis of written or oral reproduction. The subject of composition will itself be less objectionable by reason of these exercises, as the pupils are asked to reproduce the history as material valuable and interesting in itself, not merely as a means of showing their skill in expression. Moreover, in the study of history, the pupil hears or reads the compositions of others, and unconsciously gains, by these examples, much in vocabulary and in power of expression. In fact, much of the culture value of history depends on the training it affords in composition, and, by intimately connecting these two subjects, a double advantage is gained—the ability to comprehend historical material, and practice in effective expression.


Geography is one of "the eyes of history"; chronology, or the arranging of events according to their dates, is the other. This suggests that dates are to be used merely as a help in "seeing" events in history in their proper order, so that their relations to other events may be better understood. When these relations are seen, the dates lose much of their value.

For example, let us consider the following dates: 1763, 1774, 1775, 1783, 1791. The short interval between 1763, when Great Britain finally assumed control of Canada by treaty, and 1774, when the Quebec Act was passed, helps to make clear the reason for the French citizens receiving so many concessions. They outnumbered the English so much that these concessions were deemed necessary to hold their allegiance to the Crown in face of the efforts made by the discontented[Pg 48] New England colonies to get their support in the coming revolution against Great Britain. The success of the Act was shown in 1775, when the invasion by the revolutionists failed. The war of the Revolution was ended by treaty in 1783, and Canada received as settlers, principally in Upper Canada, the United Empire Loyalists, whose ideas of government were so different from those of the Lower Canadians that the separation of Upper and Lower Canada by the Constitutional Act of 1791 became necessary. These dates, so close together, emphasize the rapidity with which events moved in that period, as well as the sequence of cause and effect. We think also of the dates of Cartier's voyages, 1534, 1535, and 1541, merely to raise the question as to why so much time elapsed between the second and third voyages. When these points are properly seen, the events are kept in place by their relation of cause and effect, and the dates lose their value. Moreover, the relations thus discovered will do most toward fixing these dates in the memory. It should be understood, therefore, that dates are only a means to an end, not an end in themselves.

It is important also to know the dates of certain events when we are studying the history of several countries, in order that we may consider together those events that are contemporary.

There are, of course, some dates that should be remembered because of the importance of the events connected with them, for example: 1066, 1215, 1492, 1603, 1688, 1759, 1776, 1789, 1841, 1867.

In the Junior Forms, because the pupils are still lacking in the "historical sense," little emphasis need be put on the giving of dates. A few of the most important may be given in Form II, but it is very questionable if they have any significance to the pupils at this early stage.

[Pg 49]




The study of history should not end with what is contained in text-books, for the making of history never ceases. The study of current events will be found to be a very valuable element in history teaching. Teachers and pupils who are interested in the events of to-day are much more likely to be interested in the events of the past. A knowledge of current events will arouse curiosity in what led up to them, will suggest a motive for studying the past, and will often supply concrete examples for both history and civics. In fact, the teaching of civics may be based almost entirely on current events. (See Civics, p. 52 et seq.) The influence of a knowledge of current events on the study of history is very plainly seen to-day in the earnest and widespread effort to discover the causes of the war that is devastating Europe at the present time. History becomes real when pupils understand that what is happening now has its roots in the past and, at the same time, is history in the making. For example, the present war will certainly intensify our interest in the great movement to prevent war by means of world-wide arbitration of disputes between nations, or by any other means. The value of this phase of history teaching depends very largely on the interest taken in it by the teacher and on the work that the pupils can be induced to do for themselves. The teacher talks to the pupils about some important current event in an interesting way. Then the pupils are encouraged to add to what he has said by relating what they have heard, or have read in the[Pg 50] newspapers. After a few lessons the chief difficulty is to make a suitable selection of topics to be discussed in class. Those of national importance, if within the scope of the Form work, will have prominence, and the pupils will be given hints as to articles about these topics in papers, magazines, and books. It is obvious that topics likely to arouse religious, political, or other party feeling, should be avoided. For actual school-room practice the following scheme has been used successfully in Form III:


The teacher has suggested the kinds of events that are worthy of discussion, and the pupils come to class prepared to tell what they have read in the papers about some of these. The teacher aids them to give fit expression to their information, and the pupil who has been chosen as editor writes a summary of the lesson on the black-board, and later, on a sheet of paper.

Ordinarily, the editors should be chosen from those who write and spell well.

Where the subject-matter lends itself to such treatment, these summaries may be placed in two columns—one, the Girls' News Column; the other, the Boys' News Column. The summaries on the sheets of paper may be arranged in order for a week or a month and be known as The School Review. Such a lesson includes history, and oral and written composition.

The following items of news were those discussed in a Form III room at the end of the week, when some time is taken to talk over the events of the week:

Feb. 5th, 1915

Rescue of the crew of the Japanese cruiser Asama.
Rescue work in the earthquake in Italy.
[Pg 51] Wireless message frustrates a German plot to blow up a French steamer.
Fire in a New York factory—rescue of the inmates.
Inhuman treatment of Belgian women and children.
British officer praises the enemy.
The Austrians are defeated by the Montenegrins.
Canadians wounded in France.
Importance of discipline and accurate shooting for Canadian troops.
Germany proclaims a war zone around Britain.
Two New York boy heroes of a fire.
Tsar honours a girl wounded while carrying ammunition to the troops.
Opening of the war session of the Canadian Parliament.

These items are sifted from a great many suggested by the pupils. In the sifting process, a very useful discussion is had as to what constitutes real "news," and what is mere "gossip"; that is, what is of value as news to the world at large, and what is of purely local, personal interest.

In civics, current topics may be made very useful. Items of municipal, provincial, or federal affairs furnish a concrete basis for the study of our system of government, and may also suggest moral examples.


One of the chief uses of local history in the class-room is to make the study of general history more vivid and interesting (1) by making more real those facts of history associated with the locality in which we live, and (2) by providing suitable illustrations, from the pupil's own experience, of facts in general history. When a pupil has seen the place where an event of history has happened, he has an interest in that event that he could scarcely gain in any other way, and the history of that period may then be taught with more interest and profit to him. A pupil[Pg 52] finds also in local history certain facts that he must understand in order to interpret the story of happenings, distant in time and place.

Some parts of Ontario are much richer in material than others, but in all historic spots may be found. On the St. Lawrence River, in the Niagara peninsula, in the Talbot settlement district, in York county, along the Ottawa River, in the Huron tract, there is no lack of useful material. But it is not necessary to confine such local history to the outstanding events of war or the larger happenings of civil progress. In every locality there are remains of the earlier Indian inhabitants, in the form of mounds, sites of villages, relics of war and the chase (arrow-heads, stone implements, beads, etc.); relics of the early settlers, in the form of roads and old log houses; relics of pioneer life consisting of furniture, household and outdoor implements, etc., that will serve as a basis for comparison with present-day conditions, and make real to the children the lives of the earlier inhabitants and settlers of Ontario.


The teaching of civics has a threefold aim:

1. To instruct in the mechanism of government. (Descriptive)

2. To instruct in the history of national institutions so as to show the line of development, and also to impress the fact that existing institutions are capable of development, are not fixed. (Historical)

3. "To show the cost of each institution in the efforts and sacrifices of past generations and to quicken and make permanent the children's interest in public life and their sense of responsibility to their fellows." (Patriotic and Ethical)

[Pg 53]

Two points stand out clearly—to teach the machinery of government and to instil ideals of public conduct. Of these the second is by far the more important and the more difficult to teach directly. The best way to attempt it is by means of biography and personal references. There are great men and women in history whose lives are worthy examples to the young: Sir John Eliot, Pym, Hampden, who stood for freedom of speech and debate; Gladstone, who helped to right historic wrongs in the East; Lincoln, who stood for union and the freedom of the individual; many eminent Canadians, such as Sir John Macdonald, George Brown, Alexander Mackenzie, Egerton Ryerson, Sir Oliver Mowat, and Sir James Whitney; women such as Florence Nightingale and Elizabeth Fry, Laura Secord and Sarah Maxwell. Besides these eminent examples, there are in every locality men and women who give unselfishly of their energy and time for the good of the community.

There should also be impressed on the minds of the young a sense of their responsibility for an honest and faithful use of the ballot, a right won for them by the long and earnest effort of their forefathers; and the necessity for purity of government in our democratic form of administration. In school life, a good deal can be done to create a sense of fair play, respect for the rights of others, and of the necessity for submission to lawful authority by encouraging the pupils to conduct all their school organizations, whether in play or in work, honourably and by right methods.

Some of the lessons that may be taught to children during their school life are as follows:

1. Respect for the rights of others. Pupils may be brought to see that misconduct on their part affects others, not themselves only.

[Pg 54]

2. Respect for the property of others. This may be secured best by teaching them to take good care of their own property first, for unless a child cares rightly for his own, he is not likely to take much thought for the things of others.

3. Respect for public property. This is something that needs attention badly. It is a very common thing to find people destroying trees, flowers, etc., in public places, throwing refuse on the street, and otherwise disfiguring their surroundings. A beginning of better habits may be made by getting the pupils to aid in beautifying and decorating the school building by means of pictures, either prints or their own work, by flowers in pots, by keeping the floor and walls clean and free from marks and litter; also in making the grounds around the school more attractive by means of flowers and shrubs. Arbor Day may be made of great use in this respect, if the spirit of that Day can be carried through the whole year. A pride in the attractiveness of the school will have its influence on the pupils in the wider life of the community.

A knowledge of the machinery of government may be based on the pupils' knowledge of the organization of the school. The appointment, power, and duties of the teacher are the starting-point. The next step will be to investigate the composition of the board of school trustees. This may be done at the time of an election for school trustees. The following questions may serve as an outline of study for all the political bodies by which we are governed:

1. Who compose the board of trustees? (In the smaller local bodies, the names of the members may be mentioned, as giving a personal interest in the matter.)

2. How and by whom are they elected?

3. For what period are they elected?

4. How is the board organized for the conduct of business?

[Pg 55]

5. What powers do they possess?

6. What duties have they to fulfil?

7. How do they raise the money needed for their work?

8. How is the board rendered continuous? (By electing a successor to a member who resigns; by the trustees remaining in office till their successors are elected.)

Other governing bodies may be taken up similarly, for example: Municipal Councils (township, county, village, town, or city council), Provincial Legislature, Dominion or Federal Parliament, Imperial Parliament. A suitable time to bring up the topic of how elections are conducted would be when an election for any of the above bodies is in progress. Information on this topic may be found in Canadian Civics, by Jenkins; a fuller account is given in Bourinot's How Canada is Governed.

Lessons concerning special bodies of municipal and civil servants may be taken; for example, the assessor, tax-collector, policeman, postal employees, firemen, etc. In connection with all of these, the question of taxation is constantly arising. It is suggested that something should be done to put the pupils in the right attitude toward this subject. Many people have an idea that when they pay taxes they are being robbed, because they do not stop to think of what they are getting in return for their money. The chief reason for this seems to be that the taxes are usually paid once or twice a year, while the services rendered are continuous. A good way to proceed is to have the class calculate the value of the services given in return for the taxes. For example, suppose it is found that the yearly cost for each pupil in a certain section is $25.00. Divide this by the number of days (200) a pupil attends school during the year, and the cost each day for each pupil is shown be only 12-1/2 cents, not a very large sum for a community to pay for a child's education.

[Pg 56]

Other calculations may be made to show the saving to farmers by spending money in the construction of good roads to make teaming more profitable. For example: In a strip of country served by a road ten miles long, there is room for eighty farms of one hundred acres each, all the produce of which would be hauled on that road. Let us suppose that this produce would amount to 3,000 loads, such as could be hauled on an ordinary country road. The average haul being five miles, two trips a day could be made. At $5.00 a day, the cost of haulage would be $7,500.

Suppose this road to be converted into a good stone road at a cost of $3,000 a mile, a total cost of $30,000. On this road, with the larger and heavier wagons that could now be used, the farmers could easily double the size of the load. This would mean that, instead of 3,000 loads being necessary, 1,500 would be sufficient. At the same rate as before, the cost of haulage would be $3,750, an annual saving of $3,750; so that the whole cost of the road would be saved in eight years, to say nothing of the greater ease and comfort of travel to both man and beast. Better roads would also give the farmer access to market for a greater part of the year and thus enable him to take advantage of higher prices at certain seasons. It is believed that these figures are quite within the bounds of probability.

In large towns and cities the cost of public utilities may be calculated; for example, the expense of a fire-station in buildings, equipment, horses, men, etc., to show how the money raised by taxes is spent for the good of the whole community, and helps to keep down the rates for fire insurance. The kinds of taxation may also be discussed—direct and indirect; also the sources from which direct[Pg 57] taxes are derived—customs, excise, etc.; methods of levying and collecting taxes; how taxes are spent for the various educational and charitable institutions—schools, libraries, hospitals, asylums, homes for the poor and neglected, etc.; for the protection of life and property; for the administration of justice, etc. The distribution of taxes among public institutions may be studied from the public accounts printed for the use of ratepayers.

The lessons learned about the fairness of taxation may be used to illustrate certain periods of history when people struggled against unjust and arbitrary taxation; for example, Wat Tyler's Rebellion, the Civil War in England in the seventeenth century, the American and French Revolutions, Acts of Parliament in Canada from the Quebec Act to the Act of Confederation.

A Dominion or Provincial election offers a good opportunity for a lesson on how to vote and how we came to have the right to vote; on the constitution of Parliament; on the sanctity of the ballot, etc.

A trial by jury in which the people of the district are interested may be used to introduce the history and purpose of the jury.


The teacher of history must know his subject. This does not mean that every school teacher must have an expert knowledge of the whole subject, but he should know the history that is to be taught thoroughly enough to be able to teach the lesson orally without referring constantly to the text-book or to notes. This, at least, is the ideal to strive for. To accomplish this, the teacher is earnestly recommended to read at least one book in addition to the authorized text-book, which does not usually contain much more than the important facts of history.[Pg 58] To clothe the skeleton of facts with flesh and blood so as to make history what it really is, a record of human beings who not only did things but had also thoughts and feelings like our own, it is necessary to be able to supply the personal details that make the figures of history real, living, men and women. (See the Story of Florence Nightingale, p. 62.) The teacher who does this will himself come to have a more lively interest in history.

The teacher must also know children. For the understanding of history, pupils are dependent on their previous knowledge of life and its interests. They must be led by timely suggestions or questions to see the connection between their own knowledge of life and the experiences of the actors in history. Without this connection, the facts of history remain meaningless.

To present history to the pupils in an interesting way, the oral method is the best. It is not necessary for the teacher to have a special gift for narration; any one who is really interested in the story to be told is able to tell it well enough to hold the attention of the class. In narration, mere fluency is not the chief requisite; it is more important that the pupils should feel the teacher's interest in the topic. The narration must also be confined to the facts and details that count; the teacher needs to know what to omit as well as what to narrate. If the matter has been well thought out and clearly arranged in topics with due regard to the relation of cause and effect, the telling of the story will be an easier matter, and the pupils will be trained also in a clear and logical way of treating history. The oral method should be supported by the free use of devices for making the story real. (See p. 34.) While it is quite true that certain important topics are to be thoroughly mastered as centres of connection for the less important[Pg 59] facts, yet it must be insisted on that a more important aim of the teacher is to arouse and stimulate an interest in history so that the pupil's study of it may continue after the close of his school-days. No mastery of facts through memorization alone will counterbalance the lack of interest in, and liking for, the subject.

[Pg 60]



The following lessons are to be considered as suggestive rather than directive, as illustrating how the principles of teaching may be applied in a particular subject. Definite knowledge of child-nature and of children's experiences, of the materials to be used, and of the purpose to be accomplished in teaching a subject, determines, in the main, the choice of method. This statement is especially true of history, for, unless it is steadily borne in mind, the temptation is very great to make the teaching of this subject consist in mere memorizing of events and dates.



The aim of this lesson is to give the pupils the story of "Moses and the Burning Bush," and at the same time to arouse an interest in stories.

As a preparation for the lesson, the teacher should secure pictures, or make sketches, illustrating (1) Moses tending his flocks, (2) the Burning Bush, (3) the rod turning to a serpent, (4) Moses setting out to do God's will. The pictures and sketches are used to make real the verbal story.

A few questions recalling the earlier events in Moses' life should be answered by the pupils, for example: Moses as a baby in the bulrushes, his adoption by the Princess, his life in the palace, his killing of the Egyptian, the cause of his flight into Midian.

[Pg 61]

The teacher should then narrate in clear, simple language the story of Moses in Midian, dividing it into parts such as: Moses at the well, his home with Jethro, the appearance of the Burning Bush, his talk with God, his excuses, God's proof of power to help, his setting out to do God's will.

In Form I it may be advisable to question, during the story, to ascertain if the language and ideas are understood, but reproduction of each part as it is narrated will probably result in a loss of attention and a lack of interest in the remainder of the story. The reproduction should, therefore, be taken after the completion of the story.

In Form II very short topic-phrases may be written on the black-board. These will serve as a guide to the pupils in the oral or written reproduction that follows.

If illustrated story-books containing this story are in the library, pupils of Form II may be asked to read them.

When practicable, an exercise in sight reading may follow this kind of lesson. The teacher may have slips containing sections of the story prepared beforehand, and may give them to the pupils for sight reading.



Materials: A set of pictures showing "The Mayflower in Plymouth Harbour"; "The Landing of the Pilgrims"; "The Pilgrims going to Church"; "Plymouth Rock"; "The Spinning Wheel." (Perry Picture Co. pictures)

A map of the western coast of Europe and the eastern coast of America drawn on the black-board.

Introduction: A talk on Thanksgiving Day as celebrated now—the returning of thanks to God for a bountiful harvest, the general good-will prevailing, the dinner. How and when did this custom originate?

[Pg 62]

Presentation: The teacher tells the story of the emigration of the Pilgrim Fathers, and shows the pictures that illustrate the different parts of the story. The voyage is traced on the map and the landing-place in America marked.

This should be followed by a spirited reading of Mrs. Hemans' The Landing of the Pilgrim Fathers, and the telling of The First Thanksgiving. (See Appendix.)

A simple version of this story may be given to pupils in Form I, accompanied by such construction work, in paper cutting and colouring, and in modelling, as they can do.



In the war that England and France were carrying on against Russia in the Crimea about fifty years ago, the English soldiers suffered terrible hardships, so terrible that more than half the army were in the hospital, and many men were dying of starvation and neglect. The people in England knew nothing of this, because they thought that everything the army needed had been sent to it. At last, they found out from the letters of Dr. Russell, the correspondent of the London Times, how great were the sufferings of the soldiers, and they were so shocked at this state of things that they subscribed large sums of money, many thousands of dollars, and sent out to the army Florence Nightingale and thirty-four other nurses to do what they could for the neglected soldiers. After they came, the wounded and sick soldiers were so well cared for that thousands of them lived to come home who would have died if these noble women had not gone out to nurse them.

[Pg 63]

Do you want to know why Florence Nightingale was the one person out of all the people of England to be asked to go? From her earliest childhood she was always doing what she could to help those who were in trouble. The poor and suffering appealed to her more than to most people. When quite young, she went to visit the poor and sick on her father's estates, carrying to them some little dainties or flowers that they would be sure to like, and helping them to get well. All the animals around her home liked her, because they knew that she would not hurt them; even the shy squirrels would come quite close to her and pick up the nuts she dropped for them. An old gray pony, named Peggy, would trot up to her when she went into the field to see it, and put its nose into her pocket for the apple or other little treat that she always had for it. A sheep dog had been hurt by a stone thrown at it by a boy, and the owner thought that its leg was broken and that he would have to kill it. But it turned out to be only a bad bruise and the dog was soon well with Florence's nursing.

When her rich parents took her to London, she preferred visiting the sick people in the hospitals to enjoying herself at parties or in sight-seeing. When the family travelled in Europe, she visited the hospitals to see how the sick were being looked after. She went to one of the best hospitals in Germany to study how to nurse the sick in the best way. When she came back to England, she did a great deal to improve the hospitals, and for many years she worked so hard that her health began to fail.

It was because of what she had done in this way that she was asked to go to the Crimea to take charge of the hospitals for the English soldiers. When she came there she found things in a terrible condition. The sick and wounded men were crowded in such unhealthy rooms that[Pg 64] they had very little chance to get well. She cleaned up the buildings, gave the patients clean beds and clothes, and saw that they had good, well-cooked food to eat. She looked after their comfort, sat beside their beds when they were very ill, and wrote letters for them to their families at home. Because she often walked through the rooms at night, alone, and carrying a little lamp in her hand, to see that everything was all right, she was called "the lady with the lamp." As she went about, speaking to some, nodding and smiling to others, we can imagine how much the poor soldiers thought of her.

When the war was over, the people of England were so grateful to her that the Government gave her a very large sum of money, $250,000, but she gave it all to build a school where nurses might be trained for their work. Queen Victoria gave her a beautiful jewel to show what she thought of the brave work that Florence Nightingale did.

She lived for many years, doing a great deal to show how to treat people who are ill, and how to keep people well by securing for them "pure air, pure water, cleanliness, and light." She died August 10, 1910, but the good she did in saving the lives of so many soldiers will always be remembered.


It is not intended that this story should be given to the pupils just as it is here. This account is given to indicate what facts may be told to pupils as young even as those in the senior part of Form I, and how the story may be simplified for their understanding. After the story is told, vividly and sympathetically, the reproduction by the class follows in the usual way.

[Pg 65]




This is an introductory lesson in civics, in which the aim is to make the pupils familiar with the duties, qualifications, salary, and importance of the postmaster.

The teacher and class, in imagination, make a visit to the post-office and describe what may be seen therein. A pupil's letter is prepared, and the teacher, by using an old envelope, shows what is done with the letter till it reaches the person to whom it is addressed, tabulating these points on the black-board: (1) Stamped; (2) Stamp cancelled; (3) Placed in the mail bag; (4) Taken to the railway station; (5) Placed on the train; (6) Received at its destination; (7) Marked to show date on which it was received; (8) Sorted; (9) Delivered. Another used envelope should be shown to the pupils that they may trace, from the impressions stamped upon it, its "sending" and "receiving" offices. From a consideration of these several duties of the postmaster the pupils may be led to see that he should be an honest, careful, courteous, and prompt person.

The teacher next explains how people sent letters, etc., before post-offices were instituted, and shows that the postmaster, in doing his work, is doing it as our representative, and that we should help him in the performance of his duty by plainly addressing our letters, etc.

A further explanation as to the manner of appointment and payment of salary may follow.

In another lesson, the secondary duties of the postmaster—the registration of letters, issuing of money orders and of postal notes, the receiving and forwarding of money[Pg 66] to the Savings Bank, and the making of reports to the Post-office Department—may be discussed.

In teaching these the objective method should be used. The teacher should obtain envelopes of registered letters and a registration blank, a blank money order, and a blank postal note, and instruct the pupils in the proper method of filling out these forms.



The introduction to this lesson will consist of questions recalling the matter of the past lesson or lessons, and the positions of the British and the French forces in the spring of 1759. This can be easily done by sketching on the black-board a map of North America and marking on it with coloured chalk the position of each force. The chief settlements to be mentioned in the lesson of the day should also be marked. For the matter of this see The Ontario Public School History of Canada, pages 83-97, and Parkman's Montcalm and Wolfe.

The teacher describes the voyage of Wolfe from Louisburg to Quebec, mentioning the means taken to secure pilots and to overcome the difficulties of navigating the St. Lawrence.

When the pupils, following the voyage, have arrived at Quebec, a description of the topography of the vicinity should be given, and an enlarged sketch, or better still, a plasticine model, made to show this. (See text-book, page 100.) The difficulty of capturing Quebec may be emphasized by reference to former attempts. On this sketch or model the disposition of the French forces should be shown, and then problems may be given as to actions that might be taken by Wolfe. For example: How would you[Pg 67] attempt to destroy the fort? Where may Wolfe land his soldiers? What led the French to place their soldiers down as far as the Montmorenci? No doubt some wrong answers will be given, but the probability is that some boy will say that he would take some guns to the high bank on the Levis side and bombard the town of Quebec. The teacher will then tell what was done and with what results.

This should be outlined briefly on the black-board, and problem questions proposed as to the attempt of Wolfe to dislodge the French at Montmorenci.

This second step is also told and added to the outline, after which the teacher proceeds to explain the final step, dwelling particularly on the illness of Wolfe, his careful arrangement of plans, the courage shown in attempting the surprise of the hill, the speed with which his forces were drawn up on the Plains, the battle with its final outcome.

This is added to the outline, and the whole story is reproduced orally before the class is dismissed.

As desk work, the outline is copied in note-books and the pupils are directed to read the full story in Parkman's Montcalm and Wolfe, or in the History Reader, pp. 284-292.

Note: If plasticine be used, miniature cannon, ships, bridges, etc., may be placed in position and a realistic explanation of the battle given. This would require more time and the whole story would require several lesson spaces.

References: The text-book, Weaver's Canadian History for Boys and Girls, and Parkman's Montcalm and Wolfe.



1. Narrate briefly the story of the American Revolution, to show why they had to leave the country; describe[Pg 68] the treatment given to them by the revolutionists; how they lost their property; how they were driven from their homes and exposed to all sorts of hardships, sometimes fatal to the women and children; emphasize their constant feeling of loyalty in face of all their troubles.

2. There was nothing for them to do but go to some place where the British flag still flew. The pupils may be asked, with the map before them, to consider where they would be most likely to go. What were the probable routes they would follow? That would depend on where they lived in the States. What methods of travel could they use? The class will see from a consideration of these points how they did travel, what routes they followed, and where they settled down. The waterways would have to be emphasized and traced out on the map; by sea from New York and Boston to Nova Scotia; by Lake Champlain and the Richelieu River to Quebec and Eastern Ontario; by the western rivers, the Mohawk, the Genesee, etc., to Western Ontario. (See Fourth Reader, p. 170.)

3. What the Government did for them and how they succeeded. Any account of life in Canada in the early days will give the necessary information. It may be that some old settler of the neighbourhood can supply the story to one of the children.

4. In the Senior Form there may be taken up slightly the political ideals of these Loyalists and how their presence led to changes in affairs in Upper Canada.



In itself a flag is "only a small bit of bunting"; it becomes a powerful aid to patriotism when it receives a meaning from its history. It is the emblem of a nation,[Pg 69] the symbol of sovereignty, and as such should have a prominent place in the education of the young. Children should be taught: (1) the history of the struggles and sacrifices of our forefathers in securing and maintaining our liberties; (2) the significance of the flag as standing for liberty, truth, and justice; and (3) its construction, with the special significance of each part.

The last point—the construction of the Union Jack—should be preceded by a series of lessons on the individual "jacks." These lessons should explain the significance of the term "jack"; should give the stories of St. George, the patron saint of England, of St. Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland, and of St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland; and the reasons for the placing of the crosses on the jacks of the several countries. (See Appendix.)

These lessons may be taken as follows: that of the "jack" and "St. George" after a lesson on the Crusaders; of "St. Andrew" after the lesson on the Battle of Bannockburn; of "St. Patrick" after the lesson on the Conquest of Ireland by Strongbow.

The opposite course may be followed. The construction or drawing of the flag may be taken in connection with one of the flag days; then the children will be interested in the work itself. The story of the jacks may be given afterwards in the history lessons.

As desk work following each lesson, the pupils should construct the flags, using coloured paper, and these flags should be kept for use in the final lesson. The following sizes may be used in oblong flags:

For St. George's—white ground—2-1/2 in. x 5 in., red cross 1/2 in.

For St. Andrew's—blue ground—2-1/2 in. x 5 in., white cross 1/2 in.

[Pg 70]

For St. Patrick's—white ground—2 1/2 in. x 5 in., red cross 1/3 in.

When the story of the union of the crowns of England and Scotland in the reign of James I has been taught, the pupils should be asked to attempt the problem of uniting the two flags into one. For this purpose the flags already made can be used. The flag of England will surmount that of Scotland, and in order that the flag of Scotland may be seen, the white ground of the flag of England must be removed, only a narrow border of white along each arm being retained to represent the ground colour. This narrow border on each side is one third of the width of the red cross.

The final lesson, the construction of the Union Jack of our day, should be given on Empire Day or a few days before. As an introduction the teacher should review the flag of each country in the Union, referring also to the Union Jacks of James and of Anne. The problem of uniting the Irish Jack with the other two might be given the pupils; but as they are not likely to succeed in solving it, it will be better for the teacher to place before them the Union Jack belonging to the school and to lead them to observe:

1. that it is usually oblong—twice as long as wide; (it may also be square);

2. that the St. Andrew's Cross is partially covered by the St. Patrick's;

3. that the St. George's Cross, as before, is one fifth of the width of the jack;

4. that along the side of the St. Patrick's Cross is a strip of white;

5. that this strip of white and the red of the St. Patrick's equal the broad white of the St. Andrew's;

[Pg 71]

6. that the broad white of the St. Andrew's is partly white cross and partly white ground;

7. that the broad white of the St. Andrew's is uppermost on the parts near the staff.

When these have been noted, the pupils are ready to unite the flags which they had formerly made. The teacher directs them to cut away all of the white ground and half of each arm of the St. Patrick's Cross, retaining the centre. This should then be pasted upon the St. Andrew's Cross as in the Union Jack. They next cut away all of the white ground of the St. George's Cross, except the border (one third of the red), and paste this above the other two. The result will be a correctly made jack, and the pupils will know the several stages in its growth.

Where it is not possible to conduct the series of lessons as above, the following method is suggested. The pupils are provided with white paper and red and blue crayons, and are led to make, as above, a study of the jack belonging to the school. The following directions are then given:

First line in with a ruler the dimensions of the flag, say five inches wide and ten inches long. Draw the diagonals in faint lines. Place the cross of St. George and its border upon the flag according to the measurements mentioned, that is, the cross one inch wide and the border one third of an inch wide. The diagonals will be the centre and dividing lines of the crosses of St. Andrew and St. Patrick. Now place the saltire crosses according to the measurements. The white arm of St. Andrew's Cross will be one-half inch in width, the white border of St. Patrick's Cross one-sixth of an inch wide, and the red cross of St. Patrick one-third of an inch wide. The red cross of St. Patrick is placed touching the diagonal, below in the first and third quarters, and above in the second and fourth[Pg 72] quarters. Great care must be exercised in making the drawing of the Union Jack.

The following are the official regulations for the proportions of the Union Jack:

1. It may be either square, or twice as long as it is wide.

2. The proportions are:

Red Cross of St. George 1/5 of width of flag.
White border to St. George 1/3 of red of St. George.
Red Cross of St. Patrick 1/3 of red of St. George.
White border to St. Patrick 1/6 of red of St. George.
Broad white of St. Andrew 1/2 of red of St. George.

3. Broad white of St. Andrew is uppermost in the two quarters next the staff; the red of St. Patrick is uppermost in the other quarters.

Its base is the cross of St. George, red on a white ground. On the political union of England and Scotland in 1707, the cross of St. Andrew, which is a white diagonal cross on a blue ground, was added, and to this Union flag there was joined, in 1801, the cross of St. Patrick, a red diagonal cross on a white ground. The colours of the Union Jack are red, which is the emblem of courage; white, the emblem of purity; and blue, the emblem of truth; so that we cannot do anything cowardly without disgracing our flag.

On memorial days the teacher, as he describes the past events that have helped to make our country strong and keep it free, may well refer to the colours of the flag as reminders of the virtues on which our Empire rests.

For memorial days the following, among others, are suggested:


Opening and closing of each term

Jan. 1.—Municipalities incorporated in Canada, 1842. (To be celebrated on the first school day of the new year.)

[Pg 73]

Feb. 10.—Union of the Canadas, 1841.

March 11.—First Responsible Ministry, 1848.

March 14.—Founding of Upper Canada—Constitutional Act, 1791.

March 24.—Egerton Ryerson's birthday (1803-1882).

Empire Day.—The school day immediately preceding May 24.

May 24.—Victoria Day.

June 3.—The King's Birthday, 1865.

July 1.—Dominion Day: Confederation of the Provinces, 1867.

July 17.—First Parliament of Upper Canada, 1792.

September 13.—Battle of the Plains of Abraham, 1759.

October 13.—Battle of Queenston Heights—Death of Sir Isaac Brock, 1812.

October 21.—Trafalgar Day, 1805.

December 24.—Close of the War of 1812-1814, by the Treaty of Ghent. (To be celebrated on the last school day before Christmas.)

Other days commemorating events connected with various localities may also be chosen.

For information respecting the flag, teachers are referred to Barlow Cumberland's History of the Union Jack (latest edition), to the Flag Charts, by Mrs. Fessenden, and to The Flag of Canada, by Sir Joseph Pope. For the stories of the patron saints of England, Scotland, and Ireland, see Appendix.


What is the blue on our flag, boys?
The waves of the boundless sea,
Where our vessels ride in their tameless pride,
And the feet of the winds are free;
From the sun and smiles of the coral isles
To the ice of the South and North,
With dauntless tread through tempests dread
The guardian ships go forth.
[Pg 74]
What is the white on our flag, boys?
The honour of our land,
Which burns in our sight like a beacon light
And stands while the hills shall stand;
Yea, dearer than fame is our land's great name,
And we fight, wherever we be,
For the mothers and wives that pray for the lives
Of the brave hearts over the sea.
What is the red on our flag, boys?
The blood of our heroes slain,
On the burning sands in the wild waste lands
And the froth of the purple main;
And it cries to God from the crimsoned sod
And the crest of the waves outrolled,
That He send us men to fight again
As our fathers fought of old.
We'll stand by the dear old flag, boys,
Whatever be said or done,
Though the shots come fast, as we face the blast,
And the foe be ten to one—
Though our only reward be the thrust of a sword
And a bullet in heart or brain.
What matters one gone, if the flag float on
And Britain be Lord of the main!
—Frederick George Scott


It's only a small piece of bunting,
It's only an old coloured rag;
Yet thousands have died for its honour,
And shed their best blood for the flag.
It's charged with the cross of St. Andrew,
Which, of old, Scotland's heroes has led;
It carries the cross of St. Patrick,
For which Ireland's bravest have bled.
[Pg 75]
Joined with these is our old English ensign,
St. George's red cross on white field;
Round which, from Richard to Roberts,
Britons conquer or die, but ne'er yield.
It flutters triumphant o'er ocean,
As free as the wind and the waves;
And bondsmen from shackles unloosened,
'Neath its shadows no longer are slaves.
It floats o'er Australia, New Zealand,
O'er Canada, the Indies, Hong Kong;
And Britons, where'er their flag's flying,
Claim the rights which to Britons belong.
We hoist it to show our devotion
To our King, our country, and laws;
It's the outward and visible emblem,
Of progress and liberty's cause.
You may say it's an old bit of bunting,
You may call it an old coloured rag;
But freedom has made it majestic,
And time has ennobled our flag.



The exercises on Empire Day may be extended to include most of the subjects on the time-table by providing interesting problems in these subjects which will, at the same time, keep the pupils' attention focused on the purpose of the day.

The purpose of Empire Day may be stated briefly: (1) To increase the pupils' knowledge of the various parts of the Empire; (2) To create in them fine ideals of a larger citizenship; (3) To give a feeling of responsibility for Canada's place and work in the Empire, both now and in the future.

[Pg 76]


1. In literature: Study one or more of the selections in the Public School Readers that are suitable; for example, in the IV Reader, pp. 1, 49, 74, 154, 155, 227, 231, 248, 302, 358, 409; in the III Reader, pp. 55, 140, 246, 258, 274. If these have been studied before, one or two might be read or recited by the pupils. In this Manual poems are given (pp. 73, 74) that may be used in the same way. Pamphlets containing suitable matter for Empire Day have been sent out by the Department of Education on several occasions.

2. In history: (a) Some information about the growth of the Empire; for example, how and when Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, or any other part of the Empire was added; (b) Comparison of the size of the British Empire with that of any earlier Empire, such as the Persian, Greek, or Roman; (c) The growth of Great Britain's commercial and naval supremacy, on what it is founded, what danger there is of losing it, etc.; (d) Interpretation of the Union Jack, or of the Canadian ensign.

3. In geography: (a) Story of the "All-Red" route, or of the "All-Red" cable—explain the meaning of "All-Red" by reference to the map; (b) "The sun never sets on the British flag." Make this clear by having pupils notice on the map that there are red spots, showing British territory, on or not very far from every meridian line; British ships, too, are in every part of the ocean; (c) Compare the population and area of Great Britain, Canada, Australia, the United States, Germany, France, etc.

4. In arithmetic: The pupils may discover how many people there are to the square mile in these countries; they may be asked to work out the population Canada would have if she were as densely populated as England,[Pg 77] as the United States, as Germany, etc.; how fast did the population of the United States increase in the first century after the Revolution; what will the population of Canada be in fifty years, if it increases as rapidly as the population of the United States in the last fifty, etc.; at the present rate of increase, when will Canada catch up to Great Britain? When surpass her? Indicate thus the possible position and power of Canada in the not distant future, in order to deepen the sense of responsibility for the use made of our opportunities. (Let the pupils search for as much of the material needed for these calculations as they can find in their text-books.)

5. In composition: Subjects may be given for either oral or written composition; they may be reproductions of some of the exercises mentioned above, or may be on topics connected with them.

6. In drawing: Pupils may draw the flag, or any map needed above.

[Pg 78]




As described in the details of method for Form IV (see p. 28), the ideal method of teaching in this Form is the oral method, which means not only the narration of the story, but the presentation to the pupils of problems connected with the lesson that the experiences of the class may help to solve. The full narration here of the lessons selected would be like doing over again the work of the text-book; accordingly, in the majority of the lessons, a topical analysis is all that is given. The value of a topical analysis is that it emphasizes the principal points that should be described or developed and, more important still, that it assists the pupils to understand the lesson better, that is, to see more clearly the relation of cause and effect. The topical analysis will also suggest to the teacher how to prepare a lesson. There is no better evidence that a period of history is understood by the teacher than the ability to make a clear, concise analysis of it. This analysis should then be used instead of the text-book in teaching the lesson, and the use of it will, after a little practice has made the teacher more expert, contribute, to a surprising degree, to increased interest in the class.


One of the objects of instruction in civics is to create in the pupils ideals of citizenship that may influence their conduct in after life. The most powerful agency to use for this object is the life of some useful and patriotic citizen who gave his talents and energy to the[Pg 79] bettering of his country. In using biography for this purpose the pupils should be given only such facts as they can comprehend, and these facts should be made as real, vivid, and interesting as possible by appropriate personal details and concrete description. The following sketch may serve as an example:

Dr. Ryerson, in speaking of his birth and parentage, said:

I was born on March 24th, 1803, in the township of Charlotteville, near the village of Vittoria, in the then London district, now the County of Norfolk. My father had been an officer in the British army during the American Revolution, being a volunteer in the Prince of Wales' Regiment of New Jersey, of which place he was a native. His forefathers were from Holland, and his more remote ancestors were from Denmark. At the close of the American revolutionary war, he, with many others of the same class, went to New Brunswick, where he married my mother, whose maiden name was Stickney, a descendant of one of the early Massachusetts Puritan settlers. Near the close of the last century, my father with his family followed an elder brother to Canada, where he drew some 2,500 acres of land from the Government for his services in the army, besides his pension.

Ryerson's mother had a very strong influence over him. She was a very religious woman with a great love for her children, and from her Egerton learned lessons that never ceased to influence him. After telling how she treated him when he had done something naughty, he says that "though thoughtless and full of playful mischief, I never afterwards knowingly grieved my mother, or gave her other than respectful and kind words."

The whole family had to work hard at clearing the land and farming it. Before he was twenty-one years of age he "had ploughed every acre of ground for the season, cradled every stalk of wheat, rye, and oats, and mowed every spear[Pg 80] of grass, pitched the whole first on a wagon, and then from the wagon to the haymow or stack." This was the work that gave him strength and health to do the great things that were before him. His years in the district school were few, yet he made such good use of them that when he was only fifteen years old he was asked to take the place of one of his teachers during the latter's illness. Further instruction from teachers was not given him till he came of age. Then he went to Hamilton to study in the Gore district grammar school for one year. Here he studied so strenuously that he was seized with an attack of brain fever, which was followed by inflammation of the lungs. His life was despaired of, but his good constitution and his mother's nursing restored him to health.

Shortly afterwards he began his work as a Methodist preacher. When twenty-three years old, he undertook a mission to the Indians at the Credit and resided among them as one of themselves, to show them better ways of living and working. This is part of his account: "Between daylight and sunrise, I called out four of the Indians in succession and, working with them, showed them how to clear and fence in, and plough and plant their first wheat and cornfields. In the afternoon I called out the schoolboys to go with me, and cut and pile and burn the brushwood in and around the village."

In 1829 The Christian Guardian newspaper was organized as the organ of the Methodists, and the young preacher placed in the editorial chair; in 1841 he was chosen President of Victoria College.

In 1844 Dr. Ryerson was appointed Chief Superintendent of Education for Upper Canada. He immediately set himself to awaken the country to a proper estimate of the importance of education, and to improve the qualifications of teachers. He urged the people to build better[Pg 81] schools and to pay better salaries, so that well-qualified teachers could be engaged. He visited foreign countries to study their systems and methods that he might make the schools of Upper Canada more efficient. A Provincial Normal and Model School was established in 1847, better books were provided for the pupils, more and better apparatus and maps for all schools. All this was done in the face of many difficulties inevitable in a new country—popular ignorance, apathy, lack of means to build schools and support them, lack of time to attend them. The opposition of many who did not set the same value on education that he himself did had also to be faced. With unwearied zeal, steadfast courage, and unfailing patience, he met these difficulties. For over thirty years, he devoted his matured manhood and great endowments to the task of developing a public sentiment in favour of education, and of building on sure foundations a system of elementary and secondary schools that is the just pride of our Province and his own best monument.

In 1876 he resigned his position of Chief Superintendent, and was succeeded by a Minister of Education. He had nobly fulfilled the promise he made on accepting office in 1844—"to provide for my native country a system of education, and facilities for intellectual improvement not second to those in any country in the world."

He died in 1882. To honour him in his death as he had served it in his life the whole country seemed assembled, in its representatives, at his funeral. Members of the Legislature, judges, University authorities, ecclesiastical dignitaries, thousands from the schools which he had founded, and above all, the common people, for whose cause he never failed to stand, followed to the grave the remains of the great Canadian who had lived so faithfully and well for his country.

[Pg 82]

Note.—If the pupils have been told about the Pilgrim Fathers, and the U.E. Loyalists, a review of those stories will add interest to this lesson; if not, it will serve as an introduction to them.

For a Form IV class, the following should be included in the lesson:

With the close of the War of 1812 there opened a new era in the history of Canada. Its people had realized that their country was worth fighting for, and they had defended it successfully. A new interest in its political life was awakened, new movements inaugurated. These were along three lines—one, political with responsible government as its object; another, religious with equal rights and privileges for all churches as its aim; a third, educational with equal and efficient instruction for all without distinction of class or creed as its purpose. The first movement is known as the struggle for Responsible Government—the struggle for equal political rights; the second, as the Secularization of the Clergy Reserves—the struggle for equal religious rights; the third as the University Question—the struggle for non-denominational control of education. In the second and third movements Dr. Ryerson played a very prominent part and, because these affected the politics of his day, he took a keen interest in the first.

Note.—For purposes of reference, consult The Story of My Life by Dr. Ryerson; The Ryerson Memorial Volume by Dr. J.G. Hodgins; Egerton Ryerson by Nathaniel Burwash in The Makers of Canada; and Egerton Ryerson by J.H. Putnam.


The lesson may be begun best by referring to the provisions in the British North America Act for the building of the railway. (If the class knows nothing yet of this Act, reference may be made to Dominion Day, and the Act associated with it, by explaining the significance of the[Pg 83] Day. The date of Confederation, 1867, may be written on the board for reference.) In the B.N.A. Act, it was provided that "the Canadian Government should build a railway connecting the St. Lawrence with Halifax, to be commenced within six months after the Union."

Teacher.—Did you notice the two places that were to be connected by the road?

Pupil.—They were Halifax and the St. Lawrence River.

T.—Why do you think Halifax was chosen as one terminus?

P.—Because it is near the sea.

T.—Well, Quebec is not far from the sea either.

P.—It is the nearest port for ocean-going steamers.

T.—Do you know what happens to the St. Lawrence every winter?

P.—It freezes up.

T.—Yes. It is frozen over for about four months in the winter, and ocean-going vessels cannot use the river then, so Halifax was chosen as a good winter port on the Atlantic. Now, what place on the St. Lawrence would be chosen as the other terminus?

P.—Most likely either Quebec or Montreal.

T.—We can tell better a little later which one was actually chosen. Here is a thing that I want you to think about. Why should they build the railway just to the St. Lawrence? Were there many people living in Upper Canada fifty years ago?

P.—Yes, as many people as there were in Quebec province.

T.—Really there were about 250,000 more here than in Quebec. How would the people here ship their goods in the winter? How do we send our goods to Europe now in winter?

(Several suggestions were made. Finally it was stated that we could ship by water in summer, and by rail in winter.)

T.—You know that there are some rapids on the St. Lawrence before we reach Montreal. How do we manage about them?

P.—By using the canals.

[Pg 84]

T.—How can we ship by rail?

P.—By using the Grand Trunk or the Canadian Pacific Railway.

T.—Now, I shall have to tell you something about the canals and the first railway from Upper Canada. There were several canals already built on the St. Lawrence: the Lachine, Welland, and others. In fact, we had spent about $1,500,000 on canals before Confederation. The Grand Trunk Railway was running from Sarnia to Quebec city by 1856, just eleven years before Confederation. (Have a pupil trace the line from Sarnia to Quebec, so that the class may see how much of Upper Canada was served by the Grand Trunk.) Can you tell me now what place on the St. Lawrence would be taken as the western terminus of the new railway?

P.—Yes, Quebec would be the one.


P.—Because the people of Upper Canada had ways already for sending their goods as far as Quebec city.

T.—The next point to think about is—How had Canada been shipping her goods across the sea in winter before this?

(Several suggestions were made. "We would have to keep everything till the next summer." "We would have to use ice-boats." Objections were raised to these methods to show that they were impossible. Finally one pupil thought that we could send our freight through the United States.)

T.—Well, why did the people not continue doing that, instead of wanting to build a railway of their own?

P.—The United States would likely make them pay for doing it.

T.—Let me explain about that. In 1854, a treaty had been made between Canada and the United States, called the Reciprocity Treaty, by which the two countries exchanged their goods freely. This treaty was ended in 1866, and the people of Canada had to depend more on themselves. Besides, there was a good deal of trouble between Britain and the United States, arising out of the Civil War in the latter country, which had just ended. (The pupils are told here about the "Trent"[Pg 85] and "Alabama" affairs, and the Fenian raids of 1866.) The people at that time were afraid that there might be war between the two countries and, of course, that would bring Canada into the trouble. Do you see now why a railway was needed from Quebec to Halifax?

P.—Because there was danger of war, and because the United States might interfere with Canadian trade.

T.—There were both military and commercial reasons. We have found now why the road was to run from Halifax to Quebec, and why it had to be built at that time. The next thing to find out is—Where it was to be built. If you were a railway contractor and had to build the road without thinking of anything but getting it done, what route would you be likely to follow?

P.—I think I should take the shortest way.

T.—Where would the road go then?

(Have a pupil place a ruler on the map from Quebec to Halifax.)

Tell where it would run.

P.—Through Quebec Province, the State of Maine, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia.

T.—Would the people build it along that line? Don't forget the reasons for building it at all.

P.—They wouldn't go through the State of Maine, because that is in the United States.

T.—What is the next way they might think of?

P.—The next shortest way so as to keep in Canada.

T.—Where would that be? (Pupil comes up and tells from the map.)

P.—From Quebec city through Quebec, along the edge of Maine, into New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.

T.—Would they take that way?

P.—No, because it is too near the border of the United States.

T.—Why do you say "too near"?

P.—If there was war, soldiers from the United States might come over and wreck the railway. They might dynamite the bridges or tear up the rails.

T.—As a matter of fact, they did not take that way. What route could be taken to prevent any trouble of that kind?

P.—They would stay as far from the border as possible.

[Pg 86]

T.—Where would that be? (Pupil comes to the map to find out.)

P.—They would have to follow the St. Lawrence for some distance.

T.—How far?

P.—Right down to the other side of New Brunswick. Then down to Halifax.

T.—Would that be the cheapest line to build?

P.—It would cost more, because it is longer than the others.

T.—It is really 138 miles longer than the next shortest. Which of the reasons we have mentioned would make them want to keep as far from the border as they could?

P.—The military reason.

T.—Which country, Canada or Britain, would be the most interested in the military considerations?

P.—Britain, because Canada depended on her for protection.

T.—Is there any other reason, one connected with the cost? Where would the money come from?

P.—Britain would likely have to supply a good part of it.


P.—Because there were not very many people here then.

T.—Yes, we have to borrow a good deal of money for such purposes even yet. The British Government was to supply the money for the railway, and would want to have something to say as to where it was to be built.

The pupils could now be asked to discover from the map the chief places on the line of the railway. Have them written on the board. The teacher would add some information about the length of the line (1,450 miles), and the total cost ($80,000,000). He might also refer to the fact that the fear of war that caused that route to be followed was not realized, that the Intercolonial did good service in bringing the provinces closer together, and that other railways have since been built on the two rejected routes, namely, the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Grand Trunk Pacific.

[Pg 87]

The facts of the lesson should then be gone over again, following the black-board outline that has been made as the lesson proceeds.


1. Provision in the British North America Act for the building of the road

2. Reasons for building the road

(a) Military
(b) Commercial

3. Selection of the route

(a) Routes that were possible
(b) Reasons for the final choice

4. Facts about the road

(a) Principal places on the road
(b) Branches of the road
(c) Length and cost

5. Value of the road to the new Dominion

The class may be asked afterwards to draw a map showing the route and the chief commercial centres served by the railway.


Note.—This lesson should be preceded by an information lesson on the making of cotton goods—the material, how and where the raw material is grown, how it is harvested, the difference between spinning and weaving, the meaning of warp and woof.

The aim of this lesson is to show how a remarkable series of inventions changed completely the processes of manufacturing, made England the greatest manufacturing nation in the world, and gave her a source of wealth that[Pg 88] enabled her to carry on the costly wars against Napoleon. The half century of this revolution is one of the most important in English history, on account of the results in methods of transportation, in agriculture, in social conditions, etc., and it is almost impossible to have a satisfactory knowledge of succeeding history without understanding this period. It is for this reason that it is treated at such length.

This may be divided into as many lessons as the teacher wishes. The dates given are not intended to be memorized by the pupils; they are introduced simply to emphasize the order of the inventions. To emphasize further the sequence, the class may be asked at each step what invention would be needed next. The oral method—both pure narrative, and development—is supposed to be used.

1. Domestic System of Manufacture.—Before 1760 the manufacture of cotton goods was carried on in the homes of the people. A spinner would procure a supply of raw cotton from the dealer and carry it home, where, with the help of his family, he would spin it into threads or yarn and return it to the dealer. The spinning was all done by hand or foot-power on a wheel that required one person to run it, and that would make only one thread at a time. The weaving was also done at home. Because of the use of Kay's flying shuttle (1732), the demand of the weavers for yarn was greater than the spinners could supply, because one weaver could use the product of many spinners, and there was great need of finding some way of producing yarn more rapidly, to keep the weavers busy.

2. Hargreaves' Spinning-jenny.—The first important invention of the period was the spinning-jenny of Hargreaves (1764). This man was an ordinary spinner, and the story is told that one day, when he was returning from[Pg 89] the dealer with a fresh supply of cotton, he came home before his wife expected him. Supper was not ready, and in her haste to rise to prepare it, she overturned the wheel when it was still in motion. Hargreaves, entering at that moment, noticed that the spindle, usually horizontal, was now revolving in an upright position. This gave him the idea, and a short time afterwards he invented a machine with which one person could spin several threads at once (at first eight). From it has been developed the complicated machinery for spinning used to-day.

3. Arkwright's Spinning-frame or Water-frame. Sir Richard Arkwright invented, in 1771, a machine that accomplished the whole process of spinning, the worker merely feeding the machine and tying breaks in the thread. This machine was run by water-power, thus doing away with hand-power and allowing the operator to attend entirely to the spinning.

4. The Mule. In 1779, Crompton invented a mule, by which threads of a finer and stronger quality could be spun, and thus made it possible to weave any grade of cloth.

5. The Power-loom. The spinners were now able to keep ahead of the weavers, till Cartwright invented, in 1785, a power-loom that enabled the weavers to work faster and use all the thread that the spinners could make.

6. The Steam-engine. These machines were run by hand or water-power. In 1785, Watts' steam-engine, invented several years before this, was used in the manufacture of cotton, and manufacturers were now able to use all the raw material they could get. The use of steam instead of water-power led to the building of factories in cities, where labour was plentiful and transportation facilities good. This meant large cities.

[Pg 90]

7. The Cotton-gin. Cotton had to be cleaned of its seeds before it could be used in the factory. This had to be done by hand, which greatly hindered the supply of raw material. A good deal of the raw cotton came from the United States, and the planters there grew no more than could be cleaned and sold. In 1792, Eli Whitney, an American, invented the cotton-gin, by which the cotton could be cleaned of its seed very quickly. Formerly a workman could clean by hand only five pounds of cotton a week; by the saw-gin five hundred pounds could be cleaned in an hour. (If a cotton-boll can be procured, the pupils will soon discover how difficult it is to separate the seeds from the cotton.) More cotton was then grown, because it could be sold to the factories, and England was able to get all she required to keep the factories going. It may be added here that the increase in cotton growing required more hands for its cultivation; at that time, this meant more slaves; the cotton-gin was therefore a large factor in the slave troubles in the Southern States that led to the Civil War.

8. Coal-mining and Smelting. These machines were made of iron, and coal was needed to run the engines and to smelt the iron. There was plenty of coal in England, but very little was mined until the steam pump was brought into use to keep the mines clear of water. When this was done, more men went to work in the mines to get out the greater amount of coal that was now needed. There was also plenty of iron ore in England, and before this it had been smelted by means of charcoal, which is made from wood. This slow and wasteful method was followed until Roebuck invented a process of smelting by coal, and thus made possible a plentiful supply of iron for the manufacture of the machines.

[Pg 91]

9. The Safety Lamp. Coal-mining was a dangerous occupation, because of the fire-damp that is generated in mines. The open lamps used by the miners often caused this gas to explode and many men lost their lives thereby. To remedy this, Sir Humphrey Davy invented the safety lamp in 1815, which gave the miners the light they needed and prevented these explosions.

10. Transportation. Now that there was so much manufacturing carried on, people turned their attention to ways of transporting the goods to where they were needed. The roads were generally wretched, and in many parts of the country goods had to be carried on the backs of horses, as the roads were not fit for wheels. Macadam, by using broken stone to form the road-crust or surface, brought about a great improvement in road-making. (Show pictures of old-time roads and of the roads to-day.)

Transportation by water was difficult by reasons of the obstructions in rivers. To overcome these, canals were dug. The first one was made in 1761 between some coal-mines and the town of Manchester. Before 1800 many more were dug, and transportation became much easier.

11. Agriculture. The number of people engaged in the factories was increasing and these could not grow their own food. This made it necessary for the farmers to increase their output. Farms became larger; better methods of cultivation were used; winter roots were grown, making it possible to raise better cattle; fertilizers were used in greater quantities, and the rotation of crops was introduced to prevent the exhaustion of the soil.

12. Social Conditions. Out of the factory system grew the division of classes into capital and labour, the struggle between which is the great problem of to-day. It was then that labour unions came into existence.

[Pg 92]

We see, as a result of these inventions, that England was changed from an agricultural country to a land of large manufacturing cities, and became the chief manufacturing centre of the world, able to supply money to defeat Napoleon Bonaparte, who is credited with the statement that it was not England's armies that defeated him, but her "spindles."

Note.—The teacher may refer to some of the modern social problems resulting in large part from this industrializing of the country: overcrowding in cities, bad housing and slums, urban and suburban transportation, educational problems, intemperance, decrease in physique, etc. (For the history of this period, see A History of the British Nation, by A.D. Innes, T.C. & E.C. Jack, Edinburgh.)


The aim of this lesson is to show how the desire of certain European nations to find a western route to the rich countries of the East—India, Cathay, and Cipango (India, China, and Japan)—led to the discovery and subsequent exploration of America. It can be used as a review lesson on the exploration of Canada. It will also give the pupil practice in collecting information from various sources so as to show the development of history along a certain line.

The subject-matter may be divided into as many lessons as the teacher thinks best, and the oral method should be used. All the dates given are not intended to be memorized; they are used to show the historical sequence; only three or four of the most important need be committed to memory by the class at their present stage. The map should be used frequently.

[Pg 93]


One of the results of the Crusades was to reveal to the European nations the wealth of the East. Trade between the East and West grew, and Venice became one of the wealthiest and most powerful of the states of Europe.

In 1295, a Venetian traveller named Marco Polo returned from Cathay after an absence of twenty-five years. His stories of the wealth in silks, spices, pearls, etc., of those eastern countries intensified the desire of the West to trade with them. A great commerce soon grew up, carried on principally by the great Italian cities—Venice, Florence, Genoa, Pisa, Milan—and as these cities controlled the Mediterranean, the only route to Asia then known, they had a monopoly of the Eastern trade, and kept for a time the other western nations—Spain, Portugal, France, and England—from sharing in it. These nations, animated by the hope of gain and by the spirit of adventure and exploration, could not long be denied their share. This spirit was stimulated by the introduction of the mariner's compass, which afforded sailors a safer guide than landmarks and stars; by the invention of gunpowder and the use of cannon, which, through lessening the strength of the mediæval castle, tended to increase the power of the middle classes; and by the invention of printing, which aided greatly in the diffusion of knowledge.

The problem was to find a route by which to trade with India and China.

Place the map of the world before the pupils and inquire how men travel to-day from Great Britain to India. Show that these routes were not feasible then. The route through the Mediterranean to Asia Minor and thence overland, or through the Red Sea to India, was closed by the Turks, who captured Constantinople in 1453. The Suez Canal was not[Pg 94] opened till 1869. The way round the Cape of Good Hope was not discovered till 1497. The western route across the Atlantic and the Pacific was unknown.

Not till the closing years of the fifteenth century were the attempts to solve this problem successful. The discovery of the route to India by Vasco de Gama in 1497 first opened the way to the East, though the still earlier discovery by Columbus was to afford, in later years, a much more complete solution.

Christopher Columbus was a native of Genoa in Italy. An eager student of geography, he became convinced that the earth was a sphere or globe and not a flat surface. He believed that he could reach India and Cathay by sailing west, as well as by going east through the Mediterranean—a route that had been closed since the capture of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453. "This grand idea, together with his services in carrying it out, he offered first to his motherland of Genoa. But Genoa did not want a new route to the East. Then he turned, but in vain, to Portugal. The hopes of Portugal were set upon a passage around the south of Africa. To England and to France Columbus held out his wondrous offer; but these countries were slow and unbelieving. It was to Spain he made his most persistent appeal; and Spain, to his imperishable glory, gave ear." Through the self-denial and devotion of Queen Isabella of Castile he was enabled to put his dream to the test.

A special lesson should be given on the life of Columbus—his efforts, perseverance, courage, failures, successes. The teacher may add at will to the facts given here. Read Joaquin Miller's Poem, "Columbus," High School Reader, pp. 143-145.

When Columbus landed on the island-fringe of America in 1492, he thought he had found what he had set out to find—the eastern country of India; and he believed[Pg 95] it all his life. This idea survived for several generations, partly because of the great wealth of Mexico and Peru. When Europeans were at last convinced that it was not India, they began again to seek a way to the East, and looked on the continent of America merely as an obstacle in their path. To find the road to Cathay was still their chief ambition.

In 1497, John Cabot, under a charter from Henry VII of England, set out to find a way to the East, and landed on North America; in 1498, his son, Sebastian Cabot, explored the coast from Labrador to South Carolina, with the same object.

In 1534, on his first voyage, Cartier thought, when he arrived at Gaspé and saw the great river coming from the west, that he had discovered the gateway to the East.

With the same object in view, Champlain, in 1609, explored the Richelieu River and Lake Champlain. In 1613, he listened, only to be deceived, to the story of Vignau about a way to the East up the Ottawa River to a large lake and into another river that would lead to the Western Sea.

Henry Hudson made four voyages in search of a way through or round the continent. On the first, second, and fourth, he tried to go round by a North-west or a North-east passage. On the third voyage, in 1609, he sailed up the Hudson River for 150 miles, only to find his way blocked. A curious fact is that on this voyage he must, at one time, have been only about twenty leagues from Champlain, when the latter was exploring Lake Champlain on the same errand. (Show this on the map.) On his fourth voyage, in 1610, Hudson discovered the bay that now bears his name, and he must have thought, when he saw that great stretch of water to the West, that he was[Pg 96] at last successful. He wintered there, and when the ice broke up in the spring, his men mutinied and set him, his young son, and two companions, adrift in a boat, and they were never heard of again. (See The Story of the British People pp. 234-235.)

The Mississippi was long looked upon as a possible way to the Pacific Ocean. La Salle explored the great lakes and the Ohio, Illinois, and Mississippi Rivers. This last he found to flow south into the Gulf of Mexico, instead of west into the Pacific Ocean. His settlement on Montreal Island was called La Chine (the French word for China), in allusion to his desire to find the way to that country.

Later, others were led by the same desire to explore the western part of what is now Canada. Vérendrye, in 1731, travelled from Lake Nepigon by way of Rainy Lake, the Winnipeg River, and the Red River, to the junction of the latter with the Assiniboine, where Winnipeg now stands; also up the Saskatchewan River to the Forks. His son, in 1742, explored the Missouri River and came within sight of the Rocky Mountains.

Men of the Hudson's Bay Company and of the North-West Company—Mackenzie, Fraser, Thompson, Simpson, Hearne—amid great hardships and through thrilling adventures, continued the work of exploring the waterways of the West to find an opening to the Pacific.

It has remained to the people of Canada to conquer the passes of the Rockies and Selkirks, build great transcontinental railways and steamship lines, and thus afford a direct short route from Europe to Cathay. What men had striven for during more than four hundred years it has been our lot to accomplish.

Other topics of interest suggested by the lesson may be taken up afterwards; for example, the opening of the Suez[Pg 97] Canal and its effect on trade—why it did not restore supremacy to the Italian cities; the opening of the Panama Canal and its probable effect on commerce; the reasons why merchants prefer water routes to land routes, etc.


The purpose of this lesson is to show how to construct a topical outline of an important event in history. It is assumed that the teacher will use, in preparing similar lessons, a larger history of Britain than the Public School text-book, in order that the class may be asked, after the lesson is taught, to read in their text-books an account somewhat different in treatment from that of the teacher. The headings should show the sequence of events and should be concise. The smaller print indicates the facts that the brief headings should recall to the pupils after the lesson. The events preceding the coming of the Armada are suggested here among the causes. These headings may be placed on the black-board as the lesson proceeds; they may be suggested by either teacher or pupils. The actual teaching should be by both narrative and development methods.

For the teacher's use a very interesting and trustworthy book is A History of the British Nation, by A.D. Innes, T.C. & E.C. Jack, Edinburgh.


1. Political.—(a) Ambition of Philip to rule Europe; chief obstacles were England, France, The Netherlands.

(The opposition of France was overcome by a treaty and by the marriage of Philip and Isabella of France after Elizabeth had refused Philip's offer of marriage. The Netherlands[Pg 98] were in full revolt and could not be conquered even by the cruelties of Alva and the destruction of their commerce. England was the chief Protestant power in Europe and, as such, was the chief opponent of Spain.)

(b) The marriage trouble; Elizabeth's religious policy broke off negotiations of marriage with Philip.

(c) Philip received as a legacy the rights of Mary Queen, of Scots to the English throne.

2. Commercial.—Interference of the English in the New World, to which Spain claimed sole right.

(This includes the English settlements as well as the capture of Spanish treasure ships. Recall stories of Drake, Hawkins, etc.)

3. Religious.—Philip was the chief supporter of Roman Catholicism in Europe, and wished to impose his religion on England.

(This was the period of compulsion in religious matters.)


1. Preparations in Spain and England.

(Spain set about preparing a large fleet, to carry soldiers as well as sailors. The best Spanish general was in command at first. His death put an incapable man in command, who was largely responsible for the defeat. The Duke of Parma was to co-operate from the Netherlands with a large army. In England, the small battle fleet was increased by the voluntary contributions of all classes till it actually outnumbered the Spanish fleet, though the vessels were very much smaller. A comparison of the fleets as they were on the eve of battle should be made.)

2. Difference in the national spirit in the two countries.

(The Spanish were on an expedition of conquest; the sailors were ill-trained and many serving against their will. The English were defending their homes; they forgot their[Pg 99] religious and political differences in their patriotism; the sailors were hardy, fearless, and most skilful in handling their ships.)

3. The affair at Cadiz.

(Retarded the invasion for a year, gave England more time for preparation, and encouraged hopes of success.)

4. The battle in the Channel.

(Armada attacked on the way to Dover, July 28-Aug. 6, 1588; fireships at Calais, Aug. 6; final engagement, Aug. 8-9; a chance for a vivid description by the teacher.)

5. Storm completes the ruin of the Armada.

(Facts to be given as to the losses of the Armada; recall stories of wrecked Spanish vessels on the coasts of Scotland, etc., and recommend class to read some story, such as Kingsley's Westward Ho!)


1. Ruin of Spain and of Philip's ambitions. [Connect with I. 1 (a)]

2. Influence on England's patriotism and maritime power.

3. Greater religious tolerance in England.

4. Marvellous growth of literature in England partly due to this.

5. Effect on America. It decided for all time that Spain should not rule the New World, but that the Anglo-Saxons should, with all their ideals of political, social, and religious liberty.

(See P.S. History of England, secs. 135-142.)

[Pg 100]


(As many lesson periods as may be found desirable)

Aim. To give the pupils a knowledge of the manner in which land was held, (1) by the Saxons at different periods on the continent and in England; (2) by the French; (3) by the Normans under William the Conqueror, showing the changes he made in both Saxon and French systems.


1. Introduction. By questioning, the teacher elicits from one pupil that his father owns a farm; from another, that his father rents a farm; from a third, that his father works one "on shares." From this may be derived the meaning of "freehold," "leasehold," and "on shares," as applied to ways of holding land. For town and city classes, a parallel may be made by substituting "house" for "farm." As holding property "on shares" is not so common in cities, suggest possible cases, such as a florist's business, a rink, etc.

2. Let pupils read the sketch of the Saxon or "mark" system given in the Ontario Public School History of England, pp. 22 and 30; and then draw a plan of a Saxon village from the passages read.


(Given to the class by the teacher's oral explanation)

1. The Saxon System: Further study of the early land tenure of the Saxons. (See Ontario High School History of England, p. 33.) The following extract from Oman's England before the Norman Conquest may be of assistance:

The typical free settlement of an English maegth (or kindred) consisted first of the large arable fields divided up into narrow strips, of which each household[Pg 101] possessed several, next of the almost equally prized meadow, which was hedged off into appropriated lots in summer, but thrown back into common in winter, and lastly of the undistributed waste, from which the whole community would draw its wood supply, and on which it would pasture its swine, or even turn out its cattle for rough grazing at some seasons.

The normal method of agriculture was the "three-field system," with a rotation of wheat, barley, or oats, and in the third year, fallow—to allow of the exhausted soil regaining some measure of its fertility. In the last year the field was left unfenced and the cattle of the community picked up what they could from it, when they were neither on the waste, nor being fed with the hay that had been mowed from the meadow. There seem to have been exceptional cases in which the strips of the arable were not permanently allotted to different households, but were distributed, by lot or otherwise, to different holders in different years. But this was an abnormal arrangement; usually the proprietorship of the strips in each field was fixed. And the usual arrangement would be that the fully endowed ceorl's household had just so much arable in its various strips as a full team of oxen could plough.

Then explain the origin of the names "Eorl" and "Thegn" (P.S. Hist. of Eng., pp. 34 and 37); the idea of protection (P.S. Hist. of Eng., p. 37), and of sharing in the produce of the land, and the payment of necessary fees to the King. Emphasize the ownership of the land by the freeman.

2. The Courts: The Witan, which could displace the king for certain reasons, the Shire or folk-moot, and the Tun-moot; their powers; the people looked to these courts for justice.

[Pg 102]

3. Change brought about by Danish raids—small freeholders sought protection from the greater lords; the shifting of ownership from small landowners to "eorls."


The Feudal System in France: (Read Scott's Quentin Durward.) Barons too powerful for the king for various reasons:

1. Their property was large and compact.

2. They administered justice, issued coinage, etc.

3. Vassals swore allegiance to their immediate superior.

By means of problem-questions develop from the pupils what William would probably do to strengthen his own position.


The Feudal System under William: (Note the innovations of William.)

1. The land belonged solely to the king; it was not the Normans as a tribe, but William personally, who conquered England.

2. The estates of the nobles were divided, either deliberately or because the land was conquered piecemeal and parcelled out as it was conquered. (For example, Odo had 473 manors in 17 counties.)

3. The vassals swore direct allegiance to the king.

4. The Witan was displaced by the Great Council, the members of which were the king's vassals; therefore with him, not against him.

5. The king's use of shire-reeves, personal dependants, who led the military levy of the counties and collected the king's taxes.

[Pg 103]

6. What were the chief taxes? From them came much political trouble in later times by attempts to rectify abuses in connection with them.

7. The teacher may describe the ceremony of the feudal oath.

The important points of each step should be written on the black-board as they are described or developed.

(The decay of the Feudal System in England may be the topic of another lesson.)


The aim of the lesson is to give the pupils a knowledge of the method of land tenure introduced into Canada by the French; to enable them to trace the effects of this system upon the progress of the people and the development of the country; and to increase their interest in the present system of tenure.


In connection with sections 3 and 4 the description of the Feudal System would show how the land was held in France; first by the king, under him by the greater nobles, then by the lesser nobles and the gentry, then by the large farmers who sublet it in small farms or hired men to work it. Every one who held land had to do something for his lord. When this description is complete, let the pupils apply it to Canada, the teacher supplying the names of the corresponding classes in Canada. Then the pupils may be asked to consider what return each holder would make for his land; this leads to a statement of the conditions of tenure in Canada. Then the evils connected with this[Pg 104] system may be presented as another problem; for example, how would the actual workers be discouraged in making improvements that they would get no credit for? In connection with section 5, the pupils can contrast the method of holding land that they are familiar with, that is, by complete ownership, and can imagine what changes the English settlers would want. They are then ready to hear how and when these changes were brought about, and at what cost.

The method is therefore a combination of the narrative and development, or problem, methods.


1. Introduce the lesson by a reference to the system of holding land in Ontario. (See lesson on the Feudal System.) Develop the leading principles of freehold tenure. What Act gave the people of Ontario this method of holding land? We are going to learn something about the system of holding land adopted by the French when they ruled Canada. (See Ontario Public School History, Chapter IX, also Ontario High School History of Canada, Chap. VIII.)

2. Under the French the lands of Canada were held in feudal tenure, which means that the King was regarded as the owner, and that rent was paid to him, not altogether in money, but partly in military service. Large portions of land were granted in this way to officers and nobles. An important and imposing ceremony was that at which the lords of manors annually did homage to the King's representative at Quebec. These seigniors, as they were called, had great powers within their domains. This method of tenure was similar to the system of holding land in France, called the Feudal System.

[Pg 105]

At this point the teacher might give a short description of the Feudal System. Picture to the pupils the old Feudal castle and its surroundings. Show how ill the common people were provided for in comparison with the lords.

3. Cardinal Richelieu introduced feudalism into Canada about the year 1527. He had two objects in view: (a) to create a Canadian aristocracy, (b) to establish an easy system of dividing land among settlers. This system of holding land came to be known as Seigniorial Tenure. The seignior received vast tracts of land from the King, became his vassal, and in turn made grants to the censitaires, those who held their land on the payment of an annual rental. The censitaires secured habitants to cultivate the soil.

4. The seignior was compelled to clear his estate of forest within a certain time. In order to do this he rented it, at from half a cent to two cents an acre, and received his rent in produce. If the censitaire sold the land which was cleared, he had to pay his seignior one twelfth of the price. If the seignior parted with his estate, he had to pay the King one fifth of the selling price. The forests of Canada were not very attractive to the nobles of France; hence, but few of them settled in this country. Some of the prominent colonists, however, were granted patents of nobility and became seigniors. Prevented by their rank from cultivating the soil, they soon became bankrupt. Then they turned their attention to the fur-trade, and later many of them became explorers and the most gallant defenders of New France.

5. In the year 1760, Canada became a British possession, and English settlers commenced to make homes for themselves in Upper Canada. Their number was greatly increased by the United Empire Loyalists who came over after the American Revolution. The English disliked the[Pg 106] French method of holding land. Under Seigniorial Tenure, the seller of land in a seigniory was compelled to pay the seignior an amount equal to one twelfth of the purchase money. As this was chargeable not only on the value of the land, but also on the value of all buildings and improvements, which, costing the seigniors nothing, were often more valuable than the land itself, it was considered by the English settlers an intolerable handicap. (Centuries before this the Feudal System had been abolished in England.)

6. In 1791 the British Parliament passed the Constitutional Act which gave the people of Upper Canada the privilege of holding lands in their own name. In Lower Canada, too, those who wished were allowed to avail themselves of the freehold system, but the French did not take advantage of their opportunity. In the year 1854 Seigniorial Tenure was abolished, the Government recompensing the seigniors for the surrender of their ancient rights and privileges, and freehold tenure, as in Ontario, was introduced.

7. Reasons why the Seigniorial Tenure failed:

(a) It was not adapted to conditions in Canada.

(b) It did not provide sufficient incentive to settlers to improve their lands.

(c) It gave the habitant no chance to rise.

(d) It tended to divide the population into three classes.

(e) It failed to develop a civic spirit. This fact alone made progress practically impossible. Each seignior was the master of his own domain. Thus the people had no opportunity of working together, and under such circumstances no great national spirit could be developed.

[Pg 107]

8. Note the effect of the conquest of Canada and of the American Revolution, upon Seigniorial Tenure.




1. The idea of union an old one in Canada and the Maritime Provinces; foreshadowed in Durham's Report.

2. Immediate cause in Canada was the question of representation by population; deadlock in Parliament.

3. Immediate cause in Maritime Provinces was the feeling between Britain and the Colonies and the United States over the Trent affair, the Alabama trouble, and the idea in the Northern States that the British Colonies favoured the cause of the South in the Civil War.

Steps toward Confederation:

1. Meeting of delegates from the Maritime Provinces in Charlottetown in 1864.

2. Meeting in Quebec, 1864, of delegates from all the provinces favours Confederation.

3. Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island reject the proposal, and delegates from Upper Canada (Ontario), Lower Canada (Quebec), Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick proceed to London to secure an Act of Union from the Imperial Government.

4. Movement in favour of union hastened by United States giving notice in 1865 of the termination of the Reciprocity Treaty in a year, and by the Fenian Raid, 1866.

[Pg 108]

5. Union accomplished by means of the British North America Act passed by the British Parliament in 1867, and brought into force on July 1st, 1867. The provinces confederated as the Dominion of Canada; a Federal Union.

Outline of Terms:

See Ontario Public School History of Canada, p. 215. Provision made for admission of new provinces.

Expansion of Confederation:

Admission of other provinces—Manitoba, 1870; British Columbia, 1871; Prince Edward Island, 1873; Alberta and Saskatchewan, 1905; Yukon territory also represented in the Dominion Parliament.


Correlation of History and Geography


The history of a nation is influenced very largely by geographical facts. Its internal relations, whether friendly or hostile, are affected by these. Natural barriers, such as mountains, seas, or great lakes and rivers, are often political frontiers exerting protecting or isolating influence.

Its industrial progress depends primarily upon its natural products—minerals, grains, woods, fish, etc., and the facilities which its structure affords for trade, both domestic and foreign. A sea-coast, with satisfactory harbours, tends to produce a sea-faring people, and therefore a trading people.

[Pg 109]

The character of its people is conditioned by the zone in which the nation is situated. In the north temperate zone is the climate best suited for the growth of peoples vigorous in mind and body, and lovers of freedom.


Position: The forming of the Straits of Dover cut off a corner of Europe, made Great Britain an island, and later a single political unit. Situated between Europe and America with ports opening toward each, her position gives her the opportunity for naval and commercial greatness. The narrow sea separating her from the continent is a defence in war and a means of intercourse in peace.

Structure: Two regions—one of plain, the other of hills; a line drawn from the mouth of the Tees to the mouth of the Severn and continued to the south coast roughly divides these regions. The part lying east of this line is, roughly speaking, level and fertile, tempting emigration from the continent, and easily explored inward. The Angles, the Saxons, and the Jutes found their way into this plain through the rivers that flowed east and south. The Pennines, the Welsh Peninsula, and the southwest of England from Bristol are in the hilly part, which, because of its mineral wealth, has become the great industrial district.

Climate: Though England lies north of the fiftieth parallel, the moist southwest winds from the ocean temper the climate, making the winters mild and the summers cool, a climate favourable to the growth of a vigorous race. There is an abundant rainfall.

Products: On the plains a fertile soil supported a large agricultural, and therefore self-contained, population in the earlier days, and the slopes furnished pasturage for cattle and sheep. Proximity to coal is an almost indis[Pg 110]pensable condition for industries, though other considerations come in. In the hill country coal and iron, essential materials for a manufacturing nation, lie near to the deposits of limestone necessary for smelting the iron ore. The coal-fields on or near the coast are centres of shipbuilding; and the interior coal-fields the centres of the great textile industries. Because of her insular position and fleets of ships the raw products from other countries can be brought to England easily and cheaply, and then shipped out as manufactured goods.

Consult: A Historical Geography of the British Empire. Hereford B. George, Methuen & Co., London. The Relations of Geography and History. Hereford B. George, Clarendon Press, Oxford.


The teacher will announce the topic for discussion, namely, how the history of Great Britain has been affected by her insular position.

T.—Trace on the map the coast line of Great Britain. (Pupil does so.) What do you notice about the coast line in comparison to the size of the Island?

P.—It is very irregular and has a good many bays and inlets.

T.—Would this have any effect on the life and occupations of the people?

P.—They would almost have to be sailors.

T.—In other words, a maritime people. Do you think that is usual? Look at the coast line of Japan. (Class sees that it is much the same as that of Britain: the Japanese are also a maritime race.) What is one occupation the people would follow?

P.—They would probably be fishermen. (The teacher may give some idea of the extent of the fishing. The same may be done with each new point, as it comes up.)

T.—What else would they do?

P.—They would probably engage in trade or commerce.

T.—With which countries? Study the map for a moment.

[Pg 111]

P.—With those on the west of Europe, and with America.

T.—Yes. You must notice that Great Britain is situated very favourably for trade with the whole world. Is there anything on the map to show this?

P.—There are a great many lines on the map that show the water routes from Britain to almost every country in the world.

T.—Suppose Britain had trouble with any other country that might be a cause of war, would her position make any difference to her?

P.—No country could attack her except by water.

T.—How would she defend herself?

P.—She would have to depend on her ships. (A good opening for a brief outline of the growth of the navy.)

T.—Where would she get her ships?

P.—She builds them herself.

T.—Isn't she dependent on any other nation at all?

P.—No, she has always had the material in her own country for that.

T.—What are they built of?

P.—The old ships were wooden, and she had plenty of the best timber,—oak.

T.—What are they built of to-day?

P.—Most of them are of iron.

T.—Where does she get that?

P.—From her own mines.

T.—Now, look at the latitude of Britain. What part of our country has the same latitude?


T.—What is the climate of Labrador?

P.—Very cold.

T.—Then the climate of Britain ought to be the same?

P.—The water around it would make it not so cold.

T.—Yes. The ocean currents from the south help to make the climate milder, too. There would be plenty of rain, besides. Now, how would a moist, mild climate affect agriculture in England?

P.—They ought to be able to grow almost everything that we can.

(Similarly, many other points may be taken up and developed with the class.)

[Pg 112]


Incidental Teaching of History with Geography

Aim.—To show general connection between history and geography.

Material Required.—A black-board sketch of that part of Canada adjacent to the St. Lawrence and a set of pictures (or picture post-cards) showing the important historical sites along the banks of the river.

Introduction.—The teacher asks a few questions to make clear the purpose of the map and to fix the location of the principal towns and cities—Kingston, Brockville, Prescott, Ogdensburg, Morrisburg, Cornwall, Lachine, Montreal, Three Rivers, Levis, Quebec, Tadoussac, and Gaspé.

Presentation.—The lesson is assumed to be a pleasure trip by boat from Port Hope to the Atlantic. The teacher will tell of the departure from Port Hope and the arrival at Kingston, the first port. While there, he will ask why the place was given the name of Kingston. (It was named in honour of George III; as Queenston, at the upper end of the lake, was in honour of Queen Charlotte.) Leaving Kingston the teacher will describe (showing pictures) the appearance of the fort on the point and, with the pupils, will recall its establishment by Frontenac in 1673, and its use as a check on the Indians, and will note its use now as a storehouse, barracks, and training camp for soldiers. (Ontario Public School History, pp. 51, 114.)

As the trip is continued down the river, they notice, in passing, the beautiful Thousand Islands, and the town of Brockville—its name commemorating the hero of Queenston Heights. Immediately below Prescott is seen on the bank of the river an old wind-mill, the scene of the Patriot[Pg 113] invasion under Von Schultz, a Polish adventurer. (See Ontario Public School History, p. 178, and picture in Weaver's Canadian History for Boys and Girls, p. 227.)

Across the river lies Ogdensburg, the scene of a raid in 1813. Colonel Macdonell, the British leader, who was drilling his small force on the ice, made a sudden attack upon the town, defeated the Americans, captured a large amount of stores and ammunition, and burned four armed vessels which lay in the harbour. (See Ontario Public School History, p. 155.)

From this point the boat passes rapidly through the narrow part of the river at Iroquois (recall the Indians of that name), past the flourishing town of Morrisburg, until, on the north bank, appears a monument of gray granite, erected as a memorial of the battle of Crysler's Farm, fought in this vicinity in 1813. (See Ontario Public School History, p. 159.)

After passing through the Long Sault Rapids, Cornwall, noted as the seat of the first Grammar School in Ontario, is reached. The river now widens into a lake and does not narrow until it passes Coteau, after which it passes through a chain of rapids and nears Lachine, the "La Chine" of La Salle, and the scene of numerous Indian fights and massacres. (See Ontario School Geography, p. 116, and Ontario Public School History of Canada, p. 60.) Ten miles to the east is Montreal, the most populous city in Canada, with its Royal Mount, and its many memories of early settlement in Canada. (See Ontario School Geography, p. 121.)

Just above Quebec the river, now two miles wide, passes the bold cliffs up which Wolfe's men climbed to the Plains of Abraham, and sweeps around the Citadel and Lower Town. On the heights may be seen the monuments erected in honour of Champlain, and Wolfe and Mont[Pg 114]calm. In imagination, pictures may be formed of the scenes that marked the close of French Rule in Canada. The river flows on past Tadoussac, long the centre of the Canadian fur-trade, past Gaspé where Cartier landed and laid claim to the surrounding country in the name of the king of France, till its banks fade from sight and its waters mingle with those of the Atlantic.

In teaching such lessons as this, the oral narrative and question method is used. It is a review lesson, and reproduction may follow in a written exercise.


The purpose of this analysis is to explain by what show of right the kings of England interfered so much in Scottish affairs. The analysis also aims to show how correct and definite views on certain topics may be had only by following out those topics through history, neglecting all facts but those bearing on the topic studied.

1. In the tenth century, Malcolm I obtained Strathclyde (see map, Ontario Public School History of England, p. 27) as a fief from Edmund of England. His grandson, Malcolm II, was invested with Lothian, before this a part of the English earldom of Northumbria. These fiefs are the basis of all claims afterwards made by English kings as overlords of Scotland.

2. Malcolm III (1057-1093) married Margaret, sister of Edgar Atheling. The Norman conquest drove many Saxons north, and the Saxon element in Scotland was strengthened by this.

3. William the Conqueror compelled Malcolm's submission, 1072. This kept alive the English claims.

[Pg 115]

4. Henry I married Matilda of Scotland. Many Normans went to Scotland in the reign of David (1124-1153). The Feudal System was introduced and firmly established under Norman influence. Ecclesiastical foundation begun. Friendly relations strengthened.

5. As the price of his liberty, William the Lyon agreed, by the Convention of Falaise, 1174, to hold Scotland as a fief of England.

6. To raise money for his Crusade, Richard I of England renounced, in 1189, his feudal rights over Scotland for 10,000 marks, and for the first time acknowledged her independence.

7. The border line was fixed for the first time in 1222.

8. The death of Margaret, daughter of Alexander III, 1286, left the crown a bone of contention; Balliol finally secured it by favour of Edward I of England, the overlord of Scotland. Then followed the War of Independence under Wallace and Bruce and the Battle of Bannockburn, 1314. This long and destructive war caused the Scots to have a deadly hatred of the English, and drove Scotland into alliance with France, the great enemy of England, and consolidated the different races in Scotland.

9. Scotland thus became involved in the many wars between England and France and attacked England whenever she and France were at war.

10. In 1327, the independence of Scotland was acknowledged.

11. Friendship with France and distrust of England continued well into the Reformation period, and in the main determined Scotland's foreign policy.

12. With the change of religion in Scotland at the Reformation, French influence came to an end. Religious sympathy overcame the political hatred of England.

[Pg 116]

13. The trouble in connection with Mary Queen of Scots and her imprisonment made for peace between the two countries, as Scotland did not want to have Mary released for fear of further civil war.

14. The accession of James VI, a Scottish king, to the throne of England, ended almost entirely the differences between the two countries, and led finally to the Legislative Union a century later (1707).


The Parliament had already established its sole right to levy taxation. (See Green's Short History of the English People, p. 478.) Under Charles I the struggle was mainly about the manner in which the taxes should be spent; in other words, the Parliament was trying to secure control of the executive, the other important element in Responsible Government.

Charles I held very strongly the belief in the "divine right" of kings and, naturally, this belief did not harmonize with the aim of Parliament. Disputes were constant:

1. Differences concerning Charles' marriage.

2. First Parliament, 1626, would grant "tonnage and poundage" for only one year.

3. Second Parliament, 1626, refused money unless the conduct of the Spanish war by Buckingham was inquired into by Parliament.

4. Third Parliament, 1628-9. Charles raised some money by "forced loans," but far too little, for a new war with France was begun. Parliament refused to grant money till the king signed the Petition of Right, which embodied all the points in dispute between them.

[Pg 117]

5. Charles did not long observe the Petition of Right which he had signed; Laud, Bishop of London, was making changes in the church ceremonies that seemed to bring back the old religion. Parliament solemnly protested against both these things, then quietly adjourned. Some members were arrested—Sir John Eliot died in the Tower—others were kept in prison for eleven years.

6. No Parliament for eleven years. Charles aimed during this period to raise money without Parliament, and to establish the English Church in the whole country.

His methods of raising money were:

(a) By granting monopolies (£200,000).

(b) By Star Chamber fines—large fines for slight offences.

(c) By illegal duties.

(d) By "ship-money" (Trial of Hampden).

His methods of establishing the English Church were:

(a) Religious oppression—chief agent, Laud; chief sufferers, the Puritans.

(b) Attempt to force the English Church prayer-book on Scotland led to rebellion.

This rebellion forced Charles to summon Parliament in order to raise money. Parliament refused to give money till their grievances were redressed. It was dissolved in three weeks. Urgent need of troops to keep back the Scottish rebels made Charles summon Parliament again in six months (1640). This is known as the "Long Parliament."

7. (a) Parliament first accused Laud and Strafford.

(b) The "Grand Remonstrance" named the illegal acts of Charles.

(c) This led to Charles' final blunder—the attempt to arrest the five members.

[Pg 118]

8. Open war, now the only way out, went on till Charles was captured and beheaded, and Parliament held, for a time, entire control.



I. The Era of Reform in Britain:

1. The Methodist Revival, which stirred the hearts of the people, and gave them higher ideals

2. Social Reforms:
(a) Canning, the friend of the oppressed
(b) Wilberforce and the abolition of slavery
(c) Elizabeth Fry and prison reform
(d) Revision of the criminal code

3. Political Reforms:
(a) The Reform Bill
(b) The Chartist Agitation
(c) The repeal of the Corn Laws

II. The Puritan Movement:

1. Its beginning under Elizabeth

2. Its growth under James I

3. The struggle and victory under Charles I

4. Triumph and decay under the Commonwealth

5. Its dissolution under Charles II

6. It was the root of the resistance offered to the misrule of James II.

[Pg 119]




The purpose of these notes, which are condensed from the article on "Civilization" in the Encyclopaedia Britannica (latest edition), is to provide the teacher with some interesting material, by the use of which he may impress on the pupils the far-reaching effects of certain inventions and discoveries, which are in such common use to-day that they are very likely to be underestimated. The number of lessons must be left entirely to the discretion of the teacher.


The close relation between the progress of civilization, as told in history, and scientific inventions and discoveries is shown by Lewis H. Morgan, who has indicated nine stages in the upward march of mankind from the earliest times to the present. There are three stages of savagery, three of barbarism, and three of civilization, the close of each stage being marked by an important discovery or invention. The problem method may be used, by asking what each invention or discovery would enable the people to do that they could not do before.

1. The savages in the first stage were developing speech, lived on raw nuts and fruits, and were restricted to places where they could have warmth and food. This stage was ended by the discovery of fire.

2. With the use of fire, their food now included fish and perhaps flesh; they could migrate to colder climates. This stage ended with the invention of the bow and arrow.

[Pg 120]

3. With the bow and arrow, the savage was safer from fierce animals; he could kill also to get food, and skins for clothing and tents; with stronger food and better protection he could and did migrate into more distant, colder countries. This stage ended with the invention of pottery.

4. Hitherto man had had no cooking utensils that could withstand fire. Now he could boil his food, and his diet was extended to include boiled meat and vegetables. The next stage was reached by the domestication of animals.

5. The dog, the sheep, the ox, the camel, the horse were rapidly domesticated; some of these provided man with food independent of the chase; others gave him better, swifter means of travel and transportation. Distant peoples were thus brought into contact and commerce began. New ideas were gained from each other. Larger communities were formed, and towns and cities began. Property became individual, instead of being communal.

6. This stage began with the invention of iron-smelting. Immense progress was now possible in the various arts of peace: house-building, road-making, construction of vehicles, the making of all sorts of tools. By these tools man was now able to express his æsthetic nature as never before. Implements of war also became more numerous and more deadly.

7. The human race was now lifted from the highest stage of barbarism to the lowest stage of civilization by one of the most important inventions that man has ever made—writing. This made possible the recording of man's deeds and thoughts for posterity, thus securing the gains of each generation for all succeeding generations, and making history possible.

8. The next stage of progress is marked by a group of inventions,—gunpowder, the mariner's compass, and paper[Pg 121] and the printing press. The Middle Ages, as we call them, were now ended, and the human race found itself on a stage as wide as the world.

9. The next invention, which came quickly after the preceding ones, and placed mankind in the present stage of civilization, was the steam-engine. The revolution which this brought about is so recent as to need no details here. (See lesson on the Industrial Revolution, p. 87.) What is to be the invention that will mark the entrance of the race on a higher stage still, when Tennyson's dream of a "Federation of the World the Parliament of Man" may be realized? Is it the airship, giving man the conquest of the last element still unmastered?


1. The aim of this lesson is to make the pupils familiar with one of the most important movements in English history, by having them study the meaning, causes, tendencies, and effects of the New Learning.

2. As an introduction, a lesson or two should be given on the conditions prevailing in Europe during the latter part of the Middle Ages, because a knowledge of these conditions is essential to a right understanding of many of the causes of the New Learning.

The New Learning was a phase of a greater movement called the Renaissance, which arose in Italy during the fourteenth century. The Renaissance marked the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of modern history. It meant re-birth, a new life. People took a new interest in living. The influence of the monk and of the knight was passing, and the man of affairs, with his broader[Pg 122] sympathies, his keener vision, his more varied interests, and his love of liberty, was coming into prominence.

How to enjoy life, how to get the greatest value out of it, became the great problem. In their attempt to solve this problem people turned their attention to the ancient literature of Greece and Rome; for it was believed that the ancient Greeks and Romans had a fine appreciation of the meaning and beauty of life. They began to seek out the old literature and to study it. This new study has been called the Revival of Learning or the New Learning. The influence of these two great literatures soon made itself felt. Every province of knowledge was investigated, and people everywhere were influenced by this great intellectual awakening.

3. The following were the chief causes of the movement:

(a) The Crusades

(b) The Fall of Constantinople, 1453

(c) The introduction of the mariner's compass

(d) The invention of gunpowder

(e) The invention of the printing press

(f) The overthrow of the feudal system

(g) The desire for knowledge stimulated by the universities

(h) The failure of the schools of the Middle Ages to meet the demands and needs of the times

4. The relation of each of these causes to the New Learning must be shown. In dealing with the Crusade movement as a cause, it will be necessary to help the children to see the effect produced on the people of northern Europe by their coming into contact with the more highly cultivated people in southern Europe; and the effect produced on the people of Europe by their[Pg 123] mingling with the nations of the luxurious East—the Greeks of Constantinople and the brilliant Mohammedan scholars of Palestine. The Crusades made the people dissatisfied with the conditions that had prevailed so long in Europe, and this fact alone gave an impetus to the New Learning.

The relation of printing to the spread of the movement is evident. The introduction of printing meant the cheapening of books, their more general use, and the spread of education. This was followed by a growing independence of thought, and a desire for greater political and religious freedom.

The other causes may be similarly treated.

5. The New Learning was represented in England by a group of scholars of whom Erasmus, Colet, and More were the chief. The great churchmen, too, were its patrons. Men of every rank were interested, and the movement affected the whole life of the people. A new interest was taken in education, in art, in religion, and in social reform. Old methods of instruction were superseded by more rational ones. Hundreds of new schools were established for the benefit of the middle classes. The whole tendency of the New Learning was toward a higher intellectual and more moral life.

6. Its effects:

(a) It awakened a desire for an intellectual life and for social reform;

(b) It made possible the Reformation;

(c) It led to the establishment of schools and libraries and to the extension of the usefulness of the universities;

(d) It aroused the desire for liberty and the spirit of enterprise, and encouraged commercial activity;

[Pg 124]

(e) It inspired some of the world's greatest artists in painting, sculpture, architecture, literature, and music.

(f) It implanted the seeds of freedom of thought and fostered the spirit of scientific research;

(g) It supplied higher ideals of life and conduct, a fact which became responsible to a large extent for the great improvement made in the condition of the people, and in the development of Europe since that time.

Note: References to the discoveries made by Copernicus, Columbus, and the Cabots should be made. Pupils should read or hear short accounts of Erasmus, More, and Colet. A careful development of the causes and meaning of the movement should aid the pupils to anticipate its chief results.

It is assumed, of course, that the study of this topic will occupy several lesson periods.


In the struggle for constitutional liberty in British Canada, there are several distinct stages:

I. 1760 to 1763—Military Rule:

1. Amherst the nominal governor; Canada divided into three districts

2. Little disturbance of French customs; the habitants content

3. Influx of "old" subjects—their character. (See Ontario Public School History of Canada, p. 109; History of Canada, Lucas and Egerton, Part II, pp. 4 and 7.)

[Pg 125]

II. 1763 to 1774 (Quebec Act):

1. Period of Civil Government under General Murray

2. Unrest owing to demands of the "old" subjects

3. Conditions of government:

(a) Governor and Advisory Council of twelve all appointed by Crown

(b) Assembly permitted but not feasible; depended on will of Governor

(c) British law, both civil and criminal, prevailed

(d) All money matters in hands of Council.

4. At this time the French greatly outnumbered the British, and the fear of the Revolution of the American Colonies led to the French being favoured in the Quebec Act, 1774.

III. 1774 to 1791—Quebec Act to Constitutional Act:

1. Both "old" and "new" subjects dissatisfied—the French with British Court procedure, the British with French feudal customs.

2. Provisions of the Quebec Act:

(a) Change of boundaries (See text-book.)

(b) Governor and Legislative Council appointed; no assembly called.

(c) French Civil Law; British Criminal Law

(d) No oath required, as before, hostile to the Roman Catholic Church—beginning of religious liberty

(e) Legislative Council had no control of taxation

IV. 1791 to 1841—Constitutional Act to Act of Union Provisions of Constitutional Act:

1. Upper and Lower Canada divided, because French and British could not agree on many points.

[Pg 126]

2. Each Province had a Governor, a Legislative Council, a Legislative Assembly, and an Executive Council. The Legislative Council was composed of the highest officials, appointed practically for life, and responsible to no one. Many of these were also members of the Executive Council. The Legislative Assembly was elected and was yet without control of the whole revenue, as the Home Government still collected "all duties regulating colonial navigation and commerce."

3. The Clergy Reserves were established; later to become a bone of contention.

V. 1841 to 1867—Act of Union to British North America Act.

The demands of the people for responsible government, that is, for control of the Executive and of taxation, became so insistent that the Act of Union was passed, following Lord Durham's report on the Rebellion of 1837.

Provisions of the Act of Union:

1. Legislative Council appointed (20 members)

2. Legislative Assembly elected (42 from each Province, later 65 from each)

3. Executive Council selected from both Houses

4. A permanent Civil List of £75,000 was granted

5. The Legislative Assembly controlled the rest of the revenue. Money bills were to originate with the Government. This was really Responsible Government, as it was developed under Elgin.

VI. 1867 to the present:

The British North America Act was the statement of a complete victory of the people for Responsible Government. The Executive Council (Cabinet) is wholly re[Pg 127]sponsible to Parliament, in which the members of the Executive must have seats; the raising and the spending of revenue is wholly in the hands of the people's representatives. For a clear summary of the concessions won by Canadians, see Bourinot, How Canada is Governed, page 34; see also Ontario Public School History of Canada, pp. 267 et seq.



1. Wall maps for general study, especially of modern history.

2. Outline or sketch maps drawn on the black-board by the teacher or the pupils for use in the study of earlier history, or explorations, etc. For these purposes the details of a wall map are not only not needed, but are rather a hindrance.

3. Relief maps of plasticine, clay, or salt and flour, to be made by the pupils to illustrate the influence of geographical facts in history, and to make events in history more real to the pupils.


1. Many good historical pictures of persons, buildings, monuments, and events may be collected by the pupils and the teacher from magazines and newspapers, and pasted in a scrap-book. (See Educational Pamphlet, No. 4, Visual Aids in the Teaching of History.)

2. The Perry Picture Co., Malden, Mass., publishes pictures in different sizes, costing from one cent upward. Many of these are useful in teaching history. Similar pictures may be obtained from the Cosmos Picture Co., New York.

[Pg 128]

3. Good picture post-cards can be easily obtained.

4. Lantern slides and stereopticon views may be used. (For lists of dealers and publishers of 3 and 4, see also Visual Aids in the Teaching of History.)


These often contain relics of earlier times in the form of implements, utensils, weapons, dress. A visit to one will interest pupils.


Some source books for illustrating earlier conditions in Ontario are:

1. The Talbot Régime. By Charles Oakes Ermatinger, St. Thomas.

2. Pioneer Days. By David Kennedy, Port Elgin. Sold by author, 50c.

3. United Empire Loyalists. By Egerton Ryerson. William Briggs.

4. Canadian Constitutional Development. Selected speeches and dispatches, 1766-1867. By Egerton and Grant Murray. $3.00.

5. Pen Pictures of Early Pioneer Life in Upper Canada. William Briggs, Toronto, $2.00.


Those needed to illustrate special periods may be found in the larger histories. Pupils should be instructed how to interpret them.


This may be made by the class, on the black-board or on a slated cloth as the work advances. On the left hand[Pg 129] of a vertical line are set down the dates, allowing the same space for each ten years, the close of each decade being shown in larger figures. On the right side are set down the events in their proper place. For example, in studying the career of Champlain, the Chart will be begun as follows:



1603 First visit, when 36 years old, with Pontgravé.

1604 With De Monts and Poutrincourt he undertakes to colonize Acadia; forms a settlement at Port Royal.

1608 Founds Quebec.

1609 Explores Richelieu River and Lake Champlain; forms an alliance with the Hurons and Algonquins against the Iroquois.

1610 Marriage.

1611 Establishes a trading station at what is now Montreal.

1613 Ascends the Ottawa River, expecting to find the way to China; deceived, returns to France.

1615 Brings out the Recollet Fathers to Christianize the Indians; explores the country of the Hurons.


A useful chart which shows the growth of Canada is to be found in Taylor's Cardinal Facts of Canadian History, reproduced in Duncan's The Canadian People. An Illustrated Chart of Canadian History is published by the United Editors Company, of Toronto.


In the Fourth Form, pupils should copy into a notebook the black-board work—topical outlines, time chart, etc., as a basis for review and for class exercises in composition. Such a topical summary, the joint work of teacher and class, is the best means of review for examination purposes, when one is held.

[Pg 130]

Pupils may occasionally be asked to make from the text-book, without preceding class work, a topical analysis either of a subject which is treated consecutively in the book, such as the War of 1812-14, or of a subject that requires the pupil to collect his material from various parts of the book, or even from several books. In the latter case the teacher should direct the pupil to the proper sources.



I. Histories:

(a) English:

1. A Short History of the English People. Green. $1.50. The Macmillan Company of Canada, Ltd., Toronto.

2. Ontario High School History of England. 65c. The Macmillan Company of Canada, Ltd., Toronto.

3. A History of the British Nation. A.D. Innes. $1.25. E.C. & T.C. Jack, Edinburgh.

(b) Canadian:

1. A History of Canada. Roberts. $1.00. The Macmillan Company of Canada, Ltd., Toronto.

2. Story of Canada (Story of the Nations Series). Bourinot. $1.50. G.P. Putnam's, New York.

3. A Historical Geography of the British Colonies, 10 vols. Canada: Part I, $1.60; Part II, $1.10. Lucas and Egerton, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

One of the best histories of Canada; on a geographical basis.

4. Ontario High School History of Canada. Grant. 19c. The T. Eaton Company, Ltd., Toronto.

[Pg 131]

5. A Short History of the Canadian People. Bryce. $2.00. William Briggs, Toronto.

(c) Civics:

1. Canadian Civics. Jenkins. 35c. Copp, Clark Co., Ltd., Toronto.

2. How Canada is Governed. Bourinot. $1.00. Copp, Clark Co., Ltd., Toronto.

(d) General History:

1. General Sketch of European History. Freeman. $1.00. The Macmillan Co. of Canada, Ltd., Toronto.

2. History of Our Own Times. McCarthy. $1.25. Crowell and Company, New York.

3. The Nineteenth Century—A History. MacKenzie. $1.00. T. Nelson and Sons, Toronto.

For help in preparing lessons every teacher should possess one book of each of the above classes, in addition to the Ontario Public School Histories.

II. On Methods:

1. Teaching of History and Civics in the Elementary and Secondary Schools. Bourne. $1.50. Longmans Green and Company, London, England.

The best book on general method.

2. Methods in History. Mace. $1.00. Ginn and Company, New York.

3. Special Method in History. McMurry. 75c. The Macmillan Company of Canada, Ltd., Toronto.

[Pg 132]



1. Reader's Guide to English History. Allen. 25c. Ginn and Company, New York.

(Contains a list of historical authorities for the various periods; and lists of historical poems and fiction to illustrate these periods.)

2. School Atlas of English History. S.R. Gardiner. $1.50. Longmans, Green and Company, London, England.

3. Atlas of Canada. Published by Department of the Interior, Ottawa.

(The Department of the Interior also publishes maps giving the latest information concerning railways, distribution of minerals, etc., which can be had by asking for them.)

4. Atlas of Ancient and Classical Geography. Everyman's Library. 25c. Dent & Co., Ltd., Toronto.

5. Literary and Historical Atlas of Europe. Everyman's Library. 25c. Dent & Co., Ltd., Toronto.

6. Literary and Historical Atlas of America. Everyman's Library. 25c. Dent & Co., Ltd., Toronto.


Group I.

1. Highroads of History. 13 Vols. T. Nelson and Sons, Toronto.

Well illustrated; a great favourite with children.

2. Gateways to History. 7 Vols. 9s. 1d. Edward Arnold, London, England.

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3. Longmans' Ship Historical Readers. 7 Vols. 9s. Longmans, Green and Company, London, England.

4. The Little Cousin Series. 25 Vols. 60c. each. The Page Co., Boston, Mass.

Get list of titles and select.

5. Peeps at many Lands and Cities. 50 Vols. 50c. each. The Macmillan Company of Canada, Ltd., Toronto.

Get list of titles and select.

Group II.

1. Stories from Canadian History. Marquis. 50c. Copp Clark Company, Ltd., Toronto.

2. Brief Biographies. Supplementing Canadian History. J.O. Miller. 35c. Copp Clark Company, Ltd., Toronto.

3. Stories of the Maple Land. C.A. Young. 25c. Copp Clark Company, Ltd., Toronto.

4. Heroines of Canadian History. W.S. Herrington. Cloth 30c., paper 18c. Wm. Briggs, Toronto.

5. Ryerson Memorial Volume. J.G. Hodgins.

A graphic sketch of the old log school-house and its belongings, and the life of a pioneer teacher.

6. Stories of New France. Machar and Marquis. $1.50. Briggs, Toronto.

7. Martyrs of New France. Herrington. 60c. Briggs, Toronto.

Group III.

1. Fifty Famous Stories Retold. Baldwin. 35c. The American Book Company, New York.

[Pg 134]

2. Thirty More Famous Stories. Baldwin. 50c. The American Book Company, New York.

3. Book of Legends. Scudder. Riverside Literature Series 15c. Copp Clark Company, Ltd., Toronto.

4. Legends Every Child Should Know. Ed. H.W. Mabie. 90c. Doubleday, Page and Co., New York.

Group IV.—Miscellaneous:

1. Heroes Every Child Should Know. Ed. H.W. Mabie. 60c. Doubleday, New York.

2. Famous Men of Greece. 50c. The American Book Company, New York.

3. Famous Men of Rome. The American Book Company, New York.

4. Famous Men of the Middle Ages. 50c. The American Book Company, New York.

5. Famous Men of Modern Times. 50c. The American Book Co., New York.

6. Stories of Great Inventors. Macombe. 40c. Wm. Briggs, Toronto.

7. Calendar Stories. M.P. Boyle. 30c. McClelland, Goodchild, & Stewart, Toronto.

8. Ten Boys Who Lived on the Road From Long Ago to Now. Jane Andrews. 75c. Sch. ed. 60c. Ginn and Company, New York.

9. Seven Little Sisters. Jane Andrews. 75c. Sch. ed. 50c. Ginn and Company, New York.

10. The Romance of Canadian History. Selections from Parkman; edited by Pelham Edgar. 75c. The Macmillan Company of Canada, Ltd., Toronto.

[Pg 135]

11. English Life 300 Years Ago. Trevelyan. 1s. Methuen and Company, London.

12. Little Journeys to the Homes of Great Reformers, Great Orators, Great Teachers, English Authors, Good men and Great. Hubbard. 10c each. The Roycrofters, East Aurora, N.Y.

In Group I the first, and any of the others may be read. The first are very interesting and great favourites with children.

In Groups II and III one of each may be taken as they, to some extent, cover the same ground.

All of those in Group IV are useful, and may be added as opportunity permits.

[Pg 136]



Did you ever hear the story of the first Christmas tree? This is the way it was told to me: Martin Luther was a good man who lived in Germany long ago. One Christmas Eve he was walking to his home. The night was cold and frosty with many stars in the sky. He thought he had never seen stars look so bright. When he got home he tried to tell his wife and children how pretty the stars were, but they didn't seem to understand. So Luther went out into his garden and cut a little evergreen tree. This he set up in the room and fastened tiny candles all over it, and when he had lighted them they shone like stars.

One of Luther's neighbours came in that night, and when she saw the tree she thought how one would please her children. Soon she had one in her house, too. And the idea spread from one house to another until there were Christmas trees all over Germany.

Queen Victoria of England was married to a German prince, and the German custom of a Christmas tree for the children was followed in the royal palace. Of course after the Queen had a tree other people must have one, too. So the Christmas tree came to England.

The little French boys and girls have not had them so long. Not very many years ago there was a war between France and Germany. At Christmas time the German soldiers were in Paris. They felt sorry to be so far from their own little boys and girls on Christmas eve. But they knew how to have something to remind them of home. Every soldier who could got a little evergreen[Pg 137] tree and put candles on it. The French saw them, and were so pleased that now, every year, they too have Christmas trees.

So many people from England, and from Germany, and from France have come to our country to live, of course, we too have learned about Christmas trees. And that is why you and so many other little girls and boys have such pretty trees on Christmas eve.


Childish voices are asking why the rabbit is seen with the eggs and the chickens that fill the shop windows and show-cases at Easter. The legend that established the hare as a symbol of the Eastertide is not generally known. It is of German origin and runs as follows:

Many years ago, during a cruel war, the Duchess of Lindenburg with her two children and an old servant fled for safety to a little obscure village in the mountains. She found the people very poor, and one thing that surprised her much was that they used no eggs. She learned that they had never seen or heard of hens, and so when the old servant went to get tidings of his master and of the war he brought back with him some of these birds.

The simple village folk were greatly interested in the strange fowl, and when they saw the tiny yellow chickens breaking their way out of the eggs they were full of delight. But the Duchess was saddened by the thought that Easter was drawing near and that she had no gifts for the little mountain children. Then an idea came to her. The spring was beginning to colour the earth with leaves and flowers, and she made bright dyes out of herbs and roots and coloured the eggs. Then the children were in[Pg 138]vited to visit the Duchess, and she told them stories of the glad Easter day, and afterwards bade each make a nest of moss among the bushes. When they had all enjoyed the little feast provided in their honour, they went back to the woods to look at their nests. Lo! in each were five coloured eggs.

"What a good hen it must have been to lay such beautiful eggs," said one child.

"It could not have been a hen," said another. "The eggs that the hens lay are white. It must have been the rabbit that jumped out of the tree when I made my nest."

And all the children agreed that it was the rabbit, and to this day the mystic Bunny is supposed to bring eggs and gifts at Easter to the little children of the "fatherland" who have been loving and kind during the year.


Once upon a time, there lived in a monastery across the sea a humble monk called Valentine. Every brother save himself seemed to have some special gift.

Now there was Brother Angelo, who was an artist, and painted such wonderful Madonnas that it seemed as if the holy mother must step down from the frame and bless her children.

Brother Vittorio had a wonderful voice, and on saints' days the monastery chapel would be crowded with visitors, who came from far and near just to listen to that wonderful voice as it soared up among the dim old arches.

Brother Anselmo was a doctor, and knew the virtues of all roots, herbs, and drugs, and was kept very busy going about among the sick, followed by their tearful, grateful blessing.

[Pg 139]

Brother Johannes was skilled in illuminating, and Valentine often watched the page grow under his clever hand. How beautiful would then be the gospel story in brightly-coloured letters, with dainty flowers, bright-winged butterflies, and downy, nestling birds about the borders!

Brother Paul was a great teacher in the monastery school, and even learned scholars came to consult him. Friar John ruled the affairs of the little monastery world with wisdom and prudence. Indeed, out of the whole number only Valentine seemed without special talent.

The poor man felt it keenly. He longed to do some great thing. "Why did not the good God give me a voice like Vittorio or a skilled hand like Angelo?" he would often inquire of himself bitterly. One day as he sat sadly musing on these things, a voice within him said clearly and earnestly: "Do the little things, Valentine; there the blessing lies." "What are the little things?" asked Valentine, much perplexed. But no answer came to this question. Like every one else, Valentine had to find his work himself.

He had a little plot where he loved to work, and the other monks said that Valentine's pinks, lilies, and violets were larger and brighter than any raised in the whole monastery garden.

He used to gather bunches of his flowers and drop them into the chubby hands of children as they trotted to school under the gray monastery walls. Many a happy village bride wore his roses on her way to the altar. Scarcely a coffin was taken to the cemetery but Valentine's lilies or violets filled the silent hands.

He got to know the birthday of every child in the village, and was fond of hanging on the cottage door some little gift his loving hands had made. He could mend a[Pg 140] child's broken windmill and carve quaint faces from walnut shells. He made beautiful crosses of silvery gray lichens, and pressed mosses and rosy weeds from the seashore. The same tender hands were ready to pick up a fallen baby, or carry the water bucket for some weary mother.

Everybody learned to love the good Brother Valentine. The children clung to his long, gray skirts, and the babies crept out on the streets to receive his pat on their shining hair. Even the cats and dogs rubbed against him, and the little birds fluttered near him unafraid.

St. Valentine grew old, loving and beloved, never dreaming that he had found his great thing. When the simple monk died the whole countryside mourned, and hundreds came to look for the last time on the quiet face in the rude coffin.

A great duke walked bare-headed after that coffin, and one of the most noted brothers of the church spoke the last words of blessing to the weeping people.

After his death, it was remembered how sweet had been his little gifts, and the villagers said: "Let us, too, give gifts to our friends on the good Valentine's birthday." So ever since has the pretty custom been carried out, and on St. Valentine's day we send our friends little tokens of remembrance to say we love them.


It is nearly three hundred years since the first Thanksgiving Day. Though we have even more to be grateful for, I think that there are not many of us who feel quite so thankful as the little handful of people who set apart the first Thanksgiving Day.

[Pg 141]

There were not very many of them, just one little village in a big forest land, and by the edge of a great ocean. Here, on the map, is where they lived. It is on the north-eastern shores of the United States and is called Plymouth. The people I am telling you about gave it that name when they came to it, nearly two years before they had their first Thanksgiving Day. It was the name of the last town they had seen in England. Here, on the map, is the English Plymouth, and you see what a long trip they had in their little vessel, called the Mayflower, to their new home.

You still wonder why they travelled so far to make new homes for themselves. It was because they wanted to worship God in their own way that they left England. They were not afraid of the long voyage and all its hardships; for they felt sure they were doing as God wished them to do. They arrived safely, too, and built their little village by the sea—the new Plymouth. One of the first buildings they put up was a little log church.

The first year was very hard for everybody. The winter was colder than any they had ever known in England, and their houses were small and poorly built. They could not get any letters or news from their friends in England for many months. Food was not scarce, for there was always plenty of game and fish. But it was such a change from their old way of living that many people became ill, and in the spring there were many graves. But the worst thing about the new land was the Indians. These English people were afraid of them—and with good reason, too, for they were very fierce and sometimes very cruel. They tried not to let the Indians know how few they were, and even planted grain about the graves in the churchyard so that the Indians could not count how many had died.

[Pg 142]

But one of the Indian Chiefs was friendly to the English and kept the other tribes from making war on them, and the second summer they had a great harvest and everything was more comfortable. It was in that autumn, just after the grain was gathered, that the minister spoke to them one Sunday about having a Thanksgiving day. "It seemeth right," he said, "God hath granted us peace and plenty. He has blessed us with a dwelling-place of peace. He has held back the savage red man from bringing harm to us. Therefore let us appoint a day of Thanksgiving."

After that all the people, even the boys and girls, were busy getting ready. The men took their guns and fishing-rods and went into the forest, and brought home fowl, fish, and deer, and perhaps bear meat as well. The boys and girls gathered wild plums, and grapes, and corn, and brought in pumpkins from the gardens; and the women made pies, puddings, cakes, and bread, and baked the meat and corn. They had great piles of cakes, and rows and rows of pies, and loaves of bread and platters of meat, for they all expected company. You could not guess, I am sure, who was coming! They had sent word to the Indians near to come and spend Thanksgiving Day with them.

Do you suppose they came? Indeed they did. They came before breakfast and stayed until long after supper, and had a good time, and tasted everything the white women had cooked, and nodded their heads and said, "How" a great many times, to say it was good. Some of the little girls and boys were half afraid of them, but they need not have been; for that day the Indians felt very kindly toward the English.

Ask pupils to mention things for which they are thankful.

[Pg 143]


Believe, Madame (and the doctors whom you sent to me this last summer can have formed an opinion), that I am not likely long to be in a condition which can justify jealousy or distrust. And this notwithstanding, exact from me such assurances, and just and reasonable conditions as you wish. Superior force is always on your side to make me keep them, even though for any reason whatever I should wish to break them. You have had from observation enough experience of my bare promises, sometimes even to my own damage, as I showed you on this subject two years ago. Remember, if you please, what I then wrote you, and that in no way could you so much win over my heart to yourself as by kindness, although you have confined forever my poor body to languish between four walls; those of my rank and disposition not permitting themselves to be gained over or forced by any amount of harshness.

In conclusion, I have to request two things especially; the one that as I am about to leave this world I may have by me for my consolation some honourable churchman, in order that I may daily examine the road that I have to traverse and be instructed how to complete it according to my religion, in which I am firmly resolved to live and die. This is a last duty which cannot be denied to the most wretched and miserable person alive; it is a liberty which you give to all foreign ambassadors, just as all other Catholic kings allow yours the practice of their religion. And as for myself, have I ever forced my own subjects to do anything against their religion even when I had all power and authority over them? And you can[Pg 144]not justly bring it to pass that I should be in this extremity deprived of such a privilege. What advantage can accrue to you from denying me this? I hope that God will forgive me if, oppressed by you in this wise, I do not cease from paying Him that duty which in my heart will be permitted. But you will give a very ill example to other princes of Christendom of employing towards their subjects and relatives, the same harshness which you mete out to me, a sovereign queen and your nearest relative, as I am and shall be in spite of my enemies so long as I live.

[Pg 145]


Aims of Study, 13

Amount of Material, 18

Appendix, 136
First Christmas Tree, The, 136
First Thanksgiving, The, 140
Letter of Mary Queen of Scots, 143
Origin of the Easter Bunny, 137
Story of St. Valentine, 138

Bibliography, 130

Black-board Work in Teaching History, 27, 31, 40, 47, 50

Capture of Quebec, The, 66

Characteristics of a Good Text-book, 24

Chronological Chart, 128

Chronological Method, 21

Civics, 20, 51, 52

Civilization and Inventions, 119

Clergy Reserves, The, 36

Colours of the Flag, The, 73

Combination of Methods, 25

Comparative Method, 22

Concentric Method, 22

Confederation of the Canadian Provinces, 107

Constitutional Liberty in Canada, 124

Correlation of Subjects, 39, 40, 50

Course of Study, 1

Current Events, 49

Dates, 47

Devices for Teaching, 127

Dramatization of History, 46

Drill and Review, 31

Empire Day, 75

Feudal System, 100

First Christmas Tree, The, 136

First Thanksgiving, The, 140

Flag, The, 68

Flag Days, 72

Florence Nightingale, 62

Genealogical Tables, 37, 128

Historical Sense, The, 17

History and Art, 45
" " Chronology, 47
" " Composition, 26, 46
" " Constructive Work, 44, 67
" " Geography, 40, 108
" " Literature, 41
" " Oral Reading, 26
" " Science, 43, 119

How to Make History Real, 34

Illustrative Lessons, 60
Type Lesson in the Story Stage, 60
First Thanksgiving, The, 61
Florence Nightingale, 62
Postmaster, 65
Capture of Quebec, The, 66
Coming of the United Empire Loyalists, The, 67
Flag, The, 68
Suggestions for Empire Day, 75
Egerton Ryerson, 78
The Intercolonial Railway, 82
The Industrial Revolution, 87
The Road to Cathay, 92
The Armada, 97
The Feudal System, 100
Seigniorial Tenure, 103
Confederation of the Canadian Provinces, 107
Influence of Geographical Conditions on History, 108
The St. Lawrence River, 112
Relations Between England and Scotland, 114
Analysis of Secs. 160-170 in Ontario P.S. History of England, 116
Outlines for Reviews, 118
The Development of Civilization, 119
The New Learning, 121
The Fight for Constitutional Liberty in Canada, 124

Importance of Facts in History, 19

Industrial Revolution, The, 87

Influence of Geography on History, 108, 110

Information Stage, The, 18

Interest, 16, 19, 34, 38, 44, 58, 78

Intercolonial Railway, The, 82

Inventions and History, 43, 87, 119

Letter of Mary Queen of Scots, 143

Local Material, 51

Maps, 35, 40, 68, 127

Memorizing History, 38

Methods for Forms I and II, 25
" " Form III, 26
" " Form IV, 28, 78

Moral Value of History, 14, 28, 53

Museums, 128

New Learning, The, 121

Newspapers, 49

Note-books, 31, 129

Oral Method, The, 23, 25, 27, 28, 34, 58, 60, 62, 64

Origin of the Easter Bunny, 137

Patriotism, 13

Pictures, 35, 45, 127

Postmaster, 65

Problems in History, 14, 33, 36, 41, 66, 67, 68, 76, 78, 83, 119

Reflective Stage, 18

Regressive Method, 22

Relations of England and Scotland, 114

Reviews, 23, 31, 39, 92, 112, 118

Road to Cathay, 92

Ryerson, Egerton, 78

Scope of Study, 15

Seigniorial Tenure, 103

Source Books, 37, 128, 143

Spanish Armada, 97

St. Lawrence River, 112

St. Valentine, 138

Stages of Study, 15

Story Stage, 15

Story Telling, 1, 15, 17

Taxation, 11, 55, 56, 57

Teacher of History, 57

Text-book Method, 24

Topical Analysis, 21, 78, 87, 97, 107, 114, 116, 124

Topical Method, 21

Training in the Use of the Text-book, 29

United Empire Loyalists, 67

Union Jack, 68, 74

Use of Problems in History, 14, 33, 36, 41, 66, 67, 68, 76, 78, 83, 119

Where to Begin the Study of History, 19

End of the Project Gutenberg EBook of Ontario Teachers' Manuals: History
by Ontario Ministry of Education


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