The Project Gutenberg eBook, The Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction, Vol. 10, Issue 278, Supplementary Number (1828), by Various

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

Title: The Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction, Vol. 10, Issue 278, Supplementary Number (1828)

Author: Various

Release Date: March 1, 2004 [eBook #11375]

Language: English

Character set encoding: US-ASCII


E-text prepared by Jonathan Ingram, Keith M. Eckrich, David Garcia,
and the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team

[pg 255]



New Palace, St. James's Park.

[pg 256]

Triumphal Arch at Hyde Park.

[pg 257]


Palaces are at all times objects of national interest, or rather they are national concerns. They belong to the attributes of royalty, and in some instances have been erected by a grateful people to celebrate the virtues of patriot princes. We therefore make no apology to our readers for occupying so large a portion of the present Supplementary Number with the representations and details of the New Palace, (the exterior of which is just now completed,) and of the consequent improvements in the adjoining Parks; since we are persuaded that the patriotic feelings of our subscribers will hail them as subjects of paramount importance. The great Lord Bacon, who treated these matters with the gravity of a philosopher, in his "Essays," gives a "brief model of a princely palace;" and in our times Napoleon is known to have expended many thousands in restoring the gilding of the palace at Versailles—although the extravagance of its founders paved the way for the events in which he distinguished himself.

In architectural improvement, London has made greater advances since the late peace, than in the entire century which preceded that auspicious event. Being unquestionably the richest, the largest, and most populous city of Europe, the seat of a wealthier court, and a more opulent body of nobility and gentry than any other metropolis, it seems only a reasonable expectation that it should likewise excel all others in the number and magnificence of its public edifices and private dwellings. Such, however, is not the case; for, till within the last few years, that most splendid and impressive of all the arts, architecture, has been almost wholly neglected.

The architectural superiority of London, such as it is, consists in the number, size, and neatness of its principal streets and squares. Petersburgh, Berlin, Naples, Turin, Geneva, Antwerp, Edinburgh, and other places, have perhaps finer streets than any in London, but in respect to their number there is no comparison. In churches, London will probably be admitted, after Rome, to take the first rank among the cities of Europe; but in palaces, London is confessedly excelled by almost every other capital in Europe, both in public and private edifices of this description; of the former, Whitehall, Carlton-house, (now almost demolished,) and the Mansion-house, comprise the whole list of buildings any way entitled to the appellation of palaces—and even their title has often been thought disputable.

To rescue our national character from this opprobrium, or ill-timed compliment to royalty, the remodelling of Buckingham-house, or rather the erection of the New Palace in St. James's Park, was decided on; and how far this design has been accomplished in the palace, we leave it to the taste of our readers to determine. Various piecemeal, not to say absurd, descriptions have, during the progress of the work, appeared in the London and provincial papers, many of them originating in party feeling; but the structure has now so far advanced to completion as to enable every spectator to estimate its merits and demerits; and we are sorry to add, that much of the censure bestowed on the palace during its progress (though with bad motives) now proves essentially correct. The name of the designer at present remains a secret. His majesty is known to possess exquisite taste, and it is scarcely believed that his approbation can have justified some of the incongruities, not to say enormities of the building; be this as it may, the general public feeling is that of disappointment and regret.

The annexed view is of the central entrance front, facing east, towards the Canal and the Horse Guards, taken from the Wall in St. James's Park. The first objection is the site, in itself insuperable, as will appear from the following remarks on the subject by Mr. Loudon, editor of the Gardener's Magazine:—

"Had the problem," he says, "been proposed (how) to alter Buckingham House and gardens, so as to render the former as unhealthy a dwelling as possible, it could not have been better solved than by the works now executed. The belt of trees which forms the margin of these grounds, has long acted as the sides of a basin, or small valley, to retain the vapours which were collected within; and which, when the basin was full, could only flow out by the lower extremity, over the roofs of the stables and other [pg 258] buildings at the palace. What vapour did not escape in this manner, found its way through between the sterns of the trees which adjoin these buildings, and through the palace windows. Now, all the leading improvements on the grounds have a direct tendency to increase this evil. They consist in thickening the marginal belts on both sides of the hollow with evergreens, to shut out London: in one place substituting for the belt an immense bank of earth, to shut out the stables; and in the area of the grounds forming numerous flower-gardens, and other scenes with dug surfaces, a basin, fountains, and a lake of several acres. The effect of all this will be a more copious and rapid exhalation of moisture from the water, dug earth, and increased surface of foliage; and a more complete dam to prevent the escape of this moist atmosphere, otherwise than through the windows, or over the top of the palace. The garden may be considered as a pond brimful of fog, the ornamental water as the perpetual supply of this fog, the palace as a cascade which it flows over, and the windows as the sluices which it passes through. We defy any medical man, or meteorologist, to prove the contrary of what we assert, viz. that Buckingham Palace is a dam to a pond of watery vapour, and that the pond will always be filled with vapour to the level of the top of the dam. The only question is, how far this vapour is entitled to be called malaria. We have the misfortune to be able to answer that question experimentally.... A man must be something less or more than a king, to keep his health in that palace for any length of time."

On the subject of malaria, an Italian term for the produce of marshy lands, the attention of the public has lately been powerfully excited by a series of essays by Dr. Macculloch, an abstract of which will be found at page 252, of our accompanying Number, under the head "Arcana of Science." Dr. M. is supported in his opinion by Lord Bacon and other philosophers; and he shows, that though it is commonly supposed that standing waters, when clear and free from smell, and all running waters, are perfectly salubrious, they may, in fact, be nearly as injurious as those that are putrid and stagnant; "that, besides proper marshes, fresh and salt meadows, and wet pasture lands generally, all woods, coppices, thickets, rivers, lakes, ponds, ornamental waters, pools, ditches—plashy and limited spots of ground generally, &c., send forth more or less of this noxious vapour; that wherever, in short, any chemical compound of the vegetable elements is wetted, or held in solution by water, there the poison in question may be or will be produced, provided the temperature be sufficiently high; that the smallest spot coming under any of the above denominations is sufficient to produce malaria, and a single inspiration of that malaria to produce disease."

Such is the theory of Dr. Macculloch; but, as observed by a contemporary, Why should he have observed any delicacy on this subject?—why not have, long since, denounced the whole of the ponds in St. James's, the Green, and Hyde Parks, Kensington Gardens, and the Regent's Park, as pestilential nuisances to all around them? Besides, he states that malaria is only generated in hot weather; so that the palace, being intended as a winter residence, the health of our gracious sovereign will, we hope, not be endangered by his residence. That there is much show of reason in this objection, cannot be denied; at the same time it should be remembered, that in all great undertakings the conflicting prejudices and caprices of private interests generally work too prominent a part: hence, opinions should be entertained with caution.

It is now time to speak of the architectural character of the palace. The main front represented in our engraving, forms three sides of a quadrangle, thus II, the area being not far from equal, and forming a clear space of about 250 feet in diameter. The central entrance is a portico of two orders of architecture in height; the lower is the Doric, copied from the temple of Theseus at Athens; the upper is the Corinthian, resembling that style in the Pantheon at Rome. This portico is so contrived, that upon the ground carriages can drive through it; while above, there is an open and spacious gallery, covered by a pediment on which statues are to be placed, and under which is a long panel filled with figures in high relief. It is understood that this entrance is to be exclusively appropriated for the admission of his Majesty and the royal family. The above union of two of the Greek orders is much censured: indeed a harmonious union of any two of the Greek orders has never been an easy task. In the Doric architecture of the ground story, the usual magnificence of this order is wanting; the columns being merely surmounted by what is termed "an architrave cornice," with the mutiles; while the frieze, with its rich triglyphs and metopes is altogether omitted. The Corinthian order of the upper story is altogether more worthy of admiration, notwithstanding that some objection has been raised to the "disproportionately slender [pg 259] columns, when contrasted with the massive shafts beneath them." Here, too, the entire frieze, with its emblematical embellishments of the British crown, surrounded with laurel, and alternate leaves of the rose, the thistle and shamrock, is sure to attract the eye of the spectator: the character and effect of the whole is truly British.

The Doric order, as adopted in the lower parts of the portico, is carried round the three sides of the court, consisting of fluted cast-iron columns, which are beautiful specimens of our excellence in the art of founding. At each side of the portico, terminating the centre front, is a pavilion, where the orders are again applied; surmounting which is an attic, towering above the other parts of the building, and decorated with pilasters and caryatides. Over the pediment, or centre, will be seen a dome, which is however at the back of the palace, over the state-chambers. This completes the front view as appears from the park.

The north and south sides of the quadrangle are only two stories high. In the centre of each there is also an entrance. At each extremity, the building is raised, and roofed in a temple-like form, presenting the ends towards the park with enriched pediments.

In the front of our engraving is represented a spacious circular enclosure which will be made, by an ornamental railing of mosaic gold, and divided into compartments by terms. The same metallic composition (which is patronized by Mr. Nash) is to be employed in every other part heretofore constructed in iron. In the middle of this area the Waterloo monument will be erected: it is to consist of a triumphal arch, somewhat resembling that of Constantine, at Rome, with national emblems, trophies, &c., and colossal statues in the above metal, imitating bronze.

The south front, towards Pimlico, will form the general entrance to the palace, a concave circular Ionic colonnade and lodges. Here the old octagon library of Buckingham-House is to remain, when raised and embellished after the manner of the Temple of the Winds: the remainder of this range is chiefly allotted to the domestic offices.

The west, or garden front, (of course, the back of the centre building of the quadrangle) is strikingly picturesque; its impression on the beholder is altogether beautiful and pleasing, and it is much to be regretted that the front or park view, (which will of course be exposed to public view, while the garden front will be comparatively private,) does not partake more largely of this character. The prima facies of the former is not likely to be admired, since its few excellencies require to be selected by nice observation. Some of its details may delight the artist, but the effect of the garden front will, on the most hasty observer, be that of order and simplicity, the essentials of architectural perfection.

The centre of the garden front is circular, embellished with columns of the Corinthian order, supporting the dome already alluded to. The upper story of the whole front is Corinthian, supported on a rustic Ionic basement, and, says a contemporary, "though the latter, like the Doric basement in front, has only an architrave cornice, yet in consequence of the parts omitted being of little importance, and the character of the Ionic more nearly allied, in point of delicacy, to the Corinthian, the construction is altogether tolerably harmonious." The outline is boldly broken into massive forms, which are, as Mr. Loudon observes, "simple and easy to be comprehended, and yet sufficiently enriched to mark the building as an abode destined for splendid enjoyment." In this front, also, level with the middle or principal tier of windows (those of the suite of state rooms) runs a stone balcony or balustrade, supported by corbels of a mixed character,—Gothic and Italian masques of chimera blended with wings and scrolls of foliage of singular beauty. On this side, too, is an extensive terrace, descending into the ground, with a rusticated front; and a balustrade with pedestals supporting vases of antique and classical models; and at each end an open Ionic temple, intended to be used as a summer conservatory.

The north front facing Piccadilly is of the same style and character with the garden front, but of lighter proportions. Here are the king's private apartments, from choice, comparatively small and compact, and the cabinet picture-gallery. Here, also, the terrace is continued, and a similar Ionic temple conservatory placed at the other extremity. Thus, his majesty's windows look out between these conservatories, upon the flower-garden spread below.

We are bound to acknowledge our partial, if not entire concurrence, in the general criticism on the central front, and of the two wings. The first impression is far from that produced by unity, grandeur, or elegance; there is a fantastical assemblage of turrets, attics, and chimneys, and a poverty or disproportion, especially in "the temple-like forms" which complete the ends towards the park. The dome, too, has been sarcastically compared with a "Brobdignagian egg." [pg 260] It strictly belongs to the back part of the palace, and had it been screened from the front, its form might have been less objectionable.

Of the internal arrangements of the palace, little is as yet perfectly known. On the principal floor of the centre, between the east and west suites of rooms, runs a splendid picture and statue gallery (the whole length of the building); the light into which is to be admitted from the sides, in a slanting direction, by metal skylights. The ceiling has iron girders thrown across, and is arched with combs, each having the ends closed, with the exception of a small hole (like an inverted flower-pot), which admits a current of air to circulate through the floor. The roof of this gallery is flat, and covered with slate embedded in a composition of hot coal-tar, lime, and sand: the roofing of the other parts of the palace is mostly covered with a similar composition, but not slated. The approach to the gallery is up the grand stairs, and through several rooms, in which will be disposed the king's magnificent collection of armour. The floors throughout are fireproof, formed of iron joists, and arched with hollow bricks of a singular construction.

The group for the pediment of the east facade of the palace, representing the triumph of Britannia, by Mr. Bailey, is nearly finished.

The original gardens of Buckingham House, an extensive space, will of course continue to be the grounds of the new royal residence; but considerable alterations have been made to render them eligible for that purpose. In order to conceal from the windows the great pile of stables lately erected in Pimlico, near the lower end of Grosvenor-place, a large artificial mound has been raised, and planted with curious trees and shrubs.1 The whole area now assumes all the appearances of natural hill and dale, is finely wooded, diversified with flowering and evergreen shrubs, with fine lawns broken into parterres, and possessing a noble serpentine piece of water, so disposed as to give the idea of great extent.2 This water winds round clumps of forest trees, which have been preserved for that purpose, and all that could be retained of the previously existing scene. It is supplied from a large circular reservoir, (near the top of the hill at Hyde Park Corner,) which is fed by a main from the Serpentine river. This reservoir, almost like a Roman work for magnitude, may be made a beautiful feature in the gardens—in copious and refreshing fountains, but not in pools and ornamental basins, such as are included in the anathema of Dr. Macculloch.

Although the scheme of the garden may, like many other projects, look better on paper, than in practice, it affords ample space for the display of much skill in artificial gardening. St. Cloud and Versailles have their fountains, and why not St. James's? "Fountains, (that sprinkle or spout water, or convey water, as it never stays in the bowls or the cistern,)" says Lord Bacon, are a great beauty and refreshment; "but pools mar all, and make the garden unwholesome, and full of flies and frogs."


References to the Plan.

1. Parade at the Horse Guards.

2. Park planted as a garden, with shrubberies and paths.

3. Ornamental Water, containing three islands, planted with shrubs.

4. The new Terrace, fronting the Grand Mall.

5. New House now building.

6. Carlton-street.

7. Continuation of Waterloo-place, opening to the Park, with an ornamental Circus in the centre.

8. United Service Club House and Garden.

9. Athenaeum Club House, with Pleasure-Grounds behind.

10. Travellers' Club House.

11. Heralds' College.

12. Cockspur-street.

13. Pall Mall.

14. New Stable Yard.

15. Marlborough-house-street.

16. St. James's Palace.

17. Present Stable Yards.

18. Duke of York's House.

19. Late Carriage-road in the Park.

20. New Carriage-road, recently the Northern Mall.

21. The new Mall, now the Northern Mall.


Intended Improvements in the Parks.

[pg 261] 22. A Splendid Triumphal Arch, in the front of the New Palace.

23. The King's Palace, on the site of Buckingham House.

24. Terrace behind the Palace; there is also a grand Terrace fronting the gardens.

25. Palace Garden, laid out in a picturesque style; including a line sheet of ornamental water, with a carriage-way from an entrance at Hyde Park Corner.

26. The Green Park.

27. The King's Stables, including those recently built, and others which are in contemplation.

28. James-street, leading from Buckingham Gate to Westminster, with thirteen new houses fronting the Park.

29. Stafford-row, with ten new houses, extending to the Gun Tavern, and continuing to Ward's-row, from whence Arabella-row runs, at the side of the King's Stable.

A road extends from Great George-street, Westminster, through Bird-cage walk, to Grosvenor-place, for private carriages, on the side of which, marked 5 in the plan, (in front of the present barracks,) a row of new houses will be erected.

The present Guard house at Buckingham Gate will be removed, and a new Guard house erected close to the wall of the new stables in James-street.

There may, perhaps, be some alteration in the distribution of the interior of the Park, as to the form of the paths; but the water will assume, as nearly as possible, the present shape, and the public will have access to the whole of the Park.

Lamentations long and loud have been poured forth on the late neglected state of St. James's Park. An intelligent home tourist in 1813, says, "It concerned me to observe that this park presents at this time a neglected appearance, unworthy of a metropolitan royal park, adjoining to the constant residence of the court." He goes on to say, "My heart ached, and the tears started from my eyes as I brought to mind the crowds of beauty, rank, and fashion, which till within these few years used to be displayed in the centre mall on evenings during the spring and summer. Here used to promenade, for one or two hours after dinner, the whole British world of gaiety, beauty, and splendour! Here could be seen in one moving mass, extending the whole length of the mall 10,000 of the most lovely women, in this country of female beauty, all splendidly attired, and accompanied by as many well-dressed men. The present promenades in Hyde-Park lose the effect produced by rank and distinguished character, owing to those classes being shut up in their carriages." Another writer, speaking of the park in Charles's time, with its Dorimants, Millamours, and Millamants, says, "every thing around breathes of beauty and gaiety, the air is courtly, silks are rustling, and feathers fluttering in the mall; fair forms are hovering, and bright eyes glancing round; at every turn you encounter lords and beauties." In the "neglected state" we have long concurred; and we sympathize with our tourist in his other lament; for the former we have a remedy at last, and it affords us pleasure to know that the first of these tourists possesses health and vigour to watch the progress of the improvements in the parks; and we hope that he may live many years to enjoy their completion. But for the second evil, we fear there is no remedy, since the disease is mortal to social happiness; unless that the proffered improvements may once more reinstate the Montpellier promenades of the park in fashion's favour. Editors are, however, very subordinate personages, when

——Fashion so directs, and moderns raise

On fashion's mould'ring base their transient praise.

Be this as it may, we, who are so unfashionable as to be occasional promenaders in the parks, rejoice to present our readers with the annexed plan of the improvements now in progress in St. James's Park, and in conjunction with the palace works they denote the simultaneous study of the happiness of the sovereign and the subject. Our country readers, surrounded by all the blooming attributes of health, will doubtless congratulate such important improvements of what has been termed "the lungs of the metropolis."

The annexed plan is reduced from the engraving which accompanied the Treasury Minute, January 19, 1827; from which the following are extracts:—

"The Earl of Liverpool and the Chancellor of the Exchequer lay before the Board a plan for building on the North and South sides of St. James's Park, (in addition to the buildings already sanctioned upon the site of Carlton Gardens;) and also for making some considerable alterations in the distribution of the intermediate ground, whereby the appearance of the park would be much improved, while a very material accommodation would be afforded to the public.
"They state, that they have received the King's commands to convey to the Board his Majesty's most gracious approbation of this proposal, and his pleasure that the necessary steps should be taken, with as little delay as possible, for carrying the measure into execution, so far as it respects the South side of the park, and the alteration of the ground comprised in it.
"My Lords perceive, that by this plan the whole of the space in St. James's Park, now laid out in grass, and from which the public are excluded, will be thrown open (with the exception of the parts to be planted) for the use of persons on foot."

The magnificent range of buildings intended to occupy the site of Carlton-house and gardens, and to extend from Spring Garden, Charing Cross on the east, to the Ordnance office, in Pall Mall, on the west, is already commenced in the last mentioned quarter. The substructure is a terrace, (containing the domestic offices,) of about 53 feet wide—its architecture of the Paestum Doric order surmounted [pg 262] by a balustrade. The order of the superstructure is Corinthian. In the centre of the range will be a fountain formed of the eight columns of the portico of Carlton-house, with eight additional columns on the same model. The basement story of all the houses is to be supplied with water by the overflow of this fountain and jets.

Our third Engraving represents the Grand Lodge Entrance to the New Palace, and resembles the arch in the front of the palace. The frieze of this gateway or arch, which is said to possess great merit, is still in the course of execution. Altogether this structure may be expected to form an approach of suitable splendour to the royal domain, whilst it bids fair to rank among the most interesting of the modern architectural embellishments of the metropolis.

Such is an outline of the improvements now in progress in St. James's Park and its vicinity. The palace may have fallen short of some expectations, but with all its imperfections, it will, when completed, be a pile of immense magnitude, with much of the grandeur and magnificence appertaining to regal splendour. His majesty will reside there when in his capital, and it is not an indifferent trait to observe, that it will not be altogether strange to his eyes; for every mantle and movable piece of Carlton palace, which can be used in the palace in St. James's Park, has been, or is about to be, removed thither. Meanwhile, the recreation of the people is not unstudied in the new arrangements of the park; indeed, it appears to be with their illustrious originator a primary consideration, as will be seen on reference to the treasury minute. Hence all loyal and grateful subjects may join in the song of olden time:

God prosper long our noble king,

Our lives and safeties all.

Arcana of Science.


(Abridged from the Literary Gazette.)

On Saturday, September 29th, Captain Parry from his Arctic, and Captain Franklin from his North-American expedition, arrived at the Admiralty within half an hour of each other!3

Captain Parry may himself be taken as a specimen of the health of his crew; he looks as well as when he set out on his bold undertaking.

The sum of the intelligence which has transpired is, that the Hecla having arrived at Hamerfest, took in the rein-deer for dragging the boats, snow-shoes, &c. for the journey over the ice. Having reached the coast of Spitzbergen, a heavy gale drove the ship among packed ice, where she was entangled for several weeks, to the 6th of June. Here the first effort to proceed in the manner projected was tried on two boats commanded by Captain Parry and Lieut. Ross; but the ice broke up, and it was speedily relinquished. The Hecla then wrought to the north as far as Seven Islands, where finding no harbour, she put back. By the 19th of June, however, having cut through a formidable barrier, to the Wratskel of Van Henloopen, a second attempt to get forward in the ice-boats was strenuously made. Unfortunately the ice was what is called rotten, and so irregular as to render success impossible. Nothing could exceed the fatigues and difficulties of transport; the boats had to be loaded and unloaded many times in the course of a few hours; and no field-ice was met with, to any extent, over which they might glide on their way. The party at last attained the latitude of 82 deg., and three quarters N.; or to between four and five hundred miles of the Pole. Heavy rains prevailed, and the ice over which they were travelling so laboriously towards the north, was itself drifting more rapidly to the south than the distances which they could accomplish. Thus, the last three days having been spent in this disheartening and fruitless toil,—half the provisions being exhausted,—some of the men falling sick, and being reported unfit for exertion,—the scurvy threatening them,—and no hope of any favourable change remaining—our brave countrymen were compelled to abandon their impracticable design. They accordingly returned to the Hecla, and on the 24th of September put into Longhope, in the Orkneys, without having experienced any loss by death. The whole period occupied in these exertions on the ice is stated to have been sixty-one days.

The highest latitude to which the Hecla reached was 81 deg. 6 min. believed to be the farthest north that ever a ship made her way; so that all that was made in the boats was 1 deg. 39 min. At the farthest point north, no barrier of ice [pg 263] was seen, so that the idea of such a barrier always existing may now be dismissed. The ice found by the present expedition was of a very chaotic form. For about a mile, perhaps, it might be tolerably smooth; but at every interval huge ridges were crushed up by the action of tides and currents. No sooner was this obstacle over, and one of these rugged and precipitous masses overcome, than another appeared. There was plenty of fresh water on the surface, but towards the end of the attempt, when the rains fell, the ridges separated, and between them the salt sea flowed like so many canals. It was found impossible to make any use of the rein-deer in dragging the boats; and as there were no means of feeding dogs (as once proposed,) the whole work was performed by personal labour. Officers and men, twenty-eight in number, were alike harnessed to the tackle, and wrought in common at the exhausting toil. Their time for stalling in the morning (their morning being the beginning of the night,) was chosen when the light was least injurious to the eyes; for though the sun shone upon them during the whole period, and there was no darkness, yet when that luminary was lowest in the horizon, the reflection from the bright white surface of snow was more endurable. They could not, however, bear up under the fatigue. During their whole march they were soaking wet to the knees, and benumbed by a temperature always at or near the freezing point. At the close of twelve or fourteen hours thus occupied, when they came to seek rest by lying down, the change of their wet for dry stockings and fur boots caused such a reaction, that the tingling and smart were insufferable.

When Captain Parry found that the men could not support their toils on the allowance, (of about nineteen ounces per twenty-four hours, of pemecan and biscuit-powder.) he added, by way of luxury, a pint of hot water at night. This was found to be very restorative, warming the system; and if a little of the dinner food had been saved, it made a broth of great relish and value. Spirits were not drank; and the reason why even hot water was scarce, was, that it took so large a stock of their spirits of wine to boil it and the cocoa, that the quantity consumed could not safely be increased.

The ice itself was drifting faster to the south than they could make their way over it to the north: thus, during the last three days of their struggle, instead of gaining a higher latitude, they were actually two miles farther south than when they set out. This put an end to the expedition where everything which human energy and perseverance could do, was done so fruitlessly.

While the boats were away, the Hecla was not exempt from dangers. She had been wrought into a snug birth near the shore. A-head there were about three miles of ice; and a heavy gale coming on, detached this prodigious mass, and drove it with terrible violence against the ship. The cables were cut asunder, the anchors lost, and the poor Hecla forced high and dry upon the coast, by the irresistible pressure. Having got her again to the water, however, they proceeded to Weygatt Straits.

It is vexatious to be forced to the conviction that any attempt to reach the North Pole is but too likely to end in disappointment; but every fresh enterprise seems to lead to this conclusion.

Hudson, whose name is perpetuated in the bay, reached lat. 82 (as is laid down) in the year 1606; and a Scottish journal states, that the Neptune whaler, in 1816, got as high as 83 deg. 20 min.; but of the accuracy of this statement we have great doubts.

The Land Arctic Expedition.—About the end of June, 1826, Captain Franklin arrived at the last of the Hudson Bay company's posts, named Fort Good Hope, in lat. 67 deg. 28 min. N., long. 130 deg. 53 min. W.; with the expedition under his command in excellent health and spirits.

Three days' journey from thence, on the 4th of July, he despatched a party to the eastward, under the command of Dr. Richardson, and proceeded himself, in command of another party, by the western channel of Mackenzie's river, which flows at the foot of the Rocky Mountains, and completed a survey of the coast from long. 113 deg. W. to 149 deg. 38 min. W. He was much impeded in his progress by the constant obstruction of ice, unbroken from the shore, in many parts, until the 4th of August—by the prevalence of fogs—and by the nature of the sea coast, which to the westward of the 140th degree is so extremely low and flat as to be unapproachable, even in boats, nearer than two or three miles. Indeed, beyond the 139th degree it was found impossible to land on the main shore, except at one point; and there they were most vexatiously detained eight days, in the best part of the season, by fog.

Before Captain Franklin had reached more than half way to Icy Cape, most of his party shewed symptoms of extreme suffering, from their unavoidable exposure to wading in the water, for the purpose of dragging the boats where they landed to rest or to get fresh water, or [pg 264] when compelled by gales to seek the shore. The temperature of the water was generally about the freezing-point, whilst that of the air seldom exceeded 36 degrees. The coast westward of Mackenzie's river, under any circumstances, was extremely hazardous to navigate; but under the difficulties which Captain Franklin experienced, further perseverance on his part would have been unpardonable rashness. The whole party being of opinion that the obstructions were insurmountable, were compelled to return, in the conviction, however, that the navigation of the northwest passage is open.

The eastern party, under Dr. Richardson, who was accompanied by Mr. Kendall, an intelligent young officer, succeeded in reaching the Coppermine river on the 8th of August, and returned to Fort Franklin, Great Bear Lake, on the 1st of September. Like that under the command of Captain Franklin, they experienced repeated obstructions from ice, and occasionally from strong breezes; but they were spared the foggy weather, except on parts of two days.

The object of Dr. Richardson's party was to examine the intermediate coast between the Mackenzie and the coppermine rivers. After separating from Captain Franklin, on the 4th of July, they pursued the easternmost channel of the Mackenzie, until the 7th of that month, when finding that it distributed itself by various outlets, of which the more easterly were not navigable, for their boats, they chose a middle one, and that night got into brackish water, with an open view of the sea, in lat. 69 deg. 29 min. N., long. 133 deg. 24 min. W.

On the 11th, in lat. 69 deg. 42 min. N., long. 132 deg. 10 min. W., the water was perfectly salt, the sea partially covered with drift ice, and no land visible to seaward. They experienced considerable difficulty in crossing the estuaries of several rivers, which were deemed to be outlets of the shallow channels of the Mackenzie, that had been left to the eastward. They suffered, besides, some detention from ice and bad weather; and it was not until the 18th of July that, in lat. 70 deg. 37 min., long. 126 deg. 52 min. N., they got entirely clear of the widely spreading mouths of the Mackenzie, and of a large lake of brackish water, which seems to receive one of the branches of that river. The navigation across these wide estuaries was very embarrassing.

This danger was gladly exchanged for a coasting voyage in the open sea. They rounded Cape Parry, in lat. 70 deg. 8 min. N., long. 123 deg. W.; Cape Krusenstern in lat. 60 deg. 46 min. N., long. 114 deg. 45 min. W.; and entered George the IVth Coronation Gulf, by the Dolphin and Union Straits (so named after the boats), which brought them within sight of Cape Barrow, and two degrees of longitude to the eastward of the coppermine river. Their sea voyage terminated as beforementioned, on the 8th of August, by their actually entering that river.

Although they saw much heavy floe ice, some of it aground even in nine fathom water, yet none of it bore marks of being more than one season old; and from the heights of land they could discern lanes of open water outside,—so that a ship, properly strengthened for such a voyage, could make way through it with a favouring breeze.

Throughout the whole line of coast they had regular tides, the flood setting from the eastward; the rise and fall being from a foot to twenty inches. In the Dolphin and Union Straits, the current in the height of flood and ebb exceeded two miles an hour. They found drift timber everywhere, and a large portion of it, on many parts of the coast, lay in a line from ten to fifteen, and in some places upwards of twenty feet, above the ordinary spring-tide water-mark, apparently thrown up by a heavy sea.

After the first rapid, in the coppermine river, Dr. Richardson's party abandoned the boats, with the remainder of their cargoes of provision, iron-work, beads, &c. to the first party of Esquimaux which should chance to pass that way; and on the 10th of August set out by land, with ten days' provisions.

They reached the eastern end of Bear Lake, at the influx of Dease's river, on the 18th, and remained there until the evening of the 24th, before the boats arrived to convey them to Fort Franklin.

The person to whom the boats were entrusted, and who was sent off to Fort Franklin on the 6th of August, did not arrive on the latest day appointed for his appearance (the 20th), from a belief that Dr. Richardson's party would never return, and that he should make a needless voyage: and after the 20th Dr. Richardson was obliged to distribute his party into hunting and fishing groups, to procure subsistence. Dr. Richardson collected his party for embarkation on the evening of the 28th; and they reached the fort, after an absence from it of seventy-one days, the whole party in perfect health.

Footnote 1: (return)

This mound is said to resemble, in miniature, the scenery of Cumberland and Westmoreland. Perhaps this is too courtly; but it is surprising what the union of nature and art may effect in this way. Barrett, Cipriani, and Gilpin contrived to paint a room for Mr. Lock, at Norbury Park, so as to blend the scenery of Cumberland and Westmoreland, with the view from the windows, and to make it appear a continuation; and the effect was delightful, as thousands of delighted visiters have testified.

Footnote 2: (return)

Some years since there was at Reigate, in Surrey, a successful attempt made in this style of laying out grounds, on the very site where the illustrious Lord Shaftesbury wrote his "Characteristics," and probably the very background of the Gribelin frontispiece to the early edition of that invaluable work. This spot came afterwards into the possession of a gentleman who laid it out and planted it in so many forms, as to comprise in miniature whatever can be supposed in the most noble seats; for in it were a mount, river, parterre, wilderness, and gardens, and a lawn containing four or five deer, terminated by a small wood; yet the whole extent of ground did not exceed four acres. This occasioned it to be called all the world in an acre. Something of this kind was also projected by John Evelyn, called Elysium Britannicum, the plan of which is to be found in his works; but he did not complete his scheme. Gardening is one of the most interesting amusements of retirement, and without gardens, palaces are but "gross handyworks." Philosophers and Heroes have always been fondly attached to gardens, and their retreats must form an agreeable relief to the cumbrous cares of Royalty itself.

Footnote 3: (return)

In the facetious poem entitled May Fair, in speaking of Captain Parry's undertaking, and predicting its probable want of success, the following prophetic couplet appears:—

"Quarter-day you'll have him back,

With his volume in his pack;"

And lo! on quarter-day, the 29th of September, did Captain Parry make his appearance at the Admiralty!!

Printed and Published by J. Limbird, 143, Strand, (near Somerset House,) and sold by all Newsmen and Booksellers.


******* This file should be named 11375-h.txt or *******

This and all associated files of various formats will be found in:

Updated editions will replace the previous one--the old editions will be renamed.

Creating the works from public domain print editions means that no one owns a United States copyright in these works, so the Foundation (and you!) can copy and distribute it in the United States without permission and without paying copyright royalties. Special rules, set forth in the General Terms of Use part of this license, apply to copying and distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works to protect the PROJECT GUTENBERG-tm concept and trademark. Project Gutenberg is a registered trademark, and may not be used if you charge for the eBooks, unless you receive specific permission. If you do not charge anything for copies of this eBook, complying with the rules is very easy. You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose such as creation of derivative works, reports, performances and research. They may be modified and printed and given away--you may do practically ANYTHING with public domain eBooks. Redistribution is subject to the trademark license, especially commercial redistribution.



To protect the Project Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting the free
distribution of electronic works, by using or distributing this work
(or any other work associated in any way with the phrase "Project
Gutenberg"), you agree to comply with all the terms of the Full Project
Gutenberg-tm License (available with this file or online at

Section 1.  General Terms of Use and Redistributing Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic works

1.A.  By reading or using any part of this Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work, you indicate that you have read, understand, agree to
and accept all the terms of this license and intellectual property
(trademark/copyright) agreement.  If you do not agree to abide by all
the terms of this agreement, you must cease using and return or destroy
all copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in your possession.
If you paid a fee for obtaining a copy of or access to a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work and you do not agree to be bound by the
terms of this agreement, you may obtain a refund from the person or
entity to whom you paid the fee as set forth in paragraph 1.E.8.

1.B.  "Project Gutenberg" is a registered trademark.  It may only be
used on or associated in any way with an electronic work by people who
agree to be bound by the terms of this agreement.  There are a few
things that you can do with most Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works
even without complying with the full terms of this agreement.  See
paragraph 1.C below.  There are a lot of things you can do with Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works if you follow the terms of this agreement
and help preserve free future access to Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works.  See paragraph 1.E below.

1.C.  The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation ("the Foundation"
or PGLAF), owns a compilation copyright in the collection of Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic works.  Nearly all the individual works in the
collection are in the public domain in the United States.  If an
individual work is in the public domain in the United States and you are
located in the United States, we do not claim a right to prevent you from
copying, distributing, performing, displaying or creating derivative
works based on the work as long as all references to Project Gutenberg
are removed.  Of course, we hope that you will support the Project
Gutenberg-tm mission of promoting free access to electronic works by
freely sharing Project Gutenberg-tm works in compliance with the terms of
this agreement for keeping the Project Gutenberg-tm name associated with
the work.  You can easily comply with the terms of this agreement by
keeping this work in the same format with its attached full Project
Gutenberg-tm License when you share it without charge with others.

1.D.  The copyright laws of the place where you are located also govern
what you can do with this work.  Copyright laws in most countries are in
a constant state of change.  If you are outside the United States, check
the laws of your country in addition to the terms of this agreement
before downloading, copying, displaying, performing, distributing or
creating derivative works based on this work or any other Project
Gutenberg-tm work.  The Foundation makes no representations concerning
the copyright status of any work in any country outside the United

1.E.  Unless you have removed all references to Project Gutenberg:

1.E.1.  The following sentence, with active links to, or other immediate
access to, the full Project Gutenberg-tm License must appear prominently
whenever any copy of a Project Gutenberg-tm work (any work on which the
phrase "Project Gutenberg" appears, or with which the phrase "Project
Gutenberg" is associated) is accessed, displayed, performed, viewed,
copied or distributed:

This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
almost no restrictions whatsoever.  You may copy it, give it away or
re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included
with this eBook or online at

1.E.2.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is derived
from the public domain (does not contain a notice indicating that it is
posted with permission of the copyright holder), the work can be copied
and distributed to anyone in the United States without paying any fees
or charges.  If you are redistributing or providing access to a work
with the phrase "Project Gutenberg" associated with or appearing on the
work, you must comply either with the requirements of paragraphs 1.E.1
through 1.E.7 or obtain permission for the use of the work and the
Project Gutenberg-tm trademark as set forth in paragraphs 1.E.8 or

1.E.3.  If an individual Project Gutenberg-tm electronic work is posted
with the permission of the copyright holder, your use and distribution
must comply with both paragraphs 1.E.1 through 1.E.7 and any additional
terms imposed by the copyright holder.  Additional terms will be linked
to the Project Gutenberg-tm License for all works posted with the
permission of the copyright holder found at the beginning of this work.

1.E.4.  Do not unlink or detach or remove the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License terms from this work, or any files containing a part of this
work or any other work associated with Project Gutenberg-tm.

1.E.5.  Do not copy, display, perform, distribute or redistribute this
electronic work, or any part of this electronic work, without
prominently displaying the sentence set forth in paragraph 1.E.1 with
active links or immediate access to the full terms of the Project
Gutenberg-tm License.

1.E.6.  You may convert to and distribute this work in any binary,
compressed, marked up, nonproprietary or proprietary form, including any
word processing or hypertext form.  However, if you provide access to or
distribute copies of a Project Gutenberg-tm work in a format other than
"Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other format used in the official version
posted on the official Project Gutenberg-tm web site (,
you must, at no additional cost, fee or expense to the user, provide a
copy, a means of exporting a copy, or a means of obtaining a copy upon
request, of the work in its original "Plain Vanilla ASCII" or other
form.  Any alternate format must include the full Project Gutenberg-tm
License as specified in paragraph 1.E.1.

1.E.7.  Do not charge a fee for access to, viewing, displaying,
performing, copying or distributing any Project Gutenberg-tm works
unless you comply with paragraph 1.E.8 or 1.E.9.

1.E.8.  You may charge a reasonable fee for copies of or providing
access to or distributing Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works provided

- You pay a royalty fee of 20% of the gross profits you derive from
     the use of Project Gutenberg-tm works calculated using the method
     you already use to calculate your applicable taxes.  The fee is
     owed to the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark, but he
     has agreed to donate royalties under this paragraph to the
     Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.  Royalty payments
     must be paid within 60 days following each date on which you
     prepare (or are legally required to prepare) your periodic tax
     returns.  Royalty payments should be clearly marked as such and
     sent to the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation at the
     address specified in Section 4, "Information about donations to
     the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation."

- You provide a full refund of any money paid by a user who notifies
     you in writing (or by e-mail) within 30 days of receipt that s/he
     does not agree to the terms of the full Project Gutenberg-tm
     License.  You must require such a user to return or
     destroy all copies of the works possessed in a physical medium
     and discontinue all use of and all access to other copies of
     Project Gutenberg-tm works.

- You provide, in accordance with paragraph 1.F.3, a full refund of any
     money paid for a work or a replacement copy, if a defect in the
     electronic work is discovered and reported to you within 90 days
     of receipt of the work.

- You comply with all other terms of this agreement for free
     distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm works.

1.E.9.  If you wish to charge a fee or distribute a Project Gutenberg-tm
electronic work or group of works on different terms than are set
forth in this agreement, you must obtain permission in writing from
both the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation and Michael
Hart, the owner of the Project Gutenberg-tm trademark.  Contact the
Foundation as set forth in Section 3 below.


1.F.1.  Project Gutenberg volunteers and employees expend considerable
effort to identify, do copyright research on, transcribe and proofread
public domain works in creating the Project Gutenberg-tm
collection.  Despite these efforts, Project Gutenberg-tm electronic
works, and the medium on which they may be stored, may contain
"Defects," such as, but not limited to, incomplete, inaccurate or
corrupt data, transcription errors, a copyright or other intellectual
property infringement, a defective or damaged disk or other medium, a
computer virus, or computer codes that damage or cannot be read by
your equipment.

of Replacement or Refund" described in paragraph 1.F.3, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, the owner of the Project
Gutenberg-tm trademark, and any other party distributing a Project
Gutenberg-tm electronic work under this agreement, disclaim all
liability to you for damages, costs and expenses, including legal

defect in this electronic work within 90 days of receiving it, you can
receive a refund of the money (if any) you paid for it by sending a
written explanation to the person you received the work from.  If you
received the work on a physical medium, you must return the medium with
your written explanation.  The person or entity that provided you with
the defective work may elect to provide a replacement copy in lieu of a
refund.  If you received the work electronically, the person or entity
providing it to you may choose to give you a second opportunity to
receive the work electronically in lieu of a refund.  If the second copy
is also defective, you may demand a refund in writing without further
opportunities to fix the problem.

1.F.4.  Except for the limited right of replacement or refund set forth
in paragraph 1.F.3, this work is provided to you 'AS-IS,' WITH NO OTHER

1.F.5.  Some states do not allow disclaimers of certain implied
warranties or the exclusion or limitation of certain types of damages.
If any disclaimer or limitation set forth in this agreement violates the
law of the state applicable to this agreement, the agreement shall be
interpreted to make the maximum disclaimer or limitation permitted by
the applicable state law.  The invalidity or unenforceability of any
provision of this agreement shall not void the remaining provisions.

1.F.6.  INDEMNITY - You agree to indemnify and hold the Foundation, the
trademark owner, any agent or employee of the Foundation, anyone
providing copies of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works in accordance
with this agreement, and any volunteers associated with the production,
promotion and distribution of Project Gutenberg-tm electronic works,
harmless from all liability, costs and expenses, including legal fees,
that arise directly or indirectly from any of the following which you do
or cause to occur: (a) distribution of this or any Project Gutenberg-tm
work, (b) alteration, modification, or additions or deletions to any
Project Gutenberg-tm work, and (c) any Defect you cause.

Section  2.  Information about the Mission of Project Gutenberg-tm

Project Gutenberg-tm is synonymous with the free distribution of
electronic works in formats readable by the widest variety of computers
including obsolete, old, middle-aged and new computers.  It exists
because of the efforts of hundreds of volunteers and donations from
people in all walks of life.

Volunteers and financial support to provide volunteers with the
assistance they need, is critical to reaching Project Gutenberg-tm's
goals and ensuring that the Project Gutenberg-tm collection will
remain freely available for generations to come.  In 2001, the Project
Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation was created to provide a secure
and permanent future for Project Gutenberg-tm and future generations.
To learn more about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation
and how your efforts and donations can help, see Sections 3 and 4
and the Foundation web page at

Section 3.  Information about the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive

The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation is a non profit
501(c)(3) educational corporation organized under the laws of the
state of Mississippi and granted tax exempt status by the Internal
Revenue Service.  The Foundation's EIN or federal tax identification
number is 64-6221541.  Its 501(c)(3) letter is posted at  Contributions to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation are tax deductible to the full extent
permitted by U.S. federal laws and your state's laws.

The Foundation's principal office is located at 4557 Melan Dr. S.
Fairbanks, AK, 99712., but its volunteers and employees are scattered
throughout numerous locations.  Its business office is located at
809 North 1500 West, Salt Lake City, UT 84116, (801) 596-1887, email  Email contact links and up to date contact
information can be found at the Foundation's web site and official
page at

For additional contact information:
     Dr. Gregory B. Newby
     Chief Executive and Director

Section 4.  Information about Donations to the Project Gutenberg
Literary Archive Foundation

Project Gutenberg-tm depends upon and cannot survive without wide
spread public support and donations to carry out its mission of
increasing the number of public domain and licensed works that can be
freely distributed in machine readable form accessible by the widest
array of equipment including outdated equipment.  Many small donations
($1 to $5,000) are particularly important to maintaining tax exempt
status with the IRS.

The Foundation is committed to complying with the laws regulating
charities and charitable donations in all 50 states of the United
States.  Compliance requirements are not uniform and it takes a
considerable effort, much paperwork and many fees to meet and keep up
with these requirements.  We do not solicit donations in locations
where we have not received written confirmation of compliance.  To
SEND DONATIONS or determine the status of compliance for any
particular state visit

While we cannot and do not solicit contributions from states where we
have not met the solicitation requirements, we know of no prohibition
against accepting unsolicited donations from donors in such states who
approach us with offers to donate.

International donations are gratefully accepted, but we cannot make
any statements concerning tax treatment of donations received from
outside the United States.  U.S. laws alone swamp our small staff.

Please check the Project Gutenberg Web pages for current donation
methods and addresses.  Donations are accepted in a number of other
ways including including checks, online payments and credit card
donations.  To donate, please visit:

Section 5.  General Information About Project Gutenberg-tm electronic

Professor Michael S. Hart was the originator of the Project Gutenberg-tm
concept of a library of electronic works that could be freely shared
with anyone.  For thirty years, he produced and distributed Project
Gutenberg-tm eBooks with only a loose network of volunteer support.

Project Gutenberg-tm eBooks are often created from several printed
editions, all of which are confirmed as Public Domain in the U.S.
unless a copyright notice is included.  Thus, we do not necessarily
keep eBooks in compliance with any particular paper edition.

Each eBook is in a subdirectory of the same number as the eBook's
eBook number, often in several formats including plain vanilla ASCII,
compressed (zipped), HTML and others.

Corrected EDITIONS of our eBooks replace the old file and take over
the old filename and etext number.  The replaced older file is renamed.
VERSIONS based on separate sources are treated as new eBooks receiving
new filenames and etext numbers.

Most people start at our Web site which has the main PG search facility:

This Web site includes information about Project Gutenberg-tm,
including how to make donations to the Project Gutenberg Literary
Archive Foundation, how to help produce our new eBooks, and how to
subscribe to our email newsletter to hear about new eBooks.

EBooks posted prior to November 2003, with eBook numbers BELOW #10000,
are filed in directories based on their release date.  If you want to
download any of these eBooks directly, rather than using the regular
search system you may utilize the following addresses and just
download by the etext year.

    (Or /etext 05, 04, 03, 02, 01, 00, 99,
     98, 97, 96, 95, 94, 93, 92, 92, 91 or 90)

EBooks posted since November 2003, with etext numbers OVER #10000, are
filed in a different way.  The year of a release date is no longer part
of the directory path.  The path is based on the etext number (which is
identical to the filename).  The path to the file is made up of single
digits corresponding to all but the last digit in the filename.  For
example an eBook of filename 10234 would be found at:

or filename 24689 would be found at:

An alternative method of locating eBooks: