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Title: The traveller's oracle; or, maxims for locomotion, part 2 (of 2)

Containing precepts for promoting the pleasures and hints for preserving the health of travellers

Author: John Jervis

Editor: William Kitchiner

Release date: May 9, 2023 [eBook #70726]

Language: English

Original publication: United Kingdom: Henry Colburn, 1827

Credits: Julia Miller, Krista Zaleski and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at (This book was produced from scanned images of public domain material from the Google Books project.)


Transcriber’s Notes

Obvious typographical errors have been silently corrected. Variations in hyphenation and accents have been standardised but all other spelling and punctuation remains unchanged.

Click on the [Listen] link to hear the music and on the [MusicXML] link to download the notation. As of the date of posting, these links to external files will work only in the HTML version of this e-book.





































Introduction 3
Estimate of Keeping a Groom and one Horse in your own Stable 11
Estimate of the Expense of Keeping one Horse at a Livery Stable 15
Estimates of various Carriages 16
Expense of Keeping a Coachman, a Carriage, and two Horses in your own Coach-House and Stable 19
Liberal Plan of Keeping a Carriage 33
Estimate of Hiring a Carriage for any short Period 39
Estimate of Jobbing Horses 44
Estimate and Description of a Handsome Town Chariot 50
Carriages and Coachmaking 59
Of the Construction of a Chariot 65
Of Axle-Trees 93
Of the Wheels 99
The Ornaments of Carriages 104
Cautions against Purchasing of Cheap Second-hand Carriages 112
Of the Harness 119
Of Second-hand Harness 121
Travelling Carriages 123
Description of Buonaparte’s Travelling Chariot 127
Duties on Male Servants, Carriages, and Horses 131
The Art of Managing Coachmen 133
Of Evening Parties 136
Of Coachmen and Orders 142-150
Of Punctuality 151
Of Lending your Carriage 160
The Fifteen Things which a good Coachman Won’t Do 165
Coachman’s Tools 170
Of the New Road and Regent’s Park 173
Of Driving 184
Of Care of the Carriage 201
Of Repairing Carriages 212
On Horses 218
Hints to Purchasers of Horses 223
To Preserve the Health of Horses 238
To Make a Horse have a Fine Coat 246
On the Food of Horses 249
On sending Horses to Grass 257
Colds of Horses 261
Of Stables 266
Management of Horses in case of Fire 272
Hints to Horsemen 273
On the Rough Shodding of Horses in Frosty Weather 281
Of the Comparative Expense of a Private Carriage and of Hiring of Hackney Coaches 286
An Easy Plan of Ascertaining every Fare of a Hackney Coach 292
When and How to Call a Coach 312
Hackney Coach and Chariot Fares 318
Specimen of Cary’s New Guide for Ascertaining Hackney Coach Fares 324
Trio to face page 90


[Pg 3]



The following Estimates of the Expense of keeping Horses and Carriages, are Accurate Statements, they cannot be well kept for less, and they need not cost more:—the Reader will have no difficulty in finding a Hackneyman, and a Coachmaker, who will furnish him with them on the terms herein set down; for we have adopted a mean between thoughtless Extravagance on the one hand, and rigid Parsimony on the other.

It is a very frequent, and a very just complaint, that the Expense of a Carriage is not so much its First Cost, as the charge of Keeping it in Repair. Many are deterred from indulging [Pg 4]themselves therewith, from a consciousness that they are so utterly unacquainted with the management thereof, they are apprehensive the uncertainty of the Expense, and the Trouble attending it, will produce Anxiety, which will more than counterbalance the Comfort to be derived from it.

Few Machines vary more in quality than Carriages, the charge1 for them varies as much;—the[Pg 5] best advice that can be offered to the Reader, is, to “Deal with a Tradesman of Fair Character, and established circumstances.—Such a person has every inducement to charge reasonably, and has too much at stake, to forfeit, by any silly Imposition, the Credit that he has been years in establishing by careful Integrity.”——Dr. Kitchiner’s Housekeeper’s Ledger, 8vo. 1826, p. 20.

Those Carriages which cost least, are not always the Cheapest, but often turn out, in the end, to be the Dearest.

Of Chariots, that appear to be equally handsome to a common Eye, which has not been taught to look minutely into the several parts of their machinery; One may be cheap at 250l., and Another may be dear at 200l.: notwithstanding, the Vender of the latter may get more Profit than the Builder of the former.

The faculty of Counting, too frequently, masters all the other Faculties, and is the grand source of deception which Speculating Shopkeepers are ever ready to take advantage of;—for catching the majority of Customers, Cheapness is the surest bait in the World,—how many [Pg 6]more people can count the difference between 20 and 25, than can judge of the Quality of the article they are about to buy?

Quantity strikes the eye at once.—It is recorded, that a certain King having commanded his Treasurer to give an Artist a Thousand Pounds for some work which his faithful Minister knew would be most liberally paid for with half that sum; the sagacious Treasurer ordered, Five Hundred Pounds in Silver to be laid upon a Table in a Room which he knew that his Majesty would pass through with him. On seeing the heap of Silver, the King exclaimed, “What’s all that Money for?” The Treasurer replied, “Sire, it is half of the Sum which your Majesty commanded me to give to the Artist.”—On which, the King said, “Hey, hey! a deal of Money—a deal of Money—Half of that will do!!!”

Quantity may be estimated by an uneducated Eye—to discern the Quality of things, requires Experience and Judgment—capital Guides; but with which the purchasers of Horses and Carriages are Years before they acquire sufficient acquaintance to derive any benefit from [Pg 7]them, and their chief security is, to deal with Persons who have justly acquired, and long maintained, an unblemished Reputation.

I must here protest against a Custom which it is high time was abolished, that of asking Guineas instead of Pounds,—as Guineas are coined no more, there is no pretence for continuing this trick of charging 5l. per Cent extra! Those who do it, know that nobody would give them 105 Pounds; but, under the jingle of 100 Guineas, they contrive to poke an additional Five Pounds out of your pocket!

As we have earnestly advised, that the Coachman may be made independent of the Coachmaker, so let the latter be entirely independent of the former.

Be not so perfunctory, as to permit your Coachman to order what he pleases. If you send a Carriage to be repaired, with the usual Message, “To do any little Jobs that are wanted,” you will most likely not have a little to pay.

When any Repair is required, desire your Coachman to tell you; examine it with your own Eyes, and with your own hand write the order to the Coachmaker, &c. for every thing that is wanted; and warn him you will not pay [Pg 8]for any Jobs, &c. not so ordered, and desire him to keep such Orders and return them to you when he brings his Bill, that you may see it tallies therewith, and you may keep a little Book yourself, into which you may copy such Orders.

Counsellor Cautious went one step further; and before any work was begun, required a Note, stating for how much, and in how long, the person would undertake to completely perform it.

However well built originally, the Durability of the Beauty and the Strength of Carriages, depends much upon how they are managed;—they are as much impaired by those to whose care they are entrusted, not understanding, or not performing, the various operations which preserve them, as they are by the Wear occasioned by Work.

In hiring a Coachman, his having a due knowledge of how to take care of a Carriage, is of as much importance as his experience in Horses, or his skill in Driving.

Persons who order Carriages, are frequently disappointed in the convenience and appearance of them, from not giving their Directions in terms sufficiently explicit;—when[Pg 9] those who buy Carriages make any such a mistake, it is said, that those who sell are not always remarkably anxious to rectify it, unless at the expense of the proprietor.

An Acquaintance of the Editor’s, ordered that the interior of a New Chariot should be arranged exactly like his former Carriage:—when it was finished, he found that there were several very disorderly deviations from the old plan, which were extremely disagreeable to him:—the Builder said, civilly enough, that he was exceedingly sorry, and would soon set it all right—which he did; but presented a Bill of Ten pounds for mending these mistakes, which having arisen entirely from his own Inattention to the fitting up of the Old Carriage, his Customer successfully resisted the payment of, having been prudent enough to have the Agreement for building the Carriage, worded, “That it should be finished in all respects to his entire satisfaction, by a certain Time, for a certain Sum.”

To the end of this work is added a Copious Glossary, and an Index, which will readily conduct the Reader to the various subjects, and be found extremely useful in explaining the Technical terms, &c. commonly used by Coachmakers.

[Pg 10]

The Editor has endeavoured to explain the various points in so plain a manner, that persons who are previously entirely unacquainted with the subject, may calculate exactly what will be the Expense, and ascertain pretty accurately the best manner of managing, and of estimating the pretensions of those they are about to employ, either to build or to take care of a Carriage, &c., in almost as little time as they can read this little Book; in which it is hoped that they will find Amusement blended with useful Instruction, and soon gain such a general knowledge of the subject, as will effectually protect them from Imposition:—at all events, the Editor is quite sure, that it will soon save the Purchaser more than double what he has been so good as to give his friend the old Coachman for the following advice.—Now Cent per Cent, even in these times, when it is said that Cash is scarce, is quite as large a profit as can be made by most Purchases! Therefore, the Editor sends Mr. Jervis’s Book to Press, with a contented conscience, and a hearty wish, that all who buy it may be able to invest all their Money to equal advantage.

[Pg 11]



A Saddle-Horse being but of little service during November, December, January, and February, during these four Months Economical Equestrians send their Nags to a Straw-Yard.

Sportsmen say, that nothing does a Horse more good than a Winter’s Run once in Two or Three years—it far exceeds turning to Grass in Summer, when the Flies are troublesome.

The Price at Straw-Yards varies from 3s. 6d. to 5s. a week, depending upon the Straw, which is contingent on the Corn Crops: some Horses sleep in at Night, and have Hay given them, or at least ordered for them, in which case, 7s. per Week is charged.

£ s. d.
The Straw-Yard for one Horse, for 17 Weeks, say at 4s. 6d. per Week, will be 3 16 6
[Pg 12]

This Holiday is very beneficial to the Horse, especially to his Legs and Feet, which, when worn down by hard work, or cut up by flinty Roads or bad Shoeing, are thereby greatly refreshed and strengthened.

Rest makes a New Horse.

For the remaining 35 Weeks, the allowance of Provisions per week cannot be less than

£ s. d.
1 Truss of Straw2, at 36s. per Load 0 1 0
1 Truss and a half of hay, at £5 per Load 0 4 2
¾ peck of Oats per Day, is per Week 5¼ pecks, and at 25s. per Quarter 0 4 2
Food per Week 0 9 4
Food for 35 Weeks 16 6 8
Expense of Horse in Straw-Yard, brought forward 3 16 6
Taking to and from the Straw-Yard 0 10 0
Annual Keep 20 13 2
A Saddle-Horse, on an average, is shod about Once in four weeks, and the set of Shoes costs 5s.; Nine Sets of Shoes 2 5 0
The Annual Duty 1 8 9
Annual Expense £24 6 11
[Pg 13]

Obs.—This Allowance for Provision is hardly sufficient for Horses that do hard work, which require a Peck of Oats per Day, a Truss and a half of Straw, the same of Hay, with some good Chaff, and occasionally a little Bran; also a handful of Beans in Wet Weather, especially to Horses that work at Night.

A Hackneyman’s allowance for Two Horses is a Sack of Oats per week, which give, if good measure, Four good feeds a day; Country measure, will run nearly five feeds.

£ s. d.
The above is the Annual Expense—exclusive of Stable Rent—Interest of Money paid for the purchase of the Horses—Saddles—Bridles—Horse Cloths, &c.—Farrier’s Bills for Physic—Turnpikes—Travelling Expenses—Groom’s Wages and Livery, &c., which, excepting the difference of charge between a Coachman’s Box Coat, and a Groom’s Great Coat, and the difference of Rent and Taxes on a Single Stall Stable, (which it is often excessively difficult to obtain contiguous to your House), and on Two Stalls and a Coach-house, is, according to the[Pg 14] Expense of keeping a Groom or Coachman given in Estimate No. 4, about 95 0 0
Annual Keep 24 6 11
Total £119 6 11

N.B.—The Hackneyman’s Charge for Jobbing a Saddle Horse, and finding Stabling, &c. is, per Annum, about £70.

[Pg 15]



At some Livery Stables, your Horses will be taken as much care of as they can be in your own: at others, they fare very sadly;—therefore, cautiously inquire into the Character of the person keeping them;—moreover, if his Rent is in arrear, your Carriage and Horses may be seized and sold by his Landlord.

£ s. d.
Four Feeds per Day, at £1. 1s. per Week 54 12 0
Hostler, 1s. or 1s. 6d. per Week—a Gratuity of a shilling now and then to the Under Hostler, who looks after the Chaise, or attends to the Horse, together, perhaps, equal to about 4 0 0
Shoeing, and Duty per Annum 4 13 9
£63 5 9
[Pg 16]



£ s. d.
When quite new, if Jobbed, will be, for one Year, from £30 to 40 0 0
Tax thereon 3 5 0
For Standing, and care at a Livery Stable, per Week, 1s. 6d. 3 18 0
£47 3 0

The Price of a new Two-Wheel One Horse Chaise—Dennett—Tilbury—Stanhope, &c. is from £40 to £90.

Of a Cabriolet, from £100 to £130.

Of a Four-Wheel One Horse Chaise, with head to it, from £100 to £150.

Of a Pair of the best Strong Gig Wheels, with Ash felleys and patent hoop tires, about £7.

Wheels, at first, want only new Shoeing, or turning the Tire, as they wear upon one edge principally: this is done for about 20s. or 25s., and they will last almost as long as at first.

[Pg 17]

New-tireing a Pair of Gig Wheels with Patent hoop-tire, costs about £2. 10s.

Mem.When going to Drive, not only inquire, but give a look yourself at the Wheels, &c. before you set off—trust this to no one—make sure that the Bridle and the Bit fit easy to the Mouth, and see that the Collar and every part of the Harness fit comfortably:—if your Horse tosses his head up and down continually, he is not easy.

“Safe bind, Safe find,”

is at no time a better maxim than when preparing for a Journey.

A Carriage with but two Wheels should be built so that the principal part of the weight is on the Axle-Tree, (instead of the Horse’s back), and the Carriage part of the Vehicle ought to be on Springs, as well as the Body: this prevents the Bolts and Nuts working loose, and the Joints opening, &c. The Lamps should be at the sides; but the Dashing Iron ought to have in front a socket on each side to place the Lamps in at Night, which will throw the light before the Horse’s head, and prevent any shadow from the Wheels—when they are used at the [Pg 18]Sides, you see your danger just too late. The Shafts should be plated underneath with Iron, or if your Horse falls, they are apt to break, which may occasion a dangerous fall to the Persons in the Vehicle.”—A. E.


Are the cheapest, and have the advantage over all others for Lightness and Expedition; but Mem. If the Horse be ever so sure-footed, and the Driver be ever so skilful and steady, they are still but Dangerous Vehicles—which will only be used by those who are compelled to sacrifice Safety to Celerity, and Comfort to Cheapness:—if risks, however, are incurred by this mode of conveyance, Expense is certainly diminished, for the rate of charges in Travelling is considerably less in proportion for one Horse and Two Wheels, than for two Horses and Four Wheels.

[Pg 19]



£. _s._ _d._
A Peck of _Oats_ per Day for each Horse, when Corn is 25_s._ per Quarter; say 24 Quarters per Annum 30 0 0
A Quarter of a Truss of Hay for each Horse per Day, at £5 per Load; say 5½ Loads per Annum 27 10 0
One Truss of Straw each Horse per week; say three Loads per Annum, at 36_s._ 5 8 0
_Beans_, which are only wanted when Horses are worked very hard; and _Physic_, which (excepting the _Persuader_ prescribed--see Index) is as little wanted by a Horse, as it is by a Man. See OBS. _to Estimate No. I._ 4 0 0
Twenty-eight sets of _Shoes_, at 5_s._ per set 7 0 0
_Farriers’ Bills_,--the Risk of your Horses turning out unsound and inefficient,--the[Pg 20] Expense of hiring other Horses while your own are Ill, &c., and the Interest of the Money paid for the purchase of the Horses, &c., cannot be estimated at less than £20. per Annum for each Horse 40 0 0
113 18 0

Those Persons who are most dependent upon their Carriage, frequently require it to carry them only a Mile or Two, and may save the expense of hiring another Horse while one of their own is Ill, or is in want of a Day’s rest, by having a pair of Shafts made to fit on, and so use it with only one Horse—which will do all the work required by many infirm persons, almost as easily as Two:—we wonder that more Chariots are not so constructed.

The preceding Calculation shews that the Expense of keeping Two Horses, and the Risk of loss by Horses, &c. cannot well be set down at less than £113. 18s. per Annum.

A Hackneyman will furnish a pair of Horses, take all the Hazards, and bear all the expenses [Pg 21]enumerated above; at from £135. to £160. per Annum, according to the quantity of Work, and the Age, Colour, and Quality of the Horses required.

If a Pair of Horses are hired for a Year, and they are given up at any time within that period, it is customary to give a couple of months’ notice, or a couple of months’ money. Have a written agreement about this.

The following is my Agreement for hiring Horses:—

Memorandum. Mr. Thurston agrees to furnish Dr. Kitchiner with a Pair of Horses at £140. per Annum, to be paid Quarterly; and if Dr. K. wishes to give them up, he must give two months’ notice, or two months’ money: i. e. £24.

“From January 5th, 1827.

Wm. Kitchiner.

Jas. Thurston.

I would not recommend a Carriage Horse to be less than Seven years old, especially if to be driven in Crowded Streets:—Horses that [Pg 22]have not been taught how to behave in such situations, are extremely awkward and unmanageable, and often occasion Accidents.

As I have said, the Price charged for Job Horses varies as the goodness of the Horses, and as the Work required, does. Some persons do not Exercise their Horses enough;—others require Two Horses to do as much Labour as should be done by Three. Again, the price of Horses varies from less than £80. a Pair, to twice £80. a piece.

If you keep Horses for useful purposes, you must not be too nice about either their Colour, or the condition of their Coats.

The ordinary Town Carriage Work can be done just as well by a Pair of Horses, which may be had for £70. or £80. as with those that cost three times that Sum; indeed it will most likely be done better. If you have Horses worth an hundred pounds a piece, you will be afraid of using them when you most want them; i. e. in Cold and Wet Weather, for fear of their catching Cold and breaking their Coats, &c. Moreover, the Elegance of an Equipage, in the Eyes of most [Pg 23]people, depends more upon the Carriage, Harness, and Liveries, than upon the Horses:—all can judge of the former, but few of the latter; and, provided they are the same Size and of the same Colour, the Million will be satisfied.

Horses in Pairs are sometimes worth double what they are, singly—and Horsedealers do not like to buy any but of the most common Colours; i. e. Bays and Browns; because of the ease in matching them. Horses of extraordinary Colours may be purchased at a proportionably cheap rate, unless they are in Pairs, and happen to be an extraordinary good match, when they will sometimes bring an extravagant price.

An Ancient Equestrian gives the following advice; and also gave us all those Paragraphs to which are affixed the initials A. E.:—

If you have occasion to match your Horse, do not let the Dealer know you are seeking for a Match Horse, or he will demand a higher price; nor do not send your servant to select for you.”—See [Pg 24]the “Hints to Purchasers of Horses,” in Chap. IV.

If you will be contented with the useful Qualities of your Horses, i. e. their Strength and Speed, and are not too nice about their matching in Colour, you may be provided with capital Horses, at half the cost of those who are particular about their Colour; and moreover, you may easily choose such as will do double the service.

The Judgment and Liberality of the Proprietors are not so questionable on account of the Horses (which all the Wit and all the Wealth in the World cannot always procure exactly what may be wished) as they are about those works of Art, a Carriage and a Livery; these, good Taste and Liberality can always command. The difference in the charge for the hire of an elegant New Carriage and a shabby Old one, does not exceed £25. per Annum; and £10. per Annum more will defray all the extra expense incurred by giving a handsome Livery; so there is not 10 per Cent saved in the Shabbiest turn out.

[Pg 25]

As most people Job their Carriage Horses, we shall continue our Estimate, and set down—

£. _s._ _d._
For a Pair of Jobbed Horses (the lowest price at present) 135 0 0
The Duty on Two Horses 4 14 6
On a Four-Wheeled Carriage 6 0 0
On the Coachman 1 14 0
Wages4 of the Coachman, not less than 10_s._ per week 26 0 0
Board, ditto, ditto, at 14_s._ per week [Pg 26] 36 8 0

N.B. If there are no Lodging Rooms over the Coach-house, it is customary to allow a Coachman about 4_s._ per Week, _i. e._ about £10. per Year, to pay his Lodging.

Allowance for Oil and Grease, Towels and Leathers, to clean the Carriage, _at least_ 1_s._ per Week 2 12 0
Rent of Coach-house and Stable 25 0 0
Tax on ditto 3 0 0
240 8 6

The advice of our great Dramatic Bard cannot be quoted more aptly than in the following Maxim for choosing a Livery:—

“Costly thy Habit as thy Purse
Can buy, but not expressed in fancy,
Rich not gaudy: for the Apparel oft proclaims
The Man.”


[Pg 27]

We recommend a Blue, Brown, Drab, or Green Livery, the whole of the same Colour. To have a Coat of one Colour, and lined with another, a Waistcoat of another, and the other Clothes of another Colour, claims the Poet’s censure—it is “Gaudy”—unless for a full Dress Livery on a Gala Day:—we equally disapprove of the Capes of a Box Coat being alternately Blue and Yellow, or Brown and Red, &c.

Coachman’s Livery.

Those who affect an elegant Equipage, usually give their Coachman annually, say Two handsome Suits of what is termed the best Second Cloth (what is called Livery Cloth is a little cheaper, but much coarser, and not half so serviceable).

£. s. d.
Brought forward 240 8 6
Light Blue Cloth Double-breasted Coat, edged with Crimson, and lined with Shalloon same colour as the Coat, with Gold-laced Collar and Button Holes—
Waistcoat, Blue Kerseymere, with Shalloon Sleeves;
Plush Breeches, lined, and gilt Knee Buckles
14 14 0[Pg 28]
30 Large and 18 Small Buttons with Crest5 and Motto, &c. thereon 0 13 6
Working Dress, (once a Year), Drab Cord Breeches, Coat, Waistcoat, and Overalls (Drab Fustian, lined,) &c. 3 13 0
259 9 0

For those who make but little use of their Carriage, One Livery a Year, or Two in Three Years, is enough, especially if you give a Working-dress, as the Livery is then worn merely when he mounts the Box to drive.

Those who give only One Livery in a Year, should do that in April, so that they [Pg 29]may have the credit of it during the Summer months, while it is seen: during the Winter it is almost always covered by the Box Coat; when the Coat the man does his work in, will do as well as any. If a Livery Coat has a Laced Collar, wearing the Box Coat over it, will soon cut it to pieces.

Counsellor Cautious never gave a Coachman a Livery till he had served him for Three Months. Some Persons, instead of a Livery, allow 3s. or 4s. per Week extra, and the Coachman finds his own Clothes, a plain Blue Coat; they giving him only a Hat and Great Coat.

£. s. d.
Brought forward 259 9 0
A good full-made Box Coat, with six real Capes, and lined with Shalloon, about £7. (according to the number of Capes and the quality of the Cloth, the price varies from £5. to £8.), once in Three Years, at the end of which it is given to the Coachman, per Annum 2 7 0

Plain Liveries, without Lace, &c. one-third less, i. e. about £5. per Suit.

Two Plain Hats[Pg 30] 2 10 0
£264 6 0

With Gold Lace Binding, and a neat narrow Gold Band, they cost about double the above sum.

Some give, Annually, one plain Hat for common use, and one edged with Gold Lace and a Gold Band as a Dress Hat.

Those who like to see their Coachman neat and nice, give him a Clothes Box as well as a Clothes Brush, or, which is infinitely better, a Cupboard six feet high, about three feet deep, and three feet wide, with pegs to hang his Box Coat, Hat, and other Clothes on, which, without such a case, are soon spoiled by the Dust of the Hay Loft.

£. s. d.
Brought forward 264 6 0
The Yearly hire of a handsome new Chariot or Coach and Harness, from £70. to £84.: if it is hired for only three or four Years, and fitted up with Under-springs, Collinge’s Axles, &c., and finished in the best style, as described in Estimate No 9, it will be about 84 0 0
Total 348 6 0
[Pg 31]

To the above Estimate is to be added the charges of Turnpikes—Short Baits6—Travelling Expenses, &c., extra Visiting, and numerous other Expenses, which would not be incurred without a Carriage to carry you to them: these will make the total amount of outgoings from keeping a Carriage come up to not less than £400 per Annum.

The Editor is aware that the foregoing Computations are rather higher than those random-guess Estimates, which some inexperienced persons have published: however, his Calculations[Pg 32] are neither more nor less than the actual amount which he has himself paid; and he does not believe that the business can be done properly for less than the Sums set down;—therefore,

Prudent Peruser of the present Page,
To keep a Coach will add but Care to Age,
Unless your Annual Income is quite clear
Full Fifteen Hundred Pounds a Year.

[Pg 33]


The former is The Usual and Liberal Plan of Keeping a Carriage—it cannot be kept so comfortably on any other; but we must also tell our Readers The Cheapest Plan, which is about £100 per Annum less.

£. s. d.
1st. Instead of giving £84 per Annum for a New Carriage and Harness, made in the best style, as per Estimate No. 9, you may hire an inferior, or a vamped-up second-hand one for about 60 0 0
A Hackneyman will supply a Pair of Horses, and keep them, &c. in his Livery Stables, for 135 0 0
Standing of Carriage, and charge for cleaning and greasing, &c. as in Estimate No. 6, per annum, not less than 11 16 0
Duty on Horses and Carriage 10 14 6[Pg 34]
A Grand managing Economist informed me that he pays the Hostler at a Livery Stable 8s. per week additional, i. e. £20 per annum, to do all the work usually done by the Coachman, except driving the Carriage—he comes for orders as a Coachman does, and brings the Carriage to the Door, when his Man Servant, who acts as Coachman7, mounts the Box and drives it; on its return, the Footman drives it to the Stables, and the Hostler does all the rest of the business usually done by a Coachman 20 0 0
Extra Wages to a Footman for Driving, and Box Coat, &c. not less than, per annum 8 0 0
245 10 6

Obs.—Few People but those who have either a very Strong Purse, or a very Weak Person, really require a Carriage every day.

[Pg 35]

Twice, or Thrice in a week would be quite enough for many;—such will do wisely, to find a Friend who will pay half of the Expense, and use the Equipage on alternate days—and on Sundays let it rest.

[Pg 36]


For those who wish for a Carriage merely as a matter of occasional Parade, rather than of continual Convenience, and hardly require it perhaps Two days in a Week, the cheapest plan is to purchase a Carriage, and keep it at a Stable Yard, where, as often as they wish, they can hire a pair of Horses: but a good Carriage must not stand in a Public Yard, unless it is put into a private Coach-house, where it can be carefully locked up:—if you pay a little extra for this, it is money well spent.

£. s. d.
The Expense then will be, the Interest of the Money paid for the purchase of the Carriage and Harness, (which we will suppose may be bought second hand for about £200), and keeping it in Repair, which, as it is but[Pg 37] seldom used, may be set down together at (not less than,) per annum 30 0 0
Standing of it, at 3s. per week, per annum 7 16 0
For Oil and Grease, and to the Hostler for cleaning the Carriage, from 1s. to 1s. 6d. per week, per annum 4 0 0
Tax 6 0 0
47 16 0

And £1. 1s. per Day for Hire of Horses, and 5s. the Coachman. See Estimate No. 7.

Thus, it appears, To keep a Carriage, and to use it once in a Year, costs £48. 2 s.!!!

The Hackneyman’s Charge for a Pair of Horses for three or four hours in the middle of the Day, say from One till Five o’clock, is about 15s.

From Four till Twelve at Night, that is, to take you to the Theatre or out to Dinner, and to bring you Home after, is 12s.

The Coachman’s fee for these Short Jobs, is about 2s. 6d.

Many people do not require a Carriage more than twice in a Week; nor then, more than [Pg 38]for Three or Four hours: to such, the Saving will be very great.

£. s. d.
Standing charges of the Carriage, &c. as per Estimate above 47 16 0
Horses and Coachman, for Four Hours, Twice a Week, at 17s. 6d. each time 91 0 0
Per Annum 138 16 0
[Pg 39]



If a Carriage be hired for a Day, a Week, or a Month, or for any time less than a Year, the person who let it out pays the Duty.

The customary charge for those common Carriages, whether of Two or Four Wheels, which are let out, is about 5s. per Day, or £5. per Month (28 Days).

Open Carriages are charged higher, as the whole Year’s Duty is paid upon them, though they are only used for a few Months.

When Coaches or Chariots are let by the Day or Week, the Harness is not included in the charge for them. Harness for a Pair of Horses is charged 1s. per Day, or 5s. per Week.

Hired Carriages are expected to be turned out clean, greased, and fit for immediate use:—examine them well before you take them; for[Pg 40] if any part breaks while in your use, you will be expected to pay for the Repair thereof, unless you make a previous Agreement that it shall be done by the person letting it.

Tell the person you hire of, how long you want the Carriage, and how far you are going to travel:—he has then no excuse for not giving you a sufficient Carriage.

The price of a Job during the dear Months, when the Town is full, i. e. in April, May, and June, for a Chariot or Coach, a Pair of Horses and Coachman, his Wages and Board Wages, the standing at the Hackneyman’s, &c., and all charges included, is, (a little more or less, according to the quality of the Horses and the Carriage), per Month, (reckoning 28 Days), about £26.

The usual sum for the Hire of a Coach or Chariot and Harness, is, according to the condition thereof, from £5. to £7. per Month:—if you hire them of a Coachmaker, you will have more choice, and may get a better Carriage.

A Glass Coach, or Chariot and Horses, not to travel beyond eight miles from Town, may be hired, per Day, for from £1. 1s. to £1. 5s.

[Pg 41]

The Coachman’s Fee is 5s.

If he is employed all Day, especially if you go into the Country, it is usual to give the Driver his Dinner.

For a distance exceeding eight miles from the place of letting, the charge is 1s. 6d. per Mile out, and half that sum in returning.

For Three or Four Hours in the middle of the Day, 18s.

The Coachman will expect about Half-a-Crown.

From Four till Twelve in the Evening, to take you out to Dinner, and to bring you Home, 15s.—Coachman, 2s. 6d.

In either of the above cases, if you find the Carriage, the charge will be from 3s. to 5s. less.

We subjoin a List of the charges for these things in Ireland.


The Job Coach Proprietors and Post-Masters respectfully beg leave to inform the Nobility, Gentry, their Friends, and the Public, that at a Meeting of their Trade, held on Tuesday, the 25th of July, 1826, it was

[Pg 42]

Resolved—That in order to meet the exigency of the Times, the change of Currency, and the advanced price of every article necessary for their Trade, particularly forage, that from and after the 1st of August next, the prices of Posting and Job Carriages will be as follow, in British Currency.


s. d. British.
Chaise and Pair, with one or two passengers 1 1 per Mile.
Chaise and Pair, with three passengers 1 4 ditto.
Chaise and Four 2 2 ditto.
Coach and Four 2 6 ditto.
Pair of Horses to Gentlemen’s Chaise, one or two passengers 1 4 ditto.
Ditto, with three passengers 1 6 ditto.
Ditto Gentleman’s Coach 1 6 ditto.
Four Horses to ditto 2 6 ditto.
Four Horses to Chaise 2 2 ditto.


Carriage and Pair for Town, from ten until five, evening 12 0
Ditto, ditto, until twelve at night 17 0
Ditto, from six in the evening until twelve at night 12 0
Pair of Horses to Gentlemen’s Carriages, same rates.

Resolved—That the sum of Ten Pence, [Pg 43]demanded by Messengers sent to us for Carriages, be discontinued.

Resolved—That we will not hire or employ any Coachman who has not a written recommendation from his last employer to produce.

Resolved—That the foregoing List of Prices, together with the Resolutions, be published in The Dublin Evening Mail, &c.

[Pg 44]



We think that it is quite as Cheap, and are sure it is by far the most Comfortable plan, to Job Horses:—if one of them falls sick or lame, the Hackneyman immediately furnishes you with another—and you avoid a vast deal of Inconvenience and Anxiety. This begins to be so generally understood now, that not only Coach, but Cart and Waggon Horses are Jobbed by the Year,—and Carts and Waggons also.

To Job Horses, is particularly recommended to persons who are ambitious of having an elegant Equipage;—a pair of fine Horses that match exactly are always expensive to purchase; and if one of them dies, it is sometimes, to a private Gentleman, extremely difficult to find a fellow to it.

Horses cannot work equally, nor at ease to[Pg 45] themselves, if they are not nearly of the same Size, of the same Temper, and of the same Strength, and have the same Pace, and Step well together.

A Hackneyman or Horsedealer, who is in an extensive way of business, has so many opportunities of seeing Horses, that he can match a Horse with much less Expense, and more exactly, than any Gentleman or any Groom may hope to do: therefore, those who are particular about the match of their Horses, will find it not merely more expensive, but much more troublesome, to Buy than it is to Job.

Job Masters, in general, Sell, as well as Let Horses;—therefore, stipulate in your Agreement, that you shall, be supplied with various Horses till you are suited to your satisfaction; and then, that neither of them shall be changed without your consent:—for this, a Hackneyman may demand, and deserves, a little larger price; but it is Money paid for the purchase of Comfort,—is the only way to be well served, and prevents all disputes. If you do not make such an Agreement, and your Hackneyman happens to be offered a good price for one of your Horses, he may take it; and Your’s, like many other Carriages[Pg 46] in London, will be little better than a Break:—nothing is more disagreeable, nay, dangerous, than to be continually drawn by strange Horses.

While the Job is travelling in the Country, the Hackneyman is allowed what is called Night, or Hay Money, i. e. an addition of 1s. 6d. per Night for each Horse, every Night the Horses are out.

This is considered as a compensation for the increased price charged for Corn at Inns, which is much more than it costs the Hackneyman at Home.

Mem.Make some previous agreement in Writing about all these things.

Some people who wish their Horses to be in high condition, yet desire to avoid all Risk and Trouble, &c. hire Horses, and find them in Corn, &c. themselves. A good Pair of Horses, without keep, are charged about £70. per Annum.

The Old Proverb tells us, that “The Eye8 of the Master makes the Horse Fat.

[Pg 47]

“The next care a man should take, after he has found a Horse to his mind, and purchased him, should be to provide a Stable so situated, with respect to his house, that he may see him very frequently, and to have his Stall so contrived, that it may be as difficult a task to steal his Horse’s provender out of the Manger, as to take his own victuals out of the Larder.”—From Zenophon’s Treatise on Horsemanship, translated in Berenger’s Entertaining and Instructive Book upon Horsemanship, 4to. 1771. p. 231.

If you have valuable Nags, do not think it time lost, occasionally to visit the Stable, and see that they are comfortably taken care of, have their proper allowance of Corn, and are well bedded, &c., and see that the Corn be not brewed.—A smart Son of the Whip says, that “some Hostlers are so clever, that they can turn Oats into Ale.”

The Word Hostler, I find in the most learned Lexicon in our Language, which explains some [Pg 48]thousands of words more than Johnson, is written Oat-stealer—which this learned lexicographer says it must be allowed appears to be the true word.

The Dictionary above alluded to is a very deep work:—instead of its containing more words by thousands than are in Johnson,—Johnson does not give us ten words that are in it—nor does it contain much above ten words that are in Johnson: this admirable and elegant Dictionary is entitled “A Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue, by F. Grose, Esq., F.R.S. &c.”

Some people fancy that they have made a capital Bargain, by stipulating that the Hackneyman shall let their Carriage and Horses stand in his Livery Yard, and so save part of the charge of a private Coach-house and Stable:—if Hackneymen have plenty of Room, they have sometimes no objection to this; however, you must take into the reckoning, that your Carriage, while standing in an open Coach-house, and even while being cleaned in a Public Yard, is unavoidably exposed to continual danger from being carelessly run against by other Carriages passing [Pg 49]to and fro: moreover, it is often injured by the dirty Mops and Cloths, and by the careless manner in which it is cleaned. If you wish your Carriage to be turned out in nice condition, you must have your own Coach-house and Stable; it is much more advisable, not only for your own Advantage, but for the Comfort of your Coachman, which you will consider also, if you expect him to consider your Interest.

It is extremely desirable to have Stables, &c. adjoining your House; because a Coachman, when your Carriage is not wanted, has many spare hours in which he may be very useful in carrying Messages, &c.

[Pg 50]



A Chariot built with the very best Materials and of the best Workmanship,—the Body made with convex sides, lined with fine cloth and silk lace, and lace Footman’s holders, Morocco head Cushions and Squabs, colour of Lace Cloth and Morocco, &c. to choice: handsome Venetian Blinds, best lute-string Spring Curtains, double folding steps trimmed with black Spanish Leather, lined with Cloth, and concealed in Doors; best Brussels Carpet to the bottom of Body, and Steps and Oak seat box.

The Body hung on a Carriage with compass perch, best Town-made Springs and Iron work; the Wood work of Carriage beaded and carved; Axle-trees turned and case hardened with solid pipe boxes; Wheels with the best seasoned [Pg 51]Ash felleys, and Patent hoop-tire rivetted: Barouche Dickey Coach Box set on a Boot and attached to the Carriage by handsome Iron Work, and made to take off in case of travelling; trimmed with the best patent Leather borders, and lined with Cloth; large splashing Iron in front of Body, covered with double patent leather; Mail Lamps; brass moulding to Body; Swage Door handles; the Body, Carriage, and Wheels painted to fancy; Arms painted in ornamented shields on Doors; and the best plate Glasses to Windows; the whole made of the best materials, and finished in the most complete manner,

£. s. d.
240 0 0
If the following Extras are required:—
Handsome C springs with carved blocks, stays, &c. &c. 10 0 0
Handsome carved hind Standards 10 0 0
Under-Springs 25 0 0
Collinge’s Patent Axle-trees 20 0 0
New Pair of very Handsome Harness, with Patent Leather Water decks complete 36 15 0
341 15 0

The Coachmaker will keep the above Carriage [Pg 52]and Harness in Repair, and find Wheels, &c. for four Years, for £10. per Annum: this, at the end of that time, would make its expense £381. 15s., and it might then be worth about £100.; so that if you purchase, it will cost at least £70. per Annum, besides the Interest of the Money advanced: moreover, you will have more than common luck, if you get £100. for it at the end of Four Years.

If such a Chariot, with its appendages and Harness, as explained in the above Estimate, be taken on a Job, (the longer the period you hire it for, the less will be the annual charge,) for Four Years, the charge is about £84. per Annum. It is not advisable to agree to take a Carriage for a longer period than it will look well without being repainted, &c. After three or four Years, Carriages that are in continual use require to go into Dock for a thorough repair.

A Landaulett or a Landau is charged £10. per Annum more.

A Landau is a Carriage in the form of a Coach, the upper part of which may be opened for the advantage of air and prospect in [Pg 53]Summer time, and is principally intended for Country use, and is the most convenient Carriage of any, as so many persons may be accommodated with the pleasure of an Open and a Close Carriage in one, without the care of Driving, as in other Open Carriages, or the expense and incumbrance of keeping Two.

A Landau or Landaulett is not only more expensive to build, but more troublesome to keep nicely clean; and its Leather Roof much sooner wears shabby, than the Japanned Roof of a Coach or Chariot.

Nota Bene. It is customary for the Builder to warrant his Work for the first Twelvemonths, and to undertake to make good all failures happening within that time, which arise from the Timber or Iron work’s breaking, but not those decays which necessarily follow from reasonable use and wear, or damages by Accident. However, to prevent all Misunderstanding, insert the following lines in your Contract for Building:—also, that “after the Carriage has been out about two or three months, and the Varnish has got thoroughly[Pg 54] dry, the Builder shall Polish it free of further expense.” This process can be performed much better after a few months have elapsed, than it can when the carriage first comes out, as the Varnish is not then sufficiently hardened.—See Cautions on Building Carriages, at p. 65 et seq. of this Work.


Is the most convenient and cheapest way of proceeding.

Carriages are usually hired for such a time as they may be expected to last in Fashion, that is for about four or five years.

A One Horse Chaise with Two Wheels may be jobbed for £20. to £40. per Annum.

A Four Wheel Chaise from £30. to £50.

The present charge for the hire of a Coach or Chariot, (see Estimate No. IX.), Landau or Landaulett, and Harness, per Annum, is from £60. to £100. One year of which is paid in advance.

Coachmakers will build a New Carriage for this purpose, and finish it to your own fancy; [Pg 55]exactly the same as if you were to purchase it, and will paint it at the end of two or three years, if you hire it for a longer period.

Persons who constantly require the use of a Carriage will do wisely to Hire, and not for a longer period than Three or Four Years. The frequent Repairs which are constantly wanting to Older Carriages, occasion many Inconveniences, although the expenses of them are avoided by Hiring.

Carriages are never better built than those which are made expressly to be let on a Job. A Coachmaker takes care to choose materials and workmen of the best kind for his own sake, to avoid those subsequent charges, which, as has been observed before, constitute the evil of inferior Carriages.

Mem. In the Agreement for Hiring, stipulate for the option of purchasing the Carriage at the end of the First Year, at a certain Sum, i. e. if the original price was £300., and you paid £80. per Annum, for £220. After a Year’s wear, you will be able to see pretty clearly what kind of a Carriage you have got, and whether it is worth purchasing.

[Pg 56]

Harness is usually engaged with the Carriage, which is kept in Wheels and all Repairs, excepting those which are required from Accidents.

When Carriages are let by the Year, the following engagement is usually entered into by the contracting Parties:—


Articles of Agreement made and entered into this 13th Day of April, 1826, between A. B., Gent., of in the county of on the one part, and C. D., Coachmaker, of in the county of on the other; and this certifies that the said C. D. doth agree to build, and preserve in good and substantial repair, a Carriage with Harness for the use of the said A. B. until the full expiration of Four Years, from the date hereof, after the following manner:—(here is to be inserted the manner in which the Carriage is to be built, see Estimate No. IX., with all the particulars of keeping the same in repair, the time of New Painting, New Green silk Blinds, Hammerclothing, &c.):—to furnish New [Pg 57]Wheels when the said A. B. desires them, and to supply him with a good Chariot while this is repairing—and that A. B. shall have the option of purchasing the said Carriage and Harness at the end of the first Year for the sum of .

In consideration whereof the said A. B. doth agree to pay, or cause to be paid, to the said C. D. the sum of annually; the First Year’s payment on the receipt of the said Carriage and Harness, the Second on the commencement of the Second Year, and each Year’s hire to be paid in advance; and at the expiration of the Four Years, the said Carriage with Harness to be returned to the said C. D. with Glasses whole, and every part of the said Carriage and Harness complete and whole, excepting such deficiencies as may be expected from reasonable use and wear, provided always, and on condition, that if the said A. B. shall, during the said term of four Years, pay the said C. D. the sum of thirty Guineas, and give up the said Chariot and Harness complete, then this Agreement shall be void, any thing to the contrary notwithstanding.

[Pg 58]

In witness hereof, each party hath set their hands and Seals this day of

A. B.
C. D.
Witness, F. G.

This agreement must be on a Stamp, or Stamped within fourteen days; or if a question arise, and it should come into Court, the Stamping then would cost £20.

[Pg 59]


The Art of Coachmaking within these last Thirty Years, has been improved greatly in Beauty, Strength, and Convenience; and a Carriage is now considered as a distinguishing mark of the taste of its Proprietor.

There are few works of Art which require the aid of so many different Artists as the constructing of a Carriage; there are Wheel-wrights,—Spring,—Axle-tree,—Step,—and Tire,—Black and White Smiths,—Brass Founders,—Engravers,—Painters,—Carvers,—Carpenters,—Joiners,—Trimmers,—Lace Makers,—Lamp Makers,—Curriers,—Collar Makers,—Harness Makers, &c. &c.; and upon the quality of the Materials, and the capacity of these Workmen to execute their respective parts in a perfect manner, and upon the taste and skill of the Coachmaker in combining them, depends the Beauty and the Durability of the Carriage.

[Pg 60]


The best time to bring out a New Carriage, is about April or May, before the extreme heat comes on; moreover, the Taxes are reckoned from one 5th of April to another: and if you enter a Carriage on the 5th of March, you will have to pay for a whole Year, for only one Month’s use of it.

If you have any thing peculiar about a Carriage, it will require much more time in building, than if you are contented with merely ordering “a fashionable Vehicle.” In the former case, do not hope to get it under Three, nor be surprised if you wait Four Months for it.

However, if you have no particular desire to be disappointed, summon to your assistance the aid of those powerful refreshers of a perfunctory Memory, the Goose, the Calf, and the Bee;9 i. e. take Mr. Jervis’s advice, and bind the Builder in a written contract, made by your Attorney, and duly Stamped, Signed, [Pg 61]Sealed, and Witnessed, &c., to deliver the Carriage, Harness, &c. completely finished on a certain day—or that he shall forfeit, and that day shall pay to You, One Hundred Pounds, and keep his Carriage himself.

Be careful that your Contract contains a full and very particular description of every part; for

Mem.—If you order the least Alteration or Addition afterwards, it will be charged Extra, unless you discreetly insert a sweeping clause, that the Whole shall be completed to your entire satisfaction, for the Money, and at the Time agreed upon.

An Honest Man will have no more objection to sign a written Agreement than to make a Verbal Promise, and a Prudent Man will never take the latter when he can get the former:—the Expense of a written Agreement is Money expended in preventing Anxiety, which is like sacrificing a Pebble to preserve a Diamond:—those who wish to avoid disappointments and litigation, will not stir one step without a Written Agreement—’tis a pretty bit of Paper, that makes men Honest, and keeps them so.

After you have settled what is to be the price of the New [Pg 62]Carriage—then, before you sign the Agreement respecting it, make your Bargain as to what Sum the Builder shall allow you for your Old One, provided you do not previously otherwise dispose of it.

The Money allowed for an Old Carriage, is less than a Novice will expect. I sold one Chariot, which I had in use only Five years, for only £15., nor could I get more for it, although I kept it for several Weeks.

I sold another Chariot, which had been in wear about the same time, for £30.,—and it is not often that a Builder will allow much more for a Carriage that has been in use for five or six Years:—by that time, the shape of the Body is out of Fashion, the Lining is shabby, and before it can be sold again to a particular person, it must be thoroughly repaired, which will cost a considerable Sum.

The following is an Estimate which was given to the Gentleman who bought my last Chariot.


£. s. d.
And putting in all New wood work, neatly carved—fresh fitting, filing, and fixing the old Iron Work with new bolts—taking the[Pg 63] Springs to pieces—fresh fitting the plates, and re-fixing Springs with new rivets and bolts—altering the Iron work of the Barouche seat—putting a New Foot-board and fresh hanging it and the Body 26 0 0
Handsome new Patent Lamps 2 8 0
Repairing braces, pole-pieces, &c., new covering roller, bolts, and pole with New Leather 1 14 0
Altering and re-fixing the frame of Dash Iron, and covering it with New Leather 4 12 0
Covering the whole of the inside with new cotton false lining 5 10 0
New Carpets to the Bottom and the Steps 1 8 0
New Plating the Commode Handles and rivetting the Door Handles 1 6 0
New pair of Web Holders 0 14 0
New Painting the Body of a Chariot 14 0 0
New Wheels 15 0 0
New Lining 35 0 0
Fresh Stringing and Painting Blinds 1 15 0
New covering Glass Frames 1 15 0
New Silk to Green Curtains 1 5 0
Under-Springs 25 0 0
137 7 0

Now, if the Body had not been a beautiful piece of Work, it would not have been worth [Pg 64]while to have bestowed this large sum in renewing the Carriage part: but the whole of the exterior of the Old Body, although it had been built some Years, was more sound and unwarped, than most new Bodies are on the first day they are turned out; it was elegantly formed, and the Interior so admirably constructed for Comfort, that from it I learned the dimensions, &c. which I have given in the following description of what I think a Chariot ought to be.

Coachmakers sometimes shew Drawings of Carriages for their Customers to choose from,—it is more satisfactory, not only to see, but to take a ride in a pattern Carriage; this your Coachmaker can take you to see, or, if you see a Carriage which pleases your Eye, your Coachman can easily learn where it is put up; go with your Coachmaker and see it, and have a written Particular of all its peculiarities, an exact Measurement of its dimensions, and an Estimate in Writing of the cost thereof, similar to the one given in Chap. I. Estimate No. 9.

[Pg 65]


The Novice in these things may think that the following description is unnecessarily minute, and that he need only go to a Coachmaker and order “a Chariot,” and that Word will procure him all he wishes.

The form of Carriages is as absurdly at the mercy of Fashion, as the Cut of a Coat is;—however, if the Reader is willing to let the Builder please himself with the form of the Exterior, he will perhaps not be quite so polite as to submit the construction of the Interior entirely to the caprice of his Coachmaker.—If “as easy as an old Coat” be a true Aphorism, “as easy as an Old Carriage” is equally so:—by riding three or four Years in one, you become so used to it, that any change is extremely unpleasant—and if the Elbows or the Seat are too high, or too low, or too narrow, or too wide, &c. when the Body is built, it is always difficult, and [Pg 66]often impossible, to alter it; therefore, if you like your Old Body, measure it, and order your New one accordingly.

If you build a Body, pay a visit to your Coachmaker while it is in progress, especially just before it is put into the hands of the Painter.

All Coachmakers, do not, always, go to the expense of covering the Roof, Back, and Sides with one piece of Leather, as they ought to do;—the common practice is to cover the Roof only with Leather, and leave the Upper sides and back of pannel board, with a groove run in the Roof where the Leather is nailed in covering the nails and filling up the groove with Putty, which the Summer’s Sun and Winter’s Rain will soon crack, and the Water entering will soil the Lining, and the Inside of the Body will become damp:—the whole of the upper part of a Body should be enveloped in one large hide of strong Leather, and neatly worked in, so that it is one solid surface of Leather to paint on, which neither Heat nor Wet can affect for many Years.

[Pg 67]

The Breadth of a Body, to contain three persons comfortably, should not be less than 4 feet 3 inches.

From Back to Front, 4 feet are enough.

The Height of the Seat from the bottom, about 1 foot.

From the Seat to the Roof, not less than 3 feet 6 inches; the Cushions, which are commonly about three inches in thickness, not included.

A few Inches in Width and Breadth add but a few Pounds to the Weight, but contribute greatly to the Convenience of a Carriage, especially to well-grown and full-fed persons.

The little thoroughly-ugly humpty-dumpty Chariot, which looked something like a Champion Potatoe set on wheels, but which was the grand rage with Children of the Largest Growth about 30 Years ago, would not admit a small person to sit with his hat on, nor a tall one with his Hat off:—these foolish little wee Vehicles weighed only a few pounds less than the large commodious Chariots, in which the Lords and Ladies of the Creation transport themselves in at the present day.

The Elbows should not be more than 6 inches[Pg 68] above the Cushion, and should be so entirely in recess, that you may lean comfortably against the side of the Carriage:—in some ill-contrived modern bodies, they are placed too high, and project out, and as often as you loll towards them, remind you that you should not, and force you back into your perpendicular, by giving you a Punch in your Side.

In a Chariot Body of the size just described, there should be a Front Seat about 10 inches in width, which will occasionally carry Two persons:—this addition is especially desirable in a Travelling Chariot, as by sitting in one corner of the Carriage, you may put your Legs upon it, and take a Nap very comfortably. This Front Seat is doubly better than the old fashioned Bodkin Seat which drew out from the centre; and when you have Two fellow Travellers, in order to induce one of them to sit upon this accommodation seat, you may tell them that they will sit three times as comfortably there as on the front seat; for if they sit on that, they will be crowded themselves, and crowd two other persons also; but if one sits on the other seat, all may ride [Pg 69]comfortably enough:—it should be fixed on with Slip-Hinges, so that it may be taken off at pleasure.

The Door Lights or Windows are sometimes contracted on the Seat side about 4 inches; however, some people like them as large as possible, and besides, have the back of the Carriage stuffed eight or ten inches deep, which is exceedingly convenient for those who are anxious to exhibit themselves like Articles for sale in a Shew Glass.

Take care that the Glasses are of the best Quality, well Polished, White, and as free as possible from Specs and Veins.

These Glasses are commonly bound with Cloth of the same Colour that the Carriage is lined with, or with Black Velvet, which wears better, and works in the grooves more pleasantly than any binding:—the most elegant binding is Lace like that of the Glass-holders, or in which the Crest or Arms are woven.

The present fashion of Stuffing is preposterous; it reduces a Large Body to the size of a small One: however, if you like to ride about for the benefit of public inspection, as your friends, my [Pg 70]Lady Look-about,—the Widow Will-be-seen,—and Sir Simon Stare, do, pray study Geoffrey Gambado on the Art of sitting politely in Carriages with the most becoming attitudes, &c. and choose wide Door Lights and full Squabbing;—if you wish to go about peaceably and quietly, like Sir Solomon Snug, and are contented with seeing without being seen, adopt the contracted Lights and common Stuffing, which, among others, have this great advantage, that when you sit back, you may have the side Windows down, and a thorough Air passing through the Carriage, without its blowing in directly upon you: this, to Invalids who easily catch Cold, is very important.

The Back Light must not be more than 27 inches from the surface of the Cushions, or it will be too high for a person to look through it without rising up—it is convenient to have this made to Open, as it affords an easy opportunity of giving directions to the person behind the Carriage, and is a desirable aperture for admitting Air in very hot weather:—tell the Builder to give you a fine clear plate for this purpose, and not to glaze it with a [Pg 71]semidiaphanous “Old Accident,”—a technical term for those “Odds and Ends” of broken Coach Glasses which are sometimes used for this purpose, and which having been continually cleaned every day for thirty or forty years, have become so scratched, that you can hardly see through them.

I recommend the Lining to be Green, with Lace to correspond, and the Green silk Sun shades of the same Colour—Green is pleasant to the Eye, and Superfine Cloth or Tabinet, is, during nine months out of the twelve, much more comfortable in this Cold climate, than the chilling Leather which has lately been the fashion: in Summer this may be covered with what is commonly called a False Lining, which is generally made of Gingham, and is equally useful to preserve a New or hide an Old Trimming:—it should only be applied to the back and those parts of the sides that are leaned against; the Front, Roof, and Doors, should be left uncovered.

The Elegance of the Interior of a Carriage depends much upon the pattern and breadth of the Lace with which the Lining is bordered, [Pg 72]of which there are a great variety.—Lace-making is a distinct branch of Manufactory; and as “every Eye makes its own Beauty,” the person who builds a Carriage should desire his Coachmaker to furnish him with some patterns to choose from:—there are several Coach Lace-makers in Long Acre.

Some Carriages are fitted up with Squabs, i. e. Cushions stuffed with Wool and covered on one side with Cloth, and on the other with Silk, Linen, or Leather; the former side for Winter, the latter for Summer use.

The Seat Cushions should be covered on one side with Leather, and on the other with Cloth.

Let the Stuffing at the Back be no thicker than necessary to make it easy, i. e. about 2½ inches in thickness.

Have the Lid of the Sword Case to fall down with the back attached, instead of lifting up, being much easier to put in a parcel without troubling the passengers to rise.

The Seats, which are usually boarded, I would recommend to be, on one side, Caned or Girt-webbed, for ease in Sitting—the other half may be fitted up with a Case for containing Grog and Prog, &c. for a [Pg 73]Rusticating Party:—they should be about 22 inches deep—not more, or Short people cannot sit upon them comfortably:—they will be much easier if made on a bevil, and about an inch lower behind than they are before: if not originally so constructed, the stuffing of the Cushions may be easily adjusted so as to produce that effect.

The Green Silk Spring Sun Shades should be fixed upon the Doors; this saves the trouble of putting them up every time you open the Door, which must be done when they are fixed to the Body;—if the Blinds are fixed on the Door, take care to shut it when you get out of the Carriage in Wet Weather, or they will be spoiled:—when the Silk becomes faded, if it is turned upside down, the part most in sight will look almost as well as new.

If the Ground Colour of the Body is good, New Varnishing will sometimes do almost as well as New Painting.

I am told that the best Colour for Wear is Midgley’s Chrome Yellow. In consequence of the vivid brilliancy of this pigment, in all the variety of its shades, from the pale Lemon [Pg 74]colour to the full Orange, it has of late come into general use. When properly prepared, it possesses all the desiderata of perfect Colours, Smoothness, Body, Extensibility, and ready Mixture with Oil or Water, and dries well and blends well.

Venetian Blinds are delightful shades in warm Weather, as they admit the Air while they exclude the Sun; and when closed, serve as a shutter to prevent dust from soiling the Carriage while it is standing by. They should be painted on the Inside, of a Verdigrise Green, and on the Outside of the same Colour as the Carriage.

If these are not made of extremely well-seasoned Wood, they rattle very much in Dry, and swell in Damp weather.

These Blinds should have Bolts affixed to them, which, when fastened within, if you have Locks on the Carriage Doors, enable you to fasten up the interior of your Carriage completely.

There is a great deal of Rain falls during the warmest months in this Country, and our Chariots very much want an Exterior Blind (a [Pg 75]Hood as it were) in the front, which would exclude Rain, while it would admit Air:—many of our Wet days are so warm, that our Carriages are a shower Bath if the Windows are open, and a Vapour Bath if they are Shut!

The Handle of the Door Latch should be double—that is, it should have an additional Handle within side, the position of which will afford you the satisfaction of seeing that the Door is properly fastened, and also the power of easily opening it in case of an Accident, &c.

It is a very great convenience to have the power of opening the Door from the inside. This Handle should be made to turn towards the Door, so as to be within the Door when the Door is opened, it will then be out of the way of being struck against the Body in shutting; which, if it turns to the Right, will sometimes happen when the Door is shut by perfunctorious persons.

The spindles of these Handles during the first Year, till time has worn them a little, will occasionally move too stiffly: the remedy for this is a drop of Oil.

Never permit officious Strangers to shut [Pg 76]your Carriage Door; in order to save their own time and trouble, and to accomplish this at once, some idle and ignorant people will bang it so furiously, one almost fancies that they are trying to upset the Carriage, the pannels of which are frequently injured by such rude violence; therefore, desire your Coachman to be on the watch, and the moment he sees any one prepare to touch your Door, to say loudly and imperatively “Don’t meddle with the Door!

Have Locks to the Doors—they are very necessary when travelling, or when your Carriage is waiting for you at Night: a Latch inside that will fasten the Door so that it cannot be opened on the outside, is also desirable, especially in Travelling Chariots.

In Landaulets the door opening without the window frame, particular directions to the Footman are necessary that he observe the Glass is entirely down before he attempts to open the Door, or the pane will be infallibly broken. When the glass is quite up there is no danger, for in rising it releases a Spring which fastens the Door; the blind does the [Pg 77]same; so that if the Servant keep the blinds up while the Carriage is waiting, a lock may be dispensed with. I would recommend the addition of this contrivance to Coaches and Chariots.

A Town Carriage should not be more than three feet from the Ground, so as to require only One Step; to which should be fixed a Strap, by which any person within the Carriage may very easily pull it up, and with the help of the Inside Handle, may, with equal facility, finish the Footman’s Work, and fasten the Door.

The above is an invaluable contrivance, and well deserves to be called “a Dumb Footman;” it entirely prevents the necessity of the Coachman’s leaving his Box; from which rash act, many lives have been lost, and many Carriages destroyed by the Horses running away10:—All [Pg 78]will adopt it, excepting those persons who are so unfortunate, as to be more Proud than Prudent. Mr. Jervis was extremely earnest in recommending these excellent appendages; and to impress the importance of them upon the imagination of the Editor as strongly as possible, he closed his arguments by averring, that for a Coachman to leave his Reins would be as desperate an act of rashness as for a Cook to leave her Kitchen while her Spit was going round, and equally likely to produce the most tremendous and irreparable Evils!

If such a plan be adopted, the Body must not be hung further than twenty-two inches from the Dickey, i. e. near enough to the Coach Box to allow the Coachman to put his hand on the top of the Door when it is opened, and hold it so while the Passengers get in and[Pg 79] out. Till the Hinges are worn a little, they will occasionally get rusty and move too stiffly, and require a little Oil.

The present fashionable Door Handle is too big by half, and is also extremely inconvenient on account of the Hinge in it, which requires an additional action, which in the course of a little wear becomes ricketty and rattles, and you can hardly tell to a certainty whether it fastens the Door completely or not.

The simple Handle without a Hinge, which was in vogue some years ago, is infinitely more convenient and safe, because its single action is more certain.

The Crest or Arms in the Centre, is an elegant ornament for the Head of the Handle.

A Boot or Budget fixed on the fore Carriage between the front Springs is useful to carry Horse Cloths, Luggage, &c.

Hind Standards are very useful for town work, to keep the Horses and Pole of other Carriages from injuring your Hind Pannels; but as they are a heavy weight, they should be made to take off for the country.

A Dickey Coach Box is the most convenient;[Pg 80] it is less impediment to the view of those who are inside the Carriage, and more comfortable to the Coachman. They should be fixed on the Boot, and entirely detached from the Body. Let it be large enough to contain Two persons. It is not quite so easy as the Body; but for those who love Air and Exercise, and a view of the Country, it is in Summer the pleasantest place.

The Seat thereof to hold Two persons, should be thirty Inches wide and twenty Inches deep, inside measurement. The Cushion should be of equal thickness, and not higher on the Driving side, as it is in a Gig, because when only the Coachman is on the Box, he should sit in the middle of it. There should be a Pocket on each side in the lining, for putting Tickets in.

This kind of Coach Box may be so made as to take off, and fix on behind the Carriage. Under the Seat, for the Coachman, should drop in a Box to serve as a Tool Budget, and contain a few spare Bolts, Nuts, Linch-Pins, Nails, a Wrench, a Winch that will fit your axle, Hammer, Chisel, a Pair of Pincers, &c.; [Pg 81]by help of which, a trifling accident on the Road may be remedied without delay.

Take care that your Coach Box is strongly and properly fixed on, and frequently examine the state of the Bolts and Nuts, &c. For want of sufficient strength, or of the efficient state of the supports to it, many dreadful accidents have happened; one of which we relate as a warning:—

“On Tuesday morning last, while the Coachman and the Footman, in the service of F. P. Ripley, Esq., 12, Woburn Place, Russell Square, were driving their Master’s carriage along Tavistock Place, Tavistock Square, the box on which they were sitting broke down, and precipitated them to the ground. The carriage wheels passed over the right leg of the Coachman and the left breast of the Footman. They were conveyed to their master’s with the greatest alacrity, where they received such treatment as their situations required. The coachman’s leg is bruised and lacerated extremely. The footman, on being raised from the ground, was excessively convulsed. We [Pg 82]are sorry to add there are no hopes of his recovery.”—Times, June 2, 1826.

Spikes to fix on the Hind Standards.

These spikes may be so contrived as to be put on and off very easily, with Three Nuts, in as few minutes;—the Footman’s Step should be fixed on in the same manner.

Do not permit Strangers to place themselves behind your Carriage at any time, or under any pretence whatever. There are innumerable instances of Carriages having been disabled from proceeding, and Travellers robbed and finished, by allowing such accommodation. The Collectors of Check Braces, and Footmen’s Holders, assume all kind of Characters, and are so expert, that they will take these articles off in half the time that your Coachman can put them on; and will rob you of what you cannot replace for a Pound, though they cannot sell them for a Shilling.

Therefore, Spikes are indispensable when you have not a Footman; otherwise, you will be perpetually loaded with idle people, i. e. unless [Pg 83]you think that two or three outside passengers are ornamental or convenient, or you like to have your Carriage continually surrounded by Crowds of Children, incessantly screaming, “Cut! Cut behind!” Why do not the Street Keepers prevent this Nuisance? These officers should be stationed in Sentry Boxes, as they are in the Parish of Bloomsbury, i. e. the same as the Watchmen are at Night; where, when not going their Rounds, they should remain.

The multitude of Strayed Dogs which are perpetually prowling and howling, and barking and biting at Horses’ heels, and making them start, and those which are carried about in Carts, also frequently frighten Horses and occasion Accidents, and are barbarous and dangerous Public Nuisances, which “the Street Keepers” should suppress.

Let it be enacted—that all Dogs, Fowls, and any other Beasts and Birds, found in the Streets, not having a Collar on, on which is engraven the Name and place of abode of the Owner thereof, shall henceforth be seizeable by any Constable, or Street Keeper, or Watchman, or any person who finds them; which[Pg 84] they shall have power to dispose of as their own property; and those with a Collar also, unless their owners immediately pay a fine of five shillings; one moiety of which shall be to the person finding them, the other to the Poor of the Parish. For want of such salutary Regulations, some of the Streets of London are like a Dog Kennel or a Poultry Yard.

These Beasts and Birds are seldom kept except by petty Housekeepers, who are perpetually applying to be excused paying Taxes. Surely such persons should not be permitted to annoy their neighbours, who by duly paying Parish rates, in fact, contribute to their maintenance.

Dogs out of Doors are horribly noisy, especially on Moon-light Nights, when they will turn up their Noses, and

“Bay the Moon with hideous howl,”

for an hour together. They seldom give Tongue when inside of a House, except when shut in by themselves in an Empty house. There are certain Manufacturers who having more cunning than conscience, to evade paying [Pg 85]the Taxes upon their Warehouse, instead of letting somebody sleep in it, which would subject them to the Taxes, turn in a Dog as a Watchman, who barks and howls incessantly all night long. Surely such shirking Gentry are not entitled to the privilege of annoying a score or two of quiet Neighbours, who honestly pay the Taxes imposed by their Country! They and their Cur-Watchman should be indicted and amerced sans cérémonie.

Fowls, Parrots, Dogs, or any other of those Beasts or Birds, which (because they make most Noise) are vulgarly called Dumb Animals, bleating, barking, bellowing, in the Front Area or back Garden of a House, &c. are an offence against the Public Peace—are an Indictable Nuisance; and on the complaint of a Neighbouring Housekeeper, are as cognizable by Constables, Street Keepers, Watchmen, &c. surely as justly as the Owners of such Animals would be, were they to hoot and bellow there,—for which they would, in the first instance, be taken to a Watchhouse, and in the second Indicted and fined or sent to the Tread Mill.

[Pg 86]

Qy. What difference does it make whether the Peace is broken, and Sleep destroyed, by an “Animal plumis, vel implumis et bipes,” i. e. whether it wears ready-made Clothes, or employs a Tailor? Surely it will not be allowed in this Age of Refinement, that the former is entitled to more consideration than the latter.

They manage these things better in France. All Dogs, Fowls, &c. found in the Streets of Paris, are finished forthwith by the Gens d’Armes.

It cannot be too generally known, that by The Metropolis Street Act of the 57th Geo. III. cap. 24. in § 67. “The Commissioners of the Parochial Paving Boards are empowered to order the removal of any matter or thing which they consider a Nuisance, on the complaint of any Inhabitant.”

Such controlling power is but too needful—there is no lack of people who love their dearDumb Animals,” as they call their Dogs and Parrots, &c. not a little better than they do their Neighbours,—aye, who love them as well as Simon Suck-eggs does his Fowls! who [Pg 87]would not willingly sacrifice the penny profit he makes by the oviparous faculty of his Poultry, however much, or however many people may be annoyed by it.

If Persons who are offended by any of the above nuisances, apply to the Clerk of the Commissioners of the Paving, and beg him to lay their complaint before the Board, they will issue a mandate ordering their immediate abatement as a Public Nuisance: and thus, the evil is removed, without any of that unpleasant feeling which might arise from one Neighbour complaining of another.

The Author is now framing “a Sleep Act,” which will shew the importance of Sleep to Health, the causes which so often and so cruelly disturb “the Business of the Night,” on the due performance of which, depends our power of performing “the Business of the Day,” and the remedies which the Legislature may easily apply for its preservation. One of their most beneficial acts would be to abolish a

Vulgar and Barbarous Custom which prevails among common Workmen, when they first come to work in the Morning, to make as much Noise as they possibly can; thus, if you[Pg 88] live near any Manufactory, &c., or if a house is building or repairing near you—from Six in the Morning till half-past, they will raise such a horrible din of Hammering, &c. that all within Ear shot of them are presently awoke; and indeed they seem to do it for that sole purpose, for the following hours they are often quiet enough.

Those who are so outrageously active so early in the day are technically termed Powters, i. e. such extraordinary industry being very often a mere manœuvre to deceive their Neighbours, which they artfully affect to gain Credit, and which, like setting up a shewy Shop Front, is one of the usual tokens of approaching Bankruptcy.

Let it be enacted, that all Manufacturers do perform the Noisy part of their processes during the middle of the Day:—this might be easily managed in most trades without any interruption of their business! What can be easier, than for the work which makes such a Noise during the first half hour in the Morning to be done in the last half hour in the Evening?

Let the Dog Tax be levied without exception,[Pg 89] (but as far as regards only those which lead Blind Men,) and let due Rewards be given to those who inform against persons who evade it, of whom there are not a few, the only way of preventing which is to Let all Dogs wear a Collar, on which is engraved the Name and the place of Abode of the Owner;—He who by Fraud avoids a Tax, which by the Laws of his Country he is commanded to pay, is a Traitor, who commits a greater Crime, and deserves as great a Punishment, as he who, by Force, breaks into the Treasury, and takes so much Money out!!!

It is notorious, that the majority of these useless and offensive Animals are maintained by paupers who have hardly the means of maintaining Themselves!—these are the Dogs which, from spare and bad food, are most frequently mischievous—most apt to run Mad—and are most annoying and disturbing to the Public. “As many Beggars, as many Dogs,” is one of our true Old Sayings, and of an Old Song, to which in the next page we have had engraved as it was performed by “Betsy, Billy, and Bow Wow.”

[Pg 90]

When the Author first learned the Song between this and the next page, which is now nearly half a Century ago, he was a good deal surprised at the last line of it, and thought that it savoured more of Rhyme than of Reason, notwithstanding his Grandma’ told him that “Time the Teacher” would soon shew him, that Opulence and Independence, and Wit and Wisdom, are not always inseparable;—that he would frequently find Integrity dwelling with Poverty, “in Tags and Rags;”—as often meet with Nobleness of Mind among the Humble in Fortune, as with those who are by courtesy called Noble, and who are Poor enough in principle, who wear a Velvet Gown.

The fact is, that the Poor are, very naturally, as fond of flattery as the Rich:—now nothing in nature Flatters more fascinatingly than the Eye of a Dog! If his master speak to him in any tone lower than that of Anger, his Eye is ever ready to ogle obsequious Approbation:—and if he scold him, the rudest expression it ever offers is seeming to say, with the most subtle submission, “As you are Great! be Merciful!”

as performed by

Engraved on Copper, by Sidy. Hall, Bury Strt. Bloomsby.

Hark, how the Dogs bark! how the Dogs bark!
How the Dogs bark!
Then the Beggars are coming, the Beggars are coming,
the Beggars are coming to Town,
There’s some in Tags, some in Rags,
some in Rags, some in Tags,
And there’s some in a VELVET Gown
aye! aye! aye, aye, aye, aye!
some in VELVET! in VELVET?
in VELVET aye, aye,
some in VELVET, some in VELVET,
some in a VELVET Gown.

[Listen] | Download [MusicXML]

[Pg 91]

In future, instead of the trite Old Adage, “As Faithful,” it might more properly be said, “As Flattering as a Dog:”—like other Flatterers, “they are Faithless as they are Flattering.”

Every one knows that when Men go Mad, they always hate most those that they loved best when they were in their Senses: and it is a frightful Truth, that

A Mad Dog is always apt to bite his Master first.

There have been many arguments pro and con, concerning the dreadful Disease their bite produces;—it is enough to know, that Multitudes of Men, Women, and Children, have died in consequence of being bitten by Dogs.—What does it matter whether they were the Victims of Bodily Disease or Mental Irritation? The Life of the most humble Human Being is of more value than all the Dogs in the World—dare the most brutal Cynic say otherwise?

Semi-drowning in the Sea, and all the pretended Specifics, are mere delusions, and there is no real remedy but cutting the part out immediately. If the bite be near a large Blood vessel, that cannot always be done, nor when [Pg 92]done, nor however soon done, or however well done, will it always prevent the miserable Victim from dying the most dreadful of Deaths!!!

Well might St. Paul desire us to

Beware of Dogs.

First Epistle to Phillipians, chap. iii. verse 2.

[Pg 93]


Are formed of wrought Iron, and are the chief support of

The Carriage11.

Four Wheeled Carriages are divided into two parts, the Upper and Under Carriage.

The Upper is the main one, on which the Body is hung.

The Under Carriage is the conductor, and is turned by means of the Pole which acts on a centre-pin, called the Perch Bolt, which goes [Pg 94]through the fore Axle-tree bed and fore transom, and secures the fore or under Carriage to the Upper one.

The Hind Wheels are placed on the Upper, the Fore Wheels on the Under Carriage.

The utmost care should be taken to have every part made of good Town made Iron Work well wrought, and sound Wood well seasoned, and of sufficient strength, rather going to the extreme in thickness, than risking the lives of the Passengers by the oversetting of the Carriage, which often happens when an Axle-tree or a Perch, &c. breaks.

The Common Axle-tree is that which is in general use, it being much the cheapest, a pair of the best case hardened costing only £9. 9s.

Collinge’s Axles have many advantages, which more than compensate the higher first charge for them, which is £28. 7s., but they wear so much longer, and the silent and steady motion they preserve to the Wheels, and the convenience of retaining Oil enough to travel a Journey of 30 Miles a day for 9 Months, that is, above 7,500 Miles, (i. e. if the Carriage does travel every day)[Pg 95] without replenishing with Oil: the Common Axle will hardly travel 100 Miles without requiring the Wheels to be taken off and greased.

In the ordinary Town Work—say, on an average, about 10 Miles a day, Oiling twice a Year is enough: Mr. Collinge sends a person to do this, and charges 2s. for each Wheel; if a new Leather Washer is wanted, 1s. 6d. is charged for each: these are rarely required oftener than once in nine months.

Moreover, the Wheels are much better secured, and the draught of the Carriage is very much lessened.

Keep the Winch which fastens on the axle-cap in your own possession, or some curious or clumsy person may unscrew it, and let out the Oil.

Collinge’s Axles are much more safe and secure, for they have Two Collars and Two Nuts, which screw different ways, and a linch-Pin, and a Cap which screws on over all.”—A. E.

A person who was formerly employed in Mr. Collinge’s Manufactory, told me, that with all [Pg 96]the evident advantages of these Axle-trees, they were not such general favourites with some Coachmen as might be expected, which, for a long time, he could not any how account for—till the unaccountable cause was accidentally discovered in the two following instances.

A Coachman to a Gentleman who had Collinge’s Axles, was continually abusing them, and at length got himself discharged:—the workman met him some time after, and said, “Well, my Friend, I cannot imagine why you were such a determined enemy to our Axles, which save you a vast deal of Trouble, for they don’t need Oiling more than twice a Year; and I cannot conceive why you preferred your Common Axles, which required taking to pieces and greasing, &c. once or twice in a Week! Now, as you have left your place, and it cannot injure You, and may very greatly serve Me, pray be so good as to tell me, why you so furiously opposed our Axles?” “Why, sir,” replied Mr. Coachman, “the fact is, that what you have stated as so great an advantage in your Axles, was a great Dis-advantage to me: you know that my late Master, Mr. [Pg 97]Rusticate, used every week to go to his Country House, which is 30 miles from Town: this gave me an opportunity of charging him 1s. 6d. for extra Grease, which did not cost me 2d.; therefore, your Axles were a dead loss of £4. a year to me!!!”

He informed me that another unconquerable opponent was the servant of a Gentleman who had a new Carriage every five years, and who gave the Old one to his Coachman:—now, as Collinge’s Axles will wear out three or four Carriages, they were taken away from the Old Carriage and put to the New one,—which made it a less valuable perquisite to the Coachman in the direct ratio of the worth of a set of Common Axles.

When you Build a Carriage, have Collinge’s Axles;”—but remember, it is not sufficient that you order the Builder to put in Patent Axles, for some of the imitations of Collinge’s Axles are called Patent Axles; and as they are got up cheap, some Coachmakers, unless you positively desire them to go to Collinge’s Manufactory, (near the Marsh-gate Turnpike, in the Westminster [Pg 98]Bridge Road), will, to put a pound in their own pocket, recommend the Sham Patents.

Mr. Jervis says, that he has actually seen them put down in the Bill under the Appellation of, and charged at the Price of, “Collinge’s Patent Axles.”

[Pg 99]


The Work of a Carriage is proved by the wear of the Wheels;—if it runs upon an average 10 miles per day in Town, and 15 in the Country, Well-made Hoop-rimmed Wheels, the Tire of which should not be less than five-eighths of an inch in thickness, and for a Travelling Carriage three-fourths of an inch, will not be worn out in less than 12 Months, i. e. they will run at least 3,650 Miles in Town, and it is reckoned that they will last twice or thrice as long on a smooth Road, as they will on rough Pavement.

It is said that the Macadamising of the Streets, if kept in perfect Repair, would make the Wheels last a deal longer than they did on the Pavement:—this operation is performed at present in a very clumsy manner; instead of stopping up half the Street with a Wooden Hoard, and breaking the Stones on the Spot, the materials [Pg 100]should be brought there ready broken; One Twentieth part of the Time now taken would then be more than enough entirely to finish a Road.

The Flag Foot Pavement should also be brought ready chipped and fitted;—by working the Stones in the Streets, the Eyes of the Passengers are in no small danger.

By the Metropolis Street Act of the 57th Geo. III. cap. xxix. sec. lxiii. Every Occupier of any House, Warehouse, &c. during the continuance of Frost, or after or during the Fall of Snow, shall once in every day, before 10 of the clock in the forenoon, cause the Footway, all along the Front, Side, or Back walls of such House, &c. to be swept and cleansed;—for each neglect of doing so, to forfeit 10s.

This order for keeping the Footway swept should be extended to all Times and Seasons;—there is sometimes an accumulation of greasy dirt on the pavement, which is as slippery as if it was soaped, and is as dangerous as Ice itself:—might not this cleansing be done by poor from the Workhouse?

In Walking the Streets of a Slippery Morning, you may guess where the good-natured [Pg 101]people live, by Sand or Ashes being thrown on the Ice before their Doors.

How far the change of the permanent and easily kept clean Granite Pavement, for the Mud and Dust of the present Roads, may be considered an improvement by the Eyes, the Legs, and the Lungs of our good Londoners, the Editor has not studied the subject sufficiently to venture a conjecture: the Quiet with which Carriages pass along is certainly extremely desirable to the Ears of the Inhabitants of the Houses which border the Streets so altered.

Our Granite Pavement has shared the fate of every thing in this World, where nothing remains long at rest: as soon as it had arrived at as high a degree of perfection as it appeared capable of, it was pulled up, and hammered into pieces:—so much for the Constancy and permanency of Human Ways!

Some persons use their Carriage so little, and go so gently, that a set of Strong Wheels will last them three or four Years: Others will be whirled along at such a furious rate, that they wear them out in ten or twelve Months.

[Pg 102]

When New Wheels are put on to Old Carriages, and the Old Wheels are taken in exchange, the usual allowance for them is about two Guineas per Set: but they are the perquisite of the Coachman if he has been in your Service as long as the Wheels have.

From the beginning to the end, it will take not less than five Weeks to finish a set of Wheels properly;—they should be made a fortnight before they are painted, and they should not be put on for use till a fortnight after they have been painted; therefore, order a set of Wheels a couple of Months before they will be wanted.

The Price of Four New Chariot Wheels with prime Ash felleys, and patent hoop tires, all of the very best workmanship, including every charge of Painting and Boxing, &c. is about £15.

A set of Wheels may be purchased for £12. 12s.: in the early part of my Apprenticeship to Carriage-Keeping, I paid as high as £16. 16s.

Watch the Tires.—When the Irons are getting thin, have them taken off, before they become too weak to protect the Wood-work:—the [Pg 103]best plan is, when the Irons are half worn out, and before the joints in the Wood-work get loose, as they wear most on the outer edge, to have them taken off and turned;—if the Wood-work is sound, they will run then half as long as they did at first; then, if the Wood-work continues sound, have new Irons put on;—the Ringing is about one-third the price of New Wheels, say £6. 6s., and if the Spokes and Naves are good, they will then run nearly as long as New Wheels.

[Pg 104]


If for common use, cannot be too simple and plain: Expense is saved in the purchase, and Time in the cleaning;—it is not so much the Quantity of furniture about the Carriage and Harness that makes it appear to advantage, as the having what there is, kept nicely Clean and Bright.

I would not advise any Brass or Plated Beading on the Body of a Carriage, as in the rubbing it bright, you are very apt to rub off the Varnish and Paint contiguous to the moulding—which, for this reason, had better be painted black, or of the same colour as the Body.

The Key-hole of the Lock on the Carriage Door is sometimes of Brass, or Plated, and covered with a Plate; but it is much neater to have it Black;—as we have already observed, of all Ornaments attached to the Body, [Pg 105]as often as they are cleaned, some of the Varnish and Paint is carried away, and in the same proportion that those Metallic additions are kept bright, the Body becomes blemished. For this reason, we recommend the Accommodation Handles, if any are fixed, (the Body looks infinitely more elegant without), to be Black.

Those Buckles, &c. are best formed for wear that have fewest sharp edges;—Round moulded furniture is also the cheapest.

Nothing varies in quality more than the Plated Furniture for Horses and Carriages—the inferior kind of Plating is cheaper than Brass, but at first looks as well as the best strong plating, which costs twice as much, although it will not wear half so long.

The making of Lamps for Carriages is a distinct branch of business—and those who are desirous of choosing for themselves, should ask their Coachmaker to attend them to his Lamp Maker, where they may see the various patterns which are in vogue.

The same with regard to the Door Handles.

There are several Shops for both these Articles in Long Acre.

[Pg 106]

The present fashion for Lamps is preposterous—many are made so large and so heavy, that they are evidently too great a Load on the Front Pillar of the Carriage. Have Square Lamps, about six inches square:—these are sufficiently large to hold air enough to feed the Lamp or Candle, and the less they are, the lighter they are, and the less injury they do to the Carriage Pillars:—Two sides of this Lamp are to be of Glass, and the others furnished with Reflectors, which will increase the light on the Road, and exclude it from the interior of the Carriage.

Circular Lamps are the most elegant; but if your Carriage is much used in Travelling, we must recommend the Square sort; because if a Square Glass is broken, it can be replaced easily, and costs not one-half so much as a Circular one, which it is also difficult to find, except at the place where the Lamp was bought; moreover, they seldom fit so nicely and so closely as the Square ones, and the Air rushing in, your Candles are quickly consumed, without any additional light being given.

Lamps are generally lighted by Wax Candles, [Pg 107]which weigh each a quarter of a Pound, and cost about 1s. each: if the Lamp is well made and well glazed, and no air gets in except where the air-holes are, they will burn about five hours: such Candles will burn about 7½ Hours when still in a Room; but the motion of the Carriage, and the current of Air in the Lamp, so greatly accelerates their consumption, that they will sometimes flare away in three or four hours.

Lamps with two Flat Wicks will burn for the same time as a quarter of a pound Wax Candle, at one-fourth part the expense.

However, Candles are most commonly used, because they remain ready for immediate use for half a year together, without being injured in quality, but will burn as brightly as if only put in the day before:—Oil soon loses its spirit by remaining in Lamps; and in a little time it will hardly burn at all, therefore can only be recommended to those who use their Lamps and trim them carefully every day.

The Best Lamps are those which give plenty of light around the Carriage, but do not throw any into it,—unless the Passengers think there [Pg 108]is an absolute necessity for letting those without see who are within.

Now the Streets are so well lighted, Lamps are useful in London only in Foggy Weather: the lighting them in London at any other time—is an act of Puerile Pomposity.

Springs should be made of the best Steel—the longer they are, ceteris paribus, the easier they are.

Improvements in the mechanism of Modern Carriages, by which they are made to convey a person from place to place almost without giving him a sense of motion, may be one of the circumstances that have contributed to the increased prevalence of Nervous and Bilious Complaints, which originate in a great degree from an indulgence in Lassitude and Languor. The notion of taking Exercise upon Springs of such construction, is scarcely less absurd, than that of taking an Airing with all the windows closed!

Valetudinarians who wish to derive all the good effects from the Exercise of riding in a Carriage, must not be super-curious about having it suspended on extremely elastic Springs. The Jolting of strong [Pg 109]Springs is a salutary concussion, which is extremely convenient to Nervous, Indolent, and Infirm persons who do not take other Exercise, and must be classed among the most agreeable of Anti-bilious remedies.

The Coachmaker’s usual phrase of commendation—that such a Carriage “is as easy as a Boat,” should be a prohibition to Invalids against purchasing it; who should prefer a Carriage with Strong Springs, that will give them as good a shaking as Equestrian Agitation.


“A weight of twenty-eight pounds was placed in the middle of a Perch one foot six inches long, and it was drawn at the rate of five miles and a half an hour by twelve pounds.

“When the same load was placed upon a perch three feet long, that is to say, twice as long as the former perch, it required precisely the same weight of twelve pounds to draw it.

“This experiment was repeated a number of times with the same result, [Pg 110]so that it may be relied upon. This is contrary to the opinion of drivers of all descriptions, from the waggoner in his smock-frock, to the high-bred Coachman: consequently, there must be some reason for this universal prejudice. The reason that seems to have given rise to this opinion, is, that carriages whose fore and hind wheels are near each other, extricate themselves more readily from ruts, change quarter more easily, turn in a shorter compass, and thus make their way in crowded Streets with more facility than longer Carriages.”—R. L. Edgeworth on Roads and Carriages, 8vo. p. 120. 1817.

However, Short Carriages are considered as of easiest draught; and, to use the language of the Stable, almost every Coachman and Coachmaker insists upon it, that they follow better, and that a Long Carriage will tire a pair of Horses more in Three, than a Short one will in Five hours’ Travelling.

That if the Body is hung higher behind than it is before, so that it leans forward, it will push on the fore Wheels, is a foolish Vulgar Error. You often see Hackney Chariots so hung:—such a position is [Pg 111]uneasy to the Passengers, and of no advantage to the Horses.

In a Chariot, it adds to the elegance of its appearance, and the ease of the passengers, if the Body is hung rather lower behind than it is before; but not in a Coach, because what is gained on the front is lost on the back Seat.

[Pg 112]


Caveat Emptor.

Beware of Putty and Paint,”

Mr. Jervis told me must be the Motto for this Chapter, and that

He who Buys,
Had need have an Hundred Eyes.

Old Proverb.

Those who purchase Second-Hand Carriages ought to be extremely circumspect indeed. Inexperienced People are apt to imagine, that if the Price charged for a Carriage is only one-half of what a respectable [Pg 113]Coachmaker has told them that he must charge them for a New One, that it must be a Cheap Bargain; when it is most likely not actually worth one quarter of that sum.

Experto Crede.

Let no person venture to purchase without the advice of a Coachmaker. It is easy enough to make an old worn-out Carriage appear fresh and fair by the help of Paint and Putty, while at the same time, it may be more fit to be broken up than to be made use of.

To promote the Sale of a Carriage, it is not seldom pretended, that it belongs to Sir Richard Whimmy, or to some other Gentleman of fashion, (who only parts with it merely because he happens to have it,) or that the Proprietor is gone abroad; to which is generally added, it has been only lately built, and has hardly worn the Nails of its First Wheels!!! &c.

First observe the Fashion of the Body, keeping in mind the time when such a shape was in vogue; examine the materials, especially the timbers of the Carriage; for however cunningly a clever Coach-Cobbler [Pg 114]may have puttied and painted them, yet, in some parts, the infirmities and chinks which time has made, will be visible enough to Eyes accustomed to examine them.

If Old, the Futchells12 in the chaps at the Pole Bolt hole, and at the top where the Gib is placed, are rough and patched with Leather; the Pole13 if the original one, on the sides and top which go into the Futchells, is likewise worn, and patched with a tin covering. Look to the Transom Plates, if they are flat, thick, and clean, and that if by pushing against the Coach Box, or Springs, the Upper Carriage does not rock on them;—see that the Fore Axle-tree Bed, and transom at the middle where the Perch Bolt is placed, are sound, and that about the Perch Bolt hole there is not much patching with Leather—that the ends of the Transom where the Springs and Coach Box is placed look clean and sound;—the Splinter Bar, if much worn, has the moulding towards the end nearly effaced;—the [Pg 115]Sway Bar14 and that part of the bottom plate of the perch against which it wears, after much use is gulled, and the defect is made up with Leather patched on it;—the ends of the hind Axle-tree Bed where the Spring stays rest, if much indented, is old:—the hind Foot board-ledge being worn hollow, is another proof of the Carriage having been much used.

As to the Body part, examine principally the Bottom sides, at the end where the loops are placed; and in the corners of the rabbits under the Door bottoms where the standing Pillars are framed, if very old they will be rotten and appear rough; the mortices of the Door Locks, if gulled, and the Bolts of the Lock if loose in the Spindles, are proofs of their being old; and so it is if the Leather which covers the Roof of the Quarters and Boot, appear to have been mended at the welts, or if it has drawn from the sewings or nailing.

[Pg 116]

The Braces15 should be supple and clean, free from patches and cracks at the bearings;—the Steps, if ricketty at the Joints, and when down, if the tread drops under, and the leather with which they are trimmed is dingy and torn at the joint knuckles; this shews them to have been much used: the leather also which covers the bottom sides at the entrance of the Doors, if Old, is rough, and has [Pg 117]the grain worn or torn on the outside.

The Mahogany or Venetian Blind Frames, when old, have their colour discharged by the weather, and look of a dingy brown;—the Glass frames, particularly the front ones, are, when old, loose at the corners, the sides of the grooves loosened, and held together only by the Cloth which covers them.

Nothing is a better proof than the mouldings of the framings, and the Scroll ends or finishings of the timber; for if much filled with Paint, or defaced, it is a certain Proof of the Carriage having been often painted, and of course old; the paint will, with a slight knock, if not newly done, fly off in scales, particularly from the Iron work.

Examine well those places in the Body round the edges, if the framing where the wet has been likely to lodge has not been rotten, and the surface is not made up with Putty, or has been cased on the outside with new pieces of Wood moulding.

Examine the Cloth of the Lining, observe the sides and back [Pg 118]against which the Shoulders rub, that the cloth is not threadbare, and that it is free from Moth-holes in every part.

The Hand Holders and pasting Lace, particularly the small Lace which is round the Lights or Windows.

If the Carriage has a Coach Box, examine the condition of the Seat under the Hammercloth at the ends and corners on the inside; if it has been much used, it will be ragged and worn through in many places.

In examining the Wheels, look not only to the outside edge of the Iron which covers them, but also to the Spokes at the Nave, that they are not started, and that the Wheels are firm on the Axle-trees.—These are the General Rules to be observed when examining a Second-Hand Carriage.

Never buy without advice from some skilful and disinterested person.

[Pg 119]


From decayed Harness, almost as much danger is to be dreaded as from a faulty Carriage. However skilful the Coachman, if your Harness fails, how can he manage his Horses?

That Harness may not be used so long as to become expensive and troublesome in the repair, we will endeavour to give some guide as to how long it may be expected to last: this, however, depends much on the Quality of the Leather and the Goodness of the Workmanship, the Weather it is exposed to, and the care that is taken of it.

Harness perishes with hanging by; and however moderately it may be used, after five or six years is seldom fit for further service, unless very extraordinary care has been taken to preserve it. It may be said to wear in proportion to the Work done with it: this is ascertained by [Pg 120]the number of Wheels worn out, and we calculate that it will last in London, at least, as long as Four Sets of Wheels.

Harness for common work should not be encumbered with superfluous Ornaments, &c.: the plainer it is the better. The less the Horse is burdened with trappings, the more easily he can do his Work;—the less Time is required to keep it clean;—and the less Money it costs.

Those who are nice about the look of their Harness, must keep a set of Old Harness for Wet Weather and Night Work; which is a plan to be recommended to all Persons who make much use of their Carriage.

A Handsome set of Chariot Harness, of the very best Workmanship, with patent Leather Waterdecks, according to Estimate (No. 9), costs from about £30. to £36.

[Pg 121]


Observe the condition of the Leather; if it is soft and pliable, it is good:—if dry and stiff, it is bad. This is also the case if the Grain is cracked, or if the Sewings are gummed up with grease, and the veined marks on the edges are effaced. See that all the Leathers at the buckling and looped parts are whole and perfect;—the trace ends, the collars, the cruppers, the belly bands, and billets, shew best at the buckling parts how much the Harness has been used.

The Furniture (except the Ornaments) usually remains longer perfect than the Leather does, but look to the corners of the Buckles and Rings of the Territs through which the Reins pass, and to the Ornaments; likewise the inside Winker-pieces and the head chains; these are the likeliest parts to look to for a proof of the Furniture, but the [Pg 122]Leather is the best guide, for if the pipes and ley of the Collars, traces at the points, and the breeching at the straps, are perfect, the Harness is likely to be a good one, though a Second-Hand Harness seldom proves (after the expense of alterations and changing the Ornaments, which necessarily must be done before it can be used) to be so Cheap, in the long run, as a New one.

[Pg 123]


Should not be hung higher than Three feet from the ground, should have strong well-seasoned Springs, which should be corded, and every part of it should be much stronger than a Town Carriage. Bolts inside should be attached to the Doors, to prevent their being opened on the outside.

The Dickey Box should have Pistol Holsters on each side, covered with black fur tops.

A front Budget attached to the Body, or fixed on the beds of Carriage.

A hind Rumble for two servants, with knee boot attached to the Body.

Cap Case to front of Body.

Trunks for Travelling must be very strong, and strengthened at the corners with Iron Plates, and should have Inside Straps and Laths; these are conveniences to confine what the trunk contains from shifting about; they are made with four or five laths covered with cloth or paper, which are nailed, at a small distance from each other, [Pg 124]to three pieces of girth web, and lie at the top of the parcels within the trunk; on the bottom of the trunks straps are nailed, which buckle round the laths and keep all tight.


are made to fit the outside of the trunks, to cover and preserve them from the weather; they are usually made of thick painted cloth, with holes at the sides, for the handles of the trunk to be got at.


are large flat cases made to the form of the whole or part of the Roof or Body; they are conveniences to carry light articles safe, mostly designed for wearing Apparel; they are made of thin boards, covered with Leather, and lined with tow and baize: to prevent its rubbing the roof, if intended to cover the whole of the roof, they are most convenient to remove, if divided into, two parts; and as the half is often sufficient for use, it saves unnecessary luggage. They are fixed on the Roof by means of straps and staples.

[Pg 125]


are necessary to every Travelling Carriage: the Chain is to lock the Wheels, and to prevent the going too fast downhill; the Staff is to stop the Carriage, and give rest to the Horses, when ascending a hill; the chain is fixed to a hook about the middle of the perch or crane, with a hook or shoe at the end for the Wheels. The Hook is most handy for use, but the shoe is preferable, as it preserves the Iron of the Wheel from Injury when dragging on hard stony ground. The Chain being covered with Leather prevents it from rattling.


preserve the Paint from the injury of the Road dirt, or Boughs, while Travelling: these covers are frequently used, and are so made that the Doors may be opened and shut with them on. Every part of the Body except the Windows and bottom is covered; it is looped on to the Body by small buttons, and is put on and off with the utmost facility: they are made of common oiled linen, lined with soft baize.

[Pg 126]


Springs are corded to prevent danger and delay, if by accident a plate should break, and also to strengthen them, especially when Carriages are loaded with heavy Imperials and much Luggage: it is done by placing a thin piece of ash or a length of cord along the back, and afterwards twisting a small but strong cord round, and fastening it well at the top.


are fixed by strong Braces attached to the C springs, passing directly under the bottom of the Body, (and prevent any stopping on the road by the springs breaking or body-loops giving way), the expense of which, with the fixing and check-loops, is 5 Guineas; the length varying from nine to twelve feet, according to the length of the Carriage.

England is celebrated for the construction of Carriages of peculiar Elegance and convenience; but the completest machine we have seen was

[Pg 127]


of which the following description may furnish hints to those who wish to have a convenient Carriage.

The very curious and convenient Chariot of the late Emperor of France, which I examined when it was exhibited at the London Museum, Piccadilly, in 1816, was built by Symons of Brussels, for the Russian Campaign, and was adapted to the various purposes of a Pantry and of a Kitchen; for it had places for holding and preparing refreshments, which, by the aid of a Lamp, could be heated in the Carriage; it served also for a Bed Room, a Dressing Room, an Office, &c.;—there was a separation rising about six inches, dividing the Seat. The exterior of this ingenious vehicle was of the form and dimensions of our large Modern English Travelling Chariot—only that it had a projection in front of about two feet, the right-hand half of which was open to the inside to receive the feet, [Pg 128]and thus formed a Bed—the left-hand contained a store of various useful things.

Beyond the projection in front, and nearer to the Horses, was the seat for the Coachman, ingeniously contrived so as to prevent the Driver from viewing the interior of the Carriage, and yet so placed as to afford those within a clear sight of the Horses and of the surrounding Country:—beneath this seat was a receptacle for a Box, about 2½ feet in length and 4 inches square, which contained a Bedstead of polished Steel, which could be fitted up in a couple of minutes.

Over the Front Windows was a Roller Blind of strong painted Canvass, which, when pulled out, excluded Rain, while it admitted Air: we wonder this is not an universal appendage to every Chariot in this Country.

On the Ceiling of the Carriage was a Net work for carrying small travelling requisites: in a recess there was a Sécrétaire 10 inches square by 18 inches in length, which contained nearly an hundred articles presented to Napoleon by Maria Louisa, under whose care it was fitted up with every luxury and convenience that could be imagined, [Pg 129]and contained, besides the usual requisites for a Dressing-Box, most of which were of solid Gold,—a magnificent Breakfast service, with Plates—Candlesticks—Knives—Forks—Spoons—a spirit Lamp, for making Breakfast in the Carriage—Gold Case for Napoleons—Gold Wash-hand Basin—variety of Essence Bottles, Perfumes—and an almost infinite variety of minute articles, down to Pins, Needles, Thread, and Silk. Each of these were fitted into recesses, most ingeniously contrived, and made in the solid Wood, in which they packed close together, and many within each other, in so small a compass, that, on seeing them arranged, it appeared impossible for them ever to be put in so small a compass:—at the bottom of this Toilette Box, in divided recesses, were found Two Thousand Gold Napoleons;—on the Top, Writing Materials, Looking Glass, Combs, &c.—a Liqueur Case which had Two Bottles, one with Malaga Wine, the other Rum,—a silver Sandwich Box, containing a Plate, Knives, Spoons, Pepper and Salt Boxes, Mustard Pot, Decanter, [Pg 130]Glasses, &c.—a Wardrobe, Writing-Desk, Maps, Telescopes, Arms, &c.—a large silver Chronometer, by which the Watches of the Army were regulated, two Merino Mattresses, a Green Velvet Travelling Cap—also a diamond Headdress (tiara), Hat, Sword, Uniform, and an Imperial Mantle, &c. &c. &c.

[Pg 131]



Per Servant. Total per Year.
No. 1. £1 4 0 £1 4 0
2. 1 11 0 3 2 0
3. 1 18 0 5 14 0
4. 2 3 6 8 14 0


Per Horse. Total per Year.
No. 1. £1 8 0 £ 1 8 0
2. 2 7 3 4 14 6
3. 2 12 3 7 16 9
4. 2 15 0 11 0 0


With Two Wheels £ 3 5 0
With Four Ditto 6 0 0

The Duties on Servants, Carriages, and Horses, are collected by the [Pg 132]same Officers that collect the House and Window Taxes; and are reckoned from one fifth of April to another; and if you keep a Horse or Carriage for a Single week, you must pay the Tax thereon for a whole Year.

[Pg 133]


The Christian precept of

Do as you would be done by,”

is in few instances more difficult to observe, than it is towards a Coachman, who is, in fact, paid to endure those Inconveniences from which the Carriage protects his Employer. However, the Good Master will “do as he would be done by,” and make his Servant as Comfortable as the peculiar nature of his place permits.

Merciful Masters, who use their Carriage in Wet Weather16, provide their Coachman Two Box Coats:—a Second-hand Coat may be bought for about £2. 10s.—a slight increase to their Expense, a [Pg 134]great addition to his Comfort: for when a Box Coat gets thoroughly Wet, it will take forty-eight hours before it becomes thoroughly Dry; for it must not be dried otherwise than gradually and in the Air. Mr. Jarvis says, that “the best way of drying a Box Coat on these occasions, is to put it round a Truss of Straw.”

The Hardy habits of Coachmen enable them to brave the inclemencies of the Sky, and to set the Cold and Rain at defiance, when encompassed in their seven-fold Cape, and a comfortable Dry Coat;—but, my fair-weather friend, can you imagine a more awfully dangerous envelope than a Wet Blanket?

Whatever Olympic Wits or Whips might think, there are few modern Jockies who will agree with Pindarus, that Water is the best thing, at least for the lining of the Inner or the Outer Coat of the Stomach.

Damp Clothes are the cause of Coachmen being so often and so severely afflicted with Rheumatism; therefore we insert the following, which has frequently proved an efficacious remedy in old and inveterate [Pg 135]attacks of this complaint.

Anti-Rheumatic Embrocation.

Mix—rub the part afflicted Night and Morning, and in the Middle of the Day.

The Reader may have observed, that the Coach Box of the Carriages of many Medical Men is furnished with a Knee Boot, i. e. an Apron like that of a Gig:—this is a comfortable, and, indeed, a needful defence to the Legs and Feet. The Author advises the general adoption thereof to those who use their Carriage much in Cold Wet Weather, and especially recommends it to those Genteel17 people, who [Pg 136]courageously keep their Servants and Horses in waiting half the Night, in bitter cold weather, while they are indulging themselves in the opposite extreme of temperature in Crowded Assemblies.

No Entertainments (as those Midnight Inflictions are by courtesy termed), afford so little satisfaction as


All who know you, that are not invited, will take umbrage, and half of those who are, receive the intended Compliment only as their due, and not seldom return it by ridiculing their Host, who, if he is prudent, they will censure for his Parsimony; if he be generous, will rate as a Prodigal.

These (foolish, if they are poor, but if Rich, wicked,) “Fly-by-Nights,”

“Who Sleep till Noon, and hardly live till Night,”

who are unhappy except when in a Crowd, and fancy that they are entitled to pass for folks of exquisite Fashion, in proportion to the [Pg 137]degree of fondness that they pretend to exhibit for being Stewed in foul Air18.

As Sir Exquisite Irritable says, “Nothing can be less Nice than the Re-respiration of Respired Air, every whif of which has just popped out of the Mouth of another! To Drink out of the same Cup, is comparatively an act of delectable Refinement!!!”

What is to be said FOR the Absurdity of not going out to an Evening Party, until You ought to be going into Your Bed? Every Body has enough to say AGAINST it! But, nevertheless, the very persons who exclaim loudest against this foolish Fashion, are frequently found among the foremost of those who follow it.—How comes this? why, this is quite inconceivable!—No, indeed,—No!—pray pardon me—with the utmost submission, it is among the strange things which [Pg 138]are very easily accounted for—it is Fashionable! it is extremely Genteel!!

However, these Midnight Meetings, under the inviting appellation of Genteel Evening Parties, are, in fact, a Barbarous Invention of the Idle and Imbecile, to undermine the Constitution, and annihilate the Independence of the Industrious and the Healthful.

“Though bold these Truths, my Book with Truths like these
Will none offend, whom ’tis a praise to please.”

Dr. Young.

The noisy announcement of the arrival of the Visitors at these Nocturnal Assemblies, by the absurd custom of a Thundering Rapping at the Door, which is already open, is one of the most ridiculous customs of modern times, and should be entirely abolished.—If a parcel of silly people are permitted to meet together at Midnight, they ought not to be permitted to murder the Sleep of their surrounding neighbours, from Ten at Night till Three in the Morning! It is as disorderly an offence against the public peace as can be mentioned; and [Pg 139]if it happened at the house of a poor person, it would be immediately indicted as Disorderly.

Good Nature may find some Excuse for the Poor and Dependent, who (perhaps very unwillingly) are obliged to follow a Foolish Fashion; but what apology can Good Sense invent for the Opulent and the Independent, who are the Makers of Manners, and who set a Foolish Example19.

Tom Thrifty’s maxim for Evening Parties, was

Come before Seven,
Go before Eleven.”

Have you in your Visiting Book the name of one Good Mother, whom [Pg 140]you have not heard heartily lament the Late Hours of the Fashionable World as the principal cause of the predominance of the Lily in the complexion of her Children?

“Late sitting up has turn’d their Roses white:
Why went they not to Bed?—because ’twas Night.”

Is it not astonishing, then, that Somebody will not be Wise enough, and Kind enough, to invite us to return to Reasonable Hours?—But, as the saying is,

What is Every Body’s Business, is Nobody’s Business,”


Plain Dealing is Dead, and Died without Issue.”
“Doubly distrest, what author shall we find,
Discreetly daring, and severely kind,
The courtly Roman’s shining path to tread,
And sharply smile prevailing Folly dead.”

Dr. Young.

The Writer does not presume further, than humbly to advise those who wish to enjoy any of their faculties in perfection, not willingly to refrain from wearing their Night Cap, Later than Eleven o’Clock at Night.

[Pg 141]

One Hour’s Sleep before Twelve o’Clock is worth Two after.”

Do you recollect, Gentle Reader, to have ever learned any thing worth remembering

After Eleven o’Clock at Night?

I don’t:—nor, indeed, for a full Hour before that time,—those persons whose bodies or minds have been industriously employed during the day, are arrived at that degree of exhaustion, that their faculties are become obtuse;—if you ask them any thing, “they don’t know;”—and if you tell them any thing, “they don’t care.”

Midnight Conversation cannot be any thing more than a mere “caput mortuum,” and the vapid draining of Brains collapsed by the continued cogitations of the 14 or 15 preceding Hours!—or the unwholesome effervescence of the “hot and rebellious liquors” which have been taken to revive the flagging spirits.

The Machinery of Man, like the wheels of a Watch, after a certain time wants winding up, or it will go down—when this time comes, till your Gentleman is wound up by Food and Rest, he cannot [Pg 142]talk, any better than that can tick, till that is wound up again.

To the person who is intrusted with so important a concern as the management of your Carriage and Horses you will do wisely to give proper encouragement: on his Honesty and Judgment greatly depend the safety of the Rider and the Expense of the Equipage—therefore, it is as much your Interest to be kind, as it is his Duty to be Careful.

It will be well, therefore, to put your Coachman beyond any petty temptations from Hackneymen, Horsedealers, Farriers, Coachmakers, et id genus omne, and pay him cheerfully all such reasonable Perquisites as will make it His Interest to take care of Yours.

People are often biassed by their Coachman in what is to be done in the Repair or alteration of their Carriage and Horses, and from interested motives, or capricious whims, the Knights of the Whip, it is said, sometimes have gone to extravagant lengths, and the Carriage has become rather the Property of the Coachman and Coachmaker, than of the Proprietor.

[Pg 143]

A careful Coachman is a valuable Servant. “A Coachman,” says the Sieur Soleysell, “should be skilful, Nimble, Hardy, and Honest, should love Horses, and have a desire to perform all his work well:—when a Master findeth a Lad with these qualities, he should not easily part with him; for this Merchandise, although Clownish, is hard enough to be found.”—See his Complete Horseman, folio, p. 145, 1717.

To the above Qualifications, must be added, that of Reading and Writing; and if you reside in London, that of “knowing Town well,” i. e. be well acquainted with the situation, the distance, and the best Roads, (as they may now be called) to the various parts of that amazing Labyrinth of Lanes called London.

Before you permit him to mount the Box—ask him how far it is to half a dozen different places in opposite directions, and which Way he would go, and how Long he would be in driving you thither.

The best Age for a Coachman is between 30 and 40—before the former, they are perfunctory, and soon after the latter, they lack Activity.

[Pg 144]

The following maxim, which I gave for hiring a Cook, applies as aptly to engaging Coachmen.

Before the age of Thirty, however comfortable you may endeavour to make them, their want of experience, and the Hope of something still better, prevents their being content with their present state.

After they have had the benefit of Experience, if they are tolerably comfortable, they will endeavour to deserve the approbation of even a moderately kind Master, for Fear they may change for the worse.

“The Good that they wish for, mayn’t match what they’ve got;
And therefore they’d best be content with their lot.”

Life is divided into the Seasons of Hope, and Fear. In Youth we hope that every thing may be right;—In Age, we fear that every thing will be wrong.

Whether you have your own Horses, or Hire of a Hackneyman:—Mr. Jarvis begs you to be very careful in choosing a Coachman, or you [Pg 145]may get for a Charioteer, an ignorant, careless creature, who hardly knows

Come may thur wut
Come may thur woo-ee.

The best Person to apply to, to recommend a Coachman, is the Hackneyman of whom you Hire your Horses; it is his own Interest to recommend a Servant who is capable and careful: or by looking in the Daily papers, you will find many who are in want of places:—The shortest way, is to advertise for one—this will bring plenty of applicants presently—direct them to call on your Hackneyman, or to some person on whom you can depend, and let him select and send to you only such as he thinks likely to suit: this will save you much time and trouble: moreover, it is desirable that a Coachman should be in some degree dependant upon the person of whom you hire Horses, that he may be accountable to him for the proper treatment of them, and you will thus be better served.

Accept of no Written Character when any other can be obtained; and it is the most satisfactory plan for all Parties, to Give, and [Pg 146]Receive the Character of a Servant in the presence of such Servant.

The common custom, is for the Coachman to come for


at a certain hour. Very well,—tell him “to stay at Home, and be ready to attend to your Business,” adding, however, (if you expect him to do so) that “whenever you wish for a Half, or a whole Holiday for your own Business,”—for every one has Business and Desires, such as they are,—“ask me for it, and I will not Dissappoint you, even though your Absence may be Inconvenient—Mark!—Mind my Business, and I promise you, that I will never prevent your having every reasonable opportunity of minding Your own:”—make an agreement with him, that he shall have certain Hours in certain Days for such business as the Horses, Carriage, &c. require.

Leave is Light;”

and warn him that if you find him out without leave, at any other [Pg 147]time—you will immediately give him leave of Absence from your service for ever after, and that it will become your Duty, to state the reason why you do so, to any person who may apply for his Character.

Desire him, Five minutes before he brings the Carriage round, to open the Windows and ventilate it: even in Winter, Cold Air is not so offensive as Confined Air—desire him to bring the Carriage with the Glasses and Blinds, &c. in the position in which you generally use them; and when you tell him at what Time to come, tell him which Way to bring his Horses’ heads to the Door, i.e. East or West, so that he may start at once, without the disagreeable trouble of turning about—give him similar directions when you stop any where, and apprise him, that when you get in again, if you don’t immediately direct him otherwise, he is always to take you towards Home.

Finally, let his General Business be given to him in Writing; i. e. at what Hours you most usually want the Carriage—how Long at a time you are generally out—what Pace you wish to go—and what Roads to particular places, &c.

[Pg 148]

Give him a Map of London, on which, mark with Red Ink the way you wish to be taken to those places to which you are most frequently going—and tell him, if you order him to take you to any place, the way to which he is not well acquainted with, always to say so plainly, and you will direct him.

Some Good Masters never (unless in a case of necessity) take their Carriage out on a Sunday.

In well-governed Families, every Servant has the liberty every Sunday of going once to Church; which if they neglect, and fail in their duty to their Maker, they may well be suspected of failing in their duty to their master:—A Person who goes regularly to Church, will be Well spoken of, though he may have no other merit to recommend him: He who neglects that Duty is Ill spoken of, if he has no other Fault, and has every other Virtue.

Whenever you find it necessary to give any Directions, or to reprove him for Neglect, &c., never send any Message to him by another Servant,—mention it yourself; You may do this with much more effect [Pg 149]than you can by any deputy, who, through Mistake or Ill-nature, may likely enough either say more or less than you told him.

Never reprove Servants unless you are quite in a Good Temper; the best way to ensure which, is,—Never to Lecture them, till at least One Day after they have offended you.

Never forget to Commend them when they are Right; nothing can cherish the desire of pleasing in Them so effectually, as to shew them that you are pleased:—it is a much pleasanter, and a more effectual mode of proceeding, to Praise them into good conduct, than to Scold them out of bad.

There is a Perversity in poor human nature which sets itself against Correction, and is restive to reproof, but is pliant and yielding to the least expression of Kindness. Pride is like the Rust that seizes and stiffens the Spring of an Engine, and checks its motion, so that no force can set it to work; but Kindness is like Oil, which smooths the machinery in such a manner that the parts move almost of themselves. This Gentle method of dealing with our fellow-creatures [Pg 150]is God’s own method of dealing with mankind, who “delighteth not in the Death of a Sinner, but rather that he should turn from his Wickedness and Live;” and chooses rather to lead us to Repentance by his Goodness, than to drive us to it by his Wrath.

[Pg 151]


In a Coachman is indispensable,—if he has 15 or 20 Minutes’ notice that he will be wanted, there is no excuse for his not being ready by that time; for a regular Coachman gets his Harness and Carriage clean and ready to put to, early in the day.

In establishments where it is not known at what hour a Carriage will be wanted, but when it is, is wanted at a minute’s notice, the Horses are kept ready Harnessed.

Desire him always to be at your Door, Five Minutes before the time he is ordered, especially when ordered at an unusual hour;—when you are going out “on actual Service,” his being ready at the desired moment, is infinitely more important than when you are going out at the usual hour merely for Amusement. One Minute of Your Time, is often worth an Hour of His.

Tell your Coachman, that “The Oracle has declared [Pg 152]that—He who sometimes comes Before the time he is ordered, manifests respect for his Employers and a laudable Anxiety to obey Orders.

“He who never comes till the Last Moment, presents presumptive evidence that he is disposed to do no more work than he is obliged to do.

“He who comes After the Time, would not come then, unless Fear flogged him:

“Encourage the First,

“Endure the Second,

“Do as you like with the Last.”

One Friend informed me that he cured an excellent Coachman of his neglect of being punctual (which was the only fault he had)—by hiring a Hackney Coach, whenever his own Carriage was not at the Door to a minute, and deducting the charge thereof from his Wages. Another makes it part of the Agreement, in hiring a Coachman, that he shall forfeit a Shilling for every Minute he comes after the time he is ordered.

Remember Tom Thrifty’s account of that excellent [Pg 153]Disciplinarian, old Admiral Everready.

“The first time I received Orders to attend his Honour on a Cruise,—‘Tom Thrifty,’ (said the gallant Veteran,) ‘be sure, have Every Thing ready for Action to-Morrow Morning before Eight o’Clock. Getting out well is half the Battle.’ ‘I will take care, your Honour, not to be later than Eight.’

“‘Not later, Sir!—Pipe all hands a Quarter Before, if you please, Sir!!—a Quarter Before, Sir!!!—to that Quarter of an Hour I owe all my success in Life!!!—Do you think that Old Everready would have won every Battle he has fought, if he had not always had a Broadside ready to pour into the Enemy, Before it was expected that any Engagement could possibly take place!—Oh! that precious Quarter of an Hour!—it has been, as a body may say, the Guardian Spirit which has gained me all my Laurels. Now, my Boy, let me heave a bit of advice to You; if you wish to keep clear of the shoals of Disappointment, take Preparation for your [Pg 154]Purser, and Punctuality for your Pilot—they will put you into the track of Preferment; and if you mind that your vessel is well ballasted with Integrity, you may carry almost what Sail you will with safety, and soon hope to cast anchor for Life in the Bay of Independence.’”

When you order your Coachman to call for you, tell him to send you notice of his arrival as soon as he comes, and that within Two minutes after you hear of it, you will either come or send to him—if you do not, to conclude that you have not been told, and desire him peremptorily to order that you may be informed of it, for some people are Rude enough to desire their Servants not to tell their Guests that their Carriage is come, until just such time as they wish them gone.

The surest plan of protecting yourself from the tricks of such folks, and of knowing when your Carriage is come, is to give your Coachman a Letter directed to you, on which is written “An Immediate Answer is desired.” Direct him to deliver this wherever you are, with a special request that it may be given to you directly, as it [Pg 155]requires an Immediate Answer: this may also serve the purpose of furnishing you with an excellent excuse to get away as early as you please.

Do not order your Carriage till you actually want it; and enter it the moment it comes to the Door, especially in Cold and Wet Weather.

Have a Good going Clock placed where it may be easily seen by all the Members of your Household; by which let them set their Watches. Desire your Coachman, when he comes for Orders, to set his by this Clock; and then, if he is a steady fellow, by referring to your own, you will see when he comes for you. Let his Watch be so regulated, that it may rather gain than lose. If it be not a very good one, if it is set every morning by a good clock, it will answer almost all the purposes of a Good one. Keep it five minutes too Fast, and tell him to keep all appointments by its Dial, as if it shewed the True time.

Before you start from home, give your Coachman distinct directions [Pg 156]when to come for you; and do this yourself: if you do it by deputy, or when you get out of your Carriage, and probably in a hurry, a mistake is easily enough made. When he is to call for you at any place with which you are not quite certain that he is acquainted, let the plainest possible Direction thereto be given him in Writing.

An experienced Driver can always calculate how long he will be in going; and when you tell him to come for you, you may be certain that he need never be more than five minutes after the time you order him: thus, you will be independent of any information from the Servants at the House where you visit.

Punctual Masters make Punctual Servants.

If you go out to Dinner in London, a distance exceeding Three Miles, it is more advisable to put up your Horses, than to send them Home, as the wear of the Carriage in doing the double work of going home and coming again for you, will cost as much as you will be charged [Pg 157]for Hay at a Livery Stable, which will not be more than Two Shillings (including 6d. to the Hostler). Moreover, it is convenient to have the power of returning home sooner or later, as you like, without danger of your Servants and Horses catching Cold in waiting for you.

It is customary to allow the Coachman some refreshment when your Horses are put up, while you are at Dinner. Whatever you choose to give, give in Money.

If you go out to Dinner in the Country, your Nags will like to Dine too, and have half a peck of Corn and some Hay also. Different Inns vary in their charges from 2s. 6d. (including 6d. to the Hostler) to 3s. 6d.

When you go out to Dinner in the Environs of Town, where you have not been before, and are unacquainted with the Topography of the Country, start at least a quarter of an hour earlier than you may think is absolutely necessary, that you may have time to find the House, which is not always very easy, especially if your friend has only lately resided there.

[Pg 158]

Those who dwell in Suburban Villas, have (or ought to have) engraved on the back of their Cards, a Map of the Road from the Stones’ end to their House. This would save their Visitors a vast deal of trouble, and they would not have their Dinner spoiled quite so often, by their Guests not arriving in time, from not knowing the way.

Persons dwelling four or five Miles from Town, and those who invite Friends from the Country to dine with them, should Dine, and have all such Parties at least an Hour or two earlier than the fashionable town time, so that their Guests may get home at their usual hour of retiring to Rest.

For people who live half a Dozen Miles from the Standard in Cornhill, to invite you, or you to invite them, to a Dinner Party later than Four o’clock, or an Evening Party later than Seven, is one of the most ridiculous affectations imaginable! Courteous Reader, summon resolution enough to set a Good Example:—surely this [Pg 159]cannot require more Courage than it does to follow a Bad Example.

“And leave the folly of Night Dinners
To Fools, and Dandies, and old Sinners.”

Desire your Coachman to give you notice a day or two before the Horses will want


that you may appoint a convenient time for that purpose. See Obs. on Shoeing, in the Chapter on Horses.

If you think that you may want your Carriage earlier than your usual time of going out in the Morning, give your Coachman notice over Night; or when you send in the Morning, expect (and don’t be uselessly angry if you get) for an answer, “John is gone to the Blacksmith’s,” or “to the Coachmaker’s,” or “to the Hay Market,” or to any other Market that the person who serves Fudge for him, happens to think of first. If any such Answer be given, desire that as soon as he returns, he will come for Orders; you will then know how long he has been absent.

[Pg 160]


As soon as you set up a Carriage, lots of Idle and Impertinent People, and all the various branches of “the Skin Flint’s,” and “the Save All’s,” are up early on the alert, setting all kinds of Traps to ride at your cost.

Caution those Friends to whom you may give such accommodation, not to mention it: if they trot about, telling every one that they and you know, that “Mr. Benevolus was so good as to lend us his Carriage, and we had such a nice ride all round here and there, and &c.”

If any of the numerous members of the “Free and Easy,” or “the Save All” families, who happen to have the slightest acquaintance with you, hear that you have given this accommodation to some very old and excellent Friend, who may have honestly earned [Pg 161]every attention that you can possibly offer:—I should not wonder, if they were to Whisper to one another, “Oh, oh! is it so?—well,—I have really a vast respect for Mr. B.—hav’nt you? And if he is so exceedingly fond of Lending his Leathern convenience, don’t you think that we ought to do him the favour to Borrow it?—it will be so exceedingly convenient when we go to our Uncle Makefeasts—for we can’t hire a Glass Coach to take us Ten Miles and back under Thirty Shillings, you know!”

If you have any regard for Punctuality, take care who you carry with you, especially when going out to Dinner!

If you undertake to carry people to one place, some unreasonable selfish beings are, not seldom, so pleased at an opportunity of shewing off “en carrosse,” that they will plague you with perpetual solicitations to stop at almost every Door they pass;—Aye, and act as if they fancied that they were jumping in “an Errand Cart.” Tell such Free and Easy folks very plainly, that you must be at a certain Place at a certain Time, and have not a moment to spare.

[Pg 162]

If you have any Mercy for your Horses, lend them not to others, unless you limit the Time they are to be out, and the Distance and Pace they are to go; say not exceeding ten Miles. Consider, you may be called upon to go a long Journey to-morrow, and if your Horses are over-worked to-day, how are you to get on? This caution to your Coachman is quite necessary, my good Reader; for those who borrow Horses and Carriages have been found willing enough to work them hard enough! If those who borrow it ask the Coachman to do any more work than you have directed him, tell him if he does it, it is at the peril of losing his place, and desire him to say plainly, “Such are my Master’s orders; if I disobey them he will discharge me the moment I return home.”

Forbid your Coachman receiving any present from those he carries. Give him yourself, before he goes, the same perquisite that you would give another person’s Servant who had driven you as far as he is going to drive your Friends, who will be Shabby companions indeed, if they do not offer him something, and who will tell you if [Pg 163]he refuses to take it.—If they are not furiously anxious to acquaint you with your Servant’s Integrity, they, most likely, may have Self-Love enough to wish to prove to you their own liberal intentions.—On such occasions, tell your Servants to say gently and respectfully, “I am much obliged to you, Sir—I am equally obliged to you, but my Master has already paid me extra for attending upon you.”

Edmund Burke brought with him and retained the hospitable customs of his Country. I knew an old School-fellow of his, who used almost annually to go to London from Ireland, frequently with some of his Family: they used to lodge at his house. Mr. Burke sent his Servants and Carriage with them to a considerable distance from Town, when the Guests, on parting with the Footman, expressed their obligations for the attention shewn them, and put a piece of Gold into the Coachman’s hand. ‘I cannot receive this, Sir: it would displease Mr. Burke exceedingly.’ ‘But I don’t intend ever to let him know any thing about it.’ ‘Sir, I should use my Master extremely ill were I to [Pg 164]consent: for he gives me extra Wages, on the express condition of my not receiving any thing from those who visit him.’ ‘Thou art right, and I will report thy Integrity to thy Master.’”—Dr. Walker’s Fragments, 8vo. p. 118. 1802.

“Many are the tricks of Coachmen,” says the sagacious DEAN SWIFT.

“If they are not in the humour to Drive, they will tell their Master that the Horses have caught Cold—are off their Feed—want Shoeing—the Harness is out of order—Wet Weather roughens their Coats: and if any body takes a liking to one of your Nags, and they can get a Guinea by selling it, will persuade you to part with it, by telling you that he is beginning to be touched in his Wind, or Foundered, or is so Vicious that it has become dangerous to drive him.”

[Pg 165]


1. He will not gratify a greedy Innkeeper, Hackneyman, Hay Farmer, Coachmaker, Sadler, or other Tradesman, at the expense of his Employer; but, in laying out his Master’s Money, will be as careful as if it was his own.

2. He will not leave his Master to the care of the Waiter and his Horses to the Hostler, and think only of Himself; but take care and attend to both, and be particularly careful that his Horses are [Pg 166]well dressed, well fed20, and well littered, and that their Shoes, Saddles, &c. are in proper condition to continue their Journey.

3. He will not, in disagreeable weather, urge the Hostler to say the Roads are bad, in order to detain him till the weather is better, or to go round a particular way.

4. He will not recommend Strong Beer to his Horses, or Brandy to their Heels, in order to gratify a thirsty palate, at the expense of his own Head, and his Master’s Pocket.

5. He will not contrive to have a Horse’s Shoe loose, or drive in a Stone to make him halt, in order to shorten or delay a day’s Journey; or advise his Master to stop under pretence of the Horses being faint and weak.

6. He will not recommend particular Inns out of favour to the Landlord or the Hostler, or with a view of getting an extraordinary Dram for such recommendation.

7. He will not, if he is employed to purchase Hay or Straw, &c., trot up and down the Market till he has found the Cheapest, and then charge it to his Master as the Dearest.

8. He will not, when leading his Master’s Horse from one part [Pg 167]of the country to another, suffer it to be hard ridden, either to oblige an old acquaintance, or to put half-a-crown into his own Pocket.

9. He will not, when sent alone to any distance, go round or out of his way to see an old friend, and then, to fetch up the time, gallop his Horse till he can scarce stand upon his Legs.

10. He will not, when Airing his Horses, play tricks with them, gallop them against other Horses for a Pint and a Pipe, or leap them over places that may stake them or spoil them.

11. He will not, to save his attendance in the Stable, fill the rack to the top with Hay, and the Manger to the brim with Oats, so as to occasion either being wasted; nor, to save his trouble, let the dirty litter stand under a Horse the whole day.

12. He will not, when he is to carry his Master’s Great Coat in a strap behind him, wrap his own Coat up in it, or leave his Master’s Coat outwards to get Wet, in case it should Rain.

[Pg 168]

13. He will not, when he comes to an Inn, after a hard day’s Journey, in cold and dirty weather, leave his Horses to a Stable Boy, to splash them up to their bellies, in Water, in order to wash them; suffer them to drink their fill, and then gallop them full speed a mile to warm them, whilst he is indulging himself with Purl and Hot Pot by the Kitchen Fire, although “Some Grooms are quite as curious in providing good Cheer for Themselves as they are for their Horses,” says the Sieur Sollysell, in his Compleat Horseman, fol. p. 110. 1717.

14. He will not, if his Horse drops a Shoe, gallop him as hard as he can to the next Smith, to the danger of his feet, but will travel on gently.

15. He will not, if he wants to spend an hour at an Ale-house, go out with an old Girth or Stirrup Leather in his hands, under pretence of getting it mended.

Coachmen have generally some spare hours, and would do wisely to learn a business at which they could work during such leisure;—such [Pg 169]provident diligence would, in a few years, enable them to ride Inside instead of Outside of a Coach:—perhaps the most useful Trade they could take to would be that of a Sadler, a Shoemaker, or a Carpenter.

[Pg 170]


Our friend Mr. Jarvis assures us, that an experienced Coachman, who understands the care of a Carriage, can do many little Jobs, just as well as a Coachmaker, and can soon save his Employer not only the cost of the following things, but rectify several trifling derangements, which, if adjusted immediately, will prevent many heavy Repairs.—The shaking of the Carriage frequently loosens Bolts, Nuts, &c., which, if not immediately attended to, the Wood and Iron work soon suffers great injury; therefore, desire your Coachman to tell you the moment that he discovers any Repair to be wanting, or there appears any probability that any part is likely soon to break.

[Pg 171]


A Setter Prop £1 0 0
Ditto, for an Underspring Carriage 2 0 0
Screw Wrench 0 7 0
Pair of Pincers 0 2 6
Hammer 0 2 6
Water Brush 0 3 0
Spoke Brush 0 2 6
Lining Brush 0 3 0
Horse Brush 0 3 0
Rag Mop 0 1 9
Yard of Stout Leather for Washing and for stopping Rattling, &c. 0 3 0
£4 8 3

To ensure Punctuality in your Visits, which, Civility says, ought to be returned with as much Celerity as Convenience will permit, give your Coachman a List of the Places he is to take you to, and the Time you are to be there: the various branches of the Gad-abouts, who delight in the laborious Idleness of paying Morning Visits, and wish to pay as many as possible, in as little time [Pg 172]as possible, and spend their time in being Driven to Doors, where they anxiously desire—not to be admitted, will find the above hint very valuable.

When you go about paying Visits, (especially in Cold Weather), desire your Coachman not to drive faster than Five miles an Hour:—Nothing destroys more Coach Horses, than the practice, so common in London, of driving them fast till they are Hot, and then keeping them standing still in the Cold.

Buildings have now spread themselves over such an immense extent of Terra Nova et Incognita, that a modern


and the Environs is as needful an Article in a Carriage, as a Compass in a Ship.

The size of this said Town of London is strangely changed since Mr. Sorbiere wrote his Journey to London, 8vo. 1698, in p. 5 of which he says, “But that which makes the dwelling in the City of London [Pg 173]most delightfully diverting, is the extremely pleasant facility of walking out into the Fields!!!”

“Happy were the Days then,
To what they is now.”

Old Bawlit.

Now, instead of the Fields being come-atable with extremely pleasant facility! before you can put your Foot upon a blade of Verdant Grass, (there is Black Grass enough in the Squares), you must drag your Legs through a Grove of Houses of at least two or three Miles in length!

The New Road from Paddington to Islington was, till lately, the Boundary line for limiting the ruinous rage for Building on the North side of the Town.—There is a Ground Plan of the New Road, from Islington to the Edgeware Road, shewing the then state of the Ground, (and the names of the Proprietors thereof) between Oxford Street and the New Road, in the Supplement to the Gentleman’s Magazine for 1755.

A Stop ought to be put to the practice of constructing irregular groups of Houses. “The Act of Parliament for forming the New [Pg 174]Road, which was made in 1755, directs that no building be erected within Fifty feet21 of the New Road.”

“The present mean appearance of the backs of the Houses and Hovels have rendered this approach to the Capital a scene of confusion and deformity, extremely unbecoming the character of a Great and Opulent City.”—Gwynn’s London Improved, 4to. p. 11.

Mr. Gwynn’s remarks apply very aptly to that Quarter of a Mile of the New Road which is between Westgate Turnpike at the crossing of Gower Street North, and the East Entrance to the Regent’s Park.

The Southern and Western avenues to The Regent’s Park are as they ought to be: the Roads are wide, and the space between the Houses and the Road is laid out in Gardens, as the Act directs—very different is the approach from the City along the Eastern Road from the point above mentioned, which is narrow, and is perpetually obstructed by the Waggons, &c. that are unloading at the Timber and Stone Yards, &c.; occupying the ground [Pg 175]which the Act of Parliament has ordered shall be used only for Gardens. The intention of this judicious clause was, no doubt, to preserve the Light, Air, and Cheerfulness, so highly necessary to a great leading Thoroughfare—such it has hitherto been, and with increasing respectability, excepting at the one point I am about to mention—many great Improvements have taken place—such as the Regent’s Park and CrescentThe New Pancras Church and Euston Square, &c. &c. With these useful and even splendid works upon the same line of Road, it becomes a matter of Surprise, that the distance between Westgate turnpike, at the crossing of Gower Street North, up to the Regent’s Park, should not only remain without any reformation, but that buildings,—workmen’s huts,—sheds,—smoky chimneys, and all manner of nuisances, should be allowed not only to continue, but to increase daily close to the Road.

In proceeding from the City Westward, a fine line of road, and noble footpaths on each side, are found, until on arriving near [Pg 176]Tottenham Court Road both appear to terminate abruptly, and the Road is faced, and its regularity destroyed by the projection of a range of low buildings and hovels, converted, or now converting, into small Houses, close to the Highway, which, strange to say, is much narrowed, at a point where, from the increased traffic caused by the crossing of the Road to Hampstead, a considerable increase of width is doubly requisite.

But here the Houses project about Ten feet, and nearly close up the footpath; and this being one of the stations for the Paddington Coaches to stop at, it becomes a service of no small danger to drive through the very small opening that is left for the public to pass through.

A few yards further, on both sides of the Road, are ranges of Stone Yards, with the incessant music of Sawing, Chipping, and Hacking stone, grinding Chisels, and sharpening of Saws. Cow yards, picturesque stacks of Timber, building materials, and dead walls.

Another angle turned, and the Traveller emerges again from the region [Pg 177]of smoke, stone dust, and mud, and traversing some hazardous passages, pounces at once into the magnificent Crescent of the Regent’s Park, wondering at the utter lack of Public Taste, which could allow such a combination of Nuisances to exist, and even increase, in the immediate neighbourhood of this great Public Improvement, and along the only Road leading to it from the City of London.

Can the blame attach to the Commissioners of Mary-le-bone Roads Trust?—or is it caused by the contending Interests of the 21 Paving Boards of the Parish of St. Pancras, that the footpath on the South side of that quarter of a mile of Road is neither Paved nor Watched.

Without venturing to propose a Circus, or large open space, at the crossing of the New Road and Tottenham Court Road, with an Obelisk in the centre, like that in St. George’s Fields, where there is not half the traffic there is at this point—at which, for want of space, Accidents happen almost daily; and which accommodation to the Public, in this age of Improvement, is not to be considered [Pg 178]impossible—it may not be impertinent to suggest, that the few houses which project into the Road on both sides, as well as the Sheds, which are, by continual additions, gradually converting into Houses, should be immediately removed; some of them are at this present time undergoing additions,—the longer this measure is delayed, the more expensive will the purchase become;—at present, Money might be easily raised for amply remunerating the occupiers of the premises alluded to, and a great public Benefit produced without any injury to Individuals.

If the Clause in the Act of Parliament, alluded to above, had been kept in due force, the Evils would not have arisen.

It is hoped that the New Commissioners of the Roads, who have the power, will have also the inclination, to remedy these Evils without delay, and that the Parish, and the Commissioners who have the management of the Regent’s Park will unite their endeavours for the same purpose.

In other quarters of the Town, our Economical Ancestors appear to have [Pg 179]considered him as the most ingenious Architect, who could build up the greatest number of Houses in a given Space—the Palladios of the present day, are as prodigal of Space, as their frugal Forefathers were parsimonious, and seem to fancy, that he is the cleverest fellow who pulls most Houses down in a given time.

It must be granted, that the Town is improved by the Widening of the Streets; but while it is the Fashion, for the Idle Children of the Largest Growth, to all run together, into one Street, at One Hour; it avails little how wide it may be; nor can it counteract the sad inconvenience which arises from the extending of the Buildings, making it impossible for two-thirds of the Inhabitants of London ever to enjoy the animating influence of a walk in the fresh and fragrant Air of the Country—a blessing which was within their reach, when they had only to cross the New Road to be in the Mary-le-bone Fields;22 [Pg 180]on which, read the following remarks, which we copied from “the Examiner” of Sunday, the 22d of October, 1826:—

“To call the enclosure of these Fields a Park, is, with all submission, a little bit of a Misnomer; at least, it is no Park at present for the Public, who are excluded from all but the gravelled Roads, which are ornamented with about Fifteen Benches (without backs), in a circle of Three Miles in circumference! the nearest of which to the New Road, on the West side, is more than a Mile from it!! Surely the Managers of this concern might afford to give us as comfortable Seats, and as plenty of them, as those which have been lately so liberally and so properly placed in ‘Hyde Park.’

“Many Valetudinarians, and Persons advanced in Life, who stand most in [Pg 181]need of the invigorating influence of pure Air, cannot Walk more than a Mile without Resting—such persons are tired by the time they get to the Park; but if there were Benches placed along the Walks opposite Park Square, York Terrace, &c., the weak and the weary might rest themselves, and then toddle on and treat their Lungs with a little fresh Air.”

It is said, that the Reason given for excluding the People from the Park, is, that the Trees are so young that they might be easily torn up—so may those on the North side of Hyde Park, for they are no older: but softly, is not this presuming that Mr. Bull is a greater Brute, than the Beasts which are grazing where he ought to be walking?

The Persons who keep this ground from the Public, charity commands us to hope, do so, for reasons which appear to them to be good and sufficient; perhaps they think that it is most profitably, if not most properly, employed in being let out, as it appears to be, to Gardeners and Graziers!—at the same time gradually cutting it up into sites [Pg 182]for Buildings as fast as they can find persons to speculate in it. To effect this without incurring the notice and consequent indignation of the Public, the encroachments upon their expected Playground have generally been commenced in the Winter Season, at a time when there are few People to observe them; and are so far advanced before the arrival of Fine weather, that it is useless to complain—The Ground is gone, for 99 years!!!

“Our gracious King gave this ground to the Public,—surely a part of it at least might be open to that Public. Is it not a pity to see it wholly occupied by Market Gardeners, and Horses, and Cows, and Calves, to the total exclusion of Mr. Bull himself!”

When and What Part of the Park is to be opened?”

The Public should certainly be informed of this, as it would guide them in the choice of Residences: some will like to live opposite to the lively scene which will be in the Part which is thrown open,—others, the quiet of that part that is opposite to the Slip of [Pg 183]ground which is appropriated to the occupiers of the houses in the Park, and Persons who pay for Keys.

A certain portion, opposite to Portland Place, from which there is no View and no Variety, has been recently decorated with Rows of Trees. Surely this is not all that is to be saved from the Villa builders.

Who would propose to build Villas upon the highest and best ground in Hyde Park? and why should a difference be made?

Are these Parks not equally the property of the Public? And the site of the Regent’s Park, if left unoccupied by buildings, would be more generally valuable to the Public as an Airing Ground, as it is more centrically situated than the other.

[Pg 184]


To know how to Drive, so as to preserve the Carriage from the injury which it would otherwise receive by violent Jolts, Twists, &c., is a Merit of no small Value.

If a Carriage is driven on uneven ground, it requires great Attention, or it will receive more injury during a journey of a Mile, than it would by a Month’s moderate use on an even Road; therefore,

The Pace in Driving should be accommodated to the roughness of the Road.

The Turnings should be regulated by the Room. If a Carriage is not wheeled fairly across a channel, the Perch is twisted according to the descent, as the one Wheel falls, in proportion as the other at the opposite angle rises; and frequently by such a wrench the main or Perch Bolt is broken, and every part strained, especially when going [Pg 185]fast. Desire your Coachman to avoid all short sharp Turnings; it is much wiser to go on a few poles further, where another Street will allow plenty of room.

Hard-Driving, especially on the Stones, exposes a Carriage to many mischiefs, either by running against other Vehicles, or breaking by the violence of its own motion.

Some fidgety Coachmen are continually whipping, or, as it is technically termed, “fanning” their Horses—this frets the poor creatures, and puts them into a state of irritation extremely injurious to them, and your Carriage moves in a “hop, skip, and jump” style:—Forbid all use of the Whip, but in cases of inevitable necessity.

Tell your Coachman that your motto for Drivers is

Slow and Sure;”

that the First time he presumes to attempt to display his Dexterity in any place by what is termed driving to an Inch, shall be the [Pg 186]last time that you will trouble him to wear your Livery.—Five Miles in an Hour is quite fast enough for Crowded Streets; especially when turning Corners, and in Streets which have many other Streets leading into them, as Oxford Street, Cheapside, &c.—Better wait Five minutes quietly, or follow a Hackney Coach for Ten paces, than cut and dash along at the risk of your Wheels, your Pannels, and your Neck, &c.: however, you must give him a license to drive a little “ad libitum” in some situations; a rapid movement is sometimes really requisite, in order to escape out of the way of Carts and Waggons, &c.

An experienced Whip, who has a sharp sight, may calculate pretty nearly what space will be sufficient to pass between two bodies which are at rest—but as he will unavoidably meet many Carriages, guided by inexperienced, and often drunken Drivers, which do not for half a minute together move in a precisely direct line, and his good Coachmanship cannot protect him against such Blunderers, unless he proceeds with extreme care, and allows them plenty of room.

[Pg 187]

A cautious Coachman is ever unremittingly upon the look out, keeping both his Eyes open; employing One to guide his own Horses, and the Other to watch how those who are coming guide theirs; or, as a Wag might say, an Accomplis’d Coachman ought to Squint! He depends entirely upon his own Attention to keep so completely out of their way, that it may be next to impossible for them to run against him.

The most Crowded places are not always the most Dangerous: Accidents most frequently happen from empty One Horse Carts, in which the Driver rides, instead of walking by the side of the Horse. These vehicles are frequently conducted at such a furious rate by Carmen, in order to make up for the time they have wasted, in tippling, that they often run against inexperienced Coachmen. They abound most in Tottenham Court Road and Holborn, and the outlets from Town.

Every Cart that approaches, a wary Coachman watches with the most anxious care, and gives all the room it appears to require.

[Pg 188]

A Fine of at least 10s. should be levied upon all persons driving Carts in such a manner, payable to any person who may demand it. In the event of their occasioning an Accident, let them not only be fined but punished severely.

If your Coachman drives leisurely, you will escape many Dangers, and your Carriage last much longer;—by such gentle use (excepting as to the Wheels) it is worn almost as little as if it remained in the Coach-house.

In Crowded Streets, never permit any person to ride on the Coach Box:—Conversation diverts the attention of the Driver from his Business, and accidents frequently ensue.

Never go into the City through the Strand, Fleet Street, and Cheapside, if you can avoid it, after twelve o’clock: from that hour until five o’clock, they are crowded with Carriages and Carts. In these great Thoroughfares Hackney Coach Stands should not be permitted. At present the centre of Cheapside, &c. is sometimes filled [Pg 189]with a Stand of Hackney Coaches all the way from St. Paul’s to the Poultry: let these be removed from all Crowded Streets into the Cross Streets adjoining, as is ordered in Bond Street.

If the Hackney Coach Stands are removed from the Strand, Fleet Street, &c., the Public will no longer have to complain of the tedious Stoppages which are now so frequent between two and four o’clock of the Day, especially on Mondays, Fridays, and Saturdays.

If you go into the City on Mondays and Fridays you will have to encounter the most Barbarous Nuisance that disgraces the British Capital—droves of Oxen passing through its principal Streets in the middle of the Day. That this is still suffered to continue in these times of universal improvement appears to us as wonderful as it is offensive.

To know to a Nicety at what Time you must start to arrive at a certain Place at a certain Hour, you have nothing to do but to ascertain the Distance, and direct the Pace of travelling.

[Pg 190]

4 Miles an Hour is 1 Mile in 15 Minutes.
5 Ditto Ditto 12
6 Ditto Ditto 10
7 Ditto Ditto
8 Ditto Ditto
9 Ditto Ditto
10 Ditto Ditto 6

When you wish to go Faster or Slower, do not say simply “Faster,” or “Slower,” but say “Four,” “Six,” or “Eight,” according to the number of Miles you wish to be driven in an Hour.

In traversing the main Streets of London, always allow at least five minutes in every half hour for Stoppages.

Desire your Coachman to choose the Pleasantest, rather than the Nearest way. Some inconsiderate charioteers, to save the tenth part of a Mile, will drive you through all the nasty narrow Lanes they can find, as if they were trying to make you sick with foul air. Moreover, such Bye-ways are generally so badly Paved, that you will be longer [Pg 191]going over them than on a good road that is a little longer.

Persons who have not an expert Coachman, who has been accustomed to cut his way through Crowded Streets, should desire their Driver to avoid the great Thoroughfares, and to pass along the widest Streets which run parallel to them. This can generally be done without danger by a very young Coachman.


caution your Coachman always to avoid stopping where there is any other Carriage stopping near, either on the same, or on the other side of the way; and when he can, to choose the widest part of the Street, and to draw up his Fore Wheels close to the Curb, and his Hinder Wheels quite square with them. Most of the Accidents which happen to Carriages, while stopping in Crowded Streets, are owing to want of attention to this situation of the Hinder Wheels.

[Pg 192]

Whenever you get out of your Carriage, Always Shut the Door. If you only stop Two Minutes, it may be necessary for the Coachman to move from his station to prevent injury from other Carriages; and if the Door is open it will swing about, and the Hinges will be strained, and the Pannels may also get a violent blow against a Post, &c.

Never keep your Carriage standing in a great Thoroughfare, through which crowds of Coaches, Carts, &c. are passing; in so doing, you are a source of great inconvenience to others, by occasioning stoppages; and your own Pannels are every moment in danger of being defaced, &c., which cannot be repaired without fresh Painting the whole of the Body: this tedious process will deprive you of the use of your Carriage for at least Three Weeks; therefore, let it wait for you round the corner of some quiet neighbouring Street.

Remember the judicious Advice given by that arch adept in “the Art of Shopping,” Lady Betty Buybargain, to her Niece, Miss K. Cutadash. The fair Kitty was ever and anon irritably anxious to [Pg 193]be whirled to the Door of every “Magazin des Modes” that her caprice called her to, in her Aunt’s shewy Carriage; saying, “I assure you, that if you go in your Carriage, my Dear Aunt, the people are infinitely politer than they are to their Walking Customers.” “Aye! Aye!” replied the discreet Dowager, “what you say may be True enough, Dear, and their Politeness would be pleasant enough, Love, If, as my poor dear Sir Benjamin Buybargain always used to say, If they did’nt Book it, Kitty!—but they charge for it, my Child; they charge for it, Dear!—as Sir Benjamin used to say, ‘they put those Bows down in Their Bills!!!’”

However, there is nothing in which more People are more extremely mistaken, than in the general idea that keeping a Carriage always is (as it ought to be) infallible evidence of superfluous Wealth. Many pompous persons, in order to provide the means of indulging in this expensive Luxury, are miserably penurious in all other matters; and many Fine Liveries, &c. have been purchased with the Money that [Pg 194]ought to have been spent in Food, Fire, &c.; and to cut a dash at Vanity Fair, and keep up an external glitter, the Comfort of Home is entirely sacrificed:—as Sir Spendthrift says, “They must have a Carriage, if they are obliged to save it a Thousand ways.”


either in Crowded Streets or when setting down at Public Places: by attempting thus impatiently (and unfairly) to save a few minutes, many Carriages have been destroyed, and many Lives have been lost.

In admitting others into the Rank, (which you have often an opportunity of doing,) “Do as you would be Done by.”


or other extremely Crowded places, is, when the weather permits, to be put down a little before you get to them. This, however, is hardly ever necessary when going, when it is both more safe and more desirable, for [Pg 195]many reasons, to be set down at the Door.

When your Carriage is brought to take you Home, desire your Coachman to select, for this purpose, a situation where there is least danger of being blockaded in by other Carriages, rather than that which may be nearest and most convenient to get in,—it is to little purpose that you can get Into your Carriage, if that cannot get Out.

Observe this particularly at the Play, or other Public places. If the weather is at all favourable, you can get to your Carriage in a tenth part of the time, and at half the risk, it can get to you; and even delicate Ladies will suffer less by skipping a few yards along the Pavement, than by waiting half an hour or more in the dangerous draughts of a cold Lobby or perishing Ante-room.

As soon as the Play or the Party is over, most people are in desperate haste to get Home; however, as Tom Thrifty says, “Nothing is [Pg 196]done well that is done in a Hurry, except catching of Fleas.” The frightful Confusion created in the immediate vicinity of crowded Assemblies, will be carefully avoided by all persons who wish to preserve their Carriage from damage, and their Persons from risk: even at a large party, in a private house, to get up to the Door is sometimes a service of both difficulty and danger.

When you pull the Check String, and do not at the same time direct the Coachman to stop at any particular House, tell him to take care not to stop before the Door of any House, but in the middle between Houses, so as not to give any persons the needless trouble to come to their Door, from an idea that you are coming to their House. And desire him never to drive up to a Door in the furious manner which vulgar Coachmen seem to imagine is very stylish, but to go at his usual quiet pace.

During what is termed an Airing, get as much pure Air as you can without risk of taking Cold: rather put down the Front than the [Pg 197]Side Windows; the former are convenient for giving directions to the Coachman: by merely uttering the word “Left” or “Right,” you may direct his track wherever you wish.

In Cold weather, you may do this, by telling him to look round just before he comes to a Turning, by putting your hand to the Right hand front Glass when he is to go to the Right, and to the Left hand when he is to go to the Left: or you may arrange, that one smart pull of the Check String means “to turn to the Right;” a double one, “to the Left;” and a continued one, “to stop where he is.”

When you call out Stop! without saying or pointing to where, tell him you mean that he should instantly Stop, i. e. as quickly, and as nearly as possible where he then is, even if that be in the middle of a muddy Street.

One of the many and great advantages of having a Coachman a long time in your service, is, that a single word will direct him where to drive you: you have merely to say the name of the Street, or the Person to [Pg 198]which you wish him to carry you. One Word does it; therefore, if you love your Lungs, beware of changing your Coachman.

Sir John Fielding, the famous Police Magistrate, who was blind, had a pipe fixed from the Carriage to the Coach Box, through which he could converse with the Coachman, without being heard by others. When his Chariot was stopped by any obstruction in the Streets, he inquired of the Coachman what kind of Carriage, &c. occasioned it; and it was his humour then to put out his head, and shout out in his usual peremptory tone, “Take that Cart out of the way!” or, “You Sir, in that Chaise, drive on!” This occasioned great astonishment, how he, who was blind, could perceive the cause of the stoppage, and was a source of great amusement to Sir John.

Desire your Coachman never to dispute with, or return any Uncivil language to any Coachman, Carman, &c.: if your Carriage is obstructed or offended by any disorderly persons, take out your Pocket Book, and let them see you are setting down their Number, and then coolly tell [Pg 199]them you will summon them if they do not immediately clear the way.

By the 1st Geo. I. c. 57, “Drivers of Hackney Coaches are to give way to Gentlemen’s Carriages, under a penalty of 10s.”

If your Carriage be injured by another running against it, ascertain whose Carriage has done the mischief, and let your Coachmaker give an Estimate of what he will charge for repairing it; then, before you have the repair done, let the person who injured it see the mischief and pay the sum charged for amending it. Mr. Jarvis says, that the custom is for the Repair to be done by the Coachmaker of the Party who committed the Injury.

If curious Children ask “Whose Carriage is this?” tell your Coachman to Stare full in their face, and Say Nothing: if they have the Impudence to repeat the Question, he may reply, “it belongs to Mr. Pry.” If equivocation be ever allowable, it is to such Impertinents.

Those who may admire the Carriage and want to know who built it, will [Pg 200]find the Coachmaker’s name on the Axle-tree Caps.

If any of your Coachman’s own acquaintance speak to him while he is either driving or waiting for You, he must answer them only by a civil movement of his Head or Whip hand. Nothing is more disrespectful and disorderly than Gossiping while on Duty.

[Pg 201]


Have an exact Inventory of the Harness, Working Utensils, and every thing appertaining to your Carriage; give a Copy of this to your Coachman, and once in Three months examine the state of the various articles.

A Carriage (especially when newly Painted) should be cleaned as soon as possible after it has been used.

A conscientious Coachman, who has any regard either for your Carriage or his own Character, will never permit any body to touch it but himself. If in your Visits to the Stable, you frequently find him out, or observe any persons lurking about there, who are meddling with either your Horses or your Carriage, be sure that he is Idle and [Pg 202]worthless, or has Business of his Own, which he likes better than Yours:—then let him follow it.

The sooner you give such a Gentleman notice to quit, the better.

Never permit a Coachman to keep either Fowls, Pigeons, Dogs, Goats, Pigs, &c. which will not only eat your Corn, but be a public Nuisance to your Neighbours; for which offence you will be Indicted. See page 87.

If a Carriage cannot be cleaned till the dirt is dry, let it be well sluiced, and let the water have time to loosen it:—by rubbing it when dry, the sand and gravel in the Dirt will inevitably scratch off the Varnish and deface the Paint. When the Pannels have been heated by the Sun, they should not be washed till they become cool.

While the Pannels are wet they must not be exposed to the Sun, which ought to be avoided at all times as much as possible, as nothing injures the Varnish more.

The Iron work must be wiped quite dry, particularly the Springs: if the wet gets between the Plates they will rust.

[Pg 203]

A Regular Coachman will get his Carriage and Horses cleaned and dressed as early in the morning as he can, and not wait lounging about to know when he will be wanted.

An active Stable-Man will begin his work by Six in the Morning: to set his Stable to rights, and Dress a pair of Horses, will take from an Hour and a Half to Two Hours.

Washing and Cleaning the Carriage and Harness will take from Two to Three Hours, according to the work on the Harness, &c.: including his time for Breakfast, &c., he will be ready by Eleven.

However late he comes home, a good Groom will oil and wipe the Bits, wash his Horses’ feet, give them a whisp down, &c.—to shake their Beds down, and give them Water and Corn, and to rack them up for the Night; if he has a Carriage, he will also dish-clout the Body of it, will take about from an Hour, to an Hour and a Half: therefore, when a Coachman is required to wait at Table, let him be Home a full Hour and a Half before he is so wanted.

[Pg 204]


When Coaches were first introduced, our frugal ancestors used to load the Carriage with provisions for the family when they came to London. The hamper, covered with a cloth, was a convenient repository, and a seat for the Coachman. This was afterwards converted into a Box. Hammercloth is therefore very probably a corruption of Hamper-cloth: it is now one of the principal Ornaments to a Carriage:—according to the fulness of the plaiting of the Cloth, its depth, and the quantity of Trimming thereon, is the cost thereof, which varies from £10. to £40.

After a dusty Journey, let it be well brushed: if it is not, and it gets wetted, it will be spoiled; the Lace and Fringe cuddle dust greedily, and ought to be diligently disturbed.


The shaking of the Carriage frequently loosens the Bolts and Nuts23; [Pg 205]and if these are not attended to immediately, the Timber, Iron work, &c. will suffer material injury.—A Coachman may attend to this as well as a Coachmaker.

A Careful Coachman will gently try the Nuts about once a fortnight; but, in screwing them up, use no violence, and take care not to injure the Paint with the Wrench.


is very disagreeable, and is a sign of something being loose about the Carriage, which requires to be tightened or lined with Leather; where Iron works upon Iron, if a thin piece of Leather can be introduced between, the Rattling will be stopped.

The Squeaking of any part is to be cured by a little Oil or Grease: this frequently happens in the Bolts of the Springs, or in the shackles where the wet has got in and rusted them; it often proceeds from some loose Nut or Bolt.

A Carriage, when first Painted, requires great care to prevent it from being spotted with Dirt—the Colour and Varnish take a [Pg 206]considerable time to harden before they can entirely resist the action of Wet, &c.

If Dirt be allowed to dry and remain on the Carriage, some Colours (especially a bright Green) will be marked with Spots, which are not removed without considerable difficulty.

Therefore, the moment a Newly-painted Carriage returns from Work, sluice the Pannels well, and with a wet Sponge wipe them clean all over. If dusty with Road dust, take it off as gently as possible with a Soft Brush—wiping it with a Cloth will scratch it.

Stains will also appear where the Rain has run for any length of time; to remove which, rub the pannels with a little sweet Oil on a bit of soft baize, so as just to damp them; rub the stained places with a little more strength than the other parts of the pannels; dry them off with another piece of baize, then with a third piece, and a little flour; wipe or rub the pannels very dry; and if the stain has not then disappeared, rub it hard with the palm of a dry soft hand, drawing it smartly down, till the friction elicits a sharp squeaking sound. This [Pg 207]will probably clear the Stains; if not, after a short interval repeat the same process: if then it cannot be cleared, the Colour or Paint beneath the Varnish is injured, and nothing but time will effect a change.

Rubbing common Varnished Bodies rather strong with a soft Skin, and drying them with another, helps to increase the lustre of the Varnish—a common Varnished body, well kept and often cleaned, frequently improves in its lustre.


The clear brightness of this polished surface shews every little blemish; and though likely to be stained from the same causes as the other, yet the colour is not so apt to be affected, as it is much more thickly coated with Varnish, and the resistance stronger—to clear them, use the means before mentioned.


The Varnish looking dull, striking in, or cracking, as often arises [Pg 208]from the badness of its own quality, as from any improper treatment in the Cleaning, or effect of the Weather: the high Varnish in particular, on account of the extra quantity, which, if not good, produces a change much sooner that the common Varnish, the latter being much thinner.

When Varnish Cracks, it can only be remedied by the Painter, who should be immediately applied to; but if Varnish strikes in, and looks dull, as is sometimes the case in very damp weather, use the following means:—Get a quarter of a pound of Rotten Stone or Tripoly Powder from a Colour Shop, which must be ground with water, and used of the consistency of paste, in the following manner:—Double a piece of woollen cloth, and with the flat part rub each pannel with a gentle force for about a quarter of an hour, taking care to rub it equally all over; wash off the substance, and with a hand free from corns, and damped with a soft leather, rub it smartly downwards, till by the friction it makes a shrieking noise: if this does not sufficiently polish, the rubbing with the Rotten Stone and the hand should be [Pg 209]repeated. Much depends upon the hand rubbing clean off the pannels and mouldings as before directed with soft baize, oil, and flour. If well managed, the Body will look nearly as well as if new Painted, particularly a common Varnished Body, especially if it has never gone through the process before.

Thus, with one or two days’ trouble, and at the expense of about one Shilling, New Painting may sometimes be saved.

Let the Carpet at the Bottom of the Carriage be often cleaned and reversed, so that the wear may not always be in one place; for Winter use and for dirty Weather, one of the Dressed Sheep’s Skins is the best foot warmer for the floor of a Carriage.


These, in New Carriages, will shrink in Dry, and swell in Damp Weather, however well seasoned the Wood may be—their tightness may often be cured by rubbing the edges with a little Soap:—be cautious not to touch either Door or Door Post with the Knife while damp weather [Pg 210]continues; for sometimes they will shrink in Dry as much as they swell in Damp weather; and when Summer returns, you will find you have irremediably injured your Doors.


If these move stiffly, a few drops of Sweet Oil will generally make them easy enough.


If these do not slide easy enough, rub the grooves in which they slide with a little Soap—long exposure to wet will sometimes make them move stiffly; but after a few fine dry days, they will return to their proper dimensions.


If the Joints are stiff, drop a little Sweet Oil upon them, and work them well up and down.


Lastly; a little of the same Colour as that with which the Carriage is [Pg 211]painted, should be kept in reserve to repair Accidents:—Colours can seldom be exactly matched; you will find that it is very convenient for touching the Mouldings occasionally;—as much of each Colour as will fill a pint pot will be sufficient; keep it in a pan under water.

The Brushes must be kept under Water;—but with all possible skill and care. New and Old Colours seldom match nearly enough for repairing any accident or bruise happening to a Pannel, which had generally as well be left as it is until you repaint the Carriage.

Let your Coachman have some “Black Japan,” to retouch those parts of the Carriage which are blacked, but which are frequently defaced by use: this will contribute greatly to the neat appearance of it.

[Pg 212]


The Expense of Keeping a Carriage in Repair is regulated very much by the original quality thereof—by the Work it has done—the Work it does, and the Care taken of it.

The Work it does may, in some measure, be computed by the wear of its Wheels, and its Appearance.

It is in a Carriage as in many other mechanical structures, that, in order to Repair it, it must be taken to pieces; and the taking to pieces and putting together again, costs more than the Repair itself, and thus the charges for trifling things appear enormous. The expense of unhanging, taking to pieces, putting together, and re-hanging, is the same in small as in large Repairs: some Coachmakers copiously mention in their bills every circumstance of the Job, almost to the number of turns of the screws, or blows of the hammer, with a [Pg 213]constant repetition of driving out—driving in—taking off—putting on—unscrewing—screwing—nailing—unnailing—unhanging and re-hanging, &c. &c. &c., which sometimes seems to be done only to confound the charge for the Job with so many different matters as to make it perfectly incomprehensible.

To the above we have actually seen added, when the Carriage was taken to the Coachmaker’s to have any little Job done, “To Washing and Cleaning, 3s. 6d.”—although the Coachman assured us that the Carriage was clean when he took it, and that he found it dirty when he went to fetch it home.

We refer the Reader to the


which are given in page 60 of this Work.

A Carriage cannot be taken to pieces and put together, by the most careful and skilful Workman, without in some degree diminishing both the Beauty and Strength of the Machinery; therefore, when it is asunder, order that every part that appears defective be made good, [Pg 214]that the repetition of such separation may occur as seldom as possible, not only to avoid Expense, but the Inconvenience of being without your Carriage while the Repairs are going on, which take longer time than people expect, who do not consider that New Timbers, Iron work, &c. require Painting and Varnishing, which must have at some seasons of the Year a considerable time to dry thoroughly hard.

When any of the main Timbers begin to decay, the greater part may be supposed to be in a similar state; failures then become frequent, and it is prudent to have the whole that is decayed renewed at once—which will not only be Safest, but will save much Expense and Trouble.

Mem. Be extremely cautious of altering any part of a Carriage—if you alter one part, it often becomes necessary to alter many other parts, and a trifling Expense becomes a very heavy one.

Mem. The Carriages commonly lent by common Coachmakers [Pg 215]while they are repairing a Carriage, are sometimes so extremely old and ricketty, that it is not only disagreeable, but dangerous to ride in them;—insist upon having a good effective Vehicle, or go to another Coachmaker; therefore, before you send a Carriage to be repaired, desire the Coachmaker to let you see the Carriage which he intends to lend you during the time your own is repairing: this accommodation he ought to give you, if you are a constant customer, without making any charge for the use thereof.

Have an Estimate in Writing, particularly specifying every thing that is to be done, and the whole Expense for which he will undertake to make perfect every Repair that is wanting, without any subsequent extra charge, and the Time in which he will do so. I again repeat, that it is the cheapest and best plan To Job a Carriage as well as Horses. See Estimates, No. 4 and No. 9.

Desire your Coachman to be continually on the Watch, and to immediately acquaint you of the least injury which the Carriage may sustain; for the immediate repair thereof, is equally advisable, both [Pg 216]for your Economy, and for his own Safety.

The chief parts that wear, are the Timber works of the Carriage part, and these fail more frequently than you may expect—either from decay, faulty wood, or being too light made, and sometimes from Accident or Violence, which may be judged of when they are taken asunder.

The Body requires Repair much less frequently than the Carriage, because it is placed on Springs in as easy a manner as possible, and therefore not shook about so violently as the Carriage part; but the best plan is to have Springs under the Carriage fixed on the Axle-tree: Carriages so mounted last three times as long as those on the old construction, and are extremely desirable from so seldom requiring separation.


Are strongly recommended. They afford the following advantages:—there is no occasion for the Coachman’s seat to be [Pg 217]attached to the Body, nor extra Springs for the same, which are a nuisance from their Noise and continually requiring Repairs:—the Coachman’s seat, to an Underspring Carriage, is bolted on a Budget, and fixed to the Carriage on a pair of Carved Blocks, the Body hanging free:—the additional expense is from £20. to £30.; but we have been told they save full an hundred and fifty pounds in the wear of a Carriage;—but remember, that although Under Springs are easy to the Carriage, they are not so to the Carried, especially those whose top half is a Dummy, i. e. made of wood, which is used for cheapness. My last Chariot, which has such Springs, jerks and jumps about as much as a rough Trotting Horse, affording fine Anti-bilious Exercise for those in tolerable Health, but is intolerably agitating to an Invalid!!

[Pg 218]


To define a perfect Horse is almost, and to find one, quite impossible.—Camerarius says, that this useful and beautiful creature is an assemblage of Excellencies—“He should possess Two of the Beauties of a Woman; the Breast must be plump, and the Hips round.—In three things he should resemble a Lion; in ferocity of countenance, in fortitude, and irresistible impetuosity. He must have three things appertaining to a Sheep;—the nose, gentleness, and patience;—three of a Mule, strength, perseverance, and sureness of foot;—three of a Deer, head, legs, and skin;—three of a Wolf, throat, neck, and ears;—two of a Fox, tail and trot;—three of a Serpent, memory, sight, and flexibility;—and lastly, three of a Hare, running, walking, and perseverance.

“Round hoofed, short jointed, Fetlock shag and long.

[Pg 219]

“Broad Breast, full Eyes, small Head, and Nostrils wide.

“High Crest, short Ears, strait Legs, and passing Strong.

“Thin Mane, thick Tail, broad Buttocks, tender Hide.”—Shakespeare’s Horse of Adonis.

No man who has witnessed the performance of Mr. Ducrow’s stud in “the Battle of Waterloo” at Astley’s, will deny, that our Poet Pope’s epithet of “half-reasoning” is not quite as justly due to the sagacity of the Horse, as it is to the Elephant.

It would be Injustice not to add, that the energetic and natural acting of Mr. Gomersal in his personation of “Buonaparte,” is as perfect a performance as the English stage can exhibit.

The whole of this Drama is a very extraordinary effort, and does great credit to the ingenious author of it, Mr. J. Amherst.

The figure and symmetry of the Horse is no where more perfectly displayed, than in the Equestrian Statue of Charles the First, at Charing Cross, which is said to be the most finished piece of [Pg 220]workmanship of its kind ever produced: that of Marcus Aurelius, or the two Horses on the Monte Cavallo, or Quirino at Rome, not excepted.

Continually, however, in our sight, this “Chef d’Œuvre” is not only disregarded, but neglected.

English Horses, are equally remarkable for their Strength and for their Speed.

“Each seeming want compensated of course,—
Here with degrees of Swiftness, there of Force.”

Pack Horses in Yorkshire carry, not unusually, loads of 420 Pounds.

A London Dray Horse has been known to move, on a plane surface for a short space, the weight of Three Tons, and to draw half that weight a considerable distance.

On the Turnpike road, one Ton per horse is the Weight usually allowed for a Journey.

The famous Childers moved 82½ Feet in one second of time, which is nearly at the rate of a Mile in a Minute; for he ran round a course at Newmarket (little less than four miles) in six minutes and forty [Pg 221]seconds; a degree of Velocity, which no horse has been known to exceed.

Another account avers that he ran over another course at Newmarket (which is 380 yards more than Four English Miles) in 7½ Minutes.

In general, the Racers run round the Four Mile course in about seven minutes and forty seconds, or eight minutes, which gives Forty-four feet six inches in one second of time, and twenty-four English feet at each stretch.

The late Duke of Queensberry, on the 29th of August, 1750, won his wager, that he would produce a machine, with four wheels, which should pass over 19 miles in six minutes. The Carriage was made by Wright, of Long Acre, and was constructed partly of Wood and partly of Whalebone; and for the Harness, Silk was substituted for Leather.

The match was run at Newmarket, and four blood Horses rushing on with a velocity almost rivalling the progress of sound, darted within the appointed time to the Goal.—See an Engraving and particular Account of this Carriage in the Gents. Mag. for 1756, p. 440.

[Pg 222]

It would be happy if a Law were passed to prevent the furious spirit of Gaming which prevails at Horse Races:—this amusement might also be rendered useful, which it is not at present, for Horses of most Speed, are generally of least Use.

If Premiums were allotted to those who brought to the field the strongest and most beautiful Horses of the best paces for the Saddle, Coach, or Cart, the Breed of these useful Animals might be really improved.

As managed at present, Horse Racing is but one remove from the barbarous practice of “Bear-baiting,” and “Bull-baiting,” against which that excellent practical philosopher, Montaigne, has protested his honest Indignation, that “Few people are pleased to see Beasts caress, or play together; but many seem delighted to see them lacerate and worry one another.”

[Pg 223]


To decide by the first appearance of a Horse, as to what he may prove on continual Exercise, is a perfection of Judgment which not even Experience itself can confer. Those erudite Equestrians, Will Whipcord and Sam Spur, candidly assured us, that


are usually so pampered and highly fed, and have the interstices of their Muscles so filled with Fat, that their real shape, i. e. their form when in full Exercise, and with their ordinary Food, cannot be imagined.

If Dealers meet with a Horse that is unable to stand to the work they [Pg 224]require of him, they let his Business be so light, that it may be merely Play to him—and so keep him in Condition till they can dispose of him.

Appearances are so deceitful, that the above-named skilful Jockeys confessed to me that they frequently found themselves mistaken. In the selection of a Horse, we rarely seek for latent good qualities, when the Eye is disgusted by deformity. A Horse of true proportions strikes the fancy of every beholder; we immediately assent to the beauty of the object, and take it for granted that Symmetry must be accompanied with either Strength or Swiftness. True Judgment is displayed in selecting a Horse possessing great powers, under the cover of an ill-favoured outward appearance, and discriminating from among those of a pleasing form such as are devoid of them.

Many who have written on Horses have attributed much to the influence of Colour on the Constitutions of Horses; but we fancy that Colour is often suffered to bias the decision on a Horse’s Goodness, when it should be considered merely as it relates to his [Pg 225]Beauty. Many will not buy a Horse which has a White Leg; but White Legs are as likely to fly as Black Legs.

Mr. Mennill, of Leicestershire’s, famous hunter, “Whitestockings,” had four White Legs; and a better hunter never leaped a Gate. Childers had White Legs.

A Horse of symmetry and good action should not be undervalued from any peculiarity of Colour. Good Judges of Horses are very indifferent to the irregularity of Marks, &c. Thus much, however, is certain, that some colours denote Strength and Hardiness more than others, and are also more Beautiful; as the Dappled Grey,—Bays, particularly the Dappled, Golden, and Blood Bays, with the Legs, muzzle, tails, and list down the back black, Nutmeg Greys, Dark Duns, with mane, muzzle, tail, and legs, Black.

A mealy Bay and light Chesnut, or what is commonly called Sorrel, are for the most part delicate in Constitution. The latter is also often of a hot and choleric disposition.

[Pg 226]

As the Proverb says,

A Good Horse cannot be of a Bad Colour.

Few things are more difficult to find than Horses that are exactly what you wish.

“It is a cruel thing to say, but a very true one, that amongst the present breed of Horses in this nation, a man of any tolerable judgment can hardly find One in Fifty for his purpose, whether designed to Draw or Ride.”—Wm. Osmer on Horses, 8vo. p. 59.

Many of the Defects of Horses cannot be discovered till they have been in your possession some days. As that experienced Equestrian, Mr. Geoffrey Gambado, said, some Horsedealers, like some other Merchants, are “not a bit honester than they ought to be.”

Mr. Hanway observes, that “If the Gentleman24 seldom treats his Friend, (and hardly ever an indifferent person,) with [Pg 227]strict honour in selling a Horse!—what are we to expect of those who have been bred among Horses?”—Hanway’s Travels, 8vo. 1757, vol. i. p. 206.

The only safe, and indeed the only satisfactory plan, both to the Seller and to the Buyer of a Horse, is to

Before you Buy,”

as Capt. Bindon cautions you, “Don’t fall in Love with him [Pg 228]before you Ride him.” In his Gentleman’s Pocket Farrier, printed at Edinburgh in 1731, of which most of the works with a similar title are incorrect copies, with merely another name to them.

Deal with a respectable Man, to whom you have been well recommended, and stipulate, that if after a Trial for a day or two, you do not like your purchase, that upon paying a certain Sum you may return it. This sort of Agreement will not always be acceded to, unless you are known [Pg 229]to the Dealer, and are a constant Customer.

If you have a Pair of Horses on trial, the usual charge for them, you finding provender, is about Two Guineas per Week:—Try them by driving them two or three times seven or eight Miles into the Country, where there is a good Hill to go up, such as Highgate or Hampstead Hill, you will soon find out what kind of Temper they are of:—if they have any lameness, or defects, &c.—and if they work equally, and step well together, which is extremely important;—if they are not of equal Courage and equal Pace, your Coachman will be obliged to be continually whipping one of them, in order to keep him to his Collar; and he cannot flog the Idle horse without hurting the feelings of his Industrious companion, and also those of the Persons he is driving, who, if they have any humanity, will not bear to see the willing suffer for the sluggishness of the Lazy. Moreover, every time the Whip is used the Horses spring forward, and the Carriage goes in a [Pg 230]Hop, Step, and a Jump kind of style, which is extremely disagreeable.

Sluggish Horses are good for Nought, but to drag a Cart. Your own Arms will be almost as soon tired in making them move their Legs, as if you had travelled as far on your own Feet.

The following paragraphs are from “The New Method of Managing Horses, by the Thrice Noble, High and Puissant William Cavendishe, Duke, Marquess, and Earl of Newcastle,” fol. 1667:—

“Be not afraid of a Horse who shews Strength, Spirit, and Stomach: a Horse having them cannot choose but be made a Ready Horse, if he be under the Discipline of an Understanding Hand and Knowing Heels.

“When a Horse doth not Rebel it shews Weakness and faintness of Spirit, and no Courage. Where Nature is much Wanting, it is hard for Art to supply it.”—P. 199.

Trying is the only way to know Horses.”

[Pg 231]

“I told you that Marks, Colours, and Elements, are nothing at all to know a Horse by; they are but Philosophical Mountebanks that talk of such Toyes. Nay, Shape is nothing to know the Goodness of a Horse—the best Philosophy is to Try him; and you may be deceived then, if he be a Young Horse;—Colts alter extremely both in Spirits and Strength. What Judgment can one give of a Little Boy, what Kind of Man he will prove? No more can one give a Judgment of a Colt, what Kind of Horse he will prove. Ride him and Try him; that is the best Philosophy to know him by.”—P. 104.

“A Young Horse of Three Years Old is but a Gristle,” saith his Grace of Newcastle, in p. 202 of his Book.

“For any Man that would have a Horse of Use in his ordinary occasions, or for Journeys, or Hunting, I would never buy a Horse till the Mark be out of his Mouth, i. e. till he be Seven years old; and if he be sound Wind, Limb, and Sight, he will then last you Eight or Nine Years.

“A Young Horse will have as many Diseases as a Young Child, and [Pg 232]you will have to leave him with your Host at some Inn, and hire another Horse for your Occasion; and have your Host’s Bill, and the Farrier’s, which will come to more than your Horse is Worth; and there’s your Young Horse; but your hearty Old Horse shall never Fail you.”

There is more Trouble in looking after One Young Horse than in taking care of Two old ones.

Let the Horse you select for trial be stripped—let your own Servant (who being a stranger to him will not know how to humour defects or conceal any dispositions he may have to vice, &c.) walk and trot him in a strait line, on a paved piece of Road, such as is used for this purpose at the Veterinary College at Saint Pancras; while you stand alternately before and behind him; observe well if he has any inequality in his motions—see if he steps firmly on the ground—stop him often—put him on again—observe whether in setting off he has a partiality for either Leg, beyond that which seems to be natural to [Pg 233]Horses in every part of the World, of taking off with the Left.

If a Horse is Lame with one Leg, it is sometimes disguised by putting in a Stone between the Shoe and the sole of the other foot, which is so judiciously contrived as to make him pick them both up alike.

The best way to discover Lameness is to have the horse rode so as to be heated; let him then be put into the stable till he get cool, when take him out for another trot, and examine again.

They sometimes bring Horses for trial, heated, by which many bad qualities and defects are concealed; dull Horses are animated, while the vicious pass as mere mettlesome; with many other disadvantages to the Purchasers, endless to mention. The best way is to get to the Dealer’s early in the Morning, before you are expected, and you will so find out more defects than any other way.

If the Horse be heated, let him be turned into the Stable till he gets cool; go up to him by yourself—examine him—observe his general [Pg 234]manners, and, above all, to judge of his Temper watch his Eye:—a Horse never plays a vicious trick, or thinks of one, without shewing his intention to do so by his Eye;—study the Eye of a Horse during the usual operations of the Stable, and you will be enabled to form some opinion of his Temper and Disposition.

The following account was given to me by a friend who has had great experience in Horses:

“There can be no doubt that a vicious Horse is to be known by his Eye:—I took a Horse to Mr. Professor Colman, at the Veterinary College, St. Pancras, to be examined previous to purchasing;—he had on a water-deck, the Day being Wet; the wind caused it to flap against his sides, and he reared and plunged most violently. Mr. Colman, whose Judgment respecting Horses I had previously repeatedly consulted with the greatest advantage, after looking at him for a few minutes, decidedly pronounced him to be a Vicious Horse. I begged Mr. C. to tell me whether he judged so from his plunging occasioned by what is [Pg 235]mentioned: he said No, from his Eye; he was constantly trying to look back:—however, I bought the Horse; and sure enough the Professor’s prognostic was perfectly true—he was decidedly vicious! the very next day he attempted a grand go at kicking and plunging, and did great damage to my Carriage.”

For the following Advice, we are indebted to as Honest a Man as any that deals in Horse-Flesh.

“I have found many persons who have purchased Horses of me, very inquisitive and troublesome about their Eyes; indeed, as much so as if their Eyes were any way concerned in the action of the Animal. As I know they are not, I give myself very little trouble about them:—if a Rider is in full possession of his own, what his Horse has is perfectly immaterial.

“Be sure to buy a Broken-knee’d Horse, whenever he falls in your way: the best bit of flesh that ever was crossed will certainly come down one day or another; whereas, one that has fallen, (and sacrificed himself pretty much,) never will fall again, if he can help it.

“Buy any thing but a Threatener. By the Threatener, Man himself, the Lord of the Creation, who subdues all the Animals that range the Forest, is himself kept in fear and trepidation!—This ingenious Animal has the sagacity, at every step, to threaten the [Pg 237]fracture of his Rider’s neck, probably with a view to abolish the practice of Riding; but has, at the same time, the good sense not to fall quite down, lest he should accidentally break his own. As amongst Pigeons, so amongst Horses, there are Tumblers: the feat is, however, performed differently, and varies a little in its effects on the performers: the Pigeon executes it without any thing on its back; the Horse seldom achieves it without somebody upon his. To the latter, therefore, we must give the greatest share of merit, who ventures to perform upon a hard Road what the other does only in the Air, without even a cloud to brush against. The one seeming to prefer the Milky, and the other the Highway.”—See the Duke of Newcastle on Horses; Lord Pembroke on Breaking Horses, &c. 12mo. 1761; Mr. Berenger’s [Pg 236]Art of Horsemanship; and Dr. Bracken and Mr. Gibson’s Books.

See a Comprehensive Abstract of the various Acts of Parliament relative to “Stealing Horses,” “Buying Stolen Horses,” “Killing or Maiming Horses,” &c. in p. 1046 of the Second Volume of Sir George Chetwynd’s comprehensive Edition of Dr. Burn’s Justice, 8vo. 1825.

[Pg 238]


The methods of treating and keeping Horses are as various, and, for the generality, as inconsistent with reason as those of Shoeing are; but a little consideration would, in most common cases, direct people right in both. One pampers his Cattle, with a view of strengthening them; and afterwards, by way of correction, pours down Drugs into them without thought or measure:—Another lets no Air at all into his Stable; and his Horses inevitably catch cold when they stir out of it, and get Fevers if they stay in it, by corrupted Air:—a Third, equally wise, leaves his Stable open, and his Cattle exposed to the wind and weather at all times, whether his horses or the weather be hot or cold, [Pg 239]and frequently even in wind drafts, while they are in a sweat.

All these practices are alike attended with destruction to Horses; as also are the many extravagances that prevail in the same contradictory extremes, with regard to Coverings. But in answer to all these foolish systems, reason plainly suggests to us, that proper wholesome Food, a well tempered circulation of sweet Air, moderate and constant Exercise, with due care and suitable clothing, as weather and occasions may require, will never fail to preserve Horses sound and in health.

No Vulgar Error is more common, than that Horses cannot continue well, unless they are periodically Bled, Purged, and crammed with Cordial Balls, &c.

After a very Hard day’s Work, give him a couple of Gallons of Gruel, made by putting a Quart of Oatmeal into a pail, stir it together with a little cold water, then add the proper quantity of boiling water, half a Gallon of good Strong Ale, and two Wine-glasses of Brandy: this the old Fox-hunter will tell you is better than all the Cordial Balls that were [Pg 240]ever composed. In cases of Emergency, when a Horse is distressed, a Quart of Mulled Beer; or, in an extreme Case, a Bottle of Wine, will refresh him like a charm.

The following is Squire Tallyho’s advice respecting Physic:—

The Day after a hard Run, on inquiring how his Horses were, his Groom replied, “They are pretty well; but I think, Sir, that a little Physic would do them good.”—“Why,” said the Squire, “would you give them Physic? Do they Eat well, and Drink Well, and Sleep well?”—“Yes, Sir.”—“Well then, what good do you expect to do by giving them Physic? You don’t take Physic yourself when you are Well, do you, Tom?”—“No, Sir.”—“Then why give it to a Horse?”

To prevent Diseases and preserve the Health of Horses, there is seldom occasion for Bleeding, Purging, or any other Physicking, &c., if a proper attention be paid to procure them,

1st. Sufficiently spacious and well-aired Stables: at the bottom of each Stall there should be, rather beyond the centre, a Grating, so that the Stable may always be dry; the Litter will last longer, and the [Pg 241]Stable be sweet and wholesome.

“In Russia, and other Northern Countries, Horses lie on boards without inconvenience, from which it would appear a great saving might be made if our own stalls were provided with frames for Horses to lie on without a litter. They may be constructed in the following manner:—Suppose the stall to be 6 feet wide and 9 feet long, then eight deal boards eight inches wide, nailed one inch apart to three or more ledges about two or three inches deep should be prepared for each stall. The Horse will lie dry, what falls must be swept off, and the frame turned up by day. Thus all the litter will be saved, and the straw, reed, or fern, be given for food. The frame will, probably, not cost more than the straw used for litter in a season. The boards will be very little injured, and may afterwards be applied to common purposes.

Henry Penneck, M.D. A.L.S.
“Penzance, July 30, 1826.”
(From the Dublin Courier.)

[Pg 242]

Cleanliness in a Stable is extremely important: let the Mangers be well washed once a Week, and wipe down the Stalls, and whitewash it once a year.

Let the Horse Cloths be scoured at the same time—it preserves the Cloths, and prevents the Moths getting into them.

When it is considered that Saddle or Coach-horses, on an average, pass at least 20 out of every 24 hours, or full five-sixths of their time in the Stable: the importance of keeping that as clean as possible, is evident enough without further Argument. The Stalls should not be less than six feet in the clear width.

2d. Allow them plenty of wholesome Food and Drink, in proportion to the Work required of them, due Exercise when they are not at Work, and good Rubbing and Dressing twice or thrice every day—“It is regular Feeding and Dressing which maketh Horses fat and Healthy, not the mere great abundance and rest alone which maketh plump. A man need not much trouble himself to inquire after Physic for this purpose: upon my word, [Pg 243]there is no other Secret to perform this, but to observe a methodical manner of Feeding and Dressing.”—Sollysell’s Compleat Horseman, fol. page 138. 1717.

The last thing at Night, give to those Horses that are very Lean, about a couple of Quarts of Wetted Bran, over and above their ordinary allowance of Oats, &c.—a double handful of Cinquefoil, cut into Chaff, is given by an experienced Stable-man, who was consulted in forming this work.

In Exercising Horses, the farther they are carried from home the better; i. e. take them four or five miles out and back, and never go twice one road if you can avoid it: a Horse will perform his work more cheerfully, and it breaks his temper to go different roads.

Have them out by Six in the Morning, and give them two hours’ Exercise; walk them till you get to a nice bit of even ground, and then give them a good trot or a Canter for a quarter of an hour, but never gallop them hard.

Never gallop Horses that you are training for Hunting—their Master [Pg 244]can always take enough out of their Legs when they are in the Field.

Never let a Horse be hard ridden when he has just had his belly-full of meat or water; but let him move in his own way: he will mend his pace by degrees.

[Pg 245]


There are three Intentions answered by Dressing Horses; it cleans them from dust and dirt; it counteracts the artificial state of inactivity they are occasionally under by their confinement, by exciting the Circulation; and lastly, it gives a sleekness to their Coat. Grooms usually consider only the latter intention; and as Dressing requires some labour, they idly resort to such means as produce a smooth coat without Exertion; and this, Experience tells them, is best effected by Hot Stables: Idleness is the origin of this deviation from Nature; but to make their masters allow these Hot-House Stables, Grooms tell them that they improve the Health of the Horse.

[Pg 246]


[From the Duke of Newcastle’s Book, fol. p. 123. 1677.]

“There are but these Four things; viz. Feeding Well, Clothing Warmly, Many Sweats, and Dressing Well.

“For Dressing, there are these Things: the Curry Comb, which fetches out Dust; the Dusting Cloth, that takes away the Loose Dust; the Hard Wisp, a little moistened, that takes out More Dust yet from him; and the Felt, a little moistened, that takes out More Dust from him afterwards; but the Wett Hand, which should be last, takes not only More Dust, but a great deal of Loose Hair, which is much better than any [Pg 247]of the Former:—after this, a Linen Cloth to wipe them over, and then a Woollen Cloth, and so cloathe him up.

“But the Best of all is the Knife of Heat, which is the Scraper; for when he is Hot, Scraping of him gets all the Sweat and Moysture out of him, so that he is Dry presently after, and all that Wett would turn to Dust, so there is so much Labour saved. Besides, it gets abundance of Hair from him, which the rest doth not; so that it is the most Excellent thing I know, both to Cool a Horse, and to give him a Good Coat.”

“If a fine Coat is wanted, it may be easily enough procured by proper Dressing.”—Dr. Blaine on Horses, 12mo. p. 142. 1803.

“Much rubbing (saith Old G. Markham) is comfortable, and cheereth every member.”—G. Markham’s Way to Wealth, 4to. p. 10. 1638.

“When a Horse is well Drest, his Sweat, when he is Warm, will come from him clear as Water; but the first time he be well Drest, it will take near Three hours to do it thoroughly—afterwards one hour a day [Pg 248]may be sufficient.”

Mem. It is as necessary to rub their Backs as it is to fill their Bellies.

[Pg 249]


Horses must be Fed in proportion to their Work—they must not be kept to certain regular Feeds, unless they are kept to certain regular Work, or Disease will soon overtake them, and Death end them full Gallop.

Our English Cavalry, the labour of which is about equal to that of a Coach Horse in a Private Carriage, are allowed 14 lb. of Hay, and 10 lb. of Oats per Day. Government contracts for Oats to weigh 40 lb. to the Bushel, so that it is a Peck per Day.

To the French Cavalry in Garrison, they distribute the Allowance, and fix the hours of Feeding in the following manner:

At Five o’Clock in the Morning, a third part of Hay.

[Pg 250]

At Eight o’Clock, a half allowance of Oats, and afterwards a third of Straw.

At Mid-day, a third of Hay.

At Three o’Clock, a half allowance of Oats, and afterwards a third of Straw.

At Seven o’Clock in the Evening, a third of Hay, and a third of Straw.

Horses are Watered half an hour before receiving the Oats; consequently, twice a day during the hot weather, and their Thirst quenched again in the Evening.”—From p. 132 and 133 of Mr. R. de Rochefort’s Promenades à Cheval. Paris, 16mo. 1826.

Blundevill, in his Order of Dieting Horses, 4to. 1609, p. 10, says, “that half a Peck of Oates, or as much as a Man can easily take up at six times with both his hands together, is enough to give a Horse at once.”

For Carriage Horses employed in the usual Town work, sixteen to twenty pounds of sound meadow Hay, with from three quarters to a Peck of good full Oats, per Day, will be sufficient:—should Frost, or other circumstances, lessen their labour, their Food should [Pg 251]be lessened also, and a small proportion of Bran substituted; on the other hand, when their Exercise is severe, the allowance of Corn should be increased; to which, when they are worked very hard, a few Beans are an invigorating addition; a great quantity of Hay is not good, except for Cart Horses, who are meant for no other use but to roll on slowly, with a fat fellow full of Beer swaggering beside them.

Lord Pembroke’s plan of feeding Horses, especially Old ones, with bruised Corn, and Chaff, is to be recommended—“Every grain then goes to nourishment, and Three feeds go further, than Four, as commonly given.”

Although a horse has but a short Stomach, he has Long Bowels:—Dr. Bracken tells us, that “the length of the Alimentary Canal of a Horse is seldom less than 35 Yards: He must, therefore, feed a little at a time; and as we know that when our own Stomach is empty, we feel languid, so does the Horse—and as a small Stomach must be soon emptied, it requires to be frequently replenished.”

A Horse should have Four feeds in a Day, the first about Six in [Pg 252]the Morning, the next at Eleven, again at Four, and the last thing at Night:—of these, Supper and Breakfast should be the Best; the intermediate Eating should be at about Noon, and four or five hours after: in the intervening time, let his Rack and Manger be empty, then when he comes to his meal he will eat with an appetite whatever you give him.

Make it a Rule, to give your Horses their Food two hours before you put them to Work—that the first act of the restorative process of Digestion may be finished before they are disturbed.

Young Horses, that have not done growing, have strong Appetites, and require to be more fully fed than those that have come to Maturity, but not so much Corn;—Bran, and Clover Hay. Chaff damped, will occasionally do for them better—Young Horses, like Young Children, require their Food in Quantity rather than Quality, and the lighter it is the better.

Soft Water is to be preferred; the condition of a Horse’s [Pg 253]Coat depends much on the quality of the Water that he drinks—very cold and hard water will break his Coat directly.

A Cavalry Officer informed me, that, observing One Troop in his Regiment in much finer condition than the rest, he found, on inquiry, that it was occasioned by the Horses of that Troop drinking Soft water, while the others had Hard water.


Varies quite as much in Quality, as it does in Price—Clover grass is, by some, considered to be the best; whence the Proverb, “to Live in Clover.”

The Nose is your best guide in the choice of Hay. Good hard Hay has a quick and agreeable smell:—it is of great importance that Hay be good; if it is not, let a Horse eat as much as he will of it, he will be low and poor.

I am told that there is a great deception practised in Hay Markets: they take care that those Trusses in the Cart which are likely to be examined are good; but the main bulk of the Load is not always of equally good quality.

The Reader is recommended to deal regularly with the same Farmer, as [Pg 254]the best security against the deceptions which it is said are sometimes practised in Markets.

When a Buyer endeavours to bate a Seller down below the regular market price, it may tempt a Seller to make himself amends, by putting up some Trusses of inferior Quality, if not of short Weight also.—Say to your Hay-salesman, “Now mind, I buy this as a load of Good Hay, and I shall not pay for it till I have unloaded it and found it all right.”

The fresher Hay is cut from the Stack the better: it soon turns soft and musty in a damp Hayloft, and in the course of a few weeks loses all its best Qualities.

Never lay Trusses of Hay upon each other: the best way to keep Hay from Damp and Moulding, is to set it up on its edge—so that a current of Air may circulate round it.

Go to Market in good time;—if you wait till your Stock is quite out, you must buy what you can.


are only needful when Horses have a great deal of hard work, and in Wet weather.

[Pg 255]


Hay is Horse-Bread.



And the most strengthening substance that can be given them.

Good Bran is a useful article in a Horse’s diet, and when Scalded, with a handful of Salt to it, is occasionally as good a Mash for a Horse as a Mess of Gruel is for a Man.

A Truss of Hay should weigh 56 lbs.

A Truss of Straw, 36 lbs.

A Truss of New Hay, 60 lbs.

A Ton and a Load of Hay are nearly the same.

If you send a Servant to purchase Provisions, &c. for your Horses, at least choose the Purveyor yourself, and tell your Servant previously to bring you the Price, (in writing), with the Samples of the various things.

Desire each Tradesman to send home with each Article, whether you pay Ready Money for it, or otherwise, “A Ticket of the Quantity and the [Pg 256]Price of it,” of which carefully ascertain the correctness.

Cast up every Bill,
Pay every Account Yourself,
Take care of your Receipts.

These are your only effective protections against those ruinous Impositions which perfunctory Persons continually suffer, from combinations between their Servants and their Purveyors.

[Pg 257]


Delicate Horses who have been treated over tenderly, and have long stood warmly clothed in a hot Stable, must not be all at once turned out to Grass in cold Weather.

A Horse must have “the Constitution of a Horse” indeed, who can stand such a shock; for which, he should be gradually prepared by diminishing his Clothing, and gradually accustoming him to the Open Air;

“for one Extreme,
Ne’er without Danger meets its own reverse.”

Let him be well fed till the day that he is turned out, on which give him nothing; then he will graze the greatest part of the Night;—if you turn him out with a full Belly, he will lay down, and most likely catch a mischievous Cold.

[Pg 258]

When Horses are sent to Straw-Yard or to Grass, let their Shoes be removed, and their Feet set at liberty—Toe-pieces are sometimes put on.

Early Spring Grass, for five weeks in May and June, is not only excellent Food, but admirable Physic for Horses;—Dr. Green cures most of the Disorders that Horses are subject to, sooner than any.

Strong Horses frequently fall a sacrifice to Diseases, by being kept continually upon hard dry food, which feeding on soft Green herbage for a few weeks would frequently cure sooner than any Physic.

It is recommended, that Horses in the Stable should occasionally have Green Meat, viz. Rye, or Tares, &c. which are carried about London in Carts during the Spring, &c.

A Horse will get fresher, by having a Run in a Salt Marsh for One Month, such as at Plaistow, or the Isle of Dogs, &c. than he will in Two Months on Upland Grass.

“I have been told that it is no unusual thing to take up Horses from the Marshes, and send [Pg 259]them on a long Journey directly, without any preparation; and am the more ready to believe this, because I have several times known Horses taken off the dry Commons in Winter, and perform very well on the Road:—it is quite otherwise with those that go on common Pastures, either in cold clay grounds, or where the Grass is forced with Dung: many of these require a good deal of management before they are fit to be put on hard service.”

Fields which lie near to Great Towns, and are much manured, do not afford half such wholesome Hay or Pasture as those that are further in the Country, and are not so forced. Mr. Jarvis says that he would not thank ye for the Hay that is made within 10 miles of London. The loads of Dung may make the Ground yield a more plentiful crop, but it is always of an inferior, and often of injurious Quality.

Send your Horses to Grass where the Pasture is fine without being forced, where the Water is good, and there is comfortable Shelter for them to run to in Wet Weather: they should always have Hay to go to, especially in Winter. You may be charged a trifle [Pg 260]per Week more for this; but it is Money well spent, if you value your Horse.

When a Horse returns from Grass, although he may be free from Disease, he is not fittest for Work; but will require a Week’s hard Food, and must have Hay and Corn, and be gradually Exercised for several days before he be put to Hard Work, or he will be apt to empty himself too often, and is no Horse for a long Journey—unless you wish to make a Skeleton of him.

[Pg 261]


Young Horses are much more liable to Colds than those that are full grown.

The most common cause of Colds is riding or driving Horses till they are Hot, and then suffering them to stand still where the Air is cold and chilling.—Another very usual cause of Colds is removing a Horse out of a Hot Stable to a Cold one:—a Cold taken this way will be more violent, in the degree that a Horse has been highly fed and hotly clothed: this is the reason why many Horses catch such very severe Colds soon after they come out of a Dealer’s hands.—New-built Stables, before they have been well aired and seasoned, and even Old Stables, when they have stood long empty and grown damp, are dangerous to tender Horses, that have been kept warm.


for his Diet let him have the sweetest and best Hay, and scalded Bran [Pg 262]and Water, with the chill taken off;—for his Physic, the following prescription: let him be prepared for it (if his Disorder permits) the two preceding days by some feeds of scalded Bran, which will render its operation not only more easy, but more effective:—for those Horses that have a narrow swallow, or that take Balls reluctantly, let the Ball be dissolved in a pint of Ale or Gruel, made just milk-warm.


should be made into an Oval shape, and not exceed the size of a pullet’s Egg; when the dose is large, they may be made into two: they should be dipped in Oil, that they may slip down with ease; for striving much in thrusting down Balls, greatly increases a Horse’s antipathy to such things, and renders it troublesome to administer them.


Take Soccotrine Aloes, six drachms;
Castile Soap, three drachms;
Grated Ginger, one drachm;
Oil of Caraway, twenty drops;
Syrup sufficient to make it into a Ball, which may be
rolled in Flour.

[Pg 263]

This will answer all the purpose of Physic for Horses whose intestines are not extremely idle, for whom a drachm of Jalap may be added, which will seldom fail operating effectually.

The best time to give a Horse Physic, is about 5 or 6 o’Clock in the Evening: it will then begin to operate about Noon the next day, and sometimes it will move the Bowels in the Morning.

About three or four hours after, a Horse should have a feed of scalded Bran: when he has eaten that up, he should have a small portion of Sweet Hay let down into his Rack. He may have one or two more feeds of scalded Bran the same day; and if he refuses to eat warm meat, which some Horses will loathe that have been cloyed with it before, he may be allowed raw Bran, which, if he drink sufficiently with it, will do the business perfectly well. Let his drink be made milk-warm, with a handful of Bran squeezed in it; but if he refuse to drink white water freely, let him have it without the Bran, for his Physic will always work the more, the more kindly he drinks, which let him do of [Pg 264]warm water as much as he will. Early the next morning, he may have another small feed of scalded Bran; but if he does not choose to Eat, which sometimes happens before the Physic has begun to work, while his stomach is squeamish, let him Drink as much water as he cares for, with the Chill taken off, and ride him gently, beginning with a Walk, and afterwards a gentle trot, which will help the operation of his Medicine.—Gibson on Horses, 4to. p. 129. 1751.


To cure these, there is nothing better than the Zinc Ointment of the last Pharmacopœia of the London College of Physicians.

At night wash the Heels clean first, and then rub in a little of the Ointment with your fingers, and tie a bit of linen rag round it. Take it off when he goes out. On his return home, wash his Heels, and repeat the above application. In ten days or a fortnight it will effect a complete cure, if your Horse be in good Health.

[Pg 265]

For Cracked Heels, the following is recommended:—

Take Soap Liniment, an ounce and a half;
Camphorated Spirit, an ounce;
Oil of Turpentine, half an ounce.


Take Yellow Resin, one pound;
Yellow Soap, and
Nitre, in powder, each twelve ounces;
Ginger, in powder, four ounces;
Oil of Juniper, a quarter of an ounce.
Melt the Resin and Soap in a pan over a slow fire:
when dissolved, stir in the other articles. One ounce and
a half for a Dose, to be given about twice a Week.

London Carriage Horses frequently fail in their Health about October and November, which the administration of this medicine will speedily restore.

[Pg 266]


There are few instances of the Ornamental triumphing over the Useful in a more ridiculous degree, even in this Age of Eye-Architecture,25 than in the usual management of Horses, which some people seem to suppose are as fond of Heat as Crickets. I have almost wondered that Stables have not been furnished with Stoves to keep them of a regular Pine Apple heat: this might improve the appearance of a Horse’s Coat: the fineness and smoothness of which seems to be the grand desideratum.

[Pg 267]

Providence has protected the Horse with a coat of Hair sufficient to defend him from the inclemencies of the severest Climate, which Providentially begins to grow thicker about the month of October, and increases in thickness as the Cold to which he is exposed increases.

But it is the Fashion at present to fancy that his Stable and Clothing cannot be too close: in fact, many Horses are treated like Hot-house Plants, and thereby rendered so delicate and tender, that they are morbidly susceptible of all that vast train of complaints which are caused by what is called


The Door is generally the only entrance for Air, and that only when it is occasionally open: the very threshhold of the Door is frequently stopped up with Dung, and the Key-hole filled with Straw. In the Morning, when the Door has been shut all Night, especially in Summer, the heat is intolerable, and the Air absolutely unfit to breathe. It [Pg 268]is surprising that these poor creatures are not oftener found stifled by the steams from their own bodies:—added to this, they are perhaps muffled up in thick and tight Body Clothes.

In Summer a single Sheet is fully sufficient for a Horse Cloth, and in Winter, one Woollen Cloth is all that is requisite. Neither Hacks nor Hunters should have Head Cloths or Breast Cloths, which, though ornamental, are something worse than useless, for they keep a part, while at rest, warm, which, as soon as the Horse gets out, is the part that most meets the Cold Air, and is most exposed.”

Hot-House Horses suffer severe Rheumatisms, &c. upon every trifling occasion:—a change of Stable—a Shower of Rain—standing still for a little while in the open air, produce a variety of Disorders, Lameness, Stiffness in their Joints, &c. &c.: in attempting to remove which, after they have been tormented by cramping Shoes and Pailsful of Physic, &c., the poor creatures are pronounced incurable, and given [Pg 269]over as “Foundered in the Chest,” or “Shook in the Shoulders,” or some such equally unintelligible Jargon.

“Till at last, having labour’d, drudg’d, early and late,
Bow’d down by degrees, he bends on to his fate;
Blind, old, lean, and feeble, he tugs round a Mill,
Or draws sand till the sand of his hour Glass stands still.”

Dibdin’s Race Horse.

To cover a Horse with heavy Clothes while he is in a hot Stable, and to strip him stark naked when he goes out into the Cold Air, is, I think, as absurd a custom as can easily be imagined!—Gentle Reader, how would You like to have your Great Coat put on while sitting by your Fire-side in your Snug Parlour, which is of the comfortable temperature of 60, and have it pulled off when you went out, and were obliged to stand two or three hours with a cold wind blowing upon you of a chilling temperature of 40, and perhaps Raining hard into the bargain?

Such treatment is as uncomfortable to a Horse as it would be to a Man; and is the cause of the otherwise unaccountable premature mortality of [Pg 270]these valuable animals, especially of our London Carriage Horses, which are often kept standing still exposed to the open air in cold and damp weather for hours together!

When Carriage Horses are taken out in Wet Weather, they should have Water Decks over their Loins, and be kept moving about every ten minutes.

Where the ceiling of a Stable is low, and there is no window, the best way to ventilate it is by a funnel passing up through the Stable Ceiling, and through that of the Loft above.

Stables should be aired every day by keeping the Doors and Windows open during the absence of the Horses. Experience teaches us how agreeable, and indeed how indispensable fresh Air is in our own Apartments: it is equally so to Horses; and one would almost suppose that Persons who neglect to give it them never enjoyed the benefit of fresh Air themselves.

As good Master George Markham tells us, in his Way to Wealth, [Pg 271]4to., 1638, p. 9, “Coach Horses, by reason of their many occasions to stand still, must be inured to all Hardnesse.”

Never let Carriage Horses be clothed while in the Stable, but desire your Coachman to carry their Body Clothes with him, and put them on when they have a waiting Job, as he does his own Box Coat;—the former will be as comfortable to his Horses, as the latter is to himself.

A Coachman should make it a Rule (especially when he finds it cold enough to put on his Great Coat) every quarter of an hour to move his Horses about a little, and to draw round some Corner, so as to get out of the Wind. It is not so much their being long out of Doors, but their long standing quite still in a current of Cold Air, that injures Horses.

See more on this subject in the Chapter on Coachmen.

[Pg 272]


When a Fire happens, such is the natural dread of the horse, that he cannot be prevailed on to move out of danger, but remains to his certain destruction.

In this alarming case, it has been recommended, and practised with success, (the opportunity of a few minutes offering,) to blind the horses with any cloths which can be suddenly laid hold on, and a Bridle or Halter also being put on, to back them out; for when these animals see or smell fire, they obstinately refuse to move forwards, but may be forced backward.

[Pg 273]


If you do not wish your Horse to catch cold, Mount him the moment he comes out of the Stable.

The Stirrups,” says Lord Pembroke, in his Essay on Horses, 12mo. 1761, pp. 18 and 19, “must be of just such length, that when the Rider, being well placed, puts his feet into them (about one-third of each foot from the point of it) the point may be about two or three inches higher than the heel when the Rider places himself upon the Saddle strait, even, upright and well with his Legs hanging down, and the stirrups likewise; and when he is in this position, take up the stirrup, till the bottom of it comes just under the Ankle bone. The [Pg 274]Rider must not bear upon his Stirrups, but only let the natural weight of his legs rest upon them.”

Always ride a hole or two shorter across the Country, than you do on the Road.

Ride with a Snaffle, and use your Curb only occasionally.

Choose your Snaffle full and thick in the middle, especially at the ends to which the reins are fastened. Most of them are made too small and long, and cut the Horse’s mouth, and bend back over the bars of his jaw, working like pincers.

If you ride with a Curb, make it a rule to hook on the chain yourself; the quietest Horse may bring his rider into danger, should the curb hurt him.

If in fixing the curb you turn the chain to the right, the links will unfold themselves, and then oppose a further turning. Put on the chain loose enough to hang down on the Horse’s under lip, so that it may not rise and press his jaw till the reins of the Bridle are moderately pulled.

Observe that your Horse is furnished with a Bit proper for him, and [Pg 275]by no means too heavy, which may incline him to carry low, or to rest upon the hand when he grows weary, which Horsemen call “Making use of a Fifth Leg.”

Always endeavour to avoid a Quarrel with your Horse:—if he is apt to Start, you will find occasions enough to exercise his obedience when what he starts at lies directly in his way, and you must make him pass: if he is not subject to start, do not contend with him about a trifle.

The notion of the necessity of making a Horse go immediately up to every thing he is afraid of, and not suffer him to become master of his rider, seems to be generally carried too far. It is an approved method to conquer a Horse’s fear of the sound of a Drum, by beating one near to him at the time of feeding him: this not only familiarises the noise to him, but makes it pleasant, as a forerunner of his Meat; whereas, if he was whipped up to it, he might perhaps start at it as long as he lived. Might not this be applied to his starting at other things, and [Pg 276]shew that it would be better to suffer him (provided he does not turn back) to go a little from, and partly avoid an object he has a dislike to, and to accustom him to it by degrees, convincing him, as it were, that it will not hurt him, than to punish him, quarrel with him, and perhaps submit to his will at last, while you insist on his overcoming his fear in an instant? If he sees a like object again, it is probable he will recollect his dread, and arm himself to be disobedient.

“Now of Corrections, the most principal is the Spur, which must not at anytime be given triflingly or itchingly, but soundly and sharply, as oft as just occasion shall require: then, the Rod, which upon disorder, sloth, or miscarriage, of the members, must be given also soundly: then, the Voice, which being delivered sharply and roughly, as Ha, Villaine!Carrikra!Diablo!—and such like threatenings, terrifieth the Horse, and maketh him afraide to disobey: and lastly, the Bridle which now and then stricken with a hard [Pg 277]chocke in his mouth, reformeth many vices and distemperatures of his head: yet this last must be done seldome, and with great discretion, for to make a custom thereof is the ready way to spoil a Horse’s mouth.”

“Now of Cherishings there are generally in use but three; as first, the voice, which being delivered smoothly and lovingly, as crying HollaSo, boyThere, Boy, There—and such like, gives the Horse both a cheerfulnesse of Spirit and a knowledge that he hath done well: then the hand, by clapping him gently on the necke or buttocke, or giving him Grasse or other foode to eate after he hath pleased you: and lastly, the big ende of the rod, by rubbing him therewith upon the withers or maine, which is very pleasing and delightful to the horse.”—Markham’s Way to Wealth, 4to. 1638. p. 16.

“The Hope of Reward, and the Fear of Punishment, governs the whole World, not only Men, but Horses; for it is impossible that you can well manage your Horse until he fear you, and out of that fear, Love and [Pg 278]Obey you; for it is Fear maketh every body obey both Man and Beast. Love is not so sure a Hold, for there you depend upon his Will; but when he Fears you, he depends upon yours.”—Soleysell’s Horsemanship, fol. 1717. p. 272.

Old Blundevill, in his 24th Chapter of his Book on Horses, 4to. 1609. p. 22, gives the following advice:—

“But because few keepers can correct with discretion, I would wish him rather to use no correction at all, but only to winne him by gentle meanes, by faire speaking, and by often clawing him and feeding him by hand, and in Summer season, by wiping away Flies,26 Nats, or other things that doth annoy him: so shall the Horse be alwayes glad of him, and rejoice in his presence, and in time become so familiar, as he will [Pg 279]play with him like a dog; for, truely, unless there be mutual Lore betwixt the keeper and the horse, the horse seldom or never battleth; for if the keeper love not his horse, he will never meat him thoroughly nor delight to dresse him, nor will the horse be delighted with his dressing. And, therefore, the chiefest point of a horsekeeper is to love his horse and to seeke to be loved againe of him; so shall he profit the Horse and pleasure his Maister.”

Before you mount your Horse, if you are only going to take an Airing, examine whether the Bridle, Girths, and Straps, &c. are all good and well fixed, and that he is properly Shod.

“For want of a Nail the Shoe is lost,
For want of a Shoe the Horse is lost.”

Direct that neither the Heel nor Frog be pared more than merely to take off what is ragged and broken. It is still more safe to do that yourself, or direct your Coachman to do it, than to trust it to a Farrier or Shoemaker, notwithstanding the Gentleman may have written [Pg 280]over his Door, “Here Horses are shod agreeable to Nature and according to Art.”

Fit the Shoe to the Foot, and not the Foot to the Shoe.

[Pg 281]


It is manifest, that a considerable increase of pressure on the Heels naturally follows—so that Lameness frequently attends the practice of Frosting even for a short time.

The ordinary method of Frosting is by taking a Shoe off, heating it, and turning up the Heel and Toe; but this being Iron only, it lasts, for any efficient purpose, but a short time; and if hard worked, the same process must be repeated almost daily, as long as the Frost continues.

[Pg 282]

It is evident that the Hoof must suffer most severely by such a continued and repeated perforation with the Nails; so that if a Frost should happen to last a Month or two, it is probable there would be scarcely horn enough left to nail a Shoe on with safety. When Frosting is required, I have found that by Steeling the Heels, and if a Draft Horse, the Toes also, that they will last considerably longer, and consequently diminish the frequency of Driving Nails. A much shorter Rough will answer, and the usual head will not need to be so much altered.—Goodwin on Shoeing Horses, 8vo. p. 280. 1824.

The usual charge for Roughing the Shoes of Coach Horses, is 2s. 8d. per Horse.

To perform the operation so sensibly recommended by Mr. Goodwin, will cost but little more, and the Shoes will certainly last much longer.

Mr. T. Clark recommends the following plan:—

“When the Roads, &c. are covered with Ice, it becomes necessary to [Pg 283]have the Heels of the Shoes turned up, and frequently sharpened, in order to prevent Horses from slipping and falling. As this cannot be done without the frequent moving of the Shoes, which breaks and destroys the crusts of the Hoofs where the Nails are drove, to prevent this, I have always recommended to those who were willing to be at the expense, to have Steel Points screwed into the Heels or quarters of each Shoe, which might be taken out and put in as required.

“The method of doing this properly, is first to have the Shoes fitted to the shape of the Hoof; then to make a small round Hole in the extremity of each heel, or in the quarters, about three-eighths of an inch in diameter or more, in proportion to the breadth and size of the Shoe: in each of these holes a screw is to be made: the Steel points are likewise to have a screw on them exactly fitted to that in the Shoes. Care must be taken that the Screw on the points is no longer when they are screwed into the Shoe than the thickness of the latter. The Steel points are to be made sharp; they may either be made square [Pg 284]or triangular. The height of the point above the Shoe should not exceed half an inch for a Saddle Horse: they may be made higher for a Coach Horse.

“The Key or Handle that is necessary to screw them in and out occasionally, is made in the shape of the Capital letter T, and of a sufficient size and strength: at the bottom of the handle there is a socket or cavity, properly adapted to the shape of the Steel point, and so deep as to receive the whole point that is above the Shoe. In order to prevent the screw from breaking at the neck, it will be necessary to make it of a gradual taper: the same is likewise to be observed of the female screw that receives it; that is, the hole must be wider on the upper part of the Shoe than the under part: the sharp points may be tempered or hardened, in order to prevent them growing too soon blunt; but when they become blunt, they may be sharpened as at first. These points should be unscrewed when the Horse is put into the Stable, as the Stones will do them more injury in a few minutes there, than a day’s riding on Ice. A Draught Horse should [Pg 285]have one point on the Toe of each Shoe, as that gives him firmer footing in drawing on ice; but for a Saddle Horse, when they are put there, they are apt to make them trip and stumble.”

[Pg 286]


1. A Hackney Coach, for the business of the moment, to rest your Legs, or shelter you from the Weather, may be had for the ¹⁄₆₉₀₀th part of the Annual Expense of a Private Carriage. Think o’ that, ye Lame and ye Languid! for ye are the Grand Patrons of Ponies, Perches, Whips, and Wheels—Bless your Stars that you are in a Country where, although it costs Three Thousand Four Hundred and Fifty Shillings to keep a Coach for Half a Year, that you can Hire one for Half an Hour, for Twelve Pence! which you may command in all respects as absolutely as if it was your own.[Pg 287] 1. A Private Carriage costs (see Estimate No. IV.) £345 per Annum, i. e. 6900 shillings a Year.
2. A Hackney Coach is almost always to be had in a few Minutes, except in the lamentable instance of a pelting shower. 2. Your own Horses and Carriage cannot be brought round in less than 25 minutes after you order it: even if it and the Harness are all clean and ready, an active Coachman cannot dress himself and put to in less time,—and Your Own Coachman may be Ill,—or not ready for Action,—Your Horses may be Sick,—or your Carriage may be broken:—moreover, if that prime minister of the machinery of Locomotion has not previous notice that you will want the Wheels to go round, if he is not a marvellously steady Man, it is an even chance, that, making sure you will not require his services, he will imagine he may emigrate from his Hay-Loft with impunity, and be frisking about after his own Affairs.
3. The Hackney-Coachman’s Motto is the same as Madam Hecate’s,
Fair is Foul, and Foul is Fair.
[Pg 288] He is well pleased to wait for you, at all Hours, and in all Weathers, Cold or Windy, Hot or Rainy, as long as you are pleased to wish him;—when you have kept him long in the Rain, if you give the poor fellow Six or Twelve pence extra when you discharge him, (can you lay them out better?) it will make him as well satisfied with waiting in the Wet for you, as your own Servant would, in a similar situation, be ill satisfied!
3. Gentlemen’s Equipages are generally Fair-weather Play-things.—If you have your Carriage out in Wet Weather, and are obliged to keep it waiting in the Rain—if you have a Coachman, a Coach Horse, or a Carriage, either one of which are Good for any thing—if you are Good for any thing Yourself, you will not feel quite contented, however comfortably sheltered by a good Roof, or however agreeably you are surrounded by good Company, whilst they are exposed to the inclemency of the Sky.

Mem.—A Waiting Job, in cold rainy weather, may cost you not merely a pair of Horses worth a Hundred Pounds! but the Life of an useful Servant into the Bargain!! For One London Coachman or Coach horse that dies from over-work, an Hundred are destroyed by standing still in Cold and Wet Weather.

4. Persons who keep a Carriage in London, on an average seldom go above 8 or 10 Miles per day, or [Pg 289]have their Carriage out more than 3 Hours in the 24:—to hire a Hackney Coach to do such work every day in the Year, will cost 10s. per Day, or £182. 10s. per Annum. The Expense of keeping a Carriage, as per Estimate No. IV.
£345 0 0
Charge for keeping a Hackney Coach to do the same work £182 10 0
i. e. £162 10 0
saved by not keeping a Carriage.

It appears, therefore, that it is more convenient and much Cheaper, even if you employ it as often as you would your own Carriage, to hire a Hackney Coach, than it is to keep a Private Carriage; and if you only hire a Hackney Coach when you really want it, if your Ten-toed machinery is in tolerable condition, instead of your Hackney Coach hire costing you £182. 10s., you may have as much riding as your Business really requires, for £100. a Year: moreover, your Health will be better preserved than if you walked less and rode more; the additional Exercise will ensure the more perfect performance of those interesting “Opera Minora Vitæ,” “Eating, Drinking, and Sleeping!”

Can snore upon the Flint, when nesty Sloth
Finds the down pillow hard.”


If you keep a Carriage, you will often be as much tempted to Ride, merely because you can ride for nothing, as from any actual want you feel of the assistance of the Wheel-work.

Walking is the natural and the best Exercise that Man can take; and, however those who walk may occasionally envy those who Ride, the [Pg 291] Gentleman in the Coach would often gladly give more than it costs him to keep it, to have the power of using his own Legs.—Dr. Franklin advised a friend to burn his Carriage, that he might get heat out of it at least once in his Life.

4. In the Estimate (No. IV.) you have the Service of the Coachman occasionally, when he is not busy with his Horses and Carriage—and if you keep a sharp lookout that your Carriage is kept in a good state of Repair, you will very rarely be liable to those Accidents which sometimes happen to the infirm Constitution of a Hackney Coach: moreover, you will be moved about not merely with more Safety and more Celerity, but with more Comfort, from knowing that you have a Pilot whom you may depend upon:—the latter is an extremely important consideration to those whose business calls them to places which are crowded with Carriages.

When you wish your Mind to be active, and to do its best, it should have nothing before it except the single object under its consideration; and the Body should also be at Ease:—this, and the saving of time in passing from one place to another, are the chief benefits a Carriage affords to Men of Business.

Again: it is a Rule with Hackney-coachmen to take the shortest route; the consequence is, that as they naturally desire to perform their task as soon as possible, if they think half a dozen yards are to be saved by it, unless specially directed, they will bring you through all the nasty, narrow, badly ventilated and badly paved Lanes, &c. which they can find, and which, if you understand the value of Fresh Air, you would studiously avoid.

These vehicles are often used to convey sick people to Hospitals, especially Coaches: Chariots are more easily ventilated, on account of their Front windows. Never get into a Hackney Coach that has the Windows shut up, if there is one on the Stand of which the Windows are open;—stagnant Air is always Offensive, and often Infectious.

[Pg 292]


Get an accurate Map of London, on a Scale of not less than 6 Inches to a Mile; set a pair of Compasses (or rather, what I believe are called Dividers, which have a screw that fixes them firmly to any distance at which you wish to keep them separate,) to a Furlong, and with them you may easily measure any distance—allow for Turnings, and keep your reckoning short by at least half a Furlong, that is, 20 Poles, i. e. 330 feet in each Mile: as some Guide to guess this, [Pg 293]Houses in London being, on an Average, not more than 20 feet in front, stop within at least 16 houses of what you consider to be the full Mile.

A Map of the Metropolis, laid down from actual measurement on a scale of an Inch to a Furlong, i. e. of 8 Inches to a Mile, is much wanted;—with it and a pair of Compasses, all Hackney Coach Fares might be settled with the utmost ease, and with sufficient exactness, to satisfy All, except litigious triflers, who are more Nice than Wise.

I read the foregoing paragraph to Mr. Cary, the Map-maker, of St. James’s Street, who replied, “I have had thoughts of publishing a Map on the scale you mention; on such a plan, that by merely looking at it, the distances might be determined within Twenty Poles, i. e. within the ¹⁄₁₆th part of a Mile.”

Such a Map would be a very great acquisition, and I hope Mr. C. will meet with encouragement sufficient to induce him to put his design into execution speedily, as it would form a certain standard by which all questions respecting distances might be immediately adjusted, to the satisfaction of both parties.

[Pg 294]

Let Measure Stones be placed at the ends of our Streets, or at least of the principal Streets, as Mile Stones are on our Roads; or let their length be written under the Names on the Boards which are fixed up at the ends of Streets.

To make an actual Measurement of every Street with a Measuring Wheel, would not cost more than £500.; to affix the Distances under the Names of the Street, not so much: the Expense might in part be defrayed by the Sale of a Map of London, on the scale of one Inch to a Furlong, laid down accurately from such an exact survey, and a Volume like Cary’s Guide for Ascertaining Hackney Coach Fares; of which very curious and useful Work, see a specimen at the end of this Chapter.

The length of Mile. Furl. Poles.
Oxford Street (the longest in London) is 1 2 19
Piccadilly 0 7 28
Bond Street 0 4 16
Holborn 0 7 1
Tottenham Court Road 0 5 14
The Strand 0 6 9
Fleet Street 0 2 3

Make a list of Fares, North, South, East, and West, from your House, [Pg 295]of 1s., 1s. 6d., and 2s., taking care to add thereto the distance from the Stand, or Place whence the Coach is called.

To acquire a general idea of Distances, draw on a Map, of the scale before mentioned, Circles around your House of two Miles, of three Miles, and of four Miles in diameter, the Semi-diameter of which will give the distance from your residence of a Mile, a Mile and a half, and Two Miles, i. e. of Shilling, Eighteen-penny, and Two Shilling Fares.

Hackney Coaches travel, on an average, about 5 miles an hour, seldom more than 6, nor less than 4:—therefore, riding at the rate of 5 miles in an hour, costs about A Penny a Minute; and when you have been carried for 12 minutes, (look at your Watch when you enter the Carriage, and make allowance for stoppages,) you may reckon that you have 12 Pence to pay:—above 24 minutes, the Fares increase in a higher ratio, as above Two Miles is 3s.

The advantage of such Calculation is, if you are set down a few Poles within Two miles, you save, first, Sixpence on the Ground, and [Pg 296]secondly, the extra Sixpence to which the Coachman is entitled on exceeding every Two miles; making the difference of a Shilling for perhaps a single Yard.

Before you get into a Hackney Coach, take the Number: it is especially advisable to do so, when you hire a Coach to carry home Ladies, and then do it in such a way, that the Driver may observe that you have taken his Number; and to complete your Care, ask the Coachman what his Fare is, which, if your Gallantry is as great as your Circumspection, you may perhaps do yourself the pleasure of Paying.

If the Coachman conducts himself improperly, or if any thing is left in the Carriage, apply to your friend Mr. Quaife27: by summoning the Coachman to the Hackney Coach Office, at the bottom of [Pg 297]Essex Street in the Strand, or to one of the Police Offices, you will most probably recover it.

Avoid any dispute with a Hackney Coachman—pay what he demands, although you know it to be more than his Fare, and seek redress at the Office in Essex Street.

The Driver of a Hackney Coach has the option of charging28 either for the Time he is detained, or for the Distance:—Time is rated at less than half what is charged for Travelling.

When you intend to be charged according to the Time you keep the Coach, in order to prevent any dispute when you discharge it, tell [Pg 298]the Coachman the time when he first arrived, making allowance for the minutes that he has been coming from the Stand whence he was called.

The Machine used to measure the distances at the Hackney Coach Office is called “a Perambulator,” or “Surveying Wheel.”—This consists of a Wheel which is 8 Feet 3 Inches, i. e. half a Pole, in circumference; so in two revolutions it measures one pole, or 16½ feet. One revolution of this Wheel turns a single-threaded worm once round; the worm takes into a Wheel of 80 teeth, and turns it once round in 80 revolutions: on the socket of this wheel is fixed an index, which makes one revolution in 40 Poles, or one Furlong; on the [Pg 299]axis of this worm is fixed another worm with a single thread, turning about a wheel of 160 teeth, whose socket carries an index that makes one revolution in 80 Furlongs, or 10 Miles: on the dial plate there are three graduated circles; the outermost is divided into 220 parts, or the Yards in a Furlong; the next into 40 parts, the number of Poles in a Furlong; the third into 80 parts, the number of Furlongs in ten Miles, every Mile being distinguished by its proper Roman figure.

The above Apparatus, Mr. Harris, Mathematical Instrument maker, No. 50, High Holborn, makes for £12. 12s.: it may be attached to the wheel of a Carriage, and the Dial will shew the progress made in Travelling, and then is called a Way-wiser.

This Machine may be applied to any kind of Chaise or Carriage, and may be put on and off at pleasure, without any injury to either.

It will accurately register the number of Miles the Vehicle travels over, to any distance. It is fixed so as to be of no possible detriment to the Carriage, and can be ornamented as elegantly as fancy may [Pg 300]desire. A Time-piece may be attached to it, by which may be seen the Distance travelled per Hour.

I can think of only One way of infallibly preventing all disputes about Distance, between the Riders in and the Drivers of Hackney Coaches.

To Regulate all the fares by Time, according to the present charge for Time, 2s. for the first hour, and 3s. for every hour after: as the Pace in Travelling seldom exceeds five Miles in an Hour, about double the sum is charged while the Coach is in motion that is charged while it is in waiting. Let after the rate of Five or Six Shillings per hour be paid while the Wheels are going round;—this could be much easier reckoned than the Distance they have gone over, and would put an end to all Disputes on the subject.

To determine exactly between an extremely long Twelve, and an extremely short Eighteen-penny fare, is not a very easy task to the most Experienced: it is, in fact, determining whether you have proceeded 1760 or 1761 Yards!

[Pg 301]

A friend of mine informs me, that he puzzled himself and the Hackney Coachman too on one occasion, by pulling him up so that the Horses had exceeded the Shilling fare, and the Coach had not. This deserves to be referred to a full bench of Justices. They might, at the same time, decide how it would be, if the Coach had been stopped, so that the two fore Wheels were in the above predicament of the Horses, and the other two in that of the Coach. Perhaps then it would make the difference of 6d. on which side the passengers sat.

Query. Can persons who can afford to ride in a Hackney Coach lay out Sixpence more to their own advantage than in spending it to prevent their being put out of Temper?—If they are going out to Dinner, any disagreeable irritation of the Animal Spirits will destroy their Appetite;—if they are returning Home, it will as inevitably invite an Indigestion. Surely no man who is worth a Shilling, would encounter either of these tremendous evils for the sake of Sixpence! [Pg 302]unless the Gentleman (to use the nomenclature of the Hero of a certain popular Drama) be a regular Jarvy-Teaser.

But who grudges these Poor Fellows their full Fare? except a few Washerwomen, Milliners, and Tailors, and Coffin-makers, and Grave-makers, who may like them as little as Link Boys love the Moon, who, for their outrageous antipathy to

“The silver Queen of Night,”

are denominated in Mr. Grose’s Classical Dictionary, “Moon-Cursers.”

How many pretty Bonnets and smart Dresses would have been spoiled the first day of wearing, but for a Shilling Fare?—How many Colds caught?—How many Lives lost?—but for these convenient Rests to Weariness and Shelters from Rain; a shower of which sometimes does as much mischief to Man’s person as it does good to his Potatoes, often produces the most dangerous Diseases, and even Death itself!

In a note in the Prolegomena of Malone’s supplement to Johnson [Pg 303]and Steevens’s Shakespeare, we have the following account of


“I cannot (says Mr. Garrard) omit to mention any new thing that comes up amongst us, though never so trivial. Here is one Captain Bailey, he hath been a Sea Captain, but now lives on the land, about this city, where he tries experiments. He hath erected, according to his ability, some four Hackney Coaches, put his men in livery, and appointed them to stand at the Maypole in the Strand; gives them instructions at what rates to carry men into the several parts of the Town, where all day they may be had. Other Hackneymen seeing this, flocked to the same place, and performed their journey at the same rate, so that sometimes there are twenty of them together, which disperse up and down, that they and others are to be had every where, as watermen are to be had [Pg 304]by the water-side. Every body is much pleased with it. For whereas, before, coaches could not be had but at great rates; now a man may have one much cheaper.”

This Letter is dated April 1, 1634.—See Gents. Mag. for 1780, p. 375.

The Rules given in the preceding pages will protect the Rider from extortion on the part of the Driver, beyond Sixpence; and for that, is it worth contending? However the furious Economist, and Penny wise and Pound foolish Boys may differ from us, we say again, it is too great a trifle for the Wise to be nice about. A man who has Twelve-pennyworth of Sense will have no Sixpenny Sorrows.

“There is a Time for all Things.”

Ecclesiastes, chap. iii. verse 1.

“There is a Time to Save, in order to Spend”—and so is there also “a Time to Spend, in order to Save.”

The Price of Labour is usually in proportion to the degree of Skill or Strength requisite to perform any operation, or to the Disagreeableness of the work, or to the Detriment it occasions to Health:—few [Pg 305]situations are more disagreeable, or more destructive to Health, than the exposure at all Hours to extreme Heat in Summer, and intense Cold in Winter, and continual Wet in the Rainy Season:—neither are


so large as his hard service seems to indicate that they ought to be—though the Outfit does not cost much. A Coach may be purchased for about £30. or £40.—a Chariot for about £20.—the Horses may be had from £8. to £20. each:—but, as the old saying is,

They Eat o’ Nights.”

Bad Horses have as good an appetite as the best: ay, sometimes a better, (if Goodness be measured by Greatness,) in the same way that bad land wants more manure than good. It may be said, that the inferior Provender provided for these poor hard-worked Hacks, is not so dear [Pg 306]as that which is purchased for the pampered animal, whose sleek coat is his Master’s pride: but it must be taken into the account, that if their Food be somewhat cheaper, their Stomachs are so constantly stimulated by those strongest excitements to good Appetite, Air and Exercise, that they are ever and aye, “as Hungry as a Hunter,” and eat nearly double what those Horses do who pass their days indolently in an over-heated Stable: indeed, we think that to be “as Hungry as a Hackney Coach Horse” must be a few degrees beyond being as Hungry as a Hunter; or one degree nearer to that state which is considered by the Grand Gourmand as the most enviable in Existence.

It is told of a certain worthy and wealthy Citizen, who has acquired the reputation of being a considerable Consumer of the good things of the Table, and has been “widened at the expense of the Corporation,” that on coming out of a Tavern, after a Turtle Feast, a poor Boy begged Charity of him—“For Mercy’s sake, Sir, I am so very Hungry!” “Hungry!Hungry!—hey!—what!—complain of [Pg 307]being Hungry!—why I never heard the like!—complain of being Hungry!!—Prodigious!!!—why I’d give a Guinea to be Hungry!!!—why, a Hungry Man (with a good Dinner before him) is the Happiest fellow in the world!—There, (giving the Boy Half-a-Crown,) there, I don’t want you to take my word for it: run along, my fine fellow, and make the experiment Yourself.”

It appears, from the following Estimate, that a Hackneyman must every day earn Thirteen Shillings for the maintenance of his Machinery, before he will receive any Profit.

£. s. d.
The Keep of Three Horses, (a Hackney Coach cannot be well worked every day with fewer of such crazy cattle as they are often obliged to be content with) at £31. 10s. per Annum for each, (see Estimate No. 4) 94 10 0
Coachman’s Wages, at 9s. per Week 23 8 0
Board, ditto, at 14s. ditto 36 10 0
Coach-house and Stables, and Tax thereon 20 0 0[Pg 308]
Tax on Coach and Horses, £2. per Month, per Annum 24 0 0
Interest of the Purchase money of the Carriage and Horses, and the wear and tear thereof, and New Wheels annually 40 0 0
238 8 0

The above Estimate, however considerable it may appear, will not be considered as too high, when it is recollected that the Carriage is in continual use, that the Horses are exposed to all weathers, and are often Over-worked and Under-fed.

Hackney Coachmen get upon the Stands about nine in the Morning, and are often out till past twelve at Night, except those who work double, who take out one Coach and Horses Early in the Morning, bring them home at about six or seven in the Evening, and then take out another pair for Night-work.

It appears from Mr. Jervis’s Journal, which account I believe [Pg 309]to be “quite correct,” that the Harvest of a Hackney Coachman, like the Hay-farmer’s, is in the Sultry Summer Months.

We can defend ourselves from Cold and Rain much more easily than we can from the fatigue brought on by walking in Hot Weather.

“Careful Observers can foretell the hour,
By sure prognostics, when to dread a shower.
If you are Wise, then go not far to Dine,
You’ll spend in Coach hire more than save in Wine.”

The Vauxhall season is another source of considerable profit to the proprietors of the Leathern Conveniences.

The least productive Months are February, March, and April: this may be partly accounted for, by the Economy which is so inevitably submitted to during those months, occasioned by People’s pockets being drained by Christmas Bills and Christmas Gambols.

On an average of Forty weeks, it seemed, that the most productive [Pg 310]Days are Wednesdays and Thursdays. This may, in some measure, be accounted for, by the greater number of Dinner parties, &c. which are given on those days.

One of the most frequent uses of these accommodating Vehicles, is to carry People out to Dinner. The following hint, every one who is equally a true lover of polite Punctuality and of a Hot Dinner, will think Good Advice.

An Excuse, which is as foolish as it is common, but which a furious Economist seems to fancy is a sufficient plea for spoiling the best Feast, is, “there was not a Coach to be had.” Uncalculating and Improvident! not to send for one till the very last moment. You save nothing by it!—you spoil your Friend’s Dinner! and excite the displeasure of his Guests!!—and all this—to save your dear, dear self, Sixpence!!! (or as I found it in Mr. Jervis’s MS. “a little white farthing.”) As such a Mite would have prevented it, although your Polite host may pretend not to notice your Rudeness, no Apology that you may make can cancel such a confirmed certificate of [Pg 311]your Selfish Impertinence; therefore be not so silly as to fancy that it will. Remember the English Proverb, “Hunger and Anger are nearly allied;” and the Scotch saying, that “Hungry people are aye Angry.”

[Pg 312]


Suppose you have a Mile and a half to go, the fare is Eighteen-pence, you will seldom be less than 15, or, if you meet with Stoppages on the way, more than 20 minutes, in going:—for Eighteen-pence you may keep a Coach 45 Minutes; therefore, call a Coach a Quarter of an Hour before you want it, i. e.—if you do not wish to be Too Late.

[Pg 313]


Having settled When—by your leave, we will tell you How to call a Coach:—

“Go—call a Coach; and let a Coach be called:
Let him that calls the Coach, be called the Caller!
And in his calling, let him nothing call,


Equity requires that you ought to take the first Coach on the Stand, however little you may like the appearance of the Driver, the Carriage, or the Horses; because the occupier of that place having obtained it by being the longest in waiting, has therefore a fair claim to a preference, which it is apparently unjust not to grant: However, we have heard persons give the following advice—If you are in [Pg 314]haste, take the Coach, the Driver of which is on the Box, the Horses bitted, and who stand with their faces towards the way you wish to go:—if not in a hurry, Open your Eyes, and choose that Vehicle to which the tidy appearance of it and its Driver attract you, and present ocular demonstration that the Carriage is clean, and the Coachman careful.

The Servants of Industry are known by their Livery, which is always whole and wholesome—the Slaves of Idleness are slovenly and loathsome:—the former, generally prove Civil and honest,—the latter, Impertinent and imposing.

When going out to Dinner, Beware of indulging your Benevolence by conferring the silly Sixpenny Civility of taking up every person that is bound to the same house: such mighty good kind of Gentry are commonly too late. However, since Colonel Bosville established the right laudable custom of locking out all those who come after the appointed hour, this caution has become almost needless; as now the rudeness of those who come too late, by such a prudent order to your Porter, very properly recoils upon Themselves:—Good Dinner-Giver, let [Pg 315]such perfunctory persons be locked out!

Let those who wish to ensure Punctuality, have their Letter of Invitation expressed in the following manner, and affix thereto the Seal of the Committee of Taste, the motto on which is,

Better Never, than Late.

Messrs. Champaigne and Turtle request the honour of Messrs. Thirst and Hunger’s company at Dinner on Thursday the 9th Nov., five minutes before Five o’clock.

Nota Bene.—Messrs. C. and T. have directed, that as soon as the First Course is served, the Table shall be garnished with the Key of the Street Door, where it shall remain among the Dormant decorations till the Second Course is removed.

A prudent General always provides for a Retreat.

The Best way of securing a Coach to bring you Home, if it is a long distance, is to keep the Coach in waiting—or tell the Driver to [Pg 316]call and take you home at a certain hour; or fee the Waterman at the nearest Stand, to send one at the hour you wish.

A Facetious Friend of the Editor’s, on a very Wet Night, after several Messengers, whom he had despatched for a Coach, had returned without obtaining one: at last, at “past one o’clock, and a Rainy Morning,” the Wag walked himself to the next Coach-stand, and politely advised the Waterman to mend his Inside lining with a Pint of Beer, and go home to bed; for, said he, “there will be nothing for you to do to-Night,—I’ll lay you a Shilling that there’s not a Coach out.”—“Why, will you, your Honour? then, done,” cried Mr. Waterman; “but are you really serious, ’cause, if so be as You be, I must make haste and go and get one.” Being assured he would certainly touch the Twelve-penny if he did, He trotted off on his “Nag a ten toes,” and in Ten minutes returned with a Leathern Convenience.—Bonaparte used to say, “In some cases, there is nothing like a Subsidy.”

[Pg 317]

We make no remarks on the newly introduced


further than to observe, that they are entitled to only two-thirds of the Fare of a Hackney Coach.

Mr. Jervis says that a Carriage with only Two Wheels, however well piloted by the most expert charioteer, is an extremely dangerous Vehicle in a paved and crowded street—especially, at the rapid rate at which some perfunctory people require them to keep moving. If the Horse be ever so sure-footed, and the Driver ever so skilful and steady, they are frightfully dangerous Vehicles for town work, and will only be used by those who are rash enough to sacrifice safety to Celerity, and Comfort to Cheapness.

[Pg 318]


Commencing June 23, 1808, [48 Geo. III. cap. 87.]


Not exceeding s. d.
One mile 1 0
One mile and a half 1 6
Two miles 2 0
Two miles and a half 3 0
Three miles 3 6
Three miles and a half 4 0
Four miles 4 6
Four miles and a half 5 6
Five miles 6 0
Five miles and a half 6 6
Six miles 7 0
Six miles and a half 8 0
Seven miles 8 6
Seven miles and a half 9 0
Eight miles 9 6[Pg 319]
Eight miles and a half 10 6
Nine miles 11 0
Nine miles and a half 11 6
Ten miles 12 0
Ten miles and a half 13 0
Eleven miles 13 6
Twelve miles 15 0

And so on, at the rate of 6d. for every half mile, and an additional 6d. for every two miles completed.


Not exceeding s. d.
Thirty minutes 1 0
Forty-five minutes 1 6
One hour 2 0
One hour and 20 minutes 3 0
One hour and 40 minutes 4 0
Two hours 5 6
Two hours and 20 minutes 6 0
Two hours and 40 minutes 7 0
Three hours 8 0
Three hours and 20 minutes 9 0
Three hours and 40 minutes 10 6
Four hours 11 0

And so on, at the rate of 6d. for any fifteen minutes further [Pg 320]time. Cabriolets are entitled to two-thirds of the Coach fares.

Mem.—A Coachman may contract to drive you to a certain Place for a certain Sum, and if it exceeds the distance which you are entitled to be carried for such Sum—he cannot demand more.

The fares are to be taken by the Hour or Mile only, and not by the Day.

Coaches discharged after Sun-set hours (viz. after 8 between Lady Day and Michaelmas, and after 5 between Michaelmas and Lady Day,) between the carriage-way pavement, or if hired at a stand beyond the same, may demand the full fare back to such extremity or standing.

For Coaches hired to go into the country in the day-time, and there discharged, additional fares are to be taken for their return to the pavement or next stand where hired, as follow: for 10 miles, 5s.; 8 miles, 4s.; 6 miles, 3s.; and 4 miles, 2s. If under 4 miles, nothing.

Coachmen are not compellable to take more than four, nor Chariots more [Pg 321]than three, adult persons inside, and a servant out: but if they agree to take more, then 1s., in addition to the fare, must be paid for each extra person; and if the coach be hired for the country, and to return, 1s. for each extra person going, and 1s. for his returning.

Abusive Language.—The Drivers behaving rudely, or using abusive Language, are to forfeit not more than £10,—in default of payment, are sent to the House of Correction for any time the Magistrate may please, not exceeding two months.

Extortion.—Coachmen refusing to go on, or extorting more than their fare, are to forfeit not more than 3l. nor less than 10s. Not only the Commissioners in Essex Street, Strand, but also the Magistrates at the Police-offices, determine such Offences, and inflict Punishments.

Obligation to go on.—If a Coach be drawn off the Stand to the side of the pavement, it is equally as liable to be hired as if it stood on the Stand, and the Coachman may be made to go with you, if not hired—if he refuses, he is liable to be fined. They are compellable, [Pg 322]if plying for hire, at any hour of the Day or the Night, to go upon all Turnpike roads, any where within Two miles and a half from the end of the Carriage-way pavement.

Articles left in a Hackney Coach are (by a late Act) to be taken to the Hackney Coach Office, Essex Street, Strand, on pain of paying 20l.; to be recovered on application to the Commissioners, or a Justice of the Peace.

The Coachman is to take the shortest way, and to charge accordingly: but if he, from choice or ignorance, does otherwise, he can make no extra charge.

He may refuse to take Heavy Luggage, unless he is paid something more than the fare; but he must object to it before it be put into the Coach: he cannot, however, object to take a small Parcel that may be carried in the hand.

When a Coachman is desired to wait, he may demand a sum in hand beyond his previous fare, and is accountable for such sum when you discharge him. He is not bound to wait without such a detainer, nor longer than it will pay for the time.

[Pg 323]

See a comprehensive Abstract of the 18 Acts of Parliament relating to Hackney Coaches, in p. 765 of Vol. II. of Sir George Chetwynd’s edition of Dr. Burn’s Justice, 8vo. 1825.

Those who wish to ascertain distance very exactly, I advise to purchase

Mr. Quaife’s Hackney Coach Directory, which is sold only at the Hackney Coach Office in Essex Street, Strand, and contains nearly Eighteen Thousand Fares from actual Measurements, and

Cary’s New Guide for ascertaining
Hackney Coach Fares, Price 3s. 6d.

This elaborate work gives an actual admeasurement of every Street in the Metropolis, and affords the means of ascertaining the Length of any Route, however indirect.

We subjoin, as a Specimen, the Two first pages of this Work.

[Pg 324]

The first and second Column contain the Distance of one Street from the other as they occur in the Route; the third, fourth, and fifth, the total or full Length from the Commencement.—M. signifies Mile—F. Furlong—P. Pole.


Hyde Park Turnpike to Leadenhall Street.

Streets, &c. passed through:—Piccadilly, Haymarket, Cockspur Street, Charing Cross, Strand, Fleet Street, Ludgate Hill, Ludgate Street, St. Paul’s Churchyard, Cheapside, Poultry, Mansion House Street, Cornhill, Leadenhall Street, Aldgate Street, Aldgate, Aldgate High Street, Whitechapel, and Mile End Old Town.

[Pg 327]

F. P. M. F. P.
To Hamilton Street 35
Park Lane 16 1 11
Down Street 24 1 35
Engine Street 18 2 13
White Horse Street 20 2 33
Half Moon Street 14 3 7
Clarges Street 9 3 16
Bolton Street 11 3 27
Stratton Street 10 3 37
Berkley Street 15 4 12
Arlington and Dover Streets 13 4 25
St. James and Albemarle Streets 12 4 37
Bond Street 10 5 7
Duke Street 19 5 26
Sackville Street 18 6 4
Swallow Street 8 6 12
Air Street 19 6 31
Eagle Street 2 6 33
The Haymarket 35 7 28
7 .. 28
Enter Haymarket.
To Norris and Panton Streets 26 1 14
James Street 11 1 25
Theatre 6 1 31
Suffolk Street and Opera House 11 1 1 2
Pall Mall 11 1 1 13
1 .. 25
Enter Cockspur Street.
Suffolk Street 14 1 1 27
Whitcomb Street 10 1 1 37
Spring Gardens 5 1 2 2
0 .. 29
Enter Charing Cross.
Statue Of King Charles 19 1 2 21
St. Martin’s Lane 15 1 2 36
0 .. 34
Enter Strand.
Northumberland Street 2 1 2 38
Hungerford Street 15 1 3 13
Villiers Street 12 1 3 25
Buckingham Street 9 1 3 34
Bedford Street 21 1 4 15
Adam Street 13 1 4 28
Salisbury Street 13 1 5 1
Cecil Street 7 1 5 8
Southampton Street 5 1 5 13
Beaufort Buildings 7 1 5 20
Burleigh Street 15 1 5 35
Catherine Street 25 1 6 20
Somerset Place 14 1 6 34
New Church and Little Drury Lane 16 1 7 10
Newcastle Street 3 1 7 3
Surry Street 11 1 7 24
Norfolk Street 10 1 7 34
Arundel Street 9 2 3
Essex Street 18 2 21
Temple Bar 24 2 1 5
6 .. 9
Enter Fleet Street.
To Chancery Lane 13 2 1 18
Fetter Lane 23 2 2 21
Serjeants’ Inn 6 2 2 7
Bouverie Street 11 2 2 18
Water Lane 11 2 2 29
Salisbury Court 17 2 3 6
Shoe Lane 1 2 3 7
Fleet Market 29 2 3 36
2 .. 31
Enter Ludgate Hill.
Old Bailey 29 2 4 25
St. Martin’s Ludgate Church 18 2 5 3
1 .. 7
Enter Ludgate Street.
Creed and Ave Maria Lanes 8 2 5 11
St. Paul’s Churchyard 8 2 5 19
0 .. 16
Enter St. Paul’s Churchyard.
Paul’s Chain 18 2 5 37
Watling Street 25 2 6 22
Cheapside 28 2 7 13
1 .. 31
Enter Cheapside.
Old Change 5 2 7 15
Foster Lane 3 2 7 18
Gutter Lane 13 2 7 31
Friday Street 6 2 7 37
Wood Street 5 3 2
Bread Street 5 3 7
Milk Street 2 3 9
Bow Churchyard 11 3 20
Bow Lane 4 3 24
Lawrence Lane 7 3 31
King and Queen Streets 5 3 36
Ironmonger Lane 4 3 1
Bucklersbury 9 3 1 9
1 .. 39
Enter Poultry.
To Old Jewry 4 3 1 13
Charlotte Row 24 3 1 37
0 .. 28
Enter Mansion House Street.
Mansion House 5 3 2 2
Bank Buildings 20 3 2 22
0 .. 25
Enter Cornhill.
Royal Exchange 9 3 2 31
Freeman’s Court 12 3 3 3
Birchin Lane 3 3 3 6
Finch Lane 1 3 3 7
Gracechurch and Bishopsgate Streets 27 3 3 34
1 .. 12
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1 The Expense of King George the Third’s State Coach which was made in the year 1762, was—
£ s. d.
Coachmaker 1,637 15 0
Carver 2,500 0 0
Gilder 935 14 0
Painter 315 0 0
Laceman 737 10 7
Chaser 665 4 6
Harness Maker 385 15 0
Mercer 202 5 10½
Belt Maker 99 6 6
Milliner 31 3 4
Sadler 10 16 6
Woollen Draper 4 3 6
Cover Maker 3 9 6
7,562 4
2 There are 36 Trusses in a Load of Hay, and the same in a Load of Straw; 40 Trusses of each, 1 Ton.
3 These were by Chief Justice Mansfield called “Bankrupt Carts,” because they were, and are, frequently driven by those who could neither afford the Money to support them, nor the Time spent in using them, the want of which, in their Business, brought them to Bankruptcy.
4 Do not give unusually high standing Wages. These should neither exceed nor fall short of the Rates which Custom has established; or, in the former case, you will make your own servants idle and extravagant, and those of your neighbours unhappy and discontented. If you do not pay the customary compensation for the service you receive, you will excite a continually rankling discontent in the minds of your Domestics, and will be harassed with those continual changes in your establishment, which will soon render Good Servants shy of engaging in it.

The best way to encourage Servants is to give them “Occasional Presents and Indulgences.” These I would not bestow in Money, but give him a pair of Good Boots or Shoes, or an Umbrella, or a Watch, according to his Diligence and Long Service: confer these Rewards, rather as given for general Good Conduct, than as for any particular occurrence, or they may be received as merited payment for an insulated piece of service.

5 The price charged by Mr. Williams, Button Manufacturer, No. 103, St. Martin’s Lane, for a pair of Button Dies, is £2. 2s.

Buttons are not always stamped so carefully as they ought to be:—caution your Button Maker, that you will not take any impressions that are imperfect: you may be charged a trifle more per Dozen, if you will have every Button as perfect as the Proof Specimen. Let the Letters of the Motto, which is generally put round the Crest, be large enough to be legible—they are generally too small.

s. d.
Letting the Horses wash their Mouths, which is comfortable to them in very hot weather. If you are Travelling a long Journey, it will refresh them much more, if you at the same time give them a little bit of Hay; for these you are generally charged, for a Pair of Horses 0 6
For a Short Bait, i. e. if you go out for Ten Miles, and the Horses are put up for an hour or two, a feed, a Quartern of Corn each, including 6d. to the Hostler, is about 1 6

See more of the Estimates of Expenses in Travelling, in Part I. of the “Traveller’s Oracle.”

7 The Strap for pulling up the Step, and the Inside Handle, are great conveniences to those who do not take a Footman out with them. See “Dumb Footman,” in the Index.
8 The Ancient Equestrian who read the MS. of this Work, wrote the following note:—

“Those who keep Horses should occasionally look into the Mews early in the morning; and if a man is there with a Sack, or Donkey and Panniers, immediately think of their Corn and Hay, &c.”—A. E.

9 Pens, Parchment, and Wax.
10 Cook’s Patent Life Preserver for Carriages may be viewed at the Manufactory, No. 127, Long Acre. Its object is to stop horses when running away: the contrivance is extremely simple, and a Lady may, with the greatest facility, apply its force against the power of the horses, thereby gradually but irresistibly arresting their progress. Should the coachman leave the box, this invention will enable him to prevent the possibility of the horses starting off in his absence; or should he be thrown from his seat, or fall off in a fit, or from any other cause, an infirm person or even a Child in the carriage, has the power of stopping a pair, or four horses, with ease and certainty.
11 Carriage, in the usual meaning of the word among Coachmakers, signifies the lower system, on which the Body containing the Passengers is suspended, and to which the Wheels are attached: though speaking generally of Coaches, Chariots, &c. they are properly called Carriages of such descriptions; but as the word Carriage will be frequently used in both senses, when it signifies the lower system only, it will be printed in Italics: when used in the general meaning of the word, in common letters.
12 The Timbers of the Under Carriage, in which the Pole is placed.
13 The long leaver by which the Carriage is conducted.
14 A compassed timber, fixed on the Futchells, which keeps the fore Carriage steady.
15 The Leathers by which the Body is hung or checked.

The Main Braces are what the Body hangs by.

The Collar Braces are those which go round the Perch or crane, and are buckled through a Ring fixed to bottom of the Body, to check its motion sideways, and to confine it from striking against the Wheels.

The Check Braces are for the purpose of checking the motion of the Body endways, and are placed at the four Corners.

The Braces should be occasionally shifted from their bearing, as that part on which the weight rests is deprived of the moisture of grease, which preserves the Leather, and the Brace becomes dry and susceptible of the Wet, and soon Cracks and Breaks;—therefore, once in a month let the situation of the Braces be changed a little, and they will last three times as long.

16 Mr. Jarvis assures us that none of the plans for rendering Clothes Water Proof have answered his expectations.
17 We were amused, and perhaps the Reader may, with the following definition of the word “Genteel.”

Q. Has any Body called (said Mr. Thin) while I have been out?

A. Yes, Sir, a Gentleman called, about Two o’Clock.

Q. What kind of a Person?

A. A Genteel Man, Sir—an extremely Genteel Man, Sir; for I think he was Taller and Thinner than You!!!

18 “Those who regard Health will not frequent crowded rooms and assemblies. When I was at Bath, about to publish an Essay on the effects of Noxious Air, one of my brethren waggishly said, ‘Let them alone, Doctor; for how else will 26 Physicians be able to exist here?’”—Dr. Adair on Diet, &c. 8vo. p. 93. 1812.
19 “To what an unfortunate change the present fashions are conforming Mankind! The Country-houses of our Nobility and Gentry are empty in July. Thus the Spring months, the season of Joy throughout creation, pass unobserved by the affluent and gay. The souls of human beings, in this Age of Art, would seem to wish the Sun to be darkened; they find no pleasure but in the light of a Lamp.—I feel for the rising generation, when I consider the effects of these overgrown follies upon Inexperienced minds.”—Dr. Trotter on the Nervous Temperament, 8vo. p. 245. 1807.
20 “There is an ordinary trick at common Inns of Stealing the Horse’s Oats, where, although the Masters be in good condition and honest, yet their Servants rob one another of the Oats committed to their charge, and then make a piece of Gallantry and Jest of it.”—Sollysell’s Compleat Horseman, fol. p. 108. 1717.
21 It should have been within Five Miles!
22 The best Map we have seen of this Ground, as it was in 1805, i. e. just before the Improvements, as it is the fashion to call the Piles of Bricks and Mortar which now stand where we used to walk and enjoy the Fresh Air, was published by Bowles and Carver, in St. Paul’s Churchyard, where it may still be had, and is entitled “A Map of London and its Environs, Three Miles round St. Paul’s, in 1805.”
23 Bolts and Nuts are the machinery by which the Timber and Iron work is fixed together.
24 To tell the Reader exactly what class of persons was meant to be designated by the word Gentleman, in the year 1757, would be as difficult a task as to define it now. The last time we heard it, was on visiting a Stable to look at a Horse, when, on inquiring for the Coachman, his Stable Keeper replied, “He is just stepped to the Public House along with another Gentleman.”

The following is the Negro’s definition of a Gentleman:—“Massa make de black Man workee—make de Horse workee—make de Ox workee—make every ting workee, only de Hog: he, de Hog, no workee; he eat, he drink, he walk about, he go to sleep when he please, he liff like a Gentleman.”—European Mag. January, 1811, p. 17.

I have never forgotten Sir Richard Steele’s Observation, which struck my mind with happy force in my boyish days:—“A Christian and a Gentleman are become inconsistent Appellations of the same person. You cannot expect Eternal Life, if you do not forgive Injuries: the Weak and the Wicked will do their utmost to make your Mortal Life uncomfortable, if you are not ready to commit a Murder in Resentment for an Affront.”—From No. 20 of the Guardian.

Sir Richard has very properly applied to the Duellist what Dr. South has said of the Liar: “He is a Coward to Man, and a Bravo to God!”

The most ridiculous circumstance respecting Duelling, is, that the Man who has suffered the Injury must submit himself to the same Peril with him who inflicted it, so that the Punishment is entirely accidental, and as likely to fall upon the Innocent as the Guilty.

25 So called by “The Oracle,” from the furious sacrifice of the comfort of the Interior of our Modern Houses to the paltry plaister patchwork of (what the Vulgar pronounce) “a pretty Elevation.” Aye!—pretty may be for part of a Palace—but as inconvenient as it is impertinent for a Private Dwelling.
26 “The longer his Taile be, hee shall the better defend himself therewith in summer season from the flies; and therefore Cameranus doth not a little marvel at those which use to curtail their Horses.”—Blundevill on Horses, 1609. p. 13.
27 The attentive and obliging Surveyor to the Board of Hackney Coaches in Essex Street, Strand.

The Hackney Coach Office is open from 10 till 3 o’Clock every day; and no person belonging to the Office is allowed to make any demand or charge for Expenses, or to receive any Fee or Gratuity, under any pretence whatever.

28 “In Paris, Hackney Coaches are hired either by the course (à la course), i. e. as often as the vehicle is stopped, or by the hour (à l’heure). The fare is 30 sous (1s. 3d.) per course, whether it be a quarter of a Mile or three Miles; or two francs (1s. 8d.) for the first hour, and 30 sous (1s. 3d.) per hour afterwards.

“From midnight to 6 o’clock in the morning, the fare is doubled.

“These coaches are not obliged to carry more than four persons and a child, nor to take any heavy luggage.

“If the Coach be hired by Time, the first hour must be paid for, whether it is entirely occupied or not; but it is not necessary to pay for more of the second, or of any succeeding hour, than has actually elapsed.

“If a coach is engaged to go to the Theatres, or to any place of public amusement, it is customary to pay the coachman at the time of starting, in order to avoid delay at alighting.”—Planta’s Picture of Paris, 16mo. 1825, p. 408.

[Pg 329]