The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Forme of Cury: A Roll of Ancient English Cookery Compiled, about A.D. 1390

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Title: The Forme of Cury: A Roll of Ancient English Cookery Compiled, about A.D. 1390

Author: Samuel Pegge

Release date: May 1, 2005 [eBook #8102]
Most recently updated: April 1, 2013

Language: English, Middle English


Produced by Tobin Richard, Charles Franks, Greg Lindahl,

Cindy Renfrow and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team.
Corrections and additions by Greg Lindahl.



Compiled, about A.D. 1390, by the Master-Cooks of King RICHARD II,

Presented afterwards to Queen ELIZABETH, by EDWARD Lord STAFFORD,

And now in the Possession of GUSTAVUS BRANDER, Esq.

Illustrated with NOTES, And a copious INDEX, or GLOSSARY.

A MANUSCRIPT of the EDITOR, of the same Age and Subject, with other congruous Matters, are subjoined.

"—ingeniosa gula est." MARTIAL.

TO GUSTAVUS BRANDER, Esq. F.R.S. F.S.A. and Cur. Brit. Mus.


I return your very curious Roll of Cookery, and I trust with some Interest, not full I confess nor legal, but the utmost which your Debtor, from the scantiness of his ability, can at present afford. Indeed, considering your respectable situation in life, and that diffusive sphere of knowledge and science in which you are acting, it must be exceedingly difficult for any one, how well furnished soever, completely to answer your just, or even most moderate demands. I intreat the favour of you, however, to accept for once this short payment in lieu of better, or at least as a public testimony of that profound regard wherewith I am,


Your affectionate friend, and most obliged servant, St. George's day, 1780.




Without beginning ab ovo on a subject so light (a matter of importance, however, to many a modern Catius or Amasinius), by investigating the origin of the Art of Cookery, and the nature of it as practised by the Antediluvians [1]; without dilating on the several particulars concerning it afterwards amongst the Patriarchs, as found in the Bible [2], I shall turn myself immediately, and without further preamble, to a few cursory observations respecting the Greeks, Romans, Britons, and those other nations, Saxons, Danes, and Normans, with whom the people of this nation are more closely connected.

The Greeks probably derived something of their skill from the East, (from the Lydians principally, whose cooks are much celebrated, [3]) and something from Egypt. A few hints concerning Cookery may be collected from Homer, Aristophanes, Aristotle, &c. but afterwards they possessed many authors on the subject, as may be seen in Athenæus [4]. And as Diætetics were esteemed a branch of the study of medicine, as also they were afterwards [5], so many of those authors were Physicians; and the Cook was undoubtedly a character of high reputation at Athens [6].

As to the Romans; they would of course borrow much of their culinary arts from the Greeks, though the Cook with them, we are told, was one of the lowest of their slaves [7]. In the latter times, however, they had many authors on the subject as well as the Greeks, and the practitioners were men of some Science [8], but, unhappily for us, their compositions are all lost except that which goes under the name of Apicius; concerning which work and its author, the prevailing opinion now seems to be, that it was written about the time of Heliogabalus [9], by one Cælius, (whether Aurelianus is not so certain) and that Apicius is only the title of it [10]. However, the compilation, though not in any great repute, has been several times published by learned men.

The Aborigines of Britain, to come nearer home, could have no great expertness in Cookery, as they had no oil, and we hear nothing of their butter, they used only sheep and oxen, eating neither hares, though so greatly esteemed at Rome, nor hens, nor geese, from a notion of superstition. Nor did they eat fish. There was little corn in the interior part of the island, but they lived on milk and flesh [11]; though it is expressly asserted by Strabo that they had no cheese [12]. The later Britons, however, well knew how to make the best use of the cow, since, as appears from the laws of Hoel Dda, A.D. 943, this animal was a creature so essential, so common and useful in Wales, as to be the standard in rating fines, &c. [13].

Hengist, leader of the Saxons, made grand entertainments for king Vortigern [14], but no particulars have come down to us; and certainly little exquisite can be expected from a people then so extremely barbarous as not to be able either to read or write. 'Barbari homines a septentrione, (they are the words of Dr. Lister) caseo et ferina subcruda victitantes, omnia condimenta adjectiva respuerunt' [15].

Some have fancied, that as the Danes imported the custom of hard and deep drinking, so they likewise introduced the practice of gormandizing, and that this word itself is derived from Gormund, the name of that Danish king whom Ælfred the Great persuaded to be christened, and called Æthelstane [16], Now 'tis certain that Hardicnut stands on record as an egregious glutton [17], but he is not particularly famous for being a curious Viander; 'tis true again, that the Danes in general indulged excessively in feasts and entertainments [18], but we have no reason to imagine any elegance of Cookery to have flourished amongst them. And though Guthrum, the Danish prince, is in some authors named Gormundus [19]; yet this is not the right etymology of our English word Gormandize, since it is rather the French Gourmand, or the British Gormod [20]. So that we have little to say as to the Danes.

I shall take the later English and the Normans together, on account of the intermixture of the two nations after the Conquest, since, as lord Lyttelton observes, the English accommodated them elves to the Norman manners, except in point of temperance in eating and drinking, and communicated to them their own habits of drunkenness and immoderate feasting [21]. Erasmus also remarks, that the English in his time were attached to plentiful and splendid tables; and the same is observed by Harrison [22]. As to the Normans, both William I. and Rufus made grand entertainments [23]; the former was remarkable for an immense paunch, and withal was so exact, so nice and curious in his repasts [24], that when his prime favourite William Fitz- Osberne, who as steward of the household had the charge of the Cury, served him with the flesh of a crane scarcely half-roasted, he was so highly exasperated, that he lifted up his fist, and would have strucken him, had not Eudo, appointed Dapiser immediately after, warded off the blow [25].

Dapiser, by which is usually understood steward of the king's household [26], was a high officer amongst the Normans; and Larderarius was another, clergymen then often occupying this post, and sometimes made bishops from it [27]. He was under the Dapiser, as was likewise the Cocus Dominicæ Coquinæ, concerning whom, his assistants and allowances, the Liber Niger may be consulted [28]. It appears further from Fleta, that the chief cooks were often providers, as well as dressers, of victuals [29]. But Magister Coquinæ, who was an esquire by office, seems to have had the care of pourveyance, A.D. 1340 [30], and to have nearly corresponded with our clerk of the kitchen, having authority over the cooks [31]. However, the Magnus Coquus, Coquorum Præpositus, Coquus Regius, and Grans Queux, were officers of considerable dignity in the palaces of princes; and the officers under them, according to Du Fresne, were in the French court A.D. 1385, much about the time that our Roll was made, 'Queus, Aideurs, Asteurs, Paiges, Souffleurs, Enfans, Saussiers de Commun, Saussiers devers le Roy, Sommiers, Poulliers, Huissiers' [32].

In regard to religious houses, the Cooks of the greater foundations were officers of consequence, though under the Cellarer [33], and if he were not a monk, he nevertheless was to enjoy the portion of a monk [34]. But it appears from Somner, that at Christ Church, Canterbury, the Lardyrer was the first or chief cook [35]; and this officer, as we have seen, was often an ecclesiastic. However, the great Houses had Cooks of different ranks [36]; and manors and churches [37] were often given ad cibum and ad victum monachorum

[38]. A fishing at Lambeth was allotted to that purpose [39].

But whether the Cooks were Monks or not, the Magistri Coquinæ, Kitcheners, of the monasteries, we may depend upon it, were always monks; and I think they were mostly ecclesiastics elsewhere: thus when Cardinal Otto, the Pope's legate, was at Oxford, A. 1238, and that memorable fray happened between his retinue and the students, the Magister Coquorum was the Legate's brother, and was there killed [40]. The reason given in the author, why a person so nearly allied to the Great Man was assigned to the office, is this, 'Ne procuraretur aliquid venenorum, quod nimis [i.e. valde] timebat legatus;' and it is certain that poisoning was but too much in vogue in these times, both amongst the Italians and the good people of this island [41]; so that this was a post of signal trust and confidence. And indeed afterwards, a person was employed to taste, or take the assaie, as it was called [42], both of the messes and the water in the ewer [43], at great tables; but it may be doubted whether a particular person was appointed to this service, or it was a branch of the Sewer's and cup-bearer's duty, for I observe, the Sewer is sometimes called Prægustator [44], and the cup-bearer tastes the water elsewhere [45]. The religious houses, and their presidents, the abbots and priors, had their days of Gala, as likewise their halls for strangers, whom, when persons of rank, they often entertained with splendour and magnificence. And as for the secular clergy, archbishops and bishops, their feasts, of which we have some upon record [46], were so superb, that they might vie either with the regal entertainments, or the pontifical suppers of ancient Rome (which became even proverbial [47]), and certainly could not be dressed and set out without a large number of Cooks [48]. In short, the satirists of the times before, and about the time of, the Reformation, are continually inveighing against the high-living of the bishops and clergy; indeed luxury was then carried to such an extravagant pitch amongst them, that archbishop Cranmer, A. 1541, found it necessary to bring the secular clergy under some reasonable regulation in regard to the furnishing of their tables, not excepting even his own [49].

After this historical deduction of the Ars coquinaria, which I have endeavoured to make as short as possible, it is time to say something of the Roll which is here given to the public, and the methods which the Editor has pursued in bringing it to light.

This vellum Roll contains 196 formulæ, or recipes, and belonged once to the earl of Oxford [50]. The late James West esquire bought it at the Earl's sale, when a part of his MSS were disposed of; and on the death of the gentleman last mentioned it came into the hands of my highly-esteemed friend, the present liberal and most communicative possessor. It is presumed to be one of the most ancient remains of the kind now in being, rising as high as the reign of king Richard II. [51]. However, it is far the largest and most copious collection of any we have; I speak as to those times. To establish its authenticity, and even to stamp an additional value upon it, it is the identical Roll which was presented to queen Elizabeth, in the 28th year of her reign, by lord Stafford's heir, as appears from the following address, or inscription, at the end of it, in his own hand writing:

  'Antiquum hoc monumentum oblatum et missum
  est majestati vestræ vicesimo septimo die mensis
  Julij, anno regni vestri fælicissimi vicesimo viij ab
  humilimo vestro subdito, vestræq majestati fidelissimo
  E. Stafford,
  Hæres domus subversæ Buckinghamiens.' [52]

The general observations I have to make upon it are these: many articles, it seems, were in vogue in the fourteenth century, which are now in a manner obsolete, as cranes, curlews, herons, seals [53], porpoises, &c. and, on the contrary, we feed on sundry fowls which are not named either in the Roll, or the Editor's MS. [54] as quails, rails, teal, woodcocks, snipes, &c. which can scarcely be numbered among the small birds mentioned 19. 62. 154. [55]. So as to fish, many species appear at our tables which are not found in the Roll, trouts, flounders, herrings, &c. [56]. It were easy and obvious to dilate here on the variations of taste at different periods of time, and the reader would probably not dislike it; but so many other particulars demand our attention, that I shall content myself with observing in general, that whereas a very able Italian critic, Latinus Latinius, passed a sinister and unfavourable censure on certain seemingly strange medlies, disgusting and preposterous messes, which we meet with in Apicius; Dr. Lister very sensibly replies to his strictures on that head, 'That these messes are not immediately to be rejected, because they may be displeasing to some. Plutarch testifies, that the ancients disliked pepper and the sour juice of lemons, insomuch that for a long time they only used these in their wardrobes for the sake of their agreeable scent, and yet they are the most wholesome of all fruits. The natives of the West Indies were no less averse to salt; and who would believe that hops should ever have a place in our common beverage [57], and that we should ever think of qualifying the sweetness of malt, through good housewifry, by mixing with it a substance so egregiously bitter? Most of the American fruits are exceedingly odoriferous, and therefore are very disgusting at first to us Europeans: on the contrary, our fruits appear insipid to them, for want of odour. There are a thousand instances of things, would we recollect them all, which though disagreeable to taste are commonly assumed into our viands; indeed, custom alone reconciles and adopts sauces which are even nauseous to the palate. Latinus Latinius therefore very rashly and absurdly blames Apicius, on account of certain preparations which to him, forsooth, were disrelishing.' [58] In short it is a known maxim, that de gustibus non est disputandum;

And so Horace to the same purpose:

  'Tres mihi convivæ prope dissentire videntur,
  Poscentes vario multum diversa palato.
  Quid dem? quid non dem? renuis tu quod jubet alter.
  Quod petis, id sane est invisum acidumque duobus.'
                         Hor. II. Epist. ii.

And our Roll sufficiently verifies the old observation of
Martial—ingeniosa gula est.

[Addenda: after ingeniosa gula est, add, 'The Italians now eat many things which we think perfect carrion. Ray, Trav. p. 362. 406. The French eat frogs and snails. The Tartars feast on horse-flesh, the Chinese on dogs, and meer Savages eat every thing. Goldsmith, Hist. of the Earth, &c. II. p. 347, 348. 395. III. p. 297. IV. p. 112. 121, &c.']

Our Cooks again had great regard to the eye, as well as the taste, in their compositions; flourishing and strewing are not only common, but even leaves of trees gilded, or silvered, are used for ornamenting messes, see No. 175 [59]. As to colours, which perhaps would chiefly take place in suttleties, blood boiled and fried (which seems to be something singular) was used for dying black, 13. 141. saffron for yellow, and sanders for red [60]. Alkenet is also used for colouring [61], and mulberries [62]; amydon makes white, 68; and turnesole [63] pownas there, but what this colour is the Editor professes not to know, unless it be intended for another kind of yellow, and we should read jownas, for jaulnas, orange-tawney. It was for the purpose of gratifying the sight that sotiltees were introduced at the more solemn feasts. Rabelais has comfits of an hundred colours.

Cury, as was remarked above, was ever reckoned a branch of the Art Medical; and here I add, that the verb curare signifies equally to dress victuals [64], as to cure a distemper; that every body has heard of Doctor Diet, kitchen physick, &c. while a numerous band of medical authors have written de cibis et alimentis, and have always classed diet among the non-naturals; so they call them, but with what propriety they best know. Hence Junius '[Greek: Diaita] Græcis est victus, ac speciatim certa victus ratio, qualis a Medicis ad tuendam valetudinem præscribitur [65].' Our Cooks expressly tell us, in their proem, that their work was compiled 'by assent and avysement of maisters of phisik and of philosophie that dwellid in his [the King's] court' where physik is used in the sense of medecine, physicus being applied to persons prosessing the Art of Healing long before the 14th century [66], as implying such knowledge and skill in all kinds of natural substances, constituting the materia medica, as was necessiary for them in practice. At the end of the Editor's MS. is written this rhyme,

Explicit coquina que est optima medicina [67].

There is much relative to eatables in the Schola Salernitana; and we find it ordered, that a physcian should over-see the young prince's wet-nurse at every meal, to inspect her meat and drink [68].

But after all the avysement of physicians and philosophers, our processes do not appear by any means to be well calculated for the benefit of recipients, but rather inimical to them. Many of them are so highly seasoned, are such strange and heterogeneous compositions, meer olios and gallimawfreys, that they seem removed as far as possible from the intention of contributing to health; indeed the messes are so redundant and complex, that in regard to herbs, in No. 6, no less than ten are used, where we should now be content with two or three: and so the sallad, No. 76, consists of no less than 14 ingredients. The physicians appear only to have taken care that nothing directly noxious was suffered to enter the forms. However, in the Editor's MS. No. 11, there is a prescription for making a colys, I presume a cullis, or Invigorating broth; for which see Dodsley's Old Plays, vol. II. 124. vol. V. 148. vol. VI. 355. and the several plays mentioned in a note to the first mentioned passage in the Edit. 1780 [69].

I observe further, in regard to this point, that the quantities of things are seldom specified [70], but are too much left to the taste and judgement of the cook, if he should happen to be rash and inconsiderate, or of a bad and undistinguishing taste, was capable of doing much harm to the guests, to invalids especially.

Though the cooks at Rome, as has been already noted, were amongst the lowest slaves, yet it was not so more anciently; Sarah and Rebecca cook, and so do Patroclus and Automedon in the ninth Iliad. It were to be wished indeed, that the Reader could be made acquainted with the names of our master-cooks, but it is not in the power of the Editor to gratify him in that; this, however, he may be assured of, that as the Art was of consequence in the reign of Richard, a prince renowned and celebrated in the Roll [71], for the splendor and elegance of his table, they must have been persons of no inconsiderable rank: the king's first and second cooks are now esquires by their office, and there is all the reason in the world to believe they were of equal dignity heretofore [72]. To say a word of king Richard: he is said in the proeme to have been 'acounted the best and ryallest vyaund [curioso in eating] of all esten kynges.' This, however, must rest upon the testimony of our cooks, since it does not appear otherwise by the suffrage of history, that he was particularly remarkable for his niceness and delicacy in eating, like Heliogabalus, whose favourite dishes are said to have been the tongues of peacocks and nightingales, and the brains of parrots and pheasants [73]; or like Sept. Geta, who, according to Jul. Capitolinus [74], was so curious, so whimsical, as to order the dishes at his dinners to consist of things which all began with the same letters. Sardanapalus again as we have it in Athenæus [75], gave a præmium to any one that invented and served him with some novel cate; and Sergius Orata built a house at the entrance of the Lucrine lake, purposely for the pleasure and convenience of eating the oysters perfectly fresh. Richard II is certainly not represented in story as resembling any such epicures, or capriccioso's, as these [76]. It may, however, be fairly presumed, that good living was not wanting among the luxuries of that effeminate and dissipated reign.

[Addenda: after ninth Iliad, add, 'And Dr. Shaw writes, p. 301, that even now in the East, the greatest prince is not ashamed to fetch a lamb from his herd and kill it, whilst the princess is impatient till she hath prepared her fire and her kettle to dress it.']

[Addenda: after heretofore add, 'we have some good families in England of the name of Cook or Coke. I know not what they may think; but we may depend upon it, they all originally sprang from real and professional cooks; and they need not be ashamed of their extraction, any more than the Butlers, Parkers, Spencers, &c.']

My next observation is, that the messes both in the roll and the Editor's MS, are chiefly soups, potages, ragouts, hashes, and the like hotche-potches; entire joints of meat being never served, and animals, whether fish or fowl, seldom brought to table whole, but hacked and hewed, and cut in pieces or gobbets [77]; the mortar also was in great request, some messes being actually denominated from it, as mortrews, or morterelys as in the Editor's MS. Now in this state of things, the general mode of eating must either have been with the spoon or the fingers; and this perhaps may have been the reason that spoons became an usual present from gossips to their god-children at christenings [78]; and that the bason and ewer, for washing before and after dinner, was introduced, whence the ewerer was a great officer [79], and the ewery is retained at Court to this day [80]; we meet with damaske water after dinner [81], I presume, perfumed; and the words ewer &c. plainly come from the Saxon eþe or French eau, water.

Thus, to return, in that little anecdote relative to the Conqueror and William Fitz-Osbern, mentioned above, not the crane, but the flesh of the crane is said to have been under-roasted. Table, or case-knives, would be of little use at this time [82], and the art of carving so perfectly useless, as to be almost unknown. In about a century afterwards, however, as appears from archbishop Neville's entertainment, many articles were served whole, and lord Wylloughby was the carver [83]. So that carving began now to be practised, and the proper terms devised. Wynken de Worde printed a Book of Kervinge, A. 1508, wherein the said terms are registered [84]. 'The use of forks at table, says Dr. Percy, did not prevail in England land till the reign of James I. as we learn from a remarkable passage in Coryat [85]'; the passage is indeed curious, but too long to be here transcribed, where brevity is so much in view; wherefore I shall only add, that forks are not now used in some parts of Spain [86]. But then it may be said, what becomes of the old English hospitaliy in this case, the roast-beef of Old England, so much talked of? I answer, these bulky and magnificent dishes must have been the product of later reigns, perhaps of queen Elizabeth's time, since it is plain that in the days of Rich. II. our ancestors lived much after the French fashion. As to hospitality, the households of our Nobles were immense, officers, retainers, and servants, being entertained almost without number; but then, as appears from the Northumberland Book, and afterwards from the household establisliment of the prince of Wales, A. 1610, the individuals, or at least small parties, had their quantum, or ordinary, served out, where any good oeconomy was kept, apart to themselves [87]. Again, we find in our Roll, that great quantities of the respective viands of the hashes, were often made at once, as No. 17, Take hennes or conynges. 24, Take hares. 29, Take pygges. And 31, Take gees, &c. So that hospitality and plentiful housekeeping could just as well be maintained this way, as by the other of cumbrous unwieldy messes, as much as a man could carry.

As the messes and sauces are so complex, and the ingredients consequently so various, it seems necessary that a word should be spoken concerning the principal of them, and such as are more frequently employed, before we pass to our method of proceeding in the publication.

Butter is little used. 'Tis first mentioned No. 81, and occurs but rarely after [88]; 'tis found but once in the Editor's MS, where it is written boter. The usual substitutes for it are oil-olive and lard; the latter is frequently called grees, or grece, or whitegrece, as No. 18. 193. Capons in Grease occur in Birch's Life of Henry prince of Wales, p. 459, 460. and see Lye in Jun. Etym. v. Greasie. Bishop Patrick has a remarkable passage concerning this article: 'Though we read of cheese in Homer, Euripides, Theocritus, and others, yet they never mention butter: nor hath Aristotle a word of it, though he hath sundry observations about cheese; for butter was not a thing then known among the Greeks; though we see by this and many other places, it was an ancient food among the eastern people [89].' The Greeks, I presume, used oil instead of it, and butter in some places of scripture is thought to mean only cream. [90]

Cheese. See the last article, and what is said of the old Britons above; as likewise our Glossary.

Ale is applied, No. 113, et alibi; and often in the Editor's MS. as 6, 7, &c. It is used instead of wine, No. 22, and sometimes along with bread in the Editor's MS. [91] Indeed it is a current opinion that brewing with hops was not introduced here till the reign of king Henry VIII. [92] Bere, however, is mentioned A. 1504. [93]

Wine is common, both red, and white, No. 21. 53. 37. This article they partly had of their own growth, [94] and partly by importation from France [95] and Greece [96]. They had also Rhenish [97], and probably several other sorts. The vynegreke is among the sweet wines in a MS of Mr. Astle.

Rice. As this grain was but little, if at all, cultivated in England, it must have been brought from abroad. Whole or ground-rice enters into a large number of our compositions, and resmolle, No. 96, is a direct preparation of it.

Alkenet. Anchusa is not only used for colouring, but also fried and yfoundred, 62. yfondyt, 162. i. e. dissolved, or ground. 'Tis thought to be a species of the buglos.

Saffron. Saffrwm, Brit. whence it appears, that this name ran through most languages. Mr. Weever informs us, that this excellent drug was brought hither in the time of Edward III. [98] and it may be true; but still no such quantity could be produced here in the next reign as to supply that very large consumption which we see made of it in our Roll, where it occurs not only as an ingredient in the processes, but also is used for colouring, for flourishing, or garnishing. It makes a yellow, No. 68, and was imported from Egypt, or Cilicia, or other parts of the Levant, where the Turks call it Safran, from the Arabic Zapheran, whence the English, Italians, French, and Germans, have apparently borrowed their respective names of it. The Romans were well acquainted with the drug, but did not use it much in the kitchen [99]. Pere Calmet says, the Hebrews were acquainted with anise, ginger, saffron, but no other spices [100].

Pynes. There is some difficulty in enucleating the meaning of this word, though it occurs so often. It is joined with dates, No. 20. 52. with honey clarified, 63. with powder-fort, saffron, and salt, 161. with ground dates, raisins, good powder, and salt, 186. and lastly they are fried, 38. Now the dish here is morree, which in the Editor's MS. 37, is made of mulberries (and no doubt has its name from them), and yet there are no mulberries in our dish, but pynes, and therefore I suspect, that mulberries and pynes are the same, and indeed this fruit has some resemblance to a pynecone. I conceive pynnonade, the dish, No. 51, to be so named from the pynes therein employed; and quære whether pyner mentioned along with powder-fort, saffron, and salt, No. 155, as above in No. 161, should not be read pynes. But, after all, we have cones brought hither from Italy full of nuts, or kernels, which upon roasting come out of their capsulæ, and are much eaten by the common people, and these perhaps may be the thing intended.

[Addenda: after intended. add, 'See Ray, Trav. p. 283. 407. and Wright's Trav. p. 112.']

Honey was the great and universal sweetner in remote antiquity, and particularly in this island, where it was the chief constituent of mead and metheglin. It is said, that at this day in Palestine they use honey in the greatest part of their ragouts [101]. Our cooks had a method of clarifying it, No. 18. 41. which was done by putting it in a pot with whites of eggs and water, beating them well together; then setting it over the fire, and boiling it; and when it was ready to boil over to take it and cool it, No. 59. This I presume is called clere honey, No. 151. And, when honey was so much in use, it appears from Barnes that refining it was a trade of itself [102].

Sugar, or Sugur [103], was now beginning here to take place of honey; however, they are used together, No. 67. Sugar came from the Indies, by way of Damascus and Aleppo, to Venice, Genoa, and Pisa, and from these last places to us [104]. It is here not only frequently used, but was of various sorts, as cypre, No. 41. 99. 120. named probably from the isle of Cyprus, whence it might either come directly to us, or where it had received some improvement by way of refining. There is mention of blanch-powder or white sugar, 132. They, however, were not the same, for see No. 193. Sugar was clarified sometimes with wine [105].

Spices. Species. They are mentioned in general No. 133, and whole spices, 167, 168. but they are more commonly specified, and are indeed greatly used, though being imported from abroad, and from so far as Italy or the Levant (and even there must be dear), some may wonder at this: but it shouid be considered, that our Roll was chiefly compiled for the use of noble and princely tables; and the same may be said of the Editor's MS. The spices came from the same part of the world, and by the same route, as sugar did. The spicery was an ancient department at court, and had its proper officers.

As to the particular sorts, these are,

Cinamon. Canell. 14. 191. Canel, Editor's MS. 10. Kanell, ibid. 32. is the Italian Canella. See Chaucer. We have the flour or powder, No. 20. 62. See Wiclif. It is not once mentioned in Apicius.

Macys, 14. 121. Editor's MS. 10. Maces, 134. Editor's MS. 27. They are used whole, No. 158. and are always expressed plurally, though we now use the singular, mace. See Junii Etym.

Cloves. No. 20. Dishes are flourished with them, 22. 158. Editor's MS. 10. 27. where we have clowys gylofres, as in our Roll, No. 104. Powdour gylofre occurs 65. 191. Chaucer has clowe in the singular, and see him v. Clove-gelofer.

Galyngal, 30. and elsewhere. Galangal, the long rooted cyperus [106], is a warm cardiac and cephalic. It is used in powder, 30. 47. and was the chief ingredient in galentine, which, I think, took its name from it.

Pepper. It appears from Pliny that this pungent, warm seasoning, so much in esteem at Rome [107], came from the East Indies [108], and, as we may suppose, by way of Alexandria. We obtained it no doubt, in the 14th century, from the same quarter, though not exactly by the same route, but by Venice or Genoa. It is used both whole, No. 35, and in powder, No. 83. And long-pepper occurs, if we read the place rightly, in No. 191.

Ginger, gyngyn. 64. 136. alibi. Powder is used, 17. 20. alibi. and Rabelais IV. c. 59. the white powder, 131. and it is the name of a mess, 139. quære whether gyngyn is not misread for gyngyr, for see Junii Etym. The Romans had their ginger from Troglodytica [109].

Cubebs, 64. 121. are a warm spicy grain from the east.

Grains of Paradice, or de parys, 137. [110] are the greater cardamoms.

Noix muscadez, 191. nutmegs.

The caraway is once mentioned, No. 53. and was an exotic from Caria, whence, according to Mr. Lye, it took its name: 'sunt semina, inquit, carri vel carrei, sic dicti a Caria, ubi copiosissimè nascitur [111].'

Powder-douce, which occurs so often, has been thought by some, who have just peeped into our Roll, to be the same as sugar, and only a different name for it; but they are plainly mistaken, as is evident from 47. 51. 164. 165. where they are mentioned together as different things. In short, I take powder-douce to be either powder of galyngal, for see Editor's MS II. 20. 24, or a compound made of sundry aromatic spices ground or beaten small, and kept always ready at hand in some proper receptacle. It is otherwise termed good powders, 83. 130. and in Editor's MS 17. 37. 38 [112]. or powder simply, No. 169, 170. White powder-douce occurs No. 51, which seems to be the same as blanch-powder, 132. 193. called blaynshe powder, and bought ready prepared, in Northumb. Book, p. 19. It is sometimes used with powder-fort, 38. 156. for which see the next and last article.

Powder-fort, 10. 11. seems to be a mixture likewise of the warmer spices, pepper, ginger, &c. pulverized: hence we have powder-fort of gynger, other of canel, 14. It is called strong powder, 22. and perhaps may sometimes be intended by good powders. If you will suppose it to be kept ready prepared by the vender, it may be the powder-marchant, 113. 118. found joined in two places with powder- douce. This Speght says is what gingerbread is made of; but Skinner disapproves this explanation, yet, says Mr. Urry, gives none of his own.

After thus travelling through the most material and most used ingredients, the spykenard de spayn occurring only once, I shall beg leave to offer a few words on the nature, and in favour of the present publication, and the method employed in the prosecution of it.

[Illustration: Take þe chese and of flessh of capouns, or of hennes & hakke smal and grynde hem smale inn a morter, take mylke of almandes with þe broth of freysh beef. oþer freysh flessh, & put the flessh in þe mylke oþer in the broth and set hem to þe fyre, & alye hem with flour of ryse, or gastbon, or amydoun as chargeaunt as þe blank desire, & with zolks of ayren and safroun for to make hit zelow, and when it is dressit in dysshes with blank desires; styk aboue clowes de gilofre, & strawe powdour of galyugale above, and serue it forth.]

The common language of the formulæ, though old and obsolete, as naturally may be expected from the age of the MS, has no other difficulty in it but what may easily be overcome by a small degree of practice and application [113]: however, for the further illustration of this matter, and the satisfaction of the curious, a fac simile of one of the recipes is represented in the annexed plate. If here and there a hard and uncouth term or expression may occur, so as to stop or embarrass the less expert, pains have been taken to explain them, either in the annotations under the text, or in the Index and Glossary, for we have given it both titles, as intending it should answer the purpose of both [114]. Now in forming this alphabet, as it would have been an endless thing to have recourse to all our glossaries, now so numerous, we have confined ourselves, except perhaps in some few instances, in which the authorities are always mentioned, to certain contemporary writers, such as the Editor's MS, of which we shall speak more particularly hereafter, Chaucer, and Wiclif; with whom we have associated Junius' Etymologicon Anglicanum.

As the abbreviations of the Roll are here retained, in order to establish and confirm the age of it, it has been thought proper to adopt the types which our printer had projected for Domesday-Book, with which we find that our characters very nearly coincide.

The names of the dishes and sauces have occasioned the greatest perplexity. These are not only many in number, but are often so horrid and barbarous, to our ears at least, as to be inveloped in several instances in almost impenetrable obscurity. Bishop Godwin complains of this so long ago as 1616 [115]. The Contents prefixed will exhibit at once a most formidable list of these hideous names and titles, so that there is no need to report them here. A few of these terms the Editor humbly hopes he has happily enucleated, but still, notwithstanding all his labour and pains, the argument is in itself so abstruse at this distance of time, the helps so few, and his abilities in this line of knowledge and science so slender and confined, that he fears he has left the far greater part of the task for the more sagacious reader to supply: indeed, he has not the least doubt, but other gentlemen of curiosity in such matters (and this publication is intended for them alone) will be so happy as to clear up several difficulties, which appear now to him insuperable. It must be confessed again, thatthe Editor may probably have often failed in those very points, which he fancies and flatters himself to have elucidated, but this he is willing to leave to the candour of the public.

Now in regard to the helps I mentioned; there is not much to be learnt from the Great Inthronization-feast of archbishop Robert Winchelsea, A. 1295, even if it were his; but I rather think it belongs to archbishop William Warham, A. 1504 [116]. Some use, however, has been made of it.

Ralph Bourne was installed abbot of St. Augustine's, near Canterbury, A. 1309; and William Thorne has inserted a list of provisions bought for the feast, with their prices, in his Chronicle [117].

The Great Feast at the Inthronization of George Nevile archbishop of York, 6 Edward IV. is printed by Mr. Hearne [118], and has been of good service.

Elizabeth, queen of king Henry VII. was crowned A. 1487, and the messes at the dinner, in two courses, are registered in the late edition of Leland's Collectenea, A. 1770 [119], and we have profited thereby.

The Lenten Inthronization-feast of archbishop William Warham, A. 1504 [120], given us at large by Mr. Hearne [121], has been also consulted.

There is a large catalogue of viands in Rabelais, lib. iv. cap. 59. 60. And the English translation of Mr. Ozell affording little information, I had recourse to the French original, but not to much more advantage.

There is also a Royal Feast at the wedding of the earl of Devonshire, in the Harleian Misc. No. 279, and it has not been neglected.

Randle Holme, in his multifarious Academy of Armory, has an alphabet of terms and dishes [122]; but though I have pressed him into the service, he has not contributed much as to the more difficult points.

The Antiquarian Repertory, vol. II. p. 211, exhibits an entertainment of the mayor of Rochester, A. 1460; but there is little to be learned from thence. The present work was printed before No. 31 of the Antiquarian Repertory, wherein some ancient recipes in Cookery are published, came to the Editor's hand.

I must not omit my acknowledgments to my learned friend the present dean of Carlisle, to whom I stand indebted for his useful notes on the Northumberland-Household Book, as also for the book itself.

Our chief assistance, however, has been drawn from a MS belonging to the Editor, denoted, when cited, by the signature MS. Ed. It is a vellum miscellany in small quarto, and the part respecting this subject consists of ninety-one English recipes (or nyms) in cookery. These are disposed into two parts, and are intituled, 'Hic incipiunt universa servicia tam de carnibus quam de pissibus.' [123] The second part, relates to the dressing of fish, and other lenten fare, though forms are also there intermixed which properly belong to flesh-days. This leads me to observe, that both here, and in the Roll, messes are sometimes accommodated, by making the necessary alterations, both to flesh and fish-days. [124] Now, though the subjects of the MS are various, yet the hand-writing is uniform; and at the end of one of the tracts is added, 'Explicit massa Compoti, Anno Dñi M'lo CCC'mo octogesimo primo ipso die Felicis et Audacti.' [125], i.e. 30 Aug. 1381, in the reign of Rich. II. The language and orthography accord perfectly well with this date, and the collection is consequently contemporary with our Roll, and was made chiefly, though not altogether, for the use of great tables, as appears from the sturgeon, and the great quantity of venison therein prescribed for.

As this MS is so often referred to in the annotations, glossary, and even in this preface, and is a compilation of the same date, on the same subject, and in the same language, it has been thought adviseable to print it, and subjoin it to the Roll; and the rather, because it really furnishes a considerable enlargement on the subject, and exhibits many forms unnoticed in the Roll.

To conclude this tedious preliminary detail, though unquestionably a most necessary part of his duty, the Editor can scarcely forbear laughing at himself, when he reflects on his past labours, and recollects those lines of the poet Martial;

  Turpe est difficiles habere nugas,
  Et stultus labor est ineptiarum. II. 86.

and that possibly mesdames Carter and Raffald, with twenty others, might have far better acquitted themselves in the administration of this province, than he has done. He has this comfort and satisfaction, however, that he has done his best; and that some considerable names amongst the learned, Humelbergius, Torinus, Barthius, our countryman Dr. Lister, Almeloveen, and others, have bestowed no less pains in illustrating an author on the same subject, and scarcely of more importance, the Pseudo-Apicius.

[1] If, according to Petavius and Le Clerc, the world was created in autumn, when the fruits of the earth were both plentiful and in the highest perfection, the first man had little occasion for much culinary knowledge; roasting or boiling the cruder productions, with modes of preserving those which were better ripened, seem to be all that was necessary for him in the way of Cury, And even after he was displaced from Paradise, I conceive, as many others do, he was not permitted the use of animal food [Gen. i. 29.]; but that this was indulged to us, by an enlargement of our charter, after the Flood, Gen. ix, 3. But, without wading any further in the argument here, the reader is referred to Gen. ii. 8. seq. iii. 17, seq. 23.

[Addenda: add 'vi. 22. where Noah and the beasts are to live on the same food.'] [2] Genesis xviii. xxvii. Though their best repasts, from the politeness of the times, were called by the simple names of Bread, or a Morsel of bread, yet they were not unacquainted with modes of dressing flesh, boiling, roasting, baking; nor with sauce, or seasoning, as salt and oil, and perhaps some aromatic herbs. Calmet v. Meats and Eating, and qu. of honey and cream, ibid. [3] Athenæus, lib. xii. cap. 3. [4] Athenæus, lib. xii. cap. 3. et Cafaubon. See also Lister ad Apicium, præf. p. ix. Jungerm. ad Jul. Polluccm, lib. vi. c. 10. [5] See below. 'Tamen uterque [Torinus et Humelbergius] hæc scripta [i, e. Apicii] ad medicinam vendicarunt.' Lister, præf. p. iv. viii. ix. [6] Athenaæus, p. 519. 660. [7] Priv. Life of the Romans, p. 171. Lister's Præf, p. iii, but Ter. An, i. 1. Casaub. ad Jul. Capitolin. cap. 5. [8] Casaub. ad Capitolin. l. c. [9] Lister's Præf. p. ii. vi. xii. [10] Fabric. Bibl. Lat. tom. II. p. 794. Hence Dr. Bentley ad Hor. ii. ferm. 8. 29. stiles it Pseudapicius. Vide Listerum, p. iv. [11] Cæsar de B. G. v. § 10. [12] Strabo, lib. iv. p. 200. Pegge's Essay on Coins of Cunob, p. 95. [13] Archæologia, iv. p. 61. Godwin, de Præsul. p. 596, seq. [14] Malmsb. p. 9. Galfr. Mon. vi. 12. [15] Lister. ad Apic. p. xi. where see more to the same purpose. [16] Spelm. Life of Ælfred, p. 66. Drake, Eboracum. Append, p. civ. [17] Speed's History. [18] Mons. Mallet, cap. 12. [19] Wilkins, Concil. I. p. 204. Drake, Ebor. p. 316. Append, p. civ. cv. [20] Menage, Orig. v. Gourmand. [21] Lord Lyttelton, Hist. of H. II. vol. iii. p. 49. [22] Harrison, Descript. of Britain, p. 165, 166. [23] Stow, p. 102. 128. [24] Lord Lyttelton observes, that the Normans were delicate in their food, but without excess. Life of Hen. II. vol. III. p. 47. [25] Dugd. Bar. I. p. 109. Henry II. served to his son. Lord Lyttelton, IV. p. 298. [26] Godwin de Præsul. p. 695, renders Carver by Dapiser, but this I cannot approve. See Thoroton. p. 23. 28. Dugd. Bar. I. p. 441. 620. 109. Lib. Nig. p. 342. Kennet, Par. Ant. p. 119. And, to name no more, Spelm. in voce. The Carver was an officer inferior to the Dapiser, or Steward, and even under his control. Vide Lel. Collect. VI. p. 2. And yet I find Sir Walter Manny when young was carver to Philippa queen of king Edward III. Barnes Hist. of E. III. p. 111. The Steward had the name of Dapiser, I apprehend, from serving up the first dish. V. supra. [27] Sim. Dunelm. col. 227. Hoveden, p. 469. Malms. de Pont. p. 286. [28] Lib. Nig. Scaccarii, p. 347. [29] Fleta, II. cap. 75. [30] Du Fresne, v. Magister. [31] Du Fresne, ibid. [32] Du Fresne, v. Coquus. The curious may compare this List with Lib. Nig. p. 347. [33] In Somner, Ant. Cant. Append. p. 36. they are under the Magister Coquinæ, whose office it was to purvey; and there again the chief cooks are proveditors; different usages might prevail at different times and places. But what is remarkable, the Coquinarius, or Kitchener, which seems to answer to Magister Coquinæ, is placed before the Cellarer in Tanner's Notitia, p. xxx. but this may be accidental. [34] Du Fresne, v. Coquus. [35] Somner, Append. p. 36. [36] Somner, Ant. Cant. Append. p. 36. [37] Somner, p. 41. [38] Somner, p. 36, 37, 39, sæpius. [39] Somner, l. c. [40] M. Paris, p4. 69. [41] Dugd. Bar. I. p. 45. Stow, p. 184. M. Paris, p. 377. 517. M.

     Westm. p. 364.
[42] Lel. Collectan. VI. p. 7. seq.
[43] Ibid. p. 9. 13.
[44] Compare Leland, p. 3. with Godwin de Præsul. p. 695. and so
     Junius in Etymol. v. Sewer.
[45] Leland, p. 8, 9. There are now two yeomen of the mouth in the
     king's household.
[46] That of George Neville, archbishop of York, 6 Edw. IV. and that
     of William Warham, archbishop of Canterbury, A.D. 1504. These were
     both of them inthronization feasts. Leland, Collectan. VI. p. 2 and
     16 of Appendix. They were wont minuere sanguinem after these superb
     entertainments, p. 32.
[47] Hor. II. Od. xiv. 28. where see Mons. Dacier.
[48] Sixty-two were employed by archbishop Neville. And the hire of
     cooks at archbishop Warham's feast came to 23 l. 6 s. 8 d.
[49] Strype, Life of Cranmer, p. 451, or Lel. Coll. ut supra, p. 38.
     Sumptuary laws in regard to eating were not unknown in ancient Rome.
     Erasm. Colloq. p. 81. ed. Schrev. nor here formerly, see Lel. Coll.
     VI. p. 36. for 5 Ed. II.
[50] I presume it may be the same Roll which Mr. Hearne mentions in
     his Lib. Nig. Scaccarii, I. p. 346. See also three different letters
     of his to the earl of Oxford, in the Brit. Mus. in the second of
     which he stiles the Roll a piece of antiquity, and a very great
     rarity indeed
. Harl. MSS. No. 7523.
[51] See the Proem.
[52] This lord was grandson of Edward duke of Bucks, beheaded A. 1521,
     whose son Henry was restored in blood; and this Edward, the grandson,
     born about 1571, might be 14 or 15 years old when he presented the
     Roll to the Queen.
[53] Mr. Topham's MS. has socas among the fish; and see archbishop
     Nevil's Feast, 6 E. IV. to be mentioned below.
[54] Of which see an account below.
[55] See Northumb. Book, p. 107, and Notes.
[56] As to carps, they were unknown in England t. R. II. Fulier,
     Worth. in Sussex, p. 98. 113. Stow, Hist. 1038.
[57] The Italians still call the hop cattiva erba. There was a
     petition against them t. H. VI. Fuller, Worth. p. 317, &c. Evelyn,
     Sylva, p. 201. 469. ed. Hunter.
[58] Lister, Præf. ad Apicium, p. xi.
[59] So we have lozengs of golde. Lel. Collect. IV. p. 227. and a
     wild boar's head gylt, p. 294. A peacock with gylt neb. VI. p. 6.
     Leche Lambart gylt, ibid.
[60] No. 68. 20. 58. See my friend Dr. Percy on the Northumberland-
     Book, p. 415. and MS Ed. 34.
[61] No. 47. 51. 84.

[62] No. 93. 132. MS Ed. 37. [63] Perhaps Turmerick. See ad loc. [64] Ter. Andr. I. 1. where Donatus and Mad. Dacier explain it of Cooking. Mr. Hearne, in describing our Roll, see above, p. xi, by an unaccountable mistake, read Fary instead of Cury, the plain reading of the MS. [65] Junii Etym. v. Diet. [66] Reginaldus Phisicus. M. Paris, p. 410. 412. 573. 764. Et in Vit. p. 94. 103. Chaucer's Medicus is a doctor of phisick, p.4. V. Junii Etym. voce Physician. For later times, v. J. Rossus, p. 93. [67] That of Donatus is modest 'Culina medicinæ famulacrix est.' [68] Lel. Collect. IV. p. 183. 'Diod. Siculus refert primos Ægypti Reges victum quotidianum omnino sumpsisse ex medicorum præscripto.' Lister ad Apic. p. ix. [69] See also Lylie's Euphues, p. 282. Cavendish, Life of Wolsey, p. 151, where we have callis, malè; Cole's and Lyttleton's Dict. and Junii Etymolog. v. Collice. [70] See however, No. 191, and Editor's MS II. 7. [71] Vide the proeme. [72] See above. [73] Univ. Hist. XV. p. 352. 'Æsopus pater linguas avium humana vocales lingua cænavit; filius margaritas.' Lister ad Apicium, p. vii. [74] Jul. Capitolinus, c. 5. [75] Athenæus, lib. xii. c. 7. Something of the same kind is related of Heliogabalus, Lister Præf. ad Apic. p. vii. [76] To omit the paps of a pregnant sow, Hor. I. Ep. xv. 40. where see Mons. Dacier; Dr. Fuller relates, that the tongue of carps were accounted by the ancient Roman palate-men most delicious meat. Worth. in Sussex. See other instances of extravagant Roman luxury in Lister's Præf. to Apicius, p. vii. [77] See, however, No. 33, 34, 35, 146.

[Addenda: add 'reflect on the Spanish Olio or Olla podrida, and the French fricassée.'] [78] The king, in Shakespeare, Hen. VIII. act iv. sc. 2. and 3. calls the gifts of the sponsors, spoons. These were usually gilt, and, the figures of the apostles being in general carved on them, were called apostle spoons. See Mr. Steevens's note in Ed. 1778, vol. VII. p. 312, also Gent. Mag. 1768, p. 426. [79] Lel. Collect. IV. p. 328. VI. p. 2. [80] See Dr. Percy's curious notes on the Northumb. Book, p. 417. [81] Ibid. VI. p. 5. 18. [82] They were not very common at table among the Greeks. Casaub. ad Athenæum, col. 278. but see Lel. Coll. VI. p. 7. [83] Leland, Collectan. VI. p. 2. Archbishop Warham also had his carver, ibid. p. 18. See also, IV. p. 236. 240. He was a great officer. Northumb. Book, p. 445. [84] Ames, Typ. Ant. p. 90. The terms may also be seen in Rand. Holme III. p. 78. [85] Dr. Percy, 1. c. [86] Thicknesse, Travels, p., 260. [87] Dr. Birch, Life of Henry prince of Wales, p. 457. seq. [88] No. 91, 92. 160. [89] Bishop Patrick on Genesis xviii. 8. [90] Calmer, v. Butter. So Judges iv, 19. compared with v. 25. [91] Ib. No. 13, 14, 15. [92] Stow, Hist. p. 1038. [93] Lel. Coll. VI. p. 30. and see Dr. Percy on Northumb. Book, p. 414. [94] Archæologia, I. p. 319. Ill, p. 53. [95] Barrington's Observ. on Statutes, p. 209. 252. Edit. 3d. Archæolog. I. p. 330. Fitz-Stephen, p. 33. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 14. Northumb. Book, p. 6. and notes. [96] No. 20. 64. 99. [97] No. 99. [98] Fun. Mon. p. 624 [99] Dr. Lister, Præf. ad Apicium, p. xii. [100] Calmet. Dict. v. Eating. [101] Calmet. Dict. v. Meats. [102] Barnes, Hist. of E. III. p. 111. [103] No. 70, Editor's MS. 17. alibi. [104] Moll, Geogr. II. p. 130. Harris, Coll. of Voyages, I. p. 874. Ed. Campbell. [105] No. 20. 148. [106] Glossary to Chaucer. See the Northumb. Book, p. 415 and 19. also Quincy's Dispens. and Brookes's Nat. Hist. of Vegetables. [107] Lister, Præf. ad Apicium, p. xii. [108] Plinius, Nat. Hist. XII. cap. 7. [109] Bochart. III. col. 332. [110] See our Gloss. voce Greynes. [111] Lye, in Junii Etymolog. [112] But see the next article. [113] Doing, hewing, hacking, grinding, kerving, &c. are easily understood. [114] By combining the Index and Glossary together, we have had an opportunity of elucidating some terms more at large than could conveniently be done in the notes. We have also cast the Index to the Roll, and that to the Editor's MS, into one alphabet; distinguishing, however, the latter from the former. [115] Godwin de Præsul. p. 684. [116] In Dr. Drake's edition of archbishop Parker, p. lxiii. it is given to archbishop Winchelsea: but see Mr. Battely's Append. to Cantuaria Sacra, p. 27. or the Archæologia, I. p. 330. and Leland's Collectanea, VI. p. 30. where it is again printed, and more at large, and ascribed to Warham. [117] Thorne, Chron. inter X Script. Col. 2010. or Lel. Collect. VI. p. 34. Ed. 1770. [118] Leland, Collect. VI. p. 2. See also Randle Holme, III. p. 77. Bishop Godwin de Præsul. p. 695. Ed. Richardson; where there are some considerable variations in the messes or services, and he and the Roll in Leland will correct one another. [119] Vol. IV. p. 226. [120] See first paragraph before. [121] Leland's Collect. VI. p. 16. [122] Holme, Acad. of Armory, III. p. 81. [123] It is pissibus again in the title to the Second Part. [124] No. 7. 84. here No. 17. 35. 97. [125] In the common calendars of our missals and breviaries, the latter saint is called Adauctus, but in the Kalend. Roman. of Joh. Fronto, Paris. 1652, p. 126, he is written Audactus, as here; and see Martyrolog. Bedæ, p. 414.



… fome [1] of cury [2] was compiled of the chef Maister Cokes of kyng Richard the Secunde kyng of .nglond [3] aftir the Conquest. the which was acounted þe [4] best and ryallest vyand [5] of alle csten .ynges [6] and it was compiled by assent and avysement of Maisters and [7] phisik [8] and of philosophie þat dwellid in his court. First it techiþ a man for to make commune potages and commune meetis for howshold as þey shold be made craftly and holsomly. Aftirward it techiþ for to make curious potages & meetes and sotiltees [9] for alle maner of States bothe hye and lowe. And the techyng of the forme of making of potages & of meetes bothe of flessh and of fissh. buth [10] y sette here by noumbre and by ordre. sso þis little table here sewyng [11] wole teche a man with oute taryyng: to fynde what meete þat hym lust for to have.

or [12] to make gronnden benes . . . . . I. For to make drawen benes. . . . . . . . . II. for to make grewel forced.. . . . . . . . III. Caboches in potage. . . . . . . . . . . . IIII. rapes in potage . . . . . . . . . . . . . V. Eowtes of Flessh. . . . . . . . . . . . . VI. hebolas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII. Gowrdes in potage . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII. ryse of Flessh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX. Funges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X. Bursen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI. Corat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XII. noumbles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIII. Roobroth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIIII. Tredure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XV. Mounchelet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XVI. Bukkenade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XVII. Connat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XVIII. drepee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIX. Mawmenee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX. Egurdouce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXI. Capouns in Conney . . . . . . . . . . . . XXII. haares in talbotes. . . . . . . . . . . . XXIII. Haares in papdele . . . . . . . . . . . . XXIIII. connynges in Cynee. . . . . . . . . . . . XXV. Connynges in gravey . . . . . . . . . . . XXVI. Chykens in gravey . . . . . . . . . . . . XXVII. filetes in galyntyne. . . . . . . . . . . XXVIII. Pigges in sawse sawge . . . . . . . . . . XXIX. sawse madame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXX. Gees in hoggepot. . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXI. carnel of pork. . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXII. Chikens in Caudell. . . . . . . . . . . . XXXIII. chikens in hocchee. . . . . . . . . . . . XXXIII. For to boyle Fesauntes, Partyches Capons and Curlewes . . . . . . . . . . . XXX. V. blank manng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXVI. Blank Dessorre. . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXVII. morree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXVIII. Charlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXIX. charlot y forced. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. Cawdel ferry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. I. iusshell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. III.[13] Iusshell enforced . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. IIII. mortrews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. V. Blank mortrews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. VI. brewet of almony. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. VII. Peions y stewed . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. VIII. loseyns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. IX. Tartletes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. X. pynnonade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XI. Rosee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XII. cormarye. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XIII. New noumbles of Deer. . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XIIII. nota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XV. Nota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XVI. ipynee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XVII. Chyryse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XVIII. payn Foundewe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.II. XIX. Crotoun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. vyne grace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. I. Fonnell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. II. douce ame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. III. Connynges in Cirypp . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. IIII. leche lumbard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. V. Connynges in clere broth. . . . . . . . . XX.III. VI. payn Ragoun . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. VII. Lete lardes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. VIII. furmente with porpeys . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. IX. Perrey of Pesoun. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. X. pesoun of Almayn. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XI. Chiches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XII. frenche owtes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XIII. Makke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XIIII. Aquapates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XV. Salat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XVI. fenkel in soppes. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XVII. Clat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XVIII. appulmoy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.III. XIX. Slete soppes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. Letelorye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. I. Sowpes Dorry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. II. Rapey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. III. Sause Sarzyne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. IIII. creme of almanndes. . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. V. Grewel of almandes. . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. VI. cawdel of almandes mylk . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. VII. Iowtes of almannd mylk. . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. VIII. Fygey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. IX. Pochee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. X. brewet of ayrenn. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XI. Macrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XII. Tostee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XIII. Gyndawdry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XIIII. Erbowle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XV. Resmolle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XVI. vyannde Cipre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XVII. Vyannde Cipre of Samon. . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. XVIII. vyannde Ryal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IIII. IX. Compost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. gelee of Fyssh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. I. Gelee of flessh . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. II. Chysanne. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. III. congur in sawce . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. IIII. Rygh in sawce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. V. makerel in sawce. . . . . . . . . . . . . C. VI. Pykes in brasey . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. VII. porpeys in broth. . . . . . . . . . . . . C. VIII. Ballok broth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. IX. eles in brewet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. X Cawdel of Samoun. . . . . . . . . . . . . C. XI. plays in Cynee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. XII. For to make Flaumpeyns. . . . . . . . . . C. XIII. for to make noumbles in lent. . . . . . . C. XIIII. For to make Chawdoun for lent . . . . . . C. XV. furmente with porpays . . . . . . . . . . C. XVI. Fylettes in galyntyne . . . . . . . . . . C. XVII. veel in buknade . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. XVIII. Sooles in Cyney . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. IX. tenches in Cyney. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. Oysters in gravey . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. I muskels in brewet . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. II Oysters in Cyney. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. III. cawdel of muskels . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. IIII. Mortrews of Fyssh . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. V laumpreys in galyntyne. . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. VI. Laumprouns in galyntyne . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. VII. losyns in Fysshe day. . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. VIII. Sowpes in galyntyne . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. IX. sobre sawse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. X. Colde Brewet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XI. peeres in confyt. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XII. Egur douce of Fyssh . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XIII. Cold Brewet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XIIII. Pevorat for Veel and Venysoun . . . . . . XX.VI. XV. sawce blaunche for Capouns y sode . . . . XX.VI. XVI. Sawce Noyre for Capons y rosted . . . . . XX.VI. XVII. Galentyne . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XVIII. Gyngeuer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VI. XIX. verde sawse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. Sawce Noyre for mallard . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. I. cawdel for Gees . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. II. Chawdon for Swannes . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. III. sawce Camelyne. . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. IIII. Lumbard Mustard . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. V. Nota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. VI. Nota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. VII. frytour blaunched . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. VIII. Frytour of pasturnakes. . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. IX.

frytour of mylke. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. X. frytour of Erbes. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XI. Raisiowls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XII. Whyte milates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XIII. crustardes of flessh. . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XIIII. Mylates of Pork . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XV. crustardes of Fyssh . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XVI. Crustardes of erbis on fyssh day. . . . . XX.VII. XVII. lesshes fryed in lentoun. . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XVIII. Wastels y farced. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VII. XIX. sawge y farced. . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. Sawgeat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. I. cryspes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. II. Cryspels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. III. Tartee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. IIII. Tart in Ymbre day . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. V. tart de Bry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. VI. Tart de Brymlent. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. VII. tartes of Flessh. . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. VIII. Tartletes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. IX. tartes of Fyssh . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. X. Sambocade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XI. Erbolat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XII. Nysebek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XIII. for to make Pom Dorryes. & oþer þynges. . XX.VIII. XIIII. Cotagres. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XV. hart rows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XVI. Potews. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XVII. Sachus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XVIII. Bursews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.VIII. XIX. spynoches y fryed . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. Benes y fryed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. I. russhewses of Fruyt . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. II. Daryols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. III. Flaumpens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. IIII. Chewetes on flessh day. . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. V. chewetes on fyssh day . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. VI. Hastletes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.XI. VII. comadore. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. VIII. Chastletes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. IX. for to make twey pecys of Flesshe to fasten to gydre. . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. X. pur fait y pocras . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. XI. For to make blank maunnger. . . . . . . . XX.IX. XII. for to make Blank Desire. . . . . . . . . XX.IX. XIII. For to make mawmoune. . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. XIIII. the pety peruaunt . . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. XV. And the pete puant. . . . . . . . . . . . XX.IX. XVI.


[1] This is a kind of Preamble to the Roll. A space is left for the
    initial word, intended to be afterwards written in red ink, and
    presumed to be Ðis. Fome, the lineola over it being either
    casually omitted, or since obliterated, means form, written Foume
    below, and in No. 195.
[2] Cury. Cookery. We have adopted it in the Title. V. Preface.
[3] ynglond. E was intended to be prefixed in red ink. Vide Note [1]
    and [6].
[4] þ. This Saxon letter with the power of th, is used almost
    perpetually in our Roll and the Editor's Ms. Every one may not have
    adverted to it; but this character is the ground of our present
    abbreviations y'e the, y't that, y's this, &c. the y in these cases
    being evidently only an altered and more modern way of writing þ.
[5] vyaund. This word is to be understood in the concrete, quasi
    vyander, a curious epicure, an Apicius. V. Preface.
[6] csten ynges. Christian kings. K being to be inserted afterwards
    (v. note [1] and [3]) in red ink. Chaucer, v. christen.
[7] and. Read of.
[8] Phisik. V. Preface.
[9] Sotiltees. Devices in paste, wax, and confectionary ware;
    reviving now, in some measure, in our grander deserts. V. Index.
[10] buth. Be, or are. V. Index.
[11] sewing. Following; from the French. Hence our ensue written
     formerly ensew. Skelton, p. 144; and ensiew, Ames Typ. Ant. p. 9.
[12] F is omitted for the reason given in note 1.
[13] No. XX.II. II. is omitted.


Take benes and dry hem in a nost [2] or in an Ovene and hulle hem wele and wyndewe [3] out þe hulk and wayshe hem clene an do hem to seeþ in gode broth [4] an ete hem with Bacon.

[1] Gronden Benes. Beans ground (y ground, as No. 27. 53. 105.) stript of their hulls. This was a dish of the poorer householder, as also is 4 and 5, and some others. [2] a nost. An ost, or kiln. Vide Gloss. voce Ost. [3] wyndewe. Winnow. [4] gode broth. Prepared beforehand.


Take benes and seeþ hem and grynde hem in a morter [1] and drawe hem up [2] with gode broth an do Oynouns in the broth grete mynced [3] an do þerto and colour it with Safroun and serve it forth.

[1] morter. Mortar. [2] drawen hem up. Mix them. [3] grete mynced. Grossly, not too small.


Take grewel and do to the fyre with gode flessh and seeþ it wel. take the lire [2] of Pork and grynd it smal [3] and drawe the grewel thurgh a Straynour [4] and colour it wiþ Safroun and serue [5] forth.

[1] forced, farced, enriched with flesh. Vide Gloss. [2] lire. Flesh. [3] grynd it smal. Bruise or beat in a mortar. [4] stryno'. Strainer. [5] serue. Serve. Vide Gloss.


Take Caboches and quarter hem and seeth hem in gode broth with Oynouns y mynced and the whyte of Lekes y slyt and corue smale [2] and do þer to safroun an salt and force it with powdour douce [3].

[1] Caboches. Probably cabbages. [2] corue smale. Cut small. V. i corue in Gloss. [3] powdour douce. Sweet aromatic powder. V. Pref.


Take rapus and make hem clene and waissh hem clene. quare hem [2]. parboile hem. take hem up. cast hem in a gode broth and seeþ hem. mynce Oynouns and cast þerto Safroun and salt and messe it forth with powdour douce. the wise [3] make of Pasturnakes [4] and skyrwates. [5]

[1] Rapes, or rapus. Turneps. [2] quare hem. Cut them in squares, or small pieces. V. Gloss. [3] in the wise, i.e. in the same manner. Self or same, seems to be casually omitted. Vide No. 11 and 122. [4] Pasturnakes, for parsnips or carrots. V. Gloss. [5] skyrwates, for skirrits or skirwicks.


Take Borage, cool [2]. langdebef [3]. persel [4]. betes. orage [5]. auance [6]. violet [7]. saueray [8]. and fenkel [9]. and whane þey buth sode; presse hem wel smale. cast hem in gode broth an seeþ hem. and serue hem forth.

[1] Eowtes. Lowtes, No. 88, where, in the process, it is Rowtes. Quære the meaning, as Roots does not apply to the matter of the Recipe. In No. 73 it is written owtes. [2] Cole, or colewort. [3] Langdebef. Bugloss, buglossum sylvestre. These names all arise from a similitude to an ox's tongue. V. Ms. Ed. No. 43. [4] Persel. Parsley. [5] orage. Orach, Atriplex. Miller, Gard. Dict. [6] auance. Fortè Avens. V. Avens, in Gloss. [7] The leaves probably, and not the flower. [8] Savory. [9] Fenkel. Fennil.


Take Oynouns and erbes and hewe hem small and do þes to gode broth. and aray [2] it as þou didest caboches. If þey be in fyssh day. make [3] on the same maner [4] with water and oyle. and if it be not in Lent alye [5] it with zolkes of Eyren [6]. and dresse it forth and cast þer to powdour douce.

[1] Hebolace. Contents, Hebolas; for Herbolas, from the herbs used; or, if the first letter be omitted (see the Contents), Chebolas, from the Chibols employed. [2] aray. Dress, set it out. [3] make. Dress. Vide Gloss. [4] maner. manner. [5] alye. Mix. V. Gloss. [6] Eyren. Eggs. V. Gloss.


Take young Gowrdes pare hem and kerue [1] hem on pecys. cast hem in gode broth, and do þer to a gode pertye [2] of Oynouns mynced. take Pork soden. grynd it and alye it þer with and wiþ zolkes of ayrenn. do þer to safroun and salt, and messe it forth with powdour douce.

[1] kerve. Cut. [2] partye. Party, i.e. quantity.


Take Ryse and waishe hem clene. and do hem in erthen pot with gode

broth and lat hem seeþ wel. afterward take Almaund mylke [2] and do þer to. and colour it wiþ safroun an salt, an messe forth.

[1] Ryse. Rice. V. Gloss. [2] Almand mylke. V. Gloss.

FUNGES [1]. X.

Take Funges and pare hem clere and dyce hem [2]. take leke and shred hym small and do hym to seeþ in gode broth. colour it with safron and do þer inne powdour fort [3].

[1] Funges. Mushrooms. [2] dyce hem. Cut them in squares. Vide quare in Gloss. [3] Powdour fort. Vide Preface.


Take the whyte of Lekes. slype hem and shrede hem small. take Noumbles [2] of swyne and boyle hem in broth and wyne. take hym up and dresse hem and do the Leke in the broth. seeþ and do the Noumbles þer to make a Lyour [3] of brode blode and vynegre and do þer to Powdour fort seeþ Oynouns mynce hem and do þer to. the self wise make of Pigges.

[1] Bursen. Qu. the etymon. [2] Noumbles. Entrails. V. Gloss. [3] Lyo', Lyour. A mixture. Vide alye in Gloss.


Take the Noumbles of Calf. Swyne. or of Shepe. parboile hem and skerne hem to dyce [2] cast hem in gode broth and do þer to erbes. grynde chyballes [3]. smale y hewe. seeþ it tendre and lye it with zolkes of eyrenn. do þer to verious [4] safroun powdour douce and salt, and serue it forth.

[1] Corat. Qu. [2] kerve hem to dyce. V. quare in Gloss. [3] Chyballes. Chibols, young onions. V. Gloss. [4] verious. Verjuice.


Take noumbles of Deer oþer [1] of oþer beest parboile hem kerf hem to dyce. take the self broth or better. take brede and grynde with the broth. and temper it [2] up with a gode quantite of vyneger and wyne. take the oynouns and parboyle hem. and mynce hem smale and do þer to. colour it with blode and do þer to powdour fort and salt and boyle it wele and serue it fort [3].

[1] oþer. Other, i.e. or. [2] temper it. Temper it, i. e. mix it. [3] fort. Miswritten for forth. So again No. 31. 127.


Take the lire of the Deer oþer of the Roo parboile it on smale peces. seeþ it wel half in water and half in wyne. take brede and bray it wiþ the self broth and drawe blode þer to and lat it seeth to gedre with powdour fort of gynger oþer of canell [2]. and macys [3]. with a grete porcioun of vineger with Raysouns of Coraunte [4].

[1] Roo. Roe. The Recipe in Ms. Ed. No. 53. is very different. [2] Canell. Cinnamon. [3] macys. Mace. V. Preface and Gloss. [4] Raysouns of Coraunte. Currants. V. Gloss.


Take Brede and grate it. make a lyre [2] of rawe ayrenn and do þerto Safroun and powdour douce. and lye it up [3] with gode broth. and make it as a Cawdel. and do þerto a lytel verious.

[1] Tredure. A Cawdle; but quære the etymon. The French tres dure does not seem to answer. [2] lyre. Mixture. [3] lye it up. Mix it.


Take Veel oþer Moton and smite it to gobettes seeþ it in gode broth. cast þerto erbes yhewe [2] gode wyne. and a quantite of Oynouns mynced. Powdour fort and Safroun. and alye it with ayren and verious. but lat not seeþ after.

[1] Monchelet. Mounchelet, Contents. [2] y hewe. Shred.


Take Hennes [2] oþer Conynges [3] oþer Veel oþer oþer Flessh an hewe hem to gobettes waische it and hit well [4]. grynde Almandes unblaunched. and drawe hem up with þe broth cast þer inne raysons of Corance. sugur. Powdour gyngur erbes ystewed in grees [5]. Oynouns and Salt. If it is to to [6] thynne. alye it up with flour of ryse oþer with oþer thyng and colour it with Safroun.

[1] Bukkenade. Vide No. 118. qu. [2] Hennes; including, I suppose, chicken and pullets. [3] Conynges. Coneys, Rabbits. [4] hit well. This makes no sense, unless hit signifies smite or beat. [5] Grees. Fat, lard, grece. No. 19. [6] to to. So again, No. 124. To is too, v. Gloss. And too is found doubled in this manner in Mirrour for Magistrates, p. 277. 371, and other authors.


Take Connes and pare hem. pyke out the best and do hem in a pot of erthe. do þerto whyte grece þat he stewe þer inne. and lye hem up with hony clarified and with rawe zolkes [2] and with a lytell almaund mylke and do þerinne powdour fort and Safron. and loke þat it be yleesshed [3],

[1] Connat seems to be a kind of marmalade of connes, or quinces, from Fr. Coing. Chaucer, v. Coines. Written quinces No. 30. [2] Yolkes, i. e. of Eggs. [3] yleesshed. V. Gloss.


Take blanched Almandes grynde hem and temper hem up with gode broth take Oynouns a grete quantite parboyle hem and frye hem and do þerto. take smale bryddes [2] parboyle hem and do þerto Pellydore [3] and salt. and a lytel grece.

[1] Drepee. Qu. [2] bryddes. Birds. Per metathesin; v. R. in Indice. [3] Pellydore. Perhaps pellitory. Peletour, 104.

Mawmenee [1]. XX.

Take a pottel of wyne greke. and ii. pounde of sugur take and clarifye the sugur with a qantite of wyne an drawe it thurgh a straynour in to a pot of erthe take flour of Canell [2]. and medle [3] with sum of the wyne an cast to gydre. take pynes [4] with Dates and frye hem a litell in grece oþer in oyle and cast hem to gydre. take clowes [5] an flour of canel hool [6] and cast þerto. take powdour gyngur. canel. clower, colour it with saundres a lytel yf hit be nede cast salt þerto. and lat it seeþ; warly [7] with a slowe fyre and not to thyk [8], take brawn [9] of Capouns yteysed [10]. oþer of Fesauntes teysed small and cast þerto.

[1] Vide No. 194, where it is called Mawmenny. [2] Flour of Canell. Powder of Cinamon. [3] medle. Mix. [4] pynes. A nut, or fruit. Vide Gloss. [5] clowes. Cloves. [6] hool. Whole. How can it be the flour, or powder, if whole? Quære, flower of cand for mace. [7] warly. Warily, gently. [8] not to thyk. So as to be too thick; or perhaps, not to thicken. [9] brawn. Fleshy part. Few Capons are cut now except about Darking in Surry; they have been excluded by the turkey, a more magnificent, but perhaps not a better fowl.

[10] yteysed, or teysed, as afterwards. Pulled in pieces by the fingers, called teezing No. 36. This is done now with flesh of turkeys, and thought better than mincing. Vide Junius, voce Tease.


Take Conynges or Kydde and smyte hem on pecys rawe. and frye hem in white grece. take raysouns of Coraunce and fry hem take oynouns parboile hem and hewe hem small and fry hem. take rede wyne suger with powdour of peper. of gynger of canel. salt. and cast þerto. and lat it seeþ with a gode quantite of white grece an serue it forth.

[1] Egurdouce. The term expresses piccante dolce, a mixture of sour and sweet; but there is nothing of the former in the composition. Vide Gloss.


Take Capons and rost hem right hoot þat þey be not half y nouhz and hewe hem to gobettes and cast hem in a pot, do þerto clene broth, seeþ hem þat þey be tendre. take brede and þe self broth and drawe it up yferer [2], take strong Powdour and Safroun and Salt and cast þer to. take ayrenn and seeþ hem harde. take out the zolkes and hewe the whyte þerinne, take the Pot fro þe fyre and cast the whyte þerinne. messe the disshes þerwith and lay the zolkes hool and flour it with clowes.

[1] Concys seems to be a kind of known sauce. V. Gloss. [2] yfere. Together.


Take Hares and hewe hem to gobettes and seeþ hem with þe blode unwaisshed in broth. and whan þey buth y nowh: cast hem in colde water. pyke and waisshe hem clene. cole [3] the broth and drawe it thurgh a straynour. take oþer blode and cast in boylyng water seeþ it and drawe it thurgh a straynour. take Almaundes unblaunched. waisshe hem and grynde hem and temper it up with the self broth. cast al in a pot. tak oynouns and parboile hem smyte hem small and cast hem in to þis Pot. cast þerinne Powdour fort. vynegur an salt.

[1] Haares, Contents. So again, No. 24. [2] Talbotes. Ms. Ed. No. 9, Talbotays. [3] Cole. Cool.


Take Hares parboile hem in gode broth. cole the broth and waisshe the fleyssh. cast azeyn [2] to gydre. take obleys [3] oþer wafrouns [4] in stede of lozeyns [5]. and cowche [6] in dysshes. take powdour douce and lay on salt the broth and lay onoward [7] an messe forth.

[1] Papdele. Qu. [2] azeyn. Again. [3] obleys, called oblatæ; for which see Hearne ad Lib. Nig. I. p. 344. A kind of Wafer, otherwise called Nebulæ; and is the French oublie, oble. Leland, Collect. IV. p. 190. 327. [4] wafrouns. Wafers. [5] loseyns. Vide Gloss. [6] cowche. Lay. [7] onoward. Upon it.


Take Connynges and smyte hem on peces. and seeþ hem in gode broth, mynce Oynouns and seeþ hem in grece and in gode broth do þerto. drawe a lyre of brede. blode. vynegur and broth do þerto with powdour fort.

[1] Cynee. Vide Gloss.


Take Connynges smyte hem to pecys. parboile hem and drawe hem with a gode broth with almandes blanched and brayed. do þerinne sugur and powdour gynger and boyle it and the flessh þerwith. flour it with sugur and with powdour gynger an serue forth.


Take Chykens and serue hem the same manere and serue forth.


Take fylettes of Pork and rost hem half ynowh smyte hem on pecys. drawe a lyour of brede and blode. and broth and Vineger. and do þerinne. seeþ it wele. and do þerinne powdour an salt an messe it forth.

[1] Fylettes. Fillets. [2] of Galyntyne. In Galyntyne. Contents, rectlus. As for Galentine, see the Gloss.


Take Pigges yskaldid and quarter hem and seeþ hem in water and salt, take hem and lat hem kele [2]. take persel sawge. and grynde it with brede and zolkes of ayrenn harde ysode. temper it up with vyneger sum what thyk. and, lay the Pygges in a vessell. and the sewe onoward and serue it forth.

[1] Sawge. Sage. As several of them are to be used, these pigs must have been small. [2] kele. Cool.


Take sawge. persel. ysope. and saueray. quinces. and peeres [1], garlek and Grapes. and fylle the gees þerwith. and sowe the hole þat no grece come out. and roost hem wel. and kepe the grece þat fallith þerof. take galytyne and grece and do in a possynet, whan the gees buth rosted ynowh; take an smyte hem on pecys. and þat tat [2] is withinne and do it in a possynet and put þerinne wyne if it be to thyk. do þerto powdour of galyngale. powdour douce and salt and boyle the sawse and dresse þe Gees in disshes and lay þe sowe onoward.

[1] Peares. Pears. [2] that tat, i.e. that that. Vide Gloss.


Take Gees and smyte hem on pecys. cast hem in a Pot do þerto half wyne and half water. and do þerto a gode quantite of Oynouns and erbest. Set it ouere the fyre and couere [2] it fast. make a layour of brede and blode an lay it þerwith. do þerto powdour fort and serue it fort.

[1] Hoggepot. Hodge-podge. Ochepot. Ms. Ed. No. 22. French, Hochepot. Cotgrave. See Junii Enym. v. Hotch-potch. [2] couere. Cover.


Take the brawnn of Swyne. parboile it and grynde it smale and alay it up with zolkes of ayren. set it ouere [2] the fyre with white Grece and lat it not seeþ to fast. do þerinne Safroun an powdour fort and messe it forth. and cast þerinne powdour douce, and serue it forth.

[1] Carnel, perhaps Charnel, from Fr. Chaire. [2] ouere. Over. So again, No. 33.


Take Chikenns and boile hem in gode broth and ramme [2] hem up. þenne take zolkes of ayrenn an þe broth and alye it togedre. do þerto powdour of gynger and sugur ynowh safroun and salt. and set it ouere the fyre withoute boyllyng. and serue the Chykenns hole [3] oþer ybroke and lay þe sowe onoward.

[1] Chikens. Contents. So again in the next Recipe. [2] ramme. Qu. press them close together. [3] hole. Whole.


Take Chykenns and scald hem. take parsel and sawge withoute eny oþere erbes. take garlec an grapes and stoppe the Chikenns ful and seeþ hem in gode broth. so þat þey may esely be boyled þerinne. messe hem an cast þerto powdour dowce.

[1] Hochee. This does not at all answer to the French Hachis, or our Hash; therefore qu.


Take gode broth and do þerto the Fowle. and do þerto hool peper and flour of canel a gode quantite and lat hem seeþ þwith. and messe it forth. and þer cast þeron Podour dowce.


Take Capouns and seeþ hem, þenne take hem up. take Almandes blaunched. grynd hem and alay hem up with the same broth. cast the mylk in a pot. waisshe rys and do þerto and lat it seeþ. þanne take brawn of Capouns teere it small and do þerto. take white grece sugur and salt and cast þerinne. lat it seeþ. þenne messe it forth and florissh it with aneys in confyt rede oþer whyt. and with Almaundes fryed in oyle. and serue it forth.

[1] Blank Maunger. Very different from ours. Vide Gloss.


Take Almandes blaunched, grynde hem and temper hem up with whyte wyne, on fleissh day with broth. and cast þerinne flour of Rys. oþer amydoun [2], and lye it þerwith. take brawn of Capouns yground. take sugur and salt and cast þerto and florissh it with aneys whyte. take a vessel yholes [3] and put in safroun. and serue it forth.

[1] Blank Dessorre. V. Gloss. [2] Amydoun. "Fine wheat flour steeped in water, strained and let stand to settle, then drained and dried in the sun; used for bread or in broths." Cotgrave. Used in No. 68 for colouring white. [3] yholes. Quære.


Take Almandes blaunched, waisshe hem. grynde hem. and temper hem up with rede wyne, and alye hem with flour of Rys. do þerto Pynes yfryed. and colour it with saundres. do þerto powdour fort and powdour douce

and salt, messe it forth and flour it [2] with aneys confyt whyte.

[1] Morree. Ms. Ed. 37. murrey. Ibid. II. 26. morrey; probably from the mulberries used therein. [2] flour it. Flourish it.


Take Pork and seeþ it wel. hewe it smale. cast it in a panne. breke ayrenn and do þerto and swyng [2] it wel togyder. do þerto Cowe mylke and Safroun and boile it togyder. salt it & messe it forth.

[1] Charlet; probably from the French, chair. Qu. Minced Meat, and the next article, Forced Meat. [2] swyng. Shake, mix.


Take mylke and seeþ it, and swyng þerwith zolkes of Ayrenn and do þerto. and powdour of gynger suger. and Safroun and cast þerto. take the Charlet out of the broth and messe it in dysshes, lay the sewe onoward. flour it with powdour douce. and serue it forth.


Take flour of Payndemayn [2] and gode wyne. and drawe it togydre. do þerto a grete quantite of Sugur cypre. or hony clarified, and do þerto safroun. boile it. and whan it is boiled, alye it up with zolkes of ayrenn. and do þerto salt and messe it forth. and lay þeron sugur and powdour gyngur.

[1] ferry. Quære. We have Carpe in Ferry, Lel. Coll. VI. p. 21. [2] Payndemayn. White bread. Chaucer.


Take brede ygrated and ayrenn and swyng it togydre. do þerto safroun, sawge. and salt. & cast broth. þerto. boile it & messe it forth.

[1] Jusshell. See also next number. Jussell, Ms. Ed. 21, where the Recipe is much the same. Lat. Juscellam, which occurs in the old scholiast on Juvenal iv. 23; and in Apicius, v. 3. Vide Du Fresne, v. Jusselium and Juscellum, where the composition consists of vinum, ova, and sagmea, very different from this. Faber in Thesauro cites Juscellum Gallinæ from Theod. Priscianus.

N.B. No. XX.II. II. is omitted both here and in the Contents.


Take and do þerto as to charlet yforced. and serue it forth.

[1] Jusshell enforced. As the Charlet yforced here referred to was made of pork, compare No. 40 with No. 39. So in Theod. Priscian we have Jussetlum Gallinæ.


Take hennes and Pork and seeþ hem togyder. take the lyre of Hennes and of the Pork, and hewe it small and grinde it all to doust [2]. take brede ygrated and do þerto, and temper it with the self broth and alye it with zolkes of ayrenn, and cast þeron powdour fort, boile it and do þerin powdour of gyngur sugur. safroun and salt. and loke þer it be stondyng [3], and flour it with powdour gynger.

[1] Mortrews. Vide Gloss. [2] doust. Dust, powder. [3] stondyng. Stiff, thick.


Take Pork and Hennes and seeþ hem as to fore. bray almandes blaunched, and temper hem up with the self broth. and alye the fleissh with the mylke and white flour of Rys. and boile it. & do þerin powdour of gyngur sugar and look þat it be stondyng.


Take Conynges or kiddes and hewe hem small on moscels [2] oþer on pecys. parboile hem with the same broth, drawe an almaunde mylke and do the fleissh þerwith, cast þerto powdour galyngale & of gynger with flour of Rys. and colour it wiþ alkenet. boile it, salt it. & messe it forth with sugur and powdour douce.

[1] Almony. Almaine, or Germany. Almany. Fox, part I. p. 239. Alamanie. Chron. Sax. p. 242. V. ad No. 71. [2] moscels. Morsels.


Take peions and stop hem with garlec ypylled and with gode erbes ihewe. and do hem in an erthen pot. cast þerto gode broth and whyte grece. Powdour fort. safroun verious & salt.

[1] Peiouns, Pejons, i. e. Pigeons, j is never written here in the middle of a word.


Take gode broth and do in an erthen pot, take flour of payndemayn and make þerof past with water. and make þerof thynne foyles as paper [2] with a roller, drye it harde and seeþ it in broth take Chese ruayn [3] grated and lay it in disshes with powdour douce. and lay þeron loseyns isode as hoole as þou mizt [4]. and above powdour and chese, and so twyse or thryse, & serue it forth.

[1] Loseyns. Vide in Gloss. [2] foyles as paper. Leaves of paste as thin as paper. [3] Chese ruyan. 166. Vide Gloss. [4] mizt. Might, i.e. can.


Take pork ysode and grynde it small with safroun, medle it with ayrenn and raisons of coraunce and powdour fort and salt, and make a foile of dowhz [2] and close the fars [3] þerinne. cast þe Tartletes in a Panne with faire water boillyng and salt, take of the clene Flessh withoute ayren & bolle it in gode broth. cast þerto powdour douce and salt, and messe the tartletes in disshes & helde [4] the sewe þeronne.

[1] Tarlettes. Tartletes in the process. [2] foile of dowhz, or dowght. A leaf of paste. [3] fars. Forced-meat. [4] helde. Cast.


Take Almandes iblaunched and drawe hem sumdell thicke [2] with gode broth oþer with water and set on the fire and seeþ it, cast þerto zolkes of ayrenn ydrawe. take Pynes yfryed in oyle oþer in grece and þerto white Powdour douce, sugur and salt. & colour it wiþ alkenet a lytel.

[1] Pynnonade. So named from the Pynes therein used. [2] sumdell thicke. Somewhat thick, thickish.


Take thyk mylke as to fore welled [2]. cast þerto sugur a gode porcioun pynes. Dates ymynced. canel. & powdour gynger and seeþ it, and alye it with flores of white Rosis, and flour of rys, cole it, salt it & messe it forth. If þou wilt in stede of Almaunde mylke, take swete cremes of kyne.

[1] Rosee. From the white roles therein mentioned. See No. 41. in Mi. Ed. but No. 47 there is totally different. [2] welled, f. willed; directed.


Take Colyandre [2], Caraway smale grounden, Powdour of Peper and garlec ygrounde in rede wyne, medle alle þise [3] togyder and salt it, take loynes of Pork rawe and fle of the skyn, and pryk it wel with a knyf and lay it in the sawse, roost þerof what þou wilt, & kepe þat þat fallith þerfro in the rosting and seeþ it in a possynet with faire broth, & serue it forth witþ þe roost anoon [4].

[1] Cormarye. Quære. [2] Golyandre. Coriander. [3] þise. These. [4] anoon. Immediately.


Take noumbles and waisshe hem clene with water and salt and perboile hem in water. take hem up an dyce hem. do with hem as with ooþer noumbles.


The Loyne of the Pork, is fro the hippe boon to the hede.


The fyletes buth two, that buth take oute of the Pestels [1].

[1] Pestels. Legs.


Take and make gode thik Almaund mylke as tofore. and do þerin of flour of hawthorn [2]. and make it as a rose. & serue it forth.

[1] Spynee. As made of Haws, the berries of Spines, or Hawthorns. [2] Hawthern. Hawthorn.


Take Almandes unblanched, waisshe hem, grynde hem, drawe hem up with gode broth. do þerto thridde part of chiryse. þe stones. take oute and grynde hem smale, make a layour of gode brede an powdour and salt and do þerto. colour it with sandres so that it may be stondyng, and florish it with aneys and with cheweryes, and strawe þeruppon and serue it forth.

[1] Chyryse. Chiryse in the process. Cheriseye. Ms. Ed. II. 18. Chiryes there are cherries. And this dish is evidently made of Cherries, which probably were chiefly imported at this time from Flanders, though they have a Saxon name, [Anglo-Saxon: cyrre].


Take brede and frye it in grece oþer in oyle, take it and lay it in rede wyne. grynde it with raisouns take hony and do it in a pot and cast þerinne gleyres [2] of ayrenn wiþ a litel water and bete it wele togider with a sklyse [3]. set it ouer the fires and boile it. and whan the hatte [4] arisith to goon [5] ouer, take it adoun and kele it, and whan it is þer clarified; do it to the oþere with sugur and spices. salt it and loke it be stondyng, florish it with white coliaundre in confyt.

[1] foundewe. Contents. It seems to mean dissolved. V. found in Gloss. [2] gleyres. Whites. [3] Sklyse. Slice. [4] hatte. Seems to mean bubling or wallop. [5] goon. Go.


Take the offal of Capouns oþer of oþere briddes. make hem clene and parboile hem. take hem up and dyce hem. take swete cowe mylke and cast þerinne. and lat it boile. take Payndemayn [2] and of þe self mylke and drawe thurgh a cloth and cast it in a pot and lat it seeþ, take ayren ysode. hewe the white and cast þerto, and alye the sewe with zolkes of ayren rawe. colour it with safron. take the zolkes and fry hem and florish hem þerwith and with powdour douce.

[1] Crotoun. Ms. Ed. 24. has Craytoun, but a different dish. [2] Payndemayn. Whitebread. V. ad No. 41.


Take smale fylettes of Pork and rost hem half and smyte hem to gobettes and do hem in wyne an Vynegur and Oynouns ymynced and stewe it yfere do þerto gode poudours an salt, an serue it forth.

[1] Vyne Grace. Named probably from grees, wild swine, and the mode of dressing in wine. V. Gloss. voce Vyne grace.


Take Almandes unblaunched. grynde hem and drawe hem up with gode broth, take a lombe [2] or a kidde and half rost hym. or the þridde [3] part, smyte hym in gobetes and cast hym to the mylke. take smale briddes yfasted and ystyned [4]. and do þerto sugur, powdour of canell and salt, take zolkes of ayrenn harde ysode and cleeue [5] a two and ypaunced [6] with flour of canell and florish þe sewe above. take alkenet fryed and yfoundred [7] and droppe above with a feþur [8] and messe it forth.

[1] Fonnell. Nothing in the recipe leads to the etymon of this multifarious dish. [2] Lombe. Lamb. [3] thridde. Third, per metathesin. [4] yfasted and ystyned. [5] cleeue. cloven. [6] ypaunced. pounced. [7] yfoundred. melted, dissolved. [8] feþ'. feather.


Take gode Cowe mylke and do it in a pot. take parsel. sawge. ysope. saueray and ooþer gode herbes. hewe hem and do hem in the mylke and seeþ hem. take capouns half yrosted and smyte hem on pecys and do þerto pynes and hony clarified. salt it and colour it with safroun an serue it forth.

[1] Douce Ame. Quasi, a delicious dish. V. Blank Desire in Gloss. Titles of this tissue occur in Apicius. See Humelberg. p. 2.


Take Connynges and seeþ hem wel in good broth. take wyne greke and do þerto with a porcioun of vyneger and flour of canel, hoole clowes quybibes hoole, and ooþer gode spices with raisouns coraunce and gyngyner ypared and ymynced. take up the conynges and smyte hem on pecys and cast hem into the Siryppe and seeþ hem a litel on the fyre and sue it forth.

[1] Cyrip. In the process Siryppe. Cirypp, Contents. Sirop or Sirup, as 133. Syryp, 132.


Take rawe Pork and pulle of the skyn. and pyke out þe skyn synewes and bray the Pork in a morter with ayrenn rawe do þerto suger, salt, raysouns coraunce, dates mynced, and powdour of Peper powdour gylofre. an do it in a bladder, and lat it seeþ til it be ynowhz. and whan it is ynowh, kerf it leshe it [2] in likenesse of a peskodde [3], and take grete raysouns and grynde hem in a morter, drawe hem Up wiþ rede wyne, do þerto mylke of almaundes colour it with saunders an safroun.

and do þerto powdour of peper an of gilofre and boile it. and whan it is iboiled; take powdour of canel and gynger, and temper it up with wyne. and do alle þise thynges togyder. and loke þat it be rennyns [4], and lat it not seeþ after that it is cast togyder, an serue it forth.

[1] Leche Lumbard. So called from the country. Randle Home says, Leach is "a kind of jelly made of cream, ising-glass, sugar and almonds, with other compounds." [2] Leshe it. Vide Gloss. [3] Peskodde. Hull or pod of a pea. [4] rennyns. Perhaps thin, from the old renne, to run. Vide Gloss.


Take Connynges and smyte hem in gobetes and waissh hem and do hem in feyre water and wyne, and seeþ hem and skym hem. and whan þey buth isode pyke hem clene, and drawe the broth thurgh a straynour and do the flessh þerwith in a Possynet and styne it [1]. and do þerto vynegur and powdour or gynger and a grete quantite and salt after the last boillyng and serue it forth.

[1] styne it. Close it. V. Gloss.


Take hony suger and clarifie it togydre. and boile it with esy fyre, and kepe it wel fro brennyng and whan it hath yboiled a while; take up a drope [2] þerof wiþ þy fyngur and do it in a litel water and loke if it hong [3] togydre. and take it fro the fyre and do þerto the thriddendele [4] an powdour gyngener and stere [5] it togyder til it bigynne to thik and cast it on a wete [6] table. lesh it and serue it forth with fryed mete on flessh dayes or on fysshe dayes.

[1] Payn ragoun. It is not at all explained in the Recipe. [2] Drope. Drop. [3] hong. Hing, or hang. [4] thriddendele. Third part, perhaps, of brede, i. e. of bread, may be casually omitted here. V. Gloss. [5] stere. stir. [6] wete. wet.


Take parsel and grynde with a Cowe mylk, medle it with ayrenn and

lard ydyced take mylke after þat þou hast to done [2] and myng [3] þerwith. and make þerof dyuerse colours. If þou wolt have zelow, do þerto safroun and no parsel. If þou wolt have it white; nonþer parsel ne safroun but do þerto amydoun. If þou wilt have rede do þerto sandres. If þou wilt have pownas [4] do þerto turnesole [5]. If þou wilt have blak do þerto blode ysode and fryed. and set on the fyre in as many vessels as þou hast colours þerto and seeþ it wel and lay þise colours in a cloth first oon. and sithen anoþer upon him. and sithen the þridde and the ferthe. and presse it harde til it be all out clene. And whan it is al colde, lesh it thynne, put it in a panne and fry it wel. and serue it forth.

[1] Lete Lardes. Lards in form of Dice are noticed in the process.
    See Lel. Coll. VI. p. 5. Lete is the Fr. Lait, milk. V. No. 81.
    or Brit. Llaeth. Hence, perhaps, Lethe Cpyrus and Lethe Rube.
    Lel. Coll. IV. p. 227. But VI. p. 5, it is Leche.
[2] to done, i. e. done.
[3] myng. mix.
[4] pownas. Qu.
[5] turnesole. Not the flower Heliotrope, but a drug. Northumb.
    Book, p. 3. 19. I suppose it to be Turmeric. V. Brooke's Nat. Hist.
    of Vegetables, p. 9. where it is used both in victuals and for dying.


Take Almandes blanched. bray hem and drawe hem up with faire water, make furmente as before [2] and cast þer furmente þerto. & messe it with Porpays.

[1] Porpays. Porpeys, Contents, and so No. 116. Porpus. [2] as before. This is the first mention of it.


Take pesoun and seeþ hem fast and covere hem til þei berst. þenne take up hem and cole hem thurgh a cloth. take oynouns and mynce hem and seeþ hem in the same sewe and oile þerwith, cast þerto sugur, salt and safroun, and seeþ hem wel þeratt þerafter and serue hem forth.

[1] Perrey of Pesoun, i.e. Peas. Perrey seems to mean pulp: vide No. 73. Mr. Ozell in Rabelais, IV. c. 60. renders Puree de pois by Peas soup.


Take white pesoun, waisshe hem seeþ hem a grete while, take hem and cole hem thurgh a cloth, waisshe hem in colde water til the hulles go off, cast hem in a pot and couere þat no breth [2] go out. and boile hem right wel. and cast þerinne gode mylke of allmandes and a pertye of flour of Rys wiþ powdour gynger safroun. and salt.

[1] Almayne. Germany; called Almony No. 47. [2] breth. Breath, air, steam. Ms. Ed. No. 2.


Take chiches and wry hem [2] in ashes all nyzt, oþer lay hem in hoot aymers [3], at morrowe [4], waisshe hem in clene water and do hem ouer the fire with clene water. seeþ hem up and do þerto oyle, garlec, hole safroun. powdour fort and salt, seeþ it and messe it forth.

[1] Chyches. Viciæ, vetches. In Fr. Chiches. [2] Wry hem. Dry hem, or cover hem. Chaucer, v. wrey. [3] Aymers. Embers; of which it is evidently a corruption. [4] at morrowe. Next Morning.


Take and seeþ white peson and take oute þe perrey [2] & parboile erbis & hewe hem grete & cast hem in a pot with the perrey pulle oynouns & seeþ hem hole wel in water & do hem to þe Perrey with oile & salt, colour it with safroun & messe it and cast þeron powdour douce.

[1] Frenche. Contents have it more fully, Frenche Owtes. V. ad No. 6. [2] Perrey. Pulp. V. ad No. 70.


Take drawen benes and seeþ hem wel. take hem up of the water and cast hem in a morter grynde hem al to doust til þei be white as eny mylk, chawf [2] a litell rede wyne, cast þeramong in þe gryndyng, do þerto salt, leshe it in disshes. þanne take Oynouns and mynce hem smale and seeþ hem in oile til þey be al broun [3]. and florissh the disshes therwith. and serue it forth.

[1] Makke. Ignotum. [2] Chawf. Warm. [3] broun. Brown.


Pill garlec and cast it in a pot with water and oile. and seeþ it, do þerto safroun, salt, and powdour fort and dresse it forth hool.

[1] Aquapatys. Aquapates, Contents. Perhaps named from the water used in it.


Take persel, sawge, garlec, chibolles, oynouns, leek, borage, myntes, porrectes [1], fenel and ton tressis [2], rew, rosemarye, purslarye [3], laue and waische hem clene, pike hem, pluk hem small wiþ þyn [4] honde and myng hem wel with rawe oile. lay on vynegur and salt, and serue it forth.

[1] Porrectes. Fr. Porrette. [2] Ton tressis. Cresses. V. Gloss. [3] Purslarye. Purslain. [4] þyn. thine.


Take blades of Fenkel. shrede hem not to smale, do hem to seeþ in water and oile and oynouns mynced þerwith. do þerto safroun and salt and powdour douce, serue it forth, take brede ytosted and lay the sewe onoward.


Take elena campana and seeþ it water [2]. take it up and grynde it wel in a morter. temper it up with ayrenn safroun and salt and do it ouer the fire and lat it not boile. cast above powdour douce and serue it forth.

[1] Clat. Qu. [2] water; r. in water, as in No. 79.


Take Apples and seeþ hem in water, drawe hem thurgh a straynour. take almaunde mylke & hony and flour of Rys, safroun and powdour fort and salt. and seeþ it stondyng [2].

[1] Appulmoy. Appulmos. Ms. Ed. No. 17. named from the apples employed. V. No. 149. [2] stondyng. thick.


Take white of Lekes and slyt hem, and do hem to seeþ in wyne, oile and salt, rost brede and lay in dysshes and the sewe above and serue it forth.

[1] Slete. slit.


Take Ayrenn and wryng hem thurgh a styunour and do þerto cowe mylke with butter and safroun and salt and seeþ it wel. leshe it. and loke þat it be stondyng. and serue it forth.

[1] Letelorye. The latter part of the compound is unknown, the first is Fr. Lait, milk. Vide No. 68.


Take Almaundes brayed, drawe hem up with wyne. ooile it, cast þeruppon safroun and salt, take brede itosted in wyne. lay þerof a leyne [2] and anoþer of þe sewe and alle togydre. florish it with sugur powdour gyngur and serue it forth.

[1] Sowpes Dorry. Sops endorsed. V. Dorry in Gloss. [2] A leyne. a layer.


Take half fyges and half raisouns pike hem and waisshe

hem in water skalde hem in wyne. bray hem in a morter, and drawe hem thurgh a straynour. cast hem in a pot and þerwiþ powdour of peper and ooþer good powdours. alay it up with flour of Rys. and colour it with saundres. salt it. & messe it forth.

[1] Rape. A dissyllable, as appears from Rapey in the Contents. Rapy, Ms. Ed. No. 49. Rapee, ibid. II. 28.


Take heppes and make hem clene. take Almaundes blaunched, frye hem in oile and bray hem in a morter with heppes. drawe it up with rede wyne, and do þerin sugur ynowhz with Powdour fort, lat it be stondyng, and alay it with flour of Rys. and colour it with alkenet and messe it forth. and florish it with Pomme garnet. If þou wilt in flesshe day. seeþ Capouns and take the brawnn and tese hem smal and do þerto. and make the lico [2] of þis broth.

[1] Sawse Sarzyne. Sause. Contents. Saracen, we presume, from the
    nation or people. There is a Recipe in Ms. Ed. No. 54 for a Bruet of
    Sarcynesse, but there are no pomgranates concerned.
[2] lico. liquor.


Take Almaundes blaunched, grynde hem and drawe hem up thykke, set hem ouer the fyre & boile hem. set hem adoun and spryng [1] hem wicii Vyneger, cast hem abrode uppon a cloth and cast uppon hem sugur. whan it is colde gadre it togydre and leshe it in dysshes.

[1] spryng. sprinkle.


Take Almaundes blaunched, bray hem with oot meel [1]. and draw hem up with water. cast þeron Safroun & salt &c.

[1] oot meel. oat-meal.


Take Almaundes blaunched and drawe hem up with wyne, do þerto powdour of gyngur and sugur and colour it with Safroun. boile it and serue it forth.


Take erbes, boile hem, hewe hem and grynde hem smale. and drawe hem up with water. set hem on the fire and seeþ the rowtes with the mylke. and cast þeron sugur & salt. & serue it forth.

[1] Jowtes. V. ad No. 60.


Take Almaundes blanched, grynde hem and drawe hem up with water and wyne: quarter fygur hole raisouns. cast þerto powdour gyngur and hony clarified. seeþ it wel & salt it, and serue forth.

[1] Fygey. So named from the figs therein used. A different Recipe, Ms. Ed. No. 3, has no figs.


Take Ayrenn and breke hem in scaldyng hoot water. and whan þei bene sode ynowh. take hem up and take zolkes of ayren and rawe mylke and swyng hem togydre, and do þerto powdour gyngur safroun and salt, set it ouere the fire, and lat it not boile, and take ayrenn isode & cast þe sew onoward. & serue it forth.

[1] Pochee. Poached eggs. Very different from the present way.


Take ayrenn, water and butter, and seeþ hem yfere with safroun and gobettes of chese. wryng ayrenn thurgh a straynour. whan the water hath soden awhile: take þenne the ayrenn and swyng hem with verious. and cast þerto. set it ouere the fire and lat it not boile. and serue it forth.


Take and make a thynne foyle of dowh. and kerve it on peces, and cast hem on boillyng water & seeþ it wele. take chese and grate it and butter cast bynethen and above as losyns. and serue forth.

[1] Macrows. Maccherone, according to the Recipe in Altieri, corresponds nearly enough with our process; so that this title seems to want mending, and yet I know not how to do it to satisfaction.


Take wyne and hony and found it [2] togyder and skym it clene. and seeþ it long, do þerto powdour of gyngur. peper and salt, tost brede and lay the sew þerto. kerue pecys of gyngur and flour it þerwith and messe it forth.

[1] Tostee. So called from the toasted bread. [2] found it. mix it.


Take the Powche [2] and the Lyuour [3] of haddok, codlyng and hake [4] and of ooþer fisshe, parboile hem, take hem and dyce hem small, take of the self broth and wyne, a layour of brede of galyntyne with gode powdours and salt, cast þat fysshe þerinne and boile it. & do þerto amydoun. & colour it grene.

[1] Gyngawdry. Qu. [2] Powche. Crop or stomach. [3] Lyuour. Liver. V. No. 137. [4] Hake. "Asellus alter, sive Merlucius, Aldrov." So Mr. Ray. See Pennant, III. p. 156.


Take bolas and scald hem with wyne and drawe hem with [2] a straynour do hem in a pot, clarify hony and do þerto with powdour fort. and flour of Rys. Salt it & florish it with whyte aneys. & serue it forth.

[1] Erbowle. Perhaps from the Belas, or Bullace employed. [2] with, i.e. thurgh or thorough.


Take Almaundes blaunched and drawe hem up with water and alye it with flour of Rys and do þerto powdour of gyngur sugur and salt, and loke it be not stondyng [2], messe it and serue it forth.

[1] Resmolle. From the Rice there used; for Ms. Ed. II. No. 5. has
    Rysmoyle, where moyle seems to be Fr. moile, as written also in
    the Roll. Rice molens potage. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 26.
[2] Not stondyng. Thin, diluted. V. No. 98. Not to [too] stondyng,


Take oot mele and pike out the stones and grynde hem smal, and drawe hem thurgh a straynour. take mede oþer wyne ifonded in sugur and do þise þerinne. do þerto powdour and salt, and alay it with flour of Rys and do þat it be stondyng. if thou wilt on flesh day; take hennes and pork ysode & grynde hem smale and do þerto. & messe it forth.

[1] Cypre. Cipre, Contents here and No. 98.


Take Almandes and bray hem unblaunched. take calwar [2] Samoun and seeþ it in lewe water [3] drawe up þyn Almandes with the broth. pyke out the bones out of the fyssh clene & grynde it small & cast þy mylk & þat togyder & alye it with flour of Rys, do þerto powdour fort, sugur & salt & colour it with alkenet & loke þat hit be not stondyng and messe it forth.

[1] Samoun. Salmon.
[2] calwar. Salwar, No. 167. R. Holme says, "Calver is a term used
    to a Flounder when to be boiled in oil, vinegar, and spices and to be
    kept in it." But in Lancashire Salmon newly taken and immediately
    dressed is called Calver Salmon: and in Littleton Salar is a
    young salmon.
[3] lewe water. warm. V. Gloss.


Take wyne greke, oþer rynysshe wyne and hony clarified þerwith. take flour of rys powdour of Gyngur oþ of peper & canel. oþer flour of canel. powdour of clowes, safroun. sugur cypre. mylberyes, oþer saundres. & medle alle þise togider. boile it and salt it. and loke þat it be stondyng.


Take rote of parsel. pasternak of rasenns [2]. scrape hem waisthe hem clene. take rapes & caboches ypared and icorne [3]. take an erthen panne with clene water & set it on the fire. cast all þise þerinne. whan þey buth boiled cast þerto peeres & parboile hem wel. take þise thynges up & lat it kele on a fair cloth, do þerto salt whan it is colde in a vessel take vineger & powdour & safroun & do þerto. & lat alle þise thinges lye þerin al nyzt oþer al day, take wyne greke and hony clarified togider lumbarde mustard & raisouns corance al hool. & grynde powdour of canel powdour douce. & aneys hole. & fenell seed. take alle þise thynges & cast togyder in a pot of erthe. and take þerof whan þou wilt & serue forth.

[1] Compost. A composition to be always ready at hand. Holme, III. p. 78. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 5. [2] Pasternak of rasenns. Qu. [3] ypared and icorne. The first relates to the Rapes, the second to the Caboches, and means carved or cut in pieces.


Take Tenches, pykes [2], eelys, turbut and plays [3], kerue hem to pecys. scalde hem & waische hem clene. drye hem with a cloth do hem in a panne do þerto half vyneger & half wyne & seeþ it wel. & take the Fysshe and pike it clene, cole the broth thurgh a cloth into a erthen panne. do þerto powdour of pep and safroun ynowh. lat it seeþ and skym it wel whan it is ysode dof [4] grees clene, cowche fisshes on chargeours & cole the sewe thorow a cloth onoward & serue it forth.

[1] Gele. Jelly. Gelee, Contents here and in the next Recipe.
    Gely, Ms. Ed. No. 55, which presents us with much the same
[2] It is commonly thought this fish was not extant in England till
    the reign of H. VIII.; but see No. 107. 109. 114. So Lucys, or Tenchis,
    Ms. Ed. II 1. 3. Pygus or Tenchis, II. 2. Pikys, 33 Chaucer, v. Luce;
    and Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. VI. p. 1. 5. Luce salt. Ibid. p. 6. Mr.
    Topham's Ms. written about 1230, mentions Lupos aquaticos five
amongst the fish which the fishmonger was to have in his shop.
    They were the arms of the Lucy family so early as Edw. I. See also
    Pennant's Zool. III. p. 280, 410.
[3] Plays. Plaise, the fish.
[4] Dof, i. e. do of.


Take swyner feet & snowter and the eerys [1]. capouns. connynges calues fete. & wiasche hem clene. & do hem to seeþ in the þriddel [2] of wyne & vyneger and water and make forth as bifore.

[1] Eerys. Ears. [2] Thriddel. V. ad No. 67.


Take Roches. hole Tenches and plays & sinyte hem to gobettes. fry hem in oyle blaunche almaundes. fry hem & cast wyne & of vyneger þer pridde part þerwith fyges drawen & do þerto powdour fort and salt. boile it. lay the Fisshe in an erthen panne cast the sewe þerto. seeþ oynouns ymynced & cast þerinne. kepe hit and ete it colde.

[1] Chysanne. Qu.


Take the Conger and scald hym. and smyte hym in pecys & seeþ hym. take parsel. mynt. peleter. rosmarye. & a litul sawge. brede and salt, powdour fort and a litel garlec, clower a lite, take and grynd it wel, drawe it up with vyneger thurgh a clot. cast the fyssh in a vessel and do þe sewe onoward & serue it forth.

[1] Congur. The Eel called Congre. Sawce, Contents here, and No. 105, 106.


Take Ryghzes and make hem clene and do hem to seeþ, pyke hem clene and frye hem in oile. take Almandes and grynde hem in water or wyne, do þerto almandes blaunched hole fryed in oile. & coraunce seeþ the lyour grynde it smale & do þerto garlec ygronde & litel salt & verious powdour fort & safroun & boile it yfere, lay the Fysshe in a vessel and cast the sewe þerto. and messe it forth colde.

[1] Rygh. A Fish, and probably the Ruffe.


Take Makerels and smyte hem on pecys. cast hem on water and various. seeþ hem with mynter and wiþ oother erbes, colour it grene or zelow, and messe it forth.


Take Pykes and undo hem on þe wombes [2] and waisshe hem clene and lay hem on a roost Irne [3] þenne take gode wyne and powdour gynger & sugur good wone [4] & salt, and boile it in an erthen panne & messe forth þe pyke & lay the sewe onoward.

[1] Brasey. Qu. [2] Wombs. bellies. [3] roost Irene. a roasting iron. [4] good wone. a good deal. V. Gloss.


Make as þou madest Noumbles of Flesh with oynouns.


Take Eelys and hilde [2] hem and kerue hem to pecys and do hem to seeþ in water and wyne so þat it be a litel ouer stepid [3]. do þerto sawge and ooþer erbis with few [4] oynouns ymynced, whan the Eelis buth soden ynowz do hem in a vessel, take a pyke and kerue it to gobettes and seeþ hym in the same broth do þerto powdour gynger galyngale canel and peper, salt it and cast the Eelys þerto & messe it forth.

[1] Balloc. Ballok, Contents. [2] hilde. skin. [3] on stepid. steeped therein. V. No. 110. [4] few, i.e. a few.


Take Crustes of brede and wyne and make a lyour, do þerto oynouns ymynced, powdour. & canel. & a litel water and wyne. loke þat it be stepid, do þerto salt, kerue þin Eelis & seeþ hem wel and serue hem forth.


Take the guttes of Samoun and make hem clene. perboile hem a lytell. take hem up and dyce hem. slyt the white of Lekes and kerue hem smale. cole the broth and do the lekes þerinne with oile and lat it boile togyd yfere [1]. do the Samoun icorne þerin, make a lyour of Almaundes mylke & of brede & cast þerto spices, safroun and salt,

seeþ it wel. and loke þat it be not stondyng.

[1] togyd yfere. One of these should be struck out.


Take Plays and smyte hem [1] to pecys and fry hem in oyle. drawe a lyour of brede & gode broth & vyneger. and do þerto powdour gynger. canel. peper and salt and loke þat it be not stondyng.

[1] Vide No. 104. Qu.


Take clene pork and boile it tendre. þenne hewe it small and bray it smal in a morter. take fyges and boile hem tendre in smale ale. and bray hem and tendre chese þerwith. þenne waisthe hem in water & þene lyes [1] hem alle togider wit Ayrenn, þenne take powdour of pepper. or els powdour marchannt & ayrenn and a porcioun of safroun and salt. þenne take blank sugur. eyrenn & flour & make a past wit a roller, þene make þerof smale pelettes [2]. & fry hem broun in clene grece & set hem asyde. þenne make of þat ooþer deel [3] of þat past long coffyns [4] & do þat comade [5] þerin. and close hem faire with a countoer [6], & pynche hem smale about. þanne kyt aboue foure oþer sex wayes, þanne take euy [7] of þat kuttyng up, & þenne colour it wit zolkes of Ayrenn, and plannt hem thick, into the flaumpeyns above þat þou kuttest hem & set hem in an ovene and lat hem bake eselich [8]. and þanne serue hem forth.

[1] lyer. mix. [2] Pelettes. Pelotys Ms. Ed. No. 16. Balls, pellets, from Fr. pelote. [3] deel. deal, i.e. part, half. [4] Coffyns. Pies without lids. [5] comade. Qu. [6] coutour. coverture, a lid. [7] euy. every. [8] eselich. easily, gently.


Take the blode of pykes oþer of conger and nyme [1] the paunches of pykes. of conger and of grete code lyng [2], & boile hem tendre & mynce hem smale & do hem in þat blode. take crustes of white brede & strayne it thurgh a cloth. þenne take oynouns iboiled and mynced. take peper and safroun. wyne. vynegur aysell [3] oþer alegur & do þerto & serue forth.

[1] nyme. take. Perpetually used in Ms. Ed. from Sax. niman. [2] code lyng. If a Codling be a small cod, as we now understand it, great codling seems a contradiction in terms. [3] Aysell. Eisel, vinegar. Littleton.


Take blode of gurnardes and congur & þe paunch of gurnardes and boile hem tendre & mynce hem smale, and make a lyre of white Crustes and oynouns ymynced, bray it in a morter & þanne boile it togyder til it be stondyng. þenne take vynegur oþ aysell & safroun & put it þerto and serue it forth.

[1] Chawdoun. V. Gloss.


Take clene whete and bete it small in a morter and fanne out clene the doust, þenne waisthe it clene and boile it tyl it be tendre and broun. þanne take the secunde mylk of Almaundes & do þerto. boile hem togidur til it be stondyng, and take þe first mylke & alye it up wiþ a penne [1]. take up the porpays out of the Furmente & leshe hem in a dishe with hoot water. & do safroun to þe furmente. and if the porpays be salt. seeþ it by hym self, and serue it forth.

[1] Penne. Feather, or pin. Ms. Ed. 28.


Take Pork, and rost it tyl the blode be tryed out & þe broth [1]. take crustes of brede and bray hem in a morter, an drawe hem thurgh a cloth with þe broth, þenne take oynouns an leshe hem on brede an do to the broth. þanne take pork, and leshe it clene with a dressyng knyf and cast it into þe pot broth, & lat it boile til it be more tendre. þanne take þat lyour þerto. þanne take a porcion of peper and saundres & do þerto. þanne take parsel & ysope & mynce it smale & do þerto. þanne take rede wyne oþer white grece & raysouns & do þerto. & lat it boile a lytel.

[1] the broth. Supposed to be prepared beforehand.


Take fayr Veel and kyt it in smale pecys and boile it tendre in fyne broth oþer in water. þanne take white brede oþer wastel [2], and drawe þerof a white … lyour wiþ fyne broth, and do þe lyour to the Veel, & do safroun þerto, þanne take parsel & bray it in a morter & the Juys [3] þerof do þerto, and þanne is þis half zelow & half grene. þanne take a porcioun of wyne & powdour marchant & do þerto and lat it boile wele, and do þerto a litel of [4] vynegur. & serue forth.

[1] Buknade. V. No. 17. [2] Wastel. V. Gloss. [3] Juys. Juice. [4] litel of vynegur. We say, a little vinegar, omitting of. So 152, a lytull of lard.


Take Sooles and hylde hem, seeþ hem in water, smyte hem on pecys and

take away the fynnes. take oynouns iboiled & grynde the fynnes þerwith and brede. drawe it up with the self broth. do þerto powdour fort, safroun & hony clarified with salt, seeþ it alle yfere. broile the sooles & messe it in dysshes & lay the sewe above. & serue forth.

[1] Cynee. Cyney, Contents, both here and No. 120. 123. See before, No. 25.


Take Tenches and smyte hem to pecys, fry hem, drawe a lyour of Raysouns coraunce witþ wyne and water, do þerto hool raisouns & powdour of gyngur of clowes of canel of peper do the Tenches þerto & seeþ hem with sugur cypre & salt. & messe forth.


Schyl [1] Oysters and seeþ hem in wyne and in hare [2] own broth. cole the broth thurgh a cloth. take almandes blaunched, grynde hem and drawe hem up with the self broth. & alye it wiþ flour of Rys. and do the oysters þerinne, cast in powdour of gyngur, sugur, macys. seeþ it not to stondyng and serue forth.

[1] shell, take of the shells. [2] hare. their. her. No. 123. Chaucer.


Take muskels, pyke hem, seeþ hem with the owne broth, make a lyour of crustes [2] & vynegur do in oynouns mynced. & cast the muskels þerto & seeþ it. & do þerto powdour with a lytel salt & safron the samewise make of oysters.

[1] Muskles. muskels below, and the Contents. Muscles. [2] crustes. i.e. of bread.


Take Oysters parboile hem in her owne broth, make a lyour of crustes

of brede & drawe it up wiþ the broth and vynegur mynce oynouns & do þerto with erbes. & cast the oysters þerinne. boile it. & do þerto powdour fort & salt. & messe it forth.


Take and seeþ muskels, pyke hem clene, and waisshe hem clene in wyne. take almandes & bray hem. take somme of the muskels and grynde hem. & some hewe smale, drawe the muskels yground with the self broth. wryng the almaundes with faire water. do alle þise togider. do þerto verious and vyneger. take whyte of lekes & parboile hem wel. wryng oute the water and hewe hem smale. cast oile þerto with oynouns parboiled & mynced smale do þerto powdour fort, safroun and salt. a lytel seeþ it not to to [1] stondyng & messe it forth.

[1] to to, i. e. too too. Vide No. 17.


Take codlyng, haddok, oþ hake and lynours with the rawnes [1] and seeþ it wel in water. pyke out þe bones, grynde smale the Fysshe, drawe a lyour of almaundes & brede with the self broth. and do the Fysshe grounden þerto. and seeþ it and do þerto powdour fort, safroun and salt, and make it stondyng.

[1] rawnes. roes.


Take Laumpreys and sle [1] hem with vynegur oþer with white wyne & salt, scalde hem in water. slyt hem a litel at þer nauel…. & rest a litel at the nauel. take out the guttes at the ende. kepe wele the blode. put the Laumprey on a spyt. roost hym & kepe wel the grece. grynde raysouns of coraunce. hym up [2] with vyneger. wyne. and crustes of brede. do þerto powdour of gyngur. of galyngale [3]. flour of canel. powdour of clowes, and do þerto raisouns of coraunce hoole. with þe blode & þe grece. seeþ it & salt it, boile it not to stondyng, take up the Laumprey do hym in a chargeour [4], & lay þe sewe onoward, & serue hym forth.

[1] sle. slay, kill. [2] hym up. A word seems omitted; drawe or lye. [3] of galyngale, i. e. powder. V. No. 101. [4] Chargeour. charger or dish. V. No. 127.


Take Lamprouns and scalde hem. seeþ hem, meng powdour galyngale and some of the broth togyder & boile it & do þerto powdour of gyngur & salt. take the Laumprouns & boile hem & lay hem in dysshes. & lay the sewe above. & serue fort.


Take Almandes unblaunched and waisthe hem clene, drawe hem up with water. seeþ þe mylke & alye it up with loseyns. cast þerto safroun. sugur. & salt & messe it forth with colyandre in confyt rede, & serue it forth.

[1] Loseyns. Losyns, Contents.


Take powdour of galyngale with sugur and salt and boile it yfere. take brede ytosted. and lay the sewe onoward. and serue it forth.

[1] Sowpes of Galyntyne. Contents has in, recte. Sowpes means


Take Raysouns, grynde hem with crustes of brede; and drawe it up with wyne. do þerto gode powdours and salt. and seeþ it. fry roches, looches, sool, oþer ooþer gode Fyssh, cast þe sewe above, & serue it forth.


Take crome [1] of almaundes. dry it in a cloth. and whan it is dryed do it in a vessel, do þerto salt, sugur, and white powdour of gyngur and Juys of Fenel and wyne. and lat it wel stonde. lay full & messe & dresse it forth.

[1] crome. crumb, pulp.


Take peeres and pare hem clene. take gode rede wyne & mulberes [2] oþer saundres and seeþ þe peeres þerin & whan þei buth ysode, take hem up, make a syryp of wyne greke. oþer vernage [3] with blaunche powdour oþer white sugur and powdour gyngur & do the peres þerin. seeþ it a lytel & messe it forth.

[1] Peeres. pears. [2] mulberes. mulberries, for colouring. [3] Vernage. Vernaccia, a sort of Italian white wine. V. Gloss.


Take Loches oþer Tenches oþer Solys smyte hem on pecys. fry hem in oyle. take half wyne half vynegur and sugur & make a siryp. do þerto oynouns icorue [2] raisouns coraunce. and grete raysouns. do þerto hole spices. gode powdours and salt. messe þe fyssh & lay þe sewe aboue and serue forth.

[1] Egurdouce. Vide Gloss. [2] icorue, icorven. cut. V. Gloss.


Take Almaundes and grynde hem. take the tweydel [1] of wyne oþer the þriddell of vynegur. drawe up the Almaundes þerwith. take anys sugur & branches of fenel grene a fewe. & drawe hem up togyder with þer mylke take poudour of canell. of gyngur. clowes. & maces hoole. take kydde oþer chikenns oþer flessh. & choppe hem small and seeþ hem. take all þis flessh whan it is sodenn & lay it in a clene vessel & boile þer sewe & cast þerto salt. þenne cast al þis in þe pot with flesh. &ter. [2]

[1] Tweydel. Two parts. [2] &ter. i. e. serue forth.


Take Brede & fry it in grece. drawe it up with broth and vynegur, take þerto powdour of peper & salt and sette it on the fyre. boile it and messe it forth.

[1] Pevorat. Peverade, from the pepper of which it is principally composed.


Take Almandes blaunched and grynd hem al to doust. temper it up with verions and powdour or gyngyner and messe it forth.

[2] Sawse. Sawce, Contents. As No. 137.


Take the lyuer of Capons and roost it wel. take anyse and greynes de Parys [1]. gyngur. canel. & a lytill crust of brede and grinde it smale. and grynde it up with verions. and witþ grece of Capouns. boyle it and serue it forth.

[1] de Parys. Of Paradise. V. Pref.


Take crustes of Brede and grynde hem smale, do þerto powdour of galyngale, of canel, of gyngyner and salt it, tempre it with vynegur and drawe it up þurgh a straynour & messe it forth.

[1] Galyntyne. Galentyne, Contents.


Take payndemayn and pare it clene and funde it in Vinegur, grynde it and temper it wiþ Vynegur, and with powdour gyngur and salt, drawe it thurgh a straynour. and serue forth.

[1] Gyngener. From the powder of Ginger therein used.


Take parsel. mynt. garlek. a litul serpell [2] and sawge, a litul canel. gyngur. piper. wyne. brede. vynegur & salt grynde it smal with

safroun & messe it forth.

[1] Verde. It has the sound of Green-sauce, but as there is no Sorel in it, it is so named from the other herbs. [2] a litul serpell. Wild thyme.


Take brede and blode iboiled. and grynde it and drawe it thurgh a cloth with Vynegur, do þerto powdour of gyngur ad of peper. & þe grece of the Maulard. salt it. boile it wel and serue it forth.


Take garlec and grynde it smale. Safroun and flour þerwith & salt. and temper it up with Cowe Mylke. and seeþ it wel and serue it forth.


Take þe lyuer and þe offall [2] of the Swannes & do it to seeþ in gode broth. take it up. take out þe bonys. take & hewe the flessh smale. make a Lyour of crustes of brede & of þe blode of þe Swan ysoden. & do þerto powdour of clowes & of piper & of wyne & salt, & seeþ it & cast þe flessh þerto ihewed. and messe it forth with þe Swan.

[1] Chawdoun. V. Gloss. [2] offall. Exta, Gibles.


Take Raysouns of Coraunce. & kyrnels of notys. & crustes of brede & powdour of gyngur clowes flour of canel. bray it [2] wel togyder and do it þerto. salt it, temper it up with vynegur. and serue it forth.

[1] Camelyne. Qu. if Canelyne from the Fluor of Canel? [2] bray. bray.


Take Mustard seed and waishe it & drye it in an ovene, grynde it drye. farse it thurgh a farse. clarifie hony with wyne & vynegur & stere it wel togedrer and make it thikke ynowz. & whan þou wilt spende þerof make it tnynne with wyne.


Cranes [1] and Herouns shul be armed [2] with lardes of Swyne. and eten with gyngur.

[1] Cranes. A dish frequent formerly at great tables. Archæologia,
    II. p. 171. mentioned with Herons, as here, Ms. Ed. 3. where the same
    Recipe occurs. et v. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. VI. p. 38. Rabelais, IV.
    c. 59. E. of Devon's Feast.
[2] armed. Ms. Ed. No. 3. has enarmed, as may be read there.
    Enarmed, however, in Lel. Collect. IV. p. 225. means, decorated
    with coate of arms. Sheldes of Brawn are there in armor, p. 226.
    However, there is such a word as enorned. Leland, p. 280. 285. 297.
    which approaches nearer.


Pokok and Partruch shul be parboiled. lardid and rosted. and eten with gyngeuer.


Take Almandes blaunched and grynde hem al to doust, do þise in a thynne foile. close it þerinnne fast. and fry it in Oile. clarifie hony with Wyne. & bake it þerwith.


Take skyrwater and pasternakes and apples, & parboile hem, make a batour of flour and ayrenn, cast þerto ale. safroun & salt. wete hem in þe batour and frye hem in oile or in grece. do þerto Almaund Mylk. & serue it forth.

[1] Frytour, &c. Contents has only, Frytours of Pasternakes. N. B. Frytour is Fritter.


Take of cruddes [1] and presse out þe wheyze [2]. do þerto sum whyte of ayrenn. fry hem. do þerto. & lay on sugur and messe forth.

[1] Cruddes. Curds, per metathesin. [2] wheyze. whey.


Take gode erbys. grynde hem and medle [1] hem with flour and water & a lytel zest and salt, and frye hem in oyle. and ete hem with clere hony.

[1] medle. mix.


Take swyne lyuoers and seeþ hem wel. take brede & grate it. and take zolkes of ayrenn. & make hit sowple [2] and do þerto a lytull of lard carnoun lyche a dee [3]. chese gratyd [4] & whyte grece. powdour douce & of gyngur & wynde it to balles [5] as grete as apples. take þe calle of þe swyne & cast euere [6] by hym self þerin. Make a Crust in a trape [7]. and lay þe ball þerin & bake it. and whan þey buth ynowz: put þerin a layour of ayrenn with powdour fort and Safroun. and serue it forth.

[1] Rasyols. Rasiowls, Contents. Qu. the etymen. [2] sowple. supple. [3] carnoun lyche a dee. Cut like dice, diced. Fr. De; singular of Dice. [4] gratyd. grated. igrated, No. 153. [5] wynde it to balles, make it into Balls. [6] euere. each. [7] trape. pan, or dish. French.


Take Ayrenn and wryng hem thurgh a cloth. take powdour fort, brede igrated, & safroun, & cast þerto a gode quantite of vynegur with a litull salt, medle all yfere. make a foile in a trape & bake it wel þerinne. and serue it forth.

[1] Mylates. Contents, Milates; but 155 as here. Qu.


Take peiouns [2], chykens, and smale briddes smyte hem in gobettes. & seeþ hem alle ifere in god broþ wiþ veriaws [3] do þerto safroun, make a crust in a trape. and pynche it. & cowche þe flessh þerinne. & cast þerinne Raisouns coraunce. powdour douce and salt. breke ayrenn and wryng hem thurgh a cloth & swyng þe sewe of þe stewe þerwith and helde it [4] uppon the flessh. couere it & bake it wel. and serue it forth.

[1] Crustards. Pies. [2] peiouns. pigeons. V. ad No. 48. [3] veriaws. Verjuice. [4] helde it. pour, cast.


Hewe Pork al to pecys and medle it with ayrenn & chese igrated. do þerto powdour fort safroun & pyneres [1] with salt, make a crust in a trape, bake it wel þerinne, and serue it forth.

[1] pyneres. Vide Pref.


Take loches, laumprouns, and Eelis. smyte hem on pecys, and stewe hem wiþ Almaund Mylke and verions, frye the loches in oile as tofore. and lay þe fissh þerinne. cast þeron powdour fort powdour douce. with raysons coraunce & prunes damysyns. take galyntyn and þe sewe þerinne, and swyng it togyder and cast in the trape. & bake it and serue it forth.


Take gode Eerbys and grynde hem smale with wallenotes pyked clene. a grete portioun. lye it up almost wiþ as myche verions as water. seeþ it wel with powdour and Safroun withoute Salt. make a crust in a trape and do þe fyssh þerinne unstewed wiþ a litel oile & gode Powdour. whan it is half ybake do þe sewe þerto & bake it up. If þou wilt make it clere of Fyssh seeþ ayrenn harde. & take out þe zolkes & grinde hem with gode powdours. and alye it up with gode stewes [2] and serue it forth.

[1] Erbis. Rather Erbis and Fissh. [2] stewes. V. No. 170.


Drawe a thick almaunde Mylke wiþ water. take dates and pyke hem clene with apples and peeres & mynce hem with prunes damysyns. take out þe stones out of þe prunes. & kerue the prunes a two. do þerto Raisouns sugur. flour of canel. hoole macys and clowes. gode powdours & salt. colour hem up with saundres. meng þise with oile, make a coffyn as þou didest bifore & do þis Fars [3] þerin. and bake it wel and serue it forth.

[1] Leshes. V. Leche Lumbard in Gloss. [2] lenton. Lentoun, Contents, i. e. Lent. [3] Fars. Vide Gloss.


Take a Wastel and hewe out þe crummes. take ayrenn & shepis talow & þe crummes of þe same Wastell powdour fort & salt with Safroun and Raisouns coraunce. & medle alle þise yfere & do it in þe Wastel. close it & bynde it fast togidre. and seeþ it wel.


Take sawge. grynde it and temper it up with ayrenn. a saweyster [1] & kerf hym to gobettes and cast it in a possynet. and do þerwiþ grece & frye it. Whan it is fryed ynowz cast þerto sawge with ayren make it not to harde. cast þerto powdour douce, messe it forth. If it be in Ymber day; take sauge butter & ayrenn. and lat it stonde wel by þe sause [2], & serue it forth.

[1] saweyster. Qu. [2] stonde wel by the sause. Become thick with the sawce.


Take Pork and seeþ it wel and grinde it smale and medle it wiþ ayren & brede. ygrated. do þerto powdour fort and safroun with pyner & salt. take & close litull Balles in foiles [2] of sawge. wete it with a batour of ayren & fry it. & serue it forth.

[1] Sawgeat. So named from the Sage, or Sawge [2] foiles. leaves.


Take flour of pandemayn and medle it with white grece ouer the fyrer in a chawfour [2] and do the batour þerto queyntlich [3] þurgh þy fyngours. or thurgh a skymour. and lat it a litul [4] quayle [5] a litell so þe þer be hool þerinne. And if þer wilt colour it wiþ alkenet yfoundyt. take hem up & cast þerinne sugur, and serue hem forth.

[1] Cryspes. Ms. Ed. No. 26. Cryppys, meaning Crisps, Chaucer having crips, by transposition, for crisp. In Kent p is commonly put before the s, as haps is hasp, waps is wasp. V. Junius. V. Happs, and Haspe, and Wasp. [2] chawfour. chaffing dish. [3] quentlich'. nicely. [4] a litul. Dele. [5] quayle. an cool?


Take and make a foile of gode Past as thynne as Paper. kerue it out & fry it in oile. oþer in þe [1] grece and þe remnaunt [2], take hony clarified and flaunne [3] þerwith, alye hem up and serue hem forth.

[1] þe grece. Dele the. [2] þe remnant, i. e. as for the remnant. [3] flaunne. French flau, custard.


Take pork ysode. hewe it & bray it. do þerto ayrenn. Raisouns sugur and powdour of gyngur. powdour douce. and smale briddes þeramong & white grece. take prunes, safroun. & salt, and make a crust in a trape & do þer Fars [1] þerin. & bake it wel & serue it forth.

[1] þer Fars, r. þe Fars.


Take and parboile Oynouns presse out þe water & hewe hem smale. take brede & bray it in a morter. and temper it up with Ayren. do þerto butter, safroun and salt. & raisouns corauns. & a litel sugur with powdour douce. and bake it in a trape. & serue it forth.

[1] Ymbre. Ember.


Take a Crust ynche depe in a trape. take zolkes of Ayren rawe & chese ruayn [2]. & medle it & þe zolkes togyder. and do þerto powdour gyngur. sugur. safroun. and salt. do it in a trape, bake it and serue it forth.

[1] de Bry. Qu. Brie, the country. [2] Chese ruayn. Qu. of Roisen. V. ad 49.


Take Fyges & Raysouns. & waisshe hem in Wyne. and grinde hem smale with apples & peres clene ypiked. take hem up and cast hem in a pot wiþ wyne and sugur. take salwar Salmoun [2] ysode. oþer codlyng, oþer haddok, & bray hem smal. & do þerto white powdours & hool spices. & salt. and seeþ it. and whanne it is sode ynowz. take it up and do it in a vessel and lat it kele. make a Coffyn an ynche depe & do þe fars þerin. Plaunt it boue [3] with prunes and damysyns. take þe stones out, and wiþ dates quarte rede [4] dand piked clene. and couere the coffyn, and bake it wel, and serue it forth.

[1] Brymlent. Perhaps Midlent or High Lent. Bryme, in Cotgrave, is
    the midst of Winter. The fare is certainly lenten. A.S. [Anglo-
    Saxon: bryme]. Solennis, or beginning of Lent, from A.S. [Anglo-Saxon:
    brymm], ora, margo. Yet, after all, it may be a mistake for
[2] salwar Samoun. V. ad No. 98.
[3] plaunt it above. Stick it above, or on the top.
[4] quarte red. quartered.


Take Pork ysode and grynde it smale. tarde [2] harde eyrenn isode & ygrounde and do þerto with Chese ygronde. take gode powdour and hool spices, sugur, safroun, and salt & do þerto. make a coffyn as to feel sayde [3] & do þis þerinne, & plaunt it with smale briddes istyned & counyng. & hewe hem to smale gobettes & bake it as tofore. & serue it forth.

[1] Tartes of Flesh. So we have Tarte Poleyn, Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. i.e. of Pullen, or Poultry. [2] tarde, r. take. For see No. 169. [3] to feel sayde. perhaps, to hold the same.


Take Veel ysode and grinde it smale. take harde Eyrenn isode and yground & do þerto with prunes hoole [1]. dates. icorue. pynes and Raisouns coraunce. hool spices & powdour. sugur. salt, and make a litell coffyn and do þis fars þerinne. & bake it & serue it forth.

[1] hoole, whole.


Take Eelys and Samoun and smyte hem on pecys. & stewe it [1] in almaund mylke and verious. drawe up on almaund mylk wiþ þe stewe. Pyke out the bones clene of þe fyssh. and save þe myddell pece hoole of þe Eelys & grinde þat ooþer fissh smale. and do þerto powdour, sugur, & salt and grated brede. & fors þe Eelys þerwith þerer as [2] þe bonys were medle þe ooþer dele of the fars & þe mylk togider. and colour it with saundres. make a crust in a trape as before. and bake it þerin and serue it forth.

[1] it. rather hem, i.e. them. [2] þereras. where. V. No. 177.


Take and make a Crust in a trape. & take a cruddes and wryng out þe wheyze. and drawe hem þurgh a straynour and put in þe straynour crustes. do þerto sugur the þridde part & somdel [2] whyte of Ayrenn. & shake þerin blomes of elren [3]. & bake it up with curose [4] & messe it forth.

[1] Sambucade. As made of the Sambucus, or Elder. [2] Somdel. Some. [3] Blom of Elren. Elder flowers. [4] curose.


Take parsel, myntes [2], sauerey, & sauge, tansey, veruayn, clarry, rewe, ditayn, fenel, southrenwode, hewe hem & grinde hem smale, medle hem up with Ayrenn. do butter in a trape. & do þe fars þerto. & bake it & messe it forth.

[1] Erbolat, i.e. Herbolade, a confection of herbs. [2] myntes, mint.


Take þere þridde part of sowre Dokkes and flour þerto. & bete it togeder tyl it be as towh as eny lyme. cast þerto salt. & do it in a disshe holke [2] in þe bothom, and let it out wiþ þy finger queynchche [3] in a chowfer [4] wiþ oile. & frye it wel. and whan it is ynowhz: take it out and cast þerto suger &c.

[1] Nysebek. Qu. [2] holke. Qu. hollow. [3] queynchche. an queyntlich', as No. 162. [4] Chowfer. chaffing dish, as No. 162.


Take þe lire of Pork rawe. and grynde it smale. medle it up wiþ powdre fort, safroun, and salt, and do þerto Raisouns of Coraunce, make balles þerof. and wete it wele in white of ayrenn. & do it to seeþ in boillyng water. take hem up and put hem on a spyt. rost hem wel and take parsel ygronde and wryng it up with ayren & a party of flour. and lat erne [2] aboute þe spyt. And if þou wilt, take for parsel safroun, and serue it forth.

[1] Pomme dorryle. Contents, pom dorryes, rectè, for MS. Ed. 42, has Pommedorry; and see No. 177. So named from the balls and the gilding. "Pommes dorées, golden apples." Cotgrave. Poundorroye. MS. Ed. 58; but vide Dorry in Gloss.

[2] erne. Qu.


Take and make þe self fars [2]. but do þerto pynes and sugur. take an hole rowsted cok, pulle hym [3] & hylde [4] hym al togyder saue þe legges. take a pigg and hilde [5] hym fro þe myddes dounward, fylle him ful of þe fars & sowe hym fast togider. do hym in a panne & seeþ hym wel. and whan þei bene isode: do hem on a spyt & rost it wele. colour it with zolkes of ayren and safroun, lay þeron foyles [6] of gold and of siluer. and serue hit forth.

[1] Cotagres. This is a sumptuous dish. Perhaps we should read Cokagres, from the cock and grees, or wild pig, therein used. V. vyne grace in Gloss. [2] self fars. Same as preceding Recipe. [3] pulle hym, i.e. in pieces. [4] hylde. cast. [5] hilde. skin. [6] foyles. leaves; of Laurel or Bay, suppose; gilt and silvered for ornament.


Take þer mawe of þe grete Swyne. and fyfe oþer sex of pigges mawe. fyll hem full of þe self fars. & sowe hem fast, perboile hem. take hem up & make smale prews [2] of gode past and frye hem. take þese prews yfryed & seeþ [3] hem þicke in þe mawes on þe fars made after [4] an urchoun withoute legges. put hem on a spyt & roost hem & colour hem with safroun & messe hem forth.

[1] Hert rowee. Contents, Hart rows; perhaps from heart. [2] prews. Qu. V. in Gloss. [3] seeþ. There is a fault here; it means stick. [4] after, i. e. like.


Take Pottes of Erþe lytell of half a quart and fyll hem full of fars of pomme dorryes [2]. oþer make with þyn honde. oþer in a moolde pottes of þe self fars. put hem in water & seeþ hem up wel. and whan þey buth ynowz. breke þe pottes of erþe & do þe fars on þe spyt & rost hem wel. and whan þei buth yrosted. colour hem as pomme dorryes. make of litull prewes [3] gode past, frye hem oþer rost hem wel in grece. & make þerof Eerys [4] to pottes & colour it. and make rosys [5] of gode past, & frye hem, & put þe steles [6] in þe hole þer [7] þe spyt was. & colour it with whyte. oþer rede. & serue it forth.

[1] Potews. probably from the pots employed. [2] pomme dorryes. Vide ad No. 174. [3] prewes. V. ad 176. [4] eerys. Ears for the pots. V. 185. [5] rosys. roses. [6] sleles. stalks. [7] þer. there, i.e. where. V. 170.


Take smale Sachellis of canuas and fille hem full of þe same fars [2] & seeþ hem. and whan þey buth ynowz take of the canvas, rost hem & colour hem &c.

[1] Sachus. I suppose sacks. [2] same fars. viz. as 174.


Take Pork, seeþ it and grynde it smale wiþ sodden ayren. do þerto gode powdours and hole spices and salt with sugur. make þerof smale balles, and cast hem in a batour [2] of ayren. & wete hem in flour. and frye hem in grece as frytours [3]. and serue hem forth.

[1] Bursews. Different from Bursen in No. 11; therefore qu. etymon. [2] Batour. batter. [3] frytours. fritters.


Take Spynoches. perboile hem in seþyng water. take hem up and presse . . . out of þe water [2] and hem [3] in two. frye hem in oile clene. & do þerro powdour. & serue forth.

[1] Spynoches. Spinage, which we use in the singular. [2] out of the water. dele of; or it may mean, when out of the water. [3] hem r. hewe.


Take benes and seeþ hem almost til þey bersten. take and wryng out þer water clene. do þerto Oynouns ysode and ymynced. and garlec þerwith. frye hem in oile. oþer in grece. & do þerto powdour douce. & serue it forth.


Take Fyges and raisouns. pyke hem and waisshe hem in Wyne. grynde hem wiþ apples and peeres. ypared and ypiked clene. do þerto gode powdours. and hole spices. make bailes þerof. fryen in oile and serue hem forth.

[1] Rysshews. russhewses, Contents. Qu.


Take Creme of Cowe mylke. oþer of Almandes. do þerto ayren with sugur, safroun, and salt, medle it yfere. do it in a coffyn. of II. ynche depe. bake it wel and serue it forth,

[1] Daryols. Qu.


Take fat Pork ysode. pyke it clene. grynde it smale. grynde Chese & do þerto. wiþ sugur and gode powdours. make a coffyn of an ynche depe. and do þis fars þerin. make a thynne foile of gode past & kerue out þeroff smale poyntes [2]. frye hem in fars [3]. & bake it up &c.

[1] Flaumpeyns. Flaumpens, Contents. V. No. 113. [2] Points, seems the same as Prews, No. 176. [3] in fars, f. in the fars; and yet the Fars is disposed of before; ergo quære.


Take þer lire of Pork and kerue it al to pecys. and hennes þerwith and do it in a panne and frye it & make a Coffyn as to [2] a pye smale & do þerinne. & do þeruppon zolkes of ayrenn. harde. powdour of gyngur and salt, couere it & fry it in grece. oþer bake it wel and serue it forth.

[1] Chewets. V. 186. [2] as to, as for. V. No. 177.


Take Turbut. haddok. Codlyng. and hake. and seeþ it. grynde it smale. and do þerto Dates. ygrounden. raysouns pynes. gode powdoer and salt. make a Coffyn as tofore saide. close þis þerin. and frye it in oile. oþer stue it in gyngur. sugur. oþer in wyne. oþer bake it. & serue forth.


Take Fyges iquarterid [2]. Raysouns hool dates and Almandes hoole. and ryne [3] hem on a spyt and roost hem. and endore [4] hem as pomme dorryes & serue hem forth.

[1] Hastletes. Hasteletes, Contents. [2] iquarterid. iquartered. [3] ryne. run. [4] endore. endorse, MS. Ed. 42. II. 6. v. ad 147.


Take Fyges and Raisouns. pyke hem and waisshe hem clene, skalde hem in wyne. grynde hem right smale, cast sugur in þe self wyne. and founde it togyder. drawe it up thurgh a straynour. & alye up þe fruyt þerwith. take gode peerys and Apples. pare hem and take þe best, grynde hem smale and cast þerto. set a pot on þe fuyrer [2] wiþ oyle and cast alle þise þynges þerinne. and stere it warliche, and kepe it wel fro brennyng. and whan it is fyned cast þerto powdours of gynger of canel. of galyngale. hool clowes flour of canel. & macys hoole. cast þerto pynes a litel fryed in oile & salt, and whan it is ynowz fyned: take it up and do it in a vessel & lat it kele. and whan it is colde: kerue out with a knyf smale pecys of þe gretnesse & of þe length of a litel fyngur. & close it fast in gode past. & frye hen in oile. & serue forth.

[1] Comadore. Qu. [2] Fuyr. fire.


Take and make a foyle of gode past with a roller of a foot brode. & lyngur[2] by cumpas. make iiii Coffyns of þe self past uppon þe rolleres þe gretnesse of þe smale of þyn Arme. of vi ynche depnesse. make þe gretust [3] in þe myddell. fasten þe foile in þe mouth upwarde. & fasten þee [4] oþere foure in euery syde. kerue out keyntlich kyrnels [5] above in þe manere of bataiwyng [6] and drye hem harde in an Ovene. oþer in þe Sunne. In þe myddel Coffyn do a fars of Pork with gode Pork & ayrenn rawe wiþ salt. & colour it wiþ safroun and do in anoþer Creme of Almandes. and helde [7] it in anoþer [8] creme of Cowe mylke with ayrenn. colour it with saundres.

anoþur manur. Fars of Fygur. of raysouns. of Apples. of Peeres. & holde it in broun [9].

anoþer manere. do fars as to frytours blanched. and colour it with grene. put þis to þe ovene & bake it wel. & serue it forth with ew ardaunt [10].

[1] Chastelets. Litlle castles, as is evident from the kernelling and the battlements mentioned. Castles of jelly templewise made. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 227. [2] lynger. longer. [3] gretust. greatest. [4] þee, i. e. thou. [5] kyrnels. Battlements. V. Gloss. Keyntlich, quaintly, curiously. V. Gloss. [6] bataiwyng. embatteling. [7] helde. put, cast. [8] another. As the middle one and only two more are provided for, the two remaining were to be filled, I presume, in the same manner alternately. [9] holde it broun. make it brown. [10] ew ardaunt. hot water. Eau, water; anciently written eue.


Take a pece of fressh Flesh and do it in a pot for to seeþ. or take a pece of fressh Flessh and kerue it al to gobetes. do it in a pot to seeþ. & take þe wose [2] of comfery & put it in þe pot to þe flessh & it shal fasten anon, & so serue it forth.

[1] II. Twey, Contents.
[2] wose. Roots of comfrey are of a very glutinous nature. Quincy.
    Dispens. p. 100. Wose is A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: paer], humour,
    juice. See Junius. v. Wos, and Mr. Strype's Life of Stow, p. VIII.

PUR FAIT YPOCRAS [1]. XX.IX. XI. Treys Unces de canett. & iii unces

de gyngeuer. spykenard de Spayn le pays dun denerer [2], garyngale [3]. clowes, gylofre. poeurer long [4], noiez mugadez [5]. maziozame [6] cardemonij [7] de chescun i. quart' douce [8] grayne & [9] de paradys stour de queynel [10] de chescun dim [11] unce de toutes, soit fait powdour &c.

[1] Pur fait Ypocras. Id est, Pour faire Ypocras; a whole pipe of which was provided for archbishop Nevill's feast about A.D. 1466, So that it was in vast request formerly. [2] le pays d'un denerer, i.e. le pays d'un Denier. [3] garyngale, i.e. galyngale. [4] poeurer long, r. poiurer long, i.e. poivre long. [5] mugadez, r. muscadez; but q. as the French is muguette. Nutmegs. [6] maziozame, r. marjorame. [7] Cardemonij, r. Cardamones. [8] quartdouce, r. d'once.. Five penny weights. [9] &. dele. [10] queynel. Perhaps Canell; but qu. as that is named before. [11] dim. dimid.


Put Rys in water al a nyzt and at morowe waisshe hem clene, afterward put hem to þe fyre fort [2] þey berst & not to myche. ssithen [3] take brawn of Capouns, or of hennes. soden & drawe [4] it smale. after take mylke of Almandes. and put in to þe Ryys & boile it. and whan it is yboiled put in þe brawn & alye it þerwith. þat it be wel chargeaunt [5] and mung it fynelich' [6] wel þat it sit not [7] to þe pot. and whan it is ynowz & chargeaunt. do þerto sugur gode part, put þerin almandes. fryed in white grece. & dresse it forth.

[1] blank maunger. Very different from that we make now. V. 36. [2] fyre fort. strong fire. [3] ssithen. then. [4] drawe. make. [5] chargeaunt. stiff. So below, ynowhz & chargeaunt. V.193, 194. V. Gloss. [6] mung it fynelich' wel. stir it very well. [7] sit not. adheres not, and thereby burns not. Used now in the North.


Take Brawn of Hennes or of Capouns ysoden withoute þe skyn. & hewe hem as smale as þou may. & grinde hem in a morter. after take gode mylke of Almandes & put þe brawn þerin. & stere it wel togyder & do hem to seeþ. & take flour of Rys & amydoun & alay it. so þat it be chargeant. & do þerto sugur a gode party. & a party of white grece. and when it is put in disshes strewe uppon it blaunche powdour, and þenne put in blank desire and mawmenye [2] in disshes togider. And serue forth.

[1] blank Desne. Desire, Contents; rectè. V. Gloss. The Recipe in MS. Ed. 29 is much the same with this. [2] Mawmenye. See No. 194.

FOR TO MAKE MAWMENNY [1]. XX.IX. XIIII. Take þe chese and of Flessh of Capouns or of Hennes. & hakke smale in a morter. take mylke of Almandes with þe broth of freissh Beef, oþer freissh flessh. & put the flessh in þe mylke oþer in the broth and set hem to þe frye [2]. & alye hem up with flour of Ryse. or gastbon [3]. or amydoun. as chargeant as with blanke desire. & with zolkes of ayren and safroun for to make it zelow. and when it is dressit in disshes with blank desire styk above clowes de gilofre. & strewe Powdour of galyngale above. and serue it forth.

[1] Mawmenny. Mawmoune, Contents. Maumene MS. Ed. 29. 30. vide No. 193. See Preface for a fac-simile of this Recipe. [2] þe frye. an fyre? [3] gastbon. Qu.

THE PETY PERUAUNT [1]. XX.IX. XV. Take male Marow [2]. hole parade [3] and kerue it rawe. powdour of Gynger. zolkes of Ayrenn, dates mynced. raisouns of coraunce. salt a lytel. & loke þat þou make þy past with zolkes of Ayren. & þat no water come þerto. and forme þy coffyn. and make up þy past.

[1] pety peruaunt. a paste; therefore, perhaps, paty; but qu. the latter word. [2] male Marow. Qu. [3] parade. Qu.

PAYN PUFF [1]. XX.IX. XVI. Eodem modo fait payn puff. but make it more tendre þe past. and loke þe past be rounde of þe payn puf as a coffyn & a pye.

[1] Payn puff. Contents has, And the pete puant.


[1] A blank was left in the original for a large E.


"Antiquum hoc monumentum oblatum et missum est majestati vestræ vicesimo septimo die mensis Julij, anno regno vestri fælicissimi vicesimo viij ab humilimo vestro subdito, vestræque, majestati fidelissimo

EDWARD STAFFORD, Hæres domus subversæ Buckinghamiens."

N.B. He was Lord Stafford and called Edward.

Edw. D. of Bucks beheaded 1521. 13 H. VIII.
Henry, restored in blood by H. VIII.; and again 1 Ed. VI.
Edw. aged 21, 1592; born 1592. 21. ob. 1525. f. 1625.
 | 21
Edw. b. 1600. ——
              1571 born.


Hic incipiunt universa servicia tam de carnibus quam de pissibus [1].


Nym clene Wete and bray it in a morter wel that the holys [2] gon al of and seyt [3] yt til it breste and nym yt up. and lat it kele [4] and nym fayre fresch broth and swete mylk of Almandys or swete mylk of kyne and temper yt al. and nym the yolkys of eyryn [5]. boyle it a lityl and set yt adoun and messe yt forthe wyth fat venyson and fresh moton.

[1] See again, No. I. of the second part of this treatise. [2] Hulls. [3] Miswritten for seyth or sethe, i.e. seeth. [4] cool. [5] eggs.


Nym wyte Pisyn and wasch hem and seth hem a good wyle sithsyn wasch hem in golde [1] watyr unto the holys gon of alle in a pot and kever it wel that no breth passe owt and boyle hem ryzt wel and do therto god mylk of Almandys and a party of flowr of ris and salt and safron and messe yt forthe.

[1] cold.


Cranys and Herons schulle be euarund [1] wyth Lardons of swyne and rostyd and etyn wyth gyngynyr.

[1] Perhaps enarmed, or enorned. See Mr. Brander's Roll, No. 146.


Pecokys and Partrigchis schul ben yparboyld and lardyd and etyn wyth gyngenyr.


Nym hennyn and porke and seth hem togedere nym the lyre [2] of the hennyn and the porke and hakkyth finale and grynd hit al to dust and wyte bred therwyth and temper it wyth the selve broth and wyth heyryn and colure it with safroun and boyle it and disch it and cast theron powder of peper and of gyngynyr and serve it forthe.

[1] V. Mortrews in Gloss. [2] Flesh.


Schal be sodyn. Nym the lyre and brek it smal In a morter and peper and wyte bred therwyth and temper it wyth ale and ley it wyth the capoun. Nym hard sodyn eyryn and hewe the wyte smal and kaste thereto and nym the zolkys al hole and do hem in a dysch and boyle the capoun and colowre it wyth safroun and salt it and messe it forthe.


Schullyn be scaldyd and sodyn wyth porke and grynd pepyr and comyn bred and ale and temper it wyth the selve broth and boyle and colowre it wyth safroun and salt it and messe it forthe.

[1] Hens.


Schul be parboylyd and lardyd and rostid and nym onyons and myce hem rizt smal and fry hem in wyte gres and grynd peper bred and ale and the onions therto and coloure it wyth safroun and salt it and serve it forth.

[1] Hares. [1] Perhaps Cinee; for see No. 51.


Schul be hewe in gobbettys and sodyn with al the blod Nym bred piper and ale and grynd togedere and temper it with the selve broth and boyle it and salt it and serve it forthe.


Schul be sodyn and hakkyd in gobbettys and grynd gyngynyr galyngale and canel. and temper it up with god almand mylk and boyle it and nym macys and clowys and kest [2] therin and the conynggis also and salt hym [3] and serve it forthe.

[1] Rabbits. [2] Cast. [3] it, or perhaps hem.


Nym hennys and schald hem wel. and seth hem after and nym the lyre and hak yt smal and bray it with otyn grotys in a morter and with wyte bred and temper it up wyth the broth Nym the grete bonys and grynd hem al to dust and kest hem al in the broth and mak it thorw a clothe and boyle it and serve it forthe.

[1] Cullis. V. Preface.


Nym the nomblys of the venysoun and wasch hem clene in water and salt hem and seth hem in tweye waterys grynd pepyr bred and ale and temper it wyth the secunde brothe and boyle it and hak the nomblys and do theryn and serve it forthe.

[1] Umbles.


Nym kedys [1] and chekenys and hew hem in morsellys and seth hem in almand mylk or in kyne mylke grynd gyngyner galingale and cast therto and boyle it and serve it forthe.

[1] Kids.


Nym rys and lese hem and wasch hem clene and do thereto god almande mylk and seth hem tyl they al to brest and than lat hem kele and nym the lyre of the hennyn or of capouns and grynd hem smal kest therto wite grese and boyle it Nym blanchyd almandys and safroun and set hem above in the dysche and serve yt forthe.

[1] Blanc-manger. See again, No. 33, 34. II. No. 7. Chaucer writes it Blankmanger.


Nym eyren wyth al the wyte and myse bred and schepys [2] talwe as gret as dyses [3] grynd peper and safroun and cast therto and do hit in the schepis wombe seth it wel and dresse it forthe of brode leches thynne.

[1] Frenchemulle d'un mouton. A sheeps call, or kell. Cotgrave. Junius, v. Moil, says, "a French moile Chaucero est cibus delicatior, a dish made of marrow and grated bread." [2] Sheep's fat. [3] dice; square bits, or bits as big as dice.


Nym the tharmys [1] of a pygge and wasch hem clene in water and salt and seth hem wel and than hak hem smale and grynd pepyr and safroun bred and ale and boyle togedere Nym wytys of eyrynn and knede it wyth flour and mak smal pelotys [2] and fry hem with wyte grees and do hem in disches above that othere mete and serve it forthe.

[1] Rops, guts, puddings [2] Balls, pellets, from the French pelote.


Nym appelyn and seth hem and lat hem kele and make hem thorw a clothe and on flesch dayes kast therto god fat breyt [2] of Bef and god wyte grees and sugar and safroun and almande mylk on fysch dayes oyle de olyve and gode powdres [3] and serve it forthe.

[1] See No. 35. [2] Breth, i. e. broth. See No. 58. [3] Spices ground small. See No. 27, 28. 35. 58. II. No. 4. 17. or perhaps of Galingale. II. 20. 24.


Nym Veel and seth it wel and hak it smal and grynd bred peper and safroun and do thereto and frye yt and presse it wel upon a bord and dresse yt forthe.

[1] a Fraise


Nym flowre and eyryn and grynd peper and safroun and mak therto a batour and par aplyn and kyt hem to brode penys [2] and kest hem theryn and fry hem in the batour wyth fresch grees and serve it forthe.

[1] Fritters. [2] Pieces as broad as pennies, or perhaps pecys.


Nym Porke and seth it wel and hak yt smal nym eyryn wyth al the wytys and swyng hem wel al togedere and kast god swete mylke thereto and boyle yt and messe it forthe.

[1] Quære.


Nym eyryn wyth al the wytys and mice bred grynd pepyr and safroun and do therto and temper yt wyth god fresch broth of porke and boyle it wel and messe yt forthe.


Nym and schald hem wel and hew hem wel in gobettys al rawe and seth hem in her owyn grees and cast therto wyn or ale a cuppe ful and myce onyons smal and do therto and boyle yt and salt yt and messe yt forthe.

[1] Gese. [2] Hochepot. Vide Gloss.


Nym water and welle [1] yt and brek eyryn and kast theryn and grynd peper and safroun and temper up wyth swete mylk and boyle it and hakke chese smal and cast theryn and messe yt forthe.

[1] Quære the meaning.


Tak checonys and schald hem and seth hem and grvnd gyngen' other pepyr and comyn and temper it up wyth god mylk and do the checonys theryn and boyle hem and serve yt forthe.

[1] Vide ad No. 60 of the Roll.


Nym swete mylk and do yt in a panne nyn [1] eyryn wyth al the wyte and swyng hem wel and cast therto and colowre yt wyth safroun and boyl it tyl yt wexe thikke and thanne seth [2] yt thorw a culdore [3] and nym that, leyyth [4] and presse yt up on a bord and wan yt ys cold larde it and scher yt on schyverys and roste yt on a grydern and serve yt forthe.

[1] Read nym. [2] strain. See No. 27. [3] Cuilinder. [4] That which is left in the cullinder.


Nym flour and wytys of eyryn sugur other hony and sweyng togedere and mak a batour nym wyte grees and do yt in a posnet and cast the batur thereyn and stury to thou have many [2] and tak hem up and messe hem wyth the frutours and serve forthe.

[1] Meaning, crisps. V. Gloss. [2] It will run into lumps, I suppose.


Nym Hennys and seth hem wyth god Buf and wan hi ben sodyn nym the Hennyn and do awey the bonys and bray smal yn a mortar and temper yt wyth the broth and seth yt thorw a culdore and cast therto powder of gyngenyr and sugur and graynys of powmis gernatys [2] and boyle yt and dresse yt in dysches and cast above clowys gylofres [3] and maces and god powder [4] serve yt forthe.

[1] Quære the meaning. [2] Pomegranates. V. No. 39. [3] Not clove-gilliflowers, but cloves. See No. 30, 31, 40. [4] See No. 17, note [3].


Nym caponys and schald hem nym a penne and opyn the skyn at the hevyd [1] and blowe hem tyl the skyn ryse from the flesshe and do of the skyn al hole and seth the lyre of Hennyn and zolkys of heyryn and god powder and make a Farsure [2] and fil ful the skyn and parboyle yt and do yt on a spete and rost yt and droppe [3] yt wyth zolkys of eyryn and god powder rostyng and nym the caponys body and larde yt and roste it and nym almaunde mylk and amydoun [4] and mak a batur and droppe the body rostyng and serve yt forthe.

[1] Head. Sax. [Anglo-Saxon: heofod] and [Anglo-Saxon: hevod], hence our Head. [2] stuffing. [3] baste. [4] Vide Gloss.


Tak brann [2] of caponys other of hennys and the thyes [3] wythowte the skyn and kerf hem smal als thou mayst and grynd hem smal in a morter and tak mylk of Almaundys and do yn the branne and grynd hem thanne togedere and and seth hem togeder' and tak flour of rys other amydoun and lye it that yt be charchant and do therto sugur a god parti and a party of wyt grees and boyle yt and wan yt ys don in dyschis straw upon blank poudere and do togedere blank de sury and manmene [4] in a dysch and serve it forthe.

[1] Vide Blank Desire in Gloss. [2] Perhaps brawn, the brawny part. See No. 33, and the Gloss. [3] Thighs. [4] See the next number. Quære Mawmeny.


Tak the thyys [2] other the flesch of the caponys fede [3] hem and kerf hem smal into a morter and tak mylk of Almandys wyth broth of fresch Buf and do the flesch in the mylk or in the broth and do yt to the fyre and myng yt togedere wyth flour of Rys othere of wastelys als charchaut als the blank de sure and wyth the zolkys of eyryn for to make it zelow and safroun and wan yt ys dressyd in dysches wyth blank de sure straw upon clowys of gelofre [4] and straw upon powdre of galentyn and serve yt forthe.

[1] Vide Number 29, and the Gloss. [2] Thighs. [3] Quære. [4] See No. 27, note [3].


Tak Partrichys rostyd and checonys and qualys rostyd and larkys ywol and demembre the other and mak a god cawdel and dresse the flesch in a dysch and strawe powder of galentyn therupon. styk upon clowys of gelofre and serve yt forthe.


Tak chekenys or hennys or othere flesch and mak the colowre als red as any blod and tak peper and kanel and gyngyner bred [1] and grynd hem in a morter and a porcion of bred and mak that bruer thenne and do that flesch in that broth and mak hem boyle togedere and stury it wel and tak eggys and temper hem wyth Jus of Parcyle and wryng hem thorwe a cloth and wan that bruet is boylyd do that therto and meng tham togedere wyth fayr grees so that yt be fat ynow and serve yt forthe.

[1] This is still in use, and, it seems, is an old compound.


Do Ris in water al nyzt and upon the morwe wasch hem wel and do hem upon the fyre for to [2] they breke and nozt for to muche and tak Brann [3] of Caponis sodyn and wel ydraw [4] and smal and tak almaund mylk and boyle it wel wyth ris and wan it is yboylyd do the flesch therin so that it be charghaunt and do therto a god party of sugure and wan it ys dressyd forth in dischis straw theron blaunche Pouder and strik [5] theron Almaundys fryed wyt wyte grece [6] and serve yt forthe.

[1] See No. 14. [2] till. for, however, abounds. [3] See No. 29. note d. [4] Perhaps, strained. See No. 49; and Part II. No. 33. [5] Perhaps, stik, i.e. stick; but see 34. [6] Grese. Fat, or lard.


Tak Flesch of Caponys and of Pork sodyn kerf yt smal into a morter togedere and bray that wel. and temper it up wyth broth of Caponys and of Pork that yt be wel charchaunt also the crem of Almaundys and grynd egges and safroun or sandres togedere that it be coloured and straw upon Powder of Galentyn and strik thereon clowys and maces and serve it forthe.


Tak Applys and seth hem and let hem kele and after mak hem thorwe a cloth and do hem im a pot and kast to that mylk of Almaundys wyth god broth of Buf in Flesch dayes do bred ymyed [2] therto. And the fisch dayes do therto oyle of olyve and do therto sugur and colour it wyth safroun and strew theron Powder and serve it forthe.

[1] See No. 17. [2] ymyced, i.e. minced.


Tak wyte wyn and a party of water and safroun and gode spicis and flesch of Piggys or of Hennys or fresch Fisch and boyle them togedere and after wan yt ys boylyd and cold dres yt in dischis and serve yt forthe.

[1] meat jelly.


Tak mulbery [2] and bray hem in a morter and wryng [3] hem thorth a cloth and do hem in a pot over the fyre and do thereto fat bred and wyte gresse and let it nazt boyle no ofter than onys and do thereto a god party of sugur and zif yt be nozt ynowe colowrd brey mulburus and serve yt forthe.

[1] Morrey. Part II. No. 26. [2] This is to be understood pluraly, quasi mulberries. [2] Read wryng. For see part II. No. 17. 2B. Chaucer, v. wronge and ywrong.


Tak water and do it in a panne to the fyre and lat yt sethe and after tak eggs and brek hem and cast hem in the water and after tak a chese and kerf yt on fowr partins and cast in the water and wanne the chese and the eggys ben wel sodyn tak hem owt of the water and wasch hem in clene water and tak wastel breed and temper yt wyth mylk of a kow. and after do yt over the fyre and after forsy yt wyth gyngener and wyth cornyn and colowr yt wyth safroun and lye yt wyth eggys and oyle the sewe wyth Boter and kep wel the chese owt and dresse the sewe and dymo [1] eggys thereon al ful and kerf thy chese in lytyl schyms and do hem in the sewe wyth eggys and serve yt forthe.

[1] Perhaps, do mo, i.e. put more.


Tak god Almaunde mylk and lat yt boyle and do ther'in amydoun wyth flowr of Rys and colowr yt wyth safroun and after dresse yt wyth graynis of Poungarnetts [1] other wyth reysens zyf thow hast non other and tak sugur and do theryn and serve it forthe.

[1] Vide No. 27.

XIV. For to make Fruturs [1].

Tak crommys [2] of wyte bred and the flowris of the swete Appyltre and zolkys of Eggys and bray hem togedere in a morter and temper yt up wyth wyte wyn and mak yt to sethe and wan yt is thykke do thereto god spicis of gyngener galyngale canel and clowys gelofre and serve yt forth;

[1] Fritters. [2] Crumbs.

XLI. For to make Rosee [1].

Tak the flowris of Rosys and wasch hem wel in water and after bray hem wel in a morter and than tak Almondys and temper hem and seth hem and after tak flesch of capons or of hennys and hac yt smale and than bray hem wel in a morter and than do yt in the Rose [2] so that the flesch acorde wyth the mylk and so that the mete be charchaunt and after do yt to the fyre to boyle and do thereto sugur and safroun that yt be wel ycolowrd and rosy of levys and of the forseyde flowrys and serve yt forth.

[1] Vide No. 47. [2] i.e. Rosee.


Tak Buff and hewe yt smal al raw and cast yt in a morter and grynd yt nozt to smal tak safroun and grynd therewyth wan yt ys grounde tak the wyte of the eyryn zyf yt be nozt styf. Cast into the Buf pouder of Pepyr olde resyns and of coronse set over a panne wyth fayr water and mak pelotys of the Buf and wan the water and the pelots ys wel yboylyd and [2] set yt adoun and kele yt and put yt on a broche and rost yt and endorre yt wyth zolkys of eyryn and serve yt forthe.

[1] Vide No. 58. [2] dele and.


Nym the tonge of the rether [2] and schalde and schawe [3] yt wel and rizt clene and seth yt and sethe nym a broche [4] and larde yt wyth lardons and wyth clowys and gelofre and do it rostyng and drop yt wel yt rostyd [5] wyth zolkys of eyrin and dresse it forthe.

[1] Neat's Tongue. Make signifies to dress, as II. 12. [2] The ox or cow. Lye in Jun. Etymolog. v. Rother. [3] Shave, scrape. [4] A larding-pin. [5] Pehaps, wyle it rostyth.


Nym swynys fet and eyr [1] and make hem clene and seth hem alf wyth wyn and half wyth water cast mycyd onyons thereto and god spicis and wan they be ysodyn nym and rosty hem in a grydere wan it is yrostyd kest thereto of the selve broth hy lyed wyth amydoun and anyeyd onyons [2] and serve yt forth.

[1] To be understood plurally, Ears. [2] Miswritten for mycyd, i. e. minced onyons.


Nym god fresch flesch wat maner so yt be and hew yt in smale morselys and seth yt wyth gode fresch buf and cast thereto gode mynced onyons and gode spicerye and alyth [2] wyth eyryn and boyle and dresse yt forth.

[1] Vide No. 52. [2] Stiffen, thicken it. See No. 44. where lyed has that sense. See also 46.


Nym the flowrys of the haw thorn clene gaderyd and bray hem al to dust and temper hem wyth Almaunde mylk and aly yt wyth amydoun and wyth eyryn wel rykke [2] and boyle it and messe yt forth and flowrys and levys abovyn on [3].

[1] This dish, no doubt, takes its name from Spina, of which it is made. [2] Read, þykke, thykke. [3] It means laid upon it.


Nym pyggus and hennys and other maner fresch flesch and hew yt in morselys and seth yt in wyth wyn and [2] gyngyner and galyngale and gelofre and canel [3] and bray yt wel and kest thereto and alye yt wyth amydoun other wyth flowr of rys.

[1] Vide No. 41. [2] Perhaps, in wyn with. [3] Cinamon. Vide Gloss.


Nym etemele and bynd yt in a fayr lynnen clowt and lat yt honge in the pot so that yt thowche nozt the bottym and lat it hongy thereynne a god wyle and seþh [2] set yt fro the fyre and let yt kele and yt schal be fresch ynow wythoute any other maner licowr ydo thereto.

[1] id est, too. [2] Read, seth, i.e. then.


Tak Fygys and reysyns and wyn and grynd hem togeder tak and draw hem thorw a cloth and do thereto powder of Alkenet other of rys and do thereto a god quantite of pepir and vyneger and boyle it togeder and messe yt and serve yt forth.

[1] Vide Part II. No. 1. 28.


Tak Almaundys and mak god mylk and temper wyth god wyneger clene tak reysynys and boyle hem in clene water and tak the reysynis and tak hem owt of the water and boyle hem wyth mylk and zyf thow wyl colowr yt wyth safron and serve yt forth.

[1] Vide ad Part II. No. 21. There are no eggs concerned, so no doubt it should be Eger Dows. Vide Gloss.


Tak a mallard and pul hym drye and swyng over the fyre draw hym but lat hym touche no water and hew hym in gobettys and do hym in a pot of clene water boyle hem wel and tak onyons and boyle and bred and pepyr and grynd togedere and draw thorw a cloth temper wyth wyn and boyle yt and serve yt forth.

[1] See No. 8.


Tak veel and boyle it tak zolkys of eggys and mak hem thykke tak macis and powdre of gyngyner and powder of peper and boyle yt togeder and messe yt forth.

[1] Vide No. 45.


Tak Parsile and Ysop and Sauge and hak yt smal boil it in wyn and in

water and a lytyl powdre of peper and messe yt forth.

[1] Deer or Roes are not mentioned, as in Mr. Brander's Roll, No. 14, ergo quære. It is a meager business. Can it mean Rue-Broth for penitents?


Tak the lyre of the fresch Buf and bet it al in pecis and bred and fry yt in fresch gres tak it up and and drye it and do yt in a vessel wyth wyn and sugur and powdre of clowys boyle yt togedere tyl the flesch have drong the liycoure and take the almande mylk and quibibz macis and clowys and boyle hem togedere tak the flesch and do thereto and messe it forth.


Tak hoggys fet other pyggys other erys other partrichys other chiconys and do hem togedere and serh [2] hem in a pot and do hem in flowre of canel and clowys other or grounde [3] do thereto vineger and tak and do the broth in a clene vessel of al thys and tak the Flesch and kerf yt in smal morselys and do yt therein tak powder of galyngale and cast above and lat yt kels tak bronches of the lorer tre and styk over it and kep yt al so longe as thou wilt and serve yt forth.

[1] Jelly. [2] seþ, i. e. seeth. [3] Not clearly expressed. It means either Cinamon or Cloves, and either in flour or ground.


Tak venisoun wan yt ys newe and cuver it hastely wyth Fern that no wynd may come thereto and wan thou hast ycuver yt wel led yt hom and do yt in a soler that sonne ne wynd may come thereto and dimembre it and do yt in a clene water and lef yt ther' half a day and after do yt up on herdeles for to drie and wan yt ys drye tak salt and do after thy venisoun axit [1] and do yt boyle in water that yt be other [2] so salt als water of the see and moche more and after lat the water be cold that it be thynne and thanne do thy Venisoun in the water and lat yt be therein thre daies and thre nyzt [3] and after tak yt owt of the water and salt it wyth drie salt ryzt wel in a barel and wan thy barel ys ful cuver it hastely that sunne ne wynd come thereto.

[1] as thy venison requires. See Gloss. to Chaucer for axe. [2] Dele. [3] A plural, as in No. 57.


Tak the Venisoun that ys rest and do yt in cold water and after mak an hole in the herthe and lat yt be thereyn thre dayes and thre nyzt and after tak yt up and spot yt wel wyth gret salt of peite [2] there were the restyng ys and after lat yt hange in reyn water al nyzt or more.

[1] Restiness. It should be rather restyng. See below. [2] Pierre, or Petre.


Tak Partrichis wit [2] longe filettis of Pork al raw and hak hem wel smale and bray hem in a morter and wan they be wel brayed do thereto god plente of pouder and zolkys of eyryn and after mak thereof a Farsure formed of the gretnesse of a onyoun and after do it boyle in god breth of Buf other of Pork after lat yt kele and after do it on a broche of Hasel and do them to the fere to roste and after mak god bature of floure and egge on bature wyt and another zelow and do thereto god plente of sugur and tak a fethere or a styk and tak of the bature and peynte thereon above the applyn so that on be wyt and that other zelow wel colourd.

[1] Vide No. 42. [2] with.


Hic incipit Servicium de Pissibus_ [1].

[1] See p. 1


Tak Lucys [2] or Tenchis and hak hem smal in gobette and fry hem in oyle de olive and syth nym vineger and the thredde party of sugur and myncyd onyons smal and boyle al togedere and cast thereyn clowys macys and quibibz and serve yt forthe.

[1] See No. 21 below, and part I. No. 50. [2] Lucy, I presume, means the Pike; so that this fish was known here long before the reign of H. VIII. though it is commonly thought otherwise. V. Gloss.


Tak pyg' or Tenchis or other maner fresch fysch and fry yt wyth oyle de olive and syth nym the crustys of wyt bred and canel and bray yt al wel in a mortere and temper yt up wyth god wyn and cole [2] yt thorw an hersyve and that yt be al cole [3] of canel and boyle yt and cast therein hole clowys and macys and quibibz and do the fysch in dischis and rape [4] abovyn and dresse yt forthe.

[1] Vide No. 49. [2] Strain, from Lat. colo. [3] Strained, or cleared. [4] This Rape is what the dish takes its name from. Perhaps means grape from the French raper. Vide No. 28.


Nym Lucys or tenchis and hak hem in morsell' and fry hem tak vyneger and the thredde party of sugur myncy onyons smal and boyle al togedyr cast ther'yn macis clowys quibibz and serve yt forth.


Nym Rys and bray hem [1] wel and temper hem up wyth almaunde mylk and boyle yt nym applyn and par' hem and sher hem smal als dicis and cast hem ther'yn after the boylyng and cast sugur wyth al and colowr yt wyth safroun and cast ther'to pouder and serve yt forthe.

[1] Rice, as it consists of grains, is here considered as a plural. See also No. 5. 7, 8.


Nym rys and bray hem ryzt wel in a morter and cast ther'to god
Almaunde mylk and sugur and salt boyle yt and serve yt forth.

[1] Vide Gloss.


Nym onyons and mynce hem smale and fry hem in oyl dolyf Nym wyn and boyle yt wyth the onyouns roste wyte bred and do yt in dischis and god Almande mylk also and do ther'above and serve yt forthe.


Tak a pound of rys les hem wel and wasch and seth tyl they breste and lat hem kele and do ther'to mylk of to pound of Almandys nym the

Perche or the Lopuster and boyle yt and kest sugur and salt also ther'to and serve yt forth.

[1] See note on No. 14. of Part I.


Tak Rys and les hem and wasch hem clene and seth hem tyl they breste and than lat hem kele and seth cast ther'to Almand mylk and colour it wyth safroun and boyle it and messe yt forth.


Schal be latyn blod atte Navel and schald yt and rost yt and ley yt al hole up on a Plater and zyf hym forth wyth Galentyn that be mad of Galyngale gyngener and canel and dresse yt forth.

[1] This is a made or compounded thing. See both here, and in the next Number, and v. Gloss.


Yt schal be stoppit [2] over nyzt in lews water and in braan and flowe and sodyn and pyl onyons and seth hem and ley hem al hol by the Lomprey and zif hem forthe wyth galentyne makyth [3] wyth strong vyneger and wyth paryng of wyt bred and boyle it al togeder' and serve yt forthe.

[1] See note [1] on the last Number. [2] Perhaps, steppit, i. e. steeped. See No. 12. [3] Perhaps, makyd, i.e. made.


They schulle be schaldyd and ysode and ybrulyd upon a gredern and grynd peper and safroun and do ther'to and boyle it and do the Lomprey ther'yn and serve yt forth.


He schal be shorn in besys [1] and stepyd [2] over nyzt and sodyn longe as Flesch and he schal be etyn in venegar.

[1] Perhaps, pesys, i.e. pieces. [2] Qu. steppit, i.e. steeped.


They schal be fleyn and sodyn and rostyd upon a gredern and grynd Peper and Safroun and ale boyle it wel and do the sole in a plater and the bruet above serve it forth.


They schul be schallyd [1] and ysod in clene water grynd peper safroun bred and ale and temper it wyth Broth do the Oystryn ther'ynne and boyle it and salt it and serve it forth.

[1] Have shells taken off.


They schul be flayn and ket in gobett' and sodyn and grynd peper and safroun other myntys and persele and bred and ale and temper it wyth the broth and boyle it and serve it forth.


He schal be rostyd in his scalys in a ovyn other by the Feer under a panne and etyn wyth Veneger.


Tak Prunys fayrist wasch hem wel and clene and frot hem wel in syve for the Jus be wel ywronge and do it in a pot and do ther'to wyt gres and a party of sugur other hony and mak hem to boyle togeder' and mak yt thykke with flowr of rys other of wastel bred and wan it is sodyn dresse it into dischis and strew ther'on powder and serve it forth.


Tak Chiryes at the Fest of Seynt John the Baptist and do away the stonys grynd hem in a morter and after frot hem wel in a seve so that the Jus be wel comyn owt and do than in a pot and do ther'in feyr gres or Boter and bred of wastrel ymyid [1] and of sugur a god party and a porcioun of wyn and wan it is wel ysodyn and ydressyd in Dyschis stik ther'in clowis of Gilofr' and strew ther'on sugur.

[1] Perhaps, ymycid, i.e. minced; or mycd, as in No. 19.


Tak the zolkys of Eggs sodyn and temper it wyth mylk of a kow and do ther'to Comyn and Safroun and flowr' of ris or wastel bred mycd and grynd in a morter and temper it up wyth the milk and mak it boyle and do ther'to wit [2] of Egg' corvyn smale and tak fat chese and kerf ther'to wan the licour is boylyd and serve it forth.

[1] Vide Note [1] on No. 29. of Part I. [2] white. So wyt is white in No. 21. below.


Tak tryd [1] gyngener and Safroun and grynd hem in a morter and temper hem up wyth Almandys and do hem to the fir' and wan it boylyth wel do ther'to zolkys of Egg' sodyn and fat chese corvyn in gobettis and wan it is dressid in dischis strawe up on Powder of Galyngale and serve it forth.

[1] It appears to me to be tryd. Can it be fryd?


Tak god mylk of Almandys and rys and wasch hem wel in a feyr' vessel and in fayr' hoth water and after do hem in a feyr towayl for to drie and wan that they be drye bray hem wel in a morter al to flowr' and afterward tak two partyis and do the half in a pot and that other half in another pot and colowr that on wyth the safroun and lat that other be wyt and lat yt boyle tyl it be thykke and do ther'to a god party of sugur and after dresse yt in twe dischis and loke that thou have Almandys boylid in water and in safroun and in wyn and after frie hem and set hem upon the fyre sethith mete [2] and strew ther'on sugur that yt be wel ycolouryt [3] and serve yt forth.

[1] See Part II. No. I; and Part I. No. 50. [2] Seth it mete, i.e. seeth it properly. [3] Coloured. See No. 28. below.


Tak wite benes and seth hem in water and bray the benys in a morter al to nozt and lat them sethe in almande mylk and do ther'in wyn and hony and seth [1] reysons in wyn and do ther'to and after dresse yt forth.

[1] i.e. Seeth.


Tak gode Applys and gode Spycis and Figys and reysons and Perys and wan they are wel ybrayed colourd [1] wyth Safroun wel and do yt in a cofyn and do yt forth to bake wel.

[1] Perhaps, coloure.


Tak Figys and Reysons and do awey the Kernelis and a god party of Applys and do awey the paryng of the Applis and the Kernelis and bray hem wel in a morter and temper hem up with Almande mylk and menge hem wyth flowr of Rys that yt be wel chariaunt and strew ther'upon powder of Galyngale and serve yt forth.


Mak the Cowche of fat chese and gyngener and Canel and pur' crym of mylk of a Kow and of Helys ysodyn and grynd hem wel wyth Safroun and mak the chowche of Canel and of Clowys and of Rys and of gode Spycys as other Tartys fallyth to be.


Requir' de Carnibus ut supra [2].

[1] Vide Part I. No. 37. [2] Part I. No. 37.


Tak god Flowr and mak a Past and tak god mylk of Almandys and flowr of rys other amydoun and boyle hem togeder' that they be wel chariaud wan yt is boylid thykke take yt up and ley yt on a feyr' bord so that yt be cold and wan the Cofyns ben makyd tak a party of and do upon the coffyns and kerf hem in Schiveris and do hem in god mylk of Almandys and Figys and Datys and kerf yt in fowr partyis and do yt to bake and serve yt forth.

[1] Perhaps, Flawnes, or Custards. Chaucer, vide Slaunis. Fr. Flans.


Tak the Crustys of wyt bred and reysons and bray hem wel in a morter and after temper hem up wyth wyn and wryng hem thorw a cloth and do ther'to Canel that yt be al colouryt of canel and do ther'to hole clowys macys and quibibz the fysch schal be Lucys other Tenchis fryid or other maner Fysch so that yt be fresch and wel yfryed and do yt in Dischis and that rape up on and serve yt forth.

[1] Vide Part I. No. 49.


Tak an hundred onyons other an half and tak oyle de Olyf and boyle togeder' in a Pot and tak Almande mylk and boyle yt and do ther'to. Tak and make a thynne Paast of Dow and make therof as it were ryngis tak and fry hem in oyle de Olyve or in wyte grees and boil al togedere.


Tak the mylk of the Hasel Notis boyl the wete [2] wyth the aftermelk til it be dryyd and tak and coloured [3] yt wyth Safroun and the ferst mylk cast ther'to and boyle wel and serve yt forth.

[1] Fishday. [2] white. [3] Perhaps, colour.


Tak Almande mylk and Flowre of Rys. Tak thereto sugur and boyle thys togedere and dische yt and tak Almandys and wet hem in water of Sugur and drye hem in a panne and plante hem in the mete and serve yt forth.

[1] Vide ad No. 29. of Part I.


Take Hony and Rotys of Radich and grynd yt smal in a morter and do yt thereto that hony a quantite of broun sugur and do thereto. Tak Powder of Peper and Safroun and Almandys and do al togedere boyl hem long and hold [1] yt in a wet bord and let yt kele and messe yt and do yt forth [2].

[1] i.e. keep, as in next Number. [2] This Recipe is ill expressed.


Tak Pikys and spred hem abord and Helys zif thou hast fle hem and ket hem in gobettys and seth hem in alf wyn [2] and half in water. Tak up the Pykys and Elys and hold hem hote and draw the Broth thorwe a Clothe do Powder of Gyngener Peper and Galyngale and Canel into the Broth and boyle yt and do yt on the Pykys and on the Elys and serve yt forth.

[1] This is so uncertain in the original, that I can only guess at it. [2] Perhaps, alf in wyn, or dele in before water.



The Numbers relate to the order of the Recipes.

N.B. Many words are now written as one, which formerly were divided, as al so, up on, &c. Of these little notice is taken in the Index, but I mention it here once for all.

Our orthography was very fluctuating and uncertain at this time, as appears from the different modes of spelling the same words, v. To gedre; v. wayshe; v. ynowkz; v. chargeant; v. coraunte; &c.


A. abounds, a gode broth, 5. 26, al a nyzt, 192. in. a two, 62.

an. and. passim.

Aftir. Proem, like, 176, Wiclif.

Aray. Dress, set forth, 7. Chaucer.

Alf. MS. Ed. 45. II. 33. half.

Alye it. 7. 33. mix, thicken, hence alloy of metals. from French allayer. alay, 22. aly, MS. Ed. 46. See Junij Etymolog. v. Alaye. lye. here No. 15. lyed. thickened. MS. Ed. 44, 45. Randle Holme interprets lyth or lything by thickening. hence lyour. a mixture, 11. alith_ for alyed. MS. Editor. No. 45.

Awey. MS. Ed. 27. II. 18. away.

Auance. 6. forte Avens. Caryophylla, Miller, Gard. Dict.

Axe. MS. Ed. No. 56. Chaucer.

Ayren. v. Eyren.

Al, Alle. 23. 53. Proem. All. Chaucer, al to brest. all burst. MS.
Ed. No. 14.

Als. MS. Editor. No. 29. Chaucer, in v. It means as.

Almandes. 17. very variously written at this time, Almaunde, Almandys,
Almaundys, Almondes, all which occur in MS. Ed. and mean Almond or

Almaund mylke. 9. Almonds blanched and drawn thickish with good broth or water, No. 51. is called thyk mylke, 52. and is called after Almaunde mylke, first and second milk, 116. Almaunds unblaunched, ground, and drawn with good broth, is called mylke, 62. Cow's milk was sometimes used instead of it, as MS. Ed. I. 13. Creme of Almands how made, 85. Of it, Lel. Coll. VI. p. 17. We hear elsewhere of Almond-butter, v. Butter.

Azeyn. 24. again. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 281. alibi. Chaucer. A.S. [Anglo-
Saxon: Azen].

Aneys, Anyse, 36. 137. Aneys in confit rede other whyt, 36. 38. i.e.
Anis or Aniseed confectioned red, or white, used for garnish, 58.

Amydon. 37. v. ad locum.

Almony. 47. v. ad locum.

Almayne. 71. Germany, v. ad loc. MS. Editor, No. 2. 31.

Alkenet. 47. A species of Buglos. Quincey, Dispens. p. 51. 62. used for colouring, 51. 84. fryed and yfoundred, or yfondyt, 62. 162.

Anoon. 53. Anon, immediately. Wiclif.

Arn. MS. Ed. II. 23. are. Chaucer, v. arne.

Adoun. 59. 85. down. v. Chaucer, voce adoune. MS. Edit. No. I.

Avysement. Proem. Advice, Direction. Chaucer. French.

Aymers. 72. Embers. Sax. [Anglo-Saxon: aemyrian], Cineres. Belg. ameren.

Aquapatys. 75. a Mess or Dish.

Alker. Rys Alker. MS. Ed. II. 24.

Appulmoy. 79. a dish. v. ad loc. Appelyn, Applys,

Apples. MS. Ed. 17. 35.

Abrode. 85. abrod. MS. Ed. II. 33. abroad. So brode. MS. Ed. 15. broad.

Alite. v. Lite.

Ale. 113. v. Pref.

Aside. 113. apart. Wiclif.

Aysell. 114, 115. a species of Vinegar. Wiclif. Chaucer, v. Eisel.

Alegar. 114.

Armed. 146. v. ad loc.

Alygyn. v. Brewet.


Bacon. No. I.

Benes. I. alibi Beans. Chaucer, v. bene.

Bef. 6. MS. Ed. 17. Beef, Buf, Buff. MS. Ed. 27. 42, 43.

Buth. 6. 23. 30. alibi, been, are. Chaucer has beth.

Ben. MS. Ed. 4. 27. be. Chaucer v. bein and ben.

Balles. 152. Balls or Pellets.

Blank Desire. 193, 194. bis. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 5. In No. 193, we meet with Blank desne, but the Contents has Desire, which is right, as appears from the sequel. In MS. Ed. 29. it is Blank-Surry, and Sury, and Sure, and de Sur. II. 19. de Syry, 31. and here No. 37, it is Dessorre. and we have Samon in Sorry. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 17. Perches, ibid. Eels p. 28. 30. where it is a Potage. whence I conceive it either means de Surrey, i. e. Syria, v. Chaucer. v. Surrey. Or it may mean to be desired, as we have Horsys of Desyr. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 272. See No. 63. and it is plainly written Desire in Godwin de Præsul. p. 697. In this case, the others are all of them corruptions.

Blank Dessorre. v. Blank Desire.

Blank Desne. v. Blank Desire.

Berandyles. MS. Ed. 27.

Bred, Breed. MS. Ed. passim. Bread.

Bove. 167. Above. Chaucer. Belg. Boven.

Blode. 11. alibi. Blod. MS. Ed. 9. Blood.

Batour. 149. of eggs, 161. 179. Batur, 28. Batour. ibid. 19. Batter.

Boter. MS. Ed. 38. Butter.

Borage. 6.

Betes. 6. Beets. Fr. Bete.

Bursen. n. name of a dish. Bursews, No. 179, is a different dish.

Brek. MS. Ed. 6. 23. break, bruise.

Brest, breste. MS. Ed. 1. 14. burst.

Bukkennade. 17. a dish. Buknade, 118. where it means a mode of dressing. vide MS. Ed. 45. 52.

Bryddes. 19. Briddes, 60. 62. Birds, per metathesin. Chaucer.

Brawn of Capons. 20. 84. Flesh. Braun. MS. Ed. 29. v. Chaucer, we now say, brawn of the arm, meaning the flesh. Hence brawn-fall'n. Old Plays, XI. p. 85. Lylie's Euphues, p. 94. 142. Chaucer. Brawn is now appropriated to these rolls which are made of Brawn or Boar, but it was not so anciently, since in No. 32 we have Brawn of Swyne, which shews the word was common to other kinds of flesh as well as that of the Boar; and therefore I cannot agree with Dr. Wallis in deducing Brawn from Aprugna.

Blank maunger. 36. 192. Chaucer writes Blank manger. Blomanger. MS. Ed. 14. 33. 34. II. 7. N. B. a very different thing from what we make now under that name, and see Holme, III. p. 81.

Bronchis. MS. Ed. 55. Branches.

Braan. MS. Ed. II. 10. Bran.

Bet. MS. Ed. II. 21. Beaten.

Broche. MS. Ed. 58. a Spit.

Brewet of Almony. 47. v. Almony. of Ayrenn, or eggs, 91. MS. Ed. 23.
Eles in Brewet, 110. where it seems to be composed of Bread and Wine.
Muskles in Brewet, 122. Hens in Bruet, MS. Ed. 7. Cold, 131. 134.
Bruet and Brewet are French Brouet, Pottage or Broth. Bruet riche,
Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. Beorwete, p. 227, as I take it. Blanche
Brewet de Alyngyn
, MS. Ed. 13. 23.

Boon. 55. Bone. Chaucer.

Brennyng. 67. 188. burning, per metathesin, from bren or brenne, used by Skelton, in the Invective against Wolsey, and many old authors. Hence the disease called brenning or burning. Motte's Abridgement of Phil. Trans. part IV. p. 245. Reid's Abridgement, part III. p. 149. Wiclif has brenne and bryne. Chaucer, v. bren, Brinne, &c.

Blake. 68. Black. Chaucer.

Berst. 70. 181. 192. burst. Chaucer. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: berstan].

Breth. 71. Air, Steam. MS. Ed. N° 2. hence brether, breather.

Bronn. 74. brown. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: brun].

Butter. 81. 91. 92. 160. Boter, MS. Ed. 38. and so boutry is
Buttery. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 281. Almonde Butter. Lel. VI. p. 6.
Rabelais, IV. c. 60.

Bynethen. 92. under, beneath. Chaucer, bineth.

Bolas. 95. bullace. Chaucer.

Bifore. 102. before. Wiclif. Matth. xiv. Chaucer has biforne, and byforne.

Brasey. a compound sauce, 107.

Ballac broth. 109.

Brymlent. Tart de Brymlent. 167. v. ad loc.

Bloms. 171. Flowers, Blossoms. Chaucer.

Bothom. 173. bottom, pronounced bothom now in the north. Chaucer, bottym, MS. Ed. 48.

Brode. 189. broad, v. abrode.

Bataiwyng. 189. embatteling. qu. if not misread for bataillyng. See
Chaucer, v. batailed.

Bord. MS. Ed. II. 27. board. Chaucer.

Breyt, breth. MS. Ed. 17. 58. Broth.

Blank Surry. MS. Ed. 29. II. 19. v. Blank Desire.

Bismeus. MS. Ed. 16.


C. omitted, v. Cok. v. pluk. v. Pryk. v. Pekok. v. Phisik. v. thyk. on the contrary it often abounds, hence, schulle, should; fresch, fresh; dische, dish; schepys, sheeps; flesch, flesh; fysch, fish; scher, cheer, &c. in MS. Ed. v. Gl. to Chaucer, v. schal.

Craftly. Proem. properly, secundum artem.

Caboches. 4. alibi. Cabbages. f. Fr. Caboche, Head, Pate.

Caraway. 53. v. Junij Etymolog.

Carvon. 152. carved, cut. Corvyn, MS. Ed. II. 19,20. cut. Corue, i. e. corve, 4. cut. v. ycorve. v. kerve.

Canell. passim. Cinamon. Wiclif. v. Pref.

Cuver. MS. Ed. 56. Cover.

Cumpas. by Cumpas, i.e. Compass, 189. by measure, or round. Lel. Coll.
IV. p. 263.

Cool. 6. Cole or Colwort. Belg. kool.

Corat. 12. name of a dish.

Culdore. MS. Ed. 25. 27. a Cullender. Span. Coladers.

Casselys. MS. Ed. 28.

Cranes. 146. Grues. v. ad loc.

Chyballes. 12. Chibolls, 76. young Onions. Littleton. Ital Cibolo.
Lat. Cæpula, according to Menage; and see Lye.

Colys. MS. Ed. II. see the Pref.

Cawdel. 15. 33. Caudell, Contents. See Junius. of Muskels or Muscles, 124. Cawdel Ferry, 41. In E. of Devon's feast it is Feny.

Conynges. 17. Connynges, 2,3. Coneys, Rabbets.

Calle. 152. Cawl of a Swine.

Connat. 18. a marmolade. v. ad loc.

Clowes. 20. Cloves. v. Pref.

Canuas, or Canvass. 178. Fr, Canevas. Belg. Kanefas.

Coraunte. Raysouns of Coraunte. 14. So Rasyns of Corens, Northumb. Book, p. 19. Raisin de Corinthie. Fr. i.e. of Corinth, whence our Currants, which are small Raisins, came, and took their name. Corance, 17. 21. Coraunce. 50. Coronse, MS. Ed. 12. Raisins are called by way of contradistinction grete Raysouns, 65. 133. See Northumb. Book, p. 11.

Coronse. v. Coraunte.

Chargeant. 192. Stiff. v. ad loc. MS. Ed. writes Charchant, 29, 30 Charghaunt, 33. Charchaunt,

34. Chariaunt. i.e. Charjaunt, 36. II. 24. Chariand. i.e. Charjand, 27.

Comyn. MS. Ed. 39.

Colure. MS. Ed. 5. to colour.

Coneys. 22. seems to be a kind of sauce. MS. Ed. 6. but the recipe there is different, v. ad No. 25.

Chanke. MS. Ed. 20.

Col, Cole. 23. 52. cool, also to strain, 70, 71. alibi. MS. Ed. II. 22. cleared.

Comyn. MS. Ed. II. 18. come.

Cowche. 24. 154. lay. MS. Ed. II. 25. Chaucer, v. Couche.

Cynee. 25. a certain sauce. perhaps the same with Coney. No. 22. Plays in Cynee, 112. Sooles, 119. Tenches, 120. Oysters, 123. Harys [Hares] in Cmee. MS. Ed. 8. where doubtless we should read Cinee, since in No. 51 there it is Cyney. It is much the same as bruet, for Sooles in Cynee here is much the same with Solys in bruet. MS. Ed. II. 13.

Chykens. 27. 33. Chicken is a plural itself. but in MS. Ed. 13. it is Chekenys also; and Chyckyns. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 1. Checonys MS. Ed.

Carnel of Pork. 32. v. ad loc.

Corvyn. v. Carvon.

Curlews. 35. not eaten now at good tables; however they occur in archb. Nevill's feast. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 1. And see Northumb. Book, p. 106. Rabelais iv. c. 59. And Earl of Devon's Feast.

Confit, or Confyt. v. Aneys and Colyandre.

Charlet. 39. a dish. v. ad loc.

Chese ruayn. 49. 166. perhaps of Rouen in Normandy, rouen in Fr. signifies the colour we call roan.

Crems. 52. for singular Cream, written Creme, 85. 183. Crem and

Crym, in MS. Ed. 34. II. 24. Fr. Cresme, Creme.

Cormarye. 53. a dish. qu.

Colyandre. 53. 128. where it is in Confyt rede, or red. White is also used for garnish, 59. [Anglo-Saxon: Celenðre], A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: Ciliandro], Span.

Chyryse. 58. a made dish of cherries, v. ad loc.

Cheweryes. 58. Cherries. v. ad loc. and MS. Ed. II. 18. ubi Chiryes.

Crotoun, 60. a dish. v. ad loc.

Crayton. v. Crotoun.

Cleeve a two. 62. cloven. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: cleopan].

Cyrip. 64. Sirrup. v. ad loc.

Chyches. 72. Vetches, v. ad loc.

Chawf. 74 warm. Fr. Echauffer, whence Chaucer has Eschaufe.

Clat. 78. a dish. qu.

Chef. Proem, chief. Fr.

Calwar Salmoun. 98. v. ad loc.

Compost. 100. a preparation supposed to be always at hand. v. ad loc.

Comfery. 190. Comfrey. v. ad loc.

Chargeours. 101. dishes. v. ad 126.

Chysanne. 103. to be eaten cold.

Congur. 104. 115. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 6. bis. p. 16. Cungeri are among the fish in Mr. Topham's MS. for the Conger, little used now, see Pennant. III. p. 115.

Coffyns. 113. Pies raised without their lids, 158. 167. 185. 196. MS.
Ed. II. 23. 27. In Wiclif it denotes baskets.

Comade. 113. Comadore. 188.

Couertour. 113. Coverture, Lid of a Pye.

Codlyng. 94. grete Codelyng, 114. v. ad loc.

Chawdoun. 115. for Swans, 143. Swan with Chawdron. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. which I suppose may be true orthography. So Swann with Chaudron. Earl of Devon's Feast. And it appears from a MS. of Mr. Astle's, where we have among Sawces Swanne is good with Chaldron, that Chaldron is a sauce.

Crome. 131. Pulp, Kernel. Crummes. 159. Chaucer. The Crum is now the soft part of a loaf, opposed to the crust.

Cury. Proem. Cookery. We have assumed it in the title.

Camelyne. 144. a sauce. an Canelyne, from the flour of Canel?

Crudds. 150. 171. Curds, per metathesin, as common in the north.

Crustards. 154. Pies, from the Crust. quære if our Custard be not a corruption of Crustard; Junius gives a different etymon, but whether a better, the Reader must judge. Crustard of fish, 156. of herbs, 157. and in the Earl of Devon's Feast we have un Paste Crustade.

Cryspes. 162. Cryspels. 163. v. ad loc. Fritter Crispayne, Lel.
Coll. VI. p. 5. which in Godwin de Præsal p. 697. is Fruter

Chawfour. 162. Cowfer, 173. a Chafing dish. Chafer. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 302. v. Junius voce Chafe.

Corose. 171. curiously. perhaps from cure, to cook, Chaucer has corouse, curious.

Clarry. 172. Clary.

Cotagres. 175. a dish. v. ad loc.

Cok. 175. a Cock. sic. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 227.

Chewets. 185. 186. a dish. Rand. Holme, III. p. 78. 81, 82. Birch,
Life of Prince Henry, p. 458.

Comadore. v. Comade.

Chastlet. 189. v. ad loc.

Christen. Proem. Christian.


Do. 1, 2. put, cause. MS. Ed. 2. 12. Chaucer. make. 56. done, 48.
So Chaucer has do for done.

Dof. do off. 101.

Draw. drawen 2. strained, hence 3. 20. 23. drawe the grewel thurgh straynour. To boil. 2.17. as, drawe hem up with gode brothe. also 51. 74. To put, 14. 41. To make. 28. 47. as, draw an Almand mylke.

Dee. 152. singular of Dice, the Fr. Dè. v. quare.

Drepee. 19 a dish. qu.

Dates. 20. 52. 158. the fruit.

Dyssh. 24. dish.

Dessorre. 37. v. Blank desire.

Doust. 45. alibi Dust.

Dowhz. 50. Dowh. 92. Dow. MS. Ed. II. 29, Dough, Paste. A.S.
[Anglo-Saxon: dah].

Douce Ame. 63. quast a delicious dish. v. Blank Desire.

Drope. 67. drop, to baste. MS. Ed. 28.

Dorry. Sowpes dorry, 82. Sops endorsed. from endore, 187. MS. Ed. 42, II. 6. vide ad 174.

Deel. 113. 170. part, some. v. Sum. Chaucer.

Dicayn. 172. v. ad loc.

Dokks. as Sowre Dokks, 173. Docks.

Dorryle. v. Pomme.

Daryols. 183. a dish. A Custard baked in a Crust. Hear Junius, v. Dairie. 'G. dariole dicitur libi genus, quod iisdem Gallis alias nuncupatur laicteron vel stan de laict.'

Desne. v. Blank Desire.

Desire. v. Blank.

Dressit. 194. dressed. dresse. MS. Ed. 15. et passim. Chaucer in voce. hence ydressy. MS. Ed. II. 18.

Dysis. MS. Ed. 15. dice. v. quare.

Demembre, dimembre. MS. Ed. 31. dismember.

Dows, douze. MS. Ed. 50. II. 21.

Drong. MS. Ed. 54. drunk.


E. with e final after the consonant, for ea, as brede, bread; benes, beans; bete, beat; breke, break; creme, cream; clere, clear; clene, clean; mede, mead; mete, meat; stede, stead; whete, wheat; &c.

E with e final after the consonant, for ee, as betes, beets;

chese, cheese; depe, deep; fete, feet; grene, green; nede, needful; swete, sweet.

Endorre. MS. Ed. 42. endorse.

Ete. 103. eat. eten, 146. eaten. etyn. MS. Ed. 3. A.S.
[Anglo-Saxon: etan]. MS. Ed. 48. oat.

Enforse. MS. Ed. II. 20. seasoned.

Erbes. 7. herbs; herb's, 63. erbys, 151. Eerbis, 157.

Eyren, and Ayren. 7, 8. 15. Eyryn, S. Ed. 1. Eggs. 'a merchant at the N. Foreland in Kent asked for eggs, and the good wyf answerede, that she coude speak no Frenshe—another sayd, that he wolde have eyren, then the good wyf sayd that she understood hym wel.' Caxton's Virgil,

in Lewis' Life of Caxton, p. 61. who notes 'See Sewel's 'Dictionary, v. Ey.' add, Urry's Chaucer, v. Aye and Eye. Note here the old plural en, that eggs is sometimes used in our Roll, and that in Wicht eye, or ey is the singular, and in the Germ. See Chaucer. v. Aie, and Ay.

Eowts. 6. v. ad loc.

Egurdouce. 21. v. ad loc. of Fysshe, 133. Egge dows, MS. Ed. 50. malè. Egerduse. ibid. II. 1. Our No. 58, is really an Eagerdouce, but different from this here. A Seville Orange is Aigre-douce. Cotgrave.

Esy. 67. easy. eselich, 113. easily. Chaucer.

Eny. 74. 173. any.

Elena Campana. 78. i.e. Enula Campana, Elecampane.

Erbowle. 95. a dish. v. ad loc.

Erbolat. 172. a dish. v. ad loc.

Eerys, Eris. 177. 182. 55. Ears. Eyr. MS. Ed. 44. Chaucer has Ere and Eris.

Elren. 171. Elder. Eller, in the north, without d.

Erne. 174. qu.

Euarund. MS. Ed. 3.

Eelys. 101. Eels. Elys, Helys. MS. Ed. II. 15. 24. Elis.


Forced. 3. farced, stuft. we now say, forc'd-meat, yfarced, 159, 160. enforsed. MS. Ed. II. 20. fors, 170. called fars, 150. it seems to mean season, No. 4. Mixt. 4 where potage is said to be forced with powdour-douce.

Fort. passim. strong. Chaucer.

Fresee. MS. Ed. 47.

Fenkel. 6. 77. Fenel, 76. 172. Fenell, 100. Fennel. Germ. Venikol.
Belg. Venckel.

Forme. Proem. 95. forme.

Funges. 10. Mushrooms, from the French. Cotgrave. Holme III. p. 82.
The Romans were fond of them.

Fesants. 20. 35.

Fynelich wel. 192. very wel, constantly.

Fro. 22. MS. Ed. 50. Chaucer. from. So therfro. 53. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 266. Chaucer.

Fleysch. 24. Fleissh, 37. Flesh, A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: þlæþe]. Germ. Fleisc.

Feneboyles. MS. Ed. II. 22.

Fyletts. 28. Fillets.

Florish and Flour. 36. 38. 40. Garnish. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 17. 23.
Chaucer, v. Floure.

Foyles. 49. rolled Paste. Foyle of dowhz, 50. 92. et per se, 148. 53. Foile of Paste, 163. Leaves of Sage, 161. Chaucer. v. ad 175. hence Carpe in Foile. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. a Dolphin in Foyle, a suttletie. VI. p. 5. Lyng in Foyle, p. 16. Cunger. Ibid. Samon. Ibid. Sturgen. p. 17. et v. p. 22. N.B. Foyle in these cases means Paste.

Fars. v. forced.

Fle. 53. flea, flaw. MS. Ed. II. 33. flawe, flein, flain, flawed. 10. 13. 15.

Fonnell. 62. a dish.

Frot. MS. Ed. II. 17. rub, shake, frote, Chaucer.

Feyre. 66. MS. Ed. II. 18. 22. Feir. Chaucer. Fair.

Ferthe. 68. Fourth, hence Ferthing or Farthing.

Furmente. 69. 116. Furmenty, MS. Ed. I. Formete. Ibid. 48. Formenty, Ib. II. 30. from Lat. Frumentum, per metathesin; whence called more plausibly Frumity in the north, and Frumetye in Lel. Collect. IV. p. 226. VI. p. 5. 17. 22. but see Junius, v.


Frenche. 73. a dish. v. ad loc.

Fest. MS. II. 18. Feast. Chaucer.

Fygey. 89. because made of Figs. Fygs drawen. 103. MS. Ed. II. 3.

Found. 93. mix. dissolve, 193. fond. 188. v. y fonded. Lye, in Junii
Etym. v. Founder.

Fete. 102. Chaucer. Fet, MS. Ed. 44. Feet.

Flaumpeyns. 113. 184.

Ferst. MS. Ed. II. 30. First.

Fanne. 116. to fan or winnow. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: pann], Vannus.

Frytour. 149, 150, 151. Fruturs. MS. Ed. 19. 40. Fritters. Fruter,
Lel. Coll. IV. p. 227. Frytor. VI. p. 17.

Flaunne. 163. Flownys. MS. Ed. II. 27. Fr. Flans, Custards. Chaucer. v. Slaunnis. Et v. Junium voce Flawn.

Feel. 168. hold, contain, perhaps same as feal, occultare, abscondere, for which see Junii Etymol.

Fuyre. 188. Fire. Fyr fort. 192. a strong Fire. Fere, Chaucer. Fyer, Lel. Coll. IV. p. 296. Belg. Vuyn, Fere. MS. Ed. 58.

Ferry. v. Cawdel.

Flowr, Flowre. MS. Ed. 2. 19. Flour.

Fronchemoyle. MS. Ed. 15.

Froys. MS. Ed. 18. Fraise.

Farsure. MS. Ed. 28. stuffing.

Forsy. MS. Ed. 38. season.


Gronden. 1. 53. ground or beaten. to grynde is to cut or beat small. 3. 8. 13. for compare 14. yground 37. 53. 105. to pound or beat in a mortar. 3. MS. Ed. 5.

Gode. No. 1. alibi, good, strong. Chaucer. god, MS. Ed. passim.

Grete. mynced. 2. not too small. gretust, 189. greatest. gret,
MS. Ed. 15. and Chaucer.

Gourdes. 8. Fr. gouhourde.

Gobettes. 16. 62. Gobbettys, Gobettis. MS. Ed. 9. alibi. Chaucer. Gobbins, Holme III. p. 81, 82. large pieces. Wiclif. Junii Etym.

Grees. 17. 101. Grece, 18. alibi. MS. Ed. 8. 14. 32. alibi, whyte
Grece, 18. Fat, Lard, Conys of high Grece. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. qu.

Gravey. 26, 27. Grave. MS. Ed. II. 20. Gravy. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 10.

Galyntyne. 28. 117. a preparation seemingly made of

Galingale, &c. 129. and thence to take its name. See a recipe for making it, 138. as also in MS. Ed. 9. Bread of Galyntyne, 94. Soupes of Galyntyne, 129. Lampervey in Galantine. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. VI. p. 22. Swanne, VI. p. 5.

Garlete and Garlec. 30. 34. Garlick. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: garleac].

Grapes. 30. 34.

Galyngale. 30. the Powder, 47. the long-rooted Cyperus. Gl. to
Chaucer. See Northumberland Book, P. 415.

Gleyre. of Ayrenn. 59. the white, from Fr. glaire. Chaucer. Lear or Leir of an Egg. Holme interprets it the White beaten into a foam.

Goon. 59. MS. Ed. 1. go. Belg. gaen.

Gylofre. 65. Gelofre. MS. Ed. 27. cloves; for see No. 30, 31. 40. there; from Gr. [Greek: charuophullon].

Gyngawdry. 94. a dish.

Grave. MS. Ed. II. 20. Gravey.

Gele. 101, 102. Jelly. Fr. Gelée.

Gawdy Grene. 112. perhaps, Light Green.

Gurnards. 115.

Greynes de Parys. 137. and so Chaucer, meaning Greynes de paradys, or greater Cardamoms. See Dr. Percy on Northumb. Book, p. 414. Chaucer has Greines for Grains. and Belg. Greyn.

Grate. 152. v. i or y grated.

Gastbon. 194. f. Gastbon, quasi Wastbon, from Wastel the finest
Bread, which see. Hence the Fr. Gasteau.

Gyngynyr, Gyngenyr, Gyngyner, Gyngener. MS. Ed. 3, 4. 13. 24. Ginger.
Gyngyner-bred, 32.

Grotys. MS. Ed. II. Oat-meal Grotes, i.e. Grits.

Grydern, Grydern, Gredern. MS. Ed. 25. 44. II. 11.


H. for th, as hem, them; her, their; passim. Hare, 121. Chaucer.
Wiclif. It is sometimes omitted; as wyt and wyte, white.
Sometimes abounds, as schaldyd. MS. Ed. 7. II. scalded. v. Thowehe.

Hye. Proem. high. hy, MS. Ed. 44. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: Heah].

Hem. 1, 2. i.e. hem; them. Lye in Junii Etym.

Hulle. 1. a verb, to take off the husk or skin. Littleton. Hence Hulkes, Husks or Hulls, as 71. Holys, MS. Ed. 1. Sax. helan, to cover. v. Lye in Junii Etym. v. Hull.

Hulkes. v. Hulle.

Hewe. 7. cut, mince. yhewe, 12. minced, hewn. MS. Ed. 6. 9. hewin,
Chaucer. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: heþyan].

Hakke. 194. MS. Ed. 23. hack, bruise. Junii Etym. v. hack. MS. Ed. has also hak and hac.

Hebolace. 7. name of a dish.

Herdeles. MS. Ed. 56. Hurdles.

Hennes. 17. 45. including, I presume, the whole species, as Malard and Pekok do below.

Hool. 20. 22. alibi. hole, 33. 175. hoole, 158. whole. Chaucer has hole, hool, and hoolich; and Wiclif, hole and hool. MS. Ed. has hol and hole.

Hooles. 162. Holes.

Holsomly. Proem, wholesomely.

Herthe. MS. Ed. 57. Earth.

Hit. 20. 98. 152. it. hytt. Northumb. Book, p. 440. Hit, Gloss.
Wiclif. in Marg. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: hit].

Hoot. 21. alibi. hot.

Hares. 23.

Hoggepot. 31. v. ad loc.

Hochee. 34. hachè, Fr. but there is nothing to intimate cutting them to pieces.

Hersyve. MS. Ed. II. 2. Hair-sieve. her is hair in Chaucer.

Helde. 50. 154. throw, cast, put. v. 189. Heelde, poured, shed.
Wiclif. and Lye in Junii Etym. v. Held.

Holde. 189. make, keep. MS. Ed. II. 32, 33.

Hawtheen. 57. Hawthorn. Junius, v. Haw.

Hatte. 59. bubling, wallop. quasi the hot, as in Chaucer. from
A.Sax. [Anglo-Saxon: hatt].

Hong. 67. hing, or hang. Chaucer. MS. Ed. 48.

Honde. 76. hand. Chaucer. So in Derbyshire now.

Heps. 84. Fruit of the Canker-rose. So now in Derbyshire, and v.
Junius, voce Hippes.

Hake. 94. 186. a Fish. v. ad loc.

Hilde. 109. to skin, from to hull, to scale a fish, 119. vide 117. 119. compared with MS. Ed. II. 13.

Herons. 146. MS. Ed. 3. Holme, III. p. 77, 78. but little used now. Heronsew. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. Heronshawe. VI. p. I. Heronsews. Chaucer. The Poulterer was to have in his shop Ardeas sive airones, according to Mr. Topham's MS. written about 1250. And Heronns appear at E. of Devon's Feast.

Holke. 173. qu. hollow.

Hertrowee. 176. a dish. Hert is the Hart in Chaucer, A.S.
[Anglo-Saxon: heort].

Hi. MS. Ed. 27. they.

Hevyd. MS. Ed. 21. v. ad loc.

Hom. MS. Ed. 56. Home.


I. 2. for e. Proem. So ith for eth. Ibid.

in. 30. et sæpius. in. inne, 37. alibi.

Jushell. 43. a dish. v. ad loc.

Is. plur. for es. 52. 73. Proem. Nomblys. MS. Ed. 12. Nombles. v.
Pees. Rosys, 177, Roses.

I. for y. v. y.

Iowtes. v. Eowtes.

Irne. 107. Iren, Chaucer. and the Saxon. Iron.

Juys. 118. 131. Jus, MS. Ed. II. 17. the Fr. word, Ieuse,


Kerve. 8. cut. kerf, 65. MS Ed. 29. v. carvon, and Chaucer, voc.
Carfe, karft, kerve, kerft.

Kydde. 21. Flesh of a Kid. Kedys. MS. Ed. 13. Kids.

Keel. 29. 167. 188. MS. Ed. 1. Gl. to Chaucer and Wiclif, to cool.

Kyt. 118. alibi. MS. Ed. 19. ket, Ibid. II. 15. to cut. kyted, cut. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 298. Chaucer, v. Kitt.

Keintlick. v. queintlick.

Kyrnels. 189. a species of battlements, from kernellare; for which see Spelman, Du Fresne, and Chaucer.

Kever. MS. Ed. 2. cover.

Kaste, kest. MS. Ed. 6. 10. cast. v. ad loc.

Kow. MS. Ed. 38. Cow.


L. for ll. MS. Ed. sæpe.

Lat. 9. 14. alibi. MS. Ed. 1, 2. Let. Chaucer. Belg. laten. latyn.
MS. Ed, II. 5. let.

Lire, and Lyre. 3. 14. 45. MS. Ed. sæpe. the fleshy part of Meat. A.S. [Anglo-Sxon: lire]. See Lyre in Junii Etymol. Also a mixture, as Dough of Bread and raw Eggs, 15. hence 'drawe a Lyre of Brede, Blode, Vyneg, and Broth,' 25. So Lyour and Layour. II. 31. all from lye, which see. Lay seems to mean mix, 31. as layour is mixture, 94.

Lye it up. 15. to mix; as alye, which see.

Leke. in sing. 10. 76. Leeks.

Langdebef. 6. an herb. v. ad loc. Longdobeefe Northumberland Book. p. 384. Bugloss.

Lytel. 19. passim. Litul and litull, 104. 152. 'a litel of
Vynegar,' 118. of Lard, 152.

Loseyns, Losyns. 24. 92. on fish-day, 128. a Lozenge is interpreted by Cotgrave, 'a little square Cake of preserved herbs, flowers, &c.' but that seems to have no concern here. Lozengs. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 227.

Lyche. 152. like. lichi. Wiclif. lich. Chaucer. ylich. Idem.

Lombe. 62. Lamb. hence Wiclif, Lomberen, Lambs. Chaucer, and Germ.

Leche Lumbard. 65. from the country doubtless, as the mustard, No. 100. See also Lel. Coll. VI. p. 6. 26. Leches. MS. Ed. 15. are Cakes, or pieces. Rand. Holme makes Leach, p. 83. to be 'a kind of Jelly made of Cream, Ising-glass, Sugar, and Almonds, &c.' The Lessches are fried, 158. v. yleeshyd. Leyse Damask. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. Leche baked. VI. p. 5. Partriche Leiche. Ibid. Leche Damaske. Ibid. See also, p. 10. Leche Florentine, p. 17. Leche Comfort. Ibid. Leche Gramor. Ibid. Leche Cypres, p. 26. which in Godwin de Præsul. p. 697. is Sipers, malè.

Lete Lardes. 68. v. ad loc.

Lave. 76. wash.

Leyne. 82. a Layer.

Lewe water. 98. Lews water, MS. Ed. II. 10. warm; see Gloss. to
Wiclif. and Junius. v. Lukewarm.

Lumbard Mustard. 100. from the country. v. Leche. how made, No. 145.

Lef. MS. Ed. 56. leave. Lefe, Chaucer.

Lite. 104. a few, alite, as they speak in the North. Chaucer, v.
Lite, and Lyte, and Mr. Lye in his Junius.

Laumpreys. 126. Lampreys, an Eel-like Sea Fish. Pennant, Brit. Zool.
III. p. 68.

Laumprons. 127. the Pride. Pennant, Ibid. p. 61. See Lel. Coll. VI. p. 6. 17. bis 23. Mr. Topham's MS. has Murenulas sive Lampridulas.

Looches, Loches. 130. 133. the fish.

Lardes of Swyne. 146. i.e. of Bacon. hence lardid, 147. and Lardons. MS. Ed. 3. 43. from the Fr. which Cotgrave explains Slices of Lard, i.e. Bacon. vide ad 68.

Lorere tre. MS. Ed. 55. Laurel tree. Chaucer.

Lyuours. 152. Livers. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: lyper].

Led. MS. Ed. 56. carry. lide, Chaucer.

Lenton. 158. Lent.

Lynger. 159. longer. Chaucer has longer and lengir. v. Lange.

Lopuster, Lopister. MS. Ed. II. 7. 16. v. Junii Etymolog.

Lust. as, hym lust. Proem, he likes. Chaucer, v. Lest.

Lewys. MS. Ed. 41. Leaves. Lefe, Chaucer. v. Lef.

Lie. Liquor. Chaucer. MS. Ed. 48.

Ley. MS. Ed. 6. lay.

Lese, les. MS. Ed, 14. II. 7, 8. pick. To lease, in Kent, is to glean.


Make. 7. MS. Ed. 12. 43. II. 12. to dress. make forth, 102. to do.
MS. Ed. II. 35.

Monchelet. 16. a dish.

Mylk, Melk. MS. II. 30. Milk of Almonds, 1. 10. 13. alibi.

Moton. 16. MS. Ed. 1. Mutton, See Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226. Flemish. Motoen.

Mawmenee. 20. 193. a dish. v. ad loc. how made, 194. Mamane. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 227. Mamonie. VI. p. 17. 22. royal, 29. Manmene, MS. Ed. 29, 30. Mamenge. E. of Devon's Feast.

Morterelys. v. Mortrews.

Medle. 20. 50. alibi. to mix. Wiclif. Chaucer.

Messe. to messe the dysshes, 22. messe forth, 24.

Morre. 38. MS. Ed. 37. II. 26. a dish. v. ad loc.

Mortrews. 45. Mortrews blank, 46. of fish, 125. Morterelys, MS. Ed. 5. where the recipe is much the same. 'meat made of boiled hens, crummed bread, yolk of eggs, and safron, all boiled together,' Speght ad Chaucer. So called, says Skinner, who Writes it mortress, because the ingredients are all pounded together in a mortar.

Moscels. 47. Morsels. Chaucer has Morcills. Moscels is not amiss, as Mossil in Chaucer is the muzle or mouth.

Mete. 67. A.S. and Chaucer. Meat. Meetis, Proem. Meats. It means also properly, MS. Ed. II. 21. Chaucer.

Myng. 68. MS. Ed. 30. ming, 76. meng, 127. 158. MS. Ed. 32. Chaucer. to mix. So mung, 192. is to stir. Wiclif. v. Mengyng. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: mengan].

Morow. at Morow. 72. in the Morning. MS. Ed. 33. a Morrow, Chaucer. on the Morow. Lei. Coll. IV. p. 234.

Makke. 74. a dish.

Meel, Mele. 86. 97. Meal. Melis, Meals. Chaucer. Belg. Meel.

Macrows. 62. Maccharone. vide ad locum.

Makerel. 106.

Muskles, Muskels. 122. Muscles. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: murcule].

Malard, Maulard. 141. meaning, I presume, both sexes, as ducks are not otherwise noticed. Holme, III. p. 77. and Mr. Topham's MS.

Mylates, whyte. 153. a dish of pork, 155.

Myddell. 170. midle. myddes. 175. the same.

Mawe. 176. Stomach of a Swine. Chaucer. Junii Etym.

Moold. 177. Mould.

Maziozame. 191. Marjoram. See the various orthographies in Junius, v.

Male Marrow. 195. qu.

Moyle. v. Ris. v. Fronchemoyle.

Mulberries. 99. 132. v. Morree.

Myce, myse. MS. Ed. 8. 15. mince, myed. II. 19. minced, ymyed, 35. for ymyced. myney, II. 3. myneyd, II. 1.

Mo. MS. Ed. 38. more. Chaucer.

Maner. of omitted. MS. Ed. 45. 47, 48. II. 2. 28.

Mad, ymad. MS. Ed. II. 9. made.

Mychil. MS. Ed. 48, much. Chaucer, v. moche. Junius v. mickel.

Myntys. MS. Ed. II. 15. Mint. Myntys, Brit.


A Nost, I. crasis of an Oste, or Kiln; frequent in Kent, where Hop-oste is the kiln for drying hops. 'Oost or East: the same that kiln or kill, Somersetshire, and elsewhere in the west,' Ray. So Brykhost is a Brick-kiln in Old Parish-Book of Wye in Kent, 34 H. VIII. 'We call est or oft the place in the house, where the smoke ariseth; and in some manors austrum or ostrum is that, where a fixed chimney or flew anciently hath been,' Ley, in Hearne's Cur. Disc. p. 27. Mannors here means, I suppose manor-houses, as is common in the north. Hence Haister, for which see Northumb. Book, p. 415. 417. and Chaucer, v. Estris.

Noumbles. 11. 13. Entrails of any beast, but confined now to those of a deer. I suspect a crasis in the case, quasi an Umble, singular for what is plural now, from Lat. Umbilicus. We at this day both say and write Umbles. Nombles, MS. Ed. 12. where it is Nomblys of the venyson, as if there were other Nomblys beside. The Fr. write Nombles.

Non. 68. no. Chaucer. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: nan].

Nyme. 114. take, recipe. Sax. niman. Chaucer. used in MS. Ed. throughout. See Junius. v. Nim.

Notys. 144. Wallenotes, 157. So Not, MS. Ed. II. 30. Chaucer. Belg.

Nysebek. 173. a dish. quasi, nice for the Bec, or Mouth.

Nazt, nozt. MS. Ed. 37. not.


Oynons. 2. 4. 7. Fr. Oignons. Onions.

Orage. 6. Orache.

Other, oother. 13, 14. 54. 63. MS Ed. sæpe. Chaucer. Wiclif. A.S.
[Anglo-Saxon: oþer]. or.

On, oon. 14. 20. alibi. in. as in the Saxon. One MS.
Ed 58. II. 21. Chaucer.

Obleys. 24. a kind of Wafer, v. ad loc.

Onys. MS. Ed. 37. once, ones, Chaucer, v. Atones, and ones.

Onoward, onaward. 24. 29. 107. onward, upon it.

Of. omitted, as powder Gynger, powder Gylofre, powder Galyngale. abounds, v. Lytel.

Oot. 26. alibi. Oat. Otyn. MS. Ed. II. Oaten.

Opyn. MS. Ed. 28. open.

Offall. 143. Exta, Giblets.

Oystryn. MS. Ed. II. 14. Oysters.

Of. Proem. by.

Ochepot. v. Hochepot.

Ovene. i. Oven. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: oren]. Belg. Oven. 0vyn, MS. Ed. II. 16.

Olyve, de Olyve, Olyf, Dolyf, MS. Ed. Olive.

Owyn. MS. Ed. 22. own.


Plurals increase a syllable, Almandys, Yolkys, Cranys, Pecokys, &c.
So now in Kent in words ending in st. This is Saxon, and so Chaucer.

Plurals in n, Pisyn, Hennyn, Appelyn, Oystrin.

Powdon douce. 4. Pref.

Powdon fort. 10, ii. v. Pref.

Pasturnakes. 5. seems to mean Parsnips or Carrots, from Pastinaca. Pasternak of Rasens, 100. of Apples, 149. means Pastes, or Paties.

Persel. 6. 29. alibi. Persele MS. Ed. II. 15. Fr. Persil. Parsley.
Parcyle. MS. Ed. 32.

Pyke, pike. 18. 76. pick. Chaucer, v. Pik.

Pluk. 76. pluck, pull. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: pluccian].

Pellydore. 19. v. ad loc.

Peletour. 104. v. ad 19.

Paast. MS. Ed. II. 29. Paste.

Potell. 20. Pottle.

Pyncs. 20. alibi, v. Pref.

Pecys. 21. alibi. Pece, 190. Pecis, MS. Ed. 12. Chaucer. Pieces,
Piece, i.

Peper. 21. 132. MS. Ed. i6. has Pepyr. Pip. 140. 143. MS. Ed. 9. Pepper. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: peopor] and [Anglo-Saxon: pipor].

Papdele. 24. a kind of sauce. probably from Papp, a kind of Panada.

Pise, Pisyn, MS. Ed. 2. Pease.

Peers. 130. 138. Pers, 167. Perys, MS. Ed. II. 23. Pears. Pery, a
Pear tree, Chaucer.

Possynet. 30. 160. a Posnet.

Partruches. 35. 147. Partyches, Contents. Partridges. Perteryche,
E. of Devon's Feast.

Panne. 39. 50. a Pan. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: Panna].

Payndemayn. 60. 139. where it is pared. Flour. 41. 162. 49, white
Bread. Chaucer.

Par. MS. Ed. 19. pare.

Peions. 18. 154. Pigeons. If you take i for j, it answers to modern pronunciation, and in E. of Devon's Feast it is written Pejonns, and Pyjonns.

Pynnonade. 51. from the Pynes of which it is made. v. Pynes. Pynade or Pivade. MS. Ed. II. 32.

Pryk. 53. prick. Pettels. 56. Legs. We now say the Pestels of a lark. of veneson, Lel. Collect. IV. p. 5. Qu. a corruption of Pedestals.

Payn foindew. 59. fondew, Contents, v. ad loc.

Peskodde. 65. Hull or Pod of Pease, used still in the North. v.
Coddis in Wiclif, and Coddes in Junii Etymolog.

Payn Ragoun. 67. a dish. qu.

Payn puff, or puf. 196. Payne puffe. E. of Devon's Feast.

Pownas. 68. a colour. qu. v. Preface.

Porpays, Porpeys. 69. 108. salted, 116. roasted, 78. Porpus or Porpoise. Porpecia, Spelm. Gl. v. Geaspecia, which he corrects Seaspecia. It is surprising he did not see it must be Graspecia or Craspiscis, i.e. Gros or Crassus Piscis, any large fish; a common term in charters, which allow to religious houses or others the produce of the sea on their coasts. See Du Cange in vocibus. We do not use the Porpoise now, but both these and Seals occur in Archb. Nevill's Feast. See Rabelais, IV. c. 60. and I conceive that the Balænæ in Mr. Topham's MS. means the Porpus.

Perrey. 70. v. ad loc.

Pesoun. 70, 71. Pise, Pisyn., MS. Ed. 2. Pease. Brit. Pysen.

Partye. 71. a partye, i.e. some. MS. Ed. 2. Chaucer.

Porrectes. 76. an herb. v. ad loc.

Purslarye. 76. Purslain.

Pochee. 90. a dish of poached Eggs, v. Junius, voce Poach.

Powche. 94. Crop or Stomach of a fish. Paunches, 114, 115.

Pyke. ici. the fish. v. ad loc.

Plays. 101. 105. 112. Plaise; the fish. Places, Lel. Coll. VI. p.6.

Pelettes. 11. Balls. Pellets. Pelotys. MS. Ed. 16.

Paunch. v. Powche.

Penne. 116. a Feather, or Pin. MS. Ed. 28. Wiclif. v. Pennes.

Pekok. 147. Peacock. Pekokys, MS. Ed. 4. where same direction occurs. Pekok. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 227.

presse. 150. to press. Chaucer.

Pyner. 155. qu. v. Pref.

Prunes. 164. Junius in v. Prunes and Damysyns.. 167. Prunes Damysyns. 156. 158. Primes, 169. should be corrected Prunes. Prunys, MS. Ed. II. 17. Prognes. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 17. Prune Orendge, an Orange Plumb, p. 23. Prones, Northumb. Book, p.19. plant it with Prunes, 167. stick it, Lel. Coll. VI. p.5. 16 22. As the trade with Damascus is mentioned in the Preface, we need not wonder at finding the Plumbs here.

Primes, v. Prunes.

Prews of gode past. 176. qu.

Potews. 177. a dish named from the pots used.

Pety peruant. 195. Petypanel, a marchpayne. Lel. Coll. VI. p.6.

Parade. hole parade. 195. qu.

Plater. MS. Ed. II. 9. Platter.

Puff. v. Payn.

Phitik. Proem. Physick.

Poumegarnet. 84. Poungarnetts, MS. Ed. 39. Powmis gernatys. Ibid. 27.
Pomgranates, per metathesin.

Penche. MS. Ed. 36.

Partyns. MS. Ed. 38. Parts.

Pommedorry. MS. Ed. 42. Poundorroge, 58. Pomes endoryd. E. of
Devon's Feast.

Pommys morles. MS. Ed. II. 3.

Porreyne. MS. Ed. II. 17. Porrey Chapeleyn, 29.


Quare. 5. It seems to mean to quarter, or to square, to cut to pieces however, and may be the same as to dyce. 10. 60. Dice at this time were very small: a large parcel of them were found under the floor of the hall of one of the Temples, about 1764, and were so minute as to have dropt at times through the chinks or joints of the boards. There were near 100 pair of ivory, scarce more than two thirds as large as our modern ones. The hall was built in the reign of Elizabeth. To quare is from the Fr. quarrer; and quayre or quaire, subst. in Chaucer, Skelton, p. 91. 103. is a book or pamphlet, from the paper being in the quarto form. See Annal. Dunstap. p. 215, Ames, Typ. Antiq. p. 3. 9. Hence our quire of paper. The later French wrote cahier, cayer, for I presume this may be the same word. Hence, kerve hem to dyce, into small squares, 12. Dysis, MS. Ed. 15.

Quybibes. 64. Quibibz. MS. Ed. 54. alibi. Cubebs.

Quentlich. 162. keyntlich, 189. nicely, curiously. Chaucer. v. Queintlie.

Quayle. 162. perhaps, cool. it seems to mean fail or miscarry. Lel.
Coll. VI. p. II. sink or be dejected, p. 41. See Junius, v. Quail.

Queynchehe. 173. f. queynch. but qu.


R. and its vowel are often transposed. v. Bryddes, brennyng, Crudds,
Poumegarnet, &c.

Rapes. 5. Turneps. Lat. Rapa, or Rapum. vide Junium in voce.

Ryse. 9. 194. Rys, 36. alibi. MS. Ed. 14. Ryys, 192. the Flower, 37.
Rice. Fr. Ris. Belg. Riis.

Roo. 14. Roe, the animal.

Rede. 21. alibi, red. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: read].

Roost. 30. alibi, rowsted, 175. substantive, 53. to rost. Belg. roosten.

Rether. Ms. Ed. 43. a beast of the horned kind.

Ramme. 33. to squeeze. but qu.

Rennyns. 65. perhaps, rennyng, i. e. thin, from renne, to run. Leland Itin. I. p. 5, 6. alibi. Skelton, p. 96. 143. alibi. indeed most of our old authors. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 287, 288. Chaucer.

Ruayn. v. Chese.

Rape. 83. a dish with no turneps in it. Quære if same as Rapil,
Holme III. p. 78. Rapy, MS. Ed. 49.

Resmolle. 96. a dish. v. ad loc.

Ryal. 99. ryallest. Proem. royal. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 250. 254. VI. p. 5. bis. 22. Chaucer. v. Rial.

Rote. 100. Root. Rotys, MS. Ed. 32. Chaucer. Junius, v. Root.

Roo Broth. MS. Ed. 53.

Roche. 103. the fish. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 6.

Rygh. 105. a fish. perhaps the Ruffe.

Rawnes. 125. Roes of fish. Lye in Junius. v. Roan.

Rest. MS. Ed. rustied, of meat. Restyn, restyng. No. 57. Rustiness.
Junius. v. Restie.

Rasyols. 152. a dish. Ransoles. Holme III. p. 84.

Reyn. Ms. Ed. 57. Rain. Chaucer.

Rysshews. 182. name of a dish. qu.

Rew de Rumsey. MS. Ed. 44.

Ryne hem on a Spyt. 187. run them on a spit.

Rosty. MS. Ed. 44. rost.

Rounde. 196. round. French.

Rosee. 52. a dish. v. ad loc.

Resenns. 100. Raysons, 114. Raisins. used of Currants, 14. v. ad loc. Reysons, Reysins. MS. Ed. II. 23. 42. Rassens Pottage, is in the second course at archp. Nevill's Feast.


Spine. v. Spynee.

Sue forth. 3. et passim. serue. 6. 21. From this short way of writing, and perhaps speaking, we have our Sewers, officers of note, and sewingeis, serving, Lel. Coll. IV. p. 291. unless mis-written or mis-printed for shewinge.

Slype. II. slip or take off the outer coat. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: slipan].

Skyrwates. 5. 149. Skirrits or Skirwicks.

Savory. 6. Sauuay. 30. 63. Sawey. 172.

Self. 13. same, made of itself, as self-broth, 22. the owne broth, 122. MS. Ed. 5. 7. Chaucer.

Seth. passim. MS. Ed. I, 2. Chaucer, to seeth. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: seothan]. Seyt. MS. Ed. I. to strain. 25. 27.

Smite and smyte. 16. 21. 62. cut, hack. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: smitan].

Sode. v. Ysode.

Storchion. MS. Ed. II. 12. v. Fitz-Stephen. p. 34.

Sum. 20. sumdell, 51. somdel, 171. some, a little, some part. Chaucer has sum, and somdele. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: sum].

Saunders. 20. used for colouring. MS. Ed. 34. v. Northumb. Book, p. 415. Sandall wood. The translators of that very modern book the Arabian Nights Entertainments, frequently have Sanders and Sandal wood, as a commodity of the East.

Swyne. 146. alibi. Pork or Bacon. MS. Ed. 3. Bacon, on the contrary, is sometimes used for the animal. Old Plays, II. p. 248. Gloss. ad X Script. in v.

See. MS. Ed. 56. Sea. Chaucer.

Sawge. 29. Sauge, 160. MS. Ed. 53. Sage. Pigge en Sage. E. of
Devon's Feast.

Shul. 146. schul. MS. Ed. 4. should, as No. 147. schulle, schullyn.
MS. Ed. 3. 7.

Sawse Madame. 30. qu. Sauce.

Sandale. MS. Ed. 34.

Sawse Sarzyne. 84. v. ad loc.

Serpell. 140. wild Thyme. Serpyllum.

Sawse blancke. 136.

Sawse noyre. 137. 141.

Sawse verde. 140.

Sow. 30. to sew, suere. also 175. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: siwian].

Stoppe. 34. 48. to stuff.

Swyng. 39. 43. alibi. MS. Ed. 20. 25. alibi. to shake, mix. A.S.
[Anglo-Saxon: swengan].

Sewe. 20. 29. 40. Sowe. 30. 33. alibi. MS. Ed. 38. Chaucer. Liquor,
Broth, Sous. Wiclif. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: seaþ]. v. Lye in 2d alphabet.

Schyms. MS. Ed. 38. Pieces.

Stondyng. 45, 46. 7. stiff, thick.

Smale. 53. alibi. small. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 194.

Spynee. 57. v. ad loc.

Straw. 58. strew. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: streawian].

Sklyse. 59. a Slice, or flat Stick for beating any thing. Junius. v.

Siryppe. 64. v. ad loc.

Styne. 66. perhaps to close. v. ystyned. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: tynan].

Stere. 67. 145. to stir. Chaucer. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: styrian].

Sithen. 68. ssithen, 192. then. Chaucer. v. seth and sithe. A.S.
[Anglo-Saxon: siððan]. sithtyn, sethe, seth, syth. MS. Ed. then.

Salat. 76 a Sallad. Saladis, Sallads. Chaucer. Junius, v. Salad.

Slete Soppes. 80. slit. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: slitan].

Spryng. 85. to sprinkle. Wiclif. v. sprenge. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: sprengan].

Samoun. 98. Salmon. So Lel. Coll. VI. p. 16, 17. Fr. Saumon.

Stepid. 109, 110. steeped, Frisiis, stippen.

Sex. 113. 176. Six. A.S.

Sool. 119. Solys, 133. Soale, the fish.

Schyl oysters. 121. to shell them. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: scyll], a shell.

Sle. 126. to kill. Scle, Chaucer, and slea. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: slean].

Sobre Sawse. 130.

Sowpes. 82. 129. Sops. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: sop]. dorry. MS. Ed. II. 6.

Spell. 140. qu.

Stary. MS. Ed. 32. stir.

Swannes. 143. Pye, 79. Cygnets. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 5.

Sonne. MS. Ed. 56. Sun. Chaucer.

Sarse, and a Sarse. 145. a Sieve or Searse.

Souple. 152. supple. sople, Chaucer; also souple. Fr.

Stewes. 157. 170. Liquor. to stue, 186. a term well known at this day.

Sars. 158. 164. Error perhaps for Fars. 167. 169. 172.

Sawcyster. 160. perhaps, a Saussage. from Fr. Saucisse.

Soler. MS. Ed. 56. a solar or upper floor. Chaucer.

Sawgeat. 161. v. ad loc.

Skymour. 162. a Skimmer.

Salwar. 167. v. Calwar.

Sarcyness. MS. Ed. 54. v. Sawse.

Syve, Seve. MS. Ed. II. 17, 18. a Sieve, v. Hersyve.

Southrenwode. 172. Southernwood.

Sowre. 173. sour. souir, Chaucer.

Stale. 177. Stalk. Handle. used now in the North, and elsewhere; as a
fork-stale; quære a crasis for a fork's tail. Hence, Shaft of an
Arrow. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 13. Chaucer. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: stele], or
[Anglo-Saxon: stela].

Spot. MS. Ed. 57. Sprinkle.

Sachus. 178. a dish. v. ad loc.

Sachellis. 178. Bags. Satchells.

Spynoches. 180. Spinages. Fr. Espinars in plural. but we use it in the singular. Ital. Spinacchia.

Sit. 192. adhere, and thereby to burn to it. It obtains this sense now in the North, where, after the potage has acquired a most disagreeable taste by it, it is said to be pot-sitten, which in Kent and elsewhere is expressed by being burnt-to.

Sotiltees. Proem. Suttlety. Lel. Coll. VI. p. 5. seq. See No. 189. There was no grand entertainment without these. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 226, 227. VI. 21. seq. made of sugar and wax. p. 31. and when they were served, or brought in, at first, they seem to have been called warners, Lel. Coll. VI. p. 21. 23. VI. p. 226, 227. as giving warning of the approach of dinner. See Notes on Northumb. Book, p. 422, 423. and Mr. Pennant's Brit. Zool. p. 496. There are three sotiltes at the E. of Devon's Feast, a stag, a man, a tree. Quere if now succeeded by figures of birds, &c. made in lard, and jelly, or in sugar, to decorate cakes.

Sewyng. Proem. following. Leland Coll. IV. p. 293. Chaucer. Fr.


Spete. MS. Ed. 28. Spit. made of hazel, 58. as Virg. Georg. II. 396.

States. Proem. Persons.

Scher. MS. Ed. 25. sheer, cut. Chaucer. v. Shere.

Schyveris. MS. Ed. 25. II. 27. Shivers. Chaucer. v. Slivere.

Schaw. MS. Ed. 43. shave.


Thurgh. 3. alibi. thorough. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: ðurh]. thorw. MS.
Ed. II.

Tansey. 172. Herb, vide Junii Etymol.

Trape, Traup. 152. alibi. Pan, platter, dish. from Fr.

To gedre. 14. to gydre, 20. to gyder, 39. to geyder, 53. to gider, 59. to gyd, 111. to gedre, 145. So variously is the word together here written. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: togaðere].

Tredure. 15. name of Cawdel. v. ad loc.

To. 30. 17. MS. Ed. 33. 42. too; and so the Saxon, Hence to to. 17. v. ad loc. Also, Lel. Coll. IV. p. 181. 206. VI. p. 36. To is till, MS. Ed. 26. 34. two. II. 7. v. Unto.

Thyk. 20. a Verb, to grow thick, as No. 67. thicken taken passively.
Adjective, 29. 52. thik, 57. thykke, 85. thike, Chaucer.

Teyse. 20. to pull to pieces with the fingers. v. ad loc. et Junius, voce Tease. Hence teasing for carding wool with teasels, a specics of thistle or instrument.

Talbotes. 23. qu. v. ad loc.

Tat. 30. that. as in Derbysh. who's tat? for, who is that? Belg. dat.

Thenne. 36. alibi. then. Chaucer. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: ðanne].

Thanne. 36. MS. Ed. 25. then. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: ðan]. than. MS. Ed. 14.

Teer. 36. Tear. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: teran].

To fore. 46. alibi. before. Hence our heretofore. Wiclif. Chaucer.

A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: toforan].

Thynne. 49. MS. Ed. 15. thin. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: ðinn].

Tarlettes. 50. afterwards Tartletes, rectiùs; and so the Contents. Tortelletti. Holme. p. 85. v. Tartee. Godwin, de Præsul. p. 695. renders Streblitæ; et v. Junius, voce Tart.

Thise. 53. alibi. these.

Take. 56. taken. Chaucer.

Thridde. 58. 173. alibi. Third, per metathesin. Chaucer. Thriddendele, 67. Thriddel, 102. 134. Thredde, MS. Ed. II. 1. v. Junius, voce Thirdendeal.

To done. 68. done. To seems to abound, vide Chaucer. v. To.

Turnesole. 68. colours pownas. vide ad loc.

Ther. 70. 74. they. Chaucer.

Ton tressis. 76. an herb. I amend it to Ton cressis, and explain it
Cresses, being the Saxon [Anglo-Saxon: tunkerse], or [Anglo-Saxons:
tuncærse]. See Lye, Dict. Sax. Cresses, so as to mean, one of the

Turbut. 101.

Tried out. 117. drawn out by roasting. See Junius, v. Try.

Tweydel. 134. Twey, MS. Ed. 12. Chaucer. Twy for twice runs now in the North. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: twa], two. [Anglo-Saxon dæl], pars, portio.

Talow. 159. Mutton Sewet. v. Junii Etym.

Thyes, Thyys. MS. Ed. 29, 30. Thighs.

Tartee. 164, 165. alibi. Tart. de Bry, 166. de Brymlent, 117. Tartes of Flesh, 168. of Fish, 170. v. Tarlettes.

Towh. tough, thick. 173. See Chaucer, v. Tought. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: toh].

Tharmys. MS. Ed. 16. Rops, Guts.

There. 170. 177 where. Chaucer.

Thowche. MS. Ed. 48. touch.

To. 185. for. Hence, wherto is wherefore. Chaucer.

Towayl. MS. Ed. II. 21. a Towel.

Thee. 189. thou, as often now in the North.

Temper. MS. Ed. 1. et sæpe. to mix.


Uppon. 85. alibi. upon.

Urchon. 176. Urchin, Erinaceus.

Unto. MS. Ed. 2. until. v. To. Chaucer.


Violet. 6. v. ad loc.

Verjous. 12. 48. veriaws. 154. verious. 15. Verjuice, Fr. Verjus. V.

Veel. 16. alibi. MS. Ed. 18. Veal.

Vessll. 29. a dish.

Vyne Grace. 61. a mess or dish. Grees is the wild Swine. Plott,
Hist. of Staff. p. 443. Gloss. to Douglas' Virgil, v. Grisis. and to
Chaucer. v. Grys. Thoroton, p. 258. Blount, Tenures. p. 101. Gresse.
Lel. Coll. IV. p. 243. Gres. 248. Both pork and wine enter into the

Vyaunde Cypre. 97. from the Isle of Cyprus.

Vernage. 132. Vernaccia. a sort of Italian white-wine. In Pref. to Perlin, p. xix. mis-written Vervage. See Chaucer. It is a sweet wine in a MS. of Tho. Astle esq. p. 2.

Venyson. 135. often eaten with furmenty, E. of Devon's Feast, in brothe. Ibid.

Verde Sawse. 140. it sounds Green Sauce, but there is no sorel; sharp, sour Sauce. See Junius, v. Verjuice.

Vervayn. 172.


Wele. 1. 28. old pronunciation of well, now vulgarly used in
Derbysh. wel, 3. alibi. wel smale, 6. very small. v. Lel. Coll.
IV. p. 218. 220. Hearne, in Spelm. Life of Ælfred. p. 96.

Wyndewe. 1. winnow. This pronunciation is still retained in Derbyshire, and is not amiss, as the operation is performed by wind. v. omnino, Junius. v. Winnow.

Wayshe, waissh, waische. 1. 5. 17. to wash. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: wæscan].

Whane, whan. 6. 23. 41. when. So Sir Tho. Elliot. v. Britannia.
Percy's Songs, I. 77. MS. Romance of Sir Degare vers. 134. A.S.
[Anglo-Saxon: hwænne]. wan, wanne. MS. Ed. 25. 38. when.

Wole. Proem. will. wolt. 68. wouldst. Chaucer, v. Wol.

Warly, Warliche. 20. 188. gently, warily. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: wære], wary, prudent. Chaucer. v. Ware. Junius, v. Warie.

Wafrouns. 24. Wafers. Junius, v. Wafer.

With inne. 30. divisim, for within. So with oute, 33.

Welled. 52. v. ad loc. MS. Ed. 23.

Wete. 67. 161. wet, now in the North, and see Chaucer. A.S. [Anglo-
Saxon: wæt].

Wry. 72. to dry, or cover. Junius, v. Wrie.

Wyn. MS. Ed. 22. alibi. Wine. v. Wyneger.

Wryng thurgh a Straynour. 81. 91. thurgh a cloth, 153. almandes with fair water, 124. wryng out the water. Ibid. wryng parsley up with eggs, 174. Chaucer, voce wrong, ywrong, and wrang. Junius, v. Wring.

Womdes, Wombes. 107. quære the former word? perhaps being falsely written, it was intended to be obliterated, but forgotten, Wombes however means bellies, as MS. Ed. 15. See Junius, voce Womb.

Wyneger. MS. Ed. 50. Vinegar. v. Wyn.

Wone. 107. a deal or quantity. Chaucer. It has a contrary sense though in Junius, v. Whene.

Whete. 116. Wete. MS. Ed. 1. II. 30. Wheat. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: hwæte].

Wastel. 118. white Bread. yfarced, 159. of it. MS. Ed. 30. II. 18.
Gloss. ad X Script. v. Simenellus. Chaucer; where we are referred to
Verstegan V. but Wassel is explained there, and not Wastel;
however, see Stat. 51 Henry III. Hoveden, p. 738. and Junius' Etymol.

Wheyze. 150. 171. Whey. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: hwæz]. Serum Lactis. g often dissolving into y. v. Junium, in Y.

Wynde it to balles. 152. make it into balls, turn it. Chaucer. v.
Wende. Junius, v. Winde.

Wallenotes. 157. Walnuts. See Junius, in voce.

Wose of Comfrey. 190. v. ad loc. Juice.

Wex. MS. Ed. 25. Wax.

Were. MS. Ed. 57. where.


Y. is an usual prefix to adjectives and participles in our old authors. It came from the Saxons; hence ymynced, minced; yslyt, slit; &c. I is often substituted for it. V. Gloss. to Chaucer, and Lye in Jun. Etym. v. I. It occurs perpetually for i, as ymynced, yslyt, &c. and so in MS. Editoris also. Written z. 7. 18. alibi. used for gh, 72. MS. Ed. 33. Chaucer. v. Z. Hence ynouhz, 22. enough. So MS. Ed. passim. Quere if z is not meant in MSS for g or t final. Dotted, [Anglo-Saxon: y(1)], after Saxon manner, in MS. Ed. as in Mr. Hearne's edition of Robt. of Gloucester.

Ycorve. 100, 101. cut in pieces. icorvin, 133. Gloss. to Chaucer. v. Icorvin, and Throtycorve.

Zelow. 194. yolow. MS. Ed. 30. yellow. A.S. [Anglo-Saxon: zealuwe] and [Anglo-Saxon: zelew].

Yolkes. 18. i. e. of eggs. Junius, v. Yelk.

Ygrond. v. Gronden.

Yleesshed. 18. cut it into slices. So, lesh it, 65. 67. leach is to slice, Holme III. p. 78. or it may mean to lay in the dish, 74. 81. or distribute, 85. 117.

Ynouhz. 22. ynowh, 23. 28. ynowh, 65. ynow. MS. Ed. 32. Enough.
Chaucer has inough.

Yfer. 22. 61. id est ifere, together. Feer, a Companion. Wiclif, in Feer and Scukynge feer. Chaucer. v. Fere, and Yfere. Junius, v. Yfere.

Yfette. Proem. put down, written.

Yskaldid. 29. scalded.

Ysode. 29. isode, 90. sodden, 179. boiled. MS. Ed. II. 11.
Chaucer. all from to seeth.

Ysope. 30. 63. Ysop. MS. Ed. 53. the herb Hyssop. Chaucer. v. Isope.
Yforced. v. forced.

Yfasted. 62. qu.

Zif, zyf. MS. Ed. 37. 39. if. also give, II. 9. 10.

Ystyned, istyned. 162. 168. to styne, 66. seems to mean to close.

Yteysed. 20. pulled in pieces. v. ad loc. and v. Tease.

Ypaunced. 62. perhaps pounced, for which see Chaucer.

Yfonndred. 62. ifonded, 97. 101. yfondyt, 102. poured, mixed, dissolved. v. found. Fr. fondu.

Yholes. 37. perhaps, hollow.

Ypared. 64. pared.

Ytosted, itosted. 77. 82. toasted.

Iboiled. 114. boiled.

Yest. 151. Junius, v. Yeast.

Igrated. 153. grated.

Ybake. 157. baked.

Ymbre. 160. 165. Ember.

Ypocras. how made, 191. Hippocras. wafers used with it. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 330. VI. p. 5, 6. 24. 28. 12. and dry toasts, Rabelais IV. c. 59. Joly Ypocras. Lel. Coll. IV. p. 227. VI. p. 23. Bishop Godwin renders it Vinum aromaticum. It was brought both at beginning of splendid entertainments, if Apicius is to be underslood of it. Lib. I. c. 1. See Lister, ad loc. and in the middle before the second course; Lel. Coll. IV. p. 227. and at the end. It was in use at St. John's Coll. Cambr. 50 years ago, and brought in at Christmas at the close of dinner, as anciently most usually it was. It took its name from Hippocrates' sleeve, the bag or strainer, through which it was passed. Skinner, v. Claret; and Chaucer. or as Junius suggests, because strained juxta doctrinam Hippocratis. The Italians call it hipocrasso. It seems not to have differed much from Piment, or Pigment (for which see Chaucer) a rich spiced wine which was sold by Vintners about 1250. Mr. Topham's MS. Hippocras was both white and red. Rabelais, IV. c. 59. and I find it used for sauce to lampreys. Ibid. c. 60.

There is the process at large for making ypocrasse in a MS. of my respectable Friend Thomas Astle, esq. p. 2. which we have thought proper to transcribe, as follows:

'To make Ypocrasse for lords with gynger, synamon, and graynes sugour, and turefoll: and for comyn pepull gynger canell, longe peper, and claryffyed hony. Loke ye have feyre pewter basens to kepe in your pouders and your ypocrasse to ren ynne. and to vi basens ye muste have vi renners on a perche as ye may here see. and loke your poudurs and your gynger be redy and well paryd or hit be beton in to poudr. Gynger colombyne is the best gynger, mayken and balandyne be not so good nor holsom…. now thou knowist the propertees of Ypocras. Your poudurs must be made everyche by themselfe, and leid in a bledder in store, hange sure your perche with baggs, and that no bagge twoyche other, but basen twoyche basen. The fyrst bagge of a galon, every on of the other a potell. Fyrst do in to a basen a galon or ij of redwyne, then put in your pouders, and do it in to the renners, and so in to the seconde bagge, then take a pece and assay it. And yef hit be eny thyng to stronge of gynger alay it withe synamon, and yef it be strong of synamon alay it withe sugour cute. And thus schall ye make perfyte Ypocras. And loke your bagges be of boltell clothe, and the mouthes opyn, and let it ren in v or vi bagges on a perche, and under every bagge a clene basen. The draftes of the spies is good for sewies. Put your Ypocrase in to a stanche wessell, and bynde opon the mouthe a bleddur strongly, then serve forthe waffers and Ypocrasse.'


[ The addenda have been placed above within the text where appropriate, labeled "Addenda:". ]


Since the foregoing sheets were printed off, the following very curious Rolls have happily fallen into the Editor's hand, by the favour of John Charles Brooke, Esq. Somerset Herald. They are extracted from a MS. belonging to the family of Nevile of Chevet, near Wakefield, com. Ebor. and thence copied, under the direction of the Rev. Richard Kay, D.D. Prebendary of Durham.

These Rolls are so intimately connected with our subject, as exhibiting the dishes of which our Roll of Cury teaches dressing and preparation, that they must necessarily be deemed a proper appendix to it. They are moreover amusing, if not useful, in another respect; viz. as exhibiting the gradual prices of provisions, from the dates of our more ancient lists, and the time when these Rolls were composed, in the reign of Henry VIII. For the further illustration of this subject, and extract from the old Account-Book of Luton, 19 Hen. VIII is super-added; where the prices of things in the South, at the same period, may be seen. And whoever pleases to go further into this matter of prices, may compare them with the particulars and expence of a dinner at Stationer's-Hall, A.D. 1556. which appeared in the St. James's Chronicle of April 22, 1780.

We cannot help thinking that, upon all accounts, the additions here presented to our friends must needs prove exceedingly acceptable to them.


With their PRICES, DISHES, &c.

Temp. H. VIII.

THE marriage of my son-in-law Gervas[1] Clifton and my daughter Mary
Nevile, the 17th day of January, in the 21st year of the reigne of our
Soveraigne Lord King Henry the VIIIth.

                                                                L s d
First, for the apparell of the said Gervys Clifton and
Mary Nevill, 21 yards of Russet Damask, every yard 8s[2], 7 14 8

Item, 6 yards of White Damask, every yard 8s. 48 0
Item, 12 yards of Tawney Camlet, every yard 2s. 8d[3]. 49 4
Item, 6 yards of Tawney Velvet, every yard 14s. 4 4 0
Item, 2 rolls of Buckrom, 0 6 0
Item, 3 Black Velvet Bonnits for women, every bonnit 17s. 51 0
Item, a Fronslet[4] of Blue Velvet, 0 7 6
Item, an ounce of Damask Gold[5], 0 4 0
Item, 4 Laynes[6] of Frontlets, 0 2 8
Item, an Eyye[7] of Pearl, 24 0
Item, 3 pair of Gloves, 0 2 10
Item, 3 yards of Kersey; 2 black, 1 white, 0 7 0
Item, Lining for the same, 0 2 0
Item, 3 Boxes to carry bonnits in, 0 1 0
Item, 3 Pasts[8], 0 0 9
Item, a Furr of White Lusants[9], 40 0
Item, 12 Whit Heares[10], 12 0
Item, 20 Black Conies, 10 0
Item, A pair of Myllen[11] Sleves of white sattin, 0 8 0
Item, 30 White Lamb Skins, 0 4 0
Item, 6 yards of White Cotton, 0 3 0
Item, 2 yards and 1/2 black sattin, 0 14 9
Item, 2 Girdles, 0 5 4
Item, 2 ells of White Ribon, for tippets, 0 1 1
Item, an ell of Blue Sattin, 0 6 8
Item, a Wedding Ring of Gold, 0 12 4
Item, a Millen Bonnit, dressed with Agletts, 0 11 0
Item, a yard of right White Sattin, 0 12 0
Item, a yard of White Sattin of Bridge[12], 0 2 4

The Expence of the Dinner, at the marriage of said Gervys Clifton and Mary
Nevile. Imprimis,
Three Hogsheads of Wine, 1 white, 1 red, 1 claret 5 5 0
Item, 2 Oxen, 3 0 0
Item, 2 Brawns[13], 1 0 0
Item, 2 Swans[14], every Swan 2 s, 0 12 0
Item, 9 Cranes[15], every Crane 3 s. 4d. 1 10 0
Item, 16 Heron sews[16], every one 12 d. 0 16 0
Item, 10 Bitterns, each 14d. 0 11 8
Item, 60 couple of Conies, every couple 5d, 25 0
Item, as much Wild-fowl, and the charge of the same, as cost 3 6 8
Item, 16 Capons of Grease[17], 0 16 0
Item, 30 other Capons, 0 15 0
Item, 10 Pigs, every one 5d. 0 4 2
Item, 6 Calves, 0 16 0
Item, 1 other Calf, 0 3 0
Item, 7 Lambs, 0 10 0
Item, 6 Withers[18], ever Wither 2s. 4d. 0 14 0
Item, 8 Quarters of Barley[19] Malt, every quarter 14s. 5 10 0
Item, 3 Quarters of Wheat, every quarter 18 s. 54 0
Item, 4 dozen of Chickens , 0 6 0
Besides Butter, Eggs, Verjuice, and Vinegar

In Spices as followeth.

Two Loaves of Sugar[20], weighing 16 lb. 12 oz. at 7d. per lb. 0 9 9
Item, 6 pound of Pepper, every pound 22d. 0 11 0
Item, 1 pound of Ginger, 0 2 4
Item, 12 pound of Currants, every pound 3 2d 0 3 6
Item, 12 pound of Proynes[21], every pound 2d. 0 2 0
Item, 2 lb. of Marmalet, 0 2 1
Item, 2 Poils[22] of Sturgeon, 0 12 4
Item, a Barrell for the same, 0 0 6
Item, 12 lb. of Dates, every lb. 4d. 0 4 0
Item, 12 lb of Great Raisons[23], 0 2 0
Item, 1 lb. of Cloves and Mace, 0 8 0
Item, 1 quarter of Saffron, 0 4 0
Item, 1 lb. of Tornself[24], 0 4 0
Item, 1 lb. of Ising-glass, 0 4 0
Item, 1 lb. of Biskitts, 0 1 0
Item, 1 lb. of Carraway Seeds, 0 1 0
Item, 2 lb of Cumfitts, 0 2 0
Item, 2 lb. of Torts[25] of Portugal, 0 2 0
Item, 4 lb. of Liquorice and Anniseeds, 0 1 0
Item, 3 lb. of Green Ginger, 0 4 0
Item, 3 lb. of Suckets[26], 0 4 0
Item, 3 lb. of Orange Buds, 4 s. 0 5 4
Item, 4 lb. of Oranges in Syrup, 0 5 4
                                                 Totall L. 61 8 8

[Footnote 1: Gervas] below Gervys. So unsettled was our orthography,
even in the reign of Henry VIII. So Nevile, and below Nevill. Mary,
third daughter of Sir John Nevil of Chever, was first wife of Sir
Gerv. Clifton of Clifton, com. Nott. Knight.]
[Footnote 2: 8s.] The sum is L. 7. 14 s. 8 d. but ought to be L. 8. 8s.
so that there is some mistake here. N.B. This manuscript is
given in our common figures; but the original, no doubt, is in the
[Footnote 3: 2s. 8d.] This again is wrongly computed. There may be other
mistakes of the same kind, which is here noted once for all; the reader
will easily rectify them himself.]
[Footnote 4: Fronslet.] f. Frontlet, as lin. 10.]
[Footnote 5: Damask Gold.] Gold of Damascus, perhaps for powder.]
[Footnote 6: Laynes.] qu.]
[Footnote 7: Eyye.] f. Egg.]
[Footnote 8: Pasts.] Pastboards.]
[Footnote 9: Lusants.] qu.]
[Footnote 10: Heares]. f. Hares.]
[Foornote 11: Myllen], Milan, city of Lombardy, whence our
millaner, now milliner, written below millen.]
[Footnote 12: Bridge]. Brugge, or Bruges, in Flanders.]
[Footnote 13: Brawns]. The Boar is now called a Brawn in the North, vid.
p. 126.]
[Footnote 14: 2 Swans]. f. 6 Swans.]
[Footnote 15: Cranes]. v. p. 67.]
[Footnote 16: Heron sews]. In one word, rather. See p. 139.]
[Footnote 17: of Grease]. I presume fatted.]
[Footnote 18: Withers]. Weathers.]
[Footnote 19: Barley malt]. So distinguished, because wheat and oats were
at this time sometimes malted. See below, p. 172.]
[Footnote 20: Loaves of Sugar]. So that they now had a method of refining
it, v. p. xxvi.]
[Footnote 21: Proynes]. Prunes, v. p. 148.]
[Footnote 22: Poils]. Misread, perhaps, for Joils, i.e. Jowls.]
[Footnote 23: Great Raisons, ] v. p. 38.]
[Footnote 24: Tornselt]. Turnfole, v. p. 38.]
[Footnote 25: Torts]. qu.]
[Footnote 26: Suckets]. These, it seems, were sold ready prepared in the
shops. See the following Rolls.]

Sir John Nevile, of Chete, Knight.

The marriage of my Son-in-law, Roger Rockley[1], and my daughter Elizabeth Nevile, the 14th of January, in the 17th year of the reigne of our Soveraigne Lord King Henry the VIIIth.

                                                                L s d
First, for the expence of their Apparel, 22 yards of Russet
Sattin, at 8s. per yard, 8 16 0
Item, 2 Mantilles of Skins, for his gown, 48 0
Item, 2 yards and 1/2 of black velvet, for his gown, 0 30 0
Item, 9 yards of Black Sattin, for his Jacket and Doublet,
  at 8s. the yard, 3 12 0
Item, 7 yards, of Black Sattin, for her Kertill, at 8 s.
  per yard, 56 0
Item, a Roll of Buckrom, 0 2 8
Item, a Bonnit of Black Velvet, 0 15 0
Item, a Frontlet for the same Bonnit, 0 12 0
Item, for her Smock, 0 5 0
Item, for a pair of perfumed Gloves, 0 3 4
Item, for a pair of other Gloves, 0 0 4

Second Day.

Item, for 22 yards of Tawney Camlet, at 2s. 4d. per yard, 51 4 Item, 3 yards of Black Sattin, for lining her gown, at 8s per yard, 24 0 Item, 2 yards of Black Velvet, for her gown, 30 0 Item, a Roll of Buckrom, for her Gown, 0 2 8 Item, 7 yards of Yellow Sattin Bridge[2], at 2 s. 4d. per yard, 26 4 Item, for a pair of Hose, 0 2 4 Item, for a pair of Shoes, 0 1 4 —————- Sum L. 27 8 0 —————-

Item, for Dinner, and the Expence of the said Marriage of Roger Rockley, and the said Elizabeth Nevile.

Imprimis, eight quarters of Barley-malt, at 10s. per quarter, 4 0 0 Item, 3 quarters and 1/2 of Wheat, at 14s. 4d. per quarter, 56 8 Item, 2 Hogheads of Wine, at 40s. 4 0 0 Item, 1 Hogshead of Read Wine, at 0 40 0 —————- Sum Total L. 39 8 0 —————-

For the First Course at Dinner.

Imprimis, Brawn with Musterd, served alone with Malmsey.
Item, Frumety[3] to Pottage.
Item, a Roe roasted for Standert[4].
Item, Peacocks, 2 of a Dish.
Item, Swans 2 of a Dish.
Item, a great Pike in a Dish.
Item, Conies roasted 4 of a Dish.
Item, Venison roasted.
Item, Capon of Grease, 3 of a Dish.
Item, Mallards[5], 4 of Dish.
Item, Teals, 7 of a Dish.
Item, Pyes baken[6], with Rabbits in them.
Item, Baken Orange.
Item, a Flampett[7].
Item, Stoke Fritters[8].
Item, Dulcets[9], ten of Dish.
Item, a Tart.

Second Course.

First, Marterns[10] to Pottage.
Item for a Standert, Cranes 2 of a dish.
Item, Young Lamb, whole roasted.
Item, Great Fresh Sammon Gollis[11].
Item, Heron Sues, 3 of a dish.
Item, Bitterns, 3 of a dish.
Item, Pheasants, 4 of a dish.
Item, a Great Sturgeon Poil.
Item, Partridges, 8 of a dish.
Item, Plover, 8 of dish.
Item, Stints[12]., 8 of a dish.
Item, Curlews[13], 3 of a dish.
Item, a whole Roe, baken.
Item, Venison baken, red and fallow[14].
Item, a Tart.
Item, a March[15] Payne.
Item, Gingerbread.
Item, Apples and Cheese scraped with Sugar and Sage.

For Night.

First a Play, and straight after the play a Mask, and when the Mask was done then the Banckett[16], which was 110 dishes, and all of meat; and then all the Gentilmen and Ladys danced; and this continued from the Sunday to the Saturday afternoon.

The Expence in the Week for the Flesh and Fish for the same marriage.

Imprimis, 2 Oxen, 3 0 0
Item, 2 Brawns, 22 0
Item, 2 Roes 10s and for servants going, 5s. 0 15 0
Item, in Swans, 0 15 0
Item, in Cranes 9, 30 0
Item, in Peacocks 12, 0 16 0
Item, in Great Pike, for flesh dinner, 6, 30 0
Item, in Conies, 21 dozen, 5 5 0
Item, in Venison, Red Deer Hinds 3, and fetching them, 0 10 0
Item, Fallow Deer Does 12 — — —
Item, Capons of Grease 72, 3 12 0
Item, Mallards and Teal, 30 dozen, 3 11 8
Item, Lamb 3, 0 4 0
Item, Heron Sues, 2 doz. 24 0
Item, Shovelords[17], 2 doz. 24 0
Item, in Bytters[18] 12, 16 0
Item, in Pheasants 18, 24 0
Item, in Partridges 40, 0 6 8
Item, in Curlews 18, 24 0
Item, in Plover, 3 dozen, 0 5 0
Item, in Stints, 5 doz. 0 9 0
Item, in Surgeon, 1 Goyle[19], 0 5 0
Item, 1 Seal[20], 0 13 4
Item, 1 Porpose[21], 0 13 4

For Frydays and Saturdays.

First, Leich Brayne[22].
Item, Frometye Pottage.
Item, Whole Ling and Huberdyne[23].
Item, Great Goils [24] of Salt Sammon.
Item, Great Salt Eels.
Item, Great Salt Sturgeon Goils
Item, Fresh Ling.
Item, Fresh Turbut.
Item, Great Pike[25].
Item, Great Goils of Fresh Sammon.
Item, Great Ruds[26].
Item, Baken Turbuts.
Item, Tarts of 3 several meats[27].

Second Course

First, Martens to Pottage.
Item, a Great Fresh Stugeon Goil.
Item, Fresh Eel roasted.
Item, Great Brett.
Item, Sammon Chines broil'd.
Item, Roasted Eels.
Item, Roasted Lampreys.
Item, Roasted Lamprons[28].
Item, Great Burbutts[29].
Item, Sammom baken,
Item, Fresh Eel baken.
Item, Fresh Lampreys, baken.
Item, Clear Jilly[30].
Item, Gingerbread.

Waiters at the said Marriage.

Storrers, Carver.
Mr. Henry Nevile, Sewer.
Mr. Thomas Drax, Cupbearer.
Mr. George Pashlew, for the Sewer-board end.
John Merys, \ Marshalls.
John Mitchill, /
Robert Smallpage, for the Cupboard.
William Page, for the Celler,
William Barker, for the Ewer,
Robert Sike the Younger, and
John Hiperon, for Butterye.

To wait in the Parlour.

Richard Thornton.
Edmund North.
Robert Sike the Elder.
William Longley.
Robert Live.
William Cook.
Sir John Burton, Steward.
My brother Stapleton's servant.
My son Rockley's servant to serve in the slate.

[Footnote 1: Rockley]. Elizabeth eldest daughter of Sir John Nevile,
married, Roger eldest son, and afterwards heir, of Sir Thomas Rockley of
Rockley, in the parish of Worsborough, Knight.]
[Footnote 2: Bridge]. See above, p. 167, note [2].]
[Footnote 3: Frumety]. v. p. 135.]
[Footnote 4: Standert]. A large or standing dish. See p. 174. l. 3.]
[Footnote 5: Mallards]. v. p. 144.]
[Footnote 6: Baken]. baked.]
[Footnote 7: Flampett]. f. Flaunpett, or Flaumpeyn, v. p. 136.]
[Footnote 8: Stoke Fritters ]. Baked on a hot-iron, used still by the
Brewers, called a stoker.]
[Footnote 9: Dulcets]. qu.]
[Footnote 10: Marterns]. qu. it is written Martens, below.]
[Footnote 11: Gollis]. f. Jowls.]
[Footnote 12: Stints]. The Stint, or Purre, is one of the Sandpipers.
Pennant, Brit. Zool, II. 374.]
[Footnote 13: Curlews]. See above, p. 130. and below. Curlew Knaves,
also below.]
[Footnote 14: Fallow]. If I remember right, Dr. Goldman, says,
Fallow-deer were brought to us by King James I. but see again below,
more than once.]
[Footnote 15: March Payne]. A kind of Cake, very common long after
this time, v. below.]
[Footnote 16: Banckett]. Banquet.]
[Footnote 17: Shovelords]. Shovelers, a species of the Wild Duck.
Shovelards, below.]
[Footnote 18: Bytters]. Bitterns, above; but it is often written
without n, as below.]
[Footnote 19: Goyle]. Jowl, v. above, p. 174. l. 5.]
[Footnote 20: Seal]. One of those things not eaten now; but see p. 147
above, and below, p. 180. l. 6.]
[Footnote 21: Porpose]. v. p. 147, above.]
[Footnote 22: Leich Brayne] v. p. 141, above, but qu. as to Brayne.]
[Footnote 23: Huberdyne]. miswritten for Haberdine, i.e. from
Aberdeen; written below Heberdine.]
[Footnote 24: Goils]. v. above, p. 174. l. 5.]
[Footnote 25: Pyke]. v. above, p. 50. and below, often.]
[Footnote 26: Ruds]. qu. Roaches, v. below.]
[Footnote 27: meats]. Viands, but not Fleshmeats.]
[Footnote 28: Lamprons]. v. p. 142. above.]
[Footnote 29: Burbatts]. qu. Turbuts.]
[Footnote 30: Jilly]. Jelly.]

The Charges of Sir John Nevile, of Chete, Knight, being Sheriff of
Yorkshire in the 19th year of the reigne of King Henry VIII.

    Lent Assizes.
                                                                L s d
Imprimis, in Wheat 8 quarters, 8 0 0
Item, in Malt, 11 quarters, 7 6 8
Item, in Beans, 4 quarters, 3 4 0
Item, in Hay, 6 loads, 25 0
Item, in Litter, 2 loads 0 4 0
Item, part of the Judge's Horses in the inn, 0 13 4
Item, 5 hogsheads of Wine, 3 claret, 1 white, 1 red, 10 16 4
Item, Salt Fish, 76 couple, 3 16 4
Item, 2 barrells Herrings, 25 6
Item, 2 Barrells Salmon, 3 1 0
Item, 12 seams[1] of Sea Fish 6 4 0
Item, in Great Pike and Pickering, 6 score and 8, 8 0 0
Item, 12 Great Pike from Ramsay, 2 0 0
Item, in Pickerings from Holdess IIII XX, 3 0 0
Item, Received of Ryther 20 great Breams, 20 0
Item, Received of said Ryther, 12 great Tenches, 0 16 0
Item, Received of said Ryther 12 great Eels and 106
  Touling[2] Eels, and 200 lb. of Brewit[3] Eels,
  and 20 great Ruds, 40 0
Item, in great Fresh Sammon, 28 3 16 8
Item, a Barrell of Sturgeon 46 8
Item, a Firkin of Seal, 0 16 8
Item, a little barrell of Syrope[4], 0 6 8
Item, 2 barrells of all manner of Spices, 4 10 0
Item, 1 bag of Isinglass, 0 3 0
Item, a little barrell of Oranges, 0 4 0
Item, 24 gallons of Malmsey, 0 16 0
Item, 2 little barrells of Green Ginger and Sucketts, 0 3 0
Item, 3 Bretts, 0 12 0
Item, in Vinegar, 13 gallon, 1 quart 0 6 8
Item, 8 large Table Cloths of 8 yards in length, 7 of
  them 12 d per yard, and one 16d, 3 6 8
Item, 6 doz. Manchetts[5], 0 6 0
Item, 6 gallons Vergis[6], 0 4 8
Item, in Mayne Bread[7], 0 0 8
Item, bread bought for March Payne, 0 0 8
Item, for Sugar and Almonds, besides the 2 barrells, 0 11 0
Item, for Salt, 0 6 0
Item, for 5 gallons of Mustard, 0 2 6
Item, a Draught of Fish, 2 great Pikes and 200 Breams, 0 26 8
Item, 3 gallons of Honey, 0 3 9
Item, 6 Horse-loads of Charcoal, 0 2 8
Item, 3 Loads of Talwood[8] and Bavings, 0 3 4
Item, 4 Streyners, 0 1 0
Item, for Graines[9], 0 0 4
Item, 20 doz. of Cups, 0 6 8
Item, 6 Elaskits and 1 Maund[10], 0 3 4
Item, 1 doz. Earthen Potts, 0 0 6
Item, 2 Staff Torches, 0 4 0
Item, for Yearbes[11], 5 days, 0 1 8
Item, for Waferans[12], 5 days[13], 0 1 8
Item, for Onions, 0 1 0
Item, 2 Gallipots, 0 0 8
Item, for Yeast, 5 days, 0 1 8
Item, 20 doz. borrowed Vessels, 0 5 1
Item, for Carriage or Wheat, Malt, Wine, and Wood,
  from the Water-side, 0 15 0
Item, for Parker the Cook, and other Cooks and Water-bearers, 4 10 0
Item, 6 doz. of Trenchers, 0 0 4
First, for making a Cupboard, 0 1 4

[Footnote 1: seams]. quarter, much used in Kent, v. infra.]
[Footnote 2: Touling Eels]. qu. See below.]
[Footnote 3: Brewit Eels]. i.e. for Brewet; for which see above, p. 127.
also here, below.]
[Footnote 4: Syrope]. v. p. 36 above.]
[Footnote 5: Manchetts]. a species of Bread, see below.]
[Footnote 6: Vergis]. Verjuice.]
[Footnote 7: Mayne Bread]. Pain du main, v. p. 147. above.]
[Footnote 8: Talwood and Bavings]. Chord-wood, and Bavins. See Dr.
Birch's Life of Prince Henry: Wetwood and Bevins occur below, p. 184.]
[Footnote 9: Grains]. qu.]
[Footnote 10: Maund]. a large Basket, now used for Apples, &c.]
[Footnote 11: Yearbes]. yerbs are often pronounced so now; whence
Yerby Grease, for Herb of Grace.]
[Footnote 12: Waferans]. v. above, p. 157.]
[Footnote 13: 5 days]. qu. perhaps gathering, or fetching them.]

The Charge of the said Sir John Nevile of Chete at Lammas Assizes, in the 20th Year of the Reign of King Henry the VIIIth.

                                                                L s d
Imprimis, in Wheat, 9 quarters, 12 0 0
Item, in Malt, 12 quarters, 10 0 0
Item, 5 Oxen, 6 13 4
Item, 24 Weathers, 3 4 0
Item, 6 Calves, 20 0
Item, 60 Capons of Grease, 25 0
Item, other Capons, 3 14 0
Item, 24 Pigs, 0 14 0
Item, 3 hogsheads of Wine, 8 11 8
Item, 22 Swans, 5 10 0
Item, 12 Cranes, 4 0 0
Item, 30 Heronsews, 30 0
Item, 12 Shovelards, 12 0
Item, 10 Bitters, 13 4
Item, 80 Partridges, 26 8
Item, 12 Pheasants, 20 0
Item, 20 Curlews, 26 8
Item, Curlew Knaves 32, 32 0
Item, 6 doz. Plovers, 0 12 0
Item, 30 doz. Pidgeons, 0 7 6
Item, Mallards, Teal and other Wild Fowl, 42 0
Item, 2 Baskets of all manner of Spice, 5 0 0
Item, in Malmsey, 24 Gallons, 32 0
Item, in Bucks, 10 0 0
Item, in Stags, — — —

Fryday and Saturday.

First, 3 couple of great Ling, 12 0
Item, 40 couple of Heberdine, 40 0
Item, Salt Sammon, 20 0
Item, Fresh Sammon and Great, 3 6 8
Item, 6 great Pike, 12 0
Item, 80 Pickerings, 4 0 0
Item, 300 great Breams, 15 0 0
Item, 40 Tenches, 26 8
Item, 80 Touling Eels and Brevet Eels, and 15 Ruds, 32 0
Item, a Firkin of Sturgeon, 16 0
Item, in Fresh Seals, 13 4
Item, 8 seame of Fresh Fish, 4 0 0
Item, 2 Bretts, 8 0
Item, a barrell of Green Ginger and Sucketts, 4 0
Item, 14 gallon of Vinegar, 7 7 1/2
Item, 6 horse-loads of Charcoal, 2 4
Item, 40 load of Wetwood and Bevins, 53 4
Item, for Salt, 5 2
Item, 6 doz. of Manchetts, 6 0
Item, Gingerbread for March Payne, 0 8
Item, 5 gallon of Mustard, 2 6
Item, for loan of 6 doz. vessels, 5 2
Item, 3 gallons of Honey, 3 9
Item, for the costs of Cooks and Water-bearers, 4 0 0
Item, for the Judges and Clerks of the Assize, for their
  Horse-meat in the Inn, and for their Housekeeper's
  meat, and the Clerk of the Assize Fee, 10 0 0
Item, for my Livery Coats, embroidered, 50 0 0
Item, for my Horses Provender, Hay, Litter, and Grass,
  at both the Assizes, 6 13 4

In a vellum MS. Account-Book of the Gild of the Holy Trinity at Luton, com. Bedford, from 19 Hen. VIII. to the beginning of Ed. VI. there are the expences of their Anniversary Feasts, from year to year, exhibiting the several Provisions, with their prices. The feast of 19 Hen. VIII. is hereunder inserted; from whence some judgement may be formed of the rest.

L s d 5 quarters, 6 bushels of Wheat, 50 2 3 bushels of Wheat Flower, 0 5 11 6 quarters malte, 29 0 72 Barrels Beer, 0 12 10 Brewing 6 quarters Malte, 0 4 0 Bakyng, 0 1 6 82 Geys, 1 0 7 47 Pyggs, 1 3 10 64 Capons, 1 9 8 1/2 74 Chekyns, 0 8 2 84 Rabetts, and Carriage, 0 10 8 Beyf, 4 quarters, 1 0 0 a Lyfte, 0 0 8 a Shodoar & Cromys, 0 0 11 Moton & Welle[1] 1 quarter, 0 0 8 2 leggs of Welle & 2 Shodours, 0 1 0 A Marebone & Suet, & 3 Calwisfere, 0 0 4 1 quarter of Moton, and 6 Calwisfere, 0 0 9 20 Lamys, 1 5 10 Dressyng of Lamys, 0 0 6 Wine, 2 galons, a potell, & a pynte, 0 1 9 Wenegar 3 potellis, 0 1 0 Warg[2] 1 galon, 0 0 2 1/2 Spyce, 3 lb Pepur & half, 0 6 11 4 oz. of Clovis & Mace, & quartron, 0 3 4 11 lb. of Sugur & half, 0 7 0 1/2 lb. of Sinamon, 0 3 4 12 lb. of great Resons, 0 1 0 6 lb. of smale Resons, 0 1 4 1/2 lb. of Gynger, 0 1 10 1/2 lb. of Sandurs, 0 0 8 1 lb. of Lycoras, 0 0 6 4 lb. of Prunys, 0 0 8 1 lb. of Comfetts, 0 0 8 1/2 lb. of Turnesell, 0 0 8 1 lb. of grenys, 0 1 9 1 lb. of Anesseds, 0 0 5 2 lb. of Almonds, 0 0 5 2 oz. of Safron and quarton, 0 2 9 2 lb. of Dats, 0 0 8 Eggs 600, 0 6 0 Butter, 0 2 7 Mylke 19 galons, 0 1 7 8 galons and 2 gal. of Crem, 0 1 3 1/2 Hone 2 galons, 0 3 0 Salte 1/2 boshell, 0 0 8 Fyshe, Fresche, and the careeg from London, 0 3 8 A frefche Samon, 0 2 8 Salte Fyche for the Coks, 0 1 0 Rydyng for Trouts 0 0 8 Mynstrels, 0 16 0 Butlers, 0 1 6 Cokys, 0 17 4

[Footnote 1: Veal, now in the South pronounced with W.]
[Footnote 2: Verjuice.]