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Title: The Survey of Cornwall

Author: Richard Carew

Release date: February 1, 2006 [eBook #9878]
Most recently updated: April 3, 2015

Language: English

Credits: Produced by Steve Gilbert


Produced by Steve Gilbert


C O R N W A L L.


        An EPISTLE concerning the EXCELLENCIES
               of the ENGLISH TONGUE.

         By RICHARD CAREW, of Antonie, Esq;
              The LIFE of the AUTHOR,
                By H**** C***** Esq.
                  A NEW EDITION.
        Printed for E. LAW, in Ave-Mary-Lane;
            and J.HEWETT, at Penzance.



A. Copies.

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         The Life of R I C H A R D C A R E W
                   of Antonie Esq;

By HUGH C******* Esq;

RICHARD CAREW, the Celebrated Author of the Survey of Cornwall, was born of an antient Family at East-Antonie (a), the Seat of his Ancestors, in the Year 1555, if we may credit Mr. Wood (b). He was the Son of Thomas Carew by Elizabeth Edgecumb, Daughter to Sir Richard Edgecumb, a Gentleman says our Author (c), in whom Mildness and Stoutness, Diffidence and Wisdom, Deliberateness of Undertaking, and Sufficiency of Effecting, made a more commendable, than blazing mixture of Vertue. He adds, that Sir Richard, at his fine House, call'd to this day Mount-Edgecumb,

"during Queen Mary's Reign, entertain'd at one time for some good space, the Admirals of the English, Spanish, and Netherland Fleets, with many Noblemen besides.

But", pursues he, "not too much of this, lest a partial Affection steal, as unawares, into my Commendation, as one, by my Mother, descended from his Loins, and by my Birth a Member of the House (d)."

But Mr. Carew hath given us an account of his Ancestors, which I shall set down here, that the Reader may see they were no less distinguished by the great Estates in their possession, than by the Noble Families they were allyed to. Speaking of the Lyner, which, with the Tamer, discharges itself into the Sea above Plymouth;

"A little within this Mouth of Lyner", says he (e), "standeth East-Antonie, the poore home of mine Ancestours, with which in this manner they were invested:

    Sir John Lerchedekne ———- of Ashton in Devon.
    Touching our Stock in general", pursues our Author
    (f), "and my Family in particular ——————-
    our Queen."

The Pregnancy of his Parts being much above his Age, he was sent to
Oxford in the Year 1566, being then but eleven Years old, and

    "(g) became a Gentleman Commoner of Christ Church …….
    but had his Chamber in Broadgate's Hall:"

And three Years after he was call'd to dispute with the incomparable
Sir Philip Sidney, who was a Year older than he (h).

Dr. Fuller and Mr. Wood have taken notice of this memorable Dispute, without mentioning from whence they had that Particular, which, as we have seen already, is related by Mr. Carew himself.

"He was bred", says Dr. Fuller (i), "a Gentleman- Commoner in Oxford; where, being but fourteen Years old, and yet three Years standing, he was call'd out to dispute ex tempore, before the Earls of Leicester and Warwick, with the matchless Sir Philip Sidney.

                            Si quaeritis hujus
    Fortunam pugnae, non est superatus ab illo.

    Ask you the End of this Contest ?
    They neither had the better, both the best."

Mr. Wood expresses it thus:

"At fourteen Years of Age", says he (k), "he disputed ex tempore with the matchless Philip Sidney, (while he was a young (l) Man, I suppose) in the presence of the Earls of Leicester, Warwick, and other Nobility, at what time they were lodged in Christ-Church, to receive entertainment from the Muses."

Mr. Wood says afterwards, that

    "After Mr. Carew had spent three Years in Oxon, he retired
    to the Middle Temple, where he spent 3 Years more" (m) ;

which may be true, tho' he brings in no Authority for it. But what he adds, that

"then he was sent with his Uncle (Sir George Carew as it seems) in his Embassage unto the King of Poland; whom when he came to Dantzick, he found that he had been newly gone from thence into Sweden, whither also he went after him :"

And that

"After his return, and a short stay made in England, he was sent by his Father into France with Sir Hen. Nevill, who was then Ambassador Leiger unto K. Hen. 4. that he might learn the French Tongue, which by reading and talking, he overcame in three quarters of a Year :"

All this, I say, cannot hold, if it be true that, tho' he understood
Italian, French, High-Dutch, and Spanish, he had never been out of
England ; as his Countryman Charles Fitzgeffry seems to assert in the
following Compliment to him:

    Quis Deus tibi tam bene invocatus (n),
    Disertissime millium trecentum
    Idemq; optime omnium CARAEE,
    (Seu quis multiplicem eruditionem,
    Seu quis, quo magis emicas elenchum
    Morum ponderet elegantiorum,
    Virtutumq; tot auream coronam)
    Quis (inquam) Deus (o Deus profecto!)
    Tantis te spoliis, tot & trophaeis
    Terrarum locupletat exterarum,
    Domi perpetuo interim morantem
    Et libris patriaeque servientem?
    Quo Graij tibi, quo tibi Latini
    Auri pondera tanta? quove Hetrusci,
    Galli, Teutones, invidiq; Iberi
    Tam assatim te opibus suis bearunt?
    O si tot Deus ora, totq; linguas
    Mihi idulserit, ut tuas referrem
    Laudes, quot dedit ora quotq; linguas
    Tibi uno Deus ore, lingua in una?

I may add, that Mr. Carew, in his Survey of Cornwall, giving an account of the eminent Men born in that Dutchy, reckons among the Civilians Doctor Carew (o) :

"In the Civil Law", says he (p), "there lived of late Doctor Kennals, and now (q) doth Doctor Carew, one of the antientest Masters of the Chancery; in which Calling, after his younger Years spent abroad to his benefit, he hath reposed himself."

He mentions him again among the Persons employed in State Affairs, and therethrough stept to Preferment (r).

"Master George Carew", says he, "in his younger Years gathered such Fruit as the University, the Inns of Court, and Foreign Travel could yield him. Upon his Return, he was first call'd to the Bar, then supply'd the Place of Secretary to the Lord Chancellor Hatton; and after his Decease, performed the like Office to his two Successors, by special Recommendation from her Majesty, who also gave him the Prothonotaryship of the Chancery; and in anno 1598 sent him Ambassador to the King of Poland, and other Northern Potentates, where through unexpected Accidents, he underwent extraordinary Perils; but God freed him from them, and he performed his Duty in acceptable manner : And at this present the Commonwealth useth his Service, as a Master of the Chancery."

Had our Author attended this worthy Person in his Embassies, it is hardly possible he should not have taken some notice of it here; being elsewhere so ready to honour himself with the Friendship or Acquaintance of the Great Men of his Time.

As to what Mr. Wood adds, viz. that Mr. Carew was sent by his Father into France with Sir Henry Nevill…. that he might learn the French Tongue, &c. I am afraid he hath mistaken our Author for his Son, who, in effect, went into France with a Nevill, in order to learn the French Tongue ; as it appears by the following Verses of the aforesaid Fitzgeffry, upon his Return.

    Ad (s) RICHARDUM CARAEUM, Ri. Filium,
                    e Gallijs reducem.

    Melligo juvenum Caraee, quotquot
    Damnoni occiduis alunt in oris :
    Ecquid Fama sinistimae (t) auricellae
    Veris se insinuat meae susurris,
    Te longae peregrinitates omnes
    Exanclasse (v) molestias, marisq;
    Emensum omnia taedia, ad parentes
    Patremq; unanimum, piamq; matrem,
    Membrorum incolumi statu redisse,
    Onustum omnigenae eruditionis
    Gazis & Spoliis, quot aut Camoenae
    Dant vaenum emporio Lutetiano
    Aut culto Aureliae urbis in Lycaeo.
    Qua tibi Aonii latus NEVILLI
    Phoeboeumq; TRELAVNIVM sequuto
    Aulam invisere curiamq; magni
    Regis contigit, aemulam tonantis.
      At o Liligeri potentis Aula
    AEtatem bene sit tibi, quod almum
    CAREUM modo patriae patriq;
    Post desiderium utriusq; longum,
    Salvumq; incolumenq; reddidisti.
      At tu non modo stemmatum opumq;
    Verum & laudis & eruditionis
    Patritae genuinus artis haeres
    Cresce in spem patriae, hostium timores,
    Patris delicias, Elisae amores,
    Donec concilijs senex, at ore
    Et membris juvenis sat intigellus (x)
    Totum Nestora vixeris, tuisq;
    Album feceris Albiona factis :
      Melligo juvenum CARAEE quotquot
    Damnoni occiduis alunt in oris.

Learning is not only useful, but necessary in all Conditions and States of Life; but I will presume to say, that it is more particularly so to all Gentlemen, who are allotted to live in the Country. And if they cannot pass their leisure Hours in reading, or cultivating Arts and Sciences, they will spend that time in such things as must be detrimental to their Families, and, at the end, fatal to their own Persons. Our Author could never fall into those Inconveniences : He loved Letters, and not only made them subservient to his own Entertainment, but sometimes useful to the Publick.

As he was a great Master of Languages, he delivered his Opinion upon the true and ready way to learn the Latin Tongue, in answer to a Quaere, Whether the ordinary way by teaching Latin by the Rules of Grammar, be the best way for Youths to learn it (y)? He wrote likewise a Dissertation, shewing the Excellency of the English Tongue (z) : and published a Translation of the Examen de Ingenios para las Sciencias, written by Juan Huerte, that ingenious and learned Spanish Physician. It was printed at London in 1594, with this Title: The Examination of Mens Wits. In which, by discovering the Variety of Natures, is shewed for what Profession each one is apt, and how far he shall profit therein (A).

His Proficiency in natural Philosophy, enabled him to improve Agriculture and Husbandry to such a degree, that he was accounted among his Neighbours the greatest Husband, and most excellent Manager of Bees in Cornwall (B).

The Enquiries he had made into the History and Antiquities of Nations, and chiefly of Great Britain, engaged him to attempt a Description of Cornwall; as it is natural to every Man to have a particular Fondness for his native Country:

    Nescio qua natale solum dulcedine cunctos
      Ducit & immemores non finit esse sui.

This he only undertook for his private Satisfaction and Entertainment; but was afterwards prevail'd upon by his Friends to publish it, as we shall see anon. Mr. Camden, who had seen it, and was an excellent Judge in those Matters, thought himself obliged to do justice both to the Author and his Performance, in the first Edition of his Britannia, printed in the Year 1586:

"But these Matters" (says he, at the end of his Account of Cornwall) "will be laid open more distinctly and fully, by Richard Carew of Antonie, a Person no less eminent for his honourable Ancestors, than his own Virtue and Learning, who is writing a Description of this Country, not in little, but at large."

Sed haec planius & plenius docebit Richardus Carew de Antonie, non minus generis splendore, quam virtute & doctrina nobilis; qui hujus regionis descriptionem latiore specie, & non ad tenue elimat (D).

Our Author's Knowledge in the Laws, his Love for Justice and Equity, and his Affection to the Government, rais'd him to all the Posts of Honour, that are consistent with a Country Life. Mr. Wood assures us (E), that he was made Justice of the Peace in 1581, High-Sheriff of Cornwall in 1586, and about that time was the Queens Deputy for the Militia. And indeed we find in his Survey of Cornwall, that he was Justice of the Peace, and one of the Quorum (F) : and that in the Year 1599, (Sir Walter Raleigh being then Lieutenant General of Cornwall) Mr. Carew was one of the Deputy Lieutenants, Treasurer of the Lieutenancy, and Colonel of a Regiment, consisting of five Companies, or 500 Men, armed with 170 Pikes, 300 Musquets, and 30 Calivers, appointed for Causam Bay (G).

There was at that time a Society of several Gentlemen, eminent for their Learning and Merit, such as Sir Robert Cotton, Mr. Dodderidge, (afterwards Sir John Dodderidge, who died one of the Judges of the King's-Bench) Mr. Camden, Mr. Stow, &c. who had regular Meetings, or Conferences, for the Improvement and Illustration of the History and Antiquities of England. That Society had a particular Claim to our Author; and in 1589 he was elected a Member of the College of the Antiquaries (H). The Oration he made at his Introduction, contained, (as I am informed by a Gentleman who saw it)

"an elegant Display of the Devastations Time so swiftly makes upon all things; thence it subsides to the Advantages and Commendations of that kind of Study, they had chosen to be the Subject of their Conferences : and concludes with a pathetical Exhortation to his Auditory, That they would persevere in establishing what they had so nobly begun, and continue to employ their Labours upon those things, which were worthy of them; that so they might not be drawn into Oblivion themselves, by that which they would rescue from it, and that Time might not rob them of aught more considerable than that which they should restore."

Thus flourished that Illustrious College of Antiquaries, whose Meetings were chiefly held at Sir Robert Cotton's House (I). For they had no publick Place for it. And therefore these Gentlemen considering that they were but a private Society, which several Accidents might either interrupt, or even dissolve, and did besides want some Accommodations, in order to fix and perpetuate an Institution so beneficial to the Publick, they resolved to apply to the Queen for a Royal Charter, and for some publick Building, where they would perform their Exercises; and intended to erect a Library suitable to it. And they had the more reason to believe they could obtain such a Grant, that the Queen, not contented with a superficial Smattering of Learning, back'd with Conceit and Talkativeness, (which is the highest pitch Persons of the first Rank do commonly arrive to) was truly and solidly learned, and a real Encourager of Letters : wherein she had the ready Concurrence of her Ministers, who were no less conspicuous for their Learning, than for their Integrity and consummate Wisdom. But as fair as the Hopes of this famous College appeared in its Bloom, they were soon blighted by the Death of that ever-memorable Princess, like those Fruits, which for want of the Sun's genial Rays, cannot arrive at due Maturity. For all the Applications they made for the same purpose to her Successor, proved vain and unsuccessful. But what else could be expected from a Man who never had a relish for polite Literature, or any kind of useful Learning, and only delighted in pedantick scholastical Divinity; and fancy'd himself the Wisest and most glorious Prince in the World, (a second Solomon forsooth) if he could but scrible a Pamphlet against Witches, or against tobacco: a Man, in short, whose Genius and Taste were as low and mean, as his Soul and Inclinations! As for our learned Antiquaries, they were obliged to dissolve themselves, and break their Society, lest (such was the Wisdom of those Times) they should be prosecuted as a Cabal against the Government : Ne quicquam mali contra Rempublicam illos moliri Rex, Conciliariive suspicarentur (K).

Mr. Carew published his Survey of Cornwall, in the Year 1602 (L) and did dedicate it to his Friend Sir Walter Raleigh, Lord Warden of the Stannaries, Lieutenant-General of Cornwall, &c.

"This mine ill-husbanded Survey", says he to that great Man, " long since begun, a great while discontinued, lately reviewed, and now hastily finished, appealeth to your Lordship's Direction, whether it should pass; to your Corection if it do pass; and to your Protection when it is passed. Neither unduly : for the same intreateth of the Province and Persons, over whose Bodies and Estates, you carry a large, both Martial and Civil Command, by your Authority ; but in whose Hearts and Loves you possess a far greater Interest, by your Kindness. Your Ears and Mouth have ever been open to hear and deliver our Grievances, and your Feet and Hands ready to go, and work their Redress; and that, not only always as a Magistrate of yourself, but also very often, as a Suiter and Solicitor to others, of the highest Place. Wherefore, I, as one of the common beholden, present this Token of my private Gratitude. It is Duty and not Presumption, that hath drawn me to the Offering; and it must be Favour, and not Desert, that shall move your Lordship to the acceptance. And so I take humble leave, resting no less willing to serve you, than under you."

The Reader will, I hope, excuse my transcribing here the whole Epistle. These Addresses are a true Test of an Author's Wit and Genius. And who can be displeased with so just a Character of one of the greatest Men of our Nation? Mr. Carew subscribes himself, His Lordships poor Kinsman, Richard Carew of Antonie; but how he was related to him, I could not yet find. Sir Walter Raleigh had a Son, whose Christen-name was Carew; and probably our Author was his Godfather.

In his Preface, Mr. Carew observes, that when he first composed this Treatise, not minding that it should be published in Print, he caused only certain written Copies to be given to some of his Friends …… But since that time, Master Camden's often mentioning this Work, and his Friends Persuasions, had caused his Determination to alter, and to embrace a pleasing Hope, that Charity and good Construction would rest now generally in all Readers.

"Besides", says he, " the State of our Country hath undergone so many Alterations, since I first began these Scriblings, that, in the reviewing, I was driven either likewise to vary my Report, or else to speak against my Knowledge….

Reckon therefore (I pray you) that this Treatise plotteth down Cornwall, as it now standeth, for the particulars, and will continue, for the general."

Mr. Carew's Survey of Cornwall was receiv'd, when it came out, (as it hath been ever since) with a general Applause; as it appears by the Encomiums pass'd upon it, which it would be too long to enumerate. Mr. Camden, in the sixth Edition of his Britannia, printed in 1607, acknowledges, at the end of his Account of Cornwall, that our Author had been his chief Guide through it (M). But as 'tis usual to Authors of an inferior rank to be the best pleased with their Works, so the best Authors are the least satisfy'd with their Performances, and the most severe Censors to themselves.

The Approbation of the Publick only excites them to mend their Writings, and give them all the Perfection they are capable. Mr. Carew was uneasy at the Errors of the Printers, and some Oversights of his, that had crept into his Book; and desired to improve it by the Observations of others, who had writ on the same Subject. Being told in the Year 1606, that Mr. Dodderidge, who was then Sollicitor-General, had published some Account of the Dutchy of Cornwall, (which was not true, for that Tract did not come out till 1630) he desired Mr. Camden to send him a Copy of it.

"I make bold", says he (N), " to use my thanks for your kind remembring me by Sir Anthony Rouse, as a Shoeing- horn to draw on a Request; and this it is : I learn that Master Sollicitor hath compiled a Treatise of our Cornish Dutchy, and dedicated it to the Prince : this I much long to see, and heartily pray by your means to obtain a Copy thereof. The first publishing of my Survey was voluntary; the second, which I now purpose, is of necessity, not so much for the enlarging it, as the correcting mine and the Printers Oversights: and amongst these, the Arms not the least, touching which mine Order, suitable to your Direction, was not observed, and so myself made an Instrument, but not the Author of Wrong and Error. I imagine that I may cull out of Master Sollicitor's Garden many Flowers to adorn this other Edition; and if I wist where to find Mr. Norden, I would also fain have his Map of our Shire; for perfecting of which, he took a Journey into these Parts."

Mr. Carew never published a second Edition of his Book, tho' he lived fourteen Years after the writing of that Letter. And whether he left behind him a Copy of it revised and corrected for a new Impression, does not appear. It hath indeed been reported, that there was a Copy extant with large Additions (O); but they don't tell us whose Additions they are. They can hardly be the Author's own Additions, since they are said to be large ones; and we have seen that Mr. Carew's Design in the intended second Edition of his Survey, was not so much for the enlarging it, as the correcting his and the Printers Oversights. However it be, we may reasonably wonder that a Work so valuable, and the only compleat one we have on that Subject, should not have been reprinted since the Year 1602; whereby it is become so scarce, and bears such an excessive Price. Perhaps this is owing to the false Rumours which have been spread from time to time, that it was going to be reprinted with large Additions. For these idle common Reports have often prevented new Editions of useful and necessary Books. But it is to be hoped, that some publick-spirited Persons will reprint it, as it was first published. If any body hath any Additions or Supplements to it, they may print them separately.

Mr. Carew (P)

"was intimate with the most noted Scholars of his Time, particularly with Sir Henry Spelman, who in an Epistle (*) to him concerning Tythes, doth not a little extol him for his Ingenuity, Vertue, and Learning. 'Palmam igitur cedo' (saith he) '& quod Graeci olim in Caria fua gente, admirati sunt, nos in Caria nostra gente agnoscimus, ingenium splendidum, bellarumque intentionum saecundissimum, &c.'"

And a famous Scotch Poet (+)

"stiles him another Livy, another Maro, another Papinian, and highly extols him for his great Skill in History, and Knowledge in the Laws (Q)."

Mr. Carew

"died on the sixth day of November, in fifteen hundred and twenty, and was buried in the Church of East-Antonie among his Ancestors. Shortly after, he had a splendid Monument set over his Grave, with an Inscription thereon, written in the Latin Tongue (R)"

As I have not seen that Inscription, I cannot tell whether it be the same with the following Epitaph, written by Mr. Camden (S), probably at the Request of Mr. Carew's Family.

              Richardo Carew de Antonie
             Filio Thomae Carew ex Anna Edgcombia,
                   Nepoti Wimundi Carew Militis ex
                       Martha Dennia,
             Pronepoti Joannis Carew ex Thomasina
             Moribus modestis, mente generosa,
                     Eruditione varia,
                    Animo erga Deum devato;
          Qui inter medias de caelesti vita meditationes
                 Placide in Chrifto obdormivit,
                     Anno aetatis Lxiij.
            E. Arundelia uxor marito charissimo,
                   Conjugalis fidei ergo,
                 Et …. Filius Patri optimo,
                  Officiosi obsequii ergo,
                 Obiit ………….

(a) In the Eastern Parts of Cornwall, within some Miles of Plymouth. (b) Anth. Wood Athen. Oxon. vol. 1. c. 452. 2d Edit. (c) The Survey of Cornwall, fol. 100. (d) The Survey of Cornwall, fol. 100. (e) Ibid. fol. 102. (f) Ibid. fol. 103, 104. (g) Wood, ubi supra. (h) Sir Philip Sidney was born in 1554. Wood ibid. c. 226. (i) The History of the Worthies of England, p. 205. (k) Ubi supr. (l) What Mr. Wood means by this Parenthesis, I leave to the reader to determine. (m) Ibid. (n) Caroli Fitzgeofridi Assaniae: sive Epigrammatum Libri tres &c. Oxon. 1601, in 8vo. Lib. 3. Ep. 33. (o) Afterwards Sir George Carew. (p) Survey, fol. 59. ver. (q) The Survey of Cornwall was published in the Year 1602. (r) Ibid. fol. 61. (s) Ubi supr. Epi. 40. (t) Lege, sinitimae (v) Leg. exantlasse. (x) Leg. integellus. (y) It was printed in 1654. See Wood, ubi supr. c. 453. (A) Wood, ibid. (B) Ibid. (D) Britannia, &c. Londini 1586, in 8vo. (E) Ubi supr. c. 452. (F) Survey, &c. fol. 88. (G) Ibid. fol. 83. (H) Wood, ubi supr. (I) See Dr. Smith's Life of Sir Robert Cotton. (K) Dr. Smith, ubi supr. (L) In 4to. (M) Quemque mihi preluxiss non possum non agnoscere. (N) Gul. Camdeni Epistolae, &c. Epist. LVIII. pag. 72. That letter is dated 13th of May 1606. (O) W. Nicolson, The English Historical Library, chap. II. p 11, 12 of the 2d Edition. (P) Wood, ubi supr. c. 453. (*) In his Apol. of the Treatise de non temerandis Ecclesiis, &c. Lond. 1646, 4to. (+) Joh. Dunbar Megalo-Britannus in Epigrammat. suis, cent. 6. numb. 53. (Q) Wood, ibid. (R) Wood, ibid. (S) Camdeni Epistolae, &c. pag. 106.



Written by Richard Carew, of Antonie, Esquire.

[Abstract graphics]

            To the Honorable, Sir Walter Ra-
             leigh Knight, Lord Warden of the
            Stannaries, Lieutenant Generall of
                     Cornwall, &c.

This mine ill-husbanded Survey, long since begun, a great while discontinued, lately reviewed, and now hastily finished, appealeth to your L. direction, whether it should passe; to your correction, if it doe passe; and to your protection, when it is passed. Neither unduely: for the same intreateth of the Province, and Persons,ouer whose bodies, and estates,you carrie a large, both Martiall, and ciuiil commaund, by your authoritie, but in whose hearts, and loues, you possesse a farre greater interest, by your kindnesse. Your eares, and mouth, haue euer beene open, to heare, and deliuer our grieuances, and your feete and hands, readie to goe, and worke their redresse, and that, not onely, alwayes, as a Magistrate, of your selfe, but also verie often,as a suiter, and solliciter to others, of the highest place. Wherefore, I, as one of the common beholden, present this token of my priuate gratitude. It is dutie, and not pre- sumption, that hath drawne me to the offering; and it must be fauour,and not desert, that shall moue your Lordship to the acceptance: and so I take humble leaue, rest- ing no lesse willing to serue you, then vnder you.

Your Lordships poore kinsman,

                     Richard Carew of

To the Reader.

When I first composed this Treatise, not minding that it should be published in Print, I caused onely certaine written copies to bee giuen to some of my friends, and put Prosopopeia into the bookes mouth. But since that time, master Camdens often-mencioning this worke, and my friends perswasions, haue caused my determination to alter, & to imbrace a pleasing hope, that charitie, & good construction resteth now generally in all Readers. Albeit, I well know, how Opere in vario, no lesse then in longo, fas est obrepere somnum. And I acknowledge, this playing work to come so farr short, of satisfying, euen myselfe (though Suus cuiq; placet partus) as I haue little reason, to expect the applause of any other.

Besides the state of our Countrie hath vndergone so manie Alterations, since I first began these scriblings, that,in the reuiewing, I was driuen, either likewise to varie my report, or else to speake against my knowledge. And no maruaile, for each succeeding time, addeth, or raueth, goods, & euils, according to the occasions, which it selfe produceth : rather a wonder it were, that in the ceaselesse reuolution of the Vniuerse, any parcell should retaine a stedfast constitution. Reckon therefore (I pray you) that this treatise plotteth downe Cornwall, as it now standeth, for the particulars, and will continue, for the generall. Mine Eulogies proceede no lesse, from the sinceritie of a witnesse, then the affection of a friend: and therefore I hope, that where my tongue hath beene good, no mans eye will bee euill: and that each wel-minded Reader will wish a merrie passage, to this my rather fancie-sporting, then gaine-fseeking voyage. Farewell.


The Prosopopeia to the Booke.

    I Crave not courteous ayd of friends,
      To blaze my praise in verse,
    Nor, prowd of vaunt, mine authors names,
      In catalogue rehearse:

    I of no willing wrong complaine,
      Which force or stealth hath wrought,
    No fruit I promise from the tree,
      Which forth this blooth hath brought.

    I curry not with smoothing termes,
      Ne yet rude threats I blaste:
    I seeke no patrone for my faults,
      I pleade no needlesse haste.

    But as a child of feeble force,
      I keep my fathers home,
    And, bashfull at eche strangers sight,
      Dare not abroad to rome,

    Saue to his kinne of neerest bloud,
      Or friends of dearest price,
    Who, for his sake, not my desert,
      With welcome me entice.



The first Booke.

Cornwall, the farthest Shire of England Westwards, hath her name by diuers Authors diuersly deriued. Some (as our owne Chroniclers) draw it from Corineus, cousin to Brute, the first Conqueror of this Iland: who wrastling at Plymmouth (as they say) with a mightie Giant, called Gogmagog, threw him ouer Cliffe, brake his necke, and receiued the gift of that Countrie, in reward for his prowesse: Some, as Cerealis, (no lesse mistaken perhaps in that, then in his measures) from Cornu Galliae, a home or corner of Fraunce, whereagainst nature hath placed it: and some, from Cornu Walliae, which (in my conjecture) carrieth greatest likelyhood of truth.

For what time the Saxons, after many bloudie inuasions [Anno Dom. 586.] as Pirates, began at last to plant their dwellings [2a] and take roote in this Iland, as Conquerors, the Britons, by them supplanted, were driuen to seeke their safegard in the waste Moores, craggie Mountaines, and wild Forrests of Wales and Cornwall, where the Countries barrennesse barred their pursuers from victuals, and the dangerousnesse of the passages laid them open to priuie inuasions. Such as had in this sort withdrawne themselves, the Saxons termed Welshmen, by interpretation strangers, for so they were to them, as they to the Countrie: and their place of abode they called Welshland, sithence turned to Wales, euen as by the same reason, they giue still the same name to Italy. Now, Cornwall being cast out into the Sea, with the shape of a horne, borrowed the one part of her name from her fashion, as Matthew of Westminster testifieth, and the other from her Inhabitants; both which conjoyned, make Cornwalliae, and contriued, Cornwall: in which sence, the Cornish people call it Kernow, deriued likewise from Kerne a home. Neither needeth this composition to be accompted any way vncouth, seeing the same is made familiar vnto vs by the like in other Countries, as of Herbipolis in Germanie, Lombardie in Italy, Paleocastrum in Crete, and Neoportus in Carniola: all which, with many other, are likewise compacted of double languages.

This ill-halfening hornie name, hath (as Corneto in Italy) opened a gap to the scoffes of many, who not knowing their owne present condition, or at least their future destinie, can be contented to draw an odious mirth from a publike infamie. But seeing the wisest Enditer, hath directed the penne of his holiest writers to vse this terme, not only in a good meaning, but also in a significant sense, and to sanctifie the thing itselfe in sundrie parts of his seruice: such iesters dishonest indiscretion is rather charitably to bee pittied, then their exception either angerly to be grieued at, or seriously to bee confuted.

I am not ignorant, how sorely the whole storie of Brute, is shaken by some of our late writers, and how stiffely supported by other some: as also that this wrastling pull betweene Corineus and Gogmagog, is reported to have befallen at Douer. For mine owne part, though I reuerence antiquitie, and reckon it a kind of wrong, to exact an ouer-strict reason for all that which vpon credite shee deliuereth; yet I rather incline to their side, who would warrant her authoritie by apparant veritie. Notwithstanding, in this question, I will not take on me the person of either Iudge, or stickler: and therefore if there bee any so plunged in the common floud, as they will still gripe fast, what they haue once caught hold on, let them sport themselves with these coniectures, vpon which mine auerment in behalf of Plymmouth is grounded. The place where Brute is said to haue first landed, was Totnes in Cornwall, and therefore this wrastling likely to haue chaunced there, sooner then elsewhere. The Prouince bestowed on Corineus for this exployt, was Cornwall. It may then be presumed, that he receiued in reward the place where hee made proofe of his worth, and whose prince (for so with others I take Gogmagog to have beene) hee had conquered, euen as Cyrus recompenced Zopirus with the Citie Babylon [Herodotus], which his policie had recouered. Againe, the actiuitie of Deuon and Cornishmen, in this facultie of wrastling, beyond those of other Shires, dooth seeme to deriue them a speciall pedigree, from that graund wrastler [3] Corineus. Moreouer, vpon the Hawe at Plymmouth, there is cut out in the ground, the pourtrayture of two men, the one bigger, the other lesser, with Clubbes in their hands, (whom they terme Gog-Magog) and (as I haue learned) it is renewed by order of the Townesmen, when cause requireth, which should inferre the same to bee a monument of some moment. And lastly the place, hauing a steepe cliffe adioyning, affordeth an oportunitie to the fact. But of this too much.

Cornwall is seated (as most men accompt) in the Latitude of fiftie degrees, and thirtie minutes; and in the Longitude of sixe.

The Shire extendeth in length to about seuentie miles: the breadth, as almost no where equall, so in the largest place, it passeth not thirtie, in the middle twentie, and in the narrowest of the West part, three. The whole compasse may hereby be coniectured.

It bordereth on the East with Deuon, divided therefrom, in most places, by the ryuer Tamer, which springing neere the North Sea, at Hartland in Deuon, runneth thorow Plymmouth Hauen, into the South. For the rest, the maine Ocean sundreth the same, on the North from Ireland, on the West from the Ilands of Scilley, and on the South from little Britaine. These borders now thus straightned, did once extend so wide, as that they enabled their inclosed territorie, with the title of a kingdome. Polidore Virgil allotteth it the fourth part of the whole Iland, and the ancient Chronicles report, that Brute landed at Totnes in Cornwall, a Towne now seated in the midst of Deuon. Moreover, vntill Athelstanes time, the Cornish-men bare equal sway in Excester with the English: for hee it was who hemmed them within their present limits. Lastly, the encroaching Sea hath rauined from it, the whole Countrie of Lionnesse, together with diuers other parcels of no little circuite: and that such a Lionnesse there was, these proofes are yet remaining. The space between the lands end, and the Iles of Scilley, being about thirtie miles, to this day retaineth that name, in Cornish Lethowsow, and carrieth continually an equall depth of fortie or sixtie fathom (a thing not vsuall in the Seas proper Dominion) saue that about the midway, there lieth a Rocke, which at low water discouereth his head. They terme it the Gulfe, suiting thereby the other name of Scilla. Fishermen also casting their hookes thereabouts, haue drawn vp peeces of doores and windowes. Moreouer, the ancient name of Saint Michaels Mount, was Caraclowse in Cowse, in English, The hoare Rocke in the Wood: which now is at euerie floud incompassed by the Sea, and yet at some low ebbes, rootes of mightie trees are discryed in the sands about it. The like ouer- flowing hath happened in Plymmouth Hauen, and diuers other places.

In this situation, though nature hath shouldred out Cornwall into the farthest part of the Realme, and so besieged it with the Ocean, that, as a demie Iland in an Iland, the Inhabitants find but one way of issue by land: yet hath shee in some good measure, counteruailed such disaduantage, through placing it, both neere vnto, and in the trade way betweene Wales, Ireland, Spaine, France, & Netherland. The neerenesse helpeth them, with a shorter cut, lesse peril, and meaner charge, to vent forth and make returne of those commodities, which their [4] owne, or either of those Countries doe afford: the lying in the way, bringeth forraine shipping to claime succour at their harbours, when, either outward, or homeward bound, they are checked by an East, South, or South-east wind: and where the Horse walloweth, some haires will still remaine. Neither is it to bee passed ouer without regard, that these remote quarters, lie not so open to the inuasions of forraine enemies, or spoyles of ciuil tumults, as other more inward parts of the Realme, which being seated neerer the heart, are sooner sought, and earlyer ransacked in such troublesome times: or if the Countries long naked sides, offer occasion of landing to any aduerse shipping, her forementioned inward naturall strength, increased by so many Lanes and Inclosures, straightneth the same to a preying onely vpon the outward Skirts by some pettie fleetes: For the danger of farder piercing, will require the protection of a greater force for execution, then can there be counteruailed with the benefit of any bootie, or conquest, were they sure to preuaile. And if to bee free from a dammage, may passe for a commoditie, I can adde, that the far distance of this Countie from the Court, hath heretofore afforded it a Supersedeas from takers & Purueyours: for if they should fetch any prouision from thence, well it might be marked with the visard of her Highnes prerogatiue, but the same would verie slenderly turne to the benefit of her Majesties house keeping: for the foulenesse and vneasinesse of the waies, the little mould of Cornish cattel, and the great expence of driuing them, would defaulke as much from the iuft price to the Queene, at the deliuering, as it did from the owners at the taking. Besides that, her Highnesse shipping should heerethrough bee defrauded of often supplies, which these parts afford vnto them.

Vpon which reasons, some of the Purueyours attempts, heretofore through the suite of the Countrie, the sollicitation of Sir Richard Gremuile, the credite of the Lord Warden, and the graciousnesse of our Soueraigae, were reuoked and suppressed, and the same vnder her Highnesse priuie Seale confirmed. Notwithstanding, when her Majestie made her pleasure afterwards knowne, that shee would have a generall contribution from euerie Shire, for redeeming this exemption, Cornwall opposing dutie against reason, or rather accompting dutie a reason sufficient, yeelded to vndergoe a proportionable rate of the burthen. So they compounded to furnish ten Oxen after Michaelmas for thirtie pound price; to which, by another agreement with the Officers, they should adde fortie markes of their owne. Vpon half a yeeres warning either partie might repent the bargaine. This held for a while; but within a short space, either the carelesnesse of the Iustices in imposing this rate, or the negligence of the Constables in collecting it, or the backwardnesse of the Inhabitants in paying the same, or all these together ouerslipped the time, and withheld the satisfaction. Hereon downe comes a Messenger with sharpe letters from the Officers of the Greene cloth. The conclusion ensued, that his charges must bee borne, and an higher price disbursed for the supplie. Thus it fareth too and fro, and the Cornishmen seeme to hold a Wolfe by the eares: for to make payment the people are unwilling, as in a charge heretofore vnusuall, to undergoe the [5] managing hereof, the Iustices strayne courtesie, as in a matter nothing plausible, and appertaining to ouer-many partners, for the well effecting, and yet to breake they are both afraid, suspecting that a heauier load will follow, if this composition be once set at large.

These commodities goe not vnaccompanied with their inconueniences: for to Cornwall also hath Pandora's Boxe beene opened. One is, that the farre distance from the higher seates of Iustice, rippeth a wider gap to intruding iniuries, and increaseth the charge and time of procuring their redresse. Which due occasion of discouragement, the worst conditioned, and least cliented Petiuoguers, doe yet (vnder the sweet baite of revenge) convert to a more plentiful prosecution of actions. The ordinarie trade of these men is, where they perceiue a sparke of displeasure kindling, to increase the flame with their bellowes of perswasion. Hath such a one abused you, saith he? Anger him a little, that breaking out into some outragious words, you may take advantage thereof; and you shall see how we will hamper him: warrant you he shall fetch an errand to London, & beare part of your charges too. After the game hath beene brought in by this Winlesse, the poore foule is bound not to release his aduersarie, without his Attournies consent, who plieth the matter with so good a stomack, as hee eateth the kernell, whilest they fight about the shell. At last, when the fountain of his Clients purse is drawne drie, by his extravagant fees of Pro consilio, pro expeditione, pro amicitia Vicecomitis, &c. besides the packing betweene the Vndersheriffe and him, of docketing out Writs neuer sued foorth, the mediation of friends must shut up the matter in a comprimise. Another discommoditie groweth, that whereas London furnisheth all prouisions (euen Tynne, and such other arising in the same Countrie) of best stuffe, fashion, store, and cheapnesse: the hard procuring, and farre carriage, addeth an extraordinarie increase of price to the Cornish buyers: and for matters of benefit, or preferment, by suits at Court, either the opportunitie is past, before notice can arriue so far: or the following there, and losse the whiles at home, will require a great and assured gaine in the principall, to warrant the hope of a sauing bargaine in the appurtenance.

Touching the temperature of Cornwall, the ayre thereof is cleansed, as with bellowes, by the billowes, and flowing and ebbing of the Sea, and therethrough becommeth pure, and subtill, and, by consequence, healthfull. So as the Inhabitants doe seldome take a ruthful and reauing experience of those harmes, which infectious diseases vse to carrie with them. But yet I haue noted, that this so piercing an ayre, is apter to preserue then recouer health, especially in any languishing sicknesse which hath possessed strangers: neither know I, whether I may impute to this goodnesse of the ayre, that vpon the returne of our fleete from the Portugall action, 1589. the diseases which the Souldiers brought home with them, did grow more grieuous, as they carried the same farther into the land, then it fell out at Plymmouth, where they landed: for there the same was, though infectious, yet not so contagious, and though pestilentiall, yet not the verie pestilence, as afterwards it proued in other places.

The Spring visiteth not these quarters so timely, as the Easterne parts. Summer imparteth a verie [6] temperate heat, recompencing his slow-fostering of the fruits, with their kindly ripening. Autumne bringeth a somewhat late Haruest, specially to the middle of the Shire, where they seldome inne their Corne before Michaelmas. Winter, by reason of the Southes neere neighbourhead, and Seas warme breath, fauoureth it with a milder cold then elsewhere, so as, vpon both coastes, the Frost and Snow come verie seldome, and make a speedie departure. This notwithstanding, the Countrie is much subiect to stormes, which fetching a large course, in the open Sea, doe from thence violently assault the dwellers at land, and leaue them vncouered houses, pared hedges, and dwarfe-growne trees, as witnesses of their force and furie : yea, euen the hard stones, and yron barres of the windowes, doe fret to be so continually grated. One kind of these stormes, they call a flaw, or flaugh, which is a mightie gale of wind, passing suddainely to the shore, and working strong effects, vpon whatsoeuer it incountreth in his way.

The Cornish soyle, for the most part, is lifted vp into many hils, some great, some little of quantitie, some steepe, some easie for ascent, and parted in sunder by short and narrow vallies. A shallow earth dooth couer their outside, the substance of the rest consisteth ordinarily in Rockes and Shelse, which maketh them hard for manurance, & subiect to a drie Summers parching. The middle part of the Shire (sauing the inclosures about some few Townes and Villages) lieth waste and open, sheweth a blackish colour, beareth Heath and spirie Grasse, and serveth in a maner, onely to Summer Cattel. That which bordereth vpon either side of the Sea, through the Inhabitants good husbandrie, of inclosing, sanding, and other dressing, carrieth a better hue, and more profitable qualitie. Meadow ground it affoordeth little, pasture for Cattel and Sheepe, store enough, Corne ground plentie.

Hils of greatest name and height are, Hinxten, Rowtor, Brownwelly, S. Agnes, Haynborough, the foure Boroughs, Roche, Carnbray, and the two Castellan Danis.

In the rest of this earthy description, I will begin with such mynerals as her bowels yeeld forth, and then passe on to those things, of growing, and feeling life, which vpon her face doe relieue themselues.

These mynerals are not so deepe buried by nature in the entrailes of the Earth, nor so closely couched amongst the Rockes, but that desire of gaine with the instrument of Art can digge them vp: they may bee diuided into stones and mettals.

Quarrie stones are of sundrie sorts, and serue to diuers purposes. For walling, there are rough, and Slate: the rough maketh speedier building, the Slate surer. For Windowes, Dornes, and Chimnies, Moore stone carrieth chiefest reckoning. That name is bestowed on it, by the Moores or waste ground, where the same is found in great quantitie, either lying vpon the ground, or verie little vnder. This stone answereth the charge of fetching, with the fairenes of his whitish colour, containing certaine glimmering sparkles, and counteruaileth his great hardnesse in working, with the profit of long endurance, nature hauing ordained the same, as of purpose, to withstand the fretting weather. There are also three other sorts of stones, seruing to the same vse, and hewed with lesse, though differing labour: Pentuan digged out of the Sea Cliffes,and in colour [7] somewhat resembleth gray Marble, Caraclouse blacke, not vnlike the Ieat; the third taken out of inland Quarries, and not much differing from the Easterne free stone.

The Sea strond also in many places, affordeth Peeble-stones, which washed out of the earth, or falling from the Rockes, and there lying loose, are, by often rolling of the waues, wrought to a kind of roundnesse, and serue verie handsomely for pauing of streetes and Courts.

For couering of Houses there are three sorts of Slate, which from that vse take the name of Healing-stones. The first and best Blew: the second, Sage-leafe coloured, the third and meanest Gray. The Blew, and so the rest, are commonly found vnder the walling Slate, when the depth hath brought the workmenn to the Water. This Slate is in substance thinne, in colour faire, in waight light, in lasting strong, and generally carrieth so good regard, as (besides the supplie for home prouision) great store is yeerely conueied by shipping both to other parts of the Realme, and also beyond the Seas, into Britaine and Netherland.

They make Lyme, moreouer, of another kind of Marle-stone, either by burning a great quantitie thereof together, with a seruent fire of Furze, or by maintaining a continuall, though lesser heate, with stone Cole in smaller Kils: this is accompted the better cheape, but that yeeldeth the whiter Lyme.

Touching mettals: Copper is found in sundrie places, but with what gaine to the searchers, I haue not beene curious to enquire, nor they hastie to reueale. For at one Mine (of which I tooke view) the Owre was shipped to bee refined in Wales, either to saue cost in the fewell or to conceale the profit.

Neither hath nature denyed Siluer to Cornwall, though Cicero excluded the same out of all Britaine: and if wee may beleeve our Chroniclers reports, who ground themselues vpon authenticall Records, king Edward the first, and king Edward the third, reaped some good benefit thereof. But for our present experience, what she proffereth with the one hand, shee seemeth to pull backe with the other, whereof some Gentlemen not long sithence, made triall to their losse: howbeit, neither are they discouraged by this successe, nor others from the like attempt.

Tynners doe also find little hoppes of Gold amongst their Owre, which they keepe in quils, and sell to the Goldsmithes oftentimes with little better gaine, then Glaucus exchange.

Yea it is not altogether barren of precious stones, and Pearle: for Dyamonds are in many places found cleauing to those Rockes, out of which the Tynne is digged: they are polished, squared, and pointed by nature: their quantitie from a Pease, to a Walnut: in blacknesse and hardnesse they come behind the right ones, and yet I haue knowne some of them set on so good a foile, as at first sight, they might appose a not vnskilfull Lapidarie.

The Pearle (though here not aptly raunged) breed in bigge Oysters, and Muscles, greater in quantitie, then acceptable for goodnesse, as neither round nor Orient. Perhaps Caesar spoyled the best beds, when he made that gay Coate of them, to present his graundame Venus.

Cornwall is also not altogether destitute of Agates [8] and white
Corall, as by credible relation I haue learned.

But why seeke wee in corners for pettie commodities, when as the onely mynerall of Cornish Tynne, openeth so large a field to the Countries benefit? this is in working so pliant, for sight so faire, and in vse so necessarie, as thereby the Inhabitants gaine wealth, the Merchants trafficke, and the whole Realme a reputation: and with such plentie thereof hath God stuffed the bowels of this little Angle, that (as Astiages dreamed of his daughter) it ouerfloweth England, watereth Christendome, and is deriued to a great part of the world besides. In trauailing abroad, in tarrying at home, in eating and drinking, in doing ought of pleasure or necessitie, Tynne, either in his owne shape, or transformed into other fashions, is alwayes requisite, alwayes readie for our seruice: but I shall rather disgrace, then endeere it by mine ouer-weake commendation, and sooner tire myselfe, then draw the fountaine of his praises drie. Let this therefore suffice, that it cannot bee of meane price, which hath found, with it, Dyamonds, amongst it Gold, and in it Siluer.

The Cornish Tynners hold a strong imagination, that in the withdrawing of Noahs floud to the Sea, the same tooke his course from East to West, violently breaking vp, and forcibly carrying with it, the earth, trees, and Rocks, which lay any thing loosely, neere the vpper face of the ground. To confirme the likelihood of which supposed truth, they doe many times digge vp whole and huge Timber trees, which they conceiue at that deluge to haue beene ouerturned and whelmed: but whether then, or sithence, probable it is, that some such cause produced this effect. Hence it commeth, that albeit the Tynne lay couched at first in certaine strakes amongst the Rockes, like a tree, or the veines in a mans bodie, from the depth whereof the maine Load spreadeth out his branches, vntill they approach the open ayre: yet they haue now two kinds of Tynne workes, Stream, and Load: for (say they) the foremencioned floud, carried together with the moued Rockes and earth, so much of the Load as was inclosed therein, and at the asswaging, left the same scattered here and there in the vallies and ryuers, where it passed; which being sought and digged, is called Streamworke: under this title, they comprise also the Moore workes, growing from the like occasion. They maintaine these workes, to haue beene verie auncient, and first wrought by the Iewes with Pickaxes of Holme, Boxe, and Harts horne: they prooue this by the name of those places yet enduring, to wit, Attall Sarazin, in English, the Iewes offcast, and by those tooles daily found amongst the rubble of such workes. And it may well be, that as Akornes made good bread, before Ceres taught the vse of Corne; and sharpe Stones serued the Indians for Kniues, vntill the Spaniards brought them Iron: so in the infancie of knowledge, these poore instruments for want of better did supplie a turne. There are also taken vp in such works, certaine little tooles heads of Brasse, which some terme Thunder-axes, but they make small shew of any profitable vse. Neither were the Romanes ignorant of this trade, as may appeare by a brasse Coyne of Domitian's, found in one of these workes, and fallen into my hands: and perhaps vnder one of those Flauians, the Iewish workmen made here their first arriuall.

[9] They discouer these workes, by certaine Tynne-stones,lying on the face of the ground, which they terme Shoad, as shed from the maine Load, and made somwhat smooth and round, by the waters washing & wearing. Where the finding of these affordeth a tempting likelihood, the Tynners goe to worke, casting vp trenches before them, in depth 5, or 6. foote more or lesse, as the loose ground went, & three or foure in breadth, gathering vp such Shoad, as this turning of the earth doth offer to their sight. If any ryuer thwart them, and that they resolve to search his bed, hee is trained by a new channell from his former course. This yeeldeth a speedie and gaineful recompence to the aduenturers of the search, but I hold it little beneficiall to the owners of the soyle. For those low grounds, beforetime fruitfull, hauing herethrough their wrong side turned outwards, accuse the Tynners iniurie by their succeeding barrennesse.

To find the Load-workes, their first labour is also imployed in seeking this Shoad, which either lieth open on the grasse, or but shallowly couered. Hauing found any such, they coniecture by the sight of the ground, which way the floud came that brought it thither, and so giue a gesse at the place whence it was broken off. There they sincke a Shaft, or pit of five or six foote in length, two or three foote in breadth, and seuen or eight foote in depth, to proue whether they may so meete with the Load. By this Shaft, they also discerne which was the quicke ground (as they call it) that mooued with the floud, and which the firme, wherein no such Shoad doth lie. If they misse the Load in one place, they sincke a like Shaft in another beyond that, commonly farther vp towards the hill, and so a third and fourth, vntill they light at last vpon it. But you may not conceiue, that euerie likelyhood doth euer proue a certaintie: for diuers haue beene hindered, through bestowing charges in seeking, and not finding, and many vndone in finding and not speeding, whiles a faire show, tempting them to mvch cost, hath, in the end, fayled in substance, and made the aduenturers Banckrupt of their hope and purse.

Some have found Tynne-workes of great vallew, through meanes no lesse strange, then extraordinarie, to wit, by dreames. As in Edward the sixts time, a Gentlewoman, heire to one Tresculierd, and wife to Lanine, dreamed, that a man of seemely personage told her, how in such a Tenement of her Land, shee should find so great store of Tynne, as would serue to inrich both her selfe and her posteritie. This shee reuealed to her husband: and hee, putting the same in triall, found a worke, which in foure yeeres, was worth him welneere so many thousand pounds. Moreouer, one Taprel lately liuing, & dwelling in the Parish of the hundred of West, call'd S. Niot, by a like dreame of his daughter (see the lucke of women) made the like assay, met with the effect, farmed the worke of the vnwitting Lord of the soyle, and grew thereby to good state of wealth. The same report passeth as currant, touching sundrie others; but I will not bind any mans credite, though, that of the Authors haue herein swayed mine: and yet he that will afford his eare to Astrologers and naturall Philosophers, shall haue it filled with many discourses, of the constellation of the heauens, and the constitution of mens bodies, fitting to this purpose.

[10] There are, that leauing these trades of new searching, doe take in hand such old Stream and Loadworks, as by the former aduenturers haue beene giuen ouer, and oftentimes they find good store of Tynne, both in the rubble cast vp before, as also in veines which the first workmen followed not. From hence there groweth a diuersitie in opinion, amongst such Gentlemen, as by, iudgement and experience, can looke into these matters; some of them supposing that the Tynne groweth; and others, that it onely separateth from the consumed offall. But whosoeuer readeth that which Francis Leandro hath written touching the yron mynerals, in the Ile of Elba, will cleaue perhaps to a third conceite: for hee auoucheth, that the trenches, out of which the Owre there is digged, within twentie or thirtie yeeres, become alike ful againe of the same mettall, as at first, & he confirmeth it by sutable examples, borrowed from Clearchus, of Marble, in Paros Iland, and of Salt, in India, deducing thence this reason, that the ayre and water replenishiing the voide roome, through the power of the vniuersall agent, and some peculiar celestiall influence, are turned into the selfe substance; and so by consequence, neither the Owre groweth, nor the earth consumeth away: and this opinion, Munster in his Cosmographie, doth seeme to vnderprop, affirming, that neere the Citie of Apolonia in Dalmatia, the veines whence Brasse is digged, are filled in like maner. So doth he report, that neere Ptolomais, there lieth a round valley, out of which glassie Sand being taken, the winds fill the pit againe, from the upper part of the adioyning mountaines; which matter is conuerted into the former substance and that euen Mettals throwne Into this place, doe vndergoe the like Metamorphosis.

The colour both of the Shoad and Load, resembleth his bed, as the Sea sand doth the Cliffes, and is so diuersified to reddish, blackish, duskie, and such other earthy colours.

If the Load wherein the Tynne lieth, carrieth a foote and halfe in breadth, and be not ouerbarren, it is accompted a verie rich worke: but commonly the same exceedeth not a foote, vnlesse many Loads runne together.

When the new found worke intiseth with probabilitie of profit, the discouerer doth commonly associate himselfe with some more partners, because the charge amounteth mostly verie high for any one mans purse, except lined beyond ordinarie, to reach vnto: and if the worke doe faile, many shoulders will more easily support the burthen. These partners consist either of such Tinners as worke to their owne behoofe, or of such aduenturers as put in hired labourers. The hirelings stand at a certaine wages, either by the day, which may be about eight pence, or for the yeere, being betweene foure and sixe pound, as their deseruing can driue the bargaine: at both which rates they must find themselues.

If the worke carrie some importance, and require the trauaile of many hands, that hath his name, and they their Ouerseer, whome they terme their Captaine: such are the Pel, Whilancleuth, in English, The worke of the Ditches: Pulstean, that is, The myrie head: Crueg braaz, The great Borough: Saint Margets, and many surnamed Balls, which betoken the Vales where the works are set on foote.

[11] The Captaines office bindeth him to sort ech workman his taske, to see them applie their labour, to make timely prouision, for binding the worke with frames of Timber, if need exact it, to place Pumpes for drawing of water, and to giue such other directions. In most places, their toyle is so extreame, as they cannot endure it aboue foure houres in a day, but are succeeded by spels: the residue of the time, they weare out at Coytes, Kayles, or like idle exercises. Their Kalender also alloweth them more Holy-dayes, then are warranted by the Church, our lawes, or their owne profit.

Their ordinarie tooles, are a Pick-axe of yron, about sixteene inches long, sharpned at the one end to pecke, and flat-headed at the other, to driue certaine little yron Wedges, wherewith they cleaue the Rockes. They haue also a broad Shouell, the vtter part of yron, the middle of Timber, into which the staffe is slopewise fastned.

Their maner of working in the Loadmines, is to follow the Load as it lieth, either sidelong, or downe-right: both waies the deeper they sincke, the greater they find the Load. When they light vpon a smal veine, or chance to leefe the Load which they wrought, by means of certaine firings that may hap to crosse it, they begin at another place neere-hand, and so draw by gesse to the maine Load againe. If the Load lie right downe, they follow it sometimes to the depth of fortie or fiftie fathome. These Loadworkes, Diod.Sic.l.5.cap.8. seemeth to point at, where hee saith, that the Inhabitants of Veleriumm Promontorie, digge vp Tin out of rockie ground. From some of their bottomes you shal at noone dayes discrie the Starres: the workmen are let down and taken vp in a Stirrup, by two men who wind the rope.

If the Load lie slope-wise, the Tynners digge a conuenient depth, and then passe forward vnder ground, so farre as the ayre will yeeld them breathing, which, as it beginneth to faile, they sinke a Shaft downe thither from the top, to admit a renewing vent, which notwithstanding, their worke is most by Candle-light. In these passages, they meete sometimes with verie loose earth, sometimes with exceeding hard Rockes, and sometimes with great streames of water.

The loose Earth is propped by frames of Timber-worke, as they go, and yet now and then falling downe, either presseth the poore workmen to death, or stoppeth them from returning. To part the Rockes, they haue the foremencioned Axes, and Wedges, with which, mostly, they make speedie way, and yet (not seldome) are so tied by the teeth, as a good workman shall hardly be able to hew three foote, in the space of so many weekes. While they thus play the Moldwarps, vnsauorie Damps doe here and there distemper their heads, though not with so much daunger in the consequence, as annoyance for the present.

For conueying away the water, they pray in aide of sundry deuices, as Addits, Pumps &. Wheeles, driuen by a streame, and interchangeably filling, and emptying two Buckets, with many such like: all which notwithstanding, the Springs so incroche vpon these inuentions, as in sundrie places they are driuen to keepe men, and some-where horses also at worke both day & night, without ceasing, and in some all this will not serue the turne. For supplying such hard seruices, they haue alwaies fresh men at hand.

[12] They cal it the bringing of an Addit, or Audit, when they begin to trench without, and carrie the same thorow the ground to the Tynworke, somewhat deeper then the water doth lie, thereby to giue it passage away.

This Addit, they either fetch athwart the whole Load, or right from the braunch where they worke, as the next valley ministreth fittest opportunitie, for soonest cutting into the Hil: and therfore a Gentleman of good knowledges, deduceth this name of Addit, Ab aditu ad aquas. Surely the practice is cunning in deuice, costly in charge, and long in effecting: and yet, when all is done, many times the Load falleth away, and they may sing with Augustus bird, Opera & impensa periit. If you did see how aptly they cast the ground, for conueying the water, by compassings and turnings, to shunne such hils & vallies as let them, by their two much height or lownesse, you would wonder how so great skill could couch in so base a Cabbin, as their (otherwise) thicke clouded braines.

As much almost dooth it exceede credite, that the Tynne, for and in so small quantitie, digged vp with so great toyle, and passing afterwards thorow the managing of so many hands, ere it come to sale, should be any way able to acquite the cost: for being once brought aboue ground in the stone, it is first broken in peeces with hammers; and then carryed, either in waynes, or on horses backs, to a stamping mill, where three, and in some places sixe great logges of timber, bound at the ends with yron, and lifted vp and downe by a wheele, driuen with the water, doe breake it smaller. If the stones be ouer-moyst, they are dried by the fire in an yron cradle or grate.

From the stamping mill, it passeth to the crazing mil, which betweene two grinding stones, turned also with a water-wheele, bruseth the same to a fine sand: howbeit, of late times they mostly vse wet stampers, & so haue no need of the crazing mils, for their best stuffe, but only for the crust of their tayles.

The streame, after it hath forsaken the mill, is made to fall by certayne degrees one somwhat distant from another; vpon each of which, at euery discent lyeth a greene turfe, three or foure foote square, and one foote thick. On this the Tinner layeth a certayne portion of the sandie Tinne, and with his shouell softly tosseth the same to and fro, that through this stirring, the water which runneth ouer it, may wash away the light earth from the Tinne, which of a heauier substance lyeth fast on the turfe. Hauing so cleansed one portion, he setteth the same aside, and beginneth with another, vntil his labour take end with his taske. The best of those turfes (for all sorts serue not) are fetched about two miles to the Eastwards of S. Michaels Mount, where at a low water they cast aside the sand, and dig them vp: they are full of rootes of trees, and on some of them nuts haue beene found, which confirmeth my former assertion of the seas intrusion. After it is thus washed, they put the remnant into a wooden dish, broad, flat, and round, being about two foote ouer, and hauing two handles fastened at the sides, by which they softly shogge the same to and fro in the water betweene their legges, as they sit ouer it, vntill whatsoeuer of the earthie substance that was yet left, be flitted away. Some of later time, with a sleighter inuention, and lighter labour, doe cause certaine boyes to stir it vp and downe with their [13] feete, which worketh the same effect: the residue after this often cleansing, they call blacke Tynne, which is proportionably diuided to euerie of the aduenturers, when the Lords part hath beene first deducted vpon the whole.

Then doth each man carrie his portion to the blowing house, where the same is melted with Char-coale fire, blowne by a great paire of Bellowes, mooved with a water-wheele, and so cast into peeces of a long and thicke squarenesse, from three hundred to foure hundred pound waight, at which time the owners marke is set thereupon. The last remooue, is to the place of Coynage, which I shall touch hereafter. I haue alreadie told you, how great charge the Tynner vndergoeth, before he can bring his Owre to this last mill: whereto if you adde his care and cost, in buying the wood for this seruice, in felling, framing, and piling it to bee burned, in fetching the same, when it is coaled through such farre, foule, and cumbersome wayes, to the blowing house, together with the blowers two or three Moneths extreame and increasing labour, sweltring heate, danger of skalding their bodies, burning the houses, casting away the worke, and lastly their ugly countenances, tanned with smoake and besmeared with sweate: all these things (I say) being duly considered, I know not whether you would more maruaile, either whence a sufficient gaine should arise to counteruaile so manifold expences, or that any gaine could traine men to vndertake such paines and perill. But there let vs leaue them, since their owne will doth bring them thither. During the Tinnes thus melting in the blowing house, diuers light sparkles thereof are by the forcible wind, which the bellows sendeth forth, driuen vp to the thatched roofe. For which cause the owners doe once in seuen or eight yeeres, burne those houses, and find so much of this light Tynne in the ashes, as payeth for the new building, with a gainefull ouerplus. A strange practise (certes) for thrifts sake, to set our house on fire. Others doe frame the Tunnels of the Chimnies verie large and slope, therein to harbour these sparkles, and so saue the burning. This casualtie may bee worth the owner some ten pound by the yeere, or better, if his Mil haue store of sutors. But sithence I gathered stickes to the building of this poore nest, Sir Francis Godolphin, (whose kind helpe hath much aduanced this my playing labour) entertained a Duch mynerall man, and taking light from his experience, but building thereon farre more profitable conclusions of his owne inuention, hath practised a more sauing way in these matters, and besides, made Tynne with good profit, of that refuse which the Tynners reiected as nothing worth.

We will now proceede, to take a view of the orders and customes most generally vsed among the Tynners.

Their workes, both Streame and Load, lie either in seuerall, or in wastrell, that is, in enclosed grounds, or in commons. In Seuerall, no man can search for Tynne, without leaue first obtained from the Lord of the soile; who, when any Myne is found, may worke it wholly himselfe, or associate partners, or set it out at a farme certaine, or leaue it vn wrought at his pleasure. In Wastrell, it is lawfull for any man to make triall of his fortune that way, prouided, that hee acknowledge the Lordes right, by sharing out vnto him a certaine part, which they call toll: a custome fauouring more of [14] indifferencie, then the Tynners constitutions in Deuon, which inable them to digge for Tynne in any mans ground, inclosed, or vnclosed, without licence, tribute or satisfaction. Wherethrough it appeareth, that the Law-makers rather respected their owne benefit, then equitie, the true touch of all lawes. The Wastrel workes are reckoned amongst chattels, and may passe by word or Will. When a Myne is found in any such place, the first discouerer aymeth how farre it is likely to extend, and then, at the foure corners of his limited proportion, diggeth vp three Turfes, and the like (if he list) on the sides, which they terme Bounding, and within that compasse, euery other man is restrained from searching. These bounds he is bound to renew once euerie yeere, as also in most places to bestow some time in working the Myne, otherwise hee loseth this priuiledge. The worke thus found and bounded, looke how many men doe labour therein, so many Doales or shares they make thereof, and proportionably diuide the gaine and charges. The Lord of the soyle is most-where allowed libertie to place one workman in euerie fifteene for himself, at like hand with the aduenturers, if hee be so disposed.

They measure their blacke Tynne, by the Gill, the Toplisse, the Dish and the Foote, which containeth a pint, a pottel, a gallon, and towards two gallons.

Townes specially priuiledged for the Coynages, are Helston, Truro, Lostwithiel, and Liskerd. The times of Coynage come twise in the yeere, Viz. about Midsummer and Michaelmas: but because it falleth out verie often that the Tynne which is wrought, cannot be blowen and brought thither, against the limited dayes, there are, in fauour of the Tynners, certaine later times assigned, which they terme Post-coynages.

The officers deputed, to manage this Coynage, are, Porters, to beare the Tynne, Peizers to weigh it, a Steward, Comptroller, and Receiuer to keepe the accompt, euerie of which haue entertainement from her Maiestie, and receiue a fee out of the coyned Tynne.

For the maner of Coynage: the Blockes or peeces of Tynne, are brought into a great roome ordained for that purpose, and there first peized, then tasted, that is, proued whether they be soft Tynne or hard, and after, marked with their Maiesties stampe. To the hard (lesse worth by fiftie shillings in the thousand than the soft) the letter H. is added, e're it come from the blowing-house. Each thousand must answere fortie shillings to the Queene, which with the other incident fees being satisfied, then, and not before, it is lawfull for the owner to alienate and distract the same.

But about the price there groweth much adoe, betweene the Marchants and the owners, before they can iumpe to an agreement. The Marchant vnfoldeth his packe of strange newes, which either he brought with him from London (where most of them dwell) or forged by the way, telling what great likelyhood there is of warres, what danger of Pirates at Sea, how much of the fore-bought Tynne lieth on their hands, &c. The owner, on,the other side, stoppeth his eares against these charmes, answeres his newes with the Spaniards, Credo en Dios, encounters his reasons, with the present scarcitie and charges of getting and working Tynne, and so keeping vp the price, Iniquum petit, ut aequum ferat. In the end, after much bidding, and louing, varying, and [15] delaying, commonly that Marchant who hath most money to bestow, and that owner who hath most Tynne to sell, doe make the price, at which rate the Marchant is bound to yeeld present payment for so much Tynne as shall be brought him, and, of necessitie, must bargaine for tenne thousand at the least. Others notwithstanding are not bound to buy or sell at this price, but euerie man left at libertie, to make his best market.

The Tynne so sold, hath vsually amounted heretofore to the worth of thirtie or fortie thousand pound in money, and carried price betweene twentie and thirtie pound the thousand, sometimes higher, and sometimes lower, according to the quicke vent and aboundance, or the dead sale and scarcitie; wherein yet some haue obserued, that this so profitable, and vendible a marchandize, riseth not to a proportionable enhauncement, with other lesse beneficiall, and affected commodities, and they impute it partly to the Easterne buyers packing, partly to the owners not venting, and venturing the same.

Here I must either craue or take leaue of the Londoners, to lay open the hard dealing of their Tynne Marchants in this trade. When any Western Gent, or person of accompt, wanteth money to defray his expences at London, he resorteth to one of the Tynne Marchants of his acquaintance, to borrow some: but they shall as soone wrest the Clubbe out of Hercules fist, as one penie out of their fingers, vnlesse they giue bond for euerie twentie pound so taken in lone, to deliuer a thousand pound waight of Tyn at the next Coynage, which shal be within two or three months, or at farthest within half a yeere after. At which time the price of euerie thousand, will not faile to be at least twentie three, prehaps twentie five pound: yea, and after promise made, the party must be driuen (with some indignitie) to make three or foure errands to his house, ere hee shall get the money deliuered. In this sort, some one Marchant will haue 5. hundred pound out beforehand, reaping thereby a double commoditie, both of excessiue gaine for his lone, and of assurance to be serued with Tyn for his money. This they say is no Vsurie, forsooth, because the price of Tynne is not certainely knowne beforehand: (for once onely within these twelue yeeres, of set purpose to escape the penaltie of the Law, they brought it a little vnder twentie pound the thousand:) but if to take aboue fiftie in the hundred be extremitie, whatsoeuer name you list to giue it, this in truth can bee none other, then cutthroate and abominable dealing. I will not condemne all such as vse this trade, neither yet acquite those who make greatest pretence of zeale in Religion: and it may be, that some vpon by-respects, find somwhat friendly vsage in Vsance, at some of their hands: but the common voice saith, that for the most part, they are naught all.

And yet how bad soeuer this fashion may justly bee accompted, certaine of the same Countrymen do passe farre beyond it, as thus: The Marchant, that hee may stand assured to haue Tynne for his money, at the time of Coynage or deliuerance, besides his trade of lone abouementioned, layeth out diuers summes beforehand, vnto certaine Cornishmen, owners of Tynworkes, or otherwise of knowne sufficiencie, who are bound to deliuer for the same, so many thousands of Tynne, as [16] the money shal amount vnto, after the price agreed vpon at the Coinages. To these hungrie flies, the poore labouring Tynner resorteth, desiring some money before the time of his pay at the deliuerance: the other puts him off at first, answering he hath none to spare: in the end, when the poore man is driuen through necessitie to renew his suite, he fals to questioning, what hee will do with the money. Saith the Tynner, I will buy bread and meate for my selfe and my houshold, and shooes, hosen, peticoates, & such like stuffe for my wife and children. Suddenly herein, this owner becomes a pettie chapman: I will serue thee, saith he: hee deliuers him so much ware as shall amount to fortie shillings, in which he cuts him halfe in halfe for the price, and four nobles in money, for which the poore wretch is bound in Darbyes bonds, to deliuer him two hundred waight of Tynne at the next Coynage, which may then bee worth fiue pound or foure at the verie least. And as mischiefe still creepes onward, this extreme dealing of the London Marchant and Countrie chapman, in white Tynne is imitated (or rather exceeded) by the wealthier sort of Tynners themselues in the blacke, by laying out their money after thus much the marke: which trade, though subtill and darke, I will open as plainely as I can.

A foote of blacke Tynne (as is before said) containeth in measure two gallons; the waight vncertainely followeth the goodnesse. A foote of good Moore-tyn, (which is counted the best sort) will way about foure-score pound. Of the Myne Tynne (which is meaner) fiftie two pound: of the worst fiftie pound. Two pound of good blacke Tynne, being melted, will yeeld one of white: twentle eight or thirtie foote of the best, fortie: of the middle, 52. of the meanest, a thousand. Now the wealthier sort of Tynners, laying out part of their money beforehand, buy this black Tynne of the poore labourers, after so much the marke: that is, looke how many markes there are in the price, made at the Coynage for the thousand, so many two pence halfepenie, three pence, or foure pence, partly after the goodnesse, and partly according to the hard conscience of the one, and necessitie of the other, shal he haue for the foote: as if the price be twentie sixe pound, thirteene shillings & foure pence the thousand, therein are fortie markes: then shall the poore Tynner receiue of him who dealeth most friendly, for euerie foote of his best blacke Tynne (of which as was said, about thirtie will make a thousand) fortie times foure pence: viz. thirteene shillings and foure pence, which amounteth to twentie pound the thousand: whereas that foote at the price, is worth aboue fiue pence the marke. Likewise will hee pay for the meaner blacke Tynne (of which about fortie foote will make a thousand) three pence the marke, which is ten shillings the foote, and so shall he haue also after twentie pound for the thousand: for the worse they giue lesse, rateably. By which proportion, how vncertaine so euer the goodnesse of the Tynne, or the greatnesse of the price do fall, their gaine of a fourth part at least riseth alwaies certainly. Whereto adding, that they lay out beforehand but a portion of the money due, and that onely for some small time, you shall find it grow to the highest degree of extremitie.

But whether it proceedeth from this hard dealing, or for that the Tynners whole familie giue themselues [17] to a lazie kind of life, and depend only upon his labour and gaynes; which often ill succeeding adventurers, & such ouer-deare bought Tynne daylie impaire, or from both these together; once it hath beene duly obserued, that the parrishes where Tynne is wrought, rest in a meaner plight of wealth, then those which want this dammageable commoditie: and that as by abandoning this trade, they amend, so by reuiuing the same, they decay againe; whereas husbandrie yeeldeth that certayne gaine in a mediocritie, which Tynneworkes rather promise, then performe in a larger measure.

Let vs now examine what course of Iustice is held for deciding such controuersies as befall in Tinne causes, and with what priuileges they are endowed and encouraged.

After such time as the Iewes by their extreame dealing had worne themselues, first out of the loue of the English inhabitants, and afterwards out of the land it selfe, and so left the mines vnwrought, it hapned, that certaine Gentlemen, being Lords of seuen tithings in Blackmoore, whose grounds were best stored with this Minerall, grewe desirous to renew this benefit: and so vpon suit made to Edmond, Earle of Cornwal, sonne to Richard, king of the Romans, they obtayned from him a Charter, with sundrie Priuileges: amongst which, it was graunted them to keepe a Court, and hold plea of all actions, life, lymme, and land excepted: in consideration whereof, the sayd Lords accorded to pay the Earle a halfpeny for euery pound of Tynne which should be wrought; and that for better answering this taxe, the sayd Tynne should bee brought to certayne places purposely appointed, and there peized, coyned, and kept, vntill the Earles due were satisfied. Againe, the Lords of these Tithings, were, for their parts, authorised to manage all Stannerie causes, and, for that intent, to hold parliaments at their discretion, and in regard of their labour, there was allotted vnto them the toll-Tynne within those Tithings, which their successours doe yet enioy. This Charter was to be kept in one of the Church steeples, within those Tithings, and, the Seale had a Pick-axe and Shouell in saultier grauen therein. This I receiued by report of the late master William Carnsew, a Gentleman of good qualitie, discretion, and learning, and well experienced in these mynerall causes, who auouched himselfe an eye-witnesse of that Charter, though now it bee not extant. Howbeit, I have learned, that in former time, the Tynners obtained a Charter from king Iohn, and afterwards another from king Edward the first, which were againe expounded, confirmed and inlarged by Parliament, in the fiftieth yeere of Edward the third, and lastly strengthened by Henrie the seuenth.

King Edward the firsts Charter, granteth them liberty of selling their Tynne, to their best behoofe. Nisi (saith he) nos ipsi emere voluerimus. Vpon which ground certaine persons in the Reignes of K. Edward 6. & Queene Marie, sought to make vse of this preemption, (as I have beene enformed) but either crossed in the prosecution, or defeated in their expectation, gaue it ouer againe; which vaine successe could not yet discourage some others of later times from the like attempt, alleadging many reasons how it might proue beneficiall both to her Highnesse and the Countrie, and preiudiciall to none saue onely the Marchants, who practised a farre [18] worse kind of preemption, as hath beene before expressed. This for a while was hotely onsetted and a reasonable price offered, but (upon what ground I know not) soone cooled againe. Yet afterwards it receiued a second life, and at Michaelmas terme 1599. the Cornishmen, then in London, were called before some of the principal Lords of her Maiesties Council, and the matter there debated, by the Lord Warden, in behalfe of the Countrie, and certaine others deputed for the Marchants, who had set this suite on foote. In the end it grew to a conclusion, and Articles were drawne and signed, but they also proued of void effect.

Last of all, the said Lord Warden, in the beginning of Nouember 1600. called an assembly of Tynners at Lostwithiel, the place accustomed, impanelled a Iurie of twentie foure Tynners, signified her Maiesties pleasure both for a new imposition of six pound on euerie thousand, that should bee transported (ouer and aboue the former fortie shillings, and sixteene shillings alreadie payable) as also that her Highnesse would disburse foure thousand pound in lone to the Tynners, for a yeres space, and bee repayed in Tynne at a certaine rate.

By the foreremembred ancient Charters, there is assigned a warden of the Stanneries, who supplieth the place, both of a Iudge for Law, and of a Chancellour for conscience, and so taketh hearing of causes, either in Forma iuris, or de iure & aequo. Hee substituteth some Gentleman in the Shire of good calling and discretion, to be his Vice-Warden, from whom either partie, complainant or defendant, may appeale to him, as from him (a case of rare experience) to the Lords of the Councill, and from their Honours to her Maiesties person: other appeale or remoouing to the common law they gaynsay.

The Gayle for Stannery causes is kept at Lostwithiel, and that office is annexed to the Comptrolership.

The Tynners of the whole shire are diuided into foure quarters, two called Moores, of the places where the Tynne is wrought, viz. Foy moore, and Blacke moore: the other, Tiwarnaill and Penwith. To each of these is assigned by the L. Warden, a Steward, who keepeth his Court once in euery three weekes. They are termed Stannery Courts of the Latine word Stannum, in English Tynne, and hold plea of whatsoeuer action of debt or trespasse, whereto any one dealing with blacke or white Tynne, either as plaintife or defendant, is a party. Their maner of triall consisteth in the verdict giuen by a Iurie of sixe Tynners, according to which the Steward pronounceth iudgement. He that will spare credit to the common report, shall conceiue an ill opinion touching the slippings of both witnesses and iurours sometimes in these Courts: For it is sayd, that the witnesses haue not sticked now and then to fatten their euidence, rather for seruing a turne, then for manifesting a truth, and that the Iurours verdict hath fauoured more of affection then of reason, especially, in controuersies growne betweene strangers and some of the same parts. And such fault-finders vouch diuers causes of this partialitie: One, that when they are sworne, they vse to adde this word, my conscience, as the Romans did their Ex animi mei sententia, which is suspected to imply a conceyted enlargement of their othe: Another, that the varietie of customes, which in euery place (welneere) differ one from another, yeeldeth them in a maner an vnlimited [19] scope, to auerre what they list, and so to close the best Lawyers mouth with this one speech, Our custome Is contrary. And lastly, that they presume upon a kind of impunity, because these sixe mens iuries fall not within compasse of the Star-chambers censure, and yet the L. Wardens haue now & then made the pillory punishment of some, a spectacle, example, and warning to the residue. For mine owne part, I can in these Tynne cases, plead but a hearesay experience, and therefore will onely inferre, that as there is no smoke without a fire, so commonly the smoke is far greater then the fire. Strange it were, and not to be expected, that all poore Tynne Iurours and witnesies, should in such a remote corner alwayes conforme themselues to the precise rule of vprightnesse, when we see in the open light of our public assises, so many more iudicious and substantiall persons now and then to swarue from the same.

In matters of important consequence, appertayning to the whole Stannery, the L. Warden, or his Vnderwarden, vseth to impannell a Iury of foure and twenty principall Tynners, which consist of sixe out of euery quarter, returnable by the Maiors of the foure Stannery townes, and whose acts doe bind the residue.

Next to the liuelesse things, follow those which pertake a growing life, and then a feeling.

The women and children in the West part of Cornwall, doe vse to make Mats of a small and fine kinde of bents there growing, which for their warme and well wearing, are carried by sea to London and other parts of the Realme, and serue to couer floores and wals. These bents grow in sandy fields, and are knit from ouer the head in narrow bredths after a strange fashion,

Of herbes and rootes for the pot and medicine, Cornishmen enioy a like portion in proportion with other Shires, which somewhere also receiueth an increase by the sowing and planting of such as are brought thither from beyond the seas. The like may bee sayd of rootes, and sallets for the table, saue that (I suppose) Cornewall naturally bringeth forth greater store of Seaholm and Sampire, then is found in any other County of this Realme. The Seaholme roote preserueth eyther in sirrup, or by canding, is accepted for a great restoratiue. Some of the gaully grounds doe also yeeld plenty of Rosa solis. Moreouer natures liberall hand decketh many of the sea cliffes with wilde Hissop, Sage, Pelamountayne, Maiorum, Rosemary, and such like well-fauouring herbes.

In times past, the Cornish people gaue themselues principally, (and in a maner wholly) to the seeking of Tynne, and neglected husbandry: so as the neighbours of Deuon and Sommerset shires, hired their pastures at a rent, and stored them with theyr owne cattell.

As for tillage, it came farre short of feeding the Inhabitants mouthes, who were likewise supplyed weekely at their markets from those places, with many hundred quarters of corne and horseloades of bread. But when the Tynneworkes began to fayle, and the people to increase, this double necessitie draue them to play the good husbands, and to prouide corne of their owne. Labour brought plentie, plentie cheapnesse, and cheapnesse sought a vent beyond the seas, some by procuring licence, and more by stealth (if at least the common brute doe not wrong them with a slaunder) [20] so as, had not the Imbargo with Spaine (whither most was transported) foreclosed this trade, Cornwall was likely in few yeeres, to reape no little wealth by the same. And yet, whosoeuer looketh into the endeauour which the Cornish husbandman is driuen to vse about his Tillage, shall find the trauell paineful, the time tedious, and the expences verie chargeable. For first, about May, they cut vp all the grasse of that ground, which must newly be broken, into Turfes, which they call Beating. These Turfes they raise vp somewhat in the midst, that the Wind and Sunne may the sooner drie them. The inside turned outwards drieth more speedily, but the outside can better brooke the change of weather. After they haue beene throughly dried, the Husbandman pileth them in little heapes, and so burneth them to ashes.

Then doe they bring in Sea sand, of greater or lesser quantitie, partly after their neerenesse to the places, from which it is fetched, and partly by the good husbandrie, and abilitie of the Tiller. An ordinarie Horse wil carrie two sackes of Sand, and of such the borderers on the Sea, doe bestow, 60. at least, in euerie Acre, but most Husbands double that number. The Inland soyle requireth not so large a proportion, and in some places, they sow it almost as thinne as their Corne: for if they should strow the same verie thicke, the ground would become ouer-rancke, and choke the Corne with weeds. A little before plowing time, they scatter abroad those Beat-boroughs, & small Sand heaps vpon the ground, which afterwards, by the Ploughes turning downe, giue heate to the roote of the Corne. The tillable fields are in some places so hilly, that the Oxen can hardly take sure footing; in some so tough, that the Plough will scarcely cut them, and in some so shelfie, that the Corne hath much adoe to fatten his roote. The charges of this Beating, Burning, Seeding and Sanding, ordinarily amounteth to no lesse then twentie shillings for euerie Acre: which done, the Tiller can commonly take but two crops of wheate, and two of Oates, and then is driuen to giue it at least seuen or eight yeres leyre, and to make his breach elsewhere.

Of Wheat there are two sorts, French, which is bearded, and requireth the best soyle, recompencing the same with a profitable plentie: and Notwheate, so termed, because it is vnbearded, contented with a meaner earth, and contenting with a suteable gaine.

Rye is employed onely on those worst grounds, which will beare no Wheate. Barley is growne into great vse of late yeeres, so as now they till a larger quantitie in one Hundred, then was in the whole Shire before: and of this, in the deare seasons past, the poore found happie benefit, for they were principally relieued, and the labourers also fed, by the bread made thereof; whereas otherwise, the scarcitie of Wheate fel out so great, that these must haue made many hungrie meales, and those out-right haue starued. In the Westerne-most parts of Cornwall, they carrie their Barley to the Mill, within eight or nine weekes from the time that they sowed it; such an hastie ripening do the bordering Seas afford. This increase of Barley tillage, hath also amended the Cornish drinke, by conuerting that graine into Mault, which (to the il relishing of strangers) in former times they made onely of Oates.

I haue beene alwayes prone to maintaine a Paradox, [21] that dearth of corne in Cornwall (for with other Shires I will not vndertake to meddle) so it go not accompanied with a scarcitie, is no way preiudiciall to the good of the Countrie; and I am induced thus to thinke, for the reasons ensuing: There are no two trades, which set so many hands on worke, at all times of the yeere, as that one of Tillage. The Husbandman finding profit herein, is encouraged to bestow paines and charges, for enclosing and dressing of waste grounds, which therethrough afterwardes become also good for pasture. With the readie money, gotten by his weekely selling of corne, he setteth the Artificer on worke, who were better to buy deare bread, being but a part of his meate, and which he counteruaileth againe, by raising the price of his ware, then to sit idly, knocking his heeles against the wall. Their obiection, who feare least the transporting of much away, will leaue too little at home, I answere with this observation: When the price of corne falleth, men generally giue ouer surplus Tillage, and breake no more ground, then will seme to supplie their owne turne: the rest, they imploy in grazing, wherethrough it falleth out, that an ill kerned or saued Haruest, soone emptieth their old store, & leaueth them in necessity, to seeke new reliefe from other places. Whereas on the other side, if through hope of vent, they hold on their larger tillage, this retaineth one yeeres prouision vnder-hand, to fetch in another, which vpon such occasions, may easily bee left at home: and of this, what Cornishman is there, that hath not seene the experience ?

For Fruites, both wild, as Whurts, Strawberies, and Raspies, and longing to the Orchard, as Peares, Plums, Peareplummes, Cherries, Mulberies, Chessenuts, and Walnuts, though the meaner sort come short, the Gentlemen step not farre behind those of other parts; many of them conceiuing like delight to grasse and plant, and the soyle yeelding it selfe as ready to receyue and foster. Yet one speciall priuiledge, which the neerenesse to the South, the fitnesse of some grounds standing vpon lyme stones, the wel growing of Vines, and the pleasant taste of their Grapes, doe seeme to graunt, I haue not hitherto knowne by any to bee put in practise, and that is, the making of Wines: the triall would require little cost, and (perhaps) requite it with great aduantage.

For fewell, there groweth generally in all parts great store of furze, of which the shrubby sort is called tame, the better growne French, & in some, good quantitie of Broome. The East quarters of the Shire are not destitute of Copswoods, nor they of (almost) an intolerable price: but in most of the West, either nature hath denyed that commodity, or want of good husbandry lost it. Their few parcels yet preserued, are principally imployed to coaling, for blowing of Tynne. This lacke they supply, either by Stone cole, fetched out of Wales, or by dried Turfes, some of which are also conuerted into coale, to serue the Tynners turne.

Timber hath in Cornwall, as in other places, taken an vniuersall downefall, which the Inhabitants begin now, and shall heereafter rue more at leisure: Shipping, howsing, and vessell, haue bred this consumption: neither doth any man (welnere) seek to repayre so apparant and important a decay. As for the statute Standles, commonly called Hawketrees, the breach of the sea, & force of the weather doe so pare and gall them, that they can [22] passe vnder no better title then scar-crowes.

Among creatures of a breathing life, I will only note such as minister some particular cause of remembrance.

Touching venimous Wormes, Cornwall can plead no such Charter of natures exemption, as Ireland. The countrey people retaine a conceite, that the Snakes, by their breathing about a hazell wand, doe make a stone ring of blew colour, in which there appeareth the yellow figure of a Snake, & that beasts which are stung, being giuen to drink of the water wherein this stone hath bene socked, will therethrough recouer. There was such a one bestowed on me, and the giuer auowed to haue seene a part of the stick sticking in it: but Penes authorem sit sides.

This mention of Snakes, called to my remembrance, how not long since, a merry Cornish Gentleman tryed that old fable to be no fable, which sheweth the dangerous entertayning of such a ghest. For he hauing gotten one of that kind, and broken out his teeth (wherein consisteth his venome) used to carrie him about in his bosome, to set him to his mouth, to make him licke his spittle, & when he came among Gentlewomen, would cast him out suddenly, to put them in feare: but in the end, their vaine dread proued safer then his foole-hardinesse: for as he once walked alone, and was kissing this gentle playfellow, the Snake in good earnest, with a stumpe, either newly growne vp, or not fully pulled out, bit him fast by the tongue, which therewith began so to rankle and swell, that by the time hee had knocked this foule player on the head, & was come to his place of abode, his mouth was scarce able to contayne it. Fayne was he therefore to shew his mishap, and by gestures to craue ayd in earnest of the Gentlewomen, whom hee had aforetime often scared in sport.

Of all maner vermine, Cornish houses are most pestred with Rats, a brood very hurtfull for deuouring of meat, clothes, and writings by day; and alike cumbersome through their crying and ratling, while they daunce their gallop gallyards in the roofe at night.

Strangers, at their first comming into the West parts, doe complayne that they are visited with the slowe sixe-legged walkers, and yet the cleanely home-borne finde no such annoyance. It may proceed from some lurking naturall effect of the Climate; as wee read, that the trauailers who passe the Equinoctiall, doe there lose this manlike hunting vermine, and vpon their returne recouer them againe.

The other beastes which Cornwall breedeth, serue either for Venerie, or meate, or necessary vses. Beastes of Venery persecuted for their case, or dammage feasance, are Marternes, Squirrels, Foxes, Badgers, and Otters. Profitable for skinne and flesh, Hares, Conies and Deere. The Foxe planteth his dwelling in the steep cliffes by the sea side; where he possesseth holds, so many in number, so daungerous for accesse, and so full of windings, as in a maner it falleth out a matter impossible to disseyze him of this his ancient inheritance. True it is, that sometime when he marcheth abroad on forraying, to reuittaile his Male pardus, the Captaine hunters, discouering his sallies by their Espyal, doe lay their souldier-like Hounds, his borne enemies, in ambush betweene him and home, and so with Har and Tue pursue him to the death. Then master Reignard ransacketh euery corner of his wily [23] skonce, and besturreth the vtmost of his nimble stumps to quite his coate from their iawes. He crosseth brookes, to make them lose the sent, he slippeth into couerts, to steale out of sight, he casteth and coasteth the countrie, to get the start of the way; and if hee be so met, as he find himselfe ouermatched, he abideth, and biddeth them battell, first sending the myre of his tayle against their eyes, in lieu of shot, and then manfully closing at hand-blowes, with the sword of his teeth, not forgetting yet, the whiles, to make an honourable retraict, with his face still turned towardes the enemie: by which meanes, hauing once recouered his fortresse, he then gives the Fico, to all that his aduersaries can by siedge, force, myne, sword, assault, or famine, attempt against him.

The Otters, though one in kind, haue yet two seuerall places of haunt: some keepe the Cliffes, and there breede, and feede on Sea-fish, others liue in the fresh ryuers, and trade not so farre downe, who being lesse stored with prouision, make bold now and then to visite the land, and to breake their fast upon the good-mans Lambs, or the good-wiues pultrie.

Of Conies, there are here and there some few little Warrens, scantly worth the remembring.

Cornwall was stored not long since with many Parkes of fallow Deere. But king Henrie the eight being perswaded (as it is said) by Sir Richard Pollard, that those belonging to the Duke, could steed him with little pleasure in so remote a part, and would yeeld him good profit, if they were leased out at an improoued rent, did condiscend to their disparking. So foure of them tooke a fall together, to wit, Cary bullock, Liskerd, Restormel and Lanteglos. Howbeit,this good husbandrie came short of the deuisers promise, and the Kings expectation: wherethrough the one was shent for the attempt, and the other discontented with the effect. Notwithstanding, as Princes examples are euer taken for warrantable precedents to the subiect: so most of the Cornish Gentlemen preferring gaine to delight, or making gaine their delight, shortly after followed the like practise, and made their Deere leape over the Pale to giue the bullockes place.

Parkes yet remaining, are in East Hundred, Poole, Sir Ionathan
Trelawneys: newly reuiued, Halton, M. Rouses, lately impaled: and
Newton, M. Coringtons, almost decayed. In West Hundred, Boconnock,
Sir Reginald Mohuns. In Powder Hundred, Caryhayes, M.Treuamons.
In Stratton Launcels, M. Chamonds. In Kerier Hundred, Trela warren,
M. Viruans: and Merther, M. Reskymers.

Red Deere, this Shire breedeth none, but onely receiueth such, as in the Summer season raunge thither out of Deuon: to whome the Gentlemen bordering on their haunt, afford so course entertainment, that without better pleading their heeles, they are faine to deliuer vp their carcases for a pledge, to answer their trespasses.

Beastes seruing for meate onely, or Pigs, Goates, Sheepe, and Rother cattell. For meate, draught, and plowing, Oxen: for carriage, and riding, horses: for gard, attendance, and pleasure, Dogs of sundrie sorts.

What time the Shire, through want of good manurance, lay waste and open, the Sheepe had generally [24] little bodies, and course fleeces, so as their Wooll bare no better name, then of Cornish hayre, and for such hath (from all auncientie) beene transported, without paying custome. But since the grounds began to receiue enclosure and dressing for Tillage, the nature of the soyle hath altered to a better graine, and yeeldeth nourishment in greater aboundance, and goodnesse, to the beastes that pasture thereupon: So as, by this meanes (and let not the owners commendable industrie, turne to their surcharging preiudice, least too soone they grow wearie of well-doing) Cornish Sheepe come but little behind the Easterne flockes, for bignes of mould, finenesse of Wooll often breeding, speedie fatting, and price of sale, and in my conceyte equall, if not exceede them in sweetnesse of taste, and freedome from rottennesse and such other contagions. As for their number, while euerie dweller hath some, though none keepe many, it may summe the totall to a iolly rate. Most of the Cornish sheepe haue no hornes, whose wool is finer in qualitie, as that of the horned more in quantitie: yet, in some places of the Countie there are that carrie foure hornes.

The Deuon and Somersetshire grasiers, feede yeerely great droues of Cattell in the North quarter of Cornwall, and vtter them at home, which notwithstanding, Beefe, Whitfull, Leather or Tallow, beare not any extraordinarie price in this Countie, beyond the rate of other places: and yet, the oportunitie of so many Hauens, tempteth the Marchants (I doubt me, beyond their power of resistaunce) now and then to steale a transportation, and besides, vttereth no smal quantitie for the reuitailing of weather-driuen shippes. Some Gentlemen suffer their beastes to runne wilde, in their Woods and waste grounds, where they are hunted and killed with Crossebowes, and Peeces, in the maner of Deere, and by their fiercenesse, and warinesse, seeme to haue put on a part of the others nature. Each Oxe hath his seuerall name, vpon which the driuers call aloud, both to direct and giue them courage as they are at worke.

The Cornish horses, commonly are hardly bred, coursely fed, low of stature, quicke in trauell, and (after their growth and strength) able inough for continuance: which sort proue most seruiceable for a rough and hilly Countrie. But verie few of them (through the owners, fault) retaine long this their naturall goodnesse. For after two yeeres age, they vse them to carrie sackes of Sand, which boweth downe, and weakneth their backes, and the next Summer they are imployed in harrowing, which marreth their pace. Two meanes that so quaile also their stomackes, and abate their strength, as the first rider findeth them ouer-broken to his hands. Howbeit now, from naught, they are almost come to nought: For since the Statute 12. of Henry the eight, which enableth eueri man to seize vpon horses that pastured in Commons, if they were vnder a certaine sise, the Sherifes officers, reckoning themselues specially priuiledged to poll in their masters yeere, haue of late times, whether by his commandement, or sufferance, accustomed to driue those waste grounds, and to seize on those not voluntarie statute-breaking Tits, so as nature denying a great harace, and these carrying away the little, it resteth, that hereafter, not the dammes Foale, but the dames Trotters, be trusted vnto, This consideration [25] hath made me entertain a conceite, that ordinarie Husbandmen should doe well to quit breeding of Horses, and betake themselves to Moyles: for that is a beast, which will fare hardly, liue verie long, drawe indifferently well, and carrie great burdens, and hath also a pace swift, and easie enough, for their Mill and market seruice. By which meanes, looke what is abated from the vsuall number of Hacknies, should (with a gainefull recompence) be added to their goodnes: and hereof this quarter hath alreadie taken some experiment. For, not long sithence, it hapned that one brought ouer an hee Asse, from France, because of the strangenesse of the beast (as euerie thing where it comes first, serves for a wonder) who following his kind, begat many monsters, viz. Moyles, and for monsters indeed, the Countrie people admired them, yea, some were so wise, as to knocke on the head, or giue away this issue of his race, as vncouth mongrels.

Amongst living things on the land, after Beastes, follow Birds, who seeke harbour on the earth at night, though the ayre bee the greatest place of their haunt by day.

Of tame Birds, Cornwall hath Doues, Geese, Ducks, Peacockes, Ginney duckes, China geese, Barbarie hennes, and such like.

Of wild, Quaile, Raile, Partridge, Fesant, Plouer, Snyte, Wood-doue,
Heathcocke, Powte, &c.

But, amongst all the rest, the Inhabitants are most beholden to the Woodcockes, who (when the season of the yeere affordeth) flocke to them in great aboundance. They arriue first on the North-coast, where almost euerie hedge serveth for a Roade, and euerie plashoote for Springles to take them. From whence, as the moyst places which supplie them food, beginne to freeze vp, they draw towards those in the South coast, which are kept more open by the Summers neerer neighbourhood: and when the Summers heate (with the same effect from a contrarie cause) drieth vp those plashes, nature and necessitie guide their returne to the Northern wetter soyle againe.

Of Hawkes, there are Marlions, Sparhawkes, Hobbies, and somewhere Lannards. As for the Sparhawk, though shee serue to flie little aboue sixe weekes in the yeere, and that onely at the Partridge, where the Faulkner and Spanels must also now and then spare her extraordinarie assistance; yet both Cornish and Deuonshire men employ so much trauaile in seeking, watching, taking, manning, nusling, dieting, curing, bathing, carrying, and mewing them, as it must needes proceede from a greater folly, that they cannot discerne their folly herein. To which you may adde, their busie, dangerous, discourteous, yea, and sometimes despiteful stealing one from another of the Egges and young ones, who, if they were allowed to aire naturally, and quietly, there would bee store sufficient, to kill not onely the Partridges, but euen all the good-huswiues Chickens in a Countrie.

Of singing Birds, they haue Lynnets, Goldfinches, Ruddockes, Canarie birds, Blacke-birds, Thrushes, and diuers other; but of Nightingals, few, or none at all, whether through some naturall antipathie, betweene them and the soyle (as Plinie writeth, that Crete fostereth not any Owles, nor Rhodes Eagles, nor Larius lacus in Italy Storkes) or rather for that the Country is generally [26] bare of couert and woods, which they affect, I leaue to be discussed by others.

Not long sithence, there came a flocke of Birds into Cornwall, about Haruest season, in bignesse not much exceeding a Sparrow, which made a foule spoyle of the Apples. Their bils were thwarted crosse-wise at the end, and with these they would cut an Apple in two, at one snap, eating onely the kernels. It was taken at first, for a forboden token, and much admired, but, soone after, notice grew, that Glocester Shire, and other Apple Countries, haue them an ouer-familiar harme.

In the West parts of Cornwall, during the Winter season, Swallowes are found sitting in old deepe Tynne-workes, and holes of the sea Cliffes: but touching their lurking places, Olaus Magnus maketh a farre stranger report. For he saith, that in the North parts of the world, as Summer weareth out, they clap mouth to mouth, wing to wing, and legge in legge, and so after a sweete singing, fall downe into certaine great lakes or pooles amongst the Canes, from whence at the next Spring, they receiue a new resurrection; and hee addeth for proofe hereof, that the Fishermen, who make holes in the Ice, to dip vp such fish with their nets, as resort thither for breathing, doe sometimes light on these Swallowes, congealed in clods, of a slymie substance, and that carrying them home to their Stoues, the warmth restoreth them to life and flight: this I haue seene confirmed also, by the relation of a Venetian Ambassadour, employed in Poland, and heard auowed by trauaylers in those parts: Wherethrough I am induced to giue it a place of probabilitie in my mind, and of report in this treatise.

After hauing thus laid open euerie particular of the land, naturall order leadeth my next labour, to bee imployed about the water, and the things incident thereunto: the water I seuer into fresh and salt.

Touching fresh Water, euerie hill wel-neere sendeth forth plentifull, fresh, cleare and pleasant springs, profitable for moystning the ground, and wholesome for mans vse, & diuers by running through veines of Mettals, supposed also medicinable for sundrie diseases; of which more in their particular places. These springs, (as seuerall persons assembling, make a multitude) take aduantage of the falling grounds, to vnite in a greater strength, and beget Ryuers, which yet are more in number, and swifter in course, then deepe in bottome, or extended in largenesse. For they worke out their bed through an earth, full of Rockes and stones, suting therethrough, the nature onely of some speciall fishes, of which kind are, Minowes, Shoats, Eeles, and Lampreys. The rest are common to other Shires, but the Shote in a maner peculiar to Deuon and Cornwall: in shape and colour he resembleth the Trowt: howbeit in bignesse and goodnesse, commeth farre behind him. His baites are flies and Tag-wormes, which the Cornish English terme Angle-touches. Of the Ryuers and Hauens which they make, occasion will be ministred vs to speake particularly in the next booke; and therefore it shall suffice to name the chiefest here in generall, which are on the South coast: Tamer, Tauy, Liner, Seaton, Loo, Foy, Fala, Lo. On the North, Camel, Halae.

Of fresh water Ponds, either cast out by nature, or wrought out by Art, Cornwall is stored with verie few, though the site of so many narrow vallies offereth [27] many, with the onely charge of raysing an head. But the Oceans plentifull beames darken the affecting of this pettie starlight: touching whose nature and properties, for his saltnesse in taste, strength in bearing, course in ebbing and flowing, the effects are so well knowne to the vulgar, as they need not any particular relation; and the causes so controuersed amongst the learned, as it passeth mine abilitie to moderate the question: onely this I will note, that somewhat before a tempest, if the sea-water bee slashed with a sticke or Oare, the same casteth a bright shining colour, and the drops thereof resemble sparckles of fire, as if the waues were turned into flames, which the Saylers terme Briny.

Amongst other commodities affoorded by the sea, the Inhabitants make vse of diuers his creekes, for griste-milles, by thwarting a bancke from side to side, in which a floud-gate is placed with two leaues: these the flowing tyde openeth, and after full sea, the waight of the ebbe closeth fast, which no other force can doe: and so the imprisoned water payeth the ransome of dryuing an under-shoote wheele for his enlargement.

Ilands, S. Nicholas in the mouth of Plymmouth, S. George before Loo,
S. Michaels Mount, and the Ilies of Scilley.

Hauens on the South coast there are, Plymmouth, Loo, Foy, Falmouth,
Helford, and the Rode of Mounts bay. On the North, S. Ies, and
Padstowe, of which more hereafter.

Diuers of these are dayly much endammaged by the earth which the Tynners cast up in their working, and the rayne floods wash downe into the riuers, from whence it is discharged in the hauens, and shouldreth the sea out of his ancient possession, or at least, encrocheth vpon his depth. To remedy this, an Act of Parliament was made 23. H. 8. that none should labour in Tynneworks, neere the Deuon and Cornish hauens: but whether it aymed not at the right cause, or hath not taken his due execution, little amendement appeareth thereby for the present, and lesse hope may be conceyued for the future.

Yet this earth being through such meanes conuerted into sand, enricheth the husbandman equally with that of Pactolus: for after the sea hath seasoned it with his salt and fructifying moysture, his waves worke vp to the shore a great part thereof (together with more of his owne store, grated from the cliffes) and the Tillers, some by Barges and Boats, others by horses and waines, doe fetch it, & therewith dresse their grounds. This sand is of diuers kindes, colours, and goodnesse: the kinds, some bigger, some lesser; some hard, some easie. The colours are answerable to the next Cliffes. The goodnesse increaseth as it is taken farther out of the Sea.

Some haue also vsed to carry vp into their grounds the Ose or salt water mudde, and found good profit thereby, though not equalling the sand.

To this purpose also serueth Orewood, which is a weed either growing vpon the rockes vnder high water marke, or broken from the bottome of the sea by rough weather, and cast vpon the next shore by the wind and flood. The first sort is reaped yeerely, and thereby bettereth in quantity and qualitie: the other must be taken when the first tyde bringeth it, or else the next [28] change of wind will carry it away. His vse serueth for barly land. Some accustomed to burne it on heapes in pits at the cliffe side, and so conuerted the same to a kind of wood, but the noysome sauour hath cursed it out of the countrey. This Floteore is now and then found naturally formed like rufs, combs, and such like: as if the sea would equall vs in apparel, as it resembleth the land for all sorts of liuing creatures.

The sea strond is also strowed with sundry fashioned & coloured shels, of so diuersified and pretty workmanship, as if nature were for her pastime disposed to shew her skil in trifles. With these are found, moreouer, certaine Nuts, somewhat resembling a sheepes kidney, saue that they are flatter: the outside consisteth of a hard darke coloured rinde: the inner part, of a kernell voyd of any taste, but not so of vertue, especially for women trauayling in childbirth, if at least, old wiues tales may deserue any credit. If I become blame-worthy in speaking of such toyes, Scipio and Lelius shall serue for my patrons, who helde it no shame to spend time in their gathering.

But to carie you from these trifles, you shall vnderstand, that Cornewall is stored with many sorts of shipping, (for that terme is the genus to them all) namely, they haue Cock-boats for passengers, Sayn-boats for taking of Pilcherd, Fisher-boates for the coast, Barges for sand, Lighters for burthen, and Barkes and Ships for trafficke: of all which seuerally to particularize, were consectari minutias, and therefore I will omit to discourse of them, or of the wrackes proceeding from them, to their great dammage, and the finders petty benefit, to whom, he that inioyeth the Admirals right, by the common custome alloweth a moytie for his labour.

But though I shunne tediousnesse herein, I feare lest I shal breede you Nauseam, while I play the fishmonger: and yet, so large a commoditie may not passe away in silence. I will therefore, with what briefnes I can, shew you, what they are, when they come, where they haunt, with what baite they may be trayned, with what engine taken, and with what dressing saued.

Herein we will first begin with the Peall, Trowt, and Sammon, because they partake of both salt and fresh water, breeding in the one, and liuing in the other.

The Trowte and Peall come from the Sea, betweene March and Midsummer, and passe vp into the fresh ryuers, to shed their spawne. They are mostly taken with a hooke-net, made like the Easterne Weelyes, which is placed in the stickellest part of the streame (for there the fish chiefely seeketh passage) and kept abroad with certaine hoopes, hauing his smaller end fastened against the course of the water, and his mouth open to receiue the fish, while he fareth vp by night.

The Sammons principal accesse, is betweene Michaelmas and Christmas: for then, and not before, the ryuers can afford them competent depth. A time forbidden to take them in, by the Statute thirteene of Richard the second: but if they should bee allowed this priuiledge in Cornwall, the Inhabitants might vtterly quit all hope of good by them, for the rest of the yeere. They are refettest (that is fattest) at their first comming from the Sea, and passe vp as high as any water can carrie them, to spawne the more safely, and, to that end, take aduantage of the great raynie flouds. After Christmas, [29] they returne to the Sea, altogether spent & out of season, whome, as the spring time commeth on, their fry doe follow: and it hath beene obserued, that they (as also the Trowt and Peall) haunt the same ryuers where they first were bred. Vpon the North coast, and to the Westwards of Foy, few or none are taken, either through those ryuers shallownesse, or their secret dislike. To catch them, sundrie deuices are put in practise: one is, with the hooke and line, where they vse Flies for their baite: another, with the Sammons speare, a weapon like Neptunes Mace, bearded at the points. With this, one standeth watching in the darke night, by the deepe pooles, where the Sammons worke their bed for spawning, while another maketh light with a waze of reed. The Sammon naturally resorteth to the flame, playing in and out, and therethrough is discerned, strooken and drawne on land by a cord fastened to the speare. The third and more profitable meanes of their taking, is by hutches. A head of Fagots, or stones, is made acrosse the ryuer, and his greatest part let out, through a square roome therein, whose vpper side giueth passage to the water by a grate, but denieth it to the fish, and the lower admitteth his entrie, thorow certaine thicke laths, couched slope-wise one against another, but so narrowly, as he can find no way of returne, while the streame tosseth him hither and thither, and the laths ends gall him, if he stumble on the place.

They vse also to take Sammons and Trowts, by groping, tickling them vnder the bellies, in the Pooles where they houer, vntill they lay hold on them with their hands, & so throw them on land. Touching these, one scribling of the ryuer Lyner, rymed as ensueth:

    THE store-house of Sunnes cheuisance,
    The clocke whose measures time doth dance,
    The Moones vassall, the Lord of chance,

    Ere yeeres compasse his circle end,
    From hugie bosome, where they wend,
    His scaly broode to greete doth send,
                                   His wife Tellus.

    Some haile but with the coasting shore,
    Some multiplie the Harbours store,
    Some farre into the ryuers bore,
                                  Amongst the rest.

    A threefold rowt, of Argus hew,
    Kind to encrease, foes to eschew,
    With Lyners supple mantle blew,
                                 Themselves reuest.

    What time, enricht by Phoebus rayes,
    The Alder his new wealth displayes (*)
    Of budded groates, and welcome payes
                                   Vnto the Spring.

    The Trowts, of middle growth begin,
    And eygall peizd, twixt either finne,
    At wonted hoste Dan Lyners Inne,
                                Take their lodging.

    Next, as the dayes vp early rise,
    In com's the Peall, whose smaller sise,
    In his more store, and oft supplies,
                                A praise doth find.

    Laftly, the Sammon, king of fish,
    Fils with good cheare the Christmas dish,
    Teaching that season must relish
                                  Each in his kind.

(*) It is said that the fish cometh, when the Alder
    leafe is growne to the breadth of a groate.


And of the Sammon in particular.

    NOW to the Sammon, king of fish, a trice,
    Against whose slate, both skill and will conspire,
    Paine brings the fewell, and gaine blowes the fire,
    That hand may execute the heads deuice.
    Some build his house, but his thence issue barre,
    Some make his meashie bed, but reaue his rest:
    Some giue him meate, but leaue it not disgest,
    Some tickle him, but are from pleasing farre.
    Another troope com's in with fire and sword,
    Yet cowardly, close counterwaite his way,
    And where he doth in streame, mistrustlesse play,
    Vail'd with nights robe, they stalke the shore aboord.
    One offers him the daylight in a waze,
    As if darknesse alone contriued wiles:
    But new Neptune, his mate, at land, the whiles,
    With forked Mace, deere school's his foolish gaze.
    Poore Fish, not praying, that are made a pray,
    And at thy natiue home find'st greatest harme,
    Though dread warne, swiftnesse guide, and strength thee arme,
    Thy neerenesse, greatnesse, goodnesse, thee betray.

In the Hauens, great store, and diuers sorts of fish, some at one time of the yeere, and some at another, doe haunt the depthes and shallowes, while the lesser flie the greater, and they also are pursued by a bigger, each preying one vpon another, and all of them accustoming, once in the yeere, to take their kind of the fresh water. They may be diuided into three kinds, shell, flat, and round fish. Of shell fish, there are Wrinkles, Limpets, Cockles, Muscles, Shrimps, Crabs, Lobsters, and Oysters.

Of flat fish, Rayes, Thorn-backes, Soles, Flowkes, Dabs, Playces.

Of round fish, Brit, Sprat, Barne, Smelts, Whiting, Scad, Chad,
Sharkes, Cudles, Eeles, Conger, Basse, Millet, Whirlepole, and
Porpose. The generall way of killing these (that is the Fishermans
bloudie terme, for this cold-blouded creature) is by Weares, Hakings,
Saynes, Tuckes, and Tramels.

The Weare is a frith, reaching slope-wise through the Ose, from the land to low water marke, and hauing in it, a bunt or cod with an eye-hooke, where the fish entering, vpon their coming backe with the ebbe, are stopped from issuing out againe, forsaken by the water, and left drie on the Ose.

For the Haking, certaine Stakes are pitched in the Ose at low water, athwart from Creeke, from shore to shore, to whose feete they fasten a Net, and at ful-sea draw the vpper part thereof to their stops, that the fish may not retire with the ebb, but be taken, as in the Weares.

The Sayne is a net, of about fortie fathome in length, with which they encompasse a part of the Sea, and drawe the same on land by two ropes, fastned at his ends, together with such fish, as lighteth within his precinct.

The Tucke carrieth a like fashion, saue that it is narrower meashed, and (therefore scarce lawfull) with a long bunt in the midst: the Tramell differeth not much from the shape of this bunt, and serueth to such vse as the Weare and Haking.


The particular taking of sundrie kinds of fishes, is almost as diuers as themselues. Wrinckles, Limpets, Cockles, and Muscles, are gathered by hand, vpon the rockes and sands. Many of the Crabs breede in the shels of Cockles, and of the Lobsters in those of Wrinckles, as my selfe haue seene: being growne, they come forth, and liue in holes of Rockes, from whence, at low water, they are dragged out, by a long crooke of yron.

The Shrimps are dipped vp in shallow water by the shore side, with little round nets, fastned to a staffe, not much unlike that which is used for daring of Larkes.

The Ostyers (besides gathering by hand, at a great ebb) haue a peculiar dredge, which is a thick strong net, fastned to three spils of yron, and drawne at the boates sterne, gathering whatsoeuer it meeteth, lying in the bottome of the water, out of which, when it is taken vp, they cull the Oysters, and cast away the residue, which they terme gard, and serueth as a bed for the Oysters to breed in. It is held, that there are of them male, and female. The female, about May, and Iune, haue in them a certaine kind of milke, which they then shead, and whereof the Oyster is engendered. The little ones, at first, cleaue in great numbers, to their mothers shell, from whence, waxing bigger, they weane themselues, and towards Michaelmas, fall away. The Countrie people long retained a conceit, that in Summer time they weare out of kind (as indeed the milkie are) but some Gentlemen making experiment of the contrarie, began to eate them at all seasons, wherethrough, by spending them oftner and in greater quantitie, by spoyling the little ones, and by casting away the vnseasonable, there ensued a scarcitie, which scarcitie brought a dearth, the dearth bred a sparing, and the sparing restored a plenty againe. They haue a propertie, though taken out of the water, to open against the flood time, and to close vpon the ebbe, or before, if they bee touched, the which, not long sithence occasioned a ridiculous chaunce, while one of them through his sodaine Shutting, caught in his owne defence, three yong Mice by the heads, that of malice prepensed, had conspired to deuoure him, and so trebled the valour of the cleft block, which griped Milo by the hands.

Nature hath strowed the shore with such plenty of these shel-fishes, as thereby shee warranteth the poore from dread of staruing: for euery day they may gather sufficient to preserue their life, though not to please their appetite, which, ordinarie with vs, was miraculous to the Rochellers in their siedge 1572.

After Shel-fish succeedeth the free-fish, so termed, because he wanteth this shelly bulwarke.

Amongst these, the Flowk, Sole and Playce follows the tyde up into the fresh riuers, where, at low water, the Countri people find them by treading, as they wade to seeke them, and so take them vp with their hands. They vse also to poche them with an instrument somewhat like the Sammon-speare.

Of Eeles there are two sorts: the one Valsen, of best taste, coming from the fresh riuers, when the great raine floods after September doe breake their beds, and carry them into the sea: the other, bred in the salt water, & called a Conger Eele, which afterwards, as his bignes increaseth, ventreth out into the maine Ocean, & is enfranchised a Burgesse of that vast common wealth: but in harbor they are taken mostly by Spillers made of a cord, [32] many fathoms in length, to which diuers lesser and shorter are tyed at a little distance, and to each of these a hooke is fastened with bayt: this Spiller they sincke in the sea where those Fishes haue their accustomed haunt, and the next morning take it vp againe with the beguiled fish.

For catching of Whiting and Basse, they vse a thred, so named, because it consisteth of a long smal lyne with a hooke at the end, which the Fisherman letteth slip out of his hand by the Boat side to the bottom of the water, and feeling the fish caught by the sturring of the lyne, draweth it vp againe with his purchase. The Porposes are shaped very bigge and blacke. These chase the smaller schoels of fish from the mayne sea into the hauens, leaping vp and downe in the water, tayle after top, and one after another, puffing like a fat lubber out of breath, and following the fish with the flood, so long as any depth will serue to bear them; by which means they are sometimes intercepted: for the Borderers watching vntill they be past farre vp into some narrow creeke, get belowe them with their Boats, and cast a strong corded net athwart the streame, with which, and their lowd and continuall showting and noyse making, they fray and stop them from retyring, vntill the ebbe haue abandoned them to the hunters mercy, who make short worke with them, and (by an olde custome) share them amongst all the assistants with such indifferencie, as if a woman with child bee present, the babe in her wombe is gratified with a portion: a poynt also obserued by the Speare-hunters in taking of Sammons.

Now from within harbour, we will launch out into the deepe, and see what luck of fish God there shall send vs, which (so you talke not of Hares or such vncouth things, for that proues as ominous to the fisherman, as the beginning a voyage on the day when Childermas day fell, doth to the Mariner) may succeed very profitable: for the coast is plentifully stored, both with those foreremembred, enlarged to a bigger size, & diuers other, as namely of shel-fish, Sea-hedge-hogs, Scallops & Sheath-fish. Of fat, Brets, Turbets, Dories, Holybut. Round, Pilcherd, Herring, Pollock, Mackrell, Gurnard, Illeck, Tub, Breame, Oldwife, Hake, Dogfish, Lounp, Cunner, Rockling, Cod, Wrothe, Becket, Haddock, Guilt-head, Rough-hound, Squary Scad, Seale, Tunny, and many others, quos nunc, &c.

The Sheath, or Rasor-fish, resembleth in length and bignesse a mans finger, and in taste, the Lobster, but reputed of greater restoratiue.

The Sea-hedge-hogge, of like or more goodnesse, is enclosed in a round shell, fashioned as a loafe of bread, handsomely wrought and pincked, and guarded by an vtter skinne full of prickles, as the land Vrchin. But the least fish in bignes, greatest for gaine, and most in number, is the Pilcherd: they come to take their kind of the fresh (as the rest) betweene haruest and Alhallon-tyde, and were wont to pursue the Brit, vpon which they feede, into the hauens, but are now forestalled on the coast by the Drouers and Sayners. The Drouers hang certaine square nets athwart the tyde, thorow which the schoell of Pilchard passing, leaue many behind intangled in the meashes. When the nets are so filled, the Drouers take them up, clense them, and let them fall againe.

The Sayners complayne with open mouth, that [33] these drouers worke much preiudice to the Commonwealth of fishermen, and reape thereby small gaine to themselues; for (say they) the taking of some few, breaketh and scattereth the whole schoels, and frayeth them from approaching the shore: neither are those thus taken, marchantable, by reason of their brusing in the meash. Let the crafts-masters decide the controuersie.

The Sayne, is in fashion, like that within harbour, but of a farre larger proportion. To each of these, there commonly belong three or foure boates, carrying about sixe men apeece: with which, when the season of the yeere and weather serueth, they lie houering upon the coast, and are directed in their worke, by a Balker, or Huer, who standeth on the Cliffe side, and from thence, best discerneth the quantitie and course of the Pilcherd: according whereunto, hee cundeth (as they call it) the Master of each boate (who hath his eye still fixed upon him) by crying with a lowd voice, whistling through his fingers, and wheazing certing diuersified and significant signes, with a bush, which hee holdeth in his hand. At his appointment they cast out their Net, draw it to either hand, as the Schoell lyeth, or fareth, beate with their Oares to keepe in the Fish, and at last, either close and tucke it vp in the Sea, or draw the same on land, with more certaine profit, if the ground bee not rough of rockes. After one companie haue thus shot their Net, another beginneth behind them, and so a third, as opportunitie serueth. Being so taken, some, the Countrie people, who attend with their horses and paniers at the Cliffes side, in great numbers, doe buy and carrie home, the larger remainder, is by the Marchant, greedily and speedily seized vpon.

They are saued three maner of wayes: by fuming, pressing, or pickelling. For euery of which, they are first salted and piled vp row by row in square heapes on the ground in some celler, which they terme, Bulking, where they so remaine for fome ten daies, vntil the superfluous moysture of the bloud and salt be soked from them: which accomplished, they rip the bulk, and saue the residue of the salt for another like seruice. Then those which are to be ventred for Fraunce, they pack in staunch hogsheads, so to keepe them in their pickle. Those that serue for the hotter Countries of Spaine and Italie, they vsed at first to fume, by hanging them vp on long sticks one by one, in a house built for the nonce, & there drying them with the smoake of a soft and continuall fire, from whence they purchased the name of Fumados: but now, though the terme still remaine, that trade is giuen ouer: and after they haue bene ripped out of the bulk, reffed vpon sticks, & washed, they pack them orderly in hogsheads made purposely leake, which afterward they presse with great waights, to the end the traine may soke from them into a vessell placed in the ground to receyue it.

In packing, they keepe a iust tale of the number that euery hogshead contayneth, which otherwise may turne to the Marchants preiudice: for I haue heard, that when they are brought to the place of sale, the buyer openeth one hogs-head at aduentures; and if hee finde the same not to answere the number figured on the outside, hee abateth a like proportion in euery other, as there wanted in that. The trayne is well solde, as imployed to diuers vses, and welneere acquiteth the cost in sauing, and the sauing setteth almost an infinite [34] number of women and children on worke, to their great aduantage: for they are allowed a peny for euery lasts carriage (a last is ten thousand) and as much for bulking, washing, and packing them, whereby a lusty huswife may earne three shillings in a night; for towards the euening they are mostly killed.

This commoditie at first carried a very lowe price, and serued for the inhabitants cheapest prouision: but of late times, the deare sale beyond the seas hath so encreased the number of takers, and the takers iarring and brawling one with another, and foreclosing the fishes taking their kind within harbour, so decreased the number of the taken, as the price daily extendeth to an higher rate, equalling the proportion of other fish: a matter which yet I reckon not preiudiciall to the Commonwealth, seeing there is store sufficient of other victuals, and that of these a twentieth part will serue the Countries need, and the other nineteene passe into forraine Realmes with a gainefull vtterance.

The Sayners profit in this trade is vncertayne, as depending upon the seas fortune, which hee long attendeth, and often with a bootlesse trauaile: but the Pilcherd Marchant may reape a speedy, large, and assured benefit, by dispatching the buying, sauing and selling to the transporters, within little more then three moneths space. Howbeit, diuers of them, snatching at wealth ouer-hastily, take mony beforehand, and bind themselues for the same, to deliuer Pilcherd ready saued to the transporter, at an vnder-rate, and so cut their fingers. This venting of Pilcherd enhaunced greatly the price of cask, whereon all other sorts of wood were conuerted to that vse: and yet this scantly supplying a remedie, there was a statute made 35. Eliz. that from the last of Iune 1594. no stranger should transport beyond the seas any Pilcherd or other fish in cask, vnlesse hee did bring into the Realme, for euery sixe tunnes, two hundred of clapboord fit to make cask, and so rateably, vpon payne of forfeyting the sayd Pilcherd or fish. This Act to continue before the next Parliament, which hath reuiued the same, vntill his (yet not knowne) succeeder.

The Pilcherd are pursued and deuoured by a bigger kinde of fish, called a Plusher, being somewhat like the Dog-fish, who leapeth now and then aboue water, and therethrough bewrayeth them to the Balker: so are they likewise persecuted by the Tonny, and he (though not verie often) taken with them damage faisant. And that they may no lesse in fortune, then in fashion, resemble the Flying fish, certaine birds called Gannets, soare ouer, and stoup to prey vpon them. Lastly, they are persecuted by the Hakes, who (not long sithence) haunted the coast in great abundance; but now being depriued of their wonted baite, are much diminished, verifying the prouerb, What we lose in Hake, we shall haue in Herring. These Hakes and diuers of the other forerecited, are taken with threds, & some of them with the boulter, which is a Spiller of a bigger size. Vpon the North coast, where want of good harbours denieth safe road to the fisherboats, they haue a deuice of two sticks filled with corks, and crossed flatlong, out of whose midst there riseth a thred, and at the same hangeth a saile; to this engine, termed a Lestercock, they tie one end of their Boulter, so as the wind comming from the shore, filleth the sayle, and the saile carrieth out the Boulter into the sea, which after the respite of some houres, is drawne in againe [35] by a cord fastned at the neerer end. They lay also certaine Weelyes in the Sea, for taking of Cunners, which therethrough are termed Cunner-pots. Another net they haue long and narrow meashed, thwarted with little cords of wide distance, in which the fish intangleth it selfe, and is so drawne vp.

For Bait they vse Barne, Pilcherd, and Lugges. The Lugge is a worme resembling the Tagworme or Angle-touch, and lying in the Ose somewhat deepe, from whence the women digge them vp, and sell them to the Fishermen: They are descried by their working ouer head, as the Tagworme. And, for lacke of other prouision, the Fishermen sometimes cut out a peece of the new taken Hake, neere his tayle, and therewith baite their hookes, to surprise more of his Canniballian fellowes.

The Seale, or Soyle, is in making and growth, not vnlike a Pigge, vgly faced, and footed like a Moldwarp; he delighteth in musike, or any lowd noise, and thereby is trained to approach neere the shore, and to shew himselfe almost wholly aboue water. They also come on land, and lie sleeping in holes of the Cliffe, but are now and then waked with the deadly greeting of a bullet in their sides.

The Fishermens hookes doe not alwayes returne them good prise: for often there cleaueth to the baite, a certaine fish like a Starre, so farre from good meate, as it is held contagious.

There swimmeth also in the Sea, a round slymie substance, called a
Blobber, reputed noysome to the fish.

But you are tired, the day is spent, and it is high time that I draw to harbour: which good counsell I will follow, when I haue onely told you, In what maner the Fishermen saue the most part of their fish. Some are polled (that is, beheaded) gutted, splitted, powdred and dried in the Sunne, as the lesser sort of Hakes. Some headed, gutted, iagged, and dried, as Rayes, and Thornbackes. Some gutted, splitted, powdred, and dried, as Buckhorne made of Whitings, (in the East parts named Scalpions) and the smaller sort of Conger, and Hake. Some gutted, splitted, and kept in pickle, as Whiting, Mackrell, Millet, Basse, Peall, Trowt, Sammon, and Conger. Some, gutted, and kept in pickle, as the lesser Whitings, Pollocks, Eeles, and squarie Scads. Some cut in peeces, and powdred, as Seale and Porpose. And lastly, some boyled, and preserued fresh in Vinegar, as Tonny and Turbet.

Besides these flooting burgesses of the Ocean, there are also certaine flying Citizens of the ayre, which prescribe for a corrodie therein; of whom some serue for food to vs, and some but to feed themselues. Amongst the first sort, we reckon the Dip-chicke, (so named of his diuiug, and littlenesse) Coots, Sanderlings, Sea-larkes, Oxen and Kine, Seapies, Puffins, Pewets, Meawes, Murres, Creysers, Curlewes, Teale, Wigeon, Burranets, Shags, Ducke and Mallard, Gull, Wild-goose, Heron, Crane, and Barnacle.

These content not the stomacke, all with a like sauorinesse, but some carrie a rancke taste, and require a former mortification: and some are good to bee eaten while they are young, but nothing tooth-some, as they grow elder. The Guls, Pewets, and most of the residue, breed in little desert Ilands, bordering on both coastes, laying their Egges on the grasse, without making any [36] nests, from whence the owner of the land causeth the young ones to be fetched about Whitsontide, for the first broode, and some weekes after for the second. Some one, but not euerie such Rocke, may yeeld yeerely towards thirtie dozen of Guls. They are kept tame, and fed fat, but none of the Sea kind will breede out of their naturall place: Yet at Caryhayes, master Treuanions house, which bordereth on the Cliffe, an old Gull did (with an extraordinarie charitie) accustome, for diuers yeeres together, to come and feede the young ones (though perhaps none of his alliance) in the court where they were kept. It is held, that the Barnacle breedeth vnder water on such ships sides, as haue beene verie long at Sea, hanging there by the Bill, vntill his full growth dismisse him to be a perfect fowle: and for proofe hereof, many little things like birds, are ordinarily found in such places, but I cannot heare any man speake of hauing seene them ripe. The Puffyn hatcheth in holes of the Cliffe, whose young ones are thence ferretted out, being exceeding fat, kept salted, and reputed for fish, as comming neerest thereto in their taste. The Burranet hath like breeding, and, after her young ones are hatched, shee leadeth them sometimes ouer-land, the space of a mile or better, into the hauen, where such as haue leasure to take their pastime, chace them one by one with a boate, and stones, to often diuing, vntill, through wearinesse, they are taken vp at the boates side by hand, carried home, and kept tame with the Ducks: the Egges of diuers of these Fowles are good to bee eaten.

Sea-fowle not eatable, are Ganets, Ospray (Plynyes Haliaeetos.) Amongst which, Iacke-Daw (the second slaunder of our Countrie) shall passe for companie, as frequenting their haunt, though not their diet: I meane not the common Daw, but one peculiar to Cornwall, and therethrough termed a Cornish Chough: his bil is sharpe, long, and red, his legs of the same colour, his feathers blacke, his conditions, when he is kept tame, vngratious, in filching, and hiding of money, and such short ends, and somewhat dangerous in carrying stickes of fire.

After hauing marched ouer the land, and waded thorow the Sea, to discouer all the creatures therein insensible, & sensible, the course of method summoneth me to discourse of the reasonable, to wit, the Inhabitants, and to plot downe whatsoeuer, noteworthily, belongeth to their estate, reall, and personall, and to their gouernment, spirituall, and temporall. Vnder their reall state, I comprise all that their industrie hath procured, either for priuate vse, or entercourse, and traffike.

In priuate life, there commeth into consideration, their Tenements, which yeeld them sustinance, and their houses, which afford them a place of abode. Euerie tenement is parcell of the demaynes, or seruices of some Manner. Commonly thirtie Acres make a farthing land, nine farthings a Cornish Acre, and foure Cornish Acres, a Knights fee. But this rule is ouerruled to a greater or lesser quantitie, according to the fruitfulnesse, or barrennesse of the soyle. That part of the demaines, which appertaineth to the Lords dwelling house, they call his Barten, or Berton. The tenants to the rest hold the same either by sufferance, Wil, or custome, or by conuention. The customary tenant holdeth at Wil, either for yeeres, [37] or for liues, or to them and their heires, in diuers manners according to the custome of the Mannour. Customarie Tenants for life, take for one, two, three, or more liues, in possession, or reuersion, as their custome will beare. Somewhere the wiues hold by widdowes estate, and in many places, when the estate is determined by the Tenants death, and either to descend to the next in reuersion, or to returne to the Lord, yet will his Executor, or Administrator detaine the land, by the custome, vntill the next Michaelmas after, which is not altogether destitute of a reasonable pretence.

Amongst other of this customarie Land, there are seuenteene Mannours, appertaining to the Duchie of Cornwall, who doe euerie seuenth yere, take their Holdings (so they terme them) of certaine Commissioners sent for the purpose, & haue continued this vse, for the best part of three hundred yeeres, through which, they reckon, a kind of inheritable estate accrued vnto them. But, this long prescription notwithstanding, a more busie then well occupied person, not long sithence, by getting a Checquer lease of one or two such tenements, called the whole right in question: and albeit God denyed his bad minde any good successe, yet another taking vp this broken title, to salue himselfe of a desperate debt, prosecuted the same so far forth, as he brought it to the iutty of a Nisi prius. Hereon certayne Gentlemen were chosen and requested by the Tenants, to become suiters for stopping this gap, before it had made an irremediable breach. They repayred to London accordingly, and preferred a petition to the then L. Treasurer Burleigh. His L. called vnto him the Chauncellour, and Coise Barons of the Exchequer, and tooke a priuate hearing of the cause. It was there manifestly prooued before them, that besides this long continuance, and the Importance, (as that which touched the vndooing of more then a thousand persons) her Highnesse possessed no other lands, that yeelded her so large a benefit in Rents, Fines, Heriots, and other perquisites. These reasons found fauourable allowance, but could obtaine no thorough discharge, vntill the Gentlemen became suppliants to her Maiesties owne person, who, with her natiue & supernaturall bounty, vouchsafed vs gratious audience, testified her great dislike of the attempter, & gaue expresse order for stay of the attempt: since which time, this barking Dogge hath bene mufled. May it please God to award him an vtter choaking, that he neuer haue power to bite againe.

Herein we were beholden to Sir Walter Raleghs earnest writing, (who was then in the Countrey) to Sir Henry Killigrews sound aduice, and to Master William Killigrews painefull soliciting (being the most kinde patrone of all his Countrey and Countreymens affaires at Court.)

In times past, and that not long agoe, Holdings were so plentifull, and Holders so scarce, as well was the Landlord who could get one to bee his Tenant, and they vsed to take assurance for the rent by 2. pledges of the same Mannour. But now the case is altred: for a farme, or (as wee call it) a bargaine can no sooner fall in hand, then the Suruey Court shal be waited on with many Officers, vying & reuying each on other; nay thei are taken mostly at a ground-hop, before they fall, for feare of comming too late. And ouer and aboue the old yerely rent, they will giue a hundred or two hundred [38] yeeres purchace and vpward at that rate, for a fine, to haue an estate of three liues: which summe commonly amounteth to ten, or twelve yeeres iust value of the land. As for the old rent, it carrieth at the most, the proportion but of a tenth part, to that whereat the tenement may be presently improued, & somewhere much lesse: so as the Parson of the parish can in most places, dispend as much by his tithe, as the Lord of the Mannour by his rent. Yet is not this deare letting euerie where alike: for the westerne halfe of Cornewall, commeth far short of the Easterne, and the land about Townes, exceedeth that lying farther in the Countrey.

The reason of this enhaunsed price, may proue (as I gesse) partly, for that the late great trade into both the Indies, hath replenished these parts of the world with a larger store of the Coyne-currant mettals, then our ancestours enioyed: partly, because the banishment of single-liuing Votaries, yonger mariages then of olde, and our long freedome from any sore wasting warre, or plague, hath made our Countrey very populous: and partly, in that this populousnes hath inforced an industrie in them, and our blessed quietnes giuen scope, and meanes to this industrie. But howsoeuer I ayme right or wide at this, once certayne it is, that for these husbandry matters, the Cornish Inhabitants are in sundry points swayed by a diuerse opinion, from those of some other Shires. One, that they will rather take bargaines, at these excessiue fines, then a tolerable improued rent, being in no sort willing to ouer a penny: for they reckon that, but once smarting, and this, a continuall aking. Besides, though the price seeme very high, yet mostly, foure yeeres tillage, with the husbandmans payne and charge, goeth neere to defray it. Another, that they fal euery where from Commons to Inclosure, and partake not of some Easterne Tenants enuious dispositions, who will sooner preiudice their owne present thrift, by continuing this mingle-mangle, then aduance the Lords expectant benefit, after their terme expired.

The third, that they alwayes preferre liues before yeeres, as both presuming vpon the Countries healthfulnesse, and also accounting their family best prouided for, when the husband, wife, and childe, are sure of a liuing. Neither may I (without wrong) conceyle the iust commendation of most such wiues, in this behalfe: namely, when a bargaine is so taken to these three, it often falleth out, that afterwards the sonne marieth, and deliuereth his yeruing-goods (as they terme it) to his father, who in lieu thereof, by his wiues assent (which in many auncient deeds was formall) departeth to him and his daughter in lawe, with the one halfe of his Holding in hand.

Now, though after the fathers decease, the mother may, during her life, turne them both out of doores, as not bound by her owne word, and much lesse by her husbands: yet I haue seldome or neuer knowne the same put in practise, but true and iust meaning hath euer taken place.

Yet another vnconscionable quirk some haue of late time pried into, viz. in a ioynt-lease to three intended by the taker and payer, to descend successiuely and intirely, one of them passeth ouer his interest to a stranger, who by rigour of law shall hold it during the liues of the other twaine.


The ordinary couenants of most conuentionary Tenants are, to pay due Capons, doe haruest iournyes, grinde at the Mill, sue to the Court, discharge the office of Reeue and Tithing-man, dwell vpon the Tenement, and to set out no part thereof to tillage, without the Lords licence first obtained. Which conditions are yet enlarged or restrained, according to the Demisors humour.

Vsuall it is for all sorts of Tenants, vpon death, at least, if not surrender, or forfeyture, to pay their best beast for a Heriot: yea, if a stranger, passing thorow the Countrey, chaunce to leaue his carkase behind him, he also must redeeme his buriall, by rendring his best beast, which he hath with him, to the Lord of the soyle: or if he haue none, his best Iewell; or rather then fayle, his best garment then about him, in lieu thereof. But this custome hath beene somewhat shaken, in comming to triall, and laboureth of a dangerous Feuer, though the Cornish Gentlemen vse all possible remedies of almost fas et nefas, by pleading the 11. poynts of the Lawe, to keepe it on liue.

The free Tenants seruices, are ordinary with those of other places, saue that they pay in most places onely fee-Morton releeses, which is after fiue markes the whole Knights fee, (so called of Iohn Earle first of Morton, then of Cornwall, and lastly King of this Land) whereas that of fee-Gloucester is fiue pound. And to accomplish this part, I haue heere inserted a note of the Cornish Knights fees and acres, which I receyued from my learned and religious kinseman Master Robert Moyle.

           Record. Feod. Milit. in Cornub. fact.
                Anno 3. H. 4. vt sequitur.

HEnricus Dei gratia, Rex Anglia & Franciae, & Dominus Hiberniae, dilectis nobis Vicecom. & Escaetori nostris in Com. Cornub. ac Iohanni Colshil, & Iohanni Tremayn seniori collectoribus auxilij 20. solidorum, de quolibet feod. Milit. tento de nob. fine medio in Com. praedicto ad Blanchiam primogenitam filiam nostram maritand. iuxta formam statuti, anno regni Domini Edwardi nuper Regis Angliae, Aui nostri 25. edict. assignat salutem. Quasdam euidentias, quas de libris, rotulis & memorand. Scaccarii nostri exhiberi fecimus pro informations vestra, super captione inquisitionum diuersorum feodorum in Com. praedicto, viz. de rubro libra unam scedulam, & duos rotulos de euidentiis nuper collectoribus auxilii praedicti, auo nostro ad filium suum primogenitum milit. faciend, anno Regni sui 20. concessi vobis mittimus, sub pede sigilli nostri, mandantes, vt inspect. euidenc. praed. vlterius inde tam per easdem euident. quam per Inquisitiones super praemiss. per vos capiend. pro commodo nostro faciatis, quod de iure per vos videatur faciend: Ita quod euidenc. praed, vna cum toto fac. vestro in premiss. & hoc breue ad Scaccarium nostrum super compot. vestrum proxim. de eodem auxilio redend. Baronibus de dictio Scaccario nostro ibidem liberandum habeatis. Teste Iohanne Cokayn apud Westmonast. 30. die Ianua. Anno Regni nostri 3. Rotl. memorum de anno 3. Hillar. record.


Hundred de Penwith.

    Will, de Campo Arnulphi ten. 7 feod. & di.
      in Luduon trewedryn, Maien & Kelle-
    Will. Basset ten. 1. feod in Tihidi & Trenalga.
    Mich. de Bray ten. 2. partes vnius feod. in Bray
    Alanas Bloighon ten 2. feod. in Tremall.
    Haeres Marci de Walestbren ten. 2. partes feod. in
    Episcop. Exon. ten dimid. feod. in Lauestli.
    Haeres Iocei Dynnan ten. 1. feod. in Gorten.
    Comes Gloc. ten. 4. part. unius feod. in Drayn-
    Idem. Comes ten. 1. feod. in Couerton.
    Idem. Comes ten. 1. feod. in Binnerton.
    Idem. Comes ten. 5. part. 1. feod. in Loigans.
    Haeres Ties ten. dimid. feod. in Alwerton.
    Marchio Dorset. ten. 4. feod. in Trenwel.

Hundred de Lysnewith.

    Will, de Botriaux tenet in isto Hundred in Wale
      breux. 1. feod.
    Idem Will. ten. in Polruman di. feod.
    Idem Will. ten. in Wolueston 1. feod.
    Idem Will. ten. in Tresciward 1. feod.
    Idem Will. ten. in Worthauale 1. feod.
    Reginald de Ferrar in ead. Hund. 7. feod.
    Will, de Witha & Iohan. de Crammon tenent in
      Trewint & in Westdisart 1. feod.
    Idem Will. de Campo Arnulphi ten. 1 feod. in
    Idem Will. ten. in Oterham 1. feod.
    Idem Will, in Donneghny Crugplegh di. feod.
    Simon Giffard ten. 1. feo. in Donneghny de la Bruer.
    Henric. de la Pomerey ten. in Lesnewith & Treuyghan
      di. feod.
    Rogerus de Crammon ten. in Moteland 1. feod.
    Omnia praedicta feod. sunt feod. Mortanne.
    Haeres Iocei Dinan Ouer rescradeck. & nether
      rescradeck di. feod.

Hundred de Stratton.

    HErbertus de Pyn ten. in Middeland 3. feod.
    Idem ten. in Bere 1. feod. in Deuon.
    Idem ten. in Alwington in Deuon 2. feod.
    Idem ten. Marwonchurch 1. feod.
    Idem ten. in Pensenteinon, Trethewy & Westory 2.
    Comes Gloc. ten. 2. magna feod. in Kilkham land.


    Ranulphus de Albo Monasterio tenet in Stratton 1.
    Thomas de Wamford ten. in Efford 1. feod.
    Henric. de Killigreu ten. 1. feo. in Orchard mar-
    Iohannes de Cobbeham in Lancels 1. feod. quod Abbas
      & conuentus de Hartland tenent in pur. & perpet.
    Idem ten. in Wiston & Serpeknol 1. feod.
    Idem ten. in burgo paruo Ponte knol. & Sunondsham 1.
      feod. quod Abbas & conu. praed. clam, tenere in
      pura & perpet. elem.
    Idem ten. 3. part. 1. feod. in Turlebere.
    Idem ten. 1. feod. & 6. part. 1. feod. in Hilton simul
      cum Ferewil in Deuon.
    Rogerus de Carmmon ten. 1. feod. in Hormecot &
    Rex ten. 1. feod. in Bostinne.
    Idem ten. Lamaylwen 1. feod. quod Oliuerus de Cram-
      mon ten.
    Idem ten. in Nantoige 1. feod. di. feod.
    Iohanna Lengleis ten. i. feod. in Wadfaste.
    Guilielmus de Campo Arnulphi ten. 1. feod. m Pen-
    Idem ten. 1. feod. & 2. partes 1. feod. in Wike.
    Prior de Lanceston ten. 1/4 1. feod. in Borton.
    Haluethus Maliuery ten, di. feo. milit. in Tamerton.
    Omnia praedicta feod. sunt parua feod. prater. 2. feod.
    in Kilkam lond.

Hundred de East.

    IOhanna de Rame ten. 1. fe. magnum de Seniock.
    Nicholaus Danne ten. 1. partem feod. dict. feod. de
      Mortimer in Tregantle de Modeton.
    Idem Nich. ten. 1. magnum feod. de Abbate de Ta-
    Idem Nich. ten. 1. mag. feod. in Trecan & Trecurnel
      & Churleton de praedict. Abbate.
    Idem Wil. de Bodbrand ten. 2. parua feod. de Mor-
      teynne in Penhangle de Trematon.
    Idem Will. ten. 1. paru. feod. dict. feod. de Morteynn
      in Karkeil de Trematon.
    Rogerus de Tredenick ten. in Tredenick 5. part. 1.
      parui feod. prout ibid.
    Rogerus de Ferrar ten. 2. parua feod. dict. feod. de
      Mortyn in Penpol de Tremerton.
    Idem ten. 1. paru. feod. in Haston de Tremerton.
    Idem ten. 1. paru. feod. in Westuenton de Tre-
    Idem ten. di. paru. feod. dict. feod. de Mortyn in The-
      lebridge in la rode.
    Idem ten. 3. part, vnius paru. feod. in Croketon de


    Idem Calistock 1. paru. feod. & est in manu regis.
    Idem aqua de Tamar di. feod. in manu reg. de honore
      de Tremeton.
    Idem Rogerus de Inkepenne ten. 2. paru. feo. Mortynn
      in Halton.
    Galfrid. de Erth. ten. di. paru. feod. ibid.
    Idem Galfrid. de Groue ten. 3. part, vnius di. feod.
      paru. de Mortyn ibid.
    Idem Nic. de Merton ten. 1. paru. feod. Mortyn in
      Treualuare & in Trekinward.
    Will. de Botriaux ten. di. paru. feod. de Mortyn in
      Penhele de rege.
    Thomas Lercedekne ten. 4. part. 1. feod. paru. in Treu-
      ris de rege.
    Baro de Stafford ten. di. feod. paru. dict. feod. de
      Mortyn de rege in Kallilond.
    Episcop. Exon. ten. 1. mag. feod. Gloce. de rege.
    Ric. de Trenaga tenet ibid. paru. feod. de Willi.
    Regin. de Beuil ten. ibid. paru. feod. in Tredawil de
      Wil. de Botriaux.
    Idem Prior de Minstre ten. 1. paru. feod. Mort. in
    Idem Nic. Danne ten. 3. part. 1. feod. paru. dict. feod.
      de Mor. in Legh.

Hundred de West.

    CArdynan Penlyn ten. pro duobus feod. paru. dict.
      feod. de Morteyn in custodia regis.
    Ric. de Serifeaux ten. 3. paru. feod. de Mort. in
      Laurethon, Kilgather & Lansalwys.
    Will. de Bodrigan ten. paru. feod. in Trethim Bes-
    Manerium de Liskerd est di. paru. feod. Mort. & est in
      manu reg.
    Tho. de Cruptus ten. 2. paru. feod. in Cruphs &
    Matheus de Trethake ten. 2. par. feod. Mo. in Tre-
      thake, Lamlewarn, Trelewarn & Denant.
    Mathilda de Hewisch ten. di. part. feo. in Meuely.
    Ioh. de Wellington & Reg. Querquius ten. 5. part. 1.
      feod. in Fawyton.

Hundred de Trigger.

    ROb. Thomy ten. di. feod. in Bliston dict. feod.
    Idem Nico. de Bindon ten. in Penrosburdon di. feod.
    Rob. de Cheyndut ten. in Bodannan 4. part. 1. feo.
    Ioh. filius Wil. te. in Kinnarght 4. par. 1. feo. Mor.


    Idem ten. in Tregradeck, 4. part. 1. feod. Mor.
    Henricus Camel ten. in Belionnus, 1. feod. Mor.
    Robert. de Brunn ten. in Delisonbol 1. feod. Mort.
    Matheus & Agnes de Trehauk ten. in Trehome di.
      feod. Mort.
    Robertus Giffard te. in Lannomunnus di. fe. Mor.
    Robertus de Helligan ten. ibi. 2. feo. dict. fe. Mort.
    Iohannes de Tinten ten. in Tynten & in Trewinneck
      1. feod. Mort.
    Ioh. de Seneschal te. in Helland, 4. part. 1. fe. Mort.
    Haeres de Walesbren ten. in Lamailwen 4. part. 1. feod.
    Ric. de Rescarreck ten. in Rescarretunus 4. part. fe.
    Dom. de Lancarsse ten. ib. 5. part. 1. feo. di. fe. Mort.
    Dom. de Portguin ten. ib. di. feod. Mort.
    Siluester de Tregamuran ten. in Tregonen 1. feod.
    Iohannes Darundle ten. in Treawset, & in Trenbeith 1.
      feod. Mort.
    Episcop. Exon. ten. in Eglosel 1. feod. mag.
    Ioh. Tracy & Hugo Peuerel tenent in Tremscord &
      Hamatethy, 2. feod. Mort.
    Ricard. de Serifeaux ten. in Kilkoid 2. feod, & di.
    Iohannes de Guillez ten. in Trenderet. 1. feo. Mor.
    Barth, de Cant. ten. ibid. di. feod. Mort.
    Ioh. fil. Will. ten. in Haumal di. feod.
    Alanus Blughon ten. in Polrodon Donnat 2. feo.

Hundred de Pider.

    IOhannes de Vinfrauil ten. ratione Aliciae vxoris fuae,
      1. mag. feod. in Laherne.
    Ric. de Hiuoisch ten. ibid. mag. feod. in S. Idy.
    Rosamunda de la forest ten. ibid. mag. feod. in Tre-
    Bartholomeus de Bercle tenet dimid. mag. feod. in Tre-
    Iohannes de Tregage tenet dimid. mag. feod. in Tre-
    Episcop. Exon. te. 5. part. mag. feod. in Dinbegh.
    Rad. de Berthei ten. ibid. 1. paru. feod.
    Henric. Ties te. 4. part. mag. feod. in Trewarnayl.
    Item Rex ten. 4. part. 1. mag. feod. in Trewarnayl.
    Ela de sanct. Colano ten. ibid. di. paru. feo. Mort.
    Ric. de sanct. Colano ten. ratione Isoldae vxo. eius
      ibid. di. paru. feod. Mort.
    Rob. Thomy ten. in Caruaton 4. part. 1. paru. feod.
    Barth. de Berckle te. in Tremor, di. paru. feo.
    Ioh. Darundle ten. di. paru, feod. in Treloy.
    Iohannes Hamelyn te. di. paru. feod. in Trekinnen,
    Rad. Darundle te. di. paru. feo. in Trekinnen.


Regin. de Botriaux ten. 5. part. paru. feod. in Cut- fordferle.

Hundred de Powder.

    Will. de Campo Arnulphi ten. in Tiwardraith 1.
      feo. vnde Prior ten. 3. acr. & di. ibi. Idem
    Will. ten. in Bodrigan Penarth & Cargois 3.
    Idem Will. ten. in Gouely 1. feod.
    Idem Will. ten. in Prideas 1. feod.
    Idem Will. ten. in Lishiestick 1. feod.
    Idem Will. ten. in Treuerlynwater di. feod.
    Idem Will. ten. in Bodenda 4. part. 1. feod.
    Idem Will. ten, in Treuerbindren 5. par. i. feod.
    Idem Will. ten. in Tronneck 5. part. 1. feod.
    Idem Will. ten. in Tronalgerthan 4. part. 1. feod.
    Episcop. Exon. ten. in Caniwerez 1. feod.
    Idem Episcop. ten. in Trenel 1. feod.
    Idem Episcop. ten. in Taluren 1. feod.
    Idem ten. in Fentengullyn di. feod.
    Idem ten. in Tremnel di. feod.
    Idem ten. in Trelonck. di. feod.
    Henr. de la Pomeray ten. 3. part. 1. feo. in Hellarna.
    Ioh. de Riparys ten. in Mauntayn di. feod.
    Idem ten. in Trethak 1. feod.
    Steph. de Belloprato ten. in Treuewith & Trewithy di.
      feod. paru.
    Serlo de Lauladro ten. ibid. & in S. Goriann & in paru.
      Luntyan 1. feod. & di. paru.
    Rad. de Killigreu ten. ibid. 1. feod. paru.
    Will, de Bodrigan ten. in Tremodret & in la roche 3.
      feod. paru.
    Serlo de Lauladro ten. in Alet 3. part. 1. feod.
    Will. Stanley & Comes de Riuers ten. 1. feod. mili. Mo.
      in Elerky.
    Haeres Iocei Dynnan ten. in Eglosroset in Trelewith
      1. feod.
    Will. Baillisbury vaca. vxo. fuae Blanchelond
      1. feod.
    Henr. fil. Maugi de Killigreu ten. in Trewyn 3. part.
      1. feod.
    Ric. de Hiwisch ten. in Trenasanstel di. feod.
    Idem ten. in Gloures 1. feod.
    Haeres Iocei Dynnan ten. in Argallez 1. feod. paru.
    Idem ten. in Fountomon 3. part. 1. feod. paru.
    Haeres Thomas de Prideas ten. in Boswyghergy 2. part.
      1.feod. paru.
    Mat. de Trethake ten. in Tragameddon 2. feo. par.
    Rex. ten. aquam de Fawe pro 2. feod. & 3. part, 1.feo.
    Henricus de la Pomerey ten. 12. feod. in Tregony.

Hundred de Kerier.

WAlter. Wailisbury & Isolda vxor eius te. 3. feod. in Rescronges dicta feod. Mortan.


    Iohannis de Riparys te. in Rosewike 1. feo. Mort.
    Episcop. Exon. ten di. mag. feod. in Minstre.
    Rogerus de Carminon ten. 20. part. 1. feo. Mort. extra
      10. part. illius 20, in Wynnenton, Marthyn & Ta-
    Thomas Durant ten. in Penzenguans, 1. fe. Mort.
    Iohannes fil. Will. ten. di. feod. in Arworthel per Car-
      tam Edwardi quondam Com. Cornub. dict. feod.

          Euidentiae extractae de rubro libra
                  de Scaccario, 143.

    RObertus de Cardinan 71. feod. milit.
    Reginaldus de Valle torta 59. de honore de Tre-
    Thomas de Middleton 10. de honore de Midd.
    Will. de Botterill 12. milit.
    Robertus fil. Walteri 11. milit. de feod. Ric. de Lusti
      auunculi sui.
    Robertus de Peuerel 9. milit. de feod. eiusdem.
    Ric. fil. Ric. 1. feod. & 3. part, cum haere de
    Rad. Bloyon 7.
    Arehennaund. Flandrensis 7. milit.
    Robertus de Tintagle 5. milit.
    Henricus fil. Will. 4. milit.
    Wil. de Albemarle 5. milit. cum relict, Robert. de
    Radulphus de Treat. 1. milit.
    Ric. Wallensis 2. milit.
    Wil. de Bosfco Roardi 2. milit.
    Iohannes de monte acuto.
    Henricus de Pomeray.
    Henricus de Herys 1.
    Pharanus Warebras 1. milit.
    Barth. fil. 1. milit.
    Gilbertus Anglicus 1. milit.
    Symon Pincerna 1.
    Ric. filius Iuonis 1.
    Ric. Buzon. 1.
    Henricus fil. Com. 1.
    Huardus de Bekelege 1.
    Walterius de Dunstan vil. 1. milit.
    Hastul de Sullinge 4. part.
    Robertus de Mandeuil 1. milit.
    Alicia de Valletorta 1. milit.


    PEtrus fil. Ogeri 40. Cabulion per vnam Capam
      de Gresenge in aduentum dict. Regis in Cornu-
    Rogerus Cithared 5. pro portanda illa Capa dum Rex
      fuerit in Cornubia.


    Iohan. de Pencoit vnam acram in Lametyn prec. de 5.s.
      fac. ibid, custodiam per 40. dies.
    Rog. de Bodmel 1. acram pro sequela in Com.
    Rob. Espiakelin duas acras & furuum in Lanceneton, vt
      eat in exercitum cum rege stipendiis ipsius Regis.

     Extenta acrarum Cornub. facta coram Salom. de
    Ross. & Sociis suis Iustic. itinerant, apud Laun-
    ceston a die Paschae in 3.septimanas anno Reg.
                        Edw. 12.

Hundred de Penwith.

    Decunar. de Tihidi. 70. Lanistly 28. Acr.
    Redwory 14. Acras. Alwarton. 64.
    Couerton. 45. Trefruss. 3.
    Treruffe. 1. Marchel. 23.
    Dreyneck. 5. Trefundryn. 20.
    Bennerton. 45. Maen. 15.
    Gurlyn. 15. Bree. 8.
    Loygans. 9. Kelyneck. 24.
    Tenent de Tregony. 9. Warewil. 25.
    Penuerthy. 8. Tredyne. 1.
    Vthno. 8. Trewannard.
    Prior Mich. 8. Kelision. 6.
    Treynwal. 20. Tredeny. 3.
    Luddeuan. 55.
                    Sum. 532. Acr.

Hundred de Kerier

    Talgollon. 6. Carmynow. 18.
    Pensignans. 6. Wymanton. 12.
    Kenel 1. di. Trebrabo. 24.
    Arwothel. 9. S. Mawgan. 9.
    Restrongas. 21. Helston. 30.
    Penryn. 21. Methele. 15.
    Treros. 6. Trenhale. 6.
    Minster. 12. Godolghan 13. als. Epo. 9.
    Trewotheck. 6. Pengirsick, 6.
    Trenaweth. 9. Rogearon. 9.
    Trelan. 9. Wenna. 9.
    Rosewike. 30. Trelew. 9. als. 1. Ac. Exo.
    Lysard. 12. Presprinick. 6.
    Tredaneck. 6. Trelybey. 9.
    Tucays. 6. Luceas 31. als. 31. Ac. Ex.
    Clehar. 6.
                 Sum. 397. Acr. & dimid.

Hundred de Pider.

    Deci. de naushike pro. 6. Trewenneck. 3.
    Kalestek. 4. Trewoleck. 9.
    Elineas. 24. Bodwenek. 9.
    Dygimbris. 39. Rialton parua. 57.
    Treloy. 9. Trenowith. 3.


    S. Ify. 14. Treworder Bilcon. 12.
    Lanheyl Tinten. 18. Meddeschole. 9.
    Methean. 2. S. Peran. 3.
    Trewarnayl. 51. Eliquyn. 6.
    Carantock. 18. Cargoule. 39.
    Ryalton. 18. Porthe. 9.
    Lanhernow. 18. Carnaton. 14.
    Pawton. 120. Tregennow. 9.
    Aldennow. 21. Tremblithe. 4.
    Lantallen. 4. Gluuian. 3.
    Tremore. 6. Withiel. 15.
    Banhedrek. 9. Ryalton magna. 57.
    Retergh. 9. Cotford felle. 15.
    Trewynnian. 3. Berthey. 24.
    Meyndy. 6. Cragantallen. 3.
                    Sum. 700. Acr.

Hundred de Powder.

    Decuna de Tregaire. 93. Treworeck & Trew. 24.
    Inde alloc. 20. Ac. pro. do. Tremodreth. 18.
      Deuon. Treueruen & Poldu. 15.
    Blanchelond. 11. Eglosros. 3.
    Argallas. 6. Crogith & Caryheges. 9.
    Trenoweth. 9. Treuanion. 6.
    Kestel & Coran. 6. Lanhaddron. 4.
    Trelueck. 1. Boderdel. 20.
    Trelewith. 6. Brithion. 8.
    Tewynton. 33. Lanestek. 6.
    Tregony Pomeray. 32. Elerky. 42.
    Tredaek. 20. Werneckbosueleck. 4.
    Gouily. 9. Cargoul. 8.
    Pennarth. 9. Tretherf. 3.
    Trenyeck & Golours. 7. di. Pentewyn. 3.
    Trethewy. 6. S. Goron. 6.
    Boswiththe. 20. Beranel. 36.
    Trenance priour. 12. Trenananstle. 8.
    Killiuregh. 2. Tregarreck. 14.
    Landegy. 9. Maresk 36. pro reg. al-
    Tregamedon. 6. loc. 2.
    Alet. 12. Bodrugan. 9.
    Berthey Brune. 3. Treualgarthyn. 3.
    Growith & Trewithgy. 30. Lauada. 1.
    Treworeck. 9. Pridiaux. 12.
    Tybest & Penkeuel. 42. Tywascreth. 36.
    Treueruyn. 3. Pensentimow. 6.
    Nantyan. 36. Kenewyn. 1.
                Sum. 573. Acr. & dimid.

Hundred de Trigg.

    Egloshayl. 7. di. Lannousun. 18.
    Penpout. 21. Bendeuy. 36.


    Namail. 3. Roscarreck Bighan. 3.
    Hundr. de Trig. 9. Tregradeck. 16.
    Trelindret. 1. di. Lancarff. 6.
    Tinten. 12. Pentir. 1. di.
    Trenesquit. 18. Trewornar. 18.
    Peterow. 6. Penrosburdon. 12.
    Boddannan. 27. Killigint. 18.
    Deliodbol. 6. Tridiseck. 18.
    Bliston. 33. Heligan. 9.
    Canta. 1. di. Reskarrekam. 9.
    Broneyr. 2. Linnoban. 66.
    Rugog. 9. Bodymel. 12.
    Delioner. 9. Trehaneck. 6.
    Polroda. 15. Hellaund. 6.
    Killigen. 9. Tamitethy. 12.
    Portligwyn. 1. di. Lanowseynt. i8.
                 Sum. 473. & dimid.

Hundred de Lesnewith.

    Hellesland. 57. Cydmonth. 7.
    Treualga. 18. Powndstock. 9.
    Treuilla. 3. Donneny. 18.
    Cracampton. 12. Treseward. 7. di.
    Dysard. 6. Bochym. 21.
    Wolueston. 9. Boleny. 8.
    Treglasta. 35. Ebsett. 21.
    Mokelound. 8. S. Genys. 10.
    Treuerueth. 9. Whalsborow. 8.
    Wortheual. 29. Otterham. 12.
    Lesnewith. 24. Tremayl. 6.
                 Sum. 337. & dimid.

Hundred de Stratton.

    Decena de Middeland. Marwyn-church & extra.2.
      68. di.
    Launceles. 20. Loghe. 2.
    Thurlebere. 12. Corg. 1.
    Weke. 15. Fanceston. 8.
    Wadfast. 17. Pennalym. 17.
    Wyldsworthy. 4. Efford. 21.
    Tamerton. 8. Bere. 3.
    Harnacot. 9. di. Hilton. 20.
    Morton. 2. Forkeston & Brendon. 4.
    Kilkampton & Allerton. Witston & S. Petnel. 2.
      68. Boyton & Bradbridge. 9.
    Stratton. 21. dimid.
                              Bryard. 5.
                Sum. 341. Acr. & dimid.


Hundred de East.

    Penheal. 36. Landreyn. 3.
    Item ibid. 1. Clemyslond. 50.
    Tredawel. 13. Halton. 18.
    Trelosk. 14. Newton. 16.
    Tauestok. 27. Trematon. 80.
    Modeton. 9. Lanrake. 100.
    Cauilond. 44. Sheuiek. 100.
    Launcelond. 50. Tregilla. 12.
    Polisaund 6. Penquite. 11.
    Trefrys. 18. Carnedon. 8.
    Lawytton. 80. Rame. 20.
    Haston. 7. Bennalua. 20.
    Landilp & leghe. 14. Penhasgar. 26.
    Killaton. 20. Thorleton. 5.
    Treuaga. 13. Cranydon. 24.
    Trenymel. 12. Buysworek. 10.
    Penpol. 24. S. Germyn. 37.
    Treuartha. 3. Hamet. 7.
                      Sum. 927.

Hundred de West.

    Cardinan. 24. Treuellawan. 15.
    Breuigon. 6. Lanrethow. 12.
    Estdraynez. 6. S. Wynow. 4. dimid.
    Tremethert. 24. Bocunek. 12.
    Recradock. 9. Treuilias. 3.
    Lutcot. 24. Trethu. 6.
    Pendryn. 6. S. Wot. 3.
    Killigath. 9. Perpol. 24.
    Plenynt. 9. Losnewith. 6.
    Manely. 12. Trethewy. 3.
    Polscoth. 1. dimid. Penquite. 9.
    Botylet. 9. Boccalawar. 6.
    Killigoreck. 9. Tallan. 6.
    Baurylen & Hamiteth. 3. Trethek. 6. dimid.
    Fowyton. 30. Langonet. 6.
    Treueruyn. 6. Rathwil. 1. dimid,
    West Draynez. 6. Brothok. 3.
    Laskerd. 18. Penfran. 9.
    Crutour. 9. Colmettyn. 6.
    Trelowya. 6. Kelly & Mighstow. 3.
    Trenant. 6.
                       Sum 353.

Sum. tot. 5555. dimid. Acr.


    Nomina Baron. & Militum ex Rotulis de feodis
        Militum, vel de Scutagio Solutis Regi
          Richardo primo : In libro rubeo


    WAlterus Hay 20. M. per Agn. vxorem
    Nicholaus filius Galfridi 10. M.
    Willi. Boterell. 12. M.
    Alanus Blundus 7. M.
    Geruasius filius Willi. 5. M.
    Willi. frater Comitis 4. M.
    Willi. filius Ric. 5. M.
    Rad. de Rupe 3. M.
    Willi. Oliuer. 1. M.
    Henricus de Tredeleberg. 1. M.
    Richardus filius Iuo. dim. M.
    Iohannes de Soleigny.
    Stephanus Flandrensis. 7. M.
    Alanus de Dunstauill. 1. M.
    Rogerus Anglicus. 1. M.
    Regium de Valletorta 51. M.
    Secundum quod Lucas filius Bernardi Senescallus euis
      mandauit per litteras Baron. de Scaccar. in Anno
      sexto Regis Richardi.
    Robertus de Cardin. 71. M.
    Secundum quod Senescallus eiusdem mandauit Baron.
      eodem anno 6. R. 1.
    Galfridus de Lacell. qui habet med. feod. q. fuerunt
    Richard, de Lucy in hoc Com. 9. M. sicut Ric. filius
      Willi. Senescallus eius mandauit per breue, Anno
      regni Regis Richardi octauo.


Anno 40. Henr. tertii.

lllustri viro, Domino Henrico, Dei gratia, Regi Angliae, Domino Hiberniae, Duct Nor. Aquitan. & Com. Andeg. vicecomes Cornubiae, salutem, cum omni reve- rentia & obsequio. Ad mandatum vestrum, nomina illorum qui ten. quindecem libratas terrae vel plus, & tenent per seruitium militare, & milites non sunt, excellentiae vestrae praesentibus transmitto, vide- licet.

    THomas de Tracy, cuius terrae in Cornubia valent
      40. libras & plus.
    Rogerus de Mesy. 16. li.
    Stephanus de Bellocampo. 15. li.
    Henr. filius Henr. de la Pombre. 30. li.
    Robertus de Carmeneu. 16. li.
    Willi. filius Roberti. 15. li.
    Marc. le Flamanc. 16. li.


    Willi. Wise. 16. li.
    Iordanus de Hacumb. 14. li.
    Robertas de Draenas. I5. li.
    Philippus de Valletorta. 40. li.
    Richard. de Grenuile. 50. li.
    Henricus de Dones. 15. li.

           Nomina Militum, & aliorum hominum ad
                    Arma, Anno Regni Regis
                      Edw. filii Regis
                           Edw 17.

IOhannes de Treiagu vicecomes.

           Nomina militum de Com. Cornubiae, tam
                   infra libertates quam

    WIlli. de Botriaux.
    Reginaldus de Botriaux.
    Rad. de Albo Monasterio,
    Richard. de Campo Arnulphi.
    Henricus de Campo Arnulphi.

Le Petit.

    THomas Lercedekne est in Vascoma in sericium
    Iohannes de Alneto.
    Iohannes de Tynten.
    Willi. de Ferrers.
    Robertus Bendyn.
    Reginaldus de Mohun.
    Robertus filius Willi. impotens miles coronator Domini
    Iohannes de Carmenou.
    Otto de Bodrugan peregrinatus est ad San. Iacobum li-
      centia Domini Regis.

                   Nomina hominum ad Arma In
                        Com. Cornubiae.

    IOhannes de Dynham.
    Rad. de Bloyen.
    Willi. Basset.
    Oliuerus de Carminou.
    Henricus de Peng.
    Rogerus de Reskymmer.
    Iohannes de Lambron.
    Iohannes le Scor. de Taluran.


    Richardus de Cerefeaux iunior.
    Iohannes de Pyn.
    Rogerus Pridyas.
    Rad. de Bello Prato, peregrinatus est cum Ottone de
      Bodrugan, cum licentia regis pro se & duobus va-

      Isti praenominati habent 40. libr. terrae & redditus
        per annum.
      Alii multi Armigeri desunt, nomina eorum dilace-
        rata, non possunt legi in originali.

EDwardus Dei gratia, Rex Angliae, Dominus Hiberniae, & Dux Aquit.vicecomiti Cornub. salutem. Cum nuper tibi praeceperimus, quod omnes & singulos de balliua tua in- fra libertates & extra, tam illos qui viginti libratas terrae & redditus per annum habent, quam illos similiter qui plus habent, de quocunq; teneant sine delatione rogares, & speci- aliter requireres ex parte nostra, fermiterq, iniungentes eis- dem, quod essent ad nos Londini die dominica prox. post octa- vas Sci. Iohannis Bapt. proximo futuras, cum equis & Ar- mis, videlicet, quilibet eorum prout decuerit statum suum, parati transfretare cum corpore nostro, partes transmarinas, ad Dei nostri & ipsorum honorem, ut speramus, & pro sal- uatione & communi utilitate regni nostri, tibi praecipimus, firmiter iniungentes, quod mandato nostro praedicto diligenter & celeriter executo, nos de nominibus omnium illorum de balliua tua quos sit rogaueris ad dictam diem dominie. dis- tincte & aperte, sub sigillo tuo certiores reddere non omittas: Remittens nobis tunc hoc breue. Teste meipso apud Portes- mouth, 24. die Maii, Anno regni nostri vicesimo quinto.

          Nomina eorum qui habent viginti libratas
             terrae, seu redditus vel amplius,
                    in Com. Cornubiae.

    DOminus Oliuerus de Denham.
    Dominus Willi. de Boteraus Senior.
    Dominus Willi. de Boteraus maior.
    Dominus Willi. de Campo Arnulphi.
    Dominus Thomas de Kan.
    Dominus Stepha. de Bello Prato.
    Dominus Rogerus de Carminou.
    Dominus Thomas de Pridias.
    Dominus Hugo Peuerell.
    Dominus Iohannes de Lambron.
    Dominus Rad. Bloyhon.
    Dominus Iohannes filius Willi.
    Dominus Osbertus le Sor.
    Dominus Robertus Gifford.
    Dominus Richardus de Huwyse.
    Dominus Reg. de Beuill.
    Dominus Richardus de Reskymer,
    Dominus Henricus de la Pomerey.
    Dominus Petrus de Fysac.
    Dominus Roulandus de Quoykyn.
    Dominus Richardus de Greneuyle.
    Dominus Walterus de Cornubia.


    Dominus Reginaldus de Botreaus.
    Thomas le Erchideakene.
    Serlo de Lansladeron.
    Walterus de Trem.
    Steph. de Trewythen.
    Odo de la Roche.
    Willi. del Estre.
    Rad. filius Oliueri de Arundell.
    Willi. de Bret.
    Mich. le Petit.
    Iohannes de Kellerion.
    Henricus de Kymyell.
    Iohannes de Arundell.
    Rogerus le Flemming.
    Richardus le Ceariseus.
    Iohannes de Tynton.
    Rad. de Cheyndut.
    Robertus le Brun.
    Stephanus de Trewynt.
    Robertus filius Willi.
    Thomas de Waunford.
    Rogerus Cola.
    Rogerus de Meules.
    Iohannes de Kylgat.
    Richardus de Trenaga.
    Philip. de San. Wynnoko,
    Iohannes de Thurlebere.

NOW to weaue on our former web. The ancient maner of Cornish building, was to plant their houses lowe, to lay the stones with morter of lyme and sand, to make the walles thick, their windowes arched and little, and their lights inwards to the court, to set hearths in the midst of the roome, for chimneyes, which vented the smoake at a louer in the toppe, to couer their planchings with earth, to frame the roomes not to exceede two stories, and the roofes to rise in length aboue proportion, and to bee packed thick with timber, seeking therethrough onely strength and warmenesse; whereas now-adayes, they seat their dwellings high, build their walles thinne, lay them with earthen morter, raise them to three or foure stoaries, mould their lights large, and outward, and their roofes square and slight, coueting chiefly prospect and pleasure. As for Glasse and Plaister for priuate mens houses, they are of late yeeres introduction.

The poore Cotager contenteth himselfe with Cob for his wals, and Thatch for his couering: as for Brick and Lath walles, they can hardly brooke the Cornish weather: and the vse thereof being put in triall by some, was found so vnprofitable, as it is not continued by any.

It resteth, that after the Cornish Inhabitants reall priuate estate, I speake of their entercourse and traffike, and so step forth to their personal.

This entercourse is obtayned by high wayes and Bridges: for highwayes, the Romanes did not extend theirs so farre: but those layd out of later times, are in the Easterne part of Cornwall, vneasy, by reason either of their mire or stones, besides many vp-hils and downe-hils. [54] The Westerne are better trauaileable, as lesse subiect to these discommodities: generally, the statute 18. Eliz. for their amendement, is reasonably wel executed.

Bridges, the riuer Tamer hath Polston, Gresham, Horse, and New Bridge.
Lyner, that at Noddetor, Seton, and Loo, two bridges of the same name.
Foy riuer, Reprin, Lostwithiel, S. Nighton, or Niot. Fala riuer,
Grampord, Tregny. Loo riuer, Helston. On the North coast, vpon
Camel, Wade, Dilland & Helland. Vpon Deuon, Trywartheuy, &c. for
they are worth no curious enquiry.

For maintenance of traffike by buying and selling, there are weekely markets kept: In the Hundred of East, at Saltash, Launceston, and Milbrook. In west H. at Loo, and Liskerd. In Stratton H. at the Towne of the same name. In Lesnewith H. at Bottreaux Castle, and Camelford. In Powder H. at Foy, Lostwithiel, Grampord, Tregny, and Truro. In Trig H. at Bodmin. In Kerier Hun. at Helston, and Perin. And in Penwith Hundred, at Pensants, and at S. Ies. Of these, Bodmyn and Launceston are the greatest: this as placed in the broadest, that in the middle part of the Countie.

Fayres there are many, some of which here ensue.

March 13. at Bodmyn, Helston, S. Michaels mount.
April 24. at Loo.
    25. at S. Columbs, S. Probus.
May 1. at Launceston, Perin.
Iune 11. at Minhinet,
    24. at Launceston, Pelint, Probus, Colombs
Iuly, on S. Margets day, at S. Stephens.
    S. Thomas transl, at Camelford.
    On S. Iames day, at Golsinni, Saltash.
August 1. at S. Germaines.
    On S. Laurence day, at S. Laurence.
    On the Assumption of our Lady, at Lalant,
September, on S. Mathews day, at Liskerd,
    on S. Bartholmews, at Lostwithiel,
    on the Natiuitie of our Lady, at Kellington, S. Marie weeke,
    and Marcasiow.
October, on S. Dionise day, at Treuenna in Tintagel,
Nouember, on S. Katherins day, at S. Thomas.
    On S. Leonards day, at Launceston and Tregny.
December, on S. Nicholas day, at Bodmyn.

And because traffike cannot bee exercised without waights and measures, a word or two of them.

Touching wayghts, the statute 12. H. 7. which made a generall ordinance therein, did specially exempt those appertayning to the cunnage, in Deuon and Cornwall, viz. that they should be priuiledged to continue their former vsage.

In measures the Shire varieth, not only from others, but also in it selfe: for they haue a land-measure, and a water-measure: the water-measure, of things sold at the ships side (as salt and peason) by the Inhabitants, is sixteene gallons the bushell; by strangers, betweene 18. and 24. The land-measure differeth in diuers places, from 18. to 24. gallons the bushell, being least in the East parts, and increasing to the Westwards, where they measure Oates by the hogshead.

The Iustices of peace haue oftentimes indeuoured to reduce this variance to a certaintie of double Winchester: but though they raysed the lower, they cannot abate the higher to this proportion: and yet from the want of this reformation, there ensue many inconueniences; for the Farmer that hath the greatest bushell at the market, maketh a price for the lesser to follow with little, (or at least) no rateable deduction. Besides, they sell at home to their neighbours, the [55] rest of the weeke, by the smaller meafure, as was payd in the market for the bigger.

There are also some Ingrossers, who buy Wheat of the husbandman, after 18. gallons the bushell, and deliuer it to the transporting Marchant, for the same summe, at 16.

So doth their Pearch exceed that of other Countries, which amounteth vnto 18. foote. And it is likewise obserued by strangers, that the Cornish miles are much longer then those about London, if at least the wearinesse of their bodies (after so painefull a iourney) blemish not the coniecture of their mindes. I can impute this generall enlargement of saleable things, to no cause sooner, then the Cornish mans want of vent and money, who therethrough, to equall others in quality of price, is driuen to exceed them in quantitie of measure.

Touching the personall estate of the Cornish Inhabitants, to begin with their name in generall, I learne by master Camden (who, as the Arch-antiquarie Iustus Lipsius testifieth of him, Britanniae nebulas claro ingenij sole illustrauit) that Ptolomey calleth them Damnonii, Strabo Ostidamnii, and Aretemidorus, Cossini.

Touching their particular denominations; where the Saxons haue not intruded their newer vsances, they partake in some sort with their kinsmen the Welsh: for as the Welshmen catalogize ap Rice, ap Griffin, ap Owen, ap Tuder, ap Lewellin, &c. vntill they end in the highest of the stock, whom their memorie can reach vnto: So the Westerne Cornish, by alike, but more compendious maner, intitle one another with his owne & his fathers christen name, and conclude with the place of his dwelling; as Iohn, the sonne of Thomas, dwelling at Pendaruis, is called Iohn Thomas Pendaruis. Rich. his yonger brother is named, Richard Thomas Pendaruis, &c. Through which meanes, diuers Gent. and others haue changed their names, by remoouing their dwellings, as Trengoue to Nance, Bonithon, to Carclew, two brethren of the Thomasses, the one to Carnsew, the other to Rescrowe, and many other.

Most of them begin with Tre, Pol, or Pen, which signifie a Towne, a Top, and a head: whence grew the common by-word.

    By Tre, Pol, and Pen,
    You shall know the Cornishmen.

Neither doe they want some signification, as Godolfin, alias Godolghan, a white Eagle: Chiwarton, the greene Castle on the hill: which Gentlemen giue such Armes; Reskimer, the great Dogges race, who beareth a Wolfe passant. Carnsew, alias, Carndew, a black rock: his house Bokelly, which soundeth the lost Goat: and a Goate he beareth for his coate: Carminow, a little Citie: Cosowarth, the high Groue, &c.

And as the Cornish names hold an affinity with the Welsh, so is their language deduced from the same source, and differeth onely in the dialect. But the Cornish is more easie to bee pronounced, and not so vnpleasing in sound, with throat letters, as the Welsh.

A friend of mine, one master Thomas Williams, discoursed once with mee, that the Cornish tongue was deriued from, or at least had some acquayntance with the Greeke: and besides diuers reasons which hee produced to proue the same, he vouched many wordes of one sence in both; as for example :


Greeke Cornish English

    Teino Tedna Draw
    Mamma Mamm Mother
    Episcopos Escoppe Bishop
    Klyo Klowo Heere
    Didaskein Dathisky To teach
    Kyon Kye Dogge
    Kentron Kentron Spurre
    Methyo Methow Drink
    Scaphe Scapth Boat
    Ronchos Ronche Snorting, &c.

This language is stored with sufficient plenty to expresse the conceits of a good wit, both in prose and rime: yet they can no more giue a Cornish word for Tye, then the Greekes for Ineptus, the French for Stand, the English for Emulus, or the Irish for Knaue.

Others they have not past two or three naturell, but are fayne to borrow of the English: mary, this want is releeuved with a flood of most bitter curses, and spitefull nick-names.

They place the adiective after the substantive, like the Grecians and Latines, as Father ours, March guiddn, horse white, &c.

                         1 2 3 4
In numbring they say, Wonnen, Deaw, Tre, Pidder,
  5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Pimp, Whey, Zith, Eath, Naw, Deag, Ednack, Dowthack,
  13 14 15 16 17 18
Tarnack, Puzwarthack, Punthack, Wheytack, Zitack, Itack,
   19 20 40 100. 1000. 10000.
Naunzack, Eygganz, Deaw Egganz, Cans, Mille, Molla.

Durdatha why, is Good morrow to you.
Trenestatha, Good night.
Fatlugan a why: How do you?
Da durdalathawhy: Wel I thanke you.
Betha why Iawanneck: Be you mery.
Benetugana: Farewell.

A sister, they call Whoore: a whoore, whorra: a priest, coggaz: a partridge, grigear: a Mare, cazock.

Relauta: by my troth.
Warrasay: by my fayth.
Molla tuenda laaz, ten thousand mischiefs in thy guts.
Mille vengeance warna thy, a thousand vengeances take thee.
Pedn ioll, deuils head:
Pedn brauze, great head:
pedn mowzack, stinking head:
and so in Infinitum.

Which termes, notwithstanding thogh they witnes their spite on the one side, yet retayne they as great a proofe of their deuotion on the other: for the Lords Prayer, the Apostles Creed, and the ten commaundements, haue beene used in Cornish beyond all remembrance. But the principall loue and knowledge of this language, liued in Doctor Kennall the Ciuilian, and with him lyeth buryed: for the English speach doth still encroche vpon it, and hath driuen the same into the vttermost skirts of the shire. Most of the Inhabitants can no word of Cornish; but very few are ignorant of the English: and yet some so affect their owne, as to a stranger they will not speake it: for if meeting them by chance, you inquire the way or any such matter, your answere shal be, Meea nauidua cowzasawzneck, I can speake no Saxonage. The English which they speake, is good and pure, as receyuing it from the best hands of their owne Gentry, and the Easterne Marchants: but they disgrace it, in part, with a broad and rude accent, and eclipsing (somewhat like the Somersetshire men) specially in pronouncing the names: as Thomas they call, Tummas & Tubby: Mathew, Mathaw: Nicholas, Nichlaaz: Reginald, Reinol: David, Daaui: Mary, Maari: Frauncis, [57] Frowncis: Iames, Iammez: Walter, Watty: Robert, Dobby: Rafe, Raw: Clemence, Clemmcowe, &c. holding herein a contrary course of extension to the Italians abridgement, who terme Frauncis, Cecco: Dominick, Beco : Lawrence, Renzo: as also to the Turks, who name Constantinople, Stampoli: Adrianople, Adrina: an Olifant, Fil: and the Sicilians, who curtayle Nicholas, to Cola.

Besides these, they haue taken vp certayne peculiar phrases, which require a speciall Dictionarie for their interpretation: of which kinde are,

Tis not 'bezibd' (fortuned) to me: Thou hast no 'road' (ayme), he will never 'scrip' (escape) it, he is nothing 'pridy' (handsome), 'boobish' (lubberly), 'dule' (comfort), 'lidden' (by-word), 'shune' (strange), 'thew' (threaten), 'skew' (shunne), 'hoase' (forbeare).

To reproue one of lazines, they will say, Doest thou make Idle a coate? that is, a coate for idlenes? In coniecturing what number may effect a thing, they adde, or same: as two, or some: ten, or some: twentie, or some: id est, thereabouts.

The other rude termes, wherewith Deuon and Cornish men are often twyted, may plead in their defence, not onely the prescription of antiquitie, but also the title of proprietie, and the benefit of significancy: for most of them take their source from the Saxon, our naturall language, and continue in vse amongst the Dutch: as Nimme commeth of Nimpt: Vang, of Fieng: the one importing a taking by ones selfe: the other by deliuery: both which we now confound. Ich to Ick, Cund to Cundigen, Lading, to Geladen: eruing goods, to Erbnuss. So Thwyting, is properly the cutting of little chippes from a stick. Pilme, the dust which riseth: Brusse, that which lyeth: which termes, as they expresse our meaning more directly, so they want but another Spencer, to make them passable.

The number of Cornish Inhabitants, though it cannot directly bee summed, may yet proportionably be gessed at by the musters taken of the able men (hereafter set downe) which wee will value at a third part of the whole, in ensuing Bodins rate.

But another question falleth sometimes into scanning, namely, whether Cornwall haue heretofore beene better stored with people, then it is now. Some holde the affirmatiue, and vouch to prooue it, the generall decay of Inland townes, where whole streets, besides particular houses, pay tribute to Comdowne Castle, as also the ruines yet resting in the wilde Moores, which testifie a former inhabitance. Others incline againe to the negatiue, alleadging the reasons heretofore touched, in the deare price of farmes or bargaines, by which mine assent is rather swayed: for I suppose that those waste grounds were inhabited, and manured, when the Saxons and Danes continual inuasions draue them to abandon the sea coasts, saue in such townes, as were able to muster, vpon any sodaine occasion, a sufficient number for their owne defence. The residue retired into the heart of the land, where, vpon a longer warning, they might sooner assemble from all sides, to make head, and the enemie in so far a march and retrait, should aduenture a greater hazard to bee distressed by the way. Which policy the French were driuen vnto, in Edward the thirds time, vpon the Englishmens [58] often roades, and the Spaniards make vse of at this day, in their Indies. Touching the decayed Inland townes, they are counteruayled with a surplusage of increase of those on the coast, and the desolate walks in the Mores, haue begotten a seuen-fold race of cotages neere the sea side. And thus much of Cornwall compared with it selfe: now, if you match it with other champion Shires, methinks, I may gather the same to be better inhabited, within a like circuit of miles, because the plenty of hils & valleys, afford a large quantity of ground thereunto. He that cannot conceiue this, may read Polibius in his 9 booke, where it is written, that for this reason, Lacedemon, being but fourty eight furlongs in compasse, contayneth more dwellings then Megalopolis, which extendeth vnto fiftie. My last proofe is grounded on this, that where the most part of the shire is seuered into inclosures, you cannot easily make choyce to stand in any one of them, aboue a quarter of a mile distance from some dwelling house.

After the names, language, and number thus perused, the Cornish peoples disposition & quality of mind and body, as well ancient as present, and then their degrees and recreations, succeed to be surueyed. The first Inhabitants, or Aborigenes, as the Paynims held, resembled those whom our stories affirme Brute to haue found here at his landing, huge of body, rough of liuing, & sauage of conditions, whome an old Poet desciphered in certaine verses, which I receiued of my particular kind friend, and generally well-deseruing Countreyman M. Camden, now Clarentieulx, which he since hath published.

                              —Titanibus ilia,
    Sed paucis famulosa domus, quibus vda ferarum
    Terga dabant vestes, cruor haustus, pocula trunci:
    Antra lares, dumeta thoros, caenacula rupes,
    Praeda cibos, raptus venerem, spectacula caedes,
    Imperium vires, animos furor, impetus arma,
    Mortem pugna, sepulchra rubus, monstrisque gemebat
    Monticolis tellus, sed eorum plurima tractus,
    Pars erat Occidui, terror maiorque premebat,
    Te furor extremum Zephiri Cornubia limen.

Which sound thus in English.

    This was the Titans haunt, but with
      No plenty did abound,
    Whom beasts raw hides for clothing seru'd;
      For drinke, the bleeding wound ;
    Cups, hollow trees; their lodging, dennrs ;
      Their beds, brakes; parlour, rocks;
    Prey, for their food; rauine, for lust;
      Their games, life-reauing knocks.
    Their Empire, force; their courage, rage ;
      A headlong brunt, their armes ;
    Combate, their death; brambles, their graue.
      The earth groan'd at the harmes
    Of these mount-harbour'd monsters : but
      The coast extending West,
    Chiefe foyson had, and dire dismay,
      And forest fury prest
    Thee, Cornwall, that with utmost bound
     Of Zephire art possest.

But afterwards, the Cornishmen, through the conuersation of forraine Marchants trading into their countrey for Tyn, by the testimony of Diodorus Siculus; grew to a larger measure of ciuility, then others their fellow, but more remoted Ilanders. From which ciuility, in the fruitful age of Canonization, they stepped a degree farder to holines, & helped to stuffe the church kalender with diuers Saints, either made or borne Cornish. Such was Keby son to Solomon prince of Cor. such Peran, who if my author


the Legend lye not) after that (like another Iohannes de temporibus) he had liued two hundred yeres with perfect health, tooke his last rest in a Cornish parish, which therethrough he endowed with his name. And such were Dubslane, Machecu, & Manslunum, who (I speake vpon Math. of Westm. credit) forsooke Ireland, thrust themselues to sea, in a Boat made of three Oxe skinnes and a halfe, with seuen daies victuall, and miraculously arriued in Cornwall.

Of Cornishmen, whose industrie in learned knowledges hath recommended their fame to their posterity, these few as yet are onely come to my notice: [1170] Iohn of Cornwall, a student at Rome, and other places in Italy, wrote of the Incarnation of Christ, against Peter Lumbard, and dedicated the same to Pope Alexander the third, by whom he was highly fauoured.

[1201] Simon Thurnay, after he had out-gone all the Oxford schollers in prophane learning (sayth the commendably paynefull Antiquarie, and my kind friend, Master Hooker) passed from thence to Paris, and there so profited in the study of diuinitie, that he attayned the chiefest place amongst the profound Sorbonists. But it was a windy knowledge that thus filled his sayles of glory, which grew at last so to tempest his wittes, as he held Aristotle superior to Moses and Christ, and yet but equall to himselfe. But this extreame surquedry, forfeyted his wittes, so as at last they could not serue him to know any letter in the booke, or to remember ought that he had done.

In King Henry the thirds time, liued Michael of Cornwall, admirable (as those dayes gaue) for his variety of Latine rimes, who maintayned the reputation of his Countrey, against Henry de Abrincis, the Kings Arch-Poet, but somewhat angerly, as it seemeth by these verses against the said de Abrincis:

    Est tibi gamba capri, crus Passeris, & latus Apri,
    Os leporis, catuli nasus, dens & gena muli,
    Frons vetulae, tauri caput, & color vndique Mauri
    His argumentis, quibus est argutia mentis,
    Quod non a Monstro differs, satis hic tibi monstro.

[1292] Walter of Exon, a Franciscane Frier of Carocus in Cornwall, at the request of Baldwin of Exon (de-) formed the Historie of Guy of Warwick.

Godfrey, surnamed of Cornwall, was about that time a cunning
Schoole-man, and Diuinitie Reader in Paris.

[1342] William de Grenefild, from the Deanry of Chichester, stepped to the Chauncellorship of England, and Archbishoprick of York, under K. E. the first.

In Ed, the seconds daies, one Geffrey of Cornwall, is remembred for a writer.

Iohn Treuisa, a Cornishman, liued in R. the 2. raigne, & translated diuers books into English.

King Henry the fift not vnmindfull of the ciuiller Arts amongst his Martiall exployts, founded an Vniversitie at Caen in Normandie, & appointed Michael Tregury of Cornwall, for his rare gifts in learning, to bee Gouernour thereof.

In Henry the sixts time, Iohn Skewish compiled certaine abbridgements of Chronicles, and the warres of Troy.

King Henry the 7. promoted Iohn Arundel for his learning, to the sea of Excester.

Neither is Thomas Triuet to be forgotten, as a writer, [60] though he haue grauen his memory in a fairer letter, by building the costly bridge at Bridge-water, of which sometimes he was Lord.

Within our remembrance Cornwall hath bred or harboured Diuines, graced with the degree Doctorship, Moreman Tremayn, Nichols and Rolls. Bachelers, Medhope, Stowel, Moore, Denis. Of Preachers, the shire holdeth a number, plentifull in regard of other shires, though not competant to the full necessity of their owne, all commendably labouring in their vocation, though not endowed with an equal ability to discharge the same.

In the Ciuil law there liued of late Doctor Kennals, & now doth Doctor Carew, one of the ancientest masters of the Chauncerie; in which calling, after his yonger yeres spent abroad to his benefit, he hath reposed himselfe. Bachelers there are Carnsew, Kete, & Denis. Barristers at the Common law, Chiuerton, Tremayne, Skawn, Michel, Moyle, Courtnay, Tub, Treffry, Sayer. These testifie the honesty of their carriage by the mediocrity of their estate: and (if they will giue me leaue to report a iest) do verify an old Gentlemans prophesie, who said that there stood a man at Polton bridge (the first entrance into Cornwall, as you passe towards Launceston, where the Assizes are holden) with a blacke bill in his hand, ready to knock downe all the great Lawyers, that should offer to plant themselues in that Countie. In earnest, whether it be occasioned through the countries pouerty, or by reason of the far distance thereof from the supremer Courts, or for that the multiplicity of petty ones neere at hand, appertaining to the Dutchy, Stannary, and Franchises, do enable the attourneyes and such like of small reading, to serue the peoples turne, and so curtail the better studied Counsellours profiting; once certayne it is, that few men of Law, haue either in our time, or in that of our forefathers, growne heere to any supereminent height of learning, liuely-hood or authoritie.

Of like fortune, but lesse number are the Phisicions; by how much the fewer, by so much the greater witnesses of the soyles healthfulnes. The most professors of that science in this Country, sauing only one Io. Williams, can better vouch practise for their warrant, then warrant for their practise. Amongst these, I reckon Rawe Clyes a black Smith by his occupation, and furnished with no more learning, then is suteable to such a calling, who yet hath ministred Phisike for many yeeres, with so often successe & general applause, that not only the home-bred multitude beleeueth mightily in him, but euen persons of the better calling, resort to him from remote parts of the realme, to make trial of his cunning, by the hazard of their liues; & sundry, either vpon iust cause, or to cloke their folly, report that they haue reaped their errands end at his hands. But farre more commendable is M. Atwel, sometimes Parson of Caluerly in Deuon, & now of S. Tue in Cornwall. For besides other parts of learning, with which he hath bene seasoned, he is not vnseene in the Theoricks of Phisike, & can out of them readily and probably discourse, touching the nature and accidents of all diseases. Besides, his iudgment in vrines commeth little behind the skilfullest in that profession. Mary his practise is somewhat strange and varying from all others: for though now and then he vse blood-letting, and doe ordinarily minister Manus Christi, and such like cordials, [61] of his owne compounding (a poynt fitting well with my humour, as enabling nature, who best knoweth how to worke) yet mostly for all diseases he prescribeth milk, and very often milk and apples, a course deepely subiect to the exception of the best esteemed Practitioners; and such notwithstanding, as whereby either the vertue of the medicine, or the fortune of the Phisicion, or the credulitie of the Patient, hath recouered sundry out of desperate and forlorne extremities.

This his reputation is of many yeeres standing, and maintayneth it selfe vnimpayred. But the same soareth to an higher pitch, by the helpe of another wing, and that is, his liberalitie. On the poore he bestoweth his paines & charges gratis: of the rich he taketh moderately, but leaues the one halfe behind, in gift amongst the houshould, if he be called abroad to visit any: The rest together with the profits of his benefice (rather charitably accepted then strictly exacted from his Parishioners) he powreth out with both hands in pios vsus, and will hardly suffer a penny to sleepe, but neuer to dwell with him.

Few Townes there are in Cornwall, or any other shire between that and London, which haue not in some large measure tasted of his bountie. None commeth in kindnes to see him, but departed gratifyed with somewhat, if his modestie will accept it. Briefly, his sound affection in religion, is so wayted on by honesty of life, and pleasantnesse of conuersation, that in Fabritius his voluntary pouertie, he is an equall partner of his honour, and possesseth a large interest in the loue of his neighbours. My loue to vertue, and not any particular beholdingnes, hath expressed this my testimony.

For persons imployed in state affaires, and there-through stept to preferment, that I may not outstride late remembrance, Sir Richard Edgecumb the elder, was Comptroller of the houshold, and priuie Counseller to King Henry the seuenth, being sent by him also in diuers Ambassades, in one of which to the Duke of Britaine he deceased.

King Henry the eight made like vse in this last kind, of
Iohn Tregonwel, who graduated a Doctor, and dubbed a Knight, did his
Prince good seruice, and left faire reuenewes to his posterity.

Sir Thomas Arundel, a younger brother of Lanhearn house, maried the sister to Queene Katherine Howard, & in Edward the 6. time was made a priuie Counseller: but cleauing to the Duke of Somerset, he lost his head with him.

Sir Henry Killigrew, after Ambassades and messages, and many other employments of peace and warre, in his Princes seruice, to the good of his Countrey, hath made choyce of a retyred estate, and reuerently regarded by all sorts, placeth his principall contentment in himselfe, which, to a life so well acted, can no way bee wanting.

Master George Carew, in his yonger yeeres gathered such fruit, as the Vniuersitie, the Innes of Court, and forrayne trauell could yeeld him: vpon his returne, he was first called to the Barre; then supplyed the place of Secretarie to the Lord Chauncellour Hatton; and after his decease, performed the like office to his two successours, by speciall recommendation from her Maiestie, who also gaue him the Prothonotaryship of the Chauncery, and in anno, 1598. sent him Ambassadour [62] to the King of Poland, and other Nothern Potentates' where, through vnexpected accidents, he vnderwent extraordinary perils, but God freed him from them, & he performed his duty in acceptable maner, and at this present the common wealth vseth his seruice, as a Master of the Chauncery.

Cornwall, no doubt, hath affoorded a far larger proportion of well deseruing and employed members, to the good of their Prince and Countrey, albeit they fall not within the compasse of my knowledge, &. it is likely that the succeeding age wil much encrease the number, by meanes of her Highnes bounty, who to that end hath established seed-plots of free Schooles, with competent pentions out of her owne cofers, for the teachers at Saltash, Launceston, and Perin, three market townes of the County.

In descending to martiall men, Arthur claimeth the first mention, a Cornishman by birth, a King of Britaine by succession, & the second of the three Christian worthies by desert: whom (if you so please) that Captayne of Armes and Venery, Sir Tristram, shall accompany. From them, I must make a great leap (which conuinceth me an vnworthy associat of the antiquary Colledge) to Sir Iohn Naphant who (if I mistake not) was by country a Cornish man, though by inhabitance a Calisian, where H. 7. vsed his seruice in great trust; and Cardinal Wolsey owned him for his first master. More assured I am, that Sir Iohn Arundell of Trerne, vpon a long fight at sea, took prisoner one Duncane Camel, a hardy Scottish Pirate, and presented him to K. H. the 8: for our Chronicles report it. Towards the end of that Kings raine, Sir Wil. Godolphin also demeaned himselfe very valiantly in a charge which hee bare beyond the seas, as appeared by the skarres hee brought home, no lesse to the beautifying of his fame, then the disfiguring of his face: Whose Nephew, of the same name and dignity, hath so inriched himselfe with sufficiency for matters of policy, by his long trauell, & for martial affaires, by his present valiant cariage in Ireland, that it is better knowne, how far he outgoeth most others in both, then easily to be discerned for which he deserueth principall commendation himselfe. So did Sir Rich. Greinuile the elder enterlace his home Magistracy, with martiall employments abroad: whereof the K. testifyed his good liking by his liberality. Which domestical example, encouraged his sonne Roger the more hardily to hazard, & the more willingly to resign his life in the vnfortunate Mary Rose. A disposition & successe equally fatall to that house: for his sonne againe, the second Sir Ric. after his trauell and following the warres vnder the Emperour Maximilian, against the great Turke, for which his name is recorded by sundry forrain writers and his vndertaking to people Virginia and Ireland, made so glorious a conclusion in her Maiesties ship the Reuenge (of which he had charge, as Captaine, & of the whole fleet as Vice-admirall) that it seemed thereby, when he found none other to compare withall in his life, he striued through a vertuous enuy to exceed it in his death. A victorious losse for the realme; and of which the Spaniard may say with Pirrhus, that many such conquests would beget his vtter ouerthrow. Lastly, his son Iohn took hold of euery martiall occasion that was ministred him, vntill, in seruice against her Highnesse enemies, vnder the command of Sir Walter Ralegh, the Ocean became his bedde of honour. Neither may I without wrong passe ouer Captaine George Wray in silence, who (by a rare temperature of vertues) breathed courage into his soldiers, purchased loue amongst his acquaintance, and bred dismay in his enemies. Or captaine Hender, the absolutest man of war for precise obseruing martiall rules which his dayes afforded, besides his commendable sufficiencie of head and hand for inuention and execution. I will end with master William Lower, late captaine of Sir Frauncis Veres companie in Netherland, who hath opened the war schoole vnto a great many Cornish young gentlemen, that vnder his conduct sought to conforme themselues to his patterne, euerie way accomplished, with all the due parts of honour.

For Mechanical sciences the old Veale of Bodmyn might iustly expostulate with my silence, if I should not spare him a roome in his Suruey, while hee so well deserues it. This man hath beene so beholden to Mercuryes predominant strength in his natiuitie, that without a teacher hee is become very skilfull in welneere all manner of handy-crafts: a Carpenter, a Ioyner, a Milwright, a free-Mason, a Clockmaker, a Caruer, mettall founder, Architect, & quid non? yea a Surgeon, Phisicion, Alchumist, &c. So as that which Gorgias of Leontium vaunted of the liberall sciences, he may professe of the mechanicall, viz. to be ignorant in none.

The Cornish minds thus qualified, are the better enabled to expresse the same by the strong, actiue, &c healthfull constitution of their bodies; touching each whereof a little in particular, though we shall haue a fitter generall occasion to discourse therof, where we handle their passetimes. For strength, one Iohn Bray (well knowne to me as my tenant) carried vpon his backe, at one time, by the space welneere of a Butte length, sixe bushels of wheaten meale, reckoning fifteen gallons to the bushel, and the Miller a lubber of foure and twenty yeres age, vpon the whole.

Iohn Romane, a short clownish grub, would beare the whole carkase of an Oxe, and yet neuer tugged with him, like that so famous Milo, when hee was a Calfe.

For activity, one Kiltor, committed to Launceston Gayle for the last Cornish commotion, laying there in the castle-greene vpon his back, threw a stone of some pounds wayght, ouer that Towres top, which leadeth into the parke.

For health, 80. & 90. yeres age, is ordinary in euery place, and in most persons, accompanied with an able vse of the body & his sences. One Polzew, lately liuing, reached vnto 130, a kinsman of his, to 112. one Beauchamp to 106. yea Brawne the begger, a Cornishman by wandring (for I cannot say, by inhabitance) though Irish by birth, out-scoreth a hundred winters, by I wote not how many reuolutions. And in the parish where God hath seated my poore dwelling, I remember the decease of foure, within 14. weekes space, whose yeres added together, made vp the summe of 340.

Now to the degrees of their seuerall callings, wherein as I will poast ouer the Dukes to another place, so for Noblemen, I may deliuer in a word, that Cornwall at this present enioyeth the residence of none at al. The occasion whereof groweth, partly, because their issue female haue caried away the Inhabitance, together with the Inheritance, to Gentlemen of the Easterne parts: and partly, for that their issue male, little affecting [64] so remote a corner, liked better to transplant their possessions neerer to the heart of the Realme. Elder times were not so barraine: for besides the Lord Tregoyes in Wil. Conquerours dayes, Bottraux Castle vaunted his Baron of that title; both now descended to the Earles of Huntingdon: the last deceased of which, retayning the honour, departed with the land to my kinde friend master Iohn Hender, a Gentleman for his good parts, employed by her Maiestie amongst others, in the peace gouernment of the shire.

The Lord Bonuile his house was at Trelawne, alias, Trelawney, lately purchased of her Highnes, by Sir Ionathan Trelawny, a Knight well spoken, stayed in his cariage, and of thrifty prouidence.

The Lord Bray dwelt at [blank]: the Lord Brooke, at Kellington, where one of them hath his tombe: the Lord Marney at Colquite: and the Lord Denham at Cardenham.

Boconnock also appertained to the Earles of Deuon, and was by Frauncis Earle of Bedford, solde to Sir William Mohun, who deriued his pedigree from the ancient Barons of that name, and is also issued from one of those Earles of Deuons sisters and heyres. This together with other fayre possessions, now resteth in Sir Reignald Mohun his sonne, one that by his courteous,iust, and liberall course of life, maintayneth the reputation, and encreaseth the loue alwayes borne his ancestours.

The most Cornish Gentlemen can better vaunt of their pedigree, then their liuelyhood: for that, they deriue from great antiquitie, (and I make question, whether any shire in England, of but equall quantitie, can muster a like number of faire coate-Armours) whereas this declineth to the meane. One cause there is of both proceeding from the want of those supplies, which seruice, law and marchandise, afford the more inward Inhabitants of the Realme, as I haue elsewhere touched: yet this rule is not so generall, but that it admitteth his exceptions: for there are diuers, whose patrimonies extend to a large proportion; & for the residue, the cheapnes of their prouisions, and their casualties of Tyn, and fines (which 2. later ordinarily treble the certaine reuennue of their rents) enable them with their few scores, to equall the expences of those Easterne dwellers, who reckon by the hundreds: besides, they finde meanes by a suruey, to defray any extraordinarie charge of building, marriage, lawing, or such like. Yet I cannot denie, but that some, in gaping for dead mens shooes, find their improuident couetous humour punished with going barefoot.

This angle which so shutteth them in, hath wrought many interchangeable matches with eche others stock, and giuen beginning to the prouerbe, that all Cornish gentlemen are cousins; which endeth in an injurious consequence, that the king hath there no cousins. They keepe liberall, but not costly builded or furnished houses, giue kind entertainement to strangers, make euen at the yeeres end with the profits of their liuing, are reuerenced and beloued of their neighbours, liue void of factions amongst themselues (at leastwise such as breake out into anie daungerous excesse) and delight not in brauerie of apparrell: yet the women would be verie loth to come behind the fashion, in [65] newfanglednes of the maner, if not in costlynes of the matter, which may perhaps ouer-empty their husbands purses. They conuerse familiarly together, & often visit one another. A Gentleman and his wife will ride to make mery with his next neighbour; and after a day or twayne, those two couples goe to a third: in which progresse they encrease like snowballs, till through their burdensome waight they breake againe.

And heere I thought requisite, to lay downe the names of such Cornish gentlemen, as I find recorded to haue come in with the Conquerour.

          Gentlemen descended from those, who came
          in with the Conquerour, and now resi-
                   ding in Cornwall.

Arundell. Greinuile.

    Basset. Karrow, alias, Carew.
    Bluat, alias, Bluet.
    Beauchamp. Mowne, alias, Mohun.
    Bray. Malet.
    Bellet. Miners.
    Barret. Pomeray.

    Courtenay. Rouse.
    Chaumont, alias, Chamond.
                                Samtalbin, alias, Semtabyn.
    Denis. Saulay, alias, Saule.

If the variety of Armes disclaime from any of these names, I will not stand vpon a stiffe iustification: and yet it is to bee noted, that diuers Cornish Gentlemen, borne yonger brothers, and aduanced by match, haue left their owne coats, & honoured those of their wiues with the first quarter of their shields. Which error their posteritie likewise ensued, as also, that before these later petty differences grew in vogue, the Armes of one stocke were greatly diuersified in the younger braunches.

I had also made a more paynful, then perfect collection of most of the Cornish Gentlemens names & Armes: But because the publishing thereof might perhaps goe accompanied with diuers wrongs, to my much reuerenced friends the Heralds, by thrusting my sickle into their haruest; to a great many my Countrymen, whom my want of information should be forced to passe ouer vnmentioned; and to the truth it selfe, where my report (relying vpon other mens credits) might through their errour intitle me the publisher (though not the author) of falshood: I rather thought fit altogether to omit it, and to note onely, that of diuers Gentlemen there haue bene in Cornwall, either their names are worne out, or their liuings transferred by the females, into other families: as likewise, sundry of those there now inhabiting, are lately denized Cornish, being generally drawne thither (besides other more priuate respects) through eyther the desire of change, which the disease of discontent affecteth, or the loue of quiet in so remote a corner, or the supposall of commodities there arising, and accruing, or the warrantize from ouerlooking & bearing, where little difference in quality tendeth to an [66] equality in estates.

From Gentility, we wil descend to ciuility, which is or should be in the townesmen. Those in Cornwall do no more by nature, then others elsewhere by choyce, conceiue themselves an estranged society from the vpland dwellers, and cary, I will not say a malice, but an emulation against them, as if one member in a body could continue his wel-being without a beholdingnes to the rest. Their chiefest trade consisteth in vttering their petty marchandises, & Artificers labours at the weekly markets. Very few among them make vse of that oportunity, which the scite vpon the sea proffereth vnto many, for building of shipping, and traffiking in grosse: yet some of the Easterne townes piddle that way, & some others giue themselues to fishing voyages, both which (when need requireth) furnish her Maiesties nauy with good store of very seruiceable Mariners.

There are (if they be not slaundered) that hunt after a more easie then commendable profit, with little hazard, and (I would I could not say) with lesse conscience. Anno 32. H. 8. an act of Parliament was made for repayring, amongst others, the Borough townes of Launceston, Liskerd, Lostwithiel, Bodmyn, Truro, and Helston in Cornwall, but with what fruit to their good, I cannot relate.

Within late yeeres memorie, the sea-coast Townes begin to proclaime their bettering in wealth, by costly encrease of buildings; but those of the Inland, for the most part, vouch their ruined houses, and abandoned streets, as too true an euidence, that they are admitted no partners in this amendment. If I mistake not the cause, I may with charitie inough wish them still the same fortune: for as is elsewhere touched, I conceyue their former large peopling, to haue bin an effect of the countries impouerishing, while the inuasion of forraine enemies draue the Sea-coast Inhabitants to seeke a more safe, then commodious abode in those Inland parts.

Strangers occasioned to trauaile through the shire, were wont, no lesse sharply then truly, to inueigh against the bad drinke, course lodging, and slacke attendance which they found in thosehouses that went for Innes: neither did their horses better entertainment, proue them any welcomer ghests then their masters: but in stead of remedy, they receyued in answere, that neither such an outcorner was frequented with many wayfarers, nor by hanging out signes, or forestalling at the Townes end, like the Italians, did they inuite any; and to make great prouision vpon small hope of vtterance, were to incurre a skorne-worthy losse, seeing Aspettare, & non venire (saith the same Italian) is one of the tre cose da morire.

Touching the Yeomanarie of Cornwall, I can say little, worth the observing, for any difference from that of other shires, and therefore I will step downe the next staire to husbandmen.

These in times not past the remembrance of some yet liuing, rubbed forth their estate in the poorest plight, their grounds lay all in common, or onely diuided by stitch-meale: little bread-corne: their drinke, water, or at best, but whey: for the richest Farmour in a parish brewed not aboue twyce a yeere, and then, God wotte what liquor: their meat, Whitsull, as they call it, namely, milke, sowre milke, cheese, curds, [67] butter, and such like as came from the cow and ewe, who were tyed by the one legge at pasture: their apparell, course in matter, ill shapen in maner: their legges and feet naked and bare, to which sundrie old folke had so accustomed their youth, that they could hardly abide to weare any shooes; complayning how it kept them ouer hote. Their horses shod onlie before, and for all furniture a pad and halter, on which the meaner countrie wenches of the westerne parts doe yet ride astride, as all other English folke vsed before R. the 2. wife brought in the side saddle fashion of straw.

Suteable hereunto was their dwelling, & to that their implements of houshold: walles of earth, low thatched roofes, few partitions, no planchings or glasse windows, and scarcely any chimnies, other then a hole in the wall to let out the smoke: their bed, straw and a blanket: as for sheets, so much linen cloth had not yet stepped ouer the narrow channell, betweene them and Brittaine. To conclude, a mazer and a panne or two, comprised all their substance: but now most of these fashions are vniuersally banished, and the Cornish husbandman conformeth himself with a better supplied ciuilitie to the Easterne patterne, which hath directed him a more thriuing forme of husbandrie; and our halcion dayes of peace enabled him to applie the lesson: so as, his fine once ouercome, he can maintaine himselfe & his familie in a competent decencie to their calling, and findeth monie to bestow weekely at the markets, for his prouisions of necessitie and pleasure: for his quarterlie rent serueth rather as a token of subiection to his Land-lord, then any grieuous exaction on his tenement.

One point of their former roughnesse, some of the Westerne people do yet still retaine, & therethrough in some measure, verifie that testimonie which Mathew Westm. giueth of them, together with the Welsh, their auncient countrimen: namely, how fostering a fresh memorie of their expulsion long agoe by the English, they second the same with a bitter repining at their fellowship: and this the worst sort expresse, in combining against, and working them all the shrewd turnes which with hope of impunitie they can deuise: howbeit, it shooteth not to a like extremitie in all places and persons, but rather by little and little, weareth out vnto a more milde and conuersable fashion. Amongst themselues they agree well, and companie louingly together: to their gentlemen they carrie a verie dutifull regard, as enured in their obeysance from their ancestors, and holding them as Roytelets, because they know no greater. Onelie it might be wished, that diuers amongst them had lesse spleene to attempt law-suits, for pettie supposed wrongs, or not so much subtiltie and stiffenesse to prosecute them: so should their purses be heauier, and their consciences lighter: a reporter must auerre no falshood, nor conceale any truth.

We must also spare a roome in this Suruey, to the poore, of whom few Shires can shew more, or owne fewer then Cornwall. Ireland prescribeth to be the nurserie, which sendeth ouer yeerely, yea and dayly whole Ship-loades of these crooked slips, and the dishabited townes afford them rooting: so vpon the matter, the whole County maketh a contribution, to pay those Lords their rent. Manie good Statutes haue beene enacted for redresse of these abuses, and vpon the first publishing, heedfully and diligently put in practise: but [68] after the nine dayes wonder expired, the law is forgotten, the care abandoned, and those vermine swarme againe in euerie corner: yet those peeuish charitable cannot be ignorant, that herethrough, to the high offence of God and good order, they maintaine idlenes, drunkennesse, theft, lecherie, blasphemie, Atheisme, and in a word, all impietie: for a worse kind of people then these vagabonds, the realme is not pestered withal: what they consume in a day, wil suffice to releeue an honest poore parishioner for a week, of whose work you may also make some vse: their staruing is not to be feared, for they may be prouided for at home, if they list: no almes therefore should be cast away upon them, to the robberie of the needy impotent; but money least of all: for in giuing him siluer, you do him wrong, by changing his vocation, while you metamorphize him from a begger to a buyer. Lacks he meat, drinke, or apparrell? (and nothing els he ought to be owner of) he must procure them of the worst by free gift, and not make choice, for a iust price, of the best. Well, though the rogue laugh you to scorne at night, the alewife hath reason the next day to pray for you.

Surely we finde by experience, that this so hainous an enormitie may be both easily and quickly reformed: for let the Constables execute upon the rogues that last most beneficiall Act of Parliament, with due seueritie for one weeke, and the terror thereof will free the parish for a month: vse it a month, and you are acquited for the whole yere. If the Constables persift in their remisnesse, let the Iustices lay the penalty vpon them, and they will no longer hoodwinke themselues at their neighbours faults. Let the neighbour be so pinched by the purse, but once or twise, and he will become a great deale the more sensible to season his charity with discretion for a long time after.

Vpon the first statute, there was a house of correction erected at Bodmin, to the great charge, but little benefit of the Countrey. Which experience lessoneth them to illude this later, by appoynting certaine cotagers houses in euery parish to serue, nomine tenus, for that purpose.

Lazer-houses, the deuotion of certaine Cornish Gentlemens ancesters erected at Minhinet, by Liskerd, S. Thomas by Launceston, and S. Laurence by Bodmyn: of which, this last is well endowed & gouerned. Concerning the other, I haue little to say, vnlesse I should eccho some of their complaints, that they are defrauded of their right. The much eating of fish, especially newly taken, and therein principally of the liuers, is reckoned a great breeder of those contagious humours, which turne into Leprosie: but whence soeuer the cause proceedeth, dayly euents minister often pittifull spectacles to the Cornishmens eyes, of people visited with this affliction; some being authours of their owne calamity by the forementioned diet, and some others succeeding therein to an haereditarius morbus of their ancestors: whom we will leaue to the poorest comfort in miserie, a helplesse pittie.

But let me lead you from these vnpleasing matters, to refresh yourselues with taking view of the Cornishmens recreations, which consist principally in feastes and pastimes.

Their feasts are commonly haruest dinners, Church-ales, and the solemnizing of their parish Churches dedication, which they terme their Saints feast.


The haruest dinners are held by euery wealthy man, or as wee terme it, euery good liuer, betweene Michaelmas and Candlemas, whereto he inuiteth his next neighbours and kinred, and though it beare onely the name of a dinner, yet the ghests take their supper also with them, and consume a great part of the night after in Christmas rule: neither doth the good cheere wholly expire (though it somewhat decrease) but with the end of the weeke.

For the Church-ale, two young men of the parish are yerely chosen by their last foregoers, to be Wardens, who deuiding the task, make collection among the parishioners, of whatsoeuer prouision it pleaseth them voluntarily to bestow. This they imploy in brewing, baking, & other acates, against Whitsontide; vpon which Holydayes, the neighbours meet at the Church-house, and there merily feed on their owne victuals, contributing some petty portion to the stock, which by many smalls, groweth to a meetly greatnes: for there is entertayned a kinde of emulation betweene these Wardens, who by his graciousnes in gathering, and good husbandry in expending, can best aduauce the Churches profit. Besides, the neighbour parishes, at those times louingly visit one another, and this way frankely spend their money together. The afternoones are consumed in such exercises, as olde and yong folke (hauing leysure) doe accustomably weare out the time withall.

When the feast is ended, the Wardens yeeld in their account to the Parishioners, and such money as exceedeth the disbursments, is layd vp in store, to defray any extraordinary charges arising in the parish, or imposed on them for the good of the Countrey, or the Princes seruice. Neither of which commonly gripe so much, but that somewhat stil remayneth to couer the purses bottome.

The Saints feast is kept vpon the dedication day, by euery housholder of the parish, within his owne dores, each entertayning such forrayne acquaintance, as will not fayle when their like turne cometh about, to requite him with the like kindnes.

Of late times, many Ministers haue by their ernest inuectiues, both condemned these Saints feasts as superstitious, and suppressed the Church-ales, as licencious: concerning which, let it breed none offence, for me to report a conference that I had not long since, with a neere friend, who (as I conceiue) looked hereinto with an indifferent and vnpreiudicating eye. I do reuerence (sayd he) the calling and iudgement of the Ministers, especially when most of them concurre in one opinion, and that the matter controuersed, holdeth some affinity with their profession. Howbeit, I doubt, least in their exclayming or declayming against Church-ales and Saints feasts, their ringleaders did onely regard the rinde, and not perce into the pith, and that the rest were chiefly swayed by their example: euen as the vulgar, rather stouped to the wayght of their authoritie, then became perswaded by the force of their reasons. And first touching Church-ales, these be mine assertions, if not my proofes: Of things induced by our forefathers, some were instituted to a good vse, and peruerted to a bad: againe, some were both naught in the inuention, and so continued in the practise. Now that Church-ales ought to bee sorted in the better ranke of these twaine, maybe gathered from their causes and [70] effects, which I thus rasse vp together: entertaining of Christian loue, conforming of mens behauiour to a ciuill conuersation, compounding of controuersies, appealing of quarrels, raising a store, which might be concerted partly to good and godly vses, as releeuing all sorts of poore people, repairing of Churches, building of bridges, amending of high wayes; and partly for the Princes seruice, by defraying at an instant, such rates and taxes as the magistrate imposeth for the Countries defence. Briefly, they tende to an instructing of the minde by amiable conference, and an enabling of the body by commendable exercises. But I fearing lest my friend would runne himselfe out of breath, in this volubilitie of praising, stept athwart him with these obiections: That hee must pardon my dissenting from his opinion, touching the goodnesse of the institution: for taken at best, it could not be martialled with the sacred matters, but rather with the ciuill, if not with the profane; that the very title of ale was somewhat nasty, and the thing it selfe had beene corrupted with such a multitude of abuses, to wit, idlenes, drunkennesse, lasciuiousnes, vaine disports of ministrelsie, dauncing, and disorderly night-watchings, that the best curing was to cut it cleane away. As for his fore-remembred good causes and effects, I sawe not, but that if the peoples mindes were guided by the true leuell of christian charity & duetie, such necessary and profitable contributions might stil be continued gratis, & the country eased of that charge to their purse and conscience, which ensueth this gourmandise. His reply was, that if this ordinance could not reach vnto that sanctity which dependeth on the first table, yet it succeeded the same in the next degree, as appertayning to the second. Mine exception against the title, he mockingly matched with their scrupulous precisenes, who (forsooth) would not say Christmas, nor Michaelmas, as other folk did; but Christs tide, and Michaels tide: who (quoth he) by like consequence must also bind themselues to say, Toms tide, Lams tide, and Candles tide. But if the name of ale relish so ill, whereas the licour itselfe is the English mans ancientest and wholesomest drinke, and serueth many for meate and cloth too; he was contented I should call it Church beere, or Church wine, or what else I listed: mary, for his part hee would loqui cum vulgo, though hee studied sentire cum sapientibus. Where I affirmed, that the people might by other meanes be trayned with an equall largesse to semblable workes of charitie, he suspected lest I did not enter into a through consideration of their nature and qualitie, which he had obserued to be this: that they would sooner depart with 12. pennyworth of ware, then sixepence in coyne, and this shilling they would willingly double, so they might share but some pittance thereof againe. Now in such indifferent matters, to serue their humours, for working them to a good purpose, could breed no maner of scandall. As for the argument of abuse, which I so largely dilated, that should rather conclude a reformation of the fault, then an abrogation of the fact.

For to prosecute your owne Metaphore (quoth hee) surely I holde him for a sory Surgeon, that cannot skill to salue a sore, but by taking away the lymme, and little better then the Phisicion, who, to helpe the disease, will reaue the life of his Patient from him. Abuses, doubtlesse, great and many [71] haue, by successe of time, crept hereinto, as into what other almost, diuine, or ciuill, doe they not? and yet in these publike meetings, they are so presented to euery mans sight, as shame somewhat restrayneth the excesse, and they may much the sooner bee both espied and redressed. If you thinke I goe about to defend Church-ales, with all their faults, you wrong your iudgement, & your iudgement wrongeth mee. I would rather (as a Burgesse of this ale-parliament) enact certaine lawes, by which such assemblies should be gouerned: namely, that the drinke should neither be too strong in taste, nor too often tasted: that the ghests should be enterlarded, after the Persian custome, by ages, yong and old, distinguished by degrees of the better and meaner: and seuered into sexes, the men from the women: that the meats should be sawced with pleasant, but honest talke: that their songs should be of their auncestours honourable actions: the principall time of the morning, I would haue hallowed to Gods seruice: the after-noones applied to manlike actiuities: and yet I would not altogether barre sober and open dauncing, vntill it were first thoroughly banished from mariages, Christmas reuels, and (our Countries patterne) the court: all which should be concluded, with a reasonable and seasonable portion of the night: and so (sayd hee) will I conclude this part of my speech, with adding onely one word more for my better iustification: that in defending feasts, I maintayne neither Paradox, nor conceite in nubibus, but a matter practised amongst vs from our eldest auncestours, with profitable and well pleasing fruit, and not onely by our nation, but, both in former ages, by the best and strictest disciplined common wealth of the Lacedemonians, who had their ordinary Sissitia, and now in our dayes, as well by the reformed, as Catholike Switzers, who place therein a principal Arcanum imperij.

Now touching the Saints feasts, if you taynt them with suspect: of superstition, because they are held vpon those Saints daies, by whose names the parish Churches are stiled, I will ward that blow with the shield of Arch-Saint Austines authoritie, who in his 8. booke of Gods Citie, and 27. Chap. in the like case, iustifieth a lesse allowable practise of the primitiue Christians. Summa, he closed his discourse with this protection, that hee appealed not from, but to the honourably respected censure of the reuerend Ministery, desiring his speach might receiue, not the allowance of a position, but the licence of a proposition: which my friends modest submission, I could not but embrace my selfe, and recommend it ouer to your fauourable acceptation.

My last note touching these feasts, tendeth to a commendation of the ghests, who (though rude in their other fashions) may for their discreete Judgement in precedence, and preseance, read a lesson to our ciuilest gentry. Amongst them, at such publike meetings, not wealth but age is most regarded: so as (saue in a verie notorious disproportion of estates) the younger rich reckoneth it a shame sooner then a grace, to step or sit before the elder honest, and rather expecteth his turne for the best roome, by succession, then intrudeth thereto by anticipation.

Pastimes to delight the minde, the Cornish men haue Guary miracles, and three mens songs: and for exercise of the body, Hunting, Hawking, Shooting, Wrastling, [72] Hurling, and such other games.

The Guary miracle, in English, a miracle-play, is a kinde of Enterlude, compiled in Cornish out of some scripture history, with that grossenes, which accompanied the Romanes vetus Comedia. For representing it, they raise an earthen Amphitheatre, in some open field, hauing the Diameter of his enclosed playne some 40. or 50. foot. The Country people flock from all sides, many miles off, to hear and see it: for they haue therein, deuils and deuices, to delight as well the eye as the eare: the players conne not their parts without booke, but are prompted by one called the Ordinary, who followeth at their back with the booke in his hand, and telleth them softly what they must pronounce aloud. Which maner once gaue occasion to a pleasant conceyted gentleman, of practising a mery pranke: for he vndertaking (perhaps of set purpose) an Actors roome, was accordingly lessoned (before-hand) by the Ordinary, that he must say after him. His turne came: quoth the Ordinary, Go forth man and shew thy selfe. The gentleman steps out vpon the stage, and like a bad Clarke in scripture matters, cleauing more to the letter then the sense, pronounced those words aloud. Oh (sayes the fellowe softly in his eare) you marre all the play. And with this his passion, the Actor makes the audience in like sort acquainted. Hereon the prompter falles to flat rayling & cursing in the bitterest termes he could deuise: which the Gentleman with a set gesture and countenance still soberly related, vntill the Ordinary, driuen at last into a madde rage, was faine to giue ouer all. Which trousse though it brake off the Enterlude, yet defrauded not the beholders, but dismissed them with a great deale more sport and laughter, then 20. such Guaries could haue affoorded.

They haue also Cornish three mens songs, cunningly contriued for the ditty, and pleasantly for the note.

Amongst bodily pastimes, shooting carrieth the preeminence; to which in mine yonger yeeres I caried such affection, as I induced Archery, perswading others to the like liking, by this ensuing Prosopopeia:

My deare friends, I come to complaine vpon you, but to your selues: to blame you, but for your good: to expostulate with you, but in the way of reconciliation. Alas, what my desert can justify your adandoning my fellowship, & hanging me thus vp, to be smoke-starued ouer your chimnies? I am no stranger vnto you, but by birth, your countrywoman: by dwelling your neighbour: by education, your familiar: neither is my company shamefull; for I hant the light and open fieldes: nor my conuersation dangerous: nay, it shields you from dangers, and those not the least, but of greatest consequence, the dangers of warre. And as in fight I giue you protection, so in peace I supplie you pastime; and both in warre and peace, to your lymmes I yeelde actiue plyantnesse, and to your bodyes healthfull exercise: yea I prouide you food when you are hungrie, and helpe digestion when you are full. Whence then proceedeth this vnkinde and vnusuall strangenesse? Am I heavy for burden? Forsooth, a fewe light stickes of wood. Am I combrous for carriage? I couch a part of my selfe close vnder your girdle, and the other part serueth for a walking-staffe in your hand. Am I vnhandsome in your sight? Euery piece of mee is comely, and the whole keepeth [73] an harmonicall proportion. Lastly, am I costly to bee prouided? or hard to bee maintayned? No, cheapnesse is my purueyour, easinesse my preseruer, neither doe I make you blow away your charges with my breath, or taynt your nose with my sent, nor defile your face and fingers with my colour, like that hellborne murderer, whom you accept before me. I appeale then to your valiant Princes, Edwards, and Henries, to the battayles of Cresey, Poyters, Agincourt, and Floddon, to the regions of Scotland, Fraunce, Spaine, Italy, Cyprus, yea and Iury, to be vmpires of this controuersie: all which (I doubt not) will with their euidence playnely prooue, that when mine aduerse party was yet scarcely borne, or lay in her swathling clouts, through mee onely your auncestours defended their Countrey, vanquished their enemies, succoured their friends, enlarged their Dominions, aduanced their religion, and made their names fearfull to the present age, and their fame euerlasting to those that ensue. Wherefore, my deare friends, seeing I have so substantially euicted the rightof my cause conforme your wils to reason, conforme your reason by practise, and conuert your practise to the good of your selues and your Country. If I be praise-worthy, esteeme me: if necessary, admit me: if profitable, employ me: so shall you reuoke my death to life, and shew your selues no degenerate issue of such honourable Progenitours. And thus much for Archery, whose tale, if it be disordered, you must beare withall, for she is a woman, & her mind is passionate.

And to giue you some taste of the Cornish mens former sufficiency that way: for long shooting, their shaft was a cloth yard, their pricks 24. score: for strength, they would pierce any ordinary armour: and one master Robert Arundell (whom I well knew) could shoot 12. score, with his right hand, with his left, and from behinde his head.

Lastly, for neere and well aimed shooting, Buts made them perfect in the one, and rouing in the othe: for prickes, the first corrupter of Archery, through too much precisenesse, were then scarcely knowne, and little practised. And in particular, I haue heard by credible report of those, who professed and protested themselues to haue bene eye-witnesses, that one Robert Bone of Antony shot at a little bird, sitting upon his cowes back, and killed it, the bird (I meane) not the cowe; which was either very cunning in the performance, or very foolish in the attempt. The first of these somewhat resembled one Menelaus, mentioned by Zosimus, lib. 2. who nocking three arrowes, & shooting them all at once, would strike three seuerall persons, and might haue deserued a double stipend in the graund Signiors gard, where the one halfe of his archers are left-handed, that they may not turne their taile to their Sultan while they draw. The other may in some sort compare with that Auo, reported by Saxo Gramaticus, for so good a markman, as with one arrow he claue the firing of his aduersaries bowe, the second he fixed betweene his fingers, and with the third strooke his shaft which he was nocking: or with that exploit of the fathers piercing an apple on his sonnes head, attributed by the same Saxo, to one Toko a Dane: and by the Switzers histories, to Guillaum Tell, the chiefe occasioner, and part-author of their libertie.


Hurling taketh his denomination from throwing of the ball, and is of two sorts, in the East parts of Cornwall, to goales, and in the West, to the countrey.

For hurling to goales, there are 15. 20. or 30. players more or lesse, chosen out on each side, who strip them- selues into their slightest apparell, and then ioyne hands in ranke one against another. Out of these ranks they match themselues by payres, one embracing another, & so passe away: euery of which couple, are specially to watch one another during the play.

After this, they pitch two bushes in the ground, some eight or ten foote asunder; and directly against them, ten or twelue score off, other twayne in like distance, which they terme their Goales. One of these is appoynted by lots, to the one side, and the other to his aduerse party. There is assigned for their gard, a couple of their best stopping Hurlers; the residue draw into the midst betweene both goales, where some indifferent person throweth vp a ball, the which whosoeuer can catch, and cary through his aduersaries goale, hath wonne the game. But therein consisteth one of Hercules his labours: for he that is once possessed of the ball, hath his contrary mate waiting at inches, and assaying to lay hold vpon him. The other thrusteth him in the breast, with his closed fist, to keepe him off; which they call Butting, and place in weldoing the same, no small poynt of manhood.

If hee escape the first, another taketh him in hand, and so a third, neyther is hee left, vntill hauing met (as the Frenchman sayes) Chausseura son pied, hee eyther touch the ground with some part of his bodie, in wrastling, or cry, Hold; which is the word of yeelding. Then must he cast the ball (named Dealing) to some one of his fellowes, who catching the same in his hand, maketh away withall as before; and if his hap or agility bee so good, as to shake off or outrunne his counter-wayters, at the goale, hee findeth one or two fresh men, readie to receiue and keepe him off. It is therefore a very disaduantageable match, or extraordinary accident, that leeseth many goales: howbeit, that side carryeth away best reputation, which giueth most falles in the hurling, keepeth the ball longest, and presseth his contrary neerest to their owne goale. Sometimes one chosen person on eche party dealeth the ball.

The Hurlers are bound to the obseruation of many lawes, as, that they must hurle man to man, and not two set vpon one man at once: that the Hurler against the ball, must not but, nor hand-fast vnder girdle: that hee who hath the ball, must but onely in the others brest: that he must deale no Fore-ball, viz. he may not throw it to any of his mates, standing neerer the goale, then himselfe. Lastly, in dealing the ball, if any of the other part can catch it flying between, or e're the other haue it fast, he thereby winneth the same to his side, which straightway of defendant becommeth assailant, as the other, of assailant falls to be defendant. The least breach of these lawes, the Hurlers take for a iust cause of going together by the eares, but with their fists onely; neither doth any among them seek reuenge for such wrongs or hurts, but at the like play againe. These hurling matches are mostly vsed at weddings, where commonly the ghests vndertake to encounter all commers.


The hurling to the Countrey, is more diffuse and confuse, as bound to few of these orders: Some two or more Gentlemen doe commonly make this match, appointing that on such a holyday, they will bring to such an indifferent place, two, three, or more parishes of the East or South quarter, to hurle against so many other, of the West or North. Their goales are either those Gentlemens houses, or some townes or villages, three or foure miles asunder, of which either side maketh choice after the neernesse to their dwellings. When they meet, there is neyther comparing of numbers, nor matching of men: but a siluer ball is cast vp, and that company, which can catch, and cary it by force, or sleight, to their place assigned, gaineth the ball and victory. Whosoeuer getteth seizure of this ball, findeth himselfe generally pursued by the aduerse party; neither will they leaue, till (without all respects) he be layd flat on Gods dear earth: which fall once receiued, disableth him from any longer detayning the ball: hee therefore throwet the same (with like hazard of intercepting, as in the other hurling) to some one of his fellowes, fardest before him, who maketh away withall in like maner. Such as see where the ball is played, giue notice thereof to their mates, crying, Ware East, Ware West, &c. as the same is carried.

The Hurlers take their next way ouer hilles, dales, hedges, ditches; yea, and thorow bushes, briers, mires, plashes and riuers whatsoeuer; so as you shall sometimes see 20. or 30. lie tugging together in the water, scrambling and scratching for the ball. A play (verily) both rude & rough, and yet such, as is not destitute of policies, in some sort resembling the feats of warre: for you shall haue companies layd out before, on the one side, to encounter them that come with the ball, and of the other party to succor them, in maner of a fore-ward. Againe, other troups lye houering on the sides, like wings, to helpe or stop their escape: and where the ball it selfe goeth, it resembleth the ioyning of the two mayne battels: the slowest footed who come lagge, supply the showe of a rere-ward: yea, there are horsemen placed also on either party (as it were in ambush) and ready to ride away with the ball, if they can catch it at aduantage. But they may not so steale the palme: for gallop any one of them neuer so fast, yet he shall be surely met at some hedge corner, crosse-lane, bridge, or deep water, which (by casting the Countrie) they know he must needs touch at: and if his good fortune gard him not the better, hee is like to pay the price of his theft, with his owne and his horses ouerthrowe to the ground. Sometimes, the whole company runneth with the ball, seuen or eight miles out of the direct way, which they should keepe. Sometimes a foote-man getting it by stealth, the better to scape vnespied, will carry the same quite backwards, and so, at last, get to the goale by a windlace: which once knowne to be wonne, all that side flocke thither with great iolity: and if the same bee a Gentlemans house, they giue him the ball for a Trophee, and the drinking out of his Beere to boote.

The ball in this play may bee compared to an infernall spirit: for whosoeuer catcheth it, fareth straightwayes like a madde man, strugling and fighting with those that goe about to holde him: and no sooner is the ball gone from him, but hee resigneth this fury to the [76] next recyuer, and himselfe becommeth peaceable as before. I cannot well resolue, whether I should more commend this game for the manhood and exercise, or condemne it for the boysterousnes and harmes which it begetteth: for as on the one side it makes their bodies strong, hard, and nimble, and puts a courage into their hearts, to meet an enemie in the face: so on the other part, it is accompanied with many dangers, some of which do euer fall to the players share. For proofe whereof, when the hurling is ended, you shall see them retyring home, as from a pitched battaile, with bloody pates, bones broken, and out of ioynt, and such bruses as serue to shorten their daies; yet al is good play, & neuer Attourney nor Crowner troubled for the matter.

Wrastling is as full of manlinesse; more delightfull, and lesse dangerous: which pastime, either Cornish men deriued from Corineus, their first pretended founder, or (at least) it ministred some stuffe to the farcing of that fable. But to let that passe, their continual exercise in this play, hath bred them so skilfull an habit, as they presume, that neither the ancient Greek Palestritae, nor the Turks so much delighted Peluianders,not their, once countrymen, and stil neighbours, the Bretons, can bereaue them of this Laurell: and matchlesse, certes, should they be, if their cunning were answerable to their practise: for you shall hardly find an assembly of boyes, in Deuon or Cornwall, where the most vntowardly amongst them, will not as readily giue you a muster of this exercise, as you are prone to require it. For performing this play, the beholders cast themselues in a ring, which they call, Making a place: into the middle space whereof, the two champion wrastlers step forth, stripped into their dublets and hosen, and vntrussed, that they may so the better commaund the vse of their lymmes, and first shaking hands in token of friendship, they fall presently to the effects of anger: for each, striueth how to take hold of other, with his best aduantage, and to beare his aduerse party downe: wherein, whosoeuer ouerthroweth his mate in such sort, as that either his backe, or the one shoulder, and contrary heele do touch the ground, is accounted to giue the fall. If he be endangered, and make a narrow escape, it is called a foyle. This hath also his lawes, of taking hold onely aboue girdle, wearing a girdle to take hold by, playing three pulles, for tryall of the mastery, the fall-giuer to be exempted from playing again with the taker, and bound to answere his successour, &c.

Many sleights and tricks appertaine hereunto, in which, a skilfull weake man wil soone get the ouerhand of one that is strong and ignorant. Such are the Trip, fore-hip, Inturne, the Faulx, forward and backward, the Mare, and diuers other like.

Amongst Cornish wrastlers, now liuing, my friend Iohn Goit may iustly challenge the first place, not by prerogatiue of his seruice in her Maiesties gard; but through hauing answered all challenges in that pastime without blemish. Neither is his commendation bounded within these limits, but his cleane made body and actiue strength, extend (with great agility) to whatsoeuer other exercise, of the arme or legge: besides his abilitie (vpon often tryall) to take charge at Sea, eyther as Master, or Captayne. All which good parts hee graceth with a good fellowlike, kinde, and respectfull carriage.


Siluer prizes for this and other actiuities, were wont to be carried about by certaine Circumforanei, or set vp for Bidales: but time or their abuse hath now worne them out of date and vse.

The last poynt of this first booke, is to plot downe the Cornish gouernment, which offreth a double consideration: the one, as an entire state of it selfe; the other, as a part of the Realme: both which shal be seuerally handled.

Cornwall, as an entire state, hath at diuers times enioyed sundry titles, of a Kingdome, Principality, Duchy, and Earledome; as may appear by these few notes, with which I haue stored my selfe out of our Chronicles.

[Anno mundi 2850.] If there was a Brute King of Brittaine, by the same authority it is to bee proued, that there was likewise a Corineus Duke of Cornwall, whose daughter Gwendolene, Brutes eldest sonne Locrine tooke to wife, and by her had issue Madan, that succeeded his father in the kingdome.

[3105.] Next him, I finde Henninus Duke, who maried Gonorille, one of King Leirs daughters and heires, and on her begat Morgan: but whiles he attempted with his other brother in law, to wrest the kingdome from their wiues father, by force of armes, before the course of nature should cast the same vpon them, Cordeilla, the third disherited sister, brought an armie out of Fraunce to the olde mans succour, and in a pitched battell bereft Henninus of his life.

[3476.] Clotenus King of Cornwall, begat a sonne named Mulmutius Dunwallo, who, when this Iland had beene long distressed with the ciuil warres of petty Kings, reduced the same againe into one peaceable Monarchy.

[3574.] Belinus, brother to that great terror of the Romanes, Brennus, had for his appannage (as the French terme it) Loegria, Wales, and Cornwall.

[3908.] Cassibelane, succeeding his brother Lud in the Kingdome, gaue to his sonne Tennancius, the Duchy of Cornwall.

[Anno Dom. 231.] After this Iland became a parcell of Iulius Caesars conquests, the same rested it selfe, or was rather vexed a long time, vnder the gouernment of such rulers, as the Romanes sent hither. But the Bretons turning, at last, their long patience into a sudden fury, rose in armes, slewe Alectus, the Emperour Dioclesians deputy, and inuested their leader Asclepiodotus Duke of Cornwall, with the possession of the kingdome.

[329.] Conan Meridock, nephew to Octauius, whome the Emperour Constantine appoynted gouernour of this Iland, was Duke of Cornwall.

[351.] At the Sinode of Arles in Fraunce, there was present one Corinius, sonne to Salomon Duke of Cornwall.

[383.] After the abouenamed Octauius his decease, Maximianus, a Romane, who maried his daughter, succeeded him also in gouernment: betweene whome, and the fore-remembred Conan, grew great warres; which concluding at last in a peace, Maxim. passed with an armie into Fraunce, conquered there Armorica (naming it little Brittaine) and gaue the same in fee to Conan; who being once peaceably setled, wrote ouer vnto Dionethus, or Dionotus Duke or King of Cornwall, (as Mathew of West, termeth him) to send him some Maidens, whom he might couple in mariage with his people; whereon S. Vrsula & her companions the 11000. virgins, were shipped, & miscaried, as their wel known hiftory reporteth.

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Nicholas Gille, a French writer, deliuereth (vpon the credit of our British Historians) that about this time, Meroueus, a Paynim king of Fraunce, caused his owne sonne to be throwne into the fire and burned, for that he had slayne the king of Cornwall, as he returned from a feast.

Hee also maketh mention of one Moigne, brother to Aurelius and
Vter-pendragon, Duke of Cornwall, & gouerner of the Realme, vnder
the Emperour Honorius.

[443.] Carodoc Duke of Cornwall was employed (sayth D. Kay) by Octauius, about founding the Vniuersitie of Cambridge.

[500.] And vpon Igerna wife to Gorlois, Duke of Cornwall, Vter begat the worthy Arthur, and a daughter called Amy.

[526.] This Arthur discomfited in fight, one Childerick, a king of the Saxons, and afterwards, vpon certaine couenants, suffred him quietly to depart the Realme. But Childerick violating the word of a king, bound with the solemnity of an othe, inuaded eftsoones the Westerne coasts, harrowing the Country as he passed, vntil Cador, Earle of Cornwall, became Gods Minister, to take vengeance of his periury, by reauing off his life.

That Marke swayed the Cornish septer, you cannot make question, vnlesse you will, withall, shake the irrefragable authoritie of the round tables Romants.

[603.] Blederic Duke of Cornwall, associated with other Welsh kings, darrayned a battel against Ethelferd, king of the Northumbers, & by the valiant forgoing of his life, got his partners the victory.

Iuor, sonne to Alane king of little Brittaine, first wan from the
Saxons, Cornwall, Deuon, and Somerset shires, by force of armes,
and then, taking to wife Ethelburg, cousin to Kentwin, king of
Westsex, enioyed the same by composition.

[720.] Roderic, king of the Bretons in Wales and Cornwall, (vnder whom, Bletius was Prince of this last, and of Deuon) valiantly repulsed Adelred, king of Westsex, what time he assayled him in Cornwall: yet in the end, being ouer-matched in number, and tired with continuall onsets, he was driuen to quit the same, and retire himselfe into Wales.

[866.] Polidor Virgill maketh mention of one Reginaldus Comes Britannorum, in the time of king Etheldred.

[872.] Dungarth king of Corn, by mischance was drowned.

[900.] Alpsius is recorded (about this time) for Duke of Deuon and Cornwall.

[959.] Orgerius Duke of Cornwall, had a daughter named Alfride, the fame of whose beauty, caused King Edgar to send Earle Athelwold, for obtaining her at her fathers hands in mariage. But the Earle with the first sight of this faire Lady, was so besotted in her loue, that preferring the accomplishment of his lust, before the duety of his alleageance, he returnes answer to the King, how the common report far exceeded her priuate worth, which came much short of meriting a partnership in so great a Princes bed: and (not long after) begged and obtayned the Kings good will, to wed her himselfe. But so braue a lustre could not lye long concealed, without shining foorth into Edgars knowledge, who finding the truth of his Ambassadours falshood, tooke Athelwold at an aduantage, slewe him, and maried her, beeing a widdowe, whome hee had wooed a mayde.

[page 79]

Hitherunto, these titles of honour carry a kinde of confusednes, and rather betokened a successiue office, then an established dignity. The following ages receiued a more distinct forme, and left vs a certeyner notice.

[1067.] What time William the bastard subdued this Realme, one Condor possessed the Earledome of Cornwall, and did homage for the same: he had issue another Condor, whose daughter and heire Agnes, was maried to Reignald Earle of Bristowe, base sonne to King Henry the first.

This note I borrowed out of an industrious collection, which setteth downe all the noble mens creations, Armes, and principall descents, in euery Kings dayes since the conquest: but master Camden, our Clarentieulx, nameth him Cadoc, and saith farther, that Robert Morton, brother to William Conquerour, by his mother Herlot, was the first Earle of Norman blood, and that his sonne William succeeded him; who taking part with Duke Robert, against Henry the first, thereby got captiuity, and lost his honour, with which that King inuested the forementioned Reignald. In this variance, it is great reason, that the ballance panche on his side, who hath both authority to establish his assertion, and a rarely approued knowledge, to warrant his authoritie. Hee dying issue-lesse, Richard the first gaue this Earledome to his brother Iohn.

[1257.] Iohns sonne, Henry the third, honoured therewith his brother Richard King of the Romanes, a Prince no lesse plentifully flowing in wealth, then his brother was often driuen to extreame shifts, through needinesse: which made that barbarous age to poetrize,

     Nummus ait pro me, nublt Cornubia Romae.
    Money sayd, that for her sake,
    Rome did Cornwall, to wife take.

He had issue, Henry Earle of Cornwall, who deceased issuelesse: and Edmond, whose daughter and heire Isabell (sayth mine authour) was married to Morice Fitsharding Lord Barckleigh: but others affirme, that this Edmond dyed without issue.

Edward the, second, degenerating in his choyce, created his mynion, Peter Gaueston, a Gascoyne, Earle of this County, whose posterity ended in himselfe, and himself by a violent death.

The last title of this Earldome, expired in Iohn of Eltham, yonger sonne to that King Edward. After which, King Edward the third, by act of Parliament in the 11. yeere of his raigne, erected the same to a Duchy, the first in England, and graced it with his sonne, the blacke Prince: for his heroicall vertues did rather bestow, then receiue estimation from whatsoeuer dignitie. Since which it is successiuely incorporated in the Kings eldest sonne, and hath bene so enioyed, by Richard the second, Henry the fift, Henry the sixt, Edward his sonne, Edward the fift, Edward sonne to Richard the third, Arthure, and Henry, sonnes to Henry the seuenth, and lastly, Edward the sixt: 10. Dukes in the whole.

These Earles and Dukes haue from the beginning, beene priuiledged with royall iurisdiction or Crowne rights, namely, giuing of liberty to send Burgesses to the Parliaments, returne of writs, custome, toll, Mynes, Treasure-trovee, wards, &c. and (to this end) appoynted their speciall officers, as Sheriffe, Admirall, Receyuer, Hauener, Customer, Butler, Searcher, Comptroller, [80] Gaugeor, Excheator, Feodary, Auditor, Clarke of the Market, &c. besides the L. Warden, and those others beforeremembred, whose functions appertayne to the iurisdiction of the Stannary.

To the preseruation of which royalties, our Parliaments haue euer carried a reuerend regard. For by that Act, 17. Edw. 4. which enioyneth forrayne Marchants to bestow such money as they receiue for their wares, in English commodities, or to pay the same vnto Englishmen, the Kings part of all forfeytures within Cornwall, is reserued to the Duke. So doth that, 11. H. 7, concerning the reformation of waights & measures, prouide, that it shall not be hurtful or preiudiciall to the Prince, within the Duchy of Cornwall, nor to any waights of the cunnage: and so doth that 1. H. 8. touching Excheators, exempt that officer in Cornwall. It should seeme, that the first Earles bare a heauy hand in commaund ouer their subiects: for both diuers ancient records (as I haue learned) make mention of tributes, imposed (almost) vpon euery thing of profit; and it may farther be gathered, in that, as well townes, as particular persons, were faine to procure Charters and graunts from them, for corporations, faires, markets, taking or freeing from tolls, mines, fishing, fowling, hawking, hunting, and what not? so as (vpon the matter) the plight of a Cornish Inhabitant and a French pezant did differ very little.

Which bondage, one not long agoe sought in part to reestablish, vnder pretence of receiuing a rent decayed euer since 9. H. 2. and aduancing her Maiesties profit: & to this end procured Letters patents, that none should salt, dry, or pack any fish in Deuon or Cornwall, without his licence and warrant. A matter that would, by consequence, haue made him an absolute disposer of all the Westerne shipping and traffike, and their sea and land dependants.

Few words, but folding vp a multitude of inconueniences to her
Maiestie, & the whole Commonwealth.

Wherefore the Cornish Iustices of the peace, became humble suiters to the Lords of her Highnes priuy Councell, for a necessary and speedy redresse herein: and through the neuer fayling forwardnesse, and backing of Sir Walter Ralegh, obtayned a reuocation. Howbeit, this ill weed, rather cut off by the ground, then plucked vp by the roote, once, yea twice or thrice grew forth againe, but yet, maugre the warmers and waterers, hath by her Maiesties gracious breath beene euer parched vp, and (as is hoped) will neuer shoote out heereafter, at least it shall still finde an vnited resistance, of most earnest suit, and pregnant reasons, to beat it downe.

The Earles had foure houses, builded Castle-wise for their residence, viz. Trematon, Launceston, Restormel, and Liskerd. But since the principality of Wales and this Duchy became united in one person, the larger scope, and greater commaund of that, hath robbed this of his Lords presence, & by consequence, the strength of these Castles could not so gard them, against the battery of time, and neglect, but that, from faire buildings, they fell into foule reparations, and from foule reparations, are now sunke into vtter ruine.

King H. the 8. affecting his honour of Newelm, & respecting the commodities, which Wallingford Castle might afford it, tooke this last by act of Parl. from the Duchy, & in lieu thereof, annexed certain manners lying in Corn.falne [81] to the Crowne, through the Marques of Excesters attainder: which Queene Marie afterwards restored in tayle to his sonne, the Earle of Deuon, and vpon his issueles decease receiued them againe.

It were against duetie to make question, whether in this exchange, the kings meaning went with his pretence; and yet wee finde it an ordinary policy amongst Princes, to send their successours, with a kinde of libera, or honoraria legatio, into the remoter quarters of their dominions, as if they would shunne occasions of ielousie, springing from an ouer-neere neighbourhood.

Howsoeuer, the same King, not long after, passed away, this Castle, vnto Christs Colledge in Oxford, who vse it as a place of retrayt, when the Vniuersitie is visited with any contagious sicknes.

I haue vnderstood, that question is made amongst men of knowledge, what is become of this Duchy. Some holding it altogether extinct, for want of the kings issue male: some auerring, that it is suspended in nubibus (as they say) pro tempore: and some supposing, that it continueth in full power, and that her Maiestie hath onely custodiam ducatus, as of Bishopricks, sede vacante. Penes Iudicem lis sit. Once, euery Sheriffe is summoned to enter his account in the Duchy Exchequer, at Lostwithyel, and from thence, referred ouer to the Exchequer above.

Cornwall considered as a part of the Realme, sorteth her gouernment into two kindes; spirituall, and temporall.

Touching the spirituall: In ancient times this Shire had his particular Bishop: and I find, how in the yeere, 905. Forinosus the Pope sent a sharpe letter to Edward the sonne of Alfride, reproouing him, for suffering the West Saxons to be destitute of Bishops seuen yeeres together. Whereon, by the aduice of his Councell, and Arch-bishop Pleymund, he ordayned seuen bishops in one day; amongst whome Herstane was consecrated to Cornwall, and Eadwolfe to Crediton, which last had three townes in Cornwall, assigned him, to wit, Pontium, Coelling, and Landwhitton, that thence he might yeerely visit the people, to root out (as mine author sayth) their errours: for before, as much as in them lay, they withstood the truth, and obeyed not the Apostolike decrees. Whereon I ground two collections: the first, that the light of the Gospell tooke not his originall shining into these parts, from the Romish Bishop: the other that the Cornish (like their cousins the Welsh] could not bee soone or easily induced to acknowledge his iurisdiction. The Bishops see was formerly at S. Petrocks in Bodmyn; but by reason the Danes burned there his Church and palace, [979.] the same remooued to S. Germanes. After that, Lumigius, from a Monke of Winchester, elected Abbot of Tavistoke, [1031.] and from that Abbey, aduanced to the Bishoprick of Creditune, by his grace with Canutus King of the Angles, obtayned an annexion of Cornwall (lately fallen voyd) and so made one Dioces of that and Deuon, as it hath euer since continued. This Bishoprick had diuers faire houses and large reuenues in Cornwall: but one Veyzy, Bishop of the dioces in King H. the 8. time, coniecturing (as it is conceyued) that the Cathedrall Churches should not long ouer-liue the suppressed Monasteries, made hauock of those liuings before-hand, some by long leasing, and some by flat selling, so as he left a poore remainder to his successours.


It oweth subiection to the Metropolitane of Canterbury, and hath one onely Archdeaconry, which place is now supplied by master Thomas Sumaster, who adorneth the Gentility of his birth, with the honestie of his life, and by both sorts of feeding, approueth himselfe a liberall and commendable pastor.

Certaine Peculiars there are, some appertaining to the dignities of the Cathedrall Church at Exon, to wit, S. Probuss, and S. Peran: and some to priuate persons, as Burien and Temple.

[Anno Mundi 3172.] For religious houses, I read, that in the time of Paganisme, Cunedag builded a Temple in Cornwall to Apollo, but where it stood I know not. Since it made roome to Christianity, my (not ouer-curious) enquiry hath learned out these:

   Pryories, at S. Germaines, Bodmyn, Tywardreth.
   Nunries, at S. Martine.
   Fryeries, at Launceston, Truro, Bodmyn.
   Colledges, at Peryn, Crantock, Buryen.
   Hospitals, at Helston.

Of parishes, the County hath 161. as master Camden noteth, and as others haue, about 180.

Doubtles, the Hierarchy of our English Church, if it were kept fast to his first institution, might with his far better effects, close vp their mouthes, who would thrust vpon vs their often varying discipline. But albeit neither our time can well brooke it, nor the succeeding would long hold it: yet it shal not do much amisse, to look vpon the originall beauty thereof, if (at least) I be able to tricke the same truly out, & doe not blemish it with my pensil.

At the planting of Christian religion, Monasteries & cathedral Churches were likewise founded, which serued for seed plots of the ministery, & sent them abroad in yerely progresses, to labour the Lords vineyard. Afterwards, about the time of our last conquest, the country was sorted by a more orderly maner into parishes, & euery parish committed to a spirituall father, called their Parson, who stept into that roome, not by election (as some imagine) but mostly, by the nomination of him that eyther built the Church, or endowed the same with some liuelyhood, or was L. of the soyle where it stood. As for Vicarages, those daies knew few, for they grew vp in more corrupt ages, by the religious houses encrochments. Besides this Incumbent, euery parish had certaine officers, as Churchwardens, Sidemen, and 8. men, whose duety bound them to see the buildings & ornaments appertaining to Gods seruice, decently maintayned, & good order there reuerently obserued. And lest negligence, ignorance, or partiality, might admit or foist in abuses, & corruption, an Archdeacon was appointed to take account of their doings by an yerely visitation, & they there sworn duly to make it. He & they againe had their Ordinary, the Bishop, euery 3. yere to ouerlook their actions, & to examine, allow, & admit the ministers, as they and the Bishop were semblably subiect to the Metropolitanes suruey euery 7. yere. For warning the Clergy, & imparting their superiours directions, the Curats chose yerely their Deanes rurall. The Bishop, in his cathedrall church, was associated with certaine Prebendaries, some resident, who serued as his ghostly counsel in points of his charge, & others not bound to ordinary residence, who were called to consultation, vpon things of greater consequence: & for matters of principal importance, the Archbishop had his prouincial Sinod, & the whole clergy their national.


Now then, if euery one thus entrusted, would remember that he had a soule to saue or lose, by the well or ill discharging of so waighty a function, and did accordingly from time to time bestowe his requisite endeauour, what the least fault could escape the espiall of so many eyes, or the righting amongst so many hands? But I haue thrust my sickle ouer-farre into anothers haruest: let my mistaking be corrected, and in regard of my good meaning, pardoned.

The Temporal gouernment of Cornwall, shooteth out also into two branches, Martiall, and Ciuill.

For martiall affaires, master Camden noteth out of Iohannes Sarisburiensis, that the Cornish mens valiancy purchased them such reputation amongst our ancestours, as they (together with those of Deuon and Wiltshire) were wont to be entrusted, for the Subsidiary Cohort, or band of supply. An honour equall to the Romanes Triarii, and the shoot-anker of the battell. With which concurreth the ancient, if not authenticall testimony of Michael Cornubiensis, who had good reason to knowe the same, being that Countryman, and more to report it: his verses, for which I haue also beene beholding to M. Camden, are these:

    Rex Arcturus nos primos Cornubienses
    Bellum facturus vocat, vt puta Caesaris enses
    Nobis non alijs, reliquis, dat primitus ictum
    Per quem pax lisque, nobis sit vtrumq; relictum
    Quid nos deterret, si firmiter in pede stemus,
    Fraus ni nos superet, nihil est quod non superemus.

I will now set downe the principall Commaunders & Officers, touching these martiall causes, together with the forces of the shire.

Lord Lieutenant generall, Sir Walter Ralegh.

                | Sir Frauncis Godolphin, |
                | Sir Nicholas Parker, |
                | Sir Reignald Mohun, |
    Deputie | Peter Edgecumb, | or any 3.
    Lieutenants | Bernard Greinuile, | of them.
                | Christopher Harris, |
                | Richard Carew, |

    Colonell generall, Sir Nicholas Parker.
    Marshall, Bernard Greinuile.
    Treasurer, Richard Carew.
    Master of the Ordinance, Will. Treffry.
    Colonell of the horse, Iohn Arundell of Trerise.
    Sergeant maior, Humphrey Parcks.
    Quarter Master, William Carnsew.
    Prouost Marshall, Iohn Harris.
    Scowt Master, Otwell Hill.

                            | Osburne.
                            | Rusall.
    Corporals of the field, | Rattenbury.
                            | Sled

    Ammunition Master, Leon. Blackdon.
    Trench Master, Cooke.


Regiments. Companies, Numbers, Arm.Pikes, Muskets, Caliueri
Sir Fra. Godol. | 12. | 1200. | 470. | 490. | 240. |
Sir Will. Beuil | 6. | 670. | 225. | 315. | 130. |
Sir Rei. Mohun | 6. | 600. | 200. | 210. | 190. |
Ber. Greinuile | 10. | 1000. | 370. | 390. | 240. |
Ri. Carew | 5. | 500. | 170. | 300. | 30. |*1
Antony Rouse | 6. | 760. | 270. | 320. | 170. |
Ch. Treuanion | 5. | 500. | 180. | 190. | 130. |
Will. Treffry | 4. | 400. | 140. | 130. | 130. |*2
Sir Nic. Parker | 2. | 200. | 60. | 80. | 60. |*3
Ha. Viuian | 1. | 100. | 40. | 40. | 20. |*4
Ar. Harris | 1. | 100. | 40. | 40. | 20. |*5
    Summa, | 58. | 6030. | 2165. | 2535. | 1330. |

[*1 For Causam Bay] [*2 For Foy] [*3 Fpr Pendennis] [*4 For S. Mawes] [*5 For the Mount]

This may serue for a generall estimat of the Cornish forces, which I haue gathered, partly out of our certificate made to the Lords 1599. partly by information from the Sargeant maior, & partly through mine own knowledge. There are many more vnarmed pikes, which I omit, as better fitting a supply vpon necessitie, then to bee exposed (for opposed) to an enemie. The number as it standeth, much exceedeth the shires proportion, if the same he compared with Deuon and other Counties: which groweth, for that their neerenesse on all quarters to the enemy, and their farnesse from timely succour by their friends, haue forced the Commaunders, to call forth the vttermost number of able hands to fight, and rather by perswasion then authority, procured them to arme themselues beyond lawe and theirability. Which commendable indeuour shall not, I hope, ought not, I am sure, turne them to the preiudice of any vnwonted charge hereafter.

They are all prouided of powder, bullet, & match in competent sort, & order taken for furnishing of victuals, and mounting a third part of the shot (at least) vpon cause of seruice.

Light horses, the Lords in their directions, enioyne for orders sake, and the Lieutenants excuse it by insufficiency. Hitherto neither hath the commaundement bin reuoked, nor the omission controlled.

In the yeere 1588. when the Spanish floting Babel pretended the conquest of our Iland (which like Iosuahs armie they compassed, but vnlike him could not with their blasting threats ouerthrow our walles) it pleased her Maiestie of her prouident and gracious care, to furnish Cornwall with ordinance and munition, from her owne store, as followeth:

| of cast Iron, well mounted vpon carryages 2. Sacres | with wheeles, shodde with Iron, and fur- 2. Minions | nished with Ladles, Spunges, and Ram- 2. Faulcons | mers, with all other necessaries.

    Spare axeltrees, sixe.
    Spare pairs of wheeles, shod with Iron, three.
    Shot of Iron for the sayd pieces, of eche sort, twenty.
    Canon corne powder for the said ordinance, sixe hundred
    Fine corne powder, three thousand six hundred waight.
    Lead, three thousand sixe hundred wayght.
    Match, three thousand sixe hundred wayght.

All which, saue the ordinance itselfe, partly by piecemeale employment, and partly by ouerlong, or euil keeping, is now growne to nought, or naught.


After the sudden surprize of Pensants, anno 1595. by direction from the Lords, order was taken, that vpon any alarum, the next Captains should forthwith put themselues with their companies, into their assigned seacoast townes, whom the adioyning land-forces were appoynted to second and third, as the opportunity of their dwellings affoorded best occasion.

The yeere following, by a new commaund, 4000. were allotted out, and prouided in a readines to march for the ayd of Deuon, if cause so required, as the Lord Lieutenant of that County had the same order, vpon like necessitie, to send an equall number into Cornwall.

Lastly, anno 1599. when the Spanish fleet was againe expected, the Cornish forces voluntarily assembled themselues, and made head, at the entrance, middle, and Westpart of their south coast.

As for soldiers sent into other places, Cornwall yeeldeth, vpon euery occasion, a proportionable supply to the wants of Ireland; neither is acquitted from performing the like seruice for Fraunce, if the employment be in Brittaine or Normandy. Which often ventings notwithstanding, vpon the instance of Captaine Lower, and the sollicitation of his friends, there passed ouer this last yeere into Netherland, at one time, 100. voluntaries and vpwards, there to serue under Sir Frauncis Vere. And besides, they often make out men of warre against the Spaniards.

Forts and Castles there are; some, olde and worne out of date; and some in present vse, with allowance of garrison.

Amongst the first sort, I reckon these, appertayningto the Duchy, as also Tintogel, and diuers round holds on the tops of hils; some single, some double, and treble trenched, which are termed, Castellan Denis, or Danis, as raysed by the Danes, when they were destyned to become our scourge.

Moreouer, in this ranke wee may muster the earthen Bulwarks, cast vp in diuers places on the South coast, where any commodity of landing seemeth to inuite the enemie, which (I gesse) tooke their originall from the statute 4. H. 8. and are euer sithence duely repayred, as need requireth, by order to the Captaynes of those limits.

Of the later sort, is a fort at Silley, called [blank] reduced to a more defensible plight, by her Maiesties order, and gouerned by the foreremembred Sir Frauncis Godolphin, who with his inuention and purse, bettered his plot and allowance, and therein hath so tempered strength with delight, and both with vse, as it serueth for a sure hold, and a commodious dwelling.

The rest are S. Michaels mount, Pendenis fort, and S. Mawes Castle, of which I shall haue occasion to speake more particularly in my second booke.

Of Beacons, through the neernesse to the sea, and the aduantage of the hilly situations, welneere euery parish is charged with one, which are watched, secundum vsum, but (so farre as I can see) not greatly ad propositum: for the Lords better digested instructions, haue reduced the Countrey, by other meanes, to a like ready, and much lesse confused way of assembling, vpon any cause of seruice.

For carrying of such aduertisements and letters, euery thorow-fare weekly appoynteth a foot-Poast, to giue [86] his hourely attendance, whose dispatch is welneere as speedy as the horses.

The last branch of my diuision, and so of this book, leadeth me to entreat of Cornwals ciuill government, as it passeth for a part of the Realme; and that may againe be subdiuided into iurisdiction particular, and general. The particular iurisdiction is exercised by Constables, Stewards of Courts Barons, and Leets, Franchises, Hundreds, & Portreeues, & Maiors; of boroughs & corporations of the Stannaries, we haue spoken already. The generall, by the Clarke of the market, Coroners, Vice-admiral, Sherife, Iustices of the peace, & Iudges of assize.

Constables of the hundreds the shire hath none, but this office for giuing of warnings, & collection of rates, is supplyed by the deputy Baylifs, who performe it not with that discretion, trust, secrecy, & speed, which were often requisite to the importance of the affaires. I haue knowne the Iudges moued diuers times, for their opinion touching the erecting of some, & found them of seueral resolutions, which giueth little encouragement to an innouation. Neither can the parish Constables well brooke the same, because it submitteth them to a subalterne commaund, more then of custome; whereas now in their parishes they are absolute, the least whereof hath one, the middle sized 2. the bigger 3. or 4. I would not wish the blaze of their authority blemished, if there were as much care vsed in choyce of the persons, as the credit of their place deserueth. Wise direction without diligent execution, proueth fruitles. Now, as the former is deriued from her Maiesty to the Lords, & from the Lords to the Iustices; so this later lieth in the hands of the Constables. Watches and searches oftentimes carry waighty consequence, and miscary in the managing: and it was seene in the last Cornish rebellion, how the Constables commaund & example, drew many of the not worst meaning people, into that extremest breach of duty.

Franchises, Cornwall hath the Duchy, Rialton, Clifton, Minhinet, Pawton, Caruanton, Stoke Cliuisland, Medland, and Kellylond, which haue their Baylifs as the Hundreds, to attend the publike seruices.

Hundreds there are but 9. East, West, Trig, Lesnewith, Stratton, Powder, Pider, Kerier, & Penwith, which containe [blank] tithings: by these the shire is deuided into limits, & all his rates proportioned as followeth:


        | East H. | Trig H. | Powder H. | Kerier.
    East| West H. N.| Lesneweth H. S.| Pider H. W.| Penwith.
                     | Stratton H.

In all rates, the East & South limits beare 3. parts in 5. to the North and West. So in the Easterne, dooth East Hundred to that of West: in the Southerne, Powder to Pider: and in the Westerne, Kerier to Penwith. In the Northern, Trig beareth 5. Lesnewith & Stratton 4. apiece. There is the like proportion made of the parishes in the Easterne diuision, but with little satisfaction of diuers: neither will it euer fare otherwise, & therefore (this notwithstanding) I wish it followed in the residue.

The conuenientest & vsual places of assembly for the whole County, is Bodmyn : for the East and North, Launceston: for the South and West, Truro: for the East, Liskerd: for the North, Camelford: for the South, S. Colombs; for the West, Helston.


For the Hundreds of East, Kellington : of West, Lanreath; of Trig,
Bodmyn: of Lesnewith, Camelford: of Stratton, that towne: of Powder,
Grampond: of Pider, S. Columbs: of Kerier, Helston: of Penwith,

    East H. hath parishes 30. corporations 2.
    West H. parishes 19. corporations 2.
    Trig [blank]
    Lesnewith [blank]
    Stratton [blank]
    Powder [blank]
    Pider [blank]
    Kerier [blank]
    Penwith [blank]

Corporations are priuiledged with the administration of iustice, within their liberties, more or lesse, according to the purport of their Charter.

Such are Saltash, Launceston, Liskerd, Eastloo, Westloo, Bodmyn,
Camelford, Lostwithiel, Padstowe, Grampond, Truro, Helston, Perin.

The Maiors and Recorders, in some of these, are Iustices of the peace, for their owne limits, and welneere allof them haue large exemptions and iurisdictions. A garment (in diuers mens opinions) ouer-rich and wide, for many of their wearish and ill-disposed bodies. They alleadge for themselues, that speedy iustice is administred in their townes, and that it saueth great expences, incident to assize trials, which poor Artificers cannot vndergoe. But the other answere, that these trials are often poasted on, with more haste then good speed, while an ignorant fellow, of a sowter, becomes a magistrate, & takes vpon him peremptory iudgement, in debts and controuersies, great and doubtfull. Againe, the neernesse of commencing their suits, draweth on more expences, then the shortnes of tryals cutteth off, whereas longer respite would make way to deliberation, and deliberation open the doore to reason, which by the fumes arising from cholers boyling heat, is much obscured. Thus dooth the opportunity inure them to vexation; vexation begetteth charges, and charge hatcheth pouerty: which pouerty, accompanied with idlenes (for they cannot follow law, and worke) seeketh not to releeue itselfe by industry, but by subtilty, wherethrough they become altogether depraued in body, goods, and minde. Adde hereunto that the Maior exercising his office but during one yeere, for the first halfe thereof is commonly to learne what he ought to doe, & in the other halfe, feeling his authoritie to wane, maketh friends of that Mammon, & serueth others turnes, to be requited with the like, borrowing from iustice, what hee may lend to his purse, or complices: for as it hath bene well sayd, He cannot long be good, that knowes not why he is good. They conclude, how from these imperfect associations, there spring pride amongst themselues, disdayne at their neighbours, and Monopolies against the Commonwealth.

This inuectiue is somewhat deeply steeped in gall, & must therefore bee interpreted, not of all, but the worst. Surely, for mine owne part, I am of opinion, that how commodious soeuer this iurisdiction may proue amongst themselues, it falleth out sundry times very distastefull and iniurious towards strangers; and strangers they reckon all that are not Burgesses. Now, let such a one bee arrested within their corporations, no sureties but townsmen can finde acceptance, be his behauiour neuer so honest, [88] his cause neuer so iust, his calling neuer so regardfull, & his ability neuer so sufficient; yet if he haue none acquaintance in the towne, if the action brought, carry a shew of waight, if the bringer be a man of sway, in, or neere the towne, if any other townsman of the higher sort beare him an old grudge, he must be contented to fret the colde yrons with his legges, and his heart with griefe: for what one, amongst them, will procure an euerlasting enemy at his doore, by becomming surety for a party, in whom he possesseth none, or little interest? The ancients vsed to grace their Cities with seuerall titles, as Numantia bellicosa, Thebae superbae, Corinthus ornata, Athenae doctae, Hierusalem sancta, Carthago emula, &c. and the present Italians doe the like touching theirs, as Roma santa, Venetia ricca, Florenza bella, Napoli gentile, Ferrara ciuile, Bologna grassa, Rauenna antiqua, &c. In an imitation whereof, some of the idle disposed Cornish men nicke their townes with by-words, as, The good fellowship of Padstowe, Pride of Truro, Gallants of Foy, &c.

The Clarke of the markets office, hath beene heretofore so abused by his deputies, to their priuate gaine, that the same is tainted with a kinde of discredit, which notwithstanding, being rightly & duly executed, would worke a reformation of many disorders, and a great good to the Common-wealth.

Foure Coroners, chosen by the voyces of the freeholders, do serue the shire, who for the present are, Bligh, Tub, Trenance, and Bastard.

The Vice-admiralty is exercised by M. Charles Treuanion, a Gentleman, through his vertue, as free from greedinesse, as through his faire liuelyhood, farre from needinesse: and by daily experience giuing proofe, that a minde valewing his reputation at the due price, will easily repute all dishonest gaine much inferiour thereunto, & that in conuersing with the worst sort of people (which his office oftentimes enforceth) he can no more be disgraced, then the Sunne beames by shining vpon a dunghill will be blemished.

I haue here set downe the names of those Commissioners for the peace, who at this present make their ordinary residence in Corn. as they stand placed in the Commission, where the priority is mostly deferred to antiquity.

    Q. Fra. Godolphin M. 1.| Carolus Treuanion 16.
    Q. Nic. Parker M. 2.| Thomas S. Aubin 17.
    Q. Iona. Trelawney M. 3.| Q. Rob Moyle 18.
    Q. Reg. Mohun M. 4.| Q. Ed Hancock. 19.
    Q. P. Petrus Edgecomb 5.| Tristramus Arscot 20.
    Q. Ric. Carew de Anth. 6.| Thomas Lower 21.
    Q. Bern. Greinuile 7.| W. Treffry de Fowey 22.
    Q. Antonius Rowse 8.| Iohannes Hender 23.
    Petrus Courtney 9.| Q. Willi. Wray 24.
    Q. Tho. Chiuerton 10.| Georgius Kekiwiche 25.
    Q. Christ. Harris 11.| Q. Arth. Harris 26.
    Io. Arund. de Trerise 12.| Io. Harris de Lansre. 27.
    Th. Arun. de Taluerne 13.| Q. Degor. Chamons 28.
    Q. Nic. Prideaux 14.| Iohannes Trefusis 29.
    Q. Hannibal Viuian 15.| Otwel Hill 30.

Their ordinary use was, to begin the quarter Sessions for the East halfe of the Shire, on the Tuesdayes and Wednesdayes, at Bodmyn, and to adiourne the [89] same for the West halfe, to be ended at Truro the Friday and Saterday following, leaning one dayes space for riding betweene. But about twenty yeres sithence, the Easterne Iustices making the greatest number, and in this separation having farthest to ride, when they were disposed to attend both places, either in regard of their ease, or vpon scruple of conscience, or for both together, called into question, whether this custome were as warrantable by right, as it was pleadable by prescription; and whether it as much aduanced the administration of iustice, as it eased the trauell of the people. And thereupon they began to appoynt the intire Sessions at either place one after another. This was sometimes performed, and sometimes broken, by the Westerne Iustices, so as seuerall and contrary precepts of summons were directed to the Sheriffe, with the great vncertaynty, ill example, and trouble of the Countrey. It hapned, that one newly associated, and not yet seasoned with either humour, made this motion for a reconcilement, viz. that the Sessions should enterchangeably one quarter begin at Bodmyn, and end at Truro; and the next begin, at Truro, and end at Bodmyn; and that no recognisance should be discharged, or cause decided out of his owne diuision. This proposition, as it gaue the Westerne Iustices the greatest part of their will, so it salued a sore which chiefly grieued the Easterne: for before, what was done in the beginning at one place, was, or might be vndoone in the ending at the other: wherefore all parties willingly condiscended hereunto, and it hath euer sithence beene accordingly obserued.

Another variance hath sometimes fallen out betweene Cornwall and Deuon, about the time of keeping their Sessions. For whereas the Statute 2. H. 5. enacteth that the Iustices shall hold the same in the first weeke after S. Michael, the Epiphanie, the clause of Easter, and the translation of S. Thomas (which, worthily blotted out of the Calender, Teste Newbrigensi, is euer the seuenth of Iuly) and their oath bindeth them to a strickt obseruation hereof: the question hath growne, when those festiuall dayes fall vpon a Munday, whether the Sessions shall be proclaimed for that weeke, or the next, and the generall practise hath gone with the former. But the Cornish Iustices, waying, that prescription is no Supersedeas for swearing, vpon debating of the matter, haue resolued, and lately accustomed, in such cases, to put it ouer vnto the weeke ensuing: and these are their reasons: If the Sessions must bee kept in the first weeke after, it cannot admit an interpretation of the same weeke it selfe. Againe, the clause of Easter, mencioned in the one, should seeme to make a construction of like meaning in the rest. Besides, those, who suite themselues to the other fashion, doe yet swarue therefrom, if those feastes fall vpon any later day in the weeke then Munday; for then they deferre it till the next: and yet, seeing no day certain is directed for beginning the Sessions; if they will constantly binde themselues to the former sense, when those dayes fall on the Friday, they ought to call it for the morrow following. The Iudges of the circuits Oracle, to which the Commission of the peace referreth the Iustices Quaeres, hath resolued, that neyther of these wayes tendeth to any breach of the lawe. Once sure it is, that the Terme-suiters may best speed their businesse, by supporting the former: for the end of these Sessions deliuereth them space inough [90] to ouertake the beginning of the Termes.

For the rest, equity beareth more sway, then grauity, at the Cornish bench, and in confusion they mayntayne equality: for though they speake more then one at once, yet no one mans speach, or countenance, can carry a matter against the truth. Neither doe assertions, but proofes in hearings; nor vouchings, but shewing of law cases, in deciding, order the controuersies: and as diuersitie in opinions breedeth no enmity, so ouer-ruling by most voyces, is taken for no disgrace.

One only Iudge was wont, in three dayes at farthest, to dispatch the Assizes, & gayle deliuery, at Launceston, the vsuall (though not indifferentest) place, where they are holden. But malice and iniquity haue so encreased, through two contrary effects, wealth and pouerty, that now necessity exacteth the presence of both, and (not seldome) an extent of time.

I haue heard the Iudges note, that besides their ordinary paines, they are troubled with more extraordinary supplications in Cornwall, then in any other shire: whereto they yet giue no great encouragement, while the causes are on the backside, poasted ouer to Gentlemens hearing, and account seldome taken or made, what hath bene done therein.

Verily, we must acknowledge, that ever since our remembrance, God hath blessed this Westerne circuit with speciall choyce of vpright and honest Iudges; amongst whom, this of our last is not the least: for they doe so temper a quick conceit with a stayed iudgement, a strict seuerity in punishing, with a milde mercy in remitting, and an awfull grauitie at the Bench, with a familiar kindnesse in conuersation, as they make proofe, that contrarie vertues may, by the diuers wayes of loue and reuerence, meet in one onely poynt of honour.

The common Gayle of the shire for offendours, is kept at Launceston: for that statute, 33. H. 8. which amongst other shires, gaue the Cornish Iustices leave to alter the same, by a Prouiso, tooke it away againe, in that this keepership is annexed to the Constableship of the Castle, and that graunted out in lease.

I wil conclude with the highest iurisdiction, namely, the Parliament, to which Cornwall, through the grace of his Earles, sendeth an equall, if not larger number of Burgesses, to any other shire. The boroughs so priuiledged, more of fauour (as the case now standeth with many of them) then merit, are these following: Launceston, Downeuet, Liskerd, Lostwithiel, Truro, Bodmyn, Helston, Saltash, Camelford, Eastloo, Westloo, Prury, Tregny, Kellington, Bossimy, S. Iues, S. Germanes, Meddishole, and S. Mawes: and because Quindec. are ordinarily graunted at Parliaments, together with the Subsidies, I will heere set downe the ordinary rate of them.


Md. de 15. Cornub. in Paroch. subsequent. vt patet. p.

Hund. de Penwith

    Paroc. S. Iusti. 2li.11s.8d. S. Hillary 2.18.8
    S. Gorian. 8.5.2 Caniborn. 4.2.0
    S. Gorgian. 1.15.6 Laundut. 6.16.5
    S. Crowen. 2.2.2 Vthno. 0.12.6
    S. Michaels. 2.11.3 Germogh. 0.10.8
    S. Illogan. 4.7.10 S. Synan. 3.6.0
    S. Erly. 3.11.8 S. Maddern. 4.12.0
    S. Luduan. 2.16.6 S. Twynnock. 2.5.0
    Morueth. 0.17.6 S. Felis. 2.1.2
    S. Siluan. 2.12.5 Kedruth. 1.12.5
    S. Sancred. 1.14.0 S. Winner. 3.6.0
    S. Ey. 3.6.8 S. Pawl. 6.17.0
    S. Sennar. 2.11.1 Woluele. 3.5.0
                       Sum. 81. 8. 6.

Hund. de Kerier.

    Wennape. 2.8.0 S. Melor. 2.4.0
    S. Martyn. 0.18.8 S. Briack. 2.3.0
    S. Gluuiack. 2.2.10 S. Crade. 1.4.6
    Constantyn. 3.6.4 Wyneanton. 0.14.8
    S. Mawnan. 1.8.0 S. Melan. 2.18.4
    S. Stidian. 2.19.4 S. Keyran. 6.8.0
    Arwothel. 1.4.9 S. Wynwolny. 0.10.4
    S. Landy. 1.10.4 S. Rumon.parua. 0.7.2
    S. Mawgan. 1.16.0 Crewenne. 1.0.10
    S. 1.2.0 S. Sithne. 2.0.0
    S. Antony. 0.8.0 S. Ewynne. 0.15.4
    Corentun. 0.15.0 Burg. de Helston. 4.6.8
    Minster 1.4.6 Germock. 0.10.8
    S. 2.9.0 S. Wendron. 3.12.0
    Burgus de Perm. 2.0.0
                       Sum. 52.18.5.

Hund. de Powder.

    Tywardreth 2.15.11 Elerky. 3.6.0
    Argallas. 1.14.4 S. Keby. 1.2.1
    Burg. de Fowy. 2.8.4 Landreth. 0.17.8
    Roche. 2.8.7 Eglosmerther. 0.18.0
    Kenwen. 2.19.0 Lanuoreck. 1.10.0
    Eglosros 1.16.0 Grogith. 0.14.4
    Moresk. 2.0.0 Fowy extra. 1.4.8
    Manerium de | S. Sampson. 1.15.0
    pen.Kneth & | 0.10.4 S. Stephens. 3.6.3
    Restormel. | Gerend. 2.0.0
    S. Awstle. 6.14.11 Feock. 1.10.0
    Mewan. 1.12.0 Burg. de Lostwi. 8.13.4


    Carhayes. 0.11.6 Laurocen. 0.17.0
    S. Denis. 1.16.6 Ladock. 2.14.0
    Penkeuel. 0.11.8 Lanhorn. 1.14.8
    S. Anthonie. 0.12.2 S. Ewe. 1.8.3
    Burg. de Mia. 0.5.6 Manerium de |
    S. Goran 1.16.0 Towington in | 1.19.0
    Burg. de Grand. 0.14.6 P. S. Austle.|
    Burg. de Truru. 12.1.10 S. Crede. 2.1.0
    S. Ermets 1.14.0 S. Iust. 1.16.0
    Landege. 2.7.0 Burg. de Tregony. 1.15.3
    Lasullian. 1.10.6 S. Probus. 5.6.0
    S. Aleyn. 3.4.6 Calendry 1.0.8

Hund. de Pider.

    Lanhidrock. 0.17.8 S. Ermets. 2.2.6
    S. Peran. 2.6.8 S. Euoder. 3.0.0
    S. Caranto. 2.13.0 S. Petrock mi. 0.6.4
    S. Vuel. 1.10.0 Laneuet. 1.10.0
    S. Agnes. 1.6.10 S. Ede. 1.12.0
    S. Petrock ma. 2.4.10 S. Bruke. 2.7.0
    S. Columb ma. 5.13.0 Newlyn. 3.17.4
    S. Columb mi. 4.11.0 Maruy. 2.1.0
    Burg. de Meddi. 0.8.0 Withiel. 1.6.8
    Oldstowe. 1.9.0 S. Colan. 1.4.6
    Lanherne. 3.0.0 Cuthbert. 2.0.0
    S. Wenne 1.18.0

Hund. de Trigge.

    Teth. 2.9.6 Egloshail. 2.3.8
    Minuer. 1.15.0 Bliston. 1.17.2
    P. Bodmyn ext. 1.16.0 Temple 0.5.0
    Brue rode. 1.19.5 S. Laud. 1.6.0
    Bur. de Bodmyn. 20.0.0 Ma. de Pennayn. 0.4.10
    Maben. 1.10.9 S. Tweir. 1.16.8
    S. Eudelian. 1.8.0 Hellond. 0.19.0

Hund. de Lesnewith.

    Cleder. 1.16.8 Bur. de Castle |
    S. Warburg 1.18.4 Boterel. | 0.7.0
    S. Iuliet. 0.14.8 Oterham. 0.19.0
    Bur. de Tintagle. 0.13.2 Lanteglos. 1.10.0
    Podistok. 4.5.2 S. Genis. 1.14.2
    Mihelstowe. 0.19.0 Lesnewith. 1.8.0
    Bu. de Camelforth. 0.9.0 Maner. de Tintagle. 1.7.0
    Alternon 1.18.6 Minster. 1.4.6
    Dauid. 2.6.8 Treneglos. 1.6.8
    Treualga. 1.0.0 Athawyn. 1.0.0


Hund. de Lesnewith.

    Kilkhamlond. 3.4.4 Bridgerule. 0.12.6
    Iacobstow. 1.16.4 Moristow. 3.6.0
    Poghwil. 0.19.0 Boyton. 1.9.0
    Launcels. 1.8.0 Stratton. 2.19.6
    Ouerwynchurch. 2.0.0 Wyke. 1.15.0
    Whitston. 1.13.0 Bur. de Kilkhamp. 1.0.2

Hund. de Westwibilsher.

    Niot. 2.7.0 Lanteglos. 5.0.0
    Cardinham. 1.18.0 Burg. de Liskerd. 6.14.0
    Morual. 1.17.0 Reprina. 0.8.0
    S. Clere. 2.1.7 Wynnock. 2.0.0
    Tallan. 1.12.0 Burg. de Loo. 1.10.0
    Lansalwys. 1.9.0 Lanraythew. 1.8.6
    Vepe. 1.9.2 Villade. 1.13.0
    Maner. de Liskerd. 1.13.0 S. Martyn de Loo. 1.10.0
    Dulo. 1.18.6 Brotheck. 0.18.0
    Warlegan. 1.2.0 Kayn. 0.8.4
    Pleuiul. 2.7.0 Pynnock. 0.19.0
    Liskerd. 1.12.0

Hund. de Eastwibilshere.

    Antony. 1.11.0 Manerium de |
    Lawlutton. 1.3.0 Tremeton. | 2.15.4
    Southil. 0.18.0 Linkinhorne. 2.0.0
    Piderwyn. 2.3.0 Seuiock. 1.4.0
    Landilp. 0.17.6 Calstock. 3.6.0
    Stoke. 2.9.0 S. Melan. 1.6.0
    Minhinet. 4.6.0 Rame. 1.11.0
    Egloskery. 2.5.0 S. Iue. 1.19.0
    S. Germyns. 6.10.0 S. Dominick. 1.4.0
    Bur. de Downuet. 2.16.8 Lawanneck. 1.10.0
    Lasant. 1.18.0 Laurake. 1.19.0
    S. Iohns. 1.6.10 Burg. de Ash. 2.0.8
    S. Stephens of | Pillaton. 0.15.4
    Lanceston. | 4.16.0 Boskenna. 0.9.0
    Quedock. 1.7.0 Meer. 0.15.0
   Northil. 1.12.0

              Sum. tot. 15. & 10. in Cornub. 479.03.

Md. postea sequuntur deductiones & allocat. de eisdem sum. appunctuat. per Edmund. Episc. Exon. & Thom. Bodul- gat tunc vn. milit. praed. Com. in Anno 24. H. 6. vt pt. p. particulariter.


    Parochia de | Aldehan. 0.15.0
    Menefride. | 1.0.0 Maben. 0.15.0
    Helland. 0.15.0 Egloshail 1.10.0
    Burg. de Bodmyn. 6.0.0 Temple. 0.3.0
    S. Tudy. 0.9.0 S. Bruer. 0.15.0
    Tethe. 1.10.0

Sum. 13. 12. 0.

Hund. de Lesnowith.

    Cleder. 0.12.0 Oterham. 0.15.0
    Burg. de Botriscast. 0.6.0 Aduen. 0.6.0
    Pondistoke. 2.0.0 Warburg. 0.10.0
    Mynster. 0.12.0 Lesnowith. 0.12.0
    Bu. de Camelforth. 0.6.0 Treueglos. 0.18.0
    S. Gennys. 0.15.0 Alternon. 0.10.0
    S. Dauid. 0.10.0

Sum. 8. 12. 0.

Hund. de Stratton.

    Morestow. 1.10.0 Burgus de |
    Poughwel. 0.12.0 Kilkampton. | 0.9.0
    Lancels. 0.10.0 Merwinchurch. 0.15.0
    Boyton. 0.10.0 Whithton. 0.15.0
    Kilkampton. 1.0.0 Iacobstow. 0.10.0
    Stratton. 1.1.0

Sum. 7. 12. 0

Hund. de East.

    Calstok. 1.10.0 Rame 0.15.0
    Lawanneck. 1.1.0 Quethiock. 0.12.0
    S. Iohns. 0.15.0 S. Domineck. 0.10.0
    S. Iues. 1.0.0 Pederwyn. 0.8.0
    Minhinet. 3.0.0 S. Germyns. 4.10.0
    Manerium de | Antony. 0.15.0
    Tremeton. | 1.5.0 Lawhitton. 0.15.0
    Burgus de | S. Stephens. 2.0.0
    Downeued. | 1.0.0 Laurake. 0.10.0
    S. Melan. 1.0.0 Egloskery. 0.15.0

Sum. 22. 1. 0.


Hund. de West.

    Burgus de | Lanrethow. 0.10.0
    Liskerd. | 1.0.0 S. Vepe. 0.10.0
    S. Cleer. 0.10.0 Manerium |
    Morual. 0.10.0 de Liskerd. | 0.12.0
    Talland. 0.10.0 S. Pynnock. 0.10.0
    Parish of Liskerd. 0.18.0 Nyot. 0.10.0
    Lanteglos. 1.10.0

Sum. 7. 10. 0.

Hund. de Penwith.

    Luduan. 0.9.0 S. Sencrede. 0.15.0
    Camborn. 1.0.0 S. Felix. 0.6.0
    S. Senan. 0.13.0 S. Selenan. 0.10.0
    S. Gothian. 0.10.0 S. Michaels. 0.10.0
    S. Ius t. 0.10.0 S. Pawl. 1.0.0
    S. Veryn. 2.0.0 S. Thebut. 1.0.0
    S. Wynner. 0.10.0 S. Grey. 0.9.0

Sum. 10. 2. 0.

Hund. de Kerier.

    S. Wenep. 0.10.0 S. Constantyn. 0.9.0
    Mawnan. 0.6.0 Crade. 0.10.0
    Burg. de Helston. 1.10.0 Wynampton. 0.6.0
    Melan. 0.10.0 Stedian. 0.9.0
    Arwothel. 0.10.0 Ewyn. 0.10.0
    Minster. 0.6.0

Sum. 5. 16. 0.

Hund. de Powder.

    Argallas. 0.10.0 Lamorek. 0.10.0
    Keby. 0.9.0 S. Sampsons. 0.10.0
    Burgus de | S. Gereus. 0.10.0
    Truru. | 10.0.0 Burgus de |
    Roche. 0.18.0 Lostwithiel. | 8.0.0
    Moresk. 0.10.0 Lamhorn. 0.6.0
    S. Goran. 0.9.0 Tywardreth. 0.10.0
    S. Allen. 0.5.0 S. Stephens. 0.10.0
    Illerky. 0.10.0 Eglosros. 0.10.0

                        Sum. 19. 17. 0.
[96]************************* missing scan *******************88

Hund. de Pider.

    Lanhidrok. 0.11.0 S. Petrock minor. 0.6.0
    S. Pyran. 0.15.0 S. Petrock maior. 0.10.0
    S. Newlyn. 1.10.0 S. Breock. 0.15.0
    S. Colan. 0.10.0 Withiel. 0.5.0
    Lamhern. 0.10.0 Carnenton. 0.10.0
    S. Edy. 0.12.0 Vwel. 0.10.0
    S. Enoder. 0.15.0

       Sum. tot. deductions. 15. & 10. 113. 1. 6.


C O R N W A L L.

The second Booke.

IN this second booke I will first report what I haue learned of Cornwall, and Cornishmen in general, and from thence descend to the particular places and persons, as their note-worthie site, or any memorable action, or accident, of the former or later ages, shall offer occasion.

The highest which my search can reach vnto, I borrow out of Strabo, who writeth, that the Westerne Bretons gaue ayde vnto the Armorici of Fraunce, against Caesar, which hee pretended for one of the causes, why he inuaded this Iland.

Next I find, that about sixtie yeeres from the landing of Hengist, [Anno Do. 509.] one Nazaleod, a mightie King amongst the Bretons, ioyned battell with Certicus, Soueraigne of the West-Saxons, and after long fight, with his owne death accompanied the ouerthrow of his armie. [519.] Yet, the Bretons, thus abandoned by fortune, would not so forsake themselues, but with renued courage, and forces, coped once againe with Certicus, and his sonne Kenrick, at [97 Certicesford, thogh equally destitute of successe as before.

[590.] Gurmund, an arch Pirate of the Norwegians, was called by the Saxons, out of his late conquered Ireland, to their aide, against Careticus king of the Bretons; whom he ouercame in battel, and inforced his subiects to seeke safegard by flight, some in Wales, some in Cornwall, and some in little Breteigne: since which time, they could neuer recouer againe their auncient possession of the whole Iland.

[688.] Howbeit, not long after, Iuor, sonne to Alane, king of the said little Breteigne, landed in the West parts, wanne from the Saxons, Cornwall, Deuon, & Somerset shires, by force of armes, and then established his conquest, by a peaceable composition with his aduerse partie.

[720.] Adelred, king of West-sex, inuaded Deuon and Cornwall, whom Roderick, king of the Bretons, and Blederick Prince of those prouinces, encountred and discomfited: [750.] which notwithstanding, processe of time reaued from, him, and added such strength to his enemies, that he was driuen to abandon Cornwall, and retire into Wales.

[809.] So, the Cornishmen quitting their libertie with their prince, stouped to the commaund of Egbert King of West-sex, and with their territorie (saith William Malmsburie) enlarged his confines.

[937.] Athelstane handled them yet more extremely; for hee draue them out of Excester, where, till then, they bare equall sway with the Saxons, & left onely the narrow angle on the West of Tamer riuer, for their Inhabitance, which hath euer since beene their fatall bound.

On their Reguli (as Vincentius deliuereth) he imposed an yerely tribute, of 20. li. in gold, 300. li. in siluer, 25. oxen, and hunting hounds and hawkes, at discretion.

[997.] To these afflictions by home-neighbours of bondage, tribute, and banishing, was ioyned a fourth, of spoyling by forrayne enemies: for Roger Houedon telleth vs, that the Danes landed in sundry places of Cornwall, forrayed the Countrey, burned the Townes, and killed the people.

[1068.] To whom succeeded in the like occupation, Godwin, and Edmond magnus, King Harolds two sonnes, discomfiting the forces opposed against them, harrowing Deuon and Cornwall, and then retiring with their prey into Ireland.

[113.] After the conquest, when K. H. the first inuaded. Griffin ap Conan Prince of Wales, he distributed his armie into three portions, one of which (wherein consisted the forces of the fourth part of England and Cornwal) hee committed to the leading of Gilbert Earl of Strigill.

[1227.] In Henry the thirds time, by the testimony of Mathew Paris, William Earle of Sarum, after long tossing at sea, with much adoe, about Christmas arriued in Cornwall; and so afterwards, did Earl Richard, the Kings brother, at two seuerall times: the later of which, being destitute of horses and treasure, he prayed therein ayde of his loyals.

[1339.] When Edward the third auerred his right to the Crowne of Fraunce, by the euidence of armes, the French for a counterplea, made an vnlawfull entry into Deuon and Cornwall; but Hugh Courtney Earle of Deuon, remooued it with posse Comitatus, and recommitted them to the wooden prison that brought them thither. Yet would not the Scots take so much warning by their successe, as example by their precedent, if at least, Froissarts [98] ignorance of our English names, bred not his mistaking in the place.

By his relation aso, Cornwalls neere neighbourhead gaue oportunity of accesse, both to the Earle Montford, when he appealed to that Kings ayd, for recouering his right in Brittaine (albeit I cannot bring home Cepsee the designed port of his landing) and after his captiuitie, to the messengers of his heroicall Countesse, employed in the like errand.

And from Cornwall, the Earle of Sarum, Wil. de Mesuile and Philip de Courtney, set to sea, with 40. ships, besides Barks, and 2000. men at armes, besides Archers, in support of that quarrell.

Lastly, his authoritie enformeth me, that those souldiers of Cornwall, who vnder their Captaines Iohn Apport and Iohn Cornwall, had defended the Fort of Bercherel in Brittaine, against the power of Fraunce, aboue a yeres space, in the end, for want of due succours, vpon an honourable composition surrendred the same.

[1471.] Queene Margaret, wife to H. 6. vpon her arriual out of Fraunce, after the losse of Barnet field, receiued great ayd, though to smal purpose, from the Deuon and Cornish men, vnder the conduct of Thomas, Earle of that shire.

[1485.] And so much were those Western people addicted to that name, as they readily followed Sir Edw. Courtney, & his brother Peter, Bishop of Excester, what time the assisted the Duke of Buckingham, in his reuolt against Richard the third.

[1497.] Neither did his suppressour and successour, H. the 7. finde them more loyall: for the Cornish men repining at a Subsidy lately graunted him by Act of Parliament, were induced to rebellion, by Thomas Flammock, a Gentleman, & Michael Ioseph, a Black-smith, with whom they marched to Taunton, there murdering the prouost of Perin, a Commissioner for the sayd Subsidy, and from thence to Welles, where Iames Touchet, Lord Audely, degenerated to their party, with which encrease they passed by Sarisbury to Winchester, and so into Kent. But by this time, Lords & Commons were gathered in strength sufficient, to make head against them, and soone after, black Heath saw the ouerthrow of their forces, in battell, and London, the punishment of their seducers by iustice.

In the same fatall yeere of reuolts, Perkin Warbeck, a counterfeit Prince, landed in Cornwall, went to Bodmyn, assembled a trayne of rake-hels, assaulted Excester, receyued the repulse, and in the end sped, as is knowne, and as he deserued.

[1549.] The last Cornish rebellion, was first occasioned by one Kilter, and other his associats of a Westerne parish, called, S. Keueren, who imbrued their wicked hands in the guiltles blood of one M. Body, as he sate in Commission at Helston for matters of reformation in religion: and the yere following, it grew to a general reuolt, vnder the conduct of Arundel, Wydeslade, Resogan, and others, followed by 6000. with which power they marched into Deuon, besieged and assaulted Excester, & gaue the L. Russell (employed with an army against them) more then one hot encounter, which yet (as euer) quayled in their ouerthrow.

In my particular view, I will make easie iournies from place to place, as they lye in my way, taking the Hundreds for my guydes, vntill I haue accomplished this wearisome voyage.


My first entrance must be by the hundred of East, so named for his site, and therein, at Plymouth hauen. It borroweth that name of the riuer Plym, which rising in Deuon, and by the way baptizing Plymston, Plymstock, &c. here emptieth it selfe into the sea. The hauen parteth Deuon and Cornwall welneere euery where, as Tamer riuer runneth: I say welneere, because some few interlaced places are excepted: a matter so sorted at the first partition, eyther to satisfie the affection of some speciall persons, or to appropriate the soyle to the former Lords, or that (notwithstanding this seuerance) there might stil rest some cause of entercourse between the Inhabitants of both Counties: as I haue heard, a late great man ensued, and expressed the like consideration, in diuision of his lands between two of his sonnes.

Now though this hauen thus bound both shires, yet doth the iurisdiction of the water wholly appertayne to the Duchy of Cornwall, and may therefore bee claymed as a part of that County. Notwithstanding, I will forbeare what I may, to intrude vpon my good friend M. Hookers limits, and reserue to him the description of the farther shore.

The first promontory of this harbour on the West side, is Rame head, by his proportion, receyuing, and by his possession, giuing, that name and armes to his owner, whose posterity conueyed it by inter-marriages, from Durnford, to Edgecumb: on the toppe thereof riseth a little vaulted Chappell, which serueth for a marke at sea.

From thence trending Penlee poynt, you discouer Kings sand and Causam Bay, an open roade, yet sometimes affoording succour to the woorst sort of Seafarers, as not subiect to comptrolment of Plymouth forts. The shore is peopled with some dwelling houses, and many Cellers, dearely rented for a short vsage, in sauing of Pilcherd. At which time, there flocketh a great concourse of Sayners, and others, depending vpon their labour. I haue heard the Inhabitants thereabouts to report, that the Earle of Richmond (afterwards Henry the seuenth) while hee houered vpon the coast, here by stealth refreshed himselfe; but being aduertised of streight watch, kept for his surprising at Plymouth, he richly rewarded his hoste, hyed speedily a shipboord, and escaped happily to a better fortune.

Here also of late yeeres, part of the Cornish forces twise encamped themselues, planted some Ordinance, and raised a weake kind of fortification, therethrough to contest, if not repulse, the landing of the expected enemie: and a strong watch is continually kept there, euer since one thousand, fiue hundred, ninetie seuen: at which time, a Spaniard riding on the Bay, while most of the able people gaue their attendance at the Countie Assises, sent some closely into the village, in the darke of the night, who hanged vp barrels of matter fit to take fire, vpon certaine doores, which by a traine should haue burned the houses. But one of the Inhabitants, espying these vnwelcome ghests, with the bounce of a Caliuer chaced them aboord, and remoued the barrels, before the traynes came to worke their effect. The Inginer of this practise, (as hath since appeared by some examinations) was a Portugall, who sometimes sayled with Sir Iohn Borowghs, and boasted to haue burned his Ship: for which two honourable exploits, the King of Spaine bestowed on him two hundred duckets.


In the mouth of the harbour, lyeth S. Nicholas Iland, in fashion, losengy, in quantity, about 3. acres, strongly fortifyed, carefully garded, and subiect to the Commaunder of Plymmouth fort.

When the Cornish rebels, during Edw. the 6. raigne, turmoyled the quiet of those quarters, it yeelded a safe protection to diuers dutyful subiects, who there shrowded themselues.

From this Iland, a range of rocks reacheth ouer to the Southwest shore, discouered at the low water of Spring tides, and leauing onely a narrow entrance in the midst, called the Yate, for ships to passe thorow, whereto they are directed by certaine markes at land.

Vpon this South shore, somewhat within the Iland, standeth mount Edgecumb, a house builded and named by Sir Ric. Edgecumb, father to the now possessioner: and if comparisons were as lawfull in the making, as they prooue odious in the matching, I would presume to ranke it, for health, pleasure, and commodities, with any subiects house of his degree in England. It is seated against the North, on the declining of a hill, in the midst of a Deere park, neere a narrow entrance, thorow which the salt water breaketh vp into the country, to shape the greatest part of the hauen. The house is builded square, with a round turret at eche end, garretted on the top, & the hall rising in the mids aboue the rest, which yeeldeth a stately sound, as you enter the same. In Summer, the opened casements admit a refreshing coolenes: in Winter, the two closed doores exclude all offensiue coldnesse: the parlour and dining chamber giue you a large & diuersified prospect of land & sea; to which vnderly S. Nicholas Iland, Plymmouth fort, & the townes of Plymmouth, Stonehouse, Milbrook, & Saltajh. It is supplyed with a neuer-fayling spring of water, and the dwelling stored with wood, timber, fruit, Deere, and Conies. The ground abundantly answereth a housekeepers necessities, for pasture, arable and meadow, and is replenished with a kinde of stone, seruing both for building, lyme, and marle. On the seaclifs groweth great plenty of the best Ore-wood, to satisfie the owners want, and accommodate his neighbours. A little below the house, in the Summer euenings, Sayne-boates come and draw with their nets for fish; whither the gentry of the house walking downe, take the pleasure of the sight, and sometimes at all aduentures, buy the profit of the draughts. Both sides of the forementioned narrowe entrance, together with the passage betweene, (much haunted as the high way to PIymmouth) the whole towne of Stonehouse, and a great circuit of the land adioyning, appertaine to M. Edgecumbs inheritance: these sides are fenced with blockhouses, and that next to Mount Edgecumb, was wont to be planted with ordinance, which at coming & parting, with their base voices greeted such ghests as visited the house, neither hath the opportunity of the harbour wanted occasions to bring them, or the owners a franke mind to inuite them. For proofe whereof, the earst remembred Sir Ric. (a gentleman in whom mildnes & stoutnes, diffidence & wisdome, deliberatenes of vndertaking, & sufficieney of effecting, made a more commendable, then blazing mixture of vertue) during Q. Ma. raigne, entertained at one time, for some good space, the Admirals of the English, Spanish, & Netherland fleets, with many noble men besides. But not too much of this, least a partiall affection steale, at vnwares, into my commendation, as one, by my mother, descended from his loynes, and by my birth, a member of the house.


Certaine olde ruines, yet remaining, confirme the neighbours report, that neere the waters side, there stood once a towne, called West stone house, vntill the French by fire and sword ouerthrew it.

In the yeere one thousand, fiue hundred, ninetie nine, the Spaniards vaunts caused the Cornish forces to aduance there a kind of fortification, and to plot the making of a Bridge on barges ouer that strait, for inhibiting the enemies accesse by boates and Gallies, into the more inward parts of the hauen. But it may be doubted, whether the bridge would haue proued as impossible, as the Sconce fell out vnnecessarie.

Master Peter Edgecumbe (commonly called Peers) married Margaret the daughter of Sir Andrew Lutterel, his father Sir Richard married [blank] the daughter of Tregian: his father Sir Peers married [blank] the daughter, and heire of Stephan Durnford: and his father Sir Richard, married [blank] the daughter of Tremayn. These names of Peers and Richard, they haue successiuely varied for sixe or seuen descents. Hee beareth for his Armes, Gules on a Bend ermine, betweene two Cotises, Or. 3. Bores heades coped, arg. armed as the third; Langued as the field.

A little inward from Mountedgecumb, lieth a safe and commodious Road for shipping, called Hamose, and compounded of the words Ose, and Ham, according to the nature of the place. Here those vessels cast anchor, which are bound to the Eastwards, as those doe in Catwater, who would fare to the West; because euerie wind that can erue them at Sea, will from thence carrie them out: which commoditie other roads doe not so conueniently affoord. It is reported, that in times past, there was an ordinary passage ouer this water, to a place on Deuon side, called Horsecoue, but long since discontinued.

At the higher end of a creek, passing vp from hence, Milbrook lurketh between two hilles, a village of some 80. houses, and borrowing his name from a mill and little brook, running therethrough. In my remembrance (which extendeth not to aboue 40. yeeres) this village tooke great encrease of wealth and buildings, through the iust and industrious trade of fishing, and had welneere forty ships and barks at one time belonging therevnto. But our late broyles with Spayne haue let vp a more compendious, though not so honest way of gayning, and begin by little and little, to reduce these plaine dealers, to their former vndeserued plight. Yet do they prescribe, in a suburbiall market (as I may terme it) to Plymmouth, for their reliefe, by intercepting, if not forestalling, such corne and victuals, as passing thorow their streights, cannot for want of time or weather, get ouer Crymell passage, to the other: and surely they are not unworthy of fauour: for this towne furnisheth more able Mariners at euery prest for her Highnesse seruice, then many others of far greater blaze.

It chanced about twenty yeeres sithence, that one Richaurd, wife to Richard Adams of this towne, was deliuered of two male children, the one ten weekes after the other, who liued vntil baptisme, & the later hitherto: Which might happen, in that the woman bearing twinnes, by some blow, slide, or other extraordinary accident, brought forth the first before his time, and the later in his due season. Now, that a childe borne in the seuenth moneth may liue, both Astrologers and Phisicions [102] doe affirme, but in the 8. they deny it; and these are their reasons: The Astrologers hold, that the child in the mothers wombe, is successiuely gouerned euery moneth, by the seuen Planets, beginning at Saturne: after which reckoning, he returning to his rule the 8, month, by his dreery influence, infortunateth any birth that shal then casually befall: whereas his succeeder Iupiter, by a better disposition worketh a more beneficiall effect. The Phisicions deliuer, that in the seuenth moneth, the childe, by course of nature, turneth it self in the mothers belly; wherefore, at that time, it is readier (as halfe loosed) to take issue by any outward chance. Mary, in the eighth, when it beginneth to settle againe, and as yet retayneth some weakenes of the former sturring, it requireth a more forcible occasion, & that induceth a slaughtering violence. Or if these coniecturall reasons suffice not to warrant a probability of the truth, Plynies authority in a stranger case, shall presse them farther: for hee writeth, that a woman brought a bed of one childe in the seuenth moneth, in the moneths following, was also deliuered of twinnes.

A part of Mount-Edgecumb, and of this Milbrook, though seuered from Deuon, by the generall bound, yet, vpon some of the foreremembred considerations, haue bene annexed thereunto.

Aside of Milbrook, lyeth the Peninsula of Inswork, on whose neckland standeth an ancient house of the Champernons, and descended by his daughters and heires, to Forteskew, Monck, and Treuilian, three Gentlemen of Deuon. The site is naturally both pleasant and profitable; to which, the owner by his ingenious experiments, daily addeth an artificiall surplusage.

Passing somewhat farther vp, you meet with the foot of Lyner, where it winneth fellowship with Tamer, that, till then, and this, yet longer, retayning their names, though their ouer-weake streames were long before confounded, by the predominant salt water. A little within this mouth of Lyner, standeth East-Antony, the poore home of mine ancestours, with which in this maner they were inuested: Sir Iohn Lerchedekne, Knight, and not priest, (for he was so called of his family, and not by his calling, as in Froissard you shall note the like, to be familiar amongst the nobility of Gascoigne) by Cecill, the daughter and heire of Iordan of Haccumb, had issue 9. sonnes, Ralph, Waryne, Richard, Otho, Iohn, Robert, Martyn, Reignald, and Michael. Richard married Ione, the daughter of Iohn Bosowr, that bare him Thomas, in whome the heires male of this multiplyed hope tooke an end. Warine, afterwards knighted, tooke to wife Elizabeth, one of the daughters and heires to Iohn Talbot de Castro Ricardi, and on her begat three daughters and heires. Allenor, wedded to Sir Walter Lucy: Margery, to Sir Thomas Arundel of Taluerne: and Philip, to Sir Hugh Courtney of Bauncton (which I take is now named Boconnock.) From Lucy descended the Lord Faux, and others. Margery dyed childlesse, anno 1419. as is testified by her toomb-stone in West-Antony Church, where shee lyeth buried. Sir Hugh Courtney was second sonne to Ed. Earle of Deuon, & had 2. wiues: the first, Maud, daughter of the L. Beaumond; to whose children, for want of issue in the elder stock, that Earledome deuolued, & the later, our foreremembred Philip, who left her inheritance to her only daughter Ione: and she taking a patterne from her fathers fortune, espoused likewise 2. husbands, viz. Sir Nicholas Baron of Carew, and Sir Robert Fere, brother to [103] Iohn Earle of Oxford: to Sir Nicholas, shee bare Thomas, Nicholas, Hugh, Alexander, and William: to Sir Robert, Iohn, and became widdow of both. And, as after the fathers decease, good agreement betweene the mother and eldest sonne hath commonly weake continuance, because both being enfranchised to a sudden absolute iurisdiction, neither of them can easily temper the same with a requisite moderation: so it chaunced, that shee and hers fell at square, which discord (with an vnnaturall extremity) brake forth into a blow, by him no lesse dearly, then vndutifully giuen his mother: for vpon so iust a cause, she disinherited him of all her lands, being seuenteene mannours, and bestowed them on her yonger sonnes. This I learned by the report of Sir Peter Carew, the elder of that name, and eldest of our stock (a Gentleman, whose rare worth my pen is not able to shaddow, much lesse with his due lineaments to represent) at such time, as being a scholler in Oxford of fourteene yeeres age, and three yeeres standing, vpon a wrong conceyued opinion touching my sufficiency, I was there called to dispute ex tempore (impar congressus Achilli) with the matchles Sir Ph. Sidney, in presence of the Earles, Leycester, Warwick, and diuers other great personages. By the forementioned conueyance, she disposed of her sayd mannours as followeth: Haccumb, Ringmore, and Milton, shee gaue to Nicholas: Lyham, Manedon, Combhall, and Southtawton, to Hugh: East-Antony, Shoggebroke, and Landegy, to Alexander: Wicheband, Widebridge, Bokeland, and Bledeuagh, to William: and lastly, Roseworthy, Bosewen, and Tregennow, to Iohn: al which she entailed to them, and the issue of their bodies, substituting, for want thereof, the one to be heire to the other: and in witnes hereof (sayth she in her conueyance) to each of these deedes fiue times indented, I haue set my seale ; and because my seale is to many vnknowne, haue procured the seale of the Maior of the Citie of Exon, to be also adioyned.

Thomas her eldest sonne, repayred this losse, in part, by matching with one of Carminowes, daughters and heires.

From Nicholas, is descended Carew of Haccumb, who by vertue of this entayle, succeeded also to Hughs portion, as deceasing issuelesse. From William is come Carew of Crocum in Somerset shire, and from Iohn Vere, the now Earle of Oxford, deriueth his pedigree. Alexander maried Elizabeth the daughter of Hatch, and begate Iohn, who tooke to wife Thamesin, one of the daughters and heires of Holland: their sonne Sir Wymond, espoused Martha, the daughter of Edmund, and sister to Sir Anthony Denny. Sir Wymond had Thomas, the husband of Elizabeth Edgecumb, and they myselfe, linked in matrimony with Iulian, daughter to Iohn Arundel of Trerice, and one of the heires to her mother Catherine Cosewarth, who hath made me father of Richard, lately wedded to Briget, daughter of Iohn Chudleigh of Ashton in Deuon.

Touching our stock in generall, and my family in particular, being once vainly disposed (I would it had bene but once) I made this idle obseruation.

    CArew of ancient Carru was,
      And Carru is a plowe,
    Romanes the trade, Frenchmen the word,
      I doe the name auowe.
    The elder stock, and we a braunch,
      At Phoebes gouerning.


    From fire to sonne, doe waxe and wane,
      By thrift and lauishing.
    The fire, not valuing at due price
      His wealth, it throwes away:
    The sonne, by seruice or by match,
      Repaireth this decay.
    The smelling fence we sundry want,
      But want it without lack:
    For t'is no sense, to wish a weale,
      That brings a greater wrack.
    Through natures marke, we owne our babes,
      By tip of th' upper lip;
    Black-bearded all the race, saue mine,
      Wrong dide by mothership.
    The Barons wife, Arch-deacons heire,
      Vnto her yonger sonne
    Gaue Antony, which downe to me,
      By 4. descents hath runne.
    All which, and all their wiues, exprest
      A Turtles single loue,
    And neuer did tha'duentrous change,
      Of double wedding proue.
    We are the fist: to swarue herefrom,
      I will not though I could,
    As for my wife, God may dispose,
      Shee shall not, though she would.
    Our family transplants it selfe,
      To grow in other shires,
    And Countrey rather makes then takes,
      As best behoofe appeares.
    Children thrice three God hath vs lent,
      Two sonnes, and then a mayd,
    By order borne, of which, one third
      We in the graue haue layd.
    Our eldest daughter widow fell,
      Before our yongest borne:
    So doe hard haps vnlooked come,
      So are our hopes forlorne.
    Mine trebled haue in either sexe,
      Those which my parents got,
    And yet but halfed them, which God
      My graundsire did allot:
    Whose grace in Court, rarely obtayned,
      To th'yongst of those eighteene,
    Three Kings of England Godfathers,
      For Godmother, our Queene.

The Armes of our family, are Or. 3. Lyons passant, sable: armed and
Langued Gules.

It exceedeth good maners, to inuite your longer stay at our cold harbour; and yet, for that diuers strangers haue, either vpon cause or kindnesse, pretended to like well of a saltwater pond there made; and others, whose dwelling affoordeth a semblable oportunity, may (perhaps) take some light herefrom, to doe the like: if they be so disposed, I will put my selfe to the payne of particularly describing it, and you may (notwithstanding) at your pleasure, saue the labour of perusing it; wherein I will by the way interlace some notes, for the Imitaters better instruction.

There lyeth a creeke of Ose, betweene two hilles, which deliuering a little fresh rillet into the sea, receyueth for recompence, a large ouerflowing of the salt water tides. This place is deepened to a pond, by casting vp part of the Ose to the heades, part to the middle, and part to the sides: the vpper head stoppeth out the fresh water, the lower keepeth in the salt: the middle rayseth an Iland for the Workmens [105] ease, the owners pleasure, and the fishes succour. The Ose thus aduaunced, within short space, through the sunne and winde, changeth his former softnes, to a firmer hardnesse. Round about the pond, there is pitched a frith of three foote heighth, sloped inwards, to barre any Otter from issuing, if hee there aduenture his naturall theft, as it would foreclose his entrance, but lose the pastime of his hunting, if the same declined outwards. In one of the corners next the sea, standeth a flood-gate, to bee drawne vp and let downe through reigles in the side postes, whose mouth is encompassed with a double frith, of two foote distance, eche from other, and their middle space filled vp with small stones: this serueth to let in the salt water, and to keepe in the fish, when the flood-gate is taken vp: and therefore you must not make the frith too close, nor the compasse too little, lest they too much stop the waters passage. It riseth of equall heighth with the banks, & they must outreach the highest full sea mark, by two foot at least: neyther ought your flood-gates foote to stand euen with the pondes bottome, lest emptying the water, it wholly abandon the fish, but must leaue about three foot depth within. In the halfe circle enclosed between the flood-gate and the compasse frith, there is digged a round pit, of three foot diameter, and foure foot depth, frithed on the sides, which is continually fedde with the water soaking from the sayd flood-gate, and serueth to keepe any fish aliue, that you haue before taken, and so to saue ouer often drawing. The floodgate will hold water best, if his sides be walled vp with Cob. The pond may not carry one continuall depth, but containe some shallow places, to protect the smaller fish from the greater, and for them all to play in, when the weather is hote. In the higher banke there is also a flood-gate, to let in the fresh water, during Summer season, which the fish then best affecteth; the rest of the yeere it is carryed away by a trench, for auoyding diuers discommodities.

Thus much for the making: now to the vse. Such as haue the meanes, may best benefit themselues, by letting in the salt water euery tyde, which is easily done, in making that place, where the water entreth, lower then the bankes and frith, and so suffering the tyde to take his course forth and back, without stop or attendance: and in this case, you may place your flood-gate euen with the floore of your pond, and neuer take it vp, but when you are disposed to view all your store. But mine lieth so high from the mouth of the hauen, as I am driuen to detayne the last prouision, vntill the comming spring-tyde haue taken two daies encrease; at which time, the flood-gate is hoysed vp, the old water let out, and the new admitted. At full sea downe goeth the flood-gate againe, and there abideth, vntill the next day minister the like ocasion: and after this maner is opened and closed, for sixe dayes in the whole, continuing from thenceforth other ten dayes vnmedled withall, to wit, 8. daies of the neap, & two of the spring. Neither doth al this require ouer-long, or busie paines or attendance: for if the former water be let out (sauing in extreme cold weather) before any new come in, or stopped somewhat too late, it little skilleth, so as on the last day you keepe the aduantage, which the flood, then at highest, doth giue you.

And all these seruices about my pond, together with sundry other, are performed by an old fellow whome I [106] keepe for almes, and not for his worke. The best meanes of preuenting leakage, is to let three or foure shouels full of earth fall softly downe, by the inner side of the flood-gate, which will quurt vp his chinkes.

In winter season, sixe foote depth of water, at least, is requisite.

Now touching the fish, this is the maner: when the Pilcherd Sayners cut the most impayred pieces out of their nets, they are bought for a trifle, and serue to make a lesse Sayne, of fome 30. or 40. fathom length, and 2. in depth, for this purpose, wherewith, betweene Midsummer and the end of August, when the full sea falleth in the after-noones, my people make draughtes on the shallow places within harbour, and taking small fishes, cast them into the pond: they are kept & brought thither aliue, in a boat halfe full of water, which entreth thorow a little augre hole in the bottome, and so continueth new. The fish thus taken, are commonly Basse, Millet, Guilthead, Whiting, Smelts, Flouk, Plaice, and Sole. The pond also breedeth Crabs, Eeles, & Shrimps; and (in the beginning) Oysters grew vpon boughs of trees (an Indian miracle) which were cast in thither, to serue as a houer for the fish. The Basse and Millet do also spawn there, but whether they ouerliue their breeders rauening, to any big growth, I am not certayne. The pond will moreouer keepe Shote, Peale, Trought, and Sammon, in seasonable plight, but not in their wonted reddish graine. They feed on salt vnmarchantable Pilcherd, small fish, called Brit, and Barne, Tag-wormes, Lugges, little Crabs, & the liuers of beasts: the rest deuoure their meat, but the Millets content themselues with sucking it, and chawing of the sedge. Euery euening they come to a place certain in the pond, for receiuing their allowed pittance, and in Summer, approche very neere, and in the top of the water plainly discouer themselues. They were first trayned hereunto, by throwing in their bayte at the ponds mouth, as they resorted thither, to take pleasure of the new entring water, and are now become alike tame, with those in the Sicilian riuer Elorus, for which, Leonicus voucheth the testimony of Apollodorus. If they be absent, a knocking, like the chopping of their meat, serueth for a summons to call them, & confirmeth Plynies assertion, that fishes do heare. In the hotest Summer weather, they swimme with the ryme of the water; and in the Winter, keepe the depth. Lymy, or thicke puddelly water, killeth them: they grow very fast, and fatte, which also bettereth their taste, and deliuereth them to the demaunders ready vse, at all seasons, seasonable.

They are taken generally, by a little Sayne net: specially the Eeles in weelies: the Flowks, by groping in the sand, at the mouth of the pond, where (about Lent) they bury themselues to spawn; & the Basse and Millet by angling.

The pleasure which I took at my friends pleasure herein, idlely busied me thus to expresse the same.

    I Wayt not at the Lawyers gates,
    Ne shoulder clymers downe the stayres;
    I vaunt not manhood by debates,
    I enuy not the misers feares:
      But meane in state, and calme in sprite,
      My fishfull pond is my delight.

    Where equall distant Iland viewes
    His forced banks, and Otters cage :


    Where salt and fresh the poole renues,
    As Spring and drowth encrease or swage:
      Where boat presents his seruice prest,
      And net becomes the fishes nest;

    There sucking Millet, swallowing Basse,
    Side-walking Crab, wry-mouthed Flooke,
    And flip-fist Eele, as euenings passe,
    For safe bayt at due place doe looke:
      Bold to approche, quick to espy,
      Greedy to catch, ready to fly.

    In heat the top, in cold the deepe:
    In spring the mouth, the mids in neap:
    With changelesse change by shoales they keepe,
    Fat, fruitfull, ready, but not cheap :
      Thus meane in state, and calme in sprite,
      My fishfull pond is my delight.

And againe.

    STench-louing Flies, their father heat,
    On mother, moysture doth beget;
    Who feeling force of Sunne too great,
    Their course vnto some water set,
      There meane of calmy ayre to proue,
      Twixt coole below and warmth aboue.

    But carelesse of foresight in weale,
    The euening deaw droplodes their wing,
    So forst, downe-falne, for flight to fayle,
    With buzzing moane their bane they sing,
      Fluttering in waue, swimming in ayre,
      That, weake to drowne, and this, to beare.

    While thus they can nor liue nor dye,
    Nor water-gieu'd, escape away,


    The fish and swallowes it espie,
    And both them challenge for their pray;
      The fish as caught within their toyle,
      The Swallowes as their kindely spoyle.

    The fish, like Swallowes, mount on high,
    The Swallowes, fish-like diue in waue,
    These, finlesse swimme, those, winglesse fly,
    One bent their diuers ventures haue,
      Fish in the drye, Swallowes in wet,
      By kinde 'gainst kinde their prey to get.

    Their push a bubble vp doth reare,
    The bubble driues the Fly to brinke:
    So Fish in vaine deuoure the ayre,
    Swallowes in vayne the water drinke,
      While Fly escapes, this sport I take.
      Where pond doth th' Ocean captiue make.

I carried once a purpose, to build a little woodden banqueting house, on the Iland in my pond, which because some other may (perhaps) elsewhere put in execution, it wil not do much amisse, to deliuer you the plot, as the same was deuised for mee, by that perfectly accomplished gentleman, the late Sir Arthure Champernowne.

The Iland is square, with foure rounds at the corners, like Mount-Edgecumb. This should first have bene planched ouer and rayled about, with ballisters. In themidst, there should haue risen a boorded roome, of the like fashion, but lesser proportion, so to leaue sufficient space betweene that and the rayles for a walke round about: this square roome should within side haue bene sieled roundwise, and in three of the places where [108] the round joyned with the square, as many windowes should haue bene set; the fourth should haue serued for a dore. Of the 4. turrets, shut out by this round, one should haue made a kitchin, the second, a store-house, to keepe the fishing implements, the third, a buttery, & the fourth a stayre, for ascending to the next loft: which next loft should haue risen on the flat roofe of the lower, in a round forme, but of a lesser size againe, so to leaue a second Tarras, like the other: and as the square roome below was sieled round, so should this vpper round roome be sieled square, to the end, that where the side walks and sieling ioyned, three windowes and a doore might likewise find their places. The voyd spaces be- tweene the round and square, hee would haue turned to Cupboards and boxes, for keeping other necessary vtensiles, towards these fishing feasts.

Ouer-against this pond, lyeth beggers Iland, so called (as our neighbours relate) euer since my great grandsire espying 2. of that idle occupation, at a hote combate on the shore, while he was rowing homewards from Saltash, tooke them into his boat, & there set them on land, to try (as in a lists) the vttermost of their quarrell: which place they could not quit, vntil the low water should enfranchise them by wading & the respite, vent out the alye fume of their fury.

About 40. yeres agoe, it chanced, that a boat ouer-fraighted with people, in rowing downe the riuer from Saltash market, was by the extreme weather, sunk, neere to a place called Henpoint, and all the folke drowned, sauing one onely woman, named Agnes, the wife of one Cornish, whom it pleased God so to protect and direct, that in her first popping vp againe (which most liuing things accustome) shee espyed the boat (after it had discharged his burthen) risen likewise, and floting by her, full of water, whereon she got holde, sate astride vpon one of his sides, and by the winde and tyde, was vnusually, and almost miraculously driuen athwart the chanell, to a place called Wilcoue, where shee no sooner stepped ashore, but the boat (as hauing done his enioyned errand) presently recommited it selfe to the stormes disposition.

The woman thus freed from one peril at sea, aduentured another of little lesse consequence at land; for being not yet thoroughly restored to her sense, she clymed vp the cliffe in such a steepe place, as the very consideration thereof, doth euer sithence halfe amaze the beholders. But that ground was fore ordained to her good: for not long after, her husband tooke the same, with the rest of the tenement, in lease; and it now serueth her for a dwelling, and many others, by her charitie, for a reliefe.

Her sayd husband, & their two onely sonnes, at seuerall times, by one kind of misfortune, found their buriall in the waues.

The Oysters dredged in this Lyner, finde a welcomer acceptance, where the taste, & not appetite, is Cater for the stomack, then those of the adioyning Tamer, which groweth (as I coniecture) because Lyners lesser streame leaueth them to bee seasoned, with a more kindely and better relished saltnes.

The next parish vpon this riuer, is called Sheuiock, somtimes the ancient Dannyes inheritance & inhabitance: by whose daughter and heire, the same (together with other faire possessions) descended to the Earles of Deuon. In [109] the church there lie two Knights of that name, and one of their ladies by her husbands side, having their pictures embossed on their tombes in the side walles, and their Armes once painted round about; but now by the malice, not of men, but of time, defaced. They are held to be father and sonne, and that the sonne slayne in our warres with Fraunce, was from thence brought home to be here interred. There runneth also a tale amongst the parishioners, how one of these Dannyes ancestours vndertook to build the Church, and his wife the barne adioyning, and that, casting vp their accounts, vpon finishing of their workes, the barne was found to cost three halfepence more then the Church: and so it might well fall out: for it is a great barne, and a little Church.

In this parish standeth Crasthole, which by the high site, might more fitly be termed Open hill, a poore village but a much frequented thorow-fare, somewhat infamous, not vpon any present desert, but through an inueterate byword, viz. that it is peopled with 12. dwellings, and 13. cuckolds: for as the dwellings are more then doubled, so (I hope) the cuckolds are lesse then singled.

Howsoeuer, many wayfarers make themselues glee, by putting the Inhabitants in minde of this priuiledge; who againe, especially the women (like the Campellians in the North, and the London Bargers) forslow not to baigne them (vnlesse they plead their heels the faster) with a worse perfume, then Iugurth found fault with in the dungeon, where the Romanes buried him aliue, to attend his languishing and miserable death.

Vpon Sheuiock abbutteth S. Germanes, the greatest parish in Cornwall, if you ioyne to the store of people, the quantity and quality of the soyle, wherethrough it affoordeth commodious dwellings to sundry ancient Gentlemen, and wealthy Farmours; amongst which first sort, I may not (without withdrawing my testimony due to vertue) omit M. George Keckwitch of Catch-French, a house so named (by likelyhood) for some former memorable, though now forgotten accident, whose continuall, large, and inquisitiue liberality to the poore, did in the late deare yeres, extraordinarily extend it selfe to an inuiting emulation, but beyond the apprehensiue imitation of any other in the shire. He hath issue by Blanch, the daughter of Sir Frauncis Godolphin: his father George, maried Buller: his graundsire [blank] their ancient dwelling was in Essex, where this Gentleman enioyeth fayre possessions, & beareth for his armes, Ar. two Lyons in bend passant Sa. cotifed, G.

The Church towne mustreth many inhabitants, and sundry ruines, but little wealth, occasioned eyther through abandoning their fishing trade, as some conceiue, or by their being abandoned of the religious people, as the greater sort imagine: for in former times, the Bishop of Cornwals See, was from S. Petrocks in Bodmyn, remooued hither; as from hence, when the Cornish Dioces vnited with Deuon, it passed to Crediton: and lastly, from thence to Excester. But this first losse receyued reliefe through a succeeding Priory, which at the general suppression, changing his note with his coate, is now named Port Eliot, and by the owners charity distributeth, pro virili, the almes accustomably expected and expended at at such places. Neither will it (I thinke) much displease you to heare, how the gentlemans ancestour, of whom master Eliot bought it, came by the same.


Iohn Champernowne, sonne and heire apparent to Sir Philip of Deuon, in H. the 8. time, followed the Court, and through his pleasant conceits, of which much might be spoken, wan some good grace with the King. Now when the golden showre of the dissolued Abbey lands, rayned welnere into euery gapers mouth, some 2. or 3. gentlemen, the Kings seruants, and master Champernownes acquaintance, waited at a doore where the King was to passe forth, with purpose to beg such a matter at his hands: Our gentleman became inquisitiue to know their suit: they made strange to impart it. This while, out comes the King: they kneele down, so doth master Champernowne: they preferre their petition; the King graunts it: they render humble thanks, and so doth M. Champernowne: afterwards, he requireth his share; they deny it; he appeales to the King: the King avoweth his equall meaning in the largesse; whereon, the ouertaken companions were fayne to allot him this Priory for his partage.

The parish Church answereth in bignesse, the large proportion of the parish, & the surplusage of the Priory; a great part of whose chauncell anno 1592. fel suddenly downe, vpon a Friday, very shortly after publike seruice was ended, which heauenly fauour, of so little respite, saued many persons liues, with whom immediately before, it had bene stuffed: and the deuout charges of the well disposed parishioners quickly repayred this ruine.

At the townes end, Cuddenbeak, an ancient house of the Bishops, from a well aduanced Promontory, which intituled it Beak, taketh a pleasant prospect of the riuer.

In this parish lyeth Bake, the mansion of the foreremembred M. Ro. Moyle, who maried Anne daughter of M. Lock, as he did mistris Vaughan, a Gentlewoman suppressing her rare learning, with a rarer modesty, & yet expressing the same in her vertuous life and Christian decease. Iohn father to Robert maried Agnes, daughter of Semtabyn : and his father [blank] daughter of Forteskew, to whom that dwelling first descended. He beareth for his Armes, G. a Moyle passant, Ar. a part of this parish confineth on the maine sea & offreth a faire landing place, called Seaton, howbeit, by a handsome fence forbidding any foes inuasion: it is ouerlooked, vpon the one side of the riuer (which there dischargeth his streame into the Ocean) by Keuerel, the ancient house of the Langdons, Gent, in former times, of faire reuennues, whose Armes are Ar. a Cheuron betweene 3. Beares heads erased Sa. The house perhaps, borowing his name of Cheuereul, a French word, signifying a wild Goat (as those high clifs affoord them a commodious inhabitance) and on the other, by Tregonnock, the dwelling of M. Tho. Smith, who in a quiet and honest retirednes, findeth that contentment, which many ambitious heads, far and wide doe vainely seeke for: hee maried Tremayn: his father Robert [blank] one of the daughters and heires to Killigrew: and his sonne Iohn, Priscilla the daughter of M. Geo. Wadham. His Armes, B. a Saultier Ar. betweene 4. Martlets O.

Leauing S, Germanes, and passing through Laurake parish, in which M. Peter Courtney hath an high seated house, called Wotton, you descend to Noddetor bridge, where the riuer Lyner first mingleth his fresh streame with the brinish waues: touching whose name and quality, one delighted in the solitary solace of his banks, & more affecting his owne recreation, then hunting after any others good liking, descanted thus:


    WHo first gaue Lyners name,
    Or from what cause it came,
      Hard 'tis for certaine to expresse:
    Experience yet directs,
    By tryall of effects,
      Thereat to ayme, and frame a gesse,
    Is't, that as she thee bear'th,
    So thou doest line the earth,
      With purseld streames of blew and white:
    Or, as a line doth guide,
    So thou doest leuell slide,
      And throw'st into the sea thy mite?
    Is't, that with twisted line,
    The Angler doth vntwine
      The fishes life, by giuing breath.
    Or, as the threshing lout,
    Rusheth his Lyners out,
      So Lyner on his course rusheth:
    Or, as some puppy seat,
    Lineth a mastiue great,
      And getteth whelps of mongrell kinde:
    Lyner, the sea so lines,
    And streame with waue combines,
      Begetting waters freshly brin'de.


    WHen Sunne the earth least shadow spares,
    And highest stalles in heauen his seat,
    Then Lyners peeble bones he bares,
    Who like a lambe, doth lowly bleat,
      And faintly sliding euery rock,
     Plucks from his foamy fleece a lock:

    Before, a riuer, now a rill,
    Before, a fence, now scarce a bound;
    Children him ouer-leape at will,
    Small beasts, his deepest bottome sound.
      The heauens with brasse enarch his head,
      And earth, of yron makes his bed,

    But when the milder-mooded skie,
    His face in mourning weedes doth wrap,
    For absence of his clearest eie,
    And drops teares in his Centers lap,
      Lyner gynnes Lyon-like to roare,
      And scornes old bankes should bound him more.

    Then, second Sea, he rolles, and bear's,
    Rockes in his wombe, rickes on his backe.
    Downe-borne bridges, vptorne wear's,
    Witnesse, and wayle, his force, their wracke.
      Into mens houses fierce he breakes,
      And on each stop, his rage he wreakes.

    Shepheard adiew's his swymming flocke,
    The Hinde his whelmed haruest hope,
    The strongest rampire fear's his shocke,
    Plaines scarce can serue to giue him scope,
      Nor hils a barre; whereso he stray'th,
      Ensue, losse, terrour, ruine, death.

In following the course of Lyner, you fall downe by Master Bonds auncient house of Earth, descended to his auncesters, from the daughter and heire of that name, to that of Master Wiuels, newly and fayrely builded, on which abbutteth Ma. Bullers Shillingham, not so much beholden to the owners inhabitancy as to natures pleasant and commodious seating.

Bond married with Fountaine, his father with Fits: his [112] Armes are Ar. on a Cheuron Sa. three Besants.

Next, wee take view of Trematon Castle, as it doth of the Hauen, and Countrie adioyning. It is, or rather was, one of the Dukes foremencioned foure houses: for now all the inner buildings are sunke into ruine: onely there remaine the Iuie-tapissed wals of the Keepe, and base Court, and a poore dwelling for the keeper of the Gayle, to which prisoners are brought vpon actions, from al places appurtenant to that large Lordship, if they cannot by suretiship discharge themselues, from the Bailiefes arrest.

I haue receiued information, from one auerring eyewitnes, that about fourscore yeres since, there was digged vp in the Parish Chauncell, a Leaden coffin, which being opened, shewed the proportion of a verie bigge man, but when the hands went about to ascertaine themselues, as well as their eyes, the body verified, that Omnis caro puluis. The partie farder told me, how, a writing graued in the Lead, expressed the same to bee the burial of a Duke, whose heire was married to the prince. But who it should bee, I cannot deuise, albeit my best pleasing coniecture, lighteth vpon Orgerius, because his daughter was married to Edgar.

At the last Cornish commotion, S, Richard Greynuile the elder did, with his Ladie and followers, put themselues into this Castle, & there for a while indured the Rebels siege, incamped in three places against it, who wanting great Ordinance, could haue wrought the besieged small scathe, had his friends, or enemies kept faith and promise: but some of those within, slipping by night ouer the wals, with their bodies after their hearts, and those without, mingling humble intreatings with rude menaces, he was hereby wonne, to issue forth at a posterne gate for parley. The while, a part of those rakehels, not knowing what honestie, and farre lesse, how much the word of a souldier imported, stepped betweene him and home, laid hold on his aged vnweyldie body, and threatned to leaue it liuelesse, if the inclosed did not leaue their resistance. So prosecuting their first treacherie against the prince, with suteable actions towards his subiects, they seized on the Castle, and exercised the vttermost of their barbarous crueltie (death excepted) on the surprised prisoners. The seely Gentlewomen, without regard of sexe or shame, were stripped from their apparrell to their very smockes, and some of their fingers broken, to plucke away their rings, and Sir Richard himselfe made an exchange from Trematon Castle, to that of Launceston, with the Gayle to boote.

This Castle vaunteth the Lord Warden his steward by Patent, Master Anthonie Rouse his Baylife by inheritance, and Richard Carew of Antony his keeper by lease. Of the ancient officers, one yet retayneth the name, though not the place, viz. M. Porter, to whose ancestor, when Vantor was L. thereof, one by a deed before date, gaue land, lying without the gate, by the title of Russell Ianitori de Trematon, which he still enioyeth. M. Porters Armes are Sa. Three Belles Ar. a Canton Erm.

It standeth in S. Stephens parish : the sheafe whereof, together with other faire reuennues, M. George Wadham enioying in the right of his wife, the daughter and heire to master Hechins, liberally bestoweth in continuall hospitalitie.

Master Hechins armes, are Sa. a crosse Fleurty, [113] quarterly B. and G. betweene 4. Lyons heades erased Sa. langued of the second. M. Wadhams, G. a Cheuron betweene three Roses Ar.

The same parish also compriseth Saltash, in old writings, called Villa de Esse; Esse his towne: and such Gentlemen there have been of ancient descent and faire reuennues. The word Salt, is added thereunto, because it standeth on the sea, & to distinguish it from other places of the same name. It is seated on the declyning of a steep hill, consisteth of three streets, which euery showre washeth cleane, compriseth betweene 80. and 100. households, vnderlyeth the gouernment of a Maior & his 10. brethren, and possesseth sundry large priuiledges ouer the whole hauen, to wit, an yeerely rent of boates and barges appertayning to the harbour, ancorage of strange shipping, crowning of dead persons, laying of arrests, and other Admirall rights, besides electing of Burgesses for the Parliaments, benefit of the passage, foreclosing all others, saue themselues, from dredging of Oysters, except betweene Candlemas and Easter, weekely markets, halfe-yeerely fayres, &c.

The towne is of late yeeres well encreased and adorned with buildings, & the townsmen addict themselues to the honest trade of marchandise, which endoweth them with a competent wealth. Some 7. or 8. ships belong thereunto.

It was not long since, that the neighbour-ministers successiuely bestowed their paines in preaching there, on the market daies, and the bordering gentlemen yeelded their presence. Sermon ended, the Preachers resorted to one ordinary, and the Gentlemen to another. This affoorded commendable effects to many works of loue and charity: but, with the retorted blame, from one to another, it is now wholly giuen ouer.

Heere, that great Carrack, which Sir Frauncis Drake surprised, in her returne from the East Indies, vnloded her frayght, and through a negligent fyring, met with an vnproper ending.

In this towne also dwelleth one Grisling, deafe from a long time, who, besides his merry conceites, of counterfeyting by signes (like the Romane Pantomimi) any kinde of occupation or exercise, hath a strange quality, to vnderstand what you say, by marking the mouing of your lips, especially if you speake deliberately, of any ordinary matter, so as (contrary to the rules of nature, and yet without the helpe of arte) he can see words as they passe forth of your mouth: and of this I haue caused him to giue often experiments.

And if Plyny now liued, I suppose he would affoord a roome, in his natural History, to a dogge of this town, who (as I haue learned by the faithfull report of master Thomas Parkins) vsed daily to fetch meate at his house there, and to carry the same vnto a blinde mastiffe, that lay in a brake without the towne: yea, (that more is) hee would vpon Sundayes conduct him thither to dynner, and, the meale ended, guide him back to his couch and couert againe.

I had almost forgotten to tell you, that there is a well in this towne, whose water will neuer boyle peason to a seasonable softnes.

At the foot of Saltash, there abbutteth vpon the sea, a rock, called Ashtorre, alias, Effes Torre, which is inuested with the iurisdiction of a mannour, and claymeth the suites of many Gentlemen, as his freeholders in Knights [114] seruice. Below this, there is a rock on eche side of the riuer, the one termed the Bull, the other the Hen; that on Deuon, this on Cornwall side. The Hen standeth a little distant from the shore, which giueth occasion to a Packe, how between it and the land, the Queenes greatest ship may saile; but it is meant of the farther distant.

Aboue Saltash, Cargreen, a fisher towne, sheweth it selfe, but can hardly muster a meane plight of dwellings or dwellers: so may their care be greene, because their wealth is withered.

Neere thereunto is Clifton, a neat seated house, appertayning to one of the Arundels, descended by a yonger brother, from those of Trerice; he maried Hill, his father, Cole.

Neither hath your eye scarcely quitted that, when it receiueth Halton, the pleasant and commodious dwelling of M. Anthony Rouse, both which benefits, he empleyeth to a kind & vninterrupted entertainment of such, as visit him vpon his not spare inuiting, or their owne occasions, who (without the selfe guilt of an vngratefull wrong) must witnes, that his frankenesse confirmeth their welcome, by whatsoeuer meanes, prouision, the fewell of hospitality, can in the best maner supply. His auncestours were Lords of little Modbury in Deuon, before the descent of times grew to a distinguishment, by the date of writings: which mannour, together with other lands, through a lineall succession, fell to be possessed by Raphe, Wil. Raphe, Iohn, Wil. Raphe, and Raphe, whose daughter and heire Elizabeth, bestowed the same, with her selfe, vpon the family of the Dimocks, Robert, second sonne to the last mentioned Raphe, saue one, had issue Will, who maried Alice, the daughter and heire of Tho. of Edmerston. Wil. had another Wil. and he had Iohn, and Iohn againe had Wil. This Wil. had Roger, who vpon Iulian, sister and coheire of Iohn Hill of Fleet, begat Iohn and Richard, father to the Gentleman now liuing, and he matched with Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Southcott, and one of the heires to her mother, the daughter of Barnehouse: besides which, he succeeded to his vncle Iohns inheritance, who deceased issuelesse: and being yet scarcely entred the limits of an healthfull olde age, seeth his pedigree extended into two farther descents. As for those outreaching mans memory, I haue seene them very sufficiently verified: his Armes are, O. an Eagle displayed B. pruning her wing, armed and langued G.

Vpon the top of a creek hereby, lyeth Crocadon, the mansion of M. Treuisa, a Gent, deriuing himselfe from the ancient and weldeseruing Chronicler of that name: he beareth G. a garbe O.

A mile aboue Halton, standeth Cuttayle, another house of M. Edgecumbs, so named (as wee may coniecture) of the French Courtaile, in English, short cut; because here, the salt water course is straightned, by the incroching banks. The buildings are ancient, large, strong and fayre, and appurtenanced with the necessaries of wood, water, fishing, parks, and mils, with the deuotion of (in times past) a rich furnished Chappell, and with the charity of almes-houses for certaine poore people, whom the owners vsed to releeue. It is reported, & credited thereabouts, how Sir Ric. Edgecumb the elder, was driuen to hide himself in those his thick woods, which ouerlook the riuer, what time being suspected of fauouring the Earle of Richmonds party, against King R. the 3. hee was hotely pursued, and narrowely searched for. [115] Which extremity taught him a sudden policy, to put a stone in his cap, & tumble the same into the water, while these rangers were fast at his heeles, who looking downe after the noyse, and seeing his cap swimming thereon, supposed that he had desperately drowned himselfe, gaue ouer their farther hunting, and left him liberty to shift away, and ship ouer into Brittaine: for a gratefull remembrance of which deliuery, hee afterwards builded in the place of his lurking, a Chappell, not yet vtterly decayed.

And thus hauing coasted the Cornish side of Plymmouth hauen, I hold it not amisse, to make report of such great voyages, as, by the memory of our Chronicles, or our owne view, from this harbour, tooke their beginning or ending.

Heere the neuer inough commended black Prince, attended by the Earles of Warwick, Suffolk, Sarisbury, and Oxford, the Lord Chandos and others, committed himselfe to the sea, with a nauy of 300. bottoms, for landing and maintayning his fathers right in France; and hither, after his glorious battell at Poictiers, he returned, with the captiue French King and his nobles.

Here the Lady Katherine, daughter to the King of Spaine, and wife to our Prince Arthur, tooke land, at her first arriuall in England.

Heere shipped himselfe, the Lord Darcy, sent by King Henry the 8. with a lusty crew of soldiers, for that Ferdinands iust assistance, against the Infidels: but vsed by him as a stale, for the vniust conquest of Christian Nauar.

Here, mostly, haue the troups of aduenturers, made their Rendez vous, for attempting newe discoueries or inhabitances: as, Tho. Stukeleigh for Florida, Sir Humfrey Gilbert for Newfound-land, Sir Rich. Greynuile for Virginea, Sir Martyn Frobisher, and Master Dauies, for the North-west passage, Sir Walter Raleigh for Guiana, &c.

Here, Count Mongomery made forth, with a more commendable meaning, then able meanes, or welspeeding effect, for relieving the hard besieged, and sore distressed Rochellers.

Here, Sir Fra. Drake first extended the point of that liquid line, wherewith (as an emulator of the Sunnes glorie) he encompassed the world.

Here, Master Candish began to second him, with a like heroicall spirit, and fortunate successe.

Here, Don Antonio, King of Portugall, the Earles of Cumberland, Essex, and Notingham, the Lord Warden of the Stanneries, Sir Iohn Norrice, Sir Iohn Hawkins (and who elsewhere, and not here ?) haue euer accustomed to cut sayle, in carrying defiance, againt the imaginarie new Monarch; and heere to cast anker, vpon their returne with spoyle and honour.

I omit the infinite swarme of single ships, and pettie fleetes, dayly heere manned out to the same effect.

And here, in eightie eight, the foreremembred Lord Admirall expected, and set forth, against that heauen-threatning Armado, which, to bee tainted with the shamefuller disgrace, and to blaze our renoume with the brighter lustre, termed itselfe, Inuincible. But I may not grow ouer-lasciuious in extolling.

King R. the 2. Anno 5. of his raigne, by Act of Parliament, restrained all passengers from shipping themselues in any other Ports then such as are there set down: of which Plymmouth was one.


From Plymmouth hauen, passing farther into the countrie, Hengsten downe presenteth his waste head and sides to our sight. This name it borroweth of Hengst, which in the Saxon signifieth a horse, & to such least daintie beasts it yeeldeth fittest pasture. The countrie people haue a by word, that,

    Hengsten downe, well ywrought,
    Is worth London towne, deare ybought.

Which grewe from the store of Tynne, in former times, there digged vp: but that gainfull plentie is now fallen to a scant-sauing scarcitie. Those workes afford store of the formentioned Cornish Diamonds, The neighbouring Inhabitants obserue also, that when the top of Hengsten, is capped with a cloud, the same boadeth a showre within short time after.

Roger Houeden reporteth, that about Anno 806. a fleete of Danes arriued in West-wales, with whome the Welsh ioyned in insurrection against king Egbright, but hee gloriously discomfited them, at Hengistendune, which I take to be this place (if at least West-wales may, by interpretation, passe for Cornwall) because the other prouince, of that time, is more commonly diuided into North and South.

This down is edged by Carybullock, sometimes a parke of the Dukes, but best brooking that name, now it hath lost his qualitie, through exchaunging Deere for Bullocke.

A little aside from hence, lyeth Landwhitton, now Lawhittan, which (as I haue elsewhere noted) was exempted vnto Edwulff Bishop of Creditune, from the Cornish Diocesse, to which yet, both for the temporaltie, and spiritualtie, the same oweth present subiection.

Mary, into what new names Pontium & Coilleng there also mentioned, are now metamorphized, I must say amplio.

Those buildings commonly knowne by the name of Launston, and written Lanceston, are by the Cornishmen, called Lesteeuan (Lez in Cornish signifieth broad, & those are scatteringly erected) and were anciently termed Lanstaphadon, by interpretation, S. Stephens Church: they consist of two boroughs, Downeuet and Newport: that (perhaps so called) of downe yeelding, as hauing a steep hill: this, of his newer erection. With them ioyne the parishes of S. Thomas & S. Stephens. The parish Church of Launceston itselfe, fetcheth his title of dedication, from Mary Magdalen, whose image is curiously hewed in a side of the wall, and the whole Church fayrely builded.

The towne was first founded (saith M. Hooker) by Eadulphus, brother to Alpsius, Duke of Deuon and Cornwall, and by his being girded with a wall, argueth in times past to haue caried some valew.

A newe increase of wealth, expresseth it selfe in the Inhabitants late repayred and enlarged buildings. They are gouerned by a Maior, and his scarlet-robde brethren, and reape benefit by their fayres and markets, and the County Assizes. The Statute of 32. Henry 8. which tooke order touching Sanctuaries, endowed this towne with the priuiledge of one, but I find it not turned to any vse.

To the town there is adioynant in site, but sequestred in iurisdiction, an ancient Castle, whose steepe rocky-footed Keepe, hath his top enuironed with a treble wal, and in regard thereof, men say, was called, Castle terrible. The base court compriseth a decayed Chappell, a [117] large hall, for holding the shire-Assizes, the Constables dwelling house, and the common Gayle.

About 60. yeares past, there were found certaine leather coynes in the Castle wall, whose faire stamp and strong substance, till then resisted the assault of time, as they would now of couetousnesse.

A little without the towne, were founded a Friery, and anno 1128. an Abbey, furthered by Reignald Earle of Cornwall.

About 2. miles distant from Launceston, Penheale mannour coasteth the high way, claiming the right of ancient demain, & sometimes appertaining to the Earles of Huntingdon, but purchased not long sithence by the late M. George Greinuile, who descended from a yonger brother of that family, and through his learning and wisdome, aduanced his credit to an especiall good regard in his Countrey. He maried Iulian, one of the 6. daughters and heires of William Viel: and Iane, the daughter to Sir Iohn Arundel of Trerice. Richard his father tooke to wife, one of Kelwayes heires; and Degory his graundfather, one of the inheritors to Tregarthen: which helps, together with his owne good husbandry, haue endowed his sonne with an elder brothers liuelyhood: he beareth G. three Restes O.

In Lezant parish heereby, master Christopher Harris owneth a third part of Trecarell (the proiect: and onset of a sumptuous building) as coheire to the last Gentleman of that name, but admitteth no partner in the sweetly tempered mixture of bounty and thrift, grauity and pleasantnes, kindnesse and stoutnes; which grace all his actions. Hee beareth Sa. three Croissants within a border A.

Neither may wee forget Master Coringtons house of Newton, old to him by succession, yet new, in respect of his owne antiquitie: diuers his auncestors haue reaped the praise and reputation of a stayed carriage, howbeit one of them, through his rash, but merrie prankes,is to this day principally remembred, by the name of the mad Corington. I haue heard him deliuer an obseruation, that, in eight lineall descents, no one borne heire of his house euer succeeded to the land: hee beareth A, a Saultier Sa.

Trebigh, a priuiledged franchise, is by his Lord, Master William Wray, conuerted to a generall welcomer of his friends and neighbours. Hee married the daughter of Sir William Courtney: his father the coheire of Killigrew. Hee beareth Sa. a Fesse betweene three battelaxes A.

Poole, for his low and moyst seate, is not vnaptly named, houseth Sir Ionathan Trelawny, farre beneath his worth & calling: he married Sir Henry Killigrews daughter: his father, the coheire of Reskimer: his graundfather Lamellyns Inheritrix.

Poole standeth in Mynhinet parish, where Sir Ionathan hath a large priuiledged Mannour of the same name: the Benefice is giuen by Excester Colledge in Oxford, none but the fellowes admittable, wherethrough it hath successiuely beene graced, with three well borne, well learned, and welbeloued Incumbents; Doctor Tremayne, Master Billet, and Master Denis. Out of Sir Ionathans house is also descended Master Edward Trelawny, a Gentleman qualified with many good parts. Their armes are A. a Cheuron, S. betweene three Oke-leaues Vert.


Sundrie other Gent. rest beholden to this hundred, for their dwellings, who, in an enuiable mediocritie of fortune do happilie possesse themselues, and communicate their sufficient means to the seruice of their prince, the good of their neighbours, and the bettering of their owne estate: of which sort are,

  M. Becket, who beareth S. a Fesse, betweene three Boares
    heads coped, sixe Crosses crosselet Fichee. O.

  M. Tregodecke, who beareth A. a Cheuron betweene three
    Buckles S.

  M. Spurre, G. on a Cheuron O. a rose of the first, and
    2. mullets pearced S.

  M. Bligh, B. a Griffon segreant O. armed G. betweene 3.
    Croissants A.

M. Lower, B. a Cheuron engrayled O. betweene three Roses A.

M. Truisa G. a garb O.

  M. Chiuerton A. a Castle S. standing on a hill V. Manaton,
    A. on a Bend S. three mullets of the field,

and some others.

Stratton Hundred

STratton Hundred extendeth the breadth of Cornewall, to the North, as that of East beginneth it on the South, and therefore it shall next succeede. His circuit is slender, but his fruitfulnesse great, and the Inhabitants industrie commendable, who reape a large benefit from their orchyards and gardens, but especially from their Garlick (the Countreymans Triacle) which they vent, not onely into Cornwall, but many other shires besides.

Stratton, the onely market towne of this Hundred, gaue the same his name, and (if I mistake not) taketh it from Strata, a street: other memorable matter to report thereof, I finde not any.

Vpon one side of the towne, lyeth master Chamonds house and place of Launcels, so called, for that it was sometimes a Cell, appertaining to the Abbot of Hartlond.

This Gentlemans father, late deceased, receiued at Gods hands, an extraordinary fauour, of long life.

Hee serued in the office of a iustice of peace, almost 60. yeeres.

He knew aboue 50. seuerall Iudges of the westerne circuit.

He was vncle, and great vncle to at least 300. wherein yet, his vncle and neighbour, master Greynuile, parson of Kilkhampton, did exceed him.

He married one of the daughters and heires of Treuenner, and by her saw fiue sonnes, and two daughters, the yongest out-stepping 40. yeeres.

Sir Iohn Chamond his father, a man learned in the common lawes, was knighted at the Sepulchre, and by dame Iane, widdowe to Sir Iohn Arundell of Trerice, and daughter to Sir Thomas Greynuile, had an elder sonne called Thomas, whose two daughters, and heires, by Arscot, caried part of the lands, to Tripcony, and Treuanion, with whome they matched.

Master Chamond beareth A. a Cheuron betweene 3. flowers de Luce: G.

In Launcels parish, also, standeth Norton, the house of M. Tristram Arscot, a Gent, who by his trauailing abroad in his yonger yeres, hath the better enabled himselfe, to discharge his calling at home. He tooke to wife Eulalia, the widdow of the wise, and vertuous M. Edmond Tremayne, and daughter of Sir Iohn Sentleger, whose stately house of Anery, in Deuon, he purchased, & thither hath lately remoued his residence; he beareth party per Cheuron B, et E, in chiefe two stagges heads cabased 0.


Vpon the North-sea, thereby, bordereth Stow, so singly called, Per eminentiam, as a place of great and good marke & scope, and the auncient dwelling of the Greynuiles famous family, from whence are issued diuers male branches, and whether the females haue brought in a verie populous kindred. Master Bernard Greinuile, sonne and heire to Sir Richard, is the present owner, and in a kind magnanimite, treadeth the honourable steps of his auncestours.

Tonacumb, late the house of Master Iohn Kempthorne, alias, Lea, who married Katherine, the daughter of Sir Peers Courtney, is, by his issuelesse decease, descended to his brothers sonne: he beareth A. three Pine-apple trees V.

Returning to the Westwards, wee meete with Bude, an open sandie Bay, in whose mouth riseth a little hill, by euerie sea-floud made an Iland, and thereon, a decayed Chappell: it spareth roade onely to such small shipping, as bring their tide with them, and leaueth them drie, when the ebbe hath carried away the Salt-water.

Vpon one side hereof, Master Arundel of Trerice possesseth a pleasant-seated house, and demaines, called Efford, alias Ebbingford, and that not vnproperly, because euerie low water, there affordeth passage to the other shore: but now it may take a new name, for his better plight: for this Gentleman hath, to his great charges, builded a Salt-water mill, athwart this Bay, whose causey serueth, as a verie conuenient bridge to saue the way-farers former trouble, let, and daunger. It is receiued by tradition, that his belsire, Sir Iohn Arundel, was forewarned, by a wot not what Calker. how he should bee slaine on the sands. For auoyding which encounter, hee alwaies shunned Efford, & dwelt at Trerice, another of his houses. But, as the prouerb sayth, Fata viam inuenient, and as experience teacheth mens curiosity, Fato viam sternit. It hapned, that what time the Earle of Oxford surprized S. Michaels mount by policy, and kept the same by strong hand, this Sir Iohn Arundel was Sherife of Cornwall, wherethrough, vpon duety of his office, and commaundement from the Prince, hee marched thither, with posse Comitatus, to besiege it, and there, in a Skirmish on the sands, which deuide the mount from the continent, he fulfilled the effect of the prophecy, with the losse of his life, and in the said mounts Chappell lieth buried.

So Cambises lighted on Ecbatana in Egypt, and Alexander Epirot, on Acheros in Italy, to bring them to their end. So Philip of Macedon, and Atis the sonne of Croesus, found a chariot in a swords hilt, and an Iron poynted weapon at the hunting of a Bore, to delude their preuentiue wearinesse. So Amilcar supped in Siracusa, & the Prince of Wales ware a Crown thorow Cheapside, in another sort and sense then they imagined, or desired. And so Pope Gerebert, and our king H. the 4, trauailed no farther, for meeting their fatal Hierusalem, then the one to a Chappell in Rome, the other to a chamber in Westminster.

S. Marie Wike standeth in a fruitfull soyle, skirted with a moore, course for pasture, and combrous for trauellers. Wic, by master Lambert, signifieth a towne: by master Camden, Stationem, vel Sinum, ubi exercitus agit. This village was the birth-place of Thomasine Bonauenture, I know not, whether by descent, or euent, so called: [120] for-whiles in her girlish age she kept sheepe on the foreremembred moore, it chanced, that a London merchant passing by, saw her, heeded her, liked her, begged her of her poore parents, and carried her to his home. In processe of time, her mistres was summoned by death to appeare in the other world, and her good thewes, no lesse then her seemely personage, so much contented her master, that he aduanced her from a seruant to a wife, and left her a wealthy widdow. Her second mariage befell with one Henry Gall: her third and last, with Sir John Perciual, Lord Maior of London, whom she also ouerliued. And to shew, that vertue as well bare a part in the desert, as fortune in the meanes of her preferment, she employed the whole residue of her life and last widdowhood, to works no lesse bountifull, then charitable: namely, repayring of high waies, building of bridges, endowing of maydens, relieuing of prisoners, feeding and apparelling the poor, &c. Amongst the rest, at this S. Mary Wike, she founded a Chauntery and free-schoole, together with faire lodgings, for the Schoolemasters, schollers, and officers, and added twenty pound of yeerely reuennue, for supporting the incident charges: wherein as the bent of her desire was holy, so God blessed the same with al wished successe: for diuers the best Gent. sonnes of Deuon and Cornwall were there vertuously trained vp, in both kinds of diuine and humane learning, vnder one Cholwel, an honest and religious teacher, which caused the neighbours so much the rather, and the more to rewe, that a petty smacke onely of Popery, opened a gap to the oppression of the whole, by the statute made in Edw. the 6. raigne, touching the suppression of Chaunteries.

Such strange accidents of extraordinary aduancements are verified by the ample testimonie of many histories, and, amongst the rest, we read in Machiauell (howbeit controuled by the often reproued Iouius) that Castruccio Caestracani climed from a baser birth, to a farre higher estate. For being begotten in Lucca, by vnknowne parents, and cast out, in his swadling clouts, to the wide world, he was taken vp by a widdowe, placed by her with a Clergy man her brother, giuen by him to a Gent, called Francesco Guinigi, and by Guinigi left tutor to his onely sonne. From which step, his courage and wisedome raysed him by degrees, to the soueraignty of Lucca, the Senatorship of Rome, the speciall fauour of the Emperour, and a neere hope (only by death preuented) of subduing Florence.

Lesnewith Hundred.

LEsnewith Hundred taketh his name of a parish therein (as Stratton doth of a towne) memorable for nothing else. It may he deriued, either from Les, which in Cornish signifieth broad, and newith, which is new, as a new breadth, because it enlargeth his limits farther into Cornwall on both sides, whereas Stratton is straightned on the one by Deuon: or from Les and gwith, which importeth broad Ashen trees, g, for Euphonias sake being turned into n.

The first place which heere offreth itselfe to sight, is Bottreaux Castle, seated on a bad harbour of the North sea, & suburbed with a poore market town, yet entitling the owner in times past, with the stile of a Baron, from whom, by match it descended to the L. Hungerford, & [121] resteth in the Earle of Huntingdon. The diuersified roomes of a prison, in the Castle, for both sexes, better preserued by the Inhabitants memorie, then descerneable by their owne endurance, shew the same, heeretofore to haue exercised some large iurisdiction.

Not farre from thence, Tintogel, more famous for his antiquite, then regardable for his present estate, abbutteth likewise on the sea; yet the ruines argue it, to haue beene once, no vnworthie dwelling for the Cornish princes. The cyment wherewith the stones were layd, resisteth the fretting furie of the weather, better then themselues. Halfe the buildings were raised on the continent, and the other halfe on an Iland, continued together (within mens remembrance) by a drawe-bridge, but now diuorced, by the downefalne steepe Cliffes, on the farther side, which, though it shut out the sea from his wonted recourse, hath yet more strengthened the late Iland: for, in passing thither, you must first descend with a dangerous declyning, and then make a worse ascent, by a path, as euerie where narrow, so in many places, through his sticklenesse occasioning, and through his steepnesse threatning, the ruine of your life, with the failing of your foore. At the top, two, or three terrifying steps, giue you entrance to the hill, which supplieth pasture for sheepe, and conyes: Vpon the same, I saw, a decayed Chappell, a faire spring of water, a Caue, reaching once, by my guides report; some farre way vnder ground, and (which you will perhaps suspect of vntruth) an Hermites graue, hewen out in the rocke, and seruing each bodies proportion for a buriall. But, if that in Wales carrie an equall veritie, the myracle will soone reape credite: for this is so sloped inwards at both ends, that any tall stature shal find roome by a little bending, as the short in the bottome by extending.

The fardest poynt of this hill, is called Black head, well knowne to the coasting Mariners. The high cliffs are by sea vnaccessible round abouts, sauing in one only place, towards the East, where they proffer an vneasie landing place for boats, which being fenced with a garretted wall, admitteth entrance thorow a gate, sometimes of yron, as the name yet continuing, expresseth, and is within presently commaunded by a hardly clymed hill. Vnder the Iland runnes a caue, thorow which you may rowe at ful sea, but not without a kinde of horrour, at the uncouthnesse of the place. M. Camden deliuereth vs these verses out of an olde Poet, touching Tintogel.

    Est locus Abrini sinuoso littore ponti,
    Rupe situs media, refluus quern circuit aestus.
    Fulminat hic late, turrito vertice Castrum,
    Nomine Tindagium, veteres dixere Corini.

Which import in English:

    There is a place within the wind-
      ing shore of Seuerne sea,
    On mids of rock, about whose foote,
      The tydes turne-keeping play:
    A towry-topped Castle heere,
      wide blazeth ouer all,
    Which Corineus auncient broode,
      Tindagel Castle call.

It is not layd vp amongst the least vaunts of this Castle, that our victorious Arthur was here begotten by the valiant Vter Pendragon, vpon the fayre Igerna, and [122] that without taynt of bastardy, sayth Merlyn, because her husband dyed some houres before.

Of later times, Tintogel hath kept long silence in our stories, vntill H. the 3. raigne, at which time (by Mat. Paris report) his brother, Earle Ri grew into obloquy for priuy receyuing there, & abbetting, his nephew Dauid, against the King. After which, being turned from a Palace [8 .R. 2.] to a prison, it restrained one Iohn Northamptons libertie, who for abusing the same, in his vnruly Maioralty of London, was condemned hither, as a perpetuall Penitenciary. A see of ancienty belonging to this Castle, was cancelled as vnnecessary, by the late L. Treasurer Burleigh.

One collecting the wonders of Cornwall, rimed touching this, as followeth:

    Tintogel in his ruines vauntes,
      Sometimes the seate of Kings,
    And place which worthy Arthur bred,
      Whose prayse the Breton sings,
    A bridge these buildings ioynd, whom now
      The fallen clifs diuorce,
    Yet strength'ned so, the more it scornes,
      Foes vayne attempting force.
    There, caue aboue, entrie admits,
      But thorowfare denies;
    Where that beneath alloweth both,
      In safe, but ghastly wise.
    A Spring there wets his head, his foote
      A gate of Iron gardes:
    There measure due to eche ones length,
      The Hermits graue awards.

IN the mids of the wilde moores of this Hundred, far [122] from any dwelling or riuer, there lyeth a great standing water, called Dosmery poole, about a mile or better in compasse, fed by no perceyued spring, neither hauing any auoydance, vntill (of late) certaine Tynners brought an Audit therefrom. The countrey people held many strange conceits of this poole; as, that it did ebbe & flow, that it had a whirle-poole in the midst thereof, and, that a fagot once throwne thereinto, was taken vp at Foy hauen, 6. miles distant. Wherefore, to try what truth rested in these reports, some Gent, dwelling not farre off, caused a boate and nets to be carried thither ouer land. Fish, they caught none, saue a fewe Eeles vpon hookes: the poole prooued no where past a fathome and halfe deepe, and for a great way very shallow. Touching the opinion of ebbing and flowing, it should seeme to bee grounded, partly vpon the increase, which the raine floods brought thereinto from the bordering hils (which perhaps gaue also the name; for Doz, is, come, and maur, great) and the decrease, occasioned by the next drowth, and partly, for that the windes doe driue the waues to and fro, vpon those sandie bankes: and thus the miracle of Dosmery poole deceased. Of this other wonder hee sayd,

    Dosmery poole amid the moores,
      On top stands of a hill,
    More then a mile about, no streames
      It empt, nor any fill.

Camelford, a market and Fayre (but not faire) towne fetcheth his deriuation from the riuer Camel, which runneth thorow it, and that, from the Cornish word Cam, in English, crooked, as Cam, from the often winding stream. The same is incorporated with a Maioralty, & nameth Burgesses to the Parliament, yet steppeth little before the [123] meanest sort of Boroughs, for store of Inhabitants, or the Inhabitants store.

Vpon the riuer of Camel, neere to Camelford [525.], was that last dismal battel strooken betweene the noble king Arthur, and his treacherous nephew Mordred, wherein the one took his death, and the other his deaths wound. For testimony whereof, the olde folke thereabouts will shew you a stone, bearing Arthurs name, though now depraued to Atry.

Master Camden letteth vs vnderstand, that this towne is sometimes termed Gaffelford: wherethrough we may marke it for the lists of a great fight betweene the Bretons & Deuonshire men [812.], which Houeden assigneth to haue bene darrayned at Gauelford, and perhaps the same, which the said Master Camden voucheth out of Marianus Scotus [820.], and describeth by these verses of an elder Poet:

          —————— Naturam Cambala fontis,
    Mutatam stupet esse sui, transcendit inundans
    Sanguineus torrens ripas, & ducit in aequor
    Corpora caesorum, plures natare videres,
    Et petere auxilium, quos vndis vita reliquit.

    The riuer Camel wonders, that
      His fountaines nature showes
    So strange a change, the bloody streame
      Vpswelling ouerflowes
    His both side banks, and to the sea
      The slaughtered bodies beares:
    Full many swimme, and sue for ayde,
      While waue their life outweares.

In our forefathers daies, when deuotion as much exceeded knowledge, as knowledge now commeth short of devotion, there were many bowssening places, for curing of mad men, and amongst the rest, one at Alternunne in this Hundred, called S. Nunnes poole, which Saints Altar (it may be) by pars pro toto, gaue name to the Church: and because the maner of this bowssening is not so vnpleasing to heare, as it was vneasie to feele, I wil (if you please) deliuer you the practise, as I receyued it from the beholders.

The water running from S. Nunnes well, fell into a square and close walled plot, which might bee filled at what depth they listed. Vpon this wall was the franticke person set to stand, his backe towards the poole, and from thence with a sudden blow in the brest, tumbled headlong into the pond: where a strong fellowe, provided for the nonce, tooke him, and tossed him vp and downe, alongst and athwart the water, vntill the patient, by forgoing his strength, had somewhat forgot his fury. Then was hee conueyed to the Church, and certaine Masses sung ouer him; vpon which handling, if his right wits returned, S. Nunne had the thanks: but if there appeared small amendment, he was bowssened againe, and againe, while there remayned in him any hope of life, for recouery.

It may be, this deuice tooke original from that master of Bedlem, who (the fable saith) vsed to cure his patients of that impatience, by keeping them bound in pooles, vp to the middle, and so more or lesse, after the fit of their fury.


Trigge Hundred.

THe name of Trig, in Cornish, signifieth an Inhabitant; howbeit, this Hundred cannot vaunt any ouer-large scope, or extraordinary plenty of dwellings: his chiefe towne is Bodmyn; in Cornish, Bos venna, commonly termed Bodman, which (by illusion, if not Etimology) a man might, not vnaptly, turne into Badham: for of all the townes in Cornwall, I holde none more healthfully seated, then Saltash, or more contagiously, then this. It consisteth wholly (in a maner) of one street, leading East and West, welneere the space of an Easterne mile, whose South side is hidden from the Sunne, by an high hill, so neerely coasting it in most places, as neither can light haue entrance to their staires, nor open ayre to their other roomes. Their back houses, of more necessary, then cleanly seruice, as kitchins, stables, &c. are clymed vp vnto by steps, and their filth by euery great showre, washed downe thorow their houses into the streetes.

The other side is also ouerlooked by a great hill, though somewhat farther distant: and for a Corollarium, their Conduit water runneth thorow the Churchyard, the ordinary place of buriall, for towne and parish. It breedeth therefore little cause of maruaile, that euery generall infection is here first admitted, & last excluded: yet the many decayed houses, proue the towne to haue bene once very populous; and, in that respect, it may stil retaine the precedence, as supported by a weekly market, the greatest of Cornwall, the quarter Sessions for the East diuision, and halfe yeerely faires. The iurisdiction thereof is administred by a Maior and his brethren, and vpon warrant of their Charter, they claime authoritie, to take acknowledgment of statute bonds.

In former times, the Bishop of Cornwall (as I haue elsewhere related) held his See at S. Petroos, in this towne, vntill the Danish pirats, firing their Palace, [981.] forced them to remoue the same, with their residence, vnto S. Germans. They were succeeded by a Priory, and Friery; which later, serued a while as a house of correction, for the shire, but with greater charge, then benefit, or continuance.

For other accidents, I find, that Perkyn Warbecke, [11.H.7.] after his landing in the West parts of Cornwall, made this towne the Rendez vous of his assembling forces, for atchieuing his, alike deseruing, and speeding enterprise against King Henry the seuenth.

Hither, also, in the last commotion, flocked the Rebels, [3.Ed.6.] from all quarters of the shire, pitching their campe at the townes end; and here they imprisoned such Gentlemen, as they had plucked out of their holes, and houses, vntill the fortune of warre gaue verdit with the right of iustice, for their well deserued euill speeding.

Sir Anthony Kingston, then Prouost-marshall of the Kings armie, hath left his name more memorable, then commendable amongst the townsemen, for causing their Maior to erect a gallowes before his owne doore, vpon which, (after hauing feasted Sir Anthony) himselfe was hanged.

In like sort (say they) he trussed vp a millers man, thereby, for that he presented himselfe in the others stead, saying he could neuer do his master better seruice.


But mens tongues, readily inclined to the worst reports, haue left out a part of the truth, in this tale, that the rest might carrie the better grace. For Sir Anthony did nothing herein, as a Iudge by discretion, but as an officer by direction; and besides, hee gaue the Maior sufficient watchwordes of timely warning, & large space of respite (more then which, in regard of his owne perill, he could not afford) to shift for safety, if an vneschewable destiny, had not haltered him to that aduancement. As for the millers man, he equalled his master, in their common offence of rebellion, and therefore it deserued the praise of mercy, to spare one of the two, and not the blame of crueltie, to hang one for another.

I should perhaps haue forgotten the free schoole here, maintayned by her Maiesties liberalitie, were I not put in mind thereof through a fore-halfening of this rebellion, by an action of the schollers, which I will report from some of their owne mouthes. About a yeere before this sturre was raysed, the schollers, who accustomably diuide themselues, for better exploiting their pastimes, grew therethrough into two factions; the one whereof, they called the olde religion; the other, the new. This once begunne, was prosecuted amongst them in all exercises, and, now and then, handled with some egernesse and roughnes, each partie knowing, and still keeping the same companions, and Captaine. At last one of the boyes, conuerted the spill of an old candlesticke to a gunne, charged it with powder and a stone, and (through mischance, or vngraciousnesse) therewith killed a calfe: whereupon, the owner complayned, the master whipped, and the diuision ended.

By such tokens, sometimes wonderfull, sometimes ridiculous, doth God at his pleasure, foreshewe future accidents: as in the Planets, before the battell at Thrasimenus, betweene Hannibal and the Romanes, by the fighting together of the Sunne and Moone. In birds, what time Brute brought forth the remnant of his army at Philippi, against Caesar and Anthony, by the furious bickering betweene two Eagles. In men, against the destruction of Hierusalem, by the encountring of Chariots and armies in the ayre. And before Alexanders battel with Darius; first, by a casual skirmish of the camp-straglers, vnder two Captaines, borrowing the names of those Princes; and then by Alexanders voluntary setting those Captaines to a single combat. Yea (to bring these examples neerer home) the like hath hapned both before and sithence, amongst boyes in other places.

When Caesar was departed from Rome, to try the title of the worlds Empire with Pompey, the towns boyes (without any mans commaund) parted in twayne: the one side calling themselues Pompeyans, the other Caesarians; and then darrayning a kinde of battell (but without Armes) the Caesarians got the ouerhand.

A like prank vnder the like assumed names, and with like successe and boding, they plaied, when Octauius and Anthony were, with like meanes, to decide the like Soueraignty.

And to the same purpose, Procopius affirmeth, that the Samnite boyes, when they draue their cattel to feeding, after their vsual maner of pastime, chose out amongst themselues, two of the best actiuity and seemelinesse; the one, they named Bellisarius, Generall for Iustinian the Emperour in Italy, the other Vitiges king of the Gothes, [126] against whome hee warred. In the buckling of these counterfeite Commaunders, it fell out, that Vitiges had the worst, whome the aduerse party with a iesting and craking maner, hanged vp at the next tree, in earnest, but yet with no intent to kill him.

This while it happens, that a Woolfe is descryed: away runne the boyes: fast abides the imaginary Felon, and so fast, that for want of timely rescouse, the breath poasted out of his body, and left the same a liuelesse carkase. The which notifyed to the Samnites, quitted the striplings (or slipstrings) of their punishment, but encreased the dismay of the elder people.

A like accident befell sithence, hy testimony of the ceremonious Texera, as a presage of Lewes the prince of Condyes death, 1569. Foure daies before which, at Xaintes, the youth of all sorts, from 9. to 22. yeres age, assembled, and (of their owne accord) chose two Commaunders, one they entitled the Prince of Condy, the other Mounsieur, who then lay in the field against him. For three dayes space, they violently assaulted each other, with stones, clubs, and other weapons, vntill at last it grewe to Pistoles: by one of which, the imaginary Prince receiued a quelling wound in his head, about 10. a clock in the morning: the very howre (saith this Portugall confessour) that the Prince himselfe, by a like shot was slaughtered.

The same authour vouched a semblable chaunce, somewhat before the siege of Rochell 1572. where, some of the boyes banded themselues, as for the Maior and others for the King; who after 6. dayes skirmishing, at last made a composition, and departed: even as that siege endured sixe moneths, and finally brake vp in a peace.

So doth Mercurius Gallobelgicus giue vs to wit, that in the yeere 1594. a Turkish Beglerbey of Greece, either seeking by a fore-coniecture, to be ascertained himselfe, or desirous to nusle the yonger sort in martiall exployts, led out of Alba Regalis, about 600. Turkish boyes, aged betweene 11. and 14. yeeres, and seuered them into two troups, terming the one, The Christian, the other, The Turkish batalion. Those, he directed to call vpon Iesus, these, vpon Hala: both parts he enioyned to bicker coragiously, and egged them onward with the enticement of rewards. The token is giuen, the forces encounter, the fight is hote. In the end, the Turks betake themselues to their heeles, and Iesus party carryeth away the victory. But such occurrents do not alwayes either foregoe, or foresignifie; for sometimes they fall out idle, and sometimes not at all. Howbeit, Nicetaes Choniates taketh it very vnkindly, that God woud not spare some watchword out of his prescience, to the Constantinopolitanes, what time Baldwyn Earle of Flaunders and others, first assisted, and then conquered their Citie.

Touching Veall the Mercurialist, I haue spoken in my former booke.

The youthlyer sort of Bodmyn townsmen vse sometimes to sport themselues, by playing the box with strangers, whome they summon to Halgauer. The name signifieth the Goats moore, and such a place it is, lying a little without the towne, and very full of quauemires. When these mates meet with any rawe seruingman, or other young master, who may serue and deserue to make pastime, they cause him to be solemnely arrested, [127] for his appearance before the Maior of Halgauer, where he is charged with wearing one spurre, or going vntrussed, or wanting a girdle, or some such like felony: and after he hath beene arraygned and tryed, with all requisite circumstances, iudgement is giuen in formal termes, and executed in some one vngracious pranke or other, more to the skorne, then hurt of the party condemned.

Hence is sprung the prouerb, when we see one slouenly appareled, to say, He shall be presented in Halgauer Court.

But now and then, they extend this merriment with the largest, to the preiudice of ouer-credulous people, perswading them to fight with a Dragon lurking in Halgauer, or to see some strange matter there: which concludeth at least, with a trayning them into the mire.

Within short space after the great fame dispersed, touching the rare effects of Warwickshire wels, some idle enuious head raysed a brute, that there rested no lesse vertue (forsooth) for healing all diseases, in a plentifull spring, neere vnto Bodmyn, called Scarlets well: which report grew so farre, and so fast, that folke ranne flocking thither in huge numbers, from all quarters. But the neighbour Iustices, finding the abuse, and looking into, the consequence, forbad the resort, sequestred the spring, and suppressed the miracle. Howbeit, the water should seeme to be healthfull, if not helpfull: for it retaineth this extraordinary quality, that the same is waightier, then the ordinary of his kinde, and will continue the best part of a yeere, without alteration of sent or taste; onely you shall see it represent many colours, like the Raine-bowe, which (in my conceite) argueth a running thorow some minerall veine, and therewithall a possessing of some vertue.

Aside from this towne, towards the North sea, extendeth a fruitfull veine of land, comprizing certayne parishes, which serueth better then any other place in Cornwall for Winter feeding, and suitably enricheth the Farmours. Herethrough, sundry Gentlemen haue there planted their seates, as, in S. Kew, master Carnsew, at Bokelly: in S. Endelion, master Roscarrock, at his House of the same denomination: besides, master Penkeuel, Nichols, Barret, Flammock, Cauel, and diuers more.

Carnsew, rightly Carndeaw, purporteth in Cornish, a black rock: and such a one the heire owneth which gaue name to his ancient possessed mannour, as the mannour to his ancestours. His house Bokelly may be deriued from Both, in Cornish, a Goate and kelly which is lost: and the Goate he giueth for his Armes. This Gent. father married the daughter of Fits in Deuon and left behinde him three sonnes, Richard, Mathew and William, with two daughters: those, brought vp in learning and experience abroade: these, in vertue and modesty at home: the fruites whereof, they taste and expresse, in a no lesse praise-worthy, then rare-continuing concord, hauing (not through any constrayning necessitie, or constraintiue vowe) but on a voluntary choyce, made their elder brothers mansion a Colledge of single liuing, & kinde entertaining. Amongst whom, I may not omit the yongest brother, whose well qualified and sweete pleasing sufficiency draweth him out from this cloyster, to conuerse with and assist his friends, and to whose sounder iudgement, I owe the thankful acknowledgement of [128] many corrected slippings in these my notes. The armes of this family are thus blasoned, S. a Goat passant. A. attired and trippled 0.

Roscarrock, in Cornish, meaneth a flower, and a rock, in English. Roses are his armes, and the North rocky clifs, which bound his demaines, perhaps added the rest. The heire hath issue by the daughter of Treuanion. His father maried the sole Inheritrix to Pentire, whose dwelling, Pentuan, is seated on the South sea, so as he might make vse of either climate for his residence. The family is populous; but of them two brothers, Hugh, for his ciuill carriage, and kinde hospitality, and Nicholas for his industrious delight in matters of history and antiquity, doe merit a commending remembrance. They beare A. a Cheuron betweene 2. Roses, G. and a sea-tenche nayante proper.

The little parish called Temple, skirteth this hundred, on the waste side thereof: a place, exempted from the Bishops iurisdiction, as once appertayning to the Templers, but not so from disorder: for if common report communicate with truth, many a bad mariage bargaine is there yerely slubbred vp.

Hundred of West.

WIth Trig Hundred on the South side, confineth that of West, but taketh his name from the relation which it beareth to that of East: the circuit thereof is not so large, as fruitfull.

In entring the same, wee will first pitch at the Looes, two seuerall Corporations, distinguished by the addition of East and West, abutting vpon a nauigable creek, and ioyned by a faire bridge of many arches. They tooke that name from a fresh riuer, which there payeth his tribute to the sea: and the riuer (as I coniecture) from his low passage, betweene steepe coasting hils: for Loo, and lowe, after the Cornish pronunciation, doe little differ.

East-Loo voucheth lesse antiquity, as lately incorporated, but vanteth greater wealth, as more commodiously seated: yet the foundation of their houses is grounded on the sand, supporting (naythelesse) those poore buildings, with a sufficient stablenesse. Their profit chiefly accrueth from their weekely markets, and industrious fishing, with boats of a middle size, able to brooke, but not crosse the seas: howbeit, they are not altogether destitute of bigger shipping: amongst which, one hath successiuely retained the name of the George of Loo, euer since the first so called, did a great while sithence, in a furious fight, take 3. French men of warre.

The towne towards the sea, is fenced with a garretted wall, against any sudden attempt of the enemy.

West-Loo mustereth an endowment with the like meanes, but in a meaner degree, and hath of late yeeres somewhat releeued his former pouerty.

Almost directly ouer against the barred hauen of Loo, extendeth S. Georges Iland, about halfe a mile in compasse, and plentifully stored with Conies. When the season of the yere yeeldeth oportunity, a great abundance of sundry sea-fowle breed upon the strond, where they lay, & hatch their egges, without care of building any nests: at which time, repairing thither, you shall see your head shadowed with a cloud of old ones, through their diuersified cries, witnessing their general dislike of your disturbance, [129] and your feete pestered with a large number of yong ones, some formerly, some newly, and some not yet disclosed; at which time (through the leaue and kindnesse of Master May, the owner) you may make and take your choyce. This Gent. Armes, are G, a Cheuron vary betweene three Crownes.

The middle market towne of this Hundred, is Liskerd. Les, in Cornish, is broad, and ker, is gone. Now, if I should say, that it is so called, because the widenesse of this Hundred, heere contracteth the traffike of the Inhabitants, you might well thinke I iested, neither dare I auow it in earnest. But whencesoever you deriue the name, hard it is, in regard of the antiquity, to deduce the towne and Castle from their first originall; and yet I will not ioyne hands with them who terme it Legio, as founded by the Romanes, vnlesse they can approue the same by a Romane faith.

Of later times, the Castle serued the Earle of Cornwall for one of his houses; but now, that later is worm-eaten out of date and vse. Coynages, Fayres, and markets, (as vitall spirits in a decayed bodie) keepe the inner partes of the towne aliue, while the ruyned skirtes accuse the iniurie of time, and the neglect of industrie.

S. Cleer parish, coasting Liskerd, brooketh his name by a more percing, then profitable ayre, which in those open wastes, scowreth away thrift, as well as sicknesse. Thither I rode, to take view of an antiquitie, called The other halfe stone; which I found to be thus: There are two moore stones, pitched in the ground, very neere together, the one of a more broade then thicke squarenesse, about 8. foote in height, resembling the ordinary spill of a Crosse, and somewhat curiously hewed, with diaper worke. The other commeth short of his fellowes length, by the better halfe, but, welneere, doubleth it in breadth, and thickenesse, and is likewise handsomely carued. They both are mortifed in the top, leauing a little edge at the one side, as to accommodate the placing of somewhat else thereupon. In this latter, are graued certaine letters, which I caused to be taken out, and haue here inserted, for abler capacities, then mine own, to interpret.

    [image, approx d O n l
                       E R T : R O
                       3 a U I T
                         p R O a n
                       l m a

where 'a' is a Greek alpha character]

Why this should be termed, The other halfe stone, I cannot resolue with my selfe, and you much lesse. Howbeit, I haltingly ayme, it may proceede from one of these respects; either, because it is the halfe of a monument, whose other part resteth elsewhere: or, for that it meaneth, after the Dutch phrase and their owne measure, a stone and halfe. For, in Dutch, Ander halb, (another halfe) importeth, One and a halfe, as Sesqui alter doth in Latine. It should seeme to be a bound stone: for some of the neighbours obserued to mee, that the [130] same limiteth iust the halfe way, betweene Excester and the lands ende, and is distant full fiftie myles from either.

Not farre hence, in an open plaine, are to be seene certaine stones, somewhat squared, and fastened about a foote deepe in the ground, of which, some sixe or eight stand vpright in proportionable distance: they are termed, The hurlers. And alike strange obseruation, taketh place here, as at Stonehenge, to wit, that a redoubled numbring, neuer eueneth with the first. But far stranger is the country peoples report, that once they were men, and for their hurling vpon the Sabboth, so metamorphosed. The like whereof, I remember to haue read, touching some in Germany (as I take it) who for a semblable prophanation, with dauncing, through the Priests accursing, continued it on a whole yere together.

Almost adioyning hereunto, is a heap of rocks, which presse one of a lesse size, fashioned like a cheese, and therethrough termed Wringcheese.

I know not well, whether I may referre to the parish of S. Neot in this Hundred, that which Mat. West, reporteth of K. Alfred, namely, how comming into Cornwall on hunting, he turned aside, for doing his deuotion, into a Church, where S. Guerijr and S. Neot made their abode (quaere, whether he meane not their burials) or rather so resolue, because Asser so deliuers it, and there found his orisons seconded with a happy effect.

Next, I will relate you another of the Cornish natural wonders, viz. S. Kaynes well: but lest you make a wonder first at the Saint, before you take notice of the well, you must vnderstand, that this was not Kayne the man-queller, but one of a gentler spirit, and milder sex, to wit, a woman. He who caused the spring to be pictured, added this rime for an exposition:

    In name, in shape, in quality,
      This well is very quaint;
    The name, to lot of Kayne befell,
      No ouer-holy Saint.
    The shape, 4. trees of diuers kinde,
      Withy, Oke, Elme and Ash,
    Make with their roots an arched roofe,
      Whose floore this spring doth wash.
    The quality, that man or wife,
      Whose chance, or choice attaines,
    First of this sacred streame to drinke,
      Thereby the mastry gaines.

In this Hundred, the rubble of certaine mines, and ruines of a fining house, conuince Burchard Craneigh, the Duchmans vaine endeuour, in seeking of siluer owre: howbeit, hee afterwards lighted on a thriftier vayne, of practising phisike at London, where he grewe famous, by the name of Doctor Burcot.

Killigarth, being interpreted in English, signifieth, He hath lost his griping, or reaching: and by his present fortune, (in some sort) iustifieth that name: for the same hath lately forgone Sir William Beuill, whome it embraced as owner & Inhabitant, by his sudden death, and is passed into the possession of the faire Lady his widdow, by her husbands conueyance.

It yeeldeth a large viewe of the South coast, and was it selfe, in Sir Williams life time, much visited, [131] through his franke inuitings. The mention of this Knight, calleth to my rememberance, a sometimes vncouth seruaunt of his, whose monstrous conditions, partly resembled that Polyphemus, described by Homer and Virgil, and liuely imitated by Ariosto, in his Orco: or rather, that Egyptian Polyphagus, in whome (by Suetonius report) the Emperour Nero tooke such pleasure. This fellow was taken vp by Sir William, vnder a hedge, in the deepest of Winter, welneere starued with cold, and hunger: hee was of stature meane, of constitution leane, of face freckled, of composition, well proportioned, of diet, naturally, spare, and cleanely inough; yet, at his masters bidding, he would deuoure nettles, thistles, the pith of Artichokes, raw, and liuing birds, and fishies, with their scales, and feathers, burning coles and candles, and whatsoeuer else, howsoeuer vnsauorie, if it might be swallowed: neither this a little, but in such quantitie, as it often bred a second wonder, how his belly, should containe so much: yet could no man, at any time, discouer him doing of that, which necessitie of nature requireth. Moreouer, he would take a hot yron out of the fire, with his bare hand; neuer changed his apparell, but by constraint, and vsed to lie in strawe, with his head downe, and his heeles vpwards. Spare he was of speech, and, instead of halfe his words, vsed this terme Size, as I will Size him, for strike him, hee is a good Size, for man, &c. Ouer-sleeping, or some other accident, made him to lose a day, in his account of the weeke, so as he would not beleeue, but that Svnday was Saterday, Saterday Friday, &c. To Sir William he bare such faithfulnesse, that hee would follow his horse, like a spanyell, without regard of way or wearinesse, waite at his chamber doore, the night time, suffering none to come neere him, and performe whatsoeuer hee commanded, were it neuer so unlawfull, or dangerous. On a time, his master, expecting strangers, sent him, with a panier, to his cater at the sea side, to fetch fome fish. In his way, he passed by a riuer, whereinto the tide then flowed, and certaine fishermen were drawing their nets: which after Iohn Size had a while beheld, hee casts to haue a share amongst them, for his master. So into the water he leaps, and there, for the space of a flight shoot, wadeth and walloweth (for swimme hee could not) sometimes up, and sometimes downe, carrying his panier still before him, to his owne extreame hazard of drowning, and the beholders great pittying; vntill at last, all wet, and wearied, out he scrambleth, and home he hieth, with a bitter complaint to his master, of his ill fortune, that he could not catch some fish, as well as the rest, where so much was going. In this sort he continued for diuers yeeres, vntill (vpon I wot not what veake, or vnkindnesse) away he gets, and abroad he rogues: which remitter brought him the end, to his foredeferred, and not auoyded destiny: for as vnder a hedge hee was found pyning, so under a hedge he found his miserable death, through penury.

Sir Williams father maried the daughter of Militon: his graundfather, the daughter and heire of Bear, whose liuelyhood repayred what the elder brothers daughters had impaired. The Beuils Armes are A. a Bull passant G. armed and tripped O.

In the same parish where Killigarth is seated, Master Murth inheriteth a house and demaynes. Hee maried Treffry; his father, Tregose. One of their auncestours, [132] within the memorie of a next neighbour to the house, called Prake, (burdened with 110. yeeres age) entertained a British miller, as that people, for such idle occupations, proue more handie, then our owne. But this fellowes seruice befell commodious in the worst sense. For when, not long after his acceptance, warres grewe betweene vs & France, he stealeth ouer into his countrey, returneth priuily backe againe, with a French crew, surprizeth suddenly his master, and his ghests, at a Christmas supper, carrieth them speedily vnto Lantreghey, and forceth the Gent, to redeemme his enlargement, with the sale of a great part of his reuenewes.

A little to the Westwards from Killigarth, the poore harbour and village of Polpera coucheth betweene 2. steepe hils, where plenty of fish is vented to the fish driuers, whom we call Iowters.

The warmth of this Hundred, siding the South, hath enticed many Gent. here to make choyce of their dwellings, as M. Buller now Sherife at Tregarrick, sometimes the Wideslades inheritance, vntill the fathers rebellion forfeited it to the Prince; and the Princes largesse rewarded therewith his subiects.

Wideslades sonne led a walking life with his harpe, to Gentlemens houses, wherethrough, and by his other actiue qualities, he was entitled, Sir Tristram; neither wanted he (as some say) a bele Isound, the more aptly to resemble his patterne.

Master Buller married the daughter of one Williams, a Counsellour at lawe in Deuon: his father, a younger branch of the ancient stocke, planted in Somerset shire, tooke to wife the widdowe of Courtney, and daughter and heire to Trethurffe; by whose dower, and his owne indeuour, he purchased and left to his sonne, faire possessions, but not vnencumbred with titles, which draue this Gentleman to salue them all by new compositions with the pretenders: and for compassing the same, to get an extraordinary experience in husbandry. His ancestours bare S. on a playne Crosse A. quarter pierced 4. Eagles of the field.

At S. Winowe inhabiteth M. Thomas Lower, commendable through his double prouision, against the warres, as hauing both furnished himself with great ordinance, for priuate defence of the County, and thrust forth his sonnes to be trayned in martiall knowledge and exercises, for the publike seruice of the Countrey.

His wife was one of Reskimers daughters and heires: his mother, the daughter of Treffrey: his house descended to his auncestour, by match with Vpton. Hee beareth B. a Cheuron engrayled O. betweene three Roses A.

Laureast, is the inheritance of M. Iohn Harris, a Gent. employing his sound iudgement, and other praise-worthy parts, to the seruice of his Prince and country, & the good of his friends and himself. His wife was daughter and heire to Hart; his mother sister to M. Chr. Harris, which (by his vncles yet want of issue) intitleth him with a faire expectancy. Hee beareth S. 3. Croissants within a border A.

Treworgy is owed by M. Kendal, and endowed with a pleasant and profitable fishing and command of the riuer, which flitteth vnder his house. He maried with Buller: his mother was daughter to Moyle of Bake, and beareth A, a Cheuron betweene 3. Dolphins S.

Master Glyn of Glynfoord, manifesteth, by this compounded name, the antiqitie of his descent, and [133] the ordinary passage there, ouer Foy riuer. The store of Sammons which it affoordeth, caused his ancestours ta take the Sammon speares for their Armes: for hee beareth A, a Cheuron, betweene three Sammon speares S.

Sundry more Gentlemen this little Hundred possesseth and possessioneth, as Code, who beareth A. a Cheuron, G. betweene three Crowes. May, G. a Cheuron vary betweene three Crownes. Achym, A. a Maunche Maltaile S. within a border of the first, charged with Cinquefoyles, as the second Grilles, &c. But want of information, and lothnes to waxe tedious, maketh mee fardle vp these, and omit the rest.

It is hemmed in one the West, by the East side of Foy hauen, at whose mouth standeth Hall, in Cornish, a moore, and (perhaps) such it was before better manurance reduced it to the present fruitfulnesse. The same descended to Sir Reignald Mohun, from his ancestours, by their match with the daughter and heire of Fits-Williams; and (amongst other commodities) is appurtenanced with a walk, which if I could as playnly shew you, as my selfe haue oftentimes delightingly seene it, you might, & would auow the same, to be a place of diuersified pleasings: I will therefore do my best, to trace you, a shaddow thereof, by which you shal (in part) giue a gesse at the substance.

It is cut out in the side of a steepe hill, whose foote the salt water washeth, euenly leuelled, to serue for bowling, floored with sand, for soaking vp the rayne, closed with two thorne hedges, and banked with sweete senting flowers: It wideneth to a sufficient breadth, for the march of fiue or sixe in front, and extendeth, to not much lesse, then halfe a London mile: neyther doth it lead wearisomely forthright, but yeeldeth varied, & yet, not ouer-busie turnings, as the grounds oportunity affoordeth; which aduantage encreaseth the prospect, and is conuerted on the foreside, into platformes, for the planting of Ordinance, and the walkers sitting; and on the back part, into Summer houses, for their more priuate retrait and recreation.

In passing along, your eyes shall be called away from guiding your feete, to descry by their fardest kenning, the vast Ocean, sparkled with ships, that continually this way trade, forth and backe, to most quarters of the world. Neerer home, they take view of all sized cocks, barges, and fisherboates, houering on the coast. Againe, contracting your sight to a narrower scope, it lighteth on the faire and commodious hauen, where the tyde daily presenteth his double seruice, of flowing and ebbing, to carry and recarry whatsoeuer the Inhabitants shall bee pleased to charge him withall, and his creekes (like a young wanton louer) folde about the land, with many embracing armes.

This walke is garded upon the one side, by Portruan; on the other, by Bodyneck, two fishing villages: behinde, the rising hill beareth off the colde Northern blasts: before, the towne of Foy subiecteth his whole length and breadth to your ouerlooking: and directly vnder you, ride the home and forraine shipping; both of these, in so neere a distance, that without troubling the passer, or borrowing Stentors voyce, you may from thence, not only call to, but confere with any in the sayd towne or Shipping.

Mounsieur la Noue noteth, that in the great hall of [134] iustice, at Paris, there is no roome left, for any more images of the French Kings: which some prophetically interpreted, to signifie a dissolution of that line, if not of the monarchy. But this halfening, the present flourishing estate of that kingdome, vtterly conuinceth of falshood. A farre truer foretoken, touching the Earle of Deuons progeny, I haue seen, at this place of Hall, to wit, a kind of Fagot, whose age and painting, approueth the credited tradition, that it was carefully preserued by those noble men: but whether vpon that prescience, or no, there mine author failes me. This fagot, being all one peece of wood, and that naturally growen, is wrapped about the middle part with a bond, and parted, at the ends, into foure sticks, one of which, is, againe subdiuided into other twayne. And in semblable maner the last Earles inheritance accrued vnto 4. Cornish Gent. Mohun, Trelawny, Arundell of Taluerne, and Trethurffe: and Trethurffes portion, Courtney of Ladocke, and Viuian, do enioy, as descended from his two daughters and heires.

Sir Reig. Mohun is widdower of two wiues; the one, daughter to Sir Henry Killigrew, the other, to Sergeant Heale: his father, Sir William, married, first, the daughter of Horsey, and one of the heires, by the common law, to Sir Iohn her late brother; and next, the widdowe of Trelawny, who, ouerliuing him, enioyeth this Hall, as part of her ioynture; a Lady, gracing her dignitie, with her vertue, and no lesse expressing, then professing religion. Reignald, father to Sir William, wedded the daughter of Sir William Treuanion. The armes of the Mohuns are O. a Crosse engrayled Sa.

Powder Hundred.

SOme impute the force of Powder vnto this, that the same is conuerted, at an instant, from his earthy substance, to a fiery, and from the fire, into ayre; euery of which changes, requireth a greater enlargement, one then other: wherefore it finding a barre, ouer, vnder, and on the back and sides, by the pieces strong imprisonment, by consequence breaketh forth with a sudden violence, at the mouth, where the way is least stopped, & driueth before it, the vnsetled obstacle of the bullet, imparting thereunto a portion of his fury. To which (through want of a probable Etymon) I may, in part, resemble the hundred of Powder, not only for the names sake, but also because this parcel of the Cornish earth extendeth it selfe wider, and compriseth more parishes, then any other Hundred of the shire, as stretching East. and West, from Foy to Falmouth: and South and North, welnere from one sea to the other.

In describing the same, we must begin where we left, to wit, at Foy hauen, in Cornish, Foath. It receyueth this name of the riuer, and bestoweth the same on the town. His entrance is garded with Block-houses, & that on the townes side, as also the towne it selfe, fortified & fenced with ordinance. The commendation of which industry, is principally due to the prouidence and direction of M. Wil. Treffry, a Gent. that hath vowed his rare gifts of learning, wisdome, & courage, to the good of his country, & made proofe thereof in many occurrents, & to whose iudicious corrections, these my notes haue bin not a little beholden. His faire & ancient house, Castle-wise builded [135] and sufficiently flanked, ouerlooketh the towne and hauen with a pleasant prospect, and yet is not excluded from the healthfull ayre, and vse of the country, which occasioned his auncestours (though endowed elsewhere, with large reuennues, of their owne and their wiues inheritance) for many descents, to make, here their ordinary residence, as is witnessed by their toombe-stones, which I haue seen in the church. One of them, about 145. yeeres sithence, valiantly defended this his dwelling, against the French, what time they had surprized the rest of the towne.

Hee married one of Tremaynes heires: his father, the heir of
Tresithny; his graundfather, the daughter of Killigrew: and beareth
S. a Cheuron betweene three Hawthornes A.

But I will returne to the towne. During the warlike raignes of our two valiant Edwards, the first & third, the Foyens addicted themselues to backe their Princes quarrell, by coping with the enemy at sea, and made returne of many prizes: which purchases hauing aduanced them to a good estate of wealth, the same was (when the quieter conditioned times gaue meanes) heedfully and diligently employed, and bettered, by the more ciuill trade of marchandise; and in both these vocations they so fortunately prospered, that it is reported, 60. tall ships did, at one time, belong to the harbour, and that they assisted the siege of Callais, with 47. saile. Heereon, a full purse begetting a stout stomack, our Foyens tooke heart at grasse, and chauncing about that time (I speake vpon the credit of tradition) to sayle neere Rye, and Winchelsea, they stifly refused to vaile their bonets at the summons of those townes; which contempt (by the better enabled Sea-farers, reckoned intolerable) caused the Ripiers to make out with might and mayne against them; howbeit, with a more hardy onset, then happy issue: for the Foy men gaue them so rough entertaynment at their welcome, that they were glad to forsake patch, without bidding farewell: the merit of which exploit, afterwards entitled them Gallants of Foy: and (it may bee) they fought to eternize this memorable fact, after the Greeke and Romane maner, by inuesting the towne of Golant with that name: notwithstanding, quaere, whether a causelesse ambition in the posteritie, turned not rather Golant into Gallant, for their greater glory. Once, the townesmen vaunt, that for reskuing certaine ships of Rye from the Normans in Henrie the thirds time, they beare the armes, and enioy part of the priuiledges appertaining to the Cinque ports, whereof there is some memorie in their Chauncell window, with the name of Fisart Bagga, their principall Commaunder in that seruice. Moreouer, the prowesse of one Nicholas, sonne to a widdow, neere Foy, is deskanted vpon, in an old three mans songs, namely, how he fought brauely at sea, with Iohn Dory (a Genowey, as I coniecture) set forth by Iohn the French king, and (after much bloudshed on both sides) tooke, and slew him, in reuenge of the great rauine, and crueltie, which hee had forecommitted, vpon the English mens goods and bodies. Yet their so often good successe, sometimes tasted the sawce of crosser speeding; for Tho. Walsingham telleth vs, that Sir Hugh Calueley, and Sir Th. Percy, deputed to gard the sea, by R. the 2. Anno. 1379. chanced there to meete a Cornish barge, belonging to Foy harbour, which hauing worne out his victuals, and [136] time, limited for the like seruice, was then sayling homewards, neither would be entreated by those knights, to ioyne companie with them: howbeit they bought this refusall verie deare. For no sooner was the English fleete past out of sight, but that a Flemmish man of warre lighted vpon them, and (after a long, and strong resistance) ouermastered them as well, at last in force, as they did at first in number, tooke the Barge, sunk it, and slaughtered all the Saylers, one onely boy, excepted, who in the heate of the bickering, seeing which way the game would goe, secretly stole aboord the Flemming, and closely hid himselfe amongst the ballast. Ouer a while, this Pirate cast Anker in an English harbor, where the boy, hearing his Countrimens voice, that were come aboord, riseth from his new buriall, bewrayeth the fact, & so wrought meanes, for their punishment, and his owne deliuery.

Not long after, our Foy gallants, vnable to beare a low sayle, in their fresh gale of fortune, began to skum the Seas, with their often piracies, (auowing themselues vpon the Earle of Warwicke, whose ragged staffe is yet to be seene, pourtrayed in many places of their Church Steeple, and in diuers priuate houses) as also to violate their dutie at land, by insolent disobedience, to the Princes Officers, cutting off (amongst other pranckes) a Pursiuants eares: whereat king Edward the fourth conceiued such indignation, as hee sent Commissioners vnto Lostwithiel, (a towne thereby) who, vnder pretence of vsing their seruice, in sea affaires, trained thither the greatest number of the Burgesses; and no sooner come, then laid hold on, and in hold, their goods were confiscated, one Harrington executed, the chaine of their hauen remoued to Dartmouth, & their wonted iolity transformed into a sudden misery: from which they striued a long time, in vaine, to releeue themselues: but now of late yeres doe more and more aspire to a great amendment of their former defeats, though not to an equall height of their first aboundance.

Where I may not passe in silence, the commendable deserts of Master Rashleigh the elder, descended from a yonger brother of an ancient house in Deuon; for his industrious iudgement and aduenturing, in trade of marchandise, first opened a light and way, to the townesmens newe thriuing, and left his sonne large wealth, and possessions; who (together with a dayly bettering his estate) conuerteth the same to hospitality, and other actions fitting a Gent. well affected to his God, Prince, and Countrey. He married the daughter of Bonithon; his father, of Lanyne, and beareth S. a plaine Crosse betweene 2. Croissants A.

Anno 28. H. 6. there was an Act of Parliament made, to restraine the abuses of sea-officers, in wrong exactions at Foy, and some other hauens.

The Lord of Pomier, a Norman, encouraged by the [1457.] ciuill warres, wherewith our Realme was then distressed, furnished a nauy within the riuer of Sayne, and with the same in the night, burned a part of Foy, and other houses confyning: but vpon approch of the countryes forces, raised the next day by the Sherife, he made speed away to his ships, and with his ships to his home.

In a high way neere this towne, there lieth a big and long moore stone, containing the remainder of certaine ingraued letters, purporting some memorable antiquity, as it should seeme, but past ability of reading.


Not many yeres sithence, a Gentleman, dwelling not farre off, was perswaded, by some information, or imagination, that treasure lay hidden vnder this stone: wherefore, in a faire Moone-shine night, thither with certaine good fellowes hee hyeth to dig it vp; a working they fall, their labour shortneth, their hope increaseth, a pot of Gold is the least of their expectation. But see the chance. In midst of their toyling, the skie gathereth clouds, the Moone-light is ouer-cast with darkenesse, downe fals a mightie showre, vp riseth a blustering tempest, the thunder cracketh, the lightning flameth: in conclusion, our money-seekers washed, in stead of loden; or loden with water, in stead of yellow earth, and more afraid, then hurt, are forced to abandon their enterprise, and seeke shelter of the next house they could get into. Whether this proceeded from a naturall accident, or a working of the diuell, I will not vndertake to define. It may bee, God giueth him such power ouer those, who begin a matter, vpon couetousnesse to gaine by extraordinarie meanes, and prosecute it with a wrong, in entring and breaking another mans land, without his leaue, and direct the end thereof, to the princes defrauding, whose prerogatiue challengeth these casualties.

A little beyond Foy, the land openeth a large sandie drab Bay, for the Sea to ouer-flow, which, and the village adioyning, are therethrough aptly termed Trewardreth, in English, The Sandie towne. Elder times, of more deuotion then knowledge, here founded a religious house, which, in King Henrie the eights raigne, vnderwent the common downefall.

I haue receiued credible information, that some three yeeres sithence, certaine hedges deuiding a closse on the seaside hereabouts, chanced, in their digging, vpon a great chest of stone, artificially ioyned, whose couer, they (ouer-greedy for booty) rudely brake, and therewithall a great earthen pot enclosed, which was guilded and graued with letters, defaced by this misaduenture, and ful of a black earth, the ashes (doubtles) as that, the vrna of some famous personage.

Vpon a side of this bay, one M. Peter Beuill first began the experiment of making a saltwater pond, induced thereunto, by obseruing that the high Summer tydes brought with them young Basses and Millets, whom at their ebbing, they left behinde in little pits of the euen ground, where they would liue for many weekes without any reuisitation of the sea: who, as he bettered this naturall patterne, so did I his artificiall; but yet with a thankefull acknowledgement, by whome I haue profited.

Lostwithiel should seeme to fetch his originall from the Cornish Lostwithiall, which in English, soundeth a Lions tayle: for as the Earle of this prouince gaue the Lyon in armes, and the Lions principall strength (men, say) consisteth in his tayle; so this towne claymeth the precedence, and his Lords chiefest residence, & the place which he entrusted with his Exchequer, and where his wayghtier affaires were managed. Maioralty, markets, faires, and nomination of Burgesses for the parliament, it hath common with the most: Coynage of Tynne, onely with three, others; but the gayle for the whole Stannary, and keeping of the County Courts, it selfe alone. Yet all this can hardly rayse it to a tolerable condition of wealth and inhabitance. Wherefore I will [138] detayne you no longer, then vntill I haue shewed you a solemne custome in times past here yeerely obserued, and onely of late daies discontinued, which was thus:

Vpon little Easter Sunday, the Freeholders of the towne and mannour, by themselues or their deputies, did there assemble: amongst whom, one (as it fell to his lot by turne) brauely apparelled, gallantly mounted, with a Crowne on his head, a scepter in his hand, a sword borne before him, and dutifully attended by all the rest also on horseback, rode thorow the principall streete to the Church: there the Curate in his best beseene, solemnely receiued him at the Churchyard stile, and conducted him to heare diuine seruice: after which, he repaired with the same pompe, to a house foreprouided for that purpose, made a feast to his attendants, kept the tables end himselfe, and was serued with kneeling, assay, & all other rites due to the estate of a Prince: with which dinner, the ceremony ended, and euery man returned home again. The pedigree of this vsage is deriued from so many descents of ages, that the cause and authour outreach remembrance: howbeit, these circumstances offer a coniecture, that it should betoken the royalties appertaining to the honour of Cornwall.

M. Wil. Kendals hospitality, while he liued, and here kept house, deserueth a speciall remembrance, because, for store of resort and franknes of entertainment, it exceeded all others of his sort.

This towne anno 11. H. 7, was by act of Parliament assigned, to keepe the publike waights and measures, ordayned for the Countie.

Lostwithiel subiected it selfe to the commaund of Restormel Castle, alias, Lestormel, sometimes the Dukes principal house. It is seated in a park, vpon the plaine neck of a hill, backed to the Westwards, with another, somewhat higher, & falling euery other way, to end in a valley, watered by the fishfull riuer of Foy. His base court is rather to be coniectured, then discerned, by the remnant of some fewe ruines; amongst which, an ouen of 14. foot largenes, through his exceeding proportion, prooueth the like hospitality of those dayes. The inner court grounded vpon an intrenched rocke, was formed round, had his vtter wall thick, strong, and garretted: his flat roofe couered with lead, and his large windowes taking their light inwards. It consisted of two stories, beisdes the vaults, and admitted entrance and issue, by one onely gate, fenced with a Portcouliz. Water was conueyed thither, by a conduit, from the higher ground adioyning. Certes, it may moue compassion, that a Palace, so healthfull for aire, so delightfull for prospect, so necessary for commodities, so fayre (in regard of those dayes) for building, and so strong for defence, should in time of secure peace, and vnder the protection of his naturall Princes, be wronged with those spoylings, then which, it could endure no greater, at the hands of any forrayne and deadly enemy: for the Parke is disparked, the timber rooted vp, the conduit pipes taken away, the roofe made sale of, the planchings rotten, the wals fallen downe, and the hewed stones of the windowes, dournes & clauels, pluct out to serue priuate buildings: onely there remayneth an vtter defacement, to complayne vpon this vnregarded distresse. It now appertayneth by lease, to Master Samuel, who maried Halse : his father (a wise and pleasant conceited Gent.) matched with Tremayne.


After wee haue quitted Restormel, Roche becomes our next place of soiourne, though hardly inuiting, with promise of any better entertainement, then the name carieth written in his forehead, to wit, a huge, high and steepe rock, seated in a playne, girded on either side, with (as it were) two substitutes, and meritorious (no doubt) for the Hermite, who dwelt on the top thereof, were it but in regard of such an vneasie climing to his cell and Chappell, a part of whose naturall wals is wrought out of the rock itselfe.

Neere the foote of Roche, there lyeth a rock, leuell with the ground aboue, and hollow downwards, with a winding depth, which contayneth water, reported by some of the neighbours, to ebbe and flowe as the sea. Of these, as another Cornish wonder.

    You neighbour-scorners, holy-prowd,
      Goe people Roche's cell,
    Farre from the world, neere to the heau'ns,
      There, Hermits, may you dwell.
    Is't true that Spring in rock hereby,
      Doth tide-wise ebbe and flow?
    Or haue wee fooles with lyers met?
      Fame saies it: be it so.

From hence ascending easily the space of a mile, you shall haue wonne the top of the Cornish Archbeacon Hainborough, which (as little to great) may for prospect compare with Rama in Palestina, Henius in Medica, Collalto in Italy, and Sceafel in the Ile of Man: for if the weathers darkenesse bounde not your eye-sight, within his ordynarie extent, you shall thence plainely discerne, to the Eastwards, a great part of Deuon, to the West, very neere the lands end, to the North and South, the Ocean, and sundrie Ilands scattered therein, wherethrough it passeth also for a wonder.

    Haynboroughs wide prospect, at once,
      Both feedes, and gluts your eye,
    With Cornwals whole extent, as it
      In length and breadth doth lie.

At Ladocke, in this Hundred, dwelleth master Peter Courtney, who doubly fetcheth his pedigree, from that honourable flocke, and embraceth the contentment of a quiet priuate life, before the publike charge in his Countrie, due to his calling, and to which long sithence, he hath bene called. His father maried (as I haue shewed) the daughter & coheir of Trethurffe, himselfe Reskimers, his sonne the daughter of Saintabyn: he beareth O. three Torteaux, and a File with as many Lambeaux, B.

Leo Aser, in the delightfull, and approued description of his Countrie, telleth vs of a blind guide, who would readily and safely conduct straunger trauailers, ouer the huge Deserts, with which that region aboundeth, and that the meanes he vsed, was, in certaine distances, to smell at the sand, which gaue him perfect notice of the places.

Likewise, Lewes Guicciardin, in his booke of Netherland, maketh report of one Martyn Catelyn, borne at Weruicke in Flaunders, who falling blind before he attained two yeeres age, grew, notwithstanding, by his owne industrie, without any teacher, to such a perfection in Timber handy-craft, as he could, not only turne, [140] and make Virginals, Organes, Vyolons, and such like Instruments, with great facilitie, order, and proportion, but also tune, and handsomely play vpon them, and besides, deuised many seruiceable tooles for his science.

These examples I thrust out before me, to make way, for a not much lesse straunge relation, touching one Edward Bone, sometimes seruant to the said master Courtney: which fellow (as by the assertion of diuers credible persons, I haue beene informed) deafe from his cradle, and consequently dumbe, would yet bee one of the first, to learne, and expresse to his master, any newes that was sturring in the Countrie: especially, if there went speech of a Sermon, within some myles distance, hee would repaire to the place, with the soonest, and setting himselfe directly against the Preacher, looke him stedfastly in the face, while his Sermon lasted: to which religious zeale, his honest life was also answerable. For, as hee shunned all lewd parts himselfe, so, if hee espied any in his fellow seruants, (which hee could and would quickely doe) his master should straightwayes know it, and not rest free from importuning, vntill, either the fellow had put away his fault, or their master his fellow. And to make his minde knowne, in this, and all other matters, hee vsed verie effectuall signes, being able therethrough, to receiue, and perform any enioyned errand. Besides, hee was afflicted with so firme a memorie, that he would not onely know any partie, whome hee had once seene, for euer after, but also make him knowne to any other, by some speciall obseruation, and difference. Vpon a brother of his, God laid the like infirmitie, but did not recompence it with the like raritie.

Somewhat neere the place of his birth, there dwelt another, so affected, or rather defected, whose name was Kempe: which two, when they chaunced to meete, would vse such kinde embracements, such strange, often, and earnest tokenings, and such heartie laughters, and other passionate gestures, that their want of a tongue, seemed rather an hinderance to others conceiuing them, then to their conceiuing one another.

Gwarnack, in this Hundred, was the Beuils ancient seate, whose two daughters and heires, married Arundel of Trerice, and Greinuile.

Wolueden, alias, Golden, fell vnto Tregian, by match with the Inheritrix thereof. Tregean signifieth the Giants towne: their sonne married in Lanherne house, their Graund-child with the L. Stourtons daughter: hee beareth Erm. on a chiefe S. three Martlets O.

It standeth in Probus Parish, whose high, and faire Church towre, of hewed Moore stone, was builded within compasse of our remembrance, by the well disposed Inhabitants: and here also dwelleth one Williams, a wealthie, and charitable Farmer, Graund-father to sixtie persons, now liuing, and able, lately to ride twelue myles in a morning, for being witnesse to the christening of a child, to whome hee was great great Graundfather.

From hence, drawing towards the South sea, wee will touch at the late Parke of Lanhadron, because there groweth an Oke, bearing his leaues speckled with white, as doth another, called Painters Oke, in the Hundred of East: but whether the former partake any supernaturall propertie, to foretoken the owners sonne insuing death, when his leaues are al of one colour (as I haue [141] heard some report) let those affirme, who better know it: certain it is, that diuers auncient families in England are admonished by such predictions.

Grampond, if it tooke that name from any great Bridge, hath now Nomen sine re: for the Bridge there is supported with onely a few arches, and the Corporation but halfe, replenished with Inhabitants, who may better vaunt of their townes antiquitie, then the towne of their abilitie.

Of Pentuan I haue spoken before. For the present, it harboureth master Dart, who as diuers other Gentlemen, well descended, and accommodated in Deuon, doe yet rather make choyce of a pleasing and retired equalitie in the little Cornish Angle. Hee matched with Roscarrocke.

Penwarne, in the same Parish of Meuagesy, alias, S. Meuie, and Isy (two nothing ambitious Saints, in resting satisfied with the partage of so pettie a limit) is vested in master Otwell Hill, as heire to his mother, the daughter and heire to Cosowarth, to whom it likewise accrued, by matching with the daughter and heire of that name: a seate, through his fruitfulnesse, and other appurtenances, supplying the owner large meanes of hospitalitie, and by him so imployed, who reckoned to receiue most good, when he doth it. He deriueth himselfe from a populous, and well regarded familie in Lancashire, and married the daughter of Denham: and beareth G. a Cheuron, between three Garbes Ermine.

At the adioyning Saint Tue, dwelleth master Richard Tremayn, descended from a yonger brother of Colocumb house, in Deuon, who being learned in the lawes, is yet to learne, or at least to practise, how he may make other profit thereby, then by hoording vp treasure of gratitude, in the mindfull breasts of poore and rich, on whom hee, gratis, bestoweth the fruites of his paines and knowledge. He married Coffyn, hee beareth G. three Armes in circle ioyned at the Tronkes 0. with hands proper.

Dudman, a wel-knowne foreland to most Saylers, here shouldreth out the Ocean, to shape the same a large bosome betweene it selfe, and Rame head, which are wel-neere twentie myles in distance. Amongst sundrie prouerbs, allotting an impossible time of performance, the Cornish men haue this one, When Rame-head and Dudman meet. Whose possession, yet, though not themselues, met in Sir Peers Edgecumb, as inioyning that, in right of his wife, and this, by descent from his Father.

Bodrugan, a large demaines adioyning thereunto (which I will not deriue from Sir Bars du Ganis, though the neighbours so say) was the dwelling of Sir Henrie Trenowith, a man of great liuely-hood, who chaunged his name with the house, and lost house and holding, through attainder for rebellion, against king Henrie the seuenth. The king bestowed it, by an intailed gift, vpon Sir Richard Edgecumb.

Next, lyeth the foreremembred Caryhayes (Kery haz in Cornish, signifieth to beare his seede, or as some other define it, delighting in seede) descended to M. Charles Treuanion, the present possessioner, by a long ranke of auncestors, from Arundels daughter and heire: his father married the daughter of Morgan, and sister to the first Lord Humdons wife, which brought him an honourable ally. Three of this Gentlemans elder brethren, Edward, Iohn, and Hugh, forewent him in succession [142] to their fathers inheritance, and passed to the better world in a single life: himselfe by matching the daughter and heire of Witchalse, whose mother was coheire to Marwood, hath raised issue vnto them, and continueth the hope of posteritie. Sir William Treuanion, his Graundsire, tooke to wife the said Sir Richard Edgecumbs daughter. The Treuanions Armes are A. a Fesse B. charged with three Escalops O. betweene two Cheurons G.

Roseland, is a circuite, containing certaine Parishes hereabouts, and benefiting the owners with his fruitfulnesse, so that though the original of his name came (perhaps) as master Camden noteth, from his former thickets, yet his present estate better resembleth a flowrie effect.

By this time we approch the limits of Falmouth Hauen, vpon one of whose Creekes, standeth the market and incorporate towne of Tregny, not specially memorable (in my knowledge) for any extraordinarie worth, or accident.

Of better regard is Truro, alias, Truru, or Trisow, as the principall towne of the Hauen, priuiledged with a Mayraltie, and benefited with the generall Westerne Sessions, Coynages, Markets, Faires, &c. The shape of the towne, and Etymon of the name, may be learned out of this Cornish propheticall rime.

      Tru ru,
     Triueth eu,
    Ombdina geueth try ru.

Which is to say, Truro consisteth of three streetes, and it shall in time bee said, Here Truro stood. A like mischief of a mysterie, they obserue, that in taking T. from the towne, there resteth ru, ru, which in English soundeth, Woe, woe: but whatsoeuer shall become therof hereafter, for the present, I hold it to haue got the start in wealth of any other Cornish towne, and to come behind none in buildings, Lanceston onely excepted, where there is more vse, and profit of faire lodgings, through the Countie Assizes. I wish that they would likewise deserue praise, for getting, and imploying their riches, in some industrious trade, to the good of their Countrie, as the Harbours oportunitie inuiteth them.

Descending from Truro to the Hauens mouth, by water, you are ouer-looked, by sundrie Gentlemens commodious seates, as Fentengollan, in English, the Harts well, lately appertayning to master Carmynow, by interpretation often louing, and now to master Holcomb, who married the daughter of master Peter Courtney.

Master Sayers house, Ardeuora, inhabited by master Thomas Peyton, a Gentleman for his age and vertues, deseruing a regardfull estimation, [blank] Master Bescawnes, [blank] Master Sayers: but amongst all, vpon that side of the riuer, Taluerne, for pleasant prospect, large scope, and other hous-keeping commodities, challengeth the preeminence: it was giuen to a yonger brother of Lanhearne, for some six or seuen descents past, and hath bred Gent. of good worth and calling: amongst whom, I may not forget the late kind, & valiant Sir Iohn Arundell, who matched with Godolphin, nor Iohn his vertuous, and hopeful succeeding sonne, who married with Carew; though this remembrance renew that sorrow, which once I partly expressed in the ensuing Epitaph.


    Seeke not, blind eyes, the liuing with the dead,
    Tis earth you see : our Arundel is gone,
    To ioyne with Christ, as member to his head,
    And skornes, and pities, this our bootlesse mone.
      Yet pardon vs, sweete soule, mans nature beares,
      We, to thy losse, should sacrifice our teares.

    Thou time hast changed to eternitie,
    But timelesse was that time, in our regard,
    Since nought thou leau'st vs, faue the memorie
    Of thy deare worth, so soone not to be spar'd.
      Soft be the graue, vnto thy resting bones:
      Short be the date, that vs againe atones.

Vpon the East side of the Hauens entrance, Saint Maryes, alias, S. Mawes Castle, with his Point-blanke Ordinance, comptrolleth any shipping, that deserue a deniall of admission or passage, and is commaunded by master Viuian, a Gentleman, who through his worth deserueth, and with due care and judgement dischargeth, the Martiall and ciuill gouernments committed to his trust: hee beareth partie per fesse Ar. and Vnsase 6. in chiefe, a Lyon rampant G.

We will close vp this Hundred, after our vsuall maner, with the Gentlemen of marke, but not orderly marked. Such are Tanner, who married the daughter of Roscarrock: who beareth A. on a chiefe S. three Morions heads O. Pomeroy, a branch of Bery Pomeroy in Deuon: he beareth O. a Lyon rampant G. who matched with Tanner, and whose daughter & heire apparant, hath taken to husband the yong Penkeuil, who beareth A. two Cheurons, and in chiefe a Lyon passant G. Polwheele, whose name is deduced from his dwelling: and his dwelling may be interpreted, The miry worke, linked in wedlock with the coheire of Trencreeke, in English, The towne of the borough. His mother was Lower of Trelask. Polwheel beareth S. a Saultier engrayled Erm.

Hearle, lineally descended from sundry Knights, who wedded Treuanion: and his sonne Treffry. Hee bearth A. a Fesse G. betweene 3. Sheldrakes proper.

Sawle, who espoused Rashleigh: and his father, Kendall, &c. and beareth A. a Cheuron betweene 3. Faulcons heads erased S.

Pider Hundred.

I Must now, for a while, bid the South sea farewell, vntill a new oportunity call mee to end the other part of Falmouth hauen, and take the Hundred of Pider in taske, which confineth with Powder in situation, as it resembleth the same in denomination.

Pider in Cornish is 4. in English, and this is the fourth Hundred of Cornwall, if you begin your reckoning from the Wester part, at Penwith, which (signifying a head) doth seeme so to require it.

In entring this Hundred, Padstowe first presenteth it selfe, a towne and hauen of suteable quality, for both (though bad) are the best, that the North Cornish coast possesseth. The Borough gaue name to the harbour, and borroweth it of Petrock and Stowe, contracting the same into Padstowe. It hath lately purchased a corporation and reapeth greatest thrift, by traffiking [144] with Ireland, for which it commodiously lieth.

The harbour is barred with banks of sand, made (through vniting their weak forces) sufficiently strong, to resist the Oceans threatening billows, which (diuorced from their parent) find their rage subdued by the others lowly submission.

M. Nicholas Prideaux, from his new and stately house, thereby taketh a ful and large prospect of the towne, hauen, & countrey adioyning, to all which, his wisdome is a stay, his authority a direction. He maried one of Viels coheires; and though endowed with fayre reuenues in Deuon, maketh Cornwall beholden to his residence. He beareth A. a Cheuron S. in chief a fyle with three Lambreaux G.

The salt water leauing Padstowe, floweth up into the countrey, that it may embrace the riuer Camel, and hauing performed this naturall courtesie, ebbeth away againe, to yield him the freer passage, by which meanes they both vndergoe Wade bridge, the longest, strongest, and fayrest that the Shire can muster. It tooke his name of a foorde adioyning, which affoordeth a way, not so safe, as compendious, when the tyde is out.

Wade bridge delivereth you into a waste ground, where 9. long and great stones, called The sisters, stand in a ranke together, and seeme to haue bene so pitched, for continuing the memory of somewhat, whose notice is yet enuied vs by time.

Neere to Belowdy, commonly, & not vnproperly, termed Beelowzy, the top of a hill is enuironed with deep treble trenches, which leaue a large playne space in the midst: they call it Castellan Danis, of which my former booke maketh mention; and it seemeth (in times past) to haue bin a matter of moment, the rather, for that a great cawsey (now couered with grasse) doth lead vnto it.

Saint Colombs is a bigge parish, and a meane market towne, subiect to the Lordship and patronage of the Lanhearn Arundels, who for many descents, lye there interred, as the inscriptions on their graue stones doe testify.

Theire name is deriued from Hirundelle, in French, a Swallow, & out of France, at the conquest they came, & sixe Swallowes they giue in Armes. The Countrey people entitle them, The great Arundels: and greatest stroke, for loue, liuing, and respect, in the Countrey heretofore they bare.

Their sayd house of Lanhearne, standeth in the next parish, called Mawgan: Ladu is Cornish for a bank, and on a banke the same is seated, what hearne may mean, ignorance bids mee keepe silence. It is appurtenanced with a large scope of land, which (while the owners there liued) was employed to franke hospitality; yet the same wanted wood, in lieu whereof, they burned heath, and generally, it is more regardable for profit, then commendale for pleasure. The Gent. now liuing, maried Anne the daughter of Henry Gerningham: his father (a man of a goodly presence and kinde magnanimity) maried the daughter of the Earle of Darby, and widdow to the L. Stourton. He beareth S. 6. Swallowes in pile A.

Little Colan hath lesse worth the obseruation, vnlesse you will deride, or pity, their simplicity, who sought at our Lady Nants well there, to foreknowe what fortune should betide them, which was in this maner:

Vpon Palm Sunday, these idle-headed seekers resorted thither, with a palme crosse in one hand, & an offring [145] in the other: the offring fell to the Priests share, the Crosse they threwe into the well; which if it swamme, the party should outliue that yeere; if it sunk, a short ensuing death was boded: and perhaps, not altogether vntruely, while a foolish conceyt of this halfening might the sooner helpe it onwards. A contrary practise to the goddess Iunoes lake In Laconia: for there, if the wheaten cakes, cast in vpon her festiuall day, were by the water receiued, it betokened good luck; if reiected, euill. The like is written by Pausanias, of Inus in Greece, and by others touching the offrings throwne into the fornace of mount Etna in Sicill.

From hence, by the double duety of consanguinitie and affinity, I am called to stop at Cosowarth, which inhabitance altered the Inhabitants from their former French name Escudifer, in English, Iron shield, to his owne, as they prooue by olde euidence, not needing in the Norman Kings new birth, to be distinguished with the Raigners number.

Cosowarth, in Cornish, importeth The high groue: and well stored with trees it hath bene, neither is yet altogether destitute.

Iohn the heire of that house, hauing by the daughter of Williams, issue only one daughter Katherine, suffered part of his lands to descend vnto the children of her first husband, Alen Hill: another part hee intayled in her second marriage, with Arundel of Trerice, to their issue. The house of Cosowarth, and the auncient inheritance there adioyning, he gaue to the heires male of his stock, by which conueyance, his vncle Iohn succeeded, who married the daughter of Sir Wil. Lock, King H. the 8. marchant, and by him knighted, for that with equall courage, and hazard, hee tooke downe the Popes Bull, set vp at Antwerp against his Soueraigne. He had issue Thomas, Edward, Michael, Iohn, and Robert. Thomas maried the daughter of Samtabyn, on whom he begat Iohn and Dorothy: Iohn the elder and Robert, neuer tasted the sweet and sowre of bridale fruit.

Michael tooke to wife Sidenhams daughter of Dulverton in
Somerset shire, and is father onely of issue female.

Hee addicteth himself to an Ecclesiasticall life, and therein ioyning Poetry with Diuinity, endeuoureth to imitate the holy Prophet Dauid, whose Psalmes, of his translation into English meeter, receiue the general applause, beyond a great many other wel-deseruing vndertakers of the same taske.

Iohn the youngest, succeeding in this inheritance, vpon iust cause, good conscience, and gratefull kindnesse, renewed the intayle which his father Thomas had cut off, and in a single estate, and the vniuersall loue of all that conuersed with him, made a short period of his long hoped life: whose decease I bewayled in these rimes.

    HE that at sea and land amidst his foes,
    By courage guided, sought, and scapt his death,
    Loe, here, amongst his friends, whom liking chose,
    And nature lent, hath vp resign'd his breath.
      Vnripened fruit in grouth, precious in hope,
      Rare in effect, had fortune giuen scope.

    Our eyes with teares performe thine obsequy,
    And hearts with sighes, since hands could yeeld none aid, [146]
    Our tongues with praise preserue thy memory,
    And thoughts with griefs, since we behind are staid.
      Coswarth farewell, death which vs parts atwaine,
      E're long, in life, shall vs conioyne againe.

His sister maried Kendall.

Edward his vncle, and heire, by vertue of these entayles, married the daughter of Arundel of Trerice, and from a ciuill Courtiers life in his younger yeers, reposeth his elder age, on the good husbandry of the country, hauing raised posterity sufficient, for transplanting the name into many other quarters. He beareth A. on a Cheuron betweene three wings B. fiue Bezants.

Against you haue passed towards the West somewhat more then a mile, Trerice, anciently, Treres, offereth you the viewe of his costly and commodious buildings. What Tre is, you know already, res signifieth a rushing of fleeting away, and vpon the declyning of a hill the house is seated.

In Edward the 3. raigne, Ralphe Arundel matched with the heire of this land and name: since which time, his issue hath there continued, and encreased their liuelyhood, by sundry like Inheritours, as S. Iohn, Iew, Durant, Thurlebear, &c.

Precisely to rip vp the whole pedigree, were more tedious, then behoouefull: and therefore I will onely (as by the way) touch some fewe poynts, which may serue (in part) to shew what place & regard they haue borne in the Common wealth.

There was an indenture made, betweene Hugh Courtney, Earle of Deuon, Leiutenant to the King, for a sea voyage, in defence of the Realme: and Sir Iohn Arundel of Trerice, for accompanying him therein.

He was Sherife of Cornwall. [8. H. 5.]

Iohn Earle of Huntingdon, vnder his seale of Armes, [5. H. 6.] made Sir Iohn Arundel of Trerice, Seneshall of his houshold, as well in peace, as in warre, gaue him ten pound fee, and allowed him entertaynment in his house, for one Gentleman, three Yeoman, one boy, and sixe horses.

The same Earle, stiling himselfe Lieutenant generall [8. H. 6.] to Iohn Duke of Bedford, Constable and Admirall of England, wrote to the said Sir Iohn Arundel, then Vice-admirall of Cornwall, for the release of a ship, which hee had arrested by vertue of his office.

The Queene, by her letter, aduertised Iohn Arundel of [3. H. 7.] Trerice Esquire, that she was brought in child-bed of [12.Oct.] a Prince.

The King wrote to Sir Iohn Arundel of Trerice, that [11. H. 8] he should giue his attendance at Canterbury, about the entertaynment of the Emperour, whose landing was then and there expected.

Iohn Arundel of Trerice Esquire, tooke prisoner, [14. H. 8.] Duncane Campbell, a Scot, in a fight at sea, as our Chronicle mentioneth, concerning which, I thought it not amisse, to insert a letter sent him from Tho. Duke of Norfolke (to whom he then belonged) that you may see the stile of those dayes.


By the Duke of Norf.

Right welbeloued, in our hearty wife we commend vs vnto you, letting you wit, that by your seruant, this bearer, wee haue receyued your letters, dated at Truru the 5. day of this moneth of April, by which we perceyue the goodly, valiant, and ieopardous enterprise, it hath pleased God of late to send you, by the taking of Duncane Camel & other Scots on the sea; of which enterprise we haue made relation vnto the Kings Highnesse, who is not a little ioyous and glad, to heare of the same, and hath required vs instantly in his name, to giue you thanks for your said valiant courage, and bolde enterprise in the premises: and by these our letters, for the same your so doing, we doe not onely thanke you in our most effectuall wise, but also promise you, that during our life, wee will bee glad to aduaunce you to any preferment we can. And ouer this, you shall vnderstand, our said Soueraigne Lords pleasure is, that you shall come and repaire to his Highnes, with diligence in your owne person, bringing with you the said Captiue, and the Master of the Scottish ship; at which time, you shall not onely be sure of his especiall thanks by mouth, & to know his further pleasure therein, but also of vs to further any your reasonable pursuits vnto his Highnes, or any other, during our life, to the best of our power, accordingly. Written at Lambeth, the 11. day of Aprill aforesaid.

Superscribed: To our right welbeloued seruant, Iohn Arundell of Trerice.

The King wrote to Sir Iohn Ar. of Trerice, touching [35. H. 8.] his discharge from the Admiralty of the fleete, lately committed vnto him, & that he should deliuer the ship which he sayled in, to Sir Nic. Poynts.

The same yere the King wrote to him againe, that he should attend him in his warres against the French king, with his seruants, tenants, and others, within his roomes and offices, especially horsemen.

Other letters from the King there are, whose date is not expressed, neither can I by any meanes hunt it out.

One, to his seruant Iohn Arundel of Trerice Esquire, willing him, not to repaire with his men, and to wayte in the rereward of his army, as hee had commaunded him, but to keepe them in a readinesse for some other seruice.

Another, to Sir Iohn Arundel of Trerice, praying and desiring him to the Court, the Quindene of Saint Hillarie next, wheresoeuer the King shall then bee within the Realme.

There are also letters, directed to Sir Iohn Arundell of Trerice, from the Kings Counsell, by some of which it it appeareth, that hee was Viceadmirall of the Kings [Ed. 6.] shippes, in the West seas, and by others, that hee had the goods and lands of certaine Rebels, giuen him, for his good seruice against them.

The Queene wrote to Sir Iohn Arundell of Trerice, [1. Mar] praying and requiring him, that hee, with his friends and neighbours, should see the Prince of Spaine most honourably entertained, if he fortuned to land in Cornwall.


[2. Mar.] Shee wrote to him (being then Sherife of Cornwall) touching the election of the Knights of the shire, and the Burgesses for the Parliament.

[2. & 3.] Shee likewise wrote to him, that (notwithstanding [P. & M.] the instructions to the Iustices) hee should muster, and furnish his seruants, tenants, and others, vnder his rule and offices, with his friends, for the defence, and quieting of the Countrie, withstanding of enemies, and any other imployment, as also to certifie, what force of horse and foote he could arme.

These few notes I haue culled out of many others. Sir Iohn Arundell, last mentioned, by his first wife, the coheire of Beuill, had issue Roger, who died in his fathers life time; and Katherine, married to Prideaux: Roger by his wife Trendenham left behind him a sonne, called Iohn. Sir Iohns second wife, was daughter to Erisy, and widdow to Gourlyn, who bare him Iohn, his succeeder in Trerice, and much other faire reuenewes, whose due commendation, because another might better deliuer then my selfe, who touch him as neerely, as Tacitus did Agricola) I will therefore bound the same within his desert, and onely say this, which all, who knew him, shall testifie with me: that, of his enemies, he would take no wrong, nor on them any reuenge; and being once reconciled, embraced them, without scruple or remnant of gall. Ouer his kinred, hee held a warie and charie care, which bountifully was expressed, when occasion so required, reputing himselfe, not onely principall of the family, but a generall father to them all. Priuate respects euer, with him, gaue place to the common good: as for franke, well ordered, and continuall hospitalitie, he outwent all shew of competence: spare, but discreet of speech, better conceiuing, then deliuering: equally stout, and kind, not vpon lightnesse of humour, but soundnesse of iudgement, inclined to commiseration, readie to relieue. Briefely, so accomplished in vertue, that those, who for many yeeres together wayted in neerest place about him, and, by his example, learned to hate vntruth, haue often deeply protested, how no curious obseruation of theirs, could euer descrie in him, any one notorious vice. By his first foreremembred wife, he had 4. daughters married, to Carew, Summaster, Cosowarth, & Denham: by his later, the daughter of Sir Robert Denis, 2. sonnes, and 2. daughters: the elder, euen from his young yeeres, began where his father left, and with so temperate a course, treadeth iust in his footesteps, that hee inheriteth, as well his loue, as his liuing. The younger brother followeth the Netherland wars, with so wel-liked a cariage, that hee outgoeth his age, and time of seruice, in preferment. Their mother equalleth her husbands former children, and generally all his kinred, in kind vsage, with her owne, and is by them all, againe, so acknowledged and respected.

Of Saint Peran, wee haue spoken before, which too well brooketh his surname, in Sabulo: for the light sand, carried vp by the North wind, from the sea shore, daily continueth his couering, and marring the land adioynant, so as the distresse of this deluge, draue the Inhabitants to remooue their Church: howbeit, when it meeteth with any crossing brooke, the same (by a secret antipathy) restraineth, and barreth his farder incroching that way.

In Withiell Parish of this Hundred, one Gidly, not many yeeres sithence, digged downe a little hillocke, or [149] Borough, called Borsneeuas, in English, Cheapfull, therewith to thicken his other ground. In the bottome of which he found three white stones, triangle-wise (as pillers) supporting another flat one, some two foote and a halfe square, and in the midst betweene them, and vnder it, an earthen Pot, halfe full of a blacke slymie, and ill-fauouring substance, which (doubtlesse) was once the ashes of some notable person, there committed to that maner of buriall.

Saint Agnes, one of the high hils, which I specially recited in my former booke, by his entrailes (like Prometheus) feedeth the Tynners pecking, or picking bils, with a long liued profit, albeit, their scarcle Eagle eyes sometimes mistake the shadow for the substance, and so offer vp degenerate teares, as a late sacrifice to repentance.

The neighbours haue obserued, that of two Lakes, neere adioyning to this hill, and so each to other, the one will foster fish, and the other none at all.

Neyther may I omit newe Kaye, a place in the North coast of this Hundred, so called, because in former times, the neighbours attempted, to supplie the defect of nature, by Art, in making there a Kay, for the Rode of shipping, which conceyt they still retayne, though want of means in themselues, or the place, haue left the effect in Nubibus: and onely lent them the benefit of Lestercockes and fisher-boates.

I cannot finish this Hundred, with the relation of many more Gentlemen, eyther through want of them, or in my selfe. Trenance added to his owne liuelyhood, the possessions of Littleton, to whome, as sisters sonne, and generall heire, hee succeeded and married Kendall, and his sonne Roscarrocke: hee beareth A. a Fesse, betweene three Swords S.

There dwelleth also Master Tredenick, who matched with the daughter of Viuian, and his father, of Marow, who beareth O. on a bend S. three Buckes heads cabased A. As also Langherne B. a Cheuron betweene 3. Escalops O. Burlace, A. on a bend S. two hands tearing in sunder a horse-shooe of the field; and others.

Kerier Hundred.

KEry in Cornish, signifieth bearing: and yet you must beare with me, if I forbeare to deriue Kerier herefrom, vntill I see some reason for my warrant: wherefore leauing that, I will weaue on my former webbe of Falmouth hauen; and first, a word or two touching the same in generall, ere I descend to the yet vndescribed West side in particular.

The riuer Fala, falling here, into the seas wide-gaping mouth, hath endowed it with that name,

In the very entrance of the harbour lyeth a rocke, rather disgracing, then endamaging the same: for with the ebbe it is discouered, and at the flood, marked by a pole purposely fixed thereupon. For the rest, such as compare Plymmouth and Falmouth together, obserue, that Plymmouth creekes are mostly coasted with plaine shoares; Falmouth, with steepe: which maketh that, the more delightfull for prospect, this, the more safe for riding. Againe, they say that Falmouth lyeth farther out in the trade way, and so offreth a sooner oportunity to wind-driuen shipping, then Plymmouth, but that Plymmouth hath a better outlet, from his Catwater, for saylers [150] bound to the Westwards, and from Hamoase for those that would fare to the East, then Falmouth. Likewise as Plymmouth vaunteth richer and fairer townes, and greater plentie of fish then Falmouth: so Falmouth braggeth, that a hundred sayle may Anker within his circuite, and no one of them see the others top, which Plymmouth cannot equall. Howsoeuer they agree for competence among themselues, the worst of them, by most mens iudgements, hath the precedence (Milford onely excepted) of all other hauens in England. And thus much of the whole. Now to the parts.

On the West side, at the verie comming in, there riseth a hill, called Pendenis, where king Henrie the eighth, when hee tooke order for fortifying the Sea coasts, caused a Castle to bee builded, with allowance of a pettie Garrison, and some small store of Ordinance. Another, somewhat like thereto in plot, but different in sight, was s. Mawes then erected in the other side, at Saint Mawes, of which Castle, I haue spoken heretofore.

Saint Mawes lieth lower, and better to annoy shipping: but Pendenis standeth higher, and stronger to defend it selfe. It should seeme, the fortifier made his aduantage of the commoditie, affoorded by the ground, and shot rather at a safe preferuing the Harbour, from sodaine attempts of little Fleetes, and the mastering of Pirates, then to withstand any great Nauie, or maigne inuasion.

But her Maiestie casting an equall eye to both, or rather a sharper sight to this later, as quickned through the enemies diuers pretences against these places (whereof Falmouth, by myracle, not prouidence, escaped one) raysed a new fort with a Garrison, vpon the Hawe at Plymmouth, and at her great charges, with some little helpe of the Countrie, added an increase of fortification and souldiers to Pendenis. Howbeit, his greatest strength consisteth in Sir Nicholas Parker, the Gouernour, who demeaning himselfe, no lesse kindly, and frankly towards his neighbours, for the present, then hee did resolutely, and valiantly, against the enemie when he followed the warres; therethrough commaundeth, not onely their bodies, by his authoritie, but also their hearts, by his loue, to liue and die in his assistance, for their common preseruation, and her Highnesse seruice: hee beareth B. Frettie, and A. a Fesse O.

After the declining hill hath deliuered you downe from this Castle, Arwenacke entertaineth you, with a pleasing view: for the same standeth so farre within the Hauens mouth, that it is protected from the sea stormes, and yet so neere thereunto, as it yeeldeth a ready passage out. Besides the Cliffe, on which the house abbutteth, is steepe enough to shoulder off the waues, and the ground about it, plaine and large enough for vse and recreation.

It is owed by Master Iohn Killigrew, who married the daughter of Monck, and heire to her mother [blank] and was sonne to Sir Iohn Killigrew, who matched with Woluerstone: the stocke is ancient, and diuers of the branches (as I haue elsewhere remembred) growne to great aduancement, in calling and liuely-hood, by their greater desert: their Armes are A. an Eagle with two heads displayed within a bordure Bezanty S.

Somewhat aboue Arwenacke, Trefuses point diuideth the harbour, and yeeldeth a seuerall Ankering [151] place on eche side thereof; the one called Carrack rode, the other, Kings rode.

This Promontory is possessed and inhabited by a Gentleman of that name, who suitably to his name, giueth three Fusils for his coat, in this sort: A. a Cheuron betweene three Fusils S. He maried the coheire of Gaurigan, and M. Wil. Godolphin, late yonger brother to Sir FraunciS, her other sister.

Vpon the left hand from hence, at the top of a creek, Perin towne hath taken vp his seat, rather passable, then noteable, for wealth, buildings, and Inhabitants; in all which, though neere the hauens mouth, it giueth Truro the preeminence: the like whereof I obserue, touching diuers other townes, of the same situation, in Deuon, as Salcomb, and Kings bridge, Dartmouth, and Totnes, Topsham, and Excester: amongst which, those that stand highest vp in the Countrey, affoord therethrough, a fitter oportunity of accesse, from all quarters, and so a speedyer and larger vent of their commodities.

In Perin was Glasney Colledge, founded [1256.] by Walter Brounscomb, & benefited by Iohn Graundson, Bishops of Excester [1327.], which See possesseth faire reuenues thereabouts.

Vpon another creeke on the same side, Carclew hath (after the Cornish maner) welneere metamorphosed the name of Master Bonithon, his owner, into his owne. He maried the daughter of Viuian, his father of Killigrew, his graundfather of Erisy, and beareth A. a Cheuron betweene 3, Floures de luce. S.

With any memorable act or accident, concerning this hauen, I cannot acquaint you, before my parting therefrom, saue onely, that Philip, Arch-duke of Austriche, during his voyage from Netherland towards Spayne (his wiues Kingdome) was weather-driuen into Weymouth, and, with a kinde constraint, receyued a more royall, then welcome entertainment, at the hands of King Henrie the 7. from which hee could not free himself, but by redeeming his libertie, with De la Pooles captiuity. This accomplished, he made choyce to take ship again at Falmouth, that so by the shortest cut, hee might leaue least power in fortune, to thwart him any second incumbrance.

Hailford, so called, of the fordible riuer Haill, if elsewhere placed, would carry the reputation of a good harbour; but as it now standeth, Falmouths ouer-neere neighbourhood lesseneth his vse, and darkeneth his reputation, as quitting it onely to the worst sort of Seafarers, I meane, Pirats, whose guilty brests, with an eye in their backs, looke warily how they may goe out, ere they will aduenture to enter; and this at vnfortifyed Hailford, cannot be controlled: in which regard, it not vnproperly brooketh his more common terme of Helford, and the nick-name of Stealfoord.

His shores affoord commodious seates, to the dwellings of Reskimer, who maried S. Abin, and beareth B. 3. barres A. in cheife a Wolfe passant of the first: and Tregose, who matched with Kendal: his sonne with Erisy, and beareth B. two barres Gemewes in cheife a Lyon passant O. armed and langued G.

And if your eares be not already cloyed with relation of wonders, I will let you vnderstand, how I was once carried to see one hereabouts. It is (forsooth) a [152] great rock, lying vpon the ground, his top deepned to a hollownesse, not much vnlike in fashion, but far exceeding in proportion the long halfe of an egge. This (they say) holdeth water, which ebbeth and floweth as the sea, and, indeed, when I came thither, the tyde was halfe out, and the pit halfe empty. By it there stands a Chappell, & to it there belonged a couer, so as the same seemed, in former times, to cary some regard. But I haue heard credible persons so discredit this woonder, that I dare not offer it you, as probable, much lesse thrust it vpon you, as approoued. The name thereof is, Hanterdauis, which (turning d to t) signifieth halfe a tongue.

More certaine, though lesse wonderfull, and yet, for the strangenesse, wel worth the viewing, is Mainamber: Mayne, is a rocke, amber, as some say, signifieth Ambrose. And a great rocke the same is, aduaunced vpon some others of a meaner size, with so equall a counterpeyze, that the push of a finger, will sensibly moue it too and fro: but farther to remooue it, the vnited forces of many shoulders are ouer-weake. Wherefore the Cornish wonder-gatherer, thus descrybeth the same,

    BE thou thy mother natures worke,
      Or proofe of Giants might:
    Worthlesse and ragged though thou shew,
      Yet art thou worth the sight.
    This hugy rock, one fingers force
      Apparently will moue;
    But to remooue it, many strengths
      Shall all like feeble prooue.

Helston, in Cornish, Hellaz, in English, the greene hall, is a well seated and peopled towne, priuiledged, secundum vsum, with the rest, and one of the 4. Coynage places.

Vnder it runneth the riuer Lo, whose passage into the sea, is thwarted by a sandy banke, which forceth the same to quurt back a great way, and so to make a poole of some miles in compasse. It breedeth a peculiar kind of bastard Trought, in bignesse and goodnes exceeding such as liue in the fresh water, but comming short of those that frequent the salt.

The foreremembred bank serueth as a bridge, to deliuer wayfarers, with a compendious passage, to the other side; howbeit, sometimes with more haste then good speed: for now and then, it is so pressed on the inside, with the increasing riuers waight, and a portion of the vtter sand, so washed downe by the waues; that at a sudden, out breaketh the vpper part of the poole, and away goeth a great deale of the sand, water, and fish: which instant, if it take any passenger tardy, shrewdly endangereth him, to flit for company: and some haue so miscarried.

To this poole adioyneth M. Penrose his house, whose kind entertainment hath giuen mee, and many others experience of these matters. He maried the daughter of Rashleigh: he beareth A. 3. Bendes S. charged with 9. restes.of the field.

Those 2. riuers of Haill and Lo, rising not farre asunder, doe enclose betweene them, as they runne into the sea, a neck of land, particularized with the name of Meneag: and in regard of his fruitfulnesse, not vnworthy of a seuerance.


Within this circuit, lie Trelawarren M. Viuians house, and Erisy, seated in 2. parishes, and descended, by a long ranke of ancestours, to the Gent, of that name, now in ward. His father married Carew: his graundsire, one of Militons coheires, who ouerliuing her husband, ended the course of her long and well commended widdowhood, in becomming Lady to Sir Nicholas Parker. The Enzies beare S. a Cheuron, betweene 3. Griffons Sergreant O.

Clowance (deriued from Cloow, which signifieth, to heare) is the possession and dwelling of M. Saintabin, whose very name (besides the conquest roll) deduceth his first auncestours out of Fraunce. His graundfather married Greinuile: his father, one of Whittingtons coheires: which later couple, in a long and peaceable date of yeeres, exercised a kinde, liberall, and neuer discontinued hospitality. Himselfe tooke to wife the daughter of Mallet, and with ripe knowledge and sound iudgement, dischargeth the place which he beareth in his Countrey. Hee beareth O. on a crosse G. fiue Bezaunts.

Pengueraz, in Cornish importeth a head to help; from which, some deduce the Etymon of Pengersick, a fayre house, in an vnfruitfull soyle, sometimes the inhabitance of M. Militon, Captaine of the Mount, and husband to Godolphin, whose sonne being lost in his trauaile beyond the seas, enriched 6. distafs with his inheritance. They were bestowed in mariage (but by me not orderly marshalled) as followeth: 1. to Erisy, and Sir Nicholas Parker. 2. to Lanine, 3. to Trefuses, and Tregodeck, 4. to Trenwith, Arundel, and Hearle, 5. to Bonithon. 6. to Abbot.

Not farre from thence, riseth Godolghan-ball, or hill, at whose foote standeth a house of the same name, and so intitling his owner, though lately declined (with a milder accent) to Godolphin: in Cornish, it signifieth, a white Eagle: and such armes they carry in this sort: G. an Eagle displayed with two heads, betweene three Floures de luce A.

This hill hath, for diuers descents, supplyed those Gent. bountifull mindes, with large meanes accruing from their Tynne-works, and is now possessed by Sir Frauncis Godolphin Knight, whose zeale in religion, vprightnesse in iustice, prouidence in gouernment, and plentifull housekeeping, haue wonne him a very great and reuerent reputation in his Countrey: and these vertues, together with his seruices to her Maiestie, are so sufficiently knowne to those of highest place, as my testimony can adde little light thereunto: but by his labours and inuentions in Tynne matters, not onely the whole Countrey hath felt a generall benefit, so as the seuerall owners haue thereby gotten very great profit out of such refuse works, as they before had giuen ouer for vnprofitable; but her Maiesty hath also receyued encrease of her customes by the same, at least to the value of 10. thousand pound. Moreouer, in those works which are of his owne particular inheritance, hee continually keepeth at work, three hundred persons or thereabouts, & the yerely benefit, that out of those his works accrueth to her Maiestie, amounteth, communibus annis, to one thousand pound at the least, and sometimes to much more. A matter very remorceable, and perchaunce not to be matched againe by any of his sort and condition in the whole Realme. He succeeded to the inheritance [154] of his vnkle Sir William Godolphin, who, as hath bene said before, demeaned himselfe verie valiantly in a charge which hee bare at Boloigne, towards the latter end of the reigne of King Henry the 8. & is like to leaue the same to another Sir William his sonne, who giueth hope, not onely of the sustaining, but increasing of the reputation of his family. Hee matched with Killigrew, his father with Bonython, his Graund-father with Glynne,

Diuers other Gentlemen there dwell in this Hundred, as Lanyne, the husband of Kekewitch, his father married Militon, and beareth S. a Castle, A. standing in waues B. ouer the same a Faulcon houerin with bels O. Pernwarne, that matched with the coheire of Tencreek, who beareth S. a Cheuron betweene three Flowers de luce A. Lagherne, who tooke to wife the daughter of Nants, and beareth B. a Cheuron betweene three Escalops, O. Nansperyan coupled in matrimonie, with [blank] and his two daughters and heires apparent, with Prideaux, and Mathew; who beareth A. three Losenges S.

Penwith. Hundred.

MY last labour, for closing vp this wearisome Suruey, is bounded, as Cornwall it selfe, and so the West part of England, with Penwith Hundred. The name, in English signifieth, the head of Ashen trees, belike, for some such eminent marke, while the Countrie was better stored of Timber. The Danes sayling about Penwith Steort (saith Houeden [997.]) made foule hauocke, in Devon and-Cornwall.

Vpon the North sea, lieth Nants, which importeth a valley, and houseth a Gent, who therethrough, hath worne out his former name, of Trengoue, in English,the Smithes towne, and assumed this: he married Sir Iohn Arundels daughter of Trerice: and beareth A. a crosse haumed S. During summer season, the Seales haunt a Caue, in the Cliffe thereby, and you shall see great store them, apparently shew themselues, and approch verie neere the shore, at the sound of any lowde musicke, or other such noyse.

Beyond Nants, M. Basset possesseth Tehiddy, who married Godolphin, his father Coffyn : he beareth O. three Piles in point G. a Canton Er. with a difference.

And so, leauing these priuate Inhabitances, & keeping still the North coast, we arriue at the towne, and port of S. Ies: both of meane plight, yet, with their best meanes, (and often, to good and necessarie purpose) succouring distressed shipping. Order hath bene taken, and attempts made, for bettering the Road, with a Peere, but eyther want, or slacknesse, or impossibilitie, hitherto withhold the effect: the whiles, plentie of fish is here taken, and sold verie cheape.

As you row to the Westwards from hence, the sea floweth into a large Caue, farder vp, then any man durst yet aduenture to discouer, and the Cliffes thereabouts muster long strakes of a glittering hiew, which import a shew of Copper: and Copper mynes are found, and wrought in the grounds adioyning.

M. Camden obserueth, that neere hereunto, stood the watch-towre, mencioned by Orosius, and oppositely placed to such another in Galitia.

Stepping ouer to the South-sea, (for the distaunce [155] is in comparison, but a step) S. Michaels mount looketh so aloft, as it brooketh no concurrent, for the highest place. Ptolomey termeth it Ocrinum, the Cornish men, Cara Cowz in Clowze, that is, The hoare rocke in the wood. The same is sundred from the mayne land, by a sandy playne, of a slight shoot in breadth, passable, at the ebbe, on foote; with boat, on the flood. Your arriuall on the farther side, is entertayned by an open greene, of some largenesse, which finishing where the hill beginneth, leaues you to the conduction of a winding and craggy path; and that at the top, deliuereth you into a little plaine, occupied, for the greatest part, by a fort of the olde making. It compriseth lodgings for the Captayne and his garrison, and a Chappell for deuotion. This latter, builded by Will. Earle of Morton, to whom William the Conquerour his vncle, gaue much lands in those quarters, and greatly haunted, while folke endured their merits, by farre trauailing. They haue a tye pit, not so much satisfying vse, as relieuing necessitie. A little without the Castle, there is a bad seat in a craggy place, called S. Michaels Chaire, some what daungerous, for accesse, and therefore holy for the aduenture.

Vntill Richard the firsts raigne, the mount seemeth to haue serued onely for religion, and (during his imprisonment) to haue bene first fortified by Henry de la Pomeray, who surprized it, and expulsed the Monks: howbeit soone after, when hee became ascertained of his Soueraignes enlargement, the very feare of ensuing harme wrought in him a present effect of the vttermost that any harme could bring, namely, his death: whereon, the olde cell and new fort, was surrendred to the Archbishop of Canterbury, in the Kings behalfe. Thus Houeden reporteth. But the descendents from this Pomeray, alias, Pomeroy, make a somewhat different relation of this accident: for they affirme, that a Sergeant at armes of the Kings, came to their auncestour, at his Castle of Bery Pomeroy, in Deuon, receyued kind entertaynment for certaine dayes together, and at his departure, was gratified with a liberall reward: in counter-change whereof, he then, and no sooner, reuealing his long concealed errand, flatly arresteth his hoaste, to make his immediate appearance before the King, for answering a capitall crime. Which vnexpected and il-carryed message, the Gent, tooke in such despite, as with his dagger hee stabbed the messenger to the heart: and then well knowing in so suparlatiue an offence, all hope of pardon foreclosed, he abandones his home, gets to a sister of his abiding in this mount, bequetheth a large portion of his land to the religious people there, for redeeming his soule: and lastly, causeth himselfe to be let bloud vnto death, for leauing the remainder to his heire: from which time forward, this place continued rather a schoole of Mars, then the Temple of peace. For shortly after the discomfiture of H. the 6. party, by Ed. the 4. [11. E. 4.] at Barnet field, Iohn Earle of Oxford, who had made one, and one of the principall on the weaker side, arriued heere by shipping, disguised himselfe, with some of his followers, in Pilgrims habits, therethrough got entrance, mastred the garrison, and seyzed the place. Which, thus politikely wonne, hee as valiantly kept, and kept a long time defended against the Kings power, vntill reasonable conditions swayed him to a surrender.


A like surprize, but of later date, I read in Popeliniere [2. Vol. Lib. 31.], touching the like named and seated mount, in Normandy.

During the last Cornish commotion, diuers Gent. with their wiues and families, fled to the protection of this place, where the Rebels besieged them, first wynning the plaine at the hils foote, by assault, when the water was out, and then; the euen ground on the top, by carrying vp great trusses of hay before them, to blench the defendants sight, and dead their shot. After which, they could make but slender resistance: for no sooner should any one within, peepe out his head, ouer those inflanked wals, but he became an open marke to a whole showre of arrowes. This disaduantage, together with the womens dismay, & decrease of victuals, forced a surrender to those Rakehels mercy, who, nothing guilty of that effeminate vertue, spoyled their goods, imprisoned their bodies, and were rather by Gods gracious prouidence, then any want of will, purpose, or attempt, restrayned from murdering the principall persons.

Heere also [13. H. 7.], was the Lady Katherine Gordon (an vnfit yoke-fellow for that counterfeit Prince, Perkin Warbeck) taken by the L. Daubney, and conueyed to the King. Of this, as the last wonder.

    Who knowes not Mighels mount and chaire,
      The Pilgrims holy vaunt:
    Both land, and Iland, twise a day,
      Both fort, and port of haunt.

Vnder the mount extendeth a bay, for lesser vessels to lie at: and betweene it and the Westerne shoare, there is an indifferent good road for shipping, sauing vpon some winds, called the Mounts bay: where, by Froissarts report, Sir Robert Knolles landed, what time his returne out of Fraunce, was by K. Ed. the 3. commaunded, and for his valiant exployts there, atchieued, very graciously welcomed.

Ouer-against the Mount, fronteth a towne, of petty fortune, pertinently named Marcaiew, of Marhas diow, in English, the Thursdaies market; for then it vseth this traffike. At the beginning of K. H. the 8. raigne, it felt the Frenchmens fiery indignation, who landed there with 30. sayle. But the smoke of those poore houses, calling in the country to the rescusse, made the place ouer hote for the enemies any longer abode.

Mousehole, in Cornish, is named Porternis, and in Latin, Portus Insulae, both importing one sense, to wit, the Iland hauen, and so called, through a little Iland placed before it.

M. Holinshed telleth vs, that neere heereunto, not many yeeres sithence, certayne Tynners, as they were working, found Speare heads, Battel-axes, and swords of Copper, wrapped in lynnen clouts, and little impayred through their long lying.

Pensans, by interpretation, The Saints head, is a market towne, not so regardable for his substance, as memorable for his late accident of the Spaniards firing, which fell out in this maner:

The three & twentieth of July, 1595. soone after the Sun was risen, and had chased a fogge, which before kept the sea out of sight, 4. Gallies of the enemy presented themselues vpon the coast, ouer-against Mousehole, [157] and there In a faire Bay, landed about two hundred men, pikes and shot, who foorthwith sent their forlorne hope, consisting of their basest people, vnto the stragled houses of the countrie, about halfe a mile compasse or more, by whome were burned, not onely the houses they went by, but also the Parish Church of Paul, the force of the fire being such, as it vtterly ruined all the great stonie pillers thereof: others of them in that time, burned that fisher towne Mowsehole, the rest marched as a gard for defence of these firers. The Inhabitants being feared with the Spaniards landing and burning, fled from their dwellings, and verie meanely weaponed, met with Sir Francis Godolphin on a greene, on the West side of Pensance, who that forenoone comming from his house, for pacifying some controuersies in those Western parts, and from the hils espying the fires in that towne, Church, and houses, hastened thither: Who foorthwith sent to all the Captaines of those parts, for their speedie repaire with their companies, and also sent by Poast to Sir Francis Drake, and Sir Iohn Hawkins (then at Plymmouth with a fleete bound for the Indies) aduertisement of the arriuall of these foure Gallies, and of their burnings, aduising them to looke to themselues, if there were any greater fleete of the enemies at Sea, and to send West with all haste, what succours by sea or land they could spare. Then Sir Francis Godolphin aduised that weake assembly, to retire into Pensance, and to prepare it for defence, vntill the comming of the Countrie forces that hee had sent for. But they finding themselues in number something aboue a hundred, wherein were about thirtie or fortie shot, though scarce one third of them were seruiceable, insisted to march against the enemies, to repell them from farther spoyles of their houses.

But while they were marching towards them, the Spaniards returned aboord their Gallyes, and presently remooued them farther into the Bay, where they anchored againe, before and neere a lesser fisher towne, called Newlyn.

There againe with all speede they landed, and imbattelled in the slope of a hill, about foure hundred pikes and shot, sending about two rankes of soldiers, three in a ranke, vp to the top of the hill, to discouer what forces or ambushes of the Countrey might lye in view: who espying none but those that were returned with Sir Frauncis Godolphin, from their forementioned fruitlesse march, gaue notice thereof to their imbatteled company. Wherevpon they forthwith marched towards Penzance.

Vpon their moouing, Sir Frauncis Godolphin moued also, to enter Penzance before them: and assoone as that weake number were entred into the open greene being of three quarters of a mile length, the Gallyes ceased not to ply them all that way with their ordinance from their prowes, as busily as they could. Of which shot, though none were hurt, but onely a Constable vnhorsed without any harme, sauing the shew on his doublet of the bullets sliding by his back, yet many in fearefull manner, some fell flat to the ground, and others ranne away.

Sir Frauncis sent after those that were entred Penzance before him, that they should make their stand at the market place, himselfe [158] staying hindmost, to obserue the enemies order, and which way they would make their approach. Which done, he found at the said market place but onely two resolute shot, who stood at his commaund, and some ten or twelue others that followed him, most of them his owne seruants; the rest, surprised with feare, fled, whom, neither with his perswasions, nor threatning with his rapier drawne, hee could recall.

Finding himselfe thus abandoned, and the enemies entred the towne in three parts, he was then forced to depart, the enemies beginning their fire some houses behinde him. The towne thus fired, as also the forementioned little fisher towne Newlyn, they returned againe to their Gallies.

By this time, towards the euening, the Cornish forces encreased in nomber, and amended in heart, encamped themselues on the greene, neere to the towne of Markesew and S. Michaels Mount, for defence thereof, and there spent out the night. The next day the enemy made showe to land againe on the West side of the bay; but seeing the people, though few in number, yet resolute to resist, they desisted from their enterprize: and besides, finding themselues annoyed by the shooting of bullets and arrowes into their Gallies where they roade at anchor, they were forced to remoue them farther off.

Soone after, viz. on the 25. of July in the morning, came thither Sir Nic. Clifford, Sir H. Power, and certaine other Captaines, who were sent by the Generals from Plymmouth to the campe: As some of her Maiesties ships were also sent, who being come as farre as the Lizard head, & those Captaines to the camp, matters there goe on in prouident and orderly sort, a plot is layd for intercepting the enemy by ambush, if he thrust on shore againe, whereto necessity must soone haue pressed him, for renuing his consumed store of fresh water: but within one houre after the arriuall of these Captaines, the winde, which was vntill then strong at Southeast, with mist and rayne, to haue impeached the Gallies returne, suddenly changed into the Northwest, with very fayre and cleare weather, as if God had a purpose to preserue these his rods for a longer time. The winde no sooner came good, but away pack the Gallies with all the hast they could.

Thus haue you a summary report of the Spaniards glorious enterprise, and the Cornish mens infamous cowardise, which (were there any cause) I could qualify by many reasons, as, the suddennesse of the attempt, the narrownesse of the country, the opennesse of the towne, the aduantage of the Gallies ordinance on a people vnprepared against such accidents, through our long continued peace, & at that very time, for the most part, eyther in their Tynne-workes, or at sea, who e're the next day made resistance, euen with a handfull, and entred a vowed resolution, to reuenge their losse at the next encounter, if the enemy had landed againe.

So might I likewise say, that all these circumstances meeting in any other quarter of the Realme, would hardly haue produced much better effects. But I will not seeke to thrust my Countrymen into any other folkes company, for shifting them out of sight.

Verily such sudden surprizes worke more indignity [159] then dammage, and more dammage then disgrace, and haue so beene euer construed. Moscho, a head Citie in a populous dominion, was burned by the roguing Tartars, anno domini 1572 [Liu. lib. 3.]. The Capitoll, a head fortresse, in a populous Citie, was taken by slaues and outlawes, anno vrbis, 292. and yet, who therefore exalteth the Tartars valiancy, aboue the Moschouite, or the Romanes slaues & outlawes, aboue their masters? Besides, such nap-taking assaults, spoylings, and firings, haue in our forefathers daies, betweene vs and Fraunce, beene very common; and yet, who is so witlesse, as to twite eyther of both, for the same?

But least hold can the author, and actor of this Tra-gedy take, to build any vaunt hereon: for oftentimes small troups of ours, against farre greater forces of theirs, yea (sometimes) after forewarning, and preparance, haue wonne, possessed, ransacked, synged, captiued, and carried away the townes, wealth, and Inhabitants, not onely of their Indies, but of Portugall and Spaine it selfe. Which Nombre de dios, S. Domingo, Cartagena, the lower towne of the Groigne, Penecha, the suburbs of Lisbone, and Cales wil testify, beyond all exception. But our Countrymen leauing reason & example, excuse themselues by destiny. In fatis they say (& not in fatuis) it was, that the Cornish people should vndergo this misfortune: for an ancient prophecy, in their owne language, hath long run amongst them, how there should land vpon the rock of Merlin, those that would burn Pauls Church, Pensants, and Newlyn. And indeed, so is the rocke called, where the enemy first stept on shore. The prophesy is this:

    Ewra teyre a war meane Merlyn
    Ara Lesky Pawle Pensanz ha Newlyn.

Not farre from the lands ende, there is a little village, called Trebegean, in English, The towne of the Giants graue: neere whereunto, and within memory (as I haue beene informed) certayne workemen searching for Tynne, discouered a long square vault, which contayned the bones of an excessiue bigge carkas, and verified this Etimology of the name.

At Saint Buriens, a parish of great circuit, and like benefit to the Incumbent, King Athelstane accomplished his vowe, in founding a Colledge of Priests, what time he had conquered the Sillane Ilands.

Chiwarton signifyeth, a house on the greene lay, and a Castle on a greene hill is giuen by the Gent. of that name, who, in a quiet single life, maketh no farther vse of his knowledge gotten in the lawes, during his younger age, or that experience, wherewith a long course of yeeres hath sithence enriched him, then may tend, sine lucro, to the aduauncement of publike iustice, or, sine strepitu, to the aduisement of his priuate acquaintance. Hee beareth A. a Castle S. standing on a hill. V.

Sundry other Gentlemen people that remote quarter as Lauelis, &c. touching whom I must plead, non sum informatus.

Diogenes, after he had tired his Scholers with a long Lecture, finding at last the voyde paper, Bee glad, my friends (quoth hee) wee are come to harbour. With the like comfort, in an vnlike resemblance, I will refresh


     you who haue vouchsafed to trauaile in the rugged
    and wearyfome path of mine ill-pleasing stile, that
     now your iourney endeth with the land; to whose
       Promontory (by Pomp. Mela, called Bolerium:
       by Diodorus, Velerium: by Volaterane, Hele-
         nium: by the Cornish, Pedn an laaz: and
            by the English, The lands end) be-
               cause we are arriued, I will
                   heere sit mee downe
                        and rest.

Deo gloria: mihi gratia. 1602. April. 23.

The Table of the first Booke.

                                             | Accidents.
                    | generall, in the first | Elements.
The Suruey of | booke, reporting her | Inhabitants.
Cornwal contai- |
neth a description | Special,in the, | Topographical,
                    | containing matters | Historicall.

Accidents, wherein are deliuered the name & shape. Fol. 1.
Climat. 2.
The quantitie, length and breadth. ibid.
Borders. ibid.
Commodities of the situation. 3.
Discommodities. 4.
Temperature. 5.


Earth aboue, forme, qualitie. 5.
Things of life, growing, and feeling.
Earth vnder, Mynerals. 6.
Precious, Diamonds, Pearle, and Agats. 7.
Water fresh, springs, riuers, ponds. 26.
Therein the fish. 28.
The taking. 30.
Sea, things liuelesse: liuing, fish, foule.

Things of life, growing.

Mats. 18.
Hearbs. 19.
Corne, | dressing. ibid.
           | kindes. 20.
Trees for fruit. ibid.
Fewel, timber. 21.

Things of life, feeling.

Wormes. 21.
         | Venery. 22.
Beasts, | meat. 23.
         | vse. 24.
Birds. ibid.


Stones for walling, windowes, couering, pauing, ;yme. 6.
Mettals : Tynne : 7.
Copper. 6.
Siluer and Gold. 7.


Kindes, finding. 8.
Colour, bignesse. 10.
                                  | Aduentures. ibid.
Working, expressing the persons : | Captaine. ibid.
                                  | Labourers. ibid.
Maner, tooles. ibid.
Loose earth, rockes. 11.
Conueyance by water, engines, Addits. ibid.


Breaking, stamping, drying, crazing, washing. ibid.
Blowing. 12.


Charter. 16.
Officers supreme : L. Warden, Vice-warden. 17.
Inferior: Stewards, Gaylour. 18.
Iuries: great, petty. ibid.
Witnesses. ibid.


Sharing. 12.
Places: Wastrel, Seuerall. 13.
Bounds, doales, measure. ibid.
        |in time, 13. | | places. ibid.
Coynage | | and their | times. ibid.
        | Post, 14. | | Officers. ibid.
Price by free sale, Preemption. 17.
Vsury in Tynne: black, white. 15.

Sea : things liuelesse.

Briny, Salt-mils, Ilands, hauens. 26.
Sand, Orewoods, Shels and Nuts, Shipping. 27.

Sea : things liuing.

Fish, partaker of the fresh. 28.
Therein the fashion, shelly, flat, round. 30.
Within hauen. 29.
Their taking, generall and particular. 30.
Vpon the coast. 31.
Sauing and venting. 33.
Foule : eatable, not eatable. 35.

Inhabitants : estate real.

Priuate: grounds, houses. 36.
Entercourse: bridges, high wayes. 53.
Traffike : markets, fayres ibid.
Wayghts and measures. 54.

Inhabitants : estate personall.

Names. 54.
Language. 55.
Number. 57.
Disposition ancient. ibid.
Disposition later, of mindes, holinesse. 58.
Sciences: Diuines. ibid.
Ciuilians. 59.
Phisicians. 60.
Statemen, Martiall, Free schooles. 61.
Mechanicall. 62.
Disposition later, of bodies: strength: ibid.
Actiuity, health. 63.
          | Nobility and Gentlemen. ibid.
Degrees : | Townsmen. 65.
          | Husbandmen. 66. Poore. 67.


Feasts: Saints, 69.
Haruest, Church-ale. 68.
Pastimes of the minde : songs, 72.
Guaries. 71.
Pastimes of the body: shooting, 72.
             | goales, 73.
Hurling to | countrey, 74.
Wrastling, 75.
Games. 76.
                                  | Gouernours, ibid.
Gouernment, as an entire State: | Royalties. 79.
Gouernment, as a part of the Realme, Spiritual: Arch-bishop,
Bishop, Arch-deacon, 82.
Peculiars. 81.
Gouernment, as a part of | Martial | Commaunders, 83.
the Realme, Temporal: | | Forces, ibid.
Orders, Forts. 84.
Beacons, Poasts. 85.
Ciuill Magistrates: Iudges, 89.
Iustices, 88.
Vice-admirall, Coroners, Clarke of the market. 87.
Corporations, 86.
Parliaments. 90.
Ciuill Ministers: Constables, Baylifs, 85.
Gaylour. 90.
Limits: Hundreds, Franchises, parishes. 86.
Proportions: places to meete, rates. ibid.

The end of the first Table.

Table of the fecond Booke.

Topographicall. Historical

COrnwall in generall. 96.

East Hundred. 98.

Plymmouth hauen. 98. Edgecumb. 99.
Rame head. ibid. Richaurd Adams strange
Causam bay. ibid. child-birth. 103.
S. Nicholas Iland. 99. Carew. ibid.
The bridge. ibid. Lerchdeacon. 102.
Mount-Edgecumb. ibid. Agnes Cornish, her strange
West Stonehouse. 100. escape from drowning. 107.
Hamose. ibid. Danney. 108.
Milbrook. 101. S. Germanes Priory. ibid.
Insworke. ibid. Kekewitch. 109.
Antony. 102. S. Germanes Chauncel. ibid.
Lyner riuer. ibid. Moyle. ibid.
Saltwater pond. 104. Smith. 110.
Banqueting house. 107. Langdon. ibid.
Beggers Iland. ibid. Fleets from Plymmouth ha-
Sheuiock. 108. uen. 114.
Crafthole. ibid. Carack burned. 113.
S. Germanes. ibid. Trematon besieged. ibid.
Cuddenbeake. 109. Bond. 111.
Seaton. 110. Grenuile. ibid.
Wotton. ibid. Porter. 112.
Trematon Castle. 111. Wadham. ibid.
Saltash. 112. Grisling vnderstanding speach
Ash torre. 113. by sight. 113.
Henpoynt. ibid. A charitable dogge. ibid.
Cargreene. ibid. Arundel. ibid.
Hengsten. 115. Rouse. ibid.
Carybullock. ibid. Treuice. 114.
Lawhitton. ibid. Harris. 116.
Lanceston. 116. Corington. 117.
                               Wrey. ibid.
                               Trelawney. ibid.

Stratton Hundred. 117.

Straton towne. 117. Chamond. 118.
Bude. 118. Arscot. ibid.
S. Mary Wike. 119. Rempthorne. ibid.
                               Thomasin Bonauenture. 119.

Lesnewith Hundred. 120.

Bottreaux Caftle. ibid. Iohn Northampton. 112.
Tintogel. ibid. Earle Richard of Corn-
Dosmery poole. 122. wall. ibid.
Camelford. ibid. King Arthur. ibid.
                               Bousening. 123.

Trigge Hundred. ibid.

Bodmyn. 123. Perkin Warbeck. 124.
Scarlets well. 126. Childrens forhalfening. ibid.
Temple. 127. Sir Anthony Kingston. ibid.
                               Halgauer Court. 126.
                               Carnsew. 127.
                               Roscarrock. ibid.

West Hundred. 127.

East and West Loo. ibid. Beuill. 130.
S. Georges Iland. 128. Iohn Size, a strange eater. ibid.
Liskerd. ibid. Murth. 131
S. Neot. 129. Wideslade. ibid.
S. Kaines well. ibid. Lower. 132.
Polpera. 131. Kendall. ibid.
Fining house. 130. Glyn. ibid.
Hall walke. 132. Mohun. ibid.
                               Earl of Deuons fagot. 133.

Powder Hundred. 134.

Foy hauen and towne. 134. Treffry. 134.
Trewardreth. 136. Nicholas of Foy. 135.
Lostwithiel. 137. Treasure non troue. 136.
Restormel Castle. ibid. A graue found. 137.
Roche. 138. Gallants of Foy. 135.
The tyde well spring. ibid. Rashleigh. 136.
Hainborough. ibid. Bone, deafe and dumb. 139.
S. Probus. 140. Hill. 140.
Lanhadron. ibid. Tremaine. ibid.
Grampond. ibid. Bodrugan. 141.
Dudman. 141. Trauanion. ibid.
Roseland. ibid. Lostwithiel custome. 137.
Tregny. ibid.
Truro. ibid.
S. Mawes Castle. 142.

Pider Hundred. 143.

Padstowe. 143. Prideaux. 143.
Wade bridge. ibid. Cosowarth. 144.
Nine sisters. ibid. Trerice. 145.
Castellan Denis. ibid. Trenance. 148.
S. Colombs. 144. Tredenick. 149.
Peran in Sabulo. 148. Nants well halfening. 144.
Bors neeuas. ibid.
S. Agnes Hill. ibid.
New kay. ibid.

Kerier Hundred. 149.

Falmouth. 149. Trefuses. 150.
Pendenis. ibid. Parker. ibid.
Perin. 150. Killigrew. ibid.
Hailford hauen. 150. Carclew. 151.
Hauterdauis. 151. Penrose. 152.
Mainamber. ibid. Erisy. ibid.
Helston. 152. Saintabyn. ibid.
Lo poole. ibid. Militon. ibid.
Meneag. ibid. Godolphin. 153.

Penwith Hundred. ibid.

S. Ies. 154. Nants. 154.
The Caue. ibid. Pomeray. 154.
S. Michaels mount. ibid. Vere. 155.
Mounts bay. 156. Pensants burning. 156.
Pensants. ibid. Chiuerton. 159.
Trebegean. 159.
S. Buriens. ibid.
Lands end. ibid.




Richard Carew Esq;


                   The EXCELLENCIES of the
                      English Tongue.


              Printed in the Year M.DCC.XXIII.

           An Epistle concerning the Excellencies
                 of the Engliih Tongue.

IT were more fitting (in respect of discretion) that men should first weigh Matters with Iudgment, and then incline their Affection where the greatest Reason swayeth. But ordinarily it falleth out to the contrarie; for by Custom we first settle our Affection, and then afterwards draw in those Arguments to approve it, which should have forgone to perswade ourselves. In this preposterous Course (seeing that antiquity from our Elders and uniuersalitie of our Neighbours do entitle with a Right) I hold myself the more freely warranted delirare, not onely cum vulgo, but also cum sapientibus, in seeking out with what Commendations I may attire our English Language, as Stephanus hath done for the French, and diuers of other Nations, for theirs.

Locutio is defined Animi sensus per vocem expressio. On which ground I build these consequences, That the first and principal point sought in euerie Language, is that we may expres the Meaning of our Minds aptly to each other. Next, that we may do it readily and without more adoe. Then fully, so as others may thoroughly conceiue us. And last of all, handsomely, that those to whom we speak may take pleasure in hearing us: So that whateuer Tongue will gain the Race of Perfection must run upon these four wheeles, SIGNIFICANCIE, EASINESS, COPIOUSNESS, and SWEETNESS; of which the two former import a Necessitie, the two latter a Delight. Now if I can proove, That our English Language for all or the most part is comparable if not preferable to any other in use at this day, I hope the assent of any impartial Reader will pass on my side. And how I indeavor to performe the same, this short labor shall manifest.

I. To begin then with the SIGNIFICANCIE of the English Tongue, it consisteth in the Letters, Words, and Phrases. And because the Greeke and Latine have ever borne away the prerogatiue from all other Tongues, they shall serue as the Touchstones whereby to make our Tryall.

For LETTERS, we haue C more then the Greekes, K and Y more then the Latines, and W more then them both, or then the French and Italians.

In those common to them and us, we have the use of the Greek B in our V, of our B they haue none; so have we of their [uppercase lambda] and [uppercase theta] in our Th, which in the wordes that and things expresseth both; but of our D they haue none. Likewise their T we turn to another use in yield, than they can; and as for E,G, and J, neither Greekes nor Latines can make use of them as we doe in these Words, each, edge, joy. True it is, that we in pronouncing the Latine use them also after this manner; but the same, in regard of the ancient and right Romane deliuerie, altogether abusively; as may appear by Scaliger, Sir Thomas Smith, Lipsius, and others.

Now, for the Significance of WORDS, as every Indiuiduum is but one, so in our native English-Saxon Language, we find many of them suitably expressed by one Sillable: Those consisting of more are borrowed from other Nations; the Examples are infinite, and therefore I will omit them as sufficiently notorious.

Again, for expressing our Passions, our Interjections are very apt and forcible; as, finding ourselves somewhat agrieued, we crie, Ah! if more deeply, Oh! if we pity, Alas! when we bemoan, Alacke! neither of them so effeminate as the Italian Deh, or the French Helas: In detestation we say Phy ! (as if therewithall we should spit) in attention, Haa; in calling, Whowpe ; in hollowing, Wahalowe: all which (in my Ear) seem to be deriued from the very Natures of those severall Affections.

Grow from hence to the Composition of Words, and therein our Language hath a peculiar Grace, a like Significancie, and more short then the Greekes, for example, in Moldwarpe we express the Nature of the Animal; in Handkercher the thing and the use; in the word upright, that Virtue by a Metaphore; in Wisdome and Doomesday, so many Sentences as Words; and so of the rest: for I give only a Taste, that may direct others to a fuller Observation of what my sudden Memorie can represent unto me. It may pass also the Masters in this Significancie, that all the proper Names of our People do in a manner import somewhat, which from a peculiar Note at first of some of the Progenitors, in process of time inverted itself in a possession of the Posterity, even as wee see the like often befall to those whose Fathers bare some uncouth Christian Names. Yet for the most part we avoid the blemish given to the Romanes in like Cases, who distinguished their People by the Imperfections of their Bodies; from whence grew their Nasones, Labeones, Frontones, Dentones, and such like; however, Macrobius coloureth the same: Yea, so significant are our Words, that amongst them sundry single ones serve to express divers things; as by the word Bill is meant a Weapon, a Scrowle, and a Bird's beake; by Grave may be understood, sober, burial-place, and to carve; and so by Light, marke, match, file, sore, and pray, the Semblables.

Again, some SENTENCES, in the same words carrie a divers Sence, as till, desert Ground; some signifie one thing forward and another backward, as Feeler I was, noe Foe; which to return with it is, Of one saw I releef. Some signifie one thing forward and another thing backward, as this, Eye, did Madam erre; Some carrie a contrarie Sence backward to that they do forward, as I did level ere vew, Vew ere level did I.

Some deliver a contrarie Sence by the divers pointing, as the
Epistle in Dr. Wilsons Rhetorick, and many such like, which a curious
Head, Leisure, and Time might pick out.

Neither may I omit the Significancie of our Proverbs, concise in Words, but plentiful in Number, briefly pointing at many great Matters and under a Circle of a few Sillables prescribing sundrie available Caveats.

Lastly, our Speech doth not consist onely of Words, but in a sort even of Deeds; as when we express a Matter by Metaphores, wherein the English is verie fruitful and forcible.

And so much for the Significancie of our Language in meaning.

II. Now for his EASINESS in learning; the same also shooteth out into Branches, the one, of others learning our Language, the second, of our learning that of others. For the first, The most part of our Words, (as I have touched) are Monasillables, and so the fewer in Tale and the sooner reduced to Memorie. Nither are we loaded with those Declensions, Flexions, and Variations which are incident to many other Tongues, but a few Articles govern all our Verbs and Nownes, and so we read a verie short Grammar.

For easie learning of other Languages by ours, let these serve as Proofes; there are many Italian words which the Frenchmen cannot pronounce, accio, for which he saith ashio; many of the French which the Italian can hardly dispence withall; as Bailler, Chagrin, Postillon; many in ours which neither of them can utter, as Hedge, Water, &c. So that a Stranger, tho never so long conversant amongst us, carrieth evermore a Watch-word upon his Tongue, to descrie him by; but turn an Englishman at any time of his Age into what Country soever, allowing him due respite, and you shall see him profit so well, that the imitation of his Utterance will in nothing differ from the Pattern of that native Language. The want of which towardness cost the Ephramites their Skinns: Nither doth this cross my former Assertion of others easie learning our Language. For I mean of the Sense and Words, and not touching the Pronunciation.

III. But I must now enter into the large Field of our Tongues COPIOUSNESS, and perhaps long wander up and down, without finding easie way of issue, and yet leaue many parts thereof unsurveyed.

My first Proofe of our Plenty, I borrow from the choise which is given us by the use of divers Languages. The Ground of our owne appertaineth to the old Saxon, little differing from the low Dutch, because they more than any of their Neighbours, have hitherto preserved that Speech from any great Forrein Mixture: here amongst, the Britons have left divers of their Words interspersed, as it were thereby making a continual claim to their possession. We may also trace the Footsteps of the Danish bitter (though not long during) Soveraigntie in these parts; and the Roman also imparted unto us of his Latine Riches with no sparing Hand. Our Neighbours the French have been likewise contented we should take up by retail, as well their Terms as their Fashions, or rather we retaine yet but some Remnant of that which once here bare all the Sway, and daily renew the Store. So have our Italian Travellers brought us acquainted with their sweete relished Phrases, which (so that their Conditions crept not in withall) were the more tollerable; yea even we seek to make our Good of our late Spanish Enimie, and feare as little the hurt of his Tongue, as the dint of his Sword. Seeing then we borrow (and that not shamefully) from the Dutch, the Britaine, the Roman, the Dane, the French, the Italian, and Spaniard, how can our Stock be other than exceeding plentifull? It may be objected, that such patching maketh Littletons Hotch-pot of our Tongue, and in effect, brings the same rather to a Babelish Confusion, than any one entire Language. It may again be answered, that this Theft of Words is no less warranted by the Priviledge of a Prescription ancient and universall, than was that of Goods among the Lacedemonians by an enacted Law: for so the Greekes robbed the Hebrewes, the Latines the Greeks, (which filching, Cicero with a large Discourse in his Books de Oratore defendeth) and (in a manner) all other Christian Nations the Latine. For evidence hereof many Sentences may be produced consisting of words, that in their Original are Latine; and yet (save some smal variance in their Terminations) fall out al one with the French, Dutch, and English; as Ley, ceremonious persons, Offer prelate preest, Clear candles flamme, in Temple Cloistre, in Cholericke Temprature, Clisters Purgation is pestelent, Pulers preservative, subtil Factors, Advocates notaries practize, Papers Libells, Registers, Regent, Magesty in Palace hath tryumphant Throne, Regiment, Sceptre, Vassels, Supplication, and such like. Then even as the Italian Potentates of these Dayes make no difference in their Pedigrees and Successions, between'the Bed lawfull or unlawfull, where either an utterward or a better desert doth force or entice them thereunto: so may the consenting practise of these Nations passe for a just Legitimation of these bastard Words, which either Necessitie or Convenience hath induced them to adopt.

For our owne parts, we employ the borrowed Ware so farre to our advantage, that we raise a profit of new words from the same Stock, which yet in their owne Country are not marchantable. For example, we deduce divers words from the Latine, which in the Latine itselfe cannot be yeelded: as the verbs, to aire, to beard, to crosse, to flame, and their Derivations, ayring, ayred, bearder, bearding, bearded, &c. as also closer, closely, closenesse, glosingly, hourely, majesticall, majestically. In like sort we grasse upon French words those Buds, to which that soile affordeth no growth; as, chiefly, faultie, slavish, precisenesse. Divers words we derive also out of the Latine at second hand by the French, and make good English, tho' both Latine and French haue their hands closed in that behalfe, as in these verbes, pray, point, paze, prest, rent, &c. and also in the adverbes, carpingly, currantly, colourably, actively, &c. Againe, in other Languages there fall out defects, while they want means to deliver that which another Tongue expresseth, as (by Cicero's Observation) you cannot interpret INEPTUS, unapt, unfit, untoward, in Greeke. Neither PORCUS, CAPO, VERVEX, a Barrow Hog, a Capon, a Weather, as Cuiacius noteth (*). No more can you expresse to STAND in French, to TYE in Cornish, nor KNAVE in Latin, (for Nebulo is a cloudy Fellow) or in Irish (**), whereas you see our Abilitie extendeth thereunto.

(*) Ad Tit. de verb signif.
(**) See the Survey of Cornwall fol. 55]

Moreover, the Copiousnesse of our Language appeareth in the diversitie of our Dialects; for we have Court and we have Countrie English, we have Northerne and Southerne, grosse and ordinarie, which differ each from the other not onely in the Terminations, but also in many words, termes, and phrases, and expresse the same thinges in divers sorts, yet all right English alike. Neither can any Tongue, as I am perswaded, deliver a Matter with more Variety than ours, both plainly, and by Proverbes and Metaphors: for example, when we would be rid of one, we use to say, Be going, trudge, packe, bee faring hence, away shift; and by Circumlocution, Rather your Roome than your Companie, lets see your backe, come againe when I bid you, when you are called, sent for, intreated, willed, desired, invited; spare us your place, another in your stead, a ship of salt for you, save your credite, you are next the doore, the doore is open for you, there is no body holdeth you, no body teares your sleeve, &c. Likewise this word FORTIS, we may sinonymize after all these fashions, stout, hardy, valiant, doughty, couragious, adventrous, &c.

And in a word, to close up these proofs of our Copiousnesse, look into our imitations, of all sorts of Verses affoorded by any other Language, and you shall finde that Sir PHILIP SIDNEY, M. PUTTENHAM, M. STANIHURST, and divers more have made use how farre we are within compasse of a fore-imagined possibilitie in that behalfe.

IV. I come now to the last and sweetest point, of the SWEETNESSE of our Tongue, which shall appeare the more plainely if we match it with our Neighboures. The Italian is pleasante, but without Sinews, as a still fleeting Water; the French delicate, but even nice as a Woman, scarce daring to open her Lippes, for feare of marring her Countenance; the Spanish Majestical, but fulsome, running too much on the v, and terrible like the Devill in a Play; the Dutch manlike, but withall very harsh, as one ready at every word to picke a quarrel. Now we, in borrowing from them, give the Strength of Consonants to the Italian, the full Sound of Words to the French, the Varietie of Terminations to the Spanish, and the mollifying of more Vowels to the Dutch; and so, like Bees, gather the Honey of their good Properties, and leave the Dregs to themselves. And thus when substantialnesse combineth with delightfullnesse, fullnesse with finenesse, seemlinesse with portlinesse, and currantnesse with staidnesse, how can the Language which consisteth of all these sound other than most full of Sweetnesse?

Againe, the long wordes that we borrow being intermingled with the short of our owne store, make up a perfect Harmonie, by culling from out which Mixture (with judgment) you may frame your Speech according to the Matter you must worke on, majesticall, pleasant, delicate, or manly, more or lesse, in what sort you please. Adde hereunto, that whatsoever Grace any other Language carrieth in Verse or Prose, in Tropes or Metaphors, in Eccho's and Agnominations, they may all be lively and exactly represented in ours. Will you have Plato's Veine? read Sir THOMAS SMITH; the Ionicke? Sir THOMAS MOORE; Cicero's? ASCHAM; Varro? CHAUCER; Demosthenes? Sir JOHN CHEEKE (*); who hath comprised all the Figures of Rhetoricke. Will you read Virgil? take the Earle of SURRY; Catullus? SHAKSPEARE, and BARLOWES Fragment; Ovid? DANIEL; Lucan? SPENCER; Martial? Sir JOHN DAVIES, and others. Will you have all in all for Prose and Verse? take the Miracle of our Age, Sir PHILIP SIDNEY.

(*) In his Treatise to the rebells.

And thus, if mine owne Eies bee not blinded by Affection, I haue made yours to see, that the most renowned of all other Nations have laid up, as in a Treasure, and entrusted the Divtisos orbe Brttannos with the rarest Jewels of the Lips Perfections; whether you respect the Understanding for Significancie, or the Memorie for Easinesse, or the Conceit for Plentifullnesse, or the Eare for Pleasantnesse: wherein if enough be delivered, to add more than enough were superfluous; if too little, I leave it to be supplied by better stored Capacities; if ought amisse, I submit the same to the Discipline of everie able and impartiall Censurer.

F I N I S.

Transcriber's notes:

i) This transcript retains the original spelling, except for the obsolete "long ess" character which has been replaced by 's' throughout.

       Spellings of proper names tend to be phonetic and
       haphazard. Eg Pensanz, Pensans, Pensants, Pensance, and
       Penzance are all the same place.

ii) The Latin is worse than the English. I am 99.9% certain that I have transcribed it correctly, the doubt being where the printer has randomly mixed the "long ess" and "f" characters & neither form is in my Collin's Little Gem Latin Dictionary.

iii) This transcript omits the original page numbering from the introduction and appendix, but retains it in the main text to support cross-referencing and the index.

       Each double-page spread was given a single page number.
       I have given these in []s at the beginning of the left-
       hand page.

  iv) Marginalia have been inserted into the text surrounded
       by []s

  v) Footnotes have been placed beneath the sections to
       which they refer.

  vi) Italics, which Carew uses heavily, have been mostly
       removed, but sometimes replaced with quotes.

vii) The original capitalisation & over-punctuation is retained.