The Project Gutenberg eBook of Ritchie's Fabulae Faciles: A First Latin Reader

This ebook is for the use of anyone anywhere in the United States and most other parts of the world at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this ebook or online at If you are not located in the United States, you will have to check the laws of the country where you are located before using this eBook.

Title: Ritchie's Fabulae Faciles: A First Latin Reader

Author: Francis Ritchie

Editor: John Copeland Kirtland

Release date: September 1, 2005 [eBook #8997]
Most recently updated: October 14, 2017

Language: English, Latin


Produced by Karl Hagen, Tapio Riikonen and Online

Distributed Proofreaders




BY JOHN COPELAND KIRTLAND, Jr. Professor of Latin in The Phillips Exeter Academy



Some time ago a fellow-teacher brought the Fabulae Faciles to my notice, and I have since used two of them each year with my class of beginners in Latin with increasing appreciation. Indeed, I know nothing better to introduce the student into the reading of connected narrative, and to bridge the great gulf between the beginner's book of the prevailing type and the Latinity of Caesar or Nepos. They are adapted to this use not merely by reason of their simplicity and interest, but more particularly by the graduating of difficulties and the large use of Caesarian words and phrases to which Mr. Ritchie calls attention in his preface.

Doubtless many American teachers have become familiar with portions of the Fabulae, for they have been freely drawn upon in several Latin readers recently published in this country. I venture to hope that those who have made the acquaintance of the work in this way will welcome a complete edition.

In England the little book has had a large use. Its pedagogical excellencies are well summed up in a letter addressed to Mr. Ritchie by the Very Rev. E.C. Wickham, formerly Head-Master of Wellington College, the well-known editor of Horace:—

"It launches the student at once in ancient life. The old classical stories, simply told, seem to me much the best material for early Latin reading. They are abundantly interesting; they are taken for granted in the real literature of the language; and they can be told without starting the beginner on a wrong track by a barbarous mixture of ancient and modern ideas.

"It combines, if I may say so, very skilfully, the interest of a continuous story, with the gradual and progressive introduction of constructions and idioms. These seem to me to be introduced at the right moment, and to be played upon long enough to make them thoroughly familiar."

In revising Mr. Ritchie's book for the use of American schools it has seemed best to make extensive changes. Long vowels have been marked throughout, and the orthography of Latin words has been brought into conformity with our practice. Many liberties have been taken with the text itself, especially in the latter part, in the way of making it approximate more closely to our rather strict notions of the standards of model prose. A few words and uses of words not found in the prose writers of the republic have been retained, but nothing, it is hoped, that will seriously mislead the young student. I shall welcome any criticism that may lead to further changes in the text in future editions.

The notes are entirely new, and are intended for students who have but just finished the beginner's book or have not yet finished it. Some notes may appear at first sight unnecessary or unnecessarily hard, but the reason for their insertion should be evident when the student begins the reading of classical Latin, the difficulties of which will be less likely to appal the beginner if some of them have been already conquered. I believe it a mistake to postpone all treatment of the uses of the subjunctive, for instance, or of the constructions of indirect discourse until the study of Nepos or Caesar is begun. Besides, it is easier to neglect notes than to supply them, and the teacher who prefers to do the first reading without much attention to the more difficult constructions will only need to tell his students to disregard certain of my notes—or all of them.

There are no references to the grammars, but syntax has been given such treatment as seemed needed to supplement its treatment in the beginner's book. Teachers will therefore be able to postpone the use of a formal manual of grammar, if they so desire. Those who wish their classes to begin the reading of Latin at the earliest possible moment will find it feasible to use this book as soon as the inflections and the more elementary principles of syntax have been mastered.

In the vocabulary, the derivation or composition and the original meaning of words have been indicated wherever these seemed likely to prove helpful. Principal parts and genitives have been given in such a way as to prevent misunderstanding, and at the same time emphasize the composition of the verb or the suffix of the noun: for example, abscídó, -cídere, -cídí, -císus; aetás, -tátis.

The lists of works of English literature and of art in which the myths are treated are only suggestive. Occasional readings from the one and exhibitions of representations of the other, either in the form of photographs or by the stereopticon, will not only stimulate interest in the Latin text but aid also in creating in the student a taste for literature and for art.

I planned at first to add some exercises for retranslation, but after careful consideration it has seemed not worth while. Most teachers will prefer not to base composition upon the Latin read at this stage, and those who wish to do so will find it an easy matter to prepare their own exercises, or can draw upon the copious exercises prepared by Mr. Ritchie and published separately under the title Imitative Exercises in Easy Latin Prose.

In the reading of proof I have had generous help from Dr. F.K. Ball of The Phillips Exeter Academy, Mr. J.C. Flood of St. Mark's School, and Mr. A.T. Dudley of Noble and Greenough's School, Boston. The proof-sheets have been used with the beginner's class in this Academy, and I have thus been able to profit by the criticism of my associate Mr. G.B. Rogers, and to test the work myself. The assistance of my wife has greatly lightened the labor of verifying the vocabulary.


EXETER, N.H., 7 March, 1903.




    OF ACRISIUS (Vase-painting)
HERCULES, NESSUS, AND DEJANIRA (Pompeian Wall-painting)



Hawthorne, A Wonder-Book: The Gorgon's Head.
Kingsley, The Heroes: Perseus.
Cox, Tales of Ancient Greece: Medusa, Danae, Perseus, Andromeda,
Francillon, Gods and Heroes: The Adventures of Perseus.
Kingsley, Andromeda.
William Morris, The Earthly Paradise: The Doom of King Acrisius.
Lewis Morris, The Epic of Hades: Andromeda.
Dowden, Andromeda.
Shelley, On the Medusa of Leonardo da Vinci.
D. G. Rossetti, Aspecta Medusa.


Hawthorne, A Wonder-Book: The Three Golden Apples.
Cox, Tales of Ancient Greece: The Toils of Herakles.
Francillon, Gods and Heroes: The Hero of Heroes.
William Morris, The Earthly Paradise: The Golden Apples.
Lewis Morris, The Epic of Hades: Deianeira.
Lang's translation of Theocritus, Idyls xxiv, xxv.


Apollonius of Rhodes, The Tale of the Argonauts, translated by Way.
D.O.S. Lowell, Jason's Quest.
Hawthorne, Tanglewood Tales: The Golden Fleece.
Kingsley, The Heroes: The Argonauts.
Cox, Tales of Ancient Greece: Phrixos and Helle, Medeia.
Church, Heroes and Kings: The Story of the Ship Argo.
Francillon, Gods and Heroes: The Golden Fleece.
William Morris, The Life and Death of Jason.
Bayard Taylor, Hylas.
John Dyer, The Fleece.
Lang's translation of Theocritus, several of the Idyls.


Homer, The Odyssey, translated by Bryant (verse), William Morris
    (verse), Palmer (prose), Butcher and Lang (prose).
Lamb, The Adventures of Ulysses.
Hawthorne, Tanglewood Tales: Circe's Palace.
Cox, Tales of Ancient Greece: The Lotos-Eaters, Odysseus and Polyphemos,
    Odysseus and Kirké
Church, Stories from Homer: The Cyclops, The Island of Aeolus, Circé.
Tennyson, The Lotos-Eaters.
Matthew Arnold, The Strayed Reveler.
Dobson, The Prayer of the Swine to Circe.


Burne-Jones, Perseus and the Graeae.
Caravaggio, Head of Medusa.
Leonardo da Vinci, Head of Medusa.
Canova, Perseus.
Benvenuto Cellini, Perseus, and Perseus saving Andromeda.
Piero di Cosimo, Perseus and Andromeda.
Charles Antoine Coypel, Perseus and Andromeda.
Domenichino, Perseus and Andromeda.
Rubens, Perseus and Andromeda.
Giovanni da Bologna, Hercules and the Centaur.
Bandinelli, Hercules and Cacus.
Guido Reni, Dejanira and the Centaur Nessus.
Canova, Hercules and Lichas.
Sichel, Medea.
Genelli, Jason and Medea capturing the Golden Fleece.
Burne-Jones, Circe.
L. Chalon, Circe and the Companions of Ulysses.
Rivière, Circe and the Companions of Ulysses.

Photographs and lantern-slides of all the works mentioned above may be obtained of the Soule Art Company, Boston. The list might have been made much longer, but it seemed likely to prove most helpful if limited to works of which reproductions are so easily obtainable. For the treatment of the myths in ancient art, the teacher is referred to the numerous pertinent illustrations in Baumeister's Denkmäler des klassischen Altertums, or the same editor's Bilder aus dem griechischen und römischen Altertum für Schüler, the latter of which contains the cuts of the larger work, and is so cheap and so useful that it ought to lie on the desk of every teacher of Greek or Latin.


The Fabulae Faciles, or 'Easy Stories.' are four Greek myths retold in Latin, not by a Roman writer, however, but by an Englishman, who believed that they would afford interesting and pleasant reading for young folks who were just beginning the study of the Latin language. By myth is meant an imaginative tale that has been handed down by tradition from remote antiquity concerning supernatural beings and events. Such tales are common among all primitive peoples, and are by them accepted as true. They owe their origin to no single author, but grow up as the untutored imagination strives to explain to itself the operations of nature and the mysteries of life, or amuses itself with stories of the brave exploits of heroic ancestors.

The most beautiful and delightful of all myths are those that have come down to us in the remains of the literature and the art of ancient Greece and Rome; they are also the most important to us, for many of the great masterpieces of English literature and of modern art have been inspired by them and cannot be understood and appreciated by one ignorant of classical mythology.

Of this mythology the Fabulae Faciles give but a small part. If you wish to know more of the subject, you should read Gayley's The Classic Myths in English Literature, Guerber's Myths of Greece and Rome, or the books by Kingsiey, Cox, Church, and Francillon mentioned earlier.


Acrisius, an ancient king of Argos, had been warned by an oracle that he should perish by the hand of his grandson. On discovering, therefore, that his daughter Danae had given birth to a son, Acrisius endeavored to escape his fate by setting both mother and child adrift on the sea. They were saved, however, by the help of Jupiter; and Perseus, the child, grew up at the court of Polydectes, king of Seriphos, an island in the Aegean Sea. On reaching manhood, Perseus was sent by Polydectes to fetch the head of Medusa, one of the Gorgons. This dangerous task he accomplished with the help of Apollo and Minerva, and on his way home he rescued Andromeda, daughter of Cepheus, from a sea-monster. Perseus then married Andromeda, and lived some time in the country of Cepheus. At length he returned to Seríphos, and turned Polydectes to stone by showing him the Gorgon's head; he then went to the court of Acrisius, who fled in terror at the news of his grandson's return. The oracle was duly fulfilled, for Acrisius was accidentally killed by a quoit thrown by Perseus.


Haec nárrantur á poétís dé Perseó. Perseus fílius erat Iovis, máximí deórum; avus éius Acrisius appellábátur. Acrisius volébat Perseum nepótem suum necáre; nam propter óráculum puerum timébat. Comprehendit igitur Perseum adhúc infantem, et cum mátre in arcá lígneá inclúsit. Tum arcam ipsam in mare coniécit. Danaé, Perseí máter, mágnopere territa est; tempestás enim mágna mare turbábat. Perseus autem in sinú mátris dormiébat.


Iuppiter tamen haec omnia vídit, et fílium suum serváre cónstituit. Tranquillum igitur fécit mare, et arcam ad ínsulam Seríphum perdúxit. Húius ínsulae Polydectés tum réx erat. Postquam arca ad lítus appulsa est, Danaé in haréná quiétem capiébat. Post breve tempus á piscátóre quódam reperta est, et ad domum régis Polydectis adducta est. Ille mátrem et puerum benígné excépit, et iís sédem tútam in fínibus suís dedit. Danaé hóc dónum libenter accépit, et pró tantó benefició régí grátiás égit.


Perseus igitur multós annós ibi habitábat, et cum mátre suá vítam beátam agébat. At Polydectés Danaén mágnopere amábat, atque eam in mátrimónium dúcere volébat. Hóc tamen cónsilium Perseó minimé grátum erat. Polydectés igitur Perseum dímittere cónstituit. Tum iuvenem ad sé vocávit et haec díxit: "Turpe est hanc ígnávam vítam agere; iam dúdum tú aduléscéns es. Quó úsque híc manébis? Tempus est arma capere et virtútem praestáre. Hinc abí, et caput Medúsae mihi refer."


Perseus ubi haec audívit, ex ínsulá discessit, et postquam ad continentem vénit, Medúsam quaesívit. Diú frústrá quaerébat; namque nátúram locí ígnórábat. Tandem Apolló et Minerva viam démónstrávérunt. Prímum ad Graeás, sorórés Medúsae, pervénit. Ab hís tálária et galeam magicam accépit. Apolló autem et Minerva falcem et speculum dedérunt. Tum postquam tálária pedibus induit, in áera ascendit. Diú per áera volábat; tandem tamen ad eum locum vénit ubi Medúsa cum céterís Gorgonibus habitábat. Gorgonés autem mónstra erant specié horribilí; capita enim eárum anguibus omnínó contécta erant. Manús etiam ex aere factae erant.


Rés difficillima erat caput Gorgonis abscídere; éius enim cónspectú homines in saxum vertébantur. Propter hanc causam Minerva speculum Perseó dederat. Ille igitur tergum vertit, et in speculum ínspiciébat; hóc modó ad locum vénit ubi Medúsa dormiébat. Tum falce suá caput éius únó íctú abscídit. Céterae Gorgonés statim é somnó excitátae sunt, et ubi rem vídérunt, írá commótae sunt. Arma rapuérunt, et Perseum occídere volébant. Ille autem dum fugit, galeam magicam induit; et ubi hóc fécit, statim é cónspectú eárum évásit.


Post haec Perseus in fínís Aethiopum vénit. Ibi Cépheus quídam illó tempore régnábat. Híc Neptúnum, maris deum, ólim offenderat; Neptúnus autem mónstrum saevissimum míserat. Hóc cottídié é marí veniébat et hominés dévorábat. Ob hanc causam pavor animós omnium occupáverat. Cépheus igitur óráculum deí Hammónis cónsuluit, atque á deó iússus est fíliam mónstró trádere. Éius autem fília, nomine Andromeda, virgó fórmósissima erat. Cépheus ubi haec audívit, mágnum dolórem percépit. Volébat tamen cívís suós é tantó perículó extrahere, atque ob eam causam imperáta Hammónis facere cónstituit.


Tum réx diem certam díxit et omnia parávit. Ubi ea diés vénit, Andromeda ad lítus déducta est, et in cónspectú omnium ad rúpem adligáta est. Omnés fátum éius déplórábant, nec lacrimás tenébant. At subitó, dum mónstrum exspectant, Perseus accurrit; et ubi lacrimás vídit, causam dolóris quaerit. Illí rem tótam expónunt et puellam démónstrant. Dum haec geruntur, fremitus terribilis audítur; simul mónstrum horribilí specié procul cónspicitur. Éius cónspectus timórem máximum omnibus iniécit. Mónstrum mágná celeritáte ad lítus contendit, iamque ad locum appropinquábat ubi puella stábat.


At Perseus ubi haec vídit, gladium suum édúxit, et postquam tálária induit, in áera sublátus est. Tum désuper in mónstrum impetum subitó fécit, et gladió suó collum éius graviter vulnerávit. Mónstrum ubi sénsit vulnus, fremitum horribilem édidit, et sine morá tótum corpus in aquam mersit. Perseus dum circum lítus volat, reditum éius exspectábat. Mare autem intereá undique sanguine ínficitur. Post breve tempus bélua rúrsus caput sustulit; mox tamen á Perseó íctú gravióre vulneráta est. Tum iterum sé in undás mersit, neque posteá vísa est.


Perseus postquam ad lítus déscendit, prímum tálária exuit; tum ad rúpem vénit ubi Andromeda vincta erat. Ea autem omnem spem salútis déposuerat, et ubi Perseus adiit, terróre paene exanimáta erat. Ille víncula statim solvit, et puellam patrí reddidit. Cépheus ob hanc rem máximó gaudió adfectus est. Meritam grátiam pró tantó benefició Perseó rettulit; praetereá Andromedam ipsam eí in mátrimónium dedit. Ille libenter hóc dónum accépit et puellam dúxit. Paucós annós cum uxóre suá in eá regióne habitábat, et in mágnó honóre erat apud omnís Aethiopés. Mágnopere tamen mátrem suam rúrsus vidére cupiébat. Tandem igitur cum uxóre suá é régnó Cépheí discessit.


Postquam Perseus ad ínsulam návem appulit, sé ad locum contulit ubi máter ólim habitáverat, sed domum invénit vacuam et omnínó désertam. Trís diés per tótam ínsulam mátrem quaerébat; tandem quartó dié ad templum Diánae pervénit. Húc Danaé refúgerat, quod Polydectem timébat. Perseus ubi haec cógnóvit, írá mágná commótus est; ad régiam Polydectis sine morá contendit, et ubi eó vénit, statim in átrium inrúpit. Polydectés mágnó timóre adfectus est et fugere volébat. Dum tamen ille fugit, Perseus caput Medúsae mónstrávit; ille autem simul atque hóc vídit, in saxum versus est.


Post haec Perseus cum uxóre suá ad urbem Acrisí rediit. Ille autem ubi Perseum vídit, mágnó terróre adfectus est; nam propter óráculum istud nepótem suum adhúc timébat. In Thessaliam igitur ad urbem Lárísam statim refúgit, frústrá tamen; neque enim fátum suum vítávit. Post paucós annós réx Lárísae lúdós mágnós fécit; núntiós in omnís partís dímíserat et diem édíxerat. Multí ex omnibus urbibus Graeciae ad lúdós convénérunt. Ipse Perseus inter aliós certámen discórum iniit. At dum discum conicit, avum suum cású occídit; Acrisius enim inter spectátórés éius certáminis forte stábat.


Hercules, a Greek hero celebrated for his great strength, was pursued throughout his life by the hatred of Juno. While yet an infant, he strangled some serpents sent by the goddess to destroy him. During his boyhood and youth he performed various marvelous feats of strength, and on reaching manhood succeeded in delivering the Thebans from the oppression of the Minÿae. In a fit of madness sent upon him by Juno, he slew his own children; and on consulting the Delphic oracle as to how he should cleanse himself from this crime, he was ordered to submit himself for twelve years to Eurystheus, king of Tiryns, and to perform whatever tasks were appointed him. Hercules obeyed the oracle, and during the twelve years of his servitude accomplished twelve extraordinary feats known as the Labors of Hercules. His death was caused unintentionally by his wife Dejanira. Hercules had shot with his poisoned arrows a centaur named Nessus, who had insulted Dejanira. Nessus, before he died, gave some of his blood to Dejanira, and told her it would act as a charm to secure her husband's love. Some time after, Dejanira wishing to try the charm soaked one of her husband's garments in the blood, not knowing that it was poisoned. Hercules put on the robe, and after suffering terrible torments died, or was carried off by his father Jupiter.


Herculés, Alcménae fílius, ólim in Graeciá habitábat. Híc omnium hominum validissimus fuisse dícitur. At Iúnó, régína deórum, Alcménam óderat et Herculem adhúc ínfantem necáre voluit. Mísit igitur duás serpentís saevissimás; hae mediá nocte in cubiculum Alcménae vénérunt, ubi Herculés cum frátre suó dormiébat. Nec tamen in cúnís, sed in scútó mágnó cubábant. Serpentés iam appropinquáverant et scútum movébant; itaque puerí é somnó excitátí sunt.


Íphiclés, fráter Herculis, mágná vóce exclámávit; sed Herculés ipse, fortissimus puer, haudquáquam territus est. Parvís manibus serpentís statim prehendit, et colla eárum mágná ví compressit. Tálí modó serpentés á pueró interfectae sunt. Alcména autem, máter puerórum, clámórem audíverat, et marítum suum é somnó excitáverat. Ille lúmen accendit et gladium suum rapuit; tum ad puerós properábat, sed ubi ad locum vénit, rem míram vídit, Herculés enim rídébat et serpentís mortuás mónstrábat.


Herculés á pueró corpus suum díligenter exercébat; mágnam partem diéí in palaestrá cónsúmébat; didicit etiam arcum intendere et téla conicere. Hís exercitátiónibus vírés éius cónfírmátae sunt. In músicá etiam á Linó centauró érudiébátur (centaurí autem equí erant sed caput hominis habébant); huic tamen artí minus díligenter studébat. Híc Linus Herculem ólim obiúrgábat, quod nón studiósus erat; tum puer írátus citharam subitó rapuit, et omnibus víribus caput magistrí ínfélícis percussit. Ille íctú próstrátus est, et pauló post é vítá excessit, neque quisquam posteá id officium suscipere voluit.


Dé Hercule haec etiam inter alia nárrantur. Ólim dum iter facit, in fínís Aegyptiórum vénit. Ibi réx quídam, nómine Búsíris, illó tempore régnábat; híc autem vir crúdélissimus hominés immoláre cónsuéverat. Herculem igitur corripuit et in vincula coniécit. Tum núntiós dímísit et diem sacrifició édíxit. Mox ea diés appetébat, et omnia ríte paráta sunt. Manús Herculis caténís ferreís vinctae sunt, et mola salsa in caput éius ínspersa est. Mós enim erat apud antíquós salem et fár capitibus victimárum impónere. Iam victima ad áram stábat; iam sacerdós cultrum súmpserat. Subitó tamen Herculés mágnó cónátú vincula perrúpit; tum íctú sacerdótem próstrávit; alteró régem ipsum occídit.


Herculés iam aduléscéns Thébís habitábat. Réx Thébárum, vir ígnávus, Creón appellábátur. Minyae, géns bellicósissima, Thébánís fínitimí erant. Légátí autem á Minyís ad Thébánós quotannís mittébantur; hí Thébás veniébant et centum bovés postulábant. Thébání enim ólim á Minyís superátí erant; tribúta igitur régí Minyárum quotannís pendébant. At Herculés cívís suós hóc stípendió líberáre cónstituit; légátós igitur comprehendit, atque aurís eórum abscídit. Légátí autem apud omnís gentís sánctí habentur.


Ergínus, réx Minyárum, ob haec vehementer írátus statim cum omnibus cópiís in fínís Thébánórum contendit. Creón adventum éius per explórátórés cógnóvit. Ipse tamen púgnáre nóluit, nam mágnó timóre adfectus erat; Thébání igitur Herculem imperátórem creávérunt. Ille núntiós in omnís partís dímísit, et cópiás coégit; tum proximó dié cum mágnó exercitú profectus est. Locum idóneum délégit et aciem ínstrúxit. Tum Thébání é superióre locó impetum in hostís fécérunt. Illí autem impetum sustinére nón potuérunt; itaque aciés hostium pulsa est atque in fugam conversa.


Post hóc proelium Herculés cópiás suás ad urbem redúxit. Omnés Thébání propter victóriam máximé gaudébant; Creón autem mágnís honóribus Herculem decorávit, atque fíliam suam eí in mátrimónium dedit. Herculés cum uxóre suá beátam vítam agébat; sed post paucós annós subitó in furórem incidit, atque líberós suós ipse suá manú occídit. Post breve tempus ad sánitátem reductus est, et propter hóc facinus mágnó dolóre adfectus est; mox ex urbe effúgit et in silvás sé recépit. Nólébant enim cívés sermónem cum eó habére.


Herculés tantum scelus expiáre mágnopere cupiébat. Cónstituit igitur ad óráculum Delphicum íre; hóc enim óráculum erat omnium celeberrimum. Ibi templum erat Apollinis plúrimís dónís órnátum. Hóc in templó sedébat fémina quaedam, nómine Pýthia et cónsilium dabat iís quí ad óráculum veniébant. Haec autem fémina ab ipsó Apolline docébátur, et voluntátem deí hominibus énúntiábat. Herculés igitur, quí Apollinem praecipué colébat, húc vénit. Tum rem tótam exposuit, neque scelus célávit.


Ubi Herculés fínem fécit, Pýthia prímó tacébat; tandem tamen iussit eum ad urbem Tíryntha íre, et Eurystheí régis omnia imperáta facere. Herculés ubi haec audívit, ad urbem illam contendit, et Eurystheó régí sé in servitútem trádidit. Duodecim annós crúdélissimó Eurystheó serviébat, et duodecim labórés, quós ille imperáverat, cónfécit; hóc enim únó modó tantum scelus expiárí potuit. Dé hís labóribus plúrima á poétís scrípta sunt. Multa tamen quae poétae nárrant vix crédibilia sunt.


Prímum ab Eurystheó iússus est Herculés leónem occídere quí illó tempore vallem Nemeaeam reddébat ínféstam. In silvás igitur in quibus leó habitábat statim sé contulit. Mox feram vídit, et arcum, quem sécum attulerat, intendit; éius tamen pellem, quae dénsissima erat, tráicere nón potuit. Tum clává mágná quam semper gerébat leónem percussit, frústrá tamen; neque enim hóc modó eum occídere potuit. Tum démum collum mónstrí bracchiís suís complexus est et faucís éius omnibus víribus compressit. Hóc modó leó breví tempore exanimátus est; núlla enim respírandí facultás eí dabátur. Tum Herculés cadáver ad oppidum in umerís rettulit; et pellem, quam détráxerat, posteá pró veste gerébat. Omnés autem quí eam regiónem incolébant, ubi fámam dé morte leónis accépérunt, vehementer gaudébant et Herculem mágnó honóre habébant.


Pauló post iússus est ab Eurystheó Hydram necáre. Hóc autem mónstrum erat cui novem erant capita. Herculés igitur cum amícó Ioláó profectus est ad palúdem Lernaeam, in quá Hydra habitábat. Mox mónstrum invénit, et quamquam rés erat mágní perículí, collum éius sinistrá prehendit. Tum dextrá capita novem abscídere coepit; quotiéns tamen hóc fécerat, nova capita exoriébantur. Diú frústrá labórábat; tandem hóc cónátú déstitit. Deinde arborés succídere et ígnem accendere cónstituit. Hóc celeriter fécit, et postquam lígna ígnem comprehendérunt, face árdente colla adússit, unde capita exoriébantur. Nec tamen sine mágnó labóre haec fécit; vénit enim auxilió Hydrae cancer ingéns, quí, dum Herculés capita abscídit, crúra éius mordébat. Postquam mónstrum tálí modó interfécit, sagittás suás sanguine éius imbuit, itaque mortiferás reddidit.


Postquam Eurystheó caedés Hydrae núntiáta est, mágnus timor animum éius occupávit. Iussit igitur Herculem cervum quendam ad sé referre; nóluit enim virum tantae audáciae in urbe retinére. Híc autem cervus, cúius cornua aurea fuisse tráduntur, incrédibilí fuit celeritáte. Herculés igitur prímó vestígiís eum in silvá persequébátur; deinde ubi cervum ipsum vídit, omnibus víribus currere coepit. Úsque ad vesperum currébat, neque nocturnum tempus sibi ad quiétem relinquébat, frústrá tamen; núlló enim modó cervum cónsequí poterat. Tandem postquam tótum annum cucurrerat (ita tráditur), cervum cursú exanimátum cépit, et vívum ad Eurystheum rettulit.


Tum véró iússus est Herculés aprum quendam capere quí illó tempore agrós Erymanthiós vástábat et incolás húius regiónis mágnopere terrébat. Herculés rem suscépit et in Arcadiam profectus est. Postquam in silvam paulum prógressus est, apró occurrit. Ille autem simul atque Herculem vídit, statim refúgit; et timóre perterritus in altam fossam sé próiécit. Herculés igitur laqueum quem attulerat iniécit, et summá cum difficultáte aprum é fossá extráxit. Ille etsí fortiter repúgnábat, núlló modó sé líberáre potuit; et ab Hercule ad Eurystheum vívus relátus est.


Dé quartó labóre, quem suprá nárrávimus, haec etiam tráduntur. Herculés dum iter in Arcadiam facit, ad eam regiónem vénit quam centaurí incolébant. Cum nox iam appeteret, ad spéluncam dévertit in quá centaurus quídam, nómine Pholus, habitábat.

Ille Herculem benígné excépit et cénam parávit. At Herculés postquam cénávit, vínum á Pholó postulávit. Erat autem in spéluncá mágna amphora vínó optimó repléta, quam centaurí ibi déposuerant. Pholus igitur hóc vínum dare nólébat, quod reliquós centaurós timébat; núllum tamen vínum praeter hóc in spéluncá habébat. "Hóc vínum," inquit, "mihi commissum est. Sí igitur hóc dabó, centaurí mé interficient." Herculés tamen eum inrísit, et ipse póculum víní dé amphorá hausit.


Simul atque amphora aperta est, odor iúcundissimus undique diffúsus est; vínum enim suávissimum erat. Centaurí nótum odórem sénsérunt et omnés ad locum convénérunt.

Ubi ad spéluncam pervénérunt, mágnopere írátí erant quod Herculem bibentem vídérunt. Tum arma rapuérunt et Pholum interficere volébant. Herculés tamen in aditú spéluncae cónstitit et impetum eórum fortissimé sustinébat. Facés árdentís in eós coniécit; multós etiam sagittís suís vulnerávit. Hae autem sagittae eaedem erant quae sanguine Hydrae ólim imbútae erant. Omnés igitur quós ille sagittís vulneráverat venénó statim absúmptí sunt; reliquí autem ubi hóc vídérunt, terga vertérunt et fugá salútem petiérunt.


Postquam reliquí fúgérunt, Pholus ex spéluncá égressus est, et corpora spectábat eórum quí sagittís interfectí erant. Mágnopere autem mírátus est quod tam leví vulnere exanimátí erant, et causam éius reí quaerébat. Adiit igitur locum ubi cadáver cúiusdam centaurí iacébat, et sagittam é vulnere tráxit. Haec tamen síve cású síve cónsilió deórum é manibus éius lapsa est, et pedem leviter vulnerávit. Ille extempló dolórem gravem per omnia membra sénsit, et post breve tempus ví venéní exanimátus est. Mox Herculés, quí reliquós centaurós secútus erat, ad spéluncam rediit, et mágnó cum dolóre Pholum mortuum vídit. Multís cum lacrimís corpus amící ad sepultúram dedit; tum, postquam alterum póculum víní exhausit, somnó sé dedit.


Deinde Eurystheus Herculí hunc labórem graviórem imposuit. Augéás quídam, quí illó tempore régnum in Élide obtinébat, tria mília boum habébat. Hí in stabuló ingentis mágnitúdinis inclúdébantur. Stabulum autem inluvié ac squálóre erat obsitum, neque enim ad hóc tempus umquam púrgátum erat. Hóc Herculés intrá spatium úníus diéí púrgáre iússus est. Ille, etsí rés erat multae operae, negótium suscépit. Prímum mágnó labóre fossam duodévígintí pedum dúxit, per quam flúminis aquam dé montibus ad múrum stabulí perdúxit. Tum postquam múrum perrúpit, aquam in stabulum immísit et tálí modó contrá opíniónem omnium opus cónfécit.


Post paucós diés Herculés ad oppidum Stymphálum iter fécit; imperáverat enim eí Eurystheus ut avís Stymphálidés necáret. Hae avés róstra aénea habébant et carne hominum véscébantur. Ille postquam ad locum pervénit, lacum vídit; in hóc autem lacú, quí nón procul erat ab oppidó, avés habitábant. Núlla tamen dabátur appropinquandí facultás; lacus enim nón ex aquá sed é límó cónstitit. Herculés igitur neque pedibus neque lintre prógredí potuit.

Ille cum mágnam partem diéí frústrá cónsúmpsisset, hóc cónátú déstitit et ad Volcánum sé contulit, ut auxilium ab eó peteret. Volcánus (quí ab fabrís máximé colébátur) crepundia quae ipse ex aere fabricátus erat Herculí dedit. Hís Herculés tam ácrem crepitum fécit ut avés perterritae ávolárent. Ille autem, dum ávolant, mágnum numerum eárum sagittís tránsfíxit.


Tum Eurystheus Herculí imperávit ut taurum quendam ferócissimum ex ínsulá Crétá vívum referret. Ille igitur návem cónscendit, et cum ventus idóneus esset, statim solvit. Cum tamen ínsulae iam appropinquáret, tanta tempestás subitó coorta est ut návis cursum tenére nón posset. Tantus autem timor animós nautárum occupávit ut paene omnem spem salútis dépónerent. Herculés tamen, etsí návigandí imperítus erat, haudquáquam territus est.

Post breve tempus summa tranquillitás cónsecúta est, et nautae, quí sé ex timóre iam recéperant, návem incolumem ad terram appulérunt. Herculés é náví égressus est, et cum ad régem Crétae vénisset, causam veniendí docuit. Deinde, postquam omnia paráta sunt, ad eam regiónem contendit quam taurus vástábat. Mox taurum vídit, et quamquam rés erat mágní perículí, cornua éius prehendit. Tum, cum ingentí labóre mónstrum ad návem tráxisset, cum praedá in Graeciam rediit.


Postquam ex ínsulá Crétá rediit, Herculés ab Eurystheó in Thráciam missus est, ut equós Diomédis redúceret. Hí equí carne hominum véscébantur; Diomédés autem, vir crúdélissimus, illís obiciébat peregrínós omnís quí in eam regiónem vénerant. Herculés igitur mágná celeritáte in Thráciam contendit et ab Dioméde postulávit ut equí sibi tráderentur. Cum tamen ille hóc facere nóllet, Herculés írá commótus régem interfécit et cadáver éius equís obicí iussit.

Ita míra rérum commútátió facta est; is enim quí anteá multós cum cruciátú necáverat ipse eódem supplició necátus est. Cum haec núntiáta essent, omnés quí eam regiónem incolébant máximá laetitiá adfectí sunt et Herculí meritam grátiam referébant. Nón modo máximís honóribus et praemiís eum decorávérunt sed órábant etiam ut régnum ipse susciperet. Ille tamen hóc facere nólébat, et cum ad mare rediisset, návem occupávit. Ubi omnia ad návigandum paráta sunt, equós in náví conlocávit; deinde, cum idóneam tempestátem nactus esset, sine morá é portú solvit, et pauló post equós in lítus Argolicum exposuit.


Géns Amázonum dícitur omnínó ex mulieribus cónstitisse. Hae summam scientiam reí mílitáris habébant, et tantam virtútem adhibébant ut cum virís proelium committere audérent. Hippolyté, Amázonum régína, balteum habuit celeberrimum quem Márs eí dederat. Adméta autem, Eurystheí fília, fámam dé hóc balteó accéperat et eum possidére vehementer cupiébat. Eurystheus igitur Herculí mandávit ut cópiás cógeret et bellum Amázonibus ínferret. Ille núntiós in omnís partís dímísit, et cum mágna multitúdó convénisset, eós délégit quí máximum úsum in ré mílitárí habébant.


Hís virís Herculés persuásit, postquam causam itineris exposuit, ut sécum iter facerent. Tum cum iís quibus persuáserat návem cónscendit, et cum ventus idóneus esset, post paucós diés ad óstium flúminis Thermódontis appulit. Postquam in fínís Amázonum vénit, núntium ad Hippolytam mísit, quí causam veniendí docéret et balteum pósceret. Ipsa Hippolyté balteum trádere volébat, quod dé Herculis virtúte fámam accéperat; reliquae tamen Amázonés eí persuásérunt ut negáret. At Herculés, cum haec núntiáta essent, bellí fortúnam temptáre cónstituit.

Proximó igitur dié cum cópiás édúxisset, locum idóneum délégit et hostís ad púgnam évocávit. Amázonés quoque cópiás suás ex castrís édúxérunt et nón mágnó interválló ab Hercule aciem ínstrúxérunt.


Palús erat nón mágna inter duo exercitús; neutrí tamen initium tránseundí facere volébant. Tandem Herculés sígnum dedit, et ubi palúdem tránsiit, proelium commísit.

Amázonés impetum virórum fortissimé sustinuérunt, et contrá opíniónem omnium tantam virtútem praestitérunt ut multós eórum occíderint, multós etiam in fugam coniécerint. Virí enim novó genere púgnae perturbábantur nec mágnam virtútem praestábant. Herculés autem cum haec vidéret, dé suís fortúnís déspéráre coepit. Mílités igitur vehementer cohortátus est ut prístinae virtútis memoriam retinérent neu tantum dédecus admitterent, hostiumque impetum fortiter sustinérent; quibus verbís animós omnium ita éréxit ut multí etiam quí vulneribus cónfectí essent proelium sine morá redintegrárent.


Diú et ácriter púgnátum est; tandem tamen ad sólis occásum tanta commútátió rérum facta est ut mulierés terga verterent et fugá salútem peterent. Multae autem vulneribus défessae dum fugiunt captae sunt, in quó numeró ipsa erat Hippolyté. Herculés summam clémentiam praestitit, et postquam balteum accépit, líbertátem omnibus captívís dedit. Tum véró sociós ad mare redúxit, et quod nón multum aestátis supererat, in Graeciam proficíscí mátúrávit. Návem igitur cónscendit, et tempestátem idóneam nactus statim solvit; antequam tamen in Graeciam pervénit, ad urbem Tróiam návem appellere cónstituit, frúmentum enim quod sécum habébat iam déficere coeperat.


Láomedón quídam illó tempore régnum Tróiae obtinébat. Ad hunc Neptúnus et Apolló annó superióre vénerant, et cum Tróia nóndum moenia habéret, ad hóc opus auxilium obtulerant. Postquam tamen hórum auxilió moenia cónfecta sunt, nólébat Láomedón praemium quod próposuerat persolvere.

Neptúnus igitur et Apolló ob hanc causam írátí mónstrum quoddam mísérunt specié horribilí, quod cottídié é marí veniébat et homines pecudésque vorábat. Tróiání autem timóre perterrití in urbe continébantur, et pecora omnia ex agrís intrá múrós compulerant. Láomedón hís rébus commótus óráculum cónsuluit, ac deus eí praecépit ut filiam Hésionem mónstró obiceret.


Láomedón, cum hóc respónsum renúntiátum esset, mágnum dolórem percépit; sed tamen, ut cívís suós tantó perículó líberáret, óráculó párére cónstituit et diem sacrifició díxit. Sed síve cású síve cónsilió deórum Herculés tempore opportúnissimó Tróiam attigit; ipsó enim temporis punctó quó puella caténís vincta ad lítus dédúcébátur ille návem appulit. Herculés é náví égressus dé rébus quae gerébantur certior factus est; tum írá commótus ad régem sé contulit et auxilium suum obtulit. Cum réx libenter eí concessisset ut, sí posset, puellam líberáret, Herculés mónstrum interfécit; et puellam, quae iam omnem spem salútis déposuerat, incolumem ad patrem redúxit. Láomedón mágnó cum gaudió fíliam suam accépit, et Herculí pró tantó benefició meritam grátiam rettulit.


Tum véró missus est Herculés ad ínsulam Erythíam, ut bovés Géryonis arcesseret. Rés erat summae difficultátis, quod bovés á quódam Eurytióne et á cane bicipite custódiébantur. Ipse autem Géryón speciem horribilem praebébat; tria enim corpora inter sé coniúncta habébat. Herculés tamen etsí intellegébat quantum perículum esset, negótium suscépit; ac postquam per multás terrás iter fécit, ad eam partem Libyae pervénit quae Európae proxima est. Ibi in utróque lítore fretí quod Európam á Libyá dívidit columnás cónstituit, quae posteá Herculis Columnae appellábantur.


Dum híc morátur, Herculés mágnum incommodum ex calóre sólis accipiébat; tandem igitur írá commótus arcum suum intendit et sólem sagittís petiit. Sól tamen audáciam virí tantum admírátus est ut lintrem auream eí dederit. Herculés hóc dónum libentissimé accépit, núllam enim návem in hís regiónibus inveníre potuerat. Tum lintrem dédúxit, et ventum nactus idóneum post breve tempus ad ínsulam pervénit. Ubi ex incolís cógnóvit quó in locó bovés essent, in eam partem statim profectus est et á rége Géryone postulávit ut bovés sibi tráderentur. Cum tamen ille hóc facere nóllet, Herculés et régem ipsum et Eurytiónem, quí erat ingentí mágnitúdine corporis, interfécit.


Tum Herculés bovés per Hispániam et Liguriam compellere cónstituit; postquam igitur omnia paráta sunt, bovés ex ínsulá ad continentem tránsportávit. Ligurés autem, géns bellicósissima, dum ille per fínís eórum iter facit, mágnás cópiás coégérunt atque eum longius prógredí prohibébant. Herculés mágnam difficultátem habébat, barbarí enim in locís superióribus cónstiterant et saxa télaque in eum coniciébant. Ille quidem paene omnem spem salútis déposuerat, sed tempore opportúnissimó Iuppiter imbrem lapidum ingentium é caeló démísit. Hí tantá ví cecidérunt ut mágnum numerum Ligurum occíderint; ipse tamen Herculés (ut in tálibus rébus accidere cónsuévit) nihil incommodí cépit.


Postquam Ligurés hóc modó superátí sunt, Herculés quam celerrimé prógressus est et post paucós diés ad Alpís pervénit. Necesse erat hás tránsíre, ut in Ítaliam bovés ageret; rés tamen summae erat difficultátis. Hí enim montés, quí últeriórem á citerióre Galliá dívidunt, nive perenní sunt téctí; quam ob causam neque frúmentum neque pábulum in hís regiónibus invenírí potest. Herculés igitur antequam ascendere coepit, mágnam cópiam frúmentí et pábulí comparávit et hóc commeátú bovés onerávit. Postquam in hís rébus trís diés cónsúmpserat, quartó dié profectus est, et contrá omnium opíniónem bovés incolumís in Ítaliam trádúxit.


Breví tempore ad flúmen Tiberim vénit. Tum tamen núlla erat urbs in eó locó, Róma enim nóndum condita erat. Herculés itinere fessus cónstituit ibi paucós diés morárí, ut sé ex labóribus recreáret. Haud procul á valle ubi bovés páscébantur spélunca erat, in quá Cácus, horribile mónstrum, tum habitábat. Híc speciem terribilem praebébat, nón modo quod ingentí mágnitúdine corporis erat, sed quod ígnem ex óre exspírábat. Cácus autem dé adventú Herculis fámam accéperat; noctú igitur vénit, et dum Herculés dormit, quattuor pulcherrimórum boum abripuit. Hós caudís in spéluncam tráxit, né Herculés é vestígiís cógnóscere posset quó in locó célátí essent.


Posteró dié simul atque é somnó excitátus est, Herculés fúrtum animadvertit et bovés ámissós omnibus locís quaerébat. Hós tamen núsquam reperíre poterat, nón modo quod locí nátúram ígnórábat, sed quod vestígiís falsís déceptus est. Tandem cum mágnam partem diéí frústrá cónsúmpsisset, cum reliquís bóbus prógredí cónstituit. At dum proficíscí parat, únus é bóbus quós sécum habuit múgíre coepit. Subitó ií quí in spéluncá inclúsí erant múgítum reddidérunt, et hóc modó Herculem certiórem fécérunt quó in locó célátí essent. Ille vehementer írátus ad spéluncam quam celerrimé sé contulit, ut praedam reciperet. At Cácus saxum ingéns ita déiécerat ut aditus spéluncae omnínó obstruerétur.


Herculés cum núllum alium introitum reperíre posset, hóc saxum ámovére cónátus est, sed propter éius mágnitúdinem rés erat difficillima. Diú frústrá labórábat neque quicquam efficere poterat; tandem tamen mágnó cónátú saxum ámóvit et spéluncam patefécit. Ibi ámissós bovés mágnó cum gaudió cónspéxit; sed Cácum ipsum vix cernere potuit, quod spélunca repléta erat fúmó quem ille móre suó évomébat. Herculés inúsitátá specié turbátus breve tempus haesitábat; mox tamen in spéluncam inrúpit et collum mónstrí bracchiís complexus est. Ille etsí multum repúgnávit, núlló modó sé líberáre potuit, et cum núlla facultás respírandí darétur, mox exanimátus est.


Eurystheus postquam bovés Géryonis accépit, labórem úndecimum Herculí imposuit, graviórem quam quós suprá nárrávimus. Mandávit enim eí ut aurea póma ex hortó Hesperidum auferret. Hesperidés autem nymphae erant quaedam fórmá praestantissimá, quae in terrá longinquá habitábant, et quibus aurea quaedam póma á Iúnóne commissa erant. Multí hominés aurí cupiditáte inductí haec póma auferre iam anteá cónátí erant. Rés tamen difficillima erat, namque hortus in quó póma erant múró ingentí undique circumdatus erat; praetereá dracó quídam cui centum erant capita portam hortí díligenter custódiébat. Opus igitur quod Eurystheus Herculí imperáverat erat summae difficultátis, nón modo ob causás quás memorávimus, sed etiam quod Herculés omnínó ígnórábat quó in locó hortus ille situs esset.


Herculés quamquam quiétem vehementer cupiébat, tamen Eurystheó párére cónstituit, et simul ac iússa éius accépit, proficíscí mátúrávit. Á multís mercátóribus quaesíverat quó in locó Hesperidés habitárent, nihil tamen certum reperíre potuerat. Frústrá per multás terrás iter fécit et multa perícula subiit; tandem, cum in hís itineribus tótum annum cónsúmpsisset, ad extrémam partem orbis terrárum, quae proxima est Óceanó, pervénit. Híc stábat vir quídam, nomine Atlás, ingentí mágnitúdine corporis, quí caelum (ita tráditum est) umerís suís sustinébat, né in terram décideret. Herculés tantás vírís mágnopere mírátus statim in conloquium cum Atlante vénit, et cum causam itineris docuisset, auxilium ab eó petiit.


Atlás autem Herculí máximé pródesse potuit; ille enim cum ipse esset pater Hesperidum, certó scívit quó in locó esset hortus. Postquam igitur audívit quam ob causam Herculés vénisset, "Ipse," inquit, "ad hortum íbó et fíliábus meís persuádébó ut póma suá sponte trádant." Herculés cum haec audíret, mágnopere gávísus est; vim enim adhibére nóluit, sí rés aliter fierí posset. Cónstituit igitur oblátum auxilium accipere. Atlás tamen postulávit ut, dum ipse abesset, Herculés caelum umerís sustinéret. Hóc autem negótium Herculés libenter suscépit, et quamquam rés erat summí labóris, tótum pondus caelí continuós complúrís diés sólus sustinébat.


Atlás intereá abierat et ad hortum Hesperidum, quí pauca mília passuum aberat, sé quam celerrimé contulerat. Eó cum vénisset, causam veniendí exposuit et fíliás suás vehementer hortátus est ut póma tráderent. Illae diú haerébant; nólébant enim hóc facere, quod ab ipsá Iúnóne (ita ut ante dictum est) hóc múnus accépissent. Atlás tamen aliquandó iís persuásit ut sibi párérent, et póma ad Herculem rettulit. Herculés intereá cum plúrís diés exspectávisset neque úllam fámam dé reditú Atlantis accépisset, hác morá graviter commótus est. Tandem quíntó dié Atlantem vídit redeuntem, et mox mágnó cum gaudió póma accépit; tum, postquam grátiás pró tantó benefició égit, ad Graeciam proficíscí mátúrávit.


Postquam aurea póma ad Eurystheum reláta sunt, únus modo relinquébátur é duodecim labóribus quós Pýthia Herculí praecéperat. Eurystheus autem cum Herculem mágnopere timéret, eum in aliquem locum mittere volébat unde numquam redíre posset. Negótium igitur eí dedit ut canem Cerberum ex Orcó in lúcem traheret. Hóc opus omnium difficillimum erat, némó enim umquam ex Orcó redierat. Praetereá Cerberus iste mónstrum erat horribilí specié, cui tria erant capita serpentibus saevís cincta. Antequam tamen dé hóc labóre nárrámus, nón aliénum vidétur, quoniam dé Orcó mentiónem fécimus, pauca dé eá regióne própónere.


Dé Orcó, quí ídem Hádés appellábátur, haec tráduntur. Ut quisque dé vítá décesserat, mánés éius ad Orcum, sédem mortuórum, á deó Mercurió dédúcébantur. Húius regiónis, quae sub terrá fuisse dícitur, réx erat Plútó, cui uxor erat Próserpina, Iovis et Cereris fília. Mánés igitur á Mercurió déductí prímum ad rípam veniébant Stygis flúminis, quó régnum Plútónis continétur. Hóc tránsíre necesse erat antequam in Orcum veníre possent. Cum tamen in hóc flúmine núllus póns factus esset, mánés tránsvehébantur á Charonte quódam, quí cum parvá scaphá ad rípam exspectábat. Charón pró hóc offició mercédem postulábat, neque quemquam, nisi hóc praemium prius dedisset, tránsvehere volébat. Quam ob causam mós erat apud antíquós nummum in óre mortuí pónere eó cónsilió, ut cum ad Stygem vénisset, pretium tráiectús solvere posset. Ií autem quí post mortem in terrá nón sepultí erant Stygem tránsíre nón potuérunt, sed in rípá per centum annós erráre coáctí sunt; tum démum Orcum intráre licuit.


Ut autem mánés Stygem hóc modó tránsierant, ad alterum veniébant flúmen, quod Léthé appellábátur. Ex hóc flúmine aquam bibere cógébantur; quod cum fécissent, rés omnís in vítá gestás é memoriá dépónébant. Dénique ad sédem ipsíus Plútónis veniébant, cúius introitus á cane Cerberó custódiébátur. Ibi Plútó nigró vestítú indútus cum uxóre Próserpiná in solió sedébat. Stábant etiam nón procul ab eó locó tria alia solia, in quibus sedébant Mínós, Rhadamanthus, Aeacusque, iúdicés apud ínferós. Hí mortuís iús dícébant et praemia poenásque cónstituébant. Boní enim in Campós Élysiós, sédem beátórum, veniébant; improbí autem in Tartarum mittébantur ac multís et variís suppliciís ibi excruciábantur.


Herculés postquam imperia Eurystheí accépit, in Lacóniam ad Taenarum statim sé contulit; ibi enim spélunca erat ingentí mágnitúdine, per quam, ut trádébátur, hominés ad Orcum déscendébant. Eó cum vénisset, ex incolís quaesívit quó in locó spélunca illa sita esset; quod cum cógnóvisset, sine morá déscendere cónstituit. Nec tamen sólus hóc iter faciébat, Mercurius enim et Minerva sé eí sociós adiúnxerant. Ubi ad rípam Stygis vénit, Herculés scapham Charontis cónscendit, ut ad últeriórem rípam tránsíret. Cum tamen Herculés vir esset ingentí mágnitúdine corporis, Charón solvere nólébat; mágnopere enim verébátur né scapha sua tantó pondere oneráta in medió flúmine mergerétur. Tandem tamen minís Herculis territus Charón scapham solvit, et eum incolumem ad últeriórem rípam perdúxit.


Postquam flúmen Stygem hóc modó tránsiit, Herculés in sédem ipsíus Plútónis vénit; et postquam causam veniendí docuit, ab eó petívit ut Cerberum auferre sibi licéret. Plútó, quí dé Hercule fámam accéperat, eum benígné excépit, et facultátem quam ille petébat libenter dedit. Postulávit tamen ut Herculés ipse, cum imperáta Eurystheí fécisset, Cerberum in Orcum rúrsus redúceret. Herculés hóc pollicitus est, et Cerberum, quem nón sine mágnó perículó manibus prehenderat, summó cum labóre ex Orcó in lúcem et ad urbem Eurystheí tráxit. Eó cum vénisset, tantus timor animum Eurystheí occupávit ut ex átrió statim refúgerit; cum autem paulum sé ex timóre recépisset, multís cum lacrimís obsecrávit Herculem ut mónstrum sine morá in Orcum redúceret. Síc contrá omnium opíniónem duodecim illí labórés quós Pýthia praecéperat intrá duodecim annós cónfectí sunt; quae cum ita essent, Herculés servitúte tandem líberátus mágnó cum gaudió Thébás rediit.


Posteá Herculés multa alia praeclára perfécit, quae nunc perscríbere longum est. Tandem iam aetáte próvectus Déianíram, Oeneí fíliam, in mátrimónium dúxit; post tamen trís annós accidit ut puerum quendam, cui nómen erat Eunomus, cású occíderit. Cum autem mós esset ut sí quis hominem cású occídisset, in exsilium íret, Herculés cum uxóre suá é fínibus éius cívitátis exíre mátúrávit. Dum tamen iter faciunt, ad flúmen quoddam pervénérunt in quó núllus póns erat; et dum quaerunt quónam modó flúmen tránseant, accurrit centaurus Nessus, quí viátóribus auxilium obtulit. Herculés igitur uxórem suam in tergum Nessí imposuit; tum ipse flúmen tránávit. Nessus autem paulum in aquam prógressus ad rípam subitó revertébátur et Déianíram auferre cónábátur. Quod cum animadvertisset Herculés, írá graviter commótus arcum intendit et pectus Nessí sagittá tránsfíxit.


Nessus igitur sagittá Herculis tránsfíxus moriéns humí iacébat; at né occásiónem suí ulcíscendí dímitteret, ita locútus est: "Tú, Déianíra, verba morientis audí. Sí amórem marítí tuí cónserváre vís, hunc sanguinem quí nunc é pectore meó effunditur súme ac repóne; tum, sí umquam in suspíciónem tibi vénerit, vestem marítí hóc sanguine ínficiés." Haec locútus Nessus animam efflávit; Déianíra autem nihil malí suspicáta imperáta fécit. Pauló post Herculés bellum contrá Eurytum, régem Oechaliae, suscépit; et cum régem ipsum cum fíliís interfécisset, Iolén éius fíliam captívam sécum redúxit. Antequam tamen domum vénit, návem ad Cénaeum prómunturium appulit, et in terram égressus áram cónstituit, ut Ioví sacrificáret. Dum tamen sacrificium parat, Licham comitem suum domum mísit, quí vestem albam referret; mós enim erat apud antíquós, dum sacrificia facerent, albam vestem gerere. At Déianíra verita né Herculés amórem ergá Iolén habéret, vestem priusquam Lichae dedit, sanguine Nessí ínfécit.



Herculés nihil malí suspicáns vestem quam Lichás attulerat statim induit; pauló post tamen dolórem per omnia membra sénsit, et quae causa esset éius reí mágnopere mirábátur. Dolóre paene exanimátus vestem détrahere cónátus est; illa tamen in corpore haesit, neque úlló modó abscindí potuit. Tum démum Herculés quasi furóre impulsus in montem Octam sé contulit, et in rogum, quem summá celeritáte exstrúxit, sé imposuit. Hóc cum fécisset, eós quí circumstábant órávit ut rogum quam celerrimé succenderent. Omnés diú recúsábant; tandem tamen pástor quídam ad misericordiam inductus ígnem subdidit. Tum, dum omnia fúmó obscúrantur, Herculés dénsá núbe vélátus á Iove in Olympum abreptus est.


The celebrated voyage of the Argonauts was brought about in this way. Pelias had expelled his brother Aeson from his kingdom in Thessaly, and had determined to take the life of Jason, the son of Aeson. Jason, however, escaped and grew up to manhood in another country. At last he returned to Thessaly; and Pelias, fearing that he might attempt to recover the kingdom, sent him to fetch the Golden Fleece from Colchis, supposing this to be an impossible feat. Jason with a band of heroes set sail in the ship Argo (called after Argus, its builder), and after many adventures reached Colchis. Here Aeétes, king of Colchis, who was unwilling to give up the Fleece, set Jason to perform what seemed an impossible task, namely to plough a field with certain fire-breathing oxen, and then to sow it with dragon's teeth. Medéa, however, the daughter of the king, assisted Jason by her skill in magic, first to perform the task appointed, and then to procure the Fleece. She then fled with Jason, and to delay the pursuit of her father, sacrificed her brother Absyrtus. After reaching Thessaly, Medéa caused the death of Pelias and was expelled from the country with her husband. They removed to Corinth, and here Medéa becoming jealous of Glauce, daughter of Creon, caused her death by means of a poisoned robe. She was afterward carried off in a chariot sent by the sun-god, and a little later Jason was accidentally killed.


Erant ólim in Thessaliá duo frátrés, quórum alter Aesón, Peliás alter appellábátur. Aesón prímó régnum obtinuerat; at post paucós annós Peliás régní cupiditáte adductus nón modo frátrem suum expulit, sed etiam in animó habébat Iásonem, Aesonis fílium, interficere. Quídam tamen ex amícís Aesonis, ubi sententiam Peliae cógnóvérunt, puerum é tantó perículó éripere cónstituérunt. Noctú igitur Iásonem ex urbe abstulérunt, et cum posteró dié ad régem rediissent, eí renúntiávérunt puerum mortuum esse. Peliás cum hóc audívisset, etsí ré vérá mágnum gaudium percipiébat, speciem tamen dolóris praebuit et quae causa esset mortis quaesívit. Illí autem cum bene intellegerent dolórem éius falsum esse, nesció quam fábulam dé morte puerí finxérunt.


Post breve tempus Peliás, veritus né régnum suum tantá ví et fraude occupátum ámitteret, amícum quendam Delphós mísit, quí óráculum cónsuleret. Ille igitur quam celerrimé Delphós sé contulit et quam ob causam vénisset démónstrávit. Respondit óráculum núllum esse in praesentiá perículum; monuit tamen Peliam ut sí quis únum calceum geréns veníret, eum cavéret. Post paucís annís accidit ut Peliás mágnum sacrificium factúrus esset; núntiós in omnís partís dímíserat et certam diem conveniendí díxerat. Dié cónstitútá mágnus hominum numerus undique ex agrís convénit; in hís autem vénit etiam Iásón, quí á pueritiá apud centaurum quendam habitáverat. Dum tamen iter facit, únum é calceís in tránseundó nesció quó flúmine ámísit.


Iásón igitur cum calceum ámissum núlló modó recipere posset, únó pede núdó in régiam pervénit. Quem cum Peliás vídisset, subitó timóre adfectus est; intelléxit enim hunc esse hominem quem óráculum démónstrávisset. Hóc igitur cónsilium iniit. Réx erat quídam Aeétés, quí régnum Colchidis illó tempore obtinébat. Huic commissum erat vellus illud aureum quod Phrixus ólim ibi relíquerat. Cónstituit igitur Peliás Iásoní negótium dare ut hóc vellere potírétur; cum enim rés esset mágní perículí, eum in itinere peritúrum esse spérábat. Iásonem igitur ad sé arcessívit, et eum cohortátus quid fierí vellet docuit. Ille etsí intellegébat rem esse difficillimam, negótium libenter suscépit.


Cum tamen Colchis multórum diérum iter ab eó locó abesset, sólus Iásón proficíscí nóluit. Dímísit igitur núntiós in omnís partís, quí causam itineris docérent et diem certam conveniendí dícerent. Intereá, postquam omnia quae sunt úsuí ad armandás návís comportárí iussit, negótium dedit Argó cuidam, quí summam scientiam nauticárum rérum habébat, ut návem aedificáret. In hís rébus circiter decem diés cónsúmptí sunt; Argus enim, quí operí praeerat, tantam díligentiam adhibébat ut né nocturnum quidem tempus ad labórem intermitteret. Ad multitúdinem hominum tránsportandam návis pauló erat látior quam quibus in nostró marí útí cónsuévimus, et ad vim tempestátum perferendam tóta é róbore facta est.


Intereá is diés appetébat quem Iásón per núntiós édíxerat, et ex omnibus regiónibus Graeciae multí, quós aut reí novitás aut spés glóriae movébat, undique conveniébant. Tráditum est autem in hóc numeró fuisse Herculem, dé quó suprá multa perscrípsimus, Orpheum, citharoedum praeclárissimum, Théseum, Castorem, multósque aliós quorum nómina sunt nótissima. Ex hís Iásón quós arbitrátus est ad omnia perícula subeunda parátissimós esse, eós ad numerum quínquágintá délégit et sociós sibi adiúnxit; tum paucós diés commorátus, ut ad omnís cásús subsidia comparáret, návem dédúxit, et tempestátem ad návigandum idóneam nactus mágnó cum plausú omnium solvit.


Haud multó post Argonautae (ita enim appellábantur quí in istá náví vehébantur) ínsulam quandam, nómine Cyzicum, attigérunt; et é náví égressí á rége illíus regiónis hospitió exceptí sunt. Paucás hórás ibi commorátí ad sólis occásum rúrsus solvérunt; sed postquam pauca mília passuum prógressí sunt, tanta tempestás subitó coorta est ut cursum tenére nón possent, et in eandem partem ínsulae unde núper profectí erant mágnó cum perículó déicerentur. Incolae tamen, cum nox esset obscúra, Argonautás nón ágnóscébant, et návem inimícam vénisse arbitrátí arma rapuérunt et eós égredí prohibébant. Ácriter in lítore púgnátum est, et réx ipse, quí cum aliís décucurrerat, ab Argonautís occísus est. Mox tamen, cum iam dílúcésceret, sénsérunt incolae sé erráre et arma abiécérunt; Argonautae autem cum régem occísum esse vidérent, mágnum dolórem percépérunt.


Postrídié éius diéí Iásón tempestátem satis idóneam esse arbitrátus (summa enim tranquillitás iam cónsecúta erat), ancorás sustulit, et pauca mília passuum prógressus ante noctem Mýsiam attigit. Ibi paucás hórás in ancorís exspectávit; á nautís enim cógnóverat aquae cópiam quam sécum habérent iam déficere, quam ob causam quídam ex Argonautís in terram égressí aquam quaerébant. Hórum in numeró erat Hylás quídam, puer fórmá praestantissimá. Quí dum fontem quaerit, á comitibus paulum sécesserat. Nymphae autem quae fontem colébant, cum iuvenem vídissent, eí persuádére cónátae sunt ut sécum manéret; et cum ille negáret sé hóc factúrum esse, puerum ví abstulérunt.

Comités éius postquam Hylam ámissum esse sénsérunt, mágnó dolóre adfectí diú frústrá quaerébant. Herculés autem et Polyphémus, quí vestígia puerí longius secútí erant, ubi tandem ad lítus rediérunt, Iásonem solvisse cógnóvérunt.


Post haec Argonautae ad Thráciam cursum tenuérunt, et postquam ad oppidum Salmydéssum návem appulérunt, in terram égressí sunt. Ibi cum ab incolís quaesíssent quis régnum éius regiónis obtinéret, certiórés factí sunt Phíneum quendam tum régem esse. Cógnóvérunt etiam hunc caecum esse et díró quódam supplició adficí, quod ólim sé crúdélissimum in fíliós suós praebuisset. Cúius supplicí hóc erat genus. Missa erant á Iove mónstra quaedam specié horribilí, quae capita virginum, corpora volucrum habébant. Hae volucrés, quae Harpýiae appellábantur, Phíneó summam molestiam adferébant; quotiéns enim ille accubuerat, veniébant et cibum appositum statim auferébant. Quó factum est ut haud multum abesset quín Phíneus famé morerétur.


Rés igitur male sé habébat cum Argonautae návem appulérunt. Phíneus autem simul atque audívit eós in suós fínís égressós esse, mágnopere gávísus est. Sciébat enim quantam opíniónem virtútis Argonautae habérent, nec dubitábat quín sibi auxilium ferrent. Núntium igitur ad návem mísit, quí Iásonem sociósque ad régiam vocáret. Eó cum vénissent, Phíneus démónstrávit quantó in perículó suae rés essent, et prómísit sé mágna praemia datúrum esse, sí illí remedium repperissent. Argonautae negótium libenter suscépérunt, et ubi hóra vénit, cum rége accubuérunt; at simul ac céna apposita est, Harpýiae cénáculum intrávérunt et cibum auferre cónábantur. Argonautae prímum gladiís volucrés petiérunt; cum tamen vidérent hóc nihil pródesse, Zétés et Calais, quí álís erant ínstrúctí, in áera sé sublevávérunt, ut désuper impetum facerent. Quod cum sénsissent Harpýiae, reí novitáte perterritae statim aufúgérunt, neque posteá umquam rediérunt.


Hóc factó Phíneus, ut pró tantó benefició meritam grátiam referret, Iásoní démónstrávit quá ratióne Symplégadés vítáre posset. Symplégadés autem duae erant rúpés ingentí mágnitúdine, quae á Iove positae erant eó cónsilió, né quis ad Colchida perveníret. Hae parvó interválló in marí natábant, et sí quid in medium spatium vénerat, incrédibilí celeritáte concurrébant. Postquam igitur á Phíneó doctus est quid faciendum esset, Iásón sublátís ancorís návem solvit, et léní ventó próvectus mox ad Symplégadés appropinquávit. Tum in prórá stáns columbam quam in manú tenébat émísit. Illa réctá viá per medium spatium volávit, et priusquam rúpés cónflíxérunt, incolumis évásit caudá tantum ámissá. Tum rúpés utrimque discessérunt; antequam tamen rúrsus concurrerent, Argonautae, bene intellegentés omnem spem salútis in celeritáte positam esse, summá ví rémís contendérunt et návem incolumem perdúxérunt. Hóc factó dís grátiás máximás égérunt, quórum auxilió é tantó perículó éreptí essent; omnés enim sciébant nón sine auxilió deórum rem tam félíciter événisse.


Breví intermissó spatió Argonautae ad flúmen Phásim vénérunt, quod in fínibus Colchórum erat. Ibi cum návem appulissent et in terram égressí essent, statim ad régem Aeétem sé contulérunt et ab eó postulávérunt ut vellus aureum sibi tráderétur. Ille cum audívisset quam ob causam Argonautae vénissent, írá commótus est et diú negábat sé vellus tráditúrum esse. Tandem tamen, quod sciébat Iásonem nón sine auxilió deórum hóc negótium suscépisse, mútátá sententiá prómísit sé vellus tráditúrum, sí Iásón labórés duós difficillimós prius perfécisset; et cum Iásón díxisset sé ad omnia perícula subeunda parátum esse, quid fierí vellet ostendit. Prímum iungendí erant duo taurí specié horribilí, quí flammás ex óre édébant; tum hís iúnctís ager quídam arandus erat et dentés dracónis serendí. Hís audítís Iásón etsí rem esse summí perículí intellegébat, tamen, né hanc occásiónem reí bene gerendae ámitteret, negótium suscépit.


Médéa, régis fília, Iásonem adamávit, et ubi audívit eum tantum perículum subitúrum esse, rem aegré ferébat. Intellegébat enim patrem suum hunc labórem próposuisse eó ipsó cónsilió, ut Iásón morerétur. Quae cum ita essent, Médéa, quae summam scientiam medicínae habébat, hóc cónsilium iniit. Mediá nocte ínsciente patre ex urbe évásit, et postquam in montís fínitimós vénit, herbás quásdam carpsit; tum súcó expressó unguentum parávit quod ví suá corpus aleret nervósque cónfírmáret. Hóc factó Iásoní unguentum dedit; praecépit autem ut eó dié quó istí labórés cónficiendí essent corpus suum et arma máne oblineret. Iásón etsí paene omnibus hominibus mágnitúdine et víribus corporis antecellébat (víta enim omnis in vénátiónibus atque in studió reí mílitáris cónsúmébátur), tamen hóc cónsilium nón neglegendum esse cénsébat.


Ubi is diés vénit quem réx ad arandum agrum édíxerat, Iásón ortá lúce cum sociís ad locum cónstitútum sé contulit. Ibi stabulum ingéns repperit, in quó taurí erant inclúsí; tum portís apertís taurós in lúcem tráxit, et summá cum difficultáte iugum imposuit. At Aeétés cum vidéret taurós nihil contrá Iásonem valére, mágnopere mírátus est; nesciébat enim fíliam suam auxilium eí dedisse. Tum Iásón omnibus aspicientibus agrum aráre coepit, quá in ré tantam díligentiam praebuit ut ante merídiem tótum opus cónfécerit. Hóc factó ad locum ubi réx sedébat adiit et dentís dracónis postulávit; quós ubi accépit, in agrum quem aráverat mágná cum díligentiá sparsit. Hórum autem dentium nátúra erat tális ut in eó locó ubi sémentés factae essent virí armátí míró quódam modó gígnerentur.


Nóndum tamen Iásón tótum opus cónfécerat; imperáverat enim eí Aeétés ut armátós virós quí é dentibus gígnerentur sólus interficeret. Postquam igitur omnís dentís in agrum sparsit, Iásón lassitúdine exanimátus quiétí sé trádidit, dum virí istí gígnerentur. Paucás hórás dormiébat, sub vesperum tamen é somnó subitó excitátus rem ita événisse ut praedictum esset cógnóvit; nam in omnibus agrí partibus virí ingentí mágnitúdine corporis gladiís galeísque armátí mírum in modum é terrá oriébantur. Hóc cógnitó Iásón cónsilium quod dedisset Médéa nón omittendum esse putábat. Saxum igitur ingéns (ita enim Médéa praecéperat) in mediós virós coniécit. Illí undique ad locum concurrérunt, et cum quisque sibi id saxum nesció cúr habére vellet, mágna contróversia orta est. Mox strictís gladiís inter sé púgnáre coepérunt, et cum hóc modó plúrimí occísí essent, reliquí vulneribus cónfectí á Iásone núlló negótió interfectí sunt.


Réx Aeétés ubi Iásonem labórem própositum cónfécisse cógnóvit, írá graviter commótus est; id enim per dolum factum esse intellegébat; nec dubitábat quín Médéa eí auxilium tulisset. Médéa autem cum intellegeret sé in mágnó fore perículó sí in régiá manéret, fugá salútem petere cónstituit. Omnibus rébus igitur ad fugam parátís mediá nocte ínsciente patre cum frátre Absyrtó évásit, et quam celerrimé ad locum ubi Argó subducta erat sé contulit. Eó cum vénisset, ad pedés Iásonis sé próiécit, et multís cum lacrimís eum obsecrávit né in tantó discrímine mulierem désereret quae eí tantum prófuisset. Ille quod memoriá tenébat sé per éius auxilium é mágnó perículó évásisse, libenter eam excépit, et postquam causam veniendí audívit, hortátus est né patris íram timéret. Prómísit autem sé quam prímum eam in náví suá ávectúrum.


Postrídié éius diéí Iásón cum sociís suís ortá lúce návem dédúxit, et tempestátem idóneam nactí ad eum locum rémís contendérunt, quó in locó Médéa vellus célátum esse démónstrábat. Cum eó vénissent, Iásón in terram égressus est, et sociís ad mare relictís, quí praesidió náví essent, ipse cum Médéá in silvás sé contulit. Pauca mília passuum per silvam prógressus vellus quod quaerébat ex arbore suspénsum vídit. Id tamen auferre erat summae difficultátis; nón modo enim locus ipse égregié et nátúrá et arte erat múnítus, sed etiam dracó quídam specié terribilí arborem custódiébat. Tum Médéa, quae, ut suprá démónstrávimus, medicínae summam scientiam habuit, rámum quem dé arbore proximá déripuerat venénó ínfécit. Hóc factó ad locum appropinquávit, et dracónem, quí faucibus apertís éius adventum exspectábat, venénó sparsit; deinde, dum dracó somnó oppressus dormit, Iásón vellus aureum dé arbore déripuit et cum Médéá quam celerrimé pedem rettulit.


Dum autem ea geruntur, Argonautae, quí ad mare relictí erant, ánxió animó reditum Iásonis exspectábant; id enim negótium summí esse perículí intellegébant. Postquam igitur ad occásum sólis frústrá exspectávérunt, dé éius salúte déspéráre coepérunt, nec dubitábant quín aliquí cásus accidisset. Quae cum ita essent, mátúrandum sibi cénsuérunt, ut ducí auxilium ferrent; sed dum proficíscí parant, lúmen quoddam subitó cónspiciunt mírum in modum intrá silvás refulgéns, et mágnopere mírátí quae causa esset éius reí ad locum concurrunt. Quó cum vénissent, Iásoní et Médéae advenientibus occurrérunt, et vellus aureum lúminis éius causam esse cógnóvérunt. Omní timóre sublátó mágnó cum gaudió ducem suum excépérunt, et dís grátiás máximás égérunt quod rés tam félíciter événisset.


Hís rébus gestís omnés sine morá návem rúrsus cónscendérunt, et sublátís ancorís prímá vigiliá solvérunt; neque enim satis tútum esse arbitrátí sunt in eó locó manére. At réx Aeétés, quí iam ante inimícó in eós fuerat animó, ubi cógnóvit fíliam suam nón modo ad Argonautás sé recépisse sed etiam ad vellus auferendum auxilium tulisse, hóc dolóre gravius exársit. Návem longam quam celerrimé dédúcí iussit, et mílitibus impositís fugientís ínsecútus est. Argonautae, quí rem in discrímine esse bene sciébant, omnibus víribus rémís contendébant; cum tamen návis quá vehébantur ingentí esset mágnitúdine, nón eádem celeritáte quá Colchí prógredí poterant. Quó factum est ut minimum abesset quín á Colchís sequentibus caperentur, neque enim longius intererat quam quó télum adicí posset. At Médéa cum vídisset quó in locó rés essent, paene omní spé dépositá ínfandum hóc cónsilium cépit.


Erat in náví Argonautárum fílius quídam régis Aeétae, nómine Absyrtus, quem, ut suprá démónstrávimus, Médéa ex urbe fugiéns sécum abdúxerat. Hunc puerum Médéa interficere cónstituit eó cónsilió, ut membrís éius in mare coniectís cursum Colchórum impedíret; certó enim sciébat Aeétem, cum membra fílí vídisset, nón longius prósecútúrum esse. Neque opínió Médéam fefellit, omnia enim ita événérunt ut spéráverat. Aeétés ubi prímum membra vídit, ad ea conligenda návem tenérí iussit. Dum tamen ea geruntur, Argonautae nón intermissó rémigandí labóre mox é cónspectú hostium auferébantur, neque prius fugere déstitérunt quam ad flúmen Éridanum pervénérunt. Aeétés nihil sibi prófutúrum esse arbitrátus sí longius prógressus esset, animó démissó domum revertit, ut fílí corpus ad sepultúram daret.


Tandem post multa perícula Iásón in eundem locum pervénit unde profectus erat. Tum é náví égressus ad régem Peliam, quí régnum adhúc obtinébat, statim sé contulit, et vellere aureó mónstrátó ab eó postulávit ut régnum sibi tráderétur; Peliás enim pollicitus erat, sí Iásón vellus rettulisset, sé régnum eí tráditúrum. Postquam Iásón quid fierí vellet ostendit, Peliás prímó nihil respondit, sed diú in eádem trístitiá tacitus permánsit; tandem ita locútus est: "Vidés mé aetáte iam esse cónfectum, neque dubium est quín diés suprémus mihi appropinquet. Liceat igitur mihi, dum vívam, hóc régnum obtinére; cum autem tandem décesseró, tú mihi succédés." Hác órátióne adductus Iásón respondit sé id factúrum quod ille rogásset.


Hís rébus cógnitís Médéa rem aegré tulit, et régní cupiditáte adducta mortem régí per dolum ínferre cónstituit. Hóc cónstitútó ad fíliás régis vénit atque ita locúta est: "Vidétis patrem vestrum aetáte iam esse cónfectum neque ad labórem régnandí perferendum satis valére. Vultisne eum rúrsus iuvenem fierí?" Tum fíliae régis ita respondérunt: "Num hóc fierí potest? Quis enim umquam é sene iuvenis factus est?" At Médéa respondit: "Mé medicínae summam habére scientiam scítis. Nunc igitur vóbis démónstrábó quó modó haec rés fierí possit." Postquam fínem loquendí fécit, arietem aetáte iam cónfectum interfécit et membra éius in váse aéneó posuit, atque ígní suppositó in aquam herbás quásdam infúdit. Tum, dum aqua effervésceret, carmen magicum cantábat. Mox ariés é váse exsiluit et víribus refectís per agrós currébat.


Dum fíliae régis hóc míráculum stupentés intuentur, Médéa ita locúta est: "Vidétis quantum valeat medicína. Vós igitur, sí vultis patrem vestrum in aduléscentiam redúcere, id quod fécí ipsae faciétis. Vós patris membra in vás conicite; ego herbás magicás praebébó." Quod ubi audítum est, fíliae régis cónsilium quod dedisset Médéa nón omittendum putávérunt. Patrem igitur Peliam necávérunt et membra éius in vás aéneum coniécérunt; nihil autem dubitábant quín hóc máximé eí prófutúrum esset. At rés omnínó aliter événit ac spéráverant, Médéa enim nón eásdem herbás dedit quibus ipsa úsa erat. Itaque postquam diú frústrá exspectávérunt, patrem suum ré vérá mortuum esse intelléxérunt. Hís rébus gestís Médéa sé cum coniuge suó régnum acceptúram esse spérábat; sed cívés cum intellegerent quó modó Peliás periisset, tantum scelus aegré tulérunt. Itaque Iásone et Médéá é régnó expulsís Acastum régem creávérunt.


Iásón et Médéa é Thessaliá expulsí ad urbem Corinthum vénérunt, cúius urbis Creón quídam régnum tum obtinébat. Erat autem Creontí fília úna, nómine Glaucé. Quam cum vídisset, Iásón cónstituit Médéae uxórí suae núntium mittere eó cónsilió, ut Glaucén in mátrimónium dúceret. At Médéa ubi intelléxit quae ille in animó habéret, írá graviter commóta iúre iúrandó cónfírmávit sé tantam iniúriam ultúram. Hóc igitur cónsilium cépit. Vestem parávit summá arte textam et variís colóribus ínfectam; hanc mortiferó quódam venénó tinxit, cúius vís tális erat ut sí quis eam vestem induisset, corpus éius quasi ígní úrerétur. Hóc factó vestem ad Glaucén mísit; illa autem nihil malí suspicáns dónum libenter accépit, et vestem novam móre féminárum statim induit.


Vix vestem induerat Glaucé cum dolórem gravem per omnia membra sénsit, et pauló post crúdélí cruciátú adfecta é vítá excessit. Hís rébus gestís Médéa furóre atque ámentiá impulsa fíliós suós necávit; tum mágnum sibi fore perículum arbitráta sí in Thessaliá manéret, ex eá regióne fugere cónstituit. Hóc cónstitútó sólem órávit ut in tantó perículó auxilium sibi praebéret. Sól autem hís precibus commótus currum mísit cui erant iúnctí dracónés álís ínstrúctí. Médéa nón omittendam tantam occásiónem arbitráta currum ascendit, itaque per áera vecta incolumis ad urbem Athénás pervénit. Iásón ipse breví tempore míró modó occísus est. Accidit síve cású síve cónsilió deórum ut sub umbrá návis suae, quae in lítus subducta erat, dormíret. Mox návis, quae adhúc érécta steterat, in eam partem ubi Iásón iacébat subitó délapsa virum ínfélícem oppressit.



Ulysses, a famous Greek hero, took a prominent part in the long siege of Troy. After the fall of the city, he set out with his followers on his homeward voyage to Ithaca, an island of which he was king; but being driven out of his course by northerly winds, he was compelled to touch at the country of the Lotus-eaters, who are supposed to have lived on the north coast of Africa. Some of his comrades were so delighted with the lotus fruit that they wished to remain in the country, but Ulysses compelled them to embark again and continued his voyage. He next came to the island of Sicily, and fell into the hands of the giant Polyphémus, one of the Cyclópes. After several of his comrades had been killed by this monster, Ulysses made his escape by stratagem and reached the country of the winds. Here he received the help of Aeolus, king of the winds, and having set sail again, arrived within sight of Ithaca; but owing to the folly of his companions, the winds became suddenly adverse and he was again driven back. He then touched at an island which was the home of Circe, a powerful enchantress, who exercised her charms on his companions and turned them into swine. By the help of the god Mercury, Ulysses not only escaped this fate himself, but also forced Circe to restore her victims to human shape. After staying a year with Circe, he again set out and eventually reached his home.


Urbem Tróiam á Graecís decem annós obsessam esse satis cónstat; dé hóc enim belló Homérus, máximus poétárum Graecórum, Íliadem opus nótissimum scrípsit. Tróiá tandem per ínsidiás captá, Graecí longó belló fessí domum redíre mátúrávérunt. Omnibus rébus igitur ad profectiónem parátís návís dédúxérunt, et tempestátem idóneam nactí mágnó cum gaudió solvérunt. Erat inter prímós Graecórum Ulixés quídam, vir summae virtútis ac prúdentiae, quem dícunt nónnúllí dolum istum excógitásse quó Tróiam captam esse cónstat. Híc régnum ínsulae Ithacae obtinuerat, et pauló antequam cum reliquís Graecís ad bellum profectus est, puellam fórmósissimam, nómine Pénelopén, in mátrimónium dúxerat. Nunc igitur cum iam decem annós quasi in exsilió cónsúmpsisset, mágná cupiditáte patriae et uxóris videndae árdébat.


Postquam tamen pauca mília passuum á lítore Tróiae progressí sunt, tanta tempestás subitó coorta est ut núlla návium cursum tenére posset, sed aliae aliás in partís disicerentur. Návis autem quá ipse Ulixés vehébátur ví tempestátis ad merídiem déláta decimó dié ad lítus Libyae appulsa est. Ancorís iactís Ulixés cónstituit nónnúllós é sociís in terram expónere, quí aquam ad návem referrent et quális esset nátúra éius regiónis cógnóscerent. Hí igitur é náví égressí imperáta facere parábant. Dum tamen fontem quaerunt, quibusdam ex incolís obviam factí ab iís hospitió acceptí sunt. Accidit autem ut máior pars víctús eórum hominum in míró quódam frúctú quem lótum appellábant cónsisteret. Quam cum Graecí gustássent, patriae et sociórum statim oblítí cónfírmávérunt sé semper in eá terrá mánsúrós, ut dulcí illó cibó in perpetuum véscerentur.


Ulixés cum ab hórá septimá ad vesperum exspectásset, veritus né socií suí in perículó versárentur, nónnúllós é reliquís mísit, ut quae causa esset morae cógnóscerent. Hí igitur in terram exposití ad vícum quí nón longé aberat sé contulérunt; quó cum vénissent, sociós suós quasi vínó ébriós repperérunt. Tum ubi causam veniendí docuérunt, iís persuádére cónábantur ut sécum ad návem redírent. Illí tamen resistere ac manú sé défendere coepérunt, saepe clámitantés sé numquam ex eó locó abitúrós. Quae cum ita essent, núntií ré ínfectá ad Ulixem rediérunt. Hís rébus cógnitís ipse cum omnibus quí in náví relictí erant ad locum vénit; et sociós suós frústrá hortátus ut suá sponte redírent, manibus eórum post terga vinctís invítós ad návem reportávit. Tum ancorís sublátís quam celerrimé é portú solvit.


Postquam eá tótá nocte rémís contendérunt, postrídié ad terram ígnótam návem appulérunt. Tum, quod nátúram éius regiónis ígnórábat, ipse Ulixés cum duodecim é sociís in terram égressus loca explóráre cónstituit. Paulum á lítore prógressí ad spéluncam ingentem pervénérunt, quam habitárí sénsérunt; éius enim introitum et nátúrá locí et manú múnítum esse animadvertérunt. Mox, etsí intellegébant sé nón sine perículó id factúrós, spéluncam intrávérunt; quod cum fécissent, mágnam cópiam lactis in vásís ingentibus conditam invénérunt. Dum tamen mírantur quis in eá séde habitáret, sonitum terribilem audívérunt, et oculís ad portam tortís mónstrum horribile vídérunt, húmáná quidem specié et figúrá, sed ingentí mágnitúdine corporis. Cum autem animadvertissent mónstrum únum oculum tantum habére in mediá fronte positum, intelléxérunt hunc esse únum é Cyclópibus, dé quibus fámam iam accéperant.


Cyclópés autem pástórés erant quídam quí ínsulam Siciliam et praecipué montem Aetnam incolébant; ibi enim Volcánus, praeses fabrórum et ígnis repertor, cúius serví Cyclópés erant, officínam suam habébat.

Graecí igitur simul ac mónstrum vídérunt, terróre paene exanimátí in interiórem partem spéluncae refúgérunt et sé ibi abdere cónábantur. Polyphémus autem (síc enim Cyclóps appellábátur) pecus suum in spéluncam compulit; deinde, cum saxó ingentí portam obstrúxisset, ígnem in mediá spéluncá fécit. Hóc factó, oculó omnia perlústrábat, et cum sénsisset hominés in interióre parte spéluncae esse abditós, mágná vóce exclámávit: "Quí hominés estis? Mercátórés an latrónés?" Tum Ulixés respondit sé neque mercátórés esse neque praedandí causá vénisse; sed á Tróiá redeuntís ví tempestátum á réctó cursú dépulsós esse. Órávit etiam ut sibi sine iniúriá abíre licéret. Tum Polyphémus quaesívit ubi esset návis quá vectí essent; sed Ulixés cum sibi máximé praecavendum esse bene intellegeret, respondit návem suam in rúpís coniectam omnínó fráctam esse. Polyphémus autem núlló respónsó dató duo é sociís manú corripuit, et membrís eórum dívulsís carnem dévoráre coepit.


Dum haec geruntur, Graecórum animós tantus terror occupávit ut né vócem quidem édere possent, sed omní spé salútis dépositá mortem praesentem exspectárent. Polyphémus, postquam famés hác tam horribilí céná dépulsa est, humí próstrátus somnó sé dedit. Quod cum vídisset Ulixés, tantam occásiónem reí gerendae nón omittendam arbitrátus, in eó erat ut pectus mónstrí gladió tránsfígeret. Cum tamen nihil temeré agendum exístimáret, cónstituit explóráre, antequam hóc faceret, quá ratióne ex spéluncá évádere possent. At cum saxum animadvertisset quó introitus obstrúctus erat, nihil sibi prófutúrum intelléxit sí Polyphémum interfécisset. Tanta enim erat éius saxí mágnitúdó ut né á decem quidem hominibus ámovérí posset. Quae cum ita essent, Ulixés hóc cónátú déstitit et ad sociós rediit; quí cum intelléxissent quó in locó rés essent, núllá spé salútis oblátá dé fortúnís suís déspéráre coepérunt. Ille tamen né animós démitterent vehementer hortátus est; démónstrávit sé iam anteá é multís et mágnís perículís évásisse, neque dubium esse quín in tantó discrímine dí auxilium látúrí essent.


Ortá lúce Polyphémus iam é somnó excitátus idem quod hesternó dié fécit; correptís enim duóbus é reliquís virís carnem eórum sine morá dévorávit. Tum, cum saxum ámóvisset, ipse cum pecore suó ex spéluncá prógressus est; quod cum Graecí vidérent, mágnam in spem sé post paulum évásúrós vénérunt. Mox tamen ab hác spé repulsí sunt; nam Polyphémus, postquam omnés ovés exiérunt, saxum in locum restituit. Reliquí omní spé salútis dépositá lámentís lacrimísque sé dédidérunt; Ulixés véró, quí, ut suprá démónstrávimus, vir mágní fuit cónsilí, etsí intellegébat rem in discrímine esse, nóndum omnínó déspérábat. Tandem, postquam diú haec tótó animó cógitávit, hóc cónsilium cépit. É lígnís quae in spéluncá reposita erant pálum mágnum délégit. Hunc summá cum díligentiá praeacútum fécit; tum, postquam sociís quid fierí vellet ostendit, reditum Polyphémí exspectábat.


Sub vesperum Polyphémus ad spéluncam rediit, et eódem modó quó anteá cénávit. Tum Ulixés útrem víní prómpsit, quem forte (id quod eí erat salútí) sécum attulerat; et postquam mágnum póculum vínó complévit, mónstrum ad bibendum próvocávit. Polyphémus, quí numquam anteá vínum gustáverat, tótum póculum statim exhausit; quod cum fécisset, tantam voluptátem percépit ut iterum et tertium póculum replérí iusserit. Tum, cum quaesívisset quó nómine Ulixés appellárétur, ille respondit sé Néminem appellarí; quod cum audívisset, Polyphémus ita locútus est: "Hanc, tibi grátiam pró tantó benefició referam; té postrémum omnium dévorábó." Hóc cum díxisset, cibó vínóque gravis recubuit et breví tempore somnó oppressus est. Tum Ulixés sociís convocátís, "Habémus," inquit, "quam petiimus facultátem; né igitur tantam occásiónem reí gerendae omittámus."


Hác órátióne habitá, postquam extrémum pálum ígní calefécit, oculum Polyphémí dormientis ferventí lígnó perfódit; quó factó omnés in díversás spéluncae partís sé abdidérunt. At ille subitó illó dolóre oculí é somnó excitátus clámórem terribilem sustulit, et dum per spéluncam errat, Ulixem manú prehendere cónábátur; cum tamen iam omnínó caecus esset, núlló modó hóc efficere potuit. Intereá reliquí Cyclópés clámóre audító undique ad spéluncam convénérunt, et ad introitum adstantés quid Polyphémus ageret quaesívérunt, et quam ob causam tantum clámórem sustulisset. Ille respondit sé graviter vulnerátum esse et mágnó dolóre adficí. Cum tamen posteá quaesívissent quis eí vim intulisset, respondit ille Néminem id fécisse; quibus rébus audítís únus é Cyclópibus: "At sí némó," inquit, "té vulnerávit, haud dubium est quín cónsilió deórum, quibus resistere nec possumus nec volumus, hóc supplició adficiáris." Hóc cum díxisset, abiérunt Cyclópés eum in ínsániam incidisse arbitrátí.


Polyphémus ubi sociós suós abiisse sénsit, furóre atque ámentiá impulsus Ulixem iterum quaerere coepit; tandem cum portam invénisset, saxum quó obstrúcta erat ámóvit, ut pecus in agrós exíret. Tum ipse in introitú cónsédit, et ut quaeque ovis ad hunc locum vénerat, éius tergum manibus tráctábat, né virí inter ovís exíre possent. Quod cum animadvertisset Ulixés, intelléxit omnem spem salútis in doló magis quam in virtúte póní. Itaque hóc cónsilium iniit. Prímum trís quás vidit pinguissimás ex ovibus délégit, quás cum inter sé viminibus coniúnxisset, únum ex sociís suís ventribus eárum ita subiécit ut omnínó latéret; deinde ovís hominem sécum ferentís ad portam égit. Id accidit quod fore suspicátus erat. Polyphémus enim postquam terga ovium manibus tráctávit, eás praeteríre passus est. Ulixés ubi rem tam félíciter événisse vídit, omnís sociós suós ex órdine eódem modó émísit; quó factó ipse novissimus évásit.


Iís rébus ita cónfectís, Ulixés veritus né Polyphémus fraudem sentíret, cum sociís quam celerrimé ad lítus contendit; quó cum vénissent, ab iís quí náví praesidió relictí erant mágná cum laetitiá exceptí sunt. Hí enim cum ánxiís animís iam trís diés continuós reditum eórum exspectávissent, eós in aliquod perículum mágnum incidisse (id quidem quod erat) suspicátí, ipsí auxiliandí causá égredí parábant. Tum Ulixés nón satis tútum arbitrátus in eó locó manére, quam celerrimé profisíscí cónstituit. Iussit igitur omnís návem cónscendere, et ancorís sublátís paulum á lítore in altum próvectus est. Tum mágná vóce exclámávit: "Tú, Polyphéme, quí iúra hospití spernis, iústam et débitam poenam immánitátis tuae solvistí." Hác vóce audítá Polyphémus írá vehementer commótus ad mare sé contulit, et ubi návem paulum á lítore remótam esse intelléxit, saxum ingéns manú correptum in eam partem coniécit unde vócem veníre sénsit. Graecí autem, etsí nón multum áfuit quín submergerentur, núlló damnó acceptó cursum tenuérunt.


Pauca mília passuum ab eó locó prógressus Ulixés ad ínsulam Aeoliam návem appulit. Haec patria erat ventórum,

"Híc vástó réx Aeolus antró luctantís ventós tempestátésque sonórás imperió premit ac vinclís et carcere frénat."

Ibi réx ipse Graecós hospitió excépit, atque iís persuásit ut ad recuperandás vírís paucós diés in eá regióne commorárentur. Septimó dié cum socií é labóribus sé recépissent, Ulixés, né anní tempore á návigátióne exclúderétur, sibi sine morá proficíscendum statuit. Tum Aeolus, quí sciébat Ulixem cupidissimum esse patriae videndae, eí iam profectúró mágnum saccum é corió cónfectum dedit, in quó ventós omnís praeter únum inclúserat. Zephyrum tantum solverat, quod ille ventus ab ínsulá Aeoliá ad Ithacam návigantí est secundus. Ulixés hóc dónum libenter accépit, et grátiís pró tantó benefició áctís saccum ad málum adligávit. Tum omnibus rébus ad profectiónem parátís merídiánó feré tempore é portú solvit.


Novem diés secundissimó ventó cursum tenuérunt, iamque in cónspectum patriae suae vénerant, cum Ulixés lassitúdine cónfectus (ipse enim gubernábat) ad quiétem capiendam recubuit. At socií, quí iam dúdum mírábantur quid in illó saccó inclúsum esset, cum ducem somnó oppressum vidérent, tantam occásiónem nón omittendam arbitrátí sunt; crédébant enim aurum et argentum ibi esse céláta. Itaque spé lucrí adductí saccum sine morá solvérunt, quó factó ventí

"velut ágmine factó quá data porta ruunt, et terrás turbine perflant."

Híc tanta tempestás subitó coorta est ut illí cursum tenére nón possent sed in eandem partem unde erant profectí referrentur. Ulixés é somnó excitátus quó in locó rés esset statim intelléxit; saccum solútum, Ithacam post tergum relictam vídit. Tum véró írá vehementer exársit sociósque obiúrgábat quod cupiditáte pecúniae adductí spem patriae videndae próiécissent.


Breví spatió intermissó Graecí ínsulae cuidam appropinquávérunt in quá Circé, fília Sólis, habitábat. Quó cum návem appulisset, Ulixés in terram frúmentandí causá égrediendum esse statuit; nam cógnóverat frúmentum quod in náví habérent iam déficere. Sociís igitur ad sé convocátís quó in locó rés esset et quid fierí vellet ostendit. Cum tamen omnés memoriá tenérent quam crúdélí morte necátí essent ií quí núper é náví égressí essent, némó repertus est quí hóc negótium suscipere vellet. Quae cum ita essent, rés ad contróversiam déducta est. Tandem Ulixés cónsénsú omnium sociós in duás partís dívísit, quárum alterí Eurylochus, vir summae virtútis, alterí ipse praeesse. Tum hí inter sé sortítí sunt uter in terram égrederétur. Hóc factó, Eurylochó sorte événit ut cum duóbus et vígintí sociís rem susciperet.


Hís rébus ita cónstitútis ií quí sortítí erant in interiórem partem ínsulae profectí sunt. Tantus tamen timor animós eórum occupáverat ut nihil dubitárent quín mortí obviam írent. Vix quidem poterant ií quí in náví relictí erant lacrimás tenére; crédébant enim sé sociós suós numquam post hóc tempus vísúrós. Illí autem aliquantum itineris prógressí ad víllam quandam pervénérunt summá mágnificentiá aedificátam, cúius ad óstium cum adiissent, cantum dulcissimum audívérunt. Tanta autem fuit éius vócis dulcédó ut núlló modó retinérí possent quín iánuam pulsárent. Hóc factó ipsa Circé forás exiit, et summá cum benígnitáte omnís in hospitium invítávit. Eurylochus ínsidiás sibi comparárí suspicátus forís exspectáre cónstituit, sed reliquí reí novitáte adductí intrávérunt. Cénam mágnificam omnibus rébus ínstrúctam invénérunt et iússú dominae libentissimé accubuérunt. At Circé vínum quod serví apposuérunt medicámentó quódam miscuerat; quod cum Graecí bibissent, graví somnó subitó oppressí sunt.


Tum Circé, quae artis magicae summam scientiam habébat, baculó aureó quod gerébat capita eórum tetigit; quó factó omnés in porcós subitó conversí sunt. Intereá Eurylochus ígnárus quid in aedibus agerétur ad óstium sedébat; postquam tamen ad sólis occásum ánxió animó et sollicitó exspectávit, sólus ad návem regredí cónstituit. Eó cum vénisset, sollicitúdine ac timóre tam perturbátus fuit ut quae vídisset vix dílúcidé nárráre posset. Ulixés autem satis intelléxit sociós suós in perículó versárí, et gladió correptó Eurylochó imperávit ut sine morá viam ad istam domum démónstráret. Ille tamen multís cum lacrimís Ulixem complexus obsecráre coepit né in tantum perículum sé committeret; sí quid gravius eí accidisset, omnium salútem in summó discrímine futúram. Ulixés autem respondit sé néminem invítum sécum adductúrum; eí licére, sí mállet, in náví manére; sé ipsum sine úlló praesidió rem susceptúrum. Hóc cum mágná vóce díxisset, é náví désiluit et núlló sequente sólus in viam sé dedit.


Aliquantum itineris prógressus ad víllam mágnificam pervénit, quam cum oculís perlústrásset, statim intráre statuit; intelléxit enim hanc esse eandem domum dé quá Eurylochus mentiónem fécisset. At cum in eó esset ut límen intráret, subitó eí obviam stetit aduléscéns fórmá pulcherrimá aureum baculum geréns. Híc Ulixem iam domum intrantem manú corripuit et, "Quó ruis?" inquit. "Nónne scís hanc esse Circés domum? Híc inclúsí sunt amící tuí ex húmáná specié in porcós conversí. Num vís ipse in eandem calamitátem veníre?" Ulixés simul ac vócem audívit, deum Mercurium ágnóvit; núllís tamen precibus ab ínstitútó cónsilió déterrérí potuit. Quod cum Mercurius sénsisset, herbam quandam eí dedit, quam contrá carmina multum valére dícébat. "Hanc cape," inquit, "et ubi Circé té baculó tetigerit, tú strictó gladió impetum in eam vidé ut faciás." Mercurius postquam fínem loquendí fécit,

"mortálís vísús medió sermóne relíquit, et procul in tenuem ex oculís évánuit auram."


Breví intermissó spatió Ulixés ad omnia perícula subeunda parátus iánuam pulsávit, et foribus patefactís ab ipsá Circé benígné exceptus est. Omnia eódem modó atque anteá facta sunt. Cénam mágnificé ínstrúctam vídit et accumbere iússus est. Mox, ubi famés cibó dépulsa est, Circé póculum aureum vínó replétum Ulixí dedit. Ille etsí suspicátus est venénum sibi parátum esse, póculum exhausit; quó factó Circé postquam caput éius baculó tetigit, ea verba locúta est quibus sociós éius anteá in porcós converterat. Rés tamen omnínó aliter événit atque illa spéráverat. Tanta enim vís erat éius herbae quam Ulixí Mercurius dederat ut neque venénum neque verba quicquam efficere possent. Ulixés autem, ut eí praeceptum erat, gladió strictó impetum in eam fécit et mortem minitábátur. Circé cum artem suam nihil valére sénsisset, multís cum lacrimís eum obsecráre coepit né sibi vítam adimeret.


Ulixés autem ubi sénsit eam timóre perterritam esse, postulávit ut sociós suós sine morá in húmánam speciem redúceret (certior enim factus erat á deó Mercurió eós in porcós conversós esse); nisi id factum esset, sé débitás poenás súmptúrum ostendit. Circé hís rébus graviter commóta eí ad pedés sé próiécit, et multís cum lacrimís iúre iúrandó cónfírmávit sé quae ille imperásset omnia factúram. Tum porcós in átrium immittí iussit. Illí dató sígnó inruérunt, et cum ducem suum ágnóvissent, mágnó dolóre adfectí sunt quod núlló modó eum dé rébus suís certiórem facere poterant. Circé tamen unguentó quódam corpora eórum únxit; quó factó sunt omnés statim in húmánam speciem reductí. Mágnó cum gaudió Ulixés suós amícós ágnóvit, et núntium ad lítus mísit, quí reliquís Graecís sociós receptós esse díceret. Illí autem hís rébus cógnitís statim ad domum Circaeam sé contulérunt; quó cum vénissent, úniversí laetitiae sé dédidérunt.

[Illustration: ULYSSES AND CIRCE]


Postrídié éius diéí Ulixés ex hác ínsulá quam celerrimé discédere in animó habébat. Circé tamen cum haec cógnóvisset, ex odió ad amórem conversa omnibus precibus eum óráre et obtestárí coepit ut paucós diés apud sé morárétur; quá ré tandem impetrátá tanta beneficia in eum contulit ut facile eí persuásum sit ut diútius manéret. Postquam tamen tótum annum apud Circén cónsúmpserat, Ulixés mágnó désíderió patriae suae mótus est. Sociís igitur ad sé convocátís quid in animó habéret ostendit. Ubi tamen ad lítus déscendit, návem suam tempestátibus tam adflíctam invénit ut ad návigandum paene inútilis esset. Hác ré cógnitá omnia quae ad návís reficiendás úsuí essent comparárí iussit, quá in ré tantam díligentiam omnés adhibébant ut ante tertium diem opus perfécerint. At Circé ubi omnia ad profectiónem paráta esse vídit, rem aegré ferébat et Ulixem vehementer obsecrábat ut eó cónsilió désisteret. Ille tamen, né anní tempore a návigátióne exclúderétur, mátúrandum sibi exístimávit, et tempestátem idóneam nactus návem solvit. Multa quidem perícula Ulixí subeunda erant antequam in patriam suam perveníret, quae tamen hóc locó longum est perscríbere.



The numbers refer to the page of text and the line on the page respectively.

3.6. Danaé. Many proper names in this book are words borrowed by Latin from Greek, and have forms not given in the regular Latin declensions. It will not be necessary to learn the declension of such words.

7. enim. This word commonly stands second in its clause.

8. turbábat. Notice that this verb and dormiébat below are in the imperfect tense to denote a state of things existing at the past time indicated by territa est.

autem. This word has the same peculiarity of position as enim; so also igitur, which occurs in line 11.

12. Seríphum. Notice that Latin says 'the island Seriphos,' but English more often 'the island of Seriphos.'

13. appulsa est. Postquam is regularly followed by the perfect or present indicative, but the English translation usually requires the pluperfect.

15. quódam. Quídam means 'certain' as applied to some person or thing not fully described, while certus means 'certain' in the sense of 'determined.' 'sure,'

ad domum. This means 'to the house'; 'to be brought home' would be domum addúcí, without the preposition.

16. Ille is often used, as here, when the subject is changed to a person mentioned in the preceding sentence. In this use it is to be translated 'he.'

18. benefició. See the derivation of this word in the vocabulary.

20. multós annós. Duration of time is regularly expressed in the accusative case.

22. eam. Latin has no pronoun of the third person, and is often takes the place of one; it is then to be translated 'he,' 'she,' 'it,' 'they,' according to its form.

25. haec. The literal translation would be 'these things,' but we must say 'thus' or 'as follows.'

4. 1. es. With iam dúdum and similar expressions of duration, the present indicative is often used to denote an action or state begun in the past but continuing in the present. The English equivalent is the perfect.

híc, is not the pronoun, but an adverb.

2. mihi. This dative may be translated 'for me.' How would 'to me' with a verb of motion be put?

3. refer. Dícó, dúcó, fació, and feró have the imperative forms díc, dúc, fac, and fer, instead of díce, etc.

4. Perseus. When the subordinate and the principal clause of a Latin sentence have the same subject, this usually stands first, followed by the subordinate clause.

haec. Here a different rendering is required from that suggested in the note on 3, 25. What is it? Notice that it is necessary to know the literal significance of the Latin words, but that the translation must often be something quite different if it is to be acceptable English. The rule for translation is: Discover the exact meaning of the original; then express the same idea correctly and, if you can, elegantly in the language into which you are translating.

5. continentem. What is the derivation of this word?

vénit. Is this present or perfect? How do you know?

8. Graeás. The Graeae were three old women who had one eye and one tooth in common, and took turns in using them.

9. galeam. This belonged to Pluto, the god of the underworld of the dead, and whosoever wore it was invisible. The story is that Perseus compelled the Graeae to tell him how to obtain the helps to his enterprise by seizing their tooth and eye.

11. pedibus, 'on his feet,' dative of indirect object.

induit. See the note on 3, 13.

áera. Áér is borrowed from Greek, and keeps this Greek form for its accusative.

12. volábat. Distinguish between voló, voláre, and voló, velle.

13. céterís. Céterí is used to denote all not already named ('the other'), while alií denotes some of those who have not been already named ('other').

14. specié horribilí, 'of terrible appearance.' ablative of description. A noun never stands alone in this construction,

eárum. See the note on 3, 22.

15. contécta. This and factae below are used as predicate adjectives, not to form the pluperfect passive with erant. Translate, therefore, 'were covered.' not 'had been covered.'

18. vertébantur. The imperfect here denotes customary action, one of its regular uses.

19. Ille. See the note on 3, 16.

20. hóc modó, ablative of manner.

21. vénit, dormiébat. The perfect simply expresses an action which took place in past time, the imperfect tells of a state of things existing at that past time.

25. fugit. When dum means 'while,' 'as,' it is followed by the present indicative, even when used of past events.

26. fécit. Like postquam, ubi has the present or perfect indicative, where English would use the pluperfect.

5. 2. illó tempore, ablative of time.

régnábat. Observe the force of the tense, and try to find the reason for each change of tense in this paragraph.

Híc. This must here be translated simply 'he.' Compare the use of Ille, 3, 16.

4. veniébat. See the note on 4, 18.

6. omnium, 'of all men.' or 'of all.' The adjective is used as a noun, as in the second of the English expressions.

óráculum. It was believed in antiquity that the will of the gods and a knowledge of future events might be learned at certain shrines, of which the most famous were those of Apollo at Delphi, of Zeus or Jupiter at Dodona, and of Hammon in Egypt. Hammon was really an Egyptian god, represented as having the horns of a ram, but he was identified by the Greeks with Zeus and by the Romans with Jupiter.

7. fíliam. Where there is no ambiguity, the possessive is often omitted in Latin.

8. autem, often, as here, simply introduces an explanation ('now'),

nómine, 'by name.'

9. Cépheus. See the note on Perseus, 4, 4.

10. cívís suós, 'his subjects.'

13. certam. See the note on quódam, 3, 15. Diés is regularly masculine, but when used of an appointed day it is often feminine.

omnia, 'all things,' 'everything,' or 'all.' See the note on omnium, line 6.

16. déplórábant, tenébant. Be careful to show the meaning of the tense by your translation.

18. quaerit. The present is often used of a past action instead of the perfect, to bring the action more vividly before us as if it were taking place now. This is called the historical present.

19. haec geruntur, 'this is going on.'

20. horribilí. Here the adjective is made emphatic by being put before its noun; in 4, 14 the same effect is gained by putting horribilí last in its clause.

22. omnibus, dative of indirect object after the compound verb (in+iació). Translate 'inspired in all,' but the literal meaning is 'threw into all.'

26. induit. See the note on 3, 13.

áera. See the note on 4, 11.

6. 2. suó, éius. Distinguish carefully between these words. Suus is used of something belonging to the subject, éius of something belonging to some other person or thing just mentioned.

5. volat. See the note on 4, 25.

7. sustulit. Notice that the perfect forms of tolló are the same as those of sufferó (sub + feró), 'endure.'

8. neque, here to be translated 'and … not.' Neque is thus used regularly for et nón.

13. exanimáta, used here as a predicate adjective.

16. rettulit. 'To give thanks' or 'thank' is usually grátiás agere, as in 3, 19; grátiam referre means 'to show one's gratitude,' 'to recompense' or 'requite.'

18. dúxit. This word came to mean 'marry,' because the bridegroom 'led' his bride in a wedding procession to his own home. It will be seen, therefore, that it can be used only of the man.

Paucós annós. See the note on 3, 20.

20. omnís. What does the quantity of the i tell you about the form?

7. 1. quod, not the relative pronoun, but a conjunction.

3. eó, the adverb.

in átrium. Although inrúpit means 'burst into,' the preposition is nevertheless required with the noun to express the place into which he burst.

6. ille. See the note on Perseus, 4, 4.

8. Acrisí. In Nepos, Caesar, Cicero, and Vergil, the genitive singular of second-declension nouns in -ius and -ium ends in í, not ; but the nominative plural ends in , and the dative and ablative plural in iís.

10. istud. Remember that iste is commonly used of something connected with the person addressed. Here the meaning may be 'that oracle I told you of.' See 3, 4.

12. Lárísam. See the note on 3, 12.

neque enim, 'for … not,' as if simply nón enim, but Latin uses neque to connect the clauses.

14. in omnís partís, 'in all directions' or 'in every direction.'

15. Multí. See the note on omnium, 5, 6.

17. discórum. The discus was a round, flat piece of stone or metal, and the athletes tried to see who could throw it farthest.

18. cású. This is one of the ablatives of manner that do not take cum.

19. stábat. Notice the tense.


9. 2. omnium hominum. This means 'all men' in the sense of 'all mankind.'

3. óderat. Ódí is perfect in form, but present in meaning; and the pluperfect has in like manner the force of an imperfect. 5. mediá nocte, 'in the middle of the night,' 'in the dead of night.'

7. Nec tamen, 'not … however.' See the note on neque enim, 7, 12.

8. movébant. Contrast this tense with appropinquáverant and excitátí sunt.

13. Tálí modó = hóc modó, 4, 20.

20. á pueró, 'from a boy,' 'from boyhood.'

exercébat, the imperfect of customary action, as is also cónsúmébat.

24. autem. See the note on 5, 8.

25. artí, dative of indirect object with the intransitive verb studébat.

10. 2. omnibus víribus, 'with all his might,' ablative of manner.

3. é vítá. Notice that the preposition denoting separation appears both with the noun and in the verb. Compare in átrium inrúpit, 7, 3.

4. neque quisquam, 'and not any one,' i.e. 'and no one.' Quisquam is used chiefly in negative sentences.

5. voluit, 'was willing.'

7. facit. See the note on 4, 25.

8. nómine. See the note on 5, 8.

9. vir crúdélissimus, not 'cruelest man,' but 'most cruel man.' The superlative is often thus used to denote simply a high degree of the quality.

cónsuéverat. Inceptive verbs end in scó and denote the beginning of an action or state. The perfect and pluperfect of such verbs often represent the state of things resulting from the completion of the action, and are then to be translated as present and imperfect respectively. So cónsuéscó = 'I am becoming accustomed,' cónsuéví = 'I have become accustomed' or 'am accustomed,' cónsuéveram = 'I had become accustomed' or 'was accustomed.'

11. sacrifició, 'for the sacrifice,' dative of purpose.

ea. Why is diés feminine here? See the note on certam, 5, 13.

12. omnia. See the note on 5, 13.

15. capitibus, dative of indirect object after the compound verb (in + pónó).

16. iam. The omission of the conjunction that would naturally join this clause with the preceding, and the repetition of iam, which thus in a way connects the two clauses, reflect the imminence of the danger and heighten our anxiety for the hero. Observe too how the tenses of the verbs contribute to the vividness of the picture. We see Hercules at the altar and the priest, knife in hand, about to give the fatal blow.

18. alteró. Supply íctú.

19. Thébís, locative case. Notice that some names of towns are plural in form.

21. Thébánís, dative with the adjective fínitimí.

autem, 'now.'

22. Thébás. Names of towns are used without a preposition to express the place to which.

23. veniébant, postulábant, imperfect of customary action.

25. cívís suós, 'his fellow-citizens.' Compare 5, 10.

hóc stípendió, ablative of separation.

27. atque. This conjunction adds an important statement by way of supplement. Here the meaning is something like 'and not only that, but.'

11. 11. conversa. Est and sunt are frequently not expressed with the perfect participle.

17. suós ipse suá. Notice how the enormity of the crime is emphasized by the use of all these words repeating the same idea.

23. óráculum Delphicum. See the note on 5, 6.

hóc óráculum omnium = hóc omnium óráculórum.

25. Hóc in templó. Monosyllabic prepositions often stand between the noun and an adjective modifying it.

12. 1. quí. Remember that the relative pronoun agrees in gender, number, and person with its antecedent; that its case depends upon its use. How are the person and number of quí shown?

2. hominibus. See the note on 9, 2.

4. neque. See the note on 6, 8.

7. Tíryntha. This is a Greek accusative form. See the note on áera, 4, 11.

10. Duodecim annós, accusative of duration of time.

11. Eurystheó. The English verb 'serve' is transitive, but servió ('be subject to') is intransitive and takes an indirect object.

14. quae. See the note on line 1. What is the case of quae?

16. Prímum is chiefly used in enumeration, prímó (line 6) in contrasting an action or state with one that follows it.

19. sécum. The preposition cum follows and is joined to the reflexive and personal pronouns, usually also to the relative pronoun.

22. neque enim. See the note on 7, 12.

26. respírandí, the genitive of the gerund. It modifies facultás. The gerund corresponds to the English verbal noun in -ing.

13. 5. Hóc. We might expect haec referring to Hydram, but a demonstrative pronoun is commonly attracted into the gender of the predicate noun (here mónstrum).

cui erant, 'which had,' literally 'to which there were.' This construction is found only with sum. It is called the dative of possession.

8. rés. In rendering this word choose always with great freedom the most suitable English word.

13. 8. mágní perículí. We say 'one of great danger.'

9. éius. What possessive would be used to modify sinistrá?

11. hóc cónátú, ablative of separation.

14. comprehendérunt. See the note on 3, 13.

unde = ex quibus.

16. auxilió Hydrae, 'to the aid of the Hydra,' but literally for aid (i.e. as aid) to the Hydra,' for Hydrae is dative. This is called the double dative construction, auxilió the dative of purpose, and Hydrae the dative of reference, i.e. the dative denoting the person interested.

17. abscídit. See the note on 4, 25.

mordébat, 'kept biting,' the imperfect of repeated action.

18. tálí modó. See the note on 9, 13.

interfécit. We have now had several verbs meaning 'kill.' Interfició is the most general of these; necó (line 4) is used of killing by unusual or cruel means, as by poison; occídó (12, 23) is most commonly used of the 'cutting down' of an enemy in battle.

19. reddidit, as well as imbuit, has sagittás for its object, but we must translate as if we had eás with reddidit.

22. ad sé. Compare this construction with the use of the dative in 4, 2. Notice that sé does not refer to Herculem, the subject of referre, but to Eurystheus, the subject of Iussit. When the reflexive thus refers to the subject of the principal verb rather than to the subject of the subordinate verb with which it s directly connected, it is called indirect.

23. tantae audáciae. The genitive of description, like the ablative of description, consists always of a noun with some modifying word. Compare specié horribilí, 4, 14.

autem. Compare 5, 8 and 10, 21.

24. incrédibilí celeritáte, ablative of description.

25. vestígiís, ablative of means.

26. ipsum, contrasts cervum with vestígiís.

27. omnibus víribus. See the note on 10, 2.

14. 1. currébat, 'he kept running.'

sibi, dative of reference. It need not be translated,

ad quiétem, 'for rest.' Purpose is frequently thus expressed by ad.

3. cucurrerat. The pluperfect is sometimes used with postquam when the lapse of time is denoted.

4. cursú, ablative of cause.

exanimátum = quí exanimátus erat. The participle is often equivalent to a relative clause.

5. rettulit. See the note on 13, 19.

8. rem. See the note on rés, 13, 8.

10. apró, dative of indirect object after the compound verb (ob + curró).

11. tímóre perterritus. It is not necessary to translate both words.

13. iniécit, i.e. upon the boar.

summá cum difficultáte. Compare this with omnibus víribus, 13, 27, and notice that cum may be omitted with the ablative of manner when there is an adjective. For the position of cum, see the note on 11, 25.

15. ad Eurystheum. We are told elsewhere that Eurystheus was so frightened when he saw the boar that he hid in a cask.

vívus. Why have we the nominative here, but the accusative (vívum) in line 5?

17. quartó. The capture of the Erymanthian boar is usually given as the third labor and the capture of the Cerynean stag as the fourth.

nárrávimus. The writer sometimes uses the first person plural in speaking of himself, instead of the first person singular. This is called the plural of modesty, and is the same as the English usage.

18. in Arcadiam. How does this differ in meaning from in Arcadiá?

20. appeteret. The subjunctive introduced by cum, 'since,' may express the reason for the action of the main verb.

23. Herculés. See the note on Perseus, 4, 4.

26. quod, conjunction, not pronoun.

reliquós centaurós, 'the rest of the centaurs,' 'the other centaurs.' Compare mediá nocte, 9, 5. Notice that reliquí means about the same as céterí, and see the note on 4, 13.

28. inquit, historical present. This verb is used parenthetically with direct quotations.

15. 1. dabó. Notice that Latin is more exact than English in the use of the future tense in subordinate clauses. In English we often use the present in the subordinate clause and leave it to the principal verb to show that the time is future.

7. pervénérunt. See the note on 4, 26.

10. cónstitit, from cónsistó, not cónstó.

16. fugá. Latin says 'by flight,' not 'in flight.'

17. ex spéluncá. See the note on 10, 3.

21. locum, the direct object of Adiit, which is here transitive. We might also have ad locum with adeó used intransitively.

16. 4. Herculí. See the note on 10, 15.

labórem. This labor is usually given as the sixth, the destruction of the Stymphalian birds as the fifth.

6. tria mília boum, 'three thousand cattle,' literally 'three thousands of cattle.' The partitive genitive is the regular construction with the plural mília, but the singular mílle is commonly used as an adjective, like English 'thousand.' Thus 'one thousand cattle' would be mílle bovés.

7. ingentís mágnitúdinis. See the note on tantae audáciae, 13, 23.

8. neque enim umquam, 'for … never.' See the note on neque enim, 7, 12.

11. multae operae. See the note on mágní perículí, 13, 8.

12. duodévígintí pedum, i.e. in width.

dúxit. This word is used with reference to the progress of work on a wall or ditch from one end of it to the other.

15. opus. Compare this word with operae and labóre, line 12. Labor is used of heavy or exhausting labor, opera of voluntary exertion or effort, opus of that upon which one labors or of the completed work.

17. imperáverat. This verb takes an indirect object to express the person ordered (eí). The action commanded is expressed by the subjunctive in a clause introduced by ut and used as the object of imperó (ut necáret). Notice that this may be translated 'that he should kill' or 'to kill.' Compare now the construction with iubeó, 13, 22, with which the command is expressed by the accusative and infinitive (Herculem referre).

19. carne. Véscor is an intransitive verb and governs the ablative.

22. appropinquandí. See the note on 12, 26.

23. cónstitit, from cónstó. Compare 15, 10.

pedibus, 'on foot,' literally 'by his feet.'

25. consúmpsisset. The imperfect and pluperfect tenses of the subjunctive are used with cum, 'when,' to describe the circumstances of the action of the main verb. Compare 14, 20, and the note.

26. hóc cónátú. See the note on 13, 11.

27. peteret. The subjunctive is used with ut to express purpose. The best translation is usually the infinitive ('to ask'), but the Latin infinitive is not used in model prose to express purpose.

17. 3. ávolárent. This is not subjunctive of purpose, but of result, as is indicated by tam.

6. ex. Compare this with ab, 16, 21, and , 16, 13. We commonly translate all of these 'from,' but the real meanings are 'out of,' 'away from,' and 'down from' respectively.

Crétá. See the note on 3, 12.

7. esset. See the note on 14, 20.

8. ínsulae, dative with the compound verb (ad + propinquó).

appropinquáret. See the note on 16, 25.

9. tanta … ut. Notice how frequently the clause of result is connected with a demonstrative word in the main clause.

12. návigandí imperítus, 'ignorant of navigation,' 'inexperienced in sailing.' See the note on 12, 26.

21. cum, the conjunction.

ingentí labóre. See the note on summá cum difficultáte, 14, 13.

25. ut redúceret. See the note on 16, 27.

26. carne. See the note on 16, 19.

véscébantur, imperfect of customary action.

18. 3. ut tráderentur. Notice that postuló, like imperó, takes an object-clause introduced by ut and having its verb in the subjunctive.

sibi, the indirect reflexive. See the note on 13, 22.

4. írá … interfécit, 'became furiously angry and killed the king,' literally 'moved by wrath killed the king.' The participle is frequently best rendered by a finite verb.

18. 4. cadáver. The subject of an infinitive stands in the accusative case. We might translate here 'and gave orders that his body should be thrown.' See the note on 16, 17.

6. míra rérum commútátió. When a noun has both an adjective and a genitive modifier, this order of the words is common.

7. cum cruciátú, ablative of manner.

necáverat. See the note on interfécit, 13, 18.

10. referébant. See the note on 6, 16.

modo. This is the adverb, not a case of modus, the dative and ablative singular of which would be modó. Make a practice of carefully observing the quantity of vowels.

11. órábant. Notice that this verb, like imperó and postuló, takes ut and the subjunctive.

14. ad návigandum. See the note on ad quiétem, 14, 1.

16. post, here an adverb of time.

18. dícitur. Notice that the Latin construction is personal ('the nation is said to have consisted'), while English commonly has the impersonal construction ('it is said that the nation consisted').

19. reí mílitáris, 'the art of war.'

25. mandávit. See the note on 16, 17.

26. Amázonibus, dative after the compound verb.

19. 1. persuásit. Notice that this verb governs the same construction that we have already found used with imperó and mandó.

2. sécum. See the note on 12, 19.

5. appulit. Supply návem.

6. docéret. A clause of purpose is frequently introduced by a relative. Translate like the ut-clause of purpose, here 'to make known,' literally 'who was to make known.'

14. mágnó interválló, ablative of degree of difference.

16. nón mágna. The effect of the position of these words may be reproduced by translating 'but not a large one.'

neutrí. The plural is used because the reference is to two parties, each composed of several individuals. 'Neither' of two individuals would be neuter.

17. volébant, dedit. Consider the tenses. Each army waited for some time for the other to cross; finally Hercules gave the signal.

22. occíderint. The perfect subjunctive is sometimes used in result clauses after a past tense in the principal clause. This is contrary to the general principle of the sequence of tenses, which requires the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive after a past tense, the present or perfect subjunctive after a present or future tense.

23. Virí. Compare this with hominibus, 12, 2.

24. praestábant. Compare the tense with praestitérunt, line 21.

27. neu. As neque or nec is used for 'and not,' so néve or neu for 'and that not' in an object-clause or a clause of purpose.

20. 1. quibus, 'and by these,' The relative is much used in Latin to connect a new sentence with the one preceding. When so used, it is generally best rendered by 'and' or 'but' and a demonstrative or personal pronoun.

ita … ut. See the note on 17, 9.

2. essent, most easily explained as the subjunctive of attraction. By this is meant that the verb is attracted into the mood of the clause upon which it depends.

4. púgnátum est, 'the battle raged' or 'they fought,' literally 'it was fought,' Intransitive verbs are often thus used impersonally in the passive, with the subject implied in the verb itself, as púgnátum est = púgna púgnáta est.

11. aestátis, partitive genitive. Notice that multum is used as a noun.

13. nactus. The perfect active participle is wanting in Latin, but the perfect participle of deponent verbs is active in meaning.

24. specié horribilí. See the note on 4, 14.

26. timóre perterrití. See the note on 14, 11.

continébantur, 'kept themselves shut up.' This is the so-called reflexive use of the passive, in which the subject is represented as acting upon itself.

pecora. This word is used of herds of cattle, pecudés (line 25) of single animals, especially sheep.

28. commótus cónsuluit. See the note on 18, 4.

21. 3. líberáret. See the note on 16, 27.

óráculó. Notice that párére is intransitive and has the dative of indirect object, while 'obey' is transitive. It may help to understand the Latin construction if you translate such verbs as páreó by intransitives, here 'to submit to.'

4. sacrifició. See the note on 10, 11.

5. ipsó temporis punctó quó, 'at the very moment when.'

8. égressus. See the note on 20, 13.

dé rébus … factus est, 'was informed of the state of things,' literally 'was made more certain about the things which were being done.' In what gender, number, person, and case is quae? Give a reason for each.

11. posset. The subjunctive is used because the words of the king are quoted indirectly. He said sí potes, 'if you can.'

19. Ipse. Notice the use of this word in contrasts, frequently, as here, of a person with that which belongs to him or with his subordinates.

20. inter sé, 'to one another.'

22. esset, subjunctive in an indirect question. The direct form would be Quantum perículum est? ('How great is the danger?'). multás terrás, just as we say 'many lands,'

23. Európae. Compare Thébánís, 10, 21.

24. in utróque lítore, 'on each shore,' 'on both shores.'

25. columnás. The ancients believed that the Rock of Gibraltar was the pillar set up by Hercules on the European side.

22. 4. tantum, an adverb.

5. dederit. See the note on 19, 22.

9. quó in locó. See the note on 11, 25. essent. See the note on 21, 22.

10. sibi, the indirect reflexive.

12. et … et, 'both … and.'

18. prógredí, 'from proceeding.'

19. prohibébant, 'attempted to prevent,' imperfect of attempted action. Notice that the use of the imperfect to express customary, repeated, or attempted action follows naturally from its use to denote action going on in past time. The present, the tense which denotes action going on in present time, has the same special uses.

20. barbarí. This word was used by the Greeks of all other peoples; by the Romans it was used of all but the Greeks and themselves.

24. cecidérunt. Let the quantity of the i tell you whether this comes from cadó or caedó. Is occíderint a compound of cadó or caedó?

25. in tálibus rébus, i.e. when a god intervenes in behalf of his favorite.

26. nihil incommodí, 'no harm,' literally 'nothing of harm'; incommodí is partitive genitive.

23. 2. quam celerrimé, 'as rapidly as possible.' Quam with the superlative expresses the highest possible degree.

3. Necesse, predicate adjective with erat, the subject being hás tránsíre.

5. citerióre. The Romans called upper Italy Gallia Citerior, 'Hither Gaul,' because it was occupied by Gallic tribes.

6. perenní. Learn the derivation of this word. The meaning of a word may often be seen most easily and remembered most surely by noticing its derivation,

téctí, used as predicate adjective.

9. cópiam. Notice carefully the meaning of this word. In what sense have we found the plural cópiae used?

10. rébus, 'preparations.' See the note on rés, 13, 8.

cónsúmpserat. See the note on 14, 3.

11. omnium opíniónem. Hitherto we have had opíniónem omnium, but here omnium is made emphatic by being placed first.

15. itinere, ablative of cause.

fessus, 'since he was weary.' Notice that a Latin adjective or participle must often be expanded into a clause in the translation.

16. Haud = nón. It modifies a single word, usually an adjective or adverb.

19. modo. See the note on 18, 10.

ingentí mágnitúdine. Compare ingentis mágnitúdinis, 16, 7.

23. boum. Learn the declension of this word from the vocabulary.

24. né. A negative clause of purpose is introduced by .

24. 2. omnibus locís. Locus modified by an adjective is often used without in in the ablative of place.

3. núsquam. We say 'could not find anywhere,' but Latin prefers to combine the negative with another word.

6. reliquís. See the note on reliquós centaurós, 14, 26.

7. é bóbus. Compare boum, 23, 23. With únus the ablative with ex or is commonly used instead of the partitive genitive.

16. neque quicquam. See the note on 10, 4.

21. móre suó, 'according to his custom.'

turbátus, 'was confused … and.' See the note on íra … interfécit, 18, 4.

22. in. See the note on in átrium, 7, 3.

25. respírandí. See the note on 12, 26.

25. 2. quam quós, for quam eós quós.

11. cui. See the note on cui erant, 13, 5.

12. Herculí imperáverat, 'had enjoined upon Hercules.'

17. Eurystheó. See the note on óráculó, 21, 3.

19. quaesíverat. With this verb the person of whom the question is asked is expressed in the ablative with ab, dé, or ex.

23. orbis terrárum, 'of the world,' literally 'of the circle of lands.'

26. umerís suís, ablative of means, but we say 'on his shoulders.'

né. See the note on 23, 24.

décideret. Notice the force of the prefix .

27. mírátus, 'wondering at.' The perfect participle of deponent verbs is often best rendered into English by a present participle.

26. 3. Herculí, dative with pródesse.

ille. See the note on Perseus, 4, 4.

4. certó, the adverb.

6. vénisset. What would the form be in the direct question?

inquit. See the note on 14, 28.

7. fíliábus. To avoid confusion with the corresponding forms of deus and fílius, the dative and ablative plural of dea and fília sometimes end in ábus.

sponte. This noun is practically confined to the ablative singular, in prose usually with meá, tuá, or suá, 'of my, your, his own accord.'

9. posset, subjunctive because indirect. The thought of Hercules was sí potest.

11. abesset. This also is indirect, quoting absum.

12. umerís. See the note on 25, 26.

17. pauca mília. Extent of space, like duration of time, is expressed by the accusative,

passuum. See the note on 16, 6.

21. ita ut, 'as'

accépissent. Hitherto we have found the indicative in causal clauses introduced by quod. The subjunctive indicates that the reason is quoted; the Hesperides said quod accépimus.

28. grátiás égit. See the note on 6, 16.

27. 2. é labóribus. See the note on 24, 7.

3. Herculí praecéperat = Herculí imperáverat, 25, 12.

5. posset, subjunctive because it quotes the thought of Eurystheus, poterit.

6. ut … traheret. This clause is not itself the object of dedit, but in apposition with the object (Negótium).

7. omnium, partitive genitive.

11. nárrámus. The present is sometimes used with antequam to express future action, as in English with 'before.' See the note on 15, 1.

aliénum, predicate adjective, the subject of vidétur being pauca … própónere. In the passive videó may mean 'be seen,' but it usually means 'seem.'

13. qui ídem, 'which also,' literally 'which the same.'

14. Ut, 'when.'

15. dédúcébantur, customary action.

19. Stygis flúminis. We say 'river Styx,' but 'Mississippi River.'

quó, ablative of means.

20. necesse. See the note on 23, 3.

possent. The subjunctive is used with antequam to denote that the action is expected or intended.

21. in. We say 'over.'

25. prius. Notice that Latin is here more exact than English, using the comparative because only two actions are spoken of.

dedisset, subjunctive because indirect. Charon said nisi dederis (future perfect), nón tránsveham, 'unless you first give (shall have given), I will not carry you across.'

28. 1. mortuí, used as a noun, 'of the dead man.'

eó cónsilió, 'with this purpose,' 'to this end.' The clause ut … posset is in apposition with cónsilió.

6. Ut. Compare 27, 14.

8. quod cum fécissent, 'and when they had done this.' See the note on quibus, 20, 1.

13. Stábant, 'there stood.' What is its subject?

15. mortuís, dative of indirect object.

et. Notice that ambiguity is avoided by a change of conjunctions, et connecting the clauses and -que connecting praemia and poenás. Of these connectives, et connects two ideas that are independent of each other and of equal importance; -que denotes a close connection, often of two words that together express a single idea; while ac or atque (see line 18) adds something of greater importance.

18. et. Multí is often joined by et to another adjective modifying the same noun.

24. ex. Compare 25, 18.

27. sé sociós, direct object and predicate accusative respectively.

29. 3. né. After verbs of fearing must be rendered 'that,' ut, 'that not.' Notice, however, that the negative idea is as clearly present here as in the other clauses introduced by that we have met, for Charon wishes that the thing may not happen.

13. fécisset, indirect for féceris.

18. refúgerit. See the note on 19, 22.

23. quae cum ita essent, 'and this being the case,' 'and so,' literally 'since which things were so.'

24. líberátus. See the note on írá … interfécit, 18, 4.

25. quae, object of perscríbere, which is the subject of est; longum is predicate adjective.

26. est. We say 'would be.'

aetáte, ablative of specification. Translate 'when he was now advanced in age' (i.e. 'late in life'), and see the note on fessus, 23, 15.

30. 1. accidit. This is one of several impersonal verbs which take for their subject a clause of result (ut … occíderit).

3. ut … íret, a clause of result; used as the subject of esset, mós being predicate.

quis. After sí, nisi, né, and num, this is not the interrogative, but an indefinite pronoun ('any one'),

occídisset, indirect for occíderit, which would be the form used in the laws; or it may be explained as subjunctive by attraction to íret.

7. tránseant, not 'they are crossing,' but 'they are to cross.' The direct form would be _tránseámus ('How in the world are we to get across?'), subjunctive because the question expresses doubt. This is called the deliberative subjunctive.

10. prógressus, 'after advancing.'

11. revertébátur. This verb is deponent in the present, imperfect, and future.

16. humí, locative, 'on the ground.'

né. See the note on 23, 24.

suí ulcíscendí, 'of avenging himself.' This is called the gerundive construction. It is regularly used instead of the gerund when the gerund would have an accusative object (sé ulcíscendí). Notice that the gerund is a verbal noun; the gerundive a verbal adjective, agreeing with its noun like any other adjective.

17. morientis, 'of a dying man.' Compare mortuí, 28, 1.

18. vís, from voló.

20. sí … vénerit, 'if you ever suspect him.' What is the literal meaning? Notice that we use the present, while Latin by the use of the future perfect indicates that the action is to precede that of the main clause.

21. inficiés. The future indicative is sometimes used, as in English, for the imperative.

22. nihil malí. See the note on 22, 26.

suspicáta. See the note on 25, 27.

25. Iolén, fíliam, captívam, direct object, appositive, and predicate accusative respectively.

26. domum. See the note on ad domum, 3, 15.

31. 1. referret. See the note on 19, 6.

2. facerent, subjunctive by attraction. The verb of a clause dependent upon an infinitive is put in the subjunctive when the two clauses are closely connected in thought. We have already met this construction in the case of dependence upon a subjunctive; see the note on 20, 2.

gerere. Compare 30, 3. Such phrases as mós est may have as subject either an infinitive or a clause of result.

3. verita. This participle is regularly rendered as present,

né. See the note on 29, 3.

4. vestem. Notice that the position of this word helps to make it clear that it is the object of ínfécit as well as of dedit.

5. suspicáns. This does not differ appreciably in force from suspicáta, 30, 22.

8. exanimátus, 'beside himself.'

14. succenderent. Notice the force of the prefix sub in this word and in subdidit below.

15. inductus, 'moved.'


33. 1. alter … alter, 'one … the other.' Remember that this word is used to denote one of two given persons or things. We have in this passage an instance of the chiastic order, in which variety and emphasis are gained by reversing the position of the words in the second of two similar expressions. Here the two names are brought together by this device.

3. régní, objective genitive, i.e. a genitive used to denote the object of the feeling cupiditáte.

6. ex amícís. Quídam, like únus, commonly has ex or and the ablative, instead of the partitive genitive.

10. puerum mortuum esse, 'that the boy was dead,' literally 'the boy to be dead.' This is indirect for Puer mortuus est, 'The boy is dead.' Notice carefully what changes Latin makes in quoting such a statement indirectly, and what the changes are in English. We have already met two constructions of indirect discourse, the subjunctive in indirect questions, and the subjunctive in informal indirect discourse. By the latter is meant a subordinate clause which, though not forming part of a formal quotation, has the subjunctive to show that not the speaker or writer but some other person is responsible for the idea it expresses (see the notes on dedisset, 27, 25, and occídisset. 30, 3). In indirect discourse, then, a statement depending upon a verb of saying, thinking, knowing, perceiving, or the like has its verb in the infinitive with the subject in the accusative; a command or question has its verb in the subjunctive; and any clause modifying such a statement, command, or question has its verb in the subjunctive.

33. 13. intellegerent. See the note on 14, 20.

14. nesció quam fábulam, 'some story or other.' Notice that nesció with the interrogative pronoun is equivalent to an indefinite pronoun.

19. óráculum. Read again the description beginning at the bottom of page 11.

21. quis. See the note on 30, 3.

Post paucís annís, 'a few years later,' literally 'later by a few years.' Post is here an adverb, and paucís annís ablative of degree of difference. The expression is equivalent to post paucós annós.

22. accidit. See the note on 30, 1.

factúrus, 'intending to make.' The future participle with a form of sum is used to express an intended or future action. This is called the active periphrastic conjugation.

23. certam. See the note on 5, 13.

24. Dié cónstitútá, ablative of time.

26. á pueritiá. Compare á pueró, 9, 20.

34. 2. tránseundó flúmine. See the note on suí ulcíscendí, 30, 16.

nesció quó. See the note on 33. 14.

4. únó pede núdó, 'with one foot bare,' the ablative absolute. This construction consists of two parts, a noun, or pronoun corresponding to the subject of a clause, and a participle corresponding to the verb of a clause. A predicate noun or adjective may take the place of the participle. In the latter case the use of the participle 'being' will show the two parts in the relation of subject and predicate, 'one foot being bare.'

34.6. démónstrávisset, subjunctive because subordinate in indirect discourse. See the note on 33, 10. Pelias thought, Híc est homó quem óráculum démónstrávit.

9. vellus aureum. Phrixus and his sister Helle were about to be put to death, when they were rescued by a ram with fleece of gold, who carried them off through the air. Helle fell from the ram's back into the strait that separates Europe and Asia, called after her the Hellespont, 'Helle's sea,' and known to us as the Dardanelles. Phrixus came safely to Colchis, and here he sacrificed the ram and gave the fleece to Aeetes. Read Mr. D.O.S. Lowell's Jason's Quest.

11. ut … potírétur. See the note on 27, 6.

hóc vellere. Potior takes the same construction as véscor, for which see the note on 16, 19.

16. iter, accusative of extent.

20. úsuí, dative of purpose. We say 'of use' or 'useful.'

24. operí dative after the compound with prae. Notice that not all verbs compounded with prepositions govern the dative. Many compounds of ad, ante, com (for cum), in, inter, ob, post, prae, pró, sub, and super do have the dative, and some compounds of circum. You will find it profitable to keep a list of all such compound verbs governing the dative that you meet in your reading.

25. né … quidem, 'not … even.' The word emphasized must stand between and quidem.

ad labórem. See the note on ad quiétem, 14, 1.

26. Ad multitúdinem tránsportandam, used like ad labórem. The gerundive in this use is very common.

27. quibus. The antecedent eae is not expressed. Notice that útor governs the same case as véscor and potior. Two other deponent verbs, not found in this book, take this construction, namely fruor, 'enjoy,' and fungor, 'perform.'

nostró marí, i.e. the Mediterranean.

cónsuévimus. See the note on cónsuéverat, 10, 9.

35. 8. citharoedum. It was said that Orpheus made such sweet music on his golden harp that wild beasts, trees, and rocks followed him as he moved. By his playing he even prevailed upon Pluto to give back his dead wife Eurydice.

Théseum, a mythical hero, whose exploits resemble and rival those of
Hercules. The most famous of them was the killing of the Minotaur.
Theseus was the national hero of Athens.

Castorem, the famous tamer of horses and brother of Pollux, the boxer.
Read Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome, The Battle of the Lake Regillus.

10. quós, the subject of esse. Its antecedent is eós, line 11. The relative frequently precedes in Latin, but the antecedent must be translated first.

16. Argonautae. Notice the composition of this word.

24. déicerentur, part of the result clause.

26. arbitrátí. See the note on 25, 27.

égredí. See the note on 22, 18.

27. púgnátum est. See the note on 20 4.

36. 5. Postrídié éius diéí, 'the next day,' more literally 'on the day following that day.' This idea may be expressed by postrídié alone, and the fuller expression is simply more formal.

9. in ancorís, 'at anchor.'

10. habérent. See the note on 34, 6.

11. ex Argonautís. See the note on 33, 6.

13. Quí, 'he.' See the note on quibus, 20, 1.

dum quaerit, 'while looking for.' The present indicative with dum is often to be translated by a present participle.

15. vídissent. We say 'saw,' but Latin makes it plain that the seeing (and falling in love) came before the attempt to persuade.

eí. Keep a list of all intransitive verbs which are used with the dative.

16. negáret. This verb is commonly used instead of dícó when a negative statement follows; when thus used, it should be translated by 'say' with the appropriate negative, here 'said that he would not.'

37. 1. praebuisset, subjunctive in a subordinate clause of indirect discourse.

2. supplicí. See the note on 7, 8.

6. accubuerat. The Romans reclined at table, supporting themselves on the left arm and taking the food with the right hand. They naturally represented others as eating in the same way.

appositum, 'that had been placed before him.' See the note on exanimátum, 14, 4.

7. Quó … morerétur, 'and so it came to pass that Phineus was nearly dying of starvation,' literally 'that not much was wanting but that Phineus would die.' Ut … abesset is a clause of result, the subject of factum est; quin … morerétur is a form of subordinate clause with subjunctive verb used after certain negative expressions; famé is ablative of cause. Notice that famés has a fifth-declension ablative, but is otherwise of the third declension.

9. Rés male sé habébat, 'the situation was desperate.' What is the literal meaning?

12. opíniónem virtútis, 'reputation for bravery.'

13. quín ferrent. Negative expressions of doubt are regularly followed by quín and the subjunctive.

16. quantó in perículó. See the note on 11, 25.

suae rés, 'his affairs.' See the note on rés, 13, 8.

17. repperissent. Phineus used the future perfect indicative.

22. nihil, used adverbially.

23. áera. See the note on 4, 11.

27. Hóc factó, 'when this had been accomplished.' See the note on 34, 4. The ablative absolute is often used instead of a subordinate clause of time, cause, condition, or the like.

38. 1. referret. See the note on 6, 16.

3. eó cónsilió. See the note on 28, 1.

4. né quis, 'that no one.' 'Negative clauses of purpose and negative clauses of result may be distinguished by the negative: né, né quís, etc., for purpose; ut nón, ut némó, etc., for result.

parvó interválló, 'a short distance apart,' ablative absolute. See the note on 34, 1.

5. in medium spatium, 'between them.'

7. quid faciendum esset, 'what was to be done.' The gerundive is used with sum to denote necessary action. This is called the passive periphrastic conjugation.

8. sublátís … solvit, 'weighed anchor and put to sea.' What is the literal translation? The ablative absolute is often best translated by a coördinate verb, and this requires a change of voice, for the lack of a perfect active participle in Latin is the reason for the use of the ablative absolute in such cases. If there were a perfect active participle, it would stand in the nominative, modifying the subject, as we have found the perfect participle of deponent verbs doing.

11. réctá … spatium, 'straight between them.'

12. caudá tantum ámissá, 'having lost only its tail-feathers.' Notice that we change the voice, as in line 8, and that the use of the ablative absolute is resorted to here for the same reason as in that passage. Make sure at this point that you know three ways in which the ablative absolute may be translated, as in this passage, as in line 8, and as suggested in the note on 37, 27.

14. concurrerent, 'could rush together.' See the note on possent, 27, 20.

intellegentés, equivalent to cum intellegerent.

17. dís, the usual form of the dative and ablative plural of deus, as of the nominative plural.

quórum, equivalent to cum eórum. A relative clause of cause, like a cum-clause of cause, has its verb in the subjunctive.

27. negábat. See the note on 36, 16.

39. 1. tráditúrum. In infinitives formed with participles esse is often omitted,

prius. See the note on 27, 25.

3. Prímum. See the note on 12, 16.

4. iungendí erant. See the note on 38, 7.

8. reí bene gerendae, 'of accomplishing his mission.' What is the literal meaning?

10. rem aegré ferébat, 'she was greatly distressed.' What is the literal meaning?

12. Quae … essent. See the note on 29, 23.

13. medicínae, objective genitive.

14. Mediá nocte. See the note on 9, 5.

ínsciente patre, 'without the knowledge of her father,' ablative absolute.

15. vénit. See the note on 3, 13.

17. quod … cónfírmáret, a relative clause of purpose.

19. essent, subjunctive in informal indirect discourse, or by attraction to oblineret.

20. hominibus. See the note on 34, 24.

21. mágnitúdine et víribus, ablative of specification.

40. 2. nihil valére, 'prevailed not.'

5. quá in ré. See the note on 11, 25.

6. cónfécerit. See the note on 19, 22.

8. quós. See the note on quíbus, 20, 1.

9. autem. See the note on 5, 8.

10. essent, subjunctive by attraction.

11. quódam, 'some.'

16. gígnerentur, 'should be born.' With dum, 'until,' the subjunctive is used of action anticipated, as with antequam (see the note on possent, 27, 20).

19. omnibus agrí partibus. See the note on 18, 6.

20. mírum in modum = míró modó.

25. nesció cúr, 'for some reason.' See the note on 33, 14.

28. núlló negótió, 'with no trouble,' 'without difficulty.'

41. 3. quín tulisset. See the note on 37, 13.

15. quam prímum, 'as soon as possible.' See the note on 23, 2.

16. ávectúrum. See the note on tráditúrum, 39, 1.

17. Postrídié éius diéí. See the note on 36, 5.

19. locó. The antecedent is frequently thus repeated in the relative clause.

21. quí … essent, 'to guard the ship.' See the note on 13, 16.

22. ipse. See the note on 21, 19.

27. quídam. This word may sometimes be rendered by the indefinite article.

28. démónstrávimus. See the note on nárrávimus, 14, 17.

42. 5. dormit. See the note on fugit, 4, 25.

12. aliquí. Learn from the vocabulary the difference between aliquís and aliquí.

mátúrandum sibi, 'they ought to hasten,' more literally 'haste ought to be made by them'; mátúrandum (esse) is the impersonal passive, and sibi the so-called dative of the agent. With the gerundive the person who has the thing to do is regularly expressed in the dative.

16. mírátí. See the note on 25, 27.

20. dís. See the note on 38, 17.

21. événisset. See the note on accépissent, 26, 21.

23. vigiliá. The Romans divided the day from sunrise to sunset into twelve hours (hórae), the night from sunset to sunrise into four watches (vigiliae).

24. neque enim. See the note on 7, 12.

25. inimícó animó, ablative of description.

43. 2. hóc dolóre, 'this anger,' i.e. 'anger at this.'

Návem longam, 'war-galley,' 'man-of-war.' The adjective contrasts the shape of the man-of-war with that of the merchantman.

4. fugientís, used as a noun, 'the fugitives.'

6. quá, ablative of means.

7. quá, 'as,' but in the same construction as eádem celeritáte.

8. Quo … caperentur. See the note on 37, 7.

9. neque … posset, 'for the distance between them was not greater than a javelin could be thrown.' What is the literal translation? The clause quó … posset denotes result; the distance was not so great that a javelin could not be thrown from one ship to the other.

11. vídisset. See the note on 36, 15.

15. fugiéns, 'when she fled.' See the note on fessus, 23, 15.

18. fílí. See the note on 7, 8.

19. Neque … fefellit, 'and Medea was not mistaken.' What is the literal meaning?

20. ubi prímum, 'as soon as,' literally 'when first.'

24. prius, not to be rendered until quam is reached. The two words together mean 'before,' more literally 'earlier than,' 'sooner than,' They are sometimes written together (priusquam).

25. nihil … esse, 'that it would be of no advantage to him.'

44. 5. pollicitus erat. Verbs of promising do not usually take in Latin the simple present infinitive, as in English, but the construction of indirect discourse.

10. mihi. The dative of reference is often used in Latin where we should use a possessive in English. Translate here as if the word were meus, modifying diés.

11. Liceat mihi, 'permit me,' literally 'let it be permitted to me.' Commands and entreaties in the third person are regularly expressed in the subjunctive.

dum vívam, 'so long as I live.' The verb with dum 'so long as' is not restricted to the present, as with dum 'while,' but any tense of the indicative may be used. We have here the future indicative, or the present subjunctive by attraction.

12. tú. The nominative of the personal pronouns is commonly expressed only when emphatic. Here the use of the pronoun makes the promise more positive.

15. rem aegré tulit, 'was vexed.' Compare 39, 10.

20. Vultisne, the verb vultis and the enclitic -ne, which is used to introduce a question, and is incapable of translation. Num (line 21) introduces a question to which a negative answer is expected, and is likewise not to be translated, except in so far as its effect is reproduced by the form of the question or the tone of incredulity with which the words are spoken.

28. effervésceret. See the note on 40, 16.

45. 3. stupentés, 'in amazement.'

5. Vós. See the note on 44, 12. Vós and ego in the next sentence are contrasted.

7. Quod ubi. See the note on 28, 8.

10. necávérunt. See the note on interfécit, 13, 18.

13. quíbus. For the case see the note on quíbus, 34, 27.

15. ré vérá, 'really.'

18. aegré tulérunt, 'were indignant at.' Compare 39, 10, and 44, 15.

23. Creontí. See the note on cui erant, 13, 5.

25. núntium, 'a notice of divorce.'

26. dúceret. See the note on dúxit, 6, 18.

28. ultúram. See the note on 39, 1.

46. 1. Vestem. Compare the story of the death of Hercules, pp. 30, 31.

3. quis. See the note on 30, 3.

induisset, subjunctive by attraction.

5. nihil malí. See the note on 22, 26.

16. itaque, not the adverb itaque, but the adverb ita and the enclitic conjunction -que.

áera. See the note on 4, 11.

21. in eam partem, 'to that side.'


49. 4. ínsidiás. This refers to the story of the wooden horse.

9. quem, subject of excógitásse. The English idiom is 'who, some say, devised.' Notice that excógitásse is contracted from excógitávisse.

10. quó, ablative of means.

19. aliae … partís, 'some in one direction and some in another,' but Latin compresses this into the one clause 'others in other directions.'

20. quá. See the note on 43, 6.

26. quibusdam, dative with obviam factí, 'having fallen in with,' 'having met.'

27. Accidit. See the note on 30, 1.

50. 2. gustássent, contracted from gustávissent.

patriae et sociórum. Verbs of remembering and forgetting take the genitive or the accusative, but oblívíscor prefers the former.

4. cibó. See the note on 16, 19.

5. hórá septimá. See the note on 42, 23.

11. docuérunt. See the note on 4, 26.

51. 6. tantum, the adverb.

23. sé, 'they,' i.e. himself and his companions.

praedandí causá, 'to steal.' Purpose is frequently thus expressed by causá with the genitive of the gerund or gerundive. What other ways of expressing purpose have you met in your reading?

24. á Tróiá. The preposition is sometimes used with names of towns, with the meaning 'from the direction of' or 'from the neighborhood of.'

25. esse. It will help you to understand indirect discourse if you will try to discover what words would be used to express the idea in the direct form. Here, for instance, the exact words of Ulysses would have been in Latin: Neque mercátórés sumus neque praedandí causá vénimus; sed á Tróiá redeuntés ví tempestátum á réctó cursú dépulsí sumus.

27. ubi … essent. The question of Polyphemus was Ubi est návis quá vectí estis?

sibi … esse, 'that he must be exceedingly careful.' See the note on mátúrandum sibi, 42, 12.

29. in … esse, 'had been driven on the rocks and entirely dashed to pieces.' See the note on írá … interfécit, 18, 4.

52. 1. membrís eórum dívulsís, 'tearing them limb from limb.'

4. né … quidem. See the note on 34, 25.

6. tam. Notice that the force of a second demonstrative word is lost in the English rendering. So híc tantus vir, 'this great man,' etc.

7. humí. See the note on 30, 16.

próstrátus, 'throwing himself down.' See the note on continébantur, 20, 26.

8. reí gerendae, 'for action.' Compare 39, 8.

9. in eó … tránsfígeret, 'was on the point of transfixing.' The clause of result ut … tránsfígeret is explanatory of in eó.

13. nihil sibi prófutúrum. See the note on 43, 25.

17. hóc cónátú. See the note on 13, 11.

18. núllá … oblátá, 'since no hope of safety presented itself.' See the note on continébantur, 20, 26.

21. et. See the note on 28, 18.

23. látúri essent, 'would bring,' more literally 'were going to bring.' Notice that in subjunctive constructions the periphrastic form is necessary to express future action clearly, since the subjunctive has no future.

25. quod, object of the implied fécerat.

53. 14. quó. See the note on 43, 7.

15. id … salútí, 'and this was his salvation,' literally 'that which was for safety to him.' For the datives see the note on 13, 16.

20. tertium, the adverb.

22. Néminem. Why is the accusative used?

27. inquit. See the note on 14, 28.

28. quam facultátem, for facultátem quam. The antecedent is often thus attracted into the relative clause,

né omittámus, 'let us not neglect,' the hortatory subjunctive.

29. reí gerendae. See the note on 52, 8.

54. 1. extrémum pálum, 'the end of the stake.' Other adjectives denoting a part of the object named by the noun they modify are medius, 'the middle of'; céterus, 'the rest of'; reliquus, 'the rest of'; prímus, 'the first of'; summus, 'the top of'; ímus, 'the bottom of.'

5. dum errat, 'wandering.'

23. pecus. Is this pecus, pecoris, or pecus, pecudis? See the note on pecora, 20, 26.

24. vénerat. We say 'came,' but the Latin by the use of the pluperfect denotes that this action preceded that of tráctábat.

55. 1. quás. See the note on quibus, 20, 1.

inter sé. Compare 21, 20.

5. fore, 'would happen.'

15. aliquod. Compare 42, 12, and the note.

16. id … erat, 'as was indeed the case.'

17. auxiliandí causá. See the note on 51, 23.

26. correptum coniécit, 'seized and threw.'

27. nón … submergerentur. See the note on 37, 7.

56. 4-6. These verses and those on p. 57 and p. 59 are quoted from Vergil's Aeneid.

6. vinclís, for vinculís.

8. vírís. Let the quantity of the first i tell you from what nominative this word comes.

11. sibi proficíscendum. See the note on mátúrandum sibi, 42, 12.

13. iam profectúró, 'as he was now about to set out.'

16. návigantí, 'to one sailing.'

25. mírábantur, 'had been wondering.' With iam dúdum and similar expressions the imperfect denotes action begun some time before and still going on at the given past time. This is similar to the use of the present already commented on (see the note on es, 4, 1).

28. céláta, plural because of the plural expression aurum et argentum.

57. 1. ventí, subject of ruunt and perflant.

2. velut ágmine factó, 'as if formed in column.'

3. data. Est is omitted.

10. próiécissent. See the note on accépissent, 26, 21.

13. in terram égrediendum esse, 'that a landing must be made.'

18. quam, an adverb modifying crúdélí.

19. essent, informal indirect discourse or subjunctive by attraction.

20. vellet, subjunctive of characteristic. This name is given to the subjunctive when used in relative clauses to define or restrict an indefinite or general antecedent. So here it is not 'no one was found,' but 'no one willing to undertake this task was found.'

21. déducta est, 'came.'

23. praeesset, subjunctive of purpose.

25. événit. This verb takes the same construction as accidit, 30, 1.

58. 1. nihil. See the note on 37, 22.

2. mortí. Compare 49, 26.

5. aliquantum itineris, 'some distance on the journey.' The two words are accusative of extent of space and partitive genitive respectively.

11. sibi, 'for them,' dative of reference.

12. forís. This is translated like forás above, but the former was originally locative and is therefore used with verbs of rest; the latter, accusative of place whither and therefore used with verbs of motion.

15. accubuérunt. See the note on 37, 6.

25. perturbátus, used as a predicate adjective, 'agitated.'

27. correptó. See the note on 38, 8.

59. 1. quid. See the note on quis, 30, 3.

gravius, 'serious.'

eí. The direct form of these two speeches would be: Sí quid gravius tibi acciderit, omnium salús in summó discrímine erit; and Néminem invítum mécum addúcam; tibi licet, sí mávís, in náví manére; ego ipse sine úlló praesidió rem suscipiam. Notice that ego is not used to represent of line 2, but is used for of line 4 for the sake of the contrast with tibi.

6. núlló. Instead of the genitive and ablative of némó, núllíus and núlló are regularly used.

7. Alíquantum itinerís. See the note on 58, 5.

10. in eó … intráret. See the note on 52, 9.

11. eí. Compare 49, 26, and 58, 2.

14. Circés, a Greek form of the genitive.

16. Num. See the note on 44, 20. Nónne (line 14) is used to introduce a question to which an affirmative answer is expected.

18. núllís. See the note on 24, 3.

22. tetigerit. See the note on 30, 20.

tú … faciás, 'see that you draw your sword and make an attack upon her.'

24. vísús, 'sight,' The use of the plural is poetic.

25. tenuem … auram. The order of the words here is poetic.

60. 1. atque, 'as.' After adjectives and adverbs denoting likeness and unlikeness, this use of atque is regular.

3. dépulsa est. See the note on 4, 26.

4. sibi. See the note on 58, 11.

11. ut … erat, 'as he had been instructed,' more literally 'as had been enjoined upon him.' An intransitive verb must be used impersonally in the passive, for it is the direct object of the active voice that becomes the subject of the passive. If the intransitive verb takes a dative in the active, this dative is kept in the passive. Notice that the corresponding English verbs are transitive, and that the dative may therefore be rendered as the object in the active construction and as the subject in the passive.

13. sénsisset. See the note on vídissent, 36, 15.

14. sibi vítam adimeret, 'take her life.' The dative of reference is thus used after some compound verbs to name the person from whom a thing is taken. This construction is sometimes called the dative of separation.

15. timóre perterritam. See the note on 14, 11.

20. eí pedés, 'his feet.' See the note on 44, 10.

21. imperásset, contracted from imperávisset.

22. in átrium. See the note on 7, 3.

26. sunt, goes with reductí.

29. reliquís Graecís, indirect object of díceret.

30. Circaeam. Notice that this use of the adjective instead of the genitive often cannot be imitated in the English rendering, but must be translated by the possessive case or a prepositional phrase.

61. 8. eí persuásum sit, 'he was persuaded.' See the note on 60, 11. The clause ut … manéret is the subject of persuásum sit; if the latter were active, the clause would be its object. For the tense of persuásum sit see the note on 19, 22.

10. cónsúmpserat. See the note on 14, 3.

patriae, objective genitive, to be rendered, as often, with 'for.'

15. úsuí. See the note on 34, 20.

23. antequam perveníret. We say 'before he could come.' See the note on possent, 27, 20.

24. hóc locó. See the note on 24, 2.

longum est. We say 'would be tedious' or 'would take too long.'



abl. = ablative. acc. = accusative. act. = active. adj. = adjective. adv. = adverb. comp. = comparative. conj. = conjunction. dat. = dative. dem. = demonstrative. f. = feminine. freq. = frequentative. gen. = genitive. ger. = gerundive. impers. = impersonal. indecl. = indeclinable. indef. = indefinite. infin. = infinitive. interrog. = interrogative. loc. = locative. m. = masculine. n. = neuter. part. = participle. pass. = passive. perf. = perfect. pers. = personal. plur. = plural. prep. = preposition. pron. = pronoun or pronominal. rel. = relative. sing. = singular. superl. = superlative.

The hyphen in initial words indicates the composition of the words.


á or ab (the former never used before words beginning with a vowel or h), prep. with abl., away from, from; of; by. abditus, -a, -um [part of abdó], hidden, concealed. ab-dó, -dere, -didí, -ditus, put away, hide. ab-dúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus, lead or take away. ab-eó, -íre, -ií, -itúrus, go away, depart. abició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [ab + iació], throw away. abripió, -ripere, -ripuí, -reptus [ab + rapió], snatch away, carry off. abscídó, -cídere, -cídí, -císus [abs = ab + caedó], cut away or off. ab-scindó, -scindere, -scidí, -scissus, tear away or off. ab-sum, abesse, áfuí, áfutúrus, be away, be absent, be distant; be wanting. ab-súmó, -súmere, -súmpsí, -súmptus, take away, consume, destroy. Absyrtus, -í, m., Absyrtus. ac, see atque. Acastus, -í, m., Acastus. accendó, -cendere, -cendí, -cénsus, kindle, light. accidó, -cidere, -cidí [ad + cadó], fall to or upon; befall, happen. accipió, -cipere, -cépí, -ceptus [ad + capió], take to oneself, receive, accept; hear; suffer. accumbó, -cumbere, -cubuí, -cubitus, lie down (at table). accurró, -currere, -currí, -cursus [ad + curró], run to, come up. ácer, ácris, ácre, sharp, shrill. aciés, -éí, f., line of battle. Acrisius, -í, m., Acrisius. ácriter [ácer], adv., sharply, fiercely. ad, prep. with acc., to, toward; at, near; for. ad-amó, -amáre, -amáví, -amátus, feel love for, fall in love with. ad-dúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus, lead to, bring, take; induce, influence. ad-eó, -íre, -ií, -itus, go to, approach. ad-feró, adferre, attulí, adlátus, bear to, bring. adfició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [ad + fació], do to, move, affect; visit, afflict. ad-flígó, -flígere, -flíxi, -flíctus, dash to, shatter. adhibeó, -hibére, -hibuí, -hibitus [ad + habeó], hold to, employ, show. ad-húc, adv., to this point, up to this time, yet, still. adició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [ad + iació], throw to, throw, hurl. adimó, -imere, -émí, -émptus [ad + emó], take to oneself, take away. aditus, -ús [adeó], m., approach, entrance. ad-iungo, -iungere, -iúnxí, -iúnctus, join to, join. ad-ligó, -ligáre, -ligáví, -ligátus, bind to, bind. Adméta, -ae, f., Admeta. ad-míror, -mírárí, -mírátus, wonder at, admire. ad-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, send to, admit; allow. ad-stó, -stáre, -stití, stand at or near. aduléscéns, -entis, m., youth, young man. aduléscentia, -ae [aduléscéns], f., youth. ad-úró, -úrere, -ússí, -ústus, set fire to, burn, scorch, sear. ad-venió, -veníre, -véní, -ventus, come to or toward, approach, arrive. adventus, -ús [advenió], m., approach, arrival. Aeacus, -í, m., Aeacus. aedificó, -áre, -áví, -átus [aedis + fació], make a building, build. aedis, -is, f., sing. temple, plur. house. Aeétés, -ae, m., Aeetes. aegré [aeger, sick], adv., ill, with difficulty. Aegyptií,-órum, m. pl., Egyptians. aéneus, -a, -um [aes], of copper or bronze. Aeolia, -ae [Aeolus], f., Aeolia. Aeolus, -í, m., Aeolus. áér, áeris, m., air. aes, aeris, n., copper, bronze. Aeson, -onis, m., Aeson. aestás, -tátis, f., summer. aetás, -tátis, f., age. Aethiopés, -um, m. plur., Ethiopians. Aetna, -ae, f., Etna. ager, agri, m., field, land. ágmen, -minis [ago], n., band, column. ágnóscó, -gnóscere, -gnóví, -gnitus [ad + (g)nóscó, come to know], recognize. agó, agere, égí, áctus, drive; do; pass, lead; grátiás agere, see grátia. ala, -ae, f., wing. albus, -a, -um, white. Alcména, -ae, f., Alcmena. aliénus, -a, -um [alius], belonging to another, out of place. ali-quandó, adv., at some time or other; finally, at length. ali-quantum, -quantí, n., somewhat. ali-quí, -qua, -quod, indef. pron. adj., some, any. ali-quis, -quid, indef. pron., someone, any one, something, anything, some, any. aliter [alius], adv., in another way, otherwise, differently. alius, -a, -ud, another, other; alií … alií, _some … others. aló, -ere, -uí, -tus, nourish. Alpés, -ium, f. plur., Alps. alter, -era, -erum, one or the other (of two); another, second. altus, -a, -um [part, of aló], high, deep; altum, -í, n., the deep. Amázonés,-um, f. plur.,Amazons. ámentia, -ae [á + méns, mind], f., madness. amícus, -í, m., friend. á-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, send away, lose. amó, -áre, -áví, -átus, love. amor, -óris [amó], m., love. á-moveó, -movére, -móví, -mótus, move away. amphora, -ae, f., jar, bottle. an, conj., or (in questions). ancora, -ae, f., anchor; in ancorís, at anchor. Andromeda, -ae, f., Andromeda. anguis, -is, m. and f., serpent, snake. anima, -ae, f., breath, soul, life. animadvertó, -vertere, -vertí, -versus [animus + ad-vertó], turn the mind to, observe. animus, -í, m., mind; heart; spirit, courage. annus, -í, m., year. ante, prep, with acc. and adv., before. anteá [ante], adv., before. antecelló, -cellere, surpass, excel. ante-quam, conj., before than, sooner than, before. antíquus, -a, -um, ancient. antrum, -í, n., cave. ánxius, -a, -um, anxious. aper, aprí, m., wild boar. aperió, -íre, -uí, -tus, open. apertus, -a, -um [part, of aperió], open. Apollo, -inis, m., Apollo. appelló, -pelláre, -pelláví, -pellátus, call, name. appelló, -pellere, -pulí, -pulsus [ad + pelló], drive to, bring to; with or without návem, put in. appetó, -petere, -petíví, -petítus [ad + petó], draw near. appónó, -pónere, -posuí, -positus [ad + pónó], put to or near, set before, serve. appropinquó, -propinquáre, -propinquáví, -propinquátus [ad + propinquó], approach to, approach. apud, prep, with acc., among, with. aqua, -ae, f., water. ára, -ae, f., altar. arbitror, -árí, -átus, consider, think, judge. arbor, -oris, f., tree. arca, -ae, f., chest, box, ark. Arcadia,-ae, f., Arcadia. arcessó, -ere, -íví, -ítus, call, summon, fetch. arcus, -ús, m., bow. árdeó, árdére, ársí, ársus, be on fire, burn. argentum, -í, n., silver. Argó, Argus, f., the Argo. Argolicus, -a, -um, of Argolis (the district of Greece in which Tiryns was situated), Argolic. Argonautae, -árum [Argó + nauta], m. plur., Argonauts. Argus, -í, m., Argus. ariés, -etis, m., ram. arma, -órum, n. plur., arms, weapons. armátus, -a, -um [part, of armó], armed. armó, -áre, -ávi, -átus [arma], arm, equip. aró, -áre, -áví, -átus, plow. ars, artis, f., art. ascendó, -scendere, -scendí, -scénsus [ad + scandó], climb to, ascend, mount. aspició, -spicere, -spéxí, -spectus [ad + speció], look at or on, behold. at, conj., but. Athénae, -árum, f. plur., Athens. Atlás, -antis, m., Atlas. atque or ac (the latter never used before words beginning with a vowel or h), conj., and; after words of comparison, as, than. átrium, -í, n., hall. attingó, -tingere, -tigí, -táctus [ad + tango], touch at. audácia, -ae [audáx, bold], f., boldness, audacity. audeó, audére, ausus sum, dare. audió, -íre, -íví, -ítus, hear; listen or attend to. auferó, auferre, abstulí, ablátus [ab + feró], bear away, carry off. aufugió, -fugere, -fúgí [ab + fugió], flee or run away. Augéás, -ae, m., Augeas. aura, -ae, f., air, breeze. aureus, -a, -um [aurum], of gold, golden. auris, -is, f., ear. aurum, -í, n., gold. aut, conj., or; aut … aut, either … or. autem, conj., moreover; but, however; now. auxilior, -ári, -átus [auxilium], help. auxilium, -í, n., help, aid. á-vehó, -vehere, -vexí, -vectus, carry away. avis, -is, f., bird. á-voló, -voláre, -voláví, -volátúrus, fly away. avus, -í, m., grandfather.


baculum, -í, n., stick, wand. balteus, -í, m.., belt, girdle. barbarus, -a, -um, barbarian. beátus, -a, -um, happy, blessed. bellicósus, -a, -um [bellum], war-like. bellum, -í, n., war. bélua, -ae, f., beast, monster. bene [bonus], adv., well; successfully. beneficium, -í [bene + fació], n., well-doing, kindness, service, benefit. benígné [benígnus, kind], adv., kindly. benígnitás, -tátis [benígnus, kind], f., kindness. bibó, bibere, bibí, drink. biceps, -cipitis [bi- + caput], adj., two-headed. bonus, -a, -um, good. bós, bovis, gen. plur. boum, dat. and abl. plur. bóbus, m. and f., ox, bull, cow. bracchium, -í, n., arm. brevis, -e, short. Búsíris, -idis, m., Busiris.


Cácus, -í, m., Cacus. cadáver, -eris, n., dead body, corpse, carcass. cadó, cadere, cecidí, cásúrus, fall. caecus, -a, -um, blind. caedés, -is [caedó, cut], f., cutting down, killing, slaughter. caelum, -í, n., heaven, sky. Calais, -is, m., Calais. calamitás, -tátis, f., misfortune, calamity, disaster. calceus, -í, m., shoe. calefació, -facere, -fécí, -factus [caleó, be hot + fació], make hot. calor, -óris [caleó, be hot], m., heat. campus, -í, m., plain, field. cancer, cancrí, m., crab. canis, -is, m. and f., dog. cantó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of canó, sing], sing. cantus, -ús [canó, sing], m., singing, song. capió, capere, cépí, captus, take, catch, seize; receive, suffer; adopt. captívus, -a, -um [capió], captive. caput, capitis, n., head. carcer, -eris, m., prison. carmen, -minis [canó, sing], n., song, charm. caró, carnis, f., flesh. carpó, -ere, -sí, -tus, pluck. Castor, -oris, m., Castor. castra, -órum, n. plur., camp. cású [abl. of cásus], adv., by chance, accidentally. cásus, -ús [cadó], m., fall; chance, accident. caténa, -ae, f., chain. cauda, -ae, f., tail. causa, -ae, f., cause, reason; abl. causá, for the sake of. caveó, cavére, cáví, cautus, beware, take care; be on one's guard against, beware of. celeber, celebris, celebre, frequented; renowned, celebrated. celeritás, -tátis [celer, swift], f., swiftness, quickness, speed. celeriter [celer, swift], adv., swiftly, quickly. céló, -áre, -áví, -átus, hide, conceal. céna, -ae, f., dinner. cénáculum, -í [céna], n., dining-room. Cénaeum, -í, n., Cenaeum (a promontory of Euboea). cénó, -áre, -áví, -átus [céna], dine. cénseó, cénsére, cénsuí, cénsus, think, believe, consider. centaurus, -í, m., centaur. centum, indecl. adj., one hundred. Cépheus, -í, m., Cepheus. Cerberus, -í, m., Cerberus. Ceres, Cereris, f., Ceres. cernó, cernere, créví, certus or crétus, discern, perceive, make out. certámen, -minis [certó, strive], n., struggle, contest. certó [abl. of certus], adv., with certainty, for certain, certainly. certus, -a, -um [part. of cernó], determined, fixed, certain; certiórem facere, to make more certain, inform. cervus, -í, m., stag. céterí, -ae, -a, plur. adj., the other, the remaining, the rest of. Charón, -ontis, m., Charon. cibus, -í, m., food. cingó, cingere, cinxí, cinctus, surround, gird. Circé, -és, f., Circe. Circaeus, -a, -um [Circé], of Circe. circiter, prep. with acc. and adv., about. circum, prep. with acc., around. circum-dó, -dare, -dedí, -datus, put around, surround. circum-stó, -stáre, -stetí, stand around. citerior, -ius [comp. from citrá, on this side of], adj., on this side, hither. cithara, -ae, f., cithara, lute, lyre. citharoedus, -í [cithara], m., citharoedus (one who sings to the accompaniment of the cithara). cívis, -is, m. and f., citizen, fellow-citizen, subject. cívitás, -tátis [cívis], f., state. clámitó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of clámó, call out], call out. clamor, -óris [clámó, call out], m., shout, cry. cláva, -ae, f., club. clémentia, -ae [cléméns, merciful], f., mercy, kindness. coepí, coepisse, coeptus (used in tenses of completed action), have begun, began. cógitó, -áre, -áví, -átus, consider, think over. cógnóscó, -gnóscere, -gnóví, -gnitus [com- + (g)nóscó, come to know], find out, learn; in tenses of completed action, have found out, know. cógó, cógere, coégí, coáctus [co- + agó], drive together, collect; compel. co-hortor, -hortárí, -hortátus, encourage, exhort. Colchí, -órum, m. plur., Colchians. Colchis, -idis, f., Colchis. collum, -í, n., neck. coló, colere, coluí, cultus, till, cultivate; inhabit; worship. color, -óris, m., color. columba, -ae, f., pigeon, dove. columna, -ae, f., column, pillar. comes, -itis [com- + eó], m. and f., companion. commeátus, -ús, m., supplies, provisions. com-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, send together; commit, intrust; expose; proelium committere, to join battle. com-moror, -morárí, -morátus, tarry, linger, delay, stay. com-moveó, -movére, -móví, -mótus, move, rouse; disturb. com-mútátió, -tiónis, f., change. com-paró, -paráre, -paráví, -parátus, prepare, collect. com-pelló, -pellere, -pulí, -pulsus, drive together, drive. complector, -plectí, -plexus, embrace. com-pleó, -plére, -pléví, -plétus, fill full, fill up. com-plúrés, -plúra, plur. adj., several, many. com-portó, -portáre, -portáví, -portátus, carry or bring together, collect. com-prehendó, -prehendere, -prehendí, -prehénsus, seize, catch. comprimó, -primere, -pressí, -pressus [com- + premó], press together, squeeze, compress. cónátus, -ús [cónor], m., attempt, effort. con-cédó, -cédere, -cessí, -cessus, grant, yield. con-curró, -currere, -currí, -cursus, run, rush, or dash together. con-dó, -dere, -didí, -ditus, put together, found; store away. cón-feró, cónferre, contulí, conlátus, bring together; grant, confer; sé cónferre, to betake oneself, make one's way. cónfició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [com- + fació], make or do completely, complete, finish, accomplish, make; wear out. cón-fírmó, -fírmáre, -fírmáví, -fírmátus, strengthen, establish; declare, assert. cón-flígó, -flígere, -flíxí, -flíctus, dash together. conició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [com- + iació], throw together; throw, cast, hurl. con-iungó, -iungere, -iúnxí, -iúnctus, join together, join. coniúnx, coniugis [coniungó], m. and f., spouse, husband, wife. conligó, -ligere, -légí, -léctus [com- + legó], gather together, collect. con-locó, -locáre, -locáví, -locátus, place together, put, place. conloquium, -í [conloquor, talk together], n., conversation. cónor, -árí, -átus, try, attempt. cónscendó, -scendere, -scendí, -scénsus [com- + scandó, climb], climb; návem cónscendere, to climb the ship, go on board, embark. cónsénsus, -ús [cónsentió, agree], m., agreement, consent. cón-sequor, -sequí, -secútus, follow up, follow; overtake. cón-servó, -serváre, -serváví, -servátus, preserve, keep. cón-sídó, -sídere, -sédí, -sessus, sit down. cónsilium, -í [cónsuló], n., advice; plan, design, purpose; prudence. cón-sistó, -sistere, -stití, -stitus, station oneself, take one's stand; consist. cónspectus, -ús [cónspició], m., sight. cónspició, -spicere, -spéxí, -spectus [com- + speció, look], behold, perceive, see. cónstituó, -stituere, -stituí, -stitútus [com- + statuó], set together or up; appoint; determine. cón-stó, -stáre, -stití, -státúrus, stand together, agree; consist; cónstat, it is agreed, is well known. cón-suéscó, -suéscere, -suéví, -suétus, become accustomed; in tenses of completed action, have become accustomed, be accustomed or wont. cónsuló, -ere, -uí, -tus, consult. cón-súmó, -súmere, -súmpsí, -súmptus, take completely, use up, consume, spend. con-tegó, -tegere, -téxí, -téctus, cover. con-tendó, -tendere, -tendí, -tentus, stretch, hasten. continéns, -entis [contineó], f., 'mainland, continent. contineó, -tinére, -tinuí, -tentus [com- + teneó], hold together, keep within, shut up in; bound. continuus, -a, -um [contineó], continuous, successive. contrá, prep, with acc., against, contrary to. contróversia, -ae, f., quarrel, dispute, debate. con-venió, -veníre, -véní, -ventus, come together, assemble. con-vertó, -vertere, -vertí, -versus, turn round, turn, change; in fugam convertere, to put to flight. con-vocó, -vocáre, -vocáví, -vocátus, call together, summon, assemble. co-orior, -orírí, -ortus, arise. cópia, -ae, f., supply, abundance; plur., forces, troops. Corinthus, -í, m., Corinth. corium, -í, n., hide, leather. cornú, -ús, n., horn. corpus, corporis, n., body. corripió, -ripere, -ripuí, -reptus [com- + rapió], seize, snatch, snatch up. cottídié, adv., daily, every day. crédibilis, -e [crédó], credible. crédó, -dere, -didí, -ditus, believe. creó, -áre, -áví, -átus, elect, appoint. Creón, -ontis, m., Creon. crepítus, -ús [crepó, rattle], m., rattle, clatter. crepundia, -órum [crepó, rattle], n. plur., rattle. Créta, -ae, f., Crete. cruciátus, -ús [crució, torture], m., torture. crúdélis, -e, cruel. crús, crúris, n., leg. cubiculum, -í [cubó], n., bedroom. cubó, -áre, -uí, lie down, lie, recline. culter, cultrí, m., knife. cum, prep, with abl., with. cum, conj., when, while, after; since; although. cúnae, -arum, f. plur., cradle. cupiditás, -tátis [cupidus], f., desire, longing, eagerness. cupidus, -a, -um [cupió], desirous, eager. cupió, -ere, -íví, -ítus, desire, long for, wish. cúr, adv., why. curró, currere, cucurrí, cursus, run. cursus, -ús, m., chariot. cursus, -ús [curró], m., running, course. custódió, -íre, -íví, -ítus [custós, guard], guard. Cyclóps, -is, m., Cyclops Cyzicus, -í, f., Cyzicus.


damnum, -í, n., harm, injury. Danaé, -és, f., Danae. dé, prep, with abl., down from, from, out of; about, concerning, of. débeó, -ére, -uí, -itus [dé+ habeó], owe; with infin., ought. débitus, -a, -um [part, of débeó], owed, due. dé-cédó, -cédere, -cessí, -cessus, go away, depart. decem, indecl. adj., ten. décidó, -cidere, -cidí [dé + cadó], fall down. decimus, -a, -um [decem], tenth. décipió, -cipere, -cépí, -ceptus [dé + capió], catch, deceive. decoró, -áre, -áví, -átus [decus, adornment], adorn, distinguish. dé-curró, -currere, -cucurrí, -cursus, run down. dé-decus, -decoris, n., dishonor, disgrace. dé-dó, -dere, -didí, -ditus, give away or up. dé-dúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus, lead down or away, bring; návem dédúcere, to draw down or launch a ship. dé-fendó, -fendere, -fendí, -fénsus, ward off; defend. dé-feró, -ferre, -tulí, -látus, bear or carry away or off. dé-fessus, -a, -um, worn out, exhausted. défició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [dé + fació], fail. Déianíra, -ae, f., Dejanira. déició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [dé + iació], throw down, cast, drive out of one's course. deinde, adv., then, next. dé-lábor, -lábí, -lapsus, slip or fall down. déligó, -ligere, -légí, -léctus [dé + legó], choose out, choose, select. Delphí, -órum, m. plur., Delphi. Delphicus, -a, -um [Delphí], of Delphi, Delphic, Delphian. démissus, -a, -um [part. of démittó], downcast, dejected. dé-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, send down, let fall; animós démittere, to lose courage. dé-mónstró, -mónstráre, -mónstráví, -mónstrátus, point out, show; make known. démum, adv., at last. dénique, adv., lastly, finally. déns, dentis, m., tooth. dénsus, -a, -um, thick. dé-pelló, -pellere, -pulí, -pulsus, drive off or away, drive. dé-plóró, -plóráre, -plóráví, -plórátus, lament. dé-pónó, -pónere, -posuí, -positus, put down, deposit; lay aside, give up; é memoriá dépónere, to forget. déripió, -ripere, -ripuí, -reptus [dé + rapió], snatch away, tear off, pull down. déscendó, -scendere, -scendí, -scénsus [dé + scandó], climb down, descend. dé-seró, -serere, -seruí, -sertus, desert. désertus, -a, -um [part, of déseró], deserted. désíderium, -í [désíderó, desire], n., desire, longing. désilió, -silíre, -siluí, -sultus [dé + salió], leap down. dé-sistó, -sistere, -stití, -stitus, set down; leave off, desist, cease, stop. dé-spéró, -spéráre, -spéráví, -spérátus, despair. dé-super, adv., down from above. dé-terreó, -terrére, -terruí, -territus, frighten off, deter. dé-trahó, -trahere, -tráxí, -tráctus, draw or pull off. deus, -í, m., god. dé-vertó, -vertere, -vertí, turn away or aside. dé-voró, -voráre, -voráví, -vorátus, swallow down, swallow, devour. dexter, -tra, -trum, right. dextra, -ae [dexter], f., right hand (manus understood). Diána, -ae, f., Diana. dícó, dícere, díxí, dictus, say, speak; diem dícere, to appoint or set a day. diés, -éí, m. and f., day. difficilis, -e [dis- + facilis], not easy, difficult. difficultas, -tátis [difficilis], f., difficulty. diffundó, -fundere, -fúdí, -fúsus [dis- + fundó], pour forth, spread or shed abroad, diffuse. díligenter [díligéns, careful], adv., carefully, diligently. díligentia, -ae [díligéns, careful], f., care, diligence, industry. dí-lúcéscó, -lúcéscere, -lúxí, grow light, dawn. dílúcidé [dílúcidus, distinct], adv., distinctly, plainly. dí-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, send different ways, send forth or away, despatch; let slip, lose. Diomédés, -is, m., Diomedes. dírus, -a, -um, dreadful. dis-cédó, -cédere, -cessí, -cessus, go apart, withdraw, depart. discó, discere, didicí, learn. discrímen, -críminis, n., crisis, peril, danger. discus, -í, m., discus, quoit. disició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [dis- + iació], throw apart, scatter. diú, adv., for a long time, a long time or while, long; comp. diútius, longer. dí-velló, -vellere, -vellí, -vulsus, tear apart, rend asunder, tear in pieces. díversus, -a, -um [part. of díverto], turned different ways, opposite, contrary, different. dívidó, -videre, -vísí, -vísus, divide, separate. dó, dare, dedí, datus, give. doceo, -ére, -uí, -tus, teach, explain. dolor, -óris [doleó, be in pain], m., pain, grief; anger. dolus, -í, m., trick, craft. domina, -ae, f., mistress. domus, -ús, f., house, home. dónum, -í [do], n., gift. dormió, -íre, -íví, sleep. dracó, -ónis, m., dragon, serpent. dubitó, -áre, -áví, -átus [dubius], doubt, hesitate. dubius, -a, -um, doubtful, uncertain. dúcó, dúcere, dúxí, ductus [dux], lead; make, dig; with or without in mátrimónium, marry. dúdum, adv., formerly, of old; iam dúdum, this long time. dulcédó, -inis [dulcis], f., sweetness. dulcis, -e, sweet. dum, conj., while, as; as long as; until. duo, -ae, -o, plur. adj., two. duodecim [duo + decem], indecl. adj., twelve. duo-dé-vígintí, indecl. adj., eighteen. dux, ducis, m. and f., leader, commander.


é, see ex. ébrius, -a, -um, drunk. é-dícó, -dícere, -díxí, -dictus, declare, proclaim, appoint. é-dó, -dere, -didí, -ditus, put forth, give out, utter. é-dúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus, lead out, draw. effervéscó, -fervéscere, -ferbuí [ex + fervéscó], boil up or over, boil. effició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [ex + fació], make or work out, accomplish, effect. effló, -fláre, -fláví, -flátus [ex + fló], breathe out. effugio, -fugere, -fúgí [ex + fugió], flee out or away, escape. effundó, -fundere, -fúdí, -fúsus [ex + fundó], pour out. ego, meí, pers. pron., I. égredior, -gredí, -gressus [é + gradior], go out or forth, go ashore, disembark. égregié [égregius, excellent], adv., excellently, splendidly, admirably. Élis, -idis, f., Elis. Elysius, -a, -um, Elysian. é-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, send out or forth. enim, conj., for. é-núntió, -núntiáre, -núntiáví, -núntiátus, speak out, announce, make known. eó, íre, ií, itus, go. eó [is], adv., to that place, thither. equus, -í, m., horse. éréctus, -a, -um [part, of érigó], upright, erect. ergá, prep, with acc., toward, for. Ergínus, -í, m., Erginus. Éridanus, -í, m., Eridanus. érigó, -rigere, -réxí, -réctus [é + regó], raise or set up, raise, lift; cheer, encourage. éripió, -ripere, -ripuí, -reptus [é + rapió], snatch out or away, rescue. erró, -áre, -áví, -átus, wander, stray; be mistaken. érudió, -rudíre, -rudíví, -rudítus, instruct. Erymanthius, -a, -um, of Erymanthus, Erymanthian. Erythía, -ae, f., Erythia. et, conj., and; et … et, both … and. etiam [et + iam], adv., and now, also, too, even. et-sí, conj., even if, although. Eunomus, -í, m., Eunomus. Európa, -ae, f., Europe. Eurylochus, -í, m., Eurylochus. Eurystheus, -í, m., Eurystheus. Eurytión, -ónis, m., Eurytion. Eurytus, -í, m., Eurytus. é-vádó, -vádere, -vásí, -vásus, go forth, get away, escape. é-vánéscó, -vánéscere, -vánuí, vanish away. é-venió, -veníre, -véní, -ventus, come out; turn out, happen, befall. é-vocó, -vocáre, -vocáví, -vocátus, call out, challenge. é-vomó, -vomere, -vomuí, -vomitus, vomit forth. ex or é (the latter never used before words beginning with a vowel or h), prep. with abl., out of, from; of. ex-animó, -animáre, -animáví, -animátus, put out of breath, fatigue, tire, exhaust; stupefy; kill. ex-árdéscó, -árdéscere, -ársí, -ársus, blaze out, be inflamed, rage. ex-cédó, -cédere, -cessí, -cessus, go out or forth, depart. excipió, -cipere, -cépí, -ceptus [ex + capió], take out or up, receive, welcome, entertain. ex-citó, -citáre, -citáví, -citátus, call out, arouse. ex-clámó, -clámáre, -clámáví, -clámátus, cry out, exclaim. exclúdó, -clúdere, -clúsí, -clúsus [ex + claudó], shut out, hinder, prevent. ex-cógitó, -cógitáre, -cógitáví, -cógitátus, think out, contrive, devise, invent. ex-crució, -cruciáre, -cruciáví, cruciátus, torture. ex-eó, -íre, -ií, -itus, go out. exerceó, -ercére, -ercuí, -ercitus, exercise. exercitátió, -ónis [exerceó], f., exercise. exercitus, -ús, m., army. ex-haurio, -hauríre, -hausí, -haustus, drink up or off, drain. exístimó, -ístimáre, -ístimáví, -ístimátus [ex + aestimo, value], consider, believe, think. ex-orior, -orírí, -ortus, arise from, spring up, rise. ex-pelló, -pellere, -pulí, -pulsus, drive out, expel. ex-pió, -piáre, -piáví, -piátus, expiate. explórátor, -óris [explóró], m., explorer, scout, spy. ex-plóró, -plóráre, -plóráví, -plórátus, search out, explore. ex-pónó, -pónere, -posuí, -positus, put out, set forth; put on shore, land; explain. exprimó, -primere, -pressí, -pressus [ex + premó], press out. exsilió, -silíre, -siluí [ex + salió], leap out or forth. exsilium, -í [exsul, exile], n., exile. ex-spectó, -spectáre, -spectáví, -spectátus, look out for, wait for, await, expect; wait. ex-spíró, -spíráre, -spíráví, -spírátus, breathe out. ex-struó, -struere, -strúxí, -strúctus, pile or heap up, build, erect. extempló, adv., immediately, straightway, at once. ex-trahó, -trahere, -tráxí, -tráctus, draw or drag out, release, rescue. extrémus, -a, -um, last, extreme, furthest. exuó, -uere, -uí, -útus, put or take off.


faber, fabrí, m., smith. fabricor, -árí, -átus [faber], make, fashion. fábula, -ae [for, speak], f., story. facile [facilis, easy], adv., easily. facinus, facinoris [fació], n., deed, crime. fació, facere, fécí, factus, make, do; iter facere, see iter. facultás, -tátis [facilis, easy], f., possibility, opportunity, chance, means. falló, fallere, fefellí, falsus, deceive. falsus, -a, -um [part. of falló], feigned, pretended, false. falx, falcis, f., sickle; curved sword, falchion. fáma, -ae [for, speak], f., report, rumor. famés, -is, abl. famé, f., hunger. fár, farris, n., grain; meal. fátum, -í [part. of for, speak], n., destiny, fate. faucés, -ium, f. plur., throat. fax, facis, f., torch, firebrand. félíciter [félíx, happy], adv., happily, fortunately, successfully. fémina, -ae, f., woman. fera, -ae [ferus, wild], f., wild animal, beast. feré, adv., nearly, about, almost, for the most part. feró, ferre, tulí, látus, bear, bring. feróx, -ócis [ferus, wild], adj., fierce, savage. ferreus, -a, -um [ferrum, iron], of iron, iron. ferveó, -ére, boil; glow, burn. fessus, -a, -um, exhausted, worn out, weary. figúra, -ae, f., form, shape, figure. fília, -ae, f., daughter. fílius, -í, m., son. fingó, fingere, finxí, fictus, invent, make up. fínis, -is, m., end, boundary; plur., borders, territory, country. fínitimus, -a, -um [fínis], neighboring, adjoining. fíó, fierí, factus sum, be done or made, become, happen. flamma, -ae, f., flame. flúmen, -minis [fluó, flow], n., river. fóns, fontis, m., fountain, spring. forás [foris], adv., out of doors, forth, out. forís [foris], adv., out of doors, without. foris, -is, f., door. fórma, -ae, f., form, appearance; beauty. fórmósus, -a, -um [fórma], beautiful. forte [fors, chance], adv., by chance, accidentally. fortis, -e, brave. fortiter [fortis], adv., bravely. fortúna, -ae [fors, chance], f., fortune. fossa, -ae [part. of fodió, dig], f., ditch, trench. frangó, frangere, frégí, fráctus, break; dash to pieces, wreck. fráter, frátris, m., brother. fraus, fraudis, f., deception, fraud. fremitus, -ús [fremó, roar], m., roaring, roar. frénó, -áre, -áví, -átus [frénum, bridle], bridle, restrain. fretum, -í, n., strait. fróns, frontis, f., forehead. frúctus, -ús [fruor, enjoy], m., enjoyment; fruit. frúmentor, -árí, -átus [frúmentum], fetch grain, forage. frúmentum, -í [fruor, enjoy], n., grain. frústrá, adv., in vain. fuga, -ae, f., flight. fugió, fugere, fúgí, fugitúrus [fuga], flee, run away. fúmus, -í, m., smoke. furor, -óris [furó, rage], m., rage, fury, frenzy, madness. fúrtum, -í [fúr, thief], n., theft.


galea, -ae, f., helmet. Gallia, -ae, f., Gaul. gaudeó, gaudére, gávísus, be glad, rejoice. gaudium, -í [gaudeó], n., gladness, joy. géns, gentis, f., race, nation. genus, generis, n., kind, nature. geró, gerere, gessí, gestus, carry, wear; carry on, do. Géryón, -onis, m., Geryon. gígnó, gígnere, genuí, genitus, produce, bring forth. gladius, -í, m., sword. Glaucé, -és, f., Glauce. glória, -ae, f., glory. Gorgó, -onis, f., Gorgon. Graeae, -árum, f. plur., the Graeae. Graecia, -ae [Graecus], f., Greece. Graecus, -a, -um, Greek. grátia, -ae [grátus], f., favor; gratitude, thanks; plur., thanks; grátiás agere, to give thanks, thank; grátiam referre, to return a favor, show gratitude, requite. grátus, -a, -um, pleasing, grateful. gravis, -e, heavy; severe, grievous, serious. graviter [gravis], adv., severely, seriously. gubernó, -áre, -áví, -átus, steer. gustó, -áre, -áví, -átus, taste.


habeó, -ére, -uí, -itus, have, hold; consider. habitó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of habeó], dwell, inhabit. Hádés, -ae, m., Hades. haereó, haerére, haesí, haesúrus, stick; hesitate. haesitó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of haereó], hesitate. Hammón, -ónis, m., Hammon. haréna, -ae, f., sand; shore. Harpýiae, -árum, f. plur., Harpies. haud, adv., not at all, by no means, not. haudquáquam [haud + quisquam], adv., in no wise, not at all. haurió, hauríre, hausí, haustus, draw. herba, -ae, f., herb, plant. Herculés, -is, m., Hercules. Hésioné, -és, f., Hesione. Hesperidés, -um, f. plur., the Hesperides. hesternus, -a, -um [herí, yesterday], of yesterday, yesterday's, hesternus diés, yesterday. híc [híc], adv., here; hereupon. híc, haec, hóc, dem. pron., this; ille … híc, that … this, the former … the latter. hinc [híc], adv., from this place, hence. Hippolyté, -és, f., Hippolyte. Hispánia, -ae, f., Spain. Homérus, í-, m., Homer. homó, hominis, m., man. honor, -óris, m., honor. hóra, -ae, f., hour. horribilis, -e [horreó, shudder], dreadful, terrible, horrible. hortor, -árí, -átus, exhort, encourage, urge. hortus, -í, m., garden. hospitium, -í [hospes, host], n., hospitality. hostis, -is, m. and f., enemy, foe. húc [híc], adv., to this place, hither. húmánus, -a, -um [homó], of man, human. humí [loc. of humus, ground], adv., on the ground. Hydra, -ae, f., Hydra. Hylás, -ae, m., Hylas.


iaceó, -ére, -uí, lie, be prostrate. iació, iacere, iécí, iactus, throw, cast, hurl. iam, adv., now, already. iánua, -ae, f., door. Iásón, -onis, m., Jason. ibi [is], adv., in that place, there. íctus, -ús [ícó, strike], m., blow. ídem, eadem, idem [is], dem. pron., the same; sometimes to be translated likewise, also. idóneus, -a, -um, suitable, fit; favorable. igitur, conj., therefore. ígnárus, -a, -um [in-, not + gnárus, knowing], ignorant. ígnávus, -a, -um [in-, not + gnávus, active], lazy, cowardly. ígnis, -is, m., fire. ígnóró, -áre, -áví, -átus, be ignorant of. ígnótus, -a, -um [in-, not + nótus], unknown. Ílias, -adis, f., the Iliad. ille, illa, illud, dem. pron., that; he, she, it, they; ille … híc, see híc. imber, imbris, m., rain, shower. imbuó, -buere, -buí, -bútus, wet, soak, dip. immánitás, -tátis [immánis, cruel], f., cruelty, barbarity. immittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, send or let in. immoló, -moláre, -moláví, -molátus [in + mola], sacrifice (the victim was sprinkled with consecrated meal). impedió, -pedíre, -pedíví, -pedítus [in + pés], hinder, prevent, impede. impelló, -pellere, -pulí, -pulsus [in + pelló], drive or urge on, incite, urge. imperátor, -óris [imperó], m., commander, general. imperátum, -í [part, of imperó], n., command, order. imperítus, -a, -um [in-, not + perítus], inexperienced, unskilled, ignorant. imperium, -í [imperó], n., command; sway, rule. imperó, -peráre, -peráví, -perátus, command, order, enjoin. impetró, -petráre, -petráví, -petrátus, gain one's end, obtain (a request). impetus, -ús [in + petó], m., attack; impetum facere, to charge. impónó, -pónere, -posuí, -positus [in + pónó], place or lay upon, impose; embark. improbus, -a, -um [in-, not + probus, upright], wicked. in, prep, with acc., into, in, to, upon; with abl., in, on. incidó, -cidere, -cidí [in + cadó], fall into or upon. inclúdó, -clúdere, -clúsí, -clúsus [in + claudó, shut], shut up in, inclose, imprison. incola, -ae [incoló], m. and f., inhabitant. in-coló, -colere, -coluí, inhabit. incolumis, -e, unhurt, safe. in-commodum, -í, n., inconvenience. in-crédibilis, e, incredible. in-dúcó, -dúcere, dúxí, -ductus, lead in or on, move, excite. induó, induere, induí, indútus, put on; clothe. in-eó, -íre, -ií, -itus, go into, enter; adopt. ínfandus, -a, -um [in-, not + ger. of for, speak], unspeakable, monstrous. ínfáns, -fantis [in-, not + part. of for, speak], m. and f., infant, babe. ínfectus, -a, -um [in-, not + part. of fació], not done, undone, unaccomplished. ín-félíx, -félícis, adj., unhappy, unfortunate. ínferí, -órum [ínferus, below], m. plur., inhabitants of the underworld, the dead, the shades. ínferó, ínferre, intulí, inlátus, bring in or against, wage against; inflict. ínféstus, -a, -um, unsafe, dangerous. ínfició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [in + fació], stain, dye. ín-fundó, -fundere, -fúdí, -fúsus, pour in or upon. ingéns, -gentis, adj., huge, vast. inició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [in +iació], throw in or upon; cause, inspire. inimícus, -a, -um [in-, not + amícus], unfriendly, hostile. initium, -í [ineó], n., beginning. iniúria, -ae [in-, not + iús], f., injury, wrong, hurt, harm. inluviés, -éí, f., dirt, filth. inquam, inquis, inquit, defective verb, I say, you say, he says. in-rídeó, -rídére, -rísí, -rísus, laugh at, mock. in-rumpó, -rumpere, -rúpí, -ruptus, burst into or in. in-ruó, -ruere, -ruí, rush in. ínsánia, -ae [ínsánus, mad], f., madness, insanity. ínsciéns, -scientis [in-, not + part. of sció], adj., unknowing, unaware. ín-sequor, -sequí, -secútus, follow upon or up, pursue. ínsidiae, -árum, f. plur., ambush; plot, stratagem. ínspergó, -spergere, -spersí, -spersus [in + spargó], sprinkle on or over. ínspició, -spicere, -spéxí, -spectus [in + speció], look into or upon. ínstituó, -stituere, -stituí, -stitútus [in + statuó], decide upon, determine. ín-struo, -struere, -strúxí, -strúctus, build in or into; draw up; equip, furnish, ínsula, -ae, f., island. intellegó, -legere, -léxí, -léctus, perceive, understand. in-tendó, -tendere, -tendí, -tentus, stretch out; stretch, draw, aim. inter, prep, with acc., among, between. intereá [inter], adv., in the meantime, meanwhile. interfició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [inter + fació], put out of the way, kill. interior, -ius [comp. from inter], adj., interior, inner. inter-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -míssus, leave off, interrupt; let pass; pass., be left between, intervene, elapse. inter-sum, -esse, -fuí, -futúrus, be or lie between. intervállum, -í, n., interval, space, distance. intrá [inter], prep. with acc., within. intró, -áre, -áví, -átus [intrá], go within or into, enter. introitus, -ús [introeó, go within], m., entrance. in-tueor, -tuérí, -tuitus, look upon, behold. in-úsitátus, -a, -um, unusual, extraordinary. in-útilis, -e, not useful, useless. in-venió, -veníre, -véní, -ventus, come upon, find. invító, -áre, -áví, -átus, invite. invítus, -a, -um, unwilling. Ioláus, -í, m., Iolaus. Iolé, -és, f., Iole. Iovis, gen. of Iuppiter. Íphiclés, -is, m., Iphicles. ipse, ipsa, ipsum, intensive pron., self, himself, herself, itself, themselves; often to be rendered by very. íra, -ae, f., anger, wrath. íráscor, íráscí, írátus [íra], be angry. írátus, -a, -um [part, of íráscor], angered, enraged, angry, furious. is, ea, id, dem. pron., this, that; he, she, it, they. iste, ista, istud, dem. pron., that of yours, that. ita [is], adv., in this manner, thus, so; ita ut, as. Ítalia, -ae, f., Italy. ita-que, adv., and so, accordingly, therefore. iter, itineris [eó], n., a going, journey, march; iter facere, to journey, march. iterum, adv., again, a second time. Ithaca, -ae, f., Ithaca. iubeó, iubére, iussí, iússus, bid, order, command. iúcundus, -a, -um, sweet, pleasant. iúdex, iúdicis [iús + dícó], m., judge. iugum, -í [iungó], n., yoke. iungó, iungere, iúnxí, iúnctus, join; yoke, harness. Iúnó, -ónis, f., Juno. Iuppiter, Iovis, m., Jupiter or Jove. iús, iúris, n., right, justice, law; iús dícere, to pronounce judgment; iús iúrandum, iúris iúrandí [ger. of iúró, swear], oath. iússum, -í [part, of iubeó], n., order, command. iússus, -ús [iubeó], m., bidding, command. iústus, -a, -um [iús], just. iuvenis, -is, m., young man, youth.


lábor, lábí, lapsus, slip, glide, fall. labor, -óris, m., labor, toil. labóró, -áre, -áví, -átus [labor], labor, toil. lác, lactis, n., milk. Lacónia, -ae, f., Laconia. lacrima, -ae, f., tear. lacus, -ús, m., lake. laetitia, -ae [laetus, joyful], f., joy. lámenta, -órum, n. plur., lamentation. Láomedón, -ontis, m., Laomedon. lapis, -idis, m., stone. laqueus, -í, m., noose. Lárísa, -ae, f., Larisa. lassitúdó, -inis [lassus, weary], f., weariness. lateó, -ére, -uí, lie hid, be concealed. latró, -ónis, m., robber. látus, -a, -um, broad, wide. légátus, -í [part. of légó, depute], m., ambassador. lénis, -e, gentle. leó, -ónis, m., lion. Lernaeus, -a, -um, of Lerna, Lernean. Léthé, -és, f., Lethe. levis, -e, light, slight. leviter [levis], adv., slightly. libenter [libéns, willing], adv., willingly, gladly. líberí, -órum [líber, free], m. plur., children. líberó, -áre, -áví, -átus [líber, free], set free, free, liberate, release. líbertás, -tátis [líber, free], f., freedom, liberty. Libya, -ae, f., Libya, Africa. licet, -ére, -uit or -itum est, impers., is lawful or permitted. Lichás, -ae, m., Lichas. lígneus, -a, -um [lígnum], of wood, wooden. lígnum, -í, n., wood. Ligurés, -um, m. plur., Ligurians. Liguria, -ae [Ligurés], f., Liguria. límen, -minis, n., threshold; door. límus, -í, m., mud. linter, lintris, f., boat, skiff. Linus, -í, m., Linus. lítus, lítoris, n., shore. locus, -í, m., plur. loca, -orum, n., place, situation. longé [longus], adv., far. longinquus, -a, -um [longus], distant, remote. longus, -a, -um, long; tedious. loquor, loquí, locútus, speak. lótus, -í, f., lotus. lucrum, -í, n., gain. luctor, -árí, -átus, wrestle, struggle. lúdus, -í, m., game, sport. lúmen, -minis, n., light. lúx, lúcis, f., light.


magicus, -a, -um, magic. magis, comp. adv., more, rather. magister, -trí [magis], m., master. mágnificé [mágnificus], adv., splendidly. mágnificentia, -ae [mágnificus], f., splendor, magnificence. mágnificus, -a, -um [mágnus + fació], splendid, magnificent. mágnitúdó, -túdinis [mágnus], f., greatness, size. mágnopere [abl. of mágnum opus], adv., greatly, very much, exceedingly; earnestly. mágnus, -a, -um, large, big, great, mighty; loud. máior, máius, comp. of mágnus. male [malus], adv., badly, ill. máló, málle, máluí [magis + voló], wish rather, prefer. malum, -í [malus], n., evil, mischief. malus, -a, -um, bad. málus, -í, m., mast. mandó, -dáre, -dáví, -dátus [manus + -dó, put], put in hand, intrust, commit; charge, command. máne, adv., in the morning, early in the morning. maneó, manére, mánsí, mánsus, remain. mánés, -ium, m. plur., spirit, shade. manus, -ús, f., hand. mare, maris, n., sea. marítus, -í, m., husband. Márs, Mártis, m., Mars. máter, mátris, f., mother. mátrimónium, -í [máter], n., marriage; in mátrimónium dúcere, marry. mátúró, -áre, -áví, -átus [mátúrus, ripe], ripen; hasten. máximé [máximus], adv., very greatly, exceedingly, especially. máximus, -a, -um, superl. of mágnus. Médéa, -ae, f., Medea. medicámentum, -í [medicó, heal], n., drug; poison, potion. medicína, -ae [medicus, physician], f., art of healing, medicine. medius, -a, -um, mid, middle. Medúsa, -ae, f., Medusa. membrum, -í, n., limb, member. memoria, -ae [memor, remembering], f., memory. memoró, -áre, -áví, -átus [memor, remembering], remind of, mention. mentió, -ónis, f., mention. mercátor, -óris [mercor, trade], m., trader, merchant. mercés, mercédis, f., pay, reward, wages. Mercurius, -í, m., Mercury. mergó, mergere, mersí, mersus, dip, plunge, sink. merídiánus, -a, -um [merídiés], midday, noonday; merídiánum tempus, midday, noon. merídiés, -éí [medius + diés], m., midday, noon; south. meritus, -a, -um [part. of mereó], deserved, due, just. meus, -a, -um [ego, meí], my, mine. míles, mílitis, m., soldier. mílitáris, -e [míles], military, warlike; rés mílitáris, art of war, warfare. mílle, indecl. adj., a thousand; mília, -ium, n. plur., thousands; mília passuum, thousands of paces, miles. minae, -árum, f. plur., threats. Minerva, -ae, f., Minerva. minimé [minimus, least], adv., least, very little; by no means, not at all. minimum [minimus, least], adv., very little, slightly. minitor, -árí, -átus [minae], threaten. Mínós, Mínóis, m., Minos. minus, comp. adv., less. Minyae, -árum, m. plur., Minyae. míráculum, -í [míror], n., wonder, marvel, miracle. míror, -árí, -átus [mírus], wonder, wonder at. mírus, -a, -um, wonderful, strange. misceó, miscére, miscuí, míxtus, mix, mingle. misericordia, -ae [misericors, pitiful], f;, pity, compassion. mittó, mittere, mísí, missus, send. modo [modus], adv., only. modus, -í, m., way, manner. moenia, -ium, n. plur., walls. mola, -ae, f., meal. molestia, -ae [molestus, annoying], f., annoyance. moneó, -ére, -uí, -itus, warn. móns, montis, m., mountain. mónstró, -áre, -áví, -átus [mónstrum], point out, show. mónstrum, -í, n., wonder, monster. mora, -ae, f., delay. mordeó, mordére, momordí, morsus, bite. morior, morí, mortuus, die. moror, -árí, -átus [mora], delay, linger, stay. mors, mortís [morior], f., death. mortális, -e [mors], mortal. mortifer, -fera, -ferum [mors + feró], death-bringing, deadly. mortuus, -a, -um [part. of morior], dead. mós, móris, m., way, manner, habit, custom. moveó, movére, móví, mótus, move. mox, adv., soon. múgió, -íre, -íví, low, bellow. múgítus, -ús [múgió], m., lowing, bellowing. mulier, mulieris, f., woman. multitúdó, -túdinis [multus], f., multitude. multó [multus], adv., by much or far, much, far. multum, -í [multus], n., much. multum [multus], adv., much, greatly, far. multus, -a, -um, much, great; plur., many. múnió, -íre, -íví, -ítus [moenia], fortify. múnus, múneris, n., service, office, duty; present, gift. múrus, -í, m., wall. música, -ae, f., music. mútó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of moveó], change. Mýsia, -ae, f., Mysia.


nactus, part. of nancíscor. nam, conj., for. nam-que, conj., for. nancíscor, nancíscí, nactus, get, obtain, find. nárró, -áre, -áví, -átus, tell, relate, narrate. nató, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of nó, swim], swim, float. nátúra, -ae [náscor, be born], f., nature, character. nauta, -ae [návis], m., sailor. nauticus, -a, -um [nauta], naval, nautical. návigátió, -ónis [návigó], f., sailing, navigation, voyage. návigó, -áre, -áví, -átus [návis + agó], sail. návis, -is, f., ship. -ne, enclitic introducing a question, untranslatable. né, adv., not; né … quidem, not … even; conj., that not, lest. nec, see neque. necesse, indecl. adj., necessary. necó, -áre, -áví, -átus, put to death, slay, kill. neglegó, -legere, -léxí, -léctus [nec + legó, gather], disregard, neglect. negó, -áre, -áví, -átus, say no or not, deny, refuse. negótium, -í [nec + ótium, leisure], n., business, matter; task, trouble, difficulty. Nemeaeus, -a, -um, of Nemea, Nemean. némó, néminis [ne-, not + homó], m. and f., no one, nobody. nepós, nepótis, m., grandson. Neptúnus, -í, m., Neptune. neque or nec [ne-, not + -que], conj., and not, nor; neque … neque, neither … nor; neque enim, for … not. nervus, -í, m., sinew, muscle. ne-sció, -scíre, -scíví, not know, be ignorant; nesció quis, I know not who, some one or other (nesció is thus used with other interrogative words also). Nessus, -í, m., Nessus. neu, see néve. neuter, neutra, neutrum [ne-, not + uter], neither. néve or neu [né + -ve, or], conj., and that not, and not, nor. niger, nigra, nigrum, black. nihil, n., indecl., nothing. nisi [ne-, not + sí], conj., if not, unless. nix, nivis, f., snow. noctú [nox], adv., at or by night. nocturnus, -a, -um [nox], of night, nocturnal; nocturnum tempus, night-time. nóló, nólle, nóluí [ne-, not + voló], not wish, be unwilling. nómen, -minis [nóscó, come to know], n., name (that by which one is known). nón, adv., not. nón-dum, adv., not yet. nón-ne, adv., introducing a question to which an affirmative answer is expected, not? nón-núllus, -a, -um, not none, some, several. nós, plur. of ego. noster, -tra, -trum [nós], our. nótus, -a, -um [part. of nóscó, come to know], known, well-known, famous_. novem, indecl. adj., nine. novitás, -tátis [novus], f., newness, novelty. novus, -a, -um, new; novissimus, last. nox, noctis, f., night. núbés, -is, f., cloud. núdus, -a, -um, naked, bare. núllus, -a, -um [ne-, not + úllus], not any, none, no. num, adv., introducing a question to which a negative answer is expected, untranslatable. numerus, -í, m., number. nummus, -í, m., coin. numquam [ne-, not + umquam, ever], adv., never. nunc, adv., now. núntió, -áre, -áví, -átus [núntius], report, announce. núntius, -í [novus], m., messenger; message. núper [novus], adv., newly, lately, recently. núsquam [ne-, not + úsquam, anywhere], adv., nowhere. nympha, -ae, f., nymph.


ob, prep. with acc., on account of, for; in compounds, to, against. obició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [ob + iació], throw in the way or to. ob-iúrgó, -iúrgáre, -iúrgáví, -iúrgátus, chide, scold, reproach. ob-linó, -linere, -léví, -litus, daub over, smear. oblítus, -a, -um [part. of oblívíscor], forgetful, unmindful. oblívíscor, -lívíscí, -lítus, forget. obscúró, -scúráre, -scúráví, -scúrátus [obscúrus], darken, hide, conceal. obscúrus, -a, -um, dark. obsecró, -secráre, -secráví, -secrátus, beseech, entreat. ob-seró, -serere, -séví, -situs, sow, plant; cover, fill. obsideó, -sidére, -sédí, -sessus [ob + sedeó], beset, besiege. ob-struó, -struere, -strúxí, -strúctus, build against, block up. ob-testor, -testárí, -testátus, call to witness; beseech, implore. obtineó, -tinére, -tinuí, -tentus [ob + teneó], hold. obviam [ob + via], adv., in the way, opposite, face to face; obviam fierí, to meet; obviam íre, to go to meet. occásió, -ónis [occidó, fall], f., chance, opportunity. occásus, -ús [occidó, fall], m. setting. occídó, -cídere, -cídí, -císus [ob + caedó, cut], cut down, kill. occupó, -cupáre, -cupáví, -cupátus [ob + capió], seize; fill. occurró, -currere, -currí, -cursus [ob + curró], run against, meet. Oceanus, -í, m., Oceanus, the ocean. oculus, -í, m., eye. ódí, ódisse, used only in tenses of completed action with the force of tenses of incomplete action, hate. odium, -í [ódí], n., hatred. odor, -óris, m., smell, odor. Oechalia, -ae, f., Oechalia. Oeneus, -í, m., Oeneus. Oeta, -ae, f., Oeta. offendó, -fendere, -fendí, -fénsus, offend. offeró, offerre, obtulí, oblátus [ob + feró], bear to, proffer, offer. officína, -ae, f., workshop, smithy. officium, -í, n., service; duty. ólim, adv., once upon a time, once, formerly, of old. Olympus, -í, m., Olympus. omittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus [ob + mittó], let go, neglect, disregard, throw away, lose. omnínó [omnis], adv., altogether, wholly, entirely. omnis, -e, all, every. oneró, -áre, -áví, -átus [onus, load], load, burden. opera, -ae [opus], f., effort, work, labor. opínió, -ónis [opínor, think], f., opinion, expectation; reputation. oppidum, -í, n., town. opportúnus, -a, -um, suitable, seasonable, convenient, opportune. opprimó, -primere, -pressí, -pressus [ob + premó], press against, overpower, crush. optimus, -a, -um, superl. of bonus. opus, operis, n., work, task. óráculum, -í [óró], n., oracle. órátió, -ónis [óró], f., speech; órátiónem habére, to deliver an oration, speak. orbis, -is, m., circle; orbis terrae or terrárum, circle of the earth or lands, earth, world. Orcus, -í, m., Orcus, under-world. órdó, órdinis, m., arrangement, order, rank; ex órdine, in order. orior, -írí, -tus, arise, come forth, spring up; ortá lúce, at dawn. órnó, -áre, -áví, -átus, equip, adorn. óró, -áre, -áví, -átus [ós], speak; beg, pray. Orpheus, -í, m., Orpheus. ós, óris, n., mouth. ostendó, -tendere, -tendí, -tentus [ob + tendó], stretch out before, show, explain. óstium, -í [ós], n., mouth, doorway, door. ovis, -is, f., sheep.


pábulum, -í [páscó], n., food, fodder. paene, adv., almost, nearly. palaestra, -ae, f., wrestling-place, gymnasium. pálus, -í, m., stake. palús, -údis, f., swamp, marsh. parátus, -a, -um [part. of paró], prepared, equipped, ready. páreó, -ére, -uí, obey. paró, -áre, -áví, -átus, make ready, prepare. pars, partis, f., part, side, direction. parvus, -a, -um, little, small. páscó, páscere, páví, pástus, feed. passus, -ús [pandó, stretch], m., pace_; mília passuum, see mílle. pástor, -tóris [páscó], m., shepherd. patefació, -facere, -fécí, -factus [pateó, be open + fació], throw, or lay open, open. pater, patris, m., father. patior, patí, passus, bear, suffer, allow. patria, -ae [pater], f., fatherland, country. paucí, -ae, -a, plur. adj., few. pauló [paulus, little], adv., by a little, a little, somewhat. paulum [paulus, little], adv., a little, somewhat. pavor, -óris [payeó, be terrified], m., terror, panic. pectus, pectoris, n., breast. pecúnia, -ae [pecus], f., money (the possession of cattle constituting wealth in early times). pecus, pecoris, n., herd, flock, cattle. pecus, pecudis, f., head of cattle, beast, sheep, goat. Peliás, -ae, m., Pelias. pellis, -is, f., hide, skin, pelt. pelló, pellere, pepulí, pulsus, drive, drive away, beat, rout. pendó, pendere, pependí, pénsus, weigh out, pay. Pénelopé, -és, f., Penelope. per, prep, with ace., through, by means of. percipió, -cipere, -cépí, -ceptus [per + capió], feel. percutió, -cutere, -cussí, -cussus [per + quatió], strike through, strike. per-dúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus, lead or bring through, lead, bring. peregrínus, -í, m., stranger, foreigner. perennis, -e [per + annus], lasting throughout the year, perennial, perpetual. per-eó, -íre, -ii, -itúrus, pass away, perish. per-feró, -ferre, -tulí, -látus, bear through, bear, endure; weather. perfició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [per + fació], do or make through, accomplish. per-fló, -fláre, blow through or over. per-fodió, -fodere, -fódí, -fossus, dig or pierce through, transfix. perículum, -í, n., danger, peril, risk. per-lústró, -lústráre, -lústrávi, -lústrátus, look over, examine, survey. per-maneó, -manére, -mánsi, -mánsus, remain. perpetuus, -a, -um [per + petó], continuous, perpetual; in perpetuum, for all time, forever. per-rumpó, -rumpere, -rúpí, -ruptus, break or burst through, break. per-scríbó, -scríbere, -scrípsí, scríptus, write through or in full, describe fully, recount. per-sequor, -sequí, -secútus, follow up, pursue. Perseus, -í, m., Perseus. per-solvó, -solvere, -solví, -solútus, pay completely, pay. per-suádeó, -suádére, -suási, -suásus, persuade, prevail upon, induce. per-terreó, -terrére, -terrui, -territus, thoroughly frighten, terrify. per-turbó, -turbáre, -turbávi, -turbátus, greatly disturb, disturb, agitate, throw into confusion. per-venió, -veníre, -véní, -ventus, come through, come, arrive, reach. pés, pedis, m., foot. petó, -ere, -íví or -ií, -ítus, seek, ask; attack. Phásis, -idis, m., Phasis. Phíneus, -í, m., Phineus. Pholus, -í, m., Pholus. Phrixus, -í, m., Phrixus. pinguis, -e, fat. piscátor, -tóris [piscor, fish], m., fisherman. plausus, -ús [plaudó, clap], m., applause. plúrés, -a [comp. of multus], plur. adj., more, many, several. plúrimus, -a, -um, superl. of multus. Plútó, -ónis, m., Pluto. póculum, -í [pótó, drink], n., cup. poena, -ae, f., penalty, punishment. poéta, -ae, m., poet. polliceor, -licérí, -licitus, promise. Polydectés, -is, m., Polydectes. Polyphémus, -í, m., Polyphemus. pómum, -í, n., fruit, apple. pondus, ponderis [pendó], n., weight. pónó, pónere, posuí, positus, place, put; póní with in and abl., to be placed in, rest or depend on. póns, pontis, m., bridge. porcus, -í, m., pig, hog, swine. porta, -ae, f., gate; door. portus, -ús, m., harbor, haven, port. póscó, póscere, popóscí, ask, demand. possideó, -sidére, -sédí, -sessus, hold, possess. possum, posse, potuí [potis, able + sum], be able, have power, can. post, adv., after, later; prep. with acc., after, behind. posteá [post], adv., after this, afterwards. posterus, -a, -um [post], following, next. post-quam, conj., later than, after, when. postrémus, -a, -um [superl. of posterus], last. postrídié [posterus + diés], adv., the day after, the next day. postuló, -áre, -áví, -átus, ask, request, demand. potior, -írí, -ítus [potis, able], become master of, get possession of. prae-acútus, -a, -um, sharp at the end, pointed, sharp. praebeó, -ére, -uí, -itus [prae, before + habeó], hold forth, supply, furnish, give; show, present, exhibit. prae-caveó, -cavére, -cáví, -cautus, beware beforehand, beware, be on one's guard. praecipió, -cipere, -cépí, -ceptus [prae, before + capió], take beforehand, anticipate; order, charge. praecipué [praecipuus, especial], adv., especially. prae-clárus, -clára, -clárum, very bright; splendid, remarkable, famous. praeda, -ae, f., booty, spoil, plunder. prae-dícó, -dícere, -díxí, -dictus, say beforehand, foretell, predict. praedor, -árí, -átus [praeda], plunder. praemium, -í, n., reward. praeséns, -sentis [part. of praesum], adj., present, immediate, imminent. praesentia, -ae [praeséns], f., the present. praeses, praesidis, m., protector. praesidium, -í [praeses], n., protection; guard, escort. praestáns, -stantis [part. of praestó], adj., preëminent, remarkable. prae-stó, -stáre, -stití, -stitus, stand in front; show. prae-sum, -esse, -fuí, be before, preside over, have charge of, command. praeter [prae, before], prep. with acc., before, past, by; besides, except. praetereá [praeter], adv., besides this, besides, moreover. praeter-eó, -íre, -ií, -itus, pass by. precés, -um, f. plur., prayer, entreaty. prehendó, -hendere, -hendí, -hénsus, seize. premó, premere, pressí, pressus, press, check, restrain. pretium, -í, n., price, charge. prímó [prímus], adv., at first. prímum [prímus], adv., first, in the first place. prímus, -a, -um [superl. from pró], first, foremost. prístinus, -a, -um [prius], former. prius [prior, former], adv., before, first. prius-quam, conj., before than, sooner than, before. pró, prep. with abl., before, in front of; for, in behalf of; for, as; in return for, for. procul, adv., at or from a distance, far. proelium, -í, n., battle, combat; proelium committere, to join battle. profectió, -ónis [proficíscor], f., departure, start. proficíscor, -ficíscí, -fectus [prófició, make progress], set out, depart, start, march_. prógredior, -gredí, -gressus [pró + gradior], go forward, advance. prohibeó, -hibére, -hibuí, -hibitus [pró + habeó], hold back, prevent, hinder. próició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [pró + iació], throw forth or down, cast away, throw. pró-mittó, -mittere, -mísí, -missus, send or put forth, promise. prómó, prómere, prómpsí, prómptus [pró + emó], take or bring out, produce. prómunturium, -í, n., headland, promontory. properó, -áre, -áví, -átus, hasten. pró-pónó, -pónere, -posuí, -positus, put or set before, offer, propose; set forth, say. propter, prep. with acc., on account of, because of. próra, -ae, f., prow, bow. pró-sequor, -sequí, -secútus, follow forward, follow. Próserpina, -ae, f., Proserpina, Proserpine. pró-sternó, -sternere, -stráví, -strátus, strew or spread before, throw or knock down. pró-sum, pródesse, prófuí, be of advantage, profit, avail, assist. pró-vehó, -vehere, -vexí, -vectus, carry forward. pró-vocó, -vocáre, -vocáví, -vocátus, call forth or out, challenge. proximus, -a, -um [superl. from prope, near], nearest, next. prúdentia, -ae [prúdéns, prudent], f., prudence. puella, -ae [puer], f., girl, maiden. puer, puerí, m., boy. pueritia, -ae [puer], f., boyhood. púgna, -ae, f., fighting, battle, combat. púgnó, -áre, -áví, -átus [púgna], fight. pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum, beautiful. pulsó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of pelló], push or strike against, knock, knock at. punctum, -í [pungó, prick], n., point, instant, moment. púrgó, -áre, -áví, -átus [púrus, clean + agó], make clean, clean, cleanse. putó, -áre, -áví, -átus, think. Pýthia, -ae, f., Pythia.


quá [quí], adv., in which place, where. quaeró, quaerere, quaesíví, quaesítus, seek; ask, inquire. quális, -e, of what sort? what kind of? quam [quis and quí], adv., how? as; than; with superl., as … as possible. quam-quam, conj., however much, although. quantum [quantus], adv., how much? how? quantus, -a, -um, how great or much? quartus, -a, -um [quattuor], fourth. quasi [quí + sí], conj., as if. quattuor, indecl. adj., four. -que, enclitic conj., and. quí, quae, quod, rel. pron., who, which. quí, quae, quod, interrog. pron. adj., what? quídam, quaedam, quoddam, indef. pron., a certain, certain. quidem, adv., in fact, indeed, certainly; né … quidem, not … even. quiés, quiétis, f., rest, repose. quín, conj., so that … not, but that, but. quínquágintá [quínque, five], indecl. adj., fifty. quíntus, -a, -um [quínque, five], fifth. quis, quid, interrog. pron., who? which? what? quis, qua, quid, indef. pron., any one, anybody, anything, some one, somebody, something. quis-nam, quaenam, quidnam, interrog. pron., who, which, or what, pray? who? which? what? quis-quam, quicquam, indef. pron., any one, anything. quis-que, quaeque, quidque, indef. pron., each. quó [quis and quí], adv., to what place? whither? to which place, whither; for which reason, wherefore, therefore; quó úsque, till when? how long? quod [quí], conj., that, in that, because. quoniam [cum + iam], conj., since now, since. quoque [quí + -que], adv., also. quotannís [quot, how many + annus], adv., every year, yearly, annually. quotiéns [quot, how many, adv., as often as.


rámus, -í, m., branch, bough. rapió, -ere, -uí, -tus, seize, snatch. ratió, -ónis [reor, think], f., plan, means, method, manner_. recipió, -cipere, -cépí, -ceptus [re- + capió], take or get back, recover; sé recipere, to betake oneself, withdraw; to collect oneself, recover. re-creó, -creáre, -creáví, -creátus, make anew, renew, refresh. réctus, -a, -um [part. of regó, direct], direct, straight. re-cumbó, -cumbere, -cubuí, lie back or down. recuperó, -áre, -áví, -átus, recover. recúsó, -cúsáre, -cúsáví, -cúsátus [re- + causa], give a reason against, refuse. reddó, -dere, -didí, -ditus [re- + dó], give back, return, restore; render. redeó, -íre, -ií, -itus [re- + eó], go back, return. redintegró, -integráre, -integráví, -integrátus [re- + integró, make whole], make whole again, renew. reditus, -ús [redeó], m., return. re-dúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus, lead or bring back; restore. re-feró, referre, rettulí, relátus, bring or carry back, return; pedem referre, to draw back, retire, retreat; grátiam referre, see grátia. refició, -ficere, -fécí, -fectus [re- + fació], make anew, renew, repair. re-fugió, -fugere, -fúgí, flee back, run away, retreat. re-fulgeó, -fulgére, -fulsí, flash back, shine. régia, -ae [régius, royal], f., palace. régína, -ae [réx], f., queen. regió, -ónis [regó, direct], f., direction; country, region. régnó, -áre, -áví, -átus [régnum], reign, rule. régnum, -í [réx], n., royal power, rule, throne; kingdom, realm. regredior, -gredí, -gressus [re- + gradior], go back, return. re-linquó, -linquere, -líquí, -lictus, leave behind, leave. reliquus, -a, -um [relinquó], left, the remaining, the other, the rest of. remedium, -í [re- + medeor, heal], n., remedy. rémigó, -áre [rémex, rower], row. re-moveó, -movére, -móví, -mótus, move back, remove. rémus, -í, m., oar. re-núntió, -núntiáre, -núntiáví, -núntiátus, bring back word, report, announce. re-pelló, repellere, reppulí, repulsus, drive back or away, repulse, repel. reperió, reperíre, repperí, repertus, find, discover. repertor, -óris [reperió], m., discoverer, inventor. re-pleó, -plére, -pléví, -plétus, fill again or up, fill. re-pónó, -pónere, -posuí, -positus, put or set back; store up or away. re-portó, -portáre, -portáví, -portátus, carry or bring back. re-púgnó, -púgnáre, -púgnáví, -púgnátus, fight against, struggle, resist. rés, reí, f., thing, matter, affair, circumstance, situation; ré vérá, in truth, in fact, really. re-sistó, -sistere, -stití, stand back, resist. re-spíró, -spíráre, -spíráví, -spírátus, breathe back or out, breathe. re-spondeó, -spondére, -spondí, -spónsus, reply, answer. respónsum, -í [part. of respondeó], n., reply, answer, response. restituó, -stituere, -stituí, -stitútus [re- + statuó], set up again, put back, restore. retineó, -tinére, -tinuí, -tentus [re- + teneó], hold or keep back, keep, restrain; hold fast. revertor, -vertí, -versus, perf. act. -vertí [re- + vertó], turn back, return. réx, régis [regó, direct], m., king. Rhadamanthus, -í, m., Rhadamanthus. rídeó, rídére, rísí, rísus, laugh. rípa, -ae, f., bank. ríte [rítus, rite], adv., duly, fitly. róbur, róboris, n., oak. rogó, -áre, -áví, -átus, ask. rogus, -í, m., funeral pile, pyre. Róma, -ae, f., Rome. róstrum, -í [ródó, gnaw], n., beak. ruó, -ere, -í, -itúrus, rush. rúpés, -is, f., rock, cliff; reef. rúrsus [for reversus, part, of revertor], adv., again.


saccus, -í, m., bag, sack. sacerdós, -dótis [sacer, holy + dó], m. and f., priest, priestess. sacrificium, -í [sacrifice], n., sacrifice. sacrificó, -áre, -áví, -átus [sacer, holy + fació], sacrifice. saepe, adv., often, frequently. saevus, -a, -um, fierce, savage. sagitta, -ae, f., arrow. sál, salis, m., salt. Salmydéssus, -í, m., Salmydessus. salsus, -a, -um [sál], salted, salt. salús, salútis [salvus, safe], f., safety, deliverance, escape. sánctus, -a, -um [part, of sanció, make sacred], consecrated, sacred. sanguis, sanguinis, m., blood. sánitás, -tátis [sánus, sound], f., soundness; right reason, sanity. satis, adv., enough, sufficiently. saxum, -í, n., rock, stone. scapha, -ae, f., boat, skiff. scelus, sceleris, n., wickedness, crime. scientia, -ae [sció], f., knowledge, skill. sció, -íre, -íví, -ítus, know. scríbó, scríbere, scrípsí, scríptus, write. scútum, -í, n., shield. sé-cédó, -cédere, -cessí, -cessus, go apart, withdraw. secundus, -a, -um [sequor], following, favorable. sed, conj., but. sedeó, sedére, sédí, sessus, sit. sédés, -is [sedeó], f., seat, abode. sémentis, -is [semen, seed], f., seeding, sowing. semper, adv., always. senex, senis, m., old man. sententia, -ae [sentió], f., opinion; purpose. sentió, sentíre, sénsí, sénsus, perceive, feel. sepelió, sepelíre, sepelíví, sepultus, bury. septimus, -a, -um [septem, seven],seventh. sepultúra, -ae [sepelió], f., burial. sequor, sequí, secútus, follow. Seríphus, -í, f., Seriphos. sermó, -ónis [seró, interweave], m., conversation, talk, speech. seró, serere, séví, satus, sow, plant. serpéns, -entis [part, of serpó, crawl], f., serpent. servió, -ire, -íví, -ítus [servus], be subject to, serve. servitús, -tútis [servus], f., slavery, servitude. servó, -áre, -áví, -átus, save, preserve. servus, -í, m., slave, servant. sí, conj., if. síc, adv., so, thus. Sicilia, -ae, f., Sicily. sígnum, -í, n., sign, signal. silva, -ae, f., wood, forest. simul, adv., at the same time; simul atque or ac, as soon as. sine, prep. with abl., without. sinister, -tra, -trum, left. sinistra, -ae [sinister], f., left hand (manus understood). sinus, -ús, m., bosom, lap. situs, -a, -um [part. of sinó], placed, situated. sí-ve or seu, conj., or if; síve … síve, whether … or. socius, -í [sequor], m., companion, comrade, ally. sól, sólis, m., sun. solium, -í [sedeó], n., seat, throne. sollicitúdó, -túdinis [sollicitus], f., anxiety, care, apprehension. sollicitus, -a, -um, troubled, anxious. sólus, -a, -um, alone. solvó, solvere, solví, solútus, loosen, unbind, release; pay; with or without návem, cast off, set sail, put to sea. somnus, -í, m., sleep, drowsiness. sonitus, -ús [sonó, sound], m. sound, noise. sonórus, -a, -um [sonó, sound], sounding, loud, noisy. soror, -óris, f., sister. sors, sortis, f., lot. sortior, -írí, -ítus [sors], cast or draw lots. spargó, spargere, sparsí, sparsus, scatter, sprinkle. spatium, -í, n., space, interval; space of time, time. speciés, -éí [speció, look], f., sight, appearance, shape. spectátor, -óris [spectó], m., looker-on, spectator. spectó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of speció, look], look at or on. speculum, -í [speció, look], n., looking-glass, mirror. spélunca, -ae, f., cave, cavern. spernó, spernere, spréví, sprétus, despise, scorn. spéró, -áre, -áví, -átus [spés], hope. spés, speí, f., hope. sponte, f. abl. sing., modified by meá, tuá, suá, of one's own accord, voluntarily. squálor, -óris [squáleó, be dirty], m., dirt, filth. stabulum, -í [stó], n., standing-place, stall, stable, inclosure. statim [stó], adv., on the spot, forthwith, at once, immediately. statuó, statuere, statuí, statútus [stó], cause to stand; decide, resolve. stípendium, -í, n., tax, tribute. stó, stáre, stetí, status, stand. stringó, stringere, strinxí, strictus, draw, unsheathe. studeó, -ére, -uí, be eager, give attention, apply oneself. studiósus, -a, -um [studium], eager, diligent, studious. studium, -í [studeó], n., eagerness, zeal; study, pursuit. stupeó, -ére, -uí, be stunned, astounded, or amazed. Stymphálus, -í, m., Stymphalus. Stymphális, -idis [Stymphálus], adj., of Stymphalus, Stymphalian. Styx, Stygis, f., Styx. suávis, -e, sweet, pleasant. sub, prep. with acc. and abl., under; sub vesperum, towards evening. sub-dó, -dere, -didí, -ditus, put under, apply. sub-dúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus, draw up, beach. sub-eó, -íre, -ií, -itus, go under; undergo, submit to, sustain, bear, endure. subició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [sub + iació], throw or place under. subitó [subitus, unexpected], adv., unexpectedly, suddenly. sub-levó, -leváre, -leváví, -levátus, lift from beneath, lift, raise. sub-mergó, -mergere, -mersí, -mersus, plunge under, sink, overwhelm. subsidium, -í [sub + sedeó], n., reserve, reinforcement, support, help. succédó, -cédere, -cessí, -cessus [sub + cédó], go or come under, follow after, succeed. succendó, -cendere, -cendí, -cénsus, kindle beneath, set on fire. succídó, -cídere, -cídí, -císus [sub + caedó], cut below or down. súcus, -í, m., juice. suí, sibi, sé or sésé, reflexive pron., himself, herself, itself, themselves. sum, esse, fuí, futúrus, be. summus, -a, -um [superl. of superus, upper], uppermost, highest, greatest. súmó, súmere, súmpsí, súmptus [sub + emó], take under or up, take; poenam súmere, to exact or inflict punishment. superior, -ius [comp. of superus, upper], adj., higher; former, previous, preceding. superó, -áre, -áví, -átus [superus, upper], overcome, defeat, conquer. super-sum, -esse, -fuí, be over or left, remain. supplicium, -í [supplex, kneeling], n., punishment, torture. suppónó, -pónere, -posuí, -positus [sub + pónó], place or put under. suprá [superus, upper], adv. and prep. with acc., above, before. suprémus, -a, -um [superl. of superus, upper], highest, last. suscipió, -cipere, -cépí, -ceptus [sub + capió], undertake. suspendó, -pendere, -pendí, -pénsus [sub + pendó], hang up, hang. suspíció, -ónis [suspició, look askance at], f., suspicion. suspicor, -spicárí, -spicátus [suspició, look askance at], suspect. sustineó, -tinére, -tinuí, -tentus [sub + teneó], hold or bear up, sustain, withstand. suus, -a, -um [suí], his, her, its, or their own; his, her, its, their. Symplégadés, -um, f. plur., the Symplegades.


taceó, -ére, -uí, -itus, be silent. tacitus, -a, -um [part. of taceó], silent. Taenarus, -í, m., Taenarus. tálária, -ium [tálus, ankle], n. plur., winged shoes. tális, -e, such. tam, adv., so. tamen, adv., however, yet, nevertheless. tandem, adv., at length or last, finally. tangó, tangere, tetigí, táctus, touch. tantum [tantus], adv., so much or far, only. tantus, -a, -um, so great or much. Tartarus, -í, m., Tartarus. taurus, -í, m., bull. tegó, tegere, téxí, téctus, cover. télum, -í, n., missile, spear, weapon. temeré, adv., rashly. tempestás, -tátis [tempus], f., weather; storm, tempest. templum, -í, n., sanctuary, temple. temptó, -áre, -áví, -átus, try, attempt. tempus, temporis, n., time, season. teneó, -ére, -uí, -tus, hold, keep; hold back, restrain, stop. tenuis, -e, thin. tergum, -í, n., back. terra, -ae, f., land, earth. terreó, -ére, -uí, -itus, frighten, terrify. terribilis, -e [terreó], dreadful, terrible. terror, -óris [terreó], m., terror, fright. tertium [tertius], adv., the or a third time. tertius, -a, -um [trés], third. texó, -ere, -uí, -tus, weave. Thébae, -árum, f. plur., Thebes. Thébání, -órum [Thébae], m. plur., Thebans. Thermódón, -ontis, m., Thermodon. Théseus, -í, m., Theseus. Thessalia, -ae, f., Thessaly. Thrácia, -ae, f., Thrace. Tiberis, -is, m., Tiber. timeó, -ére, -uí, fear. timor, -óris [timeó], m., fear. tingó, tingere, tinxí, tinctus, wet, soak, dye. Tíryns, Tírynthis, f., Tiryns. tolló, tollere, sustulí, sublátus, lift, raise; take away, remove; ancorás tollere, to weigh anchor. torqueó, torquére, torsí, tortus, turn. tótus, -a, -um, all the, the whole or entire. tráctó, -áre, -áví, -átus [freq. of trahó], handle, touch, feel. trádó, -dere, -didí, -ditus [trans + do], give across, over, or up, deliver; hand down, relate, report. trádúcó, -dúcere, -dúxí, -ductus [tráns + dúcó], lead across. trahó, trahere, tráxí, tráctus, draw, drag. tráició, -icere, -iécí, -iectus [tráns + iació], throw across, strike through, pierce. tráiectus, -ús [tráició], m., crossing over, passage. tránó, -náre, -náví [tráns + nó, swim], swim across or over. tranquillitás, -tátis [tranquillus], f., calm. tranquillus, -a, -um, calm. tráns, prep. with acc., across, over. tráns-eó, -íre, -ií, -itus, go across or over, cross. tráns-fígó, -fígere, -fíxí, -fíxus, thrust or pierce through, transfix. tráns-portó, -portáre, -portáví, -portátus, carry across or over, transport. tráns-vehó, -vehere, -vexí, -vectus, carry across or over. trés, tria, plur. adj., three. tribútum, -í [part. of tribuó, contribute], n., contribution, tribute. trístitia, -ae [trístis, sad], f., sadness. Tróia, -ae, f., Troy. Tróiání, -órum [Tróia], m. plur., Trojans. tú, tuí, pers. pron., thou, you. tum, adv., then, at that time. turbó, -áre, -áví, -átus [turba, confusion], confuse, throw into disorder, disturb, trouble. turbó, turbinis [turbó], m., whirlwind, hurricane. turpis, -e, disgraceful. tútus, -a, -um [part. of tueor, watch over], safe. tuus, -a, -um [tú], thy, thine, your.


ubi, adv., where; conj., when. ulcíscor, ulcíscí, ultus, avenge. úllus, -a, -um, any. últerior, -ius [comp. from últrá, beyond], adj., farther. Ulixés, -is, m., Ulysses. umbra, -ae, f., shadow, shade. umerus, -í, m., shoulder. umquam, adv., ever. unda, -ae, f., wave. unde, adv., whence. úndecimus, -a, -um [úndecim, eleven], eleventh. undique [unde + -que], adv., from or on all sides. ungó, ungere, únxí, únctus, smear, anoint. unguentum, -í [ungó], n., ointment. úniversus, -a, -um [únus + vertó], all together, whole, entire, all. únus, -a, -um, one; only, alone. urbs, urbis, f., city. úró, úrere, ússí, ústus, burn. úsque, adv., all the time; úsque ad, as far as, until; quó úsque, see quó. úsus, -ús [útor], m., use; experience. ut, conj., as; when; that; ita ut, as. uter, utra, utrum, which? of two. úter, útris, m., wine-skin. uter-que, utraque, utrumque, each, either, both. útor, útí, úsus, use. utrimque [uterque], adv., on either side or both sides. uxor, -óris, f., wife.


vacuus, -a, -um [vacó, be empty], empty. valeó, -ére, -uí, -itúrus, be strong or effectual, have effect, prevail. validus, -a, -um [valeó], strong. vallis, -is, f., valley. varius, -a, -um, various. vás, vásis, n., plur. vása, -órum, vessel. vástó, -áre, -áví, -átus [vástus], lay waste. vástus, -a, -um, waste, huge, enormous, vast. vehementer [veheméns, violent], adv., violently, vehemently; earnestly; exceedingly, greatly. vehó, vehere, vexí, vectus, carry. vellus, velleris, n., fleece. véló, -áre, -áví, -átus [vélum, veil], veil, cover. vel-ut, even or just as, as. vénátió, -ónis [vénor, hunt], f., hunting. venénum, -í, n., poison. venió, veníre, véní, ventus, come. venter, ventris, m., belly. ventus, -í, m., wind. verbum, -í, n., word. vereor, -érí, -itus, fear. véró [vérus], adv., in truth, indeed; however. versor, -árí, -átus [freq. of vertó], keep turning, be busy or employed, be. vertó, vertere, vertí, versus, turn. vérus, -a, -um, true; ré vérá, in truth, in fact. véscor, -í, feed on, eat. vesper, vesperí, m., evening. vester, -tra, -trum [vós], your. vestígium, -í [vestígó, track], n., track, foot-print. vestis, -is, f., clothing, dress, robe. vestítus, -ús [vestió, clothe], m., clothing. via, -ae, f., road, way. viátor, -tóris [via], m., wayfarer, traveler. victima, -ae [vincó, overcome], f., victim. victória, -ae [vincó, overcome], f., victory. víctus, -ús [vívó], m., sustenance, food. vícus, -í, m., village. videó, vidére, vídí, vísus, see; pass., seem. vigilia, -ae [vigil, awake], f., watch. vígintí, indecl. adj., twenty. vílla, -ae, f., country-house, villa. vímen, -minis, n., osier. vinció, vincíre, vinxí, vinctus, bind. vinculum, -í [vinció], n., bond, chain. vínum, -í, n., wine. vir, virí, m., man. virgó, virginis, f., maiden. virtús, -tútis [vir], f., manliness, courage, bravery. vís, vís, f., violence, force; virtue, potency, efficacy; plur. vírés, -ium, strength; omnibus víribus, with all one's strength, with might and main. vísus, -ús [videó], m., sight. víta, -ae [vívó], f., life. vító, -áre, -áví, -átus, avoid, escape. vívó, vívere, víxí, víctus, live. vívus, -a, -um [vívó], alive, living. vix, adv., with difficulty, scarcely, hardly, barely. vocó, -áre, -áví, -átus [vóx], call, summon. Volcánus, -í, m., Vulcan. voló, -áre, -áví, -átúrus, fly. voló, velle, voluí, wish. volucris, -is [voló], f., bird. voluntás, -tátis [voló], f., wish, will. voluptás, -tátis [voló], f., pleasure. vós, plur. of tú. voró, -áre, -áví, -átus, swallow whole, devour. vóx, vócis, f., voice; word. vulneró, -áre, -áví, -átus [vulnus], wound. vulnus, vulneris, n., wound.


Zephyrus, -í, m., Zephyrus, the west wind.
Zétés, -ae, m., Zetes.