The Project Gutenberg EBook of Showell's Dictionary of Birmingham
by Thomas T. Harman and Walter Showell

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Title: Showell's Dictionary of Birmingham
       A History And Guide Arranged Alphabetically

Author: Thomas T. Harman and Walter Showell

Release Date: December 26, 2004 [EBook #14472]

Language: English

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[Transcriber's note: There are small sections where the print is missing from the original. Missing words have been marked [**]. Minor obvious typographical errors have been corrected.

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Dictionary of Birmingham.


Birmingham to the Seventh Century.—We have no record or traces whatever of there being inhabitants in this neighbourhood, though there can be little doubt that in the time of the invasion of the Romans some British strongholds were within a few miles of the place, sundry remains having been found to show that many battles had been fought near here. If residents there were prior to King Edward the Confessor's reign, they would probably be of Gurth's tribe, and their huts even Hutton, antiquarian and historian as he was, failed to find traces of. How the name of this our dwelling-place came about, nobody knows. Not less than twelve dozen ways have been found to spell it; a score of different derivations "discovered" for it; and guesses innumerable given as to its origin, but we still wait for the information required.

Birmingham in the Conqueror's Days.—The Manor was held, in 1066, by Alwyne, son of Wigod the Dane, who married the sister of the Saxon Leofric, Earl of Mercia. According to "Domesday Book," in 1086, it was tenanted by Richard, who, held, under William Fitz-Ansculf, and included four hides of land and half-a-mile of wood, worth 20s.; there were 150 acres in cultivation, with but nine residents, five villeins, and four bordarers. In 1181 there were 18 freeholders (libere tenentes) in Birmingham cultivating 667 acres, and 35 tenants in demesne, holding 158 acres, the whole value being £13 8s. 2d.

Birmingham in the Feudal Period.—The number of armed men furnished by this town for Edward III.'s wars were four, as compared with six from Warwick, and forty from Coventry.

Birmingham in the Time of the Edwards and Harrys.—The Manor passed from the Bermingham family in 1537, through the knavish trickery of Lord L'Isle, to whom it was granted in 1545. The fraud, however, was not of much service to the noble rascal, as he was beheaded for treason in 1553. In 1555 the Manor was given by Queen Mary to Thomas Marrow, of Berkswell.

Birmingham in 1538.—Leland, who visited here about this date, says in his "Itinerary"—"There be many smithies in the towne that use to make knives and all manner of cutlery tooles, and many lorimers that make bittes, and a great many naylors, so that a great part of the towne is maintained by smithes, who have their iron and seacole out of Staffordshire." He describes the town as consisting of one street, about a quarter of a mile long, "a pretty street or ever I enterd," and "this street, as I remember, is called Dirtey."

Birmingham in 1586.—Camden in his "Britannica," published this year, speaks of "Bremicham, swarming with inhabitants, and echoing with the noise of anvils, for the most part of them are smiths."

Birmingham in 1627.—In a book issued at Oxford this year mention is made of "Bremincham inhabited with blacksmiths, and forging sundry kinds of iron utensils."

Birmingham in 1635.—As showing the status the town held at this date we find that it was assessed for "ship money" by Charles I. at £100, the same as Warwick, while Sutton Coldfield had to find £80 and Coventry £266.

Birmingham in 1656.—Dugdale speaks of it as "being a place very eminent for most commodities made of iron."

Birmingham in 1680-90.—Macaulay says: The population of Birmingham was only 4,000, and at that day nobody had heard of Birmingham guns. He also says there was not a single regular shop where a Bible or almanack could be bought; on market days a bookseller named Michael Johnson (father of the great Samuel Johnson) came over from Lichfield and opened a stall for a few hours, and this supply was equal to the demand. The gun trade, however, was introduced here very soon after, for there is still in existence a warrant from the Office of Ordnance to "pay to John Smart for Thomas Hadley and the rest of the Gunmakers of Birmingham, one debenture of ffour-score and sixteen poundes and eighteen shillings, dated ye 14th of July, 1690."—Alexander Missen, visiting this town in his travels, said that "swords, heads of canes, snuff-boxes, and other fine works of steel," could be had, "cheaper and better here than even in famed Milan."

Birmingham in 1691.—The author of "The New State of England," published this year, says: "Bromichan drives a good trade in iron and steel wares, saddles and bridles, which find good vent at London, Ireland, and other parts." By another writer, "Bromicham" is described as "a large and well-built town, very populous, much resorted to, and particularly noted a few years ago for the counterfeit groats made here, and dispersed all oven the kingdom."

Birmingham in 1731.—An old "Road-book" of this date, says that "Birmingham, Bromicham, or Bremicham, is a large town, well built and populous. The inhabitants, being mostly smiths, are very ingenious in their way, and vend vast quantities of all sorts of iron wares." The first map of the town (Westley's) was published in this year. It showed the Manorhouse on an oval island, about 126 yards long by 70 yards extreme width, surrounded by a moat about twelve yards broad. Paradise Street was then but a road through the fields; Easy Hill (now Easy Row), Summer Hill, Newhall Hill, Ludgate Hill, Constitution Hill, and Snow Hill pleasant pastures.

Birmingham in 1750.—Bradford's plan of the town, published in 1751, showed a walk by Rea side, where lovers could take a pleasant stroll from Heath Mill Lane. The country residences at Mount Pleasant (now Ann Street) were surrounded with gardens, and it was a common practice to dry clothes on the hedges in Snow Hill. In "England's Gazetteer," published about this date, Birmingham or Bromichan is said to be "a large, well-built, and populous town, noted for the most ingenious artificers in boxes, buckles, buttons, and other iron and steel wares; wherein such multitudes of people are employed that they are sent all over Europe; and here is a continual noise of hammers, anvils, and files."

Birmingham in 1765.—Lord and Lady Shelburne visited here in 1765. Her ladyship kept a diary, and in it she describes Mr. Baskerville's house (Easy Row) as "a pretty place out of the town." She also mentions visiting a Quaker's to see "the making of guns."

Birmingham in 1766.—In "A New Tour through England," by George Beaumont, Esq., and Capt. Henry Disney, Birmingham is described as "a very large populous town, the upper part of which stands dry on the side of a hill, but the lower is watry, and inhabited by the meaner sort of people. They are employed here in the Iron Works, in which they are such ingenious artificers, that their performances in the smallwares of iron and steel are admired both at home and abroad. 'Tis much improved of late years, both in public and private buildings."

Birmingham in 1781.—Hutton published his "History of Birmingham" this year. He estimated that there were then living ninety-four townsmen who were each worth over £5,000; eighty worth over £10,000; seventeen worth over £20,000; eight worth over £30,000; seven worth over £50,000; and three at least worth over £100,000 each.

Birmingham in 1812.—The appearance of the town then would be strange indeed to those who know but the Birmingham of to-day. Many half-timbered houses remained in the Bull Ring and cows grazed near where the Town Hall now stands, there being a farmhouse at the back of the site of Christ Church, then being built. Recruiting parties paraded the streets with fife and drum almost daily, and when the London mail came in with news of some victory in Spain it was no uncommon thing for the workmen to take the horses out and drag the coach up the Bull Ring amid the cheers of the crowd. At night the streets were patrolled by watchmen, with rattles and lanterns, who called the hours and the weather.

AB House, so called from the initials inscribed thereon to show the division of the parishes of Aston and Birmingham near to Deritend Bridge. Early in 1883 part of the foundations were uncovered, showing that the old building was raised on wooden piles, when the neighbourhood was little better than a swamp.

ABC Time Table was first issued in July, 1853. A rival, called the "XYZ Time Table," on a system that was to make all the puzzles of Bradshaw as plain as pikestaves, was brought out in August, 1877, but it required such extra wise heads to understand its simplicity that before one could be found the whole thing was lost, the old Alpha being preferred to the new Omega.

Accidents and Accidental Deaths are of constant occurrence. Those here noted are but a few which, from their peculiar nature, have been placed on record for reference.

A woman fell in Pudding Brook, June 3, 1794, and was drowned in the puddle.

In 1789, a Mr. Wright, a patten-maker, of Digbeth, attempted to cross the old bridge over the Rea, fell in and was "smothered in the mud."

The Bridge in Wheeley's Road was burst up by flood waters, November 26, 1853.

Five men were killed by the fall of a scaffold in New Street Station, Oct. 11, 1862.

A lady was accidently shot in Cheapside, Nov. 5, 1866.

Pratt, a marker at Bournebrook Rifle Range, was shot April 12, 1873.

The body of a man named Thomas Bishop who had fallen in a midden in Oxford Street, was found Oct. 3, 1873.

Charles Henry Porter, surgeon, Aug. 10, 1876, died from an overdose of prussic acid taken as a remedy.

Richard Riley was killed by the bursting of a sodawater bottle, June 19, 1877.

Alfred Mills drowned in a vinegar vat at the Brewery in Glover Street, March 7, 1878.

Two gentlemen (Messrs. W. Arnold and G. Barker), while on a visit of inspection at Sandwell Park Colliery, Nov. 6, 1878, were killed by falling from the cage. Two miners, father and son, were killed by a fall of coal in the following week.

A water main, 30 inches diameter, burst in Wheeler Street, June 17, 1879.

On the night of Sep. 5, 1880, Mrs. Kingham, landlady of the "Hen and Chickens," fell through a doorway on the third storey landing into the yard, dying a few hours after. The doorway was originally intended to lead to a gallery of the Aquarium then proposed to be built at the back of the hotel.

January 12th, 1881.—A helper in the menagerie at Sanger's Exhibition, then at Bingley Hall, was attacked and seriously injured by a lion, whose den he was cleaning out. The animal was beaten off by the keeper, the said keeper, Alicamoosa (?) himself being attacked and injured a few days after by the same animal.

A child of 17 months fell on to a sewer grating in River Street, May 28th, 1881, and died from the effects of hot steam arising therefrom, neighbouring manufacturers pouring their waste boiler water into the sewers.

Accidental Deaths by Drowning.—Five persons were drowned at Soho Pool, on Christmas Day, 1822, through the ice breaking under them.

In 1872, John Jerromes lost his life while trying to save a boy who had fallen into Fazeley Street Canal. £200 subscriptions were raised for his wife and family.

A boat upset at the Reservoir, April 11, 1873, when one life was lost.

Boat upset at Kirby's Pools, whereby one Lawrence Joyce was drowned, May 17, 1875. Two men were also drowned here July 23, 1876.

Three boys, and a young man named Hodgetts, who attempted to save them, were drowned, Jan 16, 1876, at Green's Hole Pool, Garrison Lane, through breaking of the ice.

Arthur, 3rd son of Sir C.B. Adderley, was drowned near Blair Athol, July 1, 1877, aged 21.

Four boys were drowned at the Reservoir, July 26, 1877.

Two children were drowned in the Rea at Jakeman's Fields, May 30, 1878.

Rev. S. Fiddian, a Wesleyan Minister, of this town, aged nearly 80, was drowned while bathing at Barmouth, Aug. 4, 1880.

A Mrs. Satchwell was drowned at Earlswood, Feb. 3, 1883, though a carrier's cart falling over the embankment into the Reservoir in the dusk of the evening. The horse shared the fate of the lady, but the driver escaped.

Accidental Death from Electricity.—Jan. 20, 1880, a musician, named Augustus Biedermann, took hold of two joints of the wires supplying the electric lights of the Holte Theatre, and receiving nearly the full force of the 40-horse power battery, was killed on the spot.

Accidents from Fallen Buildings.—A house in Snow Hill fell Sept. 1, 1801, when four persons were killed.

During the raising of the roof of Town Hall, John Heap was killed by the fall of a principal (Jan. 26, 1833), and Win. Badger, injured same time, died a few weeks after. Memorial stone in St. Philip's Churchyard.

Welch's pieshop, Temple Street, fell in, March 5, 1874.

Two houses fell in Great Lister Street, Aug. 18, 1874, and one in Lower Windsor Street, Jan. 13, 1875.

Three houses collapsed in New Summer Street, April 4, 1875, when one person was killed, and nine others injured.

Four houses fell in Tanter Street, Jan. 1, 1877, when a boy was lamed.

Two men were killed, and several injured, by chimney blown down at Deykin & Sons, Jennens Row, Jan. 30, 1877, and one man was killed by wall blown down in Harborne Road, Feb. 20, same year.

Some children playing about a row of condemned cottages, Court 2, Gem Street, Jan. 11, 1885, contrived to pull part on to their heads, killing one, and injuring others.

Accidents from Fire.—February, 1875, was an unfortunate month for the females, an old woman being burnt to death on the 5th, a middle-aged one on the 7th, and a young one on the 12th.

Accidents through Lightning.—A boy was struck dead at Bordesley Green, July 30, 1871. Two men, William Harvey and James Steadman, were similarly killed at Chester Street Wharf, May 14, 1879. Harvey was followed to the grave by a procession of white-smocked navvies.

Accidents at Places of Amusement.—A sudden panic and alarm of [**] caused several deaths and many injuries at the Spread Eagle Concert Hall, Bull Ring, May 5, 1855.

The "Female Blondin" was killed by falling from the high rope, at Aston Park, July 20, 1863.

A trapeze gymnast, "Fritz," was killed at Day's Concert Hall, Nov. 12, 1870.

A boy was killed by falling from the Gallery at the Theatre Royal, Feb. 16, 1873.

At Holder's Concert Hall, April 1, 1879, Alfred Bishop (12) had his leg broken while doing the "Shooting Star" trick.

Accidents in the Streets.—On New Year's Day, 1745, a man was killed by a wagon going over him, owing to the "steepness" of Carr's Lane.

The Shrewsbury coach was upset at Hockley, May 24, 1780, when several passengers were injured.

The Chester mail coach was upset, April 15, 1787, while rounding the Welsh Cross, and several persons much injured.

Feb. 28, 1875, must be noted as the "slippery day," no less than forty persons (twelve with broken limbs), being taken to the Hospitals through falling in the icy streets.

Captain Thornton was killed by being thrown from his carriage, May 22, 1876.

The Coroner's van was upset in Livery Street, Jan. 24, 1881, and several jurymen injured.

Accidents on the Rails.—An accident occurred to the Birmingham express train at Shipton, on Christmas Eve, 1874, whereby 26 persons were killed, and 180 injured. In the excitement at Snow Hill Station, a young woman was pushed under a train and lost both her legs, though her life was saved, and she now has artificial lower limbs.

Police-officer Kimberley was killed in the crush at Olton Station on the Race Day, Feb. 11th, 1875.

While getting out of carriages, while the train was in motion, a man was killed at New Street Station, May 15, 1875, and on the 18th, another at Snow Hill, and though such accidents occur almost weekly, on some line or other, people keep on doing it.

Three men were killed on the line near King's Norton, Sept. 28, 1876.

Mr. Pipkins, Stationmaster at Winson Green, was killed Jan. 2. 1877.

Inspector Bellamy, for 30 years at New Street Station, fell while crossing a carriage, and was killed, April 15, 1879.

Acock's Green, a few years back only a little village, is fast becoming a thriving suburban town. The old estate, of about 150 acres, was lotted out for building in 1839, the sale being then conducted by Messrs. E. and C. Robbins, August 19. The Public Hall, which cost about £3,000, was opened December 20, 1878; its principal room being 74 feet long, 30 feet wide, and 30 feet high.

Adderley.—Sir Charles B. Adderley was gazetted a peer April 16, 1878, his title being Baron Norton, of Norton-on-the-Moors, Staffordshire.

Adderley Park was opened Aug. 30, 1856. Its area is 10a. Or. 22p., and the Corporation hold it as tenants under a 999 years' lease, at 5s. rental. A Reading Room and Branch Library was opened on Jan. 11, 1864.

Advertisements.—The duty on advertisements in newspapers was abolished Aug. 4,1853. One of the most attractive styles of advertising was that adopted by Messrs. Walter Showell and Son, August 30, 1881, when The Birmingham Daily Post gave up a whole page for the firm's use. 10,000 copies were sent to their customers by early post on day of publication.

Afghan War.—A stormy "town's meeting" on this subject was held in the Town Hall, Dec. 3, 1878, memorable for the interference of the police by order of the Mayor, and the proceedings consequent thereon.

Agricultural Labourers.—Jos. Arch, their champion, addressed a meeting in their behalf at Town Hall, Dec. 18, 1873, and other meetings were held April 15 and July 3 following. A collection made for some of the labourers on strike amounted to £137 9s. 2-1/2d.

Agricultural Shows.—The Warwickshire Agricultural Show (with the Birmingham Horse Show, and the Rose Show) began at Aston, June 17, 1873. The first exhibition here of the Royal Agricultural Society took place July 19-24, 1876, in Aston Park, specially granted by the Corporation.— See Cattle Shows, &c.

Albion Metal, tin rolled on lead, much used for making "lace," &c., for coffin decoration, was introduced in 1804, being the invention of Thomas Dobbs, a comic actor, then engaged at the Theatre Royal. He was also the designer of a reaping machine, and made one and showed it with real corn for his "Benefit" on the stage of the Theatre Royal in 1815.

Alcester Turnpike road was first used in 1767.

Aldermen.—See Corporation.

Ales and Alehouses were known in this country nearly 1,200 years ago, but the national beverage was not taxed until 1551, a few years previous to which (1535) hops were first used in place of wormwood, &c. In 1603 it was enacted that not more than 1d. (equal to 9d. value now) should be charged per quart for the best ale or beer, or for two quarts of the "smaller" sort. An additional excise duty was imposed on ale and beer in 1643. See also Breweries.

Almanacks.—The first English-printed Almanack was for the year 1497, and the London Stationers' Company had the monopoly of printing them for nearly 300 years. The first locally printed Almanack was the "Diaria Britannica" (or "British Diary"), by Messrs. Pearson and Rollason, issued in 1787 for 1788, at 9d. per copy, in addition to the 1s. 6d. required for stamp duty. It was barely half the size and not a tenth the value of the "Diary" published by Messrs Walter Showell and Sons, and of which 20,000 copies are given away annually. The stamp duty was removed from Almanacks in 1834. "Showell's Almanack" in past years was highly esteemed before we had been supplied with "Moody's," the "Red Book," &c., and a copy of it for the year 1839 is valuable as a curiosity, it being issued with a partly printed page with blanks left for the insertion of the names of the members of the Corporation, whose first election under the charter of incorporation was about to take place. To prevent any mistake, the "Esqrs." were carefully printed in where the names of the new Aldermen were to go, the blanks for Councillors being only honoured with a "Mr."

Almshouses for Lench's Trust were built in Steelhouse Lane in 1764. In later years other sets of houses have been built in Conybere Street, Hospital Street, Ravenhurst Street, and Ladywood Road, the inmates, all women, numbering 182. Jas. Dowell's Almshouses in Warner Street, consisting of 20 houses and a chapel, known as the "Retreat," were built in 1820. Mrs. Glover's Almshouses in Steelhouse Lane for 36 aged women, were erected in 1832. James Lloyd's twenty-four Almshouses in Belgrave Street were erected in 1869.

Aluminium.—This valuable material for the use of one of our staple trades was first obtained by a German chemist in 1837, but was not produced in sufficient quantity for manufacturing purposes until 1854, at which time its market value was 60s. per oz. It gradually cheapened, until it is now priced at 5s., and a company has lately been formed for its more easy manufacture, who promise to supply it at about as many pence.

Amphitheatres.—Astley's celebrated amphitheatre was brought here in October, 1787. Mr. and Mrs. Astley themselves had performed in Birmingham as early as 1772.—A local amphitheatre was opened in Livery Street in 1787, on the present site of Messrs. Billing's printing works. After the riots of 1791 it was used for a time by the congregations of Old and New Meeting, while their own chapels were being rebuilt. An attempt to bring it back to its old uses failed, and "the properties" were sold Nov. 25, 1795. Several sects occupied it in after years, the last being the Latter-Day Saints. It was taken down in 1848.—Another amphitheatre was opened at Bingley Hall, December 29, 1853, by the plucky but unlucky John Tonks, a well-known caterer for the public's amusement.

Amusement, Places of—Notes of the Theatres, Concert Halls, Parks, &c., will be found under the several headings. Among the most popular series of concerts of late years have been those of a Saturday evening (at 3d. admission) in the Town Hall, which began on Nov. 8, 1879, and are continued to present date.

Analyst.—Dr. Hill was appointed Borough Analyst in Feb., 1861, his duties being to examine and test any sample of food or drinks that may be brought or sent to him in order to prove their purity or otherwise. The fees are limited to a scale approved by the Town Council.

Ancient History of Birmingham can hardly be said to exist. Its rise and progress is essentially modern, and the few notes that have come to us respecting its early history will be found briefly summarised at the commencement of this book.

Anti-Borough-Rate Meeting.—In 1874 the Town Council asked for power to lay a Borough-rate exceeding 2s. in the £., but after three days' polling (ending March 30) permission was refused by a majority of 2,654 votes. The power was obtained afterwards.

Anti-Church-Rate Meetings were frequent enough at one period of our history. The two most worthy of remembrance were those of Dec. 15, 1834, when the rate was refused by a majority of 4,966 votes, and Oct., 1841, when the polling showed 626 for the rate and 7,281 against.

Anti-Corn-Law Meetings were also numerous. The one to recollect is that held Feb. 18, 1842.

Anti-Papal Demonstration.—A town's meeting took place in the Town Hall, Dec. 11, 1850, to protest against the assumption of ecclesiastical titles by the Catholic hierarchy. About 8,000 persons were present, and the "No Popery" element was strong, but Joseph Sturge moved an amendment for freedom to all parties, which so split the votes that the Mayor said the amendment was not carried and the resolution was lost.

Anti-Slavery.—The first Anti-Slavery meeting held here was that of Nov. 27, 1787. A local petition to Parliament against the slave trade was presented to the House of Commons, Feb. 11, 1788. A local society was formed here in 1826, Joseph Sturge being secretary, and many meetings were held before the Day of Abolition was celebrated. The most noteworthy of these was that at Dee's Assembly Room, April 16, 1833, when G.F. Muntz and the Political Union opposed the agitation; a great meeting, Oct. 14, 1835; another on Feb. 1, 1836, in which Daniel O'Connell and John Angell James took part. This last was the first large town's meeting at which the "total and immediate" abolition of slavery was demanded. Joseph Sturge following it up by going to the West Indies and reporting the hardships inflicted upon the blacks under the "gradual" system then in operation. Aug. 7, 1838, the day when slavery dropped its chains on English ground, was celebrated here by a children's festival in the Town Hall, by laying the foundation-stone of "The Negro Emancipation Schools," Legge Street, and by a public meeting at night, at which Sir Eardley Wilmott, D. O'Connell, Dr. Lushington, Edward Baines, &c., were present.

Anti-one-thing-or-t'other.—True to their motto, Birmingham people are always ready to oppose the wrong and forward the right, but what is right and what wrong is only to be ascertained by public discussion, and a few dates of celebrated "talks" are here given:—

In 1719 the apprenticing of Russian youths to local trades was objected to.

In the Christmas week of 1754 public protest was made against the tax on wheel carriages.

March 12, 1824, a deputation was sent to Parliament to protest against our workmen being allowed to emigrate, for fear they should teach the foreigners.

A proposed New Improvement Bill was vetoed by the burgesses, Dec. 18, 1855. We have improved a little since then!

An Anti-Confessional meeting was held Nov. 8, 1877.

An Anti-Contagious Diseases Act meeting, April 19, 1877.

An Anti-giving-up-Fugitive-Slave meeting, Jan. 1, 1876, when a certain Admiralty Circular was condemned.

An Anti-Irish-Church-Establishment meeting was held June 14, 1869.

An Anti-moving-the-Cattle Market meeting Dec. 14, 1869, Smithfield being preferred to Duddeston Hall.

An Anti-Railway-through-Sutton-Park meeting, April 15, 1872, but the railway is there.

An Anti-Rotten-Ship-and-Sailor-drowning meeting, with Mr. Plimsoll to the fore, May 14 1873. Another July 29, 1875.

An Anti-Ashantee War meeting Sept. 29, 1873.

An Anti-Turkish Atrocity meeting, Sept. 7, 1876; followed by one on Oct. 2nd, properly settling the Eastern question.

An Anti-Six-Million-War-Vote meeting was held on Jan. 28, 1878, when the Liberal majority was immense. A Tory opposition meeting, in support of the vote, was held Feb. 12, when chairs and forms were broken up to use as arguments, the result being a majority of 2 to 1 for both sides.

An Anti-War meeting, May 3, 1878.

Anti-Vivisection meetings. April 24, 1877, and May 6, 1878.

Apollo, Moseley Street.—Opened as a public resort in 1786, the Rea being then a clear running brook. The first tenant did not prosper, for in the first week of March, 1787, the Gazette contained an advertisement that the Apollo Hotel, "pleasantly situate in a new street, called Moseley Street, in the hamlet of Deritend, on the banks of the River Rea," with "a spacious Bowling Green and Gardens," was to be let, with or without four acres of good pasture land. When closed as a licensed house, it was at first divided into two residences, but in 1816 the division walls, &c., were removed, to fit it as a residence for Mr. Hamper, the antiquary. That gentleman wrote that the prospect at the back was delightful, and was bounded only by Bromsgrove Lickey. The building was then called "Deritend House."

Aquariums.—The Aquarium at Aston Lower Grounds was opened July 10, 1879. The principal room has a length of 312 feet, the promenade being 24 feet wide by 20 feet high. The west side of this spacious apartment is fitted with a number of large show tanks, where many rare and choice specimens of marine animals and fishes may be exhibited. On a smaller scale there is an Aquarium at the "Crystal Palace" Garden, at Sutton Coldfield, and a curiosity in the shape of an "Aquarium Bar" may be seen at the establishment of Mr. Bailey, in Moor Street.

Arcades.—The Arcade between Monmouth Street and Temple Row, was commenced April 26, 1875; first illuminated August 19, 1876, and opened for public use on 28th of that month. It is built over that portion of the G.W.R. line running from Monmouth Street to Temple Row, the front facing the Great Western Hotel, occupying the site once filled by the old Quaker's burial ground. It is the property of a company, and cost nearly £100,000, the architect being Mr. W.H. Ward. The shops number 38, and in addition there are 56 offices in the galleries.—The Central Arcade in Corporation Street, near to New Street, and leading into Cannon Street, is from the designs of the same architect and was opened September 26, 1881. Underneath the Arcade proper is the Central Restaurant, and one side of the thoroughfare forms part of the shop of Messrs. Marris and Norton.—The North-Western Arcade, which was opened April 5, 1884, is like a continuation of the first-named, being also built over the G.W.R. tunnel, and runs from Temple Row to Corporation Street. The architect is Mr. W. Jenkins, and the undertakers Messrs. Wilkinson and Riddell, who occupy the principal frontage. Several of the twenty-six shops into which the Arcade is divided have connection with places of business in Bull Street.—The Imperial Arcade, in Dale End, next to St. Peter's Church, is also a private speculation (that of Mr. Thos. Hall), and was opened at Christmas, 1883. It contains, in addition to the frontage, thirty-two shops, with the same number of offices above, while the basement forms a large room suitable for meetings, auctions, &c., it being 135ft. long, 55ft. wide and nearly 15ft. high. Two of the principal features of the Arcade are a magnificent stained window, looking towards St. Peters, and a curious clock, said to be the second of its kind in England, life-size figures of Guy, Earl of Warwick, and his Countess, with their attendants, striking the hours and quarters on a set of musical bells, the largest of which weighs about 5cwt.—Snow Hill Arcade, opposite the railway station, and leading to Slaney Street, is an improvement due to Mr. C. Ede, who has adopted the designs of Mr. J.S. Davis.—The Hen and Chickens Arcade has been designed by Mr. J.A. Cossins, for a company who purpose to build it, and, at the same time, enlarge the well-known New Street hotel of the same name. The portico and vestibule of the hotel will form the entrance in New Street to the Arcade, which will contain two-dozen good-sized shops, a large basement room for restaurant, &c.; the out in Worcester Street being nearly facing the Market Hall.

Area of Borough.—Birmingham covers an area of 8,400 acres, with an estimated population of 400,680 (end of 1881), thus giving an average of 47.7 persons to an acre. As a means of comparison, similar figures are given for a few other large towns:—

Area in Acres Population in 1881 Persons to acres
Bradford 7,200 203,544 28.2
Bristol 4,452 217,185 48.3
Leeds 21,572 326,158 15.1
Leicester 3,200 134,350 42.0
Liverpool 5,210 549,834 105.6
Manchester 4,293 364,445 84.9
Nottingham 9,960 177,964 77.9
Newcastle 5,372 151,822 28.3
Salford 5,170 194,077 37.5
Sheffield 19,651 312,943 15.9
Wolverhmptn 3,396 76,850 22.6

Arms of the Borough.—The Town Council, on the 6th day of August, 1867, did resolve and declare that the Arms of the Borough should be blazoned as follows: "1st and 4th azure, a bend lozengy or; 2nd and 3rd, parti per pale or and gules."—(See cover).

Art and Artists.—An "Academy of Arts" was organised in 1814, and an exhibition of paintings took place in Union Passage that year, but the experiment was not repeated. A School of Design, or "Society of Arts," was started Feb. 7, 1821; Sir Robert Lawley (the first Lord Wenlock) presenting a valuable collection of casts from Grecian sculpture. The first exhibition was held in 1826, at The Panorama, an erection then standing on the site of the present building in New Street, the opening being inaugurated by a conversazione on September 10. In 1858, the School of Design was removed to the Midland Institute. The "Society of Artists" may be said to have commenced in 1826, when several gentlemen withdrew from the School of Design. Their number greatly increased by 1842, when they took possession of the Athenæum, in which building their exhibitions were annually held until 1858. In that year they returned to New Street, acquiring the title of "Royal" in 1864. The Art Students' Literary Association was formed in September, 1869.

Art Gallery and School of Art.—In connection with the Central Free Library a small gallery of pictures, works of Art, &c., loaned or presented to the town, was opened to the public August 1, 1867, and from time to time was further enriched. Fortunately they were all removed previous to the disastrous fire of Jan. 11, 1879. A portion of the new Reference Library is at present devoted to the same purpose, pending the completion of the handsome edifice being erected by the Gas Committee at the back of the Municipal Buildings, and of which it will form a part, extending from Congreve Street along Edmund Street to Eden Place. The whole of the upper portion of the building will be devoted to the purposes of a Museum and Art Gallery, and already there has been gathered the nucleus of what promises to be one of the finest collections in the kingdom, more particularly in respect to works of Art relating more or less to some of the principal manufactures of Birmingham. There are a large number of valuable paintings, including many good specimens of David Cox and other local artists; quite a gallery of portraits of gentlemen connected with the town, and other worthies; a choice collection of gems and precious stones of all kinds; a number of rare specimens of Japanese and Chinese cloisonné enamels; nearly a complete set of the celebrated Soho coins and medals, with many additions of a general character; many cases of ancient Roman, Greek, and Byzantine coins; more than an hundred almost priceless examples of old Italian carvings, in marble and stone, with some dozens of ancient articles of decorative furniture; reproductions of delicately-wrought articles of Persian Art work, plate belonging to the old City Companies, the Universities, and from Amsterdam and the Hague; a collection of Wedgwood and other ceramic ware, the gift of Messrs. R. and G. Tangye, with thousands of other rare, costly, and beautiful things. In connection with the Art Gallery is the "Public Picture Gallery Fund," the founder of which was the late Mr. Clarkson Osler, who gave £3,000 towards it. From this fund, which at present amounts to about £450 per year, choice pictures are purchased as occasion offers, many others being presented by friends to the town, notably the works of David Cox, which were given by the late Mr. Joseph Nettlefold.—The School of Art, which is being built in Edmund Street, close to the Art Gallery, is so intimately connected therewith that it may well be noticed with it. The ground, about 1,000 square yards, has been given by Mr. Cregoe Colmore, the cost of election being paid out of £10,000 given by Miss Ryland, and £10,000 contributed by Messrs. Tangye. The latter firm have also given £5,000 towards the Art Gallery; Mr. Joseph Chamberlain has contributed liberally in paintings and in cash; other friends have subscribed about £8,000; Mr. Nettlefold's gift was valued at £14,000, and altogether not less than £40,000 has been presented to the town in connection with the Art Gallery, in addition to the whole cost of the School of Art.

Art Union.—The first Ballot for pictures to be chosen from the Annual Exhibition of Local Artists took place in 1835, the Rev. Hugh Hutton having the honour of originating it. The tickets were 21s. each, subscribers receiving an engraving.

Ash, John, M.D.—Born in 1723, was an eminent physician who practised in Birmingham for some years, but afterwards removed to London. He devoted much attention to the analysis of mineral waters, delivered the Harveian oration in 1790, and was president of a club which numbered among its members some of the most learned and eminent men of the time. Died in 1798.

Ashford, Mary.—Sensational trials for murder have of late years been numerous enough, indeed, though few of them have had much local interest, if we except that of the poisoner Palmer. The death of the unfortunate Mary Ashford, however, with the peculiar circumstance attending the trial of the supposed murderer, and the latter's appeal to the right then existing under an old English law of a criminal's claim to a "Trial of Battel," invested the case with an interest which even at this date can hardly be said to have ceased. Few people can be found to give credence to the possibility of the innocence of Abraham Thornton, yet a careful perusal of a history of the world-known but last "Wager of Battel" case, as written by the late Mr. Toulmin Smith, must lead to the belief that the poor fellow was as much sinned against as sinning, local prejudices and indignant misrepresentations notwithstanding. So far from the appeal to the "Wager of Battel" being the desperate remedy of a convicted felon to escape the doom justly imposed upon him for such heinous offence as the murder of an innocent girl, it was simply the attempt of a clever attorney to remove the stigma attached to an unfortunate and much-maligned client. The dead body of Mary Ashford was found in a pit of water in Sutton Coldfield, on the 27th of May, 1817, she having been seen alive on the morning of the same day. Circumstances instantly, and most naturally, fastened suspicion of foul play upon Abraham Thornton. He was tried at Warwick, at the Autumn Assizes of the same year, and acquitted. The trial was a very remarkable one. Facts were proved with unusual clearness and precision, which put it beyond the bounds of physical possibility that he could have murdered Mary Ashford. Those facts hinged on the time shown by several different clocks, compared with the standard time kept at Birmingham. But the public feeling on the matter was intense. An engraving of the scene of the alleged murder, with a stimulating letter-press description, was published at the time, and the general sense undoubtedly was, that the perpetrator of a very foul murder had escaped his just doom. Hoping to do away with this impression, a well-known local lawyer bethought himself of the long-forgotten "Appeal of Murder," trusting that by a second acquittal Thornton's innocence would be acknowledged by all. Though the condition of all the parties was but humble, friends soon came forward with funds and good advice, so that within the year and a day which the law allowed, proceedings were taken in the name of William Ashford (Mary's brother, who, as next heir, according to the old law, had the sole power of pardon in such a case) for an "Appeal of Murder" against Abraham Thornton. What followed is here given in Mr. Toulmin Smith's own words:—"I have seen it stated, hot indignation colouring imagination, that here was a weak stripling nobly aroused to avenge the death of his sister, by tendering himself to do battle against the tall strong man who was charged with her murder. The facts, as they stand are truly striking enough; but this melodramatic spectacle does not formally true part of them." A writ of "Appeal of Murder" was soon issued. It bears the date of 1st October, 1817. Under that writ Thornton was again arrested by the Sheriff of Warwick. On the first day of Michaelmas Term, in the same year, William Ashford appeared in the Court of King's Bench at Westminster, as appellant, and Abraham Thornton, brought up on writ of habeas corpus, appeared as appellee. The charge of murder was formally made by the appellant; and time to plead to this charge was granted to the appellee until Monday, 16th November.—It must have been a strange and startling scene, on the morning of that Monday, 16th November, 1817, when Abraham Thornton stood at the bar of the Court of King's Bench in Westminster Hall; a scene which that ancient Hall had not witnessed within the memory of any living man, but which must have then roused the attention of even its drowsiest haunter. "The appellee being brought into Court and placed at the bar" (I am quoting the original dry technical record of the transaction), "and the appellant being also in court, the count [charge] was again read over to him, and he [Thornton] was called upon to plead. He pleaded as follows;—'Not Guilty; and I am ready to defend the same by my body.' And thereupon, taking his glove off, he threw it on the floor of the Court." That is to say, Ashford having "appealed" Thornton of the murder, Thornton claimed the right to maintain his own innocence by "Trial of Battel;" and so his answer to the charge was a "Wager of Battel." And now the din of fight seemed near, with the Court of King's Bench at Westminster for the arena, and the grave Judges of that Court for the umpires. But the case was destined to add but another illustration to what Cicero tells us of how, oftentimes, arms yield to argument, and the swordsman's looked-for laurel vanishes before the pleader's tongue. William Ashford, of course, acting under the advice of those who really promoted the appeal, declined to accept Thornton's wager of battel. Instead of accepting it, his counsel disputed the right of Thornton to wage his battel in this case; alleging, in a very long plea, that there were presumptions of guilt so strong as to deprive him of that right. Thornton answered this plea by another, in which all the facts that had been proved on the trial at Warwick were set forth at great length. And then the case was very elaborately argued, for three days, by two eminent and able counsel, one of whom will be well remembered by most readers as the late Chief-Justice Tindal. Tindal was Thornton's counsel. Of course I cannot go here into the argument. The result was, that, on 16th April, 1881, the full Court (Lord Ellenborough, and Justices Bayley, Abbott, and Holroyd) declared themselves unanimously of opinion that the appellee (Thornton) was entitled to, wage his battel, no presumptions of guilt having been shown clear enough or strong enough to deprive him of that right. Upon this, Ashford, not having accepted the wager of battel, the "appeal" was stayed, and Thornton was discharged. Thus no reversal took place of the previous acquittal of Thornton by the Jury at Warwick Assizes. But that acquittal had nothing whatever to do with any "trial by battel;" for I have shown that the "wager of battel" arose out of a proceeding later than and consequent upon that acquittal, and that this "wager of battel" never reached the stage of a "trial by battel."

What became of Thornton is unknown, but he is supposed to have died in America, where he fled to escape the obloquoy showered upon him by an unforgiving public. The adage that "murder will out" has frequently proved correct, but in this case it has not, and the charge against Thornton is reiterated in every account of this celebrated trial that has been published, though his innocence cannot now be doubted.

Ashted, now a populous part of the town, takes its name from Dr. Ash, whose residence was transformed into Ashted Church, the estate being laid out for building in 1788.

Assay Marks.—These consist of the initials of the maker, the Queen's head for the duty (17/-on gold, 1/6 on silver, per oz.), a letter (changed yearly) for date, an anchor for the Birmingham office mark, and the standard or value mark, which is given in figures, thus:—for gold of 22-carat fineness (in oz. of 24) a crown and 22; 18-carat, a crown and 18; 15-carat, 15.625; 12-carat, 12.5; 9-carat, 9.375. The value mark for silver of 11 oz. 10 dwts. (in lb. of 12 oz.) is the figure of Britannia; for 11 oz. 2 dwts. a lion passant. The date letter is changed in July. At present it is k. The lower standards of 15, 12, and 9-carat gold (which are not liable to duty), were authorised by an Order in Council, of December 22, 1854, since which date an immense increase has taken place in the quantity assayed in Birmingham.

Assay Office.—There are seven Assay Offices in the country, the Birmingham one being established by special Act in 1773, for the convenience of silversmiths and plateworkers. A few hours per week was sufficient for the business at that time, and it was conducted at the King's Head in New Street; afterwards, in 1782, in Bull Lane, in 1800 at a house in Little Colmore Street, and from 1816 at the old Baptist Chapel in Little Cannon Street. In 1824 the Act 5, George IV., cap 52, incorporated the assay of gold, the guardians being 36 in number, from whom are chosen the wardens. On July 14, 1877, the foundation stone was laid of the New Assay Office in Newhall Street, and it was opened for business June 24, 1878.

Assizes.—Birmingham was "proclaimed" an assize town January 14, 1859, but the first assizes were held in July, 1884.

Aston.—Eight hundred years ago, Aston filled a small space in the Domesday book of history, wherein it is stated that the estate consisted of eight hides of land, and three miles of wood, worth £5, with 44 residents (one being a priest), and 1,200 acres in cultivation. The present area of Aston Manor is 943 acres, on which are built about 14,000 houses, having a population of some 60,000 persons, and a rateable value of £140,000. In the first ten years of the existence of the Local Board (1869 to 1878) £30,000 was spent on main drainage works, £10,000 in public improvements, and £53,000 in street improvements. Aston has now its Public Buildings, Free Library, &c., as well as an energetic School Board, and, though unsuccessful in its attempt in 1876 to obtain a charter of incorporation, there can be little doubt but that it will ultimately bloom forth in all the glories of a Mayor, Aldermen, and Burgesses. Aston parish, which extends in several directions into the borough of Birmingham, has an area of 13,786 acres.

Aston Almshouses were built in 1655, according to the provisions made by Sir Thomas Holte previous to his decease.

Aston Church was probably built about the year 1170, the nave and part of chancel being added in 1231, the east end and arch of chancel in 1310, and the tower and spire in 1440. The old building, which contained an interesting collection of monuments in memory of the Holtes, the Ardens, the Erdingtons, and other county families, has been lately enlarged by the extension of the nave and aisles eastward, and widening the chancel so as to accommodate about 1,200 people, instead of 500. The whole of the monuments have been replaced in their relative positions.

Aston Cross Tavern was opened as a licensed house and tea gardens in 1775, the first landlord, Mr. Barron, dying in 1792, his widow keeping it till her death in 1817. Of late years it has been a favourite resort of all classes of athletes, though from being so closely built to it has lost much of the attraction which drew our grandfathers to its shady arbours when on country pleasure bent. The park wall extended to the corner of and along the side of Park Lane, opposite the tavern.

Aston Hall and Park.—This building was commenced by Sir Thomas Holte in April, 1618, and finished in April, 1635, Inigo Jones being accredited with the design. King Charles I., in his days of trouble, paid a short visit to the Hall, his host being punished afterwards by some of Cromwell's soldiers and the malcontents of Birmingham besieging the place in the week after Christmas, 1643. The brick wall round the park, nearly three miles long, but of which there are now few traces left, was put up by Sir Lister Holte about 1750, and tradition says it was paid for by some Staffordshire coal-masters, who, supposing that coal lay underneath, conditioned with Sir Lister that no mines should be sunk within [word missing—presume "its"] boundary. The Hall and Park were held by the various generations of the family till the death of the late Dowager Lady Holte. (For an accurate and interesting description of the edifice see Davidson's "Holtes of Aston.") The Act authorising the sale of the Aston estates received the royal sanction on July 10, 1817, and the sale of the furniture and effects in the Hall was commenced by Messrs. J. and C. Robins on September 22. The sale lasted nine days, there being 1,144 lots, which realised £2,150; the farming stock, &c., being sold afterwards for £1,201. The Hall and Park was put up on April 15, 1818, and was bought by Messrs. Greenway, Greaves, and Whitehead, bankers, of Warwick, the estate of 1,530 acres being let off by them in suitable lots. The herd of deer, reduced to 150 head, was sold December 21. The Hall was rented by Mr. James Watt, son of the James Watt, and for many years it was closed to the public. At his death, in 1848, the changes which had been going on all round for years begin to make themselves seen in the shape of huge gaps in the old wall, houses springing up fast here and there, and a street being cut through the noble avenue of chestnut trees in 1852. By degrees, the park was reduced to 370 acres, which, with the Hall, were offered to the town in 1850 for the sum of £130,000; but the Town Council declined the bargain, though less than one-half of the Park (150 acres) was sold immediately after for more than all the money. In 1857 a "People's Park" Company was started to "Save Aston Hall" and the few acres close round it, an agreement being entered into for £35,000. Many of the 20s. shares were taken up, and Her Majesty the Queen performed the opening ceremony June 15, 1858. The speculation proved a failure, as out of about £18,000 raised one-half went in repairs, alterations, losses, &c., and it would have been lost to the town had not the Corporation bought it in February, 1864. They gave £33,000 (£7,000 being private subscriptions), and it was at last opened as a free park, September 22, 1864. The picture gallery is 136ft. long, by 18ft. wide and 16ft. high. In this and various other rooms, will be found a miscellaneous museum of curiosities, more or less rare, including stuffed birds and animals, ancient tapestry and furniture, &c.

Aston Lower Grounds, the most beautiful pleasure grounds in the Midland counties, cover 31 acres, and were originally nothing more than the kitchen and private gardens and the fish-ponds belonging to Aston Hall, and were purchased at the sale in 1818 by the Warwick bankers, who let them to Mr. H.G. Quilter, at the time an attempt was made to purchase the Hall and Park "by the people." Adding to its attractions year by year, Mr. Quilter remained on the ground until 1878, when a limited liability company was formed to take to the hotel and premises, building an aquarium 320 feet long by 54 feet wide, an assembly-room, 220 feet long, by 91 feet wide, and otherwise catering for the comfort of their visitors, 10,000 of whom can be now entertained and amused under shelter, in case of wet weather. Mr. Quilter's selling price was £45,000, taking £25,000 in shares, and £20,000 cash by instalments. The speculation did not appear to be very successful, and the property is now in private hands. The visitors to the Lower Grounds since 1864 have averaged 280,000 per annum.

Asylum, in Summer Lane, was opened in July 1797, by the Guardians of the Poor as an industrial residence and school for 250 children. It was dismantled and closed in 1846, though the "Beehive" carved over the door was allowed to remain on the ruins some years after.

Athenæum—For the "diffusion of Literature and Science" was established in March, 1839, but has long been merged in the Midland Institute. In the building called the "Athenæum", top of Temple Street, some of the early exhibitions of paintings were held.

Athenic Institute, founded in 1841, was an institute of a somewhat similar character to the Athenæum, though including athletics, and existed no longer.

Athletic Clubs.—The first festival of the Birmingham Athletic Club was held in 1868. On the 1st of March, 1880, an association was organised of many of the bicycle clubs, cricket clubs, football clubs, and similar athletic bodies in the town and neighbourhood, under the name of "The Midland Counties Amateurs' Athletic Union."

Atlantic Cables.—It would have been strange if Birmingham had not had a hand in the making of these. For the cable laid in 1865, 16,000 miles of copper wire, weighing 308 tons, were turned out by Messrs. Bolton and Sons and Messrs. Wilkes and Sons. The cable itself was 2,300 (nautical) miles in length.

Baby Show.—Let Mr. Inshaw, of the "Steam Clock," have the honour of being recorded as the first to introduce the Yankee notion of a "baby show," which took place at his Music Hall, May 15, 1874.

Bachelors.—In 1695, bachelors over 24 had to pay a tax of 1s., if "a common person," the scale running as high as £12 10s. for a duke! Judging from the increase of the population about that time, we doubt if even a "common" bachelor paid here. The married folks had not much to laugh at though, for they had to pay duty on every child that was born. Funny time, those!

Balloons.—A Mr. Harper was the first to scale the clouds in a balloon from this town, January 4, 1785. He rose again on the 31, from the Tennis Court, in Coleshill Street, and is said to have sailed a distance of 57 miles in 80 minutes. Mr. Sadler went up from Vauxhall, October 7th, 1811, and again on October 20th, 1823. Mr. Green rose from Newhall Hill, July 17th, 1827, and several times after.

Balsall Heath.—In some ancient deeds called "Boswell Heath." The land round Mary street, known as the Balsall Heath estate, was sold in building lots (234) in 1839, the last day's sale being August 26, and the auctioneers, Messrs. E. & C. Robins. Edwardes-street takes its name from the last owner of the estate, who, if he could now but glance over the property, would be not a little astonished at the changes which have taken place in the last forty years, for, like unto Aston, it may be said to really form but a portion of the ever-extending town of Birmingham. Balsall Heath, which is in the parish of King's Norton, has now a Local Board (with its offices in Lime Grove, Moseley Road) several Board schools, chapels, and churches, a police court, and that sure mark of advancement, a local newspaper. One thing still wanting, however, is a cemetery. Though an appropriate and convenient spot near Cannon Hill Park was chosen for the last resting-place, the ratepayers, at a meeting held July 21, 1879, decided that they could not yet afford the required outlay of some £17,000 necessary for the purpose, notwithstanding that the annual rateable value of the property in the neighbourhood is something like £70,000, and increasing by three to four thousand a year.

Banks and Bankers.—The Birmingham Branch Bank of England (drawing on the parent Bank of England), is in Bennett's Hill.

The local Branch of the National Provincial Bank of England (Lim.), Bennett's Hill, also draws on its headquarters. It commenced business here on New Year's Day 1827.

The Birmingham Banking Company (Lim.), also in Bennett's Hill, draws on the London and Westminster. It opened its doors Sept. 1, 1829, with a nominal capital of £500,000, in £50 shares, £5 being paid up at starting. An amalgamation took place in the year 1880 with the Stourbridge and Kidderminster Bank (established in 1834) the united company having a paid-up capital of £286,000 and a reserve of £312,000.

The Birmingham and Midland Bank (Limited) opened in Union Street, August 23, 1836, removing to New Street in 1869. London agents, the Union Bank of London. Authorised capital, £2,400,000.

The Birmingham, Dudley, and District Banking Co. (Limited) was commenced in Colmore Row July 1st, 1836, as the Town and District Bank, with a capital of £500,000, in £20 shares. London agents, Barclay and Co., and Williams and Co.

The Birmingham Joint Stock Bank (Limited) opened in Temple Row West, Jan. 1st, 1862, with a capital of £3,000,000, in £100 shares, £10 paid. Agents, London Joint Stock. Has branches in New Street and Great Hampton Street.

Lloyds' Banking Co. (Limited) Colmore Row, dates from June 3rd, 1765. when it was known as Taylor and Lloyds, their first premises being in Dale End [hence the name of Bank Passage]. This old established firm has incorporated during its century of existence a score of other banks, and lately has been amalgamated with Barnetts, Hoares, and Co., of London, the present name being Lloyd, Barnett, Bosanquet, and Co. (Limited). There are sub-offices also in Great Hampton Street, Deritend, Five Ways and Aston. In this and adjoining counties, Lloyds' number about 40 branch establishments.

The Worcester City and County Banking Co. (Limited), drawing on Glynn and Co., removed from Cherry Street to their newly-built edifice in Colmore Row, June 1, 1880.

The Union Bank of Birmingham (Limited), Waterloo Street, commenced business with a nominal capital of £1,000,000, in £20 shares, £5 paid. London agents, the City Bank. It has since been taken over by the Midland Bank.

Banks.—A popular Penny Bank was established in 1851, but came to grief in 1865, closing March 16, with assets £1,608, to pay debts £9,448. Another penny bank was opened in Granville Street, April 13, 1861, and is still carried on at the Immanuel Schools, Tennant Street, with about 5,000 depositors at the present time.

A Local Savings Bank was opened in May, 1827, and legalised in the year after, but ultimately its business was transferred to the Post Office Savings Bank, which opened its doors in Cannon Street, Dec. 1, 1863. By a Government return, it appeared that at the end of 1880 the total amount to the credit of depositors in the Post Office Savings Banks of the Kingdom stood at £30,546,306. After the Metropolitan counties of Middlesex, Surrey, and Kent, Warwickshire comes next with a deposit of £1,564,815, the average for the whole of the English counties being but little over £500,000.

Banks Defunct.—The old-established concern known so long as Attwood and Spooner's closed its doors March 10, 1865, with liabilities amounting to £1,007,296. The Joint Stock Bank took the business, and paid 11s. 3d. in the £.

Bank of Deposit stopped Oct. 26, 1861.

The Borough Bank, a branch of Northern and Central Bank of England, stopped Feb. 24, 1840.

The Commercial (Branch) Bank, closed July 27, 1840.

Coates, Woolley and Gordon, who occupied the premises at corner of Cherry Street and Cannon Street in 1814, was joined to Moilliet's, and by them to Lloyds.

Freer, Rotton, Lloyds and Co., of 1814, changed to Rotton, Onions and Co., then Rotton and Scholefield, next to Rotton and Son, and lastly with its manager transferred to National Provincial.

Galton, Galton and James, of 1814, retired in 1830.

Gibbins, Smith, and Co. failed in 1825, paying nearly 20s. in the £.

Gibbins and Lowell, opened in 1826, but was joined to Birmingham Banking Co. in 1829.

Smith, Gray, Cooper and Co., of 1815, afterwards Gibbins, Smith, and Goode, went in 1825.

Banknotes.—Notes for 5/3 were issued in 1773. 300 counterfeit £1 notes, dated 1814, were found near Heathfield House, January 16, 1858. A noted forger of these shams is said to have resided in the immediate neighbourhood about the period named on the discovered "flimsies." When Boulton and Watt were trying to get the Act passed patenting their copying-press the officials of the Bank of England opposed it for fear it should lead to forgery of their notes, and several Members of Parliament actually tried to copy banknotes as they did their letters.

Bankrupts.—In the year 1882 (according to the Daily Post) there were 297 bankruptcies, compositions, or liquidations in Birmingham, the total amount of debts being a little over £400,000. The dividends ranged from 2d. to 15s. in the £, one-half the whole number, however, realising under 1s. 6d. The estimated aggregate loss to creditors is put at £243,000.

Baptists.—As far back as 1655, we have record of meetings or conferences of the Baptist churches in the Midland district, their representatives assembling at Warwick on the second day of the third month, and at Moreton-in-the-Marsh, on the 26th of the fourth month in that year. Those were the Cromwellian days of religious freedom, and we are somewhat surprised that no Birmingham Baptists should be among those who gathered together at the King's Head, at Moreton, on the last named date, as we find mention made of brethren from Warwick, Tewkesbury, Alcester, Derby, Bourton-on-the-Water, Hook Norton, Moreton-in-the-Marsh, and even of there being a community of the same persuasion at Cirencester. The conference of the Midland Counties' District Association of Baptist Churches met in this town for the first time in 1740.—For Chapels see "Places of Worship."

Barr Beacon.—A trial was made on January 10, 1856, as to how far a light could be seen by the ignition of a beacon on Malvern Hills. It was said to have been seen from Snowdon in Wales (105 miles), and at other parts of the country at lesser distances, though the gazers at Worcester saw it not. The look-out at Dudley Castle (26 miles) could have passed the signal on to Barr Beacon, but it was not needed, as the Malvern light was not only seen there, but still away on at Bardon Hill, Leicester.—Many persons imagine that Barr Beacon is the highest spot in the Midland Counties, but the idea is erroneous, Turners Hill, near Lye Cross, Rowley Regis, which is 893 ft. above mean sea level, being considerably higher, while the Clee Hills reach an altitude of 1,100 ft.

Barber of Birmingham, The.—The knights of the pole (or poll) have always been noted for getting into mischief, and it is not therefore so very surprising to find that in March, 1327, a royal pardon had to be granted to "Roger, the barber of Birmingham," for the part he had taken in the political disturbances of that time. Was he a Con., or a Lib., Tory or Rad.?

Baron of Birmingham.—One of the titles of Lord Ward.

Barracks.—Built in 1793, at a cost of £13,000, as a consequence of the riots of 1791.

Barring Out—On the 26th of Nov. 1667, the scholars of the Grammar School "barred out" the Master, and then left the school for a time. When they returned they found the worthy pedagogue had obtained admission and intended to keep his young rebels outside. Whereupon, says an old chronicler, they, being reinforced by certain of the townsmen "in vizards, and with pistolls and other armes," sought to re-enter by assault, threatening to kill the Master, and showering stones and bricks through the windows. When the fun was over the Governors passed a law that any boy taking part in future "barrings-out" should be expelled from the School, but the amusement seems to have been rather popular, as an entry in the School records some ten years later show that a certain Widow Spooner was paid one shilling "for cleansinge ye Schoole at penninge out."

Baskerville (John).—This celebrated local worthy was a native of Wolverley, near Kidderminster, having been born in the year 1706. He came to this town in early life, as we find that he kept a writing school in 1726. In 1745 he built himself a residence at Easy-hill, and carried on the business of japanner afterwards adding to it that of printer and typefounder. His achievements in this line have made his name famous for ever, though it is said that he spent £600 before he could produce one letter to his own satisfaction, and some thousands before he obtained any profits from his printing trade. He was somewhat eccentric in personal matters of dress and taste, his carriage (drawn by cream-coloured horses) being a wonderful specimen of the art of japanning in the way of pictured panels, etc., while he delighted to adorn his person in the richest style of dress. The terms of his peculiar will, and his apparent renunciation of Christianity, were almost as curious as his choice of a place of sepulture. He was buried in his own grounds under a solid cone of masonry, where his remains lay until 1821, at which time the canal wharf, now at Easy Row, was being made. His body was found in a good state of preservation, and for some short period was almost made a show of, until by the kindness of Mr. Knott the bookseller, it was taken to Us present resting-place in one of the vaults under Christ Church. Mr. Baskerville died January 8, 1775, his widow living till March 21, 1787, to the age of 80 years.

Baths.—Ladywell Baths were said by Hutton to be the most complete in the island, being seven in number, that for swimmers 36 yards long by 18 wide, and cost £2,000. The place is now occupied by a timber yard, the old spring being covered in, though fitted with a pump for public use. For many years a tribe of water carriers procured a living by retailing the water at a halfpenny per can. The red sand from the New Street tunnels was turned to account in tilling up the old baths, much to the advantage of Mr. Turner, the lessee, and of the hauliers who turned the honest penny by turning in so near at hand.

Baths and Wash-houses.—The local movement for the establishment of public Baths first took practical shape at a meeting held Nov. 19,1844, within a week of which date subscriptions amounting to £4,430 were received for the purpose. The Association then formed purchased a plot of land in Kent Street in June, 1846, and presented it to the Town Council in November following, though the Baths erected thereon were not opened to the public until May 12, 1851. It was at that time imagined that the working classes would he glad of the boon provided for them in the convenient wash-houses attached to the Baths proper, and the chance given them to do away with all the sloppy, steamy annoyances of washing-day at home, but the results proved otherwise, and the wash-houses turned out to be not wanted. The Woodcock Street establishment was opened August 27, 1860; Northwood Street, March 5, 1862; Sheepcote Street in 1878, and Ladywood in 1882. Turkish Baths are now connected with the above, and there are also private speculations of the same kind in High Street, Broad Street, and the Crescent. Hardy swimmers, who prefer taking their natatory exercises in the open air, will find provision made for them at the Reservoir, at Cannon Hill Park, and also at Small Heath Park. The swimming-bath in George Street, Balsall Heath, opened in 1846, was filled up in 1878, by order of the Local Board of Health.

Bath Street takes its name from some baths formerly in Blews Street, but which, about 1820, were turned into a malthouse.

Battle Of the Alma.—A disturbance which took place at a steeplechase meeting at Aston, Monday, March 26, 1855, received this grandiloquent title.

Battles and Sieges.—It is more than probable that the British, under their gallant Queen Boadicea, fought the Romans more than once in the near vicinity of this district, and very possibly in those happy days of feudalism, which followed the invasion of the Normans, when every knight and squire surrounded himself with his armed retainers, sundry skirmishes may have taken place hereabouts, but history is silent. Even of the battle of Barnet (April 14, 1471), when the Earl of Warwick and 10,000 men were slain, we have not sufficient note to say, though it can hardly be doubted, that many Birmingham citizens went down. But still we have on record one real "Battle of Birmingham," which took place on the 3rd of April, 1643. On that day our town was attacked by Prince Rupert, with some 2,000 horse and foot; being pretty stoutly opposed, his soldiers slew a number of inhabitants, burnt nearly 80 houses, and did damage (it is said) to the extent of £30,000. It took five days for the news of this exploit to reach London. In the week following Christmas of the same year, a number of townspeople, aided by a party of the Commonwealth soldiers, laid siege to, and captured, Aston Hall.

Bazaars.—When originated none can tell. How much good done by means of them, nobody knows. But that immense amounts have been raised for good and charitable purposes, none can deny—and then, "they are such fun!". "Grand Bazaars" have been held for many an institution, and by many different sects and parties, and to attempt to enumerate them would be an impossibility, but the one on behalf of the Queen's Hospital, held in April, 1880, is noteworthy, for two reasons:—first, because the proceeds amounted to the munificent sum of £5,969, and, secondly, from the novelty of the decorations. The body of the Town Hall was arranged to represent an English street of the olden time, a baronial castle rising tower upon tower at the great gallery end, and an Elizabethan mansion in the orchestra, with a lawn in front, occupied by a military band. The sides of the Hall constituted a double row of shops, the upper storeys (reaching to the galleries) being filled with casements and balconies, from whence the doings in the street could be witnessed.

Bean Club.—The first anniversary we read of was that held July 17, 1752, at which meeting Lord Fielding gave £120 to erect an altarpiece in St. Bartholomew's.

Beardsworth (John).—Founder of the Repository, began life as driver of a hackney coach, in which one night he drove a beautiful young lady to a ball. John went home, dressed, procured admission to the ball, danced with the lady, handed her to the coach, drove her home, and some time after married her. The lady's cash enabled him to acquire an ample fortune, being at one time worth nearly a quarter of a million, most of which, however, was lost on the turf. The Repository was the largest establishment of the kind in the kingdom, and Beardsworth'a house adjoining was furnished in most splendid style, one centre table (made of rich and rare American wood) costing £1,500.

Beelzebub.—Watt's first steam engine was so christened. It was brought from Scotland, put up at Soho, and used for experimenting upon. It was replaced by "Old Bess," the first engine constructed upon the expansive principle. This latter engine is now in the Museum of Patents, South Kensington, though Mr. Smiles says he saw it working in 1857, seventy years after it was made.

Beer.—Brewers of beer were first called upon to pay a license duty in 1784, though the sellers thereof had been taxed more or less for 250 years previously. The effect of the heavy duties then imposed was to reduce the consumption of the national and wholesome beverage, which in 1782 averaged one barrel per head of the then population per annum, down to half-a-barrel per head in 1830, its place being filled by an increased consumption of ardent spirits, which from half-a-gallon per head in 1782, rose by degrees to six-sevenths of a gallon per head by 1830. In this year, the statesmen of the day, who thought more of the well-being of the working part of the population than raising money by the taxation of their necessaries, took off the 10s. per barrel on beer, in the belief that cheap and good malt liquors would be more likely to make healthy strong men than an indulgence in the drinking of spirits. Notwithstanding all the wild statements of the total abstainers to the contrary, the latest Parliamentary statistics show that the consumption of beer per head per annum averages now only seven-eighths of a barrel, though before even this moderate quantity reaches the consumers, the Government takes [see Inland Revenue returns, 1879, before alteration of malt-tax] no less a sum than £19,349 per year from the good people of Birmingham alone. Of this sum the brewers paid £9,518, the maltsters £425, beer dealers £2,245, and beer retailers £7,161.

Bells.—There was a bell foundry at Good Knave's End, in 1760, from whence several neighbouring churches were supplied with bells to summon the good knaves of the day to prayers, or to toll the bad knaves to their end. There was also one at Holloway Head, in 1780, but the business must have been hollow enough, for it did not go ahead, and we find no record of church bells being cast here until just a hundred years back (1732), when Messrs. Blews & Son took up the trade. Birmingham bells have, however, made some little noise in the world, and may still be heard on sea or land, near and far, in the shape of door bells, ship bells, call bells, hand bells, railway bells, sleigh bells, sheep bells, fog bells, mounted on rockbound coasts to warn the weary mariner, or silver bells, bound with coral from other coasts, to soothe the toothless babbler. These, and scores of others, are ordered here every year by thousands; but the strangest of all orders must have been that one received by a local firm some fifteen years ago from a West African prince, who desired them to send him 10,000 house bells (each 3/4 lb. weight), wherewith to adorn his iron "palace." And he had them! Edgar Poe's bells are nowhere, in comparison with

Such a charm, such a chime,
  Out of tune, out of time.
Oh, the jangling and the wrangling
  Of ten thousand brazen throats.

Ten bells were put in St. Martin's, in 1786, the total weight being 7 tons, 6 cwt. 2 lbs.

The peal of ten bells in St. Philip's were first used August 7, 1751, the weight being 9 tons 10 cwt. 22 lbs., the tenor weighs 30 cwt.

A new peal of eight bells were put up in Aston Church, in May, 1776, the tenor weighing 21 cwt. The St. Martin's Society of Change Ringers "opened" them, July 15, by ringing Holt's celebrated peal of 5040 grandsire triples, the performance occupying 3 hours 4 minutes.

Eight bells and a clock were mounted in the tower of Deritend Chapel, in 1776, the first peal being rung July 29.

The eight bells in Bishop Ryder's Church, which weigh 55 cwt., and cost £600, were cast in 1868, by Blews and Sons, and may be reckoned as the first full peal founded in Birmingham.

There are eight bells in Harborne Parish Church, four of them bearing date 1697, two with only the makers' name on, and two put in February, 1877, on the 24th of which month the whole peal were inaugurated by the ringing of a true peal of Stedman triples, composed by the late Thomas Thurstans, and consisting of 5,040 changes, in 2 hours and 52 minutes. The St. Martin's ringers officiated.

The six bells of Northfield Church were cast by Joseph Smith, of Edgbaston, in 1730.

St. Chad's Cathedral has eight bells, five of which were presented in 1848 as a memorial to Dr. Moore; the other three, from the foundry of W. Blews and Sons, were hung in March, 1877 the peculiar ceremony of "blessing the bells" being performed by Bishop Ullathorne on the 22nd of that month. The three cost £110. The bells at Erdington Catholic Church were first used on February 2, 1878.

Bellows to Mend.—Our townspeople bellowed a little over their losses after Prince Rupert's rueful visit, but there was one among them who knew how to "raise the wind," for we find Onions, the bellows-maker, hard at work in 1650; and his descendants keep at the same old game.

Bennett's Hill.—There was a walled-in garden (with an old brick summer-house) running up from Waterloo-street to Colmore-row as late as 1838-9.

Benefit and Benevolent Societies.—See "Friendly Societies."

Bellbarn Road, or the road to Mr. Bell's barn.

Bermingham.—The Irish family of this name descended from Robert, son of Peter de Bermingham, who left here and settled in Connaught about the year 1169.

Bibles and Testaments.—In 1272 the price of a Bible, well written out, was £30 sterling, and there were few readers of it in Birmingham. The good book can now be bought for 6d., and it is to be hoped there is one in every house. The Rev. Angell James once appealed to his congregation for subscriptions towards sending a million New Testaments to China, and the Carrslaneites responded promptly with £410 8s., enough to pay for 24,624 copies—the publisher's price being 4d. each. They can be bought for a penny now.—A local Auxiliary Bible Society was commenced here May 9, 1806.

Bingley Hall—Takes its name from Bingley House, on the site of which it is built. It was erected in 1850 by Messrs. Branson and Gwyther, at a cost of about £6,000, the proprietary shares being £100 each. In form it is nearly a square, the admeasurements being 224 ft. by 212 ft., giving an area of nearly one acre and a half. There are ten entrance doors, five in King Edward's Place, and five in King Alfred's Place, and the building may be easily divided into five separate compartments. The Hall will hold from 20,000 to 25,000 people, and is principally used for Exhibitions and Cattle Shows; with occasionally "monster meetings," when it is considered necessary for the welfare of the nation to save sinners or convert Conservatives.

Bird's-eye View of the town can be best obtained from the dome of the Council House, to which access may be obtained on application to the Curator. Some good views may be also obtained from some parts of Moseley Road, Cannon Hill Park, and from Bearwood Road.

Birmingham.—A horse of this name won the Doncaster St. Leger in 1830 against 27 competitors. The owner, John Beardsworth, cleared £40,000. He gave Connolly, the jockey, £2,000.

Birmingham Abroad.—Our brethren who have emigrated do not like to forget even the name of their old town, and a glance over the American and Colonial census sheet shows us that there are at least a score of other Birminghams in the world. In New Zealand there are three, and in Australia five townships so christened. Two can be found in Canada, and ten or twelve in the United States, the chief of which is Birmingham in Alabama. In 1870 this district contained only a few inhabitants, but in the following year, with a population of 700, it was incorporated, and at once took rank as a thriving city, now proudly called "The Iron City," from its numerous ironworks, furnaces, and mills. Last year the citizens numbered over 12,000, the annual output of pig-iron being about 60,000 tons, and the coal mines in the neighbourhood turning out 2,000 tons per day. The city is 240 miles from Nashville, 143 miles from Chattanooga, and 96 miles from Montgomery, all thriving places, and is a central junction of six railways. The climate is good, work plentiful, wages fair, provisions cheap, house rent not dear, churches and schools abundant, and if any of our townsmen are thinking of emigrating they may do a deal worse than go from hence to that other Birmingham, which its own "daily" says is a "City of marvellous wonder and magic growth," &c., &c.

Birmingham Begging.—Liberal to others as a rule when in distress, it is on record that once at least the inhabitants of this town were the recipients of like favours at the hands of their fellow-countrymen. In the churchwardens' books of Redenall, Norfolk, under date September 20, 1644, is an entry of 6s. paid "to Richard Herbert, of Birmingham, where was an hundred fifty and five dwelling house burnt by Pr. Rupert."

Birmingham Borough, which is in the hundred of Hemlingford, and wholly in the county of Warwick, includes the parish of Birmingham, part of the parish of Edgbaston, and the hamlets of Deritend-and-Bordesley, and Duddeston-cum-Nechells, in the parish of Aston. The extreme length is six miles one furlong, the average breadth three miles, the circumference twenty-one miles, and the total area 8,420 acres, viz., Birmingham, 2,955; in Edgbaston, 2,512; and in Aston, 2,853. Divided into sixteen wards by an Order in Council, approved by Her Majesty, October 15, 1872. The mean level of Birmingham is reckoned as 443 feet above sea level.

Birmingham Heath.—Once an unenclosed common, and part of it may now be said to be common property, nearly 100 acres of it being covered with public buildings for the use of such as need a common home. There is not, however, anything commonplace in the style of these erections for sheltering our common infirmities, as the Workhouse, Gaol, and Asylum combined have cost "the Commons" something like £350,000. The Volunteers in 1798 made use of part of the Heath as a practice and parade ground.

Birmingham Bishops.—The Rev. John Milner, a Catholic divine and eminent ecclesiastical antiquary, who was educated at Edgbaston, was appointed Bishop Apostolic in the Midland district, with the title of "Bishop of Castaballa." He died in 1826, in his 74th year.—Dr. Ullathorne was enthroned at St. Chad's, August 30th, 1848, as Bishop of the present Catholic diocese.—The Rev. P. Lee, Head Master of Free Grammar School in 1839, was chosen as the first Bishop of Manchester.— The Rev. S. Thornton, St. George's, was consecrated Bishop of Ballarat, May 1, 1875.—The Rev. Edward White Benson, D.D., a native of this town, was nominated first Bishop of Truro, in December, 1876, and is now Archbishop of Canterbury.—The Rev. Thomas Huband Gregg resigned the vicarage of East Harborne in March, 1877, and on June 20 was consecrated at New York a Bishop of the Reformed Episcopal Church.

Birmingham (Little).—In a record of the early date of 1313 there is mention of a place called Little Birmingham (parvam Birmingham), as being in the hundreds of North and South Erpyngham, Norfolk.

Birmingham in the Future.—It has been proposed that the Borough should be extended so as to include the Local Board districts of Harborne and Handsworth, Balsall Heath, Moseley, King's Heath, part of King's Norton parish, the whole of Yardley and Acock's Green, part of Northfield parish, all Aston Manor, Saltley, Witton, Little Bromwich, and Erdington, covering an area of about 32,000 acres, with a present population of over half a million.

Blind Asylum.—See "Philanthropic Institutions."

Blondin made his first appearance at Aston Park, June 8, 1861; at the Birmingham Concert Hall, December, 1869, and March, 1870; at the Reservoir September, 1873, and September, 1878. Mrs. Powell, who was known as the "Female Blondin," was killed at a fête in Aston Park, July 20, 1868, by falling from the high rope.

Bloomsbury Institute.—Opened in 1860. The memorial stones of the lecture-hall in Bloomsbury Street were laid August 6, 1877, the £750 cost being given by Mr. David Smith. Seats 500.

Blue Coat School.—See "Schools."

Blues.—The United Society of True Blues was founded in 1805 by a number of old Blue Coat boys (formerly known as "The Grateful Society") who joined in raising an annual subscription for the School.

Board Schools.—See "School Board."

Boatmen's Hall, erected on Worcester Wharf, by Miss Ryland, was opened March 17, 1879.

Bonded Warehouses.—Our Chamber of Commerce memoralised the Lords of the Treasury for the extension of the bonded warehouse system to this town, in December, 1858, but it was several years before permission was obtained.

Books.—The oldest known Birmingham book is a "Latin Grammar, composed in the English tongue," printed in London in 1652, for Thomas Underhill, its author having been one of the masters of our Free School.

Book Club (The).—Commenced some few years previous to 1775, at which time its meetings were held in Poet Freeth's, Leicester Arms, Bell-street. As its name implies, the club was formed for the purchase and circulation among the members of new or choice books, which were sold at the annual dinner, hence the poet's hint in one of his invitations to these meetings:—

"Due regard let the hammer be paid, Ply the glass gloomy care to dispel; If mellow our hearts are all made, The books much better may sell."

In these days of cheap literature, free libraries, and halfpenny papers, such a club is not wanted.

Books on Birmingham.—Notes of Birmingham were now and then given before the days of that dear old antiquary Hutton, but his "History" must always take rank as the first. Morfitt's was amusing as far as it went; Bissett's was ditto and pictorial; but it remained till the present period for really reliable sketches to be given. The best are Langford's "Century of Birmingham Life," Harman's "Book of Dates," Dent's "Old and New Birmingham," Bunce's "Municipal History," and the last is "Showell's Dictionary of Birmingham."

Botanical Gardens.—See "Horticultural Societies."

Borough Members.—See "Parliamentary Elections."

Boulton (Mathew).—The son of a hardware manufacturer of the same name, was born here on September 3, 1728 (old style) and received his education principally at the academy of the Rev. Mr. Anstey, Deritend. He is accredited with having at the early age of seventeen invented the inlaying of steel buckles, buttons and trinkets, which for many years were in great request. These articles at first were exported to France in large quantities, being afterwards brought from thence and sold in London as the latest Parisian fashion. In 1762 (his father having left him a considerable property) Mr. Boulton leased a quantity of the land then forming part of Birmingham Heath, where at a cost of over £10,000 he erected the famous Soho Works, and later on (in 1794) he purchased the freehold of that and a considerable tract of the adjoining land. In 1767 steam was first brought into use to supplement the power derived from the water wheels, and in 1769 he became acquainted with James Watt, with whom he afterwards went into partnership to make steam engines of all kinds, sinking £47,000 before he had any return for his money. Mr. Boulton lived to the patriarchal age of fourscore and one, leaving this life on August 7, 1809. He was buried at Handsworth, 600 workmen, besides numberless friends, following his remains; all of whom were presented with hatbands and gloves and a silver medal, and regaled with a dinner, the funeral costing altogether about £2,000.—See "Coinage," &c.

Bourne College, erected by the Primitive Methodists and their friends, at Quinton, at a cost of nearly £10,00, was formally opened on October 240 [Transcriber's note: as original] 1882. When completed there will be accommodation for 120 students.

Bowling Greens.—These seem to have been favourite places of resort with our grandfathers and great-grandfathers. The completion of one at the Union Tavern, Cherry Street, was announced March 26, 1792, but we read of another as attached to the Hen and Chickens, in High Street, as early as 1741. There is a very fine bowling-green at Aston Hall, and lovers of the old-fashioned game can be also accommodated at Cannon Hill Park, and at several suburban hotels.

Boys' Refuge is at corner of Bradford Street and Alcester Street, and the Secretary will be glad of help.

Boyton.—Captain Boyton showed his life-preserving dress, at the Reservoir, April 24, 1875.

Bracebridge.—A very ancient family, long connected with this neighbourhood, for we read of Peter de Bracebrigg who married a grand-daughter of the Earl of Warwick in A.D. 1100, and through her inherited Kingsbury, an ancient residence of the Kings of Mercia. In later days the Bracebridges became more intimately connected with this town by the marriage in 1775 of Abraham Bracebridge, Esq., of Atherstone, with Mary Elizabeth, the only child and heiress of Sir Charles Holte, to whom the Aston estates ultimately reverted. Many articles connected with the Holte family have been presented to Birmingham by the descendants of this marriage.

Bradford Street takes its name from Henry Bradford, who, in 1767, advertised that he would give a freehold site to any man who would build the first house therein.

Breweries.—In the days of old nearly every publican and innkeeper was his own brewer, the fame of his house depending almost solely on the quality of the "stingo" he could pour out to his customers. The first local brewery on a large scale appears to have been that erected in Moseley Street in 1782, which even down to late years retained its cognomen of the Birmingham Old Brewery. In 1817 another company opened a similar extensive establishment at St. Peter's Place, in Broad Street, and since then a number of enterprising individuals have at times started in the same track, but most have come grief, even in the case of those whose capital was not classed under the modern term "limited." The principal local breweries now in existence are those of Messrs. Holder, Mitchell, and Bates, in addition to the well-known Crosswells Brewery of Messrs Walter Showell and Sons, noted in next paragraph. The principal Vinegar Brewery in Birmingham is that of Messrs. Fardon and Co. (Limited), in Glover Street, which was formed in 1860, and is well worthy of the stranger's visit. The annual output is about 850,000 gallons, there being storage for nearly a million gallons, and 36,000 casks to send the vinegar out in.

Brewery at Crosswells.—Though by far the most extensive brewery supplying Birmingham, the Crosswells cannot claim to be more than in the infancy of its establishment at present, as only twelve years ago the many acres of ground now covered by its buildings formed but part of an unenclosed piece of waste land. Nevertheless, the spot was well-known and often visited in ancient times, on account of the wonderful and miraculous cures said to have been effected by the free use of the water gushing up from the depths of the springs to be found there, and which the monks of old had christened "The Wells of the Cross." Be its medicinal qualities what they might in the days before Harry the Eighth was king, the Cross Wells water retained its name and fame for centuries after the monks were banished and the burly king who drove them out had himself turned to dust. It has always been acknowledged as one of the purest waters to be found in the kingdom; but its peculiar and special adaptability to the brewing of "good old English cheer" was left to be discovered by the founder of the firm of Messrs. Walter Showell and Sons, who, as stated before, some twelve years back, erected the nucleus of the present extensive brewery. Starting with the sale of only a few hundred barrels per week, the call for their ales soon forced the proprietors to extend their premises in order that supply should meet demand. At first doubled, then quadrupled, the brewery is now at least ten times its original size; and a slight notion of the business carried on may be gathered from the fact that the firm's stock of barrels tots up to nearly 60,000 and is being continually increased, extensive cooperages, blacksmiths' shops, &c., being attached to the brewery, as well as malthouses, offices, and storehouses of all kinds. The head offices of the firm, which are connected by telephone with the brewery, as well as with the stores at Kingston Buildings, Crescent Wharf, are situated in Great Charles Street, and thus the Crosswells Brewery (though really at Langley Green, some half-dozen miles away as the crow flies) becomes entitled to rank as a Birmingham establishment, and certainly not one of the least, inasmuch as the weekly sale of Crosswells ales for this town alone is more than 80,000 gallons per week.

Brickkiln Lane, now called the Horse Fair, gives its own derivation.

Bright.—The Right Hon. John Bright, though not a Birmingham man, nor connected with the town by any ties of personal interest or business, has for the last quarter-century been the leading member returned to Parliament as representing the borough, and must always rank foremost among our men of note. Mr. Bright is the son of the late Jacob Bright, of Greenbank, near Rochdale, and was born November 16, 1811. He and his brother, Mr. Jacob Bright, M.P. for Manchester, began business as partners in the affiliated firms of John Bright and Brothers, cotton spinners and manufacturers, Rochdale, and Bright and Co., carpet manufacturers, Rochdale and Manchester. At an early age Mr. Bright showed a keen interest in politics, and took part in the Reform agitation of 1831-32. In those days every householder was compelled by law to pay the Church-rates levied in his parish, whatever his religious creed might be, and it is said that Mr. Bright's first flights of oratory were delivered from a tombstone in Rochdale church-yard in indignant denunciation of a tax which to him, as a member of the Society of Friends, appeared especially odious. It was not, however, till 1839, when he joined the Anti-Corn Law League, that Mr. Bright's reputation spread beyond his own immediate neighbourhood; and there can be no doubt but that his fervid addresses, coupled with the calmer and more logical speeches of Mr. Cobden, contributed in an appreciable degree to the success of the movement. In July, 1843, he was returned as M.P. for the city of Durham, which he represented until the general election of 1847, when he was the chosen of Manchester. For ten years he was Manchester's man in everything, but the side he took in regard to the Russian war was so much at variance with the popular opinions of his constituents that they at last turned on him, burnt his effigy in the streets, and threw him out at the general election in March, 1857. At the death of Mr. G.F. Muntz, in July following, Mr. Bright was almost unanimously selected to fill his place as M.P. for this town, and for 25 years he has continued to honour Birmingham by permitting us to call him our member. (See "Parliamentary Elections.") Mr. Bright has been twice married, but is now a widower, and he has twice held office in the Cabinet, first as President of the Board Of Trade, and more lately as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster.

Bristol Road.—Trees were first planted in this road in the spring of 1853.

Britannia Metal.—A mixed metal formed of 90 parts of tin, 2 copper, and 8 antimony, brought into use about 1790, and long a favourite with manufacturers and public alike. The introduction of electroplating did much towards its extended make at first, but latterly it has been in great measure, replaced by German silver and other alloys.

British Association for the Advancement, of Science first met in this town Aug. 26, 1839. They were here again Oct. 12, 1857, and Sep. 6, 1865.

Brittle Street formerly ran from Livery Street to Snow Hill, about the spot where now the entrance gates to the Station are.

Broad Street.—150 years ago part of what is now known as Dale End was called Broad Street, the present thoroughfare of that name then being only a pathway through the fields.

Brunswick Buildings.—Erected in New Street, by Mr. Samuel Haines in 1854. A funny tale has been told about the original lease, which included a covenant that at the expiration of the term of 100 years for which it was granted, the land was to be delivered up to the Grammar School "well cropped with potatoes." In 1760 New Street was a new street indeed, for there were but a few cottages with gardens there then, and the potatoe proviso was no doubt thought a capital provision; but fancy growing that choice edibie there in 1860!

Buck.—Henry Buck, P.G.M., and Sec. of the Birmingham district of the Manchester Order of Oddfellows for twenty-five years, died Jan. 22, 1876, aged 63. A granite obelisk to his memory in St. Philip's churchyard was unveiled Sep. 17, 1877.

Building Societies took early root here, as we find there were several in 1781.—See "Friendly Societies."

Buckles were worn as shoe fasteners in the reign of Charles II.—See "Trades."

Buttons.—Some interesting notes respecting the manufacture of buttons will be found under the head of "Trades."

Bulgarian Atrocities, 1876-7.—A considerable amount of "political capital" was made out of these occurrences, but only £1,400 was subscribed here for the relief of the unfortunates; while merely £540 could be raised towards helping the thousands of poor Bosnian refugees driven from their homes by the Russians in 1878, and of this sum £200 was given by one person.

Bullbaiting was prohibited in 1773 by Order in Council, and an Act was passed in 1835, to put a stop to all baiting of bulls, badgers, and bears. At Chapel Wake, 1798, some law-defying reprobates started a bullbaiting on Snow Hill, but the Loyal Association of Volunteers turned out, and with drums beating and colours flying soon put the rebels to flight, pursuing them as far as Birmingham Heath, where the baiters got a beating, the Loyals returning home in triumph with the bull as a trophy. The last time this "sport" was indulged in in this neighbourhood appears to have been early in October, 1838, at Gib Heath, better known now as Nineveh Road.

Bull Lane was the name once given to that part of the present Colmore Row between Livery Street and Snow Hill, though it has been better known as Monmouth Street.

Bull Street.—Once called Chapel Street, as leading to the chapel of the ancient Priory; afterwards named from the old inn known as the Red Bull (No. 83).

Burial Grounds.—See "Cemeteries."

Burns.—Excisemen, when Robert Burns was one of them, were wont to carry pistols, and those the poet had were given him by one of our gunmakers, Mr. Blair. They were afterwards bought by Allan Cunningham, who gave them back to Burns' widow.—Birmingham lent its rill to the great river of homage to the genius of Burns which flowed through the length and breadth of the civilised world on the occasion of the Burns' centenary in January, 1859. The most interesting of the three or four meetings held here was one of a semi-private nature, which took place at Aston Hall, and which originated, not with Scotchmen, but with Englishmen. Some forty-five or fifty gentlemen, only some half-dozen of whom were Scotch, sat down to an excellent supper in the fine old room in which the Queen lunched the previous year. The chairman was Mr. Samuel Timmins, and the vice-chairman was Mr. Ross.

Cabs, Cars, and Carriages.—The hackney carriages, or four-wheelers, of this town, have the credit of being superior to those used in London, though the hansoms (notwithstanding their being the inventions of one who should rank almost as a local worthy—the architect of our Town Hall) are not up to the mark. Prior to 1820 there were no regular stands for vehicles plying for hire, those in New Street, Bull Street, and Colmore Row being laid in that year, the first cabman's license being dated June 11. The first "Cabman's Rest" was opened in Ratcliffe Place, June 13, 1872, the cost (£65) being gathered by the cabman's friend, the Rev. Micarah Hill, who also, in 1875, helped them to start an association for mutual assistance in cases of sickness or death. There are sixteen of these "shelters" in the town, the cabmen subscribing about £200 yearly towards expenses. As a rule, the Birmingham cabmen are a civil and obliging body of men, though now and then a little sharp practice may occur, as in the instance of the stranger who, arriving in New Street Station one evening last summer, desired to be taken to the Queen's Hotel. His luggage being properly secured, and himself safely ensconced, Mr. Cabby cooly took the rug from his horse's back, mounted his seat and walked the animal through the gates back to the building the stranger had just left, depositing his fare, and as calmly holding out his hand for the customary shilling as if he had driven the full distance of a mile and a half. The fares laid down by the bye-laws as proper to be charged within the Borough, and within five miles from the statue in Stephenson Place, in the Borough, are as follows:—

s. d.
For every carriage constructed to carry four persons, for the first hour, or part of hour 3 0
For every additional 15 minutes, or part of 15 minutes. 0 2
For every carriage constructed to carry two persons, for the first hour, or part of hour 2 6
For every additional 15 minutes, or part of 15 minutes 0 6
Any person hiring any carriage otherwise than by time is entitled to detain the same five minutes without extra charge, but for every 15 minutes, or part thereof, over the first five minutes, the hirer must pay 0 6
By distance:--
Cabs or Cars to carry 2 persons not exceeding 1-1/2 miles 1 0
Per 1/2 mile after 0 4
One horse vehicles to carry 4 persons, not exceeding 1 mile 1 0
For any further distance, per 1/2 mile after
Cars or Carriages with 2 horses, to carry 4 persons, not exceeding 1 mile  1 9
Per 1/2 mile after 0 9
Double Fares shall be allowed and paid for every fare, or so much of any fare as may be performed by any carriage after 12 o'clock at night, and before 6 in the morning.

Calthorpe Park, Pershore road, has an area of 3la. 1r. 13p., and was given to the town in 1857 by Lord Calthorpe. Though never legally conveyed to the Corporation, the Park is held under a grant from the Calthorpe family, the effect of which is equivalent to a conveyance in fee. The Duke of Cambridge performed the opening ceremony in this our first public park.

Calthorpe Road was laid out for building in the year 1818, and the fact is worthy of note as being the commencement of our local West End.

Calico, Cotton, and Cloth.—In 1702 the printing or wearing of printed calicoes was prohibited, and more strictly so in 1721, when cloth buttons and buttonholes were also forbidden. Fifty years after, the requisites for manufacturing cotton or cotton cloth were now allowed to be exported, and in 1785 a duty was imposed on all cotton goods brought into the Kingdom. Strange as it may now appear, there was once a "cotton-spinning mill" in Birmingham. The first thread of cotton ever spun by rollers was produced in a small house near Sutton Coldfield as early as the year 1700, and in 1741 the inventor, John Wyatt, had a mill in the Upper Priory, where his machine, containing fifty rollers, was turned by two donkeys walking round an axis, like a horse in a modern clay mill. The manufacture, however, did not succeed in this town, though carried on more or less till the close of the century, Paul's machine being advertised for sale April 29, 1795. The Friends' schoolroom now covers the site of the cotton mill.

Canals.—The first Act for the construction of the "cut" or canal in connection with Birmingham was passed in 1761, that to Bilston being commenced in 1767. The delivery here of the first boat-load of coals (Nov. 6, 1769) was hailed, and rightly so, as one of the greatest blessings that could be conferred on the town, the immediate effect being a reduction in the price to 6d per cwt, which in the following May came down to 4d. The cutting of the first sod towards making the Grand Junction Canal took place July 26, 1766, and it was completed in 1790. In 1768 Briudley, the celebrated engineer, planned out the Birmingham and Wolverhampton Canal, proposing to make it 22 miles long; but he did not live to see it finished. The work was taken up by Smeaton and Telford; the latter of whom calling it "a crooked ditch" struck out a straight cut, reducing the length to 14 miles, increasing the width to 40 feet, the bridges having each a span of 52 feet. The "Summit" bridge was finished in 1879. The Fazeley Canal was completed in 1783, and so successfully was it worked that in nine years the shares were at a premium of £1170. In 1785 the Birmingham, the Fazeley, and the Grand Junction Companies took up and completed an extension to Coventry. The Birmingham and Worcester Canal was commenced in 1,791, the cost being a little over £600,000, and it was opened for through traffic July 21, 1815. By an agreement of September 18, 1873, this canal was sold to the Gloucester and Berkeley Canal Co. (otherwise the Sharpness Dock Co.), and has thus lost its distinctive local name. The Birmingham and Warwick commenced in 1793; was finished in 1800. Communication with Liverpool by water was complete in 1826, the carriage of goods thereto which had previously cost £5 per ton, being reduced to 30s. For a through cut to London, a company was started in May, 1836, with a nominal capital of £3,000,000, in £100 shares, and the first cargoes were despatched in August, 1840. In April, 1840, an Act was passed to unite the Wyrley and Essington Canal Co. with the Birmingham Canal Co., leading to the extension, at a cost of over £120,000, of the canal system to the lower side of the town. There are 2,800 miles of canals in England, and about 300 miles in Ireland. The total length of what may properly be called Birmingham canals is about 130 miles, but if the branches in the "Black Country" be added thereto, it will reach to near 250 miles. The first iron boat made its appearance on canal waters July 24, 1787; the first propelled by steam arrived here from London, September 29, 1826. The adaptation of steam power to general canal traffic, however, was not carried to any great extent, on account of the injury caused to the banks by the "wash" from the paddles and screws, though, when railways were first talked about, the possibility of an inland steam navigation was much canvassed. When the Bill for the London and Birmingham Railway was before Parliament, in 1833, some enterprising carriers started (on Midsummer-day) an opposition in the shape of a stage-boat, to run daily and do the distance, with goods and passengers, in 16 hours. The Birmingham and Liverpool Canal Company introduced steam tugs in 1843. On Saturday, November 11, they despatched 16 boats, with an aggregate load of 380 tons, to Liverpool, drawn by one small vessel of 16-horse power, other engines taking up the "train" at different parts of the voyage. Mr. Inshaw, in 1853, built a steamboat for canals with a screw on each side of the rudder. It was made to draw four boats with 40 tons of coal in each at two and a half miles per hour, and the twin screws were to negative the surge, but the iron horses of the rail soon put down, not only all such weak attempts at competition, but almost the whole canal traffic itself, so far as general merchandise and carriage of light goods and parcels was concerned. "Flyboats" for passengers at one time ran a close race with the coaches and omnibuses between here, Wolverhampton, and other places, but they are old people now who can recollect travelling in that manner in their youth.

Canal Accidents.—The banks of the Birmingham and Worcester Canal, near Wheeley's Road, gave way on May 26, 1872, causing considerable damage to the properties near at hand. A similar occurrence took place at Aston, July 20, 1875; and a third happened at Solihull Lodge Valley, October 27, 1880, when about 80ft. of an embankment 30-ft. high collapsed.

Canal Reservoir, better known as "The Reservoir," near Monument Lane, a popular place of resort, covers an area of 62A. 1R. 5P., and is three-quarters of a mile long. Visitors and others fond of boating can be accommodated here to their heart's content.

Cannon.—The first appearance of these instruments of destruction in connection with the English army was in the time of Edward III. in his wars with the Scotch and the French, the first great battle of historical note in which they were used being that of Cressy, in 1346. The manufacture of "small arms," as they are called, has been anything but a small feature in the trade history of our past, but cannon-founding does not appear to have been much carried on, though a local newspaper of 1836 mentioned that several 250 and 300-pounder guns were sent from here in that year for the fortifications on the Dardanelles.

Cannon Hill Park covers an area of 57a. 1r. 9p., and was presented to the town by Miss Ryland, the deed of conveyance bearing date April 18th, 1873. The nearest route to this Park is by way of Pershore Road and Edgbaston Lane, omnibuses going that way every half-hour.

Caps.—The inventor of percussion caps is not known, but we read of them as being made here as early as 1816, though they were not introduced into "the service" until 1839. The manufacture of these articles has several times led to great loss of life among the workers, notes of which will be found under the head of "Explosions." See also "Trades."

Carlyle.—The celebrated philosopher, Thomas Carlyle, resided here for a short time in 1824; and his notes about Birmingham cannot but be worth preserving. Writing to his brother John under date Aug. 10, he says:—

"Birmingham I have now tried for a reasonable time, and I cannot complain of being tired of it. As a town it is pitiful enough—a mean congeries of bricks, including one or two large capitalists, some hundreds of minor ones, and, perhaps, a hundred and twenty thousand sooty artisans in metals and chemical produce. The streets are ill-built, ill-paved, always flimsy in their aspect—often poor, sometimes miserable. Not above one or two of them are paved with flagstones at the sides; and to walk upon the little egg-shaped, slippery flints that supply their places is something like a penance. Yet withal it is interesting for some of the commons or lanes that spot and intersect the green, woody, undulating environs to view this city of Tubal Cain. Torrents of thick smoke, with ever and anon a burst of dingy flame, are issuing from a thousand funnels. 'A thousand hammers fall by turns.' You hear the clank of innumerable steam engines, the rumbling of cars and vans, and the hum of men interrupted by the sharper rattle of some canal boat loading or disloading, or, perhaps, some fierce explosion when the cannon founders [qy: the proof-house] are proving their new-made ware. I have seen their rolling-mills, their polishing of teapots, and buttons and gun-barrels, and lire-shovels, and swords, and all manner of toys and tackle. I have looked into their ironworks where 150,000 men are smelting the metal in a district a few miles to the north: their coal mines, fit image, of Arvenus; their tubes and vats, as large as country churches, full of copperas and aqua fortis and oil of vitroil; and the whole is not without its attractions, as well as repulsions, of which, when we meet, I will preach to you at large."

Carr's Lane.—Originally this is believed to have been known as "Goddes Cart Lane," and was sufficiently steep to be dangerous, as evidenced by accidents noted in past history.

Carr's Lane Chapel, the meeting house of the old Independents, or as they are now called, the Congregationalists, will be noticed under "Places of Worship."

Cartoons.—If some of our fore-fathers could but glance at the illustrations or the portait caricatures of local public men and their doings, now given us almost daily, we fear they would not credit us moderns with much advancement in the way of political politeness, however forward we may be in other respects. Many really good cartoons have appeared, and neither side can be said to hold a monopoly of such sketchy skilfulness, but one of the best (because most truthful) was the cartoon issued in October 1868, giving the portrait of a "Vote-as-you're-told" electer, led by the nose by his Daily Post.

Castle.—Birmingham Castle is named in an ancient document as being situated a "bowshot southwestward of the church," but the exact site thereof has never been traced. It is supposed to have been erected about the year 1140, and to have been demolished by order of King Stephen, in 1176.

Castle Street takes its name from the hostlery once so famous among our coach officers.

Catacombs.—There is a large number of massively-built stone vaults underneath Christ Church, each divided into tiers of catacombs, or receptacles for the dead. It is in one of these that the remains of Baskerville at last found a resting place.—The catacombs at the General Cemetery are many, being cut out of the sandstone rock known as Key Hill, and a large number have been and can be excavated underneath the church in the Warstone Lane Cemetery.

Cathedral.—See "Places of Worship—Catholic."

Cat Shows.—The first Cat Show held here was opened November 29th, 1873, and was a very successful speculation; but the exhibitions of the two following years did not pay and since then the grimalkins have been left at home.

Cattle Show.—As first started (in 1849, when it was held near Kent Street), and at Bingley Hall in the following year, this was an annual show of cattle, sheep, and pigs only, but after years has made it a gathering place for specimens, of nearly everything required on a farm, and the "Show" has become an "Exhibition," under which heading full notice will be found.

Cemeteries.—The burial grounds attached to the Churches were formerly the only places of interment save for suicides and murderers—the former of whom were buried at some cross-road, with a stake driven through the body, while the latter were frequently hung in chains and got no burial at all. In 1807 the first addendum to our churchyards was made by the purchase of 13,192 square yards of land in Park Street, which cost £1,600. Having been laid out and enclosed with substantial railed walls at a further outlay of £764, the ground was duly consecrated July 16, 1813, and for some years was the chief receptacle for decaying humanity of all classes, many thousands of whom were there deposited. By degrees the ground came to be looked upon as only fit for the poorest of the poor, until, after being divided by the railway, this "God's Acre" was cared fir by none, and was well called the "black spot" of the town. Since the passing of the Closed Burial Grounds Bill (March 18, 1878) the Corporations have taken possession, and at considerable expense have re-walled the enclosure and laid it out as a place of health resort for the children of the neighbourhood. The burial grounds of St. Bartholomew's, St. Martin's, St. Mary's, and St. George's have also been carefully and tastefully improved in appearance, and we can now venture to look at most of our churchyards without shame.

The General Cemetery at Key Hill was originated at a meeting held Oct. 18, 1832, when a proprietary Company was formed, and a capital fixed at £12,000, in shares of £10 each. The total area of the property is about twelve acres, eight of which are laid out for general burials, in a edition to the catacombs cut into the sandstone rock.

The Church of England Cemetery in Warstone Lane is also the property of a private Company, having a capital of £20,000 in £10 shares. The area is nearly fifteen acres, the whole of which was consecrated as a burial ground for the Church on August 20, 1848.

The Catholic Cemetery of St. Joseph, at Nechell's Green, received its first consignment in 1850.

The introduction and extension of railways have played sad havoc with a number of the old burial grounds belonging to our forefathers. As mentioned above the London and North Western took a slice out of Park Street Cemetery. The Great Western cleared the Quakers' burial ground in Monmouth Street (where the Arcade now stands) the remains of the departed Friends being removed to their chapel yard in Bull Street, and a curious tale has been told in connection therewith. It is said that the representative of the Society of Friends was a proper man of business, as, indeed, most of them are, and that he drove rather a hard bargain with the railway directors, who at last were obliged to give in to what they considered to be an exorbitant demand for such a small bit of freehold. The agreement was made and the contract signed, and Friend Broadbrim went on his way rejoicing; but not for long. In selling the land he apparently forgot that the land contained bones, for when the question of removing the dead was mooted, the Quaker found he had to pay back a goodly portion of the purchase money before he obtained permission to do so. In clearing the old streets away to make room for New Street Station, in 1846, the London and North Western found a small Jewish Cemetery in what was then known as the "Froggery," but which had long been disused. The descendants of Israel carefully gathered the bones and reinterred them in their later-dated cemetery in Granville Street, but even here they did not find their last resting-place, for when, a few years back, the Midland made the West Suburban line, it became necessary to clear out this ground also, and the much-disturbed remains of the poor Hebrews were removed to Witton. The third and last of the Jewish Cemeteries, that in Betholom Row, which was first used in or about 1825, and has long been full, is also doomed to make way for the extension of the same line.—During the year 1883 the time-honoured old Meeting-house yard, where Poet Freeth, and many another local worthy, were laid to rest, has been carted off—dust and ashes, tombs and tombstones—to the great graveyard at Witton, where Christian and Infidel, Jew and Gentile, it is to be hoped, will be left at peace till the end of the world.

In 1860, the Corporation purchased 105 acres of land at Witton for the Borough Cemetery. The foundation stones of two chapels were laid August 12, 1861, and the Cemetery was opened May 27, 1863, the total cost being nearly £40,000. Of the 105 acres, 53 are consecrated to the use of the Church of England, 35 laid out for Dissenters, and 14 set aside for Catholics and Jews.

Census.—The numbering of the people by a regular and systematic plan once in every ten years, only came into operation in 1801, and the most interesting returns, as connected with this town and its immediate neighbourhood, will be found under the heading of "Population."

Centre of Birmingham.—As defined by the authorities for the settlement of any question of distance, Attwood's statue at the top of Stephenson Place, in New Street, is reckoned as the central spot of the borough. In olden days, Nelson's monument, and prior to that, the Old Cross, in the Bull Ring, was taken as the centre. As an absolute matter of fact, so far as the irregular shape of the borough area will allow of such a measurement being made, the central spot is covered by Messrs. Harris and Norton's warehouse in Corporation Street.

Centenarians.—John Harman, better known as Bishop Vesey, died in 1555, in his 103rd year. James Sands, who died at Harborne in 1625, was said to have been 140 years old, and his wife lived to be 120. Joseph Stanley, of Aston, died in May, 1761, in his 106th year. Wesley, under date of March 19, 1768, wrote of having seen George Bridgens, then in his 107th year; Hutton, in noticing the long life of Bridgens, also mentions one John Pitt who lived to be 100, a Mrs. Moore who reached 104, and an old market man who completed his 107th year. A Mr. Clarkson died here, in February, 1733, aged 112. William Jennens, the Jennens of untold, but much coveted, wealth, died in June, 1798, aged 103. John Roberts, of Digbeth, had a family of twenty-eight children, six by his third wife, whom he married when nearly eighty, and lived to see his 103rd year, in 1792, dying July 6. Thomas Taylor, a cobbler, stuck to his last until a week of his death, July 8, 1796, at 103. T. Blakemore died November 12, 1837, aged 105. Mrs. E. Bailey, founder of the Female Charity School, was also 105 at her death, December 2, 1854. Another old lady was Elizabeth Taylor, who died at Sparkbrook, March 5, 1864, aged 104 years. Mary Hemming, of Moseley Wake Green, died December 5, 1881, in her 104th year.

Centenary Celebrations, more or less worthy of note, are continuously recurring, and the date of some few are here preserved. Our loyal grandfathers honoured the hundredth, anniversary of the Revolution of 1688, by a public dinner, November 4, 1788. Old Bluecoat boys in like manner kept the centenary of their school, August 24, 1824. Admirers of the Philosopher Priestley chose All Fools' Day, 1831, as the fitting day to celebrate the anniversary of his birth. The Centenary of the Protestant Dissenting Charity Schools was worthily celebrated by the raising of a special sum amounting to £1,305, as an addition to the funds. In January, 1859, Robert Burns' anniversary was remembered by the holding a supper in Aston Hall, at which only half-a-dozen Scotchmen were present out of half-a-hundred guests. The Dissenting Ministers of this and the neighbouring counties, who, for a hundred years, have met together once a month, celebrated the event by a quiet luncheon-dinner, December 13, 1882. The Tercentenary of the Free Grammar School was celebrated with learned speeches April 16, 1852; that of Good Queen Bess, by a public prayer meeting, November 16, 1858; and that of Shakespeare, April 23, 1864, by the founding of a Shakespeare Memorial Library. The thousandth anniversary of Alfred the Great, October 29, 1849, was made much of by the Political Knowledge Association, which had not been in existence it thousand days. The fact of John Bright being M.P. for Birmingham for a quarter of a century, was celebrated in June, 1883, by the Liberal Association, who got up a "monster" procession in imitation of the celebrated Attwood procession of the old days of Reform. The holiday was most thoroughly enjoyed by the public generally, and immense numbers of people thronged the streets to hear the bands and see what was to be seen.

Chamberlain Memorial.—See "Statues," &c.

Chamber of Commerce.—In 1783 there was a "Standing General Commercial Committee," composed of the leading merchants and Manufacturers, who undertook the duty of looking after the public interests of the town (not forgetting their own peculiarly private ditto). That they were not so Liberal as their compeers of to-day may be gathered from the fact of their strongly opposing the exportation of brass, and on no account permitting a workman to go abroad.

Chamber of Manufacturers.—When Pitt, in 1784, proposed to tax coal, iron, copper, and other raw materials, he encountered a strong opposition from the manufacturers, prominent among whom were Boulton (Soho), Wilkinson (Bradley), and Wedgwood (Potteries), who formed a "Chamber," the first meeting of which was held here in February, 1785. The Minister was induced to alter his mind.

Chandeliers.—Many beautiful works of art have been manufactured in this town, which, though the wonder and admiration of strangers, receive but faint notice here, and find no record except in the newspaper of the day or a work like the present. Among such may be ranked the superb brass chandelier which Mr. R.W. Winfield sent to Osborne in 1853 for Her Majesty, the Queen. Designed in the Italian style, this fine specimen of the brassworkers' skill, relieved by burnishing and light matted work, ornamented with figures of Peace, Plenty, and Love in purest Parian, masks of female faces typical of night, and otherwise decorated in the richest manner, was declared by the late Prince Consort as the finest work he had ever seen made in this country and worthy to rank with that of the masters of old. Not so fortunate was Mr. Collis with the "Clarence chandelier" and sideboard he exhibited at the Exhibition of 1862. Originally made of the richest ruby cut and gilded glass for William IV., it was not finished before that monarch's death, and was left on the maker's hand. Its cost was nearly £1,000, but at the final sale of Mr. Collis's effects in Dec. 1881 it was sold for £5.

Chapels and Churches.—See "Places of Worship."

Charity.—Charitable collections were made in this neighbourhood in 1655, for the Redmontese Protestants, Birmingham giving £15 11s. 2d., Sutton Coldfield £14, and Aston £4 14s. 2d. On the 6th of June, 1690, £13 18s. 1-1/2d. were collected at St. Martin's "for ye Irish Protestants." In 1764 some Christmas performances were given for the relief of aged and distressed housekeepers, and the charitable custom thus inaugurated was kept up for over seventy years. In the days of monks and monasteries, the poor and needy, the halt and lame, received charitable doles at the hands of the former and at the gates of the latter, but it would be questionable how far the liberality of the parsons, priests, and preachers of the present day would go were the same system now in vogue. It has been estimated that nearly £5,000 is given every year in what may be called the indiscriminate charity of giving alms to those who ask it in the streets or from door to door. By far the largest portion of this amount goes into the hands of the undeserving and the worthless, and the formation of a central relief office, into which the charitably-disposed may hand in their contributions, and from whence the really poor and deserving may receive help in times of distress, has been a long felt want. In 1869 a "Charity Organisation Society" was established here, and it is still in existence, but it does not appear to meet with that recognised support which such an institution as suggested requires. In 1882 a special fund was started for the purpose of giving aid to women left with children, and about £380 was subscribed thereto, while the ordinary income was only £680. The special fund can hardly be said as yet to have got into working order, but when the cost of proving the property of the recipients, with the necessary expenses of office rent, salaries, &c., have been deducted from the ordinary income, the amount left to be distributed among the persons deemed by the officials deserving of assistance is small indeed, the expenses reaching about £330 per year. In 1880 it cost £329 18s. 4d. to give away food, cash, and clothing, &c., valued at £386 16s. 6d., an apparent anomally which would not be so glaring if the kind-hearted and charitable would only increase the income of the Society, or re-organise it upon a wider basis.—For statistics of poverty and the poor see "Pauperism" and "Poor Rates."

Charitable Trusts.—See "Philanthropical Institutions," &c.

Chartism.—Following the great Reform movement of 1832, in which Birmingham led the van, came years of bad harvests, bad trade, and bitter distress. The great Chartist movement, though not supported by the leaders of the local Liberal party, was taken up with a warmth almost unequalled in any other town in the Kingdom, meetings being held daily and nightly for months in succession, Feargus O'Connor, Henry Vincent, and many other "orators of the fiery tongue," taking part. On the 13th of August, 1838, a monstre demonstration took place on Holloway Head, at which it was reckoned there were over 100,000 persons present, and a petition in favour of "The Charter" was adopted that received the signatures of 95,000 people in a few days. The Chartist "National Convention" met here May 13, 1839, and noisy assemblages almost daily affrighted the respectable townsmen out of their propriety. It was advised that the people should abstain from all exciseable articles, and "run for gold" upon the savings banks—very good advice when given by Attwood in 1832, but shockingly wicked in 1839 when given to people who could have had but little in the savings or any other banks. This, and the meetings which ensued, so alarmed the magistrates for the safety of property that, in addition to swearing in hundreds of special constables, they sent to London for a body of police. These arrived on July 4, and unfortunately at the time a stormy meeting was being held in the Bull Ring, which they were at once set to disperse, a work soon accomplished by the free use they made of their staves. The indignant Brums, however, soon rallied and drove the police into the Station, several being wounded on either side. The latent fury thus engendered burst out in full force on the 15th when the notorious Chartist Riots commenced, but the scenes then enacted, disgraceful as they were, may well be left in oblivion, especially as the best of "the points" of the Charter are now part of the laws of the land. Besides many others who were punished more or less, two of the leaders, Wm. Lovett and John Collins, were sentenced to one year's imprisonment for a seditious libel in saying that "the people of Birmingham were the best judges of their own rights to meet in the Bull Ring, and the best judges of their own power and resources to obtain justice." On the 27th July, 1849, Lovett and Collins were accorded a public welcome on their release from prison, being met at the Angel by a crowd of vehicles, bands of music, &c., and a procession (said to have numbered nearly 30,000), accompanied them to Gosta Green where speeches were delivered; a dinner, at which 800 persons sat down, following on the site of "The People's Hall of Science," in Loveday Street. In 1841, Joseph Sturge gave in his adhesion to some movement for the extension of the franchise to the working classes, and at his suggestion a meeting was held at the Waterloo Rooms (Feb. 25th, 1842), and a memorial to the Queen drawn up, which in less than a month received 16,000 signatures. On the 5th of April, 87 delegates from various parts of England, Ireland, and Scotland, assembled here, and after four days' sitting formed themselves into "The National Complete Suffrage Union," whose "points" were similar to those of the Charter, viz., manhood suffrage, abolition of the property qualification, vote by ballot, equal electoral districts, payment of election expenses and of members, and annual Parliaments. On the 27th of December, another Conference was held (at the Mechanics' Institute), at which nearly 400 delegates were present, but the apple of discord had been introduced, and the "Complete Suffrage Union" was pooh-poohed by the advocates of "the Charter, the whole Charter, and nothing but the Charter," and our peace-loving townsman, whom The Times had dubbed "the Birmingham Quaker Chartist," retired from the scene. From that time until the final collapse of the Chartist movement, notwithstanding many meetings were held, and strong language often used, Birmingham cannot be said to have taken much part in it, though, in 1848 (August 15th), George J. Mantle, George White, and Edward King, three local worthies in the cause, found themselves in custody for using seditious language.

Chauntries.—In 1330 Walter of Clodeshale, and in 1347 Richard of Clodeshale, the "Lords of Saltley," founded and endowed each a Chauntry in old St. Martin's Church, wherein daily services should be performed for themselves, their wives, and ancestors, in their passage through purgatory. In like manner, in 1357, Philip de Lutteley gave to the Lutteley chantry in Enville Church, a parcel of land called Morfe Woode, "for the health of his soul, and the souls of all the maintained of the said chantry;" and in 1370 he gave other lands to the chantry, "for the priest to pray at the altar of St. Mary for the health of his soul, and Maud his wife, and of Sir Fulke de Birmingham," and of other benefactors recited in the deed. It is to be devoutly hoped that the souls of the devisees and their friends had arrived safely at their journeys' end before Harry the Eighth's time, for he stopped the prayers by stopping the supplies.

Cherry Street took its name from the large and fruitful cherry orchard which we read of as being a favourite spot about the year 1794.

Chess.—See "Sports and Sporting."

Chicago Fire.—The sum of £4,300 was subscribed and sent from here towards relieving the sufferers by this calamity.

Children.—A society known as "The Neglected Children's Aid Society," was founded in 1862, by Mr. Arthur Ryland, for the purpose of looking after and taking care of children under fourteen found wandering or begging, homeless or without proper guardianship. It was the means of rescuing hundreds from the paths of dishonesty and wretchedness, but as its work was in a great measure taken up by the School Board, the society was dissolved Dec. 17, 1877. Mr. Thos. Middlemore, in 1872, pitying the condition of the unfortunate waifs and strays known as "Street Arabs," took a house in St. Luke's Road for boys, and one in Spring Road for girls, and here he has trained nearly a thousand poor children in ways of cleanliness and good behaviour prior to taking the larger part of them to Canada. A somewhat similar work, though on a smaller scale, is being carried on by Mr. D. Smith, in connection with the mission attached to the Bloomsbury Institution. In both instances the children are found good homes, and placed with worthy people on their arrival in Canada, and, with scarcely an exception all are doing well. The total cost per head while at the Homes and including the passage money is about £16, and subscriptions will be welcomed, so that the work of the Institutions may be extended as much as possible.

Chimes.—The earliest note we can find respecting the chimes in the tower of St. Martin's is in a record dated 1552, which states there were "iiij belles, with a clocke, and a chyme."

Chimnies.—Like all manufacturing towns Birmingham is pretty well ornamented with tall chimnies, whose foul mouths belch forth clouds of sooty blackness, but the loftiest and most substantial belongs to the town itself. At the Corporation Wharf in Montague Street the "stack" is 258 feet in height, with a base 54 feet in circumference, and an inside diameter of 12 feet. About 250,000 bricks were used in its construction, which was completed in September, 1879.—Householders of an economical turn must remember it is not always the cheapest plan to clean their chimnies by "burning them out," for in addition to the danger and risk of damage by so doing, the authorities of Moor Street have the peculiar custom of imposing a penalty (generally 10s.) when such cases are brought before them. Should such an event occur by mischance keep all doors and windows shut, and do not admit the sweeps who may come knocking at your door, unless fully prepared with the half-crowns they require as bribes not to tell the police. As a rule it is cheaper to trust to "Robert" not seeing it.

China Temple Field was a noted place for amusements about the year 1820, and was situate where Cattell Road is now. Originally it formed part of the grounds of Bordesley Hall, which was wrecked in the riots of 1791.

Choral Society.—This Society held its first Choral Concert, August 2, 1836. The Festival Choral Society was established in 1845.

Cholera.—This dreadful epidemic has never yet been felt in severity in this town, though several fatal cases were reported in August, 1832. In July, 1865, great alarm was caused by the fact of 243 inmates of the Workhouse being attacked with choleraic symptoms, but they all recovered.

Church Pastoral Aid Society.—There is a local branch of this Society here, and about £1,300 per annum is gathered in and forwarded to the parent society, who in return grant sums in aid of the stipends of thirty Curates and as many Scripture readers, amounting to nearly £4,700 per year.

Churchrates.—Prior to 1831, Churchrates had been regularly levied, and, to a great extent, cheerfully paid, but with the other reforms of that Reforming age came the desire to re-form this impost, by doing away with it altogether, and at a meeting held on August 7, 1832, the ratepayers assembled not only denounced it, but petitioned Parliament for its entire abolition. Between that year and 1837, Churchrates of 6d. to 9d. in the £ were not at all infrequent, but in the latter year there was a sweet little row, which led to an alteration. At a vestry meeting held March 28, the redoubtable George Frederick Muntz, with George Edmonds, and other "advanced" men of the times, demanded a personal examination of the books, &c., &c., with the result doubtless anticipated and wished for—a general shindy, free fight, and tumult. For his share in the riot, G.F.M. was put on his trial in the following year (March 30 to April 1) and had to pay over £2,000 in the shape of costs, but he may be said to have won something after all, for a better feeling gradually took the place of rancour, and a system of "voluntary" rates—notably one for the rebuilding of St. Martin's—was happily brought to work. The Bill for the abolition of Churchrates was passed July 13, 1868.

Church Street.—In 1764 at Warwick a legal battle was fought as to a right of way through the New Hall Park, the path in dispute being the site of the present Church Street.

Circuses.—The first notice we have of any circus visiting Birmingham is that of Astley's which came here October 7, 1787. In 1815 Messrs. Adams gave performances in a "new equestrian circus on the Moat," and it has interest in the fact that this was the first appearance locally of Mr. Ryan, a young Irishman, then described as "indisputably the first tight-rope dancer in the world of his age." Mr. Ryan, a few years later, started a circus on his own account, and after a few years of tent performances, which put money in his pocket, ventured on the speculation of building a permanent structure in Bradford-street, opening his "New Grand Arena" there in 1827. Unfortunately, this proved a failure, and poor Ryan went to the wall. The circus (known now as the Circus Chapel), long lay empty, but was again re-opened May 19, 1838, as an amphitheatre, but not successfully. In 1839 the celebrated Van Amburgh, whose establishment combined the attractions of a circus and a menagerie, visited this town, and his performances were held, rather strangely, at the Theatre Royal. On the night of the Bull Ring Riots, July 15th, when there was "a full house," the startling news that a number of buildings were on fire, &c., was shouted out just at the moment that Van Amburgh was on the stage with a number of his well-trained animals. He himself was reclining on the boards, his head resting on the sides of a tawny lion, while in his arms was a beautiful child, four or five years old, playing with the ears of the animal. The intelligence naturally caused great excitement, but the performer went quietly on, hoisting the little darling to his shoulder, and putting his animals through their tricks as calmly as if nothing whatever was the matter. In 1842, Ducrow's famous troupe came, and once again opened Ryan's Circus in the Easter week, and that was the last time the building was used for the purpose it was originally erected for. Cooke's, Hengler's, Newsome's, and Sanger's periodical visits are matters of modern date. The new building erected by Mr. W.R. Inshaw, at foot of Snow Hill, for the purposes of a Concert Hall, will be adaptable as a Circus.

Climate.—From the central position in which Birmingham is situated, and its comparative elevation, the town has always been characterised as one of the healthiest in the kingdom. Dr. Priestley said the air breathed here was as pure as any he had analysed. Were he alive now and in the habit of visiting the neighbourhood of some of our rolling mills, &c., it is possible he might return a different verdict, but nevertheless the fact remains that the rates of mortality still contrast most favourably as against other large manufacturing towns.

Clocks.—One of Boulton's specialties was the manufacture of clocks, but it was one of the few branches that did not pay him. Two of his finest astronomical clocks were bought by the Empress of Russia, after being offered for sale in this country in vain. His friend, Dr. Small, is said to have invented a timepiece containing but a single wheel. The "town clocks" of the present day are only worth notice on account of their regular irregularity, and those who wish to be always "up to the time o' day," had best set their watches by the instrument placed in the wall of the Midland Institute. The dome of the Council House would be a grand position in which to place a really good clock, and if the dials were fitted with electric lights it would be useful at all hours, from near and far.

Clubs.—No place in the kingdom can record the establishment of more clubs than Birmingham, be they Friendly Clubs, Money Clubs (so-called), or the more taking Political Clubs, and it would be a hard task to name them all, or say how they flourished, or dropped and withered. In the years 1850-60 it was estimated that at publichouses and coffeehouses there were not less than 180 Money Clubs, the members paying in weekly or fortnightly subscriptions of varying amount for shares £5 to £100, and though there cannot be the slightest doubt that many of our present mastermen owe their success in life to this kind of mutual help, the spirit of gambling in money shares proved, on the whole, to be disastrous to the members who went in for good interest on their deposits. Of Friendly Clubs we shall have something to say under another beading. Respecting the Political Clubs and those of a general nature we may say that the earliest we have note of is the "Church and King Club," whose first meeting was held at the Royal Hotel, Nov. 27, 1792. Of a slightly different nature was the "Hampden Club," established in 1815, but which was closed by the suspension of the Habeas Corpus Act in 1817. During the troublous times of 1830-40, many clubs, or "smoke-room palavers," existed, but, perhaps the only one that really showed results was the Branch Club (or local agency), connected with the Land Scheme of Feargus O'Connor [see "Land Societies"], and that ultimately dwindled to naught. On July 5, 1847, a club on the plan of the London "Whittington" was started here, but when or why it ended deponent knoweth not.—The Union Clubhouse, corner of Newhall Street and Colmore Row, which cost £16,000, was built in 1868-9, being opened May 3rd of the latter year. This must be considered as the chief neutral ground in local club matters, gentlemen of all shades of politics, &c., being members. The number of members is limited to 400, with 50 "temporary" members, the entrance fee being £15 15s., and the annual subscription £7 7s.—The Town and District Club, opened at the Shakespeare Rooms, in August, 1876, also started on the non-political theory: the town members paying £3 3s per annum, and country members a guinea or guinea and half, according to their residence being within 25 or 100 miles.—A Liberal Club was founded October 16, 1873, under the auspices of Mr. Joseph Chamberlain and took possession of its present rooms in Corporation Street, January 20, 1880, pending the completion of the palatial edifice now in course of erection in Edmund Street, at the corner of Congreve Street. The "Forward Liberal Club," opened in Great Hampton Street, October 30, 1880. A "Junior Liberal Club" celebrated their establishment by a meeting in the Town Hall, November 16, 1880. The Conservatives, of course, have not been at all backward in Club matters, for there has been some institution or other of the kind connected with the party for the last hundred years. The Midland Conservative Club was started July 4, 1872, and has its head-quarters now in Waterloo-street, the old County Court buildings being remodelled for the purpose. A Junior Conservative Club opened in Castle Street, June 25, 1874; a Young Men's Conservative Club commenced July 26, 1876; the Belmont Conservative Club, July 30, 1877; and the Hampton Conservative Club, August 21st of same year. In fact, every ward in the borough, and every parish and hamlet in the suburbs now has its Conservative and Liberal Club; the workingmen having also had their turn at Club-making, the Birmingham Heath working men opening up shop, August 25, 1864; the Saltley boys in October, 1868; the St. Albanites following suit December 1, 1873; and the Ladywood men, November 30, 1878. A Club of more pretentious character, and called par excellence "The Working-man's Club," was begun July 20, 1863, but the industriously-inclined members thereof did not work together well, and allowed the affair to drop through. Backed by several would-be-thought friends of the working class, another "Working Men's Club" sprung into existence April 29, 1875, with a nominal capital of £2,500 in 10s. shares. Rooms were opened in Corn Exchange Passage on the 31st of May, and for a time all promised well. Unfortunately the half-sovereigns did not come in very fast, and the landlord, though he knew "Nap" to be a very favourite game, did not choose, to be caught napping, and therefore "took his rest" at the end of the fifth half-year, and in so doing rent the whole fabric of the club.—The Edgbaston Art Club was organised in 1878; the Chess Club in 1841; the Germania Club in 1856; the Gymnastic Club in 1866; the Dramatic Club in May, 1865; the Farmer's Club in May, 1864, the Pigeon flying Club at Quilter's in 1875, &c., &c. Club law has great attractions for the Brums—every profession and every trade hath its club, and all the "fanciers" of every sort and kind club by themselves, till their name is "Legion."

Coaches.—From its being situated as it were in the very heart of the kingdom, Birmingham, in the olden days, and it is but fifty years ago, was an important converging central-point of the great mailcoach system, and a few notes in connection therewith cannot be uninteresting. Time was when even coaching was not known, for have we not read how long it took ere the tidings of Prince Rupert's attack on our town reached London. A great fear seems to have possessed the minds of the powers that were in regard to any kind of quick transmission whatever, for in the year 1673 it was actually proposed "to suppress the public coaches that ran within fifty or sixty miles of London," and to limit all the other vehicles to a speed of "thirty miles per day in summer, and twenty-five in winter"—for what might not be dreaded from such an announcement as that "that remarkable swift travelling coach, 'The Fly,' would leave Birmingham on Mondays and reach London on the Thursdays following." Prior to and about 1738, an occasional coach was put on the road, but not as a regular and periodical conveyance, the fare to London being 25 shillings, "children on lap, and footmen behind, being charged half-price." A "Flying Coach" commenced running direct to the Metropolis on May 28th, 1745, and was evidently thought to be an event of some importance, as it was advertised to do the distance in two days "if the roads permitted." In July, 1782, the same journey was accomplished in 14 hours, showing a great improvement in the arrangements of the road. The first mail coaches for the conveyance of letters was started by Mr. Palmer, of Bath, in 1784, the earliest noticed as passing through here being on August 23, 1785, but the first direct mail from this town dates only from May 25, 1812. In February, 1795, the Western mailcoaches were delayed nearly a week together in consequence of a rapid thaw rendering the roads impassable. In 1777 fifty-two coaches passed through here to London and sixteen to Bristol every week. In 1829 at least 100 departed from or passed through the town daily, 550 persons travelling between here and London. In 1832 Mr. Lecount estimated the general results of the road and canal traffic between here and London as follows: Pessengers, 233,155; goods, 62,389 tons; parcels, 46,799; beasts, 50,839; sheep, 365,000; pigs, 15,364; the amount expended in cost of transit being £1,338,217. In 1837 it was estimated that £6,789 was received per week from coach passengers on the road from here to London, £1,571 for parcels per coach, and £729 from persons posting along the same roads; and that £8,120 was received for goods by canals and waggons, not including iron, timber, cattle, minerals, or other goods at low tonnage—£17,209 per week. There was, notwithstanding the large number of coaches leaving here every day, no direct conveyance from Birmingham to Edinburgh. The best and usual route was by Walsall, Manchester, Preston, and Carlisle; distances and times being, Manchester, 78-1/2 miles, 8 hours, fare, 14s.; Manchester to Carlisle, 118 miles, 12 hours 55 minutes by the mail, including stoppage of fifty minutes at Preston for post office purposes, fare, £1 2s. 6d.; Carlisle to Edinburgh, 95 miles, 9 hours 35 minutes, fare, 18s.; coachmen and guards' fees about 15s.; all hotel charges, &c., were paid by the passenger. Total distance, 291-1/2 miles; travelling time, 30-1/2 hours; cost, £3 9s. 6d., in all. The mail coach which left the Albion reached London in 10-1/2 hours, which would be reckoned as very good travelling, even in these days. For some time after the introduction of railways, the coaching interest was still of some account, for as late as 1840 there were 54 coaches and omnibuses running from here every 24 hours.— There has been a kind of modern revival of the good old coaching days, but it has not become popular in this part of the country, though quite a summer feature on the Brighton Road. A four-in-hand, driven by the Earl of Aylesford, was put on the road from here to Coventry, at latter end of April, 1878; and another ran for part of the summer, in 1880, to Leamington. The introduction of railways set many persons to work on the making of "steam coaches" to travel on the highways. Captain Ogle coming here on one of his own inventing September 8th, 1832, direct from Oxford, having travelled at from ten to fourteen miles per hour. Our local geniuses were not behindhand, and Messrs. Heaton Bros., and the well-known Dr. Church brought out machines for the purpose. Both parties started joint-stock companies to carry out their inventions, and in that respect both parties succeeded, for such was the run for shares, that in June, 1833, when Heatons' prospectus came out, offering to the public 2,000 £10 shares, no less than 3,000 were asked for in one day. There was also a third company in the field, the "London, Birmingham, and Liverpool," with a nominal capital of £300,000; but none of them prospered; for though they could construct the engines and the coaches, they could not make receipts cover expenses. Heatons' ran theirs for some little time to Wolverhampton and back, and even to the Lickey; the Doctor came out every month with something new; and even the big Co. managed to bring one carriage all the way from London (August 28th, 1835). Others besides Captain Ogle also came here on their iron horses, and there was plenty of fun and interest for the lookers-on generally— but no trade and no interest for the speculators. For steam coaches of the present day, see "Tramways."

Coal was not in common use much before 1625, and for a long time was rather shunned by householders, more especially in the rural parts where the black diamonds were looked upon as something altogether uncanny. Prior to the opening of the first canal, the roads leading from the Black Country daily presented the curious feature of an almost unending procession of carts and waggons bringing the supplies needed by our manufacturers, and high prices were the rule of the day. The first boatload was brought in on November 6th, 1769, and soon after the price of coal at the wharf was as low as 4d. per cwt.—See "Trades."

Cobbett delivered a lecture on the Corn Laws, &c., at Beardsworth's Repository, May 10 1830.

Cobden.—There was a general closing of places of business here on April 6, 1865, the day on which Richard Cobden was buried.

Cockfighting.Aris's Gazette of December 26, 1780, announced in one of its advertisements that "the Annual Subscription Match of Cocks" would be fought at Duddeston Hall, commonly called "Vauxhall," on the New Year's day and day after.—The same paper printed an account of another Cockfight, at Sutton, as late as April 17, 1875.

Coffeehouses.—Coffee, which takes its name from the Abyssinian province of Kaffa, was introduced into this country in the early part of the 17th century, the first coffeehouse being opened in London in 1652. Until very late years coffeehouses in provincial towns were more noted for their stuffy untidiness than aught else, those of Birmingham not excepted, but quite a change has come o'er the scene now, and with all the brave glitter of paint and glaring gas they attempt to rival the public-houses. The Birmingham Coffeehouse Company, Limited (originally miscalled The Artizan's Clubhouse Company), which came into existence March 27, 1877, with a capital of £20,000 in 10s. shares, has now near upon a score of houses open, and their business is so successful that very fair dividends are realised.

Coffins.—Excluding textile fabrics and agricultural produce, Birmingham supplies almost every article necessary for the comfort of man's life, and it is therefore not surprising that some little attention has been given to the construction of the "casket" which is to enclose his remains when dead. Coffins of wood, stone, lead, &c., have been known for centuries, but coffins of glass and coffins of brass must be ranked amongst the curiosities of our later trades. Two of the latter kind polished, lacquered, and decorated in a variety of ways, with massive handles and emblazoned shields, were made here some few years back for King Egbo Jack and another dark-skinned potentate of South Africa. "By particular request" each of these coffins were provided with four padlocks, two outside and two inside, though how to use the latter must have been a puzzle even for a dead king. The Patent Metallic Air-tight Coffin Co., whose name pretty accurately describes their productions, in 1861 introduced hermetically-sealed coffins with plate glass panels in the lid, exceedingly useful articles in case of contagious diseases, &c., &c. The trade in coffin "furniture" seems to have originated about 1760, when one ingenious "Mole" pushed it forward; and among the list of patents taken out in 1796 by a local worthy there is one for "a patent coffin," though its particular speciality could not have met with much approval, as although some thousands of bodies have been removed from our various sepultures nothing curious or rarer than rotten boards and old lead has been brought to light.

Coinage.—So far had our patriotic forefathers proceeded in the art of making money that about the middle of the last century it was estimated over one half the copper coin in circulation was counterfeit, and that nine-tenths thereof was manufactured in Birmingham, where 1,000 halfpennies could be had of the makers for 25s. Boulton's big pennies were counterfeited by lead pennies faced with copper. One of these would be a curiosity now. The bronze coinage was first issued December 1, 1860, and soon after Messrs. Ralph Heaton & Sons made 100 tons of bronze coins for the Mint. They are distinguished by the letter "H" under the date. The number, weight, and value of this issue were as follows:—

Tons Nominal Value.
62 or 9,595,245 pennies £25,396 17 1
28 or 5,504,382 halfpennies 11,469 10 11
10 or 3,884,446 farthings 4,096 5 4
100 or 15,484,043 pieces £40,962 13 4

The same firm has had several similar contracts, the last being in hand at the present time. The bronze is composed of 95 parts copper, 4 tin, and 1 zinc.

Colleges.—See "Schools," &c.

Colmore Row, which now extends from the Council House to the Great Western Hotel (including Ann Street and Monmouth Street) is named after the Colmore family, the owners of the freehold. Great Colmore Street, Caroline and Charlotte Streets, Great and Little Charles Streets, Cregoe, Lionel, and Edmund Streets, all take their names from the same source.

Colonnade.—This very handsome and (for Birmingham) rather novel-looking building, was opened Jan. 10, 1883, being erected by Mr. A. Humpage, at a cost of about £70,000, from the designs of Mr. W.H. Ward. The Colonnade proper runs round the entire building, giving frontage to a number of shops, the upper portion of the block being partly occupied by the Midland Conservative Club, and the rest of the building, with the basement, fitted up as a Temperance Hotel and "Restaurant."

Comets.—The inhabitants were very much terrified by the appearance of a comet in December, 1680. At Michaelmas, 1811, an exceedingly brilliant comet appeared, supposed to have been the same which was seen at the birth of Jesus Christ. Donati's comet was first observed June 2, 1858, but was most brilliant in September and October. The comets of 1861 and 1883 were also visible here.

Commissioners.—The first local governing body of the town, though with but the merest shadow of power as compared with the Corporation of to-day, were the Street Commissioners appointed under an Act of Geo. III. in 1769, their duties being confined almost solely to repairing, cleansing, and "enlightening" the streets of the town, appointing watchmen, &c., their power of raising funds being limited to 1s. in the £. By succeeding Acts of 1773, 1801, 1812, and 1828, the powers of the Commissioners were considerably enlarged, and they must be credited with the introduction of the first set of local improvement schemes, including the widening of streets, clearing the Bull Ring of the houses round St. Martin's Church, making owners lay out proper streets for building, purchasing the market tolls, building of Town Hall and Market Hall, regulating carriages, and "suppressing the smoke nuisance arising from engines commonly called steam engines," &c., and, though they came in for their full share of obloquy and political rancour, it cannot be denied they did good and faithful service to the town. The Commissioners had the power of electing themselves, every vacancy being filled as it occurred by those who remained, and, as the Act of 1828 increased their number to no less than 89, perhaps some little excuse may be made for the would-be leading men of the day who were left out in the cold. Be that as it may, the Charter of Incorporation put them aside, and gave their power and authority into the hands of a popularly-elected representative body. The Commissioners, however, remained as a body in name until the last day of December, 1851, when, as a token of remembrance, they presented the town with the ornamental fountain formerly standing in the centre of the Market Hall, but which has been removed to Highgate Park. On the transfer of their powers to the Corporation, the Commissioners handed over a schedule of indebtedness, showing that there was then due on mortgage of the "lamp rate," of 4 per cent, £87,350; on the "Town Hall rate," at 4 per cent., £25,000; annuities, £947 3s. 4d.; besides £7,800, at 5 percent., borrowed by the Duddeston and Nechells Commissioners, making a total of £121,097 3s. 4d.

Commons.—Handsworth Common was enclosed in 1793. An Act was passed in 1798 for enclosing and allotting the commons and waste land in Birmingham. The commons and open fields of Erdington and Witton were enclosed and divided in 1801.

Concert Halls, &c.—The Birmingham Concert Hall, better known as "Holder's," was built in 1846, though for years previous the house was noted for its harmonic meetings; the present Hall has seats for 2,200 persons. Day's Concert Hall was erected in 1862 the opening night, September 17, being for the benefit of the Queen's Hospital, when £70 was realised therefor; the Hall will accommodate 1,500.—The Museum Concert Hall was opened Dec. 20, 1863, and will hold about 1,000 people.—A very large building intended for use as a Concert Hall, &c., will soon be opened in Snow Hill, to be conducted on temperance principles.—A series of popular Monday evening concerts was commenced in the Town Hall, Nov. 12, 1844, and was continued for nearly two years.—Twopenny weekly "Concerts for the People" were started at the Music Hall, Broad Street (now Prince of Wales' Theatre), March 25, 1847, but they did not take well.—Threepenny Saturday evening concerts in Town Hall, were begun in November, 1879.

Conferences and Congresses of all sorts of people have been held here from time to time, and a few dates are here annexed:—A Conference of Wesleyan ministers took place in 1836, in 1844, 1854, 1865, and 1879, being the 136th meeting of that body. Four hundred Congregational ministers met in Congress Oct. 5, 1862. A Social Science Congress was held Sept. 30, 1868. A Trades Union Conference Aug. 23, 1869. National Education League Conference, Oct. 12, 1869. National Republican Conference, May 12, 1873. Conference on Sanitary Reform, Jan. 14, 1875. A Co-operative Societies Conference, July 3, 1875. A Conference of Christians in Needless Alley, Oct. 27, 1875. The Midland Counties' Church Defence Associations met in the Exchange, Jan. 18, 1876, and on the 9th of Feb. the advocates for disestablishing and disendowing the Church said their say in the Masonic Hall, resolutions in favour of sharing the loaves and fishes being enthusiastically carried by the good people who covet not their neighbours' goods. A Domestic Economy Congress was held July 17, 1877. A Church Conference held sittings Nov. 7, 1877. The friends of International Arbitration met in the Town Hall, May 2, 1878, when 800 delegates were present, but the swords are not yet beaten into ploughshares. How to lessen the output of coal was discussed March 5, 1878, by a Conference of Miners, who not being then able to settle the question, met again June 17, 1879, to calmly consider the advisableness of laying idle all the coalpits in the country for a time, as the best remedy they could find for the continued reduction of wages. The 18th Annual Conference of the British Association of Gas Managers was held here June 14, 1881, when about 500 of those gentlemen attended. A considerable amount of gassy talk anent the wonderful future naturally arose, and an endowment fund of £323 was banked to provide a medal for "any originality in connection with the manufacture and application of gas," but the Gas Committee of Birmingham, without any vast improvement in the manufacture, still keep to their original idea of sharing profits with ratepayers, handing over £25,000 each year to the Borough rates. On Bank Holiday, August 6, 1883, a Conference of Bakers took place here, and at the same date the 49th "High Court" of Foresters assembled at the Town Hall, their last visit having been in 1849.

Conservative Associations have been in existence for at least fifty years, as the formation of one in December, 1834, is mentioned in the papers of the period. The present one, which is formed on a somewhat similar plan to that of the Liberal Association, and consists of 300 representatives chosen from the wards, held its first meeting May 18, 1877. Associations of a like nature have been formed in most of the wards, and in Balsall Heath, Moseley, Aston, Handsworth, and all the suburbs and places around.

Constables.—In 1776 it was necessary to have as many as 25 constables sworn in to protect the farmers coming to the weekly market.—See also "Police."

Consuls.—There are Consulates here for the following countries (for addresses see Directory):—Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Chili, France, Germany, Greece, Liberia, Portugal, Spain and Italy, Turkey, United States, United States of Columbia, and Uruguay.

Convents.—See "Religious Institutions."

Co-operative Societies at one time were put in the same category as Chartist, Socialist, and Communistic Associations, all banned alike. Nevertheless, in the old "Reform days" the theory of co-operation was most enthusiastically taken up by the workers of this town, even more so than in any other place in the kingdom. As early as 1828 several attempts had been made to form such societies, but the one which appeared the most likely to succeed was the so-called "Labour Exchange," situated in the old Coach Yard, in Bull Street, formed on the basis so eloquently and perseveringly advocated by Robert Owen. The principle of this Exchange was to value all goods brought in at the cost of the raw material, plus the labour and work bestowed thereon, the said labour being calculated at the uniform rate of 6d. per hour. On the reception of the goods "notes" to the value were given which could be handed over as equivalent for any other articles there on sale, and for a time this rather crude plan was successful. Sharp customers, however found that by giving in an advanced valuation of their own goods they could by using their "notes" procure others on which a handsome profit was to be made outside the Labour Mart, and this ultimately brought the Exchange to grief. Mr. William Pare and Mr. George Jacob Holyoake, were foremost among the advocates of Co-operation at the period, and a most interesting history of "Co-operation in England" has been written by the latter gentleman. Other societies were also in operation from time to time, the longest-lived being the "Economic Provision Company," which was commenced at Handsworth in 1830 by some of the workers at Soho and Soho Foundry, 139 of whom clubbed 20s. each as a starting fund. After a few months' trial, the profits were allowed to accumulate until they made up £5 per share, on which capital no less than £6,000 were paid in dividends during the first thirty years. The Supply Associations of the present day are somewhat differently constituted, such establishments as the one in Corporation Street (formerly in Cannon Street) and that in High Street being on the most extensive scale, offering to the general public all the advantages derivable from the use of large capital, combined with a fair division of profits to the customer, as well as to the shareholders. The Birmingham Household Supply Association in Corporation Street supplies all the necessaries required in the household, in addition to eatables and drinkables of the very best quality, including Messrs. Walter Showell and Sons' ales, which are sent out at the same prices as from the firm's own offices, either in cask or bottle.

Cornavii.—The ancient inhabitants of this part of England, but who were subdued by the Romans. Whether the said inhabitants had any name for the particular spot now called Birmingham must for ever remain doubtful.

Corn Exchange, in High-street, was opened October 28, 1847. The original capital of the Company was £5,000, in shares of £25 each; but the total cost of erection was a little over £6,000. The length of the interior is 172 feet and the breadth 40 feet.

Corn Laws.—Long before the formation of the Anti-Corn Law League in 1838, a movement for the repeal of the obnoxious imposts had been started in this town, a petition being sent from here to Parliament in March, 1815, with 48,600 signatures attached. The doings of the League and their ultimate success is an off-told tale, the men of Birmingham of course taking their part in the struggle, which culminated on the 26th of June, 1846, in the passing of Sir Robert Peel's Bill for the total repeal of all duties levied on corn and breadstuffs.

Coroners.—The first borough coroner, the late Dr. Birt Davies, was appointed May 15, 1839, and he held the office till July, 1875, when Mr. Henry Hawkes was chosen as his successor, only one member of the Town Council voting against him. The preent coroner has introduced several improvements on the old system, especially in the matters of holding inquests at public-houses, and the summoning of jurors. Formerly the latter were chosen from the residents nearest to the scene of death, some gentlemen being continually called upon, while the occasional exhibition of a dead body in the back lumberroom of an inn yard, among broken bottles and gaping stablemen, was not conductive to the dignity of a coroner's court or particularly agreeable to the unfortunate surgeon who might have to perform a post mortem. Thanks to the persevering tenacity of Mr. Hawkes we have a proper court in Moor-street, and a mortuary at every police station to which bodies can at once be taken. The jurors are now chosen by rotation, so that having been once called upon to act as a good citizen in such a capacity no gentleman need fear a fresh summons for some years to come. Mr. Hooper, the coroner for South Staffordshire, received his appointment in 1860.

Corporation.—The Charter of Incorporation of the Borough of Birmingham, authorising the formation of a Governing body, consisting of Mayor, Aldermen, and Councillors, duly elected by the Burgesses, dates from October 31, 1838. The elections took place in December, the first meeting being held on the 27. The borough was originally divided into 13 wards, but has since been, by Order in Council, made into 16, though the number of Aldermen (16) and Councillors (48) has not been increased. The Mayor is elected for one year, the Councillors for three, and the Aldermen for six. The first Mayor chosen was William Schofield, Esq., who was succeeded by P.H. Muntz, Esq., in 1839 and 1840, the election taking place at the November sitting in each year. Since 1840, the Mayoral chair has been successively filled by:—

1841, S. Beale; 1842, J. James; 1843, T. Weston; 1844, T. Phillips; 1845, H. Smith; 1846, R. Martineau; 1847, C. Geach; 1848, S. Thornton; 1849, W. Lucy; 1850, W. Lucy; 1851, H. Smith; 1852, H. Hawkes; 1853, J. Baldwin; 1854, J. Palmer; 1855, T. R, T. Hodgson; 1856, J. Ratcliff; 1857, J. Ratcliff; 1858, Sir J. Ratcliff, Kt.; 1859, T. Lloyd; 1860, A. Ryland; 1861, H. Manton; 1862, C. Sturge; 1863, W. Holliday; 1864, H. Wiggin; 1865, E. Yates; 1866, G. Dixon; 1867, T. Avery; 1868, H. Holland; 1869, T. Prime; 1870, G. B. Lloyd; 1871, J. Sadler; 1872, A. Biggs; 1873, J. Chamberlain; 1874, J. Chamberlain; 1875, J. Chamberlain; 1876, G. Baker; 1877, W. Kenrick; 1878, J. Collings; 1879, R. Chamberlain; 1880, R. Chamberlain; 1881, T. Avery; 1882, W. White; 1883, W. Cook; 1884, W. Martineau.

The members of the Council in 1862 subscribed £200 for the purchase of a "Mayor's Chain," the first to wear "the glittering gaud," strange to say, being a Quaker, Charles Sturge to wit. To this chain a valuable addition has since been made in the shape of a stone, worth £150, presented to the Town Council by Mr. W. Spencer, June 27, 1873, as being the first diamond cut in Birmingham, and which was appropriately mounted. For the names and addresses of the Aldermen and Councillors of the various wards (changes taking place yearly) reference should be made to "The Birmingham Red Book" published annually, in which will also be found a list of all the borough officials, &c.

Corporation Stock.—The balance against the Borough in the shape of loans, or mortgages on the then rates, when the Town Council took over from the Street Commissioners was £121,100. By the end of 1864 the Borough debts stood at £638,300, at varying rates of interest. After the purchase of the Gas and Water Works, and the commencement of the Improvement Scheme, this amount was vastly increased, the town's indebtedness standing in 1880 at no less than £6,226,145. The old system of obtaining loans at the market price of the day, and the requirement of the Local Government Board that every separate loan should be repaid in a certain limited number of years, when so large an amount as 6-1/4 millions came to be handled necessitated a consolidation scheme, which has since been carried out, to the relief of present ratepayers and a saving to those who will follow. The whole of the liabilities in the Borough on loans were converted into Corporation three and a half per cent. stock at the commencement of 1881, the operation being performed by the Bank of England. The tenders for same were opened Jan. 18th, when it was found that £1,200,000 had been applied for at and slightly over the minimum rate of £98 per £100. The remaining £800,000 was allotted to a syndicate, who afterwards applied for it at the minimum price. Persons having money to invest cannot do better than visit the Borough Treasurer, Mr. Hughes, who will give every information as to the mode of investing even a £10 note in the Birmingham Corporation Stock.

Council House.—See "Public Buildings."

County Areas.—The total areas of this and adjoining counties are:— Warwickshire 566,458 acres, Worcestershire 472,453, Staffordshire 732,434, and Shropshire 841,167.

County Court.—First opened in Birmingham at the Waterloo Rooms, Waterloo Street, April 28th, 1847. R. G. Welford, Esq., Q.C., acting as judge until September, 1872. He was followed by H. W. Cole, Esq., Q.C., who died in June, 1876; James Motteram, Esq., Q.C., who died Sept. 19, 1884: the present judge being W. Chambers, Esq., Q.C. The Circuit (No. 21) includes the towns and places of Aston, Atherstone, Balsall Heath, Curdworth, Castle Bromwich, Erdington, Gravelly Hill, Handsworth, Harborne, King's Heath, King's Norton, Lea Marston, Little Bromwich, Maxstoke, Minworth, Moseley, Nether Whitacre, Perry Barr, Saltley, Selly Oak, Sutton Coldfield, Tamworth, Water Orton and Wishaw.

County Officials.—For names and addresses of the Lord Lieutenant, Deputy Lieutenant, High Sheriff, County Magistrates, and other official gentlemen connected with the county of Warwick, see "Red Book."

Court of Bankruptcy holden at Birmingham (at the County Court, in Corporation Street) comprises all the places within the district of the County Court of Warwickshire holden at Birmingham, Tamworth and Solihull, and all the places in the district of the County Court of Worcestershire holden at Redditch.

Court Of Judicature.—Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Walsall, and Worcester, are District Registries of the Supreme Court of Judicature.

Court Leet.—The origin of that peculiar kind of Local Government Board, known in the olden days as the Court Leet of the Manor of Birmingham, is lost in the misty shadows of our past history. Doubtless there were many onerous duties connected therewith, and very possibly the officials considered themselves as "men of high degree," but what those duties actually were, and what the remuneration for their due fulfilment, appears to have been matter of doubt, even so late as a hundred and a few odd years ago. The rights, powers, and privileges of the officers of this Court had evidently been questioned by some of our Radical-minded great-grandfathers, as we find it was deemed necessary to assemble a jury on the 20th day of October, 1779, to "ascertain and present" the same, and from a little pamphlet at that time published, we extract the following:—

The Office of Low Bailiff.—"The Jury find and present that this officer is annually elected by the Jury, and that his office is in the nature of Sheriff of the Manor; that to him all the process of the Court is to be directed, and that it is his right and duty to summon all Juries to this court. And the Low Bailiff, at each fair, is entitled to one penny for each stall or standing pitched in the said fairs."

The Office of High Bailiff.—"The Jury find and present that this Officer is annually elected by the Jury; and that it is his duty to see that the fairs be duly proclaimed, and that due order be preserved in the fairs and markets; and if he sees any person in such fairs or markets using unlawful games, to the injury of ignorant persons and thoughtless youths, he may seize them and commit them to custody, to be taken before a proper magistrate. That it is his duty to see that all persons exposing any wares for sale in the fairs or markets, or as shopkeepers within the manor, have legal weights and measures."

The other officers of the Court Leet, whose duties are also defined in the aforesaid pamphlet, are the "Constables," the "Headborough," two "Affeirers" (who looked after the rents and dues belonging to the Lord of the Manor), two "Leather Sealers" (once important officers, when there was a Leather Market, but whose duties in and about the year named seemed to be confined to attending at the yearly dinners given by the High Bailiff), two "Ale-conners, otherwise high tasters," and two "Flesh-conners, otherwise low tasters." From their name it might be thought the duties of the last named officers were limited to the inspection of meat or flesh, but it will be seen that they were of a more comprehensive character:—

"Their duty is to see that all butchers, fishmongers, poulterers, bakers, and other sellers of victuals, do not sell or expose to sale within this Manor any unwholesome, corrupt, or contagious flesh, fish, or other victuals; and in case any such be exposed to sale, we find that the said Officers, by the ancient custom of the Manor may seize, burn, or destroy the same, or otherwise present the offenders at the next Court Leet to be holden for this Manor."

As we are now officered, inspectored and policed, and generally looked after as to our eating and drinking, &c., in the most improved modern style possible, it is not necessary to further fill space by saying what the "Headborough" had to do, or how many "Constables" assisted him. The last meeting of the Court Leet, long shorn of all its honours and privileges, was held October 28, 1851.

Court Of Record.—This was also called the "Mayor's Court," and was authorised in the Charter of Incorporation for the recovery of small debts under £20, the officers consisting of a Judge, Registrar, and two Sergeants-at-Mace. In 1852 (Oct. 26) the Town Council petitioned the Queen to transfer its powers to the County Court, which was acceded to in the following spring.

Court of Requests.—Constituted by Act of Parliament in 1752 this Court for "the more easy and speedy recovery of small debts within the town of Birmingham and the adjoining hamlet of Deritend" continued in operation until the present County Court system became the law of the land. Its powers were originally limited to debts not exceeding 40s. in amount (which was increased to £5 by an Act passed in 1807), the periods of imprisonment to which defaulting debtors were liable being apportioned out at the rate of one day in durance for each shilling due, except in special cases, wherein an addition (not to exceed three months) might be the reward for fraudulent concealment of property from creditors. The "Court" consisted of no less than six dozen judges, or, as the Act styled them, "Commissioners," from whose decisions there was no appeal whatever. These Commissioners were at first chosen from the ratepayers in a haphazard style, no mental or property qualification whatever being required, though afterwards it was made incumbent that they should be possessed of an income from real estate to value of £50 per year, or be worth £1,000 personalty. From the writings of William Hutton, himself one of the Commissioners, and other sources, we gather that justice, or what was supposed to be equivalent thereto, was administered in a rough-and-ready fashion of the rudest kind, the cases being frequently disposed of at the rate of thirty to forty per hour, and when we consider that imprisonment resulted at an average of one case in ten the troubles attendant upon impecuniosity in those days may be better imagined then described. The Court House, which is now occupied by sundry tradesmen, lay a little back from High-street, nearly opposite New-street, and in itself was no mean structure, having been (it is said), erected about the year 1650, as the town house of John Jennens, or Jennings, one of the wealthy family, the claims to whose estates have been unending, as well as unprofitable, barring, of course, to the long-robed and bewigged fraternity. A narrow passage from the right of the entrance hall leads by a dark winding staircase to the cellars, now filled with merchandise, but which formerly constituted the debtors' prison, or, as it was vulgarly called, "The Louse Hole," and doubtless from its frequently-crowded and horribly-dirty condition, with half-starved, though often debauched and dissipated, occupants, the nasty name was not inappropriately given. Shocking tales have been told of the scenes and practices here carried on, and many are still living who can recollect the miserable cry of "Remember the poor debtors," which resounded morning, noon, and night from the heavily-barred windows of these underground dungeons. The last batch of unfortunates here confined were liberated August 16, 1844.

Creche.—An institution which has been open in Bath Row for several years, and a great blessing to many poor mothers in its neighbourhood, but it is so little known that it has not met with the support it deserves, and is therefore crippled in its usefulness for want of more subscribers. The object of the institution is to afford, during the daytime, shelter, warmth, food, and good nursing to the infants and young children of poor mothers who are compelled to be from home at work. This is done at the small charge of 2d. per day—a sum quite inadequate to defray the expenses of the charity. The average number of children so sheltered is about 100 per week, and the number might be greatly increased if there were more funds. Gifts of coal, blankets, linen, perambulators, toys, pictures, &c., are greatly valued, and subscriptions and donations will be gladly received by the hon. treasurer.

Crescent, Cambridge Street.—When built it was thought that the inhabitants of the handsome edifices here erected would always have an extensive view over gardens and green fields, and certainly if chimney pots and slated roofs constitute a country landscape the present denizens cannot complain. The ground belongs to the Grammar School, the governors of which leased it in 1789 to Mr. Charles Norton, for a term of 120 years, at a ground rent of £155 10s. per year, the lessee to build 34 houses and spend £12,000 thereon; the yearly value now is about £1,800. On the Crescent Wharf is situated the extensive stores of Messrs. Walter Showell & Sons, from whence the daily deliveries of Crosswells Ales are issued to their many Birmingham patrons. Here may be seen, stacked tier upon tier, in long cool vistas, close upon 6,000 casks of varying sizes containing these celebrated ales, beers, and stouts. This stock is kept up by daily supplies from the brewery at Langley Green, many boats being employed in the traffic.

Cricket.—See "Sports."

Crime.—A few local writers like to acknowledge that Birmingham is any worse than other large towns in the matter of crime and criminals, and the old adage respecting the bird that fouls its own nest has been more than once applied to the individuals who have ventured to demur from the boast that ours is par excellence, a highly moral, fair-dealing, sober, and superlatively honest community. Notwithstanding the character given it of old, and the everlasting sneer that is connected with the term "Brummagem," the fast still remains that our cases of drunkenness are far less than in Liverpool, our petty larcenies fewer than in Leeds, our highway robberies about half compared with Manchester, malicious damage a long way under Sheffield, and robberies from the person not more than a third of those reported in Glasgow; while as to smashing and coining, though it has been flung at us from the time of William of Orange to the present day; that all the bad money ever made must be manufactured here, the truth is that five-sixths of the villainous crew who deal in that commodity obtain their supplies from London, and not from our little "hardware village." But alas! there is a dark side to the picture, indeed, for, according to the Registrar-General's return of June, 1879 (and the proportionate ratio, we are sorry to say, still remains the same), Birmingham holds the unenviable position of being the town where most deaths from violence occur, the annual rate per 1,000 being 1.08 in Birmingham, 0.99 in Liverpool, 0.38in Sheffield, 0.37 in Portsmouth, the average for the kingdom being even less than that—"the proportional fatality from violence being almost invariably more than twice as large in Birmingham as in Sheffield."

Cross.—In the Bull Ring, when Hutton first came here, a poor wayfarer seeking employ, there was a square building standing on arches called "The Cross," or "Market Cross," the lower part giving a small shelter to the few countrywomen who brought their butter and eggs to market, while the chamber above provided accommodation for meetings of a public character. When the Corn Cheaping, the Shambles, and all the other heterogeneous collection of tumbledown shanties and domiciles which in the course of centuries had been allowed to gather round St. Martin's were cleared away, the Market Cross was demolished, and its exact site is hardly ascertainable. At Dale End there was a somewhat similar erection known as the "Welsh Cross," taking its peculiar name, says Hutton, from the locality then called "Welsh End," on account of the number of Welsh people living on that side of the town; though why the "Taffies" were honoured with a distinct little market house of their own is not made clear. This building was taken down in 1803, the 3-dial clock, weathercock, &c., being advertised for sale, October 12, 1802.

Crown.—The old Crown Inn, Deritend, is one of the very few specimens we have of the style of architecture adopted in the days of old, when timber was largely used in place of our modern bricks. Leland mentions the Crown Inn as existing in 1538, and a much longer history than that is claimed for it. In 1817 there was another Old Crown Inn in New Street, on the spot where Hyam's now stands, access to the Cherry Orchard being had through its yard, the right of way thus obtained being the origin of the present Union Passage.

Crystal Palaces.—It was proposed in August, 1853, that the Corporation should join with the Midland Railway Co. and the Corporation of Sutton in the erection of a "Sydenham Palace" in Sutton Park: Birmingham to lease 250 acres for 999 years, at 1s. per acre, find from £20,000 to £30,000 for the building and divide profits, the Midland Railway Co. being willing to make branch from Bromford and run cheap trains. The scheme was highly approved, but the Suttonites killed the goose that was to lay them such golden eggs by refusing to lease the land for more than ninety-nine years and wanting 20s. per acre rent. In July, 1877, a "Sutton Park Crystal Palace Co. (Lim.)" was registered, with a capital of £25,000 in £5 shares, for buying Mr. Cole's Promenade Gardens, erecting Hotel, Aquarium, Skating Rink, Concert Hall, Winter Gardens, &c., and the shares were readily taken up. Additional grounds were purchased, and though the original plans have not yet been all carried out, a very pleasant resort is to be found there. Day's, in Smallbrook Street, is also called a "Crystal Palace," on account of the style of decoration, and the immense mirror the proprietor purchased from the Hyde Park Exhibition of 1851.

Curzon Hall, built originally for the purposes of the Dog Shows, was opened in 1865. It is the property of a company, and cost about £7,500. The building is well suited and has been often used for exhibitions, panoramas, circus entertainments, &c., the hall being 103 ft. long by 91 ft. wide; the stage is of the fullest width, with a depth of 45 ft. There is room for 3,000 seats.

Danielites.—A tribe who eschew fish, flesh, and fowl, and drink no alcohol; neither do they snuff, smoke, or chew tobacco. At a fruit banquet, held on August, 1877, it was decided to organise a "Garden of Danielites" in Birmingham.

Dates.—The most complete work giving the dates of all the leading events in the world's history is "Haydn's Book of Dates," the latest edition bringing them down to 1882. For local events, the only "Local Book of Dates" published is that of 1874, but "Showell's Dictionary of Birmingham" (by the same author), will be found to contain more reliable data than any book hitherto issued. For information of a general character, respecting the immediate neighbourhood and adjoining counties, our readers cannot do better than refer to the files of Birmingham newspapers, preserved in the Reference Library, or write to the present editors of the said papers, gentlemen noted for their urbanity, and readiness to tell anybody anything.

Dawson, George, See "Parsons, Preachers, and Priests," and "Statues."

Deaf and Dumb Asylum.See "Philanthropic Institutions."

Debating Societies.—From time immemorial the Brums have had their little Parliaments, mostly in public-house parlours and clubrooms, and certain Sunday nights gathering at "Bob Edmonds" and other well-known houses have acquired quite an historical interest; but the regularly-constituted "Spouting Clubs" of the present day cannot claim a very long existence, the Birmingham Debating Society having held their first palaver on the 3rd of Dec., 1846. In 1855 they joined the Edgbastonians. The latest of the kind started in 1884, is known as the Birmingham Parliamentary Debating Society, and has its premier, parties, and political fights, in proper Parliamentary style.

Deer Stealers.—There was a taste for venison in more classes than one in 1765, for it was found necessary to offer rewards for the detection of those persons who stole the deer from Aston Park.

Dental Hospital.See "Hospitals."

Deodands.—Prior to the passing of 9 and 10 Vict., 1846, Coroner's Juries had the power of imposing a "deodand" or penalty on any article or animal which had been instrumental in causing the death of a human being, the said animal or article being forfeited if the owner did not pay.

Deritend.—In some antique records the name has been spelt "Duratehend." For this and other reasons it has been thought to have had its origin rather from the ancient British, as "dur" is still the Welsh word for water, and its situation on the Rea (a Gaelic word signifying a running stream) seems to give a little foundation therefor. Mr. Tonlmin Smith, in whose family the "Old Crown House" has descended from the time it was built, and who, therefore, is no mean authority, was of opinion that the name was formerly "Der-yat-end," or "Deer-Gate-End," from the belief that in ancient days there was here an ancient deer forest. Leland said he entered the town by "Dirtey," so perhaps after all Deritend only means "the dirty end." Like the name of the town itself, as well as several other parts of it, we can only guess at the origin.

Deritend Bridge.—Old records show that some centuries back there was a bridge here of some sort, and occasionally we find notes of payments made for repairs to the roads leading to the gates of the bridge, or to the watchmen who had charge thereof, who appear to have been in the habit of locking the gates at night, a procedure which we fear our "Dirtyent" neighbours of to-day would be inclined to resent. The Act for building the present bridge was obtained in 1784; the work was commenced in 1789, but not completed till 1814.

Dickens, Charles, made his first appearance amongst us at a Polytechnic Conversazione held February 28, 1844, his last visit being to distribute prizes to students of the Midland Institute, January 6, 1870. In December, 1854, he gave the proceeds of three "Readings," amounting to £227, to the funds of the Institute, in which he always took great interest.—See also "Theatrical Notes," &c.

Digbeth, or Dyke Path, or Ducks' Bath, another puzzle to the antiquarians. It was evidently a watery place, and the pathway lay low, as may be seen at "Ye Olde Leather Bottel."

Dining Halls.—Our grandfathers were content to take their bread and cheese by the cosy fireside of a public-house kitchen; this was followed by sundry publicans reserving a better room, in which a joint was served up for their "topping customers." One who got into trouble and lost his license, conceived the idea of opposing his successor, and started dining-rooms, sending out for beer as it was required, but not to his old shop. This innovation took, and when the railways began bringing in their streams of strangers, these dining-rooms paid well (as several of the old ones do still). The next step was the opening of a large room in Slaney Street (June 8, 1863), and another in Cambridge Street, with the imposing title of "Dining Halls," wherein all who were hungry could be fed at wholesale prices—provided they had the necessary cash. Our people, however, are not sufficiently gregarious to relish this kind of feeding in flocks, barrackroom fashion, and though the provisions were good and cheap, the herding together of all sorts spoilt the speculation, and Dining Halls closed when "Restaurants" opened.—See "Luncheon Bars."

Diocese.—Birmingham is in the diocese of Worcester, and in the Archdeaconry of Coventry.

Directories.—The oldest Birmingham Directory known was printed in 1770, but there had been one advertised a few years earlier, and every now and then, after this date one or other of our few printers ventured to issue what they called a directory, but the procuring a complete list of all and every occupation carried on in Birmingham appears to have been a feat beyond their powers, even sixty years back. As far as they did go, however, the old directories are not uninteresting, as they give us glimpses of trade mutations and changes compared with the present time that appear strange now even to our oldest inhabitants. Place for instance the directory of 1824 by the side of White's directory for 1874 (one of the most valuable and carefully compiled works of the kind yet issued). In the former we find the names of 4,980 tradesmen, the different businesses under which they are allotted numbering only 141; in 1874 the trades and professions named tot up to 745, under which appears no less than 33,462 names. In 1824, if we are to believe the directory, there were no factors here, no fancy repositories, no gardeners or florists, no pearl button makers, no furniture brokers or pawnbrokers (!), no newsagents, and, strange to say, no printer. Photographers and electro-platers were unknown, though fifty years after showed 68 of the one, and 77 of the latter. On the other hand, in 1824, there were 78 auger, awlblade and gimlet makers, against 19 in 1874; 14 bellows makers, against 5; 36 buckle and 810 button makers, against 10 and 265; 52 edge tool makers and 176 locksmiths, against 18 of each in 1874; hinge-makers were reduced from 53 to 23; gilt toy makers, from 265 to 15. (Considering the immense quantity of gilt trifles now sent out yearly, we can only account for these figures by supposing the producers to have been entered under various other headings). Among the trades that have vanished altogether, are steelyard makers, of whom there were 19 in 1824; saw-makers, of whom there were 26; tool-makers, of whom there were 79, and similorers, whatever they might have been. Makers of the time-honoured snuffers numbered 46 in 1824, and there were even half-a-dozen manufacturers left at work in 1874. The introduction of gas-lighting only found employ, in the first-named year, for three gasfitters; in 1874, there were close upon 100. Pewterers and manufacturers of articles in Britannia metal numbered 75 in 1824, against 19 in 1874, wire-drawers in the same period coming down from 237 to 56. The Directories of the past ten years have degenerated into mere bulky tomes, cataloguing names certainly, but published almost solely for the benefit (?) of those tradesmen who can be coaxed into advertising in their pages. To such an extent has this been carried, that it is well for all advertisers to be careful when giving their orders, that they are dealing with an established and respectable firm, more than one bogus Directory having come under the notice of the writer during the past year or two. The issue of a real Post Office Directory for 1882, for which the names, trades, and addresses were to be gathered by the letter-carriers, and no body of men could be more suitable for the work, or be better trusted, was hailed by local tradesmen as a decided step in advance (though little fault could be found with the editions periodically issued by Kelly), but unfortunately the proposed plan was not successfully carried out, and in future years the volume will be principally valued as a curiosity, the wonderfully strange mistakes being made therein of placing the honoured name of Sir Josiah Mason under the head of "Next-of-Kin Enquiry Agents," and that, too, just previous to the exposure of the numerous frauds carried out by one of the so-called agents and its curiousness is considerably enhanced by the fact that a like error had been perpetrated in a recent edition of Kelly's Directory.

Discharged Prisoners' Aid Society in 1882 gave assistance to 642 persons, at an average cost of 9s. 9-1/2d. each—£315 19s. 4d. £161 16s. 5d. of this amount came from the convicts' gratuities, while the cost of aiding and helping them took £192 2s.

Dispensary.—Established in 1794; the first stone of the building in Union Street was laid December 23, 1806, and it was opened for the reception of patients early in 1808, the cost being about £3,000. It has been one of the most valuable institutions of the town, thousands receiving medical assistance every year, and is supported by voluntary subscriptions. A branch Dispensary was opened in Monument Road, Feb. 27, 1884. Provident Dispensaries, to which members pay a small monthly sum for medicine and attendance, were organised in 1878, the first branch being opened at Hockley in October of that year. In the first fifteen months 3,765 individuals, paid subscriptions, and about £577 was paid for drugs and doctors fees. There are also branches at Camp Hill and Small Heath.

Dissenters.—In 1836 there were 45 places of worship belonging to various denominations of Dissenters here; there are now about 145.—See "Places of Worship."

Distances from Birmingham to neighbouring places, county towns, trade centres, watering places, &c. Being taken from the shortest railway routes, this list may be used as a guide to the third-class fares— Reckoned at 1d. per mile:—

Aberdare 111
Aberdeen 437½
Abergavenny 79
Abergele 109
Aberystwith 123½
Acock's Green
Albrighton 20
Alcester 24
Aldershot 111½
Alnwick 52½
Alrewas 26
Alton Towers 52½
Alvechurch 13½
Arbroath 310
Ashbourne 56¼
Ashby-de-la-Zouch 41½
Ashton-under-Lyne 84½
Aylesbury 84
Bala 94
Banbury 42
Bangor 135
Barmouth 116
Barnsley 95½
Barnstaple 181
Barnt Green 12
Barrow-in-Furness 160
Basingstoke 108½ 118½
Bath 98½
Battersea 115½
Bedford 82
Beeston Castle 64½
Belper 50
Berkswell 13
Berwick 281
Bescot Junction
Bettws-y-Coed 134
Bewdley 22½
Birkenhead 90
Blackburn 113
Blackpool 124
Bletchley 65½
Blisworth 49½
Bloxwich 10½
Bolton 95¼
Borth 113
Bournemouth 173
Bradford 120½
Brecon 95
Bredon 40½
Brettle Lane 12
Bridgnorth 20
Bridgewater 127
Brierley Hill 11½
Brighton 166
Bristol 94
Bromsgrove 16
Bromyard 41
Buckingham 70½
Builth Road 88
Burslem 49
Burton-on-Trent 32
Bury St Edmunds 133
Bushbury Jun'tion 13
Buxton 79
Cambridge 111½
Cannock 15½
Canterbury 175½
Cardiff 109
Carlisle 196
Carmarthen 187½
Carnarvon 143½
Castle Bromwich 5-3/4
Castle Douglas 248½
Chapel-en-le-Frith 89
Cheadle 77
Cheddar 115½
Chelsea 110
Cheltenham 49½
Chepstow 84
Chester 75
Chesterfield 65½
Chippenham 117
Chipping Norton 60
Chirk 62½
Church Stretton 54
Cinderford 83½
Cirencester 84½
Clapham Junction 113
Clay Cross 62
Cleobury Mortimer 29
Clifton Bridge 97
Coalbrookdale 30
Codsall 16½
Coleford 80
Coleshill 11½
Colwich 25½
Colwyn Bay 115
Congleton 58
Conway 120½
Coventry 18½
Cradley 9
Craven Arms 61½
Crewe Junction 54
Croydon 123
Crystal Palace 120
Darlington 175½
Denbigh 97
Derby 42½
Devizes 143½
Didcot 76
Dolgelly 106
Doncaster 96½
Dorchester 184
Dorking 133
Droitwich 23
Dublin 232
Dudley 8
Dumfries 229
Dundee 347
Dunstable 79
Durham 198
Edinburgh 297½
Elgin 450
Ely 127
Etruria 47
Evercreech Junct'n 121
Evesham 34
Exeter 170
Falmouth 286½
Farrington 87
Fearnall Heath 25
Fenny Compton 34½
Fenny Stratford 67
Festiniog 145
Filey 178
Fleetwood 126
Flint 87½
Folkestone 202
Forfar 304
Forge Mills 9
Four Ashes 19
Frome 138
Furness Abbey 158½
Garstang 115
Glasgow 286
Glastonbury 140
Gloucester 56½
Gosport 150
Gravelly Hill 3
Great Barr
Great Bridge 7
Grimsby 136½
Guildford 120
Hagley 13½
Halesowen 9
Halifax 122½
Hanley 47½
Harborne 4
Harlech 126
Harrowgate 133
Harrow 101
Hartlebury 22
Hartlepool 186
Hastings 192½
Hatton 17¼
Haverfordwest 218½
Heath Town 12
Hednesford 17½
Henley-on-Thames 103
Hereford 57
Hertford 108
Higham Ferrers 69½
High Wycombe 95
Hitchin 92
Holyhead 159¼
Holywell 91½
Huddersfield 105½
Hull 134
Ilfracombe 195
Inverness 490
Ipswich 167
Ironbridge 30
James Bridge 9
Jedburgh 263
Keighley 116½
Kendal 148
Kenilworth 21
Kidderminster 18½
Kilmarnock 278½
Kings Heath 5
Kings Norton 6
Kingstown 226
Kingswood 13
Knowle 10½
Lancaster 127½
Langley Green
Leamington 21
Ledbury 43
Leeds 115
Leicester 39½
Leominster 80
Lichfield 18
Lincoln 91½
Liverpool 97½
Llanberis 143
Llandudno 123
Llanelly 167½
Llangollen 72½
Llanrwst 131
Llanymynech 69
London 113
Longton 48
Loughborough 50
Lowestoft 201
Ludlow 69½
Lydney 79
Lye Waste 10½
Lynn 135
Macclesfield 66
Machynllyth 101
Maidenhead 105½
Maidstone 175½
Malvern (Great) 36½
Manchester 85
Margate 187
Market Bosworth 27-1
Market Drayton 48
Market Harboro' 46
Marlborough 133½
Marston Green
Maryport 224
Matlock Bath 59
Menai Bridge 136
Merthyr 111½
Middlesbro' 176
Milford Haven 228
Milverton 21
Mold 87
Monmouth 96½
Montrose 401
Moreton-in-Marsh 46
Moseley 3-3/4
Much Wenlock 33
Nantwich 56
Neath 105½
Netherton 8
Newark 71½
Newcastle-on-Tyne 215
Nwcstle-udr-Lyme 47½
Newmarket 126
Newport (Salop) 39
Newport (Mon) 101
Newton Road 5
Newton Stewart 278
Northallerton 160
Northampton 49
Northfield 8-3/4
North Shields 216½
Norwich 181
Nottingham 58
Nuneaton 20
Oakengates 28½
Oldham 85
Olton 5
Oswestry 62½
Oxford 66
Paisley 286
Pelsall 11
Pembroke Dock 175
Penkridge 22-3/4
Penmaenmawr 125
Penrith 178
Penzance 302
Perry Barr 4
Pershore 43½
Perth 344
Peterborough 96½
Plymouth 222½
Pontypool 90
Port Dinorwic 139
Portishead 105½
Portmadoc 134
Portsmouth 162½
Prestatyn 101
Princes End
Prollheli 138
Queen's Ferry 82
Ramsgate 192½
Reading 93
Redcar 189
Redditch 17
Reigate 138½
Rhyl 105
Rickmansworth 98
Rochdale 104½
Ross 70
Rotherham 88
Round Oak 10½
Rowsley 63½
Ruabon 67½
Rugby 80½
Rugeley 21½
Runcorn 75
Ruthin 116
Ryde 160
St Alban's 101
St Asaph 111
St Helens 85½
St Leonard's 190½
Salford Priors 28
Salisbury 157½
Saltburn 191
Sandbach 58½
Scarboro' 173
Selly Oak
Sharpness 75
Sheffield 79
Shepton Mallett 152
Shifnal 25
Shrewsbury 42
Shustoke 12
Southampton 139
Southport 107½
South Shields 209
Spon Lane
Stafford 29
Stamford 72
Stirchley Street
Stirling 336
Stockport 79
Stoke 45½
Stokes Bay 150
Stourbridge 13½
Stourport 22
Stranraer 301
Stratford-on-Avon 26
Stroud 70
Sunderland 208
Sutton Coldfield 7
Swansea 156½
Swan Village
Swindon 100
Tamworth 18
Taunton 138½
Teignmouth 184
Tenbury 38
Tewkesbury 44½
Thirsk 151
Thrapstone 75½
Tipton 8
Torquay 195½
Towcester 54
Trefnant 113
Trentham 43
Trowbridge 128
Truro 275½
Tunbridge Wells 165
Tunstall 47
Tutbury 37
Ulverstone 152
Uppingham 61½
Upton-on-Severn 49
Uttoxeter 45¼
Uxbridge 118
Wakefield 101½
Wallingford 84¼
Walsall 8
Warminster 120
Warrington 78
Warwick 21½
Water Orton
Wednesbury 8
Wednesfield 12
Weedon 42
Welshpool 61
Wellington 32
Wells 123
Wem 52
West Bromwich 4
Weston-supr-Mare 114
Weymouth 191
Whitacre Junction 10½
Whitby 187
Whitchurch 51
Whitehaven 193
Wigan 91
Willenhall 11
Willesden Junction 107
Wilnecote 16½
Wincanton 130
Winchester 127
Windermere 156
Windsor 113
Winson Green
Wirksworth 56
Woburn Sands 70
Wokingham 100
Wolverhampton 12
Wolverton 60
Worcester 27½
Worthington 50
Wrexham 72
Wylde Green 6
Yarmouth 201
Yeovil 152
York 130½

Dogs.—A 5s. duty on dogs came into force April 5, 1867; raised to 7s. 6d. in June, 1878; This was not the first tax of the kind, for a local note of the time says that in 1796 "the fields and waters near the town were covered with the dead carcases of dogs destroyed by their owners to avoid payment of the tax." The amount paid per year at present for "dog licenses" in Birmingham is about £1,800. The using of dogs as beasts of burden (common enough now abroad) was put a stop to in London at the end of Oct. 1840, though it was not until 1854 that the prohibition became general. Prior to the passing of the Act in that year, dogs were utilised as draught animals to a very great extent in this neighbourhood by the rag-and-bone gatherers, pedlars, and little merchants, as many as 180 of the poor brutes once being counted in five hours as passing a certain spot on the Westbromwich Road. There have been one or two "homes" for stray dogs opened, but it is best in case of a loss of this kind to give early information at the nearest police station, as the art of dog stealing has latterly been much cultivated in this town, and it should be considered a duty to one's neighbour to aid in putting a stop thereto.

Dog Shows.—The first local Dog Show was held in 1860, but it was not until the opening in Curzon Hall, December 4, 1865, that the Show took rank as one of the "yearly institutions" of the town.—See "Exhibitions."

Domesday Books.—The so-called Domesday Book, compiled by order of William the Norman Conqueror, has always been considered a wonderful work, and it must have taken some years compiling. Some extracts touching upon the holders of land in this neighbourhood have already been given, and in a sense they are very interesting, showing as they do the then barrenness of the land, and the paucity of inhabitants. Though in Henry VIII.'s reign an inventory of all properties in the hands of Churchmen was taken, it did not include the owners of land in general, and it was not till Mr. John Bright in 1873 moved for the Returns, that a complete register of the kind was made. It would not be easy, even if space could be given to it, to give the list of individuals, companies, and corporation who claim to be possessors of the land we live on in Birmingham and neighbourhood; but a summary including the owners in this and adjoining counties may be worth preserving. As will be seen by the annexed figures, Warwick and Stafford rank high in the list of counties having large numbers of small owners (small as to extent of ground, though often very valuable from the erections thereon). There can be no doubt that the Freehold Land and Building Societies have had much to do with this, and as Birmingham was for years the headquarters of these Societies, the fact of there being nearly 47,000 persons in the county (out of a total population of 634,189) who own small plots under one acre, speaks well for the steady perseverance of the Warwickshire lads. That we are not wrong in coming to this conclusion is shown by the fact that leaving out the Metropolitan Counties, Warwick heads, in this respect, all the shires in the kingdom.

Owners of Numbr. Acres Extent of lands. Gross estimated rental. £
Less than 1 acre 46894 5883 1808897
acre and under 10 1956 7727 93792
10 acres " " 50 1328 31485 114243
50 " " 100 447 31904 76178
100 " " 500 667 137372 398625
500 " " 1000 82 55542 134005
1000 " " 2000 47 67585 208718
2000 " " 5000 34 100185 275701
5000 " " 10000 8 53380 90848
10000 " " 20000 4 49953 74085
No areas given 49 -- 43205

Total 51516 541021 3318303
Owners of Numbr. Acres Extent of lands. Gross estimated rental. £
Less than 1 acre 33672 4289 974133
1 acre and under 10 4062 14164 252714
10 acres " " 50 1891 44351 224505
50 " " 100 544 39015 124731
100 " " 500 557 111891 881083
500 " " 1000 90 62131 177372
1000 " " 2000 79 70637 278562
2000 " " 5000 28 90907 219792
5000 " " 10000 13 82560 136668
10000 " " 20000 7 96700 212526
20000 " " 50000 1 21433 41560
No areas given 2456 -- 606552
No rentals returned 1 2 --

Total 43371 638084 3630254
Owners of Numbr. Acres Extent of lands. Gross estimated rental. £
Less than 1 acre .......160[**] 8 4733 444945
1 acre and under 10 2790 10136 151922
10 acres " 50 1305 31391 138517
50 " " 100 457 32605 92257
100 " " 500 589 118187 258049
500 " " 1000 66 46420 122817
1000 " " 2000 34 46794 89267
2000 " " 5000 25 78993 131886
5000 " " 10000 5 33353 54611
10000 " " 20000 3 38343 88703
No areas given 522 -- 112107

Total 21804 441061 1685735 

Duddeston Hall, and the Holte Family.—The first record of this family we have is towards the close of the thirteenth century when we find mention of Sir Henry Holte, whose son, Hugh del Holte, died in 1322. In 1331 Simon del Holte, styled of Birmingham, purchased the manor of Nechells "in consideration of xl li of silver." In 1365 John atte Holte purchased for "forty marks" the manor of Duddeston, and two years later he became possessed by gift of the manor of Aston. For many generations the family residence was at Duddeston, though their burial place was at Aston, in which church are many of their monuments, the oldest being that of Wm. Holte, who died September 28, 1514. That the Holtes, though untitled, were men of mark, may be seen by the brass in the North Aisle of Aston Church to the memory of Thomas Holte, "Justice of North Wales, and Lord of this town of Aston," who died March 23, 1545. His goods and chattels at his death were valued at £270 6s. 2d.—a very large sum in those days, and from the inventory we find that the Hall contained thirteen sleeping apartments, viz., "the chambur over the buttrie, the chappel chambur, the maydes' chambur, the great chambur, the inner chambur, to the great chambur, the yatehouse chambur, the inner chambur to the same, the geston chambur, the crosse chambur, the inner chambur to the same, the clark's chambur the yoemen's chambur, and the hyne's chambur." The other apartments were "the hawle, the plece, the storehouse, the galarye, the butterye, the ketchyn, the larderhowse, the dey-howse, the bakhowse, the bultinge howse, and the yeling howse," —the "chappell" being also part of the Hall. The principal bedrooms were hung with splendid hangings, those of the great chamber being "of gaye colors, blewe and redde," the other articles in accordance therewith, the contents of this one room being valued at xiij li. xiv. s. iiijd. (£13 14s. 4d.) The household linen comprised "22 damaske and two diapur table clothes" worth 4s.; ten dozen table napkins (40s.); a dozen "fyne towells," 20s.; a dozen "course towells" 6s. 8d.; thirty pair "fyne shetes" £5; twenty-three pair "course shetes" £3; and twenty-six "pillow beres" 20/-. The kitchen contained "potts, chafornes, skymmers, skellets, cressets, gredires, frying pannys, chfying dishes, a brazon morter with a pestell, stone morters, strykinge knives, broches, racks, brandards, cobberds, pot-hangings, hocks, a rack of iron, bowles, and payles." The live stock classed among the "moveable goods, consisted of 19 oxen, 28 kyne, 17 young beste, 24 young calves, 12 gots, 4 geldings, 2 mares, 2 naggs and a colte, 229 shepe, 12 swyne, a crane, a turkey cok, and a henne with 3 chekyns"—the lot being valued at £86 0s. 8d. Sir Thomas's marriage with a daughter of the Winnington's brought much property into the family, including lands, &c., "within the townes, villages, and fields of Aston, next Byrmyngham, and Wytton, Mellton Mowlberye (in Leicestershire), Hanseworthe (which lands did late belonge to the dissolved chambur of Aston), and also the Priory, or Free Chappell of Byrmyngham, with the lands and tenements belonging thereto, within Byrmyngham aforesaid, and the lordship or manor of the same, within the lordship of Dudeston, together with the lands and tenements, within the lordship of Nechells, Salteley, sometime belonging to the late dissolved Guild of Derytenne," as well as lands at "Horborne, Haleshowen, Norfielde and Smithewicke." His son Edward, who died in 1592, was succeeded by Sir Thomas Holte (born in 1571; died December, 1654), and the most prominent member of the family. Being one of the deputation to welcome James I. to England, in 1603, he received the honour of knighthood; in 1612 he purchased an "Ulster baronetcy," at a cost of £1,095 [this brought the "red hand" into his shield]; and in 1599 he purchased the rectory of Aston for nearly £2,000. In April, 1618, he commenced the erection of Aston Hall, taking up his abode there in 1631, though it was not finished till April, 1635. In 1642 he was honoured with the presence of Charles I., who stopped at the Hall Sunday and Monday, October 16 and 17. [At the battle of Edge Hill Edward Holt, the eldest son, was wounded—he died from fever on Aug. 28, 1643, during the siege of Oxford, aged 43] The day after Christmas, 1643, the old squire was besieged by about 1,200 Parliamentarians from Birmingham (with a few soldiers), but having procured forty musketeers from Dudley Castle, he held the Hall till the third day, when, having killed sixty of his assailants and lost twelve of his own men, he surrendered. The Hall was plundered and he was imprisoned, and what with fines, confiscations, and compounding, his loyalty appears to have cost him nearly £20,000. Sir Thomas had 15 children, but outlived them all save one. He was succeeded in his title by his grandson, Sir Robert, who lived in very straightened circumstances, occasioned by the family's losses during the Civil War, but by whose marriage with the daughter of Lord Brereton the Cheshire property came to his children. He died Oct. 3, 1679, aged 54, and was followed by Sir Charles, who had twelve children and lived till June 15, 1722, his son, Sir Clobery, dying in a few years after (Oct. 24, 1729). Sir Lister Holte, the next baronet, had no issue, though twice married, and he was succeeded (April 8, 1770), by his brother, Sir Charles, with whom the title expired (March 12, 1782), the principal estates going with his daughter and only child, to the Bracebridge family, as well as a dowry of £20,000. In 1817, an Act of Parliament was obtained for the settlement and part disposal of the whole of the property of this time-honoured and wealthy family—the total acreage being 8,914a. 2r. 23p, and the then annual rental £16,557 Os. 9d.—the Aston estate alone extending from Prospect Row to beyond Erdington Hall, and from Nechells and Saltley to the Custard House and Hay Mill Brook. Several claims have been put forward by collateral branches, both to the title and estates, but the latter were finally disposed of in 1849, when counsel's opinion was given in favour of the settlements made by Sir Lister Holte, which enabled the property to be disposed of. The claimants to the title have not yet proved their title thereto, sundry registers and certificates of ancient baptisms and marriages being still wanting.

Duddeston Ward Hall.—The name tells what it is for. The first stone was laid Dec. 15, 1877; it was opened June 1, 1878; will seat about 300, and cost £3,500, which was found by a limited Co.

Dungeon.—This very appropriate name was given to the old gaol formerly existing in Peck Lane. A writer, in 1802, described it as a shocking place, the establishment consisting of one day room, two underground dungeons (in which sometimes half-a-dozen persons had to sleep), and six or seven night-rooms, some of them constructed out of the Gaoler's stables. The prisoners were allowed 4d. per day for bread and cheese, which they had to buy from the keeper, who, having a beer license, allowed outsiders to drink with his lodgers. This, and the fact that there was but one day room for males and females alike, leaves but little to be imagined as to its horrible, filthy condition. Those who could afford to pay 2s. 6d. a week were allowed a bed in the gaoler's house, but had to put up with being chained by each wrist to the sides of the bedsteads all night, and thus forced to lie on their backs. The poor wretches pigged it in straw on the floors of the night rooms. See also "Gaols" and "Prisons."

Dwarfs.—The first note we have of the visit here of one of these curiosities of mankind is that of Count Borulawski, in 1783: though but 39 inches high it is recorded that he had a sister who could stand under his arm. The next little one, Manetta Stocker, a native of Austria, came here in 1819, and remained with us, there being a tombstone in St. Philip's churchyard bearing this inscription:—

In Memory of MANETTA STOCKER, Who quitted this life the fourth day of May, 1819, at the age of thirty-nine years. The smallest woman in this kingdom, and one of the most accomplished. She was not more than thirty-three inches high. She was a native of Austria.

General Tom Thumb (Charles Stratton) was exhibited at Dee's Royal Hotel, in September, 1844, when he was about ten years old, and several times after renewed the acquaintance. He was 31 inches high, and was married to Miss Warren, a lady of an extra inch. The couple had offspring, but the early death of the child put an end to Barnum's attempt to create a race of dwarfs. Tom Thumb died in June 1883. General Mite who was exhibited here last year, was even smaller than Tom Thumb, being but 21 inches in height. Birmingham, however, need not send abroad for specimens of this kind, "Robin Goodfellow" chronicling the death on Nov. 27, 1878, of a poor unfortunate named Thomas Field, otherwise the "Man-baby," who, though twenty-four years of age, was but 30 inches high and weighed little over 20lbs., and who had never walked or talked. The curious in such matters may, on warm, sunny mornings, occasionally meet, in the neighbourhood of Bromsgrove Street, a very intelligent little man not much if any bigger than the celebrated Tom Thumb, but who has never been made a show of.

Dynamite Manufacture.—See "Notable Offences."

Ear and Throat Infirmary.—See "Hospitals."

Earthquakes are not of such frequent occurrence in this country as to require much notice. The first we find recorded (said to be the greatest known here) took place in November, 1318; others were felt in this country in May, 1332; April, 1580; November, 1775; November, 1779; November, 1852, and October, 1863.

Easy Row, or Easy Hill, as Baskerville delighted to call the spot he had chosen for a residence. When Mr. Hanson was planning out the Town Hall, there were several large elm trees still standing in Easy Row, by the corner of Edmund Street, part of the trees which constituted Baskerville's Park, and in the top branches of which the rooks still built their nests. The entrance to Broad Street had been narrow, and bounded by a lawn enclosed with posts and chains, reaching to the elm trees, but the increase of traffic had necessitated the removal (in 1838) of the grassplots and the fencing, though the old trees were left until 1847, by which time they were little more than skeletons of trees, the smoky atmosphere having long since stopped all growth.

Eccentrics.—There are just a few now to be found, but in these days of heaven-sent artists and special-born politicians, it would be an invidious task to chronicle their doings, or dilate on their peculiar idiosyncracies, and we will only note a few of the queer characters of the past, leaving to the future historian the fun of laughing at our men of to-day. In 1828 the man of mark was "Dandie Parker," a well-to-do seedsman, who, aping Beau Brummel in gait and attire, sought to be the leader of fashion. He was rivalled, a little while after, by one Meyers, to see whom was a sight worth crossing the town, so firm and spruce was he in his favourite dress of white hat and white trousers, dark green or blue coat with gilt buttons, buff waistcoat, and stiff broad white neckcloth or stock, a gold-headed cane always in hand. By way of contrast to these worthies, at about the same period (1828-30) was one "Muddlepate Ward," the head of a family who had located themselves in a gravel pit at the Lozells, and who used to drive about the town with an old carriage drawn by pairs of donkeys and ponies, the harness being composed of odd pieces of old rope, and the whip a hedgestake with a bit of string, the whole turnout being as remarkable for dirt as the first-named "dandies" were for cleanliness.—"Billy Button" was another well-known but most inoffensive character, who died here May 3, 1838. His real name was never published, but he belonged to a good family, and early in life he had been an officer in the Navy (some of his biographers say "a commander"), but lost his senses when returning from a long voyage, on hearing of the sudden death of a young lady to whom he was to have been married, and he always answered to her name, Jessie. He went about singing, and the refrain of one of his favourite songs—

"Oysters, sir! Oysters, sir!
  Oysters, sir, I cry;
They are the finest oysters, sir,
  That ever you could buy."

was for years after "Billy Button's" death the nightly "cry" of more than one peripatetic shellfishmonger. The peculiarity that obtained for the poor fellow his soubriquet of "Billy Button" arose from the habit he had of sticking every button he could get on to his coat, which at his death, was covered so thickly (and many buttons were of rare patterns), that it is said to have weighed over 30lbs.—"Jemmy the Rockman," who died here in September, 1866, in his 85th year, was another well-known figure in our streets for many years. His real name was James Guidney, and in the course of a soldier's life, he had seen strange countries, and possibly the climates had not in every case agreed with him, for, according to his own account, he had been favoured with a celestial vision, and had received angelic orders no longer to shave, &c. He obtained his living during the latter portion of his existence by retailing a medicinal sweet, which he averred was good for all sorts of coughs and colds.—Robert Sleath, in 1788, was collector at a turnpike gate near Worcester, and, 'tis said, made George III. and all his retinue pay toll. He died here in November, 1804, when the following appeared in print:—

"On Wednesday last, old Robert Sleath
Passed thro' the turnpike gate of Death,
To him Death would no toll abate
Who stopped the King at Wor'ster-gate."

Eclipses, more or less partial, are of periodical occurrence, though many are not observed in this country. Malmesbury wrote of one in 1410, when people were so frightened that they ran out of their houses. Jan. 12, 1679, there was an eclipse so complete that none could read at noonday when it occurred. May 3, 1715, gave another instance, it being stated that the stars could be seen, and that the birds went to roost at mid-day. The last total eclipse of the sun observed by our local astronomers (if Birmingham had such "plants") occurred on May 22, 1724. An account of the next one will be found in the Daily Mail, of August 12, 1999. On August 17, 1868, there was an eclipse of the sun (though not noticeable here) so perfect that its light was hidden for six minutes, almost the maximum possible interval, and it may be centuries before it occurs again.

Economy.—Our grandfathers, and their fathers, practised economy in every way possible, even to hiring out the able-bodied poor who had to earn the cost of their keep by spinning worsted, &c., and they thought so much of the bright moonlight that they warehoused the oil lamps intended for lighting the streets for a week at a time when the moon was at its full, and never left them burning after eleven o'clock at other times.

Edgbaston.—The name as written in the earliest known deeds, was at first Celbaldston, altered as time went on to Eggebaldston, Eggebaston, and Edgbaston. How long the family held the manor before the Conquest is unknown; but when Domesday Book was written (1086), the occupying tenant was one Drogo, who had two hides of land and half a mile of wood, worth 20s.; 325 acres were set down as being cultivated, though there were only ten residents. The Edgbastons held it from the lords of Birmingham, and they, in turn, from the lords of Dudley. Further than the family records the place has no history, only 100 years ago Calthorpe Road being nothing but a fieldpath, and Church Road, Vicarage Road, and Westbourne Road merely narrow lanes. After the opening up of these and other roads, building sites were eagerly sought by the more moneyed class of our local magnates, and the number of inhabitants now are sufficient to people a fair-sized town. In 1801 the population was under 1,000; in 1811, just over that number; in 1851, it was 9,269; in 1861, 12,900; in 1871, 17,442, and on last census day, 29,951; showing an increase of more than 1,000 a year at the present time; while what the rentals may amount to is only known inside "the estate office." Some writers say that the parish church dates from about the year 775. The earliest register book is that for 1635, which escaped the notice of Cromwell's soldiers, who nearly destroyed the church in 1648; and from an entry in the register of St. Sepulchre's Church, Northampton, for 1659, it would appear that there were collections made towards repairing the damage done by those worthies. This entry quaintly states that "seven shillings and sixpence" was received towards the repairs of the church of Edge Barston, in the county of Warwick, adding also that there was "never a minister in the said parish."

Edgbaston Hall.—The last of the Edgbastons was a lady by whose marriage the Middlemores came into possession, and for nearly three hundred years the old house echoed the footsteps of their descendants. In the troublous times of the Commonwealth, Edgbaston House and Church were seized by Colonel John Fox, the latter building being used as a stable for his horses, and the former garrisoned by the soldiers kept there to over-awe the gentry and loyal subjects of the country, to whom "Tinker Fox," as he was dubbed, was a continual terror. This worthy carried on so roughly that even the "Committee of Safety" (never particularly noted for kindness or even honesty) were ashamed of him, and restored the place to its owner, Robert Middlemore, the last of the name. By the marriages of his two grand-daughters the estate was divided, but the portion including the manor of Edgbaston was afterwards purchased by Sir Richard Gough, Knight, who gave £25,000 for it. In the meantime the old house had been destroyed by those peace-loving Brums, who, in December, 1688, razed to the ground the newly-built Catholic Church and Convent in Masshouse Lane, their excuse being that they feared the hated Papists would find refuge at Edgbaston. Sir Richard (who died February 9, 1727) rebuilt the Manor House and the Church in 1717-18, and enclosed the Park. His son Henry was created a Baronet, and had for his second wife the only daughter of Reginald Calthorpe, Esq., of Elvetham, in Hampshire. Sir Henry Gough died June 8, 1774, and his widow on the 13th of April, 1782, and on the latter event taking place, their son, who succeeded to the estates of both his parents, took his mother's family name of Calthorpe, and in 1796 was created a peer under the title of Baron Calthorpe, of Calthorpe, county Norfolk. Edgbaston Hall has not been occupied by any of the owners since the decease of Lady Gough, 1782.

Edgbaston Pool covers an area of twenty-two acres, three roods, and thirty-six poles.

Edgbaston Street.—One of the most ancient streets in the Borough, having been the original road from the parish church and the Manor-house of the Lords de Bermingham to their neighbours at Edgbaston. It was the first paved street of the town, and the chosen residence of the principal and most wealthy burgesses, a fact proved by its being known in King John's reign as "Egebaston Strete," the worde "strete" in those days meaning a paved way in cities or towns. This is further shown by the small plots into which the land was divided and the number of owners named from time to time in ancient deeds, the yearly rentals, even in Henry VIII's time being from 3s. to 5s. per year. At the back of the lower side of Edgbaston Street, were several tanneries, there being a stream of water running from the moat round the Parsonage-house to the Manor-house moat, the watercourse being now known as Dean Street and Smithfield Passage.

Electric Light.—The light of the future. The first public exhibition of lighting by electricity, was introduced by Maccabe, a ventriloquial entertainer of the public, at the entrance of Curzon Hall, September 30, 1878. On the 28th of the following month, the novelty appeared at the Lower Grounds, on the occasion of a football match at night, the kick-off and lighting-up taking place at seven o'clock. At the last Musical Festival, the Town Hall was lit up by Messrs. Whitfield, of Cambridge-street, and the novelty is no longer a rarity, a company having been formed to supply the houses, shops, and public buildings in the centre of the town.

Electro Plate.—As early as 1838, Messrs. Elkington were in the habit of coating ornaments with gold and silver by dipping them in various solutions of those metals, and the first patent taken out for the electro process appears to be that of July 6, 1838, for covering copper and brass with zinc. Mr. John Wright, a surgeon, of this town, was the first to use the alkaline cyanides, and the process was included in Elkington's patent of March 25, 1840. The use of electricity from magnets instead of the voltaic battery was patented by J.S. Wolrich, in August, 1842. His father was probably the first person who deposited metals for any practical purpose by means of the galvanic battery. Mr. Elkington applied the electro-deposit process to gilding and silverplating in 1840.—See "Trades," &c.

Electoral Returns.—See "Parliamentary."

Emigration.—In August, 1794, Mr. Russell, of Moor Green, and a magistrate for the counties of Warwick and Worcester, with his two brothers and their families, Mr. Humphries, of Camp Hill Villa, with a number of his relatives, and over a hundred other Birmingham families emigrated to America. Previous to this date we have no record of anything like an emigration movement from this town, though it is a matter of history how strenuously Matthew Boulton and other manufacturers exerted themselves to prevent the emigration of artisans and workpeople, fearing that our colonies would be enriched at the expense of the mother country. How sadly the times were changed in 1840, may be imagined from the fact that when free passages to Australia were first being offered, no less than 10,000 persons applied unsuccessfully from this town and neighbourhood alone. At the present time it is calculated that passages to America, Canada, Australia, &c., are being taken up here at an average of 3,000 a year.

Erdington.—Another of the ancient places (named in the Domesday Book as Hardingtone) surrounding Birmingham and which ranked as high in those days of old, though now but like one of our suburbs, four miles on the road to Sutton Coldfield. Erdington Hall, in the reign of Henry II., was the moated and fortified abode of the family of that name, and their intermarriages with the De Berminghams, &c., connected them with our local history in many ways. Though the family, according to Dugdale and others, had a chapel of their own, the hamlet appertained to the parish of Aston, to the mother church of which one Henry de Erdington added an isle, and the family arms long appeared in the heraldic tracery of its windows. Erdington Church (St. Barnabas) was built in 1823, as a chapel of ease to Aston, and it was not until 1858 that the district was formed into a separate and distinct ecclesiastical parish, the vicar of Aston being the patron of the living. In addition to the chapel at Oscott, the Catholics have here one of the most handsome places of worship in the district, erected in 1850 at a cost of over £20,000, a Monastery, &c., being connected therewith. Erdington, which has doubled its population within the last twenty years, has its Public Hall and Literary Institute, erected in 1864, Police Station, Post Office, and several chapels, in addition to the almshouses and orphanage, erected by Sir Josiah Mason, noticed in another part of this work. See also "Population Tables," &c.

Estate Agents.—For the purposes of general business, Kelly's Directory will be found the best reference. The office for the Calthorpe estate is at 65 Hagley Road; for the William Dudley Trust estates, at Imperial Chambers B, Colmore Row; for the Great Western Railway properties at 103, Great Charles Street; for the Heathfield Estate in Heathfield Road, Handsworth; for the Horton (Isaac) properties at 41, Colmore Row; Sir Joseph Mason's estate at the Orphanage, Erdington.

Exchange.—Corner of Stephenson Place and New Street, having a frontage of 64 feet to the latter, and 186 feet to the former. The foundation stone was laid January 2, 1863, the architect being Mr. Edward Holmes, and the building was opened January 2, 1865, the original cost being a little under £20,000. It has since been enlarged (1876-78) to nearly twice the original size, under the direction of Mr. J.A. Chatwin. The property and speculation of a private company, it was (December 2, 1880) incorporated, under the Joint Stock Companies' Act, and returns a fair dividend on the capital expended. In addition to the Exchange and Chamber of Commerce proper, with the usual secretarial and committee rooms appertaining thereto, refreshment, billiard, and retiring rooms, &c., there is a large assembly-room, frequently used for balls, concerts, and entertainments of a public character. The dimensions of the principal hall are 70 feet length, 40 feet width, with a height of 23 feet, the assembly-room above being same size, but loftier. The central tower is 110 feet high, the turret, in which there was placed a clock made by John Inshaw, to be moved by electro-magnetic power (but which is now only noted for its incorrectness), rising some 45 feet above the cornice. Other portions of the building are let off in offices.

Excise.—It is but rarely the Inland Revenue authorities give the public any information showing the amount of taxes gathered in by the officials, and the return, therefore, for the year ending March 31, 1879, laid before the House of Commons, is worth preserving, so far as the Birmingham collection goes. The total sum which passed through the local office amounted to £89,321, the various headings under which the payments were entered, being:—Beer dealers, £2,245; beer retailers, £7,161; spirit dealers, £1,617; spirit retailers, £8,901; wine dealers, £874; wine retailers, £2,392; brewers, £9,518; maltsters, £408; dealers in roasted malt, £17; manufacturers of tobacco, £147; dealers in tobacco, £1,462; rectifiers of spirits, £11; makers of methylated spirits, £10; retailers of methylated spirits, £33; vinegar makers, £26; chemists and others using stills, £4; male servants, £1,094; dogs, £1,786; carriages, £4,613; armorial bearings, £374; guns, £116; to kill game, £1,523; to deal in game, £136; refreshment houses, £366; makers and dealers in sweets, £18; retailers of sweets, £42; hawkers and pedlars, £68; appraisers and house agents, £132; auctioneers, £1,210; pawnbrokers, £1,958; dealers in plate, £1,749; gold and silver plate duty, £17,691; medicine vendors, £66; inhabited house duty, £21,533.

The Excise (or Inland Revenue) Offices are in Waterloo Street, and are open daily from 10 to 4.

Excursions.—The annual trip to the seaside, or the continent, or some other attractive spot, which has come to be considered almost an essential necessary for the due preservation of health and the sweetening of temper, was a thing altogether unknown to the old folks of our town, who, if by chance they could get as far as Lichfield, Worcester, or Coventry once in their lives, never ceased to talk about it as something wonderful. The "outing" of a lot of factory hands was an event to be chronicled in Aris's Gazette, whose scribes duly noted the horses and vehicles (not forgetting the master of the band, without whom the "gipsy party" could not be complete), and the destination was seldom indeed further than the Lickey, or Marston Green, or at rarer intervals, Sutton Coldfield or Hagley. Well-to-do tradesmen and employers of labour were satisfied with a few hours spent at some of the old-style Tea Gardens, or the Crown and Cushion, at Perry Barr, Aston Cross or Tavern, Kirby's, or the New Inn, at Handsworth, &c. The Saturday half-holiday movement, which came soon after the introduction of the railways, may be reckoned as starting the excursion era proper, and the first Saturday afternoon trip (in 1854) to the Earl of Bradford's, at Castle Bromwich, was an eventful episode even in the life of George Dawson, who accompanied the trippites. The railway trips of the late past and present seasons are beyond enumeration, and it needs not to be said that anyone with a little spare cash can now be whisked where'er he wills, from John-o'-Groats to the Land's End, for a less sum than our fathers paid to see the Shrewsbury Show, or Lady Godiva's ride at Coventry. As it was "a new departure," and for future reference, we will note that the first five-shilling Saturday-night-to-Monday-morning trip to Llandudno came off on August 14, 1880. The railway companies do not fail to give ample notice of all long excursions, and for those who prefer the pleasant places in our own district, there is a most interesting publication to be had for 6d., entitled "The Birmingham Saturday Half-holiday Guide," wherein much valuable information is given respecting the nooks and corners of Warwick and Worcester, and their hills and dales.

Executions.—In 1729 a man was hung on Gibbett Hill, site of Oscott College, for murder and highway robbery. Catherine Evans was hung February 8, 1742, for the murder of her husband in this town. At the Summer Assizes in 1773, James Duckworth, hopfactor and grocer, of this town, was sentenced to death for counterfeiting and diminishing the gold coin. He was supposed to be one of the heaviest men in the county, weighing over twenty-four stone. He died strongly protesting his innocence, On the 22nd Nov., 1780, Wilfrid Barwick, a butcher, was robbed and murdered near the four mile stone on the Coleshill Road. The culprits were two soldiers, named John Hammond (an American by birth) and Thomas Pitmore (a native of Cheshire) but well known as "Jack and Tom," drummer and fifer in the recruiting service here. They were brought before the magistrates at the old Public Office in Dale End; committed; and in due course tried and sentenced at Warwick to be hanged and gibbeted on Washwood Heath, near the scene of the murder. The sentence was carried out April 2, 1781, the bodies hanging on the gibbet in chains a short time, until they were surreptitiously removed by some humanitarian friends who did not approve of the exhibition. What became of the bodies was not known until the morning of Thursday, Jan. 20, 1842, when the navvies employed on the Birmingham and Derby (now Midland) railway came upon the two skeletons still environed in chains when they were removing a quantity of earth for the embankment. The skeletons were afterwards reinterred under an apple-tree in the garden of the Adderley Arms, Saltley, and the gibbet-irons were taken as rarities to the Aston Tavern, where, possibly, inquisitive relic-mongers may now see them. Four persons were hung for highway robbery near Aston Park, April 2, 1790. Seven men were hung at Warwick, in 1800, for forgery, and one for sheep-stealing. They hung people at that time for crimes which are now punished by imprisonment or short periods of penal servitude, but there was little mercy combined with the justice then, and what small portion there happened to be was never doled out in cases where the heinous offence of forgery had been proved. On Easter Monday (April 19), 1802, there was another hanging match at Washwood Heath, no less than eight unfortunate wretches suffering the penalty of the law for committing forgeries and other crimes in this neighbourhood. There would seem to have been some little excitement in respect to this wholesale slaughter, and perhaps fears of a rescue were entertained, for there were on guard 240 of the King's Dragoon Guards, then stationed at our Barracks, under the command of Lieut.-Col. Toovey Hawley, besides a detachment sent from Coventry as escort with the prisoners. The last public execution here under the old laws was that of Philip Matsell, who was sentenced to be hanged for shooting a watchman named Twyford, on the night of July 22, 1806. An alibi was set up in defence, and though it was unsuccessful, circumstances afterwards came to light tending to prove that though Matsell was a desperado of the worst kind, who had long kept clear of the punishments he had deserved, in this instance he suffered for another. There was a disreputable gang with one of whom, Kate Pedley, Matsell had formed an intimate connection, who had a grudge against Twyford on account of his interfering and preventing several robberies they had planned, and it is said that it was his paramour, Kit Pedley, who really shot Twyford, having dressed herself in Matsell's clothes while he was in a state of drunkenness. However, he was convicted and brought here (Aug. 23), from Warwick, sitting on his coffin in an open cart, to be executed at the bottom of Great Charles Street. The scaffold was a rough platform about ten feet high, the gallows rising from the centre thereof, Matsell having to stand upon some steps while the rope was adjusted round his neck. During this operation he managed to kick his shoes off among the crowd, having sworn that he would never die with his shoes on, as he had been many a time told would be his fate. The first execution at Winson Green Gaol was that of Henry Kimberley (March 17, 1885) for the murder of Mrs. Palmer.

Exhibitions.—It has long been matter of wonder to intelligent foreigners that the "Toyshop of the World" ("Workshop of the World" would be nearer the mark) has never organised a permanent exhibition of its myriad manufactures. There is not a city, or town, and hardly a country in the universe that could better build, fit up, or furnish such a place than Birmingham; and unless it is from the short-sighted policy of keeping samples and patterns from the view of rivals in trade—a fallacious idea in these days of commercial travellers and town agencies—it must be acknowledged our merchants and manufacturers are not keeping up with the times in this respect. Why should Birmingham be without its Crystal Palace of Industry when there is hardly an article used by man or woman (save food and dress materials) but what is made in her workshops? We have the men, we have the iron, and we have the money, too! And it is to be hoped that ere many years are over, some of our great guns will see their way to construct a local Exhibition that shall attract people from the very ends of the earth to this "Mecca" of ours. As it is, from the grand old days of Boulton and his wonderful Soho, down to to-day, there has been hardly a Prince or potentate, white, black, copper, or coffee coloured, who has visited England, but that have come to peep at our workshops, mayor after mayor having the "honour" to toady to them and trot them round the back streets and slums to where the men of the bench, the file, and the hammer have been diligently working generation after generation, for the fame and the name of our world-known town. As a mere money speculation such a show-room must pay, and the first cost, though it might be heavy, would soon be recouped by the influx of visitors, the increase of orders, and the advancement of trade that would result. There have been a few exhibitions held here of one sort and another, but nothing on the plan suggested above. The first on our file is that held at the Shakespeare rooms early in 1839, when a few good pictures and sundry specimens of manufactures were shown. This was followed by the comprehensive Mechanics' Institute Exhibition opened in Newhall Street, December 19th, same year, which was a success in every way, the collection of mechanical models, machinery, chemical and scientific productions, curiosities, &c., being extensive and valuable; it remained open thirteen weeks. In the following year this exhibition was revived (August 11, 1840), but so far as the Institute, for whose benefit it was intended, was concerned, it had been better if never held, for it proved a loss, and only helped towards the collapse of the Institute, which closed in 1841. Railway carriages and tramcars propelled by electricity are the latest wonders of 1883; but just three-and-forty years back, one of our townsmen, Mr. Henry Shaw, had invented an "electro-galvanic railway carriage and tender," which formed one of the attractions of this Exhibition. It went very well until injured by (it is supposed) some spiteful nincompoop who, not having the brain to invent anything himself, tried to prevent others doing so. The next Exhibition, or, to be more strictly correct, "Exposition of Art and Manufactures," was held in the old residence of the Lloyd's family, known as Bingley House, standing in its own grounds a little back from Broad Street, and on the site of the present Bingley Hall. This was in 1849, and from the fact of its being visited (Nov. 12) by Prince Albert, who is generally credited with being the originator of International Exhibitions, it is believed that here he obtained the first ideas which led to the great "World's Fair" of 1851, in Hyde Park.—Following the opening of Aston Hall by Her Majesty in 1858, many gentlemen of position placed their treasures of art and art manufacture at the disposal of the Committee for a time, and the result was the collecting together of so rich a store that the London papers pronounced it to be after the "Great Exhibition" and the Manchester one, the most successful, both as regarded contents and attendance, of any Exhibition therebefore held out of the Metropolis. There were specimens of some of the greatest achievements in the arts of painting, sculpture, porcelain and pottery, carving and enamelling; ancient and modern metalwork, rich old furniture, armour, &c, that had ever been gathered together, and there can be little doubt that the advance which has since taken place in the scientific and artistic trade circles of the town spring in great measure from this Exhibition.—On the 28th of August, 1865, an Industrial Exhibition was opened at Bingley Hall, and so far as attendance went, it must take first rank, 160,645 visitors having passed the doors.

Agricultural Exhibitions.—The Birmingham Agricultural Exhibition Society, who own Bingley Hall, is the same body as the old Cattle Show Society, the modern name being adopted in 1871. As stated elsewhere, the first Cattle Show was held in Kent Street, Dec. 10, 1849; the second in Bingley Hall, which was erected almost solely for the purposes of this Society, and here they have acquired the name of being the best in the kingdom. To give the statistics of entries, sales, admissions, and receipts at all the Shows since 1849, would take more space than can be afforded, and though the totals would give an idea of the immense influence such Exhibitions must have on the welfare and prosperity of the agricultural community, the figures themselves would be but dry reading, and those for the past few years will suffice.

1887 1878. 1879. 1880. 1881. 1882. 1883.
Cattle 113 125 152 108 161 150 101
Sheep 69 91 64 47 88 85 75
Pigs 64 73 52 60 58 67 69
Corn 27 58 29 36 55 67 66
Roots 94 112 175 182 124 131 117
Potatoes 76 116 138 88 104 96 187
Poultry 2077 2149 2197 2247 2409 2489 2816
Pigeons 629 715 702 815 902 838 1332

3149 3439 3505 3583 3901 3923 4763
1877. 1878. 1879. 1880. 1881. 1882. 1883.
No. of Visitors 53,501 65,830 38,536 47,321 55,361 50,226
Receipts £1,673 £1,997 £1,206 £1,585 £1,815 £1,665

[Transcriber's note: No figures are given in the original for 1883 in this table.]

In addition to the Christmas Cattle Show, the Society commenced in March, 1869, a separate exhibition and sale of pure-bred shorthorns, more than 400 beasts of this class being sent every year. Indeed, the last show is said to have been the largest ever held in any country. The value of the medals, cups, and prizes awarded at these cattle shows averages nearly £2,400 per year, many of them being either subscribed for or given by local firms and gentlemen interested in the breeding or rearing of live stock. One of the principal of these prizes is the Elkington Challenge Cup, valued at 100 guineas, which, after being won by various exhibitors during the past ten years, was secured at the last show by Mr. John Price, who had fulfilled the requirements of the donors by winning it three times. Messrs. Elkington & Co. have most liberally given another cup of the same value. In 1876, for the first time since its establishment in 1839, the Royal Agricultural Society held its exhibition here, the ground allotted for its use being seventy acres at the rear of Aston Hall, twenty-five acres being part of the Park itself. That it was most successful may be gathered from the fact that over 265,000 persons visited the show, which lasted from July 19th to 24th.

Poultry forms part of the Bingley Hall Exhibition, and numerically the largest portion thereof, as per the table of entries, which is well worth preserving also for showing when new classes of birds have been first penned:

1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882
Brahma Pootras 407 258 366 376 362 439 429
Dorkings 167 178 220 209 194 238 277
Cochin 331 415 412 433 421 431 412
Langshans -- -- -- 49 66 49 47
Malay 63 38 49 47 48 36 43
Creve Coeur 93 117 94 38 28 33 24
Houdans -- -- -- 56 65 54 71
La Fleche -- -- -- -- -- -- 12
Spanish 48 33 45 27 32 31 37
Andalusians -- -- -- 16 23 29 43
Leghorns -- -- -- 25 12 20 17
Plymouth Rocks -- -- -- -- -- 17 20
Minorcas -- -- 7 8 6 9 3
Polish 78 76 98 91 83 98 63
Sultans -- -- -- 6 7 8 6
Silkies -- -- -- -- -- 11 7
Game 351 341 314 241 267 287 353
Aseels -- -- -- 27 28 20 11
Hamburghs 148 175 145 159 129 141 153
Other Breeds 35 47 126 20 20 21 7
Selling Classes -- -- -- 66 90 93 102
Bantams 95 63 82 70 105 96 105
Ducks 100 102 115 137 163 144 141
Geese 21 21 31 22 31 21 23
Turkeys 95 96 52 82 67 81 60
Pigeons 670 629 715 702 815 903 838

Total 2072 2569 2873 2899 3062 3316 3325

Fanciers give wonderfully strange prices sometimes. Cochin China fowls had but lately been introduced, and were therefore "the rage" in 1851-2. At the Poultry Show in the latter year a pair of these birds were sold for £30, and at a sale by auction afterwards two prize birds were knocked down at £40 each: it was said that the sellers crowed louder than the roosters.

Fine Art.—The first exhibition of pictures took place in 1814, and the second in 1827. In addition to the Spring and Autumn Exhibitions at the New Street Rooms, there is now a yearly show of pictures by the members of the "Art Circle," a society established in 1877, for promoting friendship among young local artists; their first opening was on Nov. 28, at 19, Temple Row. On Nov. 17, 1879, Mr. Thrupp commenced a yearly exhibition of China paintings, to which the lady artists contributed 243 specimens of their skill in decorating porcelain and china.

Horses and hounds.—The first exhibition of these took place at the Lower Grounds, Aug. 12, 1879. There had been a Horse Show at Bingley Hall for several years prior to 1876, but it had dropped out for want of support.

Birds.—An exhibition of canaries and other song birds, was held Aug. 18, 1874. Another was held in 1882, at the time of the Cattle Show.

Pigeons.—The first exhibition of pigeons in connection with the Birmingham Columbarian Society, took place in Dec., 1864. The annual Spring pigeon show at the Repository, opened March 20,1878. There have also been several at St. James' Hall, the first dating Sept. 24, 1874.

Dogs.—Like the Cattle Show, the original Birmingham Dog Show has extended its sphere, and is now known as the National Exhibition of Sporting and other Dogs. The show takes place in Curzon Hall, and the dates are always the same as for the agricultural show in Bingley Hall. There is yearly accommodation for 1,000 entries, and it is seldom that a less number is exhibited, the prizes being numerous, as well as valuable. At the meeting of the subscribers held July 19, 1883, it was resolved to form a new representative body, to be called the National Dog Club, having for its object the improvement of dogs, dog shows, and dog trials, and the formation of a national court of appeal on all matters in dispute. It was also resolved to publish a revised and correct stud book, to include all exhibitions where 400 dogs and upwards were shown, and to continue it annually, the Council having guaranteed £150, the estimated cost of the publication of the book. This step was taken in consequence of the action of certain members of the Kennel Club, who passed what had been called "The Boycotting Rules," calling upon its members to abstain from either exhibiting or judging at shows which were not under Kennel Club rules, and excluding winning dogs at such shows from being entered in the Kennel Club Stud Book, many of the principal exhibitors being dissatisfied with such arbitrary proceedings, evidently intended to injure the Birmingham shows. At each show there are classes for bloodhounds, deerhounds, greyhounds, otterhounds, beagles, fox terriers, pointers, English setters, black-and-tan setters, Irish setters, retrievers, Irish spaniels, water spaniels (best Irish), Clumber spaniels, Sussex spaniels, spaniels (black), ditto (other than black), dachshunds, bassett hounds, foreign sporting dogs, mastiffs, St. Bernards, Newfoundlands, sheep dogs, Dalmatians, bulldogs, bull-terriers, smooth-haired terriers, black-and-tan terriers (large), small ditto black-and-tan terriers with uncut ears, Skye-terriers, Dandie Dinmonts, Bedlington terriers, Irish terriers, Airedale or Waterside terriers, wire-haired terriers, Scotch terriers (hard haired), Yorkshire terriers, Pomeranians, pugs, Maltese, Italian greyhounds, Blenheim spaniels, King Charles spaniels, smooth-haired toy spaniels, broken-haired ditto, large and small sized foreign dogs.

1876. 1877. 1878. 1879. 1880. 1881. 1882.
No. of Visitors. 14981 17948 19500 14399 16796 16849 15901
Receipts at doors. £664 £740 £820 £580 £728 £714 £648
Sales of Dogs. £556 £367 £485 £554 £586 £474 £465

In 1879, the exhibition of guns and sporting implements was introduced, an additional attraction which made no difference financially, or in the number of visitors.

Sporting.—An exhibition of requisites and appliances in connection with sports and pastimes of all kinds was opened in Bingley Hall, Aug 28, 1882. In addition to guns and ammunition, bicycles and tricycles, there were exhibited boats, carriages, billiard tables, &c.

Dairy Utensils.—The first of these exhibitions, June, 1880, attracted considerable attention for its novelty. It is held yearly in Bingley Hall.

Bees.—An exhibition of bees, beehives, and other apiary appliances took place at the Botanical Gardens, in Aug., 1879.

Food and Drinks.—A week's exhibition of food, wines, spirits, temperance beverages, brewing utensils, machinery, fittings, stoves and appliances, was held in Bingley Hall, December 12-20, 1881.

Building.—A trades exhibition of all kinds of building material, machinery, &c., was held in 1882.

Bicycles, &c.—The Speedwell Club began their annual exhibition of bicycles, tricycles, and their accessories in February, 1882, when about 300 machines were shown. In the following year the number was nearly 400; in 1884, more than 500; in 1885, 600.

Roots.—Messrs. Webb, of Wordsley, occupied Curzon Hall, November 20, 1878, with an exhibition of prize roots, grown by their customers.

Fruit, Flowers, &c.—The first flower show we have note of was on June 19, 1833. The first chrysanthemum show was in 1860. The first Birmingham rose show in 1874 (at Aston); the second, five years later, at Bingley Hall. The Harborne gooseberry-growers have shown up every year since 1815, and the cultivators of pommes de terre in the same neighbourhood first laid their tables in public in Sept., 1879.

Exhibitions of 1851 and 1862.—Even as Birmingham may be said to have given the first idea for the "Great Exhibition" of 1851, so it had most to do with the building thereof, the great palace in Hyde Park being commenced by Messrs. Fox, Henderson & Co., July 26, 1850, and it was finished in nine months at a total cost of £176,031. In its erection there were used 4,000 tons of iron, 6,000,000 cubic feet of woodwork, and 31 acres of sheet glass, requiring the work of 1,800 men to put it together. 287 local exhibitors applied for space amounting to 22,070 sup. feet, namely, 10,183 feet of flooring, 4,932 feet of table area, and 6,255 feet of wall space. The "glory" of this exhibition was the great crystal fountain in the centre, manufactured by Messrs. Osler, of Broad Street, a work of art till then never surpassed in the world's history of glass-making and glass cutting, and which now pours forth its waters in one of the lily tanks in Sydenham Palace. Many rare specimens of Birmingham manufacture besides were there, and the metropolis of the Midlands had cause to be proud of the works of her sons thus exhibited. Fewer manufacturers sent their samples to the exhibition of 1862, but there was no falling off in their beauty or design. The Birmingham Small Arms trophy was a great attraction.

Explosions.—That many deplorable accidents should occur during the course of manufacturing such dangerous articles as gun caps and cartridges cannot be matter of surprise, and, perhaps, on the whole, those named in the following list may be considered as not more than the average number to be expected:—Two lives were lost by explosion of fulminating powder in St. Mary's Square, Aug. 4. 1823.—Oct. 16, same year, there was a gunpowder explosion in Lionel Street.—Two were killed by fireworks at the Rocket Tavern, Little Charles Street, May 2, 1834.— An explosion at Saltley Carriage Works, Dec. 20, 1849.—Two injured at the Proof House, Sept. 23, 1850.—Five by detonating powder in Cheapside, Feb 14, 1852.—Thirty-one were injured by gas explosion at Workhouse, Oct. 30, 1855.—Several from same cause at corner of Hope Street, March 11, 1856.—A cap explosion took place at Ludlow's, Legge Street, July 28, 1859.—Another at Phillips and Pursall's, Whittall Street, Sept. 27, 1852, when twenty-one persons lost their lives.— Another in Graham Street June 21, 1862, with eight deaths.—Boiler burst at Spring Hill, Nov. 23, 1859, injuring seven.—An explosion in the Magazine at the Barracks, March 8, 1864, killed Quartermaster McBean.— At Kynoch's, Witton, Nov. 17, 1870, resulting in 8 deaths and 28 injured.—At Ludlow's ammunition factory, Dec. 9, 1870, when 17 were killed and 53 injured, of whom 34 more died before Christmas.—At Witton, July 1, 1872, when Westley Richards' manager was killed.—At Hobb Lane, May 11, 1874.—Of gas, in great Lister Street, Dec. 9, 1874. —Of fulminate, in the Green Lane, May 4, 1876, a youth being killed.— Of gas, at St. James's Hall, Snow Hill, Dec. 4, and at Avery's, Moat Row, Dec. 31, 1878.—At a match manufactory, Phillip Street, Oct. 28, 1879, when Mr. Bermingham and a workman were injured.

Eye Hospital.—See "Hospitals."

Fairs.—The officers of the Court Leet, whose duty it was to walk in procession and "proclaim" the fairs, went through their last performance of the kind at Michaelmas, 1851. It was proposed to abolish the fairs in 1860, but the final order was not given until June 8th, 1875. Of late years there have been fairs held on the open grounds on the Aston outskirts of the borough, but the "fun of the fair" is altogether different now to what it used to be. The original charters for the holding of fairs at Whitsuntide and Michaelmas were granted to William de Bermingham by Henry III. in 1251. These fairs were doubtless at one time of great importance, but the introduction of railways did away with seven-tenths of their utility and the remainder was more nuisance than profit. As a note of the trade done at one time we may just preserve the item that in 1782 there were 56 waggon loads of onions brought into the fair.

Family Fortunes.—Hutton in his "History," with that quaint prolixity which was his peculiar proclivity gives numerous instances of the rise and fall of families connected with Birmingham. In addition to the original family of De Birmingham, now utterly extinct he traced back many others then and now well-known names. For instance he tells us that a predecessor of the Colmores in Henry VIII.'s reign kept a mercer's shop at No. 1, High Street; that the founder of the Bowyer Adderley family began life in a small way in this his native town in the 14th century; that the Foxalls sprang from a Digbeth tanner some 480 years ago; and so of others. Had he lived till now he might have largely increased his roll of local millionaires with such names as Gillott, Muntz, Mason, Rylands, &c. On the other hand he relates how some of the old families, whose names were as household words among the ancient aristocracy, have come to nought; how that he had himself charitably relieved the descendants of the Norman Mountfourds, Middemores and Bracebridges, and how that the sole boast of a descendant of the Saxon Earls of Warwick was in his day the fact of his grandfather having "kept several cows and sold milk." It is but a few years back since the present writer saw the last direct descendant of the Holtes working as a compositor in one of the newspaper offices of this town, and almost any day there was to be seen in the streets a truck with the name painted on of "Charles Holte Bracebridge, Licensed Hawker!"

Famines.—In the year 310, it is said that 40,000 persons died in this country from famine. It is not known whether any "Brums" existed then. In 1195 wheat was so scarce that it sold for 20s. the quarter; ten years after it was only 12d. In 1438, the times were so hard that people ate bread made from fern roots. In 1565, a famine prevailed throughout the kingdom.

Fashionable Quarter.—Edgbaston is our "West End," of which Thomas Ragg (before he was ordained) thus wrote:—

  —Glorious suburbs! long
May ye remain to bless the ancient town
Whose crown ye are; rewarder of the cares
Of those who toil amid the din and smoke
Of iron ribbed and hardy Birmingham.
And may ye long be suburbs, keeping still
Business at distance from your green retreats.

Feasts, Feeds, and Tea-fights.—Like other Englishmen, when we have a good opinion of people we ask them to dinner, and the number of public breakfasts, dinners, teas, and suppers on our record is wonderful. We give a few of the most interesting:—3,800 persons dined with our first M.P.'s., Attwood and Scholefield, at Beardsworth's Repository, Sept. 15, 1834.—A Reform banquet was the attraction in the Town Hall, Jan. 28, 1836.—Members and friends of the 'Chartist Church' kept their Christmas festival, by 'taking tea' in Town Hall, Dec.28, 1841.—1,700 Anti-Cornlawites (John Bright among them) did ditto Jan. 22, 1843.—The defeat of an obnoxious Police Bill led 900 persons to banquet together April 9, 1845.—A banquet in honour of Charles Dickens opened the year 1853—The first anniversary of the Loyal and Constitutional Association was celebrated by the dining of 848 loyal subjects, Dec. 17, 1855.— dinner was given to 1,200 poor folks in Bingley Hall, Jan. 25, 1858, to make them remember the marriage of the Princess Royal. Those who were not poor kept the game alive at Dee's Hotel.—John Bright was dined in Town Hall, Oct. 29, 1858.—A party of New Zealand chiefs were stuffed at same place, March 16, 1864—To celebrate the opening of a Dining Hall in Cambridge Street, a public dinner was given on All Fools' Day, 1864.—On the 23rd April following, about 150 gentlemen breakfasted with the Mayor, in honour of the Shakespeare Library being presented to the town.—The purchase of Aston Park was celebrated by a banquet, Sept. 22, 1864.—Over a hundred bellringers, at Nock's Hotel, 1868, had their clappers set wagging by Blews and Sons, in honour of the first peal of bells cast by them, and now in Bishop Ryder's Church.—The Master Bakers, who have been baking dinners for the public so long, in December, 1874, commenced an annual series of dinners among themselves, at which neither baked meats, nor even baked potatoes, are allowed.—Of political and quasi-political banquets, there have been many of late years, but as the parties have, in most cases, simply been gathered for party purposes, their remembrance is not worth keeping.—To help pay for improvements at General Hospital, there was a dinner at the Great Western Hotel, June 4, 1868, and when the plate was sent round, it received £4,000. That was the best, and there the list must close.

Females.—The fairer portion of our local community number (census 1881) 210,050, as against 197,954 males, a preponderance of 12,096. In 1871 the ladies outnumbered us by 8,515, and it would be an interesting question how this extra ratio arises, though as one half of the super-abundant petticoats are to be found in Edgbaston it may possibly only be taken as a mark of local prosperity, and that more female servants are employed than formerly.—See "Population" Tables.

Fenianism.—It was deemed necessary in Jan., 1881, to place guards of soldiers at the Tower and Small Arms Factory, but the Fenians did not trouble us; though later on a very pretty manufactory of dynamite was discovered in Ledsam Street.—See "Notable Offences."

Ferrars.—The De Ferrars were at one time Lords of the Manor, Edmund de Ferrars dying in 1438. The ancient public-house sign of "The Three Horseshoes" was taken from their coat of arms.

Festivals.—Notes of the past Triennial Musical Festivals for which Birmingham is so famous, the performances, and the many great artistes who have taken part therein, will be found further on.

Fetes were held in Aston Park July 27, and September 15, 1856, for the benefit of the Queen's and General Hospitals, realising therefore £2,330. The first to "Save Aston Hall" took place August 17, 1857, when a profit of £570 was made. There have been many since then, but more of the private speculation class, Sangers' so-called fête at Camp Hill, June 27, 1874, being the first of their outdoor hippodrome performances.

Fires.—When Prince Rupert's soldiers set fire to the town, in 1643, no less than 155 houses were burned.—Early in 1751 about £500 worth of wool was burned at Alcock's, in Edgbaston Street.—May 24, 1759, the stage waggon to Worcester was set on fire by the bursting of a bottle of aqua-fortis, and the contents of the waggon, valued at £5,000, were destroyed.—In November, 1772, Mr. Crowne's hop and cheese warehouse, top of Carr's Lane, was lessened £400 in value.—The Theatre Royal was burned August 24, 1791, and again January 6, 1820.—Jerusalem Temple, Newhall Hill, was burned March 10, 1793.—St. Peter's Church suffered January 24, 1831.—There was a great blaze at Bolton's timber yard, Broad Street, May 27, 1841.—At the Manor House, Balsall Heath, in 1848.—Among Onion's bellows, in March, 1853.—At the General Hospital, December 24, 1853.—At the Spread Eagle Concert Hall, May 5, 1855.—At a builder's in Alcester Street, October 4, 1858.—At Aston Brook Flour mill, June 1, 1862, with £10,000 damage.—At Lowden & Beeton's, High Street, January 3, 1863; the firm were prosecuted as incendiaries.—At Gameson's Tavern, Hill Street, December 25, 1863; six lives lost.—On the stage at Holder's, July 3, 1865; two ballet dancers died from fright and injuries.—At Baskerville Sawmills, September 7, 1867.—In Sutton Park, August 4, 1868.—In a menagerie in Carr's Lane, January 25, 1870. —At Dowler's Plume Works, March 16.—In Denmark Street, May 23; two children burned.—At Worcester Wharf, June 2, 1870; two men burnt.—At Warwick Castle, Dec. 3, 1871.—At Smith's hay and straw yard, Crescent, through lightning, July 25, 1872.—In Sherbourne Street, June 25, 1874, and same day in Friston Street; two men burned.—At the hatter's shop in Temple Street, Nov. 25, 1875.—At Tipper's Mystery Works, May 16, and at Holford Mill, Perry Barr, August 3, 1876.—At Icke and Co.'s, Lawley Street, May 17, 1877; £2,500 damage.—At Adam's colour warehouse, Suffolk Street, October 13, 1877; £10,000 damage.—In Bloomsbury Street, September 29, 1877; an old man burned.—In Lichfield Road, November 26, 1877; two horses, a cow, and 25 pigs roasted.—January 25, 1878, was a hot day, there being four fires in 15 hours.—At Hayne's flour mill, Icknield Port Road, Feb. 2, 1878, with £10,000 damage; first time steam fire engine was used.—At Baker Bros'., match manufactory, Freeth Street, February 11.—At Grew's and at Cund's printers, March 16, 1878; both places being set on fire by a vengeful thief; £2,000 joint damage. —At corner of Bow Street, July 29, 1878.—At Dennison's shop, opposite Museum Concert Hall, August 26, 1878, when Mrs. Dennison, her baby, her sister, and a servant girl lost their lives. The inquest terminated on September 30 (or rather at one o'clock next morning), when a verdict of "accidental death" was given in the case of the infant, who had been dropped during an attempted rescue, and with respect to the others that they had died from suffocation caused by a five designedly lighted, but by whom the jury had not sufficient evidence to say. Great fault was found with the management of the fire brigade, a conflict of authority between them and the police giving rise to very unpleasant feelings. At Cadbury's cocoa manufactory, November 23, 1878. In Legge Street, at a gun implement maker's, December 14, 1878; £600 damage.—And same day at a gun maker's, Whittall Street; £300 damage.—At Hawkes's looking-glass manufactory, Bromsgrove Street, January 8, 1879; £20,000 damage.—The Reference Library, January 11, 1879 (a most rueful day); damage incalculable and irreparable.—At Hinks and Sons' lamp works, January 30, 1879; £15,000 damage.—At the Small Arms Factory, Adderley Road, November 11, 1879; a fireman injured.—At Grimsell and Sons', Tower Street, May 5, 1880; over £5,000 damage.—Ward's cabinet manufactory, Bissell Street, April 11, 1885.

Firearms.—See "Trades."

Fire Brigades.—A volunteer brigade, to help at fires, was organised here in February 1836, but as the several companies, after introducing their engines, found it best to pay a regular staff to work them, the volunteers, for the time, went to the "right about." In 1863 a more pretentious attempt to constitute a public or volunteer brigade of firemen, was made, the members assembling for duty on the 21st of February, the Norwich Union engine house being the headquarters; but the novelty wore off as the uniforms got shabby, and the work was left to the old hands, until the Corporation took the matter in hand. A Volunteer Fire Brigade for Aston was formed at the close of 1878, and its rules approved by the Local Board on Jan. 7, 1879. They attended and did good service at the burning of the Reference Library on the following Saturday. August 23, 1879 the Aston boys, with three and twenty other brigades from various parts of the country, held a kind of efficiency competition at the Lower Grounds, and being something new in it attracted many. The Birmingham brigade were kept at home, possibly on account of the anniversary of the Digbeth fire. Balsall Heath and Harborne are also supplied with their own brigades, and an Association of Midland Brigades has lately been formed which held their first drill in the Priory, April 28, 1883.

Fire Engines.—In 1839 the Birmingham Fire Office had two engines, very handsome specimens of the article too, being profusely decorated with wooden battle axes, iron scroll-work, &c. One of these engines was painted in many colours; but the other a plain drab, the latter it was laughingly said, being kept for the Society of Friends, the former for society at large. The first time a "portable" or hand engine was used here was on the occurrence of a fire in a tobacconist's shop in Cheapside Oct. 29, 1850. The steam fire engine was brought here in Oct. 1877.—See "Fire Engine Stations" under "Public Buildings."

Fire Grates.—The first oven grate used in this district was introduced in a house at "the City of Nineveh" about the year 1818, and created quite a sensation.

Fire Insurance Companies.—The Birmingham dates its establishment from March 1805. All the companies now in existence are more or less represented here by agents, and no one need be uninsured long, as their offices are so thick on the ground round Bennet's Hill and Colmore Row, that it has been seriously suggested the latter thoroughfare should he rechristened and be called Insurance Street. It was an agent who had the assurance to propose the change.

Fish.—In April, 1838, a local company was floated for the purpose of bringing fish from London and Liverpool. It began swimmingly, but fish didn't swim to Birmingham, and though several other attempts have been made to form companies of similar character, the trade has been kept altogether in private hands, and to judge from the sparkling rings to be seen on the hands of the ladies who condescend to sell us our matutinal bloaters in the Market Hall, the business is a pretty good one—and who dare say those dames de salle are not also pretty and good? The supply of fish to this town, as given by the late Mr. Hanman, averaged from 50 to 200 tons per day (one day in June, 1879, 238 tons came from Grimsby alone) or, each in its proper season, nearly as follows:—Mackerel, 2,000 boxes of about 2 cwt. each; herrings, 2,000 barrels of 1-1/2 cwt. each; salmon, 400 boxes of 2-1/2 cwt. each; lobsters, 15 to 20 barrels of 1 cwt. each; crabs, 50 to 60 barrels of 1-1/4 cwt. each; plaice, 1,500 packages of 2 cwt. each; codfish, 200 barrels of 2 cwt. each; conger eels, 20 barrels of 2 cwt. each; skate, 10 to 20 barrels of 2 cwt. each.—See "Markets."

Fishing.—There is very little scope for the practice of Isaac Walton's craft near to Birmingham, and lovers of the gentle art must go farther afield to meet with good sport. The only spots within walking distance are the pools at Aston Park and Lower Grounds, at Aston Tavern, at Bournbrook Hotel (or, as it is better known, Kirby's), and at Pebble Mill, in most of which may be found perch, roach, carp, and pike. At Pebble Mill, March 20, last year, a pike was captured 40 inches long, and weighing 22 lbs., but that was a finny rarity, and not likely to be met with there again, as the pool (so long the last resort of suicidally inclined mortals) is to be filled up. A little farther off are waters at Sarehole, at Yardley Wood, and the reservoir at King's Norton, but with these exceptions anglers must travel to their destinations by rail. There is good fishing at Sutton Coldfield, Barnt Green (for reservoir at Tardebigge), Alcester, Shustoke, Salford Priors, and other places within a score of miles, but free fishing nowhere. Anyone desirous of real sport should join the Birmingham and Midland Piscatorial Association (established June, 1878), which rents portions of the river Trent and other waters. This society early in 1880, tried their hands at artificial salmon-hatching, one of the tanks of the aquarium at Aston Lower Grounds being placed at their disposal. They were successful in bringing some thousand or more of their interesting protegees from the ova into fish shape, but we cannot find the market prices for salmon or trout at all reduced.

Fishmongers' Hall.—Not being satisfied with the accommodation provided for them in the Fish Market, the Fish and Game Dealers' Association, at their first annual meeting (Feb. 13, 1878), proposed to erect a Fishmongers' Hall, but they did not carry out their intention.

Flogging.—In "the good old days," when George the Third was King, it was not very uncommon for malefactors to be flogged through the streets, tied to the tail end of a cart. In 1786 several persons, who had been sentenced at the Assizes, were brought back here and so whipped through the town; and in one instance, where a young man had been caught filching from the Mint, the culprit was taken to Soho works, and in the factory yard, there stripped and flogged by "Black Jack" of the Dungeon, as a warning to his fellow-workmen. This style of punishment would hardly do now, but if some few of the present race of "roughs" could be treated to a dose of "the cat" now and then, it might add considerably to the peace and comfort of the borough. Flogging by proxy was not unknown in some of the old scholastic establishments, but whipping a scarecrow seems to have been the amusement on February 26th. 1842, when Sir Robert Peel, at that day a sad delinquent politically, was publicly flogged in elligy.

Floods—The milldams at Sutton burst their banks, July 24, 1668, and many houses were swept away.—On the 24th November, 1703, a three days' storm arose which extended over the whole kingdom; many parts of the Midlands being flooded and immense damage caused, farmers' live stock especially suffering. 15,000 sheep were drowned in one pan of Gloucestershire; several men and hundreds of sheep near to Worcester; the losses in Leicestershire and Staffordshire being also enormous. Though there is no local record respecting it here, there can be little doubt that the inhabitants had their share of the miseries.—July 2, 1759, a man and several horses were drowned in a flood near Meriden.— Heavy rains caused great floods here in January, 1764.—On April 13, 1792, a waterspout, at the Lickey Hills, turned the Rea into a torrent. —The lower parts of the town were flooded through the heavy rain of June 26, 1830.—There were floods in Deritend and Bordesley, Nov. 11, 1852.—June 23, 1861, parts of Aston, Digbeth, and the Parade were swamped.—Feb. 8, 1865, Hockley was flooded through the bursting of the Canal banks; and a simmilar accident to the Worcester Canal, May 25, 1872, laid the roads and gardens about Wheeley's Road under water.— There were very heavy rains in July and October, 1875, causing much damage in the lower parts of the town.—Aug. 2 and 3, 1879, many parts of the outskirts were flooded, in comparatively the shortest time in memory.

Flour Mills.—The Union Mill Co. (now known as the Old Union, &c.) was formed early in 1796, with a capital of £7,000 in £1 shares, each share-holder being required to take a given amount of bread per week. Though at starting it was announced that the undertaking was not intended for profit,—such were the advantages derived from the operations of the Company that the shareholders it is said, in addition to a dividend of 10 per cent., received in the course of couple of years a benefit equal to 600 per cent, in the shape of reduced prices. Large dividends have at times been received, but a slightly different tale is now told.—The New Union Mill was started in 1810; the Snow Hill Mill about 1781; the Britannia Mills in 1862.

Fly Vans.—"Fly Boats" to the various places connected with Birmingham by the canals were not sufficient for our townspeople seventy years ago, and an opposition to the coaches started in 1821, in the shape of Fly Vans or light Post Waggons, was hailed with glee. These Fly Vans left the Crescent Wharf (where Showell and Sons' Stores are now) three evenings a week, and reached Sheffield the following day. This was the first introduction of a regular "parcels' post," though the authorities would not allow of anything like a letter being sent with a parcel, if they knew it.

Foolish Wager.—On July 8,1758, for a wager, a man named Moraon got over the battlements of the tower at St. Martin's, and safely let himself down to the ground (a distance of 73 feet) without rope or ladder, his strength of muscle enabling him to reach from cornerstone to cornerstone, and cling thereto as he descended.

Football.—See "Sports."

Forgeries.—The manufacture of bogus bank-notes was carried on here, at one time, to an alarming extent, and even fifty years ago, though he was too slippery a fish for the authorities to lay hold of, it was well-known there was a clever engraver in the Inkleys who would copy anything put before him for the merest trifle, even though the punishment was most severe. Under "Notable Offences" will be found several cases of interest in this peculiar line of business.

Forks.—Our ancestors did without them, using their fingers. Queen Elizabeth had several sent to her from Spain, but she seldom used them, and we may be quite sure it was long after that ere the taper fingers of the fair Brums ceased to convey the titbits to their lips. Even that sapient sovereign, James I., the Scotch Solomon, did not use the foreign invention, believing possibly with the preacher who denounced them in the pulpit that it was an insult to the Almighty to touch the meat prepared for food with anything but one's own fingers. Later on, when the coaches began to throng the road, gentlemen were in the habit of carrying with them their own knife and fork for use, so seldom were the latter articles to be found at the country inns, and the use of forks cannot be said to have become general more than a hundred years ago.

Forward.—The self-appropriated motto of our borough, chosen at one of the earliest committee meetings of the Town Council in 1839. Mr. William Middlemore is said to have proposed the use of the word as being preferable to any Latin, though "Vox populi, vox Dei," and other like appropriate mottoes, have been suggested. Like all good things, however, the honour of originating this motto has been contested, the name of Robert Crump Mason having been given as its author.

Fogs.—Bad as it may be now and then in the neighbourhood of some of our works, it there is one thing in nature we can boast of more than another, it is our comparatively clear atmosphere, and it is seldom that we are troubled with fogs of any kind. In this respect, at all events, the Midland metropolis is better off than its Middlesex namesake, with its "London particular," as Mr. Guppy calls it. But there was one day (17th) in December, 1879, when we were, by some atmospheric phenomena, treated to such "a peasouper" that we must note it as being the curiosity of the day, the street traffic being put a stop to while the fog lasted.

Folk-lore.—Funny old sayings are to be met with among the quips and quirks of "folk-lore" that tickled the fancies of our grandfathers. The following is to [**] with several changes, but it [**] good to be lost:—

"Sutton for mutton,
Tamworth for beeves,
Walsall for knockknees,
And Brummagem for thieves."

Fountains.—Messrs. Messenger and Sons designed, executed, and erected, to order of the Street Commissioners, in 1851, a very neat, and for the situation, appropriate, fountain in the centre of the Market Hall, but which has since been removed to Highgate Park, where it appears sadly out of place.

The poor little boys, without any clothes,
Looking in winter as if they were froze.

A number of small drinking-fountains or taps have been presented to the town by benevolent persons (one of the neatest being that put up at the expense of Mr. William White in Bristol Road in 1876), and granite cattle-troughs are to be found in Constitution Hill, Icknield Street, Easy Row, Albert Street, Gosta Green, Five Ways, &c. In July, 1876, Miss Ryland paid for the erection of a very handsome fountain at the bottom of Bradford Street, in near proximity to the Smith field. It is so constructed as to be available for quenching the thirst not only of human travellers, but also of horses, dogs, &c., and on this account it has been appropriately handed over to the care of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. It is composed of granite, and as it is surmounted by a gas lamp, it is, in more senses than one, both useful and ornamental.—The fountain in connection with the Chamberlain Memorial, at back of Town Hall, is computed to throw out five million gallons of water per annum (ten hours per day), a part of which is utilised at the fishstalls in the markets. The Water Committee have lately put up an ornamental fountain in Hagley Road, in connection with the pipe supply for that neighbourhood.

Foxalls.—For centuries one of the most prosperous of our local families, having large tanneries in Digbeth as far back as 1570; afterwards as cutlers and ironmongers down to a hundred years ago. They were also owners of the Old Swan, the famous coaching house, and which it is believed was the inn that Prince Rupert and his officers came to when Thomas, the ostler, was shot, through officiously offering to take their horses.

Fox Hunts.—With the exception of the annual exhibition of fox-hounds and other sporting dogs, Birmingham has not much to do with hunting matters, though formerly a red coat or two might often have been seen in the outskirts riding to meets not far away. On one occasion, however, as told the writer by one of these old inhabitants whose memories are our historical textbooks, the inhabitants of Digbeth and Deritend were treated to the sight of a hunt in full cry. It was a nice winter's morning of 1806, when Mr. Reynard sought to save his brush by taking a straight course down the Coventry Road right into town. The astonishment of the shop-keepers may be imagined when the rush of dogs and horses passed rattling by. Round the corner, down Bordesley High Street, past the Crown and Church, over the bridge and away for the Shambles and Corn Cheaping went the fox, and close to his heels followed the hounds, who caught their prey at last near to The Board. "S.D.R.," in one of his chatty gossips anent the old taverns of Birmingham, tells of a somewhat similar scene from the Quinton side of the town, the bait, however, being not a fox, but the trail-scent of a strong red herring, dragged at his stirrup, in wicked devilry, by one of the well-known haunters of old Joe Lindon's. Still, we have had fox-hunts of our own, one of the vulpine crew being killed in St. Mary's Churchyard, Feb. 26, 1873, while another was captured (Sept. 11, 1883) by some navvies at work on the extension of New Street Station. The fox, which was a young one, was found asleep in one of the subways, though how he got to such a strange dormitory is a puzzle, and he gave a quarter-hour's good sport before being secured.

Freemasons.—See "Masonic."

Freeth, the Poet.—The first time Freeth's name appears in the public prints is in connection with a dinner given at his coffee-house, April 17, 1770, to celebrate Wilkes' release from prison. He died September 29, 1808, aged 77, and was buried in the Old Meeting House, the following lines being graved on his tombstone:—

"Free and easy through life 'twas his wish to proceed.
Good men he revered, whatever their creed.
His pride was a sociable evening to spend,
For no man loved better his pipe and his friend."

Friendly Societies are not of modern origin, traces of many having been found in ancient Greek inscriptions. The Romans also had similar societies, Mr. Tomkins, the chief clerk of the Registrar-General, having found and deciphered the accounts of one at Lanuvium, the entrance fee to which was 100 sesterces (about 15s.), and an amphora (or jar) of wine. The payments were equivalent to 2s. a year, or 2d. per mouth, the funeral money being 45s., a fixed portion, 7s. 6d. being set apart for distribution at the burning of the body. Members who did not pay up promptly were struck off the list, and the secretaries and treasurers, when funds were short, went to their own pockets.—The first Act for regulating Friendly Societies was passed in 1795. Few towns in England have more sick and benefit clubs than Birmingham, there not being many public-houses without one attached to them, and scarcely a manufactory minus its special fund for like purposes. The larger societies, of course, have many branches (lodges, courts, &c), and it would be a difficult matter to particularise them all, or even arrive at the aggregate number of their members, which, however, cannot be much less than 50,000; and, if to these we add the large number of what may be styled "annual gift clubs" (the money in hand being divided every year), we may safely put the total at something like 70,000 persons who take this method of providing for a rainy day. The following notes respecting local societies have been culled from blue books, annual reports, and private special information, the latter being difficult to arrive at, in consequence of that curious reticence observable in the character of officials of all sorts, club stewards included.

Artisans at Large.—In March, 1868, the Birmingham artisans who reported on the Paris Exhibition of 1867, formed themselves into a society "to consider and discuss, from an artisan point of view, all such subjects as specially affect the artisan class; to promote and seek to obtain all such measures, legislative or otherwise, as shall appear beneficial to that class; and to render to each other mutual assistance, counsel, or encouragement." Very good, indeed! The benefits which have arisen from the formation of this society are doubtless many, but as the writer has never yet seen a report, he cannot record the value of the mutual assistance rendered, or say what capital is left over of the original, fund of counsel and encouragement.

Barbers.—A few knights of the razor in 1869 met together and formed a "Philanthropic Society of Hairdressers," but though these gentlemen are proverbial for their gossiping propensities, they tell no tales out of school, and of their charity boast not.

Butchers.—A Butchers' Benefit and Benevolent Association was founded in 1877.

Coaldealers.—The salesmen of black diamonds have a mutual benefit association, but as the secretary declines to give any information, we fear the mutual benefit consists solely of helping each other to keep the prices up.

Cannon Street Male Adult Provident Institution was established in 1841. At the expiration of 1877 there were 8,994 members, with a balance in hand of £72,956 15s. 5d. The total received from members to that date amounted to £184,900, out of which £131,400 had been returned in sick pay and funeral benefits, the payments out varying from 4s. to 20s. a week in sickness, with a funeral benefit of £20, £8 being allowed on the death of a wife.

Carr's Lane Provident Institution was commenced in 1845, and has 299 male and 323 female members, with a capital of £5,488, the amount paid in 1883 on account of sickness being £242, with £54 funeral money.

Chemistry.—A Midland Counties' Chemists' Association was formed in May, 1869.

Christ Church Provident Institution was established in 1835, and at the end of 1883, there were 646 male and 591 female members; during the year £423 had been paid among 138 members on account of sickness, besides £25 for funerals. Capital about £5,800. A junior or Sunday school branch also exists.

Church of the Saviour Provident Institution was started in 1857.

Church School Teachers.—The Birmingham and District Branch of the Church Schoolmaster's and Schoolmistresses' Benevolent Institution was formed in 1866, and the members contribute about £250 per year to the funds.

Druids.—The order of Druids has five Lodges here, with nearly 400 members. The United Ancient Order of Druids has twenty-one Lodges, and about 1,400 members.

Ebenezer Chapel Sick Society was established in 1828. Has 135 members, whose yearly payments average 32s. 6d., out of which 17s. dividend at Christmas comes back, the benefits being 10s. a week in sickness and £10 at death.

Foresters.—In 1745 a few Yorkshire-men started "The Ancient Order of Royal Foresters," under which title the associated Courts remained until 1834, when a split took place. The secessionists, who gave the name of "Honour" to their No. 1 Court (at Ashton-under-Lyne), declined the honour of calling themselves "Royal," but still adhered to the antique part of their cognomen. The new "Ancient Order of foresters" throve well, and, leaving their "Royal" friends far away in the background, now number 560,000 members, who meet in nearly 7,000 Courts. In the Birmingham Midland District them are 62 courts, with about 6,200 members, the Court funds amounting to £29,900, and the District funds to £2,200. The oldest Court in this town is the "Child of the Forest," meeting at the Gem Vaults, Steelhouse Lane, which was instituted in 1839. The other Courts meet at the Crown and Anchor, Gem Street; Roebuck, Lower Hurst Street; Queen's Arms, Easy Row; White Swan, Church Street; Red Cow, Horse Fair; Crown, Broad Street; White Hart, Warstone Lane; Rose and Crown, Summer Row; Red Lion, Suffolk Street; Old Crown, Deritend; Hope and Anchor, Coleshill Street; Black Horse, Ashted Row; Colemore Arms, Latimer Street South; Anchor, Bradford Street; Army and Navy Inn, Great Brook Street; Red Lion, Smallbrook Street; Union Mill Inn, Holt Street; Vine, Lichfield Road; Wellington, Holliday Street; Ryland Arms, Ryland Street; Star and Garter, Great Hampton Row; Oak Tree, Selly Oak; Station Inn, Saltley Road; Drovers' Arms, Bradford Street; Old Nelson, Great Lister Street; Ivy Green, Edward Street; Iron House, Moor Street; Green Man, Harborne; Fountain, Wrentham Street; King's Arms, Sherlock Street; Shareholders' Arms, Park Lane; Shakespeare's Head, Livery Street; Criterion, Hurst Street; Acorn, Friston Street; Hen and Chickens, Graham Street; Albion, Aston Road; Dog and Partridge, Tindal Street; White Horse, Great Colmore Street; Carpenters' Arms, Adelaide Street; Small Arms Inn, Muntz Street; Weymouth Arms, Gerrard Street; General Hotel, Tonk Street; Railway Tavern, Hockley; Noah's Ark, Montague Street; Sportsman, Warwick Road; Roebuck, Monument Road; Bull's Head, Moseley; Swan Inn, Coleshill; Hare and Hounds, King's Heath; Roebuck, Erdington; Fox and Grapes, Pensnett; Hazelwell Tavern, Stirchley Street; Round Oak and New Inn, Brierley Hill; The Stores, Oldbury; and at the Crosswells Inn, Five Ways, Langley.

General Provident and Benevolent Institution was at first (1833) an amalgamation of several Sunday School societies. It has a number of branches, and appears to be in a flourishing condition, the assets, at end of 1883, amounting to over £48,000, with a yearly increment of about £1,400; the number of members in the medical fund being 5,112.

Grocers.—These gentlemen organised a Benevolent Society, in 1872.

Independent Order of Rechabites.—Dwellers in tents, and drinkers of no wine, were the original Rechabites, and there are about a score of "tents" in this district, the oldest being pitched in this town in 1839, and, as friendly societies, they appear to be doing, in their way, good service, like their friends who meet in "courts" and "lodges," the original "tent's" cashbox having £675 in hand for cases of sickness, while the combined camp holds £1,600 wherewith to bury their dead.

Jewellers' Benevolent Association dates from Oct. 25, 1867.

Medical.—A Midland Medical Benevolent Society has been in existence since 1821. The annual report to end of 1883 showed invested funds amounting to £10,937, there being 265 benefit members and 15 honorary.

Musical.—The Birmingham Musical Society consists almost solely of members of the Choral Society, whose fines, with small subscriptions from honorary members, furnishes a fund to cover rehearsal, and sundry choir expenses as well as 10s in cases of sickness.

New Meeting Provident Institution was founded in 1836, but is now connected with the Church of the Messiah. A little over a thousand members, one-third of whom are females.

Oddfellows.—The National Independent Order of Oddfellows, Birmingham Branch, was started about 1850. At the end of 1879 there were 1,019 members, with about £4,500 accumulated funds.

The Birmingham District of the Manchester Unity of Oddfellows in January, 1882, consisted of 43 lodges, comprising 4,297 members, the combined capital of sick and funeral funds being £42,210. Tho oldest Lodge in the District is the "Briton's Pride," which was opened in 1827.

The first Oddfellows' Hall was in King Street, but was removed when New Street Station was built. The new Oddfellows' Hall in Upper Temple Street was built in 1849, by Branson and Gwyther, from the designs of Coe and Goodwin (Lewisham, Kent), at a cost of £3,000. Tim opening was celebrated by a dinner on December 3rd, same year. The "Hall" will accommodate 1,000 persons. The Oddfellows' Biennial Moveable Committee met in this town on May 29th, 1871.

The M.U. Lodges meet at the following houses:—Fox, Fox Street; White Horse, Congreve Street; Swan-with-two-Necks, Great Brook Street; Albion, Cato Street North; Hope and Anchor, Coleshill Street; 13, Temple Street; Wagon and Horses, Edgbaston Street; Crystal Palace, Six Ways, Smethwick; The Vine, Harborne; Prince Arthur, Arthur Street, Small Heath; George Hotel, High Street, Solihull; Bell, Phillip Street; Bull's Head, Digbeth; Edgbaston Tavern, Lee Bank, Road; The Stork, Fowler Street, Nechells; Three Tuns, Digbeth; Town Hall, Sutton Coldfield; Coffee House, Bell Street; Coach and Horses, Snow Hill; Roe Buck, Moor Street; Drovers' Arms, Bradford Street; Co-operative Meeting Room, Stirchley Street; Black Lion, Coleshill Street; Queen's Head, Handsworth; No. 1 Coffee House, Rolfe Street, Smethwick; New Inn, Selly Oak; Wagon and Horses, Greet; Talbot, Yardley; Saracen's Head, Edgbaston Street; Dolphin, Unett Street; Grand Turk, Ludgate Hill; Roebuck, Moor Street; White Swan, Church Street; White Lion, Thorpe Street; Queen's Arms, Easy Row; Rose and Crown, Wheeler Street, Lozells.

The National Independent Order was instituted in 1845, and registered under the Friendly Societies' Act, 1875. The Order numbers over 60,000 members, but its strongholds appear to be in Yorkshire and Lancashire, which two counties muster between them nearly 40,000. In Birmingham district, there are thirteen "lodges," with a total of 956 members, their locations being at the Criterion, Hurst Street; Bricklayers' Arms, Cheapside; Ryland Arms, Ryland Street; Sportsman, Moseley Street; Iron House, Moor Street; Exchange Inn, High Street; Red Lion, Smallbrook Street; Woodman, Summer Lane; Emily Arms, Emily Street; Boar's Head, Bradford Street; Turk's Head, Duke Street; Bird-in-Hand, Great King Street; Tyburn House, Erdington.

Old Meeting Friendly Fund was commenced in 1819, and registered in 1824. Its capital at the close of the first year, was £5 14s. 10-1/2d.; at end of the tenth year (1828) it was nearly £264; in 1838, £646; in 1848, £1,609; in 1858, £3,419; 1868, £5,549; in 1878, £8,237; and at the end of 1883, £9,250 16s. 2d.;—a very fair sum, considering the numbers only numbered 446, the year's income being £877 and the out-goings £662.

Railway Guards' Friendly Fund was originated in this town in 1848. It has nearly 2,200 members; the yearly disbursements being about £6,000, and the payments £40 at death, with life pensions of 10s. and upwards per week to members disabled on the line. More than £85,000 has been thus distributed since the commencement.

Roman Catholic.—A local Friendly Society was founded in 1794, and a Midland Association in 1824.

Shepherds.—The Order of Shepherds dates from 1834, but we cannot get at the number of members, &c. August 9, 1883 (according to Daily Post), the High Sanctuary meeting of the Order of Shepherds was held in our Town Hall, when the auditor's report showed total assets of the general fund, £921 15s. 4d., and liabilities £12 6s. 9-1/2d. The relief fund stood at £292 18s. 8d., being an increase of £66 0s. 11d. on the year; and there was a balance of £6 13s. 9-1/2d. to the credit of the sick and funeral fund.

St. David's Society.—The members held their first meeting March 1, 1824.

St. Patrick's Benefit Society, dating from 1865 as an offshoot of the Liverpool Society, had at end of 1882, 3,144 members, the expenditure of the year was £857 (£531 for funerals), and the total value of the society £2,030.

Unitarian Brotherly Society, registered in 1825, has about 500 members, and a capital of £8,500.

United Brothers.—There are nearly 100 lodges and 10,000 members of societies under this name in Birmingham and neighbourhood, some of the lodges being well provided for capital, No. 4 having £8,286 to 186 members.

United Family Life Assurance and Sick Benefit Society claims to have some 8,500 members, 750 of whom reside in Birmingham.

United Legal Burial Society, registered in 1846, like the above, is a branch only.

Union Provident Sick Society.—Founded 1802, enrolled in 1826 and certified in 1871, had then 3,519 members and a reserve fund of £8,269. At end of 1883 the reserve fund stood at £15,310 16s. 9d., there having been paid during the year £4,768 17s. 2d. for sick pay and funerals, besides 15s. dividend to each member.

There are 15,379 Friendly Societies or branches in the kingdom, numbering 4,593,175 members, and their funds amounted to (by last return) £12,148,602.

Friends (The Society of).—Quakerism was publicly professed here in 1654, George Fox visiting the town the following year and in 1657. The triends held their first "meetings" in Monmouth Street in 1659. The meeting-house in Bull Street was built in 1703, and was enlarged several times prior to 1856, when it was replaced by the present edifice which will seat about 800 persons. The re-opening took place January 25, 1857. The burial-ground in Monmouth Street, where the Arcade is now, was taken by the Great Western Railway Co. in 1851, the remains of over 300 departed Friends being removed to the yard of the meeting-house in Bull Street.

Froggery.—Before the New Street Railway Station was built, a fair slice of old Birmingham had to be cleared away, and fortunately it happened to be one of the unsavoury portions, including the spot known as "The Froggery." As there was a Duck Lane close by, the place most likely was originally so christened from its lowlying and watery position, the connection between ducks and frogs being self-apparent.

Frosts.—Writing on Jan. 27, 1881, the late Mr. Plant said that in 88 years there had been only four instances of great cold approaching comparison with the intense frost then ended; the first was in January, 1795; the next in December and January, 1813-14; then followed that of January, 1820. The fourth was in December and January, 1860-61; and, lastly, January, 1881. In 1795 the mean temperature of the twenty-one days ending January 31st was 24.27 degrees; in 1813-14, December 29th to January 18th, exclusively, 24.9 degrees; in 1820, January 1st to 21st, inclusively, 23.7 degrees; in 1860-61, December 20th to January 9th, inclusively, 24.5 degrees; and in 1881, January 7th to 27th, inclusively, 23.2 degrees. Thus the very coldest three weeks on record in this district, in 88 years, is January, 1881. With the exception of the long frost of 1813-4, which commenced on the 24th December and lasted three months, although so intense in their character, none of the above seasons were remarkable for protracted duration. The longest frosts recorded in the present century were as follows:—1813-14, December to March. 13 weeks; 1829-30, December, January, February, 10 weeks; 1838, January, February, 8 weeks; 1855, January, February, 7 weeks; 1878-79, December, January, February, 10 weeks.

Funny Notions.—The earliest existing statutes governing our Free Grammar of King Edward VI. bear the date of 1676. One of these rules forbids the assistant masters to marry.—In 1663 (temp. Charles II.) Sir Robert Holte, of Aston, received a commission from Lord Northampton, "Master of His Majesty's leash," to take and seize greyhounds, and certain other dogs, for the use of His Majesty!—The "Dancing Assembly," which was to meet on the 30th January, 1783, loyally postponed their light fantastic toeing, "in consequence of that being the anniversary of the martyrdom of Charles I."—In 1829, when the Act was passed appointing Commissioners for Duddeston and Nechells, power was given for erecting gasworks, provided they did not extend over more than one acre, and that no gas was sent into the adjoining parish of Birmingham.—A writer in Mechanics' Magazine for 1829, who signed his name as "A. Taydhill, Birmingham," suggested that floor carpets should be utilized as maps where with to teach children geography. The same individual proposed that the inhabitants of each street should join together to buy a long pole, or mast, with a rope and pulley, for use as a fireescape, and recommended them to convey their furniture in or out of the windows with it, as "good practice."—A patent was taken out by Eliezer Edwards, in 1853, for a bedstead fitted with a wheel and handle, that it might be used as a wheelbarrow.—Sergeant Bates, of America, invaded Birmingham, Nov. 21, 1872, carrying the "stars and stripes," as a test of our love for our Yankee cousins.

Funeral Reform.—An association for doing away with the expensive customs so long connected with the burying of the dead, was organised in 1875, and slowly, but surely, are accomplishing the task then entered upon. At present there are about 700 enrolled members, but very many more families now limit the trappings of woe to a more reasonable as well as economical exhibit of tailors' and milliners' black.

Furniture.—Judging from some old records appertaining to the history of a very ancient family, who, until the town swallowed it up, farmed a considerable portion of the district known as the Lozells, or Lowcells, as it was once called, even our well-to-do neighbours would appear to have been rather short of what we think necessary household furniture. As to chairs in bedrooms, there were often none; and if they had chimnies, only movable grates, formed of a few bars resting on "dogs." Window-curtains, drawers, carpets, and washing-stands, are not, according to our recollection, anywhere specified; and a warming-pan does not occur till 1604, and then was kept in the bed-room. Tongs appear as annexations of grates, without poker or shovel; and the family plate-chest was part of bed-room furniture. Stools were the substitutes for chairs in the principal sitting-room, in the proportion of even twenty of the former to two of the latter, which were evidently intended, par distinction, for the husband and wife.

Galton.—The family name of a once well-known firm of gun, sword, and bayonet makers, whose town-house was in Steelhouse Lane, opposite the Upper Priory. Their works were close by in Weaman Street, but the mill for grinding and polishing the barrels and blades was at Duddeston, near to Duddeston Hall, the Galton's country-house. It was this firm's manufactury that Lady Selbourne refers to in her "Diary," wherein she states that in 1765 she went to a Quaker's "to see the making of guns." The strange feature of members of the peace-loving Society of Friends being concerned in the manufacture of such death-dealing implements was so contrary to their profession, that in 1796, the Friends strongly remonstrated with the Galtons, leading to the retirement of the senior partner from the trade, and the expulsion of the junior from the body. The mansion in Steelhouse Lane was afterwards converted into a banking-house; then used for the purposes of the Polytechnic Institution; next, after a period of dreary emptiness, fitted up as the Children's Hospital, after the removal of which to Broad Street, the old house has reverted to its original use, as the private abode of Dr. Clay.

Gambetta.—The eminent French patriot was fined 2,000 francs for upholding the freedom of speech and the rights of the press, two things ever dear to Liberal Birmingham, and it was proposed to send him the money from here as a mark of esteem and sympathy. The Daily Post took the matter in hand, and, after appealing to its 40,000 readers every day for some weeks, forwarded (November 10, 1877) a draft for £80 17s. 6d.

Gaols.—The Town Gaol, or Lockup, at the back of the Public Office, in Moor-street, was first used in September, 1806. It then consisted of a courtyard, 59 ft. by 30 ft. (enclosed by a 26 ft. wall) two day rooms or kitchens, 14 ft. square, and sixteen sleeping cells, 8 ft. by 6 ft. The prisoners' allowance was a pennyworth of bread and a slice of cheese twice a day, and the use of the pump. Rather short commons, considering the 4 lb. loaf often sold at 1s. The establishment, which is vastly improved and much enlarged, is now used only as a place of temporary detention or lockup, where prisoners are first received, and wait their introduction to the gentlemen of the bench. The erection of the Borough Gaol was commenced on October 29, 1845, and it was opened for the reception of prisoners, October 17, 1849, the first culprit being received two days afterwards. The estimated cost was put at £51,447, but altogether it cost the town about £90,000, about £70,000 of which has been paid off. In the year 1877, three prisoners contrived to escape; one, John Sutcliffe, who got out on July 25, not being recaptured till the 22nd of January following. The others were soon taken back home. The gaol was taken over by the government as from April 1, 1878, Mr. J.W. Preston, being appointed Governor at a salary of £510, in place of Mr. Meaden, who had received £450, with certain extras.—See "Dungeon" and "Prisons." The new County Goal at Warwick was first occupied in 1860.

Gaol Atrocities.—The first Governor appointed to the Borough Gaol was Captain Maconochie, formerly superintendent over the convicts at Norfolk Island in the days of transportation of criminals. He was permitted to try as an experiment a "system of marks," whereby a prisoner, by his good conduct and industry, could materially lessen the duration of his punishment, and, to a certain extent improve his dietary. The experiment, though only tried with prisoners under sixteen, proved very successful, and at one time hopes were entertained that the system would become general in all the gaols of the kingdom. So far as our gaol was concerned, however, it proved rather unfortunate that Captain Maconochie, through advancing age and other causes, was obliged to resign his position (July, 1851), for upon the appointment of his successor, Lieutenant Austin, a totally opposite course of procedure was introduced, a perfect reign of terror prevailing in place of kindness and a humane desire to lead to the reformation of criminals. In lieu of good marks for industry, the new Governor imposed heavy penal marks if the tasks set them were not done to time, and what these tasks were may be gathered from the fact that in sixteen months no less than fifteen prisoners were driven to make an attempt on their lives, through the misery and torture to which they were exposed, three unfortunates being only too successful. Of course such things could not be altogether hushed up, and after one or two unsatisfactory "inquiries" had been held, a Royal Commission was sent down to investigate matters. One case out of many will be sufficient sample of the mercies dealt out by the governor to the poor creatures placed under his care. Edward Andrews, a lad of 15, was sent to gaol for three months (March 28, 1853) for stealing a piece of beef. On the second day he was put to work at "the crank," every turn of which was equal to lifting a weight of 20lbs., and he was required to make 2,000 revolutions before he had any breakfast, 4,000 more before dinner, and another 4,000 before supper, the punishment for not completing either of these tasks being the loss of the meal following. The lad failed on many occasions, and was fed almost solely on one daily, or, rather, nightly allowance of bread and water. For shouting he was braced to a wall for hours at a time, tightly cased in a horrible jacket and leather collar, his feet being only moveable. In this position, when exhausted almost to death, he was restored to sensibility by having buckets of water thrown over him. What wonder that within a month he hung himself. A number of similar cases of brutality were proved, and the Governor thought it best to resign, but he was not allowed to escape altogether scot free, being tried at Warwick on several charges of cruelty, and being convicted, was sentenced by the Court of Queen's Bench to a term of three months' imprisonment.

Garibaldi.—At a meeting of the Town Council, April 5, 1865, it was resolved to ask Garibaldi to pay a visit to this town, but he declined the honour, as in the year previous he had similarly declined to receive an offered town subscription.

Garrison.—Though a strong force was kept in the Barracks in the old days of riot and turbulence, it is many years since we have been favoured with more than a single company of red coats at a time, our peaceful inland town not requiring a strong garrison.

Gardens.—A hundred to 150 years ago there was no town in England better supplied with gardens than Birmingham, almost every house in what are now the main thoroughfares having its plot of garden ground. In 1731 there were many acres of allotment gardens (as they came to be called at a later date) where St. Bartholomew's Church now stands, and in almost every other direction similar pieces of land were to be seen under cultivation. Public tea gardens were also to be found in several quarters of the outskirts; the establishment known as the Spring Gardens closing its doors July 31, 1801. The Apollo Tea Gardens lingered on till 1846, and Beach's Gardens closed in September, 1854.

Gas.—William Murdoch is generally credited with the introduction of lighting by gas, but it is evident that the inflammability of the gas producible from coal was known long before his day, as the Rev. Dr. John Clayton, Dean of Kildare, mentioned it in a letter he wrote to the Hon. Robert Boyle, in 1691. The Dr.'s discovery was probably made during his stay in Virginia, and another letter of his shows the probability of his being aware that the gas would pass through water without losing its lighting properties. The discovery has also been claimed as that of a learned French savant but Murdoch must certainly take the honour of being the first to bring gas into practical use at his residence, at Redruth, in 1792, and it is said that he even made a lantern to light the paths in his evening walks, the gas burned in which was contained in a bag carried under his arm, his rooms being also lit up from a bag of gas placed under weights. The exact date of its introduction in this neighbourhood has not been ascertained though it is believed that part of the Soho Works were fitted with gas-lights in 1798, and, on the occurrence of the celebration of the Peace of Amiens, in 1802, a public exhibition was made of the new light, in the illumination of the works. The Gazette of April 5, 1802 (according to extract by Dr. Langford, in his "Century of Birmingham Life") described the various devices in coloured lamps and transparencies, but strangely enough does not mention gas at all. Possibly gas was no longer much of a novelty at Soho, or the reporter might not have known the nature of the lights used, but there is the evidence of Mr. Wm. Matthews, who, in 1827 published an "Historical Sketch of Gaslighting," in which he states that he had "the inexpressible gratification of witnessing, in 1802, Mr. Murdoch's extraordinary and splendid exhibition of gaslights at Soho." On the other hand, the present writer was, some years back, told by one of the few old Soho workmen then left among us, that on the occasion referred to the only display of gas was in the shape of one large lamp placed at one end of the factory, and then called a "Bengal light," the gas for which was brought to the premises in several bags from Mr. Murdoch's own house. Though it has been always believed that the factory and offices throughout were lighted by gas in 1803, very soon after the Amiens illumination, a correspondent to the Daily Post has lately stated that when certain of his friends went to Soho, in 1834, they found no lights in use, even for blowpipes, except oil and candles and that they had to lay on gas from the mains of the Birmingham and Staffordshire Gas Company in the Holyhead Road. If correct, this is a curious bit of the history of the celebrated Soho, as other manufacturers were not at all slow in introducing gas for working purposes as well as lighting, a well-known tradesman, Benjamin Cook, Caroline Street, having fitted up retorts and a gasometer on his premises in 1808, his first pipes being composed of old or waste gun-barrels, and he reckoned to clear a profit of £30 a year, as against his former expenditure for candles and oil. The glassworks of Jones, Smart, and Co., of Aston Hill, were lit up by gas as early as 1810, 120 burners being used at a nightly cost of 4s. 6d., the gas being made on the premises from a bushel of coal per day. The first proposal to use gas in lighting the streets of Birmingham was made in July 1811, and here and there a lamp soon appeared, but they were supplied by private firms, one of whom afterwards supplied gas to light the chapel formerly on the site of the present Assay Office, taking it from their works in Caroline Street, once those of B. Cook before-mentioned. The Street Commissioners did not take the matter in hand till 1815, on November 8 of which year they advertised for tenders for lighting the streets with gas instead of oil. The first shop in which gas was used was that of Messrs. Poultney, at the corner of Moor Street, in 1818, the pipes being laid from the works in Gas Street by a private individual, whose interest therein was bought up by the Birmingham Gaslight Company. The principal streets were first officially lighted by gas-lamps on April 29, 1826, but it was not until March, 1843, that the Town Council resolved that that part of the borough within the parish of Edgbaston should be similarly favoured.

Gas Companies.—The first, or Birmingham Gaslight Co. was formed in 1817, incorporated in 1819, and commenced business by buying up the private adventurer who built the works in Gas Street. The Company was limited to the borough of Birmingham, and its original capital was £32,000, which, by an Act obtained in 1855, was increased to £300,000, and borrowing powers to £90,000 more, the whole of which was raised or paid up. In the year 1874 the company supplied gas through 17,000 meters, which consumed 798,000,000 cubic feet of gas. The Birmingham and Staffordshire Gas Co. was established in 1825, and had powers to lay their mains in and outside the borough. The original Act was repealed in 1845, the company being remodelled and started afresh with a capital of £320,000, increased by following Acts to £670,000 (all called up by 1874), and borrowing powers to £100,000, of which, by the same year £23,000 had been raised. The consumption of gas in 1874 was 1,462,000,000 cubic feet, but how much of this was burnt by the company's 19,910 Birmingham customers, could not be told. The two companies, though rivals for the public favour, did not undersell one another, both of them charging 10/-per 1,000 feet in the year 1839, while in 1873 large consumers were only charged 2/3 per 1,000 feet, the highest charge being 2/7. The question of buying out both of the Gas Companies had been frequently mooted, but it was not until 1874 that any definite step was taken towards the desired end. On April 17th, 1874, the burgesses recorded 1219 votes in favour of Mr. Joseph Chamberlain's proposition to purchase the Gas [and the Water] Works, 683 voting against it. On Jan. 18th, 1875, the necessary Bills were introduced into the House of Commons, and on July 15th and 19th, the two Acts were passed, though not without some little opposition from the outlying parishes and townships heretofore supplied by the Birmingham and Staffordshire Co., to satisfy whom a clause was inserted, under which Walsall, West Bromwich, &c., could purchase the several mains and works in their vicinity, if desirous to do so. The Birmingham Gas Co. received from the Corporation £450,000, of which £136,890 was to be left on loan at 4%, as Debenture Stock, though £38,850 thereof has been kept in hand, as the whole was redeemable within ten years. The balance of £313,000 was borrowed from the public at 4%, and in some cases a little less. The Birmingham and Staffordshire Gas Co. were paid in Perpetual Annuities, amounting to £58,290 per year, being the maximum dividends then payable on the Co.'s shares, £10,906 was returned as capital not bearing interest, £15,000 for surplus profits, £30,000 the half-year's dividend, and also £39,944 5s. 4d. the Co's Reserve Fund. The total cost was put down as £1,900,000. The Annuities are redeemable by a Sinking Fund in 85 years. For their portion of the mains, service pipes, works, &c. formerly belonging to the Birmingham and Staffordshire Company, the Walsall authorities pay the Corporation an amount equivalent to annuities valued at £1,300 per year; Oldbury paid £22,750, Tipton £34,700, and West Bromwich £70,750.

Gas Fittings.—Curious notions appear to have been at first entertained as to the explosive powers of the new illuminator, nothing less than copper or brass being considered strong enough for the commonest piping, and it was thought a great innovation when a local manufacturer, in 1812, took out a patent for lead pipes copper-coated. Even Murdoch himself seems to have been in dread of the burning element, for when, in after years, his house at Sycamore Hill changed owners, it was found that the smaller gas pipes therein were made of silver, possibly used to withstand the supposed corrosive effects of the gas. The copper-covered lead pipes were patented in 1819 by Mr. W. Phipson, of the Dog Pool Mills, the present compo being comparatively a modern introduction. Messengers, of Broad Street, and Cook, of Caroline Street (1810-20), were the first manufacturers of gas fittings in this town, and they appear to have had nearly a monopoly of the trade, as there were but three others in it in 1833, and only about twenty in 1863; now their name is legion, gas being used for an infinitude of purposes, not the least of which is by the gas cooking stove, the idea of which was so novel at first that the Secretary of the Gas Office in the Minories at one time introduced it to the notice of the public by having his dinner daily cooked in a stove placed in one of the office windows. An exhibition of gas apparatus of all kinds was opened at the Town Hall, June 5, 1878, and that there is still a wonderful future for development is shown by its being seriously advocated that a double set of mains will be desirable, one for lighting gas, and the other for a less pure kind to be used for heating purposes.

Gas Works.—See "Public Buildings."

Gavazzi.—Father Gavazzi first orated here in the Town Hall, October 20, 1851.

Geographical.—According to the Ordnance Survey, Birmingham is situated in latitude 52° 29', and longitude 1° 54' west.

Gillott.—See "Noteworthy Men."

Girls' Home.—Eighteen years ago several kind-hearted ladies opened a house in Bath Row, for the reception of servant girls of the poorest class, who, through their poverty and juvenility, could not be sheltered in the "Servants' Home," and that such an establishment was needed, is proved by the fact that no less than 334 inmates were sheltered for a time during 1883, while 232 others received help in clothing &c., suited to their wants. The Midland Railway having taken Bath House, the Home has lately been removed to a larger house near the Queen's Hospital, where the managers will be glad to receive any little aid that can be rendered towards carrying on their charitable operations.

Glass.—In the reign of Henry VI. the commonest kind of glass was sold at 2s. the foot, a shilling in those days being of as much value as a crown of today. The earliest note we can find of glass being made here is the year 1785, when Isaac Hawker built a small glasshouse behind his shop at Edgbaston Street. His son built at Birmingham Heath on the site now occupied by Lloyd and Summerfield. In 1798 Messrs. Shakespeare and Johnston had a glasshouse in Walmer Lane. Pressed glass seems to have been the introduction of Rice Harris about 1832, though glass "pinchers" (eleven of them) are named in the Directory of 1780. In 1827 plate-glass sold at 12s. per foot and in 1840 at 6s., ordinary sheet-glass being then 1s. 2d. per foot. There was a duty on plate-glass prior to April 5, 1845, of 2s. 10-1/2d. per foot. The "patent plate" was the invention of Mr. James Chance, and Chance Brothers (of whose works a notice will be found in another part of this book) are the only manufacturers in this country of glass for lighthouse purposes—See also "Trades," &c.

Godwillings.—In olden days when our factors started on their tours for orders, it was customary to send a circular in advance announcing that "God willing" they would call upon their customers on certain specified dates. In the language of the counting-house the printed circulars were called "Godwillings."

Goldschmidt.—Notes of the various visits of Madame Goldschmidt, better known by her maiden name of Jenny Lind, will be found under the heading of "Musical Celebrities."

Good Templars.—The Independent Order of Good Templars, in this town, introduced themselves in 1868, and they now claim to have 90,000 adult members in the "Grand Lodge of England."

Gordon.—Lord George Gordon, whose intemperate actions caused the London Anti-Papist Riots of 1780, was arrested in this town December 7, 1787, but not for anything connected with those disgraceful proceedings. He had been found guilty of a libel, and was arrested on a judge's warrant, and taken from here to London, for contempt of the Court of King's Bench in not appearing when called upon to do so. It has been more than once averred that Lord George was circumcised here, before being admitted to the Jewish community, whose rites and ceremonies, dress and manners, he strictly observed and followed; but he first became a Jew while residing in Holland, some time before he took lodgings in such a classic locality as our old Dudley-street, where he lay hidden for nearly four months, a long beard and flowing gaberdine helping to conceal his identity.

Gough.—Gough Road, Gough Street, and a number of other thoroughfares have been named after the family, from whom the present Lord Calthorpe, inherits his property.—See "Edgbaston Hall."

Grammar School.—See "Schools."

Great Brooke Street takes its name from Mr. Brookes, an attorney of the olden time.

Great Eastern Steamship.—The engines for working the screw propeller, 4 cylinders and 8,500 horse-power (nominal 1,700) were sent out from the Soho Foundry.

Green's Village.—Part of the old [**]ookeries in the neighbourhood of the [**]nkleys.

Grub Street.—The upper part of Old Meeting Street was so called until late years.

Guardians.—See "Poor Law."

Guildhall.—The operative builders commenced to put up an edifice in 1833 which they intended to call "The Guildhall," but it was only half finished when the ground was cleared for the railway. Some of the local antiquaries strongly advocated the adoption of the name "Guildhall" for the block of municipal buildings and Council House, if only in remembrance of the ancient building on whose site, in New Street, the Grammar School now stands.

Guild of the Holy Cross.—Founded in the year 1392 by the "Bailiffs and Commonalty" of the town of Birmingham (answering to our aldermen and councillors), and licensed by the Crown, for which the town paid £50, the purpose being to "make and found a gild and perpetual fraternity of brethren and sustern (sisters), in honour of the Holy Cross," and "to undertake all works of charity, &c., according to the appointment and pleasure of the said bailiffs and commonalty." In course of time the Guild became possessed of all the powers then exercised by the local corporate authorities, taking upon themselves the building of almshouses, the relief and maintenance of the poor, the making and keeping in repair of the highways used by "the King's Majestie's subjects passing to and from the marches of Wales," looking to the preservation of sundry bridges and lords, as well as repair of "two greate stone brydges," &c., &c. The Guild owned considerable portion of the land on which the present town is built, when Henry VIII., after confiscating the revenues and possessions of the monastic institutions, laid hands on the property of such semi-religious establishments as the Guild of the Holy Cross. It has never appeared that our local Guild had done anything to offend the King, and possibly it was but the name that he disliked. Be that as it may, his son, Edward VI., in 1552, at the petition of the inhabitants, returned somewhat more than half of the property, then valued at £21 per annum, for the support and maintenance of a Free Grammar School, and it is this property from which the income of the present King Edward VI.'s Grammar Schools is now derived, amounting to nearly twice as many thousands as pounds were first granted. The Guild Hall or Town's Hall in New Street (then only a bye street), was not quite so large as either our present Town Hall or the Council House, but was doubtless considered at the time a very fine building, with its antique carvings and stained glass windows emblazoned with figures and armorial bearings of the Lords right Ferrers and others. As the Guild had an organist in its pay, it may be presumed that such an instrument was also there, and that alone goes far to prove the fraternity were tolerably well off, as organs in those times were costly and scarce. The old building, for more than a century after King Edward's grant, was used as the school, but even when rebuilt it retained its name as the Guild Hall.

Guns.—Handguns, as they were once termed, were first introduced into this country by the Flemings whom Edward IV. brought over in 1471, but (though doubtless occasional specimens were made by our townsmen before then) the manufacture of small arms at Birmingham does not date further back than 1689, when inquiries were made through Sir Richard Newdigate as to the possibility of getting them made here as good as those coming from abroad. A trial order given by Government in March, 1692, led to the first contract (Jan. 5, 1693) made between the "Officers of Ordnance" and five local manufacturers, for the supply of 200 "snaphance musquets" every month for one year at 17/-each, an additional 3/-per cwt. being allowed for carriage to London. The history of the trade since then would form a volume of itself, but a few facts of special note and interest will be given in its place among "Trades."

Gutta Percha was not known in Europe prior to 1844, and the first specimens were brought here in the following year. Speaking tubes made of gutta percha were introduced early in 1849.

Gymnasium.—At a meeting held Dec. 18, 1865, under the presidency of the Mayor, it was resolved to establish a public gymnasium on a large scale, but an present it is non-existent, the only gymnasium open being that of the Athletic Club at Bingley Hall.

Hackney Coaches were introduced here in 1775. Hutton says the drivers of the first few earned 30s. per day; those of the present day say they do not get half the sum now. Hansom Cabs, the invention, in 1836, of the architect and designer of our Town Hall, were first put on the stands in 1842.

Half-Holiday.—Ten to twelve hours a day, six days a week, used to be the stint for workpeople here and elsewhere. A Saturday Half-holiday movement was begun in 1851, the first employers to adopt the system being Mr. John Frearson, of Gas Street (late of the Waverley Hotel, Crescent), and Mr. Richard Tangye. Wingfields, Brown, Marshall & Co., and many other large firms began with the year 1853, when it maybe said the plan became general.

Handsworth.—Till within the last thirty or forty years, Handsworth was little more than a pleasant country village, though now a well-populated suburb of Birmingham. The name is to be found in the "Domesday Book," but the ancient history of the parish is meagre indeed, and confined almost solely to the families of the lords of the manor, the Wyrleys, Stanfords, &c., their marriages and intermarriages, their fancies and feuds, and all those petty trifles chroniclers of old were so fond of recording. After the erection of the once world-known, but now vanished Soho Works, by Matthew Boulton, a gradual change came o'er the scene; cultivated enclosures taking the place of the commons, enclosed in 1793; Boulton's park laid out, good roads made, water-courses cleared, and houses and mansions springing up on all sides, and so continuing on until now, when the parish (which includes Birchfield and Perry Barr, an area of 7,680 acres in all) is nearly half covered with streets and houses, churches and chapels, alms-houses and stations, shops, offices, schools, and all the other necessary adjuncts to a populous and thriving community. The Local Board Offices and Free Library, situate in Soho Road, were built in 1878 (first stone laid October 30th, 1877), at a cost of £20,662, and it is a handsome pile of buildings. The library contains about 7,000 volumes. There is talk of erecting public swimming and other baths, and a faint whisper that recreation grounds are not far from view. The 1st Volunteer Battalion of the South Staffordshire Regiment have their head-quarters here. Old Handsworth Church, which contained several carved effigies and tombs of the old lords, monuments of Matthew Boulton and James Watt, with bust of William Murdoch, &c., has been rebuilt and enlarged, the first stone of the new building being laid in Aug, 1876. Five of the bells in the tower were cast in 1701, by Joseph Smith, of Edgbaston, and were the first peal sent out of his foundry; the tenor is much older. The very appropriate inscription on the fourth bell is, "God preserve the Church of England as by law established."

Harborne is another of our near neighbours which a thousand years or so ago had a name if nothing else, but that name has come down to present time with less change than is usual, and, possibly through the Calthorpe estate blocking the way, the parish itself has changed but very slowly, considering its close proximity to busy, bustling Birmingham. This apparent stagnation, however, has endeared it to us Brums not a little, on account of the many pleasant glades and sunny spots in and around it. Harborne gardeners have long been famous for growing gooseberries, the annual dinner of the Gooseberry Growers' Society having been held at the Green Man ever since 1815. But Harborne has plucked up heart latterly, and will not much longer be "out of the running." With its little area of 1,412 acres, and only a population of 6,600, it has built itself an Institute (a miniature model of the Midland), with class rooms and reading rooms, with library and with lecture halls, to seat a thousand, at a cost of £6,500, and got Henry Irving to lay the foundation-stone, in 1879. A Masonic Hall followed in 1880, and a Fire Brigade Station soon after. It has also a local railway as well as a newspaper. In the parish church, which was nearly all rebuilt in 1867, there are several monuments of olden date, one being in remembrance of a member of the Hinckley family, from whose name that of our Inkleys is deducible; there is also a stained window to the memory of David Cox. The practice of giving a Christmas treat, comprising a good dinner, some small presents, and an enjoyable entertainment to the aged poor, was begun in 1865, and is still kept up.

Hard Times.—Food was so dear and trade so bad in 1757 that Lord Dartmouth for a long time relieved 500 a week out of his own pocket. In 1782 bread was sold to the poor at one-third under its market value. On the 1st of July, 1795, the lessee of the Theatre Royal, Mr. McCready, gave the proceeds of the night's performance (£161 8s.) for the benefit of the poor. The money was expended in wheat, which was sold free of carriage. Meat was also very scarce on the tables of the poor, and a public subscription was opened by the High Bailiff to enable meat to be sold at 1d. per lb. under the market price, which then ruled at 3d. to 6d. per lb. In November, 1799, wheat was 15s. per bushel. In May, 1800, the distressed poor were supplied with wheat at the "reduced price" of 15s. per bushel, and potatoes at 8s. per peck. Soup kitchens for the poor were opened November 30, 1816, when 3,000 quarts were sold the first day. The poor-rates, levied in 1817, amounted to £61,928, and it was computed that out of a population of 84,000 at least 27,000 were in receipt of parish relief. In 1819 £5,500 was collected to relieve the distressed poor. The button makers were numbered at 17,000 in 1813, two-thirds of them being out of work. 1825 and 1836 were terrible years of poverty and privation in this town and neighbourhood. In 1838, 380,000 doles were made to poor people from a fund raised by public subscription. In the summer of 1840, local trade was so bad that we have been told as many as 10,000 persons applied at one office alone for free passages to Australia, and all unsuccessfully. Empty houses could be counted by the hundred. There was great distress in the winter of 1853-4, considerable amounts being subscribed for charitable relief. In the first three months of 1855, there were distributed among the poor 11,745 loaves of bread, 175,500 pints of soup, and £725 in cash. The sum of £10,328 was subscribed for and expended in the relief of the unemployed in the winter of 1878-79—the number of families receiving the same being calculated at 195,165, with a total of 494,731 persons.

Harmonies.—See "Musical Societies."

Hats and Hatters.—In 1820 there was but one hatter in the town, Harry Evans, and his price for best "beavers" was a guinea and a half, "silks," which first appeared in 1812, not being popular and "felts" unknown. Strangers have noted one peculiarity of the native Brums, and that is their innate dislike to "top hats," few of which are worn here (in comparison to population) except on Sunday, when respectable mechanics churchward-bound mount the chimney pot. In the revolutionary days of 1848, &c., when local political feeling ran high in favour of Pole and Hungarian, soft broad-brimmed felt hats, with flowing black feathers were en regle, and most of the advanced leaders of the day thus adorned themselves. Now, the ladies monopolise the feathers and the glories thereof. According to the scale measure used by hatters, the average size of hats worn is that called 6-7/8, representing one-half of the length and breadth of a man's head, but it has been noted by "S.D.R." that several local worthies have had much larger craniums, George Dawson requiring a 7-1/2 sized hat, Mr. Charles Geach a 7-3/4, and Sir Josiah Mason a little over an 8. An old Soho man once told the writer that Matthew Boulton's head-gear had to be specially made for him, and, to judge from a bust of M.B., now in his possession, the hat required must have been extra size indeed.

Hearth Duty.—In 1663, an Act was passed for the better ordering and collecting the revenue derived from "Hearth Money," and we gather a few figures from a return then made, as showing the comparative number of the larger mansions whose owners were liable to the tax. The return for Birmingham gives a total of 414 hearths and stoves, the account including as well those which are liable to pay as of those which are not liable. Of this number 360 were charged with duty, the house of the celebrated Humphrey Jennens being credited with 25. From Aston the return was but 47, but of these 40 were counted in the Hall and 7 in the Parsonage, Edgbaston showed 37, of which 22 were in the Hall. Erdington was booked for 27, and Sutton Coldfield for 67, of which 23 were in two houses belonging to the Willoughby family. Coleshill would appear to have been a rather warmer place of abode, as there are 125 hearths charged for duty, 30 being in the house of Dame Mary Digby.

Heathfield.—Prior to 1790 the whole of this neighbourhood was open common-land, the celebrated engineer and inventor, James Watt, after the passing of the Enclosure Act being the first to erect a residence thereon, in 1791. By 1794 he had acquired rather more than 40 acres, which, he then planted and laid out as a park. Heathfield House may be called the cradle of many scores of inventions, which, though novel when first introduced, are now but as household words in our everyday life. Watt's workshop was in the garret of the south-east corner of the building, and may be said to be even now in exactly the same state as when his master-hand last touched the tools, but as the estate was lotted out for building purposes in May, 1874, and houses and streets have been built and formed all round it, it is most likely that the "House" itself will soon lose all its historic interest, and the contents of the workshop be distributed among the curiosity mongers, or hidden away on the shelves of some museum. To a local chronicler such a room is as sacred as that in which Shakespeare was born, and in the words of Mr. Sam Timmins, "to open the door and look upon the strange relics there is to stand in the very presence of the mighty dead. Everything in the room remains just as it was left by the fast failing hands of the octogenarian engineer. His well-worn, humble apron hangs dusty on the wall, the last work before him is fixed unfinished in the lathe, the elaborate machines over which his latest thoughts were spent are still and silent, as if waiting only for their master's hand again to waken them into life and work. Upon the shelves are crowds of books, whose pages open no more to those clear, thoughtful eyes, and scattered in the drawers and boxes are the notes and memoranda, and pocket-books, and diaries never to be continued now. All these relics of the great engineer, the skilful mechanic, the student of science, relate to his intellectual and public life; but there is a sadder relic still. An old hair-trunk, carefully kept close by the old man's stool, contains the childish sketches, the early copy-books and grammars, the dictionaries, the school-books, and some of the toys of his dearly-beloved and brilliant son Gregory Watt."

Heraldry.—In the days of the mail-clad knights, who bore on their shields some quaint device, by which friend or foe could tell at sight whom they slew or met in fight, doubtless the "Kings-At-Arms," the "Heralds," and the "Pursuivants" of the College of Arms founded by Richard III. were functionaries of great utility, but their duties nowadays are but few, and consist almost solely of tracing pedigrees for that portion of the community whom our American cousins designate as "shoddy," but who, having "made their pile," would fain be thought of aristocratic descent. In such a Radical town as Birmingham, the study of or and gules, azure and vert, or any of the other significant terms used in the antique science of heraldry, was not, of course, to be expected, unless at the hands of the antiquary or the practical heraldic engraver, both scarce birds in our smoky town, but the least to be looked for would be that the borough authorities should carefully see that the borough coat of arms was rightly blazoned. It has been proved that the town's-name has, at times, been spelt in over a gross of different ways, and if any reader will take the trouble to look at the public buildings, banks, and other places where the blue, red, and gold of the Birmingham Arms shines forth, he will soon be able to count three to four dozen different styles; every carver, painter, and printer apparently pleasing himself how he does it. It has been said that when the question of adopting a coat of arms was on the tapis, the grave and reverend seniors appointed to make inquiries thereanent, calmly took copies of the shields of the De Berminghams and the De Edgbastous, and fitted the "bend lozengy" and the "parti per pale" together, under the impression that the one noble family's cognisance was a gridiron, and the other a currycomb, both of which articles they considered to be exceedingly appropriate for such a manufacturing town as Birmingham. Wiser in their practicability than the gentlemen who designed the present shield, they left the currycomb quarters in their proper sable and argent (black and white), and the gridiron or and gules (a golden grid on a red-hot fire.) For proper emblazonment, as by Birmingham law established, see the cover.

Heathmill Lane.—In 1532 there was a "water mill to grynde corne," called "Heth mill," which in that year was let, with certain lands, called the "Couyngry," by the Lord of the Manor, on a ninety-nine years' lease, at a rent of £6 13s. 4d. per year.

Here we are again!—The London Chronicle of August 14, 1788, quoting from a "gentleman" who had visited this town, says that "the people are all diminutive in size, sickly in appearance, and spend their Sundays in low debauchery," the manufacturers being noted for "a great deal of trick and low cunning as well as profligacy!"

Highland Gathering.—The Birmingham Celtic Society held their first "gathering" at Lower Grounds, August 2, 1879, when the ancient sports of putting stones, throwing hammers, etc., was combined with a little modern bicycling, and steeple-chasing, to the music of the bagpipes.

Hill (Sir Rowland).—See "Noteworthy Men."

Hills.—Like unto Rome this town may be said to be built on seven hills, for are there not Camp Hill and Constitution Hill, Summer Hill and Snow Hill, Ludgate Hill, Hockley Hill, and Holloway Hill (or head). Turner's Hill, near Lye Cross, Rawley Regis is over 100ft. higher than Sedgley Beacon, which is 486ft. above sea level. The Lickey Hills are about 800ft. above same level, but the highest hill within 50 miles of Birmingham is the Worcestershire Beacon, 1395ft. above sea level. The highest mountain in England, Scawfell Pike, has an elevation of 3229ft.

Hailstorms.—In 1760 a fierce hailstorm stripped the leaves and fruit from nearly every tree in the apple orchards in Worcestershire, the hail lying on the ground six to eight inches deep, many of the stones and lumps of ice being three and four inches round. In 1798, many windows at Aston Hall were broken by the hail. A very heavy hailstorm did damage at the Botanical gardens and other places, May 9, 1833. There have been a few storms of later years, but none like unto these.

Hector.—The formation of Corporation Street, and the many handsome buildings erected and planned in its line, have improved off the face of the earth, more than one classic spot, noted in our local history, foremost among which we must place the house of Mr. Hector, the old friend and schoolfellow of Dr. Samuel Johnson. The great lexicographer spent many happy hours in the abode of his friend, and as at one time there was a slight doubt on the matter, it is as well to place on record here that the house in which Hector, the surgeon, resided, was No. 1, in the Old Square, at the corner of the Minories, afterwards occupied by Mr. William Scholefield, Messrs. Jevons and Mellor's handsome pile now covering the spot. The old rate books prove this beyond a doubt. Hector died there on the 2nd of September, 1794, after having practised as a surgeon, in Birmingham, for the long period of sixty-two years. He was buried in a vault at Saint Philip's Church, Birmingham, where, in the middle aisle, in the front of the north gallery, an elegant inscription to his memory was placed. Hector never married, and Mrs. Careless, a clergyman's widow, Hector's own sister, and Johnson's "first love," resided with him, and appears by the burial register of St. Philip's to have died in October, 1788, and to have been buried there, probably in the vault in which her brother was afterwards interred. In the month of November, 1784, just a month before his own decease, Johnson passed a few days with his friend, Hector, at his residence in the Old Square, who, in a letter to Boswell, thus speaks of the visit:—"He" (Johnson) "was very solicitous with me, to recollect some of our most early transactions, and to transmit them to him, for I perceived nothing gave him greater pleasure than calling to mind those days of our innocence. I complied with his request, and he only received them a few days before his death." Johnson arrived in London from Birmingham on the 16th of November, and on the following day wrote a most affectionate letter to Mr. Hector, which concludes as follows:—

"Let us think seriously on our duty. I send my kindest respects to dear Mrs. Careless. Let me have the prayers of both. We have all lived long, and must soon part. God have mercy upon us, for the sake of our Lord Jesus Christ! Amen!"

This was probably nearly the last letter Johnson wrote, for on the 13th of the following month, just twenty-seven days after his arrival in London from Birmingham, oppressed with disease, he was numbered with the dead.

Hinkleys.—Otherwise, and for very many years, known as "The Inkleys," the generally-accepted derivation of the name being taken from the fact that one Hinks at one time was a tenant or occupier, under the Smalbroke family, of the fields or "leys" in that locality, the two first narrow roads across the said farm being respectively named the Upper and the Nether Inkleys, afterwards changed to the Old and New Inkleys. Possibly, however, the source may be found in the family name of Hinckley, as seen in the register of Harborne. A third writer suggests that the character of its denizens being about as black as could be painted, the place was naturally called Ink Leys. Be that as it may, from the earliest days of their existence, these places seem to have been the abode and habitation of the queerest of the queer people, the most aristocratic resident in our local records having been "Beau Green," the dandy—[see "Eccentrics"]—who, for some years, occupied the chief building in the Inkleys, nicknamed "Rag Castle," otherwise Hinkley Hall. The beautiful and salubrious neighbourhood, known as "Green's Village," an offshoot of the Inkleys, was called so in honour of the "Beau."

Hiring a Husband.—In 1815, a Birmingham carpenter, after ill-treating his wife, leased himself to another woman by a document which an unscrupulous attorney had the hardihood to draw up, and for which he charged thirty-five shillings. This precious document bound the man and the woman to live together permanently, and to support and succour each other to the utmost of their power. The poor wife was, of course, no consenting party to this. She appealed to the law; the appeal brought the "lease" before the eyes of the judiciary; the man was brought to his senses (though probably remaining a bad husband), and the attorney received a severe rebuke.

Historical.—A local Historical Society was inaugurated with an address from Dr. Freeman, Nov. 18, 1880, and, doubtless, in a few years the reports and proceedings will be of very great value and interest. The fact that down to 1752 the historical year in England commenced on January 1, while the civil, ecclesiastical, and legal year began on the 25th of March, led to much confusion in dates, as the legislature, the church, and civilians referred every event which took place between January 1 and March 25 to a different year from the historians. Remarkable examples of such confusion are afforded by two well-known events in English history: Charles I. is said by most authorities to have been beheaded January 30, 1648, while others, with equal correctness, say it was January 30, 1649; and so the revolution which drove James II. from the throne is said by some to have taken place in February, 1688, and by others in February, 1689. Now, these discrepancies arise from some using the civil and legal, and others the historical year, though both would have assigned any event occurring after the 25th of March to the same years—viz., 1649 and 1689. To avoid as far as possible mistakes from these two modes of reckoning, it was usual, as often seen in old books or manuscripts, to add the historical to the legal date, when speaking of any day between January 1 and March 25, thus:

Jan.30. 164- { 8 i.e. 1648, the civil and legal year.
9 i.e. 1649 the historical year.

This practice, common as it was for many years, is, nevertheless, often misunderstood, and even intelligent persons are sometimes perplexed by dates so written. The explanation, however, is very simple, for the lower or last figure always indicates the year according to our present calculation.

Hockley Abbey.—Near to, and overlooking Boulton's Pool, in the year 1799 there was a piece of waste land, which being let to Mr. Richard Ford, one of the mechanical worthies of that period, was so dealt with as to make the spot an attraction for every visitor. Mr. Ford employed a number of hands, and some of them he observed were in the habit of spending a great part of their wages and time in dissipation. By way of example to his workmen he laid aside some 12/-to 15/-a week for a considerable period, and when trade was occasionally slack with him, and he had no other occupation for them, he sent his horse and cart to Aston Furnaces for loads of "slag," gathering in this way by degrees a sufficient quantity of this strange building material for the erection of a convenient and comfortable residence. The walls being necessarily constructed thicker than is usual when mere stone or brick is used, the fancy took him to make the place represent a ruined building, which he christened "Hockley Abbey," and to carry out his deceptive notion the date 1473 was placed in front of the house, small pebbles set in cement being used to form the figures. In a very few years by careful training nearly the whole of the building was overgrown with ivy, and few but those in the secret could have guessed at the history of this ruined "abbey." For the house and some fifteen acres of land £100 rent was paid by Mr. Hubert Gallon, in 1816 and following years, exclusive of taxes, and by way of comfort to the heavily-burdened householders of to-day, we may just add that, in addition to all those other duties loyal citizens were then called upon to provide for the exigencies of the Government, the parochial taxes on those premises from Michaelmas, 1816, to Michaelmas, 1817, included two church rates at 30s. each, three highway rates at 30s. each, and thirty-six levies for the poor at 30s. each—a total of £61 10s. in the twelve months.

Hollow Tooth Yard.—At one time commonly called the "Devil's Hollow Tooth Yard." This was the name given to the Court up the gateway in Bull Street, nearest to Monmouth Street.

Holt Street, Heneage Street, Lister Street, &c., are named after the Holte family.

Home Hitting.—The Rev. John Home, a Scotch divine, who visited Birmingham in 1802, said, "it seemed here as if God had created man only for making buttons."

Horse Fair.—Formerly known as Brick-kiln Lane, received its present name from the fairs first held there in 1777.

Horses.—To find out the number of these useful animals at present in Birmingham, is an impossible task; but, in 1873, the last year before its repeal, the amount paid for "horse duty" in the Borough was £3,294 7s. 6d., being at the rate of 10s. 6d. on 6,275 animals.

Hospital Saturday.—The fact of the contributions on Hospital Sundays coming almost solely from the middle and more wealthy classes, led to the suggestion that if the workers of the town could be organised they would not be found wanting any more than their "betters." The idea was quickly taken up, committees formed, and cheered by the munificent offer of £500 from Mr. P.H. Muntz towards the expenses, the first collection was made on March 15th 1873, the result being a gross receipt of £4,705 11s. 3d. Of this amount £490 8s. 10d. was collected from their customers by the licensed victuallers and beerhouse keepers; the gross totals of each year to the present time being—

1873 £4,705 11 3
1874 4,123 15 2
1875 3,803 11 8
1876 3,664 13 8
1877 3,200 17 0
1878 3,134 5 0
1879 3,421 10 2
1880 3,760 9 0
1881 3,968 18 7
1882 4,888 18 9
1883 5,489 9 0
1884 6,062 16 6

After deducting for expenses, the yearly amounts are divided, pro rata, according to their expenditures among the several hospitals and similar charities, the proportions in 1883 being:—General Hospital. £1,843 4s. 1d.; Queen's Hospital, £931 8s. 3d.; General Dispensary, £561 1s. 7d.; Children's Hospital, £498 0s. 4d.; Eye Hospital, £345 0s. 4d.; Birmingham and Midland Counties' Sanatorium, £211 0s. 4d., Women's Hospital, £193 1s. 9d.; Homoepathic Hospital, £195 5s. 3d.; Orthopædic Hospital, £138 13s. 6d.; Lying-in Charity, £67 6s. 5d.; Skin and Lock Hospital, £44 14s. 8d.; Ear and Throat Infirmary, £26 12s. 8d.; Dental Hospital, £9 5s. 3d.; and Birmingham Nursing District Society, £34 17s. 7d. The total sum thus distributed in the twelve years is £48,574 18s. 9d.

Hospital Sunday.—There is nothing new under the sun! Birmingham has the honour of being credited as the birth-place of "Hospital Sundays," but old newspapers tell us that as far back as 1751, when Bath was in its pride and glory, one Sunday in each year was set aside in that city for the collection, at every place of worship, of funds for Bath Hospital; and a correspondent writing to Aris's Gazette recommended the adoption of a similar plan in this town. The first suggestion for the present local yearly Sunday collection for the hospitals appeared in an article, written by Mr. Thos. Barber Wright, in the Midland Counties Herald in October, 1859. A collection of this kind took place on Sunday, the 27th, of that month, and the first public meeting, when arrangements were made for its annual continuance, was held in the Town Hall, December 14th same year, under the presidency of Dr. Miller, who, therefrom, has been generally accredited with being the originator of the plan. The proceeds of the first year's collection were given to the General Hospital, the second year to the Queen's, and the third year divided among the other charitable institutions in the town of a like character, and this order of rotation has been adhered to since.

The following is a list of the gross amounts collected since the establishment of the movement:—

1859 General Hospital £5,200 8 10
1860 Queen's Hospital 3,433 6 1
1861 Amalgamated Charities 2,953 14 0
1862 General Hospital 8,340 4 7
1863 Queen's Hospital 3,293 5 0
1864 Amalgamated Charities 3,178 5 0
1865 General Hospital 4,256 11 11
1866 Queen's Hospital 4,133 2 10
1867 Amalgamated Charities 3,654 9 7
1868 General Hospital 4,253 9 11
1869 Queen's Hospital 4,469 1 8
1870 Amalgamated Charities 4,111 6 7
1871 General Hospital 4,886 9 2
1872 Queen's Hospital 5,192 2 3
1873 Amalgamated Charities 5,370 8 3
1874 General Hospital 5,474 17 11
1875 Queen's Hospital 5,800 8 8
1876 Amalgamated Charities 5,265 10 10
1877 General Hospital 5,280 15 3
1878 Queen's Hospital 6,482 12 10
1879 Amalgamated Charities 5,182 3 10
1880 General Hospital 4,886 1 8
1881 Queen's Hospital 4,585 1 3
1882 Amalgamated Charities 4,800 12 6
1883 General Hospital 5,145 0 5
1884 Queen's Hospital

[Transcriber's note: the 1884 figures are missing in the original.]

Hospitals.The General Hospital may he said to have been commenced in the year 1766, when the first steps were taken towards the erection of such an institution, but it was not formally opened for the reception of patients until 1779. The original outlay on the building was £7,140, but it has received many additions since then, having been enlarged in 1792, 1830, 1842, 1857 (in which year a new wing was erected, nominally out of the proceeds of a fête at Aston, which brought in £2,527 6s. 2d.), 1865, and during the last few years especially. The last additions to the edifice consist of a separate "home" for the staff of nurses, utilising their former rooms for the admittance of more patients; also two large wards, for cases of personal injury from fire, as well as a mortuary, with dissecting and jury rooms, &c., the total cost of these improvements being nearly £20,000. For a long period, this institution has ranked as one of the first and noblest charities in the provinces, its doors being opened for the reception of cases from all parts of the surrounding counties, as well as our own more immediate district. The long list of names of surgeons and physicians, who have bestowed the benefits of their learning and skill upon the unfortunate sufferers, brought within its walls, includes many of the highest eminence in the profession, locally and otherwise, foremost among whom must be placed that of Dr. Ash, the first physician to the institution, and to whom much of the honour of its establishment belongs. The connection of the General Hospital with the Triennial Musical Festivals, which, for a hundred years, have been held for its benefit, has, doubtless, gone far towards the support of the Charity, very nearly £112,000 having been received from that source altogether, and the periodical collections on Hospital Sundays and Saturdays, have still further aided thereto, but it is to the contributions of the public at large that the governors of the institution are principally indebted for their ways and means. For the first twenty-five years, the number of in-patients were largely in excess of the out-door patients, there being, during that period, 16,588 of the former under treatment, to 13,009 of the latter. Down to 1861, rather more than half-a-million cases of accident, illness, &c., had been attended to, and to show the yearly increasing demand made upon the funds of the Hospital, it is only necessary to give a few later dates. In 1860 the in-patients numbered 2,850, the out-patients 20,584, and the expenditure was £4,191. In 1876, the total number of patients were 24,082, and the expenditure £12,207. The next three years showed an average of 28,007 patients, and a yearly expenditure of £13,900. During the last four years, the benefits of the Charity have been bestowed upon an even more rapidly-increasing scale, the number of cases in 1880 having been 30,785, in 1881 36,803, in 1882 44,623, and in 1883 41,551, the annual outlay now required being considerably over £20,000 per year. When the centenary of the Hospital was celebrated in 1879, a suggestion was made that an event so interesting in the history of the charity would be most fittingly commemorated by the establishment or a Suburban Hospital, where patients whose diseases are of a chronic character could be treated with advantage to themselves, and with relief to the parent institution, which is always so pressed for room that many patients have to be sent out earlier than the medical officers like. The proposal was warmly taken up, but no feasible way of carrying it out occurred until October, 1883, when the committee of the Hospital had the pleasure of receiving a letter (dated Sept. 20), from Mr. John Jaffray, in which he stated that, having long felt the importance of having a Suburban Hospital, and with a desire to do some amount of good for the community in which, for many years, he had received so much kindness, and to which, in great measure, he owed his prosperity, he had secured a freehold site on which he proposed to erect a building, capable of accommodating fifty male and female patients, with the requisite offices for the attendants and servants, and offered the same as a free gift to the Governors, in trust for the public. This most welcome and munificent offer, it need hardly be said, was gratefully accepted, and a general appeal was made for funds to properly endow the "Jaffray Suburban Hospital," so that its maintenance and administration shall not detract from the extending usefulness of the parent institution. The site chosen by Mr. Jaffray is at Gravelly Hill, and it is estimated the new branch hospital, of which the first stone was laid June 4, 1884, will cost at least £15,000 in erection. Towards the endowment fund there have been nine or ten donations of £1,000 each promised, and it is hoped a fully sufficient amount will be raised before the building is completed, for, in the words of Mr. Jaffray, we "have great faith in the liberality of the public towards an institution—the oldest and noblest and ablest of our medical charities—which for more than a century has done so much for the relief of human suffering: and cannot help believing that there are in Birmingham many persons who, having benefited by the prosperity of the town, feel that they owe a duty to the community, and will gladly embrace this opportunity of discharging at least some part of their obligation." Patients are said to be admitted to the General Hospital by tickets from subscribers; but, in addition to accidents and cases of sudden illness, to which the doors are open at all hours, a large number of patients are admitted free on the recommendation of the medical officers, the proportion of the cases thus admitted being as six to ten with subscribers' tickets.

It is estimated that a capital sum of at least £60,000 will be required to produce a sufficiently large income to maintain the Jaffray Suburban Hospital, and donations have been, and are solicited for the raising of that sum. Up to the time of going to press with the "Dictionary," there has been contributed nearly £24,000 of the amount, of which the largest donations are:—

G.F. Muntz, Esq £2,000 0 0
The Right Hon. Lord Calthorpe 1,000 0 0
Trustees of Dudley Trust 1,000 0 0
W.B. Cregoe Colmore, Esq 1,000 0 0
Ralph Heaton, Esq 1,000 0 0
James Hinks, Esq 1,000 0 0
Lloyds' Old Bank 1,000 0 0
W. Middlemore, Esq 1,000 0 0
Mrs. Elizabeth Phipson 1,000 0 0
Miss Ryland 1,000 0 0
Mrs. Simcox 1,000 0 0
Messrs. Tangyes (Limited) 1,000 0 0
Henry Wiggin, Esq., M.P 1,000 0 0
Mr. John Wilkes 1,000 0 0

About £5,000 more has been sent in hundreds and fifties, and doubtless many other large gifts will follow.

The Queens Hospital was commenced in 1840, the first stone being laid by Earl Howe on the 18th of June. His Royal Highness the Prince Consort was chosen as first president, and remained so until his death, the office not being filled up again until 1875, when Lord Leigh was appointed. Many special efforts have been made to increase the funds of this hospital, and with great success; thus, on Dec. 28, 1848, Jenny Lind sang for it, the receipts amounting to £1,070. On July 27, 1857, a fête at Aston Park added £2,527 6s. 2d. (a like sum being given to the General Hospital). In 1859, Mr. Sands Cox (to whom is due the merit of originating the Queen's Hospital), commenced the arduous task of collecting a million postage stamps, equivalent to £4,166 13s. 4d., to clear the then liabilities, to erect a chapel, and for purposes of extension. Her Majesty the Queen forwarded (Feb. 15, 1859) a cheque for £100 toward this fund. On January 16, 1869, the workmen of the town decided to erect a new wing to the Hospital, and subscribed so freely that Lord Leigh laid the foundation stone Dec. 4, 1871, and the "Workmen's Extension" was opened for patients Nov. 7, 1873. In 1880 a bazaar at the Town Hall brought in £3,687 17s., increased by donations and new subscriptions to £5,969. The system of admission by subscribers' tickets was done away with Nov. 1, 1875, a registration fee of 1s. being adopted instead. This fee, however, is not required in urgent cases or accident, nor when the patient is believed to be too poor to pay it. The ordinary income for the year 1882 was £5,580, as compared with £4,834 in the previous year, when the ordinary income was supplemented by the further sum of £4,356 from the Hospital Sunday collection, which falls to the Queen's Hospital once in three years. The chief items of ordinary income were, subscriptions 1881, £2,780; 1882, £2,788; donations, 1881, £397; 1882, £237; Hospital Saturday, 1881, £711; 1882, £852; legacies, 1881, £208; 1882, £870; dividends, 1881, £178; 1882, £199; registration fees, 1881, £538; 1882, £597. The expenditure for the year was £7,264, as compared with £6,997 in 1881. The number of in-patients in 1882 was 1,669, as compared with 1,663 in 1881; the number of out-patients was 16,538, as compared with 14,490 in the preceding year. The cost of each in-patient was £3 2s. 3-1/4d. Of the in-patients, 811 were admitted by registration, the remainder being treated as accidents or urgent cases. Of the out-patients, 8,359 were admitted by registration, the remainder, namely, 8,179, were admitted free.

The Children's Hospital, founded in 1861, was first opened for the reception of patients Jan. 1, 1862, in the old mansion in Steelhouse Lane, fronting the Upper Priory. At the commencement of 1870 the Hospital was removed to Broad Street, to the building formerly known as the Lying-in Hospital, an out-patient department, specially erected at a cost of about £3,250, being opened at the same time (January) in Steelhouse Lane, nearly opposite the mansion first used. The Broad Street institution has accommodation for about fifty children in addition to a separate building containing thirty beds for the reception of fever cases, the erection of which cost £7,800; and there is a Convalescent Home at Alvechurch in connection with this Hospital to which children are sent direct from the wards of the Hospital (frequently after surgical operations) thus obtaining for them a more perfect convalescence than is possible when they are returned to their own homes, where in too many instances those important aids to recovery —pure air, cleanliness, and good food are sadly wanting. In addition to the share of the Saturday and Sunday yearly collections, a special effort was made in 1880 to assist the Children's Hospital by a simultaneous collection in the Sunday Schools of the town and neighbourhood, and, like the others, this has become a periodical institution. In 1880, the sum thus gathered from the juveniles for the benefit of their little suffering brethren, amounted to £307 9s. 11d.; in 1881, it was £193 10s. 5d.; in 1882, £218 5s. 2d.; in 1883, £234 3s. 1d. The number of patients during 1883 were: 743 in-patients 12,695 out-patients, 75 home patients, and 475 casualties—total 13,998. The expenditure of the year had been £4,399 0s. 3d., and the income but £4,087 14s. 2d.

Dental.—This Hospital, 9, Broad Street, was instituted for gratuitous assistance to the poor in all cases of diseases of the teeth, including extracting, stopping, scaling, as well as the regulation of children's teeth. Any poor sufferer can have immediate attention without a recommendatory note, but applicants requiring special operations must be provided with a note of introduction from a governor. About 6,000 persons yearly take their achers to the establishment.

Ear and Throat Infirmary, founded in 1844, and formerly in Cherry Street, has been removed to Newhall Street, where persons suffering from diseases of the ear (deafness, &c.) and throat, are attended to daily at noon. During the year ending June, 1883, 6,517 patients had been under treatment, and 1,833 new cases had been admitted. Of the total, 1,389 had been cured, 348 relieved and 116 remained under treatment. The increase of admissions over those of the previous year was 181, and the average daily attendance of patients was 25. The number of patients coming from places outside Birmingham was 577. The income of this institution is hardly up to the mark, considering its great usefulness, the amount received from yearly subscribers being only £129 13s. 6d., representing 711 tickets, there being received for 875 supplementary tickets, £153 2s. 6d., and £15 11s. from the Hospital Saturday collections.

The Eye Hospital was originated in 1823, and the first patients were received in April, 1824, at the hospital in Cannon Street. Some thirty years afterwards the institution was removed to Steelhouse Lane, and in 1862 to Temple Row, Dee's Royal Hotel being taken and remodelled for the purpose at a cost of about £8,300. In 1881 the number of patients treated was 12,523; in 1882, 13,448 of whom 768 were in-patients, making a total of over a quarter of a million since the commencement of the charity. Admission by subscriber's ticket. Originally an hotel, the building is dilapidated and very unsuitable to the requirements of the hospital, the space for attendants and patients being most inadequate. This has been more and more evident for years past, and the erection of a new building became an absolute necessity. The governors, therefore, have taken a plot of land at the corner of Edmund Street and Church Street, upon a lease from the Colmore family for 99 years, and hereon is being built a commodious and handsome new hospital, from carefully arranged plans suitable to the peculiar necessities of an institution of this nature. The estimated cost of the new building is put at £20,000, of which only about £8,000 has yet been subscribed (£5,000 of it being from a single donor). In such a town as Birmingham, and indeed in such a district as surrounds us, an institution like the Birmingham and Midland Eye Hospital is not only useful, but positively indispensable, and as there are no restrictions as to distance or place of abode in the matter of patients, the appeal made for the necessary building funds should meet with a quick and generous response, not only from a few large-hearted contributors, whose names are household words, but also from the many thousands who have knowledge directly or indirectly of the vast benefit this hospital has conferred upon those stricken by disease or accident—to that which is the most precious of all our senses. It is intended that the hospital should be a model to the whole kingdom of what such an institution ought to be; the latest and best of modern appliances, both sanitary and surgical, will be introduced. There will be in and out departments, completely isolated one from the other, though with a door of communication. From sixty to seventy beds will be provided, special wards for a certain class of cases, adequate waiting-rooms for out-patients, and the necessary rooms for the officers and medical attendants, all being on an ample scale.

Fever Hospital.—There was a Fever Hospital opened in March, 1828, but we have no note when it was closed, and possibly it may have been only a temporary institution, such as become necessary now and then even in these days of sanitary science. For some years past fever patients requiring isolation have been treated in the Borough Hospital, but the Health Committee have lately purchased a plot of land in Lodge Road of about 4-1/2 acres, at a cost of £4,500, and have erected there on a wooden pavilion, divided into male and female wards, with all necessary bath rooms, nurses' rooms, &c., everything being done which can contribute to the comfort and care of the inmates, while the greatest attention has been paid to the ventilation and other necessary items tending to their recovery. This pavilion is only a portion of the scheme which the committee propose to carry out, it being intended to build four, if not five, other wards of brick. A temporary block of administrative buildings has been erected at some distance from the pavilion. There accommodation is provided for the matron, the resident medical superintendent, the nurses when off duty, and the ordinary kitchen, scullery, and other offices are attached. When the permanent offices have been erected this building will be devoted to special fever cases, or, should there be a demand, private cases will be taken in. The cost of the whole scheme is estimated at £20,000, including the sum given for the land. It is most devoutly to be wished that this hospital, which is entirely free, will be generally used by families in case of a member thereof be taken with any nature of infectious fever, the most certain remedy against an epidemic of the kind, as well as the most favourable chance for the patient being such an isolation as is here provided. The hospital was opened September 11, 1883, and in cases of scarlet fever and other disorders of an infectious character, an immediate application should be made to the health officer at the Council House.

Homoeopathic.—A dispensary for the distribution of homoeopathic remedies was opened in this town in 1847, and though the new system met with the usual opposition, it has become fairly popular, and its practitioners have found friends sufficient to induce them to erect a very neat and convenient hospital, in Easy Row, at a cost of about £7,000, which was opened November 23rd, 1875, and may possibly soon be enlarged. A small payment, weekly, is looked for, if the patient can afford it, but a fair number are admitted free, and a much larger number visited, the average number of patients being nearly 5,000 per annum. Information given on enquiry.

Hospital for Women.—This establishment in the Upper Priory was opened in October, 1871, for the treatment of diseases special to females. No note or ticket of recommendation is required, applicants being attended to daily at two o'clock, except on Saturday and Sunday. If in a position to pay, a nominal sum of 2s. 6d. a month is expected as a contribution to the funds, which are not so flourishing as can be wished. The in-patients' department or home at Sparkhill has accommodation for 25 inmates, and it is always full, while some thousands are treated at the town establishment. The number of new cases in the out-patient department in 1883 was 2,648, showing an annual increase of nearly 250 a year. Of the 281 in-patients admitted last year, 205 had to undergo surgical operations of various kinds, 124 being serious cases; notwithstanding which the mortality showed a rate of only 5.6 per cent. As a rule many weeks and months of care and attention are needed to restore the general health of those who may have, while in the hospital, successfully recovered from an operation, but there has not hitherto been the needful funds or any organisation for following up such cases after they have left Sparkhill. Such a work could be carried on by a District Nursing Society if there were funds to defray the extra expense, and at their last annual meeting the Managing Committee decided to appeal to their friends for assistance towards forming an endowment fund for the treatment of patients at home during their convalescence, and also for aiding nurses during times of sickness. An anonymous donation of £1,000 has been sent in, and two other donors have given £500 each, but the treasurer will be glad to receive additions thereto, and as early as possible, for sick women nor sick men can wait long. The total income for 1883 amounted to £1,305 16s. 4d., while the expenditure was £1,685 4s. 11d., leaving a deficit much to be regretted.

Lying-in Hospital.—Founded in 1842, and for many years was located in Broad Street, in the mansion since formed into the Children's Hospital. In 1868 it was deemed advisable to close the establishment in favour of the present plan of supplying midwives and nurses at the poor patients' homes. In 1880 the number of patients attended was 1,020; in 1881, 973; in 1882, 894; in 1883, 870. In each of the two latter years there had been two deaths in mothers (1 in 441 cases) about the usual average of charity. The number of children born alive during the last year was 839, of whom 419 were males, and 420 females. Four infants died; 37 were still-born. There were 6 cases of twins. The assistance of the honorary surgeons was called in 24 times, or once in 37 cases. The financial position of the charity is less satisfactory than could be wished, there being again a deficiency. The subscriptions were £273, against £269 in 1882 and £275 in 1881. There was a slight increase in the amount of donations, but an entire absence of legacies, which, considering the valuable assistance rendered by the charity to so many poor women, is greatly to be deplored. The medical board have the power to grant to any woman who passes the examination, the subjects of which are defined, a certificate as a skilled midwife, competent to attend natural labours. One midwife and four monthly nurses have already received certificates, and it is hoped that many more candidates will avail themselves of the opportunity thus readily afforded to them, and supply a want very generally felt among the poor of the town. Subscribers have the privilege of bestowing the tickets, and the offices are at 71, Newhall Street.

Orthopædic and Spinal Hospital—Was founded in June, 1817; the present establishment in Newhall Street being entered upon in December, 1877. All kinds of bodily deformity, hernia, club feet, spinal diseases, malformations, and distortions of limbs, &c., are treated daily (at two o'clock) free of charge, except where instruments or costly supports are needed, when the patient must be provided with subscribers' tickets in proportion to the cost thereof. In 1881 and 1882, 4,116 cases received attention, 2,064 being new cases, and 678 from outside Birmingham. The variety of diseases was very numerous, and instruments to the value of £420 were supplied to the patients.

Skin and Lock Hospital, Newhall Street, was founded in 1880, and opened Jan. 10, 1881. Admission on payment of registration fee, attendance being given at two o'clock on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday in each week.

Smallpox Hospital.—A few years back, when there was a pretty general epidemic of smallpox, a temporary ward or addition was attached to the Workhouse, but many persons whose intelligence led them to know the value of isolation in such cases, could not "cotton" to the idea of going themselves or sending their friends there. The buildings in Weston Road, Winson Green, and now known as the Borough Hospital, have no connection whatever with the Workhouse, and were opened for the reception of persons suffering from smallpox and scarlet fever in Nov. 1874. The latter cases are now taken to the Hospital in Lodge Road, so that present accommodation can be found in the Borough Hospital for nearly 250 patients at a time should it ever be necessary to do so. Persons knowing of any case of smallpox should at once give notice to the officers of health at Council House.

Hotels.—This French-derived name for inns, from what Hutton says on the subject, would appear to have been only introduced in his day, and even then was confined to the large coaching-houses of the town, many of which have long since vanished. The first railway hotel was the Queen's, at the entrance of the old railway station, Duddeston Row, though originally built and used for officers for the company's secretaries, directors' boardroom, &c. As part of the New Street Station, a far more pretentious establishment was erected, and to this was given the title of the "Queen's Hotel," the Duddeston Row building reverting to its original use. The Great Western Hotel was the next to be built, and the success attending these large undertakings have led to the erection of the handsome Midland Hotel, opposite New Street Station, and the still grander "Grand Hotel," in Colmore Row, opened Feb. 1, 1879. The removal of the County Court to Corporation Street, and the possible future erection of Assize Courts near at hand, have induced some speculators to embark in the erection of yet another extensive establishment, to be called the "Inns of Court Hotel," and in due course of time we shall doubtless have others of a similar character. At any of the above, a visitor to the town (with money in his purse) can find first-class accommodation, and (in comparison with the London hotels of a like kind) at reasonably fair rates. After these come a second grade, more suitable for commercial gentlemen, or families whose stay is longer, such as the new Stork Hotel, the Albion, in Livery Street, Bullivant's, in Carr's Lane, the Acorn, the Temperance at the Colonnade, and the Clarendon, in Temple Street, Dingley's, in Moor Street, Knapp's, in High Street, Nock's, in Union Passage, the Plough and Harrow, in Hagley Road, the Swan, in New Street, the White Horse, in Congreve Street (opposite Walter Showell and Sons' head offices), the Woolpack, in Moor Street, and the other Woolpack, now called St. Martin's, at the back of the church.

For much entertaining information respecting the old taverns of Birmingham, the hotels of former days, we recommend the reader to procure a copy of S.D.R.'s little book on the subject, which is full of anecdotes respecting the frequenters of the then houses, as well as many quaint notes of the past.

The Acorn in Temple Street.—The favourite resort of the "men of the time" a few score years ago was at one period so little surrounded with houses that anyone standing at its door could view a landscape stretching for miles, while listening to the song birds in the neighbouring gardens. It dates from about 1750, and numbers among its successive landlords, Mr. John Roderick, the first auctioneer of that well-known name, Mr. James Clements, and Mr. Coleman, all men of mark. The last-named host, after making many improvements in the premises and renewing the lease, disposed of the hotel to a Limited Liability Company for £15,500. It is at present one of the best-frequented commercial houses in the town.

The Hen and Chickens.—In Aris's Gazette, of December 14, 1741, there appeared an advertisement, that there was "to be let, in the High Street, Birmingham, a very good-accustomed Inn, the sign of the Hen and Chickens, with stables, &c." Inasmuch as this advertisement also said "there is a very good Bowling Green joining to it," it has been quoted by almost every writer of local history as an evidence of the popularity of those places of recreation, or as showing the open aspect of the then existing town. This establishment is believed to have been on the site of Messrs. Manton's cabinet warehouse, the adjoining Scotland Passage leading to the stables, and possibly to "the Bowling Green." In 1798, the tenant, Mrs. Lloyd, removed to a new house in New Street, and took the Hen and Chickens' title with her, the place becoming famous as a posting-house, and afterwards, under Mr. William Waddell, as one of the most extensive coaching establishments in the Midlands. A mere list only, of the Serene Highnesses, the Royalties, Nobility, and celebrated characters of all kinds, who have put up at this hotel, would fill pages, and those anxious for such old-time gossip, must refer to S.D.R.'s book, as before-mentioned. At the close of 1878, the premises were acquired by the "Birmingham Aquarium Co., Limited," who proposed to erect a handsome concert-room, aquarium, restaurant, &c. The old building has been considerably altered, and somewhat improved in appearance, but the aquarium and concert-room are, as yet, non est, an Arcade being built instead.

The Midland, New Street.—One of the modern style of hotels, having over a hundred good bedrooms, besides the necessary complement of public and private sitting and dining rooms, coffee, commercial, smoking and billiard rooms, &c., erected for Mr. W.J. Clements in 1874; it was sold early in 1876 to a Limited Company, whose capital was fixed at £40,000 in £10 shares.

The Royal, in Temple Row, was erected on the tontine principle in 1772, but was not called more than "The Hotel" for a long time afterwards the word Royal being added in 1805, after His Royal Highness the Duke of Gloucester slept there (May 4) on his way to Liverpool. In 1830 the Duchess of Kent, and Princess Victoria (our present Queen) honoured it by their presence. In June, 1804, the Assembly Room (for very many years the most popular place for meetings of a social character) was enlarged, the proprietors purchasing a small piece of adjoining land for the purpose at a cost of £250, being at the rate of £26,000 per acre, a noteworthy fact as showing the then rapidly increasing value of property in the town. The portico in front of the hotel was put there in 1837, when the building had to be repaired, in consequence of the kind attentions of the Birmingham Liberals at the time of the general election then just passed. The whole of the front and main portion of the hotel is now used for the purposes of the Eye Hospital, the Assembly Rooms, &c., being still public.—Portugal House, in New Street, on the present site of the Colonnade, prior to its being taken for the Excise and Post Offices, was used for hotel purposes, and was also called "The Royal."

The Stork.—The Directory of 1800 is the first which contains the name of the Stork Tavern, No. 3, The Square, the host then being Mr. John Bingham, the title of Hotel not being assumed until 1808. For a few years the one house was sufficient for the accommodation required, but as time progressed it became necessary to enlarge it, and this was accomplished by taking in the adjoining houses, until, at last, the hotel occupied one-fourth of The Square, from the corner of the Minories to the Lower Priory, in which were situated the stables, &c. It was in one of the houses so annexed to the hotel (No. 1) that Dr. Hector, the friend of Dr. Johnson, resided; and at the rear of another part of the premises in the Coach Yard, there was opened (in 1833) the "The Equitable Labour Exchange." The whole of the hotel buildings were sold by auction, Sept. 26, 1881, and quickly razed to the ground, which was required for Corporation Street; but the Stork, like the fabulous Phoenix, has risen from its ashes, and in close proximity to the old site, stands boldly forth as one of the magnificences of that-is-to-be most-magnificent thoroughfare.

The Union, in Cherry Street, was built in 1790, but much enlarged in 1825. It was one of the principal coaching houses, but will be remembered mostly as furnishing the chief saleroom in the town for the disposal of landed property. The site being required for Corporation Street, the building was "knocked down" on the 21st April, 1879.

The Woolpack, in Moor Street, saw many strange events, and had in its olden days undergone some few changes for there are not many sites in Birmingham that can compare with this in regard to its recorded history, but at last it is being cleared to make way for a more modern structure. It is believed there was a tavern called the Green Tree here close upon 500 years ago, and even now there is still to be traced the course of an ancient "dyche" running through the premises which was described as the boundary dividing certain properties in 1340, and forming part of that belonging to the Guild of the Holy Cross. The house itself was the residence of William Lench, whose bequests to the town are historical, but when it was turned into a tavern is a little uncertain, as the earliest notice of it as such is dated 1709, when John Fusor was the occupier. It was the house of resort for many Birmingham worthies, especially those connected with the law, even before the erection of the Public Offices, and it is said that John Baskerville used to come here for his tankard of ale and a gossip with his neighbours. In the time of the Reform agitation it was frequented by the leaders of the Liberal party, and has always been the favourite shelter of artists visiting the town.

The Woolpack, in St. Martin's Lane.—Some eighty odd years ago the tavern standing at the corner of Jamaica Row and St. Martin's Lane was known as the Black Boy Inn, from the figure of a young negro then placed over the door. Being purchased in 1817 by the occupier of a neighbouring tavern called the Woolpack, the two names were united, and for a time the house was called the "Black Boy and Woolpack," the first part being gradually allowed to fall into disuse. Prior to its demolition it was the noted market hostelry for cattle dealers and others, the respected landlord, Mr. John Gough, who held the premises from 1848 till his death in 1877, being himself a large wholesale dealer. When the Town Council decided to enlarge and cover in the Smithfield Market, the old house and its adjuncts were purchased by them, and a new hotel of almost palatial character has been erected in its place, the frontage extending nearly the entire length of St. Martin's Lane, and the Black Boy and the Woolpack must in future be called St. Martin's Hotel.

Hothouses.—Those at Frogmore, comprising a range of nearly 1,000 feet of metallic forcing houses, were erected in 1842-3, by Mr. Thomas Clark, of this town, his manager, Mr. John Jones, being described by the celebrated Mr. London, as "the best hot-house builder in Britain."

House and Window Tax.—See "Taxes."

Howard Street Institute.—Founded in 1869. The first annual meeting, for the distribution of prizes, was held in December, 1872. The many sources for acquiring knowledge now provided at such institutions as the Midland Institute, the Mason College, &c., have no doubt tended much to the end, but, considering the amount of good derived by the pupils from the many classes held in the Howard Street rooms, it is a pity the Institute should be allowed to drop.

Humbug.—The Prince of Humbugs, Phineas Barnum, at the Town Hall, February 28, 1859, gave his views of what constituted "Humbug." As if the Brums didn't know.

Humiliation Days.—February 25, 1807, was kept here as a day of fasting and humiliation, as was also September 25, 1832.

Hundred.—Birmingham is in the Hundred of Hemlingford.

Hungary.—The first meeting in this town to express sympathy with the Hungarians in their struggle with Austria, was held in the Corn Exchange, May 23, 1849, and several speakers were in favour of sending armed help, but no volunteers came forward.

Hunter's Lane and Nursery Terrace take their names from the fact that Mr. Hunter's nursery grounds and gardens were here situated. The "Lane" was the old road to Wolverhampton, but has a much older history than that, as it is believed to have been part of the Icknield Street.

Hurricanes.—The late Mr. Thos. Plant, in describing the great storm, which visited England, on the night of Sunday, 6th January, 1839, and lasted all next day, said it was the most tremendous hurricane that had occurred here for fifty years. A large quantity of lead was stripped off the roof of the Town Hall, the driving force of the gale being so strong, that the lead was carried a distance of more than sixty yards before it fell into a warehouse, 'at the back of an ironmonger's shop in Ann Street.—See "Storms and Tempests."

Hurst Street, from Hurst Hill, once a wooded mount (the same being the derivation of Ravenhurst Street), was originally but a passage way, leading under an arch at the side of the White Swan in Smallbrook Street (now Day's establishment). Up the passage was a knacker's yard, a shop for the dyeing of felt hats, and a few cottages.

Icknield Street.—Britain was formerly traversed by four great roads, usually called Roman roads, though there are some grounds for believing that the Ancient Britons themselves were the pioneers in making these trackways, their conquerors only improving the roads as was their wont, and erecting military stations along the line. These roads were severally called "Watling Stræte," which ran from the coast of Kent, through London, to the Welsh coast in county Cardigan; the "Fosse," leading from Cornwall to Lincoln; "Erminge Stræte," running from St. David's to Southampton; and "Hikenilde Stræte," leading through the centre of England, from St. David's to Tynemouth. Part of the latter road, known as Icknield Street, is now our Monument Lane, and in 1865 a portion of ancient road was uncovered near Chad Valley House, which is believed to have been also part thereof. Proceeding in almost a direct line to the bottom of Hockley Hill, the Icknield Street ran across Handsworth Parish, by way of the present Hunter's Lane, but little further trace can be found now until it touches Sutton Coldfield Park, through which it passes for nearly a mile-and-a-half at an almost uniform width of about 60 feet. It is left for our future local antiquarians to institute a search along the track in the Park, but as in scores of other spots Roman and British remains have been found, it seems probable than an effort of the kind suggested would meet its reward, and perhaps lead to the discovery of some valuable relics of our long-gone predecessors.

Illuminations.—When the news of Admiral Rodney's victory was received here, May 20, 1792, it was welcomed by a general illumination, as were almost all the great victories during the long war. The Peace of Amiens in 1802 was also celebrated in this way, and the event has become historical from the fact that for the first time in the world's history the inflammable gas obtained from coal (now one of the commonest necessities of our advanced civilisation) was used for the purpose of a public illumination at Soho Works. (See "Gas.") In 1813 the town went into shining ecstacies four or five times, and ditto in the following year, the chief events giving rise thereto being the entry of the Allies into Paris, and the declaration of peace, the latter being celebrated (in addition to two nights' lighting up of the principal buildings, &c.), by an extra grand show of thousands of lamps at Soho, with the accompaniment of fireworks and fire-balloons, the roasting of sheep and oxen, &c. Waterloo was the next occasion, but local chroniclers of the news of the day gave but scant note thereof. From time to time there have been illuminations for several more peaceable matters of rejoicing, but the grandest display that Birmingham has ever witnessed was that to celebrate the marriage of the Prince of Wales, March 10th, 1863, when St. Philip's Church was illuminated on a scale so colossal as to exceed anything of the kind that had previously been attempted in the illumination by gas of public buildings upon their architectural lines. Situated in the centre, and upon the most elevated ground in Birmingham, St. Philip's measures upwards of 170-ft. from the base to the summit of the cross. The design for the illumination—furnished by Mr. Peter Hollins—consisted of gas-tubing, running parallel to the principal lines of architecture from the base to the summit, pierced at distances of 3 in. or 5 in., and fitted with batswing burners. About 10,000 of these burners were used in the illumination. The service-pipes employed varied in diameter from three inches to three-quarters of an inch, and measured, in a straight line, about three-quarters of a mile, being united by more than two thousand sockets. Separate mains conducted the gas to the western elevation, the tower, the dome, the cupola, and cross; the latter standing 8 ft. above the ordinary cross of the church, and being inclosed in a frame of ruby-coloured glass. These mains were connected with a ten-inch main from a heavily-weighed gasometer at the Windsor Street works of the Birmingham Gas Company, which was reserved for the sole use of the illumination. It took forty men three days to put up the scaffolding, but the whole work was finished and the scaffolding removed in a week. It was estimated that the consumption of gas during the period of illumination reached very nearly three-quarters of a million of cubic feet; and the entire expense of the illumination, including the gas-fittings, was somewhat over six hundred pounds. The illumination was seen for miles round in every direction. From the top of Barr Beacon, about eight miles distant, a singular effect was produced by means of a fog cloud which hung over the town, and concealed the dome and tower from view—a blood-red cross appearing to shine in the heavens and rest upon Birmingham. As the traveller approached the town on that side the opacity of the fog gradually diminished until, when about three miles away, the broad lines of light which spanned the dome appeared in sight, and, magnified by the thin vapour through which they were refracted, gave the idea of some gigantic monster clawing the heavens with his fiery paws. All the avenues to the church and the surrounding streets were crowded with masses of human heads, in the midst of which stood a glittering fairy palace. The effect was heightened by coloured fires, which, under the superintendence of Mr. C.L. Hanmer, were introduced at intervals in burning censers, wreathing their clouds of incense among the urns upon the parapet in the gallery of the tower, and shedding upon the windows of the church the rich tints of a peaceful southern sky at sunset. The several gateways were wreathed in evergreens, amongst which nestled festoons of variegated lamps. So great was the sensation produced throughout the town and surrounding districts, and such the disappointment of those who had not seen it, that the committee, at a great expense, consented to reillumine for one night more, which was done on the 13th. The last general illumination was on the occasion of the visit of Prince and Princess of Wales, Nov. 3, 1874.

Improvement Schemes.—See "Town Improvements."

Income Tax.—This impost was first levied in 1798, when those who had four children were allowed an abatement of 10 per cent.; eight children, 15 per cent.; ten or more 20 per cent. At the close of the Peninsular campaign this tax was done away with, it being looked upon, even in those heavily betaxed times, as about the most oppressive duty ever imposed by an arbitrary Government on loyal and willing citizens. When the tax was revived, in 1842, there was a considerable outcry, though if fairly levied it would seem to be about the most just and equitable mode of raising revenue that can be devised, notwithstanding its somewhat inquisitorial accompaniments. The Act was only for three years but it was triennially renewed until 1851, since when it has become "a yearly tenant," though at varying rates, the tax being as high as 1s. 4d. in the pound in 1855, and only 2d. in 1874. A Parliamentary return issued in 1866 gave the assessment of Birmingham to the Income Tax at £1,394,161; in 1874 it was estimated at £1,792,700. The present assessment is considerably over the two millions, but the peculiar reticence generally connected with all Governmental offices prevents us giving the exact figures.

Indian Famine.—The total amount subscribed here towards the fund for the relief of sufferers by famine in India in 1877 was £7,922 13s. 2d.

India-rubber, in 1770, was sold at 3s. per cubic half-inch, and was only used to remove pencil marks from paper. Its present uses are manifold, and varied in the extreme, from the toy balloon of the infant to railway buffers and unsinkable lifeboats.

Infirmaries.—See "Hospitals," &c.

Inge.—The family name of one of the large property owners of this town, after whom Inge Street is so called. The last representative of the family lived to the ripe old age of 81, dying in August, 1881. Though very little known in the town from whence a large portion of his income was drawn, the Rev. George Inge, rector of Thorpe (Staffordshire), was in his way a man of mark, a mighty Nimrod, who followed the hounds from the early age of five, when he was carried on a pony in front of a groom, until a few weeks prior to his death, having hunted with the Atherstone pack duriug the management of sixteen successive masters thereof.

Insane Asylums.—See "Lunacy."

Insurance.—In 1782 a duty of 1s. 6d. per cent, was levied on all fire insurances, which was raised to 2s. in 1797, to 2s. 6d. in 1804. and to 3s. in 1815, remaining at that until 1865, when it was lowered to 1s. 6d., being removed altogether in 1869. Farming stock was exempted in 1833, and workmen's tools in 1860.

Insurance Companies.—Their name is legion, their agents are a multitude, and a list of their officers would fill a book. You can insure your own life, or your wife's, or your children's or anybody else's, in whose existence you may have a beneficial interest, and there are a hundred officers ready to receive the premiums. If you are journeying, the Railway Passengers' Accident Co. will be glad to guarantee your family a solatium in case you and your train come to grief, and though it is not more than one in half-a-million that meets with an accident on the line, the penny for a ticket, when at the booking office, will be well expended. Do you employ clerks, there are several Guarantee Societies who will secure you against loss by defalcation. Shopkeepers and others will do well to insure their glass against breakage, and all and everyone should pay into a "General Accident" Association, for broken limbs, like broken glass, cannot be foreseen or prevented. It is not likely that any of [**] will be "drawn" for a militiaman in these piping times of peace, but that the system of insurance was applied here in the last century against the chances of being drawn in the ballot, is evidenced by the following carefully-preserved and curious receipt:—

"Received of Matthew Boulton, tagmaker, Snow Hill, three shillings and sixpence, for which sum I solemnly engage, if he should be chosen by lot to serve in the militia for this parish, at the first meeting for that purpose, to procure a substitute that shall be approved of.


"Birmingham, Jan. 11, 1762."

The local manufacture of Insurance Societies has not been on a large scale, almost the only ones being the "Birmingham Workman's Mutual," the "British Workman," and the "Wesleyan and General." The late Act of Parliament, by which in certain cases, employers are pecuniarily liable for accidents to their workpeople, has brought into existence several new Associations, prominent among which is the comprehensive "Employers' Liability and Workpeople's Provident and Accident Insurance Society, Limited," whose offices are at 33, Newhall Street.

Interesting Odds and Ends. A fair was held here on Good Friday, 1793.

A fight of lion with dogs took place at Warwick, September 4, 1824.

The Orsim bombs used in Paris, January 15, 1858, were made here.

In 1771 meetings of the inhabitants, were called by the tolling of a bell.

A large assembly of Radicals visited Christ Church, November 21, 1819, but not for prayer.

A "flying railway" (the Centrifugal) was exhibited at the Circus in Bradford Street, October 31, 1842.

The doors of Moor Street prison were thrown open, September 3, 1842, there, not being then one person in confinement.

March 2, 1877, a bull got loose in New Street Station, and ran through the tunnel to Banbury Street, where he leaped over the parapet and was made into beef.

William Godfrey, who died in Ruston-street, October 27, 1863, was a native of this town, who, enlisting at eighteen, was sent out to China, where he accumulated a fortune of more than £1,000,000. So said the Birmingham Journal, November 7, 1863.

The De Berminghams had no blankets before the fourteenth century, when they were brought from Bristol. None but the very rich wore stockings prior to the year 1589, and many of them had their legs covered with bands of cloth.

A petition was presented to the Prince of Wales (June 26, 1791) asking his patronage and support for the starving buckle-makers of Birmingham. He ordered his suite to wear buckles on their shoes, but the laces soon whipped them out of market.

One Friday evening in July, 1750, a woman who had laid informations against 150 persons she had caught retailing spirituous liquors without licenses, was seized by a mob, who doused, ducked and daubed her, and then shoved her in the Dungeon.

At a parish meeting, May 17, 1726, it was decided to put up an organ in St. Martin's at a cost of £300 "and upwards." At a general meeting of the inhabitants, April 3, 1727, it was ordered that, a bell be cast for St. Philip's, "to be done with all expedition."

In 1789 it was proposed that the inmates of the workhouse should be employed at making worsted and thread. Our fathers often tried their inventive faculties in the way of finding work for the inmates. A few years later it was proposed (August 26) to lighten the rates by erecting a steam mill for grinding corn.

On the retirement of Mr. William Lucy, in 1850, from the Mayoralty, the usual vote of thanks was passed, but with one dissentient. Mr. Henry Hawkes was chosen coroner July 6, 1875, by forty votes to one. The great improvement scheme was adopted by the Town Council (November 10, 1875), with but one dissentient.

A certificate, dated March 23, 1683, and signed by the minister and church-wardens, was granted to Elizabeth, daughter of John and Ann Dickens, "in order to obtain his majesty's touch for the Evil." The "royal touch" was administered to 200 persons from this neighbourhood, March 17, 1714; Samuel Johnson (the Dr.) being one of those whose ailments, it was believed, could be thus easily removed. Professor Holloway did not live in those days.

Sir Thomas Holte (the first baronet) is traditionally reported to have slain his cook. He brought an action for libel against one William Ascrick, for saying "that he did strike his cook with a cleaver, so that one moiety of the head fell on one shoulder, and the other on the other shoulder." The defendant was ordered to pay £30 damages, but appealed, and successfully; the worthy lawyers of that day deciding that though Sir Thomas might have clove the cook's head, the defendant did not say he had killed the man, and hence had not libelled the baronet.

Interpreters.—In commercial circles it sometimes happens that the foreign corresponding clerk may be out of the way when an important business letter arrives, and we, therefore, give the addresses of a few gentlemen linguists, viz.:—Mr. H.R. Forrest, 46, Peel Buildings, Lower Temple Street; Mr. L. Hewson, 30, Paradise Street; Mr. F. Julien, 189, Monument Road; Mr. Wm. Krisch, 3, Newhall Street; Mr. L. Notelle, 42, George Road, Edgbaston; and Mr. A. Vincent, 49, Islington Row.

Invasion.—They said the French were coming in February, 1758, so the patriotic Brums put their hands into their pockets and contributed to a fund "to repel invasion."

Inventors and Inventions.—Birmingham, for a hundred years, led the van in inventions of all kinds, and though to many persons patent specifications may be the driest of all dry reading, there is an infinitude of interesting matter to be found in those documents. Much of the trade history of the town is closely connected with the inventions of the patentees of last century, including such men as Lewis Paul, who first introduced spinning by rollers, and a machine for the carding of wool and cotton; Baskerville, the japanner; Wyatt, partner with Paul; Boulton, of Soho, and his coadjutors, Watt, Murdoch, Small, Keir, Alston, and others. Nothing has been too ponderous and naught too trivial for the exercise of the inventive faculties of our skilled workmen. All the world knows that hundreds of patents have been taken out for improvements, and discoveries in connection with steam machinery, but few would credit that quite an equal number relate to such trifling articles as buckles and buttons, pins and pens, hooks and eyes, &c.; and fortunes have been made even more readily by the manufacture of the small items than the larger ones. The history of Birmingham inventors has yet to be written; a few notes of some of their doings will be found under "Patents" and "Trades."

Iron.—In 1354 it was forbidden to export iron from England. In 1567 it was brought here from Sweden and Russia. A patent for smelting iron with pit coal was granted in 1620 to Dud Dudley, who also patented the tinning of iron in 1661. The total make of iron in England in 1740 was but 17,000 tons, from 59 furnaces, only two of which were in Staffordshire, turning out about 1,000 tons per year. In 1788 there were nine blast furnaces in the same county; in 1796, fourteen; in 1806, forty-two; in 1827, ninety-five, with an output of 216,000 tons, the kingdom's make being 690,000 tons from 284 furnaces. This quantity in 1842 was turned out of the 130 Staffordshire furnaces alone, though the hot-air blast was not used prior to 1835. Some figures have lately been published showing that the present product of iron in the world is close upon 19-1/2 million tons per year, and as iron and its working-up has a little to do with the prosperity of Birmingham, we preserve them. Statistics for the more important countries are obtainable as late as 1881. For the others it is assumed that the yield has not fallen off since the latest figures reported. Under "other countries," in the table below, are included Canada, Switzerland, and Mexico, each producing about 7,500 tons a year, and Norway, with 4,000 tons a year:—

Year. Gross Tons.
Great Britain 1881 8,377,364
United States 1881 4,144,254
Germany 1881 2,863,400
France 1881 1,866,438
Belgium 1881 622,288
Austro-Hungary 1880 448,685
Sweden 1880 399,628
Luxembourg 1881 289,212
Russia 1881 231,341
Italy 1876 76,000
Spain 1873 73,000
Turkey -- 40,000
Japan 1877 10,000
All other countries -- 46,000

Total 19,487,610

The first four countries produce 88.4 per cent, of the world's iron supply; the first two, 64.3 per cent.; the first, 43 per cent. The chief consumer is the United States, 29 per cent.; next Great Britain, 23 '4 per cent.; these two using more than half of all. Cast iron wares do not appear to have been made here in any quantity before 1755; malleable iron castings being introduced about 1811. The first iron canal boat made its appearance here July 24, 1787. Iron pots were first tinned in 1779 by Jonathan Taylor's patented process, but we have no date when vessels of iron were first enamelled, though a French method of coating them with glass was introduced in 1850 by Messrs. T.G. Griffiths and Co. In 1809, Mr. Benjamin Cook, a well-known local inventor, proposed to use iron for building purposes, more particularly in the shape of joists, rafters, and beams, so as to make fire-proof rooms, walls, and flooring, as well as iron staircases. This suggestion was a long time before it was adopted, for in many things Cook was far in advance of his age. Corrugated iron for roofing, &c., came into use in 1832, but it was not till the period of the Australian gold fever—1852-4—that there was any great call for iron houses. The first iron church (made at Smethwick) as well as iron barracks for the mounted police, were sent out there, the price at Melbourne for iron houses being from £70 each.—See "Trades."

Iron Bedsteads are said to have been invented by Dr. Church. Metallic bedsteads of many different kinds have been made since then, from the simple iron stretcher to the elaborately guilded couches made for princes and potentates, but the latest novelty in this line is a bedstead of solid silver, lately ordered for one of the Indian Rajahs.

Iron Rods.—Among the immense number of semi-religious tracts published during the Civil War, one appeared (in 1642) entitled "An Iron Rod for the Naylours and Tradesmen near Birmingham," by a self-styled prophet, who exhorted his neighbours to amend their lives and give better prices "twopence in the shilling at the least to poor workmen." We fancy the poor nailers of the present time would also be glad of an extra twopence.

Jacks.—Roasting Jacks of some kind or other were doubtless used by our great-great-grandmothers, but their kitchen grates were not supplied with "bottle-jacks" till their fellow-townsman, Mr. Fellowes, of Great Hampton Street, made them in 1796.

Jennens.—It is almost certain that the "Great Jennens (or Jennings) Case," has taken up more time in our law courts than any other cause brought before the judges. Charles Dickens is supposed to have had some little knowledge of it, and to have modelled his "Jarndyce v. Jarndyce" in "Bleak House" therefrom. It has a local interest, inasmuch as several members of the family lived, prospered, and died here, and, in addition, a fair proportion of the property so long disputed, is here situated. The first of the name we hear of as residing in Birmingham was William Jennens, who died in 1602. His son John became a well-to-do ironmonger, dying in 1653. One of John's sons, Humphrey, also waxed rich, and became possessed of considerable estate, having at one time, it is said, no less a personage than Lord Conway as "game-keeper" over a portion of his Warwickshire property. Probably the meaning was that his lordship rented the shooting. Ultimately, although every branch of the family were tolerably prolific, the bulk of the garnered wealth was concentrated in the hands of William Jennings, bachelor, who died at Acton Place in 1798, at the age of 98, though some have said he was 103. His landed property was calculated to be worth £650,000; in Stock and Shares he held £270,000; at his bankers, in cash and dividends due, there were £247,000; while at his several houses, after his death, they found close upon £20,000 in bank notes, and more than that in gold. Dying intestate, his property was administered to by Lady Andover, and William Lygon, Esq., who claimed to be next of kin descended from Humphrey Jennings, of this town. Greatest part of the property was claimed by these branches, and several noble families were enriched who, it is said, were never entitled to anything. The Curzon family came in for a share, and hence the connection of Earl Howe and others with this town. The collaterals and their descendants have, for generations, been fighting for shares, alleging all kinds of fraud and malfeasance on the part of the present holders and their predecessors, but the claimants have increased and multiplied to such an extent, that if it were possible for them to recover the whole of the twelve million pounds they say the property is now worth, it would, when divided, give but small fortunes to any of them. A meeting of the little army of claimants was held at the Temperance Hall, March 2, 1875, and there have been several attempts, notwithstanding the many previous adverse decisions, to re-open the battle for the pelf, no less than a quarter of a million, it is believed, having already been uselessly spent in that way.

Jennen's Row is named after the above family.

Jewellery.—See "Trades."

Jews.—The descendants of Israel were allowed to reside in this country in 1079, but if we are to believe history their lot could not have been a very pleasant one, the poorer classes of our countrymen looking upon them with aversion, while the knights and squires of high degree, though willing enough to use them when requiring loans for their fierce forays, were equally ready to plunder and oppress on the slightest chance. Still England must have even then been a kind of sheltering haven, for in 1287, when a sudden anti-Semitic panic occurred to drive the Jews out of the kingdom, it was estimated that 15,660 had to cross the silver streak. Nominally, they were not allowed to return until Cromwell's time, 364 years after. It was in 1723 Jews were permitted to hold lands in this country, and thirty years after an Act was passed to naturalise them, but it was repealed in the following year. Now the Jews are entitled to every right and privilege that a Christian possesses. It is not possible to say when the Jewish community of this town originated, but it must have been considerably more than a hundred and fifty years ago, as when Hutton wrote in 1781, there was a synagogue in the Froggery, "a very questionable part of the town," and an infamous locality. He quaintly says:—"We have also among us a remnant of Israel, a people who, when masters of their own country, were scarcely ever known to travel, and who are now seldom employed in anything else. But though they are ever moving they are ever at home; who once lived the favourites of heaven, and fed upon the cream of the earth, but now are little regarded by either; whose society is entirely confined to themselves, except in the commercial line. In the synagogue, situated in the Froggery, they still preserve the faint resemblance of the ancient worship, their whole apparatus being no more than the drooping ensigns of poverty. The place is rather small, but tolerably filled; where there appears less decorum than in the Christian churches. The proverbial expression, 'as rich as a Jew,' is not altogether verified in Birmingham; but, perhaps, time is transferring it to the Quakers. It is rather singular that the honesty of a Jew is seldom pleaded but by the Jew himself." No modern historian would think of using such language now-a-days, respecting the Jews who now abide with us, whose charitable contributions to our public institutions, &c., may bear comparison with those of their Christian brethren. An instance of this was given so far back as December 5th, 1805, the day of general thanksgiving for the glorious victory of Trafalgar. On that day collections were made in all places of worship in aid of the patriotic fund for the relief of those wounded, and of the relatives of those killed in the war. It is worthy of remark that the parish church, St. Martin's, then raised the sum of £37 7s., and the "Jews' Synagogue" £3 3s. At the yearly collections in aid of the medical charities, now annually held on Hospital Sunday, St. Martin's gives between three and four hundred pounds; the Jewish congregation contributes about one hundred and fifty. If, then, the church has thus increased ten-fold in wealth and benevolence in the last seventy years, the synagogue has increased fifty-fold.

Jews' Board of Guardians. A committee of resident Jews was appointed in 1869, to look after and relieve poor and destitute families among the Israelites; and though they pay their due quota to the poor rates of their parish, it is much to the credit of the Jewish community that no poor member is, permitted to go to the Workhouse or want for food and clothing. The yearly amount expended in relief by this Hebrew Board of Guardians is more than £500, mostly given in cash in comparatively large sums, so as to enable the recipients to become self-supporting, rather than continue them as paupers receiving a small weekly dole. There is an increase in the number of poor latterly, owing to the depression of trade and to the influx of poor families from Poland during the last few years. Another cause of poverty among the Jews is the paucity of artisans among them, very few of them even at the present time choosing to follow any of the staple trades outside those connected with clothing and jewellery.

Jewish Persecutions in Russia.—On Feb. 6, 1882, a town's meeting was called with reference to the gross persecution of the Jews in Russia, and the collection of a fund towards assisting the sufferers was set afoot, £1,800 being promised at the meeting.

John a' Dean's Hole.—A little brook which took the water from the moat round the old Manor House (site of Smithfield) was thus called, from a man named John Dean being drowned there about Henry VIII.'s time. This brook emptied into the river Rea, near the bottom of Floodgate Street, where a hundred and odd years back, there were two poolholes, with a very narrow causeway between them, which was especially dangerous at flood times to chance wayfarers who chose the path as a near cut to their dwellings, several cases of drowning being on record as occurring at this spot.—See "Manor House."

Johnson, Dr. Samuel.—Dr. Johnson's connection with Birmingham has always been a pleasant matter of interest to the local literati, but to the general public we fear it matters naught. His visit to his good friend Dr. Hector in 1733 is historically famous; his translations and writings while here have been often noted; his marriage with the widow Porter duly chronicled; but it is due to the researches of the learned Dr. Langford that attention has been lately drawn to the interesting fact that Johnson, who was born in 1709, actually came to Birmingham in his tenth year, on a visit to his uncle Harrison, who in after years, in his usual plain-speaking style, Johnson described as "a very mean and vulgar man, drunk every night, but drunk with little drink, very peevish, very proud, very ostentatious, but, luckily, not rich." That our local governors have a due appreciation of the genius of the famed lexicographer is shown by the fact of a passage-way from Bull Street to the Upper Priory being named "Dr. Samuel Johnson's Passage!"

Jubilees.—Strange as it may appear to the men of the present day, there has never been a National holiday yet kept equal to that known as the Jubilee Day of George the Third. Why it should have been so seems a great puzzle now. The celebration began in this town at midnight of the 24th October, 1809, by the ringers of St. Philip's giving "five times fifty claps, an interim with the same number of rounds, to honour the King, Queen, the Royal Family, the Nation, and the loyal town of Birmingham." At six o'clock next morning the sluggards were aroused with a second peal, and with little rest the bells were kept swinging the whole day long, the finale coming with a performance of "perpetual claps and clashings" that must have made many a head ache. There was a Sunday school jubilee celebrated September 14, 1831. The fiftieth year's pastorate of Rev. John Angell James was kept September 12, 1855, and the Jubilee Day of the Chapel in Carr's Lane, September 27, 1870; of Cannon Street Chapel, July 16, 1856; of the Rev. G. Cheatle's pastorate, at Lombard Street Chapel, January 11, 1860; of the Missionary Society, September 15, 1864; of Pope Pius the Ninth, in 1877, when the Roman Catholics of this town sent him £1,230. being the third largest contribution from England.

Jubilee Singers.—This troupe of coloured minstrels gave their first entertainment here in the Town Hall April 9, 1874.

Jury Lists.—According to the Jury Act, 6 George IV., the churchwardens and overseers of every parish in England are required to make out an alphabetical list before the 1st September in each year of all men residing in their respective parishes and townships qualified to serve on juries, setting forth at length their Christian and surname, &c. Copies of these lists, on the three first Sundays in September, are to be fixed on the principal door to every church, chapel, and other public place of religious worship, with a notice subjoined that all appeals will be heard at the Petty Sessions, to be held within the last day of September. The jury list for persons resident in the borough, and for several adjoining parishes, may be seen at the office of Mr. Alfred Walter, solicitor, Colmore Row, so that persons exempt may see if their names are included.

Justices Of the Peace.—The earliest named local Justices of the Peace (March 8, 1327) are "William of Birmingham" and "John Murdak" the only two then named for the county.—See "Magistrates".

Kidneys (Petrified).—In olden days our footpaths, where paved at all, were, as a rule, laid with round, hard pebbles, and many readers will be surprised to learn that five years ago there still remained 50,000 square yards of the said temper-trying paving waiting to be changed into more modern bricks or stone. Little, however, as we may think of them, the time has been when the natives were rather proud than otherwise of their pebbly paths, for, according to Bisset, when one returned from visiting the metropolis, he said he liked everything in London very much "except the pavement, for the stones were all so smooth, there was no foothold!"

King Edward's Place.—Laid out in 1782 on a 99 years' lease, from Grammar School, at a ground rent of £28, there being built 31 houses, and two in Broad Street.

King's Heath.—A little over three miles on the Alcester Road, in the Parish of King's Norton, an outskirt of Moseley, and a suburb of Birmingham; has added a thousand to its population in the ten years from census 1871 to 1881, and promises to more than double it in the next decennial period. The King's Heath and Moseley Institute, built in 1878, at the cost of Mr. J.H. Nettlefold, provides the residents with a commodious hall, library, and news-room. There is a station here on the Midland line, and the alterations now in the course of being made on that railway must result in a considerable, addition to the traffic and the usefulness of the station, as a local depôt for coal, &c.

King's Norton.—Mentioned in Domesday, and in the olden times was evidently thought of equal standing (to say the least) with its five-miles-neighbour, Birmingham, as in James the First's reign there was a weekly market (Saturdays) and ten fairs in the twelve months. The market the inhabitants now attend is to be found in this town, and the half-score of fairs has degenerated to what is known as "King's Norton Mop" or October statute fair, for the hiring of servants and labourers, when the Lord of Misrule holds sway, the more's the pity. The King's Norton Union comprises part of the borough of Birmingham (Edgbaston), as well as Balsall Heath, Harborne, Moseley, Northfield, Selly Oak, &c., and part of it bids fair to become a manufacturing district of some extent, as there are already paper mills, rolling mills, screw works, &c., and the Smethwick men are rapidly advancing in its direction—the Midland Junction with the West Suburban line being also in the parish. The fortified mansion, known as Hawkesley House, in this parish, was the scene of a contest in May, 1645, between King Charles' forces and the Parliamentarians, who held it, the result being its capture, pillage, and destruction by fire.

Kirby's Pools.—A well-known and favourite resort on the outskirt of the borough, on the Bristol Road, and formerly one of the celebrated taverns and tea gardens of past days. The publichouse (the "Malt Shovel") having been extended and partially rebuilt, and the grounds better laid out, the establishment was re-christened, and opened as the Bournbrook Hotel, at Whitsuntide, 1877.

Kossuth.—Louis Kossuth, the ex-dictator of Hungary, was honoured with a public welcome and procession of trades, &c., Nov. 10, 1851, and entertained at a banquet in Town Hall on the 12th. He afterwards appeared here May 7 and 8, 1856, in the role of a public lecturer.

Kyott's Lake.—A pool once existing where now is Grafton Road, Camp Hill. There was another pool near it, known as Foul Lake.

Kyrle Society.—So named after the character alluded to by Pope in his "Moral Essays":

"Who taught that heaven-directed spire to rise?
'The Man of Ross,' each lisping babe replies."

John Kyrle, who died Nov. 11, 1724, though not a native, resided at Ross nearly the whole of his long and loyal life of close on 90 years, and Pope, who often visited the neighbourhood, there became acquainted with him and his good works, and embalmed his memory in undying verse as an example to future generations. A more benevolent lover of his fellowman than Kyrle cannot be named, and a society for cultivating purity of taste, and a delight in aiding the well-being of others, is rightly called after him. The Birmingham Kyrle Society was established in 1880, and frequent paragraphs in the local papers tell us of their doings, at one time cheering the inmates of the institutions where the sick and unfortunate lie, with music and song, and at another distributing books, pictures, and flowers, where they are prized by those who are too poor to purchase. The officers of the society will be pleased to hear from donors, as let contributions of flowers or pictures be ever so many, the recipients are far more numerous. Mr. Walliker, our philanthropic postmaster, is one of the vice-presidents, and the arrangements of the parcel post are peculiarly suited for forwarding parcels.

Lady Well.—There is mention in a document dated 1347 of a "dwelling in Egebaston Strete leading towards God well feld," and there can be no doubt that this was an allusion to the Lady Well, or the well dedicated to the blessed Virgin, close to the old house that for centuries sheltered the priests that served St. Martin's, and which afterwards was called the Parsonage or Rectory. The well spring was most abundant, and was never known to fail. The stream from it helped to supply the moat round the Parsonage, and there, joined by the waters from the higher grounds in the neighbourhood of Holloway Head, and from the hill above the Pinfold, it passed at the back of Edgbaston Street, by the way of Smithfield passage and Dean Street (formerly the course of a brook) to the Manor House moat. The Ladywell Baths were historically famous and, as stated by Hutton, were the finest in the kingdom. The Holy Well of the blessed Virgin still exists, though covered over and its waters allowed to flow into the sewers instead of the Baths, and any visitor desirous of testing the water once hallowed for its purity must take his course down the mean alley known as Ladywell Walk, at the bend in which he will find a dirty passage leading to a rusty iron pump, "presented by Sir E.S. Gooch, Bart., to the inhabitants of Birmingham," as commemorated by an inscription on the dirty stone which covers the spring and its well. God's Well field is covered with workshops, stables, dirty backyards and grimy-looking houses, and the Baths are a timber-yard.

Lambert.—Birmingham had something to do with the fattening of the celebrated Daniel Lambert, the heaviest lump of humanity this country has yet produced, for he was an apprentice to Mr. John Taylor, button maker, of Crooked Lane. His indentures were cancelled through his becoming so fat and unwieldy, and he was sent back to his father, the then governor of Leicester gaol. Daniel died June 21st, 1809, at Stamford, where he was buried; his age was 39, and he weighed 52 stone 11 lb. (at 14 lb. the stone), measuring 9 ft. 4 in. round the body, and 3 ft. 1 in. round the thick of each of his legs.

Lancashire Distress.—The accounts of the Local Fund raised for the relief of the cotton operatives of Lancashire were published Aug. 3, 1863, showing receipts amounting £15,115 4s. 10d.

Lamps.—The number of ordinary lamps in the borough, under the control of the Public Works Department, on the 31st of December, 1882, was 6,591, of which number 1,950 are regulated to consume 5.20 cubic feet, and the remainder, or 4,641, 4.30 cubic feet per hour; their cost respectively inclusive of lighting, cleaning, and extinguishing, was £2 12s. 4-1/2d., and £2 5s. 2-1/4d. per lamp per annum. In addition there are 93 special and 53 urinal lamps.

Lands.—In Birmingham it is bought and sold by the square yard, and very pretty prices are occasionally paid therefor; our agricultural friends reckon by acres, roods, and perches. The Saxon "hyde" of land, as mentioned in Domesday Book and other old documents, was equivalent to 100, or, as some read it, 120 acres; the Norman "Carncase" being similar.

Land Agency.—An International Land and Labour Agency was established at Birmingham by the Hon. Elihu Burritt in October, 1869; its object being to facilitate the settlement of English farmers and mechanics in the United States, and also to supply American orders for English labourers and domestic servants of all kinds. Large numbers of servant-girls in England, it was thought, would be glad to go to America, but unable to pay their passage-money, and unwilling to start without knowing where they were to go on arriving. This agency advanced the passage-money, to be deducted from the first wages; but, though the scheme was good and well meant, very little advantage was taken of the agency, and, like some other of the learned blacksmith's notions, though a fair-looking tree, it bore very little fruit.

Land and Building Societies.—Though frequently considered to be quite a modern invention, the plan of a number uniting to purchase lands and houses for after distribution, is a system almost as old as the hills. The earliest record we have of a local Building Society dates from 1781, though no documents are at hand to show its methods of working. On Jan. 17, 1837, the books were opened for the formation of a Freehold Land and Building Society here, but its usefulness was very limited, and its existence short. It was left to the seething and revolutionary days of 1847-8, when the Continental nations were toppling over thrones and kicking out kings, for sundry of our men of light and leading to bethink themselves of the immense political power that lay in the holding of the land, and how, by the exercise of the old English law, which gave the holder of a 40s. freehold the right of voting for the election of a "knight of the shire," such power could be brought to bear on Parliament, by the extension of the franchise in that direction. The times were out of joint, trade bad, and discontent universal, and the possession of a little bit of the land we live on was to be a panacea for every abuse complained of, and the sure harbinger of a return of the days when every Jack had Jill at his own fireside. The misery and starvation existing in Ireland where small farms had been divided and subdivided until the poor families could no longer derive a sustenance from their several moieties, was altogether overlooked, and "friends of the people" advocated the wholesale settlement of the unemployed English on somewhat similar small plots. Feargus O'Connor, the Chartist leader, started his National Land Society, and thousands paid in their weekly mites in hopes of becoming "lords of the soil;" estates here and there were purchased, allotments made, cottages built, and many new homes created. But as figs do not grow on thistles, neither was it to be expected that men from the weaving-sheds, or the mines, should he able to grow their own corn, or even know how to turn it into bread when grown, and that Utopian scheme was a failure. More wise in their generation were the men of Birmingham: they went not for country estates, nor for apple orchards or turnip fields. The wise sagaciousness of their leaders, and the Brums always play well at "follow my leading," made them go in for the vote, the full vote, and nothing but the vote. The possession of a little plot on which to build a house, though really the most important, was not the first part of the bargain by any means at the commencement. To get a vote and thus help upset something or somebody was all that was thought of at the time, though now the case is rather different, few members of any of the many societies caring at present so much for the franchise as for the "proputty, proputty, proputty." Mr. James Taylor, jun., has been generally dubbed the "the father of the freehold land societies," and few men have done more than him in their establishment, but the honour of dividing the first estate in this neighbourhood, we believe, must be given to Mr. William Benjamin Smith, whilome secretary of the Manchester Order of Odd Fellows, and afterwards publisher of the Birmingham Mercury newspaper. Being possessed of a small estate of about eight acres, near to the Railway Station at Perry Barr, he had it laid out in 100 lots, which were sold by auction at Hawley's Temperance Hotel, Jan. 10, 1848, each lot being of sufficient value to carry a vote for the shire. The purchasers were principally members of an Investment and Permanent Benefit Building Society, started January 4, 1847, in connection with the local branch of Oddfellows, of which Mr. Smith was a chief official. Franchise Street, which is supposed to be the only street of its name in England, was the result of this division of land, and as every purchaser pleased himself in the matter of architecture, the style of building may be called that of "the free and easy." Many estates have been divided since then, thousands of acres in the outskirts being covered with houses where erst were green fields, and in a certain measure Birmingham owes much of its extension to the admirable working of the several Societies. As this town led the van in the formation of the present style of Land and Building Societies, it is well to note here their present general status. In 1850 there were 75 Societies in the kingdom, with about 25,000 members, holding among them 35,000 shares, with paid-up subscriptions amounting to £164,000. In 1880, the number of societies in England was 946, in Scotland, 53, and in Ireland 27. The number of members in the English societies was 320,076, in the scotch 11,902, and in the Irish 6,533. A return relating to these societies in England has just been issued, which shows that there are now 1,687 societies in existence, with a membership of 493,271. The total receipts during the last financial year amounted to £20,919,473. There were 1,528 societies making a return of liabilities, which were to the holders of shares £29,351,611, and to the depositors £16,351,611. There was a balance of unappropriated profit to the extent of £1,567,942. The assets came to £44,587,718. In Scotland there were 15,386 members of building societies; the receipts were £413,609, the liabilities to holders of shares amounted to £679,990, to depositors and other creditors £268,511; the assets consisted of balance due on mortgage securities £987,987, and amount invested in other securities and cash £67,618. In Ireland there were 9,714 members of building societies; the receipts were £778,889, liabilities to the holders of shares £684,396, to depositors and others £432,356; the assets included balance due on mortgage securities £1,051,423, and amount invested in other securities £79,812. There were 150 of the English societies whose accounts showed deficiencies amounting to £27,850; two Scotch societies minus £862, but no Irish short. It is a pity to have to record that there have been failures in Birmingham, foremost among them being that of the Victoria Land and Building Society, which came to grief in 1870, with liabilities amounting to £31,550. The assets, including £5,627 given by the directors and trustees, and £886 contributed by other persons, realised £27,972. Creditors paid in full took £9,271, the rest receiving 8s. 9d. in the pound, and £4,897 being swallowed up in costs. The break-up of the Midland Land and Investment Corporation (Limited) is the latest. This Company was established in 1864, and by no means confined itself to procuring sites for workmen's dwellings, or troubled about getting them votes. According to its last advertisement, the authorised capital was £500,000, of which £248,900 had been subscribed, but only £62,225 called up, though the reserve fund was stated to be £80,000. What the dividend will be is a matter for the future, and may not even be guessed at at present. The chief local societies, and their present status, areas follows:—

The Birmingham Freehold Land Society was started in 1848, and the aggregate receipts up to the end of 1882 amounted to £680,132 12s. 7d. The year's receipts were £20,978 16s. 5d., of which £11,479 represented payments made by members who had been alloted land on the estates divided by the Society, there being, after payment of all expenses, a balance of £11,779 12s. 9d. The number of members was then 772, and it was calculated that the whole of the allotments made would be paid off in four years.

The Friendly Benefit Building Society was organised in 1859, and up to Midsummer, 1883, the sums paid in amounted to £340,000. The year's receipts were £21,834 19s. 6d., of which £10,037 came from borrowers, whose whole indebtedness would be cleared in about 5-1/2 years. The members on the books numbered 827, of whom 684 were investors and 143 borrowers. The reserve fund stood at £5,704 5s. 9d There is a branch of this Society connected with Severn Street Schools, and in a flourishing condition, 32 members having joined during the year, and £2,800 having been received as contributions. The total amount paid in since the commencement of the branch in June, 1876, was £18,181 13s. 11d. The Severn Street scholars connected with it had secured property during the past year valued at £2,400.

The Incorporated Building Society comprises the United, the Queen's, the Freeholders', and the Second Freeholders' Societies, the earliest of them established in 1849, the incorporation taking place in 1878. The aggregate receipts of these several Societies would reach nearly 3-1/2 millions. The amounts paid in since the amalgamation (to the end of 1882) being £1,049,667. As might be expected the present Society has a large constituency, numbering 6,220 members, 693 of whom joined in 1882. The advances during the year reached £78,275, to 150 borrowers, being an average of £500 to each. The amount due from borrowers was £482,000, an average of £540 each. The amount due to investors was ££449,000, an average of £84 each. The borrowers repaid last year £104,000, and as there was £482,000 now due on mortgage accounts the whole capital of the society would be turned over in five years, instead of thirteen and a half, the period for which the money was lent. The withdrawals had been £85,409, which was considerably under the average, as the society had paid away since the amalgamation £520,000, or £104,000 per annum. The amount of interest credited to investors was £19,779. A total of £100,000 had been credited in the last five years. The reserve fund now amounted to £34,119, which was nearly 7-1/2 per cent. on the whole capital employed.

The Birmingham Building Society, No. 1, was established in May, 1842, and re-established in 1853. It has now 1,580 members, subscribing for shares amounting to £634,920. The last report states that during the existence of the society over £500,000 has been advanced to members, and that the amount of "receipts and payments" have reached the sum of £1,883,444. Reserve fund is put at £5,000.

The Birmingham Building Society, No. 4, was established in June, 1846, and claims to be the oldest society in the town. The report, to end of June, 1883, gave the number of shares as 801-3/4, of which 563-1/4 belong to investors, and the remainder to borrowers. The year's receipts were £10,432, and £6,420 was advanced. The balance-sheet showed the unallotted share fund to be £18,042, on deposit £3,915, due to bank £2,108, and balance in favour of society £976. The assets amounted to £25,042, of which £21,163 was on mortgages, and £3,818 on properties in possession.

St. Philip's Building Society was began in January, 1850, since when (up to January, 1883) £116,674 had been advanced on mortgages, and £28,921 repaid to depositing members. The society had then 326 members, holding among them 1,094-1/4 shares. The year's receipts were £13,136, and £7,815 had been advanced in same period. The reserve fund was £3,642; the assets £65,940, of which £54,531 was on mortgages, £7,987 deferred premiums, and £2,757 properties in hand.

Several societies have not favoured us with their reports.

Law.—There are 306 solicitors and law firms in Birmingham, 19 barristers, and a host of students and law clerks, each and every one of whom doubtless dreams of becoming Lord Chancellor. The Birmingham Law Society was formed in 1818, and there is a Society of Law Students besides, and a Law Library. At present, our Law Courts comprise the Bankruptcy and County Courts, Assize Courts (held pro tem in the Council House), the Quarter Sessions' and Petty Sessions' Courts.

League of Universal Brotherhood.—Originated by Elihu Burritt, in 1846, while sitting in the "Angel," at Pershore, on his walk through England. He came back to Joseph Sturge and here was printed his little periodical called "The Bond of Brotherhood," leading to many International Addresses, Peace Congresses, and Olive-Leaf Missions, but alas! alas! how very far off still seems the "universal peace" thus sought to be brought about. Twenty thousand signatures were attached to "The Bond" in one year. Far more than that number have been slain in warfare every year since.

Lease Lane.—Apparently a corruption of Lea or Leay Lane, an ancient bye-road running at the back of the Dog or Talbot Inn, the owners of which, some 300 years ago, were named Leays. When the Market Hall was built and sewers were laid round it, the workmen came upon what was at the time imagined to be an underground passage, leading from the Guildhall in New Street to the old Church of St. Martin's. Local antiquarians at the time would appear to have been conspicuous by their absence, as the workmen were allowed to close the passage with rubbish without a proper examination being made of it. Quite lately, however, in digging out the soil for the extension of the Fish Market at a point on the line of Lease Lane, about 60ft. from Bell Street, the workmen, on reaching a depth of 8ft. or 9ft., struck upon the same underground passage, but of which the original purpose was not very apparent. Cut in the soft, sandstone, and devoid of any lining, it ran almost at right angles to Lease Lane, and proved to extend half way under that thoroughfare, and some four or five yards into the excavated ground. Under Lease Lane it was blocked by rubbish, through which a sewer is believed to run, and therefore the exact ending of the passage in one direction cannot be traced; in the excavated ground it ended, on the site of a dismantled public-house, in a circular shaft, which may have been that of a well, or that of a cesspool. The passage, so far as it was traceable, was 24ft. long, 7ft. high, and 4-1/2ft. wide. As to its use before it was severed by the sewerage of Lease Lane, the conjecture is that it afforded a secret means of communication between two houses separated above ground by that thoroughfare, but for what purpose must remain one of the perplexing puzzles of the past. That it had no connection with the Church or the Grammar School (the site of the old Guild House) is quite certain, as the course of the passage was in a different direction.

Leasing Wives.—In the histories of sundry strange lands we read of curious customs appertaining to marriage and the giving in marriage. Taking a wife on trial is the rule of more than one happy clime, but taking a wife upon lease is quite a Brummagem way of marrying (using the term in the manner of many detractors of our town's fair fame). In one of the numbers of the Gentleman's Magazine, for the year 1788, Mr. Sylvanus Urban, as the editor has always been called, is addressed as follows by a Birmingham correspondent:—"Since my residing in this town I have often heard there is a method of obtaining a wife's sister upon lease. I never could learn the method to be taken to get a wife upon lease, or whether such connections are sanctioned by law; but there is an eminent manufacturer in the vicinity of this town who had his deceased wife's sister upon lease for twenty years and upwards; and I know she went by his name, enjoyed all the privileges, and received all the honours due to the respectable name of wife." A rarer case of marital leasing has often been noted against us by the aforesaid smirchers of character as occurring in 1853, but in reality it was rather an instance of hiring a husband.

Leather Hall.—As early as the Norman Conquest this town was famed for its tanneries, and there was a considerable market, for leather for centuries after. Two of the Court Leet officers were "Leather Sealers," and part of the proclamation made by the Crier of the Court when it held its meetings was in those words, "All whyte tawers that sell not good chaffer as they ought to do reasonably, and bye the skynnes in any other place than in towne or market, ye shall do us to weet," meaning that anyone knowing of such offences on the part of the "whyte tawers" or tanners should give information at the Court then assembled. New Street originally was entered from High Street, under an arched gateway, and here was the Leather Hall (which was still in existence in Hutton's time), where the "Sealers" performed their functions. It was taken down when New Street was opened out, and though we have an extensive hide and skin market now, we can hardly be said to possess a market for leather other than the boot and shoe shops, the saddlers, &c.

Lench's Trust.—See "Philanthropic Institutions."

Liberal Association.—On Feb. 17, 1865, a meeting was held in the committee room of the Town Hall for the purpose of forming an organisation which should "unite all the Liberals of the town, and provide them with a regular and efficient method of exercising a legitimate influence in favour of their political principles." The outcome of this meeting was the birth of the now famous Liberal "Caucus," and though the names of ten gentlemen were appended to the advertisement calling the meeting, the honour of the paternity of the Liberal bantling is generally given to Mr. William Harris. The governing body of the association was fixed at two dozen, inclusive of the president, vice, and secretary; all persons subscribing a shilling or more per annum being eligible to become members. The "General Committee," for some time known as the "Four Hundred," was enlarged in 1876 to Six Hundred, and in June, 1880, to Eight Hundred, the Executive Committee, at the same time, being considerably increased. The recent alteration in the franchise, and the division of the borough and outskirts into seven electoral districts, has led to a reorganisation of the Association, or Associations, for each of the seven divisions now works by itself, though guided by a central Council.—A "Women's Liberal Association" was founded in October, 1873, and a "Junior Liberal Association" in October, 1878.

Libraries.—The first public or semi-public library founded in Birmingham, was the Theological. In 1733 the Rev. William Higgs, first Rector of St. Philip's, left his collection of 550 volumes, and a sum of money, to found a library for the use of clergymen and students. The books, many of which are rare, are kept in a building erected in 1792, adjacent to the Rectory, and are accessible to all for whom the library was designed.—A Circulating Library was opened in Colmore Row, in 1763, and at one time there was a second-class institution of the kind at a house up one of the courts in Dale End.—A "New Library" was opened in Cannon Street, April 26, 1796, which was removed to Temple Row, in 1821, and afterwards united to the Old Library. The latter was commenced in 1779, the first room for the convenience of members being opened in 1782, and the present building in Union Street, erected in 1798. The report of the committee for the year 1882 showed that there were 772 proprietors, at 21s. per annum; 35 annual subscribers, at 31s. 6d. per annum; 528 at 2ls.; 6 quarterly, at 9s. per quarter; 53 at 6s. per quarter; 17 resident members of subscribers' families, at 10s. per annum; and 118 resident members of subscribers' families (readers) at 5s. The total number of members was 1,479; the year's subscriptions being £1,594. The price of shares has been raised from two to three guineas during the past year. Receipts from shares, fines, &c., amounted to about £480, making the amount actually received in 1882, £2,012 6s. The expenditure had been £1,818 19s. 9d., inclusive of £60 carried to the reserve fund, and £108 paid on account of the new catalogue; and there remained a balance of £198 6s. 1d. in hand. £782 0s. 9d. had been expended on the purchase of 1,560 additional books, re-binding others, &c., making a total of about 50,000 volumes. The library needs extension, but the shortness of the lease (thirty years only) and the high value of the adjoining land prevents any step being taken in that direction at present. The Birmingham Law Society's Library was founded in February, 1831, by Mr. Arthur Ryland, and has now nearly 6,000 volumes of law works, law reports (English, Scotch, and Irish), local and personal Acts, &c., &c. The present home in Wellington Passage was opened August 2, 1876, being far more commodious than the old abode in Waterloo-street, the "library" itself being a room 35ft. long, 22ft. wide, and 20ft. high, with a gallery round it. There are several extensive libraries connected with places of worship, such as the Church of the Saviour, Edward Street, Severn Street Schools, the Friends' Meeting House, &c. and a number of valuable collections in the hands of some well-known connoisseurs, literati, and antiquarians, access to most of which may be obtained on proper introduction.

Libraries (The Free).—The first attempt to found a Free Library in this town was the holding of a public meeting in April, 1852, under the provisions of the Museums and Libraries Act of 1850, which allowed of a 1/2d. rate being levied for the support of such institutions. Whether the townsfolk were careless on the subject, or extra careful, and therefore, doubtful of the sufficiency of the 1/2d. rate to provide them, is not certain; but so little interest was shown in the matter that only 534 persons voted for the adoption of the Act, while 363 voted against it, and the question for the time was shelved, as the Act required the assents to be two-thirds of the total votes given. In 1855 the Commissioner of patents presented to the town some 200 volumes, conditionally that they should be kept in a Free Library, and about the same time another proposal was made to establish such a Library, but to no effect. The Act was altered so that a penny rate could be made, and in October, 1859, it was again suggested to try the burgesses. On February 21, 1860, the meeting was held and the adoption of the Act carried by a large majority. A committee of sixteen, eight members of the Council, and eight out if it, was chosen, and in a short time their work was shown by the transfer of 10,000 square feet of land belonging to the Midland Institute, on which to erect a central library, the preparations of plans therefor, the purchase of books, and (April 3, 1861) the opening of the first branch library and reading room in Constitution Hill. Mr. E.M. Barry, the architect of the Midland Institute, put in designs, including Art Gallery, but his figures were too high, being £14,250 10s., the Town Council having only voted £10,500. The plans of Mr. W. Martin, whose estimate was £12,000 were adopted, the Council added £1,500, a loan for the cash was negotiated, and building commenced by Messrs. Branson and Murray, whose tender to do the work for £8,600 was accepted. Thirty-two applications for the chief librarianship at £200 per annum were sent in, the chosen man being Mr. J.D. Mullins, though he was not the one recommended by the Committee. The Central Lending Library (with 10,000 volumes) and Reading-room, with Art Gallery, was formally opened September 6, 1865, and the Reference Library (then containing 18,200 volumes) October 26, 1866. In 1869, the latter was much enlarged by the purchase of 604 square yards of land in Edmund Street, and the total cost of the building came to £14,896. The Branch Library at Adderley Park was opened January 11, 1864; that at Deritend Oct. 2, 1866, and at Gosta Green Feb. 1, 1868. At the end of 1870, the total number of volumes in the whole of the Libraries was 56,764, of which 26,590 were in the Reference, and 12,595 in the Central Lending Library. By 1877, the total number of volumes had reached 86,087, of which 46,520 were in the Reference, and 17,543 in the Central Lending, the total number of borrowers being 8,947 at the Central, 4,188 at Constitution Hill, 3,002 at Deritend, 2,668 at Gosta Green, and 271 at Adderley Park. Meantime several new features in connection with the Reference Library had appeared. A room had been fitted up and dedicated to the reception of the "Shakespeare Memorial Library," presented April 23, 1864; the "Cervantes Library," presented by Mr. Bragge, was opened on a similar date in 1873; the "Staunton Collection" purchased for £2,400, (not half its value) was added Sept. 1, 1875, and very many important additions had been made to the Art Gallery and incipient Museum. For a long time, the Free Libraries' Committee had under consideration the necessity of extending the building, by adding a wing, which should be used not only as an Art Gallery, but also as an Industrial Museum; the Art Gallery and its treasures being located in that portion of the premises devoted to the Midland Institute, which was found to be a very inconvenient arrangement. The subject came under the notice of the Council on February 19th, 1878, when the committee submitted plans of the proposed alterations. These included the erection of a new block of buildings fronting Edmund Street, to consist of three storeys. The Town Council approved the plans, and granted £11,000 to defray the cost of the enlargement. About Midsummer the committee proceeded to carry out the plans, and in order to do this it was necessary to remove the old entrance hall and the flight of stairs which led up to the Shakespeare Memorial Library and to the Reference Library, and to make sundry other alterations of the buildings. The Library was closed for several days, and in the meantime the walls, where the entrances were, were pulled down and wooden partitions were run up across the room, making each department of much smaller area than before. In addition to this a boarded-in staircase was erected in Edmund Street, by which persons were able to gain access to the Lending Library, which is on the ground floor, and to the Reference Library, which was immediately above. A similar staircase was made in Ratcliff-place, near the cab stand, for the accommodation of the members of the Midland Institute, who occupy the Paradise-street side of the building. The space between the two staircases was boarded up, in order to keep the public off the works during the alterations, and the necessary gas supply pipes, &c., were located outside these wooden partitions. The alterations were well advanced by Christmas, and everything bade fair for an early and satisfactory completion of the undertaking. The weather, however, was most severe, and now and then the moisture in the gas-pipes exposed to the air became frozen. This occurred on the afternoon of Saturday, January 11, 1879, and an employé of the gas office lit a gas jet to thaw one of the pipes, A shaving was blown by the wind across this light, it blazed; the flame caught other shavings, which had been packed round the pipe to keep the frost out, and in less than a minute the fire was inside, and in one hour the Birmingham Reference Library was doomed to destruction. It was the greatest loss the town had ever suffered, but a new building has arisen on the site, and (with certain exceptions) it is hoped that a more perfect and valuable Library will be gathered to fill it. In a few days after the fire it was decided to ask the public at large for at least £10,000 towards a new collection, and within a week £7,000 had been sent in, the principal donors named in the list being—

£ s
The Mayor (Mr. Jesse Collins).  100 0
Alderman Chamberlain, M.P. (as Trustee of the late Mrs. Chamberlain, Moor Green) 1000 0
Alderman Chamberlain, M.P. 500 0
Alderman Avery 500 0
Mr. John Jaffray 500 0
Mr. A. Follett Osler, F.R.S 500 0
Mr. John Feeney 250 0
Mrs. Harrold 250 0
Mr. Timothy Kenrick 250 0
Mr. William Middlemore 250 0
A Friend 250 0
Mr. James Atkins 105 0
Lord Calthorpe 100 0
Lord Teynham 100 0
Mr. Thomas Gladstone 100 0
Messrs. William Tonks and Sons  100 0
Mr. W.A. Watkins. 100 0
Mr. and Mrs. T. Scruton 75 0
Dr. Anthony 52 10
Mr. Oliver Pemberton 52 10
Alderman Baker 50 0
Alderman Barrow 50 0
Messrs. Cadbury Brothers 50 0
Mr. J.H. Chamberlain 50 0
Alderman Deykin 50 0
Mr. T.S. Fallows 50 0
Mr. J.D. Goodman 50 0
Councillor Johnson 50 0
Mr. William Martin 50 0
Councillor Thomas Martineau 50 0
Councillor R.F. Martineau 50 0
Mr. Lawley Parker 50 0
Mrs. E. Phipson 50 0
Messrs. Player Brothers 50 0
Mr. Walter Showell 50 0
Mr. Sam Timmins 50 0
The Rev. A.R. Vardy 50 0
Mr. J.S. Wright and Sons 50 0
In sums of £20, &c 480 5
In sums of £10, &c 247 2
In sums of £5, &c 169 5
Smaller amounts 88 8

This fund has received many noble additions since the above, the total, with interest, amounting, up to the end of 1883, to no less than £15,500, of which there is still in hand, £10,000 for the purchase of books. The precaution of insuring such an institution and its contents had of course been taken, and most fortunately the requisite endorsements on the policies had been made to cover the extra risk accruing from the alteration in progress. The insurances were made in the "Lancashire" and "Yorkshire" offices, the buildings for £10,000, the Reference Library for £12,000, the Lending Library for £1,000, the Shakespeare Library for £1,500, the Prince Consort statue for £1,000, the models of Burke and Goldsmith for £100, and the bust of Mr. Timmins for £100, making £25,700 in all. The two companies hardly waited for the claim to be made, but met it in a most generous manner, paying over at once £20,000, of which £10,528 has been devoted to the buildings and fittings, nearly £500 paid for expenses and injury to statues, and the remaining £9,000 put to the book purchase fund. In the Reference Library there were quite 48,000 volumes, in addition to about 4,000 of patent specifications. Every great department of human knowledge was represented by the best known works. In history, biography, voyages, and travels, natural history, fine arts, all the greatest works, not only in English, but often in the principal European languages, had been gathered. Volumes of maps and plans, engravings of all sorts of antiquities, costumes, weapons, transactions of all the chief learned societies, and especially bibliography, or "books about books" had been collected with unceasing care, the shelves being loaded with costly and valuable works rarely found out of the great libraries of London, or Oxford, Cambridge, Edinburgh, or Glasgow. Among the collections lost were many volumes relating to the early history of railways in England, originally collected by Mr. Charles Brewin, and supplemented by all the pamphlets and tracts procurable. Many of those volumes were full of cuttings from contemporary newspapers, and early reports of early railway companies, and of the condition of canals and roads. Still more valuable were many bundles of papers, letters, invoices, calculations, etc., concerning the early attempt to establish the cotton manufacture in Birmingham at the beginning of the last century, including the papers of Warren, the printer, and some letters of Dr. Johnson, and others relating the story of the invention of spinning by rollers—the work of John Wyatt and Lewis Paul—long before Arkwright's time. Among the immense collection of Birmingham books and papers were hundreds of Acts of Parliament, Birmingham Almanacs, Directories (from 1770) most curious, valuable, and rare; a heap of pamphlets on the Grammar School, Birmingham History, Topography, and Guides; the political pamphlets of Job Nott and John Nott, some of which were the only copies known, the more ancient pamphlets describing Prince Rupert's Burning Love (date 1613) and others of that time; reports from the year 1726 of the several local learned institutions; an invaluable collection of maps; programmes of the Festivals; and copies of all the known Birmingham newspapers and periodicals (some being perfect sets) etc., etc. Of all the host not more than 1,000 volumes were saved. The fame of the Shakespeare Memorial Library at Birmingham was world-wide and to us it had extra value as emanating from the love which George Dawson bore for the memory of Shakespeare. It was his wish that the library should be possessed of every known edition of the bard's works in every language, and that it should contain every book ever printed about him or his writings. In the words of Mr. Timmins, "The devotion of George Dawson to Shakespeare was not based upon literary reasons alone, nor did it only rest upon his admiration and his marvel at the wondrous gifts bestowed upon this greatest of men, but it was founded upon his love for one who loved so much. His heart, which knew no inhumanity, rejoiced in one who was so greatly human, and the basis of his reverence for Shakespeare was his own reverence for man. It was thus, to him, a constant pleasure to mark the increasing number of the students of Shakespeare, and to see how, first in one language and then in another, attempts were made to bring some knowledge of his work to other nations than the English-speaking ones; and the acquisition of some of these books by the library was received by him with delight, not merely or not much for acquisition sake, but as another evidence of the ever-widening influence of Shakespeare's work. The contents of this library were to Mr. Dawson a great and convincing proof that the greatest of all English authors had not lived fruitlessly, and that the widest human heart the world has known had not poured out its treasure in vain." So successful had the attempts of the collectors been that nearly 7,000 volumes had been brought together, many of them coming from the most distant parts of the globe. The collection included 336 editions of Shakspeare's complete works in English, 17 in French, 58 in German, 3 in Danish, 1 in Dutch, 1 in Bohemian, 3 in Italian, 4 in Polish, 2 in Russian, 1 in Spanish, 1 in Swedish; while in Frisian, Icelandic, Hebrew, Greek, Servian, Wallachian, Welsh, and Tamil there were copies of many separate plays. The English volumes numbered 4,500, the German 1,500, the French 400. The great and costly editions of Boydell and Halliwell, the original folios of 1632, 1664, and 1685, the very rare quarto contemporary issues of various plays, the valuable German editions, the matchless collection of "ana," in contemporary criticism, reviews, &c., and the interesting garnering of all the details of the Tercentenary Celebration— wall-posters, tickets, pamphlets, caricatures, &c., were all to be found here, forming the largest and most varied collection of Shakspeare's works, and the English and foreign literature illustrating them, which has ever been made, and the greatest literary memorial which any author has ever yet received. So highly was the library valued that its contents were consulted from Berlin and Paris, and even from the United States, and similar libraries have been founded in other places. Only 500 of the books were preserved, and many of them were much damaged. The loss of the famed Staunton or Warwickshire collection was even worse than that of the Shakespearean, rich and rare as that was, for it included the results of more than two centuries' patient work, from the days of Sir William Dugdale down to the beginning of the present century. The manuscript collections of Sir Simon Archer, fellow-labourer of Dugdale, the records of the Berkeley, Digby, and Ferrers families, the valued and patient gatherings of Thomas Sharpe, the Coventry antiquarian, of William Hamper, the Birmingham collector, and of William Staunton himself, were all here, forming the most wonderful county collection ever yet formed, and which a hundred years' work will never replace. The books, many rare or unique, and of extraordinary value, comprised over 2000 volumes; there were hundreds of sketches and water-colour drawings of buildings long since destroyed, and more than 1,500 engravings of various places in the county, among them being some 300 relating to Birmingham, 200 to Coventry, 200 to Warwick Castle, 200 to Kenilworth Castle, and more than 100 to Stratford-on-Avon. The thousand portraits of Warwickshire Worthies, more rare and valuable still, included no less than 267 distinct portraits of Shakespeare, every one from a different block or plate. There was, in fact, everything about Warwickshire which successive generations of learned and generous collectors could secure. Among other treasures were hundreds of Acts of Parliament, all pedigrees, pamphlets, &c., about the Earls of Warwick and the town of Warwick; the original vellum volume with the installation of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, to the Order of St. Michael, with his own autograph; volumes of rare, curious autographs of county interest; county poll books, newspapers and magazines; all the rare Civil War pamphlets relating to the Warwickshire incidents; ancient deeds, indulgences, charters, seals, rubbings of brasses long lost or worn away, medals, coins, hundreds in number; and rare and invaluable volumes, like the Duc de Nortombria's "Arcano de Mare," and two fine copies of Dugdale's Warwickshire; besides hundreds of books, engravings, caricatures, pamphlets and tracts. The catalogue of this precious collection had only recently been completed, but even that was burnt, so that there is nothing left to show the full extent of the loss sustained. The only salvage consisted of three books, though most providentially one of the three was the splendid Cartulary of the Priory of St. Anne, at Knowle, a noble vellum folio, richly illuminated by some patient scribe four centuries ago, and preserving not only the names of the benefactors of the Priory, and details of its possessions, but also the service books of the Church, with the ancient music and illuminated initials, as fresh and perfect as when first written. Of almost inestimable value, it has now an acquired interest in the fact of its being, so to speak, all that remains of all the great Staunton collection. The Cervantes Library, which had taken him a quarter of a century to gather together, was presented by Mr. William Bragge. For many years, even in a busy life, Mr. Bragge, in his visits to Spain and his travels all over Europe, had been able to collect nearly all the known editions, not only of "Don Quixote," but of all the other works of Cervantes. Not only editions, but translations into any and every language were eagerly sought; and, after cherishing his treasures for many years, Mr. Bragge was so impressed with the Shakespeare Library that he generously offered his unrivalled collection of the great contemporary author to the town of which he is a native, and in which he afterwards came to live. The collection extended from editions published in 1605 down to our own days, and included many very rare and very costly illustrated volumes, which can never be replaced. All the known translations were among the thousand volumes, and all the works were in the choicest condition, but only ten survived the fire.—From the Lending Library about 10,000 volumes were rescued, and as there were nearly 4,000 in the hands of readers, the loss here was comparatively small. The present number of books in the Reference Library bids fair to surpass the collection lost, except, of course, as regards the Shakespeare, Cervantes, and Staunton gatherings, the latter of which it is simply impossible to replace, while it will take many years to make up the other two. There are now (March, 1884) over 54,000 volumes on the shelves, including 4,300 saved from the fire, about 33,000 purchased, and nearly 17,000 presented. Among the latter are many rare and costly works given to Birmingham soon after the catastrophe by a number of societies and gentlemen connected with the town, as well as others at home and abroad. To catalogue the names of all donors is impossible, but a few of those who first contributed may be given. Foremost, many of the books being of local character, was the gift of Mr. David Malins, which included Schedel's Nuremberg Chronicle, 1492, one vol.; Camden's Britannia, ed. Gibson, 1695, one vol.; Ackermann's London, Westminster Abbey, Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, &c., ten vols.; Works of Samuel Parr, 1828, eight vols.; Illustrated Record of European Events, 1812-1815, one vol.; Thompson's Seasons, illustrated by Bartolozzi, and other works, seventy vols.; Notes and Queries (complete set of five series), 1850-78, fifty-seven vols.; Dugdale's "Warwickshire, 1656, and other books relating to Birmingham, Warwickshire and neighbourhood, seventy-four vols.; books printed by Baskerville, ten vols.; Birmingham-printed books, 203 vols.; books on or by Birmingham authors, fifty-six vols.; total, 491 vols.; in addition to a collection of about 600 portraits, maps and views relating to Birmingham, Warwickshire and the neighbourhood, including sixty portraits of Shakespeare. The Manchester Town Council sent us from their Public Library about 300 volumes, among which may be named the edition of Barclay's Apology printed by Baskerville (1765); a fine copy of the folio edition of Ben Johnson (1640); the Duke of Newcastle's New Method to Dress Horses (1667); several volumes of the Maitland Club books, the catalogue of the Harleian MSS (1759); two tracts of Socinus (1618); the Foundations of Manchester (4 vols.); Daulby's Rembrandt Catalogue; Weever's Funeral Monuments (1631); Visconti's Egyptian Antiquities (1837); Heylyn's History of St. George (1633), and Nicholl's History of English Poor Law. There are also a considerable number of works of science and general literature of a more modern date. The trustees of the British Museum gave about 150 works, relating to Greek, Egyptian, Syrian, Phoenician, and other antiquities, to various departments of natural science, and other interesting matters, the whole constituting a valuable contribution towards the restored library. The Science and Art Department of South Kensington sent a selection of catalogues, chromo-lithographs, books of etchings, photographs, &c. Dr. F.A. Leo, of Berlin, sent a splendid copy of his valuable fac-simile of "Four Chapters of North's Plutarch," illustrating Shakespeare's Roman plays, to replace his former gift-volume lost in the calamitous fire. The volume is one of twenty-four copies, and the learned Professor added a printed dedication as a record of the fire and the loss. Dr. Delius, of Bonn, Herr Wilhelm Oechelhaüser, of Dessau, and other German Shakespeare authors sent copies of their works. Mr. J. Payne Collier offered copies of his rare quarto reprints of Elizabethan books, to replace those which had been lost. Mr. Gerald Massey offered a copy of his rare volume on Shakespeare's Sonnets, "because it is a Free Library." Mr. H. Reader Lack offered a set of the Patent Office volumes from the limited number at his disposal as Chief of the Patent Office. Dr. Kaines, of Trinder Road, London, selected 100 volumes from his library for acceptance; Mrs. and Miss L. Toulmin Smith sent all they could make up of the works of Mr. J. Toulmin Smith, and of his father, Mr. W. Hawkes Smith, both natives of our town; Messrs. Low, Son, and Co., gave 120 excellent volumes; Messrs. W. and R. Chambers, Messrs. Crosby, Lockwood, and Co., and other publishers, valuable books; Mr. James Coleman his "Index to Pedigrees," "Somerset House Registers," and "William Penn Pedigrees;" Miss N. Bradley (Bath) the new reissue of Professor Ruskin's works; Mr. H.W. Adnitt (Shrewsbury) his reprint of Gough's curious "History of Myddie," and of Churchyard's "Miserie of Flaunders," and "The Four Ministers of Salop:" Mr. H.F. Osle presented a, fine collection of Art books, including Grüner's great work, and Mr. J.H. Stone made a valuable donation of the same kind. The above are mere items in the list of generous donors, and gives but small idea of the many thousands of volumes which have streamed in from all parts. Many indeed have been the valuable gifts and additions by purchase since the fire, one of the latest being nearly the whole of the almost priceless collection of Birmingham books, papers, &c., belonging to Mr. Sam. Timmins. The sum of £1,100 was paid him for a certain portion of backs, but the number he has given at various times is almost past count. Immediate steps were taken after the fire to get the lending department of the Library into work again, and on the 9th of June, 1879, a commodious (though rather dark) reading room was opened in Eden Place, the Town Council allowing a number of rooms in the Municipal Buildings to be used by the Libraries Committee. In a little time the nucleus of the new Reference gathering was also in hand, and for three years the institution sojourned with the Council. The new buildings were opened June 1st, 1882, and the date should be recorded as a day of rejoicing and thanksgiving. The Reference department was opened to readers on the 26th of the same month. In place of the hired rooms so long used as a library in Constitution Hill, there has been erected in the near neighbourhood a neat two-storey building which will accommodate some 2,000 readers per day, and the shelves are supplied with about 7,000 volumes. This new library was opened July 18, 1883. To summarise this brief history of the Birmingham Free Libraries it is well to state that £78,000 has been spent on them, of which £36,392 has been for buildings. The cost of the Central Library so far has been £55,000, the remaining £23,000 being the expenditure on the branch libraries. The present annual cost is £9,372, of which £3,372 goes for interest and sinking fund, so that an addition must soon be made to the 1d. rate, which produces £6,454. The power to increase the rate is given in the last Act of Parliament obtained by the Corporation. At the end of 1882 the Reference Library contained 50,000 volumes. The number of books in the Central Lending Library was 21,394, while the branch lending libraries contained—Constitution Hill, 7,815; Deritend, 8,295; Gosta Green, 8,274; and Adderley Park, 3,122. The aggregate of all the libraries was 98,900 volumes. The issues of books during 1882 were as follows:—Reference Library, 202,179; Central Lending Library, 186,988; Constitution Hill, 73,705; Deriteud, 70,218; Gosta Green, 56,160; Adderley Park, 8,497; total, 597,747; giving a daily average of 2,127 issues. These figures are exclusive of the Sunday issues at the Reference Library, which numbered 25,095. The average number of readers in the Reference Library on Sundays has been 545; and the average attendance at all the libraries shows something like 55,000 readers per week, 133 different weekly and monthly periodicals being put on the tables for their use, besides the books. At a meeting of the School Board, June 4, 1875, permission was given to use the several infants' schoolrooms connected with the Board Schools, as evening reading rooms in connection with the libraries.

The Shakespeare Memorial Library, though to all intents and purposes part and parcel of the Reference Library, has a separate and distinct history. Mr. Sam. Timmins, who is generally credited with having (in 1858) first suggested the formation of a library, which should consist solely of Shakespeare's works, and Shakespeareana of all possible kinds, said, at the tercentenary meeting, that the idea originated with George Dawson, but perhaps the honour should be divided, as their mutual appreciation of the greatest poet whose genius has found utterance in our language is well known. The first practical step taken was the meeting, held (July 10, 1863) of gentlemen interested in the tercentenary, for the purpose of considering a proposal to celebrate that event by the formation of a Shakespearean library. The Rev. Charles Evans, head master of King Edward's School, presided. The following resolution, moved by Mr. G. Dawson, and seconded by the Rev. S. Bache, was adopted:—"That it is desirable to celebrate the tercentenary of the birth of Shakespeare by the formation of a Shakespearean library, comprising the various editions of the poet's works, and the literature and works of art connected therewith, and to associate such library with the Borough Central Reference Library, in order that it may be permanently preserved." A hundred pounds were subscribed at this meeting, and a committee formed to proceed with the project. In a very few months funds rolled in, and Shakespeareans from all parts of the world sent willing contributions to this the first Shakespearean library ever thought of. It was determined to call it a "Memorial" library, in honour of the tercentenary of 1864, and on the poet's day of that year, the library was formally presented to the town at a breakfast given at Nock's Hotel by the Mayor (Mr. W. Holliday). Dr. Miller, George Dawson, M.D. Hill (Recorder), T.C.S. Kynnersley, R.W. Dale, Sam. Timmins, and others took part in the proceedings, and the Mayor, on behalf of the Free Libraries Committee, accepted the gift on the terms agreed to by the Town Council, viz., that the Library should be called "The Shakespearean Memorial Library," that a room should be specially and exclusively appropriated for the purposes thereof; that the library should be under the same regulations as the Reference Library; and that the Free Libraries' Committee should maintain and augment it, and accept all works appertaining to Shakespeare that might be presented, &c. As George Dawson prophesied on that occasion, the library in a few years become the finest collection of Shakespearean literature in Europe therein being gathered from every land which the poet's fame had reached, not only the multitudinous editions of his works, but also every available scrap of literature bearing thereon, from the massive folios and quaint quartoes of the old times to the veriest trifle of current gossip culled from the columns of the newspapers. Nothing was considered too rare or too unimportant, so long as it had connection even remote to Shakespeare; and the very room (opened April 23, 1888), in which the books were stored itself acquired a Shakespearean value in its carved and elaborately-appropriate fittings. When started, it was hoped that at least 5,000 volumes would be got together, but that number was passed in 1874, and at the end of 1878 there were more than 8,700, in addition to the books, pictures, documents, and relics connected with Stratford-on-Avon and her gifted son contained in the Staunton collection. How all the treasures vanished has already been told. Much has been done to replace the library, and many valuable works have been secured; but, as the figures last published show, the new library is a long way behind as yet. It now contains 4,558 volumes, valued at £1,352 9s. 3d., classified as follows:—English, 2,205 volumes; French, 322; German, 1,639; Bohemian, 14; Danish, 25; Dutch, 68; Finnish, 4; Frisian, 2; Greek, 9; Hebrew, 2; Hungarian, 44; Icelandic, 3; Italian, 94; Polish, 15; Portuguese, 3; Roumanian, 1; Roumelian, 1; Russian, 56; Spanish, 18; Swedish, 30; Ukraine, 1; Wallachian, 1; and Welsh, 1.

Libraries Suburban.—The ratepayers of the Manor of Aston adopted the Free Libraries Act, May 15, 1877, and their Library forms part of the Local Board buildings in Witton Road. At the end of March, 1883, the number of volumes in the reference library was 3,216, and the issues during the year numbered 8,096. In the lending department the library consists of 5,582 volumes, and the total issues during the year were 74,483; giving a daily average of 245. The number of borrowers was 3,669.—Aston and Handsworth being almost part of Birmingham, it would be an act of kindness if local gentlemen having duplicates on their library shelves, would share them between the two.

Handsworth Free Library was opened at the Local Board Offices, of which building it forms a part, on May 1, 1880, with a collection of about 5,000 volumes, which has since been increased to nearly 7,500. That the library is appreciated is shown by the fact that during last year the issues numbered 42,234 volumes, the borrowers being 514 males and 561 females.

Smethwick Free Library and Reading Room was opened Aug. 14, 1880.

King's Norton.—In or about 1680, the Rev. Thomas Hall, B.D., founded a curious old Library for the use of the parishioners, and the books are preserved in the Grammar School, near the Church. This is the earliest free library known in the Midlands.

Licensed Victuallers' Society.—See "Trade Protection Societies."

Licensed Victuallers' Asylum.—See "Philanthropical Institutions."

Licensed Victuallers.—The following table shows the number of licensed victuallers, dealers in wine, beer, &c., in the borough as well as the holders of what are known as outdoor licenses:—

Year. Licensed Victuallers. Beer and Wine On. Total. Population. Beer, &c.,Off. Grocers.
1870 687 1166 1853 337,982 .. ..
1871 683 1165 1848 343,690 .. ..
1872 684 1117 1801 349,398 .. 23
1873 684 1083 1767 355,106 4 53
1874 680 1081 1761 360,814 4 53
1875 676 1057 1733 366,522 7 73
1876 675 1059 1734 372,230 171 73
1877 673 1054 1727 377,938 223 74
1878 672 1046 1718 383,646 334 77
1879 671 1061 1732 389,354 433 61
1880 670 1060 1730 395,063 454 63
1881 669 1054 1723 400,774 454 55
1882 670 1054 1724 406,482 459 57

Lifeboats.—In 1864-65 a small committee, composed of Messrs. H. Fulford, G. Groves, J. Pearce, D. Moran, G. Williams, R. Foreshaw, and G. Lempiere, aided by the Mayor and Dr. Miller, raised about £500 as a contribution from Birmingham to the Royal National Lifeboat Institution. Two boats were credited to us in the Society's books, one called "Birmingham" (launched at Soho Pool, November 26, 1864), and the other the "James Pearce." These boats, placed on the Lincolnshire and Norfolk coasts, were instrumental in the saving of some hundreds of lives, but both have, long since, been worn out, and it is about time that Birmingham replaced them. Messrs. C. and W. Barwell, Pickford Street, act as local hon. secs. The "Charles Ingleby" lifeboat, at Hartlepool, was paid for, and the establishment for its maintenance endowed, out of the sum of £1,700, contributed by C.P. Wragge, Esq., in memory of the late Rev. Charles Ingleby.

Lifford, in the parish of King's Norton, once boasted of a Monastic establishment, which was squelched by Bluff King Harry, the only remains now to be found consisting of a few more than half-buried foundations and watercourses.

Lighting.—Oil lamps for giving light in the streets were in limited use here in 1733, even before an Act was obtained to enforce payment of a rate therefor. Deritend and Bordesley obtained light by the Act passed in 1791. The Street Commissioners, Nov. 8, 1816, advertised for tenders for lighting the streets with gas, but it was nearly ten years (April 29, 1826) before the lamps were thus supplied. The Lighting Act was adopted at Saltley April 1, 1875. Lighting the streets by electricity may come some day, though, as the Gas Works belong to the town, it will, doubtless, be in the days of our grandchildren.

Lighting by Electricity.—After the very successful application of the electric light in the Town Hall on the occasion of the Festival in 1882, it is not surprising that an attempt should be made to give it a more extended trial. A scheme has been drawn out by the Crompton-Winfield Company for this purpose, and it has received the sanction of the Town Council, and been confirmed by the Board of Trade, shopkeepers in the centre of the town may soon have a choice of lights for the display of their wares. The area fixed by the scheme is described by the following boundaries:—Great Charles Street to Congreve Street; Congreve Street to Edmund Street; Edmund Street to Newhall Street; Newhall Street to Colmore Row; Colmore Row to Bull Street; Bull Street, High Street, New Street, Stephenson Place, Paradise Street, and Easy Row. The streets to be supplied with electric mains within two years are as follows:—Great Charles Street (to Congreve Street), Congreve Street, New Street, Stephenson Place, Easy Row, and Paradise Street. The Corporation are to have powers of purchasing the undertaking at the end of sixteen years— that is, fourteen years after the expiration of the two-years' term allowed for the experimental lighting of the limited area. The order, while fully protecting the rights of the public and of the Corporation, justly recognises the experimental character of the project of electric-lighting from a common centre, and is much more favourable, in many ways, to the promoters than the legislation under which gas undertakings are conducted. Whether this will tend towards reducing the price of gas remains to be seen.

Lightning Conductors were introduced here in 1765.

Lindon.—The Minerva, in Peck Lane, was, circa 1835, kept by "Joe Lindon," a host as popular then as our modern "Joe Hillman," up at "The Stores," in Paradise Street.

Literary Associations.—The Central Literary Association first met Nov. 28, 1856. The Moseley and Balsall Heath, Oct. 11, 1877.

Livery Street.—So called from the Livery stables once there, opposite Brittle street, which is now covered by the Great Western Railway Station.

Livingstone.—Dr. Livingstone, the African traveller, delivered an address in the Town Hall, October 23, 1857.

Loans.—According to the Registrar-General's late report, there were 380 loan societies in the kingdom, who had among them a capital of £122,160, the members of the said societies numbering 33,520, giving an average lending capital of £3 12s. 10-1/2d. each. That is certainly not a very large sum to invest in the money market, and it is to be hoped that the score or two of local societies can show better funds. What the profits of this business are frequently appear in the reports taken at Police Courts and County Courts, where Mr. Cent.-per-Cent. now and then bashfully acknowledges that he is sometimes satisfied with a profit of 200 per cent. There are respectable offices in Birmingham where loans can be obtained at a fair and reasonable rate, but Punch's advice to those about to marry may well be given in the generality of cases, to anyone thinking of visiting a loan office. Young men starting in business may, under certain conditions, obtain help for that purpose from the "Dudley Trust."—See "Philanthropical Trusts."

Loans, Public.—England, with its National Debt of £776,000,000, is about the richest country in the world, and if the amount of indebtedness is the sign of prosperity, Birmingham must be tolerably well off. Up to the end of 1882 our little loan account stood thus:—

Borrowd Repaid Owing.
Baths £62,425 £27,743 £34,682
Cemetery 46,500 19,316 27,184
Closed Burial Gr'nds 10,000 41 9,959
Council House 135,762 10,208 125,554
Fire Brigade Station 6,000 53 5,947
Free Libraries 56,050 7,534 48,516
Gaol 92,350 79,425 12,925
Industrial School 13,710 2,310 11,400
Asylum, Winson Gn 100,000 97,020 2,980
  "   Rubery Hill 100,012 5,887 94,125
Markt Hall & Markts 186,942 73,463 113,479
Mortuaries 700 103 597
Parks 63,210 12,347 50,863
Paving roads 158,100 30,088 128,012
Paving footways 79,950 8,113 71,837
Police Stations 25,231 9,839 15,392
Public Office 23,400 14,285 9,115
Sewers & Sewerage 366,235 81,338 284,897
Tramways 65,450 17,125 48,325
Town Hall 69,521 37,885 31,636
Town Improvements 348,680 134,156 214,524

2,010,227 668,278 1,341,949
Improvem't scheme 1,534,731 31,987 1,502,744
Gasworks 2,184,186 142,359 2,041,827
Waterworks 1,814,792 5,086 1,809,706

Totals 7,543,936 847,710 6,696,226

The above large total, however, does not show all that was owing. The United Drainage Board have borrowed £386,806, and as Birmingham pays £24,722 out of the year's expenditure of £33,277 of that Board, rather more than seven-tenths of that debt must be added to the Borough account, say £270,000. The Board of Guardians have, between June, 1869, and January, 1883, borrowed on loan £130,093, and during same period have repaid £14,808, leaving £115,285 due by them, which must also be added to the list of the town's debts.

Local Acts.—There have been a sufficient number of specially-local Acts of Parliament passed in connection with this town to fill a law library of considerable size. Statutes, clauses, sections, and orders have followed in rapid succession for the last generation or two. Our forefathers were satisfied and gratified if they got a regal of parliamentary notice of this kind once in a century, but no sooner did the inhabitants find themselves under a "properly-constituted" body of "head men," than the lawyers' game began. First a law must be got to make a street, another to light it, a third to pave it, and then one to keep it clean. It is a narrow street, and an Act must be obtained to widen it; when widened some wiseacre thinks a market should be held in it, and a law is got for that, and for gathering tolls; after a bit, another is required to remove the market, and then the street must be "improved," and somebody receives more pounds per yard than he gave pence for the bit of ground wanted to round off the corners; and so the Birmingham world wagged on until the town became a big town, and could afford to have a big Town Hall when other big towns couldn't, and a covered Market Hall and a Smithfield of good size, while other places dwelt under bare skies. The Act by which the authority of the Street Commissioners and Highway Surveyors was transferred to the Corporation was passed in 1851; the expenses of obtaining it reaching nearly £9,000. It took effect on New Year's Day following, and the Commissioners were no longer "one of the powers that be," but some of the Commissioners' bonds are effective still. Since that date there have been twenty local statutes and orders relating to the borough of Birmingham, from the Birmingham Improvement Act, 1851, to the Provisional Order Confirmation Act, passed in 1882, the twenty containing a thousand or more sections. All this, however, has recently been altered, the powers that are now having (through the Town Clerk, Mr. Orford Smith) rolled all the old Acts into one, eliminating useless and obsolete clauses, and inserting others necessitated by our high state of advanced civilisation. The new Act, which is known as the Birmingham Corporation Consolidation Act, came into force January 1, 1884, and all who desire to master our local governing laws easily and completely had better procure a copy of the book containing it, with notes of all the included statutes, compiled by the Town Clerk, and published by Messrs. Cornish, New Street.

Local Epitaphs.—Baskerville, when young, was a stone cutter, and it was known that there was a gravestone in Handsworth churchyard and another in Edgbaston churchyard which were cut by him. The latter was accidentally broken many years back, but was moved and kept as a curiosity until it mysteriously vanished while some repairs were being done at the church. It is believed that Baskerville wrote as well as carved the inscription which commemorated the death of Edward Richards who was an idiot, and died Sept. 21st, 1728, and that it ran thus:—

"If innocents are the fav'rites of heaven,
And God but little asks where little's given,
My great Creator has for me in store
Eternal joys—What wise man can ask more?"

The gravestone at Handsworth was "under the chancel window," sixty years ago, overgrown with moss and weeds, but inscription and stone have long since gone. Baskerville's own epitaph, on the Mausoleum in his grounds at Easy Hill, has often been quoted:—

Beneath this cone, in unconsecrated ground,
A friend to the liberties of mankind directed his body to be inurned.
May the example contribute to emancipate thy mind
From the idle fears of Superstition,
And the wicked Act of Priesthood!

Almost as historical as the above, is the inscription on the tombstone erected over Mary Ashford, at Sutton Coldfield:—

As a Warning to Female Virtue,
And a humble Monument of Female Chastity,
This Stone marks the Grave
Who, in the 20th year of her age,
Having incautiously repaired
To a scene of amusement
Without proper protection,
Was brutally violated and murdered,
On the 27th May, 1817.
Lovely and chaste as is the primrose pale,
Rifled of virgin sweetness by the gale,
Mary! The wretch who thee remorseless slew,
Will surely God's avenging wrath pursue.
For, though the deed of blood be veiled in night,
"Will not the Judge of all the earth do right?"
Fair, blighted flower! The muse, that weeps thy doom,
Rears o'er thy sleeping dust this warning tomb!

The following quaint inscription appears on the tombstone erected in memory of John Dowler, the blacksmith, in Aston churchyard:—

Sacred to the Memory of
Late of Castle Bromwich, who
Departed this life December 6th, 1787,
Aged 42,
Also two of his Sons, JAMES and CHARLES,
Who died infants.
My sledge and hammer lie reclined,
My bellows, too, have lost their wind
My fire's extinct, my forge decayed,
And in the dust my vice is laid;
My coal is spent, my iron gone,
My nails are drove, my work is done.

The latter part of the above, like the next four, has appeared in many parts of the country, as well as in the local burial grounds, from which they have been copied:—

From St. Bartholomew's:

"The bitter cup that death gave me
Is passing round to come to thee."

From General Cemetery:

"Life is a city full of crooked streets,
Death is the market-place where all men meets;
If life were merchandise which men could buy,
The rich would only live, the poor would die."

From Witton Cemetery:

"O earth, O earth! observe this well—
That earth to earth shall come to dwell;
Then earth in earth shall close remain,
Till earth from earth shall rise again."

From St. Philip's:

"Oh, cruel death, how could you be so unkind
To take him before, and leave me behind?
You should have taken both of us, if either,
Which would have been more pleasing to the survivor."

The next, upon an infant, is superior to the general run of this class of inscription. It was copied from a slab intended to be placed in Old Edgbaston Churchyard:

"Beneath this stone, in sweet repose,
  Is laid a mother's dearest pride;
A flower that scarce had waked to life,
  And light and beauty, ere it died.
God and His wisdom has recalled
  The precious boon His love has given;
And though the casket moulders here,
  The gem is sparkling now in heaven."

Ramblers may find many quaint epitaphs in neighbouring village churchyards. In Shustoke churchyard, or rather on a tablet placed against the wall of the church over the tomb of a person named Hautbach, the date on which is 1712, there is an inscription, remarkable not only for lines almost identical with those over Shakespeare's grave, but for combining several other favourite specimens of graveological literature, as here bracketed:

"When Death shall cut the thread of life,
Both of Mee and my living Wife,
When please God our change shall bee,
There is a Tomb for Mee and Shee,
Wee freely shall resign up all
To Him who gave, and us doth call.
  {Sleep here wee must, both in the Dust,
  {Till the Resurrection of the Just.
  {Good friend, within these Railes forbear
  {To dig the dust enclosed here.
  {Blest bee the man who spares these stones
  {And Curst be he that moves our bones.
  {Whilst living here, learn how to die;
  {This benefit thoul't reap thereby:
  {Neither the life or death will bee
  {Grievous or sad, but joy to thee.
  {Watch thoue, and pray; thy time well spend;
  {Unknown is the hour of thy end.
  {As thou art, so once were wee,
  {As wee are, so must thou bee,
        Dumspiramus Speramus."

It is a collection of epitaphs in itself, even to the last line, which is to be found in Durham Cathedral on a "brass" before the altar.

Local Landowners.—It is somewhat a difficult matter to tell how much of the ground on which the town is built belongs to any one particular person, even with the assistance of the "Returns" obtained by John Bright of "the owner" of land so called, possessing estimated yearly rentals of £1,000 and upwards. That these "Returns" may be useful to biassed politicians is likely enough, as Lord Calthorpe is put down as owner of 2,073 acres at an estimated rental of £113,707, while Mr. Muntz appears as owning 2,486 acres at an estimated rental of £3,948. His lordship's £113,707 "estimated" rental must be considerably reduced when the leaseholders have taken their share and left him only the ground rents. The other large ground landlords are the Trustees of the Grammar School, the Trustees of the Colmore, Gooch, Vyse, Inge, Digby, Gillot, Robins, and Mason estates, &c., Earl Howe, Lench's Trust, the Blue Coat School, &c. The Corporation of Birmingham is returned as owning 257 acres, in addition to 134 had from the Waterworks Co., but that does not include the additions made under the Improvement Scheme, &c. The manner in which the estates of the old Lords of the Manor, of the Guild of Holy Cross, and the possessions of the ancient Priory, have been divided and portioned out by descent, marriage, forfeiture, plunder, and purchase is interesting matter of history, but rather of a private than public nature.

Local Notes and Queries.—The gathering of odd scraps of past local history, notes of men and manners of a bygone time, and the stray (and sometimes strange) bits of folklore garnered alone in the recollections of greybeards, has been an interesting occupation for more than one during the past score or two of years. The first series of "Local Notes and Queries" in our newspapers appeared in the Gazette, commencing in Feb., 1856, and was continued till Sept., 1860. There was a somewhat similar but short series running in the columns of the Journal from August, 1861, to May, 1862. The Daily Post took it up in Jan., 1863, and devoted a column per week to "Notes" up to March, 1865, resuming at intervals from 1867 to 1872. The series now (1884) appearing in the Weekly Post was commenced on the first Saturday (Jan. 6) in 1877.

Local Taxation.—See "Municipal Expenditure."

Locks.—The making of locks must have been one of the earliest of our local trades, as we read of one at Throckmorton of very quaint design, but rare workmanship, with the name thereon of "Johannes Wilkes, Birmingham," towards the end of the 17th century. In 1824 there were 186 locksmiths named in the Directory.

Lodger Franchise.—Considering the vast amount of interest taken in all matters connected with local Parliamentary representation, and the periodical battles of bile and banter earned on in the Revision Courts over the lists of voters, it is somewhat curious to note how little advantage has been taken of the clause in the last Reform Bill which gives the right of voting to lodgers. The qualification required is simply the exclusive occupation of lodgings which, if let unfurnished, are of the clear yearly value of £10; and there must be many hundreds of gentlemen in the borough residing in apartments who would come under this head. Out of a total of 63,221 electors in 1883 there were only 72 who had claimed their right to vote. In many other boroughs the same discrepancy exists, though here and there the political wire-pullers have evidently seen how to use the lodger franchise to much better effect, as in the case of Worcester for instance, where there are 59 lodger voters out of a total of 6,362.—See "Parliamentary Elections."

London 'Prentice Street, was called Western Street or Westley's Row on the old maps, its continuation, the Coach Yard, being then Pemberton's Yard. How the name of London 'Prentice Street came to be given to the delectable thoroughfare is one of "those things no fellow can understand." At one time there was a schoolroom there, the boys being taught good manners upstairs, while they could learn lessons of depravity below. With the anxious desire of putting the best face on everything that characterises the present local "fathers of the people," the London 'Prentice has been sent to the right-about, and the nasty dirty stinking thoroughfare is now called "Dalton Street."

Loveday Street, from Loveday Croft, a field given in Good Queen Bess's reign, by John Cooper, as a trysting-place for the Brummagem lads and lasses when on wooing bent.

Low Rents.—A return of unassessed houses in the parish of Birmingham, taken October 19, 1790, showed 2,000 at a rental under £5, 2,000 others under £6, 3,000 under £7, 2,000 under £8, 500 under £9, and 500 under £10.

Lozells.—In the lease of a farm of 138 acres, sold by auction, June 24, 1793, it was written "Lowcells." Possibly the name is derived from the Saxon "lowe" (hill) and "cele" (cold or chill) making it "the cold hill."

Lunacy.—Whether it arises from political heat, religious ecstacies, intemperance, or the cares and worry of the universal hunt for wealth, it is certainly a painful fact to chronicle that in proportion to population insanity is far more prevalent now than it was fifty years ago, and Birmingham has no more share in such excess than other parts of the kingdom. Possibly, the figures show more prominently from the action of the wise rules that enforce the gathering of the insane into public institutions, instead of leaving the unfortunates to the care (or carelessness) of their relatives as in past days, when the wards of the poor-houses were the only receptacles for those who had no relatives to shelter them. The erection of the Borough Asylum, at Winson Green, was commenced in 1846, and it was finished in 1851. The house and grounds covered an area of about twenty acres, the building being arranged to accommodate 330 patients. Great as this number appeared to be, not many years passed before the necessity of enlargement was perceived, and, ultimately, it became evident the Winson Green establishment must either be doubled in size or that a second Asylum must be erected on another site. An estate of 150 acres on the south-eastern slopes of Rubery Hill, on the right-hand side of the turnpike road from here to Bromsgrove, was purchased by the Corporation, and a new Asylum, which will accommodate 616 patients, has there been erected. For the house and its immediate grounds, 70 acres have been apportioned, the remainder being kept for the purposes of a farm, where those of the inmates fit for work can be employed, and where the sewage from the asylum will be utilised. The cost of the land was £6,576 8s. 5d., and that of the buildings, the furnishing, and the laying out of the grounds, £133,495 5s. 8d. The report of the Lunatic Asylums Committee for 1882 stated that the number of patients, including those boarded under contract at other asylums, on the first of Jan., 1882, was 839. There were admitted to Winson Green and Rubery Hill during the year 349. There were discharged during the year 94, and there died 124, leaving, on the 31st Dec., 970. The whole of the 970 were then at the borough asylums, and were chargeable as follows:—To Birmingham parish, 644; to Birmingham borough, 8; to Aston Union, in the borough, 168; to King's Norton, 16; to other unions under contract, 98; the remaining 36 patients not being paupers. The income of the asylums for the year was—from Birmingham patients £20,748 1s. 9.; from pauper patients under contract, and from patients not paupers, £2,989 9s. 5d.; from goods sold, £680 1s. 5d.; total, £24,417 12s. 7d. The expenditure on maintenance account was £21,964 4s., and on building capital account £2,966 7s. 7d.—total, £24,915 11s. 7d.; showing a balance against the asylums of £497 19s. The nett average weekly cost for the year was 9s. 6-1/2d. per head. Mr. E.B. Whitcombe, medical superintendent at Winson Green, says that among the causes of insanity in those admitted it is satisfactory to note a large decrease in the number from intemperance, the percentage for the year being 7.7, as compared with 18 and 21 per cent. in 1881 and 1880 respectively. The proportion of recoveries to admissions was in the males 27.7, in the females 36, and in the total 32.3 percent. This is below the average, and is due to a large number of chronic and unfavourable cases admitted. At Rubery Hill Asylum, Dr. Lyle reports that out of the first 450 admissions there were six patients discharged as recovered.—The Midland Counties' Idiot Asylum, at Knowle, opened in 1867, also finds shelter for some of Birmingham's unfortunate children. The Asylum provides a home for about 50, but it is in contemplation to considerably enlarge it. At the end of 1882 there were 28 males and 21 females, 47 being the average number of inmates during the year, the cost per head being £41 13s. 6d. Of the limited number of inmates in the institution no fewer than thirteen came from Birmingham, and altogether as many as thirty-five candidates had been elected from Birmingham. The income from all sources, exclusive of contributions to the building fund, amounted to £2,033 3s. 8d., and the total expenditure (including £193 3s. 4d. written off for depreciation of buildings) to £1,763 15s. 7d., leaving a balance in hand of £269 8s. 1d. The fund which is being raised for the enlargement of the institution then amounted to £605 15s., the sum required being £5,000. The society's capital was then £10,850 12s. 8d. of which £7,358 12s. 5d. had been laid out in lands and buildings. Mr. Tait, the medical officer, was of opinion that one-fourth of the children were capable of becoming productive workers under kindly direction and supervision, the progress made by some of the boys in basket-making being very marked.

Lunar Society.—So called from the meetings being held at the full of the moon that the members might have light nights to drive home, but from which they were nicknamed "the lunatics." Originally commenced about 1765, it included among its members Baskerville, Boulton, Watt, Priestley, Thomas Day, Samuel Galton, R.L. Edgeworth, Dr. Withering, Dr. Small, Dr. Darwin, Wedgwood, Keir, and indeed almost every man of intellectual note of the time. It died down as death took the leaders, but it may be said to have left traces in many learned societies of later date.

Luncheon Bars.—The honour of introducing the modern style of luncheon bar must be awarded to the landlord of the Acorn, in Temple Street, who, having seen something of the kind in one of the Channel Islands, imported the notion to Birmingham. The lumber rooms and stables at back of his house were cleared and fitted up as smoke rooms, and bread and cheese, and beer, &c., dealt out over the counter. Here it was that Mr. Hillman took his degree as popular waiter, and from the Acorn also he took a wife to help him start "The Stores," in Paradise Street. Mr. Thomas Hanson was not long behind Hillman before he opened up "The Corner Stores," in Union Passage, following that with the "St. James" in New Street, and several others in various parts of the town. The "Bars" are now an "institution" that has become absolutely indispensable, even for the class who prefer the semi-privacy of the "Restaurants," as the proprietors of the more select Bars like to call their establishments.

Magistrates.—By direction of the Queen's Council, in 1569, all magistrates had to send up "bonds" that they would subscribe to the then recently passed Act for the Uniformity of Common Prayers and Services in the Church, and the Administration of the Sacraments. The local name of Middlemore appears among the few in this county who objected to do so, and most likely his descendants would do the same. The first twenty-five of our borough magistrates were appointed about nine weeks after the date of the Charter of Incorporation, 1839. In 1841, 1849, 1856, and 1859, other gentlemen were placed on the roll, and in April, 1880, ten more names were added to the list, having been sent up to the Lord Chancellor a few days before he vacated office, by some knowing gentlemen who had conceived a notion that the Conservative element was hardly strong enough among the occupants of the Bench. There are now 52, in addition to the Stipendiary Magistrate and the Recorder, and as politics must enter into every matter connected with public life in Birmingham, we record the interesting fact that 31 of these gentlemen are Liberals and 21 Conservatives. Mr. T.C.S. Kynnersley first acted as Stipendiary, April 19, 1856.

Magazines.—See "Newspapers and Periodicals."

Manor House.—How few of the thousands who pass Smithfield every day know that they are treading upon ground where once the Barons of Birmingham kept house in feudal grandeur. Whether the ancient Castle, destroyed in the time of Stephen, pre-occupied the site of the Manor House (or, as it was of late years called—the Moat House), is more than antiquarians have yet found out, any more than they can tell us when the latter building was erected, or when it was demolished. Hutton says: "The first certain account we meet of the moat (which surrounded the island on which the erections were built) is in the reign of Henry the Second, 1154, when Peter de Bermingham, then lord of the fee, had a castle here, and lived in splendour. All the succeeding lords resided upon the same island till their cruel expulsion by John, Duke of Northumberland, in 1537. The old castle followed its lords, and is buried in the ruins of time. Upon the spot, about fifty years ago [1730], rose a house in the modern style, occupied by a manufacturer (Thomas Francis); in one of the outbuildings is shown the apartment where the ancient lords kept their court leet. The trench being filled with water has nearly the same appearance now as perhaps a thousand years ago; but not altogether the same use. It then served to protect its master, but now to turn a thread mill." Moat Lane and Mill Lane are the only names by which the memory of the old house is now retained. The thread mill spoken of by Hutton gave place to a brass or iron foundry, and the property being purchased by the Commissioners, the whole was cleared off the ground in 1815 or 1816, the sale of the building materials, &c., taking place July 5, 1815. Among the "lots" sold, the Moat House and offices adjoining realised £290; the large gates at the entrance with the brick pillars, £16; the bridge, £11; the timber trees, £25; a fire engine with carriage, &c., £6 15s. (possibly some sort of steam engine, then called fire engines); the total produce, including counting-house, warehouse, casting, tinning, burnishing, blacking, and blacksmiths' shops, a horse mill, scouring mill, and a quantity of wood sheds and palisading, amounted to nearly £1,150. The prosaic minds of the Commissioners evidently did not lead them to value "the apartments where the ancient lords kept their court," or it had been turned into a scouring or tinning shop, for no mention was made of it in the catalogue of sale, and as the old Castle disappeared, so did the Manor House, leaving not a stone behind. Mr. William Hamper took a sketch of the old house, in May, 1814, and he then wrote of the oldest part of the building, that it was "half-timbered," and seemingly of about Henry VIII.'s time, or perhaps a little later, but some of the timbers had evidently been used in a former building (probably the old Manorial residence) as the old mortices were to be seen in several of the beams and uprights. The house itself was cleared away in May, 1816, and the last of the outbuildings in the following month. So perfect was the clearance, that not even any of the foundations have been turned up during the alterations lately effected in Smithfield Market. In 1746, the "manorial rights" were purchased by Thomas Archer, of Umberslade, from whose descendants they were acquired by the Commissioners, in 1812, under an Act of Parliament obtained for the purpose, the price given for the Manor House, meat, and ground, being £5,672, in addition to £12,500, for "market tolls," &c.

Manufactures.—For a few notes respecting the manufactures carried on in Birmingham, see "Trades."

Maps of Birmingham.—Westley's "Plan of Birmingham, surveyed in the year 1731," is the earliest published map yet met with; Bradford's in 1750, is the next. Hanson's of 1778, was reduced for Hutton's work, in 1781. For the third edition, 1792, Pye's map was used, and it was added to in 1795. 1800 saw Bissett's "Magnificent Directory" published, with a map; and in 1815 Kempson's survey was taken, and, as well as Pye's, was several times issued with slight alterations, as required. In 1825, Pigott Smith's valuable map, with names of landowners (and a miniature copy of Westley's in upper left-hand corner), was issued, and for many years it was the most reliable authority that could be referred to. 1834 was prolific in maps; Arrowsmith's, Wrightson and Webb's, Guest's, and Hunt's, appearing, the best of them being the first-named. The Useful Knowledge Society's map, with views of public buildings, was issued in 1844, and again in 1849. In 1848, Fowler and Son published a finely-engraved map, 68-1/4in. by 50-1/2in., of the parish of Aston, with the Duddeston-cum-Nechells, Deritend, and Bordesley wards, and the hamlets of Erdington, Castle Bromwich, Little Bromwich, Saltley, and Washwood Heath, Water Orton, and Witton. The Board of Health map was issued in 1849; Guest's reissued in 1850; Blood's "ten-mile map" in 1853; and the Post-office Directory map in 1854. In the next year, the Town Council street map (by Pigott Smith) was published, followed by Moody's in 1858, Cornish's and Granger's in 1860, and also a corrected and enlarged edition of the Post-office Directory map. A variety, though mostly of the nature of street maps, have appeared since then, the latest, most useful, and correct (being brought down to the latest date) being that issued to their friends, mounted for use, by Messrs. Walter Showell and Sons, at whose head offices in Great Charles Street copies can be obtained.—In 1882 the Corporation reproduced and issued a series of ancient and hitherto private maps of the town and neighbourhood, which are of great value to the historian and everyone interested in the land on which Birmingham and its suburbs are built. The first of these maps in point of date is that of the Manor of Edgbaston 1718, followed by that of the Manor of Aston 1758, Little Bromwich Manor 1759, Bordesley Manor 1760, Saltley Manor 1760, Duddeston and Nechells Manors 1778, and of Birmingham parish 1779. The last-named was the work of a local surveyor, John Snape, and it is said that he used a camera obscura of his own construction to enable him to make his work so perfect that it served as correct guide to the map makers for fifty years after.

Markets.—Some writers have dated the existence of Birmingham as a market town as being prior to the Norman Conquest, charters (they say) for the holding of markets having been granted by both Saxon and Danish Kings. That market was held here at an early period is evident from the fact of the charter therefore being renewed by Richard I., who visited the De Berminghams in 1189. The market day has never been changed from Thursday, though Tuesday and Saturday besides are now not enough; in fact, every day may be called market day, though Thursday attracts more of our friends from the country. The opening of Smithfield (May 29, 1817) was the means of concentrating the markets for horses, pigs, cattle, sheep, and farm produce, which for years previously had been offered for sale in New Street, Ann Street, High Street, and Dale End. The Market tolls, for which £12,500 was paid in 1812, produced £5,706 10s. 5d. in the year 1840.

Cattle Market.—Prior to 1769 cattle were sold in High Street; in that year their standings were removed to Dale End, and in 1776 (Oct. 28.) to Deritend. Pigs and sheep were sold in New Street up to the opening of Smithfield. Some five-and-twenty years back a movement was set on foot for the removal of the Cattle Market to the Old Vauxhall neighbourhood, but the cost frightened the people, and the project was shelved. The "town improvers" of to-day, who play with thousands of pounds as children used to do at chuck-farthing, are not so easily baulked, and the taxpayers will doubtless soon have to find the cash for a very much larger Cattle Market in some other part of the borough. A site has been fixed upon in Rupert Street by the "lords in Convention," but up to now (March, 1885), the question is not quite settled.

Corn Market.—The ancient market for corn, or "Corn Cheaping," formed, part of "le Bul ryng" which at one time was almost the sole place of traffic of our forefathers. At first an open space, as the market granted by the early Norman Kings grew in extent, the custom arose of setting up stalls, the right to do which was doubtless bought of the Lords of the Manor. These grew into permanent tenements, and stallages, "freeboards," shambles, and even houses (some with small gardens abutting on the unfenced churchyard), gradually covered the whole ground, and it ultimately cost the town a large sum to clear it, the Commissioners, in 1806-7, paying nearly £25,000 for the purpose. The farmers of a hundred years ago used to assemble with their samples of grain round the Old Cross, or High Cross, standing nearly opposite the present Market Hall steps, and in times of scarcity, when bread was dear, they needed the protection of special constables.

Fish Market.—In April, 1851, the fishmongers' stalls were removed from Dale End, and the sale was confined to the Market Hall, but consequent on the increase of population, and therefore of consumption, a separate market, at corner of Bell Street, was opened in 1870, and that is now being enlarged.

Hide and Skin Market.—The sale of these not particularly sweet-smelling animal products was formerly carried on in the open at Smithfield, but a special market for them and for tallow was opened May 25, 1850; the same building being utilised as a wool market July 29, 1851.

Vegetable Market, so long held in the Bull Ring, is now principally held in the covered portion of Smithfield, which promises to be soon a huge wholesale market.

Marriages.—This is the style in which these interesting events used to chronicled:—

"Sept. 30, 1751. On Monday last, the Rev. Mr. Willes, a relation of the Lord Chief Justice Willes, was married to Miss Wilkins, daughter of an eminent grocer of this town, a young lady of great merit, and handsome fortune."

"Nov. 23, 1751. On Tuesday last, was married at St. Mary-le-Bow, in Cheapside, Mr. W. Welch, an eminent hardware man of Birmingham, to Miss Nancy Morton, of Sheffield, an agreeable young lady, with a handsome fortune."

"June 4, 1772 (and not before as mentioned by mistake) at St. Philip's Church in this town, Mr. Thomas Smallwood, an eminent wine merchant, to Miss Harris, a young lady of distinguished accomplishments, with a fortune of £1,500."

Masshouse Lane.—Takes its name from the Roman Catholic Church (or Mass House, as such edifices were then called) erected in 1687, and dedicated to St. Mary Magdalen and St. Francis. The foundation stone was laid March 23, in the above year, and on 16th August, 1688, the first stone of a Franciscan Convent was laid adjoining to the Church, which latter was consecrated Sept. 4. The Church was 95ft long by 33ft. wide, and towards the building of it and the Convent, James II. gave 125 "tuns of timber," which were sold for £180; Sir John Gage gave timber valued at £140; the Dowager Queen Catherine gave £10 15s.; and a Mrs. Anne Gregg, £250. This would appear to have been the first place of worship put up here by the Romish Church since the time of Henry VIII., and it was not allowed to stand long, for the Church and what part of the Convent was built (in the words of the Franciscan priest who laid the first stone) "was first defaced, and most of it burrent within to near ye vallue of 400lb., by ye Lord Dellamer's order upon ye 26 of November, 1688, and ye day sevennight following ye rabble of Birmingham begon to pul ye Church and Convent down, and saesed not until they had pulled up ye fundations. They sold ye materials, of which many houses and parts of houses are built in ye town of Birmingham, ye townsmen of ye better sort not resisting ye rabble, but quietly permitting, if not prompting them to doe itt." The poor priests found shelter at Harborne, where there is another Masshouse Lane, their "Masshouse" being a little further on in Pritchett's Lane, where for nearly a century the double work of conducting a school and ministering to their scattered Catholic flock was carried on, the next local place of worship built here being "St. Peters's Chapel," off Broad Street, erected about 1786. It is believed that St. Bartholomew's Church covers the site of the short-lived "Mass House."

Masonic.—That the Freemasons are many among us is proved by the number of their Lodges, but the writer has no record throwing light on their past local history, though mention is found now and then in old newspapers of their taking part in the ceremonies attending the erection of more than one of our public buildings. Of their local acts of benevolence they sayeth naught, though, as is well-known, their charity is never found wanting. The three Masonic charitable institutions which are supported by the voluntary contributions of the craft during 1883 realised a total income of £55,994 14s. 3d. Of this sum the boys' school received £24,895 7s. 1d.; the Benevolent Institution, £18,449 6s.; and the girls' school, £12,650 1s. 2d. The largest total attained previous to 1883 was in 1880, when the sum amounted to £49,763. The boys' school, which is now at the head of the list, is boarding, housing clothing, and educating 221 boys; the Benevolent Institution, the second on the list, is granting annuities of £40 each to 172 men and £32 each to 167 widows; and the girls' school houses, boards, clothes, and educates 239 girls, between the ages of seven and sixteen. The boys leave school at fifteen. During the year £8,675 has been granted to 334 cases of distress from the Fund of Benevolence, which is composed of 4s. a year taken from every London Mason's subscription to his lodge and 2s. a year from every country Mason's subscription. The local lodges meet as follows:—At the Masonic Hall, New Street: St. Paul's Lodge, No. 43; the Faithful Lodge, No. 473; the Howe Lodge, No. 587; the Howe R.A. Chapter; the Howe Mark Master's Lodge; the Howe Preceptory of Knight Templars; the Temperance Lodge, No. 739; the Leigh Lodge, No. 887; the Bedford Lodge, No. 925; the Bedford R.A. Chapter; the Grosvenor Lodge, No. 938; the Grosvenor R.A. Chapter; the Elkington Lodge, No 1,016; the Elkington R.A. Chapter; the Fletcher Lodge, No. 1,031; the Fletcher R.A. Chapter; the Lodge of Emulation, No. 1,163; the Forward Lodge, No. 1,180; the Lodge of Charity, No. 1,551; and the Alma Mater Lodge, No. 1,644. At the Masonic Hall, Severn Street: The Athol Lodge, No. 74; the Athol R.A. Chapter; the Athol Mark Master's Lodge; and the Lodge of Israel, No. 1,474. At the Great Western Hotel: The Lodge of Light, No. 468; the R.A. Chapter of Fortitude; and the Vernon Chapter of S.P.R.C. of H.R.D.M., No. 5. At the Holte Hotel, Aston: The Holte Lodge, No. 1,246.

Matches.—Baker's are best, the maker says. Lucifer matches were the invention of a young German patriot, named Kammerer, who beguiled his time in prison (in 1832) with chemical experiments, though a North of England apothecary, Walker, lays claim to the invention. They were first made in Birmingham in 1852, but they have not, as yet, completely driven the old-fashioned, and now-despised tinder-box out of the world, as many of the latter are still manufactured in this town for sundry foreign parts.

Mecca.—The late Mr. J.H. Chamberlain, shortly before his death, said that he looked upon Birmingham, "perhaps with a foolish pride," as the Holy City, the Mecca of England; where life was fuller of possibilities of utility—happier, broader, wiser, and a thousand times better than it was in any other town in the United Kingdom.

Mechanical Engineers.—The Institution of Mechanical Engineers was organised in this town, in October 1847, but its headquarters were removed to London, in 1877.

Mechanics' Institute.—The proposal to form a local institution of a popular nature, for the encouragement of learning among our workers, like unto others which had been established in several large places elsewhere, was published in June, 1825, and several meetings were held before December 27, when officers were chosen, and entry made of nearly 200 members, to start with, the subscription being 5/-per quarter. The formal opening took place March 21, 1826, the members assembling in Mount Zion Chapel, to hear an address from Mr. B. Cook, the vice-president. The class-rooms, library, and reading-rooms, were at the school attached to the Old Meeting House, and here the Institution, so far as the conduct of classes, and the imparting of knowledge went, thrived and prospered. Financially, however, though at one time there were nearly 500 members, it was never successful, possibly through lack of assistance that might have been expected from the manufacturers and large employers, for, hide it as we may, with a few honourable exceptions, that class, fifty years ago, preferred strong men to wise ones, and rather set their banks against opening the doors of knowledge to their workpeople, or their children. It was a dozen years before the Institution was able to remove to a home of its own in Newhall Street, but it rapidly got into a hopeless state of debt. To lessen this incubus, and provide funds for some needed alterations, the committee decided to hold an exhibition of "manufactures, the fine arts, and objects illustrative of experimental philosophy, &c." The exhibition was opened Dec. 19, 1839, and in all ways was a splendid success, a fairly-large sum of money being realised. Unfortunately, a second exhibition was held in the following years, when all the profits of the former were not only lost, but so heavy an addition made to the debt, that it may be said to have ruined the institution completely. Creditors took possession of the premises in January, 1842, and in June operations were suspended, and, notwithstanding several attempts to revive the institution, it died out altogether. As the only popular educational establishment open to the young men of the time, it did good work, many of its pupils having made their mark in the paths of literature, art, and science.

Medical Associations.—According to the "Medical Register" there are 35 physicians and 210 surgeons resident in the borough, and there are rather more than 300 chemists and druggists. According to a summary of the census tables, the medical profession "and their subordinates" number in Birmingham and Aston 940, of whom 376 are males and 564 females. In 1834, at Worcester, under the presidency of Dr. Johnson, of this town, the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association was formed for encouraging scientific research, improving the practice of medicine, and generally looking after the interests of the profession. In 1856 the name was changed to The British Medical Association, with head offices in London, but prior to that branches had been established in various large towns, the Birmingham and Midland Counties' branch being foremost, holding its first meeting at Dee's Hotel, in December, 1854. The society has now about 9,000 members, with a reserve fund of £10,000; in the local branch there are 359 members, who subscribe about £150 per annum. —The Birmingham Medical Institute was launched Feb. 5, 1876, but the question of admitting homeopathists as members was nearly the upsetting of the craft at the first meeting; thanks to the sails being trimmed with a little common sense, however, the difficulty was tided over. The opening of the Institute in Edmund Street took place December 17, 1880. The cost of the building was about £6,000, and the purposes to which it is applied are the providing accommodation for meetings of the profession and the housing of the valuable medical library of over 6,000 books. As something worthy of note, it may be mentioned that the Institute was opened free from debt, the whole cost being previously subscribed.

Memorials and Monuments.—See "Statues," &c.

Men of Worth.—The "Toy-shop of the World," the home of workers, free from the blue blood of titled families, and having but few reapers of "unearned increment," is hardly the place to look for "men of worth or value" in a monetary point of view, but we have not been without them. A writer in Gazette, September 1, 1828, reckoned up 120 inhabitants who were each worth over £10,000 each; 50 worth over £20,000; 16 worth over £50,000; 9 worth over £100,000; 3 worth over £200,000; 2 worth over £300,000 each, and 1 worth over £400,000. Taking certain Income Tax Returns and other information for his basis another man of figures in 1878 made calculations showing that there were then among us some 800 persons worth more than £5,000 each, 200 worth over £10,000, 50 worth over £20,000, 35 worth over £50,000, 26 worth over £100,000, 12 worth over £250,000, 5 worth over £500,000, and 2 worth over or near £1,000,000 each.

Mercia.—In 585, this neighbourhood formed part of the Heptarchic kingdom of Mercia, under Cridda; in 697, Mercia was divided into four dioceses; this district being included in that of Lichfield; in 878, Mercia was merged in the kingdom of England. According to Bede and the Saxon Chronicles, Beorned was, in 757, king of Mercia, of which Birmingham formed part, and in Canute's reign there was an Earl Beorn, the king's nephew, and it has been fancifully suggested that in this name Beorn may lie the much-sought root for the etymology of the town's name. Beorn, or Bern, being derived from ber, a bear or boar, it might be arranged thusly:—

Ber, bear or boar; moeng, many; ham, dwelling—the whole making Bermoengham, the dwelling of many bears, or the home of many pigs!

Metchley Camp.—At Metchley Park, about three miles from town, near to Harborne, there are the remains of an old camp or station which Hutton attributes to "those pilfering vermin, the Danes," other writers thinking it was constructed by the Romans, but it is hardly possible that an undertaking requiring such immense labour as this must have done, could have been overlooked in any history of the Roman occupation. More likely it was a stronghold of the native Britons who opposed their advance, a superstition borne out by its being adjacent to their line of Icknield Street, and near the heart of England. From a measurement made in 1822, the camp appears to have covered an area of about 15-1/2 acres. Hutton gives it as 30 acres, and describes a third embankment. The present outer vallum was 330 yards long by 228 wide, and the interior camp 187 yards long by 165 wide. The ancient vallum and fosse have suffered much by the lapse of time, by the occupiers partially levelling the ground, and by the passing through it of the Worcester and Birmingham canal, to make the banks of which the southern extremity of the camp was completely destroyed. Some few pieces of ancient weapons, swords and battle-axes, and portions of bucklers, have been found here, but nothing of a distinctively Roman or Danish character. As the fortification was of such great size and strength, and evidently formed for no mere temporary occupation, had either of those passers-by been the constructors we should naturally have expected that more positive traces of their nationality would have been found.

Methodism.—The introduction here must date from Wesley's first visit in March, 1738. In 1764, Moor Street Theatre was taken as a meeting place, and John Wesley opened it March 21. The new sect afterwards occupied the King Street Theatre. Hutton says:—"The Methodists occupied for many years a place in Steelhouse Lane, where the wags of the age observed, 'they were eaten out by the bugs.' They therefore procured the cast-off Theatre in Moor Street, where they continued to exhibit till 1782, when, quitting the stage, they erected a superb meeting house in Cherry Street, at the expense of £1,200. This was opened, July 7, by John Wesley, the chief priest, whose extensive knowledge and unblemished manners give us a tolerable picture of apostolic purity, who believed as if he were to be saved by faith, and who laboured as if he were to be saved by works." The note made by Wesley, who was in his 80th year, respecting the opening of Cherry Street Chapel, has been preserved. He says:—"July 6th, 1782. I came to Birmingham, and preached once more in the old dreary preaching-house. The next day I opened the new house at eight, and it contained the people well, but not in the evening, many more then constrained to go away. In the middle of the sermon a huge noise was heard, caused by the breaking of a bench on which some people stood. None of them were hurt; yet it occasioned a general panic at first, but in a few minutes all was quiet." Four years after the opening, Wesley preached in the chapel again, and found great prosperity. "At first," he wrote, "the preaching-house would not near contain the congregation. Afterwards I administered the Lord's Supper to about 500 communicants." Old as he then was, the apostle of Methodism came here a time or two after that, his last visit being in 1790. Many talented men have since served the Wesleyan body in this town, and the society holds a strong position among our Dissenting brethren. The minutes of the Wesleyan Conference last issued give the following statistics of the Birmingham and Shrewsbury District:—Church members, 18,875; on trial for membership, l,537; members of junior classes, 2,143; number of ministerial class leaders, 72; lay class leaders, 1,269; local or lay preachers, 769 (the largest number in any district except Nottingham and Derby, which has 798). There are 40 circuits in the district, of which 27 report an increase of membership, and 13 a decrease.—See "Places of Worship."

Methodism, Primitive.—The origin of the Primitive Methodist Connexion dates from 1808, and it sprung solely from the custom (introduced by Lorenzo Dow, from America, in the previous year) of holding "camp meetings," which the Wesleyan Conference decided to be "highly improper in England, even if allowable in America, and likely to be productive of considerable mischief," expelling the preachers who conducted them. A new society was the result, and the first service in this town was held in Moor Sreet, in the open air, near to the Public Office, in the summer of 1824. The first "lovefeast" took place, March 6, 1825, and the first "camp meeting," a few months later. A circuit was formed, the first minister being the Rev. T. Nelson, and in 1826, a chapel was opened in Bordesley Street, others following in due course of time, as the Primitives increased in number. The Birmingham circuit contains about 800 members, with over 2,000 Sunday School scholars, and 250 teachers.— See "Places of Worship."

Metric System.—This, the simplest decimal system of computation yet legalised is in use in France, Belgium, Holland, Italy, Spain, and other parts of Europe, as well as in Chili, Peru, Mexico, &c., and by 27 and 28 Vic., cap. 117, its use has been rendered legal in this country. As our local trade with the above and other countries is increasing (unfortunately in some respects), rules for working out the metric measures into English and vice versa may be useful. The unit of length is the metre (equal to 39.37 inches); it is divided into tenths (decimetres), hundredths (centimetres), and thousandths (millimetres), and it is multiplied by decimals in like way into hectometres, kilometres, and myriometres. The unit of weight is the gramme, divided as the metre into decigrammes, centigrammes, and milligrammes; multiplied into decagrammes, hectogrammes, and kilogrammes. The unit of capacity is the litre, divided and multiplied like the others.

1 inch equals 2-1/2 centimetres. 1 foot equals 3 decimetres. 1 mile equals 1-3/5 kilometres. 1 cwt. equals 50.8 kilogrammes. 1 ounce (troy) equals 31 grammes. 1 pound (troy) equals 3.72 decagrammes. 1 gallon equals 4-1/2 litres. 1 quart equals 1-1/16 litres. 1 metre equals 39.37 inches. 1 hectometre equals 109-1/3 yards. 1 cubic metre equals 61,027 cubic inches. 1 kilometre equals 1,093 yards. 1 decigramme equals 1-1/2 grains. 1 gramme equals 15 grains. 1 kilogramme equals 2-1/5 pounds (avoirdupois). 1 litre equals 1-3/4 pints.

To turn inches into millimetres add the figures 00 to the number of inches, divide by 4, and add the result two-fifths of the original number of inches.

To turn millimetres to inches add the figure 0 and divide by 254.

To make cubic inches into cubic centimetres multiply by 721 and divide by 44; cubic centimetres into cubic inches multiply by 44 and divide by 721.

To turn grains into grammes, multiply the number by 648 and divide the product by 10,000.

To turn grammes into grains, multiply by 10,000, dividing the result by 648.

The metric system is especially useful in our local jewellery and other trades, but it is very slowly making its way against the old English foot and yaid, even such a learned man as Professor Rankine poking fun at the foreign measures in a comic song of which two verses run:—

Some talk of millimetres, and some of kilogrammes,
And some of decillitres to measure beer and drams;
But I'm an English workman, too old to go to school,
So by pounds I'll eat, by quarts I'll drink, and work by my two-foot rule.
A party of astronomers went measuring of the earth,
And forty million metres they took to be its girth;
Five hundred million inches now go through from pole to pole,
So we'll stick to inches, feet, and yards, and our own old two-foot rule.

Mid-England.—Meriden, near Coventry, is believed to be about the centre spot of England.

Midland Institute.—Suggestions of some such an institution, to take the place of the defunct Mechanics', had several time appeared in print, but nothing definite was done in the matter until the subject was discussed (June 4, 1852) over the dinner table of Mr. Arthur Ryland. Practical shape being given to the ideas then advanced, a town's meeting on Dec. 3, 1853, sanctioned the grant by the Council of the land necessary for the erection of a proper building, and an Act of Incorporation was obtained in the following Parliamentiry session. In December 1854, Charles Dickens gave three readings in the Town Hall, in behalf of the building fund, whereby £227 13s. 9d. was realised, the donations then amounting to £8,467. The foundation stone was laid by Prince Albert, on Nov. 22, 1855, and the contract for the first part of the building given to Messrs. Branston and Gwyther for £12,000. The lecture theatre was opened Oct. 13, 1857, when addresses were delivered by Lord Brougham, Lord Russell, and Lord Stanley, the latter delivering the prizes to the students who had attended the classes, which were first started in October, 1854, at the Philosophical Institute. In 1859, the portrait of David Cox was presented to the Institute, forming the first contribution to the Fine Art Gallery, which was built on portion of the land originally given to the Institute, the whole of the buildings being designed by Mr. E.M. Barry. The amount subscribed to the building fund was about £18,000, and the coat, including furniture and apparatus more than £16,000. Great extension has been made since then, on the Paradise Street side, and many thousands spent on the enlargement, branch classes bring also held at several of the Board Schools to relieve the pressure on the Institute. In 1864, the members of the Institute numbered 660, and the students 880, with an income of £998; in January, 1874, there were 1,591 members, 733 family ticket holders. 2,172 students, and an income of £2,580. At the end of 1833, the number of annual subscribers was 1,900, and lecture ticket-holders 838. In the Industrial Department there were 4,334 students; the Archæological Section numbered 226 members, and the musical Section 183. 108 students attended the Laws of Health classes, 220 the Ladies classes, and 36 the classes for preparation for matriculation. The benefits derived from the establishment of the Midland Institute, and the amount of useful, practical, and scientific knowledge disseminated by means of its classes among the intelligent working men of the town and the rising generation, is incalculable. These classes, many of which are open at the low fee of 1d., and some others specially for females, now include the whole of the following subjects:—English language and literature, English history, French, German, Latin, Greek, and Spanish, algebra, geometry, mensuration, trignometry, and arithmetic, music, drawing, writing, English grammar, and composition, botany, chemistry, experimental physics, practical mechanics, and metallurgy, elementary singing, physical geography, animal physiology, geology, practical plane and solid geometry, &c. The general position of the Institute with regard to finance was as follows:—Gross receipts in General Department, £3,281 5s. 6d.; expenditure in this department (including £998 1s. 6d. deficiency at the close of the year 1882), £3,088 17s. 2d.; balance in favour of the General Department, £192 8s. 4d. Gross receipts in Industrial Department, £1,747 13s.; expenditure in this department, £3,173 7s. 10d.; deficiency, £l,425 14s. 10d., met by a transfer from the funds of the General Department. The total result of the year's operations in both departments left a deficiency of £1,233 6s. 6d. The amount due to bankers on the General Fund was £863 13s. 6d; and the amount standing to the credit of the Institute on the Repairs Account is £440 12s. 2d. It is much to be regretted that there is a total debt on the Institute, amounting to £19,000, the paying of interest on which sadly retards its usefulness. Many munificent donations have been made to the funds of the Institute from time to time, one being the sum of £3,000, given by an anonymous donor in 186[**], "in memory of Arthur Ryland." In August, same year, it was announced that the late Mr. Alfred Wilkes had bequeathed the bulk of his estate, estimated at about £100,000, in trust for his two sisters during their lives, with reversion in equal shares to the General Hospital and the Midland Institute, being a deferred benefaction of £50,000 to each.

Midland Metropolis.—Birmingham was so entitled because it was the largest town, and has more inhabitants than any town in the centre of England. To use a Yankeeism, it is "the hub" of the Kingdom; here is the throbbing heart of all that is Liberal in the political life of Europe; this is the workshop of the world, the birth-spot of the steam-engine, and the home of mock jewellery. In all matters political, social, and national, it takes the lead, and if London is the Metropolis of all that is effete and aristocratic, Birmingham has the moving-power of all that is progressive, recuperative and advancing. When Macaulay's New Zealander sits sadly viewing the silent ruins of the once gigantic city on the Thames, he will have the consolation of knowing that the pulse-beats of his progenitors will still be found in the Mid-England Metropolis, once known as the town of Burningsham or Birmingham.

Mild Winters.—The winter of 1658-9 was very mild, there being neither snow or frost. In 1748 honeysuckles, in full bloom, were gathered near Worcester, in February. In the first four months of 1779 there was not a day's rain or snow, and on the 25th of March the cherry, plum, and pear trees were in full bloom. An extraordinary mild winter was that of 1782-3. A rose was plucked in an open garden, in New Street, on 30th December, 1820. In December, 1857, a wren's nest, with two eggs in it was found near Selly Oak, and ripe raspberries were gathered in the Christmas week at Astwood Bank. The winter of 1883-4 is worthy of note, for rose trees were budding in December, lambs frisking about in January, and blackbirds sitting in February.

Milk.—The reports of the Borough Analyst for several successive years, 1879 to 1882, showed that nearly one-half the samples of milk examined were adulterated, the average adulteration of each being as much as 20 per cent.; and a calculation has been made that the Brums pay £20,000 a year for the water added to their milk! Next to the bread we eat, there is no article that should be kept freer from adulteration than milk, and the formation of a Dairy Company, in April, 1882, was hailed as a boon by many. The Company started with a nominal capital of £50,000 in £5 shares, and it rigidly prosecutes any farmer who puts the milk of the "wooden cow" into their cans.

Minories.—Once known as Upper and Lower Minories, the latter name being given to what, at other times, has been called "Pemberton's Yard" or the "Coach Yard." The names give their own meaning, the roads leading to the Priory.

Mints.—See "Trades."

Missionary Work.—About a million and a quarter sterling is yearly contributed in England to Foreign, Colonial, and Home Missionary Societies, and Birmingham sends its share very fairly. The local Auxiliary, to the Church Missionary Society, in 1882, gathered £2,133 8s. 6d.; in 1883 (to June both years) it reached £2,774 17s. 8d., of which £2,336 6s 11d. was from collections in the local churches. The Auxiliary to the London Missionary Society gathered £1,050, of which £991 was collected in churches and chapels. The Baptist Missionary Society was founded in October, 1792, and branch was started here a few months afterwards, the first fruits totting up to the very respectable amount of £70. A branch of the Wesleyan Missionary Society was formed here in 1814 for the Birmingham and Shrewsbury district, and the amounts gathered in 1882 totalled £4,829 10s. 3d. To the Society for promoting Christianity among the Jews, the Birmingham Auxiliaries in 1883 sent £323. There are also Auxiliaries of the Church of England Zenana, of the South American, and of one or two other Missionary Societies. The Rev. J.B. Barradale, who died in China, early in 1879, while relieving sufferers from famine, was educated at Spring Hill College. He was sent out by the London Missionary Society, and his death was preceded by that of his wife and only child, who died a few weeks before him, all from fever caught while helping poor Chinamen.

Moated Houses.—The Parsonage, as well as the Manor House (as noted elsewhere), were each surrounded by its moat, and, possibly, no portion of the United Kingdom could show more family mansions, and country residences, protected in this manner, than the immediate district surrounding Birmingham. Many more or-less-preserved specimens of these old-fashioned houses, with their water guards round them, are to be met with by the rambler, as at Astwood Bank. Erdington, Inkberrow, Yardley, Wyrley, &c. Perhaps, the two best are Maxtoke Castle, near Coleshill, and the New Hall, Sutton Coldfield.

Modern Monasteries.—The foundation-stone of St. Thomas's Priory, at Erdington, for the accommodation of the Monks of the Order of St. Benedict, was laid on Aug. 5, 1879, by the Prior, the Rev. Hildebrand de Hemptinne. Alter the date, and the reader might fancy himself living in Mediæval times.

Monument.—The high tower erected near the Reservoir has long borne the name of "The Monument," though it has been said it was built more as a strange kind of pleasure-house, where the owner, a Mr. Perrott, could pass his leisure hours witnessing coursing in the day-time, or making astronomical observations at night. Hence it was often called "Perrott's Folly." It dates from 1758—See also "Statues," &c.

Moody and Sankey.—These American Evangelists, or Revivalists, visited here in Jan. 1875, their first meeting being held in the Town Hall, on the 17th, the remainder of their services (to February 7) being given in Bingley Hall. They came also in February, 1883. when the last-named place again accommodated them.

Moor Street.—Rivaling Edgbaston Street in its antiquity, its name has long given rise to debate as to origin, but the most likely solution of the puzzle is this: On the sloping land near here, in the 14th century, and perhaps earlier, there was a mill, probably the Town Mill, and by the contraction of the Latin, Molendinaria, the miller would be called John le Molendin, or John le Moul. The phonetic style of writing by sound was in great measured practised by the scriveners, and thus we find, as time went on, the street of the mill became Moul, Moule, Mowle, Molle, Moll, More, and Moor Street. A stream crossed the street near the Woolpack, over which was a wooden bridge, and farther on was another bridge of more substantial character, called "Carter's Bridge." In flood times, Cars Lane also brought from the higher lands copious streams of water, and the keeping of Moor Street tidy often gave cause to mention these spots in old records, thus:—

£ s. d.
1637-- Paid Walter Taylor for ridding the gutters in Moor Street 0 0 11
1665-- Zachary Gisborne 42 loads of mudd out of Moore Street 0 0 7
1676-- J. Bridgens keepinge open passage and tourneing water from Cars Lane that it did not runne into More Street for a yeare 0 4 0
1688-- Paid mending Carter's Bridge timber and worke 0 5 0
1690-- John, for mending Moore Street Bridg 0 0 10

Moor Street, from the earliest date, was the chosen place of residence for many of the old families, the Carless, Smalbroke, Ward, Sheldon, Flavell, Stidman, and other names, continually cropping up in deeds; some of the rents paid to the Lord of the Manor, contrasting curiously with the rentals of to-day. For three properties adjoining in More Street, and which were so paid until a comparatively modern date, the rents were:—

"One pound of pepper by Goldsmythe and Lench, Two pounds of pepper by the master of the Gild, One pound of cumin seed, one bow, and six barbed bolts, or arrow heads by John Sheldon."

Moseley.—One of the popular, and soon will be populous suburbs, connected as it is so closely to us by Balsall Heath. It is one of the old Domesday-mentioned spots, but has little history other than connected with the one or two families who chose it for their residence ages ago. It is supposed the old church was erected prior to the year 1500, a tower being added to it in Henry VIII.'s reign, but the parish register dates only from the middle of last century, possibly older entries being made at King's Norton (from which Moseley was ecclesiastically divided in 1852). Moseley does not appear to have been named from, or to have given name to, any particular family, the earliest we have any note about being Greves, or Grevis, whose tombs are in King's Norton Church, one of the epitaphs being this:—

"Ascension day on ninth of May,
Third year of King James' reine,
To end my time and steal my coin,
I William Greves was slain. 1605."

Hutton says that the old custom of "heriot" was practised here; which is not improbable, as instances have occurred in neighbourhood of Bromsgrove and other parts of the county within the past few years. This relic of feudalism, or barbarism, consists of the demanding for the lord of the manor the best movable article, live or dead, that any tenant happens to be possessed of at the time of his death.

Moseley Hall.—Hutton relates that on July 21, 1786, one Henshaw Grevis came before him in the court of Requests, as a poor debtor, who, thirty years before, he had seen "completely mounted and dressed in green velvet, with a hunter's cap and girdle, at the head of the pack." This poor fellow was the last member of a family who had held the Moseley Hall estate from the time of the Conquest. In the riots of 1791 the Hall was burnt down, being rebuilt ten years after.

Mothering Sunday, or Mid-Lent Sunday, has its peculiarities according to districts. In Birmingham the good people who like to keep up old customs sit down to veal and custard. At Draycot-le-Moors they eat pies made of figs. The practice of visiting the parents' home on this day was one of those old-time customs so popular in the days of our grandfathers and great-grandfathers (but which, with many others have fallen into disuse), and this is supposed to have given rise to the "Mothering Sunday" name. Prior to the Reformation, the Catholics kept the day as a holy day, in honour of the Mother of Jesus, it being a Protestant invention to turn the fast-day into one of feasting.

Mount Misery.—At the close of the great war, which culminated at Waterloo, it was long before the blessings of peace brought comfort to the homes of the poor. The first effects of the sheathing of the sword was a collapse in prices of all kinds, and a general stagnation of trade, of which Birmingham, made prosperous through the demand for its guns, &c., felt the full force. Bad trade was followed by bad harvests, and the commercial history of the next dozen years is but one huge chronicle of disaster, shops and mills closing fast, and poverty following faster. How to employ the hundreds of able-bodied men dependent on the rates was a continual puzzle to the Overseers, until someone, wise in his generation, hit upon the plan of paying the unfortunates to wheel sand from the bank then in front of Key Hill House up to the canal side, a distance of 1-1/2 miles, the payment being at the rate of one penny per barrow load. This fearful "labour test" was continued for a long time, and when we reckon that each man would have to wheel his barrow backwards and forwards for nearly 20 miles to earn a shilling, moving more than a ton of sand in the process we cannot wonder at the place receiving such a woeful name as Mount Misery.

M.P.'s for Borough.—See "Parliamentary."

Mules.-These animals are not often seen about town now, but in the politically-exciting days of 1815 they apparently were not strangers in our streets, as Mr. Richard Spooner (who, like our genial Alderman Avery, was fond of "tooling" his own cattle), was in the habit of driving his own mail-drag into town, to which four mules were harnessed. With Mr. Thomas Potts, a well-to-do merchant, a "bigoted Baptist," and ultra-Radical, Mr. Spooner and Mr. T. Attwood took part in a deputation to London, giving occasion to one of the street-songs of the day:—

"Tommy Potts has gone to town
  To join the deputation;
He is a man of great renown,
  And fit to save the nation.
    Yankee doodle do,
    Yankee doodle dandy.
Dicky Spooner's also there,
  And Tom the Banker, too;
If in glory they should share,
  We'll sing them 'Cock-a-doodle-doo.'
    Yankee doodle do,
    Yankee doodle dandy.
Dicky Spooner is Dicky Mule,
  Tom Attwood is Tom Fool;
And Potts an empty kettle,
  With lots of bosh and rattle.
    Yankee doodle do,
    Yankee doodle dandy."

Another of the doggerel verses, alluding to Mr. Spooner's mules, ran—

"Tommy Potts went up to town,
  Bright Tom, who all surpasses,
Was drawn by horses out of town,
  And in again by asses.
    With their Yankee doodle do,
    Yankee doodle dandy."

Municipal Expenditure.—Fortunately the population of Birmingham is going ahead rapidly, and the more the children multiply the more "heads of families" we may naturally hope there will be noted down as ratepayers by the heads of the gather-the-tin office. The cost of governing our little town is not at all heavy, and when divided out at per head of the inhabitants it seems but a mere bagatelle. Mr. J. Powell Williams, who takes credit for being a financier and man of figures, said in 1884 that the totals of our municipal expenditure for the past few years were as follows:—

In 1879 it was £354,000 or 18/3 per head
" 1880 " 343,900 " 17/5 "
" 1881 " 361,500 " 18/0 "
" 1882 " 374,000 " 18/4 "
" 1883 " 385,000 " 18/7 "
" 1884 " 385,000 " 18/3 "

The bachelors who live in apartments will surely be tempted to begin housekeeping when they see how low a sum it takes to pay for all the blessings conferred upon us by a Liberal Corporation; but what the Pater of half-a-dozen olive branches may think about the matter, is altogether a different thing, especially when he finds that to the above 18/2 per head must be added 2/7-1/2 per head for the School Board, and 1s. 2d. per head for the Drainage Board, besides poor-rates, Government taxes, gas, water, and all these other little nothings that empty the purse.

Murder and Manslaughter.—It would be too black a catalogue to give all the horrible cases of this nature which the local journals have chronicled in past years, those here noted being only such as have a certain historical interest.

"Tom and Jack."—"See Executions."

Sergeant William Cartwright, of the Coldstream Guards, was killed in Townsend's Yard by a deserter, September 13, 1796.

A desperate attempt was made to murder a young woman in Bull Street in the evening of a fair day, June 9, 1797.

Philip Matsell was hanged August 22, 1806, at the bottom of Snow Hill, for attempting to murder a watchman.—See "Executions."

A Mr. Pennington, of London, was murdered at Vauxhall, Feb. 6. 1817.

Ashford, Mary, May 27, 1817, murdered at Sutton Coldfield.

F. Adams was murdered by T. Johnson, in London 'Prentice Street, Aug. 5, 1821.

Mr. R. Perry was killed in Mary Ann Street, by Michael Ford, December 6, 1825. Execution, March 7, 1826.

J. Fitter was tried and acquitted August 11, 1834, on a charge of having murdered Margaret Webb, in Lawley Street, on 7th April preceding.

Mr. W. Painter, a tax collector, was robbed and murdered in the old Parsonage grounds (near what is now the bottom of Worcester Street), February 17, 1835.

William Devey murdered Mr. Davenport in a shop in Snow Hill, April 5, 1838.

Mrs. Steapenhill shot by her husband in Heneage Street, January 7, 1842.

Mrs. Davis killed by her husband in Moor Street, March, 1848.

Mrs. Wilkes murdered her four children in Cheapside, October 23, 1847; also committing suicide.

Francis Price was executed at Warwick, August 20, 1860, for murdering Sarah Pratt, April 18.

Elizabeth Brooks was shot by Farquhar, at Small Heath, August 29, 1861. He was sentenced to imprisonment for a long term, but was liberated in April, 1866.

Thompson, Tanter Street, killed his wife, September 23, 1861; hung December 30.

Henry Carter, aged 17, who had killed his sweetheart, was hung April 11, 1863.

George Hall shot his unfaithful wife on Dartmouth Street Bridge, February 16, 1864, and was sentenced to death, but reprieved. He was released March 5, 1884.

Murder and suicide in Nursery Terrace, November 28, 1866.

Mr. Pryse was murdered by James Scott in Aston Street, April 6, 1867.

Mary Milbourn was murdered in Heneage Street, January 21, 1868.

Murder and suicide in Garrison Street, November 25, 1871.

Richard Smith was killed by his fellow-lodger, in Adam Street, January 7, 1872.

Thomas Picken, of St. Luke Street, killed his wife, January 22, 1872. He was found next morning hanging to a lamp-post, at Camp Hill Station.

Jeremiah Corkery stabbed Policeman Lines, March 7; was condemned to death July 9, and hung July 27, 1875.

Patrick O'Donoghue was kicked and killed at the Flying Horse, Little Hampton Street, August 7. 1875. Moran and Caulfield, the kickers, were sent to penal servitude for ten years.

A woman, resisting indecent assault, was thrown into the canal, October 8, 1875, and died from effects.

Emma Luke, Hope street, killed her infant and herself, October 23, 1875.

Samuel Todd, a deaf-mute, killed William Brislin, in a fit of passion, December 31, 1875.—Fifteen years' penal servitude.

Gaorge Underhill shot Alfred Price, in Stephenson place, January 12, 1876, being in drink at the time, and thinking he was going to be robbed. Price died, and Underhill was imprisoned for twelve months.

Frederick Lipscombe killed his wife because she did not get his meals ready to the time he wished, July 18, 1876.

Mary Saunders, Aston, had her throat cut by F.E. Baker, her lodger, January 16, 1877. He was hung April 17.

John Nicholson killed Mary (or Minnie) Fantham, in Navigation Street, February 23rd, 1877, committing suicide himself. He was buried as a felo de se.

Francis Mason, Litimer Street, stabbed his wife, June 25, 1867, but the jury called it manslaughter, and he was allowed to retire for five years.

William Toy, a glasscutter, was killed in the Plasterers' Arms, Lupin Street, July 20, 1878, in a drunken row.

Edward Johnson, a retired butcher, of this town, killed his wife and drowned himself at Erdington, July 27, 1878.

Sarah Alice Vernon, married woman, aged 26, was first stabbed and then flung into the canal, at Spring Hill, by her paramour, John Ralph, a hawker of fancy baskets, early in the morning of May 31, 1879. He was hung August 26.

Caroline Brooks, a young woman of 20, was fatally stabbed on the night of June 28, 1879, while walking with her sweetheart, but the man who killed her escaped.

Alfred Wagstaffe, of Nechell's Green, kicked his wile for pawning his shirt, on October 25, 1879. She died a week after, and he was sent to penal servitude for ten years.

An Irishman, named John Gateley, was shot on Saturday, December 5, 1880, in a beerhouse at Solihull, by a country man who got away; the murdered man had been connected with the Irish Land League.

Mrs. Ellen Jackson, a widow, 34 years of age, through poverty and despondency, poisoned herself and two children, aged seven and nine, on Sunday, November 27, 1881. One child recovered.

Frederick Serman, at the Four Dwellings, near Saltley, Nov. 22, 1883, shot Angelina Yanwood, and poisoned himself, because the woman would not live longer with him "to be clemmed."

James Lloyd, Jan. 6, 1884, stabbed his wife Martha, because she had not met him the previous afternoon. She died four days after, and he was sentenced to death, but reprieved.

Mrs. Palmer and Mrs. Stewart were shot by Henry Kimberley at the White Hart, Paradise Street, Dec. 28, 1884. Mrs. Palmer died, and Kimberley was hung at Winson Green, March 17, 1885.

James Davis, policeman, while on his beat at Alvechurch, was murdered Feb. 28, 1885, by Moses Shrimpton, a Birmingham poacher and thief.

Elizabeth Bunting, a girl of 16, was murdered at Handsworth, April 20, 1885, by her uncle, Thomas Boulton.

Museums.—No place in England ought to have a better collection of coins and medals, but there is no Numismatic Museum in Birmingham. Few towns can show such a list of patentees and inventors, but we have no Patent Museum wherein to preserve the outcome of their ideas. Though the town's very name cannot be traced through the mists of dim antiquity, the most ancient thing we can show is the Old Crown public-house. Romans and Normans, Britons and Saxons, have all trod the same ground as ourselves, but we preserve no relics of them. Though we have supplied the whole earth with firearms, it was left to Mr. Marshall, of Leeds, to gather together a Gun Museum. Fortunately the Guardians of the Proof House were liberal and, buying the collection for £1,550, made many valuable additions to it, and after exhibiting it for a time at 5, Newhall Street, presented it to the town in August, 1876. There is a curious miscellany of articles on exhibition at Aston Hall, which some may call a "Museum," and a few cases of birds, sundry stuffed animals, &c., but we must wait until the Art Gallery now in course of erection, is finished before the Midland Metropolis can boast of owning a real Museum. At various times, some rich examples of industrial art have been exhibited in the temporary Art Gallery adjoining the Midland Institute, and now, in one of the rooms of the Free Library, there are sufficient to form the nucleus of a good Museum. We may, therefore, hope that, in time, we shall have a collection that we may be proud of. Mr. Joseph Chamberlain (April 26, 1875) gave £1,000 to purchase objects of industrial art, and it has been expended in the purchase of a collection of gems and precious stones, than which nothing could be more suitable in this centre of the jewellery trade. Possibly, on the opening of the new Art Gallery, we shall hear of other "thousands" as forthcoming.

Musical Associations.—There were, of course, the choirs attached to the churches previous, but the earliest Musical Society is believed to be that established by James Kempson, in 1762, at Cooke's, in the Cherry Orchard, and the founding of which led to the Musical Festivals. The members met for practice, and evidently enjoyed their pipes and glasses, their nightly song being:—

"To our Musical Club here's long life and prosperity;
May it flourish with us, and so on to posterity,
May concord and harmony always abound,
And division here only in music be found.
May the catch and the glass go about and about,
And another succeed to the bottle that's out."

This society was appropriately known as the Musical and Amicable Society from which sprung the Choral Society in 1776, though the present Festival Choral Society only claims to be in its thirty eighth year. The Birmingham Musical Society dates from 1840; the Amateur Harmonic Association from January, 1856; the Edgbaston Musical Union from 1874; and the Philharmonic Union from 1870. The Church Schools Choral Union, the Sunday Schools Union Festival Choir, and the Birmingham Musical Association, with one or two others, are the progeny of later years; the last on the list of musical institutions being the Clef Club (in Exchange Buildings), established March 21st, 1832, for the promotion of musical culture by "providing a central resort for the study and practice of vocal and instrumental music, with the social advantages of a club."

Musical Festivals.—The credit of suggesting the first Musical Festival in aid of the funds of the General Hospital, has been assigned to Mr. Kempson a local musician, who, with his friends, formed a Glee and Catch Club at Cooke's, in the Cherry Orchard. The minutes-book of the Hospital under date of May 3, 1768, records that a resolution was passed that "a musical entertainment" should be arranged, and it was held accordingly on the 7th, 8th, and 9th of September in that year, part of the performances taking place at St. Philip's Church, and part at the Theatre, then in King Street, the Festival being wound up with a ball "at Mrs. Sawyer's, in the Square." Church, Theatre, and Ball was the order of the day for many succeeding Festivals, the Town Hall, which may be said to have been built almost purposely for these performances, not being ready until 1834. The Theatre was only utilised for one evening each Festival after until 1843, when three concerts were held therein, but since that date the Town Hall has been found sufficient. The Festival Balls were long a great attraction (no less than 1,700 attending in 1834), but, possibly from a too free admixture of the general public, the aristocratic patronage thereof gradually declined until 1858, when only 300 tickets having been taken, the Ball night was struck out of the future programmes. The first Festival performances were by purely local artistes, and on several occasions afterwards they formed the bulk of the performers, but as the fame of our Festivals increased so did the inflow of the foreign element, until at one period not more than half-a-dozen local names could be found in any programme. This has been altered to a considerable extent of late years, so much so that at the last Festival nearly the whole of the chorus of voices was composed of members of our local Musical Societies, and a fair sprinkling of the instrumentalists also. A big book would be required for a full history of the Birmingham Triennial Festivals, descriptive of their rise and progress, the hundreds of musical novelties introduced, the many scores of talented artistes who have taken parts, the lords and ladies who have attended, and the thousand odd notes appertaining to them all. In the following notes are briefly chronicled the "first appearances," &c., with the results and other items for reference.

1768, Sept. 7 to 9. The oratorios of "Il Penseroso;" and "Alexander's Feast" were performed at the Theatre in King Street; Handel's "Te Deum" and "Jubilate" with the "Messiah," at St. Philip's Church. The principal singers were Mrs. Pinto, first soprano, and Mr. Charles Norris, tenor; the orchestra numbered about 70, the conductor being Mr. Capel Bond of Coventry, with Mr. Pinto as leader of the band. The tickets of admission were 5s. each, the receipts (with donations) amounting to about £800, and the profits to £299.

1778, Sept. 2 to 4. The performances this time (and for fifteen festivals after), were at St. Philip's Church, and at the newly-built theatre in New Street, the oratorios, &c., including "Judas Maccabæus," the "Messiah," Handel's "Te Deum," "Jubilate," "Acis and Galatea," &c. Principal performers: Miss Mahon, Miss Salmon, Mr. C. Norris, and Cervetto, a celebrated violoncellist, the leader of the band being Mr. William Cramer, a popular violinist. The choir had the assistance of "the celebrated women chorus singers from Lancashire." The receipts were again about £800, and the profits £340, which sum was divided between the Hospital and the building fund for St. Paul's.

1784, Sept. 22 to 24. President: Lord Dudley and Ward. Following after the celebrated Handel Commemoration the programme was filled almost solely with selections from Handel's works, the only novelty being the oratorio of "Goliath," composed by Mr. Atterbury, which according to one modern musical critic, has never been heard of since. Master Bartleman, who afterwards became the leading bass singer of the day, was the novelty among the performers. Receipts, £1,325; profits, £703.

1787, Aug. 22 to 24. President, the Earl of Aylesford. In addition to the miscellaneous (mostly Handelian) pieces, the oratories performed were "Israel in Egypt" and the "Messiah," the latter being so remarkably successful that an extra performance of it was given on the Saturday following. Among the perfumers were Mrs. Billington (first soprano), Mr. Samuel Harrison (one of the finest tenor singers ever heard in England), and Mr. John Sale (a rich-toned bass), and the "women chorus." Receipts about £2,000; profits, £964.

1790, Aug. 25 to 27. President, Lord Dudley and Ward. The "Messiah," with miscellaneous selections, the principal performers being Madame Mara, Mr. Reinhold, and Mr. Charles Knyvett, with Jean Mara (violoncellist) and John Christian Fischer (oboeist) The prices of admission were raised at this Festival to 10s. 6d. and 7s.; Theatre boxes 7s. 6d., pit 5s., gallery 3s. 6d. Receipts £1,965 15s.; profits £958 14s.

1796, Aug. 31 to Sept. 2, President, the Earl of Aylesford. The performances were like those of 1790, of a general character, besides the "Messiah;" while the two principal sopranos were the Misses Fletcher, daughters of a local musician. The trombone was introduced at this Festival for the first time. Receipts £2,043 18s.; profits £897.

1792, September 18 to 20. President, the Earl of Warwick. The "Messiah," with vocal and instrumental selections of the usual character. Miss Poole and Master Elliott among the vocalists, with Mr. Holmes (bassoonist) and Signor Mariotti (trombone player), were chief of the newly-introduced performers. Receipts, £2,550; profits, £1,470.

1802, September 22 to 24. President, the Earl of Dartmonth. For the first time in this town Haydn's "Creation" was performed, in addition to the "Messiah," &c. Among the vocalists were Madame Dussek, Mrs. Mountain, John Braham (the Braham of undying fame), and Mr. William Knyvett; Mr. Francois Cramer, leader of the band (and at every festival until 1843), had with him Andrew Ashe (flautist), Aufossi (double bass), &c., with over 100 in the orchestra. Receipts, £3,820 17s. O-1/4d.; profits, £2,380.

1805, Oct. 2 to 4. President, the Earl of Aylesford. The "Messiah" was given for the first time here with Mozart's accompaniments; part of the "Creation" &c. Mr. Thomas Vaughan was among the singers (and he took part in every Festival until 1840), and Signor Domenico Dragonetti (double bass) and the Brothers Petrules (horn players) with the instruments. Receipts, £4,222; profits, £2,202.

1808, Oct. 5 to 7. President, the Right Hon. Lord Guernsey. Nearly 200 performers, including Master Buggins (a Birmingham boy alto) Mr. J.J. Goss (counter tenor), Signor Joseph Naldi (buffo), and Dr. Crotch, the conductor, organist and pianist. The last-named was a good player when only 3-1/2 years old. Receipts, £5,511 12s.; profits, £3,257.

1811, Oct. 2 to 4. President, Lord Bradford. Madame Catilni, Mrs. Bianchi, and Mr. T.L. Bellamy first appeared here, as well as Mr. Samuel Wesley (John Wesley's nephew), as conductor and organist. Prices again raised, morning tickets being 20s. and 10s., with 10s. 6d. pit and 6s. gallery at Theatre. Receipts, £6,680; profits, £3,629.

1814, Oct. 5 to 7. President, the Earl of Plymouth. Miss Stephens (afterwards Countess of Essex), Miss Travis, Vincent Novello (the publisher of after years), and Griesbach (oboeist), were among the "first appearances." Receipts, £7,171 12s.; profits, £3,629.

1817, Oct. 1 to 3. President, the Hon. Sir Charles Greville, K.C.B. Mrs. Salmon, Madame Camporese, Mr. Hobbs (tenor), Monsieur Drouet (flautist), Mr. T. Harper (trumpet), and Mr. Probin (horn), took part in the performances. Receipts, £8,476; profits, £4,296 10s.

1820, Oct. 3 to 6. President, the Hon. Heneage Legge. The principal performers included Madame Vestris, Signora Corn, Miss Symends (a native of this town, and who continued to sing here occasionally for twenty years), Signor Begrez (tenor), Signor Ambrogetti (buffo bass), Mr. R.N.C. Bocusa (harpist), Mr. Sha gool (violinist), Mr. Stanier (flautist), and Mr. Munde (viola player). The last two gentlemen were connected with this town until very late years. The chief novelty was the English version of Haydn's "Seasons," written by the Rev. John Webb, a local clergyman. Receipts, £9,483; profits, £5,001 11s.

1823, Oct. 7 to 10. President, Sir Francis Lawley, Bart. Among the fresh faces were those of Miss Heaton (afterwards Mrs. T.C. Salt), Signor Placci (baritone), Mr. Thome (bass), Mr. Nicholson (flute), and Signor Puzzi (horn). The Rev. John Webb wrote for this occasion, "The Triumph of Gideon," an English adaptation of Winter's "Timotos." Receipts, £11,115 10s.; profits, £5,806 12s.

1826, Oct. 4 to 7. President, Earl Howe. The programmes this year were more varied than at any previous festival, the performances, in addition to the "Messiah," including the oratorio "Joseph," by Mehul, selections from Graun's "Der Tod Jesu," Handel's "Judas Maccabeus," Haydn's "Seasons," &c. A number of the performers appeared here for their first time, including Madame Caradori, Miss Paton, Miss Bacon, Henry Phillips (the veteran and popular singer of later days, but who was then only in his 25th year), Signor Curioni (said to have borne a wonderful resemblance to Shakespeare in his figurehead and features), Signor de Begius, Mr. John Baptiste Cramer, C.G. Kiesewetter (who died the following year), Charles Augustus de Beriot (who married Madame Malibran-Garcia), and quite a host of local instrumentalists who were long chief among our Birmingham musicians. Receipts £10,104; profits £4,592.

1829, Oct. 6 to 9. President, the Earl of Bradford. This was the Jubilee Year of the General Hospital, and conspicuous in the programme was the "Jubilee Anthem" in commemoration of the fiftieth year of its establishment, the words being adapted to the music composed by Cherubini for Charles X.s coronation. This was also the last year in which the Festival performances took place in St. Philip's Church or (except several single nights of operatic selections) at the Theatre. Besides the "Jubilee Anthem," there were novelties in the shape of Zingarelli's "Cantata Sacra" (described in a musical publication as a "tame, insipid, heap of commonplace trash"), and the introduction of "operatic selections" at the evening concerts. Amongst the performers who made their debut in Birmingham were Madame Malibran-Garcia, Mdlle. Blasis, Miss Fanny Ayton, Signor Costa, Signor Guibelei, Mrs. Anderson (who gave pianoforte lessons to Princess Victoria), and Mr. Charles Lucas (violoncello). Receipts, £9,771; profits, £3,806 17s.

1834, Oct. 7 to 10. President, the Earl of Aylesford. This being the first Festival held in the Town Hall it may be noted that the prices of admission were for the morning performances, 21/-for reserved and 10/6 unreserved seats; in the evening, 15/- and 8/-; at the Theatre, boxes and pit, 15/-, gallery, 7/-; ball on Friday, 10/6. There were 14 principal vocalists, 33 in the semi-chorus, 187 in the full chorus, 147 instrumental performers, 2 conductors, 2 organists, and 1 pianist. Besides the "Messiah," there was the new oratorio, "David," by Nerkomm (the first that was originally composed for our Festivals), selections from the same author's "Mount Sinai," from Spohr's "Last Judgment," from Handel's "Israel in Egypt," and an arrangement of Hummel's "Motet," &c. This was the first introduction to the Festivals of Miss Clara Novello (afterwards Countess Gigliucci), Madame Stockhausen and her husband (harpist), Ignaz Moscheles, Mr. William Machin (a townsman), Miss Aston and Miss Bate (both Birmingham ladies), Mr. George Hollins (the first appointed Town Hall organist), and others. Receipts, £13,527; profits, £4,035.

1837, Sept. 19 to 22. President, Lord Willoughby de Broke. Mendelssohn's new oratorio, "St. Paul" (oft mistakenly supposed to have been specially written for the occasion), was the most important production, but Neukomm's "Ascension," Hæser's "Triumph of Faith," and several other new compositions were performed on this occasion. In addition to Mendelssohn's first appearance here as conductor, there were other new faces, among them being Madame Giula Grisi, Madame Emma Albertazzi, Mrs. Albert Shaw, Signor Antonio Tamburini, Mr. Alfred Mellon (in his 17th year, but even then leader of the band at the Theatre), Signor Regondi (concertina player), &c. Receipts, £11,900, but, as besides more than usually heavy expenses, £1,200 was paid for building the recess in which the organ was placed, the profits were only £2,776.

1840, Sept. 22 to 25. President, Lord Leigh. The oratorio, "Israel in Egypt," by Handel, selections from his "Jephtha," and "Joshua," and Mendelssohn's "Hymn of Praise," were the great features of this Festival, at which appeared for the first time Madame Dorus-Gras, Miss M.B. Hawes, Signor Louis Lablache, with Mr. T. Cooke, and Mr. H.G. Blagrove (two clever violinists). Receipts, £11,613; profits, £4,503.

1843, Sept. 19 to 22. President, Earl Craven. The performances at the Town Hall included Handel's oratorio, "Deborah," Dr. Crotch's "Palestine," and Rossini's "Stabat Mater," the introduction of the latter causing a considerable flutter among some of the local clergy, one of whom described it as the most idolatrous and anti-Christian composition that could be met with. The Theatre this year was used for three evening concerts, &c. Among the new vocalists were Miss Rainforth, Signor Mario, Signer Fornasari, and Mr. Manvers. The organists were Dr. Samuel Sebastian Wesley and our Mr. James Stimpson, who had succeeded Mr. George Hollins as Town Hall organist in the previous year. Receipts, £8,822; profits, £2,916.

1846, Aug. 25 to 28. President, Lord Wrottesley. This is known as "The Elijah Festival," from the production of Mendelssohn's chef d'oeuvre the "Elijah" oratorio. The performers were mostly those who had been here before, save Miss Bassano, the Misses Williams, Mr. Lockey, and Herr Joseph Staudigl. Receipts, £11,638; profits, £5,508.

1849, Sept. 4 to 7. President, Lord Guernsey. This Festival is especially noteworthy as being the first conducted by Sir Michael Costa, also for the number of "principals" who had not previously taken part in the Festivals, for the extreme length of the evening programmes, each lasting till after midnight; and, lastly, from the fact, that out of a body of 130 instrumentalists, only eight or nine Birmingham musicians could be found to please the maestro's taste. The oratorios of the "Messiah," "Elijah," and "Israel in Egypt," were the principal pieces, with Mendelssohn's "First Walpurgis Night," and Prince Albert's "L'Invocazione dell' Armonia;" the remainder being of the most varied character. The first appearances included Madame Sontag, Madame Castellan, Miss Catherine Hayes, Mdlle. Alboni, Miss Stevens (afterwards Mrs. Hale), Mdlle. Jetty de Treffz, Sims Reeves, Herr Pischek (baritone basso), Signor Bottesini (double bass), M. Sigismund Thalberg (pianist), M. Prospere Sainton (violinist), &c. Receipts £10,334; profits, £2,448.

1852, Sept. 7 to 10. President, Lord Leigh. Handel's oratorio, "Samson," and Mendelssohn's unfinished "Christus," were the chief new works; and the principal stangers were Madame Viardot-Garda, Miss Dolby, Signor Tamberlik, Herr Formes, Signor Belletti, Mr. Weiss, Signor Piatti (violoncello), Signer Bottisini (double bass), and Herr Kuhe (pianoforte) Receipts £11,925; profits £4,704.

1855, Aug. 28 to 31. President, Lord Willoughby de Broke, The programme included Costa's "Eli" (composed for the occasion), Beethoven's "Mount of Olives," Glover's "Tam O'Shanter," Macfarren's cantata "Lenora," and Mozart's "Requiem;" the fresh artistes being Madame Rudersdorf, Signor Gardoni, and Herr Reichardt. Receipts £12,745; profits, £3,108, in addition to £1,000 spent on decorating, &c., the Hall and organ.

1858, Aug. 31 to Sept. 3. President, the Earl of Dartmouth. The novelties included Mendelssohn's Hymn "Praise Jehovah," Beethoven's "Mass in C." Leslie's Cantata "Judith," Mendelssohn's Cantata "To the Sons of Art," Costa's serenata "The Dream," &c. First appearances were made by Mdlle. Victorie Balfe, Signor Ronconi, Mr. Montem Smith, about a dozen instrumentalists belonging to the Festival Choral Society, and nearly seventy members of the Amateur Harmonic Association, Mr. W.C. Stockley filling the post of general chorus-master. This was the last year of the "Festival Balls." Receipts, £11,141; profits, £2,731.

1861, Aug. 27 to 30. President, the Earl of Shrewsbury and Talbot. The new introductions comprised Mdlle. Titiens, Mdlle. Adelina Patti, Mdlle. Lemmens-Sherrington, Miss Palmer, Signor Giuglini, Mr. Santley, and Miss Arabella Goddard. Beethoven's "Mass in D," and Hummel's Motett "Alma Virgo" were part of the programme, which included not only the "Messiah" and "Elijah," but also "Samson" and "The Creation," &c. Receipts, £11,453; profits, £3,043.

1864, Sept. 6 to 9. President, the Earl of Lichfield. Costa's "Naaman," Sullivan's "Kenilworth," Guglieml's "Offertorium," and Mozart's "Twelfth Mass" were produced. Mr. W.H. Cummings made his first appearance. Receipts, £13,777; profits, £5,256.

1867, Aug. 27 to 29. President, Earl Beauchamp. The novelties were Bennett's "Woman of Samaria," Gounod's "Messe Solonnelle," Benedict's "Legend of St. Cecilia," and Barnett's "Ancient Mariner." The new singers were Mdlle. Christine Nilsson and Madume Patey-Whylock. Receipts, £14,397; profits, £5,541.

1870, Aug. 30 to Sept. 2. President, the Earl of Bradford. The new works were Barnett's "Paradise and the Peri," Benedict's "St. Peter," and Hiller's "Nala and Damayanti," Mdlle. Ilma de Murska, Mdlle. Drasdil, Miss Edith Wynne (Eos Cymru), Signor Foli, and Mr. Vernon Rigby making their début as Festival singers. Receipts, £14,635; profits, £6,195.

1873, Aug. 25 to 28. President, the Earl of Shrewsbury and Talbot. The most important of the novelties were Sullivan's "Light of the World," and Schira's "Lord of Burleigh," but the greatest attraction of all was the patronising presence of royalty in the person of the Duke of Edinburgh. Receipts, £16,097; profits, £6,391.

1876, Aug. 29 to Sept. 1. President, the Marquis of Hertford. Herr Wagner's "Holy Supper," Mr. Macfarren's "Resurrection," Mr. F.H. Cowen's "Corsair," and Herr Gade's "Zion" and "Crusaders" were the pieces now first introduced, the artistes being all old friends, with the exception of Mr. E. Lloyd. Receipts, £15,160; profits. £5,823.

1879, Aug. 26 to 20. President, Lord Norton. The fresh compositions consisted of Herr Max Bruch's "Lay of the Bell," Rossini's "Moses in Egypt," Saint-Saëns' "The Lyre and Harp," and Dr. C.S. Heap's "Overture in F." First appearances included Madame Gerster, Miss Anna Williams, Mr. Joseph Maas, and Herr Henschel, Receipts, £11,729; profits, £4,500.

1882, Aug. 29 to Sep. 1. President, Lord Windsor. On this occasion Madame Roze-Mapleson, Miss Eleanor Farnel, Mr. Horrex, Mr. Campion, and Mr. Woodhall, first came before a Festival audience. The list of new works comprised Gounod's "Redemption," Gaul's "Holy City," Gade's "Psyche," Benedict's "Graziella," Mr. C.H. Parry's "Symphony in G Major." Brahm's "Triumphed," with a new song and a new march by Gounod. Receipts, £15,011; profits, £4,704.

1885. Aug.25 to 28.—President: Lord Brooke. The principal performers were Madame Albani, Mrs. Hutchinson, Miss Anna Williams, Madame Patey, Madame Trebelli; Messrs. Edward Lloyd, Joseph Maas, Santley, Signor Foli. Herr Richter was the conductor. Works performed were:—Oratorio, "Elijah"; new Cantata, "Sleeping Beauty"; new Oratorio, "Mors et Vita"; new cantata, "Yule Tide"; Oratorio, "Messiah"; new Cantata, "The Spectre's Bride"; new Oratorio, "The Three Holy Children."

Music Halls.—Mr. Henry Holder is often said to have been the first who opened a public room of this kind, but there had been one some years before at the George and Dragon, corner of Weaman Street, Steelhouse Lane, which was both popular and respectably conducted.—See "Concert Halls."

Musical Instruments.—Our grandfathers and grandmothers were content with their harps and harpsichords, their big and little fiddles, with trumpets and drums, horns, oboes, bassoons, and pipes. Clarionets were not introduced into the Festival bands until 1778; the double-bass kettle-drums came in 1784; trombones in 1790; flutes, with six or more keys, were not known until 1802; serpents appeared in 1820; flageolets in 1823; the ophicleide was brought in 1829, and the monster specimens in 1834, which year also saw the introduction of the piccolo; the bombardon not coming until 1843. Pianofortes were first known in England in 1767, but when first played in Birmingham is uncertain; the first time the instrument is named in a Festival programme was 1808, but the loan of a grand by Mr. Tomkinson, a London maker, in 1817, was an event thought deserving of a special vote of thanks.

Musical Notabilities of the highest calibre have been frequent visitors here, at the Festivals and at the Theatres, though the native-born sons of song who have attained high rank in the profession number but few. Under "Musical Festivals" appear the names of all the leading artistes who have taken part in those world-known performances, the dates of their first appearances being only given, and in like manner in the notice of our "Theatres" and "Theatrical Celebrities" will be chronicled the advents of many celebrated "stars" who have trod our local boards. Considering the position he long held in the musical world, the introduction of Sir Michael Costa to Birmingham has sufficient interest to be here noted. Signor Costa had been sent by his friend Zingarelli to conduct his "Cantata Sacra" at the Festival of 1829. The managers, however, thought so very little of the young gentleman's appearance (he was but nineteen) that they absolutely refused him permission to do so, only allowing his expenses on condition that he went among the singers. It was of no use his telling them that he was a conductor and not a singer, and he had nervously to take the part assigned him. On returning to London, he quickly "made his mark," and fell into his right place of honour and credit.

Musical Services.—The first of a series of week-night musical services for the people took place at St. Luke's Church, September 10, 1877, the instruments used being the organ, two kettle-drums, two trumpets, and two trombones. This was by no means an original idea, for the followers of Swedenborg had similar services as well in their Chapel in Paradise Street (on site of Queen's College), as in Newhall Street and Summer Lane.

Mysteries of Past History.—It was believed that a quantity of arms were provided here by certain gentlemen favourable to the Pretender's cause in 1745, and that on the rebels failing to reach Birmingham, the said arms were buried on the premises of a certain manufacturer, who for the good of his health fled to Portugal. The fact of the weapons being hidden came to the knowledge of the Government some sixty years after, and a search for them was intended, but though the name of the manufacturer was found in the rare books of the period, and down to 1750, the site of his premises could not be ascertained, the street addresses not being inserted, only the quarter of the town, thus: "T. S.—— Digbath quarter." The swords, &c., have remained undiscovered to the present day.—M 10, 1864, while excavations were being made in the old "Castle Yard," in High Street the skeletons of three human beings were found in a huddled position about 2-1/2 ft. from the surface.—The Old Inkleys were noted for the peculiar character (or want thereof) of its inhabitants, though why they buried their dead beneath their cellar floors must remain a mystery. On October 29, 1879, the skeleton of a full-grown man was found underneath what had once been the site of a house in Court No. 25 of the Old Inkleys, where it must have lain at least 20 years.

Nail Making.—See "Trades."

Natural History and Microscopical Society was formed in January, 1858. The first meeting of the Midland Union of Natural History, Philosophical, and Archæological Societies and Field Clubs was held at the Midland Institute, May 27, 1878.

Nechells.—There is, or was, a year or two back, a very old house, "Nechells Hall," still in existence, where at one period of their history, some of the Holte family resided.

Needless Alley is said to have been originally called Needles Alley from a pin and needle makers' shop there.

Nelson.—Boulton struck a line medal in commemoration of the Battle of Trafalgar, and by permission of the Government gave one to every person who took part in the action; flag-officers and commanders receiving copies in gold, lieutenants, &c., in silver, and the men, bronze. Being struck for this purpose only, and not for sale, the medal is very scarce.—See "Statues."

New Hall.—One of the residences of the Colmore family, demolished in 1787, the advertisement announcing the sale of its materials appearing July 2 that year. It is generally believed that the house stood in exact line with Newhall Street, and at its juncture with Great Charles Street; the houses with the steps to them showing that the site between, whereon the Hall stood, was lowered after its clearance.

Newhall Hill.—Famous for ever in our history for the gatherings which have at times taken place thereon, the most important of which are those of 1819, July 12, to elect a "representative" who should demand admittance to, and a seat in, the House of Commons, whether the Commons would let him or no. For taking part in this meeting, George Edmonds, Major Cartwright, and some others, were put on their trial. A "true bill" was found on August 9th, but the indictment being removed to King's Bench, the trial did not take place till August 7, 1820, the sentence of 12 months' imprisonment being passed May 28, 1821.—In 1832, May 14, nearly 200,000 persons present, Mr. Thomas Attwood presiding. This is the meeting described as "one of the most solemn spectacles ever seen in the world." when the whole mighty assemblage took the vow of the Political Union, to "devote themselves and their children to their country's cause."—In 1833, May 20, at which the Government was censured for passing a Coercian Bill for Ireland, for keeping on the window and house taxes, for not abolishing the Coin Laws, and for not allowing vote by ballot.

Newhall Lane was the original name for that part of Colmore Row situate between Newhall Street and Livery Street.

New John Street, for a long time, was considered the longest street in the borough, being 1 mile and 200 yards long.

New Market Street.—Some ground was set out here, years ago, for a market; hence the name.

Newspapers and Magazines.—In 1719 there were many small "sheets of news" published in London, but the imposition of a halfpenny stamp finished the career of the majority. In 1797 a 3-1/2 d. stamp, and in 1815 a 4d. stamp was required. In 1836 it was reduced to 1d., and in 1855, after a long agitation, the newspaper duty was abolished altogether. About 1830 the trick of printing a calico sheet of news was tried, the letter of the law being that duty must be paid on newspapers, but the Somerset House people soon stopped it. In Oct., 1834, among many others, James Guest, Thomas Watts, and William Plastans, news-vendors of this town, were committed to Warwick Gaol fur the offence of selling unstamped papers. In 1840, the total circulation of all the local papers did not reach 14,000 copies per week, a great contrast to the present day, when one office alone sends out more than 150,000 in the like time. During the Chartist agitation there were frequently as many as 5,000 to 6,000 copies of Feargus O'Connor's Northern Star sold here, and many hundreds a week of the Weekly Dispatch, a great favourite with "the people" then. Cacoethes scribendi, or the scribbling itch, is a complaint many local people have suffered from, but to give a list of all the magazines, newspapers, journals, and periodicals that have been published here is impossible. Many like garden flowers have bloomed, fruited, and lived their little day, others have proved sturdy plants and stood their ground for years, but the majority only just budded into life before the cold frosts of public neglect struck at their roots and withered them up, not a leaf being left to tell even the date of their death. Notes of a few are here given:—

Advertiser.—First number appeared Oct. 10, 1833.

Argus.—Started as a monthly Aug. 1, 1828.—See "Allday" under "Noteworthy Men."

Aris's Gazette.—The oldest of our present local papers was first published Nov. 10, 1741. Like all other papers of that period, it was but a dwarf in comparison with the present broad-sheet, and the whole of the local news given in its first number was comprised in five lines, announcing the celebration of Admiral Vernon's birthday. Its Founder, Thos. Aris, died July 4, 1761. Since that date it had seen but few changes in its proprietorship until 1872, when it was taken by a Limited Liability Company, its politics remaining staunchly Conservative. On May 12th, 1862, it was issued as a daily, the Saturday's publication still bearing the old familiar name.

Athlete.—First issued as the "Midland Athlete," January, 1879.

Bazaar.—A quarto serial of 1823-25.

Birmingham Magazine.—A literary and scientific publication edited by Rev. Hugh Hutton. First appeared in Nov. 1827, running only nine numbers.

Brum.—A so-called satirical, but slightly scurrilous, sheet issued in 1869, for a brief period.

Central Literary Magazine.—First No. in Jan. 1873.

Chronicle.—First published in 1765 by Myles Swinney. who continued to edit the paper until his death in 1812. It was sold March 15, 1819, as well as the type foundry which had been carried on by Mr. Swinney, a business then noteworthy, as there was but one other of the kind in England out of London.

Daily Globe.—A Conservative 1/2d. evening paper, commencing Nov. 17, 1879, and dying Oct. 30, 1880.

Daily Mail.—Evening 1/2d. paper; an offshoot from the Daily Post, and now printed on adjoining premises. First published Sept. 7, 1870.

Daily Post.—First published Dec. 4, 1857, by the proprietors of the Journal. From the first it "took" well, and it is the leading daily paper of the Midland Counties.

Daily Press.—The first daily paper issued in Birmingham appeared on May 7, 1855. Like many other "new inventions," however, it did not succeed in making a firm footing and succumbed in November, 1858.

Dart.—A well-conducted comic weekly paper. Commenced Oct. 28, 1876.

Edgbaston Advertiser.—Published monthly by Mr. Thos. Britton, Ladywood. As its name implies, this publication is more of the character of an advertising sheet than a newspaper, but it often contains choice literary pieces which make it a favourite.

Edgbastonia.—A monthly, full of quaint and curious notes, local biographies, &c., issued by Mr. Eliezer Edwards, the well-known "S.D.R." First sent out May, 1881.

Edmonds' Weekly Recorder.—First published by George Edmonds, June 18, 1819. It was alive in 1823, but date of last issue is uncertain.

German.—A newspaper printed in the German language made its appearance here Aug. 7, 1866, but did not live long.

Graphic.—A penny illustrated commenced Feb. 21, 1883, but its growth was not sufficiently hardy to keep it alive more than two summers.

Gridiron.—"A grill for saints and sinners," according to No. 1 (June 14, 1879), and if bitter biting personalities can be called fun, the publication was certainty an amusing one, so long as it lasted.

Hardware Lion.—Rather a curious name for the monthly advertising sheet first published Dec., 1880, but it did not long survive.

Illustrated Midland News.—The publication of this paper, Sept. 4, 1869, was a spirited attempt by Mr. Joseph Hatton to rival the Illustrated London News; but the fates were against him, and the last number was that of March 11, 1871.

Inspector.—A political sheet, which only appeared a few times in 1815.

Iris.—A few numbers of a literary magazine thus named were issued in 1830.

Jabet's Herald.—A weekly paper, published 1808, but not of long existence.

Journal.—A paper with this name was published in 1733, but there are no files extant to show how long it catered for the public. A copy of its 18th number, Monday, May 21, 1733, a small 4to of 4 pages, with the 1/2d. red stamp, is in the possession of the proprietors of the Daily Post, The Journal of later days first appeared June 4 1825, and continued to be published as a Saturday weekly until 1873, when it was incorporated with the Daily Post.

Liberal Review.—First number March 20, 1880, and a few numbers ended it.

Looker-On.—A quizzical critical sheet of theatrical items of the year 1823.

Literary Phoenix.—A miscellany of literary litter swept together by Mr. Henry Hawkes in 1820, but soon dropped.

Lion.—Another of the modern "satirical" shortlived sheets, started Jan. 4, 1877.

Mercury.—The Birmingham Mercury and Warwickshire and Staffordshire Advertiser was the title of newspaper of which the first copy was dated November 24, 1820. The title of Mercury was revived in 1848. on the 10th December of which year Mr. Wm. B. Smith brought out his paper of that name. It commenced with éclat, but soon lost its good name, and ultimately, after a lingering existence (as a daily at last), it died out August 24, 1857.

Middle School Mirror.—A monthly, edited, written, and published by the boys of the Middle School of King Edward the Sixth, shone forth in December, 1880.

Midland Antiquary.—First numbtr for Oct., 1882. A well-edited chronicle of matters interesting to our "Old Mortality" boys.

Midland Counties Herald.—First published July 26, 1836, by Messrs. Wright and Dain. Its circulation, though almost gratuitous is extensive and from its high character as a medium for certain classes of advertisements it occasionally has appeared in the novel shape of a newspaper without any news, the advertisers taking up all the space.

Midland Echo—Halfpenny evening paper, commenced Feb. 26, 1883, as an extra-superfine Liberal organ. Ceased to appear as a local paper early in 1885.

Midland Metropolitan Magazine. This heavily-named monthly lasted just one year, from Dec., 1852.

Midland Naturalist.—Commenced Jan. 1, 1878.

Morning News.—Daily paper, in politics a Nonconformist Liberal; first published Jan. 2, 1871, under the editorship of George Dawson until the expiration of 1873. On Aug. 16, 1875, it was issued as a morning and evening paper at 1/2d.; but the copy for May 27, 1876, contained its own death notice.

Mouse Trap.—The title of a little paper of playful badinage, issued for a month or two in the autumn of 1824.

Naturalists' Gazette.—In Sept. 1882, the Birmingham naturalists began a gazette of their own.

Old and New Birmingham was published in monthly parts, the first being issued June 1, 1878.

Owl.—A weekly pennyworth of self-announced "wit and wisdom" first issued Jan. 30, 1879.

Penny Magazine.—This popular periodical, the fore-runner of all the cheap literature of the day, may be said to have had a Birmingham origin, as it was first suggested to Charles Knight by Mr. M.D. Hill in 1832.

Philanthropist.—First published (as The Reformer) April 16, 1835, by Benjamin Hudson, 18, Bull Street; weekly, four pages, price 7d., but in the following September lowered to 4-1/2d., the stamp duty of 4d. being at that time reduced to 1d. In politics it was Liberal, and a staunch supporter of the Dissenters, who only supported it for about two years.

Radical Times.—Came into existence Sept. 30, 1876, but being too rabidly Radical, even for "the 600," whose leading-strings it shirked, it did not thrive for long.

Register or Entertaining Museum.—With the prefix of the town's name, this monthly periodical lived one year from May 10, 1764. This was one of the earliest London-printed country papers, the only local portion being the outside pages, so that it suited for a number of places.

Reporter and Review.—Principally devoted to the doings on the local stage, and published for a brief period during June, &c., 1823.

Saturday Evening Post.—A weekly "make-up" from the Daily Post (with a few distinctive features) and came into being with that paper; price 1-1/2d. Originally issued at noon on Saturday, but latterly it has appeared simultaneous with the Daily, and is known as the Weekly Post, its price lately having been reduced to 1d.

Saturday Night.—First published, Sept. 30, 1882.

Saturday's Register.—Another of George Edmunds' political papers, which appeared for a few months in 1820.

Spectator.—A literary and dramatic monthly, of which seven parts were published in 1824.

Sunday Echo.—First number came out May 21, 1882.

Sunday Express.—Started August, 1884, and died August, 1885.

Sunday Telegram.—Started May, 1883.

Sunrise.—Rose Nov. 18, 1882, at the price of one-halfpenny, and lasted a few weeks only.

Tattler.—April 1817 saw the first appearance of this tittle-tattle-tale-telling monthly tease to all lovers of theatrical order, and August saw the last.

Theatrical Argus.—Of May and following months of 1830. A two-penny-worth of hotch-potch, principally scandal.

Theatrical John Bull.—Published in May, 1824, lasting for the season only.

Theatrical Note Book.—Rival to above in June, 1824, and going off the stage same time.

Town Crier.—This respectable specimen of a local comic appeared first in September, 1861, and it deserves a long life, if only for keeping clear of scandal and scurrility.

Warwick and Staffordshire Journal.—Though printed here, the town was not thought capable of filling its columns; a little experience showed the two counties to be as bad, and subscribers were tempted to buy by the issue of an Illustrated Bible and Prayer Book sent out in parts with the paper. The first No. was that of Aug. 20, 1737, and it continued till the end of Revelations, a large number of copperplate engravings being given with the Bible, though the price of the paper was but 2d.

Weekly Mercury.—Commenced November, 1884.

Weekly News.—A weak attempt at a weekly paper, lasted from May to September, 1882.

Newsrooms.—The first to open a newsroom were Messrs. Thomson and Wrightson, booksellers, who on Aug. 22, 1807, admitted the public to its tables. In 1825 a handsome newsroom was erected in Bennett's Hill, the site of which was sold in 1858 for the County Court, previous to its removal to Waterloo Street.

New Street once called "Beast Market." was in Hutton's time approached from High Street through an archway, the rooms over being in his occupation. In 1817 there were several walled-in gardens on the Bennett's Hill side of the street, and it is on record that one house at least was let at the low rent of 5s. 6d. per week. The old "Grapes" public-house was pulled down just after the Queen's visit, being the last of the houses removed on account of the railway station. Though it has long been the principal business street of the town, New street was at one time devoted to the ignoble purposes of a beast market, and where the fair ladies of to-day lightly tread the flags when on shopping bent, the swine did wait the butcher's knife. New Street is 561 yards in length; between Temple Street and Bennett's Hill it is 46-1/2 feet wide, and near Worcester Street 65 ft. 4 in. wide.

Nonconformists.—The so-called Act of Uniformity of 1602 deprived nearly 2,000 of the clergy of their livings, and a few of them came to Birmingham as a place of refuge, ministering among the Dissenters, who then had no buildings for regular worship. There were many documents in the lost Staunton Collection relating to some of these clergymen, who, however, did not find altogether comfortable quarters even here, one George Long, M.D., who had fled from his persecutors in Staffordshire, finding no peace in Birmingham, removed to Ireland; others, though they came here by stealth to minister, had to reside in country parts. A Central Nonconformist Committee was formed here March 3, 1870.

Nonjurors.—Among the name of the Roman Catholics, or "Non-jurors," who refused to take the oath of allegiance to George I., appeared that of John Stych, of Birmingham, whose forfeited estate was, in 1715, valued at £12.

Northfield.—Four and a-half miles from Birmingham. There was a Church here at the time of the Norman survey, and some traces of its Saxon origin, students of architecture said, could once be found in the ancient doorway on the north side of the building. Some forty years ago the psalmody of the congregation and choir received assistance from the mellifluous strains ground out of a barrel organ, which instrument is still preserved as a curiosity by a gentleman of the neighbourhood. They had an indelible way at one time of recording local proceedings in matters connected with the Church here. The inscriptions on the six bells cast in 1730 being:—

Treble.—We are now six, though once but five,
2nd.—Though against our casting some did strive,
3rd.—But when a day for meeting they did fix,
4th.—There appeared but nine against twenty-six.
5th.—Samuel Palmer and Thomas Silk Churchwardens.
Tenor.—Thomas Kettle and William Jervoise did contrive To make us six that were but five.

Notable Offences.—In olden days very heavy punishments were dealt out for what we now think but secondary offences, three men being sentenced to death at the Assizes, held March 31, 1742, one Anstey for burglary, Townsend for sheep-stealing, and Wilmot for highway robbery. The laws also took cognisance of what to us are strange crimes, a woman in 1790 being imprisoned here for selling almanacks without the Government stamp on them; sundry tradesmen also being heavily fined for dealing in covered buttons. The following are a few other notable olfences that have been chronicled for reference:—

Bigamy.—The Rev. Thomas Morris Hughes was, Nov. 15, 1883, sentenced to seven years' penal servitude for this offence. He had been previously punished for making a false registration of the birth of a child, the mother of which was his own stepdaughter.

Burglary.—On Christmas eve, 1800, five men broke into the counting-house at Soho, stealing therefrom 150 guineas and a lot of silver, but Matthew Boulton captured four of them, who were transported.—The National School at Handsworth, was broken into and robbed for the fifth time Sept. 5, 1827.—A warehouse in Bradford Street was robbed Jan. 9, 1856, of an iron safe, weighing nearly 4cwt., and containing £140 in cash.—A burglary was committed in the Ball Ring, July 5, 1862, for which seven persons were convicted.

Coining.—Booth, the noted coiner and forger, was captured at Perry Barr, March 28, 1812, his house being surrounded by constables and soldiers. In addition to a number of forged notes and £600 in counterfeit silver, the captors found 200 guineas in gold and nearly £3,000 in good notes, but they did not save Booth Irom being hanged. Booth had many hidingplaces for his peculiar productions, parcels of spurious coins having several times been found in hedgerow banks and elsewhere; the latest find (in April, 1884) consisted of engraved copper-plates for Bank of England £1 and £2 notes.—There have been hundreds of coiners punished since his day. The latest trick is getting really good dies for sovereigns, for which Ingram Belborough, an old man of three score and six, got seven years' penal servitude, Nov, 15 1883.

Deserters.—On 24 July, 1742, a soldier deserted from his regiment in this town. Followed, and resisting, he was shot at Tettenhall Wood.—A sergeant of the Coldstream Guards was shot here while trying to capture a deserter, September 13, 1796.

Dynamite making.—One of the most serious offences committed in Birmingham was discovered when Alfred Whitehead was arrested April 5, 1883, on the charge of manufacturing nitroglycerine, or dynamite, at 128, Ledsam Street. Whitehead was one of the Irish-American or American-Irish party of the Land Leaguers or Home Rulers, who entertain the idea that by committing horrible outrages in England. they will succeed in making Ireland "free from the galling yoke of Saxon tyranny" and every Irishman independent of everybody and everything everywhere. Well supplied with funds from New York, Whitehead quietly arranged his little manufactory, buying glycerine from one firm and nitric and sulphuric acids from others, certain members of the conspiracy coming from London to take away the stuff when it was completely mixed. The deliveries of the peculiar ingredients attracted the attention of Mr. Gilbert Pritchard, whose chemical knowledge led him to guess what they were required for; he informed his friend, Sergeant Price, of his suspicions; Price and his superior officers made nightly visits to Ledsam Street, getting into the premises, and taking samples for examination; and on the morning named Whitehead's game was over, though not before he had been watched in sending off two lots of the dangerously explosive stuff to London. There was, however, no less than 200lbs weight found still on the premises. The men who carried it to London were quickly caught with the dynamite in their possession, and with Whitehead were brought to trial and each of them sentenced to penal servitude for life. The distribution of rewards in connection with the "dynamite outrages," so far as Birmingham people were concerned, was somewhat on a similar scale to that described by the old sailor, when he said "prize-money" was distributed through a ladder, all passing through going to the officers, while any sticking to the wood was divided among the men. Mr. Farndale, the Chief of Police, was granted an addition to his salary of £100 per year; Inspector Black was promoted to the rank of Superintendent, adding £50 a year to his salary, and was presented with £100 from Government; Sergeant Price, became Inspector, with a rise of £41 12s. a year, and received a bonus of £200; Inspector Rees' salary was raised to two guineas a week, with a gift, of £50: while Mr. Pritchard, to whom belonged the conspicuous service of having given the information which led the police to act, was rewarded (!) with £50, having lost his situation through his services to the public.

Embezzlements.—In 1871, W. Harrison, the Secretary of the Birmingham Gas Company, skedaddled, his books showing defalcations to the amount of £18,000. When the company was dissolved, £100 was left in a bank for Mr. Secretary's prosecution, should he return to this country.—July 12, 1877, the secretary of the Moseley Skating Rink Company was awarded twelve months, and the secretary of the Butcher's Hide and Skin Company six months, for similar offences, but for small amounts.

Forgeries.—In the year 1800, seven men were hung at Warwick for forgery, and with them one for sheep-stealing. The manufacture of forged bank-notes was formerly quite a business here, and many cases are on record of the detection and punishment of the offenders.—June 28, 1879. the Joint Stock Bank were losers of £2,130 through cashing three forged cheques bearing the signature of W.C.B. Cave, the clever artist getting ten years—Nov. 15, 1883. John Alfred Burgan, manager of the Union Bank, for forging and uttering a certain order, and falsifying his books, the amounts embezzled reaching £9,000, was sentenced to fifteen years' penal servitude.—On the previous day Benjamin Robert Danks was similarly punished for forgeries on his employer, Mr. Jesse Herbert, barrister, who had been exceedingly kind to him—Zwingli Sargent, solicitor, was sentenced to five years' penal servitude, April 28, 1885, for forgery and misappropriating money belonging to clients.

Fortunetelling is still far from being an uncommon offence, but "Methratton," the "Great Seer of England," alias John Harewell, who, on March 28, 1883, was sentenced to nine months hard labour, must rank as being at the top of the peculiar profession. Though a "Great Seer" he could not foresee his own fate.

Highwaymen.—The "gentlemen of the road" took their tolls in a very free manner in the earlier coaching days, notwithstanding that the punishment dealt out was frequently that of death or, in mild cases, transportation for life. The Birmingham stage coach was stopped and robbed near Banbury, May 18, 1743, by two highwaymen, who, however, were captured same day, and were afterwards hung.—Mr. Wheeley, of Edgbaston, was stopped in a lane near his own house, and robhed of 20 guineas by a footpad, May 30, 1785.—An attempt to rob and murder Mr. Evans was made near Aston Park, July 25, 1789.—Henry Wolseley, Esq. (third son of Sir W. Wolseley, Bart.), was robbed by high-waymen near Erdington, Nov. 5, 1793.—Some highwaymen robbed a Mr. Benton of £90 near Aston Brook, April 6, 1797.—The coach from Sheffield was stopped by footpads near Aston Park, March 1, 1798, and the passengers robbed.—The "Balloon" coach was robbed of £8,000, Dec. 11, 1822, and the Warwick mail was robbed of no less than £20,000 in bank notes, Nov. 28. 1827.

Horrible.—The bodies of eleven children were found buried at back of 68, Long Acre, Nechells, where lived Ann Pinson, a midwife, who said they were all still-born, July, 1878.

Long Firms.—A term applied to rogues, who, by pretending to be in business, procure goods by wholesale, and dispose of them fraudulently. W.H. Stephenson, of this town, a great patron of these gentry, was sentenced to seven years' penal servitude, Nov. 22, 1877, for the part he had taken in one of these swindling transactions, according to account by far from being the first of the kind he had had a hand in.

Next-of-Kin Frauds.—Many good people imagine they are entitled to property now in other hands, or laid up in Chancery, and to accommodate their very natural desire to obtain information that would lead to their getting possession of same, a "Next-of-Kin Agency" was opened in Burlington Passage at the beginning of 1882. The modus operandi was of the simplest: the firm advertised that Brown, Jones, and Robinson were wanted; Brown, Jones, and Robinson turned up, and a good many of them; they paid the enquiry fees, and called again. They were assured (every man Jack of them) they were right owners, and all they had to do was to instruct the firm to recover. More fees, and heavy ones; the Court must be petitioned—more fees; counsel engaged—more fees; case entered for hearing—more fees, and so on, as long as the poor patients would stand bleeding. Several instances were known of people selling their goods to meet the harpies' demands; clergymen and widows, colliers and washer-women, all alike were in the net. It became too hot at last, and Rogers, Beeton and Co., were provided with berths in the gaol. At Manchester Assizes July 18, 1882, J.S. Rogers got two years' hard labour, A. Mackenzie and J.H. Shakespear (a solicitor) each 21 months; and E.A. Beeton, after being in gaol six months, was ordered to stop a further twelve, the latter's conviction being from this town.

Novel Thefts.—A youth of nineteen helped himself to £128 from a safe at General Hospital, and spent £13 of it before the magistrates (Jan. 15, 1875) could give him six months' lodgings at the gaol.—Three policemen were sent to penal servitude for five years for thieving July 8, 1876.—Sept. 19, 1882, some labourers engaged in laying sewage pipes near Newton Street, Corporation Street, came across some telegraph cables, and under the impression that they were "dead" wires, hitched a horse thereto and succeeded in dragging out about a dozen yards of no less than 33 different cables connecting this town with Ireland, the Continent, and America. Their prize was sold for 4s. 6d., but the inconvenience caused was very serious. Henry Jones, who was tried for the trick, pleaded ignorance, and was let off.—At Quarter Sessions, Ernest Lotze, got six months for stealing, Dec. 12, 1892, from his employer 87lb. weight of human hair, valued at £300.

Personal Outrages.—Maria Ward was sentenced to penal servitude December 18, 1873, for mutilating her husband in a shocking manner.—At Warwick Assizes, December 19, 1874, one man was sentenced to 15 years, and four others to 7 years' penal servitude for outraging a woman in Shadwell Street.—George Moriarty, plasterer, pushed his wife through the chamber window, and on her clinging to the ledge beat her hands with a hammer till she fell and broke her leg, May 31, 1875. It was three months before she could appear against him, and he had then to wait three months for his trial, which resulted in a twenty years' sentence.

Sacrilege.—In 1583 St. Martin's Church was robbed of velvet "paul cloathes," and also some money belonging to the Grammar School.— Handsworth Church was robbed of its sacramental plate, February 10, 1784; and Aston Church was similarly despoiled, April 21, 1788.—A gross sacrilege was commuted in Edgbaston Church, December 15, 1816.—Four Churches were broken into on the night of January 3, 1873.

Sedition and Treason.—George Ragg, printer, was imprisoned for sedition, February 12, 1821.—George Thompson, gun maker, 31, Whittall Street, was imprisoned, August 7, 1839, for selling guns to the Chartists.

Shop Robberies.—Diamonds worth £400 were stolen from Mr. Wray's shop, November 27, 1872.—A jeweller's window in New Street was smashed January 23, 1875, the damage and loss amounting to £300.—A bowl containing 400 "lion sixpences" was stolen from Mr. Thomas's window, in New Street, April 5, 1878.—Mr. Mole's jeweller's shop, High Street, was plundered of £500 worth, April 13th, 1881. Some of the works of the watches taken were afterwards fished up from the bottom of the Mersey, at Liverpool.

Short Weight.—Jan. 2, 1792, there was a general "raid" made on the dealers in the market, when many short-weight people came to grief.

Street Shouting.—The Watch Committee passed a bye-law, May 14, 1878, to stop the lads shouting "Mail, Mail," but they go on doing it. Swindles.—Maitland Boon Hamilton, a gentleman with a cork leg, was given six months on July 25, 1877, for fleecing Mr. Marsh, the jeweller, out of some diamonds.—James Bentley, for the "Christmas hamper swindle," was sentenced to seven years at the Quarter Sessions, May 1, 1878.

The following tables show the number of offences dealt with by the authorities during the five years ending with 1882 (the charges, of which only a small number have been reported, being omitted):—

The total number of crimes reported under the head of "indictable offences"—namely, Sessions and Assizes cases—the number apprehended, and how dealt with, will be gathered from the following summary:—

Year. Crimes. Apprehended. Com. for trial.
1878 1746 495 349
1879 1358 474 399
1880 1187 451 340
1881 1343 435 351
1882 1467 515 401
NATURE OF CRIME. Number of Offences Reported.
1878. 1879 1880. 1881. 1882.
Murder 11 11 5 5 4
Shooting, wounding,stabbing, &c. 30 23 8 21 28
Manslaughter  4 3 13 6 8
Rape, assaults with intent, &c. 6 1 1 9 4
Bigamy 8 0 1 4 7
Assaults on peace officers 0 4 0 1 2
Burglary, housebreaking, &c. 6 112 80 83 131
Breaking into shops, &c.  4 94 56 109 120
Robbery -- 9 6 10 9
Larcenies (various) 1146 959 845 935 931
Receiving stolen goods 22 3 16 8 6
Frauds and obtaining by false pretences 63 45 53 37 69
Forgery and uttering forged instruments 5 9 5 4 9
Uttering, &c., counterfeit coin 48 32 43 37 63
Suicide (attempting) 20 17 19 16 23

The following are the details of the more important offences dealt with summarily by the magistrates during the last five years:—

OFFENCES PUNISHABLE BY JUSTICES. Number of persons proceeded against.
1878. 1879. 1880. 1881. 1882.
Assaults (aggravated) on women and children 78 57 68 37 67
Assaults on peace-officers, resisting, &c. 479 390 340 340 385
Assaults, common 1554 1242 1293 1207 1269
Breaches of peace, want of sureties, &c. 426 381 287 219 244
Cruelty to animals  154 77 129 128 94
Elementary Education Act, offences against  1928 2114 1589 1501 1755
Employers and Workshops Act, 1875 224 198 185 155 154
Factory Acts  12 2 17 11 62
Licensing Acts offences 267 263 132 254 297
Drunkenness, drunk and disorderly  2851 2428 2218 2345 2443
Lord's Day offences 46 4 1 0 0
Local Acts and Bye-laws, offences against  4327 4327 4127 3702 3603
Malicious and wilful damage 187 163 163 214 225
Public Health Act, smoke, etc. 317 172 104 104 161
Poor Law Acts, offences against  203 220 251 243 325
Stealing or attempts (larcenies) 1094 1222 1434 1253 1235
Vagrant Act, offences under 614 622 624 611 783
Other offences 214 174 172 211 386

The following are the totals of the summary offences for the same period, and the manner in which they were disposed of:—

Year. Cases. Convicted. Fined.
1878 16,610 12,767 8,940
1879 14,475 10,904 7,473
1880 13,589 9,917 6,730
1881 13,007 9,468 6,412
1882 13,788 10,171 6,372

Similar statistics for 1883 have not yet been made up, but a return up to December 31 of that year shows that the number of persons committed during the year to the Borough Gaol, or as it is now termed, her Majesty's Prison at Winson Green, were 3,044 males and 1,045 females from the borough, and 1,772 males and 521 females from districts, making a total of 6,382 as against 6,565 in 1882. In the borough 734 males and 198 females had been committed for felony, 1,040 males and 290 females for misdemeanour, 707 males and 329 females for drunkenness, and 243 males and 121 females for vagrancy. Of prisoners sixteen years old and under there were 193 males and 21 females.

Noteworthy Men of the Past.—Though in the annals of Birmingham history the names of very many men of note in art, science, and literature, commerce and politics, are to be found, comparatively speaking there are few of real native origin. Most of our best men have come from other parts, as will be seen on looking over the notices which follow this. Under the heading of "Parsons, Preachers, and Priests," will be found others of different calibre.

Allday.—The "Stormy Petrel" of modern Birmingham was Joseph, or, as he was better known, Joey Allday, whose hand at one time, was against every man, and every man's hand against Joe. Born in 1798, Mr. Allday, on arriving at years of maturity, joined his brothers in the wire-drawing business, but though it is a painful sight to see (as Dr. Watts says) children of one family do very often disagree, even if they do not fall out and chide and fight; but Joseph was fond of fighting (though not with his fists), and after quarelling and dissolving partnership, as one of his brothers published a little paper so must he. This was in 1824, and Joey styled his periodical The Mousetrap, footing his own articles with the name of "Argus." How many Mousetraps Allday sent to market is uncertain, as but one or two copies only are known to be in existence, and equally uncertain is it whether the speculation was a paying one. His next literary notion, however, if not pecuniarily successful, was most assuredly popular, as well as notorious, it being the much-talked-of Argus. The dozen or fifteen years following 1820 were rather prolific in embryo publications and periodicals of one kind and another, and it is a matter of difficulty to ascertain now the exact particulars respecting many of them. Allday's venture, which was originally called The Monthly Argus, first saw the light in August, 1828. and, considering the times, it was a tolerably well-conducted sheet of literary miscellany, prominence being given to local theatrical matters and similar subjects, which were fairly criticised. Ten numbers followed, in due monthly order, but the volume for the year was not completed, as in July, 1830, a new series of The Argus was commenced in Magazine shape and published at a shilling. The editor of this new series had evidently turned over a new leaf, but he must have done so with a dungfork, for the publication became nothing better than the receptacle of rancour, spite, and calumny, public men and private individuals alike being attacked, and often in the most scurrilous manner. The printer (who was still alive a few years back) was William Chidlow and on his head, of course, fell all the wrath of the people libelled and defamed. George Frederick Mantz horse whipped him, others sued him for damages, and even George Edmonds (none too tender-tongued himself) could not stand the jibes and jeers of The Argus. The poor printer was arrested on a warrant for libel; his types and presses were confiscated under a particular section of the Act for regulating newspapers, and Allday himself at the March Assizes in 1831 was found guilty on several indictments for libel, and sentenced to ten months' imprisonment. A third series of The Argus was started June 1st, 1832, soon after Allday's release from Warwick, and as the vile scurrility of the earlier paper was abandoned to a great extent, it was permitted to appear as long as customers could be found to support it, ultimately dying out with the last month of 1834. To Mr. Joseph Allday must credit be given for the exposure of numerous abuses existing in his day. He had but to get proper insight into anything going on wrong than he at once attacked it, tooth and nail, no matter who stood in the road, or who suffered from his blows. His efforts to put a stop to the cruelties connected with the old system of imprisonment and distraint for debt led to the abolition of the local Courts of Requests; and his wrathful indignation on learning the shocking manner in which prisoners at the goal were treated by the Governor, Lieutenant Austin, in 1852-53, led to the well-remembered "Gaol Atrocity Enquiry," and earned for him the thanks of the Commissioners appointed by Government to make the enquiry. As a Town Councillor and Alderman, as a Poor Law Guardian and Chairman of the Board, as Parish Warden for St. Martin's and an opponent of churchrates (while being a good son of Mother Church), as founder of the Ratepayers' Protection Society and a popular leader of the Conservative party, it needs not saying that Mr. Allday had many enemies at all periods of his life, but there were very few to speak ill of him at the time of his death, which resulted from injuries received in a fall on Oct. 2nd, 1861.

Allen, J.—Local portrait painter of some repute from 1802 to 1820.

Aston, John, who died Sept. 12, 1882, in his 82nd year, at one time took a leading share in local affairs. He was High Bailiff in 1841, a J.P. for the county, for 40 years a Governor of the Grammar School, and on the boards of management of a number of religious and charitable institutions. A consistent Churchman, he was one of the original trustees of the "Ten Churches Fund," one of the earliest works of church extension in Birmingham; he was also the chief promoter of the Church of England Cemetery, and the handsome church of St. Michael, which stands in the Cemetery grounds, was largely due to his efforts. In polities Mr. Aston was a staunch Conservative, and was one of the trustees of the once notable Constitutional Association.

Attwood.—The foremost name of the days of Reform, when the voice of Liberal Birmingham made itself heard through its leaders was that of Thomas Attwood. A native of Salop, born Oct. 6, 1783, he became a resident here soon after coming of age, having joined Messrs. Spooner's Bank, thence and afterwards known as Spooner and Attwood's. At the early age of 28 he was chosen High Bailiff, and soon made his mark by opposing the renewal of the East India Co.'s charter, and by his exertions to obtain the withdrawal of the "Orders in Council," which in 1812, had paralysed the trade of the country with America. The part he took in the great Reform meetings, his triumphant reception after the passing of the Bill, and his being sent to Parliament as one of the first representatives for the borough, are matters which have been too many times dilated upon to need recapitulation. Mr. Attwood had peculiar views on the currency question, and pertinaciously pressing them on his fellow members in the House of Commons he was not liked, and only held his seat until the end of Dec., 1839, the last prominent act of his political life being the presentation of a monster Chartist petition in the previous June. He afterwards retired into private life, ultimately dying at Malvern, March 6 1856, being then 73 years of age. Charles Attwood, a brother, but who took less part in politics, retiring from the Political Union when he thought Thomas and his friends were verging on the precipice of revolution, was well known in the north of England iron and steel trade. He died Feb. 24, 1875, in his 84th year. Another brother Benjamin, who left politics alone, died Nov. 22, 1874, aged 80. No greater contrast could possibly be drawn than that shown in the career of these three gentlemen. The youngest brother who industriously attended to his business till he had acquired a competent fortune, also inherited enormous wealth from a nephew, and after his death he was proved to have been the long un-known but much sought after anonymous donor of the £1,000 notes so continuously acknowledged in the Times as having been sent to London hospitals and charities. It was said that Benjamin Attwood distributed nearly £350,000 in this unostentatious manner, and his name will be ever blessed. Charles Attwood was described as a great and good man, and a benefactor to his race. His discoveries in the manufacture of glass and steel, and his opening up of the Cleveland iron district, has given employment to thousands, and as one who knew him well said, "If he had cared more about money, and less about science, he could have been one of the richest commoners in England;" but he was unselfish, and let other reap the benefit of his best patents. What the elder brother was, most Brums know; he worked hard in the cause of Liberalism, he was almost idolised here, and his statue stands not far from the site of the Bank with which his name was unfortunately connected, and the failure of which is still a stain on local commercial history.

Baldwin, James.—Born in the first month of the present century, came here early in his teens, worked at a printer's, saved his money, an employer at 25, made a speciality of "grocer's printing," fought hard in the battle against the "taxes on knowledge," became Alderman and Mayor, and ultimately settled down on a farm near his own paper mills at King's Norton, where, Dec. 10, 1871, he finished a practically useful life, regretted by many.

Bayley, C.H.—A Worcestershire man and a Staffordshire resident; a persevering collector of past local and county records, and an active member of the Archæological section of the Midland Institute. Mr. Bayley was also a member of the Staffordshire Archæological Society, and took special interest in the William Salt Library at Stafford, whose treasures were familiar to him, and whose contents he was ever ready to search and report on for any of his friends. In 1869 he issued the first of some proposed reprints of some of his own rarities, in "A True Relation of the Terrible Earthquake at West Brummidge, in Staffordshire," &c., printed in 1676; and early in 1882 (the year of his death) "The Rent Rolls of Lord Dudley and Ward in 1701"—a very curious contribution to local history, and full of general interest also.

Beale, Samuel.—At one period a most prominent man among our local worthies, one of the first Town Councillors, and Mayor in 1841. He was Chairman of the Midland Railway, a director of the Birmingham and Midland Bank, and sat as M.P. for Derby from 1857 to 1865. He died Sept 11 1876, aged 71.

Beale, W.J.—A member of the legal firm of Beale, Marigold, and Beale. Mr. Beale's chief public service was rendered in connection with the General Hospital and the Musical Festivals. He was for many years a member of the Orchestral Committee of the Festivals, and in 1870 he succeeded Mr. J.0. Mason as chairman; retaining this position until after the Festival of 1876. His death took place in July, 1880, he then being in his 76th year.

Billing, Martin.—Founder of the firm of Martin Billing, Sons, & Co., Livery Street, died July 17, 1883, at the age of 71. He commenced life under his uncle, Alderman Baldwin, and was the first to introduce steam printing machines into Birmingham. The colossal structure which faces the Great Western Railway Station was erected about twenty-nine years ago.

Bisset, James, was the publisher of the "Magnificent Directory" and "Poetic Survey" of Birmingham, presented to the public, January 1, 1800.

Bowly E.0.—A native, self-taught artist, whose pictures now fetch rapidly-increasing sums, though for the best part of his long life dealers and the general run of art patrons, while acknowledging the excellence of the works, would not buy them. Mr. Bowly, however, lived sufficiently long to know that the few gentlemen who honoured him in his younger years, were well recompensed for their kind recognition of his talent, though it came too late to be of service to himself. His death occurred Feb. 1, 1876, in his 70th year.

Briggs.—Major W.B. Briggs, who was struck off the world's roster Jan. 25, 1877, was one of the earliest and most ardent supporters of the Volunteer movement in Birmingham, being gazetted ensign of the 2nd Company in November, 1859. He was a hearty kindly man, and much esteemed in and out of the ranks.

Burritt Elihu, the American "learned blacksmith," having made himself proficient in fifteen different languages. He first addressed the "Friends of Peace" in this town, Dec. 15, 1846, when on a tour through the country. He afterwards returned, and resided in England for nearly twenty-five years, being for a considerable time United States Consul at Birmingham, which he left in 1868. During his residence here he took an active share in the work of diffusing the principles of temperance and peace, both by lecturing and by his writings.

Bynner, Henry.—A native of the town; forty-five years British Consul at Trieste; returned here in 1842, and died in 1867. He learned shorthand writing of Dr. Priestley, and was the first to use it in a law court in this county.

Cadbury, Richard Tapper.—A draper and haberdasher, who started business here in 1794. One of the Board of Guardians, and afterwards Chairman (for 15 years) of the Commissioners of the Streets, until that body was done away with. Mr. Cadbury was one of the most respected and best known men of the town. He died March 13, 1860, in his 92nd year, being buried in Bull Street, among his departed friends.

Capers, Edward.—Sometimes called the "poet-postman," is a Devonshire man, but resided for a considerable time at Harborne. He deserves a place among our noteworthy men, if only for his sweet lines on the old Love lane at Edgbaston, now known as Richmond Hill.

"But no vestige of the bankside lingers now
or gate to show
The track of the old vanished lane of love's
sweet long ago."

Carey, Rev. Henry Francis, a native of this town (born in 1772), vicar of Bromley Abbots, Staffordshire, himself a poet of no mean order, translated in blank verse Dante's "Inferno," the "Divina Commedia," &c., his works running rapidly through several editions. For some time he was assistant librarian at the British Museum, and afterwards received a pension of £200 a year. Died in 1844, and lies in "Poet's Corner," Westminster Abbey.

Chamberlain, John Henry.—Came to Birmingham in 1856, and died suddenly on the evening of Oct. 22, 1883, after delivering a lecture in the Midland Institutes on "Exotic Art." An architect of most brilliant talent, it is almost impossible to record the buildings with which (in conjunction with his partner, Mr. Wm. Martin) he has adorned our town. Among them are the new Free Libraries, the extension of the Midland Institute, the Hospitals for Women and Children, the many Board Schools, the Church of St. David, and that at Selly Hill the Rubery Asylum, the Fire Brigade Station, the Constitution Hill Library, Monument Lane Baths, the Chamberlain Memorial, the Canopy over Dawson's Statue, several Police Stations, with shops and private houses innumerable. He was a true artist in every sense of the word, an eloquent speaker, and one of the most sincere, thoughtful, and lovingly-earnest men that Birmingham has ever been blessed with.

Clegg.—Samuel Clegg was born at Manchester, March 2, 1781, but his early years were passed at the Soho Works, where he was assistant to Mr. Murdoch in the gradual introduction of lighting with gas. In 1807 Mr. Clegg first used lime as a purifier and in 1815 he patented the water meter. In addition to his many inventions connected with the manufacture and supply of gas, Mr. Clegg must be credited with the introduction of the atmospheric railways, which attracted so much attention some five-and-forty years ago, and also with many improvements in steam engines.

Collins.—Mr. John Collins, an exceedingly popular man in his day, and quite a local author, made his first appearance here Jan. 16, 1793, at "The Gentlemen's Private Theatre," in Livery Street, with an entertainment called "Collins' New Embellished Evening Brush, for Rubbing off the Rust of care." This became a great favourite, and we find Collins for years after, giving similar performances, many of them being for the purpose of paying for "soup for the poor" in the distressful winters of 1799, 1800, and 1801. Not so much, however, on account of his charity, or his unique entertainment, must Mr. Collins be ranked among local worthies, as for "A Poetical History of Birmingham" written (or rather partly written) by him, which was published in Swinney's Chronicle. Six chapters in verse appeared (Feb. 25 to April 7, 17[**]6), when unfortunately the poet's muse seems to have failed him. As a sample of the fun contained in the seven or eight dozen verses, we quote the first—

"Of Birmingham's name, tho' a deal has been said,
  Yet a little, we doubt, to the purpose,
As when "hocus pocus" was jargon'd instead
  Of the Catholic text "hoc est corpus."
For it, doubtless, for ages was Bromwicham called,
  But historians, their readers to bam,
Have Brom, Wich, and Ham so corrupted and maul'd,
  That their strictures have all proved a sham.
That Brom implies Broom none will dare to deny,
  And that Wich means a Village or Farm;
Or a Slope, or a Saltwork, the last may imply,
  And to read Ham for Town is no harm.
But when jumbled together, like stones in a bag,
  To make it a Broom-sloping town,
Credulity's pace at such juggling must flag,
  And the critic indignant will frown.
Tis so much like the Gazetteer's riddle-my-ree,
  Who, untwisting Antiquity's cable,
Makes Barnstaple's town with its name to agree,
  Take its rise from a Barn and a Stable."

Collins' own comical notion gives the name as "Brimmingham," from the brimming goblets so freely quaffed by our local sons of Vulcan. Digbeth he makes out to be a "dug bath," or horsepond for the farriers; Deritend, from der (water).

"Took its name from the swamp where the hamlet was seated,

And imply'd 'twas the water-wet-end of the town."

Cox, David—On the 29th of April, 1783, this great painter—the man whose works have made Birmingham famous in art—was born in a humble dwelling in Heath Mill Lane, Deritend, where his father carried on the trade of a smith. Some memorials of him we have—in the noble gift of a number of his pictures in oil, presented to the town by the late Mr. Joseph Nettlefold; in the portrait by Mr. J. Watson Gordon, and the bust by Mr. Peter Hollins; in the two biographies of him—both of them Birmingham works—the earlier by Mr. Neal Solly, and the more recent one by the late Mr. William Hall; besides the memorial window put up by loving friends in the Parish Church of Harborne, where the latter part of the artist's life was passed, and in the churchyard of which his remains were laid. He bade his pictures and the world good-bye on the 9th of June, 1859. A sale of some of "dear old David's" works, in London, May, 1873, realised for the owners over £25,000, but what the artist himself originally had for them may be gathered from the instance of his "Lancaster Castle," otherwise known as "Peace and War," a harvest-field scene, with troops marching by, only 24in. by 18in. in size. This picture he gave to a friend at first, but bought it back for £20, at a time when his friend wanted cash; he sold it for the same amount, and it afterwards got into the possession of Joseph Gillot, the pen maker, at the sale of whose collection "Lancaster Castle" was knocked down for £3,601 10s. The highest price Cox ever received for a picture, and that on one single occasion only, was £100; in another case he had £95; his average prices for large pictures were rather under than over £50 a piece in his best days. "The Sea Shore at Rhyl," for which he received £100, has been since sold for £2,300; "The Vale of Clwyd," for which he accepted £95, brought £2,500. Two pictures for which he received £40 each in 1847, were sold in 1872 for £1,575 and £1,550 respectively. Two others at £40 each have sold since for £2,300 and £2,315 5s. respectively. His church at "Bettws-y-Coed" one of the finest of his paintings, fetched £2,500 at a sale in London, in March, 1884. In the hall of the Royal Oak Inn, Bettws-y-Coed (David's favourite place), there is fixed a famous signboard which Cox painted for the house in 1847, and which gave rise to considerable litigation as to its ownership being vested in the tenant or the owner, the decision being in the latter's favour.

Cox, William Sands, F.R.S. and F.R.C.S., the son of a local surgeon, was born in 1801. After "walking the hospitals" in London and Paris, he settled here in 1825, being appointed surgeon to the Dispensary, and in 1828, with the co-operation of the late Doctors Johnstone and Booth, and other influential friends, succeeded in organising the Birmingham Royal School of Medicine and Surgery, which proved eminently successful until, by the munificent aid of the Rev. Dr. Warneford, it was converted into Queen's College by a charter of incorporation, which was granted in 1843. The Queen's Hospital was also founded mainly through the exertions of Mr. Sands Cox, for the education of the medical students of the College. In 1863 Mr. Cox retired from practice, and went to reside near Tamworth, afterwards removing to Leamington and Kenilworth, at which latter place he died, December 23rd, 1875. He was buried in the family vault at Aston, the coffin being carried to the grave by six old students at the College, funeral scarfs, hatbands, and "other such pieces of mummery" being dispensed with, according to the deceased's wish. He left many charitable legacies, among them being £15,000, to be dealt with in the following manner:—£3,000 to be applied in building and endowing a church then in course of erection at Balsall Heath, and to be known as St. Thomas-in-the-Moors, and the remaining £12,000 to be devoted to the erection and endowment of three dispensaries—one at Balsall Heath, one at Aston, and the other at Hockley. Two sums of £3,000 were left to found dispensaries at Tamworth and Kenilworth, and a cottage hospital at Moreton-in-the-Marsh; his medical library and a number of other articles being also left for the last-named institution.

Davies, Dr. Birt.—By birth a Hampshire man, by descent a Welshman, coming to Birmingham in 1823, Dr. Davies soon became a man of local note. As a politician in the pre-Reform days, as a physician of eminence, and as Borough Coroner for three dozen years, he occupied a prominent position, well justified by his capacity and force of character. He took an active part in the founding of the Birmingham School of Medicine, the forerunner of the Queen's College, and was elected one of the three first physicians to the Queen's Hospital, being its senior physician for sixteen years. When the Charter of Incorporation was granted, Dr. Davies was chosen by the Town Council as the first Coroner, which office he held until June 8th, 1875, when he resigned, having, as he wrote to the Council, on the 29th of May terminated his 36th year of office, and 76th year of his age. Though an ardent politician, it is from his Coronership that he will be remembered most, having held about 30,000 inquests in his long term of office, during the whole of which time, it has been said, he never took a holiday, appointed a deputy, or slept out of the borough. His official dignity sat heavily upon him, his temper of late years often led him into conflict with jurors and medical witnesses, but he was well respected by all who knew the quiet unpretending benevolence of his character, never better exhibited than at the time of the cholera panic in 1832. The doctor had established a Fever Hospital in Bath Row, and here he received and treated, by himself, the only cases of Asiatic cholera imported into the town. He died December 11th, 1878.

De Lys, Dr.—One of the physicians to the General Hospital, and the proposer of the Deaf and Dumb Institution. A native of Brittany, and one of several French refugees who settled here when driven from their own country, at the time of the Revolution, Dr. De Lys remained with us till his death, August 24th, 1831, being then in his 48th year.

Digby, John, made Lord Digby in 1618, and Earl of Bristol in 1622, was born at Coleshill in 1580. He was sent Ambassador to Spain by James I. to negotiate a marriage between Prince Charles and the Infanta. He went abroad when the Civil War broke out, and died at Paris in 1653.

Edmonds.—George Edmonds, was a son of the Baptist minister of Bond Street Chapel, and was born in 1788. For many years after he grew up George kept a school, but afterwards devoted himself to the Law, and was appointed Clerk of the Peace on the incorporation of the borough. For taking part in what Government chose to consider an illegal meeting Mr. Edmonds had to suffer 12 months' imprisonment, but it only increased his popularity and made him recognised as leader of the Radical party. During the great Reform movements he was always to the fore, and there can be little doubt that it was to his untiring energy that the Political Union owed much of its success. In his later years he printed (partly with his own hands) one of the strangest works ever issued from the press, being nothing less than an alphabet, grammar, and dictionary of a new and universal language. On this he must have spent an immense amount of philosophical and philological research during the busiest years of his active life, but like other schemes of a similar character it came into the world some scores of generations too soon. His death took place (hastened by his own hand) July 1, 1868.

Everitt, Allen Edward.—Artist, antiquarian, and archæologist. It is reported that his portfolio contained more than a thousand sketches of his own taking, of old churches, mansions, cottages, or barns in the Midland Counties. Born here in 1824 Mr. Everitt had reached his 55th year before taking to himself a wife, whom he left a widow June 11, 1882, through catching a cold while on a sketching tour. He was much loved in all artistic circles, having been (for twenty-four years) hon. sec. to the Society of Artists, a most zealous coadjutor of the Free Libraries Committee, and honorary curator of tha Art Gallery; in private or public life he spoke ill of no man, nor could any speak of him with aught but affection and respect.

Fletcher, George.—Author of the "Provincialist" and other poems, a journeyman printer, and much respected for his genial character and honest kind-heartedness. Died Feb. 20, 1874, aged 64.

Fothergill, John.—Taken into partnership by Matthew Boulton in 1762, devoting himself principally to the foreign agencies. Many of the branches of trade in which he was connected proved failures, and he died insolvent in 1782, while Boulton breasted the storm, and secured fortune by means of his steam engines. He did not, however, forget his first partner's widow and children.

Fox, Charles Fox, of the firm of Fox, Henderson and Co., was born at Derby, March 11, 1810. His first connection with this town arose from his being engaged with Stephenson on the construction of the Birmingham and Liverpool line. He was knighted in 1851, in recognition of his wonderful skill as shown in the erection of the International Exhibition of that year, and we have a local monument to his fame in the roof which spans the New Street Station. He died in 1874, and was buried at Nunhead Cemetery, London. The firm of Fox, Henderson and Co., was originally Bramah and Fox, Mr. Henderson not coming in till the death of Mr. Bramah, a well-known ironmaster of this neighbourhood, and whose name is world-famous for his celebrated locks.

Geach.—Charles Geach was a Cornishman, born in 1808, and came to Birmingham in 1826 as one of the clerks in the Branch Bank of England, then opened. In 1836 he was instrumental in the formation of two of our local banks, and became the manager of one of them, the Birmingham and Midland. In 1842 he made a fortunate speculation in the purchase of some extensive ironworks at Rotherham just previous to the days of "the railway mania." The profits on iron at that time were something wonderful; as a proof of which it has been stated that on one occasion Mr. Geach took orders for 30,000 tons at £12, the cost to him not being more than half that sum! The Patent Shaft Works may be said to have owed its origin also to this gentleman. Mr. Geach was chosen mayor for 1847, and in 1851 was returned to Parliament for Coventry. His death occurred Nov. 1, 1854. A full-length portrait hangs in the board-room of the bank, of which he retained the managing-directorship for many years.

Gem, Major Thomas Henry.—The well-known Clerk to the Magistrates, born May 21, 1819, was the pioneer of the Volunteer movement in this town, as well as the originator of the fashionable game of lawn tennis. A splendid horseman, and an adept at all manly games, he also ranked high as a dramatic author, and no amateur theatricals could be got through without his aid and presence. His death, November 4, 1881, resulted from an accident which occurred on June 25 previous, at the camp in Sutton Park.

Gillott.—Joseph Gillott was born at Sheffield in 1799, but through want of work found his way here in 1822, spending his last penny in refreshments at the old publichouse then standing at corner of Park Street, where the Museum Concert Hall exists. His first employment was buckle making, and being steady he soon took a garret in Bread Street and became his own master in the manufacture of buckles and other "steel toys." The merchant who used to buy of him said "Gillott made very excellent goods, and came for his money every week." It was that making of excellent goods and his untiring perseverance that secured him success. His sweetheart was sister to William and John Mitchell, and it is questionable whether Gillott's first efforts at making steel pens did not spring from the knowledge he gained from her as to what the Mitchells were doing in that line. The Sheffield blade, however, was the first to bring the "press" into the proeess of making the pens, and that secret he must have kept pretty closely from all but his lass, as Mr. J. Gillott often told, in after life, how, on the morning of his marriage, he began and finished a gross of pens, and sold them for £7 4s. before they went to church. The accumulation of his fortune began from that day, the name of Gillott in a very few years being known the wide world over. The penmaker was a great patron of the artists, gathering a famous collection which at his death realised £170,000. His first interview with Turner was described in an American journal a few years back. Gillott having rudely pushed his way into the studio and turning the pictures about without the artist deigning to notice the intruder, tried to attract attention by asking the prices of three paintings. Turner carelessly answered "4,000 guineas," "£3,000," and "1,500 guineas." "I'll take the three," said Gillott. Then Turner rose, with "Who the devil are you to intrude here against my orders? You must be a queer sort of a beggar, I fancy." "You're another queer beggar" was the reply. "I am Gillott, the penmaker. My banker tells me you are clever, and I have come to buy some pictures." "By George!" quoth Turner, "you are a droll fellow, I must say." "You're another," said Gillott. "But do you really want to purchase those pictures," asked Turner. "Yes, in course I do, or I would not have climbed those blessed stairs this morning," was the answer. Turner marvelled at the man, and explained that he had fixed the prices named under the idea that he had only got an impertinent intruder to deal with, that two of the pictures were already sold, but that his visitor could have the first for £1,000. "I'll take it," said the prince of penmakers, "and you must make me three or four more at your own price." If other artists did as well with Mr. Gillott they could have had but little cause of complaint. Another hobby of Mr. Gillott's was collecting fiddles, his specimens, of which he once said he had a "boat load," realising £4,000; while his cabinet of precious stones was of immense value. The millionaire died Jan. 5, 1872, leaving £3,000 to local charities.

Guest, James.—Originally a brass-founder, but imbued with the principles of Robert Owen, he became an active member of the Political Union and other "freedom-seeking" societies, and opened in Steelhouse Lane a shop for the sale of that kind of literature suited to ardent workers in the Radical cause. Mr. Guest believed that "all bad laws must be broken before they could be mended," and for years he followed out that idea so far as the taxes on knowledge were concerned. He was the first to sell unstamped papers here and in the Black Country, and, notwithstanding heavy fines, and even imprisonment, he kept to his principles as long as the law stood as it was. In 1830 he published Hutton "History of Birmingham" in cheap numbers, unfortunately mixing with it many chapters about the Political Union, the right of a Free Press, &c., in a confusing manner. The book, however, was very popular, and has been reprinted from the original stereoplates several times. Mr. Guest died Jan. 17, 1881, in his 78th year.

Hill, Rowland.—The originator of the present postal system, born at Kidderminster, December 3, 1795, coming to Birmingham with his parents when about seven years old. His father opened a school at the corner of Gough Street and Blucher Street, which was afterwards (in 1819) removed to the Hagley Road, where, as "Hazlewood School" it became more than locally famous. In 1825 it was again removed, and further off, this time being taken to Bruce Castle, Tottenham, where the family yet resides. Rowland and his brother, Matthew Davenport Hill, afterwards Recorder of Birmingham, who took part in the management of the school, went with it, and personally Rowland Hill's connection with our town may be said to have ceased. Early in 1837 Mr. Hill published his proposed plans of Post Office reform, but which for a long time met with no favour from either of the great political parties, or in official quarters, where, it has been said, he was snubbed as a would-be interloper, and cursed as "a fellow from Birmingham coming to teach people their business"—

"All office doors were closed against him—hard

All office heads were closed against him too,

'He had but worked, like others, for reward,'

'The thing was all a dream.' 'It would not do.'"

In 1839, more than 2,000 petitions were presented to Parliament in favour of Mr. Hill's plans, and eventually they were adopted and became law by the 3rd and 4th Vict., cap. 96. The new postage law by which the uniform rate of fourpence per letter was tried as an experiment, came into operation on the 5th of December, 1839, and on the 10th January, 1840, the reduced uniform rate of 1d. per letter of half-an-ounce weight was commenced. Under the new system the privilege of franking letters enjoyed by members of Parliament was abolished, facilities of prepayment were afforded by the introduction of postage stamps, double postage was levied on letters not prepaid, and arrangements were made for the registration of letters. Mr. Hill received an appointment in the Treasury, but in 1841, he was told his services were no longer required. This flagrant injustice caused great indignation, and a national testimonial of £15,000 was presented to him June 17, 1846. On a change of Government Mr. Hill was appointed Secretary to the Postmaster General, and, in 1854, Secretary to the Post Office, a position which he retained until failing health caused him to resign in March, 1864, the Treasury awarding him for life his salary of £2,000 per year. In the same year he received a Parliamentary grant of £20,000, and in 1860, he was made a K.C.B., other honours from Oxford, &c., following. Sir Rowland was presented with the freedom of the City by the London Court of Common Council, June 6, 1879, the document being contained in a suitable gold casket. It was incidentally mentioned in the course of the proceedings, that at the time Sir Rowland Hill's system was inaugurated the annual amount of correspondence was 79 millions, or three letters per head of the population; while then it exceeded 1,000 millions of letters, 100 millions of post-cards, and 320 millions of newspapers, and the gross receipt in respect of it was £6,000,000 sterling. Sir Rowland Hill died Aug. 27, 1879, leaving but one son, "Pearson Hill," late of the Post Office.

Hollins, George—The first appointed organist of the Town Hall (in 1834), having been previously organist at St. Paul's, in the graveyard of which church he was buried in 1841, the funeral being attended by hundreds of friends, musicians, and singers of the town and neighbourhood.

Holt, Thomas Littleton.—A Press man, whose death (Sept. 14, 1879) at the age of 85, severed one of the very few remaining links connecting the journalism of the past with the present. It was to him that the late Mr. Dickens owed his introduction to Dr. Black, then the editor of the Morning Chronicle. Mr. Holt was proprietor of the Iron Times, which started during the railway mania. When his friend Leigh Hunt was imprisoned for libelling the Prince Regent, he was the first to visit him. He took an active part in popularising cheap literature, and it was greatly owing to him that the advertisement duty was repealed. He also took an active part in the abolition of the paper duty. Besides starting many papers in London in the latter period of his life, he returned to his native town, Birmingham, where he started Ryland's Iron Trade Circular, to the success of which his writings largely contributed.